BD 224 764
SO 014 445
Trujillo, Lorenzo A.
Arts Administration: Script from a Presentation
Delivered [at] Phoenix, Arizona*
Guides Mon-Classroom Use (055) —
Speeches/Conference Papers (150)
MFOl/PCOl Plus Postage,
^Administrator Role; *Fine Arts; ^Leadership
Qualities; ^Program Administration; *Sel£ Evaluation
Techniques and characteristics o£ effective
management in the arts are briefly outlined. The successful arts
manager is identified as an integrator, or one who takes initiative
and leadership, seeks status, has social poise, and prefers more
flexible ways of acting. The role o£ the arts administrator includes
planning; selecting and coordinating staff; managing procurement;
controlling budgets; managing human resources; promoting open
communication; and assuring organizational accountability, A
proactive rather than reactive manager serves as a catalyst to
promote the work of the artist. Charts and forms include a continuum
of leadership behavior from manager-centered to subordinate-centered,
prototypes of working characteristics of people, and a form to
evaluate persuasive abilities, (KC)
* Reproductions supplied by EDRS are the best that can be made *
* from the original document, *
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SCRIPT FROM A PRESENTATION DELIVERED
Dr, Ijorenzo a, Trujillo
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Dr. Lorenzo A. Trujillo
"Aeschylus and Plato are remembered today long after the triumphs
of imperial Athens are gone. Dante has outlived the ambitions of
13th Century Florence. Goethe stands serenely above the politics of
Germany and I am certain that when the dust of centuries has blown
over our cities, we too will be remembered, not for our victories or
defeats in war or politics, but for our contributions to the human
spirit." — John F. Kennedy
The human spirit - what is the human spirit? Obviously, President Kennedy
felt it to be the highest level of altruism to which man strives. Artists, by
the very nature of our work, live to the glory of the fulfillment of the human
spirit. But obviously, a bowl full of human spirit for breakfast will not fill
your stomach nor pay the rent.
Good morning, I am here today to address the disciplines of arts management-
and fund raising. In the time block of ninety minutes, I am sure that I will
only be able to present to you an overview of these two distinct fields.
Although distinct, they are more often than not highly interrelated. That is,
most arts administrators find they are in the business of fundraising. Therefore,
both topics will be sequentially addressed.
Often I am asked to discuss problems of arts management. Corporate business
leaders wonder how arts management differs from business management.. The answer
is it should not differ. Business is business. Granted the philosophical "fin
cumplis" may be diametrically opposed, but the basics remain the same.
According to Tannenbaum and Schmidt (1973), a continuum of leadership
behavior exists in management styles.
Tannenbaum, Robert, and Schmidt, Warren H., "How to Choose a Leadership Pattern",
Harvard Business Review, Vol. 51, Number 3, May-Oune, 19/3, p. 3.
Continuuro of Leadership Behavior
Area of freedom for subordinates
Tannenbaum, Robert, and Schmidt, Warren H., "How to Choose a Leadership Pattern*', Ha rvard Business Review ,
Vol. 51, Number 3, May-June, 1973, p. 3.
Take a moment and through self-analysis decide where you or your manager
falls on the continuum of leadership behavior.
This is a crucial area that more often than not causes many first-time
managers some serious problems. To fully function in any extreme and/or to
not be flexible, to a particular situation is a sure formula for failure. The
progressive manager must be flexible and aware of the person(s) that s/he
is working with. Some individuals require a greater degree of supervision,
while others demand less direction and more freedom.
In a recent article in '^Success-*' Magazine, Richard N. Bolles, author of
What Color is Your Parachute? , divides people into six cluster prototypes.
like to observe,
learn , investigate,
analyze, evaluate, or
innovating or intuitional
abilities, and like
to work in unstructured
situations, using their
like to work with
people - to inform,
enlighten^ help, train,
develop, or cure them,
or are skilled with words
Bolles, Richard N., "Yout^ Career.. Success , March, 1982, Boulder, Colorado,
Each person is different and difference requires flexibility in management
Lawrence and Lorsch (1967) in the Harvard Business Review identify the
successful manager as an integrator. In their study, they identified specific
motives and styles of successful managers' personality styles.
Motivational needs were divided into three categories:
a. affiliation need
b. achievement need
c. power need
Effective integrators tended to be more concerned about the feelings of their
associates. They were more willing to become involved in situations that
promoted group interaction and they tried to stimulate friendly working
relationships. Achievement needs of effective integrators were not what one
would assume. As a group, they were less concerned with a need for achievement
than others. This was possibly attributed to the fact that they often play a
mediating and collaborating role as compared to a competitive conflict role.
The need for power seemed to exist for both the groups studied and there was
not a measurable difference between the effective integrators and the less
Preferred styles of effective integrators were divided into four
categories (Lawrence and Lorsch, 1967):
"Effective integrators prefer to take significantly more initiative
and leadership; they are aggressive, confident, persuasive, and verbally
fluent. In contrast, less effective integrators are retiring, inhibited,
and silent, and they avoid situations that involve tension and decisions.
Effective integrators seek status to a greater extent; they are ambitious,
active, forceful, effective in communication, and have personal scope and
breadth of interests. Less effective integrators are restricted in
outlook and interests, and are uneasy and awkward in new or unfamiliar
Effective integrators have significantly more social poise; they are
more clever, enthusiastic, imaginative, spontaneous, and talkative.
Less effective integrators are more deliberate, moderate, and patient.
Effective integrators prefer more flexible ways of acting; they are
adventurous, humorous, and assertive. Less effective integrators are
mors guarded, methodical, and rigid."
The trend in today's management circles is one of integrating and motivating.
The past is represented by the "Boss Syndrome." The Feminist Movement, Civil
Rights, Equal Employment Opportunity, Fair Labor Practices, and more have all
brought those days to a halt. Therefore, the successful manager must seek to
integrate in order to promote the longivity and progress of the organization.
Evaluate your own level of persuasiveness or credibility. Circle the
word in each line iten that best describes how you evaluate yourself in that
area. Then note the appropriate level of your evaluation.
Lawrence, Paul R., and Lorsch, Jay W. , "New Management Job: The Integrator",
Harvard Business Review, Vol. 45, Number 6, November-December, 1967, p. 142.
Evaluate Your Own Persuasiveness (Credibility)
Step 1 - Evaluate yourself by circling one word in each line item.
Good communication skills
Poor communication skills
Handles questions/deals with
Uses visuals well
step 2 - Note the appropriate level of your evaluation by writing a level as
indicated below after each circled word.
Low Fair Average Good High
Based on your self evaluation, you can determine where and how growth
and development may be in order. This exercise may be well worthwhile for
your total organization's staff to promote discussion at your next meeting.
The categorical areas relate to all levels of management, as well as staff.
What is being discussed is the role of the arts manager. Some managers
feel their role is to:
1 . worry
2. attend meetings
3. review reports
4. pray that everybody behaves and doesn't cause any v/aves
5. develop 'explanations' for not meeting timelines,
schedules, or generating and maintaining sufficient and
Contrary to popular belief, these are not the functions of the arts
administrator. The qualified quality manager will:
1 . plan and schedule
2. select, assign, and coordinate staff
3. manage operational procurement
4. control budgets
5. effectively manage human resources
6. promote open communication
7. assure organizational accountability
These are very basic factors that we must address in arts management.
The on-the-back-of-an-envelope, gut feel, instinct, ear-to-the-ground methods
of management are not valid in the highly competitive market of the 80' s.
There are two styles of management— proactive and reactive. The prevailing
style, especially among new managers tends to be reactive. Reactive management
is typified by:
- constantly changing priorities
- delayed decisions
- changing target dates
- resistance to setting concrete dates
- hard to articulate problems (because there are so many)
- tendency to look for quick cures:
(1) more money
(2) more staff
(3) new programs
(4) find someone else to blame
(5) manager is overwhelmed
The opposite is true of the proactive manager • The proactive manager is the
integrator who will serve as a catalyst to promote the work of the artist who
can truly contribute to the human spirit.
In conclusion to this first half of my presentation, arts managers and
artists often ask what is success? An anonymous source once defined success as
"To laugh often and love much;
To win the respect of intelligent persons and the affection of children;
To earn the approval of honest critics and endure the betrayal of false
To appreciate beauty;
To find the best in others;
To give of one's self without the slightest thought of return;
To have accomplished a task, whether by a healthy child, a rescued soul,
a garden patch or a redeemed social condition;
To have played and laughed with enthusiasm and sung with exaltation;
To know that even one life has breathed easier because you have lived;
This is to have succeeded."