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I i 


ED 329 500 

SO 030 347 





Geils, Kenneth, Ed. 
Passages From India, Vol. 1. 

Center for International Education (ED), Washington, 
DC; United States Educational Foundation in 

233p.; For related document, see SO 030 346. 
Guides - Classroom Use - Teaching Guides (For 
Teacher) (052) 



MFOI/PCIO Plus Postage. 

^Anthologies; *Cultura.l Education; Educational 
Resources; «For6ign Countries; *Foreign Culture; 
Instructional Materials; Newspapers; Reading 
Materials; Secondary Education; "Social Studies 


This collection of articles from Indian newspapers is 
designed for use in the secondary classroom to assist with the study 
of India. There are 12 categories of articles; (1) Women: Like Avis, 
#2 But Trying Harder; (2) Calcutta: City of Joy; (3) India: Feeling 
Its Curry; (4) Us & Them: Misunderstandings; (5) Those Monsoon 
Showers May Come Your Way; (6) Relx; -ous (In) tolerance: The Babri 
Dispute; (7) caste and Outcast; (8) t'roblems Aplenty; (9) Election 
Year Politics; (10) Isms; Terror, Separat, National.,.; (11) India's 
Herblock., Darcy, Oliphant; and (12) Miscellaneous. (DB) 

Reproductions supplied by EDRS are the best that can be made * 
, ' from the original document. * 





OtiH # ot tdui ar onai n«Marrh and improvam^nt 


^Th,5 document has l»en reproduCIKJ AS 
/ received from the pe'son Of organi/ation 
originating it 

r ^ M.nof changoa have t¥»en made to •mpioye 
reproduction quai<ty 

♦ ^Visr.ts of vieifc or opinion* »!ated-n fhijdocu 
mffnf do nol necesftarily represent oHu lal 

Of Rl position or poiiCv 























- i - J 

Diaring the summer of 89, I txavelled to India with 17 other American high 
school teachers on a f-ulbright-Hays Seminar Grant to study Indian History cmd 
Cultuie. And as a teacher of the Afro-Asian Vtorld (Social Studies 9), now renamed, 
as we have the want to do, Global Sfadies 1, I read, travelled, and studied in all 
the areas of the course except for India. This was to be my jewel in the academic 

Upon acceptance in early April of 1989, the United States Department of Education 
and USEFI (United States Educational Foundation in India), in particular, began inundat- 
inc me with pamphlets, suggested reading !lists, articles, travel tips. This all 
culminated with a 2-plus day orientation program in Washington, D.C. just prior to 
departure. FCiur former Indian Fulbrighters tried to further sensitize us to India 
h/ sharing their thoughts and experiences (slides, music, incense, rotenbrances ) . 
Visits to Indian restaurants and a collective greeting at the Indian Ehtossy capped 
it off. 

D.C. to Delhi is a real "schlep" as thoy say in Yiddish. We arrived at 3 A.M. 
the day after we left - add 9^ hours of time zones (I still don't understand that time 
aberration), 15 hours +/- flight time, and a two-hour layover in Frankfurt, W. Germany. 
As much as I read about India, viewed videos and TV productions, spo)ce to my Indian 
students (Elmont Memorial High School is blessed with a growing population from the Sub- 
Contirxent, and several of my students offered me their orientation program to their 
forme/ hone), listened to, queried, heard from former Fulbrighters - nothing totally 
prepared me for the inmensity of vdiat is India. 

Indira Gandhi International Airport is like and unlike any airport in the world 
be it JFK, O'Hare, or Dulles. Multitudes of humanity at 3 A.M.; a v^irling endless 
movement, but amidst that are people sleeping on the pavement. And, of course, the 
heat and humidity - it is instant (and a constant state of) meltdown. The difference 
between 3 A.M. and 3 P.M. (on that July day) is only a matter of a few degrees and a 
few percentage points; the temperature and humidity race each other tov^ards 100. The 
smell of incense (by the end of the trip my olfactory (or is it old factory) could 
distinguish between jasmine, saffron, etc.) and the smell of urine reached my nostrils 
as we left the airport. 

Yes it's all there - beggars on the streets, public defecation, the occasional 
lepers outside public monuments, the "holy" cows, ladies in saris with their forehead 
dot (bundis), saffron robed religious figures (sadhus) saying prayers, chanting mantras. 
One must not dwell on the negatives or what we have stereotyped India to be. To often 
our media, and we share the guilt by internalizing and accepting thiese short vignettes 
or terse carmentaries as being universal, portray India as a land of beggars with 
iirmense poverty; but there is beauty, wealth, productivity, and industry. Vie look at 
India as India during the Raj, or the Mughal dynasties - that faraway place in a 
faraway time, those be jeweled, bygcne days that mystify and captivate our imaginations. 
In a way India straddles time zones for rrpjch of rural India, village India as Oscar 
Lewis said, lives in an age gone by. 

- ii - 

But the urban India, Bonbay, Delhi, Calcutta are like Paris, D.C., and New York. 

Sf) India stands with one foot in the distant past and another in the 20th 
centur>'. Arranged marriages, dowry deaths, caste obligations, exist side by side 
with Ncbel Prize experiments in light refraction, nuclear technology, and satellites 
being orbited around the earth. 

One measure of a society is to read its daily newspapers; India's newspapers 
range in quality from my favorites (the New York Times and Newsday ) to the lower 
end of the journalistic spectrum (the pap one can scan while waiting at the super- 
market checkout line). Ihere is no lack of choice and more encouraging is that 
there is freedom of the press. There is a vocal, verbal, loyal and otherwise, 
opposition with a full sociopolitical spectrum of viewpoints. As I read the daily 
papers ( Indian Express , The Times of India , The Hindustan Times , The Hindu , The 
Statesman et al), I felt I was beginning to grasp the vitality, the dynamism of 
this wonderful nation. 

Yes, there is poverty aplenty. Yes, it's a land of 500,000 plus villages of 
mud brick homes. Yes marriages are still arranged and some girls are married in 
their early teens - don't harbor on the negative. Sense it, feel it, experience it 
and you'll love it as I did. 

I've collected newspaper articles over the 40 plus days I sojourned on the sub- 
continent. They come from all over - from Srinigar in the Vale of Kashmir to 
the bone v^ite sands of Madras beaches; irom the urbane streets of Bombay to the Ghats 
on the Ganga in Varanasi; from Agra and its marble magnif icance, the Taj Maha^.. to 
Calcutta, the City of Joy, and Mother Teresa, bless her soul. I've di video them into 
several categories with catchy Madison Avenue titles???; and I've added some comments to 
each section including some possible uses for some oH the articles in the classroom. 

Nam aste. 

- iii 


Published from Oafhl and Patna 


Vol LXVI No. 215 Late City Nm Friday August 4 1989 20 Paged 

Ra 1.50 


Indians National Newspaper 

Printed at Madras. Co^mbatore. Bangalore. Hyderabad. Madurai and Gurg#Orv 

New DaM EdMon 


New Delhi: Tuesday, August 1. 1989 




India's largest dally newspaper 


NO. 219 VOL CLII ♦ Rs. 1.30 BOMBAY: TUESDAY, AUGUST 8, 1989 Delhi Ahmedabad Bangalore Lucknow Jaipur Patna 



REG. NO. D.(C) 87 


. , . ^ KS* 1«4 




On my very first night in New Delhi at the Claridges Hotel, I was regaled with 
a wedding ceremony. Hhe groan arrived on horseback decked out in a je.veled turban and 
a cream white suit. He was preceded up the local streets by a marching band fully 
attired in what I saw as disheveled high school band uniforms. Members of the groan's 
family, males mostly, walked on all sides of the groan in a less than military march. 
The musical fanfare was accompanied by a light show of sorts; n^^n carrying sane neon 
lights in a triangular shape (10 of thesn) walked ahead of the band. This gaudy, loyal 
column approached the Claridge at a funeral pace, adding passersby, me included, 
along their route. 

In the hotel the bride's family and female members of the groan's entourage awaited 
the groan's dramtic entrance. The woner wore beautiful saris, each one more beautiful 
than the other - silk mostly w. th sane cotton ones, most sewn with gold or silver 
thread. It was a stunning, beautiful assemblage of stunningly beautiful wonen of all 
ages. This was an ufper-class affair, and although many Indians perceive all Americans 
as affluent, virtually every member of the wedding party could have bought and sold 
this Long Island teacher. The sheer joy that this event produced overflowed on to the 
foreign guests staying at the hotel. Many of my fellow Fulbrighters were invited to 
join in the wedding. So here I am - Chicago Cub t -shirt, a pair of beige khakis and my 
Reeboks - I felt like an outcast albeit a most welcomed one. The bride entered led by 
two flower petal tossing childrem. She wore a beautiful Indian outfit - an overblouse 
and pants - of cream, yellow, beige, and muted red. Flowers in her hair, a large ring 
in her nostril and other jewel accessories added color and enchantment to her presence. 
My eyes looked upon her before her groan caught his first glimpse - so technically I 
saw her first. For, yes, this was an arranged marriage, a traditional one. 

To an American who has sampled the American institution of marriage on more than 
one occasion, and one who believes in it wholeheartedly, I was curious to the pros and 
cons of the "arranged marriage." There are many. Imagine as a teenagers all the pressure 
of dating, wondering if your prince will ever come, etc. - your Indian counterpart 
doesn't have these concerns. He knows his parent will find someone befitting the 
family's status. 

India is not a marital paradise. Wcmen are sill second class citizens but this 
is changing especially among the urban educated (this, however, is a minute percentage 
of the nation's total population). The articles on the following pages indicate some 
of the problems that Indian wcmen face - some uniquely theirs, others quite universal. 

A) Dowry deatJis - yes, they are shocking. You might want to ask youi' students why 
they are; hiappening? V^t does it tell one about socif?ty? If we conplain about 
our mothers-in-law, consider the young Indian bride's plight, 

B) What physical abuse are yourg women in our society subjected to (date rafx?, etc. ) - 
try to make the students see chat the abuse of wonen is not uniquely an Indian 
phenomenon . 

C) The nvitrimonial ads attached here are hysterical. 1-iave the kids read sont^ of 
the guy's ads and some of tl\e ladies. Again what can one learn about a society 
by reading a series of these ads? Tell the students to bring some ads from thc^r 
local papers (iT«rriac,e ads) and cai>are then or have the kids tell you what can 
learned about that society from those ads. 


D) Indian movies - I have an article here about soaked heroines; and^ one could 
cxxtpare our movies to the Indian variety along the lines of using women as lures 
to increase the box office* Have the students bring in movie ads that are 
suggestive r exploitive, 

E) Equal pay for equal work - list a variety of jobs on the board and see if the 
students feel Anew that wcxnen and men have an equal opportunity e.g. pro sports^ 
medicine^ law^ government ♦ Several of the articles included seem to indicate 
that it's an up^iill battle for worsen to break into certain professions, and even 
then get equal pay. 

- 3 - 



M me VEN/NG 

Nbu/s I 

Vol XLV>Wo157Ntw Ptlhl Wtdniday July 8 1>89 75P«iM 12PtgM 



1 .i 



A 21-ycir-old woaum wm 
■triiigM with a rope and 
crcmatid in North-Wcst 
DeUii becaow the could 
not bring saflidait dow*> 

Saioj was strangled with a 
rope by her husband, Sudesh 
Pal, and his sister, Suoita, in 
their house at Jatkod village 
under Kanjhawala police sta- 
tion in the afternoon of June 
23, alleged Mrs Babli, Saroj's 
sister married to Sudesh PaFs 
brother, Shri Pal. She is the 
sole witness to the murder of 
her sister. 

Mrs Babli, who made her 

itatenient to the Punjabi Bagh 
Sub-Diviaonal na^strate, said 
at about 2 p.m. Sudash Pal a^ 
Sunita fotdUy tied a rope 
around Saroj's neck and were 
straagUng her when she rushed 
to. the roooi hearing Saroj 



Sudhes Pal let Saroj go and 
pounced on Babli. Babii, 
according to her statement, 
was kicked and hit with fists 
before being locked up in a 

Soon after, Saroj was 
strangled. There was no one 

ebe in the hooae at diat time. 

Later In the afternoon, 
when an the family memben 
returned home, thiey deckled 
to cremate Saroj . Even the vil« 
Uge ptadhan, Mr Bhagwan, a 
distant relative of the Sudesh 
Pal family, agreed to keep 

Saroj was cremated the 
same afternoon. Her family 
members,, however, were in- 
formed at 8 p.m. only, at least 
five hours after the cremation. 

Mrs Babli and her parents, 
who reported the matter to the 
Punjabi Bagh SDM later, com- 
plained that Sudesh Pal and his 
family had been harassing both 
the sb^rs for not bringing tele- 
vision, fridge and similar dow- 

ry itemc. Mrs Babtt said both 
of them were beaten up reg- 
ularly by their inlaws. 

The magistrate completed 
his uiquiries yesterday and for- 
warded hit report to the local 
polioe tast ni^. 

North- West District police 
chief S. K. Jain said a case of 
murder and harassment was 
registered against Sudesh Pal 
and his family ''his morning. A 
police team had been sent to 
the village for arresting the ac- 

He said Sudesh Pal and 
Sunita are wanted for murder 
while Babli's husband, Shri 
Pal, and his parents are wanted 
for harassment for dowry. 

1 1 

ft was an article in Manushi thai HDnrkcC' ( ii ti,r 
recent debate on dowr>'. ]> womcr.'? rirV * 
equal inheritance the solution to the di)w7> 

Seetha speaks to women activists tr> find on* 

f-^tWD File and Jaita 
m MSawaal. Two learini 
m filmi on • buming 
MM inue — dowry. Lom 
after they were tele- 
ceit, letten continue to pour into 
newijMper offices, expreuinf 
people*! tnguisb and anger at the 

But public ffloumini it an that 
dowiy victims like the Kanpur 
and Paighat listen and Shalini 
Malhotn get. For des|rite legislate 
ive measures and increased 
awareness, the spectre of dowiy 
itiU looms laige over Indian 
women, taldog iu toll of lives 
both after marriage and before. 

But fw how long are women to 
be made sacrificial lamtM at the 
ahar of dowry? What is behind 
this insatiable greed? Who is to 
vanquish the system and where 
does iu weak spot lie? There ire 
no ewy answers to these ques- 
tions. For though women's 
groups realise the complraity of 
the issue -> involving as it does 
. various other aspectt like ftmily 
prestige, the position of women 
in society, attitudes towards mar> 
riage — there has been little 
effbn to study the whys and 
wherefores of the system. The 
causes of dowry, says a Saheli 
woricer. are yet to be identified, 
there are no meaniqgAiI studies 
into the middle daas i«ydie to 
see what makes pe(^ demand 

But now a great dowry debate 
is on. sparked off by an article in 
A/anushi. .Iu editor. Madbu 
Kishwar, noted that a pledge 
uken in the early 1980s not to 
attend any oowry weddings in 
' the hopt that this would build up 
pressure within ftmilies and 
communities against the practice 
did not have the desired effect 
"Most young women for whose 
benefit we vvish to 'abolish' 

dowry are not willing to give up 
dowry." The thrust ?f Kishwar's 
argument was that women's ri^t 
to equal inheritance and equal 
control over property must be 
translated from paper law into 
concrete ftct to effect any mean- 
ingful change in their status. Till 
then, merely calling for abolition 
of dowry- will make no difference 
cither to the practice orto 
the powerless status of women as 
daughten and wivei 

Kishwar has a point but it's 
not a new one. The awareness 
that dowry has to be tackled from 
various frontt was there at the 
time the anti-dowry movement 
was at itt peak in the early and 
mid-'iOs. The movement started 
off when in the late '70s a huge 
number of married women were 
either murdered or committed 
suicide due to dowry-related 


The attack on the system was 
three-pronged, uys Ranjana 
Kumari* vice-president of the 
Mahila Dakshita Samitl The 
press highlighted such cases. 
Pramita Dnndavate moved a bill 
in Parliament seeking an amend- 
ment to the Dowry Prohibition 
Act, 1961. This was later 
withdrawn in fiivour of an of- 
fida! bill. And five m$joT na- 
tional women's groups ~ the All* 
India Women's Conference, 
Maliila Dakivhitt Samiti, Na- 
tional Fedenttion of Indian 
Women* YWCA, and Janwadi 
Mahila Samiti ~ got together to 
form the Dahej Virodhi Chetna 
Manch. A number of other or* 
ganiutions ^ women's groups 
like Saheli and Karmika, the 
CttiUt for Womeo'i Develop- 

, ment Siudies and student bodies 
^ also joined in. 

The Manch took up a wide 
range of issues besides changes in 
laws ^ equal inheritance nghts, 
rttistration of marriages and all 
gifts given at the time of mar- 
riage, fiimily courtt, legal aid and 
employment opportunities. The 
consistent pressure and a 
massive rally at the Boat Dub in 
1982 culminated in the Do^t> 
Prohibition (Amendment) Act 
being passed. 

But the practice has not even 
been dented. Rather* over the 
years it has spread — to com- 
munities and regions which were 
not practising it earlier and 
intensified among communities 
which were practising it. 

Will equal inheritance rights 
make a difference? Many believe 
it will — to an extent For dowry* 
quite often, is seen as pre- 
mortem inheritance ie in- 
heritance before death. People, 
Saheli volunteers say, often give 
dowry instead of giving a share in 
property. This is one of the 
reasons why giris themselves are 
not willing to foigo dowry, even 
as a matter of principle. 

But there are basic differences, 
not the least that one comes into 
an inheritance only after a 
parent's death, which may well 
be 20 to 2S years after marriage. 
Dowry, on the other hand, caters 
to the immediate needs of the in- 
laws for cash and luxury goods. 

In a paper on **Women and 
Land Righu in India^ in the 
Journal of Peasant Studies. Bina 
Agarwal of the Institute of Econ- 
omic Growth lisu .five diA 
ferenoes between dowry and in- 

The quantum of dowry has no 
relation to the shares of^ sons in 
anoestial property. While the 
tons' shares are fixed, the 
amount of dowr>' depends on a 
raoge of fiictors such as the econ- 
omic situation of tne family, the 
affluence and qualifications of a 
poom and the social status of his 
fiunily, the attractiveness of the 
bride, the marriage alliance., con- 
tracted by her sisten. 
^Mielber o? not dowrv is aivcn 

^depends oa the diacietiM of the 
'^pArmu tffotben: vnlike in- 
\ kcnunoe. it daftotbt demandad 

' DoMy is not often in • 
wonuui't ooBtioL 

Dowry it dmoet ahwyria ihe 
! form of movaUee, it WW evM 10 
;i9 vfdijp dam. . , 
; Dowry ii aoi • univerMl ptte* 

beoooK a naHty, it wOi nake a 
deat ia dowiyria wpportoT^ 
aiiuBMBt, Ihe points out that ia 
dommttaitias wkm women have 
aooal iahaiitaaee rights, dowry 
doesa^ eniit> 

* Then are others llhe Urvaihi 
ButaUa of KaB ftr Women, the 
ftminist publiJiiai house, who 
Ael 4owfy and Unheritaaee 
should apt be Hatodapait fteni 
tta ftM ttat'^lnheiitaaes la an 
Issue on^ tor a vsqr snaB |ra«p. 
Thqrars i swo a sps ffis isswasigy 
*tlwtif«4uali)Mtano|it|hts aeeipiiaifhellnkwaaiahalpiai 

tioe evea 
^aroups nor is its 
; Ihrm across tbt sonatiy. 

j Yet Bins Ailrwal anflc^ates' 
1 •that if aoiial iaheritaafit riahti 

dowry 10 ooatinue. We Aoold 
tty women should have «qnal 
rights to inheritaaee. And 
women Aould not be bpught or 

In aay case dowiv has become 
a asarnaie fitual In itself and 
aiils* parents see their status and 
hoaoir as being involvad. So 
unlew -'■ Updfy eeaOy oaaaot 
afford to give both, 4owry will 
continue. And dt»wry win con- 
limie to remain an ii«tte fer those 
with no prc^perty. few example, 
auM inHi**f dass Huniliee nly 

W^^^^FV m^^W^^^^^^^W ^^^^^^^^ ^^^m ^^^^^^^^^ 

have one house «vfeich, it is 
assumed, will no to tte eon, 
-im sa^4 and dona, OQoal in* 
henianoe rights by themselves 
wffl net ensure that woown have 
arsatar control over Ihdr assets. 
Urvashi ButiUa points out that 
there are hundreds of women 
«Ao give 19 pnmany vohin* 
tarfly. Besides nthen and 
brottien are themielvcs sverse to 
squal inheritance rfghtt as they 
mr a divisioa of property. Given 
dl this, how do eqou iaberitanoe 
fl^ts make a dife rence? 
This is not to aigue against 

K ting Mjual inheritance ri^tt. 
dmrly, something nuxt is 

'The ltd Issue,** says Bina 
*is how toensure that 
Bve with dignity and 
lence,.bow their baifiin* 
itg . positiOB ' caa be 
streogmened.** What they need, 
iMCoidiai Whar, ^ economic 
and pqUBcd io^Miment** 

omic tadcyendenca, ^^A^flhe 
nfaitimiun job opportunities. **A 
Jdb b Ii souios or great percooal 
strsoflh,*' say SaheB vMunteers. 
But |his view ignores *he Ihct that 
'meet wooMa woric oefy to ac- 
cumulate their dowries and that 
Ihey have no eontrol'over their 
sslaries — either ia their parental 
or marital hoas0. 

So what becomes essential is 
giving womea a greater eay in 
decUoos alMag Ihsir livee. 
Bight now they have none, even 
in au^ ferwosl matters «s 
dreai^ la cxireme tneesw **! have 
seen bulbands buying bras 
tteir wives Fhile the women 
^ stood in n comer,** eidaims a 
'•Sthdi veluateer, .*nniat is raDy 
; the pits.** 
' f4o wonder then that women 
thcmidvcs do not take a eund 

- 6 - 


^'^il&t tfowiy. FtfrUMir epiaioB 'irtib ««lki out of W 0m|2 

IP their trounmn. la ftct, SibeU 
volttBtMn M H ii *«uctl to 
|htak oTiifto lelMi^ dowiy. It li 
^ i^mioed la IhMB.** 

MP oomaiB to reftiM tQ |o ahead 
whh a to-tM "dowry Bar- 
ijlaie**. SihcU came aoraM cm 
locfa eaie lomc yaan badu The 
pareatt kicked ap a h<| ibn 
talkii^ about bMt» the gtaTs 
Ibtaia aurriaie jroepecti aad 

^•niate aad womfa become 
MBportaaL Biaa A|vwd feds It 

tnty Importaat Ibr a lo 
vea cho&K ia aaaniaae.Si)iata 

As loai as fiili wndaup Id baZ 
«ea as a wrdea, aot fmC 
laaacial,th^ «ffl eotllaaa late: 
MM alTio those a ccMid 
b ride^bttrB fa^caeei>TMiiai»lai: 

case, lays Ml MadhoL H 
band bad beea ifmk a 
seateace by the trial eoan, bat' 
was aoqnhted by tiM DilU;U|h 
cbuft aad was ftwd. After m 

Mkteacad M« la aft 

' faeaot but the e e atea ee was aol 

whlk. tte Bpa laounled tad 
'had a ckOdby Us leeaad wift. a: 
Sihett vohiataer aanaied a dflii-: 

Over the years the pnctice of dowry has spread 
to communities and rei^Ions where it wasn*t 
prevalent t>efure. Will equal inheritance fights 
make a difference? Many believe It will — to an 
extent. For dowry, quite often. Is seen as pre^ 
inortem, le inheritance before death. People, 
say wor ten's activists, often give dowry Instead 
of giving a share in property. This Is one of 
fht reasons why girls themselves are not ' * 
willing tci forgo dowry, even as a jinatter of ' 
:0rinciple. ■ 

Asia, later Jheti Serviee. ftels 


(d^Xfib'^iway widi tte 
itvtioe nhaaped aaar* 
*''As loai as marrii^ is a 
tioa between two ftiHiBet 
the deterraioiai flMlor is 
la^edive fiaanoal status 
aot the iadividuali, dowiy 
frilf stay. If a maa is seea as 
tddflg a liability a««y ftom the 
larents, he hu to be ooai- 
lensatad for the buidea he is 

Till ittch time M society's at* aider lo cha^»' 

fldl «rihe Jills ana 
Mfltm. Aad ftr iliis. lirts 
wiD bawB la chaaie ttair per« 
oeptioas about themsetvas. They, 
have 10 use their educatioB 4o 
"fight fbr CQual iaheritaaQe**,ae>. 
ooKUoi lottmi Agsrwal aa^aot,- 
as a Sahdi vbluateer puts it, *te 
fee how I caa ftt a httAaad.*M)B 
Ihb end, has aMIad 

Vltimaiely, W.vidudb ^fiW * 
10 Hihti lay Sahe'i voluateeiVtia^ 
lo'chaqftt aodsty. Ifo. 

win not be able 10 take aa 

*tht pwisur e oa a.gU try |it 
* married aad it^ Aarrieil is a 
*^u^ ftcter la her aineiig la 
take a dowry aloos aad pottiat 
IV with hartismeaL rareats 
' Vtemaelves are aot wilHotto five 
.|ycn moral fupDMtJo.a womaa 

amoiiat ef teiWaC^ or < 
lioael support ftom lha | 
Bseat is foiat 10 help ift 
dojot put thiir lbot'do<ii«,trii, 
kkVkt thoMtag Utmrn-^r 
«evf aad the deep blue ma 
ooe has to see imia araafir Mtf>'' 
foepeo llei And ope has to Mae 
lodety to aooord icipeei la aj 
#omaBii1b» has the eouriie lo 

- 7 - 


922 women burnt to death 


ORE thm 922 
bunit to dmth ta IMS 
the Uk Sibte wa$ 



In a writtes reply to Plot K V. 
Tbomat, the mmitlcr oT ilrte for 
kome afVun. Mr P. Chidainbwwi, 
mid downr oipUbitioii Act, 1961 
«K ameaded m 19t4 aad 1916 to 
a^Ake tile law mo0^ ttrii^ntt. Tbe 
'Mian Pmal Code, the Quniaal 
.Prooeduit Codc^ 1 973 and the ladiaB 
£vidam Act, 1172 have abo ban 
.amended to deal eflactiveiy not only 
with dowry death oaica but alio with 
caiei of cnidty to named women. 

CIVIL SEBVICIS: In the civil 
•ervioe exa^inationt latf year, the 
women was 

16 per cent, againit 146 per cent in 
1987. the mimiter told Mr Vyay N. 
nitil, report etenciet. 

179 dowry deaths 
in State 

Delhi* Jaly 20 (UNlit 

Maharashtra registered the largest 
number of dowry deaths in the 
country during 1988, followed by 
Kamataka and Madhya Pradesh. 
Minister of State for Personnel P. 
Chidambaram told the Rajya 
Sabba on Thursday. 

In a written reply, be said 
Maharashtra reported 294 dowry 
deaths, Kamataka 179 and 
Madhya Pradesh 135. 

Ykt another dowry 
dj^ath in Capital 

ay A 

new: DELHI, Au9M 7 : 

THERE was yet another dowry 
d<ath in the apital last week, 
when.22*year-old Vimlesh met with 
a tragit and horrible end at the hands 
of her in-laws at their house in the 
Morefvai Railway colony ia north 
Delhi* : 

Vindeih died of bums al the 
Jayapirakash Narayan hospital on 
~ Friday. Hn her dying statement, she 
said tnd her in-laws had set her on 
fire, and that they had l>eeo torturing 

her since her marriage two^and-a- 
half-years ago. Their demands were 
specific give us the houses Ixlonging 
to your brothers in Vikaspuri and in 
Dilshad Gardens. Five oTher in-laws 
were arrested, but her ftther-in-law, 
Nahar Singh, a railway employee 
escaped, arid was still atMoonding. 

Vimlesh came from Anand Partiat, 
in Central Delhi, where she lived 
with her widowed mother and six 
brothers. She married Vinod, a 28- 
year-old businessman in early 1987. 
She had two daughters, 18-month- 

SM Kanchaa, and a four-month-old 

Her fhmily alleged that she was 
tegularly beaten up. She was ofU«. 
hnt hungry for days, and her in-laws 
refused to let lier use the phone or 
lu * bfothets. 

Last Wednesday, she was beaten up 
before she was set on fire, according 
to her ftmily. She sustained 100 per 
cent bums. She was taken to hospiul 
where she suocunibed to her bums. 

A case of murder was negisterDd, 
and a manhunt biunched for Nahar 

In another case, Kanta 25, of Old 
Seemapuri, was found severely burnt 
in her house on Sunday. She was 
mshcd to Gum Tcgh Bahadur hospi- 
tal, were she was referred to Lok 
Nayak Jayaprakash Narsyan hospi- 
tal, but she succumbed to her bums. 

While the police were investipttng. 
Kanta*s brother lodged a complaint 
saying that she had been continually 
harassed by her mother-in*law« 
Munni Devi, and her tirother-in-law, 
Ram Kishore. Tlie police arrested the 
two accused. 

- 8 - 

; Item B mmmmt A foing 
kouewOe of Raj^inaitf kM con- 
ID the Subnunanynapr 
her hoiteDd 

rR%liai abo lOefBd that 
%n boAod. V.N. Murthv. and hu 
>dier, Mw are poatenioB of her 
*r»dkiy nmth «m Rs oae lakh, 
«iwe diMppeared frcND thdr koHe. 
"Ske nnpected diat diey atifbt be 
ildftiiif Bouws to esc^w boo bcisi 

^SC^aid *e nanied Mutlkf ia 

::itt4. After a year. Murtbi 
Hitker tepoctedly itarted 6 
Mrs NaHni to bruu Rs :jO.O0O noie 
'>«om ker paraits. They abo deaaaa- 
ded tkat a rite wkkk was ki ker 
aame. tkdidd be tiainfened lo ber 

'inisband'i naae.* " ^ ^ 

She bas aho alleted tfiat before 
- ike maniafe her huMNUtd ooDoealed 
tke bet that he was an c])ileptic pa- 
;«ieat Ike poUoe are iovestigatiDg. 

Atrocities 'on women 
oniisein Bihar 

The Timet of lodia Newt Servke 
PATNA, July 20; 

ATKOCmES on women in 
Bihar «re on the rise. Accord- 
ing 10 the state government's report, 
76 cases of rape, 74 cases of kidnap* 
Ding, 95 cases of outraging modesty, 
22 dowry-related murders and IS 
cases of bride burning have been 
registered this year. The ofCdal sta- 
ttstKs further reveak that during last 
five years as many as 994 women 
were murdered because of dowry 
disputes and another 516 brides 
were burnt to death. 

The same period saw the registra- 
tion of 2,421 cases of rape and of 
these just one year that is 1986 wit- 
nessed 691 cases of ra^. 

The period 1983-87 also, reg- 
istered a significant rise in the num- 
ber of kidnapping cases. Of 1,874 
*Gttes filed as manv as 442 cases were 
legislered in 1987 ak>nc, making it 
the ^year of kidnapping/* But 1988 
saw a uemendous iqHurge in police 
atrocities on women. While official 
iUtistics were silent, the news pap- 
ers were filled with stories of police 
atrodties on women with the Para- 
ria case hitting the headlines all over 
the country. 

In fact the year ended with the 
Papri Bose Roy kidnapping case of 
Bhagalpur in which the state gov- 
cniment did everything possible to 
protect the criminals who were re- 
rfponsable for the outrage. 

The cttizeos oi Bhagalpur took to 
%e streets and for one whole week 
;tbe dty was paralysed. Social activ- 

ists commented that 1988 could best 
be described as the year of ''police 
atrocities on women.** 

According to the 1981 census 
Bihar's population was 6.98 crores. 
Of this, women numbered .1.39 
acres and men numbered 3.58 
crores. While population wise there 
was abnost a parity, the literacy rate 
for men at 37.78 per cent was double 


• 9 - 



A fraud mnM mial 


t*r^ • local ■oWerf" 

f 1 

^^"^^ ""^ pe««tt. Mr 
Mr Mm aod Mr lUiuevak 
.•■rQn, mat arretted in a dawn nud. 

ZS^^^^,!^^^^^'''^^^ Mr Yadav 
aad Mr Pbtwl Sii^gh tried to bribe the 

. 2 5!?? ■equit- 

«aiafraii(|ied.MrBHIeeSiMli,MB. "^mpMkir. Already u 
MpradhwaadMrftaatli'iritltt ^^>ffi«rrehBeiiOfet 

. . *«w "aB, 'lad Mr Pfmr sSi Ibey eveotadiy 

pnMraw ita •«*h«3eam«||«. were plaoedin •■^^«*Wiin|ly. ah five were 
awJ j»e«« *yroripeciala^ * ■"«f«' •» ca« 

?59»w <i «^ gji*^ tor, fanaoded lier wilk • Mr Bijiee 

2 flptoiU 

2 ^maaBarlaiaiyfinu' 
^ herafSrirdeirwaf' ' 

i— «-*e«ikik*«a|e wiA 

J«« coorideraNe 
fcurtiMid^ Mr 


a. S^^^t^tfteprinchaie^Mbit JwfcL i;ii;^L7:»J":r ^'^'T' 

Mr AB Ran was cottloMd fa iW ^ Awk* aad tiwnMs Tte zzJ"* mtitated a leardi for the 

----^'^^ f-powerbiliedBtbaA!^^ 

Mrad people were jmotvediatte SLSSLf^ * ^ 

. ™-- „ «> .l»w»e*«i. Ml Samar^ was mmeA '3^^ "* unrealistic. 

^ may tyeaivn^^Tmoi Sf*. fclhii il afoot ifce 2iif J*" «» »yfnp»thy for the 

*e««ple bcmoTJkWS tWrnioataSheofteaWloffKir 
^ ^'■Nr. Hokedby MrVadav ^ (be iDdignHy of be^ KT.^?!!^ *^ " (vcpared 

«n«i»edHvdiMj,.lB; iL5*J» "Sirt «»«J«<«»«o«ofil«vj^J3 E^^^-^eh-ve made iiMfc for 

l«esalifapedtepUdk/ft«oediire ' ' » . «*J^ ""V «w ft«siBd to aocept the fact thai 

.todeed,3; iS 

. . MrSvlal5ff2S.!ri.t^S?lJf^^ SfP?« ilrinifeilures 

itkejioiytoaOoStoJSSStZ''^^ te^tfttmr ' - r . . J!«5*f«V«Vli«K«t^ 

-.•--i_-.i'''5?T«»"?ygP2^ H*««nk«P»«tytawtahbcire 

,--«rSaldMrSii^:HW;»S£^^^ SSLff ^SLJIS r22?«.??*»' '«> «5 »»»^ 

fe-^ be the •iStWwS ESSJXS^ TShJ^ SnJS^ premiie: oo bride 

>«rt«*i (*ow). *odkaJv^ ITSSLT'J!^?"*' wonplace caie of rape. Periodic 

■*r Slff\5^J^.rS!?^ Aii(r«.yway.the 


- «pt know ^ . all aetioai imme^SS^ieZ Sf!? «««>»««t He TSeaed 

{NMviti^SoSttfl^^;^ iltbe Dittid Boai?% 

toow, ber •bp|^*ar5 ?f JTi?."* *• 2Lh?«2SSL?? >? »^ 

»«lM«lbodi>lh^ *ea fttgm 'me^bomia^ iSE^'S^^^ 


J^^^ ^ iSeSedbwIi iSfilt <beo beni «r abonriMlife JLIzr — 

y«**»ceti.«a»yo«e.lldi,^^ 2?2!f- *^ 

/ SSS!^*''''^**^*''*^ «be 
/a«0Be«tee«\Ae«afcafc3f"5* ' • 

^ **.^S^pe- B« *e oouuSm 'hiJifS?"*"***" comtabiilaiy thea 

'^■^ * '^-'^ "I i J 1 1 Bi^3!r^ ^ * "yon filed ^ die 

bjplw And aoywajf. the gravitv < 
w* ajroteiqoe crime cannot' be 
evaluated by conventional sundards 


- 10 - 

Rush for marriage solemnity 

OURUVAYUR fKenia). July 16 <be purpoie. Amnm^ ni m^AmmA ^ ^ mmn 

accepted OKtonm Kerala, twt the auspidous tine. Weddinp can U meot Corporation (KSRTC). urhich 

pfide of place |oes to the Guruvayur held any time between 5 am and 17.3^ has two hotels near the temple, 

temple where between SO and 100 pm, end between 4.3Q pm and 8.30 undertakes to a maximum of ten 

maniafea are aolmenised almoet cv* po. Hie preference is fenerally for feasts a day. 

maqy as 172 couples tied the knot in Due to the rush and the linuted vayur are *«n fuffibnent of vows taken 

JboQt of this temple, perhaps the only number of mandapams, each couple is by pareox 

flace in the counuy where such a allowed barely seven minutes for the The boom is f«rtly attributed to the 

larfc munber of marriages are solme* weddini ceremony. After foiag increasiAg number of love marriates 

wisad every day,** said an official of qtiicUy through the rituak. indudtng and inicr-cast'; marriages. Non-Hin* 

Ibe Guruvayur Devaswom which ivingofthali, the couple has to vacate dus, however, are not permitted to 

administets me temple.. tbemandapamfortbenextintheli^ie. ^ *Mandapam\ 

Genenlly, *Hindu marriages are A fee of Rs. SO is collected by the M Jayalees working in the Gulf 

'taboo in the Malayalam months of devaswom for the services of a priest countries prefer to have their mar- 

llitbunam* *iUrfcatakam*, and 'Kan- and for the provisioo of the traditional riages conducted in Guruvayur as 

■T* But months make no d^fference in instrumental music of cbenda and they could perform the oeremooy oi^ 

Guruvayur as maniages taking place aadaswaram. any dav they like, 
even dimng these months, are jDosdy The temple has no fadCty for the 

of Gulf Maiayalees faced with time registratioo of the marriages, but this Unlike other temples, there is no 

ooostraifitr could be done at the office of the particular festival season or special 

Until ten years marriages were Gumrvayvr township. religious occaskm for this tonple. 

held inside the tei^4e. near the mI- Sinoe the seven giinutes is too There is an uoccastQg Bow of de* 

^ fl^HDatt, but when die oumber huMlequate time for some, specially voteesinto die sacred abode of Lord 
Increased, fim veme was shifted to the Brahmim, the remaining rituak Krishna throughout the year, 

jiie outsidr, oo the eastern gate-side are p erform ed in nearby 'satraam* (a Ibe r >euue ooBe ct ioo of the tem* 

vheie two maudaoama were Duilt for bdg^ pboe) after die formal est- .pk is limrt Ra. 22 lakh a aoodi. 



- 11 - 





A PQiGNAJiT sidelii^ht on the thatin nrikin^contrastt a rural 
plight of Chinese students, entrepreneur ui the same reg* 
whose agitation in Bemng was ion who advertised in the 
so brutaUy suppressed, is pro- Shanghai newspaper, Xinmin 
vided by a report which sug- Wanbao, for a bride, specific* J* 
gests that not only can edu* ly mentioning that he was 
cated young men in China not looking for a Shanghai spouse 
look forward to a good job and and not a rural one, receive a 
a prosperous fiJture but, as a flood of replies, a number of 
corollary, they cannot even them from college^ucated 
hope for a suitable bride. They young women, including some 
seem indeed to rank dismay- who were doctors or engineers 
ingly low in the marriage mar- or teachers, 
ket, with nubile young women The clue to this astonishing 
quite plainly spuming them. A response lav, perhaps, in the 
college student who advertised man*s careful drafting of the 
fcr a wife in his local newspap- advertisement, mentioning 
er, the Zhejiang Workers' that he had his own enterprise, 
News, is said to have been told earned a substantial income, 
by a woman, in cruelly strong and had a large house in his 
terms, that pen-wielders Uke native village as well as an 
him were nothing less than apartment m Shanghai. Evi- 
.fools or beggars and that they dently intrigued by that re- 
took the prize for being behind sponse, the Bering Review is 
the times. For, leammg, she said to have conducted a sur* 
told him, was not food on t|ie vey of the respondents to the 
table, ideas were not monev to second advertisement and 
spend, and people like him reached the conclusion that 
could only hope to marry 50- the young women were at- 
year«old housewives. She then tracted by the rural entrep* 
advised him that if he still de* reneur's sturdy independence 
cided to many he should not and success, and, indeed, that 
send his children to school : they preferred his kind to stu- 
^Five years of primary school dents or academics who were 
are enough, nowadavs. Every condemned to low wages and 
one uses calculators. It is, of poor living conditions. That 
course, possible that some finding must have been 
overwhelming personal fmst- parUcularly galling to young 
ration lay behind that wither- ^en generaUy in China. The 

woman was merely taking it Tifnwvmen Square, who were 
out on the hapless young man, «"d to be clamounng for 
but there was also, very clear- greater democracy, may also 
ly, much truth in what she have been propelled by rising 
wrote. For the report also says despair over their bleak future. 

- 12 - 





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- 13 - 





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MinoM MtoMiOOr.TMiOllndto. 
iMvMM. ^f CM MI ) 

lAMforAu NwMto a / ta oMi. vonr m 

pod M>>gj^o> gry ^ botle fli 1400^ 

protoriMy Mutfytog M%ino UBA tor 4 
Ivo oonvini iducoM t1 / i p gMCM iny- 
noor g|rt fopuMd AiliMhin tomOy WMM Boi 
404a. tMi of Mto. Now DOilUl 


in0M BOvn 

oyio. bM^ ^ to to »ir iftiPMio / 
ptoOiO tantiy Robing tor fHrMMMi / 
qytfM / iolM nMi. WrlM Bn U r~ 
TiMoo of inoio. BoMboy-4BB00l. 

IBVPW 170001 

RANYAKUBJ BribM M yooro HA. 
booaiU OKpvt to houiihoto ifliir ^ r Ai 
•lAabto mM) WrtM Boi 40407. TMi or to«i. 
Now OaM. fCOOOOl) 

/ ia oomo 

40404. TiMOi of MtfM. NOW Do0lh2 


MVASniA MM tor a / ai MA BA 

wm oon^mw Doompvn oow vom 
roipiOMbli kifiiVw tomBi aitoi Boo 40410. 
TMi Of todtt. Npv CMM. 

KAYAOTHA MoMoi owM «f 
tar prMhp a / ia ^ modNM OMI P.^ I 
bMO MA g|Wi €M<0. 

BMto Boi 4004, Tbnoi of todto. Oon^l- 


ilATCM tor ^M^M Mllfl a fffiL 

Muctont Pb.O invnurtotogy BfiTvnpt girl. 

TknM or Ma. Mm 0M»« 

OMTCH tor Bonga MyiiBa BiM |D| 

ia / a girt BroM 9kMM\ Army 0(Mr 
Mi BoK 40070. TMi or Mi. Niw OlOi-O 



^ a / ia M li tob I 

ind odopt In a boimftoM cfvioi 


ia / 8000^* B Oc 

BorM. rofiM MM Oootor M pNM boy 
iir>rtng In NorOt todN Botowa 
Bev iOTOOTB. TbiMi or OKii. IM DiO^l. 

. Bisini Koyoitk. iMM MOM OiOiL 
roM Mod fOConOyM i O MIBmvM. 
Cm% dooonf fflM^toQi No bMi Qonoaond 
M 40471. Ttowo of Mi. M^DONg^. 

HATCH M ^ gM <Mti^ 00/1M 
MM (StoM biouOM tob M ara Bob 
40300. Tbnoi or todto, M Oa»4 fCOMOto 
HATCH tor RpyM BrtiioiM g M 00^ / 
ia produoto ModkM oomptoidon biiMlbd 
boMr FoM foirt pon M Mf. UnM Mi 
ono oMoMi to ONBC. CM no M. no dowy 
CMiy M abnpto wMitoQi bm Bo* 40ao. 
Tbnoi or todto. Htm OotohO. V^rm 
HATCH tor BHpM #4 01 / 

^^Mft. NO. imon mm 

if tog^ Biipul iMM to UP pM 
^ M iSTtOFB, TMi or todto. Nov 

H^AjMi or doing poM gTKluoOon tor fUonoori 
BMrT.TMi.#toMo.MMM (C00711| Jt^StSTiiin^^^ 

#rt a / ia ^ 

HATCH tor BM HyM #1 a, 'OB 
bOiuOM itoi BBo. MA ^f%f4h^ botoi^ M 

■looM 00-a 

tor* otioor / C A / CxoouM / e^^TMM a M 
^ Mil omptoyod eon too^i ^b doufM of 
iputidDoelarorSoirthDotft tfMBoiiOOa. 
bnoi of MK. Now Ooii^ fdMotpL 

OBn dotog Mimihto diMQ^iMr or liidng < 
^iOn bom ^^ry roipodOUi tonBy 
M IrMM to Boa 4aa. Tbnoi or bMto. 


ayOMi WnMloB(»No.aoa-B.YMiof 
todto, Buiiijii lOOai aYDBliaOB 

M 40000. TMi of MM M 

j^jy My B M iiiM #ito MM 

b«a conMM toiiii^Mi oa a A a 


tar tMMJOM P^^M 

gbi to.Be:. B.i0 fTH / ia / iM cmm 


to toMd tor 

Boy Maa 

I grt a UOA cMn AnMMi 
OftMrapiMon ^TBduoM 
bofi i flood Doiv voi 
% to p^ Gor^oopond vat 
ato toM wa photomdi M pMooMn m 
Mb toM MMai Or. Bi| QM 101^70 


B 8c NMOi a / ia M M> . IX.B Ma 
1B7 Omy BynN Byod BNM 

r / ia tob boouOM BBo. 
MM Chom OMhMn Ml ta H 
tiB-Hl. Tboii or todto. B o ii ^wi aoa i . 


fABBNTB MNo oorroOMoO frooi 
to UBA / CinM / bM tor 
tool ongmoM. diu^nv a / ia 
I CinM MM to M too 1^1$ Ta 
TM'« of IndlO. LoeinO»*22000l 

r ANBfTl oM TM IpM |i i 

^ a Norv^AOoyi bM / VMA t 

a / ia 

toi HofOi o opi tomlf diM to ta h oa-^8. 
Tbnoi dif todto. BofMy-aOOOl (AMiai) 
FABBHTB iOltlod li NBA livlto 

I doiOori on^. fnuM ipoa pood 1 
loody to iotlto N U8A iMr a tor Oiir US torn 
M on ditf^ oir « <>ory M 4 b oo>MI procic- 
tog oCto^noy wO^ pioiiirvt idu c oftor^ bici- 

M diM to ta 400a. Ttolio of todd M 
00044 (M174)SC 

_ aronto riildtog U.O.A. 
mobtoiortof oBonpt tor tfwi booMOM 

1MB a / ia Ml orfy KihoMyi Noput 

7. Tbnoi of bM. Now Ooi^^S. 

■0 AfoM HMM biyi BUA) 
a pfOto iM onti ina A^BA) a / ia BM 
CliOokiWipvn. lag. Mmbw Colony. Mot Arv 
Migir. MOM a (AMIOOi) 

NO pood tooMng wM QuiRid yoi^tg moP aiOw 
a. to UBA tor MP M. ia m m good 
toobi^ Htadu 00. bofn ^Mry roipoAHM 
IMr or BtoM OomptoOng aiO m UBA 
BM ta H OOA-4* TbOM or bM. Bom- 

bprdooool lAMioiT) , 

OUAUnn MM a tw ion 00 - a yoori 
oroa^BonpMBoMyiMwiPMCom 0n 
ta M Oa--4. TMi or todto. Bom. . 

a a^MM^M? M^MP^Qo? 

ao flto Houii»ob Ou:ary fM ' 
m. Bob 404a. TMi M Mdto. 
IM0li»4 MOT) 

a poM groduMi biOKrtM fit ooMid gonviM 
OdMid 1^ bMd ta 40608. T^fWi M Mi 
NPwOoB^. (A049toOt^ 

1^ AT / ia M a / ia ooto pom 

MA boM Mi ta asOl 


TMi MMto. M Ooii^ (C45aiOC 


AmO oaocttvo y#iing loobMg 

groduitotoirMtfo rrtncD apto^ ^Oldw ^ 04 
/ Ta iiibi ffwa^ bom Ano onitiid ooyi 
BM ta 40Sa. TtoiM Of Ma. M CM^ 


See Pag^ 4 


- 14 - 





HUinmL wnvi flirt fof Ufw pot y d m ^i 
Eltctneat Ci«t»-i M»way Omor r / 166 / 

AQA'wti mftle^ for eho^trntf aoopuntvit M / 
170 om boioogt tc — t a bnthod buf*w» 
fifn»y of UioKnow Oirf mir oontidtnHiOf^ MAd 
M dOtUH frOl tntt*no« Wnt* Boi Nc L 4$32. 
Timot Of Mtt. LuQknow-l (NTLSl«38S) 
•INOAtl Hlfitfii Mot fraittoto / 
pfODMftionol toir ufitp 24 BrtOt for htntfiomo V 
1 171 / 4000 / CnginMr m PuMC Soctor MM 
Wni9 Son 4t3t7. Ttvnt* Of mdH. Ntw DoVv*? 


KIKIAU HI / Pr»f%t»i0Ml fliH from 
CwTurod ftmtfy for K»hOfn)ft ^ G Cornpirtor 
CnQmoor m ropuM puWiC iOClor m MN 3l / 
103 / 5500 Owm cor Cotto no bor Caiiy 
moTiopo «^Bo»4ft37i.T«noaof India. Now 
Oo»th2 (C354«7)0L 



iWtpeS for Mndootwo ^oWlod wot 

OttlMiO*^ Onirop^onou^ dOCOnI lDeo<*>« 
» 4dowo> wtmout tnowmboronco 33 Mo^cc 
tromor dome M D ^ / 3000 ofTHiom Khttn 
fOmi»y WrtH Bo« 44357. Twnot Of India Now 
00lh».2 (C35451) 
CUM I OMI eonln> Kaholrt fl jput 
fetvnot oorrospondo^ ^orr^ paro^n Of boaub- 
M Chartmng gvlt Ioraon23/V)B€ CM 
havmg huQO propo^ Catfo no oar WMia 8oa 
N 204 S, Ttonoa Of India Bo«nbay^40000t 


COMVtflTtO ton. bomaly match kom 
otaMt fam#y. for Vilt^ boy manna a ny^ao r . 
fnarcf>anf Navv. 27 / ITS / 9000 raif^> angt. 
noar broft^ / ft'ttar doctora Early rnamaoa 
Nt- bar« wma Bo» 4044t Timaa of moia mm 

DalN-2 (M449tl 

COtfVCMr oducotod ipif from rMpac<a(o 
famKy for Sood boy 24 / 106 Oogroa niom\a«on 
Tachnoioov ^ound 13000; parmanant aofdod 
U K Catti no ba» Wnia Bor U 120--3. . Timat 
of India Bo«Tt6ty-40000t f6Ynpiie599] 
CDUCATVO bHda for fla^atf^ baoad Bai^g a i 
SO / 170 Doctorita r Btoct^oTwttry Catta no 
tar Rap^ m data M to Bo« 46121. TMTwt of ifMf«« 
Now 090^7 (C34903) 

OOME$IK>f40fNCf bMM from U.t dittos 
graar card hoidar gvfa and flnanciavy aaoura 
Gfrtt tor HiAdu Kfiatn boy ago 24 / 176 / B a 
Catia no Oif Mow / tfvoroaa «fih «Md 
arafoorr^a wma Boa 46770FK. Tlmaa of Ma 
Htm Oata^ 

CORHEVONOCNCC bwtlad 1^ profMofvV 
•M(^9iritforhandaof*wus aaMadangv«ar 
82 / 1B2 oma Ml partcOan a4l^ rtiumabia 
pfioto cad (012) S97-6903 or Coniaet Q^pai 
617 Contra ^laoa VUiM BA 10474 U.$A 


Of CENT and ta ni U m piog o aaia mm i 

f0r aort. 24H yaora nc B Taoh AAao^. 
achoiar. ilim. tal i67 am. vary fair, fiar^daotna. 
atfracfrya faaturaa. aobor affocnor^ata ciaan 
habfia pripporty ownora and mlartaMiQ a4if^ 
lathar larga acaia ofiHi macf^raQoi oomrauu at 
vaHoua powor prof^.'ia alao pfvurto Ip aat up 
afaai mduatry «ai raputod Waatam \}P B«a 
Aoa'- »i riloai famdy Kmdfy tond M dataaa lo 
Svrar^ Agarwai Managmp ^artnar fChatauk 
EnQtfiaonno Woru Foot Boa 21. Khctag^ 
2fti20i pfionaa 66 6 70 

girt for hartdaoma Cf^uraaia baehalor 2S / 170 
Ciptairt gal mam oonaidarabori p <a*a*a m a id 
madtoo caata no bor y$fffm lo Boa f«o L4616. 
Th6 Timaa of India. Lueliftow*i 

OfQAIdBEil Jam 27 yoara Ooraf Oolra 
fagr^ aaccnoary own buaiwa DaM baaad 
lagaiiy divoroad boy aaaf^a baauttfu' adueatad 
ftorriafy bnda from Haidu fanity No dQ*vry. 
cfvoroaa iiao acoaptabia wrtia Boa 40500. 
TVnaa of ind« Now Oafrti-2 |CM700) 
BOUCAICO boauOttf mMlt far Jaiav buat- 
f)aaamar> 26 / I7ft / 6000 t^^-graduata owna 
f«ouaa »i Daift< aiM pa«wianorn buamota l^Mnta 
Box 10412. Nav Bfmi Tlmaa. Now Oata-2 


COUCATVD bHiBgiiit fyof^ / lyar gM 
for TamH Kour^dnya lyangar UBA 26 / 17$ / 
OaOO aanpla d6C6«« mamaga wma Boa 46S16. 
Vrm ol Mi fiow Dad»-2 fC4a02)$C 
nPLOVlD / wiawipl o yad moM far Iggarwel 
boy Govt aarvwa. 170 / 20 / 2500 Wrtta tu* 
parbcmor rirat mttanoa Cirty mamaga Wma 
Boa 464(1. nnaa Of Mli. flow Dita*2 


BrmElttLT baaidM / forgooua bolaw 
94 pura vagatinan (prafarabiy doctor) raputad 
laiTriiy lor Amanean aducatad (Fb.o madttfna 
USA) 2? / 17$ lav ftandaoma Vaiafwwva boy 
lyianagar «^ anarvMbonaffy raputad eort^wty 
•t Data wma Boa 46370. Taitaa of Ma flaw 
DiM-2 (C4S72lfiC 
■XTfiCMKLr bomUHui brtda far Khain 
bana olfioar MA 33 / 162 / 4000 Wrfia Boa 
46366. Tanaa of Ma. Now Oa6ft-2 (C35S47) 

^ tLIM fair baaatlfat girl far 
DalMta P\tn^ Brahmai daad Bar* Oflloar 
26 / 165 doing MBA onfy aort of fWtd Prm 
Sacy Caata no bar wr«a PO Boa 6004. 
Naw Dotw^ iCSOaot) 
PAm good laoblag graduata aonvam 
aducatad bafow 23 yaora gai for Bangah 
Brahmirt Cornpuiar Cngnaar 17$ / 27 boy 
ampioywd Hn/^ Bank Dubai WHia Boa 
46361. Timoi of Ir^ta. Naw Oom»-2 


PCm Ambaafidia KayaaBm 26 / 172 lacfialai 
middia lavoi Cantrai Govt ofVa'. baautiM rtorw 
wortng maac^ ra^ad Comr*x^racati wfm 
gin \ r>oroaccpa ful aiia ar4 cioaa ur pfwt^ 
grapTk data ane piaca or bath and oom- 
piata bio^ta wttft Sn B.K p Sa^. lAS (Raid ). 
22/A. Magiatratoa Colony Kitaipur. Pat- 
na^OOOU (3460)CO) 
f<m hmh6%9m$ Bfiabiagar boy 24 / 162 batnod 
tn Swnionartd ^ Hotai Mar^agamam Sorwig m 
flaiatmana aupor daiuaa boiai waniad lati 
pratty oonvam wi^icatad lUyaatha g^f of aiatut 
famiry Wraa Bot 46467 'Hmat of Ma fiow 
Dot^a (MSOi) 

afVloor ffaoCUlNo 
22 / 165 propa^bad latOad ra^itad fbrr — wary 
baa«jtffui Quatrfiad digrvfkad ^ atatua mm 
Wrtia Boa N 15^6. . Vnm of Ma Ponv 
067^400001 (BYO^1 17523) 

^ ALUANCt far Punjabf BrafmWt tCaaf ifop 
graduata 26 / 160 / 6000 faa aftm onfy 
aon aatttad in famiy buamaaa ot randaoad 
Wrtta Bon 46476, Tlmaa of b«a ffow 
Oalhf>2 (C25664)OL 

QAHffWAU fCianaom at Oai^fiol bMuBM 
aducataJ ^prnaf^ gai from raapociabia tamdy for 
Army Cap^ 30 / l6$ parmanam oommiaaior^ 
Wrtta Boa 46416. Tirw Of Ma Naw Ditw2 


OOWOA Samawad BrahmM BlA. / 62 / 166 / 
6000 aaaka aftanoa from Oowda 86*«twat 
Brabmtn South ICanara Konkant apookmg 
graduata g»H Wrtta Boa 0 604— f(. Tlmaa of 
bidta, BombaH0000i «U««UCU«(BYORi 16117) 

f fAN BB OBH 3 yoara W dociar aon of a 

^tf^ Hatdu induatrtairai aofoad at Souirt Ma 
ftaodi a US oftia6n / groan card twidar 
ad^Ksaiad baaadM gai Caofa no b6r ^aroma 
may oontact Boa 663^. Tknaa o( bidtt. 
Bangaiora-S6000i <2S356) 
fUffDBOfdt bn fM da c awt OaHiwaU 
Brahmm famiy. B Sc.. 26%« / 170 / 2000/- 4 
parka, aiortiing a^ raputad Ltd IVm Employad 

CCiaaetiar prafar^ Wnti Boa 45736rR. 
« of Ma. flaw Data-2 

fiANDOOME brfwtt Ibrolga 9i^ 6 ftad DaM 
Umwaraity Samor Lacturar Sunni Muaitrn 
baeftator 52 / 175 aaaka matnmoniai aBar^ tu« 
parvcuiart Wnia Boa 4S565FR. Tknaa of mdia. 
Naw DatM-2 

NAWDMMI lyai bOf 64 Bfi6radwa|am 

dmpioyad m a mputod orparvaabon cata oacaa^ 
from fiarama of amptoyad Koraiia gat ^aa 
Boa 45707Ffl. Tlmaa Of b>dia. Naw Oa2w*2 
fi064BLY pratly aAicatad 6^ ftam afatea 
lamdy lor Pumabi Bratvmn boy 26 / i60 vag- 
aiar^n pubic aohool and MS oonairvpbon 
tnarwgamam U S A botortging lo affkiam atatua 
tamly aatabkahad buamaaa. Wrtta Boa N 
B0$-«. Tbnaa of bidia. Borr*ay40000i 


ffOROBOO^CS btvfiad from VaBaaM hrar 
ompioyod graduata gvt lor Bharadwoiam 
Aawam poai graduata bank aanpioyad boy 170 
/ S3 Wrtia Boa 457$7FR. Tlmaa o« Ma. Naw 

BIOCKNOCNT SBdi yootfi 60 *awbig 2000/- 
awnoa matrvnomai qprraaporidanoa from ladiaa 
onfy Nc bara Wnta Boa 46496. Tvnaa of tnd« 
Naw Oam»<2 (CSM6?) 

^ ALLIANC2 Invttad from C6av6iit* 
aducatad faa tan aim. baauttfui homohi 
graduata Nmdu bnda prafarabfy ffont^m- 
dan or ^mia^ aga 16 / 24 yaari from 
Nghfy raapactabia wai* to-do cuiturad (am- 
ay tor waft aatabbahad mduarrtaaat gradu- 
ata tal. faa. hartdaoma Kafiatrtya aga 27 
yaara Owna land flat, or ate Lagai 
dh^oroaa No iiaofiiy Earr^ ovar fu 
7.000/' p m Caata no bar Or* a mam rn^m 
oonaldarabon Advortiaamont bottor cfVMTO 
Bfrna Boa 46413. Timoa of bM. Now 
Oata2 (144451)50 
JATAV boy 20 / 176 / 2300 Ortoaaa T.a.T. 
Oat\i Adrmmytratior School aoaka baauofii am 
pfcyao gri praia^arva taachart Wrtta oompiata 
dataaa 6o> 46377. Timoa of Ma Now Datni.} 


RATASTftA. baautlfal* guaifiad girt far 
SaiarM 24 / 165 / 2300. am^ Scmntific 
Aaaiatam. m Bhabr\a Atomic f^a4arc^ Cantra 
Bombay Wraa Boa T 766-^ Tm^ of Ma 
Bombay-400001 fBVD^1 16765) 

lUrASTYU oiai i b for Saiana bank ampi a iraa 
boy 36 / 160 ema / 2600 gal and lamay oray 
oonaiOarabon Wnta to Boa L^4306 Ta*^ oi 
bid« Uioanow 1 (N^lB f6424) 

Kr^Lrri Naa boy graduata 26 ' m / 1700 
Cantrai Gov* amptoyaa m Dat^i *rorr Pav^a* 
aaaka autiaMa ampioyoe pain«r Appry wn*i 
daiaHf ID Boi 46376. Tnaa of Ma Na» 
Oat«.2 fC35Si3) 

LOffOON roaldant fiandaonia Ottftaaan aaaia. 
aga 26 Engmaar. aMira oam ttouaa / w 
aaakf Cf>'iakar« gn agao unoa' 20 yaara pra^ 
Igfn / fatr oorvipiaaion aimpia amcara ettaata 
pura wi of>aractar good mora oharactar to* 
mamaga Piaaaa rap»y witf raoam ooit^' phctc 
IP Mr JofvtOawd 124 jaromaTowor Oatorna 
Boad Aoirvi. London tMf3 Unaod t^ingoorr* 


MA0M6 Nbidu Takigu waga ia rtaw ^|. 
graduata broadrrMndao oacnato' 40 / 155 ra- 
guiraa Ama'can imnagrarvt bnOa oaata ootou' 
commi^rtty languaga prow^oa Ja*rtt Sak*>a 
widowa dNoreaaa no bar fUap^^ anmad«a(a^ 
arilh bK>^ta lor a tiappy and worr^aaa ata to 
Boa H 030— S. Tlmaa o( Ma Bombay*40000i 
(BYPT1 166^61 

MAHABASNTmAN aitgMar l^iidaama 23 / 

174 Factory bimgakow car wa« aataOf'S'^ 
NaaB baaod aaaaa ahm erkarmi«tg graduata g^i 
from waa-piarad famBaa VMnta Bot U 222— S. 
Timaa of India. Bombay*40000i 

MANOUK graduala fiamofy girt far H / 
172 buainotaman Arora boy MiOdia Om%% f^f^ 
6y Wma Boa 46456. Tvnaa of fndia ff^ 

oamn? (C3563e^ 

MABINC anglnadr. Bangaiaa Kayaifia 

(Caieufta). 36 / 176 / 30.OOC wanta aducaincf / 
prntaanonai Anv caata provtnoa Wma 
f ^a No 46425 Tknaa of Ma NOW Oa*^. 2 


HATCH far 26 / 167 Kumaani Vlaafty own 
fimay buamaaa dacant tnoomt wft^ pa^tcuiara 
fioroaoopa Caata no bor wma lo Boa No 
L-4326. Timaa of India Lucanoiw-i 
fffrvB- 16470) 

HEIGHT 17$ CMS.. ME (W. 



NEW DELHI-110016. 
l-ELEPHONE: 661691 / 666566. 



- 15 - 




175 / 27 RAJPUT BOY. 

BAY-400001. (HISUQ 

AUJANCK 1m fw|M toy %M. pm^ «r 

ir.T. 17/17*. ftom cUMvd IHmly. M*« 

WT Computor EngMMT loraign ntwd. Ml*- 
nMenai IJ i>ou » x. Cawiyy FW. ■omtay 
btMd dtvo^OMi invNM ofViii front (nflluf<i. 


•ointeHOOOOl. IIVOR1 11432) 

M fmn 0am MmIr mm bMbMM 

•worn* Mt- 
Contact RftmMft Chtndni Btv^nj 1909 

ntf^m NoM. oraMi^ ammm Cmm. 


99/1*7/9999 OrtM A«grMral mm 

tiMkwM. heuM. noo-fcUtTC Humiw Ohonm 

Mb BoyuBMfiMrtnQBid Citli no bv. WrUi 
•m 46)i1. UniM 01 kiO^ Now Oottt>? 

'4f ffo Mwr wWovor «Mi 4M NS fovi 

oorvoniPU 3MP.M r^v^ng group tauiino M 
foqMiro moieh oinployoo widow ««t itiuoo tioo 
Oonoidorod Cooli no tor. tos 40477. 

Tflnot of MO. Now OoM-2. (C30000) 

MPtCnONATl Ct / PfOfOoolOiMl / UoMr / 
oqunroiont / ompioyaMo Momdotio ^J&m / 
Choinor / AdomH) moMIt for Comm QiMp A 
oorvM boy a / 172 Omottf o c m mamm u ^ 
Wmi Bo« 48672n^ Tbnoo ol Mo. Now 

AqaMWAL Morworl Qorf rooownoO 

MioMil tomOn Mii propoool lor Mr m 
t5 / 170 o^oduotoo loir hondBomo PrwiN of 
boo^tiM pM roiporabio Aporwoi tomiy. W^no 
■os ObO-*S. tho Timoo 9t tnd»o. 
■onoolort^aOOQOI (M4II). <4MD 

ALUANCt Iw MidO iWM « / 170 M^ 

HMi QuoMd wol iofOod m buoMoo 
torn bAOuOM iMI plH Horn rvopooNM bMv 
Ojr vmio tos N Oi1--< . TMt of Mo 
■oniboy-40mi . (tYMl 17001) 

AUJANOI Iw RoyooOi tf foon |Mp CAt 
pfhctf 100 cnm M. odueoM m bM miOfci . 
tlont ond boA'^ngptp 10 tOif% Ot 'MO I dmoora 
PoronN Of UMH. oaoopbonoOy boouOM ond 
ddbcMd gon 1^ BOW IAS IPS ot of 
oqMivBloni BtoiuB KoyoiPt toitiM MTy «no)r 
oorroopond bi^^OtO froi MOiWO Advf 
mBOdoo to hovo 0 broodt* cboioo Corty nrn- 
rugo mno ioft 40444. TImot Of Mo. Now 
OoOiA-i CM24S09)OP 
AUIANCt iBt NovOl troMOl boy. VOOMm 
Ootro 30/106 / 09Hi^Sooondory.oofWBni 
odMCOtod hoo«ty pood looknp fs^ whgmh 
knowlBdpBbiB own OutMto Mmo Mo. 
7000/— ^ Boniboy. rtquirM gvl boouo- 
%i hOOiPly OduC«tod hornoiy. only oontdor. 
ooort Wmo Boi N 104^. TMt or IrM. 
•omboy*400001 (0YOIIim71| 

Corroipond to boi H 007«-4. Tbnoo of 
todto. B o ii oi o i 400001. (Anooit 
ALilANOC iv irtMn OMM TM 
SI yif 179 cm tai0 QyoKy Oonpol I 
fJMK) wiMr MOy My olvt own I 
vfwvv wn lOTi^f wom ow^HifVO Ayyor 
NofOi PUbOc Oootof fop^ o40i hovoooopp ond 
to too O 070-K, TMO of MO. 

AUJANRC t» t ow>d»o MMi M / 179 / 
0000 tA own buoMo pood Mdnp boy 



•rohM n I m i 4m 

NnpuopB no bor hofoooopo 
000-IC TMo of 

Arvny Coptom^jnM 

QrodUoto EnQfnoofbio 


flpN of 
ObtfO boy 20/100 Ml 
obidytop PhD. bi 
mpoMi. NobM. 
40007. TbM 01 todN. Now 

AiLIA NCt blvHod ITM Mi p4M>d 
prOTBOOiQfii^ O^MOOod omoft 0rto tap ftrafonln 
tngMirfT / 100 / 0200 bom KarrMbo. Mto 
Sob dOOOSFM* Tbnoo of bitfo. Now DoOi^S* 

20 / 179 / 1000. Mn OoMt / 


PI ootc mm aoo 400oiFn. 


DoNrwo OfOooro. No bofo. IMIto Bob 40003. 
i Of todh. Now Do004. IC30404) 

boy HH / 100 / MS A pJ.M.) wortdng bi 
Sox lStOO*S. Timoo of^lndio. 

bM m Vp 
produoli KooN lyor pblo tor o ^ol^^Mt lyor boy. 
00. NOvoM. prodMB OboomM. Pi <M PM 0 
yoort. EmoMiMB ovor No 20MV* pjn. Son 

■I IRHIWy MwfV«BBW*>W1| WMV t 

M N 114-^ TbM Of bM. 
S u ii M l 100001. |SVT»117107) 
AlUANCi Jo»N»d Sm MpboroobOrto^ 
pnMooiBf^ CNNOoft Ivnl^ tar pradMota pbl 
piptar i My ooMni odMlod iM. botaw 00 

borMp bold, tar oio oon. apo 00 / itT. 

pood bioono, 
177«S. TMb of 

M < M Mb Sob M 

SonMy<40000t . 

• Sivgien 30 / 199. Hktf ipMhing Bn^Mi 

No bore, tefy mirrtaOi. Mto Soo Q 001—8. 
T«moo Pt Ifidio. Somboy<'4p0001 . 



Mono( OMOook tai profooft«M ^roreoo 4i. 
MoBlor^'v dOpFOB m EnpBMOiinQ. Ovkip In AfitoF^ 
00 Mb m dM to Sob 0 70P^. YMo of 
bM. Bo»nboy-400 001. |C-1) 
AUJANCC bwM booi dOMi PtaMMPM 
tamoy. homt Mnp. tar protaBi<Mi photoprB. 
phy opB 20 / 170 bovbip wol OBtobOthBd 
buoMBB m BoriMy Mb wO»i Ml UodM to 
Sob O M-K. TMo of bM. Born- 
boy-OOOQOI. (SVOS1 15000) 

AOIANCC bwM tar wi^locid bipMor 
Obrood. Pur>|Btt wMm. 42. No lOM 1MB 
Soi 0 P40--S. . tMo Of bM. Sonv 
bOy-400001. iSYMllOOOO) 

00 / ir / 9000 CM EnpMor hovtap No owrt 
MBpMM VL Mta M U 140— S. TMB of 
todta. SombordOOOOl. (SVDni7909) 

»iO. ^Mko. 20 / 100 owo biprNM 
■MM. bom m booMOM ModM flbta. 
WOOO. Mo Sob U 400-S. TOM Of PM. 
SiPidJOy 100001. iSYOni0074) 

SI MToL £&!'pM y^^ M 
\ Poto bonoly tab odiiootod Obi 1M4to to 
No L.4600. TMo of bM. UMmnI. 


lOM boy 20 / 100 / 90M MorMfN No^y 
Viuw rw^i an^^nng pr^Bortoy w% oowoy 

PdMtod boouObi 0^ 

S4/I00of otoluBlMy MnSovU90O-K« 
TimoB of Ifidio. SomboydOOOOl . 


ALUANCt bMod tai Sonpil KM«Oto boy 

00/i70 / 2000.ConMpovt omptoyoo i 

^^^^^^ ^^ikri^M ^^^^^^^ ^^^^ — - 

np nomoiy yoBiuiii bomobboo lonw 

of bidio. Now Ooitii^O. 


90 / 17S( pood poroowOly, HlS^Oy ptaood o4Pi 

oducpM pood taobo^ poi Mo C* 070— S. 
TImoo of lodlo. Somboy*400001 . 


lioroooopo to Sob 40412. TbM of todw. Now 
DOtH^ P^U440) 
AUIANCt bivtiod tMi boooM plf^ 

tar boy 2S / 172 St. (CM) M C. os«iOM 
M^Mr U.P. povt Mb to Sob I4o 1^120. 
Ibo TMo of todta. aiOiMw>220 OOi. 


All lAflCf bMM bM M ptaOM of 

omployod povi pblo protaronoo tar toochor of 
bonk owployoB tar yn^ KMi boy 

bon»oinptaypt 20/i02ootanf2400/*pjw Wrso 
SoK 40022. TMo of bM. Now DoOb-2. 


i^porouB. horoomon. owid PovoOof. oooko 
booupfui. kitoSpBnt, oowootod younp inSof^ or 
bMNn wSb to OfM M ON M btoM. 
■i^UBiBB BrvM BWBfOB pnoBDprapn flno wr bi 
tiotady-BOwrMd.aMonrv.SOB 19000. Son 
Monta. Tom 70911 |M) 
AMtSICAN poMtanron ooMftiod pod 
MdMp 01 0 ouburbof MHwipM. D.C.. fony 
tai^ Of Bpo. Ob M tol. M NMod oigNy tap 

taf^on Bfomon. Sopfy ifPh photo to Poot OfOoo 
Sob 277. Cobm John. Mory Und. 20010. U S> 


AlltSICAN pMo onrd boMf MpHly 

ooT M Ctad hondooM Aioro boy SI / 164 / 
20000 porBuMp M.SA ooroo r anMnp Aupuw. 
ooobo pr^B0Btani4y oAiootod o^bi^od bc-'^oiy 
bridB.Nobore ConymorftaSB MBSoB4e400. 
TMo Of bM. Now Doom. iMSOO) 

o n Ap go rO BjM 20 / 100 / 5000. PoMrOpntar 
tpionPPc OfOoor IMlta Sob 40007. TbitoO of 
bM. Now Doom. 

Sunm MuM yoi^ipmon (boordodl. poMPy 
My M. OQO 92. hovil 100 om . omptayod bi 
QuP. oomPtp BpproMMtoly No 10.000/— por 

^^^M^^ ^ta^^A ^^^^^^^^^^^ 

OTOnm BfV^VB inpvWTiiinw ^fWrw^^t^^Sm^B <0" 

tooortd wffli (IndBpondwn qiotub (m obrood otay 
Mb hvobond poooM^ frM MiHtful. 
OdUOotad. vrvnontad &ffwM 44M0rB yoiinp pPlo. 
M r cO B B or widowr.. »Anp ta roguMo M 
tanoB proyore. ftoi^^fon *.V / Mo^Hoo ond to 
obidB by PurvNh B^otam ObO^ort oooopipbta 
Only boouPMt nM Writa to Sob M 102^. 
TbM of bM. Somboy-400001. (C^ 
ATtHACnvt prodMB ohonotap p^ Mo 
Mp ocMi taMy Mgpit IPS Cifi tar younp Siih 
Ormy cMOb« 25 ym Mb Sor 4052. TlfM of 


AUOnuUAN pontMon <SHM) i 
80^. M. tar. pmocM. toos oporn ond 
OOOkory VM morrtopB AaiBMb Oond photo 

- ' " ^Mn. P.O " 

Moron. P.O. Sob 002. WonMy. 
0014. W. AMM (07) 
SACHtt OW b MoH obol (01) torpBwBt 
SrehnMn wol oAicotod non orimunQ vopotonB^ 
to OOfiPoi bidta oomAp oib Ppurot nood 

^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^AtaA^dk^ _^^^^|^^^ ^^^^^^^m^ 

to>wpwi^y Bmcnw btibmbbw BOUOBWi v* 
or^Pod homo^ pBl oitBBtd 90 yoori opo 
ipopoc M ta fofNiy Coon otM no br pnom 
Noply Sob No H 190— IC. TMo of tadiB. 
MMy 400001 <SV0f^1 17406) 

SAUJA NoM pM produM onpMor 20 / 170 
wondnp OB ctaot i ofbow in Comrs Oovt. invnoi 
iPbvtoB bom pood taobB^. tav. bmP odjcotoO 
ppN or roopoeMta Noidu fomiy (pooi'pfodMBtB 
|MMd)^Mi Sor 40001FN, T«M of PM 

SSAUnPUL OPOvM pdycBM pbf lor 
KoyoM bey MS.A wortuno bB ospon o«* 
oeuM w«i 0 pubbc SnM oompony 20 / 170 
«ni / 4000. Own proporiy m Uicknow 0<n 
phoiddbowSnptoBonNMM CoMnobr 
m dowry Mb to Sob no. L-4021. TMo of 
PM. UMM-I . <NTLSlPf90) 

ptobiB tamly tar Pur^ Morchtm Novy Doc* 
OfborST/ ?72MfllpurtBPlory PoOiprMifBd 
OOMOd Omoor MN SOK 40402. TMi Of 
M*. Now MhN2. <A247e7) 

StAVrruU odiMlBd. M ooM biM 
hondoomo Konyokubio Srohmm boy. 20 / 
179 / fta 8000 wonunp for o mutaMonBi 
pftomBOOuOcol oompony owns hoyoo In PotnB 
QPTb ffMB only oonBidoroM. Mb Sob 4022. 
TPM of bM. Pitoo-1. <PT4100) 
StAimniL OdocoM pM hPMp pM totoPy 
boefii^ound tar o hondiomo Pim^ f^hBtn boy 
01 hovl^ MBpondont oMbHhod OubMs 
yd bo tery o to o Npwy rotpoctoM Pi^r^ 
tan4y l^bNB Sob 40442. TbrtoB of Indw Notii 
OtHM. 1C45P0)$C 
SCAMIVUl odocoM 1^ tar MdBBnn 
AgpOMl boy 20 M70 SCom oBtobhthBd 
b^MM own houBO ir«omo Ngh Iom^ Ogiiro« 
only BOO Mto Sob 40403. TbMOlbM. Now 
OoPll-2. (A94700) 
StAUTIPVL oMCBtod pifi for JOtov 
bey 01 / 100 / 9000 povi BorM. modmrn 
W fii p N ^ta ii Coriy BlmpN momogo KM Son 
4P4^. TMI Of bM. Now D0»b.2. PMI593) 
SSAimPUI. Binpta f Bd ppf tar 92 / 190 OM 
MSA SonpoK fUlPiii b> oor*:70i povt Orowinp tour 
Olpuio Mo Sob 40011 TMO of bM. How 
OM^. (C95722)OLP 

StAUnrUt M M OM bOM h f Mb 
inonrwrodbndBlO — 21 yre nBmmgm prMiBtB 
tar 94 / 170 To» hondiOM M A wMwor No 
Mdi Choiitfvy Jot boy bom o olBtiiB fpmity 
ttot^ip ooB) indBpondont ootobOshod pBrmonH 
buoM o. pon y tno mopB. pdMi o omom tor 
Bfldw ohtBoo ^^Wto wph h0 bto^oto ta So* 
4009m. TMB of PM. NOW OoPh-2 
SCAimPUL IPP odMM protaMly Sbib 
MnoB MMod tar hondtomo Sft^ amiy ofboor 
Him I 4C.9 S oBpo ctod tamHy no MM$ 
OOfly momopt. WM Sob 40430. Tbviob of MB 
IM ltaPP-2. XA04S24) 

WUUrWL pbt tar MbM Pto^ Offtaor 
Qovoinment Mitotion 20 / 105 / 4000 no bor 

^^^^ » -« ^ - ^ MAM ^ 

n OrBy ooniRiBrBvon wroB oob r* ii09'^n. 
imot of Indio. Semboy •400001 

SCAUnrUL bomoly Oobor pM for o Koonyop 
SrOhM Sonpob bM offM' 34 / 170 / 4500 

toodM pTBduBta locturor bBnfc offkoor / om- 
ptoyoo prpforfd B4d^ OCCOptBl)!* Wnto L M 
MuMrfoo t79/H 8oc«or*ll ptmruv^o 
IMM4. (^422?) 

StAUmiL 0Mb proforobly moMe for 
Khopi doctor boy M 0 (modcM) 105 / 20 wop 
OOtOBd OoP^ Wmo M.O Som PrBMn — Kotn* 
JMiipont LMMr ^ OwoOOr <M5:?1)Dl. 
StAUTlPUL Ri^pot pM for 20 / 172 
pooi-produoto CnpmBor QotB i i^Bi^vay Omco' 
Modtao or O yrM f prBf#nrBd W<1IB So« 5003 
TMb Of bM. SorO0»^5 a404X) 

^t w ployp iLudinow) rMp(.t.tntMt 
lafMly ao/1S2/1800 WrtM or can. 
«iei 4 K.S.Vxtev. 4iK>/(%. 
'cnauptliy»n iNMr Kalikar Piirki 


mMdi Irom Mm* cuta for Rajput 
2S/1«S Wr miormofiiatt tlim ftrl 
no do««ry. WrM with Ml do(^ 
eon ns-JtC. nonoor. Lucknow. 


MNTAILK «nployod nwieh lor 
Swona maqpN BA. woRvorMd in 
tiousotteW oflatr* 27/1tS aliiii gm 
Wfrito fMM4«taii»iMlttihoro«eep« to 
Box MO JlC* I'NonMf » Ludtnonf. 

KDUCATgD •mployM han4* 
io«ne groom lor 27/lSO BA Govt 
•mploytjl btautilMl Brahmin 
Kumooo girl CmIo No bar from 
wmo caste prafarra^. fl^riia Box 
ttlJtC. Pionoar. Lucfcnow 

MATCH tor -baautitui lim 
brahir.'ti Kaayap Qotra girl M.A. 
(HiiKMf 2^150. no dowry early 
marriage ^ii-vo/tod in houta* 
l>OW wor-<. 'Write Box 8g.lJtC. 
Pionoor. UicKnow. 


WANTIB^autlabla KanyMkubit 
Brahmin melch for beautiful alim 
27/1S3 . cm. Rott^radualt^ 'Jirl 
Mff^ 4 four figure emolurr^ttt m 
a aemi-governmej)t etiabiishment 
;No dowry. Senrf^ f^oacope and 
detailed particulers Wriu* Box 
g2B«ltC Pioneer Lucxnow 

^ ;K»«g2ajtCM 

•9IIVAtYAVA pr ^ent invHe$ pib- 
posais from Enqmoert/Bank Of- 
ficera/w%H-placad groom for ahm 
27/1M/2000 Oreduate. Central 
Covt employ ^. early decent 
marriage. Write Box No 91SJtC. 
Pidneer. luoknow 2UI91SJtCtr^ 

' KAYABTNAlall gorliechnlcaliy 
qualified girl for 2t/ies computer 
engineer. Canada qualHied highly 
Canada employed. Write Box ga2 , 
Jic. Pioneer. Lucknow. 

2Q(gt2 jtcm * 

BUITABLB match for 27/ig0' 
1900 M.Com beeutlful lair hanii 
employed Agarwel girl. No bars 
Write Box t84JtC. Pirmeer. 
Luclinoie \ 


BftANIIIH groom for fair, eltm 
good-looliinO talented 39 years 
(looks much your)ger) Kumaoni 
BrahncMn. convent « educated 
unnrtarrifd teacher, good at 
household work Father was IAS 
officer. Write Box 04 Jtv The 
Pioneer Luclinow. 

, WILL settled match lor 24/158 
fair post graudate beautiful homely 
Pgriabi Arora girl expert m 
household work, early ntarriaqe 
Write Box 93 Jtw Pioneerlucknow 

BUrrABU fitetch required for 
Sexen^ Keyaatha virgin poat 
graduate aistera age 37 A 32. Cor* 
reapdnd Box 1048 J?c C/e PloAeer 


KAVAf TMA match lor Baxena 
elim smart •Mbmisaive hontely girt 
22/.153 MI.A aub-caateno bar. 
early marriage. Write Box 1032 Jtc 
P io n eer Lucknow. 


KAVABTMA match for ;>eautHul 
<eir alim smart girl 24/1S6 ^vent 
educated M A. brilliant career 
U.Q C. fellow, well versed in.houae 
*hold from educeied cultured 
family. Father gazetted officer 
(fWtd). Write Box i02e-Jlc. 
Pioneer' L<icknow. 


MATCN for Kayastha Sriveetave 

girl 28/ 1 S$/gr aduate medhinpi 
complexion, beautiful, homely girl, 
father Govt, penaioner. undea 
deas lolficers in ONOC. eeate no 
ber« no dowry. Early and aimpie 
marriage. Wrrte Bor. 85 Jtv 
Piorteer Lucknow. 


MATCN for Mathur girl 37 years 
15S cm. M A M Ed lafr complex* 
Ion aub^ttc no bar. Write Box 89 
Jtc Pioneer Lucknow. 


KNABi practlaing 
w^aHah. aingie fconstltuton. girl 
28/188 B.A. OMT. RMP. AAMfW. 
invites Kayastha alliance./vrite Box 
t37S JIC Pioneer^ Lucknow. 

2O<107$ JtC)R 

AORAWALA dtvorcM 36/14a/ 
500 M.A.B.Ed. HoadmiMroM 
naodt Nfo partner priority lo Vaiah 
Luclinow roMtonbContact with full 
datailt Bex 1083 JtC. Pionoor. 


ALUANCI invitod ttom Scion, 
t^ttt locturert. onginoora. bank 
officort tor Qeri Kayastha girt 
M.Sc. l>t).0. 29/160/3000 Contral 
Govt omployoo Lucknow basod 
Writo Box 09JtV. Pionoor.. 



LK20(Jl StTlB 

M ATC H lor Sunni Doctor girl 31 / 
leOcm M B.B S.M.O ompi^odtn 
PMS oarly marriago. Writo Box 
lOeOJtC Pionoof. Lucknow. • 

MATCN FOR Sunnt girl B Sc 
32/160 cm. lair cotour •marl, 
houaetiold expert early marriage 
Wrrte Box lOOlJtC. Pioneer. 



BUITABLB n^atch fram same 
eaate for Kanyakubie Brahmm 21/ 
158 M.A beautHsA 8ui eel well 
veraed in househoks ' affairs 
Kashyap Qotra gin early marriage 
Write Box 983*JtC Pioneer 
Lucknow. ' 



BUITABLB matches for Sunni 
Syed handsome brother 29/167 
Contrai<government * employee 
own houae and homely, beautiful 
aister 29/l80kA A. WriteBox 1(^- 
Jtc The Piommt^ LUcknow 


IMrLOVBO, match from same 
caite for .Kayaath 32/152/1500 
divoroee issueleas girl^ lasuetess 
widower /divorcee acqspteble and i 
bride lor 28/172 Journalist boy • 
early marriage W'lte Bok lOlOJtC i 
Pioneer. Lucknow 

"'MATCN for Saryupartn advo* 
caie 27 '8/4000 buaineaa near 
AMahabed girt 23/5 4V2200 M.A.. 
B.Ed, teacher in Inter College 
Lucknow with detaila. Write Box 
887 Jtc, Pioneer. Lucknow. 

2B0(9g7 Jtc)R 

BBNIOB Officer metch tor 
Swarankar 24/185 MIA fair end 
educated bride from educated 
family for 26/185 MA employed 
boy. Write Box 1037 JtC. Pioneer. 


RANVAKUBJA ETraiiman match 
for first class M Sc.k^.Ed 30/154 
and her brother 28 '175/4000 com* 
puter engineer in public sector 
Write Box 8 Ut V . Pioneer 


BUITABLi match lor Kenya- 
kubja 22/188 M>. (Sociology) 
beautiful girt gazetted/equivalent 
officer preferred and weli.versed m 
household eNairs beautiful tall giri 
for 24/183/4000 doing own buti- 
neae nandsome boy .Write Arun 
kdlahrp 84. Khurahed Begh. 
Lucknow. 2BQ(g45-JtC)R 

BAXBMA toy 28/163/2500 bank 
employee, bank empioyod/oqui 
vaient giri preferred and suitable 
match for Ns sister 23/153/k^A 
(kAusic) wheatiah towarda fair eerty 
merriage Write Box 806JtC. 
Pioneer Lucknow 


KAYABTNA ' matches tor 
8rivastava*Khara beautiful gon 
•lim girl klA 24/158 decent 
mmti^ and tall gori skm beeuti- 
ful bride for handeome brother 
MSc. LLB 28/172/2500 stete. 
subordinate aervk:es girt mem 
consideration full particulers 
horoecope first instance Write Bo^ 
87-JtV Pioneer, lucknr^ 

* 2BO(87-JtV>R 

- 17 - 


Soaked heroines ensure showers at the box office 


OUR niovie-maken oould well 
be magicians, what with 
psychic tricks up their sleeves and 
miraculous surprises under their 
non*existent top hats. 

Well, how else could they work 
such wonders as they do with our 
leading ladies? 

They can convince all our 
sensible, intelligent and no- 
nonsense actresses of the need for 
them to put on the skimpiest or 
the most diaphanous of outfits in 
cinematic situations where it is not 
at all called for by any stretch of 

They can call up the rain gods 
(over a non-existent earth-to- 
heaven telephonic hotline!)to 
request showers at any time and 
at any place, wherever and 
whenever they happen to H 
shooting* in the midst of any 
season* let alone the monsoon. 
And the rain gods at once comply 
with the request so that the 
cameraman and the dance 
director can enjoy a combined 
'fr ak-out\ creating any visual 
symphony (or disharmony) of 
eroticism they feel like. 

Our film-makers can always 
convince our heroines that getting 
soaked right through to their 
shapely bones any place and any 
number of times during the day 
(and that too in the flimsiest of 
costumes!) is the best thing for 
their health. 

They can also convince our 
leading ladies that the best 
outdoors are always on the edges 
of lakes or rivers, ponds or 
swimming pools - so that they can 
I conveniently exercise their 
! psychic power to bump the ladies 
I into the water without even 
' budging from the director's chair. 
To the best of our knowledge* It 
was the Hollywood movie mogul 
Ccdl B . DeMUIe who first 
preached in cinematic terms 
about cleanliness being next only 
to godliness through a movie he 
made in 1919 called Makmmd 
Ftmak. It presented some 
hitherto unseen and elaborate 
aquatic scenes, thereby 
attempting to reveal the sheer 
beauty and ecstasy of baic' female 
bodies* elevate undressing to a 
fine art form and bathing from a 

mere sanitary duty to a lavish 
erotic ceremony. And after that* 
expectedly enough, a whole lot of 
film-makers followed suit in 
Hollywood and elsewhere, 
indding our own country, of 
course. In the early 40s Kedar 
Sharma made a film called 
Ckiirakkha with some bathing 
scenes which obviously owed their 
inspiration to the pioneering 
efforts of CecOB* DeMUIe* 

But then we created our own 
Cedl B* DeMIBe in the name of 
Kapoor who refined this 

particular art form through the 
years and his films all the wa) 
from A waru to JtM Tm Caitfo 


And if such cinematic 
cleanliness is just about as groow 
as godliness at the box-office for 
our so-called commercial film* 
makers, well* it's no less so for 
our so<alled an cinema 
practitioners either. Remember 
Chpkfc? Haven't they too 
preached the same maxim since 

Subrolo Mttkherjee 

Madhttri Dixit comes dean 

- 18 - 


12 prostitutes, 14 lechers 
arrested in raid 


VARANASt, 3dy 29-Twdve 
prostitutes and 14 lechers 
were arrested thb evening 
in a ioint operation launched 
by the Chowk and Dashash- 
wamedh police In the 
Detmandi area. 

The men attested from the 
brothels included a Local 
Intelligence Unit (LIU) sleuth, 
and an MBBS doctor. All 
the men along with prosti- 
tutes have been taken to the 
Chowk police stetlon. 

The raid was conducted 
et about 7J0 PM which 
caught the prostitutes end 
brothel-runners off guard. 
The rumpus ensued the knock 
at the door by the police, 
In which, according to the 
source, a lecher gothtsleg 
f rectured while trying to 

escape by lumplni^ ttoma 

But the Circle Officer and 
the District Welfare Off leer 
were conwicuoua by their 
ebience In the reldinc) perty^ 
who uiad to meke e pert of 
the relcttng parlyt aMMrce 

to be mentioned here 
that the brothel were trens- 
ferred to Meduedh, outskirts 
of the city from Dalmandl. 
Latert th^ tocel %uthoritles 

developed Detmendl as a 
cnalor Iradlno and biisiries& 
centrea But the dldeslpiofe- 
ttlon wes not extirpated from 
here, It was r^ellsadonly 

Murder bid in 
eve-teasing case 

By A Suff Reporter 

NEW DELHI. Augusi f t An inci- 
dcni of cve-tcsiing led to an st* 
umpted murder in Wctl Delhi yes- 

The police said the trouble began 
when Kals slapped a boy who had 
allegedly teased his sister, in Shanti 
Nagar, north-west Delhi. The boy 
related the incident to his friends 
who got enra^ and launclied a hunt 
for Kala. 

Instead they found Kala^s fnends. 
Deepak Dua and Nimuil Kumar, 
both sunding on the road leadmg to 
Shanti Nagar After a heated argu- 
meni. one of them took out a knife 
and subbed Deepak. 

Deepak was rushed to Deen Dayal 
U(iadhyaya hospiul. 

The police anestcd the three men. 
identified ms Satyawan. Sanjay. and 
Virender. all residents of Utum 
Nagar. for attempted murder. 

Women held 
for stripping 

About half a do2cn women haNC hccn 
arrested in connection with strip 
ping naked a 35-year*old v^oman 
near Biora in Rajgarh district, a re- 
port reaching here said 

The woman* Geetabai. uho uj^ ex- 
communicated from the Mali com- 
munity uas undressed b\ a gr^^up of 
w^.nen. her face was blackened jnvJ 
an attempt was made to parade ht-r 
on a donkey 

Geetabai in the meantime fainted and 
could not be mounted on the donk 
cy On getting the informjiion 
police reached the spot and re>: 
istered cases against the uomcn 

The Mall commanitx wa^ irked o\ef 
the conduct of Gectahdi ^h(» hud 
recently, accepted a Hanjan \uuih 
her eighth huNbanJ after deserting 
her earlier partncrN 

- 19 - 

mtm of 

r dM««Ml» HtM m »w ' 

/pMOM to ¥pMdi tl» Mtoof, 
. v«tU« l«kt«nil* Mftoot. 
eiyilal Mmt. At 


mondoiMly In thi MithM.* 

.•houM in mM Uwith** 
fr«m Ni tMli it MiMVfMMt ' 

u mondoiMw . In . th* 

1^ WiiwiawB iivni 


t«tt of, 
nrtot In 



'toriykna ■M. wiMoffUw 

^ wfth il«r«ibidb mw*r of; 

tlM ropoeloiiit ^Hiiibindilft, 
eoUu lon wfth Hki itQega«>l 
Whili oNMrnonUigi^ilttoroey) 
among wom«n». dowtyi 
9f$tm^ atftplay^otti olpraote ^ 
In mmK unf Dilute optaodi)^- 
ladcaddWori pi|dll«dmfty ol ^ 

•xpMlod by tha aulptttwtio 5 
^rpatuilo thi ma* habioui ^ 
orknm ogM wofnan 
iioapo' •«at»frta .t^llhthiVi' 
connlvtMi of iKi moli- ^ 
ralqnalt authoffllloi* In t' 
Mdity tH tun, • ha^and . 

.aitaoii affoo* ^■ 
tlon mi faRhfJ^wlooto' 
Ma wlla li a mnoHipMlbilitr 
and thoia may w «ma 
huabandi who would Mcuto 
tuch a orRavlon» If put 
forward ofthaiM^. In tt« 
matrimonii ©entroct ttwy 
ara aquil m ttatut and thi 
huibandi hava moral AAyto 
catpact Ihilr wtvat with 
faithful tatvio* If thayaxpact 
tha tana fron thair wivat. 
Hara Mma tbapla buiaasyto 
and advlottt 

^dufiitliiv M*y af tha^ 
phB tfMyM nmt •tfendkt'^' 

jtha bi mMud toipMft '" 
iftdhiiidoring thai tlmila. 
jfaet thot Kho Individual ^ 
'pa n a m i m y of • wlliliai 
fnpoitant ia that of a huiband ^ 
itnd - that may be aha ef . 
)tha ' oandftlora imdlit which 
tho - marrKga -ogtaimant 
arrivid otfliy vlituaotwNeh 
thay am dbamad aa huiband 
and wlf«t, lneldintally,thaM 
|» na danying tha fast that a. 
Aivlfa lalauiola«ly and onidu>: 

Mdaty dl e( 
axtandmg dua 

prMtioa dwt 
•ra offemd to taMp thi 

louriv dott hoMthoM wotk fof \ 

teOlo than 15 houft out of ^ 
.4 NMM ovallbMi dManmr 
fdoiMi tM amahmantathat 
fhar hMband oita bywayof 
IdlUno Mt '8 houfb thvaMny 
' umlhM m^lhodl wlth«Mt>^ 
* Qf psrtoMl MgrMdtoimoni; ^ 
httmlDO tht fillow biing^ 
»if iMlng th» liti iottunitt • 
bmtlmfv moilvlfigbritetand' 
othsr ImfciOMpottlt m oompo** 
*^Md'to • pool wito %4io» ' 
•.• Mitlttii wnk* Is ths bMlcboM 


Thtra ait muilAVii vvMch 
. hav« boeo Mttlod ofttr 

eanprcmMng on INb #)ipio« 
ImprsMlon thtk tht Ngh 
school fdll9d Ibnid gIrl'kpQst 
groduito brother ¥rould marry 
tha onglmer bov*t montally 
tr^ircted dttora In thotCMO, 
tho on^lnaor Kmbondmoyi ki 
duo courw, dovolop ■ mnm of 
Hiperlortty comploK wNch 
ood to Inoicpllcablo ogonyi 
anqulih ond suf fortng to his 

pMMM 'df. AlApliMatU. 
^fiAirierity op wpaHortHMf*- 
Bod ooguty lot hoononiui 
.narltol rolotlona. »Miar« 
ioduvatlofv waaftiv family 
bachgroundt boooty<L 
ptolaMlonOi poMms 
Impetanoi Wttt^mj^'t 
^•fooling of mld^ oAnolaaaa 
Vanong tha oouplajbft li 
^itothina but^foeMmtO 
'tNnk about auCh Inflnltoilnal 
ifiattoia aipadaliy whan tha ; 
.■ hMband and wlfa am tha two 
>ldat of tha aama odn 
rvMl brin^giuch oantiovaNlaa 
ito tha day to day affahato 
;.>ttnathlng Inoonyuauaand 
unedilid fat. Tha biftuetuew 
natun of a hMbandMinogbig 
>^Otoaetac alwaya dWUdngNi 
i Doctor a^ ««» *i ^•'wvJj 
^eloM My and onalyriakThla 
^llfa-pOitnata igudbMa o«oty 
now and tlwnnotbaoaifiof 
ft^flfwmelal, famOy or boo*y' 
" ptoMama hut baeouli of tha 
> hiMbMNffe Hdbbom Ottltuda 
In hia lilf-onawmontthil. 
ha to baing givan p woondary 
hnpoilonea by tha piddicia 
thiThMb^id of Ooctat'A ! 
ilnoi Doctor *A' to o vary wall 
known madtai practltkmar 
flf tha elty hnown and 
adotad by tha publioat 
larga dua to har .axoaitont 
aarvlea to tham. Inferiority 
eonptoa, no doubt, gradually ■ 
laadi topaycholo^ealpCQbtoma 
• and taqulroa traabpontin 
mantal haapltato. Lopkaf 
•propor troatmant at a 
' bonafkto pillaf* may agOfov^o 

> tha dtuOtkm ftUlhar Otwlthav 
may matamorpheaa Into a 

> ctwonle MffOiar of tcNxo* 
: phrania or tha Hha* Individual 

habit of comparing fallowman 
or evan tha lifaopartnari and 
.arrhrinq it a wrong condudon 
'oraelf It tha root cause of 
Inviting inferior thinUlnqin 

MaHWilhot « ¥^ 
frlanS^ OM miMO waafthv, 
aduetod baautind oto»ftla 
lnpai«th« to havo.ah fvatoga 
hnwrladgi of onMMI^ana*! 
doflclonolia,' : a«ftl«tonela%; 
lloMltto^ oftite dtewlthoi* 
axaggaibling thaiii*Somo 
pooploa 010 thOM who 
' wm taol' ilwiM dbdK tholr 
* own ahoit-emiM ii oanph- 
: iod to athan oihoy^thaia. 
poo^ di net'hovo nowoh 

and IttdMoui fei yodr day to 
^y auiimi mnl4 llib>Wng 
.aha UdMt of afthor eemtbaaa, 
^ ft to dtoe Inovftabtofartha 
Ufo^ piitnaiii to deal* from 
fli«i^ mtotaftM ond thaiab/ 
MMiIng o«Bh ilhanftwajdd, 

lambdMN* thotojwnapoon 
day* whan t»#y moi«lon^y 
kapt mim ovor thoit IMi* 
paitntM dafaUfta and ihort>. 
.eaolnoi ond ovan lofuwd 
to bafcvo Obout tH outhan- 
;tlefty of tho erftieol lamarha 
.'•xproitad obout oftharof 
tham by soma frtondior 
:.tatatlvO% A» tino POMOto^ 
thi infttol mutual Wvaitatt 
laoidbig ond thay cc ^^ata 
with aach other In War. i 
countor-bioming m\*n 
forgetting tha eurroundbiga 
•vreariy dn thair accuMtlone 
m front af. the cHldiarv 
raiatlvae ind mAdderaon 
mattaif of trivlol natuia. Hei* 
It may ba ramambaiad that 
aaxuai Intaiaat can ba the 
paronount fartor raipbrwit»to 
their dienoe (kiringthe 
hooBwiooo days. 

moto bMpmg In AilndlMt 
oftit 0 fanny bookgroundof 
two 01 thioo dacodi^oni 
antoia Mto thO motltodHfO 
,.Ond 11 woidd bo futltoto 
. parmodb for ehangalntha 
habfta, Oiidtana ond mannaca 
of tha m^-portnat. ft to 
bottor to hovo lalf-ahange 
rothar than moho tha moto to 
ehangit ao os to.adftthallfo- 

', Alwoyd haap .oanfldenea ln 
tha RTO 0iitnir. Both of tham 
mi^ hovo had Uttar ta«aa bi 
Hfa althat bafon or oftor tha 
morrioga lo«own to oaoh other 
or hapt ' aaeiat by one ond 
rumourod eomowhara.ftto 


th» t m in gbm tf «f. bouiittf . to mt ammt^ 

vs ' ~ 

.Uaoi to kooo qiHot on 
■uehmotton and ao nAt try to 
ivilDQit tiMvK wHli • ths 90I9 
'ntontlftfl oil puttifM. tho 
;lito-ptilnw to hwifiMlhg 

ofdoil. In OMO tt» Mo-OMlnit 
to h wab od In ^ 

MMtlk^. Tto . wbtoetmottor 
of lololfrot AouM.bakif* 
owoy Iran out tomilir oftain 
ond oltlvf 'of tl» Qft-portnir 
•hould ovof bring thot 
iubloet for dlto«Milon or 
If you hovo 

to a wolwd In toDio .^uonoto . orwnontib If you howomio 
or orgMiOfllo wUti mw o liod y , tinou iAWao t omhiriwilywih 
olwoyo. a g pi rt, .l«lp ond :tho moto^ orrmgi picnie 

iMrtdl «rtUttlwiMMibto«iiiiTr 
I tho ■ ; llfo« ;[ ^>tn|i t to doing 
• ittnolMnQ'''^MONgf "^Rmo wo 
Mony woy« to Ml ll» mottor 
Cnghi and loMM hondi .wlth 
,.tho ommtoi >iHtiU bo MlebM. 

'OoMporbig tho Wo-poitnir 

^^5£. to bo 

dydWi^'- fWL .tnp Ineoptlon 
-Of MM lilil MMAtovoiy 
.^prollolont . In^ oomputor 
•prapntonliQ: if Mr Bhoi 
' «*nL^Mirptttl«i boFiooie 
i»iro« Mllfllont to- 
^ |ooBot#io . thi 'hoimonbii 
WddMMN bMloo4 *ploy 

ploying OordI «flth tho portnor 
or molntdbi gordMHortha 
lilt** Thi whoto ttoio to 
nA moint ftartho oflloo woHs 
kltohon' duty, bo«b«ond 
rooring of oMIdranolono. 
Ahwoyi bo>v In mbid thoi 
•VMiMo lomorito ogibat oral 
molo oM not uw«CditoaM 
ond of fobto 

_lor lanlly 

of Mli MrtMlli GMtoMbtt 

thi llfti-^nn 
• In toont of 

ttrongtfiin-tho morltol 
rolotlono^ . Commm . onar 
>mtt tofto guinokiAonorly 
non-oi^oalon of lowoond 
offoclton to atoi iMmfuLOn 
,tho olhor homV ipplourivo 
o.K pu pd m iMoidd piy tho 
divldindi to dMOi^li 
,cot» tho 

for thi 

ar»ot ^ _ 

oeeaitoni of oiddtoroitan 
oeour vory ronfy bt Hft ond 
it to tt» Uh ■por tra rt bound»n 
<My to oapiMt tho loyoui 
ooeotlon oolobrotod ond 
•pploudid. Anothtr looton for 
marlttl iiquobbtot to tho 
llfo-portnors dlieufiiir'i 
poftoinlng to tholV Mtotlvoi. 
In our MCtoty* lilotivot hovo 
notNng to do wtth ■ huabwtd 
and wifo • dnoB after tha. 
marrlagB, lalatlvat baconai a 
non-antity as compared 

to JN In-lowi*. ^ 

■" tOMfMng NMOrtca oofi^lod with 
^ booiUng Mriarflon about thatr 
' . onooatrol populorlty 

..fMopoity^ . Ilni^f 

'iro oonoOtno< m may 
conehidi tNtu to on«iiplari«o 
of motrtoionW 

' 4ini^ Whito M 
or QMMonoy 

ot« oouMba 

, ^- tiooSmant/ 

eounaollln» Infldallty ond 
odidtry moy tood to b ra o k o qe 
of tho mnrrioga oontrool. if 
tha lotaHonr oro ktrobwddua 
to poounloryprablam^plannbig 
ond^Jbudyttlnq frowi the 

Kmjly^biidgit^^ ! 
)omily conalitlhg of the 
baia« mfcAnun ehlMionto 
ovoM frietlona. CNhban oia to 
ba brau^ up in a mutuaiiy 
agread mannar and not 
■ccordInQ to ora of the 
partner's «»hkni alone. 

Women entitled to 
half of budget: A Iva 

NEW DELHI, Aug. 2 
A question on the welfare of women 
led to a virtual half an hour discussion 
00 the subject during the Question 
Hour in the Rajya Sabha today, with 
Ministerof State for Women and Child 
Development Margaret AJva respond- 
ing enthusiastically that **we have a 
right to SO per cent of the national 

The question asked by Mr Atal Be* 
haii Vajpayee and Mr Kailash Pati 
Mi&hra (Bharatiya Janata Party) re* 
lated to the National Perspeaive Plan 
for Women. 

In a suppleiTientary query, Mrs 
Kanak Mukherjee (CPI*M) wondered 
whether the Plan would remam in pap- 
er only as it suted that it required no 
extra financial allocation Was it only 
foi propaganda, she asked 

Mrs Alva said there was no need for 
separate allotment of funds for the 
Plan. Each Ministry could take care of 
the portion of the Plan relevant to it 
and pro'^de suitable funds. A separate 
allocation for the perspeaive plan 
would make it appear as if women 
wanted charity. In fact they had a nghi 
to half the national budget. 

Mr Vajpayee said 75 per cent of the 
women were illiterate and their drop- 
out rate from schools was high W ould 
a 30 per cent reservation for women m 
the Panchayats solve the problem, he 

The Minister said bringing women 
to Panchayats or Parliament itself 
would not iolve the problem They 
would have to be associated in the 
decision*making process. 

Mrs Alva announced that theOov. 
emment would soon take a deasion on 
the recommendations coatained m the 
perspective plan and found imple- 
mentable. Oi the 353 recommenda 

HT Correswndent 

tions, about 200 were found accept* 
able. The process of consultations with 
State Governments and other agencies 
was required to be gone through. 

When Mrs Jayanti Naurajan 
(Cbng I) referred to a ''statement** by 
BJP member Vijaya Raje Scindia in 
favour of Sati praaice, Mr Vajpayee 
protested that one should not go by 
Press reports Mrs Naiarajan said she 
could withdraw her comment if Mr Va- 
jpayee maintained that the reports 
were inconect. 

Mrs Alva said it was true that a 
member did sa> something on Sati and 
it was widel) reported She said that 
law provided that a member could not 
propagate the practice. 

- 22 - 

'Change ui social 
attitude needed' 

BOMBAY. My 15 (PTi): Noted film 
Mres& and winner of the internation- 
al human rights a^ar\ Shabana 
Azmi. today called for a change in the 
social attitudes to end human riglitt 

A constant and concerted effort 
should be made to strip tradition off 
iu legitimacy whererver it resuhed w 
discriminatory labour, Ms 
replying to a felicitation at a function 
held here. 

Ms Azmi said she believed tha; 
violations of human rights could takv 
many forms. It could be violated 
Internationally by individuals as 
when a person is denied entry to a 
eating house on racial grounds or can 
be structural like when a worker is 
rendered unemployed by force of 
market mechanisms*, she said. 

Social and structural denials of hu- 
man rights of workers, especially ot 
the migrant workers, of women, of 
the minority communities and of chil* 
dren. were *universal\ she added. 

Ms Azmi said India was the largest 
.democratic country in the world and 
the 10th largest industrialised nation, 
but it was also tnie that more than 40 
crore people were living below the 
poverty line and the number of *work- 
mg* children in the country was more 
er less the same a$4he total popula- 
tion of Britain. 

She said: **On one hand women are 
worshipped as deities having supreme 
powers and on the other there were 
700 dowry deaths in Delhi alone last 

Azmi also referred about the *other 
ways* of violations of human righis 
when ^obsolete and hazardous tech* 

iK>k>gy is thrust upon people, when 
multi-national corporations exploit iis 
cheap labour market, foist dangerous 
drugs banned in the west, upon an 
ignorant but captive marker. 

Concluding that human rights could 
not be discussed in a vacump. Azmi 
said everyone should pause to ques* 
tion the * value system that created 
inequal balances and power struc- 

The function was prrsidec'. over h\ 
Ihe Minister of Industry. Mr Rimran 

') ? 

- 23 - 


Women protest 
sexual abuse 

WOMEN employees of 
the Chandigarh Union 
territory administration 
have threatened to launch a 
stir if action is not taken 
against officials allegedly in- 
volved in cases of sexual 
abuse and hairassment, re- 
ports TOINS from Chan* 
disarh. ^ 

The UT Women Employees* 
Welfare Association 
(UTWEWA) has served a 15* 
day notice on the adminis* 
iratioi) to secure them justice or 
ftce the consequences. The as- 
aociation has also decided to 
apprise the Prime Minister^ Mr 
FUyiv Gandhi, of the plight of its 

The association president^ 
Mrs Haninder Jewandha, and 
iu Kcneral secretary, Mrs Kuldip 
Sodhi, have alfefMl that women 
employees are not safe during 
office houre. They dted the 
alkted rape of 1 0 ayahs workina 
under the district education oi- 
fkcr. Some male employees are 
alleged to have taken these 
ayahs to Maloya VDIagr on the 
pretext of getting them appoint- 
ment (etten. The women were 
allegedly raped in the village. 

They also dted another case 
where two women employees 
were allegedlyraped in the office 
of an IAS official who was on 
leave. The culpriu were the 
offidaTt personal staff. They 
alltted that though the police 
raided the office and cauuit the 
culprits red-handed, no mrther 
action was taken against them. 

Women traffic cops 
storming another 
male bastion 

5 NEWDELHIJuly 16 (PTI): Women 
; oops now regulate traffic at some of 
the busiest intersections in the capital 
storming yet another traditional male 

These women cops, sman* ^n- 
trolling the movement of iraftK ind 
holding sway in both sweltering heat 
and chilly mornings, have fought it 
the hard way to overcome famil> 
compulsions and demolish myths ab- 
out their social and rural back- 

About ten such women constables 
are posted ai some of most overbur- 
dened aossings of the city, whose 
roads are jammed with an estimated 
1.4 DiiUion vehicles. 

- 24 - 


I I 

Women s work still 

JOMBAY, July 16 (UNI) 

HOW often do men say, ••In 
our family women do not 

Th»< undervaluation of women*s 
work h4s built up a value system in 
the country that recognises wor jen as 
primarily domestic workers anJ thus 
onl> ^^supplementary earners'' in the 
labour market 

Acconling to Dr Vibbuti Patel, a 
social scientist workina in the field of 
women studies, the lack of recog 
nition and appreciation of women s 
work has led to prejudice against 
their role and contribution in society. 
These prejudices, in turn, have 
slotted women, alreadv low on their 
self-image« info a lower secondary 
status and that justifies their being 
paid low wages. 
Thus the female labour force is 
{regarded merely •*as an auxiliarv 
j labour force to be hired last dunng 
i periods of eccoom.; upsurge and to 
be fired first during penods of econ- 
j omic recessions/* 

I Dr Pate! has criticised the 
dichotomy posed between social and 
: domestic labour and subsequently 
industrial and household production 
and called for such an assessment of 
women*s economic contribution to 
sodet> that takes into cognisance the 
borderline activities between house- 
work and economic work which the 
majonty of third world women do 
According to her, the housework 
that women do like cookings cleaning 
and child care, among others that are 
vital for the subsistence of the family 
and take up a major part of the day. 
arr not treated as economicaJN pro- 
ductive And even if, alongside thetr 
usual houseworks women do **pro- 
ductive work*' that directly or in- 
direaly contribute to hmxly income, 
this is generall) lost sight of by all. 

Ho%vever, at the same time, men 
; working within the household are not 
i^ored and are included in the 
labour force even if the) are doing 
-non-wage** work. 

This happens because at times 
women s own perception of their role 
in household production, although 
they may be highly economicaHv 
acuve, IS similar to that of new. They 
--"go along with the presumption that 
- men are the natural heads of the 
household and women the sup- 
plementar) wage earners, even 
thou|;h they may be the sole 
providers for their fiimilies. 

According to Dr Joy Deshmukh, 
such biases arise due to the b>pas$ing 
of the inter.relationships within the 

household which is never treated as 
a unit for but only as a unit of 

The household must be treated as 
an aretia of activity so that tmditional 
definitions and approaches are alter- 
ed and the disunce between ftcts and 
presumption bridged effectively. 

Emphasising the need to make the 
household an objea of study, Dr 
I>shmukh uys the household more 
often than not conceals the beginning 
of gender based inequalities — econ- 
omic, social or cultural ^ with 
women at the wrong end of the 

A study of the households as a unit 
jl can throw light on women^s lives and 

work as different households accord 
women different statuses and the 
type and strucmre of the household 
ulumaieK har a bearing on that 
status. Of course, this sutus \% con- 
oealcd m issues related to women^s 
fertility, work productivity, authonts 
ann mVnrndence. 

- 25 - 

Giving 'Women the upper hand 

ATWI^ tfid » punch and 
she throws him to the 
VXHind, unconacious. UntU re^ 
c«ntly« the ikir sex setting the 
better tir their male Gountefparts 
In a brawl was rather difficult to 
imagine. However, women can 
now pay eve-temsers. robbers and 
members of their dan back in 
their own coin by the apparently 
. effoitless manoeuvres of Judo 
and karate. 

The •^aelf ^lefence^V couiws 
started by the Delhi »|ic^ will 
enable a smooth journey for wo> 
men on buses and on Delhi roads. 

In south-west Delhi» the judo- 
karate cmse is catching on like 
wUdfire. Neariy 1.000 girls have 
been enrolled for these classes in 
less than 6 centres since the 
launching of this programme o« 
June 10. 

Every morning and evenii\g the 
local parks in Janakpuri Maya* 
pun, R K. Puram and Vinay 
Naga^ ore swarming with bud- 
4ng female Bfuce Lees, being 
trained in the martial arts. 

*^e had to close admissions 
and ejctend the course up to July 
10. on public request said the 
senior Special Police Officer of It 
K, Purwi. 

*JkJo and karate needs concents 
ration, an alert mind and quick 
reflexes. It is actually a few tricks 
one has to remember to render 
the other person ^helpless. When 
the weak points in a body are 
known controlling movement is 
not difficult 

The programme was launched 
last month with a view to incul- 
cate self<onfidence among wo- 
men, rrhis will enable the wo* 
men to defend themselves from 
everyday harasimtenV* s^ Mr 
A. S. Khan« Deputy Commission- 
er of Police. South-West district 
Even housewives or elderly wo- 
men, if properly trained, can pre- 
vent ds^lieht robberies and ap- 
prehend inttuders, he said. 

However, most of those enrol- 
led are young girls aged between 
6 and 25* al lost all of them stu- 

^ytOM will not only help us to 
move ebout freely but also to pro- 
tect other women*** says Jasleen 
Nanda« a student 

t>r Khan Is however keen to 
have more housewives on his 

By a Staff Reporter 

Women at a self-defence training class at R K. Puram, New Delhi 

^ ^ The Statesman* 

Housewives are inobabty m< 
lerested. but they feel the timing 

But for Bimla Passi, an 


ployee of the P & T department 
timings are no obstacle. **I leave 
office at I p.m. -and make it a 
point to be here by MO p.m.. she 
says. She feels learning judo and 
karate is not only a weapon for 
self-defence but a sport in itself. 

Her enthusiasm is shaied by 
other participants, ^hie Delhi 
Police should approach all the 
schools to make courses like this 
compulsory for girls, suggests 

This is easier said than done 
^'It is intriguing and rather unfor- 
tunate that a programme like this 
evoked response only from the 
educated upper middle class.** 
said Mr Khan< Jaslcen*s sugges- 
tion is supported by a large 
number ct enthusiastic parMts. 
who come to watch the rehearsals 
everyday. •Of these courses are 
started in achools then we won*t 
have to come here everyday to 
drop and pick up our daughters.* 
said a gentleman who comes all 
the way from IIT with his daugh- 
ter, waits for an hour and th^n 
takes her bKk. 

However, there stil] are parents 
who are deterred by distances, 
and stil] others who t>alk at the 
idea of their daughters being 
trained by male coaches. Hius* it 
is imperative that the Idea should 

ilx^ be accepted by families. 

If this programme in aouth- 
west Delh. is successful then 
steps woul<i be taken to begin 
these in all conrununity centres or 
even health clubs, female 
coaches would be provided and 
other facilities made available. At 
present, of course, only en- 
thusiasm amd determination can 
carry coaches aiM participants 

Only a few coaches from Sports 
Authority of India, Jawaharlal 
Nehru Stadium and a few others 
have volunteered to train the stu- 
dents free of cost Mr Shiv Kumar 
Kohli. a'lecord holder in judo and 
a c«Mch at JaiuJcpuri and Vinay 
Nagar. ^thused. tlon't mind 
putting in some money trom my 
own pocket if I bring out talent in 
some students. A few of them re- 
ally have it** 

However, a coach at R K. 
Puram does not totally i^gree. 
What do minor children know 
about self-defence? They join the 
classes for the Am of it The moti- 
vation is greatest among those 
who have actually been harassed 

The DCP admiU th«.i uniforms 
would make it all look formal. 
But finar>cia] constraints ark! 
other irregularities have all cont- 
rived to make the classes resem- 

ble a fancy dress show. 

Whatever the drawt>acks and 
the shortcomings of the scheme, 
it h%s taken a lot of effort on the 
part of police to motivate even a 
handftil of pMple. They went 
door to door on an awareness 
campaign. Then they had meet- 
ings with the SPOs and the wel- 
flue association to initate the 
programme. The Delhi Police has 
now decided to give certificates 
at the etid of the session. ^'After 
all they need an incenUve too." 
the organizers say. 

The efforts of the poUce will 
finally be awarded if and when 
these trained women come to us 
with a smile on their faces and an 
ofTenu.r dragging behmd them. 
It might take some time for 
others but Bimla has already 
done it A f^ days of coaching 
have already made her confident 
enough to embarrass a ruffian 
and give him a blow or tv.o. Re^ 
countmg the incident Simla said 
she had maiu^ed to punch an 
eve-tes'jer on his nose and virtu- 
ally tiirow him out of the bus 
Had it not been for others, the 
ruffian Vould have been in the 
hospital by now. she says with a 
smile on her f^. That would 
surely raise the morale of the 
police officers. 

- 26 - 



Oh Calcutta, the City of Joy, is soon to celebrate its 300th birthday. After 
seeing Calcutta one can wonder how did it manage to reach that nurnber. And, like 
many of its American urban counterparts, I'm not s'jre how many more years that city 
will have until more and more of its infrastructure collapses under the weight of 
its population's deanands. Dcminic LaPierre's book entitled The City of Jo;^' is n 
wonderfully written book describing this city. To call it a City of Joy is truly 
cm oxymoron. I have placed several excerpts in Volume 2 of this project. Ttie pago^ 
that follow contain pictures of Calcutta that appeared in a Calcutta weekend supple 
ment - they're typical scenes. 


FOR Robert Cllve, who saw Calcutta a little after Its birth, the city which 
will soon celebrate Its tricentenary, was "the most wicked place m the 
universe". In cjarly 19th centuryVWifliam Bentwick, found "the specta- 
cle of Calcutta altogether the most curious and magniticent I have met 
with". In t\ . same century, Rudyard Kipling said It was "the city of 
dreadful night". Mark Twain, who lectured In Calcutta In 1896, felt CaK 
cutta IS "enough to make a brass- doorknob mushy". And, it is said, Lenin 
had proclaimed that "the road to world revolution lies through Peking, 
Shanghai and Calcutta". In more modern times, a book calling It the City 
of Joy became a best-seller. Her& are some vignettes of the city, scenes 
which are unlikely to change after decides. The not so affluent, joyful part 
of Calcutta. But, nevertheless, a part of. the city. 







Forty years young and also thousands of years old - an interesting pl?y on 
numbers - modern India ^ rx)st ijtperialismr after the Rajr is a new natioi industrial- 
izing ^ looking out to the future ^ and growing in strength). 

I suppose one could look at India as an old civilization, ebbing and flowing, 
like the cycles of life - expanding r contracting^ with cycles measured in terms of 
centuries or perhaps generations; Harajpan, Gupta r Mauyra were Indian empires all - 
and we know (at least I know) very little about these. 

India is feeling its political , economic, or military oats. She is still some- 
what preoccupied with her Moslem rival, Pakistan; but a few years back India's 
suf^rt of Bangladesh's independence movement cert. ^ inly weakened her arch ereirry. 
Nepal r Sikkim, and Bhutan havv^ been enveloped, absorbed, and made satellites to a 
varying degree; only Nepal has maintained a degree of autonomy. Recent inclinations 
(overtures) to Red China incurred the wrath of Mother India - articles so noting that 
follow. Sri Lanka is another story. Eons ago Indian Tamils migrated to Sri Lanka 
seeking work. These industrious people helped to futher the development of this island 
nation. As a minority the Tamils were persecuted by the native majority Sinhalese. 
There are obvious parallels to other inmigrant groups the world over. India, perhaps in 
coveting this island, either encouraged or didn't discourage native Tamil separatist 
movements both in India and in Sri Lanka. (Itje Tamil separatists are quite fractional- 
ized, and they have been known to turn on thonselves as much and as easily as on 
the government controlled majorit'* Sinhalese.) India used the unrest to send a peace- 
keeping force here - sound familiar. Some 2J00 deaths later, the IPKF is being 
gradually pulled out. It's an election year in India (1989-1990). 

Several activities come to mind in using the material in this section. 

A) Ccirpare India today as a young 40 year old nation to the USA at a similar stage. 
In our e^arly years we added Louisiana 1803, pushed the CheroKee Nation into 
Florida, and got Texas and cur southwest through a series of wars cind near wars 
with Mexico; this compares to India in S. Asia with Nepal and Sri Lanka. 

B) India and Sri lanka^ U.S. and Vietnam - any parallels, any differences. 

C) Role playing offers you an excellent opportunity to get students involved; a.ssign 
students to be the foreign minister of Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal, and India. 
Have thaTi express their nation *s points of view vis a vis each other. 

D) Have the students compare India and Chiina in S. Asis to the U.S. and U.S.S^R, cn 
the world scene. Differences in governroent, €<x)nomic approach and tho whr 'tiling 
and dealing for control in an area are good parallels to use. 


- 41 - 


An area of discord 

India's confrontation with Sri Lanka leads to the cancellation of the 
SAARC foreign ministers' meeting and throws South Asia into disarray 

South Asian politics is the art 
of the impossible. At least as 
far as India is concerned. 
And the result: mid-1989 
finds India's regional di- 
I plomacy touching new lows with the only 
I m^jor SAARC (South Asian Association 
for Regional Cooperation) country not 
I openly hostile to Big Brother being 
Pakistan. vn\o would have thought that 
Pakistan, traditionally always at k>gger* 
I heads with India, would be its closest 
: ally in South Asia? And even a year back* 
how many could predict that India's most 
bitter critics in the region would be its 
king-standing friends— Sri Lanka and 

Last December, when leaders of ttie 
iieven member countries of SAARC 
posed for the world media at Daaman^- 
koh. a picturesque retreat in the Mar- 
ghala Hills near Islamabad during the 
fourth summit, it seemed as if this 
regional grouping^derided by cynks as 
a mere "talk*shop*'--was finally fulfilling 
its laudable objectives. After all, it had 
brought Rajiv Gandhi and Benazir Shut* 
to. heads of two countries considered 
sworn enemies in the region, to the 
negotiating table. It was the first time in 
almost three decades that an Indian 
Prime Minister had visited Pakiftt^^i-^ 
never before had leaders of these two 
co»intries established such a good rap- 
port in so short a time. As the beaming 
faces of 44-year-ok) Rajiv and 35-year* 
oM Benazir stared out from TV screens 
and newspapers wrote about the almost 
conspiratorial smiles the two exchanged 
at the joint press briefing on the final day 
of the sur^miu it kx>ked like the begin- 
ning of a new, and dramatic, chapter in 

But recent events gave a handle to 
SAARC's critics to scream that th^ 
organisation was just a *'mirage'\ Hope- 
of South Asian unity were shattered a;» 
Sri Lanka announced that it wouM not 
attend the foreign ministers' conference 
scheduled to begv) on 1 July at lslanio!>ad 
in protest against -India's intransi- 
geno^"". In a six-page letter to his 
Pakistani counterpart Sahebzada Yaqub 
Khan (copies of which were distributed 
to aU other foreign ministers assembled 
at Islamabad), Ranjan Wijeratne, the Sri 
Lankan foreign minister, said that his 

country's decision to stay away was a 
protest gesture to highlight its differ* 
ences with India on the question of 
withdrawal of the IPKf*' (Indian Peace 
Keeping Force) from Sri Lankan soil. 

Sri Lanka's adamant stand led to the 
canceDatk)n of the first day's sesskm of 
the SAARC senior officials' meeting, 
creating a record of torts. It was the 

standing coronittee of foreign secretar- 
ies and council of ministers. conipnsiriK 
the foreign ministers of the seven na- 

Telephone trunk lines amonf; the 
SAARC capitals buzzed incessantly as 
frantic efforts were made to persuade 
Cobmbo to revise its decision. Pakistan, 
the current head of SAARC, apparentJv 

8AARC aummtl: basically, H Is lnd)a*s party 

first time since SAARC's birth in De- 
cember 1985 at Dhaka that the commit* 
tee of senkyr officials had been unable to 
hoM its sittings prior to those of the 

The boycott of the 
SAARC meet was the 

most dramatic of 
the gestures through 

which Sri Lanica has 
sought to 

internationalise its 
differences with India 

over the continued 
presence of the iPKF 
on the island 

suggested that India issue a statement 
placating Sri Lanka, but India was deter* 
mined not to bow to pressure. A foreign 
office spokesman told pressmen in New 
Delhi on 26 June, "We refui- to accept 
such blatant vk)latk>ns of the SAAKC 
charter, especially Article 11. which 
clearly states that bilateral and conten- 
tknjs issues shall be excluded from 
SAARC deliberatk>ns. We appreciate 
the concern of Sri Lanka, but this should 
not have stood in the way of its participa- 
Xion in the Islamabad meeting. ' 

As the SAARC charter stipulates that 
all decisions have to be taken unani- 
mously. Pakistan aniKHinced the post- 
ponement of the ministerial meet. The 
ensuing crisis, though the gravest, is. 
however, by no means the orSy orie in its 
tour-year-oid history. The road to re 
gional cooperation in South Asu has 
always been riddled nith pitfalls De 

- 42 - 

spite stipulations in the asscxsation's 
charter that bilateral issues would not 
come under its purview, the latter have 
often come in the way of the organisa* 
tion*s smooth functioning. As a senior 
diploniat of a SAARC country posted in 
New Delhi toM Sunday, *Unlike other 
regional groupings, like the ASEAN or 
the EEC, the SAAJtC does not have a 
convnon threat perception. Again, un- 
like the first two, there are vast discre* 
pancies within its member states. India 
is a giant with pygmies all around. And 
India is also the only country in the 
association which has common borders 
with the other countries.. » In SAARC, 
instead of a common ihreat perception, 
there is suspicion of mutual threat../' 

The recent boycott was the most 
dramatic of the gestures through which 
Sri Lanka has sought to internationalise 
its differences with India. In May 1985. 
at the Thimpu meeting of foreign minis- 
ters, Sri Lanka had alleged that Tamil 
militants were operating from bases in 
India and threatened to stay away from 
the conference. At the eleventh hour, it 
was pers\iaded by the host. King Jigme 
Wanchuk, to attend. 

Then again in June 1987, when the 
SAARC foreign ministers were to meet 
in Delhi, Sri Lanka objected to India 
unilaterally sending food supplies to 
Jaf6ia. RiQiv personally spoke to the then 
presklent, Junius Jayewardene. to en- 
sure his country's presence at the coun- ] 

cil of ministers in the Indian c?.\>:\:: 

The immediate fall-out of tht. j. 
ponement of the foreign minister- r: 
is the prospect of a headlt-^- S\AKv. 
secretariat. The term of th^ priM:;: 
secretary-general, Abu! Ha?an of Iv.- 
ladesh, expires in mid-July His v.u^ ^ < 
sor has to be chosen by then. .A: «.: . 
stage, Sri Lanka had been rep<»nic . 
asked whether it would endor?t dv. 
sions taken at Islamabad even \! it >ij. k 
to its stand of sta>Tng away frum tht 
ministerial meeting. However, accur n 
ing to diplomatic sources m New Ik-II: 
it dijd not agree to this. Last week, 
the impasse at Islamabad continued, tht 
Sri Lankan high commissioner in I)elh:. 
Dr Stanley Kalpage, a former chemj>tr.* 

Unlikely friends, likely conflicts 

Who's afraid of a Siachen agreement? 

The Lankans want out of the 
accord they signed with such 
Canfare only two years ago. The 
Nepalese believe that Big Brother 
wants to starve them. And the Bang* 
ladeshis remain intensely suspicious 
of their one-time 'liberator'. Thzi 
leaves India and Pakistan as the un- 
likeliest friends in the subcontinent, 
and both R^giv Gandhi and Benazir 
Bhutto spare no efiort to broadcast 
their new-found harmony. 

The problem with unlikely 
friendships, alas* is that they ignore 
an too likely areas of conflict So it 
has been with India and Pakistan. 
Both countries have armies eyeball- 
ing eadi other on either side of the 
border at 8ub*zero temperatures in 
the Siachen giader As the a^der is 
of no use to anyone (There is not a 
blade of grass there,"* the late Gexi 
Zia-ul Haq sak) in 1985), the whole 
thing is no more than a prestige 
issue. And prestige issues can never 
be easily resolved 

Last iymtiu anempis to talk away 
the differences led to a fiasco, with a 
diptomatic rebuke for Pakistan fore- 
ign secretary Humayun Khan and 
egg aO over the £sce of his Indian 
counterpart, S.K. Sngh. 

After talks between the foreign 
secretaries and defence secretaries 
of the two countries were over, 
KJian and Singh decided to address 
the media. Both agreed that the talks 
h;.d gone weO and Khan added that 

the two countries would withdraw 
their armies to the 1972 positbns. 
S.K. Singh seemed happy with this 
statement and the next day, this 
'agreement' made the bea %es. 
Score one for good neighbourliness. 

Not quite. The very next day, the 
external affairs ministry put its offi- 
cial spokesman up to denying that 

The problem wKh 
unlikely friendships* 
it that they ignore 

likely areas of 
Pakistan and India, 

whose armies 
eyeball each other 
on either side of the 
border at Siachen 

any agreement had been reached. 
But surely, Sm^ had gone dkmg 
with Khan*s claim ^ No, said the 
spokesman, he had simply not con- 
tradicted it. 

Bizarre enough. But there was 
more. The stateoDent issued after 
the defence secretaries* meeting 
suggested that there had been a 

breakthrough: "There wij? 
agreement... based on deplo>7nen* of 
forces... so as to conform with thi 
Shimla Agreement." This suK^jt^itc! 
that India had accepted Bena^n ^ 
claim that the reutions between tht- 
two countries should be governed by 
the 1972 Shimla Agreement and 
strengthened Khan s contention. 

So what had happened? Tht- 
answer s'^ems to be that India and 
Pakistan lud agreed to pull back from 
Siachen and from the pointless con- 
flict (initiated by India in 1984). But 
no dates were set and India wanted it 
done quietly. Khan, however, 
thou^t that this was a good way to 
get some domestic acclaim for Be- 

On ths Slachsn b9f4m: a prtttigs issus for both sides 

SUNDAY • - U «m 



professor* was asked at a public function 
whether Sri Lanka would continue to 
boycott all future meetings of the 
SAARC. Kalpage replied. "I cannot 
answer your question. Only Presklent 
Premadasa can do that" 

Since no dedsions involving the asso- 
ciation can be taken unless aO seven 
member nations agree, it is not dear 
how the next secretary -general will be 
selected. A lot. of course, will depend on 
Abul Hasan's scheduled visit to Colombo 
in the first week of July and whether he 
will be able to impress upon the Sri 
Lankan government the urgency of hold- 
ing the p^tponed ministerial nneeting 
soon so that SAARC's functioning is not 
disrupted. For instance, the budget for 

nazir and announced that even on 
Siachen India had accepted the Shrni- 
la formula suggested by her. 

The problem is that India went 
past the 1972 boundaries in 1984 
(arguing that she had a legal claim) 
and so Khan's assertion sounded 
suspidously like saying that the Indi- 
ans had agreed to retreat. Obviously 
S.K. Sink's political masters could 
not accept that and hence, the re* 
tractions and recriminations. 

However, neither skle has cancel- 
led the next defence seaetaries* 
meeting. So perhaps the Siachen 
conflict will be de-escalated, even- 
tuaDy. Only, both countries will be 
more discreet this time. 

Railv Gandhi with B«nailr Bhutto; unllktly friends 

the SAARC Agricultural Information 
Centre in Bangladesh has to be 
aj^roved so that the programmes do not 
gmd to a halt. 

But the most important aspect of Sri 
Lanka's recent boycott is the ques- 
tions it has thrown up about the norms 
governing the beha\iour of member 
countries o^ SAARC. "The question is 
whether there should be a common 
norm of behaviour in the South Asian 
region. Or should there be one conven- 
tion for a big countr>* and another for 
snuUer countries. India was invited by 
Sri Lanka. Now the host is asking the 
guest to ieave. but the guest is refusing. 
The question is; shouM India justly its 
actions by setting its own niles that 
contradict universally-accepted noims of 
inter-state relations?** wonders a New 
Delhi-based diplomat of a SAARC 

The Sri Lankan hi^ commissioner, 
Dr Kalpage. asserted at a recent meet* 
ing of the Indo-Sri Lankan Cultural 
CcMincil. "There is no attempt to wreck 
SAARC. There was no attempt to 
embarrass India. We were simply not in 
a mood to attend th^ meeting (at Islama- 
bad)." He also noted. ''If we had inten- 
tions of raising the issue of IPKF 
withdrawal at the SAARC meeting, we 
would have obvkHisly attended it. The 
dedsion to stay away was a gesture of 
protest. My foreign minister wrote to 
his Pakistani counterpart not to say that 
Sri Lanka wants to disrupt the meeting. 
The letter merely said that we have a 
problem with India; we understand that 
SAARC meetings are not meant for 
raising bilateral issues, but because of 
present circumstances. t>ecause of what 
he termed 'India's intransigence*, we 
would like to make a symbok protest 
...We know we are not in a position to 
sort out our problem with India by force. 

President Premadasa believes in non- 
violence. And the protest gesture was tu 
express our people's anguish and aiiKVt. 
like Mahatma Gandhi's satya^aha." 

Was Sri Lanka's protest gesture war- 
ranted? New Delhi's position is as un- 
compromising as Sri Lanka's. "S.-VAKC 
has to take a firm dedsion on whether it 
will allow any one countr>- to act in a 
petulant manner and bnng the whole 
organisation into disrepute." say South 
Block offidals firmly, India asst r*^ that it 
"will not be browbeaten though it unll 
not do anything to "break SAARC 
^*ew Delhi has also made it dear to 
Pakistan that as the current head of 
SAARC. it is that countr\'*s responsibil- 
ity to diffuse the current tpn;Mun. 
"SAARC is Pakistan's baby right now 
Surety, it does not want the baby to die 
in her owrn lap." said an Indian oftVial. 
Another pointed out that "even on 
previous occasions. Sn Lanka had 
threatened to boycott SAARC meetin>:>. 
but had been eventually persuaded to 
attend. If Sri Lanka (ersists with u> 
current stand, it would only mean that 
Pakistan does not have enough clout/' 

The current imbroglio has also given 
S,\ARC critics the chance lo once again 
claim that the organisation is nothinK but 
a forum which offered "opportunities to 
other countries to gang up against 

Originally, it was Bangladesh's ide.i 
to set up an organisation to prom 
ote South Asian regional cooperation 
Bangladesh had been having pT()blem> 
with India over water-shanng and Farak- 
k.r And it thought that a forum tike 
SAARC woiild help its cause as it could 
be used to exert moral pressure on 
India. Indu^a Candhi was not keen on the 
idea, but eventually agreed, after a great 
deal of persuasion b\ the late Ran>t- 
ladesh President Zia ur Kehman 

- 44 - 



Big Brother gets angty 

The humiliation of Nepal is almost complete 

India seems to be the only one to 
have gained from the massacre at 
Tiananmen Square and the resulting 
chaos in China. With Asia's biggest 
power at war with itsdf, super India 
has found its position considerably 
strengthened Nowhere is this more 
apparent than in its dealings with the 
Hijnalayan kingdom itf NqpaL 

While both sides offer long and 
tedious justifications, the dispute is 
really over Nepal's attempts to free 
itself ofits dependence on India. The 
Nepalese had begun courting the 
Chinese, had tried to reduce imports 
from Incfia and had made other asser- 
tions of independence. 

Such moves did not go down weD 
with Big Brother. India retaliated by 
telling land-iodced Ne|»I that it could 
only have transit rights if it agreed to 
dub these with trade. 'When the 
Nepalese seemed hesitant, imports 
;0f fuel and other vital sulkies from 
India dried up and aD transit pointSt 
except for two, were boarded up» 

Nepal called the Indian move a 
blockade and warned, through grit* 
ted teeth, that it wouk) suffer tem- 
poraiy hardshq) but when the block* 
ade was over, woukl md up in the 
Chinese sphere of influence. 

India imfgned away the threat and 
now^ South Bkxk is in hysterics. 
With China in upheaval, the Nepalese 
find that their problems are of no 
cr«*se<|uence to BeQing and have re- 
vun^ cap in hand, to New Delhi 

ine mandarins at South Bk>ck 
have been cooL They took a month 
and a half to reply toa letter from the 
Nepalese foreign ministry requesting 
talks, and ignored four reminders 
from Kathmandu. New Delhi has 
been advised by Arvind Deo, its can- 
ny ambassador to Nepal, that King 

Birendra cannot hold out for kmg. 
After a few weeks (rffli0(g*waving. the 
Nepalese have begun blaming their 
King for the ahortages of essential 
commodities. Five student groups 
have urged the Nepalese Prime 
Minister to settle and the banned 
NqmH Coi^gress is usiiv the discon- 

leaders of its member countries for 
'informal consultations*. The Rajiv- 
Benazir t^te-d*tite at Daaman-e-Koh in 
P^stan signalled the beginning of a new 
era in bilateral relations. 

Bangladesh, as the originator of the 
SAAKC kiea, is naturally womed abc^ut 
the future of the organisation and was 
upset about the cancellatton of the 
ministerial meet at Islamabad. Its fore- 
ign minister, Anisu) Islam Mahniud. 
declared in Dhaka that the postpone- 
ment of the conference was likeU tu 
hamper the functioning of SA.ARC\ 
Malvnud temied the circumstances tha 
led to the cancellation as "most undesir- 

waftlfi0 far Mm li^ ooma afoufitf 

tent to launch a movement against 

At {M'esent, the betting is that 
New Delhi will wait till Nepal is de* 
sperate and then force its terms on 
Kathmanda In the process, it will 
probably alienate the Nepalese but 
then, isn't that whsLt being a regional 
super power is aO about 

SAARC was bom in December 1985 at 
Dhaka. There is some substance in the 
charge that SAARC has not progressed 
beyond fringe issues and token ges* 
tures, such as declaring 1989 as *SAARC 
year against drug abuse' and 1990 as 
'SAARC year of the giri chikl\ 

Of course, there has t>een greater 
cuhural interaiction between the member 
countries and several agreements have 
t>een signed such as the conventkv) on 
suppressk>n of terrcrism and the South 

Asian food security reserve. But the 
most important issues, whkh are inevit- 
ably bilateral in nature (and thus out of 
bounds according to the SAARC char* 
ter), have not been thrashed out At 
SAARC meets, leaders have refigkMsty 
proclaimed that the fonim is ' meant to 
emphasise what binds the seven coun* 
tries rather than what divides them. 

SAARC's real contribution, however, 
as a dipk)mat of a member country* 
pointed out, is the opportunity it offers 

able*' and said that efforts should be 
made to convene the meeting at the 

Will SAARC survive the latest set- 
back? A dipk>mat of a SAARC countr> 
noted.'*South Asian regk>nal cooperation 
without India has no meaning. And South 
Asian regk^ cooperation with India in a 
positkm to exert pressure on smaller 
countries has no meaning.'* President 
Jayewardene in an emotional speech at 
Islamabad during the last SAARC sum* 
nut called India the ^'key to SAARC *. 

At an international SAARC workshop 
in Dhaka on 24 March. 1988, there was 
unanimous expression of concern about 
India's **pre-eminence'* in the region. 

Most of India's neighbours are suspi- 
cious of itsjnotives and. at the same 
time, conscious of its power and influ- 
ence. Unless India inspires confidence m 
its smaller nei^bours. regional coopera- 
tkm in South Asia will be only a concept. 
ix)t a reality. 

rMraleWM OiatterJe# ^ew O9M 


i» *M9 


- 45 - 




Relations between India and Sri Lanka plummet to an all-time 
low as President Premadasa copes with internal strife 

It was as if there no cause for 
despair. During al] of last week — 
save a short helicopter hop to 
attend Cabinet in Colombo — 
President Ranasinghe Premadasa 
was cosily ensconced in the hill town of 
Mahiyangana, which lies east of the 
capital. There, as Sri Lankan television 
captured in vivid detail, a smiling Presi- 
dent parcelled out goodies to grateful 
and fawning villagers, listened intently to 
their problems and affectionately 
tweaked little chil^ . ears. 

PrenoadaSi^ wai ^arly ei^oying him- 
self. For Gam Udawa— the ll*year-old 
village rehabilitation scheme thai aims at 
devebping a different region of the 
island every year— is his Very own baby. 
Premadasa has overseen the scheme 
with religious devotion and this year's 
Gam Udawa was all the more special 
being his first as President. Premadasa, 
it seemed, was in no mood to trade in lus 
'pastoral pilgrimage' for politics. 

Yet. it was politics that occupied the 
minds of his people. For during the 
11 -day Gam Udawa festivities. Sri Lanka 
slipped into what could become the most 
serious crisis it has ever faced. On the 
diplomatic front, India's response to the 
President's demand that the Indian 
Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) go home 
by the end of July was unfriendly. The 
Indians made it dear that there was no 
way the IPKF would leave by that 
deadline and that Sri Lankan 'black- 
mail --such as its decisk>n to stay away 
from the SAARC foreign ministers' 
meeting at Islamabad— woddn't work. 
Worse— at least from Premadasa 's point 
of view— was the Indian reaction to his 
demand that the IPKF call off its opera- 
tions against the Liberation Tigers of 
Tamil Eelam (LTTE). The answer once 
again was *no way*. Moreover, there 
was T¥\ let-up in the Indian army's 
recent.> intensified offensive against the 
Tamil militant organisation. Last week's 
official Tig,er count read: 52 dead (poss- 
ibly a rec ord of sorts) The fear is that 
the negotiations currently under way 

SUNDAY 9-1* >.v i0t» * " " 

^PfSiratfsis and 

alv Oaf>dhl (lntM9ji 
vrflhdfawal 0^ Indian 
troops, as tt« IPKF 
alsps up Ks offsnshM 
against ths LTTE 

- 46 - 


The origms of Sri Lmkan TMmil 
mibtancy have not been adequately 
understood and remain somewhat 
obscure. In the early Seventies, the 
Tamil Manavi Peravi, better known 
as the TamU Youth Front (TYFl was 
formed under the patronage 0/ the 
Tamil United Front (TUFl which 
later went on to become the Tamil 
United Liberation Front (TULFl 
While it would be inaccurate to 
describe the TYFas a mHitmt outSi 
it attracted many youths who were 
not Averse to using ^olence for 
political ends. 

By the mid*Seventies, some TYF 
leaders had established their own 
militant groups. For some time, 
there existed mly three or four 
organisations, but with the advent of 
the Eighties, the Tamil guerrilla 
movement splintered into a large 
number of groups. Many of these 
failed to gather an adequate foBowing 
and internecine rivaty roofc care of 
some of the rest. Today, there are 
only a few which matter 

lha aaoofd iintf 
antacad Into a 
bloody battia with 

LTTC: The Liberation Tigers of 
Tamil Eelam emerged the most 
powerful group in the early Sixties. 
It is also perhaps the nx>8t bnital (the 
Tigers have savaged rival militant 
organisations), the best disciplined 

and the most committed (the cyanide 
capsules that they wear around their 
necks in the event of capture testify* 
to this). 

Its leader, Velupillai Prabhakar* 
an's refusal to accept the Indo*Sri 
Lanka accord meant having to face 
the might of the Indian army. Two 
years of warring with the IPKF may 
have weakened the Tigers militarily, 
but their popularity in the north 
renudns undiminished. Recently, the 
LTTE tried to keep the IPKF off its 
back by negotiating directly with 
Colombo— ostensibly to find a way of 
being accommodated within the 
democratic process. But from all 
appearances, the turnaround is only 
tactical— aimed at pressuring the 
government to withdraw the IPKF. 

EPRLF: The Eelam Peoples Re- 
volutionary Liberation Front 
attractc^d widespread notice only a 
few years ago, after the abduction of 
an American couple it suspected of 
being CIA agents. Low caste Tamils 
form its main constituency and the 
group er^joys grassroots support in 
the ^island's east. The Marxist outfit 
has' always boasted of a strong 
ideological framework. Organised 
demonstrations in support of the 
Palestinian struggle, the Sandinistas 
and so on have been very much a 
part of its activities. 

The EPRLF, which survived the 
LTTE's wrath in mid-'86 (when 
some 70 members were killed and 
500 forced to surrender), now runs 
the Provincial Council in the North- 
Eastern Province. The Varadarsua 
Penimai led government, which is 
propped up by the IPKF» is nervous 
that it may be dismissed by Colombo 

tha Nor1h*Eaatarn 
Council and it 
narveut about 
baing diamiiaad 
by Colombo 

in order to appease tne Tigers The 
group, which accepted the terms of 
tf)e accord, is now preparing to re- 
turn to arms in the face of such a 

PLOT: The Peoples Liberation 
Organisation of Tamil Eelam is a 
breakaway group of the LTTE that 
was formed by Uma Maheswaran in 
1980. Maheswaran and Prabhakar* 
an — once good buddies—fell out 
over the former's affair with a pretty 
young thing called Urmilla. Prabha 
karan opposed it by arguing that * ilu^ 
sort of intimacy is against our code of 
conduct". Later, the two were en 
gaged in a shoot^out in Madras 

PLOT was once believed to be the 
largest group after the LTTE and 
operated both in the Jaffna peninsula 
and the island s east. Us importance 
also derived from Maheswaran s 
close links with the M.G. Ramachan- 
dran government in Tamil Nadu. 
Today, however, the outfit has been 
marginalised— both due to poor 
organisation and Prabhakaran s per 
sonal animus. 

ENDLF: The Eelam National 
Democratic Liberation Front was 
formed three years ago by some 
breakaway members of PLOT. Sn 

between the Sri Lankan government and 
the LTTE may be jeopardised if the 
IPKF cannot be prevailed upon to hokl 

Things were no better on the home 
front. The government was forced to 
declare a state of emergency to meet 
the growing violence engineered by the 
Sinhala-extremist Janata Vimukthi Pen* 
muna OVP). Colombo's awareness of 
how serious the threat had beome was 
revealed last Saturday when over 3,000 
•rebels* (read: JVP mem^rs and sym- 
pathisers) in the capital and the Southern 
Province ^ere rourided up fcff interroga- 
tion imder the new provisions, which 

give the army and the police unques* 
tioned authcxhy to make arrests and 

The operation fuDowed a *curfew' 
announced by the JVP five days earlier 
(on 26 June), whk:h virtually paralysed 
the island. The underground organisa- 
tion threatened to kill anyone who ven- 
tured out of home, and Colombo--like 
most other dtics in the south— wore a 
deserted ML AD commercial estabbsh* 
ments were dosed and the only news- 
paper to appear the fotk)wing day was 
(he govemrnent-owned Daily Sews 

Meanwhile, the JVP-supported public 
transport workers* strike entered its 

third week and became a severe embar* 
rassnient to the government. The sinke 
has seriously disrupted normal life in 
such far-flung dties as Colombo where 
no rapid transport system exists. 
Attendance at private commercial estab- 
lishments and government offices has 
been dismal — in some places as low as 
15 per cent. The transport mmistr>. 
which initially threatened to sack the 
strikers, later clirnbed doA^Ti and con- 
tinued nebotiations But no easy solution 
ippears to be in sight with the govern- 
•nent maintaining that it cannot meet the 
demands and the workers staymK 
away —obviously preferring to risk their 

~ 47 - 



Lankan intelligence believes that the 
group was sponsored and aided by 
India's Research and Analysis Wing 
(RAW), which helped it to operate in 
the north and the east to counter the 
intransigent LTTE. 

Led by P. Rajan. the ENDLF is 
the junior partner in the EPRLF-led 
coalition government in the North- 
Ear Province. Like the EPRLF. 
the ENDLF is cmcial to India's 
strategy* of making th^ Tamil Provin- 
cial Council \iable and strong. 

Inttrum^ntal In 
preparing th* 
ground for 

EROS: The Eelam Revolutionary 
Organisation of Students was estab* 
bshed. oddly enough, by an elderly 
Marxist in London in 1975. For long. 
EROS was \iewed as the intellectual 
face of Tamil militancy and some- 
times disnrussed as a small coterie of 
Britain-based beer-swilling ideo- 
logues who know more about books 
than bombs or bazookas. 

This perception has changed 
somewhat of late. Although EROS is 
by no means a powerful outfit, its 
importance today derives from the 
fact that it is the only militant orga- 
nisation which the LTTE is w«U 
disposed to. Its leader. Balakumar. is 
believed to have been instrumental in 
preparing the ground for the LTTE- 
Colombo talks. 

TELO: The Tamil Eelam Liberation 
Organisation is. by some accounts, 
the oldest militant group. It was once 
strong militarily and patronised by 
the DMK s M. Karunanidhi. Howev- 
er, serious infighting within the lead- 
ership undermined the TELO's 
strength and led to defections and 

The group's attempt to stage a 
recovery was thwarted when the 
LTTE, in mid-*86. launched a 
murderous campaign against it. 
More than 150 members were killed 
and its leader. Sabaraiiiam (Tall 
Sri'>. was shot dead injaffi^a. Today, 
the OMtfii is led by Selvarn who is 
based \r ihe island *s norlh 

OTHERS: It is difficult to say how 
niany larir! militant groups exist to- 
day, but Sti Lankan intelligence iden- 
liJied as man> as 35 in 1985. Many of 
i these were formed after the Sinhala 
chauvinist-inspired lace riots in July 
1983. The acti\ities of some of them 
iave been limited to pamphlet - 
' distribution and poster campaigns. 
Among the groups which operated 
a few years ago were those with 
fa'.)cy names, such as the Eagles 

• Movement (EM), the Tamil Eelam 
BI.)od Movement (TEBM). the 
"I'anil Eelam Liberation Cobras 
fVSLC)^ the Guerrillas Aspiring for 

• Tamil Eelam (GATE)— little was 
known about them then and even 
less is knowTi about them today. 




1 the group'a 
I itrangth 

currently under 
way between the 
LTTE and 
Colombo may be 
Jeopardised if the 
IPKF cannot be 
prevailed upon to 
let up its offensive 


jobs than their lives to the JVF. 

The transport strike has brought Col- 
ombo port to a near standstill —a matter 
of grave concern for an island natu»n 
which imports everything from Koll< 
Royces to rice. Attendance at the port 
has fallen, according to government 
estimates, to under 50 per cent But the 
real problem is the unavailability o( 
drivers for government -owned lomes in 
the face of the JVP threat. Many of the 
ships waiting to be docked and cleared — 
as many as 17 on 28 June~-<-arn food. 
15.000 tonnes of rice, sugar and flour 
according to one estimate. The govern- 
ment s move to get the navy to work the 
port has eased the crisis somewhat and 
it claims that there is no cause for worn* 
as the buffer stocks of rice and flour are 
sufficient to last three months. Yet. 
there are fears that if the present 
situation continues for much longer, the 
countr>* could be faced with a food cnsis. 

The problems that Sri Lanka is facing 
on both fronts— at home and with 
India— are. of course, linked. FVeni^^dd- 
sa had the domestic situation ven* much 
in mind when he called for the withdraw . 
at of the IPKF by July-end. By April thi< 
year, the JVP had begun posing a 
serious threat to the government, dur- 
ing March alone, a slaggenng 3.UH> 
people were killed in JVP related mo 
lence. Later, the proscribed organis;^' 
tion's underground leader. Kohana Wi 
jeweera. demanded that all Indian goods 
be boycotted and said that the co>t of 
disot)eyTng the order would be 'punish- 
ment'. The 'order* is '•emembered c\cn 
today. In Petta. Cokimbo s bustling 
market area, shopkeepers have taken all 
Indian goods off the shelves. Indian 
saris, for instance— once a very popuLr. 
buy — are virtually unavailable. Only af 
ter a customer convinc-.ngly establish^ 
his credentials is a shopkeeper willing! t'» 
produce a few samples that he ha^ 
hidden behind the coJnter. Then thrr^- 
was the statement asking all lridian> to 
leave the island— a call that led all 
officials of the Indian high commission Xo 
take refuge in the Taj Samudra and tht- 
Galadhari Meridien. two of tht- many 
new five*star hotels on the capit:ilV 
Galle Face Esplanade. There were aNi. 
the •curfews' (the JVP expression tor 
bandhs) which left many parts of thf 
south paralysed. 

To Premadasa. ii was dear that the 
JVP's appeal lay largely in its adoption i»f 
a stridently anti-lndia posture. It was 
not an unreasonable assumption as the 
organisation was in something of a Umb(» 
a couple of years ago. The July 1987 
Indo-Sri Lankan accord and the subse- 
quent induction of the IPKF wft» the 
catalysts for the JVP to reassert itself. 



• India Mans training TamK 

1983 onwards 

• Tamils create havoc in 
north Sn Lanka 

Arms I^Mdownby LITE 


May 1987 

• Lanka launches military 
crackdown on LITE and 
other Tamil militant groups 

4 June, 1987 

• India airdrops supplies to 
Tacr !$ Sn Lanka protests 

29 July, 1987 

• Rajiv Gandhi and Junius 
Jayewardene sign lndia*Sri 
Lanka accord Militants 
agree to surrender arms. 

5 August, 1987 

• LTTE makes token 
Surrender of arms. 

9 August, 1987 

• LTTE alleges ceasefire 
violations by $n Lankan 

IPKF rM^lvta auppllta flown m by th« lAF 

13 September, 1987 

• Warring among Tamil 
militant groups 

6 October, 1987 

• LITE resumes attacks 

10 October, 1987 

• IPKF says LTTE has not 
disarmed, launches action 

October 1987onwards 

• LTTE and India now 

enemies and ipk^ rr . 
an unwlnna^'e ^d' 

ISJanuary, 1988 

• LTTE chief apppa?:: 
Rajiv Gandn. to ca' c** 
miiitar> o^ens ve 

Veluplllii PrebhaKaran 

13 March J988 

• India rejects LTTf $ 
appeal fo^ a cease' re 

By asking the IPKF to go home, Pre- 
madasa was attempting, among other 
things, to 'hijack* the J VP campaign and 
pull the pobtical carpet from beneath its 

From all appearances, the strateg>' 
hasn't worked--not so far at any rate. 
For the JVP« it appears, has simply 
changed tack. The 'bidia go home' call is 
not heard as often as before. As the 
posters which recently appeared on 
walls in and around Colombo testif>', it 
has given precedence to other de* 
mands— such as the dissolution of Par* 
liament and the holding of fresh pres* 
idential elections. In doing so, the JVP 
has identified its target (Premadasa) and 
demonstrated its ability to make a deter* 
mined bid for power through its tactjcs 
of 'curfews' and terror. 

The lack of a positive response, cither 
from the JVP or tije people, does not 
seem to have deterred Premadasa. 
Over the last week, he set 
asidedevebpmental work in Mahiyanga- 
na now and then to make hard-hitting 
i^peeches reiterated his resolve to 
see the hxlian army out of the island. 
Government spokesmen in Colombo 
also made out that Sri Lanka was in no 
nKx>d to withdraw the demand. The 
stratt'^'v appeared to be directed at 
embaiTassing the Indians into leaving. 
Already, much has been made in \he 
loc3l press about an Amnesty Interna* 
tiunal leport which details ihe IPKF's 
v)olation of human rights in the north and 

The government's decision to stay 
away from the SAARC meet denK)ns- 
trated that it was wilhng to go interna* 
tionalwith the issue. Argued Sri Lanka's 
foreign minister, Ranjan Wijeratne, 


while explaining his countr>''s reasons for 
not attending, 'XSAARC's objectives) 
cannot be achieved unless the member 
states agree not to interfere in the 
affairs of other members or take imdue 
advantage of their size and prominence. " 
Hinting that Sri Lanka may also puU out 
of the SAARC summit to be held later 
this year, Wijeraine added. "Vie are 
aware of the rule in the SAARC charter 
that bilateral issues cannot be raised 
during the deliberations; so even if we 
do attend the meeting, we would not be 
able t': present Sri Lanka's predica* 

By raising the 'bilateral issues' ques* 
tion, Sri Lanka was klentifying itself with 

Dftftart«d ttrMta of Colombo: ■ JVP curiow* paralyaoa tho laland 

the other SAARC members whf). in 
opposition to India, have been demjn 
ding that such matters be discusst-d 
Ajy\ if it does stay away from thr 
summit, it would be a major setback fot 
one of India's principal foreign polj«.> 
initiatives. Unconfirmed reports have it 
that the Sri Lankan govenunent is alx* 
considering raising the issue of tho 
IPKF's presence at the United Nath»:> 
and the International Court of Justice. 

Almost every political party in Sn 
Lanka is in agrwment with Pre 
madasa over one tiling that the IPKF 
should go. Their (differences with hmi 
arise over the maiuier in which hv has 

1J *A •*(•. 


- 49 - 


25 May. 1988 

• IPKF launches offensive 
in the north-east 

7 June, 1968 

• First phase ot withdrawal 
of IPKF. 

19 November 1988 

• Election to the 
North-Eastern Provincia! 
Council is held. 
EPRLF-ENOLF coalition 
forms Qovernment with 
Varadaraia Perumal as chief 

minister LTlEdoes not 

First week of January 

• IPKF makes a sham 
withdrawal of three infantry 

26 April. 1989 

• IPKF withdraws some 

troops to appease 

May 1989 

• LTTE does deal wl.ti 

1 June. 1989 

• President Premadasa 

demands the withdrawal of 
the IPKF 

2 July. 1989 

• IPKF ignores 
Premadasa 's ultimatum and 
launches a maior ottensive 
against the LTTE 

An CPRUF tiMtlPfi mMtlfie 

tried to force its departure and the 
timing of his announoement. Says 
Dinesh Gunawardene» MP and leader of 
the left-wing Mahayana Eksath Peramu- 
na» which has opposed the IPKF's 
induction right from the very beginning, 
*'We are for the withdrawal, but it is a 
matter that should be dealt with diploma* 
ticaUy."* Ossie Abeygoonasekara* leader 
of the Sri Lanka Mah^ana Party, who 
k>st in the presidentiai race last year, 
echoes a similar view. "Our party is 
against the presence of any foreign 
troops, be they American, Russian or 
Indian. But the Indian army came at the 
invitation of the Sri Lankan government 
and so the question of its continued 

presence should have been sorted out 
b>iateraOy/' Some like the moderate 
Tamil United Liberation Front's A. 
Amrithalingam warn that an IPKF pull*out 
at this juncture could prove disastrous. 
•The removal of the Indian army now 
will result in a bloodbath between the 
various Tamil groups. So» it should be 
asked to stay on until an altemative 
machinery to enforce peace is evolved." 
he says. 

The Indian reaction to Premadasa's 
call was dktated, partly at least, by a 
sense of pique. To be summarily told to 
go was bad enough, but coming as it did 
when the Indian army was already 
preparing to pull out was intolerable. For 

trrt iMmbm ltd by A. Balaalngham (Mntrt) arrive In Colombo for tame: twrtlcal mwoeuvrs 

R^jiv Gandhi, there was also the matter 
of being politically embarrassed in what 
is» after all» an election year. Under* 
standably, do Prime Minister would like 
to (^ce the electorate as someone who 
was kkked around by a tiny neighboui 
and a signatory to an accord that v.'as 
forced to die a miserable death, iiis 
attitude to the diplomatic crisis has been 
questionable but consistent. India will 
leave only when it thinks that the accord 
has been satisfactorily implemented. 

The result has been a diplomatic war 
erf words over what the pro\isions of the 
accord reaDy ntean. The Indian argu* 
ment for staying on hinges on one clause 
of the agreement, which says that "the 
Government of India will unden^rite and 
guarantee the resolutions" of the 
accord New Delhi has interpreted this 
to mean that India is obliged to see that 
aD the provisions of the accord are 
implemented— particularly the one 
which relates to more power being 
devolved on the Tamil- majority areas. 
Tht suggestkMi is that the IPKF s pre* 
sence is necessary to fulfil India s obbga- 
tion of seeing the accord through. 

The argument is spedous. to say the 
least. For one, it doesn't explain why 
India had planned— -as early as Januar>* 
this year— to withdraw the IPKF by the 
end of December. Did it have any firm 
guarantee that the Sri Lankan govern- 
ment would, by that time, implement 
those resolutions that it had promised to 
do under the accord, such as the one 
that relates to the devolution of power^ 
And then, hew could it be confident of 
fuffilling its ov>n obligations by the end of 
December, such as enforcing the 
"cessation of hostilities" either between 
Colombo and the LTTE or between the 

- 50 - 

various militant groups? Secondly— and 
perhaps more importantJy— there is no 
thing in the accord which hnks the 
presence of the IPKF to issues such as 
the devolution of power* The accord 
clearly states that the Indian army "niay 
be invjted by the President of Sri 
Lanka... if so required'*. Doesn't it then 
sund to reason that the President may 
withdraw the invitation whenever he 
wishes— that is. when the IPKF is no 
longer required? It would need an inge- 
nious legal brain to establish otherwise. 

It is another matter^ of course, 
whether Premadasa could have 
achieved his objective with a little more 
tact. Why did he demand the IPKF's 
withdrawal when it was planning to leave 
anj-way? To outflank the J VP nwy be the 
main reason, but not the whole answer. 
Premadasa had opposed the induction of 
the IPKF from the outset. As Prime 
Minister, he could hardly afford to pub* 
kly criticise President Jayewardene for 
entering into the accord, but he made his 

If India and Sri Lanka 

do not work out a 
face-saving aolution 

before the end of July, 

relations between the 
two countries may 
cease to be at an 

all-time low; they may 
very well cease to 

disapproval known by sta>'ing away from 
the signing ceremony. His disaffection 
didnH stem only from his being a *tradi- 
tional India-hater*: it had to do. in large 
measure, with the perfectly reasonable 
belief that Sri Lanka ought to sort out its 
internal problems on its owti. 

Premadasa conducted his electi- :t 
campaign on a manifesto that promi'^'t d 
the withdrawal of the IPKF and in hj< 
first speech as President. in\ited br-th 
the LITE and the J VP for uncondui'^na- 
talks with his governmeni. Jt wa> 
perhaps the first oven indication tha: he 
was prepared to deal with the domef^tic 
situation without Ir * mediatjon. Sa>> 
Cabinet minister ^. I'hondamar.. wh * 
warns against a premature IPKF uiih- 
drawal. "The President— rightly or 
wongly— made the pull-out an issue m 
his election manifesto. He is the kind of 
man who has to see it through/' 

The Indians were alive to the pros- 
pect that the accord would be en- 
dangered in the event of Premadasa's 
victor)*. According to one theorx*. Ne^^ 
Delhi knew that it would have to with 
draw the moment he was elected. (Pre- 
madasa s main presidential rival. Suimr;- 
vo Bandaranaike. was also opposed u> 
the accord and the IPKF s presence, but 
for reasons best knoun to South Block, 
it believed that it could make her come 

"Th e IPKF is required" 

L.L. Mehrotra, high commissioner to Sri Lanka, presents 

the Indian position 

Lakhan Lai Mehrotra, who was 
appointed high convnissioner to Sri 
Lanka on 24 April shares nothing of 
his predecessor /iV Dixit *s style. 
Dixit seemed to thrive on con- 
troversy, hved being in the public 
eye and always had time for the 
press. Mehrotra. on the other hand, 
is a low-profile bureaucrat who has 
been somewhat press-shy. Some 
suggest that this may be because he 
IS not yet completely conversant 
H7f/} Sri Lankan affairs. But Mehrot- 
ra was relaxed, confident and articu- 
late when he fielded SrsMYs ques- 
tions. Excerpts from an interxiew: 

SrMJAr: 1$ it fair to $ay that 
indif Sri Lankan reiations are 
nou at an all-time low?* 

L.L. Mehrotra: It is difficult to 
comment on this. Because even in 
the aftermath of the India Sri Lanka 
accord, a rather alarming situation 
had developed here. But 1 would say 
that there has been a fresh wave of 
tension dunng the last two weeks. 
Added to this. Sri Lanka has been 
facing a ver>- difficult situation inter- 
nally. In my view, the two are inter- 


The President (Premadasa) wants 
to meet the internal situation— that 
is. the challenge of the J VP. The J VP 
has alw-ays had an anti-India plank. 
The President wants to suggest that 
he is the one trying to send the IPKF 
back. He wants to divert the atten- 



^'Who wants to stay 

on? The IPKF to 
here to do a Job. Let 
that entire process 
be Implemented and 
then the IPKF goes. 
And If anybody had 
an earnest desire to 
withdraw the IPK^, 
It was us^ 

- 51 - 

tion of the people somehow or the 
other from the interna] pressures. 

One could also argue that the 
Pre%idenV$ demand that thi 
IPKF leave has to do uith thi 
LTTE turnaround. 

It is entirely possible. The LTTE 
has also been asking for the IPKF'i 
withdrawal. You could say that therr 
is a certain community of iniert-st. 

1$ India Justified in keeping 
the IPKF on? After alL there is 
nothing in the accord which sug- 
gests that the IPKF's presence is 
necessary to fulfil India's obliga* 
tion of ^^underwriting and 
guaranteeing" its proposals. 

No. The IPKF is here to enforce 
and guarantee the cessation of h(»sf 

But only **if so required**. 
But it is required. That is why n 
was in\ited. The clau*»e you are ri - 
ferring to relates to the ratumaltr Uk 
the IPKF coming to Sn Lanki It i> 
tnie that it came at the request <>: tht 
Sri Lankan government. But tht 
accord does not lay down the pruct' 
dures for the withdrawal of ihr 
IPKF. Therefore, it follow s, that i!- 
withdrawal is a matter which buW, 
governments have to discuss and 
come taa conclusion about. 

But the important fact is that tht- 
Lndian government had been discu- 
sir»g the IPKF s withdrawal unth thi 
Sn Lankan government. M*»ret»\rr. 



The Sri Lankans say yes, but the dispute 
is over when and how 

A. AmHthallnQwn 


asked to ttay 0(1 
until an oKomativo 
to onf orco poaco 
Is found." 

(MM NMfmi Pmff 


desiro is to 

that the last 
Indian soldlor 
leaves Sri Lanka 

by 29 July." 

Otata AbavgoonaMkara 


question of 
lU continued 
proftonco should 
have been sorted 

around.) It is not an implausible view. 
For the date on which the first batch of 
IPKF soldiers was withdrawn coincided 
with Premadasa's swearing-in as Presi- 
dent in January this year. In India, this 
was widely interpreted as a token ges- 
ture to appease a President who was 
against the force's presence. But it is 
more than possible that it was a signal to 
indicate that India was prepared to 

W'hatever the truth, India had other 
reasons for wanting to withdraw. The 
deration in Sri Lanka was expensive 
(Rs 3 crores a day, according to one 
estimate) and, moreover, seemed in- 
creasingly futile (the LITE may have 
been losing men but they were winning 
popular support and sympathy). By early 
March, the Indians had already finalised 
a withdrawal plan with the Sri Lankan 
govenunent and R^jiv Gandhi began tell- 
ing the press that it was time to think 
seriously about getting the boys back 
home. Yet, oddly enough, the decision 
to pull out did not lead to*a scaling do>^ii 

of IPKF operations. On the contrary, 
there was no let-up in the intensified 
offensive against the LTTE, which be*, 
gan this January. 

There was a good reason for maintain- 
ing the heat. India did not want to give 
the impression that its army was re- 
treating from Sri Lanka. From its point 
of view, it was far more 'honourable' to 
knock the LTTE around a bit before 
calling it a day. It might then have been 
able to argue, somewhat disingenuously, 
that there was no need to stay on any 
longer as its obligations under the accord 
had been fulfilled. 

It was the intensified Indian offensive 
which gai^ Premadasa what he saw as a 
golden political opportunity. The LTTE 
was badly hit and needed to get the 
IPKF off its back. By eariy kpnl. the 
ground was being prepared for direct 
negotiations with Cotombb. The Tigers 
had come around to the view that this 
was the only way to keep the IPKF at 
arm's length. 

With this, Prenrwdac-i believed be had 
just what he wanted— a wonderful poh- 
tical stogan to rally the country together. 
•IPKF io home* suddenly had a magical 
quality about it. It could, be reckoned, 
prove immensely popular with the 
majority Sinhalas, who have always re- 
sented the presence of the Indian amy; 
defuse the JVP campaign by stealing its 
most important political demand, and 
persuade the Tigers to function within 
the democratic frameworic. 

After the conclusion of the first round 
of talks between his govemmtnt and the 

LTTE in May. Premadasa was con- 
vinced that the slogan would work its 
three-way magic. A couple of days 
before the second'round was slated to 
be held, he went public with it in his n<f^ 
famous 1 June speech. 

There arc two questions that Pre- i 
madasa wiD have to address himself ■ 
to sooner or later. >^'hat his slogan has ■ 
achieved And whether it was wise to , 
adopt it in the circumstances. The 
answer to the first is precious btile. The 
JVP has not been aopeased— on the 
contrary, its campaign tor the dissolution 
of the government has only intensified: 
the majority of the Sinhalas now bebeve 
that Premadasa's first responsibility is to 
check JVP violence and that therefore 
the IPKF's presence is necessar> to 
•secure the northern front' while the Sn 
Lankan anny deals with the south; and. 
finally, the LTTE-Colombo talks have 
made no substantive progress, despite 
being two months old. 

As for whether it was pohuc, the 
answer also appears to be in the nega* 
tive. For a start, the Tiger tumaround 
was almost certainly a tactical man- 
oeu\Te--directed at securing the short- 
term objective of keeping the IPKF off 
Its back. The LTTE has not yet formally 
renounced separatism and it strains the 
imaginatk>n to believe that it has sudden* 
ly undergone a genuine change of heart 
Moreover, •'it is highly unlikely that 
Premadasa can afford, in the present 
circumstances, to accede to even their 
non-separatist demands, such as the 

the tv^o governments had already ar- 
rived at certain conclusions about it. 
And then, the foreign minister, Mr 
Ranjan Wijeratne, even told Parlia* 
ment on 31 March that a time - 
fi-ame for a withdrawal had been dis- 
cussed and accepted. So, what was 
the (Sri Lankan government's) 

Hou do you react to Pre$ident 
Premadasa'B statement that 90 
per cent of Sri Lankan$ want the 
tPKFto go as this percentage of 
the electorate vo.. i forpro-pulh 
out candidates in the presiden' 
tial election? The implicit sug- 
gestion perhaps being that the 
IPKF is a force of occupation 
because it is in Sri Lanka 
against the wishes of the large 
majority of the people. 

But who wants to stay on? The 
IPKF is here to do a job. Let thct 
entire process be implemented and 
then the IPKF goes. And if anybody 
had an earnest desixe to withdraw 
the IPKF, it was us. We had already 
provided for this well before the Sri 
Lankan President began talking of 
withdrawal. We knew he had made 
such a commitment to the electo- 
rate. And we ourselves came out 
soon after the presidential election 
with a plan for v^ithdrawal. And they 
were privy to this. 

Int*ivt«w»d by Mukimd 




Aviv GmdNhMs daimcd that Jidta wiBpuBoat the IPKFoiityilMBproymjns of 
the btdiM'Sri Unka accord are fuMed. Wtat abuses of the agreement remain to 
beinv3kmeated?D,B. W(fetunge. Sri LaiAan Plinw Minister, rec^^ 

statement in Parliament listing the obligations the two countries under the 
accord and whether they had l)een put into effect or not Excerpts torn it: 




Pamii the Northern and Eastern 
ProvinoR to form one administra- 
tive unit from the date of election 
to Proyincial Council to date of 


Hold referendum In the Eastern 
Province on or before December 
1986 to decide whether merger 
should continue or not. 



Referendum originally fixed 
for 31 December. 1986. has 
been postponed twice and is 
now scheduled to be held in 
early 1990 

Create conditions to enable all 
oersons disolaoed due to ethnic 
Violence to return to areas from 
where they were displaced. 

Not fully 

An appreciable number have 
ttllt ftfit returned 

Cessation of hostilities to come 
into effect within 48 hours, mili- 
tant groups to surrender all arms 
within 72 hours of cessation ot 



Sri Lanka immediately stop- 
ped all military operations In 
north and east litilitant 
groups ceased hostilities, but 
this was only temporary. The 
LTTE was engaged in open 
hostilities aoamst the IPKF bv 
September 1987. 

Use for law enforcement and 
maintenance of security the same 
organisations and mechanisms of 
govemmeni as in the rest oi tne 



Under the 13th Amendment 
and Provincial Councils Act. 
the same mechanisms will be 
used in all parts of Sn Lanka 

Make special efforts to rehabilitate 
militant youths. 



Will be done at the appropriate 




Take all steps to ensure that 
Indian territory is not used for 
activities preiudiaal to the unity, 
integrity and security ot Srt Lanka 

Sn Lanka expects India to 
have fulfilieo this undertaking 

Give military assistance to Sn 
Lanka, when requested, to imple- 
ment the agreement 



On request. India sent the 
IPKF Sn Lanka has now 
asked that the IPKF be with- 
drawn by 29 July. 1989 

Cooperate with Sn Lanka to en* 
sure the physical safety and 
security of ail communities In- 
habiting the north and the east 

Not fully 

India has assumed this obhg • 
tion almost in its entirety be- 
cause Sn Lankan secunty 
forces were excluded from 
op^^ations in the north and the 
east The IPKF took only a 
token Sri Lankan police pre- 
sence to assist them 

perronem merger of the North at 
Eastern Provinces. (How would the J\ I 
take to this?) 

By proceeding on the assumption that 
be can persuade the Tigers to join the 
political mainstream, Preniad<i^r ha> 
taken a huge gamble. The least he 
have to do in order to conxince them \^ 
allow them to run the North Eastem 
Province. This would mean dissoKin^! 
the Varadarata Perumal-led EFKLF 
ENDLF government, which, in turn, 
would speD other problems. The EPRLF 
has already indicated that it will declare 
'independence* from Sri Lanka in case of 
such an eventuaUty. Moreover, it would 
only harden India's resolve to stay on 
The EPRLF is crucial to India smce it is 
the only pro*accord Tamil mibiant group 
with a mass base. 

As things stand today, Premada>a*s 
first priority is to find a way of meeting 
the JVP threat. Last Saturday's massive 
crackdown on the 'rebels' was an indica- 
tion that he has realised this. If the 
J VP-supported strikes persist, then the 
island is in danger of sLpping into chaos 
Already, there are some who talk of the 
possibility of militar> rule, thouj^h. at 
this stage, it is a view that appears 
unduly alarmist. What is true, however, 
is that the opinions of the arm>' and 
police are already beginning to be taken 
into account. The declaration of 
em'^rgency, for instance, was made at 
their behest. 

Premadasa's next priority is to find a 
way out of the impasse v^ith India The 1 
July call— far from making him a hero 
with the Sinhalas — has rebounded on 
him and become a political embarrass- 
ment. India has turned doM^Ti hjs everv* 
demand and responded to his call to stop 
fighting the LITE by stepping up the 
offensive last week, h also flew in mnrt 
army personnel— 5.000 according to one 
estimate — into TrincomaUee last Thur^ 
day. The hero who would nd his countr\ 
of the foreign presence now appears lo 
run the risk of being perceived as the 
man who tempted it into sta>ing on 

The key is to find a face saxmK 
solution for both sides. l\ is believed that 
consultations between India and Sn 
Lanka are already on to find a wa> to 
achieve this. One possibiLty is for Indi.* 
to pull out, say, two months afin 
Premadasa's july*end deadline. Indci 
could then argue that it left only when it 
thought fit to do so and Premadasa could 
nDake out that he got the IPKF to leave 
even if a litUe later than he would have 
tked. • 

If such a stratagem is not worked out 
l)efore the end of July. India-Sn Lank.i 
relations may cease to be at an all timr 
tow: they may ver>* ^ell cease to exj-! 
Mukund Padmanabhan Co/om6o 




- 53 - 

Brown imperialism doesn't pay 

By Swaminathan S* Ankiesaria Aiyar 

IN recent centuries, imperialism imitation of the Englishman's sup* 
has been mosth xi^httc an<t profit posed rectitude a centur> ago and as 
able But it is mcreaMngU become bogus The main point is that India in 
bro^n and unprofitable The out- the 1980s has the men. has the arms. 
Manding examples of this are Viet* has the mones too. Not without 
nam's misadventure in Kampuchea reason doe<^ it claim to be the domi* 
iind Libya's excursion into Chad nant power in South Asia. It wants 
Outright colonial invasion is highly this dominance to be recognised in 
unprofitable, hence rare India prac* ways that can onl\ outrage the 
tises a fairU muted form of brown dominated India belies es. for inst* 
imperialism* and so suffers a fairU ance. that it should be consulted by 
muted degree of unprofitabilits But the Uriited States on the permissible 
both imperial pressure and its costs son of arms that Pakistan can be 
hase been rising last We will be given. Back in 19K() we told the 
'better of! shedding our tatty ermine Americans that we could not stomach 
and learning from the Japanese and the ide» of the F-16 plane for Pakis* 
Germans that abandoning dreams of tan but could live with the F*S. To 
regional political glorx can do a lot our indignation the perfidious Yanks 
lor sour economs nesertheless supplied the F-16 It 

imperialism, white or browp. never occurred to us that perhaps 
u^ualK rests on four foundations (I) Pakistan should be consulted b> the 
Militars and economic clout (2) The Soviet Union on whst arms it could 

willingness to use your citizens as 
cannon-fodder, and to denounce dis* 
senters as unpatnotic traitors. (.1} 
The notion that nature abhors a 
political vacuum, and that sou must 
occupv all the imperial space vou can 

for otherw,. a rival will (4j The The second foundation of imperial- 
notion that the impenalisi is doing ism hes in the reads suppU of human 
the dominated nation a favour The cannon-fodder. The L'mted Slates 

sell India Such consultation is after 
all the preri gative of dominant pow* 
ers. not lesser breeds 

Expendable lives 

while man*s burden was supposed tu 
bring peace and prosperit> to lesser 
breeds v^ithout the just as India 
todav is trying to bring peace and 
prosperilv in Sri Lanka 

The fact that India likes to don 
imperial ermine does not mean that 
us neighbours arc moral!) superior ^,„^,,^„, 
Nepal and Bangladesh arc autiKrra- sJade^ 'to off 
cies Sri Lanka is guilts of religious non-fodder I 
bigotrv and raaal killing Pakistan 
has for most of its existence been a 
militarv dictatorship, garnished with 
foravs into Islamic fundamentalism 
and communal violence. It has plav 
ed the mini-imperialist itself in 
Afghanistan. Souih Asia boasts a 
sorrx bunch of countries, and India 
does not stand out among tfiem as 
notabK sullied' Howes er the atriKi- 
ties committed b\ lesser breeds with- 
out the law ha\e nc\er const Muted a 
giwd argument for imperial inter\eH* 

Let us consider in detail the four 
foundations of imperialism Rrst. 
miliiarv and financial clout 1 hib pro- 
vides a sound basis fiu jmpoism The 
word Jingoism is derived from an old 
English jmgle. 

"We don t w ant to fight hufh\ i!ngo 
if do. 'Vi'e If got thr nu n. we \ c j^'o/ 
th' arnu. Hr \e* got tiu >nnnir\ tt>o 

Indians todds claim thai thc\ don't 

and Britain no longer have the sto- 
mach to take large casualties Presi- 
dent Reagan withdrew hastils from 
Lebanon after the death of jiist 2(K) 
marines And he simpis could not 
persuade the US Congress to inter- 
vene in tins Nicaragua. After Viet- 
nam Americans he easil> pei- 
*Kes as can- 
4. Iises ha\e a 
low value i'' oniinent Indi- 
ans do not turn a hair at the thought 
that man> die uselesslv eseryyear on 
the Siachen glacier, or that more than 
a thousand ^awans have been killed 
in Sri Lanka Indeed, it is worth 
recalling that five >ears ago a Jaffna 
terrorist planted a bomb at Madras 
airport, hoping to kill a planeload of 
passengers to Sri Lanka. He botched 
the job and. instead, killed dozens of 
inniKcnt Indians Were the people of 
Madras outraged'' Not at all. On the 
contrarv. the\ hailed the terrorist as a 
hero >i'tver mind that he had killed 
so mans innocent Indians. He could 
be forgisen this minor peccadillo as 
be had atiempted the laudable feat of 
murdering innocent Sn Lankan pas. 
sengers. e\en though he botched the 
job Bob Dylan might ^sk: 

reallv warn to fight an admiring dird^' 

"Hoya many deaths wdl u take ttll 
the\ learn That too many people /itur 

The answer, my friend, is not 
blowing in the wind of Madras 

The third foundation of imperial- 
ism is the notion of a power vacuum 
We think we must fill as much space 
as possible in Nepal and .Bhutan 
According to an official in the Prime 
Ministers Office, we had to go into 
Sri Lanka because otherwise the 
Americans and Pakistanis would 
have SCI up camp there The gentle- 
man must have known that the 
American public is unwilling to ven- 
ture eVen into Nicaragua, leave alone 
Sri Lanka. But he preferred to pre- 
tend otherwise. Take away the con- 
cept of a power vacuum and you tal^e 
away a major justification for brown 

'The concept is buttressed b\ the 
kith and kin argument, the notion 
that a self-respecting countrv must 
conve to the rescue of its kith and kin 
abroad. This was the excuse for the 
British to start the Boer War It was 
the excuse for periodic Russian in- 
tenention in the Balkans It was the 
excuse for right-wing Frenchmen 
wanting to hang on to Algeria and 
right-wing Englishmen to Rhodesia 
India's kith and kin are scattered 
around mans neighbouring coun- 
tries. This has consequences 

The lourth foundation ot imperial- 
ism IS the white-man's-burden theme. 
ColoMal Indian textbooks corrtained 
a list called "Blessings of the British 
Raj*' which grateful students were 
supposed to memorise and hail 
Somr Englishmen never ceased to 
wonder whv ungrateful Indians de- 
manded independence The^ Amer- 
icans have heaped economic and 
military goodies on Latin American 
countries, and cannot understand 
why the Latinos bite the hand . at 
feeds them. India gives a fair amouat 
of aid to its smaller neighbours, such 
as Nepal, and is scandalised that the 
blighters hat(> us Indians mav kid 
themselves that the\ have been noble 
in aiding Nepal, that they are keeping 
the peace (if sou can call it that) in 
Sri Lanka, and that the\ are doing a 
signal job in shouldering the brown 
man*s burden in the subcontinent 
The lesser breeds are not impressed 

White imperialism in its earls 
phases brought immense loot to 
Europe from Latin America and In- 
dia MonopoK commerci.i! priMleges 
also yielded dividends Howcser. im 
penalism also insolved hea\v costs m 
armaments and battles OiMng aid to 

dominated nations became another 
cost And losing economic opportu- 
nities because neighbours disliked 
you imposed a still higher cost In the 
heyda) of white imperialism the be- 
nefits vastiv exceeded the costv and 
colonial intei^ention was an extreme* 
ly worthwhile investment. Alas, this 
is not true of the muted* brown 
imperialism India is following We 
base no foreign treasurio to loot, no 
monopoly commercial privileges to 
exploit On the contrarv. our neigh- 
bours deliheratciv curb economic ties 
with Big Brother Nepal is reluctant 
to start hydel projects which will 
export electricity to India. Bang- 
ladesh will not let India build a ga^ 
pipeline from Tripura to West Ben- 
gal. Sn Lanka has banned sarious 
imports from India, and we dare not 
rel> on Pakistan's Sui gas for meeting 
the energ) needs oi Rajasthan and 
Kuteh although this is the most eco- 
nomic source Qui direct costs ol 
armament and inter\cntion base in- 
creased grcatK 

Military glory 

Wh\ ihcn do wc persesere with 
such an xinprofitabk senture'^ The 
answer is that imperialism has alwaw 
been popular through human historv 
and has fallen intc^ di>grace onl> m 
the last few decades, and onl> in 
some countri<*s Man> countries still 
feel that no sacrifice is to(^ great in 
the cause of military glorv Colonised 
people on liberation often turn col- 
onialist themseKes Vietnam threv% 
off the French and American soke 
and then promptly in\aded Kam- 
puchea, with no sense of irony So it 
should not surprise u^ that Indians 
love to thiow their weight about — 
historioilly people the world oser 
base always gained a lot of satisfac- 
tion by kicking their neighbours and 
saying' that sush kicks are m the 
interest of peace and prosperity m 
the region Man diVs not live b\ 
bread alone, he likc'- n spiced with 
machismo And in an election year it 
would be undemiKr»»tic to deny the 
common amn his ratum of machism<) 
The problem is that others want their 
ration of machismi^ too. m Pakistan. 
Sn Uinka. Nepal and Bangladesh 
The rcsuliinc frict»on means thai the 
cost of tiuf jinv:ot^m could become 
prohihttise We our fair 
share of machismi^ m the Maldives 
and Jalfn.i and nt»\< nceJ to pull 

- 54 - 

Foreign Affairs/ Parmanand 

The India bogey covers up for domestic failures 

NEPAL'S partially tkcttd and 
pariially no* linaied un* 
icamrral national legislature — 
the Rashinya Panchayai — has 
cnnclufted itt debate on the 
myal addreu. Obviously, the 
siAlrmai'? in lndo»Nefial rela- 
tinns since March 2) was the 
mam focus of the speeches made 
by the varioua memben of the 
house. What, howtvef* appeaitd 
rather tlnkinf was India-baiitng 
by many members, who perhaps 
see their pnltiical and tocM>«con* 
omic future as dependent on the 
exisitng non-democvatic Pan* 
chayat system 

Demands for democratization, 
intluding the establishment of a 
mulii pany system, a national 
government and institutions 
ensuring human rights, made by 
the various segments of Nepali 
vKTtety may have made these 
members apprehensive. Hence, 
they tried to express their 
iSDhdaniy with the system 
ihriiugh their speeches by mak- 
mg yaihing criticisms of India 
nn vannUN planet. 

former prime minister 
I nitrndra Bahadur ( hand 
(llaitadii said Ml is natural that 
dilTercniTS should often ansc be* 
n ncifthhours Rut this ciiics 
nm mean that they thbuld stop 
rcspeilmg each tiiher Thr In 
\tian mr<lia t^mpaian agatnU 
N(i>al\ m«»^l rrspctinl inMiiu* 
iton i\ ( ondrmn.ihtr Suth m 
iiiiiis mu\i sl(>|) tmmrdi.iirty 
l.tlks sh'iiitd Ik stiift««l s«m»h |m 

conclude Ireaties that are in tfie 
interests of both." 

CSunicshwan Prasad Singh 
fRfliilhal) strongly criticised the 
attempts by th^ Indian media to 
cauv dissension among the 
Nepali people by describing 
those living in the Terai region as 
of Indian origin. Han Narayar 
Rajouna (Kapilavasiu) regretted 
thai the Indtan ^vernment "has 
been trying to subject Nepalis to 
hardship by inundating Nepali 
larnt^ on the pretext of conlmll- 
ing floods in India". C)n the 
other hand. Khadgajit Raral 
(NawalparasO esprrssed it icem 
over the Indian govemn rnt's 
attempt to interfere in the 
inirrnal affairs of Nepal. He 
staled "It \hould br noted that 
Nepal had not made any com- 
menis on the Indian govern- 
ment's aciMNi against the Sckhs 
in the Ciolden icmple in Punish 
and on the (M)rkh.iland move- 
mrnl. as Ihev were the internal 
allairs of India* 

Hijaya Kunwsr (Achham) 
sail* **lndia*s allHude towards 
Nr|)al always hccn had Imba 
has shown its hcgem^nisiK in- 
leniions in Ibc inlcrniti allairs ot 
Sri Umka. Ma'divrs ami Nrp;il 
and uealH fiuium with Taki- 

Drona Prasad Acharya (lhapa) 
warncil that the Nrpnh pc<»plr 
would ncvrr forgive Ihr govrrn 
mcni if It Kukcil dimn nn ilic 
stand wh'i h 11 thtnnrtl Ui ti;i\i* 
idn|tt>*d I" tlw H»nti ^1 «»* Um 

King Hircmba 

current stalemate in Nepal-India 
rrlaiions. He demanded lb"! 
Nepal seek the ahr(«galion ol all 
"unequal and hiitnilialina 
trratirs" belwtvn Ncial and 

f*adma Ralna 1 uladhar 

(Kaltini;indut siitd "Yhcprcsrni 
rrlaiionvhtp b(-i«^ceri Nepal ami 
Imlia IS unequal All un(*<)ual 
IrraiirA muU. therefore, he 
ahntpjicd ' i;;* alvt dcm.imled a 
drlwiir III thv hiMiv "11 the 
lndi»Ncp^l Itciiy o\ V'^mc antt 
f ricmUhip p.!!!!! uLnS il^ Atli 
iind ykUnh he devfilvil 
av " iMnreinus* Uir N/p.d I Ir 
viii) * I lir t'ii^<*mi)t< 'il lit(ri)*n 
ptdiiv IS iifii mmIK Kim d nn tuni 

.|ll)>IIIIM tii l<>r ll 4«*l<htill<\ lit 

maintain a special relationship 
with India. For instance, no 
Nepali IS granted a paispitn to 
visit ( hina tfow. then, can one 
say that wi* ireni India and ( hina 
OP sn equal basis'* Wc have to be 
non.aiigned in respect to India 
arid ( hin<i also'V 

I (inner prime fninister Nagen^ 
dra Prasad Knal (Morang) said 
lh,il India's pieM*nl hi'havinur 
low.ird Nc|mI was "unlvcuming 
id J liiriid * He nsktnl Indm not 
lo Ut'\ irjliiiis nf ihe "rrspiil 
g.iinrd h\ Nr|Wl m Ih,- wurM * 
I itrnier lornpo minisln Krishna 
k.i| \!V.iMk.!lhm:l» .-huivmI 
litili.i «d ttidKiiii: iN • m the 

px ll tl ol ll.lih* .Hid ! i 

.I f M \i I l) ot)u * 1U in 

ben took a dispassionate view of 
the situation and called for 
dialoftie and discussions to ernl 
the stalemate. For insunce. for* 
mer prime minister Surya 
Bahadur Thapa (nbankuia) — 
who created a history by being 
Ibe first Nepali prime minister to 
have bectt removed through a 
no-confldence motion in the 
Rashtriya Panchayat — called on 
Nepal and India to reach an 
understanding soon in order to 
resolve itie present crisis 

In a conmeniary. the *Jana 
J^ti Weekly' alluded to the 
lesson from Sri Lanka and crili* 
ciscd the ruling Psnchayai rr-m- 
bers for their sins of omission 
and commission. The weekly 
wrote: "l)o our Panchayat politi- 
cians have the courage to act m 
defence of national indepen- 
dence the way the Sri lankan 
President has done** The naiuinal 
independence of Nepal cannot 
remiiin safe in Ihe hands of those 
who have a jaundianl view nf 
every situation. I real Ibe people 
and the non-ParKhayal ptiliiical 
f«irces as ihcir enemy, disregrd 
the imiKiriance of public 
pariicipaiion. indulfie in corrup* 
lion (*v<*n during times of crisis 
imd (onnnui* lo IcmA io Indi.i Inr 
support fhc ruling Pjm has. 
ihrri'fi»re. nec<1 to Like a U-sv»n 
(ritO) Sri l.nnka" 

NiH-dU'Ss In add Ihi rt* hns to he 
a (vrrcplihlr iIiHvm ih v hi ihr 
mtKliis i)|WT.tmlt ol Itiov ^hn 
h(*n<-til iroiti )<* uiuh fMiHi.ilM 

and unpopular political system 
and the dissenien srithin the 
system. But the modus operandi 
of the Nepali political system 
itself Is quite bafflinr On iuty 
21, sit Rashtriya Panchayai 
m emben — Birendra Kesan 
Pokharel, Padma Patna 
Tuladhar, Somnath Pyast. Jagntt 
Prsud Bhetwal. Nobul Kemi 
Rai and Drona Prasad Achar^a 
— many of whom had criticised 
India severely during the debate 
on the royal address were ar- 
rested along srith some top lead- 
ers of the Nepal Congress, in- 
eluding the supreme leader 
Oanesh Man Stngh. women's 
leader Mangia Devi Singh and 
party president Krishna Prasad 
Bnatiarai. They were arrested 
when they attempted to plant 
saplings as part of the govern 
mentis week- long counirywidj 
afforeslaiion programme in Mai- 
igada in the northern outskirts of 
the Kaihmandu valley 

While Ihe operators of ihe 
Panchayat system in Nepal are 
not willing lo try and nnrmalise 
relations with India, ihe sysiem 
IS .not willing lb allow the 
participation of Ihe people even 
in oormal socio-cullural and t-n 
vironmenlal atliviiies This is 
evident from ihe nrresis o( nii« 
merous p<diii(Ml workers in* 
ous part* ol Ihe kinpdom lhr 
f\iri(ha\.il pidiU IS ohsioiisU 
n)o\ iiig nn A « «»riln»ni.ifH»n«si 
UHiiv l»i»ih iMh*<n.ill\ .omI is 
(ri u.tlU 



»UST4. 196? 

:Nepalese Minister 
.criticizes India 

^ ^^KATHMANDU, Aug 1 - tlie 
^Nepalese Foreign Minister, Mr 
r Shailendra Kumar UpadKyaya, 
J jaid at)out India : "^me have, of 
L w«* forgotten the prindples of the 
^Fanchsheel and have even dis- 
carded the very principles prop- 
:'ounded by •their own grand- 
fathers," reports PTI. 


At a ftinction osKanized by Kep 
aK:hina FViendihip Association tc 
«iark the 34th anniversary of the 
esUMishment of iliplonMtic rela* 
tions between Qie two countries. 
Mr Upadhyaya said Chhu, India 
and Nepal developed their rela- 
tions on the baste of the principles 
of Panchsheel 

Mr UpadlQraya left no 0iie in 
doutn about the target of his attack 
by spring : Chir« has always stood 
-film by tlus prin^iri^ of Pan* 

the Poi^ign Minister said Nepal 
wanted to Uve in peaceful C(Mxist 
ence with 'Ihe country of Oandhi" 
as weU as the coantry of Mao and 
Chcru Eff>*Lai. ^'But this rriation 
cannot be estiblishcd without first 
i^pecting the independence of a 
nstioiC he aaid. 

Ml Upadhyaya aaid» Nepa] 
hoped to recdve the kind of friend* 
ship, goodwill ami understanding 
shown by China fhmi other neigh- 
bouring countries as well. 

He said the construction of the 
"Amiko Highway- had brought 
China snd Nepal even closer. 

PoIiUcal circles said that it was 
thnMigh this ""Amiko Highway" 
that ^'hundreds of trucks carrying 
sophisticsAed Chhiese anns'^ame 
to Nepri. 

nie Chinese Afhba*ador in 
Nepal, Mr Li Debiao. I^ded anv 
mention of India, and said Chma 
••dppreciatei Nepil s policy of not 
ifiterfering in the recent incidents 
Beiiiag, which was an internal 
afrur of Chins". 

The Nepalese Government has 
floated the Idea of forming a '*un 
ion** of aO land locked 3uteB of the 
world to protect their righu**. 

Mr Shyam KC.the editofin<hief 
of the Govemment-awned the Ris 
ing Nepal, has amelt a ral Ih the 
^sudden <iosure*^of (he Btidge oil 
ieOy in the CdcutU port fqt repair 
and rruurtterutfice and found a hand 
of the Indian GovemiUcnt in it to 
break the back b^ oi Kepal and 
ft» economjc 

\ The editor tfskrd: "'^hmaie the 
tand-tocked couijlries to do H 
trttiait States i«aoft to thi^ kind cl 
^actice wfiieh can* throw tht^ 
etononflca of tand-ktehed States to 
the winds? f snt It h(gh time that all 
Und locked SUtca get together tc 
protect theif rights to ensure that 
their tranatt ttghU are ndt used as a 
political lever bjtftesa S|atak''" 

56 - 


India does not want 
to end impasse: Nepal 

The Ncpalese Foreign Minister. 
Mr Shailendra Kumar Upadhyaya 
(old the Rashtri>a Panchayat- 
National Parliament-on Wednesday 
that India did not shov^ an> interest 
in holding India-Nepal talks, besides 
its '^lesture" of agreeing with the 

Mr Updadhyaya was replying to a 
discussion raised by the former Rash* 
tri>a Panchayat chairman. Mr Ra* 
jeshwar Devkota. and the former 
Prime Minister. Mr Lokendra Baha- 
dur Chand 

The Foreign Minister said Nepal 
was continuously trying to end the 
impasse as early as possibJe He 
alleged that the Indian Government 
was delaying the negotiations by 
**keeping quiet" over the June 26 
letter of (be Nepalesc * Foreign 

Mr Upadhyaya said that Nepal 
would continue its effprt to settle 

various issues on the bpsis of the 

Shnciple of peaceful coexistence, 
iepal Was keen, he said, to streng- 
then the friendship and cooperation 
between the two countries, h'e said. 

Meanwhile, five members of the 
Rashtriya Panchayat on Wednesday 
demanded the resignation of the 
Prime Minister. Mr Marich Man 
Shreshtha. charging him wfth inabil- 
ity to settle the trade and transit 
issues with India, **even after four 
months of impasse.''* 

Tkc members included the former 
Finance Minister* Mr Yadav Prasad 
l^ant. and another former minister. 
Mr Pashupati Shamsher J. B. Rana. 

Mr .Pant was also cnncal of the 
Indian Government for what he cal* 
led the **sudden closure'* of Calcutta 

• port, which he said caused inconveni- 
ence to people of Nepal. 

' Sueaking at a funcuon organised 
by Nepal-China Friendship Associa- 
tion to mark the 34th anniversary of 
the establishment of diplomatic rela- 
tions between the tWo countries. Mr 
Upadhyaya said China* India and 
Nepal developed their relations on 
the basis of the prinqples of panch- 

Mr Upadhyaya left no one in doubt 
about the tarfiet of his attack b) 
saying: China has always stood firm 
by this principle of panch-sheel. 
> In an obvious reference to India 

* agam. Mr Upadhyaya expressed con- 
'cefn at. what he called^ "increasing;, 
militarization in the re^on'*, and said 
*'on the one hand, we talk about 
peace, while on ihe*^ other, we are 
engaged in an arms race**. 

*in this context, the role played by 
China in promoting trust and peace- 
fy| co-existence with her neighbours, 
is fughl). admirable", he said 

' Nepal changes 

HT Comspoodent 

Union External Affain Minister P. 
V. Namimha Rao today said in the 
Lok Sabha that one or two amend* 
ments suggested by Nepal to the com- 
prehensive agenda proposed by India 
for discussion of the entire gamut of 
bilateral issues were not easy to 

Replying to a question of Janata 
Party member, Syed Shahbuddin. Mr 
Rao said New Delhi had suggested a 
review of the functioning of 19S0 Indo- 
Nepal treatyt and not a review of the 
treaty itself. 

The Minister added that Iixlia's sug- 
gestion for a review of the operation o( 
the treaty was based on iu feeling that 
the implementation of the treaty had 
become to one-aided that it was erod> 
ing the provisions of the treaty from 
time to time. 

Resfonding to a supplementary of 
Congress member R. L. Bhatia. the 
Minister accused Nepal of violating 
the treaty*s provision regarding 

Nepal Terai 





Eiprtss News Senice 


People of Indian origin, stjvm^ m 
the Terai region of Nepal, arc bcmr 
discriminated against, a spokesfrun 
for the Nepal Sadbhavkana patishad 
has said here on Thursda> 

The spokesman, while affirmmi! 
thear faith in the King's Governmoni' 
said that the Terai region has been 
deprived of kerosene, salt and suaar 
while alt these commixjities ucro 
free!\ available in the KathmanJu 
Valle> The result uas that the price 
of kerosene rose to around Rs 2> a 
htre in the Terai. said the 

The spokesman uiid that arrancc- 
ments should immediatel> be mddc 
to suppK essential commodities tc^ 
the Tarai area That apart thf\ 
demanded ^hat representati\es of all 
communities in Nepal be hired in 
Government services on a pri>p 
onional basis 

India has discarded 
Panchsheel: Nepal 

From R r The Chinese ambassador Li Dcbiao 

rrom K> C> Mathur observed ih.t the formal e$ubhsh- 

mem of diplom,inc relations between 
KATHMANDU, Aug. 2 the two ounlnes in 1955 had added a 
Ncpalcsc Foreign Minister S. K new chapter in the traditional 
bpadhya\a. yesterday accused India friendship S ivmp that thetwonei^h 
of discarding: the principles of Tan- hours have t er since been rcspeciino 
chsheel and said that China. India understanding supporting and co*^ 
and Nepal developed their relations operating uith each other the Chinese 
basedonihepnnciplesofTanchsheer cnvo> saiJ the friendly co- 

over the decades but some have of late operation between Nepal and China 
forgotten the prinaples. But China has could be j g.^od cxdmple for develop 
always stood firm by this principle ing good nciLhbourh relations on the 
He was speaking at the function basis of ihc live principles of peaceful 
hosted by Nepal-China Friemkhip coexistence . 
Association to mark ihc 34th 
anniversary of the establishment of di 
plomatic relations between Nepal and 

The Minister said ^ that as a zone of 

peace, Nepal wants to live in peaceful 

co-existence with the country of Gan- 

dhi as well as the country of Mao and 

Chou En lai But this relation cannot 

be established without first respeaing 

the independence of a natioo " 
Stating that the late King Mahendra 

had added a new dimensiofi to the 

friendship uith China after the iniro. 

duction of panchayat system. Mr Up- 

adh>a>a said that the construction of 

the Araniko Highway had brought the 
two countnes closer. 

Expressing concern at the increasing 
militarisation in the region the Minis 
ter said that on the one hand we talk 
about peace but on the other we are 
engaged in arms race. In this context 
the role played by China in promoting 
trust and peaceful coexistence ^iti. 
her neighbours is highly admirable 

- 58 - 



Kathmandu to blame , say Nepal MPs 

« , 

Kathmandut July 26 (PTI): The 
Rashtriya Panchayat members, 
during the last few days of dis- 
cussion in the finance committee 
meeting of the commerce minis- 
try, criticised the Nepalese gov- 
ernment for its delay ui caticlud- 
ing the trade and transit treaty 
with India in view of the 
hardships faced by the people. 

The members blamed the 
.hawks in the gavernment for 
being oblivious to the hardships 
of the common people because 
of steep rise in the prices of 
essential commodities, and said 
''His Majesty*$ government does 
not seem to be worried about the 
current relations with India be- 
Clause nothing about this has 
been mentioned in the govern- 
ment's policies and prog- 


Atnember said; -A lot is being 
done to strain the relations with 
India than improve them.** 
Another member suggested that 
it would be better for Nepal to 
conduct trade with India "^on tkt 
traditional pattern.'* / .» 

The members maintained ^'t 
the trade policy of Nepal w^vas 
meaningless in the absence of a 
trade treaty with India. / 

They regretted that the far- 
mers on the southern lorder 
were facing difficulties as they 
had not been able to expert their 
produce and medicinal Aerbs to 

The Rashtriya Pmchayat 
members underlined the need 
for importing only essential 
goods through the o^en general 

licence (OGL) system without 
bringing in luxury goods, make 
proper utilisation of hard* 
earned foreign exchange a ad 
hold ihe price line. 

They said Nepal's export- 
import trade did not fare well in 
the absence of trade and transit 
treaties with India ovr r the last 
three months and ^hat the 
volume of trade bting carried 
out by the government-owned 
National Trading Limited was 

They complained that only a 
handful of people were controll- 
ing the country's ^rade. ^'InTirKtsi- 
tion oi Customs duties on medi 
cines and fruits on the one hand 
and provision of concess:on for 
import of luxury goods on the 

other, Here not quite consis- 
tent,** they added 

Trade vi;h China urged 
Three members ?n the Rashtriya 
Panchayat uged the Nepalese 
government tr' open trade points 
with China to redure what ihey 
called over* dependence on In 
dia. The meT.b/^rs ^re M« Chak* 
ra Bahadur Shi«hi (Humla), Mr 
Bhupal Xiranci (Solukhi^mbht^) 
and Ms Xamala Neupanv (Sun 

They suggested that the 
Nepalese governincnt ope-. 
trade pomts w^th China and en- 
ter into bttiter tiade with it 
They *V ^em^nde^ facilities 
uOt cuA4^*i.y eycharfee with Oii 
na adding there should t 
long-term trade po.jc;. in th^ 


- 59 - 

Pak offers joint 
ntures to Nepal 

prJiVurSaa/ offered vanou. 
kinis of machinei?. conKumer 
pin ic'^ 9nd joint v.mtures an.. 
tech^iic^il kwowiiov/ vo ^*P*i 
Iresf. .venues of cfw>pereiica 
•oet .v<«r. th" wo countnr 

o^'er was XA<it I > ti»' 
pal i*»»r n inister ttate ior 
finamc. economic affairs, ^an- 

nul E»«} Pi/achk, in iip^.-^ng 
; stai.»irftnt at the third «e3*iort of 
! the )»»ki4tr.n.Ne ! joint econo- 
mic /.ommi tsion ftere today. He 
suRg -^t^d tnat b^'h the cwun 
tries :uust .«i Ur 
bilatc<i'i tra-. ; to e>pa»id tneir 
uade /eiatio.-u. 

VafioMS kiVidi of nft- hiner> 
i-aljdi;ig and suger 

plants coiud nipplieJ 'o Nep- 
i\ !,.».• jally a-. .t'P'-bl:^ terms. 
Mr Piiachi $»-id. Simi ar!y, he 
saii*. 'iif re wfrre p-'wibuuies of 
jncrea'.in4 export of textile 
iten.s, es.eR'iBJ oUi una per- 
fume ?r«;$c*ll3r,eous 'ood pro- 
dn .tf and merfical ifiStruments 
an J appliances from > akistan to 

* I a Ti >ure ihat i» possible to 
similarly id«.itif> «;«:nis which 
icar. b-* imrprt-*' ?aki5tan 
(roin V*ps»l." he said 
' The ?akjuani 'nnister "Aid 
I joint venture.* v/ith Kenal could 
! be 4^.ab ishftc* tn x bili»ieraJ 
'and fUuteral b-isu PaUvstan 
coulu i^io idc re -.hi.jcal know 

W. machinery, f 
and seroi-processed goods. 

whezeas. capital '«P«»'*''?8 ^""Jj 
tries or international financial 
organisations could provide fi 

"%it ventures between Pakis- 
tan i.».d Wepal for dwignmg and 
construction m projects where- 
lit feasible, could also include 
buyback arrangements, he s»td^ 
Seff mng to the trade pattern 
between Pakistan f nd Nepal, Mr 
Firacha said the volume of two 
way trade between the two coun- 
S?', had been varying between 
$0.6 milhan in 1984-85 and $2.5 
million in 1987-88. 

Mr Piracha sairi Pakistan gave 
high v.r'.ority to her relation* 
,with th-" countHes of the region. 
The developments in the south 
Asian region had always been a 
matter of vital concern to Pakis- 
tan, he laid. 

"We are, therefore, engaged 
in sincere and earnest efforts to 
i-esolve and avoid conflicts, we 
sJncerel-' hope and desire that 
Nepal would soon be able to 
overcome its present difficul. 
nes Of^ our part, we assure you 
of all possible help and support 
»n your efforts to overcome these 
, problems," he said. 

"We ire determined to foster 
closer economic relations with 
Nepal for the mutual benefit of 
the people of the two countries, 
he added. 


- 60 - 

Nepal may ban papers, 
journals from India 

Kathmandu* Jul} 24(PTI): Dis- 
tribunons agents here say that a 
•list of fifty popular Indian neus 
magazines and journals, including 
those for women, children and on 
films, has been prepared for a han 
*^>Jlhe Nepalese government. 

The magazines and journals 
have a large readership among the 
imellegentsia and . politicians as 
well as the common folk of Nepal. 

They said that the zonal admi- 
nistrations had summoned the dis- 
tribution agents in their respective 
areas recently and told of the 
proposed ban 

KnouledpeaMe circles are of 
the vieu that after watchmg the 

reaction. the admmisiraiKm 
would move one step runher to 
ban the dailx newspapers from 
India which are very popuUr m 
Nepal, but at times unpalatahlvr 
and embarrassing to those in pou 
cr. because of their torthnghi 

Indian newspapers, journ.-.! 
and magazines have a bic saK. 
here. There are queues e\ei\ 
afternwn to bii\ them after the\ 
are censored arid cleared 

Already - there ,s an unoffuu;!! 
ban on cenam news maga/.tus 
and journals in the 

Nepal ban on 

The Timet of India Newt Service 

KATHMANDU, July 18: Nepal 
today btnned the entry of over 50 
Indian ntagtzines. A directive to the 
effect was sent to Sandeshgriha, the 
lole agents importing newspapers 
and periodicals for the Kathmandu 

The order has been oonveved 
through a government circular, 
copies of which have been forwarded 
to the postal and customs authorities 
for immediate action. The order cov. 
ers til Indian publicationt, including 
thote for children and women — 
-Nandan •*Chandamama"» 
-Fcmina", "Eve^s Weekly", •^Sun*'. 
besides other magazinet lilce 
-Film&rt*', •*Stardu$f\ **Star and 
Styled "Manohar Kahaniyan*\ 
-Maya", -Indrajal" and "Amar 



"if^B COM M^powV 

^ bgfMliMEllepal into 


- 62 - 





Lanka turns down 
India's condition 

Talks on verge of collapse 

From Our Special Correspondt . 

NEW DELHI, Thursday. — The negotiations between India and 
Sri Lanka over the withdrawal of the IPKF appear to be on the verge 
of breaking down. Although hopes of a settlerhent were aroused 
after the Sri Lankan delegation met 'the Prime Minister yesterday, 

' the subsequent discussions have widene.I the gap between the two 

SU sides. 

600 IPKF men sail for home 

India,Sri Lanka 
discuss time (came 

Over 150 killed in 
fresh violence 

Laika), July 29(PTl)- 
The Indian Peace Kee- 
ping Force (IPKF) in 
Sri Lanka today reco- 
mmenced iU withdra- 
wal 600 IPKF per* 
aonnel aet sail from 
here for Madras by INS 

Acting Sri Lankan Foreign 
Minister John Amaratungei 
Deputy hf ormat Ion Minister, 
R V:)ayasinghe, Defence 
Secretaryf Seppala Attel 

and Gen Hamilton Waneslnghe 
and the Commander of the 
IPKF, Lt Gen A S Kalkat, were 
present to see off the first 
! batch of the pull-out. 
I The returning military per- 
1 sonnet will reach Madras 

MeanwhUe« Indie and Sri 
Lanka today began consulta- 
tions on determining a time 
frame for the withdrawal of 
the PKF from north-eastern 
Sri Lanka and reviewed the 
progress of Impte^nentation 
•^l the Indo-Sri I ani a accord, 
^eluding devolution of po- 
wnrs to ihft ^^mlla. 

The f fit ruund oftalksbe- 
ga after the two Vr eign 
Mil sters, Mr P V Narb mha 
Rao and Mr Ranj Wljeratne, 
exc hange \ Aews on thp 
,tir<» ga'^^ul of blla^eml is^ue- 
w'thout aides* 

Mr Vileretrx* arrived at 
New Delhi e«Mler in thpctev 

from Colorr4>o by a ^>eclal 
night leading a 10-merrA>er 
high power delegation Inclu^ 
ding the roreign Secretaryf 
Mr Bernard Tttakratrw, and 
the former Foreign Secretary, 
Mr W T Jai SInghe. 

The Indian hfigh Commlwlo- 
ner, Mr L L Mehrotra,and 
Mr Tilakratne had on Friday 
at CotorTi>o signed a )olnt 
communique In the presence 
of President Ranasinghe Pre- 
madasa, setting at motion 
the recommencement of 

withdrawal by the PKF and 
paving the way for Mr Wi)e- 
ratne's visit to New DelhL 

The two skies are also sche- 
duled to dlscusa the (^tion 
pf ce^atlon of offeneive ml- 
Ut^ry the IPKF 
and the safety and aecurity 
of all communities In tfie 
North-Eastern Province of 
Sri Lanica* 

President Premadasa In 

a nation-wide TV broadcast 
hiad welcomed the agreement 
describing It as a turning point 
In indo-SrI Lanka relatlona* 
The Prime Minister, Mr Rajiv 
Gandhi, who had acceeded 
to Pteaident Premadasa*s re- 
qL'esI for the recommence- 
meht of withdrawal of the 
IPKF had In a message expre- 
aMd the hope that it>fyould 
mark the beginning of ^ 
new chapter In the relations 
between the two Qountrles, m 

150 KIlLEDl At least 
1 $0 persons, including 
34 JVP extremists were 
killed in Separate k>cldents 
of violence, anti-IPKF de- 
monstrations and attack 
on police stations In the 
Sinheli malority central 
and aouthern parts of the 
island despite a country 
" wide curfew now In force 
official sources here said. 
Most of the incidents 

Protection for 
Tamils ur^ed 

have been reported from 
the central provlr^e in 
security forces action 
on JVP sponsored demonstra- 

A rujmber of security force 
* pe rsorvie I were also ki I le d 
In the attack but the exact 
ruimber was not revealed. 

K andy, Anuradhapura, 
M on a rage la Ir central 
Sri Lanka were the worst 
affected. One incident 
was reported from a Sinhala 
aettlement in Vayuviniya 
In North Eastern Province. 

VCLCOKCDi GenDeeplnder 
Sing^v former commander of 
the Indian Peace Keeping 
Force (IPKF) In Sri Lanka to- 
day wekomed the phased 
withdrawal of the IPKF from 

Gen Singh told newsmen af^ 
ter receiving the Lok Shree 
award here that a political 
settlement to the Sri Lankan 
situation has been reached. 


IPKF's Withdrawal: 
Confusing Issues 


THE situation in Sri Lanki con- 
tinues to be confused. Each of 
the Sri Lankan players involved 
seems to be tutaint and pullina at 
the national ubric U> meet par- 
ochial ends without thinking of the 
welfare of the island nation as a 
whole. The token withdrawal of the 
IPKF and the subsequent talks have 
not materially changed the situ- 

President Premadasa has noi fully 
defused the crisis even though he 
has given up his unilateral July 29 
deadline for the withdrawal or the 
IPKF which, in any case» was un- 
likely to be complied with. There 
was ulki however, of Sri Unka 
taking this issue to the UN* It 
would be usefiil. therefore, to see if 
there was a similar situation earlier 
and what happened at that time. 
As many would recollect, a peace* 
keeping force called the United Na- 
tions Emeiiency Force (UTS[EF) was 
created in 1 957 and deployed on the 
Egyptian side of the border with 
Israel in Gaza and in the Sinai. This 
force had a larte Indian army cont- 
iMCnt with a number of Indian 
officers, including the commander 
of the force. The UNEF was in- 
strumental in keeping the peace 
between the two adversaries. 
In 1967, the UNEF was 
withdrawn in response to a request 
from president Nasser because it 
was on sovereign Egyptian soil. 
This decision by the U/N. secretary- 
fcneral, U Thant. was .opposed b> 
man> countries because the> knew 
ftill well that the withdrawal of the 
UNEF would lead to war between 
the Arabs and Israelis which did 
take place in June I96T During the 
war, the Indian component of 
UNEF, along with other cont- 
ingents, suflTered many casualues. 
For agreeing to this withdrawal 
Thant w»s roundly criticised by 
many countries. In Act, it seems 
even president Ntsser later asked 
him wh> he had agreed to withdraw 
the UNEF. 

Both Forces 

The parallels between the UNEF 
in 1967 and the IPKP in 1989 air 
many. Both forces were deployed to 
keep the peace between warrina 
groups. Both were located on 
another country*s sovereign aoi). 
Both were asked by the host Aa- 
tion*s government to leave. /The 
UNEF was withdrawn because the 
U.N. secretary-general took a purely 
legal view about the sovereign 
rights of the country hosting foreign 
forceSt without taking into account 
the realities of the situation which 
were obvious to all concerned. A 
similar situation prevails in Sri 

Many articles in the media project 
the same totally legalistic view that 
the IPKF must withdraw from the 
island only because president 
Premadasa has said so. These col- 
umnists are not, unfortunately, tak- 
ing an overall view of the situation. 
Just as in 1967 the withdrawal of 
the UNEF led to war. it has to be 
noted that the total withdrawal of 
IPKF at this juncture is likely to 
lead to a most horrendous Uood* 

The indications are already there. 
The blood) murders oi Aminhal- 
ingam. Yogeshwaran and Uma 
Maheshwaran by LTTE cadres 
leave no doubt about the LTTE*s 
desire to decimate the other ramU 
groups and seize power for them- 
selves. The only impediment to 
their plans is the presence of the 
IPKF. The Colombo government 
also appean to have a similar 
interest in gettint the IPKF out. 
This is because of the sentiment of 
the Sinhala people a.»d the pressure 

from the JVP which has made the 
presence of the IPKF the central 
ittue in the insurgents* campaign of 

The Colombo govemmi^nt is sup- 

Srtive of the LTTE demand for the 
KF withdrawal as well as for an 
immediate cease-ftrr of the IPKF 
operations against the LTTE It is 
probably feh that the LTTE would 
weaken considerably in the inter- 
necine strife with the other Tamils, 
and the Sinhala miliunu or the Sri 
Lankan army would thereafter be 
able to eliminate the LTTE and 
achieve a final solution of the Tamil 
Would those uking a purely legal 
view about Colombo's sovereignty 
afw to and be a party to such a 
disaster? The realities of the situ- 
ation need to be fiioed up to and 
addressed. It is no wonder that no 
m^or powen have had anythina to 
uy against the continued presence 
of the IPKF on the island. The 
world is aware that without the 
dex'olution of power promised to 
the recently formed Tamil govern- 
ment in the north eastern 
provinces, it is in no position to 
p rotec t itMlf against either the 
LTTE or the Sinhalas. 

CivU War 

Were the IPKF to v-nthdraw at this 
point of lime and the Tamils de- 
Ciitrc ^elam, as the> have threatened 
ic. the result would most likr- bt 
a civil war with a consequent refu- 
gee problem for India What woulti 
india do ihe» " In an> case the 
4<»tting up of re, am would not be in 
./ c interest of Sn Lanka or of India 

Sn Lankan sovem^t> ud the 
prerequisite of Sn Ifinkan conKnt 
for the IPK* to opcnte on Sn 
Lankan soil tre not questioned b> 
any one in India; the need to 
withdraw the IPKF is earJy as 
possible is also aaepted. Dis- 
cussions cn lese issues are fuuk 

1«iese points are to be taken as 
given. The real issue is how to 
implement these objectives with 
minimum bloodshed in the after* 
math. Several senior members oi 
the Sri Lankan cabinet have made 
their opposition to the precipate 
IPKF withdrawal publicly known. 
The Sri lankan army with its ca* 
pacity ftilly stretched by the JVP 
insurgency has also made known its 
objections to an immediate 
withdrawal It is a facile assumption 
that the JVP insurgeno is solel> 
motivated by the presence of the 
IPKF in Sri Lanka. The fact that 
they tried to disrupt the Sri Lankan 
elections although Mr Premadasa 
had pledged to get the IPKF 
withdrawn would show that the aim 
continues to be the overthrow of the 
democratic order in Sri Lanka. 

The LTTE. which refused to lay 
down arms on the grounds that the 
Indian accord with Sri Lanka had 
not fully satisfied Tamil aspirations, 
cannot possibly be genuine in its 
dealings with the Sn Lankan gov* 
emment which has been unwilling 
over the last two years even to 
devolve the limited power 
promised to the Tamils. In these 
drcumsunces. the right question to 
debate is how to create the best 
possible conditions which will 
enable the IPKF to r^me home and 
to minimise, if not avoid, the 
massive bloodshed in the Tamil 
areas of Sri Lanka afterwards. 

Getting into legalistic arguments 
while overlooking the political 
sues and the ground realities max 
d< credit to law>ers but would 
haidly constitute staiesmanship. In 
t' w context ihc U Thant experience 
sit remains relevant. 

1^ auih^" t> hu/i the Imuiuie <?' 
l>t,^encf Studies and Analyses j 


- 6'i - 

37 killed in 
Indian banks 

COLOMBO, July 26. — by unidentified men in ICajcalla dis- 

Sasi»e€ted antl-Govern- **'^*1v!!'^ uni The bodies of five 

WMtmJt*^ww^tiJw*tl u^Z^^ fuspected rebeli were found by 
nent miliumtS Dombed aecurity forces in the district 

two Indian banks in the The attK^iu came u the jvpcsj- 

as violence elsewbere left to refyun fh>m doing any work tiU 
at least 37 people, includ- Monday as pan of its campaign for 

dead in the ISlaAd^ re- porta fhm New Delhi: A« the dead* 

ports AFP. 

On Pace 8: 
Editorial, Challeare 
la Lanka 

In the ialajkTt eaat Tbini] rebola 
exploded a land mine under an 
Indian Peace^Keeping Force truck 
when it was pasaing on a highway ^ 
in Tnr>ooma]ee district late yester- the IPKF pull-out aet bv 

day. killing 18 soldien and ii\iuhng Pt^dent lUnasinghe Premada^a 
three, security sources here said, approaches. bKiia is preparing n* 

It was the biggest such attack in to face any eventuabt>\ The 
recent weeks. But no IWther de- picture is now far from dear and 
tails were available and Indian there is total uncertainty as to the 
diplomats declined comment The Possible course of action that Mr 
attack was blamed on the Libera* Premadasa might take if the IPKF 
lion T^ers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE). not move out of Sri L»nka by 

An unknown number of men ^ the deadline aet by him 
threw bombs at the State Bank of ^Ucr. 
India and the Indian Rank here. « i 
causing slight damage to the buikl* I.AnICa fflAV 
Ings and injuring employeea, J 
Mice and witnesses said. The two ¥T IkT 

SfSSh^ShS!*^''^ go to UaNa 

were widely «A«nerta7£ COW>MBO. July 28. - fl^e Fore^ 

^y!^J\^L,i, .w^ ^ViofTfU for Prtday. spwkiiS^ft 

A rocket allegedly fired by the apeculation that SriLarSa is ready 

S2i.ft"'2?' to take the ismie of the withdrawal 

ff^-L^^ isUnds oortb ct the IPKT to the VH., diplomats 

Md. The blast hit the leUmlVop- Ihey haven^ said, but the sipis are 
le s Revotuttonaiy Liberation theyH take the issue to the VH 
IPVont (EPRLD office at KiUnocb. u3: n£tl^tSl^<Si S^l^t 


chi town. 

The wl«»ce cwm* aa tt»t Ow- rorei«n diplomaU saw no aarly 

eminent asked people to stay away and tothe oW 

^^J^^t:S^^^. anti-lndijo -The Indian attitude U that they 

protesu beginnlnf today to dc- mor«lly righ*. and dont caiv 

Cnandthe immediate withdrawal of what the woridaaya.- an Aaian di- 

^IPKF- plomataaid. 

fY'li*".^*'^. "TV (bet y that India and Sri 

ness and the three Indian banka Lanka have put themselves in no- 

bere to shut down or fbce the eon- win situationa. Both are actins 

auetKeji. Secuti^ sources said against their national iiitereau in a 

s/s attack on the banks might manner that leaves one breath, 

be aimed at enforong the threat leaa," a Western envoy said. 

The bombs caused loud explosiona Tor Sri Lanka, its economy in a 

which could be beard up to one km me^ because of fuerrtfla warm, it is 

•V .K^ 1^ of folly to make an 

Anoifter expioaion occurred at a cnnny out of its geatett potential 

building housing an Indian firm, aourcc of help and Hs biggest po- 

/ Buddhist monk was ahot dead lential nwtfkct** 

- 66 - 

NEW DELHI. July 28. ~ 
The withdrawal of In- 
dian troops from Sri Lan- 
ka befins tomorrowt 
According to a Joint com- 
munique issued at the 
end of three days of talks 
between the Indian Hifh 
Commissibner in Colom- 
bO) Mr J. L, Mehrotra, and 
the Sri Lankan Foreifn 
Ministeri Mr Raqjan Wi- 

fht eozninufilQue» reluted 
fltmulUntouily ip Colombo and ia 
the ctpiUl Mid that the Sri Lank- 
an Foreign Miniiter would visit In* 
dla to discuM the time schedule for 
the withdrawal of the remaining 
Indian Peace-Keeping Force tpa- 
tinjent in Sri Lanka. 

Mr WUeratne is expected here to> 
morrow afternoon for talks with 
the Indian External Affairs Minis- 
ter. Mr P. V. Narasimha Rao. The 
communication says the! the talks 
will review the implementation of 
the Zndo^rl Laruca agreement 
During the visit of the Sri Lankai* 
delegation headed by Mr Wi- 
jeratne, the question of cessation of 
offensive military operations by 
the IPKF and the safMy and securi- 
^ of all communities in the North- 
Eastern province of Sri Lanha will 
also be discussed. 

fhus ended days of mounting 
tension following the deadline^ of 
July 29 set by the Sh Lankan Presi- 
dent. Mr Ranasingt^ Premadssa. 
for the withdrawal of the IPKF 
troops in '^5e island Later he set 
two conditions for India ^ accept- 
toig the President as the suprrme 
eonunander of the IPKF and cessa - 
tion of hostibties again it thi^ LITE 

India has agreed tr^ v ithdraw an 
IPKF contingent on ih*^ last ilay of 
tl«e President's deadline pre^nun- 
ably as a hce-saving gesture for Sri 
Lanka. On its part. 5ri Lanka has • 
figntd to send lU Foreign Minister 
to India for talks on not on!y the 
fUrthAr withdi«v/als ct Indian 
troops but on the agrsemcnt itself, 
th^ cessation of hottilities againat 
the LTTE, which Sri LanKa is keen 
on« and on the safety and sei^u^ity 
td s!l cor manlties in t^ e North- 
evtem province about which La- 
tUa would like some guarantee*^ 

An indi»n Navti ship. XNS 
M%gsr. is cjrpected ^o call at IVtn- 
tTomalee tomorrow to help In th^ 

gi'*^*out of a cc.itlngent cf Iixlian 
("ops. India has so w withdrawn 
(.000 troche ia two batchca in 
January and in April-Msy. About 
M.ON troops we still left behind In 
* . LankA. (According to PTL to 
O \ with r battalion plu» troops 

which means approximate 1,000 
aoldierSi would be pulled out to* 

A spokesman of the External 
Affairs Mmistrv said today the ag- 
reement with Sri LankA on partial 
withdrawal and for talks should be 
aeen as **a victory of reaaon, good- 
wJl and good senae**. rather than 
as n;$ection or acceptance of cer- 
tain conditions. He ex pressed op* 
timism about the forthcoming 
talks with the Sri Lankan Foraign 

reports from Colombo : The 

Sini communique <yas signed by 
r Mehrotra, Indian High Com- 
missioner, and Mr Bernard 
TL^tksratne, Sri Lanka Foreign 
Secretary, in the presence of Presi- 
dent Premadasa and Mr WUeratne 
this sftemoon* 

Mr Premadasa has described the 
understanding gi s turning point in 
the relationship between th/t two 
countries. The time has come for 
both to forge new ties of ftlend- 
ahip, forgeCong past differenoea. he 
is quoted by Mr Mehrotra as hav- 
ing sUied. 

Mr Rajiv Gandhi has conveyed to 
Mr Premadaaa a message saving it 
was the beginning of a new napter 
in the history of the two countries 
and would strengthen the bonds of 
f^edship and the cultural tiea. 

The former Lanka President, Mr 
Junius Jayewardei>e. congratetlat- 
ing the ^gh Corunissioncr» said 
he was very happy It hod been 

On Paget: 

After Jnly SSDrlenda sad 
pvppeta in M Laaka 

aortud out amlcab?v i« was a posi- 
tive development, :^ nbserved. Mr 
Jaycwardcne rang up itr Mehroua 
soon after the communique was 

M'Mi&He^a, Mr «a)lv Otm^ 
called ka orgeat aseeslag ef the 
Valaa Cablael eariy Miia la 
aiacass the eoadlUaas aet ky 
the Si ^ Lanka Qoveraaseai to 
end the deadlock beti 

THe jtate^rua Sri Lanka Broad- 
casUM Corpor&:t< ti reported that 
Mr WUeratne wiU leave for New 
Delhi tomorrow by s special Air 
lanka fl4^t along with the lU^er 
Education Minister* Mr A. CTlS. 
Haroeed, the Foreign Secretair Mr 
Bernard TQakarstnOt Prssi4ent 
Premadasr'^ adviaer on Interna- 
tioi^al AJIkira and the Attorney- 
Genet^ who are part of an eigm- 
membertcaRL • 

The USA weleoflsed ladla'k 

Oedslaa. Tte SUte ^ 

India agrees 
to IPKF 

killed m 
Sri Lanka 

CX>LOMBO. laly - Mesa 
laaa 7S people were kUled t»> 
4ay la separate ls»^ldeats af 
▼loleaea eai .aatl^IPE? 4a- 
asaastratloBs ia Br! LaakSt 
reports PTL The demoastra- 
tioBs were held ta deflaaes ^ 
the earfbw la the Slahala- 
ssajorlty eeatral aad soath- 
sra parts af the blaad* alB- 
elal seoroes here aald. 

Tweaty^ae killings were 
teported Bam Maairagala 
dbtriet while II w^e re- 
parted from Kaady. 

Meanwhile, the eooatry- 
wlde earfew elampiM slace 
■dd-alght laat alght haa beea 


UNI adds: Secarity am- 
elals said those killed la- 
alaed two paUeeOMa aad a 

Clashes weea alsa reported 
from Klrlbathpnlawa aad 
Ketasale la Kaady district 
laavlag alght deoMBstratara 

Faar aatl-IPKF protesters 
were shot dead oaiside Kaa- 
4y rallw V statloB this aMra- 
iagitheancltls aald. 

tBey aald the iwe paUee- 
, mm were kUled by rebels af 
^ the Janatha VlaiBk^f 
Peramoaa tn**) ta MthMSyt 
feieldeata hi the aarth-west- 
eva Eaiaasfala dtetrict, 
while ihe seller was tUled 
la the aaatheta Moaaragala 


aMat nokeaws 
garet TatwUer aald this da- 
valepttieat woaM lead ta aa 
agreemeat hetwoea the two 

- 67 • 

The aflletala aald that hua- 
tfreds or demoaslraters Aa- 
fied a SS'hoar aatlea-wlda 
evrflrw laipeeed hj the Gov- 
eraaieat from ssldalght last 
alght aad teak ta the streets 
la Kaady, Badntla, 
Moaaragala. Rakaaaa aad 
varieas other plaeea. 

U Badalla^ Air Peree 
helloop.m were aaed tc jrop 
teargas eaalsten to disperse 
vlaleat Bemeastrstara. Nlae 
people BSfllelpattag la a 

f>blle Meeting at 
stlwalagala la Kaady dia- 
trlet to prateat against the 
IPKF areaeaoe la the Island 
were shot dead by the ftuaes 
lai4 alght 


^ iMcfc ladi^ impoMirt po S ri Lanka at 
rBit tohtiM lo lilt Turil lujui'iiin 

am place) has only lenihfd io a 
^ — dMfioD amoi^ tht adiD«c 
Sri Ijuika beiidei CMria^ 

ofchaialaid. ^ 
Ite ladfaM objective li the DM 
uto ID iMde mdyASri 
The aeooid divided the 
flt faiigi are coDtfanflag lo 

|tef9« To pioleol tte Ovcaitewd 
raooovdt pco-bdtaB a|^ 
3&eceaiber 1988 praddeotw Je^ 
Hioo and the Fehraafy 1969 feoeral 
'dedioiie it Sii Loaka, nd dn^qg 
5pdi period :Mie than 4»000 Shdudas 
jDMe^ fliordefedt inchidiot' 12 
H)ppdiitioo caodidalei ton 
f neat Attempli woe made to aflM- 
rioale tiie opporition leader^ Mr 
tSfaiinavo BaDdtfaBaike> nrioe dor- 
^tethii period. 

flhe aoooid has alao dMded the 
•^ludlft* iodia openly anoed aad G- 
; oaaoed pio-aooofd Taod! tcnorim 
LID hunt down fte LTIB lenoritt 
f Cfpoied to the a ccord > Since its 
f on liiljr'39» 1987 Biore than 
^3o^000 TaoiQs have been ki) ^ by 
^dttterent TamB toiiorin 2Ktion5 
^ and the tndiaw an^f 
I The dcvohrtioo of power lo the 
|jMOviQcee» Itofted by Inm voder tl^ 
' aocoid, oeatod a ^UdyHmvQ^ed 
I poridon for the Tamui . Ine Tamib 
^ in the north and the eait compriring 
I only rii per cent of the pcpwation, 
liave booD given oeaity one-third of 
t ihe 'ldand and psr cent of the 
L'ooartline ai a aepaiite» mdal ^^ro* 
fyiaat^. 3y grantiqg to fldi *w>- 
^vinoe^ powers vUch even Inoiaii 
ftatea do not ponett* Ibidia intends' 
lo nfeakon the Sri Laiftan govern; 
nient* In efleot» India has created a 
atate within a Mate in the iriaod. 
* The eaetem prbviDoe — one of 
Iho'oentres of ae Sinhahi civiiM- 
ter and whidi has never been ralad 
^by a bod T$aH king — has bIso. 
bMn. declared a TWnfl proiMi^^ 
0ie adbord^ a posi t ion which wBl 
j^WNierbe aoowtedby tfieSrilonkan 

w 1^ This has sown the seeds of 

odnBiCts bdween the 

- people of Sri laidca were pot 
^dvea a blr M&>flttni^ to eiprep 
; Oicirylews ana ii^dM 1)0 tbeoe vital 
rfloctif^<h^ *^ 


<ategofncdly lejocted die ao^^ 

\ i> chandrkX otnr adollk 

Amirthalingam's son says: 

:*IPKF puUout wUl 
trigger civil war' 

news MM wWLjL 

MadrM, J Jy 2ft: TamH ouUtant 
nroups in Sri Lanka are on the 
fcrink of a civil war and only the 
IPKF IS preventing an inter?iecine 
Moodbath, assassinated TULF 
leader A. Amirthalingani^s son 
Kandeepan has aaid* 

The tpiMn of the violence 
which would be iinleasbec: if the 
IPKF kh. loomed large before 
4be ordinary people of the north- 
east, and they wete nortttly 

Kir. Kandeepan is io the dty on 
his way to Benares. Mr. Amirtha- 
lingam bad wished tliat a part of 
his ashes l>e imnwtrsed in Benares 
end Tamil Nadu. 

In the noithem piovince, parti- 
cularly in the Jaffna peninsula, the 
people were under the threat of 
execution by the Tigers, if they 
voiced their opinion, h e sai d. 

Sometime ago, the LTTE had 
driven home its point by attacking 
a group of starving citizens at 
Moolai Cm Vadduliottai. Mr. 
Amirthalingaffl^s constituency) . 
who had approached the IPKF for 
foixi. The Tigers appeared on the 
sc^ne and lobbed grenades just as 
the hungry people had sat down 
to eat. 

The lULF would continue as a 
Tumi Political force, despite the 
r L iTE p'ot to wipe oot die kad* 
i tMp. 

Only Ihe iecretary*general of 
the party could nominate a sue* 
cesser to Mr. Amirthalingam in 
Pariiamept. As he too had been 
killed^ the general council of 
TULF would first have to reflect 
a secretary general 

The nemadasa Government 
ihould establish that its conscien* 
ce was dear in the Amirthalingam 
assassination by publishing the 
police investigation in the case« he 



- 68 - 


Top Tamil leader 
gunned down 

The TiBMt €l tedia Newi Senrkt 

COLOMBO. July 18. 
•yHE leader of the People's 
1 Liberation Organisation 
ofTamil Eelam (PLOTE). Mr 
Uma Maheswaran, wa^ gun- 
ned down here on Sunday 

He was said to have been 
walking along a crowded road 
when he was snot by unidentified 
gunmen. AccordiM to another 
version^ he was riding a motor- 

Mr Mahe$^vamn*t wife and brother 
identified the body» which was lying 
in the mortuary, this morning. 

The PLOTE leader came into the 
limelight last year during the coup 
attempt in the Maldives. Hit group is 
alleged to have sent the mercenaries 
for the anti*Gayoom iaction. He 

fiioed a lot cf flak for this and had 
lince been keeping a low profile. 

Mr Maheswaran had £one to pay 
his last respecu 10 Uie TULF leaders, 
Mr A. Amritalingam and Mr 

File pi^' ure of Mr Mabeswanm* 
— PTI 

YogeswTiran. In fact, he was one of 
the Tamil leaders who carried Mr 
Amritalingam's coffin to thf aircraft 
which flew the body to Batticaloa on 


Sunday morning. He had told friends 
then about his apprehension that he 
would be the next uiget. 

The soft-spoken Mr Uma 
Maheswaran, like the other Tamil 
leaders of his (eDeration, was an 
admirer of the slain TULF chief It 
was Mr Amritalingam who initiated 
Mr Mahesryaran to the Tamil na* 
tionalist (separatist) ideology. 

After that, be got together with Mr 
V. Prabhakarmn, the LTTE supremo, 
in the seventies and worked dosely 
with him. 

He, however, fell out with Mr 
Prabhakaran, as most others did later 
and formed the PLOTE. 

He was one of the first Tamil 
separatist group leaders to embrace 
Marxism. Ideologicallv, the PLOTE 
leadership continued to swear b> 
Mam and Lenin. However, there was 
a vast gap between what the leader- 
ship preached and what iu followers 

Mr Maheswaran, like the EPRLF. 
had finally reconciled to living within 
the framework of the Sri Lankan 
constitution, with autonomy for the 
Tamils. While supporting the Indo* 
"ri Unka accord, the PLOTE had 
jocn critical of the IPKFs induction. 
For some time, the group was close to 
sections of the Sri Lankan csuWish- 
mcnt. However, after the disastrous 
coup attempt in the Maldives, these 
links had weakened 

Following the IPKF operations 
against the LTTE, the PLOTE, 
though against the Tigers, had not 
openly criticised the Tigers. It felt 
that as the LTTE was fighting a 
foreign army, politically it should not 
identi^ with those who supported 
the IPVF Durli^ the provincial 
council ^'lections in the north and 
cast, the PLOTE kept aloof. 

The PLOTE was the first Tamil 
group to have contacu with the 
Janau Vimukti Permmuna. Its 
leadeit had participated in some of 
the euriier meetings of the democratic 
alliance by which the JVP had tried 
to fom a broad-based opposition 
ftont But after the coup anempt, the 
PLOTE kept a tow profile. 

New DelU (TOINS): New Delhi is 
understood to be deeply disturbed 
over the murder as it views the 
incident as ye t another act of violence 
by the LTTE. 

Comin| dose on the heels of the 
. \i nation of the two TULF 
eaders, this killing appean to in* 
dt^te a calculated of terror 
unleashed by the Tamil Tigers aimed 
It decimating their poliucal oppo- 
nents among Tamil groups. 

Informed sources here hint that the 
iri Lanka government is iK>t viewing 
hcse killings with the seriousness 
hey deserve. 

Pull-out in 
phases soon 

The Times of Mia 
News Service 

NEW DELHI, July 18. In 
view of President Ranasinghe 
Premadasa*s persistent reftisal 
to bold talks with India to 
decide the schedule and modal- 
ities for the withdrawal of the 
Indian peace-keepina force from 
Sri Lanka, New Delhi is going 
ahead on its own to get the 
troops back home in a phased 

The defence ministry is 
understood to have initiated the 
planning to identify the areas 
horn which the IPKP will begin 
moving out of the island-nation. 

The first contingenu will 
leave these areas as soon as 
arrangements art finalised to 
ensure that the safety and secur- 
ity of the Tamil population are 

Details regarding the arrange- 
ments were not available. The 
moves made by the defence 
ministry are in line with the 
message spelt out in the Prime 
Minister, Mr Rajiv Gandhi s 
last letter to President 
Premadasa. In this communica- 
tion, Mr Ga* i had told the Sn 
Lankan Prt..«lent that if Col- 
ombo refused discussions on the 
IPKFs withdrawal schedule 
and on a simultaneous schedule 
for the implemenution of the 
Indo*Sri Lanka agreement, 
India will decide the pull«out 
schedule unilaterally consistent 
with our responsibilities and 
obligations under the Indo-Sh 
Lankan agreement. 

Meanwhile, it was also learnt 
here todsy thai the air craft 
carrier Vikrant and a naval usk 
force is likely to move from 
Bombay to Cxhin to conduct 
what are being described as 
**rouiine naval exercises." 

The Siachen camouflage 


JL?IJ2S.^*?S?*^' 0» m«lnw?5ng trooM at 

«»<»wn « «pirlt or feoooiywnodaHoi9.fai i»r«eina lo ihrMh out 
2!!?''^ <^.SI«»»«t six round* tfT talht M ofneS £Z 

md that the Kfwfc ht aeiutf oontml wh^^ii AiJL . 
,,^omup IP tn« lurworMi hms. Most of iS? SSi oiffilS 

Ollh. arw ^ burton »nd 

•iW ^ P.rli,m«rt lh« -net • Mad* of JoJTi iS. Mu^^ 
Chma fwmi bufdinp * highway oh iMrliory Iteoallv 

«ratefl»c inia^ 


- 70 - 



we r 


y paitition 


••• • ' - 

'•ntanonitifi, •••dtd by 

^fcpnoinlc Voundt w*i» 
«vm Mucr^lfw tlitfidw 
of mottiw coiwiiunMl MOMt' 
lonltm tmMmd vfwoulnQ. 

riitemie ntllori thtl t owi 
In* nrfnocfty to inoo thik 

/opultUoo Md^atfo oft 
the mmfodoririg Muitries 
weh 01 |Uto ' «id ^ 
uMi ¥^f)0io oi omlof 
prodoolfif ^t#w'* >ftO:^ 

lortl to ooift ind 

O^^^^M mm u ■ I ■ li 

•thu^ Indinnmi^f tfivtlapad 
Indan v4 ooC^tsvUb 
li»tfiMt'ri^_ tell -^d th W 
tfltsinstlw othvT ttMnimpnt 
of nw maUrtal* from PahuUn 
for Onir "mmIvoI. ^loon 

tot' ^talf tun^riw Afoo flow 
oocMpiod Inr Piklfton eoraU-* 
tiAoo o ilzobli .moftaik for 

tloctpcMt/Hailndtoiomolnod Indian lnd«i»ttlal 

t^ao dow In tho no* of Its £f<»d>|£^* 
fmatatlil grawtft thot ll« ^ V** 
^jtoopte of mlnorlly commirtty 
can not oxpoct to' coma up 
|by gattlng along wIthTTha 

auaitions 'ore not vaiy 
. Ifflcult to «Yw»r. IndBodi 
<f f f orant Oommtr^ tiat dwuld 
rtaka laMon and guldanca from 
.tha rataOva acniavamant ind 
fallura of PaMitanto datac- 
ffllna thoir future 


• Pmstim 

'Mki got ody 77 ipar eant 
'of tha total g»ogri|Mcai ataa 
lOnd 13 par «ant. of <tia 
^ouHlvatad araa but l«dto 
:«hara 12 par oant of tha 
hotal population of umlvldid 
hndh to aMRporff ndth.AflM 
partition on ordy 19 J par oant 
^ nat aroa aowo laft In 
«tfharaaa that of 4t 
to PakMan» 

two food ridtTpc ovinooi* 
tfwod only 39 poroMt 
miter olaeod^ CO por 
t Of ooRon ond 19 mt 
ont. of. lutr produclMi 
• ofimlvktodlndtao 
Mo ocqiirod o rototlvply 
of ttm 


otc« woro /mortotod In 
orooi now bi Pokltton. 
Moroovor aomo Induatrioa Hko 
tmtory, aoopp alBc mi woollen 
^toxtUat woro dao od^raaly 
offoctod' due to poitltlonof 
' tha pountfy^ 


Mo IrMotod oomcllva 
moaauf oa to roitdAati Ka 
leonomy thottorod by 
tha bbw of aOooivl wortd war 
*ond aubaoqiiont porUtlon 
through plonnod offorta. 
Indto offidionllv toddodita 
food iirobtom throu^ groon 
* f o volutjon • ft omorgod 
.oa 0 poy r 

.ond tha rixth ^^>ooo noohlng 
. couitfylnthowofldo 

In 198% ' Mb> jnm 
domotllc aovtng wm tipmt 
.cont vS J|iB QDP 
iHe aomo ffgurot oidy t| 
oof* foiPMaUnolnlliai 
woy» hi 1984 mdto^ 
dornoallc Invoabnont figurod 
at 24 par oai« of QOPaa 
17 .pw..€«i|t for 



Do we 

• cor*dftonipogi1f 
pot copita food production 
for India for 1982*63 wos 110 
(taking 1974-76-100) 
whareos thot wos 104 for 
PokUttf). In 1?»4, balance 
of payments In current 
account for India was 
ki deficit by 2429 million 
dollars for Pakistan a 
dollars for Pakistan (U^ 
little m9re than dDuble)butt 
the gross intarnational 
roservo In 1^84 . for India 
was 8536 million dollars as 
against 1610 million dollars 
for Pakistan (laO. more 
than five times greater)* 
Describing the ropercussions 
of Pakistan's decision to 
aoek 800 million dollars 
from the IMF the reports 
estimate that from the 
next financial year Islamabad 
may have to pay more 
by way of debt servicing 
than It might gat as foreign 
old funds. And despite 
that} the external debt 
liability outstanding in 
1997 would be more that 11 
Nllion dollar. The day is 
approaching fast when 
the Pakistan's debt servicing 
txjrden reach Latin American 

People ot Pakistan w^te 
hoodwinked by a rosy 
picture painted by thb 
creators of Paktston* Resource 
reservoir has been withering 
way In fortifying the raiment- 
otion of martial law adminis- 
trators ivider whose dreaded 
shadow the desire of Individual 
freedom has boon taking its 
last breatha Number of 
reports obaorve that 'receni 
upheavals* on tha political 
front had caused* a serious 
aet bock to the Pakistan 
economy and therefore 
the newly formal Pakistani 
Goverrvnent may find repairing 
of ottered economy even 
more difficult than reviving 
democratic Institutions. 

- 71 - 


I Where China 
has scored 
over India 

HT Correspondent 


Rural inequ&bty in China is not very 
different from that in India despite all 
the revolutionary upheavals there, 
according to noted economist . Dr Sutv 
ramaniao Swamy, MP. 

But the urban sector in China exhi* 
bited impressive equity in incomes and 
not in the rural sector, he says in a new 
book, which was released by the Presi- 
dent, Mr R. Venkataraman, today. 

In terms of poverty levels, illiteracy 
and health. China has done decisively 
better than India, although the gap is 
not as wide as presumed, he says. 

•Toi China, even io the mid SOs. 
there were 110 mUJion vtr> poor peo- 
ple and 200 million illiterates \ he adds 
ID the book titled "Economic Growth 
in China and India--A Prospective by 

Dt Swamy says that China and India 
belong to the group of •'moderately 
growing" developing nations. But 
since 1992 in comparative terms. Chi- 
na attained a higher growth rate in 
national income than India, during the 
three decades and more of planned 
economic development. 

The estimated growth rate for China 
during 1952-86 was 5.1 per cent per 
year and 4.0 per cent per year for In- 

He says that a sectoral pattern of 
growth rates foi the penod 1952-86 -v 
a whole shows that Chinis is ahead of 
India in agricultural performance and 
far ahead in industrial growth (about 
double) Only in the service sector was 
India ahead. 

The fact that the per capita incomes 
of the two counmcs arc "so low is by 
itself not surprising'*, Dr Swamy says. 

China *s and India's per capita in- 
comes are. even tixlay. lower than 
Pakistan's *'but one cannot, on this 
I fact alone argue that Pakistan IS more 
developed than the other two". 

The *rend in industrial growth rates 
in both countries was also dif fere nt . Dr 
Swamy writes. 

The Chinese industrial economv 
had accelerated from a high annual 8 8 
per cent in 1952-6? to an even higher 
1 1 . 6 per cent in 1978-86 

In India the growth rate decelerated 
from a modest 5.8 per cent annually lo 
an unimpressive 3.6 per cent in the 

In agnculture both expenenced an 
acceleration in the growth rates dut to 
investments made in modernisation, in 
cash crops and subsidiary agncultural 

He. however. ot»serves that Indian 
agriculture appeared to have lost its 
steam in the post- 1978 penod when 
I China sharply accelerated its growih 
I initiating twnomic reforms 
! Describing China s investment, as 
"huge". Dr Swamy says that Beijing 
invested upto 34 per cent of the GDF 
for industrialisation compared to Indi- 
a's 25 per cent. 

Dr Swamy says that bccaus^ the 
Chinese have been relatively more in- 
I efficient in the use of rest>urcc5. ihev 
' a^uld not reahsc a much higher rate o\ 
' growth 

72 - 

' 4 

Mothers battle with life and rebels 

KABULp August 7 (PTI). 

SHE lott a migorin' of her 
itlatives aitber fightinf for 
their homeland or in the rocket 
attacks by the mt^ahideen rrixls. 

Of her two SODS, one is a noUs^t 
and the younger one is studying 
in school. ^ 

Middle-aged Sidiqua, slins and 
slick with the military cap partly 
covering her bobbed hair and the 
ftcial stemess conveying her will 
to fi^it with vengeance displays 
the agony of a woman who has 
:o%\ almost all she had cherished. 

Sidiqua is now a proud soldier 
of the women's regiment being 
raised in a fortifi<>d campui in a 
resid^Ual district here. 

Although a fltdgting of five 
mc^st^s, icme of t^ie SOOodd 
iroopi of ^he women^s regiment 
have already ^^de it to the 
frontline &far the stratejic east- 
em city of Jalalabad; doing vari- 
ous jobs, fiom mokfng food* 
nursing the wounded to actively 
participating in the war. 

^We fotight with the enemy. I 
killH at least eight of them, 

wounding some others*', said 
Sidiqua, recalling bo* maiden 
venture to the fiontlines in the 
Jalalabad sector. 

''We were about 12 of us 
participating in the war during 
daytime. In the nights, we at* 
tended the medical carops*\ she 

"The girls are proud of being a 
pan of the anned foroes defend- 
ing homeland Their being 
on the jobs on tbe frontlines also 
works aft a morale booster for the 

armed said U. Yasamin 
Ahmasangar, a senior officer of 
the women*s regiment. 

Besides doing the jobs of a 
cook* a oufM and a soldier, the 
girls also pthered valuable iofcr- 
mation abo!it the enemy ^httt 
sent to the frontlines, Lt. 
Ahmasangar said. The woDcn 
aoldien; however, were being 
mostly used during the mopping 
up and search operations in 
Kabul and in the provinces, she 



India and the United States have a long history of togetherness or so I found 
out this summer while travelling around India. Elihu Yale shipped ice on those 
fast clipper ships to Madi-as, and some generals of Revolutionary War fame, Burgoync' 
and Cornwall is, recouped soine lost prestige on the battlefields of India. 

Our present relations neem to be a bit on the downside. America's courting of 
India's enemy, Pakistan, .-^nd the U.S. in naming India, along with Brazil and Japan, 
as unfair trading partners has not endeared us to the people or the government of 

An interesting aside but related to relations with India. The Fulbrighters* , 
along with all other Americans in the New Delhi area, were invited to attend a July 4th 
celebration at the U.S. embassy. I was disappointed, tremendously so, by the reception 
we received. We had to pay for each and every frank, and every cola. It couldn't have 
cost more than one to two thousand dollars. Our ambassador, Mr. Hubbard, a professor of 
history I believe at USC v^o had previously contributed heavily to Mr. Reagan's past 
canpaigns, frankly could have absorbed the cost; it was mere beans to him. More dis- 
turbing to me was the smugness, the air of disdain exhibited by many of the personnel 
present to those not affiliated with the embassy. I wondered if tJiis was the way the 
British colonialists treated the Indians (their Wogs) during the Raj. 

A) Have the students collect articles on India out of newspapers over a period of time. 
Ask the students to judge if the writer of the news story is beinc? objective. You 
could give them one of the following articles and see if they could tell the 
author's frame of reference. 

B) See if the stidents can find any other ties between the U.S. and India over tho 
years. I've included an article about U.S. soldiers in ".'alcutta during \^v2, .1 
little known theater of operations for our GIs. 

- 75 - 

Sale of 
F-16s to 
Pak now 

The Bush i^ministration today sue* 
oessfuUy scuttled a concerted move in 
Congress to prohibit or slash down the 
request for the sale of 60 F-16 fighter 
jets to Pakistan. The approval for the % 
1.5 bUlion purchase by Pakistan came 
despite suong opposition from some 
Q>ngres$men that the US sale would 
*'mar** improving Indo-US and Indo* 
Pak relations, escalate militar> ten- 
sions in the subcontinent, besides im* 
peding prospects for much-needed 
economic development in Pakistan. t 
A **resolution of disapproval** in the < 
House of Representatives sponsored 
by Congressman Ted Weiss, and sap- 
ported by Democratic Party Cbngress- 
man Stephen Solarz, aimed at hmiting 
the number of sophisticated warplanes 
for Pakistan. Pakistan's supporters 
and the Bush administration strongly 
justified the sale in that it was a neces- 
sary show of US ••support" (political 
and Ciilitary) for the new '•fragile* 
democracy an Pakistan. A senior State 
Department official stated, *'our rela* 
lions with India and Paki.^tan are not a 
lero^sum game.** 

Testifying before a joint House, two 
senior Bush administration officials 
made a case for Pakistan*s military 
modernisation against India *s expan- 
sion programmes, Defence Deputy 
Assistant Secretary for the Near East 
and South Asia. Arthur Hughes, dis- 
missed Idnia*s security concerns saying 
ihe sale will only **roughly maintain 
current force ratios (of the Pakistan air 
force) with the Indian Air Force.** 

Mr Hughes subs-antiated the Pakis 
tani viewpoint that the ratio was three 
to one in India*s favour Pakistan's Air 
Force was in urgent need of US F-16S 
to replace nearly 170 Chinese-built F- 
6, technology of the 1950s being • 
phased out by Islamabad, Mr Hughes 


US confirms Pak 
helping terrorists 

The Bush Adounistration has con* 
finned Pakistan*! role in abetting ter> 
rohsm in India. A senior Sute Depart* 
nent official today admitted in testi* 
mony before the US Congress that 
Pakistan has been providing ^'assist- 
ance** to Sikh terrorists engaged in 
subversive aaivities in India, and the 
process had not '*oeased**. 

Todays remarks by the Deputy 
Assistant Secretary of State for the 
Near East and South Asia, Mrs Teresi^ 
U Schaffer, came as the first "outside** 
confirmation of the "exlen<ive'' role 
Pakistan played in training and arming 
extremists, even "helping the terror- 
ists infiltrate*' across the border into 
India. It is the first acknowledgment of 
an international awareness of Isiama* 
bad's efforts to fuel terrorist activities 
m India, particularly under the late 
President Gen Zia-ul*Haq. 

Testifying before the House Asia- 
Pacific Foreign Affairs, Arms control 
aaJ Intematianal Security Subcom- 
mittees, Mrs Schaffer told Congress- 
man Stephen Solarz that Washington 
(eels '*the activity has significantly 
diminished**. Sobrz had questioned 
Pakistan's role based on India*s allega- 
tions. Congressional sources said the 
House subcommittee had seen 
documented proof of "Pakistan's acti* 
vities** in training and supplying arms 
to Sikh terrorisu, the basis for Solarz's 

' Informed sources told Asian Ne^vs 
International today that Washinfton 
has come to know of "the extent" of 
the etforu through elements withm the 
Pakistan Govemmeot and mibtar> 
under the Gen Zia to arm terrorists, 
especially from Punjab. They pointed 
out that, after diacmsions on the sub- 
ject between the Prime Ministers of 
India and Pakistan , there was a notice- 
able drop in Pakistanis activities 
Schaffer testified today that Washing- 
ton has made a note of steps taken by 

Bhutto's Govcmmci); to curb these 
activities, even bring about a signifi- 
cant dirounition. 

lo a brief discussion after the testi- 
mony today (which focussed on the 
sale of 60 F-16s to Pakistan), Mrs 
Schaffer told ANI that **it has been our 
(llie Bush Administration's)** im* 
pression that Pakistan had been aiding 
Sikh tenorists. However, the senior 
official emphasised that the new 
democratic Government had taken 
some measures to control the activity. 
Washington feels this has been made 
feasible through a "better understand- 
ing** between India and Pakistan of 
each other's concerns. 

Schaffer did indicate that the prob- 
lem of terrorism, as relates to India 
and Pakistan* was "also a communal 
one", and there have been allegations 
from both sides. Schaffer also pointed 
out that the situation in Punjab (Pakis- 
tan) "is a very unsettled one". It a 
region where, India claims, most ter- 
rorists infiltrating into the oountr) 
have been trained. 


Indo-U.S. relations in limbo 

Tlie Times of Wit Ntwt Stnkt 

WASHINGTON, August 1: Utely^ 
Indians image in the US has sufTened 
a bit Indo-US relations, which ap- 
peared for a while to be improving 
sieadil). can be described as being on 
hold for the time being. 

A number of factors may be 
« responsible for this. Indians problems 
with Sn Lanka and Nepal are two. 
The US trade represenuiive's de- 
cision to list lnd)a, alongwith Japan 
and Brazil, as an unfair trading na- 
tion under the provisions of the 
Super 301 lavv is another. Indians 
successful testing of the Agni missile, 
with Its intermediate range delivery 
capabilit>, has created protlems 
while reports about Indian- nade 
chemicals being used by some West 
Asian countries for making poison 
gas have been presented in the nedia 
in a way that has generated firther 
doubt about India's intentiom even 
though it is quite apparent thit In- 
dian manufacturers of such 
chemicals had little idea of their 
possible end-use. 

In the circumstances, India*s public 
relation efforts here may have to be 
intensified. At the momenta the US 
administration, especially the state 
depanmenU is still in a stage of 
transition. Not all appointees of the 
Bush administration have taken 
complete charge and in many areas 
of policymaking the sttuation is 
somewhat in limbo But on Captiol 
Hill, there is a lot of activity and it 
is there that India recently managed 
to squeak past an outright Con- 
gressional censure. It was a close call 

On June 29, the US House of 
R^presenutives debated the foreign 
aid Bill Rep. Wally Heifer, a Re- 
publican from California and a 
champion of causes of Califomtan 
Sikhs, who form an important pan of 
his constituency, introduced an 
amendment asking Congress to re- 
duce US eccnomic assistance to 
India from $ 110 million to $ 85 
million because of Indians allegedly 
poor record on human righu. The 
amendment was defeated by 2] 2 
votes to 204, with 16 roenben abs- 

An analysis of that voting suggests 
that India would need to redouble its 
public relation efforts on the Hill. At 
it IS, a margin of just eight votes 
more in Indians favour shows the 
^riousness of the problem. In fact, it 
was at the intervention of Rep. Step- 
hen J. Solaa. Democrat from Nen 
York and a friend of India, that a 
recorded vote was t^ken. On voice 
vote, the amendment had actual]> 
been passed !n a conversation with 
this correspondent, the speaker of the 
House. Mr Tom Foley, said. **1 was 
myself surprised to see how close it 

Mr Herger's amendment was osten- 
ub)> on the ground of human nghts 
violations in Pubjab But he linked it 
to accusations clearl> designed to 

iway Congressmen who might not 
otherwise have been all that con* 
cemedd about Punjab. 
Said Mr HefBer ^'The Indian gov* 
emment has not shown ittelf to be 
friend of the U.S. For example, at the 
United Nations, India voted against 
the United States position 93 per 
cent of the time in 1988. more than 
either Cuba or the Soviet Union. At 
the United Nations, India refused to 
condemn the brutti Soviet invasion 
of Afghanisun, or the downing of the 
Korean Airlines flight 007, in which 
a member of our own House of 
represenutives was killed."* 

Mr Solan had to intervene — and 
this was the only voice heard in 
support of India to point out that 
Pakisun's voting record at the U.N. 
was not all that much better. **We are 
giving $ 600 million a year to Paki- 
sun. They vote against us 88 per cent 
of the time. I do not hear any of my 
friends from the other side of the isle 
saying that, therefore, we should cut 
out our aid to PakisUn. which is one 
of the largest recipients of aid from 
the U.S. And I agree with them, that 
we should not cut aid to Pakisun. U 
is an important country. But so is 
India, which is the most populous 
democracy in the world and it is 
beginning to work with us in i 
number of important areas.** 

Mr Solar? added: ♦•There are 
human rights abuses in Punjab", he 
«aid« ^'but I did not hear the author 
of the amendment sa> 90 to 95 per 
cent of them are due to Sikh ex- 

tremist murdering not only Hindus, 
but Sikha as well." 

Mr Herger threw in mentions of 
Nepal Sri Lanka. Indians reported 
nuclear weapons programme and the 
feet that it was leasing a nuclear 
submarine from the Soviet Union. 
Mr Solarz was the sole defender of 
India on these scores. All others, who 
chose to speak on the amvndment, 
supported Mr Herger*s move. 

Among Democnu, 1 78 voted 
against the amendment and 136 for 
The voting appears to have taken 
place broadly along liberal<on- 
aervative lines, with the liberal op- 
posing the amendment and support- 
ing India. Even among Democrats, 
most of those from the conservative 
south lined up with the Republicans. 
From the rest of the country, com- 
prising 306 seats, only 23 Democrats 
voted for the amendment and 144 
against. Among non-southem Re* 
publicans, the tally was 92 for the 
amendment and 33 against. Of 24 
Mack members of the House. 21 
voted, all for India and against the 
amendment. So did the eight his- 
panic members. 

Interestingly, with the exception of 
Rep. Newt Gingrich, a Repullican. 
all prominent l^den of the Houv* 
— including Mr Richard Gephardt 
Mr Les Aspin* Mr William Grey. M 
Alan Broomfield and Mr Rober 
Michel — voted against the amerc 
menl. Of the members of the Hous 
foreign affairs committe. all the Dt 
mocrats voted against. 

- 7B - 

Clark may replace Hubbard 


The State Department has rec- 
ommended William Clark. Jr. 
S8. a career diplomat to be the 
next ambassador to India but it 
k uncertain If the White House 
will nominate him. 

Administration sources said 
several Republican stalwarts 
who had contributed heavily to 
party causes were also in the 
running and **it Is quite pAusi* 
ble that the president may ap- 
point one ortbem'\ 

The ambamdor's position to 
New Delhi is expected to fall va- 
cant in October when Congress 
adtoums because current am- 
bassador John Randolph Hub* 
bard, whose appointment was a 
recess appointment by former 
President Ronald Reagan, has 
not been confirmed by the 

Senate Foreign Relations 
Committee chairman Claiborne 

Pell, who was quite peeved that 
Reagan went over tne commit- 
tee's head and used a presiden- 
tial prerogative to appoint Hub- 
bard, has strongly indicated 
that he has no intention of con- 
firming Hubbard even if he is 
renominated by Bush. 

Although the State Depart- 
ment is strongly pushing for 
Clark, it has a tough task, be- 
cause compared to previous ad- 
ministrations, the Bush White 
House has been naming as am- 
bassadors more political ap- 
pointees with hardly any for- 
eign policy experience than 
career foreign ser/ice officers. 
Their only qualification has 
been either their support for 
Bush, for the party or tneir mas- 
sive fund-raising efforts. 

The proliferation of political 
appointees has caused rum- 
blings in Congress, so much so 
that Senate Foreign Relations 
Subcommittee chairman for 
South Asia Senator Paul Sar 

banes said recently that many 
of Bush's appointees have had 
fewer qualincations than those 
of other presidents. 

"They have gotten to the 
point here where the only rea- 
son some of them are being 

Ricked is big political giving.^ 
e said, adding. am not a pur- 
ist on this, but they have gone 
loo far- 

He said it was much worse 
than during the Reagan admin- 
istration. 'There's more of it. 
It*s more crass.'* 

Although Clark has the neces- 
sary credentials required of a 
foreign service officer slated for 
an important ambassadorial 
posting. Indophiles here are 
disappointed that a little-knov^ 
official mity end up being the 
next envoy to New Delhi, "par- 
ticularly at «>uch a critical phase 
in Indo-US relations " 

State Department ofTu lals. 
however slrongi> defended ca- 
reer diplomats and pointed to 

the succes.s of fornicr Ambassa- 
dors Harry Barnes and John 
Gunther Dean as pprferi exam 
pies of "superb professkinals 
who did an excellent job**. 

Although not specificalK 
rooting for Clark, one official 
said. "I hope we get a truly pro- 
fessional gliy out there 

Sources expressed frustra- 
tion that career diplomats may 
be shunted aside to give wa> for 
political appointees. 

One source compared it to the 
days of former President Rich 
ard Nixon "when there was a 
price list for embassies. You 
wanted Ghana it was oni\ 
$200,000. but if you wanted 
Paris. would cost one 

"I wonder ho\\ much India 
costs? You should Ihinl^ it would 
be an expensive countrv.' thf 
source remarked 

By arrangemenf uith 
India Abroad Svu s Sernr 

( ) 


- 79 - 

\liiacceplable Hypocrisy 

The Indian embassx in Washington has reacted with jus- 
tifiable anger to cnticiMTis emanating from the Bush adminis- 
tration about India's expon of so-called poison gas. Unfortu- 
nately the state departments official spokesman. Mr Boucher, 
has not seen fit to reject this slur categorically. A West German 
chemical company was contracted by Iran to suppK thioinl 
chloride which is used for pesticide production . It is aho ;i 
component of mustard pas. After enquiries b\ the West ( •< i 
man government, the company cartcelled its contract with Iiidi 
an suppliers and both have seen fit to pass on the buck. a> u 
were, to India arguing that this countr> should have mor 
stringent laws concerning such items, the export of which in 
prohibited by West Germany. This issu« has been picked up in 
Washington as part of its purptuied drive to make the v^orld 
free of chemical weapons. 

For a number of reasons this challenge to Indian honufuivs 
is disturbing and unacceptable This countrv s record on thc^ 
issue of non-proliferation of chemical weapons and (ipposition 
to such means of warfare is second to none. India s positive arid 
constructive role in seeking to perfect a system of worldwide 
control in this matter has been commended repeatedU. even b\ 
the West . There are a number of dual-use chemicals like fhion\ I 
chloride whose purchase mav be motivated by considv ations 
unknown to the supplier. But to singleout Indian laxity is realK 
to try and bell the wrong cat. Take the accusation about Indiun 
supply of such poison gas for use in the Iran-Iraq war. Both 
politically and economically, western positions on this war 
contrasted negatively with India s principled stand of strict 
neutrality and its refusal cither to encourage or turn a blind eye 
to any efforts by Indian companies to make money out of the 
lucrative weapons trade. The west»'rn record in this respect was 
far worse. If dual-use chemicals constute a problem, and they 
do. the issue must be tackled m a comprehensive and equitable 
manner which does not single out a country like India. Indeed, 
a minimum condition for movement in this diction would K 
much greater information about the production, stockpiling 
and use of such chemicals in the west and much less secrecv 
about laboratory research with respect to militarily useful gases 
and chemicals. This would be to put the boot on the foot where 
it belongs. 


Foreign Policy/ Mohan Guruswaniy 



We should avoid the US linkage-leverage trap 

INfMA swl the irmk^ Siaics mmy 
hr M two cfMfs of the roooomic 
ifimrttm bttl tfery have mtsajr 

<k imnm. «c » wtefT ilir p^n^r untc- 
Ivm fertu fo hare ctrftepicd Tlb» 
h*» ltd lo Yfic mr of mcffL hao dtwl 

M no iarpmr llte$tkitt, tfefl 
Ihc cmkHki of dfTtomacy bcUvem 
rtJc MKJ riMfiitnct km ^tpm lo sJtow 

Fat cmMplr. die Rcatna 
mimftrvifcHi ap po w» trf IoIni R Hwb- 
hM^ M a mbwM dor lo fodM agsHiii 
Che advfcr of the SlMr (le^ineBi 
and lU CbAtrm. A* • ressN lho«|h 
it Im only tacft » 1^ mtm^ tnee 
Ht^>hafd hat (kcb hnv, a atw aflt* 

. hamdor fQ India it on the cunt* 
The appcwBim c^ of the ch<c( of 
the Vtfsai HMdtf SHRmdan. Kmo 
Smfh, as fhe Indtaii amhat i artiy to 

* ihc US If Mtnriu Htfbhwd fiMiy tsai 
bt at «c£l Iflotw as aocnc of ht« 
PTdccvsaors^ hitf hv Wi a fotmcf 
pirsidiriu of ibt U anwi ly of So(ifh> 
rm i sMorm*. Vntonmst^Oy, lUras) 
Smgli has no fli«h d^mebon. 

Smcc his dtmtMOMfon of Imto 
G«odhif after her dekml m 197? 

Skidi kcspi al am' lo^ 
hy her Svooe ihc nw of fti^iv 

c«p»r«iod htt dcfwc id **trni« ihc 
nattsa and anf«cf fhc ctf of dwty^. 
The mami^ of hn mm lo 
hla^vrao Sctodia't damfthrr seems 
to have dooe fhc irx* Bm vnih dte 
nrfmcil cHmaia hcfc bemg whai it it» 
karwi Sn||& fMonld do «efi to ti«ad 

<>ar ci p h Bai es m Wgshtmfiwt aod 
Moacow anr mcM to perl^mai vftti 
•ad nsftive rotes m fhe hwJhifiafa 
of o«sf n a t io wai micscsls. teMd, 
thry loo ha«« becoMc steccMcs lor 
nawaa'-d potiiiciafii a ad 
bvrca«iCf -s ^ l^aiap Kaid ««s aM lo 
Washmfii. i hBcaoie H ««t gi cw a ri red 
lhai at cahuiei acnctary h^ wv jei- 
loo dose to iwun ia e ivho had 
Cdiro ovi of £iro«r. Bm llM was Aol 
bekm ^ rio«ieii^ sii^ Sh»dur 
B^fMi's tern was tstesided oo the 
evcotog he ««s hastn^g hit £tft«r9 
difwer. Thlo4»N^K«vl«asseiiiio 
Moscow bcoatise he wasdoar lo dtt 
pt^ who matter hi New de^ t§ 
yd to ffVUim dcs^^ fhe "appotoi- 
mcsif*' of AUM Oooaah^s Ksae 
iBoofte ^ as the arw ■fflhanarior 
lo the Sonci Vnkm. 

Mo-US fdastooa loeie lo have 
eaie m J $ mem pteoe wiih ^ 
fmphasri oow more om deftact lech- 

AcAoi^ Ihm em eoooomc Md 
lochfltcri ooopemioo. The iS^^cott- 
odi«d U'^ project a ooe of fhc 
more prom^tneoi '*«opd«Ks'* ih^ 
Amerkans mt hukhw ovi lo co^- 
<hiioo om tftlermiiiQnd beha Wow to 
^**l fheij pervpecftwrt. visii of 
oor dcAraoe mmttter lo the US to 
fvrthef fhe oew ddme w rh wo h ^y 
tasarrt f^mkio^itp w^h thai coimlry 
m a time when th« fVime Mtomer H 
thowi^ l^oseif bo»vr ahocrt ^ 
orw aitefupi by fhe US lo t^bvtn the 
" MimrH y and aovercifoty of the 

hoa** na S«per-10l, only serres to 
c mi i toise the amAttiow « fhe top. 
The Mumi of Ptef's vistt as wcQ 
m»ke§ OI9C wonder if it thoM hr 
tafcco aenonly at afi. i«ss at Frwih 
CarHiDti'ff Wstt was tahco 1^^^ 
hm. Unlbrtooaiely. ^mm'$ did 
M mcrn r>cfl a few baes to «iy 
as^for Ame;rtcaa pyhH r athw . 

The "drvcfopmcst** of the LCA at 
a ttmi whcA tAF pttoit are npc^lodly 
r y ahi rt iw> the oew Soviet MfO-33 
iho^ mat* H ^ipBfTst thai tte lAF 
at leatf is ooi tahmg the deleiiQi 

Hite i s tiy*! daHii tfwi fOMjh IX*A 
wiS be pra^teocd hy 1996 very 
Kf io i nl y. Ooing ^ new ges- 
csstiop of comhM a»cs^ he^m dt- 
vete pc d it ace alt mery dcv ^^at cwea 
if ^ iPdtM IT A ahca o^ M «Ny 
001 he aMfe lo CQMi hi haitie aB thai 
w«a The MOJS, whM» dMd 
be a^ ifiBh la to i» oo 

a co a w t ef -jr<ytorT to tthc as 
Amenoap Ml The piiiuiinsui) of 
dte y O- W ami SU-jt t ^htcn oa 
dtsphiy as flypbofop^ hM yvar sod 

respond to dociimet of tinMff a<KJ 
fcnrnpr «^ ^ew Hfvp^l rcHsncr 
oo arnKwislfqi. Thev methods 
wgft with the dicta«orrii4)» of ihe 



ttie woeld's Iwgesi d ewoiraii c s s, 
pod At VK, hsrr maoy com- 
"poimsof hcht*". Theae tocMe 
atmem to 

dae g^ a od^a hidi^ t 


mvtitaacy l e c h ttolqp. The Soviet 
Uokip, &a f fs p ect , ^ icmaihaHy 
sMte^ tp » fcr may oot bt ahle 
to prateoe a dooem fhiwi i b«rf osp 
ose fhe matt osodem tc chmAnte t 
purpM^idly far muhtary hard*aff. 
BcsmIcs Sovtet oQtMpmrBi here 
always beco more oost eiAcctrwa. 

The '<fefepoe ouQiprrBtivc pftafi 
herwem the Uotted S£mc» aod 
lad^", rvefl if they taJut some shape, 
are not Mcdy IP tPtoe soy ch^pet hi 
ottf ithutopstttp. The effohof 
Ihe US dciepcc apd fonnpi pohcy 
catMshmesi k lo hm as teto a 
piitettyy depiwrfcni idatiooship. Fms 
democr.^^ pmtic«l»ffy if they Ms 
hpfe Md po w er ftJ at India ts, 4d aoi 

mm < 
us IP 

hidfvidpal finir- 
pad raipihfi ppd yir croed of 
f. The stimpii hi the com- 


mal idBotof f cPl drvide of 
TMs b a ch drop pfcsems a 
offp of tupit y for htdia <Md Ihe 
pot dteir r eiat i tfPt bn i mt%$ 

TW^ pf cDvrse, chfii Ibr a Cm- 
si^Med Icpderihtp in both nat»om 
^ pB this eu p cnc p o r . Ocorpe Prah. 
htt thowo oo abdsiies or vismm d 
the kM dream of th^npi ihai 
arvcr were apd «Kmder. why ootT* 
And pi Ibr R^v Goodhi has oot 
prpwd Pmch better. 

The h^ polm of PiPi'e vMi lo 
fhe US was a mertmi with Vice- 
Pnmdem Dsp Qoayk, tho«9h il p 
df>pbfM if Qpayk fopud the door 
■Bd pkj^ipt aad jet li^^ K i 
PlpM a **h[^py psmper", tvhach ap> 
parcMly II the thmp IP bs thett dpyi^ 


I I 


Seeing India without 
old blinkers 

It may be (Mt (rf i|iK>rasice that piblic opintcm in the 
United Smes tends to taxe a diitorted view of Indians policies, 
domestic as weO as fonignf but quite often the distortion is set 
right. The latest instance of this ocm^ive fHOcess is the 
rejection by the House of Re{niesentati ves of the amendment to 
the US Fcmign Aid Bfll aimed at censuring India under the 
pretext of "Miration (rf human rights in Punjab''. Reputrfican 
Party member Wally Merger had moved the amendment calling 
for withholding US aid of S2S millkm eannarked for 1990. The 
three conditi<H» wliich be had laki down for releasing the aid 
were that New Delhi slHMiId lift its economic blockade erf Nepal , 
allow Amnesty Intematk>nal access to Punjab and reduce the 
human rights abuses in the border State. Though the 
amendment was defeated by 212 to 203 votes, tl^ fact that 200 
odd members voted in favour of it gives an ''^a of the extent of 
the misunderstanding about India in tK US. Mr Herger 
accused India on various counts and many cKhers in the Hmtse 
suf^rted him. As usual it was left to Mr Stephen J. Solm to 
defend India. Apart from the ^violation of human rights in 
Punjab* Mr Herger found fault with New Delhi for its role in Sri 
Lanka, its stand on Afghanistan arHl for its 'hostile* attitucfe to 
Nepal. In sbwt, acocmling to him, India is a *'tmUy*' 

Obviously, the American critics of India neither know 
what is ha^»ening in Imlia nor study the nuances of the Indian 
situation, nmjab is certainly a major problem so far as India is 
concerned and many unhappy cfevek>{miente ha%v taken piact 
in the State. But the Government cannot be blamed for its drive 
against terrorim. No country can affcmi to be soft to terrorists 
and stem action Mainst them cannot be inteiweted as vk>lation 
of human rights. Similarty, New Delhi^s &i Lanka policy or its 
attitu(fe towards NejNd is the reactk>n to certain develo^nents 
in these two countries. It was at the invitation of tl^ Sri Lankan 
Government that India bad sent its troops to the feland but 
throughout the cri^ New Detbi has been dressing the need to 
IH^eserve the territorial integrity Md unity of the island 
refHiblic. In Nepal, pfobtems arose mainly on aocmint of the 
short-sighted pcrfidM of the govemn^ntihere. New Delhi is on 
no account hostile to the Himalayan kingdcmi. If locfia's 
Afghan policy does not anee with Washington's perceptiOTS, 
that is no reason why New Delhi*s intentioiis sbcmld be 
su^)ected. Tt^ trouble is that Mr Herger ami other critics < 
refusr to compiehend tl^ facts abmit Imiia whidi perhaps 
explains their jaundiced view of this cmmtry*s policies. 

- 32 - 

Mcnbm of the Mtas IVofde*f fViMrf %endBg n dllsy (tf tiw us Ptad^ 

Ddhi OB Tncsdaj-^Espms pholc^nqfli 


- 83 - 

India may turn into 
arms bazar: US 


DESPITE refwatfid dcaHOi by 
lodia, US ddence expem are 
hftfpii^ on tbe possiMltty of it be- 
ocmif^ a m^or cjipona cS aims in 
the near ftitttft. 

Should India take nch a path, the 
dcvek>|itni wi»id may be flooikd 
with a new wave of lethal nfcapoas, 
tays the Sooth Afia expert, Mr Kich- 
«nd R Otmin, in an artidc titled 
''IsKita*! mowing mibtafy might 
worries its ne^bmin^ pobbAed in 
the ^«id and r jouriML 

The policy aithiiects istefnatkmal 
piTskieQt, Mr Rodney W. Jcmes. 
writing in the Waahingioo qnanertyf 
hi^iltghts the inmate in India's do- 
feooe expenditure tinawm but omits 
the ftct thai it had intnxhioed a cut 
clover Rs. 200 ciom thb y«ar in its 
defence budgel 

Pakistan Vd^Qce expenditures in- 
cmsed fioin abcNit Sl.6 t^Uion to 
$Z7 bOboa bctuven 1971 and 19M 

while India's defence mpeoditmr 
wvnt up frcmi 51.5 Ulbon to jusi 
under $10 billiofi in the same period 
— more than six-fi^ inmascs, he 

Experts say what may lure India 
tote tbe arms baxar to die example af 
CMna whM had of bean making 
htfd cvTcacy hf ariHng wnpotts. 
Chlnals B&bary bbkcs have aommd 
the worW for arms sales to pay fcr 
mffitary modenrfsatien. 

The defence mo&Fon cnindi may 
ompd India to ahandra its existing 
po^ aot exporting .m., «n Mr 

India's pmttcipation this y«ar in 
defeim exhiMtiMs in Ankara, Ba^ 
dad and Ftm is oraskScstd nothing 
but a manifestation of its intention to 
look §OT potential buyen for iu arms, 
especially sroaU arms, he says^ 

- 84 - 




{ ' 

belu riiM to 

'Our ]pydti€s 
fii Aft time 


_ ted 0ie Amerie ns wbo.^ren ^Wer- 
to the ^en Sittp- raid. o«i»» ^ and over tera^* 
tlm BurtM. tt^tmi &e Ctfotfta new ted H 
Untt. mio ^ ^ ^sm Jootea GXi 
«b«r i^ef«;^nl^ imdidi- IfftteBdi .with Iteir frtteWwJ 
aircndl .canM jupetniMteC foodt — jteH 
^ Britiih troop! out ft teuihwiB|i i diocdidei mi^ 
boplcdemnixvmodelhiMitf ^tevb«gite,lteLiiGiQrSli^ 

LANDMARK y'f^?S^m\ms^%^mA^^ 
wall tte tefDe iraais. Oul tla^ 
yefilttelUhtf.'niemwniflceat gghttMftririwto 
White marUe dome of fte Vlo^ JkndF^^ 
torta MefDorisl dis^ypemd ^ wiS' falo Ite tougtest 
undCT 0 toot or %lMk point to Al8ht opote hi Cdodte 
teprivt J^gpanese tmsitm of a ^fjsqS^ V^^ ^i^SyfAa^ 
landmnlL It took Mare tefim ^^^ ^gP^Bi owi^ miyMr — 
the Imnben heard «l aO. .^^.4 tero^ »oy diaf 

l^egotpksityorprBctioei^^aiid tfyeane d^J^ Ciep tagt yyi ol: 
wamingSi «rah jorens and tf. & Iwnp^Ttese wefVitoMlQr vatv 
was ntit till the OifteliuasqriMl b otw e ett while Amoflcaiia and 
that Japanctt hocnbera came ^^tilouiodir Atecfc vas t&ot a. 
.light up to ttelQddeipoire docks beaiitIM word those d«^ it vat 
nd let fo a' couim of AiU adsp^ttete^ • - >* 
tfutmpo.ffaqybQdirwaskiBedtit ;Tte AmjrtcaM liad made an ^ 
was a^^SptSmaiyi^^ 

|9o0ih«4Dto tbi Losx^ tfib^ w w rtntfti c im toe alt^nooo a weir trOMl cuatcHYis and dubs 
real disaiHmintineai.- « - ludhf ^lodtecanifviA of Aouiri' 

* ^^^^ >^ ; ; : 

shoi^lved. WMsth^of the pocv BOR 

1]^ i(9«d Ihcfiities undr^mt of by 
^fhoAr or out of uniforms? 
fllbe B08 was traditiooally a sol 
dte of inislbrtuiia It was 
WeOkigtoci wtM> said erf his vie 
mtoitt army at Waterloo, ''Scum 
of file earth, enlisted for drink 
CntefU baslanL) 

Ibe CXIs daQy camp routine 
Inrhatod Aw movies, borse-rid 
iftf pfcni^ local package tours! 

otfebrities and 
routine. A lot 
never had M so 
good fai their eirtire lives past 
ftitwe. Maiiy wen^ c(mvict5 
wofktag Qot tbair tkkci to (bee 
dom. when the Japanese heard 
file wtQT tte Americans w«e Uv 
fa^ It iq> in Cakutta. they were 
<oinf9etely ^m^aiiaed over 
fiieir fB^Iy rations eiuoyed in 
file folk of mosquito-iidden trees 
\gi tte middle <tf a Wingate-in 
teted Ju^le. It was^ GJ 
Siesta that reaUy saved Cal 
ciutta, that teaUy wxm the war. 
CUeutta duringthe war was to- 

fiy&enourdlreets wQ^Aawl. ^tele «f Olciitta 

u wOi mffltai7 tndo. Add^ «aslD¥fledto tteev«irtlteottg& 
ph&fheiri»a8ioh<rf20jOOOAaie^ • fteraena! «riuiim ^aSvcrl^ 
lean- troops stattaDed in <ha /sort a^lhy added toc«ttvfc of 
I numerous campe te ai^ aroimd i CTesluiN a ita ^ Tlie yhoig 
Cateutta. Rctimsque nasi^ ^ vWftfW* 5ptt«edv,lhr tea 
^ cans> M theCakutta geca^M dags aiid eok^jftim^ o 
f^nny trarr t^llrfl rsmjr fflrfwh T^T " 
ifter^ New York race4iMfc. 
Itero was aCaem 
twBt a amsffl 
,000 cilled lloosote . ^ ■ — 
ttero was a dnneiMa p tl iJw i s 
evcrythfaig th^r ^ «irir %stftd 
thiM mdsardine 
Kbm^i&slV^^^^S £^ HB ^ fai 

ate SttUM B •^g'-CTMrirt race t'. «0 iynoyvf 

Bed 9oad.Oi«i 

miero wo tte Cosmos Chib for 
^^oolouraV* onl^lbcated where 
now stands me t^depbone Bha 
vM at riaThousir Square. In the 
' ttey served iced le^ 
moo teiC t was often a guest, be- 
log iat^fested in tbair tocal box 
\at Wtm and ei^^qled ogling 
aome ^ flieir ^mmrnis ""col 
^Wiie^'^glifa. AH tokt they were s 
mudf moro charmtag race with 
faiimttaUe grace of Jheir own. 
tot epkMir pi^^^MUoed; some 
frieods are ^NvhHeys 

After tte w^ was ovn, the 
Impatiefit gyt hfMTH* 
*: Th^^ slaited drinking too much 
•ffanmStj w>i e ss driven, they 
^%afiae ^^dw ^ aiJ^riis knocking 
down' jirthiffitani And wl^ 
a om e b od iy fliey didn't 
of eomaOt octr Indian 
aagrtrtad b&m- 
flicir trades and 
^ featakAof 
• i 


-bad dis 

.fwe'^F. fte next wv - the 




India not to bow to US: Dinesh 

India wf\] take ut» the issue of bcr 
being named unfair iracter by the 
United Slates of Amerka. ander the 
Super 301 provision of its Trade Act, 
-Ml the intematiofsal fora. There was 
no question of discussing this issue 
with the USA. The statement was 
made by the Union Commerce 
Minister, Mr Dinesh S«ij^, while 
replying to a calling attention nottce 
on the subject in the Lok Sabha on 

Mr Dinesh Singh said the US stand 
was total!) unreasonijbie and 
absured *"We have made it quite 
dear that we shall not discuss the 
issue with them", he declarrd 

The minister said do country in thr 
world had supponed the stand taken 
by the USA and mentioned EEC, 
Switzerland, Australia, Japan. Bra- 
2il, Thailand, Mexico, Korea. Pakis- 
tan. Turkey. Egypt, Canada and 
Nordic countries, who had supponed 

**India has anempted to build a sc!f- 
reKant economy which has given 
impetus -b our development 
^e are tiow a maior industrial nation 
the stand taken by the USA 

ihouW Bof caiMe great concern", Mr 
Dinesh Skigh said. 

He pointed out ti»t USA, itself, 
ted so taany bwners to its markets. 

He said bidia had a Uberai policy 
(tf mve^tDem and wckx^ned fcmign 
iDvestmeiit m are» which had bees 
dengnated is piimty mtm. 

"What has surftfised ii| is that in 
reoeot yean their trade with t» htt 
doubled and vet tl^ have described 
us as a pdorm ccmntry'* atoasg with- 
Japan ml Brazil, the Minister tcHd 
the Ho\tte. He said India had fiof 
received any ocHnplaints frt»D US 
banks of inmtofs of any c&crimtna- 

Mr Dinesh Singh observed that the 
USA had chosen me area, insur- 
ance, and expected Imha to give 
0U>re to US otizens than she gave to 

ber own dticeos, 

< « 

He said India had alread) con- 
suited Japan and Brazil and they had 
declared that they would not discuts 
anything under Super 301 "'We shall 
participate in multi-national fora.^ « 

The Minister said USA was an 
economic power but "there is no ' 
reason for us to boi» 6ov^^ They are 
alM) a defence power but we have not 
bowed down to them 

Referring to faicreasing trsde be- 
tween India aad USA, IR hoped that 
good sense tvould prevail and the 
USA would Qot mitiate «i)cthing 
UD<ter Super 301. 

He aoi^t to dispel the 
ifsprrhensioos <rf the members, and 
said Ifsdia*s trade was already well 
diversified. She was not dependent 
on one coun y or a group of coun- 
tries, he said. 

Earlier, making a siatemeni before 
the discussiM, said the US Govt 
bad iK>t yet approached India for 

Mr Dinesh Singh said the US had 
Ibted certain aspecu of India poli- 
cies on investment and insurance as 
priority practices whose elimination 
tt must seek within a (ime-boynd 
period. The US was seeking to 
assunK jurisdtCt^ to determine 
whether cenain aspects of India's 
domestic economic policies were fair 
or equitable 

"Tne step is unwarranted en- 
croachment on India's soveretgntv 
We are under no international freatv 
obligations in these areas and we iire 
free to pursue policies in pursuance 
of our aevelopmeni 'objectives ' Mr 
Dinesh Singh ^d. 

- 86 - 




- 87 - lets 

"Hey, congratulatic^* Vfr>en are you going to India?" 

"Ch, this July and August." 
"That's too bad/' 


"That's the monsoon seascm. It's hot, humid with lots of rain." 

With those omdolences and others from my students anA knowledgeable friers, 
I was off to India apologizing for my trip being in July. You knew, us teaciiers can 
only travel in the north latitudes unless we want a double dose of winter. My other 
lament was I ocxildn't lock the federal gift horse in the mouth arx3 say sorry it's the 
rainy season; I'll go in tl^ fall. 

Much to my happy surprize and delight, we had rain only six days of my forty-two 
clays; and those had little inpact in my stixJies, visits, or sightseeing. Shiva looked 
after me, for it fell at night or when irxioor activities were planned. By all accounts 
my hone on Lcng Island had tl^ Indian monsoons - a small, wet payback to my gloom and 
doom friends. 

I was walking Connaught Circle looking for cassettes of Indian music when I had 
my first experience with a Delhi downpour. Wiat had been a hazy^ hot, overcast day 
siK3denly turned gray then brownish with the light breezes picking up markedly, beginning 
to swirl. Papers and dust v^^e being blown around in mini -cyclones- It was becoming 
difficult to walk, to breathe, and to move* I ducked into a store just before the rains 
came - a windswept downpour of sane thirty minutes duration. Many of those people out^ 
side, stayed outside cmtinuing on their journey as if inpervious to the event. 

The monsoon is so ijiportant to India; it's her lifeblcod, for it nourishes the 
soil and thus the soul of the Irdian civilization. I've been accused of being a bit to 
preoccupied with my own local weather, ard that's prc4>ably true. But India, as a nation, 
is preoccupied with this weather piTenomenon. TV reports daily cover the rainfall nation- 
wide, newspaper columns are devoted to the centijiieters fallen to date. It's a mixed 
blessing and has been since time iirmemorial. Too little rain produces a drought with 
all its socio-econanic implications, too much rain produces floods with its share of 
additional miseries. 

The articles range from the lovely editorials on the following page, to rainfall 
naps, a poem, and tales of floods. 

1) Have your stixJents obtain a weather map of the United States, and see if they can 
explain what is happening in various places. And, what wDuld the inpact be on the 
peopli. of that area. 

2) Simner floods in India are like U.S- floods when the snow melts?? Floods - hiave the 
students read the articles on the floods, and then do some role playing (a person 
vjtyo has lost a family merger, a heme, a boat, etc.). 

3) Obtain a climate or rainfall nap of India, and by locaticn have the students 
describe the ijipact on someone vAyd lives in Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Bihar, Tamil Nadu. 

4) Insurance is a western 0>encmeTK3n, may be even more iVnerican than Birqpean. So, we 
have flood insurance. Read some of the articles cwtained "They Were Swept to Death 
in Sleep," •'Lmg Trail of Destruction." ^ 

- 88 - 1(^4 

Rain song 

By Malati Jaikumar 

THE weafhcr pundits may quibMc over the 
tennioology aiuj waver atxnif calling ii a 
cdiMlbtirst, a prc-momoon ihower or a km 
pressure disnixbaiKes But for a plain and simple 
fstn-craiy lodiao isfce me, rain is jusf irin-^en a 
welcoa^ rel^, alwajri a symphony of soumb, 
saeUs and seosatkms* to be fch am) savoured 
A ihuD<fcT-sbower is a well-orchestrated piece 
of nature's music , the movemeots dear and well 
defined, jeraduaUv progressing step by rhythmic 
step, ieamng unhurriedly up to a dimax bs^ 
lapeiiiig off to a silence foU of deep contentment 
like the darkening of a concert hall before the 
programme begins, me first sign is the darkening 
of tM sky and the hushed sikocc, broken only by 
tnrd calls-ihc joyful call of the peacock full of 
amicipatiofl and veaming or the nervous twitter 
of smaltcr t»ids foath to get their feathers wet. 

The CK^ening notfs of the breezy overture tug at 
sarees, DiUo«i skjns, ruffle hair and toss up dry 
leaves. It ts a tsa&ing, pleasurable breeze, its 
passion reined in, held in check to beguile the 
unwary Then in a sudden swift surge of power. 

the flirtation gives way to passicm and tuxy as the 
wind waiUng tike a bairshee ben<b the bou^, 
bangs doon and windows, kriocks down cydes, 
and scuttles dust and scraps of p^>er in mini 

The (mi^sira now becomes more strident, 
deafening. One feels insigni&ant in the face of 
such unleashed power but abo a sense oi awe ami 
pride for being pan of nature. The tmBiaoce of 
the lightning slasning through the slkies f<Hlowed a 
split scoonclater by the dap of thui«dcr emfrfiati- 
caUy punctuates the uocrasti^ moaning of the 
wiml. Just as suddenlv, aD tt^ sound and fiiry 
stOf», giving way to a sJiattering siteice. Only the 
imtutcMred would dare to mistake this pause for 
the end and break the golden siknoe, a silence full 
of pnmisc. 

The symphon) tnoves on again, softly slowly » 
the first rain drc^ splatter down-large and far 
apart. The staccato music sloMy pthers pace, the 
(£ops growing »naUer, faster anddoser together, 
pelting down, rising-to a cres(%odo and merging 

into one single song-the rain song Rain, pounng 
down m sh^ts, in torrents, dashing against the 
walls, trkkling noisily down window pane^. drip- 
ping over ledges, swishing (town drains, collecting 
mto pudcUes, gurgling down rain pipes. anC 
ilbuinming (m roof tc^ in a rhapsody of tunes, 
each AfTerent yet all Handing harmonious!) 

THat is when i kmg to rush out, to dance in the 
rain, get soakii^ wet, ochilarated b> the cool 
slknver after king weeks of hot and humid 
waiting. Yet aU too sooii the music grinds to a 

The (^uiet after the rain storm is a peaceful 
<)uiet, with dK heart and spirit fresh - washed and 
gUstening as the rain-washed roads and leaver 
The n^Uow sun peeps out tentativel> and then 
others courage to shine forth persuadmg the 
sheltering birds to strut (Hit and ruffle their damp 
featl^n And as the ocrfour stains the sky in 3 
period bosanna of a^i arc it feels good to be alive, 
inhaling the heady fragrance of damp earth and 
rain-drei>cted grass. Ine concen is over but the 
melody haunts the heart. 

THE ckmds wert mM black, 
$Mick or meowing. They 
looktd grgy lUte driaU. But 
s^ddgfUy, the rain cam coKodmg 
down and Mnsuspec$ing pacpk nm 
AtfftfT'XArAef to seek Aetar. 

Yarn cm nevgr say Jar cgrtain 
abasa the first monsoon foin. hem 
be a do¥mpour or a mere passi^ 
shower, a steady taaking drink or 
jmt a faw 0cM€red rdndrops 
wead of coding, make the 
ttrtA even more thirsty, ad^ng 

wAatfMT iis intensity, the 
scent rising J^om the rain hit earth 
brinp the pleasant message of the 
cooung rains. 

Abnoet j>fery langeage has a 
fficA rw^4nspired Uteratttre m^AacA 
ccptk^es the various moods pff^ 
md their ^eet on the peopk. There 
onr ttiso some very imeresting 
proverbs which have mtWW for 
eetuaries becanse of the paopk's 

Monsoon musings 

faith in them. 

An int^esting EttgUsh proverb 
is: 'Bain b^ore seven; fine befo/e 
elevm." Who wotiUh't welcume 
smh a rain-speO - neither too long 
nor too shortf The Spect^ffc^ of 
the moa tnaimtrthy qf all country 

inourmmcomntrw, especittUy in 
tlm North, it is widely believed that 
If it starts raining tm a Thursday 
morning itB continue raining for 

There's «wcWr beH^ which is 
as widely prevalent, when after 
daylong rain it clears ftp andthesmn 
comes up Un^wds the cImt of the 
day^ be sttre its goit^ to be chudy 
again the nest day. 

Btdn^ whm ii is timely, is a boon 
^eu misery. An En^gUsh saying 
points to this: *^ 'm February there 
is no rain, 'it's neither good for hay 


rwrfor grain," 

Proverbs contain great wisdom. 
They come hmdy in 0nphasiMg or 
pwing a point. When they do 
rmther they make convers^ion 
lively. Even when Ikjy do ruMhing 
else, they make things clear. They 
me always er^oyable. Take this very 
common saying^^h never rains but 
it pours." Trollop used k in a 
dialogue in B^vhester Towers like 
this: "A wife with a targe foriune 
too. ft never rains but it pours, does 
b kir Thome." It is inossty used, 
though "sometimes archaically, to 
introduce an inevitable 
accompanying circumstance." 

There is somaimes unseasonal 
rain when somie good person dies. 
ThebeU^istlualndra. theraingod, 
weeps on the deM of a noble 
person. The English mso haye a 
saying u^h a similar meaning: 
"Blessed are the dead that the rain 

There is one common mght in 
Pun/ah. When the first rain of the 
season falls, children rush out into 
the stre^. They splash water and 
Mg: "Smd rain, O Lord! Smd rain, 
send aill more rain; kt it be a 
downpour Jor the hea has burnt the 
bricks and storuu to ciruters. O 
Lord, send us heavy rain." 

A similar sor^ is tstso sung in 
UP.ttsays: "BarsoRamdharakese. 
budhiya margai fake^.'^ (O Lord, 
smd heavy rain. End this droui ht. 
An old woman has already tUea of 

The Bible says: "He mak^ His 
sun rise m the evil and onthe good, 
and undah rain on the just and the 
u^ust." But Lord Bowm, a 19th 
cmtury English poH ^uips: 

The rein it raineth on the just 
And also on the unjust fella: 
But chiefly on the just^ because 
The unjust steds the pist's 


- 89 


*Cbeen!** to the sliort spell of sbowers that bronsht fleeting relief to the Capital on Tuesday afternoon, 
says the imitation Air-India maharaja. Or so it seems. — The St&tesman. 

Tlr»l»^^ Til* 

- 90 - 



fciMt l-B pteiur* taken •! 1 1^ »Jiv on Friday thoiw flik* 

rain in A.P. 

From Our Staff R^>ort»r 

The South Wem Monsoon was vigorojs 
Ov€f cxMtal Arvfrra Pradesh and TeJeogana 
^ rBtrrfall also report from son>e places .r 
f te yfri to aoemB region today ^-^iiurabad (Kar rr 
nagar Drtnct) recorded 14 cm of ra- 
ChaepurupaBKVirtanagaram disO i3 cm a-^r 
Hanamkond8(W»W9ai dist) 1 2 cm duf ing tne 2^ 
hour* ended Fnday mommg 

Accord^ to the Acting l^ectof d the Hy 
derabad Mateorotojcal Centre Mr N 
p^xtenn^ the wide^spread rainfall m tt>€ State 
been caused a weW-marked tow pressj^e 
^s»T) ^ the Bay o* Bengal, located the 
Andva Pradesh coast 

A vMWther buttctm issued by the Meteoro^og 
cal Centra gave the othe^ Oef amounts d ra n 
fan m the &te m folk>ws Etur^^ragafam 
cm, Nandigama Guntur. Dummagude^ and 
Mede^ cm each. Nizamsaga^ and 

Udayagin sevw cm each. Hyderabad Aifport 
Kaleswaram. Sangaredd*. Perur and Tenai< s - 
cm each. SsttenaipaJli. Kar^nangaf Hak»mpct 
sitfya^ and ^4^rmal five cm each 

The forecast valid t»ll Sunday says 
that moderate to rethef heavy rain will occu^ Jt 
m^iy piaces over coastai Andhra Pradesh a^d 
Tetengana to moderate ra n w.U occur at 
many places over Rayatsseema Very heavy ra-^ 
is Itkeiy at one or two piaces m the TeJenga^.^ 

VISAKHAPArNAM: According to a spoke*^ 
m»i <rf the Cyc»one Warning Centre VtsaK^ j 
petnan the tew pressure area fy'^ ^'"^ 
««est c^al Bay of Bengal m likely to jntens^y 
further end nxjve »n north-westerfy direction 

MADRAS: According to the weather oHice m 
Mac^ there will be scattered remfali ov^ ncylt 
Tamil Nadu wxJ isoteted rainfall m south Tamti 
r^adu during the next 24 hours 

BANGALORE: Ramfal occtrred at almost a:; 
piaces over coa^ Kamataka »kJ south mteno' 
Kamataka arri at many pieces ove^ north tntef»o- 
Karnat^ Hewvy rair'ali ^Txx;nts (»n cm) 
Madtkeri 9. Strfya 8. Agumbe 7 The othe^ 
anwunts of ra^ll were Betthangady Puttu^ 
Karkala 6 wen. Madapi^a 5. \J&j^^ 4 
Siddapurwn. KorH&f, Batehonnur 3 each. Sh^rai 
Mangakxe AP. B^igakxe. Arakalg^u Maui' 
Sfin*vaaapi«, Channagtn. Hosanagar. Sorab 
Koratagere. Chikmagskir. L^kavslii. Yelandi^ 1 

Forecast and farmers weather txillettn Mode- 
ate to rather heavy ram/tKjndershK^vers will oc 
cur ^ almost all pieces over ooasta' Kafoataka 

- 91 




JUNE 1 TO JULY 12 | 

^ 19891 

Iharyanaj I^^^wI 


EXCESS {♦20%ormorf) 
NORMAL (♦19%To.19%) 
"--J^jFfi iEFJCIENT (•20%To-59%) 


Without water we miner. 
Without water how we mutter 
Without water we fluner. 
Without water wc chaner 

Without water we shiver. 
Without water we tearrh for a nvcr 
Without wuttt we fed heavier. 
Without water we feel drier 

Without water we dig. 

For a well so btg 

Without water wt search 

Having water we ^nd in the lurch' 



.rv ^ * * 
Tm j^wnded a 

bounty monsoon has been 
ofbet in recent weeks by the 
widemread. itevaswkm; 
ic^used by floods in maqy ^uU 
|ir the cqontiy. A fiatitit ixTthe 
nat^ iiooufro this time is that 
Vety frw Slates have cwaped 
Vmaca^^ Frrai Assam. 
Aninadial Pradesb and 
Iffiwram in the east to ^nnni 
and HimMhal Pradesh in the 
north to Maharaditra mnA 
Kerala in the i6e9t and aoclth, 
the pictuie is virfitalbr ifae 
^ame. As alwms. Ministers and 
ht£h officials have been under* 
tuing reulim aerid survesrs, 
md the Air F^te has been en- 
gaged in fbod^dropfrtng mis- 
sk>n& tHit what these ra^eS^ 
cy reii^ operations have on<?e 
«gain expme4 is how littk bu 
bera done over the yMTS 10 im- 
litement flood cfmtni 
jneesures. Apart fiham the im- 
*^i^ckcd ih^asestvtkm in tb« 
jratehfnent areas addteg 
„ _ , jm^)tem of toil eromm^ 
It gpp^n fluit emb«ik- 
mmfe wnotahy^ys j gtycriy 
maintained, with the reauft 
that a fuddentsnrach leaves Utr 
Itoe for feapm In Urn 
[nfTected was io ^c^ JtW 
[fueling walm. The voy.Jdto 
l<rfc<»^triicting fimbanMtents 
iKftft ^tgft often oeen critteiaed. 
[Ibr they are aun»sed to teter- 
[fete wnh the nmmal meander^ 
1^ c^nt .of a rfwiL cmaiiv 
[the aa to nccumulate on ita 
Ibed. bi^ead of on the iModa. 
\fnA tho^ ni^ig file riv«r*a 
PveL * • ' \ ^ ■ - J ' ^. ' 
It has beoi susgpftM^'fiiere- 
that •<mi6 on either 
of the river sMId be left 
aa flood abaofb^ hiA 
is not afw^ya poaaSric bf- 
wttiepiTaaufe of p ^g * 
own if t^tdh coo* 

little dotiM fliat tfBie OlffliV' 
IJSSB crom on flood pf^- 
iticm betwgentWl nd 198$ 
Ibecn prroeily trtikaed^ tlie 
It: Ml would not Inve bfei 
[so alarmh>g. The Uaset ^^uaed 

bjr this annual oideal are, of 
course, eQwrnous — the total 
having rtscn from Us 513^ 
«oie$ tn 1956 to Rs 4,059 
crares to In addition, 

fluHisanda of fives have been 
^«t. desBfiite the unprovm^nt 
to fvesAb^ fbiecasting technj- 
ooea. betttise relirf n^asores 
nke toe cmstniciiw of mon- 
aooii steHers, nn^^oaed during 
tiie U88 fiooib. are tovariab]y 
ahtilved iKice Ine danger has 
needed. The ofRdal view is 
told nine mitlion bectares*suf< 
fer flhwi floods every year, 
white another 13 miUicm liec- 
tares were ofTeed '^protection** 
tfl] 1985 at the coat of Rs U63 
cmrs. But considering the 
kind of emruptioo that is 
valent in idl constn^ticm activ- 
ity^ it isooubtfbl whether these 
Qnires give a correct lecture. 

it goes witoout sajong that 
toe llaticm^ Flood Cmitrol 
jVogranumL at«ted to the 
Mke0f the tnimdation of 1954, 
haa^ exactly, bem a roaring 
aucceas. Frofreas has b^ un^ 
«itiafilctoqr totheStotes also 
Ibe n^er fdan wvpared by 
toe BraSunapytra Bo«ti ts yet 
to be toq)«nentcd ^though 
Assam Mts more than three 
n^nioa Jiectarea of a floods 
prone Uniiorf. The toilure of 
auch jachemes has invariably 
Jed to m rise to rdtef expendi- 
toe to audi m eirtent that the 
flMh ftomoe Oommisaion 
^ tod to be told to review ti^ 
exMim ncras fbr flood relief 

to aiig||»rt at^ to 
woe* sritnT^ ^^^^ »r avoi- 
dMoa of wa t tefti l espmdi- 
bare*. Birt atoce a great deal of 
jMiSflcs la aasodflted wtth auch 
^pendi^ wfih the Cratre be* 
to oot^rDl of toe purse- 
It ia Mbttol vhetb^ 
can be en- 
tMl^ 1^99 seeott likely, 
:toeretoi«:ftodde^teaB the 
MibittoiJi plMi Ma the jener- 
tRtt dtocmcMtt, to^aullering 
of ordinaQT peo|de ^(uring the 
bmbocm, 'topmaOsr to the 

be easily 

reducA^^ ii» % 

Rain, floods unrelenting 

f^EWDaW. July30. I 

Rain and fkx)d8 cxjrtinued to »ke tfiB^tt^^ 
hunvin kv« »nd property in the f4of* and Nor- 
thoBStem States. %^ the cJeeth ooumtft cyclo- 
nic sto^11>nM^WB8^^r8 mounted to ! 

Sev«n deaths wem reported froT* 
and Kashmir - two panwro were WBeo^ 
cJouftxxst and three in "end^ in the border 
d«tnct of Poonch while two d«d tfi house ool- 
Imjses tn Kathua diatrtct 

M^e than 16.CX)0 peopte J*ving in PWO^ 
el island hev« been cut o« from the rest ol ttw 
jffwno region as the Cheneb is ftowmg «vb 
feet above the danger lev^^ ^^ 

The Srmaoar-Jammu and the Snnagar-Leh na- 
tonal h«h%v8ys have been ctoeed for vehio^ 
traffic stfice yesterday to''<>'*«r^L^^''* 
oered by torreot«l ram Over 3.000 '^^■^ 
dudmg 30 tourist U<ees. are stranded on the 

^B^iSIedSy^i bridge on the 434^ 
long Snnagar-Leh ro«i near the Sonanwg Ud^ 
«t resort was washed away in flash floods 

Undslips Jn HImachak Three oefsons were M- 
ted and three wijured m tendslips m STimte m the 
wake d continuoi* ram for the fourth consecu- 
bve day m Himachel Pradesh Several intenw- 
places have been cut off f^om the rest of State 
due to larxteltps 

AU the rivers and thew tributaries are m ^Mte 
doe to mcessant rams .n the catchment areas, 
reports from Shimla 8a«l Dharamsala ww the 
«vettest piece m the Stale with a ramfall of 150 

InMt-IB plw fa ig rap h tok«»J* 

on Sunday t»W¥t% ttw North and Nc.lh- 

Mtt India anvdopad bi thick moRM>on 


mm The Vayudoot flights on Delh*-Sh»mla and 
Shanle-Kullu did not operate 

^u^k)n worsens m A»s«n: In ^ 

flood slUiatton «i four districts further detwtor at- 
ed white road and rail comnHjnication b^we»i 
Lower and L^Jper AssfiBD remained cut oRtor 
the third day today Official 'epo^sj"^ 
Guwahat. said the ram-fed Brahm^xitra and Jte 
major tnbutaries continued to rise rtjovettw red 
mark at different ponts m Sitjsagar. Lakhtnr^xjr. 

Somtpur and Jort>at d«tricts. forcing peopte to 
take r«fuge on embankments and m rel^l 

^Arf^lnks cut oft Rari links between Lower 
«id Upper AaswTi 8r.d the Barak Valtey were 
cut offiSje to heavy landslips near Panikhait. sta 
tton on the Guwshatt-Lumding mam metre 
oauge wctHXi of the Northeast Frontwr Railwa) 
fteiiway engwws are working round-the<kx:k 
to restore thie ime , 

Pade' crops on over 16.000 hectares have 
teen sv jwrged m Gohpur area of the d«trct _ 
The flood waters engulfed several vihages includ- 
ing ThaNxikuri. Kekori Besti and Garu Dhuba 
affecting more th»i 15.000 petite , 

MM breaches ambw^unent In Mampur 
the brvhal river. r»^ menacingly for the p^: 
few days, has breached its embankment at five 
plaoes end washed away a major bridge on the 
Natooal Highway No 39 at Kangtetomb. about 
20-km fromln^wl . . ^ , , ^ 

Official sources said the Imphal. the jrii end 
the Thaubrt. fed by torrential ram. were ttowing 
much above their danger level inundating vast 
v«8S m the caprtai town of knphal and its adp- 

""S^^^^Jausmg large-scate communcattor 
VJisn^ions and k»8 of paddy crop, the floods 
worst Since 1965 have darr^aged more than 
50000 houses. Seeing several lakhs of people 
The famous women s market m Inphal towr> is 
under wastdeep water — \JN\ 

Tate of woe ay M^tsrashtra . Page 9 

- 94 - 



Rain likely 
in few days 

Express Ser\ke 


The stalled monsoon in Nonh In- 
dia, particularly Delhi, is dampening 
I the otherwise excellent record "of 
* the be5t rainfall in nine years" for the 
rest of the ioiintry. Despite his Su- 
. percompufer the weatl^rman Kas no 
reasons to explain. 

The best that the Meteoralogtcal 
Department can do is to explain tnjf 
a "luir' tn the monsoon has affected 
this area. They do not kno« when it 
will lift and for whtch regions 
However they have statistics to pro\e 
that Delhi has received )ust 25 per 
cent of the rainfall mHinal for this 
lime of the year - onh 22.6 mm 
mstcad of 80 mm expected. 

The Met Depanment. is optimistic 
that the ram t»ill come here in the 
next few das*^. 

"Yes the temperatures are vers 
high in Delhi for this time of the year 
and the rainfall should have t>een 
heavier but that is all we can sav. 
And the reason is that neither the low 
temperatures nor the westerly winds 
persist Jong enough for it to rain." 
sa>^ Mr G S. Mandal. ikrectoT. 
Meteorological Dcpanment. 

But even though he cannot explain 
the cause for the delay in monsoon in 
the North, he jays that in Eastern 
and Southern india. pankrularly. the 
monsoon has been the "best since 

Rajasihan too has received a good 
rainfall compared to the last few 
years In Msdhya Pradesh. Orissa ^ 
and West Bengal, it » lorrentiai 
However it has bypassed Delhi where 
first few showers were on schedule 
but ever since the Capital is in a state r 
of -luir', r 

20 feared 

Hyderabad! July i6 (pti): At 

ieasi 20 persom. oiostK women and 
children, were 'presumed (fead* as a 
bus. stranded m the causeway of a 
hill stream in Nalgonda district, was 
washed away today in a flash flood, 
according to reports reaching police 
headquarters here. 

The repeals said the driver i^nd 
conductor of the bus and two passen- 
gers had been rescued whik only one 
body had been recovered so far. 

evacuated as 
Yamuna rises 

By A StalT Beportcr 
NEW DELHI, AufUit 1: Slum 
dwellers along ihe Yamuna Bank 
were evacuated by the admininra' 
tion to tempowy campc ak>i^ the 
Ring Road at VHayghat thb momtng 
following a sudden rne in the river. 

Huts .Uoi^ the stMKC were 
fkK)ded, something routine at this 
time esd) year. The suckkn riic was 
dtM to heavy rain at some places, 
leadii^ to a lot of e^trs water fkm 
fttMn T^yewala, the last m^w head- 
works upstmm of Delhi. 

After rising beyond the warn* 
ii^ kvd of 2>4 m at the Old Railway 
Bndge (the iyamio| is for the huts, 
DC^ tM rett <^ the ctty) this mmiing. 
the water-levd was declining by the 
end of the dav. 

Annind 96,000 cuaecs (cub c 
feet per sea»Ki) gushed through ytv 
Icrday and today's was haitly a 
fourth c( that 

^ 95 - 




Rapti crosses 
danger mark 

LUCKNOW, kiy 29 IPTI)- 
IntermtUent mn$ In Vtm 
eislern Utttr Pradesh 
during the last 24 hours have 
lad nvar Rmoti to cross tha 
dangar mark by 0u2 maters at 
BJrdghat In Gorekhpur, 
whereas river Gh^ars 
she^vn decline since yesterday 
atEigh Bridge. 

According to ihe CerAr^ 
Wster Ci»nfntssloi\ Haxdwar 
received a maximim rabifdl 
of 182 mm, fallowed by 
([»>a2l^r, BareOIyp latspiff, 
and RigauU betwem to 

AO the other rivers are 
flowir^ within the sftfe 

Msanwtitte, the Utter Pradesh 
Government Is engeged 

,in formtdeUng a pkin to 
take iong«term measures 

,to dieck the fkiods bi Basti. 
Qorakhpgri Qonde end 
Stdhart Negar distrteU In the 

The stete wotdd teek 
flnancitf ^d Itw the Centre, 
the Ifif^er of State, Mr 
ladamtdka Pal, tdd nevirsmen 
here today* 

Mr Pal, who accofr^eraed 
the IMon TinmcB N^nlster Mr 
S V Ctwms on e tour 
of the Hood-affected tflstricU 
in ea^em UP yerterdavtoid 
newmen that the World 
Bank abc likely to be appore- 
chad for assistance for 
the fteod-cwtrol works* 

Mr Chavwi h^ ^eld thet a 
centriS te«ii wmdd soon 
vIsU the flood-affected 
areas to assMs the toss, Mr 
lagdamblkaPai ssld. 
' Mr rhwviin also favours the 
constrwtkm of ctems 
at Ba^ end o^t places 
to control the ftooito, Mr Pal 

The State Irrigatton Minister, 
Ml Lok Pati TripatM, who 
9ho tmatd the area, satd 
that a ^an on fkxid control 

SflWAGA«, July "29 (PTJ)- 
Two persons eustelned 
injuries wher e bomb, 
beiieved to neve i>een 
pfented bv secessionists 
in their Md to Iriow t«i 
the Punjab Itettenal Benk 
br^rch, exploded here 
lets tart night. 


GUWAHATI, :j!y29(PTl)- 
The Blshmsputra and 
Its tributar tes we re risl ng 
menacingly disrupting 
rail mnd road communication 
ki seveai parts of the state 
for the second day today, 
accorcSng to Mest of f icla! 
reports reecMr^ here. 

The Brahmapitfra was 
flowing above danger 
level in Dibrugarh and 
Neamatighat In upper 
Assam, wWle bi theSower 
Assam <fisl/lcts, the tove| 
of the river was almnsc 
twcfwq the d an^r mark. 


- 96 - 


7>€ K}NOU. Monday, Juty 31,1989. 9 

They were swept to death in sleep 

^MlgeUPADA, CMaharaaHni). Jiiy 30 
j^T^>utoada vSage. tn the giant shadow ol ttie 
Suc»»Q8d Fort toorrwng over the oouTtrysicte 
from the Sehyadari range d nxjt^teins, has sud- 
denly tinned fa to a iJvtng **Mohenjodaro" or The 
Mound d the Dead rfter last Monday 8 deMie 
The h^rriet is ^ Raigad d«trict 

The official body ooi^ is 66. acoon^ to the 
D^xity CoSedor. ^ Awinm^ SU^edar. Utf re- 
liable estimates by long-tsne residents put the 
figure of dead at at least 110. many more 
n^sstng Em^ famiH^ have vanished, weshad 
B%v8y wi^ their houses axJ the orrfy memonate 
to them ere nxxmds of mass ^avae pecked wtth 
bloated bod tes bruised and battered beyond rac • 
'ognitwi along the rocky ooufse cl the Amba 

"h was around 3 a.m whwn the wBters over- 
whelmtd the villege and many people w*^ 
swept away in ther steep," said Or S o. 
Ku^k^. an ayurvedrt: physiaian practising at the 
village for the last 25 yeeffs 

Dr Kulkyni said he firid his family auvivad 
ofTly because they stept m the itf>per stcrey of 
thetf house which « on a relatively higher 
yound. Swigle-storey houses to the east of the 
vitlage were swept away by walls of water. 

7S cm rainfaH In S houfs: According to the re- 
bef comn^ttee members, 75 cm of ranfall witNn 
five hours against an average ra^ifall of 20 cm at 
the village rnid the "suspected" release of ¥mim 
from the Valv^ Dam and the borage at the Na- 
val instatlatioa ^ Shivcyi. nw Lonav^ led to 
the LATpreoedented floodinQ 

Enc^jiries about the stac^ of wood pHes ne^ 
the river b»iks show that defore^stion has been 
going on in the jungles to the south of the vilkwe 
m the last ei(^ years This wouW aooounft for 
wtwt some survivors desote as "massive fk>ws 
of water from the south towards the rhw whtch 
fiad overflowed bttrW 

Heait-ran^ slOfiaa: Moving stories were 
told the v^aijarB The body of Ode Inspec- 
tor V. S, Dfvekar was fo^ clasping two of his 
young sons to his chest His wife md daughter 
also perished m the ftood There is no trace of 
their house exce^ the bm foundation 

Six persons from Thane, nev Bombay, literally 

cvne to (te il the vitoge as they rof^caSy came 
to ym their relative on Sc^xiav test Oac^hai 
Pecftiekv. pie^dent of the Janhu^seda Doodh 
tktoad^ Sen^ tost his w«e. two dmj^ms^ 
taw mtd three' (^mdchiUren Pecfciekar and hfs 
two eons airvived as they riept in the upper 
t^xey of then- house, while the rest of the fen^ 

Bodies are be^ found m far away as Pali 
vmaga. aboi« 17 km awy and ^^agatfwna al- 

most 37 km Aslant 
AH ter«>les fn the vOage have been damaged 

»id the roof »xJ wa»s d the hbmurw ten^ 

t>iown away PiUowsi tda/^^ sarees ^ dcth 

Lost TV. not vision 

ftAIGAOH (Mahm»htra). Jufy 30 
He heM onto Ms new cokM^ talavisk>n 
sat in a bid to save but the flood 

watan wouM have none of it 

f^aram jMfiiav, arfio had rslked a 
month MO as headmaster of the New 
English School In Jambu^ads v^age 
wf^ was swept by Rood watare on 
Monday last told a visiting team of 
r^ofters yesterday th^ on b^ al^lml 
of the flood watara, he fkst tried to cM 
to a safe place with 1^ cokHir TV but in 
secomte Ms house was enguffed. 

The TV set was purcfiased by Ms son 
the previous evening and hence the fir^ 
tho4^ that occurred to Raiaram was to 
save the precious posaesskm. 

Howev^. as the fkM>d waters rushed 
into I* house he ir^»bed hto 1 i-i^-oki 
^andeon and w»Mi secomfo they were 
washed away. However, he haM on to a 
tree end was saved akmg with hto 
grandson. — LM 

er^angled m i^KOOled bushes and tree 

Volwteers from v^ious agencias rnduding the 
Tato Institute of Social Sciences are helping ram- 
dents to ctea- the debns. repair d»naged hoiaes 

myd dtetributB provi^ons and n^edfct^m to the 

such devastation took place here tn 
1923 when a doren people perched following 
hrovy mns A woman was washed away m 

The fcicai MLC, Mr Sawant who fs 

oamp^ at the rsl»ef COTp set by tf« Govern 
ment said that even two days ^ter tt% tragedy, 
neither the District CcMlector nor the Superm 
tendent of Pohce vt^ted the village under the 
pretext that the cornrnunication symem had been 


"We were left high ctfxJ f or the first hvo 
days by authont»es, he satd and demanded an 
^xju^ on from where the destructive water 
wtnch created havoc m the village had come 

the fragedy at Bhaie: Relentless ef 
forts «a stHi on to excavate bodies buried under 
debns at Bhaje village tn Pune dwtnct where a 
Ivxislrpkriled 37 persons and left severai desti- 
tute last Monday 

The N^ttege. situated at the foot of a hill, had 
only 20 hoi^es The Nil caved m due to the tor- 
rentiai ra^ 3 a m on the fateful day 

The village, ctespne bewig about 4 km away 
from the Bombay-Hwie highway, could not be 
readhed The muddy three-foot wide p8th%vay 
turned irto an ankfe-de^ sinking land due to the 
fieavy downpour and rnade it dirffcuH for any ex- 
cavator or other machtfie to reach the place for 

Krishna water 
surrounds villages 

From Oir Corresponds 

BUAPLW, July 30 
The flood waters of the Kr«hna today encff c! 
ed three more vil^w Aski. Kadkol and Kan- 
kanawadi in Jamkhandi tabk of Bi)8puf district 
Kamataka. according to reports recetved here 

Water w^ flowing just one foot bekn* ttie 
PadMelagi bridge OieiiBht 43 ft). 40 km from 

Yesterday, the State-owned KSRTC buses did 
not ply in the n^hi bacajae o^ ttie fiood 


- 97 - 




Long trail of destruction 

1* ^KUMABKETKAS liAblidlhr AepriwiewtertaM fMifiae flood icScC Otwmd Mr 

LI ^ ^MjjinTTK^^ V? J?'^ ^ « . ? Ma lop tMMiutm m m Me ao Bo mn f w M i Mi i f of flie Eohs io- 

1 ^ Wm ICOHifi 1 

jcttr sate ^ ROC b- 

4te IVuuLheiuiudi Umtod to 
NRfodMne RCF to ASb^ 

Hd 7 MB SB Mwdqr. My H fte Ud _^ _ 


ItelmtaicCi , 

M eo ftc p^Mc iocto iiro. la^ sad fgrn m ue m imn. Ii 

»tM Oy aiB Ctoriodi (»0Q to «m Ite MIDC nd MSEB 

^ crflMltkiiSi^ feMuoSff 

^ AefiiftterdiyidoMiltelKX; faMin^ 

Tbe tall is IU»d drae flttjr tan Oopri Ttodd moi fB^|B Amsri tatBytaMdfaitoitfittbtocMi^ tumr. Hie triteomnmricMiM m* 

Amborittoi tTO been ^ to Dottfy votamoen nd Hvvd Bvei of "Ar « piAHe ioelflr nlt» b li ov mem toms hm sr^rsMfbSy 

tW desfltt is tte vtob iMe La Marty 10 ]Mple«te urn tnppodlft t'fioi^Ay to pwyyMe MP Jo ^ prrvcsisd dte oiiAmfc of cMbn^ 

flood-vktbas to Bked. toe twfafiqa watcim, agMib e wm ood > A waiwrtly. w toe fottim ibod^nibt aad _ 

Nndad nd AsmmtoadL) iir MoMhe midmm f af toe dead pfcfloeoitoy gai dofl toe gnry poaed cra^ ttlB onide aa ri9-wy^ 

wt$9 oootiacS aortscjs aad |CS toe Mctar hen, as one auoirtive Undy vadiai iieaA» Qeariot pf ti w w p^ 

Ko eovn twa^ te ^ tp mveri 

fey private ^ 

an toe huA af < 
ai|iad aot la a \ 

hflnmimi of toe 

toey wo have to pay ci 

ai Laaavfi 

lo ctTb e 
^ a^Bfp elmded at LasavbL _ _ 
feittad back ai4r to fiad toair c 
tadof'^layar tcflwd paea to foa- 
tj^be toeasi jrfrf 

etosMaia aas caaattaa by dto 
awwiiUfHI aaiflWi arpaapii i 
ftorfO afcdPtoeoftelWto 
iMDwii vte iiw flood^flbt 
In Id Aov yAmm %nyl 
intadtfad tad ts fS,0OO Ii Am* 

«. Ml di». tgfcyw cr 
lBpiBMjrdiiBnia,Hbdnadil» Ttoi m • 

^t!^.^ iUd.'ASttctntosebvi'ickAfii' «oidd fo oe ftr aon flias • noMh. 

yi^ih CTMehm Wtof t Ae tiae NMiy SOOOO ftmffiM have be- 

^natamxm pneae laeany ai 


2»^?k!L2lL22Kf »ho«dmOm 5,000 li*fcn 

Kote. oa tt> cxter tead, prt- |o coriSi to fte Vli&dia IM htet- 
BHBt aayc wmb apoa Aes^ tfrtnt uw FM^a^i, ftr to' 
. _ ' Ab wyuilh ffliy af nbABk mumc^ tew beea wjncd art. 

25t tCT^SLS? $L52 Tte Hkw aad frifcrtiiki to Ae 

apaitjr. Ite 4l>«dd todstttol tew coOccttd m ioonBOM 

to Ka te tew fcm ad a aaiaest cf ood. i^i^ Ac riwr 

■ , aaoMnw ao tedi. Haddradi af aprooied titei, 

- 98 - i l A 

BodlMofcycioiif TictimtMiigfiM Fitalgaiisa ftm is Ralgiid district after kit ft^tnisht^s 

•tem. — Picture by Deepak KamUL 

ibUMv itef&i of fitfiiitiii^ honirtK^ 
tf B ta i rad even $ttwy office o^s^v 
BQicsl sod tfimMpd fliiriiiiicfy Ibsw 
fDl tfiiinlif snd ftmoL Rsw ms- 
Icfiidi nd fiffjfhfd joods flows fiwD 
Ihe cbesnical ftcMrto ha vt te» lofi. 
(Now Hits ^ wafer hat rmded tad 
iBim the onid if dowfy MttUiittp boM^ 
^mcki and a^^tadoiit cydcs asd 
joootm have bcgnfi to aunkua^ h$tt 

AsothcT alaimiiM ftaluiv is ihc 
ioak Imudogf OMoioali. Am cba 
ilood wakn emen^d Oa cfeemical ~ 
piaan, ft w«bod away teodiiedb of 

poteoaooa, po&itim aad infim- 
oiaMa. Am ofrio^ael^ tevm teen 
mioed as a fmdt la aooie aratt, die 
pottoe jaepi had ^ move arDoad 
oBopk 001 to opcD any <tf 
IBC aealod dnms. Tbm vfl^m 
MvNttotfMw dtod alter drioU^ 


iaditftrialiiadm oftedn^ , 

1b€ dittttr ivmdad Itel adentale 
attestios hu not tea otid to iafia- 
nmctttia. na flo«Uft«ed itfioa 
«w toiaBir M tifffiir the fim &w 

of wm UM aaitt^ do a^lonr 
otvvciod by flood ' 

b&B mnhad ia a kw of anmnd Rs 1.5 

Tha widaspnad damaaf ^ 
Uaaoe* Loaa, AIk)1 Amiaes in 
Pitai^uita aM CriottrCbem, Eaod 
«ad mber 38 uato to JUba diows 
that the omtf fliiaUof os dsaattex 
l ^anniiM wit exifctudy ioadocptait, 

A oaft OB tte Kbopoli-Mi road, 
SadMiad lUMier. has 
AoramMy daaanqfvd. Not a 

flke river^ 

kaa lan^ivad ivy 

flvm fi WW Oidy , 

ooaifriMly ladit»o«i yiaot flutt 

Ftted textile ooli aad mas to tadUa 
mflb ag Qw likfl^ Tto writ alirr 


Thenar floote tto onsed sack 
wideaprod ndn, bvr obrvtoosly led to 
aocae onitmvmles. Why did the 
aineoi^rifliy dqmimeiR aot Isaae aa 
advaaoe wm^bgp Wlyn kiad of aist 
9ynem$ os&d fer? Wbo eouU 
bavf isfaod aa dtarm aad bow. if the 
cattttroite was ftnasea? Wait the 
Ttta Etoctric Qunpany Jaka itnoa- 
sibk fiv OBssi^ £o<k7 

The tasimMk» hi die aeries is 
acm ooachistvcly aMwoad The TEC 
fadte ooald aot hai« caused floods. 
Thij are oa eaA-booad rit^en 
oodd food flie ladnya&i aad Bhiaia 
fhm, tidki^g to Ftiaei aot to 
fbe west, ia AadM YaSey (see 
The discnfae of waier finoai the (facts 
oa dk wast sMe is htsiitffieaaL 

The wi^Jevris tetik TEC tahes 
had aot laacbed alarariaa levels ia 
the cttly boon of )vif. iff daaaa ia 
Aiastioa are ''BcaKasted**^ Aersfciv, 
Oe QB^^ of opfi^ die pies does 
aot arise* Attf ^'T'^ftff flos 
K h op oii woidd flfst be Mt at 
S hi^ ha t a, whw A ops w looated 
rfawst S ft*^ioiw the ooivud level of 
tile rivir. Ifoiaovari die dpoAtnt 
hid rssailBd fa a flow of i;^^ 
oAie ftet per s eo oad (caseos) of water 
te dM AaoAa vafinf oa ttat fltacfc 
Moady amt^ The TEC dan 
ooaM aot have stihmatfa^ added ui 
th^ tonasit, evea if water was dis- 
chaiasd faio these rives^ 

- 99 - 

1 '5 

Fisherinens' tale of woe 

News Si^'tef 

' RAIGAD. July 31 
**We couldn' tet the boat neansA 
to oun because ft was so dark. The 
heavy raim ami bigh winds dramcd 
the sea and we dtdis*f even ha^ time 
to tbmk of dying became we had to 
bMk the huge waves," say starviviog 
fishermeis who eiKOuntcred the eye- 
looe last SuiKiay. i 
' Eight days after the wofst stonD m 
ffeoem imt^. which daimed the bves 
of more than 300 fisher folk amofl« 
the Kookan dbast. those who 10 
tell the tale of their encounter witt 
nature at iu angrier, speak of die 
bravery of their coUeagues, the - 
friends they lost and the r*aws tiMjy 
dutched to safety. , . - / 

Gane^ Mortsfawsr Kjc^, 73 yearv 
left from Uran along with seven* 
others on *Hari Om Sai' on Jah* 21, 
The seas weie cahn with no bint 
. the impeding storm ''Wc t^d aof^ 
liowards Ratnagiri for fishing and the 
storm hit as on Saturday' itself. (The 
^ordone reached the Raifia^^tiast tm 
'."Mnday night) We theo to get back 
to Bombay but the huge waves 
sized our boat and six of us were 
thrown into the sea/' be saki hal- 

wo others were trapped in the 
cabin and could not come out. They 
sank f^ith the boat. Ganesh said that 
.a small wooden box that was f)oating 
on the waves was grabbed! at b> all six 
who were tossed ak>ng towanb Al^ 
bag. Near 5akar village along the' 
coast, three fishermen got separated 
from the rest. 

"I k>st confidence when this hap- 
pened and through that th, was the 
end but somehow. ! was determined 
to get to Aiibag. I w^s famihar with 
the area as J had done a fisherman's 

irainsi^ coone there. So I poinMl 
out she ^tctkm <^ the AH^ Fori 
and we swam towards h/' 

It lodk ten hours befocr Ganesh 
coayd reach the Aiibag Eon after be 
WTU CM *mto the rough seas. The 
Hiand was deserted as most peopfe. 
ifldudiiv the ten^ priest, had gcme 
to issin&nd. About half-an-hw la- 
te*, another fisherman. Vasant 
McMiram ^Dl8tre of Jite village, win* 
a^ preach the ion. The two slept 
itf the tenqsle. 

CMesh then laced a ^fferem 
orded m Imd as he tried to secure 
spnieilrMdnc waw. medical ^ and 
tr w spon for MnVlf and his ^jured 
ocM^ftses. ^ 

Sitaran lanardhan Naova. niso 
Iwm Kmiija. had teft by -^ijayaki" 
on that fateftd Saturday, widt no 
wantii^ frmi the weather forecaaten 
of any nmn. '*Our cmteal started on 
^twlay nt^t at ahoui9 pm when the 
siorm suited.** We struggled for ovex 
ten iiottrs. oodstantty removing the 
"wmcr as'the waves hit us but our boat 
capsired on M^mday evening and^ 
were thrcms imo the lea. 'tie recalls. 

Sitaram and d»e seven cMherson tus 
boat were hKky i i that fisherfcA 
froffi the boat nearest to theirs, the 
^'Amrutamayti" .threw ropes and 
f nonaged to drag them out. TIk 
water pump of tht-ir boat had failed, 
their engine brc^e.down and the high 
winds (mvenied them from rettJiing 
the short till Wednesday. 

For Ja^nnath Khandu Bhagat. 
barely 24 years old. an attempt to 
rescue a boat belooging to a relative, 
of h» boat's oisner. proved "dis-' 
astrottt.*' We were nine persons on 
board "Mangalmurihi " and "foimd 
the other boas near Murud coast. We 
began lon^ tng it back when the storm 

got us. so we the rope anad^ 
^ the boat. " he said 

Jagannatb ooukJ Kircly speak as he 
relieved tes experience with the t^nck 
sens. Thes maiufed k> re^ sasson 
dories md found a watchma^ of the 
ikfenoc establishment u-ho directed 
theni to ihf nearbs bus stop ' 

The fishermen, nou getting over 
the shock of their expe.nence and 
their narrow escape. ha%e many Tor- 
ies U) tell. But what thev are all 
exuemcty upset tbonx k$ the failure 
of the weather bure^ to put up an> 
kiiKl of warning. The) are also in 
mm$ ab(Mit the lad( of 8n> coc^sera- 
tion fhHB tfie Coast Guard. 

Says Tukanmi RMnachandra Na- 
qva. chair perum of the Karania 
Mnch^mrCot^ienitive Society "We 
havie lost MxMt S3 boats out of total 
62. The storm appoaching from 
Ratiu^iri 10 Ratgad b\ Sarorday it- 
self- We dWn't see a -siMk warning 
s^nal iSI Wednesday Jul^' 26." Out 
iff the 4S0 bMts {rom lUraflia.- 350 
teft from Safson Docks and the rest 
left from Karanja. At ieast 215 have 
Aed cnh' frcm the Karanja boats, be 

Accorchng to Mr Naqva..on seeing 
the sKKm. a group oi refmscntauvcs 
fiom the soaet}- met Commodore A 
K. Sharma of the Cnast Guard to 
request boats to locate stranded 
fislKrmcn. The latter reponedl> de 
tayed extendi!^ he^ and agreed to 
sendiKJdts only on Thursday, after 
thev com^ain^ to Chief Minister 

Earlier, ihey had met Ftsheriev 
Minister Hatankar. who was also 
unabfe to provide boats, 'if only ihe\ 
had Ibtened to us. we could ha^c 
saved fftore pe<^. Now . all we can 
do is sit here ai>d mourn our faic * 
said |nothef member of the coopera- 

Rescue work in full swing 

tm yet been able to locate the 
fishermen mi&sing at tea. 

Bombay 'Poor lisk col off: Road 
and rail traffic between Pune and 
Bombay remained cut <rff for the 
lecond day due to landsbdes, and 
derailment near V^lg^ra yester- 
day followiB^ torrential rains in 
Che surroundmg regkm. 

A report from Bombay qiKHed 
the Chief Minister Sharad pawar 
as saying that more than 200 
people had been killed during the 
past 36 hours after the cyckme. 

However, with reports of the 
recovery of over 150 ixxlies which 
were washed away in flood waters 
ill Bindusaradam of Beed district 
alone, the imofficU] toll was pax 
at more than 300. 

Airdropped: A Hyderabad re* 
port said lAF and Naval helicop- 
ten today airdropped food pack- 
ets over the marooned villages in 
Nizamabad district and Eluru 
town in West Godavari district, 
even as the Godavari was rising at 
many places in Andhra Pradesh. 

A report from Munnar in Kera- 
la said torrential rain and floods 
during the last five days had 
WTou^t extensive damaae in the 
high ranges in State Ahnost all 
the approach roads to Munnar 
with one lakh inhabitants were 
blocked by landslides and 

Strong gales accompanying the 
rains blew off the roofs of several 
bouses and uprooted trees. Many 
houses and residential cok»iies 
remained partly or fully sub- 

A two km-long stretch on ihe 
Kerala side of the tiorthem outlet 
road linking Muimar with Udu- 
malpet (TN) has been washed 
away. G^cials estimate that it 
may take several i^^ks to repair 
the breach. 

*'Reaasess 0»e danuge'': The 

Kamataka Governor, Mr. P. 
Venkatdsubbaiah, today made an 
aerial survey of five nun-affected 
taluks of Bidar dtstrict. 

Later, he told ne wvnen that the 
damage to the crops was more 
than the assessment of Rs. five 

crore ma(fe by the district admi- 
mstratiOT. He asked tte author* 
tties concerned to reassess the 

All the major rivers in Kamata* 
ka OMtsnued to be in spate, with 
their water tevd stUl rising today, 
and many houses had collapsed 
ttocc yemrday following heavy 
rains in several parts of the state. 

More than seven hundred peo- 

B€ were shifted to safer places ir 
anjangud town in Mysore dis- 
trict, m the overftowing Kabint 
river inundated several areas 

Tcmential rains, acocmipanied 
by gusty winds, upnxMed electnc 
a.Td tetephcHie poles ami trees, 
Cttsides damaging a number of 
bouses in Chikmagalur district. 
Landslides were reported in south 

Trains to Bombay 
cancelled, diverted 

Express Newi Service 

Madr^ 2S: Railways have 
cancelled operation of six trains 
between Bombay and centres in 
the South and divene J three 
others till July 31 due to breaches 
in the Puiv-Kalyan sectioiss of 
Cmtral Raihvay. 

The trains cancelled are: No 
9^10 Bombay Madras Mail and 
Madras-Bombay Mail, 963/964 
Madras-Bombay Cbennai and 
Bombay-Madras Chennai Hx- 
vms, 9S1/95S MangaloreAZochin- 
i>adar and Dmiar-Mangalore/ 
Cochin Express, 935/936 Manga- 
tore/Cochin-Bombay Netravati 
and Bombay-Mangalorr/Cochin 
Netravati Exf^ess, 903^ Tri- 
vandrum*Rajkot and Rajkof-Tri- 
vandrum Express. 937/938 
Cochin-Ahmedabad and Ahme- 
dabad Cochin Express. 

In additms to this, train Nos 3/4 
Mttiiras-Howrah-Madras Mail 
arriving at aiHJ departing from 
Madras Central on July 26 have 
been cancelled. 

The trains divened att: Nos 
11/12 Madras-Dadar m6 Dadar- 
Madras Expre«, 81/82 Kanyaku 
man-Bombay V T and Bombay V 
T-Kanyakumari Expre», 129/130 

Bangalofe*Bombay and Bomba>- 
Bangalore Udyan Express These 
trains are divened via Dhond. 
Manmad. Ighatpun and Kalyan. 

In iddition to these, conse- 
quent on the catKellation of Train 
No 81 Bombay-Kanyakumari Ex- 
press leaving Bombay on July 24. 
the return train No 82 leaving 
Kanyakumari on July 27 has dccn 

Acc3ording to Southern Rail- 
way, full refund will be made to 
pa^engers not undenaking their 
journeys. The authorities have 
also nominated duty officers and 
opened an assistance booth to 
assist puNic round the dock at 
Madr^ Central Further informa- 
tk>n regarding the services at 
Madras Central can be had with 
the telephone Nos 563218. 
567575, 567585. 

Heavy rain in 

Coimhalorf« 25: Valparai 
here received 86 mm rain for the 
fourth day in succession. Due to 
lamklips and falling of trees, the 
Valparai-Pollachi road is still cut 
off for vehicular traffic. Due to 
heavy rain, schoob have been 
closed til) Thursday. 

Water supply to Coimbatore 
dly was disrupted m Monday due 
to landslips and Mockade of inlet 
pipes, following heavy rain in the 
catchment areas Corporation au- 
thorities arc working round-the- 
ctock to remove the blocks 

Thanks to recent rains, all the 
riven and tanks in and around 
Coimbiitore have feceiveJ co- 
pious inflow . For the first time in 
five years, Noyyil stream which 
has 21 small dams on its course 
has surplus water. "This is the 
best year for dry land farmers * 
said Mr V.N. Ramaswami. Super- 
mtending Engineer, PWD. 

Htavy teflow: Following hcav> 
inflow into the Amaravathi river. 
Karur town, which experienced 
acute water scarcity till a few day^ 
back, will get abundant dnnking 

People residing in low lying 
areas near Amaravathi have been 
shifted to places of safety 

- 101 - 

1 1 

Maharashtra death 
toll crosses 500 

Bamltms, Jirty » (PTI): to « 
^i M >f^fy(|ffifgd moDOTOfl disftstcr, 
SOa people h«ve toil tbeif 
8ve» k flash floe(k, hou« col- 
IqM, taiNfelMes and etectrocu- 
lioo duhsg incesmit retm fof the 
teft tiro days in Maharashtra and 
om 2,000 olhen were nassing, 
nidudiiig 1,000 fisbennen in the 
la^ leas, acsootdiiig to reports 
readiiqs here mright. 

Army, nary and air force per- 
foonel i(nned the state govern- 
Dent m rescue and relief nussKms 
oa an amergency hasja u the 
(^Boalty oonfinwd death tou 
mc to 136. 

As siaay at fourteeo distncts 
were illecied by the calamitous 
rams and iKmn, with the wmd 
velodty itttag to kmfii. The 
dami^ to crops ind totniction 
of livestock would nin a^V^ crorcs 
of nipws, official souiws sad 

In tte industrial metrc^xriis <rf 
Bombay, i»odiKtion came to a 
total hah yesterday as workers 
fm\t6 to report for duty. Even as 
tl^ dty was Um|nng badi to nor- 
mal today, a weather bureau atert 
to fis^rfolk ncK to venture cmt to 
the sea in the MYt 24 hour» set off 

a panic. 

Acoorthng to a Bcwnhay rcpon, 
naval and air Unct teUcoi^ers 
air-droj^)^ essential Hems to 
thousands of marooned villagers, 
while the army was working with 
tniUdozers to extricate about 30 
peof^ tmried by landslides at 
Lcmavla. . 

The cydonic storm whrch is 
ftBTtd to have claimed more than 
100 lives yesterday was caused by 
a (teprcssion in the Bay of Bengal. 
The depression, which lay over 
Nandv*^ in Maharashtra s 
Dbule d^trict last night, was aow 

centred 50 km frwn Ahmedabad 
Naval heUcopten earned out 
sewral sorties over Mahad Mad- 
kbed and Nagothane areas in th^ 
coastal Konkan bch and pressed 
mto service dingys to rescue 
roarocmcd vUlagcrs, who had 
braved the fur> of ihc deluge for 
the past 36 bour» 

The Indian Air Force began 
rehef operations in Marathwada, 
espedafly Nanded and Beed dis- 
tricts from its base at Hyderabad 
Air Force helicopters alvj took 
off from the Oil and Natural Gas 
Commission's helipad in Bombay 
to airdrt^ 4,000 loaves of bread lo 
villagers encircted l^^fVood waters 
at nearby Panvel in thane district 
The Ciast Guard, which swung 
into acti<^ yesterday to locate a 
fleet erf 300 fishing boats missing 
ID the choppy Arabian Sea, has 
Toro la fttfe 11 


- 102 - 

1 1 killed as rams 
lash north India 


INCESSANT mai oonMnucd to 
paraMc nomul Uft daiming 11 
lives to BOfthtodia events the death 
UHI in the cydonic 
Mahmnshtia mounied to 676 today. 

'^St persons wc Idlled and man y 
tiUumS in ckwidbunt, house oo^ 
lapses and Ughtniog in Jammjj and 
Kashmir in the past 24 hourl 

A Import from Shimla said three 
persons were buried alive and three 
iiyurtd in house cirflapses in the 

Almost an the rivers and riviOett in 
Punjab. Haryana, Himachal Ptadesh 
and Jammu and Kashmir wcit i n 
hi^ spate following widespread 

rams. ^ 
Nomial We and vdiicular tfrnflk 
wm bAdly di«u{Hed m almosi all 
pans of the regiofl- 
The LahauJ VaDry in Kmwrhal 
Praitesh was cut off from itsi oflhe 
country foOowini ^^^"^^^ 
laiue stirtch at Manali-Uh it»d 

Ddhi-Shimla tnd DcUu-Kulu 
fbghtt of the Vayudoot remained 
Jaji^ended for the third day today 

The 300^ Srinagar-Jamm6 m- 
tkma) l^hway was doted to tiaflic 

following tendshdes. 
The weather office mooidcd jmintall < 

between 100 mm and 223 mm m 
many parts of Himachal Pradesh 
Puniab, Haryana and the tJnion icr- 
riwTof Chandigarh at 8.30 a m 

The overall flood siiuatioD in 
Assam irmamed critical for the third 
consecutive day with rmU and road 
communication b^^^^JT^ 
and upper As»m, Baiak Valky and 
the t^of the north cwi, still out^ 

Utesi reports said the Brahampuirrf 
fliki iu tributaries had arisen fonhcr 
wc« flawing above the dan^ 
mark at Dibnigarti, Ncamaughai and 

arens ^ habi^ions 
and opp land have been engulfed by 
the flood watetv forcing 
move to embankments and higher 
fcachca with their belongings. 
The district authorities have been 
kficmng nHind-the<lock vigil on 
rSlrembankmenu and other vyl- 
narablc areas agamsi possible 

, Bve pwKwit fo« »~ 

wtn damped 


teveim] houses 
tondriiites ycsteiday 

Is Manipur, sevml areas in Imi^i 
valk^, inriuding Cairasg, Khurai. 
SiiQg^amci were suteneifed fWfow. 
tag bmchei in the embankments. 

Report fnm Kc^ma said the army 
was calkd rat in Mantpur today to 
assist the dvil administiatioD for 
flood rdicf in Imphal after most 
riven were in spate inuadatiog low. 
lying areas fblfowiflg tMvy rains fc^ 
tM last six days. 
The t<HI in tet week's iMm m 
Maharashtra could re^ a thousand 
ts so &r 676 bodm have been re- 
covered, offkiaJ sources said. 
Meanwhik, ffcp^ms frinn MangaKwe 

laid ail the tsaoor rivers in Kamatau 
were reojdini frftowing re^te frwn 
torrential rains which has taken a toll 
erf 16 lives to &r. ^ _ 

The water Icvd in the Krishna, 
which had encircled awne villy 
Bgapur disinci, was abo increasing. 

Village doomed in deluge 

Valvan dam and the barrage at the 
naval in5UUation, INS Shi%*^i.^ 
i^ar Lonavala led to the unpre 
cedented Hooding 

Meanwhile. iiMjuines about the 
stacks of wood piles near the nver 
banks revealed that deforestation 
has been going on in the jungles to 
the south of the village since the, 
past eight years 

Tills would account for what 
some survivors described as "mas- 
sive flows of water trom the south 
towards the river which hao over- 
flowed binks/* This indicated that 
the village was caught in the cross 
currents of river waters and the 
^^^oT^'^of^^'^e flow. fh,m th* forest a«ra 

aays the Deputy Collector. ^ '^iL^i^a tn f*li^f committee storm However, the fact that even 
Avinaah Subedar, but reUabte es- ^^^^^^^^./f^ ^^nSff several concrete houses suffered 
timatea by f«idents put the figure "MPmbers, 30 Tf!^^^^ game fate or were severeh 

of thoae dead at at least 150. with within a span of .^^^^^fj damaged has indicated that then 

many moi* miaain*^ !*^^ 'l^l'^iw^ 

Ikmiies have vaniahed. washed inches at the viUage ^^^^^ J^^^^ 

i^By with their houses and the^pected^ release of water from the Uxong _ 

JAMBULPAIDA (Maharashtra), 
July 31. — In the giant shadow of 
the Sudhagad fo;t looming over 
the countryside from the Sahy- 
adari mountain range, this hamlet 
in Raigad district dating back to 
the Pcshwa period in Maharashtra, 
has suddenly turned ioto a living 
"Moher>)odaro'* or nhe mound of 
the dead** after Monday's deluge. , 
reports Pn 

Like the remnants of the famed 
Mohei\)odaro, the extinct Indus 
Valley civilization site now located 
in Pakistan after Partition, the 
ruins of this ravaged village in the 
wors^hit district of the State com^ 
mand the attention of the relief 
o^ew and visit^m. 

only memorials to them were 
mounds of mass graves packed 
with bloated bodies bruised bey- 
ond recognition along the rocky 
course of the Amba river. 

^It was around 3 a.m. when the 
waters overwhelmed the village 
-and many people were swept away 
in their steep." recalled Dr S S. 
Kulkami. an ayurvedic doctor 
practising at the village for the past 
25 years, 

Dr Kull;arru said he and his fami- 
ly had survived only t>ecause they 
were sleepmg m the upper storey 
of their house which was on rela- 
ti%^y higher grouiwi. Single-storey 

- 103 - 

1 f 

DELHI, Wednesday, August 2, 


Level of 

Etpm§ News Strvkt 


The level of the Yamuna han Ytscn 
^lighih pa^t '*v^arning" mark. 
\h.mU lo iKc release of}ncif^cci 
of m;tfcr from 1 ajewaU ofi Monday. 

The k\x\ at the OW Railway 
Bridge wa* 7iU M metres, while the 
HiiminfE" mark is 2<U meten. 
Hca\y rainfall in the upper catch- 
ment area* had reMjIicd in the water 
hcing rclea^d. ofTtaaK said 

According lo the MCD city zone 
commiitee chairman. Mr Ramcsh 
DuUa. icveral hundrea fhug^ at 
Yiimuna hridge have hccn mund.ited 
J on Monday nighi bccau!»e of the 
rising wafer level. 

j He urged the Lr-Governor. Mr 
Rome^h Hhandan. ro provide relief 
jto the affcttd people 

JhuggI dwellers taking <Hit their dofiK^lkHTectsaner their hufmcnff submerged In flood wafers near Ud RailHa> BrWj^e Fxpreiw photo 


Poor inflow into reservoirs 

From (Xr SpacM CoTTMpondOTt 

BANGALORE. Jirfy 21 

Whrte there has been vvkiespread ram m Kar- 
nataka onaativ relieving the anxiety cmised by a 
&y apefl earter this nxjnth deiay m the eowmg 
openkion the rather poor ratn m the catchment 

0^ the^mqjor hydel projects to 
some ooncem. 

The reports reaching the &ate headqu^tars 
«Hd there ivere cfriirtes in the »tchment wees 
or the SNravathi mxi Kali rtvers The ^rftow into 
the Unf^ittTiakki naaervo^ was 13.696 cuaecs 
ftm morning w^tle it vvas 1Z770 cueecs ^ m- 
spect of the Si^sa reeervoir <tf the Kali project 

Last yaar Aalng th« time the inftow into the 
L^iQ^iam^ki reseryor was » as 75.000 to 
80.000 cuaecs The ieve< dt the reservoir today 
was 1772.25 feet about 1.25 feet less than test 
year's (maximum level 1.189 feet) The level of 
the Supa naservoir was 1.708 15 feet the maxi- 
mum being 1853.67 feet 

The Electncity Bo^ aourc:«said that the av^ 
erage generation of power iie State was 
around 24 n^ton iffm (teily and this is being 
6t9>plementad by rtxxit 7 mi^ units from other 
sources ^ Neyveit and Ramagi^xtoii super 
liennal posMBT station besides ^nports frxsm 

The Divisional Commissioner. Bangalore Divv 
sioa Mr. S N Shantha Kumar, said all the dis- 
tricts ^ the division had rec^ved good rain. Ex- 
cept in Snnivaspur ^ Koter d«thct where some 
14 or 15 huts had collapsed due to raia there 
were no raporlB of any damage 

The sowing operstkxo in many veas whch 
oouM not be done amiier are expected to be 
conpteted in the next one week The reports 
asid that ^ some parts the f^mefs could ncn 
oor^ifxje a^ici^tural oooperations tf) the last 
fOi^ or five (teys because of rmn. 

BOA t ree p ie ^ proya mme> The Byioatore 
Oevelopmem/ xity fM decided to tsS^ up 
roe^te frBe-pl8n€ing proyanvne Arwig the 
aiment rainy aeeson on a teirge scato and a to to 
develop 15 new paHcs ^ various teyot^ mier 
Its jirradictioa %vith the active a8B«t«x» of 
bcufture and Fbrast Departments. 

Over 1Z000 seedlinos will be plwited m differ- 
cnt l^ftxits inckidtfiQ He»v^ Road-Bmaswadi 
layout Ktedras RoadBanasv^i Road ley- 
oiA. eist of NOEF iayoiA Hennur Road-BeHary 
Ffoad 1^^ n stage. Nagarabhavi layout I mxi II 
stages, mnOmi l^out Hoeur*Sarjapur Road lay- 
out Cha>*B layoiA eto . covenng about 55 km 
of roads (fcring the current yw. 

At a meeting presided o\«r the BDA Chair 
nwv Mr. N P sinj^ It was decided to take up 
roads^ tree^plant^ progrBWTwne m are« wrthtn 
the tonits of the Bangakye City Corporatic^ It 
was abo a^wd to provide necesss^ fitfxis to 
the Fonest Oep^tnwt for tNs purpose The 
BDA wouU be contrttxA^ Fte 6 W(hs for this 
pr ogr amme, to begm with 

Htm parte: The proposal 15 new pmks will 
be developed ^ kxfcfanagcr. Can*ndge L^^KJt 
Koraman^ia. B»iash^^i. Raj^ne^l Vilas Ex- 
tanskjn li stage. Nandtni layout Kengen satellite 
town, BTM ^ JP Nagar layouts Vokintary or- 

(piisations like the Lions Ckib, Rotary Ckib and 
Jaycees Ck* have also agreed to get mvo^ved 
ri the devekjpment and maintenance of these 
parks besides creating recreationai facilities for 

With a view to preventing siKing of the t>eds 
of live tsf^ in Bangakxe city, the BDA and the 
Barioakxe Oty CorporatKXi will collaborate wnh 
the Forest and Tour»srn Depalments to take up 
foreshore plantations and develop some of the 
areas as tounst ^xxls. ft is said 

- 105 



- 101 ?3 

Religious conflicts are an age old phenomenon to us in the Western World. The 
eary Christians, persecuted in Rcme, turned the other cheek or, should I say sword, 
when they became the state religion. Lest we forget: Charlemagne forcibly convert- 
ing the Saxons to Christianity, the feudal serfs and lords, those terrible infidels 
in what historians titled the Crusades and, of course, those periodic outbursts of 
antisemitism in 18th and 19th century Europe called the pograns - "bash the boys with 
the yarmulkes. " 

We look down our arrogant noses condescendingly at the religious violence in 
Beirut and the aberration in iNJorthem Ireland. 

The conflict between the Moslems and the Hindus on the Subcontinent dates back, 
I suspect, to the arrival of the first Moslems. Never resolved, it always was just 
below the surface held in check by the colonial adninistration ard the largely British- 
led Indian army. To maintain their "jewel in the crcwn," I suspect the British fostered 
the differences between the religions and held out the carrot of a separate Moslem 
state. At independency v^t was hoped to be a monent of great 3oy became a scene of 
human tragedy almost without parallel in history. Millions died as friend turn^ on 
friend, family on family. That enmity lies just belcw the surface and raises its ugly 
head periodically. The cause often is the most trival of occurrences - a verbal slight, 
an alleged affront, using scmeone else's tool, land, ccw. 

The Babri dispute or the making of mountains out of religious molehills has the 
potential to be the cause of renewed ccrmunal violence. On this holy ground, to both 
Moslem and Hindu alike, the Hindu hierarchy wants to build a tesiple. Further stir 
the crisis pot with the fact that national elections are but a few months away. 

1) Have the students list the crises spots in the world today including Israel, 
Lebanon, Sri Lanka, Cantodia, N. Irelard, Nicaragua, etc. Hew many of these 
have religion as a cause or one onf the causes in the disfxite? 

2) See if the students can remarber frcm history evaits that revealed man's religious 
intolerance (Crusades, Pogroms, Holocaust, Mormon migration, etc., etc.). 

3) Readings from Vol. 2 of this effort are particularly worthy of their reading. 
Particularly graphic are passages frcm Freedc m at Midnigh t and Th e Last Train to 


- 107 - 








MWMj llieir .fa, wrf ^ , ketter Hfr fa thefr n^,t Wrfh. TOI photo hy S«idrrp sSmk~ ^ ^ "^"^ 

Devotees throng 
Shiva temple 

MEERUT, July 31. - Over 
200,0(K) people offered Ganga wa 
ier brought in kavads {Vom Hard 
war at the Pura-Mahadeva. the 
senior supennlendent of police. Mr 
Pandey. said today, reports PTl, 

Nearly 50.0CK) devotees offered 
'Ganga water at the Baba Aughar 
Nath Shjva temple-Kali Paltan and 
at Mahadeva Shiva temple in Gud 
h Bazar. 

Two thousand police personnel 
have been deployed to prevent any 
untoward incident 

No change in Hindu 
Parishad plan 

Ewrm Ncwf Scrvkt 


The VHhwa Hindu Pariihad Mid 
on Thunda* t at it would go ahead 
with lis pUn t*> buiid the Ram Jan- 
mabhoomi temple, iirevpecuvc of the 
High Coun verdK ro u.c subject 

•it is txyood the doma n of the 
High Gnirt to challenge the faith of a 
pcopU'\ said the gencraJ secieiary of 
the parfvhad. co:iirad)Cung the t€- 
poncd siAtemcnl of the Home Minis- 
ter that the panshad had agreed to 
abide by the High Coun ;;K^mcm. 

The gcneraJ seaetary . Mr Ashok 
Singhal, said that the paiiahad woM 
launch tu programme of coOecting 
one brick from each of the 5 75 lakh 
villages of the country and taking it to 
Ayodhya to build the temple. 

-Each brick will have Shri Ram 
written on it in the molhenongue of 
the people who contribute it. From 
September 30. the bricks wiU start 
irachir* riyodhya after they arc con- 
secrated locally Every pereon m 
every village w,;i al^ dr^nate Rs 125 
towards the cost of the temple ' , said 
Mr Singhal. 

He said that the Panfhad hoped to 
raoe at least Rs 25 lakh through this 
programme, apart from cnsuriii| the 
participation of the people. "Come 
what may, the foundation stone wil! 

be laid in Ayodhya on November 9 
ftiis year.*' said Mr Singhal 

Mr Sin^l md that a scaion of 
tlw press had been quoting the Home 
Minister as saying that the problem 
had been resolved and the High 
CcHirt would be the fin^ arbitrator 
••All I can say b that the Home 
Minister h our spokesman and 
the High Coun c^oot dictate to us." 
he said * 

Mr Singhal said that the only solu- 
tion, in wet. would be to shift the 
Mcsqitf to some other spot. *^e^wiU 
beto the Muslims in doing this.^ he 
sa^. He abo refused to accept the 
suggestion that a nattofial monument 
be^uilt at the owiiioversiaJ site m 

Mr Singhal said that the entire 
machinery of the parishad would nou 
be geared towards the proposed cot.- 
stn^rtion of the temple 'No political 
party can afford to alienate us." be 

The parishad wls aho plannmg a 
yatra in Delhi between September 17 
and September 22. in which a 
thousand sadhus would panicipste. 
said Mr Singhal He said that the 
sadhus would panicipatc in a ksng 
march and hokJ discuswons on va- 
rious issues, indudtng the temple and 
the coming elections. 


1 o 

- 110 - ^ 

Don't make Babri a poll issue: VP 

Mr V. V. Singh, prc^ikm of Jana- 
ta Dar. has appealed to all politick 

eirf •« nof to make fhc Babri Mat^jkf* 
ani J^nmahfHKmii dispufe an muc 
io Ifie coming elccficm ami lo avoid 
the path of ct^fronlattofi 

According Co a prc^ ft^tMC of 
ilanata Dal on Friday. Mr 5irigh made 
th» appeal on ThurMjay evening at 
ihc firft meeting of ihe nflnority cell 
of the party, which wa* aflended Hy 
pefvpfe frmn all over ihe toumty. The 
meeting uas called at the mHiativc of 
Mr Muffi Mohammed Sayed. who is 
the convenri of m\nvhty ctU. 

The ' mecun$ also endorsed the 
policy of the party to go #c for seat 

adjustments wirh the Bharatiya Jana^ 
ta Pany. Though some pei^ ex- 
pressed rcscrvBUim^ about it. the 
• 'consensus at ihe meeting was that it 
was more importanf to defeat the 
'Congress fl) and ensure one to oiw 
contests in al) the consiirucncies 
' Mr V P. Singh assured those 
^present that there was no question of 
compr omisim^ on the party's commit- 
ment to ibt minority. He aho ef- 
pr««ed ih€ confHtoncr that the 
Naljona) F iont would form the Gov- 
cmmcm a ter the electiim and said 
that the five party alliance was com- 
pile and that no other party be 
would included in the Front, 

Briefing press persons about the 
dehbcratHms of tf^ meeting. Mr 
Mufti Mohammed Sayed said here on 
friday that many partkipants etnpfta- 
sis.d the need to tackle the cduca- 
inmal and social backwafdiwss 
amongst Muslims ^n a war footing. 

In respond to a question aboul the 
Janata DM's respooMr io the charter 

of dematHh ctrculated by Mr Syed 
Shahbuddin. Mr Saycd said the meei- 
ing ^d discussed ihe mailer and 
ofHoed that appropriate demand<i" 
sh<HJW be implemented. Since all 
parties m^ pre-election promHes. 
the participams felt thai Mr V P. 
Singh shouM perMiade the National 
Front governments in cidsfencc im- 
mediately to take Meps lo implemcni 
the Front's commitments to ' c 
mtiHmiies. This wmjld increase the 
Fronrs credibility in Ihe eyes of the 
people, tl^y said 

Those *no attended Ihe meeting 
tnehfded Mr V. P Singh, Mr Yunus 
Saleem. Mr Khurshid Ahmed. Mr 
C'hulam Sarav^-, Mr f. K. Gu^raJ. 
Mr R. K. Hegde. Mr Manzoor 
Ahmed. Mr Irfanullall. Mr Javed 
Habib. Mr Wasim Ahmed. Mr M 

Many of the participams felt that 
the Congress (I) would do its best to 
diven the atientiim of ihe people 
from the Bofors and other scandiits 
and would try and communaiise the 

^situation in the country They ifrged 
Mr V. P. Singh lo request all panics 
not to ihakc Ram Janmubho<vmi- 
Babri Masjid d(«fHitc an cieiruon 
issue find tfi defuse 'he situaium 
currently being created 

Mr V. P Singh reiterated bis assur- 
ance to the mirKmttes of his parly s 
"irrevocable' commitment to secu- 
larism, and lo ensuring them frecdt>m 
of religHius jvacifce. Me said ihat - 
necessary steps would t»e taken to 
constitute a special police (<?rce com 
prising all commutMiies to curb com 
munal riots, the Nattonal rrom had 
already promised that it would not 
inicrf^re with Muslim pen»onal law. 
he said.. 

Mr Sayed. who inaugurated ihe 
mecling. said lhat Muslims were a% 
cotKcmed with nBtkynM issues as any 
other community lie cniicised the 
authoritarian jiliiude of the ( on 
gress (I) Government and enpresH'd 
Ihc hops- rh^il Muslims w<Hild supporf 
Janata Dal in ihe coming clecliiin*» 




Astrologers enter Babri dispute 

Tht Thmen wt ImUm New* Scrvtet 

NEW DELHI, Atfgtm I. 

OF afl thiRft. a new attrological 
if^ IS e%pccsed to be injecicd 
into the vtcsotis fUm J flm ii iW w>o i WH 
Babri Ma^ dt^ntte, ainl this should 
catfsc the nilif^ party to heave a skh 

Some 30 ^MeadlRg** Hindu 
tstrok^ieft, a ftro nomen and 
Vtpom fintndatkms are ttndeffHood K> 
have deiermfned that in relation k> 
the Stm, the Earth wmtd be in hs 
^'(teluhfnayan" phaae to the w^mtr, 
As opposed to the '*tttiafaym**, 
*'iMLshinayan'* h oomkSeml in- 
a mpt dousL And this is whm polHks 
comes in. 

Stnor the Viihwa Htndv hmhad. 
RSS and kindred c^nisations have 
chosen a date in early November to 
lay the foundation stone of the 
prt^med Ram tempk ai ''Ram 
Janambhoomi" in Ayodhya, and 
thus raised the prmpecu of c<mv 
munal ^naion devek^ng, the fov- 
emmeni is e^ipectcd to take lefiigc in 
the traditionaitst aifument that the 
''dakshinayana** would be a singu- 

livfy inmapiciOBS period in which ^ 
bcfin oonslructi^ the ten^ 
According to this view, 
"dakshtnayai:** would give way to 
'^itMrana'* onl^ in February nnt 
year. If offamivtfonft, determined to 
preas ^ead with oonstrvctkm an* 
made toMt in thdr strkte in defer- 
ence to the ^mnditt, the government 
would tove saved ttadf a great dciM 
of trouble in UP on the eve of the 
next general etectim* due about that 

I>Bepeiuf^ t4 the oommuaal divide 
is the hot thing the government 
wouM be lookii^ for just before the 
poll« for it is a loser, no matt^ what 

If miuMe starts when the tempk is 
being inaugurated with bricks 
brought from all over the cmntry 
and consecraMl with *X^iga jar 
(Gai^ waierK « Hindu com- 
munaT organkatimis have planned, 
and Jk pcjbce is broo^t in lo i^iefl 
posaitile riolifi^ the fovemment ac- 
tHm is certain to go down badly with 
the mii^ty community in a 
su rchai yd atmosphere. 

On the other hand, if the govern- 
ment remains quiescent and allowf 
the temf^ cetemony to proceed, the 

mim^ities are expected to take 
kindly to thii In either, event the 
government wo%M have to fs^M to 
imimss the ckclonMe, 
It ts small wonder tfien that the 
government is bdkved to have taken 
a keen interest in mobiUsifif the 
Of»nt<m of the religioiis pmdits. The 
UnKNi home minister, Mr Buta 
Sin^ is understood to have met 
tome of the EcderasieL 

1lie ^wmk an yh a ry a of KancM, one 
of the four h^ priests of traditional 
Hirnltt orthodoxy, is said to be 
among those wtio bd^ve that layii^ 
the foundation stone of the pn y o s e d 
Ram tmfj^ irt AyoiMiya diving 
-dakshinayan- wvmld bode i8 for the 
shrine, I merest ingly« the 
Shankarachs^ had initiaHy Mc&Kd 
the endeavour. 

If the line goes titrot^. the govern- 
ment would have bot^t precious 
time, for it sees ite best bet in 
pDstpcming a controversy shovhl it 
come to that, till atler the p^. 

Asinrfogy is a safe line to uke, for 
it is proof even i^aimf the law. 
Should the courts, now bokii^ at the 
compffcated case, decide in our of 
the ^'Hindu" view, the traditiiinalisu 

ODuld still Mfue Hurt inai^gurating the 
bttildif^ effort krr the mnple be 
uken up only when **uttarayan" sets 


The rd^ious leader* are believed to 
have begun work on the 
'^dakshinayan** — ^^uttarsnayan** 
syiKJrome more than a month 
sources mHed. The need fi^ ft was 
felt because the decision of the bw 
courts could not be taken for granted. 

Atefge number of pundits had to be 
appftmhcd for their view to avoid a 
controversy tn an isst« which is 
sensitive and Ibbfe to be chatter^ 
by interested political groups if the 
opinion were to come only from a 
handful of persms ei\|oying religious 

Those mobilfsinf OfNinon are mo 
tmdemood to have t^iLen the precau- 
tion of garnering the views of re- 
l^hm acholan across the country, 
making it a carefi^ seicoed 'ran- 
dom* sample, in order to place the 
issue beymd challei^. 

The only ''variabfe** not uken into 
acwont nptif now is the reaction of 
the minorities — whether, they too. 
like the government. wouM be happy 
for the Divaiher. 




Ctouffl)! (or (Msp 

The secret of success in life is known only to those who have 
not succeetud. 


Reassuring Findings 

The extensive nirvey on the Balni Masjid-Rftm Jan- 
mabhoomi di^nite condticted fe^ this paper*! oorrespomtents 
and repmled in today't issue offcn some reassuring fuKlings. 
Given tlK jnoqwct of a general election wome nxniths from 
now, ihat is evoy danger of di^te bdn« exfrfdted hy 
political parties to gtrner votes, even if tM oonmunal 
teimperatuit rises alarmingly as a oenseqi^ioe of <k>iiig so. In 
fact, (me of the survey's fimlings is tha? voters have noiUusions 
about all political parties, except tht<se on the left, playing 
communal politics to win elect(H«I lains. Fmtunat^. the 
stu^ey indicates that in most of tlM cotintry, the di^te is not 
mtich of an i»ue. In parts of only threr states — U.P., Ot^jarai 
and Maharashtra pec^ fied stitr^gly about it to tlM pcrint 
of beiflft divided (» r^ous Hrc*. Even Iwrc, moreover, it is 
among those who are br:ier informed, read newspapers and 
hve in cities and towr^s that siKh ftrrag sentiments mmtly 
exist No le» heartruii^ is the discovery that while religious 
and political teaden are, for obvious reasons, quite w^ked up 
about the dispute, the average villas, townsman or city- 
dweller is rather mdifibvnt to it What this means in pntct^ 
terms is that the diancm of communal passions ruling h jgb on 
the issue arc- negligible, unless political parties, aided by 
rdigious leader^ go about systematically stining thcin up in the 
coming months. 

It is vital for aD parties to agree immediately to keep the 
dispute out of electoral politics altc^tto*. The Janau Dal 
leader. Mr V, P. Singh, has congratulated the BJP on its 
amTarent decirion to make it a campaign issue. Ait rach 
a deci»on sboukJ also exdiKle tninging it up m any form, dirnct 
or indirect For instance, the BJP president Mr L. K. Advmni. 
faid in Madras that the diqnited site should be handed over 
to the Hindus throufh a negotiated settkment He also said that 
the effort by the RSS and the VHP to build a temple tl^ with 
specially blessed brick* from all over the country would not 
aggravate commimal ftehngs. $iMh remarks caA serious doubt 
on the BJFs i»t>fimed willingness not to pditidse the isnie for 
electwal purpoiri. Such unanimity b^ the political part^ 
i^bich can be attairsd throi^ a *nfy!«ng of tl^ rqjmenta- 
tives convened fot iht pirpose, would oomi^etdy iM4ate the 
extremist groups, Muslim or Himfu, which Ittve a vetted 
interest in keei^ the dispute alive. Thus, while ibt matter is 
before the Allahabad high court, the VHP has already made it 
plain that it will not accept its verdict AO the mott reason, 
then, for the VHP and those who think like it to be ostracised 
by all mainstream partis through a studious refusal to bring 
die dispute into tl^ arena of ^ctonl pc^ltics. 

- 113 - 

ERIC 1 3 1 

Babri dispute not a major issue 

Against ihr backgncmnd cf ihe\ 
Bairn Hasjid'Ram Janamtmcami 
controtmy, are communal issua 
Ukefy to !^ a greater m/r in the 
forthcoming ekcficms than eaHi£r 
enei? TOINS correspondenu risUed 
70 towns and filiates in 15 mates to 
find out. 

▲ WARENESS of the Babri 
/\MMjid-IUni Jaiuunbhocnm 
dispute and heigbtciied tenti- 
mcDU over it foUow t ctefinite, 
pattm in the citiet iiul viUa^ 
Goveral in 16 ftatn. Southern 
stales, induding Kerala, Tamil 
Nadu, Kamataka and Andhra 
Pradesh, as fveU as states like 
West Bengal Assam and Jammu 
and Kashmir, have bai^ heen 
scarred by thi <^trovef»y- 

However, in U)", Ch^artl and psru 
of Mahantflitim. the issue evokes 
itn>f« Mntimenis, htt led to ooo- 
Jdoabk poiariiatioQ amofl« the two 
cominuBitki and is likely to be 
n bnivoftafit ekctoiml flKtor. 

Ev» in those states, however, h is 
more i^an issue ia the towns and 
cHses rather than in the vintfc*. 
Within the cities, h is the more 
educated, newnsaper reading public 
wtio is more iofbnned and w^stt 


Main findings 

In the m^(^ part of ^ ooantry, tte Maqid-Rsm 

JanambhocMoi oontroversy is not an issue. 

Clear oorth'eouth, urbaii'rurml divide on awareness of tl^ con- 


Rdisious and political leaders pereeive the issi^ to be more 

widespre^ and deesrfy-felt than tbe average pesion. 

More heisbtened seatiiMnu over he issue amoog educated, 

newfpapef-readiag puHk. r 

Has ftauhed in oonunonal potarisaticm in paru crf'UP, Oi^^uat aod 

Maharashtra wboe it b liUy to be a eiect(»al &ctc^. 

Eicepc for Idi oartief aO poUtkal parties capectod to play the 

ocmmunal card tf it suits twm. 

I were widdy aware of the controvmy 
I ud will ttmcy when the time oomcs 

In ^rpaiati<m for the time, 
fisd, the RSS has touivd 2,600 vil- 
li^ io TO taluks of Gulbarsa, Bi- 
japur and Bidar, ooverios P«^ ^ 
I^ villaies. 

In Kiopal, the VHP wwkins presi- 
dent, Mr Amatvhand Ajmera, s 65- 
year tAA retired businessman foeh 
ptttsionatdy about the Ayodbys 
teue. But his views were not rriVectod 
in the capital and drew a oompletf 
Wimk in the villages of Madhyi 

In the viUi^es of Prihiad Nagar 
and Andhannc in Bihar's Noor Sarai 


Tbesr k abo a distinct divi^ in 
pereeivii^ how wi despread anJdeep- 
ty.fidt the cii ntro vcf s y k between 
religious ffiod pcrfitica] leaders and the 
common man and wosnatt The for- 
mer, aO over liutia, pereeive it to be 
fivr men prevalent thaa it seems fiwi 
the response of the avenge pcmm. 

In an an-Mushm villMe in North 
Arxiot distrkrt, Tamil Nada, viUa^ 
were totally unaware eX the dispute. 
In BangaUm and the villages of the 
Gulbarga, Hassan and Dskshin Kan- 

Sec E:dit: BMsrarlBg 
Ftodi^ Page 12 

oada dterkrts ctf Kamataka, the dis- 
pute is a non-issue, 

O. Saiar, the Daht San^&ard) 
Samiti eonvener <rf OtUharga 
divteion admitted that iht averse 
person was unccmoemed about the 
dispute. His views were emSorsad by 
G. Sur^ Prabbu (33) mandal pan- 
chayat nmnber in Gurpur viDa^ 
Dskshin KannMla district 

But the divisional oiganiaer of the 
RSS ia Oultersa, Mr Man- 
^unathaswamy* iimstod th$t ^eooif 

block Nalanda dtstnct, most in* 
babitantt were fiOt aware <tf the 
controvcrey and showed little interest 
in it Those who had beard abmit it, 
Hke Brvaandan &ngh, s snduate 
frrmer w1k> beads the Nck^ Sarsi 
Uock committee ra the 20-poiisi 
programme, had either read about it 
in the p^)en or beird of it Uuotish 
neithbours o^ acquaintances who had 
rUted Ayodhya. 

In Kashmir, few villa^ arc aware 
irf the detaitt of the dismite. As Dr 

(Costinued on Page 10) 

- 114 - 


Babri Masjid dispute not a major issue 

(CMtiaMi froM pi«» 1) 

know sboot H. It htf bid s nnliiri 
tefMt on tfie p$y€ht of tfifi romnHWi 

niM itk iUtvU IfMt dOQflL 

Tfcc Aj^ of tile Jamiit r Wmri 

■w»itncu mbA am h t» lUbd a 
tart^ ianact on tte minds ctf the 

A j ritt , ill Mibirishlniv nlUom 
kaden tike Bfcwfcir Rao jSmOt 
fiwn PBQe iiv nsoei vociJcxoue iboirt 
tke iime. Tlie VHP cMipo^ bci^ 
ftiag S^i9tefiiber« to cwtwsio^utf 
take CM brick from rreiyDtft of the 
oooimT to AywBiye 10 the Rftsn 
JtMmMoMBi tra^ they 
om, wiB oohickle wMi rliiflf declofml 

They eipbihs that iiaoe the Shir 
Scm may not rate the Ram 
JanamtriiODaH ieeoe ita dectkyn 
c am paign, foUowing Oie adi^tive 
Bombay bi|^ oooit judgment in the 
Vfte Feik asaemb ly bycl e c t ion on 
chamca of oraimtmal pn^mgrada, 
the VHP ivoold embait on itt pro- 
gramme of moUU^ng Hiodm. 

In Oii^at, pfeftaring fiv the fiivth- 
ooming decttone» the RIFe **Shakti 
Rath" with fdfr of 9Ddi and 
deaacs ^gre^^ oq it* faaa ' 

ooveriM MM ten iljCNK) 
vffl^ fa 19 ^ttiric la nm 
meaane Ant tut pBtf fiiht fiv 
the f^pii of die Hinmi^ 
ftiMicfcy Ae iMilivverqr 
he ateppe^ «|» hi tte atato. Dr 
Ptaamod Tar^ oanoer ^ecWtot 
mid geoeii' jeomtmy ^ te VHP 
•tatc wrf; rotated out that a Rms 
J anwib hoomi 8h& poe^' wiB be 
Imtndi ed to 2000 frtaoea in Oqjmit 
from September 9, 

Hifid« a w meneia hm dc flnl triy 
ii icicaand ,midBJPIeBd ^,Mr A a 
Vi^payee^ wirile K. L» Shai ma^ gen* 
evnl leciYiai y, BJP, maimained that 
oeiQg agamw a pmucviar mtm tt 
omtunonaL But aaying vote for ttt 
becmae «t me Hind^ b aecnhr* 

In the tmion capital^ ooi^ 
muuaSam hm two Ancab One m* 
vohres anmod the Pu^ri> pmUeiiiy 
tiie other anmnd the Babri 
Ram Janambhoomi nane. 

Aeomhng to a leacarchef on fte 
aut jc ct y the tivo aapcctt of com- 
mttnaUaa am Mmd by the 1984 
riota^ wMch acted ai a oataSyit to 
good Hindn aiiwjikin. The *84 riots 
aimed m the Swkhiyga^ fc g itim ncy to 
Himfai ag ye asiua the midtOe ckm 
which soowliaDed into the rWitt ^ 
thotah hmital — popdarlty ^ the 


The wa&ed cHy, always a hott i e d of 


Jhc ^ Babri 

Jana mWhwniil bmie* bi f esftttemeut 
c o w o ica mm iruoapori me MUiisms 
uuenaeiy aoom il apmreo on wy 
tfie Shahi f jimm and Synd Shid^^Aod* 

Acpoed fa^t- " yedM^booCamh 
Qsndri^ a feftfi^tfat from the Mtiritm 
Satyndiod^ MmMU in Pune, it 
almuat seema m thoii|^ Aeie ia a 
wmp e titi w lietwneo Syed 
Aiahaboddin« MaotMa INkhari and 
others to prove tbgr me the most 
ffandameniaUft of ^ 

In imiat pmta of UP, wheit 
mobiHsatton attmml the Ram 
Janambhoomi iawic 1ms been going 
mi for the fattt few yeaia^ most p e ople 
tre aware of it Simx Rmn fsths wem 
launch e d by Hinds levivahata fh>m 
Bamia thtve yemv ago* the con- 
tnmmy tu» cas^ tiie prtiic im- 
agtnatton, said R^ Komar Kol, a 22* 
year^rfd tiftri gm<faaif from Scniaiia 
Village m aa n oa omnct* 

In UPs Axamfarh dbtricL a oofO* 
mtmaBy aenaitive rmk>a. whcm the 
town of Mmnmth Btim^an has ©%• 
periewed p n riong pd commnmd 
i laslifs dtiflng the last four ytmSy 
oommm^ pobrimtion tea taken 

R. Riri«CFI nctiviatvpcrftttBdoni 
dmt timugh oommmial flashes havie 
been frftquetit mound Asam^ih 

pmriona dwaya siAsldad aftnr a dMvi 


now, ne aami, n nm n c e o rae a mm 
ofttbi Hie wd m c tM i wts of actWf 
tcosioQ teftiae to ^Ss^ppctv ns loo^^ 
mjrttme nts mv cont tnu oo ri y 
fod by tfmae m die aiaie and i 


In mem anwnd Kmipor the Rmn 
Jmiambheossi-BM Maiild imae 
nm mao leo to a pottrMiMm aMng 
communa l hum but the intact k 
more pf onmm ced is urban mdmr 
thmi rufld amns. In fte hut fow jtsn 
Kanpui Itta aeen a ^mrt in com* 
mmud aclivitim and hna b e com e an 
important centre for the Rnm 
jana mmi oo Bu aibku anmiu, me 
im^ Dal aa wdl na the Babri Ma^ 
nctkm ooonnittee and the Daht 
Mttdhn Mrfiasm^^^ 

wnea poiniom pmims nave no 
other plufofm, may uae oom* 
munaKsm**, says Raghnoalh 
c3i*Ml^ and maident ct 8hivali« a 
rifkf^ to Kms^ Mm tt tans from 

The diifefenoB te pemepUon 
tween n^m^ous lend^a mid common 
p e o pl e whether the iasue has led to 
oommwmd polmtamiott b shmpem in 
the districts annrnd Avodhya — 
Stdtanpm, Oonda mid FunAnd. A»> 
cofdiiv to ni^ious lendeii» oom- 
I haaoccmved* But 
avenige astt m 

cofdiiv to r dkiou s 
reuaal po iarimtion hi 
n oow dMg to the ai 


vnrmg s ut m i ipwmf to me ^ 
pie and contributing bricks does ne$ 
men nun wu nare neen swayeo oy 
me laaue wuiui la uerag pmiiK i a ec^i 
aM Shmda Baa Singh, praAan of 
Bhun d mpm viBgge m Ocmda dhh 
tri ct_ 

" ine eommunri harmotiy of tte 
viSaie is intect and wiQ remain 
UiiacL ri0 vienw am raieraiea ey 
SbanMMm Almmd, ^mfium of aina 
viBage m wcfl as the pmdban <rf 
Sh^r vfllage. 

Rm tam taia Vermis wifo of the 
Hinti titemtmv, Hiagwati Chanm 
Vermn, who lives in Oonda, aaid that 
Aem it no oommimri polmiaation in 
Gkmdn, despite the fret that memben 
of both oommuaitim would Ukr the 
shrine to be dedarsd aa their place of 

Her opinicm la echoed by Fhoa 
Khan Md Aj*y Siivasmva, memben 
of the Oonda municipality, as wrfl as 

a social wnrism nd achod teacher, 

uzhat Jduut A pcrfice offker of 
SoHanpur said that merr b emotic^ 
potsrisation over the tesue, tmt it 
does not have a violent and destruc- 
tive postum 

Hieee views wme, howevci, oon- 
imoicieo py immioas icaoess oi ochu 
commuirftiea- Mohammad Yunus 
Siddigue, chairman of the FUzabnd 
unit of die Babri Ma^ld actioii com- 
mitlee belkved that ttie oon trov ei sy 
had become a national ksue, 

*'The issue hm teneaaed com 
mtmal polarisation'*, mid Mr Riat- 
tncharya of Stdmnimr and divisicHial 
t^nisiitt secie tar y of the Hindu 
Jttran Manch. 

In BaSia district* the peioqptiona erf 
tfiose actively interested in tlic dis- 
pule are evm mott eictimne. The 
dirine iswe will be the only deciding 
elccloial issue in central, eastern and 
aouth eastera distrkta oi U.P« de- 
ctered Sodhir Kumar, an RSS ao 

Wifl be fo rthc om icy elections see 
communal imes playinp a laigcr rote 
thmi they have in carticr eto^tions? 
And win they be a remmse to 
national, regional m* local wtoro? 

Again, m in tte case ^ awarrr^ 
of the Bisbri, peircptiom of mhabi- 
tants in nmd and mban arem also 
varied wiiMy, with villtgers tn most 
states not viewing communalism as 
an ciectorai factcK, 

1 :^ 4 



dislfkit of UP, M wril » fai 
Md An^Mdd ^tricti^ cw»iitH^ 
im^ m ^stpecM to il^Bpt^ 
rote ta tiie flvtiMOia^ doi^oiii^ Bi^ 
is tte iQftm of MirtadL Ckmdb tad 
MtM^nr octekM to dtrUed. with 
texim idpA ^em i^vio m ^ 
mrad Mitiet iwiiitin wovhl, 
wbfle o&fr mpoodoM dlMgimL In 
tfae fwromttoi Tfflafld^ hawtver. 
infd iah^tests ddB*l bcUnrr OMD- 
mtmd iftoei wffl pbqr • ri^tfcsnt 

Ida difCrkt Bflte, •w w^ enrio n of 

0i ctectto i IfaM — . . . 
ia the totaa mmw TUs ms putty 
expWMd by ttm icthMet of the 

In pi^tf irt, 
iBtnM^d cl o ctloiu pfovod, 
nmflil toM aMdiay the Rmb 
lnftiiMK)omHttri »bH^ diqii^ 
wm de fiahety be dmmm e d oot 
ofljy to srtm oeiitfcf like Bvodi, 
Ri|^ laid Swt, bot ^ in rml 

Tbe Kmi Jnn^iooai-BM 
amuvwe y tn» taed by tbe 
BJP M en Sectoral ime the 
(Abned^NKl city gmn i rip ri dectioiii 
nd ifl Ae fBoeirt bjKlectioo in tbe 
Hbiito-dof&iotled Mm^nmi dvil 

Tbe BIP fmiiHtb i bHf^ ostfBte* 
OB tbe bttle ^itf bigbisteiied cam* 
ixdn. OMCtiee opoti^iiat faiflsm- 
saMe medM of • loori preKiicr. 
Moivi ftqw, HCTP dirti ttut od. nd 
tbe cwtp i itei «m fecuw e d est 
IHteervi^ tbe Rm JssamMioofni 
trai^ et M ooels aad ihWiii tbe 
HhiAti fiom "ibftber bomUbi^'*. 
Tbe BJP emaiea M tbe singte teffcst 
swty hi the drU cieockmt tad abo 
fot a t^»o-tbifdi ni^iority. 

Tbe VHP cteion cid lo wcaei ve 

* - - Mtf _n_ri_Mt **mm VmAifAtmi 

mMmva at aay ooai n» ▼aoumai 
a BMJifa e f of tbe 

uafKifitaaof luauici p anciiayai aao 


of ShAm vAie» potoMl oat, tet 

(oocbed a (j^oed^ 

Rett^oa ^vtf be aa b in mnaal decs 
tioo tedof ta M^mariitfa dao tiaoe 
luaau mpWiiiaiWHia aaw opeaiy 
coow Old oa ibt autj o cl y ny kadert 

iiutHHiai pmm ami if iiaaFW ai^ 
f .tMl KiAa Wadlo; tbe SWv Seoa^t 
Pue maidem aaM tite tbe cnn of 
tncaf eiecitoa propaaaii gaafoaio ocio 

Tidheer P ao aa w al a, a teln ro^ 
fimste Pwe, aaM ^ with Hiad- 
va fivdiog tlttt aii iM jritka bdoK 
aivvu pieiEiasim uiatiiie iRt ujc v*v>* 
tkma laere bmd to be firea a 
eommuad ooloar* Ooacufrad Aa^r 
AU Eiqiiaeer^ afll knowo Bohni 
An nisi: cotaiattftid iaaaea wffl ooine 
to the ftw dwiay cl a ctio at ia a naked 

Saroab AbdaSa Hiora, from 
bWiapol vttli«B, Tbaae iUatfki Ma- 
teaabtia, aald that tbe open and 
hnieaae ooaimtiaal itMoe of At Siii^ 
SoM, A|il SeM nd Modka Layne 
area a aew tread. *Tboae who never 
talked lAoat tt^^oo m aow doii^ 
to after tbe difpote over tbe tbrioc , 
Abilya Ranjuefcar of tbe 


la bodi flsbaa aad fwai vcn of 
Maifliya Piadtah^ bowevei* people 
ftated that there tm been no aptm in 
comamal activity alnce tbe iMt 
electioa Nor do tbey expect the 
fioriborariai one to wttneaa an in- 

Sins&aftyt la Tantfl Nada neithcT 
tbe Briiri iaaae nor tbe coin- 

momd sitaatkm in tbe ttM of tte 
coBBtry baa made any deep impact 
«mtbeftate*t MafUmawboomtitv^ 
over five per cent of the nopahition. 
Qaz Akmoi AaSam, piesktent of t)» 
Jamaat^Iteni Hind attritwrtea thit 
to tbe ftct asaie*a Minimi have 
wide b aaia e aa intereati (banfware, 
retail do^ and leather) fiVini them 
a hitler economic $Uim higl^ than 
in (Hher ttatca. In iKkSition he iaid^ 
"The Muiiima diare a moc^rate 


1 3 

owtlocA with other acctiont of the 
PC(^ of Tmifl Nadtt, I mmld go to 
theexient of nyina ttM evra ^ RSS 
"^^w^steTite. he cmmcated. 

Agudwg with bim, the p ne aMe i i t of 
the Tamil Nada Pmbwina Aooc^ 
it S. Balasutmnnnim, points out 
}M becaiM of their r^ve aA 
; ^^twe, the MarfiiiM bare an eqnal 
inttrcat in maintaining c ommu nal 
•mity. Since oo mman ity leadetv in 
t he atate wm crner^ fixm the 

buiincaa dm. he cf^ tiiey c«n*t take 
tiauc nearer the etoctoiatc 

Weat Bec^ Aasam end Ooa aia 
•lao states where oommonal issues 
arc not^pecied to piay a fauie it^ 

J^**^ Is eadi araa. hical 
rather than nati<ml ^mca afa mora 
«wHficant dectmaJ fiMom 

"While politioal panici ia Weet 
Bciyl BSitaBy pat ap Hinda or 
Mi^re caw&btei aocofdi^ to the 
^v^niofrafAic ftatims <rf'a pertiodar 
owistitBency", said NaMTSodhan 
vioe<hancdk»* ot Visva 
Bhuati Uaiversity, -the amummal 
fcctw pbys a lees Imnortant niie 

Ajyn Mttkhei:fae, principal of 
JMlnikrtan, pointed oat that tbe com- 
muwJ fiictor in Weal Betmi is sab^ 
dned becaaae of the pc^ii^ coo- 
f^««f^ of the pemte. Even 
A,K.M, Haaaamtzamn, the only In- 
dian Union Muslim Leagae member 
?f the atate hyislativr aaseaiMy. 
;j«*ed that the Ram Janmatrtioomi- 
»abri Mai^ oontroveiay had not ^ 
ncreaaed comrnonai potariaation in 
ine and communal iasaes would 
noi be a fKtor in the pr^iiai.wntary 
elections in Wrst Bmol 

la AsHm, dM prbuiy isaae 
mains the foreign naticmal one and if 
oommaral isma come lo tbe (ore in 
the cfcctkms they wilt be a response 
to poirty local not natkm^ 6Kton. 
While the Babri Maafid-Rara Jan- 
nrabhoonri di^mte has no r elev an ce 
to Aasmn, oomrnmnal tet^m hi the 
nmt wfftoea only ia reqiect erf* faamt- 
pant K^oriims oo iasocs li:ge revi^ 
of etectoal nHIa, There is total hnr- 
moay betwaen the non^m^nuit 
Asttmeae Marfima aad Aasameae 

As in the electiCT before the Assam 
accwd was rigned, the forthcoming 
election may acqaire a c o mmana i 
overtone ia Assam dae lo tbe poas* 
il^ mm^nchiskm of the names 
hiUM of i. -ff niigiant Muatima in the 
revised ekctoral n>8a. 

In Ooa, die mii^or teoe 0 the 
inflm of nonOoans and the growing 
r^looaliam is not directed tdwarda a 
conflfct between the Hiadits and 
ChnstiaM but is manHbsted in 
hostility towmnto otttsidenL Saarat 
Martina, a member of a group called 
^proKytors" fomkfd to sa^^ud 
Ooa*a anitv. aatd nooe t^tbe aaticmal 
commanai partiea had a haae in Ooa, 
But the vacuum was fitted by the 
MabarashtrawMfi Oomaaf^L Fbrty, 
the ailv Sena — which has made a 
reomt «neffenoe tbe pc^ttica] 
canvas of (he state — and the 
Mmathi Rivye Bhasha Praathapan 
Samity (MRBPS). 


In KithiiriT, t oonbisilM) of 
regkmal, nadofM] And is^matk^ial 
firion wiO retuh is ooouBuaal tmm 
pttyifif a itsft rote is the feiih- 
ocMniiif dectioBft. tftid Dr Soltu Bhat 
of t)ie Uttivmity of Kathmir. He 
idrotl&d die fonnatkm ti^ 
hdghlcMd activities of ibt Jamaai-e- 
I^um4ed Mtiilini Uotod Fhmt 
fixMn 1987 and the Shiv Sena ai 
mio&al fbicca Tte Piotben* Pany 
led by Vbim &flch in Jammu a^id 
:Mirwa2 Moulvi fiirooq*0 Awami ac- 
tioB oommittae are abo vfewDd as 
imcmal oommtinal jparttea. 

*Ums4 a handtti] of pc^itical 
^ t — tnchidint the ocwiinninift 
'-^.iitso^ partkulafty the CPl, in Pim- 
jaK the teft fiont in Wets Boigal ami 
the Indian pcopk% movement in 
paru of 9tlttr — aD of tbesn play Ae 
commuMl cant this was the raani- 
mous o(»nioii in the ilaset ntrvrmL 
While pobtica] panics Ukc tttf Shiv 
Sena, RIP, Mtxslini LeMie ami Akali 
D»l aiT viewed as buttantly ochb- 
vonal, then is widenmad cynsdsm 
that no potttical party todav desists 
bwn fteying ccnnmunal pcHiticr 

^X^Mnmunal denmits penrade all 
politici] parties,'* maintained Ram 
Kumar Kiarvava, an advocate fitmi 
ICanpur. ^'Everyone talks secular- 
isT) hot fives di&mit eiectioo 
speeches at dififerent places d^srad- 
ing on the ciectoiate. 

The bcmSer distiKts of Ptnyab, Ukc 
Amritsar ajKl GuidaH'^* which have 
witnessed senous and irrevocable 
dem^paphk fhangrs, are a case 
apart Accoiding to Ju^u 
lUmaswamy, TV piodoccr whc did a 
film on Puivab last year, frcmi Janu- 
ary to June 1988, 7,060 ftmilks, ix, 
approximately 35,000 peofHe moved 
firm villages to fowu. These were 
offidal figures aooonlii^ to infonnal 
district administjation sotntes, 
Ji^u said N'oet^ per oent <^ the 
Hindu Doimlation tn the hcmter areas 
had left kn tomm. 

In addition, these areas have wit* 
ncssed the j^kenobenon of '"swap- 
ping^ with Sikh ftmil^ who bad 
bve^ is U.P. for over 25 yean 
moving to Poi^ atKl HiiMltt nmil* 
k$ movii^ to piaoes iadudif^ 
Dudhia and Punnpv. *niiesc makff 
demoyrai^ changes are imvocaMy 
f*taiyna the compfcxios of lehn 
tiooships between the two oom- 
aiuniti^ says Ramaswamy, For tiie 
Hindus, wtio race nved in 
Gurdaiontr distrkrt, the Shiv Sena 
dogan garyte se kaho hum Hindu hai 
(ssy wHh pride, we are Hindu) is an 
empty erne. 

Buta warns 
Babri agitators 

Th« Tfanct of ladk News Scrrk* 

NEW OTLHI. Auguft 7. 

THE ^vemment win not alkm 
anybody to f>Uy wicb law and 
oitJcr situation in the oootejit irf ihc 
Ram JanambhoofTiHBabri Ma^id 
dispute, xtic home miaiiter, Mr Buu 
Singh tok) the Rirliament today. He 
a](o irileraied that efloru would con- 
tinue to evolve a ocyotiatcd, mutu- 
ally accrpubk ioluttoit 

He said so in rtspoose to the coo- 
cem expressed by members in both 
the Houses over the the rtpottod 
threat of the Vishwa Hindu Pjvt^iad 
(VHP) to ^ ahead with the oonstnic- 
tion of a temc^e at the dispu^ site 
irrrspective or the vertlici of the high 
coun which was going into the case. 

Whik the issue came up to the 
Rajya Sabha for a dnailcd dis- 
cussion, spanning over two days, it 
was raised m t^ Lok SMim durii^ 
the Zero Hour by %tt Saifikklin Soz 
(National Congress), Syed Shahatn^ 
din (Janata) and Mr G. M. Banatwala 
(Muslim League). 

Mr Soz, as also several members in 
the Upper House, accused the VHP 
of sprciding anarchy hy dec^f^ 
that It would net accept the court's 
verdict He also recalled a recent 
statement of the BJP pn^ieflt, Mr 
L K. Advani, in smich he was 
rrportfd to have said that MttfJims 
should offer Babri Ma^id to the 
Hindu through a negotiated aettic* 
ment Mr Banatwala said that trmns- 
porting of bricks from diffirrent pans 
of the country was creati/^ a v<^tilc 
sjiuatton and shiHiki, thcrefim, be 


Mr Advani, one of the main speak- 
ers from the o pp osi ti <H> benches in 
the Riuya Sabha, suted to Wty's 
stand and asserted that the EJP was 
committed to the Coastitutim which 
was wedded to seculaiism, equality 
to an reltgKms and fivodom of 
worship. The BJP wu in agrennent 
with other psn^ that nothing 
should be dcMe that would disrupt 
oommunal harmony in the 0Duatf>. 

Criticising the govemmeot, Mr Ad- 
vani said ft had oMsinttted the 
"greatest bhinder** and had dotx 
disservice t*^ secularism by a m en d in g 
the Criminal Prooeduir Code in 1986 
after the SupniK Cmiri jucl^ment 
in the Shahbanc case. This had 
created a communal kitity which 

nanei thinking that the Faizab^ 
court verdict in the Ram 
JanamMK>omi*Babn M^id dispute 
could also be aiteipd. 

He said ihe government abouki 
have adopted the same attitude 
towards this issue as was adcHyMl by 
Mr Jawmharlal Nehru and Sardar 
P)Btel towards the ftmous Somnath 
Temfsle in GiOarat immedsa^ after 
the country attained i ndcpcn d eiw e, 
QwMing from oKdal ttcom, he said 
Sandar PMei the then home minister, 
had tttnounced while visittog tt^ 
temj^ Bte that it would be iv4Niih 
by the govtrnment. It was not the 
question of Hindus cr- Muslinis but 
of the **Vandalism trf history** wlUch 
needed to be comcted irmpeclive of 
whether it brioiyd to the Somnath 
Tempte or the Kam Janambhoomi, 
he said 


Of the laiy number of speakers on 
this sut^ect today, the o|»nKMis were 
shaipty divided on party lines. How- 
ever, the opposition members were 
united in asserting that H was the 
QHigrcss which was to be Mamod for 
the raise of fundan>ent4lism in the 
country. The ruling party members 
made a ownter^lk^tion. chafyt^ 
the opposition with ext^ting com- 
munal sentinmu fc^ narrow politi- 
cal gains. 

- 118 - 


The caste system in India was legislatively outlast in one of India's first 
actions as a democratic nation. As in our own experiences, the legislating of morality 
is difficult, at best, and does not really r€nx>ve the centuries of past practice. 

Apartheid of South Africa, America's racial segregation of the 19th and 20th 
centuries, and India's caste system are at times liBiped together. Ihere are similarities 
in that each is a iranifestation of discrimination by one huiran to another human. The 
caste system, like Scxath Africa's apartheid, covers/covered every aspect of a person's 
life* South Africa's system, however, was designed to politically, socially, and 
econcmically keep the Black mjority powerless. Every pers<^ was bom into a caste and 
his/her ocnplete life was regulated by his/her membership in that caste. India's caste 
system evolved over centuries but was clearly attached to the dominant religion - 
Hinduism, Perhaps all of this is too wordy arvS even a bit confusing. 

Suffice it to say, it vas the basic framewrk of Indian society, and provided 
people with a sense of total security. Ccxintless norms, applied to every aspect of 
life for every caste mesifcer, therefore ycnor life was clearly defined. With your 
reincarnation determined by your observance of the mles, organized religion made its 
inpact felt. 

1) A conparison of the European feixial system with the relationship of lords to serfs 
could be compared to the relationships betveen various castes in India. 

2) As e^ressed above, a conpariscm of apartheid, 19th century U.S.A. especially 
in the south or the 20th century urban north, to the Indian caste system in the 
form of a chart along political, social, econonic lines oould be undertaken. 

3) For the more sc^^sticated student our affirmtive action programs could be 
compared to India's scheduled castes receiving "X" number of soats, jobs, positions, 

4) Role playing - assign kids to particular castes and tell them several of the rules 
of /for social interaction. Let the kids feel the slings and arrows of institution- 
alized prejudice. 

- 120 - 

Sunday Review 

Caste is their only crime 

Who says untouchability is a thing of the past? 
In many parts of the country it still exists, 
though lawfully banned, due to the need for 
"scavengers" to service the hundreds of dry 
latrines used by the population. Institutionally 
as well as traditionally, untouchables have 
always been hired to do the job, therefore no 
amount of government policies to uplift this 
section of society has helped eradicate this 
deeply ingrained caste bias. 

Bindeshwar Pathak assesses the current status 



- 121 - I'il 

tile povm of inltfid 
^ I tenm ttfcd to airy 
^ OtDdh^i^s ftffloui 

to ud t aW l tf y it a crime agtintt 
Cod mdtnu**. Tlie dkcontinua- 
tioii fBf' tlus mtn^ and Uie 
AhmMC'Of any ofunised move^ 
irent ' or afiiatkm ^ sn- 
tMctetdn tliesmelvts ^iott 
their pi^ might iuac«l the 
no exiftft. Untouch^t^lity 
howevef e contmuet to #ialk tSe 

hahtta» l^rk of educatUMi and 
lower fundaid Uviai aiv ir- 
fpomibk for many oTdittr iBa^, 
Of couTK, ttmouchaMef or 
their frmilkf are no toofer de- 
nied water fiom vfllafe nirib or 
kefM at an mnH kt^ib in mar- 
keu or toctal ptherinti they 
continue to fuBer due to a deefrfy 
iiVraiMd bin ^tMitm them. 

An this flici io the bee of 
Ankk 17 ^ the CoutitutkM 
which provides *>r the aboiitira 
of untouchaltthty. Article 42 re- 
quifet the ttatet to mak^ 

Despite fuatainod efhru ofibt 
VniM a^ fttte lovenimfota. 
the numb^ of untoucha^ hat 
hardly dwindled. The only 
chanar that hat taken place over 
^ yeam ^ that earlier they were 
openly denidod; now tinder the 
threat oflaw, they air treated 
, with Y^cfve Imtfaii^ m cm- 

It ft eetimated that there §jt 
over § 5 lakh untouehahlef who 
CMtit^ to cany aightidl as 
hndtoads as a means c^earainf 
their iivelibood. Out of ^245 
ttftwVttleiiieott in lo^ Mly 
217 lhave aeweme ihcflities 
avail^ to just about one^ 
of the populatiM in these 
oentrft Whenever there to m 
•ewer^, there are dry latrines 
MTviaBd by are caOed ma- 

h ftlittle comfbrt to know that 
the i^ftMem is not tnuque to 
India-^Thert arr as many as 25 
otto- backward oountriet, whete 
people depend on dry latrines. 
But #bile the total auiaber of 
jsinf dry pri\k$ in India 
y about five crort, there are only 
* 37 ^re people in thereat of the 
wofld *iio have to depend on the 
•crvtoas of theae **scavenfen". 

About two lakh untcuchaMes 
in engaged in dearing oj^taoil 
ftom «8 many as 60 lakhbucfcet 
privifi in the whole country ^ 
wWdl fiv« kkh alone att in 
Ddhi Kotwithitao^ng claims to 
the ooptrary. those eogaisd in 
^ fibftafiioii CMtbtte to be 
victintt of omouchability in one 
Arm "ttrdte other. 

provisions for securing just and 
human conditions of wwk and 
Article 46 stipulates that states 
must iromote the interesu of the 
•Mker sections, particularly 
scheduled castes and scheduled 
tribes and ^x>tect them from 
iociaJ iqiusticc. 

the Backward Classes 
Commission wrote abcnit them 
191(8 is true oven today. The 
oomtpjsaion had stated: The 
oradltiM of Mtfn^ ia extremely 
nisedit^ and the betteriMttt of 
this ahfi^tunate sectim is one of 
the Ma needs. When 
ptred wi A the a venfe income of 
the comflkM pec^, the eanUofs 
of the Mangis attached to looal 
bodies and muolcipalitica may 
not pertups be vwy low. Vet the 
condition of these people is mis- 
erable. Drinking and gamMing 

IN no other country, it tcave 
nging amalgsmated with thz 
evil Mrvcture e( caste m4 
untouchabdijty as is the case 
India. The communities engaged 
in SGevracf^ are at the towest 
bottMi of the social hiersirhy. 
Gii«ht in the quagmire of miaer* 
aMe living and wotkix^ con* 
diticms. ttey bve in sepuvte 
localities aegregated Smn the 
main settlements. 

In towns and cities tin* 
tmichabtes live in aluma, devoid 
of the basic amenities. 

Notwithstanding the social- 
istic rhetcmc of our politicians, 
acsvengen do not have access to 
the state-sponsored welfarr 
•chomes, either due to official 
tpathy or their locational isola* 

Looking at the magnitude of 
the problem, very little has been 
done to scrfve it so hr. Under the 
Protoction o( Civil JUghu Act, 
1955, untouchability is a crime 
and nobody can be denied scr* 
vice, on the fround of their 
^pfiwsion in a shop, hospital or 
nny puldic place or the uk of 
village well m even entry to a 

Sometime ago, Swami 
Agnivesb and subsequently sev- 
ers] other Ofganiutions ettgaged 
in Haryan welfare led a group of 
them into the fiimous Nathdwara 
temple. That there was no or- 
ganised resisunce on the pan of 
casteist Hindus or temj^ jriests 
to such a puMicised show only 
aerves to delude the people about 
tlw actual plight of untouchables. 
History reveals that household 
privies were not pari of Indian 
cuhurt and tradition in the past. 
In the Artl^shastJi of Kautilya 
(320 BC) of the Mauryi period, 
defecatioti in public places or 


- 122 


ucMT mervoirs was prohitwied. 

With the advent of the Muslim 
ei» bucket privies were in- 
tmducrd in many bouses, mainly 
far the convenieoot itf women in 
purdah. Consequentty, the lowest 
otfses PO Ws weiT aasifned the 
meanest task of scavenging. With . 
subsequent urbanisation* the sys- 
tem incTtased rapidly ami has 
brought in the prtsent chaotic 

Although the eradicauon of 
Mvenging and rehabiiitaiion of 
scavengers have now been in- 
duded in the rrvtsed 2(Vpoint 
programme, the aj^;)roach of the 
authorities to the prc^m re- 
mains muddled. For instance, if 
the government really wants to 
end the evil, why should munici- 
pal bodies all over the oountr> 
keep scavengers on their pay rpll? 
Instead thry shoukS embark on 
vigorous programme for con- 
version of dry privies into sani- 
tary toiletSw 

The availability of scavei^ers 
who do not chaiye mtich for their 
services mainly because of the 
salaries they itoeive from local 
bodies acts as a disincentive for 
the peofrfe to go in fer conversion 
of dry privies into other ftmns of 
toilets invc^iog leaching pits or 
secrtk tankSL 

jt is estimated that now abcNii 
Rs 15 to Rs 16 mm art being 
spent by the Central and stat^ 
governments on the wel&re of 
scavengers and ibr financing dry 
toilet conversion ^x^grammes. 
This sum, however, is insuflfi* 

cient if fcavei^ng b lo be 
ermdicated by the end of this 
century because with thr present 
rate of ocmversionv H will take 
nwe than half $ Qentury to 
eliminate acavengif^ 

In the siath and seventh five- 
year irfaitf there was a proviston 
Rs 4,690 awe for tirban 
water suf^dy and sewerage, of 
which nearly Rs 9iS cmt were 
for sewenfc. A m^ portion of 
this could have been iUverted to 
the conversion programme by 
lK>t taking up any towA fyr 
sewerage but concentrating only 
oA rehabiiitaion of existing sew- 
erage where it is absolutely 

Attempts have been made in 
the past to improve the working 
conditions of scaveogers, Tl|gy 
were provided with gtoves, gum 
boou,. orikction imptemrata. 
coveird buckets and whed bar- 
rows. During the Gandhi 
centenary year in 1969, the 
emphasis was on the emancipa- 
tion of scavengefi. The govern- 
ment ol&red 25 per oentsubskly 
and 75 per oent kum for cm* 
version of (by latrines into a 
water flush tcHkf and its connec* 
tton to puMic aewer. 

Another attempt wm made 
to end the system by 
pronuning a special campaigit fin- 
ooovcrsion tiry privies mto 
wat^ flush units. The state gov- 
onments were spedficaUy asked 
not to aSow oiMistnictiott o€ new 
buiklingf withiM waW flush' 
^leta. In the unsewered arr^ it 
was f nr*^. a^tic t$uk§ of 

leach piu should be provided for 
CMvening drj latrines into water 
ttiuh units. 

In the fifth fivf^year f>lan m 
1975 state govcrninents wre 
asked^o provide communit> col- 
ftection tanks and carriage of their 
ctmtents in mobik vacuum 
unkers to oiidaiion ponds for 
leaching. Some 30 towns werr 
selected in the couiftry and 
provided 100 per cent grant for 
this provision. But this 'Scheme 
was also not successful in ending 
the evil. 

WMEREVER vdvntary 
tocial organisations 
siej>ped in. the govern- 
ment efforts started shoi»ing 
some resulu. for instance, th^ 
pioneerifig work done by the 
Harijan Sevak Sangh m Gujarat 
auccceded in largcvscale con- 
versions of bucket privies into 
flush systems . Si mitariy t»efu1 ser- 
vice was rendered by the Ctndhi 
Smarak Nidhi in Maharashtra 
Bihar provided anotfw instance 
4^ a m^for dynamic Mtitfr. The 
Bihar Gandhi (entenary ommit- 
tee ga^ top priority in the 
Bhangi Mukti Programme and 
1^ identified latrine conVerMon 
as the quickest and most eflRecti ve 
iMy Of adiieving the otve^ive. 

With the emetyence ^ Subbh 
Shauchalaya Sansthan (Sulabh 
International) ii a dynamic vcri- 
ynury body with a nucleus of 
dedicated woriim. the program- 
me made much headway from 

There are nearly 60 lakh 
bu)?ket privies in the country. 
The avenge co^ of cooversiM is 
abput L700 per unit Con- 
aiderif^ the escmlaticHi of <pricea, 
the average coat o( dOAvtnien$ 

" 123 - 

1 43 

"»•> he assumed at Rs 2,000 
Thus ihf lota/ cost of eoavenioo 

or irhabiiiiauuf icavcnten 
wouW be about 33per COM rtfSS 
. «nwiinL Thus a total sum of Rs 

l.«00 croir win be n««dW for the 
li^V^nie to eradicate KavcM. 
• ins io the cotnitry. 

Under the CentnBy-^ioBsor. 

Attempts ha^'f been 
made in the past to 

improve the workintf 
conditions of 
scavengers. They 

*vere provided with 
gloves, gum booU, 

implements, covered 
buckets and wheel 
twrrows. During the 
Candhi centeiUry year 
fiovemmcnt offered 
= 25 per cent subsidy 
jnd75 per cent loan 
for conversion o^ dry 
latrines into water 
flush toilets 


«|d ihfw Uaioa lenitoneL 
"jpvision nude ia the ttvmh 
iwn Bader the CtetnS^fpo». 
torod achemes fer fltt«cMmb 
Us 39 am la additkm. many 
sotts ait also fiaaacii^ M^let 

their owa Ibada. 

ii heavily cuhMlised bv the mt- 

"«^Hy by payitt kSv^ch a 
<B0BiMy nitty (&ey a 


it is onfortiuiafe that 
«n«»pt» to eradicite tcaveiviv 

•J tchemea fir Ubentioa of 
Kavenfttx the ainktty jjf «-|- 

l9S04t to Maich tm fer 
)«tn«« bucket privies to pour 
g"M wwencal muts to II slates 

CMaoc Mooecd catOy fcr the evfl 
.opetieues to he ivtittitieaaKsed 
f "M y piaoeiL The mt»a 
*?*»hoWer**th a bucket htriae 

*3«CfB hioka apoa it tf a accoB. 

«y aviL 

*^^«^co as« i »an cywYicg 

body inelfts 

^^•^ciamr more aoiactinL the 
iBci feoas the lewnl lettaoe of 
^"^.^^ CDBiribuiBd by the 

the ceai flf eoavmioB 
witcr^ latriae it taaviK 

to penuade the hniia hiiiiii to 
iML Eves rhMas aad aateidies 
^ .o flfawt fhe ^rSow 
l*o«dtml fomalities are too 
cunbenome aad tiiDe<aotta}- 

./^»r ii coMidmhIe 

%wtini of tbe 
gurih toflgt ayi«a 
»«Moo fer i t hi ci iau e oa Ae'BMi 
of nafaitaiaiai aad deariM the 
Why oaa^ oar iodal MMsts 

act, aad we havt diacaMd this 

^ Ins is a dftMnca aad it 

^o^be endicaied as eSy 
vottmc. Yes caaaoc tea a ihiM 

provide aa aheniSv! 
tethoar ia^wiU dte 
SovenuBeot take? 

- 124 - 



9 hurt in 
cast^ clash 

Ejiprcsi News Scrrke 
Tlradii, July 24: Nine perrons 
were injured in ctofthe* between 
caste Hindus and Harijans at 
CHappaadi village, ^ar Kunnam 
in Pcrambalur taluk, about 55 km 
from here, on Sunday afternoon 
Three bouses in the Hahi<i:? col- 
ony were also damaged. 

Forty two persons — 22 Han- 
jans and 20 caste Hindus — were 
arrested in this connection. Police 
pickets have been posted at the 

It is learnt that the two groups 
bad differences over laying a 
pathway to the Harijan burial 
ground The Hindus aile^ that 
the Harijans had taken more land 
than that earmarked by revenue 
(rf6cials in for the pathway. 

On Sunday, some caste Hindus 
had allegedly teased two Harijan 
gris pas&ing through their streets. 
This sparked the dash and two 
groups of about 100 each pelted 
stones at each other. 

Seven Harijans and two caste 
Hindus were hurt in the melee 

Tiruchi SP K Thukkayandi and 
the Ariyalur RDO visited the 

Efforts to convene a peace com- 
0iinee meeting are now on. 

Tackle the basic causes 

THE naxalite problem in Andhra Pradesh show > no sign 
of abating in spite of Mr. Rama R.u • < announct-ncnt of 
ail amnesty and the consequential surrcPwiLrr of s^rrn. oi ihc 
aaivists. The latest incident is the kidn,ipr>nc and subsc 
quent release of Mr. Raji Reddi. Manoji Praja ParishjJ 
president in Waranga! district. Tne naxaiitc- v.Uo had 
kidnapped him demanded a judici: ; in^Jirs int. ihc j 
disappearance of two of their members who, ac.ord.n^ to ; 
them, bad been arrested last December and are feared lo 
have been subsequently done to death by the pvilicc. Mr. 
Roddy's release followed the government a-in-Mincement of 
a judicial inquiry There had been s>m:'..r kidnapping' 
eailier. One of tne kidnapped persons. N.i M.ilhai Rao. 
was killed by his. captors when the acT..i;:J v\as not ^ 

The kidnappings highlight a probicm that been . 
plaguing Andhid Pradesh for quite sonic tin-,c 1 hi< is il;c j 
disappearance of activists. generalK naxai-ics. ij' .cn into or 
believed to be in police custody A vj.riani the 
death of such activists in 'etiwunters' with 'Aw p-Mi. e In \h<j 
present case, the govcrnrief t consi>ten;'.' dcniev' ih.»'. thv 
two activists had ever been in jvilice cu-;.^J> and turned 
down all demands for a judicial inq-ii-.. F.v.-t k.dnapp.ngs 
and one killing later, it has relented Th.^ ntit'jci i-.^'J 
ta(tfics nor good governance. If \h: gosjmn en: -ho iiiht 
there was anything suspicious, ahou. the circi:mr.uip.-c^ ot 
the disappearance of the two activiM*. an inquiry should 
have been ordered much earlier To ^one^dt such a ; 
demand under duress does not speak well of the govern- 1 
mant's functioning. The fundamen:al causes th..i gi\c rise ^ 
to the naxalite movement have to bt lavkkd 1 !ie amncst) 
is a step in the right direction but the staie gvU crnment must 
go much farther. c^^^ ^ ^Q, 

11122 vacancies for SCs in Delhi Admn 

NtW DELHI. Aug 1 
Th« DcUn Admia»^tratK>n ha^ 3 
Wkk>g of 13.122 po»b rt^rvcd for 
Scheduled Caj^o tn4 SchcduJrd 
Tiibtt which have remained vacant 
fof leveri) ycar^ ikjm . ibe Chief 
ExccutK-e Coundlkw. Jag Par- 
vc«h Chandra wmJ. 

Mr Chaitdra wai making a Maic- 
mcni on a calling aiienijon molK^n in 
the Metfopoliun Council House on 
Tuesday. The motion wa* brought 
togeiher by Mr Babu Ram Solanki. 
Mr Bhonn Lai Shasin. Mr Gurbax 
Singh. Mr R N Chandeliya and Mr P 
C KsifiAik or the wtuaiion ariwng in 
the Administration due to backk>g in 
•Jie rcprcieniaifon of Scheduled 
Casie MT\6 Scheduled Tribe candi- 
dines in the Admmistraiion services. 

Giving B breakup. Mr Chandra 
said that the total strength of cm- 
f^yees in the Delhi- Admmistration. 
wcluding the police services, was 
85 000 while there was a backlog of 
1,369 Scheduled Caste and 2.018 
Scheduled Tntse posts vacant in the 

Adminisi ration. 

In the Vocal bodies wmiUrly the 
total emr»3vees strength was mer 
1 lakh and a total backlog of b.87V 
Scheduled Caste and Scheduled 
Tribe posis to be filled 

The employees* strength m auton-» 
omcus bodiei was 3.1.3. exdudjng 
daily wage earners, and a backlog of 
832 Scheduled C^«e and Scheduled 
Tribe vac-incies required to be filled 


The Chief Executive Councillor 
said that the 1%^ R<»ter Plan sug- 
gested bv the Central Go\einmeni 
had not been strKtly 4dhered to 

Mr Chandra said that since the 
1%9 rosier system had not been 
strictly adhered to and this had re- 
sulted in accumulation of a huge 
backlog, the Central Go^Trnmeni 
had sent a countrymde directive and 
a dnve was on to fill up these 
vacancies as well as to !»\-5temaiise the 
roster and pot alio* an\ more back- 

a«isured that the Admrnistra- 
lion woM pressurise aided schools 

of the Delhi Administration to fill up 
reserved vacancies. 

Earlier dunng the question hour 
too the members grilled ihc Exccu- 
iwx Councillor (Education). Mr 
Kulanand Bharatiya, on the uiability 
of the Education Department to fill 
up reserved post? of teachers, vice- 
pnncipals and principals 

Repbing to a question Mr Kula- 
naod Bharatiya said thai b> il^ end 
of August the Adminisiranon would 
appoint 776 Scheduled Caste and 
Scheduled Tribe teachers. He also 
assu^ that in case Scheduled Tribe 
candidates wcrt nc« available against 
a reserved post, a Scbcduted Thbc 
candidate mi^ht be considered with- 
out dercserving the post and vice 
versa * 

He also said that the Administra- 
tion was considenng 5jmplif>ing rules 
to appomt teachers m the reserved 

'The House ran smoothh and ad- 
journed eartv what *ith the Opposi- 
tion benches vacant but for a short 
while immcdiatti> after the quesuon 


The kwK BJP member Mr Karun 
Sngh Tanw^r. «^1k> could not tx 
suspended on Mond*i\ talked mto 
the HouK miKrh to the constcrnjuon 
and embanassment of alm<>M ali the 
Treasun' nv^^^^ including the 
Chairman himself 

Mr Tanwar w alkcd into the Hou^c 
and asked the Chairman whs hi< 
colleagues had been turned oui of the 
House The Chairman and the ruim; 
party members lost no time and s\ 
the hint from the Chairman. Mt 
Nand Lai Chawdhn moved a re^olu 
tion seeking Mr tanwar s suspcn 
sion Immediaich the Chairman pui 
it vote and signalled the marshal- 
who lifted Mr Tanwar and took him 
out of the House 

While leaving the House Mr 1 .m- 
war raised slogan ' Raji\ Gandhj 
chor hai ' 

InierestingK Mr Tanwar had given 
litile cause lo the Chairman on Tucs 
day in comparwn to nhai had Nren 
happeninjg m the Mouse m the pre- 
vious days 

- 127 - 


- 128 - 

I '! S 

T f^c^ traffic lams daily; I "bitch" about increasing local taxes. I understand, 
to a de^S ^^^i^^ial issues, and 1 atterpt to do my bit by trying to save 
Se pfSr'gIv!n?C^ Greenpeace, Nature Conservancy, etc. ^ placing m 
S^peSTn^il^r^p^at. .e«ptacles to be col lected W ^^^^-^TbSgfe^ "^^r; 
r -ng^lnfrfsSu^u^ ZZ T^r^f^'Tlosne. Jo ^ head 1 

cross the 59th Street Bridge. 

Wh^ seeinq and reading about the problenis facing the Subcontinent's nations, it 
nlacJT^ SS^pSsiiSii^the horn blLing on the LcMig Island E>cpressway and rw 
placed m quicK perspective nroblesns we have plus seme. Of course, 

$700 increase in taxes. India has all the P^^^^j; chuckle However, third world 
elephants rairpaging through farmland ^ijl ' understand 

strikes, bus fatalities. 

1) Have the students make a list of the problems facing our society, and using those 
newspaper clippings identify the ones facing India. 

2) Have each student select a problem facing India, and present it to the class with 
possible solutions. 

3) collect articles fro. the local paf^rs alx>ut prcMa.« facing society, and see 
if India is facing any similar ones. 

- "^29 - hi [J 


844 sterilisation deaths 


NEARLY S44 pec^ have died as 
a result of ftcnbsstioo duriag 
the last three yetrt, the miaisier of 
cuie for health, W JUik)ife Alam 
nid in a w/itMi in tbr Rj^ya 

He sak^ U7 ptopk dkd io IM6*S7 
and Sy: ia l9S74i£. A atun of Rf. 
10.000 WIS imid to k^aJ bein of tbr 
deceased. The |Overj>me»t was a»- 
tidering reqi^sts received froni the 
Males to JDOtsse the amount of ex- 

130 - 



Dismal failure? 

Indian family planmi^ jnognm- 
me, whicb gobMed }sp a wliomnng 
24 biiUofi rupees tiU the end at the 
Si%trs Plan, bad been *'a dismal 
failure," lays Pradeep S. Mehta. 
genera] secretary erf the Onmim- 
cr Unity and Tnist Society 

In a paper presented to tlw 
MneraJ assembly of the W<^d 
Future Sc^ety, he said 38 years 
after launching the |^^>gramrae, 
India's population was %^ in- 
ijeasing at 17 million a year. 

The main leason f<^ the failure 
was that vasotomy operations 
were unpopular, as men feared 
loss of suengtb and Ubido. There- 
fore, wMien were fenced to 
undergo tubectomy. 

A study conduct^ in Rajasthan 
s}K>wed that the wmnen who 
underwent the operation, '*bc- 
si^ being treat^ like cattle,** 
were not even paid the fn^nnised 

In K4arch 1989, the Rajasthan 
Government «lmined there had 
been 94 female deaths in family 
planning (^rations durijig the 
last three years. 

A fifth of the 132 camps, sur- 
veyed by the Indian Council of 
Medical Research, did not have 
hfe-saving drugs and screening for 
detect K}n of anaemia, hyperten- 
sion and (habetes. In one-third of 
these, thf equipment used for 
surgery were either nut sterilised 
or imporperly sterilised. 

- 131 - 


12 killed in mishap 

DHAKA. (PIT): Af kast 12 peopk 
vere kifod mti et^ injured ki a bus 

«m m Bnteiairtwu &trict today, 
oflkiaJ Mmoei sttd. Aootber repcm 
mi eight people wm kiUed 50 m 
^ler i rcMKi bridge on a cmal col' 
lap$ed in DOTtbeni dismcf of iamalpur 
OB Tbioiday last. 

7 Idlled in accident 

«iASPUR, (MP) (UNI) Seven 
"teopk, mchKbiig two wooten and a 
MU, wcit kilted and 20 injured, 
Wbeo a mm - truck c»Tyw^ passcn 
men daibed a^unct a tree at Sakn 
^lagc near here yesterday, police 
today ft»d. 

- 132 - 



III f* II 

« 5 • * ' 

•S lillfli |l| 

ils - i s 

" IgSI ass's 

ft WilWt 

CHILD: Bondage of India's Poor 

( Co B riiig rf from Fige I) 

tea boyv arc or moior mwdmiai. 
ckare.i of fkxssi tod towts. And 
th^ ^S5i nu^ohty work ti apkal- 
tural Ubcm^ in ft country mat is 
ftill 80 percent rural. 

It is ooe <rf the sirikiQg ocatrasts 
ol orotcmpcwY IiKiito ioc^ 
that for cver> cmkl of the Mwiy 
emcrpiig middk dass thcrt are 
four who remain at or helow the 
offidal poverty line. 

Soraju, 13, and his older Inolbcr 
movide the only sitppcfft for tter 
family in jeba^ir]ntrv « densely 
packed nei^borSoodoQtbes<mh- 
cm «ke (» New Ddhi, about an 
hour ^om the wide boulevank 
around Parliament r nd mi^ fed- 
eral Initkli]^. 

Smyu hi^ heen wnfcing as a 
ragpkkcT for ax seven years. He 
used to earn about S n^oes a day, 
bai now he gets IS nmees, 

""I give it aD to oxHbcr,** he said. 
*'My okler brotto' makes trmMe 
sometimes, thcHigh, and doesn't 
give the money.** 

Many of the TOO famibei in Je- 
h^or^ make tl^ living by r^- 
{^ckiiig, (me of the few jobs opes to 
the group d poor Bengab Mu^ims 
who came to New Delhi in the early 

Tbev initially settled in make^ 
shift slums east the city, but the 
New Ddhi admmistratkm moved 
them to tte s^ly built jehugu-- 
puri. wi«Tt they ocndd buytwo- 
room brick huu fm about 200 ru- 
pees a month, paid out over 10 c€ 
12 yean. 

Every naoming. scmetimes as 
early as 3 A.M^ the cfaildrto of 
Jehangirpun ^read out across the 
caty. }^ 10 15 rupees a day. they 
undergo constant harassment from 
the and ni^icion from rest- 
dents d more afnucnt oommunt- 

Salim, 19« said the children's tag- 
gcsx pf(Mcm is the poiioe. 
"We get beaten up aO the time,*" 

smd. **lf there is any n^bery, 
they Mame ns, and if wt end up at 
the sutkm, wt tove to |»y 200 
300 rupees to get out** 

Desfate the snDicms of working 
children, the government has 
passed mily limited tegisIatioD 
<kaliitg with the issue. The m^mty 
of womu children ait not prt> 
tecwl at an. Others find the oondi- 
tioiis of dieir work thec»^^icaUy 
itmlated, but n<M prohibited. 

OfTtdals have ooooetol that the 
enfcMxaemcQt ol the kgislitiOT is 

An officii fix an mtematima] 
organsxatkn said the 1986 Quid 
Labor Act had been aimed at prt- 
venting hazardous work and ai al- 
leviating wt»k oonditicms in otbcx 

^'Buf bow doyou enforce itV the 
c^fidal asked. *Tarenu need mon- 
ey« and children will go to wc^/* 

Under the Quid Labor Act em- 
pUmnent of children under the age 
(rf 14 is pfohibitod in certain haz- 
vikTus industrks, such as 
constructkRi and tran^)ortatiOT In 
other industry wmk is limited to 
six hours with an hour of rest and is 
banned between 7 P.M. and 8 A.M 

But at best tl^ Act ooven only 
about ^percent of the child work- 
m in India, and it has »awned a 
debate in which critics charge that 
by r^ulating work cooditicms for 
some children, tt» government is 
sandioniDg child labor. 

A key policymaker in the Minis- 
try of labor, Meena Gupta, said 
tlMC government was de^^lo|nng ex- 
perimental prosrams under wiucb 
mspectors wouU be imcnnted to 
deal only with child labor. 

And with special funds frras in- 
teniat}<»ia! organizations, the gov- 
ernment is also devdqHng model 
achods aid wdfare prc^ams in 10 
cities known for thcu' h^ levels of 
child labor. But critics have 
charged that the prc^rams are slew 
to get the ground and only 
ioMcb a limited number of children. 

- 133 - 

4 INDIAN EXPfJESS, NEW DELHI. Friday. July 7. 1989 

Another pattern of slavery 

NEW DELHI, JuJv 6 (VTl) 
Balika Tukararo U^o^k, 
^khrajwa. Suniu Huwrbaod, Bnag- 
mania and Sukhram from lod^ 9£d 
Pakistao's Zia aod AUms have Me 
thing to comflKMi: they are hosdcd 
chilJ labourers deprived erf mnocmi 
joys and rights of childhood. 

life is hfinh for them. They have 
to tcnl for ioQg hours, tomeliim 
strcichiM upio twenty, to eke out a 
meagre nving: 

Their biank f^cs, vacant looks, 
kao and emaciated frames, tell the 
untold story of miilioos of sudi hap- 
less, nameless and teoeiess child 
bonded iabouren of South Asia. 

According to statistics, there arc 
about 20 million chiU labourers in 
South Asia, of which 7.S million are 
bboded. They are children osostly 
below seven. They w^ as rag- 
pickers, beggars, brkk-kib wc^rs, 
carpet weavers, lottery scUers, mes^ 
' iseurs in iaiU oi chikl-prostitutes. 
Noted numan ri^hu activist, Swa- 
jni Agnivesh, wcMkmg for the hbera- 
iion of child bonded l^ourers from 
;South Asian countries said, these 
<3uldren were 'spedficaUy btoti^i 
licrt to record their testimonies in me 
-five-day South Asia semiruu' on child 
servitude that concluded here 'on 

The testimonies of child broded 
labours from India, Paktitan, Bang- 
ladesh and Nepal, recorded before 
disimguished iinistt, inchKhnfl far- 
mer Mtpreme toun jud^, Mr V. R, 
Krishna Iyer, reveai their tale pain 
and misery. 

Niitf-year^Ad Sukhrajwa is quiet 
and sullen She is rebctant to speak 
but her teU^tak eyes reveal every- 
thing her sorry phghf and helplesf- 


With her shon and unkenxpi hnr, 
"bleeding ear. swoolen eyes and yel- 
low teeth, Sukhrajw^ presents a said 

picture. Her ifac» - a torn shin over 
an mdermtMS and a tattered moCDer 
hanging from the neck - is « |4oy to 
hide feir gender for fear of sexual 
exploftatk»L i«ain is not an 
umoofDsiKm tlnsg with c^M 
lab o wm . 

14, is dso a chtM 


labourer. She has been work- 

mg as a eaglet weavers sfeoe early 
childhood. She earss le» than one 
and half kSpraois erf wheat daily. 

Abbas and Zia of Pdustaa mt 
r^resentative (rf miUions of duM 
labourers wc^king in brick kilns, car- 
pet ttihistry, -agriculture, power 
fooms. shoe hidusti^ ttid oott^ 
tixhislnes Mke t>een manufacture. 
Hiey ait no difUrtnt from their 
counterparts berp hi India or else- 
where m the regi<»a. They abo work 
bard ami art poor anfi uneducated. 

The phght ^ these children ocmi- 
pouocM ^th the deoMiit at bcm- 
dage, itstrictioo on freedom of 
movement and tc^tiat, beoomes the 
oiost heinous crime agahist childhood 
nad hmnanity. 

Jttttm P. N. Bhagwati, fmner 
Cbef Jnstke of Iiutia* Sttd . Bonded 
labours are om^ieiflgs, exiles ci dvi- 
bsation, hviag a life wooie than that 
erf animab... doc bavmg my dmct. 
they are driven poverty and hunger 
.into a hf e of boodafle.*' 

The Intematiofial L^xiar Omfer- 
encc cbssified chikf wc^ m 
five categoriea nunely (A) domestic 
wwrk such as cleaning, oookii^, 
washmg etc, (B) ooiHiomesoc work- 
imMncmetary «<^'stich as fuel Mod 
water ooflectx»i m hid nd runmng 
emuMb, guarchng foods, marketinfl 
etc in taban scdor, (Q hooded 
iabovr «vhere cMd workers are kept 
in bradagc because of^ their family's 
Of indivimi^ debt, (D)'wa£e ewfknf- 
ment where children work on dauy 
wages to dcmiestk, agricultural m 

industrial activity'; and (E) marginal 
work it may be irregular or of short 
term nacura such as shoeshiiiing or 
rag-pickii^ etc. 

The c^d txMKfed l^mir system 
can be further ctessifkd into two 
parts: iidierem bondage and children 
subjected to bond^. to ex* 
tremety fow wages no wages ex- 
food, eiKHnuw rate of intcrtst . 
ifineracy and igmraice, ti^ poor 
he^^ess get tied <fowri to a 

viaoDS circle of indetHedness for 
generatioQS n^ether. As ^result. 
oiillicHtt ^ boMted even before they 
nre tioro. 

Even omstituticMial proviuons atKl 
le|pslatims have failed to wipe out 
this icourge. Tlur ^practise is con- 
tinutng de^nte the artick four of the 
onivcr^al dedaratiOT of human rights 
which says. *' No me shall be hdd in 
slavery w servitude in all 4hctr 

In India, Article 23 of the Con- 
stitutim ensures that *'trafrickin| in 
human beuigs and beggars and oil^r 
forms (rf f<»ced latKHir is prohibited ' 
aid specific law "'tx)nded labour sys- 
tem Abtriition Aa, 1976*', not only 
tens tte system amtpletety. but de- 
dares it as a ooghisabie i^ence 
piyushable with three years imprison- 
ment of the tKxnded labour keeper. 

Unlike India, the Supreme Court 
of Pakistan had not yet laid do«^ a 
fmcise and conuMtbensive deftmtion 
of thnr bonded labour, according to 
Mr Ehsamdlah Khan of the Bcmded 
L&eratkm From irf Faki^. 

Mr Khan said despite assurance by 
Ms Bcna^ Bhutto, no jp*"acucal step 
had been taken kitysmrection. The' 
Front had set September 18 as ^be 
deadSme when it planned to b(dd a 
taunan chain demonstration through- 
out the country from Karachi to 
IslamabM] and Peshawar to Quetta to 
highlight the issue. 

- 134 - 

Shocking result 

Sir — Wc, tbe students at B. A. 
(Hons) History, (South 
Ckmints), imr sbodml at our 
mutts* Fdr, iKsariy 75 per ornf of 
tbe students from South Campus 
&iIod tbe euminatsoD and those 
who did pasSt secured cml/ 40-45 
per cent marks. Many stuctents 
who were expected to secure 
good marlcs, did not get more 
than 49 per cent 

Tbe aiipinient that in tl^ wake 
of tbe Delhi University teachers* 
ithke, each examiner examined 
many mart answer books than 
tbe normal tnd tberef<Me, could 
sot do justice to tbe evaluation, 
b pn^ttHy true. 

We have also learnt that some 
M.niil stwfents of Delhi Univer* 
iity were called in fw evaluation 
work. This ts in gross vK^ation 
of the Utuvernty rutes. 

Even if tbe answo* books have 
been evaluated cmly by teachers, 
some mtiitakf ai^y^ars to have 
crept in at some gutgt. We are 
not challenging the competence 
of our teachers, but we air fwced 
to qt^tion tbe staxKJards of 

We request the Vice- 
chaoceOor irf" Delhi Univernty to 
§tt the answer books re* 
evaluated and save tbe carDen of 
the hundreds of studata. 



" 135 - 


Test cancelled 

VARAN ASI, July 31. - Tlie pre- 
medical test of the Banaras Hindu 
University Hbld^last month was 
cancelled today following alleged 
leak&ge of question papers, reporti 

The executive council today re- 
solved that th^ test be cancelled to 
maintain credibihty and held again 
at an early date. 

The executive council further au- 
thorued the Vice-Chancellor to 
constitute a high-powered com 
ihittee to inquire into the affair. 

Students' protest 

DHAN'BAD, July 38. - 'Sione- 
throwing rtudent proteiters 
^ attacked the CoUectorate buUdin* 
hen today. ■m»»h«i window pa- 
nes broke ftimiture and made an 
* abortive attempt to art fire to acoo- 
I ten puked inwla tte offlet pre- 

The Deputy C«Dmi8aioo«r, Mr 
lUm Sevak Shamia. wOd tour cjn- 
wUbies; six roagirtratea yjn «" Afl> 
41tiona] District Magistrate wert 
iiijunA. One c«»t»tjfcw»i 
%^ to hfMpm in • etmdt- 

tioo. Some jouroaliili 

S» apot were alw b««teD up^rttie 

police Tht iludeot* inn ytv mv- 
Suagainst Oit aOe^ Mii^naise 
^thep^cc on them last Wcdnca- 

Campaign against 
!violence on campus 

faj^TM ficm Serrkc 

NEW DELHI, July 31 
V«rio« lectioo* oC ^>^^ 
eachers and karamdum of ueiw 

aad Jaso* MiBU beve^comc 

vkrfeDce oo Uie can^jwe*. 
iTalkiiig to newsmea here oo M**- 
Mav^^ rewejemathre Mid tte 

%c meeona, contact prograsune* » 

^j^BsSr on As»gast 3 oo ibe mam 


Tte videiicae. *ey «id, reccotfy 
tbe form of » "tta^* * * 
ttei wii being tddresm ty 
" kadaTMrE S; 
at the DefiB School 
, Ea»o»» by KSin ftirftt^ 
IJariat the «nj«|fi, 
K AMfiNit^ in ooBefet by joiiit 
' |.tcacheT*aniw4|»ri 

nreti oonfeiraer wv wnev 
« & preskfefii <rf tbe Democrat 

Teachers' Fro«« (DTF), Mr M. A. 
i««d; ei'DuTA fm^dat trotn 

DTF, Mr M. M. f Sfaiah. »ccretar> 
.Scudents' Federation of India (SFl). 
Mr Dayaram Yadav; the pfc^nknt ol 
the WU Students* Umoo (JNUSL ). 
Mr Siira|h Mazumdar. and the Delhi 
Uoi^rsity Karamcham' Front kad 
cr, Mr Gopalduu. 

Ill tbe past. Ihey aid, NSUl 
Moadaisiis f»cd to be confined to 
fcocttigfti^, •ttctnpts to tcrronsf 
oppoocots dtafing cottage ^ 
voiity etecsiom, organbed tncmpu 
at cheathiA doling examinatiofis, and 
fnani^ulatiofis achnissi^r^^ 

fiom, Ae NSUI beu 'graduated* 
bcymid mere boobaanbiD aod be 
CDoe the "iiwmr « the rutog pan; 
lo curt) deiDOcratic processes on cam- 
pittcs aod ootsck. Last year, the 
M»iitioa kader, Mr V P Stogfi 
badbeea attacked by NSUl men on 
the camptts, mi this year, Mr Nain 
boodirnad. There bad been reports 
torn Boa^ that NSUI activists had 
ifieraocd two campuses tn their 
attend to teftorw members of Par 
iiiiDem who had it»gi>ed from Par 
iicni£<it fcoeody. 



'Seven lakh drug 
addicts in India' 

tddicis in India tnd ni^^y '^^Jfi.d ihc US polH^ on combat- 
250,000 addicu and Iran one lo nvo m an> relai.on^ip with aU.cs or 

million, the US Assisiani Secretan 
of Suic for Inicmaiional Narcoiics 
Maltcrs, Mr Mclvyn Levitsky. said 
Tuesday while ie$tif\ing before 
Che Hoii»e Select Comnutice on Drug 
AbuM and ConiroL 

He ^id counine^ where addiction 
might be leasi expected were report- 
ing growing problems of addiction - 
Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, the Philip- 
pines. Spain, Italy, Germany and 

friends. , 

In cooperating countries, including 
ThaUand. Singapore. Malaysia and 
Pakistan, he said, the United States 
was presiding training and equip^ 
mcnt to established institutions such 
as the local police. 

In Pakistan, Mr Lcvitsky taid. a 
promising pilot project was underlay 
to Kelp develop a H>ecial anti-narco- 
tics task force which could be adapt- 

pines, ^^din, iw), v/nii»o..j .w.** 

Britain each have moie than lOO.OOOi^able to other countnes « well 


Pakistan had almost no addicts 10 
years ago. Iran hac^ reported 100,000 
addicts in 1979 but no%* the problem 
is ver\ senous. 

rMr Leviisky aho noted that ihc 
Si^iets have also developed a 
''tremendous problem" stemming 
from t\fcu milnary occupation of 

"We have to err ate a kind of 
internatjonal ethic that says the 

When the Prime Minister, Mrs 
Benazir Bhutto, was here the United 
Slates agreed to assist in establishing 
a programme in Pakistan to ideniit> 
big drug traffickers i think Pakistan 
IS very senous about this/' he added 
Mr Leviuky said there has been an 
CJiplosion of opium growing in areas 
of the world where the United States 
had no diplomatic contact or means 
of control, includiiiE areas of Afgha- 
nistan. Laos and burma 

IKAMOUS AitroHjgw, PamJii 
fi,N. Shastri wiii foretell 
aocurvtafy about your irf«, on 
fmcMinea. Ps^nvlHies & 
fKKOSCOpt Contact for 

riidanc^ 8 AM to 12 A M , 
to 7 P.M. MMrad Lc<lginfi 
Boartlins. Boom No. 73. Opp 
Anjali T»14i»«s, 
Aur«no«t>ad (1446} 

Diarrhoea deaths 

VARANASl, Aug — jfMleen 
peiyple have died dianfi&ea and 
4pastro eni^ltisln Varanasi district 
during die oast two months, re- 

The Chirf Medical Officer, Dr J 
' N. <3upta.aaidinaralasethat634 
patsentB of gaatro enteritis and 
diarrhoea msw admittvd to the in- 
fiactious ditaraif hoff^ between 
June 1 ahd July 28 . Of them. 14 
died erf* diarrhoea and one from gas 
tro CBtavitis^ 

Dr OuptM said the district ad- 
ministration had taken various pre- 
'veniive meaaunes, in^uding chol- 
era innoculatim, provMing ciean 
Vater supply and deaning of 

UUTXRACY <• Women outnum- 
ber men ia Uiiterac\ in the countr\ 
India has 424,256,(klU Oliterates. of 
mhom 241,611,145 arc %komen. the 
Human Resource Devek>piTKnt 
Miaiaer. Mr P. Shn Shanker. lokl 
the Lok Sabha in a aniien answer 
Ufiar Pra(k J) tops the lisi of states m 
total number of iUiterates 
(Rl).756.753) It is folloi»ed bs Bihar 
«ith a total number of illiterates 


- 137 


Whose responsibility? 

Sewers overflowing 
in Yamuna Vihar 

txpnsn News Senkc 


Ahhough the sewerage tv'siem in 
Yamuna Vihar. a sprats ling East 
[>e}hj co)on\. has almost collapsed, 
neither the MCD nor DDA are 
«i)hng to f<ike respon^biltfv for it 

CorK)itii>n^ in the cok}ny were so 
bad. Hith u^erflouins ke«er^ and 
bkKked drams, that the MCD had 
refused to take over the co»on> at 
DDA'» reque^ earlier ihts >ear, at 
kasf until the monsoon over 

It was (K)l> at the personal in- 
tenention of the Lt-Govcrnor, Mr 
Romesh Bhandan, that the MCD 
took over Yamuna \'ihar'> sewerage 
s>'si''m, But It specified that if the 
s>stem collapsed, the corporauon 
could not he held responsible 

Residents of Yamuna Vihar feel 
!hat the> are in the same position as 
the resettlement cojonies last >ear 
with neither of the civic authorities 
being held accountable for the failure 
-of sewage facilines 

In the fortnight since the MCD 

took over, its staff has received ten or 
more comj^aints ever> day The 
assigned labour force of nine is find- 
tiig It bard to cope with the com- 

According to a resident, sewers 
amf drains had not been cleaned for 
months before the takeover. **Com' 
plaints to the local DDA office every 
day did not have an\ effect On 
Monday, after several complaints to 
the MCD. the main sewer was 
cleaned up with the help of 
machines", he said 

The drains remain just as bad. 
however ' The MCD staff posted 
here sa\ there is another department 
fo look after the drams, so they 
continue to be blocked «iih garbage, 
leaves and whate\*er else happens to 
fall in", he added 

With a bnef spell of light showers, 
conditions have become e\en more 
unhsgeinic. another resident said 
With standing water in the nullahs, 
the garbage is starting to decompose, 
she added. 

"The Li'Governor visited the col- 
ony again on Monday , But he did noi 
come to B Block where conditions 
are ifcorsi". she pointed out 

The MCD. which finaM> consented 
to the takeover on July \2. had said 
at the same time thai residents of the 
colony uere under great hardship, 
hut that the problemir could not be 
solsed immediaieU 

The Municipal tommissione had 
in fact suggested action agarnsi wo 
DDA employees on the grounds that 
the colony's drainage system was not 
up I m ^''k Of the 21) colonies 
takei. ovc/ ^rom-DDA by the MCD 
earlier this y#ar. it bad objected only 
to the transfer of Yamuna Vihaf. 

According to municipal ofiicials. 
DDA did not hase either the e^ip- 
m«nt or ti^e trained |>ersonnel to look 
after the sewerage of colonies like 
Yamuna Vihar The system had been 
baAty laid and properly mamtamed. 
mth the colo»es main sewer dam- 
aged in several places, they said 

The local MCD staff said the mam 
problem, apart from the trunk sewer, 
which had sunk in some places. «as 
the ttorktng of the pumps They did 
not work for kmg enough, resulting 
ui stagnation of sen-age m the pipes. 

Residents are afraid that^ith the 
sewage system paralysed in most 
pans of the colony, they will have to 
put up with pools of sullage once the 
rams start ui earnest As it is we are 
in a low lying area There is no p^acc 
for the water to go' . a resident said 

- 138 - 

Unburied carcass 

Express News Service 
Neti Defbi. Jaly 2d: Mr M 
HanuHfkniharao. CPM nnmbcr 
of the Rajya Sabha. is 72 years 
old He rose to express some 
disagreement with the Congress-I 
deputy leader in the Upper House 
N K P. Salve, in the course of 
arguments over the CAG report 
on Thursday 

Mr. Salve raised his vok« and 
called Mr. Hanumantharao an 
'*unburied carcass". And he repe- 
ated himself, calling Mr. Hanu- 
mantharao an 'unburied car- 

Mr Dipcn Ghosh. CPM leader, 
expressed stroivg objections to 
thi^ when the Rajya Sabha reas- 
sembled after one of the many 
adjournments of the day. He de- 
manded an apok>g;y. ar>d imisted 
that this shouW go on record. The 
I>cpiit> Speaker, Mrs. Najma 
Heptullah. said no abuse would 
go on record. There was no 

But the Deputy Speaker wa^ 
emphatic in pulling up Telugu 
Desam leader P Upendra. who 
referred to Mr Salve as a "bi» 
foon*'. Mr. Upendra defcndr ' 
himself 'it is not unparliame - 
tary to call a nwmbcr a CL-i 
agent, but it is unparliamentary to 
call someone a bufocm." he said 

Mr Dipen Ghosh asked: *'ls it 
unparliamentary to caJ] a bufoon a 

- 139 - 

Crimes by Orissa cops on the rise 

psc in nr>lio^ <*iicfrw4i' *^ •w^/* - . ^ • 

Zxprtm \cw Scnicc 

Nocwithsianding ihf daim'of the 
Chief Minister: Mr J B Patnaik thai 
4he cnmc roir in ihc itatc had rtg- 
Hicred a dechnc, ihc number of 
<nm«* in ^-hkh the police themselves 
lia^c been involved has show^ a 
sharp rise. While the Slate Home 
Department, pJeadv to having no 
separate figures, a cunorv glance ai' 
the neus reports over ihc last nine 
years te?l a macabre storv. 

ijnder hit Painaik V regime, 
.wflfcemen ha\e displayed a strange 
verstalify as far as their involvement 
m cnme goes, h ranges from murder 

in police custody to peny theft cases 
and rendering assistance to drug ped- 

The most dis<}oieting development 
has been the anitwde of the pc^ice to 
cnme Notre other than the Dir^or- 
General of Prtice in a statement to a 
Bomba> urekly. dedared that -rape 
is no manifcstatjoo of cnme". 

By the Chief Minister s own admis- 
sion, four rape cases were rcpttcttd 
ajWinst policemen between Marrh 
1985 and January J^7. The most 
sensational rape case by a policeman 
occurred in December 1988 A thana 
officer, was charged with raping a 
minor girl inside a Bhubaneswar 
police station ii was largelv due to 

the personal 4iittati\Y of the Bhu- 
baneswar SP. Mr S N Swain, who 
acted on the basis of a petition, that 
ihe truth was brought to light In an 
unprecedented move the Orissa High 
Court ciiiKelkd U» bail order of a 
lower coun taking the case suo moio 
While sexual abu^ still remafns a 
favourite pastime of the Orissa 
police, murder in pc^ice custody too 
IS not uncommon In 1987, SubaJ 
Poici (35) of Dimburguda viJJage in 
Udala btock of Mayurbhanj district 
was allegedly beaten to death b> a 
sub-inspeaor and two constables m 
custody When the enraged villagers 
fnobbed the police station an inquin 
commission was setup which imi»cfed 
Ihe three policemen. In anott^r case 

!• scavenger Kasia Nayak was rr^ 
ponedJy beaten tmitally in the cus- 
tody at the Purighat pcrfice station of 
Cunak Kasia died on the way to 
hospital Two police officers were 
sentenced to eight years rigorous 
imprisonment by the court. 

Althotu^ there b no organised 
crime in Orissa. the policemen have 
taken it upon themselves to fill the 
gap Allegations of proteetion rack- 
ets, extortion from pettv traders and 
villagers arc galore, in a sleepy httic 
hamJet of Serangc in Ganjam di^- 
tnct, the policemen of the local 

police station had cultj\8fcd the hdf>i 
of extorting mone> ai regular micr 
vaH from a tnbal famil\ When the 
poor famil) began to proiesi. ihe\ 
were subjected :o constant loriurs: 
and humiliation 

\\7iiie the louer ranking pohccmcn 
seem to specialise m peii\ cnmes a 
police officer of the state IPS cadre 
was recenil> charged with demanding 
and accepting do»r> from his in- 
laws His i^ifc was being harassed b\ 
him for not having, brought suffictcni 
dowry . The officer was placed under 

As recently as in Juh last, police- 
men belonging to a thana of Pun 
tOHu manhandled the family of a 
rulina pany ML A The policemen it 
was found, were drunk According lo 
the FIR filed bv Padma Lochan 
Panda, the Congrcss-I ML A the 
policemen also robbed his famiU of 
gold ornaments and cash 

Policemen are also not above peiiy 
stealings Recentl>. a case came to 
light where two policemen in Bhu 
baneswar were caught redhandcd b\ 
the public while stealing fish from 'a 
loaded truck The public admmiv- 
lered thejr own lushce before hand 
ing them over to their fcllou 


- 140 - 

Amazing findings on leprosy 

NEW DELHI, JuK 16 (PTI): lodtan 
tdeomts wbo aiialyied leprosy wo- 
itncc dau from four coaunents have 
come op with amaziflf findiogs tluf 
bnk the pftvakDce of leprosy with 
tmdergnm^d foistl fuel deposits. 

The eew studies by two bmcto- 
biolMisU it the Umvtnity Crfkge of 
Medtaoc nd Jadavpur Umvenity. 
Cricutu ibo sugest that s(m1 is the 
Bia)OT pathway (or the trwismi»oo erf 

The fckntists who presented their 
bKiings m the Utesi issue of the 
^lodiau Journal of Experimental Bkri- 
ogy/ expect their studies to throw 
new l^t oa the Gommunicability of 
the (hseas. 

Leprosy affects atxnit ten milboo 
pco^ woridwkic with several codC' 
^ irus ID Asia, Africa, Lann 
America aod the Middk East. India 
hn about four miiUoo leprosy pa- 

The analysis has shown that many 
of these areas where leprosy is |«va- 
lent m moderate or high endemiaty 

levek have rich reserves of fossl 

Ad analysts of the distributioo of 
fossil fiKb and kpmy endemk areas 
ID Iw^, wcciaBjr along the east 
coast, reveak a high itgrec of cor- 
relation, aoocmfcng to the scientists. 
Dr. A,N. Cbakraharty and Dr. S.G. 

Leprosy causti!^ bacteria are known 

tt> be ca|3«Me (rf chgesting fossxl fueb 
«nd the c^ganisms thrive in under* 
gitmnd deposits bef s^pages troig 
them to the surface soil for mibse- 
quent transmission to humans. 

The smJ-to-human theory fw 4cp- 
roiy infectfofl wouk) abo espL'^ uk 
jwsence <rf leprosy lewons on vhe feet 

of peofAc who routinely #ork or 
focky sites, the scientists aid. 

''This ts certainly not ^/hai is* be- 
lieved today", Dr J S Pasricha, a 
leoKH dermatcriogtst at ihe All India 
Institute (rf Medica] Scicnoes here sakl 
commenting oo the new hypotbesb. 

Oment o^dkal theories hold that 
leprosy is transmitted only by human 

coetaci maiiJy through nasal sccrc- 
tions, spittings nd skin oooditiom. 

The new vialysb has shown that m 
focal poims erf leprosy cndemkity in 
the USA Cwada and the USSR local 
cases are chelated with fossil fuel 

Several hundred cases in the USA 
have Misen in the absence of any 
tangibte infections frcnn humans, btxt 
have occurred in rcgiras with sigtufi- 
cant deposits of fossil fueb, the re- 
searcfaen wd. 

The scientists, however, takJ de- 
spite widwpread soil-borne infec- 
5ms, the actual manifestatioD of the 
dbease depends on other factors bke 
tt, immunity of the infected person 
and the duration <rf the csposure. 

AcGorthng to the reiearcbefs, f^^c- 
tkes like foroed segregatim and 
ciosterittg of leprosy patknU and on 
laoguiiyty ammg them heto maintain 
s genetk susceptiMity to the dsease. 

In India, this has h4ppened in 
Amfiffa Pradesh. TMnil Nadu and 
Kmla, the scientists smd. 

The two microbiolofists beltevc 
that the new \hcoty could abo explain 
the genests of te(»t>sy in human 
popubtkms. Althotigh (he disease has 
been around for centune*, its origin in 
humans has remained iaiwcly unex- 

The researchers say that the disease 
emerged in humans dring the eariy 
era erf dvihsation when extensive land 
cultivation led to kMig exposures to 
the soil and povided a route for 
fc»]'to-humao mfects<ms. 

Th<- (framatic disappearance of lep- 
Tx»y from Europe around the 16ih 
century roi^y coincides with the 
nKlustrial revolution followed by a 
diifi of (Manila tK>n from agriculture to 

At a ^obal level tt is estimated that 
rixMit two-thirds of leprosy cases arise 
without any h^c^ of contact, the 
ic^tists said. 

"The weight of all this evidcnc ts . 
too great and compelling" to think 
that there are more variables than 
contact atone, tbev said. 


- 141 - 


Some way to cure! 

THE death of 19 neu-born babies at the Calcutta-Medic.i! 
College Hospiial last week has onc^ again cxp<^sed the 
shocjcing state of negligence, maladminisiraiion and callous- 
ness that prevails in our pub"ic hospitals The babies" deaths 
were trargically unnecessarv - ihev died not for uani ot 
sophisticated equipment nor because of conj!cniial disease 
but because of criminal carelessness and apathv: they were 
kfUed bv infections contracted in a filthv ward, where even 
the basic minimum rules of h)gience were not obsened. 

The scenario is 3 familiar one - two patients forced to 
share one bed; others tying on diny sheets on fltxirs that ha\e 
not been swabbed for days: unsterilised instruments and 
towels, and operation theatres infected with tetanus spores 
T\ic Calcutta tragedv. fh fact, is but the latest in a long 
catalogue of horror s.tories from publicliospitals all over the 
covintry - healthy limbs amputated "bv mistake' , live 
piiients dumped in the morgue, surgical instruments lef< in 
p^iicnts' bodies, stray dogs and cats mauling infants in public 
wards. Added to all this is the sordid nexus between health 
authorities, politicians and manufacturers of spurious and 
substandard drugs, which was exposed by Justice Lentin 
aft^r 14 patients died in 1986 at Bombay's J.J. Hospital, 
where they were given contaminated glycerol. Of course. rf)e 
V|P patients in public hospitals - politicians and bureaucrats 
- have never experienced the appalling conditions in the 
public wards Is it an\ wonder, then, that if from time to time 
a few poor patients die as a result of official callousness and 
n<;glert the f.»r\crnj1ient isn't bothered enough to undertake 
thy. kind of d astii revamping of the public health svstem. 
which might prevent such tragedies from occurring again and 


Tkx explanation offered by 
the Superintendent of Cal- 
cutta Medical College and 
Hospital for the death of 19 
newborn babies only ex- 
poses the criminal callous- 
ness of our so-called health 
system. Not for a moment 
will anyone be persuaded 
that the deaths in the 
CMCH's maternity ward 
were '^naturaT*, as claimed. 
Reports of babies being 
eaten up by dogs, and other 
equally horrendous events, 
have so far been confined to 
hospitals in the districts, but 
it would now appear that 
West Bengal's city Hospitals, 
run by the Left rront Gov- 
CTTiment and supervised by a 
Ministtf who boasts of hav- 
ing rooted out corruption 
from the l^th a&vices, are 
just as appalling. Even while 
officials were trying to exp- 
lain away tte deaths, jtmior 
doctors and nurses came up 
with not so startling evidence 
of overcrowding in the 
mat^Tiity ward, shortage of 
nursing staff and the absence 
of hviSienic conditions. 

The deaths are bound to 
create panic among expec- 
tant women, but not being 
able to afford the luxury or 

Erivate nursing homes they 
ave no choice tmX to accept 
prevailing oonditioiia. Not 

only is this a disgrace for a 
State Government that 
claims to have provided free 
bealth service for mothers 
and children, but also again | 
underlines the shocking de-, 
terioration of West Bengal s 
hospitals which were once 
among country's best WhJe 
senior doctors and hospitaj 
administrative staff continue 
to get away with negligence 
because of Left Front patron- 
age and. in some cases « be^ 
cause or their public image, 
Junior doctors appear to be 
more interested m fighting 
for their own privileges than 
for the cause of the sick and 
the dying. Add to this the 
Government's total lack of 
regard for human life, a fact 
which has been confirmed 
time and again. If the Food 
Minister found it surprising 
that such a ftiss should be 
made over the Behala 
rapeseed oil tragedy* it is 
now the Health Minister s 
turn to sit back and let his 
minions claim that there is 
nothing wrong with the 
health services^ A few lives 
sacrificed at the alter of ofT)- 
cial apathy and r>eglect are 
unlikely to galvanize the 
Government into actJon.Left 
Front or no left front, human 
life is too cheap a commoditv 
in this country for anyone to 
be bothered about it. 

- 142 - 




Prasanta Sur 
at hospital 

By • Staff Beportcr 

tKt Weft Bengal Health lfinl«- wtth tilt poBet 9rmgmm%U. Be 
ter, Mr PnMnta Sur. fiiced m nid be wcmld Mom the Police 
angry d«n<mstnitim ln«Uk tiie Ccttmis^oner the! the arrmnfe- 
Eden Horotta] preMaei ot Cat- ncntt «m a notal fkaure**. He 
cutta MecJcal College cm Friday, kxrit the pcdtoemen present to task 
When the BGnister went to the sec- fbr imH having teou^t over w«> 
end floor of the bosfritsd building mm conttabics. 
to inaugurate the new wing of the In a menKMVidum eu hm ltted to 
nuraery in the afternoon, he wmi the Superintendent vt the l^tap^tal 
mobbed by a group of women the MahJOia Congre&ad) demanded 
aupporlencrftheCmgreasdX who that the Mthmbca puniab those 
ahouted fuch ilogana as **Oo back mponoible fbr the ocaths of the 
tetett-kiUer .DrNinnallt^i^iewl* babka and that the mcrtheri who 
cr of the medical eefl of the Chhat^ had loat their children be given 
ra Pariahad, and alx women Con- adequate compcnaatkm. It was 
areisO) suppoft^v, were wrerted laamt that inttiaQy the Congreasd) 
mm the spot Meanwhile, the cd- aupporten had no plan to d^ons- 
lige authorities claimed that there tnte befbre the Minister and would 
were no fttrtho' infknt deaths dur* have dispcrwd after submitting 
tog the day^ their memora ndum to the Superin- 

As soon as Mr Sur tfrived attiie tende . But they changed their 

spot around 4 pjn., he was in- pogrsmme whm the latter **rt- 
Ibrmed thai a group cfMahOaCm- msed to meet thcm^. 
fressd) activists and Dr Nlrmal iaier, talking to rtp(»t&« at Wri- 
Mali had gathered on the aecmd ten' Buildino, tiie Minister was 
floor. Mr Sur. aocompanied bv the crltlca] of the Lady I>ufl<erin Hospi' 
Director. Medical Educatioo, IL fal authofttSea» fl^aciaUy the 
K. Bliattacharya. and the Supcrir- Anwrintendeott who does not re^ 
tendmt of the Medical Cc^lMe, I>f fade in his Quarter. He admitted 
RM.Chattajee. entered the hcmi- that the tftitude of ttie hospital au* 
tal building Imn^ately, thorltioi might have discouraged 

cemanded that Dr Mj|^ who was oatiants from takiM admission 
a noutakScr and had no business to flicre. Mr Sur directed the IHrector 
remain on the aecond floor, be ci Health Services during the dov 
arrefte€L Police took away Dr Miti to pay dolhr vMts to that hospital 
but Mr Sur h^ to &ce a very vocal as wall as the Abtnadi Dutta Hm- 
«roup 9f Mahila d^^maO) pHal and the Indira Matrteadan, to 
supporters who dkf net let him en- «nsui« thi^ ff'opm mangements 
tar the new nursery Ibr i^out 19 wire made m pregn«st wiMnen 
mfaiutea. asid new-bora bauca. The Minister 

tlw Minister aomdiow managed mUi ttiat if ftilly utOiaed. thm 
to get ptft the angry woman and tfarea hoapitals had the capa c i t y to 
inaugurated the new nuraen^. After niccttheniAofpalienta 
inspecting the nursery, he UM ra^ Maanwhfla, the load of patients 
porim &iit the additional cots at Calcutta MedtesS C^c«e Hoapi- 
would be used Ite* patknts with tal was substantially rediicod* with 
aeptic ^ other a^lous pttAim^ only M beds occujM out of a 
which raquined iaolatkm. Ke saki c apa c i ty of lOd During the dsy. a 
that a meeting would be hrid at new Pkofeas^Director assumed 
CdenHospitallater. where the doc- irfBee at Eden HospHaL This post 
ton would decide how beat this had been lying vacant for aome 
bursery could be utOixad. iime and it was a rouUM ^^wint- 

Mr Sur was sjctremely angry mcnt a spokesman Ibr me au- 

thoritiea aafal 


- 143 - 


dying in 

By A Staff Reporter 

DESPflE the efforts of hoi^vv^l 
authorities newborn beb^e-^ hre 
stUI d>ing St the OJcutu MeviicaJ 
College Hospital, ihough the mor- 
tality rate has fallea With tJ^e denth 
of cwo more babies on Tuej^Jay 
mght and Wednesday momin^; the 
toll has rlaen to lli. Unofficial sour- 
ces, howev»^. put the toll at 21, 

Some doctors, agitated over the 
Infhnt deaths and the indifference 
of the authorities, pointed out *Jr.: 
even after four da>i Uie Darser>- 
wjM neither \'»cated nor furr^gL «rd 
The desLhs would continue unless 
^ nursery was properly dism- 
fccted. they siii. 

The hospital authoriucs re- 
athcted admission to the mat/^miiy 
ward and shifted about 110 
tienls to the three maternity hc^pi- 
tals of the city as was declart^j bv 
^ West Bengal Health Minijner. 
Mr Prasanta Sur, cwi Tuesday Moi e 
than 300 nw mattresses uxre pro- 
vided to the maternity *:'ard dining 
W» dBv removing the old ot.t& 
Several patients wene also gn en 
mattresses on the Coor. No two pa- 
tient*, claimod a senior hoflpiial k.U 
DciaL were sharing the «a-T*e bed 
now. Attention was beirif psid to 
c]eanlii>e8S of the wards. Sor-.-» 
doctors stated that the inf&r;^ 
with mothen lodged on the floor, 
m a higher risk of contarwiaoon 
and otMS-infection because of be- 
togin proximity to the ground 

The exodus of motherv with their 
newt>om babies fh>m the hospiul 
cmtinued emi on Wedn^sdsv 
f-any ot the mothers who left the 
hospital durirxg the day com- 
^^ned that they wm being »sked 
by the doctors to leave within a few 
how of delhflery- No one, except 
those in critical condition, was {p^ 
tng allowed by the authoritie$ w 
stay long at the hospital after de- 

Members of the Association for 
Ph>tecti<m of I>emocratic ILghu 
«T>««*«d shock at the death of in- 
fcnto ^ the ho^taL They de- 
in*"dad a ^udicia] inquiry inu> the 
inatt^ and punitive measuref 
agaii^ those responsible, In s 
statemeot during the day they d*^ 
inand^ eShipensation to the 
aiSWted ikmihes. 

Dr Ninna] M^i, Convener of the 
West Bengal Junk)r Doctors' Fed- 
wati«t demanded the nsaijpiatjon 
or Mr Sur- He n^entioned that the 
Heahh Minister of Maharashtra 
had resigned to 1985 owning moral 
wpwiaibdlitjr for the dMth of U 
babies at J. J Hosprtal in Bombay 

Govt apathetic to child deaths 

HT CcHTespomtont 

CaCLUTTA. Aug 2 
As the 26(h child died due to hos|Mf < 
ai squalor in Calcutta on Tt^sday. 
West Bengal Heahh Miotster Prasanta 
Sur told 8 Doordarshan imerviewer, 
-what can 1 do before I get the cxpen 
committee's report on the mfants' 

The Minister, a front-ranktng Mam- 
ist. looked supremely unconccrDcd 
over the unprecedented toil His 
words did. in fact, convey the ijnpreis- 
ion that he was more of a stickler f(K 
bureaucratic procedure than atiythtng 
else The interview, while proving 
largely sordid for the man's astounding 
feat of wooden-heaikdness, provicted 
a Ughter m<Hnent when at <mk breath 
he claimed that under his tenure the 
Government hospitals had become re- 
Uuvely better ("they arc cleaner 
now") and at the next he riled at the 
hospital employees for not being 
attentive to their jot>s. 

Not surprisingly, the overwhelming 
impression the Minister managed to 
convey was hts chagrin s,i the media for 
having overblouii a relatively nunor 
matter, t^e 26 infants' deaths due to 
negligence, squalor, infection, and 
above all asphyxation The series of 
deaths forced the Premier Govern- 
ment hospital. Calcutta Medical Col 

lege and Hospital (CMCH), to set up 
an air-coodstioncd nursery. 

As the 26 infants (^d within a few 
days of their births, the deplorable 
conditions of the Government ho^i- 
ab cMmc mcc more to the fore One 
cannot do better than quote xhe Health 
Servke Association of the Govem- 
fltmit doctors, the very people en- 
trusted with the running of the Gov- 
enmicnt bospitals 

The Association says that the 
Health Department has not been able 
to ensure even tf^ minimum scientific 
standards in the hospitals and pfo- 
ceeds to give the shocking news that 
there is no separate enclosure for skrk 
batnes in t)^ hos{»tals As a result, the 
infants being bom in the hospitals are 
being constantly exposed to unsteril- 
ised dothing Even disposable syring* 
es are being re-toed. The nurseries are 
uiMler the care of untrained nurses and 
the apparatus are i^>solete Often two 
pregnant mothers share one bed 

That the allegations are true have 
already been established by the steps 
the depanment has initiated A sepa- 
rate enclosure is being set up for sick 
Habies, the apparatus arc being 

changed anu trained nurses are to re- 
place the untrained ones shorti> 

The doctors draw attrnticm to the 
fact that the Health Minister wore 
shoes while visiting the air-iondition 
nursery at the CMCH on Jul> 2H after 
inaugurating it "Even if he were 
Ignorant of this basic rule of hygiene . . " 
they say. "somebody should have fold 
him to remove his shoes before enter- 
ing the nursery . But nobody did, sym 
bolising the apathy of the auiho.Mics 
towards health in genera! and child 
care in particular " 

While the 154 year-old CMCH or 
any other Government hospital in Cal 
aitta never witnessed so many infant 
(kaths in such a short time. 26 deaths 
in 10 days, the Government and the 
CPI-M, the main niUng part>. con 
tinuc to treat theni as nothing standa 
lous and certainly f>ot something one 
should get excited about "Ganashak 
ti". the CHI M dail>. has treated the 
matter in an "appropnate" manner 
and Chief Minister Jyon Blasu. who is 
apt to Comment on subjects all and 
sundry, has not touched on the deaths 
so far. 

- - if:.{ 

'TV did more harm 
than British' 

N Bhaskara Rao, Chainnan, Opera- 
tion Rwcarch Group, Delhi, today 
$trc*$ed the need for reshaping the 
content, schedule and operation of 

It was high time the people laun- 
ched a movement to ensure that a 
moderating force emerged to ensure 
this objective, Mr Rao said at a 
Meet the-Press programme 

He said what the British could not 
do in 150 years. Doordar&han has 
done in 30 years' in lowering the value 
sysiem of ttw society. 

Unless the viewer* checked the all 
pervading distuftHng trends' in Door- 
darshan. the vaJue sysiem and qualit) 
of life would be badly affected and the 
firet casually will be the oexi genera 

Dr Rao said television shcnild be 
'responsive and partiapatory* with 
nK>re channek to cnsourage local 
talent and culture without imposing 
metropolitan cuHume oo the viewers 

Mr Rao said All India Radio was 
the worst victim of television after the 
pint media TV had affected the 
advertisement revenue of the print 
media apart from readership, particu- 
larly of the magazines. 


OfHcial status for 
Urdu sought 

r.' ^ANVADI lirilrhakh Sangh, mi trOTriatton ccHt in Govemibert 

I dominanlfy <rf Hindi writm. catkm fbnna nd namas of 
, fumed a new leaf oo Monday In ftreefs nd iHii atopa, to Urdu 

New Delhi in the history oi fbug* and tiie arrangementa for Urdu 
r gle for justice for Urdu by linking it medium iribcoote in areas wtth a siz- 
* with the struggle for de]no9rBtiQ Me Urdu popuhittoa 

fiigbts «k1 by t^dng kiitiatlva in Prof O. P. Orewal, secivtary^ 
. ^I^orting the demand of maidng JLS» ouOined tte wtatf steps ta- 
f Urdu tttt aecrad olBcia] bmguagv ken few the ftrgmffftfA" to this r^ 

to gard. Ilie organixatioD passed a re- 

scdut^oa ai4^>orting the demand' 

Speaker after speaker highlight. 
; ed the immediate implem^taSon ^ ^f!f.r^^!^^r 

t ofthepiomisemadeintheelectian ^L?f, 
): maaiftsto of the mUng party giv. Urdu along with iU distinct script. 

i ing crfBdal statu! to Urdu- They ••v,^ 

were addt^ssing a special noting ^ Cbsnchal Chauhn Ddhi 

ico v roed by the JLS for pressing Univwai^ stressed the nee^ fw 

for impeScmentatkm. waging the battte of Unbi by thej 

A : Hindi writ&a. fbs- this will also) 

• , . - , ' strengthen Hindi Bod strt^^tiTP the^ 

« *J? democratic tradlttons. Be also gavej 

' . 5^ ^rX^ ^ ««*y Unlu OHiventians in{ 

t • ^!f^-I!5?J! Li«*now, Bahiaicfa and Bombi^ 

V denWof^democra and proposes to hold another con- 

J the linguistic mmoritML vwtiosi in PWna to late August A 

. ^ memorandum of Hindi writers on 

] Die declaration of secodd official, Urdu bearing more than 100 sig- 
I lai4[uage status for Urdu to UJ». natures wfH be presented soon to 
. > would only mean proper arrange^ ^ President the Prime Minister 
' roept for Urdu teaching at the and the UP. Chief Minister. 
J primary and seeondary schools in Moreov«',tise JLSalso|HiH>Mesto 
^ • the entire State and provislcm for hcOd s emvwtkm Vrda writers 

to DeBd in October. 
1 Dr Javrtoial Pardch ef Indira 
rCandhl University traced the ^ 
, mioiment ctf Hindi ami Urdu rda- 
Itionship Bid streaaed tiiat aD Himii 
&ngions are alao Urdu regiOQa. Both 

like twim which wei^ 
In inflmcy but^4tevek^»ed accord- 
Stog to their own temper «id be* 
a6mie different EMh their simHari* 
l|y and ccMnmonMss and their dis- 
|toHrtness and identity should be 




come easy in the 
s^ild free-for-all 
ihat city traffic has 
become Ho^ dc 

Siu e%en begin to lame zipping 
artiiis. lawless autorick^aus. 
murderous DTC buses and pre 
carioush overloaded truck^^ 
T\T>icaH) . wthovcrzealous leg 
tsiation. that seeks in one 
sledge-hammer blow to curb ex- 
cesKs permitted for man> de- 

The response has been equal 
ly niMcaL People are gnping 
curstnfi and bribing But thc> 
air dnving a little better even if 
ft I* only at mam traffic points 
The new Motor Vehicles Aci 
has come mto effect and has 
promptly given people, some- 
thmc to talk about other than a 
rainless monsoon. 

Ujwal Thakur. a law student, 
has oeen riding his motorcycle 
for ten years on Delhi's roads 
without a liceiKe. "Now I don ! 
go on the main roads at all " he 
says "Evers cop. e%cn home 
guards took like traffic cops to 
me. 1 nevci cross the stop Jme 
now whereas before I used to 
jump every red light >^'ho 
wants to be challaned Rs li>OU 
or 2000''" He adds with a gnn. 
:-My bike automatkalh stops 
metres befotf the stop line as if 
there is a chasm beyond it 1 
have to get my licence made 

Sanjeev Jam, a Yusuf Sarai 
shopkeeper has already felt the 
sobering impact of the new 
rules. "Four of us were return- 
ing from a pany and I was 
speeding We were stopped b\ 
a cop and chalianed. and fmed 
Rs. 1000. We did fry to bribe 
the cop but he wasn't corrupt 
We pooled what we had and 
paid up." 

But has it sobered him for 
good'' Of course not Wildness 
on the roads is congenital to 
Delhi's citizenry, it would 
5^m He adds. "To say thai I 
have stopped speeding 
wouldn't be coiTCct I have 
stof^d speeding in dangerous 
spots, spots where coos gener- 
ally are ground but otherwise 1 
still drive as 1 used to." 

A sub inMjector who did not 
want to be identified says that 
persons who used to drive care- 
mlly are ikjw more careful. 
Tho4e who were rash are still 
so. •'Only at the major cros- 
sings are drivers more law abid- 
ing and cartJ::! " 

The major deterrent seems 
to be the hefty fiiles. But they 
dco't always work as a deter- 
rent, in many cases <hey are 
just pushing up the tevel of 
Dribcs cmtomarily expected by 
the jrafftc police. Says Niiin 
S^bdeva a maLer of Motor 
''Chide parts ''Nobody » going 
o be aWe to pay Rs lOOD on 

Taming Delhi 


People are 
chafing at the 
tough measures 
introduced b\ 
the new Motor 
Vehicles Act and 

trying to find 
ways around it. 
But a few are 
driving better. 
Interviews bv 


the spot So the> ^iH impoumJ 
the registration papers of the 
vehicle But who cares about 
that'^ You can easilv get your 
registrati'^n book released by 
paying a bnbc at the transport 
authoniv I was challaned Rs. 
1000 for nigh speed driving 
What I did was to talk it out 
with the cop and bribe hint 1 
paid him Rs 150 and he let off. 
So what's the use of this Act^ 
Earlier I would have had to pay 
Rs 50 or Rs 100 " 
The popular, cynical view is 



there It will remain just as it 

But the sub-inspector diffcrs- 
He thinks the Act docs open up 
opporuniiies for corruption 
■ because anybody will be ready 
to pay Rs. 100 to 200 m order to 
get out of paying Rs. 500 or 
FU. 1000." 

It would seem that the police 
can also be persuaded for a 

i don't think corruption will increase 
because of this Act. Corrupt personnel 
have always been there and triW 
continue to be there. It will remain just 
as it wass^' 

S. B. DeoL DCP TrafTic 

that peny corruption will in- 
crease siwx nobody will want 
to pay the enhanced fines. But 
Demi's Dcputv Commissioner 
of Police. Traffic. Mr S B 
Deol, does not think so. He 
thinks that the steep fines will 
have a psychological impact on 
ibe publK and takes the cheer- 
ful view that corruption will 
stay at the same level, 'i don't 
think corrupticMi will iJKfrease 
because of this Act Corrupt 
personnel have ^ways been 
there ami will continue to be 

consideration to register cases 
for an offctKe which carries a 
lower fine than the offciKC 
actua% committed. The figures 
for the first 15 days of July, 
when compared to those of 
similar perKXk in other months 
erf this year show that the num- 
ber of v}<riations has not come 
<k)wn rfiarply but nor have the 
fines reahscd inacascd tub- 
ftancially. as they should have if 
tl« cf^hanced fines 

were being h^ied 
ThiJ is pari:y 

trates are letting off people 
with much smaller sums when 
the cases arc going to couri 
Says a young man who did not 
want to be named /'The police 
have become very stnct indeed 
Our car has a VVIP registration 
number but still it. was chal- 
laned Rs^ 1000 for crossing the 
yellow line. My father who was 
dnving said he would pay up m 
court. But once it goes to court 
first it takes a lot of time for 
your hearing date and secondly 
you get off easily espenall) yi 
you know the right people You 
can be sure that you will have 
to pay a maximum" of arou ^d 
Rs. 200 to Rs. 250/^ 

Traffic iules apart, the Act is 
an ambitknis one which also 
seeks to tame a number of 
errant sectors . Predict abl > 
they are all screaming The 
motor driving schools are on 
strike, autorkrkshaws and taxis 
went on a day*s token strike in 
Delhi, scooter dealers are in- 
censed because they are re- 
quired to enftjre that there are 
indicators on the scooters they 1 
sell. I 

Earlier, aenmg a leader's 
liceiKe used to be euy as pie 
You just walked in, paid Rs 10 
and got one Now it takes much 
k>nger< requires a nodical cer- 
tificate. f^(^ra|^, and test- 
ing of the a|^:4)cant's know- 
tedge of roaJ signs. 

- 147 - 

Sioct the Act speafics that 
permanent driving licences will 
oni> be made through motor 
driving schooh. it ought to be 
good tor their business. But the 
driving schools are not exactly 
thrilled S^y% Surinder Singh, 
owner of the Johar Motor Dnv- 
infi Schoo) m Gautam Nagai. 
"We don't fee! this Act is good 
for our business We used to 
get around 20 learner's licences 
made every day Since this Act 
has craie into force we have 
made just five in 20 days. This 
seems like an election stunt. 
Touts are being cut off, but oil 

If Mukcsh Bhardwaj's. a 
iaks eiecutive in a G>nnau^f 
Place firm, experience is any 
guide thev are siiU around, and 
nave douMed tbetr rates. 'Two 
months ago tbe tout I 
approached asked for Rs. 200 
for making mv permanent h- 
cence. Since the imptementa- 
tion of the Act be h&s hiked hh 
iees to .Rs. 400. Too much 
du}$er no»r he says. Bbard- 


wa] has alrewiy flunked tbe test 
for ro^ signs But be managed 
to get his lean>er*s licence after 
paying Rs. 30 to a doctor and 
Ks. 25 to a tout He says he 
forked cmt a total of Rs. 90 
compared to Rs. IC earlier. 

Meanwhile another strong 
traffic tobby. autoricksbaw and 
taxi drivers, are wailmg that the 

a passenger, the mandatory fit- 
ness d^ck for their vehicles 
every six month: and the ex- 
orbiiarit fines few traffic off- 
ences Protests Ran^sh Ahuja, 
President of the Three Wheel- 
er, Autorickshaw. Tempo and 
Taxi Union, "Which auto driv- 
er can pay up Rs. 1000? Tbe 
Act h atrodcHts on tt^ poor. 

^^Before I used to jump every red light. 
Who wants to be challaned Rs 1000 or 
2000? My hike automatically stops 
metres before the stop line as if there is 


a chiism beyond ii.^ 

Ujwal Thakur^ a law atudeni 

new Act will have them all 
starving. They arc protesting 
the increase in tbe ntoess fee 
from Rs 5 to Rs 100, die Rs 
50 penalty for refusing to carry 

the insurance fees have 
rocketed from Rs. 120 to Rs. 
340. and they have even drae 
away with third party yii^ir- 
ance."" • 

Auto and taxi dnvers also 
protest that the re-test required 
causes them mdefmitc Joi^ of 
livelihood Sa\s Ahuja. "Ear- 
lier we just had to submit an 
FIR and we used to be issued a 
duplicate licence Nou we have 
to take the test again, get clear- 
ance and all other formalities, 
give bribes, and ever then it 
takes more than a month \V hat 
does ttie driver eat for a 

Kamail Singh, a DLV driver 
mourns that if the> even so 
much as touch the stop line 
they are challaned. "I earn Rs 
900 a month. I cannot pav a 
challan of Rs 1000 or Rs 5(X^ 
ami still have money to eat " 
But even he thinks that the 
crackdown on issuing of li- 
cences is a good step "It was 
reallv getting pathetic, the 
number of novices dnvinc on 
the roads. -At least onl> those 
who can drive well will be 
issued licences now " 

Kulwant Singh, a three- 
wheeler driver says he doesn't 
see how he can avoid being 
chaiianed at least once a 
jnonth. He says he is senousi) 
thmking of quittiae being self- 
employed and seeding a dn\- 
er*s job with a company. 

The flew Motor 5^hicles Act 
has also made if mandator) for 
scooters to have indicators But 
Baiaj for instance does nOi put 
indicators on its scooters. And 
the transport authority is no 
longer registering scooters 
which do not have it>d)cators on 
them. What you have then ts 
scooter dealers who are climb- 
ing walls 

Rajan Malik who has a deal 
ership in Karol Bagh. splutters 
that piis move on the pan of 
the authorities is really stupid 
•*We. can't go about drilling 
holes in the chassis of al! the 
scooters! The customers won t 
buy them But the Act says the 
inaicators Have to be mbuilt 
How can they be inbuilt when 
the company makes no provi- 
sion for the attachment of in- 

He cannot see that in pnnci- 
ple, it makes better road sense 
lor all vehicles to have indica- 
tors. This pan of tbe Act must 
be retracted at race, he says. In 
the first month of its impie- 
mentatiofi, at tbe first taste of 
<focipline, the Act has a whole 
host of loMnes icf earning for its 

-148- ir.s 


With scorpions 
yet again! 

Express News Service 

The 37-year-old snakeman, Parth- 
asarathy, m his attempt to make a 
rc-^ntr> of his name in the Guinness 
Book of World Records, on Saturday 
rolled up and down the 850 steps of 
the famous Manidamalai hil] near 
here with about 30 deadly Mack 
scorpions all over his body 

watched by a stunned audience, 
Panhasarathy, wearing a banian and 
spons shorts, let the scorpions inside 
his banian and Tolled up the steps lo 
reach the top of the hilJ, which has 
housed the shhne of Lord Muruga. m 
.a little less than three and a half 
hours. Within a feu minutes of 
reaching the top, Partbasarathy rol- 
led down a^n wi Ji the deadly crea- 
tures on his body and reached the 
bottom to complete his ordeal and 
this time he took only one and a half 
hour^ to roll down the 850 steps, 
uhng the venture he was bitten 30 
times by the scorpions and every time 
a scorpion bit t he chewed a few 
peppers to countrr the poison of the 
scoipions. As he had to roll on the 
steps made of rock which were un- 
even braving the hot sun. He suffered 
36 bruises. 

All the scorpion* came ourahve at 
the end of the ordeal. The feat was 
inaugurated by Mr V. Mylswamt, 
president of the Coimbatore District 
Amateur Athletic Association 

It may be recalled that Partbasar- 
athy recent I V sw allowed 50 grammes 
of raM chilly powder in three nu- 
nuies* time in Coimbatore. 

I r.y, 

- 149 - 

Tuskers strike terrorism in Ranchi 

The Hioes of India N*wf Serrk* 
^ KARA (Fanchi), JiUy 19. 

▲ S dusk descends on Jurdag 
' Avillage, all eyes are riveted on 
» ptotofjwi^. 200 metres 10 the 
■sfxxL The sense of apprehension 
is almost palpable. WiU thry or 
win they not visit the vilteg 
amin. people speculate in hushed 

And then, cwried by the breett, 
HxWJes the feint wood of tn 
truHipeiii^ fr«n a dutanot. A colteo. 

*tivt of idief nse$ mm the 
nthering. Tonight the vilisjm ^ 
:5eep in peace. Tbt trumpet 1»» 
ibehxd ascertain the po«ti<«> of the 
dTSSw* elephant h«d. It is attje 
opposite end and H> an i»nb- 
.^Kbiy visit ooJy Jahenda vtUage to 

IVfetf of the ftsidenii of Juidag 
4« understandable, fofjrimootyk^ 
.^yt MO thai the herd had waftfd 
into Se viUtgc arotmd m*dn»|ht 
Venna Suansi. whose hooie tayfi^ 
■in the eM«aatt' paih, di^o 
Cv»d^Sd to d«A. Hi. bo^ 
IuhJ to be UtaaUy soaped out ot the 


tti) houses, dwir^rws 
«tUog grain and jackSiut, bdo« 
ctoiSlM another vicum. Maiy Sunn 

^deohants remained m the village mi 
T«Smd 4 before retreating to the 

With these deaths, the nurobw of 
peopk kiDed by the h«d m tte Kan 
CodT-- under which Jontag fliUs — 
sod the Lapung bkxfc in Oumla 
district has gone uP » t«L^ 

•nt held, ojkinaay »6-<OW»5™: 
cJudiM three calves has bew intB^ 
two bkida wwe Jane 25. But fcr the 
past one week they have divided into 
two groups, the laigef comprising 12 
foamiM about the vidnity of Jurd^ 
Accof^ 10 the DPD (eastMhe 
division was caused by the advwoed 
«uae of preniaocy d toe of i^ 
^lUktes wfa^ tod skiwed down the 

infonmd tlic TiiMf of Ipto News 
ScTW that the fcmric deh vard on 
July 14. The ftatA omcuU, iKWtvci, 

The onginal w»tal of tlie wtl 
w» tbe Hiftiit it^^ in SiitthMiifm 
dsstiict It kft the jim^ SqH«ro- 
ber 19S8, for rcMsom till mn known. 
TiiveniflS Oumla (^strict, it entered 
Madhya Prictesh, «i!y to irtwro to 
Gtmila diiinct and to irtnct again to 
Madbyi Piadcth. Thif to and flt> 
im)veiiient went oo eigbt long 
months, befoit it ftarlcd hi retuni 
motion in Aiml this year. 

The herd was 6rrt seen in tbe 
Lading block on June 21 &noe then, 
it has been movi]4 in a mtftbosterty 
diftctkm, afiectistt en rmitc tte vil- 
lages of Hulsu, S^natoli« Karan- 
jtoli, Duipvt^ Mttrichkd, Nagda, 
Tittda, Dcbkel Kassiia, Latha, 
Asalaromadi and Jufdag. 

According to fcMi officials, tbe 
bcfd is not ^ggresnve, and most of 
the kitiings oocurred wfmi it Ml that 
the calves wm heina timatened, 
accoidtf^ to villagers, the hnd enters 
the villaies ufler mnset 

Thereafter, tlw nKNlns c^veraiKli is 
fcr tbe ekten to either knock down 
doon CH- walte d'the botnes makii^ 
room enough ftw the calves to enter 
and drag out bags of grain and other 
eatabtes. It is imtally wh^ the min- 
im air tate in cmitfv out of a house 
that the efafers turn aggre^ve and 
seek human lives* 

Interesting, the herd has refused 
to touch grain kept by tbe forest 
ofRctab with t}K intenttcm of keeping 
tbCT away from tiie villages. 

The appearance of the herd m the 
vicinity of Jaltenda village has com- 
forted fmst crffidals. They tay that sf 
it maintains itt present ooursc, it 
dKHdd be entering Horhat, api^x- 
hnatdy 25 km away, in another 
totn^t^s time. 

Also, the jHTCsent route is along a 
mATsely pc^Uted bdt and, th»Ml»e 
damer to human hves n less, T!^ 
have dccwtod not to interfere with the 
herd and to allow it to jnweed to iis 

The forest department hai also ^ 

announced a compensation of Rs ^ 
10,(XX) to the femily of each deceased 
and Rs 750 to those wb«e houses 

have been destroyed and Rs 100 i 

against each acre of standing crop ^ 

55ima^. The villagcrt. however, 1 

have described the amountt as -pit- i 

uncc". * 

AW FRIDAY » 1919 7 


Wild elephants 
kill five 

Prom Out Correspondent 

RANCHI, July 17 — nv« more ^ 
persons were killed by a herd of 
wild elephants in Miu^u bk>ck 
of Ranchi district during the 
fMit 34 hounk accordti^ to re^ 
ports reaching here. With 13 
^ple killed earl^ this month, 
the toll has risoi to 18. 

Tbe reports said tbe herd 
attacked Jiwantob village in 
Murhu at 9 a^m. today. The 
^phanta damai^ several 
houses and Ultod three persona 
on the sopt They had alTM^r 
l(iUed two peswfiM laat ni^ at 
Bijvia viDage of Murhu Mock. 

Earber. the district and 
Fmsl Department (rf&ciala had 
claimed that the eles^iai^ had 
been driven a way to tJ^ nirtur- 
al habitat in Porahat foiMt oi 
Sini^lAum distrM. When the 
etephanta attacked this »Mm>- 
ing the aiitated villagers btodj. 
flf the traffic on tbt RasKhi- 
Chalbaaa Midway in prptaat 
a^init the offidala^ claim, 
was a traffic jam on the 


- 150 - 


BJP demands 

■ of to the polH in Delhi and 

HT Corrcspondrat adopting tactics which were causing 

miseries for ibc dtizens. 

NEW DELHI, Aug 3 Mr Vijay Kumar Malhotra, general 

More than 2.000 workers of the BJP iecreuuy. BJ?, said the Paachayati 

stased a demonstration today in front Raj and local bodies biUs proposed to 

ofUnioii HonK Minbter Buta Singh s be placed in Parbament was a fraud 

bouse to demand sutehood for Delhi He said the nghts of the people of 

The workers later courted arrest. Delhi to elea their own npmcmB 

. . . five* h id been cunailed by the Cenuai 

' """^^n^J^ f^V^ S^/nuncat by not holing poU* in 
president of Delhi unH of BJP Madan^ Metropoiiun Council for over 
UlKhurana^akJtheG^ernmentwas ^^^^^^ 
not inteirstcd 10 granting an Assembly ^"^J^ 

for Delhi. The Congress ! ruled gov- Announcing the decisive battle fof 
enuncnt was adopting <kU>ing lactic* (demanding statehood for Delhi, Mr 
like setting up of committee- whereas Khurana said the BJP workers would 
sutehood was granted lo Goa and demcHtttratiom on August 18. l^ 
some other Centre-ruled State* with- and 20 and a Delhi bandh on August 
out these committees, be charged. 31 

Mr Khurana said the Govcrament ^^^c Congress ! would have 

had not fulfilled the promises it made consequences ii the de 

at the time of the last civic poUs Wjth ^^^^j^ people of Delhi were not 
the result, DcU* ^/ow had a rising num- gjp ^ould also launch a jail 

3er of unemployed youths, spiralling jji^aro* agitation oti the three days to 
>nces and other related problems due ^ government to grant plots to 

^^lismanagcttent by 4he nde** aod ihe slum dwcHers. reci^tton of ua 
mreacracy. authorised colonies and construction 

The Government was not consider- ^ houses 
ng the recommendations of the Sar- The BJP activists who started the 
aha Commince which was set up to demonstration from the party office on 
jok after the granting of statehood to Ashokp Road were stopped by the 
he national C^^l, Mr Khurana said police about 500 y;irds away from the 
le alleged the Congress-I was scared Home Mmistcf 's re^dence 

POSTAL STHIKE: The minister of 
state fo^ communications, Mr 
Girdhar Gomanfo, the House 
that the Natsmal Federation . of 
Postal Em^oyccs has sol given a 
notice for a ftrike aad laid if tl^ 
went m a sthke fi ivmiM be iUegal 
and action would be takes ugainst 
the fthking anployeeSw 

Mr Oomanfo asflured nsmbers 
that the iovemment has a positive 
attitude towards the eight point de- 
mands of the employees. 

5000 BKU 
men gherao 
police station 

From Soumya GlK>sh 

About 5,000 workers, led by E>bar 
ciya Ki&an Union leader Mahenora 
Singh Tikait. ghcraoed ih< district 
pcrfioe statira here today in protest 
against the 6ring and lathi-charge on 
farmers in Bhc^ village 3resterday 

According to Superintendent of 
Police M S. Bali, BKU workers 
armed with guns, lathis and other 
weapons turned violent following 
which the pobce had to resort to a nuJd 
lathi-charge pobceman received 
head mjurks when a BKU worker 
allegeddy fired a shot. 

The trmible staned when the BKU 
men began protesting against the 
abduction of a giii, Naieema, 18, of 
Sikh village According to the pobce, 
iameel, a local Confess-! worker, 
blamed the gram pfK^iao oi Sikn for 
the abductJOD of the^girl. Barber, 
however, the police said that Naieema 
had eloped on her own with a man 

- 151 - 

^^^^^^ y^^rijNgl_ ^ 

AS FAR AS T>€ EVE CAN SEE A nmmrt^ i ' . 



Gujarat doctors' 
strike continues 

F^om Our SpeeUl Bwesentatlve 

^ post^TBdiiate students aeninf i 
m JufO or doctOT to OevCTmimt ^i" » "™ I 

boffpitalf 19m not 

docton hew 
msnded th^ tfadr stipend, m 

»tipBiiL which mrvABATLJittrtt^Tbtawai ft 

cunrnt^y rv>««9 between Ri 1^ teO roet to 1 1 to ocsktad Tiolom C 

Md Rf b« tocreaaed cas tte on the fourth d^ftodcr of the SK^ 1 
IIM of ftipcDd ^ to iMdk^ bn&^i^mctu^ c 

eoDcgo nm by Ccrtna Oc^w two loofe deaths nocivvdhm to- 


d^f , wgyw FTL I 

- 154 - , •;.r; 


- 155 - 


WillB FHiw set the fUt« trend in dgarettes 
long years ago. Today it'0 ftill the finest 
In taste, in satisfaction. Hand-picked Virginia 
tobaccos married to an efficient filter make it so 
Millions ci t mokers have discovered it, 
then stayed with it. 

Filter and tobacco i^rfectly matched 


- 156 - 


Paris meet: G-7*s h/pbcrisy 

^ fc^ ro on^ ««)r «w can iMAi coitfl' 

fm i n w «§ it tNi ont «««m^ 

•wtei^Wqa MldtfiiMir«ol(hiMo1crt 

proo^m of Qp oiM Tit c wnd poU^ic^ ifw 
ten^PtotpndanrfHynp^ Th*r olh«r dOfy, 
foncyM W%«a MM tD NOT th9 «^ 
ibM th« fenpMlNv zoological dtoMtar vd 

^PTigy faunfeon" tfie rmnu iw 

mJN anrf htn^y "THi hiadb of Ifw WuiWaft*. 

D» wnontoM ^ and graBm 

^ ^ <*»r*^^w>Htf hadhopad^and 
Fnarya Nad anoyapid^thit hqpa (M l^a 
•ynwt ma Frandi AivQiuaon ««oUd ba 
JJJjrfto far a 9»una diafc^ 
ma non aw Via poor fwaoni to tadd^ oMal 

Omm Mmna dUrtriQ tfw bioentannM (Mw 
tfia Caiicitfi. MsBdoo. wmmft ol 1881) fowj 
tfi^hto (Mhir 0-7 partrwa w«np not 
'^•'•J"^ (Wid wiuadW hip lo ibandbn 
k »m and al tfipuaM of m a n fl m ^i y fha 
fwad for a ^«ortf^^au^l dMogua In (ha 

pofiBtail and ao om rt q 
^clya e^i^ the aaw piadpad to oont»nua 
iTMi Id kai^ ir^lMtorv tffi^ 
^ raiActton irv Uidbel dieflcfGi In tfv 

Cwwi*i and My W^iiic^a 9^'«iiijud «^ 
d«|^ra In Wart Oarmaiy and Japtn. wup- 
(|ia w ultdiiiral aa'vaWwoa of aeon- 
P9< fe*iK rMi y*iif ia J the» d a f na n ^tkji) 
•^BgN ptitMiimaan annowioad an aid 
paokm «(y F^dM and Hkmvy. fxflhad for 
• MM tM^y tf«t aM TirMd Mftu. 

» i <Halr n ap o eiaM u T^ «vith ditiftsr 
oow^iai and diMlad ovar a tfHrti of 9wk 
^y*^^ *;'*^^ to anv*fownani Maaon 
wfiart may (Ad not 00 Into anv tpoomc 
y y aou|ft to rsrtorca fta agisting ip- 
piuaitiaa Thay ho««a¥ar raoonmr^M 

ianv i fo r ¥i ia < wai (ha iutxMma" of tha 
•pnmn hamony y i ii |» cl a J ai t*^ 
2?/??^ bar ^in lha Marf dmtMB 
metes not .^jcKdiMa douda atgivl a 
frarti cJM«an aoma nwiii b wa of (Na 
fxsA«lv« dut Aftir aA. fw Uhaod Steta* 

oa^ aW ma SbZ^ $ 1 3 

OTn mrt ihoM^d no fim of yaABnBna. WM 
bac*^d^ man ma fai of lha GMto 
prlK>n^ (haui>va>ada^pac<aofmaravql> 
J^orwrtai mmiyi of I«»f1y. aqu^ and 
^^tennry to tail aliolit iEt and 

thfyyaramfaracrvdaurprtia Thaa7 
'jj'^had homd to faa me only im^ieat to 
ffia bioaniennfeab ^ am |3lMiin0 to uaa (ha 
r^y^Mkjn^ ma iw uM to mean ^irry, aqud- 

aefvaa At a Mhen th^ mMwd^r M 
■oa^^v^dmo ma m»« Mo tf»»a nwtor 
aoofwmte and Mtoo lonae — ma US- 
Canacfti. (ha CommqnMaH^ and 
(he Ptetftc r«n ooivAlas be#^ a« iraa «v 
>^*«a-— ma aevwi M mia wee (ha oopcrfuna' 
f^xmrnt to remind aec^i otfier afcou ma 
j^JBof bainfl fraa and equal tradta 
oromaia The gromd rvlae aeteNafwc. (f« 
"av«n (hen choae (he pirth of laeBt raeielBnca 

high pol«teal pein - by ra^^ 
n*odmenx3lher^Oirmc»«B tKaJedonoob- 
wver to nemer1< mat ' env*orwnent « todey 

*%hef the entire dslcnot debato %*w ywster 

French Pneeident 1^ Fr»xx>to 
^42ler^and. ••ho vv^a hopng to teunch b mini 


Tbt Mmmll of tti9 &7 h P»«i 
Im wMk^ thoiwd that lh# 
MVMi moot induiMaSwd 
mikm cfo fiot IMnk inudi of 
tho prMiim oconofnic 
pmfm of Iho ThM WofldL 
To tfwn tfioir OKvn Irwfing 
cofK^n m, Polond, Hbjaigo^ 
•cology iMra mofV IfYiportert. 

•oyy y tnoan<lvwitohe^(haTTiatjWqrto 
"wftw mair own efforti to aava (ha a«m »id 
•wooitod a fraasa on curar^ of car- 
bon dtowidb anawom 
. T^jy^o oondwiwia d tonorton mrd (ha 
PO^^ raMuaakJik in ChirM, pMgad to 

•ire to ba part of m*i global ooeparetion on 
eoonomic numera Cm e suprnee Mtor to h/t 
Mrttorrand and Ihe 0 7. me Soviet Wwdw^ w 
p«d mat parastrotfia was *niaeM* <t le from 

M and co»np4eto per^c^jrtion in me *%orld 
•conomy? wm o WHe ' pr«n«^#e 

Thia*./!^ Slated out 14 yws ago us en 
afforl It harmont9e mlemalionei tradv hf« 

I2!ri*!IS*2!,!J?^^ ttonmWtoorBraijl AamafacuaeKrftoto 

Hevtig n^ M much tucornVflr^^ tfi. mnal to ma Soi^a d.^ 

tornpCi to kaap aaoh omar m hamank (ha 
ha^ now fawj oonwtun ca^aa <n ba- 
ratwy ma rart of ma awHd Aa a reauft maa 
meaimga hava no gu paaa and not much 
MAManoa ^ fact ma Parti ftmvai ftftounv 
ad aoo oar man acMM aFxf 
hia^aald ma^ hannonftoua oondWora an- 
aUad mam to worti ¥fk:tmjibf. otsaarvm 
aaid tlma hur^ on mam. 
CoolDi^ on o^anM 

VVMa btfara (ha raoaq| 0-7 «imm« 
Urfy 14^1® m Pam opaned apacuMton 
ahcx4 whet ma teadva ««ouU dtocM caaa- 
ad T>»i» iwae goinp to ba ma otona^lbyv 
»<nwnit and of me final o on w rm toue 
WW aalacm«ly Miad to raa^oroa tha idaa 

of lha UhilKJ Steto* 
Wart Oarmany, Franoa. arQam. Haly and 
Canadte oonrtdare d anv to nmentol asuae a 

top prtortty m the finrt dacada of (ha hvan^ 

' A good aoononac pcAey H ona mrt » 
woteglnaSy aowl ' aaM ma Waac Oam«n 
Chancaaor, K% H#na( KoN. 7M Wte 
Oennani oan talc Mm aumoray about 
aoology ain» (hey hava had a ata« dcwva- 
tic acobgy dtto^ (Wart Omw) Oraarv 
ara ptonaarv) for o%ar a daoada now Tha 
••^ cannot ba aald of K*a ^tergarat 
tohar whoaa fluddan gvaantng" haa mofa to 
<*D alectorrt mraate and leaa «rtm a 
ganuftia change haari Aflar afl 8nt^ a 
napiMon aa a diampton poMor m Wea- 
tom Eunspa li no aac»at The U a J^artdbnt 
^ Oaorga Buah too mada m atodton 
promiaa to cafl for an kit m ^ mtun^ wivtron^ 
ma.^ mart and Maa no« unawara d ma 
anv^orwnpK ma key laaua in PmiB 

The vtow ^ the Soum on mii aiaMn 
jntorart W% anv:ronmanl fei cfiUvant Kteny 
Wbrtd d^rfonvK* M (hat aauaa of fl^ 
v^onmant oannot ba daHnkad from ihoaa of 
oavafapmant and under me guUe of w 

v»onma« protoctox me Wert nwy aeefc to 
5J!7i^'??*" ^ tfavabpfcig cou^iaa 
TNnd WorW mi^otlrtc^ wafco ming 
me move to proCeci (he anv#onmeni era 
wy#ig (hrt lhay ¥mn to be equal partnn 
m dmauartcm on mie laaua The cunwl d*- 
nwge to the uone layer, aa one d^^lomat 
pointed out rtams torgi*^ fncsm the proffig^ 
rte coneLtfi^Hion m the Wert — mvi ttv 
ViiHw^ pottu^on — and not from deforests^ 

Oannany — tor afl ik economic pro- 
Wanja ^ Jtptn haa a rvnmng brtt% wfm 
ma EC ovw quotaa and aada bamara^ Aa 
ma naoM US 30! adton mdtoalML tha Ui*^ 
M »^ gpK^iaiy baftaNfaa mai many ootfv 
frtaa Qnckxfin^ aoma Q-T) ana unftelr tra- 
^ ^ to ba bought m bna by 
tonoa^Out (ha aavan mada no wmhouB men- 
tton of mair bade tonaiona and in a ranw1|. 
^rtK wyqf hww^rtatodthrttfwm^- 
'wwj'^al tnadma an^ i xw ia i a iwaa "aEKoaD* 

Tha aavan dto not aNhar tati about ma 
TT*d Wortf a drtse probianv and me foia^ 
Chdto. Sanagat Vanamala and 
Egypt) cattng for aunmit lavaf ocvaUtadm 
o n gMM< floowomic urtton waa conto^ 
j^groad tortaad, is aavan aiaaportod (fw 

Nic^to^Baf arady, um^iad ha dbbt aaato- 
l^jaoandy w(here ma (naa natM wl f»iandal 
»n^«ona pl^ a oanaal oola and i%hara 
may ara atmplyartiad to trtw a laa^ and 
ooniayciha approach m maIr nagooaitone 
^ Mj^ cownrtaa) «vim dabt wftaK^ffe 
n a g o t lal ^ on a ■a l ycaaa baala 

Tha 0-7 aummlt mada 9 quito d9m thrt 

E* In no mood to toll to tha 

Soum For manMha Mr«^ d globd moaa- 
ftona fhrt ma Soum la ca^ng tor to ^Mtm 
gaoa tn tha OAH a UKyuay round d nu^ 
btonal negottaoona ft afar mia raaaon mrt 
ma a? togamar and mdhrtdud^ uaa av^ 
tantn to rtraaa that auocoaa in ma mUt^Ma 
rrt nagoiMona a tha ody teometor for the 
fiA*a And now «wm the Sovtot Uhion mxi 
"^Ltoaed Stotea hoMtog hmida ooia>led 
wflh racant tmntAi among thn T>*d World 
ocMiJrjaa. where aw trad«tiond aoM^ity 
cri*T*toa rt (he hrrt thrart. the monita 
aheaJ ane going to be a cheAenge hy TKrd 
World poHM:tans The Pane eunmM wan 
on^ a taste of (hinga to come 

ChHra Subramaniam 


India biggest World Bank borrower 

India is th£ Irvgcst borrower of 
World Bank in the world. 

Mimstcr of S*.%U for FtnaiKc Eduar- 
do Faltiro in^^rmed the Rajv-a Sabha 
on Tburkb) In a wtittcn answer, he 
said India had drawn S 18 97 
million from the World Bank grouf 
tin June 30 this ye^r Of thts amount 
S 1396 miJhon have been repaid 
Debt , servicing, tnciudms interest 
charges, wiKked out to S 2.MQS (15 
milUcn annually. The Mmister said 
the Aid India Consortium nteeting of 
the World Bank in Paris recent!) 
appredated the progress achieved by 
Indu in reducing tt^ budget deficit 

/ 7" 

- 158 ' 


Third World 

Entrapped in debt 

By Bepin Behari 

^ ■ ^ HE dcvelopmcoul j^og- 
■ nmoies oi emerging na- 
tiom have not obi v en- 
^ trapped them m rack- 
^^•Jng forafn debt but have 
j afao arcmed intematkmai tefnk^i 
causing rivalries among the super- 
powers for estabhshii^ eoracmiic 
and poUtkal siqnemacy over these 
regions. The American anxiety to 
bnl out the Third of its 1.3 
tiAbon do^ foffiein debt by 'for- 
giving pan of the 40O billion do\- 
urs they are owed by the iar;^est 
debtor ooiuitries such as Mftico, 
Venezuela acKl Brazil* is symp- 
tomatic of the interest of the west- 
natioRS in the 




solvency of developing nations. 
The idea of a Pacific Community 
was put forward as far back as 1966 
by the J»anese schcdar Kiyoshi 
Kojima whilst Mikhail (kntichev 
affinned 1^ Soviet wilUngn^ to 
join in deliberations on th^ likely 
principtes of s^h co(H>cration as 
recently as July 1986 But the i^w- 
ly independent nations have been 
bc^|eo down by their inner com* 
pt^om aiKl external pressures 
that the emergence of any effective 
solution does not seem to be in 

Arms race 

The problem has become diffi- 
cult owing to the fact that the arms 
race of the modem world is con- 
tinuing at such a fast spe^ and the 
requirements of developing na- 
tions arc increasing so rapidly that 
the avaiiabiUty of resouitcs seems 
tnuch short of the development 
needs of the poorer nations. The 
relationship between the two can 
be gauged by the fact tha^ the in- 
crement in the global production 
of goods and scrvkrs between 
1960 and 1983 equalled US 
S8,40O«000«CO0 million whilst 
nore than US $14,000 million was 
spent on military purposes during 
tne same period. Sik± a wastage of 
resources and inadequ^ oi pn>- 
^^--4|ict}on potential seem atrocious 
in comparison with rampant de- 
privations in the region. Presently, 
more than 1,000 million persons 
Bvc in abject poverty, 900 million 
are chronkaBy hungry, 1 ,500 mil- 
lion persons have no access to 
me<hcal assistance, 1,000 million 
peof^ have jmcticalty no houses 
and 2,000 -TsiBiOT have DO access to 
dean dridumt wmcr. 

Influx of emmal resources and 
technological suf^mt from ii>dus- 
tiially advanced cMnthes are 
esseistiat reijuirements for 
vfa^ the ba»c living condtiom of 
the Third World. Apart from ex- 
ternal assistance, oirect invest- 
ment through joint ventures b an 

important n^ans^^f suf^mlii^the 
industriolisatkm prMnusme <rf 
these countries. In hct, by the 
mid-SOs the western industrial na- 
tions h^ invested US $150,000 
miUicm in the economy of (k- 
vei^ng countries w^itm atxnit 
28,000 substdliarks o€ the western 
firms were operating. These trans- 
national corporations were moti- 
vated bv their cmn intearats niucb 
were often at variance with those 
of the host countries. They con- 
trolled nearly 40 per cent of the 
industrial output ot the newly free 
countries ana half oi Umi 
trade. During recent years, spe- 
cially after the 6ft, the local gov- 
ernments have t)cccHi^ very reti- 
cent in granting permission to 
these firms. 

The multinationals have estab- 
lished themselves in several tfe- 
vek^ii^ countries specially be- 
cause of special advanta^ 
accruing in those regions. Special- 
ly in Southeast Asia, the artr^^tion 
has been the availability of semi- 
skilled industrial labour at k>w 
cost. Some devek^ng countries 
derive a significant pan of their 
manufacTunng exports from local 
subsidiary of multinati<mals. 

Mutual attraction on these fmnd- 
ples has led to the dependence of 
the developing countries on multi- 
nationals who nave secured crucial 
position in the general economy of 
d)ese countries. In the middle and 
late 1 970s the share of multinattcm- 
als in manufactured exports ot 
Korea and Mexico was around 30 
per cent, in Brazil the share was 
more than 40 per cent and in Singa - 
pore more than 90 per cent. As a 
result of the forei^* collaboration 
of these muhination.tls many de- 
veloping countries ha%« begun ex- 
porting manufacturer without 
^ng through an initiiJ phase of 
mipon substitution. Smic ci these 
cotporations are locatt^ in de- 
vekming countries with tb^ |Rin- 
dpal aim of prodiKing in order to 
expon to their home and other 

Growth rate 

The contributkm of these ' ulti- 
nationals in the lotAl growth rate of 
the devek^ng cotmtries luis been 
much less than the expected fevel, 
Tte growth rate of volume M ex- 
ports has declined from 4.9 per 
cent in 1965-73 to 4.7 m 1973-80 
and A A per cent in KWO-86; ex- 
ports of^ manufoctures had in- 
crease from ] 1 .6 per cent in 1965- 
73 to 11.8 per cent during t973-80 
but has declined to 8.4 per cent 
subsequently duriifs 198(^86 
Even their real GuP declined 

from 6.5 per cent in 1965-73 to 5.4 
percent mirii^ 1973^ aiKi3.6per 
cent durii^ 1^0-86. 

The strategy admted by the de- 
vek^m^ countries for au^wnting 
their production, increasing their 
expons and ebmiiuting their 
poverty has tka succMded in mak- 
mg them self-reliant. They have 
b^ caught in the debf-tr^> of a 
very menacing cHtkr. The percen- 
tage of debt to GNP gradually in- 
creased fixm 20,6 per cent in 1980 
to 22.4 in 1981, 26.3 in 1982, 31.4 
per cent in 1983, 3i3 per cent in 
im, 35,8 per cent in 1985 and 
35.4percentin 1986, Ratioofdebt 
to exports increased frcmi 90 per 
cent in 19W to 98 per cent in 1981 , 
117.6 per ixnt in 1^, 134,8 per 
crat in im, 121,2 per cent in 
1984, 143.7 per etnt in 1985 and 
144.5 per cent in 1986. Ratio of 
detK service to GNP during this 
period increased fixmi 3.7 per cent 
m 1980 to 4 per cent in 1981, 4,6 
per cent in 1982, 4 5 per cent in 
1983, 4,9 Mr cent in 1984, 5 3 per 
cent in 1985 and 5.5 per cent in 

Main defects 

The emerging structure of de- 
vek^mie.ital programmes suffers 
from two mam <fefects: First, the 
economy is geaicrd to expons aivd 
the items expone l are vulnerable 
to international i^ice fluctuations 
often going agains the devek^nng 
ctnintries, ScKxmdly, the emphasis 
on unemployn»crw alleviation and 
forei^ exchange earning have not 
rfiectivelt checked the t^ain drain 
from the developing oran tries. 

The brain drain from developing 
ccnmtries consists of migration of 
scientists, engineers am) skilled 
workers and other specialists. The 
vcriume of this migration and the 
geographical scope erf this migra- 
tion have been Mxsentuating the 
crowing hardships and shorta^s 
m the develofring coumries. On 
the basis of UNCTAO data* the 
total amount erf fund transferred to 
ten developing ccmntries whscb are 
major sup^iers of labour to world 
market grew from US S 1,600 mil- 
lion in 1975 to about US S 11,500 
million in 1982 wtnlst its ratio to 
the aggregate onports of these 
states increased from 8 to 26 per 
cent. Thmtgh the mspwts to 
SaiKh Arabia and cHher oil expon- 
faM countries aiiKNind^ td wout 
80.000 pervom of skills wmkers 
out irf a total of about two million 
ev^ year have been graduaUv in- 
creasing, yet the priHessionab to 
the developed countries were of a 
different categt^ very much cfe- 
sired in their own country. Profes^ 
simais accounted f<H 40 per cent of 

the total number of immigrant 
lab(Hir hired in the United States m 
1961 which grew to 75 per cent in 

Thus engaged in siphoning the 
imxluction potential from the de- 
veloping countries and denuding 
them <rf valuable technical and 
personnel suppon, the industrial 
West is forging strong integrated 
structure with develofnng coun- 
tries for its own economic growth 
Amon^ themselves, they are di- 
versifying production at different 
localities and assembling the final 
product under well established 
trade name so as to secure the best 
competitive advantages. For ex- 
ample, there is a programme 
under the Ford motors to get their 
various parts in different countries 
where special facilities exist. The 
final assembly takes place at Hale- 
wood in the United Kingdom and 
at Saarlouis in West Germany but 
its tyres, tubes, seat pads, and 
brakes are manufactured in Bel- 
gium, fan belts in Denmark, glass 
and radio in Canada, cylinder 
head, carburettor, glass, lamp^ 
and defroster grills in Italy, under 
body coating, ^^eedometer gears 
in Switzerland, while staner. alter- 
nator, cone and roller beanng. 
windscreen washer pump are 
manufactured in Japan In this 
way, the entire car-components 
have been made separate items of 
podksction and earmarked to 
differcit firms located in different 
pans of the globe where best tech 
nologicaJ and labour suppons are 

Meticulous care 

This shows the meticu- 
lous care with which the industnal- 
ised countries are working out for 
maintainiog their quality and cost 
COTipetitiveness while giving best 
consideration for the employment 
generation in their sister cou ntries . 
AgaiiM such detailed planning, 
uTKoordinated programming of in- 
dustrial outputs from the develop^ 
m$ countries cannot hope to se 
cure bcner market advantages. 

The role of India in this new in- 
ternational ccononuc struggle for 
supremacy seems to be relegated 
to the bMrk waters The SAARC 
ccHintries around the Indian Ocean 
are important only for opening an 
entrafKtf to this r^fic region of 
ASLAN-Paciffc regi<Mi aUiance 
The Soviet Union may seek its pas 
sa^e throt^ the Indian Ocean for 
wluch suppOTf of India will be im 
ponant. Tne Indian opponunity m 
the newly eme^ng economic rela 
tkmship is a matter of grave con 
cem which we may not overlook 
for our enduring prospects. 


- 159 - 


- 160 - J I 

It|s an electicn year in India, ard as I write this brief opening Rajiv Gandhi 
is calling for naticxial elections • India is the world's largest democracy , ard the 
pecple seem to cherish their fledgling democratic instituticMis • 

During July and August, the c^positicn parties were unifying to make a ccfficert(?d 
effort to unseat the Congress Party. The Congrei.3 Party, the party of Jawaharlal 
N^iru, Mahatma Gardhi, Indira GarxJhi, and Rajiv Gandhi, has led India since indepen- 
dence for virtually all of the forty years, except for a bri.^f period where the 
Janata Party ruled. 

Scandals involving corn^>tic»i in the highest places over military defense con- 
tracts could became India's ''Watergate." A oover-up has been claimed in the press. 
The opposition mGni>ers of the Lck Sabba (India's la^^ house of government) walked 
out in a dramatic gesture of exposition and unity. 

These are truly exciting times in India. As the election draws near and the 
population begins to rally behind its standard bearers, tension levels will rise. 
Violence can be e:q)ected. Anc^ in India, everything is dcffie on a very large scale. 

1) Have the students collect articles dealing with India's forthcoming elections, 
and based on their readir^s have them predict the outcome. 

2) As the election process unfolds, have the students develcp a conparison of the 
election process. 

3) Ccnpare India's structure of government Lo the British and the Aiierican in terms 
of legislative, executive, ard judicial branches. Develop a chart to fulfill this. 



Birendra Singh 
quits Lok Sabiia, 

P.M.'s failures criticized 

From Our Special Representative 

NEW DELHI, Monday/— Rao Birendra Singh, former Union 
Agriculture Minister, today dealt a msyor blow to the ruling party 
when he resigned from the Lok Sabha and the Congress(I) in protest 
against the Government's handling of the CAG report on Bofors and 
its many other failures. 

His move was not immediately 
known when he handed over an 
envelope to the SecretAry-General 
of the Lok Sabha and also talked 
briefly with the Prime Minister in 
the House during the placid ques- 
tion hour. Mr Bu^ndra Singh« who 
occupies a f^ont bench, walked out 
of the House quietly. 

His two-page letter of resignation 
which was addressed to the 
Speaker as well as the A1CC(I) 
President. Mr Bsiiv Gandhis has 
cited failures of the Government 
on issues like Pui^ab and Sri 
Lanka He did not indicate in the 
letter if he was joining any other 

His quitting the membetship of 
the House and the party has come 
at a time when the en masse resig- 
nations of Opposition MPs trom 
the Lok Sabha is still not comply. 
But ftxmi the treasury bench^ Bdr 
Birendra Singti is the first to resign 
in connection with the handling of 
the Bofors issue. He had not given 
any hint in the Lok Sabha about 
his move to quit the ruling party 
when the House was rocked by the 
Bofors cont2X)versy prior to the en 
masse resignations by membm of 
12 Oppositi<») parties. 

In his letter. Mr Birendra Sin^ 
said that the Congresad) stand on 
the CAG report has made the mat 
ter *'kH)k wofve**, 'It is realized 
that if we publicly question the cre- 
dibility of the CAG our own anedi- 
hility • iU be weighed and iu<^ged 
against hU credihUity in detail'* be 

He said that for quite some time 
now he was feeling disturbed over 
the performance of the ruling party 

both inside and outside Parliament 
and the functioning of the Govem- 
m«it. He added however; is 
not to say that the r&le of the 
Opposition ts any better But in my 
humble view the prunary responsi- 
bility for nuuntaining the dignity 
and credibility of democratic in- 
stitutions rests with the ruling par- 


ty, particulaiiy when it ei^Joys such 
a massive m^jonty as at present"" 
The failure to ach^ve the desired 
results from the PunHib and Sri 
Lanka accc»xis might go down in 
public roanofy as "misadventures 
beaettiog^ood intenti^ms^. But the 
two-year-old ccmtr o versy over de* 
te)ce deals would certainty agitate 
the peopte's mind if the truth about 
middtemen and commissions in- 
volved in the deals was no* un- 

He said he did not object to the 
Government efTorts* being made 
with some **urgency", to gireng- 

then the Panchayati and urban 
civic' bodies which had existed 
even during the British rule and 
which had been receiving increas- 
ing attention since Independence. 

But he was 'gained" at the 
*'^»thy'' of the Government to- 
wards the ^aspirations of the back- 
ward classes** who constituted a 
m^or segment of the population ' 
He noted that the Government had 
not taken any action on the Mandai 
Commission repeal Even repeated 
and powerful appeals by public 
representatives and agitations by 
the backward classes had not 
•*moved the Government one bit" 

He recalled that most of these 
issues had been raised by 10 mem- 
bers of Parliament, including him- 
self, in a letter to the Prime Minis- 
ter not very long ago. But the letter 
evoked no respcmse. 

Mr Birendra Singh, who was ad- 
mitted to the Congressa) in 1978 by 
Indira Gandhi, said that under the 
present circumstances he was 
"convinced** that he was not doing 
justice to myself or the people as a 
member of Pariiammt". He said 
that his present term of member- 
ship of Parliammt wouki or^rtical- 
ly end after the currmt session of 
the Lok SabhA. *^ving served 
legislatures for neariy four de- 
cades. I would now like to feel frt^ 
and independent in the service of 
the people.'' 

The resignation of Rio Birendra 
Singh from the Lok Sabha has 
been isccepted by the Speaker, 
according to an announcement 
made by the Defnity Speaker. Mr 
M 'Hiambi Durai. just before the 
House a4ioumed for the day. 

Pristine Pedigree 

IiKlian |mictitioiMi»^of the i^nnaftet, higb*p»x>file 
thnist in advertising, mailcting and public rdatsons are 
•sometimes blamed for borrowing most of their craft and 
craftiness firom the amoral west Irue, some exoeptiona] 
examples ot their Ok, might get away, piotesting bow *^vei> desi" 
they innately aie. But we have it on the authority of their father 
figure, David Ofpivy himsdC how alienated many of them are 
from their niilieu, and how they aie found wanting even in their 
biisiness of creatii^ wants among consumers. Rc^xntly, the 
Pome Minister himself foimd time and occafion to chide the 
Iffoducers of those cute, over-glamourised, setisuous a>mmercial 
spots on Doordarshan, for provoking embairassed tittm among 
rural women viewers by an excessive exposure of the epidermis. 
T|ie more sensitive among the wunderkindem cover up their 
guilt complex by |m)testing that they purvey precisely the kind 
Of kitsch the urban middle class consumer yearns for, even if it 
involves an uneas>' grafting of a **iAoren concept on to an 
Indian tlmne. There is however good news fen* those in the 
"^tmklen persuasion** tmsiness now promising to endow a 
piistine PC Mgrec on their trade practice. A -stone sculpture 
repentlv o^cavated in Mandsaur's Sim Temple in Madhya 
PiQdesh, whidi dates back a millenniimi, has been found to carry 
Inidia*s (and perhaps the world's) first advertisement Said to be 
oc3Bnmissioned by medieval marketing men of a grateful silk- 
waving sari unit of south Gujarat, the blurb says: ^However 
nubile ihft youthful diarms of a woman, and however or- 
namented and flower-bedecked her pmon, she will not be able 
to woo an/, win her lord and master, tmless she dons a pair of 
our glorious woven »lk apiwiel^ TY^ puWic irlations experts 
also, who rely on the appeal of **three Martini lunches'" to 
pfpmote onporate im^es, will feel reassured by the ancient 
Sanskrit proverb which said ^ho on earth can resist being 
w^oed when his ^uouth is fUl of toothsome viands? — even the 
ff^idanga (drum) makes sonorous sounds when its faces are 
swathed in paste.^ So like the claims made for flying machines, 
ntldear bombs and computer**fiiendly mathematic&, P« R. and 
advertising began in Inma years ago! 

- 163 - 


TUESDAY, JULY 4. 1989 

Just rhetoric? 

PUBLIC memory may or may not be short, but Rajiv 
Gandhi's contempt for it is as evident and as enormous as 
his contempt for truth, for facts, even for his own utterances. 
His renewed rhetoric on the Anandpur Sahib Resolution is 
of a piece with this trait and tactic. The other day Mr Gandhi 
compared the Anandpur Sahib Resolution to the Muslim 
League's Lahore Resolution by sticking to which the League 
ensured :he partition of India. When the Prime Minister of a 
country makes such a categorical statement, the people 
cannot but take notice, especially when the assertion is 
reflated ad nauseam over the 200 and odd transmitters of 
Doordarshan . 

The Prime Minister's smear reminds one of similar 
statements he made da> in and day out dunng th^ 1984 
election campaign. But, elections over, there was a sea- 
change in his perception of and reaction to the same 
Anandpur Sahib Resolution. Only a few months after the 
election, Mr Gandhi said that the Goxernmeni did not want 
the Akalis to repudiate the resolution in its entirety as a 
pre-condition for talks on the Punjab issue; only some points 
m the resolution were objectionable, he said, without 
spccif>'ing those points. The Akalis did not repudiate any of 
the points of the resolution. Nor did Sam Harchand Singh 
Lo^igowal before he signed the Accord with Rajiv Gandhi. 
And not only that. The Accord referred the resolution to the 
Sarkaria Commission on Centre-State relations. ; 

Thus a resolution which, accordmg to the Prime 
Minister, is as mischievous and divisive as the Muslim 
League's resolution was referred to a commission of mquirv* 
Would Mahatma Gandhi or Pandit Nehru have referred the 
Lahore Resolution lo a commission of inquirv? The White 
Paper on Punjab, published on July 10, 1984 by the 
Government itself, explicitly stated that ^the propositions 
contained in Anandpur Sahib Resolution on Centre-State 
relations were at total variance with the basic concept of the ! 
unity and integnt) of the nation as expressed in our 
Constitution. These cannot be accepted even as a basis for 
discussions". That being the considered assessment of the 
Central Government, Rajiv Gandhi put Iiis signatures on the 
Punjab Accord which can be read and certainly read by the 
Akalis to accept the latter's claim that the resolution *'is 
entirely within the framework of the Indian Constitution." 

Nor is that the end Today Rajiv Gandhi smears the 
Opposition once again for espousing the Anandpur Resolu- 
tion, But whenever the Government has needed to invoke 
their weight on its side it has been at pains to emphasise that 
the Opposition endorses iis stand in rejecting the resolution 
than the stand of the Akalis! The same WTiite Paper no less | 
tries 10 insinuate as much! 

Are these just the utterances of a bumWing rhetorician 
or those of a person who will go to any length to serve his 
convenience of the moment? In either event, must the 
country not call a halt to them? 

- 164 - 



The tyranny of Du-darshan 

By & K* State, fVSM (RHd) 

/^UEtN VKTORIAS . pto- 
1^ tH Mn me m ta^ a etmmy ago 
hTlbefib9i oe ponaH 9i Monfi 

wm mm teontf id ■ ^eo^, 
MBit Ml nfanbODwImto tflici^ 
. li • WoBi^ dial MH hr eaiMl 
Mow if CQB>r tM«d * Al^r ^ 

Ic aiadr j ag wagw Hai flmS^ 

iwfrv.OM reader moo- 
eelrv^M Hcmr tflc idUt- 

mm mdia. 
Sufpncttf^. w> %«ator aS pnwefi 

Icr. pmeuiMfh when am di- 

Indkaii m a fomfn covmn i» mh^IH 
IP ^e dacnad w mctfi FMM> (Ik 
reasoo for Mr Ra^ C«idtM % nrm*ri 

fde US acM drowii^ ao^ (lai 
that H vrsf aaadr -at a imte mitcn br 
Iia45 acKiiwvd die MMfc of Mr Ck«s. 
dcAmrd fo cQftm bofft diai^ ami 
eonu§fnty m Man poimct That 
«ra& aho imK ivftns u was repc* 
afccfi^ reported a Pr«i> ifkaf 
had a»if«ned Ooondanhan 001 to 
give btOi tweeaisx cova ra fc Hr 
wrou to tbt ihen Mmmrr for fiv 
farmadofi a«d Braac antna. "We 
are (:rruMnfy not m orrd of inb 
of unafc " TV im^r^igtfiifua 

$rcMih tppreame^ dNi «id •a* onh 
too «tl{ifff to tfnorv f he Pnmr 
Mf^rr'i uiffonuAJU rrmari 01 the 
US U boptd thaf ttluk rcmafmny j 
fiiftf of IBC OovcTiNiimi. Doordar- 
dian tum a oe^ feaf and functw«) 
Id mi o^ecfire mapnef. pvtnf no 
norr oovcrafr to ihr Kkad ttie 
CovrfsmM or tHr Gover^nrfirs 

other deetocraoK* 

Thn hope »hon4iv^ li fooc 
fM Mrd by later rvciiu «Ae repr- 
ated tsmntOKfrn ^ fht ?rme Mam- 
iTf oo( 10 gnr hmi cuc«n« fiovcrafc 
ifMorcd Oae «a» ooi foar 
whnhrr dte ra a cwr c' tht i«ln- 
fflaia titeoi^ of ftycophaoc^ or the 
jaUunc Of a kadcr li? fct hn mtnic- 
bom eamed OM. f^Mih^. H mat 
boih £i|Silas»tfop» for 
ftvt jSDventff to ihr Pnsnr Miiusur 
00 ti^ asuf. fcrecf) wtit fcsdd} 
fort^ooQiaif The Mifflftcr ia cktf^ 
4edaivd titas «v had after ^ o»> 
one pyisK ^toftcr aad h« losM tw 
did> profocsed on the taten Tbe 
oraesa Hbua^ ha> aacrted that 
Ita«T mh a handuw ftiAc h&M*- 
ter. ifnpiyifif dwt Mt fook> ^Kftify the 

km hy,I>oori»ihafi ^ 

Misc^ arascr hM flo^w Jowd bab' 
an mctn «r» Ifte aoufv da^ of 
Ra|fv'f rWe. thcladl^ aaKo» of Ox 

hm fhM . he aihcid li» «dr » ««Mtch 
OB ^ BBC u> §fit mt laM and 
convd •Btw. TNf «w a poor cwn^ 
meatarf cm die f^ a i wuto ii^ of m» 

The cmpfkn foniK^stini media 
flnHcf hM jsv^ed fhaf the peopte of 
ktiba how nrhr freoi Wadrr" a 
MO nop 

unprwedirtH cd mamlaie 
« the hos frnefaJ dectioa li 
ito g^ c. perfKtw i^evMvmic lo 
fh« BWWVT eovcrafN- to thai tedrr 
oo Doordafthan Tot^ . ihf Lodun 
f*Rne Miofim » 001 onh ihr moM 
cxpeosht Head orf^ OosrrtmeiH 
jhr world, hot » aho the mou »tdrh 
p i u teci ed teader 0m hb 0DMHr% » 

Af a rvorsi fwvniao ai S«i Fon «n 
DefiH. Mr Homi D. ScjLhna Oiarr 
atao of the NatMSori A«»rd 
)or%. nade a ver» foeita^ apecch 
Htf'iaid. 'Doord anh an i> inifie to 
pfoitci the'mm^ of dte ctttfMi 
mcoi. ^ Go^e r n w eor and tf» muh 
ioBt They arc torms^ a fabod eyr f o 
wyQAt~<'>°«^ (° ^ ooBmf> a^ dr- 
oyimg the r^ of Ihe peopk to kcr 
£<v OhensieHes W< hair to rttr ^ 
mmtb ooBsnri Dr mo cf a c> » a 
ffaaos " Tte» ontbttni pgnra^vd the 
tnir fechsA of' milliom of csfMr\*r 
wwm of DoordjfWiari Ho woodc^ 
dd» speech aree^ wicft a 
thwadrrow and pfomfrd appUuse 
from the aodieocc. m\Kii to the 
emharranniefN of thf Mu^er^ ai9d 
ofltoafo pmem ai the fttsctfon True 
10 itt form Doordarifthan ct>vcnaf 
fhs ftwcuoo Macird 001 Mr ><1^lu » 

Cofigd) fH^^iB^uida * 

The Corwru foufhi tftr Bi^ii«h 
aad wrr««eo the cotsirr) > freedom 
teM9 them If t& an that m tti 
efifom fo lemafi} in f/owtf for ever 
asid eirtt. the Cvogntaii) has hcra 
adoptisf the British rather than the 
C0m^t$i approac h dunof tbe fret- 
dooi ury^^ It hai rmen been tm- 
m^fw$ ypoo the Britttfa approach* 
The BrHati ucd fo aiaifitain that 
fhemra* 00 aKcnwtifv to dkesr nde 
CdBfrcn(I) ih»h» tmo^Mf hut ^ 
one uep ahead whce ii mmm thai 
then if 00 ^scmttrve to oae fimdy « 
«fld oae mdMdutf » nde TheBntoh 
tfsed 10 asne dw todia irai a £vidrd 
ho«w wSb Hfflte. h4«^B» aad 
''NMiw Swat", aattgomscK to 
cmA other, TlU thcK form oastc^. 
power OB^Bot he handed om The 
Cte9fra«(1) ^ 'vMlv lenm 
^otff the dKMed e f y o iiti o B aad f£ 
tbty raife they can oawer beooac a 
crej^ aHOT^^. It atao add> for 
Mdb laeamT the i^4ffiitoa» foretfii 
haad aad d» tWtiWhaini fonri 
lifftam^ the iaiefrity of the 

The ^ eetfo ai c aaertii. fotrodwed 

heen trirni| Kj w^Jrove Mpon it Nkx 
oni^ » aMKaoverosneoi aew» hca«»^> 
orfttorvd. tUtmH propafaoda n 
hes% hasned a 10 hraifv- 
the vapk The Indian 
oottMerpofU of Cjoehheb and hi> 
fsaCr. ha»« a oMrk^d ad%M^ The 
mwid for thesro H pafticalaf1> fer 
me. with ac^ hJ^ thetr tarvei 
aiKhetMe ffi^eme and the oem tech 
oofofv of tefevme prov*tho| a»d»e 
vboal siiptnn 10 thrir effort ^ trh 
Ae aeit ftnetal cfoctioo on the 
bohxon »d with a hrash «)d mtde 
pohiicaLleadefih^ » the Mutisto of 
li^ormarion mid Broadcvitii^ the 
people of fodia may had thcimefve« 
cacrditei^^tpaafd fio the (>Tams> 
erf tXwrdiAha» No aaiotm! of 
|utdehr>es naord by an ioeffcctrvf 
Elecm»^Comifitft>oa vdl be of ant 
arad m tfo» rvgard 

The «vcew h^ m prkr of neir» 
prtof aad ii» acarof^ plu» the m 
creased profK^aate itant of Dow- 
ttarahan are ^ pam of a wrW 
thu^ottt ctmcfy denaed b> the 
pre«ei» adien to rematfi mpoift«T for 
a0 tnnn aad at ^ oo«» Taerv t» o! 
cD«ne aaother virii' The moreprop- 
afandnl Doordarshaa becomes the 
oiorr ^cfy n a dwi tt* effort* to 
otvrtifl ma) e^ratually tvm out to be 
ctmrner-produetrvr la ^Nte of alJ the 
propafarKU Md tkade agatRft M« 
Beoam Bhtft^. the Zta-oonrrolled 
teic^tuon m PtiuAan taded to pre 
vmi hcf nse to poii«r 

The Covirmmeai of Bhwiaa t% re 
poned to hax; ordered the duman 
\hn$ of aU T>' aaterwiae m the kmi- 
Asm bccasoe they warn to preserve 
their aaoefii ciditfre aad pre>eiii at)> 
mra«d* am H throo^ Doordmhan 
Tod«> iherr a octo to proieci the 
ladiaa ottitea t 10 iasfofmatton 
aad to ofefvafd him agJimt 
«tempfi « hramwafhft^ Yei it n 
not pombk for tht oppoMtiofV'nikd 
Umti to foOow ttt esampk Bbu 
<v «»Heh oiT power when oe*^ cr 
proMaadj ii hemg trkcaM f 
booroanhao Ho«v>«r. the ic« 
vichtal dtuaa stdS ha» the fi^t tc 
farhch OS the idrnsKm m hn noo»c 
when oewi or fwipa|aad a beiaf 
telecot ladeM. ouaiy mdmduaH 
ffid**<^gyf tha writer have been e% 
trcmag n|ht Bm. then who 
koow« a day me> eotae whea our 
pre^t rttleit deodc to taie awt > 
th^ r^hi hOBi 01: ^ffom^ aa esnct - 
meattiiywiUtmc m chc y ^ tomv 
diace oowpuhary ttewiag o^ Mw% 00 

Bolofi saa loni to ihrrA the darte dk tattritMesof Brtorh nde. 
facaik of Mr Ckmn that had b««8 ao hoKikiocd, ti a dapartmctn of the 

to he dc«pae^ they 

mom mo _ 

mod tnatod 
The3% has alao hecs a 
chaafc for the wotK la the 
prD)cetiOB» haat ^ Doerdar- 

aad aia i atwwa flicpt 
wB ccfiaored. The Coafre«*(]) 
haa (WimiBMil that tnditfoo aad hat 

BtardM^ aa ai Mb ai ht' d h V*op^ 
of Si^raae 

Uader WIdb the Mbctm ml the 
ei^to am#dr fltf fidlaf pviy foio 
ihe hteiatiT mi bdomatfoa md 
JffoartfiaidM^ e%v0 the pracnxe o^ 
oh^cetMty hai aow heeo ^¥tm ap 
He Md. -^Ordl^aty h Ite 
praoceapataoirof die < 

It ia ifao hcias mtufted Hm 00 
lAaa i'flbi||cr aadei^MMch the 
Q( cnedMhy ShKC te«ha 
fimn ^ vflli^fea. Ihefe li ao 
oeed 10 woar aay oadm r B for caadi* 
.httty oa the late cfocmale taete 
The pmp o trnj oi i»w fWar 
w haw foffoaeo # rather ie»a| 
lackteot erf not fom afo. Whea Mn 
iTiwIta did oof fwaottBca her death 
'for om fMK hoi:rv h& Ra^ Ga^ 
dhi «aimBaaf^ttd»rMe Whib 
hr WW a^iflVMd of ha Qwcher haviaf 

I0 r^i, coataxu die >aoata Dal « 
proeae ^ om csocos^to oown ti 

tfoa Bffl. pi aiame e S ai atstooom^ ci 
ekctrocac tneiSia asdqvrdoo) irf'the 
Preo. hat oxae a» a tavath of fm^ 
aa It hi4di oas hope* for the «af>^ 
tfon of the Uahao pcopk frorp the 
tyraaay 4rf IXxtrdtatihao However 
ai thii^ ftaad lo^ay. ^ h a mdbon 
doOar qacAfoa whether these hope« 
wi0 fet freiiilafrd Ino raabi^ 

- 165 - 


I t's not credibility they are coricerned with 

A big battle rages in TV news room 

While Doordanluis*! oovertgc of 
newt is is electkM ycir lui become 
« ooflteotioyf mne. tbe* news ofji-- 
tttsatioD within tlic TV netw^ii hss 
Stbe tinse to worry Abrat tb^ksvd of 
newt t ii pttltmg oot. h ts far more 
cngroned to tn hnemal banle wag- 
ing w itt newt tocm with no ftgns of 

The trouble began more than two 
months ago iHth the influx of 15 new 
news c of re s prodcnty and aftiitant 
newi oorre^KHKtents. Tl^ were 
firsh fftsm their training at Pune and 
at the Central Pruducuon Centre it 
Ssh Fon and tiieir indt^on was 
supposed to make Doordanhan*! 
news a kM rriore new%y. The Govern- 
ment had abc spent a let of money 
on throi: Rs 2.5 lakh e^, acoc^ding 
to a Mandi House estimate 

But what began as teething trou- 
^ t4es threatens to become an endunng 
coofrontatKMi between the, new ft* 
port en and the 12 news editors who 
MiOTg to the Indian Information 
Service (IIS). The Director and Joint 
Pirectof oi the News Division aHo 
bdong to the US. The news editors 
feel the roponen have come m with 
elevated notions about themselves. 
"They think they are the cat*s whis- 
km, $M one. The leporters, or at 
least the more e3cperienced among 
them, /eel that the news editors ire 
feeling insecure and penalising them 
for their own insecnnty. 

Development and newt features 
done by the reponer^ arc held over 
by the news editors on duty . For lack 
or space, say the news editors. Out of 
spiu, say the corre^midents. Before 
tae current Parliament session 
started the news editm would u^v 
that eiKMi^ stmes were ctMnii^ 
from the new; rqxmers. After it 
ttarted there has been no ^»ce to 
jcpommodate whatever thqf nught 
prochice. So the) have been given 
fdtn at the news idk. most ^ whkh 
arc not to their Hking. 

Thcv were asked to transtote tottx 
of the nems about the Prime >f iniit^ 
into either Hmdi or English depend- 
ing on whicb language he had spoken 
m. Tlwy feh that this was oot the 
kiiH) of thing fhe> had been recruited 
md trained for.' 

When tlM correspondents were de- 
ployed to help prepare the evening 
bulktifis, the r^ws editors (bd not 
take kindly to it. One of them threw a 
fit and sat^ he could not work with a 
reprnler sitting across from him. He 
went on protest leave for a while and. 
in turn , was threatened with a 

Others ocmif^ain that even though 
they are such a hand-pickfd bunch 
the correspondents dn'i write proper 
news reports or show enough news 

Even when their stories arc used 
their voices are not, so that viewers 
wil not often guess that what the 
newsreader is reading out is oot 
culled from news agency ccyy but has 

been given by a reporter in the field. 
The news room ofticiab say that this 
ts because then vcncts are teniMe, 
and that letters have been coming 
from viewers complatning abqut the 
fm^unciatkm of ine nei* correspon- 

The reponen say that the) feel 
they have been thtown to the wolves. 
They have retaliated by takmg their 

Eevanccs to the Doordarshan 
rectorate at Mandi Hoiise 
And with that the bank has quick- 
ly become a tma'der one. There is 
btlte love lost between the program- 
vtx cadre which runs the Directorate 
and the IIS cadre which runs the 
News Division., But the Direaor* 
GciKra) and the Additional Director- 
General ai>d the Additional Director- 
General in chart; of news and cur- 
rent affairs at hundi House call the 

Mandi House has begun to ckcree 
that the reporters should take over 
some of the news editors funaions 
and Stan handling buiietins indepen- 
dently. The ncf^n editors sec this as a 
thitcat to their turf. They also see ft as 
a move by the programme people in 
Mandi House to fmt the IIS in iheir 
place. The latter cadre alleges ih^t 
though ortc IIS man reured receWtly 
from Mandi House his post has not 
been filled from *someone from the 
4ame cadre, and the effort is to edge 
the IIS out of TV jobs altogether 

At the DG's insistence the new 
correspondents arc how prcp^anng 

the 7.30 news bulletin for Channel 2 
and this has certainly not endeared 
tbcm to their desk-bound colleagues, 
Some of the corresporHknts are on 
the war path and ha\'e taken to 
complaining to the Director-General 
whenever ihey have a problem. 


The DG has met both groups 
together and separately. 

Last week he met the news editon 
aruj promis^ them that the crisis 
would be Portly defused. He did. 
however, tel! them that the oorres- 
poiKknts should be allowed to func- 
tion as editors sirKc their training had 
been fairly awnprehensive. He sug- 
gested that both sides work in har- 

The Ministry of Information and 
Broadcasting has also been m the 
picture with the newi editors meeting 
the Secretary for Information and 
Broadcasting. Mr P. Murari It has 
not. however, moved as yet to defuse 
the tension 

^Vhen thry were training tn Pune 
s^e of the new recruits in the course 
of recording their perceptions about 
their fyture role had said that they 
thought their job was to restore 
credibility to Doordarshan and bring 
^ck professionahsm in the new^ 
Jhe news editors pooh-pooh such 
iwtions. Not all ihc reporters in the 
country can restore credibility to 
Doordarshan. thc> >ay. the political 
compulsions of the medium , being 
what the^ arc. 

- 166 - 





A 4ay before 
the emmmge 

Ray elmhned 

ran. The 
ne$(t dmsff 
ZS people 




Imps. vMgbf wb maa'% wc<fc>ii 

^ w li • tevn MO. mooIo of 

mm JOi ^ tty 0^0- ftg^ nyo "yif 

wtif ohi teak ovw M Ou»wuc r ^ mI mmm 

noO>tiL bWo I* oo MKvii^ tto in^ 

Aifteo IIm pMl tew Moo^A^ llio ^ooplo OT^Mdob — too^ 

«rii«irar io Mrt H* te^M l^ite andttiM - how ^ 

borplaioii (ht i orao_ftowMr tlMl olom^ ogp u oo d Oio nonoct or 

prowtHMoA to ^9 kmv and ofttw Ovt Mr Hoy, wuM iMvot^^ fro- 

•ItuolkMi aAir Op*"tiu*> Bte^ Inr ooeoto na^w 

Hftttndvr ond f>M BM9^ or* no «fitn«t i>m WrrarlfCs (Vihr 


hilled 1,839 
people in 
In the first 
five months 
of this 
439 people 
were hilled. 


feBooiddioCfapp^ la opo rto r- koMi limrfvvd te lpod<r«^ 
Ooaorali o# Po0c«. A ftew Mfig T^v G«wmor 1^ «won 
of Iv 

O-womcr. wlii... 

iWttoo la l4idMoiio 

■1 11 i mil 11 4 - li* I 1 « 

cvifnBo iSMnico "TTr^ 

In tow ond ordjr Wtthki hw 

Tw M » lo »onj>iio»( CDvntptkm lo 
0w poficT ferev end thr Oovw 
oor b owofv of ttio IWl ^ is nol 
rrody to toko mcOotx, oi Wwal noi 
M tlw Mf ffMU tho 

rtbt O o w w iWg «d^ 
^ ^ i^bo 4ro. tho former 

Pobco, hod M^Ktei (Mr IU7) • 
dolotlfd nolo, f^^ouMiiMNli'itf or 
ttoo osbIimI o miiiitifi floniof 
Alolo oottco o^RcorOa liic«Mi^od 
aomo SSI^ V ood fKO** 

TK* OcM.coor'* ardor 00 Ifet 
09«« W09 -Lo< Ow DOF dacMr ^ 
1^ fwii oaf g w«« loud «nd cWm 
OMtmtAf. tht DOr. K P 9 


Offl. <&d iMX tak« ort^ 
ony ptMc ofAcfv. My 
tsofo morotntfUood 
h to thot ot iMol 
•fnJor Puni*t polirr oflWrt 

_ fflo^ ocil yWoi'' of tM 
polAcf ofTVopTih, bw( obvious^ Ho 
doo» noi WBfK lo lolM ortion 
ogolfifl tiwoi for rgQMpni bopt 
known him Moyb y fW* >U>^ 
twrwi#4j If ttis ^Bf' priority, snn 
ho i« fMi b u<» < f id «<*cHii anr 

Th« jtAo If) Pi0|lib todv lo 
tfw< K prr cnrt «f % l«d hoa 
booA ir rt >t»oJ b)r,^0tkv ol9Vc«r« 
end th. rgW Mim wo 39 prr civi< by 
ihr Nihanoa 

1>* hf>llpwnc«a of Cho dliiWi 
ob<Mf1 JmprtTwrn^ni in law aiW 

1 V. t 


Rajya Sabha uproar 
over P.M.'s remark 

Opposition wants apology 

From Our Special Representative 

NEW DELHI, Tuesday. — The R^jya Sabha was thrown into 
. turmoil this morning when Opposition members blocked Question 
Hour demanding an apolog>' from the Prime Minister for his having 
" referred to them as "limpets" in the other House yesterday. Argu- 
• ment was followed by slogan-shouting, ^iwi Tmally a walk-out. 

Mr R^jiv Gandhi, who ajiswcr> 
' questions on Tuesdays, said he was 
' ready to debate the issue of resig- 
nations from the Lok Sabha and 
was prepared for Question Hour to 
' be suspended Mr P Shiv Shankar.' 
^ jgqde r of the House, initially 
arRiied^lhat there was nothing 
wrong with what Mr Gandhi had 
said, but later accused the Opposj- 
tion for tacking a sense of humc7ur 
The Chairman* Dr Shaaknr Day- 
a] Sharma. did not respond Xu the 
Opposition's plea that as custL>d]an 
of the dignity of the House he ask 
the Prime Minister to retract D' 
Sharma remained aloof* let the up- 
roar continue, only now and then 
pointing out that Question Hour 
should not be disrupted He later 
criticized the behaviour, saying he 
was "ashamed" 

While Mr Gandhi more than once 
made it dear he was ready for a 
debate, Opposition members said 
msult could not be debated The 
Prime Minister did not reply to a 
pointed quer>' from Mrs Renuka 
Chowdhury (TD) about whether he 
felt justified in callmg Opposition 
members what he did. 

The House erupted as soon as the 
Chairman walked in at 11 a,m , the 
leaders of the Opposition parties 
were on their feet protesting 
against Mr Gandhi ha\ing called 
them "Umpets" for not resigning 

Mr Dipen Ghosh (CPI-M) opened 
the barrage; 'The P M has flouted 
rules by referring to this House in 

the other' '*He should be made to ' 
answer to apologize", said Mr L K 
Advani {BJPh- and Mr M S. 
Gurjpadaswamy (JD) maintained 
that "the Prime Minister used the 
floor of the other House to cast as- 
persions on this House Is it proper 
or right"" Declaring thai ''it is our 
right to resign" Mr Ghosh wanted 
the Pruiu' Minister to withdraw the 

Mr Gandhi said he was willing 
"to cancel Question Hour and de- 
Uiie now if the Opposition wants*'. 

"No question of debate", said Mr 
P Upendra (TD\ "insult is insult, 
not a m*»tler of debate" said Mr 

Mr Shiv S.iankar asked "what's 
wrong with what the PM said ab- 
out you resigning*^ l\ is absolutely 
justified " but Mr Gurupadaswamy 
said Mr Gandhi had insulted Parli- 
ament. It was unprecedented that 
remarks were expunged and then 
restored. "I want to tell the Prime 
Minister that it is not a matter for 
debate or discussiun'*. 

Mr Gandhi said it was "highly 
unfortunate that facts are taken as 
insuh" Adding, '^I fail to under- 
stand wha; the Opposition objec- 
tion IS. if they are wilbng to articu- 
late their objection " Opposition 
members were shouting loud. 
"Who IS a bmpef*" asked Mr 

P.M. must resign 
|tp avoid split 

Wrom Statf Corr^pondent 

NEW DELHX tViesday. 
llr H. H. Ilaiuae Gow- 
, ^^ffhp . Was expeiled 
>in -tbe dongressd) in 
e'paM week immediate' 
Uler lie wrote to tiie 
Oj^' Ifmister criticizing 
ri4iixg patty's handl- 
er ^<CAG report in 
ifhienjC aakl here to- 
U .the Prime 
i;|id SM>t resign 

I bad ooiagnitulatod Ida for his 

1 tMv« &<Qpp«d« stone in a 
pond are 
make move 

ll^aod. ff fhe fill) fat ttie 
^aUve,*^ tisif^ wtD mi 
tm/ftg." ■ . 


- 169 - 

Gongress-I not 
weakened by 
action: P.M. 

Ftem Oar Special ReprcscnUtive 

NEW DELHI, July 28. — 
The Prime Minister said 
today that the recent ac- 
lions of the Opposition 
had not weakened the 
Congres8(T) which was 
com3dent that it enjoyed 
the trust and conAdence 
of the people, and that this 
would be decisively re^ 
Oected in the coming 
general elections. 

TT»* Oppocttion ACtiafi had 
undermined dcfnocrB£7 and 
weakened democratic m5titutions 
Thi* approach to poUtJCt choaen 
tj the Oif<mxion wvnt agamsl tha 
loeal« of democracy that Mahatma 
Gandhi and Nehru stood for". 

Addmai7>£ a meeting of the Coo- 
»»«i(T) Parhamer^tary Party, Mr 
Gandhi «xpnt«aed hii rrfrvt that 
vhereaa hi* party was trying to 
Mrengthen democracy by 
mmures Ukw the devotution 
wowrr to thf people (through the 
Pa/Khayati R« and NagarpAlika 
Bills), nhe Opposition is bent 
upon vrakening the very roots of 

The Prune Hiniftcr did not like 
to fo into the detaib of what has 
been said ir the ComptTDller and 
Auditor-General's ivpc*V Tbe Gov- 
cmment's position has been made 
cksr in the kfft two days hr the 
Defence Minlafer. Mr K. C Pant. 
Mr Oandhi added that the Con- 
gms(D wiahed to diacuas «id 
debate lh» CAQ ripon 

Gownuncnt had aranted the 
CAG mort to be fv^rred to the 
Public Accounta Committee But 
both m the Lak S*bha and in the 
R^ya Sabha Cbe Oppoamon had 
Mde the rspoft m Iseus and de- 
manded thai n should be ducus- 
aed The C<»igr*as(T) readily i^reed 
lo thtt demand and caUed fcff an 
frnmed^te debate Thm important 
point is that it was the Oniaaitian 
which had demanded the debate 
fVrhaps the o*\ly fbuh of the Con- 
sreaao) was that It mponded and 
•gTMd to the Opposmon's demand 
l09iinediataiT "lUther than going 
through with their own demand for 
a dwcvsaion, the Oppoamon m 
■w^." be said 

Tbe Prtsie Mlsilsler aald ta^ 
fbe aoevtloa abooid asked 
AS te why tbs Ovpoattiofi ran 
dwiT. ft wm bccasae ikey 
rrftJbed tkal tkerr was mm- 
CMag la lk« CaO mdtt 
agalQst bias (tba Prim mW 
icn nr any #m leoka at tke 
Midil rrpcrt dM waoM ffaic 
tkaS tks report kad looked at 
lassies frM Ike flnaada) u^H' 
tr tke CAG rtpoft does eratdia 
ksy reftmrfioe td fbe Trfaat 
Miiitstcff. It focizMea ^leotte 
eo the Prime Mlaister's notidg 
esi tkf need te Ugbten flaaocimi 

tealoati^ ^<ooedare« aod 
Biake tkeiB tkfwogk Tt^ re- 
Met onlj aaLed wb^ tbr dirrc- 
tire 0^ the PHine Minister was 
pat takes Into aceoant". 

Mr Gandhi said that it wa? now 
dear that the acUoTLs of the Opp^ 5 
tiofl did not anse becsuve of h r i.* 
was contamed ir the CAG report or 
out of any rvspect or rpfard ih*.' 
they had for democrscy or fy tnr 
ConstitutKin The Oppo^jijo- 
wished to have sorrw pufcii.jtv 
from their theajics The pec>pJe rf 
the country- '*woiikl. however 
through their game." Ur Gandhi 
as sert ed 

Pn adds Mr Gandhi said that 
wtD-kriown Opposiljjn Jesder* 
like Mf A B Vvrtvce and Mr L K 
Advaiu of t^e BJF and Mr Jvou 
Bswu and Mr CMS 
boodinpadof theCPKM) who h.*d 
difTerent and distinct jdeolog>i».' 
and national perspectn^s . were to 
day being "led in the pobticsJ stsier 
to participate in a drams by tor c 
one whose only claim to famt was 
ths eeUuk>id'*. 

1^ Government is almost rrsdr 
wtth the propoatd ^nftilunorva; 
amendment BUJ devo)\in|{ powers 
to mumnpabties. fforporstjons and 

Conveying this to Congrrw^^T' 
M-P^, the mme Mimner SAid th^ 
conrtttnUonaJ amendment Bsl! w^iJ 
eosnt up for cons>defatjon and aj> 
proval by the Cabinet tomorrow 
l^tis tasueh»d abo been gone mto 
by the CPPfD group on nsuar 
palikas, chatf«d Mr R L Bhsua 

Oar Specfal Repnrseautive 
adda: The Coagreaail) Working 
CeoifBtttee today adopted s 
teer-M* potltieal reaofution 
wktek cetticiaed tke Oppoil- 
tfod Par ra»lag 'Mioas env 
iiaa oi Cke tij bdsis of oi^r 
tafliafseatitfy democracy It i« 
a BeaauM at tkei/ polfticaJ d ^ 
speralloe tkal tke Oppositicc 
▼Uuted erery ootid and tradt' 
tfaa 0i paHlamestary b<^ 
baTloar asid de cot ua i towards 
tke csd ^ tke tana af the 
eigktk Uk Sakka". 
The reaolut»on said that ^afler 
okstnicting the proceedings tn de. 
fiance of the Chair, the Opposition 
gtaged the drama of re^igrun^ their 
aeata tlus actm is a violauon of 
Che trust re po ee d by the people 
who eksrisid them It is mdicstjvc 
of the desire o/ the Composition to 
xun aw^ froos lasuas rather than 
tece them**. 

l%e w(»1und oommittee said "It 
is now cftar tAat bv ruruung aw»v 
dxMn the Lok Sabha. the Oppci] 
tkm has demoftftrsted to the pecv 
pie that apart ttom negsiive 
obetTuction. it has niMhing postuve 
to ofTer to the people' 

The CWCm said that the Optxji » 
tton was engaguig in "cheap tac 
t^cs" as it was seeing the #perxr» of 
defeat looming large as >n 19*^1 

- 170 - 

1 .')3 





Vol I W MS 


(H* Sofcri dM< TiM Mm of 


of fkr 

cnmmi tei ta ffci of AlofMo^pnMM 

<. AO rrfsoh cw tiM Baton M kjim «tf«c» erf li, 

fr»*t ocfcw c»»Mai MTi Mr M^dkm IM 

M iio« Im 09 dM t»M4. pit M 

««K in • dif or rm» 

iBtcMkm bam am Hrodtf Tl« em; flf W» 

Trhm I>nM9 (nd»f. Mt k^bMp is «4Meli to mW fce 

M«diMv R<ddy. »«» tW fifH IO tod fHwiamkit tar ■wy mi i u a of 

olVcf IMi fri«pMH(M ancm fllftrr tto ^MfaMi toiir B«t ftofv tod 

Sfira^rr o&rd fto Mom io layunw 

«dff Thft* kiOcmwd (*K oftor Wt ifptd ttot Ito fiininmu 

pmty kndm nd Mft tod fcsn tto ciw Mtmx ai Ito 
Tto r 

n dtoMd in Ito <!■ 0f pro<M 
L«icr ■ 

to ^ ««i of tto How mod 
fcMM o«vr Ml m%BtfkM9 Imcf 

•pfc»»»d to «jUh!( anntftkM 
tMdffv lito U ttu w d ai Artofi* 
(CTM). Mr Mmfto Dwdbm 
ll«Mta) Mf. Ht&nik 0«M« 
<Cnf. Mr. K W Vmfkfhhm. 
^ Ktetorc Cto«d^ W 
V P S4«i^. Mf Afw Ntkra, Mf 
OomNii. Mr. ArlT 
fcfa toiMwd l^too. M^ SaiMtfc 
Ctocier^ Soon, atam tto n^ 

Mm of fto 

_ o««r Ito kftrr cd fvii^ 
f«iiA of Ito Sf>c^«r 
'••flMiK' or 
tomk «<f|i Mm trtm m» 
Ito rniM party w» wto ii N»«d 
and tried to ridlndr itom 
ff m Irft le Mf OandM^ 

tny mom no Mn m» M w wim i m i of Ac R m MS le Mf OandM^ 

Tto PrMm MlMi(«r. Mf fU^ ml tarirtod rl^ to rtrty ifntoiiMJj Ukt M4 NO 

aMdv Unf fc» powiff TV f^amm tod R«iyii Md K K Tmrv. Md 

fto cwrrviN mina dm^pto totaf 
fl' (Nr OBncrr of t%t ooMffif^vrcy, 
itou^ fto ^wtkm tow 
w^ctoof mctli^ M oM flfjfsoiii' 
t^** fticoitoT tihwf dfeB filler toad- 
9d Ms miyiMtiBB to die 

S<w«fcer. Mr tMnMt lifttof 
Mr OmmJM m m- 

(to mmvton <d "ftlAtolfr iip p u #- 
tkm ttto Mr O B Bmf»a^ 
Md Mf P Ku i — dy i r iM rn ton 

Had opp wl t fc ^} fnr ito mrv 

''Wr M mm 90 ptmfem wiS fv^^Mfian Mr Ttwy m n 
«er«td to o«r cmtMm 10 Mf wpfif . ctomvd fto« tto mifoa^ 
vcftoi m Mdm of nidb 
Hnmt ft 

»^ H K L 

C. rwM. and ito 
Mtf krA vofKM 

Tto ipMAcr wMKXMOfd Ito 
■ c«ti l J i> n of r g^ g t M i^ rn i of 69 
BK Otor * to i pa dUlt ty ^ter rto 
amtttkm kt>m iMff t« rto darr 
wof «wiT oppo >Mk> o gw mto n - 
Mr Cl^m«^ Sing^ AH»tral 
(Atot) M). Mf A«o«« fkn 
(Iwwta tJwi}, Mf V S Rm> 
(TDf y and Mr Ammdm FWtoft 
(CTM) atan iMtoMi ud tto^ rr«^ 
^pkMkNi Tto fc fp i n tfr rrf ttoif 
"f^J^tartoii was wmottftrfd tfic 
f^nwr Sfra&rf Mf TtomN 
[>«f*f. toiiffv Ito ^l«TMir nnr fof 
Ito <lfv 

rtrad of aoDt|M#« CAO fw- 
dhn . tto ratof ^rfy to» flRMcd 
• mamh<t jftMt a* tto i fuj i w 
LtMiUM i i iw al MNtorttT 

Wc tow stoiT«nr« dtoMed io 
p ^ ^ prnple «o pro*r«« p«ac»^ 
My ovfsidrltoi Hn«M Tto fw<y 
pAr ■rt fto olt i w w/ fa^rt. md 
(toy iHM ao< tad 10 fp«« dior 

"• cam^ olifarrtey 

Tto Sncator 

"Wc tod fi» tato dto MfMw 
mp <W 10 tto itvMaDfa rttoMl o( 
O it f r w ai twl to trMfa ta fto mto 
ol Ito t A<V» r«t«nfi bidkiMf fto 
fowrfwiw m <n fto 6vfor« gvn 

"I. ftofrtnr*. •nnoaaypr my ra- 
igoMtwi fn tto hkw w«d ! 
tofvH^ hMid cn-vf my rr M f maito w 
Iffirt irt mt memhrnh^ nf ito 
ft«Hf« %Kh rf»ni frran ki«fay 

Ahr» fCMimf ,ni4 hn. «>N*m 
«MNi Mf M^*M* kf.WH «r>llrd 


oovdd nol my ^ 

toctormrad and onaM fo to oofy 
•tot » a|}|w.mJ in freai of ton 
LalCf, to fvad am tto«acw<if <S9 

&tvtd dMr ii^iniiafhiai to ton 
awd awMnaacpd dMi tea a at 
aei f ^ki% rto rntfaaCtom'' Som 

wr^^'f waUk^d oat 
•gcTcf a ry-j uw i a* to toad 

Witfc rffif»MMi«ta toArto« frarff 
Ci0f rmptj. niAm0 fmtif mem 
to(n.Mp«riK«J«f . Mf N <; Rm) 
0 Mf iTtoHMt M« BR 

BtojcBf. fc^ N C Ctofervrd^ 
**f"Hhrd afi^fmi aftac^ nfi rto 
oproviniw fcif wtof ttoy 

A-ppnita* » ltoii«|ilt fto mirw fr*- 

At ooe tn^, MM^ of SMCi 
Jjf ^*»*w«^^Af«ii<n. Storia 
PfawM. Mftivaaird to cto^ ftot 
tfief tod to ga ao affraiyt by dl« 
fiiiiia«Mii« to 4H>y fto afsdiM 
of m€ CAO nfivn ^ d^ Hpuw 
R«S««»fi*ig to a Moccr^ fona 
Mf OftiSoi^ itol^ 111^ a«« 
tow toffvr for tto fpavnitoMi to 
to«e tod fto rtporr to tto ta« 
9tiakm itsvtf . ito f»M ^ npon 
tod to to ma to dto FmW^ 
and (ton oa»r M to pbcvd ia 

tof« fto dctoy atotovfr on ito 
P*)^ of fto fmvnmrfM to |»f tto 
nftofi on Hbe teMr of Ito Ho«t. 

(V«a wi^i ia toj M a ^dta 

«totto» ftomr Mr O M Bmi^ 
(fUML) avfvd dto PtoM 
Mtorarf to ItoM to^^n^ ^ 
toedladry" ta fto unmitiMmia i 
ham wtofv tto cww il ki B mm- 
had frdfaad, Addi VHi 

TMa, to «>M. oto^ Fto 
P«wf*« fWi» ftoV 
*vmt <to tto d^fvtodoB of dbtt 


Corral tod oavcr toes fltodv dto 
™^<d ito rn^fiitfien of tto 
nitof MAhIiIu or My toiniiii) to 
tto pad 

Tto i Liui i n M M b too tod 
«w io aoDOfff — ^^-^ oa dto 
Arm m to toat ilto»^ cto 
oppMWoii •» tfppa rta w tl y dto 
«»tofia m»r fto fvporf M 

aannrf cnamt M d^Q«kf tow 
fim |OM to ito PMdIc A<itMiit^ 

Aw fto rdiito Mtovtof 'f fcstow- 
fMnaf^aatoardoT.I^ mSm 
«U M faai ar« itof d^ dtova^ 
•ton of dM CAC report 6afo«v to 
WMtok f a l kJM ^to dto f AC m^M 
to«ntoa a pgfcfdem tor tto V- 

Mr Fraafe Aivtony CNqr) add 
to tod atoiyc tovn a atroi^ 

of an mtoi fir<div ccarrt ** 
Tto oprntonv auMv. to waAd. 
««■ boMtoi r irtto wiai aad Ito 
Spntor 10 fMioai/' 

Mmrtoitp dif CAO i«pon. 
Mr, AiMtomjf tMfe # w< | <Kto Id 

Mr KaU PfnM^ fM^y (fad) 
tokl to tod tocfi u p pi ut to d hy 
tto mtovMna Itadm to m%R 
Ma tod aatod ftoto W Htoy n«t» 
prfffwrvd to fv«^ ^ato affrr Mr 
Ra#«r Oandh caato toc4 to I 

hi fto oraf ctortom 


j^*^ <];g<d die rrrtfutotkim w 
"a fltd^ J^t^tntck." 

Mr ftaftati Rito^ (Com-II 
jjtofm tor fVM:^ dlro^ a 

ttoto prvacol ill dk Hnaw »n««M 
toad ttoir to#fiiatton Irfirn 
im tto KoM* arMr fto rr*» mn$$<l 
(ta to to rto Servtof • <to«ntof 

Ww^ tototo M a to . f«c 
MtofaArrywaiM Ttov»to 
^ »» wiCnaar to tto 
ndM«ad actkto «f ttoi? an< 
ktopa* tedMtod Mr A » V. 
Wf» •!«> Mf tit Adrmi^ 
nMM^SIFI.Mr M lO«fi9>ad«. 
»«toy. Mr Itopa KafctoK, Mr 

|0 mwmy tftm dfer 
For dtow m%o §0 
la iMi do atv com toe*, 
eattor. fto ifadtoi of dto 12 
9ppatmam pamln at «a MMtnad 
5«fiw dWdad rto fpodaNtto 
ror (toil n w adnn m aiNirM res 
n m daddM dial 

Vf^ (•§ tonata Omt), Mf 
Wpw OtoA (Cn M) Mf r 
Option aad Mr Hnmkt (tow 
dtorf (toHlk TD) 

Haryaito CMaf Mtotorr Dm 
Ul aatoMf dtoac pmcii< m 
Cto SficakffT f fatory 

Left CfMnmitted 
gravest mistake: 
K. N. Singh 

f>P9«^«n«t MPs romtol o«f «r Pwffi;wiprH af»<T «aftof#f«to« 1 

tow Mi Jaly Ms THk kr#ff4i 
pnrYiff to«v mnaiinii li rto 
"fiatvM totoato" atot f*42 to 
Kto*!^ tondi wid> fUtov <ipp«v 
ttoa iofcn m 1 1 « <aianji from fto 
1^ Salito. mvardmf to AM^ f 
fmrraf tocyrt i y K N %««^ 

a»i to tenttt iemtttttff. ^md torr 
OB Mimdtty rtof rtftor fto C PM 
frneral tarimy. Mf IMS 
rta wKK Kt if ipa d . k cimitrkni <ff 
to ft andrf i<» fto fi*cr <«< rfu- 
tow o4 te« piartf 

j|W Mr N T lt«ma Mid 
M* i K Ad^ffw <wi fto \»mf 
r^«f&«rfn WMMraiifr In f^. 

iKidM. rto trffr^f i%a*^rr% ^m«r«f 
IwtfKH anrtfi fKr rr«fn||ii|r }in%s 

*u»rtj tfAc^ rrprnTf^f 

In t^tmm 'to <e««fnafami 
H *ifif*m«trtfi Mf^ fff«m fto { 4tk 
Sjahhn * ♦Ht«»fv !•< too 

«L»mrff«4lp«i lt«rpr« Ukf thi H>r 

• »*V< ih< M'tM>,Jf #od 



Vir Pal: Rasmai's 



PAL grew op fai fte ton wod 
Rtt piBymnei pBivm% Bti 

bn^t ypvth iamipiftBil MLA, bk kit* 
tofy ud brfiffK A cf uftM or in tbc 
It ffrligrffth thf ifl 

tflft ifioilv If QOOrf be 

icft oo l ^ bvt devoid of tfiockofs ivto 

mdjf n?Wld O fT*T^*^ dllfiltt 

ay ifi^Moes. Hie vffly binid 

Hie 8fvl love wis ftmiog end even 
«^ tcadiiqg. he made li « pote to 
vWt bis If aoreeoTlndtaltemti 
■t kM twice a yw. Hb inpatariqr 
01 the csfl^a BolUm ooQVMsd 
Id the itnid he «te heM 0 tfie 
▼fftty Hevim iviiied foocotfyt he* 
cofHoted the Ptidhsfl*! flh<tioiii 
held oa Jane 6. i98(.«ad wdeoed 
wttb 747 ttxci ftr fiv«-yw tens. 
The i wo fcei or it die most faUdy 
edocetod Md viddy tnvwod 
PfMlhao the ifffnp has c««r had. 

The ftadhas has afatady inttiatrd 

' lrad» cattle oi* oocr biiei* 
— — to aflfwl iB^ vvfiich he doce 
the 000 of ^be echooL IThe t&attcr 
fteb 00 ooB^ wac oe ia ap p w i p r ia i- 
im tte jpwmiD cai vast T" f ff < far 


oMMMy iBoaat fee Ae 

ttadta^ hfeat toailoi , 

1U 5 90 f 0 Ar pattim a&d pronoc^ 
' ia an caec; Ihe gjtnh 
of Ki. 300 10 900 per 

I per echool ie inMoly faiad&' 
^tttr None of the Rasaw ediooli 
hat a hoimdaiy writ Vg^tCTBaetfie 
pi wiiiecf fcr dmitpim nAhtA, tfix^ 
catdr aad dryim covstw^ e^ca. 
One of the achocA docaat eva hure 

For Vir Fd, a retired teacher, the task 
closirst to his heart is the iinpro?eiiieiit 
of the Tillage schools. Their pUght 
induced in him a zeal to improve, 
reboild and refurnish them and even 
demolish and start afresh, if need he. 

"VhalbaodT* a hxal tesia rcftnhif to 

f tC rf H^ *^*^ of tuil 

amfofn aeios ow of tae 
smae plott. SpM hod b aSotled to 
ttc ficody and CBGroachcQ os tte 
via^ roadi aiv fHMtodL bJeaota 
— . — .-^ job, «yf the 

obmie to 

w pcpvc nqt the Orea Sihha haid is 
Ae fflegJflBCToa chafl B t There b » 

dooes. Lan« ^ooe ch^fi^ theie is oo 
bladk-boand or chaft^** Vk Fhl 

, the 

^ch^khaiMfi** I i^^ro dii toibiiie the 

kfiBjr inlited Ind. Wc «ffl 

icifln to 
Vk PW 

tik ioppoft of the 

The other oo^unitBest of tte 
plaAaa is fte icpeih^ of vft^ 

H^e ftadhaa has triad artmonisMfn 
die erriiy leachef^ and wffl ofc few 
tdbeir bafisfai if ttoy ftil to flseod 
fheir ivaya> 

Harte deah vttb these bsm, Vtr 
M fitf tadde rffliw mooey* 
hi)dc>i oAo viftiidy ootrol ttie 
Bvca of the poor. He is also okiO' 
ocivoo aoc|Di iDe tOw taca ot tn- 
d^uiiy soiaB or b^ la tUa am 
aad Ae i&diatioQ of d V'oflibaie 
youths to Aft* aod Defti* 

1 BO aiaut oecincny ffi^pnr aDo 
itfTi^-feiyfttTftal waief ti^ are oth er 
priorities hefiMV tfie Aadha&, ^Sed 
vlA hopes, the Dew Ptradhan says that 
Wasirpur*Kassaal ofS bavv bs on a 
alectne ssfr^ttlioa a4thia fav yoarL 

Vfr M hM started oolfac«^ fcadi 
nqgkt a aovaiBaMoi inM id 



kit t»t 

k te hiqamvaseaf Of 

1m a asd to tamavnt, 
fbralsh fbeiB ^ evea 

Yet his as si tfaaus hdb 4w a» it<i un 
ftr the tWiifln a ocMto oMd to 
hrokes pmmiseSL The povtramtPt 
hmly edits iir Rasmai The 
Devdopcaeat Oflker lirea is 
SadM Tttd aad is aevcr leca ^ 
thcae pwtfc Tha Diflrict Oslhctor m 
Mathuitc hvifla la tpfcadid fin4iti<ai 
anw fi^ fUonai • «Wt The 
1 aad Ua Orani Sahbi aia oo 

- 172 - 



Those who are afraid of freedom 

I bcf onM) hj t Vi>«p ci^ 

.in Hem Yofi** Ccacrti 
(« wtufwl tod 
k ttof^tptd Vkd kcfi to 

tW wmm •» •WW. 

■^Ctal tMOvd OOttid IKM tw lltelQ' 

fi*^Mi|f)r free Add ^ne wts hi 
femury a4 cMRity hcti>eeii wcimp 
umncMon, d)ey wtve ofHeci 
' ^BAf cf> to ocw ModWf wky dlid 

49duif NiMiuhe'* WiMi t» •niK^'* 
■9^jtt Id qd pcffccf itfMne' 

I nen, I mr afraid, wtk npdiKy'i 
H-^ 1 Mciett (IM m I l u ti w i i a$ 

Xd 10 tMNwMM md dn- 

I tt\jj her. tovl prtduuBiw inrt^' 
hH*mt fte «iitl)cid»ed ^ coo- 
vtvTMMs) " udte riK u ri" d br^ 
•i^ and B iNWM cod sposltf 
RkMv •dvMHayrd Am ffeeoi- 
«Ke« fhcK l«ctPf I pro: -ily 
mify t figured litcsr petofpdan ov 
flic raiwfig ^ftfff M fl (fcc ««ini. 
f*** ■* lbc «'i<id, bficrMed fiua 

«rl>e) w fkeit fm#fr. fJ)e did 
HfK %€9m M taen f*rii) oi 

t«i4uf> Of t»ofrip6y. »ocicfy of 

thf c1ir»e*y dvlts>rd. rbar n 

iHher thmtt iU Je^mai o< Alt 

aDy and afl ndeftoaMe, '***^t*ff- 
riitrwuial. nrtniim, a tmtnd 
ipMi t f y t< dpa>, a mestBVfit c4 

C&rMY and OanAa. aa4 iDrai^ 
trvdmtiapd oczm cacipNHp- 
ta| for dMocracy aad miMuii y, 
as wfincaied fecamiv m Baipof 'f 
Tia f> a inwea S^nx 1^ nw- 
aMf womaa, Aay resmaMcd fi^ 
ktycfm U4«adD«ed kkitttrv. M 
m^aafDv M te ah ua faaw w ii fci ' 
(4C dii&iiK itf ui lorvaaMy. 
afitacted the viMi^ anendoa et 
• ft|iMMi »ted^ baft rcfvfied to ika 
do«ed racial aod kteufayeal 
•dm(f^ H waanaA c naimafwni 
Sharp4v teff ddmed rvTanojr cottid 
noi tolerate (iie perfeci wtaiigr- 
pettdopea ordi o ar y. homawny 

to fwlapfe^iicaUy 
I uwatm Cs covi^Me' 
head tha cipkiuwi t tt w aua a t io o ol 
1 the tap Bttddhnai, wfeklt. hkt 
Vidaiifa end ad aififkai iraffa- 
(xm flf dM woriri. if deeply dev 
fncrnv ol ^ doaed jfaWoom ol 

: rapreaiMia 
ia Titiei iMi not vet afl^aed 
M^dhoi prapcKiioin , Kanh ribocii^ 

noibc. facial, aad idea^j^gKal 
ant ynca afamd a ptxpmi biM 
d a ka ce fa n people B«H terrm 
Af Tianaamm M^i>A«r )»% n<adr 
Tibd ««ry vu^acr^ ' aov. be- 
caoie rver met«ip ' v^-f&tcrary 
cawxn ufcvef94 'jie bMiben ol 
Beiftftf frois dtv ..TRifl^ the com 
(er ferakmufia..y wmlaray be- 
nrtea tbt tnpfertJicMioa o< 

Mallayaoa tHiddlWMi and rile tab 
rte. wihyerwvt. tifdmaiiacM 
MfyagraNi woraBag fbe Cftte 
Ikavrfdy Peace ll t* run \ntk 
a'& (fMttary amci«%i<vn»cal . b«f 
oitT fMvromenl'* mocal tdeace 
owr Vhei #9 rt»e*e fear* iImi 
amke* M accofPplKe* m tfir 
evoteOon tdeotogiua) cr»«ad 
ity M ilMia 7>c ladwa M«ru»4 
ivntiArnHHi k> flk» procc^ a ihaf 
f$ rod an m^rroal ghmt 0$ 

Cbioa'i aod cwtude the }«fn 
^r'foa ol oar moeal aHrff»Qie«l 

prol»aMy tfw MeM comwtom^ 
tflfca fc w e d M^aare ol hsmaii cm 
inaiiuo, ^ f» aKiT «>ii*KAc»9y (be 
d M«KWr CI11AJ wbeft 
tte ptffi4y 0$ cacii Rew Knerrtioa* 
c\«ncief»rO by her f« seKmHfed w 
the gvr of her niHhvYle rttlcf> 
TV yomnr br>ve Jukftrrf) 

remnty nafuleued . ifeerr 
mu9S date kiu4ed hie momnva 
f>r« mbcefraatiop 10 file ^eff^ 
iB*d«T«ef aHMMiDniig dictf 
dif^ferDwIy onbiufy aamafHus 
fnMn bcbmd doted palace dM» 
brrt Tlhetf diddrra wrc cefta» 
c iwoff i caft y Okstk id apprj» 
ance asd reabty. Nn a fhe« 
na9» MfMMufaai wiimacy with 
oon maiaUnd (l^one and c«farf 
Amben sid toocties the he 
tm »^eciet. (hry tmc anrc thaa 
Chiflew The «mii«iHlCid yodftft 
ten w€ft nkimM^f 0^ tkdAmt 
^ rfKotoiiotmj •tirhan and 
CeAcciwak. b«i« dM CoB^Kiaii 
civjt Ktddarily was dang l i uudy 
<M)efCfi( fftiai the manyNdahlc 
mas brurrta <4 recmi frvniy 
fMMMry icrfKratiom The ^uton 
**eft ctrlMtmiy niltUtttKtti by 
ht»rflamo thottfht. tm* dberr 

ad&iTdrMM <d rhr CMiddr%« 
IfK-fi^ »ai% a»iMe aa aiimM- 
Irdfecarfli of ihc «acfrdar^ ui 

(toaa CJiWabx wnt^hgi u< weal^ 
a«i4 p<v>«a o4 h^V*BeM And 
thcfc wak miv cuntcieacr ih«o 
cmnpiraey V* fhev aumraMraf. 
moee pnde than MtoaMMi^ pooet 
(}iufe««|ae niii^«iei\< A^n^ 
them' MiifheT Clkaa caMKK mm 
«^ dietf b«nh^ Ihoi cfied tht 
I rimed <l«ir asM^- 
af ««fti«wq. aad 
hewridefed bheiacaaa 
§rmy to ahofl the Ml^ipa^ hlov 
mouvH ai the taaatt aiocal aad 
ateta fwyncal wndoqi of ha iii a ai ty 
e^^ ta a c4tiKd lodef y ABivade 
•mi faydrd aat. or 90 H wnncd 

Me meafi^f^ o^ the la- 
oa Ian* 4 ffl Bei^ t> 

hit^N^ heairttM rhtofw dMd 
•Nb f«4dcd l^adft appMeacty 
pk Ahf^ »tfh d)e fmi i^rad to 
«fun> hn Mr and dW h§r ol fUe 
•moiMe haf eaiily Mnotd p»- 
rem npoa whuM i huul^i i he i» 
held aUf fcw the voftd to lehaW 
the rmoanf kace ol ahocd trv^ 
Th«( chad rt aiM> Chm< o« (ha 
<>tni foffh^ hh kiOen htcwiit 
they aiv ^psorant, GanM act- 
nMwfn^pt^ ««h loWipd baafh lha 
dmnr e^enct d hti aqper- 
crifed avMMM •\nd e««o aioea 
fn4*nm^ fto roup an ft). dM 
cMd i» NidalmaNa and y«< aadr- 
auMe «c{f knowle^ii 

{Vtilm^y aohaffaiafl^ ttmmh 
<ke lo «» dte oaf niiiMy ID Nidd 
••fti armd um ^ elws ai 

d «w hte on mh «h«i n 
d Uce y a Ma htaa aaf «pidk«ai 
dirMance al yaiifaM.i» %e 

iiy, and » rrwwnca da daMcw 
piu ie ttuM ol dmed wafii ntech 
date a« fif»^ ^ A«fde a* 
da^geramly fma ochei hnoiaa 
hei^ nd toKWfir*, tren onm 
besM hn^ Mid ipecir«. hwn the 
hnnihk mcefantcify of narwe Md 
die farradMahn^ aepaaie <M 

precaftoiicly ahf^ aS ctowdi, ao- 
mfa$, d e ad amiM d r fifctwai of 
«ha «« nw. which aiv lymteiwd 
ffi (he tame piMcfraph by Aa 
fc«^h«r ol dM lnda&m- < 

cafrd by a phoaofpwi^ tahan at 
the fcene of dir perfidy and piA- 
h»hed on Im 9 by Loodon I NWir 
Sr a flf M ona aad Sctfetf. Tht 
|itiianimrfi Anm a h^K of hei' 
wet* mjiv«<d inaethef m the iort- 


dhme child proamet a poa 
ideohxpcal. eim a pon-kaaaaal . 
Mrsf^y fqe hawialfy 

b hs» bcea reported hv aitfo- 
nmrt and wamnaati diM die 
Orr^ Wan «d Cbtea k Om otih 

m«be 8« 

XT bM tem reported by astronmits 
aiuioosmonauts that the Orest Wall of 
China ie the only handiworii of hiunan 
dvUiaatkm on eartti that la vMhle to 
the naked eye from outer spam. It la a 
profoundly embarraaaing reminder of 
our ability to build walla around 

laan^ of .Tunawmo 
S^Bua. Ifte die yonm wcma 
Mcfna of ««hh^f in New \o$%'% 
Ceneral fait. ha«r the power of 
«aa«t«aifl« a oew ipMttoaOy and 
lenMite cmtBanaa 
a ci«#tktfioo asorc 
. of Mt fhaa 
anfhrapocenifyc capvcahtm or 
eammtmot can tfft$ be, and 
more annaed to dM myvcry of 

8«f Chr 

Q artn c hK» aad Bmatm and Ra- 

pv flatidbn iQsd 0eoaaif Shvtioi 
and AremadMa* of ib« dme 
woM mau lo«d»y enoi^ t«ip- 

CI rfiev cmr«e btfore « i» too 
f They ha«v nprhmf to hMe 
hot tttmory •aA« of onrrow tett 
de^anion and p »ho4r ntwrrw 
of tympachy and wH rttkishcm 
10 fBM (of ( heg » «<» e> aad (twtr 
pet^ln. b^aawhde. unf ttT^era- 
am«'i fadan eirea re«oiely to 
cnocne ihc Br^^ caratfr. nod 
Doovdnnhas't cetMon^ of a 
moM coanr ■mnnjn chr meai 
dh^cci appeaiemean ol ryrwioy at 
n iime« j 

prtKwd M ao im^fc uf mpci^tt9d- 
•bfe male««depi fviufaiiuii, iben 
«<arrA«a«r«ibif. tecetra t torn 
dcf machme VrwMe lOK alwrrr 
fbe fpo^ (if bctmett. and Jattnf 
f Sc nrt^fcmrn h a heafi 

hMklmort vf hnmao crrdoaoon 
oo earth thai r% tmbk to fha 
naked e^ from otfter ipace 
Wh»lr iho (act 0 crrtaioly 1 tn- 
buu tv (he eofnwmni cap^id^ 
(*n til tMu 4peoe>. a B ^ a 

k aad wifi AM bdp m 
HpttTc ffich at 
• o » tn'%ui y lotf ID ChMM, and 
iT|My (00 

mm* ^Mnophrr ami 0*Hknf Hf 






'Even Congress poll says 190 at best' 


- 175 - 

Isns cxxild be religions as in Catholicism, or political philosophies as in 
social ism, or economic theories as in capitalism, or national conditions like 
nationalism or iirperialism. Ttiis set of isms applicable to India and other nations 
today deal with intenial problems and one of the methods oiployed to reach that 
goal {separatism and terrorism). 

Nationalism is surging in Eastern Europe as Soviet satellites atteipt to 
establish a new identity - Poland and Hungary, Even within the Soviet Union, 
nationalistic fervor is growing - Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia seek a greater voice. 
Riots have occurred in some of the southern republics as minority Armenians seek 
a separate area. 

Within India many factors have lead to the desire on the part of certain groups 
to seek a new nation. Language, religion, ethnic identity are all major factors. 
In the Punjab, a minority of the oft-maligned Sikhs are seeking a separate state 
called Khalistan. In Kashmir, the Moslem majority wants to join Pakistan, the arch- 
enemy of India. In the northeast states, referred to as the "7 Sisters,** "tribals,*' 
as the pap)ers refer to them, are seeking redress for many alleged injustices. 
Generally, the government's attitude is one of conteipt/disdain or one of overreact ion 
as in the case of the Golden Temple at Amritsar. Ihe armed guards and soldiers en- 
caiiped by the homes of the wealthy and government officials in Delhi indicate tl^e 
real threat of terrorism. Reality is that these people are dangerous and their goals 
are real although the eventuality of achieving separate states or droppnng out of 
India are virtually inpossible. 

1) Ccmpare India's separatist movements to those in the U.S.A. around 1860 and those 
taking place in the Soviet Union and Europe this year. 

2) Read several of the articles and describe the qovemn>ent's attitude^ towards the 
sepxiratists. Wli?it approaches vsould you suggest? 

3) How does the government of India sow the seeds fo^ its own dOTuso m India? Give 
sp'iecific exaiT^:>le5 frcm the articles attached here* 

- 176 - 

Dealing with Punjab 

ONE of ^hc most depressing 
things ab>ui our handling of the 
Punjab IS the general »tr of pessim- 
ism, a certain dem ^u, thai pervades 
amofi|sf the pci^ie ihc top re- 
5pons3)le for affairs there Whilst 
there seems to be acceptance of 
lerransm as a Jong-term probkm, 
th^.re I* also a companson of the 
Situation in Punjab ^ith thai in 
Northern Ireland, Whilst there may 
he points of similarit) between the 
two situations. the> are certainly not 
parallel Nonhem Ireland is sharply 
divided on sectanan lines between 
Mople who are ethnically of the same 
Gaelic stock The Roman Catholics, 
who are a minont) by a small irargm. 
want independence from the Bntish 
and union nith the Rcput?ic of Eire 
The Protestant majont\ wants a con- 
tinuation of the Bntish union The 
Catholic Irish Republican Army 
(IRA) was in the vanguard of the 
Sinn Fein revolt a^ainsi Bntish rule 
and Its weapon was the gun. There is. 
therefore, a long historv of violence 
in Ireland, going back i6 the medie\- 
al English attempts to establish hege- 
monv The Irish Protestants 
(Orangemen) have faced violence 
with violence In Ireland there is a 
war of liberation on the one hand and 
a stron£ reli^iuus reaction on the 
other fcrronsm is an outcome of 
thi^ situation and is one of th« r^i^iji 
taciics ol war 

B\ contrast, neither the Punjab of 
RaPjit Singh, nor of John Lawrence, 
nor in the present da>. is a scene of 
inter-racial. *ectanan or religious 
conflict The Sikh and the Hindu are 
not ddversanes there. Nor is there a 
war of liberation, for even that much 
tortured soul. Simranjit Singh Mann, 
has pubUclv repudiated the oonsen- 
sical sJoflaii of Khalistan WTiat we 
have itJ Punjab is a political struggle 
for power, pelf and mflucnce. in 
which the Congress is as much a 
( participant as the Akahs 
. One must, therefore, see the Pun- 
' jab pohticaJ scene holistically The 
! difference between Punjab and other 
I States IS that in the fon.ier elements 
i of religious bigotry, cnminabty, vio- 
lence and hatred for Government 
have become intenwined with some 
of the roost unprmapled politics in 
the counin However, restoration of 
ideologicallv souiid politics, based on 
imirutabic values, would soon isolate 
the other elements Permit me. 
therefore to differ ^ith the savants, 
including Julio Ribeiro. who com 

By M. N. Buch 

pare Nonhem Ireland with Punjab, 
and submit my vk^ that whilst the 
former fm>baNy represents an insu- 
perable problem, the latter is amen- 
able to a fairly rafwd sdution. pro- 
vided we handk it properly 

This IS not being done I am not 
sintfluij now in the Amnesty-PUCL- 
PUuR groove I speak as one who 
spent 28 years in the IAS before 
resigning and who. had circumst- 
ances permitted, might have been 
called upon to offiaallv piace my 
view* on rccoul in files The pohcc is 
virtual! V king, with the paramilitary 
forces being judge. Jury and execu- 
tioner rolled into one. The District 
Ma^strate and tl^ Supenntendent of 
Police who. as a team, elsewhere 
protect the citirens from abuse of 
power by officials, are irTele>ant and 
helpless spectators, a fact which is 
emphasised b> SPs themselves With 
the notonous tonure techniques ap- 
plied in Punjab to extract confes- 
sions, the has beer amended to 
permit admissibilitv ol confessions 
oefore a designated police officer as 
evidence in a trial People are picked 
up. illegally detau^d beyond 24 
hours without being produced before 
a magistrate, subjected to third de- 
gree and, mav be, killed. Mr N S 
Saksena. I.P, (RetdJ, a former police 
officer of great distinction, is on 
record to state that many encounters 
in Uttar Pradesh and Punjab are 
fake. The innocent die just as easily 
as the guilry if thc> happen to stand 
before an aimed gun. 

Torture chambers 

Are the citiiens of Punjab not 
entitled to the equal protection of 
laws under Anicle M of the Constit^ 
tion'^ Pan III. Chapter 4. Indian 
Evidence Act, dearly lays the burden 
of pTtyoi on the pany alleging a 
particular fact, that is. on the pro- 
secution in a cnmmal case. A basic 
plank of Anglo-Saxon criminal juris- 
prudence, on which our laws are 
based, is that an accused » innocent 
tit) proved guilty The soiled inter 
rogation centres at Sangrur and in the 
Red Fon are our versions of the 
Gestapo tonure chambers at Bend- 
lerstra&se and we should be ashamed 
of them. 

of Italy, was kidnapped by the Red 
Brigade . the police detained a sus- 
pect. The investigating officer sought 
permission to appl> extreme third 
dearee. The ai»wer of Genera) G 
ikuq Quesq. head of the Carabi- 
nieri, was dassic He said, "hah can 
survive the death of Aldo Moro. but 
it cannot survive the reintroducttcn 
of torture. " 

Can India survive it'* In an\ cas^ 
the most (tebased butchers who run 
these interrogation chambers are but 
untutored kids when compared with 
the professional of the Gesiapt^ 
Ilk^l anest. tonure and reprisal 
killings turned the French from ^ 
nation of collaborators into patriotic 
"Maruis". and in Yugoslavs tied 
down 40 divisions of German troop* 
m anti'panisan operations during ^hw 
Second World War Will we end nith 
every Punjabi beinp hostile to Go^ 
ernmeni'' Can we then rule Puniah ' 
Julio Ribeiro says that the Pun)ahj< 
are totally fed up of terrorism bur 
they are not pro-Government Ter- 
ronsm will end within a year of the 
people accepting Govemmeni as a 
Ihend Let us temporarih go back to 
the British system of ruling a turbu 
lent province The> put one man in 
charge of each distnct. the DC and 
centred all authority in him The SP 
was his partner and running mate ^As 
a m)n-regulation province the Pun^h 
had a minimum of code^. laus anJ 
regulations and a maximum of local 
initiative The DC and SP ran the 
show, the Governor held the reins 
loosely and gave gentle guidance 
Judicial pow er also vested in the DC 
and wrong-doers were quickh 
booked after a summary tnal DC^ 
and SP^ were hand-picked and peo 
pie reposed laith in their sen^^ 
justice and fauplay Gerald Templar 
did much the same in Mal;?ya. with 
the most telling results What we 
have done is to try and govern 
Punjab from Delhi, make the DC 
inetvant and let loose the paiamilii 
ary forces on a populace oecommg 
increasingly hostile to their actions 
WTiat purpose will the Pancha\ai 
Raj in Punjab serve if the CRP can 
shoot people without fear of retnbu- 

Terronsm in Punjab can be con 
tamed and eliminated because that 
Stale is f>ot Northern Ireland For 
Of what value is torture'^ The that to happen. New Delhi must shun 
informatiois gamed is unrebable and political c^nunism and give to the 
the danger of permanently hammg State an admmistration which is 
an innocent person ts great When 
Aldo Moro. formerly Pnme Minister 


cHcctivc . pro-pcopic and run b\ real 
l> top class officers 


- 17 / - 



Who's Who In Punjab Today 

mmltMmtm^ ^ fl . ' 

tMt If hodeora terrorteig and 
SBO othen hav« to be mbbed 

OMily S|p tenlcort tnrorifts in 

uwn Kuiaa ana 1009 OOMn 
cai^nrtd. At^ itill Icmiiatt 

cmpt admlfiMrtfloii teMdon 
' Pol^. WvMton to dtiwctlr re. 


«S^!2:' T?*?.^ Jynchpta of the 

todyfH etoanoMBian;iSS55 


One of Wa Kms. Swana mnA 

of the P&a^b cadre. The oM 
nwii;t ,dvll aervant aon is the 
f^Mam^ ^ the fanner Union 
totgii^Alfcki Miniatar. Swa- 1 

He la • tnember of tha naw 

Sl^^dow to Pttiatah In the 
iMt w«ak of lUr. Tlito to hto lint 
^ to PtiS&L Ha h^l^ 
*»«*«*fou»d war the past two I 


After Opontlon Bluairtnr. 
Sohan lUngh had made a 
•peech in one of the Chi 

Murdwam. A caae ttt 

waa i«0toterMi Mainat him. hie 
'^w^T'S?^ Mitflater fSniaed 
on b^He waa induetea to the 
new Panthic Committee last 
2!!L.®S25? ttiw he haa been 
mora activa. Aeeordloc to police 
•sjujt^ he to not onjjr the miito 
think tank of the Khallstani 




i ■ r- 

, i: : 


:4 r 

"Hie aecond mod nnpottant I 
«nan among the Puniab tenwi»t« 1 
tod^ a former student of the 
PiajM' Agriculture University. 
L<NttiieM. Hto name to Oajit 
Singh Sitto. He to in hto late 
**«>tiM. He to the co nv enor of 

^•*t^^i!S^ of the militant 
Att-Indto Sikh studento FVdera- 
tion. He to believed to have play- 
ed a mibor itrfe akmgwlth 
a«ranjlt Singh Channi. nephew 

« ^T^/^ J-gdev 
Singh lUwandl, kiUed in a 
police encounter last mwith, in J 
the reconatitution of the Panthic I 
Accmding to tht 
!»o. to in P&totan w. .„ , 

wn a ffaial yen* ^udcnt veteri- 
naay sc iences at Liudhiana Uni> 
vwsity when he gave up studies 
Mler Opentlon Blucstv and 
i(^ned the tcrroristo. 

OuiJant Slnrfi Rdsthanl. the 
brain behind the stunning 
MWage, to at preaent heading 
the Khaltotani Commando 
Foffce, believed to be the most 
elective and deadly among th»l 
^rorist groups. Ouijant mnghj 

Omganagar distr^J 

dwe to the new Panthic Com , 
I There to another Ouijant 

Sim* of vilhgB Budhsinghwato 

in nuldkot dtotrict He to head- 
I^Oie KhaUatan Uberationj 

n»ve. uM>thcr powerful terrorist] 

group in Puntob today. 

KanWaWt Singh to another I 
mnnber of tte iww Panthlcf 
Cwnmltttee, which accosxUng to 
PuiUab P«rilce chief K. P. S. 0111 
us bem calling the shoto diaringj 
m oast me mmith. Kar. wapiti 
SlMh. a young man. l>elonga to 
SuHanwiml area on ttw outsldrts 
of Amrits^ and has been Mtive 
in both /Hwming and taking part 
in the Umn^ during the past 
newlv five jr«tfa. 

Mehal Singh, an ex-service- 
man (he was in the Air Force) to 
^ in U» Panthic Committee.! 
He ^touki be in hto rariy-fortiesJ 
He belongs to the Babbar Khal-| 
sa, am^tlMr key terrorist group,] 
««P«t in the use of expkMives 
w»kbdev Singh, cousin of Mehai 
Singh, heads the Babbar Khalsa 
Both belong to village I>MUwal 
in Amritsar district According 
to police source, both the 
Mothers, at present, are ln:>f),l 
Pakistan. p ' ' 4 

3 terrorists 
among 8 shot 

CHANDIGARH, Ai^si 7 (UNi) 
Thr^ tcmorttis and a medical pracii- 
vjner weir among eight persons 
killed wtitle lecunty form aimted 
six ultras tn Pui^b during the past 
24 hours. One Joginder Singh was 
sIkm dead near Moga tn Faridkot 
district today. 

Two unidentified terrorists were 
shot dead m an encounter between 
B«maia and Lahowali villages in 
Tarn Taian police districl (Amritsar) 
this morning. One AK-47 rifle, eight 
m^azines and three letter heads of 
the -fChalisUn Commando Foite" 
wcft recovered from the site of the 

In another encounter in the same 
police district security forces gunned 
down OT^ morr unidentified tcrronst 
near Booh village last ntghL His 
three accomplices managed to es- 

The district police chief. Mr Bakkv 
Singh, said some ammunition was 
recovered from the site of the en- 

Terrorists shot dead two brothers at 
Dhardhian village in M^itha police 
district (Amritsar) this morning. The 
victims were identified as Sukhdcv 
Singh and Davinder Singh. 

Terrorists shot dead a bank gun- 
man, ide.itified sa BiUtcn Singh 
Ratvau in the industrial area here this 
morning However, the Chandigarh 
home sccrcury, Mr F.K.. Vcrma, 
claimed it was not a terrorist crime 
bci a case of attempted robber> 

ARMS SEIZED: Secuntv forces 
confiscated as manv as 11.4'jO difie- 
rcnt types of arms including 3i? rocket 
launchers, f-om Punjab between 

1VK4 and Juiv liiis jnj iHcm: 
^cre hmg with the Suic Ginern- 
mem, The Minister of State for 
Home Affairs. Mr F Chidambaram, 
told Mr Saroar Mukhcrjee m a writ- 
ten answer As manv as 17 rocket 
launchers. 575 pistols. IS4 revolvers 
and 166 AK-47 rifles were confis- 
catcd this vear alone ^ added 

FOREICS HAMD: Thcre\ some 
evidence of rerronMs in Jiimmu dnd 
Kashmir reccismf support from 
KHjrces outwdc India. Mr Chidam- 
h^fiim told Mr Anand Sharma m a 
written answer Actwding lo in 
formation available, a number of 
persons from the Valles had received 
arms and training for creating div 
OTdcrm the siare In repiv to another 
question, the Minister said Ml ores 
nised sp> networks were detected b\ 
the Gosernmenr wnce IWO 

Deaths in custody cast shadow on poKce force 


police custody 



•*Stilvimpi\u»r sboois rowdy to 

**i'Oi) oi Jered to probe lock-up 

Headlines tike Ibe^e appearing in 
the kx^ pfen thcie days are indtca- 
ttve of the fact thm of late deaths in 
pc^ke custody are qoHe frequent. 

There have been time deaths in 
police custody this yvar in Bmfm- 
km, shaking foither the already 
rroded aKtfideiKe of the people in 
police force. Of the three mddettts, 
the CBf and the COD have been 
asked to investigate one each while 
the third is under a departmental 

The latest hi the series of deaths 
came on July 14, frcnn Vyalikaval 
police station. H. Rangappa, an ac- 
cused in « cheating case, the police 
claimed, hanged himsetf to death 
from Che ceilif^s of the toUet in the 
police station. The ACP. Kengeri 
Gate division, is investigating the in- 

The Vyalikaval incident comes 
close on the heds of two more 
alleged deaths in pohce custody. 
Raghu , an accused in a murder case , 
died in the custody of Kengeri Gate 
police carty this year. A COD it>- 

Suiry has been ordered into the inci- 
ent as the then city police ocrnimts- 
sioner, Mr S.N.S. Murthy, express- 
ed his i^i^lhy to investi g ate. 

In vet another incident. Shekar 
alias ^*Slation*^ Shekar, an alleged 
rowdy, was shot dead by a sub- 
inspector at the former's house in 
Bana^wadi. early this fm^nfh, The 

fifth metropcrfftan magistrate has 
ordered the CBI to conduct m in- 
quiry into the inddent. 

But suiwtsingly, these incidents 
have not drawn the puMic attention 
as is the Rashced murder case. But 
then, the Raslwed case innrfves a 
then minister, Mr R.L. Jalq^, a 
DCP, Mr K. Narayan, and several 
policemen. Since Mr Rasfwed was 
m advocate his fraternity had come 
out against the state »ivemment 
and forced it to conoew their de- 
mand — onMng a CBI mqulry. 
Soon the events banned in quick 
succession, the IXT and other 
polkrmen had been arrested and 
Mr Jalappa secured an anticipator)' 

The Rasheed murder case sent 
shock-waves in the entire polKx 
force of the state. Police offfccrs 
confided that detection of crime in 
the city came down last year as a 
direct result of the Rashced ind- 

interestingly, there was only one 
alleged kKk up death in the dty la^t 
year as against three already re- 
ported this year. 

Many feel that death in police cus- 
tody is the sign of growing ruthless* 
ness and unchecked power of the 
police. Torture, they say, is in- 
creasingly being used with sadistic 
malevolence, to extract informa- 
tion, to either settle scores or to 
teach ''a lesson" to the person con- 

But police ofTrcers feel that there 
are different reaM>n!^ for deaths in 
custody Accordiitg to them, some 
of the arrested petMins norm.illy 

have sitictdal tendencies while 
others commit suidde unable to 
withstand mental agony and damage 
to their reputation. But they do 
admit that many a time it is the wer- 
enthusiastn to extract information 
whidi results in the death of de- 

Several officers object to brand- 
ing the police responsible for these 
deaths. They feel that on sever,-^ 
occasions it is not the police whti are 
responsible for the deaths as de- 
tenus commit suicide without the 
knowledge of the police. 

Some officers confide that they 
arc forced to resort to third degree 
nvthods on a hardened criminal as 
any other n^thods will not help 
them extract information. Pressures 
from variinis quarters. iiKluding 
from their top brass and the /general 
puMic. act upon them to take the 
case seriously and (teal with the ac- 
cused. "Without applying third de 
gree methods, we cannot just detect 
cases/' said one officer adding that 
resorting to such methixls has be- 
ccmc xIk ''occupational hazard/' 

But getting involved in such inci- 
dents — apart from being factually 
indulging rn violence — has acted 
upon the police tellingly. Fhe num- 
ber of officers known to handle 
crime cases efficiently i$ sloHly de- 
creasing and they arc prcfering non- 
executive iobs fearing their involve- 
ment in custodial deaths A police 
officer faces many oKsfHcles m per 
forming his duties properly and ihcy 
take off one's interest in the job it- 
self It is no surpi isc if one loses faith 
in oneself, for ue hnw rtM< hcd a 

^age when no one believes what ^ 


However, the city police commis- 
sioner, Mr R. Ramalinfam. does 
not agree that the third ^gree 
methtxts arc in existence ''In fact, 
we are exerting our officers to in- 
creasingly use sckntiftc methods of 
investigation/' he says. 

But thrs apart, if is a fact ttwt only 
a few cases are registered against the 
police and almost no cotrvicf ions are 
reported, desf^te torture being a cri- 
minal act punishable under Sections 
.l.'W and 3,^1 off the Indian Penal 
Code with a maximum of seven 
years* imprtsonment. 

According to figures available 
with the Dolice. a total of 34 deaths 
in custody have been reptHted be- 
tween IW<I and I9H8 in the statCt 
Bangalore rural aiKi Bijapur dis- 
tricts police stations have a large 
share in this with six deaths each. 

But I^amataka stands nowhere, 
say uyp police officers, jf a c^mpari- 
is made bitwctn the figures of 
tHher states with that of Karnataka 
They point out that there were as 
many as KM kick-up deaths in 
Andhra Pradesh in four years en- 
ding I9H8. 

Section 41 of the Criminal Proce^ 
dure C ode and recent laws like 
National Security Act and Terrorists 
and Disruptive Activities Act. have 
Bfm^d police aggres.%ion with furth-' 
er p^nvcr ffowcver. Kamalaka kist 
an opportunity to get the credit of 
becoming the first state to amend 
Seifion4l of theCr.P C afewytars 
igo After proles! from !he police 
foicc. the s(,ifc government put in 

cold storage a privite members* Bill 
to amend the Cr.P.C, by ptovidiny 
mm safeguards fo pivtM the 
righrs of an arrested person. 

The then Janata MLC and ptofes* 
sor of law m the Imhan InstiW of 
Management, Prof B.K. CTian- 
drashekar, moved the Bill m 1V86 
accordtttg to whkh an arrested per- 
SOT he ser%Td with tfie reasons for 
tus defemion. It atao sraght to give 
an opportunity to a pcnon to hand 
over the order of Ms wrest to *iny 
perscm of his cfioice in Ms localitv 

The then Janata gowitmcnt cre- 
ated some sort of hinorj by treating, 
>on November 1 1 , 1986, the proposal 
as an officiaJ Bill, as normafly a pri 
vate member's Bill h either with- 
drawn or voted out 

According to Prof Chandrashe- 
kar. even the opptvsition parties 
wanted to back the Bill but the gov 
emment decided to keep it in c«>kJ 
storage following protests from the 
police The Bill died a natiirnl JtMfh 
UilU^Wivy JivvfluP Mi of the ' 

However, custodial deaths con 
tinue, despite adverse publicity to it 
Perhaps it is time — especially since 
Karnataka registered an all-time 
high figures for lock-up deaths last 
year — that steps were taken to prc- 
vem the recurrence of such crimes 
As a police t^fkrer rightly said: "We 
arc ready to face any kind of press 
ure or dtsturtvancc tnit not deaths in 
custody. It not only puts a black 
mark on the poinx offker cw- 
cemed, Nit casts a shadow on thr 
image of the entire pt>fue forct 



Landlords abet dacoity 

The Tkofs of India Nein Scrrk* 
BETTIAH (West Chainparan). 

July J 6. 

REPEATED efforts by Ihe 
Bihargovernmcnt to check 
cnnie in Cnamparan have failed. 
All because the landed 
arisiocracy of the area rep- 
resented by a group of 100 famil- 
ies wished itlo be so. 

In local parlance, five of these 
femilies, owning laiifc estates, are 
calkd "vict<hanccllors** of the **uni- 
vcrsity of criminals**, an epithet given 
to this district by a Britisher, with the 
frmatning constituting the **faculty" 
The conditions pirvalent in the 
district arc congenial for rise in 
crime. The fiimiTies, like the Ram 
Naaar, Bilaspur, Bargaon. Dumana 
and Shikarpur estates, own 
thousands of acres of surp^t^* land 
This IS tilled b> poor farmers aided by 
landless agricultural labourers, the 
two sections constituting 90 per cent 
of the population. 

The cnmmais, products or feudal 
oppression ranging from dis- 
possession from their land to rape of 
their women, belong to backward 
classes and tribal communities. On 
' the other hand, over 60 per cent of the 

Kvemment machinery is controlled 
three forward castes. Not to be 
taken hghtl> is the fact the a sizeable 
section of Bihar*s burcaucracv and 
politicians are either drawn from 
these families or are related lo them 

Over 50 notorious gang leaders, 
induding Mema Ahir, £>njv MaUah, 
Nagendra Noniya, and another 3,000 
gai^ members or small-time cnmi- 
nals have cmeiied in this dccaik. 

Official statistics show thai 100 
murders 800 dacoitics and 250 kid- 
naf^ings were committed in iM 
Champaran range this decade, the 
number of imreported w hushed up 
cases being another 50 per cent. Two 
years afler laundiing the roiK:h-puNi- 
ciscd **(^)eration Wack panther , ihc 
government resigned itself to the fact 
that "crime coukJ be checked only by 
the continuous |»tseiK5c of para- 
military forces", whM* it hopcA 
would "forc5e the criminals to seek 
fibeltcr ehewhcre". 

In spnc of their caste loyalties, 
these dacoities act as mercenaries for 
anyone willing to pa>. They are used 
by powerful contractors, smugglers, 
landlords and politicians who are 
affluent but not aristocratic enoiil^ 
to command respect from the 
dacoits. Tte murder of the Congress 
MLA, Mr Trilok Harijan, and the 
kidnapping of Mr KJsanlal Arora, 
owner of a resuurant Iwrc. are reocnt 
instances. It is said Basudeo kid- 
napped Mr Arora at the instance of 
some contractors of Valmikinagar 
and extracted a ransom of Rs 2 lakhs 
before releasing him 

The credit for introducing the con- 
cept of "kidnapping for ransom" goes 
to 8 senior police official who was 
posted in the district in the early '80s 
He asked th<: criminals to stop **un- 
necf^ssan" murders and dacoities 
an<j instead advised them to kidnap 

'•some rich people and release them 
after extracting ransom". It was also 
be who ailegedJy uiicd the cnminals 
to "oTKanise ibemielves into gangs 

dacoiu have to dcpcxKl on the 
UiKkd aristocnic> for their existence 
It is a known £^ if a landlord is 
dis|rica<^ with a dacoit leader, he 
raises another protege and gets the 
ftrnner killed b> the mw leader 
Otherwise, the landlord simply tips 
off the police about the dacoits' 
hideout, and an "enoo'^nter" takes 

In return for the safety of their 
lives, the dacoits •*akl" the landlords 
in rnan^ng their estates and "over- 
see** fmuggling of ptecious wood 
along theindo-Nepal border. But 
there has been a new development in 
recent years. Man , of the ghats of the 
Gandak river m Champaran have 
\kco purchased by dacoits with 
financial assistance from the land- 
lords. They also pay for the mainten- 
ance of the ghats, repairs of boats and 
salaries of oarsmen, all of whom are 
aid to be criminals. 

The criminal-pobce nexus is 
another indication of the landlords 
itominance in Champaran. OfTicial 
sources admitted thai more than half 
of the police force belong to forward 
castes. A classic example is the al- 
leged threats meted out to the late Mr 
Hanjan by an office in charge of a 
particular police station when the 
former had raised the issue of the 
murder of a Tharu tribal. Kashi 
Mahto, by a wood smugglers' gang 
last year. 


= 1 

dead in Faridkot 

terroriM. PnjI Sintih jIij^ Dvub m 
wUcd m tKc June 2^ Mi^iJ Wiiimv!- 
anti hi> t^*» ala>lnpllvcr^ were sh^n 
dead M a f»cfvc i-noujnier m } jnJKoi 
diMrn in Pun}.ib itnLix. fLp^>ri> vifJ- 

tcrrori>tN nml j conMjHt ucrc >h.u 
dead Jnd H» cxtrcmiM^ ^^nh jfhin ano 
ammunition arrcMcd and IJ (xrvM)> 
injuTifd in pas! 24 houfN. «hf rL'p^»rt> 

the 'KhjIiNi.jn LttxTjitvtn Iau.v anv! 
carTvincarcHjfJo1R> MUMumb;^ 
hcjd and !uv> ol h»N 3CcompiKe> s^cf v 
shi>t and killed dunnj: an irmountu 
with J loini njkj part> ihc Pun,.it^ 
police and CRPf m uIUlic N^hun 
Khurd Khvic. under Moc^ Sjdd.^T 
p<.»Uc<f Mjifon m IjfidkiM diHtfKt 

The Joim naka pjru cn|:JCfJ tbv 
thrt^c !cn»»TiM> in jn fn^ounuT j*u f 
ihev on hcini: vh.ilk-ni.-^'d opined 

Twenty-six injured 

Vuvi .^anM ttctivitti^ demmdm£ 
{mmcdiate inquiry tnic the **illegaJ 
hr aequiwi mmM'* at the Oris&a 
Chief MinMer, Mr J. & PatnAik. 
the PCCO) chief; MrtLC. Lenka, 
Ml other CongresfO) Minteters, 
turned violent in ftmt ctf the In- 
eotne-lta CommteiMer'a ofRce 
here today. Tbiey dHahed v«^h the 
police; n peofsle iocfcidinf three 
* olBc^fl and one MLA, «m 

ecuffle ocirurred whra the 
dcfn{»\stratcm trted to faiecxm&h 
into the Commiovion^B ofl&ce. ig- 
Airing ^qSMli from mm of the 
taucff leadOT praaent, iKcludmg 
Ihe Yuva Jenetai ^vcxtefit, Mr 
MdUnikama Mohan^. and Mr 
jSfiiianta Jena. MLA. L«t». « dele- 
fation led l»y Mr UohMnty met ti>e 
CofTuniaaionar and aubmitted a 
n^rffnorandiun to him, which 
broufht tpcciSc chaiv«« against 
the Chj«f Minister and others, Blr 
Mohanty' said the Commissioner 
haid asAUvd them he would look 
into the aUegations and take 
necessary action. CorraqMMi- 


Goscrnmeni has ordered an inquirv 
into iin ifKidt.*fli tmohing j larcf 
number of Arm> jawan^ baved in 
Bikynof. armtd ^Mih iron rod and 
lathi> uho ucni on a rampage at the 
Lal^jrh Rinlwax Sutton and brutaH) 
' heaf up Ihe railWa> staff and passen- 
f^rs on JuK 5. ihc minister wid in 
fcpK lo J i^ocsnon 

Two shot dead 

PAWA. (UNI) Suspected Naxaliies 
shot dead two persons and injured 
several others at Karkoma village 
ander Meral bkfck ot Naxaiites 
dominated palamau dmnct yester- 
day, dfknal sources here saki today 
Laiid dispute was stated to be the 
cause (rf (he mcidenf 

2 killed in clashes 

HYDERABAD. (PTI) Two persom 
wttt kOled and at least 14 injured 
nhen tuo nvaJ pobtical jpoup^ 
cashed at Nadikudi viliafe in Guntur 
dbtnct, yestcnJay. The rival ffwps 
munbeiing abcNit 400 hurled several 
bomte at eaeh other, according to 
poikT KMifpes here 

Quilon firing 

QIHLON, Juhr ^ ^ One peraon 
was killed and over 100 others, in^ 
chiding 70 pohoemen, were injured 
when pottoe fired on agitating fiah- 
tag botf workers who turned vwv 
lent at Sakthikulanfftra, on the out- 
aUiti of fha town, fiiii evening, re- 
porta ff^ The car in which the 
MinLser tor rorait% Mr N. M. 
Joaep h , WW traveOingwfa ghera- 
oed Bf iigHators. llie worken 
had teen agHirtiM tor the past few 
desn dciaafidli^ fiWng of the Gov- 
tminawri ban on tnaiHinf hr 
meehanted fldiing boats along the 
ooaat dwing the monacx^ aeaaon 
as a BMMure ftir omMfving 
fiaheiiea reeourcaa 



- 182 - 


Novel police way to fight Naxalites 

•y C. S. VASU 
Tx^nm Nffws Service' 

HYDEi%RBAf>, July 31 
Tbc dbappeamct of Ikiab ud lU- 
jaiBftOv - aclMsfs of the Peoples 
War GftMffi, frtBdi led u> the bu- 
big tff^ Mm<U Praji FvUbad 
pmideiH md die thcbicboB of two 
otM MPP cfakb befdft the Gov^ 
enuseal iastinited e jiHiid ioqimy 
1» DOf aa holMcd ioslaaoe. 'raere 
arc, kyact. maay sack cases wfaicb 
fcave m cone lo tkiit at aB. 
Tbo^ AoAra PiadeA has carfted 
am o rict y for ^eooovnier'* kfflbui 
fc^ more thaa decade abd bw. 
ONKriviiy the 'diiipprannoe* oC 
leading ro e mbcrt of ms extmnift 
po^tm lateiy been one of the 
flMSthodi ^ tbc poiioe of *ioot oiii" 
Hicic have been at least 10 cases of 
, PWD adfviitt l)eiiig picked «f) by 
Ibc pdjkc ia the last three yean 
m erf them cither dk ap p car e d or 
ffmcd m at luvdentmed dead 
kMtics. Tbc modus opcraDdi <rf tbc 
polky bai been to wtmk tiicm 
away locnc fictittouft Charge asd 
thcfl there would be do trace of 
them. Ill order to make the kknti' 
Pcafloo UBpoaible, the dead 
' ho(Scs were defaced with the help 
of acid 

'The masing^ pbem^nesof) 
fcacbcd such proponium that the 
AP GvO Liberties Committee 
( APCLC) wrote to the Amnesty 
"iDtcmatiofiaJ to tend hs team to 
probe the "mystery UQiogs" by the 
state polkc duhhg the last two 

Dr K BalMopaJ, ^nera) secretary of 
the OvU Liberties Committee even 

apprc»cbed the AP Covrrfor 
a wfH of habeaus corpus dL xihig 
.the pc^c to pnxhice the aiinii^ 
penoos befoie the court. The 
court asked ^he Govcnwcof to 
aubiuit i rcpon on the miiilm 

Tk» vkcifla referred K> hi tik pethtOQ 
b do i yd lo die Nasaiite domiD* 
aied district of iCarismtttf^nd 
AdOated wti& a few other 

jwortcd boiD Wmof^^ 
HydenM dbfrieSL 
One of the btestpofice tactics related 
tCL Ch. Rttnaswny (32) of hte- 
damarri to AdSahad daiikt. Wm- 
ployed in the S^tarein Cofiteries« 
he was suted to have been whisked 
■way bv the Snrcial T«^ Foece on 
. May IS, this year Kis wife and 
man chtklren made fatae nmnds 
to the pohce station So fer. the 
oops have Doi discioicd his where- 

CSvj] r^ts activjfts afi^ that there 
are not accidental h^ypenh^ but 
part of a dd^erate pobcc irf the 
GovcrDment to iSspose of moocive- 
nicnt people in coomvaaor wM, 
dk poUce. They ooBase the iMnat 
of diese persons to the statemeatt 
{Kti out by the pohoe rhat 'ImsdeB' 
tified Nasafitcs;; w«e kfikd in the 
cncoimten. . 

It is pointed ottt ttat this is not a 
casual pheoomtoon hot a well de- 
sifDed strategy conscjoosfV pgr- 
wed by the pohce in the Me ot 
riuog wotests. A maj<v conveni- 
enoe «itb such kiUings is ihm there 
is no evidence - no body, no 
inquest and no mj^btehal faKRdiy. 
Thus, there is a bttk posriMMy €4 
the state-pcfpetrated crime being 

The <rf SO-ycar-oW Smianar- 

. aisma of Waruigal was n^seraMe 
After the dtsttpeitfttioe of her scHi 
Velpida VefUteswiHiu ^as Pra- 
hash, "abduct by the po^ m 
Apr3 last vear. 

/locoed hi imie crimbiai cms. Pra- 
%JHh fan yp pobtical activity and 
ijiriwdtrtd to the poSoe. He was 

^.JcS^d ia Jmse 1986 «id released on 
wa o» March 31 tot ymr but was 

- aooD icmcsted and nemanded to 
te&ial cBsiody on a fresh charge. 

^*Ht was ^lam arrested mi released 
on bd the foltowii^ sooth. He 
Vas picfced ay at tbe)ai gam and 
has neeo mfsstag ew sdcc**, ^ 
Ueina mofligi §MkL 

The next momittt she ^ her son in 
Shympet pohce staticm and was 
even told that haS pnen weie 
bek^ idgnMi tor his rriease Bot 

,;Die pmniaed releaK did mn 
materialise On May 25 when the 
parents met the poRoe officers, 
they (lady denied the nesi and 
the profxxed release: What is 

- nacHe. they tmaOv feigned iyior- 
mce about Ins a ^cieabo cu. 

Sheikh Imam <rf Waraogal was 
dIegetSy arrested and tortured to 
death The dead body was thiown 
nader an eifmss.train on April 12, 
1986. Tte nest dav. the poboe 
dbcovered the l>o^. oooducted 
The inquest and announced t^t an 
enremist caoying ez^k>sives and 
arms had slipped and fetl under a 
train be was trying to board in m 

Take the case of Punnam Oiander of 
Warangal and Rammia Reddy of 
Karimmgar. fi<^ of them were 
lodged in 8 jafl in Otnsa after their 
arrest The AP police took penniv 

sicm from the magislraie to brmg 
ttie two to the stale in connection 
with a case and the> were con\e- 
mentiy ^dki^speared*' enroute 
The pcriKe have appiremly employed 
dlis method even ^tnsi ordinary 
cnrntnalstf tt^ frequent allegations 
' by their kith Md kin against the 

potee are ao be 'believed. 
One such instanoe is th« of 20-vear- 
old Raju. tti afoged thief, whose 
body was fdwid very near the 
Saifahad poto station in the at\ a 
few days after he reponedlv 
escaped from the custody of (he 
pohoe on Joly 2. 

Whfle Rahi's mother alleges that her 
vc»> had been Xepf in the Gandht 
Ni^ police Aatkm more than a 
SKmth mi bntur^. the police 
veisicm is that Raju escaped from 
their cssiody whtk he was being 
jiBterrogaied. They said thty knc^ 
nothing about l^m until hi^ boJ\ 
was traced. 

The other cases referred lo bv the 
csvil r^ actn'Bts indude thai of 

A. Snoivas. Bejjanki Ravindcr. 
Challa BMni Reddv. G Ra^aiah 

B. Jaoardhan Reddy. M Raiaiah 
of Kanmoapr. Benjamin and 
Sukhjeevan Redds^ of Hyckrabad 
Dr Pras^ of RajalimundW^ Kimar 
Alis Venkateswar Rao of amaia 
puram. Gellanki Oienchhu Redd> 
and Venkateswailu of Nellort 
Most of them 4re actvists or sym 
patluscrs of vanoos Nauiiie 

Civil rights activisis^ demand that the 
Goyemmcnt should utstjtusc a 
judiciaf ii^mry imo all these cases 
as it dkJ in the case of liaiah and 

- 183 

2 HI 



If a picture is worth a thousand words than a cartoon is as pointed/poignant 
as a well-written editorial. Herblock, Oliphant, Darcy, and Lord are as famous, 
if not more so, than the syndicated editorial writers. 

India's political artists paint with the same pointed brush as their American 
counterparts. And, in studying their cartoonists, one sees the unveiling of a 
major domestic/international story be it here or on the subcontinent. 

1 ) Have the students bring in a series of cartoons frcm tlie local paper reflect- 
ing a local, national, and international issue. Using the overhead projector, 
have the students explain the meaning of the Ccirtoonist effort. 

2) To teach a lesson on the Indian political scene, utilize a series of cartoons 
that are found here. 

3) Have the students create their own cartoons reflecting the problans you would 
be covering at the mcment. 

- 185 - 

- 186'>| 

You said it 

by Laxman , . 

tmyer, etc 

You said It 


erer tl«c« *• earn nmtmktii 


You said it 

t>y Laxnwi 

Now critidsiBS, aBegattoaf nod 
sttscks win start all om M>u>- 
Wby dool ow P«>pte ^ 
tkose abroad, Bodentanding 
and fHcfldty? 

2t 7 

- 190 ' * 

w£ m ^^£s 


7W«#^M«# biif I mm vote fof 
th0 OO0 whp mMk03 tf>0 feesi 
noi^ C>#far« my r»oi/M 


^08 ©M. 





- 192^ " 



- 193 - 


Ckay, I had 200 plus articles and I devised a dozen categories. Out on 
the dining rocni table, I placed/spread the dozen 3 by 5 cards with the categories/ 
titles written on them. So now I shuffled the articles out. Wiere does this 
article go, how about this one? I was left with about ten articles that defied 
my divisions - enjoy!! 


- 194 - 

How does one survive in Deltii? 

Influence peddling only way out 

DWB ID b««« • farent b)r cter rifJH 

}mm takm m 

MttMKniivk AnnocvMy* tfMB Ef •••• 
■el ■ » cscri^cb* till «»«w«»Mt and 
Aqr wiB ikoM back ika norr oanHpnoR wSbi 
^ lanb if flBHi m^fiiid Ac pM«^ G 
> C!ft i i>iPwrfdw t Mi« wnrj ti^evsSy team 
fife 19 toiffii' •fjo h i ftaw iad i panxvAi' 
f0v«iBMBf dariaian aitf Hmm dk* krfWrwi 
luikUIm^ ofxnli confldH^y widMutt Ac nsk <^ 
cqvMd 71a lo^Qn gcMial may te sm 

■id dtoat *te acmyr k^lbanca padifki ii bw 
Abi iha ^'ifrT ^ fawaor «aa*t fat far away 
li ii an orfanifad Mwpy frm tna*dr a* wall m 
fra^ooMdadMffowaraoianilofcaapoe imcMttv 

araRMi Id Mrich a pv^tmlai oimai 
l&r^iaiR paddkn Ariva oaty fans Ac faci Aai 
At fcn^flmaQf bnavpaai ^ floi Amh ip Aa opm 
and Mth o & f in Aa ^Mparacncia H hoAarvd a^ 
ftaiA aia lakaa ftnn awy AAviduat's pookas 

After rcCif'cmcot 

TWf) Aw af« g i tab b n of r»b«»fiM wiK> 
tn Acir paofcca wteik iitfl««ioa:i| i ffovacon^ 
t uya p w iv ^TT«t flML Many colkn 
Aev c^fi^ finA tor atacssi is A« iiiaiai i 
TWk Mn ^jpraadi At iWam ad dHVoab apd 
farflMBSBi AaoB ID okM ad^cssam «i i ptfucatar 
wwf SooM awn p to Aa asaw of biaur Jy 
aiktf^ avrtwMd ^esbovM ia fvbasMBi if tf«n 
voit ti not dena Tb«« «a f cw aff iw ca i e/Ticiab 

Tit i M omuffn caaiion of 
em Taeaday la aS p»«bafiib«y. ba 
Ar im t*au of Ac pmm Uk f^6a. Thr 
oppotiuan i>w tfafoid A fee Ac Kafw 

oa Mppday bt^mnam mw ihm a& p«M inB 
coabw ID pcapw a ^oaa cfcv](a'fl)acf a ^rnn 
Aa fOwtfvaMM to bfAB at^^^ ^fiAao < ww i nn 
Aid ikm fD IB Aa paoplr ariA a id miaaw m 
aiacA i^raaK^ ai Acy can. 

Qm Aa (aca af Aa Coa(fa«aCI) w31 ay IP 
tmtha taair id %l»latt«t bnrinrii atic^ 
^ ' la iptani. Tw« caasiifucioaal 

bilbw one cai iwwfiay ^ aad mAn 
aavmaffitfftai^wiSfaiiapjrierify. Afaonghitf 
a daaaa oAa biBi to caaic y Aati^ Ac ccaiain 
ii Ato bffl far sapaaim of Goc»i|iBBatf laA. Tbc 
A^ bffl n ^l>v*irf by a aatamsai of 
cWrfinijain >i taaiaAiy Tic fttoc Umtmrn 
^ ticp tnitratort Ail be «ouM mt^nmn m 
fa Aa lalaii pUmt Aam 
Ar aaako oo Ac Soai of Aa Jaaai i* Eaafs 
YapM >Mairbid dM« Ac bMdfai cwai 

C^t^Mon panJa» lad basi barpBii oa aQft- 
ito^rfanMlapan o^ Ac Mgtda? C u wumciw * 
ftpm on bacbwaid cfaaai Tlarv AovU be bd 
BB^nac Ac yovartoBBM aooi^Ki dte r^oci aad 
A«» caop Ac oppoHttocf pfofn^gcnda Ok&t) 
laatoa^y Ac oomj c nw d mnainq ha»c b«p aAad 
to ^mMy pKuta* Ar n^vfi tfid barp n fcnly (or 
oai «r mc 

RafOT ti amiAs away but Ar aJaoioc 
amwc^Aai t « afrecdy bc^ fait m Ac capnal. 
MoaJ of Ac mini party t p4ai» aad wdim% 

rmhrn Am on BMk Tlay bar* Ac kwk of 
cHaUtatent * ' i\m \m\\ i rf niiai ih iii wiA Ac 
iai«aa pviMa ^Jiaoacb^f for a tevota 

S fM «a A 1Mb aad if yu ba«« oatAcr 
I aca a cemtfi ««b i^fiiic aa ibfaia 
a lilc wffi ba aiteAk. ^MlAi av*aa ia 



frr a diad ii a «osd tiM. yoa Ui] ariAaci 
AttMoaa 6«« for t»am$ a coobo^ ai 

eraiD laiai^ mki^^m^^ >i aaooMBi S^m 
aioaiypcy, AftnrnpaMfagtAad. Toac«ica Aa 
|ai ooMpactioD oal 0^* Q«B »iac A^sioaadf ta 

mnnaba frsm Ac VTP qoota if aa MF obi^ 
ton or coaraa, M1H daol malia anoay ai tvA 
fa»«n Nm dMs d»y don't ba^ nka Aay bM» 

'*'n ftrr t a n f ii in j rm fia inrfid in f iifi a c ai man 

Cm h be Hopped? 

biMwraiTy. wbi^ bar wbad to 
wdtoa *^ b^aaaca paddhcA. ar 
cavb aa cfm d wimxr acy to b a^ndd anpoac 

BMaatcm .«is« Ac mooi queutar wheAer u s 
adfeicd to ftKHMCf pr« -eimcuati $t(i» on Ac people 
Tla '^y-f— ft •tU ai feait procc^ agit^M the 
•vfecaae* ctacaavoad Av fo««mpifln&, bm a« Ac 
AKCa) Osm) Sapwy. Mr Vilf €^l. 

k a a ^wto arm' lituiaian for Aa raimf 
pto^ If Ac a cpaa atow fcaapi aiuaL Ac 
Coa^ataaCI) bav« Aa adv«aiaf« of 
AAiBBaaa racan ▼ A sad) adano ai 
atartiai Aad If ^ o n^atf* ^ puaack Ac 
Ccar«w(n ^ ad*aaMi> to fa to to Ac 
*oton Md 1^ Acto lo* Ac o yp uc ttjon wai 
bloct^ adftoa atoacwai amat for Ac paopte 
bCr ft^ OtoaM lai toamd aacA a 

cawyaifp by n^aato^ biasuni dto appomtoa 
Cor aOB^pto lo htock wtM be dncnboi 9t Ac 
to*wi»om% iwific to grxa po«v«n to Ac 
peopk Aromh Ac r a a di yi Bill 

Uto fDianaiiMi* iDAtfOial pokey tf n c 
itoto flf llm. d i to^nm bd faai Ato nr» dariiRjsB 
ovvvtaSea dto |B a»i o ac anca ameh hmfen Aay mx 
1^ I toxical an tod laat yaai A« 

M to kKMc )0 ^Mb 

A bac t^ gd araca « a ooa of fta ^JOOO 
A Aa aaii Dv« ^Foan to pao*iA 
fvaav Ad^afftofintoaad of ffv^f 

ftwp dto ataic fovcnwmm. finan*.**! 

( Bid maAai bpryvwm$* 
E««R ivftoB dto Caaav wa* hoidrng 
I wtA ctatoc \mi OtooA id fm^tac itx 
btoKMW of dto flni ctaA b] powtf) emmet. 

Cortifmaci oa ctonc ow »»d« Ac m» 
leaooB Mbeyto ba iiu p kmfwi iad dkoni Ac 
Eifteb rln baftssai-aa aamt y«« Tic 
mmaniMimi bai aoocfaad Ac mabiy Aai Ac 
polpy of bacfc^to^ vaa dc««iopm«ni pt/nmii 
for o*m t9v dkacaA* bad iio< baan ««r> 
la aiciy casaa, Wjtf^ cocu 
ispfy dac id many ovrhaaA ay 
\ tbt nfrawoaa 

Ac fttbcy iBidcr impkmatiaiMjr 
iflf 'lag^owAoMaacloM im 
"to Planntfif 
1 dtoi AancT 

■ Is ta af^voacb pt^ar pandu^g wtA Ac 
fVtnc Maxtor to t^ o ^ m g Aa Eif^ Plan, th< 
owtoHfto ato 1m eolBsad oto Aal iocabon of 
Adbaoica is laAad to wbanaatton Bid dBspiir ill 
aftortt At vaad of tffteo mt^wsm had 

If hto W>||ll|ffll1 rrni lIllfBTMllfTll llTtl fif 

M^Anna toww souid a> ka»i 
CBta»I migrauaB to die fneoapDlta wb»k malunf 
bevar oac of Aa ei«tnf faaimfic if\ Aaw areai 
imeadoffpflida^lHttatasfls tocrcttr Ac *am' 
Cad&iaa alia al ui Mtotadna mmg€XTmM^ 
canabDba«aiif»ariAocaBKidi AfTiftthy around 
AficciowTa >to « pti n ca pf An rpcom mm datiofi 
•DoJd l«A« toC^ fito«nKnjlcc« Ac onfoin^ 
a»sctoc to Ac InA i ric i Mancvy to ^wcil^ 
locale fi««A oiacj Oi backward areas 

Many dtonfc* lave beer made tr Ar iast iJvar 
or four yean to Aco«aaf Ar cx>rporcK »«ctcK » 
aixia] respctts^ffy to omr wnh otf f(Ha>ding 
fadiBs' Aran dbai acof«»r*c pnw^ dotH»g^ 
rapid BfdittxnaktMtton «ouk} factlfiatr ilw 
tAtmaia obfcctire of aana} dr»ciopnrfi! Th< 
fo«r0ng|ic^ trano Ac f«iduMT> to uAtc up \hc 
ftnu^ roic of (act)rtaimf end prttmoung kh.)4I 
ill I tuaiaiii 01 torrac of bernr fm|>)cyTr>rn: 
onvrruratttt, mnovd of itf uinal imhclancx 
]v»notronof0«dwstr^a>den>ocTac% AUiVMadd 
vp to >«i«u» and promoie Ar q4ial<f> of \ii< of ihr 

8y Aa ««ry dafaiiuon of tokith anxNira^iiry 
a choukJ ba otastdc Ae framrwori o< ia* « 
fboald be wohanar) «¥f bm starutory Such si 
aoDotfiiMff) wac, bowavcr. auMCOf ai At p**' 
aod bar** e • ipaie of keg^laiiom Md }eyivja»^ 
narms w«t inipa ao d Rdaaauon of Ac»e norm* 
bagtoi a^KT b(r Saj>>' Gitodbi loafc o^ax ai ^vn€ 
Mmtfttf wiA Aa iavtm lopr tf«at dM oxkmn 
arfll rac^iproctoc wub fPViaJ reapcvuiUiti) The 
fipidaoocianMCfnnrAto fauhofllaftfr«9ita)erf 
Ac poicey of aKnaactf^ eoctaols a Am ios 
avtsryoM to toe bta *^ Ittlk ba^ b»efl doiv tr 
of accia! aocotouaNh'^ cji£<p< ioi 
of dto wrpwi ic pb»^:jwpy 
adA up to boAibs m ccaura*} to die •aned 
p obtom Ac coucury (acec tada^ 

Tito ^tfeat o o n o aai i o n Ar tnautsry tocwotS 
la<t )toto o dala»»in| wf* w M aorr umjo 
wftKb aO BOB raonop)) bovto «)d non FIKA 
ODcqpantfa an aaaa^ ^rxxn Ac lucmtrv^ 
nrofttuons t/ Ac factory a » be kicai«d tn « 
backward araa T^ encmpuoo bOM i« R» 15 
caorc to Uto aon bacfc«»vd ar«ai THi Be«a(f*« 
fad' of mdimnaa ra^iraif compubory boen*in| 
i^farcOato of A^csonenf bar taaaa AauKail> 
iaAtotd&«nT7nani»to26»ie>itt iadutscrial imtt 
to« a!aD toitomaoc^^ «MHM to bichcr capccfiy 
ia dtos fictoipa oe Ac baca <^ maAanuni 

aradacttcn aciua!)> ad»««««d to 1 9ft 19 or 1 W 
40 Obfbiaion d' Ar cnctalkry nda 

bto abo 

dacsionc la A>r da acuon. £•^'0 ao i 
paritfttoi wS la daav to Aw ftaiA I 

tolOpto oaM of a» prodtfCtMSd Of cervtocs to <nc 
£v«e d» MUTT oompauca whocc 
iB^alb 100 (Tore ar« BOW oasced 
ac aon MSTP oflmpcnju m raapaci of poducu 
o<te Abb dtoce w Mbcf) Ae^ arr eUuir»ad ai 


o O '> 
- 195 - 4' 'J 


Interior Design for a MIG House 

' . . ' ^^^^^ ri. 

1 A couifofuWc iKPfHC leads » a been fiwd » tic waB 
'happ% home And in order to have a becomes g mtiki p*iiposc taWe wt^ 
comfoftabk house you oecd a laric am be «sed as a wntmg table »^ 
(kxK area which t$ not avalM^e a dretsiag UWe Mica re^^^^- *" 
lodav Within the pvcn area yoo htdmm a nfthc has bceii fw^ 
tiavc to make best mt by efScicmty s^ded by *c Viiktef which »J»«- 

Iu«ng the space in ienm of layoot. loed MS 4| w«*obe This wanrae 
dJ^ign. detail and coknir^ so 0»ai it« hav«p*6dm| shutter* to $a%«on 
basic iMcds of the famiK are wet the Sfnct in Ihc bedroom This war- 
The most economical and widely dnsbe b tt> he fo designed so as lo 
'i\ed in houses todav in the c«v of meet the mdhidual meeds The war- 
Delhi are constructed 0> the DDA dfdbe should consist <rf a f cw draw 
The\ cnake different categories for eii. a liaogtag ^»ce and shelves to 
vartouv income brak^jets. Let us take i^eep ckjfbers. A k>ag mkror can be 
IS an ex*unpk a caicTOT^ U Type A 2 fucd toooc of ftie wyiko be sbaiws 

built on an area of Sb.^-sq meietVj- ■ — : 

As you see in Ihf layout plan mo« 
of the (uncltons have been met. 

As vou enter, you cocne into the 
fi%ing room where a few sofa seats 
aJong *ith B centre and side tables 
%ave been provided In the waH 
adjacent to he entraijce door, a long 
cabinel. about T in height, has been 
%hov^T\ This cabinet should be abouf 
18' deep and can hokJ a T\' . VCR. a 
MuSic system book* and of courve 
some cuno^ aiKS display items. This 
roonr IS piimanK to be used as a 
lobh> area or a k^ungc as abo to 
entertain guests 

between the living roow and dm- 
ing room di> shonn id the illustration 
another cabine* ha> been provided 
This f> a inuiii tuncttonal cabinet one 
* «de ofv^hHTbcanbe ased^sastorage 
^for Crocker^. cuf1er> and a place to 
keep vour toaster an<3 the otner side 
could t>e used as a disfHay. This 
cabinet has a split height i.e, H is 6' 
[ high near the wall and the other end 
^ would be jusi 4 hi^h Thtt break in 
hei^hi will make .the two areas kx>k 
connected and not boxed up ms also 
will serve as a visual btock between 
3 the two areas The dining room 9ho 
^has a table for 6. enough for the 
famih to have a sii down meal In 
case you still feel the shortage of 
space you could pot up about a 6' 
wide and T lo ?' lon^ «ietves on the 
wall on brackets again aJ difference 
heights, so as to form some kind of 
I 4csj^n 

The master Bedroom or Bed I. if 
you notice, has all t^ basics It has a 
' iii uNe bed u hich ts really a box bed 
ic below the mattress are shwners 
p\cd on hinges wbwh caa be lifted 
and the area below used for storage 
The head board j^iM is ahotrr 6' 
)wf^e. the top of wfuch can be ised to 
l^ay a ckxk. books, a |«if of waicr. 
AkKg the bed a hedude table has 
Iheen pl^^ on one wk whk^ hasto 
kbc so designed as to hokS as €ntck » 

On the oOier skk ot the bed. a 
wnier^dres&er has been placed This 
is a tat>k r6*' hi^ and'bout 4' kMig 
with_drawers On the wtf above 
76". a minor 4' wide and 4' 3ugh Itfs 

cabincisor ven nanow hinged denn- 
Kk«yy on a linked rod so thai t^^ 
can be opened together for easu- 

Area under sink can be c^nercc' 
wilh i^nable shutters, and one ^> 
Xhe shuti^crs can have a porl*i^ik 

The batb room can have a shoN^cf 
cunaio to visually dis'ide n into in** 
areas the shower area and the v^J^h 
hiasm/l^'.C. area Hooks behind the 
tfcicn air practical for hanctr; 

2 seoROOM wrr (cateoo«y-«) 


A kitchen » the hub of the house 
Kitchen design has changed a gr^at 
deal 4^nce the introduction of many 
reliable and well designed mechanic- 
al iiems wh«^ takes tbc slavery out 
of vn^xlung c« a larfc refngerator 
ooi 01^ k^ps a vahely of fo^ at 
different temperatures, but is a long 
term store so you don't need io go 
macrkeang coostaotfy. * 

Kitchen fet a gieat.dea] of hard 
use. an choose materials, both for 
WQ(k lops and fteon. hliich wili 
mefkm well a«l be 'mmtffiMc. In 
India ooe ^ fbe hesi Mkfaeo top is 
inarbfe as It fs long laAmg and eafy to 
m^iotaio. it is alto an additiooal 
cbttjq^ and ehoppit^ sttfiaoe. 

Rx a mril fhdf lor spices and herb 
^lioRteal^^cook^area adthacai) 
^ heteai' ao h^flf cbokiiu implements. 
A bsA f& kflSe racli kcip$ to make 
the cook's fife easj^-and abo keeps 
the blades bmAet sham, 
k IS better to have ^khng doon to 

doihes A small closed storage sp^.. 
in a comer (or M>iled clothes kccp^ 
the bathroom nea: Area above ih. 
was£d»stfi (below the mirror i c.r 
have a namw ledge to keep soap cu 
A small %raU hung cabinet id this au , 
ts hand>' to keep loiictrs. shaMni- 
kMs. medicine etc The shower arc. 
©ay have another cabinei to keep 
shampoo etc A couple of towel rd^ K- 
arc a mu^t 

In the other bedroom again v^l 
have 2 single beds. basicalH maur^^ 
ses placed on the Qoor which is rai>L 
by 6" Behind these beds wc ha^c 
storage going up about 3' It also h.'> 
a wardrobe lor stcn-agc and flap vm 
die waU to be used as a wntmg tat>k 
when re(|(ured 

yom need any (le(aH<> or if yov 
my ^cMitkias rrlafiag to tht 

l^eaar wriu ><Kfr Wfter^ t<< 
Mehta« C o Indian ^ vprc^^ 



- 196 -29- 

On the ghats of Pushkar 

By Robert Cullen 

A msiantlv Ukc, The road sign More enicrrmi: ihis 
dpcn town r..ds Ir^ Wi.c To B. Impcmant Bu: 1 1 > 
fr r h""^^'''"^ I" ^ ^ mor.l Ic.rnt perhaps 

rn^rn mad" '^'"^'^'^^^"^ ^^"^^^^ ^^ndenng doun the 

1 ^pcak uiih Ram Da^s and his fncnds from d ncjrhv 
^iHji!. It seems ihai cverv >car fhc uhok village £cis 
lo^eiher lo fi^ih: one another Ii s a tree-for^ai! three 
nours ^ dj\ cverN dj\ for four dj\s' 

-.At the end oi each da> s biffme ihe ones siill 
Mjndjnc cet pelted w,th sione^ hv the others lo make 
.hem Mop Ram Da%s lells me ' W hen ,i s all o>er 
cNervone shakes hand% and goes home " 

Ram Dajs's fncnds enthusjasncalK in lo convince 
me of ris adNanlaces U y th. perfect' tome for stress 
hcN ins|M -Some of the villagers will carr^ a crud'^c 
for tuehe months of the vear. pcrtecfU ha'pni.h' 
KnosKin^ ^ouscc. that ai the end of n all thev can even 
trie score 

mtercMjnij* | v%onder hou that would v^ork in , 
.-lis Delni ^ Connjuiiht Pla.c perhjp. could he 
...nvcrtcd mio a gunt fightinji arena tor a feu d.xs 
Hhik Delhi s cMj/cn^ enjox a tremendous free-for all' 
lh> stress reducjne possihilines could he endless 

Pushkar is a vcsetarian toun Uhile lakm • 
leisurelx suim across the sacred Pushkar lake I 
picked on h\ a hu^gr^ creature uhich tried to hiic ni . 
M oU Liiile did he realise hui he uas up ai23jn< 
expert chjckep as I made vid splashes rou'^rd- tk 
shore The panu-stncken fncnds didn t stop until J wjs 
shisering saieix on the siep'. of the ghai 

I must sa\ It seems a httle unfair If uc can i eat thvrr 
then thev shouldn't eat us In all truth though I diJn : 
acfuallv see hin^ I think Jt uas a lurile. hut not hjMn- 
taken time to studv i\ m detail, it couid ha%e he.- 
anvthmg Which brings to mind the man-eating crovo 
dilc which used to reside here not so lone ago' 

The las! flock of ducks made graceful exn as e\crnn 
dosed m around the lake Lights began to appeal h' 
the ghatv. their reflections shming c!ear|\ m the c^l- 
^*ater The sound of temple bells floated acr^ns the \,sk, 
and was answered h> the deep res^matmi: note oi „ 
conch From the oppvMie shore came ih. sponUfKou- 
sound of a flute breakmi: awa\ m a tune ol itv own 
Some peacocks joined the choruv 

I Kvkcd down at m\ iwo-rupee wooden Hutc which j 
had bi^ueht m the m^fK.i carlu-r 1'J ,om in ^^'U■ 
the s\mphons. hut reir^mco it wav hardix the nci.' 
Mn,e to take up m\ firs! jesNon 


- 197 - 


The language war 

By Sbyam lUtna Gopia 

n ws» grtieTaih agreed, imdcr tic«ri»ra!idii«ii«>t A heated 6c 

tbck»den£9f>o(MAt»tinaG«mfiu. tote commDn 
ifcm Hio* w HBKhi»Uiri wOl be the "butk" fof U«^u»fc*. 

'"yy^ ^ tb««b*e«inmgl> bkJod)e»i.h«4d» 

ItoA to iq^ttful p*« tfJ die owm- .--^ ,^ the peoolr wd rociie thrm 

MidtinmaOsiidhi.»»»iyi>thetaof i™.^Sf5ieir dio.ce or 

oied for Of«l ooomtmicsfKMi tbn^ '^sji^ ^yar" En^ah raihcr 

Hiodi «id Untn. oould be tododed tt> fac tbe ftmer m ka»( 

iD Hindtattm bicrMWV OtIieT ItKb' «mt%aj tbe tnm^WTk ebfc m ibc 

sa larfguifr* were ft> be eoaottr- gg^^ u » aho tmperoepciM^ 

aped. «)d if w n n frffd tltaf tfie ^^^fj^ not oeivty a» • bni Uii 

pe&pkt oS lodii wntfd be mottihog' guage but «i«> an lodiAn laogvaffc 

B^M.fDriimaiioe,mEBn^,vitb g^iw the coomry. however fecbk 

id dhm^ trf taofuafet anaesiK itnframmatical and flawed 

trywHhHiD<b«Hmdttitania.tbc tbe media doo« the Ur 
domMii laogb^e was thaied by fu«r ctHmpoD6etit% or 

LMhtt It^ fr«o tbc wmb, •Trtcn favouHM the or Uirct: 
toinb.wcit^easiaisioMataaOy KhtowU. wiib EagUsh as 

Ahhovab mo^i of tbetn were CbetM oo< o< tbem 
ffi Ei^h. thty rnade aMncxvui ofi&oal pfOTOuncemenii 

dkM to kan «bcr JUiduii to^ MwH-MuWrthed Indira G-n 
|tta«es tt» MihaOM Ga»dlw bad ^ q^-^ Uwvefufy h»« been 
fri an exMO^Jk by trymg w team ^^,^^^0^, «niicaiiom in ' d) 
Hmdi. Bengali *idoCbeTl«iigyafe* ^ cT«ADy« tmong in En 

Ha Dotbef tw^iie wat Gvjarati dab' , the aiauii^JCKJB pc»«W> 
Laewttc 0&£T Indian leadei^. be«| ibai fh» wUI encsour^ wni 
cboutb oo hmiiod icak. tncd w mg taJeirt Kto» ibc imilubogual 
tcfl^ a working koowlc<^ oC ihc kaiMitcape of India Two nationsi 
unsuagesoflndtf. if tbcy toured til daiiiet abo refl an occa«onai featurr 
SeieSffQ* where they were HWken 'Mind yocr Engbih or iome inch 
To aroflie oatncWK »eotiinetK» In coiuma Theaulhona»weUa4 0<bcf 
dtan leaden f«^*y u»e)d »logam wnten potqi o«t mmof grammatjciil 
sDd caidJ phra»e« torn <Whef Un aufUio m lhe*e addreiiet. ignor 
fuatei a> weli. tf only to mcqatrc tsg the hakliir«& of exmtttKJO ajxi 
JoSianty (knirabct. wbidi refWr »n 

uneasy gratp of Eoghil) Tttcy al^^ 

A^aifift this badground Img ^ |^ ^^cg, to leahsc that as (he 
ntftK banDony. the Consofu^i poiJoiamycrfEx^babgrowi.ussun 
gave pranacy d ptacc to Hindi with woidd be diluted Further . 

other la^gaagesbe^ "eqvab" ^ language a no k»^f a 

If »«4 hmed th^ Hiadi woi^ CTiienoc for good Ei^li*b Whik 

SrieJSm3^fof&hb«ai baaed.iOisthec«Kwitbothrflt>dr 
H» tcrawoM iJZZ^T^rtJ an lasgnages. toore becaitte of the 
s»ed m the officsal Ic^i^ at the ^rJTT^^^^ ht^mrv 
CcjM and ID the States B«t tbis <^ towards bteracy 
WB abo the year when language The new oatxwal ettocatxjfj pob 
hoc* too4 a heavy toO of bfc is the ^ Mtooonced so<oe oax ago. ii a 
•oothem States. qMcaaBy 0 Taosl aoe-ctarter StsuUrfy. the langua^ 
Nadu, witb Eflghsb aod TarnO eo- ^ ^ dearty defined 

lbaiia«»c»pOi^theami0«itiooof £^ ^lew <rf the mnnenm* pohucal 
Hiod}0«itbe«B Tbe^ l^atfn^ eamoiDic cxsmideratxjtt which 
a waterthed la the bt y tiffif tmtofj tsnsibly dsston it 
c4 loda. when *'shadow brac»g' 

amoiM the Las^Bato a»iiiDed ffie la a oottmry of oearfy 800 imUiofi 
ftsrei of csibitteT^ooQflicis Siace peopie with nearly 40 per oroi bekm 
that txae. dbhannony. dttoord and ibcpomiybne. who are also Ubter 
dasbofideasootheppwthof HsMh aie . ft is a tmpeodottS tasi f o tnipan 
nd Iwto) iMgu^es grew apace bteracy to tbea. ^ only be«auK the 
^ <iwtttmMl mm i tf> t >» gf and materia] re 
«»nw,«S^p«mding them 1th 
^ ^ ^'^."'^ ^"^i^ wTitiM»atenah.oe«i»«fdiooH 
BorthefB India (H^J«»«v aodteachcf*. wtwW involve ex 
rvvdeih. Majfliya Pradesh and p^,^ o< bittwis of nipee* 
fiibar). Englab te*ffl» to haw 

ginned gnMiad IS the hi^utftic land- Tberv ts abo the msMnnoiaitsMe 
fcaflc.w^pobticiaasaipini^iiDra prDbteiD of iIk loipc. whtdi has 10 
agonal tii»^ tak^ to the eitt- behaear^fastprim^tedmolofy 
wtttk lag^Qafe d cok>M) fibers and fa» ^wal eooo o giy Istliehcat 
^ . <rf (abe ntfiooal ^ide and patrxH 
Dunogihelaitrwpdaato.thejan- ^ ^ qnefHott hav* not been 
guar diacttiaesd a depth or tfiaam^JWuaJ 

miaed up with eatraneota »cy». ^ objective inmef 
fiich » feligMO. caste and pol^ ^ 

lutheaascofnatiooalioSegratioQ. Pw tc^cther. langoages are toda> 
^^isids » chasqwaned boi offioal am aetcly a divnive force bui a 
ancfluxs to popolarvc k m fMtimt acgatsvc tqtMoa for aatKxia) rr- 
and $oci^ sciences has siercly newii and tmegr^iofi fitm%aa^e 
icndcd to ^Knatc i4nKaic* of »d. at the sme tuae. lacimi in 
other Indian IWa has creativrty. they are the vc»oc» of the 

beoMiieafyiiibofl(^tliea»eitk»of dumb and dcf. cnade anddo^ 10 
Mvsbroidentii^ Siflifl»iy . kxal »d the gBnuraJ sounds of the C^bam 
fmaU'tmie pohticsaM ttie the Ian- of India 


Karamadi, a village untouched by the changing times 


rt5TU:D Mocig the bth 
_ Igreni hi^ al Aravatt on the 
C«j«nN-fU|ntMii bontef tf \bt hi- 
Ik koonfs vrfti^ iUftfsMcli 
TM^i^fWfed IBM 60 fcm from the 
dittikt beadqutftrn, Pi^he^. sod 
13 km <w»f frara the (eoiote town 
Amiitp flic «ory ol mn vt&tfr 
fr«l» W the repofi ol tome IM 
oenl^ cotomJ e«f)lorcY dejc^^ 
hit uQDreHNMi ol a n^K pmM 

In Uw^xionali i«rmf . it cnmot be 
<ir«7^icd « « vdi^ bcccoM if 
oafi^ W8i^ cfctractefiitici. lUra- 
foadk nJiy n iprr j tf wH pi «> area ol 

ppp«ilti»M of KraaadI l«t 314. 
They Uve io btsit ami *tMch«* 
bouse* btiiti on ranoitf hOlocif and 
ttf»f^ from ««ch oibef by 
thowndi of yard» 

Ews ali«f 43 wcare of io d epet id- 
«»or , Cfar riU^ (acU ifl tMk «flir- 
oi^e* ii doo fwi h»Y« • pfunary 
•ctHwI. a viltafc w^, a fwimaiy 
heahh ctmtt or rvva a fsurae fo pro- 
vide emergeftcy medictt aid to a&Qg 
or pregAM «\i«aen TheviA^has 
moMed cu* olf itith the ooiiMk 
«wfcl '/or yrnn. as there t% oof emy 
a road or mule (rack to reach it 
Dttm^ the mottKM teasan. the 
i»)iai>oo hrcomes ompieie. Inx^- 
ca«y, the ttwA owttslcr. Mf Ajw- 
Mi C^awfiiafy, Has adupfed lhi» 
nSa^ rt» a» round develop- 

Many o< the JUKodd populefiof} 

ol the nSaiie Uwr (htfn^ the ramy 
leasoQ hecaiMc there it m a ttnflc 
Hja-pntx tbop m the ncifiity 10 
km of the vmtge The laahabrtMi 
m Ml^erw and do aoc com^m- 
with the oufsiac vorM. Tl^ 
have aol beaid die nme ol fhme 
Mmtttrr. Mf Rajiv G9nM, not to 
talk aho«f the tgrnct^pM^dKa 
Jawaharitnw^K>jffia Theyviysely 
rrinnaheT 'iMhri OmM. raoi of 
Defhi ' Masy of then htfv fet n> ae* 
a tram. 

The froto ol devchTs^oml have 
vet to frach fhii mo«e v^ye 
Haixtfy a^y fpvenmut tervaol has 
hothef)^) to oM^ dNb itafite fa& 
by a The pfaaiocd pny aB M a a i 
^ bteracy drive tmictaS by die 
foveraiocfst htv« fet ooi made ihetf 
ptesence leh i»Mihe adhws ^- 
h§ m n tntimah » Ok olihe tocal 
pa^idMhM ol )24, otsly f«o peraoQs 
save bM ited « h^rates «^ cas 
read a^pMm aid ooitnf eo 20 
cut reocy 

oo(e« N their ooloiff A red oo^ 
means Rs 2D aad ftaca ocKs MMns a 

TMsoomapovidiem. who drove i«i 
a ott trom Fthmar $tad then m a 
had to walk down ihrc^ 
uvacheioiis treochca to the h& to 
reach ima ol halt and 'kaccha' 
booses K> meet the inhahifaots 
There «i» 00 (pestk» ol issfo^- 
tkw ol then have nof tees a news- 

X, nof to t^ ahoof TV aod 
seii Their lace «caa a Naok 
took when asked abo^ ttic genders- 
oieiK's bcip to lapaiovc Che? kH 

Ei^ mofithi afo a darenkvil 
yovvnMieni aervaef. Mr MMckUi 

C PiBtd,ac^rvf>dtlkdistiflcti«iol 
reachini the v^a^ for bciddws a 
primao^ school Mr PMel. a taM 
de tckiynuejirt oitor ol Pia ta i yw . 
h» been suGoenfel to p»ttaBy 
pktifigthe boihliMbM there is tso 
ceachcy w&sog to Hvt moo$ dtew 
sn^ottitiiM chtkhva ol nrntif aad 
fiyach thero to read s»d write. 

Uirfortiin^eJy for Mr Fatej, there 
is Bot a s^^ carpemer , blackioiffh 
or ernon in the vi&^. Evwy time 
he bnnaftA aa arhsan with Uis, ttory 
Red die W&ife SoKiehow, h^ Paid 
has heva ahft 19 coas^pleto Ms task of 
■t least mvidl^ a ftractore for dte 
ichoal Now he wiS hatv to find a 
ccachei od PttfMiade the adtvtsa to 
«tid their tMdrcs fo fcfaod. B«t 
diM b a diilbivM siory. 

TV <iec0Qttyt theae adN^aais ased 
so barter their forest foodi with 
oesby viSage laercbaitts. known as 
Sniaa Bvt now they the foodi 
aad accept cash. Ewa oow, tbc^ 
laith hs tte Bantas k is^iHcit «iJ 
uumy fa ic Theyyctfaytrfaoceptiny 
wtaj fDvanunent a ssista mac. In 
ateoif cases, goveramcatf sal^- 
sidkj pfovbled ^ sccdi, fortihsers, 
borewrlhi Md pyfchw of agrktrtto- 
rri iflipiffffieBti syphoned olf by 
fflwhflcfwea Md fowemioeot sef" 
vMiby t^kioa the tbanb ouprrsa' 
ioa of the kicab. 

Tkcfr plight a the wont durua^ 
drofi^ yean, as witoesaed dynM 
I9S5^, whtch were the oerffwy^ 
worfl yean of sc^tsty m Ooi arsi 
Shttsnrd by govcrmneat offktab 
bccMse of Karamadb'f inacceAibtl 
fir. the v^agcn had a karrowvif 

hm m the absence of aay <troiq$bt- 
rehef wori^ to provn^ them with 
stfb i iste qce. Either they iMd 10 sor- 
Vive on wM hwits a0d ttirtf ol wBd 
fifiOBch Of, 00 their owa a dmisafou 
fo to th- earby, aiofv p i mp ero tif 
viH«m for a thc^ or dim^, aboet 
whits thev haw 00 qsalm they 
amid oCherwife starve Daia$ 
these yem, ^ry raoounlad. maay 
vdtefefs perished either doc ui 
starritfkw, sah^rtriiioR ord^mses 
Sooe v^a^ers ncomie d that 
diey had s«wifed br dtfv (oyeiher 
by Umk^ aaif oor 'luti' mooo% 
thm Mr petaoQs. The day d^ 
ttMvespQotetf vMed the vSbi^, ao 
U year-old soa ol fimo Sava die4 
ol a stiddesi tOaeas. The boy's teher 
earned hi« os his sh di dd ei f to a 
neafby pri^aty hcahhoeotiVf 15 kai 
mm. bat h was too bt« and dte boy 
Aed on the way. 

The sad news Nd to he conveyed 
to fvisiivef h««« fw otf . The ad^ 
sis ban* their own peaohar way ol 

S^cwk^^ a^pyql dro^ttlairihp 
<hl ! to»iM ,d cpeia )i iM iyQPoccaaioiB> 

tAt somhflf a rtanffr warroBf , 
oorrv«yiM sad newt or oriebf«tk« 
events hke m»ni^ These (hv&i 
are iovaitahly kept la the hoM ol a 
leader. Ir is his pr ap i mati ns 
to heal the i^wsa. 

The toctaJ cystoau m ahen to 
ffiodera society, folyftmy is forrB' 
leaf OS) a Ime scale For teslaiwe. 
filiura Soma has two wives and fiw 
^ikhiesi Mooc of them behevc hi 
tamity p^vmmg Owse mi eg^nm- 
in$ inofivator penuaded Sava Oha- 
oa , aiKHhe/ villafer who had fose so 

the Rcatby town *o pitxvhaie ratlosi, 
to aodergff fm^^hBam$ opera- 
boa asd rrtaoed hm o vcuOahf . 
Though he had two wivea aodllwr 
c^^«a, Dhasf m iwev itom the 
hospif^ at fli^ im^ tM he owy 
hecotse io^iotfcat For tor •divw' 
sis, aesMl p^afteos sNA aoasatiied 
#rh is ^ t^hts. bid Ihey ^mriMy 
«S aoyoae ioaad hnv^ 09am- 
leMom wM thiir wivKs. 
Kmoadi Wtee is a pan ol 
inw ftam p w iay at of ll^pa« 

over ao 

atvA ol 1$ iq km. The iffl^ti ol 
this fro^ pBiiclte)« oi^vMB their 
tod Iq a prhaith 
fy toufauaf iooh m 
theai. Once a whfa, 

they dfp B iff thch loadlv lo 
mAtfM mettiap. Bm a 
flia|ority of thcsas M ^ atsfwafv ol 
the ftiiKTinas ol paochayots 

Aaoay tbem h a ttwatd aad ocf- 
iected people hvcsa mawb^tm 
foo^ OMOv haoks foe hii oowtiy. 
^k>w he is &eir mpaac^ He ooea 
Motned to Dtol d 
R|0bti& ifisdict foHwraiia 

to 19 ^^ IWoo C htaa lad 
Pakistan hQrdeyi« Bhusdi] hiaopt' 
raio lUo«hik befSD his swU bMS- 
aesa is Palaapar, fterid beadqaar 
len of Ranaskawfha » aor^ Ott- 

aaocied a slot ol 16 am, which wv 
ao^imd by the iinwMwiit tttdar 
tfkenMiiodbriabohtiooAa Hesat- 
dad down ifl Khapa v^a«e. wIM IS 
a par«of KarMadi aod other fioop 
panchayM in 1970 
Navihf bvwd anoi^ achvasia for 

neofty two decades, he was elc«ied 
die safpaoch olthe aoap pafiKhavat 
sto aMotha a|o aadaow he is 
ittgpetaBOtherbacdB(ohBpnM*e the 
far of dw adimk 
omnatt§ hstwioaa theae hwy ytf- 
^» aod NC«ipv «o peswade fov- 
fiti o aiBt i i O m s lo at leaid peovidt 
fkflWes Kka drtahh^ wMT aad hiA 
loo d^ Hte oflm ha^ not yiehfod 
OBy resih ao (wt, bed Bhurelai is not 
pTMad io|.eflp. KeisfoUof 
ra t fiiMi B Wi aad drteiwtoed fo carry 
00 hki bitttD whh dM distftet aathor 

Marrtiiaa die plight pi 1^ people. 
Mr KMshft sayt dw die adiVMts 
hfwa fo tpok oa htty terrate for 15 
kai for'fhe^ ratfoo. to case 'of 
escrgMcy gsd dcUvcry raaes« the 
padoon hf«v4D bo caivM oa ihohl- 
dwf fo ae. i gkl i WM% AadraoA 
fown. fttpfoasforooooocdagoicse 
vfSamby coBsmicih^dfo Dhpoiel' 
A0i&^ road havo ftfra or 
fwi« 01 tha fcoHt dvpvtmeoi ooo- 
foods that dfo rood atxdd have to 
pass ttifffngh a mof ^ toeest 

''Whit ootfissioa." klf Kaasltik 
oi«rs, oad ats, when oosdd these 
^*fTif Hftfo f t itftm thfttis a orft trf 
bcos aia iSegaSy est and rran- 
potfod wilhoid any iem. '"Why oof 
aOnr only a fow treoi to be mf to 
ttike lOQoi Ibf toad cooatriKtioii . 
This mad CM open new fvo«aes for 
dfoie ndhwis, who havv haea aeg- 
lOBted for oeatwiaa, aad al least 
hdsg than soom bene^ti like dnb^* 
fog amr . prtoMry heA cemre ahd 
atdfool " Ode wfal have to hone Mr 
KMhifc sccmdbio foiacw VattAe 
%aissr the Nsieaacr acy 



Rasmai brightens up 
as wedding bells toll 

9f »KffiHA StNGH 

THE yoiiQg MdMD^ It did to « 
thio red Djioii 
b • ffiilfixstiQt hoi iiiiicr imd foocB 
with dasent ctf mmu tad 
bftatbiqi down bcf secL Beiw a 
Wde • typM UJ>. 

A day bcftm ha ^ 

Abhfiasba, who looka Unh 15, b 
«id to he ^ow It Tba^ 
lookiQiatid bcahby, she knfci I 
aad do«r. the fiv»4«y teycrim oT 
twiiicfk otm 1101 he^iQi her look 
asy h^ypicr. She if Md04o^ 
bm ^ c^her iMoneo n Ihe houae nc 
taking the chaaoe to pander Acm- 
advca. h b Ibr the fint time ihacnfl* 
polbh, powder and Bpetki 
conie home after the taM 
aad eyoyoae b meiii^ Aea on. A 
ftep^flblcr b makiiig Abhilafl 
domi of paddy ^vea ^baa 

^ a Biiiai is nafoiai ^ 

Henna hat been ^|>lifld cmddy oo 
haods roufheood by wotk m the 
fieJds and there b little fooo to ^ifdy 
fiaiKvambh at the bride*i aft 
hopelesily brofeca. Her h^ bhesi« 
aoakod m oO (a Iwmy) bcAm beim 
titbtty plaitad. The gM viB aow fee 
dectod ia a aofieoiit tbne hrooade 
«ri. aeaiby her io-tows. The partnti 
havr fives no dowry b«it tM a bH <tf 
90ld, white die boy*i bMc hat acsi 
more ioM tad a ddightftil pair at 
antkiue nfver aakhss. 

Abhihsha tm Dot aoea her poom^ 
to-be, aor ay of her femk 
relatively I|e« Ihihcr and aacfcs haire 
approved of hmt No one frooi the 
boy*! fluisily has tees' Abhitaf^ /ttfl 
at ibe b one (rf' the many chflcbtB of 
as impovcn^ed ftnaer (cnnvfeale 
samiadtf K the frooD b a teaier 
fivo a aetshboiiriqi vilne Na^ 
rori. Onoe there, bcr mother b omfi- 
dest that aS the will have do b 
oook w«8, far wha^ At has haeo 

MoiT loti^m^f are the t^p^nit of 
ciinoas aMomca cmdim is the tiay 
mod room. Some are ilfeiiiiv rae 
v it or ptu > y , b rfa^^ ihohe^ whOe 
the iw^fl e tt ed bride mStt ia a comer. 
They are very ioQirative, and have 
raaay qoettioas far meL 

At tioMv a ipbiy polM^ csrry b 
t&vod 00 the baffhuet The esthe 
vtai^ iiDCfMUM tne usioucaatMes; 
b lavbed to the tef and ^ thakufi 
thcmtehet pUk up e v eiy o n e*! Ica^- 
pte^ The t&vtstmeot b never onf^ 
p^^a ta flBon of the material b 
mtfiy rows rad teOy mem- 
hoi pitob in lo help. 

The hride hat iludied npio dan 
five and tppeart loo yonty to bear t 
or fitte a fitrnfly. When nhed, 
Bti HtiDVBHBw pBie ne^tetaiy. 
^Adviae ti^ jNtmg dvti' , they any. 
Shyv the etder one: ^ teve no chi}^ 
dreiL I had t aoa hvl he died of 
"SiAte* (a kfsM name far dchfAn- 
fionr. At my thoch, she adds that 

^'SaUta" hot -Bhuka** (htu^) 
which kiBed her chM She i^«ed 
whb hiai at die had fad the tsfaat 
ootr wattr evn duimb the w«> 
factttbu. Now she b expectii^ ^atiL 
The other sitto h^ t da^bter ta her 
^ Thb b the <mly wmni^tM 
amtnd, but how Deflected SUnny 
hmbt, bdb 00 the head and t bad 
oate of pmUy heat made worse by 
the t^ oyfao shin the dtild b 

By cveaij^ the groom anivtt to 
the aootKBpa&imeni of mime bbring 
fiom mJket, dr o wuinf the toiy 
dbaoe of ^ vffl^ women. A fcw 
fimpie oemsoniet wWi the as- 
abttnoe ofthe -^pandiT and the next 
day the bride b teen off h) her new 
home amidti more jarruii mtaK. 

The woddim b over Md the vil> 
1^ women have mnch aoa^ tt) 
achate ^ what belter pfaoe for a 
iodal f^4orte thaa the pvov- 
otbl v^r w^ Knows at ^^uv 
ghat** is M Bhatha, the typsca] 
oommcm wvu b ttfiaued near the 
'^pokhar^ or the vflltge pMd^ bessde 
an andeat ftepid tree. 

% dssk, the womeo ttan aatemhi- 
theb caqity carthn poit and 
pffiQt them h^ on the hcadTbttbao^ 
tag tte fast 00 their hipi. fki^in b 
at iraocfad at t dim, hasd-worlm^ 
^^^ewomaa, diaped elcmtfy m a 
ooloBffW ootton sari^ swayiag 
lowmit the wag with her poti oa her 
bead. They soove baoehot and 

' Meaawhfk; Afehflstte'i bom tet 
a aoUd troodea door (paimed eleciric 
bhae fatf ^ oo castoa) embedded fai a 
miid*piastcred wtf^ n opes mod 
vciaadab iritii faar saMrfl mahzh and 
mtid rooiBS taffoanA^ it* 1^ aicn- 
feft ire stretched oat oa a nim'^'b^ of 
dMpayaes» adbfle the tmnca toddte 
ia the hot fooos frith tecMdrea. 

^he itwihfT of the bride, a wucjiod 
old woo MM bi0 siS aitiacsiva. b 
cutting ^iothetftib of ytfow pas^ 
ktet which b the traditioaal 
▼apeaHOT oooKffo ai weoon^g^ ana 
swaMoar p r rparatio n tennad wbh 
"paris* and caflhca bowb lU of 
yo^hifl and powdered ti^gar (harajL 

OQoe at fte wdL it*s time far gomip 
and anaS itfL weO b Ihr place 
where a doiticsvd wMias oBo ab tKT 
grtevances^ toek advka flam cAat 
andeachai^ rmnom. Some take a 
qafck hath Mfy dad. PitBb« the 
wMcr oaf of the wtf b a strenaoia 
tB0 bat tteae woombi are ^mte 

In KMiai, ihe pmdah syttem b 
ttrictfy esfteoed, with the vt^ com- 
iM down to the sock. Bat thb appto 
ody to the womao who tnmy tato 
Katmai, the looal giris beb^ fitc 
nom tfae ha m p c rii^ vdL The 
Ratmai giris matt observe paritt 
whca they fo to dieb hatbaad^t 


- 200 - 


The plight of the IS-year-old from those who rule them, 
girl from a Rio suburb who 

won « ticket to Paris to The contrart between this 
riTmJ t£ bSentenary rele^ "un^t and the rerf one lay 
braiionsbut had no money elsewhere too. While the 

which had just blown up niil. pate, broiled s^on, grilled 
5^ ofdoflaS to commemo. Suck, P^^'^^J^l 
rate the storming of the Bas- pagne and Arma^^ toe 
tSe. Md someiiore to host 5^^1«?^ ifT^ii 
the economic summit of the do with rice baHs Jf^ft- 
world's richest nations, bes: able fritt«s- And whje the 
ISeclS tjJe^emma of the leaders of the powerftil na- 
^Sd WorldlSSSi com- gons were debatjng^^t™- 
pSw two-thirds of humani- tional debt and mwiet- 
E^K was perhaps to high- ary matters in the SP«^ , 
Sght this contrasTand to up new Pyra^t^f J5« }tf>^' , 
hSld Srtrue message of JiJy those who attended the ^ i 
14 that representatives of the trmatjye J^ii^ ' 

worid's seven .poorest na- their dissent to jomiialMts , 
Sons - Haiti, rfraiil. Bang- ecoloKists, lobbyj^* . J^f, 
SSSh. Zaire Mozambique. «>n»«lffto^°^i^»^" 
BurkiiU Fasso and the pnerataon wJw came sport- 
PhiUppines - met on a Si« bewds. beads uid san- 
hous?&oat on the Seine for ^•Ji^.J^^ J^^n^l 
w^ftt has been dubbed ganired TOES 89 may renect 
TD& to w5r The Other Sat their-s was the last laugh 

rmirh in evervbodv's em- number, President Sese 
ES^JUment Xrfitcher SekoMobi.tu of Zaire (whose 
Sdttie F^nch that 'the adopted . ,1*^^^ 

rights of man did not origi- means thr cock that covers 
Ste in France" these seven many be;i8) has reportedly 
rei5eSln2Sl« Counted buUt up and salted away ab- 
ho^e for the agricultural road a private fortune that 
woriier had became more equals his country's foreign 
dSficSt under Mrs Aquino debt Not an inappropriate 
SSd tow ul? people of ihese Jn^to the celeU^on of 
countries havileamed to ex- bberty, equabty and fraiemi- 
pect oothiiu but the wont >w 

' ,< ( > 

- 201 - 


of J new breeze 

m on «A 

pi Ukiwmq - chC ^4 

lcl»f '^wm^ M 
me mtaUomi^ W^dlhi^ 

modbm KBm UfOm^Um 
nan tAMv fithi 
i^fl^ct of faSIt)' tjtri^t 

Mdto of mantote^ dbflrm 
IT fallh «nd HSimiehB 
titt dhi ind ffity 

oat jiny tfHnBft^ and, 

ttv 9our>d y^lnc^Ai« of Intef- 
oonmictiaili mnd titortfepeiv* 
ckfM. Our mddN i/t ^rw^ei^^ 
^rmnt for tornbrrow fibiMM 
^g[4d»d by tho prlnc^Ani of . 

tt3f trfumpKsft tach ndl oter no^ 
m •nfgufstsd toclMy Hf " 
m inadh df canimuntcitlan . 

^our m»4rakl proMam*. ft^fpdu 
^ ly mated « asltltd 

^anarchy «r%d confurfohiff 
tfont p i«Nch^lngand 

lafcs md tha Cmh If 


db thrtr DoAy ^ m«rt«! 

enou|f> to paimM of a gtmino 
Jialf-gavf rnma^ : j»M lha 
aifttftivtfon ^^PfrMfia! 
anpooflMOaa IbArtfadm 
^191 |iri ^iij Bd^t:a wny that 
tl^)t taitifdClpn ^ iitHiie j|tMt 

' 9 vvmciaravy piwiMi^p of 
tf»V9%i|9rnMl:, b«it4.onth» 

Ikat fioMM*fl *tfi» worn 


ifefSp Itia aoohxjical Ini^heft, 
db Aig laWi the linprovlit>- 
'iMit tif (Mr fiarwl otkI 
:stfio dagradalUvv fOf the 
M ma^ hai^ been 

^fli^ tfn 4leno9k.h» 

WW* ft h the oof«40ies 

^jir tnterferanoi «^ bidbcrt- 
^fOfilirtd eir^1otlfl«lon of 
^ifceroi mAini reaource^thot 
^ fea¥«^^1^4»pmer««Mad and 
^^tHi ^« hitnan 

' TAtaipma ti oboul the 
^ ctr^Mm wa dtartngarKi 
/« m3iartta a>'^ The wwid 
M^iuAri» * wofMthot 

la ouaa na nHtfa« 

*Stk'* «'^«ch 

^2pii^l6MSanlM iharptywKi 
"gtamiK tocuaad our 
tlwi )Bft tfie auicidai 

%tyH ^rmo^ arid the 

^odqpAig of fmclBir nneapont. 
ti^^dtlndtad JOiat the airier 
flowers now got b^thelr 
' anerMte aver fifty thouaand 
/'lai^ hakdb each a l^iouaend 
" ^th>ef modna dMriicth^ than 
' the atflm bcmbi %iihicfi nmre 
* dropped Id 'KIri>aMn8i^ 
Hagateki forty ^ yam ago. 
"They ooiM eome Into opera- 
tion 'elt^or (to to a paranoid 
^dtreile. alf a pdHtfcian or a 
Wrong caknriitlon in oompuTer 
ffograr^big iv a fauk^yjilU 
He <«i|p and tff9far off the 
TiiiitMpsTve 'tdroe. sufficient 
to M^w ypo^ Vk-prooedbig 
'uriv«na«' When the Sbwmjn 
btpamid out after a talgnof 
itAf ^ve fiiVkai yearitttiey 
%aent o(vnparal)vety graoefufly. 
HI and whm wa we 
'^WB prdbably fea^e a charred 
^ '|ind ravaoad t^anet, Sncape^>» 
aov^vrtWl moce tNn 
^^asdranM^ fkittKha Vfe-foim. 
" * >if»ct the env f ronnof^al 
pni ^conofTilc dknenakxv of 
hvdadcr war ttiat have 
apt 1(i motion the prooeaiof 
^^tHhwIno anonQ vm wupex- 
po^t^toA tha ^^Mtvof 
l^dfply^^irt ^^ id t/, liot iHow 
^iltm cpkS Jj^odtm HqCp only the 
«ftVk!t^ ^twvan the 


ijfad bi . (nodam 
ita t^B i(ma rganoe 
laiT^har t^^f^amtori 

IcdKi^ ^aCa 
oi *aydthattc 
i|rfii^ yT O<>ye 
Ihfnfii I'' ^lyrcloxlnt 
ay ^^um. Tvaii a ma 
uaa of oity ttan^ai^- 
axpfottvat wrfthoot 

r — - - 

Blowing of a newbreeze 

Contd f rain pmqB 7 

*V©«5rt to fXictea: weapons 
will rpsuft dozens of chernn- 
byls BOd sswral thoosamh 
of BhopitU The envirrrmer^al 
(^pensions of cherrx^byls were 
so disastrous that this explosion 
adverse I y affected the 
quality of food, wat?r and 
air throuc*>out the Europe. 

ft is rmt' only the eckicational 
canpalgn of the scientists and 
the non-qoverrmerrtal organi* 
rations of the UN syste-n that 
comoelfcd the two super 
powers to evnive new dobel 
and strategic options In the 
context of changes in the 
International security environ- 
ment. It is infflct the shift in 
the econ<rnir i>owi>r and the 
maturing ot the world 
order^ based on historic 
prcops^f^fi of the past four 
deCRdes thaf vlrfuallv, 
ner*»s5i»fltpd narsdiTr shift 
^:( m the cold war dl'^cmncv 

to (totente. ' ne regional 
conflicts, »jch as the fratrU 
dal Iran-Iraq war, the Soviet 
witNfrawal from Afghanistan, 
Vietn»n*s cSscision to with* 
draw fran K«7ipuchea, the 
Nanlbfan m\d Palatine pro- 
ble-ns, that were seemed to 
be Intractat^ had either tieen 
solved or are -r^ovlng towarcfe 
their solUioa ft Is surely no 
con*incldence that these 
developments ha^e been 
followed by the detenate 
t>etween the two super 
powers and the historic 
agreeTients to ellm fnate 
Inteimediat? Ranos Ball^fir 
Missives and chemical weapons, 
Thl^ new positive gatie will 
shHt capital and human 
resources away frcm tbe 
am5 ran* and the d^ngp^ nf 
Mutually Assured Destniction 
to the soluti'^n of cODril'?^ and 
CUT ulotivp ;>r^bi2Tisof hiinrrr. 
disease, iqnorsnce, rr''.nurr?p- 

depletion and over population; 
By investing to tKilId anew 
model of hanen oer^red, 
ecologically sustainable 
developnent, the new qmr\e 
win Involve new players* 
prfcmarlty Jipan myd Geimany. 

Tfte spectacular move 
Ntiated by Makhall Corbach- 
yov against the background 
of ecoootilc ccmpuMoniand 
multidimensional crisis to 
pr om ote the concepts 
of PerestrcHka and Glasnost 
have V Irtually brou^ the 
world to a turning point 
and perhaps our planet earth 
is poised for a major break- 

India too can clarn a part of 
the crecSt for Initiating e 
peace process throu^ the 
Six-nations conference 
'"ulminetJng in the Delhi 


- 203 - 


THE HMXJ, Momtey. JUy 31. 1W9 


you and me 

oeMOC^UCY • cAughc in ^ cn)«#r9 of «ovv 
CM myti pOM(«r potttas And V^*^^*^^^^ 
dentt have not bMO tpMd tnsm tfw ptavviv 
«X9n of pOM«r pomics it ftMit TTw h«Cttc 
pofticaf ri>^ amono the AiCtenl groi^ • p«rl 
of »^ c% • Mtory and Ootv « np cmpbon 

T>« KMrttwn itend erf youtfi and AidarSi arv 
noibadparav Bu i aaicin and daoancy cwnwot 
t» t M U fioad Mnd MWcrC to tia parwil or- 

tend to lO duty m imt psoe «id ity4e ^ 
mora than n m^^m l laai i««a^ tovorvi 
anxiou* ivlatiwa and fnarx^ triad to gat ihe 
lataai *tonii»or > on tha fsli of trams ri^wng 
aawaf houi lalt ommhq to haavy ram and tha 
M ■aqknf dip si^mon tfttra^K anroutt 

The havoc trxK/* by the > nu na o oii had 
rvffy r««ad the blood praaauv of tfwae «MB«nQ 
for lhar near and dear onaa and aa (f to to 
the tanann came »e taciui^irri aor rft of »e 
parkmnaf manntia the np^^ tdomObo n 
oantoe at Maw Oai» rv^ivay flMon 

C> ao a naamad qo^ by tha axpananoa of 
tf« tMidrvdi Mho fhronpad tha raiw«y atabona 
|p tor ti u ttn^b o n on thav lataPnai w^ba- 
I thair lonQ |9 /nay frort a* far aa Karala and 

In a daniocra«c 00(9^ dabato ml 
rw%« an «nportBn$ plaoa and aia m tec a vwb- 
abiB rrwana of gaupmo the pao^'aopaaon And 
10 obelnict luclt • pracboa oHy nAaoto tia an- 
arti«c tandancaH. rvwkad a Mlanc «^ w«a 
patfw5 by M «««^ a radMl « fha laMrai^ 
«Mt«ra AidanCi fsf rtvtti po^ttoal flMR* cMad 
du»ig a tirt( d afcveradbyfcfr t^Shla»<w 
dwT p ad on tha Qppoafton mambafa' faaignMiona. 

vokjntaerv ^ap^ of awamon to 1^ Nvnboo- 
dvip«d waa aamatfw>B •up'wng and lhae vtti- 
ancbef>aviouf »>i»onnas>tf'e»pnMaand cl M haig 
M>«h ttw Sludenta Fadarabon of M« mamban 
and Oamcxyatic Taachafv Fadanbon. tha ofypv- 
nr., ^ the taJk, did not do tham any prcud 

Wh^aw tfwr (^ffaranoaa witff the polr&oet 
organ^abona or thwf teadart a d i^Mai n Q a 
gathsvig rr the tnrvonrty pramMaa. tha fbjdai^ 
tn ganarai. and thoae 0«««v a tt Bgian o a to any 
ifriaain of potax:a! phi i o ao^ or 

Ir^Mn AaiM thai keep boaabng of acph^ 
cased oon^niuvoaoor lyMw ia hvxSy pnowd 
aqualtoftatit^fcof prpvidngayan ^ppr^OT ale 
Mormadon on the of the traira;, poviCa <xx a 
joiaayia E««n if the fftonnation waa oottadad 

« not 

aaam to have bean frwipnttad to the ataff marv 
neig tha Hto tnatoon oounfiar at Nmttr Dafhi asa^ 

The oorrvrxnoation gap amaong aa tfie 
quanaa by tfw paopte at the eiaton a ooU 
and atodi rap<y ip«te na^n' (m* do not kncM) 
The iTrftnagrie cttw mnoffm aaantptt r «i^ich 
the Mion el^ aaen> tt? ha>« been 4)noranC 
about tfw Vt^Mkapafrwn ooachea that ar« at- 
tached to DakafwiEjvpraiB or Urk t w^ wm m 4 

^uUd hew( IMned to htfn and arv«n thar 
ocuw Th« afl • the oaoant and 

democn^ ««sy dl expreaMng their dwappi oral 
of the apaakar It « not far to diaappoywa m*v 
manfy the pmenoeof a rapreasntabv* a pot- 
Aica< orgeTNaatoo m a torun that too crf a paraon 
of the f^T'i^v of 1^ Namboodirpad 

The ir4«d atudenta. Mho dKl not approva of 
tht ugly acxnaa at the Oafrn School of Eoon- 
orrMoa iwhare the o^ tern ^i national leader M«a 
ipoakung. feei that ooJitYcai aSegianoe apv\ *w 
wlorar^ OGiTvnuniat ifladar dtaaer^^d reapacf n 
ar aidar cJtuan 

b ft the aori of dsgenoration of ^^fuea ««or> 
den the Audam 
♦ ♦ ♦ 

BALIOT for Bottie m^gN turn the Baochua bo»- 
taroua tx/1 the amagonM vrtuafty foroed the 
mortai foOoiMQra of naoc a m a puttmIm od 
any to poatpone 0ie opinion pofi on aattng k<>a 
tsar ir^ the Oub at Guimohp Parti 

The tnib^ enthuaiaam d tie ai43|xytara of the 
bar <a vaniahir>g ii^o tr epilation for the arttoon- 
•ta are rxsne o^ier than the fonmdable paraorv 
aoea — tha twomen of thehouaea 0^ oouaenot 
JR woman are uptJoaad S aaarr- to the oauae 
Evan the man are (fcvidad on th^ aaue Harica 
the QpNUon po^ nay bafiot ^Of bottle 

I • a Catch Z2 «iU«i]on tor tfv votanea of the 
n^ifkhana If the poU rijecti the bar they 
havv the p i u a u a ct of taluno on the arvy 
and M«aAhiar me mb ai ^ who hao baan anr olbd 
at hiQ^ter toe on tha 

promrae of adiftiw a bv to the ckib end the 
Bar • faywwd then they m4S hew to tooe the 
mora hightonirig proapad of narrvig the pvidh 
c0fm M«nwAii 

k waa a (l^'ibng tmk in dee d and the mem- 
bers rruai be r^jmara day they daodM on Mh 
a aeneiavQ peua 3 addra a bv t> Ck^ 

No wondar thepoi had to be poi^joned Aaa 
M«Q put ft. Mfhan the btftii tor tie booto r^- 
a doaBL H muN aesMe inaa df •« 
aoooro i ng 

ao. fay* the mmg A b^ floyaf la^in men ba- 
bvovi 9v Qulmohar^ea 
tthe Aaaooatta manibar 
ipig^^bouvig ootoniaa3, 
of rolling ptni and bruunta tfMt ni(^ hiMi to be 

* * # 

rr a the or«a w^hch bftn^ lha batf out of man 
IxM «vfth t« RaiKn ^y t a aaama that auoh a mj- 
&bon nvMa taila vnpacl and A oontunuea ID at- 

oonfro%a r iy of ( 

The n^ch-pUahciaad autom^ taped ir^orme- 
tion re toya d on flephona on the ata^ of trana 
(nmcng on time or totB)iivould have made none 
the w«ar In aomt caaaa ifttr theft^ef 
fih«d the vo» on the pfov kapt on aeyvig that 
the partiouiar tram wm ' r\miiQ" 41 hooa me 

A reader phoned mfio to aav thM whan aikad 
about the Karaia Ejipraai thtf Wt Tnvandruri on 
21. the ttKikmy «afr kept aayvno that « wva m* 
pectad tp musfm on 2& cwn though tl had mrw- 
ed m Nm* DafN iCaDon So, whet piquei the 
pU)tc • not ao much the lata runng of ^a«m 
Lmmtabla foOowing na^a^ oalamrtiea. but the 
near atiaamo m^f worthwtvia afVort to provvfe 
oorract Wormation to paopto 

♦ * # 

TVE nsffl toyoU of NOOA rraght toactfvaa you 
The aarw roadb and open apaoe ai yat f*o< v*^ 
aead by the ubiquitM akyaoaperv thai duttar 
other cAiei^ might ba the envy of many uriaen 
ptonrwa and the cm^ana afice 

trdaa d . the i M mr^ iaa i town of UOar P i a deif> — 
ft kvaa off b o r rp iwad gtory of Okhla. biMfang ^ 
dualnal aMe of OaM — aOracta a large rutv 
bar of aatbara tor n oomparvbwvly ch eape n 
ranta and ^rangaly a p oflUion free ar fho^9h ft 
ho^^ea many an fidUatrtal 

But thu baaudU town rorvafly aiiton htsm a 
one btook epot ^ ^laquart puwar cub. It a ao 
nagiAar that tha raMdar* h«¥v baoome atoc to 
tha aouatlon And ao i aaama from the fcr baai- 
anoe of the people bwig thara wfthou any conv 
ctmt O a ft the u ea U ii r m of aud) a naaction 
b the laet ona week powar »ppad on more ^ 
one oocaeion and eometvnaa s df twcetfi 

fcnagine tha pfcght cf i ae<toi«e « auwrner f 

• a horT«ndUi&« aKpenanoe to bei 
Ota ii aathg- due to ibaenca of 
addi to the agony of thai eaidante The 
m the momon oomea aa a taaaar to the pe- 
tierwa of tha pa^^i fa 

Aa If thaea probiama art not enough, the 
d^Twarv of ^ehcin ate hew to pu up w«i bM 
aSeya aa S war« lor the tfvdaqki^ powv ak^pfy 
»«e ieH tf« Mat Ugha dmoet uaatoM 

A ooflaagua who i^tvaa home haa eato om 
fouid tha ib«ac teipe woitung Notifiof tiam 
» bUba or wev^ » (hi^ they 
of tieif^ow tiel tgh^i ^tfyoa di 
|hef na authori^ hae bodwad id 
to theaa baaic pnabton'ia or la S 
oomant wtt havMg a^ an anvlibta mdMnal 

cided to kght a cigaret^ (c pass tirnr He 
deaperatafy aaarchad tor h« l<ghief ^ noi *ind 
mg ft approached a group d v/^' 
J ^ amo^larw and cfeirwn for light 

But to h« ei^pnae. ewn ai ha was gtv^ a 
matrfte a . he disowned thai the (^oup «vm >f> 
«oK<ed m a bwfy ducueaion or^ amoKfog Appa^ 
antty. or« of them who had given the tvi^d a 
few moniha ago waa a8 ancicad Mxxit hts ne^ 
toi#xi etamma He told h« oo ft aeguea how ever 
attfiaandofabueyday hadK^nottoe^tred A 
mora riecani oonwri to hie toW. nodded ns bp 
proval and ea«^ he ooudd rxir aoari without 09 
raha tjraatfv jiflt aa r h« cMcftood 

Thie tall of atamna mpraaaad the gro^ to oo 
and fo^. fi rewraad oommonlv-hakj beW 
that a ug arat ta can provide rvkef mom fatigue 
even A naa hv^ e #ion whrfp Thas prom^^fw 
one of the bMar (Anaeaad membara of the grcxj^ 
a tampo c^rw. who imaiaad to know how the 
bad heb^ oouid be g(v«n k<> Cuggeafioiw pou' 
ad m av^torrty and he tended to a^rae w<th the 
paraon who baliewd m gredkial raduction m the 
number d o i g aiat ta a emokad than g^« A 
ebrvpdy Howvw Ihoee who had ^van it 
warne d that the only M«y to grw ft ip «wa to 
iftop irmwdiafiB^ and naw touch a o g arette 
agem Aa the gnxp andoraed th« view, the 
<^ a ctgaratbf cJanchod irt hia ttpa, arwtched 
amay the cigaiatto from the moi^ of ha daeoe^ 
end atubbmg ft aakad him nevar to touch the 
twad age«^ and oartavily not m fue praaenoe 

inleraebngfy. apart from that rwat^ joke, whch 
had the gfOK9> rofiir^ m lauQhte'' the dacuap ion 
¥m oamad OMl n al' aerxxaneaa O/rte a depm 
u#e thia for one lama m ba r i that aa a ooiiege 
Ajdarft. whan t i a ^at lw^ on a bua bou^d for 
aome viftage an appeal by aomaorw to Btub cjga 
ratsea waa rt^actad with booa becaiM n wa& 
oona«torad to be a fiaiiitoM aymte^ of men!< 
naea by ruatc foii. 
« « 

THE tekdea»< approach to » \jatona of men 
ri krtform m the Pokoe Control ftxTm wa m the 
cfty noada haa left e oofleagut vvondermg about 
thar oapacfty to neb evan a mrwr pckpocket 
tat atone a pp i abend toi na a t* 

A oofleagua the other dey waa w itnu ea to on 
■<aaabnj drama r> a crowded private txa tn 
whtth the pookat of an etoarty mar wa§ pcMed 
mora than M d tha victm nvfat the oo( 
league touvl moet anung wae the rea ct on cf 
the conductor Inettad of takmg the bua to the 
(ma eel police mat/on. aa a the normal practice 
trie conductor want hammer and torv* ^ ^ 

One te to tiice care df onet peraonai be 
ha bariiad addtng that he couki not 
1 the oomnrufiarv ^xvn gating dow^ et trie 
I aiop on tha way to the pokoe etation 
Forh i l ate ly ae tha Na hafted at the ns«i stop 
n MA fyteiat the victim apotte a ^CR van 6IA 
toned nearby and appnoa^te a tor he^ 
Ejqnctedly. the conductor M a K>te tee and 
or darad fl'iat no one iwe to get do»*^ horn the 
t&atSi the poftoe arnwad Immediately afterwards 
a a|.aa^1i\| PCR van pufted 49 beNno the txjs 
Wfthout waabng any tme the man tn uniform be 
gan i^uaeCitwig the oonductor and the vvcttm 

tha Mcbm and the poboe ware tockad <n 
a uun var aatp a people fraaly akghtad arvS txwd 
ad lha bua Naxt a eearoh was oonducsad m the 
halantpty bu^ior the iiBWiii g wa ft rt 

Maanwhrie Oa ramarvng i^aiyiofin m the 
bua loai efi pafaanoa and d emanded mat the txt» 
be aftuiied to procaed on (ta lO^mey But the 
cop ecudi to ha gi^ and fried fo r yiae a jpo^ 
thvn die myu^ df the vaom ovm ha kaea 
nmay and area ffw ooiAl happen wfth anyone 
heeoughtthar oooperation Moraow^ the vctm 
had to be eab^atftfiat the pokce ^led to hatp 
hen n fraotong tfia outortL the oop aard 

Ae oulvft ooUd not be nabbed the pof«a 
did tha neat beat tfang ^ that of titong the corv 
dudor Id tei Tetong han to the pokoe aMior 
fte oope diraded the ^iv» to dnop the Q tm t > 


a « 

TT4E anfraviotong oarnpaign haa ^ tong teal 
raechadth oonvnon r\aac toicii the brpa aftt 
M^ato the troom to keep 9ia dfy otsan, or ao It 
eaen* Recandr. e oniiagua %wio wae naftinj 
tor ha wtto to hnah iho^iong at a narte da^ 

gara and ai at the Tuglik ftoad pokce 1 
fM«t one toai to tfideratand la whtf the police 
aaraad Id adueva whan ao many people had 
fraefy eraaad and akghfiad from the bua Actoa 
ac oaae c0 todieig va etabtoa eflar the Horae 
had boftod So n^^ch tor the ^iciar>cy of the po- 

« « « 

' 204