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DOC 0 BE NT BESOHE 



BO 211 1«t6 JC eiO 65C 

AOTHOF fuller, jack i. 

TITLE HBO [Management by Objectives]: A Primei for 

Educational Managers. 
POE DAM 81 
NOTE 27p. 



EDFS PEICE MF01/PC02 Plus Postage. 

DESCEIPTOES Definitions; ^Educational Administration; 

♦Educational planning; *Msnagement ty ctjectives; 
\Management Developaent ; Organizational Cbjectlv.es; 

Postsecondary Education \ 

ABSTRACT 

The concepts and components of Management by 
Objectives (MBO) are examined in terms of their application tc 
educational administration. The paper begins by defining BBC, 
differentiating its components (e.g,, individual and institutional 
goals and 'mission statements) r and emphasizing the need for 
management styles conducive to objective managements Neit, the steps 
in iiplementing MBO are listed and examined in detail"; these include 
institutional goals, individual goals, periodic performance reviews, 
and end-of-year appraisal sessions. Then the mechanics cf management 
objectives are considered, including writing styles (e„g,. , simple 
sentences, qualifying paragraphs, and columnar grids); classification 
of objectives as routine, problem-solving, innovative, cr personal; 
measuring techniques; and the establishment of priorities. The 
section iconcludes with goal-setting guidelines, such as check 
relevant sources; be succinct and simple; make goals realistic and 
challenging; limit the number of goals from ten to 15; urite out 
desired results, how thay will be achieved, and the criteria cf 
success; state criteria in ranges; set a target r'ate; set priorities; 
and distribute goals. An administrative development program is then 
outlined, including such topics as the role of manageieit, 
organizational development, decision making, delegation, creativity, 
and performance appraisals. Finally, a time-table fcr iiplesenting 
MBO is elaborated. An extensive bibliography is provided. (Kl) 



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* Reproductions supplied by EDFS are the best that can be made * 

* from the original document. * 
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M B 0 

A PRIteR FOR EDUCATIONAL MANAGERS 
BY 

JACK W. FULLER 



"PERMISSION TO REPRODUCE THIS 
MATERIAL HAS BEEN GRANTED BY 

Jack U. Fuller 



TO THE EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES 
INFORMATION CENTER (ERIC) " 



UA OfPAHTMHfr OP KHJCATKM 

national institute or education 

EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES INFORMATION 
. CENTER (ERIC) 

Jf\ Tn* documam haa baan raproducad •% 
rscarvad from tha panon of organization 
originating it 
lJ Minor changat h#v» baan mada to improva 
•^production quality 



a Points of viaw or opinions ttatad in this docu 
mam do not nacaaurtty rapraaant official NlE 
poaiton or pokey 



M.B.O. 



A PRIMER FOR EDUCATIONAL MANAGERS 



INTRODUCTION 



Educational managers are not renowned for their effectiveness. In fact some 
authorities are quick to point out that probably one of the greatest impediments 
to good educational management is the inadequate management practices of 
educational administrators. (97:17) And with the onset of the age of 
accountability and urgings to close the credibility gap, education has been 
encouraged even more to strengthen its overall management position. (61:279) 
But these recqnt influences upon educational managers have left the situation 
in somewhat of a disarray. If for no other reason, educational managers are 
just not sure which way to turn. They are told they need help. And for 
the most part, they would like to get help. But the overriding question is, 
•Where do I get this help?" And secondly, "...precisely what kind of help do 
I need? One of the answers that has been offered to educational managers to 
help them rise above their plight is the concept of MBO or Management- By- 
Objectives. In the last ten to twenty years, MBO has come to be a well-known 
concept in the field of business and industrial management. 



DEFINITION 



The number of definitions that exist of MBO are about as numerous as the 
number of authorities on the subject. Probably as good a definition as any is 
the following bastardization: 

j> 

Management-By-Objectives is a systematic and continual process 
whereby the members of a given management team pursue mutually 
agreed upon goals of and for their organization. (71:271) 

As with any definition, it can probably be enhanced greatly by a breaking-down 
and analysis of its various components. 

The first phrase of the definition states clearly that MBO is a systematic and 
continue* process. That is to say that it is an organized or established procedure 
with regularly reoccuring, interacting, and interdependent groups of factors 

S rial £ I I £ ° f0n * unified whole * In 1,118 case ' • MM««e»»nt- 

lllt l£ * JZ ! u f T >geient - ^ second » art of definition explains 

J* 2£ ! S ef ? Ct f d , by the r**" of a * iwn «««g«ent team. This means 

tl thTt'^AJll ♦ institutional or organizational process, it demands adherence 

to the management team" concept. For maxiwm effectiveness, it should not 

be fragmented through the institution. It would *e difficult for one department 



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to pursue MBO und to try to make it an effective process without the 
complete cooperatio: and total effort of the entire organization. 

Take an admissions office, for example. A3 one of their objectives, they 
might want to establish and pursue a conpletely automated registration system. 
Without the support of the entire institution, the monetary and opera- 
tional difficulties that could arise would surely produce a failure just 
this side of chaos. The importance of this corporate quality is under- 
scored by the last part of the definition. It states that MBO is founded 
upon the mutual agreement of institutional managers and institutional 
goals for maximum effectiveness. This phrase necessarily implies that 
close cooperation and commication is the keynote of a sound MBO system. 



CONCEPTUAL DISTINCTIONS 

Students of Ha) should recognize that it is a total concept made up of 
many component parts, in order to completely understand the whole, it 
is of value to discern between the various co^onents of the total MBO 
system. For example, it is important to note that there is a difference 
between individual and institutional goals. Individual goals are those 
which an individual manager establishes for his orrice or operation in 
cooperation with other managers, institutional goals, mission statements, 
and job descriptions. Institutional yoals reflect the overall direction 
of the institution for the forthcoming year. Institutional goals are 
the rallying point behind which all managers within the organization build 
their individual objectives. 

Whether you are talking about institutional cr individual goals, the definition 
of the word "goals" is the same. In both cases, they are the result, that 
which is to be accomplished. And for the purpose of this text, they are 
to be synonymous with the term "objectives". One item that is often 
confused with goals aid objectives in an educational institution is the 
mission statement. 

Mission statements are statements usually found in the college catalogue 
or class schedule. Their primary message is to state the Philosophy or 
overall purpose of the institution, itself. Mission statements are 
different from goals in that they are never really accomplished but rather 
continue on forever, as long as the institution exists. 

Goals and objectives, however, are measurable results that cease to exist 
when they are accomplished. For example, a college mitfit have as a part 
of its mission statement, "to educate the students for a brighter and 
more productive tomorrow", it is doubtful that anyone could quarrel with 
the intent of this statement. Its lofty forthrightness is surely beyond 
reproach and attack from all right- reminded persons. But the fact of the 
matter is, it is not measurable or quantifiable. Nor does it set any sqrt 



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of coiqpletion date or o f :her kind of parameters fo^r its accomplish- 
ment. In effect, it is a result that cannot be (measured or 
accomplished. It is, nevertheless, an ongoing mission of the college 
or institution and should be viewed from just that perspective. 



FIGURE T 

MISSION STATEMENT 

The Mission of Bubble Nub College, within the framework 
of this philosophy, is to provide the highest quality 
co»Dunity college program of education, to seek out 
the most modern, creative and effective organizational 
and educational ideas, and to test, improve, and implement 
those ideas which meet the needs of the community. 
Inherent in this mission is the responsibility of nrovidin* 
these programs at a reasonable cost to the student and at 
an efficient and reasonable cost to the community. 



MEASURIBILITY 



A criticism of MBO, and for that matter any type of behaviorally- 
oriented system of performance-based design, is that../' there 
are some things that you just can't measure." In some instances, 
it is pretty tough to argue with this statement. On the other 
hand, if you are really comitted to an objectives approach, you 
can find solace in the resolve that: 

Tf you can't measure, define, or describe what you are 
doing, then you probably don't know what you want or 
what you are doing. And if that is the case, it is 
not, or at least, should not, really be a goal. If you 
don't know where you want to go, how are you ever 
going to get there? 

But to read about these other management styles, implies that one 
should disregard alternative management styles and necessarily turn 
to an MM) system of educational administration. While that very well 
might be the best course of action, it really doesn't hold much 
value, and therefore, demands very little commitment, unless one has 
some idea of the types of management styles that he is turning his 
back upon yheit he adopts an MJO system. As the reader oropresses 
through the ensuing pages, the differences between MBO and the more 
traditional management styles should become more apparent. 



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THE SYSTEM 

Generally speaking, the implementation of an MBO system consists of the 
following steps: . 

i 

1. Institutional goals are established " 

s 

2. Individual (Managerial goals are set *>nd 
pursued) ^_ 

3. Perfbniance reviews are held periodically 
to evaluate progress in achieving goals 

4. Appraisal sessions are held at the end of 
the year to assess and reward accomplishment. 

In step II, Managers throughout the institution siimit their suggestions 
for institutional goals to their superiors sometime prior to the beginning 
of the managerial year. Because of the inherent relationship between 
management and Money, it is recooMended that the goals be submitted in 
synchronization with the budget preparation process so that the corporate 
goals of the institution are in tune with the resources available for their 
attainment. This is especially true if the organization subscribes to 
a PPBS format. The goals are then reviewed and refined as they filter through 
the varying levels of the Managerial hierarchy to the top of the organization. 
They are checked for continuity and co^patability with the current 
economic and social cli»ate f the mission statement of the institution, 
past and present long range plans for the organization, and the job 
descriptions of the respective managers. Once the goals for the institution 
have been formulated, they are distributed to each manager in the organization. 



FIGURE 2 
AN INSTITUTIONAL OPAL 
Is to broaden continuing education services by: 

A. Increasing evening credit and non-credit offerings 

B. Increasing upper division and graduate extension offerings 

C. Maintaining special education programs for homemakers 

and developing a long range funding pattern for enlargement 
of these programs 




In this second step 0 f the MBO process, managers are charged with tho 
responsibility oL^veloping the performance goals Ibr their respective 
office that rennet the overall direction qf the iriff Hution as indicated 
by the fysti tutiona* goals. . fit wri ting <pei-fo*mance objective?, the 
manager consults frequently with hi r> .superiors , subordinates, and 
counter-parts to insure that everybody wil 1 be working in consort and 
harmony and most important o* all, towards the same end. Starting with 
the next year then, the manager will begin to work towards achieving his 
objectives . 



FIGURE 3 



AN INDIVIDUAL ijQAL 

Evening and Continuing Services are expanded to include 
further offerings. This objective will be considered 
achieved when: 



A. At least 15 upper division and graduate extension 
offerings are presented to the community by 
March 15, 1973. 

B. \t least 20 courses and/or workshops have been 
presented to industrial and business personnel 
by March IS, 1973. 

As the year proceeds, the manager will periodically, (three or four times) 
meet with his superior to review the progress made in achieving his goals. 
These performance review sessions provide a good opportunity fcr the manager 
tod his subordinates (or superior) to discuss areas foT improvement or managerial 
skills. For this reason, these meetings can often be called Coaching and 
Development as well as Performance Review Sessions. In addition to Coaching 
and Development and Performance Review, these sessions also enable the 
management team to revise, add, or delete goals as the circumstances so 
warrant. 



Some managers find it advantageous to conduct the performance review session 
according to a pre-determined agenda or set of questions. Of course, this 
is not a mandatory procedure in MBO. It is just another suggested alternative. 
»that is important, however, is that both parties feel free to openly 
communicate about their respective jobs as they relate to the working relation- 
ship at hand as well as the overall atmosphere of the organization. As long 
as this type of a situation prevails, it is conceivable that any pre-determined 
agenda could <md should merely serve as a reference guide to this performance 



review. 



Whi le a set of interview questions is not essential to a good performance 
review, planning and preparation on tlrpart of both parties for the session 
is mandatory. There is probably nothing more counter-productive to a 
meaningful performance review than one or more persons who haven 1 1 reviewed 
the objectives to be discussed prior to the meeting. 



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FIGURE 4 
PERFORMANCE REVIEW QUESTIONS 

1. Are your duties and responsibilities adequately defined? 

2. Do you find your work sufficient and challenging? 

3. Do you feel you* work and ability are appreciated? 

4. Do you feel you get the backing and support you need? 

5. Are you informed and consulted when you should be? 

6. Do you have access to your supervisor to talk things 
over fr^rty? 

7. Do you have the authority and opportunity to exercise 
initiative? 

8. Da you feel your opportunities are adequate? 

9. What could your supervisor or others do to help you do 
a better job? 



10. 



What kind of place, in general, do you feel, this is to work? 



11. Other comments not covered in this session. 

Hie final performance review session of the year and Step #4 of the J«0 system 
is, for all practical purposes, an appraisal session. The purpose of this 
meeting is to assess the degree to which the manager has acconlished his 
goals for the year f Based upon the degree of accomplishment, a person may 
be rewarded accordingly for his performance - with a salary increase or 
promotion or whatever. 

The following administrative performance categories are offered as a guide in 
linking an MM) system to a performance reward system. Marginal and below 

Performers would probably not receive any financial reward or 
promotion. In fact, they may be subject to release or Probation. Satisfactory 
performers would probably be entitled to the standard salary increase. 
Above average performers could earn merit pay while superior performers might 
receive a bonus. 1 1 



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10 



7 



FIGURE 5 



ADMINISTRATIVE PFRFORMANCL CATEGORIES 



I . Margi na I Pe r forroance 



Achieved less than 
of objectives 



2. Below Average Perfoiroance - 



Achieved 65-75% of objectives 



3. Satisfactory Performance - 



Achieved ^5-8S% of objectives 



Above Average Performance - 



Achieved 85-95% of objectives 



Meritorious Performance 



Achieved more than 95* of 
objectives 



THE MECHANICS 



There are varying styles of writing management objectives. Afhatever the 
style, the basic content is the same. The desired result is stated in 
terms of how and to what degree it is going to be achieved. Stating 
the criteria for successful accomplishment in ranges rather than in fixed 
amounts introduces an element of flexibility into a managerial system which is 
sometimes criticized for its rigidity. Today the more popular styles for 
writing objectives are the simple sentence, the qualifying paragraph , and the 
co lunar grid. 



Simple Sentence - Vty objective is to increase the average 
class size to 25 to 30 students per section for the 1973-74 
academic year. 

Qualifying Paragraph - objective is to maximize classroom 
building utilization This objective will be considered achieved 
when : 

1. An analysis of past, present and Projected building 
utilisation is made by February 1, 1973. 

2. 90% - 100* of the scheduled classes actually run. 

3. One-half of the classes are scheduled in the morning 
and the remaining half in the afternoon. 



FIGURE 6 



WRITING STYLES 



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WAT 



MANAGEMENT 
DEVELOPMENT 



CAMPUS 
.MASTER 



POLICY 
REVIEW 



FIGURE 7 
COLUMNAR GRI D 

HOW 



IMPLEMENT 
MBO 



REVIEW ALL 
MANUALS 



BOARD REVIEW 
AND 
APPROVAL 



CRITERIA 



90% OF SUPERVISORS 
HAVE AN MBO INTERVIEW 
BY JULY 30 



ROUTINELY UPDATING BY 
6/25 

READY FOR BOARD BY 
7/15 

APPROVED BY BOARD BY 8/15 



ENROLLMENT PROJECTIONS 
COMPLETED BY 2/1 
BUILDING NEEDS DETERMINED 
BY 3/1 

CAPITAL FUNDING AVAILABLE 
BY 4/1 



VALUE 



5% 



5* 



10% 



PROFESSIONAL 
INVOLVEMENT 



PARTICIPATE IN 

PROFESSIONAL 

ORGANIZATIONS 



MEMBER OF TWO 
ORGANIZATIONS BY 11/15 
OFFICER IN ONE 
ORGANIZATION BY S/15 



5% 



Upon being written, managerial goals can be placed in any one of four 
categories: Routine, p: obi em, innovative and personal. Routine 
Goals are those which are an everyday aspect of the job such as preparing 
the budget, developing publicity, or staffing positions. 



FIGURE 8 



A ROUTINE GOAL 

Achieve the following acceptable enrollment, evaluation, and financial 
index for the following activities. This objective will be considered 
achi ;ed when the activities offered meet the following guidelines for 
ninber of programs, enrollment, evaluation, and when the income from 
such activities generates sufficient monies to meet budgeted expenses. 
(The income column suggests guidelines for exceeding direct expenses in 
order to cover indirect expenses and necessary developmental money). 

Programs Enrollment Evaluation Income Per 

1. Women's Programs 6-10 30 4.0 $100. - $200. 

2. Industrial 

Seminars 25-30 30 4.0 *250. - $500. 

3. Non- Credit 

Classes 175-225 20 to 1 - $150. « $350. 

4. Extension 

Classes 30-40 26 - 

5. Contractual 

Program 10-15 -30 4.25 $200. - $400. 

6. University 

• Extension 25-35 25 - $ 50. 

7. Adult Basic , 
Education 

Sections 6-8 70 



17) 



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Problem Goals are an attest to resolve an existing dilemma. Anong other 
problem t they might include increasing efficiency, reducing costs, 
clarifying procedures, etc. 

FIGURE 9 

A PROBLEM SOLVING GOAL 

Develop a procedural guideline for the development of community service 
programs. This objective will be considered achieved when the following 
conditions exist: 

I. The guideline is submitted and accepted by the Vice 
President of Academic Affairs by January IS, 1973. 

Innovative Goals are those which are new to the management of a given 
operation. They have never been trie* before and could include the develop- 
ment of a new program, implementing a new technique or trying out a 
new evaluation system. 

FIGURE 15 
AN INNOVATIVE GOAL 

Explore possibilities of offering junior and senior level courses on- campus 
leading to a BA degree with available colleges and universities. This 
will be accomplished when: 

1. Meetings with two universities have been held. 

2. One proposal for cooperation is developed and i*> lamented 
for the 1973-74 school year. 

Personal Goals are objectives which * manager sees as being relevant to his 
position. UTthe case of educators, this might take the form of joining 
professional orgmi rations, publishing, or working on an advanced degree. 

Some quarters do not encourage the inclusion of personal goals into the 
total »©0 process. There is some question as to whether or not a manager 
should be evaluated, promoted, or given a raise on the basis of his personal 
objectives. The final determination here might rest with the organization 
in the form of a policy or as an understanding between the manager and 
his superior. 



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FIGURE II 



A PERSONAL GOAL 



My personal objective is to begin to earn a professional reputation. 
This objective will be considered achieved when the following condtions 
exist: 

1, I have joined two professional organizations by January 1 , 1974. 

2. I am serving on at least one professional committee not 
associated with a professional organization, 

3- I have two articles accepted fOT publication by professional 
journals. 

The ways that a goal can be measured for accomplishment will deoend upon 
the type of goal. For example, routine goals are concerned with standard 
output and are usually measured by non-performance of activities. Problem 
goals, on the other hand, are concerned with something that is not up to 
par. The accomplishment of. this type of goal is usually signified by 
the implementation of a workable solution to the problem. Innovative 
goals are new ideas and are typically measured by their degrees of 
development, 

FIGURE 12 



MEASURING GOALS 



TYPE OF GOAL 



HON TO W-ASURE 



ROUTINE 


Standard 






Output 


Exception 


PROBLEM* 


Below 


By 




Standards 


Solutions 


INNOVATIONS 


Something 


By 




New 


Stages 



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. 12 - 



Management experts are pretty well in agreement that the higher the 
Managerial position that a person occupies, the less time he should 
spend on routine goals and the more time on innovative goals. Corres- 
pondingly , lower eschelon managers should have a greater nronortion 
of their time spent in routine goals and a lesser number in innovative. 



FIGURE U 



GOAL DISTRIBUTION VS. MANAGEMENT LEVEL 



Executives 
Mid -Management 
Supervisors 



Innovative Goals 
Problem Goals 
Routine Goals 



To insure that the final product is a soundly prepared set of management 
objectives, the following set of goal-setting guidelines is offered as 
a checklist. 



To account for the varying priorities that are placed upon a managers 
goals, it is recommended that each goal be assigned a given value in 
relation to the overall goals for the manager. By assigning priorities 
to objectives, the manager has no trouble in determining which deserve 
the most attention from his workload. This procedure also permits a 
manager to better assess the accomplishments of his subordinates. 

For exa^le, consider goals A, B, and C. Goal A is worth five percent 
(5t), goal B ten percent (101) and goal C twenty-five percent (25%). 

If the goals *ere not discerned from one another on the basis of priority, 
they would presumably be of equal importance. But goal C is of greater 
priority than goals A and B put together. So if the manager were to 
accomplish two of his three goals or if he were to accomplish A and B 
and not C, he would not have accomplished the greater percentage of his 
goals. Conversely, by accomplishing goal C, he would have achieved more 
than the total worth of goals A and B. Therefore, it is most important 
that a manager be evaluated on the basis of the value of the goals 
accomplished rather than on the number of goals accomplished. And this 
attribute can be readily attained by assigning a percentage value to each 
goal . 



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COAL- SETT INC GUIDELINES 
I. Check relevant sources. 

A. Mission Statement 

B. Institutional Goals 

C. ^ong Range Plans 

D. Past Goals 

E. Goals of Other Managers 

F. Job Description 
II. Be succinct and simple 

HI. Make realistic (attainable) , ye t challenging. 
Limit number of goals to 10-15. 



IV. 



v - Vl*J± result desired, how achieved, criteria for 
successful achievement. 

VI. State criteria in ranges. 

VII. Set target date. 

VIII. Prioritize goals. 

IX. Distribute throughout institution. 

THE GOOD AND THE BAD 

MBO is not a panacea for all of an organization's ills. It is merely one 
mora tool that a manager can draw upon in meeting responsibilities and 
obligations of his position. MBO often requires some rethinking of current 
management practices. This rethinking may reveal the need for an in-service 
administrative development program to equip managers with the skills to 
successfully implement an MBO System. Obviously, an administrative 
development program could be implemented in a variety of ways, i.e., seminars, 
worKsnops, college courses, independent study, etc. Whatever the way, 
the following topics are offered as suggestions for the content of the 
program. 



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MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT TOPICS 



1. Role of Management 

2. Management By Objectives 

3. Organizational Development 

4. Decision-Making 

5. Interviewing 

6. Delegation 

7. Creativity 

8. Motivation 

9. Coaching and Performance Appraisal 
10. Administrator-Secretary Relationships 

Because the manager becomes more accountable and skillful, the entire 
administrative structure might be reorganized to reflect a decentralized 
decision-making process. Quite simply, this means that more decisions 
will probably be made further down the administrative ladder. And 
because all of this probably presents an unknown, and even a threat, to 
pvsvailing attitudes, HMD can generate an atmosphere of apprehension. 
This apprehension is probably dealt with be3t by phasing into MBO over 
a period of two to five years. In fact, most authorities agree that 
it takes MBO that long to reach optimal maturity. 

FIGURE 16 

m0 TIMETABLE 



6 12 18 24 36 

MOS. MOS. MOS. MDS. MOS. 

ORIENTATION - 

SELF-PRACTICE — 



INSTITUTIONAL 
EFFORT 



EVALUATE PERFORMANCE 



LINK TO REWARD SYSTEM 



MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT 



- 15 ' 

As the timetable suggests, the organization moving into MBO should begin 
with a 2-5 day orientation session on MBO concept* Depending upon the 
circumstances and the prevailing attitudes of the institution, the 
orientation may be conducted by a person or persons from outside of 
the organization. Whoever leads the orientation session, it is advisable 
to follow up with periodic progress visits and reports over the next 
two to three years. 



After the group has been introduced to MbO, it is suggested that they 
be merely committed to a self-imposed practice of the technique for 
the next few months. This tactic permits the managers to become 
familiar and hopefully comfortable with the process. Once a general 
air of acceptance seems to prevail throughout the institution, it is 
time for the institution as a whole to practice WO as a management 
team. Again, depending upon the situation, it is probably not a good 
idea to hold the managers responsible for the success or failure of the 
system. This is merely a "road-testing" period and is intended to 
acquaint the organization and its members with MBO as a total institutional 
process and effort. 

Once the organization and its menfcers have had enough time to become 
familiar with WO, and the organizational commitment to WO has become 
finalized, the next step is to make it the accountability instrument 
for the institution. Even at this point, however, it is probably best 
not to tie WO to the managers 1 reward system. Once ha or she learns 
that they can live with the system, the link to salary raises, merit 
pay, bonuses, and promotion will be a less difficult transition. 

All the while that the "phasing- in** is in process, the administrative 
development program is in progress. The frequency and type of development 
program will, of course, vary with needs of the organization and its 
managers. And it is entirely conceivable that the management development 
aspect will never cease. An on-going in-service training program is a 
permanent fixture in many organizational settings. 

Given these eventualities, WO could prove to be expensive. And to tap 
it all off, the transition is not easy. Even where the transition has 
been a success, there is sometimes a feeling that the system is too highly 
performance-oriented and lacks concern for the human factor. (112:1) 
It requires a lot of hard work for all parties concerned. The growing 
number of organizations that are swishing to WO, however, indicates 
that the effort might be well worth the reward. (116: 176-178). One 
of the reasons that more and more institutions are turning to WO is 
because it gets results. 



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In this day of accountability, organizations must demonstrate accomplish- 
ment. Enroute to demonstrating accomplishment, organizations are finding 
that it pays to place more and more attention to the planning function. 
Because planning is the backbone of MBO, management by objectives serves 
a very real need. In addition to accomplishment, planning also yields 
economies. 

MBO is often championed for its ability to get the most and the best 
from its practitioners. And because it promotes quality and productivity, 
the organization tends to get more for its dollar. In addition to 
stretching the dollar, MBO also deals with the problem of communication. 

If the appraisal and performance review are properly conducted, they 
can provide an effective vehicle for colleagues to exchange their 
professionally relevant needs and wants. All-in-all, these positive 
features tend to breed high morale and a positive work-a-day atmosphere. 

FINAL WORD 

Contrary to what some people might think, »0 is not and should not be 
construed as an arbitrary and inflexible system. Its essence is planning, 
accountability and accomplishment. That it manifests these traits is 
the most important thing. That objectives are written in a certain 
way or that some given steps are followed in implementing an MBO system 
is not of paramount importance. In this writer's opinion, variations 
on style and technique as well as exceptions to stated procedures are 
acceptable insofar as the end result is a well-managed organization that 
is going where it wants to go. 



SELECTED REFERENCES 



BOOKS 

1 BANGHART, FRANK W. EDUCATIONAL SYST EMS A NALYSES : NEW YOHK: MACMILLAN, 1909, 

2 BASS, BERNARD M. AND SAMUEL D. DEEP. CURREN T PERSPECTIVES FOH MA NAGI NG ORGANIZATIO NS: 

ENGLEWOOD CLIFFS, NEW JERSEY; PRENTICE -HALL, 1970. 

3 BECK, ARTHUR C, AND ELLIS D, HILLMAN, EDS. A P RACTICAL ORGANIZ ATION DEVELOI>MEN 1' 

THROUGH MBO, READING, MASSACHUSETTS: ADDISON -WESLEY, 1972. 

4 UERLO, DAVID K. THE PROCESS OF COMMUNICATION; AN INTRODUCTION TO THEORY AND 

PRACTICE . NEW YORK; HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON, 1966. 

5 CARNEGIE COMMISSION ON HIGHER EDUCATION. THE MORE EFFECTIVE USE OF RE SOU RCES - - AN 

IMPERATIVE FOR HIGHER EDUCATION . NEW YORK: MCGRAW-HILL, JUNE, 1972. 

6 CARNEGIE COMMISSION ON HIGHER EDUCATION. PAPERS ON EFFICIENCY IN THE MANAGEMENT OF 

HIGHER EDUCATION , NEW YORK: MCGRAW-HILL, SEPTEMBER, 1972. 

7 CHURCHMAN, CHARLES WEST. THE DESIGN OF INQUIRING SYSTEMS: BASIC CONCEPTS OF SYSTEMS 

AND ORGANIZATIONS . NEW YORK: BASlC BOOKS, 1971. 

8 CHURCHMAN, CHARLES WEST. THE SYSTEMS APPROACH , NEW YORK: DELACORTE PRESS, 1968. 

9 DESATNICK, ROBERT L, A CONCISE GUIDE TO MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT . AMERICAN 

MANAGEMENT, INC., 1970. 

10 DRUCKER, PETER F, CONCEPT OF THE CORPORATION. NEW YORK: NEW AMERICAN PRESS, 1964. 

11 DRUCKER, PETER F. THE PRACTICE OF MANAGEMENT , NEW YORK: HARPER AND ROW. 1954. 

12 FORDYCE, JACK K., AND RAYMOND WEIL. MANAGING WITH PEOPLE . READING, MASSACHUSETTS: 

ADDISON- WESLEY, 1969, 

13 FOUNDATION FOR RESEARCH ON HUMAN BEHAVIOR. COMMUNICATION IN ORGANIZATIONS. 

ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN: EDWARDS BROTHERS, INC., 1959 

14 FULLER, JACK W., MBO: A PRIMER, SELF -PUBLISHED, 1973. 

15 GELLERMAN, SAUL W. MANAGEMENT BY MOTIVATION , NEW YORK: AMERICAN MANAGEMENT 

ASSOCIATION, 1968. 

16 GUILFORD, JOAN S.. AND DAVID E, GRAY. MOTIV ATION AND MODERN MANAGEMENT . READING. 

MASSACHUSETTS, ADDISON -WESLEY, 1969. 

17 HARTLEY, HARRY J. EDUCATIONAL PLANNING - PROGRAMMING - BUDGETING . ENGLEWOOD CLIFFS, 

NEW JERSEY: PRENTICE -HALL, 1968. 

18 HELMER, OLAF. SOCIAL TECHNOLOGY . NEW YORK: BASIC BOOKS, 1966. 

19 HELMER, OLAF, "THE DELPHI TECHNIQUE AND EDUCATIONAL INNOVATIONS," INVENTING 

EDUCATION FOR THE FUTURE , EDITED BY WERNER C, HIRSH ET. AL, SAN FRANCISCO, 
CALIFORNIA: CHANDLER PUBLISHING CO., 1967, p. 76. 

20 HUMBLE, JOHN W. MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES IN ACTION . LONDON: MCGRAW-HILL, 1970. 

21 KAST. FREMONT ELLSWORTH. ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT: A SYSTEMS APPROACH. 

NEW YORK: MCGRAW -HILL, 1969. 

22 KELLY, WILLIAM F. MANAGEMENT THROUGH S YSTEMS AND PROCEDURES: THE TOTAL SYSTEMS 

APPROACH . NEW YORK: WILEY -IN TERSCIENCE, 1969. 

23 KOBAYASHI, SHlGERU, CREAT IVE MANAGEMENT . NEW YORK] AMERICAN MANAGEMENT 

ASSOCIATION, 1971. 

24 KOONTZ, HAROLD, AND CYRIL 0*DONNELL. P RINCIPLES OF MANAGEM ENT. NEW YORK, 

MCGRAW-HILL 1968. 

26 LIKERT, RENSIS. THE HUMAN ORGANIZATION: ITS MANAGE MEN T AND VALUE. NEW YORK: 
MCGRAW-HILL, 1967. 

26 LIKERT, RENSIS. N EW PATTERNS OF MANAGEMENT . NEW YORK: MCCPAW -HILL, 1961. 

27 MAGER, ROBERT F. PREPARING INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES. PALO ALTO, CALIFORNIA: PACIFIC 

BOOK PUBLISHERS, 1968. 

28 MAGER, ROBERT F. ANALYZING PERFORMANCE PROBLEMS. PALO ALTO, CALIFORNIA: FEARON 

PUBLISHERS, 1970. 

29 MAGER, ROBERT F. GOAL ANALYSIS. PAl.O ALTO: FEARON PUBLISHERS, 1972. 

30 MALI, PAUL. MANAGI NG BY OBJECTIVES . NEW YORK: WILEY -1NTERSCIENCE, 1972. 



31 MANSERGH, GERALD G., ED. DYNAMICS Of MANAGEMENT BY OBJKC IlVLS FOR SCHOOL 

AUMINISTKA fORS. DANVILLE, ILLINOIS: INTESTATE PRINTERS AND PUBLISHERS, 1971. 

32 MARVIN, PHILIP. M ANAG E MENT GOALS: GUIDELINES AN D ACCOUN r ABILITY, ILLINOIS: 

DOW JONES-IRWIN, INC, , 1968. 

33 MARVIN, PHILIP. MULTI PLYING MANAGEMEN T EFFECTIVENESS. NEW YORK: AMERICAN 

MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION, WW. 

34 MCDONOUGH, ADRIAN M. MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS: WORKING CONCEPTS AND PRAC VT 3S. 

ILLINOIS: K. D. IRWIN, 1966. 
36 MCGREGOR, DOUGLAS. THE PROFESSIONAL MANAGER, NEW YORK: MCGRAW-HILL, 1967. 

36 MCGREGOR, DOUGLAS. HUMAN SIDE OF ENTERPRISE. NEW YORK: MCGRAW-HILL, 1^0, 

37 METROPOLITAN DETROIT BUREAU OF SCHOOL STUDIES, INC. DYNAMICS OF MANAGEMENT |Y 

OBJECTIVES FOR SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS . DANVILLE, ILLINOIS: INTERSTATE PRINTERS 
AND PUBLISHERS, 1971. 

38 MORRISEY, GEORGE L. MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES AND RESULTS . MASSACHUSETTS: 

A DDIS ON - WESLEY PUBLISHING CO., 1970. 

39 O'BRIEN, JAMES). SCHEDULING HANDBOOK. NEW YORK: MCGRAW-HILL, 1969. 

40 ODIORNE, GEORGE S. MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES. NEW YORK: PITMAN PUBLISHING 

CORPORATION, JUNE, 1972, 

41 ODIORNE, GEORGE S. MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES; A SYSTEM OF MANAGERIAL LEADERSHIP . 

NEW YORK: PITMAN PUBLISHING CORPORATION, 1936. 

42 ODIORNE, GEORGE S. MANAGHUNT DECISIONS BY OBJECTIVES. ENGLEWOOD CLIFFS, 

NEW fERSEY; PRENTICE -HALL, 1969. 

43 ODIORNE. GEORGE S. PE RSONNEL ADM1NISTRA HO N BY OBJECTIVES. HOMEWOOD, ILLINOIS: 

R. D. IRWIN. 1971. 

44 ODIORNE, GEORGE S. TRAINING BY OBJECTIVES: AN ECONOMIC APPROACH TO MANAGEMENT 

TRAINING . NEW YORK: MACM1LLAN, 1970. 
46 OLSSON, DAVID E. MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES. PALO ALTO, CALIFORNIA: PACIFIC BOOK 
PUBLISHERS, 1968. 

46 RED DIN. WILLIAM J. EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES; THE 3D METHOD OF MBO . 

NEW YORK: MCGRAW-HILL, 1971. 

47 RSDDIN , WILLIAM J. MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS . NEW YORK: MCGRAW-HILL, 1970, 

48 ROSS, JOEL E, MANAGEMENT BY INFORMATION SYSTEM , NEW JERSEY: PRENTICE -HALL* 1970. 

49 SCHLEH, EDWARD C. MANAGUA IN f BY RESULT S. NEW YORK: MCC*AW-HILL. 2961. 

60 STOKES, PAUL M. A TOTAL SYSTEMS APPROACH TO MANAGEMENT CONTROL. NEW YORK: 
AMERICAN MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION, 1968. 

51 TANNER, C. KENNETH. D ESIGNS FOR EDUCATION PLANNING . LEXINGTON, MASSACHUSETTS: 

D. C. HEATH AND CO.. 1971. 

52 THOMAS J. ALLEN, TH E PRODUCTIVE SCHOOL. NEW YORK: JOHN WILEY AND SONS, 1971. 

53 VALENTINE, RAYMOND F. PERFORMANCE OBJECTI VES BY MANAGERS . 1966. 

54 VARNEY, GLENN H. M ANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVE S. ILLINOIS: THE DARTNELL CORPORATION, 1971. 
56 WHISLER, THOMAS L., AND SHARLEY F. HARPER. fcDS. PERFORMANCE APP RAISAL, NEW YORK: 

HOLT, WNEHART, AND WINSTON, 1962. 

56 YOUNG, STANLEY. MANAG EMENT: A SYSTEM ANALYSIS. ILLINOIS: SCOTT, 

PERI ODICA LS 

57 BAXTER, J. D, MANAGING BV OBJECTIVES' SURFACES," IRON AGE t 100, (SEPTEMBER 25. 1969), 

pp. 98-100. 

58 B1ESER. J i. "MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES OR APPRAISALS AND RESULTS," DATA MANAGEMENT. 

VUI, (APRIL, 1970). pp. 24-25. 

59 BIRCH, A. "INSTITUTION I RESEARCH IS FEEDBACK BETWEEN ADMINISTRATION AND MANAGEMENT, " 

COLLEGE AN D UNI VERSITY BUSIUSS . 1L. (NOVEMBER. 1970), pp. 26-30. 



2i 



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60 BOGUE. E. G. "MANAGEMENT THEOHY IN AC HON. * COL LEGE ANU UMV'ER.'i t TY, SPRING. 1971, 

pp. 2*20-230. 

61 BOLTON, EARL C. AND FREDERICK H. GENCM. "UNIVERSITIES AND MANAGEMENT, " JOURNAL 

OF HIGHER EDUCATION, (APRIL. 1971) pp. 279-291. 

62 byarsTTloyd i." System managemen r - what is it-> traininu and development journal. 

XXVI. I, (JANUARY, 1978). pp. 32-34. 

63 CARROLL, STEPHEN T.. JR.. AND HENRY L. TOSI. GOAL CHARACTERISTICS AND PERSONA LI 1 Y 

FACTORS IN A MANAGEMENT-BY-OBJEC I IVES PROGRAM . " ADMINISTRATIVE SCIENCE 
QUARTERLY, XV. 3. (SEPTEMBER. 1970), pp. 296-305. 

64 CARROLL. STEPHEN T.. JR.. AND HENRY L. TORI. "THE RELATIONSHIP OF CHARACTERISTICS Ol 

THE REVIEW PROCESS TO THE SUCCESS OF THE MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES' APPROACH. 
JOUR} A L OF BUSINESS . XUV, 3, (1971). pp. 299-305. 
66 CARROLlT^TEPHEN T.. JR.. AND HENRY L. TOS1. " SOME STRUCTURAL FACTORS RELATED TO 
GOAL INFLUENCE IN THE MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES PROCESS," MSU BUSINESS TOPICS , 
(Spting. 1969) pp. 46-60. 

66 CURTIS, WILLIAM H. "PROGRAM BUDGETING DESIGN FOR SCHOOLS UNVEILED WITH MUCH WORK 

STILL TO GO," NATION'S SCHOOLS . LXX XIV (NOVEMBER. 1969). pp. 40-43. 

67 CYPHERT. FREDERICK R., AND WALTER L. GANT. "THE DELPHI TECHNIQUE: A TOOL FOR 

COLLECTING OPINIONS IN TEACHER EDUOA HON," JOURNAL OF TEACHER EDUCATION. XXt. 
(Fall. 1970). pp. 417-425. 

68 DOVE. GRANT A. "OBJECTIVES. STRATEGIES. AND TACTICS IN A SYSTEM." THE CONFERENCE 

BOARD RECORD. VII . (AUGUST. 1970). pp. 52-56. 

69 FRANK. EDMUND R, "MOTIVATION BY OBJECTIVE S - A CASE STUDY." RESEARCH MANAGEMENT , 

XD. 6. (NOVEMBER. 1969). pp. 391-400. 

70 FULLER. JACK W. "CONTINUING EDUCATION BY OBJECTIVES." JOURNAL OF CONTINUING 

EDUCATION . VI. 3. (DECEMBER. 1971). pp. 176-180. 

71 FULLER, JACKW. "MBO REVISITED. " ADULT LEADERSHIP . 1973. 

72 GILL, J. AND C. F. MOLANDER. "BEYOND MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES." PERSONNEL 

MANAGEMENT . II, (AUGUST. 1970). pp. 18-20. 

73 GRAVES. CLARE W. "LEVELS OF EXISTENCE: AN OPEN SYSTEM THEORY OF VALUES." 

JOURNAL OF HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY , X 2. (Fall. 1970). pp. 131-1M. 

74 HACKER. THORNE. "MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES FOR SCHOOLS," APMMISTRA iOR'S NOTEBOOK. 

XX. 3. (NOVEMBER. 1971). pp. 1-4. 

75 HARVEY, TAMES "ADMINISTRATION BY OBJECTIVES IN STUDENT PERSONNEL PROGRAMS." J OURNAL 

OF COLLEGE STUDENT PERSONNEL . July. 1972. pp. 293-296. 
7C ||£NRY. HAROLD W. "MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES," TENNESSEE SURVEY OP BUSINESS, VI. 3. 
(NOVEMBER. 1970). p. 13. 

77 HOWELL. R. A. "MANAGING BY OIJEC HVES ■- A THREE STAGE SYSTEM." BUSINESS HORIZONS. 

Xin. (FEBRUARY. 1970). pp. 41-45. 

78 HUMBLE, JOHN W. "MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES," DIR ECTOR . XXII. (NOVEMBER, 1969) pp. 275-2H0. 
79 X sJNGRAHAM. W. W.. AND J. E. KEEFE. "VALUES ON MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES." SCHOOL 

MAN AGEMENT . I,. (JUNE, 1972). pp. 28-29. 

80 IVA^CEVICH. JOHN ►.. "A LONGITUDINAL ASSKSfMENT OF MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES. 

ADMINISTRATIVE SCIENCE QUARTERLY , N.I, (MARCH. 1972). pp. 126138. 

81 IVANOVO. JOHN M. . JAMES H. DONNELL'i . AND HERBERT L. LYON. "A STUDY Of THE IMPACT 

OF MANAGEMENT f'Y OBJECTIVES ON PbHCI 1VED NEED SATISFACTION." P ERSONN EL PSYCHOLOGY. 
XXltt, 2. (1970). pp. 135" 152. 
92 LAHJ1. ROBERT E. IMPLEMENTING THE SYSTEM MEANS LEARNING TO MANAGE YO*:, OBJECTIVES. " 
"COL LEGE AND UNIVERSITY BUSINESS . L1I. 2, (FEBRUARY. 1972) pp. 43-46. 

83 LAHTiTrOBERT E. "MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES, " COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY BUSINESS, LI, 

(JULY, 1971). pp. 31-32. 

84 LASAGNA. JOHN R. "MAKE YOUR MBO PRAGMA rtC, " HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW . IL. 

(NOVEMBER. DECEMBER, 1971). pp 64-69. 

85 LE VINSON. HARRY. "MANAGEMENT BY OBJEO PiVtS: A CRITIQUE." IHA ININC AND DEVELOP MENT 

JOURNAL. XXVI. 4. (APRIL. 1972). p. 38. 

86 LE VINSON , ^JARR Y . "MANAGEMENT B* WHOSE OBJECTIVES^" HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW. XLVfll. 

(JULY, AUGUST, 1970), pp. 1*25134. 



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87 MAHLER, WALTER R. MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES; A CONSUi l'ANT'S VIEWPOINT, 

TRAINING AND DEVELOPMEN T JOURNAL . XXVI. 4, (APRIL, 1972). pp. 16-19. 

88 MCCONKEY. DALE D. '20 WAYS TO KILL MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES, M MANAGEMENT REVIEW, 

(OCTOBER, ia7vr). pp. M3. ' 

89 MiNEAR. LEON P. MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVE^, ' AMERICAN VOCATIONAL JOURNAL, XLV , 

(DECEMBER. 1970), pp. 54-55. ' 

90 NOURI. CLEMENJT. JR., AND JAMES i. FRIDL. THE RELEVANCE Of MOTIVATIONAL CONCEPTS 

TO INDIVIDUAL AND CORPORATE OBJECTIVES. M PERSONNEL JOURNAL, XLIX. (1970). 
pp, 900-906. 

y| RJoGS. ROBERT O. "MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES: ITS UTILIZATION IN THE MANAGEMENT Or 
ADMINISTRATIVE PERFORMANCE." CONT E MPORARY EDUCATION . XUII. (JANUARY. S9'<2), 
pp. 129-133. 

92 SCHRADER. ALBERT W. "IE T'S ABOLISH ANNUAI PERFORMANCE REVIEW, - MANAGEMENT OF 

PERSONNEL QUAR [fcULY . VOL 3, (1 tfi'J). pp. 20-30. 

93 SI OAN. STANLEY. AND DAVID E # SCHRIEBER. WHAT WE NEED TO KNOW ABOUT MANAGEMENT 

BY IMJECIIVES. PLK:>ONNEL JOURNAL, IL, (MARCH, 1970) pp. 206-508. 

94 STRAUSS. GEORGE. "MANAt.EMENl BY OBJECTIVES; A CRITICAL VIEW. " TRAINING AND 

DEVELOPMENT JOURNAL . XXVI. 4. (APRIL. 1972), pp. 10-13. 

95 THOMPSON. PAUL H.. AND GENE W. DAL TON, PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL: MANAGERS BEWARE. 

HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW , XLV1U. (JANUARY, FEBRUARY. 1970), pp. 149-167. 

96 TOSI. HENRY L. AND OTHERS. SETTING GOALS IN MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES/ CALIFORNIA 

MANAGEMENT REVIEW , XII, (SUMMER, 1970), pp. 70-78. ~ 

97 UMBECK. SHAW Y. "IMPEDIMENTS TO GOOD MANAGEMENT/ COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY 

JOURNAL . IX (FALL. 1970). 
96 WILKERSON, C. DAVID. A RESULTS -OR1HN TED DEVELOPMENT PLAN. " THE CONFERENCE BOA RD 

RECORD , ill, (MARCH. 1966), pp. 40 46. "~ " 

99 WILSON. R. A, "MAKE OBJECTIVES REALLY COME ALIVE. ' IRON AGE , 206. (AUGUST 6, 1970). 

pp. 52-53. 

100 WILSTROM. WALTERS. MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES OR APPRAISAL BY RESULTS." THE 

CONFERENCE BOAR D RE CORD , (JULY. 1966), pp, 27*31. 

101 WOHLKING, WALLACE. "MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES: A CRITICAL VIEW/ TRAINING AND 

DE VELOPMENT JOUR NAL. XXVI. 4. (APRIL. 1972). p. 2. ™ ™ ™ 

FILMS 

102 HUMBU, JOHN. MANAGEME NT BY OBJECTIVES . I ON DON FILM SERJE6 RELEASED BY ASSOCIATED/* 

BRITISH-PA THE LTD., 1969. g 

1. "MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES," MANAGEM ENT BY OBJECTIVES, LONDON? FILM RELEASE tj 8 Y 
ASSOCIATED BRITISH PA THE LTD.. 1969. " 

2. 'DEFINING I HE MANAGER'S JOB, ' MANAGEMENT BY OB JECTIVES. LONDON. FILlfl RELEASED 
BV ASSOCIATED BRITISH -PA THE LTD., 1969 ! 

j PERFORMANCE AND POTENTIAL REVIEW. MANA GEMEN T BY OBJECTIVES, LONDON: FILM 

RELEASED BY ASSOC1A TED 3K! T1SH PA THE. LTD., 
4. COLT- A CASE HIS TOR i, MANAGEMENT PV OBJECTIVES . LONDON- FILM RELEASED BV 

ASSOCIATED BRITISH ^ A THE LTD., l%9. 

AUD I O CASSETTES 

OOIORNE, GEORGE S. THE E XE CUTIVE SKILLS, \ MIS IS A NEW SERIES OF MANAGEMENT CASSETTES 
BY ^ . S, ODIORNE DESIGNED TO PROVIDE FACH MANAGE** WITH THf SKILLS NEEDED TO DO 
HIS JOB AND TO MANAGE SUBORDINA 1 1 MANAGERS. REGARDLESS OF THE MANAGER'S FUNC • 
TIONAL POSITION OR THE TYPE OF ORGANIZATION HE IS IN, THE CASSETTES ARE AS FOLLOWS: 

1. WHAT ARE EXECUTIVE SKILLS^ - • WHY BUSINESSES FAIL, 

2. THE ACTIVITY TRAP -- SYSTEMS APPROACH TO MANAGEMENT. 

3. STYLES OF MANAGFMENT ~ CHOOSING A RELEVANT MANAGERIAL STYLE FOR THE 70'S, 

4. IS THERE A MANAGEMENT FST AflLISHM EN T 7 IDIN f IKYING TOMORROW'S MANAGERS ' 
TODAY. 

5 DEVISING MANAGERIAL STRA Tlot WHY DOING RIGHT IKN'T ENOUGH. 
6. HOW TO SET NEW YEAR'S GOALS - GUIDES FOR CONVERTING LONG RANCF STRATEGIC 
GOALS tN TO OPERATIONAL OBJECTIVE! • O t { 



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7. INDICATORS - THE SYMBOLS MANAC4ERS LIVE BY WHY PUTTING INDICATORS ON 

SOMETHING MEANS IT IS BEING MANAGED. 

8. WHY MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS DON'T GET SOLVED - AVOIDING CAUSE AND EFFECT 

LADDERS. 

9. INNOVATION - HOW MANAGERS MAKE THINGS HAPPEN - WHY ORGANIZATIONS NEED 

INNOVATION TO STAY AFLOAT AND TO MEET EMPLOYEE'S PSYCHOLOGICAL NEEDS. 
iO. MANAGING HIGH-TALENT MANPOWER ATTITUDES AND VALUES OF THE PROFESSIONAL 
MIND. 

1 !. THE APPRAISAL INTERVIEW WHY MANAGERS AND SUBORDINATES DISCUSS THE 

LATTER'S PERFORMANCE ANNUALLY. 
12. THE THREE-FACTOR THEORY OF MOTIVATION - MOTIVATION AS A PROPOSED 

EXPLANATION OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR. 

OTHER SOURCES 

104 ANDERSON. DONALD P. M CLARIFYING AND SETTING OBJECTIVES ON AN INTERMEDIATE SCHOOL 

DISTRICT'S OBJECTIVES UTILIZING THE DELPHI TECHNBUE. " EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL 
OF THE DELPHI TECHNIQUES BY ANALYZING ITS APPLICATIONS: AN A.E.R .A. SYMPOSIUM, 
(MARCH 4, 1970), p. 4. 

105 BOLING, EDWARD. "MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES." FROM THE PRESIDENTS OFFICE, 

KNOXV1LLE, TENNESSEE: THE UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE. (SEPTEMBER 18, 1970), 
IOC CARROLL, STEPHEN T., JR. "RELATIONSHIP OF GOAL-SETTINC? CHARACTERISTICS AS MODERATED 
BY PERSONALITY AND SITUATIONAL.FACTORS TO T IE SUCCESS OF THE 'MANAGEMENT BY 
OBJECTIVES* APPROACH." PROCEEDINGS, 77TH ANNUAL CONVENTION, A.P.A. . 1969. 

107 CORPORATE PLANNING DEPARTMENT, "IMPROVING PERFORMANCE THROUGH MANAGEMENT BY 

OBJECTIVES," UNITED CALIFORNIA BANK. LOB ANGELES. (JANLARY, 1970). 

108 EIDELL, TERRY L., AND JOHN M. NAGLE. CONCEPTUALIZATION OF P.P.B.S. AND DATA BASED 

EDUCATIONAL PLANNING. TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 6, EUGENE, OREGON! CENTER FOR THE 
ADVANCED STUDY OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION. UNIVERSITY OF OREGON, (APRIL, 
1970). 

109 GREY, KENNY E. "THE DELPHI TECHNIQUE: A TOOL FOR INQUIRY," PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

NATIONAL RESEARCH Ca "~ RENCE ON CONSUMER AND HOMEMAKING EDUCATION, 1970, 
BJfc 57-60. 

110 JENKINS, SAMUEL W. "MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES," PAPER PRESENTED AT MANAGEMENT 

SEMINARS, PLODIV AND SOPHIA, BULGARIA, (SEPTEMBER, 1970). 
1 10 lUCAS, JOHN A. "EVALUATION OF THE MBO SYSTEM AT HARPER COLLEGE BEFORE 1972," 

RESEARCH REPORT SERIES , VOL. Ill, NO. 21, (MAY 15, T972). 
112 LUCAS, JOHN A. "EVALUATION OF THE MBO SYSTEM AT HARPER COLLEGE. " RESEARCH REPORT 

SERIES, VOL. Ill, NO. 16, (APRIL K 1972). 
U3 MCANINCH, HAROLD D. H ACCOUNTABILITY THROUGH MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES," BUREAU 

OF INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS, UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN, (AUGUST, 1972). 
U4 PARKS, DARRELL L. "F.P.D.A. STAFF DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM," PAPER PRESENTED AT THE 

F.P.D.A., PART F-S IATE PLANNING CONKEkENCE - EASTERN STATES, WASHINGTON, D. C., 

(APRIL 16, 1971). 

115 P1NNELL, CHARLES. "APPLICATION OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES TO COLLEGE AND 

UNIVERSITY ADMINISTRATION," PAPER PRESENTED AT 1967 SEMINAR ON ACADEMIC ADMINIS- 
TRATION, TEXAS A it M UNIVERSITY, 19ti7. 

116 DEEGAN, ARTHUR X. MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES: A MANAGEMENT SEMINAR. A SEL -PUBLISHED 

WORV'POOK USED BY DR. DEEGAN IN HIS MANAGEMENT CONSULTING SEMINARS. 

l MM R*r % ' i •■, »?SMA 

pT~ r ' ' • * 

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