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ID 191 5ti0 

jC BOO 518 






McClenney ^ Byron 

Management for Prodyct ivity^ 

American AssociatiDft of Community and Junior 

Colleges, Washinqton, D*C, 



Publication SaleSi. Anierican Association ot ccramunity 
and Junior Colleges, One Dupont Circle, SuitB 
aiO, Washington, DC 20036 (45. 00) 

riFOI Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDIS. f. 
Accountability I Administrative Organizationi 
Administrator SI Budget in gi *College Administration ; 
^College Planning % *Ccif aiunity Colleges i Cost 
If £ ectiveness I Leadership Besponsibilityi Literature 
Reviews^ ^Measurement lechniquesi Modelsi Outcomes of 
Educationi ^Productivity i Program Development i Self 
Evaluation (Groups)! State of the Art Eeviews; Two 
year colleges 


mana-/ rment 

Based on a revieir of tTie literature dealing with 
in higher education, this five'part monograph examines the 
conc^api of educational productivity and explores its applications in 
community college administration. Part I presents an operational 
definiticn fcr "management,'^ and discusses five components of the 
nanagement task: planning , or ganizlnq , directing, cQordinating 
departmental efforts, and controlling* The concepts of ' organisational 
"efficiency" and "effectiveness" are clarified in Part II, and 
various research efforts undertaken to quantiflably measure 
educational productivity are assessed. Parts HI and IV concentrate 
on ccmmunity college management activities relating to community 
assessment, the determination of institutional role, administrative 
erganizatlcn, organizational climate, planiiing, budgeting, resource 
developmentf marketing, progrFiS. development, perspanel policies, 
lanagement informatien systems, and institutional evaluation. 
Finally, Part v discusses the alternative Instruqtional metbadologies 
utilized by community colleges to Increase productivity and suggests 
an empirical model for the productive nianagement of labor-intensive, 
huroar service agencies. Case studies describing management practices 
at three representative community colleges are appended and 
bibliographies conclude each sectlcn of the paper* (JP) 

^ ||i II Iff j| * * * Sti li! * 1^ ijl 111 * * * * 1^ 

^ Beproductions supplied by EDRS are the best tl at can be made * 
* from the original document. * 



Byron N* McGlenney 

Copyright 1980 

One ^pont Circle ^ NsWi 
Waihingtonj D*C, 20036 


W. A. Harper 


Printed in U.S.A. 

Price* $5.00 



ISBN 0-87117-103-1 


I wish to thank a number of colleagues for their aFsistance 
and contributions in the development of the manuscript. 
Dick Wilson Of AACJC provided guidance throughout the project, 
Preeldents Ron McCarter of Southeastern Comnunity College 
(North Carolina) J Don Carlyon of Delta College (Michigan) ^ 
and Norm Watson (Chancellor) of the Coast COTimunity Collega 
District (California) graciously consented to participate 
in the case studies « George Clovis, Dean of Administrative 
Services at Patfkersburgs assisted in the interviews of 
personnel in the Coast District. Peggy Kesiilnger and 
Judy Higgs of Parkersburg read the manuscript and made many 
helpful suggestions* My wife Mary Ann and my secretary ^ 
Debbie Richards typed the manuscript and corrected many of 
my errors. My sons, Mark and Don^ were very understanding 
and supportive for which I shall always be grateful. I am 
thankful for the help^ and asaima full responsibility for 
any shortcomings. 

Byron N. McClftnneyi Prealdent 
Parkersburg Community Collegs 
Parkersburg, West Virginia. 
March 1980 


TABLE OF CO:^": :/'U-; 


Chapter 1 


Planiilng . . , . 

Organl.2ing . . . 

Dlrecf.lng » . , 

Coordinating ^ * 

Orn trolling . * 

Summary . • p . 

References , . * 

Chapter 2 


Efficiency p • * i 

Ef fentiveness * * 

Elaboration on Produiitlvity 

Summary » 

Referance^ , , , ^ , . * * , 

Chapter 3 


Community Assassment 

Mission t Role and Scope 

OrganiEation * 

Oi'ganl^attonal Climate/Managerial Leaders 
References • , * 

Chapter 4 



Planning ^ * * * * . 

Resource Allocation/Budgeting 
Resource Development .... * 

Marketing » 

Progratn Development , ~ ^ . . 
Personnel Systems ^ . . > . * 
Management Information Systems 

References * , . * 

Chapter 5 

The Present 
The Future 

Ref eritnces . . p . * . • 



MANAGEJdlHT = .the act or art of maaaging; the conductirtg 
or supervising of something: judicious use 
of maaiiS to accomplish an end 

MANAGE - to handle or direct with a deiree of skill,., (1) 

Few community college educators would objact to the idea that skillful 
college laadera should use sound judgement in conducting college operations 
in order for the Institution to achieve the purpose fotr which it was created. 
That is the primary definition of management p and it is clear that the 
defini-tlon has positive overtones or implications. Given the positive 
statements one Is pushed to wonder why secondary definitions with negative 
dimensions would tend to dominate discussion In an educational forijan. 
Keeping people under submisalon and manipulation are possible outcomes , but 
management conducted according to the positive statement is oriented toward 
a higher level of operation* People become the keys to whether a 
college functions in a healthy manner. 

Bower (2) sees management as "the accomplishment of purpose through 
the organised effort of others*" His Idea seems to extend the traditional 
definition of "getting work done through people*" The elements of purpose 
and organization are. important to any conception of community college 
management. The focus on the role of people In the enterprise will also be 
central to any discussion of management and productivity* George (3) 
links the role of the manager with purpose and work environment when he 
says, "Determining the collective objectives of an undertaking and 
generating an environment for their achievement is the total function of 

a manager," The historical look at management thought by George (4) goes 

on to conclude* 

The managing process, therefore, is an eclectic 
unity - a oneness made up cf a miKture of planning, 
organiEings directing, and controlling - each 
intermixed and involved in an inseparable whole. 

The conception of management as a process , with certain functions 

viewed as Integral parts, provides a useful definition for a look at 

coiranunity college administration, or management. By defining the functions, 

one can reach a clearer understanding of how to approach structuring a 

college so that the purpose will be achieved. A function is ''one of a 

group of related actions contributing to a larger action, . (5] The 

larger action, management, and the component functions of planning , 

organiEing, directing, and controlling provide the l-ounaation on which 

to build a view of producr;ive coiranunity college organizations. Add the 

fuTiction of coordination as described by Barnard (6) in his seminal work 

on management and the necessary "glue'' for unity In management has been 

provided. He says, "•..the quality of coordination Is the crucial factor 

in the survival of organization." 


^^^^^^^^ — , — ^ ■ / 

What are we almirig to accomrlish? What is our role? Why are we 

organized? These questions are among the ones to be answered by top 

administrators of conmiunity coll.^ges if they fulfill £ha expectations 

held by sofiety* The questions also imply the need for a sense of 

direction or a "reason for being" in higher education* 

The dictionary <7) defines planning as "the establishment of goals, 

policies, and procedures Drucker (8) goes beyond that definition 

by indicating the need for clear objectives and goals,, to be linked to a 

definition of function anM mission* McMania Associates (9), in a 
publication for the U, S, Office o^' Education^ go so far as to conceive- 
of mission as the "apex," supported by goals and objectives. They assume 
the assessment of needs has preceded the formulation of the mission, 
goals, and objectives, and that performance evaluation measures and mile- 
stone projections are necessary manageriai expressions of intent. Their 
conception ciearly moves one from the long-range view of mission and 
goals to the short='range view of how an organiKation moves toward ful- 
filling a defined mission* ,^ 

Meaningful planning should incorporate the look into the future as 
well as indicating the activities for the next year. The process of 
plannings to be described later is a vital function of management, 
enabling boards and administrations to chart the course of the future, 

How shnil we function? How are people to be involved? What kind 
of structure will be most effective? Answers to these questions should 
be related to the thrust of planning , Since the imperative is to have 
staff members contributing to the accQmplishment. of the goals. The 
dictionary (10) definition describes an organic structure and says 
that to organise is "tb arrr*nge or form into a coherent unity or functioning 

Most community college administrators are familiar with an organiza- 
tional charts but ^hey seldom examine whether they have a "coherent 
unity" or a "functioning whole." The American Management Association (11) 
simply asks, "Who's involved and how?" Providing a clear answer to 
that queation and implementing the dictionary definition will lead to 
productive practices within this function of management. 


Who will do the work? When should the work be done? What 
specifically needs to be done? Mswers to these questions provfJe 
"building blocks" when one links the function of directing with 
planning and organiElng. As the dictianary (12) indicates, direction 
provides "guidance or supervision of action or conduct t" Assigning 
the work of the organization In a clear^ orderly, and systematic manner 
is a necessary step for the coiranunlty college administrator who is 
concerned about an Institution reaching its stated goals. 

Who must be kept informed? What kind of Information must be shared? 
Which groups must meet on a regular basis?. Answering these questions, 

one begins to focus on wayn to enhance coiranunicatlon and cooperation 
within a campus environment. 

The dictionary (13) indicates that to coordinate is "to bring into 
a coTOnon action movement , or condition." The overlap with the reference 
to a "coherent unity", in the function of organizing is obvious. 
Coordinated efforts in an organiEatlQn with clear work assignments, 
logical work groups, and well defined goals will lead toward productivity 
as it will be defined in this manuscript, 

How do you evaluate results? By what standards do you measure 
outcomes? Who will assess results? The terms evaluation, appraisal, 
and review are conmon to coranunity college administrators* even if they 
do not relate them to the controlling function of management. An admin-- ■ 
istrator should be parsonally involved in this function to be sure that eve 

8 ' , 

conform to plans within a cost that society Is willing to pay. To 
elaborate, the dictionary (14) says that to control is ■■to checks test 
or verify by evidence to exercise restraiiiing or directing influence. 

The reference to providing evidence is on target when one considers the 
calls for accountability being heard in most states. Careful revieWi 
appraisal or evaluationi and prissentation of evidence take on fresh 
importance in the face of these cries for accQuntabllity and the "tax 
revolt," ' . 


Five basic functions of management have been presented as components 
of the management process* Other writers might include topics like 
leadingi motivating, communl eatings team-building, decision-making, 
staffing, bjidgetingi marketing and evaluation. The contention here is 
that all of these vital elements are either incorporated within the basic 
functions or they come as a result of work in the basic tunc t Ions, No 
matter how management is defined ^ it seems likely that comunlty college 
administrators will focus increasing attention on how to manage. There 
will be a major thrust to develop skillful college leaders who will be 
able to use sound judgement In conducting college operations in order 
for the institution to achieve the purpose for which it was created. The 
wise administrator will also seek to learn what is known about management 

As Drucker (15). indicates^ 

There are management tools and techniques* There are 
management concepts ^nd principles* There is a coiranon 
language of management. And there may even be a univer- 
sal "discipline" of management. Certainly there is a 
worldwide generic function . * . 

Community collage leaders will do well to face the demands for 
operational efficiency and educational effectiveness by seeking to 
utilize what is known to become better managers* Operational efficiency 
and educational ef f ectiveness ^ concepts not yet clearly defined , will 
demand attention like never before. Educational productivity, a 
blending of the concepts, will be within the grasp of administrators 
who learn to plans organlzej direct, coordinate, and control. 


1, Woolfl, Henry Bosley, Editor in Chief, Webater-s New Collegiate 
Diet ionary (Springfield, Massachusetts: G, & C^ Merriam Company^ 
1977)], p, 697, 

2, Bower, Joseph L., "Effective Public Management," Harvard 
Business Review (March - April, 1977), 132. 

3, George, Claude S* , Jr., The History of Management Thought 
(Englewood Cliffs, N. J Prentice Hall, Inc., 1968), p* 162. 

4, Ibid , , p, 166- 

5, Woolf , op, city , p* 465, 

6, Barnard, Chester I,, The Functions Of The Executive , Thirtieth 
Anniversary Edition (Cambridge, Mass.i Harvard University Press 
1968), p. 256, 

7, Woolf, op. clt , i p. 878* 

8, Drucker, Peter F, , "Managing The Public Service Institution," 
Public Interest. 33 (Fall, 1973), 43-60, 

9, McManis Associates, Inc, /University Associates, Inc, A Guide 
^ t/q The Development Of Mission, Go als. Oblectiv as, PerforTnance 

Ivaluatlon Measures, and Milestones (Washington, D.G.)' 

10. Woolf, op, clt, , 809, 

11. ItYib Professional Institute of AMA, toerlcan Association of 

: Conmiunity and Junior Colleges Presidents Manasement Seminar 
/ Dallas, TeKas I October, 1974). 

/ -. " ^ 

12. ; Woolf, op, clt. , p* 323, 

13. Ibid. , p, 250, 
.14, Ibid. , p. 247. . 

15, Drucker, Peter F,, Technology, Managemint ^ Society (New York s 
Harper ^ Row, Publisliers, 1970), p, 38, . ^ 

/ ■ - - 



PRODUCTIVITY - the quality or state of being productivG 

PRODUCTIVE - having the quality or power of producing 
aspi in abundances effective in bringing 
about: yielding or furnishing resultSi * . (1) 

A productive manager might be described as one who is effective in 

bringing about abundant results. The same could be said for a productive 

organization, Barnard (2) adds insight to the definition whtn he observes 

"When a specific desired end is attained we shall say that the action is 

'effective.'" The reference to a desired end reflects the definition of 

management with the implicit idea that someone has defined the end or 

purpose. Barnard recognises the Importance of purpose^ and stresses the 

CQjimnitment of^ employees to the^^purposes of an organisation. Roueche and 

others (3) similarly point out that: 

Results (the fulfillment of objectives) which allow the 
college to accomnlish its mission permit the Institution 
and its personnel to be accountable to the constituency 
served by the college. = " 

Purpose or mission^ therefore ^ assumes a central role in the discussion 

of both management and productivity. Lawrence (4) summarizes* 

* . , the hew accountability appears to call for a clear ' 
statement of purpose' prior to the expenditure of funds ^ 
as a yardstick against which to measure effectiveness. 

The introduction of "eKpenditure of funds" in the discussion leads to 

another element one must consider when thinking about accountability or 

productivity. As Hartnett (5) points outi ^ , 

■ : ' h ' . 


accountability experts are concerned with effectiveness 
and efficiency (its capacity to achieve results with a 
given eKpenditure of . resourcee) and very often they are 
more interested in the latter. 

Effectiveness and efficiency p concepts often noted in discussions of 

accountability and productivity, are central to the discussion and must 

be understpod in order to consider an application of these concepts in 

the~~inanageTnent of coTOnunity colleges. ' ^ 

EFFICIENCY - ' ' ' .. 

Efficiency can be defined as "effective operation as measured by a 
comparison of, production with cost* " (6) ^ Lawrence (7), however , sees 
the concept in terms of a "program^ s capacity to achieve the intended 
results within a given expenditure of resourceSi" Noteworthy in the 
definitions are the terms "effective operatlori'" and "intended results. " ^ 
There appears to be agreement regarding the Inclusion of costs in the 
definition. In the first def Inltionsc cost is linked with effectiveness , 
which in itself must be evaluated. In the second definition, cost is 
linked with intended results, which Implies that desired results must 
be identified before efficiency can be measured. Both .definitions imply 
that efficiency is more than Just cost controL or curtailment. 

Another conception of efficiency is being developed at the National 
Center for Higher Education Management Sygtem^^ (NCHEMS) * Romney, .Gray, 
and Weldon (8) view efficiency as a comparison of actual results with 
actual expenditures. This view does not attempt to take into account the 
difference between "intended results" or butcpmes and actual results. It 
should be pointed but that they include commitment, utillEatfon, and 
effectiveness in their definition of productivity; each of which will 

'receive attention as a definition of productivity is formulated* Hartnett 
(9) seems to use this narrow view of efficiency in describing the 
traditional clash of a college financial officer, .concerned about 
efficiency^ with faculty members who resist any restraints on their 
striving for educational effectiveness* , : , • . 

Barnard .(10) introduced another thought about efficiency' which will 
prove to tie helpful in Jinally defining productivity. He said that 
efficiency of effort is efficiency relative to the .securing of 

necessary personal contributions . to the cooperative system,'' In other 
words, the coranitment of staff members is necessary in order to increase 
efficiency* = 


Effectiveness can be defined in terms of "producing a decided, 
decisive, or desired effect •"(11) Lawrence (12) ^elaborates'/* ^effectiveness 
refers to the degree to which the progrM succeeds in doing' what was^^ 
intended," The emphasis is on the "desired affect" rather than on 
simply producing a "decisive effect," Once agfiins implicit in the ^ 
definition is the idea that desirable outcomes have been described, = ; 

Barnard (13) provided substance for a working definition when he 
says effectiveness 

relates eKclusively to the appropriateness of the 
meana selected under the conditions as a whole for the 
accdmplishment of the final objective. 

To translate, ?a manager must consider the working enviroranent or 

climate in select irig appropriate steps to take in moving the organization 

toward accomplishment of its purpose • To extend the thought ^ an action 

taken to increase efficiency in the imnediate future^ but which is 

, ' , 10 

disruptive in the long-term view, could not be described as effective. . 


.. . ^ 

The thought of pursuing productivity in an educational setting was 

foreign :to educators prior to the push for accountability* Now, many 

agree with Haggerty (14) when he aays ' 

The concept of productivity is just as valid in education 
as it is in the production of goods or food. 

He points out that the only way we can. improve our standard of living is , 

through improvenient in output per man-hour. He even goes so far as to 

^ayi . .. 

. p% the employees of the education industry have been 
completely dependent for any real gains in their own 
incomes these past decades upon. the increasing productivity ? 
of the other sectors of the economy. - 

His conclusions seem to be based on the traditional, conception of 

productivity described by Slbson (15) . 

Productivity = physical output 

total man-hours of work 

Using the above-mentioned definition, Haggerty would, for example, look 
for improved student-instructr^^ ratios when expenditures are increased 
for facilities, equipment and supplies- Without trying to refute the 
example as a legitimate part. of a quest for productivity, the point should 
be made that it is only a portion of what productivJty means in an 
educational environment- Adopting the industrial conception of produc- 
tivity demands that educators move toward greater quantification of 
results. In fact, extensive efforts have been unider taken to assist 
college managers to cope with external pressure for accountability* 

Lawrence and Servl^ce (16) provide an excellent rev^iew of the quest 
for a quantitative language to assist the manager who wants to ^ploy 

= quantitative managament" techniques in higher educatUon* Thgy conclude t 

Management i espaclally management of higher education^ is 
simply too complex a task to be reduced to a set of 
routlnlzed nmnerical procedures, (17) 

They then describe the need to 

...synthesize a plan of action from two aspects of } 
reality: (1) a world of peoples human values , preferences p 
aspirations, and Interpersonal dynamics and (2) a wor^^ "of 
things s facts s dollars, resources, and constraints. The 
..creativity of this synthesis Is the fundamental measure 
of a higher education- manager ' s effectiveness. (18) 

Lawrence and Service (19) further state that the 

...major challenge is the need to focus more on the 
ef fectlyenesa or end results of higher education , as 
opposed to the efficiency methodologies or means used 
to reach. those ends. 

They conclude by raising "... serious doubts about the operational' 

viability of the .concept of productivity in higher education." (20) 

One should not feel compelled to accept the conclusions of Haggerty, 

Lawrence and Service, Exploration should j, however, continue along the lines 

suggested by Lawrence and Service. The focus can be on "end results," 

if a new conception of productivity can be developed^ Slbson (21) 

suggests a qualitative productivity measure: " 

correctness measure of disruptive 
Productiveness - of action + output - effect 

) totai man-hours of work , . ^ 

The^model, still in a conceptuar state, causes one to^ take a long-range 

view of educational productivity." Appropriateness of actions , measure- 

ment of results or outcomes , and the long-term effects of an action 

■ would be taken into account. Most community college administrators have 

seen that "experimental change itself can^ produce higher prodiictiyity In 

the short run." (22) The challenge is to make progress fpr the .".long run" 


in an environment which must be judged to be different from the business 
and industrial world. 

As Dyer (23) has said^ 

-It mhst be constantly kept in mind that the educational 
process is not on all fours with an Industrial process; 
it is a social process in which human beings are 
continually interacting with other human beings in ways 
that are imperfectly measurable or predictable, ' 

Romney, Gray and Weldon (24) seem to recognize this difference in education 

as they define productivity* Productivity is seen as meeting the eKpecta- 

tions of constituencies efficently and effectively* . The introduction of 

constituencies Is an important step in understanding , how a thrust for 

productivity can make sense to a conmiunity college, administrator, km 

Lenning and others (25) Indicate s multiple perspectives of -students , 

employers, funders, civic leaders, faculty and trustees must be taken into 

account- In reviewing the list of those who hold expectations for the 

community college ^ one is pushed to realize the complexity of the issue 

of measuring educatiohal productivity* 

Goodwin and Young (26), in reviewing the varying definitions of 

Increasing educatiohal productivity, state in operational terms some of 

the elements which might emerge to demonstrate productivity. They arei 

1* lowering the cost of producing a unit of education * " 

2* increasing the learning of students 

3. making the staff more efficient 

4. making the conpunity college more accessible to a 
wider range of students 

5* butting attrition rates ^ 

^ 6, increasing adminis,trative efficiency 

■ =^ * - 

■ ■ ' . 13 - '. . 

7. managing the physical plant more effectively, including 
the use of energy 

The above-Tnentioned elainents incorporate both efficiency and effectiveness 
but they may not focus enough on purpose and commitment. It ^ne assumes 
that the elements are all consistent with purpoaes then they are helpful 
in understanding the concept of educational productivity* It should 
also be recognised that progress along the suggested lines could not be ' 
made without the commitment of college personnel* 

A collage whicli is able to satisfy its constituencies (meeting real 
needs within' a tolerable cost) might be described as a productive 
organization* It is likely to be an organization with clear statements 
of purpose and goals in which college personnel join in a commitment to 
move th6 institution toward^ satisfying its consjtituencies* It is also 
likely to be an organization in which a long-range view of educational 
productivity is developed * Short-'range efforts to increase operational 
efficiency may be ^expendedj but the efforts will not be seen as "ends," 
but rather will be viewed as "means" to a desired end. 


1. Woolfj, Henry Bosley, Editor in Chief 5 Webster's New CDllaglate / 
Dictionary (Sprlngf iald^j Massachusetts I G, & C. Mferriam Company * ^ 
1977), p. 918. 

2. Barnard, Chester I*, The Functions Of The Executive , Thirtieth 
Anniversary. Edition (Cambridge, Mass, 1 Harvard University Press^ 

\ 1968), p, 19. 

3* Roueches John E. , George A, Baker III and Richard L, Brownell, 
Accpuntability And. The Co tounj^ty College ^ (Washington^ lU C ♦ 1 
American Association of Coranunity and Junior Colleges* 1971)* 

4. Lawrence, Ben, Statewide Planning For Postsecondary Educationi 
Issues and Design a Lyman/A. Glenny arid George B, Weatherabys 
eds. (Boulder, Coloradoi National Center for Higher Education 
Management Systems at WICHE* September, 1971), p. 12, . ■ 

5, Hartnett, Rodney T. , Accountability In Higher Education (Princeton 
New Jersey, College Entrance EKamlnation Board, 1971), p, 5. 

6v Woolf 5 op ■ clt , , p, 362, 

7, Lawrence, op*_lcjLt, , p, 13, 

8, Roinney, Leonard C, * Robert G, 6ray and H, Kent Weldon, "Depart- 
mental Productivity I A Conceptual Framework," Internal 

, Ddcument (Boulder , Coloradoi NCHEMS, 1978),.^ ^^ , 

9, Hartnett, op, clt , , p, 6, ^ 
10, Barnard, op, cit, , p*92, 

11* Woolfi^l^^^^clt^, p. 362, . 

12, Lawrence, op * c4t , * p* 12* ' 

13, Barnard* op, cit . , p, 236* 

14. Hugger ty, Patrick E. ^ Productivity In Education (Dallaa, Texasi 
TAxas Instruments Incorporated * 1974), p* 20, 

15. Sibson, Robert 1.* Increasing Employee Productivity (New.Yorki 
■ AMACOM, 1976), p. 48. "^^ 

16. Lawrence, G. Ben and Allan L. Service, Editors. Quantitative 
Approaches to Higher Educ- ation Man a gement i Potential. Limits. 
and Challenge (Washington, D t ERIC Clearinghouse on Higher 
Education and American Assoc n for Higher Education, 1977). 

17. Ibid. . p. 11. » . ' 

18. Ibid. . pps.„ 11-12. 

19. Ibid. . p. 79. 
20/ Ibid. , p. 80. 

21. Sibson^ on. city , p. 49, 

22. Goodwins Gregory. and James C. Youngs Incraaslng Productivity In 
The Community College (Los Angelas, California T Laague for 
Innovation in the Coimnunity Coilege and ERIC Clearlnghousa for ' 
Junior Colleges, July, 1978), p. 9. ^ ^ 

23. Dyer, Henry S., ''Toward Objective Criteria of Professional 
Accountability In the Schools of New York City." Phi Dalta 
Kappan (LII, No, 4, Decambar, 1970)i 211, 

J? ' - . 

24* Romnay, Gray and Weldons op . cit . 

25. Lenning, Oscar T., Yong S. Lee, Sidney S. Micek, and Allan L. 
Services A Structura for the Outcomes of Pogtsecondary Education 
(Boulders Coloradoi NCHEMsV 1977) . 

* ^ * 

26. Goodwin and Young, op. cit. , p. 4. 





The managing proeess, therefore ^ is an aGlectic unity ^ 
a oneness made up of a mi%ture of planning, organizing, 
directing, arid controlling - each intermixed and involved 
in an inseparable whole* (1) 

« * • the quality of coordination is the crucial factor in 
the. survival of organization* (2) 

^ '■ ' ' ^ 
Only in recent years have coinmunity college administrators begun to 

focus on raanagement concepts* Planning, organizing, directing^ cSor^ 

dinating, and controlling were certainly practiced, but little attention 

was directed toward improvement q£ these functions* Richardson (3), 

writing in 1970^ observed that a review of Junior College Journal articles 

written during the previous three years revealed only ojb "autho^^itative" 

article dealing with administrative stru^^ture or concepts. The' Higher ^ 

iducation Management Institute (HEMI) (4) recently observed i 

• ' The higher education research literatufa rarely deals with 

management and training. Five graduate research assistants 
found only about 600 citations over the past ten years 
related in any way to management development and training 
of higher education. The great majority of these were 
doctoral dissertation studies on limited populations, making 
comparisons difficult* . , , 

The UWil survey indicated that most studies simply described position task 

or responsibilities. 

The paucity of the ^literature dealing with higher 
education taanageraent lad the Jnatitute to a review 
of basic literature on theories of organizational 
functioning and human effectiveness. (5) 

H^l "bellavas that to the^ extent that management Is a generic function of 

human organizations, lessons learned from.. research in other areas can 

benefit colleges and universities." (6) 

A large number of .college and university leaders agree that higher 
education managers can learn from "what Is known" about organl.5:ntional 
behavior and management. A total of 557 institutioris expressed interest, 
and then 454 institutions sought participation in the Exxon Education « 
Foundation funded program at HEMI* (7) Many of the institutions were 
community colleges s and eight conununlty colleges were finally selected 
to participate in the pilot program along with 16 senior . colleges and 
universities. The community colleges werei 

1. Central YMGA (Illinois) 

2. Community College of Allegheny County (Pennsylvania) 

3. Community College of Denver (Colorado) ^ 

4. College of Lake County (Illinois) • 

5. Eastfield College and the Dallas County Cotmnunity 
College District Office (Texas) 

6* J. Sargeant Reynolds (Virginia) . , 

7. Los Rios Community College (California) 

8. New York City (New York) ■ . 

De Anza (California) Community College later became one of the pilot 
Institutions in this management ^'development training program. The program, 
was launched by Exxdn funding in April, 1976 , and continues today with numerous 
community colleges joining now that the pilot phase is complete* 

Additional evidence of community college involvement in management 
improvement can be found in a review of Title III funding, (8) A total 
of 68 two-year colleges received "Basic" funding and 23 received "Advanced" 
funding during the fiscal year, 1977, Most of the grants provide 
for major work in what HEMX calls management development* In fact, a 
primary thrust for AIDP programs is in an activity called Planning, 
Management and Evaluation (PM:) . Administrative Improyement (Al) is also 
"included to focus on the dfevalopment of individual managers. Several 
conmiunitt colleges, including Parkersburg CoTmnunity College (West Virginia) , , 

■ 18 ' ... 

J. Sargeant Reynolds (Virginia) , and Central YMCA (Illinois) ^ are involved 
in both HEMI and AIDP. ' . , 

Title III funding is also assisting more .than 100 community colleges 
-through the ACCTidn Cdnsortiump (9) This technical assistance project^ in 
it-^ fourth year^ is serving 116 two--year colleges in 39 states. The 
initial thrust of ACCTion was to strengthen programs in community .services p 
instructional services* resource development , and student development 
services. The efforts have now expanded to include long-range plannings 
management development, and management style* Through workshops, 
institutes* and consultlngi the Consortium is working to enhance the 
management of. conmiunity colleges. 

The National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (NCHEMS) 
(lO)p funded in large part by the National Institute of Educationp has 
published more than 70 documents dealing with the planning and management 
of higher education* Classification structures, management information 
ayatems, facilities plannings cost analysiSj data dictionaries p information 
exchanges and state planning are examples of topics addressed and work 
undertaken at NCHEMS since 1970. Emphasis is now being placed on measures 
of educational outcomes ("desired results") s planningp and community 
assessment- Coranunlty colleges have been involved in numerous NCHEMS projects 
and haves In recent years s taken a leadership role in ^helping to advance 
the "state of the art," , ^ ^ 

Three coimnunlty colleges /helped develop an approach to community^ 
Impact studies, Eastfield College (Dallas * Texas) , Kalamazoo Valley 
(Michigan) 1 and VilenGia Community College (Orlando, Florida) were .involved 
in an effort to determine the Impact a co^llege is having in the community s 


an* to identify directions for the future.. The results of the pilot 

studies have been published (11) and workshops were achedulad to encourage 

other c.onfflftunlty colleges, to undertake similar* studies- A case study of 

the Kansas City Metropolitan Community Colleges is included in another 

NCHEMS publication (12) on academic planning. The case studies resulted 

from work started In 1973 designed to Improve planning and management in 

poatsecondary* education, (13) The Comiunity College of Philadelphia and 

Golden West (California) College had representatives involved In 

guldin| another publication (12) on institutional planning. Eastfield . ^ 

College (Dallas j Texas) also served as one of f our ^resource institutions 

in the development of a handbook. A series of "Executive . Brief Ings" 

for coinmunlty college administrators followed the completibn of the 

project, NClffiMS is continuing to develop approaches with particular 

Importance Jor community colleges* (15 ^ 16 i 17) 

The program for the tenth annual. "Institute for Educational Management" 

illustrates the heightened' interest in management one Is able to observe 

in all higher education circles* The program (18) Includes the topicsi 

Control and Planning Systems , 
Labor Relations 
Law and Higher Education 
' Management Information Systems 

Managing Financial Resources , 
Organisational Behavior and Design ^ 
Personnel Policy and Administration ^ , 

^alysis of The Envirorment ^ 

The topics might have been taken from a program of the AACJC, the 

Association of Community College Trustees i The League for Innovation In 

the , Gommunity College, or any one of dozens of state asiociations or 

professional organisations with an Interest ^ in the future of coTranunlty 

colleges. The point is, college administrators must face the reality of 

• 20 

stabilizing enrollment, declining resources and cries for accountability 

by becoming bettar managers* The search for "batter ways" should start in 

the community served by the college* 


The widespread shift in name from "junior college" to "community 

college" indicated a level of institutional coiranitment to base programs 

on the needs of ipecific communities. In fact* a recent survey Indicated * 

that 95 ,7% of 819 responding colleges have. a common understanding of community 

education. Young, Fletcher and Rue (19) report the response to tha 

following definition of community education! 

courses and activities for credit or noncrediti formal 
classroom or nontraditional programs s cultural, 
recraational offerings specifically designed to meet 
the needs of the surrounding community and utilizing 
school^ coilegej and other facilities* Programming is 
determined with input from the community being served. 

The survey, focusing on one facet of mission or purpose, points out the 
need for "input from the coiranunity*" How can a community college obtain 
the proper "input" so that it can structure itself to satisfy the consti- 
tuencies? Each cotmnunlty collegeemust answer the question if it is going 
^to be well managed and prQductive%- It may be time ^ in fact, for colleges 
to take a "refresher" course In' the "basics," ^ . 
Johnson (20) indicates that coradunity colleges should 

Use lay advisory committees in the development of technical- ^ ^ 

vocational .curricula i also consider ^ing them in developing . . 
. general education offerings* Plan , to have these committees, 

whose membership will periodically changes serve contin- 
uously both during the period of establishment arid' after ^ = 
establishment as an .ongoing aid to revising and etrengtheriing 
the curriculum. . 

He also stressed the Importanci of surveyJng the"interests, plans r and goals 
jot high school juniors and seniors," (21) If the Johnson work had been 

done In 1978s ha would have included the othar constituencies to ba. 
"satisfied" in 1979. ^ 

NCHEMS (22) identified potential constituencies in work with the 
three community colleges* Questionnaires and procedtires ware developed 
to survey! , 

Citizens - , 

Civic Leaders . ? . 

Educators ' , ' ' ' 

EmployerB ; 
V ' Faculty and Staff \ , /X \ j^" ■ v 

■ Feeder School Faculty and Couneelors ' 
Graduating High School Seniors / 
^ Social S^rvilce Agerlcy Administrators , ^ ^ - -.. 

Students - J - \ 

"Input" from all of the above'-mentloned sources is important to any 

coimnunlty college concerned with whether ^ It is utilising its 

r urces to meet ''deelred ends*" ■ ■ ^ 

A - -■ ^ ^ " - s. -;. ^ _ , 

Coiranunlty n^eds m^y also ,be asses siedf^ and met through: col lab or at iva 
ventures with ^piibllcj school districts* Exmples of an evp lying partner 
ship can be found In the eKperiences described by VoorheeSj King and 
Cwik.(23) Clackamas (Oregon) ^ Iowa Central (Iowa) ^ Florida Junior 
College at JacksonviHaj and Washtenaw (Michigan) , were all Involved in 
deyeloping comiunity education programs for their respective communities 
Efforts ware extended to define roles for^ the community . college and the 
publicxachools* These ap proaches I ijF successful, can deinonstrate 
accountability to the constituencies by the Avoidance of unnecessary 
duplication, ' ^ ^ ^ ^ %^ ' s ^ 

Local boards either elected or appointed, generally provide the 
legal "or formairilnk to. the community ^ but they cannot possibly provide 
all ther" input" needed. Use of adviaory' coiranltteeSp formal surveys and 

linking 'with other community agencies, including employment services, can 

provide the understanding of needs which is so vital if comnunity colleges 

are to fulfill their potential, Mo^t community colleges have some kind 

of advisory committee stryctures and many have done some community survey 

work, but a systematic program '"is needed to yield information on a regular 

basis. Conmiunlty assessment information will be useful in, establishing 

or reyiewlng institutional mission, as well as serving to ^*chart" needed 

new directions. ' 


Having passed through its adolescence, a conununity 
college must develop rigorous operational^ definitions 
of its educational missions. In the past, as community 
colleges were groping for their place, both extrava- 
gant expectations and exaggerated -promises of 
performance were<^5maplfest* (24) 

Blocker talks' about the need for a sharper Image; a clearar 

definition of 4 "sense of direction" or a "reason for being" In higher 

education- McManis Associates (25) assume that a needs assessment must 

precede the formulation of mission^ ^and Lawrence (26) points out that 

a clear statement of purpose (mission) providas^the "yardstick against. 

which to measure ^effectiveness." The concept of mission, then, takes 

on a pivotal role in planning 'and measuremBnt of productivity. 

Interest in reviewing mission statements is being motivated by a 

variety of forces,. All AIDP grants call for such a review^ many states 

are getting involved '(e.g. ^ West Virg^^nla) ^ and the push for accountability 

demands a thorough review. Competition for 'students ^ one ^f the reasans 

that States are InYolved, must also be considered a motivating factor, 

Clark (27) in discussing a movement toward^ centralisation saysi 

If we must plan and coordinate at higher levels ^ as 
we must to some degree, then we should be deliberately 
attempting to separate and anchor institutional roles. 

If community colleges '^separate and anchor" their roles, they will be in 

a good position not only to cope with external realltites» but they will 

be ready to manage for productivity* 

Equally important to this ^ discussion is the extent to which college 
personnel share a commitment to help the institution move toward 
accomplishment of the mission or purpose. The importance of cotranltments 
an idea discussed in the definitions of management and productivity , will 
resurface throughout this discussion as efforts are made to paint the 
"big picture'' of institutional- efficiency and effectiveness - 

Accrediting associations speak to the concern of mission in their 

standards, thereby providing an ppportunity for an institution to review 

its mission on a regular basis* As the Southern Association (28) says^ 

Eacl ^ '^stitution should clearly define its purpose and 
a should incorporate this definition into a statement 
which is a pronouncement of its role in the educational 
world* The institution " s integrity Is measured jiot 
only in teinns of its stated purpose, but also in terms 
of its conscientious endeavor to fulfill this purpose. 

An Institution will be unable to be "conscientious" without the conrniitment 
of staff. It must also take seriously the charge to examine the purpose 
when the opportunity is afforded* 

Virtually all coimnunlty colleges have dealt with the: definition of 
mission as a result of one of the above-mentioned motivating forces* The 
a^fectlveness of the work, 1 however, depends on the answers to some 

critical questions. Have conffiiunlty. needs assessments provided the basis 
for the definition? ^ Were cMpus personnel involved in developing the 
statement? ls_ the institution organised in a manner consistent with the 

tnlssion? Does the mission statement serve as a basis for planning? 

Affinriatlva answers to the questions would seem to Indidate that an 
Institution is well on the way toward achieving educational productivity. 
The neKt step is to link an understanding of need and the articulation of 
purpose with an organization designed to achieve the "desired ends." 

Organization is the "structural arrangement which provides 
for the processes of governances rnanagement * and leader-" 
ship. It is a bringing tagether of purpose and people* ^ 
Organization is the structure of power and work activity* 
More than an arrangement for formulating purposes it is 
an arrangement for translating purpose into performance. (29) 

Millett has sunmiarized the tasks the result of which should be the 

"coherent unity" or "functioning whrle" discussed in the earlier definition^ 

of organizing- Conmnunity colleges, however, have , not, always been organized 

according to the idea of linking "purpose and people." As Collins (30) 

indicates I 

Wien connnunity /junior colleges began to develops slowly in 
the first half of this century and rapidly during the last 
two decades, they were built according to the university 
departmental models even though it poorly fitted their 

The difficulty was that student^'centered and laarning'-oriented institutions 
were addpting a structure which tended .to be faculty-'oriented and teachings 

A line^and-^ staff organizational structure emerged which did not always 
take into account the basic principles of organization found to operate 
effectively in business and industry. The American Management Association 
(31) .has described the following principles i 

1. Unity of Command 

2. Span of Control 

3. Delegation 
4* Specialization 

The idea that no person can serve two "inasters" Is implicit in the definition 
of "unity of command," "Span of control" incorporates the complexity of the 
workp administrative styles and required Interaction to determine how many 
people can or should report to a manager. The answer is usually found in 
the range of four to seuen* "Delegation" includes responsibility (obligation 
to take action)* authority (right to fulfill responsibilities), and 
accountability (can never be completely delegated). Finally, "specialization 
leads to the grouping of related functions. In summary ^ if an administrator 
knows to whom he reports, supervises a reasonable number of staff members 
whose functions are related * and receives authority equal to responsibility, 
then he will have an ppportunlty to be a productive manager. Several 
questions emerge, however* to spoil this ideal view of organization. 

How does one deal with the president who erodes the authority of his 
subordinates? How many deans of instruction attempt to supervise a dozen 
or more departme ; heads? How many mid^level administrators feel that they 
have almost no authority? How often are reporting relationships determined 
on the basis of personalities? Is it difficult to determine who can make a 
final decision? The questions could go on, but the point is that many 
conmiunity colleges have never sought to apply the above-mentioned principles 
of organization. If they are applied, they might not operate without proper 
coordination and direction of work within the institutioni ^ 

The contention here is that any organizational structure can work if 
conmiunity needs are known, staff members ar^e committed to the mission, work 
assignments are clear^ coordination leads to collaborative efforts ^ and 
managers know the type of performance expected. It might ti^ more effective 
following an analysis and modification of structure in relatlWship to 

Tnlssioni' but it can work. Community colleges are probably like other 

organizations in that they struggle ^^Ith principles of organiEation. 

Sibson (32) observes ''**%not much authority is really delegated in 

many enterprises today,*' He has further insight* "Actually , delegation 

of 'authority really means the right to do the right things in an approved 

way only*'' Managerial or leadership styles a topic still to be addressed » 

obviously impacts the ability of an organization to function as a 

"coherent unity," The relative ability of an institution to change the 

structure must also be considered* 

Guth (33) shares some propositions about behavior and declsion-niaking 

which he believes to be generics 

1. OrganiEations do not respond in far=slghteds flexible 
ways to non-standard problems* , 

2% Organisations have limited flexibility and change only 
incrementally except in crisis* 

3* Organisations are blunt instruments! projects which 
require that several units work together smoothly are 
not likely to succeed. ' ^ 

4* Projects which require major depcirtures from routines 
are rarely accomplished as desired* ' 

5* Leaders can inevitably expect distorted information 

from sub-unit managers and automatically should design 
counter-'Strategies to compensate for their distortions* 

6* When an. assigned piece of a plan goes against established 
sub-unit goals s there will be resistance to implementing 
it.. . 

Ask any .community college president who has Initiated major organizational 
change and he or she will attest to the validity of the propositions* 
Administrators must start with "what is" and work carefully toward 

educational productivity. Administrators of new colleges, on the other 

^ -i 

hand, have an opportunity to create appropflate structures. related to the 


The new wave of community collegas, noncampus colleges as described 

by Lombardi (3/0 » offers exciting opportunities to bring together "purpose - 

and people*" The colleges described by Lombardi arei 

1, Whatcom Community College (Washington) 
2* Community College of Vermont 

3. Peralta College for Non^Tradltional Study (California) 

4. Chicago City-Wide College 

5. Chicago Urban Skills Institute 

6. Pioneer Community College (Kansas City) 

7. Coastline Community College (California) 

8* Loa Angeles Office for New Dimensions . . 

"The department or division unit, so prominent In campus colleges is absent 

or plays a minor role," (35) Most of the colleges have dropped student' 

activities 5 and most have organized geographical sub=-unlts caired "field 

sites," "instructional centersi" "regional areas," or "program areas, " 

All of the colleges have developed a central office or headquarters for 

administrative and support personnel. All have organized with the hope 

that barriers to access will be eliminated. Most of the institutions 

appear to have considered the principle of specialization by grouping 

related activities, Lombardi (36) auiranarizes the three organizational 

developments worthy of special noticei 

One Is^the subordination or elimination of the department/ 
division as a unit In the administrative organization** . 

A second organisational change, that may be considered a 
replacement for the department/division^ Is the geographical 
sutadmlnistrative units or/and the functional units,,, 

The third change la the absence of the traditional student 
government and.eKtra-currlcular activ-*.tles at the noncampus 
colleges In multicampus districts... 

It should also be noted that the colleges primarily serve part-time students 

and are staffed In tha main by part-time Instructors. They do present a 

.good._example of GOionunlty colleges e^ organize in a manner to . 

^ ' 28 ' 


achieve purpose, ^ 

Anothar modei, described by Collins (37) ^ is the "cluster college'* 
concept," He Indicates that his model is not Evergreen Valley College ^ 
Los Medanos College, Indian Valley College, Cypress College or Chabot 
College, but he does acknowledge these innovative Institutions as having 
an influence on hie thinking. Career categories (e,g,, medical services) 
provide = the. organisational themes for centers of students and staff. He 
says people and programs are brought together because they have 
something ill common*'' Each center would serve approximately 400 students 
with 13 instructors and one counselor. Four centers would form a cluster 
of 1,600 students, Collins (38) introduces a touch of reality s however, 
when he says: "The structural change most fraught with problems would 
be that of changing a traditional college into a cluster college.'" He 
does go on. to cite Du Page College (Illinois), De Anza College (California), 
and Chabot Collage (California) as having success with mini*-colieges 
operating within traditional colleges. 

The entire discussion regarding organisation may be academic if there 
are problems between the chief eKecutive and the policy-making body or 
the chief executive and the head of a multl- Institution system. As King and 
Breuder (39) indicate s 

For a board and president to operate at peak effectiveness. 
It is necessary that each has an unconditional positive 
regard for the other and that both are dedicated to the 
stated philosophy^ mission, goals, and objectives of the 

if the "positive regard" does not exist, then the best organisational 

structure based on careful needs assessment and the complete articulation 

of mission cannot overcome the negative impact* 


Perhaps as Bushnell and Zagaris (40) suggest. 

New organizational structures will emerge which encourage 
those who should participate in decision making to do so. 
The typical bureaucratic structure of the past with its 
hierarchical aligmtient of administrators ^ staffs and 
students will give way to a participatory management 
framework with both faculty and administrators serving 
as "learning managers," , * . 

The "bureaucratic structure" and the "hierarchical alignment'* still 

predominate, however, and pressures exist which serve to reinforce these 

more traditional patterns. Garbarlno (41) documents the development of 

institutional systems that brought together numbers of campuses, into 

larger administrative units. He suiranarlEes (42) t 

The increase in bureaucratization of the institution is 
multiplied In the multicampus institutions and the multi- 
institutional systems J .which have grown .so dramatically 
during the pitst two decades* In these systems the problems 
of participation and coordination on a single campus are 

He concludes (43) : 

The growth in the size of Institutions ^ the shift to 
public institutions, the creation of multic^pus 
institutions and multi-institutional systWfiss and the 
trend tpward consolidated coordinating agencies^all 
push decision making on major problems^ farther from 
the individual faculty member, his department, and 
other colleagues with coimion interests. In the process 
of adapting to these changes * strains are placed on 
eKlsting faculty governance mechanisms ^ and one of 
the modifications of the traditional ^pattern that has 
appeared is the faculty union* 

In the face of bureaucratization and unionization^ the only hope for achieving 

educational productivity may reside in the organizational climate in which 

the work is done. Careful needs assessment articulation of the mission 

or purpose, and application of the principles of organization can certainly 

enhance the potential for a healthy organizational climate* 

* . - . ■ 30 . 



,,.we believe that an institution is well managed when 
it has I ■ 

,i. Developed an organl^.aCiQnal structure and climate 
that , fosters a high degree of motivation among its 
managers and staff and a climate conducive to working 
together toward the institutional goals and objectives, (44) 

Implicit in the above-^mentioned assumption suggested by HEMI is the 

belief that managers set the "tone" or establish the climate for the 

institution* Another of their basic assumptions "is that an Improvement 

in the effectiveness of college, . .management will lead to an Improvement 

in institutional effectiveness."' (45) Institutional effectiveness is 

viewed in terms of outcomes,. a topic to be addressed later, while the 

management effectiveness views are based on the work of Rensis Likert. (46) 

In conpeptual terms s the model consists of^ a set of 
causal management variables which significantly relate 
to a set of intervening work group variables, which in 
turn relate to a set of end result or outcome variables 

Organization climate and leader behavior' are among the "causal variables" 

which can be modified by college leaders. These variables, along with 

organization pdllcy and procedures s organization structures and objectives 

and, programs' are viewed as determinants of organizational effectiveness. (47) 

Better performance* as measured by objective end results in a variety 

of organizational settings, is likely to be attained when Llkert ' s 

"Group Interactloni Collaborative", system is the prevailing pattern. A 

leader or manager acts as follows i 

= Whan decisions apprbprlate for his level need to be 
made, the.,. leader habitually uses group meetings, _ 
rather than individual conferences, to develop the 
" maximum relevant information* He invites the open 
participation ^f as many members of his Immediate 
work group as can conveniently attend,. • He not 

only^ obtalfie a c^dXd^p-HoTO exc " 



but also promotes lateral eKchange of views and 
information and critique among all partlcipantSi . .If 
there is no group conseneus on the best way to proceed , 
he readily makes the decision* (48) 

The coOTnunity colleges Involved in the HEMI process are gQing through an 

internal needs aasessment, part of which is designed tn measure the degree 

to which authoritarian or participative patterns of leader and group 

behavior are employed. The research results of this work will have slgnl-^ 

ficant implications for all conununlty colleges concerned about institutional 

ef fectlveness, • ^ 

Colleges involved In ACCTion have also focused on management style and 

organization climate. A total of 74 presidents recently participated in a 

workshop utilizing "The Managerial Grid" developed, by Robert Blake and Jane 

Mouton.(49) What can one learn from. the grid? ^ 

In any managerial environment, the basic conflict Is 
people versus production. Some executives are product*- 
oriented, and others are people-orlente.4> Some are 
Indecisive^ 'sbine avoid conflict, and some cause conflict- 
But no matter what style you ares the reaction of the 
people you manage* your associates, or your managers may 
be different from what you Intend, . .Using* the grid theory, 
you can learn to identify your Btyle and recognize others' 
reaction to it. 

The ideal on the gt±d Is "Team Management" in which "production is from" 
integration of task and human requirements into a unified system of inter- 
play towards organizatlbnal goals." This high concern for people and 
production is compatible with the "Group Interactloni Collaborative" system 
^developed by Likert. 

The examples cited regarding the involvement of comnunity colleges in 
seeking to' understand manager or leader behavior and .its impact on the 
organization are indicative of a growing Interest* In discussing the "state 
oF the aS draw conciuaions about whether 

n ^ . ■■ 

■ . • 36 : : 


what has been obsarved in other organizations will hold true in coimnunity 

colleges* Participative patterns of leader and group interactionf or 

delegative management styles would certainly be favored, however, if the 

environments prove to be similar. 

, Sibson (50) p in reviewing the history of delegative management, said: 

"Delegative management is not really a new idea, nor is it a discovery," 

He reviewed participative management (results were often higher co^ts and 

counterproductive incentives), X and Y theories (dealt with the balance 

between management of things and management of people) * organizational 

development (a "fad")^ job enrichment, and open systems of management* 

He concluded: . 

Cotranon to all these theories and some lesser personnel 
practices is one underlying idea the recognition that 
an essential element of human resources management is^ 
to have employees who do the work to be a meaningful 
part of structuring the work* 

.Sibson (51) also noted the importance of a "climate of organiza- 

tlonal trust" and the "expectation of excellence" if an organization is 

to have effective delegative management* . 

Sibson refers to the work of Douglas McGregor (X and Y theories) who 

is quoted as often as any other theorist* Views from McGregor, following 

work as a college president (Antioch) » might be helpful to one seeking to 

understand how to strike a balance between providing for participation and 

making decisions* McGregor (52) says: 

I believed* that a leader could operate successfully as ^ 

a kind of adviser to his brganization* I thought I. 

could avoid being a "boss*^ Unconsciously * I suspect , v*^ . - 

I hoped to duck the unpleasanfe necessity of making 

difficult decisions s of takinjl ,the responsibility for 

one course of action among many uncertain alternativei^*^ 

of^^lking mistakes and taking the consequences. X 

thought that maybe I could opetate so that everyope 

33 ' = 

would like me - that "good human relations" would 
eliminate all discord and airgument. 

I couldn't have been more wrong..*! finally began to 
realize that a leader cannot avoid the exercise of 
authority any more than he can avoid responsibility 
for what happens to his organization* 

With that statement, i^ sounds like McGregor moved to an understanding of 

the Liker,t "group interactive-collaborative"' model in yhich the leader 

makes a decision in the absence of a consensus. 

Hall (53) indicates tHat the manager can make a choice to achieve or 

not* In his view* the high achiever chooses an integrative style of 

management. He values people just as highly as the accomplishment 

of production goals." 'Another way of stating that view was indicated in 

the reference to the work of Blake and Mouton. The references are to the 

kind of manager .who is concerned about maintaining a healthy organizational 

climate and involving peopli in the process while at the same time getting 

the work done with a high level of \ ef f icienpy * According to Hall, 

■^Participative practices are favored by him over 
unilaterally directive or*lame duck prescriptive . 
measurt^s » 

Hodgkinson (54)* in commenting on conditions leading- toward educational 
productivity^ says that the manager will: ^ 

Establish a generally democratic governanee structure 
which permits many people to exerciss leadership yet 
permits effective decision making. 

What is. being described is between an autocratic approachj which may^be 
af f Icient^and a laissez-faire approach, which might produce staff content- 
ment and little productivity* Pray (55), however , suggests a different 
perspective when he says 

there eki'sta no widespread consensus on the 
special style, behavior, and problems of 

: 34 \ 


administration of community colleges which should 
enhance chances. of success in the pdsiti.-n (president). 

How is one to Judge success s in terms of retention of a job or achievement 

of educational productivity? 

If success is to be judged in terms of educational productivity , 

than Cohen and . Rouecha (56) may have the best definicion of a leader. ^ 

A leader Is one who moves the group toward its goals* 
The quality of leadership does not necessarily relate 
to the leader-s being, liked or feared by group members, " 
The essential is that ^here be effect. Without group 
movement toward defined ends* there has been, by 
definition, no leadership . exerted . " 

Bennls (57) adds perspective: • " 

The difference between routine and non-routine tasks 
is the difference between management and leadership. 

The manager who has decided '"to achieve"' is going to be "out fronts" 

planning anS structuring /6rganlEational procesBes so that educational 

productivity can be achieved. ' . " 


George I Glaudfc S* , Jr. s ^he History of Management Thought 
(Englewood Gllff#, N- J,: Prentiua-Hall, Inc. / 1968), p. 166. 

Barnard, Chester I.. ^ The Functions Of The Executive ; Thirtieth ^ 
Anniversary Edition CCambrld|ej Mass Harvard University Prass, 
1968) p p. 256, : . ^ 

Mchardsonj Richard C, "Neededi New Directions in Admlnlstratidn," 
Junior Collttga Journal (March, 1970), 16-22. " 

Higher Education Managainent Institute , "A Seminar for Coiranunlty 
College Administrators on the Management Development and 
Training Program for Collages and Universities Program 
Introduction (Coconut Grove, Floridai HEMIp 1977), p. 14. 

Ibid. > p. 15, 

Ibid, , p. 15, ' ^ \ * 

Ibidi , p* ' 

Advisory Council On Developing Institutions, Strengthening > 
Developing InBtitutiohs, Title III Of The Higher Education Act 
Of 1965 (Washingtonp p,C.: U,S, Office of Educartonj .Department 
of Health p Education, and Welfare, March, 1978). 

ACCTlon Consortlump Suite isOO-Noith Bldg. , 955 L'Enfant PlaESp 
S.W. p Washington, D*C. 20024. 

NCHEMSp P.O. Drawer P, Boulder, Colorado 80302 

Armijo, J. Frankp Sidney S', Micek, and Edward M. Cooper, , 
Conducting Community- Impac t Studies: A Handbook for Conmiunity ^ 
Cbllegas (Boulder, Colorado i NCHEMS, 1978), ■ '\ _ 

Kieft, Raymond N. , Academic Planning i Four Institutional Case 
Studies (Boulder, Coloradoi^ NCHEMS, a978>. 

Ibid. , vii. , ^ 

Kleftp Raymond N. , Frank "Armij o , and Neil S. BuckleWp A Handbook ^ 
for Institutional Acadamlc and. Program Planning i From Idea to 
implementation (BouldWr Cblofgao'r TO ' 1978) . 

Lenning, Oscar T. , Frevidua - Attempts to Structure Educational 
Outcomea and Outcome-Related Conctp'tsg A Compilation and Review 
of the Literature (Boulder, Cdiorado i NCHmS , 1977> . 

^ > 36 

16 p Lenningj Oscar' T. ^ The Outcom&s. Structure s An Ovarvlaw and 

PrQceduras For Applying It in jPoatsecondatv-Educatlon Institutions 
(BQulder/ 'Colorado I N^^ 1977)'. 

17. Lennltig, Ofecar , Yong. S. Lea, Sidney S- Micak* and, Allan L, 

^ Service A Structura for tha\ Outcomes of Postaecondary Education 
.. v\ (Boulder," Colorado r NCHMS, 11977) - 

18. Iitetltuta for Educational 'Mahaganiant, "Tenth Annual Management 
bevalopment Program for Collage and University Administrators p" 

^ Harvard University, 'Juna-Julyp\ 1979, 

1 * * ^ \ 

/19, Young* Robert B,, Suzanna M* Fletcher and Robert R, Ruep 

Directions For The Future; An Analvals Of The Conmiunity Sarvlces . 
trimension of Coirounity Collages jCWashlngton, D.C*i Center for 
Coitmyinity Education p ^erican Association of Conmiunity ari,d Junior 
U CollegBS in 'cooperation with The Office of Conmunity Education 
..*Reseafch* University of Michigan * Apri^p 1978)* p* ^. 

,20, Johnson p B, Lamar* Starting A Commtoity College (Washington p. B.C, 1 
Amarican Assbciation of Junior Colleges * 1964), p* 9, 

21, Ibid. p p* 8. \ . \ ! 

22. Armijo* Mlcek and Cooper* op. clt. 

23* .^Van^oorhees* ^Curtis* Marilyn J. King ,\ and Peter J, Cwik, 

/ ConmiunitV' College - Communi ty Sch ncl Cooperation (Washington, 
D.C.: ^erican Association of Comnunlty and Junior Collegasp 
March* 1977). ' . ^ . 

24, Blocker, Clyde E, * !'A National Agenda for Community and Junior 
Collehas." An Agenda for National Action , - Report of the.,1972 ^ 
Assembly (Waahington* . D,C, i toerlcan Association of Conmunity 

and Junior Colleges, 1973)* p. 1^7. 

' ■ i ■ ■ ^ 

2.5. ^.McMatiis Associates* Inc, /University Associates* Inc, ^ A Guide 
To The^Devel o pment Of Mlsalori, Coals. Obletftivesy Performanea 
\ ' Evaluation Measures, and Mileatories (Ifaahington, D,C.), 

'26* Lawrence, Ben> Statewide Planning For PQsi:secQn1dary Educatidni 

Issues and Design * L^an A. Glentiy and George Weatheraby* eda. ^ 
(BoulderV Colorado I NCHEMSp September* 1971)* p. 12, 

27. Clark, Burton R, , "The Insulated Amerlcansi Five Leagona Erom 
, Abroad," Changa (Noveinber . 1978), 24-30. \ 

28. CnmmlBslon On Collages. sftndardB of the College Dalagate , 
■Asseinbly (Atlanta, Georgian Southern Amsqciatlon of Collagef 
and Schbofl-s, December, 1977), p. 4. ' ' 




Millett, John D* , Strengthening Community ' In Higher Education 
(Waahingtoni D.Ci Management Divisioni Academy for Educational 
Development, Inc. I 1974), p. 3. : ' ' , " 

30. Collins, Charles ^ : Blueprint For A Cluster College (Los 

Angeles s California i ERIC Clearinghouse for Junior Colleges, 
University of California, April, 1975), p, 1, 

The Professional Institute of AMA, American Association of 
Community, and Junior Collegea Presidents Management Seminar 
(Dallas, Texasr October, 1974)/ \ ^ 

32. - Sibson, Robert E. , Increasing Employee Froduc'tivlty (New Yorkt 

AMACOM, 1976), p* 134, ^ ~ ' ' . 

33. Guth, William D. , "Behavior And Declsion^Maklng In Complex 
OrganlEations," The Management of Change , Michael Brick and 

, Andrew A. Bushko, Edltora (New Yorki Conmiunity College Center, 
Teachers College^ Columbia University , 1973) , pps. 21=22.^ 

34. Lombardi, John, Noncampus Collegesj New Goveo\anc_e_ Patterns For 
Qu:t reach Programs (Los Angeles, California^ ERIC Clearinghouse 
for Junior Colleges, University of California, " March, 1977). 

35. ^ Ibid. .p. 19. ^ . • ' 

36. Ibid. . pps. 24»^25. : 

37. Collins, op. cit. 

38. Ibid. , p. 26.' V 

39. King, Maxwall C. and Robert L. Breuder, President-Trustee 
Relationships I Meeting the Challenge of Leadership (Washington, 
D.C.I Presidents Academy , American Association of Community and 
Junior Colleges, 1977), p. 12. ' 

40. Bushnell, David S. and Ivars Zagaris, Report From Project Focus i 
Strategies For Change (Washington^ b*C.* American Association of 
Junior Colleges, 1972), p. 1S6. , ^ ' 

41* Garbarino, Joseph W. in association with Bill Aussleker, Facul|ty 
Bargaining, Change And Conflict (New Yorki McGraw=Hlll Book 
Compaiiyj Prepared for The Carnegie Commission on Higher Educarilon 
and The Ford Foundation, 1975), pps. 6-11. ^ 

42i Ibid. , p. 10. . . 

43. . Ibid. , p. 11^ - * ' ' 



44. Higher Education Manageinent Institute, Managem ent Devalopnient and 

. Training Pyofiram for Colleges and Universities, Progress Report ?/2 
(Cocpnut Grovet Florida: HEMlV October, 1976), p. 8, 

45. Ibid. , p. 39. , \ 

46. Ibid, , p* 40. * ^ 

47V , Ibid., pps. 40-42 i • . 

48. Ibid. , p. 44. ^ . ' . 

49, ACCTion, "Presidents identify management style...,'' ACCTlon 


Qua r t er 1 y Re vl ew , Vol. 4 No. 2, (December, 1978) 

50.. Sibson, Robert E., op. cit^ , pps. 132^133. 

... ' ^ ■ ' " ■ \ 

51. Ibid. , p. 140. 

52. 'McGragpr, Douglas, In John R. Sargent, What An EKecutlve Should 

Know About Leadership XChicagOj 111. i The Dartnell Corporation,/ 
1975), p. 13. 

53. Hall, Jay, "To Achieve or Not'. The Manager's Choice," California 
' Management Review Vol XVIII, No. 4 (Summer, 1976), 5-18. 

54. Hodgkihson* Harold^ In Goodwin, Gregory, and Young, James 

C*, Inbreasing Productivity In The Community College, (Los Angeies, 
California: League for Inhoyation in the Community College and 
ERIC Clearinghouse for Junior Colleges, July, 1978), p. 5* 

55* Prayi Francis C. , A New Look at Community College Boards of 

. Trustees and Presidents and Their Relatlonshipg (Washington, D. C. i 
Mierican Association-of Cg^unity and Junior Colleges, .1975), p. 20. 

56. Cohen, Arthur M. and John E. Roueche, Institutional Administrator 
O r Educational Leader? (Washington, D. C: ERIC Clearinghouse for. 
Junior College Information and American Association of Junior 
Colleges, 1969),' p. 8. 

57. Bennia, ^Warren, "Organizing For Accountability," Speech Presented 
to the General Session of the CUPA National Conventlonf Hbuston, 
Texas, October, 1974. 





- ' » ■ = , - = 

Leading in the traditional sense perhaps means planning 
what the job ±g; imposing ruless regulations, and train- 
ing to accomplleh it; and overseeing control. and 
discipline to -assure the desired outcome* Creative 
goal-oriented leadership, may embody many of the same 
processes but mphasizes the participation and motiva- 
tion of people by involving them in the processes of 
planning, controlling* appraising, and conflict 
resolution. (1) 

Lahti was discusaing the involvement of people in the important 
proceases which must be in place if a community college is going to 
move toward "desired ends." Stress has already teen placed on the fact 
that the needs of the coimnunlty must be knowni the mission of the ; ' 
institution must be clear and accented, the organizational structure , 
should be related to the mission, and institutional leaders should be 
concerned about the impact of their behavior on the organizational 
climate. The focus now should be on how to make plans and initiate action 
to see that events conform to those plans* - 

PLANMING ^ ^ ^ ' . 

. s 

4. The primary prerequisite to planning, -definitipn of mission oi purpose, 
has been discussejJ* but its importance must be stressed* As Kieft, Armljo 
and Bucklaw (2) Indicatei ''The lack of such a statement could seriously 
jeopardize the success of planning." They see the mission statement 
serving as a ^uide for policies and pr6grams developed in . the planning 
process. -Their handbook^ developed in concert with college and universities 
ill designed to- assist institutions with an interest in developing a 
comprehensive s progran^based* and long-range planning process* *Thls NCHEMS 


work followed publication of four case studies (30*- The following con- 
elusions, based on the .NCHEMS work (4) i form the basis for a planning 
process. = 

1, Elanning cannot"^be separated from the mainstream 
, of Institutional decisioT^maklng. 

2, Planning la a future-oriented activity, 

3- Planning must not be limited to "quantifiable or ' ^ 
measurable consideration- . 

4- A planning process should rationalize decision 
making by mlnlmlElng its ad hoc character. 

5* Strict schedules and calendars for planning activities 
are ^'necessary, 

6. Effective planning must, be appropriately supported ^ 

with staff expertise # ^ ' % ■^■ 

7* Planning requires Information about Internal aspects 

of the lristltutlon# ' 
8* Planning requires information external to the 
\ Institution mb well. 

9* The importance of planning. Is symbolized by the 
\ visible commitment of the Institution's chief 
\ executive officer, .p v 
10* As a planning process becomes operational ^ it will. 
" become more mechanistic* 

11, 'Any planning process that seeks to establish 

priorities ^requires considerable ^ time and energy 
from^ll participants. 

Suggestions offered on hot^ to develop a planning process include assessment 

= \ 

of the need and diBslre for^ planning within the Institution and the creation 

of planning assumptions* Important advice* is also offered relative tjo 

productivity* ^ \ . ' ' \ ' 

Efficiency and effectiveness I .concepts discussed earlier ^ must be 

taken Into account In structuring a planning process. The process "must 

avoid two conmon errors." / 

the first-:; often found in processes that stress economy , 
Is the propensity to assess productivity onl^ in terms 
of costs. Here the underlying assumption is that any 
reduction' in ebs^ is to be applauded as an improvement 

" In productivity s regardless of Its Impact on the 
institution's effectiveness. The seconds usually made 
by academics and'' the academy'-mlndedi is a propensity tc 

o keaese productivity only in terms of outcomes. Here the 


underlying aasumption Is that any improvement in 
outcomei, however costlyj is desirable. Both outlooks 
are faultys because they ignore the fact that 
productivity is a relationship between two variables, 
costs and outcomes, (5) 

The^ document ^also describes the implementation and operation of a 

planning cycle over a three^year p^erlod- ^ 

Following publication of the NCHEMS documents * "EKecutive Briefings'* 

(6) were Bcheduled for conmiuaiity collgge personnel in^several states 

(e*g*, Washingtonp Oregon and. Virginia) and associations (e,gi, AACJC)* 

The. briefing included a review of some of the best documents developed to 

date and provided practical adyice on^ how to develop a planning system in 

^ ■ ■ ■ ^ ' 

a conmiunity Dollege. The work of Satish Parekh (7) , the National Associa- 
tion of College and University Businesa Officers (NACUBO) (8), and the 
Resource . Center for Planned Change (9)^were included in the review. It 
should also be ^ noted :that many community colleges , Including the 
Dallas County Gotranunity Collfege Districts reviewed the early drafts of \_ 
the NAc6b0 publication. ^ ^ ' ^ 

Almost every professional association meeting during 1978=79 included 

piannlng as a program topic. Ah example is the program developed by COMBASE 

■ ^ - ^ ■ ; ^ ' ' ' , , X 

(A Cooperative for^tl^e Advancement of Community^Based Postsecondary N 

Education) J The University of Michigan Extension Sirvlce , and Washtenaw 

(Michigan) Community College. Their conferencej^^d in March, 1979, .was 

"Community Colleges at the Crossroads i Piannlng^or the Next Decade*" 

Topics included r 

' The NeKt Decadei Analysis of Social and Economic Trends 
. Community College Mission for the 1980's 

Connnunlty Cpllege Planning Models ' 

Policy Choices for the 1980' s 

A National Study on Conununity^ College Futuring 

Again, those topica might have been taken from any one of a doEen or more 
meetings held during 1978-79* It ia safe to say that community college 
leaders are recQgniEing the vital role of planning in the management of 
their institutions* , ' 

It is important for the cotmnunlty college manager to see how the 
various functions of management are exprasaed In planning activities* 
In addition to planning , one of the defined functions, direction, coordina- 
tion and controlling are imjportant. In developing ^ teviewing and approving 
plans, a manager is involved in directing the work of the institution. In 
resolving conflicts between competing interests and in causing units to 
collaborate, a manager is involved in coordination. In creating plans, a 
manager is creating something against which to make a later measurement 
and, therefore* is involved in controlling activities. He is also Involved 
in moving an institution toward "desired ends." 

In recent years, we have come to realize that the only 
way to effectively allocate resources Is to handle the 
planning before thrxt f iuf 1 budgeting process occurs. (10) 

Har\ey alao notes that "it is only after a thorough, detailed. 

planning process has been complet i that resources can be allocated 

effectively*" In other words, jus^ as the development of a clear: mieeion 

is a prerequisite foi the plannin;^^ i^rocesSj planning should be a pre= 

requisite for the allacatiO'* of »sourcBS. , 

Community cpllegss have certainly not been immune from the fiscal 

constraints being imposed on institutions of higher education, Millett (11) 

observes I , ' . 

Beginning about 197ff there occurred the "new depression" 
in higher education* Financial difficulties have continued 

43 ' 

throughout the 1970' a, and there is the reasonable 
prdapect that financial pressures will continue into 
the 1980* s 5 and perhaps beyond. 

He also 'makts the Important pointi ' 411 purposes and all program or output 

objectives must CQntinually be^ reviewed and reformulated in terms of 

available incomei" Income^ one aide of the equation ^ will be addressed in 

the section, "Resource Deyelopment Suffice it to say at this point that 

almost all comnunity colleges are struggling to bring eKpendltures within 

the limits' of available Income* Millett (12) sharpens the focus: 

Essential^^ there are two apprbaehes to determining the 
budget requirements of an enterprise. One approach is 
to examine needs, needs in terms of some desirable state 
of output and In teyros of some desirable rate of expen- 
diture for the production inputs gf facilities* personal 
. services j supplies and equipments and other costs. The 
second approach is to determine available Inconies and to 
plan both output and costs in terms of fitting programs 
to anticipated revenues. To some extent all enterprises 
undertake both approaches to their expenditure budgeting. 

Millett (13) then describes five well known practices in budgeting. 

They are: ■ " " 

1, Incremental budgeting ^ This process begins with the current 
pattern of expenditures and makes needed additions to the .level 
of outlay* 

2. Program budgeting This process conceives of budgeting as a. 
part of long-range planning. Expenditure requirements pre ^ 
expressed in terms rel'ated to specific program objectives. 

3, Zero-Based budgeting - This process demands a cbmplete justifl-^ 
cation of the entire budget request. 

4. Income-Expense budgeting - This process demands that expenditures 
are completely controlled by available income. - ^ 

Executiva Decision budgeting 


Budget decisions -in this proceee 

are made by decree of the responsible administrators and the 
governing board. , ■ ' ^ ^ 

No tnatter which approach is taken j the budgets should be determined by the 

\ ' . ' . - ^ , ' ' . 

educational program, the need for support services, and the limits of 

avaiiable resources. ° " . . 

Harvey (14), in His publication prepared for AIDP institutions, 

discusses the advantage^ and disadvantages of -^Zero-Base budgeting* This 

process, clearly linked to program budgeting (PPBS) , has the f ollo wing 

potential advantages I . ' 

Produces Annual Program and Expenditure Review 
Tradition Cannot Justify Budget ^ , 

Can Save Money- 

Develops Cost-Conscious Staff 
Better Staff Morale 
Reduces Empire Building 
Easier to Add New Approaches 

More Effective Remediation of Staff Weaknesses 
Clearer Relation of Budget to Institutional Objectives 
Better Top. Management Decisions 

toong the potential dlsadvaRtages arei 

Increased Paperwork 
Increased Staff Time 

Difficulty in Developing and Ranking , 
Decision Units and Packages 

Little Motivatipn hot Staff . ^ . " ... 

Harvey (IS) Indicates! "EBB is likely to be a bu^ word In the years to 
come, as was the Planning, Programming, Budgeting System (PPBS) and 
Management by Objectives (MBO) before it." For interested institutions, 
he does do a good job of describing how to implement a Zero-^Base process* 

The imperative, as indicated by the^.taerlcan Council on Education 
(ACE) (16), is as follows! ' \ 

i The annual budget should be coordinated with the long^ 

range academic and financial plans. It, however,' Is 
specific and detailed and presents the plan to finance ■ ' 

the approved academic program and supporting services 
' ' for a fiscal year. The annual budget is determined 
largely, by the/academic program, but it must be 
formulated within the limits^ of the resources available* 

ACE also recognized the vital role to be played by faculty and staff 

members^ division or departtnent leaders * "and institutional leaderB, 

Further, a suggested flow of activity is helpful in structuring a procesa, 

ACE (17) concJudesi . 

Thf budget consists of a series of astimateSs many 
of which ai*e prepared months in_ advance* # .Since . 
conditions change* *vthere should be continuous review 
, of the data on which the budget estimates were based* 
Periodic revisions should be made in order that the 
budget may always represent an up-to-date estimate of 
realisable revenues and a realistic^p^lan for 

Vladeck (18) introduced an Important note of caution that community 
college ^leaders would be wise to consider. He saidi 

,.*one central element in the ebonomlcs of higher 
education is sti*ll poorly, understood., * That element 
is ttia role of . capital investment ~ of physical 
plant J ;of bricks and mortar " as a source of 
financial strain on educatiojial institutions. 

He highlights the problemi 

.institutions irtrsevere financial straits continue 
' to build in the illusory belief that, since the 
sources of capital funding fppear to be Independent 
of operating funds s the impact of capital investments 
on operations will only be beneficial. 

He goes on to discuss the ^^uncontrollable" expenses for plant operation and 
maintenance, and. stresses that with energy costs soaring the expenses can 
only Increase* Community college man.agers, struggling to match operating 
income and expenditures, will do well to watch for such hidden long-range 
costs. The admonition pushes the wise manager to consider long-range 
expenditure planning. 

Millett (19) yiews expeTiditure plAnning as a technique o£ leadership. 

Expenditure planning and Income planning, along with 
policy' planning s are the vital tools of management, 
leadership, and governance within colleges and 
universities. These, tools are indispensable as collegeg 
and universities confront the uncertainties of the ' 
* . 1980's#od the 1990^ s. 

If one dgubts Millett, he should consult any California coiranunity college 
president who is presently involved in resource development. 

RESOURCE mvBLQ'Bmm • ' ' ■ _r ' 

All too often educational institutions lattempt to 

jump headfirst into a program to secure extra-- , ■ r 

institutional funds without first considering the 
basic implications of their actions or the , 
potential consequences^ of such endeavors. (20) ^ 

Young reminded aommunlty college managers of the impoii.tance of mission or 
"desired ends" in the pursuit of funding. He called for "proactive 
resource development" In which assessment of institutional and cllen^ 
nieds and, anticipated outside funds aye related to regular budget resources 
and the_ total program of the Institution. 

One does not need to look for long to discover why "resource development 
la suddenly a popular topic for discussion. ..The passage of Proposition 13 
(California) served notice on all of higher education, but thd pressures had 
been building for several years. Rushing (21) discussed building financial 
constraints^ and suggested that the problems must be met by imaginative long- 
range planning* He saw ^planning as critical^ without regard for the 
approach taken to solve the problems. Locating additional^ revenues 
("resource development"), reduced costs ("efficiency"), apd a combination 
of the' two were the areas mentioned for exploration. California community, 
college leaders have* since iProposltlon 13, been heavily Involved in the^ 

i^ombardi (22) provided a thorough review of conununlty collegfe 

financing in .the "post=proposition 13 era." He disaussed tax revenues^ 

State subventionSs and tuition as the principal sources of coniinunlty 

college revenue* He also pointed out that federal aid represents only 

6-10 percent of operating budgets. He viewed private sourceSi interest 

incomes and profits from auxiliary enterprises as having minor signi-- 

ficance. In states without tuition (e*g.s Califbrnla) or local taxes 

^ -7- ~— ^^^^^ 

(e*g,5 West Virginia) 4 the problems are compounded* State funding 

obviously takes on special significance under either ctrcumitanca. , 

with enrollment J stabi^^i^ing or declinlngs the pressure to get involved 

in resource development will increases because the state formulas are 

based on or related to student enrollment* Full=tljne student equivalents^ 

contact hours" of instructions or student credit hours usually "drive" the 

formulas- V - ^ 

Potential for increasing revenue from the primary sources is laleak 

, according to Lombardli He cites 20 failures to increase local tax levies 

in Illinois since 1968* During the same period only six were approved 

He also gives evidence to indicate that legislators and goverfi%rs have been ^ 

placing limits on resources to be allocated* Restrictions.^ placed oh funding 

for noncredlt coiirr^ess a growing reluctance to further increase tuition (or 

to charge tuition in California) and feess and questions about the impact 

of the financial crisis on the "open door" are reviewed by Lombardi before 

he concludes: ,.*the lean years for connnunity' colleges may extend into the 

1980' s. \ ^ ^ 

AACJC has been active for several years in helping member InBtitutions 

cope with the changing reality* Through sponsorship of workshops, 

> 48 ' . ■ 

saminars , , and internshipii conmunity collegps have been led to pursue more 

actively the potentiar for fedaral funding. As Lombardi Indicated, however, 

only 6-10 percent of operating income is from the federal source. This area 

will likely becQme a priority for institutions moving into a planning 

process for resource development- AIDP fundings reviewed^ earlier , is an 

outstanding example of comiunity colleges moving to tap the federal source. 

Many, however^ question the pQtential,lloss_Qf local control which could go ~~ 

with an increasing federal rol^* * " - , ' 

Will coiranunity colleges be able to attract new students to enhance the 

funding from state sources? Lombardi o'ffer.^ little hopei 

The unpromising forecasts on population arid enrollment 
are discouraging growth because thfre is a close 
. relationshop between such growth and revenue. For the 
^ last ten years the drop in the enrollment of full-time 
- — college-age youth has been bai'^nced by the .enrollment 
^ .of new students --^vminorities^ veterans, middle=aged 

women s senior citizens, part"- timer a, the handicapped, ■ * 

and the institutionalized . .Butj .this flow seems to 
' have reached its peak* . 

If one accepts that analysis, then bringing about changes in stat6 formula 

funding approaches may be the only hope. Wattenbarger and Starnes (23) , 

have claosified the state patterns as follows r . 

Negotiated Budget ^ The college .negotiates with a state board or 

\he legislature. (12 states) , 

Unit Rata Formula The revenue is based on a unit like student 

_____ ._^ _ __ . . 

credit hours. (15 states) 

Miniinum Foundation Funding is based on the ibillty %of a college 
to support a minimum foundation with a^ property tax, (8 states) 
Cost^Based Program - Funding is based on the costs" of instructioh 
'by category (e.g., technical education). (15 states) =^ - 

.. . ' . ; 53 ' : 

It is safe to say that community collage leaders will scrutinize their 

respective patterns for the purpdse' of. enhanciflg^he situation, 

. Thfij thrust for "resource^ development'' la also likely to lead toward 

increased efforts to attract private funding. Solicitation of foundations 

andrtha creation of foundations is^ an avenue with potantial* The Greation 

of a f Dundatlon Is for a specific purpose* As * the Charter and Agreement 

:p^--iitcoTppratlon of^he^^;? Community College Foundation, Inc, 

states s . „ 

.The objects for which this corporation is formed are as 
follows i ^ 

To promote, encourage and assist in the development and 
growth of the Parkersburg Community College and to 
. , rander service to and assistance to the Colleges its 
faculty, students and alumnae and to the citizens of 
the State of West Virginia. * » ■ ■ 

The.opportunlty to involve the local conmiunity, particularly where there is 

no local tax levy, offers great promise for the future* Provisions for 

acholarshlps j special/^projects, and capital projects will allow community 

colleges to fill the gaps often left by state funding patterns. It is 

predictable that community colleges will^also Ihcrease their activity in 

the solicitation of grants from existing foundations. In fact, this area 

may be the greatest untapped resource* / 

One of the commitments made by college.s which have been successful on 

the "resource. development front" (e.g. ^ Santa Fes Florida) is the 

dedication of personnel -to lead ^the effort* ^ The old adagap "you have to 

Spend money to make money," is probably very^-true when resource development 

is the topic* It is' important for colleges to ^view the eKpenditures as 

inyestments with the potential for a big "pay-off.*' As Young indicated, 

th¥ iffdrf °n¥eds to b likely to happen in the 

absence of someone, who is devoting primary effort to the task. 

Another thrust with promise, in addition to the quest for prbductivity 
within currant *resQurceSs is trie new intereBt in marketing or student 
recruitment. In the face of' funding formulas driven by student numbers , 
'^onununity colleg=es are bound to expend efforts in the area of eKpandlng 
enrollment- * 

Rather than get caught up entirely in discussions of retrenchment, 

community collage leaders might begin to plan for student recruitment. As 

Leach (24) indicates* . ■ ■ * 

The. discipline of marketing applied to higher education, 
offers a positive alternative which has the potential for 
increasing enrollments , reducing attrition, and Tnaking 
college iervices more responsive to the needs of consumers 

He described the creation of a task force at Prince George's Community 
College (Maryland^ which led an effort to apply marketing principles for 
the purpose of increasing enrdllTiient . The group must have been successful 
since in face of a 2 percent increase nationally in 1977, Prince George's 

experienced an increase of 15 percent in headcount enrollment. They 

■'a i ~ - 

focused on how to provide students with adequate information (promotion)., 
how to invest reGOurces to prevent students from dropping out (delivary) , 
and how to assess outcomes (evaluation) • 

A review of, ads for conferences and services in a single edition of 
The Chronicle (25) reveals the heightened interest in the topic, s Included 

were : 

Student R^ention 
Coping* Wit n Decline 

Marketing Education Programs by Direct Mail 
Recruit Foreign Students 

Marketing The College And University 
Refers Qualified Foreign Students 
AACJC Older Myricana Program 

Does Your School Have Its Share of Foreign ^eStudents? 
These topirs were representative of the program topics for numerous conferences, 
semiaare, and workshops he?d during 1978=79. In addition, many colleges 
activated committees to plan marketing efforts. 

A task force at Farkersburg Community College recoiranended a program \ 
including the following i 

^1. Evaluation of current programs and services, 
2, Promotion of teamwork within the institution, 

*3. Review of approaches to publicity, ^' 


4, Development of probleni=solvlng approaches to deal with transportation 

and housing, ' 
5* Creation of a campiie information center, 

6. Development of an expanded coranunity needs assessment process, 

7. Creation of a formal orientation program for new staff members * 

8. Development of tfn^tensive student follow-up program,^ 
9* Hevlaw of all publications , ^ 


10* 'Development of a goal-oriented advising system^, 

11. Scheduling of an open house adtivity, ^ 

12, Creation of a specific recruitment program. 

The above-mentioned activities, if related to the institutional mission . 
and goals, will enable the staff to be involved in a major renewal activity. 
All of the activities will be fruitless^ however, if the institution is not 
offering and developing programs to meet specific needs. 


The development of need is a matter of perceptidn* When 
an existing college Is eKperlencing difficulties* the 
realization of need may be immediate; otherwise it may 
not occur until there has been exterisive self-study or 
external eKaminations or it may never occur. But 
colleges that continually fall to recognise needs are 
likely candidates for extinction^ (26) 

Levlne went on to point out that administrators are^, becoming increasingly 

involved in educational policy makingi. to include program development. 

Financial constraints are cited as the reason for the increased level of 

involvement. He also Indicates the importance of recognizing the 

appropriate form. of administration to follow within different campus 

environments, - " 

AntagonistlCs neutral* and supportive environments 
require different types of administrative arrangements, 
different types of ieadershipi different modes of^ 
' Implementing change, and different types of change. (27) 

Impositions with a "protective cushion," led by top administrators or 

powerful faculty is seen as the only way new programs can be introduced 

In an antagonistic' environment. .A coalition of campus opinion leaders 

is viewed as being able to effect change in a neutral erivlronment. The 

operating leaders (e.g** chairmen and deahs) , with consensus on campus, 

will be able to implement new programs within a suppor^tive enviroi^ruent , 

Community college leaders would certainly do well to assess the campus' 

environment within which they plan to introduce new progrOT ideas- They 

must, also be certain that a "real" need exists in the service area. 

Kieft (28) includes the approaqh taken in Kansas City (Metropolitan 

GotiTOunity College District) In which steps taken, in a feasibility study 

are described. Included are the following fctlvltlesi 


Appointment of Tetriporary Advisory Conunlttee 
Job Market Analysis ' 

Surv^y^ of EKlstlng' Programs to EBtabllsh Geographic Need 
Datermination of Acceptability for Transfer 
Determination of Degree of Student Interest 
Determination of Availability ^ of Facilities ' 

If results of the feasibility study are positives then additional steps 

Include I , , 

Selection of #eTmanent Advisory Committee 

Curriculum Development and Review . , 

Budget Development 

Facility Requirements Specified 

Approval Procedures 

Appropriate^ roles for community representatives 5 university representatives , 
and college faculty and administrators are also described. The process 
described is specific to the program thrust being explored j but it can aTso 
be vie.ved as a pa^t of ongoing conmunity needs assessment* Given proper 
needs assessment and appropriate program development 5 the focus now should 
be on committeds satisfied faculty and staff msmbars who are called on to 
implement programs. 


The minimum expectation for a personnel system would be to avoid trouble 
and employee discontent. Developing a system that contributes to the success 
of the Institution would, however, be the goal for .an institution concerned 
about educational productivity. The American Council on Educatieh (ACE) (29) 
addressed the goal in describing a systematic approach, to persbnnel ^ 
administration* They call for a^ personnel department responsible for the 
following activities i . 

1. Recruiting and screening applicants ^ The Important element of 
"compliance" is included.. 

2. Establishing training and supervisory programs - Elements included 

' ^ ■ . 54 . ' - 

are orientatloni supervision ^ and staFf /development . 

3, Establishing a classification system - The basis for the system 
would be position descriptions. 

4, Developing salary and wage plans - Performance and length of 
service are conaidered along with salary and wage ranges* 

5* Establishing and administering policies governing relationships 
between the institution and its staff members - The matter of 
morale is discussed* 
6i Maintaining complete personnel records ^ This function is related 
' to the program of staff benefits as well as to' stf.tistical 
reporting. ' 
7, Administering the program of staff benefits ^ Included are 

administrators j faculty, and service personnel. ^ 
With the emphasis In the 1970 's on compliance ^ equal opportunity, affirmative 
actiohf equal, pay for equal work, and unionisation, it is difficult to 
understand' how any college could avoid confronting the matter of personnel 
admiriistration. " - " 

Sibson (30) suggests three levels\of achievement with respect to 

t solving the pay problems of the enterprise, making a 
strategic contribution to the achievement of enterprise ^ 
goals, and contributing to the development of the 
org anl e at 1 on * . ■ 

He is really talking about whether there are incentives present that 

encourage staff . members to develop themselves in ways to benefit the 

organlEat on. 

The type of approach encouraged by Sibson, and the type being developed 
in some comnunlty colleges (e.g- , Dallas County Community College District 

' ' ' . ... . ^ . 

and Parkersburg Coimunlty College) would include' 

1, Creation of position deacrlptlons based on a position analysis. 

2, DevelopTnent of a position evaluation process which is likely to 
include a point evaluation system, / 

3* Establishment of a process to group positions in grades on .the 

basis of total points yielded Un the position evaluation process. 
4- Creati^0n of a process to "price" the relative value of positions 
r classlfled^^^ccordlng to grade* ^ 

5. Establishment of salary or wage ranges (minimum to maximum) for 

, ' "X ""1 ■ ■ .. ~' 

each grade Un the system* \ ^ . 

6^ Developing an approach tbx"priclng"" tVie structure in relationship 

\. _ ^ 

to the market (e.g., >local coffitnunity . or higher education in the 

^ ' " \ ■■ ' = 

region)* - 

?• Creation of a policy for salary administration to Covar individual 

pay actions* ^ \ 

8* Defining the relationship of perf omance-appralsarxto individual 

pay actions. . ' \^ 

Productive work In the realm of personnel administration ij a pre aquislte 

to the type of employee commitment discussed herej and the above-mentioned 

approaches are being explored by an Increasing number of community colleges 

The "Ji'ty" la still out, however, regarding whether the approach^ 

developed in the. private sector , will pay the dividends expected by those 

who are Implementing the systems. All community college leaders would do 

well to cbnsidar" the eauOW^ 

An equitable salary program dapends on valid job clasal'^ = 
ficatlone, periodic" salary review of competitive levels, 
performance appraisals^ and effective salary planning^ 
Tha lack of these interrelated and essential primary 

- . 56 , ' ' 

y '- ■ ■ 

. v.- , ; , 60 : ■■ . 

elements frequently laaves the two'-year college with 
numerous unresolved wage and b alary problemi* 

A college with many unresolved problems is going to have difficulty in 

achieving educational productivity , since faculty and staff members are. 

Included in the constituencies to be satisfied. They also need to be 

satisfied with the level of support thay receive on a day^to^day basis* ' 

The management information system, as it is commonly named, must also be 

working to contribute to efficiency and effectiveness. 

^WJAGE^^ENT information systems - . 

Computer technology has led to, a '"revolution" on coiranunlty college 
campuses when it comes to how inforination is processed and stored* Among 
the many functions dependent on computer processes, one is likely to find 



Financial Aid Programs / 



Student Records 


Budgeting and Budget Reports 




Book Processing and Circulation 


Institutlohal Research 


Governmental Reporting 


Personnel Systems 


^ Payroll ^ 


Studetit Assessment 


Computer Managed and Assisted Instruction 

The list could go on, but the point is that many employees are^epen19efit :on 
^an information system arid cpmputer techrfology in order to be.efficie^nt and 

57 . ' r^^^-- .^^^ 

effective in their daily work. 

The potential -value of these systams is obvious because of the capacity 

to accumulates store ^ analyze and recall data upon request* 

These three capabilities in turn call fori 
(1) computer equipment. •* adequate to receive and store 
the range and variety of data,*,;, (2) personnel 
competent to select the information to be stored; and 
(3) a skillful director of the system who can specify 
the forms in which input and output are most useful to 
administrators. (32) 

ACE also makes the point that because of the complexity of the dat^^ to be 

handled, it Is important to "design each portion of the system so that it is 

integrated effectively with each other part." The integration mentioned. 

leads to the creation of a true information system. The development of the 

"data bank" or "data base" should be based on desired outcomes. The desired 

outcomes s developed with an institution=wide perspective, should be clearly 

Stated i' and they should form the basis for planning the system, Tt will 

also be necessary 'for the institution to establish a mechanism through which 

priorities are established* The pressures or competing Interests make it 

difficult for a computer services director staff and computer 

timep Many 'institutions have, in fact, created a uier committee to review 

^requests for program development.. Through careful development and ^integration 

an institution can Increase both efficiency and effectiveness. On the other 

hand, if the system is Ill-conceived then the potential for constant disruption 

is present. - 

As ACE (33) saysi ' 

' The Improved accessibility, timeliness, and quality of 
data on which to basa decisions and action serve the 
purpose of helping administrators achieve the Insti^ 
tution's educational objectives, 

% .. . 

,58 ' . 

. ■ ■ " ' ' ■ ' - -62 ■ ' ■ ■ „ 

It certainly is important for top adininlstrators to be aware of the potential 

of their systems* Brady and others (34) provided. a helpful non^technicai 

discussion on the developinent and use of computing in an educational instl'- 

tution. They about the roles and responsibilities of users and focus on 

the key role of upper-level administrators. Another publication by Mann and 

others (35) describes current uses of computers and the allocation of computer 

resources* A review of "state-of-the-art" documents is a "must" for the 

college manager who wants to be certain that his system is both effective 

(achieving desired ends) and efficient (within tolerable costs). Attendance , 

at "executive briefings" offered by commercial vendors and professional 

associations can also help; remove the "rystery^' surrounding computers. The 

ultimate test is whether the. system is a useful tool in the management 

of t^e instltutioni and only an informed manager can approach making that 

determination, . . . ■ 


One major difficulty Is that, traditionally , few explicit 
measmres of program effectiveness have been collected. 
Also, little has been done to show ^ the links between 
resources and activities used and the attainment of , . 
desired outcomes , even when these outcomes can be 
quantified. Iti short, it has been much easier to see 
whether a plan has been accomplished in terms of activity 
or resource measures (e*g*, eKpendlturess student/faculty 
ratios, enrollment levels) than in terms of educational 
outcomes. (36) . ; 

Micek is on targe*; in assessing the state=of-the-art in measuring the outcomes 

of community college education* He cites additional problema in identifying 

and measuring outcomes and incorporating this information in planning i 

...even when information* is available, is difficult 

to use since the tachnlques for analyzing and interpreting*.. 

are limited or are not well understood. 

. ' 59 . : . . , 


.most planners and decialoa'-'makers simply have a 
hard time translating their Institutional and program 
goals into specific objectives stated in measurable 
outcome terms* . 

f ^ ' ■ ' " " 

,.,uae of outcome data is often thwarted by. the fear 
of potential misuses # 

Micek also discusses the early NCHEMS worfi in developing Institutional 

and program cost information as only a part of what is needed to respond to 

the press for accountability* The conceptual stage of the next major effort 

which became' the Outcomes Project at NCHEMS, Is then reviewed,. Micek (38) 

Indicates chat three related needs must be filled* 

The need to provide a comprehensive' picture of the 
outcomes of postsecondary education and to develop 
the capability to measure these outcomes | 

The need to provide a structure for organizing 
outcomes information as a prerequisite for the 
analysis and communication of this information; 
and , 

The need to develop analytic procedures to apply 
this information to the solution of particular 
planning and management problems- 
Additional NCHEMS publications (38, 39, 40, 41, 42) describe the ' 
evolution of th^s important work* The structure includes the following 
"audience" dimension components I ^ . 

Direct Clients (e,g*j students) 

Interest-Based Cotaiunities (e.g., private enterprise) 
Geographic-'Based Communities (e.g., cities) 
Aggregates of People, (e*g. , age groups) 
The "Type-^of-'Outcome" dimension components axBt 

Economic (e*g*, IncQme, security) - 
Human Characteristic (e*g. , competence, skill, coping) 
Knowledge, Tjechnology, and Art Form (e,g*, individual mastery) 




Resource and Service (m.g., facilities, events) 
Other (e.g.^ change in cultural level) 

The "Time" dimension focuses on when the outcome is. expected to occur. 
No formal categories have been developed for the dimension because they 
would be difficult to apply across the audience categories, ^.rmijo and 
others (43) Included an eKample which deacrlbed a taxonomy for the dimension. 
The "■Time" dimension along with the "audience" and "Typa-of--Ouvcome'' 
dimensions provides a structure within which educator sxcan work to answer 
questions about the outcomes of conmunity college education . 

Roueche and others (44) askedi "What can the student do after insLruction 

(completing a course or program) that he could not do before?" They con= 

tinuedl "The accQuntabillty concept makes it possible for all members of the 

conmiunity to see what 'results' are being produced with its tax dollars." 

Hartnett (45) adds to the thought! 

Almost all proponents of educational accountability tend 

to favor a '-value=added" concept* That is* institutions 

should be Judged not by their outputs alone, but by their 

outputs relative to their inputs* ,,."W^iat has the 

student attained in relation to his capability at the 

starting point?" ' 

Hartnett then described numerous problems in approaching the task of 

measuring the "value=-added" dimension p He concl\?.dedi 

These problems suggest that evaluating differential 
collage impact may not be possible at all or, at best* 
that it will be some time before it can be done very 
well. The real difficulty ii not so much in ^ 
developing new, reliable^ relevant criterion mea^res. 
That will be difficult*" of course* but certainly no 

insurmountable task* The problem will be in , 
. demonatrattlng differential college effects on these 
various criteria. (46) 

The deverbpment of the criteria can be found In the NCHEMS work, but no 

major breakthroughs have been made On the "value-added" front. Micek 

' " " . 61 . 

would ag^ee with Hartnett that it Is difficult to develop the critariai 

but he also cites the complexity i 

■ f . 

For example, given all of the variables that 

potentially affect a particular outcome,, it is - 

extremely difficult to determine cause^and^ef f ect 

relatibnships. k further complexity results 

because many prograins have joint outcomes. For 

examplef a vocational-^technical prdgram may 

contribute to student knowle^e and skill s 

development in addition to producing various . * ■ 

services to members of the business community, 

Harvey (48) gets more specific in talking about outcomesi 

If an institution has an effective planning system, 
and if they are planning in terms of the deflnitton 
above (quantifiable measurement of results) ^ then 
they are setting Institutional objectives. These 
objectives Btrnt from, broader, usually non^quantif lable, 
Inatltutiorial goals. .These Institutional objectives 
and the measures they contain form the basis for 
outcome measures and for an outcome measureinent system 
for an institution. 

Hartnett (49) adds an important cautiorir 

Behavioral objectives^ highly esteemed among educational 
evaluators jEor many years, have some serious 
shortcomings of their own, however.^ Not least among them 
stems from their specif icity.. p Because they are highly 
specific, behavioral bbjectlves permit precise 
measuL ^ent. On the other hand, this small precision can 
be restrictive, in that other highly desirable educational 
outcomes are omitted. 

It is safe to say that educators are still in the process of determining how 
^o measure educational effectiveness* Important work is being done, primarily 
It NCHMS, and community college administrators need to be "out front" in the 
quest to measure whether the needs of their constituencies have been 
met. ' \ ■ ■ 

In the meantimes comnunlty colleges in all states are involved in the 
search,^ Examples include i . , 


Graduate Follow=up Studies 

Attrition Studies 
^ Community-Impact Studies ' ■ * 

TechnleaX Program Follow-up Studies 

Employer Surveys • 
Information gained in these studies will supply valuable assistance for 
efforta in planning and evaluation* 


Lahtip Robert E. * Innov a tivfe College Manasement (San Francisco,' 
Washington, Londoni Jossey-Bass PublisherSi 1973)* p. IS. 

■Klaft, Raymond, Frank Armljo, and Nell S. Buaklew, A Handbook 
for Institutional Academic and ProRram Planningi From Idea to 
I mplement at ion CBoulder, Color ado i NCHEMS, 1978) , 7. 

Kief t J Ra^ond N. , A cademic Planning: Four Institutional Case 
Studieg (Boulder, 'Coloradoi NCHEMSp 1978) V ^ 

Kieft and others, op. citp V pps. 4-7. ^ 

Ibid. , p. 13. ^ ' _ , 

Armijo, Frank and Byron N. McClennay, Leader a, "Executive 
Briefing", (Boulder, ColoradtT NCHEMS, 1978-79). 

Parekh, Satish B.\ Lonfi"Range Planning i An Institution-Wide 
Approach to Increagiag Academic Vitality (New Rochelle, N.Y, i 
Change Magazine Press ^ 1977). . 

National Association oE College and University Bxislnesa Officers 
A College Planning Cycled People Resources Process (Washington ^ 
D.CV: N^UBO, 1975). \ 

Resource Center for Planned Change, A Futures Creating Paradigm; 
A Guide to Lonp-Range Planning from the Future for the Future 
(Washington, D.C.i taerlcan Association for State Colleges and 
Universities, 1978)* " 

Harvey, L. James, Zero^Base Budgeting . (Washington, D.C.i Report 
prepared by M^lanis Associates, Inc.fesupported by the U.S. 
Office of Education, Department of Hetflfeh^ Education, and ^ ^ 
Welfare, Vol. Ill Np. 3), p. 1-3. 

MillfiCt, John D., Editor, Planning in Higher Education, ""A Manual 
For Colleges and Universities (Washington, D.C. ^ Academy For 
Educational Developmen^, Ina. , July, 1977), p. 411. 

Ibid . , p. 447. / - . 

Ibid. , pps. 448-491. , r ^ : 

Harvey, op. clt. , ^ps. II--1, 11-2, II-J. ^ , 

Ibld. > VII-4. 

16, ^erlcaft Council On Educatiorii George E* Van Dyke, Editor,. 
College and Unlveralty Buslnags Admlnlg t ratlQn i (Washing tori, 
D.C^ I ACE, 1968), p. 156, ^ - 

\ ^ 

17, Ibid, , p. 164, . 

18, Vladack, Bruce C.j "Buildlnge and Budgets i The Overinveetment 
. Crisis, 't^ Change (December- January, 1978-79) 36==40, ' 

19* Mlllett, op, clt, . p, 491/ ■ 

20, Young, James H. , **Shotgunning For $," Communlt:y anfl Junior 
College Journal (November, 1978), 42-447 \, 

21, 'Rushing, Joe B. , Changing Role Of The Community CoXlege President 
In The Face Of New Administrative Pregsures (Washington, D,C* i 
American Association of Comn^unity and Junior Colleges, 1976) ,v 

22, Lpmbardi, John, "Conmunity College Einaneing In The Post- 
Propdsition 13 Era," ERIC Junior College Resource Review s 
(January, 1979), - v 7 

23, Wattenbarger, James L, and Paul^M, Starnes, Financial Support 
Patterns for Coimriunlty Colleg/s (Gaineiiville, Florida: Onlversity 
of Florida, Institute of ly^er Education, 1976), ^ 

24, Leach, Ernest R. Implementing the Marketing Process," CoTOiunlty 
and Junior College Journal (December /January, 1977-78), 20-24, 

25, The Chronicle of Higher Education Volume XVII, Number 18 
(January 15, 1979). :^ ■ \ . , 

26, Levine, Arthur, Handbook On Undergraduate Curriculum (San Francisco, 
Calif ornla; Jossey- Bass, Ip^i* , Publishers and The Carnegie 
Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, 1978), p, 422* 

27, Ibid, , p, 437, 

28, Kieft, op, cit, , pps, 134-137. 

- "i " - - . . , . 

29, ACE, op, clt, , pps, 82-94. ; ^ ' 

" ' -. : . " " * ... ^ 4 '7 ' " ■ ' .. ' 

30, Slbson, Robert E, , Cbmpensatl&n (New York: ^AMACOM, 1974) , p. 2. 

M. Lahtl, op, cit, , p, 102. ' r , . , 

32. ACE, op, cit, , pi. 9. , ,5 

"^33, Ibid., p, 11. V ' : ' 





^34. Brady, Ronald W. , John Fi Chaney, George W. Baughman, and Robart 
• ■ A. Wallhaus, Administrative Data Processings The Casa for Executive 

Manaftement Involvement (Boulder, Colorado i NCHEMS, 1975) * 

= 35. Mann, Richard L. ,e Charles R. Thomas, Richard C. Williams, and ^ 

Robert A. Wallhaus. An Qverview of Two Recent Studies of Administrative 
Comumter Operations in Higher Education (Bpulder, .Colorado: NCHEMS , 
a975)V / ^ [ . 

36, Mce':, Sidney S., "An Approach To Outcome Measutes Definitioni 

Collection ^ and Use," O utcome Iraasurements in Higher Education , . 
L. James Harv.^y, Contributing Editor (Washington, D.C.* McManls 
Associatas, Inc. for the U* S- Office of Education, Department 
of Health, Education and Welfare, Vol. 1, No. 3), p. 3. 

' 37. Ibid. , p. 4- j 

38. ' Miceki Sidney S. and William Ray ^Arney, Qutcoine-O rlented Planning 
in Higher Educations An Approach or An Xmpossibility? (Boulder, 
Colp r ado r NCHEMS, 1973). : 

■ 39 p Lenning, Osdar T. , Previ ous Attempts to Structure Educational 

Outcomes and Outcome Related\GQncepts: A' CompilfiyiQn and Review of 
the Literature (Bouldir, Colorado i NCHEMS, 1977). ^ 

40. I ming, Osfar T., The Outcomes Structured An Overview and Procedur es / 
^ . For Applying It in Postsecondary-Education Institution^^ (Boulder , 

\ Colorado: NCHEMS, 19771. . 

41. Lenning, Oscar T. , yung S. Lea, Sidney S.Mlcek, and Allan-L. Service, 
A Gtructure for the . Outcomes ol Postsecondary Education (Boulder, 

Co lor ado I NCHEMS, 1977. i 

42. Bower, Cathleen and Nancy Renklewi|z, A HandboDk for Using the 
Student Outcomes Questionnaires (Bbulder, Colorado^ NCHEMS, 1977) • 

43. ArmijOj J* Frank, Sidney S, Mlcek, and Edward M, Cooper , Conductin g 
" Gonrnmnltv- Impact Studies i A Handbook for Community College s 

CBoulder,^ Cdlora^o I NCHEMS, 1978), p. 246. 

44. Roueche,' John E.^, George A, Baker III, and Richard Brownell, 
Accoun tability and the Community College, Directions for the 
70^* s rwashing t on , D. C- t- American Association of Junior Colleges, 
1971), p* 38. . ^ . ^ ^ 

45. Hartnett, Rodney T.^ Accounta b ility in Higher Education (Princeton, 
New Jersey! College Entrance, Examination Board , " 1971) , p, 15.' 

46. Ibld. ^ p. 20. ' ^' ,rv 

^ — ^ — ^ ^.-H 

47. jlicek, op. clt. , p. 4. 




48/ Harvey, L* James, "PME and Outcome Measures i-' Outcome Measurements 
In Higher Edufiatlon ^ L, James Harvey, Contributing Editor 
, (Washington, P,C.^ McManls Associates, Inc, for the U*S, Office 
of Education, Department of Hemlth, Education^ and Welfare, Vol, V; 
No, 3), p." 18, \ \ .= 

49. Hartnett, op. cit., pps. 12^13. ^ , » 






A leadsE is one who moves the group toward its goals* 
The quality of leaderships does -not necesearlly relate , 

to the leaders belng,Jliked or feared by group members. , 

The essential is that there be effect. Without group : 

moyement toward defined ends^ there has been* by | 

definition^ no leadership. (1) | 

' ' ■ ' { 

Cohen and' Roue^e place in perspective the role of the community collega, 

manager who concerned 'about educational productivity. MovOTeni toward 

goals* achievljig desired ends or outcomes, accomplishment of purpcise or 

mission, and producing abundant results are among the various ways of 

describing the quest for productivity in managements The fact that it Is 

difficult to measure educational effectiveness should not deter co^ncerned 

administratflrs from seeking such measures , In addition, the f act ^jthat it 

is easier'^to measure efiflciency^ through the use of quantifiable measures^ 

should not lead to reliance on these measures as true measures of productivity. 

Rather,' It should be rocognlzed that the "effects" sought by educators are 

^ ^ ■ . ' : . - ■ , ' : / ■ i ■ ' ^ 

both quantitative an4 qualitative. >^ 

It is not adequate to ^ay that education. Is "labor intensive' 


therefore^ the only ^ way to increase productivity is to'^increase the number of 
students taught by faculty members. Ai Vlad^ck (2/ says, 'V,.,ther^ is thought 
to be a qii^lltative cost to suchi productlvft^improvements." Vladeck then 
adds" this insighti 

If higher eddcation is Inherently labor intensive because 
it can be^ provided only thrbugh the ^.nteraction of 
-skilled professionals and' consumers, then, almost by 
definition, .capital must be largely nonproductive. If 
the exposure of students to a p'rcifeisor- B wisdom or 
guidance la what education is all about, then that 
exposuFe can take'^place in a lean-to or a palace*..^ 



■ ■ , . ' , . ' ■ \^ ■ 

? ■ , 

The non- campus community colleges referred to earlier ar'e certainly exploring 
the potential for an increase in educational pi^bductivity by avoiding the 
creation of "palaces*" In addition, conmiunity colleges are exploring alterna- 
tive instructional methodologies as an avenue for increasing productivity^ - 
These efforts are representative- of the growing interest ampng community 
college leaders to demonstrate accountahility * A review of additional efforts 
might now be helpful as a springboard to a/-dJ.scussion on the potential sOf 
"management foi^ productivity*" 

THE PRESENT * - , , 

Berchin (3) conducted an . exploratory study in 1972 among colleges in 

the League For Innovation and found most of the 41 Involved in . 
" , ' ' ' ■ . . . ■ ■ * ■ ■ . ■ ^ ■ . ^ 

ins true tional experimentation leading towafd development of "productive" 

courses.^ He attempted to'' compare per-pupll costs of conventional and 

nonconventional courses. Nonconventional approaches included "large group »" 

"individualized/prograimned," and "audiotutorial'' modes of instruction. A ^ 

formula to compute per-pupil costs s grades, number of students completing 

courses, and interviews with ihstructors were'utllized to assess efficiency 

and effectiveness* He lndi\cated, the limitations of the study (4) , not the 

leas^ of ' which would be the 'subjectivity of the interviewer and the involved 

instructors, and then concludes:^ ' , 

Changlhg ^the pattern of classroom organisation or 
the instructional mode can reduce per«pupll costs 
and Increase learning ef fecriveness* 

' ^ ■ ' " ' . ' ■ ^ 

Courses organlMd ^under the large group mode of 
Instruction generally are less costly .** than ■ ^ 

conventionally organised courses. 

y ■ ■ ' ■ ' 

Courses organized under the individualized . 
prograOTned mode* . *aVe generally less costly*.? ^ 
than conventionally organized courses. ' ; : 




4, Courses undar the audlotutori'al mode of Instruction 
are generally mora costly,',. 

He described . that instructors who have taught both conventibnal ^ 

•and noncoriventlonal courses parcelve the nonconventlorial : ones to be more 

effectivie. An important note of caution iSp however, listed In the 

recommendations XS) i % . 

Subjectiye data indicate that courses using any of the , . 
three nonconventional modes should usually be teserved 
for sel£=directed learners. 

Implicit in the reference to salf --directed learners is the tderi that 

■ - ^ 

educators , can i'sentify who they are and that community colleges have 

approaches in place for advising these students. 

■{ ' , . ' 

Matching learning style with instructional methodology, ;under the title 

^ •: " . • ■ ■ ' ■ -'^ ' ^ / ■ ^ ' " 

"Cognitive Style," is one of the efforts to increase prpducti^ity described 

by Goodwin and Young (6) - Reference is made to the approaches at Mountain 

view (Dallas, Texas), Moraine Vallex. (Illinois), and Centra] Piedmont (North 

Garolina)^ - describing numerous efforts to increaii^. p.;cv^^ufttivity , 

Included in the publication are descrlpiions of efforts in the fplIo^u/i\^g 

areas I . \ 

Administrative Performance ' 

Organizational Models - 
College , Gove rnance 
Professional Development 

Leadership Style : ' . / ^ 

Information ^fanaj^mant Systems 
Academic Calendar, 
Fadility Design and Msnagement 

_ " ' - ■ . ■ ' ^ ^ '■ " ' 

Faculty Performance . . ^ 

Differentiated Staffing, ■ 

Staff bevelopment Programs ^ 
, New ^orms of Instructidn 
Faculty A.sslgnm^nt Policies 

Collecti'.^a Bargaiuing and Faculty Productivity 
. Gaining Faculty Support ' _ . 

. Student Perf orniance 

' Grading Systems 

Opan^ Entry, Open^Exfr^Sys terns— -^^^—^ , 
Multimedia Delivery Systems - -^^^ 

; Outreach Canters ^ -- . ■ ■ " 

Nontraditlonal' Learning 

Goodwin and Young (7) conclude! 

We have no words of wisdom to sura up how to increase 
p^roductivity in community colleges. Most of the inDdftls 
described here are still experimental^ and the instluutiohs 
involved are still engaged in ievaluatlng them* Perhaps 
the best conclusion is not to conclude, 

They do offer some "survival tactics'* leading toward productivity 1 They 

quote Harold Hodgkinson (8) i ' . . 

1. Develop a clearly focused mission* 

2* '^Create programs that clearly reflect cha.t pmrpOBa ^ 
; and collactively add up to It* 

3* /Limit student diversity to some extent in order 
to achieve a unified campus community. 

"4*. Establish good cooperitive relationships with 

other Institutions.' ' ^ 

5. Establish a generally democratic governance ^ ^ , 
structure which permits many people to axr?icise 
leadership yet permits effective declsiOii 

making. , ^ ^ <^ 

6- Set .clear ^tandards of performance* 

7* Be cost affective* \ ^ ^ . ^ . . 

The ' coimnunity college leaded who adopts the above-nisntioned tactics will do 
more than lead an institution to survive. The institution will be well on 
the way to achii^ving productivity* , 

Perhaps the experience of a college struggling with the concept of 
productivity will add insight for one seeking to manage f or ;\produ6lt^ivity. 
As was mfintioned earlier, Eastfield College and the Dallaf County Community 

College District (Texas) have been involved since 1974 in an effort to 
increase productivity* The efforts went through several stages. The first 
response included— a set of questions. Does productivity mean 
' ' ■ i. Serving more students with the. same number of instructors? 

2, Increasing the. level of income? „ 

3* Measu'ring student enrollment and various ratios? r , 

4- Measuring course and program completion? 

5^ ■ ■ ' 

5, Quantification of services rendered (e^g*, students counseled)? 

^ s . ;- 

6* Student satisfaction? 

7- EKcludlng qualitative aspects of college work? 
Following the questions came a round of efficiency developments which were 
relatively easy to measure* Examples are ..^ " . 

1- Tighter controls on copier machine uses ? 

2* Savings through bulk mailing. 

3. Key control procedures. ' * 

^ 4. Improvement in Inventory contrql. - 

5. imployment of a collection agency to collect bad debts. 

6. Declaration of surplus property to free storage space* 

The next level of devfe-lopment led. to examples like the following i 
1* Utilization of cost-per-cpntact--hour aatauto monitor courses and 

programs i ; ^ , " . 

2* Initiation of student follow-up itudies* - 
3. Creation o£ a computers-assisted room utilization program* 
4*. Development of orientation programs for part-time Instructors* 
5, Development of a '-human resource"' catalog to identify "In^houee" ' 

consultants. ; ' ^ a 

6. Administration of an internal needs assesment* 

The next stage led to the overlap of the definitions of management and 

productivity- A definition of productivity emerged through 43 small group 

discussions Involving 250 faculty ^and staff members. As ^described in an 

earlier publication (9), the definition included: 

Getting the Job done with the best quality and least 
eKpenditures. . ^ 

" Being able to accomplish up to my potential, 

Having a perional sense of being responsible:. ^ 

Having open lines of communication. 

Increasing efficiency and output* ■ 

Concerns for quality, efficiencys responsibility , and coiranunlcatidh were all 

addressed. A "cost-^consclousness", also emerged which made it ^easier to create 

budgets to carry-out plans. Eastfield College and the other Dallas cplleges 

(El Centro^ Mountain View, and Richland) demonstrated that commiunity colleges 

can deal with the concept of productivity, and at the same time strive to ^ 

manage with greater efficiency and effectiveness. It just might be possible 

for cominunity colleges to be efficient* ' 

Fedewa (10), in discussing the relative performance of managers in 

business and higher educationi observes i . 

? Managemfeht's Job in an oh-going '^enterprise is basically . 

to acquire revenue i and to spend it wisely ^ with the 
result that the organization's mission has been advanced* 

By these criteria, I would suggest that academic. manage^ 
ment is sicond to none in making the best use of existing 

He then discussed , from his vatitagp point as a manager in a major 
corporation, how many similarities there are in the roles of academic 
and corporate managers- He concluded! ^ 

Most organizations today are dominated by "groupthinkj " 
and the political skills necessary to sacceed in either 
environment are applicable- to the other # The jargon and 
the buEEWords differ iomewhat and so do the conventions. 
But there are more similarities than differences* 

If Fedewa is right about the similarities ^ then coranunity college managers 

do not need to feel guilty and it Is also possible to talk about the 

future of the search for 'educational productivity in community colleges . 

THE mwm ' 

' ^ correctness ^ ^ measure disruptive 

Productiveness of actlQjn^__+ of output, _= effect 

total nian^hours of work (11) 

In a labor-intensive, hiOTan service agency like a.commukilty co^llegej the 
formula for productiveness has great potential* "Cprrectness of action" 
should be assessed by asking whether a proposed action is consistent 

with the p'urpose or mission of the Institution* "Measujes of output" like 
graduates placed In jobs^ student aatisf action with Instruction^ and number 
of student majors can be considered as coiranunlty college leaders become 
more comfortable with the developing concern for "outcomes" of higher edu=- 
cation* Concerns about "disruptive effects" will also cause administrators 
to take the long-"term view rather than focusing on efficiency outcomes, 

with potential short-term impact. Underlying attempts to apply the formula 
should be attentlveness to the multiple perspectives and level of satisfac- 
tion of the various constituencies* ^ 

Givfen the perspective of the above-mentioned formula* a summary of the 
major elements In management for productivity would appear to be In order* 
Community colleges^ are likely to be well managed and productive when the ^ - 
following propositions and conditions are descriptive i 

1, Boundaries are established and the needs of the college service 
. area are understood* 

74 ■ 

2* The mission or purpose is clearly defined and is based on the 
needs of the college service area, 

V ■ , ■ . : . ■ = 


3. College employees are connnitted to the mission* 

4. An organizational structure has been created to carry-'out the 

5. The internal process of college governance is clear to all 
campus constituencies. , * 

6. Logical work groups have been established - 

7* There are clearly defined organisational goals, 

8s College leaders recognize that their behavior has an effect on 

organizational climate* 
9* College leaders strive to create efficient and effective 
organizational processes* ' 
' 10. There is a systematic planning proceai in place. 
11, The college is involved in both income and expenditure planning* 
12# The work of the organization will be planned on the basis .of the 

mission and goals,- 
13. Clear work assignments are made* 

14 • High standards for performance i^tll be established, 

15, Resqprces will be allocated on the basis of- planning. 

16. Leaders will coordinate the work of college units to develop 
^ collab,orative efforts. 

17, Participative patterns of leader and group behavior will be 
developed. . . , . 

18. Leaders will consider the impact on the organizational 

enyironrnei.'; :».n selecting appropriate steps to take in ' 
• ' ■ 75 . , 

; . .' " ■ . . ■ 79 ' ■ ' ■ 

moving the organizatibn toward achievement of purpose. 
19 V There will be processes in place to ensure that events 

!■ ■ ■ ■ , * ■ 

-. ■■ 'I 

conform to plans. . \ ^ 

20. There will be a "positive regard" between the campus 
chief executive and the board. 

21. Policies and procedures will be clear and available to 
all employees, ' 

22. There will be regular efforts to determine the extent to 
which constituencies have been aatisfied. 

23. There will be infomation available regarding unit costs. 

24. Assessments will be made to relate, costs to benefits or 

outcomes^ - ^ 

* ■ * ; " . 

25. There will be a recognition that institutional effectiveness 
is linked to managerial effectiveness. 

26. There will be a careful integration of work-'centerad 
concerns with people concerns, 

, .27, There are likely to be high levels of job satisfaction, 

28, Changes will be ii■^^.roduced with due respect to natural 
resistance to change and potential disruptive effects. ' ' 

29. Comniunity advisory cdimnittees are involved In 
developing and evaluating, progranis . a. 

30, Program development £s based on needs Assessment in the 
service area. •, , , 

' 76, ■ ' 


31, The college is cdllectlng evidence of student learning* 

32, There is. Information available regarding attrition rates and 
efforts are being made to reduce attrition* 

33, An appropriate marketing strategy is being followed, 
34* '^he college is proactive in .resource development.' 
35. EffortSgare being made to cooperate with other coiranunity agencies 

for the purpose of avoiding duplication* ' 

36* Staff development progrms are an integral part of ongoing 

campus activities. 

37* A management information system provides appropriate and tiinely 

inforTOatiori for decision^making. . 

' 38* Personnel systems are viewed as satisfactory by college amployees. 

39,^ Management for productivity will be undertaHen as a long-range, 

developmental process* 

Coiranunlty colleges In all parts of the United States are seeking to move in 

the above-^mentloned directions with assistance from a variety of sources. 

^ HMIj with the management development program, and NCHEMSj with the 

Outcomes Project p are In the forefront of the movement toward educational 

=.= ■ . - ^ ' ^ • 

productivity. Other groups' like COMBASlj ACCTlonj AlDfe consortia ^ The 

League For Innovation In .The Coimunlty College, NACUBO, .Educational Testing 

Service^ College Entrance iKaminatlon Board, AQE, toerlcan College Testing 

Program, ACGT (conmiunity college trustees) , and AED (Academy for Educational 

Dfevalopment) are directly invQlved in helping conrounity colleges become more 

productlye. Finally, but ce^ti^lnly not least among, the groups, AAGJC contlnuea 

to provide overall leadership as conmunity colleges prepare for the 1980' s. 

The .enlightened community college leader will be Involved in managing 
his institution to meet the expectations of Its constltuenti , ^ He or she ' 
will: be concerned about developing commitment among staf £ jnembets to, ioo;ve 
the institution toward accomplishment of purpose, Efficiency* and effec- 
tiyeneai will be fought and measured , with results shared in such a way 
as to engender support for. the college. In summary, iklllful college 
leaders will use sound judgment in conducting college operations in otder , 
for the institution to achieve the purpose rfor whiiqh it was created; 

The emphasis on qualttatlve dimensions In the . suimnary of major elements ' ^ 
in management for productivity should not be construed as an ef fbrt^to 
downplay quantitative aspects in the quest for productivity , Cost reductions 
or Increased ratios will and pursuedj but not without eKaminlng 
"correctneis of action" as earlier discussed* Numerous "disruptive effects" 
such as collective bargaining will be encountered by community college 
managers J but the contention here is that: understanding the long'-term 
qualitative elements can help one'avoid^.^_r_s^f ten the impact ^of potential' 
disruptions.^ An action taken to Increase effeciency in the immediate future , 

but which is disruptive In .the long-term view , could not be described as 

^ ' % ■ - . ..^ 

effective.' Hanagers "who avoid collective bargaining or who achieve 
productive contracts are likely to be individuals who seek the effective 
long-term outcomes* Similar ty^i^ faculty and staff members ar 6 more likely ^ > 
to be cotpiltted to Institutional purposes when managers seek a proper 
balance bet^«en production and human concerns a '< 

There will need tp a ffarch for appropriate incentives to encourage^ 
members of ^^aiupus conmunlties to search for productive new approaches « 
Bonuit^^is grants for instructional development, extra travel moneys flexible , 

^ ■_ ■ ^ . . ' ' ' 

■ , • . „ .82 : ■ 

work hoursj acquisition of special fequiprnftntp special recognition or awards 
and released time for continuing ^sduccitinn nuay all hav'e value. The most 
important incentlvep however, may be creatlon^^of an 'environment or climate 
in which a person can influence decisions and directiohs within an insti* 
tutiona ^^A^^eople eKparience m^qningful work they become more productives 
The focus of th^ ipanuscript has been on craation of the proper climate in 
which productivity can be sought through collabdrative efforts of college 
personnel. . ■ 

Building a "bridge" from concepts arid theories to actual practice will 
now ^e the challenge for community college leaders in the 1980' s. In an 
effort to' assist with the translation, the final section incorporftes case 
studies di wn ffrom representative conmunity colleges * * ^ 


1. Coherij Arthur M* and John E. Roueches Institutional Administrator 
or Educational Leader? (Washington, D.Cti ERIC Clearinghouse for 
Junior Cbirege Information and American Association of Junior 
Collages, ±969), p. 8, 0^ , 

2. Vladack, Br^ce , "Buildings^ and Budgets! The Overinvestment 
Crisis," Change (December-January , 1978/79)* 36-40* , 

3. Berchln, Arthur, Toward Increased Efficiency In wommunity ColleRe 
CouTSes (Los Angeles, Calif orniai League^ for Innovation In the 
Community Coliege, 1972). ^ 

4- Ibid* , p* 4. ; . 

5. IbidV> p. 6. ^ 

6/ Goodwin, Gregory and James C* Youna. Increasing Productivity In The . 
C ommunity College (Los Angeles, Californlai League for Innovation 
in the Community College and ERIC Clearinghouse for Junior Colleges, 
July, 1978), pps:--35- 36, 

7. Ibid. , p. 39. , 

8. Ibid. , p. 5. ^ 

9. McClenney, Byron N., "The President as Manager," Conununlty and 
Junior College Journal (Xprll, 1978),. 26, 31-33. 

10* Fedewa, Lawrence J., "How Efficient Are Colleges?," The Chronicle 
Of Higher Education V^Vjme XVII, Number 12 (November 20, 1978), 
p. 48. ^ . . 

11*.. Slbeon^ Robert E*/ increasing Employee productiyity (New 
' York! AMACOM, 1976), p. 49. \ 



Entries not cited in the text have been marked C^) for the convenience of 
the reader, 

ACCTion. "Prasidents identify management style.., ^ ACCTion Quarterly Review . 
Vol. 4 No. 2, December^ 1978. 

ACCTion Consprtlum, Sui^e 1500-North Bldg. , 955 L'EnfEnt PlaEa, S*W. , 
Washington, D. C* 20024. 

Advisory Council on Developing Institutions Strengthening De veloping 

Institutions, Title IIX Of The Higher Education Act Of 1965. Washington, 
• D/C. : U.S. Office of EducatlonV. Department b Health, Education, and 
Welfare, March, 1978. , ■ . 

The American College Teiting Program, COMP College Outcome Measu res Projact 

.merican college Testing i^rogram, uu^ uoi-Lege uuccome neasurea rro.iacr . 
Annual Report, Iowa City, Iowa: The ^erlcan College Testing Program, 
1976. ^ \ , . . , 

Amaricam Council On Education. George E. Van Dyke, Editor. College and 

University Business Admin iatratiQn. Washington, D*C.i ACE, 1968. ' ^, 

* Argyris, Chris. Integrating the Individual and the Organisation. New Yorki 
John Wiley and Sonsi ]964. 

ArmijOj Frank, and McClenney, Byron N, , Leaders, "Executlva Brief Ihg.*- 
Boulder, Colorado^ NCHEMS, 1978-79. ^ 

Armijo, j, Frank, Mlcek,, Sidney S, , and Cooper. Edward Conducting 
Coromunity-Impact Studies i A Handbook for Community .Colleges, 
Boulder, Colorado4 NCH^S, 197S. - 

' ' '' ' ' , " . * - 

Barnard, Chester I. The Functions Of The Executive . Thirtieth Annlvarsary 
Edition. Caoibridge, Mass. s Harvard University Press, 1968. 

* Bennis. Warren G. Organization Developfflanti Its Nature, Origins, and 

Pros pects. Reading, Mass.! Add 1 son-Wesley Publishing Ooppany Inc., 1969 

Bennls, Warren. "Orianlzing For Accountability." Speech Presented to t0 
Oaaeral Session of the CUPA National Converttlon, Houston, Texas, 
fMtober, 1974. • , ~ 

Barch„:t, Arthur. To^wrd Increased Efficiency In Community College ..Courses. 

uog Angelis, Calif ornla ; 'League for Innovation In the Community College 
1972. • 


V ' * Blake, Robert R, , and Mouton, Janes S, Corporate Excellence Through Grid 
Organiza tion Devaloptnent * Houston i Gulf Publishing Company^ 1968. 

Blocker, Clyde E, "A, National Agenda for CoTranunity and Junior Colleges," 

An Agenda for National Action . Report of the 1972 Aaaembly. Washington, 
'D.C*i American Association of | Community and Junior iCollegeSp 1973. 

Bower, Cathleen, and Nancy Renkiewi'cz. A Handbook for Jslng the ^udent 
Outcomes Questidnnaiyes . Boulder, Colorado^ NCHEHS, 1977. 

' ~ \ . ^ : . ... 1 

Bower, Joseph L. "Effective Public Management." Harvard Bu siness Review , 
March-April, 1977, 132. i 

' " Brady, Ronald W. , Chaney, John F., ^aughman, George W. , and Wallhaus, Robert A. 
Adniinlstrative Data Processing The Case for Executive Managements ^ 
InvolVfimant . Boulder, Colorado^f NCHEMS, 1975. \ 

^ BuBhnell, Dlvid^and Rappaport, Donalk. Planned Change In EdVationi A\ 
\ Sy^ems Approach. New York i Harcoijrn Brace Jovanovlch, Inc., 1971. 

Buahneil, David S. , and Zagaris, Ivarl* Report From Project Fqcuji ■ • \ 
Strategies For Change . Washington\, D.C.i American Aasoclation of . ' 
Junior Colleges, 197^. 

* Carnegie Commission on Higher Education^ The More Eff ective Use of 

Resources—An Imperative for H±ghe-i. Educatiou . Nw York i McGraw-Hill, 
June. 1972- ~ ' ■\ ^ 

Clark, Burton R. "The Insulated Asnericansi Five Lessons From Abroad." 
Change , November, 1978, 24^30. \ 

* Cohen, Arthur M. , and Associates. ^ A Con^jtknt Variabl e. New Perspectives 

.On^'^^he Community College . San Francisco* Jossey-Bass, Inc., 1971. 

Cohen, Arthur M*,. and Roueche, John E, Institutional Adminis trator 

Or- Educational Leader? WasLington, D.C.^ ERIC Clearinghouse .for 
Junior Collt^ge Information and American i^ssociation of Junior 'Xolleges 
1969. . \^ / : ^ 

^Collins, Charles C. Blueprint I'or A Cluster College . Los Angeles, 

California* ERIC Clearinghouse for. Junior dplleges, , University of 
California, April, .1975. 

Commission On Colleges. Standards of the Colle^e\belegate Assembly . 

Atlanta,^ Georglai Southern Association of ColUeges and Schools, December, 
1977. ■ . • . \ • ' ■ 

^ Davis, Gordon S. MaAagement InfoTOatlon Systems i Conceptual Foundations, 
'\ ' ' Structure » ,and Development . New Yorki McGraw-Hill ^ 1974. 

. .* ■ ■ ■ ' \ 

• c, . " ' \ 



Druckef , Pater. Management i Tasks , Responsibilities and Practices. Mew Yorki 
Harper and Row, 1974, ^ 

nrucker, Petar F, "Managing The Public Service Institution''. Public Interest , 
33, F^ll, 1978, 43="60,^^ 

Drucker, Peter F, Technolagy. Management' & Society . New YorV. ..-rper ^ 
Row, Publishers, 1970, " . 

Educational Testing Service. Institutional Goals Inventory. Privi' ;non, N.J. • 
Educational Testing Service, 1976, 

Educational Testing Service, Undergraduate Ass essment Program Guide. 
Princeton, N.J,: Educational Testing Serv c^.., 1976, 

Evans, N. Dean and Neagley, Rois L. Planniig and , ir^elopin g Innovativ -:;. 
Community Collegeo , Englewood Cliffs, New Jnip."^: Prentice-Hall'. 
Inc. , 1973. n ■ ^ 

Fedewa Lawrence J. "How Efficient Are Colleges?" Ine ...r onlcle Of Hlah er 
^ Education, Volume XVII. Number 12. Novemfer ZO/Y^ JT"^ ^ ' 

''SarbarinOj Joseph W. in association with Bill Aussleker. Fa culty • 
Bargaining. Chang e And Conflict . New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 
Prepared for The Carnegie Commission on Higher Educatlori and The 
Ford Foundation. 197,5. 

Garms. Walter I. Financing Communi ' v Colleges . . New York: teachera Coilege 
Press. Teachers College. Colum, a University. 1977. 

George, Claude S. , Jr. The History Management Thought. Englswood Cliffs, 
. . N. J,; Prentice - Hall, Inc., 196l, 

Gilbert, Fontelle. An ACCT Maior FronQuncetnen t: r Comtnon Concerns Among 

Community College Preaiden frs and T ruscees , Washington, D.Ci Assoclatidn 
of Conmiunity College TtiL^L^am,^ 1976, 

Gollattscheck* u^es F. , Harl; cherj Eryin L,, Roberts, Eleanor, and Wygal, 

Benjaml^ R, College L ea^f^?: s hip for Conmiunity Renewa l, San Francl^scor , 
Josaey-Basa,. 1976. ^ ^ 

■ ' .■ ' ' ■ 

Goodwin, Gregory anil Young James C. Increasing P i;gduetlvlty In The 

Comnunlty I College , ^ Loe Angelea, Callfornlai League for Innovation 
±Ti the Comnunity College and ERIC Clearinghouse for Junior Colleges, 
July, 1978. ^ / 

Guth, Williarii D, "Behavior And Decision-Making In CompleK Organizations." 
' The Management of Change * Brick, Michael, and Bushko, Andrew /t. , 
Editors. New Yorki Coimnunlty College Center, Teachers Collage, 
Coluinbla ynlversityV 1973, ^ ^ 

Haggerty, Patrick E. Proriuctl vlty In Education. Dallas, Texasi Texas 
Instruments Iricorpor'atEd, 1974. 

Hall, Jay* "To Achieve or Noti The Manager's Choice.'' California -' inagement 
Review , Vol XVIII, No. 4» Surmer, 1976, .5^18,/ 

Hartnettt Rodney T. Acgountabllltv in Higher Education. Princetoni New 
Jersey! College Entrance Examination Boards 1971. ' 

Harvey, L, James. "PME and Outcome Measures.'' . Outcome Me asu rementg in 

Hi gher Education , L. James Harvey, Contributing Editor. Washington, D. i 
McMania Associates s Inc. for. the U.S*' Office of Education^ Departpent 
of Health, Education^ and Welfare, Vol, 1, No. 3, 

Harvey^ James* Zero-Base Budgeting * Washlngtons D.Ci Beport prepared 
by McManis AasociateSj Iric, supported by the U.S. Office of Educaticnj 
Department of Helath, Educations and Welfare^ Vol. XII No. 3* 

Higher Education Management Institute. "A Seminar tov Community College 
Administrators on the Management Development and Training Pvogram 
for Colleges and Univeraltlea*" Program Introducti on. Coconut Grove, 
, Florida I HEMl, 1977. 

Higher Educstiori Management Institute. Management Developmen t and Training 
Program for Colleges and Unvierslties. Progress Report tf 2* Cinconut 
Grove, Florida i HEMI, October, 1976. 

Institute for Educational Management. "Tenth Annual Management Development 
Program for College and University Administrators." Har^^^rd Unlver.^lty, 
June-»July, 1979*^ . ' 

Johnson, B. Lamar. Starting A Coimnunitv College . Washington, D.G.i 
American Asaociatlon of Junior Colleges ^ 1964* 

Kieft, Raymond N. Academic^ Planning i Four Institutional C ase Studies . 
Boulder, Colorado^ NCHEMS, 1^78. " " 

Kieft, Raymond IT. , Armijo, Frank, and Bucklew, Neil S. A Handl l ok fir 
Institutional Academic and Program Planning i From Ide4: to 
Implemant ation* . Bouldar^ Coloradoi NCHEMS, 1978* 

King,? Mascwell D, , and Breuder, Robert L\ Presldent-Trustee Relationships i 
iNetlng tehe Challenge of Leadership . Washington, ,D*C* i Preaidenfca 
Academy, American Association of Coimnunity and Junior CollageSj 1977* 

* KlntgWi Frederick, Jensen^ Arthur M.* and Hansen, John S* The Multi- 

institution Junior College District * Washington, D. C.r -^erlcan 
, Association of Junior Colleges * 1975. 

* Knoell, Dorothy, apd Mctntyre, Charles/ Planning C olleges for the Community. 

San Francisco, Ca, t Jossey-^Baas, InCn, 1974. 

* Knoell, Dorothy, and Others. ThrQugh the Open Poo r; A Study of Patterns 

ofJEn rQllTnent and Performance In Gallfornl a's Conimunlty Colleges. 

Report Sacramento* California Postsecondary Education Commission, 

1976~ ' . 

Lahti, Roi^art E. InnQvatlve College Management . San Francisco, Washington, 
Lcmdon* Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1973* 

Lawrence, Ben. Statewide Planning For Postsecondary Educatloni /Issues and 
DeH-tign. Lyman A* Glenny and George B* Weather shy, Eds* Boulder, 
Colorado: National Center for Higher Education Management Systems at 
WIGHE, Sepnember, 1971. 

Lawrence, G. Den, and Service, Allan L. , Editors, Quantitative Approaches 
to Higher Education Manage menti Potential, Limits and ChallengeV" 
Washington, D*C*i ERIC Clearinghouse on Higher Education and Amerlcaa 
AsHociation for Higher Education, 1977. 

Leach, Ernest R* "Implementing the Marketing Process." Community and 
Ju nior College Journal , December /January , 1977^78, 20-24, 

Lenning, Oscar T. Previous Attempts to Structure Educatlonal^Out comes and 
O utcome-Related Concepts I A Compilation and Review of the Literature. 
Boulder, Colorado ^ NCHEMS, 1977, 

Lenning, Oscar T. The Outcomes Stru cture: An O verview and Procedures For 

Applying it In Postsecondary-Educatlon Institutions . Boulder, Colorado: . 
' NCHEMS, 1977/ ' 

Lenning, Oscar T* , Lee, Yong S., Mlcek, Sidney S*, and Service, Allan L, 
A Structure for the Outcomes of Postsecondary Education . Boulder, 
Colorado: NCHEMS, 1977* 

Levine, Arthur- Handbook On Undergraduate Curriculum* San Francisco, California i 
Jdssey-Bass, Inc* j Publishers and The Carnegie Foundation for the 
Advau^^ement of Teaching, 1978. : 

* Lippitt, Gordon L. OrEanization Renewalr Achieving Viabili ty In a Changing / 

World . New Yorki Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1969. 

Lombardi, John. "Conmunity College Financing In The Post^Propositlon 13 Era." 
ERIC Junio r College Resource .Review . January, 1979. 

. fl"^ ^ . , \ y ^ ' 

Lombardi, John. Honcampus Colleges i New Gdvernance Patterns For Outreach 
- Programs . Los Angeles, California: ERIC Clearinghouse for Junior , 
Colleges, University of California, March, 1977. 

■ ■ " ' o ' ' ' 

Mann, Richard L. , Thomas, Charles R. , Williams, Richard C, and Wallhaus, 

Robert A. . An Overview of Two Racent Studies of Admlniatrative Computer 
^/ Operations in Higher Education r Boulder , Colbradoi NCHEMS, 1975. \ 


.* Margulias, Newton, and Raia, Anthony P. Organizational Pevalopment ■ Values . 
Process, and .TechnolgBV . New York^ McGraw-Hiir, 1972. 

McClenney, Byron N. "The President as Manager." Commu nity and Junior College 
Journal . April, 1978, 26; 31-33. '~" - ' ' ' ' 

3 " ■■ -- 

* McGregor, Douglas. Th e Professional Manager , New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967. 

. McGregor, Douglas* In John R. Sargent, ffliat An Executive Should Know About 
Laadership , ChlcagOp Ill,i The Dartnell Corporation, 1975." 

* Mclntyre, Catherine E. , and Wales, Christy A, Evaluation of a Non-^Traditlonal 

CQllege: Cost s and Eff actlveness . Seattle i Washington State Board for 
Community College Education, 1976. 

McManis Associates, Inc. /University Associates, Inc. A Guide To Th^ Development 
Of Mission, Goals, Objectives. Per formance Eval uation Measures, and 
Milestones. Washington, D. C. 

Micek, Sidney S. , "An Approach To Outcome Measures Definition, Collection, 

and Use." Outcome Measurements i n Higher Education. L, James Harvey, - 
Contributing Editor, Washlngtan, D,C*: McManis Associates^ Inc. for 
the U*S. Office of Education, Department of Health, Education and 
Welfare, Vol. 1, No, 3, " ^ ^ 

Micek, Sidney S,, and Arney, William Ray. Outcome-Orlented PlanninR in 

Higher Educations An Approach or An Im possibility? Boulder, Colorado: 
NCHEMS, 1973. . 

Mlllef^, John D. , ^Editor. Planning in Higher Education, A Manual For Colleges 
and Universities . Washington, D.C. i Academy For Educational Development, 
Inc., July, 1977. 

Mlliett, John D. Strengthening Community In Higher Education . Washington,^ 
D.C. ! Management Division, Academy for Educational pevelopment, Inc., 

1974. > > . . ' ^ 

* Myers, M. Scott. Every Employee a Mana fferi More Meaningful Work Throufih 

Job Enrichment . Kew Yorki McGraw-Hill Bonk Company, 1970. 

' ,. . ' 

National Association of College and Uniyerslty Business Officers. A College 
Pfanhing Cycle i People Resources Process . Washington,' D.C.: NACUBO, 

1975. ; ' , \, ■ 

* National, Association of College and University Business Officers and National \ 

Center for Higher Education Management Systems; Procedures for ' c 
Deterinlnlng Historical Full C osts. 2d ed. ' Technical Report 65. Boulder, 
Colorado I NCHEMS, 1977, ; 

NCHEMS j P. 0. Drawer; P, Bbulde'r, Colorado 80302 


Odlorne, George S, Management by Objectives . New York i Pitman Publishing 
CorporatlQi>,VJune, 1972, 

Parekhs Satlsh B> XLong-Range Pl anninR; An Institution-Wide Approaeh to 
Increasing Academic Vitality" . New Rochelle, N,Y. : Change MagaEine 
Press, 1977, 

Pray, Francis C, A New Look ;^t Community College Boards of Trustees and 
Presidents and Thei r Relationships. Washington, D.C. i American 
Association of Conmiuriity and Junior Colleges, 1975* 


Priest, Bil' J., and Plckelmani John Increasing Productivity In The 

Community College! An Action-Ori ented Approach. Washington, D.Ci 
American Association of Community and Junior Colleges, 1976. 

Resource Center for Planned Change. A Futures Creating ParadlRmi A Guide 
to Long-Range Planning from the Future for the Future . Washington, 
DpC. r American Association for State Colleges and Universities, 1978* 

Richardson, Richard, Blocker, Clyde E*, and Bender, Louis W. Governance 
for the Two-Year College, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice- 
Hall, Inc., 1972, 

Richardson, Richard C. "Needed i New Directions In Administration." 
Junior College/ Journal , March * 1970, 16=22/ 

Romney, Leonard C Gray, Robert G., and Weldon, H. Kent. "Departmental 
Productivity^ A Conceptual Framework." Internal Document. Boulder, 
Colorado.: NCHEMSj 1978. 

Roueche, John E* , Baker .George A., Ill, and Brownell, Richard L. 
Accountab ility and The Community College. Washington, p,C. : 
Merlcan Association of Conmiunity and Junior Colleges, 197JL." ' 

Rushing, Joe B. Changing Role Of The Conmunity College President In The 
Face Of New Administrative Pressures .- Washington, D,C.: Merlcan 
Association of Coranunlty And Junior Colleges, 1976. 

Slbson, Robert E.' Compengatio u. New Yorki .^COM, 1974. ^ 

Sibson, Robert E. Increasing Employee Productivity . New York i AMACOM, 1976. 

The Chronicle of HlMher Education . Volume XVII, Number 18, January 15, 197|. 

Profesaiohal Institute of AMA. ^erlean Association of ^omnunity and 
, Junio r Colleges Presidents ManaBement Seminar . Dallas, Texas: October' 
. 1974. ' . . , 

Van ^Voorheas, Curtis, King, Marilyn J.* and Cwik^ Petar J, Community College - 
Conmiunity School Cooperatlon i Washington, D.C.f American Association . 
of Conmiunity and Junipr Colleges, March, 1977. 

Vladeckj Bruce C, "Buildings and Budgets i The Overinvestment Crisis." 
Change , December- January, 1978=79, 36-40. 

Wattenbarger , James L. and Starnass Paul Financial Support Patterns 
for Community Colleges . Gainesville, Florida: University of 
Florida, Institute of^ Higher Education, 1976* 

Woolf j Henry Bosley, Editor in Chief. Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary . 
Sprlngfieldj Massachusetts : G* & C» ^Merrlam Company * 1977# 

Young j James H. "Shotgunning for $*" Community and Junl^or College Journal ^ 
November, 1978, 42»44. 

Young, Robert B, , Fletcher^ Suzanne M, , and Rue* Robert Directions 
For The_ Future: An Analysis Of The Community _Sery ices Pimenslon of 
Communi ty Coll eRes * Washington^ D* C, i Center for Community^ Education 
American Association of Community and Junior Colleges In cooperatidn 
with The Office of Comnunity Education Research^ University of Midhigan 
April, 1978* \ 


Rapresentative institutions, selected in consultation with AACJC staff 
members, were visited in November and December, 1979, with the idea of 
describing institutional operations in light of the review of managemenjt 
practices* Visits were arranged to move one from a small, single-unit insti-- 
tution in a rural setting to a very large multi-unit operation in a major 
metropolifn jetting* While the institutions visited are excellent colleges^ 
no attempt is made to say they are the best or models. The colleges are . 

viewed as representative of the wide range of public coiranunity colleges in 

' - ' I " 

the United States. Each institution was approached with a basic set of ques^- 

tions dravm from the review of management. The questions presented in Exhibit 
T were utilised in personal interviews and in a review of . institutional docu- 
ments and reports. It is hoped that in addition to providing background on 
the visits, the questions might also suggest c^ 3 teria for a review of any 
community college. ' 

Reviews of Southeastfrn Community College (North Carolina), Delta College 
(Michigan), and the Coast Community College District (California) are presented 
in narrative form. The narratives are based on interviews with persons at all 
levels of the institutions and a review of documents j with the thrust of each 
effort dasigned to Answer the basic questions. The rev^iews, reflecting oper- ^ 
. ations as of December, 1979, have been critiqued by institutional representa- 
tives to avoid factual .errors* - ^ ,^ J . 


General DesGrlptlon 

Soptheasteth Cbnmmnity College, located in Whitevillej North 'Carolina, 
opened in 1965^ to priiparily serve Columbus County. The institution is a com- 
prehensivai **open door*' college serving approximately 1,850 credit and 1,500 
non-credit students at any given time through its transfer, occupational 
and continuing education offerings. As a state^supported conmiunity college, 
the college has been guided by the General Statutes of North Carolina and the 
standards of the State Board of Education under which a Department of Com- 
munity Colleges has coordinated the efforts of local institutions. The 
12-member Board of ' Trustees is appointed with the County Coiranission, County 
Board of Education and the Governor each appointing four members* Approxi- 
mately 165 full -time and 100 part-time employees work within an operating 
budget in excr^ss of $3 million. Enrollment is equally split between full and 
part-time students, and about 20% of the students attend only evening classes 
The institution is situated in a rural setting and is representative^ of the 
many single-unit colleges located in similar settings throughout the United 
States, ^ ■; 

Review ■ - 

/ There is a clearly defined sert^ice area (Columbus Cotmty) , but approxi- 
mately ^ 30% of the students come from adjacent counties. In order to stay 
in tpuch with needs throughout the' area,' a variety of approaches are taken. 
Advisory, committees, nteetings with persomel officers from area industries. 


is the articulation conference with high school teachers in which the teachers 
are paid a. small stipend to work with college faculty on a discipline»to- 
discipline basis* An annual dinner for high school counselors and visitations 
by college groups to area universities also enable college personnel to both 
assess needs and properly advise SCC students. 

The mission of the institution is clear; it is printed in college publica^ 
tionSi and faculty and staff members seem to work to accomplish the mission. 
Service to students is the clear orientation, and the president reviews annually 
with the faculty and staff a set of overall^ goals designed to move the college 
according to the mission, . ^ " . 

The organizational structure is clearly described in the Personnel Policy 
Handbook which is available to all employees* The Board is described as the 
policy-making group and the responsibility for the administration and opera- 
tion of the college is Vested in the president. It is policy for the Board to 
speak through the chairman to the president and through the president to the 
faculty and staff.. Similarly, the faculty and staff are expected to speak 
through the president to the Board, Position descriptions for all administra- 
tors, faculty and ^taff are included in the Personnel Policy Hajidbook along 
with the policies and procedures governing the operation of the college. 
Deans of Instruction and Student Development , the Director of Development ^ aftd 
the Business Manager report directly to the President* All operating units 
^are theh organized under one of these top-level administrators. All major 
ctinffliittees are described in the Handbook so that all personriel can understand 
the membership and function of the respentive groups. Regular meeting times 

are included In the committee descriptions. The Southeastern CoiTOnunity Col- , 
\^ . . ' . - ' ' ' 

lege Bulletin , the Student Handbook j and the North- Carolina Administrative 

Code (Chapter 4) are avallabie to supplement the infomation contained in the 

Several majoT campus councils function to enhance communication and 
serve in advisory and coordinating roles* The Executive Council includes the ' 
people who report directly to the President, This council meets each Monday 
and appears to be the primary coordinating body for college operations, 
MJ.nutes are prepared to include margi^fll notations of assignments for the vari- 
ous administrators, thereby providing a ready reference for follow-up on activi 
ties* The Administrative Council brings together all supervisory personnel eve 
Qther month for the puipose of information- sharing and to^ serve as a ^'sounding 
boart'* for the President, The Administrative Advisory Council also meets^ 
every other month, but it includes a cross-section of all campus irpups 

including students, ^This representative group provides advice to the Presi- 

^ ■ . 

dent on matters of general concern* 

.? ■ ' ' 

- ^ Other groups include the Faculty Senate which is clearly described as 

the "voice" of the faculty and operates under an adopted. constitution* \ It 

works through an Executive Conmlttee to coimnunicate with the President and 

other administrative officers. Issues like class attendance and merit pay are 

examplts of the items the Senate may discuss, Curricular matters flow 

through the Curricuilum Cotaittee which Is chaired by the Dean of Instruction. 

More^than 20 individuals serve on, the cpmmJ.ttee to assure a broad base, 

Meetings are Ljld each quarter and are conducted ^uccording to an established 

agenda* The Pri f^ssional Development Conmitt^, invol^;^ing faculty members, 

is actively Involved in discussing matters like student raftings of faculty, 

faculty- ratings of administrators, and merit pay. Most of the other signifi- 

" ""-^ ~ ^ " • - ^" ^ ; . / - ^ 

Qant coiranitfee activity during 1979-80 revolves around an institutional 

^ ^ ' ^ ' ^ ■ ' ' ' ^iv ^ ' ' ^ - ■ ' ^ '^ r- 

self- Study guided by^ a steering committee^ Gonmiittees for each^ of the 

n " :'^= — ^ ■ ^ \. - 

standards^ established by the Southern Association have been created to involve 

^ '- ' ^ 

YimT-^m^ ft^nm all 1 ^v^l ^ nf thft 1 fl^titlitlon . ' . 


Tha various councils^ committees , and periodic_peijonnel mocatings .for, . 
all employees provide opportunities for communication regarding all issues, 
concerns, and priorities within the college. The personnel meetings aro 
held each month and all omployoes are expected to attend. These sessions 
follow an agenda coordinated by the Dean of Instruction. Status reports and 
announcoments regarding various projects are shared. 

An *-alr of accountability^' permeates SCC primarily as a result of the 
annual planning process. The process^ a modified approach to MBO* involves 
setting objectives in late August or early September which will provide a 
basis for evaluation in the late Spring of the next year. While efforts are 
not made to quantify all objectives, stress is placed on quarterly reviews on 
progress. The deans, within some flexibility provided by the President^ are 
responsible for conducting the reviews. All departments of the college are 
expected to be involved in the planning process, Wiile SCC does not have 
a comprehensive planning process extending beyond the bounds of one yeari 
there are long-^ range master plans for campus development ,and curriculum 
development. In addition, some annual objectives are recognized as current 
statements of longer- range projects and then extended for several years. 

Articulation with universities provides information for planning the 
transfer courses and coiranunity advisory committees are involved with all' 
technical/occupational programs. Recommendations from the advisory committees 
must flow through the Curriculum Coiranittee before they are recommended to the 
President and the Board. New program proposals must also go to the Department 
of Community Colleges and the State Board of Education for approval. Documen- 
tation of need in the service area for the program must be included in pro- 
posals going to the State. 

In an effort to determine how fonner students are performing, the college 
has done periodic surveys of transfer and occupational program students* 

Response rates have not been high (15-20%), but results indicate that 

Er|c . 97 

transfers porform well and occupational students arc finding employment. 
Additional survey work done recentlr included a follow-up of students who 
,^pplied for admission and did not enroll, u review of the drop-add process, 
and a survey of women to determine levels of interest in athletics. A 
follow-up on rotcntion of students who participated in developmental studies 
courses further illustrates the interest of the institution in determining 
its impact on students. There is also evidence that individual student com- 
plaints are given careful attention. 

Attention to student neeu^ Is" also demonstrated through a wide range of 
student services. Financial aid, counseling, student activities, assistance 
to veterans, and special programs for women and disadvantaged students 
demonstrate a desire to support student learning. Advising is led by a 
faculty member who is given released time to coordinate the efforts of all 
faculty memberSj many of whom advise 20 or more students, ^ In order to provide 
comprehensive services, it has been necessary to combine roles like the per- 
sonnel and counseling functions* 

One person directs the counseling and personnel operations. She ireports 
to the President in the personnel role and to the Dean for Student Development 
in the counseling area* The split reporting relationship apparently works 
because of the quality of working relationships among the parties involved. 
Another example of a combined role involves the development and public infer- 
mation fuictions. Combined roles and defined working relationships such as the 
intei^action of the Business Manager and the Deyelopment Officer in grant 
development indicate effective coordination of college operations. 

Coordination of the instructional area is facilitated by twice^^morithly 
meetings conducted by the Dean of Instruction. Involved in these meetings;are 
the dean^level leaders of the transfer, occupational, and adult education 
progran leaders. The Evening Director, who serves as an advisor to evening 


students, and leaders of the devilopmontal aiid "l ibrary partici-- 
pate in these in format ion- sh.i ring and planning sossions. SchGdules are pro- 
jected one year in advaiicOs and working calcmdars are reviewed so that all 
persons pull together to accomplish the approved plans for the year. The 
leaders who report to the Dean of Instruction then work with department 
coordinators who are faculty members with rraleased time to coordinate depart-- 
mental activities, Department coornMiators then work directly with instructors 
in the various disciplines and programs. All teachers are called instructors 
since there is no system of faculty ranks. While there Is no system of tenure, 
initial employment and the terms of employnient are structured to produce 
clarity for instructors* Due process and termination policies also are 
elearly stated in the Handbook , 

The instructional staff strives to achieve a ratio of 22 FTE students to 
1 FTE instructor 5 and cost data are calculated for faculty members and shared 
with the departments. These cost data are generated manually at present but 
there are hopes that the development of a computer-based information system 
will free personnel from manual computal-l^^^ns. There are, however ^ State 
barriers to computer acquisition at the prebw.* --^^^ An emphasi.s on planning, 
staff development, and performance- appraisal involving faculty members adds 
to the *^air of accountability" felt throughout the institution* Discussions 
are taking place during 1979-80 regarding the place and determination of 
"merit" in salary tncreases. Student ratings have a place in the process, 
but there is considerable debate about the appropriate weighting of this 
factor* There is considerable evidence that faculty have been encouraged to 
attend conferences, take graduate courses^ and attend workshops on campus, 
TTie institution was apparently able to make good use of k'^DP ■funds to 
facilitate the staff development effort. 

• . 99 , ■ . ' 


" '- ^ - iB adclition-to staffs-development ef fOTtSy^-considerabie time has . been 

spent on clarifying roles, classifying positions, appra'^^^ formance, and 

clarifying the bases for salary placement and salary ir , ; . ^i; A six-year 
effort is underway to achieve internal equity for faculfi . = ^ A formula 

has been developed to take into account preparation, experifc/ nd annual 
merit to detemine contract amounts. At present, the experienct; ■ members are 
the ones to be held back until the struuture can be fully impJomented, In 
addition, salary ranges have been developed for all classified positions, each 
of~which is based on ^a position description. All faculty and ^^taff members 
are encouraged to develop a professional development or personal plan, the 
accomplishment of which will contribute to the merit consideration in salary 
determinations. As with most institutions, available resources do not stretch 
to cover. all aspirations regarding compe* sation. 

Since State appropriations are based on enrollment during the previous 
year, the institution is really a year behind on the formula funding. State 
funding also includes some rnstricted lines which further limit the institu- 
tional flexibilii-y. To compensate for the funding lag and lack of flexibility, 
the College has been forced to be proactive in seeking resources. Effective 
presentations to the County CoTranlssion have produced an amount equal to about 
6% Oi the operating budget to be applied to operation of the physical plant. 
Creation of an energy conservation program and careful line-item contparisor.s 
have helped the staff demonstrate accoimtabillty to the Commission. Sinr^ 
the buildings incoTDorate approximately 142,000 square feet on a 106-acre cam- 
pus, the relationship with the Coimty will cotitinue to be important. Good use 
was made of an .^IDP grant and a new three-year SDIP grant has been approved. 
The College also has a foundation which has an annual fund arive ($40,000 
goal) to help supplement other sources of revenue. Resulting scholarships for 


.students serve as a vital part of the marketing efforts. A number of small 
grants round-out the resource picture for SCC since all tuition collected is 
forwarded to the State* Student activity fees are retained to provide a base 
for student activity programs. An appropriate program to enhance retention of 
students was discosse i in a recent personnel meetiTig, with stress placed on 
the fact that headcount enrollment is now stable. The implications in a 
formula- funded situation are clear and most s*aff members seem ' termined to 
increase retention rates. Attention to retention rates certainly holds promise 
for SCC in view of the stable headcount enrollment. 


Southeastern Community College is well organized and appears to be fulfill- 
ing Its mission in Columbus County, North Carolina, The Board has high regard 
for the President and his role as the chief operating officer. Significant 
efforts are extended to involve persons at all levels of the organization in 
the process of internal governance* ^ Policies and procedures are clearly 
stated and available to all faculty and staff members* Attention has been 
given to annual planning, performance-appraisal, and staff development in ways 
to produce an "air of accountability" which is both a positive feature and a 
future challenge for the institution,. 

The College will be challenged %o maintain a balance between the concerns 
for proluction or performance and people- oriented concerns related to the 
freedom to create and respond in flexible ways to changes in the environment. 
The annual planning and follow-up activities should keep the institution mov- 
ing toward reaching its goals, but care must be taken to avoid a paper-oriented, 
time-consuming process which could frustrate individual initiative and hurt 
morale. The College seems to be up to this challenge* 


DeVeioprnent of r^Ti integrated data base for the in-tormation system, 
acquisition of addllLonal computer hurdwaro, completion of plans for salary 
equity, resolution of the ;^cbate on merit pay, and possible extension of the 
planining activity beyond the bounds of one year would seem to hold promise 
for sec in the future. The SDIP grant comes at a good time for an institution 
which apparently made good use of AIDP funds. Good leadership has been pro- 
Videdj the Board is supportive, and^ mnnagement processes are in place to help 
the College adapt to the challeiiges of its future. 

1 02 

Delta College* foundGd in 1961, enrolls more than 9,000 students in 
credit .coursas at any given time. Aiiproximately 200 full-time and more than 
300 part-time teachers staff the diverse offerings. In addition, 170 adminis 
trative, support ai^d classified personnel work to serve residents of the 
Midland-Bay Clty-Saginnw area of Michigan. The /institution is a comprehcnsiv 
*-open door" college providing instruction on a large campus, in more than 20 
off-campus centers, and via open-circuit television. Enrollment appears to 
be equally split between college transfer courses and a wide array of occupa- 
tional programs* Non-credit enrollment ajso is spread aci^oss diverse commu- 
nity education offerings. A nine-member board elected by voters in a three- 
county area oversees operation of t-ic institution, with funding provided by 
a local mlllage (38%), state support (33%), tuition and foes (26%), and 
grants or other outside-sources (3%). College operations are conducted 
wlthiit an operating, budget approaching $17 million* Enrollment is drawn 
from a service-area population of more than 400,000 located in a region with 
a mix of major industries and agricultural interest^^ Delta College is repre 
sentative of the many large, singli-unit colleges located throughout the 
United States, 

Review , 

There is a clearly defined service area in which Delta has become highly 
visible. Mailing of schedules and brochures tc residents, operation of a 
public television station, establishment of off-campus centers, and a well- 


funded marketing effort seem to have contributed to the accDptance in the 
various communities. Use of numerous advisory conmiitteos and techniques like 
including a needs survey forni in schedules have helped the staf/ stay in - 
touch with copiunity needs, even though no comprehensive surveys have been 
done in the tri-county area. 

The Senate H andbnok contains a mission staternent and a set of major 
goals adopted by the Board in 1976, The goals have recently been augmented 
by the introduction of '-Dimension * SO" which has been described by the prer i- 
dent as a way of inviting interested college personnel to join in an effort 
to examine criticai concerns for the next decade. Some personnel were not 
sure how to respond to what was seen as a change in style on the part of a 
president whose tenure reaches back to 1964. Both the introduction of a new 
thrust by the president and an uncertain response by faculty and staff can 
be understood when one observes the longstanding "family" atmosphere on the 
campus. The College has a^so been visible, successful and innovative when 
suddenly, along with many others, the institution must face stabilizing enrol 1= 
ment, raging inflation and the pressures brought about by legislative ques- 
tioning about the future funding of higher education. In that mix of outside 
, pressures, people on campus are beginning to talk about how they can plan 
their future* 

College personnel are also realizing the need to step up the activity 
level in community needo-assessment , In the past it has been enough to offer 
a wide array of credit jnd non-credit courses, market the offerings through 
an effective ^promotional campaipi and scramble to find ways to serve the 
incoming students, IVhile advisory coiranittees have been helpiml in the past, 
people are now talking about a comprehensive survey of needs in the tri-county 
service-area of the, college. More foCTial survey work has, however, been done 



within the College. Delta was a pilot institution for the Educational Tast- 
ing Service Student Reaction to Col leg© program rind several follow-up studies 
have been completed in recent years. 

The concem for studonts, evident when one talks with faculty and staff, 
underlies the organization of the College, From what faculty and staff con- 
sider to be an enlightbned board to a president who wants to create an atmos- 
phere in which people can get things done, support has been provided for 
diverse and innovative programming. There has been very little stress on 
codification of rules and regulations and, in factj there is no forinal policie 
and procedures handbook. The Senate Handbook fills the fole to some extent, 
but during the growth years there has been little felt need for a more formal 
approach^ There is a clear understanding that policies are created at the ^ 
board level, procedures are developed as needed to implement policy and 
guidelines are frequently issued to provide guidance for various activities. 
The situation has been good for Delta because of a stable board and continuity 
at the presidential level. In fact, two children of original board members 
are currently serving on the nine-member board. 

Board members are kept informed through monthly meetings in which the 
agenda includes a preview of future agenda items, items for action, a review 
of future events of significance to members and a presentation of general 
information rovering a wide range of topics, Com..:unl cat ions from the bDard 
flow through the president in most" instanceSi but there are situations in 
which board members are directly involved with faculty and staff. For 
example, sabbatical leave requests and grievances come before groups includ- 
ing board representation. The president has no problem describing the board 
members as his "bosses^' who expect him to provide administrative direction 
and keep them informed. " , , 


• ■ 1015 


The internal organization has been structured so that ten key staff mem- 
bers report to the president;. Deans of academic affairs, student affairSs 
community affairs and administrative affairs report directly to the president 
along with an assistant and leaders in college relations, televisions research 
and development and personnel. The controller and a business manager also 
report to the chief executive. These leaders come together with three faculty 
members to form the Administrative Council which meets only when the president 
is present to conduct the meeting* The meetings tend to be devoted to informa 
tion-sharing and cpordinatipn of work rather than to institutional decision^ 
making. The Academic Councils on the other hand, appears to be more involved'' 
in the decision-making process. 

The Academic Council includes all division chairmen from instruction, 
representatives from the LRC and student affairs and the three associate deans 
who rotate the chairmanship. In addition to information- sharing and coordi- 
nation, the group formulates reconmiendations in instruction and curriculum. 
It is worth noting that the chairmen are selected to serve three-year terms 
as division heads following the nominatiun of three candidates by division 
faculty members. The person selected as chairman is then given release from, 
teaching assignments during the term of office^in soma cases a full release, 
and in others less, depending on the number of disciplines and the number of 
faculty in a division, 

TTie major policy recommending body in the college is the Senate, This 
groups in place since the early 1960'S| was created on the basis of the AAUP 
'^Joint Statement," Trie existence of the Senate is often cited as the reason 
that Delta is only one of two community colleges in Michigan without a 
faculty union. Avoidance of a "we- they" attitude is also cited as- an outcome 
of this representativ.e group of faculty and professional staff. The presi- 
dent serves on the executive committee of the Senate and often takes recom- 
menaations directly to the Board following deliberations of the Senate, 


: * 15 ' 


1 ■ 

People on campus cle?irly perceive that path as a prinmry way for policy issues 
to flow through to the Board. Members pf the Faculty Rxocutive Committee in 
particular sec reforra] of policy items to the Senate as tho way to process 

recommendations* | 


The Senate Handbook contains appointment procedures for personnel , i;ro- 


cedures for promotion and tenure 5 grievance procedures, the process foi 


requesting sabbatical leaves^ evaluation procedureSs and the application for 
educational grants. As mentioned, earlier^ the publication serves for the 
faculty and professional staff as a policies and procedures handbook. 

In addition to the Administrative and' Academic Councils and the Senates 
the Budget Committee fills a key role in college operations. This group 
includes the chief fiscal officer who serves as permanent vice-chairman of 
the committee. The representative committee including three faculty members 
appointed by the presidents has a rotating membership thereby exposing many 
people to the pressures and Ghallengos of balancing a budget. Tho committee 
charge is to recommend to the president an operating budget for the next f is- - 
cal .year. The w^rk of the group is launched in Docember when members receive 
current budget detail; a set of working definitionSs and a budget message 


from the president and the fiscal officer. Meetings start in oarly February and 
budget hearing^ are held beginning in the midclle of February* Each college unit 
makes a presentation prior to an effort by the committee tp structure a recom- 

mended budget. Included in' the review work, will be a projection of credit 

" ■ ' ^ \ . ^ ^^^^ ^' ' 

hours by activity cost centers. 

Future work of the budget committee is going to be difficult because a ' 

State index- places Delta as number 28 out of 29 institutions in state aid per 

student. There is alfso a "cap'' of a 7.7% increase in local income above Wjj 

r . ' .... : 

level for last year which is imposed \by state guidelines. In addition^ Delta 


tuition rates are the second highest among all community colleges. ^Coupiod 

with a stable enrollment, the income limitations are causing poople on campus 

to rf?alize. the importance of establishing institutional priorities for the 

allocation and re-^al location of resources. It is safe to predict a growing 


interest in long-range planning among various groups on campus* 

One of the challenges for Delta will be to pull together the wealth of 
available information from several data bases into an Integrated information 
system for uecision-making. The necessary ingredients are present such as an 
interest in research, evidence of previous costing studies > computer hardware, 
and a need to have mere information in the establishment of budget /priorities. 
A ntmiber of computer applications like on-line registration^ inventory control 
and accounting reports indicates that Delta has the equipment andfthe talent 
to extend its system to include an on-line personnel system desired by the 
personnel officer* 

The realm of personnel systems Is an area in which considerable work is 
underway, particularly work with classified staff. There is a^ lO-member*' * 
Classified Personnel Policies Committee meeting on a monthly basis ^ 'and a 
Classified Job Description Review Committee is now in place.' A classification 
of all jobs on the basis of job content utilizing a point system should be 
complete during 1979-80, All positions will be placed in pay grades which 
include steps for salary inprefnents. Evaluation of performance will then be 
based on the job descri^j^n* S^tress is also being placed, on helping super- 
visors downplay personality as a factor in evaluations. The apparent stress ^ 
on identifying required skills and experience required of one who will fill 
any job, the specification of major duties and responsibilities^ arid the link- 
ing ;:f evaluation with the job description should provide a solid basis for 
continued open commimication which appears to ^,a characteristic of working 
relationships at Delta* ' 

... '17 

Excellent salaries and wages also work together with good relationships 
to keep satisfaction at a high level. There is an apparent '^policy" decision 
to keep salaries and wages in the top one- third for all community colleges in 
Michigan. Jmpending pressures are evident * however, when one observes that 
83% of the operating budget is in salaries^ wages and fringe benefits. 'In an 
-effor-t~to-keep benefits high and costs low, the college recently developed^ 

its own Dental Assistance Allowance Plan. ' • 

_ 1 

Delta has had a low turnover rate in both the faculty and classified 
ranks'due in part to the ^^family** feejlng, gX)od compensation levels, and' 
desirable living conditions in the area. Given the stable enrollment picture 
and the fact that many faculty and staff members have been there for. many 
years, staff development will assume a more important role. Faculty members 
are talking about how to avoid ^^bum out^* and others are talking about how to 
maintain the characteristic high standards for ^perform'ance. Those elements 
work together to provide a good climate for staff development activities. 
The resources are available as evidenced by the fact that, the institution ^ 
makes available mori than $100,000 in a fiscal year for professional develop- 
ment allowances and travel. The desire to maintain a quality; innovative 
institution should add impetus to staff development efforts. 

There is o^e group likely "to be overlooked in an institution experiencing 
rapid growth and success. That -group includes middle-^managers and even top- 
level administrators in some settings^ When things are goings well and resources 
are abundant, there is little motivation to clarify roles^ and reporting lines 
and focus on compensation of the^se managers. When resources shrink and when 
.priorities must fee put In place, these managers are in key roles md need 
clarity regarding how their im its should relate to all others. They also need 
to know when they can make decisions and when they need to refer items. It is 

also predictable th^t when they feel new pressures they Mil begin to wonder . 
about the, basis for evaluation and determination of compensation* All of the 
above-mentioned variables are surfacing at .Delta, but given the high level of 
trust and support for personnel, ,the institution is in a better position than 
most to provide clarification leading to continued high performance of the 
administrative team. A by-product of ^clarification at Delta is likely to be 
enhanced coordination across lines in the organization, 

-^Concem for people, a characteristic cited several times, also surfaces 
in the effort to keep people informed about college operatiohs* There is a _ 
daily **Bulletin^' for students so they may be aware of the diverse progfams ^ 
and also> to make them aware of important announcements. The "Interlink*' is 
published each week to fill the same role-_for all personnel, 


^ - c ■ _ 

Concern for students, so obvioiis in diverse student services and alter- 
native Instructional -strategies, has carried over into a review of student 
attrition. Project S,T. A, , involving ^volunteer faculty and staff members, 
is seeking to improve the retention rate of new students. More than 100 

volunteers are each seeking 'to establish a relationship with 10 to 12 new stu- 


dents in order to help the students make a smooth transition tp collfge life. 
College services are explained and referrals are made to provide a "support 
structure" for the students. Delta has certainly perceived that one w^y to 
QOpe with stabilizing enrollment is to focus on service to and retention ^o^ 
current students. \ 

Mother way to .cope with declining resources has been perceived by Delta 
personnel. Conservation and consolidating efforts are beginning to pay • 
dividends for the institution. A secretarial '»pool" of three "floaters" has 
brought greater efficiency, a computer-managed air conditioning and heating 
system should conserve energy, leasing of surplus land to farmers will produce 



income, buying of gasoline in volume has reduced cOLts^ and use of student 
employees to plck-^up supplies from local vendors Has enhanced service to col- 
lege units. The examples illustrate the potential at Delta for cost-^savings^ 
without a sacrifice of desirable quality levels. There also appears to be a 
growing interest in an analysis of room utilization on campus which could 
lead to greater efficiency. Again^ the climate at Delta is conducive to plan-- 
ning' a secure future. 

Assessment ^ ' 

Delta College is a successfinT^yisible-^and— innovative^ 
It cooperates with community agencies ^ faculty and staff members are proud to^' 
be in^olvedj and students ard able to select fr^m a diverse '*menu*^ of formal 
and informal learning opportunities* Stability and continuity have/ been pre^ 
sent at the board and presidential levels, and financing has been more than 
adequate to enable the institutioii to be a leader in commumity college educa- 
tion, A "family" atmosphere hp^ helped the college avoid the typical "we-they 
relationships. In summary. Delta is a strong institution. It will be in a - 
good position to cope with the pressures of the next decade if identified 
challenges can be met, , ■ / 

People at all levels of the college are beginning to perceive the signifi 
cant challenges. More extensive needs-assessment in the communityj establish- 
ment of funding priorities on the basis of program needSj staff development 
to maintain the vitality of faculty and staff, clarification of administrative 
roles, consolidation of data bases into an integrated information system^ and 
establishment of a planning process seem to head the agenda for Delta, The 
institution may also face a need to codify more of its policies and procedures 
in order to achieve clarity and the proper coordination necessary to plan the 

, 111 , ^ ^z,. 


future in the face of stable enrollmant, inflation and declining'' resources • . 
The college deflriitely seems to be up to the challenge, , = 


o \ 



General Descriptldn - 

Coast Conununity College District operates thrie community colleges 
and an open- circuit television station along the coastal area of Orange County, 
Califomia, ' ' ' 

There are more than half-a-milllon residents in the eight cities com- 
prising the district. It is reported that the system ranks number one :Lri the 
IMited States with citiien participation in courses and community service 
activities. Providing the pervlces are two campus-based colleges and a dis- 
trict-wide college without a campus. Orange Coast College opened in 1947 In 
^tKe-c-lt-y^-o£^CostLM^ followed in 1966 by the opening of Golden West College 
in Huntington Beach. Coastline, the college without walls, opened in 1976 to 
extend lifelong learning opportunities for all district residents, % 

Th.e system serves more than 30,000 in ADA (Average Dally Attendance) 
which at any given time may approach 70,000 headcount in credit offerings, 
Coiranunity Service participations number in the hundreds-of-thousands during a ' 
fiscal year. Total income and expenditures including capital projects and 
auxiliary operations approach $70 million. Since no tuition Is charged, 
revenue has historically come from district taxes (40%), State allocations 
(39%) , federal (8%) , and othPT sources completing the balance. TTie state 
revenue percentage has now moved to approxim,itely 75% following the passage 
of Proposition 13. The matiple thousands of students are served by a full- 
time equivalent certificated staff of mpre than 1,000. In addition, hundreds; 
df classified stafC provide support services. V 


The colleges and KOCE-TV provide offerings as diverse and comprehensive 
as any to be found in the Ifriited States. The system is also representative 
of the large multi-unit operations found in the metropolitan areas of the 
country. It is governed by a fiva-member BJard of Trustees whose individual 
terms run for four years* 

Review , 

Operation of the district within prescribed boundaries is in accord with 
California's Master Plan for Higher Education. Within the service-area there 
, are clear guidelines on the role to be played by each institution. A "home 
' college" concept is used to designate primary responsibility for each program 
and the courses comprising the program. Courses within programs may be - 
offered by sister colleges with permission from the "college with primary 
responsibility. All institutions have comprehensive transfer offerings. 
u^Dgraphic criteria have been developed to establish boundaries for community 
service .(non- credit) offerings like a lectu:re"'serias. Orange Coast and 
Goldeh -West are responsible for everything offered on their respective cam- 
puses and Coastline is responsible for all offerings in the system which are ^ 
not physically located on one of the two^^ campuses. Exceptions will be by 
mtutal agreement of the college presidents with the concurrance of the 
chancellor. ^ ^> ■ ^ * 

The chief executive employed by the board is the chancellor to whom all 
th^ college presidents report. The incumbent has been the chief executive since 
.1963, iHustrating the stabiUty and continuity characteristic of the Coast 
District. Board members have been supportive, active in professionai associa- ■ 
tions, and clear on the difference between policy-making and administration. 
The chancellor has been, expected to keep,, the system in, the forefront of the 

commujiity college movements an expectation translated Into an acceptance of risk- 
taking on the part c ' top administrators and the institutions, Tho colleges 
have been given considerable autonomy as evidenced by three very different 
patterns of organization* 

I The board meets twice each month to consider lengthy agendas. Informa- 

.tion-sharing may consume most of the meeting before action items are considered, 

addition to. information items there will be a consent calendar^ personnel 
reports coded by college^ course revisioriSj textbook approvals ^.approval of 
warrants, approval of bids and change order^s, authorization of student trips. 

conference attendance approvals, salary schedule changes and other items sub^ 
mit^ad by the chancellor on behalf of the colleges- In simmaryj a Coast District 
boar^ member will be very well informed regarding all aspects of district and 
college operations, . , 

The district staff reporting to the" chancel lor is small consideringi the 
magnitude of the operation. Included are the executive vice-chancellor for 

business, a vice-chancellor for employiee-relation a vice-chancellor for edu- 

\ - ■■ ' ■ ' ■ '' ' 

cafional planning and vocational education, the general counsel and directors 
for ^nfo/mation services, physical facilities, community relations and telecom- 
munications* These officers comprise the Chancellor's Cabinet which is not 
directly^ involved in policy formulation. The Chancellor's Coimcil which meets 
"on call'\ is directly involved in developing policy recommendations* Membership 
includes the key district office administrators, the presidents and faculty^ 
senate chairman from the collegas. The chancellor also views this group as a 
primary . "s^tmding board'' for naw ideas. 

The Wlleges utilize groups similar to the Chancellor's Council as pri^ 

■■■ \- ; ^ , " . ^ - . ' . ' / \ 

mary policy \ recommending groups* Orange Coast has an Administrative Cabinet 
including ll\ division chairman, the deans, and reprasentatives of the Faculty . 

Senate and the Associated Students, This group meets three tinies each month* 
Golden West has a 20»member College Couricil which meet ce every three weeks* 
Included in the group are administrators, faculty mem classified staff and 

students.. Coastiine has a SO-member, representative Advisory Council which 
meets on the first Wecbiesday of each month. ... 

Reference, has been made to the role of the faculty f ^f?^'y4MbQ|h^mth^^^ 
campuses and at the district level and a special note about an important transi- 
tion is in order. The system is involved for the first time in collective bar- 
gaining with the AFT as the agent for full= time faculty .^d the California 
Teachers Association (CTA) as the agent for part-time faculty. The latter group 
becomes the central group for Coastline since it has only 25 full-time teachers 
arid literally hundreds of part-time instructors. While the various. senate 
representatives hope that their groups will retain their former role in academic 
decision-making, 1979-80 is definitely s year of transition and uncertainty. 
Classified staff are in their second year under a -negotiated contract, and this 
too is introducing a new dimension as bargaining en wages is undertaken during 

1979-80, These changes would be dramatic in any setting, but given the past 

_. t ... 
success of the Coast District while maintaining informality, a sense of pride, 

trusting relationships and a sense of "family,** the micertainty is understandable, 

* f One is driven to talk about pre-13 and post- 13 in .talking about the 

district. Resources 'were abundant and innovation was encouraged prior to Pro- 


position 13, but fo] lowing the passage there was a ripple of insecurity through- 

4. ■ . ^ ^ , \ ■ . ' ^ 

out tTie district. There is Concern about loss of local control since state 

fimding will now comprise 80% or more pf the revenue. There was also a major 

concern about a reduction in total revenue available to operate the district. 

An expected reduction of 15% during 1978-79 was actually an 8% reduction. The - 

reduction led to some reduction in force primarily through attrition, by not 


filling Vacant positions, and through some personnel transfers within the 
system. An expected enrollment decline in 1979-8.0 did not materialize and the 
expected decline in revenue may actually be converted to an increase of seven 
or eight percent* Still when one considers the rate of inflation and the decline 
in revenue during 1978-79, it is clear that it could not be "businesa as u^ual" 

i;4S r^^ r^n^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^ ^g g ^ ^ ^^_o^ja--^ ]^^^^^Lriy^ couLd be funded ^^era^ 

is now talk about pressure on reserves and re-allocation of resources ^ Where 
once there had been a real feeling of "familys" there is now the uncertainty 
of collective bargaining results* An examination of the official response to 
the dramatic changes should certainly be helpful to others who face similar 
pressures, , 

^* Included in objectives set by the board for 1979-80 are the following: 

1. Increase retention district-wide by 10% 

2. Achieve an ADA of 30,500. 

3. Establish mutually satisfactory agreements with the AFT and 
CTA. • 

4. Develop a community assessment proposal that will result in 
current data for future planning. 

5. Prepare long-range (S-year) plans for KOCE and for Informa- 
tion Services, 

6. Revise and update the Board Policies and Procedures Manual . 
7* Maintain and improve internal and external communications. 

8. Increase the number of students in the television market by * " 

15%. . 
9* Increase external funding for television activities by 20%,^ 


10. Develop additional contacts with high school students to 
generate interest in attending community college* 


Increasing retention/ conmiunity assessment, planning, updating, ppjicies and 
procedures, enhancing*, comnunicationj proactive resource' development , and 
recruitment of students comptise the agenda for Coast and hundreds of community 
colleges across the country*^ 

By virtue' of its newness and non-traditional nature^ Coastline may bo in 
the best position to respond.quiG^) ^to naw pre^gjiTj-,g^T^gnti^4 in the 
objectives for 1979-80. It has been involved in considerable community assess- 
ment during three and one-half years of operation. It is also" noteworthy that 
Coastline was the first non-campus institution to receive full accreditation 
by the Western Association of Schools and CQlleges. The organization of the . 
service-area into four administrative areas with the line administrators Oasso- 
ciate deans) in the field, a mail registration process utilized by two-thirds 
of the students, the student average age of 38, the utilization of more than 
70b part-time instructors, and the utilization of numerous community facilities 
combine to give. Coastline an ability to be flexible and adapt in ways that 
more traditional colleges are unable to reach* 

^ Orange Coast with its emphasis on a flat organiEattonal structure and 
with stress placed on conmunication processes also ^has ihe ability to adapt 
with changing priorities. The changing priorities within the district are 
raising concerns, however, about what some refer to as ' "over-management as a 
potential problem in the future. Given the fdtt that this was the first col- 
lege and that many faculty and staff members have been there for years. It is 
easy to understand the concern that future changes might take away autonomy 
and campus flexibility, * 

Golden West recently completed a reorganization which resulted in the 
. elimination of Instructional divisions and consolidated instruction into three 
institutes of about 3,500 PTE students each. The consolidation coupled with 


extensive work in setting priorities leading up to the reduction of resources 
has prepared the faculty and staff to understand the thrust identified by the 
Board objectives for 1979-80, ^ 

Each institution' in its own way has the ability to adapt to future pres- 
sures, but the challenge is going to bo how to codrdinate the efforts on a 
district-^d^p^asis . Each, .of^ the rnll^R ^, j j^ ^^ l^'r^jp^ iL 

organizational clarity. They also have had the ability to fund '^wish lists" 
in the past* Purther, they have had considerable autonomy so that . decisions 
could be made "close to the action" in the words of the chancellor, - Given 
relatively different college patterns of development and given present dis- 
trict needs as reflected in the objectives* integrated planning will become 
more important for the system* Related to the planning thrust will be th^e 
need to develop information for planning and decision-making* a need recognized 
by people at all Levels of the system. 

It should be noted that Coast has had a computing center sincL 1958* but 
in recent years the computing power available has not been fully utilized 
for an integrated information system. Extensive computer-assisteci' instruc- ' 
tion has been supported, however* particularly at the two campus-based col- 
leges. Personnel at several levels, are beginning to realize where the system 
has "missing links" in infonnation processing. It is likely that a. higher 
priority for aflmini strati ve functions will emejge both in response to per^ 
ceived needs and to meet the needs for state reports which can be used to 
good advantage as management tools within the district* A complete informa- 
tion system could easily emerge given the coinput'ing power* the wealth of 

available information and the perceived need to integrate the system* 

' ' ' \. - ' " - ' 

TTiere was a planning"' task formed following the passage of Proposition 

^ ' ■ ~ . • ■ ~ 

13 and this group made an exdellent start in preparatlon.of information for . 

plaiining. However, with the availability of sufficient state funds to avert 
Q. major crisis^ the need for planning mov&d to a lower priority and the group 
became somewhat inactive. In additionj many units in the district and on the 
campuses have done some planning^ but what staff members are perceiving as 
the need is to develop an integrated process that involves the operational 

usual budget preparation activity. 

There has been a district budget conmittee working in an advisory 
relationship to the executive vice-chancellor for business. This 16-member 
body involves faculty, staff and administrators from the colleges and the 
television station. The group reviews the financial condition of the dis- 
trict, conducts studios of selected operations ^ and stays in tou^ with legis 
lation which may have an impact on the funding level. The "missing link" in 
this activity, as perceived by some participants, is a sense of priority on 
what is desirable. The integrated planning process, supported by the inte- 
grated information systemj can provide the priorities sought by members of 
the budget coiranittee. These elements will certainly be in place if the dis^ 
trict reaches its objectives for 1979-80 • If the past sets the pattern for 
the future, actual budget-making will in itself continue to be a "ground up" 
process from division- to-college-to-district* 

There is one major cantraliEed function in this system which has created 
so much individual autonomy for its colleges. The personnel function is 
handled in the district office, a placement which is likely to be solidifjed 
with the onset of collective bargaining with the various employee groups'. 

e -•■ _ - 

The system has a position classification structure and classified salaries 
are dete™ined from a district-wide table. There are five steps within each 
grade of the wage structure and an employee reaches the maximum salary in 

four and one-half years. .Individual claiifiad employees do riot necessarily 
/have unique position descriptions, but each one is assigned to a systemrwide 
description. The district plans to conduct a position audit by extpmal 
evaluations within the next year to determine the effectiveness of the classi- 
fication, structure. 

The personnel office is directly involved in position announcements* 
changes in position descriptions , compliance activity Mid in facilitating 
the personnel evaluation activity. The procedures that are followed seam to 
be generally understood even though all. procedures have not been included in ^- 
a handbook or manual for general use. This understanding is most likely 
linked to the longstanding "family** feeling and high morale. Proposition 13 
and tWe subsequent anxiety and the advent of collective bargaining will likely 
push the district to fonnaliEe in^ Writing the procedures to be followed in 
..personnel matters. The fact that salaries and wages have been high in the 
past Would also. seem to e^^lain the relative stability. Faculty and staff 
members realize ^they have been in the top 10% for salaries and benefits in 
California coiranunity colleges, a ranking sought tjirough a "policy position" 
taken by the board. 

Related to good salaries in attracting and holding good personnel has 
been a supportive staff development program. The program has utilized the 
maiiy higher education institutions in the area. Employeas are provided tui- 
tion and. fee support and leaves Vlth partial salary support in soma cases. 
Increasing interest is also being expressed for more job-ra^lated, in-house 
progranuning. iTie 'interest ift more in^house programs should '^help the district 
md the colleges cope with the: pressures Qf ^the ftitura by providing for more 
invol/Vemerit on^he part of employees at all levels. - 

'Inqreased interest in the netds of pe^la has not been lindtedjto faculty 
'and staff. Fqllow-up surveys of students using a sampling technique are 

likely to be expandod if current plans are completed. There is' interest at 
all levels o£,the district in doing more community assessment, in reviewing 
j programs to sod if they are meeting needs and then in --fine tuning" programs 
to utiliz;e what is discovered* The district seems to be npving from simple 
promotion of programs^ which has^ been successful, to incorporation of a full 
marketing concept which takes into a;ccount the results of research done 
within and outside the institutions^. * 

Assessmen t - " ; , 

The Coast District has b%en strong and successful both collectively 
Cdistrict) and individually Ccolleges], and separate "case studies could be 
written on humerou.^ innovations undertaken during recent years. Funding has v 
been adequate * as aumonstrated by the f^ot tHat ,the cpipuses are debt free 
and thkt salaries haye been kept in the top 10% for California community coX.3 
leges* Stability and readership characterize the top administrators, and the 
district ha§ been boosted by a? professional and forward-looking boai^d. Con- 
siderable autonomy ha%been delegated to the colleges mfld this has been appro 
ciated ^ by campus personnel. There has been room* for considerable- creativity 
and risk-taking which in turn has led to the development of an i^mpressive 
array of instructional opportunities, s^,adent services and .cojmnunity' services 
p TTie district is* now facing unprrjceden ted change,, however, as. a result of 
Proposition 13 and the advent of ^ collect ivf bargaining. ^ 

The board has recopiiEed the challenges of the ^future in creation of 
objectives for 1979-80* Cojranunity assessment. Integration of an informStion 
system, development of. a planning proc&ss to involve operational units,, 
updating policies and procedures, focus on ^Bcrultment' and retenticm of 
stud^nts^i and working to matirtain and enhance conununicatioTi during a time of 

transition comprise an exciting agenda for the future. The Coast District 
is uncommonly well prepared to face these challenges. What it must do is to 
follow through on identified paths for the future. 


Case-^Studv Questions 

1* Are there clear service^area boundaries? 

2. Do you have ongoing processes in place to determine 
educational Hfeeds in the service=area? 

3, la the collage (district) mission clearly defined? 

4* Is the mission based on needs in the service-area? 

5. Do you have evidence that college (district) , 
employees are cQmmitted to the mission? ^ 

6* Do you have clearly defined college (district) 

7, Is the organizational structure clearly defined? 

8* Is program development based on needs-^asaessment 
data? . 

9* Are the manpower needa of service-area employers 
well understood by college (district) staff 
members? * 

'10, Are community advisory committees involved, in the 
development apd evaluation of programs? 

11, Are there regular efforts extended to detemlne 
the extent to which constituencies have been 
aatlsfled? ^ ^ o 

12, Are college policies and procedures readily 
available to all employees? 

13, Is the process of governance clearly defined? 

14, Are trie various administrative roles clearly 

15* Do you have a systematic plmnlng process in. 
operation? ^ 

16, Are resources allocated on the basis of systematic 
V planning? ^ . 

17, Does ths planning process extend beyond the bounds 
of one fiscal year? . ^ " ^ 

18, Are the efforts of the ysrlous units of the coilege 
(district) coordinated to move the institution 
towmrd accomplistoent of goals? 

Case-Study Questions 
Page Two 

^ Work 

Yes No Underway 

19. Do you have position descriptions for all 


20p Do you have a process for the appralisal of 

individual performance? ■ 

21, Do you have a clearly understood policy on salary 

and wage admlnlat ration? ' 

22, Are ef forts made to relate costs to benefits or 

outcomes? . ; ^" 

23* Are processes in place t ^ determine whether 
or not events conform to plans? 

24. Do you have a management information systCTi which 
provides appropriate and timely Infonnatlon for 

d e ci s 1 on^making ?- 

25. Is there a "positive regard" between the CEO and 
the board? 

26, Are college administrators aware of the extent to 
which they establish the organisational climated 

27* Are participative patterns of leader and group 
behavior encouraged? 

28* Are high standards set for individual and college 
unit perf ormancjt? 

29. Are personnel systems viewed as satisfactory by 

30. Do employees experience high levels of job 

31. Are there staff development programs for all 
employee groups? 

32. Is there an organl zed iMrka ting or public relations 

33. Is the college (district) proactive in resource 
. deveiopmant? ' ' 

34», .Is th^re Information available regarding student 
.attrition rates? ^ " 

?35r Ar^af forts being extended to reduce student 

Case-Study Questloni 
Page Three 



36, Is the college (district) collecting evidence of 
student learning? 

37* Do you conduct follow-up studies of graduates and 
former students? 

38. Ate there cooperative ventures with other community 

39, Are efforts extended to measure efficiency? 

40* Are efforts being extended to increase productivity?^ 



fERlCl Cr^AMI^GKOUSS foil 

es mwMJL w^TiMkt Bvnsmo 

qOT 1? 1980 


Byron McClanney 
October ,\l979