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DOCUMENT RESUME 



ED 383 329 



IR 017 184 



AUTHOR 
TITLE 



PUB DATE 
NOTE 



PUB TYPE 



EDRS PRICE 
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IDENTIFIERS 



Molenda, Michael; Olive, J. Fred III 

The Educational Media and Technology Profession: An 

Agenda for Research and Assessment of the Knowledge 

Base . 

95 

12p.; In: Proceedings of the 1995 Annual National 
Convention of the Association for Educational 
Communications and Technology (AECT) , (17th, Anaheim, 
CA, 1995) ; see IR 017 139. 

Reference Materials - Bibliographies (131) — 
Speeches/Conference Papers (150) 

MF01/PC01 Plus Postage. 

'''Educational Media; *Educat ional Technology; 
Literature Reviews; *Prof es s i onal Occupations; 
Professional Personnel; Standards 
''Knowledge Bases 



ABSTRACT 

This report is the first effort to stake out the 
territory to be included in research on the profession of educational 
media and technology (em/t) , and explore the exiting knowledge base 
wa.thm that territory. It comprises a set of questions, the answers 
to which cast a light on who is in the profession, where it is going, 
and what useful purposes its professionals serve. Question categories 
include: (1) definition of the field; (2) positions held; (3) 
compensations versus demands; (A) professional preparation and 
standards; (5) communications; (6) professional organizations; (7) 
the workplace; and (8) external forces. Two steps are seen as being 
critical to establishing the knowledge base of the em/t field: 
surveying the literature on the profession of educational technology 
and assessing the literature for adequacy, gaps, and obsolescence. 
The first step is reported here in the form of a selected 
bibliography of 100 works about the profession. It is based on a 
larger database of approximately 495 citations, that is published 
separately by Educational Technology Publications as "The Educational 
Technology Profession: A Bibliographic Overview of a Profession in 
Search of Itself" by J. Fred Olive. The second step is a larger task 
that still remains, and other scholars are invited to join in the 
endeavor. (Author/MAS) 



*************************^^ 

* Reproductions supplied by EDRS are the best that can be made 

from the original document. * 




OS 



oo 



Q 



Title: 



The Educational Media and Technology Profession: 
An Agenda for Research 
and Assessment of the Knowledge Base 



Authors: 

Michael Molenda 
Associate Professor 
School of Education 
Indiana University 
Bloomington IN 47405 



J. Fred Olive III 
Associate Librarian 
Mervyn H. Sterne Library 
University of Alabama at Birmingham 
Birmingham AL 3S294 



■PERMISSION TO REPRODUCE THIS 
MATERIAL HAS BEEN GRANTED BY 



S. Zenor 



2 



ERIC 



BEST COPY AVAILABLE 



432 



TO THE EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES 
INFORMATION CENTER (ERIC)." 



Introduction 



Who are we? Where are we going? What useful purpose do we serve? Such introspective 
questions-although viewed as pointless by some-are necessary questions for a profession to ask of itself 
periodically. During the late 1980s the board of directors of the Association for Educational 
Communications and Technology (AECT) undertook strategic planning for the future of association. They 
began by looking at the members who constitute the organization and who populate the educational media 
and technology (em/t) profession. As they did so, they realized that there are many questions about "who 
we are" and "where we are going" that could not be answered with any degree of certainty. The data either 
didn't exist or weren't readily accessible. 

This dearth of information about the profession was considered serious enough to set up a task 
force, later a committee, on "Research on the Profession." This committee, chaired first by George Grimes 
and later by Michael Molenda, operated from 1990 to 1994 with the charge of doing something to remedy 
this information pap. The group decided that a long-term solution must include the promotion of 
continuing research about the educational media and technology profession and the establishment of a 
mechanism for making this research available to those seeking information. 

Fortunately, the committee discovered early that Donald P. Ely, director of the ERIC 
Clearinghouse on Information and Technology, had already committed the Clearinghouse to sc lj the 
storage and dissemination functions envisioned by the committee. From that point the committee focused 
on a strategy of: 

-staking out the territory to be included in "research on the profession," 

-determining where the knowledge gaps are, and 

-encouraging further research to fill those knowledge gaps. 
This report is the first effort to stake out the territory and explore the existing knowledge base within thai 
territory. It is the hope of the committee that this Agenda will stimulate interest among researchers and 
apprentice researchers. It comprises a set of questions, the answers to which cast light on who we are, 
where we are going, and what useful purpose we serve. 

A preliminary draft of this paper was presented at the 1995 AECT annual convention. Reactions 
were given by Donald Ely, Sandy Patton, and Philip Doughty. Each made valuable, substantive 
suggestions which have been incorporated into this "Proceedings" version. 

The Agenda 

I. Definition of the field 

A. Boundaries: What is the currently accepted definition of the educational media and technology 
(em/t) field? 

"within the profession 

"among outside individuals and groups 

B. Image: How is the field perceived? 

"within the profession 

"among outside individuals and groups 

C. Historical Perspective: How have perceptions changed over time? 

D. Justification for existence: Are em/t specialists needed? What valuabie functions do they 
serve.. .within organization?. ..within society? What potential harm might be caused by ignorant, 
incompetent, or unethical practice? Are employers well informed about qualifications em/t 
professionals should possess? 



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II. Positions held 

A. Position Titles: What positions are currently held by em/t professionals 

...in schools? 

...in higher education? 

...in business/industry? 

...in government? 

...other? 

B. Marketplace: What sorts of positions are currently being advertised? 

C. Qualifications: What entry qualifications are expected by employers? 

D. Marketplace Status: Is there a balance between supply and demand of graduates? 

E. Roles: How are the roles of em/t specialists defined? 

0 What different roles arc defined and advocated within the field? 
0 What different roles are actually being played by practitioners? 
0 What do exemplary performers do that makes them exemplary? 

F. Career Paths: What are typical career paths followed by em/t professionals? 

G. Position/Role Trends: Is there a pattern of change in the types of positions available, the 
supply of qualified applicants, the roles played, or career paths? 

III. Compensations vs. Demands 

A. Compensation Status: What are the current salary ranges for different positions? Other 
compensations? 

B. Compensation Variables: Do salaries vary by educational level? Geographical location? 
Workplace? Gender? Other variables? 

C. Compensation Trends: Is, there a pattern of change in salaries or other compensations? 

D. Job Demands: What responsibilities do em/t professionals have? What special stresses are 
they subjected to? 

E. Job Demand Trends: How are job demands changing? How are stresses changing? 

IV. Professional Preparation and Standards 

A. Academic Study Opportunities: Where are degrees in em/t offered? 

"Master's 

"Specialist/Certificate 
"Doctoral 

B. Distribution of Students: How many students graduate from each program/degree? 

C. Academic Curricula: What are the curricula offered in these programs? How do they differ? 

D. Core Curriculum: To what extent is there agreement on a "core curriculum?" 



434 4 



E. Program Quality: Are then; evaluative data about these programs? (e.g. relative *i relevance of 
curricula to career preparedness) 

F. Preparation/Practice Match: What sorts of training are most valuable in helping students 
become successful practitioners? 

G. Academic Program Trends: Are the number or type of programs or graduates changing? Are the 
curricula changing? Are the programs flourishing, declining, remaining steady? 

H. Continuing Professional Development: What sorts of continuing education are needed? 
Wanted? 

I. Standards: What standards of professional competence or ethical codes are advocated? Enforced? 

V. Communications 

A. Communications among professionals: How do professionals communicate among 
themselves? 

0 adequacy of journals and periodicals 

0 accessibility of publications 

B. Information sources: How is needed information stored and retrieved? 

0 accessibility of print and electronic databases 

C. Linkages: How do professionals, individually and in groups, connect with others? 

0 on a local and regional basis? 
0 on a national basis? 

0 on an international basis? 

VI. Professional Organizations 

A. Membership: Which professional organizations do em/t professionals belong to? 

"national level 
"state level 
"local level 

B. Membership Overlap: To what degree is there overlap in membership among associations? 

C. Association Functions: What sorts of services are offered or activities are undertaken by these 
associations? 

D. Association Leadership: Who hold leadership positions in these associations? How are 
positions of leadership gained? What provision is made for leadership development? 

E. Association Trends: Any change in the pattern of association membership? How are internal 
and external foices affecting the growth and health of professional organizations? 



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VII. The Workplace 



A. Workplace Settings: In what organizational settings do em/t professionals work? (e.g. school 
or college media centers, local or state school agencies, university academic departments, 
corporations, etc.) 

B. Workplace Satisfaction: Do em/t professionals experience satisfaction with their workplace 
environment? 

C. Job Satisfaction: Do em/t professionals experience satisfaction in their jobs? 

D. Workplace Trends: Are these organizational settings declining or growing in number? Are 
they declining or growing in financial support? Are roles changing? In what ways? 

VII. External forces 

A. Societal Forces: What societal forces are affecting the profession? What are the forces that 
assist or impede the appropriate adoption of technology in education? 

B. Governance Forces: What changes are taking place in the governance of public K-12 education? 
Public and private higher education? How are these governance changes affecting the em/t 
profession? How do these forces aid or impede the appropriate adoption of technology? 

C. Workplace Forces: What workplace forces are affecting the profession? 

D. Technological Forces: How are technological forces affecting the profession? How does 
change in technology itself affect the adoption or rejection of technology in education and training? 

E. Historical Patterns and Trends: Historically, what has been the impact of various external 
forces on the size of, shape of, or directions taken by the field? 



The Knowledge Base 

We ms two steps being critical to establishing the knowledge base of the em/t field: first, 
surveying the literature on the profession of educational technology, and second, assessing the literature for 
adequacy, gaps, obsolescence, and so on. We are reporting the first step here in the form of a selected 
bibliography of works about this profession. It is based on a larger database--of some 495 citations-that is 
published separately by Educational Technology Publications as The Educational Technology Profession: A 
Bibliographic Overview of a Profession in Search of Itself hy J. Fred Olive; edited by the series editor, 
William D. Milheim. 

The second step entails a critical analysis of the database, assessing what is known for its 
completeness and up-to-date-ness and looking for gaps in the knowledge base. This is the larger task that 
still remains. We invite other scholars to join in this endeavor. 



SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 



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Alsworth, Frances Geraldine. (1980). Educational Technology and School Librarianship: Their Changing 
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436 



American Society for Training and Development. (1983). Models of Excellence. Washington, DC: ASTD. 

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