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ED 271 363 










SO 017 290 

Towards Equality o£ Educational Opportunity: 
Inter-Country Exchange of Experiences. Report of the 
Visits of the Panel on the Education of Girls (9th, 
Bangkok, Thailand, May 27-June 10, 1985). 
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural 
Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for 
Education in Asia and the Pacific. 


UNESCO Regional Office for Education in Asia and the 
Pacific, P.O. Box 1425, General Post Office, Bangkok 
10500, Thailand. 
Reports - Descriptive (141) 

MFOl Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS. 
^Educational Opportunities; Educational Resources; 
^Enrollment Influences; Enrollment Trends; *Equal 
Education; Higher Education; Womens Studies 
Asia (Southeast) 

The develoment of specific programs to promote the 
education of girls in countries in which low female enrollment is a 
major obstacle to the univsrsalization of primary education is the 
focus of this document. National statistics are presented for seven 
countries that still have low gross enrollment rates: Afghanistan 
(14%), Bangladesh (38%), Bhutan (10%), India (70%), Nepal (43%), 
Pakistan (33%), and Papua New Guinea (58%). The document predicts 
that the proportion of girls of primary school age not in school 
would be even higher if age specific rates were available. This 
document presents several activities to promote a continuing program 
for the education of girls in these countries. Bangladesh, India, 
Nepal, Pakistan, and Papua New Guinea have established national 
steering committees of high level educators and others committed to 
the cause of women's education to promote programs that will 
contribute to universalizing educational opportunities for girls. 
These committees have undertaken national studies to identify current 
problems pertaining to enrollment and programs implemented in these 
countries to increase to participation of girls. (RSL) 


* Reproductions supplied by EDRS are the best that can be made * 

* from the original document. * 
********************************************************** j^***********A 


APEID Regional Panel on the Education of Girls, 
27 May - 10 June 1985. 

Towards equality of educational opportunity: inter- 
country exchange of experiences; report of the visits of 
the Panel Bangkok, Unesco, 1985. 

47 p. (Asia and the Pacific Programme of Educational 
Innovation for Development) 

EDUCATION - ASIA/PACIFIC. I. Unesco. Regional Office for 
Education in Asia and the Pacific. II. Title. III. Series. 


370.193 45 



Asia and the Pacific Programme 
of Educational Innovation fot Development 

Towards Equality of 
Educational Opportunity 

Inter-country Exchange of Experiences 

Report of the Visits of the Regional Panel on the 
Education of Girls, 27 May - 10 June 1985 


Unesco Regional Office 
for Education in Asia and the Pacific 

Bangkok, 1985 


(c) Uncsco 1985 

Published by the 
Unesco Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific 
P.O. Box 1425, General Posi Office 
Bangkok 10500, Thailand 

Printed in Thailand 

The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout 
the publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on 
the part of Unesco concerning the legal status of any country, territory, ctty 
or area or of its authorities, or concerning its frontiers or boundaries. 



Chapter One 



The Ninth Regional Consultation Meeting of Asia and the 
Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) , 
Unesco Regional Office* Bangkok in March 1984, proposed the develop- 
ment of specific programmes to promote the education of girls in 
countries in which low female enrolment is perceived to be a major 
obstacle to universalization of the first level of education. 

It is seen from national statistics that seven countries in the 
Region, in particular, still have low gross enrolment rates - 
Afghanistan (14%), Bangladesh (38%), Bhutan (10%), India (70%), 
Nepal (43%), Pakistan (33%) and Papua New Guinea (58%) - and that 
the proportion of out of school girls of primary school age would be 
even higher if age specific rates were available. Gender dispari- 
ti IS in enrolment are wide as the percentage of girls of the total 
student enrolment is less than 30% and 40% in Bangladesh, Bhutan, 
India and Pakistan. These disparities, in fact, have widenad since 
1970 in Nepal, Pakistan and Afghanistan because the rate of increase 
in the enrolment of boys has been higher than that of girls. High 
drop-out rates compound the problem of non-enrolment as the propor- 
tion of entrants in Grade I who complete primary education is as low 
as 19.9% in Bhutan and 20.4% in Bangladesh. 

Unesco has therefore assisted in initiating several activities 
in order to promote a continuing programme for the education of girls 
in these countries. Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Papua 
New Guinea have established national steering committees of high level 
educators and others committed to the cause of women *s education to 
promote programmes that will contribute to universalizing educational 
opportunities for girls. These committees have undertaken national 
studies to identify current problems pertaining to enrolment and 
retention of girls in primary schools and to review policies, measures 
and programmes implemented in these countries to increase the partici- 
pation of girls. A Regional Panel consisting of the head or a senior 
member of each national committee has b een formed to f acil itEte 
inter-country exchange of experiences. 

The Regional Panel Programire 

a) Scope and objectives 

As a concomitant regional activity, Unesco supported visits 
to four of these countries - Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakis- 
tan - so that members of the Panel could ascertain at first hand 



Equality of educational opportunity 

the complex Issues and multifarious strategies pertaining to the 
education of girls in these countries. The panel was supported 
by a str f member and a consultant from Unesco Regional Office. 

The interaction of members of the Panel with those involved 
in the education of girls in the four countries provided oppor- 
tunities for: 

\) examining critical factors and common problems 

pertaining to the low enrolment of girls in primary 

ii) sharing and exchanging experiences with policy makers, 
administrators and community workers in planning and 
implementing strategies to increase the participation 
and retention of girls in schools and non-formal 
education programmes;. 

iii) creating more consciousness of the importance of 
education of girls; and 

iv) reviewing the progress of national case studies on the 
education of girls » 

b) Interaction in the countries 

The programmes organized in the countries provided for 
meetings with national steering committees, policy-makers, 
planners, administrators, educators, officials, international 
project advisors, national study committees, researchers on 
issues relating to girls and women, representatives of major 
women's organizations and non-governmental agencies engaged in 
educational activities, and media personnel. Interviews were 
also scheduled with key personnel in education and women's 
activities, and field visits organized to relevant projects 
according to distance and the time available to Panel members. 

The activities of the Panel in each country are outlined 


The Panel visited Dhaka from 27 to 30 May and had discus- 
sions on problems relating to the education of girls and on national 
policies and programmes with the Secretary, Ministry of Education, 
Director-General, Pr:'.mary Education, the national steering committee, 
key personnel of t^e World Bank (IDA) Unesco project on primary 
education, UNDP and Unesco officials and advisers and representatives 
of non-governmental organizations. The meeting with the national 
study committee of the Foundation for Research on Educational 
Planning focused on research findings of constraints and oi: programme 
evaluation, and a visit to the offices and primary school at the 
headquarters of the sub-district, Savar, enabled panel members to 
ascertain the inf rastructural facilities for the provision of 
education for girlr. 






During their visit to Kathmandu from 30 May to 2 June, 
meetings with the Minister of Education and Culture, the Secretary, 
Ministry of Education, and other members of the National Steering 
Committee provided panel members with an overview of the current 
situation and future policies in the overall context of national 
development. The Chainnan of the Nepal Women's Organization and 
representatives of the Women's Services rc-ordinating Committee and 
its affiliated organization briefed the Panel from the perspective 
of the "beneficiaries" of programmes, and the tentative findings of 
the national study were considered at a meeting with the study 
committee. Panel members also visited a non-formal pre-school and 
part-time primary education centre for children of a socially 
disadvantaged group. 


The Panel moved to Delhi on 3 June and during the four 
ensuing days discussed policies and programmes implemented in India 
with k^y personnel in the National Planning Commission, the Ministry 
of Education, the National Council for Educational Research and 
Training, the National Institute for Educational Planning and 
Administration, the Department of Social Work, Delhi University and 
UNICEF and Unesco Offices in Delhi. The staff of the unit for 
special programmes in the National Council for Educational Research 
and Training, who are involved in programmes relating to the educa- 
tion of girls and women, reviewed the studies carried out on con- 
straints to the participation of girls and the curriculum materials 
that have been prepared to present a more positive image of women. 
Visits were also made to Bal Bhawan where creative learning 
experience complemented the formal school programme and to a non- 
formal literacy and income generating skill training programme for 
girls and women on the outskirts of Delhi. 


During the last phase of the Panel visit to Islamabad from 
7 to 9 June, Panel members met the Minister of Education, the Secre- 
tary, Ministry of Education, Chairman of the Literacy and Mass 
Education Commission, and the President of the All Pakistan Women's 
Association, Islamabad. Policy issues were discussed at meetings 
with the National Steering Committee, the staff of the Primary and 
Non-formal Education Wing of the Ministry of Education and project 
officials of the World Bank (IDA) Unesco Primary Education Project. 
Further insights were obtained from meetings with the Vice-Chancellor 
and Faculty of the Allama Iqbal Open University which conducts 
distance education programmes that offer a "second chance" to 
out-of-school girls and women, and with the Director and Faculty of 
the National Institute of Psychology which has conducted a wide range 
of studies on the socio-psychological aspects of participation 
of girls in education. 

Equality of educational opportunity 

Many issues pertaining to the education of girls surfaced 
from these interactions, and the perceptions of members of the 
Panel and their observations are spelled out ir Chapter 3. 

In connection with the Panel's visit programme it is 
necessary to record Unesco's appreciation of the warm reception of 
the Panel in each host country, the efforts made by the organizers 
to enable the Panel to have optimal interactions with national 
policy-makers, administrators and community workers, and the response 
of all participants to the demands of the programme despite local 
priorities and limitations of time. 



Interacting with educational 
officials and headmasler, 
Primary School, Savar, 

Meeting with the National 
Study CoTTiTTiittee at the Centre 
for Educational Research and 
Innovation for Development, 
Kathmandu, Nepal 

Visit to non-formal part- 
time primary education 
programme, Bhaktapur, Nepal 

At the Women's Education Unit, 
National Council for Educational 
Research and Training, New Delhi 

Bal Bhawan, 

New Delhi 

Meeting of the Steering 
Committee at the Academy 
for Educational Planning 
and Management, Islamabad 

Chapter Two 


A major input in each phase of the Panels' visit programme was 
the presentation of information pertaining to the educational 
situation of girls by national T-epresentatives in each country. 
This overview is based largely on these presentations and on the 
data relating to current programmes that was made available to the 

The constitutional provision for a "uniform, mass-oriented and 
universal system of education" in Bangladesh has been supported by 
educational policies in Five Year Plans. Yet universal primary 
education is still a goal and girls more educationally dis- 
advantaged than boys. 

Participat/.on of girls in education 

Gross enrolment rates iv primary education hpve improved over 
three decades from 45^ male and 13% fema''^ participation rates in 
1951 to 73% male and 38% female particd ution rates in 1984. The 
growth rate in the enrolment of girls is reported to have been 
almost double that of boys as the base was very low in the case 
of ^irls. Nevertheless girls continue to be educationally dis- 
advantaged and gender disparities in participation are wide. Some 
of the negative features of the educational participation of girls 
are that: 

a) over 60% of school age girls are out of school; 

b) female participation rates have declined from 40% in 
1975 to 38% in 1984 in contrast to male participation 
rates which have increased from 66% to 73% during the 
same period » and 

c) girls constitute only 40.7% of thv. total primary school 

A major concern in Bangladesh is the high incidence of dropping 
out of boys and girls. This trend is most marked between Grade I 
and II as the survival rate in Grade II is 44.5% for boys and 42*2% 
for girls. Drop-out rates for girls between Grade I and II range 
from 57% to 73% in some districts, while the rates are slightly 

Banglades h 

enrolment . 



Equality of educational opportunity 

lower for girls than for boys in urban areas. The problem of low 
enrolment is thus compounded by high drop-out rates at a very early 

Sociological and educational studies have identified economic 
constraints as the major causative factor for the low enrolment and 
retention of girls in primary schools. The high opportunity costs of 
educati'-.n for poor families are said to preclude both boys and girls 
from availing themselves of free access to education. Girls are 
further disadvantaged in that they are indispensable assets in the 
household of traditionally large families with their interminable 
child care responsibilities which conflict with school attendance. 
Moreover , women are not perceived as economically productive or income 
earning members of the family, and this concept as well as the 
tradition of early marriage creates a social climate in which their 
educational needs receive low priority. The distance to school from 
home and the consequent lack of easy access proves to be another 
barrier to the education of girls in an ethos of cultural conserva- 
tism. Both boys and girls are affected by in-school factors such as 
the failure to cope with class work and the lack of proper guidance. 

Policies and programmes 

Current policies are reflected in the Third Five Yc. Plan 
(1985-1990) which accords the highest priority in the education 
sector to primary education and to the achievement of universal 
primary education as early as possible and compulsory education by 
stages. It is proposed to provide physical facilities for all 
primary school age children, reduce the urban - rural gap in educa- 
tional provision, expand community learning centres in primary 
schools, recruit and train teachers and strengthen parent-teacher 

Both boys and girls have access to free education and free 
textbooks in pirimary schools. The special strategy that is being 
Implemented to improve the participation of girls is to increase 
the number of women teachers who at present form only 7.9% of the 
teachers in primary schools. Preference is being given, therefore, 
tu the recruitment of qualified women teachers and it is proposed 
to fill 50% of the vacancies in primary schools with women teachers. 
To increase the supply of nsdclieio, lowci. qualif icaticna arc accepted 
for women entrants to teacher training institutes, separate women's 
hostels have been constructed in Primary Teacher Training Institutes, 
and two Primary Teacher Training Institutes have been transformed 
into institutions to train women primary school teachers. It is 
proposed also in the Third Five Year Plan to establish a National 
Women's Teacher Training Institute in Dhaka. In the new system of 
decentralized administration in which the sub-di'^trict or upazila is 
responsible for primary education, women too have been appointed as 
assistant upazila education officers to supervise primary schools. 



An Innovative programme to increase the enrolment of girls is 
the Mehr-Panchagram Primary School project in which "feeder" schools 
consisting of Grades I to II or III have been opened within easy 
access of the homes of girls in selected villages iu the Comilla 
district. These schools are staffed only by women teachers and 
students completing Grade II or III are admitted to the regular 
schoc^. The success of this project has motivated the government 
to plan to extend it on a national scale. The government has also 
begun to utilize mosques to provide primary education facilities for 
boys and girls as a "feeder-school" programme to complement the 
resources of the formal education system. It is interesting to note 
that co-education has been accepted in Bangladesh as a norm in 
primary education. 

A new programme is the World Bank - IDA/Unesco primary educa- 
tion project which has beer implemented in order to increase enrol- 
ment and retention rates and to improve educational facilities and 
the quality of instruction. The project has concentrated in its 
first phase on providing or improving pbyeical facilities such as 
classrooms, school furniture, tube wells and separate toilets for 
boys and girls, supplying learning materials and conducting in- 
service courses for teachers. In an effort to increase the 
participation of girls the project has also recruited and trained 
500 women teachers who are expected to assist in increasing the 
enrolment of girls. The project has so far been limited to 44 out 
of 462 sub-district in Bangladesh but it is hoped to replicate it on 
a national scale during the Third Five Year Plan period. 


India has a long histroy of formulating policies and programmes 
to increase the participation of girls in education, recommended in 
the nineteen fifties by a special committee on the education of girls 
and in the seventies by the Status of Women Committee^ and introduced 
through a series of Five Year Plans. Nevertheless a substantial 
proportion of primary school age girls are still out of school and 
gender dijparities have not been appreciably reduced. 

Participation of girls in education 

Despite a significant increase r'n the gross enrolment rate of 
girls in prirary schoo^j from 25% in 1950 to 66% in 1980 and 70% in 
1982, a large number of girls are still not receiving a primary 
education while it is reported that 95% to 100% boys are now enrolled 
in schools. Gender disparities are illustrated by the fact that 
gills constituted only 39% of the total primary school enrolment in 
1980. National level statistics do not reflect the wide regional 
imbalances that exist, ranging from a primary school female enrolment 
rate of 9% in a district in Rajasthan to high enrolment rates in 
districts in States such as Kerala. Suirvival rates for girls in 
Grade 5 continue to be low, 32.6% in 1960-1961 and 33.8% in 1970-1971, 




Equality of educational opportunity 

thus indicating that the incidence of dropping out of primary 
schools has not been reduced over the years. In rural areas, 
scheduled castes and scheduled tribes girls are even more disadvan- 
taged than boys. In the teaching force, too, the proportion of 
women primary school teachers has increased only minimally from 18% 
in 1950-1951 to 25% in 1980. 

A large number of studies and reports have analyzed the reasons 
for low enrolment or non-participa ion of girls in education and the 
findings point to economic constraints and negative social norms and 
to the failure of educational programmes to counter these handicaps. 

Poverty of resources as well as the need for school age girls 
to assist in economic activities such as in agriculture and looking 
after cattle, and in household chores and child care responsibilities 
preclude them from utilizing educational facilities. Investigations 
have found that the incentives offered have been inadequate to meet 
the cost of education in the case of girls in the most disadvantaged 
families or to compensate for the loss of their labour. 

It is inevitable also that families give priority to the educa- 
tion of boys as social norms tend to ascribe an exclusively domestic 
role for girls with their future circumscribed by early marriage and 
child bearing and rearing. The social practice of segregation in 
conservative societies creates opposition to co-educational schools 
and male teachers and the lack of an adequate number of separate 
schools and women teachers in these localities is said to reinforce 
parental resistance to the education of girls. In view of the rela- 
tive cultural immobility of girls, the absence of schools within 
easy walking distance would also operate as a barrier to participa- 
tion. Educational factors such as poor facilities and a curriculum 
that is irrelevant to local ne*^<js have been noted to encourage 
drop-out in primary schools. 

Policies and programmes 

The constitution stipulates the goal of free and compulsory 
education to 14 years, and it is interesting to note that the com- 
mitment to the promotion of the education of girls and the aware- 
ness of the multifaceted nature of the problem were expressed in 
official documents from the first Five Year Plan in 1950. The 
Report of the National Committee on Women's Education (1958-1959) 
proposed a wide spectrum of policies and measures including 
Incentive awards, women teachers or in their absence, school mothers, 
part-time educational facilities for those girls who could not attend 
the formal school, and creches to relieve school age girls of child 
care responsibilities. 

The Report of the Status of Women Committee (1974) reiterated 
the need for innovative measures such as special incentives, multi- 
ple entry to formal schools, location of schools within walking 
distance, part-time classes, mobile schools, recruitment of women 
teachers, facilities for younger siblings and community campaigns. 


ERiC lb 


The Committee on Differentiation of Curricula for boys and girls 
recommended a common curriculum with home science courses for both 
boys and girls till the end of the middle school. All Five Year 
Plans underscored the importance of educating girls, the need for 
special measures and for motivating parents and the community to 
educate girls. 

Within this conceptual framework and with the goal of univer- 
sal primary education in view, several policies and programmes have 
been introduced to increase the participation of girls in education. 
A number of incentives were introduced in the Second and Third Five 
Year Plan in the nineteen sixties. Central government funds were 
made available to the States for the provision of attendance scho- 
larships for girls, the construction of rent free quarters for women 
teachers especially in rural areas, the pajanent of stipends to women 
for teacher training programmes and the appointment of school 
mothers who would facilitate the attendance of girls. 

In the fourth and fifth Five Year Plans, assistance to specific 
programmes for girls was subsumed in block grants and in the 
programme of meeting the basic needs of disadvantaged groups through 
the provision of free textbooks, stationary, scholarships, uniforms 
and mid-day meals for boys and girls, and residential facilities 
for women teachers. An evaluation of these measures in 1974 indi- 
cated that all these schemes were not in operation in all states. 
Lack of planning, non-involvement of village institutions and meagre 
alloca'^lons had limited the coverage and impact of these programme. 
The programme of incentives - free textbooks, stationery, uniforms 
and mid-day meal for boys and girls, and attendance scholarships 
for girls - was revitalized during the Sixth Plan period in the 
early eighties, but a study by National Council of Educational 
Research and Training has indicated that these incentives are inade- 
quate to compensate for the loss of income from child labour. The 
Seventh or current Five Year Plan has introduced free secondary 
education up to Grade 12 for girls. 

During the Sixth Plan years a special programme of non-formal 
education for out-of-school children was introduced with central 
government assistance, particularly in the nine most educationally 
backward states. Financial assistance was increased to support the 
establishment of non-formal education centres exclusively for girls 
and to appoint local women as primary school teachers as specific 
measures to improve participation rates. The Seventh Five Year Plan 
proposes to extend non-formal education programmes to meet the needs 
of half the out-of-school population, and 100% assistance is to be 
provided to non-governmental organizations also for the provision 
of non-formal education facilities. 

Non-formal education programmes implemented in the states are 
seen to vary in scope and content. For instance, the Institute of 
Education 9 Pune, conducts UNICEF supported non-formal education 



Equality of educational opportunity 

classes for out-of-school girls between 9 and lA years of age in the 
late evening, using flexible curriculum materials relevant to local 
needs. The National Institute of Educational Planning and Adminis- 
tration has organized a community based, participatory, development- 
oriented programme for boys and girls in Haryana State. 

Curriculum development has also been a focal point of change. 
The Women's Education Unit of the National Council for Educational 
Research and Training has analyzed instructional materials to iden- 
tify gender role stereotypes and has prepared new curriculum and 
teacher education materials that present a more positive image of 
women and may thereby assist in changing perceptions regarding the 
roles of girls and women. These materials, however, have yet to be 
used extensively in the States' school systems. At the Bal Bhawan 
non-formal education programmes provide opportunities to boys and 
girls to develop individual potential through creative learning. 

A new perspective in programme formulation is seen in the 
development of early childhood centres for children between three 
and six years of age, particularly in disadvantaged communities. 
These centres are intended to provide pre-primary education as a 
stimulus to enrolment in primary education and to reduce dropping 
out by girls with child care responsibilities. The central govern- 
ment offers 100% financial assistance to agencies and individuals to 
establish pre-school centres and UNICEF supports the preparation of 
learning materials. The Integrated Child Development Service pro- 
vides inf rastructural facilities for child care programmes. 

The creation in 1983 of a high level standing committee on 
women's education under the chairmanship of the Minister of Educa- 
tion, the organization of special cells at national and state levels, 
and the introduction of district and block level planning are 
intended to give impetus to the development of programmes for the 
promotion of the education of girls. 


Nepal began to develop modem educational institutions only 
just over three decades ago, and despite the rapid growth in educa- 
tional enrolments since then, girls continue to be an educationally 
disadvantaged group in terms of enrolment and retention even in 
primary education. 

Participation of girls in education 

While numerous incentives have been provided since the begin- 
ning of the nineteen seventies to increase the enrolment of girls, 
the proportion of girls in the total primary school population has 
increased from 18.3% in 1975 to only 28% in 1983. Over half the 
primary school age girls are out of school as the gross enrolment 
rate Is 43% while almost alll boys are reported to be enrolled in 
schools. Moreover, 40% to 95% girls have been found to have dropped 




out from primary schools in different districts. District wise 
disparities in enrolment are wide and participation rates of girls 
are very low in the remote Far Western Region and in some conserva- 
tive districts in Southern Nepal. 

Several studies have identified the causes of non-participation 
and low retention. It has been pointed out that the opportunity cost 
of education relative to the poor economic conditions of families is 
the major cause of non-enrolment and early leaving. In Nepal's 
economy girls assist their parents from a very early age in farm work 
and in looking after cattle. They are also economic assets within 
the household and have child care responsibilities. The study on the 
'Status of Women in Nepal' reported that the work schedule of young 
girls was as long as that of an adult male. 

Direct costs such as school supplies and the distance to school 
in the context of Nepal's difficult physical terrain are perceived to 
be contributory factors to low enrolment rates. Reinforcing all these 
factors are the negative attitudes of parents who, in view of the 
social practice of early marriage, see investment in the education 
of girls as a waste of scarce resources. 

It is claimed also that the education system exacerbates the 
difficulties faced by girls. The rigid school schedule does not take 
into account the competing economic and domestic demands imposed on 
girls. Poor school conditions, curriculum irrelevance and the lack 
of community support for the education of girls promote dropping out. 
While these causes have been widely discussed it is felt that there 
have been few significant changes in this situation over the years. 

Policies and programmes 

The constitution embodies the principle of equal educational 
opportunity and the Sixth and Seventh Five Year Plans have under- 
scored the importance of special measures for the education of girls. 
Consequently, in addition to the provision of free primary education 
in 1975 and free primary textbooks in 1979, special incentives and 
intervention programmes have been introduced to increase the 
participation of girls. 

In 1975 as a result of the consciousness generated by Inter- 
national Women's Year, free tuition and textbooks were provided to 
girls in the officially designated remote districts at all levels of 
the school system, and incentive awards were introduced to promote 
the enrolment of girls. These incentives have been extended in 1983 
with the implementation of a scholarship programme for school age 
girls in three remote districts in the Far Western Region. Incentive 
awards to the school that had the highest enrolment of girls in four 
zones have also been introduced. 

In the cultural context of Nepal it was considered important to 
increase the number of women teachers in primary schools, as only 3% 
of primary school teachers were women in 1970. In 1970 therefore 


Equality of educational opportunity 

the Equal Access of Women to Education Programme (or as it was 
renamed in 1983, the Education of Girls and Women in Nepal Project) 
was introduced with the assistance of Unesco and subsequently with 
support from UNICEF and the Unesco-NORAD Funds- in-Trust Programmes 
to train rural women as primary school teachers and to employ ♦".xem 
in village primary schools especially in remote areas so that they 
may help to enrol more girls in schools. Beginning as a pilot 
project in one teacher training campus, the project is now a national 
programme, using 5 campuses and 11 secondary schools in different 
parts of the country and drawing students from 74 of the 75 
districts of Nepal. It has as its adjunct an upgrading programme 
which enables drop-outs from remote areas to complete their secondary 
education and qualify for entrance to the teacher training programme. 
Incentives were in-built into the project in the form of monthly 
stipends, teaching-learning materials and free residential facilities. 
It is reported that at least three-fourths of these trainees are 
teaching in primary schools and that they have had a positive impact 
on community attitudes to the education of girls. 

Two new components of the programme have been Introduced subse- 
quently. Local high school scholarships were given to increase the 
intake from remote areas to the teacher training programme from 1983. 
From 1984 part-time, non-formal primary education classes have been 
organized at times convenient to girls in disadvantaged communities. 

An innovative programme to increase the participation of girls 
was introduced in 1982 as a major component of the Education for 
Rural Development Project in the Seti Zone in the remote Far Western 
Region. Non-formal part-time education classes were organized for 
out of school girls in a district with very low enrolment and 
special curriculum materials were prepared after an analysis of the 
educational and social needs of girls in the region. 

The Seventh Five Year Plan introduced in 1985 proposes a 
programme of accelerated part-time education for those who cannot 
attend the formal school and it is expected that such programmes 
will be expanded in the next few years. 

A new programme that is scheduled to be in operation from 1985 
is the Girls' Access to Education project which will establish 
pre-school centres near primary schools to facilitate access to 
schools and reduce dropping out by girls whose child care responsi- 
bilities confine them to their homes. 

The Ministry of Education has recognized the importance of 
extending educational opportunity to girls by establishing in 1983 
a Women's Education Unit which is responsible for co-ordinating, 
and monitoring special education programmes for girls. The National 
Plan of Action prepared by women's organizations in 1982 has also 
helped to identify priorities for official and non-official action. 





Low female literacy and participation rates, particularly In 
rural areas, and gender disparities have focused attention in 
Pakistan on the education of girls, and policy documents since 1971 
and recent Five Year Plans have attempted to promote female educa- 
tion, although these plans have been stymied by resource constraints 
and competing priorities. 

Participation of girls In education 

Participation rates In primary education In Pakistan have 
Increased since 1947 and the rate of increase in the enrolment of 
girls has been higher than that of boys as participation rates were 
abysmally low in the early years. In 1959-1960, for instance, 
primary school gross enrolment rates were 42% for boys and 9% for 
girls while the position in 1983 was 63% for boys and 32% for girls. 
Urban * rural differentials are also wide, particularly in the case 
of girls who have a participation rate of 68% in urban areas and 
only 20% in rural areas. Gender disparities are apparent in the 
percentage of girls in the total primary school enrolment which was 
14.2% in 1947-1948, 26.3% in 1969-1970, and 32.02% in 1983-1984. 
Over half the entrants to Grade I are reported to drop-out before 
they reach Grade V. Inequalities are also evident in the provision 
of schools as 52% of urban schools and 30% of rural schools are 
girls' schools. The education of girls has therefore lagged behind 
and disparities have not been significantly narrowed. 

A major barrier identified is the inability to meet the demand 
for schools as a result of rapid population growth and lack of 
financial resources. Schools are poor in accommodation and equip- 
ment, particularly in rural areas where there are one or two teacher 
schools with a few classrooms, and they are consequently unable to 
attract students. Girls are specially disadvantaged because social 
conservatism has created a demand for separate girls' schools which, 
however, receive low priority because social pressures are for the 
expansion of boys' schools. 

Mass poverty and socio-cultural constraints are barriers to the 
utilization of even the limited facilities that are available. 
Parents have negative attitudes to the education of girls, and 
women teachers, who may assist in overcoming cultural resistance, 
are in short supply. The research studies carried out by the 
National Institute of Psychology have provided useful information 
on rural attitudes to the education of girls, on their negative 
self concepts and low achievement motivation and on socio-cultural 
constraints to the participation of girls in education. 

Policiefa and programmes 

Policies and Five Year Plans especially since 1970 have given 
priority to universal primary education. Primary education is free 


ER?C 2i 

Equality of educational opportunity 

and World Bank - IDA/Unesco project is expected to improve the infra- 
structure and quality of primary education. In the late nineteen 
seventies policy documents and the Fifth Five Year Plan stressed the 
need to give priority to expanding educational facilities for girls 
through greater resource allocation, construction and repair of 
schools and appointment of women teachers. These objectives, 
however, have not been achieved as a result of financial constraints 
that affected adversely tie construction and recruitment progid^Ttmes. 
The situation is complicr.ted by the demand for separate schools for 
girls although official policy has sought to encourage co-educational 
schools and to provide separate schools where co-education is not 

Resource constraints have also compelled the administration to 
utilize indigenous structures such as Mohalla schools (in homes) and 
mosques. It was envisaged in 1979 that 5000 Mohalla schools would 
be established as an experiment in primary education. In actual 
fact progress has been reported to be slow as satisfactory arrange- 
ments for supervision of these classes held in private homes could 
not be worked out. Mohalla schools have also been traditionally 
urban based although it is hoped to expand them in rural areas with 
the assistance of local bodies and the community. 

The Sixth Five Year Plan (1983-1985) proposed to use mosques 
for Grades I to III classes in areas where there are no schools or 
where schools are overcrowded. Both boys and girls are admitted to 
these classes and a primary school teacher has been appointed to 
assist the Imam. These mosque schools have proved to be popular 
and appear to be culturally acceptable to conservative sections of 
society. It is reported that they have increased enrolment sub- 
stantially in Sind and in the scattered villages of Baluchistan, 
and that the plan target of 8000 mosque schools has been reached 
in two years. 

Future policies are directed to concentrating on univer- 
salizing enrolment in Grades I to III in formal primary schools 
and in mosque schools as a first step to universalization of primary 
education. Investment in primary education has been substantially 
increased in current budgetary allocations > and in order to increase 
the participation rate of girls from 32% to 60%, a project has been 
formulated to provide 4,500 girls' schools in the rural areas within 
the next five years. 

The second strategy that has been formulated to improve the 
participation of girls is to increase the number of women teachers 
who currently form 32% of the teaching force, convert some primary 
teacl er training institutes into women's teacher training institutes, 
and to construct residences for women teachers. It has even been 
suggested that male primary school teachers should be gradually 
replaced by women teachers. Very little has been reported to have 
been achieved in this respect as financial constraints have not 
permitted a major expansion of facilities or recruitment of teachers. 




The residences constructed for women teachers in rural areas under 
the IDA project have not been utilized by women teachers for 
reasons of security where unmarried teachers are concerned. It is 
also proposed under the follow up IDA project to appoint elderly 
women as local co-ordinators to assist the administration in 
monitoring project implementation in primary schools. 

Other supportive programmes are the 25,000 literacy centres 
established by the Literacy and Mass Education Commission established 
in 1981 and the distance education programmes developed by Allama 
Iqbal Open University in functional literacy for those who have 
never been to school, in a second chance course for middle school 
drop outs, and in primary teacher training for men and women 


It is apparent from this overview that all four countries share 
largely common problems of low female enrolment and retention and 
constraints that stem from the travails of economically developing 
societies and from cultural lags manifest in traditional societies. 
Each country has expressed commitment to improving the participation 
of girls both In policy documents and in programmes that have been 
formulated. Strategies differ in their emphasis and have had 
varying success, and programme implementation has been conditioned 
by local circumstances. Conceptualization of issues and perceptions 
of appropriate strategies have not changed significantly over 
nearly four decades, and it is salutary to note that the impact of 
all the programmes enumerated on the situation of girls has not been 
commensurate with either expectations or needs. 

The situation in these four countries with regard to the 
availability of special programmes and supportive structures for 
the education of girls and the areas in which each country has 
accumulated experiences that can be shared with other countries are 
depicted in the following table. 


Equality of educational opportunity 

Strategies and Progrannnes 


1. Provision of education 

(i) Separate schools 
for girls 
(ii) Multiple entry to 
formal school 
(iii) Part-time non-formal 
education classes 
(iv) Feeder schools 
(v) Use of indigeneous 
institutions for 
primary education 
e.g. mosques 
(vi) Distance education 

Bangladesh India Nepal Pakistan 




2. P rovision of incentives 

(i) Free tuition 
(ii) Free textbooks 
(iii) Free stationery 
(Iv) Free uniforms 

(v) Free mid-day meals 
(vi) Scholarships 
(vii) Attendance scholarships 
(viii) Incentive awards for 

high enrolment of girls 






3. Curriculum development 

(i) Examination of gender 
role stereotypes 
(ii) Preparation of curri- 
culum materials to 
present positive image 
of women 
(iii) Needs based curriculum 
(iv) Curriculum materials 

relevant to local needs 
(v) Creative learning 

experiences to develop 
individual potential 



strategies and progrcwimes 

Areas Bangladesh India Nepal Pakistan 

4. Supply and training of 

(i) Recruitment of more 

women teachers XX XX 

(ii) Rent free residences 

for women teachers X X 

(ill) Training programmes 
for women teachers 

with stipends X X 

(iv) Rent free hostels 
for women teacher 

trainees X X 

(v) Upgrading programmes 
to increase the intake 

women of teacher X 
(vi) Use of drop-outs as 
women teachers/ 

facilitators X 

5. Support structures for 
universal primary^ 

(i) Pre-school /child care 

centre X X 

(ii) School mothers X 
(iii) Literacy centres for 
adults/parents in 
support of primary 

education X X 

(iv) Community campaigns 
for universalization 

of primary education X X 

(v) Supportive programmes 
by women's organiza- 
tions X X X X 
(vi) Institutions under- 
taking research 

studies on women XX XX 


ERLC 2d 

Equality of educational opportunity 

Areas Bangladesh India Nepal Pakistan 

6. Co-ordination, Monitoring 
and Evaluation 

(i) Special Committee 

on education of girls XX XX 

(ii) Women's education 

unit/cell X X 

(iii) Women supervisors X 

(iv) Women local 

co-ordinators X 

(v) Evaluation studies XX XX 

Notes: The data presented in this table is based on the 
information available in country papers and other 
documents made available to the Panel. It is not 
intended to be an exhaustive list of programmes 
in each country. 



Non-formal part-time primary education programme 
for children of socially, economically 
disadvantaged families, Bhaktapur, Kathmandu 

Chapter Three 


Many issues that have relevance for the formulation and imple- 
mentation of programmes for the promotion of the education of girls 
surfaced during the interchange of experiences between members of the 
Panel and national representatives in the four countries. The main 
observations of Panel members and some of the views of national 
policy makers, educ::ors and others involved in educational pro- 
giainmes for girls that were presented are synthesized here as a 
useful review of past experiences and as a framework that may help 
to determine the direction of future programmes. 

Conceptual issues 

The concept of equal access of girls to education is legitimated 
by the principles of human rights and distributive social justice and 
by the role of women in national development. The Panel noted that 
the Constitutions of all four countries embodied the principle of 
equal educational opportunity, and that policy documents and plans 
envisaged the achievement of universal primary education in the 
foreseeable future. 

There was, however, little explicit conceptualization of the 
educational needs of girls in these statements of intent and con- 
siderable divergence between objectives, policies and outcomes, which 
may be the result of planning perspectives or of macro contextual 
factors. In India and Nepal almost all boys of primary school age 
were reported to be enrolled in schools and there was strong aware- 
ness that special efforts were needed to bring girls within the ambit 
of the educational system if universal primary education was to be 
achieved early. It was not clear to the Panel whether the issue of 
equal access has received adequate priority in a context in which a 
significant though lesser proportion of boys were also out of school, 
given a social climate that was traditionally accorded precedence 
to males as 'heads of households*. Some countries were also seen 
to have identified 'pockets' of educational disadvantage and to have 
directed their efforts to meet their educational needs. It was 
apparent that girls and women were doubly disadvantaged in these 
communities through the interaction of class and gender. 

The Panel noted that the important contribution of women to 
national development and the need to equip girls to perform their 
multiple roles were recognized by policy makers in India and Nepal. 
Recent research including 'Status of Women' and time allocation 


Equality of educational opportunity 

studies have provided evidence of the intensive involvement of girls 
and women in economic and extra-domestic activities, and of their 
equal contribution to the economy and to household incomes in 
peasant societies and in the 'modem' sector. Although the lines 
between the 'public and private domains' have heew traditionally 
blurred in the case of the majority of women in Asian agrarian 
societies, it is apparent that in many instances, nineteenth century 
Victorian norms of the 'domestication' of women continue to influ- 
ence policies and programmes pertaining to educational provision 
and curriculum development • 

Planning perspectives anJ resource allocation 

Budgetary allocations for primary education have clearly 
increased in all countries in consonance with the commitment to 
universalizing primary education. The central government in India 
has increased assistance to the States and to non-governmental 
organizations for specific educational programmes for girls. In 
some others, unrealistic targets for the participation of girls were 
juxtaposed with a situation in which resources were deflected from 
educational programmes for girls in the face of competing priorities 
and social demand. Where a significant quantum of external aid was 
channelled to programmes for the education of girls, there appeared 
to be a tendency to compartmentalize these projects outside the 
conceptual framework of national plans, and national representatives 
in Nepal expressed fears as to whether such a process may even dis- 
tort national priorities. 

The Panel also noted that the educational needs of girls were 
not adequately reflected in the objectives and activities of the 
on-going World Bank assisted primary education projects in 
Bangladesh, Nepal and Pakistan, despite the fact that the dis- 
advantaged educational status of girls is a major problem in these 
countries. An issue that emerged from discussions, therefore, was 
the need for long-term perspective planning and co-ordination of 
inputs if optimal benefits were to be achieved from programmes 
conceived for promoting the education of girls. 

Demand and supply 

It is commonly assumed that the crucial problem in the educa- 
tion of girls in these countries is the non-utilization of edu- 
cational facilities as a consequence of socio-cultural constraints. 
The Panel concluded from the presentations of national representa- 
tives and from their own observations that while this assumption 
was supported by some factual evidence, there was also an imbalance 
between the demand for the education of girls and the supply of 
available facilities in all countries. This gap between the pro- 
vision of educational facilities and the demand for primary school 
places for girls in urban and even rural areas was underscored by 
educational administrators and representatives of women's organiza- 
tions in some countries. A survey of rural attitudes to the 



Synthesis of observations and perceptions 

education of girls in Pakistan has revealed that the most frequent 
response to the question as to why girls were not enrolled in 
schools was the lack of schools. Improved female enrolment rates 
in recent decades also bear witness to increasingly more positive 
attitudes to the education of girls. 

It was apparert that the resource constraints of economically 
developing societies and high population growth rates have made it 
virtually impossible for countries to meet the demand for education. 
Uneven distribution of schools, the operation of double shifts, 
overcxowded classrooms, and lack of basic facilities such as school 
furniture and equipment were reported to be common features of the 
educational scenario. Financial problems have prevented the 
implementation of programmes for the construction and repair of 
schools and recruitment of teachers. In some of their field visits 
Panel members observed the poor conditions of even those primary 
schools that are located in districts in close proximity to the 
metropolitan city. It was the view of several national representa- 
tives that girls were more disadvantaged than boys by the distance 
from home to school, particularly in countries in which the terrain 
and dispersed pattern of village settlement made schools even less 

Utilization of educational facilities 

Studies in all countries on factors that adversely affected the 
participation of girls in educational programmes pointed also to 
common problems pertaining to non-utilization of available facilities. 

Mass poverty and the prevalence of child labour appeared to be 
important determinants of educational participation. In all four 
countries girls were more disadvantaged in this respect as the 
dependence of disadvantaged families on the labour of primary school 
age girls both within and outside the household was said to enhance 
their value as econonic assets. Studies have shown that girls start 
their time consuming household chores at very young age, before boys 
begin to engage in economic activities. In a cultural context in 
which it is perceived to be degrading for boys to be involved in many 
domestic tasks, girls walk long distances to collect water, fuel and 
fodder, they cook and clean the house, look after younger siblings 
and also participate in economic activities such as assisting in 
agriculture and looking after cattle. It has been computed that the 
working day of a young school age girl is as long as that of an adult 

The costs of education were also apt to be perceived by parents 
as a waste of scarce resources in view of social norms that ascribe 
exclusively domestic roles and child bearing for girls and women, in 
contradistinction to the economic realities of the lives of the 
majority of women to whom domesticity is an unattainable luxury. 
The evidence relating to the attitudes of parents towards the educa- 
tion of girls was conflicting and parental reactions appeared to be 




Equality of educational opportunity 

ambivalent. Some researchers expressed the view that recalcitrant 
parents were less in number than commonly assumed and that societal 
attitudes and social practices were not implacably resistant to 
change. It was also felt that educational factors such as curricu- 
lum irrelevance and gender - specific nuances of the 'hidden' 
curriculum may tend to encourage early leaving. 


While all four countries shared the problems engendered by the 
macro-structural constraints of economically developing and 
'traditional' societies, each country was seen to have evolved its 
own 8trate:?ies in the light of the perceptions of its policy-makers 
and the configuration of the physical and social environment. These 
strategies ranged from incentives and complementary structures to 
women teachers, and the exchange of experiences brought to focus 
both positive and negative trends and implications. 

Provision of incentives 

Incentives inevitably loom large in societies in which the 
majority of the population live below what has been called the 
'poverty line' . All four countries provided free primary education, 
but as tuition is only one component of the private costs of 
education, some of the countries have introduced a wide range of 
additional incentives at different times and in varying extent. 
These included free textbooks, stationery, uniforms, mid-day meals 
and scholarships for both boys and girls; free secondary education, 
special scholarships and attendance scholarships for girls; 
incentive awards for districts and schools with high enrolment of 
girls; and subsidized training programmes and free residential 
facilities for women Leachers. The Panel was impressed by the wide 
array of incentives, and it was apparent that these incentives have 
had, by and large, a positive impact by extending educational 
opportunity to girls from socio-economic groups from urban, rural and 
remote areas who would otherwise have been deprived of education, and 
to thereby reducing both socio-economic and gender disparities in 
educational participation. Some pertinent issues that were raised in 
the discussions, however, reflected concerns in these countries. 

The role of incentives was questioned in terms of whether they 
were expected to be instrumental in establishing norms of educa- 
tional participation, or to promote participation directly. It was 
pointed out, too, that selective scholarships, for instance, could 
operate as disincentives to the larger number of non-recipients. 
On the other hand there was the evidence from a number of studies 
in all countries that incentives were necessary to meet at least some 
of the costs and opportunity costs of education. A study in India 
had indicated that the incentives offered currently were too small 
relative to the opportunity costs to economically disadvantaged 
families. The meritocratic principle may conceivably be applied in 
the case of secondary school scholarships but was clearly inappropriate 



Synthesis of observations and perceptions 

for a mass-oriented system such as primary education. 

The management of Incentives was perceived to be a major 
problem In these countries. In Bangladesh Incentives had to be 
withdrawn as a result of management problems. An evaluation study 
In India had found that many of the Incentive schemes were In 
operation In only a few states or districts. Poor planning, minimal 
village Involvement and meagre resource allocation were reported to 
be responsible for the limited coverage and impact of incentives in 
different parts of the country. 

There was criticism that the distribution of Incentives was 
hampered by the ineffectiveness of the delivery and monitoring 
systems and consequent misallocation of resources or non-utilization 
of Inputs. It was pointed out that the degree of utilization of 
incentives was also dependent on the extent to which relevant 
information was communicated to potential beneficiaries. A survey 
in Nepal had Indicated that economically disadvantaged groups living 
in the vicinity of the capital city were unaware of the availability 
of such incentives. It was inferred that the majority of the 
population in remote areas would be oblivious of the existence of 
such programmes. The obvious implication was that information 
needed to be channelled specifically to parents and to the community. 

An important incentive that appeared to be undervalued by 
educators is related to the function of education as an agent of 
economic and social mobility. Representatives of women's organiza- 
tions in Nepal remarked succlntly that universal primary education 
was hardly likely to be achieved if low Income parents saw no 
Instrumental value in educating their daughters. In Pakistan an 
investigation into the causes of non-enrolment of girls reported 
that the largest number of parents (42%) did not educate their 
daughters because they perceived no financial benefits. It was 
represented very forcefully that tangible results through further 
or vocational education had to be envisaged in order to raise the 
level of aspirations of parents regarding the education of their 

Separate schools for girls 

The Panel found that co-education was an issue that was upper- 
most in the consciousness of policy-makers. The official policy in 
Bangladesh, India and Nepal was co-education at primary level but 
policy makers and administrators admitted to pressures for the 
establishment of separate schools for girls. It transpired that 
this demand was articulated largely by elite families seeking 
perhaps to preserve the status quo in social relations, but it was 
nonetheless a problem to educational administrators. 

In Pakistan co-education was encouraged but cultural imperatives 
necessitated the establishment of separate girls' schools. Limited 
resources had therefore to be stretched to provide two schools In 
place of one school. Two facets of this situation were noted to 


Equality of educational opportunity 

affect gender equality adversely. 

Social pressures created a preferential demand for boys' 
schools while social conservatism required that separate schools be 
established for girls. Consequently more boys schools were opened 
and only 30% of rural schools were reported to be girls' schools. 
The number of girls' schools was thus inadequate to meet either 
needs or demand and girls were specially disadvantaged in the context 
of dispersed population distribution. 

Social pressures also determined that resource investment in 
girls' schools was appreciably less than in boys' schools. The 
Indian Status of Women Report describes very clearly the shortcomings 
and inferior status of separate girls' schools and underscores the 
consequent dangers of marginalization and reinforcement of gender 
inequalities in education. Policy makers were obviously faced with 
a dilemma and the only solution appeared to be attitudinal change in 
the community. 

Non-formal education 

In recent years non-formal education structures have been 
perceived to be an efZ xtive mechanism to meet the educational needs 
of children who are precluded by their economic activities or 

•mestic responsibilities from attending formal schools. Successful 
iuiiovative experiments have been carried out in India for some years 
with the support of international agencies. The flexibility of 
these programmes in terms of organization, time schedules and curri- 
culum have helped to extend their reach to girls whose time con- 
straints have hitherto deprived them of access to education. An 
extensive network of non-formal education centres are operated now 
in different parts of the country, and the need to increase the 
participation of girls in the context of universal primary education 
has led to the establishment of non-formal centres exclusively for 

The Panel was informed that resource constraints have 
influenced planners in India to rely heavily on such complementary 
structures as a strategy in extending educational opportunity. It 
is proposed therefore to enrol 50% of the 40 million children who 
are out of school in non-formal education centres. These centres are 
being conceptualized as feeder schools located around primary schools, 
and 100% central government assistance has been offered to -state 
administrations and non-governmental organizations to expedite 

In Nepal in the last two years, non-formal part-time primary 
education programmes have been developed for out-of-school children 
in disadvantaged communities, both in remote districts with very 
low female enrolment as well as in pockets of educational disadvantage 
in more favoured districts. In all countries non-governmental 
agencies have experimented with non-formal education programmes, 



Synthesis of observations and perceptions 

albeit on a small scale. The Underprivileged Children's Educational 
Programme in Bangladesh and Nepal, for instance, offers condensed 
evening primary and secondary courses to children of the urban poor 
who are employed during the day in the informal sector in the city. 

It appeared to the Panel that non-formal part-time primary 
education was being conceived as a direct attack on educational 
disadvantage. It has been difficult in the past to replicate pilot 
programmes that have owed their success to the commitment of pioneers 
and to the concentration of resources. The Panel found it signifi- 
cant therefore that a national strategy has been designed in at 
least one country, India, to complement the formal education system 
with non-formal education structures within a common framework of 
universal primary education. The Panel member from Pak^st* -i in 
particular, was convinced of the relevance of this strategy for 
extending educational opportunity to girls in her own country. 

Two issues appeared to be important in the light of the dis- 
cussions that were generated. Panel members were informed that 
there was evidence that children were tending to drop-out of the 
formal school in crder to enrol in non-formal classes which are 
apparently perceived as a 'soft option'. It was felt that this trend 
should be monitored and that safeguards should be built in by 
popularizing the 'feeder* concept and by providing for 'bridges' to 
the formal school. The crux of the matter was that non-formal 
education centres should be perceived as complementary rather than 
as alternative structures. 

The 'status* of non-formal education was a major concern of 
panel members and national participants, as a disadvantaged clientele 
and a special or condensed curriculum could attach a stigma of 
'second class' education to non-formal education. As almost all boys 
are claimed to be in schools in the two countries - India and Nepal - 
in which non-formal education programmes are being promoted, there 
was the danger that the 'secondary status' of girls in these countries 
could be reinforced. The role of education in the 'reproduction' of 
class structures and unequal gender relations is a subject of con- 
temporary debate. Panel members felt therefore that it was essential 
to build 'bridges' from the non-formal structures to the formal 
system, and further to post-primary and vocational education, so that 
these centres could offer socio-economically disadvantaged families 
opportunities for upward mobility. 

Feeder schools 

The use of 'feeder' structures in extending educational oppor- 
tunity was illustrated in Bangladesh in an experimental project in 
the education of girls. 'Feeder Schools' with Grades 1 to 3 primary 
classes have been established for girls within easy access from their 
homes in selected villages in one district. Only women teachers have 
been appointed to these 'schools' and girls who have completed Grade 
2-3 have been admitted to the regular primary school. The success 


Equality of educational opportmity 

of this project in promoting 100% participation and retention has 
stimulated policy-makers to envisage Its replication on a national 
scale. It appeared to the Panel that this programme had several 
advantages In providing easy access In terms of distance. In 
supplementing the facilities of overcrowded primary schools, and In 
establishing a direct link with the formal school, and that Ir could 
be extended also on a co-educatlonal basis. It would seem however, 
to require also the replication of the commitment and the community 
support of the pilot project to ensure Its success as a national 

Use of Indigenous Institutions 

The Panel observed that Pakistan and Bangladesh were utilizing 
indlgenoup Institutions as 'feeder schools' to extend provision for 
primary education. Religious Institutions have been among the 
earliest centres of education, and resource constraints have motivated 
policy makers to use this tradition to 'Integrate' mosque schools or 
religious schools attached to mosques Into the primary education 
structure. Grades 1 to 3 classes were conducted In these schools and 
students are to be admitted to the regular primary school on 
completion of Grade 3. A honararlum was paid to the Imam and a male 
primary school teacher was appointed by the government for secular 

It was Interesting to note t!iat girls were admitted to mosque 
schools although they were manned entirely by male staff, and that 
the religious ethos of these schools made them culturally acceptable 
to conservative parents. No gender-wise enrolment statistics were 
available, however, to assess the extent of participation by girls. 

It was reported that these schools had helped to Increase enrol- 
ment substantially In Pakistan and that their proximity to the homes 
of children was a major asset In a country In which the distribution 
of educational facilities has been stymied by the dispersion of 
village settlements. Administrators claimed that the success of 
these schools had exceeded their expectations and that the target In 
the current Five Year Plan had been reached In two years. In the 
context of the new policy of focusing attention on Grades I-III In 
promoting universal enrolment, the mosque schools were evidently 
perceived to be an Important component of the national strategy In 
primary education. In Bangladesh, mosque schools and maktabs were 
being utilized to complement the formal primary school system on 
similar lines but on a smaller scale. 

The Panel was Informed that the second experiment In utilizing 
a traditional Institution In Pakistan - the Mohalla School - has 
had as yet limited coverage. These schools had been traditionally 
conducted In the homes of elderly women to whom conservative Muslim 
parents entrusted their daughters to be equipped with domestic skills 
for home management. The administration had sought to add secular 
Instruction to this curriculum In order to provide additional avenues 


Synthesis of observations and perceptions 

of primary education for girls but had evidently been unable to 
organize an adequate supervisory system. Although 5000 such schools 
had been envisaged, very little progress was reported. The adminis- 
tration expressed interest in extending these schools with the 
co-operation of local bodies and the community but agreed that 
sufficient priority had not been given so far to this scheme. The 
mohalla school appeared also to be handicapped by the fact that it 
was an urban concept unlike the mosque school, and was therefore 
alien to the rural environment. The potential of these 'schools' as 
feeder institutions was still uncertain although they could perhaps 
be activated to meet the demand for separate schools. 

Supply and training of women teachers 

A major strategy adopted over a decade ago by Nepal and 
increasingly favoured by others has been the recruitment and 
training of women teachers as role models to increase the partici- 
pation of girls and to counter cultural resistance to co-educational 
schools. It was noteworthy that whereas over half the teaching 
force consists of women in many countries, the proportion of women 
teachers in these countries ranged from 8% to 32% - the last in 
Pakistan where there were separate schools for girls. 

The special programme to train women teachers as a strategy to 
promote the access of girls to education in Nepal was one of Unesco's 
earliest initiatives in the Region to reduce gender dispartities. 
It was observed that this pilot project had developed with subsequent 
UNICEF and Unesco-NORAD support into a national programme drawing 
trainees from 74 of 75 districts. Both the teacher training pro- 
gramme and its upgrading component were integrated into the formal 
system of education and had inbuilt financial incentives and 
residential facilities. While evaluation studies have reported a 
positive impact on teacher supply in remote areas and on community 
attitudes to the education of girls, the Panel felt that the expe- 
rience of this programme indicated that training of women teachers 
in conventional programmes per se could make only very limited 
impact on the participation of girls in primary education. It was 
apparent that women teachers were only one input in a complex process, 
that employment had to be guaranteed after training so that resources 
invested would not be wasted, and that women teachers must be 
purposefully conscientized during their training programme to func- 
tion as catalysts for change and as role models. 

The rationale for employing women teachers in order to change 
community attitudes to the education of girls appeared to be rooted 
in the socio-cultural milieu in all four countries. Policies have 
been formulated recently in Bangladesh and Pakistan to recruit women 
teachers on an even more extensive scale. Bangladesh hoped to fill 
50% of its vacancies in primary schools with women teachers, and 
Pakistan wished to replace all male primary school teachers with 
women teachers, but there is no evidence of significant progress in 


Eqmlity of educational opportunity 

this respect as recruitment policies are vulnerable to economic 
constraints. India and Pakistan have attempted to attract women 
teachers to rural schools by constructing rent free residences near 
schools. It is reported that 50% of these residences are unutilized 
as the practice of unmarried women teachers living independently in 
'quarters' is antithetical to cultural norms. In Bangladesh, 500 
women teachers have been recruited under the World Bank assisted 
primary education project but project reports do not reflect any 
specific concern to equip them to promote the participation of girls. 
Special teacher training institutes have been organized for women 
teachers and hostels built in others to increase the intake of women 
teachers into conventional training programmes. 

If women teachers are to be appointed in order to facilitate the 
participation of girls, a link has obviously to be established between 
these two overtly independent activities. The Panel noted a lacuna 
in this respect in the teacher education curriculum which tended to 
follow conventional lines, except in programmes for non-formal educa- 
tion teachers or facilitators who are trained in a specific context. 
It seemed to the Panel that both men and women teachers need to be 
equipped to motivate parents and the community to send their girls to 
school as well as to promote attitudinal change within the classroom 
and to meet the educational needs of girls whose out of school 
experiences may impede their progress. The Unesco Sub-regional 
Workshop organized in 1984 took initiatives which it is hoped will 
stimulate curriculum revision in teacher education programmes. 

Curriculum Development 

As they moved from country to country Panel members observed 
that policies to increase the participation of girls had barely 
impinged on curriculum development or revision. There was much 
criticism that the curriculum took little note of the social 
realities of the lives of women in agrarian societies. In India and 
Nepal special naeds-based curriculum materials have been developed 
for non-formal education programmes for primary school age girls, 
and in India non-formal programmes were seen to offer enrichment 
courses to develop individual potential and creativity. 

It was recognized that separate curricula, whether it is for 
the urban and rural environment or for boys and girls, contributed 
to widening disparities. In Bangladesh, India and Pakistan research 
teams had identified gender role stereotypes in educational materials, 
and in India new materials had been prepared to project a more 
positive image of women but it was reported that these materials were 
not used extensively in the school system. In Nepal achievement tests 
had shown that the achievement levels of girls in mathematics in the 
primary school was lower than that of boys. In India the need was 
articulated for a common curriculum for boys and girls inclusive of 
mathematics and science and for remedial instruction to compensate for 
learning difficulties and socio-cultural handicaps. It was interesting 


Synthecis of observations and perceptions 

to note also that two decades earlier a committee In this country 
had advocated a common curriculum Including home science for boys and 
girls till the end of the middle school. 

These Issues, however, did not appear to receive adequate atten- 
tion from the point of view of retention, achievement levels, relevance 
or Individual development. To many the connotation of access appeared 
to exclude outcomes. The distribution of knowledge and transfer of 
'cultural capital' had not changed significantly. The home science 
syndrome was still reported to channel girls away from agriculture or 
other economically viable subject areas. Curriculum materials conti- 
nued to reflect the norms of domesticity and dependency thereby 
adversely affecting the self concept and performance of girls as 
argued by proponents of socialization theories of gender differences. 
In Pakistan, a study had revealed. In fact, that girls and women had 
negative self concepts conditioned by their cumulative social learning 
experiences. While a non-formal educational programme In India had 
a common curriculum Including practical activities for boys and girls, 
most non-formal skill training programmes were seen to be modelled on 
the conventional demarcation of the labour market Into masculine and 
feminine areas. 

Distance learning 

All countries were using to some degree or were planning to use 
distance education techniques to reach a larger clientele than was 
possible through face-to-face formal or non-formal education programmes. 
In Pakistan the Open Unl'^erslty conducted basic education courses for 
women who have never been to school and secondary education courses 
for girls who had dropped out of school. The satellite programme In 
India was used for adult education In remote villages. But distance 
education techniques did not seem to have been evolved yet in any 
country to cater to young primary school children. 

An area with much potential was the training of teachers but 
although distance learning was utilized in primary teacher training 
programmes in India, Nepal and Pakistan, there was no specific focus 
on the role of teachers in promoting the participation of girls in 

Early childhood education 

An interesting trend noted by the Panel in some countries was 
the change in the traditional conceptualization of pre-school pro- 
grammes as nursery schools for the children of the affluent, creches 
for children of women workers or delivery systems in health and nutri- 
tion programmes. In India where there was a practice already of pre- 
school centres attached to primary schools in some locations, early 
childhood education centres were being planned near primary schools 
as a national strategy in order to give a 'head start' to children 
of disadvantaged population groups and to reduce dropping out by 
school age girls with child care responsibilities. 100% assistance 



Equality of educational opportunity 

has been offered to non-governmental agencies and to Individuals 
to establish such centres. The experience so far of the Integrated 
Child Development Service in this country, however, suggests that 
while health, nutrition and child care facilities are relatively 
easier to distribute if an efficient delivery system is available, 
qualitative educational inputs tend to receive low priority in view 
of their greater complexity of operation. 

In Nepal a project was being introduced in two districts expe- 
rimentally to facilitate access to education through the same mechan- 
ism of establishing pre-school centres near primary schools. It is 
hoped that pre-school educational activities will be structured to 
develop individual potential and creativity irrespective of pre- 
conceived perceptions of gender differences. 

Little official interest was evinced in other countries in 
pre-school activities in view of their preoccupation with programmes 
to promote universal primary education. Non-governmental and 
women's organizations too appeared to have limited involvement in 
this area. It was apparent that in a context of scarce resources 
and imbalance between demand and supply in primary education, it will 
be necessary to activate voluntary organizations and the community 
to support pre-school programmes to fill the present vacuum. The 
absence of such facilities was reflected in the enrolment of pre- 
school age children in overcrowded Grade 1 classes and in the inci- 
dence of dropping out of school age girls with child care commitments. 

Monitoring and evaluation 

A concern that was manifest in discussions was the ineffective- 
ness of the delivery system, shortcomings in the utilization of 
inputs and consequent under-expenditure and wastage of resources. 
In all countri es the gap between objectives and outcomes was partly 
attributed to weakness in monitoring procedures, which were com- 
pounded in decentralized administrative structures in which States 
or provinces enjoyed considerable autonomy in programme implementa- 

Many monitoring procedures were being tried out in the super- 
vision of educational programmes for girls. Women were appointed 
along with men to supervisory positions in sub-districts in 
Bangladesh. In Pakistan, local women co-ordinators were proposed, 
chiefly as a low cost mechanism. A Women's Education Unit had been 
established in Nepal for co-ordination and monitoring educational 
programmes for girls and women, and cost effective monitoring 
procedures had been evolved for non-formal part-time primary educa- 
tion programmes by a system of payment for each completed unit of 

There was consensus that existing structures should be used for 
monitoring as a parallel structure could create confusion as wel] as 
marginalize programmes for girls. But it was recognized that chere 
was need to strengthen the institutional capabilities of Women's 



Synthesis of observations and perceptions 

Education Units or cells and Ministries of Education, t build in 
monitoring and systematic evaluation of performance into all 
programmes and to ensure co-ordination of inputs and co-ordination 
vith other ministries and departments. 

A phenomenon that intrigued some panel members was the 
availability of extensive data generated by studies by research 
institutions during the UN Decade for Women and by evaluation reports, 
and the absence of overt evidence that this data was taken into 
account in the formulation, revision, implementation and monitoring 
of educational programmes for girls. This situation is perhaps 
another illustration of the dichotomy between social science 
research and socio-economic policies in many economically developed 
and developing countries. 

Community participation 

It was reiterated by governmental and non-governmental personnel 
that the Ministry of Education by itself could not bring all girls 
to school and that community action was necessary to trigger demand 
and to ensure utilization of services but the Panel did not see 
evidence of a mass-based community campaign in support of universal- 
izing primary education in any country. In view of the attitudinal 
base of non-enrolmen*: of girls in all countries, community campaigns 
in which community leaders, teachers and families of potential 
target groups participated we',t seen to be a pre-requisite for 
promoting more positive attitudes to the education of girls and for 
mobilizing community resources for educational programmes. 

It was clear from past experience that community participation 
did not take place automatically. Two positive trends were noted - 
the use of participatory micro-level or block level planning tech- 
niques in India and the involvement of elected representatives in 
all countries as political will was perceived to be an important 
component of commtinity participation. 

There appeared to be awareness too of the link between adult 
literacy and universalization of primary education. Attention was 
focused on several occasions on the importance of adult literacy 
programmes in stimulating community action to support primary 
education programmes. This awareness had been strengthened by the 
findings of studies that levels of aspiration and achievement 
motivation tended to be low in communities with poor adult literacy 
rates and that there was a positive relationship between the 
educational level of parents and the educational participation of 
their children. 

The Panel felt that community involvement was a "felt need" in 
all countries but that a strategy had yet to be evolved for this 

Equality of educational opportunity 

Use of the mass media 

The negative image of women presented in the mass media and its 
impact on attitudes and aspirations have been a major concern in 
both economically developed and developing countries. Panel members 
noted that studies in India and Pakistan have provided evidence of 
the portrayal of girls and women as weak, passive and dependent or 
'frivolous' in the media in these countries. 

Efforts, however, have been made in recent years in many 
countries to use the media not only to promote more positive atti- 
tudes but also to create consciousness of the need to improve the 
'status' of women. While a beginning has been made in this respect 
in disseminating information relating to educational programmes for 
girls and women through the media, it appefired to the Panel that the 
potential of the mass media as a vehicle for creating community 
awareness has yet to be adequately tapped. 

The role of women's organizations 

Women's organizations were seen to be active in all countries 
and the pancx met several very committed and articulate women who 
were sensitive to the problems of gender and socio-economic 
disparities. Where education was concerned, the All Pakistan Women's 
Association Organization was directly involved in the provision of 
formal educational facilities for girls from primary to further 

On the whole, women's organizations, as elsewhere in the Third 
World, tended to concentrate on literacy-cum- income generating 
skills-cum- family health programmes for adult women - a model that 
has received the patronage of international and bilateral agencies 
but has been found in practice to lack local specificity and 
relevance to the needs of the : jcially and economically disadvantaged. 
In some of the countries, however, grass roots level women's 
organizations do exist and have been successful in activating local 
support for educational programmes. It was agreed by some national 
representatives as well as by some panel members that the recent 
proposal in Nepal to decentralize government funds through districts 
in the periphery was likely to encourage community participation at 
grass roots level and to channel resources to the most disadvantaged. 

While women's organization have a loLe in complementing the 
resources of the state in formal, non-f o '.nal and pre-school educa- 
tion, their most important function is reate awareness in the 
community and to motivate parents to utiiA*i: available facilities. 
Many women leaders whom the Panel met wei'^ -^^Are of the need for 
community-oriented and community bas-id i paigns. The success of 
participatory programmes in Third Woii. pieties has shown that the 
most effective mechanism is to mobilize woinen's groups in dis- 
advantaged communities through facilitators, or change - agents who 
could conscientize them to break through dependent patron - client 




Synthesis of observations and perceptions 

relationships and to operate as a pressure group in the community 
for the provision and utilization of educational facilities and for 
universalization of primary education. 


The interaction of Pan^il members and national representatives 
thus encompassed a wide spectrum of issues that reflects the multi- 
faceted nature of the problem of promoting the education of girls 
in countries where equal access to education has yet to be achieved* 
In the course of this interchange of experiences, policy issues, 
strategies, constraints, supportive structures, community participa- 
tion and the role of women's groups were reviewed in the light of 
needs and problems. 

The Panel felt that considerable ground has to be covered 
before equality of educational opportunity can be achieved in these 
countries. The commitment to promoting equal access of girls to 
education has to be reflected in specific programmes and not merely 
in national plans which tend to set targets that often cannot be 
achieved without adequate supportive measures. These programmes in 
turn need to be articulated in an over-all strategy that concep- 
tualizes equal opportunity in primary education as well as in 
crucial areas of further education so that all women may come out of 
the shadows to a place in the sun. Such a policy orientation also 
pre-supposes effective co-ordination and monitoring of inputs in a 
national framev-^rk instead of the conglomeration of ad hoc programmes 
that are frequently found in economically developing countries 
assisted by external aid programmes and investments. 

Panel members also identified some priorities for the immediate 
future. They could not envisage the provision of adequate facilities 
through the existing formal education system in the next few years. 
Low eni'clment and retention rates despite decades of plans and 
programmes indicate that a frontal attack has to be made in these 
countries through measures of 'positive discrimination' such as 
incentives and part-time and full-time complementary education 
programmes. But it was felt very strongly that there should be a 
proviso that such programmes should provide equal access to further 
education and to a better quality of life. This condition was 
seen as a priority as it appeared to the Panel that resources had 
often tended to be dissipated in the organization of pilot programmes 
which have neither had extensive impact nor conceptual acceptance as 
equal educational opportunity. 

In the context of the experiences of the Region supportive 
mechanisms were perceived to be germane to the task of achieving 
universal primary education. While the recruitment and training of 
teachers, pre-school education, adult literacy and community 
development programmes have been utilized as concomitant strategies, 
the Panel felt that such programmes have yet to be linked integrally 
in the over-all framework of equal access and participation. Each 



Equality of educational opportunity 

of these programmes has to be related to specific problems and 
constraints. Pre-school centres must cater also to the needs of 
families In which girls drop out to look after younger siblings. 
Teacher education, adult literacy and community programmes must 
Incorporate a specific programme component for creating awareness 
of the need to educate girls and for promoting participation 

In the long term, curriculum development and revision In 
school and teacher education Institutions were considered to be 
basic to the promotion of gender equality In the light of the 
operation of the school as an agent of social control through the 
gender relations and attitudes It develops and Its distribution of 
knowledge, allocation of skills and legitimization of credentials. 
This was perceived to be an area in which restructuring and experi- 
mentation are necessary. In curriculum options. In the development 
of new educational materials. In remediation and In the introduction 
of compensatory programmes that may stimulate individual achievement 
and personality development. 

In heterogeneous societies each community has its own problems 
and priorities. Only participatory planning and mobilization of the 
community, and particularly of girls and women were felt to have the 
potential for creating the momentum necessary for the successful 
implementation of programmes for the education of girJs in dis- 
advantaged communities. In all societies educational opportunity 
would be an euphemism unless education improve 'life chances', and 
individual worth and dignity irrespective of gender were conceived 
to be the underpinnings of educational plans and programmes. 

The Panel visits were envisaged in the context of Unesco's role 
as a catalytic agent in promoting the education of girls. It is hoped 
that the insights gained will enrich individual perceptions and 
stimulate the development of national and regional action programmes 
based on concerns for equity and social justice. 




Annex I 


The members of the Regional Panel were: 

Dr. M.N. Haque 

National Institute for Educational Admxnistration 
Extension and Research 
Dhaka, Bangladesh 

Mr. M.M. Kapoor 

Head, Sub-national Systems Unit 

National Institute of Educational Planning 

and Administration 
New Delhi, India 

Mrs. Kamal Rana 
Member, Raj Sabha 
Kathmandu, Nepal 

Dr. (Miss) Iftikhar Hassan 

Dean, Allama Iqbal Open University 

Islamabad, Pakistan 

Mrs. Mina Siaguru 

Commission for Higher Education 
Boroko, Papua New Guinea 

Unesco Secretariat: 

Dr. P.K. Kasaju 

Specialist in Developmental Research in Education 
Unesco, Bangkok 

Dr. Swarna Jayaweera 



Centre for Women's Research (CENWOR) 
Colombo, Sri Lanka 



Annex II 


Bangladesh Mr. Mahmud Aminul Islam - Chairman 

Additional Secretary (Dev.) 
Ministry of Education 

Dr. M.N. Haq 


National Institute for Educational 

Administration Extension and Research 

Dr. Zahirul Islam Bhuiyan 
Primary Education, Dhaka 

Representative of Foundation for Research 
on Educational Planning and 
Development (FREPD) 

Dhaka University 

Mr. A.R. Chowdhury 

Bangladesh National Commission for Unesco 

Mrs. Salma Akhtar 

Assistant Professor 

Institute of Educational Research 

Begum Quazi Halima 
Upazila Education Officer 


Minister of Education 
Ministry of Education 
Government of India 

- Chairman 

*In India there is already a high level committee for promoting the 
education of girls and women. The same committee has been desig- 
nated responsible for the promotion of the education of girls under 
the APEID programme. Other names appearing in this list are 
members of the national study team. 





Shrl Y,N, Chaturvedi 
Joint Secretary 
Ministry of Education 
New Delhi 

Dr, K.N, Hiriyannaiah 
Head, Survey and Data Processing Unit 
National Council for Educational Research 
and Training, New Delhi 

Shri M,M. Kapoor 
Fellow & Head 
Sub-National Systems Unit 
National Institute for Educational 

Planning and Management 
New Delhi 

Shri R,S. Uppal 
Senior Research Officer 
Plan xng Commission 
New Delhi 

'Shri M. Lakshminaryana 
Deputy Secretary 
Ministry of Education 
New Delhi 


Ministry of Education and Culture 

Mrs. Kamal Rana 
Member Raj Sabha 

Dr. B.K. Mallik 

Institute of Education 
Trlbhuwan University 

Dr. Gajendra Man Shrestha 

Research Centre for Educational 
Innovation and Development 

Dr. K.N. Shrestha 
Joint Secretary 

Curriculum, Teaching and Supervision 
Development Centre 


Dr. N.N. Singh 

- Chairman 



Equality of educational opportunity 

Mrs, Chapala Pande 

Under Secretary 

National Planning Commission 

Dr. Shashl Maya Shrestha 
Adviser, Nutrition Cell 
Women's Education Unit 
Ministry of Education and Culture 

Mrs. Neelam Basnet 


Women's Education Unit 

Ministry of Education and Culture 

Dr. Vljaya L. Shrestha 
Sociologist and Consultant 

Pakistan Mr. A.G. Mufti Chairman 

Academy of Educational Planning 
and Management 

Mrs. Sablha Syed 
Women ' s Division 

Dr. (Miss) Iftlkhar Hassan 

Allama Iqbal Open University 

Begum Fateh Khan Bandlal 
President, All Pakistan Women's 


Mrs. M.F. Slddlqul 
Retired Chief 

Educational Planning Division 

Mrs. Shams Abbasl 
Retired Directress 

Curriculum Research and Development Centre 





Dr. Feroze Yasmin 

Consultant (Education) 

Federal Public Services Commission 


Dr, (Miss) Rifaat Rashid 
University of the Punjab 

Directress Schools 
Quetta Division 
Government of Baluchistan 

Miss R.A. Bhatti 
Additional Directress 
Government of NWFP 

Prof, Laeeq Ahmad Khan 

Primary and Non-Formal Education Wing 

Ministry of Education 


Dr. Sarfraz Khawaja 
Senior Specialist 
Academy of Educational Planning 
and Management, Islamabad 

Papua New Guinea Mrs, M, Siaguru - Chairman 

Chairperson Commission for 
Higher Education 

Ms. L. Yeoman 
Co-ordinator of the Study 
Principal Research Officer 
Department of Education 

Ms. M. Brown 
Education Department 
University of Papua New Guinea 

M&- A- Keeling 
Planning Officer 

Papua New Guinea University of Technology 




Equality of educational opportunity 

Dr. L. Kunjbehari 
Project Liaison Officer 
Evaluation Unit 
Department of Education 

Dr. D. More 

Education Research Unit 
University of Papua New Guinea 

Ms. P. Murphy 
Principal Project Officer 
Planning and Research Commission for 
Higher Education 

Ms. A. Piau Lynch 
Principal Psychologist Post 

and Tele-Communications Corporation 

Ms . P . Quartermaine 

Superintendent Curriculum Inspections 
Teacher Education 

Ms. S. Tawaiyole 
Education Research Unit 
University of Papua New Guinea 

Dr. S. Weeks 

Education Research Unit 
University of Papua New Guinea 

Ms. M. Williams 

Executive Officer 

Commission for Higher Education 



Annex III 


Dhaka, Bangladesh 27-30 May 1985 

26-27 May Arrival of Panel members in Dhaka, Bangladesh 

28 May (i) Meeting with the National Steering Committee, 

officials of the Ministry of Education and 
representatives of non-governmental organiza- 
tions at the National Institute of Educational 
Administration, Extension and Research. 

(ii) Meeting with the National Study Team at the 
Foundation for Research on Educational 
Planning for Development. 

(ill) Meeting with the Project Director, Universaliza- 
tion of Primary Education (IDA) Project, 
Unesco Chief Technical Adviser and other project 
personnel . 

29 May Field visit to Savar - to sub-district office and 

Primary School 

30 May (1) Meeting with Director-General, 

Primary Education. 

(ii) Meeting with Secretary, Ministry of Education 
and Culture. 

(ill) Meeting at UNDP Office, Dhaka with Deputy 
Resident Representative, Programme Officer 
(Social Sector) and Unesco Advisers. 

Kathmandu, Nepal 31 May - 2 June 1985 

31 May (i) Field visit 

a) Non-formal part-time primary and 
pre-primary education programme for 
out-of-school girls, Bhelukhel, 

b) Primary Section of Lower Secondary 
School, Bhaktapur 

(ii) Meeting with Hon. Minister of Education and 



Equality of educational opportunity 

(ill) Meeting with Steering Connnittee Including 
Secretary, Ministry of Education, 
Senior Officials of Ministry, University 
and Planning Conanission. 

(iv) Meeting with representatives of the Women's 
Services Co-ordinating Committee and affi- 
liated organizations and institutions. 

(v) Meeting with Chairman, Nepal Women's 

1 June - Official Holiday 

2 June (i) 


Meeting with national study committee at the 
Research Centre for Educational Innovation 
and Development. 

Interviews with media personnel . 

3. Delhi, India 3-6 June 1985 

3 June (i) Meeting - Ministry of Education 

(ii) Meeting - National Council for Educational 
Research and Training 

a) Joint-Director, NCERT and officers 

b) Unit for Special Programmes - Women's 
Educational Unit 

c) Social Services and Humanities Division 

4 June (i) Meeting with Educational Adviser and staff. 

National Planning Commission. 

(ii) Meeting with Director and staff. National 
Institute of Educational Planning and 

5 June (i) Field visit - Bal Bhawan, non-formal 

programme for co-curriculum activities. 

(ii) Meeting with UNICEF staff involved in 
educational programmes. 

(iii) Meeting with Director and staff, Unesco 

Regional Office for Science and Technology 

(iv) Meeting with staff. Department of Social 
Work, Delhi University. 

(v) Field visit to non-formal literacy and skill 
training programme for girls and women under 
Western Yuvak Kandra, Nanglai. 

6 June (i) Meeting with National Study Committee at 

Ministry of Education* 





(ii) Meeting with Policy Planning Division, 

National Council for Educational Research and 
Training . 

Islamabad, Pakistan 7-9 June 1985 

7 June - Official Holiday 

8 June (i) Meeting with Chairman and staff. Literacy and 

Mass Education Commission. 

(ii) Meeting with Vice-Chancellor and senior staff 
of Allama Iqbal Open University and visit to 

(iii) Meeting with Director and staff. National 
Institute of Psychology. 

9 June (i) Meeting with Secretary and high level officials 

Ministry of Education and Culture 

(ii) Meeting with National Steering Committee and 
National Study Committee at the Academy of 
Educational Planning and Management. 

(iii) Meeting with Chief and staff. Primary and 

Non-formal Education Wing of the Ministry of 
Education and adviser and staff IDA Primary 
Education Project. 

(iv) Meeting with media personnel. 

(v) Meeting with Minister of Education and 

representatives of Women's Organizations. 

10 June - Departure 



* Universalizing education: linking formal and non-formal programmes; report. 

* Universalizing education: strategies for development and use^ of instructional 
materials; report. 1979. 

* Universalizing education: selected innovative experiences: new techniques for 
preparing educational personnel. 1980. 

* New personnel profiles in relation to changes in society and educational 
systems. 1980. 

* In-service teacher education: developing innovatory strategies and instructional 
materials; report. 1980. 

* Designing instructional materials for general education and teacher training: a 
portfolio of experiences in Asia and Oceania. 1980. 

* Preparing educational personnel: training methodologies based on locally 
available learning resources; report. 1980. 

* Lmking science education in real -life; curriculum design, development and 
implementation; report. 1980. 

* Towards better health and nutrition; report. 1981. 

* Social changes and new profiles of educational personnel; national studies: 
India, Nepal, Philippines, Republic of Korea. 1981. 

Report of the study group meeting on evaluation and development of inno- 
vative methods of teaching with reference to problems of multiple classes 
and disadvantaged gro ups. 1 981 . 

Integrating subject areas in primary education curriculum-a joint innovative 
project; report. 1982. 

* Distance learning for teacher education; report. 1982 (3 vols.) 

Multiple class teaching and education of disadvantaged groups; national 
studies: India, Sri Lanka, Philippines, Republic of Korea, 1982. 

Learning needs and problems in primary education; report. 1983 (2 vols). 

Training of educational personnel for integrated curriculum; report. 1984. 

Towards universalization of primary education inAsta and the Pacific: country 
studies (of 12 countries) and a regional overview. 1984. 

Mutual co-operation for schools development; some experiences from Asia and 
the Pacific; report. 1985. 

Grass roots networking for primary education; case studies: Thailand, Sri L^inka, 
Philippines, Japan, 1985. 

Out of stock. 



The Asia and Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Develop- 
ment (APEID) has as its primary goal to contribute to the building of national 
capabilities fok undertaking educational innovations linked to the problems of 
national development, thereby improving the quality of life of the people in 
the Member States. 

All project: anH aCtivi'.ies within the framework of APEID are designed, 
developed .,nd implemented co-operatively by the participating Member 
States thrcdj^ over one hundred national centres which they have associated 
for this purpose with APEID. 

The 25 Member States participating in APEID are Afghanistan, Australia. 
Bangladesh, China, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, Lao People's Democra- 
tic Republic, Mala>sia, Maldives. Nepal, New Zealand. Pakistan, Papua New 
Guinea, Philippines. Republic of Korea, Samoa. Singapore, Socialist Republic 
of Vict Nam. Sri Lanka. Thailand. Tonga and 1 urkey. 

Kach countr\ has set up a National Development Group (NDG) to 
idenlif> and support educational innovations for development within the 
countr>' and facilitate exchange between countries. 

Ihc Asian Centre of Educational Innovation for Development (ACEID), 
an integral part of the Uncsco Regional Office for Education in Asia and the 
Pacific in Bangkok, co ordinates the activities under APEID and assists the 
Associated Centres (AC) in carrying them out. 

The programme areas under which the APEID activities are organized 
during the third cycle (1982-1986) are: 

1. Universalization of education: access to education at first level by 
both formal and non>formal means; 

2. Education for promotion of scientific and technological; 
competence and creativity; 

3. Education and work; 

4. Education and rural development; 

5. Educational technology with stress on mass media and low<ost 
instructional materials; 

6. Professional support services and training of educational personnel; 

7. Co-operati\e studies and innovative projects of research and research- 
based experimentation related to educational development.