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ED 268 709 



EC 182 313 



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Fichten, Catherine S.; And Others 

Professor-Physically Disabled College student 

Interaction: Scoring Manual. 

85 

26p. 

Tests/Evaluation Instruments (160) 
MF01/PC02 Plus Postage. 

♦College Students; *Evaluation Methods; Foreign 
Countries; * Interaction; ^Interpersonal Relationship; 
♦Physical Disabilities; *Teacher Student 
Relationship 
Canada 



ABSTRACT 

The manual presents an empirically based scoring 
system to evaluate interactions between college students with 
physical disabilities and their professors. It specifies 28 
situations involving physically disabled students and professors 
along with 196 reasonably common behaviors in each of these 
situations (with frequency and social appropriateness values). 
Situations are grouped into seven categories: general issues, class 
activities, time issues, personal issues, third person, special 
consideration, and grading issues. Frequency scores are based on the 
mean of the professors' and students' ratings, with social 
appropriateness ratings made by students and professors provided 
separately for each behavior on 10 point scales. Behaviors are 
grouped into those initiated by students and those initiated by 
professors and presented in rank order of frequency. A description of 
the development of the scale methodology concludes the document. 



******************************************** *************************** 

* Reproductions supplied by EDRS are the best that can be made * 

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MM. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF EOUCAT'ON 
EOUCATIONAL RESOURCES INFORMATION 
CENTER (ERIC) 
'This document has been reproduced as 
received from the person or organization 
originating it. 
CJ Mmor changes have been made to improve 
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• Pomts ol viftw or opinions stated in this docu* 
ment do not necessarily represent official NIE 
position or policy. 



Professor - Physically Disabled College Student Interaction: Scoring Hanual 1 



Catherine S. Fichten Claudia V. Bourdon Laura Creti Rhonda Amsel John G. ilartos 
Dawson College P.S.B.G.M. Montreal NcGill University Montreal 



Montreal , Quebec 



1 Thi s manual is based on research funded by a grant from F.C.A.R. 



PERMISSION TO REPRODUCE THIS 
MATERIAL HAS BEEN GRANTED BY 



BEST COPY AVAILABLE 

2 



TO THE EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES 
INFORMATION CENTER (ERIC). 1 * 



PURPOSE 



The purpose of this manual is to provide an empirically based scoring 
system to evaluate the appropriateness of various interpersonal behaviors 
between college students who have a physical disability and their professors. 
Scoring is based on ratings made by 74 college and university professors who 
have taught disabled students and by 37 college and university students with 
varioui disabilities (Fichten, in press; Fichten, Amsel, Bourdon, i Creti 1985 
Fichten, Bourdon, Creti & Hartos, in press). 

The following information is provided in this manual: 

a) a list of 28 si.tuati_ons involving physical ly disabled col lege 
students and their professors (Appendix 1), 

b) a list of 196 reasonably common behaviors by physically 
disabled college students and their professors in each of these 
situations, with frequency and social appropriateness values (Appendix 
2), and 

c) a brief methgdgl_gg;i_ca I descr i&t i_gn of how the scoring system was 
determined (Appendix 3). 

SIIUAIIONS 

Twenty-eight situations involving physically disabled students and their 
professors in institutions of higher education are listed in Angendix 1. 
These situations are grouped into seven categories: general issues, class 
activities, time issues, personal issues, third person, special considerations 
and grading issues. 

FREQUENCY AND SOCIAL APPROPRIATENESS OF BEHAVIORS 

Some situations require behavior initiated by the professor, some by the 
student with a disability, and some by either the professor or the student. In 
addition some of the behaviors are reasonably common while others are less so. 
Therefore, in Aggiendi_x 2 scores indicating both the frequency of each behavior 
as well as its social appropriateness are provided. Both scores are presented 
using 10-point scales. 

METHODOLOGICAL NOTES 

A&fi^ndix 3 presents information on item selection and on the methodology 
used to determine the frequency and appropriateness values for behaviors. 



REFERENCES 



Fichten, C.S. (in press). The experience of doing research at the cegep level: 
interaction between people who nave a physical disability and tnose wno do not. 
ELO§B.ec ti.ve 5. 

Fichten, C.S., Amsel , R. Bourdon, C.V. & Creti, I. (1985). Interaction between 
col Lege students wi^th a BtlYEL^aL di.5apni.ty and thei. r professors. Manuscript 
submitted tor publication. 

Fichten, C.S., Bourdon, C.V., Creti, I. & Hartos, J.G. (in press). Facilitation 
of teaching and learning: What professors, students with a physical disability 
and institutions of higher education can do. Uatcon^ Occupational and Career 
Analysis and Development. 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

Thanks are due to the many people who completed the questionnaire which 
forms the basis of this manual. We are also grateful to H. Aikens, M. Banle, 
K. Berger, L. Bissonnette, 0. Bratt, J. Dubois, K. Hulme, A. Kirby, J. 
MacDougail, R. Hillin, and F. Schipper for their thoughtful comments on the 
topic of professor-disabled student interaction *nd for their assisstance with 
various stages of the study on which this manual is based. 



Appendix 1 



APPENDIX 1 

Situations 

Appendix 1 lists interaction situations between professors and student 
who have a physical disability. Situations are grouped under seven headings 



Appendix 1 



Interaction Situations 



Section 1: Gene r al Issues 

1) Be-fore classes start 

2) During the first few days of classes (i.e., before course change) 

3) During the term 



Section 2: Class Activities 

1) Professor notices that student is often absent 

2) Professor notices that student has not been participating in class 
acti vi ti es 

3) If student needs help from classmates (e.g., note taking, reading, 
etc. ) 



Section 3: Time Issues 

1 ) In cl ass 

2) Out of class 



Section 4: Personal Issues 

1) Student-professor interaction 

2) Professor notices that student has problems with grooming (e.g., 
buttons) 

3) Professor notices that student has problem with inappropriate social 
behavior (e.g., continual ly interrupting others, etc.) 

4) Professor notices that volunteer helper is doing too much for student 

5) Professor notices that volunteer helper is doing a poor job of helping 
the student 



Section 5: Third person 

1) Consulting a third person, such as a handicapped information 
coordinator , counsel 1 or , di sabil i ty expert , etc . 



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ERIC 6 



Appendix 1 



Section 6: Special Consideration 

1) Use, in class, of words related to the student's physical disability 
(e.g. , see, hear, walk) 

2) Discussion, in a class with a physically disabled student, of concepts 
related to physical disabilities as part of course material (e.g., 
studies about disabling diseases, reactions to disability) 

3) In class where student has difficulty taking notes 

4) Hearing impaired student doesn't understand classmates' comments in 
class 

5) Classmates do not understand the comments of a student with a speech 
impai rment 

6) Professor isn't sure that a hearing impaired student understands 
him/her 

7) Hearing impaired student is having difficulty understanding professor's 
speech 

8) In a class where a student has a speech impairment 

9) Professor doesn't understand a student with a speech impairment 

10) In a class where a student has a visual impairment 

11) In a class where a student has a mobility impairment 



Section 7: Grading Issues 

1) The course requirements, although difficult, are not impossible for the 
student 

2) Student's final grade is a vailure because his/her disability made the 
course requirements impossible for him/her to meet 

3) Student's final grade is a failure, although the course requirements 
were not impossible for him/her to meet 



Appendix 2 



APPENDIX 2 

This appendix provides -frequency and social appropriateness values -for 
behaviors initiated by disabled students and by their professors in each of the 
28 interaction situations. 

Frequency scores are based on the mean of the professors' and 
disabled students' ratings (1 = very rarely, 10 = very often). Social 
appropriateness ratings made by students and by professors are provided 
separately for each behavior on 10 point scales (1 = very inappropriate, 10 = 
very appropriate)- Behaviors are grouped into those initiated by students and 
those initiated by professors; these are presented in rank order of frequency. 



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6 

8 



Appendix 2 



Frequency and Appropriateness of Behaviors 



Frequency 
(1 s yery rarely) 
(10 = yery often) 



Appropriateness 
(1 - very inappropriate) 
(10 = yery appropriate) 
Students Professors 



Section 1 (General Issues) 



1) Before classes start 

St udent initiated behavior 

1) Student approaches professor before course starts onl^ if he/she 
foresees problems with the course. 

2) Student asks professor for a course outline and requireients. 



5.80 
4.99 



8.11 
7.50 



7.21 
9.19 



2) During the first fen days of classes (i.e., before course change): 
Student initiated behavior 

1) If professor didn't approach student, the student approaches professor 

to discuss course issues related to his/her disability 5.00 

2) Student tells professor about things he/she is unable to do. 4.86 

3) Student doesn't approach professor about course concerns related to 

his/her disability. 4.70 

4) Student infons professor of the possible adjustments professor could sake 
to take the course sore lanageabie for hii/her (e.g., equipment, teaching 

style, course content). 4.63 

5) Student tells professor about what help he/she will be getting froi others 

(e.g., classiates, tutor, volunteers). 4.16 

6) Student tells professor that he/she needs no special consideration and 

should be treated like anyone else. 3.70 

7) Student asks professor about resources available for disabled students. 3.66 

8) Student tells professor about possible ledical and safety problems that 

■ay occur in class (e.g., seizures, fire drill). 3.53 

9) Student gives professor sunary of his/her ledica! history (e.g., 10% 

vision, life long disability). 3.35 



8.22 
7.80 

4.31 

7.81 

6.38 

5.97 
6,97 

6.81 

5.17 



9.15 
9.15 

4.10 

8.34 

8.49 

6.86 
8.1b 

8.62 

6.45 



9 

ERLC 



9 



Appendix 2 



Frequency 
(1 - very rarely) 
(10 s Yery often) 



Appropriateness 
(1 s Yery inappropriate) 
(10 = Yery appropriate) 
Students Professors 



10) Student asks professor whether he/she thinks that the course is 
appropriate for hie/her. 

11) Student explains that he/she lay frequently be late for class (leave 
early) because of his/her disability. 

12) Student tells his/her discussion group about his/her disability. 

13) Student asks professor not to mention his/her disability to chsseates. 
14/ Student tells the whole class about his/her disability. 



5.35 

3.23 
3.10 
2.80 
1.79 



5. SO 

5.25 
4.44 
4.86 
3.33 



8.10 

7.03 
5.69 
6.37 
3.71 



Professor initiated behavior 

1J Professor approaches student onl^ if he/she foresees probleas Hi th the 

course. 5.58 

2) Professor asks student about things student is capable of doing (e.g., 

writing papers, arranging for note-takers) 4.47 

3) Professor asks student about possible adjustments that he/she could sake 

(e.g., equipaent, course content, grading arrangenents). 4.27 

4) Professor announces, a If anyone needs special arrangements, coae and see 

fle". 4.23 

5) Professor asks student about things student is unable to do. 4.07 

6) Professor asks student Hhat help he/she Hill be getting fm others 3.67 

7) If student didn't approach professor, professor approaches student to 

discuss course issues related to his/her disability. 3.60 

8) Professor explains to student Hhy he/she thinks the course is 

inappropriate due to student's disability. 5.45 

9) Professor asks student about possible tedical and safety probleas 

(e.g., seizures, fire drill). 3.36 

10) Professor warns student that the course is very difficult. 3.01 



7.17 

3.06 

7.69 

7.30 
6.70 
5.40 

6.92 

5.22 

6.49 
3.43 



7.30 

3.12 

8.08 

7.47 
7.19 
6.92 

6.89 

6.55 

8.56 
4.69 



10 



Appendix 2 



Frequency 
(1 = Yery rarely) 
(10 = Yery often) 



Appropriateness 
(1 = Yery inappropriate) 
(10 = Yery appropriate) 
Students Professors 



12) Professor asks student if he/she needs help finding volunteers. 

15) Professor tells student about caapus resources available to disabled 
students. 

14) Professor asks student about resources available for disabled students 
(e.g., equipment, centers, experts). 

15) Professor tells the class about the student's possible eedical and 
security needs (e.g., seizures, fire alaris, etc.). 

16) Professor asks student for a suasary of his/her sedical history. 



2.92 

2.66 

2.77 

2.08 
2.06 



6.94 

7.36 

7.38 

3.83 
3.39 



6.98 

8.05 

7.54 

5.10 
3.03 



3) During the ten: 

Student initiated behavio r 

1) H professor doesn't offer help, student asks for needed help. 5.22 

2) Student periodically asks the professor hon he/she is doing in the course. 3.42 

5) Student drops course because professor has not aade the necesary 

adjustnents. 3,04 

4) Student frequently reminds professor cf the needed adjustaents that aren't 

being eade; if this doesn't work, student stops doing this. 2.92 

51 Student uses equipment in class without having consulted the professor. 2.82 

6) Student frequently reainds professor of the needed adjustaents that aren't 
being aade; even if this doesn't sees to work, student persists in doing 

this. 2.78 

7) Student does not use necessary equipeent in class. 2.47 



8.31 
5.76 

5.32 

2.86 
3.14 

5.50 
2.94 



9.23 
6.97 

5.07 

4.60 



6.74 
2.75 



9 

ERLC 



Appendix 2 



Frequency Appropriateness 
(1 = Yery rarely) (1 = Yery inappropriate) 
(10 = yery often) (10 = YPry appropriate) 
Students Professors 



Pr ofes sor initiated beha vior 

1) Professor, contrary to his/her usual procedure, periodically asks the 

student how he/she finds the course. 4.11 6.!7 6.03 

2) Professor often forgets to take the needed course adjustaents for the 

student. 3.56 2.83 2.21 

3) If student doesn't ask, professor offers help. 3.40 5.14 6.12 

<) Professor, contrary to his/her usual procedure, periodically inforas the 

student hoH he/she is doing in th? course. 3.04 4.08 4.88 

5) Professor flakes the necessary adjustitenty, even though these pose 

difficulties for other students. 2.96 4.03 4.83 

6) Professor frequently reiinds student of the needed adjustcents that the 

student is not saking. 2.54 5.22 5.~0 



Section 2 (Class Activities) 

1) Prcfessor notices that student is often absent. 
Pr ofessor initiated b ehav ior 

1) Professor follows his/her usual procedure. 6.23 6.86 6, ? 6 

2) Contrary to his/her usual procedure, professor speaks to student about 

this. 3.52 6.16 6.46 

3) Contrary to his/her usual procedure, professor does not speak to student 

about this. 2,96 2.53 2.28 



10 



Appendix 2 



Frequency 
(1 - very rarely) 
(10 = very often) 



Appropriateness 
(1 = very inappropriate) 
(10 = very appropriate) 
Students Professors 



2) Professor notices that student has not been participating in class activities. 
Profsssor initiated behavior 

1) Professor follows his/her usual procedure. 6.34 

2) Professor restructures class to facilitate participation by student (e.g., 

saall groups, working in pairs, etc.). 3.26 

3) Contrary to his/her usual procedure, professor speaks to student about this. 3.04 

4) Contrary to his/her usual procedure, professor does not speak to student 

about this. 2.55 

5) Professor speaks to class when student is present concerning encouraging 

student to participate (having first consulted student about this). 2.54 

6) Professor speaks to class when student is absent concerning encouraging 

student to participate. 1.90 

7) Professor speaks to class when student is present (without first 

consulting student about this). '.68 



6.67 

6.06 
5.19 

2.51 

4.08 

3.14 

1.78 



6.56 

6.38 
5.99 

2.14 

5.13 

2.61 

1.57 



3) If student needs help froa dassaates (e.g., note-taking, reading, etc.) 
Student initiated behavior 

1) Student lakes own arrangements for volunteer help. 

2) Student asks the class for volunteers. 

3) Student asks professor to ask the class for volunteers. 



6.99 
4.03 
3.11 



8.43 
7.27 
4.47 



8.06 
6.90 
7.13 



Professor initiated behavior 

1) Professor speaks privately to soie students to ask then to help. 

2) Professor asks the class for volunteers. 

3) Professor tells student to ask the class for volunteers. 



3.23 
3.18 
2.87 



4.03 
5.94 
4.19 



6.24 
6.68 
4.39 



11 



tERJC 



BEST COPY AVAILABLE 



13 



Appendix 2 



frequency Appropriateness 
(1 = very rarely) (1 = very inappropriate) 
f tO = very often) (10 = very appropriate) 
Students Professors 



Section 3 (Tiae Issues) 
1) In class: 

Student initiated behavior 

1) Student seeks out as iuch class tiie as able-bodied students. 

2) Student doesn't ask for needed clarifications during class. 

3) Student frequently asks professor for needed clarifications. 



6.00 
4.67 
4.04 



7.69 
3.28 
5.69 



8.93 
3.15 
7.42 



Professor initiated behavior 

1) Professor gives the student the sate aiount of class tiie as to able- 
bodied students. 6.92 

2) Professor tells student, in private, to interrupt hie/her nhenever he/she 

doesn't understand something in class. 4,33 

3) Professor gives tore tiie to disabled student than to able-bodied students. 4.01 
') Professor gives leas tiae to disabled student than to able-bodied students 2.22 
5) Professor tells student, in private, to ask fetter questions in class. 1.88 

2) Out of class: 

Student initiated behavior 

1) Student doesn't seek out tore office tiie than able-bodied students. 5.88 

2) Student sees professor whenever he/she has personal probleis. 3.46 

3) Student asks for a regular appointment tiie each Meek when he/she can see 

the professor concerning course aaterial. 3.06 

4) Student asks professor for further explanations after aliost every class. 2.93 



7.77 

6.03 
5.38 
2.00 
2.58 



5.58 
3.33 

5.53 
4.86 



7.14 

7.35 
6.28 
1.63 
2.86 



5.30 
5.37 

6.76 
6.18 



12 



Appendix 2 



Frequency 
(1 = very rarely) 
(10 a very often) 



Appropriateness 
(1 = Yery inappropriate) 
(10 = very appropriate) 
Students Professors 



Professor initiated behavior 

1) Professor tells student that he/she tay see hit/her after class for 

further explanations. 6.36 7.92 9.11 

2) Professor doesn't devote tore office tiie to disabled student Hho asks for 

additional tiie than to other students. 3.66 4.00 3.41 

3) Professor schedules a regular appointient tiie each week nhen student can 

see hii/her concerning course taterial. 3.26 5.50 6.31 

4) Professor asks student to get others to help hit/her nith the course 

because he/she is taking up too luch of the professor's tiie. 2.47 3.62 2.94 

Section 4 (Personal Issues) 
1) Student-professor interaction: 
Student initiated behavior 

1) Student tries to take professor tore comfortable (e.g., telling professor 

that he/she isn't upset by people ubi»: wrds such as see, hear, walk), 3.55 6.03 6.40 

2) Student asks professor for help aith class participation and social 

contacts. 2.53 3.86 4.96 

3) Student asks professor for help with transportation, volunteer help if 

needed, access to lockers, elevator keys etc. 2.43 4.60 5.01 

Professor initiated behavior 

1) Professor asks student hon he/she should respond to student's disability 

(e.g., ignore it, keep in tind, never tention it, etc.). 3.07 5.54 5.97 

2) Professor tries to take sure that student has appropriate transportation, 

access to lockers, elevator keys, etc. 2.95 4.28 6.00 

3) Professor offers help with social contacts and class participation. 2.82 4.51 4.74 



13 



15 



Appendix 2 



Frequency Appropriateness 
(1 = very rarely) (1 = very inappropriate) 
(10 - very often) (10 = Yery appropriate) 
Students Professors 



2) Professor notices that student has probhis with grooiing (e.g., buttons). 

Professor initiated behavior 

1) Professor does not tell student about this. 5,41 

2) Professor asks soieone else to speak to student about this. 2.33 

3) Professor tells student about this. 2.22 

3) Professor notices that student has probieis with inappropriate social behavior 
(e.g., continually interrupting others, etc.) 

Professor initiated behavior 

1) Professor tells student about this. 3.93 

2) Professor does not tell student about this. 3.92 

3) Professor asks soieone else to speak to student about this. 2.39 

4) Professor notices that volunteer helper is doing too iuch for student. 

Professor initiated behavior 

1) Professor speaks to no one. 4.57 

2) Professor speaks to student and volunteer together 3.01 

3) Professor speaks only to volunteer. 2.57 

4) Professor speaks only to student. 2.73 



5.18 



2.36 



o.4o 



6.15 
3.20 
2.17 



3.30 
6.25 
3.44 
4.97 



5.07 
3.31 
4.17 



7.45 
2.69 
3.14 



2.77 
6.93 
3.41 
4.17 



5) Professor notices that volunteer helper is doing a poor job of Helping the student. 
Professor initiated behavior 

1) Professor speaks to no one. 4.22 

2) Professor speaks only to volunteer. 3.23 

3) Professor speaks to student and volunteer together 3.15 

4) Professor speaks only to student. 2.85 



3.35 
4.84 
5.08 
4.64 



2.06 
5.66 
7.17 
3.53 



14 



16 



Appendix 2 



Frequency Appropriateness 
(1 = very rarely) (1 = very inappropriate) 
(10 = very often) (10 = very appropriate) 
Students Professors 



Section g (Third Person) 

1) Consulting a third person, such as a handicapped intonation coordinator, 
counsellor, disability expert, etc. 

Student initiated behavior 

1) Student dorsn't involve a third person. 5.86 5.72 5.77 

2) Student asks a third person to join hit/her and professor in discussing 

course adjustments. 2.89 5.63 6.87 

3) Student asks a third person to speak to professor on his/her behalf 

concerning resources, adjustments, office time, etc. 2.42 3.69 4.88 

Professor initiated behavior 

1) Professor doesn't involve a third person. 5.58 5.47 5.49 

2) Professor tells student to consult a third person concerning probleas. 3.68 5.14 6.07 

3) Professor asks student about resource persons or centers that the 

professor can consult. 3.59 6.91 7.86 

4) Professor consults a third person concerning course adjustments, 

resources, probleas, etc. 3.59 6.54 7.79 

5) Professor consults a third person concerning student's failing grades. 3.08 4.08 6.59 

6) Professor asks a third person to join him/her and student in discussing 

course adjustments. 2.70 5.60 6.70 



15 



Appendix ? 



Frequency 
(1 = very rarely) 
(10 = very often) 



Appropriateness 
(1 = very inappropriate) 
(10 - very appropriate) 
Students Professors 



Section 6 (Special Considerations) 



1) Use, in class, of words related to the student's physical disability (e.g., 
see, hear, walk): 

Student initiated behavior 

1) Student uses these wards. 

2) Student avoids these Hards. 



7.39 
2.58 



8.15 
2.71 



8.35 
2.60 



Professor initiated behavior 

1) Frofessor uses these Hards. 

2) Professor avoids these words. 



7.01 
2.95 



8.06 
2.57 



7.85 
2.68 



2) Discussion, in a class »ith a physically disabled student, of concepts related 
to physical disabilities as part of course laterial (e.g., studies about 
disabling diseases, reactions to disability): 

Student initiated behavior 

1) Student discusses these concepts. 

2) Student avoids, whenever possible, discussing these concepts. 



5.90 
2.97 



7.83 
1.91 



8.28 
2.59 



Professor initiated behavior 

1) Professor discusses these concepts. 

2) Professor avoids, whenever possible, discussing these concepts. 



5.96 
3.11 



7.91 
2.17 



8.47 
2.44 



* ERJC 



16 



18 



BEST COPY AVAILABLE 



Appendix 2 



frequency Appropriateness 
(1 = very rarely) (1 = very inappropriate) 
(10 - very often) (10 = very appropriate) 
Students Professors 



3) In a class where student has difficulty taking notes: 2 
Student initiated behavior 

1) Student asks professor's permission to tape lectures. 5,50 7,76 fi<fi o 

2) Student asks professor for permission to have a volunteer take notes for 

hii/her ' 4.56 6.48 8.60 

3) Student asks to use professor's notes. 3,17 5 6 l 4 00 

Professor initiated behavior 

1) Professor agrees to let the student tape his/her lectures. 6.83 e.36 8.89 

2) Profpssor agrees to have a volunteer take notes for the student. 6.06 7.61 8.67 

3) Professor agrees to lend his/her notes. 4,27 6.13 5 36 

4) Prnfessor refuses to lend his/her notes. 3,65 3,77 4 76 

5) Professor suggests that a volunteer take notes for the student. 3,64 6.45 6.11 

6) Professor refuses to lei the student tape his/her lectures. 2.15 2.86 2 35 

7) Professor refuses to alloH a volunteer to take notes for the student. 1.58 1.77 

4) Hearing iipaired student doesn't understand classmates' couents in class. 3 
Student in[ti ated behavior 

1) Student doesn't ask professor to repeat dassaates' coaaents. 6.48 2.78 3.22 

2) Student does nothing about this. 5,71 3^0 3 ^ 

3) Student asks professor to repeat classaates' conients. 3.54 5^5 6.70 
Professor initiated behavior 

1) Professor doesn't repeat, generally, classmates' coaaents. 5.79 3,67 4,65 

2) Professor generally repeats classaates' coaaents, 4.47 7,00 6.30 



17 



ERLC 19 



Appendix 2 



Frequency 
(1 2 very rareiy) 
(10 2 very often) 



Appropriateness 
(1 2 very inappropriate) 
(10 2 very appropriate) 
Students Professors 



5) Classiates do not understand the coiaents of a student nith a speech 
iapairiMwi 

Professor initiated behavior 

1) Professor, Hho understands student, repeats student's coaients in class 5.99 

2) Professor, Hho understands student, doesn't repeat student's coiients in class. 4.43 



7.62 
3.57 



8.09 
3.12 



6) Professor isn't sure that a hearing itpaired student understands hii/her: 
Professor i nitiated behavior 

1) Professor asks student to ask questions after class if he/she doesn't 
understand. 

2) Professor asks student, in private, to interrupt if he/she doesn't 
understand. 

3) Professor asks student if he/she understands. 

4) Professor asks student to suuarize what Has just said. 



6.22 

5.99 
5.85 
2.95 



7.75 

8.11 
8.75 
4.88 



7.91 

8.26 
7.70 
3.13 



7) Hearing itpaired student is having difficulty understanding professor's speech: 
Student initiated behavi o r 

1) Student doesn't lention problei to professor. 5.03 

2) Student asks professor to write, whenever possible, (e.g., use blackboard, 

overhead projectors, handouts). 4.66 

3) Student asks professor to sodify his/her speaking style, (e.g., speak 

louder, tore clearly, lore slonly, facing the c'ass). 4.58 

4) Student frequently asks professor to repeat hia/herself. 3.47 

5) Student asks professor's permission to bring an interpreter to class. 3.37 

6) Student asks professor to leave lights on during slide and audio-visual 
presentations (for lip-reading, interpreter, etc.). 3.32 

7) Student asks professor to paraphrase key lecture points. 3.04 



4.44 

8.25 

8.13 
7.38 
7,89 

4.43 
6.75 



2.96 

6.39 

7.74 
5.35 
6.83 

5.91 
5.87 



18 



Appendix 2 



Frequency 
(1 - very rarelv) 
(10 = very often] 



Appropriateness 
(1 = very inappropriate) 
(10 8 very appropriate) 
Students Professors 



Professor initiated behavi or 

1) Processor agrees to have student's interpreter in class. 5.54 7.67 8.09 

2) Professor refuses student's request to leave lights on during audio-visual 

presentations. 3.65 5.13 4.14 

3) Professor agrees to leave lights on, although this takes slides and audio- 
visual presentations harder to see. 3.23 3.75 5.96 

4) Professor asks student to iiprove his/her vocabulary so that he/she could 

cotprehend (e.g., lip-read) lore effectively. 2.70 4.56 4.18 

5) Professor discourages student froi having an interpreter in the class. 2.28 2.56 2.61 



8) In a class where a student has a speech iipairient*' 

Student initiated behavior 

1) Student asks profe&acr not to require hii/her to read aloud in class. 



4.41 



5.20 



7.41 



Professor initiated behavior 

1) Professor, although he/she calls on other students, does not call on 

student to answer questions in class. 5.28 

2) Professor, in private, asks student if he/she feels coifortable talking in 

class. 4.59 

3) Professor frequently calls on student to answer questions in class. 2.63 



4.21 

6.50 
4.73 



4.42 

8.94 
3.59 



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Appendix 2 



Frequency 
(1 = very rarely) 
(10 = very often) 



Appropriateness 
(1 * very inappropriate) 
(10 = yery appropriate) 
Students Professors 



9) Professor doesn't understand a student Kith a speech itpaireent.* 
Profesor initiated behavior 

1) Professor frequently asks student to repeat hie/herself. 4.82 6.85 4.34 

2) Professor doesn't tell student that he/she doesn't understand. 4.53 4.14 2.91 

3) Professor frequently asks student to sunarize his/lier consents. 3.95 6.21 4.40 

4) Professor frequently asks student to paraphrase. 3.84 6.21 4,23 

5) Professor frequently asks student to nriid down Hhat he/she Hants to say. 3.68 5.69 4.29 



10)In a class nhere a student has a visual iipairient? 

Student initiated behavior 

1) Student arranges to have texts taped. 7.26 

2) Student asks professor to read everything that he/she writes on blackboard. 6.14 

3) Student asks the professor to find or develop three-diiensional leans to 
illustrate course laterial. 2.72 



9.43 
9.14 

6.00 



9.39 
7.34 

4.81 



Professor initiated behavior 

1) Professor arranges to have texts taped. 



2.31 



4.57 



4.76 



ll)In a class where a student has a eobility i ;ainent: 
Student initiated behavior 
1) Student is frequently late for class. 



3.45 



3.56 



3.44 



Professor initiated behavior 

1) Professor, Hho does not nortally adtit late students into class, adtits 
the disabled student Hho arrives late. 

2) Professor asks student to sit near the door for safety reasons (e.g., fire). 



5.62 
3.18 



6.88 
5.44 



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7.11 
7.89 



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Appendix 2 



Frequency 
(1 = very rarely) 
(10 s very often) 



Appropriateness 
(1 - very inappropriate) 
(10 - very appropriate) 
Students Professors 



Section 7 (Grading Issuer) 



1) The course requireients, although difficult, are not impossible for the 
student. 

Student in itiated behavio r 

1) Student doesn't ask professor for any special adjustients. 5,46 

2) Student accepts professor's offer to take special adjustaents. 4.85 
3! Student asks for exeiptions froi certain course requireaents. 4.31 

4) Student refuses professor's offer to sake special adjustients. 3.59 

5) Student asks for extensions on assignaents. 3,26 

6) Student tells professor that professor is expecting too auch. 2.54 

7) Student asks professor to reduce tne aaount of Hork required froa his/her 

(e.g., length, scope, etc.). 2.40 



5.86 
6.60 
5.67 
5.11 
4.61 
3.69 

3.42 



6.72 
6.95 
5.79 
5.54 
4.07 
4.01 

3.16 



Professor initiat ed behavior 

1) Professor gives student extensions. 5,30 

2) Professor suggests that student go to the learning center or to the 

tutorial service for extra help. 4,51 

3) Professor aakes no special adjustaents. 4,36 

4) Professor suggests that student do extra readings to aake up for that 

he/she nisses in class. 4,35 

5) Professor alloHS student to write extra assignaents and aake-up exaas to 

help hie/her iaprove his/her grades. 4,26 

6) Professor, Mho doesn't give other students extensions, refuses to give 

extensions to disabled student. 4.13 

7) Professor gives student exeaptions. 3,56 

8) Professor changes Heights of exaas and assignaents. 3.07 



5.92 

6.85 
3.81 

6.35 

5.59 

5.28 
4.14 
4.58 



6.28 

8.13 
4.25 

7.00 

5.93 

4.58 
4.44 
4.10 



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Appendix 2 



Frequency 
(1 = very rarely) 
(10 = very often) 



Appropriateness 
(1 = very inappropriate) 
(10 = very appropriate) 
Students Professors 



9) Although student is doing very poorly in the course, professor tells 
hit/her everything is OK and to just keep on trying. 

10) Professor reduces the aiount of Hork required (e.g., length, scope, 
etc.). 

11) Professor refuses student's request to lake special adjustments. 



2.89 

2.77 
2.58 



2.14 

3.58 
2.86 



1.86 

3.79 
3.30 



2) Student's final grade is a failure because his/her disability iade the 
course requirements iepossile for his/her to Beet. 

Student initiated behavior 

1) Student asks professor for a aake-up exaa or extra assignaents. 4.76 

2) Student doesn't take up the professor's offer of a aake-up exaa or extra 
assignaents. 2.79 

3) Student asks professor to pass hia/her. 2.63 



7.17 

2.97 
2.49 



6.68 

3.76 
1.96 



Professor initiated behavior 

1) Professor fails student. 

2) Prok-ssor, contrary to his/her usual practice, takes into account the 
disabled student's aotivation and effort before assigning final grade. 

3) Contrary to his/her usual practice, professor offers student a aake-up 
exaa or extra assignaents. 

4) Professor passes student. 

5) Professor refuses student's rp-juest for a aake-up exaa or extra 
assignaents. 



4.91 

4.20 

4.00 
3.48 

3.36 



5.09 

6.00 

6.22 
3.71 

3.40 



5.97 

5.89 

6.34 
3.03 

3.53 



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Appendix 2 



Frequency Appropriateness 
Jl = very rarely) (1 = very inappropriate) 
(10 = very often) (10 = very appropriate) 
Students Professors 



3) Student's final grade is a failure, although the course requireients were not 
impossile for hii/her to aeet. 

Student initiated behavior 

1) Student asks professor for a take-up exai or extra assignments. 3.67 4.14 4.20 

2) Student doesn't take up the professor's of*er of a make-up exam or extra 

assignments. 2.97 4.86 4.28 

3) Student asks professor to pass his/her. 2.42 1.97 1,69 
Professor initiated behavior 

1) Professor fails student. 6.47 7.68 8.60 

2) Professor, contrary to his/her usual practice^ takes into account the 

disabled student's motivation and effort before assigning final grade. 3.91 4.22 5.01 

3) Professor refuses student's request for a take-up exam or extra 

assignments. 3.85 5.54 5.60 

4) Contrary to his/her usual practice, professor offers student a make-up 

exam or extra assignments. 3.42 3.58 3,89 

5) Professor passes student. 3.02 3.25 1.88 



1 Frequencies are the average of students' (n = 37) and professors' (n = 74) ratings. 
2 

Values are based on the combined scores of visually impaired, hearing impaired and cerebral palsied students (n = 23) and on the 
scores of professors xho have taught students with these disabilities (n = 55). 

3 

Values are based on the scores of hearing impaired students (n = 9) and on scores of professors who have taught students hi th a 
hearing impairment (n = 24). 

* Values are based on the combined scores of hearing impaired, speech impaired and cerebral palsied students (n = 14) and on the 
scores of professors Mho have taught students with these disabilities (n = 34). 

5 

Values are based on the scores of visually impaired students (n = 7) and on the scores of professors Mho have taught visually 
impaired students (n = 38). 

w Values are based on the combined scores of cerebral palsied and wheelchair user students (n = 15) and on the scores of 
professors Mho have taught students Hi th these disabilities (n = 28). 



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APPENDIX 3 



H^itlQdol_ogical_ Notes 



The goal of the study on which this manual is based was to examine 
coroaonly occurring interaction situations involving physically disabled college 
students and their professors and to identity appropriate and inappropriate 
interpersonal behaviors by both groups in each situation. 

A literature search was carried out and disabled college students 
[mobility impaired (including wheelchair users), hearing impaired, visually 
impaired, cerebral palsied! and professors who have taught students with 
various disabilities were interviewed in order to generate a list of common 
interaction situations and interpersonal behaviors. Based on this list, a 
lengthy objective questionnaire was designed. Behaviors of physically disabled 
students and of professors were included. All items on the questionnaire were 
rated by 37 disabled college and university students and by 74 professors who 
have taught students who have a disabilit;. Participants rated, for each 
situation, how often various behaviors initiated by boch disabled students and 
by their professors occurred. Ten-point scales were used. Participants also 
rated the appropriateness of each response on 10-point scales. The sample, 
methodology and results of this study are described elsewhere (Fichten, in 
press; Fichten, Amsel , Bourdon, & Creti, 1985; Fichten, Bourdon, Creti & 
Martos, in press) . 

Situati_ons^ This manual includes 28 interaction situations grouped into 
seven categories: general issues, class activities, time issues, personal 
issues, third person, special considerations, and grading issues. The grouping 
of situations was based on logic rather than empirical considerations. 

ELufl"§Q.Cil and ififirogr lateness of behav^ors^ 196 behaviors, 74 initiated by 
disabled students and 122 by professors are included. Since most behaviors 
listed on the questionnaire were rated as having occurred at least 
occasionally, i.e., had frequency ratings > 2 on a 10-point scale with I = very 
rarely and 10 = very often, none were excluded from this manual. Frequency 
ratings of professors and disabled students were very similar for most 
behaviors. Therefore, frequency ratings in this manual represent the mean of 
students' and professors' ratings [the mean frequency rating of students was 
3.95 (SD = 1.2); that of professors was 3.75 (SD = 1.1)]. 

Appropriateness scores are provided separately for evaluations made 
by disabled students and by professors. Appropriateness ratings were made on 
10-point scales (1 = very inappropriate, 10 = very ippropr i ate) . For student 
initiated behaviors the mean appropriateness rating of disabled students was 
5.45 (SD = 1.86, range = 1.91 - 9.43); that of professors was 5.99 (SD = 1.95, 
range = 1.69 - 9.39). For professor initiated behaviors the mean rating by 
students was 5.13 (SD = 1.76, range = 1.77 - 8.75); that of professors was 5.38 
(SD = 2.06, range = 1.16 - 9.23). Because most of the situations listed are 
relevant to students with a variety of disabilities, scores are based on 
ratings made by the whole sample of professors and disabled students. For those 
situations which involve only specific groups of students (e.g., visually and 
hsaring impaired.* the values are based on the responses of only those students 
who have the disability in question and on the responses of those professors 
who have taught students with those particular disabilities. These situations 
are identified in Appendix 2 where the composition of the groups and sample 
sizes are also indicated. 



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