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The Investment Payoff 

A 50-State Analysis of the Public and Private Benefits of Higher Education 




PREPARED BY: 

Institute for Higher Education Policy 



The Institute for Higher Education Policy is a non-profit, non-partisan organization whose mission 
is to foster access and success in postsecondary education through public policy research and other 
activities that inform and influence the policymaking process. These activities include policy reports, 
seminars and meetings, capacity building activities such as strategic planning. The primary audiences 
of the Institute are those who make or inform decisions about higher education: government 
policymakers, senior institutional leaders, researchers, funders, the media, and private sector leaders. 

For further information, please contact: 

Institute for Higher Education Policy 
1 320 1 9th Street, NW, Suite 400 
Washington, DC 20036 
Phone: 202-861-8223 
Facsimile: 202-861-9307 
Internet: www.ihep.org 



The Investment Payoff 

A 50-State Analysis of the Public and Private Benefits of Higher Education 



PREPARED BY: 
Institute for Higher Education Policy 
February 2005 



Table of Contents 



Acknowledgements 1 

Introduction 3 

Methodology 5 

Educational Attainment by State 5 

Private Economic Benefits: Personal Income 7 

Private Economic Benefits: Labor and Unemployment 9 

Public Economic Benefits: Reduced Reliance on Public Assistance 11 

Private Social Benefits: Health 13 

Public Social Benefits: Volunteerism 15 

Public Social Benefits: Voting 17 

Conclusions 19 

References 20 



Appendix 



21 



Acknowledgments 



This study represents the collective effort of a range of people who worked under a very 
tight timetable to produce the report. The report was written and researched by a team 
of Institute for Higher Education Policy staff members that included Alisa Cunningham, 
Director of Research; Sarah Krichels, Research Analyst; Jamie Merisotis, President; 
Christina Redmond Daulton, Research Analyst; Melissa Clinedinst, Senior Research 
Analyst; and Loretta Hardge, Director of Communications and Marketing. We also thank 
data consultant Natalie Jellinek. 

Special thanks to Bob Dickeson and his colleagues at the Lumina Foundation for 
Education for their encouragement and generous support for this project. 



Introduction 



D oes college matter? In the last few years, a number of important efforts have 
been made to better articulate the benefits that result from the investment in 
higher education, both to individual students and to society. Several national 
organizations have made the public good of higher education a key theme of their 
ongoing work, ranging from the National Forum on Higher Education for the Public 
Good to the Association of American Colleges and Universities, among many others. 
Reports and studies also have been published that attempt to articulate the broad 
benefits of higher education, including the College Board's Education Pays report 
(College Board, 2004), the National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education's 
Measuring Up (2004) publication, and other highly regarded studies. These studies have 
consistently shown that going to college has broad and quantifiable national impacts, 
from higher salaries to improved health to increased volunteerism to a reduced reliance 
on welfare and other social support programs. In addition, these impacts occur over and 
above the effects of mediating factors such as income and age. 

This report builds on the work of these ongoing efforts by articulating the benefits of 
higher education on a 50-state basis. 1 The framework used for this analysis is taken from 
a precursor to the aforementioned recent national efforts, a 1 998 Institute for Higher 
Education Policy report, Reaping the Benefits: Defining the Public and Private Value of Going 
to College. That report offers a detailed historical perspective and contemporary catalog 
of benefits. Perhaps its most enduring contribution, however, is a simple matrix that 
groups the benefits of higher education into four major categories: public economic 
benefits, private economic benefits, public social benefits, and private social benefits 
(Figure 1 ). This matrix, which has appeared in forums ranging from the floor of the U.S. 
Senate to World Bank publications, includes 20 different types of benefits that can be 
characterized. This extensive though far-from-complete list of the benefits of higher 
education has become of increasing interest at the state level as policymakers seek to 
better understand how the investment of state tax dollars pays off. 

Like the federal government, state governments make a sizeable and vital public 
investment in postsecondary education. In fact, during academic year 1980-81, 
appropriations from state and local governments comprised nearly half of total revenue 
for public colleges and universities. By 1 999-2000, however, only about one-third of 
public institutional revenues were provided by state and local governments (NCES, 2004). 
Unfortunately, the proportion of total revenues provided to public institutions through 
state and local appropriations decreased dramatically during the 1 980s and has never fully 
rebounded. Yet this support for postsecondary education is an investment that has return 
benefits for both state and local governments and citizens living there. 

Our goal for this study is to demonstrate that the same benefits that are found at 
a national level are also evident at the individual state level, and need to be taken into 
account in state policy discussions. A total of six measurable indicators from among 
those originally formulated in Reaping the Benefits have been articulated for all 50 states 
in this report. These six indicators represent each of the basic components of the four- 
square benefits matrix. Moreover, the data to assess these indicators are readily available 
for all 50 states. The following benefit indicators are quantified for all of the states: 

I Private economic benefits: higher personal income, and lower unemployment; 

I Public economic benefits: decreased reliance on public assistance; 



Support for post- 
secondary education 
is an investment that 
has return benefits for 
both state and local 
governments and 
citizens living there. 



’The District of Columbia is not included as part of the 50-state analysis. However, data for the city are included in the 
Appendix tables. 



4 



The Investment Payoff 



Figure 1. The Array of Higher Education Benefits 



Public 



Private 



Increased Tax Revenues 
Greater Productivity 



Higher Salaries and Benefits 
Employment 
Higher Savings Levels 
Improved Working Conditions 
Personal/Professional Mobility 



Economic Increased Consumption 



Increased Workforce Flexibility 

Decreased Reliance on 
Government Financial Support 



Social 



Reduced Crime Rates 

Increased Charitable Giving/ 

Community Service 

Increased Quality of Civic Life 

Social Cohesion/Appreciation of Diversity 

Improved Ability to Adapt to 
and Use Technology 



Improved Health/Life Expectancy 
Improved Quality of Life for Offspring 



Better Consumer Decision Making 
Increased Personal Status 
More Hobbies, Leisure Activities 



SOURCE: Institute for Higher Education Policy. 1 998. Reaping the Benefits: Defining the Public and Private Value of Going to College. 
Washington, DC: Institute for Higher Education Policy. 



I Private social benefits: better health; and 

I Public social benefits: increased volunteerism, and increased voting participation. 

While this report presents data on a state-by-state basis in more detail, the scope of this 
exploratory effort is purposely narrow. The report does not attempt to look broadly at 
ail indicators offered in Reaping the Benefits for this state-level assessment. The sheer size 
of a 50-state study that attempts to describe all of the benefits that are found in Reaping 
the Benefits would require an enormous undertaking and commitment of substantial 
effort and resources. This study also does not attempt to rate state performance based 
on a series of graded measures. Nor does it attempt to draw inferences regarding causal 
relationships or to question why some states might fare better or worse compared to 
other states; it is beyond the scope of this study to examine the myriad influences in 
each state that may impact their performance in any given indicator. 

The U.S. Census Bureau's Current Population Survey (CPS) is the result of a partnership 
between the Census Bureau and the Bureau of Labor Statistics. They survey a sample of indi- 
viduals in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. In some of the indicators, state-level data 
showed peculiar results that may deviate from information reported by the states themselves. 
For example, no one in Mississippi age 25 or older with a high school diploma reported 
receiving public assistance in the prior year. This may be due to many reasons including, but 
not limited to: self-reporting, sample bias, or the particulars of welfare and social policy in that 
state. However, it is beyond the scope of this report to speculate why these anomalies occur. 

Much of the focus of the analysis is concentrated on the added value of earning 
a college degree, as evidenced by examining the difference between a high school 
diploma and a bachelor's degree for each of the six indicators. The added value of 
participating in at least some college (including an associate's degree) also is important, 
and the data show that for the vast majority of states, some college is good, and more 
college is even better. A complete state-by-state breakdown for all six of the indicators 
by education level (less than high school, high school graduate, some college, bachelor's 
degree, and advanced degree) can be found in the Appendix. 



The Investment Payoff 



5 



Methodology 

This report uses data obtained from the U.S. Census Bureau's Current Population Survey 
(CPS), 2 specifically from the March 2004 Supplement, the September 2004 Volunteer 
Supplement, and the November 2000 Voting Supplement. 

The key measure for each indicator is the added benefit, either to the individual or 
to society as a whole, from obtaining a bachelor's degree in addition to a high school 
diploma. Because of its roots in economic theory, this concept is called the marginal 
difference of a bachelor's degree compared to a high school diploma for each indicator, 
and is reported in either dollar amounts or percentage points. Further, the marginal 
percentage difference expresses the difference as a percentage of the base (high school 
diploma) so that states can be compared in terms of the largest (or smallest) proportional 
benefit of obtaining a bachelor's degree in addition to a high school diploma. 3 

For example, in 2000 the voting rate in Wisconsin for those over the age of 25 with a 
high school diploma was 63 percent compared to 88 percent for those with a bachelor's 
degree. This constitutes a difference of 25 percentage points (or a 40 percent increase) 
between the voting rate for those with a high school diploma and those with a bachelor's 
degree. In Nevada, the voting rate for those over the age of 25 with a high school 
diploma was 47 percent compared to 68 percent for those with a bachelor's degree. This 
constitutes a difference of 21 percentage points (or a 45 percent increase) between those 
with a high school diploma and those with a bachelor's degree. Thus, the difference in 
voting rates between those with a high school diploma and those with a bachelor's degree 
in Nevada is lower than the difference in Wisconsin, while the added percentage difference 
(which takes the base into account) of a bachelor's degree is actually higher in Nevada. 

In the following sections, each indicator has two tables. For most of the indicators, the 
first table orders the states from the lowest to the highest within that indicator for those with 
a bachelor's degree (not including those with advanced degrees), presenting the top five 
and bottom five states. For the indicators dealing with unemployment and public assistance, 
where the benefit is actually a decrease between those with a high school diploma and 
those with a bachelor's degree, states are ordered from the lowest to the highest for those 
with a high school diploma. The second table for each indicator orders states from lowest to 
highest in terms of the marginal percentage difference between those with a high school 
diploma and those with a bachelor's degree. The second table presents the data for the top 
five and bottom five states. Data for all the states are available in the Appendix. 

For ease of language and interpretation, from this point forward in the text the 
marginal difference is simply called the difference, and the marginal percentage 
difference is referred to as the percentage difference. 



Educational Attainment by State 

The educational attainment levels of state residents for all 50 states were examined to 
provide context for this discussion about the state-level benefits of higher education. 
Nationally, 18 percent of the population age 25 and older hold a bachelor's degree. 
Combined with those attaining an advanced degree, 28 percent of the population 
25 and older hold at least a bachelor's degree. Figure 2 provides a snapshot of the 
percentage of the population holding a bachelor's degree for all 50 states. Data for ail 
levels of educational attainment can be found in the Appendix tables. 



2 For more information on the Current Population Survey and its supplements, see "Current Population Survey, Technical Paper 
63RV: Design And Methodology." available at http//www.bls.census.gov/cps/tp/tp63.htm 

3 This is mathematically calculated as a percentage by dividing the marginal difference by the findings for those with a high 
school diploma. 



6 



The Investment Payoff 



Figure 2. Percentage of the population age 25 and older with a 
bachelor's degree in March 2004, by state of residence. 



wv 

KY 

MS 

IN 

AR 

NM 

Ml 

LA 

OH 

AL 

OK 

NV 

PA 

WY 

SC 

NC 

DE 

TN 

FL 

Wl 

ME 

AZ 

IA 

TX 

AK 

ID 

IL 

NY 

OR 

HI 

Rl 

MO 

US 

MT 

NE 

GA 

SD 

KS 

WA 

MD 

ND 

VA 

UT 

CA 

CT 

MN 

NH 

MA 

VT 

NJ 

CO 



0 5 % 10 % 15 % 20 % 25 % 

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey (CPS), March 2004 Supplement (2004). 





14.2% 

14.9% 

■ 15.3% 

■ 15.6% 

B 15.8% 

15.9% 

16.0% 
i6.o% 

^B 16.2% 
^^ 16 . 3 % 

16.4% 

16.4% 

■■■16.6% 

17.0% 

^^^B 17.1% 
^^^B 17.2% 
17.2% 

^^^B 17.2% 
17.3% 
17.3% 
17.3% 

17.4% 

17.4% 

^^^^B 17.6% 
17.6% 



1 17.8% 

1 17.8% 
I 17.9% 



I 18.1% 



| 18.3% 

| 18.3% 

3 18.6% 
■ 18.7% 



I 20.0% 

■ 20 . 2 % 

■ 20.3% 

■ 20.3% 
B20.6% 
^B21.2% 
^B21.2% 

2i.3% 

^^^■ 21 . 8 % 

21 . 8 % 



1 22.7% 

■ 22 . 8 % 
■ 23.1% 
B 23.3% 



The Investment Payoff 



7 



Private Economic Benefits: Personal Income 

National discussions about the value of higher education focus a great deal on the 
private economic gains — often to the exclusion of the other public and private 
benefits. Data show that in terms of both lifetime earnings and average annual 
income, an individual's ability to earn more and to maintain employment correlates to 
higher levels of education. 

In March 2004, the national average total personal income of workers 25 and older 
with a bachelor's degree was $48,41 7, roughly $23,000 higher than for those with a high 
school diploma (Figure 3). At the state level, the financial impact varies although the 
increase in earnings for those holding a bachelor's degree is clearly evident across all the 
states. Connecticut stands out as the state in which the average total personal income 
for those who hold a bachelor's degree was the highest. The average total personal 
income for workers in Connecticut who have a bachelor's degree was $56,21 1 , roughly 
$27,000 more than their high school graduate counterparts. 4 Maryland, Massachusetts, 
New Jersey, and Arkansas also led the nation among the states in which those with a 
bachelor's degree reported high average personal incomes. 

Workers holding a bachelor's degree in the state of Montana earned an average 
total personal income of $35,622 — almost $13,000 less than the national average — 
but $14,500 higher than the average total personal income of Montana workers with 
only a high school diploma. Average incomes for those with a bachelor's degree in 
Wyoming, West Virginia, Maine, and North Dakota, while below the national average, 



Figure 3. Average total personal income among people age 25 and 
older in 2003: states with the highest and lowest average personal 
income for those with a bachelor's degree. 



$ 60,000 
$ 50,000 
| $ 40,000 
| $ 30,000 
S $20,000 
$ 10,000 
0 

MT WY WV ME ND US AR NJ MA MD CT 



High School Diploma ||£| Bachelor's Degree 




NOTES: States were chosen based on the average income for bachelor's degree recipients. Income for those with a high school 
diploma is provided for comparison purposes. Those with a bachelor's degree does not include those who have attained an 
advanced degree as well. 

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey (CPS), March 2004 Supplement (2004). 



4 In the United States, the difference in average total personal income between those with a high school diploma and those 
with a bachelor's degree is $23,364, a 93 percent increase. 



8 



The Investment Payoff 



Figure 4. Average total personal income among people age 25 and older in 
2003: states with the largest and smallest percentage difference between 
those with a high school diploma and those with a bachelor's degree. 



While all states 
showed some 
increase in earning 
potential that 
favors those holding 
bachelor's degrees 
in terms of average 
total personal income, 
the percentage 
difference varied from 
state to state. 




NOTES: The states included here were selected based on the percentage differences (see methodology) between those with a high 
school diploma and those with a bachelor's degree, which are represented by the data points; the dashed line should not be interpreted 
as a trend. Data for two levels of educational attainment are included for reference purposes. Those with a bachelor's degree does not 
include those who have attained an advanced degree as well. 

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey (CPS), March 2004 Supplement (2004). 



nonetheless exceeded the average total personal income for individuals with only a 
high school diploma. 

While all states showed some increase in earning potential that favors those holding 
bachelor's degrees in terms of average total personal income, the percentage difference 
varied from state to state (Figure 4). For example, in Arkansas the difference in average 
total personal income between a worker with a high school diploma ($21,719) and 
a worker with a bachelor's degree ($53,646) constituted an increase of 147 percent. 
Similarly high private economic benefits for residents who obtain a bachelor's degree 
were found in Pennsylvania (1 09 percent), Arizona (1 1 2 percent), South Carolina (1 1 3 
percent), and New Mexico (1 32 percent). Even in those states in which the added benefit 
(in terms of increases to average total personal income) was the lowest, the data still 
showed dramatic percentage increases of close to 50 percent. 



AVERAGE TOTAL PERSONAL INCOME 



The Investment Payoff 



9 



Private Economic Benefits: Labor and Unemployment 

As America invests in and develops an educated workforce, productivity increases along 
with individuals' ability to sustain employment and earn higher income. Subsequently, 
the nation sees a return in the form of a higher tax base and an increased demand for 
goods and services. This is also true for state-level investment in an educated workforce. 

The percentage of workers age 25 and older who are in the labor force but are not 
employed is another personal economic indicator that can be correlated with higher 
levels of educational attainment. In March 2004, 6 percent of the population nationwide 
age 25 and older with a high school diploma were not employed, compared to 3 
percent for those with a bachelor's degree (Figure 5). Among the states, those in which 
people with a high school diploma in the labor force reported the highest levels of 
unemployment included South Carolina (8 percent), Washington (8 percent), California 
(8 percent), Michigan (1 0 percent), and Alaska (1 2 percent). Those states with the 
lowest rates of unemployment reported by those with a high school diploma include 
Mississippi (2 percent) North Dakota (3 percent), Wyoming (3 percent), Oklahoma (4 
percent), and Nebraska (4 percent). In each case, unemployment rates among those 
with a bachelor's degree were much lower. Indeed, across all the states, individuals with 
a bachelor's degree reported lower levels of unemployment than individuals with a 
high school diploma. 

The difference between those who hold a high school diploma and those who 
hold a bachelor's degree is more clearly illustrated by examining the percentage 



Figure 5. Percentage of people age 25 and older who were in the labor 
force and not employed: states with the highest and lowest rates 
among those who had a high school diploma. 



High School Diploma Bachelor's Degree 




NOTES: This figure shows the states with the highest and lowest rates reported by those with a high school diploma. Unemployment 
rates for those with a bachelor's degree are provided for comparison purposes. Those with bachelor's degrees does not include those 
who have an advanced degree as well. 

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey (CPS), March 2004 Supplement (2004). 



10 



The Investment Payoff 



Despite the range 
of differences, the 
pattern is consistent: 
higher unemployment 
was reported among 
those with only a high 
school diploma than 
among those with a 
bachelor's degree. 



Figure 6. Percentage of people age 25 and older who were in the 
labor force and not employed: states with the largest and smallest 
percentage difference between those with a high school diploma and 
those with bachelor's degree. 



High School Diploma ^ Bachelor's Degree Percentage Difference 




NOTES: The states included here were selected based on the percentage differences (see methodology) between those with a high 
school diploma and those with a bachelor's degree, which are represented by the data points; the dashed line should not be interpreted 
as a trend. Data for two levels of educational attainment are included for reference purposes. Those with a bachelor's degree does not 
include those who have attained an advanced degree as well. 

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey (CPS), March 2004 Supplement (2004). 



difference (Figure 6). In the United States as a whole, the 2.8 percentage point difference 
between the unemployment rates of those with a high school diploma and those with 
a bachelor's degree constituted a 48 percent decrease. The states showing the largest 
percentage decrease between those who are unemployed with a high school diploma 
and those who are unemployed with a bachelor's degree include Kentucky, Nebraska, 
New Mexico, Mississippi, and West Virginia. In states reporting relatively small percentage 
decreases (New Jersey, Louisiana, New York, Oregon, and Rhode Island), it is nonetheless 
notable that the percentage decrease between those with a high school diploma who 
were unemployed and those with a bachelor's degree who were unemployed ranged 
from 1 0 percent to 24 percent. Despite the range of differences, the pattern is consistent: 
higher unemployment was reported among those with only a high school diploma than 
among those with a bachelor's degree. 



PERCENT NOT EMPLOYED 



The Investment Payoff 



11 



Public Economic Benefits: 

Reduced Reliance on Public Assistance 

An educated workforce with a lower unemployment rate also brings benefits to the 
nation as a whole and to individual states. For example, improvements in the quality of 
life can take the form of less dependence on welfare assistance and diminished demand 
for other government-provided social services. 5 

Nationally, 1 percent of those with a high school diploma, and less than one-half 
percent of those with a bachelor's degree, received some form of public assistance in 
2003 (Figure 7). Overall, more people with a high school diploma reported receiving 
public assistance in every state than those with a bachelor's degree, and in 28 states no 
one with a bachelor's degree reported receiving public assistance in the prior year. When 
examining state-level data, the pattern of public assistance was linked to education 
attainment and varied across the states. Residents with high school diplomas in Alaska, 



Figure 7. Percentage of population age 25 and older who received some 
form of public assistance in 2003: states with the highest and lowest 
rates among those with a high school diploma. 



High School Diploma H Bachelor's Degree 



3.5% - 



2.5% - 



3 1.5% - 



0.5% - 



I I l 

LA SC GA AR IA 



I I 



i r 
US 




NY CA ME WA AK 



NOTES: This figure shows the states with the highest and lowest rates reported by those with a high school diploma. Rates for those 
with a bachelor's degree are provided for comparison purposes. Those with bachelor's degrees does not include those who have 
an advanced degree as well. No one with a high school diploma or a bachelor's degree in Mississippi reported receiving public 
assistance; therefore Mississsippi was excluded from this figure. 

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey (CPS), March 2004 Supplement (2004). 



5 The March 2004 Supplement of the Current Population Survey defines public assistance as welfare payments, general 
assistance program payments, emergency assistance payments, Cuban/Haitian refugee payments, and Indian assistance 
payments. It specifically does not include Food Stamps or Social Security Insurance payments. 



12 



The Investment Payoff 



Figure 8. Percentage of the population age 25 or older who received 
public assistance in 2003: states with the largest and smallest 
percentage difference between those with a high school diploma and 
those with a bachelor's degree. 



An educated 
workforce with a 
lower unemployment 
rate also brings 
benefits to the nation 
as a whole and to 
individual states. 



High School Diploma ^ Bachelor's Degree Percentage Difference 




NOTES: The states included here were selected based on the percentage differences (see methodology) between those with a 
high school diploma and those with a bachelor's degree, which are represented by the data points; the dashed line should not be 
interpreted as a trend. Data for two levels of educational attainment are included for reference purposes. Those with a bachelor's 
degree does not include those who have attained an advanced degree as well. Twenty-seven states had a percentage decrease 
of 100 percent, reflecting the fact that no bachelor's degree recipient received public assistance in those states. The five included 
here also had the largest nominal differences. 

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey (CPS), March 2004 Supplement (2004). 



Washington, Maine, California, and New York reported the highest rates of receipt for 
public assistance. In Alaska, 3.5 percent of residents with high school diplomas received 
public assistance. On the other end of the spectrum, the states in which the lowest 
portion of the population with high school diplomas reported receiving some form of 
public assistance in 2003 included Louisiana, South Carolina, Georgia, Arkansas, and Iowa. 6 

While the national percentages regarding the receipt of public assistance in 2003 
were quite small, a decrease of 0.7 percentage points between the rate of receipt 
reported by those with a high school diploma and the rate reported by those a 
bachelor's degree represented a percentage difference of 72 percent (Figure 8). Twenty- 
seven states showed a decrease of 100 percent between those with a high school 
degree and those with a bachelor's degree (five are reflected in the figure). Only three 
states — New Mexico, New Hampshire, and Hawaii — demonstrated a positive percentage 
difference between those with a high school diploma and those with a bachelor's 
degree who reported receiving public assistance, although the actual numbers of those 
with a bachelor's degree who reported receiving some form of public assistance were 
lower than the numbers of those with a high school diploma. The data from the other 47 
states reinforce the assertion that earning a bachelor's degree reduces reliance on public 
assistance programs. 



6 In Mississippi, no one with a high school diploma or a bachelor's degree reported receiving public assistance and the state 
was therefore excluded from this comparison. 



PERCENT RECEIVING PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 



The Investment Payoff 



13 



Private Social Benefits: Health 

Private social benefits accrue to individuals or groups and are not directly related to 
economic, fiscal, or labor market effects. 7 One quantifiable indicator in this category is 
personal health. The health of individuals also clearly has a broader social benefit in that 
healthier citizens reduce expenses on insurance, unreimbursed medical expenses, and 
other costs that are often passed on to other consumers. 

Across the United States, 82 percent of those with a high school diploma reported 
being in "excellent, very good, or good" health, compared to 93 percent of those with 
a bachelor's degree (Figure 9). Five states, in which the highest proportions of residents 
with a bachelor's degree reported good health, stand out — Virginia, Iowa, Rhode 
Island, Utah, and Minnesota. In these states, 95 to 97 percent of bachelor's degree 
holders described their health as good, very good, or excellent. Among those with high 
school diplomas in these same five states, the percentage reporting positive health 
status ranged from 81 to 86 percent. While those with a high school diploma in four of 
these states reported higher than average rates of good health, in all five states fewer 
respondents with a high school diploma reported good health than those who earned a 
bachelor's degree. The states in which the lowest proportions of those with a bachelor's 



Figure 9. Percent of population age 25 or older who reported being in 
good, very good, or excellent health: states with the highest and lowest 
rates among those with a bachelor's degree. 



High School Diploma Bachelor's Degree 




NOTES: This figure shows the states with the highest and lowest rates reported by those with a bachelor's degree. Rates for those with a 
high school diploma are provided for comparison purposes. Those with bachelor's degrees does not include those who have attained 
an advanced degree as well. 

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey (CPS), March 2004 Supplement (2004). 



7 These effects occur within income and age groups; see College Board 2004. 



14 



The Investment Payoff 



Figure 1 0. Percent of population age 25 or older who reported being 
in good, very good, or excellent health: states with the largest and 
smallest percentage difference between those with a high school 
diploma and those with a bachelor's degree. 



The health of 
individuals also 
clearly has a broader 
social benefit in that 
healthier citizens 
reduce expenses 
on insurance, 
unreimbursed medical 
expenses, and other 
costs that are often 
passed on to 
other consumers. 



High School Diploma |£J Bachelor's Degree - - Percentage Difference 




NOTES: The states included here were selected based on the percentage differences (see methodology) between those with a high 
school diploma and those with a bachelor's degree, which are represented by the data points; the dashed line should not be interpreted 
as a trend. Data for two levels of educational attainment are included for reference purposes. Those with a bachelor's degree means that 
the highest level attained was a bachelor's degree and does not include those who have attained an advanced degree as well. 

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey (CPS), March 2004 Supplement (2004). 



degree who reported good health included West Virginia, Kentucky, Arizona, Oklahoma, 
and South Carolina and ranged from 85 percent to 90 percent. Nonetheless, respondents 
with bachelor's degrees in these states still reported higher rates of good health than 
those who hold a high school diploma. All the other states not included in this figure 
exhibit similar trends. 

In terms of the percentage difference, five states stand out in terms of the greatest 
percentage differences between those with a high school diploma and those with a 
bachelor's degree in the reporting of good health (Figure 1 0). For example, in Alabama 
the proportion of bachelor's degree recipients indicating "excellent, very good, or good 
heath" was 23 percentage points higher than for those with high school diplomas, a 
percentage difference of 32 percent. Montana, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas 
demonstrated similar trends with percentage differences in reported good health 
between those who hold high school diplomas and those who hold bachelor's degrees 
ranging from 19 to 25 percent. This suggests that in those states, the prospects of good 
health for those who attained a bachelor's degree were higher than they are for those 
holding a high school diploma. Even in the bottom five states (Arizona, New Flampshire, 
Massachusetts, Delaware and Connecticut), the percentage difference in reported good 
health between high school graduates and bachelor's degree recipients constituted 
increases of roughly 5 to 9 percent. 



The Investment Payoff 



15 



Public Social Benefits: Volunteerism 

The public social benefits of higher education are probably the most complex and 
difficult to measure. Individual involvement in the community, concern for the quality 
of life, and caring for the social well-being of America benefit society as well as the 
individual. These attributes can be captured to some degree by examining the rate of 
volunteer participation. 

In September 2004, 21 percent of the U.S. population age 25 and older who had a 
high school diploma reported ever volunteering, compared to 36 percent of those with 
a bachelor's degree or higher 8 (Figure 1 1). The five states in which those with bachelor's 
degrees reported the highest level of volunteering include Missouri, Vermont, Iowa, 
Alaska, and Wyoming. For example, in Wyoming, 38 percent of the population age 
25 and older who hold high school diplomas reported volunteering, compared to 58 
percent of bachelor's degree recipients. States with the lowest volunteering rates for 
those with a bachelor's degree include Louisiana, Mississippi, FHawaii, West Virginia, and 



Figure 1 1. Percentage of people age 25 and older who reported ever 
volunteering: states with the five highest and five lowest rates among 
those with a bachelor's degree or higher. 




NOTES: This figure shows the states with the highest and lowest rates reported by those with a bachelor's degree or higher. Rates for 
those with a high school diploma are provided for comparison purposes. 

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey (CPS), Volunteer Supplement (September 2004). 



8 The September 2004 Supplement of CPS does not allow an exact match of the educational attainment variable; therefore, 
data for this indicator groups bachelor's degrees and advanced degrees. 



16 



The Investment Payoff 



Figure 1 2. Percentage of people age 25 and older who reported 
ever volunteering: states with the largest and smallest percentage 
difference between those with a high school diploma and those with a 
bachelor's degree or higher. 



High School Diploma Bachelor's Degree Percentage Difference 



-60% 



200 % - 



150% - 



100 % - 



50% - 



I 



29 % 



1 







73 % 



137 %^» 



-50% 



-40% 



-30% 



- 20 % 



- 10 % 



FL LA OK WA UT 



US 



CA V A AK AL MS 



NOTES: The states included here were selected based on the percentage differences (see methodology) between those with a high 
school diploma and those with a bachelor's degree or higher, which are represented by the data points; the dashed line should not 
be interpreted as a trend. Data fortwo levels of educational attainment are included for reference purposes. 

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey (CPS), Volunteer Supplement (September 2004). 



New York, ranging from 20 to 25 percent. In Louisiana, 1 5 percent of those with a high 
school diploma volunteered, compared to 20 percent of bachelor's degree recipients. 
However, in all states, higher levels of education were correlated to the likelihood that an 
individual would volunteer. 

As with other indicators, the data suggest that the added value of a bachelor's 
degree in terms of the percentage increase in volunteering rates may show a slightly 
different pattern (Figure 1 2). California, Virginia, Alaska, Alabama, and Mississippi 
experienced the highest percentage increases between those with a high school 
diploma and those with a bachelor's degree or higher, ranging up to 1 99 percent 
for Mississippi. Other states had relatively lower percentage differences. To return 
to the previous example, the 5 percentage point difference between those with a 
high school diploma in Louisiana and those with a bachelor's degree constituted a 
35 percent difference in volunteer rates. This indicates that even in those states with 
a small difference between volunteering rates, higher education still correlated with 
additional benefits. 



The Investment Payoff 



17 



Public Social Benefits: Voting 

A thriving democratic society also benefits from increased political participation among 
the people. Voting is one indicator among many that can gauge civic involvement. 

In November 2000, 56 percent of U.S. citizens who were age 25 and older and had a 
high school diploma responded that they had voted in the 2000 presidential election, 
compared to 76 percent of bachelor's degree recipients (Figure 13). All of the states 
also show evidence that higher education increases the likelihood of voting. The five 
states with the highest voting rates among those with a bachelor's degree include North 
Dakota, Vermont, Maine, Wisconsin, and Iowa, where voting rates among those 25 and 
older with a bachelor's degree hovered between 86 and 88 percent. On the other hand, 
Georgia, Arkansas, Hawaii, Nevada, and Tennessee had the lowest voting percentages in 
the United States among those with a bachelor's degree (ranging from 63 to 70 percent). 
For all of these states (as well as states not included in the figure), voting rates were 
substantially lower for residents with a high school diploma. 

The percentage differences in voting rates for those with a high school diploma 
compared to those with a bachelor's degree ranged from 1 2 percent in Massachusetts 
to 78 percent in Hawaii; nationally, the percentage difference was 36 percent (Figure 
14). The five states with the highest percentage increase in voting rates between those 
with a high school diploma and those with a bachelor's degree include North Carolina, 



Figure 1 3. Percentage of the population age 25 and older who voted in 
the November 2000 election: states with the highest and lowest rates 
among those with a bachelor's degree. 



A thriving democratic 
society also benefits 
from increased political 
participation among 
the people. Voting is 
one indicator among 
many that can gauge 
civic involvement. 



High School Diploma Bachelor's Degree 




GA AR HI NV TN US ND VT ME Wl IA 



NOTES: This figure shows the states with the highest and lowest rates reported by those with a bachelor's degree. Rates for those with a 
high school diploma are provided for comparison purposes. Those with bachelor's degrees does not include those who have attained 
an advanced degree as well. 

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey (CPS), Voting Supplement (November 2000). 



18 



The Investment Payoff 



Figure 1 4. Percentage of the population age 25 and older who voted 
in the November 2000 election: states with the largest and smallest 
percentage difference between those with a high school diploma and 
those with a bachelor's degree. 




NOTES: The states included here were selected based on the percentage differences (see methodology) between those with a high 
school diploma and those with a bachelor's degree, which are represented by the data points; the dashed line should not be interpreted 
as a trend. Data for two levels of educational attainment are included for reference purposes. Those with a bachelor's degree does not 
include those who have attained an advanced degree as well. 

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey (CPS), Voting Supplement (November 2000). 



Texas, Colorado, Arizona, and Hawaii. In these states, a bachelor's degree had the highest 
public benefits in terms of increased voting participation, compared with other states. 
Nonetheless, even the states with the lowest percentage difference in voting rates 
between the two populations (Massachusetts, Mississippi, Minnesota, Missouri, and 
Rhode Island) demonstrated a significant difference in the voting rates. This indicates 
that all states benefited from higher education with respect to voting rates. 



PERCENT WHO VOTED 



The Investment Payoff 



19 



Conclusions 

Higher education provides a broad array of benefits to both individuals and society. 
While such a statement has been a long-held belief in American higher education, 
only recently has the combination of social and economic benefits that accrue from 
the investment in higher education received sustained attention. This study attempts 
to build on recent efforts to better describe the broad national benefits of higher 
education by calculating state-by-state benefits using readily available data from the 
U.S. Census. The six indicators chosen for this analysis convincingly show that almost 
every state benefits from higher education in every indicator, even as some states 
benefit more than others. 

This simple articulation of the benefits of higher education for individual states needs 
to be more prominently featured in state policy debates regarding the investment of 
state resources in higher education. Moreover, additional efforts should be undertaken 
to develop specific and quantifiable indicators of the value of higher education at the 
state level. Such an expanded understanding of the payoffs that result from the public 
and private expenditures in higher education could go a long way toward improving the 
prospects for state economic development, social stability, and individual prosperity. 



20 



The Investment Payoff 



References 

College Board. 2004. Education Pays 2004: The Benefits of Higher Education for Individuals 
and Society. Washington, DC: College Board. 

Institute for Higher Education Policy. 1998. Reaping the Benefits: Defining the Public and 
Private Value of Going to College. Washington, DC: Institute for Higher Education Policy. 

National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education. 2004. Measuring Up 2004: The 
National Report Card on Higher Education. San Jose, CA:The National Center for Public 
Policy and Higher Education. 

U.S. Department of Education. National Center for Education Statistics. 2004. The 
Condition of Education 2004 (NCES 2004-077). Washington, DC: Government 
Printing Office. 



APPENDIX 



22 



The Investment Payoff 



Table 1. Percentage of US population age 25 and older in March 2004, 
by educational attainment and by state of residence. 





Less than 
high school 


High school 
diploma 


Some college 
(includes AS, AA, 
Certificates) 


Bachelor's degree 
(BA,AB,BS) 


Advanced (includes 
MA, MS, PhD, First 
Professional) 


United States 


14.8% 


32.0% 


25.5% 


18.1% 


9.6% 


Alabama 


1 7.6% 


34.5% 


25.6% 


15.9% 


6.4% 


Alaska 


9.8% 


31.4% 


33.3% 


1 7.3% 


8.2% 


Arizona 


1 5.6% 


27.0% 


29.4% 


1 7.2% 


10.8% 


Arkansas 


20.8% 


36.9% 


23.6% 


14.2% 


4.6% 


California 


18.7% 


21.9% 


27.7% 


21.2% 


10.5% 


Colorado 


1 1 .7% 


26.1% 


26.7% 


23.3% 


1 2.3% 


Connecticut 


1 1 .2% 


31.2% 


23.1% 


21.3% 


1 3.2% 


Delaware 


13.5% 


37.5% 


22.1% 


16.6% 


10.3% 


District of Columbia 


1 3.6% 


23.4% 


1 7.3% 


21.5% 


24.2% 


Florida 


14.1% 


32.6% 


27.3% 


17.1% 


8.9% 


Georgia 


14.8% 


33.1% 


24.4% 


18.6% 


9.0% 


Hawaii 


12.0% 


31.0% 


30.4% 


1 7.8% 


8.8% 


Idaho 


12.1% 


31.5% 


32.6% 


17.4% 


6.4% 


Illinois 


13.2% 


33.3% 


26.1% 


1 7.4% 


10.0% 


Indiana 


12.8% 


40.8% 


25.3% 


1 3.4% 


7.6% 


Iowa 


10.2% 


35.8% 


29.7% 


1 7.3% 


7.0% 


Kansas 


10.4% 


28.6% 


30.9% 


20.0% 


10.0% 


Kentucky 


18.2% 


36.3% 


24.5% 


12.4% 


8.6% 


Louisiana 


21.3% 


35.4% 


20.8% 


15.6% 


6.8% 


Maine 


12.9% 


38.0% 


24.8% 


1 7.2% 


7.1% 


Maryland 


12.6% 


31.5% 


20.7% 


20.3% 


14.9% 


Massachusetts 


13.1% 


29.8% 


20.4% 


22.7% 


14.1% 


Michigan 


12.1% 


35.2% 


28.4% 


15.3% 


9.1% 


Minnesota 


7.7% 


28.3% 


31.5% 


21.8% 


10.7% 


Mississippi 


1 7.0% 


36.3% 


26.6% 


12.5% 


7.7% 


Missouri 


12.1% 


35.6% 


24.2% 


1 7.9% 


10.2% 


Montana 


8.1% 


36.6% 


29.8% 


18.3% 


7.2% 


Nebraska 


8.7% 


33.2% 


33.2% 


18.3% 


6.6% 


Nevada 


1 3.7% 


34.1% 


27.7% 


16.0% 


8.5% 


New Hampshire 


9.2% 


29.6% 


25.7% 


21.8% 


1 3.6% 


New Jersey 


1 2.4% 


34.0% 


19.0% 


23.1% 


1 1 .6% 


New Mexico 


17.1% 


28.9% 


28.9% 


14.9% 


10.1% 


New York 


14.6% 


33.6% 


21.2% 


1 7.6% 


13.0% 


North Carolina 


19.1% 


32.3% 


25.2% 


16.4% 


7.0% 



continued on the following page 





The Investment Payoff 



23 



Table 1 — Continued 





Less than 
high school 


High school 
diploma 


Some college 
(includes AS, AA, 
Certificates) 


Bachelor's degree 
(BA,AB,BS) 


Advanced (includes 
MA, MS, PhD, First 
Professional) 


North Dakota 


10.5% 


32.2% 


32.1% 


20.3% 


4.8% 


Ohio 


1 1 .9% 


39.1% 


24.4% 


15.8% 


8.8% 


Oklahoma 


14.8% 


34.0% 


28.2% 


16.0% 


6.9% 


Oregon 


1 2.6% 


28.9% 


32.6% 


1 7.6% 


8.3% 


Pennsylvania 


1 3.5% 


42.8% 


18.5% 


16.2% 


9.1% 


Rhode Island 


18.9% 


32.3% 


21.6% 


17.8% 


9.4% 


South Carolina 


16.4% 


32.9% 


25.8% 


16.4% 


8.5% 


South Dakota 


12.5% 


32.8% 


29.2% 


18.7% 


6.8% 


Tennessee 


17.1% 


35.6% 


23.0% 


1 7.0% 


7.3% 


Texas 


21.7% 


27.8% 


25.9% 


17.3% 


7.2% 


Utah 


9.0% 


28.7% 


31.5% 


21.2% 


9.6% 


Vermont 


9.2% 


34.1% 


22.5% 


22.8% 


1 1 .4% 


Virginia 


1 1 .6% 


31.3% 


24.0% 


20.6% 


1 2.5% 


Washington 


10.3% 


27.5% 


32.4% 


20.2% 


9.7% 


West Virginia 


19.1% 


44.7% 


20.9% 


9.8% 


5.5% 


Wisconsin 


1 1 .2% 


36.2% 


27.0% 


1 7.2% 


8.4% 


Wyoming 


8.1% 


34.2% 


35.1% 


16.3% 


6.2% 



NOTE: These categories reflect the highest level of education attained and are therefore mutally exclusive. 
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey (CPS), March 2004 Supplement (2004). 





24 



The Investment Payoff 



Table 2. Average total personal income of US population age 25 and older in the year 
2003, by educational attainment and by state of residence. 





Less than 
high school 


High school 
diploma 


Some college 
(includes 
AS, AA, 
Certificates) 


Bachelor's 

degree 

(BA,AB,BS) 


Advanced 
(includes MA, 
MS, PhD, First 
Professional) 


Difference between 
those with a high 
school diploma and a 
bachelor's degree 


Percentage difference 
between those with a 
high school diploma and a 
bachelor's degree 


United States 


$15,221 


$25,053 


$32,470 


$48,417 


$70,851 


$23,364 


93.3% 


Alabama 


12,822 


23,929 


30,138 


47,1 1 7 


67,490 


23,187 


96.9% 


Alaska 


17,800 


29,069 


36,765 


42,588 


69,003 


13,519 


46.5% 


Arizona 


15,085 


24,644 


33,358 


52,179 


70,335 


27,534 


111.7% 


Arkansas 


12,509 


21,719 


30,146 


53,646 


56,909 


31,928 


147.0% 


California 


16,044 


26,630 


35,445 


49,657 


74,404 


23,028 


86.5% 


Colorado 


16,078 


27,608 


35,117 


47,530 


68,152 


19,922 


72.2% 


Connecticut 


17,380 


28,866 


38,709 


56,211 


78,626 


27,345 


94.7% 


Delaware 


17,413 


28,157 


34,272 


51,721 


64,159 


23,565 


83.7% 


District of Columbia 


14,240 


23,389 


33,177 


55,780 


87,048 


32,391 


138.5% 


Florida 


13,676 


23,657 


31,789 


48,112 


61,738 


24,455 


103.4% 


Georgia 


17,712 


23,979 


29,195 


44,348 


58,771 


20,369 


84.9% 


Flawaii 


14,476 


24,803 


35,433 


46,1 57 


65,539 


21,353 


86.1% 


Idaho 


16,548 


27,440 


27,861 


40,533 


64,058 


13,093 


47.7% 


Illinois 


14,644 


25,083 


33,963 


47,385 


72,207 


22,302 


88.9% 


Indiana 


16,545 


25,389 


32,239 


47,967 


69,206 


22,578 


88.9% 


Iowa 


17,044 


26,777 


31,598 


43,266 


53,650 


16,489 


61.6% 


Kansas 


14,760 


25,434 


29,905 


43,414 


62,292 


1 7,980 


70.7% 


Kentucky 


13,244 


23,822 


30,179 


40,332 


66,748 


16,510 


69.3% 


Louisiana 


13,357 


24,771 


29,065 


42,059 


52,628 


17,287 


69.8% 


Maine 


13,552 


23,161 


29,399 


38,810 


55,359 


15,650 


67.6% 


Maryland 


20,290 


27,406 


39,527 


55,432 


82,519 


28,026 


102.3% 


Massachusetts 


13,832 


27,872 


32,891 


55,038 


72,343 


27,167 


97.5% 


Michigan 


17,495 


24,210 


34,492 


47,558 


72,969 


23,347 


96.4% 


Minnesota 


19,723 


27,635 


35,248 


50,788 


78,715 


23,154 


83.8% 


Mississippi 


13,015 


21,796 


25,704 


42,249 


58,833 


20,453 


93.8% 


Missouri 


14,375 


24,441 


31,400 


42,1 82 


68,230 


1 7,741 


72.6% 


Montana 


17,844 


21,111 


26,147 


35,622 


53,756 


14,511 


68.7% 


Nebraska 


14,545 


26,604 


33,449 


46,584 


65,005 


19,981 


75.1% 


Nevada 


16,086 


26,504 


33,974 


52,822 


64,027 


26,319 


99.3% 


New Hampshire 


20,138 


27,585 


35,300 


53,051 


78,645 


25,466 


92.3% 


New Jersey 


16,300 


29,842 


36,406 


54,567 


85,378 


24,725 


82.9% 


New Mexico 


12,203 


20,794 


24,521 


48,231 


69,799 


27,437 


131.9% 


New York 


15,311 


24,984 


31,053 


48,794 


70,662 


23,810 


95.3% 



continued on the following page 






The Investment Payoff 



25 



Table 2 — Continued 





Less than 
high school 


High school 
diploma 


Some college 
(includes 
AS, AA, 
Certificates) 


Bachelor's 

degree 

(BA,AB,BS) 


Advanced 
(includes MA, 
MS, PhD, First 
Professional) 


Difference between 
those with a high 
school diploma and a 
bachelor's degree 


Percentage difference 
between those with a 
high school diploma and a 
bachelor's degree 


North Carolina 


13,903 


23,463 


28,950 


46,720 


76,198 


23,258 


99.1% 


North Dakota 


16,694 


23,027 


27,769 


39,158 


53,931 


16,132 


70.1% 


Ohio 


15,369 


24,882 


32,637 


46,950 


77,553 


22,068 


88.7% 


Oklahoma 


12,427 


22,190 


28,696 


44,816 


54,456 


22,626 


102.0% 


Oregon 


15,799 


25,125 


31,200 


41,941 


61,739 


16,816 


66.9% 


Pennsylvania 


14,845 


24,422 


33,545 


51,162 


70,546 


26,740 


109.5% 


Rhode Island 


14,622 


26,620 


35,320 


49,086 


67,586 


22,465 


84.4% 


South Carolina 


14,784 


22,224 


29,449 


47,422 


59,056 


25,199 


113.4% 


South Dakota 


14,458 


24,286 


29,148 


39,725 


69,830 


15,439 


63.6% 


Tennessee 


13,844 


21,815 


27,106 


43,644 


67,986 


21,830 


100.1% 


Texas 


13,919 


23,712 


32,212 


49,1 67 


76,746 


25,455 


107.3% 


Utah 


16,488 


22,437 


30,356 


45,776 


65,301 


23,339 


104.0% 


Vermont 


16,357 


26,281 


29,998 


42,606 


60,988 


16,326 


62.1% 


Virginia 


17,134 


26,979 


32,863 


49,274 


76,642 


22,295 


82.6% 


Washington 


18,913 


25,968 


32,318 


48,325 


64,190 


22,358 


86.1% 


West Virginia 


12,922 


20,865 


28,444 


37,616 


56,953 


16,751 


80.3% 


Wisconsin 


16,820 


27,813 


30,648 


47,1 70 


61,640 


19,357 


69.6% 


Wyoming 


25,092 


25,407 


29,272 


37,599 


61,572 


12,192 


48.0% 



Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey (CPS), March 2004 Supplement (2004). 






26 



The Investment Payoff 



Table 3. Percentage of US population age 25 and older in the labor force who were not 
employed in March 2004, by educational attainment and by state of residence. 





Less than 
high school 


High school 
diploma 


Some college 
(includes 
AS, AA, 
Certificates) 


Bachelor's 

degree 

(BA,AB,BS) 


Advanced (includes 
MA, MS, PhD, First 
Professional) 


Difference between 
those with a high 
school diploma and a 
bachelor's degree 


Percentage difference 
between those with a 
high school diploma and a 
bachelor's degree 


United States 


10.2% 


5.9% 


4.8% 


3.0% 


2.6% 


-2.8 


-48.1% 


Alabama 


8.8% 


4.5% 


5.0% 


1 .7% 


0.0% 


-2.8 


-62.3% 


Alaska 


1 7.3% 


12.4% 


5.3% 


2.7% 


1 .4% 


-9.7 


-78.3% 


Arizona 


7.0% 


4.4% 


3.8% 


1.8% 


2.9% 


-2.6 


-58.6% 


Arkansas 


6.5% 


5.3% 


2.6% 


1 .9% 


7.9% 


-3.4 


-64.7% 


California 


1 2.0% 


8.4% 


5.3% 


3.8% 


3.9% 


-4.7 


-55.3% 


Colorado 


6.9% 


5.1% 


4.2% 


2.0% 


2.0% 


-3.2 


-61.2% 


Connecticut 


14.6% 


5.2% 


5.8% 


3.1% 


2.7% 


-2.1 


-39.9% 


Delaware 


8.4% 


5.3% 


2.5% 


3.2% 


0.9% 


-2.1 


-40.1% 


District of Columbia 


14.6% 


9.7% 


9.1% 


2.3% 


5.0% 


-7.4 


-76.4% 


Florida 


6.9% 


4.8% 


4.8% 


2.3% 


2.7% 


-2.6 


-53.3% 


Georgia 


4.5% 


5.5% 


2.6% 


1 .9% 


0.5% 


-3.6 


-65.9% 


Hawaii 


5.1% 


4.5% 


2.1% 


1 .5% 


6.9% 


-3.1 


-67.7% 


Idaho 


1 3.8% 


5.6% 


2.3% 


3.3% 


0.0% 


-2.3 


-40.8% 


Illinois 


1 0.9% 


6.6% 


4.0% 


4.1% 


1.5% 


-2.5 


-37.4% 


Indiana 


9.1% 


4.7% 


5.1% 


1 .9% 


1 .8% 


-2.8 


-60.6% 


Iowa 


1 0.3% 


4.1% 


3.3% 


1 .0% 


1.8% 


-3.1 


-75.6% 


Kansas 


1 1 .7% 


6.1% 


4.5% 


2.0% 


0.8% 


-4.1 


-67.8% 


Kentucky 


4.3% 


5.1% 


6.2% 


0.9% 


0.7% 


-4.2 


-82.2% 


Louisiana 


7.3% 


5.9% 


4.2% 


4.9% 


1 .8% 


-1.0 


-1 7.3% 


Maine 


1 1 .5% 


5.9% 


3.0% 


2.5% 


1.1% 


-3.5 


-58.6% 


Maryland 


8.4% 


5.0% 


2.9% 


2.8% 


2.3% 


-2.2 


-44.0% 


Massachusetts 


6.8% 


6.9% 


5.5% 


2.7% 


3.1% 


-4.2 


-61.2% 


Michigan 


20.3% 


10.1% 


5.5% 


2.9% 


3.8% 


-7.2 


-71.4% 


Minnesota 


9.5% 


5.6% 


5.7% 


2.9% 


3.5% 


-2.6 


-47.2% 


Mississippi 


6.0% 


1 .9% 


3.8% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


-1.9 


-100.0% 


Missouri 


1 5.4% 


5.5% 


4.8% 


1 .9% 


3.2% 


-3.6 


-65.3% 


Montana 


8.9% 


7.3% 


2.9% 


3.4% 


1.3% 


-3.9 


-53.0% 


Nebraska 


4.9% 


3.7% 


3.4% 


0.6% 


1.5% 


-3.1 


-82.6% 


Nevada 


6.6% 


5.3% 


3.6% 


3.6% 


2.8% 


-1.8 


-33.3% 


New Hampshire 


6.1% 


4.1% 


3.9% 


1 .8% 


3.0% 


-2.3 


-55.5% 


New Jersey 


1 5.5% 


3.9% 


6.6% 


3.5% 


3.1% 


-0.4 


-10.0% 


New Mexico 


9.2% 


5.2% 


5.3% 


0.8% 


0.8% 


-4.4 


-84.7% 


New York 


1 2.2% 


6.0% 


7.0% 


4.9% 


3.8% 


-1.1 


-18.0% 


North Carolina 


1 0.6% 


4.8% 


3.4% 


2.3% 


3.3% 


-2.6 


-53.1% 


North Dakota 


9.4% 


2.8% 


4.5% 


0.5% 


0.0% 


-2.2 


-80.2% 


Ohio 


13.8% 


5.4% 


4.9% 


3.0% 


1.8% 


-2.4 


-44.4% 


Oklahoma 


5.3% 


3.7% 


3.4% 


2.6% 


2.5% 


-1.1 


-30.5% 


Oregon 


1 8.0% 


7.0% 


6.5% 


5.7% 


4.0% 


-1.3 


-18.6% 


Pennsylvania 


1 2.2% 


6.4% 


5.2% 


3.3% 


2.4% 


-3.1 


-48.6% 



continued on the following page 




The Investment Payoff 



27 



Table 3 — Continued 





Less than 
high school 


High school 
diploma 


Some college 
(includes 
AS, AA, 
Certificates) 


Bachelor's 

degree 

(BA,AB,BS) 


Advanced (includes 
MA, MS, PhD, First 
Professional) 


Difference between 
those with a high 
school diploma and a 
bachelor's degree 


Percentage difference 
between those with a 
high school diploma and a 
bachelor's degree 


Rhode Island 


1 1 .5% 


5.1% 


3.8% 


3.9% 


5.4% 


-1.2 


-23.9% 


South Carolina 


10.5% 


7.7% 


4.3% 


3.0% 


0.0% 


-4.7 


-60.7% 


South Dakota 


16.6% 


3.9% 


2.7% 


2.2% 


2.8% 


-1.7 


-44.6% 


Tennessee 


6.9% 


4.3% 


4.5% 


1 4% 


2.9% 


-2.9 


-67.4% 


Texas 


8.2% 


5.4% 


5.0% 


4.0% 


1 .8% 


-1.5 


-27.1% 


Utah 


9.3% 


4.0% 


4.8% 


1 .9% 


3.2% 


-2.2 


-53.7% 


Vermont 


9.8% 


4.8% 


4.8% 


1.7% 


1 .0% 


-3.2 


-65.4% 


Virginia 


8.7% 


4.4% 


3.9% 


3.2% 


1.3% 


-1.2 


-26.8% 


Washington 


1 2.5% 


8.1% 


6.2% 


3.8% 


2.1% 


-4.3 


-53.1% 


West Virginia 


1 3.3% 


6.7% 


4.4% 


0.0% 


0.7% 


-6.7 


-100.0% 


Wisconsin 


1 1 .3% 


7.6% 


3.8% 


2.6% 


0.5% 


-5.1 


-66.6% 


Wyoming 


10.8% 


2.9% 


3.8% 


1 .7% 


0.0% 


-1.1 


-39.1% 



Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey (CPS), March 2004 Supplement (2004). 




28 



The Investment Payoff 



Table 4. Percentage of US population age 25 and older who received public assistance in 
the year 2003, by educational attainment and by state of residence. 





Less than 
high school 


High school 
diploma 


Some college 
(includes 
AS, AA, 
Certificates) 


Bachelor's 

degree 

(BA,AB,BS) 


Advanced 
(includes MA, 
MS, PhD, First 
Professional) 


Difference between 
those with a high 
school diploma and a 
bachelor's degree 


Percentage difference 
between those with a 
high school diploma and a 
bachelor's degree 


United States 


2.1% 


0.9% 


0.9% 


0.3% 


0.1% 


-0.7 


-72.0% 


Alabama 


1.5% 


0.6% 


0.6% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


-0.6 


-1 00.0% 


Alaska 


5.3% 


3.5% 


3.4% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


-3.5 


-1 00.0% 


Arizona 


3.2% 


1 .3% 


0.1% 


0.9% 


0.0% 


-0.5 


-34.6% 


Arkansas 


1 .0% 


0.3% 


0.2% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


-0.3 


-1 00.0% 


California 


3.6% 


1 .9% 


1.1% 


0.7% 


0.2% 


-1.2 


-61.6% 


Colorado 


2.4% 


0.9% 


0.8% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


-0.9 


-1 00.0% 


Connecticut 


1.2% 


1.1% 


0.8% 


1 .0% 


0.0% 


-0.2 


-13.6% 


Delaware 


2.0% 


0.5% 


0.6% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


-0.5 


-1 00.0% 


District of Columbia 


8.6% 


2.6% 


2.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


-2.6 


-1 00.0% 


Florida 


1 .0% 


0.4% 


0.3% 


0.3% 


0.0% 


-0.1 


-16.7% 


Georgia 


0.4% 


0.2% 


0.5% 


0.0% 


0.8% 


-0.2 


-1 00.0% 


Hawaii 


1.5% 


0.5% 


0.7% 


0.5% 


0.3% 


0.0 


1.5% 


Idaho 


1.7% 


0.9% 


1.1% 


0.0% 


0.9% 


-0.9 


-1 00.0% 


Illinois 


1 .3% 


0.5% 


0.5% 


0.0% 


0.3% 


-0.5 


-1 00.0% 


Indiana 


1 .6% 


0.5% 


1.1% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


-0.5 


-1 00.0% 


Iowa 


2.5% 


0.3% 


0.4% 


0.2% 


0.0% 


-0.2 


-53.6% 


Kansas 


1.7% 


0.9% 


2.1% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


-0.9 


-1 00.0% 


Kentucky 


1.6% 


0.5% 


1 .6% 


0.0% 


0.4% 


-0.5 


-1 00.0% 


Louisiana 


0.9% 


0.1% 


0.2% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


-0.1 


-1 00.0% 


Maine 


5.2% 


2.1% 


2.1% 


0.8% 


0.0% 


-1.4 


-64.0% 


Maryland 


1 .2% 


0.7% 


0.6% 


0.3% 


0.0% 


-0.4 


-60.1% 


Massachusetts 


2.8% 


0.7% 


0.5% 


0.3% 


0.0% 


-0.4 


-57.1% 


Michigan 


3.3% 


1.5% 


1.1% 


0.8% 


0.0% 


-0.7 


-45.6% 


Minnesota 


1.8% 


1 .4% 


1 .9% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


-1.4 


-1 00.0% 


Mississippi 


1.7% 


0.0% 


0.7% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


0.0 


0.0% 


Missouri 


2.3% 


0.6% 


0.4% 


0.0% 


0.5% 


-0.6 


-1 00.0% 


Montana 


3.0% 


0.8% 


0.7% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


-0.8 


-1 00.0% 


Nebraska 


2.6% 


0.8% 


1 .0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


-0.8 


-1 00.0% 


Nevada 


0.2% 


0.8% 


0.2% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


-0.8 


-1 00.0% 


New Hampshire 


2.6% 


0.4% 


0.8% 


0.6% 


0.0% 


0.1 


24.9% 


New Jersey 


1.2% 


0.7% 


0.5% 


0.1% 


0.0% 


-0.6 


-82.9% 


New Mexico 


1 .6% 


1 .3% 


1.5% 


1 .8% 


0.0% 


0.4 


32.0% 


New York 


3.7% 


1 .6% 


1.3% 


0.1% 


0.2% 


-1.4 


-90.9% 


North Carolina 


0.5% 


0.7% 


0.5% 


0.3% 


0.0% 


-0.4 


-53.3% 


North Dakota 


2.7% 


1 .0% 


1.5% 


0.2% 


0.0% 


-0.8 


-80.1% 


Ohio 


2.9% 


0.9% 


0.8% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


-0.9 


-1 00.0% 


Oklahoma 


3.7% 


0.7% 


1.1% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


-0.7 


-1 00.0% 


Oregon 


0.8% 


1 .0% 


0.7% 


0.2% 


0.0% 


-0.8 


-78.4% 


Pennsylvania 


2.8% 


0.8% 


0.9% 


0.3% 


0.0% 


-0.5 


-61.5% 



continued on the following page 




The Investment Payoff 



29 



Table 4 — Continued 





Less than 
high school 


High school 
diploma 


Some college 
(includes 
AS, AA, 
Certificates) 


Bachelor's 

degree 

(BA,AB,BS) 


Advanced 
(includes MA, 
MS, PhD, First 
Professional) 


Difference between 
those with a high 
school diploma and a 
bachelor's degree 


Percentage difference 
between those with a 
high school diploma and a 
bachelor's degree 


Rhode Island 


2.4% 


1 .6% 


1 .8% 


0.6% 


0.0% 


-1.0 


-62.9% 


South Carolina 


0.9% 


0.1% 


0.6% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


-0.1 


-1 00.0% 


South Dakota 


2.7% 


1.1% 


1 .4% 


0.2% 


0.0% 


-0.9 


-83.6% 


Tennessee 


2.4% 


1 .4% 


2.0% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


-1.4 


-1 00.0% 


Texas 


1 .3% 


0.7% 


0.5% 


0.0% 


0.1% 


-0.7 


-1 00.0% 


Utah 


1 .4% 


0.7% 


0.8% 


0.5% 


0.0% 


-0.3 


-36.9% 


Vermont 


3.7% 


1 .4% 


1 .4% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


-1.4 


-1 00.0% 


Virginia 


0.2% 


0.8% 


0.7% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


-0.8 


-1 00.0% 


Washington 


2.6% 


2.8% 


1 .6% 


0.4% 


0.0% 


-2.4 


-85.1% 


West Virginia 


1 .4% 


1.3% 


1 .4% 


0.4% 


0.0% 


-0.9 


-71.9% 


Wisconsin 


3.5% 


0.4% 


0.9% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


-0.4 


-1 00.0% 


Wyoming 


1 .4% 


0.7% 


0.3% 


0.0% 


0.0% 


-0.7 


-1 00.0% 



NOTE: Percentage differences of -1 00 percent reflect the fact that no bachelor's degree recipient received public assistance in those states. 
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey (CPS), March 2004 Supplement (2004). 




30 



The Investment Payoff 



Table 5. Percentage of US population age 25 and older who described their health as good, very 
good or excellent in March 2004, by educational attainment and by state of residence. 



Less than 
high school 


High school 
diploma 


Some college 
(includes 
AS, AA, 
Certificates) 


Bachelor's 

degree 

(BA,AB,BS) 


Advanced 
(includes MA, 
MS, PhD, First 
Professional) 


Difference between 
those with a high 
school diploma and a 
bachelor's degree 


Percentage difference 
between those with a 
high school diploma and a 
bachelor's degree 


United States 


67.3% 


82.0% 


87.2% 


92.6% 


92.5% 


10.6 


1 2.9% 


Alabama 


49.4% 


71.9% 


87.3% 


94.8% 


93.0% 


22.9 


31.8% 


Alaska 


69.8% 


84.0% 


86.4% 


91.7% 


91.2% 


7.7 


9.1% 


Arizona 


78.9% 


84.8% 


86.5% 


89.3% 


91.6% 


4.5 


5.3% 


Arkansas 


49.3% 


72.5% 


77.9% 


91.0% 


83.5% 


18.5 


25.5% 


California 


75.2% 


82.7% 


87.2% 


91.6% 


93.4% 


8.9 


11% 


Colorado 


80.4% 


86.3% 


89.0% 


94.9% 


94.8% 


8.6 


9.9% 


Connecticut 


65.8% 


85.7% 


89.4% 


93.2% 


92.8% 


7.4 


8.7% 


Delaware 


66.1% 


85.1% 


82.4% 


92.2% 


92.0% 


7.1 


8.3% 


District of Columbia 


65.4% 


78.1% 


86.3% 


94.7% 


94.0% 


16.6 


21.2% 


Florida 


69.4% 


80.9% 


87.1% 


91.6% 


91.2% 


10.8 


13.3% 


Georgia 


65.9% 


81.8% 


87.3% 


92.2% 


95.2% 


10.4 


1 2.7% 


Hawaii 


64.3% 


82.1% 


90.1% 


90.2% 


88.6% 


8.1 


9.9% 


Idaho 


71.8% 


84.1% 


87.5% 


91.4% 


97.4% 


7.3 


8.7% 


Illinois 


66.0% 


81.9% 


89.0% 


93.7% 


92.8% 


11.7 


14.3% 


Indiana 


60.6% 


84.0% 


87.9% 


93.6% 


88.7% 


9.5 


1 1 .4% 


Iowa 


74.0% 


85.0% 


90.1% 


95.5% 


91.6% 


10.6 


1 2.5% 


Kansas 


68.2% 


82.0% 


86.8% 


95.2% 


95.1% 


13.2 


16.1% 


Kentucky 


50.1% 


78.6% 


82.1% 


86.6% 


93.0% 


8.0 


10% 


Louisiana 


65.0% 


79.5% 


86.8% 


90.9% 


87.1% 


1 1.4 


14.4% 


Maine 


58.0% 


80.5% 


85.6% 


94.9% 


92.3% 


14.4 


1 7.9% 


Maryland 


66.7% 


84.3% 


88.5% 


92.8% 


90.9% 


8.4 


1 0.0% 


Massachusetts 


69.4% 


85.8% 


90.0% 


92.6% 


95.3% 


6.8 


7.9% 


Michigan 


61 .6% 


80.6% 


88.2% 


92.7% 


92.5% 


12.1 


15.0% 


Minnesota 


74.9% 


84.0% 


90.7% 


96.7% 


96.1% 


13.1 


1 5.7% 


Mississippi 


48.8% 


79.7% 


81.5% 


93.2% 


92.0% 


13.5 


1 6.9% 


Missouri 


64.3% 


80.6% 


86.2% 


92.4% 


91.0% 


11.8 


14.6% 


Montana 


57.9% 


76.4% 


89.8% 


90.9% 


91.4% 


14.4 


1 8.9% 


Nebraska 


69.9% 


85.7% 


88.2% 


93.1% 


96.7% 


7.5 


8.7% 


Nevada 


83.7% 


83.8% 


87.8% 


93.9% 


89.4% 


10.1 


12.1% 


New Hampshire 


75.6% 


88.2% 


88.5% 


94.2% 


93.4% 


6.0 


6.8% 


New Jersey 


74.5% 


86.5% 


90.5% 


94.6% 


94.0% 


8.1 


9.3% 


New Mexico 


66.2% 


82.2% 


85.0% 


91.1% 


90.7% 


8.9 


11% 


New York 


67.9% 


82.1% 


87.2% 


91.0% 


91.7% 


8.9 


1 0.8% 


North Carolina 


60.0% 


81.7% 


85.9% 


94.0% 


94.1% 


12.3 


15.1% 


North Dakota 


65.2% 


86.0% 


91.0% 


94.3% 


95.9% 


8.3 


9.6% 


Ohio 


66.1% 


84.0% 


87.2% 


93.4% 


94.4% 


9.5 


1 1 .3% 


Oklahoma 


55.7% 


80.3% 


87.0% 


89.8% 


88.1% 


9.5 


1 1 .8% 


Oregon 


71.2% 


82.5% 


89.8% 


93.8% 


89.4% 


11.2 


1 3.6% 


Pennsylvania 


63.6% 


82.7% 


87.7% 


93.0% 


93.6% 


10.3 


1 2.5% 


Rhode Island 


71.0% 


86.0% 


88.2% 


96.0% 


93.8% 


9.7 


1 1 .2% 



continued on the following page 





The Investment Payoff 



31 



Table 5 — Continued 



Less than 
high school 


High school 
diploma 


Some college 
(includes 
AS, AA, 
Certificates) 


Bachelor's 

degree 

(BA,AB,BS) 


Advanced 
(includes MA, 
MS, PhD, First 
Professional) 


Difference between 
those with a high 
school diploma and a 
bachelor's degree 


Percentage difference 
between those with a 
high school diploma and a 
bachelor's degree 


South Carolina 


52.2% 


75.3% 


85.8% 


90.1% 


92.3% 


14.8 


1 9.6% 


South Dakota 


61 .2% 


85.0% 


90.1% 


94.2% 


96.6% 


9.2 


11% 


Tennessee 


62.0% 


76.6% 


81 .9% 


92.6% 


89.7% 


16.0 


20.9% 


Texas 


71.6% 


81.0% 


85.9% 


91.3% 


91.7% 


10.3 


1 2.8% 


Utah 


74.8% 


81.0% 


89.6% 


96.3% 


96.3% 


15.1 


1 8.6% 


Vermont 


62.4% 


84.8% 


89.6% 


93.1% 


94.8% 


8.3 


9.8% 


Virginia 


63.5% 


84.0% 


85.7% 


95.3% 


91.2% 


10.9 


1 2.9% 


Washington 


68.8% 


79.8% 


87.4% 


92.9% 


87.7% 


13.1 


1 6.4% 


West Virginia 


45.3% 


76.3% 


83.6% 


84.8% 


82.6% 


8.4 


11.1% 


Wisconsin 


73.2% 


87.1% 


88.6% 


94.9% 


93.7% 


7.8 


8.9% 


Wyoming 


68.7% 


84.1% 


88.1% 


92.8% 


92.6% 


8.7 


10% 



Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey (CPS), March 2004 Supplement (2004). 





32 



The Investment Payoff 



Table 6. Percentage of US population age 25 and older who reported ever volunteering for 
or through an organization in September 2004, by educational attainment and state. 





Less than 
high school 


High school 
diploma 


Some college 
(includes AS, AA, 
Certificates) 


Bachelor's degree (BA, AB, 
BS) and higher (MA, MS, 
PhD, First Professional) 


Difference between 
those with a high school 
diploma and a bachelor's 
degree or higher 


Percentage difference between 
those with a high school 
diploma and a bachelor's 
degree or higher 


United States 


1 1 .8% 


20.8% 


31.0% 


36.1% 


15.3 


73.3% 


Alabama 


9.1% 


1 7.4% 


27.5% 


41.4% 


24.0 


137.5% 


Alaska 


14.7% 


23.7% 


42.1% 


55.9% 


32.1 


1 35.4% 


Arizona 


1 3.6% 


23.8% 


37.1% 


41 .2% 


17.3 


72.8% 


Arkansas 


5.7% 


18.3% 


27.4% 


30.2% 


11.9 


65.2% 


California 


9.6% 


15.5% 


31.2% 


35.6% 


20.1 


1 29.9% 


Colorado 


7.1% 


24.3% 


35.7% 


42.6% 


18.3 


75.3% 


Connecticut 


8.4% 


27.4% 


37.2% 


40.2% 


12.8 


46.9% 


Delaware 


16.9% 


22.2% 


28.1% 


30.2% 


7.9 


35.7% 


District of Columbia 


1 1 .0% 


15.9% 


20.5% 


49.8% 


33.9 


212.7% 


Florida 


1 3.4% 


22.9% 


29.9% 


29.4% 


6.5 


28.6% 


Georgia 


12.0% 


14.6% 


19.2% 


27.8% 


13.2 


90.3% 


Hawaii 


1 2.4% 


13.7% 


24.0% 


23.7% 


10.0 


73.0% 


Idaho 


1 1 .5% 


24.9% 


32.5% 


48.2% 


23.3 


93.4% 


Illinois 


13.5% 


18.2% 


27.6% 


31.5% 


13.3 


73.4% 


Indiana 


9.8% 


21.6% 


27.8% 


36.5% 


14.9 


69.2% 


Iowa 


24.3% 


30.5% 


42.3% 


55.5% 


24.9 


81.8% 


Kansas 


1 9.4% 


24.5% 


40.7% 


48.2% 


23.8 


97.2% 


Kentucky 


13.1% 


19.7% 


32.1% 


45.2% 


25.5 


129.1% 


Louisiana 


9.4% 


15.0% 


24.7% 


20.2% 


5.2 


34.6% 


Maine 


16.9% 


24.5% 


43.7% 


46.7% 


22.2 


90.7% 


Maryland 


1 1 .5% 


24.4% 


35.6% 


38.5% 


14.1 


57.9% 


Massachusetts 


1 1 .2% 


20.9% 


30.4% 


35.6% 


14.7 


70.5% 


Michigan 


16.1% 


25.2% 


36.3% 


44.6% 


19.4 


76.9% 


Minnesota 


22.4% 


29.9% 


41.6% 


42.2% 


12.3 


41 .3% 


Mississippi 


8.0% 


7.9% 


15.8% 


23.5% 


15.6 


199.1% 


Missouri 


14.4% 


22.9% 


33.0% 


52.2% 


29.4 


1 28.5% 


Montana 


33.7% 


28.3% 


42.1% 


44.7% 


16.5 


58.2% 


Nebraska 


21.6% 


28.5% 


43.7% 


48.7% 


20.2 


70.8% 


Nevada 


9.6% 


18.5% 


30.7% 


33.9% 


15.4 


83.0% 


New Hampshire 


25.1% 


32.4% 


44.6% 


45.9% 


13.5 


41 .8% 


New Jersey 


10.4% 


16.8% 


24.2% 


35.7% 


18.9 


112.2% 


New Mexico 


1 5.4% 


24.9% 


32.1% 


38.7% 


13.8 


55.5% 


New York 


7.3% 


16.4% 


22.2% 


24.8% 


8.4 


50.8% 


North Carolina 


12.4% 


20.0% 


34.2% 


40.8% 


20.7 


1 03.3% 


North Dakota 


23.9% 


31.0% 


34.0% 


46.7% 


15.8 


50.9% 


Ohio 


21.0% 


25.5% 


32.6% 


36.5% 


11.0 


42.9% 


Oklahoma 


14.1% 


21.8% 


23.5% 


29.4% 


7.6 


34.9% 


Oregon 


14.1% 


25.9% 


43.0% 


47.8% 


21.9 


84.4% 


Pennsylvania 


18.2% 


22.7% 


36.5% 


41 .2% 


18.6 


81.9% 


Rhode Island 


10.7% 


1 7.7% 


31.5% 


35.9% 


18.2 


103.1% 



continued on the following page 




The Investment Payoff 



33 



Table 6 — Continued 





Less than 
high school 


High school 
diploma 


Some college 
(Includes AS,AA, 
Certificates) 


Bachelor's degree (BA, AB, 
BS) and higher (MA, MS, 
PhD, First Professional) 


Difference between 
those with a high school 
diploma and a bachelor's 
degree or higher 


Percentage difference between 
those with a high school 
diploma and a bachelor's 
degree or higher 


South Carolina 


1 3.9% 


18.4% 


26.7% 


38.0% 


19.6 


1 06.3% 


South Dakota 


18.7% 


24.4% 


29.8% 


34.7% 


10.3 


42.2% 


Tennessee 


7.4% 


15.5% 


19.7% 


26.0% 


10.5 


67.7% 


Texas 


8.7% 


21.6% 


32.6% 


38.0% 


16.4 


76.0% 


Utah 


16.2% 


30.8% 


38.0% 


41 .7% 


10.9 


35.4% 


Vermont 


14.7% 


29.7% 


42.9% 


52.4% 


22.7 


76.4% 


Virginia 


7.4% 


15.1% 


23.5% 


34.8% 


19.7 


1 30.8% 


Washington 


19.5% 


35.4% 


40.7% 


47.8% 


12.4 


35.1% 


West Virginia 


7.7% 


16.1% 


20.4% 


24.0% 


7.9 


49.3% 


Wisconsin 


15.0% 


26.0% 


32.7% 


46.5% 


20.4 


78.5% 


Wyoming 


29.3% 


37.5% 


47.1% 


57.5% 


20.0 


53.4% 



NOTE: As the CPS supplement does not provide a comparable educational attainment variable, bachelor's degrees and advanced degrees are grouped. 
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey (CPS), Volunteer Supplement (September 2004). 




34 



The Investment Payoff 



Table 7. Percentage of US population age 25 and older who voted in the November 2000 
election, by educational attainment and by state of residence. 





Less than 
high school 


High school 
diploma 


Some college 
(includes 
AS, AA, 
Certificates) 


Bachelor's 

degree 

(BA,AB,BS) 


Advanced (includes 
MA, MS, PhD, First 
Professional) 


Difference between 
those with a high 
school diploma and a 
bachelor's degree 


Percentage difference 
between those with a 
high school diploma and a 
bachelor's degree 


United States 


42.1% 


56.0% 


67.3% 


76.3% 


82.1% 


20.2 


36.1% 


Alabama 


43.2% 


59.2% 


69.4% 


81.7% 


90.9% 


22.5 


38.1% 


Alaska 


51.8% 


61.3% 


75.4% 


82.3% 


86.0% 


21.0 


34.2% 


Arizona 


32.5% 


47.3% 


59.3% 


72.9% 


79.4% 


25.7 


54.3% 


Arkansas 


34.6% 


47.3% 


63.7% 


64.5% 


75.8% 


17.1 


36.2% 


California 


40.9% 


51.5% 


64.0% 


71.7% 


80.1% 


20.2 


39.2% 


Colorado 


20.7% 


50.0% 


62.8% 


76.9% 


87.2% 


26.9 


53.9% 


Connecticut 


50.1% 


50.2% 


64.5% 


70.6% 


81.3% 


20.4 


40.7% 


Delaware 


43.3% 


59.9% 


72.5% 


83.0% 


87.1% 


23.1 


38.7% 


District of Columbia 


66.0% 


65.3% 


83.8% 


82.3% 


81.0% 


17.1 


26.2% 


Florida 


41 .0% 


57.3% 


66.5% 


76.9% 


79.3% 


19.6 


34.2% 


Georgia 


38.6% 


48.4% 


61.2% 


63.4% 


66.2% 


15.0 


31.0% 


Hawaii 


29.7% 


36.4% 


50.2% 


64.6% 


71.2% 


28.2 


77.7% 


Idaho 


38.4% 


51.8% 


65.2% 


72.4% 


81.0% 


20.7 


39.9% 


Illinois 


49.8% 


58.3% 


70.8% 


74.9% 


78.3% 


16.6 


28.5% 


Indiana 


44.8% 


56.8% 


65.2% 


77.7% 


88.6% 


20.9 


36.7% 


Iowa 


53.8% 


60.8% 


73.2% 


87.8% 


90.1% 


27.0 


44.3% 


Kansas 


52.1% 


54.9% 


67.9% 


79.3% 


85.6% 


24.4 


44.3% 


Kentucky 


31.4% 


56.6% 


68.0% 


76.4% 


83.7% 


19.8 


34.9% 


Louisiana 


52.9% 


63.7% 


75.5% 


84.9% 


85.4% 


21.3 


33.4% 


Maine 


56.1% 


64.1% 


79.1% 


87.2% 


93.0% 


23.1 


36.0% 


Maryland 


42.0% 


54.0% 


67.6% 


80.1% 


83.3% 


26.0 


48.2% 


Massachusetts 


47.9% 


65.9% 


71.9% 


74.0% 


78.2% 


8.1 


1 2.3% 


Michigan 


42.0% 


57.6% 


75.0% 


79.7% 


84.9% 


22.1 


38.4% 


Minnesota 


51.5% 


69.9% 


71.8% 


85.7% 


84.6% 


15.8 


22.6% 


Mississippi 


51.6% 


62.8% 


67.5% 


72.6% 


71.1% 


9.8 


15.6% 


Missouri 


56.0% 


65.8% 


78.1% 


82.4% 


84.2% 


16.7 


25.4% 


Montana 


45.7% 


58.3% 


70.9% 


81.7% 


78.6% 


23.4 


40.2% 


Nebraska 


54.9% 


59.3% 


61.7% 


81.5% 


87.8% 


22.2 


37.4% 


Nevada 


40.3% 


46.9% 


57.8% 


68.2% 


71.2% 


21.3 


45.4% 


New Hampshire 


37.6% 


62.9% 


75.5% 


85.4% 


88.5% 


22.5 


35.8% 


New Jersey 


48.6% 


57.4% 


69.7% 


75.1% 


81.6% 


17.8 


31.0% 


New Mexico 


44.8% 


51.8% 


62.0% 


76.4% 


77.2% 


24.6 


47.4% 


New York 


46.2% 


55.4% 


64.9% 


74.7% 


80.5% 


19.3 


34.9% 


North Carolina 


35.5% 


51.5% 


70.8% 


77.3% 


84.3% 


25.8 


50.2% 


North Dakota 


57.6% 


64.3% 


73.8% 


86.2% 


92.6% 


21.9 


34.1% 


Ohio 


37.3% 


55.8% 


69.1% 


78.3% 


83.6% 


22.5 


40.3% 


Oklahoma 


37.9% 


56.3% 


69.4% 


75.4% 


86.3% 


19.0 


33.8% 


Oregon 


43.5% 


60.4% 


72.5% 


82.1% 


87.8% 


21.7 


35.8% 


Pennsylvania 


38.8% 


55.9% 


66.7% 


74.6% 


84.8% 


18.8 


33.6% 


Rhode Island 


45.3% 


61.4% 


66.6% 


78.0% 


84.7% 


16.6 


27.1% 



continued on the following page 




The Investment Payoff 



35 



Table 7 — Continued 





Less than 
high school 


High school 
diploma 


Some college 
(includes 
AS, AA, 
Certificates) 


Bachelor's 

degree 

(BA,AB,BS) 


Advanced (includes 
MA, MS, PhD, First 
Professional) 


Difference between 
those with a high 
school diploma and a 
bachelor's degree 


Percentage difference 
between those with a 
high school diploma and a 
bachelor's degree 


South Carolina 


44.6% 


60.1% 


63.8% 


79.0% 


84.4% 


19.0 


31.6% 


South Dakota 


46.5% 


58.3% 


71.2% 


77.8% 


76.4% 


19.6 


33.5% 


Tennessee 


41.8% 


54.0% 


66.8% 


70.3% 


79.4% 


16.3 


30.3% 


Texas 


35.7% 


51.4% 


61.0% 


77.7% 


81.6% 


26.3 


51.2% 


Utah 


39.1% 


51.7% 


69.4% 


76.3% 


80.2% 


24.6 


47.6% 


Vermont 


37.2% 


62.3% 


70.0% 


86.6% 


92.1% 


24.3 


39.0% 


Virginia 


29.7% 


53.4% 


67.5% 


75.6% 


86.0% 


22.3 


41.7% 


Washington 


44.1% 


59.6% 


64.1% 


77.8% 


89.3% 


18.3 


30.6% 


West Virginia 


34.3% 


50.7% 


65.2% 


75.8% 


87.5% 


25.1 


49.5% 


Wisconsin 


63.2% 


62.6% 


78.3% 


87.5% 


89.0% 


25.0 


39.9% 


Wyoming 


38.7% 


57.6% 


72.7% 


83.5% 


86.3% 


26.0 


45.1% 



Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey (CPS), Voting and Registration Supplement (November 2000). 





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