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ED 223 380 

RC 013 645 







Farley, Elizabeth, Ed. 

Perspectives on Camp Administration. Readings for 
Camp Director Education. Camp Administration 

American Camping Association, Martinsville, Ind. 
0££ice o£ Special Education and Rehabilitative 
Services (ED), Washington, DC. Div. of Personnel 
Preparation . 
Sep 81 

122p.; For related documents, see RC 013 643-651. 
This document is a Project STRETCH Volume. 
American Camping Association, Bradford Woods, 
Martinsville, IN 46151-7902 ($8.00). 
Guides - Non-Classroom Use (055) 



MFOl Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS. 
♦Administration; *Admihistrator Education; 
♦Anthologies; *Camping; Disabilities; *Futures (of 
Society); *Lifelong Learning; Outdoor Education 
*Project STRETCH 


The publication includes 47 selected readings for 
camp directors who are interested in reviewing the current status of 
the profession and who want to' be a part of shaping its future. The 
artic^Les, selected from periodicals directly related to camping and, 
where appropriate, from related journals, were selected and organized 
to support the American Camping Association's (ACA's) Camp Director 
Education Curriculum. Because of the comprehensiveness of the 
curriculum, only articles that received the highest ratings are 
included, and thus, not all objectives are addressed in this 
publication. The publication is organized in six sections: (1) 
Philosophic Foundations and Considerations ; (2) Li fe Span 
Development; (3) Administration and Organization; (4) The .Camp 
Program; (5) Programs for Handicapped Campers; and (6) A View to the 
Future. Each section is prefaced by an interview with a knowledgeable 
and experienced prof essional, e .g. , Judith Myers, Mary Faeth Chenery, 
Stuart Mace, Nannette Enloe, Jan Adams, Gary Robb, and Armand B. 
Ball. Their comments give the reader an added dimension and 
distinctive insight into the six subject ' areas . Also, to help focus 
the material: on the ACA curriculum, discussion questions and 
additional resources ^are included at the end of each section. 

****** *********** ******* 

* Reproductions suppl.'i'ed by EDRS are the best that can be made * 

* from the original document. * 
************************* *^ ********************** ********************** 






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Perspectives on Camp Administration 

Readings for Camp Direc|pr Education 







^This docuninnt boon re'produced as 

mr.eivod from thn porson or organization 

onqinntincj it 

Minor changes havn lu'nn niitdo to improve 
- ropro(lui;tion (ju.ility 

• Points o( vinw nr opinumji stdtBfJ in this docn 
mnnt firi not ncH:i'ss.irily ropro5>t'nt official NIE 
position or potic.v 

iSMhi) Uv Thi Ami rk an ( AMhist. Assfx imion 


Perspectives on Camp Administration 

Readings for Camp Director Education 

Dr. Elizabeth Farley, Editor 

Camp Administration Series 

Sue Stein, Editor 

Project STRETCH 
The American Camping Association 
Martinsville, Indiana 

The project information contained herein was developed pursuant 
to grant no. G 007901333, from the Division of Personnel Preparation, 
Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services. The opmions 
expressed herein do not necessarily reflect positions, policy, or endorse- 
ment by that office. Copies may be ordered from the American 
Camping Association, Bradford Woods, Martinsville, I N 46 1 5 1 -7902. 


Foreword iv 

Preface , v 

Acknowledgements vi 

Credits vii 

Introduction , , viii 

Section I Philosophic Foundations and Considerations 1 

Interview with Dr. Judith Myers 
The Values of Camping 

Eleanor's Vignettes: Hedley Seldon Dimock (1891-1958) 
Group Experience: The Essence of Camping 
Make Camp Objectives Specific 
Camping for Special Children 
Camping Leadership 

How to Develop Your Camping Philosophy 
Discussion Questions and Resources 

Section II Life Span Development 21 

Interview with Dr. Mary Faeth Chenery 
* Play Is the Center of a Child's Life 
Developmental Characteristics 
Understanding the Camp Group 
Family Camp: It*s the Little Things that Count 

Some Intergrouping Principles and Observations \. 

Senior Camping 

A Camp Director's 10 

Discussion Questions and Resources 

Section III Administration and Organization 39 

Interview with Stuart Mace 

The Qualifications for a Successful Director 

First Year Director 

Decentralization — A Forward Step to Better Camping 
ZBB: Keeping Your Budget and Goals in Line 
The Art of Camp Supervision 

Staff Recruitment , 

Successful Pre-Camp Training Program Instills Confidence, Helps Motivate Working Team 
Delegation — A Misunderstood Management Concept 
Ten Ways to Help Counselors Grow 

Appraising Performance— Some Alternatives to the Sandwich Approach 
Discussion Questions and Resources 


Section IV The Camp Program. 


Interviews with Nannettc Enloe and Jan Adams 

A Time for Discovery 

Committing Yourself to the Campers 

Program Ideas — Getting Yours 

Try a New Camp Schedule 

The Importance of Skill Development 

Campers Want Risk, Camps Need to Offer It 

Crafts at Camp— What Directors Should Know About Planning a Program 

The Teachable Moment o 
Eight Things Parents Want from Camp— Does Your Camp Provide Them/ 

How to Find Out What Campers Really Feel About Camp 

Discussion Questions and Resources 

Section V Programs for Handicapped Campers 


Interview with Gary Robb 

Should Every Handicapped Person Have a Camping Experience? | 

An Overview of Camping Objectives— Geheric and Those Unique to Programs for the Handicapped' 

Basic Principles of Special Population Camping 

A Multidimensional Approach to Camper Assessment 

Program Abstracts 

Sensitive Network of Communication Eases Steps into Mainstreaming 

Handicapped Campers Also Can Play the Games 

Blind Teens 'Touch* Hawaii Via Travel Camp 

A Rationale for Leisure Skill Assessment with Handicapped Adults 

Discussion Questions and Resources 

Section VI A View to the Future 


Interview with Armand B. Ball 

Lifestyles of the Future 

Integrating the Third Wave and Camping 

Preparing for a Changing Future 

The Future of Camping for Special Populations 

Discussion Questions and Resources 

ill O 


The Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services 
has for many years recognized the value of camping as an 
important aspect in the fives of handicapped youth and adults. 
Since 1971 when the former Bureau of Education for the 
Handicapped provided funding to help sponsor the National 
Conference on Training Needs and Strategies in Camping, 
Outdoor and Environmental Recreation for the Handicapped 
at San Jose State University, there has been a nationwide 
movement toward including handicapped children and adults 
in organized camping programs. 

The material contained in this book and other volumes that 
make up the Camp Director Training Series are the r.esuit of a 
three-year project funde'd by the Division of Personnel Prepa- 
ration. In funding this effort, it is our hope that the results of 
the project will help make camp directors and other persons 
more aware of the unique and special needs of disabled 
children and adults; and to provide information and 
resources to better insure that those needs are met. 

The Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services is 
committed to the goal of equal opportunity and a quality life 
for every handicapped child in the United States. Opportunity 
to participate in camping programs on an equal basis with 
their non-handicapped peers is a right to which all handicapped 
children are entitled. However, this goal can be achieved only 
if those responsible for the provision of camping services are 
likewise committed to this goal. 

William Hillman, Jr., Project Offier, 1979-1981 

Division of Personnel Preparation, ' - 

Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services 

Sept. 1981 



Emblazoned across the mantle of the fireplace at its National 
Headquarters are the^ words **Better Camping For Alf." 
^Nothing more easily sums up the basic purpose of the 
American Camping Association (AC A) in its 75 years of 
existence than do these words. From its very beginning, the 
Association has been concerned about providing **better" 
camps. That concern has led to a continuing study and 
research for the most appropriate standards for health, safety, 
and better programming in the organized camp. 

That concern for standards of performance in the operation 
of the summer camp led to an awareness of the necessity of an 
adequate preparation and continuing education of the camp 
director. Various short courses and training events were 
developed in local ACA Sections and at ACA naUonal con- 
ventions. Many institutions of higher learning developed 
curriculum related to the administration of the organized 
camp. > 

By the late 1960s, the American Camping Association 
began the development of an organized plan of study for the 
camp director that would insure a common base of knowledge 
for its participants. Three types of camp director institutes 
were developed and experimented with in different parts of 
the country. In 1970, the Association adopted a formalized 
camp director institute which led to certification by the 
Association as a certified camp director. Continuing efforts 
were made to try to expand and improve upon the program. 

After the first decade, it was recognized that the program 
must be greatly expanded if it were to reach camp directors in 
all parts of the country. Ctntralized institutes of a specified 
nature often prevented wide participation by camp directors. 
This led the AssociatiorVJ-4€) consider the importance of 
documenting a body of* knowledge which needed to be 
encompassed in the basic education of any camp director and 
to explore methods by which that information could be best 

During the years 1976-78, the Bureau of Education for the 
Handicapped, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and 
Welfare, funded a three-year project tb determine the b^ic 
competencies required of a camp director who worked with 
the physically handicapped. Under the leadership of Dr. 

Dennis Vinton and Dr. Betsy Farley of the University of 
Kentucky, research was undertaken that led to the documenta- 
tion of the basic components of such education. It was' deter- 
mined that 95 percent of the information required in educa- 
tion of a director of a camp for the physically handicapped 
was generic. Only 4 percent or 5 percent related specifically to 
the population served. 

Meanwhile, the American Camping Association had begun 
to recognize that the word ''all" in its motto is an obligation 
far beyond its extensive efforts over a number of decades to 
insure organized camping experiences for children of all racial, 
ethnic, and socio-economic backgrounds. Camps began to ex- 
pand their services to a variety of special populations to encom- 
pass all age ranges and persons with a variety of physical and 
mental disabilities. The message soon reached the Association 
that any camp director education program must help all camp 
directors to understand and explore the needs of the new 
population the camps were serving. Chief among those new 
populations were the campers with physical and mental 

In 1978, the Association approached the Office of Special 
Education, U.S. Department of Education, and requested 
funding for a project to expand its education program based 
on the materials developed by Project REACH, a research pro- 
ject funded by the Department of Education at the University 
of Kentucky; the intent was to include training for directors 
working with the handicapped and develop a plan for wider 
dissemination of camp director education opportunities. 

A subsequent grant from the department resulted in 
Project STRETCH and three years of monitoring camp 
director education programs, revising and expanding the 
basic curriculum for such programs, and developing new 
materials for use in expanded programs^ 

As we near the end of Project STRETCH, the American 
Camping Association is pleased to find that the project has 
helped to greatly heighten the level of awareness of the handi- 
capped and their needs in the camp director community. 

This volume is one of several volumes that will insure 
**Bctter Camping for All" in the decades ahead. 

Armand Ball, 
Executive Vice President 
American Camping Association 




^ ckn o w ledge men ts 

The camp administration series is a result of three years of work by hundreds of 
individuals in the field of organized camping and therapeutic recreation. A big thank 
you is extended to all who made this project a reality. While it is impossible to 
mention all contributors^ we extend a special thank you to those individuals who 
assisted the project for all three years. With their input, the road to this project's 
completion was much easidlF to travel. 

Project Officer, 1981-1982. 

Martha B. Bokee, Division of Personnel Preparation, 
Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services 

National Advisory Committee 

Paul Howells, CCD; Chairperson 
Janice Adams, CCD 
Julia Brown, Ph.D. 
Charles Butler, CCD 
Nannette Enloe 

William Hammerman, Ph.D.; CCDSan Francisco State University 
Judith Myers, Ph.D. George Williams College 

Lutheran Church of America, Philadelphia, PA 
Camp Idlepines 

University of Wisconsin — Madison 
National Institute of Health, Washington, D.C. 
Northwest Georgia G.S. Council, Inc. 

Project Staff 

Armand Ball 
Kay Kester-Oliver 
Sue Stein, CCD 
Phyllis Elmore 
Elizabeth Farley, Ed.D. 

Project Director 
Assistant Project Director 
Project Coordinator 
Project Secretary 
Project Consultant 

Project Subcontractor 

Don Hawkins, Ph.D. 
Denise Robinson 


Hawkins and Associates 




. Wc gratefully acknowledge the following sources for permission to reprint copy- 
righted articles in this publication. 

To Christian Camping Internationale, and John M. Pearson, Executive Director, for 
the following articles which appeared in the Journal of Christian Camping. 

1^ — ''How to Develop Your Camping Philosophy" July/ Aug. 1978 
—••Family Camp: It's the Little Things that Count" July/Aug., 1977 
—••Basic Principles of Special Population Camping'' July/Aug., 1980 
—••Program Ideas— Getting Yours" Nov. /Dec, 1979 
—••Try a New Camp Schedule" Jan. /Feb., 1977 

To Dr. Larry L. Neal, Dr. John A. Nesbitt, and the University of Oregon Center of 
Leisure Studies for the following arti^clcs which appeared in Trgining Needs and 
Strategies in Camping for the Handicapped. Eugene, Oregon: University of Oregon, 

—••Should Every Handicapped Person Have a Camping Experience'* 
— ••An Overview of Camping Objectives" 

To Dr. Dennis A. Vinton and Dr. Elizabeth M. Farley for materials which appeared 
in the Project REACH Camp Director Training Series, University of Kentucky, 

To Jean E. Folkerth, Barbara D. Pantzer, Lynn D. Saslow-Janklow, Nancy Navar, 
and the National Therapeutic Recreation Society, Ronald Reynolds, Editor, for 
use of three articles which appeared in Therapeutic Recreation Journal. 

—••Program Abstracts" fourth Quarter, 1978 

-••Multidimensional Approach to Camper Assessment" Fourth Quarter, 1978 
—••A Rationale for Leisure Skill Assessment with Handicapped Adults" Fourth 
Quarter, 1980 

To the National Recreation and Parks Association, and Pamela M. Leigh, Editor, 
for the following articles which appeared in Parks and Recreation Magazine. 

— ••Z.B.B.: Keeping Your Budget and Goals in Line" Dec. 1979 
—••Delegation— A Misunderstood Management Concept" March 1978 . 
—••Appraising Performance— Some Alternatives to the Sandwich Approach 
Nov. 1981 

To the Fund for Advancement of Camping and Thomas J. Curtin, Executive Direc- 
tor, for permission to reprint two occasional papers entitled: 

—••Some Intergrouping Principles and Observations" 
— ••Group Experience: The Essence of Camping" 

To Dr. Thomas M. Shea for permission to reprint information from his book. 
Camping for Special Children. C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, MO 1977. 

To artist Rocky Oliver for the artwork on the cover and section title drawings. 


**If you can waste an afternoon profitably, 
you have learned how to live." 

— Provi-rb 


Perspectives on Camp Administration is a book of selected 
readings for camp directors who are interested in reviewing 
the current status of the profession and who want to be a part 
of shaping its future. 

The articles included in this publication were selected 
from periodicals directly related to camping; however, where 
appropriate^ articles from related journals have been included. 
The articles were selected and organized to support the 
American Camping Association's Camp Director Education 
Curriculum. of the comprehensiveness of the curri- 
culum, only articles that received the highest ratings were 
included, and thus, not all objectives have been addressed in 
this publication. 

This publication has been organized in six sections: 1) 
Philosophic Foundations and Considerations; 2) Life Span 
Development; 3) Administration and Organization; 4) The 
Camp Program; 5) Programs for Handicapped Campers; and 
6) A View to the Future. Each of the sections has been pre- 
faced by an interview with a knowledgeable and experienced 
professional. ^^Their comments give the reader an added 
dimension and distinctive insight into the six subject areas. 
Also, to^help focus the material on the ACA curriculum, 
discussion questions and additional resources have been in- 
cluded at the end of each section. 

The editor hopes this publication will serve to enhance 
carnr director education programs and pose significant ques- 
tions for the future growth of organized camping. 

This book is dedicated to William A. Hillman, who, over 
the years, has worked aggressively and untiringly to improve 
handicapped children's leisure opportunities. 



Section I 

Philosophic Foundations and Considerations 


X his section o^the book of readings should be used with 
units four and eight of the **Camp Director Education Cur- 
riculum Guide." Because of the length of material and the 
availability of texts on the history of organized camping, only 
one article has been included. However, Dr. Judith Myers, 
Associate Professor, George Williams College, and past 
chairperson of the American Camping Association National 
Leadership Certification Board, who has extensive knowledge 
and interests in the history of organized camping, was inter- 
viewed to give selected information in thi^ area. 

QifESTiON 1 . You have had (he opportunity to work with 
Eleanor Eel Is on her memoirs of organized camping. What 
are some of the most significant and interesting things you 
have discovered through your conversations about the 
founding o f organ ized camping ? 

Myers: *'The controversy on who started organized 
camping, Gunn or Balch, is interesting; but more interesting 
is that boih men started programs for similar reasons. They 
were both concerned with providing constructive, outdoor- 
activity for older boys during the .summer to counteract the 
unwholesome social influences of industrial New England 
during the 1860s. The programs that be,, n during 1861-70 
were developed for boys; it was not until after 1900 that 
organized camps were begun for girlsf 

.**It is also interesting to note that the founders of the first 
organized camps were successful professionals ia their own 
right. They were doctors, educators^ and ministers. They 
were professionals who had gained the trust and confidence 
of parents and the public. Of significance, they were acting 
very individually. One did not know about the other; the 
idea and devclopmcat of organized camps was a new experi- 
ence for each. 

''Finally, I would like to mention their ideas on profes- 
.sionalism were keen and perceptive. Camp directors were 
criticjil of camp programs starting without knowledgeable 
and experienced leaders. They saw a need for training staff 
and camp directors and saw a need, in conjunction with the 
YMCA, to share common concerns by establi^shing a profes- 
sional* association, the Camp Directors- Association of 

Qi-hsriON 2. When reviewing the history of organized 
camping, what trends or cycles can he identified?- ' ' 

^yers: *M like to think more in terms of xycles than 
trends. The cycles center on two themes: individualism and 
cooperation. As mentioned previously, the organized camp- 
ing movement was started by individuals who were not even 
aware that other similar programs were in existence. How- 
ever, because of a felt need to develop standards of operation, 
especially in the areas of health and safety, and to provide 
opportunities for professional growth, a new cycle emerged. 
It was a cycle where cooperative efforts were necessary if 
mutual goals were to be achieved and if government regula- 
tions were to reflect the wants and needs of the industry. 
Individualism in terms of the purpose of varied camping 
operations has been retained in various levels throughout 
the past century. T\f^ camping movement has focused on 
providing opportunities that require special skill, knowledge, 
areas, and facilities. The attention focused on program.^ 
involving special populations and high adventure have helped 
organized camping grow; however, with the economy tighten- 
ing and federal dollars diminishing, 1 feel a greater under- 
standing in dealing with our consumers, who have^ high 
expectations and demand more for their money, will prompt 
MS to work more cooperatively, again." 

Question 3. How does knowing the history of organized 
camping aid camp directors in developing a philosophy to 
run a camp? 

Myers: **Knowing history gives camp directors two 
things: I) A foundation of goals and outcomes that can be 
attributed to the camping experience across time, and 2) A. 
record on how camps and camp directors in the past have 
utilized camp programs to implement goals. The lack of 
knowledge based on such research means that we must rely 
more heavily on what camp directors have said and done in 
the past. *If you know where you come from, you won't 
make as many mistakes in the future, and we can benefit from 
the work of others.' Also, curiosity, we want to know about 
the camping movement and our roots." 

Question 4. In recent years, the importance of making 
objectives more specific has been emphasized. Do you believe 
this is resulting in better programs? 

Myers: **[ like to think it is. It has been emphasized in 
camp director institutes, research and training projects, and 
Standards, and it has been emphasized in such a way that 
made camp directors practice and use their skill in writing 
more specific objectives. More specific objectives helps us 
measure what we are doing and helps us articulate this to the 

Question 5. /// closing, do you believe camp profes- 
sionals are doing enough to inform the public of the. value of 

Myers: **No, but I think we have a hard time going 
beyond the mystique of camping. To explain the value of 
camping is somewhat ambiguous, a hard to measure commod- 
ity, but the public wants a succinct, simple, tangible product. 
The problem becomes: how can we market a promise? How 
can we tell consumers what we do when it can't be seen? 

**I believe we must know more about what we are doing, 
but in measurable terms. It is important to articulate what 
we are doing, to take out those things that do not measure 
up, and to eliminate those things that are in conflict. We 
need to learn more aboat marketing. We need to find out 
more about our campers* needs, structure programs around 
their needs, and then, market the programs. Camp directors 
have expre.s.sed this concern; now, we are ready for action." 



Section I 

The Values of Camping 

Reynold E. Carlson 

Monograph/American Camping AssocrATioN (c> 1975 

rfyery social movement must from time to time reassess its 
purposes, consider its place in a changing world, and exa- 
mine the values^which it is piesumed to offer. So it is with 
the camping movement. 

**Why send my child to camp?" is a question posed by 
many parents when faced with the cost of camp and the avail- 
ability of many alternative exeriences for the young at home 
and in the local community. **Whv go to camp?" is a 
parallel question asked by young people themselves when 
they consider a variety of other choices. Should educational, 
recreational, religious, and social agencies put their time, 
money, and energy into the provision of camping experi- 
ences? Why should private individuals and associations also 
work for camping for youth? Is there any benefit to society 
as a whole from camping? Do camps have any special or 
Uiiique qualities that justify their existence? 

The answers to these questions depend upon the values 
that may emerge from good camping experiences. 
That something **good" happen.^ to? children in the 
Vgood" camp is an assumption made, not only by camp 

leaders, but even more often by parents and campers them- 
"-^selves. It is often difficult to explain what this **good" may 
be. It is even more difficult to categorize and to subject to. 
scientific inquiry the values that can come from camping. 
The '*good'' eludes laboratory dissection. The great variety 
in camps— in their leadership, purposes, settings, and pro- 
grams — makes it impossible to cover the value potentials, of 
camping with blanket statements. What may be expected 
depends upon the individual camp, and even its value varies 
markedly from camper to ca^nper. ^ 

It is essential to recognize that, if a camp can influence 
learning and behavior patterns, it is not necessarily true that 
only de§ii;able patterns may emerge from the experience 
' camping.^*"tf is doubtful that all children cun profit from 
'camping, and it is important that those who do go to camp 
attend one chosen to meet their particular needs. The lack of 
considLeration by parents in selecting a camp to sirit their 
child is disturbing to observers of camping. The common 
assumption that camps are alike or that if certain groups or 
persons operate ? camp it must be all rigjit is careless or even 
dangerous. There is need for better communication between 
parents and camp administrators so that the right camp can 
be selected for a- particular child and so that the camp 
administrator may understand the expectations of the 

Should every child, then, go to camp? No, but the oppor- 
tunity to go should be available to everyone. There is suffi- 
cient testimony from former campers, parents, and 
qualified observers to support the view that camping is of 
value to man'y — maybe most — children and to justify 
making the experience available to a)!. 

Parents often give camps credit for dramatic changes in 
their children's behavior. Sometimes, however, parents have 

unreasonable expjsctations and look for changes that are 
beyond possibility in the short camp period. Some pl-ogress 
can usually be made in behavior, learning particular skills, 
developing status within the group, making friehids, learning 
personal care, learning to like the out-of-doors, and so on. 

Even more important, recognition of values comes some- 
times from campers many years after they have attended 
camp. Looking back often places events in better perspective. 
It is significant to notice how many parents who have gone 
to camp themselves want camping for their children. Some 
of the old established camps of today are almost filled by the 
children of former campers. 

• Some former campers go so far as to say that their lite 
directions were turned around because of childhood camp 
experiences. We recognize that there may have been other 
factors involved, but the conviction of the former campers 
themselves is good evidence that something important 
happened to them in camp. 

In the following pages we shall explore the camp setting as 
a means of securing desirable outcomes and shall consider 
the assessments of qualified observers. 

Camping and the American Heritage 

Dr. HeyiwUI li. Carlson is professor eiiwntus of recreation ami former 
clunrman of ihc Oepartment of Reen'aftbn and Par/c Adininistrajion ai 
^ rw University. > y ' 


Organized camping, is part of the American heritage. 
Camp3 began to develop in the United States over a century 
ago to provide experiences related to the environment and to 
our historic past different from experiences orfcrcd by o(her 
educational media. The romaniicizcd stories of^ihc west- 
ward movement—of explorers, Indians, pioneers, and cow- 
boys— cast their spell oh the new movement and many 
camps kept alive these themes from American history. 

During the early 1900s, with many rural families crowding 
into the cities, camping grew rapidly: Perhaps parents who 
themselves had their roots in the soil felt that their city-born 
children needed the contacts with the ba"sics of life that had 
been common on the farm. A further, influence in the 
expansion of camping lay in the widespread conviction that 
the camp was one of the finest settings possible for character 
development or for the indoctrinization of particular points 
of view. Educators and psychologists joined in praise of this 
innovative and effective means" of education. As a result,' 
practically all agencies dealing with children enthusiastically 
adopted camps'as partt)f their programs. Religious organi- 
zations saw in camping an ideal educational setting in whiv h 
to propagate their faiths. Many private camps were estab- 
lished, and parents found that these camps helped to develop 
desirable physical, mental, social, and spiritual qualities 
while appealing to their children as centers for exciting 
outdoor experiences'. 

Specialized camps were founded for those who wished to 
concentrate on woodcraft, music, art, sports, or other 
interests^. Gamps for the handicapped, the emotionally dis- 
turbed, or the financially deprived also appeared. 

Camping did not grow without growing pains. Leaders in 
camping through the'years endeavored to improve camping 
pra^ices and ensure the quality of camps by developing 

Perspectives ON ADMrNiSTRATioN/3 

standards, first in areas of health and safety and later in all 
aspects of camping. Their recognition of the vital importance 
of trained leaders led to the expansion and improvement of 
counselor education and to the professionalization of the 
roJe of the camp director. Legal restrictions were placed on 
camps to improve their operation. 

Recent concerns for the disadvantaged and desires for 
intercultural contacts brought new emphases to "many 
camps. Also, increased emphasis on understanding and wise 
use of the environment became an important aspect of camp- 
ing. Regard for the environment goes beyond knowledge to 
action that can result in better care of not only our 
immediate surroundings but the resources upon which the 
quality of American life depends. 

Today more than eight million children attend more than 
1 1,000 camps each year. Although this number means that 
less than half of the children of America attend camp even 
cnce, it still indicates the wide acceptance of camping by 
parents and society, in many homes camping is looked upon 
as a necessary part of the process of growing up, an experi- 
ence in which children learn to live away from home, care 
for themselves, think for themselves, work and play with 
their peers, and use skills that differ from those used at 
home and school. 

The typical camp which today's children attend is a com- 
munity of young -people with selected leaders, living together 
in small groups outdoors and participating in a program 
based on their interests and needs. There is usually at least 
one leader to eight campers. Camp sessions last from one 
week to several weeks. 

Education is not regarded solely as the prerogative of the 
schools but as the sum total of life experiences, whether at 
home, school, work, play or in the many group associations 
.available to youth. Camp as an edircational institution has a 
unique aspect in that it is a total community in itself, a 24- 
hoiir-a-day adventure outdoors organized for the benefit 
and joy of childhood. 

Cioals of Camping 

In some camps, counselors spend several day,s of pre-camp 
training participating in the kinds of activities that campers 
(.tiemsclvcs will be engaged in later. Counselors then, discuss 
the values that these experiences may have in the h'ves of 
campers. Of what value is this campfirc program, tha.t 
morning hike, the group planning, the canoeing, the swim- 
ming? 1-requently mentioned are such benefits as improving 
skills, getting acquainted with the natural environment, 
learning how to plan and work together and to , express 
oneself and improve one's health. Counselors learn that 
they must not become so engrossed in the activities them- 
selves that they forget the children.^ 

Camps are not just activity programs. Standards of the 
American Camping Association specify that camps should 
have well-defined goals and should plan programs with 
these goals in mind, Camps place different emphases upon 
parlicniur goals, depending upon their leadership, the camp 
director's philosophy, the sponsorship, and such practical 
limitations as the budget and the site available. Church 
camps may place particular stress upon spiritual values. 
Others may give attention to certaip skills. Many youth 
agencies regard camp as a place for attaining their particular 

The following are goals toward which most camp activities 
are directed: 

I ) Learning* to live outdoors and become acquainted with the 
outdoor environment. Children should learn to feel at 
home in the outdoors and feel they can help in the pre- 
servation and improvement of their surroundings. 

2) Ex/jcriencin^u individual growth and development. Camp 
should offer children a chance to discover their own poten- 
tialities, to exercise their personal initiative, and to earn 
respect for what they do as individuals, 

3) Learning to live and work together. The small family 
group, with its opportunities for give-and-take, for plan- 
ning with others, for building friendships, and for finding 
one's own place within a social group, contributes greatly 
toward this goal. 

4) Practicing health and .safety. Camps offer numerous situ- 
ations requiring the use of safety skills and the practice 
of good personal health habits. Camp is a place for prac- 
ticing rather than just talking about health and safety. 

5) Developing new skills and interests and perfecting old 
ones. Many of the camp activities have a high carryover 
value into later years. The outdoor-related skills and the 
understanding of the care of* the environment in using these 
skills will have increasing importance as the American 
people take to the outdoors in greater numbers in their 
leisure. It must be remembered that life is of one piece 
and cannot always be separated into the categories we 
often use. The aesthetics of living involve individual ex- 
prcssionc?th rough many forms of speech, writing, reading, 
music, and art. Creative expression is easily reached in a 
simple camp setting. 

6) Developing spiritual meanings and values. A whole area of 
appreciations and concern for others can be opened 
through camping. Many of insights are caught as 
well as taught. - ' 

7 ) Enjoying a recreational experien ce. Permeating a II t h e 
camp activities and related to the other objectives in the 
aura of enjoyment of the camp for itself. 

Goals arc never achieved in whole, but it is in their pursuit 
that life attains meaning. 

Camping in roc]ay\s World 

Since urbanization, industrialization, and accompanying 
changes in home life ihtluenced the growth of organized 
camping in the early part of the century, it is reasonable to 
ask if the upheavals in modern society have affected the 
need for camping. Affluence, mobility, population density, 
racial and cultural cleavages, and alterations in family life, 
schools, and other social institutions all create a climate for 
growing up that would be unrecognizable to yesterday's 
children. Do these influences r jan that camp is less needed 
today than in. the 1920s? Do camps themselves need to evolve 
and are they doing so to meet current needs? Are other experi- 
ences in the community meeting the need for camp? To the 
first and third questions the an.svver might be a qualified 
'*No.'' To the second the reply is that change is essential and 
that there is evidence that many camps are adapting their 
programs 40 meet n^^w 'needs. Experimentation and evalua- 
tion a re t h c esse n t i a 1 s o f o ngo i n g s u c cess . 

Orgajii/ed Cumpti\g and the Needs of Youth ^ 

Society has created many institutions to meet the needs of 
youth — schools, youth agencies, playgrounds; community 
centers, and religious organizations — to mention ortly the 
most evident. The home, of course, should be the primary 
setting in which the needs ofyouth a re satisfied. 

Food, shelter, rest, and exercise are the basic physical needs 
that must be met if a child is to grow normally. Equally 
essential are certain psyehotogical needs, such as the needs 
for love, recognition, security, and escape from boredom, 
which are fulfilled in various degrees by home and society. 
Other needs concern relationships with peers and adults, 
friends,' and the development of a sense of belonging. 
Modern society is so complex and the influences bearing on 

.4' V- RSPI ( \ IV» S OS Al>MINISrRA ru)N 

children so varied that some of the needs of children are not 
intrinsic but are the result of the social climate in which the 
children grow. The child from the suburbs or the affluent 
home may have some needs quite different from those of the 
ghetto child. The city child may feel needs quite foreign to 
the rural child, and the physically competent child may 
never know some of the needs of the handicapped child. 

In the camp milieu there is the opportunity to serve some 
of the needs of young people in an intensely personal way 
and to make contributions beyond those possible in the 
community and home. The good camp regards the child as an 
individual and tries to meet the needs that it is particularly 
well-equipped to serve. 

Physical needs are served well in most camps. Nutritious 
and well-balanced meals, adequate rest, shelter, and exercise 
are usually high on the list of priorities. A nurse is commonly 
a member of the camp staff. The safety and health of 
campers are prime concerns. The 24-hour-a-day living situ- 
ation provides numero 's occasions for acquainting campers 
with good practices in personal care, cleanliness, and diet. 

The small living group and the close relations of coun-/ 
selors to campers offer special opportunities for meeting 
individual and personal needs. With the sincere interest of an 
adult in the camper, recognition for achievement does not 
go ignored, the satisfactions of engaging in adventurous and 
challenging activities can be achieved, a sense of security can 
be built, and new skills can be learned. 

The camp community, and particularly the small peer 
group with the counselor, opens pathways to very special 
helps. Getting along with others, participating in group 
decision-making, working, playing, and learning with 
others— some of whom may be from different cultural and 
racial backgrounds — are areas in which camps may help 
campers improve their behavior. 

The following are some of the needs of youth in which 
camps can be especially helpful. These are needs that erijerge 
from the cultural backgrounds of most children: 

—Need for experiences that provide a balanced und^ 
standing of rural, urban, and outdoor living. 

—Need to learn through direct experience. 

—Need to develop a feeling about the universe and mah*s 
place in it. 

—Need for freedom from the pressures of urban society. 
—Need to know and associate with people from different 

social levels, races, and cultures. 
—Need to escape from the artificiality of city living to a 

simpler living style. 
— Need to live in a community with a concern for basic 

moral and ethical values. 
—Need for freedom to play, explore, act, sing, and create. 
—Need to accept responsibility for personal and group 


—Need to live in an atmosphere of honesty and frankness. 
—Need to be exposed to a natural environment of 

harmony and beauty. 
—Need to have aspirations raised, particularly for youth 

from disadvantaged backgrounds. 
— Need to have the opportunity to fail and to accept the 

con.sequences of failure. 
— Need to accept change. 

— Need to begin to develop independence from parents. 
--Need to play an active role in a peer group. 
-Need to experiment. 

— Need to play an active role in environmental improve- 

Camping as^a Selting for Learning 

For good or for ill the camp has intrinsic characteristics 
Q nake it a very potent setting for influencing behavior 

and for facilitating certain kinds of learning. These charac- 
teristics are considered in the following paragraphs: 

I The camp as an outdqor living community. Most young 
[people find a strong appeal in getting away from the prosaics 
pf home and community to go outdoors and participate in 
'activities not easily provided by other institutions. The camp 
becomes a total community which provides food, shelter, 
human relationships, and self-occupation remote from out- 
.^ide influences. Because this community is outdoors and 
generally surrounded by natural beauty and a varied topo- 
graphy, there are abundant opportunities for adventurous 
activities that are very attractive to young people. 
I Small peer group. Most camps are so structured that the 
pamper is a part of a family of his peers with a counselor. 
Living, playing, working, learning, and often worshipping 
with this small group require the camper to adjust to the 
group and yet maintain his or her individuality. This is 
■ American life in miniature, and the informal non-pressured 
camp setting can be an excellent introduction to social rela- 
tionships. Camps generally arrange not only for group 
activities and group decisions but also for individual partici- 
pation outside the group in activities of personal choice. 

Association with adults. It is hard to visualize any place, 
except the good home, where the relationship between chil- 
dren is on a better footing than in the camp. The camp coun- 
selor is both the wise friend and the surrogate parent for a 
small group of eigfit, six, or even fewer campers. He partici- 
pates with the campers in all their activities. Because the 
group is small, the situation informal, and the association 
not dependent on cognitive learning, it is possible for the 
counselor to make a strong personal impact on children. 
There is time to listen, time to observe, time to give 
individual attention when needed, and time to be part of a 
cohesive group that may profoundly affect behavior patterns. 

The importance of the counselor cannot be over- 
emphasized. His personality, concern, and understanding 
stamp themselves upon the camp^experieuce. The image of 
adulthood that he presents may be carried by tjie>:amperfdr 
' many-rryears, and the counselor may becorrre a near-hero to 



Per.spectives on ADMIN!STRAT16n/5 

Learning through direct experiences. The camp program 
is predicated upon providing first-hand experiences in doing 
and learning. Big muscle skills such as swimming,xanoeing, 
hiking, and climbing, and other skills such as outdoor cook- 
ing, wilderness campjng, carving, and sketching are all 
learned through direct experience. These skills are useful not 
just for present satisfactions but for activities in later life. In 
camp, children learn through experience how to get along 
with others, to adjust to a small group as well as the larger 
community of the camp, and to assume a share of work and 
responsibility for self-care. By direct experience v/ith the 
environment, campers learn about that environment and its 
problems as well as how to care for it. Living with others 
and enjoying what the wide^world bf the out-of-doors has to 
offer are among the most important aspects of camp. 

Adventure and inner satisfaction. Again and again, camp- 
ing leaders have said, **Camping is education." Yes, it is 
education; but in the camper's mind it is fun and aventure, 
even though at times he must do things he does not especially 
enjoy, such as cleaning his living quarters, brushing his teeth, 
, or combing his hair. The total experience should .have an 
aura of enjoyment. The camp Staff is disappointed if a 
camper goes home saying that he has not had a good time. 
Learning can be enjoyable, particularly when it involves 
doing things* that; have significance in day-to-day camp 

Is Ihe Potential of Camps Being Realized? 

Theoretically, it would be hard to imagine a situation 
more fraught with possibilities for the growth of children 
than the camp. There are, however, many obstacles to the 
realization of these possibilitJes. „ - 

The nature of camping Itself arouses some criticism. 
There are those who say that the isolation of the camp from 
' the community produces an unnatural setting in which any 

carryover into the home community becomes an improba- 
bility. Others feel thai the careful-adult supervision and the 
closeness of group living in camp may stifle personal growth 
and initiative. Parent.s sometimes say, **Camp leaders don't 
seem to care what happens in camp as long as the children 
are busy and happy." 

The validity of these criticisms depends in a large part on 
how the camp program is conducted. A recognition of the 
needs of children at particular age levels and a genuine 
desire to help the children grow along constructive paths 
may minimize these criticisms. 

The brevity of the camp stay. The first days of a camp 
session are spent in getfing acquainted and establishing 
relatioaships. The last day is needed in winding up camp and . 
departing for home. A one-week session barely has time to 
get started. There has long been a desire to lengthen the 
average camp period in order to obtain greater effectiveness.. 
We must not forget, however, that there may be an intensity 
in the experience not always felt in other settings. Since chil- 
dren live at camp, they have many more hours of experience 
than they would have in a similar number of days at .school 
or al. youth agency meetings. 

Leadership limitations. Although most camp counselors 
are dedicated and competent young adults, their limitations 
must be recognized. Their education does not usually include 
learning how to live and work with children outdoors in 
small informal groups. The counselor's job is a taxing one, 
calling on all the patience, ingenuity, and past experience he 
can muster. Many a sincere adult cannot make the adjust- 
ment. Teaching in a classroom requires a particular kind of 
ability, but counseling in camp for 24 hours a day requires 
the best personal qualities as well as a knowledge of 
program skills and an understanding of children and their 



MfflifflWffiHtiilH 6/ Perspectives ON Administration 

Variations in camp purposes. There are profound differ- 
ences in the purposes of camps. Some camps are skill- . 
oriented, while others are directed towards social or religious 
goals. Some are dedicated to the entertainment of children 
and others to the provision of work experiences. This 
diversity of goals is matched by a diversity of approaches 
used to attain these goals, a situation that immediately 
suggests the importance of the careful selection of camps for 
individual children. ^ 

The variations in goals and programs is both a weakness 
and a strength. Parents can select camps that direct their 
programs to the religious or cultural preference of the 
parents. Community agencies can carry on programs that 
meet their own needs. On the other hand, the word **camp" 
has come to have such vague connotations that there are 
difficulties in getting any unified approach to camp 

Lack of linkage. Camps are sometimes criticized as isolated 
experiences with no direct relationship to the community 
and other social institutions to which children belong. It is 
desirable to tie the camp experience to a community experi- 
ence as part of a total ongoing educational program, as is 
done in scouting organizations, religious groups, YMCAs, 
and other groups. Even though we recognize the value of 
this linkage, v^e may still say that a different kind of experi- 
ence from that of home or community has value. To find a 
different natural environment, a different living pattern, 
different associations (perhaps with individuals of other 
races and cultures), and different child-adult relationships is 
a broadening, even if isolated, experience. 

Financial limitations. Many camps operate on very limited 
budgets." The fact that most camps are open during the sum- 
mer and have only limited use during the rest of the year 
places a financial handicap upon them. Camp staffs usually 
work for minimal salaries, "and many young people who 
would be excellent staff members cannot afford to take 
camp jobs. Lack of finances often leads to difficulty in 
providing adequate lands and facilities or maintaining them 
properly. Agency camps commonly receive very little money 
for camp operation from United Funds so that it has been 
necessary for their camps to be largely self-supporting. 

Like the cost of most other things, the cost of operating 
camp has steadily increased. Many parents find camps priced 
beyond their means. About one-fourth of the children in 
camps today, most of them coming from disadvantaged 
homes, must have their camp fees subsidized. Many middle- 
income homes, if they can afford camp at all, send those 
children that have problems of personal adjustment or some 
need that parents think can be helped in camp. 

It is sometimes assumed that private camps, because of 
their higher fees, escape financial difficulties; but the compe- 
tition of other summer programs often makes it difficult to 
maintain the full camp needed to meet expenses. 

Those who believe in the values of a good camp feel that 
more adequate means of financing should be available. 
Camperships and some government funds for the disadvan- 
taged have helped, but in many cases a more generous sub- 
sidy and greater willingness by parents to pay full fees is 

The Camp Director 

The camp director and the camp staff bear the major res- 
ponsibility for achieving desirable outcomes from the camp 
ses.'jion. It has been said that the director is the soul of the 
camp. It is he who establishes the goals, selects the staff, 
directs the program, and maintains the camp as an educa- 
tional institution. What a camp does for campers depends 
largely upon him. Though the business operation may 
occupy a large part of his time, his most important task is 


that of seeing that there are goals and that progress i.s made 
toward thein. 

The camp director's personal goals may range from making 
money or balancing the budget (which may be essential to 
the camp's existence) to creating the finest environment 
possible for the development of children. Counselors' goals 
may range from having a pleasant summer vacation to pro- 
viding the for every child with whom they have contact. 

Directions and Trends 

Certain directions and relationships-of which camps must 
be cognizant have emerged in our ever-changing society. 
These directions have influenced and wilK continue to influ- 
ence camping. Recognising them can help camps adjust 
their programs so thai they can continue to grow and serve 
their useful purposes. 

Expansion of activities for camp-a^ed children. In most 
communities there are numerous and often competing 
things for children to do during the summer and leisure 
periods throughout the rest of the year. Schools, recreation 
and park departments, museum.s, youth agencies, libraries, 
sporj .leagues, and other groups offer activities to fill all 
spare moments. In some instances, such as Little League, 
which requires regular attendance, participation prevents 
children from attending camp. Family vacations, including 
family camping and other outings, sometimes take prece- 
dence over sending children to organized camps. 

School environmental education and the I2-wonth school 
year. The expansion of school programs outdoors gives 
some people the impression that such programs are sub- 
stitutes for camps. Environmental education as it has been 
developing is, however, generally much more concerned 
than camps with cognitive learning and much less concerned 
with fhe small group, the close adult relationships, and the 
all-around development of the individual. The 12-month 
school year, which educators have discussed at considerable 
length, apparently lies a long way in the future. If it comes, 
it is hoped that participation in organized camps will be 
given as much of a place as any other part of the educational 

Development of chalJenge-type programs. Recent years 
have witnessed a bursl of interest in adventure camping and 
challenge-type progr^ims. Such programs have been carried 
on for years by some camps, but today more and more 
young people are on their own in wilderness or semi-wilder- 
ness areas. The programs place empha.sis on self-reliance 
and competence in skills that may hold lifetime interest. 

Encouragement of older campers. Increasingly camps are 
providing for progression and challenge of older campers 
and are encouraging higher skill levels so as to retain and 
renew the interest of teenage youth in camping. 

Increase in governmental regulation. The great variation 
in camp operating practices has resulted in a tightening of 
governmental controls. These controls generally help to safe- 
guard children in camps and insure better health practices, 
although other area.s of camping-are also coming under 
regulation. When, camp leaders have participated in the 
development of these controls, they are- generally of a kiiid 

that improves the effectiveness of camp proiJ^rams. There is, 
however, a special quality of freedom in the good camp that 
must not be stifled by over-regulation. Variety and crcative- 
ness must be safeguarded lest camps be reduced lo deaden- 
ing uniformity. 

Improving camp practices within the camping movetnent. 
Regulations from the inside of the camping fraternity raiher 
than the outside have been made possible through the work 
of the American Camping Association. Camps certified by 
the American Camping Association must meet standards 
that have been developed throughua period of many years. 
This self-controlling program aims at improving practices in 
health, safety, leadership, administration, and program. 
Setting the standard implies the setting of goals and achiev- 
ing progress towards the goals so that desirable values may 
be devcFopcd in the camp experience. Camp Director's Certi- 
fication Institutes offered, under ACA sponsorship atul 
affiliated with colleges and universities arc given continuing 
training to camp directors in order to improve camp practices. 

Selecting and educating the camp staff have long been the 
concerns of camping leaders. During recent years there has 
been considerable improvement in the education of camp 
staffs by camps, colleges, and universities. A beginning 
toward the certification of camp directors, which should 
greatly improve camp practices, has been made. 

Through research, publications, workshops and confer- 
ences, further steps toward the improvement of practices 
have been taken. The large numbers of volunteers: who con- 
tribute time, money, and their own unique talents to camping 
speed the progress of this movement that serves American 

Values and Modern Society 

Our uneasy world, with its changing moral standards, 
racial discriminations, materialism, rising tide of delinquency 
and crime, weakened family and community ties, and grow- 
ing disillusionment, is greatly in need of all those programs 
that have a concern for human welfare and can help to 
'Stabilize society, raise standards of personal integrity, 
develop respect for those who are different, demonstrate 
desirable relationships, and encourage responsible 
citizenship. Camps can make contributions in many of these 
areas and in varying degrees are doing so. 

Modern American society is urban-oriented. The culture 
of the cities dominates television, periodicals, advei^tising, 
movies, and schools. Mechanization and computerization 
create a mode of living divorced from many of the basic 
realities ofjife known to peoples of the past. Reading and 
viewing pictures can never be a substitute for a direct relation- 
ship with the forces of nature. 

For many of us who have been associated over the years 
with programs for youth, the camping experience stands out 
as a means of bringing youth into harmony with their heri- 
tage of the outdoors, of establishing roots for young people 
who feel increasingly rootless, and for giving a perspective 
beyond that obtained in the narrow confines of a crowded 
society. Organized camping is perhaps the best avenue we 
have today to provide this direct relationship. 



Perspectives on Administration/7 

Section I 

Eleanor's Vignettes— 

Hed!ey Seldon Dimock (1 891-1958) 

Eleanor Eeils 

CAMf'lNC; MAC7A7JNh/.IUNK 1979 

['.(iitor's note: ''I'/cunor's i )iim'tic\" a/)pC(in'<l in Camping A/w.i,'(/.7//f' (furinti 
/'V79'.W. f'hev make i'\ccfk'n( and inicrcsimii roudinii for anyone intorvsu'd 
tn Icaminii more oinnu the history ol on^anircd ca/n/nnii. Her hook <m the 
history of cum/nnu /s forthaumnn, 

former student, later a colleague, wrote of Hedley 
Dimock, ''People across the country who worked with him in 
the pioneering days know that he, more than any other single 
person, had a vision Und working philosophy that would 
bind .practitioners, adrninistrators, and teachers together in 
maintaining the highest possible standards/' To this I would- 
add my own acknowledgement and gratitude for his contri- 
bution to the personal and professional growth of so many 
of us fortunate enough to have known him. A resolution 
passed by the AC A Board at his death noted. 

He was one of the pioneers in (he development of camp 
Standards. Throui>h his wisdom, understanding, and tactful-, 
ness, he provided the foundation for the present Standards 

His contributions were in many directions. He developed 
programs for leadership training and provided methods for 
thoughtful and skilled supervision. Through his teaching, 
and through his spiritual guidance, he has developed leaders 
thai will enrich the lives of the hundreds with whom they are 

IMmo'' f'.elh i.\ the author of a history of camping. 

Dr. Dimock challenged unfounded assutriptions about the 
value of the camp experience with a revolutionary impact on 
camping pv^cU{:c. The gap between what is known and what 
is practiced is a sobering fact of life among all institutions. 
Practice fails to measure up to standards so fluently and 
eloquently stated by practitioners. He was tireless in his 
efforts to interpret standards to camp directors in a way that 
would incorporate them into the philosophy and everyday 
practice of the camp. A floor had to be built quickly, but the 
ceiling was not defined, for any camp director worthy of the 
name must keep on learning and reaching up for the best he 
can give his campers. 

Born in Nova Scotia in 1891, Dimock's boyhood was spent 
in Boston and in northern^Saskatchewan where the family 
homesteaded. It have been a hard life for a thirteen- 
year-old boy doing a man's work in clearing and tilling the 
land and helping build a home in the remote, harsh environ- 
ment. His references, however, to this period were always in 
terms of the privilege of his pioneer experience, the beauty 
of the wilderness, the discipline of work, and the satisfactions 
of accomplishment. \ 

Two and a half years were spisnt in Saskatoon to earn a 
high school diploma and complete a year at the university, 
while supporting himself by various odd jobs. Here he met 
Eustace Haydon (then secretary of the v|VICA), who 
became a lifelong friend. 

In 1916 he enlisted in the Princess Patricia Light Infantry 
and was severdy wounded in France. During'a long hospital 
stay he rethought his position on war and pondered personal 
relationships and his future. He reentered the university, 
graduating in 1920. After two years as secretary for the 
Saskatchewan YMCA Boys' Work Board, where he worked 
'with Taylor Statten, he married and moved to Chicago to 
enter the university. He received his master's in 1925 and his 
bachelor of divinity and doctorate in 1^26 After a year of 
teaching at Carlcton College he became professor of religious 
education, and later dean, at George.^Villianis College. 

The summers of 1924-1929 were spent at Camp Ahmek 
where he and Charles Hendry completed their work and 
studies which resulted in the 1929 publication of Camping 
and Character. This book was realistic and practical and led 
to new views, goals, and methods in camping and religious 
education as well as in youth agencies concerned with charac- 
ter development. The authors appreciated the importance of 
intuitive feeling and the ability to relate naturally to campers. 
They pointed out 4hat a leader is doubly effective when 
analysis, evaluation, and research can undergird his philo- 
sophy and practice. He then ''understands better what he is 
doing and why." Their studies, knowledge, and motivation 
laid a base for evaluating camp practice. 

The following year Dimock and several colleagues offered 
an institute on ''Character Education in the Summer 
Camp" at the college, to be followed by four more seminars 
in the thirties. The resulting monographs had a strong influ- 
ence on camping and group work and helped to close the 
gap between theory and practice. 


I 8/PkrspE( TIvrson Administration 


Dr. Dimock is best known in the Midwest because of his 
close asso* iation with AC A Sections and camps, in institutes 
and workshops, through the Standards program, and 
through camp staff whom he had trained. He became 
involved in the Chicago agency camp group at the Welfare 
Council, organized the Chicago Camping Association, and 
as its first president developed it as a chartered Section when 
ACA was first incorporated in late 1935. The stimulus of his 
leadership and the quality of the monthly all-day programs 
quickly attracted a large working membership, with coopera- 
tion of private and agency camps. He wrote with passion on 
democracy for he believed that in camps if was possible to 
live and e.xperience democracy, not give it lip service. 

In 1937 Dimock wrote Rediscovering (he Adolescent, in 
1948 Administration of the Modern Camp, and in 1955 
Designing Education in Values—A Case Study in Institu- 
tional Change. Also, there were many monographs and arti- 
cles in a variety of professional periodicals as well as in 
Camping Magazine and YMCA publications. The YMCA 
considered Dr. Dimock **our very own" and his influence 
there as teacher, speaker, author, leader, and **change 
agent" was felt nationally and internationally. He was an 
active member of many professional associations and 
throughout his career built bridges with camping and served 
as liaison with allied professions. 

From 1943 to 1946 he was on leave to .serve as coordinator 
of training, and director of headquarters services for the 
USO. In 1948 he moved to San Francisco to serve as coor- 

dinator of training for the YMCA and help bring about the' 
change to which he and the as.sociation were dedicated. 

Hedley Dimock viewed camping as an opportunity, a res- 
ponsibility, a **sacred trust," and an unexcelled setting in 
which to affect the lives and attitudes of youth. Only the 
best would suffice, and the dedicated professional leader 
would reach out beyond what he then knew to do better. He 
expected of his students the same best efforts and striving 
for excellence. Some less professionally motivated students 
found him too demanding, too theoretical, or too critical, 
but he was always respected. Most of his students loved him 
and appreciated all he had to give, as well as his expectations 
of them. 

His sense of humor and at times gaiety were a joy to 
behold. He could write verses, set them to music, and break 
into song. He had a renriarkable ability to pace himself, to 
work hard and long, but always to reserve time for rest and 
recreation, for family and friends. The phrase **What a man 
he was" was often used to describe him. And what a man he 
was, from his pioneer days throughout a life of caring, teach- 
ing, and learning— giving freely of his best and bringing out 
the best in others. 


My^raieful appreciation to Mrs. Marguerite Dimock for the time spent 
in talking with me and making material available. My thanks also to Charles 
E. Hendry, Hu^h Allen, and Rus Hom'fe for letters and recollections of 
his teaching and philosophy. 

Section I 

Group Experience: The 
Essence of Camping 

Robert and M arcy Brower 

FAC OrcASioKAL Paprr, 
Camping Maga/inh/Jakuary 1980 

**The organized summer camp movement is in a significant 
state of tr ansition. Mark ed_trgn\fnrm ations in purpose, 
methods, and leadership^personnel are conspicuously 
evident. " 

Thus opened Dimdck and Hendry's classic book. Camping 
and Character, in 1929. The state of transition in camping is 
still present 50 years later and will continue to be until those 
in the profession reach a sense of community with regard to 
its values and purposes. 

Questions of values are questions of philosophy. Leaders 
and writers in the camping field have not devoted sufficient 
thought to camping philosophy. Another early camping 
classic. Group Work in Camping by Blumenthal (1937), 
comments about a 200-title camping bibliography of the 
time. He states there existed an almost complete absence of 
books on any subject but program activities. Where are the 
books on camp philosophy? In the American Camping 
A.ssociation's 1980 Catalog of Selected Camping Publica- 
tions, only 10 of approximately 450 titles dealt with the 
subject of philosophy. Even today, the field of camping is 
lacking in philosophical thought. Until those in the camping 

Holn'rt and Marcy Brower are co-directors of Circle M Day Camp in 
Q infi, Ittinois, 

movement grapple seriously with a philosophical basis for 

r^rppin p, thpy will f jn^ t^^^"^<^^^'^^^ falftnp pmifinns which 


shift with the sands of exotic program activities, economic 
trends, and glorified award incentives. The profession will 
run helter-skelteri attempting to catch up to the society it 
purports to serve. 

A paper on the es.sence of camping must answer certain 
questions regarding camp philosophy. The philosophical 
and value questions which must be answered are questions 
of why. Why camping? Why nature activities? Why group 
living? Why camp ceremonies? Another set of questions 
which follow the why's are the how and what questions. 
When we know why an activity should be carried out, we 
can plan which ones should be utilized and how they should 
be done. The why questions are questions of philosophy. 
The how and what questions are questions of implementation 
for the planner and the operator. Both types of questions 
are important, but the whys are basic and must be answered 

This article concentrates only on the why's of camping. 
Five propositions 

This article argues five propositions: (I) the group experi- 
ence is the essence of camping, (2) groups influence behavior 

Perspectives on Administration/9 


and enhance mental health, (3) camps serve a variety of pur- 
poses, (4) knowledge of group dynamics can influence camp 
outcomes, and (5) good camps benefit society. 

This article will elaborate on these five propositions, clarify 
their meaning, and support them with research, logic, and 

Ciroiip experience is the essence of camping 

Forty years ago Blumenthal stated, 'The essence of camp- 
ing is its "group life/' In camp there is a readiness and a pre- 
condition for sharing. Children need one another in order'lo 
accomplish their tasks and their fun. Blumenthal continues, 

**Groups are formea when the individual needs others to 
obtain those satisfactions that cannot be obtained alone. In 
unity there is strength. When people have interests in com- 
mon, or interests that are alike, they tend to collective action 
to realize more adequately their interests or when the joining 
of unlike interests makes possible the objective common to 
all. It is commonness of interest.s— that is, joint participation 
and sharing — that makes for community.'' 

In a camp there are many points of contact and common 
interests of campers which bring about the communal .shar- 
ing that strengthens the camp community. 

Since group life is central to a camp, the nature of the 
small group should be defined and understood. Homans 
(1950) defines the small group in this manner. 

*The small group is a number of persons who communi- 
cate with one another over a span of time, and who are few 
enough so thai each person is able to communicate with all 
the others, not at second-hand, through other people, but 
face to face." * 

Sociologists generally refer to this type of group as the 
primary group. The layman uses terms like the informal 
group or friend.ship group. Homans prefers the term, the 
**human group." Whatever term is u.sed, the small, informal 
group is the most common and stable form of interaction 
among people. The small group survives when the compli- 
cated formal organizations of people crumble in argument 
and dissent. 

A camp is compo.sed of many .small groups. These groups, 
^sometimes called cliques by counselors, combine to form 
cabin groups at a resident camp or activity groups at a day 
camp. The cabin or activity groups form unit groups which, 
when combined, comprise the camp commun ity. A camp is 
organized around its groups, hvery camper is urged to 
become a member of one or another of the camp's basic, 
primary, face-to-face groups. Isolated and unhappy, indeed, 
is the camper who is not a member of a group or who is neg- 
lected by his cabinmates. 

The program activity of the primary group at camp is 
secondary to the sense of unity each member has whfen the 
camp accomplishes its task . From the point of view of mem- 
ber unity, it does not matter whether a group competes strenu- 
ously against another group to win a baseball game, or 
whether the members of the group clean their cabin together, 
whether they backpack for 10 days, or camp out overnight, 
whether they build a new addition to their dining hall, or 
design a group pennant, whether they help each other cross 
over a simulated alligator pit, or present a bouquet of flowers 
to a sick buddy, it is their feeling of togetherness, their bond 
of friendship, their sense of joint accomplishment which 
binds them together into their compact, small, face-to-face, 
primary, human group. 

Each human group consists of three basic elements accord- 
ing to Homans. These elements are: the group's interaction, 
their activity, and their .sentiment. When campers interact 

^ JO 'PhRSTK riVFS ou Admwistratiom 

together in a common activity and share similar feelings 
about each other and their activity, they will, in time, form 
an informal, close, human group. A con.scientiou.s counsdor 
will be happy with such a group as he or she will di.scover 
strong ties of cooperation, support, admiration, and loyalty 
among the members. The counselor will also contend with 
minimal bickering and scapegoating among the members. If 
the group is not at that point of cooperation, that same coun- 
selor will work hard to bring it there. The essence of camp is 
truly a group experience, a human experience, a human group 

Groups influence behavior 

The group with which a person associates influences that 
person's behavior. The effect of the peer group upon the 
child has been recognized for years by experienced counselors, 
teachers, and others who work with children. Children have 
been switched from one group to another by their counselor 
or teacher oecause of the influence of group members upon 
one another in probably every camp and school in the nation. 
Experience has been a great teacher in this regard. .Every 
leader of a group of children learns in a short time that the 
behavior of members of a group could change if one child 
were removed or added. Conversely, a child's behavior 
could change if he or she were influenced by the members of 
another group. 

Research studies conducted over the pa^t 50 years point to 
the conclusion that the thoughts, attitudes, and behavior of 
children and adults can be modified by the groups to which 
they belong. Although the studies reported here were not 
conducted in camps or on campers, their conclusions about 
group influence are consistent over a 30-year span. In 
addition, their results can be generalized to the camp .setting 
as much as any research jn the behavioral .sciences can be 
generalized to other settings. 

Jenness (1932) found that college students in his experi- 
ment changed their guesses about the number of beans in a 
jar to conform to the estimate of their group. Factory 
workers, in a study by Roethlisberger and Dickson (1939), 
modified their rates of production to conform to the norms 
of their work group. Whyte (1943), ia his study of a street 
corner pang, found that group behavior influenced 
individual behavior to the extent that tlie bowling .scores of — . 
group members changed to conform to the opinions of the 
group. Willerman (1943) found that social pressure made 
persons stick to a group decision regarding food consumption 
to a greater extent than the pressure rewards. Newcomers in 
a work group adopted the production norms of the old- 
timers according to Hughes (1946). Lewin (1947) found 
housewives were more prone to change their behavior about 
the food they served their families when they made a group 
decision than when they made individual decisions. Merton 
and Kiti (1950), in their study of '*green" troops in combat, 
found support for the statement that new Irdops very 
quickly took on the attitudes of the combat veterans with 
which they associated. Shils (1950) stated that soldiers in 
World War II adopted within a short time the attitudes of 
the soldiers in their unit toward mutual aid. Festinger, 
Schacter, and Back (19^0) found that families who shared a 
courtyard and entranceway developed certain common 
norms and expectations of one another while families near 
one another who did not share the common facilities did not 
develop such norms and expectations. Fenchel, Monderer, 
and Hartley (1951) found college students adopted the 
aspirations, attitudes, opinions, and behavior of their 
important college reference groups and held those group^ in 
higher status than their own family group. A group of eight 
workers in Whyte's study (1953) exceeded production norms 
and were forced to leave their jobs as a result of pressure 
from other work groups in the plant. Liebe'rman (1956) 


found workers changed attitudes after they received a 
promotion and associated with a different group of 
employees. Campbell and Pettigrew (1956) found a group of 
southern ministers in Arkansas who favored integration 
changed their point of view as a result of prevailing com- 
munity pressures. 

Another set of researchers created experimental situations 
specifically designed to test the force of peer group influence. 
Harvey and Con.salvi (1960), in their study of teenage boys, 
found the boys changed their responses to an experimental 
problem when pressures, in the form of rewards, were 
promised to the entire group if their responses conformed. 
According to Shcrif (1956), individuals changed their judg- 
ment about their experimental task to conform to the judg- 
ments of the group they were with. Asch (1956) went further 
than Sherif by pitting one individual's judgment against a 
group of peers who were instructed to provide unanimous 
but incorrect judgments. The single individual swung over to 
the wrong but majority opinion. Crutchfield's (1955) work 
was similar to Asch's, but Crutchfield used five-man teams. 
He created 4-1 majority-minority opinion groups and con- 
tinually swung the minority to the majority although the 
majority opinion was wrong. Variations of these types of 
experiments on group influence were carried on by Deutsch 
and Gerard (1 955) and Willis and Hollander (1964). 

In summary, it is safe to say that although age, education, 
skills, Self concept, status, sex and other determinants 
influence the amount of conformity an individual will allow, 
the norm toward conformity in a group is pervasive. One 
can .state with certainty that the attitudes, opinions, and 
behavior of a person, adult or child, will be strongly 
influenced by the group to which he belongs. 

Groups enhance mental health 

A child who is an accepted, active member of a few sub- 
groups will tend to have a good attitude about himself which 
can be called good mental health. According to Glidewell 

**One of the most powerful social forces is generated by 
the fact that each of us likes some people better than he likes 
others. To be attractive to others enhances one's sclf- 
cstccm; to be unattractive reduces it. To be unacceptable to 
others injures one's self-esteem; to be actively rejected 
cripples it." 

Campers have many opportunities to become active, wcll- 
liked members of a group while at camp. In the camp setting, 
children develop bonds of friendship and a need for one 
^ another. They need one another to develop their sense of 
self-worth. The peer group acts like a mirror as the members 
of a grpup reflect back to the individual what each member 
contributors. Without the group the individual loses touch, 
cannot receive feedback about self, and builds no sense of 
self-worth. Grrd(:well describes the mechanism for the build- 
ing of sclf-worth>hrough membership in a group as a three- 
part system. When Vyoungstcr is an accepted member of a 
group, the three parts^ahc system combiiic to enhance the 
child's mental health. Th^woup will provide a place for the 
youngster to compare hisAhtr ideals, a place to receive 
personal esteem, and a place to^e and receive help. These 
three group functions help the youngster see himself m 
relation to others. When the younfe^^r feels acceptance 
from the group, self-worth and self-coh^dence grow in a 
positive way. 

As a testing place for ideals, group mcm^e(;s help the 
individual shape his thoughts, express hijnself, arH^cvelop 
confidence in his ideas, his means of expressions, at^d his 
leadership. The individual learns to ask, to approve^to 
O 3t, to influence, and to be influenced. 

Tfrr^^je^nd function of the group is social comparison. 
Here themdividual competes and cooperates, sizes him.self 
up with hisfH^nds, wins and loses, builds his base of social 
and physical competence and security with his physical self. 

The third function of a group is the exchange of mutual 
aid. This process of interaction induces the change, inter- 
change, and strengthening of motives, feelings, skills, and 
ideas. Group members build upon one another, teaching 
and learning at the same time, , 

Research studies on school children .9iio\v that lack of 
friendly interaction is associated with a variety of emotional 
handicaps. Studies by"Mbreno (1934), Bonney (1942, 1943), 
Stendler (1949), Potaskin (1946), Bower, . et. al., (1958) and 
Trent (1957), have supported this point, v,' * 

Glidewell states that the effect of friendships on mental 
health is as follows: 

. . the experience of repeated auraction produces a sense 
of competence, confidence, trust, and self-esteem which le^id 
to further attractiveness. The resources thus developed 
represent the stability under stress, the tolerance for frustra- 
tion, anO^the skill in reality testing often associated with 


vigorous mental health." 

Again, although the research studies cited in this se'ctipn 
have not been conducted in camp settings, we believe their 
conclusions are consistent and generalizable to the camp 
experience. This research supports the concept that children 
need one another in a supportive, friendly relationship in 
order to develop and maintain positive mental health. 

There is no better way for a child to develop positive inter- 
personal relationships than through the camping experience. 
Interpersonal interactions are structured into camping 
activities through the child's group experiences. The camper 
has a cabin group, a play group, a swim group, an activity 
group, a unit group, and hopefully, a friendship group. The 
group life of a camp is what makes the camp a significant 
experience in the child's life. Ask campers, a dozen years 
later, what it was that was significant for them at camp. The 
answer will be, in one form or another, the friends or close 
relationships with people that were made. 

A camp is quite a unique setting for group life. When a 
child is at home he is a member of many groups: his school 
group, his activity groups, his social group, his athletic 
group, and perhaps others. These groups may nullify 
or each other's contributions and enhancements. 
^They may send so many mixed mes.sages to a child that he no 
longer understands his relationship to each of the groups. 
The uniqueness of the camp .setting is that all of the diverse 
groups become one, reflecting a consistent set of values, 
roles, and confirmations. 

. This consistency accounts for the great impact of the 
camp experience upon campers. At a camp, in a two- or 
three-week camp session, a child will experience a stronger 
positive impact on his mental health than can be experienced 
in an equal period of time at home. 

The simple, but central theme of this article, is that the 
great value of camping lies in its potential to influence 
people. Camping is a tool to influence people. This is an 
inescapable conclusion when one looks at the data on group 
influence and relates it to the group nature of the camp 

It is important novy to look at the various ways in which 
camps have exerted their influence on their campers. 

Camps serve a variety of purposes 

Early pioneers in the camping movement in this country 
saw camping as a way to influence the character development 
of youth. These early pioneers believed in a contagion 
theory of character development. They felt that just being in 
camp was good for the character formation of a youngster. 

Perspective.s on Admini.stration/1 I 

Character improvement was caught, not taught. Not under- 
standing the forces of group participation which influenced 
both mental health and behavior, they had no other more 
scientific way of explaining the personality changes which 
took place in camp than through the contagion theory. 
Dimock and Hendry's contribution to camping, in our 
opinion, came from their insight into the learning process. 
They stated that character formation was (aught, not caught. 
The value of the camping experience to them was that charac- 
ter change could be taught through camp programs. Their 
book. Camping and Character, is an analysis of the way in 
which one camp implemented character development 
through its activities. Perhaps the theme of their book is 
embodied in a statement they quote from a prominent edu- 
cator of the time, John Dewey at the University of Chicago, 
who influenced Dimock greatly. **To profess to have an aim 
and then neglect the means of execution is self delusion of 
the most dangerous sort . . More simply, if you intend to 
do something, make sure you know how to do it and 
develop a plan to carry it out. The program planners at 
Ahmek, the camp where Dimock was associated, were 
probably quite successful at their task of improving the 
character of their boy.s, not because they understood the 
proces.s of character change, but because they worked hard 
at structuring a set of program activities which fostered 
group spirit. At Ahmek, strong group spirit and pride in 
communal task accomplishments built a strong camp com- 
munity. Dimock and Hendry state, **As camp directors, . . . 
we must turn our camps into community adventures in social 
living." The impact of that type of camp, group spirit and 
unity on the mental health and behavior of the campers pro- 
duced the positive personality changes that Dimock and 
Hendry recognized and documented. 

Other leaders in early camping used the influential group 
experience at camp to further their own types of goals. 
Religious and ethnic g»*oups discovered that they could bring 
children clo.ser to their teachings and ideals in the 24-hour 
structured camp experience than in a multitude of Sunday 
.school class .sessions. Some of these organizations were quite 
successful in their purposes. Others would have been more 
succettsful if they had better understood the theory underlying 
the process of the overnight group experience. Scouting 
leaders found within camping a way to build allegiance to 
the noble principles of Scouting. They relied, however, upon 
extrinsic motivators such as awards, uniforms, and badges. 
Had the early leaders in Scouting been more knowledgeable 
about the forces of motivation which rest within group 
membership, they might have structured their program 

Social agencies make excellent of camping as a means 
of promoting their own values. Group and recreation workers 
within these agencies are sophisticated in the planning of 
camp programs which build group unity. These workers 
have provided youngsters with camp group experiences which 
enhance the life of both campers and agency. 

Private camp operators have used the group camp experi- 
ence for monetary gain as well as for the benefit of their 
campers. Some of the most successful private and agency 
camps have discovered an additional way, through camp 
ceremonies and traditions, to enrich the group exijerience of 
their campers and, at the same time, develop a stro?Tg-^.ense 
of community within their camp. Such ceremonies arilS 
traditions at a camp, in a school, university, church, family, 
or other group instills a of attachment and identity 
among the membership. While the campers and staff may 
change every few years, the traditions of the camp remain. 
• A former camper who returns to the camp years later can fit 
right in to a traditional camp ceremony. It is not surpri.sing 
then, that the **newcomer" to a camp who wishes to mini- 
^ mize or change the camp's traditions will meet with strong 
j^l^^resistance and probably failure. ^'^ 

ummmWM 1 2/ Perspectives on Administration 

Many highly successful private camps build miniature 
eight-week societies which come to life each year during the 
summer. Private camp owners, perhaps more than other 
groups of camp people, seem to have discovered the power 
and pull of the summer camp group experience. A major 
appeal of the private camp director to his camper-clients is 
based upon the return of their cabinmates and the '*old 
time" staff. 

The purpose here is not to review all types of camps, but 
rather to indicate that the group nature of the camp experi- 
ence has helped the growth and durability of some camps 
but has gone unused in others. 

It is important to examine new program trends in camp- 
ing, and specifically, the introduction and development pf 
unusual skill pro^gram camps. Many new camps are opening 
today with a heavy reliance on single-skill development, such 
as tennis or gymnastics, oi on one emphasis, such as the 
Outward Bound camp. 

Skil) development at camp has always been an important 
part of the camp curriculum. However, the emphasis in the 
past has generally been to teach a skill as a means to another 
end. For example, campers may have been motivated to swim 
for their own enjoyment^and safety or so they could go with 
their friends on a canoe trip. Perhaps they just wanted to 
enjoy the deep-water activities with their friends. Swimming 
at some camps today is taught as an end in itself. It may be 
taught so campers can become members of a high school swim 
team or receive a swim award. In the past, backpacking, 
cooking, climbing, or rappelling have been taught so a 
group could explore far-off valleys or caves or to allow an 
individual to enjoy the out-of-doors. These skills are taught 
now, in some camps, solely as a thrill or to build self- 

There is, however, confusion surrounding the accomplish- 
ment of an adventurous or strenuous task or skill. The 
thought seems to be that the completion of a difficult task or 
skill is a means of proving one's worth. This assumes that 
youngsters who succeed in accomplishing high adventure 
individual skills which are physically and psychologically 
stressful will develop pride or self-confidence in themselves 
and, therefore, improve their self-concept. 

We contend that accomplishment of a difficult task has 
value only when others know about it. The intrinsic good 
feeling of the act is minimal. The extrinsic value of recog- 
nition by others is of greater importance. It is the social com- 
parison value of the particular group with which the 
challenged camper associates which makes the physically 
stressful task valuable. The stressful task of the Outward 
Bound camper might have little value to a group of campers 
at a music camp or to the camper's group back home. It is 
the type of skills which are prized in a group which makes all 
the difference, not the activity 'tself. To prepare a camper to 
live successfully for three days alone in the wilderness is not 
a challenge of lasting merit. However, to prepare the camper 
to live successfully for three days in a neighborhood or in a 
school is a more lasting challenge. The latter is the type of 
challenge all camps must meet if they are interested in serv- 
ing the needs of their campers. 

The high skill emphasis of some modern-day camps may 
attract youngsters because of the unusual nature of the skill. 
Whether the addition of the skill has lasting value remains to 
^e seen. 

\There could be a more serious trap in the overemphasis of 
skills in camp. It may be that the new skill is an escape from 
reality. When a youngster is kept busy, that person may not 
need to face tiie realities of his own social world. The activity 
may be an escape from the reality of involvement. As 
Blumenthal said many years ago, 

**Man may be skill-hungry, but his skill activity may be a 
dream world he is creating to escape from the reality of his 


not belonging. People, the social proces.s, and society are 

The common quality of each type of camp program from 
the early years to the present is the group life exhibited in the 
camp. The way the group life and the group influence are 
used to further the camp purposes depends upon the values 
and goals of the sponsors of the camp. A camp is like a tool 
which can be used in many ways. 

Knowledge of group dynamics can influence camp outcomes 

A campv operator who has some theoretical understanding 
of groups, group processes, and group dynamics can become 
more effective at his work. With this type of knowledge, he 
can create an environment for learning which will more 
effectively accomplish his camp goals. The camp environ- 
ment is a learning environment. John Dewey (1916), perhaps 
the most famous of all American educators, emphasizes the 
importance Of the environment for learning in his statement: 

• **the only way in which adults consciously control the kind 
of education the-inimature get is by controlling the environ- 
ment in which they act, and hence, think and feel. We never 
educate directly, but indirectly by means of the environ- 
ment. Whether we permit chance environment to do the 
work, or whether we design environments for the purpose* 
makes a great difference. And any environmen't is a chance 
environment so far as its educative influence is concerned 
unless it has been deliberately regulated with reference to its 
educative effort. An intelligent home differs from an unin- 
telligent one, chiefly in that the habits of life or intercourse 
which prevail are chosen, or at least colored, by the thought 
of their learning on the development of children. But schools 
remain, of course, the typical instance of environments 
framed with express reference to influencing the mental and 
moral disposition of their members." 

As an educator, Dewey's emphasis was upon the role of 
the .school in producing a good learning environment. Our 
purpose here is to emphasize the unique opportunity a camp 
has to create an effective learning environment because the 
camper is totally involved in the setting. It is likely that a 
camp can influence the personality of a child more in one 
week than a school can in a month. 

The knowledge of groups and of individual behavior in 
groups comes from the academic domain of the behavioral 
sciences. Within that domain, the specific discipline of 
group study is in the field of social psychology. Social 
psyc^hology concerns itself with social influences on 
individual behavior. Within the field of social psychcjlogy, 
the area of group dynamics deals directly with and is the 
core of knowledge needed for an understanding of the 
impact a group can make upon campers, staff, or the total 
camp milieu. 

Knowledge is a tool and'the knowledge of group dynamics 
. is a special-purpose tool. The camp experience may also be 
used as a tool. Use these various tools separately and many 
tasks can be accomplished. Use them together, with a 
focused, and they can become a highly efficient way 
to attain the goals of the camp. 

The mission of camping 

**Camp," as Blumental stated forty years ago, **is a self- 
. contained integrated community, partaking of the nature of 
all communities with their cohesion, common, 
tradition^, customs, organization, and control. Camp is life 
in microcosm." 

A camp is a miniature society and as camp directors each 
O »er, wc create our own miniature society. What is it like? 


Do we, at camp, but mirror our larger society? Can we dare 
to create a better society for our campers and our staff than 
the larger all-cncompassing one in which all of us live out 
our daily lives? Our purpose at our camp is to build a tem- 
porary, but a better, society than the one in which we live. 
This is our personal goal each summer. Carefully, purpose- 
fully, and humbly, we offer this idea to our readers. Each of 
us has our own **higher purposes" in life, and this is one of 
ours. ... 

At our camp, we create a temporary society that has a 
structure which is similar to the larger, permanent one in 
which we all live. The essence of that larger society, like our . 
camp, is its small groups. The small human group is the core 
Of society. These small human groups form larger ^groups 
which form pressure groups, ethnic groups, religious groups, 
political divi.sions, and nations. The problems between 
nations arc problems between human groups. When we, as 
camp directors, understand the human problems in small 
groups, in the small temporary settings like a camp, perhaps 
we can learn to solve the human problems between large 
groups or nations in the world. Homans states the problem 
in a different way., 

*The small group is the basic functioning unit of society. It 
is akin to the single cell in the living organism or the atom i'.i 
the world of objects. When a largegroupor a society breaks 
down, a small group or several small groups still survive." 

The small human group can be studied in the camp setting. 
If we can, at camp, create small groups which enhance good 
mental health and promote accepting relationships between 
peers and adults, we may be able to provide our campers 
with the tools which will, in the future, enable them to move 
our society a little closer to the type of understanding which 
settles larger world problems. 


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World, Inc. 1950. 

Huges, v.. C, "The Knitting of Racial Groups in Industrv," American 
Sociological Review. XI, (1946). 

Perspectivfs ON Administration/ 1 3 

JcnUCsN, A., "I Ik* KoIc ol Discussion in Changing Opinion Regarding a 
Matter of laci." Jounutl of Abnomuil Social l^svcholo^w XXV'II, , 

lew in. Kurt., "Ciroup Decision and Social Cfiangc/* Reading's in Social 

PyvcfioloiiW Kdited by T. M. Neweonib and p. I.. Hartley. New York: 

!iolt, Rinehari and VVinsion, 1047. 
l iebernian. S., "The t-rfeeis of Changes in Roles on ific Attitudes of Role 

Occupants," liinnun Relations. /A', (1956). 
Merlon, R. K.. and Kitt, A. S., "Contributions to the Theory of Reterenee 

Ciroup Behax ior.*' Coftfinu/ffcs /// Social Research: Studies in the Scope 

and Method of the ''American Artnv." l-dited by R. K. Merton and P. 

\\ t.a/arsreld. New V\)rk:Kree Press. 1950. . , 

Moreno, J. I i\'ho Shall Survive? Nervous <& Mental Disease Monograph 

Series, No. 58. Washington, Nervous &. Mental Disease Pubheation 

Co.. Mm. 

Poiaskin, R., "Soeitinieirie Siudv ofChildrcn's Friendships." Soeiometr>. 
/ IX. (1946) 

/ Roeihhsberger, I*. J., & Dickson, WV.I., Management a'nd the H'orker, 
\ Cambridge, Massnehiiselts: Harvard University Press. 19:^9. 

Section I 

Make Camp Objectives Specific 

C/amping people have been selling objeclives for many 
years. These aims vary wilh ihe type of camp and sponsoring 
organization, but in each case, the objectives should provide 
a guide and give direction to the camp experience. Camp pro- 
gram should be planned with the objectives in mind. In order 
to evaluate a camp experience, leaders must know exactly 
what they arc trying to accomplish. 

Many sets of objectives have been developed and published. 
A director may adopt .some of these or develop his own, 
Many objectives sound good» and indeed, are good; the 
problem comes in translating them into concrete action in 
the camp. 

Camp objectives are presented to staff during the pre-camp 
training program, ^nd coun.<Jelors are impressed wilh the 
noble task that lies before tlieni. These goals may seem 
^*away off somewhere" to coun.sclors and sometimes even 
tb the camp director or board members. Counselors might 
well ask, '*What does this high sounding objective mean for 
me with my cabin group in today's activities?" 

The best way to overcome this lack of clarity is to make all 
general objectives specific to the camp situation. Only if the 
objectives are explicit will the counselors know what to do to 
reach 'them. Only then is it possible to evaluate precisely 
whefher or not objectives have been reached. 

llie general objectives listed by Dr. Hedley S. Dimock in * 
Administration of the Modern Camp can be translated into 
specific actions by adding the word **by" to each and giving 
a definite plan. Thus a coun.selor's plan for one of the 
general objectives might read, *This session I'm going to 
educate my group for safe and healthful livipg by leading 
each camper to know and understand the *safe use of a 
rifle," or ''by leading each camper to see the necessity for, 
and be willing to help in keeping the cabin clean." 

Shils, f*. A.. "IVifnary Croups in the American Anns." Continuities in 
Social Research: Studies in the Scope, _ Met hod oj the American 
Armv. " fuliied bs R. K. Merlon and I\ I . l-a/arsfeUj. New York; l-'rcc 
l>ress. 1950. 

Stendler. C. H., Children ol lirosstown, Urhana. Illinois: University of 
Illinois, Bureau of Research &. Scrvicept the College of lulucation, 1949. 

TreiU. R. I).. " The Relationship of An\ieiy to Popularity and Rejection 
Anionu Instil utionali/ed Delintjueiu Hoys." Chihl Development, 
A'.Vr///, (1957). 

VVillernian, H., Group Decision and Re<}uest as a Means of Chaniiinfi f-ood 

Habits. Conimiltee on l-ood Ualiils.. N. R. C, VVasliington, D.C.: 

(April. \ ' < 

Willis, R. H.. ami Hollander, I'. P., "'\n I xperinieiital Study of Three 

Resptinse Modes in Social Inlluenee Situations.** Journal of Ahnonnal 

Socnt/ Ps vcholoiiv. /./,V, ( 1964)'. 
W'hyie, William I-., Street Corner Society: The i>()cJal Structure of an Italian - 
* Slum. Chicago: Uiii\ er^;j;,y"i>j,(c''lueago I^it^s, r^43\ 
Whyte. William I .', Money' and Motivation: An Analysis of Incentives in 

Industry. New York: Harper&.Row, 1955. 

Yony A. IMobley 

Camimnc; Mac;azini:/SI'PT.-Oct. 1966 


1 Excellent | 

Adequate | 

I. Poor 

Not Sure 

1. The development of a sense of at- 
homeness In the natural world and of the 
arts of outdoor living "by: 


2. Education for safe and healthful living 

3. Education for a constructive use of 
leisure by: 

4. Contribution to personality developed 

5. Education for deomocratic group and 
community living by: . 

6. The development of spiritual meanings 
and values by: 


Vimv A Mohlev is Dean of (olles^e Health Physical lulucation and 
Q Recrefihon, huharui (/nivvrsiiv. 


U/Pershkctivks on Administration 

Entire staff develops objectives 

The entire camp staff should help in setting the general 
objectives, and each individual counselor should be encour- 
aged to develop his own specifics. Time should be provided 
once a week in staff meetings for discussion and reevaluation 
of general objectives and any counselor who is having specific 

Specific objectives can be changed by a counselor depend- 
ing on the campers in his particular group. He can better 
evaluate whether or not general objectives are being reached 
when he sees them in action. 

The six general objectives listed by Dimock have been 
built into a form in which considerable space has been pro- 
vided for the counselor to write in his specific aims after the 
word **by." Provision was also made on the form for the 
counselor to evaluate the degree to which his group attained 
the objectives. Some counselors found that one form served 
for their entire group while , others used one for each 
individual camper. 

This system is not a cure-all, but it can stimulate coun- 
selors to strive to reach camp objectives and to evaluate their 
own efforts. 


Section I 

Camping for Special Children 

Thomas M. Shea 

Excerpts from camping for Special Children/1977 

Summer camping can provide unique growth experiences for all children. 
Camping for Special Children by Thomas M. Shea provides a clear and 
comprehensive discussion of the range and type of summer camp programs 
that are available to children with disabilities. The book covers * 'children 
with hidden 'handicaps; that is, they are socially maladjusted, culturally 
different, emotionally disturbed, learning disabled, and educable mentally 
handicapped. They are boys and girls ranging in age from 4 to 16 years. " 
However, we believe that the book can help parents. plan an effective 
summer camp program for all children with disabilities. 

The excerpts that follow focus on some specific benefits summer camping 

Placement benefits 

Camps can be of benefit to the child in two ways when 
placement out of the home is desirable. First, the camp can 
be used as a short-term placement center; second, the camp 
can be used for trial placement. 

When family and community problems make short-term 
(two to eight weeks) residential placement necessary, the 
camp is .an ideal setting. Camp is almost universally 
accepted as a desirable placement for a child. The image of 
camp, in the eyes of the average citizen, connotes pleasure, 
fun, excitement, normalcy and health. It avoids the stigma 
commonly attached to foster homes, special schools, 
children's centers and detention centers. 

Camp is an excellent placement when the family is trying 
to determine the child's reaction to living away from home. 
Trial pla<;^cmcnt in a camp can answer such parental 
concerns as: 

. "ii 

Can my child tolerate residential placement? 

Can my child benefit from residential placement? 

Can our family tolerate placing our handicapped child in 
a residential setting? 

Camp may benefit the handicapped child as a placement 
before or after special class placement. Before special class 

Or, Thomas M. Shea is Professor, Department of .Special Education, and 
Coordinator, Camp R A R at Southern Illinois University in Edwardsville, 

placement, the child's specific needs can be determined in 
the camp settirg and an individualized program prescribed. 
When the child is being discharged from the special class,' 
the camp setting is an ideal transition one in which to 
prepare him to return to the regular classroom. 

Remedial benefits 

A camp with a well-designed remedial program assists the 
child by providing him with opportunities: 
To acquire knowledge and skills needed for school success, 
To reinforce newly acquired but not habituated behavior. 
To revitalize and apply previously learned and' neglected 
knowledge and skills, and , 
To apply knowledge and skills in the environment. 
Camp remediation programs ensure that the child remains 
an active learner during vacation periods. In this way, the 
child avoids the commonly observed academic and social- 
emotional regresston that is characteristic of many children 
and adolescents during long vacation periods. 

Personal benefits 

Camping is instrumental in helping the child improvejclf- 
care skills, build self-confidence and improve sclf-awarefcss 
of unrealized potential. At camp, the child can be trained in 
personal hygiene as well as in the care and use of personal 
and community property. Older children can learn self-care 
and survival skills, such as first aid, cooking, shelter build- 
ing, fire building, safety and the conservation of hqman and; 
natural resources ... 

Social benefits 

In the camp setting the handicapped child has an oppor- 
tunity to learn and experiment with newly acquired social 
skills in a controlled environment. He learns how to get 
along with others in a communal setting. He quickly dis- 
covers that community living requires much give and tdkc 
and that his personal wishes must frequently be subordinated 

Perspectives on AdminlstratioK/ 1 5 

to the wishes of the group. He learns that he must engage in 
personally undesirable tasks and he is to participate in some 
group activities. He recognizes that his behavior affects other 
m^mbei > of his group and that the behavior of his peers and 
counselors will frequently affect his behavior. He learns to 
accept responsibility for others and to respond positively 
When others in his group act responsibly toward him. 

Cooperative work skills are difficult to learn for many 
emotionally handicapped children. At the special camp, 
children learn that they must work cooperatively with others, 
peers and adulti:, if projects are to be completed. For 
example, if a puppet show is to be produced, lunch is to be 
served, games are to be played or a tent is to be erected, all 
members of the group must cooperate. Learning to work to- 
gether is initially frustrating; however, as the camp program 
continues, the arguing, bickering and fighting decrease. 

For older children camping of any kind can be an experi- 
ence in self-government. The boys and girls are encouraged 
to plan, implement and evaluate their own programs and 
activities. ' 

Emotional benefits 

Emotional release is periTiitted and occasionally encour- 
aged in the camp environment. In this environment children 
have many opportunities to express their real and imagined 
fears and hostility without concern for punishment or em- 
barrassment. In camp, the handicapped child can be honestly 

afraid of the unknown and become angry at the worl^ of 
real obstacles under the guidance of counselors who A^lp 
him understand his fear and channel his energies into mean- 
ingful activity. ^ . \ / 

Children learn self-control through discussion of their un\ 
acceptable behaviors with peers and counselors. They are\ 
encouraged to experiment with alternative behaviors that \ 
are more acceptable to their peers, thus, less personally \ 
harmful. \ 

They learn that group living requires limits that must be \ 
followed for the benefit of others. Most important, they 
learn that discipline can be impersonal, consistent and non- 
violent. They learn' that even though their behavior is 
occasionally unacceptable, they are accepted and acceptable. 

Physical benefit*! ^ 

Campers can improve their physical stamina and increase 
their motoi skills through participation in remedial and re- 
creational activities in a weH-planned cycle of work, play 
and re^t. In camp, thf. child has an opportunity to increase 
his physical strength xs well as to develop the physical-social 
skills he needs to participate in games with his friends. 
Through sequentiil individualized activities, dach child 
learns to achieve 'ncreasingly'more complex physical feats. 
In this way, the clild learns to take satisfaction in physical 

Section I 

Camping Leadership 

Donald O. imsland 

CaMPJNG MAOAZINIi/.Sf:i*T.-Oc*T. 1978 

V^amping has long been identified with motherhood and 
'the flag. It may not be as American as apple pie, but its long 
tradition in the American .scene has earned it a bigh degree 
of respectability. 

Camping is good for children, r.ife for adults, and avail- 
able Vo all sexes, educational levels, and ethnic groups. Young 
people find it a challenge, often an escape. Parents choof>e it 
becauce it builds character and healthy bodies. There is not 
much one can say in criticism of camping, except, of course, 
that the entire institution of organized camping may b<J^put 
of touch with reality; \vith the world as it iisS^and with the 
world as it is becoming. i\ 

Those who are leaders in the camping i^rofession have done 
an outstanding job of developing techniques of camp 
management. They have become experts in the art of ^^ow 
to": how to start a camp; how to design a more efficient 
camp facility; how to improve the food service; and how to the best medical insurance. 

Where the camping profession has failed and may fail 

Oofiaki O. fimland is presu/enf of Hihmn Oesifin, Inc. atui direct or of 
the Uinnesota Project on C'orporate Responsibility, fie is a program con- 
sultant and resource speaker to nunwrous educational, religious, business, 
O and community omanizations. , v 

miserably in the future is in the more basic question of 
**what." What is the purpose of camping and of camps? 
What role does camping play in the larger social context? 
How can camping and camps become a more vital resource 
to individuals and communities? Are leaders of camping 
aware of new trends in our society, and can camping relate 
to trends in a positive, constructive way? 

In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the 
future. Several dominant patterns have emerged which 
j^uggest alternative directions for society. Five such patterns 
oi'views arc described in the paragraphs that follow: 

GroMlh and technology — The first view, **growth and 
technology," is expres.sed most vociferously by Herman 
Kahn of the Hudson Institute. It assumes exponential growth 
on a worldwide scale. For example, in 1776 the world popu- 
lation was .7 billion, in 1976 four billion, and in 2176 it may 
be in the range of 15 to 30 billion. Another example, in 
1776 the gross world product was . I trjllion, in 1976 it was 5 
trillion, and in 2176 it may be up to 300 trillion. The 
United Slates and a few other western countries may be 
thinking in terms of "limits" to growth, but the world as a 
whole is midpoint in a 400-year growth cycle of enormous 



Business as usual—Second is the ''business as usual" view 
which sees the future as an extension of the present.^ Although 
small changes will occur there will be no dramatic shifts in 
the present social system. This may be the most popular 
' view since it assumes we will go on as we have, but with a 
slightly modified growth in our economy, affected somewhat 
by energy shortages. 

Limits to grow//;— The third view is **limits to growth** or 
"steady state.'' It assumes a trend toward equilibrium of the 
system, fostered by a scarcity of resources and a shift in 
social values. Some say there is a movement afoot in western 
societies aimed at a more simple life. Others feel we have 
reached the limits of our physical system and can no longer 
grow at the rate we have in the past. The * 'steady state'' may 
be a combination of voluntary and involuntary limits to 

Decline of the West—ThG fourth view is expressed by 
Robert Heilbroner, as "decline of the West" (a term bor- 
rowed from Spengler). The poor nations will assume eco- 
nomic and political pow^r while rich nations will decline. 
We may be witnessing something comparable to the fall of 
Rome. In his book. The Human Prospect, Heilbroner out- 
lines the global predicament of man today, confronted vvith 
"runaway populations,' obliterative weaponry, and a closing , 
environmental vise." Those in rich nations may witness a 
30-year leveling off toward a more frugal, even austere, 

Decentralization— 'Jht final view is the emergence of 
' "decentralization." Essentially, it is a 180-degree shift away 
from major trends, toward a more conscious, agrarian social 
system. Soft 'technology, labor intensity, and self- 
sufficiency are the hallmarks of this view. It is reflected in 
the views of E. F. Schumacher m Small Is Beautiful, Amory 
Lovinsin Soft Energy Paths, and Theodore Rozsak in Where 
the Wastelanci Ends. 

Perhaps none of these represent the real future. Tomorrow - 
may be a combination of several broad patterns, or, more 
likely, it- will be something significantly different from what 
we now expect. 

Underlying each of the dominant views is a cluster of 
trends which haye implications for various aspects of our 
society and its organizations, including the institution of 
camping. One of the trends is called "voluntary simplicity." 
A number of pollsters have identified what might be a major 
trend toward a more simple life-style. A 1977 Ha/ris survey 
reported that the American people have begun to show scep- 
ticism about the nation's capacity for unlimited economic 
growth, and they are wary of the benefits that growth is 
supposed to bring. Significant majorities place a higher 
priority on improving human and social relationships and 
the quality of American life than on simply raising the 
standard of living. 

In the summer of 1977, scientists at Stanford Research 
Institute published a report in The Co-Evolution Quarterly 
on the subject, "Voluntary Simplicity." Essentially, VS is 
defined by the adoption of five basic values: material sim- 
. plicity, human scale, self-determination, ecological aware- 
ness, and personal growth. The researchers estimate that 
there are now five million adults in the United States prac- 
ticing full scale voluntary simplicity. By 1987, this number 
will increase to 25 million, and by the year 2000, it will be 
60 million. This development has the potential of touching 
the United States and other developed nations to their cores. 

The idea of a simpler life-style suggests a new age of leisure. 
Slowing the tempo of life, decreasing the preoccupation 
with material things, centering on personal growth, all could 
contribute to a new leisure society, based on quality rather 
than quantity. This perspective, however, may be a myth. If 
a major proportion of our society seriously practiced 
material simplicity, human scale, self-determination, etc., it 
O t\y that we would become much more labor intensive. 


That is, doing things ourselves such as cooking, gardening, 
repairing and building furniture, and even. our homes, may 
result in mucTrless leisure time than We individually experi- 
ence today. The simple life may not be so simple, and we 
may long for the days of supermarkets, furniture warehouses, 
and packaged food. 

In contrast to voluntary simplicity, there appears to be a 
trend toward increasing stress within society. In 1970, 
Staffan.B. Linder, an associate professor in the Stockholm 
School of Economics and a member of the Swedish Parlia- 
ment, wrote a series of essays entitled. The Harried Leisure 
Class. He found that contrary to expectations, economic 
gro\vth has not resulted in an abundance of free time and a 
leisurely life; it has, in fact, produced a scarcity of time and 
a more hectic tempo. 

It now appears that the harried leisure class is beginning 
to develop a condition of high level societal stress. A report 
from the National Science Foundation has cited stress as one 
of the top problems of the future for western societies. A 
special report, "The Effects of Stress on Individuals and 
Society," points out that stress causes a bewildering array of 
physiological, psychological, and social problems. It is esti- 
mated that negative effects of stress (in the form of 
accidents, alcoholism, impaired efficiency, etc.) costs the 
United States at least SlOO billion annually. We spend $700 
million per year on tranquilizers and another $80 million on 
legal antidepressants. These figures do not include the 
millions spent on illegal narcotics. Two of the leading causes 
of death, heart disease and heart attack, are closely linked to 
levels of stress. ' 

.The promise of increasing leisure in an age of abundance 
may not be panning out as expected. Continued economic 
growth may simply drive the roots of the work ethic deeper 


Perspectives on Administration/ 17 


into Western culture. If so, we should expect not only 
symptoms such as stress, hut also other physiological and 
psychological impacts including depression, personal crime, 
and political conflict. On the other'hand, a'gccater under- 
standing of the role of leisure, both -for individuals, but 
especially foj society, may abate some of the negative out- 
comes resulting from preoccupation wiih economic growth. 

Camping, seen in the broader social context-, could play 
an im-portant role in fostering a more leisurely, simple life. 

and in reducing levels of stress. Beyond this, camping might 
provide one of the means for creating the new learning 
society. Camps could become one of the great learning hubs 
of the future. But this is not possible unless those who are 
the managers of camping begin (o see their role not as leach- 
ing the techniques of camping, but shaping the new camping 
philosophies. Thin will require a fundamental change in the 
image of camping and a new breed 'of camping 
professionals, . 

How to Develop 

Your Camping Philosophy 

Jerry Cro.sby 

KNM ()! C'llKISI IAN ('\MI'IN(;/Jl I Y-Al'tl. 1978 

K( WKM ICS K)K Pkojk I SI Kl: IX'H, I9K2 


herher you've been involved in camping for several 
years or whether your, camping career still remains in the 
dream stage, you cannot overemphasize the value of per- 
sonally having a clearly organized and written philosophy of 
camping. (May-June Journal of Christian Camping 1978). 
Some basic guidelines can assist you in developing your own 
personal camping philosophy. 

The Ingredients. Your first question regarding this topic is 
most likely **What goes into a philosophy of camping?" 
Simply answered, a written philosophy contains a clear 
presentation of your ''influencing factors," plus some 
general goals. 

You often call these ''influencing factors" by other 
names, such as assumptions, beliefs, theories, or concepts. 
Your particular situation will have some unique factors, but 
a brief description of some major categories may help you. 

Personal Factors, Whatever your values, your philosophy 
should start here. Here is Where you set forth your personal 
distinctives. While it is not necessary to develop an entire 
philosophy on your own values, it is important to have a 
good grasp of where you stand personally. Your known and 
unknown reasons for being in camping, what you bring to 
the camping experience, your values and beliefs all have an 
influence on the counselor qualifications you look for, your 
choice of activities, and your teaching-learning approach, to 
name a few implications. 

Social and Economic Factors. We do not live in a static 
world. Our society is constantly changing and forever on the 
move. Five and ten years ago, were you anticipating the 
patterns prevalent today? What social or economic factors 
do you feel you should be addressing through the medium of 
camping? The deteriorating family? Increased poverty? 
Ineffective public education? Lack of moral values? These 
are just a few examples. 

Constituency Factors. What are the unique needs of your 
camper constituency? What are their characteristics? Lower 
middle or upper class? All boys, all girls, or coed? Rural or 
urban? Coming from the same denomination, or from 
several differing ones? What is the average camper's home 

life like? To meet needs, you must fully understand the 
people whom you are serving. 

Educational Factors, Do you see yourself as an educator? 
You are. Ha^'e you considered the campers as a learner? 
Your philosophy should include a statement regarding your 
view of how people learn, and what values they should learn. 

Organizational and Traditional Factors. If you are develop- 
ing the camping philosophy for an organization, you will 
need to consider its pre-existing policies and procedures as 
well as its traditions. Considering them means evaluate them 
and write them on paper. Here you may find your greatest 
battle as you compare these factors with your conclusions in 
the other categories. 

If they don't "jive," something will need to give. Strive 
for harmony in your philosophy on the basis of your priori- 
ties. In other words, don't give up an educational value you 
feel is very important for a tradition or policy you see as less 

Putting it on Paper, By now you should have at least five 
"doodle sheets" before you. You may understand what 
you've written, but could your waterfront director make 
something out of it? 

Taking each of your categories of influencing factors (or 
whatever you wish to call them) write up a brief statement of 
your conclusions. Then, with these conclusions in mind, 
develop a statement (not necessarily one sentence) of the 
general goals of "your" camp? 

These should be written in terms of what you want 
campers to learn. They should be measurable and general 
yet not vague. "To win boys and girls to the great 
outdoors" is an admirable goal, but a little too general. 

Once you've identified your general goals, you are ready 
to move on to the implementation of your philosophy-the 
programming. Some would like to by-pass the philosophy 
and jump right into programming, but it is the philospphy 
that gives the program purpose and direction. 

Jorry Crosby is currenily Dirccior of Luluronon for !he I'Irfory IVihle 
Co tup in Palmer, Alaska, 



8/PERSPBr rivii.s on Administration 

Section I 

Philosophical Foundations and Considerations 

Discussion Questions and Resources 


1. What is the value of camping to individuals, to society? 
Identify objectives that could help determine its value. 

2. What role has camping played in our society's past? What 
role will it play in the future? 

3. In small groups, ask camp directors to present their philo- 
sophy, goals, and objectives of organized camping. Have 
the camp directors discuss, critique and defend each posi- 
tion for appropriateness, consistency, compatibility, and 

4. What are the responsibilities camp professionals have to 
their consumers? How should they be addressed for greater 


Bali, Armand B. and Ball, B. H. Basic Camp Management. Bradford 
Woods, Martinsville, IN: American Camping Association, 1979. 

Dimock,.Hedley S.The AVminisiraiion of the Modem Camp: New York: 
Associated Press. 1949. 

Mason, James A. Uncertam Outposts: The Future of Camping and the 

' Challenge of Its Past, Occasional paper by the Fund for the Advancement 
of Camping. Martinsville, IN: American Camping Association, 1980. 

Mitchell, A. V., Robberson, J. D., Obley, J. W. Camp Counseling. Phila- 
delphia, PA: W. B. Sanders Co., 1977. 

Mitchell, Grace. Fundamentals of Day Camping. Bradford Woods, 
Martinsville, IN: American Camping Association, 1981. 

Robb, Gary M. The Bradford Papers. Proceedings from (he 1980 and 1981 
Institute on Innovations in Camping and Outdoor Ediicalion with Per- 
sons Who Are Disabled. Bloomington; IN: Indiana University, Vols. I 
and II, I98I and 1982. 

Rodney, Lynn and Ford, P. Camp Administration. New York: The Ronald 
Press Company, 1971. 

Vinton, Dennis, and Farley, E. M. (eds.). Camp Staff Training Series. ''An 
Orientation to Camping and the Camp." Le.xington, KY: University of 
Kentucky, 1979. Available from ACA. ^ 

Vinton, Dennis A. et. al. Camping and Eimrorpn^Ual Education for 
Handicapped Children and Youth. Washington, D.C.: Hawkins and 
Associates, 1978. ' ^ 

Wilkinson, Robert E. Camps: Their Planning and Management. St. Louis: 
C. v. M'osby, 1981. 



Perspectives on Administration/ 1 9 


Section II 
Lif® Span Development 

31 . , , 

. PERsPECTiVEs ON Administration/21 

X his section ot the book has been designed to support 
Unit I, Growth and Deveiopmcnt, of the Camp Director 
Education Curriculum. The title, ''Life Span Development," 
was selected for this publication to better reflect our chang- 
ing times and our future campers. Dr. Mary Faeth Chenery, 
Assistant Professor of Recreation and Academic Programs 
Coordinator for Bradford Woods at Indiana University, 
was interviewed to give a clearer understanding of the term- 
life span development. Her understanding of this area has 
been exemplified in her work as a researcher and in her 
practical approach as an associate camp director. 

Question I . Whaf is (he meaning of (he (erm life span 
(ievelopmen(? Wha( is i(s origin? 

Chenery: '*Life span development refers to changes in 
biological, cognitive, affective, and social functioning that 
occur in individuals from birth through old age. The concept 
implies that growth and change occur throughout the entire 
life span rather than being confined to the periods of child- 
"hood and adolescence. Before the 1940s, psychologists 
focused primarily on the early stages of life. Gradually, 
however, it was acknowledged that important changes occur 
in adulthood and later life, and that a full understanding of 
individual behavior would come from studying the same 
individuals over a long period of time." 

Question 2. Is (he concep( of life span developmen( dif- 
feren( from human grow(h and developmen(? 

Chenery: **The terms are often used interchangeably, but 
there are at least different connotations of each. Life span 
developmental psychologists study age-related behavioral 
changes through the course of an individuaPs life. Those 
who work from the life span developmental approach are 
trying to identify and explain the normative or typical 
patterns of age-related change. The human growth and 
development specialist, on the other hand, might not be as 
focused on age-related changes but would be concerned with 
growth and its variations whether related to age, environ- 
ment, physical condition, or other causal factors. The 
important idea in both, however, is that both recognize con- 
tinuous change throughout life." 

Question 3, Why is (his area considered an impor(an( 
field ofsduly for (he camping profession ? 

Chenery: **As responsible practitioners in a human ser- 
vices profession, we need to understand the characteristics 
of our campers. Program, coun.seling, and supervision 
should be based on an appreciation of what is going on in 
the lives of the individuals in our care. We should know 
what is normal or typical in terms of human growth at a par- 
ticular age in order that we may facilitate its development 
and capitalize on available skills; and we must also recognize 
when something normal or typical is missing in order that 
we not endanger the individual and that we may seek help 
for the person if it is needed." 

QirhSTiON 4. Has any new knowledge emerged in (he las( 
five or (en years? 

Chenery: **Much of the new knowledge, has to do with 
the methodology of studying the lifespan (how to avoid 
making wrong conclusions from data). Lots of new gains 
are being made in the understanding of the biology of aging. 
In the psychological realm, I think the new work is coming 
Jii-Jjic_eflqrts ^f psychologists to study the changing 
individual in the contcxt^oraliynamic sodH^-and-physieal 

Question 5: Wha( are (he currem issues in (he field (ha(. 
camp direc(ors should be aware of? 

Chenery: Life-span development psychologists are 
trying to find ways to study the complexity of htiman 
behavior. Thus, the most critical current issue is that of ap- 
propriate methodology. I would suggest that directors who 
read both popular and professional presentations of research 
findings beware of over-simplification and over-generaliza- 
tions about growth. Directors should also recognize that in 
order to understand behavior over the life span we must use 
data collected over a period of years; sampling this year's 
six-year-olds, ten-year-olds, and sixteen-year-olds won't tell 
us what to expect of the current six-year-olds in four or ten 
years. Camp directors have a perfect opportunity to study 
children over time, and they might consider collaborating 
with psychologists for the purpose of increasing knowledge." 

Question 6. How can camp directors use (his informa- 
tion (o improve programs and services? 

Chenery: **As I suggested before, directors who know 
the cognitive, physical, emotional, and social characteristics 
of the campers they serve can use this information to design 
programs appropriate to the typical campers of that age. I 
would remind us all, though, that individual differences, 
should be looked for^and planned for. ALso, if one of our 
objectives is to enhance growth, then by knowing the series 
of developmental tasks that campers will be progressing . 
through we can provide them challenges to help them stretch 
their abilities. For example, if a child is quite dependent 
upon adults and we know that the next step for him or her is 
to establish gradual independence from adult care, then we 
might design a scries of opportunities in the camp program 
for the child to *try out his wings.' From studying the lives 
of successful, healthy mdividuals, we may learn, too, to add 
the enriching experiences to camp that may enable our 
campers not just to grow up normally but to live life well." 

.Question 7. Where should camp direc(ors look for in- 
formddon in order to keep up wi(h fu(ure developmen(s? 

Chenery: **A quarterly trip to a good library would 
enable a director to keep up with dcvelbpmcnt.s in (he field. 
Look at the journals such as Child Developmem, or annual 
volumes such as Review of Research in Child Developmen(, 
Life-Span Developmen( or Annual Review of Psychology. 
-You might also check the shelves for new tcxtbook.s in human 
growth and development. Finally, anything major will be 
reported in the newspaper science sections or in Psychology 
Today, but when you see it there you might go back to the 
original source to get the whole story. Feel free, too, to go to 
the universities and talk to faculty in developmental or 
educational psychology. Faculty in the universities have a 
commitment to community service, and many would be 
pleased to help you with the challenge of applying an under- 
stand i ng of Me^ pan_d eve I oinncnlaX^^ 


setting." • 22 



Section II 

Play is the Center of 
a Child's Life 

Julian U. Stein 

Camping Magazjne/June 1979 

Jl lay is the work of childhood. Play is the fun of childhood. 

Play makes childhood different from all other stages of life 

since work at this stage is supposed to be fun. 

Adults— teachers as well as parents — often lose sight and 

perspective of childhood. It is all too easy and convenient to 

project adult wishes, needs, and attitudes upon children 

during their childhood. This leads to a miniature adult world 

imposed upon children as evidenced by: 
—early specializations in activities such as Pop Warner 
football, bitty basketball. Little League baseball, youth 
soccer and hockey, age group .swimming, prodigy piano 
lessons, ballet, math mardi gra^ , super science fairs, ad 
infinitum. • 

' —early childhood education programs and projects that 
continue to place increasing emphasis upon academic 
activities and cognitive development when play, move- 
ment, motor activity, and physical proficiency are felt 
to be important prjerequisites for sound growth and 
complete development . 
—labeling and castigating children as different, slow, dif- 
ficult, or even retarded if they do not reach certain 
milestones, perform given cognitive or academic skms^.-" 
or master specific concepts and proficiencies by a certain 
time even though growth and development are looked 
upon as individual for each child, 
—imposition of adult concepts and values on children 
when all know that what is important and relevant in 
the adult world often means little, if anything, in a 
child's world. 

Physiologists,, specialists in child growth and- develop- 
ment, teachers, and parents all say that children are matur- 
ing physically more rapidly today than even a generation 
ago. But they do not say that these same children are matur- 
ing psychologically, emotionally, and socially more rapidly; 
they are more worldly and sophisticated, but these do not in 
themselves equal greater maturity. There are many indica- 
tions that despite earlier physical maturation, certain ele- 
ments and aspects of growth and development cannot be 
hurried; each child does in fact pace himself according to his 
internal timetable and schedule; hurrying or delaying this 
can be detrimental to the individual. In fact, many people 
feel the mass of idiosyiicrasies and differences represented 
among children having problems in school that are regarded 
as adnormalilies are only individual differences. If adults 
were prepared to accept them, they would not cause alarm. 

Studies and observation indicate that more children today 
suffer from emotional maladjustment as evidenced by the 
incidence of peptic ulcers as early as third and fourth grade, 
the number of high school drug and alcohol problems, chil- 
dren needing psychiatric counseling, and various and sundry 
similar psycho-social problems. Often associated with these 
problems are different types of learning disabilities. It is 
crucial .o ascertain exact cause and effect relationships in 
these cases. Are emotional problems because of learning 

remedial programs are effective, especially during the ele- 
mentary school years, activities that are effective and well 
received by children are often those so typical to, of, by, and 
for children. These same activities and this same approach 
are also bases for preventative programs at earlier ages and 

What then are the directions of wholesome and positive 
play, its benefits and values? How can wholesome and 
positive play be accomplished in the best interests of all chil- 

Just as a sturdy building must be constructed on a strong 
foundation, so must a well-integrated personality and effec- ^ 
tive functioning individual have a solid base. Many personal 
problems and difficulties— psychological, emotional, 
physical, social, vocational, • recreational— confronting 
individuals in adolescent, adult, and even senior years can 
be traced to the absence of a real, meaningful, and relevant 
childhood. This observation is reinforced by the number of 
remedial, corrective, and therapeutic approaches that put 
the child back into childhood—the use of play and other age 
appropriate activities to remedy various problems and 
-disabilities. The same philosophy and some of the same 
approaches are basic to assistance provided by various help- 
ing professions to adults of all ages— recreation, therapeutic 
recreation, activity therapies. Play, regardless of what it is 
called, is vital to productive, higher quality, and more fun- 
filled lives. Logic dictates use of this process and these 
approaches through the formative and developmental y^ars 
as preventative measures. Prevention is the soundest 
approach to remediation. 

Ironies and paradoxes run rampant in modern society. 
More information and knowledge are available about cnild 
growth and development than ever before. However, ques- 
tions must be raised as to how much of this information and 
knowledge is being applied in the best interests of all children. 

Child growth and development specialists, physiologjsts, 
psychologists, and other highly trained specialists, emphasize 
the importance of six-year-old children having four to six 
hours of physical activity a day, yet many first grade children 
still are relegated to agonizing seat work hour-after-hour, 
day-after-day in schools for **doin' what comes naturally. 
Many of these young children are categorically and arbi- 
trarily labeled hyperactive and as having short attention 

spans. 1. • II 

Girls are in general a year more mature— physically, 
emotionally, socially, academically— than boys when they 
enter the first grade. However, this is given little credence by 
teachers and others responsible for first grade curriculum 
development. All boys and girls are expected to be at the 
same psychomotor, affective and cognitive levels, so that 
the same emphasis is given to reading, writing, and arith- 
metic for everyone. , 

u .o«-c Ar^ ^mntinnal nmhlpm<; because OI learning Pr Stein is executive director and consuttanj^fonhe^ 

nmNemS? Methods, procedures, and attack on these prob- theHand,cappediocaie0,^*vasn g . . , 
- will be different depending upon the cause. Where 

hlyC .. ■ Perspectives ON ADMINISTRATI6N/23 

Both research and gut level experience show that six-year- 
old boys need much in (he way of gross, big muscle motor 
activities. Girls a,t this age, on the other hand, are superior in 
fine motor skills and abilities. Traditional first grade classes 
and programs are more consistent with the abilities and the 
developmental levels of girls than boys. Yet people wonder 
why substantially larger numbers* of boys than girls have 
emotional problems, learning disabilities, and are even con- 
sidered mentally retarded. 

Children with handicapping conditions who have tradi- 
tionally been kept to' themselves in hornogeneous groups 
*'e&tieiz/dftcally based on specific handicapping conditions 
have been overprotected, not challenged, and denied many 
v.. ...opportunities, benefits, and joys of childhood. This is chang- 
ing on many fronts. No stage or age is more crucial to build- 
ing acceptance of and changing attitudes cf and about 
individuals than childhood! Play becomes a vital ingredient 
in this process because of its nature and its dominant posi- 
tion in the lives of all children during formative years and 
developmental stages. Reports from Head Start, early child- 
hood education, and elementary school programs show chil- 
dren with handicapping conditions and their able-bodied 
classmates are being effectively integrated. Play is a medium 
through which both groups learn to appreciate and respect 
differences and abilities that can complement and supple- 
ment each other. In many ways children are more proficient 
in this process than adults. 

Children love to experiment and explore, spread their 
wings, and build their own rockets to the moon. Much of 
this natural curiosity and basic need is fulfilled through play 
emphasizing body movement. Through movement the child 
learns about his/her body, what the parts do, and how each 
one's body can be used to explore space and the environ- 
ment. Not only are kinesthetic and tactile senses developed 
and many things learned, but the ego is developed and the 
personality furthered through improved self-confidence, 
body image, and self-concept. Curiosities are stimulated and 
creativity developed and promoted. 

So often children are expected to be creative in a vacuum. 
Creativity means going from the known to the unknown, 
using the tried and true in new, resourceful, and innovative 
ways. , 

Children without experience in an ai-ea, activity, or 
approach should never be criticized for not being creative. 
With exposure, experience, and opportunities to participate 
actively, crealivity comes in different ways to different 
people. Children, as adults, cannot and should not be 
expected to be equally creative in all areas; interest and 
motivation influence creativity as much as ability arid experi- 
* ence. Whether creativity manifests itself in different move- 
ments, new pathways, or in unique combinations and 
routines, it is built upon successful previous experiences that 
are fun. Participating in this process through play provides 
children with a foundation on which to build and expand in 
later years. 

Children need opportunities to play in the out-of-dooriT 
and experience all types of weather — rain, cold, sleet and 
snow, mud, and wind as well as warm sunshine. Children 
need to wade in puddles, sail homemade boats in gutter 
rivers, chmb fences, crawl under bushes,, walk in the woods, 
and squeeze under fences. They c^n develop balance by 
walking on curbs and up and down cement steps and 
supports, learn about levers by lifting rocks and stones with 
broomsticks, and use tires for many different develop- 
mental purposes. Swings, slides, teeter-toiLexs, and other 
traditionalj73Ssiva baby-Mtters should be discouraged. Risk 
" takT(ig activities of many types must be encouraged through 
camping, outdoor education, and similar activities with 
families, in school, and with church and community groups. 
Luiher Burbank summarized these needs well when he 


Every child should have mud pies, grasshoppers, wafer 
bugs, tadpoles, frogs, mud turtles, elderberries, wild straw- 
berries, acorns, chestnuts, trees to climb, brqoks to wade, 
water lilies, woodchucks, bats, bees, butterflies, various 
animals to pet, hay fields, pinecones, rocks to roll, sand, 
snakes, huckleberries, and hornets.^^y child who^ has been 
deprived of these has been deprived of^ the best part of his 

Adults make child's play complicated, oversophisticated, 
scientific, and mysterious. Children just let themselyes go 
arid have a ball, if adults let them. Somewhere people have 
forgotten that learning is best accomplished in atriiospheres 
of laughter, pleasure, and enjoyment. Often the fun has been 
taken out of play, and with it the most appealing and 
important characteristics for effective learning. To teachers, 
psychologists, and learning disabilities specialists, activities 
focus on visual motor or perceptual motor development; to 
the child it is simply dot-to-dot, find the hidden figures, 
trace mazes, and fun and games. The surest formula to 
success irf this area is contained in the acronym KISS-MIF 
(keep it super simple-r^makeit fun). 

Pediatricians are concerned that too many young children 
are not receiving enough opportunities to take part in sus- 
tained, vigorous physical activities. Studies done by members 
of the American Academy of Pediatrics show that many chil- 
dren as young as two years of age have white fatty deposits 
in their arteries. If left unattended these deposits develop into 
characteristic conditions — high blood cholesterol and reduced 
arterial function — of arteriosclerosis found in later years. 

Not only does regular and vigorous physical activity 
through play help reverse this process, but more importantly 
children learn very early in life positive feelings generated by 
regular participation in vigorous physical activities. This 
process becomes as much of a need and as regular a part of 
their being as eating and sleeping. Attitudes toward a physi- 
cally active and vigorous life are developed so that chances 
of the individual remaining physically active for life are 
greatly enhanced. 

Play provides opportunities for children to develop 
positive .social interactions and interpersonal relationships 
with leaders, parents, and other adults, as well as peers. 
Children at early ages learn to give and take, abide by 
formal and informal rules, be discriminating followers as 
well as effective leaders, appreciate differences between 
them.selves and others, be sensitive to problems and 
disabilities of others, and develop a myriad of other charac- 
teristics that are difficult, if not impossible, to learn about 
and develop in other ways. Respect for the worth and appre- 
ciation of the dignity of others can also be furthered through 

Play can help children of all ages — 

Develop goals that are important and relevant to them at 
particular times and in given settings. Of course, these goals 
do not have to be written down, delineated verbally, or 
made formally to be important and relevant. 

Follow through to attain the goals. 

Learn to deal with the fact of life that goals can be realis- 
tically e.stablished and diligently worked for without always 
being fully attained. Growth and fun come through the 
journey, not the destination, through the trying and striving, 
through the joy of effort. Very different concepts of su(^^:ess 
and /ailure can be established at these impressionable ages. 

Unfortunately, too many adults forget that play, like 
other a.specLs of growth and development, progresses through 
discrete and definite stages. Specifically — 

Directed play is that stage in which an infant or very 
young child is played wit)i by an adult — usually a parent, 
parent surrogate, guardian, relative, or child care worker — 
or possibly an older brother or sister. The child is given 



opportunities to use and develop the senses as he informally, 
but effectively, learns about himself and the world about 
him. Environments can be structured with crib toys, playpen 
apparatus, chair devices, and other objects from which a 
child can derive enjoyment, pleasure, and fun while learning. 
The importance of this stage cannot be overen?j)hasized — It 
is vital and crucial in establishing a solid foun'dation for a 
lifetime. ^ 

Individual play is that stage in which a child solitarily 
explore.s about self and his environment. Opportunities for 
enjoyable and beneficial individual play can be enhanced by 
providing materials, toys, and other devices in a structured 
environment so that the child can ejtplore, discover, and 
learn. However; the child also needs instructional oppor- 
tunities in which he does his own thing. This approach 
stimulates creative thought and action and promotes more 
indepr ndent function aind greater self-reliance as bases for 
the next stages of play in group settings involving greater 
and more complex interactions with other children. 

Parallel play is that stage in which two or more children 
share the same play space or environment, but they play 
independently with little if any personal interaction and 
interpersonal relationship. Success or failure of an individuaT 
is not determined by or based on performances ojf anyone 
else. Some interactron — some positive, some neg^Jve — may 
begin during this stage. Working together, takmg turns, 
following historical folkways and mores, and abiding by 
more formal rules can be important learnings and benefits 
during this stage. For some children their first interaction 
with other children might be dumping sand over one another 
as they share the same sandbox! 

Cooperative play is that stage in which children work 
together to accomplish group goals and objectives. The 
cooperative play stage is complex since it includes low 
organized games and simple relays as well as highly organized 
team games and sports. Learning to sublimate one's personal 
desires and wishes for the good of the group or team is an 
important lesson to be learned during the cooperative play 

stage. Without any intent to minimize the importance and 
even sanctity of the individual, doing wh^t is best forHhe 
group in given situations is a characteristic that seems to 
have been de-emphasized if not totally lost in too many 
places today. Society is based on law and order, on rule and 
regulation, and that cannot be lost. Foundation for an 
appropriate balance and transition between individualism 
and societal group demands can be furthered into coopera- 
tive play. 

As childhood merges into adolescence and adolescence 
into adulthood, play as a word and concept tend to 
disappear from thoughts and lives. But a ro e by any other 
name is just as sweet; play in adults manife^iS itself through 
recreational and leisure-time pursuits — active and passive, 
group and individual, indoor and outdoor, winter and sum- 
mer, fall and spring,' sports and games, parties and other 
social ventures, hobbies and clubs, dramatic and literary, 
musical arid artistic. /!// stages of childhood play are found 
in recreational and leisure activities throughout later life. Not 
only is the foundation for this breadth of function laid in 
childhood, but also attitudes toward and for it; many of 
these early attitudes permeate a lifetime. 

So often children are thrust into play activities of a stage 
for which they are not physically, emotionally, socially, or 
intellectually ready. Play activities are too often determined 
by the perceptions and projections of adults, not by the 
interests and abilities of the children. As a result, too many 
children are being denied their childhood with all of its joys 
and fantasies. They find themselves in a miniature adult 
society replete with activities planned, directed, and con- 
trolled by adults often motivated by and concerned about 
their own ego enhancement. 

Childhood must be returned to children. Childhood is all 
too short. Individually and collectively the consequences of 
such denial is not affordable. Children are the fiiture. To 
deny them opportunities to grow and develop through play 
is to deny them their birthrights. Take stock, take action, 
because it is later than one might think . 

Section II 

Developmental Characteristics 

Jean E. Folkerth 

Project REACH Camp Staff Training Series, 1979 

developmental characteristic^ chart is an outline of 
generalized traiU or beKavMors usually found in a specific 
_,group.^Thcy are not hard and fast rules of behavior, but 
guidelines of what to expect from a person at a given age. 

The following charts outline the developmental charac- 
teristics for four age groups of children usually found in 
camps (5-7 year olds, 8-10 yeaf olds, 11-13 year olds and 14- 
16 ve^u; olds). Each chart lists general traits of physical 
gX'Owth^and development, such as muscle development, 
/height spbrts and sexual changes; behavior characteristics, 
such as interests, activity levels, and personal/social traks; 
and special considerations, such as type of activity appropri- 
ate for age and hints to help provide emotional and social 
O ►rt and interaction. Also included is an abbreviated 


chart for three groupings of adults. 

This information will help cafnp counselors to plan activi- 
ties which will be in the general interest and ability ranges of 
their campers. Studying **normar' developmental charac- 
teristics will provide guidelines to begin planning and organ- 
izing programs, but will not take the place of getting to 
know each camper individually and planning programs to 
meet their individual needs. They provide a starting point 
from which to analyze skills, formulate objectives, and 
modify instruction to teach the skills selected as meeting the 
overall objectives of the camping program . 

^eanFotkerth ^as a research assistant at the University of Kentucky for 
Project REACH. 


Perspectives on Administiution/25 

Developmental Characteristics of 5-7 Year Olds 

Physical Growth and Development 

Period of slow growth. 
Body lengthens, hands and feel grow 

Good general (large) motor control, 
small muscles and eye-hand coor- 
dination not as developed but im- 
proves about 7. 

Permanent teeth appearing. 

Behavior Characteristics 

Attention span short, but increasing. 
Activity level high. 
Learning to relate to persons outside 

Learning concepts of right and 

Becoming aware of sexual differ- 

Developing modesty. 

Becoming self-dependent and given 
time, can do things for themselves. 

Inconsistent levels of maturity, can 
be eager, self-assertive, aggressive, 
and competitive. 

Special Considerations . 

Active, boisterous games with un- 
restrained jumping and running 
are good. 

Climbing and use of balance boards 

Rhythmic activities, songs and dra- 
matics good. 

Limit activities to 15-30 minutes, 
since attention span is still short. 

Training in group cooperation, shar- 
ing, and good work habits im- 

Need concrete learning and active 

Freedom to do things for self, to use 

and develop own abilities. 


Developmental Characteristics of 8-10 Year Olds 

Physical Growth and Development 

Growth slow and steady. 

Girl's growth spurt occurs about two 
years ahead of boy's 

Slow maturing boys at a disadvan- 
tage because of stress on physical 

Before the growth spurt, boys and 
girls are of equal strength, after- 
ward boys are stronger and often 
develop athletic skills and prow- 

Large muscles still developing, but 
control over small muscles is in- 

Manipulative skills and eye-hand 
coordination increasing. 

Behavior Characteristics 

Stable traits are agressiveness in males 
and dependency in females. 

Age group is usually energetic, quick, 
eager and enthusiastic. 

Often restless and fidgety, need action 

Eager for large muscle activity, or- 
ganized team games. 

Noisy,\^rgumentative, yet highly 
imaginadve and affectionate. 

Self-conscious and afraid to fail, 
sensitive to criticism. 

Interest fluctuates, time span (inte- 
rest) short. \ 

Group-conscious, the age of clubs 
and the "gang" element. 

Boys still tend to play^with boys, 
girls with girls. Boys ah^ girls be- 
coming rivals and beginning steps 
toward heterosexual rclati6nships 
evident. \ 

Beginning to learn about moral judg- 
ments and learning to apply princi^ 
pies to determine right and wrong. \ 

Tremendous interest and curiosity 
about everything around them. 

Beginning to achieve independence 
outside family and learn to relate 
to adults. 

Special Considerations 



^feed praise and encouragement. 

Exercise of both large and small 

' muscles, by using whole body ac- 
tivities, team sports, arts and 
crafts, dramatics. 

Want a best friend, and membership 
in a group. 

Need definite responsibility and 
training without pressure. 

Need a reasonable explanation and 
guidance to channel interests and 
answer questions. 


Developmental Characteristics of 11-13 Year Olds 

Physicul Growth and Development 

Behavioral Characteristics 

Special Consideration.s 

A: **resting period" followed by a 
period of rapid growth in height 
and weight. This usually starts 
between 9 and 13 although boys 
may mature as much as 2 years 
later than girls. 

At these ages, girls are usually taller 
and heavier than boys. 

Reproductive organs maturing. 
Secondary sex characteristics de- 

Rapid muscular growth. 

Danger of over-fatigue. Girls arc be- 
coming gradually less active. 

Wide range of individual difference 
in maturity level. 

Gangs (groups) continue, although 
boys tend to be more loyal to the 
group than girls. 

Time of awkwardness and restless- 

Teasing and antagonism exist be- 
tween boys and girls. 

Opinions of group become more 
important than those of adults. 

Tend to be overcritical, rebellious, 
changeable, uncooperative. 

Self-conscious about physical 

Interested in making money. 

Imaginative and emotional with 
hero-worship evident. 

Asserting independence from adults, 
although time of strengthening 
affectionate relationships with 
specific adults. 

Greater interest in outdoor activities. 
Competition keen. Willingness to 

submerge self for.benefit of group 


Organized games needed. Boys and 
girls begin to differentiate play 
preferences, thus making co- 
recreation difficult. 

Skill is essential for successful group 
participation. Students willing to 
practice skills, but need guidance. 

Boys greatly interested in team 
(group) sports. 

Di.scipline can be problem because of 
''spirit*' ofgroup. - 

Good age for camp because of 
general enthusiasm. 

Developmental Characteristics of 14-16 Year Olds 

Physical Growth and Development 

Sexual maturity, with accompanying 
physical arid emotional changes. 

Skeletal growth completed, adult 
height reached (95?o), muscular 
coordination improved. 

Girls achieve puberty at 13, boys at 
15 (on average). 

Variance great because some com- 
plete adolescent development be- 
fore others start. Girls are generally 
about 2 years ahead of l5oys. 

Skin difficulties and complexion 
problems evident. Can require 
medical care and be a cause of real 
emotional concern. 


Behavior Characteri.stics 

B<;tween 12 and 15, shift from em- 
phasis on same sex to opposite sex. 
Girls develop interest in boys earlier 
than boys in girls. 

Concern about physical appearance. 

Social activity increases, preoccupa- 
tion with acceptance of group. 

Increased learning and acceptance 
of sex role. 

Time of adjustment to maturing 

Achieving independence from family 
a major concern, yet may have 
strong identification with 
admired adult. 

Searching for self and self-identity. 

Beginning of occupational choice. 

First love experiences and going 
steady occur. 

Going to extremes, **know-it-air' 
attitude may l?e evident. 

Special Considerations 

Acceptance by and conformity with 
others of own age important. 

Need unobtrusive adult guidance 
which is not threatening. 

Need opportunities to make 

Provision for constructive recr^'ation. 

Assurance of security, being -ccpted 
by peer group. 

Understanding of sexual relationships 
and attitudes. 

Opportunity to make money. 

Boys leisure activities tend to still 
center on ''sports,'' but girls gen- 
erally spend more time "going 
places with friends," talking on 
telephone and other indoor activi- 


Per-spkctives on Administration/27 

_ . J, Developmental Characteristics of Older Campers 

Older Adolescents and Young Adults 

Becoming independent and making 

it on their own. 
Developing skills, knowledge, and 
competencies to earn a living and 
achieve success in adult life. 
'Continuing to learn about self. 
Idealistic view of adult life. 
Interests narrow and "specialization" 

in one or two areas emerge. 
Acquiring skills, attitudes and under; 

standing of person of opposite sex. 
Choosing a mate. 

Formulating values and developing a 
ci? philosophy of life. 

Choosing and entering a vocation. 


Achieving satisfaction in one's voca- 

Assuming social and civic responsi- 

Developing skills that are family- 

Becoming parents and raising chil- 
dren to become responsible and 

Learning to relate to parents and 
older adults. 

Testing and refining values. 

Learning to cope with anXiety and 

Older Adults and Senior Citizens 

Building a new relationship with 
. grown children. 

Learning to relate again to one's 

Adjusting to declining energy ^nd 
physical changes of aging. 

Coming to ternis with one's life goals 
and aspiration^. 

Developing leisure activities. 

Adjusting (if necessary) to reduced 

Adjusting to changing roles, interests 

and capabilities. 
Accepting ih€ reality of death. 

Psychosocial Needs of the Individual 

To help you to better understand the campers (and perhaps 
yourselO the following material is made available. All human 
beings have the .same following fundamental needs: 

I . The ne^d for Recognition including social approval, pres- 
tige, status and commendation, which causes the child to 
avoid situations which result in ridicule, scorn, or dis- 

2. The need for Affection including appreciation, under- 
standing,' intimacy, and support which causes avoidance 
of situations where there is a lack of love and appreciation. 

3. The need for Power including achievement, success, and 
mastery which results in the avoidance of situations in- 
volving frustratii^ and a sense oT failure. 

4. The need for New Experience including novelty, adven- 
ture, excitement, thrill and change, which causes avoid- 
ance of.situtions of dullness, monotony, and boredom. 

5. The need for Security including protection, confidence, 
and optimism, which bring abi Ml avoidance of situations 
of fear, apprehension, danger,, and pessimism. 

Recognizing that these are funamental psycho/social 
needs may help you to interpret more correctly the behavior 
of individuals. Certain individuals will actively attempt to 
satisfy these needs even at the expense of other persons. The 
better integrated and socially con.scious person will attempt 
to satisfy needs, but will recognize the rights and needs 
of others as well. The timid and aggressive personality 
may consciously move in the opposite direction because of a 
feeling of inadequacy or lack of security. 


t8/PeMri!CTfve.i on Administration 


Section II 

Understanding the Camp Group 

John A. Friedrich 

Camping MAOAZiNE/Ai^Rii. 1952 

Xn recent years considerable emphasis has been given to 
understanding campers as individuals. This is a valuable and 
beneficial addition to the betterment and growth of camping. 
But it is also important for the camp leader to recognize and 
understand the camper as an individual in a group. Alone, a 

^child responds and acts much differently than when subjected 
to the various social and emotional pressures of a dynamic 

Camp units, cabin groups and activity groups have a unity 
of their own. Most leaders recognize this and will speak of a 
group as having a distinctive personality. At any one age 
level/ and in any one activity group, with the same leader, 
one /group enters well into discussion, another is apathetic, 
and/ a third is boisterous. What creates this difference 
between these groups? The entire answer cannot as yet be 
givfen. However, we do linow that any group is very much 
like an organism. It creates such conditions that its members 
wifl behave in certain ways because they belong to it. Thus a 
bdy who is very unsure of himself and likely to challenge a 
leader, may calm down if he is in a group with an easy-going 

I In trying to determine the reasons for problem behavior it 
\j always wise to consider the effect of the group on the child. 
Proper^ grouping of children in a camp situation can often 
do much to eliminate existing problems as well as to prevent 
Ithers from occurring. 

Cliques and subgroups 

1 It is almost inevitable that cliques and subgroups will be 
/found in camp. The important question is, how many form, 
/ on what basis and how they feel toward each other. Among 
camp children similarities .in play and work interests and 
abilities determine to some extent clique formation. 

Since clique formation often gives rise to bitter feelings 
and acts of discrimination it is frequently necessary fdflr a 
leader to exert his influence in giving guidance to the group, 
particularly if the clique has taken the/orm of a racial group, 
economic-level group or secret society. 

A clique may arise because its members differ in ways 
which meet their mutual needs. For example a boy with a 
very active imagination for creative dramatic play may 
attract a small group to him because he furnishes them with 
an excitement they can only get from him. 

The problem for the leader who wants to appraise the 
effects of subgroups either on the group as a whole or on a 
sirtgle individual is to estimate the purposes these small 
grdtups serve. Once these purposes are recognized, steps can 
be taken to effect corrective measures if such would be 
necessary. The intelligence and judgment employed by the 
leader in dealing with cliques and subgroups can determine 
considerably whether or not the purposes and objectives of 
such Will be socially acceptable and benefitial. 

in l9S^ John Friedrich was a /acuity member at Michigan State Coliege 
in East Lknsing and Director of Clear Lake Camp, Oxford, Michigan. 

Group role playing 

The specialized function of an individual within a ^roup is 
called a role. In some groups a child may feel impelled to 
play the role his group feels he has assumed. Thusj among 
the older campers, a leader niay take on boldness in confront- 
ing adult leaders which he would not exhibit but I for the 
presence of his friends. Frequently this factor makes under- 
standing a child rather difficult. For example, a boy! may be 
**bad" partly because he is living up to a previous reputation. 
It is important for camp leaders to find out how other 
campers expect a certain individual to behave. He may be 
unable to change his course of conduct unless he is helped to 
build a new reputation or is given a chance to make a fresh 
start in a new setting. 

Type of roles 

Within most groups there are certain roles which are quite 

Leaders— V^hcncver a group of human beings is acting 
together one person is almost sure to stand out by giving in- 
structions, settling disputes, or setting an example. In a 
camp situation, leadership sometimes shifts from one child 
to another depending upon activities. Frequently, however, 
there is a single strongly entrenched leader. Often the leader 
at camp is distinguished by his superior ability in various 
camp activities as well as by his pyschological understanding 
of others. Camp leaders may do well to employ the influence 
of youthful leaders more than is now customarily the case. 
- There is a big difference between a natural leader and 
someone delegated certain powers. It is very tempting to 
overlook this fact and to appoint a child we like to a leader- 
ship position. However, such action may cause considerable 
conflict within the group. 

Advocates— In certain groups, one of the members may 
be especially adept at making alibis, rationalizations or 
clever negotiations. He may lack the sensitivity for people or 
boldness of action of the leader, but He indirectly exerts 
leadership influence by his role as the group diplomat. 

C/own— Often a carnp group will have an individual who 
stands out as the clown oi^joker. Sometimes they are boys 
who have some handicap; that is, they are markedly fat or 
thin, tall or short, or else below par in skill. By combining 
humor with self-display they win a place in the group. Often 
their actions may act as a thin veneer for feelings of inferiority 
and many times there may be several reasons for their 
actions other than group expectations. 

Fall gw>'5— Some groups accept individuals mainly because 
they are willing to play the scapegoat and take the blame for 
the group in various matters, thus giving them more psycho- 
logical security. The individual's basic motive in assuming 
such a role is to gain acceptance by the group and possibly 
receive a certain perverse satisfaction as a martyr. 

Mascots— \ very interesting phenomenon occurs in some 
camp groups which include a youngster whom the others 



Perspectives on Administration/29 

regard as different from themselves, but against whom they 
are unwilling or unable to direct open hostility, or over 
whom they are ashamed to show their real superiority 
feelings. They make him a mascot. This frequently occurs in 
the case of an undersized, handicapped, or minority group 

On the surface this looks much less harmful than open 
prejudice or discrimination. For the individual, however, it 
may carry heavy problems since his self-respect may be 
greatly threatened, yet he is denied any reason for open 

Contagion of. behavior 

If poor behavior on the part of an individual is likely to be 
contagious, we may be justified in taking rather firm action. 
However, if there is no such danger, we can safely resort to 
such techniques as ignoring and omit threats or punishment. 
When behavior gives expression to impulses which are 
shared by several children and which they do not control, it 
may affect ihe entire group. Thus, if during a camp Jrama- 
tic program, a child begins coughing, a group which is bored 
may be .sei/ed by an epidemic of the same kind of noise 
making. The reason for this is that the children have built up 
the need to move around and to be relieved of this tension. 
The openly demonstrated courage of the child who **broke 
the ice'' by seeking release for himself acted as stimulant for 
similar behavior in all others. 

It is important to recognize this fact in the camp situation 
inasmuch as contagion of behavior is often prominent in the 
entire camp environment. Whether or not an act will be 
contagious depends upon the way the original act was per- 
formed as well as the individual who did it. If the individual 
who started had acted guilty about it, the others, would 
probably not have followed suit. The same applies if the 
individual was disliked by the group. 


When a camp group exhibits a tendency to be cruel to its 
least popular members or when there is evidence of great 
friction between set groups we may suspect scapegoating is 
taking place. Nearly anyone may be picked for the role. In 
many cases the effects can be very detrimental to the 
individual involved. It behooves the camp leader to handle 
the sitution very carefully in order to avoid increasing group 
dislike for the scapegoated member, as well as avoid tempt- 
ing the scapegoat to vie for leader protection. 

Most of the time membership in a group is an emotionally 
strengthening experience. When any young person who 
genuinely belongs to a ;r^roup gets in trouble or needs help, 
the others are almost sure to come to his rescue. A camper 
who is **in bad^' with a certain counselor will be given not 
only sympathy, but a good deal of advice, on how to **get 
around him.'' This aspect of group life is one which can be 
very profitably used to aid children who need help. The trick 
is in knowing how and when to make use of it. 

Cffotip atmosphere and morale 

One of the significant qualities of camp groups is their 
emotional climate or general feeling tone. This is very much 
dependent upon the altitude of the group leader. In promot- 
ing the best type of mental hygiene the Icuder will be much 
mOre successful if he attempts to rcduc; the pressure and 
tensions within the group. 

Various groups have different atmospheres. Moreover, 
differences in group atmosphere give rise to differences not 
only in the type of difficulty with which young people must 
cope but also in the type of solutions to those difficulties 
which appear to work. When two leaders have different im- 
pressions of the same child, it may be that each is seeing a 
contrasting reaction due to a differenc-;; in group atmosphere. 
If possible it is usually best to allow a child to spend as much 
time as possible in the group where he worka best with other 

To be sensitive to conditions which endanger good morale, 
and to be skilled in the techniques of strengthening and 
repairing it, are assets of all good group leaders. Group 
pride and group self-discipline are essential to good group 
morale. However, too much group pride can lead to a 
dangerous condition often involving acts of destruction. 

Group disintegration ^ 

Few things can make. a camp counselor feel more futile 
than to have his group go to pieces. In some cases this may 
be just temporary. However, in others it may be the typical 
state of affairs. In every case group disintegration has a 
reason and demands thoughtful attention. 

There are numerous conditions which can lead to group 
disintegration. Long periods of empty waiting may be one 
cause. Campers, if confronted v/ith tasks they cannot accom- 
plish, may vent their frustration in bickering that can wreck 
any possibility of teamwork, Cliq e warfare, too much 
competition, unexpected change (especially in leadership) 
and lack of motivation all may tend to cause disintegration 
in a group. 

An orderly cabin may lose its morale if surrounded by 
disorderly cabins. When a group goes to pieces, life becomes 
very insecure and perilous for its members. The weaker 
group members may be highly disturbed. 

Group standards ^ 

The standards of conduct derived from juvenile group 
forces are very powerful. They are often more influential 
than most educators realize. 

In a head-on collision between the group standards and 
the counselor's code, the juvenile code is likely to prevail, 
although its triumph is usually masked. Beneath the surface 
the campers' lasting attitudes are formed by the dynamics of 
their own groups. 

Importance of the camp leader 

The social climate which determines group action can be 
considerably influenced by the leader. Cooperation-evoking 
techniques are much superior to dominating methods in 
camp. Cabin group spirit and character can be well molded 
or badly mutilated by the action and techniques of the 

As a large group, most camps are divided into subgroups 
and cliques each with its own structure and traditions. Under 
these circumstances, group psychological forces come into 
play and greatly influence each individual. The camp leader 
has it within his power to influence these groups and in turn 
the individual, either for good or bad, depending upon his 
ability and his handling and understanding. 



^.^O/Perspectives on administration 

SectioD II . 

Family Camp: It's the Little Things that Count * by Dick Angeio/ 

. • I with Sharon Miller and Carol Schuibert 

^ JouRNALOF Christian Camping/July-August 1977 

^iTouVe sent , out colorful brochures, lined up a good 
speaker, and made sure the facilities are in good shape. Great. 
. But will these efforts be enough to insure a family camp 
experience that families leave reluctantly, saying, ** See you 
next year?** Let me share some of the little things that have 
brought, an increasing number of people back each year to 
family camp at Forest Springs. 

That first day 

Make it one of your goals on that fir§t day to ease the ten- 
sion and anxiety your family campers are .feeling. The fami- 
lies will be tense for a variety of reasons, especially those 
never having been to family camp before. Put yourself in the 
place of your campers as they enter your camp ar|;a. What 
would some of your questions be? **What*s going to happen 
this week?** ''Who will be fiere?** **Will we know anyone?** 
**Where do we go now?** **Will we dp things together as a 
family?'* **Will people like us?** As eich family drives into 
the camp center, their initial experiences are probably the 

- most crucial of the whole week. Makfe sure theiittle things 
are working for you to make camp a good experience from 
that first day. What have we done at Camp Forest Springs to 
ease this tension level? 

The answer starts with available people. Assign two or 
three staff members to greet people as they drive into the 
main parking area of your camp. Be sure these staff greeters 
are familiar with the families who are coming, know the 
number of people in each family and the name of each 
member. When a family is met with a friendly hello and es- 
corted to the reception/information area, the tension of 
**Where do we go now?** is erased. The greeting staff mem-. 
berS introduce themselves and are responsible to introduce 
the family to the stiif f member assigned to the family for the 

" day. 

This staff person takes the family to their cabm or camp- 
ing area, answers their questions and helps them get settled. 
The staffer may offer to take them on a tour of the grounds 
or suggest ways for this family to begin getting acquainted 
with the other campers. Before leaving, he or she reminds 
them that the first item on the schedule is "Supper at six** 
and makes a point of seeing them again later ^at that time. 
The availability of this staff individual says to the family, 
*M*fn here to see that everything works out for you.** 

Over and above the staff assigned to meet people, assign 
several maintenance people to assist campers with tents, 
travel campers, and recreational vehicles. These staff people 
work in the camping area to help camp families physically 
Situate their recreaftonal vehicles— to park them, block them, 
make any necessary electrical connections, and meet what- 
ever needs may arise. 

You can also case anxiety by providing written materials 
that answer the predictable questions your families will ask. 
At Forest Springs we prepare in advance a packet folder for 
each family containingithe following: 

o : . 
ERLC . ^ . . 

—schedule for the week 

— map of the camp area ; . 

— map of the trails and cook-out sites 

— inforihation sheets about the camp: These sheets may run ' 
two pages (front and back) and contain everything we can 
think of to help a family have a belter time at camp, includ- 
ing: ^ 

—location of the trading post (camp store) and its hours 
—office hours and telepK'one usage " 
— location of the restrooms 
—names of the speakers 

—list of all the families at camp; their home addresses'and 
names of the children 

—rules for some of the sports (especially those not played 
at home, for example, box hockey) 

—waterfront guidelines 
— activity sign-up sheet for optional activities 
— list of all camp staff, their names and positions 
— sample camp postcards ^ 
— nametags for adults (We ask they be worn the first VA 


We encourage our families t9 get settled in their cabins or 
camping area before registering and paying their fees. You 
ease the stress ^factor again by postponing registration to a 
more convenient time of the family's choosing. Let them 
know there will be opportunity to register after the evening 
meal and tomorrow. 

* Next question? Yoilr families are arriving for the first 
scheduled camp activity— supper. What **little things'' can 
you do? 

Give them a nice welcome at the table. You may want to 
let them know about your table procedures this evening or 
during orientation tomorrow. To insure that a family will 
find places together at a meal, if desired, familes at Forest 
Springs have the option of **table cards.** A stand-up card 
on a table with the family name and number of people 
reserves their place at meals. Other campers or staff may fill 
in the remaining number of seats at that table. If this reser- 
vation procedure is followed faithfully, it frees the family 
from the pressure of being right on time or early to meals in 
order to find places together. And they*ll appreicate that. 

A few words at supper regarding the evening schedule 
would also be in order. Make that first evening low-key. We 
providers few optional recreational activities— volleyball, an 
organized camp at the recreation field. The evening Bible 
hour may begin at 7:30 or 8:00 pm and the Trading Post is 
open after that. Families are free to retire whenever they 
wish. The main camp building may close around 10:30 pm. 
- Why so low-key? I don*t believe it*s good programming 
to start off the first night with a bang. Society is already 
moving too fast. At camp we need to help the families slow 
down that night to prepare for the rest of the week. In pro- 

Dkk Angela is director.of Camp Forest Springs, Westboro, Wisconsin. 

Perspectives on Administration/ 31 

gramming, wc want fo pick up the momentum gradually 
throughout those first days to reach a peak about the middle 
of the week. Then, by slowing down again toward the end of 
— — jj^g ^eefc7~rhe family leaves retaxe d, not havi ng^oiic~s\\' the" 
' ttrt ngslhey wanted to ao and anxious to come backT^We" 
want them to leave saying, wish I could stay another 
. week," not *M can hardiv wait to get home and get some 

On each following day 

Make it a goal of your staff to meet individual family 

With this in mind, present your camp orientation on the 
morning of your first full day. Why wait? Mentally the 
campers are not ready to handle it before. then. At Forest 
Springs that Sunday morning we may spend I '/z hours with 
the entire farhily (except the. very small children), letting 
them know the exciting things they can do at camp. Introduce 
each staff member and their instruction area, go over the 
schedule and Bible classes offered, introduce these teachers 
and speakers. Also have registration available for those 
families who need to complete that. Time spent now with 
your families insures a . good experience in the program 
options offered at camp. 

Then, what about outside of camp? In programming 
optional activities, we take**a look at our culture, the area 
around the camp, and ask, **What do we have Avithin a 45- 
minute drive that would interest our families?" Some of our 
options include: 

— visits to a professional artist and antique collector 
— visits to a local factory manufacturing rustic furniture and 

wall decor 
— visits to a mink farm 
K —visits to the famous local pizza factory 
—golfing ^ 

Trips are scheduled in advance and families sign up the 
first day. On these trips families provide their own transpor- 

tation and organi|:e their own rides. THfe time of depart^ure is 
announced at the hoon meal the day of the trip. We provide 
one staff member as escort. 

Canoe trips are anot he r po p u lart^ ption. Th ese-ate^tfer-ed 
aflfddrtioiftalWst and "aT^^ ~ *■ 

vehicles are sent. 

Near the middle of the week, we also offer a hay ride for 
adults (age 1 8 and over). Babysitting service is provided by 
assigning available staff members to be with the children 
and get them to bed in their cabins. We also offer a youth 
program that evening for older youth who have parental 
permission to stay up late. 

These out-of-camp activities are in addition to the regular 
camp schedule. We also try to vary these special activities 
every few years so there is always something new for the 
returning, family,. 

Programming slows down toward the .end of the week. On* 
the last evening we conclude with an Awards Night. Certifi- ' 
cates for achievements are presented. Humorous awards, 
recalling the fun events of the camp w^ek, are also given. 
Kept in good taste^ so as not to embarrass anyone, they add 
**the icing to the cake" for your family campers. 

In meeting family needs, look for ways to provide those 
nice extras. Evaluate your situation to see what is possible in 
the area of child care. At Forest Springs babysitting is pro- 
vided during all adult Bible classes and the evening chapel 
time. We want to free parents to be as fully involved in the 
Bibl^ schedule^as they desire. While our staff size does not 
allow for babysitting at all times, we try to provide limited 
babysitting by appointment. This service is for the family 
who could not otherwise be involved in some special activity. 

But what is the vital element in providing these little 
things? Personnel attitude. The theme for the entire family- 
camp staff is service. Each one is there to look for needs to 
be available, and to gi^.e,'*our" families the best possible 
time. Encourage your'staff to be sensitive to the needs of the 
people— to see eaqh ind?^idual family as a unique group and 
to ask God for wisdom;.to meet their needs. If we have this 
vision of ministryto individual needs, our families will leave 
at the end of the week saying, **These people really care. I 
want CO come back." 


(2/ Perspectives ON Administration 



Some Intergrouping Principles 
and Observations 

Russeii Hogrcfc 

Camping Magazine/January 1982 

Editor* s Note: The following article was taken from the paper "Enrich- 
ing the Camp Experience. ft was issued by the Fund for Advancement of 
Camping and printed in Camping Magazine. This is only one part of the 
paper. The paper in its totality includes five case studies of private vamps' 
who successfully integrated their programs. ^ * 

Ethnic background and economic class . 

D iffcrenccs among people of differing economic circum- 
stances tends tO'be as great or greater than those of differing 
ethnic backgrounds. Economic backgrou«d is frequently re- 
flected in quality and depth of education. It also affects 
food habits, recreational patterns, and the way 
interpersonal relationships are handled. The principle in- 
volved is that it is easier to deal with one or the other of 
Ihcse differences, ethnic or economic class, rather^than to 
deal with both of them at once. There are many minority 
families with financial means to send their children to 
private camps. Their resistance to their children attending a 
camp is more likely to be based on their lack of personal 
experience. Of on understanding the^vaIu€s_ofj:amping, 
rather than on cost. Private camps have the interpretivg_ 
materials to dievelop such understanding. 

One camp director said that children of friends were the 
source of their campers. They saw that the way to integrate 
theircamp .was to widen their circle of friends. To the extent 
that such new friends are not just **cold canvassed" from . 
anywhere but already had some personal relationships to 
existing camper families, the smoother the transition to an 
integrated camp would be. 

Prepare thr '*in Group'' 

Much has been written about the efficacy of preparation 
versus confrontation as a strategy for introducing people 
who arr ''different'' into a new situation. When one digs 
through the'argumcnts pro and con, he is likely to conclude 
that the preference has more to do with leadership style than 
with the value of one tactic over another. Leaders who feel 
comfortable handling human relationships **on the fly". are 
likely to be successful with either approach. Leaders who 
feel they will be thrown by some negative reaction will want 
the assurance that preparation and planning provide. 

There is considerable evidence that if a child or two from 
different backgrounds showed up in each tent or cabin one 
summer, nothing unusual would happen. Friendships would 
evolve based on skills and personal interests rather than 
ethnic background. This would be less likely to happen if the 
**old" campers had developed group relationships on the 
Older of a clique. In such cases, isolation of a new camper of 
even the same background is just as likely to occur. The 
principle here is that integration is more of a problem of 
adult attitudes and hang-ups than whether children of 
different backgrounds will relate together. 

Much of the mainstreaming of handicapped campers indi- 
that* children have fewer preconceptions and more 


tolerance for differences than adults perceive them as 
having. The same goes for ethnic differences. As all good 
camp staff already know, campers take more clues fpr how 
they behave from the adults around them than w.e at. times 
would like them to do. if counselors accept campers who are 
different as a normal part of t"he environment, campers will 

placing "different" campers in groups 

Integrating a camp poses questions of how to assign new 
campers who are ''different." Spreading them out one in 
each small group living unit may make them so isolated as to 
make the camper uncomfortable by sheer weight of num- 
bers. On the otherhand, if all the campers who are different 
are assigned to one or two small group living units, this 
highlights their difference and sets them up for discrimina- , 
tion. The principle is to find.a combination that has a reason- 
able chance of working All first-year campers with one who 
was "different" would probably work because all have their 
newness in common. A newcomer who is a good athlete in a 
group interested in athletics may work because of their com- 
mon interest. If the newcomer enhances the group image as 
athletes, he is home free. Special skills of a newcomer 
enhance the value of that camper to the group and aid inte- 
gration. Positive recognition by the camp of the history of 
an ethnic group gives dignity to that group and helps 
acceptance of its members. - 

How many ethnic groups at a time? 

People from different ethnic backgrounds are perceived 
differently by members of the **in group." In general, 
people who appear more like members of the **in group" 
are more readily accepted. Somewhere in the literature of 
psychology of integration there probablyis a rank order of 
physical characteristics from most to least readily acceptable. 
The overall principle of starting integration by dealing with 
one problem at a time would dictate that the way to start is 
by first bringing in minorities of similar appearance. 

Another principle is worth noting. It appears that if a 
camp is becoming integrated, bringing in a broader spectrum 
of people from different backgrounds seems to soften the im- 
pact of integrating the **most different." The camp that 
spoke of bringing in Mexican, Chinese, Japanese, and 
blacks probably found it easier with this diversity of ethnic 

The principle of a camp dealing with integrating one 
individual difference at a time appears not to be followed in 
the example cited above. The basic principle does hold, 
however, of starting integration with people who are most 
similar in physical characteristics, and moving toward 
people who are more different. It appears that if a camp is 
becoming integrated, a broader spectrum of differences 
seems to soften the impact of integrating the most 

Russell Hogrefe is Section Executive for Illinois Section of American 
Camping Association. 

^2 Perspectives on Administration/33 

Age is a factor 

Some real differences 

^ Ethnic backg round and parentnl sexual hang-^ps jii? JiQL 

_ easily mix^ Campers who haveachieved sexual-maturity con- 
jure up all kinds of anxieties on the part of many parents. 
Resistance to integration can, in these cases, have as much 
to do with age and sex as ethnic differences. The principle is 
to start integration at an age level where sex is not a problem. 
As people get to know one another, personal friendship and 
trust ameliorate some of anxieties as they get older. 

Choosing minority staff 

Camps frequently feeh they should bring on staff persons 
of the same background as the campers they are beginning 
to integrate'; They should, but it doesn't work automatically. 
Class' differences affect the relationship of counselors .and 
campers of the same ethnic background. An upwardly- 
mobile college student from a family that feels it has 
'*moved up" may resent campers from that ethnic back* 
ground who are poor and uneducated. This resentment, of 
which the counselor may not be aware, may expose campers 
to vvors^ treatment than if the counselor w^ere of a different 
background and had less understanding of these children. 
The principle is to find staff of any background who are 
sensitive to individuals and can beeyenhanded with everyone. 

It is well-accepted that camp staff from a variety of ethnic 
and nationality backgrounds enriches the camp experience. 
Under good circumstances, the same will be true of campers. 
Like all good recipes, the proper mixing of ingredients under 
appropriate circumstances controls the end product. 

_ While it is obvious that campers can be campers regardless 
of race, creed, or economic differences^..lhere_.are_s.onie_r_eaL 
differences that need to be understood. For black campers, 
particularly girls, care of hair is one such problem that needs 
to be recognized. Food should' not be served to ethnic 
groups in violation of their religious beliefs. Such problems 
are similar to the kind of accommodation camps have 
always made, such as getting Catholic campers to mass on 
Sunday.. - 

Concluding observations 

An important contribution of many camps, who^ have 
developed, in intergroupiiig programs, is their experience 
with finding funds to bring in campers who did not have the 
financiarresources to pay the usual fees. Foundations and 
FAC supported these integration efforts and the camps 
shared in the cost. Campers, parents, and former campers 
contributed generously so that others from different back- 
grounds could enjoy the same rich experiences. 

The motivation for integrating children who are 
''different" into camps springs from many sources. The 
camps reporting here have alluded to religion, democracy, 
humanism, and a sense of '*just the right thing to do" as the 
motive for their efforts. As the world shrinks and becomes 
more ethnically homogenized, campers need more and more 
to have experiences with others from different backgrounds. 
Camp is too well suited to the task of helping people live and 
work together to abridge this opportunity. 

Section H 

Senior Camping 

Phyllis M. Ford 

Camping Magazine/June 1978 


tf cssic, in her 80s, wants to buy a sleeping bag. (She bor- 
rowed one this year.) Henry, in his late 70s, wants some new 
fishing tackle. Carl is waierproofing his old boots. Gladys is 
repairing her old sweater. Grace is going to a chowder sup- 
per, the proceeds of which will help defray her camp 
expenses. Mary's daughter and son-in-law gave her a week 
at camp for a Christmas present. 

All over the country, people are getting ready to go to, 
camp; not just children and youth, but all people, parti- 
cularly grandparents. Senior citi/ens arc going to camp in 
New Hampshire, Arizona, California, Oregon and many 
other states. And why not? Instead of spending retirement 
days sitting and daydreaming about their grandchildren's 
organized camping experience, many senior citizens are 
packing up and going to camp too. 

In Arizona, the Salvation Army camp. sponsors special 
two-week programs for senior citizens who come by bus 
from miles around. Many seniors return to camp in subs.e- 
quent years and plan camp reunions periodically. Generally, 
senior camps are sponsored by municipal recreation depart- 
ments which private, church, or agency camps during 
the late spring or early fall. In these cases the administration 
O ( the senior camp is shared by the recreation personnel and 

the owner/director of the camp. The major share of the res- 
ponsibility is that of the recreation department personnel, 
with support, guidance and coordination from the camp 
owner/director. The specific recommendations .which 
follow are geared to make camping for seniors safe, enjoy- 
able and valuable. 

The site 

While some camps do not lend themselves to use by seniors 
because of distance from their homes or terrain which is 
difficult to travel, many camps can be utilized with no modi- 
fication. Consider the following when looking for a site for 
a senior adult camp or when thinking of adding a senior 
adult camp program to the present camping program at an 
already established site: 

Levelness of land around the main camp buildings. ^ 
Wide, smooth vyalking trails within main camp building 

Dn Phyllis f-ord is a professor in the Department of Recreation and Park 
ManaMemen t , U niversity of Oregon. 

l/PERSPEc rrVEs ON Admin rsTRATfoN 


Buildings that are free of steps or have very-few steps. 

-Ram ps-foTihose buildings having many steps,^ 

Smooth, fairly level and easy trails near tamp buildings 

^_ • 

Nature formations of interest within short and easy walk-, 
ing distance from main camp buildings such as a lake, stream, 
river, pond, waterfall, etc. 
Various levels of hiking trails: easy, medium, difficult. 
Interesting topography, variety of plant life. 
Driving time to camp site from camper population area. 
If campers will be driving for over two hours in some mass 
transit means (bus), a rest stop with a snack and toilet facili- 
ties should be planned about halfway to the camp. 
• Points of interest near camp that could be Used as short 
sightseeing trips. - • . ' 

Town or city nearby for emergency care. 
With few alterations, many camps have adequate living 
and program facilities for senior adults. Sleeping quarters 
need not be elaborate. The senior adults, like all other 
campers, will enjoy, a certain amount of camping or roughT 
ing it. The major consideration is that no senior be permitted 
to sleep on an upper bunk. The following points should be 
considered for sleeping quarters: 
Well insulated and heated. 

Indoor toilet facilities or outdoor toilet facilities near each 
sleeping room wiili night light on. 
Running hot and cold water. 

Beds should be comfortable; if the camp has bunk beds, 
campers should only sleep on bottom bunks. 

Put two mattresses on bottom bunk to make it easier to 
get out of in the morning. 
. Chair to sjt on near bed. 

Sleeping quarters should be as private as possible; rooms 
for two, three or four are ideal; dorms should be considered 
as th«y do work, but have dorms separated: one all male, 
one all female. 

Storage for belohgings. 

Have a comfortable living area in sleeping quarters. 
Consider these points about toilets: 
Indoor if at all possible. 

Grip bars oaeither side of toilet. 
Signs (dx male/ fern ale if t he toilejs are ou^side^, ' ^ 

If pit-type, some kind of solid air-rreslTchcr dtJvicc.— 

— bTght^^Olr-atH^^gh^s€Uaikt.s-a^^^ 

'"^oMe poinrs onshowersr/batMubsare: — * 

Individual showers if possible. 
' Signs for male/female. 

Non-slip floor when set; if Roor is slippery when wet, 
masking tape can be applied. 

Chair or bench near showers or bathtub to place items on 
or to sit upon. 

Hooks to hang clothes, (owels, etc. 

There will probably be more women than men attending a 
senior adult caran, as y^ell ^ some, married couples. 
'Generally, married couples wish to share (he same room, 
although they cfrcgood sports about separating and going to 
the girFs' or boys' dorms. All boys or all girls camps can be 
modified for seniors by placing appropriate designation 
signs on the toilet rooms and shower houses. 

Food service 

- The kitchen for senior adults need be,no diffi^rent from 
any other camp population. There are times when certain 
seniors, particularly the men, may wish to.try their hands at 
baking cakes or fancy cookies. In this situation, the ingredi- 
ents maybe taken to the dining room and assembled; then a 
staff member may lake them to the oven for baking. Seniors 
making, cutting and decorating gingerbread men or cookies 
resembling objects around camp becomes a popular and 
safe activity as^ long as the participants stay outside the 
kitchen. o- u 

For meals, seniors prefer chairs to benches. Since there 
are probably fewer senior adult campers than the usual 
number of children attending camp, it fs quite simple to find 
enough dining chairs, even in the camp where benches are 
usually used. 

Staff and program 

When senior adult camping is sponsored by a municipal 
recreation department, the staff is usually supplied by the 
municipal program. In many cases, seniors can do their Own 
staffing and, certainly, the ratio of staff to camper can be 
fewer than the ACA recommendations of one to eight. 

The program should be planned with the seniors and by 
the seniors. In one camp, the main purpose of the week's 
stay was to facilitate an oil painting class, the chance to 
paint real forests and streams. That program, understand- 
ably, had a major emphasis on arts and crafts of all kinds 
and every supplementary program could be related to the art 
interest. Other program ideas include: 

Arts and crafts— sketching, painting, water, oil and 
acrylic, nature crafts, weaving. 

Hikes— nature, night, early morning, bird watching, 
some other natural element unique to the area wildlife. 

Sports— hor.seshoes, darts, any sport modified, i.e., soft- 
ball or mush ball. Physical fitness sessions (mild exercises to 
limber up muscles). 

^ Puppetry and drama— making different types of puppets: 
glove, sock, paper, skits, talent shows. 

Music— singing, listening, performing in a group or 

Library— books on points of interest in area, birds, trees, 
animals, short stories. 

Storytelling- tall tales, fairy tales, yes, senior adults can 
have fun reflecting: "When I was young . . or '*I remem- 
ber .. ." ' . . 

Social hour— the hour before dinner provides soft drinks, 
juice, and snacks; campers bring other drinks to add to 


Perspectivks on Administration/35 

those provided, if desired; time lo relax from day's activities; 
cards, table gam es. 

'Quite limes—sitting ailcrenjoymgirie scenery, ciiscussions. 

HevtHh — ; -..^.^^ — ^- --^ - 

Probably the main reason more camp directors do not 
lease their camps to senior adults is the concern for health 
and safety. Camp directors arc prepared Tor emergencies 
with children and youth but not those emergencies and ill- 
nesses which accompany old age. The possibility of a senior 
adult passing away while at camp is something many camp 
directors are unable to face. The senior adults are less con- 
cerned and seem to be able to take such rare occurrences in • 
stride, even;discussing the fact lhai sincp death is'inbvitablie, 
one is fortunate to spend nis last. moTiicn'ls in such a 
beauti f ul arid serene setting as a camp. 

The role of the camp nurse may be the most important 
staff funciion in a senior adult camp. The nurse is usually 
recruited by the recreation department and is a community 
volunteer. Some aspects to consider in a health program for 
senior adults are: 

Have the camp nurse read and keep up-to-date on current 
aging thoughts and practices. 

Have a registered nurse on duty at all times. 

Medical history form should be as complete as possible, 
and the medieval history form should fee required of all 

Thought may have to be given to those campers who do 
not believe in medical assistance beqause oT religious 

Have camp nurse talk to each camper before coming to 
camp. ^ 

Have camp nurse talk to each camper upon arrival at 

Introduce the camp nurse and show campers where they 
can go for medical assistance; 

Every hike or program that goes out of camp should take 
a first aid kit. 

Have at least one staff member with each out of camp trip 
or program with at least a standard Red Cross first aid-card 
that is current. ^ x 

Keep a^bound, blank ledger book to record all treatments 
of campers. 

The camp nurse should remain in main camp building 
area at all limes. 

Arrange for emergency procedures so all staff know what 
'l^?P^ri:*^^ incase of a medicaj emergency. 

Dev^ise a forninpor madenf 15ut no accident. Example: 

-woman-on-fa-lkc-fall s^ but is n ot-b4^4^ ■ 

— Have nurse talk- with staf f-en-the-speeial needs-of-seniors, 
also from health forms explain any added information that 
staff may need to know about the campers. 

Arrange for emergency transportation, know the closest 
source of oxygen; 

Check into hospital entrance procedures. 

Have camp nurse be one of the staff as much as possible; 

Have blood pressure taken at airo time. 

In a camp at an elevation of 4,800' feet, blood pressure was 
taken every day and no differences-were noted. The blood 
pressure was taken in the dining hall as all campers' congre- 
gated there several times a day for socializing in addition to 
meals. Seniors were accustomed to blood pressure checks in 
their own community centers and found the attention a 
positive link with their lives in the city. 

Camping for senior citizens is not new to the United 
States, but neither is senior camping as wide spread as is con- 
ceivable. The camp director who is concerned about increas- 
ing enrollment or about extending the camp season could 
well find his facility is easily adaptable to seniors. Certainly 
the early days of June and the Indian summer of autumn are 
good days for resident camping, and the seniors' time is not 
concerned with school dates. 

An enterprising businessman often adheres to the ecologi- 
cal principle which avows that stability Jn any system 
depends upon diversity. There are many viable ways in 
which the camping field can diversify its program and make 
a more stable base of operation. Working with senior 
centers in municipal recreation departments or with activity 
directors in retirement centers and communities could lead 
to an expanded program, an augmented income, and serve a 
population which needs and wants camping. 

The success of such a, program is cqntingent upon the 
flexibility of the program and the personalities of the staff, 
much as is the success of any camp program. If camp 
directors arc interested in further diversity and serving wider 
ranges of groups and interests, the possibilities are Endless. 

The 1976 edition of the ACA Standard? book states, **the 
essence of camping is the positiveness of life." Surely this 
essence should be experienced by all people, no matter what 
age they may be. 

Section II 

A Camp Director's 10 

Ralph W. Smith 



Landling inappropriate camper behavior is undoubtedly 
one of the most difficult and frustrating tasks faced by camp 
personnel. Novice counselors often come to pre-camp orien- 
tation expecting to learn a **formula'' that will work for 
every child in every situation, only to discover that no such 
O prescription exists. Nevertheless, since problem situations 

fcffla 6/ PERSFErrivEs ON Administration 

occur, no pre-camp orientation is complete without a 
discussion of effective techniques for managing camper 

Ralph Smith is the on-site director of Camp Green top for physically dis- 
abled children and adults in Lantz, Maryland, and assistant professor of 
Therapeutic Recreation^ University of Maryland. 


-behavior. The following 10 simple strategies, although far and administered in an understanding manner. The next 

from a panacea, may provide an approj)riate framework for strategics may be helpful when intervention is required, 
such a discussion. " 

_ 1 ; _ -ih-eiffl'tfy-^ttscq u cn ccs of un acceptable b eh av ior^ , 

i.~Rcinforce~desirablc behavior. It is usually much easier camper should clearly understand the personal impact of his 

to establish desirable behavior patterns at the beginning of or her behavior. The staff member may point out the con- 

the camp session than to alter problem behavior after it has sequences, such as anticipated disciplinary action, should 

started. If staff members think positively, campers will often undesirable behavior persist. It also may be advisable to 

react positively.* A smile, gesture, or brief word of support is encourage the camper to clarify the consequences of his or 

frequently all that is necessary to encourage a camper to her own actions by asking, **What things do you think will 

maintain or to increase acceptable behavior. happen if you continue to act this way?" When clarifying 

consequences it is important to avoid using a threatening 

2. Cleariy state privileges as well as rules. Most camp activi- tone of voice and, above all, the staff member must be pre- 
ties or programs have set rules and procedures that are -pared to follow ahrough^ if the undesirable behavior 
necessary for safety and efficiency, but too many don'ts continues. \ ' 

violate strategy I. Tell campers what they may do.. If they.- 

clearly understand what is permitted they will not need to 7. Clarify benefits of acceptable behavior. This is the corol- 

test to determine acceptable limits. Why not have campers lary to strategy 6, and may be useful in concert with it. Staff 

. participate in establishing some of the camp's rules and regu- should be reminded, however, that pointing out the benefits 

lations? Research" indicates that people are more likely to of acceptable behavior will be most effective if it occurs im- 

internalize rules they have helped establish. medjately after desirable behavior (strategy I). 

3. Tolerate some unacceptable behavior. Too much atten- 8. Use **time-out'' procedures. It may be necessary to tern- 
tion to annoying behavior may not only interfere with an porarily remove a disruptive camper from the situation in 
activity's effectiveness, but may serve to reinforce which problem behavior is occurring and place him or her in 
undesirable actions. Also, certain annoying behaviors may a location where little or no enjoyable stimulation is received, 
be typical for the child's developmental stage, so staff Once removed, the camper should be allowed to return after 
members should be alert to age-typical behavior patterns. • a short period of time, but it is important that this return be 

contingent upon appropriate behavior. 

. 4. Use nonverbal cues. Before verbally responding to un- . 

desirable behavior, it is often possible to eliminate it by 9. Punishment, if used, should be a last resort. Unlike the 

silently indicating disapproval of the camper's actions. Eye preceding strategies, punishment (of any kind) does not allow 

contact, accompanied by a frown or gesture, may control the camper to avoid the consequences by exhibiting accept- 

the behavior without the possibility of embarrassing the able behavior. Thus, attention is directed to the punishment 

camper in front of his or her peers. - itself, rather than to the problem and alternative forms of 

behavior. Any form of punishment should be appropriate to 

5. Consider redirection to a different task or activity. One the situation and, of course, must conform to camp policies, 
of the best ways to avoid behavior problems is to keep 

campers involved in the task at hand. The challenges of any 10. if in doubt, seek help. This final and very important 

activity should be consistent with the camper's skill develop- strategy should be used whenever the staff member feels 

ment, so plan for varying levels of skill and try to individu- incapable of coping with a particular situation or camper, 

alize tasks to each camper's abilities. Many behavior prob- Assistance also should be sought if a staff member is unsure 

lems result from activity dissatisfaction or boredom and whether or not his or her specific responses to problem 

may be eliminated by ^'redirecting" the camper to another behavior were appropriate. All staft must know, m advance 

task or activity. the appropriate personnel who will lend assistance with 

Despite careful attention to the above strategics, problem camper behavior problems, and it should be stressed that 

behaviors may occur which require immediate intervention, seeking help is not a sign of defeat or inadequacy. No one, no 

In some situations staff responses will be dictated by camp matter how experienced, has ail of the answers to handling 

policy, but any disciplinary action should be fair, consistent, camper behavior problems. 



Perspectives on Admin istRATioN/37 

Section II 

Life Span Development 

Discussion Questions and Resources 


1. After reviewing, articles in this section of the book, ask 
camp directors to describe various age groups they serve 
and.the implications for the camp design. 

2. What sources and\techniqucs can be used for gathering 
information on campers?. Ask camp directors to explain 

, techniques and share forms they have used successfully. 

3. How does the camping experience potentially impact on a 
camper's development and behavior? ^ 

4. Wl^at should a camp counselor know about group 
dynamics and interpersonal relationships? What kind of 
training experiences should be provided in this area during 
pre-camp training? . 

5. Do camper characteristics and needs change as society's 
values, technologies, and interpersonal relationships 
change? If so, in what way? 

6. What procedure should be followed when enrolling a 
camper? What information should be included on the 
application form? Is the application form or enrollment 
procedure more complex for special populations? 


Armstrong, Constance H. Senior Adult Camping. Bradford Woods, 
Martinsville, IN: American Camping Association, 1979. 

Bloom, Martin. Life Span Development. New York: MacMillan Publishing 
Company, Inc., 1980. 

Buhlcr, Robert F. Child Development: An Introduction. Boston: Houghton 
Miftlin Company, 1976. 

Dan ford, H. G. (revised Shirley, Max). Creative Leadership in Recreation. 

(2nd ed.) Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1970. 
Erikson, Erik. H. Identity and the Life Cycle. New York: W. W. Norton 

and Company, 1980. 
Kraus, Richa.J. Therapeutic Recreation Se^yice: Principles, and. Practices. ^ 

(2nd ed.) Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company, 1978. 
Medinnus, Gene R. and Johnson, R. C, Child and Adolescent Psychology. 

New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1976. 
Mitchell, Viola A., Robberson, J. D., and Obley, J. W. Camp Counseling. 

(5th ed.) Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 1977. 
Patterson, Gerald R. Families: Applications of Social Learning to Family 

Life. Champaign, IL: Research Press Company, 1973. 
Peterson, Carol A. and Gunn, S. L, Therapeutic Recreation Program 

Design: Principle and Procedures. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 


Peterson, Carol A. and Connolly, P. Characteristics of Special Populations: 
Implication for Recreation Participation and Planning. Washington, 
D.C: Hawkins and Associates, 1980. 

Stein. Thomas A. and Sessoms, H. D, Recreation and Special Populations. 
(2nd ed.) Boston: Holbrook Press, Inc., 1977. 

Stone, Joseph L. and Church, J. Childhood and Adolescence. New York: 
Random House, 1959. 

Van Krevclen, Alice. Children in Groups: Psychology and the Summer 
Camp, Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole, 1972. Available from ACA. 

Vinton, Dennis A. and Farley, E. M. Camp Staff Training Series. "Know- 
ing the Camper5," and "Camp Program Planning and Leadership." 
Lexington KY: University of Kentucky, Project REACH, 1979. Available 
from ACA. 




Section III 
Administration and Organization 


Perspectives ON AdministrAtion/39 

Stuart Mace visits many Easter Seal camps each year as a 
consultant in his role as Program Specialist for Camping 
and Recreation for the National Easter Seal Society. His dis- 
cussion in this interview is reflective of the many and varied 
experiences he has had in helping camps work through 
administrative and organizational problems- Mace also 
addresses this issue from a practical viewpoint — as a former 
camp director. Ano^er area of interest and involvement is 
his role as the Chairman of the National Standards Board of 
the Americag^ Camping Association. 

• .Question!. * What is a camp director's role at camp? 

' IVfac^: *The camp director's primary role at camp is syn- 
cronizing all operation.s of the program. That includes such 
things as supervising staff, maintaining buildings and areas, 
purchasing supplies and equipment, communicating with 
parents, to mention a few. In other words, the camp director 
is the catalyst, the person that pulls everything together into 
one smooth, harmonious operation." 

Question 2. What do you consider to he the f ive most 
important responsibilities of a camp director? 

Mace: **There are so many important responsibilities; it 
is difficult to Hst^only five. First, and these are not in any 
priority order, is to assure campers a healthy and safe experi- 
ence. Second is to assure campers receive a varied and quality 
program experience. Another responsibility along this same 
line, is to provide staff and volunteers with a valuable experi- 
ence. A fourth area and one that becomes more important, 
is to operate the camp program in a financially efficient 
manner. Last, but not least, is to comply with all state and 
local laws and regulations that apply to camp operations." 

Question 3. What kind of background and experience 
helps prepare a camp director for the job? 

IVface: **First, and most important, is to have a variety 
of experiences in camping and recreation programs, and to 
be sure that the experiences include administrative responsi- 
bility along the way. I believe it is desirable to have a 
bachelor's degree in an area related to human services. 
There is another. area that is difficult to qualify; it is a need 
for the camp director to have a desire to work with young- 
sters in this unique setting and to have a sound philo.sophy 
that he or she can translate into action." 

Question 4. How important are management skills in 
the operation of an organized ramp, and what skills are going 
to he most important in the future? 

Mace: **Thc skills that I see as being the important, 
' now, arc the ones that will be most important to develop for 
the future. I sec financial management, recruitment of 
campers and staff, and the ability, to develop long-range 
plans, as being the most important. Two skills — planning 
skills and marketing skills— will be the most difficult to 
develop; however they will go hand-in-hand with the camps 
financial management where securing new ♦'unding sources 
and increased use of computers will become more impor- 
tant/' . - 

Question 5. When a camp director evaluates or develops 
the organizational structure of a camp, what elements should 
be taken into consideration? 

Mace: **First, the organizational structure should reflect 
the philosophy of the camp. The philosophy, should be 
clearly stated that includes compatible goals and objectives. 
Next, it must reflect the needs of the campers. Finally, it 
must, to some extent, reflect the- facility and its location. I 
must add that ideally I do not think budget should be con- 
sidered in this process; however, realistically it is difficult to 

**This is a very difficult and complex process, and one 
that camp directors should discuss in more detail together. 
The response given here may give the impression that there 
is a definite approach and process, most camp directors v/ish 
it were that simple." 

Question 6. How important ts a camp director's philo- 
sophy to the success of camp operations? 

Mace: **Very, v.ery important! U is an area that is often 
not fully developed by many camp directors or agencies. It is 
a must to a successful program. Philosophies can vary and 
cover a broad spectrum of ideas, but the differences are not 
the important consideration to developing a good camp pro- 
gram. The importance is: doe., the philosophy make good 
.sense; does it hold together; can the camp director defend it 
to others?" 

Question 7. If you had to identify the factor you con- 
sider to he key or essential to becoming a successful camp 
director, what would it he? 

Mace: ^Mt would be the camp director's ability to coor- 
dinate a multitude of different activities that involve motiva- 
ting and managing people. The camp director must be a 
gcnerali^t; a person who knows enough about all camp 
operations to direct others in carrying out the many activities 
at camp. The difficult part of this assignment is that the 
camp director must deal with many different activities at the 
same time— flexibility, a cool head, and the ability to pull it 
all together." 


^jw^J ^■l , ■;; ^ a . ll J VPRRSPI-CTIVFJi ON ADMIN I.STRATION 


Section III 

Sidney N. Geal 

Camping Magazine/November 1961 

The Qualifications for 
a Successful Director 


Als goes the director — so goes the camp" is a statement 
frequently heard and to which some credence must be given* 
based on observations. Aft'^r a decade of camp visitation, it 
may almost be said that to see a camp in operation is to know 
the director, his aims, his background and his personality. As 
y to whether he is a successful director depends upon one's con- 
^cept of success. For purposes of discussion, might it not be 
•akreed that an economically sound, well-organized camp, 
that adequately provides for the health, safety, and welfare 
of its campers and provides a real camping experience con- 
ducive, to producing those values inherent in good camping, 
be considered as being successful? Whatever the concept, it 
is reasonably certain that the degree to which a camp director 
may be considered .successful is dut primarily to his qualifi- 
cations. \ 

In 1924 a\et of qualifications for a camp director was 
published in a^.book entitled Camping Out— A Manual of 
Organized Camping, Macmillan Company. 

These qualifica|ions are as follows: 

**The camp director's qualifications should be considered 
first from the point of view of those to be served. Will he 
attract campers? Will he be continually acceptable to the 
campers? Will he be ablc^^o provide that which is most essen- 
tial to their comfort, safety and enjoyment? 

**In the second place, he must be acceptable to the owners 
or management. He must be able to satisfy the owners that 
progress is being made toward th'^ir chosen aims. The wishes 
of the parents must be recognized and their confidence 

•'Finally, he must merit the approval of the community at 
large and must comply with the principles of American 

^s defined by the late Dr. Walter Dill Scott, President of 
Northwestern .University, in his book Personnel Manage-- 
ment, is **the degree of supervision exercised over tfained 
technical personnel." 

Evidence corroborates .the belief that other qualifications, 
in addition to acceptability and characteristics that contribute 
to good socral behavior, arc essential to a successful adminis- 
trator. The supervision of trained personnel who may inci- 
dentally possess skills in specific areas equal to, or in excess 
of, the administrator and the coordination of all the varying 
functions of a camp organization into a unified camping pro- 
gram, requires specific qualifications that can be measured 
objectively. Such qualifications may include interest, 
aptitude, abihty, and personality. 

Four Qualifications 

First, the most successful camp administrators are those 
who have an inherent interest in: 

1 . The outdoors— in living and working in the outdoors a|nd 
in knowing and appreciating the >yonders of nature. 

2. Dealing with, and service to, people— both youth and 
adult— and the discovery and recognition of individual 

3. Science— its relationship to the maintenance, growth and 
enjoyment of mankind. 

4. Cultural appreciations- the sense and appreciation of 
beauty, creativeness, ^nd inspiration. 

Second, a successful administrator possesses certain 
aptitudes essential to his executive responsibilities. He needs 
potential ability in: 

The characteristics of a camp director were also listed as 1 . Good judgment based on logical reasoning, 

follows: 2. Comprehension— understaiiding and appreciation. 

3. Expression — ^jgood two-way communication between him- 

**Unquestionable character,, executive ability, contagious self and those he is required to supervise, serve or with 

enthusiasm, energy, cheerful personality, constructive imagi- whcTm he must deal, 
nation, cooperative spirit, ability to grow with the work, 

ability to be empathic and to possess thorough knowledge Third, the successful administrator obviously must have 

and support of the institution which he represents.'- ability y not necessarily as a skilled ^artisan, but he must 

The complexity of the modern camp and the multiplicity possess: 
of functions assumed by the camp director today indicates, 

however, the need for additional specific qualificaitions if I. Mental maturity— the ability to learn, to act intelligently, 

the camp is to measure up to the increasing values being to recognize and face problems, to be creative, 

ilttributed to camping. Rare indeed is the individual who is 2. Ability in perception and relationship pertaining to ideas, 

proficient in child welfare, personnel management, mass people, and circumstances. The camp director who 

feeding and housing, business administration, education, acknowledges the camper as the most important person in 

program development, group work, maintenance, not to camp must possess'the ability to relate this perception to 

mention publicity, public relations and promotion, all at the staff functions and program. 

same time. Delegation of responsibility has become a' : 

necessity and the function of a camp director is closely Sidney N, Geal was assistant director of the American Camping Associ- 

Tt\^P(\ to that of an administrator. Administrative direction, ationfrom 1956-66. 

:RIC \ ^ Perspectives ON Administration/41 

3. Numerical reasoning ability sufficient to cope with good 
• business administration. 

4. A degree of verbal fluency and concept sufficient to enable 
hifn to understand and be understood. 

' Fourth, it is difficult to think of an effective administrator 
who does not possess a challenging personality. Not the 
suave, shrewd, self-important impressionist, but one who 
knows and practices the relative values between personality 
components, such as impulsiveness and seriousness, indeci- 
sion and firmness, irritability and tranquility, intolerance and 

tolerance, emotionality and steadiness, fluctuation and per- 
sistence, etc. 

These four qualifications *are objectively measurable. In 
fact, many industries, businesses and educational institutions 
use such measuring devices as informative guides in the selec- 
tion of administrative and supervisory personnel. Such basic 
qualifications may and should be supplemented by some 
specialized achievement in education, child welfare, 
sociology, religion, or other related areas dependent upon 
the avowed purpose of the camp. 

. Section III / 
First Year Director Richard E. Gavone 


Irrespective of previous experience, ability, age, or reputa- 
tion the **new'' dirc(^tor of a camp faces some formidabie 
challenges. Most of these can and will be planned for, but 
there are a few that can catch a first-year director off-guard. 

Camping personnel usually possess a special kind of dedi- 
cated enthusiasm that is an essential ingredient to successful 
1 camp management. If not directed into creative channels 
^ this factor can blind a new director into missing bumps and 
^ roadblocks ahead. 

Docs this surprise those of you who aspire to become 
directors? Now that I think about the problems of having 
equipment die on Sundays or the Fourth of July, staff prob- 
lems, camper problems, chefs not returning from a day off, 
and a hundred other irritants plus the twenty-hour work day; 
it is surprising anyone would contemplate accepting such a 
position. But if you do accept the direction of a summer 
camp, I would like td share a few observations made in over 
twenty-five years with a multi-camp agenc y ope ration serving 
city children. With' five scparate^ujunfcr cam^^s and the 
normal turnover of dJfectors^cvery few years, I have had the 
unique experience of launching a great many first-year camp 

Some did well while others fell on their faces their first 
sea.son. Ego did some of them in. I failed to recognize their 
motivation was warped in this direction. Impatience for pro- 
gress and change that first .season alienated some fr,om staff 
and campers. Failure to assess ongoing procedures accurately 
resulted in some embarrassing **bIoopcrs.'* A hostile staff 
can enjoy permitting the new man to fail. All they need do is 
withhold a little information. 

For example, I was a new director some years ago at a 
camp on Chesapeake Bay, enthusiastically ^leading a prc- 
ca^np orientation session with the staff when one fellow 
interrupted me and called my attention to an impending 
storm. He suggested the session close immediately and every- 
one work on the shutters. Fortunately, I agreed. It was a 
good thing I did! Storms come up quickly in that area and it 
was normal to recogtiize the signs and batten everything 
down quickly. Had I resisted the untimely interruption the 
camp would have suffered a loss of several hundreds of 
dollars in broken shutters, windows, and other equipment 
not to mention the damage to the image of a new director. 

Let's examine how a camp staff can destroy a well-qualified 
director. The volcanic core rests in the minds and .hearts of 
O staff members and campers, who return to **their camp*' 


.and meet a new administration. We must remember that one 
school of thought among some campers and staff questions 
whether a director is really a necessary staff position! We 
must also remember that young people often carry their 
loyalty and reverence for former staff and familiar camp 
routine as chips on their shoulders; just daring a new adminis- 
tration to upset them. The comment, **We did it this way 
last year . . .** can wear one's patience thiri after a few weeks. 

Richard E, Gav(\ne is with the Hoys* ami Girls ' Camps oj Massachusells. 

^ Young adult.^ tend iq relate to *Most causes- and often 
; carry displays pf loyally to extremes Jshduld one of their 
■ peers, leaders, advisors, or a for per camp director be threat- 
n ened by injustice or honest criticism. We might refer to this 
in camp as a **Lj^st Cause Theory" since he is no longer in 
charge. It is^irrelevant whether or not the previous adminis- 
utrator was a prince or incompetent. 

The point is tl^at proper, consideration be given to the 
potential eruption, of the volcano as changes are contem- 
plated. One is obliged to defend the previous director and 
his policies as adroitly as possible. At least no negative com- 
dncnts should be uttered concerning last year. A proven rule is 
that whenever a diijector speaks to anyone in camp, he must 
assume he is talking to the entire camp community. As a 
public figure every! comment, regardless of how private it 
ntay seem, gets am|3lified into the **camp grapevine" with 
efcc'tronic 'speed, /^ thoughtless statement at dinner can 
become the thorn tjD provoke a staff confrontation at the 
* eviening meetirig^. * ' . . • * 

Former Staff j 

Former staff may c^quate change with an attempt to disrupt 
their familiar and comfortable camp work of past seasons. 
Consider, how might the oldtimers feel should a project or 
procedure they helped produce be altered arbitrarily? 

Accepting the mefit of **treading lightly" the first season 
is difficult to accept, particularly for a person possessing 
years of previously successful camping in another camp. A 
hostile staff can be the result in moving too rapidly. Con- 
sider how effectively our reputations have been shielding us 
and paving our way. Once we, have established ourselves in a 
camp with a few seasons, word travels as to our standards, 
, special areas of emphasis, dedication, and compassion with- 
out our having to restate or demonstrate. It is better to enter 
the battleground of a new scene under the assumption we 
have been stripped of credentials, and prepare for the exas- 
peration of questions and challenges to our position and 
There may not be a foolproof method to completely avoid 
the pitfalls of divided loyalty among staff and campers 
during administrative change. It is incredible to believe any- 
one can fill another's shoes in quite the same manner, nor 
would it be a healthy expectation. Simply recognizing the situ- 
. ation exists and considering potential ramifications seems a 
first effective step. 

Utopian elimination of the problem would be no campers 
or staff from previous season permitted in camp! We would 
still get some static from brothers and sisters of campers 
who'd been dropped. Plus we would be exposed to bad public 
relations, with no acceptable justification. There seems no 
way around the problem. One must face the reasonable 
approach that qualified staff members from the previous 
season deserve ''an opportunity to return arid campers arc 
preferred stockholders in their own right. 

So what do we do? Glean all available information from 
reports and evaluations of other seasons. Screen returning 
staff carefully and exchange ideas with them, and decide 

what is a livable ratio between **old time" staff, new 
recruits, and your own people. Be a good listener. / * 

If we were to create a situation to test the leadership ability 
of camp directors, it is doubtful we could exceed the potential 
of a first-year situation. Contrastingly, there is no greater 
feeling of security at the start of a director's second season; 
for he enters it as *The Director of Record." The, camp is 
**almost" his and implementation of new objectives may 
begin without fear of lame duck staff foot dragging. 

What does a new director do the first year? Does he just 
coast along rocking the boat as little as possible? Aren't 
there any safe areas to work in? 

Yes! Zeroing in on the prime objective of every director, 
which is creating a climate in the camp community conducive 
to good living conditipns and creative activity planning, will 
reduce problems tb a significant degree. . 
. A **safe" order pf director's priorities would be: 

1. Safety . ,4. Staff Morale. 

2. Sanitation 5. Activities (or program) 

3. Food Service 

Who could question any efforts of a new director in these 
areas? It is difficult to hassle a director who was obsessed 
wjth upgrading the quality of dining hall you cat in! 
' From this basic platform a director projects a solid image 
of concern for the fundamental structure of camp and has 
compassion for the people living there. Improvements accom- 
plished in the five objectives form the building blocks of the 
director's image and integrity. It is a platform which may 
permit some launches to explorations of new horizons even 
during the first year, in some circumstances. 

While the platform is being constructed, a **Banking Pro- 
gram of Staff Relations" should be underway. A director 
should be visible and available to the staff. Literally, not 
through a statement of **my door is always open," but actu- 
ally present where the a<?tion is, such as stopping to chat with 
counselors in the cabin ar.ea, asking about their problems, or 
exchanging ideas, or infornial chatter. Then if it rains-— that 
is a great time to do some banking by getting wet visiting 
cabins and programs! 

These amicable meetings without problems make it more 
productive and comfortable when a time arrives to work out 
a real problem. Meeting the camp director shouldn't be a 
command performance in the camp office, operative only in 
time of stress! 

Our first and last consideration are the campers of course. 
Our camp is really **thcir camp^' Of course we do have 
difficulty getting them to care for and clean up **their ^amp," 
but after all we are il e adults. A direct line of co imuni- 
cation should be a must between camp directors and campers 
if not already established. A system of regular weekly meet- 
ings of representatives of each cabin with the director at a 
special time (even after taps) is a productive avenue. Once the 
system is accepted by the campers as a bona fide vehicle of 
communication and not just an **honor" or chance to have 
refreshments with the director, the wisdom of seeking the 
counsel of children will prove itself dramatically. 


Perspectives on Admin istiiation/43 

Section III 

Decentrairzation--A Forward Step Lois Goodrich 

to BettGr Camping camping magazinb/december 1959 

If camp is to mean more in the lives of campers than a happy 
• vacfition br release at the moment, it must cause its campers 
to meet and work out real Iffe situations and be ready in atti- 
tude and skill to face their problems at home, at school and 
in the neighborhood. Too often a camp is so organized that 
the camper uses it only as an escape from reality rather than 
as a place where he must face his tasks and, as one parent 
wrote, *Mearn to take hold of himself." 

With a-small group of eight or nine campers and two coun- 
selors living together day and night, a counselor has much 
opportunity for observation, for discovery of tendencies 
before they become fixed habits, and for guidance— and if 
need be, reference for spe^alized help. Good, balanced 
living with wise counsel at^d therapy usually make the last 
named unnecessary, and caj^ipers grow in healthful, balanced 

Let us point up briefly here some of the positive results 
directors can expect from a program of small-group decen- 
tralized camping. 

First, let us look at the camper. Living in the small group: 

— tends to do away with the child's fears, insecurities and dif- 
ficulties of the initial adjustment to camp; he is not lost in 
the mass but adjusts only to his small group, the members 
•-«^v4 of which know his name in the first hour. 

— allows the counselor to know well and understand the 

— almost eliminates homesickness. 

— Intensifies personal relationships; causes greater growth in 
shorter time; brings about more give ^lid take, quicker ad- 
justments, more character change»^(whether in the shy 
one, the overbearing, the dependent, the independent). 

— increases the chances for forming close friendships. 

— places greater responsibility on each mei^iber of the group 
for totalgrpup welfare. 

— brings realization of one's importance to the group. 

— causes every vote and every opinion to count for more — 
in program planning, etc. 

— is a real living situation where campers learn to face reality. 

— increases understanding and appreciation of all people be- 
cause it is an opportunity to do more with people of other 
races, religions and nationalities; it develops a pride in the 
camper's camp home and his group; he easily identifies 
with his group members no matter of what race or creed. 

— offers peace and leisure and lack of the rush and tension 
of the entire camp together. (Some campers are nn ready 
for large-group hubbub.) 

—enables the small group to mix with one or two other 
groups or the whole camp as it is able and as much or as 
little as seems best for its members. 

—carries with it inherently the greatest opportunity for carry- 
over into the camper's home life (each group a family) 
program built around just daily living in the ol(it-of-doors, 
O getting along with group members, doing dpe's share, 

4/Pemfbctives on Adhinwtiiation . 

taking increasing responsibility, experiencing love and * 
sharing, and the joys' of service and .sacrifice to others; 
budgeting; entertaining; planning one's' own individual time . 
for leisure, for hobbies, for letter writing. 



Next let us consider the staff In the decentralized camp the 

— have opportunities to grow more in all area?. 

—don't depend on a specialist but must learn in all areas of 
living to carry on a full program. 

— are caused to formulate for themselves their own aims, 
and objectives for their own small group and to measure 
their progress by these as the season continues — thus 
gaining an administrative point of view for their small 
camp. . ' 

—learn to organize their program for leisurely and more 
relaxed, enjoyable living. 

The chances for optimum health of the camp are 


—through leisurely, relaxed living. 

—through absence of noise, uproar, competition and big- 
group tension. 

— through opportunities counselors have for constant obser- 
vation of health habits, not just for checking but for doing 
together and learning reasons for doing such thipgs as 
latrine scrubbing; washing hands, teeth, hair, underxVear; 
taking daily hot soap showers, eating vegetables; boiling 

—through the opportunity the camp nurse or doctor has to 
talk with the two counselors who will be with the child 
constantly and direct the care the doctor prescribes. 

—through the opportunity the nurse or doctor has for visit- 
ing each group and knowing the child in his camp home 

—through its decentralizatfbn, both geographically and 
prc^gram-wise, which discourages spread of disease beyond 
the group and enables the doctor to know at once who 
has been exposed and make^ for ease in isolating any small 

D The decentralized camp is better off in any emergency — 
fire, disease, bombing, etc. The pattern of living is already 
established for self-reliance, independence, responsibility 
for others, and good judgment in decisions. 

The decentralized plan of camping is an excellent way for 
the director, to begin a camp in a small way— either private 
or agency camp— and later add to or subtract from by small 

Lois Goodrich retired as Executive director of Trail Blazer Camps in New 
Jersey in 1981. 


camp groups without undergoing serious organizational 
changes or losing the feeling or morale of the total camp. He 
can also enroll large numbers.without the ill effects of large 

Roie of the Director 

•Every camp director owes it to himself once a year to 
organize and be articulate about his real beliefs concerning 
the purposes, general philosophy and guiding policies of his 
camp. In no two years perhaps will the wording be identical, 
for his thinking will and should be somewhat influenced by 
the sum of the contacts, reading and current world 
influences from which he draws. Certainly before he under- 
takes decentralized camping he should consolidate his think- 
ing about camping philosophy and its effect upon all parts 
of his program. 

First of all, does he believe in his program enough to live 
it? If he wishes for his campers an interest in' all natural 
phenomena, has he discovered for himself its role in charac- 
ter building, stability and peace of soul? Does he know the 
way? of the forest? Is his life so filled with woods lore that it 
will overflow to staff and campers? And, if but a beginner in 
the lessons of the out-of-doors, is he at least fired with real 
desire to live in it and learn? Will his life be an example for 
all new comers among staff and campers, and will he share 
his daily discoveries and aventures in this outdoor world? 

In short, will he (and hi5 family, if he has one) live simply 
under canvas in the out-of-doors, exemplifying the joy and 
r daily comfort ofsuch life? If decentralized living in the out- 
of-doors is too uncomfortable for the director, supervisor, 
dietitian; if thepe must be **top brass" who are unable to find 
outdoor shelters and woods living comfortable— how then 
can counselors ai^^^campers view it in anyji§ht other than 
some rugged ex peri^irc^h^tJiiusLJb^i^ ^ ^—-^ 

Decentralized camping must begin with the-difector and 
his personal philosophy, and he must possess and practice 
all qualities which he will seek in his entire staff. 

Next he must think out decentralized camping as he shall 
use it in his program. The author is aware that many direc- 
tors and entire national organizations use variations of decen- 
tralized camping — from the small group of eight, independ- 
ent and onaheir own, to larger groups, troops and villages 
which function under^a leader and in turn are made up of 
smaller counselor-led units or groups that vary in their 
independence and their cooperative activities. 

There are also variations in the extent to which the groups, 
whatever their size, \f unction as groups and the extent to 
which their members Veturn to the more typical centralized 
activities— some even living group life for one-half day and 

centralized living the other half. There are just as mahy vari- 
ations in the extent to which outdoor living is done. Entirely 
apart from these there are also group-centered camps which 
organize children to function as groups but do not decen- 
tralize the groups physically and do not live in the out-of- 
doors nor use it as a program medium. 

Each camp director must work out^his philosophy to carry 
out best the purposes either he privately or his organization 
(if his is an organization camp) wishes to accomplish. This, 
and his plan for getting at it, he should write out for himself 
and study and re-evaluate each year. 

The author's philosophy of decentralized camping is given 
in the following paragraphs to serve as an example of stimulus 
for other directors in their own thinking. 

Camping Philosophy 

The camp should be buill and maintained on a philosophy: 

— that considers camp as primarily educational; and asian 
opportunity for the closest application of democratic 
ideals and religious precepts to* the problems of living 
together in social groups. 

—that realizes the two-fold unique opportunity that camp- 
ing alone has of bringing about growth in children through 
(1) group living and (2) getting close to their natural sur- 
roundings; and that plans program with this two-fold* 
opportunity in mind. 

— that is based on the premise that no matter how well- 
planned the activity itself, unless every camper participat- 
ing has had a hand inmaking4^ and the prepara- 
tions, ^ndwjlUva^ 

,^aGtWtty^ivln riot be as complete or meaningful an experi- 
ence as is possible, and can in someinstances prove harm- 
ful; that children learn best the things they actually experi- 
ence, and the camp motivates its program so as to cause 
children to do things for themselves and solve problenjs 
on their own. 

-that provides for camp to be so set up that children are 
constantly in situations offering the optimum opportunity 
for serving others first and making self secondary to the 
group. " 

-that places emphasis on leadership, fully realizing that the 
counselor living with the camper is the most important 
single element in thecamping situation, 
-that realizes, no matter what philosophy or program plan 
exists in the minds of camp leadership, camp from the 
point of view of the campers is for fun and should be so 
run that the campers and staff find it is fun. 

Section III 

ZBB: Keeping Your Budget 
and Goals in Line 

Larry Underkoffler 

Parks AND Recreation/Deckmber i979 

taking a budget reflect expressed agency goals is often a 
challenge to park and recreatioii departments that lack ac- 
countants and depend on only traditional budgetary pro- 
cesses, Yet the need to budget carefully, keeping those goals 
in mind when allocating funds, is all the more essential today 
when fi.scal policies are characterized by restraint and cut- 
bfiqks. One tool proving effective in helping agencies better 



match funds to goals is Zero Based Budgeting (ZBB), a pro- 
cess requiring the total budget^s annual review on a program 
by program basis. 

The system works by requring that every expenditure be 
reevaluated annually to determine its relative merit prior to 

Larry Underkoffler is district manager with the A tlanta Department of 
Parks and Recreation, 


Perspectives on ADMrNrsTRATioN/45 


another year's appropriation. Its main value is that it forces 
decisions to be made on one of the following points: 

1. Is the department (program, process, and so forth) over- 
staffed at its current level? 

2. Does the department continue to serve a useful purpose 
and function in the overall operation of the organization? 

3. Should a certain program or programs be curtailed to fund 
an alternative, higher priority program? 

4. Are available fund^ used to promote recreation goals and 
objectives or to promote an individual's whims? 

Useful as ZBB is, it is no cure-all for a department's fiscal 
ills. Not intended as a replacement for traditional budgeting 
procedures, it was designed to supplement and strengthen 
existing prt)cesscs.^ How effective ZBB can be is directly pro- 
portional, therefore, to the effectiveness of existent planning 
and budgeting. And in as much as ZBB is an additional pro- 
cess mllher than a replacement, it requires additional effort. 
That effort should be justified, however, by the resulting 
planned expenditure of funds. . 

ZBB is not a nevy id^ea, but it is a concept whose time has 
come. While the current interest in ZBB is in large measure 
attributable to- President Carter who, as Governor of Geor- 
gia, introduced the concept into the state's budgetary process 
in 1970, it is a process that was formulated and put into 
practice in the late 1960s by Peter Phyrr, manager of Texas 
Instruments, Inc., Staff Control Branch. He based his pro- 
grams on statements made by then chairperson of the Federal 
Reserve Bank Arthur Burns, who had commented that **Sub- 
stantial savings could be realized if it were required that every 
agency make. a case for its entire appropriation request each 
year, just as if the programs and projects were entirely new." 

Some of the oft mentioned reasons for an organization's 
implementation of ZBB are: 

1. the incremental nature of the traditional budget process in 
which existing programs are considered already justified 
and worthy of increased funding; 

2. the requirement's of the chief executive and the desirability 
for more budgeting information regarding an organiza- 

tion's changing needs such as the nature of the organiza- 
tion, participants, level of programming, and the availa- 
bility of required resources; 

3. the ability to group or package information for the bud- 
geting process into a more manageable unit so, that the 
impact of reduced or increased funding can be knowledge- 
ably assessed; and 

4. providing an opportunity for those employees below the 
department head level to be engaged in the budgetary 
process which assists in broadening budget accountability 
at the sub-departmental level and furthers these super- 
visors' profession^il development. 

ZBB Requires Annual Program Rejustification 

Essentially ZBB requires managers of recreation programs 
to justify everything they want to do in the new budget year. 
Rather than merely modifying the previous year's budget or 
justifying only the increases, managers must start anew. 
They must develop the rationale and determine the resources 
required for alternative levels of servicq. Accordingly all pro- 
grams, old and new, including variouVlevels of service, are 
assessed equally for plaaement in the finabbudget. 

An additional concept which compliments ZBB is Manage- 
ment by Objectives (MBO), a process which allows the 
organization to establish exactly what it is going to do and 
then approach those stated goals through rational, as 
opposed to incremental, decision-making processes. By 
merging ZBB and MBO, top management sets priorities, 
establishes goals and guidelines, and determines the available 
funds for the upcoming budgeting process. Middle and lower 
management staff then set their individual goals and objec- 
tives within departmental guidelines, evaluate their own pro- 
grams, propose courses of action to achieve their goals, and 
tabulate the resources required to accomplish those goals. 

There are three main steps to implementing ZBB: 

1. Determining the decision units— that basic activity or. 
group of programs which management considers for plan-/ 
ning, analysis, and review purposes. / 

2. Analyzing the adopted decision units to choose approiifi- 



ate alternative service levels, if any, and preparing decision 
packages — the collection of sub-units into a statement 
that details the total expected level of performance; re- 
quired level of personnel and funding; method(s) or alter- 
native(s) for effecting the various sub-units; and the con- 
sequences of not funding the total or partial packages. 
Ranking the decision packages in order of total organiza- 
tional priorities and determining by management which 
packages will be funded jiiuring the coming fiscal year. 

The implementation process requires the following: 

1. A clearly-stated, fully-understood set of goals and objec- 
tives for the total organization and for each component 

2. A well-constructed set of criteria for measuring work ver- 
sus goals; 

3. An accounting system capable of generating financial and 
budgeting data for the various organizational units; and, 

4. A professional budget staff with the ability to guide ZBB 
efforts and coordinate the entire process. 

ZBB is also useful as a management tool in that it ties the 
goals of an organization to the established budget. Too 
often park and recreation budgets are formulated by staff 
with little or no knowledge of budgeting procedures with the 

result that the organization's goals are forgotten in the 
planning. Activities that need funding go begging while 
traditional, possibly outdated programs receive continued 

While the changeover to ZBB has been successful in many 
cases, there have also been many cases where difficulties 
hampered the process. Successes resulted when an organiza- 
tion approached ZBB with a management that employed a 
professional attitude to>yard business planning, was reluctant 
to approve those programs not useful to the total organiza- 
tional goals, and emphasized operation and business plan- 
ning over budgeting and financial planning. 
' Some of the major problems encountered in switching to 
ZBB resulted from making too large a change all at once as 
opposed to changing department by department; establishing 
inadequate goals and objectives; lack of understanding and 
. support of the total process by sub-units of <he organization; 
and middle management's protection of its own efforts 
rather than total organizational objectives. 

ZBB is not a total management system, nor is it in and of 
itself a management process. It will never correct bad plan- 
ning or poor execution. In fact, it may make the flaws more 
obvious. Park. and recreation agencies especially need to be 
aware of this factor.- Without qualified budget personnel 
tuned to organizational goals, ZBB may become a venture in 

Section III 

The Art of Camp Supervision 

Hediey S. Dimock 

Camping .Magazine/May 1948 


n the broad sense of the term the camp staff represents the 
spiritual center of the camp. It is the staff which generates 
and creates the tone or the atmosphere that enters into the 
most real of all intangibles in camp— -the camp spirit. It is the 
camp staff which determines the educational outcome or 
destiny of the camp. Whether or not your camp achieves its 
objectives, or to what extent it achieves them, is determined 
by the staff more than anything else. 

The staff is also the center of frustration or of satisfaction 
for both staff members and for campers. If there exists the 
kind of relationships that release and generate enthusiasm in 
staff members, that is one thing. If, instead of there being 
lubricants for good relations, however, there is annoyance 
and tension arid insecurity and frustration, then you have 
sand in the machinery. 

Campers quickly sense the nature, the quality, the atmp- 
spherc, the climate that exists among staff members. It is, in 
short, the staff that provides the morale center of the camp. 

The aim of staff supervision, it seems to me, is five-fold. 
First, it is to provide a staff with high qualifications; second, a 
staff that will remain relatively stable from year to year; third, 
a staff that will be working under conditions that will release 
their energies and their enthusiasm; and fourth, a staff that 
will receive the training and supervision necessary for con- 
tinuously stimulating their improvement in insight and tech- 
nique. The fifth goal is to have a staff that will provide a 
**climate'' for campers that will completely meet their basic 
needs and stimulate their wholesome growth. 

Any discussion of how to achieve these aims, of course, 
Q ' s US directly into staff o/ganization, relationships. 

selection, evaluation, training and other facets of supervision. 

Now in staff organization and relations, we are concerned 
not so much with the mechanics of staff organization as with 
the conditions that are conducive to unified and effective 
functioning of astaff. 

I want to make three assumptions, chiefly as, short-cuts, 
and if we can take them for granted, we can then move into 
this discussion of staff organization and relations. The first 
of these assumptions is that the camp has developed a 
personnel policy that is deliberately designed to achieve the 
five aims that I have just mentioned. Now I think most of 
you know what a policy is. A policy is not a whim. It is not a 
set of precedents. It is not even a set of practices. It is a writ- 
ten formulation that is adopted by the highest authority in 
relation to the camp, a guide to action and a guide to 

The second assuriiption, which I cari quickly state and 
then leave, is that we now have a staff of high qualifications. 

Third, we shall assume that each staff member has received 
a job description which states his responsibilities, for what 
he is responsible and to whom. This applies to the staff 
member, be he cook or dietitian, head counselor, waterfront 
director, unit director or counselor. This job description is 
in addition to the written agreement which every employee 
of a summer camp must have, purely as a matter of good 

Abstracted from a sppech presented at the National AC A Convention, 
Los Angeles, March, 1948. An elaboration of Dr. Dimock's talk Is found in 
his book "Administration of the Modern Camp, "published by Association 



Perspfxtivks on Adminkstration/47 

business from the camp director's standpoint. 

Now if* we can accept these three assumptions,* we can 
move on to four or five rather specific points. 

The first of these conditions for good staff relations is 
that the lines of responsibility within the staff organization 
need to be definitely established, clearly understood and con- 
sciously observed. Failure to observe clearly drawn lines of 
responsibility, whether the violation of this principle is from 
the top down or from the bottom up, almost inevitably leads 
to loss of initiatve and enthusiasm at the best, and at the 
worst to annoyance, confusion and frustration. 

The camp director, more than anyone else in camp, needs 
to be on guard at this point. It is so easy for a camper to 
come to the camp director and ask for something, and for 
the camp director, because he is the camp director, to say 
yes. But perhaps the camp director has nothing whatever to 
do with it. That is a violation from the top down. If a coun- 
selor comes to the director when he should go to his unit 
director or program director and, if, in spite of the fact that 
that responsibility has been allocated, the director acts as 
though it were something for him to handle, you have an 
illustration of where from the bottom up you have a violation 
of the line of responsibility. It is by observation that the 
camp director, more than any other person, is likely to be 
the chief violator of this basic principle of sound organization 
and of effective staff relations. 

Another very simple condition of good staff relations is 
that a condition should be written into the contract of every 
staff member, providing for one day per week and probably 
two or three hours a day free from any responsibility. This 
isn't anythirig new and almost every argument that is used 
against the practicability of this provision, when profession- 
ally analyzed, turns out to be an additional argument in its 

For instance, you may say, **Our camp can't possibly do 
that. One person off every day in seven! That means either 
that I have to have about 15 percent more staff or that 15 
percent of the camp duties will be uncovered while these 
people are off." When you analyze that, what does it say? It 
says that we are working under such heavy pressure in this 
camp that everybody is needed every day in every way. This, 
of course, is exactly the reason and the only reason why it is 
so imperative that there be provision for a day off per week. 
Counselors are dealing with people. The emotional strain on 
the counselor makes this release and freedom of time 

Time-Off for Directors 

The day-off-per-week should apply equally to camp direc- 
tors as to staff. It is imperative that the camp director get 
out of camp one day per week, if the camp operates for 
more than two or three weeks. The director owes it to him- 
self, I would think, but if not to himself, if he has no worry 
whatever about his own mental or physical health, then at 
least he should be concerned about the mental health of his 
staff and of the campers. You know, probably as well as I, 
that you can sense almost within fifteen, minutes of the time 
you start moving around in a camp what the emotional moo4 
of the camp director for that day happens to be. 

If the staff is to be free to have opportunities for relaxation, 
they need to have quarters that are conducive to such freedom 
and such relaxation. 

If there are ig be effective staff relations in a camp, there 
must be a heavy dependence upon the group process. This 
must be used by staff in planning of staff meetings, in plan- 
ning of camp program, in formulating the regulations that 
are to govern their own life and what, in some camps, are 
called their privileges and in the formulation of policies to 
be transmitted to the governing board or the governing per- 
O on of the camp. \ 

sic \ 

There is also, in this use of the group or democratic process, 
the need for a permissive and cooperative, as contrasted 
with an authoritarian attitude on the part of the camp direc- 
tor. It is not enough that a camp administrator believe verbally 
in democracy. It is more difficult to achieve within his own 
maturity of personality those qualities that permit persons 
to be released and to be free to grow in their own way. and at 
their own pace, which, of course, is the only way any person 
can grow. 

Then there needs to be, in this set of democratic relation 
ships, a respect on the part of every member of the camp 
staff for every other member, regardless of his abilities or 
his personality. 

In determining objectives for staff training and staff super- 
vision, the main point is that unless those persons in camp 
who are responsible for the development, training, and super- 
vision of the camp staff have clearly formulated objectives 
for that task, supervision is likely to be relatively aimless 
and therefore to lose much of its point, punch and power. 

We know now fairly well the areas of competence that are 
necessary for camp counselors. Every counselor or staff 
member heeds to know something about camping history 
and philosophy, especially about the history and philosophy 
of the camp in which he is working. Every staff member 
needs to have a major competence in his understanding and 
dealings with individuals, understanding what makes them 
tick, being able to distinguish between the symptoms and the 
causal factors in their behavior, being able to utilize the 
experience in camp as a means of meeting these basic needs. 

Each staff member, except the dietitian, the nurse or the 
business manager, needs to be skilled in understanding the 
group process. Knowledge of principles of program building 
is one of the basic trunk-line areas of competence for the 
camp counselor. Finally, every counselor needs actual skill* 
in living in an outdoor setting and being able to teach or 
transmit those skills to campers. The objectives for staff 
training and staff supervision are rooted in those five areas 
of staff competence. 

Next, we come to the actual methods or procedures for 
training and for supervision. These include everything we 
have discussed, from the time policies are formulated until 


the last staff mcinber is evaliiaieci. 

First is pre-camp supervision — ail of the things that are 
done before the camp season opens. 

The stimulation of the staff member to participate in 
courses in college or in courses conducted by camping associ- 
ations will be discussed later, so I pay my respects to that 
and move on. 

^^aining on the camp site before camp opens has become 
pretty general. The uncertainty that we had ten or fifteen 
years ago as, to whether pre-camp training was worth the 
money it cost the camp has now been dispelled. There is 
sufficient evidence, apparently, that it does pay dividends. 

After camp gets under way there is the matter of supervis-' 
ory observation of staff. The value of real supervisory obser- 
vation has now been thoroughly demonstrated in agencies of 
education and recreation and in formal education. 

It is much easier to carry out a systematic plan of super- 
visory observation In camp than anywhere else, but I have a 
slight suspicion thai because so much of what goes on in 
camp is under the eyes of the alleged supervisor, it is assumed 
that supervisory observation is taking place. There is such a 
thing a.s seeing with your physical eyes without the insight 
and the discrimination that calls for mental qualities of per- 
ception and discernment. 

Planned Observation 

Supervisory observation has to be planned. What are you 
looking for when you watch this counselor with his or her 
group, whether it is in the dining room or out around the 
camp site, around the campfire, engaged in a project, or 
teaching some skill? How are you later on going to help this 
counselor or instructor to see the learning process, to see the 
individual camper with whom he is dealing, to perfect his 
methods and insights for dealing with these persons, unless 
you have observed with your cortex as well as with your 
sensory organs? 

The major way for coming to terms individually with your 
camp staff is jn the supervisory interview or conference. No 
matter how adequate your staff meetings may be, the one 
place where you focus on the specific needs and problems, 
of the specific staff member with his specific group or job is 
in this individual conference. Camp staff meeting could be 
and ought to be the most valuable supervisory plan there is 
and yet such studies as we have made from the standpoint of 
the staff have often rated it very low. The reason why it 
often falls so far .short of what it might be lies in the lack of 
conditions necessary for effective staff meetings. The staff 
meeting is the one place where everybody learns the same 
song and presumably the same tune. That is where folks get 
in step, where you make a united impact on every staff 
member in terms of the philosophy and objectives of your 
camp, the understanding of campers, the principles that you 
use in program building. 

Now three or four things can be said quickly. The major 
purpose of a staff meeting ought to be the improvement of 
the staff. Some staff meetings exist primarily for the benefit 
of the director. It is a place where he gets things clear; where 
announcements are made. That is not the function of a staff 
meeting. The function of a staff meeting is to focus on the 
educational needs of staff members. Planning and announce- 
ments should be taken care of in some other way, unless you 
have found sufficient discipline to be able to do it in a few 
minutes. The staff meetings should be cooperatively planned. 
They should focus on the common needs of all the staff 
members and not on just what two or three may happen to 
think are the important things. The staff meeting ought to 
use a great diversity of method — reports from counselors, 
perhaps some studies that are going on, perhaps the presenta- 
tion of some basic concepts or materials. 

Finally, the art of staff supervision certainly includes evalu- 
ation of staff. If there were only one aspect of the camp that 
I would evaluate it would be the staff. It has been demonstra- 
ted that there is a close relationship between what happens 
to the individual camper, for good or for bad, and the quali- 
ty of the counselor. In studies made a few years ago we dis- 
covered that about 25 percent of the counselors in our camps 
were D-grade counselors, counselors who would probably 
have little, if any, beneficial influence on campers and very' 
likely have a negative and unwholesome influence. If you 
evaluate a staff and you discover that 25 percent of your staff 
members are D-grade, you are not likely to ask them to return 
another year. That kind of turnover is good. 

It seems to me that the camp director is primarily a person 
who facilitates human relationships. Administration is pri- 
marily the art of releasing people with respect to things to be 
done so that when the energies and creative impulses of the 
total group of peopl^are released the entire things adds up 
to a vital, functioning camp community. The camp director, 
therefore, is, in a way, at the center of the camp and yet he is 
at the center of the camp in a way you might call **decentral- 

There are some camps which we would call director- 
dominated camps. There are some camps where the director 
is a consumer, especially of his own energy. But it seems to 
me a camp where there is poise and maturity on the part of 
the director is a camp where ther^ is such a decentralization 
of responsibility that pe^ople do accept and express their 
responsibility in ways that actually are secure enough for the 
camp director to have consistency. 

I know why some of these camp directors burn the mid- 
night oil: why they are everlastingly concerned and are afraid 
to leave camp for a day a week, every week. It is because they 
feel the tremendous weight of responsibility that is theirs. 
But as I have indicated before, a camp with vitality and 
morale and enthusiasm, and with creativeness on the part of 
the staff is one where the camp director functions in this 
decentralized way. 



Section I 

Staff Recruitment 

National Camp Executives Groi^p 

Camping Magazine/January \9J9 


IS we look at staffing sources for the 1979 season, we 
should analyze the time spent in 1978 and plan the most 
beneficial methods, for the coming season. We should re- 
examine who we are looking for and what contacts and sys- 
tems are available to us. 

It is crucial that we broaden our scope of persons and con- 
tacts to include those that are available in the summer or for a 
part of the summer. These might include teachers, senior 
citizens, parents, seasonal employees, school support service 
personnel, trade and business school students and personnel, 
and persons in college curriculums aside from recreation, 
education, and physical education. You might find these 
persons in a variety of traditional and nontraditional ways by 
contacting school systems, senior citizen organizations, 
PTA, and other parent organizations such as Parents without 
Partners. Professional sports teams or organizations and 
persons with full-time jobs may be interested in spending 
vacation time at camp, too. 

Your current staff members are your best source of recruit- 
ing. During post-camp evaluation, include discussions of staff 
opportunities for the next summer. Your staff can act as 
recruiters or contacts. Don't fbrgct that interviews with pre- 
sent campers who show potential may be a good source for a 
leadership course for future staffing. Develop a list of camp- 
er names and outstanding skills they have exhibited. 

The use of news media for recruiting may be more benefi- 
cial if you stress personal satisfaction working with children 
and working in the out-of-doors. Include specific needs or 
skills, but be careful not to eliminate possible candidates by 
including those ;skills you're unwilling to teach. 

Perhaps we should ask the question of ourselves, **Why 
would a potential staff member want to work at my camp?" 
Then try to answer that question from the applicant's point 
of view. 

College-Age Person 

The character and needs of college students change and in 
many respects run in cycles. However, the trends never quite 
return to the ways of past seasons. It is the successful recruiter 
who can understand and accept these changes. 

One of (he concerns expressed most by camp directors in a 
survey last summer \^as the difficulty of recruiting qualified 
staff. The National Camp Executives ' Group spent a signifi- 
cant portion of their meeting last October on staff recruit- 
ment. This cooperative story grew out of that meeting and 
discussion. The writers were Armand Ball, executive vice 
president of the American Camping Association, and camp- 
ing consultants for seven youth agencies: Loody Christofero, 
Boy Scouts; Connie Coutellier, Camp Fire; Marion Hender- 
son, Salvation Army; Charles Kujawa, YMCA; Stuart 
Mace, Easter Seal; Father Robert Rathsburger, Catholic 
O Committee; and Lloyd Rutledge,4-H. 


What, then, is it today's college student wants and n^eds 
from a summer job? First of all, they need an experience^that 
will help prepare them for a chosen career. In many cases, 
this means a professional internship or field placement that 
is endorsed and, in many ways, controlled by the university 
or college. To attract students needing field placements, the 
camp director must be willing to meet the requirements of 
the school and to work cooperatively to give the sttident a 
meaningful experience. / 

As the student's need for expanded experience grows, few 
are willing to work in the same camp season after season. 
They are more likely to switch from camp to campjunless the 
camp director can assure them of added responsibility and 
new experiences. This quest for new and challenging experi-* 
ence can work to a camp director's advantage. If 7he director 
is willing to openly recruit students who he ki^ows will be 
available for one or perhaps two summers, he is quite likely 
to find youth who are well trained and dynamic! 

Related to the need for varying experience is the fact that 
today's callage students are increasingly mobile. Not only 
are they willing to travel great distances for the ''right" job, 
they are also eager to spend a summer in a new area of the 
country, or^even the world. A camp director can take advan- 
tage of this by recruiting in areas apart frbin the camp's 
location and by actually making a job at their camp attrac- 
tive as a base for a summer's travel. To facilitate this, the 
camp director can arrange the camp schedule so that the staff 
has sufficient time before and after the camp season for 
travel and also be adding a week in mid-season when the 
camp closes and the staff is free to visit the surrounding area. 

Money, of course, is a very important consideration for 
college students. Many students are paying a major share of 
their college expenses. Camps are not only in competition 
with each other but also with resorts, hotels, theme parks, 
and park and recreation departments for the service of college 

The importance of the changing character and needs of 
college students is not so much how they change but the fact 
that they are indeed changing. The success of a staff recruit- 
ment and retention campaign will rest on the ability of the 
camp director to arrange the camp schedule so that the staff 
. has sufficient time off. 

Role of the Director 

A camp director must allocate substantial time to total per- 
sonnel situations. Recruiting is one element of this basic pro- 
fessional responsibility. The quality of the staff is generally 
in direct proportion to the commitment and capability of the 

A plan for personnel management needs to be developed. 
A calendar with specific targets will enable the director to 
measure progress. Such management includes not only 
employment but also regular communications, reunions, 


fellowship, training, planning, and growth opportunities. 

Recruitment is the firj>t step in that management plan, The 
director should develop a clear definition of expectancies in 
the form of. job descriptions, personnel policies and rules, 
and camp philosophy. A carefully-planned interview process 
should assess the applicant's needs, interests, and concerns 
as-.well as expose basic philosophy and expectancies. 

Further, the professional handling of the personnel process 
will aid in the securing and retention of staff. Well written 
letters, carefully planned recruitment events and follow-up, 
prompt responses, and personalization of any form letters 
are such examples. 
• Human relations skills are important in recruitment. The 
director is a counselor, enabler, and nurturer of camp per- 
sonnel — a relationship beyond the usual for employee and 
employer. Each person is equally important in the camp set- 
ting. The director must be open -to the personal needs of staff. 

Throughout the area of human relations, careful analysis 
and understanding of the camp counseling experience is a 
personal investment by staffers in their lifelong professional 
and personal development. 

The experiences can provide input in career choice and 
preparation as well as in personal skills development. The tie 
to career goals is particularly important with today's con- 
cern by higher education on work-related experiences. The 
personal aspects of socialization, recognition, and peer 
group testing xarry implications for both personal and career 

The camp job experience should provide a model for 
career development. The development of skills by staffers and 
good supervision will prepare staffers for additional respon- 
sibilities. As the job provides for greater responsibility and 
variety, the better enticement for staff to return. 

In a period of short supply of staff, the director must 
review carefully the entire personnel plan. New targets and 
time scheduling may be necessary. 

Personnel Policies 

One way to ease camp recruitment is to retain as many 
competent staff from one summer to another. Retention 
may be easier with the following three suggestions: 

1 . Recognition and added responsibility should be given to 
returning staff. This can be demonstrated in wages, leader- 
ship assignments, and/or visible symbols. 

2. Offer opportunities for vertical movement in positions 
from one summer to another. Sometimes this can occur 
in change of title and job descriptions and other times in 
the degree of challenge or change of pace offered in a 
horizontal move, 

3. Consider meeting individual needs, such as family accom- 
modations, housing, length of employment, and training 

In camping programs, there is generally a basic need for 
more dcHnite personnel policy regarding job descriptions, 
qualification criteria, performance standards, role and res- 
ponsibilities, and contractual arrangements and privileges. 

In organizations, where possible, the general policies 
should be consistent with the organization's personnel poli- 

Young potential employees have a reservation and concern 
today about making employee/employer commitments 
unless personnel policies are well-defined. Having written 
descriptions of jobs, staffing patterns, qualifications, and 
i-csponsibilitics for your camping program demonstrates that 
the programs are conducted effectively and efficiently. 
Also, definite statements will be helpful in preventing staff 
from breaking contracts and staffing role conflicts. Clear, 
'^~''sc and explicit personnel policy is a preventive measure 


for questions which may arise with affirmative action and 
other regulatory requirements. Clear statements of policy at 
the time of the interview and the offering of staff contracts 
can often help open a dialogue on problems the staff mem- 
ber has with dates or policies at the outset rather than later. 

Fringe benefits can make a difference in a person's choice 
of jobs. Time off during the working day needs to be assured, 
as well as longer periods away from the camp setting. 
Because of the emphasis on flexibility and living experience, • 
camp directors are often slower to assure such benefits '*up 

Other considerations such as laundry, transportation 
allowances, health/accident insurance, and time off trans- 
portation can enable a staffer to anticipate saving more of 
his wages. 


Camp directors and committees should review wage and 
salary scales annually. In general, increases in camp salaries 
have not kept pace with cost of living and inflation. 

Day camps have more often had to deal with competitive 
pay scales. Resident camps should examine salary scales in 
day camps. 

The minimum wage applied against a forty-hour week in 
day camps or a forty-eight hour week (six days, assuming 
one day ofO less credit for room and board in resident camps, 
is one measuring tool for a minimum starting wage for 
college-age personnel. 

Increments for years of experience and/or certain qualifi- 
cations can be added to develop an equitable pay scale. At 
this point, organizational boards/committees will need 
input from the camp director. The director can prepare 
exhibits that will identify current scales, competitive wage 
patterns, and proposed scales with benefits. Emphasis on 
quanty staff, qualifications, and standards will help lay per- 
sonnel understand the importance of fair wages. The 
rationale for not lowering age/ experience standards should 
be clearly identified. 

Though most camps can never compete with industrial 
wages, the importance of fairness to the employee cannot be 
overemphasized. The psychological implications of ''the ^ 
laborer is worthy of his hire" cannot be underestimated in a * 
living community such as camp. 

Camp directors often assume an apologetic role when 
wages are discussed with a prospective employee. Once a fair 
scale of wages is established, the director should take a posi- 
tive stance in offering a salary emphasizing the value of such 
wages in living situations where savings of most of the wages 
is more easily possible than elsewhere. 

Staffing Patterns 

One possible solution would be to engage those staff mem- 
bers who are hired in early spring in staff training activities. 
This could be done by holding paid weekend training sessions 
two or three times during spring months. These sessions 
^could be held at the camp, at the college where many may. 
attend school, or in the city where the agency or director 
resides. The training could encompass camp philosophy, , 
promotion, program development, planning and material, 
preparation. And since the colleges are usually completing | 
their year by the second week in May, many staffers may be ^ 
interested in another paid week of work at camp getting the ; 
physical plant ready. 

The training session and the week of readying the camp 
should be paid time. No other business would even think of 
requesting newly hired personnel to take training or work at 
the site without pay. We are always talking about all the 
intangible benefits that the staff receives from working at 
camp. But maybe we have taken that concept past the point ^ 

Perspectives ON Administration/ 5 1 

of productivity and realism. If we are more businesslike, 
maybe our staff al5o will be. Both sides will benefit. The 
staff can realize more dollars and the camp can recruit and 
maintain a better staff. 

A second sacred cow that we need to look at is the concept 
that we must have all staff hired before we open and they all 
must have made the commitment for the entire season. A 
camp director must have sufficient staff to open, and he must 
know that he will have enough with which to finish. But why 
does it have to be ail or nothing in our business? Why can't 
part of the staff be hired for only a portion of the season? 
Some people may not want to tie up the complete summer. So 
why not hire them for peak periods or where their needs and 
the camp's needs correspond? The camp director who says 
that he doesn't have staff quit part of the way through the 
season is fooling no one but himself. So wouldn't it be better 
to have this information at the beginning so you could plan 
for it? By doing it this way the camp could be better prepared 
and the staff could be more honest when they apply for a 

A third area that could be looked at is that of advancement 
on the part of the staff during their period of employment. 
Is there any reason not to build in such things as bonuses or 
raises during the season based on job performance? There is 
no doubt tKat as the season proceeds the cream of the staff 
co,mcs to the top and the sludge settles to the bottom. If the 
sliidge ia too bad we dismiss them. Then why shouldn't the 
cream of the cream be rewarded? And why shouldn't this 
reward system be built into the established monetary system 
of the camp. 

These are only a few of the possibilities that a camp direc- 
tor might consider in order to improve the area of staff 

There are many arguments as to why these particular sug- 
gestions are unrealistic. However, the problem of staff 
recruitment is all too real. And it would seem that the tried 
and true methods are more tried than true. So alternative 
methods need to be developed. 

A Bu.sine$$ Approach 

Camping in today's society must be con. 'dered in the realm 
of business. And with the twelve-month operation of some 
camps, camping is not necessarily a small business. W.e need 
to look at staff recruitment from that vantage point. 

In no other area of business is there such a lapse of time 
between the interviewing and hiring process and the begin- 
ning of the job. For most jobs there is seldom more than a 
thirty-day interval between the interviewing, hiring, and first 
day on the job. In camping interviewing takes place between 
December and February, but the job doesn't usually begin 
until May or June. When looking at the time line in regards 
to our recruitment, it is no wonder that there is loss of 
interest and breaking of commitments with the people who 
were interviewed and hired. 

If we must continue this process of advance hiring (and it 
appears to be inevitable), then we should be searching for 
methods of cutting down the attrition rate, based on valid 
business procedures. 

Creating a more busint^sslike atmosphere bet>veen the camp 
and the staff does not preclude a change in the basic objec- 
tives or goals of the camp. But it does have the potential of ' 
showing the staff that you are attemping to respond to their 
needs, growth, and development while at the same time 
demanding the same of them for the business — the camp. 


Section til 

Successful Pre-Camp Training Program 

Instills Confidence, Helps Motivate Working Team 

Ru.s$eH Grundke and Ron Vederman 

Cam»'IN(; Macja/.inh/ April 1977 

M. here are many variables that enter into a successful sum- 
mer camping experience for the youngsters and the organized 
camp alike* Among these variables arc public relations, 
camper recruiting, maintenance of the camp property, diet- 
ary planning, nursing, staff recruiting, pre-camp training, 
administration and program implementation* These areas, 
all interdependent of one another, arc the determining factors 
for a positive or negative summer program. It would be diffi- 
cult to list these variables in a Delphi priority ranking; how- 
ever, one of the primary issues would have to include the pro- 
gram staff pre-camp training. This article will focus on the 
importance of that topic. 

Determine Goals 

Once the ground work has been established for the recruit- 
ing and .selection of the summer program staff, the first step 
to be completed in the implementation of the pre-camp train- 
ing will be to determine the camp's goals and objectives* 
These are the areas in which the director hopes that everyone 
Q m\\ demonstrate some competency by the end of pre-camp. 

Even though a camp may have a number of returning staff 
members, it is always a good idea to review the mission of 
the camp to refresh their memories as well as for the benefit 
of the new staff. Since attitudes and cultures often vary 
from year to year, the director may find that the camp will 
also have flexible enough to-^change to conform to 
these new attitudes. 

Included with the camp's goalsland objectives would be a 
section on the philosophy of the camp which also may or may 
not be altered from year to year. Essentially, the philosophy 
would include some aspect of providing a delivery of services 
to children, young people, and/or adults depending upon the 
type of program the camp offers. \ 

The goals and objectives for pre-camp training would best 
be achieved by establishing some long-range goals that would 
encompass the entire pre-camp trainir^g period. This training 
period could be as short as three days or as long as seven days 
for a typical eight or ten-week sumn?|er program. A typical 

Russell Grundke is the camp director and Rdfi Vederman is the program 
director for Hiratn House Catnp, Chagrin FaUs\ Off. 




goa,l may be to have the staff know each other's names by the 
end of th^ training period. Sensitivity games may be an 
objective employed early in the time frame to help the staff 
reach this particular goal. The goals and objectives, together 
with the philosophy determined early in the pre-camp train* 
ing period, will help to lay the groundwork for the remainder 
of the week. ^ 

Make It Practical 

The second step of pre-camp should be a practical applica- 
tion of the camp's program areas. Counselors must be made 
aware of the skills in which they need to demonstrate compe- 
tence since they will be instruaing campers in these skill areas. 
Different levels of knowledge will be needed in programs such 
as crafts, swimming, boating, cookou|s, fire building, wood 
chopping, compass use and many more. Some counselors may 
have to demonstrate a greater knowledge of various program 
aspects than other counselors. For example, the swimming 
specialists may not necessarily have to know how to saddle a 
horse, though they should be familiar with the type of riding 
program thCL^camp teaches. On the other hand, they must be 
thoroughly competent in swimming instruction. 

One method of making the staff familiar with the camp's 
program is to have the staff live a typical camp day or week 
as completely as possible while they are participating in the 
pre-camp training. This might include following the same 
daily schedule, teaching as well as participati >^ in activities, 
£,omg on cook outs as a unit, and so on. The so 3ner the staff 
is oriented to the camp routine and program, the fewer 
adjustment problems new staff members will have during 
the first few days or weeks of actual camping. 

Define Staff Responsibilities 

A third important phase of pre-camp training should in- 
clude a component on various staff responsibilities. It is 
very important to delineate exactly what is expected of the 
.summer staff members. In order to avoid any confusion 
during the first few weeks of camp, take the time to explain 
to the staff how the various departments of the summer pro- 
gram depend upon one another for smooth operations. 
Each staff member has the common goal of working well 
for and with the groups. However, because of each one's 
different function, the success or failure of the program relies 
on how well or how poorly these functions are carried out. 

It is essential that the responsibilities of the supervisor, 
head counselors, and unit leaders are clearly defined so that 
they understand what will be expected of them in terms of 
leading their counselors. The .same holds true for the coun- 
selors so that they may properly lead their campers. 

Responsibilities of this nature are extremely important and 
they should not be discussed briefly during one evening session 
of pre-camp. Rather, the issue of responsibilities should be 
stressed throughout the.entire pre-camp training period. 

Focus on Camper 

The first phase of this article has stressed the aspect of pre- 
camp training that relates to the camp and staff only. The 
second section will focus on the camper and the role this per- 
son plays during the staff's pre-camp training. 

Every camp director probably approaches the topic of 
**how to prepare the counselors for the campers" in a differ- 
ent manner. There are some essential generalizations, how- 
ever, that most directors share. The common generalizations 
include characteristics of age, sex, and personality. The 
economic and social backgrounds from which the campers 
come will also fae important information to pass along to the 
summer staff. Another common topic often included in a 
pre-camp schedule is the importance of the camper's sociali- 
zation with the rest of his or her group. This also includes 
how the director relates to the camper both as an individual 
and as part of the group. 

How to Evaluate 

One final area that should benefit the counselors during 
the pre-camp training session would be to look at methods 
of evaluating the effectiveness of the camp's program on the 
camper. This evaluation form should include such pertinent 
questions for the camper as: 


1. Have you enjoyed camp? 

2. What have you enjoyed the most? The least? 

3. Have you ever been to camp before? Where? 

4. Have you enjoyed the food? 

5. Did you make any new friends? 

6. Has camp made you more interested in nature and 

7. Have you learned anything new? What? 

8. Would you tell other friends about camp? 

9. Was there anything you wanted to do at camp that you 
did not get the chance " 

10. Further comments. 

It would be adequate to solicit these forms two or three 
times per summer in order to get a random cross section of 
the campers served as well as to tap their attitudes during 
different times of the summer. Once the questionnaires are 
collected, the data should be tabulated and the information 
shared among all staff as soon as possible. During pre-camp 
would be an excellent time to review the previous year's 
camper evaluations so that any program adjustments may 
be made prior to the arrival of the year's campers. 

Tool Determiaes Success 


The pre-camp training session for summer staff is a 
momentous tool which can determine the success of the 
camp program. Many approaches can be used to present all 
of this information to the staff. Probably the most common 
form is to record information in a manual which may be used 
for reference from time to time during the summer. 

At least three full days of training should be required of 
all staff. Usually, five days and four nights would be a more 
realistic time frame to totally cover all aspects of summer 
camp and to motivate people to form a working team. By the 
time the pre-camp has ended, all the counselors, specialists, 
unit leaders and the camp director should be confident 
about their particular roles. The confidence will arise only 
out of a mutual understanding of campers and the mission 
of the camp to serve these individuals. 



Perspectives on Administration/53 

Section III 

Delegation— A Misunderstood Management Concept 

Joseph J. Bannon 

Parks and Recreation/March 1978 

i he modern manager is one of America's great assets: 
always busy, hard to get an appointment to see, and harder 
still to keep his attention. The telephone frequently interrupts. 
Secretaries run in and out with papers and perplexities. His 
attention is usually submerged in numerous minor details. 
Subordinates invariably refer problems to him. Frustrated 
staff demand of him endless justification of what, is taking 
place in the organization. Only a little time is spent on long- 
range plans and the future of the enterprise. 

Not surprisingly, the **boss" sees himself as an expert in 
organizationaftheory: one who is well aware of the impor- 
tance of delegation. Many managers who supposedly recog- 
nize that delegation of responsibility and authority is essen- 
tial for organizational success attempt to prove it by display- 
ing elaborate organizational charts and colorful administra- 
tive handbooks. Yet, in too many cases, they don't recognize 
the difference between delegation on paper and true 

Scholars in organizational theory admit that although 
many managers make sincere attempts to put delegation into 
practice, few meet with success. Thus, delegation is one of 
the most complicated and least understood management 

Good delegation does not just happen; it demands time, 
effort, and persistence from the outset to develop and main- 
tain the technique. A manager must face the challenge of 
effective delegation continually. Successful delegation takes 
thought, careful planning, knowledge of subordinates' areas 
of competence, effective personal communications, and a 
willingness to take risks. 

What is Delegation? 

When a manager assigns work to a subordinate, he is 
delegating responsibility and authority. In a recent survey, 
managers most frequently cited the following problems as 
obstacles to effective delegation: 

1 . Lack of agreement among supervisors and subordinates 
on the specifics of delegation. Lack of standards and 

2. Lack of training to accomplish delegated tasks. 

3. L^ck of understanding of organizational objectives. 

4. Lack of confidence by supervisors in subordinates. 

5. Lack of confidence by supervisors in themselves. Un- 
willingness to take risks. 

6. Supervisors' fear that subordinates will outshine them. 

7. Fear of punitive action by supervisors. 

8. Failure at all levels to understand the advantages of 
successful delegation. 

9. Unwillingness of supervisors to delegate jobs they enjoy. 

10. A desire for **nothing short of perfection." 

1 1. A belief that things are going well enough as they are. 


The problems cited illustrate that there are no easy answers 
to the questions that are at the heart of effective delegation: 
How much authority should be delegated? How much res- 
ponsibility? How much and what kind of supervision should 
be exercised? 

These are hard questions. The answers to them depend on 
particular circumstances and the people involved. There are 
no hard-and-fast rules for achieving or measuring success. 

Wtiy Delegate? 

Too many managers are not aware that delegation is a 
matter of self-discipline — the determined use of time for the 
important functions of managing. The disciplined manager 
frees himself from chores that waste his time so that he can 
concentrate on the things he is paid tado: 

Problem solving. The manager who is bogged down in 
details cannot devote his time to improving organizational 
performance, analyzing future problems, and developing 
logical and rational solutions to them. The manager who 
delegates effectively will have time to prevent crisis. 

Long-range planning. The manager who delegates effective- 
ly can look to the future with a clear head. He can see that 
organizational goals and objectives are met. If trouble 
looms, he can develop an action plan and effectively execute 

In-service education for employees. An area neglected in 
many organizations is the training and development of 
employees. A well-trained employee can assume added res- 
ponsibilities. The importance of training is illustrated by the 
following scenario: A supervisor complains, **I asked one of 
my center directors to complete a financial report last week 
and he did nothing but ask me questions. I could have done 
the job myself in one-third the time." What this supervisor 
does not realize is that time spent training subordinates is a 
good investment. Each subsequent report he asks the center 
director to do will require less of his own time; bjfore long, 
none at all. 

Coordination of work. A manager constantly involved in 
detail doesn't have time to carry out 'another important 
management function: coordinating work. Coordination 
should not be confused with riding herd, which defeats the 
purpose of delegation and stifles employee initiative. Coor- 
dination means synchronizing resources- and activities to 
ensure goals are met, clearly specifying and communicating 
individual and group goals, and establishing accepted stand- 
ards of performance. 

The manager who does not delegate effectively becomes 
more of a worker than a manager. He works harder, yet pro- 
duces less than the manager who delegates effectively. By 

Dr. Bannon is the head of the Depart men f of Leisure Studies. University 
of liiinois. Urbana-Champaign Campus. 

S4/PeRsf»ECTivE.9 0N Administration 


limiting his effectiveness as a manager, he limits his organi- 
zation's success. 

Delegation places decision making close to the point of 
implementation. The director of a park and recreation depart- 
ment knows that delegation to his neighborhood center 
supervisors brings them closer to program participants, 
encouraging the rapport that is a basic. ingredient of program 
success. Delegation encourages subordinate responsibility 
and builds self-esteem, both vital to the health of an 

Successful Delegation • 

Successful delegation requires careful planning that takes 
into account the special character of the organization in 
which the delegation is carried out. The following guidelines 
will assist the manager in establishing an organizational 
climate favorable to effective delegation: 

Set job standards that are fair and attainable. It is essential 
for the manager and his subordinates to agree on standards 
for evaluation of subordinate performance. Subordinates 
should assist in developing organizational goals that are 
specific yet general enough to allow for individual initiative 
on the part of the person accountable for achieving them. 
The standards agreed upon should be weir understood 
before starting a delegated task . 

Understanding the concept behind delegation. Successful 
delegation requires that both manager and subordinates 
recognize their respective roles. Delegation is more than just 
desirable; it is necessary for a successful organization. A 
manager should understand that subordinates do things their 
own way. Delegation is not a technique for ridding oneself 
of respoasibility, but rather for dividing it up. It is a continu- 
ing process in which the manager is involved as planner, 
coordinator, and allocator of responsibility. He must under- 
stand that whatever is accomplished is done by working with 
his subordinates according to mutually acceptable 

Knowing subordinates' capabilities. The manager who 
knows the characteristics and capacities of his staff, as well 
as the facilities and equipment they use, can delegate tasks 
more realistically and more flexibily, thus more effectively. 
Selecting the right person for a job is an important aspect of 
delegation. Delegating for the sake of delegating is always a 

Develop goals and objectives. Unless subordinates know 
not only what is to be done, but also why, how well, when, 
with what resources, by whom, and according to what prior- 
ity, delegation is likely not to work. Many park and recre- 
ation organizations have given scant attention to statements 
of goals and objectives, resulting in time and energy wasted 
in endless clarification. New approaches— systems planning, 
participatory management, management by objectives— arc 
now being applied to this problem. 

Correcting errors with tact, The manager must use tact 
and discretion in correcting subordinate errors. Organiza- 
tions that have employed joint goal setting, management by 
objectives, and similar systems of management have a distinct 
advantage over those that have not. Where the emphasis is 
on **setting the task" rather than on criticizing subordinate 
error, much of the correction is self-correction. 

Rewarding subordinates for good work. Subordinates 
who do good work should be rewarded. Managers must not 
lose sight of this principle. The reward may be no more than 

an increase in the subprdinate!s self-esteem. Motivation 
theorists agree that more authority and responsibility are a 
particularly meaningful reward. 

Being a concerned manager. By showing an interest in 
what a subordinate does, the manager backs up words with 
action. This can be done in a variety of ways: personal 
interest in the subordinate's work problems, open discussion 
concerning these problems, willingness to give support and 
guidance, and willingness to accept mistakes as a learning 
experience. How a subordinate sees a show of interest by the 
manager will depend on the manager's attitude. The manager 
who **snoops" will be resented, but the one who shows a 
genuine interest in what is going on will be accepted and 

Evaluating performance. Subordinates expect an 
evaluation of their work, even want it. Yet they have their 
own ideas of how the evaluation should be done, objecting 
to those that seem pointless, unnecessary, or haphazard. A 
variety of evaluation systems are presently in use that require 
evaluation by both manager and subordinate. 

Being aware of areas of "No Delgation. There are areas 
in which the manager will want things done precisely as he 
specifies. 'He should make clear what these areas are and 
why such a position is taken. When a subordinate under- 
stands the answers to these questions, there is less chance of 
a problem. 

Providing for in-service training and d^'velopment. Dele- 
gating doesn't mean simply handing out tasks that a sub- 
ordinate has not done before. The manager must provide 
appropriate training so that the subordinate has a reasonable 
chance of success. Training can be specific in natur^, parti- 
cularly when a special skill is involved. From time to time, 
the manager needs to assess what his subordinates know 
about their jobs. In mcz. cases this does not require formal 
training, but rather a systematic plan to find out how well 
subordinates are doing and what their strong and weak points 
are. The manager can then plan an appropriate training pro- 
gram . 

Don't be too quick to take back delegated authority. Mak- 
ing mistakes and finding and correcting them is a useful form 
of self-training. The good manager does not take away dele- 
gated authority the first time a subordinate makes a mistake. 

The manager who wants to know what kind of delegator 
he is should ask himself the following questions: 

— Do I take home a briefcase full of work? 

— Do I work longer than my subordinates? 

— Do I spend too much time doing for others what they can 
do for themselves? 

—Does my in basket fill up when I'm away from ?Ue jo'5 for 
a day? — * 

—Do I still handle duties I did before my last promotion? 

—Am I frequently interrupted with queries or for advice? 

— Do I work out details that others could handle? 

—Am I rushing to meet project and meeting deadlines? 

—Do I have to get involved in all the activities of the organi- 

If the answer to many of these questions is **yes," the 
manager should think about the likely results of ineffective 
delegation: limited productivity for both himself and his 
subordinates and organizational inefficiency. 

Perspectives on Administration/55 



Section III 

Ten Ways to Help Counselors Grow 

AllanJ. Weenink 

Camping Magazine/May 1958 


Summer camps are organized around the principle of being 
of maxiumum service to children. Camp is a dynamic group 
.experience which seeks to build character, to encourage clear 
thinking, to stimulate an appreciation of the finest in life, and 
to foster spiritual development. In this unusual environ- 
ment young people and children learn to think for themselves, 
to create, to accomplish, and to grow. 

However, there is another potential growth area in the 
camp picture. Counselors gppw too! This is not a new fact; 
nevertheless, we must develop an awareness here, which too 
often is overlooked. 

Following are some of the factors which aid in counselor 

1. Pre-camp training is tremendously important for the 
counselor. There he first senses his great responsibility to 
be an example, guide, teacher, parent, and leader, as well 
as a camp employee. He realizes that he will be doing 
the most important work in the world — helping young 
people to achieve growth and maturity, and so become 
the leaders of tomorrow. 

To be sure, much of pre-camp training is concerned 
with routine preparation and details; But the director, 
sensing the opportunity for placing responsibility squarely 
on his staff^jshoulders, can use this period to stimulate 
the highest thinking of staff members as they confront 

During the training period, preparation for camp 
opening helps counselors to see the great amount of. 
work involved in running and maintaining a camp. There 
is no division of responsibility — everyone works for the 

Enough time must be allowed during pre-camp train- 
ing for informal fellowship, renewing of old acquain- 
tances, and integrating new members into the total group 
picture. The camp director and other top level staff 
members should freely participate in these gatherings. 

2. When the season opens, there are usually opportunities 
before and after meals, and particularly when campers 
are in bed, for counselors and other staff to congregate. 
The bull session is probably one of the most important 
recreational, educational, and stimulating activities in 
camp. Here again, the director and other leaders should 
share in the conversation even though it means time 
away from administrative details. They should contri- 
bute, teach, and guide during the conversation. 

3. Take counselors into your confidence and share with 
them the great challenge of working with youth. Share 
the love and feel of the art of camping with them. 

4. New counselors shouldAvork alongside more experienced 
ones. It's quite a thrill to sec old counselors stimulate and 
. set an example for novices. 

5. It is important for the director to seek out a^fibunselor 
for a talk, rather than have the counselor come to the 

office. When you single out a person and go to himi he 
becomes aware of .the fact that he's a responsible and 
vital part of the totial program. Office conferences often 
prove to be stiff, formal and unrelaxed — that fine line 
between employer ind employee can become quite rigid. 

6. Praise and humor Stimulate growth. Praise a counselor 
for a job well done. Humor can be helpful in establish- 
ing a happy relationship and helpful when discipline is 
necessary. A little friendly humor in a difficult situation 
will show you understand, but that you're not happy 
about the matter. This lessens embarrassment and elimi- 
nates resentment, j 

7. Let counselors know their ideas are welcome. During our 
camp season, staff are encouraged to offer any and all 
suggestions to aid in improving any part of camp life. 
When an idea is adopted, the counseloHsi thanked at a 
staff meeting. Also, when camp.season'Hs over, we ask 
staff members to fill put a fdrm sheet and list their ideas 
or suggestions for improving program, etc., for the next 

^ Although our tot-al program is set down on paper 
before it begins, we invite counselors to recommend 
changes wherever they seem wise. The staff enter in, 
discuss the matter and help make camp decisions. They 
fell they belong— that they are a part of camp and are 
helping to run it. Let your counselors have a chance to 
show initiative. 

8. Each year's staff has a different personality. Sense it and 
^ . jdevelopit fully— be flexible yourself. Develop a sense of 

loyalty and "esprit de corps" in the group. Help coun- 
selors meet the challenge of camping, by showing your 
own dtvotion to it. , 

Counselors* Needs. 

9. Show the counselors you love and respect them by letting 
them know you will stand behind them in any situation; 
and that there's nothing you wouldn't do fofthem. The 
director should never contradict or disagree with a coun- 
selor's decision in front of children, although he may feel 
the decision is wrong. Talk the decision over with the 
counselor later on and perhaps alter it together. You will 
save the counselor from losing the respect of his children " 
and he will most likely make future decisions that he can 
stand by. 

Sometimes counselors need as much and even more 
help and stimulation than do campers. Our number one 
objective is reaching campers. But when a warm sense of 
satisfaction is gained in seeing your counselors grow 
too — your reward is double. 

AHan J. Weenink was associated with Camp Westminster, Detroit, 
Michigan in 1958. 



Section III 

Appraising Performance— Some Alternatives Rcgina b. Glover and Jim Glover 

to the Sandwich Approach ' parks and recreation/novembhr }98i 

^^icture this: You are the director of parks in a large muni- 
cipal park and recreation system. Your job is, for the most 
part, challenging and rewarding, except for a few unpleasant 
and very difficult duties. Such as performance appraisal. 

It happens that today you must conduct your annual 
appraisal interview with Joe, the superintendent of Pine 
Ridge Regional Paik. Joe has two performance problems 
which you intend to address. One is that he frequently tends 
to be ahra^ve to his staff members, a characteristic that has 
r^ulted in complaints to your office. The other is that he is 
frequently uncooperative with recreation program staff whp 
want to plan programs at **his" park. You have prepared a 
list of three or four instances illustrating each problem. 
At the appointed time, Joe comes into your office. You 
exchange a few awkward pleasantries, and then you begin 
to discuss his performance. You start off by telling Joe that 
he's doing a good job, and you list several of his strengths. 

Joe thanks you politely, but you both know what's coming 
next. **Joc," you say, **there arc a couple of areas where 1 
think maybe you could improve .\ 

You introduce Joe's weaknesses and cite your examples. 
Joe becomes defensive citing reasons for his actions in each 
case. He refuses to actually acknowledge any problems, but 
eventually agrees to see what he can do to improve in the 
areas you mentioned. 

As the interview draws to a close, you try to end it on a 
positive note. **Joe," you say, "you're doing an excellent 
job with the maintenance crew up there." 

Sound familiar? If it does, you are among the large num- 
bers of managers who still rely on the old * 'sandwich 
approach" — give 'em the good news, hit 'em with the bad 
stuff, then give 'cm some more good news so they don't feel 
too bad when they leave. 

Employee appraisal is still on^ of the least understood and 
poorly managed administrative! jobs. Over the past several 
years, though, it has received a|good bit of attention from 
applied behavioral science rei^earcners. What these researchers 
have found can now help us to improve on the traditional . 
sandwich approach as previously illustrated. Four recommen- 
dations, in particular, can be made to agencies and managers 
who wish to use appraisal systems to really improve their 
employ ee.s' performances. 

/. There should be a strong separation between appraisal 
for development purposes and appraisal for administrative 
decision-making purposes. Employees who are being evalu- 
ated primarily for the determination of salary and promo- 
tional deci.sions tend to be more defensive about appraisal 
than those who are made to feel that the purpose really is to 
help them do a better job. A study in the G. E. Corporation 
in 1965 concluded that interviews designed to improve 
workers' performances should not at the same time weigh 
their salaries or promotions in the balance. It is true, of 

Q that it may not be possible to always make such a 

clean separation of purposes. The separation, however, can 
usually be made at least partially, and developmental goals 
can often be given a higher priority in appraisal systems. 

2. Appraisal systems should provide "coaching" on a 
regular basis. In the illustration given, the appraisal interview 
was a once-a-year event. Yet performance feedback at fre- 
quent intervals is t fundamental principle of effective teach- 
ing and coaching. Both logic and the research tell us that 
employee performance will not be positively changed in 
systems where the evaluators merely **gunnysack" their am- 
munition for an infrequent "showdown" with their staff 
members. It is better (though probably more work) to coach 
the employee on a frequent basis, providing the kind of sup- 
port and feedback that is necessary for constructive 
behavioral change. 

3. Training of evaluators is a critical component in the 
overall appraisal system. Nfany common errors of appraisers 
can be minimized through training. Some of the most com- 
mon errors include the following: 

—The "halo effect," whereby the evaluator judges the 
individual almost entirely on the basis of a single factor; 

—"Central tendency," whereby the rater tends to rate all the 
factors within a narrow range (for example, you might rate 
an employee as "average" on every item on an evaluation 

—"Recency error," whereby the rater tends to base his or 
her appraisal of an employee on a recent, easily remem- 
bered event, either positive or negative; and 
—"Personal bias error," whereby the rater allows some per- 
sonal prejudice to influence the rating of an individual. 
These and several other common errors reduced by 
making appraisers aware of them and providing appraisers 
with the skills needed to avoid them. Additionally, training 
can help appraisers develop the interpersonal skills necessary 
to deal with the stressful aspects of the appraisal process and 
to improve their coaching abilities. 

4. Appraisal should be behavior specific. Many appraisal 
systems still rely on evaluating personal characteristics which 
are not demonstrably related to specific job performance. 
Such systems, besides being of dubious worth, are illegal. 

In our hypothetical illustration, however, we have a situ- 
ation where a personal quality may indeed be directly affect- 
ing and employee's performance. That is, Joe's unwillingness 
to cooperate with the recreation programmers may be directly 
resulting in a less effective use of the park than is desirable. 
If you, as Joe's boss, believe that to be the case, what should 
you do? On the basis of the current research on the subject, 
you should work with Joe to develop a behavioral goal which 

Regina Glover is an instructor and Jim Glover an assistant professor of 
recreation. Both are on the University of Maine faculty. 

Perspectives on Apministration/57 

relates to the soluiion of the problem. Perhaps, in this case, 
the goal would be to have a specified increase in the number 
of programmed activities at the park. 

But regardless of what particular goal is eventually agreed 
upon, two basic points are important: (1) Joe's appraisal 
should have focused on specUic, job-related behaviors (such 
as the development of programs at the park); and (2) Joe 
should not have left your office without a concrete plan for 
addressing the identified deficiency. Of course, it might take 
more than one meeting to develop such a plan. In that case 
another meeting with Joe should have been scheduled. 

After the plan' has been formulated, your job is to help 
Joe with its implementation. This may require only a few 
words of encouragement now and then. Or it may require 
something more substantial — perhaps a series of meetings 
between you and Joe in which you try to help him develop 

the skills he needs tasurmount the problem. 

These four general recommendations are'based upon 
research conducted on performance appraisal If put into 
practice and modified to meet your organization's needs, 
they shouici make your performance appraisal a more con- 
structive process in the long run. It is important to remember, 
however, that these guidelines will not immediately solve 
every performance problem.^^ Performance appraisal is an 
extremely complex process which is still far from well under- 
stood. There is little doubt that future research will result in 
many imprif^ements or modifications to the guidelines 
presented here. At present, however, the best available 
evidence seems to show thai these rules of thumb offer the 
best chances of improving employee's performances. One^ 
thing at least is certain: We can do better than the old sand- 
wich approach. 

Section III 
Administration and Organization 

Discussion Questions and Resources 


Ask diass participants to role play a panel of parents, staff, 
campers, and administrators. Discuss the question, ** What 
is the role of a camp director?" 

2. Have camp directors discuss why they wanted to become a 
camp director, and what they sec their role to be. Ask them 
to discuss their top three priorities. 

3. In small groups, have camp directors present their camps' 
organizational design. Discuss how a camp's organiza- 
tional design is related to philosophy. 

4. What are the advantages and disadvantages of: centralized 
and decentralized; short-term and long-term; agency and 
private; general, specialized and skill-oriented camp pro- 

5. What are the prime objectives for staff training and 

6. What premises can be used for assigning staff and campers 
to different groups? 

7. What things can camp directors do to make staff act in a 
more responsible manner? 


Ball, Armand B. and Ball, B. H. Bask Camp Management. Bradford 

Woods, Martinsville, IN: American Camping Association, 1979. 
Dimock, Hcdicy. The Administration of the Modern Camp. New York: 

Associated Press, 1949. 
Genne. William and Genne, E. Church Family Camps and Conferences. 

Judson Press, 1979. Available from American Camping As«iOciation. 
Gold, Seymour M. Recreation Planning and Design. New York: McGraw 

Hill, 1980. 

Goodrich, Lois. Decentralized Camping. New York: American Camping 
Association, 1982. 

Kraus, Richard G. and Curtis, J. E. Creative Administration In Recreation 

and Park St. Louis: C. V. Mosby, 1977. 
Lewis, Chliries A. The Administration of Outdoor Education Programs. 

Dubuque, lA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, 1975. 
Rodney, Lynn S. and Ford, P. Camp Administration^ New York: The 

Ronald Press Company, 1971 . 
Rogers, Walter. Program Facilities: Planning for Ne^ds. New \qtV\ Girl 

Scouts of America, 1975. 
Vinton, Dennis A. and Farley, E. M. (eds.). Camp Staff Training Series. 

Field Guides 1-4. Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky, 1979. 

Available from ACA. * • 

Wilkinson, Robert E. Camps: Their Planning and Management. St . Louis: 

C. V. Mosby, 1981. 



58/PFiiJim'TivBs ON Administration 

X he camp program for each camp is varied and different. It 
might be viewed as the caijip's personality, and it is the reason 
for its existence. However, with the unique differences in pro- 
gram approaches, the process remains the same. The follow- 
ing interviews were conducted to solicit the opinions and 
views of two people who have been concerned with the 
development and. improvement of camp programs. They are: 
Nannette Enloe, Director of Program Services for the North- 
west Georgia Girl Scout Council, and Jan Adams, Director 
of Camp Idlepines for Girls in New Hampshire. In addition 
to their camp responsibilities, both women have given exten- 
sive time and leadership to the American Camping Associ- 

Question 1. 

What are the essential components of canip 

Enloe: **A.s I think about this question, six things come 
to mind. First, and most critical, is the development of a clear 
statement of purpose, or rather, what is to be accomplished 
at camp. Second, it is knowledge of the campers; i.e., their 
needs, interests, experiences and expectations. Third is identi- 
fying and developing staff leadership skills. The fourth 
element involves those tangibles that affect potential activity 
options such as: the site, facilities, and budget. The fifth 
element involves the camp director's knowledge of and ability 
to keep up with the 'state of the art.' A camp director needs 
to know what works and what new things are; being 
developed. Finally,- the sixth element is learning to prepare 
, for the weather. This is an area that can never be overlooked 
in programming for an organized camp." j 

Question 2. What are some important considerations^ in 
programming for different groups? i 

Enloe: **To determine this the camp director has ;to think 
through the campers' needs, interests, and experipnces in 
light of the camp's goals; no matter what the age, ethnic back- 
ground, or handicapping condition a group might have. 
Then, determine if the campers require special considerations 
to achieve the.goals. When special or different group^attend 
a camp, special planning and attention may be required to 
reach the established goals. 

**The next source of information is the parents. It is best, 
once again, to have personal interviews with parents; how- 
ever, parent information forms sent to parents before camp 
give good information and opening days of camp provide 
opportunity for comi;nunication. Be sure to request 
information about prior experiences, parent expectations, 
and any special physical or social needs. ' 

."Next, the campers should be interviewed. Ask them whai 
they have done, would like to do, and hope to do while they 
are at camp. Talking with each camper will give good inform- 
ation, but doing something a little more creative often gives 
excellent information. One of our camp directors likes to 
have campers draw pictures of themselves. The pictures are 
often very revealing and helpful in preparing for the camp 

''Finally, there must be ongoing evaluation, based on the 
camp director's observations, the progress records of the 
campers, parents' comments, and thestaff's opinions.. 

, D . **As for using a|l of this information, I feel it relates back 

•*There is a need to take the expectations of the group into to the components bf programming. The information pro- 
consideration and determine how realistic they are in tprms vides guidance in making decisions as the program is devel- 
of the camp program and setting. Before the group arrives oped and impleinented. To illustrate, it helps in grouping 

at camp, those expectations need to be as Close as possible to 
the camp goals, and thi.s does not always mean a changcin 
attitude on the part of the campers. The camp director should 
consider adjusting the camp program by changing i^r 
altering activities, the schedule, or the setting. I believe a[\ 
options should be explored and considered before deciding 
which direction will be best." ^ 

e \ 
QirKsriON 3, What methods or techniques have you used 

to collect information on campers, and then, how do you 

use the information? 

Enloe: **First,. there is a prerequisite; it is to acquire a 
basic knowledge of child development. After this has been 
accomplished, you can begin. If you are working with groups 
that have on-going programs throughout the year, the best 

campers, in selecting activities, in assisting counselors as 
they guide camper living." 

Question 4. What can a camp director do to develop a 
successful program year-after year? 

Enloe: **A camp director needs to build strong communi- 
cation with staff and campers. It is necessary to know exactly 
what is going on, especially from the participants' point of 
view. Also, it is important for the camp director to always 
want to improve the situation and be flexible in approach 
v^hile working toward the camp's goals. 

\ *Mn closing, let me emphasize that the camp director's en- 
th^fjsrasm for the potential of the camp and the campers is 
crifical. The. camp director's ability to challenge people to 
improve. camp program arid their own skills is important to 

source of information is the leader. A personal interview success. No one person has the single formula for success, 

with the leader will give excellent information. If you cannot We peed to .share with one another, vc^d, listen, and learn 

meet with the leader face-to-face, a phone call, letter, records constantly. JCamp programs are forever changing, and we 

or group liaison can give good information. have , to be' ready for- meeting the challenge ourselves." 




iO/Pf?RSFF< rivr-soN Administrahon 


. Qutisf ION 1 . Ntf^/z^y/ role does (he camp director's philoso- 
phy play in (he deMopment of (he can1p program ? 

Adams: "Speaking^as one camp director to another, not* 
as an expert reviewer — wjiat do you need to know to begin? 

**Ask yourself two questions. The first question: Why am 
i here in a position of camp leadership? Your answer will be 
the philosophical substance permeating every segment oC 
your camp program plan. The second question: How will I 
enable the interpretation of this philosophy to others? This 
examination will in itself provide the resources. You will be 
led to seek those who will join you in developing your goals 
and objectives, ancf^the methods selected to process the 
achievements will logically follow." 

Question 2: How importani is it to consider (he needs 
and interests of the campers in planning program ? 

Adams: **To the degree that you first assure program 
design around four certainties for everyone with you, 
i n t e res ts wi 1 1 co me seco n d , 

1 . The need for love — to fee! good about the content of time 
and space you are privileged to share 

2. The need for learning — its true essence actualized when 
each one shares out of oneself with another 

3. The need for limits — the well-thought-out procedures for 
enabling all to participate to fullest capacity at that 
moment in life 

4. The need for laughter — impromptu or planned gives 
breadth not only for fun and enjoyment, but a healthy re- 
siliency from its Qwn deptjhas well" 

Question 3. - Which comes first in priority, the program 
determines the site or the site determines the program ? 

Adams: **Your entry into camp programming is one of 
fantasy or fact. Time, space, operating funds and human 
energies are your program perimeters. Who you serve directs 
attention to the site. Build on the strengths of that site! 
Creative programming is the key to its fullest utilization. 
New people with new approaches introduce the new possibili- 
ties. Careful listening will bring answers to questions you 
never even thought to ask. And a shared idea may be the 
exciting way to interpret your philosophy in providing 
'Better Camping for All.' " 




Perspectives on Admin istration/61 

Section IV 

A Time for Discovery 

Lois Goodrich 



i his year of the child has caused us to focus on the very 
thing camping is all about, despite our entanglements with 
costs, governmental controls, insurance, legal concerns, and 
.management techniques which tend to blind us from our 

.**We have a responsibility that transcends all else. We have 
the child," stated Harold Pluimer, the noted futurist and 
writer, in his address to'the ACA convention this year, q 

And today*s child is the product of a world confused by the * 
effects of the greatest rapidity of changes humanity has ever 
known. Vast numbers of children are removed from their 
sources, the natural world; removed from the permanence 
of family, grandparents, neighborhood, the companionship 
of siblings in large families; from work and responsibilities 
connected with houses, yards, lawn mowing, dishwashing, 
even can-opening. Working parents often have little time for 
family life and **doing with" their children. This leaves 
many childre: useless, empty, lonely, spiritually unemployed, 
starved, confused. 

Entertainment and **things" are often substituted; radio, 
TV, toys, gadgets, drama, dance, or music lessons. The child 
is left with these, and time to think. But what, out of it all^, 
can he put together? Our society tends to keep him frag- 
mented. The departmentfffism of school at an early age 
increases as he grows older and specializes in cbllege or career. 
As a child, not even seeing where father and mother work, 
nor understanding what they do, never having the family 
budget explained so that his or her part is understood, all 
tend to fragment the family. Even the digital watch today 
doesnU allow the child to see the whole face of twelve hours 
and understand time or learn to mete out and set priorities 
for its use. From forty-five years of experience with urban 
children, this writer has found that the average city child 
cannot see the stars through the lights and smog overhead 
and cannot see or say where t\]fi sun rises or sets because of 
the barrier of buildings. The average high school child can- 
not divide or multiply tf® recipe for four on a Cream of 
Wheat box (3-1/2 cups v^tcr and 2/3 cup cereal). He has 
difficulty in applying wha^ he **book learns" in one subject 
even to the simplest needs of daily living, much less relating 
it to his individual life or values. 

**The student today learns the *how' of doing great things 
but the *why' of nothing," said Dr. Durwood Allen of Purdue 

All too often camps add to this fragmentation wjth their 
busy schedules of activities and skill learnings, such as: (taken 
from camping advertisements in the New York Times Maga- 
zine) riflcry, archery, gymnasium, basketball, tennis, boxing, 
soccer, field hockey, trampolines, theatrical auditoriums, 
radio, electronics, water skiing, bowling, fencing, judo, go- 
carts, languages, speed reading, and sometimes field trips. 

The world expects the child somehow to put together what 
she or he gets frorn these camp activities and snatches of 
O home (or homes of the divided family), school, street, TV, 

and sometimes church into a whole person, balanced physi- 
cally, emotionally, intellectually, and spiritually, in order to 
fill a useful place in society. Even if the child succeeds in 
some skill at carap, the inner child is sometimes crying to be 
heard and helped. Who knows or takes time to listeh? If she 
or he wanders to the woods alone to get perspective and find 
answers from the natural world, this child may be seen as an 
isolate and brought back to a skill. 

Camp should be the one place in the whole world left for 
the child to pull together the segments of life from home, 
classroom, TV, club, street, and less often now, church. 
Camp is the place for a child to discover his picture as a 
whole— himself— to learn how he can live with children and 
adults; establish close relationships while meeting real diffi- 
culties and differences and working theni out together; how 
he can fill a whole living role, taking responsibilities, 
sharing, working, giving, receiving. 

As long as twenty years ago, C. Walton Johnson, former 
camp director and author, could see what was beginning to 
happen to children and to our over-busy camp schedules 
filled with **things" more appropriately taught in urban 
areas. He wrote: **So what do we really want for our children? 
Are we primarily concerned that they become athletes, 
beautiful swimmers, expert craftsmen? Are we most con- 
cerned about their skills, or do we have deeper concerns that 
havt to do with personality traits, attitudes, insights, self- 
reliance, resourcefulness, self-confidence, moral convictions, a 
sound philosophy of life, and a real and sustaining religious 
faith? It is becoming increasingly evident that the real mission 
of the summer camp can be accomplished only by child- 
centered camps with nature-oriented programs and coun- 
selors who are both nature conscious and child conscious. 
Such a '.mission will hardly be accomplished by camps with 
programs built around athletic sports directed by activity- 
conscious counselors." V 

And Pluimjer, giving the keynote to the ACA convention 
said, **The most successful therapy today for mental illness 
is a walk in the woods." 

Ron Kinnamon, author, educator, and YMCA executive 
said, **Bank America, in a recent study of what future 
America will be like and will buy, found with all socio- 
economic groups, they want Mess' and ^better,' more leisure 
with less ball-bouncing— back to nature, personal fulfillment 
rather than things; less interest in sports." 

When Elizabeth Provence, in the March issue of Camping 
Magazine, so touchingly revealed the eight or more values 
which surfaced from camp experiences and remained 
indelibly to give quality to life for thirty years, sports and 
activitv schedules were never mentioned, but rather: living 
intimtately with a group, mixed racially and economically, as 
they built fires, cooked outdoors, developed a campsite, 

Lois Goodrich retired as executive director of Trail Blazer Camps in Port 
Jervis, New Jersey, in 1981. 

►2/Peiispectives on Administration 


slept out at night, carried and shared daily responsibilities, 
worked out together a problem of stealing, **trekked about 
the woods and meadows, made things from native materials." 

Equally important was the time alone to get in touch with 
their surroundings and themselves, to be quiet and contem- 
plative, to discover creative writing, **poetry waiting to be 
born," a chance to hear and use for a lifetime words from 
the director at Vesper time, and gain a sense of power greater 
than themselves through spending those days outdoors in 
sun, fain, storm, quiet, darkness, and moonlight. ^ 

Likewise various writers this year have reinforced the 
same theme: feelings about and relation to nature, to people, 
and to oneself—- the spiritual facet of life. 

Marjorie Stith,lprofessbr of Family and Child Develop- 
ment at Kansa.s^tate University, wrote, **Children need 
recurring opport^ities to value *being' — to sense the deep 
quietness of a forest trail, to listen to the sea— register the 
cry of the gull, feel the surf — to attempt to number the stars, 
spot the Big Dipper and the North Star, catch sight of a bird 
on her nest, learn the sweet smell that rises from leaf mold. 
Children need people — hejp in seeing and feeling — adults 
who are willing to ask questions, to wonder and to learn. 
They need the opportunity to talk with a counselor about 
great questions of life and death. Who am I? Where am I 
headed? How do I get there? Children somehow profit from 
superordinate tasks: the accomplishing of a task together, 
such as shoulder-to-shoulder experiences, lashing a table, 
digging a latrine, putting up and sharing a shelter." 

Reynold Carlson, one of the most distinguished personali- 
ties in camping today, suggests, **Do some hard things in the 
woods — perhaps get wet and cold in the process but get 
warm and dry by the open fire," for which you have sawed 
the wood. 

Time Blocks 

If emphasis is truly to be on the child, how should camp 
be organized to allow large blocks of time and a place to work 
out, with others both different and alike, the difficulties and 
joys of living, planning, working, shouldering responsibili- 
ties, sharing, giving and receiving, and learning about the 
natural world the child came to experience? Where but in 
the home group and with whom better than with two group 
counselors sliould questions of physical care, cleanliness, 
morality, sex, drugs, race, religion, war, peace, vocations, 
hobbies, values, and goals be struggled with together? 

Shouldn't the most important person or people in the 
child's life be the group counselor or two counselors? 
Shouldn't the program be such that the group counselors 
live and work all day with the group, are present as bull 
~ sessions start, fights brew, or as the moments arise when the 
child wants to talk about what's on herXor his mind? 
Shouldn't this group counselor be the most discerning, 
understanding, experienced, and skilled person on the staff? 
. Who should be more qualified to listen to the child at the 
right moment, to guide — seeing the whole child in every situ- 
ation the child is meeting, day and night? 

Wouldn't the average child benefit most by living in such 
small groups, each led by top quality, whole, mature 

Shouldn't these groups live out-of-doors and derive their 
programs from that very fact and circumstance, as Carlson 
suggests, **in contact with earth— sun, rain, trees, animals, 
. insects, fish, soil, grass, flowers, learning their relationship 
C to the<phild and to each other," meeting life's necessities and 
joys and discovering and using what is around them for their 
own enrichment: a wealth of knowledge in the natural 
.sciences, developing creativeness and ingenuity in writing, 
masic, sketching, making things of native materials, vegetable 
gardening, cooking, building, inventing conveniences, apply- 
O rithmctic, spelling, reading, writing, food orders, 


figuring costs, following recipes, using nature reference books; 
swimming, perhaps fishing; learning how to care for their 
bodies with a balance of nutritious food, enough sleep and 
rest and exercise— all while practicing living closely and 
graciously with others with genuine concern and respect for 

Campers should come to know so many realities, should 
learn the sources of things and realize man's dependence on 
the natural world^-Jn one camp,Jor example, campers raised 
and used in their menus daily a vegetable garden of beans, 
greens, lettuce, carrots, zucchini, tomatoes, onions, cucum- 
bers, green peppers, and kale. **It's like a real carrot," an 
urban child said when pulling her first one from the soil. 
They picked blueberries and made their own blueberry jam 
and their own ice cream, picked apples for pies, caught fish 
for breakfas.t. Eleven-year-olds were wide-eyed to see pop- 
corn pop over their fire and said, **Why, it's just like that at 
the movies." Only at the end of a taffy pull, as the counselors 
cut into pieces the long beige rope of a camper's taffy she'd 
pulled^ could this twelve-year-old realize what she had 
actuallyaccomplished, **Why, it's likecandy you buy!" 

They dug from a streambed and processed their own clay 
and fired their finished projects in a homemade kiln with 
wood they gathered and sawed. Finally, they took home, to 
decorate their rooms next wincer, bowls they once knew as 
mud between their toes, grass mats, .seed necklaces, carved 
wooden pins, and other beautiful things they made from 
native materials. 

Their daily fires for cooking and for evening powwows 
were from wood they had gathered, sawed, and split. From 
other trees came shelter, work tables, benches, and other 
conveniences. They experienced dependence on a natural 
world which we hope will make them wanj^ conserve it, 
and they found that their own efforts cotffd convert natural 
resources into actual uses— that the real is more genuine 
than the tinsel; that the handmade is more precious than the 
store-bought; that they can actually work, botb individually 
and together, and do a job well; and finally, that happiness 
rests on these simple realities. 

Other Needs 

Meeting physical needs is only one basis for program 
plans. Emotional and spiritual needs can be met in this group 
life. In the exchange between campers and counselors, 
interests and ideas are given chances to develop as the group 
plans its own program. There are streams to wade, valleys to 
explore, flowers, wood animals, spiders, anthills, $tones, 
mosses, ferns, salamanders, and butterflies to discover, hill- 
sides to sketch, stars to know and sleep under, berries to 
pick, pies to bake, wood to whittle, clay to dig from the 
streambed and mold, local Indian and Pioneer life to learn 
about, vegetables to grow, bird songs. to wake up to and to 
learn, birds to see and watch, perhaps a lake to explore, 
swim in, and fish from . 

In her book, A Sense of Wonder, Rachel Carson said 
there should be time **to listen and talk about the voices of 
the earth and what they mean— the majestic voice of 
thunder, the winds, the sound of surf or of flowing streams. 
And the voices of living things"— and a fare and wonderful 
chance to lie on the earth . at night in late August and *Misten 
for the voices of bird migrants apparently keeping in touch 
by their calls with others of their kind scattered through the 
sky. I never hear these calls without a wave of feeling that is 
compounded of many emotions— a sense of lonely distances, 
a compassionate awareness of small lives controlled and 
directed by forces beyond volition or denial, a surging wonder 
at the sure instinct for routes and distances that so far has 
baffled human efforts tv> explain it." 

Given time in such a small camp setting, the child can begin 
to **feel" the environment, draw il close about herself, love 


it, understand il as an intrinsic part of herself*. One adolescent 
wrote, "I look out across the hills at the mountain . . . Then 
I think how grand God is that He has made me part of His 
great masterpiece this summer/' 

If these elements of program are'most important, what 
implications are there for staff recruitment, application 
forms, salary scales, the highly specialized counselor or 
camp? Staff training? Time? Emphasis? College courses? 
ACA Directors' training? Campsites? Camping's public 
image? Parent education? Values? Goals? 

The child needs perspective. (We all do.) She and he need 
not so much to be *'taught," but to be enabled to discover, 
figure out, given a chance to be alone, to see, absorb, feel 
the wonder of the natural world, their relationship to it, let 
it nourish and deepen their spiritual, intellectual, inspira- 
tional, mental-emotional, and physical well-being, balance, 
and growth. We need to allow and encourage this child to 
express what she or he is feeling from this new vantage 
point, as did this eighi-year-old: 

'The moon is full 
And I am small." 
and a young adolescent: 
"Dear Lord, 
Tm not sure you see 
Do I count, am I me? 
Hold me in your gentle hand 
and teach me what is right 

But Lord, I must be free 
so please don't hold too tight." 

Our camps should allow time, settings, and experiences 
which enable the child to be spontaneous, creative, to think, 
to dream the impossible, and to develop feelings of self- 
confidence, self-esteem, and a belief that if one can imagine 
it, it is possible. c 

As Pluimer stated, **This is the child. And unto every 
child that is born, raised and taught, there is renewed hope 
for the human race. 

The hopes and beauty lie in her or him who sees it. Never 
let the child cease to wonder, hope and to dream." 

And at each day's end a child should surely have experi- 
ence with a smaU fire— sit close to it, tend it, feel its warmth 
and the warmth and security of her or his close-knit small 
family group gathered round; and in the wonder and magic 
of firelight be able to talk, in the semi-darkness, of the 
problems that bother—begin to form attitudes, think out 
values, grapple for the ends for which he or she might live— 
begin to put together the fragmented pieces of learning 
toward becoming a whole person. 

Camp directors, who know something of the impact that 
closeness to nature can make upon man, the impact of a 
small campfire, of an exemplary life, of close personal 
relationiships, the impact of love and loving care on a child, 
must recognize here the essential ingredients which go into 
the "magic formula" that can go far toward creating whole- 
ness in a child, and in a summer — can heal and restore a soul. 

Section IV 

Committing Yourself Mary Faeth Chcnery 

to the Campers camping magazine/may 1978 

!N4[any camp staff manuals deal quite well with the essential 
- details of camp operation— maps, safety procedures, camp 
traditions, and program schedules, to name a few. A less fre- 
quently covered topic in the manual is the matter of the 
behavior and feelings of counselors and children. This is 
written to provide counselors with a few last minute reminders 
which might make a big difference in creating happy 
relationships with the campers in their charge. 

Your* example is probably the most important influence 
on the children at camp. Please think through the implications 
of this; think about who your models have been. 

Commit yourself. You may not yet have taken time to 
say, *'l want the children to come. I want to live with them 
for the summer. I want to be their friend, trust them, and 
have them trust me." Say it now, listen to it, mull over what 
it means. 

Your job here revolves around people and their feelings. 
Recognize that in almost everything you do you will be deal- 
ing with feelings. If a camper or counselor is having more 
than the expected difficulty with a problem or a task, look 
or ask to see if there are strong feelings associated with some 
part of the task. Just being aware of the invested feelings 
will help you both understand and deal with the accomplish- 
ment of the task. ^ ^ 

The expression of emotions is good, as a rule, and should 
be dealt with openly. That is to say, it's all right for someone 
O 0 be angry or sad, for example; and it is better to recognize 



the anger or sadness for what it is than to suppress it and 
thereby turn it into something else (for it will be expressed 
somehow). It seems that emotions which are recognized, ex- 
pressed, and acknowledged are less likely to be transformed 
into exchanges which hurt someone.. „ 

An example: One or two campers may be upset that 
another camper does not work as hard as they do during 
clean-up. If they keep their feelings of anger and injustice 
unspoken, the emotions may get expressed as dislike and 
isolation of the camper with whom they ^re angry. 

If, on the other hand, the campers can understand that 
they are angry at what the other camper is failing to do (the 
task) rather than the girl herself (the person), they can con- 
tinue to be friends with her, while explaining to her their un- 
happiness with her performance during clean-up. 

They could say to her, for example, **it bothers us that 
you don't seem to want to clean up as well as the others in 
our cabin." This approach is much more likely to help im- 
prove the situation than the disturbed campers saying to each 
other, *'we don't like her, she won't do her job." 

As well, the open expression of positive emotions is 
extremely important. You may think that your behavior 
shows your approval or happiness with your cainpers, but 
they may need to hear it spoken. 

Dr. Mary Faeih Chenery is an assistant professor at Indiana University 
and an associate camp director. 

74 ' 

In judging or reacting to some behavior, especially where 
you must disapprove, react to the action and how it makes 
you feel rather than disapproving of the person. **That was 
not a helpful thing to do" rather than '*You're not a helpful 
person" or even *.!You're not being helpful." Or: **When 
you do that, it makes me feel discouraged or unhappy." 

This approach avoids mating people feel that sometimes 
you hate them and sometimes you love them. Rather, you 
love them, but sometimes dislike some of the things they do. 

This way, too, you don't encumber yourself with ambi- 
valence about your campers, and you can share more fully 
in their feelings. 

If the campers can count on your friendship and love at 
all times, it becomes much easier for them to accept the 
times when you may disapprove of something they do. Praise 
and blame have one set of meanings when they come from a 
trusted source and another when they come from untrusted 

Most people are more willing to cooperate and abide by 
rules and guidelines when they understand the reasoning 
behind them or when they participate in the making of the 
rules. * 'Because it's a rule" is not a good answer to the ques- 
tion **why shouldn't we do it?"* You need to figure out for 
yourself and for your campers the reasons for having a rule. 
In rules at camp, the most frequently found reason will be 
the reason of safety. While some may think that the camp's 
concern with safety is overcautious, the responsibility with 
which the camp is entrusted is too great to allow any room 
foravoidable risk. 

The second step beyond understanding a rule is to establish a 
willingness to accept it. Especially with rules like the ban on 
smoking, the camper can understand the jeason for a rule 
and disagree with it. Yet in disagreeing with the reason, the 
camper may still b? willing to accept and abide by the rule 
during camp. There need be absolutely no ill feelings about 
this kind of situation if it is handled openly and with under- 

In fact, it may be a postive learning experience for a person 
to be able to say, **I disagree with this rule, but I can under- 
stand that you feel it is important and necessary in this liying 
situation. Because it is important to you and to the other 
people around me, I will accept the rule and abide by it while 
I am here." This kind of independence and choice-making is 
a significant development for an individual in self-determi- 
nation and in relations with other people. 

The camp exists to provide a purposeful environment in 
which children can learn and grow. Having a sense of 
purpose, doing things, making things—these contribute sig- 
nificantly to the sense of self-worth of a person, a very im- 
portant part of the growing personality. For most people, 
making something, c/eating something, or doing something 
actively is pleasurable. 

Fortunately, tnokt children do not need external motiva- 
tion to inspire them to become active in the camp environ- 
ment. There will be some children, though, who are not self- 
starters, who cannot overcome by themselves the inertia that 
prevents them from doing things. Frequently these will be 
the children who seem homesick, who claim unhappiness, or 
who are lonesome. 

Motivating Campers 

These children need help beginning, getting started. Once 
active, the problems of homesickness, unhappiness, and 
loneliness often, though not always, evaporate. There are 
several ways which may be helpful in getting children who 
seem unmotivated going: 

One of the most effective ways is to call the camper's needs 
to the attention of a few of her cabinmates, asking them to 
help her by including her in their activities (a partner in 
^ ' , crew in sailing). It may help to ask the cabin or'tent- 

mates to do this to help you, their counselor, as well as to 
help the camper. This request should be made very tactfully 
and carefully, though, so as not to embarrass the camper. 

If a group of children can't think of anything to do that 
interests them, frequently it helps to say what you want to 
do and ask them to join you rather than asking them to 
generate ideas. That is, rather than asking ''what would you 
like to do?" try, *M'm going off to play basketball, will you 
come play with me?" 

The campers wlio seem unhappy and who say they don't 
want to do things (**I don't want to work on my sailing 
ranks") are sometimes people who are negatively motivated 
by pressure and competition. Thus, the appeal '*our cabin's 
going to win if you'll just get your rank" is not effective in 
motivating them. Sometimes suggesting that the camper work 
on the activity because it's fun and you enjoy it, because it is 
a skill he or she could enjoy beyond the rank, or because it is 
important to the teammate: (not for the prize) will have 
more influence. 

Of the many goals at camp, developing in the child the 
ability to direct herself, to use her talents and energy in a 
constructive, active way, to lead at least herself if not others, 
is perhaps the most important. The role of camping in this 
area of development is all the more important for those chil- 
dren who, during the rest of the year, passively receive in- 
formation in school and entertain themselves at other times 
by sitting in front of a television. 

Have great expectations for all your campers, for yourself, 
and for your cabin or tent as a group. High expectationa 
frequently become self-fulfilling prophecies and optimism 
and belief in people are communicable. 

When your campers arrive, make them feel welcome and 
wanted, help them to feel part of something great (their 
cabin, camp group, the whole camp). 

Explain to them your great expectations— not necessarily 
that they should be an ideal cabin or tent— but that each one 
can learn, grow, share, and be happy in so many ways. 

Be alert to the individuality, the uniqueness of each person. 
Take time to get to know each camper. Patience and a sens? 
of humor help. . 

If a camper seems isolated or unhappy or less active than 
usual, when looking for reasons also consider whether he or 
she may be getting sick. Many children feel awkward or afraid 
about mentioning that they don't feel well, especially when 
their parents aren't around. 



Perspectives on ADMiNisTRATiON/65 


Section IV 

Program Ideas— Getting Yours 

Journal OF Christian Camping/ November-December 1979 



hat characteristics make up a good camp program? 
What program ideas excite camp directors today? Where do 
they get their ideas? In a scries of interviews, the Journal 
staff asked these and other questions to five camping profes> 
sionals working in widely scattered places throughout the 
United States. They talked about programming as it happens 
in New York, Wisconsin, Southern California, Texas, and 
Florida. Though their camps, programs, and clienteles differ 
widely, all five agreed on the importance, the extreme 
importance, of having high quality, dedicated staff to make 
a program work. Many of their other ideas follow in con- 
densed form. 

Bob Frembiing is a professor of camping at Biola College in 
La Mirada, California. He typically spends his summers 
directing youth camps. He most recently worked with Shiloh 
Ranch, a youth camp in Agoura, California. 

In programming you always need to watch for the chang- 
ing attitudes and needs of your campers. To do this you can 
go to your campers and talk to them, listen to them, discover 
their needs, and develop your program from what you learn. 

When I develop a program I usually try to keep four con- 
cepts in mind. First I try to emphasize the individual contact 
needed to build friendship and trust between campers and 
counselors. Then I try to offer a variety of program activities 
so we can appeal to a broad segment of people. 

Beyond this, I feel a program should offer a graduated 
learning experience to keep campers coming back. And 
finally, I feel an obligation to be prescriptive in my program- 
ming. That means I should sometimes stretch campers by 
giving them what I feel they need rather than always allowing 
them to breeze through on what they want. Sometimes these 
prescriptive activities might not be popular at first, but I 
think it's important to do things that stretch your campers. 

Any type of camp program activity should also be fun, 
from the campers' points of view. This is especially 
important for kids, because summer is their free time and 
they want to gcof around. Camp is not school and it's not 
church. It's basically recreation. Besides, if there is any way 
of life that should, it's the Christian life. 

A camp program should avoid artificially compartmental- 
izing life into **spiritual" times and **fun" times. Teaching, 
disciplining, witnessing, and discipling should develop 
naturally out of each day's activities. Counselors can convey 
the Christian life much better through their actions than 
through their words. This places a lot of importance on the 
staff. Right now I think, camps generally tend to undcr- 
emphasize staff building while they overbuild their facilities. 

I'm also a believer in camps for longer than one week. In 
five days of camp it's hard to get off the superficial levels of 
relating to each other. A longer camp can help this problem. 
For instance, in one three-week high school program, the 
kids were in camp {ox a week, went backpacking for a week 
and returned to canip for their final week. Between the first 
week and the third you could see a tremendous growth of 
friendships and closeness that jelled during their week of 
O backpacking. 

Bob Fruhling is the director of camps for the Educational 
Alliance, a Jewish community center serving the needs of 
people living in lower Manhattan, New York, NY. He directs 
the activities of three types of camps— one for senior adults, 
one for mentally handicapped persons, and one for children 
ages six to sixteen years old. 

Essentially we consider a camp experience successful if the 
children or adults finish the week or weekend feeling better 
about themselves. They've gained more insight into who they 
are and what they can do. They have more ability to cope 
with their lives back at home. 

For instance, life for senior adults is frequently a time of 
deterioration. Their spouses may have died and so have 
many of their friends. Their world is narrowing. We try to 
bring groups of these people together so they can branch out 
and make. new friends. It's not unusual for lasting friendships 
and even marriages to result among acquaintances made at 
our camps. 

Another of our programs is a pre-vocational camp for 
mentally handicapped teenagers. They stay several weeks 
and work in "sheltered" jobs at the camp or in the surround- 
ing communities. They receive minimal pay for their work, 
but the idea is not for them to make money or even prepare 
for a specific type of vocation. We are really giving them an 
idea of what working is all about. They have to get up on 
time and make their own beds. If they goof off they receive 
less pay. We have times we talk about their work. And when 
they leave to go home they have a basis for success in what- 
ever work they decide to do. 

In one area of our youth camp we run a five-week wilder- 
ness adventure program. The children use the camp as a 
base for a series of three to five-day trips of various types. 
We have such trips as survival trips, horseback trips, canoe 
trips, and bicycle trips. They go on one type of trip for a 
week and then return to the camp for the weekend where 
they prepare for the next week's trip. This program makes 
young people from the city more knowledgeable J^bout 
nature and about themselves. It shows them that they can 
climb a mountain and rappel down a cliff. Things they likely 
thought they would never be able to do. 
' We experiment a lot with program ideas. I talk to other 
camp directors and poll other community agencies to find 
out what they are doing and what needs are going unmet. If 
we experiment with something and it doesn't work out, we 
don't have to do it again. 

Kent Skipper is the executive director of the Dallas Sales- 
manship Club Camps, two year-round camps for emotionally 
disturbed kids from the greater Dallas metropolitan area. 
One camp is for boys eight to fourteen years old. The other 
is for eleven to fourteen year-old girls. 

Typically the young people stay at our camps for niiie to 
eighteen months. During that time we are able to help the 
vast majority of them . 

We build our program around several major concepts, 

gjffifflj B i^ fl jj i j ^6/PERiPEr rJvES on Administration 


starting with a high quality staff. Wc look for young, bright, 
energetic men and women with bachelor's and master's 
degrees. They need to have the character qualities appropri- 
ate for modeling for the kids. They must be highly motivated 
because they live with the kids five days a week, twenty-four 
hours a day, year round. They need to know how to help the 
kids get their feelings out and at the same time put definite 
limits on their behaviors. 

The counseJors need to know the kids intimately. We see 
all kids are going through a sequence of developmental stages. 
The counselors must determine where the child is at in his or 
her development and what activities and responsibilities the 
child can and cannot tackle. 

Ihc young people live together in groups of ten. The group 
focus plays an important part in our program. A young 
person stays in his or her group for the duration of their 
time at camp. Together they build their own shelter, plan 
and cook their own meals, and plan and take adventure trips 
of one week to several months (such as raft trips down the 
Mississippi River or backpack trips to West Texas). 

Activities such as these give the children the skills they 
need to live productively back at home. They learn how to 
work together. They learn practical math, blueprint reading, 
the proper and safe use of tools, techniques of good planning, 
budgeting money for meals, and the history, geography, 
culture and so on of the areas they visit on their adventure 

This type of programming allows the children to experience 
the natural and logical consequences of their actions. Some- 
times they experience ihc consequences immediately. We 
protect the children against physical and emotional harm, 
but if one youngster, for instance, refuses to cooperate on a 
project, he or she would immediately see the results of that 
kind of behavior. 

Another important aspect of our program involves work- 
ing with the parents of the children while they are at camp. 
During their months in the program, the children periodically 
go home for long weekends. This helps them try what they 
have learned at camp. We're not in the business of rescuing 
children out of their homes. We're trying to help them live 
better at home. 

Brian Ogne is the director of camping for Timber Lee 
Christian Center, a youth and family camp in East Troy, 
Wisconsin. This past summer Timber Lee almost totally 
changed its camp program in response to camper needs and 

A good camp program should offer variety and excitement. 
It should run .smoothly. It should exemplify excellence and 
use the unique setting, surrounding, and history of your camp 
and geographical area. The program should also be suited to 
the physical and mental abilities of your campers— you 
wouldn't run a high hUrdlcs race for fourth graders. 

I think wc have to realize we cannot change the whole 
world in one week at camp. You have to decide what the im- 
portant things are you want the kids to sec in their week ajL 
camp. Concentrate on those. 

In the past, wc ovcrprogrammcd our camp. The kids told 
U.S camp was no fun. They always had to hurry up and get 
someplace. During the day they had almost no contact with 
their counselors. The counselors just sent them from one 
activity to another, and made sur& they got there. 
• This past summer we gave our program a totally* new shift. 
And that meant wc had to eliminate some things we thought 
were important. Wc eliminated things such as swimming les- 
.sons. We did away with competition. Wc eliminated Bible 
quizzing. Wc changed a lot of things. Wc slowed the camp 
down, .so the kids could slow down. 

Kids need to learn how to $low down and enjoy things. 
O need to have time to be alone with themselves. They 


need to learn how to be alone with God. They need time to 
be alone with their counselor. 

We still have our activity areas such as swimming, horses, 
and so on. The kids need these to stretch themselves. But 
we've taken the pressure off. The counselors now take their 
kids to each area and help teach the activity. 

This took us more towards a counselor-centered program. 
It also did away with a tendency to compartmentalize the day 
into ''spiritual" and "fun" times. Now each whole day is a 
Christian living experiment where everyone has the freedom 
to succeed and to fail. This takes the spiritual load off the 
camp pastor or leader and puts it on the counselors.. 

Planning for this type of programming takes seed in 
thoughts months in advance. This type of programming also 
requires you to be flexibile. One week this summer we 
had to change our program in the middle of the week" because 
wc discovered it was running too fast and trying to do too 

We develop our program ideas from the current things that 
influence a kid's world. We get ideas froni popular television 
shows, from magazines, from newspapers, from the Bible. 
For instance, you could program around the 1980 Olympic 
Games. Or for a high school camp you could build a pro- 
gram theme on the 1980 elections. 

Bill Redmon is the executive director of Lake Aurora 
Christian Assembly in Lake Wales, Florida. Lake Aurora is 
a youth and adult camp helping serve the Christian education 
needs of the Christian Churches in central Florida. 

You can't have a good program unless you have good 
leaders. But neither do you want to develop your program 
beyond the abilities of your leaders. Yo^r leaders need to 
have common objectives. This '\$ especially important when 
you work with volunteers. If each person comes determined 
to make thc kids fit his or her ideas it won't work. Your 
leaders need to feel comfortable with your program. 

Before we develop any program ideas we survey our 
churches. We run a cooperative ministry with them. In our 
programs we try to reflect their areas of interest. At least 
some of the churches are usually working in an area of need 


before we try to program in that area. Otherwise, it would 
be hard to gain support for a new program. For instance, if 
we wanted to program for the blind, first of all a church or 
two would have to be working with blind children or adults.' 

This does not mean that you always follow. Sometimes 
you see and feel that you have to lead. Camping offers some 
unique opportunities for ministry. Wilderness camping is an 
area in which we lead. It's not universally accepted among 
the churches because of some fear that such activities will 
encourage young people to spend their Sundays camping 
rather than at church. Hopefully we aren't encouraging that* 

sort of thing. But as churches- we have built our buildings 
and stained our windows. This keeps God's creation out of 
sight. In wilderness camping we teach people to worship the 
Creator, not the creation. 

Our programs are basically educational, not evangelical. 
We try to design them to minister to the total camper. So 
whether they arc eating or sleeping or playing or talking, 
everything the campers do finds its roots in the concepts of 
growing in **wisdom and stature and in favor with God and 
men" (Luke 2:52). 

Section IV 

Try a New Camp Schedule 

Beth Tanner 


^ueta T Camp for Girls is the exciting venture that my 
husband and I are privileged to own and direct for seventy 
campers plus a staff of twenty to twenty-five. Early June of 
1975 found me involved in the usual menu planning for our 
three three-week sessions which is one of my areas of respon- 
sibility. There was, however, a fly in the soup! Frankly, I 
was pretty bored with my menus and I began to earnestly pray 
that the Lord would give me some innovative ideas. The 
results of that prayer were fantastic! The brand new schedule 
which follows solved many problems we have experienced 
with scheduling. ^ ^ 

6:50 am Rising Bell 

7:10-7:30 Mini Breakfast 

7:30-7:45 Morning Watch (Private Devotions) 

7:45-8:45 First Activity Period 

8:50-9:50 Second Activity Period 

10:00-10:45 Big Breakfast 

10:45-11:10 Camp Cleanup 

11:15-12:15 Third,Activity Period 

12:20-1:15 Free Swim 

1:15-1:30 Refreshment for Campers 

1:40-3:00 Rest Hour 

3:00 Midday Meal and Sing Time 

4:15-5:15 Fourth Activity Period 

5:20-6:20 Fifth Activity Period 

6:20-7:00 Cabin Time (Planning Sessions) 

7:00-7:45 Night Activity for Juniors 

7:45-8:15 Mini-meal. for Juniors 

7:15-8:30 Night Activity for Seniors 

8:30-9:00 Mini-meal for Seniors' ' 

8:45 Cabin Devotions (Jrs.) 

9:30 Cabin Devotioii»»(Srs.) n 

As I presented this new schedule to the staff leaders, their 
reaction was less enthusiastic than I had hoped, being about 
equally divided. My husband then made the decision to give 
the new schedule a trial run for the first four days of camp. I 
must say that the general attitude of the entire staff, once 
this decision had been made, was excellent. They enthusias- 
tically presented it to the campers on opening day in such a 
way as to make the camper feel that she was a part of a fun 
experiment. By the end of the third day, the staff 
unaniirnously endorsed the new schedule as a most successful 
O ind welcome change. Among the' campers (the VIP's, as 


ifeiiiHil >8/PliRSPf ( TlVi-'S ON Af)MiNISTKATlt)N 

Dick Troup calls them) there was high enthusiasm for the 
change-over, as soon as their tummies adjusted to the new 
time slots, a period of twenty-four to forty-eight hours. 

I have also shared this schedule with other directors of 
resident camps in our area. Some of them had questions 
which may have arisen in the mWids of readers. For instance, 
mini-breakfast was a stand-up affair consisting of fruit juice 
and banana bread, or muffins and a piece of fresh fruit, or 
perhaps a paper cup of dry cereal and milk. The baked goods 
were prepared the day before by the cooks and served by the 
dining hall manager the next morning. 

Big breakfast included more than an average breakfast. 
For example, grapefruit half, hashed brown potatoes, grilled 
hum, fried egg; biscuits and jelly, milk; or pei;haps, hot 
cereal phis eggs and bacon, cinnamon toast ^nd milk. 

The mini-meal at night included sandwiches, fresh fruit or 
cookies, and a beverage. This was also the time of day that 
campers were allowed to purchase one candy bar if they 
wished. The evening mini-meal was prepared during the 
aflernoon by the cooks and served by the dining hall mana- 
ger and staff at the Trading Post instead of the Dining Hall, 
using paper goods whenever possible. 

Another question involved our food preparation personnel 
and their receptivity to shorter hours. They have never been 
happier! These dear ladies have. been with us since our very 
beginnings and have contributed in a large measure to the 
overall flow of peace and harmony at our camp. Their 
former hours were 6:30 am to 6:30 pm with a two-hour rest 
break in mid-afternoon. Their new hours are 8:30 am to 4:30 


Another question frequently aske.! concerned costs. We 
found that two main meals plus two mini meals cost approxi- 
mately the equivalent of three regular meals. 

Here is a list of assets that we discovered with this new 
daily plan along with a brief explanation: 

I , Mini breakfast is optional. We found that many campers 
disliked a large meal in the early morning. Many girls 
came from homes where breakfast was optional, conse- 
quently we had had some grumbling in other years about 
the request to arise and face an unwanted meal. Last year, 
girls who never ate breakfast at home stayed in bed fifteen 

/ Bffh Tanner and her, husband are owner-directors ofKueta T Camp for 



jninutcs longer. The majority came to mini breakfast and 
enjoyed it. 

2. All of the staff and many of the older campers (who were 
weight conscious) found an extra bonus in the fact that 
there was a great deal of activity after the heavier meals. 

3. Our free swim was better attended. In former years free 
.swim followed rest hour. Some reluctant risers would 
sleep an extra hour and be much less ready for bed at 
night. Also, in our area of Louisiana, where mid and late 
afternoon thunder showers are common, a midday swim 

period was much less often interrupted by rain. 
4. The most valuable asset was the tremendous reduction of 
wasted food. Because the girls' appetites were keen at the 
new hours ^or meals, they left almost nothing on their 

My husband and I wracked our brains to think of some 
liabilities to balance our enthusiasm for this ..schedule. But, 
try as we might, we came up with none. Our hope is that if 
you try it the results will be as successful and satisfying. 

Section IV 

The Importance 

of Skill Developmenl 

Charles L. Mand 

Camping Magazine/November 1961- 


Trowth, in terms of thc'active participle growing, charac- 
terizes organized camping today. Camps and the number of 
campers, actual and potential, are increasing yearly. 

A.ss6ciated with the vigorous movement is a program trend 
to more pioneer activity experiences and an emphasis on con- 
.servation — ecological skills. These trends seem quite tenable, in. 
fact welcome, since for too many years the overemphasis on 
playground'gymnasiium activities eliminated the appreciation 
of the outdoors from outdoor camp programs. However, 
past extremes in camp programs which are understood to be 
undesirable seem to be occurring once again in* the present 
period of growth. The emphasis on primitive living and 
ecological lore is assuming an aura of exclusiveriess reminis- 
cent of the exclusivcness previously maintained by the 
staunch advocates of competitive games and sports in camp. 

It seems appropriate to review the importance of general 
skill development as it relates to the growth and development 
of campers. This paper examines the importance of skill 
development and several considerations related to the need 
far a variety 0^' opportunities for skill acquisition in a coedu- 
cational carrip for abnormal-cmotionally disturbed adoles- 
cents. * 

The distvirbed arc those who make an exaggerated response 
to a given stimulus. The abnormal child who meets success or 
failure responds in a manner that even the casual observer 
can ascertain. The disturbed may respond to a social rebuff 
by running away, to a skill failure by complete withdrawal 
from all activities. A piece of pottery that doesn't meet the 
standards of the camper sculptor may be smashed with a 
rock» even pulverized to dust. The camper who fails in a 
water ski stunt blames the boat driver, the size of the motor, 
the wave action, and other sundry items. The reaction to 
failure is evident. It is an indication o'f the effect on persona- 
lity of the many seemingly insignificant items which affect 
the child's well being. 

The exaggerated responses of the disturbed have coiintcr- 
part responses, among normal children. However, the re- 
actions to success and failure among the normal are generally 
very subtle and hidden from even the most sensitive observer. 
Yet reactions to the many facets that constitute an activity 
program occur constantly. There arc few who doubt that 
normal children as well as the ^disturbed experience 
emotional growth or in some ca.s6s retardation as a result of 
eight weeks in camp. Therefore the rcspojiscs of disturbed 
youngsters warrant reflection as they indicate similar although 
^ astic responses of normal campers 

The ability to swim, row, catch, or bat a bail is very impor- 
tant to disturbed adolescents. There have been few achieve- 
ments of a comparable nature in their lives. For the most part 
they have failed constantly in social and academic spheres. 
Th&y^rc in desperate need of a simple, concrete experience 
to achieve confidence and status. The complexities of social 
relationships and the delayed, abstract formula for achieve- 
ment in school work are beyond their emotional understand- 
ing. First aid is their need. For these campers the acquisition 
of a skill transcends the qualitative aspect of it. Their criteria 
include the status level, whether the skill is demonstrable, 
and whether success is available quickly. 

The successful completion of a skill is not commonplace 
in any of these lives but represents the **road back." It is a 
stepping stone for further tentative, probing exploration. In 
severe cases, a sailing or horseback venture may be the 
solitary topic of conversation available to a youngster with 
his peers or counselors; It represents the one subject which 
generates sufficient confidence to permit social contact. 

It would be a tragic disservice to these youngsters to elimi- 
nate any area of potential skill achievement in order to satisfy 
current camping trends. The disturbed child needs a simple 
direct experience to develop confidence. The type of skill 
acquired is immaterial. ' 

Importance has been placed on achievement and success 
in the previous discussion. The carnp for disturbed children 
couples participation with success with achievement and 
success. All realize fully that constant non-participation is 
the highest point of failure. The camper who had sufficient 
confidence to maintain efforts at achieving a gymnastic stunt 
or who persists in attempts to learn swimming is achieving 
through participation and thus is a step closer to eventual 

A wide variety of activities is essential for a camp program 
which attempts to meet the needs of youngsters. There isn't a 
panacea among activities relative to the needs. of all campers. 
Some secure success in tripping, others in athletic pursuits, 
still .others in creative arts. Many disturbed youngsters 
routinely follow the pattern of a balanced program until sud- 
denly a spark of interest bursts into tremendous enthusiasm 
for a particular activity. This is an indication that the 
program has offered a developmental challenge to ♦he camp- 
er. However, consideration simply of a wide umber of 

Charles L. Mand is an associate profeasor of Physical Education at the 
Ohio State University. 



Perspectives on Administration /69 

activities is inadequate in terms of providing the maximum 
opportunity for achievement. Other factors relative to variety 
include the cultural level of program offerings, recognition 
of the camper's level of participation and the inclusion of 
activities attractive to different levels of maturation. 

For example, adolescent camping provides an excellent 
illustration of the significance of analyzing the cultural level 
of activity offerings. When adolescents are included in the 
' camp program, adolescent and pre-adult activities such as 
\ watcr'skiing, dancing, extensive tripping, and sailing should 
\ be included. These arc typical adolescent activities. It is 
artificial to avoid their use. It is unfair to establish a core of 
\basic camp skills such as rowing, canoeing, campcraft, and 
liking, and insist that campers pursue only these activities, 
:gardless of age level. These basic activities are fundamental 
t^ elementary-age youngsters just as the recreational-resort 
type activities are fundamental to the growth of adolescents. 
To limit activities because of preconceived adult prejudices 
limits the campers' opportunity to acquire personally satis- 
fying skills. In a cfimp for disturbed adolescents overemphasis 
on (ianoeing or hiking results in almost complete nonpartici- 
pation. Their need is for the skills that ordinary adolescents 
achieve and enjoy. 

The athletic area of camp programs provides an excellent 
illustraJion of the need for counselors to recognize the camper 
level ot participation. Counselors, when considering athletics, 
think frequently in terms of team sports or competitive 
ai^tivities, areas of personal success. Yet, in dealing with the 
disturbed, highly organized competitive games are beyond 
their emotional level. Team games or Competitive situations 
demand subjugating self to the group endeavor. By definition 
the distur|)ed are inadequate in confidence and ego strength. 
Athletics for this ^roup consists of simple games and activi- 
ties such as stunts, tumbling, and gymnastics. This is suffici- 
ently taxing for the emotional level of the group: Skills of 
pitching horseshoes, tether ball, table tennis, usually over- 
looked in society's drive for the major team sports, are all 
important, ^hey provide a means to social interaction, in a 
low level cof^petitive situation, during a recreational period. ; 

After sufficient experience in low level competitive situ- 
ations the usual athletic games can be attempted. A non- 
swimmer is rtot thrown bodily into deep water to acquire 
swimming skill. In the same regard the emotionally immature 
camper can not be pushed into competitive situations beyond 
his emotional level. The same consideration applies to crea- 
tive work^ tripping and other activities. 

The various skills acquired during a season are building 
blocks to foster the maturation process. The responsibility 
of the authority figures in camp is to apply activities to the 
personality characteristics of the camper. For example, 
water skiing and sailing are two poipular aquatic activities. 
Both transcend all types of emotional illness as judged by 
the camp participants. Characteristically skiing requires 
little personal involvement on the part of the skier. He is 
dependent on the boat driver, is the complete center of 
attraction, has only limited control of responsibility for 
equipment, and mechanical rather than natural forces provide 
motivating power. The principle advantage is the simplicity 
of achievement with respect to **getting up" on skis. This 
provides success for youngsters who cannot achieve it in 
more complex sports. 

Sailing requires a longer period of preparation before 
achievement is reached. However, care of equipment, aware- ; 
ness of natural forces, dependence upon self and decision ; 
making are indigenous to the activity. In comparison to ski- ; 
ing, sailing contains factors which stimulate personal i 
independence, and appreciation of natural forces, delayed ; 
goals, and similar characteristics related to increased; 

This does not infer that sailing is superior to skiing in the: 
program and that skiing should be excluded. Rather the two 
activities are complementary and responsive to the different 
levels of camper maturation. The differences between these 
activities and among the many activities available at camp 
insures that each child's experience can be qualitative as well 
as qijantitative. The attraction of dissimilar activities, each 
with indigenous characteristics, to individual levels of 
maturation provide the program director an unparalleled 
opportunity to challenge youngsters. 

Balance Program 

The intense response to the importance of skill acquisition 
by the emotionally disturbed requires diligent appmisal by interested in improving camp programs. Reflection 
indicates that there is no single airea of endeavor or skill con- 
centration that transcends the multiple needs of these 
youngsters. It seems safe to' assume that a balanced program 
which employs the vast array of developmental experiences 
possible in the outdoor environment refiects the needs of 
normal campers more intimately than does the exclusiveness 
of any particular activity emphasis. 

Section IV 

Campers Want Risk— 
Camps Need to Offer It 

Rebecca Cowan 




J.n recent years there has been an increase in the numl^er 
.people participating in advent ure-rjsk activities. Mor(j and 
more Americans are choosing to engage in activities such as 
backpackings canoeing, kayaking, rockclimbing, hang 
gliding, and bicycling. 

Programs like Outward Bound, National Outdoor Leader- 
ship School, Sierra Treks, and Wheaton Wilderness Seminar 
which offer many of these activities have grown in the past 

Many resident camps have identified this interest and 

have included such activities as part of their progfam. How- 
ever, in spite of the increasing desire of the publi^ to partici- 
pate in these *'risk" activities, many camps are not offering 
them. Their concerns focus primarily on the cost and risk 

The purpose of this article is to investigate and describe 

Rebecca Cowan teaches in the Department of Recreation and Camp Ad^ 
ministration at Bio la College, La X(Jrada, California, and directs Camp 
Deer Run in New Hampshire during the summers. 




the contributing factors related to increased risk involvement 
and the values of participation in risk activities. 

Several reasons have contributed to the increased interest 
in outdoor adventure-risk activities. ^ 

People are becoming more interested in outdoor recreation 
because. they desire to be in touch with nature. Those living 
in urbah areas often find a sense of renewal when they escape 
to, and engage in, various outdoor activities, in addition, 
our society is placing greater emphasis on products, food, 
and consumer items that are **natural." There is also a resur- 
gence of desire to return to our **roots" and a pioneering 

Many of the advertisements on television, billboards, and 
in magazines promote their products in an outdoor setting. 
We view the consumers rockclimbing, backpacking, river 
rafting, canoeing, skin and scuba diving, hang gliding, wind- 
surfing, sail planing and hot air ballooning. 

We are supposed to be desirous of the product we 
are desirom of the environment and the activity. These ad- 
vertisements not only entice us to buy the product, but also 
to seek more involvement in the outdoor recreation activities 

Due to increased mobility, more people are able to partici- 
pate in outdoor recreation activities. In years past, a drive 
to the mountains or a nearby state park was lengthy. Now, 
with our freeway systems and highways, more people enjoy 
our natural resources. In addition, advances in technology 
have led to better, safer, more reliable, and often less expen- 
-sive equipment for the outdoor adventurer. 

As a result of advanced mobility and technology, more 
Americans are participating in outdoor recreation, including 
risk activities. 

Perhaps one of the reasons most influential in the upsurge 
of interest in outdoor adventure-risk activities is that they 
provide the participant with a challenge. Daily life is often 
viewed as boring. People are looking for challenges to meet 
and overcome. Our ancestors faced dangers m daily life that 
we no longer experience due to technological ingenuity. ■ 

Youth who view television on a regular basis are continu- 
ally exposed lo shows which emulate excitement, thrill, 
adventure, and challenge. These same children attend 
summer camp in search of personalizing some of excit- 
ing feelings. They identify with the challenge they view on 
TV and desire to somehow experience that in their own lives 
through risk activities. 

Values Arc Numerous 

Values offered through participation in backpacking, 
white^water canoeing, rockclimbing, rappeling, and others 
are numerous. What does involvement in adventure-risk 
activities offer the participant? 

A twelve-year-old once said, 'Mt's fun doing scary things. 
When it's scary, then you're, glad you've made it." For 
many who engage in risk activities, this idea holds true. 
Participation in a risk activity (whether the risk is actual or 
perceived) affects who you are and how you view yourself. 

The challenge could be perceived as an emotional, spiritual, 
mental, or physical one. But the end result is typically the 
rame; you're glad you've faced and met the challenge. 

Involvement in adventure-risk activities has been studied 
.by various researchers. Many of these studies reveal that 
wilderness adventure programs have a positive impact on 
the individual's self-concept. 

In most studies participants were gjvcn a .self-concept test 
before and after their involvement in the adventure program. 
The results were then compared. Although different .scales 
within the self-concept measure were affected differently, 
the overall outcome most frequently indicated that partici- 
pants viewed themselves, their capabilities, and others more 

Facing and overcoming stressful situations causes the par- 
ticipant to feel a of accomplishment; a sense of pride. 
As we risk, we are forced to expand our self-image and our 
capabilities. It is through involvement in risk activities that 
self-esteem is often enhanced. 

Risk activity participation encompasses a group of 
individuals, whether from a church, a camp, or a group of 
friends. In this risk environment interpersonal development 
has a unique opportunity to grow. We see ourselves and 
others in a variety of situations, many of which are pei^- 
sonaliy demanding. We learn to accept the strengths and 
weaknesses of others and ourselves. / 

Further, we are forced to depend upon others; to give/and 
to take. As a result of experiences, the participant can 
develop the ability to relate to others on a significant Ip/el. 

Involvement in risk activixies provides the development of 
new skills. Learning a skill for the first time and developing 
one's ability provides a sease of satisfaction. This nefw activi- 
ty involvement may be a one-time experience or develop into 
a lifelong interest or hobby. 

For those yearning for a change of pace, engaging in risk 
activities provides a diversion from the routine of daily 
living. Risk activity involvement gives the individual the op- 
portunity to engage in something new, different, and per- 
sonally challenging. Many people find a great need to par- 
ticipate in recreation which is different from their normal 

There are many values which can be derived from involve- 
ment in risk activities. Only a few have been presented here. 

Whatever the reason for participation in risk activities; 
whether it be pursuing challenges, developing new skills and/or 
relationships, exposure to new environments and experiences, 
exploring the unknown, .seeking personal goals, change of 
pace or focus . . .; the fact remains that more and more people 
are engaging in risk activities. 

Risk ProgramminK 

How much risk is involved in various outdoor activities? 
To what extent are these activities being-programmed? What 
are the major reasons contributing to the nonprogramming 
of risk activities? 

In 1978, a study was conducted on. risk activity programs 
gathering information from recreation agencies on various 
risk activities (Cowan, 1978, ma.ster's thesis). Included m 
the research were backpacking, bicycling, orienteering, rock- 
\climbing, skinAscuba diving, canoe/kayaking, and many 
Vhers. All respondents to the survey were asked to indicate 
whether the activities were of low, moderate, or high risk. 

Backpacking, bicycling, skin/scuba Uiving, and canoe/ 
kayaking were all rated to be moderate in risk. Orienteering 
was vievved as involving low-moderate risk, while 
rockclimbing was rated as moderate-high in risk. However, 
those lespondenis offering rockclimbing rated it as lower m 
risk (moderate) than not providing it in their programs. 
Those including rockclimbing in their program perceive less 
risk, in general, than those not programming it. 

Of those surveyed, approximately 32 percent offered back- 
packing as part, of their program. Only 3 percent schedule 
uri^'pteering, while 9.5 percent program rockclimbing, and 
48 percent include bicycling. Skin and/or .scuba diving was 
provided by 28.5 percent of the recreation agencies, whereas 
only 1 1.6 percent offered canoeing and/or kayaking. Overall, 
only 17 percent of the agencies provided risk activities. 

Survey study respondents were asked to indicate if they 
had available facilities for the various activities. Then they 
were asked if they offer them. A comparison was conducted 
to gather inforjtiation. on the percentage of those having 
facilities, but not offering the activity. 




Of those with nearby backpacking and rockclimbing areas, 
13.3 percent and 10 percent respectively don't offer programs 
in;thesc activities. Scuba/skin diving is not provided by 30,8 
percent of those with available facilities. There are 52.2 per- 
cent of those with canoeing and/or kayaking areas and 32.3 
percent of those with bicycling areas which don't include 
these activities in their program schedule. 

Why aren't activities scheduled? 

Recreation programming agencies not providing the 
.activities cited unavailable qualified personn'jl as the major 
cause for not offering backpacking and orienteering, while 
lack of available facilities contributed to the nonprogram- 
rning of bicycling, canoeing, kayaking, and skin/scuba 
diving. Rockclimbing isn't offered by recreation agencies 
which don't have available facilities and that are concerned 
with insurance liability. 

In summary, the cause most contributing to the non- 
scheduling of these ri^k activities wasn't insurance liability 
concern, but a general lack of available qualified personnel 
and facilities. 

This research study indicated that those activities often 

feared by camp personnel as containing undesirable elements 
of risk aren't perceived as high in risk by other recreation 
professionals. In addition, the main scheduling deterent for 
most programmers was not the risk involved (insurance 
liability concern.s), but rather the lack of facilities and/or 
qualified personnel. 

Should risk activities be offered in our camp program.s? 

Societal trends continue to lead toward increased partici- 
pation in these activities. Further, risk programs and activi- 
ties have demonstrated their positive effect on individuals. 
Camping professionals must consider these issues as they 
decide on program activities. 

Camp programs need to provide the challenge sought by 
many of our youth. Camping's history included adventurous, 
rustic living. Too many of our camps are too comfortable, 
encouraging a complacent society with complacent Christians, 

Challenge, adventure, and risk programs need to be incor- 
poratcd into our camp schedules if we are to meet the total 
needs of our clientele. Risk activities not only can add signi- 
ficantly to a camp program, but more importantly, can add 
to an individual's life and self-esteem. 

Section IV 

rafts at Camp-- What Directors Should Know 
About Planning a Program 

Barbara Wrenn 

C*AMI'1N(J Maoa/isi < Mak( M 1980 

Jl he atmosphere at camp is characterized by energy and ad- 
venture. Campers connect to time, earth, and weather three 
important factors that give camping a verbal location. 
Camp directors must make the most of each in a well- 
organized combination. The key to successful camping is in 
the planning, and this is especially true in planning craft pro- 
grams. If craft programs are dealt with as an afterthought, 
the result will be classes which are, at best, entertaining but 
not especially memorable. 

One of the benefits to campers in a well-taught and inno- 
vative craft program is that time is on their side. To learn a 
skill, to get caught up in the process of mastering a technique 
with ait , materials to the extent of working independently, 
requires a span of uninterrupted time. Kids rarely encounter 
this in school where the art classes are sometimes an exercise 
in getting out materials just in time to put them away again. 
Frustration generally affects the enthusiasm for the work. 
Kids give up and the art work becomes an unfinished project, 
another one of those nameless conglomerations gathering 
dust on an anonymous shelf. 

In camps the proper setting and the kind of atmosphere 
can be provided to change all that. Camping is a .situation 
where kids get to do things which are out of the ordinary 
and generally not available at home. Craft skills should be 
right alongside more traditional camp activities. 

What is a craft program? How is one put together? What 
are the benefits? How is the cost arrived at and which skills 
should be taught? How does the camp director work with 
the craft teacher? What is the responsibility between the 
camp director and craft teacher? Who does what? 

The best craft programs are limited to specific skills which 
can be started and completed during the camp session. 
There .are skills which may be learned in a day and .'^kiljs 
which can be developed over weeks or months and there is 
O 'alucineach. 


There are considerations which are particular to, camp 
craft programs. They run the gamut of hiring teachers, v^^ork- 
ing with them if they arrive at the last minute, helping to 
acquaint them with the .schedules, plus designing the program, 
purchasing materials, creating storage space which is both 
secure and accessible, and making sure tools are safe and in 
good condition. 

Whether the teacher is hired for the .summer during a 
college break or a professional artist or tcaclier, communica- 
tion must be e.stabli.shed early. Ask them to submit an outline 
which includes the craft skills they are able to teach. 
Whether just installing a program or giving a shot of- 
adrenalin to the old one, it is e.s.sential to the content 
of the program. What skills will be taught? What projects 
will be made? Are they appropriate for the age groups in the 
camp? How much time is needed to learn the processes and 
techniques and to complete the craft? Are there special con- 
siderations like lengthy drying time? The teacher should be 
able to outline the materials needed for each craft taught. 
Cost them out per .student. How much per project per stud- 
ent? How many projects will each student make. Plan to 
buy in advance and in volume to save money plus anguished 
trips to town to look for extra gallons of glue or other urgent 

Keep the choice of craft projects simple. **Cost out" the 
amount of space needed for each camper to work effectively 
and get a feeling for how many can work together at the 
same time. Allow for kids who will wander in to work on 
their crafts at odd hours, whenever they have free time. Plan 
the space to include shelves for projects which need drying 

Harhiira H'renn has tau^^ht cxiensively in 4'H cawf}s whcrt she hecanw 
inicrvsii'd in the special problems of craft toachin^i in camps, f ormerlv she 
was \^uth Ciood fh)usekeepin\>, Needlecraft, ami Time t tie f 'amity Creative 


lime. Establish an ideniiiy procedure, such as allotting certain 
iareas to certain craft skills. Hang up signs which will direct 
students to their area. Even the largest, airiest craft hall can 
become a circus when a dozen, kinds of projects are mixed 
together in various stages of completion, with sticky objects, 
leaning precariously, sinking with too much glue, decorated 
with moths struggling to get free. ^ 

Provide Examples to Create Interest 

. How do you dhoose the content of the craft program? 
What craft skills will be taught? Beginning with the end 
result, kids like to decorate two things: themselves and their 
rooms, and they- iike to make presents. When they view the 
possibility of decorating their jean jacket with a one-of-a- 
kind design, they will be a lot more excited than the prospect 
of braiding yet another whistle lariat. If the teacher can pro- 
vide examples of each craft project, it will be an, on-going 
„ advertisement for the program. Begin each new camp session, 
at breakfast on the first day, with a brief description about 
the program. Show the crafts. Mention any small costs that 
may be involved. Explain what 5A:///5 will be taught and what' 
the camper can make after learning them. Describe the 
schedule and later let everyone look over the crafts at close 
range. A display board on which the examples are safely 
attached will be useful in the craft hall, both as an attention- 
getter, and for providing role models. It helps to see a 
fimished craft so campers know what is being created. Keep 
the display board updated every year with fresh work. Crafts 
tend to look murky unless cared for, like renegades from a 
thrift shop. 

To encourage campers, work towards impact in presenting 
a craft program. Children inherit attitudes from various 
sources which can inhibit,, their participation. Attitudes 
range from *'*T*could never make this^ to just not wanting 
much structure, or classrc?om-type irKruction. Enthusiasm 
and spont^aneity come with confidence and anticipation of 
good things to come. \ ^ ^. . 

AS^riet>'^of conditions can combine to create indifference 
and <\perficial effort and involvement. Indifference is 
preceded by feelings of helplessne > nnd panic. Too many 
kids, too li/tle preparation before camp begins, confusion in 
the storage of materials, and lack of structure in schedules 
add to confusion. Indifference results Trom feeling over- 
■ whelmed. 

Instructor's Attitude Important 

The personality of the teacher is an important factor. Kids 
are quick to size up a teacher and an enthusiastic teacher can 
create a cluster of excited artists. Teachers need to see their 
summer job as more than just a ''summer job.'' They need 
to connect the experience to their careers in generabas an op- 
portunity to participate in designing and teaching an educa- 
tional program and especially to take responsibility for the . 
outcome. The ideal outcome would be if everyone in camp 
learns at least one craft skill and completes one craft project 
successfully. - ' 

How do you measure the success of a program? One indi- 
cation of success is when no one leaves anything behind. There 
is a special quality to a craft room full of busy, happy people. 
There is intensity and concentration and a feeling of produc- 
tion. Pride in good work is measured by a camper's willing- 
ness to show it, wear it, display it, and take it home. There 
should be a camp photographer who records the highlights 
of each season for^the camp records and for PR purposes. 
There is a lot of PR value in pictures of delighted campers 
' holding up a finished work of art. 

Evaluation Aids Planning 

At t'lie end of the camping season, have the teacher evalu- 
ate the program and giv^ a report. The report should include 
how niany campers were in the program over the summer, 
what skills were taught, and which were the most popular, 
what tlie total cost for all materials were and how these costs - 
break down per camper per p/oject. Ask for recommenda- 
tions fornext year's program whether this teacher will be at 
• 'the camR again or not. Include the physical plant, such as 
craft hall and materials storage. Was the space adequate? 
Were the materials appropriate and were there enpugh? 
What kinds of improvements were suggested? This 
information can be a guide for planning nfxt year's 

In choosing the content of a craft program decide what 
the teacher c^n handle and still provide a broad range of 
interest to the campers. Is there.^a theme to the camp? Is there 
anything that should be emphasized? Should ''nature crafts'-' 
(crafts made from objects usually found in natural s.ettings) 
be combined with other skills? . . 

An example of such a combination might b#tardboard 
loom weaving, where grasses andMea^es are combined and 
woven in with traditionaryarns. It would be an especially • 
interesting program to begin by teaching yarn and string 
dyeing from natural dyes. Materials to make the dyes^can be 
found in weeds, plants, and vegetables. No on^'will^ver 
take color for granted afte;- making their own dyes. There is 
a great" suspense in a craft where campers hunt for the basic 
materials, then create the colors. Nothing is predictable , 
terms of density or depth of color, ^Very batch oT dye is a 
new experiment. A rope hung between trees can serve as a 
clothesline for dye lots of yarns. 

Combinations -o/ yarns and the actual platits that create 
them, after they are dried, can result in an intriguing craft 
project whether it is a woven wall hanging or a macrame 
piece. Looking over the collecti(^n drying outdoors, subtle 
oranges, yellows, purples, reds, and rusts, make cahipers ' 
aware of the craft program and the beauty and simplicity of 
the material, which is ah art form in itself. 

Do a workflow sheet for an ambitiods craft project such 
as dyeing plants and weaving. An example might look like 

Day 1— Collect plants, flowers, vegetables, weeds. Separate 
mto dye lots and proceed to make batches of dye.- 

Day 2— Dye fabrics, yarn!*, or string to be used in the craft | 
project. . * i 
- Dav 3— Yarns should have dried overnight. Aflow .hree 


"Perspective*; on Administration/73 

days for learning basic weaving or macrame techniques and 
to complete a small project like a purse or hanging. Total 
time spent on project — fivedays. 

Campers Shquld Take Skills Home 

Provide small notebooks for the campers to record pro- 
cesses and directions. The ultimate value for any craft pro- 
grain will emerge when the crimper returns, home. In the 
camp's craft p'rogram they will have learned the beginning 
techniques in a particular craft skill: The level of taste and 
design, coi;i3bined with invention through working with 
materials, will create the basic interest in the craft. The writ'ten 
instructions will give them the incentive to work on their 
own when they leave camp, or to seek further j^nformation 
and project material. 

Many thinK of childhood as a collection of time in which 
certain ev^entsv took place. It is important that children are 
allowed enough time for childhood— to play, explore, and 

invent. If there are too many interruptions while the child is 
involved in the inventive process, he may grow up with a 
sense of hjaste and impatience, and perhaps improverishment. 
The chilq will become involved in frenetic activity because 
he was conditioned to think of the **empty hours" of child- 
hood as useless arid non-productive. 

Their sense of childhood should be reimburses and inven- 
tion encoluraged through processes and experimenting" with 

^materials? and colors and patterns. This is one of the main 
contributions the camping experience can make; by 
providing the time, the luxury of materials and processes, 
and the examples to provide ideas and inspiration. What 
campers construct while they are at camp is just the 

. beginning. Camping leaders can contribute by getting them 
started. The campers' contribution is completing what they 
started. An even greater contribution on both sides is the 
evolution and continuity of a craft skill after the camper 
returns home. 


Section IV 

The Teachable Moment 

Ted Witt 

CAMPfNG Magazine/February 1978 


A he educational aspect of camping is one of its most valu- 
able assets. Conscientious camp program directors insist on 
plc^nning for a wide range of educational opportunities which 
maximize the chances for learning and change to take place 
in'the camper. In spite of good planning, educational objec- 
tives are seldom met completely. Thus, camp program direc- 
tqrs are usually lool^ing for means which will strengthen the 
educational aspect of the camp's program. 

One method by which educational objectives can be more 
completely met is full utilization of the spontaneous teachr 
able moments which arise as a normal part of camp liie. 
Since these moments .originate in the can^per, they are equally 
present jn any style of cau.p operation — from the formal, 
nighly-structured to the more informal^ loosely-structured. 

What is a teachable moment? 

A teachable moment is a time when the camper and the 
situation have made all the conditions right for learning to 
occur. It is a-vulnerable time when the camper is in a recep- 
tive mood, and his attitudes and values are susceptible to 
creative cljange. The camper has opened the mind's door 
and itivited someone else to come in and share. The value of 
the teacTiatflc moment resides in the fact that the camper is 
ready to leat^n becaujfc he is asking to be helped. Under these 
circumsjana^es iht most effective-jand creative learning 
oc6urs. I 

Opportunities for teachable moments come often and in 
many forms. It may be a camper's comment: *M wonder 
what made lhat tree look like that." It may be a point of dis- 
agreement within the group: '^Everyone else may want to 
Ytake the high trail, but J chjluit think we should." It may be 
the discovery of something never noticed: ■ *I didn't kno\^' that 
abouran orb-spider web." 

It may be the discovery of a new skill: **I did it!'* It may 
be a question that one had never thought to ask, or never 
O _;uid nerve to ask: Wonder why things have to riie?" It may 

be a failure of some kind: 'That has got to be the worst cook- 
out meal I've ever trij^d to eat!" The list of possible teachable 
moments is limitless and unpredictable. 


Because of the unpredictable nature of the teachable 
moment, it is difficult to teach leaders how to adequately 
recognize and respond when they arise. The benefits of these 
moments are limited only by the inability of the leader to use 
the tea^chable moment to maxinium advantage. Thus,%igh 
on the^ priority list of every camp director should be time 
spent with staff helping them to recognize and respond to*, 
ihese valuable teachable moments. When the teachable 
moment is missed, the opportunity for related learning is 
mi.ssed. Every teachable moment is an opportunity. 

It was a wise person who observed that some persons 
murder opportunity, others take advantage of opportunity, 
and a few persons create opportunity. For the benefit of our 
camming experiences, it is helpful to substitute the phrase 
"teachable moments" for the word opportunities. 

How to Murder Opportunity 

The murder weapon most oft^^n used to kill the excitement 
of a teachable moment is insensitivity. Often camp leaders 
simply do not hear or see what a camper is trying to com- ' 
municate. A questio^ may be raised or the group may be 
faced with an issue which simply escapes the leader's atten- 
tion. The cause may be simply pre-occupation with other 
things. At worst, the cause is sheer callousness to what is 
happening. Nevertheless, in any case, opportunity is 

Ted Witt is operator of five West Ohio ConJerence--United Methodist 
Camps, . 

'PtuspKc rivEs ON Administration 


Sometimes the murder weapon is insecurity on the part of 
the leader. An issue may be raised with which the leader is 
either uncomfortable or unknowledgeable. Rather than 
expose the personal insecurity, the leader chooses to ignore 
or sidetrack the teachable moment — opportunity murdered. 

Another murder weapon is misordered priorities. The 
leader may be more concerned about meeting an agenda 
than meeting the needs of a camper. This homicide may be 
observed in a comment such as, **W^ don't have time to 
stop and talk now. It's time for us to go swimming." Op- 
portunity murdered. 

An often used murder weapon is employed by the camp 
leader who is overly eager to display his knowledge to the 
itilpressionable campers. A camper asks a question which 
ppens the door for^' some? creative and probing thinking. The 
unthinking leader (eager to impress) gives a quick, very 
factual **answer" which quickly closes the door. Opportunity 
murdered. ' , 

The tragedy of the murdered teachable moment is that it 
can seldom be revived. The time was right and time can sel- 
dom be turned back to recover the mood of receptivity 
present when the teachable moment first came. Any attempt 
to inject new life into a postponed teachable moment by use 
of artificial respiration is a failure. It is unfortunate when a 
leader murders a teachable moment by failure to respond. 
The first step in adding the teachable moment to our educa- 
tional tool kit is to^have the sensitivity to recognize it. 

HowjoJJsc Opportunily 

The next step is to have the. securitv and competence to 
deal with the teachable moment. Using the teachable moment 
(taking advantage of the opportunity) also takes many forms 
since it is a direct response to a specific situation. The form 
depends upon the situation, the leader, the environment, 
and the nature of the issue. 

. On some occasions the opportunity may be dealt with in a 
simple, direct, and straight-forward way. This is the most 
often used. It is also thc^most often misused. Creative think- 
ing is stifled by a direct answer. Camp leaders need to learn 
HO help a group expand thinking pov/ers by assisting them in 
'^he discovery of their own answers.' A good method is tb^k 
jading questions which require thinking. 

for example, a group may discover a malformed tree and 
someone asks why it became that way. The leader's tempta- 
tion is to give a direct answer. However, to take maximum 
advantage of this opportunity the group leader can ask a 
series of questions such as: is this the only tree you see 
shaped like this? Are there other trees of this species in the 
area?Mf so, do they have the same characteristics? 

Do you see in the=arca*any evidence which might indicate 
the cause? Let^s brainstorm. What possible causes are there? 
Of all possible causes we've thought about, which is the 
most likely? Why? Could it have been prevented? 

Was it caused by nature or man? In light of what you know 
about ecology, should the tree be left as is or should it be cut? 
When such a process i.'^^followed something more important 
than the an.swcr is taught— campers develop the ability to 

Cariipcrs seem to have the ability to ask qucstion.> to which 
leaders do not know the answers. This should no threaten 
the good leader, but should serve 2}^ a great motivation. A 
-sensitive leader may say in this situation, 'M'm not sure what 
made tlfc tree malformed, but iQt's see if we can find out." 
The leader and campers become co-searchers for the truth . 

In using the teachable moment, a wise leader will want to 
turn to the group for suggestions. This is especially true of 
situations involving differences of opinion, dealing with 
failure, or discipline problems. In these kinds of opportuni- 
ties, it is wise to be able to collect and evaluate all available 
before coming up with a solution., Campers will often 

be able to solve their own problems if the leader is open to 
their suggestions. Leaders may also discover that the 
camper's solution may be superior to their own. 

All teachable moments do not necessarily require an 
answer. Some may require a question. For example, after a 
bad cookout, the sensitive leader may simply ask, **Wcll, 
what went wrong?" 

Sometimes even spoken words are not necessary to 
respond to a teachable moment. It may require no more 
than a warm accepting smile or an encouraging and affirm- 
ing hug. 

How Ip create opporSunilies 

A teachable moment is a spontaneous outgrowth of a group 
or individual exp£rience. The emphasis is on spontaneity. 
Although one cannot anticipate or manufacture teachable 
moments, an alert leader can help create an environment so 
accepting and.gordial that campers are more likely to open 
themselves to desirable change. 

If a camper knows that he will be accepted and loved under 
all circumstances, that he will not be laughed at or belittled 
if he asks a question that is important to him, that suggestions 
offered will be given equal consideration along with all 
others, that he is secure in the group— then the conditions 
are right for the camper to ppen himself to possible change. 
Such self-opening is possi;bJe because the individual has 
sufficient trust that the group will help and support rather 
ahan abuse or tear down. Creating this kind of atmosphere 
makes it more likely that teachable moment opportunities 
will come. - . . < 

An alert camp leader may, without being rnanipulative, 
encourage and create some situations in which campers are 
more likely to create teachable moments. For example, a 
hike through an area victimized by forest Jire will almost 
certainly the campers to raise quesijons. The good 
leader is constantly seeking situations which stimulate the 
camper to want to learn. 

Many camp leaders are so eager to have their group suc- 
ceed that they will go to a?jy extreme to keep them from 
failure. This attitude may be an injustice to the group.. One 



PERSPEcrvES ON Administration/75 

of the most LTcativc teachable moments may be after a 
failiire. The leader sfjould be willing to let the group fail so 
long as the failure docs npt jeopardize the health or well- 
being of the campers. If handled properly, what happens in 
the teachable moment of failure may be more creative than 
whai happens after a success. It should be noted, of course, 
that a group or individual faced consistently with failure 
should be given the opportunity to succeed. 

Learn to Use Teachable Moments 

The ability to creatively use a- teachable moment may be 
the most valuable tool available to h camp leader. The 
ability can be cultivated and should be stressed and practiced 

in staff training. Camp directors need to be sensitive to the 
teachable moments which arise in staff training. In cultivat- 
ing this skill each staff member can: 

Learn to listen to what persons are saying. 

Keep eyes.and ears open to what is happening in the dyna- 
mics of the group. 

Become acquainted with age group characteristics and the 
types of questions raised by persons of various ages. 

Become' familiar with as many camp-related, topics as 

Learn to help persons clarify issues that are raised. - , 
Learn where to locate authoritative information about 
subjects with which they are unfamiliar. 

Learn when to speak and when to remain silent. 

Section IV 

Eight Things Parents Want from Camp-- 
Does Your Camp Provide Them? 

Frank and Lucile Henderson 

Camping Magazine/March 1959 

l3tudy this checklist carefully and thoughtfully, and see how 
your camp rates on the things parents want from camp and 
how you can make it rate even higher next season. 

Representative parents of campers met in a symposium of 
the Washington Section of the American Camping Associa- 
tion in Seattle and told directors they want these things for 
their children in summer camps: 




An opportunitv for ^roup living. mlh contemporaries to 
learn ^^adaptability." They mentioned that this experience 
cannol begin too^/Dung. As one expressed it: ''Camp is the 
best place to laJinch your child on his first steps of individ- 
uality. It releases him for the first time from the position 
he cannot escape in the family— the adult world which sur- 
rounds him and tends to cramp his style." 
Increased opportunities to practice and develop leadership 
through the give and take of group living; opportunities 
to learn fair play and sportsmanship; participation rather 
than radio-listening, TV-viewing, or movie-sitting; broader 
viewpoints and new evaluations — true citizenship training. 
The cooperative intelligent discipline which is engendered 
by camp life through example and fine relationships with 
other campers and staff; new voices teaching manylessons 
which have been stressed at home (cleanliness, table man- 
ners, courtesy, speech, helpfulness, etc.) 
Good health and physical welhbein^ developed by well-run 
camps with clean and adequate facilities, ample, well- 
balanced meals, good medical supervision, plenty of sun- 
shine, a good balance between physical activity and sound 
sleep and. rest away from the noise and confusion of city 
hfe, regular hours and the good habits of simple living. 
5. An appreciation of the outdoors and nature; adventure 
with the elements; sensing closeness to sun, wind, rain, 
darkriess, tides, moon, stars, mountains, streams, fresh 
and salt water, sleeping under sky or canvas; to fish, dig 
clams, hunt crabs or oysters; to know trees, shrubs, plants 
for their beauty and worth; to paddle a canoe; to know 
cattle, sheep, deer, rabbits, raccoon, ducks, chickens, 
snakes, loads, chipmunks or crickets— becommg friends 
' with these things is closely akin to religion with a child; his 
world is vast and beautiful, close and comfortable! 
h. ihc companionship un'i leadership of carefully selected 


youn^ adults sharing their own skills with earnestness and 
enthusiasm in the role of counselors; individual attention 
where each camper counts as a persi .'^ and a full program 
offering a variety of activities develops skills and interests 
to carry through adulthood. Here, as elsewhere, it was 
recognized that there is a wide difference among camps, 
including organization, church, school, and independent 

7. The development of self-reliance: learning to cook over an 
open fire, to use such elementary things as matches, pocket 
knife, and hatchet; for younger campers, to bathe, comb 
and dress oneself; to tidy up camp Quarters and to care for 
belongings; to recognize that others must brush teeth, put 
away shoes, and clean up! 

8. Through some fun, some work, some play, some instruc- 
• Hon, camp should deliver large measures of happiness and 

achievement; memories of games, .songs, campfires, and 
laughter; enduring friendships (especially to those who. 
return); inspiration and worthiness, of purpose which 
comes from example and youth discussions; and a whole- 
some moral and spiritual attitude which is the by-product 
of good program, planning, Jeadership, and guidance. 

The Hendersons retired as co-direclors of The San, Juan ItUernafional 
Camps, Seaifte, Washhwori, 


Section IV 

How to Find Out What Campers 
Really Feel About Camp 

Joseph A. Schwartz 

Camping Magazine/September 1968 


n a continuing search to offer the best possible service to 
its campers, the New Jersey **Y" Cu/nps developed a ques- 
tionnaire to get the impressions of both campers and parents 
on children's total experience at thecamps. 

The project originated with a lay program committee, waii 
tested out by sampling techniques, and was processed to in- 
volve parents, campers, the board, and staff in evaluating 
response to the camp's services. 

The questionnaire was sent to campers two days after they 
left camp so that responses to questions asked would be fresh 
in the minds of respondents. 

Out of the 1,538 questions that were sent out, 788 or 5.1 
percent responded. No signature wa» required in order that 
the respondents might feel free to be as frank as they wished. 
The high percentage of response is an indication of th^ 
interest and shared concerns of the camp's clientele. 


The questionnaire was divided into ten categories, with 
each category designed so that the respondent could easily 
answer the multiple choice questions asked. Space for com- 
ments was provided at the end of each category. Following 
are the categories which we used in oui questionnaire. 

1. Identification of which camp and division the child at- 
tended. (We operate three separate camps with eighteen 
divisions.) * 

2. The child's feelings about camp. Docs he want to return? 
Did he really get to know and like his bunkmates? Did he 
mature and learn from the camp experience? 

3. What arc the child's feelings about camp staff? How was 
the individual counselor, and what about the staff in 

4. Health practices. Was camper adequately protected? 

5. Food Service. How was it? Was there enough to eat? 

6. A general response to overall program; 
a. Action 

b^. Free time 

7. Some question^ about the visiting day— adequate, too 
long, etc. 

8. Special programs (ley ture$, concerts, cultural activities). 

9. Waterfront program— brokeh down into instruction, 
general swinfi, canoeing, boating, etc. 

10. A general response to activity program including specific 
athletics, crafts, nature, photography, etc. 

We kept the questions short and in e^ch case provided a 
multiple choice type response; i.e.. The camper's counselor 
was: (1) Great, (2) O.K., (3) Not so good. Under free time, 
the three choices would be: (I) Enough, (2) Too much, and 
(3) Not enough. 


Through examination of the results of the survey, the camp 
administration learned more about certain areas in program- 
ming which need to be strengthened. A concentrated effort 
will be made to modify in some instances, and to augment in 
others, programs being offered. Need for better interpreta- 
tion of the camp's educational policies in some areas also 
was indicated. 

Education of board members will be another plus factor 
in the use of the results of the questionnaire. Through study 
of this material, board members have become more 
sophisticated and .knowledgeablC^ regarding total camp 
operation; exciting rtieetings of the program committee and 
of the entire board have revolved around the study findings. 

Survey results are shared in detail with key staff in an effort 
to get them to better understand the needs expressed by 
campers and parents. Hopefully, improvement of practice 
will follow such understandings. 

We would recommend this method of studying attitudes 
toward agency service to all centers, resident, and day camps. 
The results of our study ^have been most gratifying and 

Jospeh A. Schwartz is Executive Director of the New Jersey YMHA- 
YWHA Camps in MUford, Pennsylvania. 

Section IV 

The Camp Program 

Discussion Questions and Resources 


I. Divide into small groups, and using a brainstorming ttch- 
niaue, develop a list of general principles that guide in the 
*lopmcnt of a canip program. How do these principles 

relate to the camp objectives, and then, to th^ camp pro- 

What are the fundamentals of program development? 

Perspectives on Admin^stration/77 


Outline them step-by-slep. 

3. Analyze a camp schedule to determiiie if there is a proper 
balance of activities. Recommend specific changes to im- 
prove the program. How critical is the camp schedule? 

4. How important are areas, facilities, equipment, and sup- 
plies in the development and implementation of the camp 

5. Develop an evaluation plan for camp. Consider the follow- 
ing questions: Who and what should be evaluated at camp? 
Who should be responsible for the evaluation? Who should 
be asked to evaluate? When and how should the informa- 
tion be gathered? What kinds of information should be 
gathered? What are the purposes of seeking information? 
How will the information be analyzed and reported back? 

Resources » 

Ball, Armand B, and Ball, B. H. Basic Camp Ma nasement. " Br adford 
Woods, Martinsville, IN: American Camping Association, 1979. 

Bcrger, lean \\. Proj>ram Activifies for Camps. Minneapolis, MN: Burgess 
Publishing C ompany, 1969. 

C'oiitcllier, Connie. 'Pw Outdoor Soa/c. Kansas City, MO: Camp Fire, 
I no,, 1980. 

Ham melt, Catherine T. The Campcraft Book. Bradford Woods, Martins- 
ville, IN: American Camping Association, 1981. 

Hart wig, Marie D. and Myers, B. B. Camping Leadership: Counseling 
and Programming. St. Louis:. C. V. Mosby Company, 1976. 

Mitchell, Viola A., Robberson, J. D., and Obley, J. W. Camp Counseiing. 
(5th ed.) Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 1977. 

Musselman, Virginia W. The Day Camp Program Book. New York: 
Associated Press/FoUett, 1980. 

Kraus, Richard. Recreation Today: Program Planning and Leadership, 
New York: Applcton-Century-Crofts/Meredith Corporation, 1966. 

National Easter Scal Socieiy. Guide to Special Camping Programs. Chicago, 
IL: National Easter Seal Society, 1968. 

Rodney, Lynn S. and Ford, P. M. Camp Administration. New York: 
The Ronald Press Company, 1971 . 

Rossi, Peter H., Freeman, H. E., and Wright, S. R. Evaluation: A Systema- 
tie Approach. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, 1979. 

Tillman, Albert. The Program Book for Recreation Professionals. Palo 
Alio, CA: National Press Books, 1973. 

Vinton, Dennis A. and Farley, E. M. Camp Staff Training Series. "Camp 
Program Planning," and "Leadership and Evaluating the Camp Experi- 
ence," Lexington, KY: Project REACH, University of Kentucky, 1979. 
Available from AC\. 

Wilkinson, Robert E. Camps, Their Planning and Management. St. Louis: 
C.V. Mosby Company, 1981. " . 



Ih • Pf-RSPFf ■ ri VPS ON AoMiNiSTH A noN 

Section V 
Programs for Handicapped Campers 







Perspectives on Administration/79 


lary Robb is the Director of Bradford Woods and an 
Assistant Professor at Indiana University. He is a past presi- 
dent of the National Therapeutic Recreation Society and a 
trustee for the National Recreation and Park Association. 
He has been actively involved in camping and outdoor edu> 
cation for disabled and handicapped persons as a camp 
director, researcher, and educator for many years. Mr. 
Robb responded to questions frequently asked about serving 
handicapped and disabled campers. 

Question 1 . Do you^believe most organized camps will 
serve or mil be faced with a request to accept a handicapped 
person as a camper? 

Robb: "It is rny feeling that the number of handicapped 
persons^currently participating in organized camps has hit aj 
peek and will stabilize at its present level, at least for the 
foreseeable future. This does not mean ^regular' camps will 
not be asked to accept campers with special needs. In fact, 
more and more camps will receive applications from 
handicapped and disabled persons. In other words, I do not 
believe that ^regular' camp directors will rush onto the band 
wagon in an attempt to serve greater numbers of campers 
with disabilities in the future than they have in the past.'' 

Question 2. Are there times when a camp director should 
decline to serve ' a camper because of a handicapping 

Question 5 ^n recent years, there has been much discus- 
sion about m » streaming handicapped children. What does 
this mean to camp directors? 

Robb: **Of course. It is important to screen all campers, Robb: **Mainstreaming is another term for integrating, 
but it is especially important to evaluate the needs of an In essence, it means to provide children who have been dis- 
individual camper who may have additional supervisory or advantaged in some way with the same opportunities as the 
medical needs. The screening should be done by qualified, rest of our society with their peers, when they are psycho- 
knowledgeable professionals with information collected logically, socially, mentally, and physically ready, 
from the parents, teachers, and therapists, as well as face-to- **In a camp situation, it is always important to consider a with the potential camper.'* camper's preference. Some handicapped campers may be in 

Qt>ESTiON 3. If a camp director is uncertain or has ques- 
tions about accepting a handicapped or disabled applicant, 
where should the camp director go for help? 

a mainstreamed classroom during the rest of the year, but 
prefer a specialized^ eamp in the summer. This request 
should be respected. Just as some camps, and rightly so, 
may feel they can not serve special populations, some handi- 
capped campers may feel they benefit from, enjoy, and prefer 
Robb: **If a camp director is uncertain about accepting a specialized camp. Ideally, however, there wpuld be as many 
a handicapped person because of the special care they would opportunities for disabled children to participate in main- 
require or because of their capabilities, more information streamed camp programs as there are for participating in 
must be requested of those involved in working with the specialized camp programs." 
prospective camper. Local organizations, involved profes- . 
sionals, and printed material can ai,d a camp director in- Question 6. Inclosing, what do you beliei^e the future 
developing general policies and procedures, but nothing can holds for providing organized camping experiences for ^^^dij-^ 
substitute for reviewing individual applications and face-to- rnnnoH rhiiHrt>n nnH nfiult^'^ v^"- 

face interviews in determining if a child is appropriate for a 
particular camp. It . is yery important to avoid labeling or 
categorizing a person by a disability; the variables involved 
in a person's ability to succeed or fail are innumerable." 

Question 4. What do you feel are the most important 
considerations for offering, a camp program to handicapped 

capped children and adults? 

Robb: ''I wish I had a crystal ball and could say that 
those people who are committed to organized camping will 
guarantee its continuance. Federal funds have made it, easier 
for handicapped people to attend camp and for camps to fill 
their vacancies, but the disappearance of federal funds does 
not mean the end of specialized camp programs; it does 
mean :iome readjusting in camper fees, programming, 
seasonal schedules, and methods of soliciting and generating 
fun(^s, just to mention a few. _ 

*Iti summary, it is important to continue t!o provide camp- 
ing experiences for persons with disabilities, just as it is 
important to provide these experiences to all people. I also 
believe that an important ingredient of the outdoor experi- 
ence should be focused on adventure programming. The 
sequencing 'and skill progression of adventure programs 

Robb: "First, handicapped and disabled campers have 
the same needs and interests that all of us have. But beyond 
the fact that there are more similarities than differences in 
the type of campr program offered, the campers should be 
evaluated to determine what each can realistically accom- 
plish to have a successful experience. Activities can be modi- 
fied when necessary for a camper to experience success with- . ^ 

out altering the camp's program; however, to accommbdate make them especially well-suited to persons with disabilities, 
for the individual differences and abilities of the campers, and the challenge involved offers great potential for personal 
individual functional abilities need to be identified; so, these growth. The future of organized camping for persons with 
groupings of ability levels can be more easily and effectively disabilities clearly lies in the hands of creative people and 
Q 'iccomplished . " peolc who are not afraid of risk and new ideas^ 






Section V 

Should Every Handicapped Person 
Have a Camping Experience? 

Jeanne E. Feeley 

Ml irst, 1 belic^ve we must decide what we mean by a camping 
experience. What camping is to me may be an absolute primi- 
tive wilderness existence or a plush country club hotel living 
to others. So for the purpose of this paper let us assume that 
a camping experience is a group living situation in a wooded 
or semi-isolated surrounding — with enough modern conveni- 
ences to provide shelter from .n'clement weather, provisions 
for sanitation, enough electricity for safety, acceptable mode 
of feeding and a method of keeping warm. This experience 
should be of at least one week duration. It need not be over- 
night, biit for the purpose of discussion we will say it is of at 
least a six-day duration in a resident situation. 

I believe every person, handicapped or not, should have at 
least onejcaxnping experience — but 1 also believe that every- 
one is not a camper. Camp life is not attractive to all people. 
It is important that all who can benefit from camping have 
the opportunity to do so. 

In life today we must return to first things first — the 
basics about ourselves. The informal living, working and 
playing conditions found in camp situations tend to empha- 
size basics, whether good or bad. ,>yho can you fool? No one 
— not even yourself once you return to the basic truths of 
living. It is the simple way of life, doing without expensive 
luxuries. There is an ease of living— a comfort created by the 
absence of the harried pace of life today— to live by the sun, 
to know equality of existence without the artificial noise of 

motors, radio, television, telephones, and the demands 
created by society today, to face yourself and realize how 
insignificant man is in comparison with nature. We say we 
have harnessed the elements, but when they are unleashed 
all the knowledge of man cannot control them until they are 
spent. - 

In camping we compete with ourselves and learn to succeed- 
with grace or fail with dignity. We dream of challenges and 
create actualities by our wit, sk{n,'a'r)d ability. We live with 
the quiet of the universe and learn to **know thy self." When 
you are down to the basics, who can you fool? 

I believe in the intrinsic values of can\ping. We need toTire- 
serve these values for our children and our children's chil- 
dren. Let all people whether mildly, moderately, or severely 
handicapped know what good camping is. The label or tag 
we so conveniently use to differentiate and separate the clients 
is unimportant, but the factor of providing them an oppor- 
tunity to know camping is. Then let them decide— all people 
handicapped or not should have a camping experience, but 
all people are not campers. Each to his own and what you've 
never experienced you'll never know and never know what 
you have lost. Provide the experience of good camping for 

Jeanne E, Feeley is director of an Easier Seal Camp in Pennsylvania. 

Section V 

An Overvew of Camping Objectives— 
Generic and Those Unique to Programs 
for the Handicapped 

Donato Capozzoli 

Training Needs and Strategies 
IN Camping for the Handicapped 

X he impetus for the development of camping facilities and 
programs for handicapped children has been based in the 
belief that handicapped children should be afforded the same 
wealth of experiences that are available to the nonhandi- 
cappcd or ''normal" child. The objectives of ''special" camp 
programs arc founded upon the objectives of the generic field 
of camping. Program activities in caitips^ for handicapped 
children are also generally a replication of the activities 
Tdund in a ty|i)icali "normal" camping program. ' 
• Along with the philosophy thSit handicapped children need 
the same experiences as other children was|he belief that if a 
camping experience were to be provided for these children, 
this experience could not or should not interfere with the 
needed therapeutic services the child received year round. 


Thus, programs developed with a strong emphasis on the 
provision of therapies in another, different, setting. Unfor- 
tunately, this led to the generai belief that if handicapped 
children were to be provided a camping experience, a 
"normal" camp would not be appropriate. 

With camping for handicapped children growing rapidly 
in scope, there has also been a growing recognition among, 
medical authorities that there is such a thing as too much 
therapy and that persons undergoing therapy or remedial 
treatment will not regress but, rather, benefit from a "vaca- 
tion" from much of the regimen. Therefore, while some 

Mr, Capozzoli was with the Boys Scours of America. 


Perspectives on Adiiinistiution/81 


''special" camps today continue to include specific treat- 
ment services in their camp programs, the majority of 
**special" camps are recreation oriented rather than treatment 

This trend brings us to a point where perhaps a closer look 
at the word ''special" is in order. A **speciar* camp that 
provides, speech therapy or physical therapy, for example, 
could be equated to a ''special" baseball camp, drama camp, 
or any other camp where there is a concentration on a 
specific; activity or skill development, occurring in a camp 

The many other camps, for handicapped children, then, 
should be equated with the majority of non-specialized 
camps for "normal" children. The goal in all these camps is 
the provision of a camping experience, based on the needs 
and abilities of the campers,. The needs of the handicapped 
campers, then, becomes the Wncern that dictates the amount 
and kind of '*speciar' conside^ions that may be necessary, 
ijn any camp setting, the needs artd abilities of the camper 
population will determine how the(program is implemented . 

While objectives and the activities by which these objec- 
tives are met are the same for normal and handicapped chil- 
dren, the methods of implementing these activities in a camp 
for the handicapped take into consideration the adaptions 
needed to provide the experience at the m'ost appropriate 
level for the campers participating in the experience. 

If there are any "unique" objectives in a camp program 
for handicapped children, these are based in the fact that the 
camp environment (place, program, people) is planned to 
afford a handicapped person sustained opportunity in an at- 

mosphere which focuses on realistic independence, as well as 
social and self help opportunities and challenges. 

There are many campers presently being served in camps 
for the handicapped who could be assimilated into normal 
camp programs and are not. A major part of the reason 
behind this lies in the fact that the "normal camp establish- 
ment" generally still equates handicapped with illness. 
Those of us involved in camping for handicapped children' 
must provide public education in much greater depth than 
our endeavors tp date. We need to interpret, to teach, and to 
provide consultation to the general field of camping that 
they could be integrating handicapped children into their . 

In camping as in other experiences, some individuals will 
always need a sheltered, special situation. Integrating these 
children may be of questionable value. But many thousands 
of handicapped children are in "special camps," "special" 
schools, and generally lead "speciar* lives when they could 
be benefitting most from, as well as contributing to, that 
which we call 'normal." 

Those of us involved in camping for the handicapped 
need to take a deeper look at our efforts at educating the 
generic field of camping to the vast potential service they 
could provide. Hopefully, this conference could be the 


Ncsbitt, John A. and Hansen, C. C. Training Needs and Stralegies in 
Camping for the Handicapped. Eugene, Oregon: University of Oregon, 

Section V 

Basic Principles of 

Special Population Camping 

Art Harrison 

Journal of CuRrsTiAN Gampinc;/July-Au(; 1980 

A hi.s is the day of creative and innovative camping. Almost 
everyone is interested in serving their particular constitu- 
ency in a more effective format. Private camps, nonprofit 
agency camps, religious and Christian camps— each one is 
searching seriously for the best possible opportunity to serve. 

Special populations: mentally retarded, physically handi- 
capped, emotionally disturbed, rtiedically dependent, older 
adults — all, have become more interested in and available for 
involvement in the camping experience in the past five years. 

Most camp administrators'have seriously pondered at one 
time or another* the question, **Can I really seyve special 
populations in a productive way? Is it feasible, given the 
specific circumstances of program, staff, site and facilities? 
What are the basic minimums I must consider?" Some have 
taken the **plunge" and are finding it to their liking while 
others are finding it difficult and want to back off. What are 
the basic requirements and what makes the difference between 
a successful and unsuccessful entry into this type of program- 

ming ! 



You must take a look at some of the broader, more geri 
aspects of it before delving into the specifics. 

If the camp has an on-going program, it is not necessary 
to alter that program substantially to serve special popula- 
tions. Most handicapped individuals prefer to integrate their 
particular abilities into the ''normal" existing situation rather 
than settling for ''special," 'watered down" programs to 
accommodate their '^assumed" inabilities and limitations. 

l2/pFH<pfif rivEs ON Administration 

Recognition of the simple fact that it often takes more time 
and a different space allocation to accomplish progr<:m goals is 
essential to the process. 

The question of "mainstreaming" is always on top of the 
question pile. Is it better to program special populations on 
an "exclusive" or "inclusive" basis? Generally, handicapped 
individuals and other people who work most closely with the 
handicapped feel tliat if integration of the handicapped into 
"normal" programming doe$ not significantly alter the pro- 
gram goals and objectives to a lesser level and does not 
reduce the experience to a mere excursion in simplicity, 
placing the handicapped into regular programming is useful, 
productive and rewarding for everyone involved. Careful 
attention to Mie ratio of handicapped to non-handicapped is 
important so that each individual in the program can expect 
to receive the proper amount of attention from the staff as 
well as opportunities to participate. ^ 

There are times when camping experiences are designed ex- 
clusively for the handicapped and non-handicapped are not 
involved. There are also situations when a handicapped unit 
i.s operating on the site and in program activities, as a special 
unit along with other non-handicapped groups. As are most 

An ff(frrison is (he founder and president of Harrison Hempe Sh'Call,, 
Inc., a S\(e plannmg and consulting firm in Ames, fo^va. As purl of a per- 
sonal continuing education experience, Mr. Harrison spent one summer 
working in a special camping program with the retarded. 


experiences, the best experience results from r.ome reasonable 
judgment on the part of the administrator about how the 
goals and objectives for the experience can supply the 
highest benefit to the most people without undue discrimina- 
tion, insensitivity, and frustration on the part of the individ- 
ual campers and staff. 


**Mainstreaming" is not always necessary, nor is it the 
most desirable in, some situations. However, it should always 
be available as a live option in any consideration of program- 
ming for the handicapped. 

A very common mistake on the part of program planners 
is the assumption that the handicapped can only participate 
in and perform limited activities. This is not necessarily so. 
Some of the most exciting programs for the handicapped 
involve such strenuous physical activities as hiking, back- 
packing, snow skiing, mountain climbing, canoeing, horse- 
manship and .so on. Never underestimate the miraculous 
combination of determination and motivation when achieve- 
ment is the goal. 

Good programming alway.s requires good staff in any 
camping experience. It is no different when camping with 
the handicapped. 

Two basic qualities in staff are essential to a good experi- 
ence with the handicapped. The first is attitude. An effective 
staff person has to have positive attitudes about the individ- 
uals with whom he or she will be working. This is no^ifferent 
than any staff-camper relationship in non-handicapped^ pro- 
grams. However, many handicapped individuals have 
physical characteristics which may be unusual enough to 
make the staff individual uncomfortable, unloving, or signi- 
ficantly frustratecf because the usual communication tech- 
niques are ngt effective and, the resultant behavior is not 
easily assimilated in the program. 

Staffing Needs 

It is extremely important that staff selected to work with 
the handicapped have some knowledge and understanding 
of the social and physical environments they will be required 
to work in. This is best accomplished by visiting the usual 
living environment where the campers reside normally, at 
his or her family^dwelling, group home, or institution. It is 
not necessary in this early learning stage to know who the 
individual campers will be. The most important thing is to 
get acquainted with the general handicapped population arid 
the lifestyle they display. This procejis should weed out those 
who feel they cannot work comfortably with the handicapped, 
and the remaining individuals who still wouldwike to be in- 
volved will not be surprised, shocked, or particularly ineffec- 
tive because of any unusual appearance or personal habits 
displayed by the '^special population" they will be involved 

This leads to the second basic quality— training. Deter- 
•mination and motivation a^e excellent qualities in staff as 
well as campers, but they do not substitute for training. 

The normal training that staff would receive for a non- 
handicapped program is still necessary. However, additional 
training is required to work effectively with thehandicapped. 

Staff must be ready to accomplish less volume of program 
>^^cause things tend to happen more slowly with the handi- 
capped. More one-on-one attention is required to monitor 
the handicapped individual closely for reasons of communi- 
cation, process, and safety. Recognition and a sensitivity to 
the limitations of the individuals under supervision physically, 
cmonorially, and medically are important. Techniques., for 
moving wheelchairs and assisting in movement processes 
neeid to be learned, again to assure safety and to limit ovcr- 
"♦Qp^'^ing some aspect of the camper's life/ 


Handicapped campers come with all kinds of human prob- 
lems common to everybody. Some of them bring additional 
problems of insecurity, loneliness, pain, frustration and a 
host of physical and medical problems. Qualified and quality 
staff need to have some training and experience in how to 
best integrate this **speciar'/camper into the program and 
achieve the stated goals. All/the iriiportant qualifications of 
staff at any camp are basic, but some extra skills in love, 
patience, innovation and stamina are also required and are 
best obtained through special training in '*real life situations" 
with the handicapped prior to the camp experience. 

Site and Facilities 

When the program and leadership aspects are developed*, 
it's time to turn to consideration of site and facilities. 

For the camp that would like to get into a **special popula- 
tions" program, try itTirst with the site and facilities as they 
exist, at a minimum level with selected handicapped campers. 
Do not renovate your- site and facilities based on assumed 
needs. The handicapped have been adapting to the '^normal" 
world forever, so a trial run at camp will be much more 
unusual for the **nornial" camp staff than for the handi- 
capped camper. 

Try things out. Adapt as you proceed. Let the campers 
define what some of the obvious needs are. Observe the prob- 
lem areas, consult both campers and staff, record the prob- 
lem areas. Possibly the ''special populations" route is not 
for a specific camp. The whole concept may be wrong for 
many reasons. Aren't you glad you didn't renovate to the 
tune of $100,000 or more accommodate '^special popula- 
tions" before you learned if it was a feasible option? 
, Almost any site can be adapted for the handicapped in its 
original condition without massive overhaul. Minor changes, 
such as paved pathways, ramps instead of steps, well marked 
and good sigh^ distance crossings in vehicular travel areas, 
improved night lighting, special program areas, large and 
highly visible signs and symbols, and push button recordings 
at stations along paths and roads to instruct and direct are 
all relatively simple things that can be accomplished to make 
any site more hospitable for the handicapped. 

The existing facilities are more difficult to deal with. A 
barrier-free environment is the ultimate goal to make camp 
places accessible to and usable by ^ndicapped persons. 
Most site and structural requirementsi^r a barrier-free envi- 
ronment are based on thp maneuverability of a person using 
a wheeichair. Such spaces will accomrtiodate a person on 
crutches as well as the normal ambulatory person. 

The most common wheelchair dimension is 40 inches 
long, 25 inches wide; height of seat 20 inches, height of arm 
rest 27 inches, height of pusher handles 36 inches, and the 
wheel diameter 24 inches. A five-foot square space is usually 
adequate for completely turning a wheelchair. Average reach 
of a person in a wheelchair is 30 inches, and the diagonal 
reach for using wall mounted equipment is about four feet 
from the floor. 

Adapting existing structures can be a costly item for the 
camp owner. No rules of thumb are available for the costs of. 
renovation of existing structures to/ meet acceptable stand- 
ards because of the great variety of camp buildings. How- 
ever, for new structures, with barrier free environments 
designed into the building, the normal cost for such a unit 
may be increased as much as 20 percent to include adaptability 
for the handicapped. 

Many organizations provide general information on the 
specifics of design and development of facilities, and these 
are available to camp owners: Rovernment agencies, local 
Easter Seal chapters; state and/ local associations for the 
developmentally disabled and/the medically dependent are 
all good spurccs. 

It is not possible within the content, of this article to 

PERSf ECTIVE.S ON Administrati(Jn783 

develop all (he design detail or identify the resources avail- 
able for camp administrators anticipating entering the field 
of **special population*' programming. A specific request to 
the C.C.I, office will produce specific resource material for 
the interested camp administrator. 

Camping with **special populations" is a rich and reward- 
ing experience. It is also Hustrating at times. It could involve 

costly capital improvements. It should not be entered into 
lightly. A thorough testing before making a final decision is 
a wise move. If and when it all happens properly, it's a great 
addition to any camp program; and the rewards to everyone 
involved, although not always monetary, are certainly life 
changing for the camper, the staff and the camp administra- 

Section V 

Multidimensional Approa' 
it) Camper Assessment 

Lynn D. Saslow 

Therapeutic Recrkation JoUrkai / Fourth Ouarter 1978 

abstract: Assessment of children in therapeutic camp pro- 
grams has become critical in this era of accountability. 
Because of the nature of camp structure, few standardized 
instruments, traditional headcounting or goal-oriented 
measures provide thorough and holistic assessment of 
c^nipers. A camp situation, whether day or residential, is 
structured to provide an intensive, ongoing interaction in 
which all aspects of the child interact and are involved. To 
assess a child from the per oective of one instri^ment and/or 
one evaluator docs not assess all aspects of the^iphild. Other 
approaches need to be explored to maintain a progressive and 
exploratory account of the camper's feelings, behaviors and 
skills. The possibility pf using a variety of additional objec- 
tive and subjective tools — behavioral observation, olfser'va-/ 
tional diaries, opinionaires, and interviews — from a variety 
of perspectives — caiVip staff, outside cvaluators, volunteers, 
parents, peers, and the camper him or herself — is explored 
in an effort to provide metho-lology to more adequately 
conduct assessment in the unique structure of the camp 


Assessment of campers in therapeutic camp programs has 
become critical in this era of accountability. In order to attain j 
an accurate, thorough, and holistic assessment of campers, ' 
many different assessment avenues should be explored. A 
camp situation, whether day or residential, is structured to 
provide an intensive ongoin| interaction in which all aspects 
of the camper interact and are involved. As much as possibk 
must be known about the camper if appropriate individual 
or group treatment plans and programming ideas are to be 
developed and if the effectiveness of staff training and the 
camp's program are to be evaluated. Assessing a camper 
solely from the perspective of one evaluator by using stand- 
ardized instruments, traditional headcounting, or goal- 
oricnted measures may not truly account for all aspects. 
This article suggests the use of a multi-method, multi- 
perspeetive, and exploratory account of campers' feelings, 
behaviors, and abilities. 

Assessment ^ 

Since the term 'therapeutic camping" has a variety of 
connotations depending on immediate frame of reference, 
for,t)ie purpose of this article the term will be associated with 
any camp setting aiming to help people understand themselves 
phy,sically, emotionally, socially, and/or .spiritually. Assess- 
ment is the periodic process of gathering information about 
these campers in order to establish their immediate functional 
levels in any or all of these four dimensions. This assessment 


is systematic and can use any given technique or combination 
of techniques which seems appropriate to the situation and 
the information desired (McReynolds, 1968). The more in- 
formed staff members are about their clients, the better they 
can plan more meaningful and relevant experiences for 
those participants (Gunn and Peterson, 1978). This holds 
true for therapeutic camping as well as other hunian service 

Many standardized assessment tools already exist. 
Although few have been developed for camp situations per 
se, many others can be and have been adapted for use in 
camps. Such instruments include the Minnesota Multiphasic 
Personality Inventory, the Gesell Developmental tests, the 
"Miranda Leisure imeTesrFiTrder,~rhe^nTiessee. Self-Concept 
Scale, and the Bender-Gestalt tests. Some of the specific 
areas commonly assessed include socialization skills, self- 
concept, mental status, daily living skills, physical abilities, 
recreation participation habits, and activity skills. Many of 
the tests have been developed for special target populations 
such as individuals with physical limitations, ^motional dis- 
turbances, mental retardation, visual impairments, or hear- 
jng impairments. 

Each tool requires a different assessment rhethod or way 
of gathering information. Some of^yhe more traditional 
methods rely on specific written or performance tests in the 
treatment setting (Brown and Koltveit, 1977). Others use 
questionnaires, role playing, medical r'ecoi;ds, or other 
recommendations and . referrals, observations, games, 
opinionnaires, and the like. These tools are completed for 
an individual by facility staff, by significant others with 
whom the individual interacts in outside-of-the-facility 
environments, and by the individual. 

The variety of instruments and^methodologies available 
indicates many factors may be important. Assessment tools, 
although meticulously designed and tested for reliability and 
validity, are valid reflections only of a few specific functions 
in given controlled situations (Brown and Koltveit, 1977). It 
is important to remember that a one-tpol assessment yields a 
structured -assessment of isolated components ratlier than a 
free-flowing representatipjfV of the holistic individual. Since 
there is no absolute way of assessing the whole individual, a 
combination of several methods seems to be a reasonable 

in preparing a multi-dimensional assessment method, 
elements can be classified into five broad categories: I) 
WHAT behaviors, skrlls, abilities, ot attitudes, will be 
assessed; 2) HOW the assessment will be done or what kind 
of tool will be used; 3) BY WHOM the tool wiH^e-completed; 

Lynn Saslow '-Jank(o\i' ts currently a counselor for Partners, fnc.f in 
Weld County Colorado. 



4) WHERE the tool will be used; and 5) WHEN, or how 
often, the tools will be administered. Table 1 provides a 
sample representation of possible categorical elements from 
which to develop a multidimensional assessment: 


Categorical Elements for Multidimensional Assessment 

Mental status 
Daily living skills 
Physical abilities 
Activity skills 
Feelings, attitudes, and 


Written tests 
Performance tests 
Medical records • 
Recommendaitions and 

Role Plays 

Cloal-orienied objectives 
Inductive comments 
Diary record ' , 
Nonverbal demonstrations 

By mom 

Camp nurse or doctor 
Campers on tbemscivcs 
Campers on other campers 

Referring agents 
Consulting therapists 



Begin ning^fcanfip 
End of camp 

Scheduled intervals during 

Randomly during camp 





School ' 

Doctor's office or clinic ' ^ 

Selecting elements of concern from these categories depends 
on the nature of the camp: whether itois day or residential; the 
ability and age level of the campers; program structure; and 
the goals and objectives of the camp for the campers. The 
elements chosen may vary froni time to time or season to 
season, depending on practical siiccess and failure of various 
strategics or combinations of elements. The important assess- 
ment goal is obtaining as much accurate information about 
the individual as possible. By using each element once and 
relating it to each of the other el ements, one would theoreti- 
cally obtain the most thorough possible reflection of each 
camper. Due to time, finances, and energy, such an assess- 
ment is neither practical nor pcjssible. Also, perhaps more 
importantly, the purpose of the assessment and specifijj 
information sought must be kept in mind when choosing 
which elements to use. - [ 

One important component of me multidimensional assess- 
ment method \^ that many of th<[ element.s (such as feelings, 
opinion naires, or inductive comjments) produce subjective, 
open-ended, and opinion-oriented data. Although objective, 
goal-oriented data are invaluable for research methods, they 
are often flexible or fluid enough (to use in trying to under- 
stand people and the complex nuances which affect them in 
their daily functioning. A multidimensional tool tends to 
account for some of the potentisi ambiguities and problems 
in collecting subjective data by approaching the same issue 
from many different perspective^. 

Inductive methods which allj^w the j:farticipant*s spon- 
taneous behaviors to be part of the assessment process can 
be helpful additions to measuring that individual -on a pre- 
determined performance scafc. One can learn a great deal 
about a camper's needs by observing the choices made in 

activities and social situations (Havinghurst, 1965). 

Although information may be available on the camper 
which has been obtained from valid and reliable instruments, 
it is important to remember that how others see someone is 
usually crucial to how that individual sees him or herself. 
The fact that significant other people may have different 
perceptions of that'individual may have significant meaning 
in treating the holistic, environme'Jitally influenced child. 
Knowing others' perceptions is also valuable for camp pro- 
gramming and individual treatment. If parents, for example, 
do not see any progress in their children's .behaviors at 
home, there may be no positive reinforcement of those 
behaviors. ^ 

Pre-treatment assessment of individuals is the most com- 
monly practiced kind of assessment in most therapeutic 
recreation programs. Pre-treatrrient assessment of children 
in a camp.situation is especially important in assigning camp 
groups. A^fter collecting as much information as poss'jble on 
each camper, one can assess a group's potential for positive 
functioning (Gunn and Peterson, 1978). With adequate and 
appropriate information for each individual, many potential 
problems can be eliminated beforp camp starts by 
visualizing conflict areas and assigning compatible groups. 

Therapeutic camp programmers must also remember that 
in order to keep treatment current and relevant, ongoing 
assessiTients must be made as the camp season unfolds. At 
camp, abilities, understandings, feelings, and relationships 
can rapidly change due to the opportunities for campers to 
choose a variety of activities and ways of freely expressing 
themselves, as well as to form intense relationships with 
other campers. 

Summer Day Camp 

The multidimensibnal assessment method was field tested 
during the summer of 1978 in Palo Alto, California, at the 
Children's Health Council's therapeutic summer day camr» 
for children with emotional, learning, neurological, and/or 
mental disturbances. A recreation therapist directed the 
camp program, and face-to-face leadership in the groups 
was the responsibility of trained counselors. A Children's 
Health Council mental health therapist was the camp psycho- / 
logical consultant. Twenty-nine children participated in the/ 
camp which met four days a week for six weeks. The camp' 
had few structural facilities from which to operate, so many 
of the activities involved excursions away from the Children's 
Health Couricil grounds. Such activities included hiking, 
swimming, special events, sports and games, biking, horse- 
back riding, cooking, arts and crafts, and special trips. 

A need existed to assess the perceived behaviors and atti- 
tudes of these children while they attended this program to 
assure continually appropriate program planning and treat- 
ment for each child. Counselors, parents, an outside evalu- 
ator, and the children themsel>fes participated in the ongoing 
assessment process. Although standardized diagnostic tools 
are used in other programs at the Children's' Health 
Council, the camp assessment tools, which all focused on 
the children's socialization skills, self-concepts, ^and activity 
participation levels, were non-standardized. 

Parents completed a five-page opinionnairif about their 
child '^efore camp, once the middle of camp and once 
again at the end of camp. Counselors subnwtted the same 
opinionnaire about each child in their group every week. On 
these opinionnaircs, specific representative behaviors and 
attitudes were rated on a five point frequency scale. The out- 
side evaluator also submitted an opinionnaire on each child 
in c^aip weekly. This opinionnaire combii/ed all of the state- 
ments for each category (socialization/^ self-concept and 
activity participation level) which were mdepend^ntly rated 
on the tool used by parents and counselors. Everyone taking 
part in the as?A*ssment process was ©iicoura^ed to record 






/ ■ ■ . .• 

/comments on the tools. 
/ Additionally, open-ended interviews were conducted at 
the end of the summer with the children in camp to determine 
their own feelings about the camping experience. Their 
responses also indirectly reflected their socialization, self- 
concept, and activity participation levels. A diary document 
was done by the outside evaluator which reported observa- 
tions of the children's behaviors on a day-to-day basis. 
Finally, counselors completed a questionnaire at the end of 
the summer evaluating the assessment process. 

The results of this study will be used to determine perceived 
behavioral and attitudinal^change in the campers and signifi- 
.£ant -differences in perception by the different evaluators. 
The study, which will be completed in 1979, will also examine 
and compare each of the different methodologies ir^volved. 
■ > ■ i 

LimiUtions \ \ 

Tlie multidimensional assessment method, alth\>ugh it ex- 
tracts accurate information about individuals, is not without 
limitations. As with any method, one must be prepared to 
weigh the pros and cons of using such a methoid before under- 
taking the procssj One problem with experimenting with a 
variety of tools i'i that during the process of field testing 
them for reliamlitly and validity, immediately valuable and 
u.sable informa\ian about the individuals who participate in 
the test situatibri may be lost. Sometimes information which 
would be useiul m working ^ith the camper must be sacri- 
ficed until the reliability and validity of the instruments have 
been determined. \ 

Also, as desirable elements froRi the fivo different cate- 
gories are added to the process, time^d complexity in ad- 
ministering the tools and analyzing tae data are added as 
well. As the time allotted to the assessment of the camper 
increases, time available for equally important camp com- 
ponents (such as programming, interacting, and evaluating) 
may decrease. 

In order to compensate for some of these limitations, one 
may vyant to do thorough assessments only periodically, and 
"mini-assessments" more frequently. In addition, it is 

., / ; 

important to remember that as more subjective and inductive' 
tools are developed and validated, the time necessary for 
their use will decrease. Professionals and researchers/ are 
encouraged to disseminate their tools so that others may use. 
them without having to spend precious time developing and 
testing materials for themselves. 


In spite of possible limitations in the utilization of multi- 
dimensional assessment methods, the need for a more holis- 
tic assessment of the camper from a variety of perspectives 
still remains. Successful treatment of specific campers must 
be structured around their individual needs. Evaluative 
observations of a tamper's attitudes, abilities, and behaviors 
should be done periodically to determine the appropriateness 
of the freatrpent in meeting these individual needs as well as 
the receptiveness of the camper to different services. A 
representative sample of the camper's Behavior in different 
situations involves observations in a variety of .settings by 
several significant otfier people with whom the child interacts. 
The approach suggested in this article provides a method for 
such assessment. 

References « 

, I. Annand, V. S. "A Review of Fvalualion in TJierapeutic Recreation." 
Therapeutic Recrealion Journal, .(J 1 ) 2:42-47 .1977. 

2. Brown, Koliv'cit T., "Individual Assessment: A Systematic Approach," 
Personnel and Guidance Journal, 271-276, January 1977. 

3. Gunn, Lee and Peter«xpn, C. A.,* Therapeutic Recrcjfion Program 
Desif^n: Principles and Procedures. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1978. 

4. Havinghurst. R. **Camp(ng Helps Youngsters with Developmental 
Tasks," Camping Magazine, \l Jy 1 965 . 

5. McReynolds, P. (Ed.), /ydvances in Psychological Assessment (Vol'. I), 
Palo Alto, California: .Sprnce and Behavior Books, 1%8. 

6. Robb, G. M., **A CorrL-.aiion Between .Socialization and Self-C'oncepI 
in a Summer Camp Program," Therapeutic RccreaHon Journal, (5). 
1:25-29, 1971. ' 

7. Touchstone, W. A, *'The Status of Client Hvaluaiion in Psvehiatnc 
Settings," Therapeutic Recreation Journal, (9). 4:166-^2, 1975. 

Soction V 

Program Abstracts 

Jean E. Foikerth and Barbara 0. Pant/cr 

' r ni'RAPK IK Kf f^l ADOS lot RSAl f Ol J^IM Ql ARII W IM'^H 

1 here arc iT»any effective camp programs serving the handi- 
capped acros<J the country. However, few of these programs 
are known outside of their immediate locales.. It is the purpose 
of this article to make .some of these proven programs more 
widely known in order to stimiiiaie thfc development of similar 
programs and to provide a basis for further innovaiions. 

The seven programs selected for inclusion arc located 
across th^ United States. Collectively, they serve every major 
disabilit) grouping. Their sponsors range from local govern- 
ments to voluntary health organizations to private nonprofit 
groups. Their goals cover a broad spectrum of recrejationat, 
educational and therapeutic purposes. While they arc by i J) 
means representative Of all the innovation^ taking place in 
the camping for the handicapped movement, they do provide 
a small glimpse of the creative progftirhs presently in use. 

Year-Rottnd Therapeutic (^ainping 

Eckerd Wilderness Camps, I'londa ^ 

CilRAlOS. RMM»rXl(l rivr t)tH!< tOH ' ' 

The Eckerd, Wilderness Camps ace year-round camps for 
children ages eight to sixteen who, undbk (o cope \vilh soctely, 
exhibit unacceptable behavior. Ai the present Utnc, four o\ 
the camps are located In Morida» ivvo in North Carohna and 
one is being dcvelopcdttn Vermont 

All prospective campi^rs arc imlially referred bv communitv 
screening committeci or agencies, llixal community 

96 ■ 

resources are rully utili/.ed before considering camp as an 
alternative. Camper designates are selected by the camp 
staff on the basis of group balance needs. Each camp has a 
population of five groups of ten children with group assign- 
ment being determined by age, size, and emotional maturity. 
A primary consideration in group balance is to maintain a 
desirable ratio between withdrawn and acting out behavior 

A family, or family substitute, is essential for the camper's 
success in this therapeutic treatment program, because 
**Going Home" is the therapeutic treatment goal usually 
reached in twelve to eighteen months. 

The Eclcerd Camps have been classified as an Alternative 
Type Unit School. The camp does not attempt traditional 
classroom teaching, but a camper's personal and educational 
development is approached through an experience curricu- 
lum. Situations in the life of a camper are utilized to enhance 
the learning of basic educational skills. If these skills can be 
related to something that occurs frequently such as eating or 
building a shelter it will be more meaningful to the child. 

When a group builds a tent for three of its members,jhey 
must figure the space for beds, footlockers, and other' 
personal belongings; decide the shape and arrangement of 
the interior; figure the number of poles required, and the 
size of the canvas they will need to cover the frame. Thus, 
computational skills are learned. A lot of time is spent on 
the design and construction because if something is not cor- 
rect , it,might be one's own bed that gets wet. 

Language art skills are encouraged through weekly plan 
writing, menu writing, poetic and descriptive writing, news- 
paper writing, and maintaining trip records. Campers are 
encouraged to express themselves through group discussion, 
skits, group singing, and all-camp discussions. 

Sociol skills developed through the use of the group living 
situation are reinforced as each group plans and participates 
in^backpacking, bus, canoe and raft tripping experiences 
exposing individuals to natural and cultural opportunities of 
the communities-at-large outside of camp. Lack of a well- 
defined purpose, never distance, is the only limiting factor 
in planning these excursions. 

As campers move through. the camp experiences, there is 
some therapy, some education, and always the acquisition 
of greater self-esteem and self-confidence. Overall, camp is 
an on-going process which builds a child's basic understand- 
ing of how to work through a problem or work toward a goal . 

Autism Day Camps 

L OS A ngeles County, Co I if am ia 


Under the au.spices of the Los Angeles County Department 
or Parks and Recreation, the Rehabilitation Unit established a 
comprehensive day camp program for autistic children twelve 
years ago. The Autism Day Camp Program is held three times 
a year. It is offered for one week during Easter vacation, for 
two weeks during the month of August and for one week 
during Christmas vacation. Because of the great demand for 
the prograrxj., camp locations are spread throughout Los 
Angeles County. This enables most parents and guardians to 
send their children to camps that are within reasonable dis- 
tances from their homes. Typically, the day camps meet in 
either county parks or in special education schools. 

In ordc: to participate in the camp program, the Rehabili- 
tation Unit i equires that each client have a medical diagnosis 
of autism or have **autistic tendencies," such as self- 
stimulation, echo4alia, or aloofness. A client must also be 
between the ages of five and twenty-one and be able to self 
administer all prescribed medication. 

Each camp site is liniked to twelve children. The staff for 
the camps, which come out of the Rehabilitation Unit, 
O ist of a site director, one or two additional staff persons 

and student volunteers from the community. Thus, depend- 
ing upon the availability of funds, staff members, and volun- 
teers, there is usually a three-to-one ratio between children 
and staff for each camp site. _ 

The camp program follows the basic underlying principles 
of behavior modification. Techniques such as time out, the 
administering of both positive and negative reinforcements, 
extinction, tokens, imitation and stimulus control are all 
used, when appropriate, in order to establish and/or maintain 
desirable behaviors in the children. This is one of the camp 
program's main objectives. Other objectives include: 1) to 
establish a greater sense of self-awareness; 2) to help each 
child to become more tuned in to his immediate environ- 
ment; 3) to reinforce already established self-help skills; and 
4) to'aid each child in finding enjoyment in various gross 
and fine motor activities. .... , 

Each day camp schedule is geared toward the individual 
needs of its "t^articipants. Activities and specific program 
objectives are thus determined after the day camp applica- 
tions have been thoroughly reviewed by the site director. 
But, generally speaking, each camp attempts to provide its 
clients with a program that ex{30ses the children to a wide 
variety of new and stimulating experiences. 

The cost per child for each Autism Day Camp Program is 
kept at a minimum, although the amount does vary depend- 
ing on the types of activities planned. Transportation to the 
camp sites and to other places of camp activity is provided 
by the Regional Centers through the State of California at 
no cost to the parents. 

Weekend Family Camping 


Camp Hickory Ridge, Michigan 

Dawn M. Vv^hlcm, RPT, MA and Nancy Castaldi, RN 

Weekend camping for preschool physically impaired chil- 
dren and their families was initiated in the summer ot 1977 
at Easter Seal Camp Hickory Ridge in Howell, Michigan. 
The camp was "brganized by therapists at a local clinic who 
perceived that parents of young children with physical impair^ 
ments could benefit from communication with- and support 
from other parents. It was also apparent from group 
therapy sessions that the children could benefit from play 
session involving siblings in a more informal setting. The 
camp was chosen because it provided a barrier-free environ- 
ment where families could have fun together in an outdoor 

setting. . ^ . r 

A minimum of four and a maximum of eight families 
attended each weekend camp held in 1977 and 1978. Since it 
was important to the^success of the camp that the families 
decide how their time would be spent, no format decisions 
were made prior to the camp. The entire group niet Friday 
evening to play get-acquainted games and to discuss the 
format for the weekend. Volunteers were available at all 
tfmes to feed, dress, bathe, and play with the physically 
impaired children. Volunteers were also assigned to children 
for each activity period. Therapeutic play sessions were 
planned for two one-hour periods on Saturday and one 
period on Sunday. During these times the parents met 
together for outdoor activities or for formal group 
discussions about common problems and feelings. Water- 
front, hayride, campfire and outdoor-cooking activities 
were participated in by everyone. 

Therapeutic goals were established prior to camp by each 
child's therapist and ^ere incorporated into the camping 
experience. The following chart lists the major goals and 
some of the suggested activities used to meet those goals. 

Every effor.t was made by the volunteers to incorporate 
these goals into all camping activities by utilizing appropriate 
positioning and handling to normalize muscle-tone and to fa- 
cilitate independent functioning within the child's disability. 


Piiiis!'t:rTivK.s ON Administration/87 

Therapeutic (joals 


Obstacle course, ball games, mobility games, rhythm 
band, Simon Says, and follow the leader 

MalciTig rhythm instruments, peanut butter sand- 
wiches, tactile collages, fun dough, toy boats, body 
tracings, box trains 

Action songs and rhythm games, hula hoop games, 
angels-in-the-snow, finger painting, water play, ball 

Obstacle course, ball games, mobility games, rhythm 
band, Simon Says, Follow the Leader 

Tilt board activities, boat games, large ball and barrel 
activities, swinging and spinning activities, water 
play, music , 

Sand play, water play, finger and body painting, tac- 
tile collages, fun dough, noisy toys, animal sounds, 
rhythm games, action songs, mirror play, light games 

Angels-in-the-snow, Simon Says, body tracings, mir- 
ror play, finger and body painting, action songs, peg- 
board games, suspended ball games, chalk and felt- 
board activities. 

State School and Hospital located in Nampa, Idaho. It pro- 
vides winter time activities that otherwise would not be 
offered at the institution. 

The camp site is located in the mountains thirty-five miles 
north of Boise, Idaho, and is loaned to the state school by 
♦he Church of Latter Day Saints for winter use. The cabin 


used has hot and cold running water, a tire place, wood 
stove, kitchen facilities, indoor restrooms and a sleeping 

There are two overall objectives for Camp Freezurtoz 
which are the same for each and every group. First, each 
person is expected to do as much for himself as possible with 
very little help from others. Secondly, each person is to have 
fun and enjoy camp. 

Camp Freezurtoz operates for ten weeks in the winter. 
However, each session is just a day in length with campers 
arriving at noon one day and departing at noon the next. 
There are two sessions a week and usually no more than 
eight to ten campers per session. 

Campers arrive at camp in time for lunch, and everyone 
helps to get a fire started and lunch on the table. Activities 
begin immediately after lunch, ^ch resident is supplied 
with a snowmobile suit, hat, and^gloves. The first outdoor 
activity is the tube run where campers use an inner tube 
rather than a sled. Some campers go down.g^ithout hesitation, 
others need a little coaxing, but after one or two times down 
the hill, only a very few need more coaxing. When all is going 
well, the snowmobile is fired up. That always turns a few 
heads and brings smiles, especially from those, who are 
veterans of the camp. 

When everyone has had a turn on ,the snowmobile, cross- 
country skis are brought out. This activity was added in 
1977 and is one of the most popular now offered. Usually, 
thirty minutes is all most campers want to ski. At this point, 
everyone retires to the cabin to warm up, have some hot 
chocolate and rest; finally, to ready appetites for dinner, a 
hike is taken. 

After dinner each.camper is required to prepare his or her 
bed. When this is done, the campers are given the option of 
going out and tubing or just sitting and relaxing in front of 
the fire. By 9 pm most are eager for bed. 

After a good night's sleep, breakfast is served, and prepa- 
rations are made for the day's activities. The second day 
each person is allowed to choose what he or she wants to do. 
Provided there are enough staff to supervise the activities, 
there could be tubing, cross-country skiing, snowmobiling, 
snowball fights, snow shoeing or hiking all goin^ on at the 
same time. After morning activities, lunch is prepared; the 
cabin is cleaned; sleeping bags and equipment are put away; 
the van is loaded; and with camp closed, everyone is 
returned home. 

Camp Freezurtoz has proven itself to be a good learning 
and growing experience for both campers and staff. And 
although most people wouldn't consider camping in winterV' 
for campers at Freezurtoz, there's no better time. \ 

Adult Camping Program 

Recreation Center for the Handicapped, Inc. 

San Francisco, California 
Katky Wood, Social Worker 

The Recreation Center for the Handicapped, Inc., San 
Francisco, California, provides a one-week resident camp 
experience for forty-eight adults with physical disabilities 
each year, utilizing the San Franciso YMCA camp site. 
Located approximately fifty miles south of San Franciso, 
the camp is situated in the foothills of the Santa Cruz moun- 
tains. This setting has a positive effect on individuals with 
disabilities as a change of pace and lifestyle from inner-city 
existence. For many recipients of public welfare, it is their 
only experience outside of the city. Thus, in effect, becomes 
their annual **vacation." 

The individuals are brought to the Recreation Center by 
Center transportation and taken to camp by chartered Grey- 
hound buses. Campers provide their own sleeping bags, 
clothing, and personal items for the week. Meals are pre- 
pared by the YMCA staff and are included in the rate charged « 


To improve gross motor skills 
To improve fine motor skills 
To improve range of motion 
To improve muscle strength 

To improve balance and equilibrium and inhibit ab- 
normal muscle tone / 

To facilitate sensory awareness (tactile, auditory and 
visual) - - 

To improve perceptual motor skills (awareness of 
body parts, spatial concepts, motor-planning, etc.) 

Parent group discussions revolved around appropriate 
resources in the community, assistance provided, by profes- 
.sional people, adjustments to having a physically impaired 
child within the family, consistent parenting of a handicapped 
child and other siblings and effects of the handicapped child 
in each parent's life. As a result of these group discussions, 
parents have become involved in local respite care programs 
and continuing parent support groups. 

Winter Camping 

Camp Freezurtoz, Idaho 
Vhrn Nj-wman, Dirhctor 

Camp Freezurtoz was started in January, 1973. It is a 
winter camping experience operated by the Recreation 
Department for the iiientally retarded popuiat'on of Idaho 

by the YMCA. Camperships are available for most of these 
individuals with funding secured from private sources. Nurs- 
ing Staff is provided by the Recreation Center for the Handi- 
capped. Cabins sleep ten individuals and two staff. They 
have been specially adapted for disabled by adding grasp 
bars and ramps, and removing doors. 

A daily program plan for general camp activities is pre- 
pared by the program director. While specific activities are 
offered throughout the day, the participation is voluntary 
and scheduling is flexible enough to meet individual needs. 
Some campers relax in the sun by the pool, while others 
participate in water exercises. of the immobility 
caused by disabilities, the water exercises and free swimming 
lime are great attractions. 

Everyday, wheelchair exercises are held. Individuals are 
encouraged to leave their chairs and participate in exercises 
on mats in the grassy meadow. Deep breathing and relaxa- 
tion programs ^combined with simple upper and lower 
extremity movements loosen up stiff and unused 
limbs and muscles. 

The nature program emphasizes learning about wildlife, 
ecology and conservation. Adjuncts to the nature program 
are opportunities for cookouts, hikes, nature observation 
vvalks.and overnight sleepouts. pAX'n the most severely phy?:i- 
cally disbled adults enjoy a night under the stars. 

A water carnival is4ield at the end of the week. All campers 
are encouraged to, participate in their own special way in the 
water activities. The final evening activity is the **campfire" 
during Which time all the campers come together for a com- 
munity experJence. Skits are prepared by the cabin focusing 
on the activities of the day. These improvisational dramas 
become a time for individual interaction fhrough music and 

The major focus of the camp program is to provide as 
normal a camping experience as possible for those individuals 
who would otherwise not be able to participate in similar 
activities. The jffereotyped notion that camp is only for 
youngsters has been invalidated by the Recreation Center 
forth'e Handicapped. 

Summer Academic Camp 

Lincoln Hill, Massac h use (fs • 

(iUD^S A. WllllAMS, M.P.H., DlRhC TOK 

Many special children require a year-round educational 
program. However, few schools can meet this need during 
the summer months. In a summer camp setting, Lincoln Hill 
offers the needed educational and recreational program to 
forty-five Massachusetts .children "ach year. The camp, 
located in Foxboro, is sponsored by the Mas.sachusetts 
Jaycees through its Charitable Trust. 

In the^five years of its existence, Lincoln Hill has served 
more than 200 children and their families. The campers, aged 
six to twelve, have been diagnosed as mentally retarded, 
emotionally disturbed, and autistic. All have experienced 
considerable failure in other settings; they have been called 
*'hard to manage" and are often educationally misplaced. 

The campers have a wide range of skills and needs, cover- 
ing several developmental levels. These are determined betore 
camp, utilizing detailed information from each child's parents 
and teachers from a screening .session with camp staff. 
Based on this information, goals are established for the 
summer in each skill area, priorities are set and each child's 
program is designed individually to combine a bunkhouse 
placement and four hours of class daily. Most classes last 
for an hour and have a 1:3 teacher-to-student ratio. Each 
child attends for the full seven-week session. 

The ckCss schedule varies each summer to meet the needs 
of each year's campers, but content areas always include: 


speech and language; academics; table games and pre- 
academics; swimming and sports; vocational and helping 
skills; basic skills (dressing, meals, toilet training); com- 
munity adjustment skills; independent and cooperative play; 
arts and crafts; photography; and music, dance and drama. 
In 1978 over fifty different small classes were held in each 
two-day period. Many were held outdoors, taking full 
advantage of the camp setting. 

Self-help skills, social and play skills, and speech are con- 
centrated on in the bunkhouse groups, which include seven 
children who are chronologically and developmentally at the 
same level. Campers awaken one hour before breakfast to 
practice dressing, grooming and helping skills; eating and 
social skills are emphasized at meals. Quiet group activities 
are held following lunch and special evening activities are 
planned daily for each bunkhouse group. 

A highly trained staff is needed to achieve the program 
goals. The interdisciplinary professional staff has nine pro- * 
gram and educational specialists, as well as six consultants 
in specialty areas. This group trains, supervises and works 
alongside the eighteen counselors who teach the classes and 
work in the bunkhouses. 

Lincoln Hill's commitment to the children and their 
families extends beyond the summer program. Involvement 
with parents begin.s with pre-camp meetings and includes a 
weekend workshop at camp. It continues into the fall and 
winter with monthly follow-up meetings, home visits, some 
school visits and attendance at meetings to develop educa- 
tional plans. The training sessions provide parents with the 
tools and support necessary to teach their children at home, 
to manage behavior problems and to better utilize local 
service .systems. Teachers are also invited to participate in 
the Lincoln Hill program through their pre-camp assessment 
and a day-long visit to the camp in the rummer. 

Follow-through is enhanced by the detailed evaluation 
and progress report prepared for each child at the close of 
the camp session. This report presents information on the 
camper's activities at camp, abilities in each skill area, 
optimal learning environment, motivation techniiques, teach- 
ing programs and programs for managing behavior problems. 
At the end of the summer, the children take more than the 
report home with them. Most leave with new skills, new 
friends, a positive summer experience and a better chance of 
succeeding at home and at .school. 

Adventure Bound 

Camp Blue Sky, Missouri 
L.AL-Rii- Mi f'i I t'R Hac Krs, Dmi ( roR 

Challenges, excitement, stress, personal growth, group in- 
volvement, and fun are all part of Adventure Bound, a wil- 
derness camping program operated by the St. Louis Associ- 
ation for Retarded Citizens. The program is ba.sed at Camp 
Blue Sky, a camp owned by the South Side St. Louis Lions 
Club and located approximately forty miles from St. Louis. 
It is open each summer to retarded youngsters between the 
ages of eleven and twenty- five y^ars. 

- Two types of Adventure Bound .sessions are offered. The 
first is designed for who are new or new to the 
program. For this .session, enrollment is limited to forty 
campers. The second type of session is designed for partici- 
pants with previous Adventure Bound experience^and is 
limited to twenty-four campers. For both the beginner and 
advanced .sessions, a six to one camper staff ratio is main- 
tained. All .staff members are either .special education teachers 
or college students majoring in special education, therapeutic 
recreation or a related field, and have four to six years of 
experience in camping and adventure education. In addition, 
all are trained and certified by Outward Bound and the 
American Camping Association. 


The Adventure Bound program is composed of a series of 
progressively dilTicull activities, which require not only in- 
dividual skill development but also the development of group 
cooperation and decision making abilities. The activities in- 
clude rappelling, rock climbing, backpacking, caving, orien- 
teering, acclir^atization, ropes course tasks, float tripping, 
outdoor cookii^, wilderness camping tasks and cycling. 

The total program is designed to help participants develop 
compassion for others, self-reliance, craftsmanship, pride in 
doing well and responsibility for self and others. Adventure 
Bound also attemps to encourage participants in their self- 

questioning and to help them interpret and understand their 
own growth. 

During the thirteen-day program, successes are measured 
for each camper in terms of '^trying." These successes are 
very real and tend to perpetuate themselves, in addition, 
they carry over into other aspects of life. The physical and 
mental risks that challenge an individual to use all existing 
and obtainable resources are found in a wilderness environ- 
ment, and these challenges, risks and adventures are what 
Adventure Bound is all about. 

Section V 

Sensitive Nework of Communication 
Eases Steps into Mainstreaming 

Glenn Job 

Campincj MA(iA/.iNJ:'SF pi.-()(t. 1980 


xm mother showed her concern about a proposed "main- 
str.eaming" camping e.xperience for her mildly retarded 
daughter when she wrote: 

**She is a slowpoke. She will not enjoy any teasing from 
other campers or any unkind remarks about her slowness." 

"But treat her normal," the mother said in disclosing that 
her daughter was afflicted by Down's syndrome. She cau- 
tioned also that the child has a fear of heights. 

In another instance, the parents of a sixteen-year-old boy 
who suffered from fused elbow joints wondered how other 
campers would react to their son's poor coordination. He 
could swim and play soccer, they said, but he would not be 
good at crafts. 

**She is afraid of shots, afraid of the dark, and afraid of 
fire," a parent said of a young girl. ^'Sometimes she has 
trouble getting to know other kids. She becomes withdrawn 
before she has a tantrum. She seems to have difficulty per- 
ceiving social situations correctly." 

The parent advised patience. "Talk it through. See if she 
can correct it." 

How do camps that want to embark on "mainstreaming" 
for the first time respond to these kinds of concerns (and 
challenges) from parents who want to provide their children 
with an integrated camping experience for the first time? 

What about others who are affected by the decision to 
"mainstream" — staff who have not worked with disabled 
campers and are reluctant to do so; other campers; the im- 
mediate and long-range impact on the total camping 

The Catholic Youth Organization (CYO) of the Arch- 
diocese of Seattle (WA) responded to the critical tests with a 
sensitive communications network that tied together the 
camping program, camp staff, and parents for a common 
purpose. Evaluations of the first year indicate it was done 
with favorable results! 

The Seattle CYO operates camps Don Bosco, Cabrini, 
Gallagher, and Nanamakee in the state of Washington. And 
while its principal constituencies are within the Catholic 
population of the diocese, the camps have traditionally 
accepted children without regard to religious affiliation. The 
CYO felt a community need to move into mainstreaming. 
The statement of philosophy was broadened to include this 
phrase: "to foster the development of Christian faith for the 
total community of the Archdiocese of Seattle through a 
year-round outdoor ministries program." The words ''total 
community" would indicate that disabled youngsters would 

be encouraged to attend the CYO camps. 
Mainslreaming defined 

The term "mainstreaming." has taken on increased signifi- 
cance in recent years. Parents of handicapped children have 
sought educational opportunities in the same classrooms witli 
the non-handicapped. This has not been without controversy. 
Opponents have raised questions as to the ability of the 
handicapped to keep up with other children, or whether 
teachers will have to spend an inordinate amount of time 
with some children at the expense of others. 

Historically, many camps have absorbed children with dis- 
abilities into their populations, although the term mainstream- 
ing has not been widely used to describe the practice. 

Mainstreaming, the Bureau of Education said, refers to 
the concept of providing appropriate educational services to 
inconvenienced children, regardless of their level of involve- 
ment, in settings as near as traditional as possible. 

This broadly parallels the CYO definition of mainstream- 
ing offered by Ms. .lani Brokaxy, director of camping for the 
Seattle CYO, who said, "Mainstreaming is taking campers 
with disabilities and integrating them into the regular camp 
program. A child with a disability is hou.sed with seven other 
children and a counselor." 

Important to the central idea was an emphasis on their 
abilities— -not disabilities, Ms. Brokaw .said. 

"If a camper has strength in crafts, a strength in swimming, 
or some other area, we emphasize the strength and minimize 
the disability." 

In examining the diocese camping program over the past 
year, the CYO concluded that youngsters with disabilities 
should be encouraged to attend the regular camping session 
as part of the outdoor ministries program. Within its own 
administration and with the aid of consultants, the CYO 
easily answered the question, "Why." Much more difficult 
v'X-y the second question— what does the CYO have to do to 
accomplish this mission well? 

Although the CYO had of fered an integrated program for 
the hearing impaired and deaf children for many years, pre- 
vious experience was limited primarily to a totally segregated 
program that served severely handicapped from Rainier 
school. Lack of funds in the Rainier budget brought an end 
to this program. 

Gfenn T, J oh is the editor of Cam piny, Mafiozine. 



Facilities Important 

'*We knew right away that none of our facilities were ade- 
quate for campers confined to wheelchairs," Ms. Brokaw 
said. "One of the biggest mistakes a camp can make is to 
accept children with disabilities that cannot be dealt with 
correctly. In the end, the camping experience might not be a 
good one.'' 

Don Bosco, in fact, was an old government site. Buildmgs 
resembled old military barracks. There are steps— no ramps. 
And Piirrow door openings could scarcely accommodate 
wheelchairs. t, • / 

The CYO sought professional assistance from Harrison/ 
Hempe/NicCall, a consulting firm in Ames, Iowa, and the 
Washington Easter Seal Society. Eventually, Bosco and 
Cabrini will be modified for wheelchairs, if the consulting 
firm's site plan is followed. 

••We looked for youngsters who were mobile— kids with 
strong self-help skills, and kids that could relate to other 
people," Ms. Brokaw said. . 

When parents indicated they thought their children had 
these qualities, a more thorough screening was undertaken 
through a camper profile sheet. Herein another important 
part of the communications process took form; there was a 
frank disclosure of the child's difficulty and the opportunity 
for the camp staff to learn firsthand how to deal with it. 

The profile sheet was the basis for the first contact between 
the camp director, or counselor, or camp nurse and the 
parents. A telephone call w^s made to each parent once the 
youngster had been accepted for camp. The purpose was to 
foster a climate of understanding the words on paper could 
not hope to achieve. It was in this personal communications 
link that efforts were made to alleviate some of the normal 
apprehensions a parent might experience in dealing with 
someone for the first time. 

••They are probably the most sincere parents I have ever 
talked with on the phone," Ms. Brokaw said. "They want 
to make sure the facilities are good; and they want to make 
sure the staff is able to deal with the; problem. They want to 
visit the site. They want to make .sure the child sees the site 
before the .session. They want to make sure they have the 
opportunity to talk with the director or counselor m advance 
of the session. And they want to make sure the experience m 
an integrated situation is a positive one in every way. Other 
parents do not normally take these precautions or the time. ' 

The move to mainstreaming was not without some subtle 
resistance. While no one said, "Don't mainstream," it was 
not uncommon to hear, "I hope you know what you are 
doing." . . 

Some staff also questioned the wisdom of the decision. 
They visualized a situation where a large part of their ener- 
gies would be spent ministering to the handicapped in facili- 
ties not equipped for them- 

In part, this communications barrier was dissolved by 
having professional staff attend a four-day workshop offered 
by the Evergreen Section of the American Camping A.ssoci- 

ation. The principal speaker was Pat Dunham Ellis, consult- 
ant with Harrison/Hcmpe/McCall. r^^rr^i 

Moreover, in employing new camp stall, the CYO looked 
for persons with previous camp experience in working with 
the handicapped. Eventually, some 30 to 40 percent of the 
staff could say they had some experience before CYO 

Faces Cabinmates 

The youngster takes on an important j)art of the communi- 
cations network when he eventually faces his cabinmates 
with his disability. 

The counselor does not participate in this face-to-face 
meeting unless it is necessary. 

••Most of the time other kids will find out on thier own 
what the disability is," according to Ms. Brokaw. "Kids are 
curious enough to ask, *How come you talk hke that or how 
come you walk like that?' " 

The camper has laced this query before. And by now, he 
has the answer. If this does not work, the counselor may be 
called upon to smooth out the transition. 

While no handicapped child attended the first sessions of 
the summer, six to eight youngsters were registered for the 
remainder of the^ten sessions. There did not seem to be any 
problem of attracting campers for the mainstreaming 
experience. ^ 

A brochure published on CYO camps noted. Mentally 
and physically handicapped campers are placed each session. 
In order to make the experience an enjoyable one, special 
arrangements must be made prior to placement." A story in 
the Northwest Progress, a diocese newspaper, also pointed 
up mainstreaming. Some eight to ten calls were received 
each week from parents of the handicapped. 

The CYO was prepared to provide some scholarships, 
ranging from $10 to $90 toward the full one-week tuition of 
$100. Most of the scholarships were for children from 
modest income families or where there were extenuating cir- 
cumstances, such as the previous loss of a parent. 

Youngsters could register for any part of the CYO program, 
including a horse camp. In all they could participate in 
swimming, rowing, hiking, backpacking, canoeing, over- 
nights, cookouts, nature awareness, crafts, and archery. 

"The program was worked for us," Ms. Brokaw said. 
"In fact, the campers with disabilities probably came to 
camp better prepared than other campers because their 
parents were concerned and honest. We knew what to do in 
particular instances." 

In 1976, the Bureau of fulucafion for (he Hamiicapped puhhshed a book- 
let entitled "Involving Impaired, Disabled, and Handicapped Persons. " The 
report noted that impaired, disabled, and handicapped are ojten used 
synonvmouslv and interchangeably, A term preferred hy nwst indmduals 
with handicapped conditions is inconvenienced, according to the publtca- 
tion. Most persons with handicaps regard themselves as having to live with 
the inconvenience. 



Section V 

Handicapped Campers John Dooiittie 

Also Can Play the uames camping magazinh/june i98o 

.^k.s a result of federal legislation and changing concepts 
about the growth and development of handicapped children, 
more is heard about **mainstreaming'': placing these children 
into less restrictive environments so they may learn with 
other children their own age in a normal school setting. 
While this concept has received considefable attention in 
public schools, mainstreaming goes beyond the classroom, 
extending into vocational and recreational programs as well. 

Without a doubt, mainstreaming has precipitated some con- 
troversy and many agencies have found themselves ill- 
equipped to cope with the special needs of disabled persons. 
Changes in architecture as well as management have been 
required to accommodate these persons. There are some who 
argue that entire programs will eventually become watered 
down when standards are lowered to meet the ability levels 
of a few handicapped persons involved in the program. While 
this could happen, it need not. 

Camps are a case in point. Considering the wide range of 
activities that most camps make available to campers, it 
> seems as though there would be things that handicapped 

*\ campers .could participate in that would require little, if any, 

modification. There appears to be little reason why camps 
cannot maintain their high standards while providing a variety 
of activities that can be challenging to all campers, including 
those who are handicapped. Often the ability and determina- 
tion of handicapped youngsters is underestimated. 

It is unlikely that camp offices will be flooded with appli- 
cations from persons who are severely disabled, because 
factors such as location, topography, weather, cost, facilities, 
or special interests can discourage some handicapped persons 
from considering certain camps, ft is unlikely, for example, 
that a young person who cannot walk would choose to attend 
a camp that features rugged outdoor activities'. There is, 
' however, the possibility of some handicapped persons 
attending certain camps that have traditionally served able- 
bodied campers. As these pioneers find enjoyment and suc- 
cess, others are apt to join their rahks. Once these campers 
are settled into camp, the program staff will be faced with the 
classic problem associated with mainstreaming: how to inte- 
grate these young people with the other campers in traditional 
camp activities. Although the suggestions which follow will 
address only one aspect of typical camp programming, 
games and similar motor activity, the guidelines may help in 
planning other camp activities as well. 

Guidelines for Integrating 

Because of the wide range of abilities, or disabilities, 
among children diagnosed as having similar physical, sensory, 
emotional, or intellectual problems, it is unwise to take a 
cookbook approach to planning games and activities for the 
handicapped. One cannot provide lists of activities specifically 
for the cerebral palsied, or the mentally retarded, or for 
amputees. However, some guidelines can be provided that 
may help program staff to integrate disabled campers with 
Q '^thcr campers. 


First consider some factors that can influence the camp 
staff's relations with the new handicapped camper: 

1 . Those campers who have been disabled for a period of time 
have already developed adaptations that allow them to 
participate in certain physical activities. Allow these camp- 
ers to proceed at their own degree of involvement until it 
is noticed that they are having difficulty; then suggest 
possible alternatives that can help them. In most instances, 
these modifications should be worked out jointly between 
the counselor and the camper. , 

2. Disabled campers may be a bit fearful of new experiences; 
therefore, first get them involved in activities that are 
familiar to them. This will give them time to gain confi- 
dence in themselves, the staff, and their fellow campers. 
The hesitant camper may be happy watching or serving as 
an official until he/she feels ready to become more actively 
involved. If they seem to hang b?ick, keep in mind that 
these campers must often work twice as hard to achieve 
the same level of success as their peers. 

3. Modifications of games should focus on the camper's 
abilities rather than his disabilities. As the camper's level 
of skill improves, early adaptations may be modified or 
even discarded. 

4. Modifications of game rules should not be discouraged as 
long as they reflect the needs and desires of the partici- 

5. Finally, when modifying a game for a disabled camper, 
try not to change it to such a degree that the other partici- 
pants feel it is no longer a game that they had intended to 
play. This only calls attention to the disabled camper as 
being special rather than being another player. 

Now consider some specific ways to accommodate disabled 
campers in games with more able children: 

I. Reduce the range of the game by shortening the playing 
time, the distance that the ball or other objects of play 
will travel, and the distance that must be traveled by the 
participants. This can be accomplished in several ways: 
— Reduce the size of the play area by playing on only half 
a basketball court, or by using the width of a football, 
soccer, or hockey field as the length of your area of play. 
Also, the distance to bases and goals can be decreased. 
— Lower the net in net games or the hoop in basketball. 
— Increase the number of players on the team so each 

player has less area to be responsible for. 
— Have them play net games through a hoop that is sus- 
pended from the ceiling or mounted on a stand, since 
this narrows the playing area and often neutralizes 
smash shots. i 
—Use soft, lightweight balls that will not travel fas far 

_^ _ ^ _ - 

John Dooiittie is an associate professor at The Pennsyivania Sthte Unii 
versity. He has worked with the Pennsyivania Easter Seai Camps for ten 

102 ■ 

when hit, kicked, punched, or thrown. To accomplish 
this, decrease the air pressure in the ball or use Wiffle- 
balls, Nerl1)alls, and Fleeceballs that have a limited 

—Attach a cord (tether) to a ball to limit the distance that 
it will travel. One very challenging game that requires a 
minimum of movement is tetherball played with a ten- 
nis ball attached to a cord that is hit with racketball 

— Introduce changes in the rules or in the playing tech- 
niques that will reduce the amount of force that players 
can use on the ball or other equipment. Players could, 
for e.xample, be limited to one step before kicking the 
ball or could be required to punch fhc ball with their 
fists rather than kicking it. 

— Reduce the time periods of the game or the number of 
points that are needed to complete a game. 

2. Another way to accommodate less able campers is to give 
the players equipment that can be handled with relative equipment like the following can 
make play possible for a camper who is missing an arm, 
or one who is a hemiplegic or quadraplegic: 
—Lightweight plastic bats, balls, rackets, and frisbees can 

usually be manipulated with one hand. 

—Large, partially-infiated beachballs are effective with 
youngsters who have motor or visual difficulties. These 
balls are to grasp and hold in two hands because of 
their size and softness. 

—Soft Fleeceballs or yarnballs can often be gripped by 
persons with ^-erebral palsy or hemiplagia because their 
fingers sink into the ball. Because these balls do not 
travel far when hit, they are good for rainy-day indoor 

— Equipment fitted with special handles, such as a bowl- 
ing ball with a spring-loaded retractable handle, will 
make participation simpler for some campers. Rackets, 
fishing poles, and similar equipment can even be strapped 
or taped to a camper's hand if necessary. 

3. The handicapped camper can be aided further if the speed 
of the game is reduced. There are a number of ways to do 

— large, lightweight balls that move at a slower rate of 
speed than smaller, firmer balls. A large beachball, for 
example, will move more slowly than a volleyball. A 
large plastic garbage bag filled with balloons makes a 
good slow-motion volleyball 

—Decrease the air pressure in a ball so it will move more 
slowly. This is a good practice when using balls indoors 
because il also reduces the rebounding effect, 

—Play soccer or hockey-type games on ^assy playing 
fields so that the tall grass will slow the ball's movement. 

—Introduce into the rules or the playing techniques 
changes that will reduce the speed of the participants or 
the ball. For example, players could be required to walk 
or skip rather than run and could be told to throw using 
an underhand delivery. A camper with movement prob- 
lems might have a chance for a single if the ball is rolled 
to first base or thrown to several other players before 
being thrown to first base. 

4. One more way to help the less able-bodied camper in the 
group is to use special devic&s that will do one or more of 
the following: stabilize the participant, or the equfpmcnt 

used to play; increase the reach of the participant, align 
the participant with the target, goal, or boundaries; or im- 
part some force or momentum into the equipment used to 
play. Examples of these devices are: 
—A photographer's tripod or a sling suspended from the 
branch of a tree can serve as a cradle or support rifles or 
crossbows. Use of the crossbow iastead of a bow allows 
the weakened or neurologically impaired camper to 
participate in archery. 
—Special sleeves or terminals that can slip over the stump 
of an amputated hand or attached to a prosthesis can 
help with gripping, supporting, releasing, or activating 
equipment used in the game. 
— Spring-loaded pool cues will allow the amputee or the 

hemiplegic camper to shoot pool. 
—Special pushers or chutes allow a camper in a wheelchair 
to bowl. These, along with the special pool cues and 
bowling balls, can be purchased from several sportjng 
goods companies. 
—A batting tee can support the ball for^ handicapped 

baseball player. 
—Portable, lightweight guide rails can assist blind bowlers. 
These can be folded to fit into a car or van and can be 
set up quickly in bowling lanes. Guide ropes can also 
direct blind campers to targets and goals or align them 
in races. 

—Sound devices behind goals, in balls, or at the end of a 
swimming pool can assist blind campers in playing 

—Different floor or ground textures can be useful to mark 
boundaries for blind campers. Mats placed end to end, 
ropes, paths, and grass all provide these campers with 
direction an4 a sense of the limits of the playing area 
by changing the kind of surface they feel underfoot. 

5. One final suggestion recognizes the fact that disabled 
campers will often tire more rapidly than other campers 
because of their low tolerance for exertion. A breather can 
be provided for these campers in several ways: 
—Encourage free substitution so participants are con^ 

stantly moving in and out of the game. 
—Rotate players from active playing positions to less 

active positions in the game. 
—Call time-outs frequently to discuss rules or team 


—Provide quiet table games on the sidelines that are simi- 
lar to the game being played on the field. While the 
campers are resting, they can continue their game on 
the table. Possibilities include games such as Nok 
Hockey, Box Soccer, Skittles, darts, or any of the 
electric or electronic games that are available today. 

Getting handicapped campers into games and traditional 
camping activities presents quite a challenge to counselors 
and staff. Since the camper may be in camp only for a short 
time, signs of success may be slow. Although the slow rate 
of progress may discourage the- counselors, the effort is 
worthwhile for the camper's sake! Little by little, the young- 
ster may develop greater independence as well as broaden 
his or her range of recreational interests and skills. Because 
of its potential for teaching these things, camping is a 
desirable experience for all persons, whether able-bodied or 



PerspiiCtivi-.s on Admin i.stration/93 

Section V 

Blind Teens Touch' Hawaii 
via Travel Camp 

Norman Kaplan and Rob Eskridge 

Camping Magazine/March 1977 

\^amping means meeting people, having fun with then), 
and learning at the same time. That's'how we run our summer 
camp, and that's the way we approach travel camping, too. 

At the Foundation for the Junior Blind in Los Angeles, we 
take 100 to 125 blind teenagers travel camping each Easter, 
vacation. We have panned for gold in California's Gold Rush 
country, travelled to our state capitol, Catalina Island, the 
San Francisco Bay area, and attended a reception in our 
honor at the White House in Washington, D.C. 

We have studied eau^ly California history along the routes of 
General Fremont and the Mission trails; we have piloted an 
armada of eleven houseboats on the Sacramento River, and a 
flotilla of rubber rafts down white water rapids of the Colo- 
rado River through the Grand Canyon. And we have camped 
in the Santa Cruz Mountains, the thorn jungles of Mexico, 
and on an Arizona Indian Reservation. 

Experiences for the Curious 

These trips have provided opportunties for our curious 
youngsters to talk with a gold miner about his claim, and to 
native Americans who live on a reservation; they have 
explored Chinatown accompanying Chinatov/n residents on 
a walking tour of their neighborhood, chatted with the 
owner of a small restaurant in a rural town, met prisoners in 
a county jail, and listened to a farmer explain how he would 
decide whether to plant potatoes or cotton the following 

Meeting these people and joining them in fun, niakes 
travel camping an exciting learning and growing experience 
and helps us to achieve our goals of recreation and social 
development for the blind youngsters that we serve. Recre- 
ational activities differ greatly from one area to another, so 
learning these regional activities as we travel helps to build 
skills. But because we learn them from folks who live in 
those areas, social development gets emphasis, too. 

Our trip to Hawaii this past Easter was no exception. Sixty 
of our blind youngsters had the chance to meet, play with 
and learn from a lot of wonderful residents of the 50th state, 
young and old alikc. 

Answers For Campers 

College students from the University of Hawaii volun- 
teered to be counselors for the group. Our campers asked 
questions, and got answers on topics such as Hawaiian 
popular music, ^ summer jobs, making sandals, what 
Hawaiians do on a date in Honolulu, the difference among 
the Other islands, and even how to speak **pigeon English." 

Several surfing clubs shared their **kokua" by teaching 
surfing to our group— from paddling old ten-foot **tank" 
surfboards to using **paipo" boards and surfing on modern 
**.shorties." Within an hour, they had our blind teens surfing 
— on surfboards. 

Hawaiian craft instructors spent two days at an ACA 
camp in Kailua (Camp Kailani, directed by Paul Lidbeck) 
teaching crafts and Hawaiian folklore. Our youngsters 
learned to make **nose flutes," hqtw to hula, and techniques 
for weaving palm tree fronds into hats, slippers, and grass 
skirts. And everyone got to try hilsking and opening a coco- 
nut, grating the meat from insist the shell, then cooking it 
into delicious coconut candy. 

Governor Ariyoshi met our group at the State Capitol, 
and Mrs. Ariyoshi conducted an hour-long ''touching" tour 
of Washington Place, the official residence. State Senator 
Yee arranged tours of the State Legislature, and read a reso- 
lution welcoming us to the Islands. . 

Beach boys from one of the big hotels taught our blind 
teens how to paddle an outrigger canoe through the breaking 
waves at Waikiki Beach, and an outrigger club in Kailua let 
the youngsters use their canoes in one of the saltwater 
lagoons near the camp. 

And instead of buying souvenirs at expensive tourist 
shops, we were able to attend the Kamp Swap meet and bar- 
gain with Hawaiian wholesalers for puka shells and grass 
skirts to bring home. 

Senior Citizens Help, Too 

The Waimanalo Senior Citizens brought their ukeleles 
and drums to perform* a concert of traditional Hawaiian 
music for us. And hundreds of other new friends demon- 
strated Hawaiian quilting taught the proper way to climb a 
coconut palm, narrated "touching" tours of historical build- 
ings, arranged a breathtaking swim right up to powerful 
Waimea Falls, told old Hawaiian legends and went out of 
their way to make the trip unforgettable. 

We were fortunate that an anonymous donor paid for the 
transportation, and that many Hawaiian friends were able 
to get so many courtesies and donations oh our behalf. 

In just ten days, our group of blind teens, who frequently 
aren't even allowed to join P.E. classes at the schools, quickly 
learned the Hawaiian way of life, and gained a great deal of 
confidence in their own recreational and social abilities. 

Trips like this one are the times that convince us to keep 
travel camping a permanent part of our program because 
they let our blind youngsters learn firsthand how to become 
an active part of our very sighted world. 

Mr. Kaplan is the founder and executhe director of the Foundation for 
the Junior Blind, Los Angeles, and director of Camp Brookfield, the 
agency *s summer camp in Malibu. 

Mr. Eskridge was associate director of the camp, a member of the Founda- 
tion's advisory hoard, and has been program coordinator for many of the 
organ ization 's tra vel camps. 




Section V 

Planning the Hawaiian Trip 

^)ur **Projccl Aloha," a ten-day dream come true, began 
with warm Invitations from many Hawaiians who have been 
counselors at our summer camp in California. The trip was 
a rousing success because of the wonderful **Aldha spirit" 
that greeted us in Hawaii and because of the following guide- 
lines that we have developed throughout twenty five years of 
travel camping: 

Organization— \^ z make definite assignments of campers 
to "counselors, just like at summer camp, and take double 
headcounts every time buses are boarded. Using these 
methods in tandem is the only way we insure against leaving 
or losing someone enroute. 

Staff— Our volunteer counselors understand ahead of 
time that their role is safety and fun for the campers; and 
they know that camper-committed volunters have more fun 
themselves when they are helping youngsters to explore new 
areas and activities. 

Plans — We make definite plans ahead of time for meals, 
travel, bathroom stops, snacks, rest, lodging and appropriate 
clothing for the campers. On this trip, we stayed at the camp 
in Kailua for a few days, then at the Hawaii School for Deaf 
and Blind near Diamond Head. We ate simple cold break- 
fasts, made sandwiches for lunch, and were hosted for 
dinner by Honolulu service clubs, restaurants, and fast food 
take-outs. . 

Although we normally drive our o^wn buses, the drive 
from Los Angeles to Hawaii is a wet one, so our transporta- 
tion on Oahu was donated, too, and friends volunteered 
their cars for the quick trips to the grocery and pharmacy 
that always are necessary. 

In the past, we have slept on the floor in high school gym- 
nasiums, in an old Indian trading post, at state parks and 

city campgrounds, in boats and on buses and even m a 
convent. When we plan ahead of time for all of these essen- 
tials, with a well-thought-out itinerary, our travel camps run 
very smoothly. 

F/ex/i/V/V— Regardless of the above, we're the first ones 
to deviate from our plans if something exciting comes up. 
Without spur-of-the-moment flexibility, our youngsters 
never would have boarded a stern-wheeler river boat, climbed 
through underground caverns, driven a tractor and picked 
string beans, danced in a grove of ^iant Redwoods, or 
leaVhed to eat Chinese food with chopsticks. 

Program—The uniqueness of an area always makes for 
the best program. We have found that a little research and 
contact with local service clubs and the Chamber of Com- 
merce provide valuable leads for fun activities. Frequently, 
asking the right questions has made the difference between a 
vacation and rich cultural experience. 

Standards— Many ACA facilities standards for summer 
camps must be met in other ways on the road. Gas stations 
rarely have bathroom facilities for 100 youngsters and their 
staff. So we insure sanitation with a periodic cleaning on our 
own. Three-foot spacing between bunks would have been 
paradise when we were crowded in our sleeping bags on the 
floor of an old trading post, but sleeping head-to-foot 
helped to keep colds from spreading. A daily shower usually 
is impossible, but chances for a swim in a river or a stop to 
clean up at a school gym are more frequent. Hand-washing 
facilities are always near, though sometimes our younger 
campers must be reminded to use them. 

In short, we begin our travel camps with a good plan, then 
improve it as we go. 

Section V 

A Rationale for Leisure Skill Assessment 
with Handicapped Adults 

Nancy Navar 

Therapeutic Recreation Journal/Fourth Quarter 1980 

■jL As therapeutic re:reators become more actively concerned 
with issues such as accountability and quality assurance, and 
as accreditation standards (i.e., JCAH, CARF, and others) 
become more refined, the topic of assessment becomes a 
more critical concern in the field. Assessment is seen as a 
means to improve the quality of therapeutic recreation ser- 
vices to clients and to effectively individualize therapeutic 
recreation program planning for a particular client. The 
choice or development of an assessment instrument will con* 
tinuc to be one aspect of the therapeutic recreation profes- 
sional's responsibility. 

A multitude of assessment instruments and methods exists 
^-^ng the allied health professions. Few, however, arc 


specifically designed for therapeutic recreation services. 
Although therapeutic recreation assessments are increasing 
in quantity, quality, and availability, therapeutic recreation 
assessments are often chosen without adequate preliminary 
thought or consideration. The therapeutic recreator must 
understand the conceptual framework upon which a parti- 
cular assessment procedure is founded in order to assure 
that a chosen procedure is appropriate for a particular pro- 
, gram or client group. 

Very often the therapeutic recreator is faced with the 
development or adaptation of an existing assessment instru- 
Nancy Navar is an Assistant Professor for the Department of Leisure 
Studies at the University of Illinois, Champaign, tllinois. 


Perspectives on Administration/95 

ment. A conceptual or- theoretical foundation is necessary 
for either the development ofea therapeutic recreation assess- 
ment instrument or the appi^priate, effective adaptation 
of an existing assessment procedure. Without such a con- 
ceptual or theoretical understanding, the assessment process 
may become ineffective, inappropriate, or at best, reduced 
to the technical (not professional) level of itriplementation. 
This article focuses on an illustrafton of a conceptual frame- 
work for therapeutic recreation assessment. 

. Foundation for Assessment 

An understanding of the purpose of both agency and thera- 
peutic recreation programs is necessary before a conceptual 
c/ramework for therapeutic recreation assessment can be 
chosen. If the primary purpose of therapeutic recreation in an 
agency is to improve the functional abilities of clients (i:e., 
cognitive, affective,* social, and physical functioning), then 
the therapeutic recreation assessment must be designed to 
assess one or more of these functional areas in relation to the 
client's leisure abilily or future leisure lifestyle. Very often, 
the purpose of the therapeutic recreation services within an 
agency are focused more heavily on leisure education. A 
leisure education content model developed by Gunn and 
Peterson (1978) includes four components: leisure value and 
attitude awareness and development, social interaction 
skills, leisure resources, and leisure, skill development. If a 
model such as this is being used in a particular therapeutiof? 
recreation program, then assessment procedures need to be 
developed for each of the four leisure education components. 
When relating the therapeutic recreation program purpose to 
the issue of assessment, it is logical to assume that the purpose 
and rationale of an assessment process are congruent with 
the purpose and rationale of the therapeutic recreation 

Other considerations are also prerequisite to developing a 
rationale for a particular therapeutic recreation (TR) assess- 
ment. Client characteristics have direct implications for the 
content and method of assessment. The residential center 
for school-age educable mentally retarded clients and the 
extended care facility whose average resident is a non- 
^ ambulatory, Seventy-six-year-old female may both be con- 
cerned with leisure skill assessment or programming for 
improved social interaction. Yet, it is obvious that the age 
differences, different physical abilities and diverse client 
interests are quite distinct for each agency. When the thera- 
peutic recreator chooses, develops or adapts an assessment 
process for either group of clients, the conceptualization of 
that assessment process needs to be geared toward that 
particular client group. 

Staff resources are another preliminary consideration in 
the choice or development of an assessment process. The 
state psychiatric facility with a clientistaff ratio of 100:1 
(including part-time staff and possibly volunteers) needs a 
different type of TR assessment than the partial hospitaliza- 
tion program that may have one or two TR professionals for 
each fifteen to twenrty clients. Staff qualifications, staff com- 
munication and counseling skills, staff responsibilities and. 
.scheduling patterns all influence the choice of a therapeutic 
recreation assessment procedure. The quality of the assess- 
ment, the time available for assessment and the specific 
reasons for the therapeutic recreation assessment vary 
among agencies. 

Developing a Rationale for Assessment 

After the therapeutic recreation professional considers the 
agency and therapeutic recreation program purposes, the 
client characteristics and the staff resources available, the 
rationale for a therapeutic recreation assessment can be 
determined. The remainder of this paper focuses on how such 


a rationale was developed. The specific procedures focus on 
a leisure skill assessment process. 

A comprehensive leisure education assessment implies 
that the assessment process consider each of the four com- 
ponents of the leisure education content model; leisure skill 
development, social interaction skills, leisure value and atti- 
tude awareness, and development and leisure resources (Gunn 
and Peterson 1978). Any single assessment instrument may 
provide information on only one aspect of the total leisure 
education model. Other sources of information (i.e., sub- 
jective and objective information sources) may be necessary 
to complement a specific leisure assessment instrument. Yet 
the choice of the actual assessment instrument provides the 
foundation for the type of client information that is sought. 
If the ultimate purpose of therapeutic recreation is to facili- 
tate the responsible independent leisure functioning of clients, 
then therapeutic reereators must choose an assessment instru- 
ment that delivers useful information related to the ultimate 
leisure abilities of the clients. 

It is generally accepted that leisure activity skills facilitate • 
responsible independent leisure functioning. Therapeutic 
reereators also recognize that leisure activity skills alone are 
insufficient to assure true leisureability. Leisure values, 
social interaction concerns and the utilization of leisure 
resources are also recognized as contributors toward a client's 
leisure lifestyle. Yet the predominance of leisure activity skills 
continues to be exemplified by the attention given to them in 
therapeutic recreation programs throughout the country. 

Is there a way that the therapeutic recreator can assess 
clients' leisure activity skills so that client needs may be deter- 
mined and the therapeutic recreation programs can be 
designed to help improve the leisure functioning oT clients? 
Hundreds of leisure activities are available to our clients 
during their agency stay<»r post-discharge. It may be a. simple 
task to develop an activity checklist and have the client indi- 
cate leisure activity strengths, weaknesses or interests. How- 
ever, the simple type of assessment can also be quite futile 
for many reasons. Clients may have had minimal exposure 
to leisure activities and, therefore, display very few leisure 
activity strengths. In this case, the therapeutic recreator is 
left with assessment information that provides little or no 
program direction. In addition, a client may have many 
leisure activity skills or interests that are inappropriate to the 
client's present or future leisure lifestyle. Such a client may 
have several leisure activity skills (i.e., many team sport skills 
and interests), yet lack variety in activity skills. A third 
example of an ineffective use of an activity checklist assess- 
ment is found in the situation where clients may have leisure 
skills that are no longer used. If a client has the skills to play 
Softball but chooses.not to* participate in softb;all outside the 
agency, the particular leisure skill does not presently contri- 
bute to the leisure ability of the client. 

What is needed is a conceptual framework for assessing 
leisure activity skills.'^The Leisure Services Department of 
State Technical Institute and Rehabilitation Center of Plain- 
well, Michigan, has developed a TR assessment (STILAP) 
based on leisure competencies (Navar and Clancy 1979). 
These leisure competencies provide a conceptual framework 
within which an adult client's leisure activity skills or partici^ 
pation patterns are assessed. Although this leisure activity 
skill assessment instrument utilizes an activity,checklist, the 
checklist is designed to provide both the client and the thera- 
peutic recreator with meaningful, organized information that 
can be used in determining TR program direction. STILAP. 
obtains information on the leisure participation patterns of 
adult clients and atten^pts to discriminate between those 
leisure skills that are used often, those leisure skills that are 
rarely practiced and those leisure activity skills in which the 
client has an interest in'4cquiring more knowledge or exper- 
tise. This aspect of STILAP is comparable to many other 
TR leisure ass?ssments. The major difference between a 

1U6 ■ ' . 

simple activity inventory and STILAP is the theoretical 
foundation for determining activity skills and leisure partici- 
pation patterns. 

The fourteen leisure competency statements that are used 
in STILAP were derived from an investigation of the leisure 
lifestyles of non-handicapped individuals. Questions such 
as the following were asked: *'What do adults do in their 
leisure?" **What activity skill areas provide the ^average' 
adult with sufficient 'ammunition' to use his or her leisure 
responsibly?" The underlying premise is that if an adult has 
a minimal or moderate skill level and participation pattern- 
in the derived fourteen competency areas, there is a high 
probability .that he or she has the activity **tools" to use 
leisure responsibly. STILAP docs not claim that every 
person must participate in all fourteen leisure competency 
areas. At the heart of leisure, therefore, leisure assessment is 
the belief that individuals can do what they want to do with 
their leisure. However, individuals do need a leisure skill 
repertoire that can facilitate, responsible and satisfying 
leisure experiences. The fourteen competency areas provide 
concrete guidelines for further leisure skill development or 
for developing further pursued leisure participation 
patterns. - ' ' leisure conipctencies provide the therapeutic recreator 
with a theoretical foundation for assessment. As a client's 
leisure activity skill profile is developed through the assess- 
ment instrument, both staff and client gain insight into client 
strengths, weaknesses, interests and ultimately direction foir 
client program involvement. 

Each leisure competency statemc.nt is explained and 
illustrated to assist the reader in formulating his or her own™ 
conceptual framework for leisure assessment. 

1 . Physical skill thai can be done alone. Many people value 
their **alone time" as a rewarding, peaceful or pleasant 
part of a day. Others dread or f'^Hr f.olitude and either 

* avoid such a situation or experience it v/ith emotions that 
are less than pleasant. Either outlook reaffirms the fact 
that many people in today's society do spend time alone. 
Whether or not this solitude is considered to be I'^isure is 
individually determined. Many ill or di.sabled persons 
sperKl a disproportionate amount of time a)one. It is 
logical to expect that if a person has a skill which can be 
utilized when no other persons are present, that person 

better prepared tooboth handle or enjoy their time 
alone. Physical activity is documented as being beneficial 
to bo\'h emotional and physical health and welUbeing. 
Many people naively presume that physical leisure activi- 
tie.s require other persons. Several leisure activities can 
be performed by one person, i.e., jogging, exercising, 
yoga, billiards, relaxation techniques and so on. Often 
times through choice or necessity adults participate in 
solitary physical leisure activities. 

2. Physical skill that he or she cu*i participate in with others 
regardless of skill level. Many social physical activities 
(i.e., dual or team sports) contribute both to clients' 
social development as well as physical well-being or fit- 
ness. However, social development ispften frustrated or 
encumbered by participants or competitors who are un- 
evenly matched. It is extremely difficult for a beginning 
tennis player or racquetball player to enjoy competing 
against an expert in the sports. On the other hand, 
bowlers, swimmer)^ or skiers of unequal^bility can read- 
ily enjoy participating together. Since many physical 

. , social leisure activities are readily available to adults, it i.^ 
beneficial to the therapeutic recreator and to the client 
tp assess the clicnt\s leisure participation pattern and 

* interest in physical activities where skill level is relatively 

3. Physical skill that requires the participation of one or 
^more others. Many common adult activities do require 


more than one participant. Today's society is experienc- 
ing an increased focus on lifetime sports and carryover 
activities that require others. In addition, improved social 
interaction is a common therapeutic recreation^oal area 
that can be facilitated through client involvement in 
leisure activities that require involvement by others. In- 
herent in activities such as tennis, badminton, table tennis 
or horseshpcs is the opportunity for interaction with one 
or more others. 

4. Activity dependent on some aspect of the outdoor envh 
ronment. The ecological and environmental concerns of 
the 1980's are brought to focus frequently in the media, 
in schools and throughout many aspects of daily life. 
People do not care for or protect things that they do not 
value. Outdoor Icisui-e activities provide enjoyable rea- 
sons for valuing the environment. In addition, health or 

" economic concerns often provide reasons for clients to 
utilize the oui-of-doofs. The out-of-doors provides a 
relatively inexpensive leisure environment for activities, 
such as. walking, gardening, bird watching, hiking or 

5. Physical skill not considered seasonal. AJthough geo- 
graphic differences occur thtoughout the United States, 
any geographic region has normal or customary seasonal 
activities. Many people whoarcvery active in the summer 
months fail to enjoy a winter or rainy season. The **cabin 
fever" occurring in snowed-in regions or the **dog days" 
of the summer arc examples of many unpleasant reactions 
to weather and climate. Many adults nave a- variety of 
leisure skills that upon close examination are seasonally 
limited. If a person is to be physically active throughout 
the entire year, non-seasonal activities can be pursued. « 
Roller .skating, shufflcboard, auto mechanics, hiking and 
swimming are examples of leisure activities with a high 
probability of seasonal independence. 

6. Physical skill with^carry over opportunity for later years. 
**Latcr" years" is often individually defined depending on 
one's age and life perspective. A forty-year-old paraplegic 
may consider *Mater years" to be age 55 or 60, while an 
eighteen-year-old EMR client may have the foresight a''nd 

• intcrest to plan for the *Mater years" of age 25. Either 
description implies an anticipated change in future leisare 
lifestyle. While there are senior citizens that play Softball 
at age seventy-two, they are the exception. More typical 
for older adults are non-team sport activities such as 
swimming, golf, and walking. **Later years" implies 
cither social or physical considerations thai influence 
one's leisure choices. In 'order to prepare a client Jdr a 
future leisure lifestyle that may be different from their 
youthful leisure participation patterns, it is important to 
obtain an assessment of the client's leisure competency 
in this area. 

7. Physical skill with carry over opportunity that is vigorous 
enough for cardiovascular fitness. Again, cardiovascular 
fitness can be individually defined biased on an individ- 
ual's age, state of fitness and.physical abilities or limita- 
tions. A quadriplegic may choose to participate in indi- 
vidual exercises or swimming to maintain ot improve 
their carcjiovascular fithessl^ The nineteen-year-old emo- 
tionally impaired, able-bodied client obviously has dif- 
ferent cardiovascular capacities. Jogging, racquetball or 
bicycling may be (if more interest or more feasible to a 
particular client. Whatever level of cardiovascular fitness 
is of concern, it is generally accepted that leisure activi- 
ties can contribute in this area. For this reason, it is 

* important to assess whether a client has a leisure com- 
petency that has both carry over value and is vigorous 
chough for their personally defined level of cardiovas- 
cular fitness. 

8. Mental skill participated in alone. So far, the leisure 
competencies under discussion have primarily referred to 

I i ) ^ Perspectives on Administration/97 

the variety of physical leisure competencies of adults. Cog- 
nitive leisure involvement is also a very common type of 
leisure pursuit. The unlimited opportunities to enjoy the 
use of the mind are frequently overlooked in traditional 
recreation programrring. Thinking, analyzing, creating or 
synthesizing are all cognitive experiences enjoyed by 
adults. Mental leisure activities such as solitaire, reading, 
writing poetry, or drawing blue print plans can provide 
satisfying leisure experiences. The presence of an illness 
or handicapping condition does not negate the frequent 
leisure interests in solitary mental pursuits. 
9. Mental skill requiring one o[ more others. The previously 
mentioned social concerns of the therapeutic recrcator 
apply to cognitive oriented leisure experiences. Cards, 
table games, a current event discussion group or chess 
are examples of leisure activities that would indicate 
whether or not a client has a competency, leisure partici- 
pation pattern or interest in pursuing social activities 
that are predominantly mental. 

10. Appreciation skill or interest area which allows for emo- 
tional or mental stimulation through observation or pas- 
sive response. The intent of this competency is to deter- 
mine if the individual has an interest or developed skill 
in spectating. Spectating implies a range of activities 
from concerts, theater, and art appreciation to watching 
sporting events. The traditional categorization of recre- 
ation activities into active and passive does little toward' 
lending either credibility or sanctic: to spectating and 
appreciation skills. .Rather than lec(uring that clients 
shoiild be more active^in their leisure pursuits, it is often 
in the client's and therapeutic rccrcator's best interest 
to simply assess whether a client has such an appreciation 
skill. It is often less insulting to a client to acknowledge 
an active leisure participation pattern in an appreciation 

• skill area than it woufid be to say that a client is too passive. 

On the other hand, many clients do lack the ability or 
- interest to actively ^njoy a spectating or passive leisure 
activity. In this case, an assessment of competency in the 
appreciation skill area lends rationale for both pursuing 
such an interest or developing such a skill. 

11. Skill which enables the creative construction or self- 
expression through object manipulation, sound or visual 
media. The human need for self-expression is well docu- 
mented. Leisure experiences are often presented as an 
enjoyable and feasible means for self-expression. When a 
client engages in such activities as photography, playing 
the guitar, painting, crafts, or **souping up" a car engine, 
he or she is demonstrating leisure involvement ^through 
creative construction or self-expressive media. . 

12. Skill which enables the enjoyment or improvement of the 
, home environment. If either client or staff think about a 

rainy, gloomy Saturday afternoon >\ithout a car, no 
money and no friends available, the resulting facial ex- 
pression is usually less than pleasant. **What will I do?" 
is a probable question that arises from such an image. It 
is very important that adults be able to not only survive 
time at home, buj enjoy such opportunities. Also, the 
family member may look to leisure experiences at home 
for social,. economic, health, or mobility reasons. The 
area of leisure skill development in home and family 
activities is traditionally overlooked in institutional 
settings where the focus is often on group recreation 
activities. A comprehensive therapeutic recreation assess- 
ment enables the client and therapeutic rccreator to assess 
both the client's leisure interests and leisure participation 
pattern in home and family activities. , 

1 3 . Physical or mental skill which enables participation in a 
predominantly social situation. Much of adult life is 
spent in social situations. Many of these social situations 
arc centered around leisure activities. Conversely, leisure 

Q activities are often uscd'^ a means of meeting new people 


. HM^e^98/PEiwPErTivES ON Administration 

or further developing social relationships. Many of our 
clients need a repertoire of social leisure activity skills in 
order to both improve or expand their social horizons or 
to simply survive in social' situations. When assessing a 
client's leisure activity skills, the therap litic recreator 
must be concerned with the client's status it\ relation to 
leisure activities that will enable a client to successfully 
function in a social situation. Bowling, cards, dancing 
or participation in clubs or community organizations are 
leisure activities that can focus on social interaction more 
than the actual activity skill. 
14. ''Leadership or interpersonal skill which enables com- 
munity service. Many clients, because of illness, disability 
or institutionalization have much practice in receiving 
assistance or service. Generally, adults often find service 
to others a pleasurable or rewarding experience. 
Adult clients, regardless of disability, often have a need or 
desire to be useful or provide service to others. Thera- 
peutic recreation professionals frequently acknowledge 
this leadership desire of clients by enabling the EMR 
client to assist in scorekeeping or by delegating canteen 
or equipment, responsibilities to clients^lt,hough such 
instances of clients providing leadership or service may be 
sound programming, these examples are not acknowl- 
edging that leadership cart be a leisure activity skill with 
carry-over value for clients. Depending on the functional 
level of clients and TR program resources, such activities 
as lifesaving, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, first aid or 
leadership of youth groups can be learned by clients as 
a normal adult activity skill. Other types of program- 
ming to help clients acquire leadership skills as a leisure 
pursuit might include how to function as a committee 
member or what to expect from a PTA meeting. 

By utilizing the preceding leisure competencies as a con- 
ceptual framework for leisure activity skill assessment, the 
therapeutic recreator and client can obtain useful, directional 
indications for client program invokement. Therapeutic 
recreation professionals often speak of well-balanced TR 
programs or well-rounded leisure lifestyles. The fourteen 
leisure competencies provide guidelines to facilitate such. If 
an individual acquires or utilizes a leisure activity skill in all 
or most of the fourteen leisure competency areas, one caA 
assume that the individual has a functional repertoire 
leisure activity skills. On the other hand, if a client chooses* 
not to acquire or participate in a mentioned leisure competen- 
cy area, at least ihat client is making a leisure decision based 
on adequate knowledge of the .scope of leisure competencies 

The categorization of leisure activity skills into functional 
leisure competency areas which parallel **normal" adult 
leisure patterns provides a rationale fgr using an activity 
inventory or as a means of leisure skill assessment. 
The conceptualization and selection of the fourteen leisure 
competency areas appears to provide a strong rationale to in assessment and programming efforts. 

The specific method of implementing a leisure assessment 
is based on client, staff, program and agency characteristics. 
The underlying concern is that therapeutic recreators 
choose, develop or adapt a specific a,ssessmcnt instrument 
and implementation plan based on a sound conceptual 
understanding of the total assessment prdcess and a valid 
theoretical foundation for as.sessment. 


Gu nn, Scout L., and Peterson, Carol A., Therapeutic Recreation Pro- 
gram Desii>n Principles and Procedures^ New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1978. 

Navar, Nancy and Clancy, Therese, * 'Leisure Skill Assessment Process in 
Leisure Counseling," David J. Szymanski and Gerald L. Hitzhusen (eds.), 
Expanding Horizons in Therapeutic Recreation ^7, University of 
Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, 1979. j 


Programs for Handicapped Campers 

Discussion Questions and Resources 


L What do the terms handicapped, disabled, impaired, and 
special populations mean? What terms should you avoid 
using? ' 

2. If a camp has traditionally served only non-disabled or 
able-bodied persons is it likely that problems will arise 
with parents, staff, or campers when disabled campers are 
accepted into the^program? What should a camp director 
do to make a smooth transition to a mainstream program? 

3. What are some simple, inexpensive changes or additions 
camp directors can undertake to make areas and facilities 
more accessible to the handicapped? What changes should 
be part oT long-range plans? When are changes not 

4. Are there instances when a camp director should not accept 
a handicapped camper into a camp program? What pro- 
cedure should be used to screen and accept campers, 
especially those with special jieeds? 

5. Compare the philosophy, goals, and objectives of a camp 
for handicapped campers and a camp for able-bodied or 

u .normal campers. What similarities can be identified; what 
differences^ Compare camp programs and look for simi- 
; larities and differences. 

' Resources 

American ADiancc for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance 
(AAHPERD).vMvo/v/>7g Impaired, Disabled, and Handicapped Persons 
in Regular Camp Programs. Washington, D.C.: AAHPERD^ Infoi ma- 
tion and Research Center, 1976. 

American Camping Association. Camp Standards with Interpretations for 
the Accreditation of Organized Camps. Bradford Woods, Martinsville, 
IN: American Camping Association, 1980. 

Boy Scouts of America, llcouting for the PhysiraUy Handicapped. Dallas, 
''TX: Boy Scouts of Arr.erica, 1976. 

Brannan, Steve A. Ex.oanding Programs and Learning in Outdoor Recrea- 
tion and Education Portland, OR: Portland State University, Project 
EXPLORE, 1979. ^ 

Girl Scouts of America. Working with the Handicapped: A Leader *s Guide. 
New York: Girl Scouts of America. 

Lowry, Thomas P., (ed.). Camping Therapy: Uses in Psychiatry and 
Rehabilitation. Berkeley, CA: Center for Training in Community Psy- 
chiatry, 1974. 

4'H Leader's Guide: Recreation and Handicapped Youth. University Park, 

PA: Pennsylvania State University, 1978. 
National Easter Seal Society for Crippled Children and Adults. Easter Seal 

Guide to Special Camping Programs. Chicago, IL: Easter Seal Society, 


Peterson, C. A. and Connolly, P. Characteristics of Special Populations: 
Implications, for Recreation Participation and Planning. Washington, 
, D.C.: Hawkins and Associates, 1980. ^ 

Robb, Gary M., Havens, M. D. and Witman, J. P. Special Education in the 

Natural Environment. Blooming! on, IN: Indiana University, 1981. 
Shea, Thomas M. Camping for Special Children. St. Louis: The C. V. 

Mosby Company, 1977. 
Vinton, Dennis A. et. al. Camping and Environmental Education for 

HandicappedjChildren and Youth. Washington, D.C.: Hawkins and 

Associates, 1978. 

Vinton, Dennis A. Making Camp Facilities Accessible. Bradford Woods, 
Martinsville, IN: American Camping Association, Project STRETCH, 

Vinton, D, A. and Farley, E. M. (eds.) Camp Staff Training Series.^ 
''Knowing the Campers," and '^Dealing with Campers Behavior." 
Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky, 1979. Available from ACA. 




Perspectives on Administration/99 

Section VI 
A View to the Future 


'ur society is constantly refociising and changing, and if 
an industry, such as camping, is to continue to provide mean- 
ingful service, it is necessary to anticipate those changes. 
Armand B. Ball, Executive Vice President of the ACA and 
former camp director and YMCA director, has been and 
continues to be a catalyst for making camp professionals 
explore future direction? of the camping industry. Here, he 
shares some of his ideas for the future. His analysis and 
insights will provide the reader with some stimulating ideas 
for new directions in the future. 

Question 1 . H^haf do you believe are some of the signifi- 
cant changes that will take place in organziecl camping in the 
next ten years? How does this compare with the last ten 
years? c - . ^ 

Ball: '*, 1 think it would be helpful to focus on 
some of the issues that have emerged during the last decade 
and will continue well into the next. They include: 1) further 
development in off-season use of camp sites, 2) more empha- 
sis in program on holistic life-style, 3) shifting, but continued, 
focus on special skills and interests in camp programming, 
4) more integration of persons with disabilities, 5) continued 
diversification in campers served, i.e., aged, international, 
. handicapped, family campers, 6) increased regulations 
primarily at the state and local level, 7) increased demand by 
public for professional competence, and 8) growing concern 
by consumers for quality experiences and personnel. 

''As for the second pan of this question, I see four key 
issues emerging in the decade ahead. First, insuring low 
income youngsters camping experiences; second, developing 
effective marketing techniques and strategies; third, adopting 
new adrninistrative styles, especially in the areas of technology 
and fund raising; and fourth, addressing society's growing 
differences by working to restore tolerance and balance." 

Question 2. IVhat kind of growth patterns will camping 
experience in the near future? 

Ball: '*Capital investment and annual income will con- 
tinue to grow. The growth will be gradual, but steady. How- 
ever, more camps will go out of business than start up. 

* There are two areas where increases will be seen. One is 
the increase in the number of day camps that will be in 
operation during the year. Secondly^ as one might expect, 
the number of campers in attendance will increase. 

''One final point to be made when discussing growth pat- 
terns is the acreage owned by camps. 1 believe that we will 
find camps will use more of their existing acreage but will 
not add as much acreage to their property as in the past. 
Also, acreage owned by camps will diminish overall." 

Question 3. IVhat role do you believe camping has to 
play in society \s future? 

Ball: "Camping has a very important role to play in our 
society's future, more so than ever before. 1 see us making 
contributions in six areas: I) providing support services to 

parents, especially with growing numbers of single-parent 
families and working parents, 2) developing programs that 
stress the holistic life-style; 3) emphasizing life-leisure skills; 
4) continuing to provide opportunities for youth to be inde- 
pendent and yet expciicnce interdependence; 5) reinforcing 
traditional value systems; and 6) helping campers to develop 
tolerance for difference in others, in other words helping them 
to learn to resolve conflicts." 

QubSTioN 4. H'hat roles do you see The Atnerican Camp- 
ing Association playing in the future? 

Ball: "The American Camping Association will continue 
and expand legislative assistance at the state and national 
level. A united effort in this area will become more and 
more important. Another area where ACA will provide 
assistance is in the development and distribution of materials 
and informational resources. 

'There arc several areas where we will be concentrating to 
expand camping's image and develop a rapport with con- 
sumers. There will be continued emphasis on pubJic relations 
and public information that helps the public understand 
camping. In addition, there will be continued emphasis, in 
this era of accountability, on certification of personnel and 
accreditation of camps. The public is demanding that wc be 
responsive and accountable. To date our professional organi- 
zation has made significant gains i^n this area, but we will 
need to continue to upgrac)e these programs. 

"In conclusion, and an appropriate place to end, is the 
emphasis on what The American Camping Association can 
do for each of its members. It brings people together from 
different geographic areas and with differing philosophies. 
It acts as a catalyst to discuss and deal with important issues 
and provides the vehicle to upgrade professional 'practices. 
Also, it acts as a stimulus to get- people actively involved in 
their profession—a , key to any profession's survival and 

1 02/ Pfc H.S»»K(' rfVI-S ON A DMl StSTRATIONf 



Section Vt 

Lifestyles of the Future 

Jan Ellis 

Written ior Projhct STRETCH 

reliirn for sacrificing his traditional life centered in the home 
and family." 

A Possible Future Oullook 


If one chooses to accept a future projected on the basis of 
these current observations, it would seem certain that family 
life, cfs it is now known, will disappear by the year 2000. 

Sociologist Jessie Bernard, in projecting future possibili- 
ties, states, **The most characteristic aspect of marriage in 
the future will be precisely the array of options available to- 
different people who want different things from their rela- 
tionships with other people.'' 

Divorce, even now relatively easy to obtain, is readily 
accepted as the solution to any that might be 
present in a. marriage.. According to one calculation ba.sed 
•qn-jcurrent .statistics, even by 198$ there will be more divorces 
than marriages in the U.S. A Newsweek article, ''Children 
of Divorce," quotes an acknowledged expert who works 
with divorced families and predicts that thrCe out of four 
children of divorced families will repeat the pattern . . . and 
the number of children involved in divorce has tripled in the 
last twenty years. 

If divorce i.s to become the common practice, then it 
seems inevitable liiat various alternatives will replace the 
traditional nuclear family lifestyle. Already ''traditional" 
family houseliolds account for less than one-third of the total 
households in the U.S. This has implications for children 
caugnt in the middle of the transition from normal family 
.life to one of the alternative lifestyles. 

Some predict that the tradition of marriage will literally 
disappear as youth, having personally and intimately wit- 
nessed a marriage breakup either of their own parents, or 
parents of their friends, will reject the practice. 

In their book. The Family and Alternate Lifestyles, 
Stinnett and Birdsong say that most people will still choose 
traditional lifestyles that include marriage, but serial mar- 
riages will be the norm, and reconstituted families that bring- 
together children from two or more previous marriages will 
be common. 

Ellen Dudley in her article, ^'Rainbows and Realities; 
Current Trends in Marriage and Its Alternatives" in Futurist 
states that roughly three-quarters of Americans who divorce 
mldst'^fVhan^^^^^^ eventually remarry, suggesting that they PJ<^|^r toj^^ 

media ii their'search for these models, where ihey are being married . J'"^,^^,^7,^^^^ 

ifestyles in magazines, movies, however, tend to be less stable than first marriages ano nuve 

Jl amily life is declining, marriages are breaking up, chil- 
dren are running away from home, older people are finding 
themselves alone, and alternatives in sexual relationships, 
once unacceptable, are becoming prevalent. Could these 
occurrences indicate the complete demise of the family, or 
merely illustrate some of the changes that will affect the 
family and, therefore, American society in the next few years? 

While some who study, the future eagerly anticipate the 
results of these impending changes, others view them as a 
final threat to civilization. 

Most future thinkers agree that by the end of the century, 
family life will have changed. However, there are a variety 
of ideas as to what the changes will be and evidence to sup- 
port many of the ideas. Those professionals who contemplate 
the future, emphasize repeatedly that there is no way to 
know what will take place— the best that can be done is to 
look at current trends in society and create a plausible 
sequence of events, tracing actions based on those trends. 

Changes in Society Affect Lifestyles 

Before making any projections it is necessary to examine 
* present day situations. Just as changes in marriages and 
families have enormous consequences for society at large, 
changes in society have great. impact on marriages, families, 
and human sexuality. Advancements in technology, the mass 
media, and economic patterns have been cited most often as 
the causes of changes in American lifestyles. 

In a Futurist magazine article, "The Sexual Revolution," 
Robert T. Francoeur notes that historically, cyclical patterns 
of the economy have shaped variations of marriage and 
sexual values in the Ujiited States. A lioeral altitude with in- 
novative freedom during times of economic prosperity is usu- 
ally apparent and with a swing to more conservative, tradi- 
tional values of marriage and sexual behavior during econo- 
mic'slumps. F-rancocur's assumption, however, that as the 
new lifestyles become more firmly entrenched, there may be 
a break from this patlern. He notes that the mass media is 
beginning to play an important role in the process of shaping 
the "new" culture by publicizing and legitimizing a variety 
of role models for different interpersonal relationships. 
"Psychologically, few people can exist as free spirits; they 
wani and need models to guide them. Consequently, (in the 

presented with alternative 

and particularly television." These models espouse sexual 
equality and a sexually open society. He adds, '^Television 
in particular is having an enormous impact, providing an 
impetus for change, undermiiaing the traditional views, and 
indicating that a new order is inevitable." 

Editor of Futurist magazine, Edward Cornish, says that 
-advancing technology is a primary cause of change in the 
family and human sexuality.-^'^Unlil very recent times most 
human activities took place within the context ot the family 
but the machine offered man a higher standard ot living in 


a divorce rate of 40 percent, compared to 33 percent for 
marriages. A Time magazine article, "After Remarriage," 
notes that the impact of remarriage on a family is second 
only to the crisis of divorce. 

Sinjilc-Parcnl Families Increasing 

Many people are choosing not to marry at all or remarry 


Perspectives on Administration/ 103 

after being divorced, thus making niore common the alterna- 
tive of single-parent fainilies. Presently 20 percent of U.S. 
families are headed by a single parent. Thi.s has increased by 
50 percent during the last decade alone and will continue to 
rise along with the divorce rate. 

A new single-parent family phenomenon are those headed 
by single men and women who are being allowed to adopt 
children. Homosexual couples are beginning to be recognized 
as legally accepted unions for the purpose of adopting 

With the absence of a parent of one sex, it has already 
been noted that children are finding themselves without role 
models to follow as they begin maturing. As Francoeur 
pointed out, many of them are turning to media images in 
their search for models. Media images portrayed on television 
may be helping them to accept alternatives to traditional 
marriage and family lifestyles by presenting more single- 
parent families, open sex, cohabitation of unmarried 
couples, and divorces in its programming. 
- In single-parent families headed by a female^ the lack of a 
nuile role model has bepn cited as a cause in the increasing 
population of homosexuals in today's society. In the Nen\s- 
week article ^'Children of Divorce," it states that for toddlers 
between the ages of two and four, the ages when sexual 
interest runs high, the removal of the parent of the opposite 
sex is thought to be particularly detrimental to that child's 
sexual development. Boys are affected mOre strongly than 
girls and may begin bullying, thus alienating boys their own 
age, turning to younger boys and/or little girls for friendship, 
and learning feminine rather than masculine play patterns. 

Vance Packard in The Sexual Wilderness prcd'icis that 
single-parent families will be the cause of even more prob- 
lems in the future. **It is the one parent, brofr;en homes 
where a parent has left and there are inadequate parental 
models that account for much of social distress . today; 
delinquency, deviance, use of dope, and increasing divorce." 

Leontine Young in her book, The Fractured Family, 
states, '*No .society has survived without a system of authority 
and if generations grow up without a ^consistent structure of 
discipline' there will be no basis for the kind of social organi- 
zation that would be a bulwark against chaos." Without 
strong adult/child relationships. Young fears children will 
develop into empty, impersonal, and destructive individuals, 
increasingly violent and ultimately psychotic. 

The rising divorce rate and the accompanying trauma that 
results in children is being observed by many sociologists 
and youth service workers. In 1978, the National Education 
Association, the largest teachers' group in the United States, 
said, *,*The American family has joined the list of institutions 
that are no longer able to fulfill their traditional roles in the 
lives of young people. As a result, the school — not by 
consent, not by decision, but by default — has been, for an 
increasing number of children, the only institution that pro- 
vides for orderly socialization and maturation. Some of the 
facts they report as evidence of family failure and its impact 
on children are: 

—One out of six children now live in a single-parent house- 
hold, and 45 percent will do .so before they turn 18; 

—Of the million marriages that ended in divorce in 1976, '*in 
many cases neither parent wanted custody of the children"; 

—One million children run away each year, two million 
qualify as **battered"; 

^The suicide rate dmong fifteen to nineteen-year-olds has 
tripled in less than twent> years; 

—One out of nine youths will be arrested before age eighteen. 

Cohabitaling IJnmsirried Couples 

Between 1970 and 1978, in the college-age population, the 
nufnber of couples living together, unmarried, rose 800 per- 


cent and more than doubled in the overall population. If 
younger people continue to reject marriage, by the year 2000, 
this could be the normal **family" situation. With more 
reliable birth control, periodic abortions, and sterilization. couples can live together in a childless, carefree lifesiyle 
with none of the financial burdens of children or legal mar- 
riage ties. According to Francoeur, this lifestyle has been 
fostered by media portrayal of such shows as ''Three's 
Company" and '*Mork and Mindy." But senior citizens are 
al.socohabitating without marriage. 

Birlh Rates Decrease— Sex Roles Adapt 

As more and more people choose not to get married and 
remain childless, the birth rate, which dropped 28 percent 
over the last two decades and is now below tlie replacement 
level of 2.1 children per woman, will continue to decline. In 
such a family-less society, the individual will become the 
"natural" unit of society. 

Women, already affected by the women's movement, will 
choose to live alone and pursue their careers, shunning the 
role of homemakers. Men, who will often live alone, will 
take on the necessary housekeeping chores once performed 
by women. Sex roles will be less defined than in earlier times. 

Homo.sexiial Pofiulation Increases 

Already mentioned as a possible result of family breakdown 
is a growing number of homo.sexuals. With less restraint 
from a strong family group, and other social groups^ the 
choice will be left strictly to the individual. Already restric- 
tions against employment of gays are being dropped, several 
religious organizations have adopted supportive attitudes, 
and states have bCjgun to repeal laws prohibiting 
''unnatural" sex acts. 

The Graying ot Society 

By the year 2000, senior citizens will become the largest 
population group. With the declining birth rate and longer 
life expectancy of the elderly due to improved medical care, 
the life expectancy increases every year. The declining death 
rate means a steady expansion of-the older population. The 
Census Bureau has projected that by the year 20.^0, one in 
every six Americans will be over age 65, twice as man\ a^ 

A Cyclieal Pattern 

Some futurists project that since social trends follow a 
cyclical pattern, by the year 2000, lifestyles would closeK 
resemble those of today and even earlier. 

Using the Knodratieff cycle as a basis, Dick Stoken, in an 
article in Fufurisf magazine, suggests that by the 1990s a con 
servatism will return. Women will become more willing in 
assume the "traditional" female roles, the younger gencia 
tion will be less rebellious and less scornful of marriage and 
family, drug usage will diminish along with sexual adven 

Marriage and divorce rates, after fluctuating, could e\en 
out. The family unit, though not quite as strong as in the 
past, will remain. Opposition to this view, however, takes 
into account the changes that have taken place in almost 
every other aspect of life, and thus make it almost impossible 
for lifestyles to remain that unchanged. 

A Conservative Future 

In The Sexual Wilderness, Vance Packard suggests thiit 
perhaps restraint rather than freedom will be the future 


norm., and permissiveness will be rcplaeed by strictness. This 
view envisions a dramatie reversal of events taking place in 
society causing lifestyles to become like they were years ago. 
This could result in society recognizing the breakdown of 
the family and sexual values and taking action to counteract 
those trends. Since the average age of Americans is rising, 
the older generation's conservatism will be the norm. This 
could bring about a new emphasis on marriage and the 
families by government and communities. Politicians are 
already beginning to note the connections between societal 
problems and the breakdown of the family unit. The first 
White House Conference oa the family was in 1980, and the 
President openly urged persons who are living together but 
unmarried to consider marriage. In the future, religious 
institutions may take a more active role in promoting a more 
sacred sittitude toward marriage, discouraging sex outside of 
marriage, premarital sex, and divorce, it might be assumed 
that children would remain at home longer as the home 
gains strength as the focus of social activity. 

Selecled References 

Blinkhorn. Lois.- "Child Scxualiiy: Looking at Taboos," Mihmikee Jour- 
^K//, .)unc5, 1980. 

Cornish, Edward. "The Future of the Family: Intimacy in an Age or Lone- 
liness,'' T/?f F/////n.s7, February 1979, pp. 45-58. . 

Dudley, Ellen. "Rainbows and Realities: Current Trends in Marriage and 
its Alternatives/' The Futurist, February 1979, pp. 23-3 L 

"The Family and Its' Alternatives— A Selection of Forecasts," The Futur- 
ist, February 1979, p. 63. 

Francocur, Robert T., "The Sexual Revolution: Will Hard Times Turn 
Back the Clock" The h'uturist, April 1980, pp. 3-12. ■ 

Francke, Linda Bird and Reese, Michael. "After Remarriage" Ttmc\ 
February 11, 1980. . ^ ' 

Francke, Linda Bird, Sherman, Diane, Simons, Pamela Ellis, Abramson, 
Pamela, Zabarsky, Marsha, Huck, Janet, and Whitman, Lisa. "Children 
of Divorce" AVivvv*wA', February 1 1. 1980. v 

Packard, Vance. The Sexual U'ifderfiess, New York: David MeKOy.Com- 
pany. Inc. 1978. ^. X 

.Shanar, Ethel. "Older People and Their Families: The New Pionecrs.x; 
Journal of Murnu^e and the f'un\i(\\ February 1980, p. 9. 

.Stoken, Dick. "What the Long-term Cycle Tells Us about the 1980s^ The 
Kondratiff Cycle and Its Effect on Social Psychology" The f-ufunsf, 
February 1980, pp. 14-19. 

Toffler, Alvin, The Third Htfv^<\ New York: William Morrow and Com- 
pany, Inc. 1980. 

Section VI 

Integrating the Third Wave 
and Camping 

Karia A. Henderson and Deborah Biaieschki 

Camping Magazine/March 1982 

The future docs not exist yet. It will be no better than 
what we can Imagine or than what we are determined to 
make it. In ihe past year, Alvin Toftler has written a best- 
seller eniiiled The Third Wave. In this book Toffler 
imagines a future quite different from what we know today. 
This future presents some very unique challenges to those of 
us in organized camping who realize that we can have a part 
in shaping the future for ourselves and our campers. 

As Reidel (1980) has stated so well, "If there is one clear 
trend today, it is that change is a permanent characteristic of 
modern life.'' People concerned about the quality of life 
which can be provided for children and adults in the 
camping experience cannot turn away from change or from 
the future without abdicating responsibility to shape the 
future. We must move away from the fear of^the future or 
**future shock" toward making alternative futures visible 
and providing ways in our camps that will help people cope 
with the future. As Joseph (1974) suggested, we must program 
away problems and program in change. 

If change is to be programmed for, then we must know 
what kind of qupstions to ask as we move into new camp pro- 
gramming in the future. We must find ways to see beyond the 
trends and the cpuntertrends. No one has any magic answers 
for the future. As Toffler indicates, our attempts to peer into 
tomorrow, or even our attempts to make sense of today, 
remain more an art than a science. However, this does not 
provide an excuse for not expanding our thinking to include 
planning for the future. 

The coming two decades of the '80s and '90s are likely to 
be more challenging than any we have known. In the Global 
2000 Repoft i'ssued by President. Carter in 1980, it was 
O [It that serious stresses involving population, resources, 


and ttie environment are clearly visible. The report further 
stated that if present trends continue, the world in IQQO will 
be more crowded, more polluted, less stable ecologically, 
and more vulnerable to disruption than our world today. 
Despite the greater material output; the world's people" will 
be poorer in many ways than they are now. 

Although this sounds very gloomy, Toffler says that 
despair is unwarranted. He believes that many of the same 
conditions that create today's perils also hold fascinating 
potentials. Even though the next few years will be difficult, 
the Third Wave will offer a preferable new lifestyle for us all. 

As we look to the future, we must do more than simply 
look at the major trends which have occurred. Toffler 
suggests there have been too often only two images of the 
future: 1) the future will be like now and will continue like 
the present, or 2) there is no future so why worry or plan for 
it? Both of these notions lead to what Toffler calls a 
**paralysis of the imagination and will." Both create privitism 
and passivity. Instead, we must confront the future and 
determine what the future means to the kinds of institutions 
that we represent in the camping field. 

The ^rand metaphor, according to Toffler, is the colliding 
waves of change. This **wave front" analysis is based on the 
premise that history is a succession of rolling waves of change. 
Although one might identify a number of waves, Toffler has 
identified three major waves and bases his thinking on the 
conflict which results when the waves collide. 

Kar/a A. Henderson is an assistant professor in Recreation and Leisure 
Education at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. 

M. Deborah Biaieschki is a doctoral student in Recreation and Leisure 
Education. at the University of Wisconsin , Madison. 

Perspectives ON Administration/ 105 ' 

The first wave was based on the agrarian society w.hich 
existed for thousatids of years. The second wave was a result 
of the industrialization of civilization. The second wave was 
responsible for splitting up production and consumption. 
The basic principles of the second wave include standardiza- 
tion, specialization, synchronization, concentration, ma.xi- 
mi/ation, and centralization. All of these principles led to 
efficiency, time consciousness, energy consumption, bigness, 
growth, and bureaucracy. The end of the second wave has 
been evidenced- by two important happenings: 1) a turning 
point was reached in the war against nature when it became 
'Obvious that the biosphere could not stand what was being 
done to it, and 2) we can no longer rely on non-renewable 
resources. The end of cheap energy has signalled the begin- 
ning of the third wave. 

The third wave is no Utopia or antiutopia, but what Toffler 
refers to as ''practopia** — a society that is practical and pre- 
ferable to the one we had. The third wave is an alternative 
which is realistically attainable. The third wave focuses on 
individual differences, the home, innovation, the arts, and a 
balance with the biosphere. We do not know exactly what 
the third wave will look like, but it is evident that it will be 
different from what can be imagined today. 

Whether we know it or not, of us are already engaged 
in either resisting or creating the new civilization (Toffler). 
This shift from the second to the third wave presents many 
dangers which are likely to result in great clashes, economic 
swings, and violence, but ultimately we will survive. As 
humanity faces this opportunity to take a giant leap forward, 
there will be social upheaval as society shift.s to a yet unima- 
gined creative structuring. Toffler stated quite directly: ** We 
are either Second Wave people committed to maintaining 
the dying prder, Third Wave people constructing a radically 
different tomorrow, or a confused, selfjcanceling mixture of 
the two." The struggle of todayj's with those who want to 
pre.serve industrial society and those who are ready to 
advance beyond it. The developments which are occurring 
today indicate that the third wave will be based on the fusion 
of the first and second waves into this hew third wave. 

The changes which are occurring as we move into the 
third wavCaTeTia.sed on interrelated change. The changes 
are not independent of each other and they are not random. 
Further, we cannot explore what is happening in any field 
like organized camping without also looking at other aspects 
of the society including communities, politics, business, 
global .situations, and cultural implications. Toffler says we 
are at a new age of synthesis with a return to large-scale 
thinking, general theory, and the putting of pieces back to- 
gether again. The superidcology has vanished and the old 
ideas of causality (cause-effect) are being challenged with 
today's flexibility. Diversity and acceleration will be the 
keys which must be addressed as we move into the third wave. 


Toffier's suggestions regarding the third wave have some 
very direct implications to camping in the future. The impli- 
cations are intended to be objective; however, social fore- 
casts are never as value-free or as scientific as we would wish. 
Hopefully these will stimulate the thinking of the members 
of the camping movement. 

Toffier suggests that the basic raw materials of the 
future will be information and imagination. are cer- 
tainly two commodities which the camping movement can 
provide for both children and adults. In the future, institu- 
tions, agencies, and businesses which provide camping 
opportunities must look at themselves as educators anjj pro- 
viders of information that will assist people in both their 
vocational and avocational development. The third wave 
will also be symbolized by creativity, innovation, and imagi- 
nation-all aspects of which camps have, prided themselves 

I06/Pf,r.spfc TfVR.soN Admini.stration 

during the .second wave. The opportunities which are pre- 
sented to campers to enhance imagination and creativity will 
be essential for third wave camping. Both information and 
imagination will be the cornerstones for the other kinds of 
approaches which will be used in third wave progratnming in 

The philosophies of living in the future will likely center 
around the notion of oneness, holism, and the **.sys(ems 
theory." Camps have in the past provided a means for chil- 
dren and adults to practice the notion of holistic health 
through the integration of the mind, body, and soul in the 
camp experience. Thi.s notion of oneness also relates to the 
ecological approach to preserving the balance of nature, 
which is also an essential part of the third wave. In addition, 
many programming approaches have the potential for 
emphasizing this oneness through synthesizing and integrat- 
ing the camping experience across the line.s of gender, family, 
age, ability, and cultural difference, h is obvious that many 
camps have already moved into the third wave with the 
kinds of progr;amming which is already being done. 

Related to this oneness is also the concept of community 
which Toffler suggests will be an important element of the 
third wave. The lack of community which the Industrial Age 
has created has resulted in a great deal of loneliness among 
individuals and between individuals and in.stitution.s. People 
have not believed in something bigger than'them.selves. The 
third wave will provide ways for people to find community, 
structure, and meaning. The camps of the third wave can 
also be instrumental in providing the kinds of experiences in 
the outdoors which will help campers find a sense of meaning 
and community with others. Camps have offered this as a 
reason for existence since their begiilnings, but the full 
potential and fruition of this concept will likely be enhanced 


in the future as otlicr ijistitiiiions are also able to reinforce 
the kinds of e\periencc\the camps have provided all along. 

Technology and lelCcomnuinicalions will be the pass- 
words for llie third wave. These communicalions of the 
future will not create a lack of human contact but will likely 
free us all to experience life in more meaningful ways. The 
ability to communicate in.s^antly with people across the 
world will provide many new options. For camp directors, it 
may mean the opportunity to be more efficient in camp 
management to allow more time for other things, if one can 
use a computer to complete the scheduling for the whole 
camp in thirty minutes instead of three people working half 
a day, why not make use of the technology? if campers want 
to use various kinds of technology and telecommunicative 
equipment to enhance their experiences, why not let them? 
The revolution of the use of communication and technology 
will create a ''revolution of the psyche" (Toffler). 

The individuality of people will be heightened and tech- 
• noiogy will offer more diversity in how we learn and how we 
play.' I he emphasis of the third wave on individuality and 

sumers only and not as producers. With the movement 
toward '^presuming,'' women are getting the opportunity to 
move into new lifestyles. . 

Camps can do a great deal in the future to promote the mdi- 
viduality of all campers regardless of gender. The third wave 
will not define what people can or cannot do based on their 
sex. Therefore, camps will have to provide opportunities for 
both boys and girls and men and women to experienc-e their 
own individuality in whatever directions they can. Camps 
have provided an opportunity for both boys and girls to ex- 
perience non-traditional roles in the past, and this will coniin- 
ue to be an important element for camps in the third wave. 

The role of work may change quite dramatically in the 
third wave. Toftler suggests that all societies are gomg to 
have to face the idea of unemployment as they move through 
the third wave. The service sector can no longer absorb the 
blue collar workers as it has in the past. While the solution is 
uncertain, it is possible in the future that there will be no dis- 
tinction between work and leisure. TofHer suggests we will 
not be talking about work verses- leisure, but paid activity 

p ay. I he emphasis oi ihc mira wave on muiviuuaiuy anu i.ui uv. .^..v. .g, - - , , ■ , . _ 

demassification will have, a great deal to say in the kind.-fof^yerses unpaid activity. This notion ot work has also been 
.. . _ Irr... D^<^»^»^i;r,r. t^^'roforro,'! to **mpnninpfii human activity. 

programming that we offer to campers. Responding to 
individual needs and having a variety of programs to offer 
will be an outcome of the third wave. A camp in Iowa may 
link into a craft clas«i being conducted in Florida by camp 
staff who have a particular skill. Toffler suggests we may 
have ''electronic communities" in the future where people 
can communicate together over computers. Why not have 
''electronic camps" m the future where campers and staff 
can develop all kinds of sharing experiences? Technology 
can offer many opportunities. 

The changes which will occur in the family as we move 
into the third wave will also have a great bearing on the kinds 
of programming which is done at camp and the kinds of 
clientele which are served. Toffler suggests that the fractur- 
ing of the family which is occurring today is a part of the 
general crisis of industrialism. The institution of the nuclear 
family with a breadwinning father, housekeeping mother, 
• and children is rapidly disappearing. Toffler does not suggest 
that the third wave will be the end of the nuclear family, but 
he does suggest that the nuclear family can no longer serve 
as the ideal model for society. He suggests there will be a 
bewilderingarray of family forms— communes, homosexual 
marriages, single-parent families, and many other kinds of 
living arrangements. Flven today, statistics suggest that one 
out of seven children will be raised by a single parent; in 
urban areas this number is one out of four. It is likely that 
no single form of the family will dominate in the future, but 
people will move through a vni'ety of forms. Another trend 
will be toward child-free lifestyles where homes will tend to 
be more adult-centered. 

The changes in the family will result in a number ol 
changes in the ways that camps are run. Many camps are 
Xiurning toward more adult and family kinds of experiences. 
H^Aviil be especially important that the "family" is defined 
in ^very broad sense. In addition, camps can be a place 
where p^)ple can experience group living with a diversity ot 
others an(K:an learn much about "community." Again, this 
has been a precise upon which camps have been established 
in the past, biuHhe opportunity will be even greater in the 
future to offer theWiely of experiences. 

Related to the famiiy of the future are the gender roles 
which have been assigned to iticn and women. It is likely 
that the equalitv of the sexK will be an important aspect ot 
the third wave just as individuality is a prime consideration. 
Part of the upheaval presently occHirring in society is a direct 
result of the move from second waVto third wave thinking 
and the redefinitions associated with^e expectations and 
behaviors of the gender roles. With the tradkjortal views that a 
woman's place is in the home, women have^qever really ex- 
O need the second wave, or if they have it ha^been as con 


referred to as "meaningful human activity. 

Camps in the future can also provide opportunities which 
will enable people to utilize their leisure in new and creative 
ways. Not only will camps have the opportunity of providing 
leisure services, but camps may be one of the places where 
people can choose to spend their time. The concept of year- 
round camping and camping programs for adults may be 
vefy evident as an outgrowth of the third wave. 

In addition, Toftler suggests very strongly that people will 
become prosumers as individuals both produce and 
consume the goods they need. Camps can be one of the prime 
places where people can learn to be prosumers. It is h^PP^"; 
ing right now in camps where campers learn to be self- 
sufficient in cooking their own meals, building their own 
• shelters, and creating their own leisure activities. "Prosum- 
ing" is not a new concept for camping, but it is a con^pi 
that will have a great deal of relevancy for the future. The 
•prosumer ethic sugge.sts that instead of ranking people by 
what they own (the market ethic), value should be placed on 
what one does— the ability to do things on one's own i.s 
important. Camping will clearly continue to hold this idea as 
a philosophical foundation for Ihe movement as we move 
into the future; the idea is very compatible with third wave 

Our notions about education will also go through many 
changes in the future. This is already evidenced by the 
empha.vs on adult education, continuing education, and 
community education. Education is likely to be continually 
broadened in its definitions in the future. More and more we 
are realizing that education does not have to take place in a 
classroom or only for grades K-12. The organized camping 
experience is a valuable opportunity for education to occur 
in a non-traditional way. Experiential learning and continu- 
ing education— areas in which camps have been leaders— 
will be the exciting elements of the future. 

The emphasis on harmony with nature is also an important 
element of the third wave. Our planet is becoming smaller 
and the interdependency of the living organisms is becoming 
more obvious to those who care about the environment and 
the people within it. The values long associated with camping 
fit very nicely into the third wave's notion of harmony with 

nature. • j . 

The movement of society into the third wave and the 
adoption of the premises of the third wave by institutions 
such as camping organizations will not be without difficulty. 
The lack of standardization, the dema.ssification of the 
society, and the emphasis on prosuming will create turmoil 
as we iearn to adjust to the new society. Loneliness will 
become evident and our society and camping programs must 
seek ways for people to connect, but still retain their own»ec'T!vhs on Admini.stration/ 107 

indivfduality. The use of technology and computers can 
divorce us from human contact or it can free us to have the 
time to spend with people and to deal with the kinds of 
human interactions which computers are totally incapable 
of developing. 

The variety of options that will be available may create 
the most problems. Therefore, one of the things that camps 
can do is to help campers cope with options and provide the 
kinds of opportunities for social development and decision- 
making in a group living situation. Further, camps in the 
future must view their roles as an important element in the 
solving of important ecological, racial, sexual, and social 
problems. Camps must consider themselves as multi-service 
institutions, not just activity-oriented summer entertainment 

The third wave is upon us. We can resist it or we can begin 
to creatively develop it. We will not see that the third wave 
has suddenly arrived, but we will see many resulting innova- 
tions and collisions occurring in the next few decades. As 
illustrated in this article, the camping movement is built on 
many premises of the third wave and could be instrumental 
in reinforcing the values of the third wave. The decisions 
that camp administrators and other believers in the camping 
movement make will create, deflect, divert, and channel 
change in the future. The movement, the programs, and the 

Section VI 

Preparing for a Changing Future cindy Leigh and buH Hunt 

Camping Mac;az!N{-:/March 1982 

institutions that we build must be flexible, adaptable, and 
open to change. Since camping programs seem to be already 
following much of Toffler's futuristic thinking, camps can 
clearly be leading institutions in creating **practopia" in the 

The responsibility for change lies with each of us. We 
must examine the alternative futures and then set out to 
create those that are most desirable. Toffler offers us one 
model in The Third Wave; other alternatives have yet to be 
voiced. As'our actions ^ nactions of today form the mold 
for our tomorrows, tlie challenges set before the camping 
movement will ultimately be met. The direction and 
outcomes arc our choice. 


The Global 2000 Repon to (he President: Entering the Twenty-First Century 
(Directed by Gcroldo Bnrney). Report prepared by the Council on Envi- 
ronmental OuJilily and the Department of Stale. 1980. 

Joseph. E-larl. **An Introduction to Studying the Future" from f'liturism in 
Edueation. Stephen Hencley and James Yates (eds). Bcrkely: McCutchcon 
Publishing Corporation, 1974. 

Reidel. Carl. "Converging Social Trends— Emerging Outdoor Recreation 
Issues," in Proeeedings: 1980 National Outdoor Reereation Trends 
Symposium, Vol. fl. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report 

Toftler, Alvin. The Third H'ave. New York: Morrow Publishing, 1980. 

Ijdward Cornish, editf;r of Futurist magazine, has sug- 
gested that it is not our task to . . predict exactly what 
people will do in the future, but rather to help people to 
understand the possibilities of the future so that a better 
world can be created."' In spite of such advice, predictions 
do abound. Magazines, newspapers, radio, and television 
are filled with .speculation concerning the conditions that will 
dominate the coming decade and extend into the turn of the 
century: Many of the predictions are hopeful and leave us 
looking eagerly toward **. . . an abundance of all things 
needed for the good life: food, energy, clean air, and water.*'^ 
Othei predictions are dire indeed, and we are filled with dread 
at the thought of nuclear confrontation, increased energy 
shortages and rising costs, and social conflagrations due to 
racial and class tensions.* But whatever speculations we 
choose to attend, it is clear that the future will be a time of 
rapid change, and it is up to us to make wise decisions that 
will guide and develop the changes that are certain to occur. 
As camp professionals we must be especially aware of the 
alternative futures that relate to our particular needs and cir- 
cumstances. Various futurists have suggested thai: 

—Recycling of resources will increase. 
— The cost of energy will rise. 

—Our economy will become increasingly industrial-based. 
—Food will require a higher percentage of the total family 

Q — The percentage of elderly in our society will increase. 

Tc " 

08/ pERSPK<TfVE» ON Administration 

—Use of solar energy will increase. 

— The work week will be shorter, and there will be increased 
leisure time. 

— Families will be housed in more crowded quarters. 
—More people will return to the cities for housing. 
— The population will continue to 
— Poverty will rise. 

-^Confidence in public education wiM decrease. 
—Social interaction will decrease. 

— Isolation will increase as r ore people base their work in 
their homes. 

— Relationships between people will become less personal. 

— New sources of revenue will reduce property tax. 

— More individuals will remain single. 

—Concern about ecology and environment will decline as 
more people move on to new issues. 

^The use of marijuana will be legalized. 

— An alternative youth services program will offer an option 
to compulsory military service. 

—Distribution of public funds will be done through block 
grants to states. 

—There will be continued emphasis on alleviating problem.^ 
associated with achieving full socio-political equality. 

—Education will^be considered a life-long rather than a ter- 
minal process. 

Dr, Cindy Leigh is assistant director of Eorest Acres Camp for Girls in 
Fryehurg, Maine. 

Dr. Burl Hunt is a professor of Educational Media at the University of 
Missis.sippi in University, Mississippi. 


^There will be a guaranteed annual income. 
—Many public-funded services will become pay-as-you-go 

—Responsibility not assumed by private and public agencies 
will be assumed by legislative bodies. 

Not all of these potential conditions will or even can become 
realities, for some preclude others, but all are interesting to 
speculate upon. And as we consider the possibilities of the 
future, we must ask ourselves how camps and camp leaders 
can best continue to fulfill the mission they have undertaken:, 
lo put individuals in touch with the best parts of themselves; 
to create conditions which promote the development of 
"quality relationships; and lo promote an awareness of the 
spiritual unification of the human being with life and God. 

In his significant book, The Survival of (he Wisesf, Dr. 
Jonas Salk, director and Fellow of the Salk Institute for Bio- 
logical Studies in La Jolla, California, calls for man to 
develop new techniques for the **game of life." Nature, Dr. 
"Salk contends^ plays a game in which survival is the reward 
ol the **nttest." Man, he says, must begin to play the game 
**. . . for what can be given to it and received from it, not for 
how much can be taken and how little can be given.'" The 
concerns of camp directors during the seventies centered 
predominantly on staff quality and performance of the coun- 
seling re.sponsibflities.' Finding people who are interested in 
giving and receiving rather than in taking is not likely to 
become easier in the future. Still, the futuristic camp pro- 
fessional must focus increasingly on developing in children 
this sense that living life wisely depends upon self-regulation 
rather than self-indulgence. 

Another significant concern of the seventies was economic 
survival. If we analyze the various economic predictions pre- 
viously lisf-^d, we become increasingly aware that federal 
funds may be limited, and camps will be e.xpected to 
compete for block-grant money at a state level; we recognize 
the threat to camps as families must allot larger and larger 
percentages of their incomes to basic survival; we wonder 
how camps can ever absorb the increa.sing costs of Tuel and 
food. And yet, we are aware of the increasing need for our 
services as people return to city life-styles, cope with increas- 
ingly crowded living conditions, and feel the oppression of 
even greater social isolation. Certainly, we are forced to 
conjecture that as long as camps continue to meet a need not 
served so well by any other social agencies, they will cope 
with economic survival . and remain victorious. 

Population predictions can look ominous to all educators. 
Children, the largest consumers of our services, are becom- 
ing proportionately fewer in our society, as the number of 
senior citizens increases dramatically. But if education is to 
be viewed as a 'Mife-long process," then educational services 
will have more and more appeal for various age-groups. 
Camps are in a position to appeal to the interests of a wide 
spectrum of ages, if they so choose. Offering camp sessions 
for adult.s, for senior citizens, and for vertical groups with 
varying ages together in the out-of-doors may help many 
camps maintain economic survival while increasing their op- 
portunities for service. Using more and more members of 
the retirement population in varying staff positions may 
help many camp directors to cope with the difficulty in find- 
ing mature staff, while utilizing the ideas and energies of seniors still able to contribute to our society. 

If you, as a camp professional, are to meet the challenge 
of change, then you must begin now to ask yourself the 
questions that can help you make wise choices for the future: 

1. What kinds of campers are you equipped to serve? Is there 
a way you can diversify ... by appealing to additional age-, 
groups ... by offering sessions for various ages? 

2. What are you doing best? Are you conducting systematic 
follow-ups of your clientele to determine your strengths? 

3. Are you directly involved with decision-making at the pol- 
icy-making level? Do you know what is going on in your 
state legislature and how it may affect you? Are vou active^^. 
in your regional and national professional organization(g)? r 

4. ' What are you doing to help campers cope with changing 

conditions? Does your program reflect the imaginative and 
creative aspects of growth as well as the physical and. in- 
tellectual aspects? Does your camp and your camp per-.- 
sonel model an attitude of openness to change and a pro- 
cess of dealing with it in a positive way?' 

5. Are you increasing the campers' personal awareness of 
their responsibility for total health: health of body, health 
of mind, and health of spirit? 

6. Are you putting the youngsters (or oldsters) you serve into 
touch with many different ideas and experiences to insure 
a **survival kit" for the future? 

7. Are you accepting the responsibility of guiding and direc- 
ting change, by making needed improvements in your 
camp and its program? Are you prepared not to turn over 
your responsibility to the legislature, as camp professionals 
may have done with regard to the Youth Camp Safety 

8. Are you educating yourself for the future? 

If your answers to the majority of these questions were af- 
firmative, then you are probably moving toward a bright 
future. If you found yourself repeatedly thinking **no," 
then you possibly need to redirect your present energies. 
Whatever your answers, it is time to join with those who 
recognize that camping faces a future of extraordinary 
challenge. It is important that we all work individual!}^ and 
as a group to actively shape that future. Together we can 
bring truth to the. prophetic words of William Faulkner in 
his Nobel Prize acceptance speech: **I decline to accept the 
end of man. I believe that man will not merely endure, he 
will prevail." 

As camp professionals dedicated to the excellence of a 
future in which we play an active part, we must Commit our- 
selves to guaranteeing that in the end, those who prevail will 
be representatives of the finest and wisest ideals upon which 
the entire camping movement has been built. 


1. Cornish, Edward. As quoicd in Pyramid: Film and Video News, Wesley 
A. Doaks, edilor. Vol. 6. May. 1980, p. 1. 

2. "More Leisure in an Increasingly Electronic Society," Business Weeh:, 
September 3. l979, p.208. 

3. **Life in Tomorrow's America— Costlier, Less Exciting but Maybe Better, 
Too." U.S. Newsd World Report, July 5, 1976, pp. 42-43. 

4. Salk,* Jonas. The Survival of the Wisesi. New York: Harper and Row, 
Publishers, 1973, p. 113. ' 

5. Leigh, Lucinda. **The Development of a Metaphorical Program for Pre- 
Camp Counselor Training." Unpublished Doctoral thesis. The Univer- 
•siiy of Mississippi, University, Mississippi, 1980. pp. 63-69. 

Other Sujsgcsied ReadifiRS * i"' 

McColm, Bruce. The Fulure of Leisure. New York: Doubleday & Company, 
1 98 1 • 

The Futurist. Published bimonthly by World Future Society, P.O. Box 
30369, Bethesda Beach, Washington, D.C. 20014. A journal of forecasts, 
trends, and ideas aboutf^he future. 

Tofller, Alvin, editor. Learning for Tomorrow: The Role of (he Future in 
Education. New York; Vintage Press, 1974. 

•» 119 

EI^C PERSPECTIVE.S ON Administration/ 109 

Section VI 

The Future of Camping 
for Special Populations 

Dale J. Dean 

J Writtkn for Projkct stretch 


n recent years, there has been an upsurge in awareness' con- 
cerning handicapped people and an increase in the number 
of programs and services designed to help the handicapped 
and other special populations adjust and, flourish in our 
society. Funding for many of these projects has Been 
traditionally provided by the federal government, but a 
reduction in governmental funding of these programs is 
inevitable. This article addresses the problems involved with 
providing services to special populations in the future. It 
was written from interviews with seven experts involved in 
the field of special populations. 

According to Bill Hillman, consultant for the Office of 
Special Education and Rehabilitative Services in Washington, 
D.C., there is going to be a substantial reduction in the 
amount of federal money provided for these special services, 
and if these programs are to survive, some unique approaches 
to programming and alternative methods of funding will be 

"The private sector (including the field of organized camp- 
ing) will be requested to render more and better service that 
may be too demanding in the near future for the resources 
they have available," Hillman said. **There will be a lot of 
pressure to deliver services that they have not been requested 
to provide before.'* 

While service to special populations has significantly 
increased in recent years, Hillman estimates that only 40 
percent of all. handicapped children are being served ade- 
quately and that 25 percent are not being served at all. Hill- 
man said that in practically all areas of special education 
and recreation there is a lack of trained personnel. **ln 
recreation there is definitely a gap between needs, demands 
and services. We need to work as hard as possible to maintain 
the present level of services, but if we are to do this, there 
must be increased activity in the private sector and a reassess-; 
mcnt of the public sector*s role." 

Hillman said that there is a need to come up with unique 
approaches to meeting the needs of special populations that 
go beyond existing programs. **We need to encourage 
consumer groups to become activists in this area — they 
are becoming more so every day." However, he feels that 
many professionals, out of need for job security, will decrease 
their involvement in advocacy activities in the future. 

**We have made definite progress," Hillman said, **but 
now we are retreating." Because various states are antici- 
pating a reduction in federal funds, they are already closing 
down small programs and centers for handicapped people. 
But .strong programs will survive. 

Diverse Programming 

Ms. Marcia Carter, director of Camp Riley in Indiana, said 
that programs will need to jusiify their existence and main- 
tain accountability. **We will need to rely on diverse pro- 
gramming techniques as well as more efficient use of 
existing facilities." As an example, more than one group 
4) yill share a facility at one time. 

Ms. Carter said that in order for programs to survive, 
more task analysis of jobs will be required, and there will be 
a need to retrain personnel and increase supervision. Adminis- 
trators may find that they will need to help with program- 
ming, aad programmers may find that they will need to help 
the camp counselor. Carter also said that f^rograms will have 
to seek funding on a lai^ger scale from organizations such as 
corporation foundations and philanthropic organizations. 
**We can't expect a lot from small donations." 

Cooperation Important o 

ACA President Charles Kujawa thinks that agencies 
should be encouraged to cooperate with each other. He 
wants to see continued highlighting of services for special 
populatibns in the camping field and hopes to see successfully 
demonstrated projects reported in the literature. **Whether a 
program has been serving special populations tor twenty-five 
years or has just started, they are'involved in legitimizing this 
type of work — involving these people in society," Kujawa 
said. He believes that it is appropriate to get skilled help and 
expert medical support for special populations. 

Kujawa also thinks that there is poiential to do more in 
day camps; **The client goes home each day, but has a good 
experience outside of the home." Kujawa pointed out that 
programs do not have to be big in order to be successful; he 
said that working with groups of six to eight individuals 
should be considered whenever possible. 

Camp directors in general tend to be optimistic about 
maintaining or increasing services to special populations. 
Many camps receive little, if any, federal funding at present 
and do not feel threatened by the budget-cutting activities in 
Washington, D.C. There is an indirect consequence, 
however, as Ray Uloth, acting director of Minnesota Out- 
ward Bound for the Handicapped, explains. **We receive no- 
public funds, but as public funding of other programs is 
halted, we will be in competition fpr private funds with pro- 
grams which now receive federal and state funds." Still, 
Uloff remains guardedly confident about maintaining ser- 
vices to the handicapped in the future. He agrees that (he 
next few years will be tough, and many marginal programs 
will not continue unlesis more creative fund-raising te,ch- 
niques and increased donations of services, supplies, and 
personnel can be found. / . 

Looks for Expansion 

Gary Robb, director of Bradford Woods in Indiana, is 
quite confident about the future. **We have been privately 
financed all along, and I am looking for an expansion in 
services— not contraction." Robb said that major funding 
at Bradford Woods has been provided by private service 
organizations such as United Cerebral Palsey, the American 

Dale Dean is the assistant editor of Camping Magazine. 


IO/Pbrspectiveson Aominijitration 


Diabetes Associaliou. and county cancer societies. Robb 
admits that programs provided through public school 
systems will definitely change and may need to be condensed. 
**My reeling is that we* have to provide more creative pro- 
grams. and^ve need to be able to justify these programs to 
sell them to the public and the funding organizations.'' 

Concerning areas which need attention by camping profes- 
sionals. Robb sees a need to make more opportunities avail- 
able to special populations. He feels that private camps need 
to do more. **There are a large number of handicapped chil- 
dren who can function quite well in regular summer camps 
thai have not traditionally served handicapped children," he 

Ms*. Mary Ellen Ross. Director of Campmg at Camp 
Merry Heart in New Jersey, agrees with this thought. While 
her catnp is now involved with mofe severely disabled 
campers requiring a segregated program, she feels that it 
would be good lo^have a program for preparing less handi- 
capped individuals for mainsireaming in regular caojps. . 
. While Ms. Ross feels confident that Turiding--which has 
cotne from the federal government's Title I and the summer 
feeding programs— can be replaced by private contributions, 
she feels that a more important concern is getting the wprd 
out that special programs do exist. She said that even with a 
major public gelations effort and much publicity, many 

people are not aware of special programs, ;ind that some 
camper vacancies are never filled. 

Stuart Mace, of the National Easter Seal Society, agrees 
with Kiijawa's feelings that different agencies running 
•camps are going to need to cooperate. *'Where there are two 
camps in the same area of a state with half-full pi;ograms, 
there is a need to get together and do one whole job," he 

said. . . . . u r • 

jSiace also feels that camps servmg people with disabilities 
will need to manage money better and have more realistic 
camper fees which would pay a higher percentage of costs. 
He said that as of now, camperships and fees usually cover 
only half of the total cost of sending a disabled camper to 
camp, and the rest is provided (or made up) by the agency 
which operates the camp. 

After reviewing what these seven experts had to say, it can 
be concluded that there is going to be a period of readjust- 
ment for camps and other programs serving special popula- 
tions. Future programs may differ greatly from those exist- 
ing today. As program funding changes, there is a need for 
more efficient use of available resources, increised use ot 
volunteer staff, and more codperation between similar 
agencies. Perhaps the lessons we learn in the next few years 
will allow for increased opportunities and better services for 
special populations in the future. 

Section VI 

A Look to the Future 

Discussion Questions and Resources 


1.. In the paper by Ellis, contrasting.views of future lifestyles 
were presented. What problcms^have already been encoun- 
tered at camps as a result of altered lifestyles? What are 
future areas of concert! that may affect camp operations 
because of chatiges in our society's lifestyles? 

2. Communication systems and technological advances are 
growing and expanding at an astonishing rate. -What 
Impact will* these change^^have on organized camps? Iden- 
tify positive and negativeVactors. . 

3. Design a camp program Vpr the year ,2000. How will it 
differ from current programs? 

4. As the year 2000 approacfies, what will be the role and 
mission of the American Camping Association? 

'5. When looking into the future, what are the most critical 
areas of concern for camp directors? 


The Futurist, Published bimonlhly by World ruturc Society, P.O. Box 

30369, Beihcsda Beaeh, Washini^;ion. D-C. 2(X)14. 
Thy Global 2000 Report to the President: Entering the Twenty- First Cen- 

^turv. Geriiklo Barney (Director). Report prepared by the Council on 
EnvironmenTai Quality and the State Department. U.S. .Government 

, Publications, 1980. 

Haicley, Stephen and Yates, J. (eds.). Futurism in lulucafion. Berkeley. 

CA: 'Mc<'uteheon Publishing Corporation. 1974. 
MeColm. Bruee. The Future oft.eisure. New York: Doubleday and Com- 

pany. 1981. . # ^ 
Pick.! Diane (ed.). Camping Strategies for the 80's. Bradford Woods. 

Martinsville. IN: American Camping A^ssociation, 1981. , ^ 
TofHcr, Alvin (ed.), (.earning for Tomorrow: The Role of the Future in 

Fduvation. New York: Vintage Prcis, 1974. . 
Tofncr, Alvin. The Third Have. New York: Morrow Publishing, 1980. 
USDA I'Oresi Service, Prmredings: (980 t^tional Oiadoor Recreation 

Trends Symposium. Vol. //. USDA Forest Service, General Technical 

Report n'E-5'7. 




pK«,spKrTivps ON Administration/ I i 1 

*T(;e little oner, leaped, and shouted, and laugh 'd. 
nd all the hjls echoed. 

— William Blake 



1 2/Peiisi»ecTivRS on Aumii^mtration