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Inqlish Pxcnur.ciat icn Lessors fcr Hmcngs. Indochinese 
Befuqee saucation Guiaes- General Intcraiatior. Series 
No, 21. 

center for Applied tinouistics, Washington, C.C.: 
National Indochlnese Clearinghouse and Technical 
fissistar.ce Center* Washington^ D-C» 
Office of Pefugee Pesettleroent (DHHS) , Washington, 

E,C, 

[Jun BO] 
600-7B-0061 

U6p.; Scir€ faint print. 
BF0VPCC2 Plus Postage. 

fisian flisericans: ♦Inalish (Second Language) ; 
Illiteracy: *lndochinese : *Pronunciation Instruction: 
♦Second Language Instruction 
*H!Bongs 



SBSTBACT 

The purpose of this guide is to provide Aaericans who 
are teaching English tc the Hffcngs with a set cf pronunciation 
lessc"-:-. These lessons are geared both to the particular problems 
Hocnq :p€«k€rs have in learning English, and to the particular 
cedaqcgical crcblems involved in teachira pronunciation to students 
who are fcr the cost part illiterate in their native language. Ihe 28 
lessens deal with specific sounds. Teachinq hints are offered, and 
list of sources for further referer.ce is appendea. (JB) 



« Peprcducticns supplied by EDBS are the best that cin be made * 
♦ frctp the original document. 



ERIC 



CO 
ON 

CO National Indochinese Clearinghouse • Center for Applied Linguistics 

CO 3520 Prospect Street. N.W. Washington. D.C. 20007 



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GENERAL INFORMATION SERIES: English Pronunciation Lessons for Hmongs 



Page 



I. Introduction 



4 



II. ' iching the Lessons 

... Teaching Lesson One ^ 

B. General Hints 

III. The Lessons 

1- [b], [v] and [w] at the beginnings of words 15 

2. U], [z] and [j] at the beginnings of words and syllables 15 

3. [e] and ft] 1^ 

4. [b] and [d] 

5. [rj and [ey] ^ 

6. [e] and [s"] 

7. Final [pj, [t], and [k] 20 

8. Final [b] . [d], [g] and [j] 22 

9. Final [mj , [r;] and [q] ^ 

10. Final [s], [z] . and [1] ;5 

11. Final [i], [r] and 0 26 

12. Final [b] , [v] and [m] ^ 27 

13. Final consonant clusters: [ps] >V 

14. Final consonant clusters: [ts] • ^ 

15. Final consonant clusters: [ks] 

16. Final consonant clusters: [bz] , [dz], [gz] 51 

17. Final consonant clusters: [mz] , [nz], [nz] 52 

18. Final consonant clusters: [!], [r] , [s] , [z] 35 

_ 19. Final consonant clusters: past tenses with [t] 54 

J> 20. Final consonant clusters: past tenses with [d] .^-"^ 

"T 21. Unstressed final [z] and fd] in suffixes -^6 

2 22. Final consonant clusters with [I] -y 

23. Final consonant clusters with [r] 

24. Other final consonant clusters -^-^ 

25. Consonant clusters with {-] at the beginnings of words 40 

26. Consonant clusters with [1] and [r] at the beginnings ox words. 41 

27. Three-consonant clusters at the beginnings of words ''2 

28. Consonant clurftors with ly] 

IV. Sources for Further Reference '^"^ 

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EDUCAT,o»<*wELF*»E MATERIAL HAS BEEN GRANTED BY 

NATIONAL IdrtTlTUTE OP 



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ERjC f Dur AT.cN POS.t^oN ou pol^cv ^ INFORMATION CENTER (ERiC). " 



!• Introduction 

The purpose of this Guide is to provide Americans who aro t« aching Knglish 
to the Hmongs with a set of pronunciation lessons • These lessiuis arc geared 
both '.o the particular problems Hmong speakers have in learn inj^, Knglish, and^ 
also to the particular pedagogical problems involved in teaching pronunciation 
to students who are for the most part illiterate in their native laT>guage(s) . 

This is the fifth Guide the National Indochinese Clearinghouse has written 
on the Hmongs. The others are General Information Series //14, The Hmong 
Language: Sounds and Alphabets ; General Information Series //15, The Hmong 
Language: Sentences, Phrases and Word s; General- Information Series #16, 
Glimpses of Hmong_ Culture and Recent History in Laos ; and General Information 
Series //17, A Selected, Annotated Bibliograi>hv of Ma teri als on the Hmongs of 
Laos** 

In developing these pronunciation lessons, we first looked at the sound 
systems of English and Hmong, and noted those differences which are likely to 
produce problems for the Hnong student learning English. We then formally 
tested Hmongs in Missoula, Montana, and Orange County, California, to see which 
of the predicted problems turned out to be actual problems. We hcive also 
listened to the pronunciation of Hmongs in English classes t]jroughout the 
country, to see if problems occur which were not predicted by the analysis of 
the sound systems. 

Throughout the Guide, we will use letters enclosed in square brackets to 
represent sounds, and will underline examples spelled in ordinary English 
spelling. We will talk, for example, about the sound \t] as in show and emotion 
The unfamiliar symbols will always be immediately illustrated with examples in 
normal spellings 

You will probably find that for many of your Hmong students the lessons will 
tend toward over-completeress. We have assumed that your students speak only 
Hmong, and have had no contact with other languages. A particular student's 
problems in pronouncing English will be determined in general by the differences 
between the sound system of his native language and that of FInglish — but 
additional language experiences the student has had will also be a factor. The 

-Guides lA, 15 and 16 are avnilahlo from the same source as these lessons; Guide 
17 is available onlv through Ei)RS (see Sources for Further Reference^ page .]? , 
for ordering in format i(^n) ♦ 



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monoli-nguat fimong speaker, for example, will have difficulty uitl' [p], it] and 
[k] at the ends of words; the ilnong who speaks Lao fluently, however, will not 
find ^these_>iff icult, as [p], [t] and fk] occur at the ends of words in Lao. 
In effect, the more languages a student has under his belt, the fewer his 
chances are of running across something totally unfamiliar to him as he learns 
English. 

Given their status as a minority in Laos, the existence of so many other 
minority languages in Laos, and their recent history, most Hmongs have had 
relatively wide exposure to other languages and sound systems. Kven those who 
have never had occasion to learn to read are likely to be able to speak another 
language or languages to some degree. 

While pronunciation problems se are not likely to throw your Hmongs a 
Curve, many of them will be unaccustomed to learning in a classroom environment. 
Experience has shov^m that this is the major pedagogical problem in teaching 
English to the fimongs. The high incidence of illiteracy among the Jhnong 
refugees (a natural consequence of the non- or pre- literate nature of Itoohg 
society) requires adjustments in the standard materials and teaching techniques 
in ESL, almost all of which have been developed or based on the assumption that 
the students involved are literate 

■On a subtler plane, the conventions of classroom behavior, which wc learn 
(whether we like them or not) by the time we are eight or nine, and which are 
so second-nature by the time we are through college that they are beyond con- 
scious consideration, are brand-new to many adult {^^lon^^s. Americans teaching 
them are often faced with the necessity .?f overtly teaching classroom procedure 
at the same time they^re trying to teach linglish. (An example: the Hmong 
students in a program in the midwest ivere throl^r^ by the teacher's bringing a *^ 
supplementary book tc class, to augment the regular text; they didn't know why 
she had an extra booi< and they didn't..,. ) 

By and largo, teachers have found that borrowing a page from early 
elementary education — consi stency in scheduling of class activities, in use 
of text materials, in assip ing homework and tests, and so on, is a key element 
ii .'Ccessful ESL classes for Hmongs. The Hmong who is new to classroom teaching, 
and therefore not sure what to expect or what is expected of him, finds security 
in a clas3 situation in which he knows, from day to day aiui moment to moment, 
what's going to happen. Flexible scheduling and variation in activity, which 



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are possible and desirable wif^h more educationally soplustlcatod students, 
don*t work very well with Hmongs unaccustomed to classroonus, e\sp<»' i^lly if 
there is no bilingual aide to explain what^s going on. 

Apropos of all this, then, we suggest that you set aside, each overall 
class session, a tima^when you work specifically on pronunciation. Pronun- 
ciation work should be se'parate from, and precede, any literacy work on the 
sound or sounds involved. Common sense suggests that a student who hai a hard 
* time distinguishing between, say, the [w] and [v] sounds will find it difficult 
to deal with a phonics lesson on the letters w and v. Conversely, the ptonun- 
elation of [w] and [v] should be taught entirely orally, with no use of the 
written language involved; otherwise the student will be so intent "»n dealing 
with the written word that the point of the -.esson — pronunciation — will got 
lost in the shuffle. 

Spot correction of pronunciation mistakes during the course of class should 
be coordinated with the pronunciation lessons. If you haven *t taught your 
students first to distinguish [w] from [v] » and then to pronounce them both in 
the right places, spot-correction of fvvj-fv] mistakes will seem random (some- 
times you will correct their fwj's to tv|*H, and sometimes their hl's to [w]*s!) 
and confusing* If, on ..the other hand, you spot-correct only those mistakes you 
have taught lessons on, your spot-*correcting wi 11 appropriately jog your students' 
memories, and reinforce what you've already taught. 

II. Teaching the Lessons 

The twenty-eight lessons deal with particular English sounds, or combina- 
tions of sounds, that Hmong speakers are likely to have trouble with. For the 
most part (except in later lessons on consonant clusters, for which minimal 
pairs don^t exist), the lessons consist of minimal £airs , minimal sent ences, 
prartice sentences , and notes to the teacher > 

Mi nimal pairs are pairs of words which difier in only one sound, like 
bat- vat, pen-pan , and so on. We ai^e talking about sounds, not spelling: 
road and rogue are a minimal pair, despite the fact that their spellings differ 
in more than one way. (Their phonetic representations [rowd] and frowa] 
indicate more clearly that they are minimal pairs.) Minimal pairs are used in 
pronunciation work to focus students* attention on the fact that a change from 




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one sound to another results in the production of words with different meanings. 
On being shown that vine and wine are different words, for example, your Hmong 
student's attention is focussed on the fact that in English the difference be- 
tween [v] and [w] is important, or in linguistic jargon, distinctive. 

Minimal sentences are just like minimal pairs,' except that the words arc put 
into sentences, e.g. ThatVs a bat - That's a vat . 

The practice sentences given in the lesson are engineered to provide students 
with multiple occurrences of the sounds in the lesson. We have tried to keep the 
sentences simple, and in basic tenses, so that they can be used in beginning ESL 
situations. You will undoubtedly want to make up practice sentences of your own, 
using sentence structures and vocabulary your students already have. The prac- 
tice sentences will be to your Hmong students what tongue-twisters are to English 
speakers, and should be approached in a light-hearted fashion. 

The notes to the teacher explain why the sounds in the lesson are problems 
for the Hmong speaker, and give suggestions and strategies for dealing with them. 
In general, we take the approach that consistent use of a sound that Americans 
will understand appropriately is as good, for purposes of communication, as perfect 
reproduction of the sound Americans rse. We suggest, for example, that you not 
waste time trying to teach you Hmongs to say our exact [6] as in tha ; ' as a [t] 
for [G] will be easily understood. 

The minimal pairs and sentences, and practice sentences, are to be used 
first to teach your students to hear the difference between the sounds in ques- 
tion, ai^d then to pronounce them so they can be understood by English speakers. 
After each lesson is taught, spot-correction will help to establish the under- 
standable pronunciation as a habit. 

To show you better how to use the lessons, we will work througK" Lesson One 
in detail ""in the following pages. We will assume that your Hmong students are 
illiterate, and so will focus on activities that don't involve reading and 
writing. 

A cautionary word here about the use of pictures. Some teachers have found 
that ^ occasional Hmong student is so unfamiliar with the notion of pictures as 
representatives of the objects they picture, that he or she doesn't interpret 
pictures appropriately. (Traditional Hmong art doesn't involve representation of 
objects.) If such is the case with any of your students, >ou will probably find 
it pedagoglcally essential in general to overtly teach the relationship between 



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picture and object (a relatively simple matter of devoting a couple of class 
sessions to matching exercises with objects and pictures or photographs of the 
objects), before you do any teaching with pictures. (You could, conversely, 
dea3 only with real objects in your teaching — some teachers do — but it 
gets cumbersome; besides, your students sooner or later have to get used to 
pictures if they live in the United States, and it might as well be in the 
sheltered environment of the classroomO 

If you draw well» or know someone xnfho does, the task of finding appropriate 
pictures is vastly simplified: you can simply draw pictures of whatever you 
want. If you don't draw, you have to find pictures, and your problem then be- 
comes that of finding pictures that are big enough, simple enough and explicit 
enough for classroom use. We have listed, in the last section, several sources 
of pictures and drawings that have been specifically designed for ESL purposes, 
and strongly suggest that you buy them. They will save you hours of looking 
through magazines as well as cutting down on the frustration Inherent in trying 
to explain the meaning of vocabulary items to people whose English is very 
limited. 

Another caution: in choosing pictures to use in pronunciation work, stick 
with pictures of nouns. Actions (verbs!) are very difficult to picture explicitly, 
as ESL teachers have been aware of for years. 

A. Teaching Lesson One 
Approach 

According to the notes, Hmongs will hear [b] all right, but will -^onfuse 
jv] and [w]; they will have trouble pronouncing all three sounds. In general, you 
will teach your students to hear all three sounds appropriately, and then to 
pronounce them. You should break the lesson doiro, and deal with only t;:o sounds 
at a time: you'll teach the perception of [b] contrasted with [vj, then the 
perception of [bj contrasted with [w]^ then the perception of [v] contrasted 
with (wj. Then you* 11 teach the production of [b) contrasted with the produc-- 
tion of fvj, etc. (All this is harder to write about then to actually do.) 

You'll need pictures to use as references; find pictures of a bale, a veil 
and a whale. 




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Perception o 

1. The first step isto establ ish that the difference between |b}. (v } and 
(w] makes words? different. Start with [b] and [v]. 

Prop the bale picture up on one side of the chalkboard or your desk; prop 
the veil picture up on the other side. Point to the bale picture and say bale 
several times; point to the veil picture and say veil several times. Your 
students will focus on the difference between [b] and [v] as the crucial element 
(with minimal pairs, they can't come to any oth^ concluj^ion) . There's no need 
to explain* further than the picture, what bale and veil mean;, if your -tudents 
are typical, they will be quite comfortable with a partial understanding of the 
meanings of bale and veil. (Remember that they are probably experienced lan- 
guage learners, and accustomed to the ins and outs of learning new vocabulary.) 

2. Once you have shown that the meanings of words change along with the 
alternation between [b] and [v]> you can teach your student to hear the differ- 
ence (the notes say they'll hear [b] all right, so this part of the lesson will 
be easy). Say bale and veil at random, and have your students point to the 
appropriate picture (this is why you want the pictures at opposite ends of yonr 
desk or chalkboard!) (If your students are literacy-conscious, you might write 
a b over the bale picture, and a v over the veil picture; if your students know 
the names of the letters of the alphabet, they might insist on calling out the 
name of the appropriate letter. Anything like this Is fine, as long as the 
focus of the lesson remains on pronunciation.) 

3. Now pronounce words from the [bj column. Indicating that these words 
•'belong'* to the same category as bale ; say the words ^ pointing each time to 
the bale side of the board. Then shift to fv] words, pointing to the veil 
side. Don't explain the meanings of these words; your students will catch on 
that they're to liscen for the [b] and [v] • Alternate between [h] and [v] 
words, pointing appropriately each time. Then continue alternating,, but have 
the students point to the appropriate side. Continue the exercise, calling on 
individual students • Note that so far you haven* t askod your students to pro- 
nounce anything yet; they will undoubtedly have repeated words, but focus 
their attention on the fact that they should be listrninr. t(> you at this point, 
and not trying to mimic your pronunciation. 

4. Remove the veil picture, and put up the whale picture. Proceed through 
steps 1-3, th^.s time contrasting [b] and [w] rather than [bj and [v] . This will 



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also be easy for your students, 

5. This next step won ^ t be. Remove the> bale picture, and put up the veil 
picture, and proceed thtou^ steps 1-3 with [v] and [w]. Your students will 
not be instantaneously successful in hearing the difference bctwccii [v] and 
[w], so you will have to spend more time on this part of the lesson. Hven so, 
you will be surprised at how quickly your students will learn to hear [v] and 
[w]. IVhen they can do step 3 with consistent accuracy, put the bale picture 
back up and go through the steps with all throe sounds* 

6. There are other perception exercises you might want to try, but keep 
in mind that with students unaccustomed to classroom procedures, the value of 

a new activity has to be balanced against •the amount of time and hassle involved 
in explaining what you want your students to do. (If you have a bilingual aide^^ 
you can get the ground rules trans 1 at t-d into Hmong; if yon 're on your own, be 
careful about wasting time on explanations.) Some common perception activities 
are : 

a. Same-different: sa^^ bale - veil ; your students respond with '^dif ferent'' ; 
say veil - veil ; they respond with "samc'\ etc. 

b. 1-2-5: label the pictures as* 'T', '•2'', and *'3'*; have your students . 
call ou .he proper dumber as you repeat words at random. (This obviously won't 
work if your students don't know the numbers!) A variation on this is labelling 
the pictures with V^^ letters b, v, w; your problem ^ill be in understanding your 
students' pronunciation of the letter names which is what yo'^'re teaching, 
anyhow. It's best to not ask them to pronounce the letter names until you've 
taught them how; so. play this game only if they insist on using the letter names . 

7. The next step is to bury the fb], [v] and [w] words in sentences, giving 
the students practice in hearing the sounds surrounded by other sounds, as they 
are in normal speech. This is what the minimcl sentences are for. Say the 
phrase a small bale , pointing to the bale picture; sny a small veil and a small 
whale, pointing ai)propriateIy . Then say the phrases, having your students point. 
Again, it's not necessary to explain what the phrases mean; your students will 

be comfortable (and busy) listening for the (bj, [v] and [w]. Proceed with other 
phrases make up your own, if you find ours inadequate, hut be careful not to 
have additional occurrences of (bj, [v\ and (wj in them. (The phrase a big bale/ 
veil /whale won't work because there's a b in hlg^) Be careful, when you work 
with phrases, to pronounce the words at the same speed that you ordinarily speak. 

9 



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If you, don't, you defeat the purpose of the phrases, \*lHch is to teach your, 
students to hear the fb 1 , [v] or (w ] embedded in natural linglish speech. 

* • ♦ 

ft 

Production 

1ft When your students can hear the difference between [b ] , [v ] and [w] 
i.e., when they can do steps 1 - 7 above with almost 100 per cent accuracy, you 
can go on to teach them, how to pronounce the sounds. Most ESL teachers simply 
aske their students to repeat the words in the minimal pairs one at a time, 
first with the students repeating in chorus, ^hen individually. What the 
student does, essentially, is to try random pronunciations until he hits on one 
that sounds good to his teacher. 

Point to the bale picture and ask your students to repeat bale after you. 
Concentrate on the Ibl'^oi" the moment; they'll probably not get the [l J right, 
but don't vorry about it. Get every student to come up with a [b] that sounds 
all right to you. Work through the other [b] v>?ords (you don't have to keep on 
pointing to the bale picture for this). Do the i:ame for the [v] words, then 
the [wj words. This will take much longer than teaching perception of the 
sounds did, aid it will be a difficult endeavor for your students. You v.'ill 
get bored with it long before they will, but continue until hey can all pro- 
duce acceptable [b], [v] and {wl. ^ 

2. Have them pronounce the minimal pairs as pairs, with you checking to 
be sure that they mimic you accurately enough to be understood. You should be 
able to interpret what they say: use the bale, veil and whal e pictures as a 
check. (If a student has said two words which both sound lik(- whale to you, 
point twice to the w hale picture; you'll get corrected. And so on.) 

3. Reverse the exercises described in the perception steps. Have a student 
say one of the words at random, and you (or the other students) guess which \vord 
he meant. If your students are enterprising, they will remember the other mini- 
mal pairs, and take a stab at reproducing words from them; ivviise anyone who 
tries this, and encourage others to do the same. If your students aren't enter- 
prising, you might bring in other pictures -- a bat and a vat, a vine and a 
bottle/glass of wine -- to elicit words other than ha 1 e . vei 1 and whaje^. 

4. Working with the minimal sentences , gc-t your students to repeat the 
phra«Je after you. We have listed them with the crucial word first, then a 
shorter phrase, then the whole sentence or phrase, usually stnrtin;: from the 



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end of the sentence and working foncard (this is a standard proce^t^r;^; native 
speakers of English alter the intonation^of^ phrase or sentence if they start 
at the beginning, but keep the intonation consistent if they st.1r.t ;it thf;^cnd). 
The exorcise should run something like: ■ ^ 

You: bat 

Students: bat 

You: a bat 

Students: a bat 

You: That's a bat. 

Students: That's a bat, etc. 

IVe have tried, as we mentioned earlier, to keep the sentences basic and 
short. You will undoubtedly want to make up sentences of your own utilizing . 
sentence patterns your students have been given. 

5. The next step is the practice sentences, which will be very ^^ai^'d ^"0^ 
your students, as they are overloaded with occurrences of [b], [v] and fw] . 
Ycu might want to skip them altogether, if you find that you get bogged down 

in explanation, or your students can't get the sounds right and remember the 
sentence at the same time.. Handled pioperly, the practice sentences can generate 
a lot of fun and good-natured competition among your students. 

6. As a final step, you should go over any vocabulary you have taught that 
liavc (b]'s, (vl's and [wj's,, pointing out the occurrences of €liesc sounds. 

Re minding 

After you have taught the lesson on [b] . fv] and [w] . and arc sure that all 
your students can both hear and produce the sounds to your satisfaction, you 
should correct their mis-pronunciations of fb] , [v] and [w] as they come up in 
class. Your students will slip up on these sounds, even though they can pro- 
nounce them properly, when they -are tired . or distracted, or when their atten- 
tion is on other aspects^of English besides pronunciation. Spot -correcting is 
most effective if you utilize a catch-ivord or phrase, rather than pronouncing 
the word correctly for your student to repeat after you. If you have lots of 
wall spac^, for example, you might post the bale , veil and whale pictures some- 
where; then, when a student slips up on a [b], [v] or fw] , merely point to the 
appropriate picture. This should'bc enough to jog his memory to produce the 



appropriate sound. 



B. General Hints 

1. Pr-obably the most important thing to remember in working on pronuncia- 
tion is to keep your oxm pronunciation natural , and to speak at the sijiOfe speed 
you' ordinarily do. We all have a compulsion to speak slower and louder to non- 
English speakers; this is compounded when wo are aware that our students, don't 
read. You will probably have to make a conscious effort to teach yourself 

not to slow dowi. If your students comment that they understand everything 
that goes on in class, but can't understand people on the street, chances are 
that -you're slowing doxm for t^<>m. Keep reminding yourself that it's as easy 
for them to deal with normally- spoken English as with slowed-down English -- 
and that ultimately you're not helping them unless you equip them to deal with 
the English they will hear outside the classroom. 

2. USL people disagree on the advisability of asking students to repeat 
words and -sentences the meanings of which they aren't taught. Some teachers 
feel that doing so uses language unnaturally -- we don't use language without 
meaning and will put up with the nuisance of having to explain meanings 
rather than make the students parrot what are in effect nonsense syllables. 

^iVe have found that Hmong students have a high .tolerance for, and even an enjoy- 
ment of, this kind of "nonsense" in pronunciation work; at times, they have 
seemed relieved not to have to bother with meanings when they are trying to 
focus on pronunciation. 

All of this is an issue in pronunciation work because minimal pairs often 
require the use of esoteric vocabulary ( bale , veil and whale arc excellent 
examples!) vhich is of no use whatever to the beginning ESL student, except 
as a vehicle for the crucial sounds. One teacher we know gets around all this 
by making up meanings for nonsense syllables. If she wants, for exa,nplc, a 
[b]' picture to go along with the vine and wine pictures, she draws something 
improbable like a car with an extra set of wheels on top, calls it- a bine , 
anu^ifrocoeds as usual. Her stu<Jcnts love it, and she is freer to choose real 
words of real use when she can. 

5. We have put ail the lessons on initial consonants (consonants at the 
beginnings ofif words) before the lessons on vowels, and consonants at the ends 



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of words. (Hmcng being what it is, there are many more lessons on final 
consonants than on initial ones.) It is easier to ^ocus your illiterate 
students' attention on sounds which begin words (this is why virtually all 
literacy materials focus on beginning letters) than on sounds which end words. 
We therefore postpone work on the final consonants (which are the most impor- 
tant ^a::;yblems your Hmqng students will have) until after the students have 
gotten used to the notion of pronunciation lessons, *and to classroom proce- 
dures involved in teaching pronunciation. 



13 



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Lesson One 



[b], [v] and [w] at the beginnings of words 



[b] 
bat 

bale 

berry 

bend 

beard 

boat 

beer 

bow 



[v] 

vat 

vine 

veil 

very 

vend 

veered 

vote 

veer 

vow 



[w] 

wine 

whale 

wary 

wend 

weird 

we're 
wow 



bat 
a bat 
That's a bat. 



vat 
a vat 
That's a vat. 



vine 

The vine is nice. 



wine 

The wine is nice. 



bale 
a bale 
a small bale 



veil 
a veil 
a small veil 



whale 
a whale 
a small whale 



bent 
Tt bent. 



went 
It went 



This is very weird beer, 

Walt bent the vine. 

Take the bat and the vat . 

He made some very good berry wine. 



ERLC 



14 



- 14 - 
Notes 

1. Your Rmong students will probably have no trouble hearing the difference 
between [b] a^^d [v] or [w] ; they wi?l, however, need practice in pro- 
nouncing [b] and [v]/[w] so that Americans can tell them apart, [b] 

does not occur by itself in Hmong, but [r b] does; [mb] is an understandable 
substitute for American [b]. 

2. Both [v] and [w] exist in Hmong, but are considered the '^same'' sound • 
Your students will tend to say [v] for both v and w before vowels like 
e and short a^ and [w] for both v and w before vowels like o and u, 

3. Many --if not most Americans pronounce wh and w words alike so 
whale and wail ^ where and wear, whei: and wen, etc, , are homonyms. We* re 
assuming that the [w] taught in this lesson is the [w] of wail . 



15 

/ 



- 15 - 



Lesson Two 



1 > [z ] [j ] at the beginnings of words and syllables 



f2] 

zone 
zest 
raising 

fuzzy 



reason 
Caesar 



D3 

Joan 

jest 

raging 

major 

fudgy 

legion 

region 



[2] 



measure 

lesion 
television 

seizure 



fuzzy fudgy 
It^s fuzzy. It's fudgy. 

reason region 

That's a good reason. That's a good region. 



I'm watching television. 
We come from Southeast Asia. 
Joan is changing the baby. 
They are raising my pay. 



Notes 

1. [z] doesn't exist in Hmuag. [2] does, as does a sound very close to 
English [j] (technically an unaspirated Your Hmong students will 
tend to' hear English [z] as [2]. 

2. As you can tell from the esoteric nature of the pairs, [2] doesn't occur 
very often in English* The [z] sound is important to teach carefully, as 
it looms large in the plural » possessive, and third-^person s^ forms^ 



[ej (thank) 



16 - 



Lesson Three 



[e] and [-;] 



[t] (tank) 



thick 


tick 


thigh 


tie 


thin 


tin 


thought 


taught 


three 


tree 


bath 


bat 


tooth 


toot 


math 


iiiat 



thin 
(a thin man 
He*s^ thin man. 

bath 
a bath 
I took a bath. 



tin 
a tin man 
He*s a tin man, 

bat 
a bat 
I took a bat, 



TTiere are three trees in the yard. 
Thank you for the tie. 
They both took a bath on the boat . 
She taught math. 



ERLC 



Not 



US 



1. [ol as in thank docs not occur in Ptaong. Your »imong students will need 
help in learning; to hear the difference between [o] and [t]. 

2. It is not worth the time it takes to teach students how to pronounce a 
correct [0]. They will naturally substitute a [t], which will be easily 
understood by Americans. You will probably not want to spend much time 
on this lesson, beyond making sure that your students understand that 



English th represents a sound different from [t]. 



17 



- 17 - 



Lesson Four 
ir*] and [d] 



^^] (then) 
they 

their, there 

the 

them 

this 

that 

these 

those 

father 

mother 

brother 



idl (don) 

day 
dare 



fodder 
mudder 



father 
no father 
They have no father • 

worthy 
He isn*t worthy. 



fodder 
no fodder 
They have no fodder. 

wordy 
He isn't wordy • 



They* re my brothers. 

^rhose were the days. . . . 

This is my father. 

My father and mother were there. 

We talked about the weather. 



Notes 

1. [rO doesn't exist in Hmong. [d] doen^t either, but [nd] does, as does 
another sound very close to American [d] (technically an unaspirated [t]); 
either one of these will substitute just fine for American [d]. 

2. [^] is not worth the time it takes to teach students to pronounce properly. 
They will substitute something close to [d] for it, which will be easily 

ERJC understood by Americans. 



18 - 



l esson Five 
[l1 and [ey] 




[v] (bet) 


[ey] (bai_t1 


DCH 


bait 


bread 


. braid 


wet 




fell 


fail 


men 


mane 


get 


gate 


shed 


shade 


fell 


♦ 

fail 


felK 


We fail. 


betting 


baiting 


betting it 


baiting it 


betting it. 


T baiting it 


shed 


shade 


shed 


in the shade 


shed* 

<• 


It *s in the shade. 



The men will get the bread. 

She braids her hair every day. 

Wait in the shade. 

The breal will get wet in the rain 



Notes 



1. [t]" and [ey] will sound like the same sound to your monolinRual !ImonK speakers 
Your Hmongs who speak Lao well will have no trouble -ith these vowels, as they 
both occur (in short and long varieties) in Lao. 



19 



I 



- 19 



Lesson Six 

fe] and fas ] 

tu] (bet) [»] (bat) 

pen pan 

bed bad 

said sad 

left ^ laughed 

letter latter 

guess gas 

men man 



pen 
the pen 

The pen is dirty, 

left 
t: ey left. 



pan 
the pan 

The pan is dirty. 

laughed 
They laughed. 



men 
the men 
Did vou find the men? 



. man 
the man 
Did vou find the man? 



Send the letter to the man. 
They laughed and I left. 
He wants some gas, I guess. 
Say something glad, not sad. 
This is a bad bed. 



Notes 



K Neither of these vowels occurs in Mmong. 



ERIC 



so 



20 - 



Lesson Seven 
Final fpl, ft], and fk] 



[p] 


[tl 


[51 




ape 


ate 


H 


ache 


cheap 


cheat 


Cheech 


cheek 


cope 


coat 


coach 


Coke 


pip 


pit 


pitch 


pick 


hop 


hot 




hock 


loop 


loot 




Luke 




mutt 


much 


muck 



ape 
an ape 
He has an ape. 

much 
want much 
She doesn^t want much. 



ache 
an ache 
He has an ache. 

muck 
want muck 
She doesn^t want muck, 



I don't like to eat cheap candy. 

She cut her cheek. 

Luke tore his coat. 

The coach will watch the pitch. 

Nick went back to the lake. 

She woke up ?ick. 

Sip from this cup. 

Can you cope with English? 

Pat broke his loop. 



Notes 

Lessons Seven through Twelve deal with single consonantj^ at the ends of 
words. There are no final consonants in Hmong, so the final consonants 
in English :vi-ll cause probl-lhs. Your Hmong students will have no trouble- 
with final consonants in phrases in which they are followed by words start 
with vowels, e.g. pick up > get along , etc. In these cases, the final 



I 



consonant will be ''hoard'* :is the first consonant of the following word (e.g. 

pi- ckup , fic- tn lon.u. etc.), and prcmunced with no difficulty. Your students 

♦ 

wi 11 have trouble with final consonants in phniscs in which final and initial 
consonants get jamniod toi;ether, e.g. clieap candy, hack to the lake^^ like to, 
and so on. They will tend to simplify the consonant cluster in one of three 
ways : 

a. By making the first consonant as much like thd second as possible 
, (technically, by assimilating the first consonant to the second), 

producing cheak candy , bat to th e lake, 1 ite to , etc. .. 

b. By dropping the first consonant, producing chea candy , ba to the lake , 
and li to , etc. 

c. By adding a vowel to break up the consonant- cluster, producing 
cheap- i -candy , back-t-to the lake , 1 ike-»-to. etc. (This is the 
same process Span-ish- speakers go through to break up initial con- 
sonant clusters producing estreet for street , and so on; the process 
is called adding an epenthetic vowel.) Hmongs will break up con- 
sonant cluster*^ with a vowel {which we representedi as i_ with a bar 
through it, and which is called - surprise! - "barred i"l half-way 
between English as in sit , and { as in but . • * 

Of the three simplification strategics, the last is the most successful: 
Americans can interpret epent!u-t ii- v<>w(. ls b«.'Ltor tfian they can supply missing 
consonants. You might try actively t eaching your Hmong students to insert 
th.ese epenthetic vowels when necessary, as a compromise between dropping or 
assimilating the consonants (which Americans can't understand), and pronun- 
cing ail the consonants perfectly {which limongs find difficult"). 
2. [p] , ft] and |k!, in particular, will -he dropped in final position. 



ERIC 



32 





[d] 


bub 


bud 


ebb 


Ed 


lob 


laud 


bib 


bid 




bad 


Age 


aid 




led 



bud 
the bud 
We found the bud. 



lesson Hight 
Final fb], fd], [gl, and {]] 

bug 
egg 
log 
big 
bag 



leg 



bug 
the bug 
Wc found the bug. 



IT] 

budge 

edge 

lodge 

badge 

age 

ledge 



log 
the log 
The log started to burn. 



lod^e 
the lodge 
The lodge started to burn. 



cob 
the cob 
The cob tasted awful/ 



cod 
the cod 
The cod tasted awful • 



The tide will ebb soon. 

Abe led Ed behind the lodge. 

The bug will walk to the edge of the log, 

A had egg made me sick. 

Put the log in the big bag. 



Notes 

See Note 1 in Lesson Seven. 



S3 



ERIC 



I 



-23- 

« 

Lesson Nine 
Final [m] , [n] , and [ng] 



[m] 




[n] 


[ng] 


ham 






hang 


clam 




clan 


clang ' 


tarn ' 




tan 


tang 


Kim 




kin 


king 






lavm 


long 






thin 


thing 


them 




then 





clan 
the clan 
The cian was noisy* 

kin 
our kin 
Our kin came to the house. 

tan 
a tan 
He has a tan* 



ham 
Ham it up. . . 



clang 
the clang 
Tlie clang was noisy* 

king 
our king 
Our king came to the house. 

tarn 
a tarn 
He has a tarn. 



hang 
Hang .it up. . 



Our team won the game. 

It's time to go home. 

I^m cooking the ham for Tim. 

Marianne got a fine tan on vacation. 

The king rang the gong. 

The young bird broke its wing. 



ERIC 



^4 



Notes 

See Note 1 in Lesson Seven* [mb], [nd]* nnj f^k{ occur in Ifmonp at the 
beginnings of words, but not other combinations of [in], fn] and |r ] plus 
consonants. (Technically, the nasals [m] , [n] nnd [i ] occur in clusters 
only with homorganic stops). In dealing with final [m] , [n| and [n] in 
phrases followed by a word starting with a consonant in I-nglish, your Hmong 
students will substitute any one for any other one, e.g. tine to go for 
time to go » youm bird for young bird > cook in the ham for cooking the ham , 
and so on. This is a particular example of assimilation, the process we 
mentioned in Note 1 of Lesson Seven. 

There are nasal vowels in Hmong (one of them occurs in the word llmong !) 
Your Hmong students will probably interpret these*final fm] , fn] and [rij's 
(which are nAal consonants), as nt^sal vowels, and pronounce them accord- 
. ingly. They will sound slightly French. 

JThe word clan is very much worth teaching as a vocabulary it;em, as Hmoxig 
society is organized around clans. Your Hmong students* last names are 
very probably clan names, e.g. Yang, Vang, Moua, Xiong, Ly, Hcr» Hang, etc. 



Lesson Ten 
Final fs], [z], [s], [5! 



base . "bay;? . ^oi^c- ' 

Cass Kaz cash 

Russ" • ^ rush 

ass as ash 

TWZQ rouKc 



razz 



rash 



fizz • fish 



Cass ^. Kaz cas^' 

He paid Crss. He paid Kaz. ' He paid cash. 

The ruse made her face red. The roug^ made her face red 



f iz 



fish 



The fizs lasted a long timt, ^ The fish lasted long time. 



base l^ays boigc 

base better bays better beige better 

I like the base better. I like the bays better. I like the beige i 



He pays cash for his fish. 
Russ has a rash on. his face. 
She buys beige rouge. 
They fish for bass. 
Mash the potatoes. 



Notes 



1. See Note 1 in Lesson Seven. Your Hmong students will tend t(> ponth 
vowels after [s], fz] . [s] and [^1 ; encourage them, . - . 

2. Remember that Iz] does not occur at all in Jimong, and is likely tc In- 
confused in all positions with fz]. 

2b 



Final 



11] 

foal 
peal 
role 
tile 
tell 
bail 

0 

mi le 
tool 
ball 




0 



[0] (== no sound) 

foe 
pea 
row 
tie 

bay 

my 

too 



lev 

:ile\ 



tile^ 
the t: 
The tile was too big. 



tire 
the tire 
The tire was too big* 



tie 
the tie 
the tie was too big* 



bill 
the bill 
They have the bill 



beer 
the beer 
They have the beer. 



ball 
a ball 
She went to a ball. 



aar 
a bar 
She went to a bar. 



Mr. Bayer will tell about his tour. 
The bar bill was too high* 
There are four tires on a car. 
She walked a mile in the mire. 



ERIC 



Notes 

1. [1] and [rj will be confused with each other in final position. 

2. There are many dialects of English which ''drop" r's when they precede a con- 
sonant, substituting an [o] (the vowel in but) . Your Hmohg students will 
easily be understood if they do the same, substituting their fio] (the vowels 
in MariaQ for eer, or [ua] (the vowels in pursuable) for ur as in t our . 

3. Some Hraongs substitute a [w] for final [l]. This^^- easily understood by 
Ain^ri^Jans, but carries a childish connotation -- many young children sub- 
stitute a w. for 1_ until they learn to pronounce 1^ correctly. 

* 



Lesson Twelve 



i-inal |bU |vl and [ml 



[b] 

robe 

dub 

cab 

curb 

lib 

cub 
Bob 



curb 
the curb 
Watch for the curb. 



^1 



rove 

dove 

calve 

curve 

1 i vo 

h.ivc 



gave 



fm] 

roam 
dumb 
cam 

limb 

ham 

come 

bomb 

game 



curve 
the curve 
Watch for the curve, 



nl i ve 
It's al ive. 



a 1 i me 
It's a li mo . 



Max^e some ham. 

Bob has a lime ^reeu robe. 

This is a dumb game. 

Is it I'.amc t ime yet V 

Bob put the cub on the curi>- 



Sec Note 1 for I.esson Seven. 

Ilmon^s tend to confuse [b|, {vl arui in ''in:il p(>siti<Hi in worils, nrobahly 

because the- occurrences of [b|, [vj and |m| in Hmon^e in general don't match 
up to their counterparts in In ^Iislu Sch' \ote I in iesson Onr. 



28 

- o ■ ' 
ERIC 



Lesson Thi rtee n 
Final consonant clusters: [ps] 



(Pl > , 




!ps] 




cup 




cups 


cuss 


top 








a.pc 






n c 


clap 




claps 


class 


mop 




mops 


moss 


loop 






1 ooso 

-A \J\^ ^ V 


uopc 




vi w jj^' V r> 


dosf* 




cups 


CUSS 






the cups 


the cuss 




The cups 


cost him a lot. 


The cuss cost him a 
• 


lot. 




apes 


ace 






the apes 


the ace 




i HQ 


apes got lost. 


The ace got lost . 






Those mops clean 


well . 






The apes tossed 


the cups. 






These ropes are 


in loose loops. 






The cops told them to ^^top. 













Lessons Thirteen through Eighteen deal with final consonant clusters with 
[sj. These clusters occur frequently in Hnglish, as they are involved in 
the formation of the plural, possessive, third person singular, and lots 
of contractions. You Hmong students will find all these things doubly diffi- 
cult: first, there are no suffixes in Hmong. so such grammatical elements 
as the plural and third-person suffixes will be difficult for them to remember 
And second, there are no f.inal consonants - much less consonant clusters - in 
Hmong, so these clusters will he difficult to pronounce. 

Your Hmong students will tned to drop the first consonant in these clusters 
with (s] and \z] . ' 

As you teach the grammatical constructions involving consonant clusters vath 
Isj', yoH will undoubtedly think of exercises that combine the grammar and 
pronunciation. Don't be afr,aid to overteach these point.*?, or that you 
will bore your students with too much work on the same subject. 



29 






Lesson Fourteen 


N • 






Final consonant clusters: 


/ 




[tl 


Its] 


t 




mat 


mats 




mass 


hit 


hits 




hiss 


loot 


loots 




loose 


cut 


cuts 




cuss 


lot 


lots 




loss 


fate 


fates 




face 


rate 


rates 




race 


get 


gets 




guess 



lots 
the lots 
The Jots cost money. 



loss 
the loss 
The loss cost money. 



rates 
the rates 
The rates made us mad, 



race 
the race 
The race made us mad. 




I guess he gets lots of money. 
He gets mats and cuts them up. 
The snake will hiss if you hit it. 
He cuts the grass for high rates. 



Notes ^ 

1. See notes for Lesson Thirteen. 

7. {fc;! is an initial cluster in Hmong, so your stiuk^nts will have no trouble 



{ t s J IS an 
wha 
vowel 



whatever pronouncing Hnglish final {ts] if /the next uord boi^ins witli a 

I / 



30 



ERIC 



Lesson I if teen 
Final consonant clusters: [ks] 



[kl [ks] [s] 

kick \iQks kiss 

lack lacks lass 

sack sacks sass 

buck bucks bus 

lock locks loss 



sacks 
your sacks 
I don't want any of your sacks. 

bucks 
three bucks 
That's the three bucks. 



bucks 
the bucks 
He takes the bucks every day. 



sass 
your sass 
I don't want any of your sass, 

bus 
"3" bus 
That's. the "S" bus. 



bus 
the bus 
He takes the bus every day, 



He lacks a lass. 

The locks cost five bucks. 

His cheeks burned from the kiss! 

That horse kicks and bucks. 



Notes 



1. Sec the notes for Lesson Thirteen. 



31 



Lesson Sixteen 
Final consonant clusters: [bz], [dz] , [gz] 



[b, d, gl [bz, di, gz] [2] 

bug bwgs - buzz 

robe robes rose 

odd odds 02 

jab * jabs jaz2 

breed breeds breeze 

leg legs lays 

cube cubes cues 

ride • rides .rise 



jabs 
the jabs 
The jabs got to me. 



bugs 
the bugs 
The bugs scared me. 

robes 
his robes 
His robes pleased her, 



jazz 
the jazz 
The jazz got to me* 

buzz 
the buzz 
The buzz scared me. 



rose 
his rose 
His rose pleased her. 



He breeds bugs in cubes. 
Bugs have lots of legs. 
Cubes have six sides. 
Robes have arms but no legs. 



Notes 



1. See notes for Lesson Thirteen. 



32 



ERIC 



[mz] 

clams 

Kim»s 

rums 

Turns 



whims 
gems 
Tom's 
bombs 



Lesson Seventeen 
Final consonant qlusters: [mz] » [nz] Fng] 

[nz] 
clans 
kins 
runs 
tons 
, sins 
fans 
wins 
Jen 's 



ins] 

clangs 

kings 

rungs 

tongues 

sings 

fangs 

wings 

tongs 
bongs 



Jen's 
They're Jen's, 



gems 

They're gems. 



clams 
the clams 
The clams were noisy. 



clans 
the clans 
The clams were noisy 



clangs 
the clangs 
The clangs were noisy. 



Tom's clans have wings and tongues and fangs. 

Hmongi?^ have many clans. 

The king's fans rang the gongs. 

vShe sings about her sins and whims.^ 

Jen's gems really shine. 

James bought some jeans. 

Notes 

1. Your Hmong students will tend to hear all these clusters as \nz] 



33 



ERIC 



calls 
files 
bills 
pulls 



Lesson Eighteen 
Final consonant clusters: [1], [r], [s], [2] 



\TZ] 

cars 
fires 
beers 
purrs 



[is] 
false 
else 
pulse 



[rs] 
farce 

purse 
horse 
worse 



calls 
the calls 
The calls came quickly 



cars 

the cars 
The cars came quickly. 



bills 

• ' the bills 

The bills sat on the table. 



beers 
the beers 
The beers sat on the table. 



pulse 
her pulse 
Her pulse shockeo the doctor. 



puvse 
her purse 
Her purse shocked the doctor. 



A secretary works with calls, files, and bills. 
That's a fierce horse. 
Nothing is worse than bills. 



Notes 

K These clusters present problems; your Hmong students will confuse the [1]' 
with the [r]*s. In pronouncing the clu?ters^ hey will tend to substitute 
a [w] for [1] and a [&] for [r] , both of whicfi*'\rc easily understood by 
Americans. See notes for Lesson Eleven. 



34 



Lesson Nineteen 



Final consonant clusters: past tenses with [t] 





r 4. ftl 




ftl 


type 








pi CK 






nit 


iiKe 


7 1 i KOCl 




X ign c 


map 


IlidW W V. vl 






cough ^ • 


coughed 




caught 


cuff 


cuffed 




cut 


pass 


passed 




pat 








kit 


pus It 


pilot I V- VI 




nut* 


match 


matched ^ 




mat 


push 


pushed 


put 




We Push it down. 


We pushed it down. 


We put it 


down. 


We push Ken down. 


We pushed Ken down. 


We put Ken down^ 


cuff 


• 

cuffed 


cut 




You cuff the shirt like 


You cuffed the shirt 


You cut 


the shi: 


this. 


like this. 


this- 




cough 


coughed 


caught 


We cough it up. 


We coughed it up. 


We caught 


it up. 



The farmers hoped for rain. 

We passed "nine people. 

Her shoes matched her dress. 

She liked the map and mat. 

She cuffed and kissed and pushed the kids. 



Notes 

K This and the following lesson deal with consonant clusters that involve the 
past tense, and the past participles of regular verbs. They will be doubly 
hard for your Hmong students: there are no suffixes in Hmong, so it will 
be hard for your students to remember to put the past tense swffix on; and 
there are no final consonnnts or consonant clusters in Hmong; so these past 
tense clusters will be hard to pronounce. 



35 



-35- 



Lesson Twenty 
Final consonant clusters: past tense with [d] 



c 


C Md] 


Id} 


rub 


rubbed . 


Rudd ^ 


bribe 


bribed 


bride 


beg 


begged 


bed 


live 


1 ived 


lid ^ 


use 


used 


youM 


raise * 


> 

raised 


raid 


rage , 


raged 


raid 


mail 


mailed 


made 


fool 


fooled 


food 


'seem 


''seemed 


seed 


hang 


hanged 


had 


roar 


roared 


rode 


kill 


killed 


kid 



raise raised raid 

We raise chickens. We raised chickens. We raid cjiickens. 

mail mailed made 

We mail packages. We mailed packages. We made packages. 

kill killed kid 

Theylcill the audience. They killed the audience. They kid the audience 

They bribed the bride. 
She seemed sad. 

He begged for a bed and some food . 
He raged and roared at his bride. 



Notes 



See notes for Lesson Nineteen. 

36 



-36- 

lesson Twority-ono 





I In tT ^ ^ ^ ed 


finnl fzl and 


fdl in suffixes 






I *• * *• J 


fsiz] 


Fcizl 


1 1 i^Zl 


^ W ^ 






watrhos 


1 iidp^s 

V* ^ ^ "J 






■pi loh^c 


r\\ t^f*hpQ 


hatlops 

L> ASA IC V- <c> 


horses 


rises 


inashes 


coaches 


fudges 


kisses 


buzzes 


cashes 


leeches 


edges 


losses 


causes 


ashes 


porches 


ages 


lasses 

A W Ci^ 


noses 


leashes 


couches 


ledges 


races 


closes 


brushes 


notches 


lodges 






crushes 


ditches 


Madpe * s 














I trtu J 




fdid1 






patted 




kidded 






rated 




raided 






matted 




faded 






dotted 




padded 






knotted 




loaded . 






rotted 




aided 





trotted 

Notes 

1, In this lesson, we have listed all the other possible phonetic combinations 
involving the various £ suffixes and the past tense. If your students have 
mastered \z] and fd] at the ends of words, as in Lessons Eight and Ten, these 
won't cause any problems^ You might want to focus briefly on these combina- 
tions, however, when you teach the grammatical points. 

2. The vowel we're representing as [i] is the one used in normally paced 
pronunciation. of these suffixes, [i] occurs in Hmong. 



3? 

ERIC 



-37- 

Lesson Twenty-two 
Final consonant clusters with [1] 



[ip] 
help 

gulp 
scalp . 
kelp 

(18)" 

health 
wealth 
filth 
stealth 



[Ibl 

alb 

bulb 



[If] 

self 

shelf 

gulf 

elf 



[It] 
belt 
felt 
cult 
smelt 

[Is] 
false 
else 
pulse 



[Id] 

child 
old 
cold 
mild 



[ic] 
gulch 
Welch ." 
filch 
belch 



bulge 
indulge 
bilge 
divulge 



well 

His well was amazing. 



elm 
calm 
film 
helm 



wealth 
His wepalth was amazing, 



belt 

Put the bell on the cat, 



1- 



belt 

Put the belt on the cat 



Come help milk the cows in the barn. 
This shelf is worn out. 
I called to see when the film would start 
My child felt that the elf needed help. 



Notes 



Your Hmomg students will probably substitute a w for the U which is 
usually understandable • 

38 



^38- 



Lesson Twenty- three 



Final consonants clusters with fr] 



frp] 

harp 

carp 

slurp 

sharp 

[rc] 

porch 

lurch 

arch 

church 



hurt 
court 
shirt 
sport 

[rj] 

large 

barge 

surge 

splurge 

girth 
birth 
fourth 
hearth 



[rk] 
work 
fork 
bark 
shark 

[rm] 

arm 

warm 

harm 

alarm 



[rb] 

curb 

barb 

absorb 

garb 

[rnl 
burn 
barn 
warn 
corn 

[rl] 

girl 

curl 

swirl 

twirl 



[rd] 

card 

board 

I\ard 

bird 

frfl 

surf 

scarf 

turf 

wharf 



berg 
Borg 



curve 
starve 
carve 
reserve 



/ 



Did they come in the car?/ Did they come in the cart? 

IVhat a drafty bar!/ What a drafty barn! 

He worked in a war factory./ He worked in a warm factory. 

His scarf is hard to tie. 
He cried when he lost the card. 
His girth, at birth, caused alarm. 
Work in the warm sun didn^t harm him. 



N otes 

1. Hmong students might substitute a lengthened vowel for the [r]. There are 
many dialects of English which do the same, so such substitutions will be 
easily understandable. 

2. The [rl] clusters can be turned into two-syllable words like moral , to make 
them easier to handle. 



ERIC 



-39- 



Lesson Twentv-four 



Other final consonant clusters 



[sp] 

wasp 

clasp 

gasp 

grasp 



[sk] 

ask 

task 

mask 

dusk 



mojith 
ninth 
seventh 
tenth 



[mp] 

camp 

stamp 

damp 

lamp 



[nj] 

range 

strange 

orange 

change 



[iJk] ^ 
thank 
drink 
think 
link 



length 
strength 



inch 
branch 
lunch 
ranch 



lUl ask Frank to lunch. 

Can you arrange for a change in schedules? 

What's the length and strength of the desk? 

His task every month is to think of strange things, 

I saw an orange stamp in the damp swamp. 



Notes 

These are the more commonly -occurring of the final consonant clusters not 
dealt with in previous lessons. They will all be difficult for HmonR 
speakers, as there are no consonant clusters like them at the ends of words 
in Hmong. 

Note that any verb above can have the third person singular suffix added to 
it, and that any noun can be made plural; the result is often a three- 
consonant cluster. At this point, even Fnglish speakers start dropping 
consonants . 



40 



-4o: 



♦ Lesson Twenty-fl|^ " 

Consonant clusters with fs]^t the beginnings of words 



[s] 

sack 

sane 

sill 

sock 

Slink 



[si] 

slack 

slain 



Slunk 



[SP] 

Spain 
spill 
Spoke 
spunk 
spare 



stack 
stain 
still 
stoke 
stunk 
stare 



Isn] 
snack 



/ 



J 



[sm] 
smack 



smoke 



snare 



[sw] 



[sk] 



swam 
swill 



skein 
skill 



swear 



skunk 
scare 



Take up the sack./ Take up the slack./ Take up the stack. 

He's sane./ He's slain. 

It's sunk./ It's stunk. 

Don't stare at us./ Don't swear at us* 

He's soaking in the tub./ He's smoking in the tub. 

The skunk scared Steven. 
After our snack, we smoked a cigarette. 
Stephanie spoke too soon. . 
He's a skillful swimmer. 
She slipped in the snow. 
• They swore they'd Mrive more carefully. 
Slide down the slope on the sled. 
The Swede skis better than the Scot. 



ERIC 



Notes 

1. While Hmong has lots of consonant clusters at the beginnings of words, none 
of them start with fsj; these in Ei^glish will be difficult. Your students 
will break up the clusters with epenthetic vowelii, e.g. stpeak for speak . 

41 



.41- 



• t^gsson Twenty-six 
Consonant clusters wjth [1] and [r] at beginnings of \wrds 



[CI 




. [C+1] 


fC+r] 

t. J 


band 


% 


bland 


brand 


bead 




bleed 


breed 


cash 


** 


clash 


crash 


caw 


1 


claw 


craw 


fame 




flame 


frame 


fee 


\ 


flee 


free 


gas 








go 




glow 


grow 


pants 




plants 


prance 


pie 




ply - 


pry 


Tim 






trim 


tie 






try 




—t 

They clashed. 


/ Thdr-^crashed. 





The^ass is pretty. / The grass is pretty. 

She's goinif.)/ She's glowing. / She's growing. ■ 

That's hij favor bjamd. / That's his favorite brand, 

Give it a tie. / Give it a try. 

He bought some pants. / He bought some plants. 



Blue flowers grow in the grass. 

The blue bug bled blue blood. 

He eats bran flakes for breakfast. /' 

Your present was a pleasant surprise. 

The cow grazed in the plain. 

The plane crashed in flames. 



Notes 



Hmong has some initial consonant clusters with [1], e.g. fmbl] or fin one 
of the dialects) fndl]. There are none with [r], however. 



i2 



-42- 

Lessen Twenty-seven 
Three-consonant clusters at beginnings of words 



[spr] [spl] [str] [skr] 

sprain spleen strain scream 

spry splash straight screw 

spring splurge strong scrub 

spray split stride scroll 

spread splinter strand screech 



He strained his back. / He sprained his back. 

The spring is too tight. / The string is too tight. 



They splashed in the spring. 

The spry old man took big strides* 

The string kept the puppy from straying. 

I need a strand of string. 

The scream came from the square. 

He screamed when she scratched him. 



Notes 

1. Hmong students will probably break up these clusters with epenthetic 
vowels,, e.g. "suh-puh-rain" for sprain . That's fine. 



43 

ERIC 



-43- 



Lesson Twenty-eight 
Consonant clusters with [y] 

[by] [py] 

beautiful pure 

butte pupil 

bureau puny 

bugle puree 



ffy] 

few 

f ut i 1 e 

furious 

confuse 



[ky] 
cute 
curious 
cure 

cucumber 



[my] 

music 

muse 

mutual 

mute 



Ihyl 

huge 
human 
humor 
humidity 



She eats cucumber puree. 

Don't confuse your pupils. 

The Hulk is a huge human being. 

She's not beautiful, but she's cute. 

That's beautiful music. 



Notes 

1. Your Hmong students will probably interpret the [yu] sequence involved in 
these clusters as [iw] - a combination that doesn't occur in Hnglii-h, and 
that Americans have a hard time dealing with. The spelling system doesn't 
help - there's nary a y to be seen in the words above. 

2. Some dialects of English have tvu sequences. If you say Tyoosd ay for tno 
day after Monday, you can add a seventh column to the ones above, with 
Tuesday , tune , tul ip and tube . 




-44- 



IV. Sources for Further Reference 



English Language Services, Inc. Drills and Exercises in English Pronunciation . 
New York: Collier-Macmillan, 1971. 

Series of three texts: Book I deals with consonants and vowels; Books II 
and III with stress and intonation. The pronunciation lessons are on con- 
trasts within English. The introduction to each book contains suggestions 
for teaching the lessons in particular, and pronunciation in general. 

National Indochinese Clearinghouse. General Information Series #14, "The Hmong 
Language: Sounds and Alphabets". Arlington, VA: Center for Applied 
Linguistics, 1978. 

A fairly detailed description of the sounds of Hmong, preceded'by a dis- 
cussion of basics (Hmong names, clans, dialects), and followed by a descrip- 
tion of the alphabet situation in Laos, and the Roman Popular Alphabet com- 
monly used to write Hmong in the U.S. and in the refugee camps. 

. General Information Series #15, "The Hmong Language: Sentences, Phrases 

^and Words". Arlington, VA: Center for Applied Linguistics, 1978. 

A brief description of r^entence structure in Hmong, followed by information 
on such topics as Hmong kinship terms and terms of address, common boys' 
and girls' naroe*^ diays of the week, etc. 

. General Information Series #16, "Glimpses of Hmong Culture and Recent 
^History in Laos". Arlington, VA: Center for Applied Linguistics, 1978. 

An article on Hmong culture by Dr. G. L. Barney, who worked as a missionary 
among the timong during the forties and fifties; and an article on what's 
happened to the Hmongs in Laos over the last fifty years, by Yang See Koumarn, 
a Hmong refugee. 

_ . . General Information Series #17, "An Annotated Bibliography of Materials 
~ on the Hmongs of Laos". Arlington, VA: Center for Applied. Linguistics, 1978. 
Available through ERIC Document Reproduction Service, P.O. Box 190, Arlington, 
VA 2Z210. ERIC Document No. 159 902: hard copy, $.3. 32 plus $1.04 for postage 

A bibliography of materials on the Hmongs, most of them impossible to find. 
Ccneral topics include the language, the culture, Hmongs in the Indochina 
War, opium, etc. 

Nilscn, Don, and Alleen Pace Nilsen. Pronunciation Con* asts in English . New York 
i^cgents, 1971. 

A book of lessons on particular pronunciation contrasts, with lists of lan- 
guages the speakers of which have trouble with the contrast. Hmong is not 
one of the languages listed. Lessons consist of minimal sentences, practice 
sentences, phonetic information and f^ce diagrams. The introduction has 
.suggestions for teaching the lessons. 

45 



I 



-4F- 

Reed, Tipawan Truong-Quang, and Tou Fu Vang. "The Hmong Highlanders and the Lao 
lowlanders". Mimeo, Governor's Center for Asian Assistance. Chicago: 
Illinois Office of Education, 1978. 

A brief description of Hmong and Lao cultures, with a chart contrasting 
specific aspects of the two. 

Smalley, William A. "The Problems of Consonants and Tone: Hmong (Meo, Miao)". 
Chapter 4 of Smalley, W.A. ed., Phonemes and Orthography: Language Planning 
in Ten Minority Languages of Thailand . Pacific Linguistics Series C, No. 4.^ 
' ", Canberra, Australia: Linguistic Circle of Canberra, 1976, pp. 85-123. 

/ 

I 

A detailed phonetic analysis of both White and Blue/Green dialects .of Hmong, 
with examples in phonemic transcription (using more or less standard Pike- 
Nida SIL symbols), phonetic transcription, and both the Roman Popular and 
Thai -based alphabets. A description of the Roman Popular alphabe" is given, 
with discussion of the problems posed by representation of the different 
dialects. The article ends with a short text giver in phonemic transctiption 
the RPA, the Thai-based alphabet, literal translation and free translation.. 




46