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HE 028 319 

Accomplishments & Challenges: A Review of Significant 
Accomplishments and an Overview of Major 
Challenges. 

Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, Oklahoma 

City. 

Feb 95 

17p. 

Reports - Evaluative/Feasibility (142) 
MF01/PC01 Plus Postage. 

Access to Education; Budgeting; ^Educational 
Improvement; *Educational Quality; Governance; Higher 
Education; Institutional Mission; Leadership; *Long 
Range Planning; Resource Allocation; *State Colleges; 
*Statewide Planning; Strategic Planning 
^Oklahoma 



This report responds to a 1987 task force study which 
urged Oklahoma to develop a superior system of higher education 
through implementing 97 recommendations in 5 major areas. This report 
notes that, without reform funding or major legislation, higher 
education in Oklahoma has completed or made major progress on 
three-fourths of the 77 recommendations for which it was responsible. 
The first section lists specific achievements implemented for each of 
the following five areas: (1) leadership (e.g., annual strategic 
planning sessions among governing boards); (2) quality (better 
students, better programs, and better faculty); (3) efficiency (such 
as increased numbers of programs offered jointly by colleges and 
vocational-technical schools); (4) budget reform (development of a 
long-range, peer-comparison budget system for allocating new funds); 
and (5) governance (a study of existing governance patterns and 
recommendations for change). The second section identifies major 
challenges for the future in the areas of access, mission, economic 
development, the value of higher education, telecommunications, and 
funding. (DB) 



ED 382 118 
TITLE 

INSTITUTION 

PUB DATE 
NOTE 

PUB TYPE 

EDRS PRICE 
DESCRIPTORS 

IDENTIFIERS 
ABSTRACT 



* Reproductions supplied by EDRS are the best that can be made * 

* from the original document. * 
**************************************************** 



oo 



OO 

CO 

Q 
m 




& Challenges 



N 



er|c 



A Review of Significant 
Accomplishments 

and an Overview of Major Challenges 

BEST COPY AVAILABLE 



Oklahoma State System 
of Higher Education 




I 



"PERMISSION TO REPRODUCE THIS 
MATERIAL FAS BEEN GRANTED BY 

Oklahoma Regents for 
H i ghar Eduction 

TO THE EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES 0 
INFORMATION CENTER (SRIC)." 



U S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 
Ottic* 01 Education*! FtotMrCh And Improwrwnt 
EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES " FORMATION 

^ CENTER (ERIC 
UUWT document has been re, meed as 
received from the person or oiyamzation 
originating it. 

□ Minor changes have been made to 
improve reproduction quality. 

* Polnta of view or opmiona slated in this 
document do not necessarily represent 
official OERI position or pokey. 



"Nearly everyone involved in the 
debate agrees, however, that even if 
(higher education) reform proves 
disappointing as an economic 
panacea, something in the state's 
collective psyche has changed in a 
way that will never change back. 
What really is different says OU 
political science professor Don Kash, 
is that now, whether you are liberal 
or conservative, the conventional 
wisdom is that the future of 
the state is tied up with 
brains and intellect/' 

Alan Ehrenhalt, in "An Oklahoma 
I Had Never Seen Before: 
Alternative Views of 
Oklahoma History" 



I 



1987, Oklahoma higher education received a report card — and 
the grades were not good. Written by a Legislatively mandated citizen 
taskforce, Oklahoma's Secret Crisis was an indepth examination of the 
state's higher education system. 

While lauding the system for having achieved "universal access," the 
task force noted that "the economic future of Oklahoma and the basic 
quality of life for its citizens are substantially dependent on the 
creation of a superior system of higher education." 

The task force urged Oklahoma higher education, the governor and 
the Legislature to make a fundamental commitment to and the 
sacrifices necessary to achieve "universal quality" and outlined 97 
recommendations in five major areas. 

Higher education was responsible for 77 of the 97 recommendations 
and began almost immediately to undertake a widespread revamping 
of the state system of higher education. Without reform funding and 
without major legislation, higher education has completed or has 
made major progress on three-fourths of the recommendations for 
which it was responsible. 

The massive initiatives implemented by Oklahoma higher education 
were not limited to the task force recommendations and they were not 
short-term; their impact has been far reaching and has changed and 
will continue to change the very essence of education in Oklahoma. 
Those achievements are listed in the accomplishments section of this 
document. 

But Oklahoma higher education has not completed its work. Higher 
education is now undertaking the second phase of the systemwide 
effort by melding access and quality and focusing on providing Okla- 
homans access to quality educational programs and student services. 
This second phase focuses on key taskforce initiatives, as well as new 
challenges, and is outlined in the last section of this document. 

Described just eight years ago as "Oklahoma's Secret Crisis," the state 
system of higher education is now seen as a viable force shaping the 
future of our state and the quality of life for its citizens. No longer the 
state's "secret crisis," Oklahoma higher education has become 
Oklahoma's recognized answer to succeeding now and in the new 
millennium. 

February 1995 



4 

9 

ERIC 



'The miraculous part of our 
experience, however, was that 
this report was not put on the 
shelf as every one of its 
predecessors had been. It was 
acted upon. The direction of 
the entire (Oklahoma higher 
education) system . . . 
has been turned." 

lames Tolbert III. chairman. 
1987 Oklahoma Higher 
Education Task Force 



TASK FORCE 

RECOMMENDATIONS AND 

RESULTING 

ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



LEADERSHIP 

The task force recommended developing stronger higher education 
leadership. Higher education developed and implemented: 

• The Regents Education Program which prepares members of 
Oklahoma's 20 higher education governing boards for. their 
responsibilities 

• Annual strategic planning sessions among governing boards to 
share problems and goals 

• A search policy and grant program to identify highly competent 
college and university presidential candidates 



"The challenges facing 
American higher education 
today have prompted many 
institutions and states to 
address the need for change. 
Oklahoma is one of the states 
addressing change, but what 
appears to distinguish this state 
is the fundamental and 
comprehensive nature 
of the changes in its higher 
education system over 
the past several years. " 

\ Robert H. Atwell. president. 

^ . American Council on 

Education 



QUALITY 



The task force said if higher education were to achieve quality, 
improvements would be needed in several areas: better students, 
better programs and better faculty. Higher education responded by 
implementing a number of far-reaching initiatives: 

1. Better Students 

• Strengthened admission standards to better ensure high school 
students are prepared for college 

• Enhanced retention standards to encourage college students to 
maintain grades necessary for graduation 

• Increased number of core courses needed for college entry to 
strengthen high school preparation for college 

• Implemented course placement policy to ensure entering freshmen 
are placed in courses that meet their skills and abilities 

• Offers Summer Academies in Math and Science for eighth through 
12th graders < 

• Encourages student performance through new merit scholarship 
programs such as the Academic Scholars program, Regional 
Scholarship program and the Oklahoma Higher Learning Access 
Program 

• Measures student progress systemwide with four levels of assess- 
ment 



|ER|C 



Freshman Dropout Rate. 1988-1993 



40% 

35% 




0% 



,„., «. ,, U . H 1989-90 1990-91 199J-9I 1992-93 

omU <o"iw toTO toF.II91 to F.I! 92 to Fall 93 



As a result of higher education Initiatives to better prepare students for college- level 
work more freshmen arc staying in college. The freshman dropout rate fell from 36 
percent in fall 1988 to 24 percent In fall 1993. This 12 percentage point reduction 
reflects the retention of an additional 6.348 students In fall 1993. 



"Your leadership in progressing 
toward excellence here in 
Oklahoma is well known. 
Representing extraordinary 
success is the status of the 
response to the 1 987 Higher 
Education Task Force 
Recommendations. You are 
importantly conceded about 
the future. You are not resting 
\vur laurels on what you have 
accomplished so far." 

Constance Berry Newman, 
member of the Wingsprcad 
Group, which studied society's 
needs from higher education 



QUALITY 



"We arc not certain that higher 
education yet appreciates the 
kind of changes that have to be 
made, although I would note 
that Oklahoma, more than 
most states, has made the kind 
of fundamental restructuring 
changes that are required for 
the future. Under Chancellor 
Brisch and an active State 
Board of Regents, you have 
madethe cuts and found the 
efficiencies that others 
dream about." 

Gerald L. Balilcs. former 
governor of Virginia and 
chairman of the Southern 
Regional Education Board's 
O " Commission f or 

ERJC Educational Quality 



2. Better Programs 

• Implemented Academic Planning /Resource Allocation (APRA), a 
comprehensive, coordinated academic planning and budgeting 
process 

• Identified specific criteria for analyzing existing programs and new 
program requests 

• Strengthened college core curriculum by requiring a 37-hour core 
at the lower-division (freshmen and sophomore) level and adding a 
math requirement 

• Excluded physical education courses from minimum bachelor's 
degree requirements and grade point calculations 

• Established computerized data linkage with the Employment 
Security Commission to adjust academic programs to manpower 
demands 

• Conducted a systemwide review, implemented an ongoing teacher 
education reform plan, and are working with the Teacher Educa- 
tion Committee 

• Conducted reviews of aviation/aerospace, teacher education and 
nursing programs to eliminate unnecessary duplication 

• Organized Council of Graduate Education to review and strengthen 
programs at the University of Oklahoma and Oklahoma State 
University and to eliminate unnecessary duplication 

3. Better Faculty 

• Instituted endowment program: More than $56.5 million raised in 
private funds to match state endowment program and create 185 
chairs, professorships and lectureships 

• Set budget guidelines to provide faculty merit increases; annual 
merit rewards have ranged between 3.0% - 6.2% over the last five 
years 



EFFICIENCY 



Task force recommendations called for increased coordination and 
cooperation within higher education, as well as with vocational- 
technical and common education. Higher education efforts have 
resulted in: 

• 12 Oklahoma colleges and universities teaming up with 19 voca- 
tional-technical schools to jointly offer more than 1 70 programs 

• Oklahoma City-area two-year colleges sharing faculty, facilities, 
courses and programs 

• State Regents and American College Testing Program (ACT) 
working together to provide high schools with reports on their 
students' college performance 

• State Regents and ACT implementing an assessment procedure to 
determine the learning needs of students grades K-12 

• Producing brochures and videos to help high school students 
prepare for college 

• Developing a course-by-course listing of specific skills and knowl- 
edge high school students need to acquire to be successful in 
college and distributing the list to high schools 

• Decreasing guaranteed student loan default rates; default rates fell 
6.5% between FY88 - FY92 

• Enhancing the state's telecommunications network — OneNet — 
to provide interactive distance learning, worldwide computer 
network data and state services to all areas of Oklahoma 



9 

ERIC 



Academic Planning/Resource Allocation 
Program Deletions and Additions 



|. Program Deletions 



| program Additions 



ISO 




FY92 



KV93 



FY94 



from FY92 through FY94. Oklahoma colleges and universities eliminated 325 
programs while adding only 45 for a net reduction of 280 programs. As a result, 
scarce resources were reallocated to high priority academic programs and student 
services. 



8 



BUDGET REFORM 

Task force recommendations focused on budget reform. Higher 
education moved forward by: 

• Instituting a long-range, peer-comparison budget system for 
allocating new funds 

• • Basing funding allocations on objectives, performance and 
resource needs 

• Providing incentive funding to attract top students and faculty and 
to support selected improvements in student services and speci- 
fied programs 

• Passing a $350 million capital bond issue in 1992 

• Increasing external funding for research by 231% from FY88 to 
FY95 



GOVERNANCE 



"Oklahoma is one of a handful 
of states that provides and 
requires annual orientation for 
newly appointed as well as 
continuing members of public 
college and university 
governing boards. Many boards 
have also conducted an 
assessment of their own 
performance, in response to 
recommendations from the 
State Regents. These two new 
traditions — board performance 
assessment and continuing 
board member education — 
will help ensure competent and 
informed governance of public 
higher education in 'Oklahoma. 
And they are superb examples 
of what other states should be 
emulating as part of sensible 
reform agendas. " 



9 

ERIC 



Richard T. Ingram, president. 
Association of Governing 
Boards of Universities 
and Colleges 



Task force recommendations for restructuring existing boards of 
regents led to: 

• A study of the existing governance pattern and recommendations 
for change 



Administrative Costs as a Percentage of Total 
College and University Expenditures 




FY9S 



FY92 FY93 FY94 

To further increase the efficient use of resources. Oklahoma colleges .met 
universities have cut administrative costs and set cost caps. Administrative 
costs have decreased from 1 1.9 percent of total expenditures In FY92 to 10.7 
percent in FY95. 



OVERVIEW 
OF MAJOR 
CHALLENGES 

Although Oklahoma higher education has implemented many of the 
Secret Crisis reform recommendations, additional Secret Crisis 
recommendations and other priority concerns remain. 

Phase II of higher education's systemwide effort consists of focusing 
on key task force initiatives and undertaking other priorities to 
ensure access to quality higher education programs and services. 



"If seven years ago, when 
today's high school seniors were 
entering the fifth grade, you 
had told them and their parents 
about the improvements that 
would take place in Oklahoma 
higher education before they 
would graduate from high 
school. I suspect the most 
common reactions would have 
been appreciation and 
skepticism. Persons would have 
doubted that these changes 
could come about in seven 
years, particularly if they had 
known that the percentage of 
the state budget invested in 
higher education woui ' 
decrease during that time. 

"Oklahoma has shown real 
persistence m its efforts to 
improve higher education. That 
persistence is paying off. " 

q Mark Mustek, president. 

CDir j * Southern Regional 

■jss^sm ■*• " Education Board 



ACCESS 



Although the task force declared in 1987 that the access battle had 
been won, current figures show that may not be the case for long. 
Reasons include: 

• An Oklahoma Futures report showing a need for 50,000 additional 
bachelor's degree holders in the state workforce 

• A projected 23.5% increase in high school graduates between now 
and 2001 will result in an estimated minimum of 18,050 additional 
college students by 2001 

• However, even more high school graduates are expected to attend 
college as higher admission standards, information on student 
performance, and the implementation of HB 1017 — a common 
education funding and reform act — result in better prepared 
students 

• In addition, it is anticipated that more students will be staying in 
college as a result of improved retention standards 

Higher education and state policy leaders must deliberate the public 
policy issues and funding needs resulting from the predicted enroll- 
ment increase. Accommodating growing numbers of students and 
accounting for annual inflation will require an additional $151 
million. 



BEST COPY AVAILABLE 



9 

ERIC 



Oklahoma High School Graduation Rates 



40.442 



40.000 



35,000 



30.000 



25.000 



37.828 



.37,466 





35.466 



u *■** *" ; * :<,'C-A-';;<^'.s;--.-'.?.rt> 



1986 



1988 



1990 



1992 



1994 



1996 



199B 



2000 



Increasing numbers of high school graduates will affect the state's already burdened 
higher education system. Oklahoma higher education will require an additional 
$151 million to accommodate the estimated minimum of 18.050 new college 
students by 2001. 

n 



MISSION 

The task force also recommended better distinguishing the missions 
of the institutions. Higher education is moving to: 

• Clarify assignments within the higher education system 

• Refine institutional mission statements to ensure the efficient use 
of resources, to eliminate unnecessary duplication, and to 
provide quality academic programs and student services to all 
qualified citizens 

• Apply the Academic Planning/Resource Allocation concepts and 
procedures currently used for determining institutional priorities 
to the entire state system of higher education 



ERIC 1 2 



"The actions which regents, 
college and university 
administrators and the State 
Regents' staff have jointly 
undertaken to restructure 
operations, focus missions as a 
state delivery system and on 
each of the campuses, and 
enhance the efficiency and 
quality of the campuses and the 
system are worthy of national 
recognition. It is apparent that 
those of you in Oklahoma have 
embraced a vision of change 

which will ensure a bright 

future for the citizens 

of the state." 

lames H. Appieberry. president. 
American Association of State 
Colleges and Universities 



ECONOMIC 
DEVELOPMENT 



The task force recommended higher education take a more active role 
in economic development. Higher education is taking steps to: 

• Make the resources and expertise within the state system of 
higher education more available to business and industry 

• Further enhance the business development services higher 
education offers business and industry. Currently, almost 200 
specific business development programs and services assist some 
2,000 businesses 

• Better prepare and equip faculty and staff to assist business and 
industry 

• Increase interaction and communication between business and 
higher education to better ascertain business and industry's needs 



a 

ERIC 



Oklahoma Unemployment Rates by 
Educational Attainment 



8.0% 




0.0% 



Average 

Unemployment 
Rate 



No College 
Experience 



Associate 
Degree 
Holder 



Bachelor 

Degree 
Holder 



Oklahoma college education prepares Oklahomans for jobs in today's workforce. In 
1989. Oklahoma bachelor's degree holders had an unemployment rate of 2.4 
percent and associate degree holders had an unemployment rate of 4.4 percent, 
compared to 7.7 percent for Oklahomans without college experience. (U.S. Census 
Bureau) 



13 



VALUE OF HIGHER 
EDUCATION 

The task force said Oklahomans must be better informed of the 
strengths and needs of the state's higher education system and must 
be challenged to increase financial support for higher education. 
Higher education is moving forward by: 

• Better determining the public's perceptions, expectations and 
needs of higher education 

• Forming a Council of Communicators to more efficiently commu- 
nicate Oklahoma higher education's benefits, quality and value 

• Developing a comprehensive, statewide communications plan 



Earning Potential by Educational Attainment 



$40,000 
$35,000 
$30,000 
$25,000 
$20,000 
$15,000 
$10,000 
$5,000 
0 




Bachelor 
Degree 
Holder 



Associate 
Degree 
Holder 



No 
College 
Experience 



Increased earning power is one of the many benefits of a college education. In 
1989. Oklahoma bachelor degree holders earned an average S35.057 a year and 
Oklahomans with associate degrees earned an average $26,243 a year, 
compared to $20,939 for Oklahomans with no college experience. (U.S. Census 
Bureau). 



"Educational institutions, says 
Peter Drucker, are the most 
important social institutions of 
the 21st Century as 'knowledge 
workers' drive the world 
economy. Oklahoma has 
obviously taken this message to 
heart. The progress already 
made by the Board of Regents 
and the plans laid for the future 
are right on target. Higher 
expectations for all students, 
cost-effective delivery systems, 
creative use of technology, 
governance restructuring, 
cooperation wtth K-12 and the 
business community — these 
will be the keys to success. 
Keep up the good 
work, Oklahoma!" 

James R. Mingle, executive 
director. State Higher 
Education Executive Officers 



14 



TELECOMMUNICATIONS 



o 

ERIC 



"In today's global- and 
information-based economy, 
success of a state or nation will 
depend greatly on the quality 
, of its educational systems. 
There will be no alternative to 
having a citizenry that 
possesses a broad general 
education as well as skills that 
permit business and industry to 
be globally competitive. It is 
clear that Oklahoma's 
educational leaders understand 
this reality and that progress 
made toward accomplishing 
recommendations contained in 
the 1987 Higher Education 
Task Force report move 
the state positively 
in this direction." 

David Pierce, president. 
American Association of 
Community Colleges 



The task force called for continued telecommunications planning in 
Oklahoma higher education. Higher education is: 

• Increasing educational access through long-distance learning 

• Seeking to expand the state's telecommunications system in order 
to provide access to state services and worldwide information 
throughout Oklahoma 

• Using telecommunications to achieve clarity among Oklahoma 
colleges and universities as to their missions and functions 



OneNet — Oklahoma Higher Education's 
Telecommunications System 




Studies arc underway to expand and utilize OneNet. Oklahoma higher 
education's telecommunications system, as the state's communications and 
information network. 



BEST COPY AVAILABLE 



FUNDING 

The task force called for: 

• Increasing per-student appropriations to the national average 

• Reallocating resources from other government sectors, finding 
alternate funding sources for common education, and increasing 
taxes and earmarking revenue for higher education 

• Increasing tuition levels to 30% of educational costs 
Oklahoma higher education is: 

• Implementing a multi-year tuition plan with the gradual goal of 
students contributing $ 1 toward their college education for every 
$2 contributed by taxpayers: student contributions rose from 15% 
of educational costs in FY87 to 25% in FY95 

• Carrying out a multi-year plan to gradually increase state per- 
student funding to the average per-student funding found at 
similar public colleges and universities in other states; Oklahoma 
students are currently funded at 57% of per-student funding at 
similar public colleges and universities in other states 



State Appropriations Funding Goal for 2000 



$1,000.0 r 



$800.0 



$600.0 



■= $400.0 




$200.0 



$0.0 



FY93 FY94 FY95 FY96 FY97 FY98 FY99 FY2000 
(actual) (needed) 

To bring Oklahoma per-student funding to the average per-student funding at similar 
public colleges and universities In other states. Oklahoma higher education has 
implemented a multi-year funding plan. The FY95 budget fo; Institions is $507.3 
million: to reach the FY200O of $863.8 million will take an additional $356.6 million 



cjMaiMBBimiu 



16 



The Oklahoma State Regents For Higher Education 



Ed L. Calhoon 

Chairman 
Beaver 

Frederick W. McCann 
Vice Chairman 
Oklahoma City 

Anne H. Morgan 
Secretary 
Norman 

Robert L. McCormick 

Assistant Secretary 
Stillwater 

Glenn A. Cox 

Bartlesville 

lames E. Barnes 
Tulsa 

John Massey 
Durant 

Bill W. Burgess Ir. 
Lawton 

Leonard J. Eaton Ir. 
Tulsa 

Hans Brisch 

Chancellor 



The Oklahoma State Regents (or Higher Education In compliance with Titles VI and VII of the Civil Rights Act of l?M. Executive Order 1 1246 as 
amended. Title IX ol the Education Amendments ol W72. Americans with Disabilities Act of I9«0 and other federal laws and regulations do not 
discriminate on the basis ol race, color, national ongln. sex. age. iclicion. handicap, or status as a veteran In anv of Its policies, practices or procedures. 
This Includes but Is not limited to admissions, cmpiovmcnl. financial aid and educational services. 

This publication printed by Paragon Press. Is Issued by the Oklahoma Slate Regents for Higher Education as authorized by 70 O S. Section 3206. 
2.500 copies have been printed at a cost ol Jl .819.44. Copies have been deposited with the Publications Clearinghouse ol the Oklahoma Department 
of Libraries.