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BD 224 764 



DOCUMENT RESUME 



SO 014 445 



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TITLE 

PUB DATE 
MOTE 
PUB TYPE 



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Trujillo, Lorenzo A. 

Arts Administration: Script from a Presentation 
Delivered [at] Phoenix, Arizona* 
Feb 82 
12p. 

Guides Mon-Classroom Use (055) — 
Speeches/Conference Papers (150) 

MFOl/PCOl Plus Postage, 

^Administrator Role; *Fine Arts; ^Leadership 
Qualities; ^Program Administration; *Sel£ Evaluation 
( Individuals) 



ABSTRACT 

Techniques and characteristics o£ effective 
management in the arts are briefly outlined. The successful arts 
manager is identified as an integrator, or one who takes initiative 
and leadership, seeks status, has social poise, and prefers more 
flexible ways of acting. The role o£ the arts administrator includes 
planning; selecting and coordinating staff; managing procurement; 
controlling budgets; managing human resources; promoting open 
communication; and assuring organizational accountability, A 
proactive rather than reactive manager serves as a catalyst to 
promote the work of the artist. Charts and forms include a continuum 
of leadership behavior from manager-centered to subordinate-centered, 
prototypes of working characteristics of people, and a form to 
evaluate persuasive abilities, (KC) 



********** 

* Reproductions supplied by EDRS are the best that can be made * 

* from the original document, * 
*********************************************************************** 



U.S. OEFAflTMilMT OF EDUCATION 

NATION t INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION 
EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES INFORMATION 
CENTER (ERICI 
y\^ht$ documoni has bten reprodoctd as 
received from tht porson or organtution 
originating it 

M.nor changes have betn made to improvt 

reproduction quality 



• Points of view or opinions stated in this docu- 
mtni do not nocessanly rep»«$«f^i official NIE 
position or policy 



ARTS ADMINISTRATION 



SCRIPT FROM A PRESENTATION DELIVERED 
PHOENIXy ARIZONA 



FEBRmRY 1982 



Dr, Ijorenzo a, Trujillo 



"PERMISSION TO REPRODUCE THIS 
MATERIAL HAS BEEN GRANTED BY 

Corenzo if. 

TO THE EDUCATIONAL RES0URCP<5 
INFORMATION CENTER (ERICr 



© COPYR'.SHT A. TRUJILLO, 19^2- 

rights reserved. No port of this publicotion mczy be reprcxJucadi stored in 
nrtr€^<4il3yftrmi cr transmitted* in any form or by ojty meons, electronic, 
mMt^MKAli ft^tccffke^ recording, or otherwise, without the prior written 
permission or the autwr. p 



Arts Management 



Dr. Lorenzo A. Trujillo 
Phoenix, Arizona 

"Aeschylus and Plato are remembered today long after the triumphs 
of imperial Athens are gone. Dante has outlived the ambitions of 
13th Century Florence. Goethe stands serenely above the politics of 
Germany and I am certain that when the dust of centuries has blown 
over our cities, we too will be remembered, not for our victories or 
defeats in war or politics, but for our contributions to the human 
spirit." — John F. Kennedy 

The human spirit - what is the human spirit? Obviously, President Kennedy 
felt it to be the highest level of altruism to which man strives. Artists, by 
the very nature of our work, live to the glory of the fulfillment of the human 
spirit. But obviously, a bowl full of human spirit for breakfast will not fill 
your stomach nor pay the rent. 

Good morning, I am here today to address the disciplines of arts management- 
and fund raising. In the time block of ninety minutes, I am sure that I will 
only be able to present to you an overview of these two distinct fields. 
Although distinct, they are more often than not highly interrelated. That is, 
most arts administrators find they are in the business of fundraising. Therefore, 
both topics will be sequentially addressed. 

Arts Management 

Often I am asked to discuss problems of arts management. Corporate business 
leaders wonder how arts management differs from business management.. The answer 
is it should not differ. Business is business. Granted the philosophical "fin 
cumplis" may be diametrically opposed, but the basics remain the same. 

According to Tannenbaum and Schmidt (1973), a continuum of leadership 
behavior exists in management styles. 

Tannenbaum, Robert, and Schmidt, Warren H., "How to Choose a Leadership Pattern", 
Harvard Business Review, Vol. 51, Number 3, May-Oune, 19/3, p. 3. 



Continuuro of Leadership Behavior 



Boss-centered leadership 



Subordinate-centered leadership 




Manager 
makes 
decision 
and 

announces 
it. 



Area of freedom for subordinates 



Manager 

sells 

decision. 



/1\ 



Manager 
presents 
ideas and 
invites 
questions. 



Manager 

presents 

tentative 

decision 

subject to 

change. 



Manager 
presents 
problem, 
gets 

suggestions , 

makes 

decision. 



Manager 
defines 
1 imits, 
asks 

group to 
make a 
decision. 



Manager 
permits 
subordinates 
to function 
within limits 
defined by 
supervisor. 



Tannenbaum, Robert, and Schmidt, Warren H., "How to Choose a Leadership Pattern*', Ha rvard Business Review , 
Vol. 51, Number 3, May-June, 1973, p. 3. 



ERLC 



Take a moment and through self-analysis decide where you or your manager 
falls on the continuum of leadership behavior. 

This is a crucial area that more often than not causes many first-time 
managers some serious problems. To fully function in any extreme and/or to 
not be flexible, to a particular situation is a sure formula for failure. The 
progressive manager must be flexible and aware of the person(s) that s/he 
is working with. Some individuals require a greater degree of supervision, 
while others demand less direction and more freedom. 

In a recent article in '^Success-*' Magazine, Richard N. Bolles, author of 
What Color is Your Parachute? , divides people into six cluster prototypes. 
They are: 



D 



People who 
like to observe, 
learn , investigate, 
analyze, evaluate, or 
solve problems 




People who 
have artistic, 
innovating or intuitional 
abilities, and like 
to work in unstructured 
situations, using their 
imagination or 
creativity 




/ 



People who 
like to work with 
people - to inform, 
enlighten^ help, train, 
develop, or cure them, 
or are skilled with words 



Bolles, Richard N., "Yout^ Career.. Success , March, 1982, Boulder, Colorado, 



Each person is different and difference requires flexibility in management 
style* 

Lawrence and Lorsch (1967) in the Harvard Business Review identify the 
successful manager as an integrator. In their study, they identified specific 
motives and styles of successful managers' personality styles. 

Motivational needs were divided into three categories: 

a. affiliation need 

b. achievement need 

c. power need 

Effective integrators tended to be more concerned about the feelings of their 

associates. They were more willing to become involved in situations that 

promoted group interaction and they tried to stimulate friendly working 

relationships. Achievement needs of effective integrators were not what one 

would assume. As a group, they were less concerned with a need for achievement 

than others. This was possibly attributed to the fact that they often play a 

mediating and collaborating role as compared to a competitive conflict role. 

The need for power seemed to exist for both the groups studied and there was 

not a measurable difference between the effective integrators and the less 

effective integrators. 

Preferred styles of effective integrators were divided into four 

categories (Lawrence and Lorsch, 1967): 

"Effective integrators prefer to take significantly more initiative 
and leadership; they are aggressive, confident, persuasive, and verbally 
fluent. In contrast, less effective integrators are retiring, inhibited, 
and silent, and they avoid situations that involve tension and decisions. 

Effective integrators seek status to a greater extent; they are ambitious, 
active, forceful, effective in communication, and have personal scope and 
breadth of interests. Less effective integrators are restricted in 
outlook and interests, and are uneasy and awkward in new or unfamiliar 
situations. 



Effective integrators have significantly more social poise; they are 
more clever, enthusiastic, imaginative, spontaneous, and talkative. 
Less effective integrators are more deliberate, moderate, and patient. 

Effective integrators prefer more flexible ways of acting; they are 
adventurous, humorous, and assertive. Less effective integrators are 
mors guarded, methodical, and rigid." 

The trend in today's management circles is one of integrating and motivating. 
The past is represented by the "Boss Syndrome." The Feminist Movement, Civil 
Rights, Equal Employment Opportunity, Fair Labor Practices, and more have all 
brought those days to a halt. Therefore, the successful manager must seek to 
integrate in order to promote the longivity and progress of the organization. 

Evaluate your own level of persuasiveness or credibility. Circle the 
word in each line iten that best describes how you evaluate yourself in that 
area. Then note the appropriate level of your evaluation. 



Lawrence, Paul R., and Lorsch, Jay W. , "New Management Job: The Integrator", 
Harvard Business Review, Vol. 45, Number 6, November-December, 1967, p. 142. 



Evaluate Your Own Persuasiveness (Credibility) 
Step 1 - Evaluate yourself by circling one word in each line item. 



1. 


Amateur 


Professional 


2. 


Insincere 


Straightforv/ard 


3. 


Good communication skills 


Poor communication skills 


4. 


Halting presentation 


Smooth presentation 


5. 


Uninspiring 


Inspiring 


6. 


Inconsi stent 


Consistent 


7. 


Unbelievable 


Trustworthy 


8. 


Avoids questions/ 


Handles questions/deals with 




defensive 


criticism 


9. 


Creates conflict 


Builds agreement 


10. 


Cold 


Warm 


n. 


Know-it-all 


Humble 


12. 


No visuals 


Uses visuals well 



step 2 - Note the appropriate level of your evaluation by writing a level as 
indicated below after each circled word. 

Level Indicator 

Low Fair Average Good High 



ERIC 



lu 



Based on your self evaluation, you can determine where and how growth 
and development may be in order. This exercise may be well worthwhile for 
your total organization's staff to promote discussion at your next meeting. 
The categorical areas relate to all levels of management, as well as staff. 

What is being discussed is the role of the arts manager. Some managers 
feel their role is to: 

1 . worry 

2. attend meetings 

3. review reports 

4. pray that everybody behaves and doesn't cause any v/aves 

5. develop 'explanations' for not meeting timelines, 
schedules, or generating and maintaining sufficient and 
accountable funds 

Contrary to popular belief, these are not the functions of the arts 
administrator. The qualified quality manager will: 

1 . plan and schedule 

2. select, assign, and coordinate staff 

3. manage operational procurement 

4. control budgets 

5. effectively manage human resources 

6. promote open communication 

7. assure organizational accountability 

These are very basic factors that we must address in arts management. 
The on-the-back-of-an-envelope, gut feel, instinct, ear-to-the-ground methods 
of management are not valid in the highly competitive market of the 80' s. 

There are two styles of management— proactive and reactive. The prevailing 
style, especially among new managers tends to be reactive. Reactive management 




is typified by: 



- constantly changing priorities 

- delayed decisions 

- changing target dates 

- resistance to setting concrete dates 

- hard to articulate problems (because there are so many) 

- tendency to look for quick cures: 

(1) more money 

(2) more staff 

(3) new programs 

(4) find someone else to blame 

(5) manager is overwhelmed 

The opposite is true of the proactive manager • The proactive manager is the 
integrator who will serve as a catalyst to promote the work of the artist who 
can truly contribute to the human spirit. 

In conclusion to this first half of my presentation, arts managers and 
artists often ask what is success? An anonymous source once defined success as 
follows: 

"To laugh often and love much; 

To win the respect of intelligent persons and the affection of children; 
To earn the approval of honest critics and endure the betrayal of false 
friends ; 

To appreciate beauty; 

To find the best in others; 

To give of one's self without the slightest thought of return; 

To have accomplished a task, whether by a healthy child, a rescued soul, 

a garden patch or a redeemed social condition; 

To have played and laughed with enthusiasm and sung with exaltation; 
To know that even one life has breathed easier because you have lived; 
This is to have succeeded." 

—Anonymous