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INTRODUCTION 


The  designations  employed  and  the  presentation  of 
material  throughout  this  review  do  not  imply  the  expression 
of  any  opinion  whatsoever  on  the  part  of  UNESCO  or  the 
IIEP  concerning  the  legal  status  of  any  country,  territory, 
city  or  area  or  its  authorities,  or  concerning  its  frontiers 
or  boundaries. 

The  publication  costs  of  this  study  have  been  covered 
through  a grant-in-aid  offered  by  UNESCO  and  by 
voluntary  contributions  made  by  several  Member  States 
of  UNESCO. 


Published  by: 

International  Institute  for  Educational  Planning 
7-9  rue  Eugene  Delacroix,  75116  Paris 
e-mail:  info@iiep.unesco.org 
IIEP  web  site:  www.unesco.org/iiep 


Layout  and  cover  design:  Sabine  Lebeau 
Typesetting:  Sabine  Lebeau 
Printed  in  IIEP’s  printshop 
ISBN:  92-803-1288-X 
©UNESCO  2006 


Chapter 


1 


INTRODUCTION 


EDUCATION  AND 
PROTECTION  IN  CRISES 

Access  to  education  is  a fundamental  tool 
for  child  protection.  Education  inherently 
provides  physical,  psychosocial  and  cognitive 
protection.  In  appropriate  security  conditions, 
physical  protection  may  be  enhanced  by  the 
provision  of  adult  supervision  and  a safe  place 
to  play.  Psychosocial  protection  is  offered 
through  opportunities  for  self-expression, 
the  expansion  of  social  networks  and  access 
to  structure  and  regular  routines.  By  placing 
children  in  the  social  role  of  learners,  education 
gives  children  a sense  of  purpose  and  self-worth. 
Finally,  education  contributes  to  the  cognitive 
protection  of  children  affected  by  conflict  or 
crises  by  addressing  specific  living  conditions 
that  arise  from  conflict  (landmine  awareness  or 
health  issues),  strengthening  childrens  analytical 
abilities,  and  giving  children  the  tools  they  need 
to  develop  skills  for  citizenship  and  life  in  peace. 
Education  saves  lives;  education  sustains  life. 
Thus,  education  is  an  essential  element  of 
response  efforts  to  conflicts  or  crises  (Nicolai  and 
Triplehorn,  2003).  This  Guidebook  for  planning 
education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction  aims 
to  support  educational  authorities  in  providing 
equal  access  to  education  of  quality  for  children 
affected  by  conflict  or  disaster. 


THE  READER 

The  Guidebook  for  planning  education  in 
emergencies  and  reconstruction  (hereafter  referred 
to  as  the  Guidebook)  is  addressed  primarily 
to  staff  of  ministries  of  education,  including 


national,  provincial  and  district  level  planners 
and  managers,  in  countries  affected  by  conflict 
or  natural  disasters,  or  hosting  refugees  from  a 
neighbouring  state.  This  is  the  first  time  that 
detailed  guidance  on  education  in  emergencies 
and  reconstruction  has  been  prepared  specifically 
from  this  perspective. 

From  the  inception  of  its  Programme  for 
Education  in  Emergencies  and  Reconstruction, 
IIEP  has  been  working  to  fill  this  gap  in  the 
support  materials  available  to  ministries.  In  April 
2003,  20  international  experts  on  education 
in  emergencies  and  reconstruction  met  in 
Gourdon,  France,  to  produce  the  first  drafts  of 
this  Guidebook . Since  then,  the  text  has  been 
reviewed,  edited  and  enriched  to  produce  the 
38  chapters  that  now  constitute  the  Guidebook . 
A number  of  Ministry  of  Education  officials  from 
across  the  globe,  as  well  as  other  education 
practitioners  and  planners  from  a range  of 
international  organizations,  were  consulted  in 
the  editorial  process. 

The  value  of  the  Guidebook  has  been  enriched 
immeasurably  by  reference  to  a wide  literature, 
which  is  thoroughly  and  consistently  cited  in  the 
'References  and  further  reading’  section  at  the 
end  of  each  chapter.  Of  particular  importance 
in  the  drafting  were  the  volumes  published  in 
IIEP’s  series,  'Education  in  emergencies  and 
reconstruction’.  The  seminal  work  was  the 
start-of-the  art  review  written  by  Margaret 
Sinclair  (2002),  entitled  Planning  education  in 
and  after  emergencies . Complementing  that  work 
is  a thematic  study  of  co-ordination  of  education 
in  emergencies  and  reconstruction  (Sommers, 
2004).  Five  published  case  studies,  on  Rwanda 
(Obura,  2003),  education  of  Rwandan  refugees 
(Bird,  2003),  Kosovo  (Sommers  and  Buckland, 


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IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


2004),  Timor  Leste  (Nicolai,  2004)  and  the  Southern  Sudanese  (Sommers,  2005),  have 
provided  valuable  material  to  illustrate  the  principles  and  guidance  of  the  Guidebook . 

This  Guidebook  is  also  intended  for  staff  of  United  Nations  organizations,  donor  agencies 
and  non-governmental  organizations  (NGOs)  working  in  support  of  ministries  to  promote 
education  for  emergency-affected  populations.  Staff  of  those  agencies  will  benefit  from  a 
fuller  awareness  of  the  ways  in  which  they  can  strengthen  national  capacities  for  planning 
and  management  of  education  in  and  after  periods  of  emergency. 

In  many  countries,  some  aspects  of  education  are  covered  by  ministries  or  organizations 
other  than  the  Ministry  of  Education.  There  may  be  a separate  Ministry  of  Higher  Education, 
for  example.  There  may  also  be  educational  programmes  for  youth  and  persons  with 
disabilities,  or  specific  programmes  that  target  gender  inequity  that  are  overseen  by  other 
ministries.  Moreover,  ministries  such  as  the  Ministry  of  Finance,  the  Ministry  of  Planning, 
the  Ministry  of  Agriculture  or  the  Ministry  of  Labour  will  be  important  partners  for  the 
Ministry  of  Education.  These  partners  can  help  to  determine  whether  the  output  of  the 
education  system  actually  corresponds  with  the  needs  in  the  labour  market.  Experts  from 
these  sectors  may  also  be  important  sources  of  information  in  the  drafting  of  education 
plans,  curriculum  reforms,  or  teachers’  conditions  of  service.  In  this  Guidebook , however,  for 
brevity  we  shall  refer  to  the  Ministry  of  Education  as  shorthand  for  all  ministries  handling 
education  matters. 

In  many  situations  of  emergency  and  reconstruction,  external  agencies  resume  responsibility 
for  a smaller  or  larger  part  of  the  education  system.  In  some  situations,  the  government 
simply  may  not  have  control  on  the  ground.  Here,  the  Guidebook  refers  to  the  ‘authority’ 
responsible  for  education  in  those  areas.  The  reader  may  make  the  necessary  adjustments 
to  take  account  of  this  fact  in  countries  where  education  is  covered  by  multiple  ministries 
or  authorities,  or  by  different  non-governmental  actors. 


LEVELS  AND  TYPES  OF  EDUCATION 

The  Guidebook  focuses  to  a considerable  extent  on  ensuring  access  to  quality  schooling  at 
primary  and  secondary  levels  during  emergencies.  However,  attention  is  also  paid  to  early 
childhood  development,  vocational  education,  post-primary  and  higher  education  and  non- 
formal  education. 

The  term  'formal  education  is  used  here  to  refer  to  regular  schooling  that  follows  a normal 
pattern  - admission  of  students  at  about  age  six  or  over,  promotion  from  grade  to  grade  on 
a yearly  basis,  and  use  of  a curriculum  that  covers  a wide  range  of  knowledge,  skills,  values 
and  attitudes.  This  term  is  used  even  though  some  elements  may  be  added  or  temporarily 
omitted  as  a consequence  of  the  emergency.  A formal  education  system  comprises  primary, 
secondary,  tertiary  and  vocational  education. 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


The  term  hon-formal  education  is  reserved  for  educational  activities  delivered  to  targeted 
social  groups,  where  there  is  a possibility  to  provide  attention  to  individual  learners.  Those 
activities  may  include  courses,  workshops  and  apprenticeships  that  meet  specific  needs 
of  society  and  its  members,  in  fields  such  as  literacy  and  numeracy,  health  and  childcare, 
training  in  informal  sector  businesses,  life  skills  such  as  conflict  management,  peace  and 
human  rights  education  and  environmental  education,  although  some  of  those  topics  may 
also  be  addressed  in  formal  school  settings. 

The  term  \ informal  education  refers  to  learning  channels,  such  as  mass  media  and  mass 
publicity  campaigns,  where  there  is  little  or  no  possibility  for  attention  to  the  individual. 


EACH  SITUATION  IS  DIFFERENT 

The  Guidebook  presents  examples  of  the  problems  faced  in  different  kinds  of  emergencies, 
and  suggests  policy  options  and  strategies  that  have  been  found  useful  in  such  situations  (see 
the  Guidebook , Chapter  2}  ‘Challenges  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction',  for  information 
on  the  typology  used:  different  types  and  phases  of  emergencies  and  different  population 
groups) . It  must  be  stressed,  however  that  each  emergency  situation  is  different:  each  conflict 
or  disaster  takes  its  own  particular  trajectory,  carries  its  own  history  and  affects  a particular 
country  or  countries  differently  depending  on  specific  traditions  in  the  field  of  education 
and  culture,  and  specific  economic  and  social  problems  and  possibilities.  The  suggestions 
offered  in  the  Guidebook  thus  constitute  a checklist  of  points  to  consider.  The  Guidebook 
should  not  be  considered  a universally  applicable  model  of  activities  to  be  undertaken,  nor 
is  it  a static  document.  Care  must  always  be  taken  to  adjust  the  strategies  and  suggestions 
with  regard  to  the  local  situation. 


STRUCTURE  OF  THE  GUIDEBOOK 


This  Guidebook  is  organized  in  six  sections  - two  introductory  sections  and  four  thematic 
sections: 

• Basics 

• General  overview 

• Access  and  inclusion 

• Teachers  and  learners 

• Curriculum  and  learning 

• Management  capacity 


Chapter  1:  Introduction 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


In  the  ‘Basics’  section,  this  ‘Introduction’  is  followed  by  a review  of  the  contextual  factors 
that  must  be  considered  when  planning  and  providing  education  in  emergencies  and 
reconstruction.  The  second  chapter,  ‘Challenges  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction’, 
describes  a number  of  issues  that  are  relevant  to  all  the  topics  in  the  Guidebook . It  not 
only  looks  at  some  general  challenges,  but  also  how  these  will  vary,  intensify  or  abate, 
depending  on  the  type  of  emergency,  the  type  of  population  group  concerned  or  the  phase 
of  emergency. 

Also  included  in  this  section  is  the  third  chapter,  ‘Capacity  building’.  Many  crosscutting  topics, 
such  as  gender  or  peace  education,  have  been  treated  in  separate  chapters  in  the  Guidebook . 
However,  the  issue  of  capacity  building  is  crosscutting  in  a slightly  different  sense.  It  is  the 
main  objective  of  this  Guidebook , and  ultimately  a prerequisite  for  improving  the  quality  of 
education  in  any  of  the  areas  or  topics  that  are  treated  in  the  different  chapters. 

In  the  section  entitled  ‘General  overview’,  there  is  only  one  chapter:  Chapter  4}  ‘Education 
for  all  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction’.  This  chapter  addresses  the  fundamental  theories 
and  principles  of  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction.  It  outlines  the  main  reasons 
why  children  are  not  in  school,  what  can  be  done  about  it  and  what  other  Guidebook 
chapters  may  be  consulted  when  attempting  to  do  so.  Chapter  4 should  therefore  be  used 
as  a reference  for  all  chapters  and  topics  in  the  Guidebook , and  is  recommended  reading  for 
all  users,  regardless  of  their  particular  responsibilities. 

The  last  four  sections  in  the  Guidebook  cover  a comprehensive  range  of  topics  relevant 
to  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction.  Each  chapter  starts  with  an  overview  of 
the  context  and  the  factors  that  influence  educational  response  in  relation  to  that  topic: 
context  and  challenges.  Next,  each  Guidebook  chapter  provides  suggestions  regarding 
possible  strategies  - actions  that  may  be  taken  by  the  educational  authorities  to  deal  with 
these  problems.  In  some  cases,  it  is  the  educational  authorities  themselves  that  will  be  the 
education  providers,  while  in  other  instances,  the  main  role  of  the  educational  authorities 
will  be  to  co-ordinate  and  facilitate  the  work  of  other  education  providers. 

Following  the  suggested  strategies,  in  most  chapters  there  is  a list  of  ‘Tools  and  resources’ 
that  can  be  utilized  when  implementing  some  of  the  suggested  strategies.  ‘Tools  and 
resources’  contain  an  explanation  of  important  concepts,  action  check-lists  and  examples 
of  calculations,  models  or  evaluation  tools.  In  each  chapter,  there  are  a number  of  useful 
case  studies  of  how  different  countries  have  addressed  the  challenges  under  discussion. 

Each  chapter  ends  with  a list  of  references  and  suggestions  for  further  reading. 

The  Guidebook  is  presented  in  loose-leaf  format.  This  permits  users  to  refer  to  particular 
chapters  without  needing  to  carry  the  full  Guidebook  on  all  occasions.  Nevertheless,  there 
are  frequent  cross-references  between  Guidebook  chapters,  to  allow  readers  to  benefit  to 
the  maximum  from  the  linkages  between  topics. 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


INEE:  THE  INTER-AGENCY  NETWORK  FOR  EDUCATION  IN 
EMERGENCIES 


The  Inter-Agency  Network  on  Education  in  Emergencies  (INEE)  is  an  open  network  of 
United  Nations  agencies,  NGOs,  donors,  practitioners,  researchers  and  individuals  from 
affected  populations  working  together  to  ensure  the  right  to  education  in  emergencies  and 
post-crisis  reconstruction.  At  a Strategy  Session  on  Education  in  Situations  of  Emergency 
and  Crisis  at  the  World  Education  Forum  in  Dakar,  April  2000,  a decision  was  taken  to 
develop  a process  of  inter-agency  communication  and  co-operation  in  order  to  improve 
response  to  education  in  emergencies.  INEE  was  then  founded  with  the  aim  of  promoting 
access  and  completion  of  education  of  quality  for  all  persons  affected  by  emergencies,  crises 
or  chronic  instability,  within  the  framework  of  the  Convention  on  the  Rights  of  the  Child, 
the  EFA  Declaration  and  the  Dakar  Framework. 

INEE  was  not  defined  as  a distinct  agency  with  bureaucratic  functions,  but  rather  as 
an  open  network  based  on  the  principles  of  collaboration  and  information  sharing,  with 
specific  attention  given  to  avoiding  duplication,  while  at  the  same  time  promoting  a 
diversity  of  approaches  and  gender  sensitivity.  INEE  brings  together  and  supports  agencies, 
organizations,  communities  and  individuals  in  their  ongoing  work  by  consolidating  and 
disseminating  learning  materials,  resources  and  experiences,  including  good  practices,  tools 
and  research  guidelines.  INEE  also  identifies  and  fills  technical  resource  gaps,  encouraging 
the  development  of  these  resources  through  task  teams  convened  by  INEE  organizational 
members.  Moreover,  INEE  is  a flexible  and  responsive  network  that,  through  advocacy, 
urges  institutions  and  governments  to  work  together  to  ensure  the  right  to  quality  education 
of  those  affected  by  conflict  and  natural  disasters. 

As  of  September  2005,  INEE  had  well  over  1,000  individual  members  and  more  than  300 
organizational  members,  representing  a diverse  array  of  organizations.  At  present,  a steering 
group,  composed  of  representatives  from  CARE  International,  the  International  Rescue 
Committee,  the  Norwegian  Refugee  Council,  the  International  Save  the  Children  Alliance, 
UNESCO,  UNHCR,  UNICEF  and  the  World  Bank,  provides  direction  and  leadership  for 
the  INEE  Secretariat. 

This  Guidebook  is  placed  at  the  disposal  of  all  INEE  members  on  the  IIEP  website: 

www*unesco*org/iiep 


MINIMUM  STANDARDS 

One  of  the  most  significant  developments  in  the  field  of  education  in  emergencies  and 
reconstruction  has  been  the  recent  definition  and  articulation  (through  a major  consultative 
process  by  INEE’s  membership)  of  Minimum  standards  for  education  in  emergencies , chronic 
crises  and  early  reconstruction  (MSEE).  The  minimum  standards  are  intended  to  increase 


Chapter  1:  Introduction 


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accountability  of  education  providers  to  affected  communities,  government,  the  internal 
management  of  individual  agencies  and  donors.  Launched  in  December  2004,  the  standards 
are  an  expression  of  the  commitment  that  all  individuals  - children,  youth  and  adults  - have 
a right  to  quality  education  during  and  after  emergencies.  In  reality,  however,  more  than  half 
of  the  world's  out-of-school  children  live  in  countries  affected  by  emergencies,  or  recovering 
from  them.  Conflict  and  disaster  are  thus  among  the  main  barriers  to  achieving  'Education 
for  Alf  and  the  second  of  the  Millennium  Development  Goals  (see  also  the  Guidebook, 
Chapter  4,  'Education  for  all  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction'. 

This  Guidebook,  like  the  MSEE  handbook,  is  intended  to  be  an  expression  of  that 
commitment  to  ensuring  education  for  all  - even  in  the  midst  of  crises.  It  is  meant  to  be  a 
capacity  building  and  training  tool  for  governments,  donors  and  international  agencies  to 
improve  their  contribution  to  this  commitment.  We  hope  that  you  find  it  a useful  tool  and 
look  forward  to  receiving  comments  and  suggestions  for  improvement.  Please  send  your 
feedback  on  any  aspect  of  the  Guidebook  to  guidebook@uep*unesco*org  - it  will  be  taken 
into  account  in  any  future  revision  of  the  Guidebook . 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

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Q THE  MINIMUM  STANDARDS  FOR  EDUCATION  IN  EMERGENCIES,  CHRONIC  CRISES 
AND  EARLY  RECONSTRUCTION 

December2004  saw  the  launch  of  the  first  everglobal  standards  for  education  in  emergencies 
and  early  reconstruction.  The  Minimum  standards  for  education  in  emergencies,  chronic 
crises  and  early  reconstruction  (MSEE)  were  the  result  of  a two-year  consultative  process, 
facilitated  by  the  Inter-Agency  Network  for  Education  in  Emergencies  (INEE),  and  involving 
over  2,250  individuals  from  more  than  50  countries.  The  standards  represent  a universal  tool 
to  define  a minimum  level  of  educational  quality  and  help  ensure  the  right  to  education 
for  people  affected  by  crisis.  It  is  thus  both  a practical  handbook  and  an  expression  of  the 
commitment  that  all  individuals  - children,  youth  and  adults  - have  a right  to  education 
during  emergencies.  The  minimum  standards  are  built  on  the  foundations  of  the  Convention 
on  the  Rights  of  the  Child  (CRC),  the  Dakar  Education  for  All  (EFA)  framework,  the  UN 
Millennium  Development  Goals  (MDG)  and  the  Sphere  Project’s  Humanitarian  Charter.  Like 
the  Sphere  Project’s  Minimum  Standards  in  Disaster  Response,  the  standards  are  meant  to 
be  used  as  a capacity  building  and  training  tool.  They  will  also  enhance  accountability  and 
predictability  among  humanitarian  actors,  and  improve  co-ordination  among  partners, 
including  educational  authorities. 

The  handbook  offers  a set  of  minimum  standards,  key  indicators  and  guidance  notes 
that  inform  humanitarian  action  in  the  context  of  education,  from  the  development  of 
educational  programmes  to  their  implementation  and  continuity,  as  well  as  government  and 
community  support.  The  minimum  standards  are  presented  in  five  categories.  These  are: 

• Minimum  standards  common  to  all  categories:  this  section  focuses  on  the  essential 
areas  of  community  participation  and  the  use  of  local  resources  when  applying  the 
standards  contained  in  the  handbook.  It  stresses  the  importance  of  basing  emergency 
education  responses  on  an  initial  assessment  that  is  followed  by  an  appropriate  response 
and  continued  monitoring  and  evaluation. 

• Access  and  learning  environment:  focuses  on  partnerships  to  promote  access  to 
learning  opportunities  and  inter-sectoral  linkages  with,  for  example,  health,  water  and 
sanitation,  food  aid  / nutrition  and  shelter,  to  enhance  security  and  physical,  cognitive 
and  psychological  well-being. 

• Teaching  and  learning:  focuses  on  critical  elements  that  promote  effective  teaching  and 
learning:  (a)  curriculum;  (b)  training;  (c)  instruction;  and  (d)  assessment. 

• Teachers  and  other  education  personnel:  focuses  on  the  administration  and 
management  of  human  resources  in  the  field  of  education,  including  recruitment  and 
selection,  conditions  of  service,  and  supervision  and  support. 

• Education  policy  and  co-ordination:  focuses  on  policy  formulation  and  enactment, 
planning  and  implementation,  and  co-ordination. 

The  MSEE  working  group  is  currently  moving  the  MSEE  process  forward  through  the 
promotion,  training,  piloting,  monitoring  and  evaluation  of  the  standards.  By  September 
2005,  17,500  handbooks  had  been  distributed  all  over  the  world.  Training  materials  have 
been  developed  on  the  standards  and  a process  is  under  way  to  pilot  and  test  the  impact 
and  quality  of  the  standards  in  various  emergency  and  reconstruction  settings.  Information 
on  the  standards  and  related  activities  can  be  found  on  http://wwwJneesite*org 

Source:  INEE  (2004). 


Chapter  1:  Introduction 


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REFERENCES  AND  FURTHER  READING 


Bird,  L.  2003.  Surviving  school:  education  for  refugee  children  from  Rwanda  1994-1996 . Paris: 
IIEP-UNESCO. 

INEE  (Inter-Agency  Network  for  Education  in  Emergencies).  2004.  Minimum  standards  for 
education  in  emergencies , chronic  crises  and  early  reconstruction . Paris:  INEE. 

Nicolai,  S.  2004.  Learning  independence:  education  in  emergency  and  transition  in  Timor-Leste 
since  1999 . Paris:  IIEP-UNESCO. 

Nicolai,  S.;  Triplehorn,  C.  2003.  The  role  of  education  in  protecting  children  in  conflict 
(Humanitarian  Practice  Network  Paper  42).  London:  Overseas  Development 
Institute. 

Obura,  A.  2003.  Never  again:  educational  reconstruction  in  Rwanda . Paris:  IIEP- 
UNESCO. 

Sinclair,  M.  2002.  Planning  education  in  and  after  emergencies  (Fundamentals  of  educational 
planning,  no.  73).  Paris:  IIEP-UNESCO. 

Sommers,  M.  2004.  Co-ordinating  education  during  emergencies  and  reconstruction:  challenges 
and  responsibilities . Paris:  IIEP-UNESCO. 

Sommers,  M.  2005.  Islands  of  education:  schooling , civil  war  and  the  Southern  Sudanese  (1983- 
2004).  Paris:  IIEP-UNESCO. 

Sommers,  M.;  Buckland  P.  2004.  Parallel  worlds:  rebuilding  the  education  system  in  Kosovo . 
Paris:  IIEP-UNESCO. 


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CHAPTER 


1 


SECTION  1 


United  Nations  [ International 

Educational,  Scientific  and  j Institute  for 

Cultural  Organization  * Educational 

Planning 


CHALLENGES  IN  EMERGENCIES 
AND  RECONSTRUCTION 


The  designations  employed  and  the  presentation  of 
material  throughout  this  review  do  not  imply  the  expression 
of  any  opinion  whatsoever  on  the  part  of  UNESCO  or  the 
IIEP  concerning  the  legal  status  of  any  country,  territory, 
city  or  area  or  its  authorities,  or  concerning  its  frontiers 
or  boundaries. 

The  publication  costs  of  this  study  have  been  covered 
through  a grant-in-aid  offered  by  UNESCO  and  by 
voluntary  contributions  made  by  several  Member  States 
of  UNESCO. 


Published  by: 

International  Institute  for  Educational  Planning 
7-9  rue  Eugene  Delacroix,  75116  Paris 
e-mail:  info@iiep.unesco.org 
IIEP  web  site:  www.unesco.org/iiep 


Layout  and  cover  design:  Sabine  Lebeau 
Typesetting:  Sabine  Lebeau 
Printed  in  IIEP’s  printshop 
ISBN:  92-803-1288-X 
©UNESCO  2006 


Chapter 


CHALLENGES  IN  EMERGENCIES  AND  RECONSTRUCTION 


All  parts  of  this  Guidebook  deal  with  the 
challenges  involved  in  providing  quality  education 
in  situations  of  emergency  and  reconstruction. 
The  challenges  range  from  physical  destruction 
of  school  buildings  to  lack  of  funding,  materials 
and  qualified  teachers,  to  discrimination  against 
minority  groups,  security  issues  or  problems 
of  co-ordination.  Each  Guidebook  chapter 
gives  detailed  explanation  of  the  issues  that 
must  be  tackled  in  relation  to  the  topic  of  that 
particular  chapter,  and  suggests  strategies  for 
how  this  can  be  done.  For  example,  providing 
education  for  former  child  soldiers  will  pose 
different  challenges  to  dealing  with  children 
with  disabilities.  Education  for  early  childhood 
development  requires  different  strategies  to 
tackling  post-primary  education. 


However,  certain  challenges  (such  as  poverty 
or  problems  with  security)  are  generic  to  all 
of  these  issues.  Such  generic  challenges  are 
analyzed  here,  not  in  relation  to  a particular 
group  of  children,  or  a particular  task  within 
the  management  of  the  education  system,  but 
in  relation  to  the  type  of  emergency,  the  larger 
population  group  concerned  and  the  phase  of  the 
emergency.  The  figure  below  is  an  illustration  of 
this  typology. 

This  figure  shows  the  interrelationships  between 
types  of  emergency  (scenarios) , affected  popula- 
tions and  phases.  These  matters  are  discussed 
in  detail  below. 


INTERRELATIONSHIPS  BETWEEN  SCENARIOS,  AFFECTED  POPULATIONS 
AND  PROTRACTED  PHASES  ONSET 


Scenarios 


Source:  IIEP  (2005).  Adapted  from  a model  developed  by  Rob  Fuderich  of  UNICEF  and  Peter  Buckland 
of  the  World  Bank. 


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Emergency  scenarios  include  civil  conflicts,  complex  chronic  emergencies,  which  involve 
multiple  civil  conflicts  with  international  involvement,  natural  disasters  and  development- 
induced  displacement,  which  is  not  specifically  covered  in  this  Guidebook . 

Population  groups  affected  by  emergencies  include  refugees,  internally  displaced 
persons  (IDPs),  returnees  and  non-migrants,  people  whose  lives  and  schooling  are  disrupted 
by  conflict,  but  who  do  not  flee. 

Phases  Of  emergency  include  contingency  planning  and  preparedness,  to  which  this 
whole  Guidebook  seeks  to  make  a contribution,  the  acute  onset,  protracted  emergencies 
(which  may  be  referred  to  by  some  as  care  and  maintenance’),  return  and  reintegration 
and  early  reconstruction. 

The  different  categories  used  in  this  typology  are  neither  fully  exhaustive  nor  discrete.  The 
phases  of  an  emergency  are  very  rarely  sequential.  International  conflict  may  be  entangled 
in  civil  conflict.  A natural  disaster  may  be  exacerbated  by  a conflict  rising  in  its  aftermath. 
IDPs  may  become  refugees  as  the  emergency  evolves,  or  vice  versa.  Both  refugees  and  IDPs 
may  eventually  become  returnees.  Moreover,  one  population  group  that  is  not  specified  in 
this  categorization  concerns  those  who  are  neither  migrants  nor  themselves  living  in  the 
emergency-affected  area,  but  who  are  none  the  less  affected  by  it  (e.g.  inhabitants  of  a 
neighbouring  country  or  province  suddenly  faced  with  a large  influx  of  refugees  or  IDPs). 

Similarly,  emergency  phases  overlap  and  recur.  An  acute  emergency  may  turn  into  a so- 
called  protracted  emergency,  or  into  what  some  humanitarian  agencies  call  the  ‘care  and 
maintenance’  phase.  This  phase  may  then  be  disrupted  by  the  sudden  outbreak  of  a new, 
acute  crisis.  One  part  of  a country  may  be  facilitating  the  return  of  its  inhabitants  and 
organize  efforts  at  reconstruction  whilst  another  part  is  faced  with  a new  upsurge  in  a 
conflict,  or  is  hit  by  a new  natural  disaster. 

This  three-dimensional  categorization  is  still  useful  when  dealing  with  the  planning  and 
management  of  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction.  The  same  challenge  - be  it 
poverty  or  lack  of  funding  - will  require  different  interventions  and  strategies  in  different 
types  or  phases  of  an  emergency  or  with  different  population  groups.  Moreover,  agencies 
operating  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction  will  generally  be  using  some  variation  of  this 
categorization  in  their  work. 

Some  agencies  and  organizations  have  a mandate  to  work  only  in  the  early  phases  of  an 
emergency  or  with  one  particular  population  group,  such  as  refugees.  Their  so-called  entry  or 
exit  strategies  and  their  funding  and  evaluation  mechanisms  are  likely  to  be  built  on  some  form 
of  categorization  of  emergency  type  or  phase,  or  population  group  concerned.  The  examples 
given  above  demonstrate  how  phases,  types  and  groups  overlap,  recur  and/or  blend.  This  fact 
points  to  the  obvious  complexity  of  emergencies  and  reconstruction,  but  also  to  the  need  for 
holistic  approaches  to  these  challenges.  Quick  fixes,  short-term  strategies  or  strategies  that 
address  the  challenges  of  one  emergency-affected  group,  or  one  phase  only,  will  never  meet 
the  overall  challenge  of  providing  education  for  all  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction. 


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TYPES  OF  EMERGENCY 


The  Guidebook  focuses  on  the  impact  of  war  and  natural  disaster  on  the  education  of 
children,  youth  and  adults  affected  by  the  crisis.  It  does  not  directly  cover  the  so-called  'silent 
emergencies',  such  as  poverty,  HIV/AIDS,  street  children,  etc.  This  is  to  maintain  its  focus  on 
responding  to  conflict  and  disaster.  However,  issues  of  poverty  and  health  among  populations 
affected  by  conflict  or  disaster  are  considered  in  almost  every  section  of  the  Guidebook . 


Civil  conflict 

Recent  years  have  seen  a dramatic  rise  in  the  number  of  armed  conflicts  within  countries, 
called  civil  conflicts  here.  By  far  the  largest  portion  of  the  worlds  36  conflicts  in  2003  were 
civil  conflicts.  These  severely  disrupt  education,  and  may  lead  some  people  to  move  away 
from  the  affected  areas.  Challenges  include  the  following: 

• Because  the  unequal  or  biased  provision  of  education  is  often  one  of  the 
elements  that  provoke  civil  conflict,  schools,  teachers  and  students  themselves 
may  become  targets  in  such  conflicts. 

• According  to  the  fourth  Geneva  Convention  (1949),  military  occupation  forces 
must  facilitate  institutions  devoted  to  the  care  and  education  of  children.  Its 
first  Protocol  (1977)  states  that  schools  are  guaranteed  protection  from  military 
attack.  Nevertheless,  schools  may  be  destroyed,  damaged  or  looted  during  the 
conflict  - making  them  unusable  for  educational  activities. 

• Some  children  may  have  been  subjected,  or  may  be  vulnerable  in  the  future, 
to  military  recruitment,  forced  labour,  rape  or  prostitution.  Some  may  have 
contracted  H1V/A1DS,  which  spreads  more  rapidly  during  armed  conflicts. 
Access  to  schooling  may  help  protect  them. 

• Educational  authorities  may  be  unable  to  physically  access  some  parts  of  the 
country  to  determine  whether  children  have  access  to  schooling. 

• Teachers  may  have  been  killed  or  have  fled. 


Complex  chronic  emergencies 

Countries  may  also  suffer  chronic  insecurity  and  intermittent  civil  conflict,  with  international 
intervention,  which  means  that  the  administration  of  education  becomes  very  difficult, 
either  through  fighting  in  some  parts  of  the  country  or  through  the  economic  impacts,  which 
reduce  the  funds  available  for  education.  Challenges  include  the  following: 

• Most  challenges  listed  for  civil  conflict  apply,  and  are  intensified  as  the  conflict 
is  prolonged. 

• Children  and  families  may  lack  sufficient  food  and  be  unable  to  afford  clothing 
suitable  for  attending  school,  or  other  school-related  costs. 


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• Families  may  not  be  able  to  afford  the  opportunity  costs  associated  with  their 
children  attending  school  rather  than  earning  money  by  scavenging,  etc. 

• Schools  may  be  in  use  or  have  been  used  as  temporary  shelters  for  displaced 
people  or  may  be  taken  over  and  used  by  military  forces. 

• Schools,  and  the  route  to  and  from  schools,  may  be  hazardous  due  to  landmines, 
unexploded  ordnance,  etc. 

• Rapid  education  response  may  be  impeded  by  poor  roads  and  by  limited  capacity 
for  handling  freight  at  airports. 


Natural  disasters 

Natural  disasters  will  also  carry  serious  challenges  for  the  education  system.  The  devastation 
of  floods,  droughts,  earthquakes,  landslides,  storms,  tsunamis  and  other  natural  disasters  can 
cause  the  destruction  of  schools  and  other  educational  institutions,  and  may  kill  or  isolate 
a large  number  of  teachers  and  students.  According  to  the  World  disasters  report , published 
by  the  International  Federation  of  Red  Cross  and  Red  Crescent  Societies  (1FRCRC,  2004), 
the  number  of  natural  and  technological  disasters  is  dramatically  increasing.  From  1994  to 
1998,  reported  disasters  averaged  428  per  year.  From  1999  to  2003,  this  figure  shot  up  by 
two  thirds  to  an  average  of  707  disasters  each  year.  The  biggest  rise  was  in  countries  of 
low  human  development,  which  suffered  an  increase  of  142  per  cent.  There  is  also  strong 
correlation  between  a country’s  level  of  development  and  that  country’s  vulnerability  in 
natural  disasters.  In  other  words,  people  living  in  conflict  or  poverty-ridden  countries  are 
likely  to  suffer  the  most  when  a catastrophe  strikes.  Over  the  past  decade,  disasters  in 
countries  of  high  human  development  (HHD)  killed  an  average  of  44  people  per  event, 
while  disasters  in  countries  of  low  human  development  (LHD)  killed  an  average  of  300 
people  per  event  (1FRCRC,  2004).  Particular  challenges  for  the  education  system  include 
the  following: 

• Families  may  have  lost  all  their  assets  and  be  unable  to  send  their  children  to 
school  due  to  lack  of  food,  clothing,  etc. 

• Schools  and  their  contents  may  be  damaged  or  destroyed,  making  them 
permanently  or  temporarily  unavailable  for  learning  activities. 

• Schools  may  be  used  as  shelters  for  people  who  have  been  displaced  from  their 
homes  due  to  the  natural  disaster. 


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POPULATION  GROUPS  AFFECTED  BY  EMERGENCIES 


Refugees 

A refugee  is  a person  who  ‘owing  to  a well-founded  fear  of  being  persecuted 
for  reasons  of  race,  religion,  nationality,  membership  of  a particular  social 
group,  or  political  opinion,  is  outside  the  country  of  his  nationality,  and  is 
unable  to  or,  owing  to  such  fear,  is  unwilling  to  avail  himself  of  the  protection 
of  that  country  . . 

The  1951  Convention  relating  to  the  Status  of  Refugees 


Particular  challenges  facing  refugees  seeking  education  include: 

• Refugee  families  have  suffered  unforeseen  displacement  and  sometimes 
traumatic  circumstances.  Many  families  are  keen  to  admit  their  children  into 
school  but  some  are  traumatized,  and  others  too  preoccupied  with  subsistence 
problems  to  do  this. 

• The  host  government  may  refuse  or  be  unable  to  admit  refugee  children  to 
local  schools.  However,  even  when  refugee  children  are  admitted  into  local 
schools,  there  may  be  access  problems.  For  example,  local  schools  may  already 
be  overcrowded,  especially  in  urban  areas;  the  refugee  population  may  be  too 
large;  teachers  may  not  speak  the  same  language/the  languages  of  instruction 
may  be  different,  the  curriculum  will  likely  be  different,  etc.  In  these  conditions, 
separate  schools  are  needed  for  refugee  children,  especially  at  primary  level. 

• Educational  access  is  generally  greatest  for  refugees  when  they  live  in  camps 
or  settlements  (rather  than  scattered  among  the  host  populations).  UNHCR, 
the  United  Nations  refugee  agency,  has  the  mandate  to  support  education  for 
refugees,  as  a contribution  to  a durable  solution  to  their  problems,  and  to  help 
the  host  country  government  meet  its  obligations  under  the  Convention  on  the 
Rights  of  the  Child  and  other  human  rights  instruments.  UNHCR  has  issued 
Education  field  guidelines,  specifying  its  education  policy  commitments,  and  giving 
guidance  to  its  implementing  partners  and  other  service  providers  of  education 
to  refugees  (UNHCR,  2003). 

• Refugees  may  be  unable  to  pay  the  fees  normally  charged  to  foreigners  for 
admission  to  university  or  other  courses.  As  a humanitarian  principle,  some 
governments  admit  refugee  students  to  university  for  the  same  fees  as 
nationals. 

• Humanitarian  agencies  often  do  not  allocate  large  budgets  to  secondary  or 
tertiary  education,  and  cannot  afford  expensive  scholarships  for  refugees. 
For  this  reason,  it  is  often  cheaper  to  support  separate  schools  for  refugees. 


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However,  if  refugee  numbers  are  small,  it  is  more  economical  for  them  to  attend 
local  institutions  of  higher  education.  The  net  effect  of  high  fees  will  be  fewer 
students.  Yet,  acceptance  of  a good  number  of  refugee  students  in  national 
schools  will  help  build  good  relationships  for  future  co-operation  between  the 
host  country  and  the  refugee  students'  home  country. 


Internally  displaced  persons  (IDPs) 

For  the  purposes  of  these  Principles,  internally  displaced  persons  are  persons 
or  groups  of  persons  who  have  been  forced  or  obliged  to  flee  or  to  leave  their 
homes  or  places  of  habitual  residence,  in  particular  as  a result  of  or  in  order 
to  avoid  the  effects  of  armed  conflict,  situations  of generalized  violence, 
violations  of  human  rights  or  natural  or  human-made  disasters,  and  who 
have  not  crossed  an  internationally  recognized  State  border. 

Guiding  Principles  on  Internal  Displacement 

Particular  challenges  for  the  education  of  IDPs  include  the  following: 

• As  with  refugees,  1DP  families  have  suffered  forced  displacement  and  sometimes 
traumatic  circumstances.  Many  families  are  keen  to  admit  their  children  into 
school  but  some  are  traumatized,  and  others  too  preoccupied  with  subsistence 
problems  to  do  this. 

• Security  concerns  are  usually  considerable,  both  for  the  IDPs  and  for  agencies 
that  would  like  to  support  education  programmes.  IDPs  may  not  be  welcomed 
by  the  local  population  or  government. 

• In  countries  with  multiple  languages,  1DP  children  and  youth  may  be  unable  to 
integrate  into  local  schools  if  they  do  not  know  the  language. 

• 1DP  camps  and  settlements  may  not  receive  attention  from  national  or 
international  authorities  or  organizations  for  some  time  after  a crisis  has 
occurred.  Therefore,  access  to  schooling  may  be  delayed. 

• No  United  Nations  body  has  the  mandate  to  ensure  education  for  IDPs  - in 
camps  or  dispersed  throughout  the  country. 

• Usually  there  are  fewer  resources  for  1DP  education  - both  from  the  international 
community  and  the  government. 

• For  IDPs  in  reasonably  secure  situations,  educational  authorities  generally  try 
to  provide  education  in  existing  schools.  This  puts  an  extra  burden  on  local 
schools,  if  enrolment  increases  substantially.  For  large  1DP  camps  or  settlements, 
additional  schools  will  be  needed. 


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In  line  with  the  Convention  on  the  Rights  of  the  Child,  governments  should 
assist  NGOs,  United  Nations  agencies  or  communities  in  organizing  schools 
for  IDPs,  if  children  are  out  of  school. 


Non-migrants 

It  is  possible  for  a whole  area  to  become  deserted,  but  often  part  of  an  emergency-affected 
population  may  not  be  able  or  may  not  wish  to  leave  their  homes  during  conflict  or  insecurity. 
This  may  include  those  who  are  too  poor,  old  or  sick  to  migrate.  People  may  be  trapped 
by  warfare.  In  the  Guidebook , these  are  referred  to  as  non-migrants.  Particular  challenges 
include  the  following: 

• Non-migrants’  access  to  education  may  be  completely  cut  off  for  reasons  of 
security,  the  flight  of  local  teachers,  lack  of  school  materials,  or  the  lack  of 
resources  to  sustain  education  in  the  community. 

• Administration  of  the  national  school  system  is  extremely  difficult  in  areas  of 
conflict  and  insecurity. 

• Resentment  may  occur  if  agencies  give  particular  assistance  or  preferable 
treatment  to  refugees,  IDPs  or  returnees.  Those  who  ‘stayed  behind’  may  feel 
they  carried  the  brunt  of  the  burden  of  the  emergency. 


Returnees 

Another  category  referred  to  in  the  Guidebook  are  returnees  - refugees  or  IDPs  who  have 
made  the  journey  back  to  their  home  country  or  area.  Some  particular  challenges  and  issues 
are  listed  here: 

• Some  returnees  may  not  want  to  return  to  their  original  home  areas  for  reasons 
of  safety  and  security.  This  may  concentrate  the  number  of  students  into  fewer 
areas  of  return,  leading  to  pressure  on  facilities  in  those  areas. 

• Some  returnees  find  that  schools  in  their  home  areas  have  been  badly  damaged 
or  destroyed  during  the  conflict  or  after  a natural  disaster. 

• Returnee  families  may  not  have  the  resources  to  pay  for  their  children’s 
education.  In  some  cases,  the  international  community  may  be  present  and 
providing  resources  for  returnees,  which  may  be  resented  by  local  communities. 
Assistance  should  be  directed  to  broadly  defined  returnee-receiving  areas. 

• Both  returnee  families  and  those  who  never  migrated  may  have  lived  through 
years  of  poverty  due  to  war  and  insecurity.  Consequently,  they  may  find  it 
difficult  to  support  their  children  in  school  or  provide  resources  to  re-establish 
or  operate  schools. 


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PHASES  OF  EMERGENCY 


Organizations  concerned  with  humanitarian  response  and  development  assistance  have  their 
own  definitions  of  emergency,  from  a period  of  a few  weeks  during  the  onset  of  a crisis, 
through  to  the  return  to  normalcy  after  a period  of  reconstruction  (Sinclair,  2002:  21-23). 

For  the  purposes  of  this  Guidebook,  ‘emergency’  is  used  in  a broad  sense  to  mean  the  entire 
period  of  crisis,  and  the  early  steps  towards  restoring  normal  functioning  of  the  national 
education  system.  Different  phases,  albeit  not  discrete  and  very  rarely  sequential,  will  carry 
different  challenges. 


Acute  onset 

The  Guidebook  refers  to  the  acute  onset  phase  of  an  emergency.  Particular  challenges 
include  the  following: 

• Children  may  be  cut  off  from  their  existing  schools  and  communities;  they  will 
need  safe  spaces  that  are  designated  for  educational  activities. 

• Children  and  youth  may  have  undergone  horrific  and  stressful  conditions  as  a 
result  of  displacement,  and  may  even  have  become  separated  from  their  parents 
or  family  members;  safe  spaces  for  learning  activities  are  essential  for  their 
protection. 

• Access  for  adolescents  can  also  be  critical  in  order  to  protect  them  from  dangers 
such  as  military  recruitment,  child  labour,  prostitution,  etc. 

• Insecurity  and  logistical  problems  may  make  it  difficult  for  education  supervisors 
or  non-governmental  providers  to  reach  emergency-affected  populations,  or  to 
ship  educational  materials  to  meet  their  needs. 

• In  some  cases,  there  may  be  many  organizations  acting  to  support  education  in 
acute  emergencies;  while  in  other  situations,  help  may  be  lacking. 


Protracted  phases 

An  emergency  becomes  protracted  if  it  continues  for  a long  period.  Particular  challenges 
in  such  situations  include  the  following: 

• Capacity-building  events  may  be  interrupted  and/or  cannot  be  followed  up. 
Monitoring  and  assessment  may  be  difficult. 


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• Due  to  poverty  as  well  as  limited  educational  quality,  it  may  be  difficult  to  get  all 
children  into  primary  school  and  to  retain  them  for  the  whole  primary  cycle. 

• If  post-primary  educational  opportunities  are  insufficient,  young  people  may  be 
vulnerable  to  harmful  activities.  There  will  also  be  a disincentive  to  completing 
primary  school  if  the  ladder  of  educational  opportunity  terminates  at  the  primary 
level. 

• Girls  may  see  prostitution  as  the  only  way  to  earn  money,  including  covering 
school  costs. 

• For  protracted  emergencies,  1DP  and  refugee  children  and  adolescents  need 
access  to  education  systems  of  quality  not  less  than  in  their  home  country/ 
region,  and  suited  to  their  eventual  voluntary  repatriation.  The  curriculum  and 
examinations  should  be  recognized  by  home  and  host  country  governments,  so 
that  children  and  youth  can  move  to  higher  levels  of  education  (as  called  for  in 
the  1966  International  Covenant  on  Economic,  Social  and  Cultural  Rights,  and 
the  1989  Convention  on  the  Rights  of  the  Child). 

Return,  reintegration  and  reconstruction 

These  phases  occur  when  populations  displaced  to  neighbouring  countries  (refugees)  or 
to  sites  in  their  own  country  (IDPs)  return  home,  and  when  the  government  initiates  the 
process  of  renewal  of  the  national  or  local  education  systems  affected  by  the  emergency. 
Particular  challenges  include  the  following: 

• There  may  be  a backlog  of  unmet  educational  needs;  this  means  that  a large 
number  of  children  and  adolescents  would  be  seeking  to  enter  school  at  the 
same  time. 

• At  times  of  post-conflict  or  during  post-disaster  reconstruction,  families  may 
need  the  maximum  labour  for  rebuilding  homes,  clearing  farmland  and  earning 
enough  to  buy  food,  etc.  Many  will  not  be  able  to  pay  for  school-related 
expenses.  Insecurity  may  also  be  a factor  limiting  school  enrolment. 

• Often  there  will  be  large  numbers  of  children  and  youth  who  have  missed  out  on 
schooling  and  who  wish  to  enrol  at  the  same  time.  Large  quantities  of  textbooks 
and  learning  material  will  then  be  needed  (for  which  international  help  may  be 
requested) . 

• Many  schools  in  emergency-affected  areas  may  have  been  destroyed  or  badly 
damaged.  Temporary  shelter  may  be  needed  in  order  to  open  schools,  while 
previous  structures  are  rebuilt/rehabilitated/extended  to  accommodate  the 
increased  numbers  of  students. 


Chapter  2:  Challenges  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

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9 


• In  post-conflict  situations,  landmines  or  unexploded  ordnance  may  be  present 
on  school  grounds  and  must  be  removed  before  education  can  be  re-started  in 
those  places. 

• It  is  difficult  to  establish  schools  in  advance  of  people’s  return  to  deserted 
areas,  which,  in  turn,  may  discourage  return.  Access  for  advance  planning  and 
reconstruction  purposes  may  be  hampered  by  insecurity,  damage  to  roads,  etc. 
Lack  of  well-functioning  district/provincial  education  offices  hampers  action  and 
co-ordination.  Displaced  teachers  may  be  unwilling  to  return  to  rural  areas. 

• It  will  be  essential  to  ensure  access  in  all  areas  and  for  all  groups  (e.g.  ethnic, 
religious,  etc.)  in  the  country,  especially  those  that  were  most  affected  by  the 
conflict.  Action  will  be  needed  to  co-ordinate  external  assistance  to  ensure 
appropriate  coverage  for  all  affected  areas,  and  that  tensions  are  not  created 
by  a provision  of  resources  that  appears  to  discriminate  between  returnees  and 
local  populations  that  did  not  migrate. 

• There  may  be  political  pressure  to  focus  national  and  donor  funds  on  rebuilding 
large  schools  in  politically  favoured  locations.  In  the  interests  of  stability,  however, 
external  assistance  should  be  channelled  to  all  locations  to  support  the  ‘back  to 
school’  process. 

• During  the  reconstruction  period,  children  may  also  face  considerable 
psychological  barriers  that  reduce  their  cognitive  abilities  (e.g.  if  they  return  to 
schools  that  were  previously  the  site  of  massacres  and  killings). 

• Officials  in  both  host  country  and  country/ area  of  return  may  not  be  familiar  with 
issues  such  as  equivalence  of  education  programmes  and  credentials,  recognition 
of  acquired  education  in  the  country  of  return  or  possibilities  of  further  studies. 
Joint  discussions  of  certification  and  validation  issues  are  essential  to  meet  the 
rights  of  the  child  - though  often  very  difficult. 


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REFERENCES  AND  FURTHER  READING 


IFRCRC  (International  Federation  of  Red  Cross  and  Red  Crescent  Societies).  2004.  World 
disasters  report  2004.  Geneva:  IFRCRC. 

INEE  (Inter-Agency  Network  for  Education  in  Emergencies).  2004.  Minimum  standards  for 
education  in  emergencies , chronic  crisis  and  early  reconstruction . Paris:  INEE. 

IASC  (Inter-Agency  Standing  Committee).  2002.  Growing  the  sheltering  tree:  protecting 
rights  through  humanitarian  action.  Geneva:  UNICEF/IASC.  Retrieved  on  25 
August  2005  from  http://www.ifrc.org/publicat/wdr2004/index.asp 

IIEP  (International  Institute  for  Educational  Planning).  2005  (forthcoming) . Training  materials 
for  educational  reconstruction  in  post-conflict  situations:  access  and  inclusion . Paris: 
IIEP-UNESCO. 

Nicolai,  S.  2003.  Education  in  emergencies:  a tool  kit  for  starting  and  managing  education  in 
emergencies . London:  Save  the  Children. 

Nicolai,  S.;  Triplehorn,  C.  2003.  The  role  of  education  in  protecting  children  in  conflict 
(Humanitarian  practice  network  paper  no.  42).  London:  ODI. 

Pigozzi,  M.J.  1999.  Education  in  emergencies  and  for  reconstruction:  a developmental  approach . 
New  York:  UNICEF  Program  Division. 

Seitz,  K.  2004.  Education  and  conflict:  the  role  of  education  in  the  creating , prevention 
and  resolution  of  societal  crises  - consequences  for  development  cooperation . Bonn: 
Deutsche  Gesellschaft  fur  Technische  Zusammenarbeit  (GTZ). 

Sinclair,  M.  2001.  “Education  in  emergencies”.  In:  J.  Crisp,  C.  Talbot,  D.  Cipollone  (Eds.), 
Learning  for  a future:  refugee  education  in  developing  countries  (pp.  1-83).  Geneva: 
UNHCR. 

Sinclair,  M.  2002.  Planning  education  in  and  after  emergencies  (Fundamentals  of  Educational 
Planning,  no.  73).  Paris:  IIEP-UNESCO. 

Smith,  A;  Vaux,  T.  2003.  Education , conflict  and  international  development . London: 
DFID. 

Talbot,  C.  2002.  “Education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction”.  In:  IIEP  Newsletter  20(3),  1-5. 

UNHCR.  2003.  Education  field  guidelines.  Geneva:  UNHCR. 

United  Nations.  2000.  “United  Nations  Millennium  Declaration”.  Resolution  adopted  by 
the  General  Assembly.  A/Res/55/2.  18  September. 


Chapter  2:  Challenges  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction  11 

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World  Education  Forum.  2000.  The  Dakar  Framework  for  Action  - Education  for  All:  meeting 
our  collective  commitments . Paris:  UNESCO. 

World  Bank.  2005.  Reshaping  the  future:  education  and  postconflict  reconstruction . Washington, 
DC:  World  Bank. 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


CHAPTER 


2 


SECTION  1 


United  Nations  [ International 

Educational,  Scientific  and  ] Institute  for 

Cultural  Organization  * Educational 

Planning 


Chapter 


CAPACITY  BUILDING 


SECTION 


1 


BASICS 


■ 


The  designations  employed  and  the  presentation  of 
material  throughout  this  review  do  not  imply  the  expression 
of  any  opinion  whatsoever  on  the  part  of  UNESCO  or  the 
IIEP  concerning  the  legal  status  of  any  country,  territory, 
city  or  area  or  its  authorities,  or  concerning  its  frontiers 
or  boundaries. 

The  publication  costs  of  this  study  have  been  covered 
through  a grant-in-aid  offered  by  UNESCO  and  by 
voluntary  contributions  made  by  several  Member  States 
of  UNESCO. 


Published  by: 

International  Institute  for  Educational  Planning 
7-9  rue  Eugene  Delacroix,  75116  Paris 
e-mail:  info@iiep.unesco.org 
IIEP  web  site:  www.unesco.org/iiep 


Layout  and  cover  design:  Sabine  Lebeau 
Typesetting:  Sabine  Lebeau 
Printed  in  IIEP’s  printshop 
ISBN:  92-803-1288-X 
©UNESCO  2006 


Chapter 


CAPACITY  BUILDING 


^ MAIN  OBJECTIVES 

• To  increase  the  ability  of  individuals, 
groups,  organizations,  institutions  and 
societies  to  deliver  quality  education 
for  all* 

• To  enable  educational  authorities  to 
determine  their  own  educational  needs 
and  carry  out  their  own  policies* 

• To  further  the  financial  and  institutional 
self-reliance  of  educational  authorities* 


SOME  CONCEPTS  AND  DEFINITIONS 
RELATED  TO  CAPACITY  BUILDING 

Capacity  is  defined  as  the  ability  of 
individuals,  organizations  or  systems  to 
perform  appropriate  functions  effectively, 
efficiently  and  sustainably. 

Capacity  building  or  development  is 

the  process  by  which  individuals,  groups, 
organizations,  institutions  and  societies 
increase  their  abilities  to:  (a)  perform  core 
functions,  solve  problems,  define  and  achieve 
objectives;  and  (b)  understand  and  deal  with 
their  development  needs  in  a broad  context 
and  in  a sustainable  manner. 

There  is  no  singular  definition  of  capacity 
building.  Over  the  years,  'capacity  building’ 
has  moved  from  being  a focus,  to  concern 
individual  training,  the  development  of 
institutions  and  recently  a complex  systems 
philosophy  where  individual  capacities  are 
linked  with  those  of  institutions  and  systems 
at  large.  Recent  definitions  emphasize  the 
continuing  process  of  strengthening  of  abilities 
to  perform  core  functions,  solve  problems, 
define  and  achieve  objectives,  and  understand 
and  deal  with  development  needs. 

Sources:  UNDP  (1997);  UNDP  (1998);  UNESCO 
(2005). 


1 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


CONTEXT  AND  CHALLENGES 


What  does  capacity  building  involve? 

Capacity  building  in  the  broad  sense  is  concerned  with  the  following: 

• Human  resource  development:  the  process  of  equipping  individuals  with  the 
understanding,  skills  and  access  to  information,  knowledge  and  training  that 
enables  them  to  perform  effectively. 

• Organizational  development:  the  elaboration  of  management  structures,  processes 
and  procedures,  not  only  within  organizations  but  also  the  management  of 
relationships  between  the  different  organizations  and  sectors  (public,  private 
and  community) . 

• Institutional  and  legal  framework  development:  making  legal  and  regulatory 
changes  to  enable  organizations,  institutions  and  agencies  at  all  levels,  and  in 
all  sectors,  to  enhance  their  capacities. 


Why  is  capacity  building  important  in  and  following  emergencies? 

Capacity  building  is  a challenge  in  all  countries.  The  challenges  and  problems  will  be  all 
the  greater  during  and  after  emergencies  and  disasters.  Existing  capacity  is  likely  to  have 
been  destroyed  or  greatly  reduced.  The  diversion,  destruction  or  devaluation  of  national 
financial  resources,  as  well  as  the  destruction  of  buildings  and  infrastructure,  represent 
serious  challenges  to  the  national  capacity  of  the  education  sector.  More  serious  still  is 
often  the  destruction  of  institutional  and  social  capital;  the  links  and  relationships  that  are 
formed  in  communities  and  between  people.  Institutional  and  social  capital  is  a prerequisite 
for  fostering  other  capacities.  Similarly,  capacity  building  in  education  is  important  both  for 
the  functioning  of  the  education  system  as  well  as  for  capacity  building  in  other  sectors. 
Most  sectors  or  structures  in  a society  rely  upon  a well  functioning  national  education 
system  in  order  to  further  develop  and  improve  upon  their  own  capacity.  An  essential 
aspect  of  capacity  building  is  enhancing  the  ability  of  individuals,  institutions  and  systems 
to  cope  with  change  and  unforeseen  challenges.  This  constitutes  a strong  argument  for 
prioritizing  capacity  building  in  education  in  particular,  even  in  the  midst  of  crises  and  in 
early  reconstruction. 


The  degree  of  capacity  reduction  in  and  following  an  emergency  differs,  of  course,  according 
to  the  type  of  conflict  or  nature  of  the  emergency.  Natural  disasters  usually  have  a greater 
impact  on  operational  capacity  - loss  of  facilities,  equipment  and  supplies.  There  may  be 
some  loss  of  human  resources,  but  the  effect  is  often  more  easily  mitigated  in  a natural 
disaster.  Institutional  capacity  may  be  temporarily  stretched  by  extra  demands,  but  generally 
stays  intact.  Conflict  and  especially  chronic  conflict,  on  the  other  hand,  is  likely  to  have  dire 
effects  on  social  and  institutional  capacity. 


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How  to  develop  capacity  after  emergencies? 


Capacity  building  requires  a significant  and  sustained  commitment  of  financial  and  human 
resources,  which  should  be  provided  for  during  educational  planning  processes. 

The  starting  point  for  capacity  development  is  the  acknowledgement  that  capacity  already 
exists.  Assessment  and  evaluation  are  therefore  important  elements  of  any  capacity 
building  programme.  As  part  of  the  initial  needs  assessment,  a rapid  assessment  of  human, 
operational  and  institutional  capacity  should  be  undertaken  with  a view  to  identifying  the 
most  urgent  challenges  facing  the  education  system  (see  also  the  Guidebook , Chapter  28} 
Assessment  of  needs  and  resources’). 

During  acute  phases  of  conflict  and  disaster,  the  immediate  tasks  of  ensuring  survival 
and  well-being  tend  to  dominate,  pushing  capacity  development  aside.  As  a result,  the 
operation  of  schools  tends  to  get  more  support  than  the  development  of  management  and 
supervisory  capacity.  Even  so,  capacities  can  be  enhanced  by  involvement  of  those  affected 
by  emergencies  in  interventions  and  service  provision.  As  time  passes,  perennial  issues,  such 
as  the  need  for  capacity  building,  become  more  obvious,  regardless  of  the  continuation  of 
crisis. 

There  are  various  ways  in  which  countries  can  approach  capacity  building  during  and 
in  the  aftermath  of  emergencies.  However,  the  approach  often  taken  in  an  emergency 
or  reconstruction  situation  is  determined  at  least  in  part  by  donors  and  international 
agencies  (see  also  the  Guidebook , Chapter  37}  ‘Donor  relations  and  funding  mechanisms’ 
and  Chapter  38,  ‘Co-ordination  and  communication’).  Clearly,  building  a ministry  s capacity 
is  very  different  from  some  donors’  attempts  to  bypass  weak  government  capacity,  which 
occurs  when  donors  try  to  rebuild  the  country  themselves  by  contracting  services  directly. 
More  often  than  not,  bypassing  national  systems  builds  resentment,  costs  more  than  local 
solutions,  and  does  not  bring  about  the  anticipated  results. 

Donors  or  governments  may  also  attempt  to  buy  capacity  by  contracting  services  to  the 
private  or  non-governmental  sector  when  there  is  no  time  to  build  local  capacity.  The 
option  of  buying  capacity  should  be  viewed  as  a last  resort  when  the  need  to  restore  the 
educational  services  speedily  outweighs  the  need  to  develop  longer-term  sustainable 
capacity.  As  McKechnie  (2003)  states,  when  contracting  outside  services  to  help  build 
capacity,  it  is  better  to  employ  several  medium-sized  firms  in  their  field  of  expertise,  than 
to  surrender  the  whole  sector  to  one  large  firm  or  institution. 

However,  time  constraints  and  the  need  to  resume  educational  services  quickly  may  make 
the  prospect  of  building  temporary  capacity  advisable.  One  strategy  for  building  temporary 
capacity  is  to  bring  back  the  diaspora  of  education  workers  (particularly  teachers)  who  may 
now  be  living  abroad.  This  reversal  of  the  brain-drain  effect  (if  it  can  be  sustained)  will,  over 
time,  help  to  re-establish  longer-term  capacity.  These  nationals  may  be  supported  by  foreign 
advisers,  but  if  capacity  is  to  be  built,  the  educational  authority  should  have  the  responsibility 


Chapter  3:  Capacity  building 


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3 


for  making  such  decisions.  Care  must  be  taken  in  the  re-integration  of  returned  nationals 
to  avoid  resentment  and  disparity. 

A long-term  view  of  the  reconstruction  process  post-emergencies  is  that  countries  should 
build  their  own  capacity . It  will  be  a timely  and  costly  process,  but  is  likely  to  be  more  effective 
and  sustainable  long  term.  ‘Real’  capacity  building  allows  for  self-dependence  and  a sense 
of  ownership,  which  are  very  important  factors  in  the  development  process  (McKechnie, 
2003). 


0 HOW  TO  READ  THIS  GUIDEBOOK : 

SOME  CHARACTERISTICS  OF  CAPACITY  BUILDING 

This  entire  Guidebook  is  concerned  with  ‘capacity  building’.  Each  chapter  is  aimed  at  providing 
information  and  suggestions  for  strategies  that  enhance  the  capacity  of  the  Ministry  of  Education 
or  other  educational  authority  in  that  particular  field.  Therefore,  both  when  reading  this  and  other 
chapters,  some  key  principles  of  capacity  building  should  be  kept  in  mind: 

Capacity  building  is  a continual  process  of  improvement  within  an  individual,  organization  or 
institution,  not  a one-time  event. 

It  is  essentially  an  internal  process,  which  only  may  be  enhanced  or  accelerated  by  outside 
assistance,  for  instance  by  donors. 

Capacity  building  emphasizes  the  need  to  build  on  what  exists,  to  utilize  and  strengthen 
existing  capacities,  rather  than  arbitrarily  starting  from  scratch.  However,  in  some  situations 
radical  and  extensive  changes  may  be  needed. 

Human-centred  development  strategies  emphasize  that  besides  being  a means  to  an  end 
(i.e.  improvement  of  performance),  capacity  building  has  an  intrinsic  value  on  its  own  in 
fostering  job  satisfaction  and  self-esteem. 

An  essential  aspect  of  capacity  building  should  be  to  build  capacity  to  cope  with  chanse 
and  to  inculcate  more  an  integrated  and  holistic  approach  rather  than  traditional,  narrowly 
sectoral  ways  of  thinking  in  addressing  problems  at  hand. 

Capacity  building  takes  a Ions  time  and  requires  a long-term  commitment  from  all  involved. 
Success  of  capacity  building  efforts  should  not  be  measured  in  terms  of  disbursements  or 
outputs  with  little  attention  to  sustainability.  Long-term  change  takes  into  account  not  only 
short-term  but  also  intermediate-  and  long-term  results. 

These  results  can  be  measured,  but  they  require  a broader  selection  of  measurements  and 
indicators  than  only  quantitative  ones. 

Source:  World  Health  Organization  (2001). 

■ 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

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SUGGESTED  STRATEGIES 


Summary  of  suggested  strategies 
Capacity  building 

As  part  of  the  initial  needs  assessment, 
undertake  rapid  assessment  of  human, 
operational  and  institutional  capacity  to 
identify  the  most  urgent  challenges. 


2.  Restore  interim  operational  capacity  as  rapidly 
as  possible. 

3.  Establish  or  enhance  basic  institutional 
capacity. 

4.  Support  existing  human  resource  capacity  and 
fill  key  gaps. 

5.  In  early  reconstruction,  assess  human  resource 
capacity  and  address  key  capacity  limitations. 

6.  In  early  reconstruction,  expand  and  consolidate 
operational  capacity  and  work  to  ensure 
sustained  support. 


7.  Progressively  develop  institutional  capacity 
to  meet  the  changing  needs  of  the  developing 
system. 


Chapter  3:  Capacity  building 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


Guidance  notes 


1*  As  part  of  the  initial  needs  assessment , undertake  rapid  assessment 
of  human,  operational  and  institutional  capacity  to  identify  the 
most  urgent  challenges* 

(See  also  the  Guidebook , Chapter  28,  Assessment  of  needs  and  resources’.) 

• Conduct  a review  of  the  condition  and  capacity  of  local  offices,  especially  at 
district  and  local  levels. 

• Encourage  public  service  authorities  to  assess  educational,  human  and  institutional 
capacity  whenever  possible. 

• Attempt  to  build  upon  available  records  or  memories  of  institutional  networks 
and  capacities  in  existence  before  the  emergency  and  assess  the  extent  to  which 
these  are  still  operational. 

• Identify  development  partners  and  other  organizations  that  have  direct  access 
to  schools  in  the  course  of  the  work,  and  assess  whether  these  can  serve  as 
temporary  communication  channels  with  schools.  For  example,  assessment  teams, 
infrastructure  teams,  NGOs  and  community-based  organizations  (CBOs)  and 
even  the  military  (when  appropriate)  could  be  mobilized  so  that  initial  assessment 
and  actions  are  as  comprehensive  as  possible. 

• Existing  legislation,  regulations  and  procedures  manuals,  records  of  organizational 
structures  and  networks  that  may  be  relevant  to  the  emergency  situation  should 
be  sought. 

• Create  an  initial  register  of  development  partners  working  in  education  stating  a 
description  of  their  areas  of  focus.  This  may  include  donors,  agencies,  NGOs  and 
CBOs. 

2*  Restore  interim  operational  capacity  as  rapidly  as  possible* 

• Have  steps  been  taken  to  get  education  offices  up  and  running  as  quickly  as 
possible?  For  example,  work  with  humanitarian/development  partners  to  obtain 
basic  equipment,  physical  rehabilitation  and  communication  infrastructure  for 
ministry/education  authority  and  regional  and  district  offices? 

• Do  development  partners  have  transport  to  schools  and  district  offices?  That  is, 
either  share  or  obtain  own  transport  vehicles,  motorcycles,  bicycles  etc.? 

• Have  district  and  local  officials  been  appointed,  even  on  a temporary  basis? 

• Have  emergency  communications  arrangements  been  established?  That  is,  cell 
phones/telephones,  radios,  etc? 

• Have  simple  guidelines  been  adapted  and  disseminated  on  minimum  requirements 
for  learning  spaces? 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

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3* 


Establish  or  enhance  basic  institutional  capacity* 


• Have  steps  been  taken  to  identify  records  of  any  remaining  management 
information  systems?  Are  these  systems  assessed  to  see  whether  they  can  be 
used,  or  adapted  and  updated  with  available  information?  (Records  to  include 
EM1S,  salary  records,  financial  management  systems,  human  resource  records, 
capital  development  programmes,  etc.?) 

• Have  humanitarian  and  development  partners  and  all  agencies  active  in  the  field 
been  asked  to  help  identify  studies,  reports  or  other  data  that  may  be  used  to 
reconstruct  and  supplement  data  available  from  surviving  systems? 

• Have  key  issues  for  policy  change  or  adaptation  been  identified  based  on  existing 
legislation,  policies,  regulations  and  procedures? 

• Have  directives  been  issued  giving  clear  guidelines  on  new  procedures? 

• Where  district  and  local  capacity  is  weak  or  non-existent,  are  communications 
with  school  directors  carried  out  directly,  using  simple  one-page  directives  with 
clear  messages  on  key  policy  decisions? 

• Isa  simple  format  provided  for  schools  and  district  offices  to  make  ad  hoc  reports 
of  problems  and  urgent  needs  to  authorities? 

4*  Support  existing  human  resource  capacity  and  fill  key  gaps* 

• Are  appointments  of  key  officials  confirmed  as  quickly  as  possible,  even  if 
temporary,  at  central,  district  and  school  levels? 

• Are  important  personnel  gaps  quickly  filled  with  temporary  appointments  or 
secondments? 

• Are  qualified  local  or  returnee  nationals  used  to  fill  key  positions  and  functions 
in  the  education  authority?  Are  negotiations  held  with  humanitarian  and 
development  partners  to  support  such  appointments  when  necessary? 

• Are  salary  agreements  negotiated  quickly  among  development  partners  to  reduce 
the  loss  of  qualified  personnel  to  agencies  and  NGOs? 

• Is  temporary  secondment  of  international  specialists  to  supplement  existing 
capacity  in  key  areas  negotiated  with  development  partners  with  consideration 
to  the  need  to  develop  local  capacity? 

• Are  workshops  organized  quickly  to  establish  basic  networks  among  officials  and 
school  leaders,  and  to  facilitate  rapid  agreement  on  strategies  for  dealing  with 
important  problems? 


Chapter  3:  Capacity  building 


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7 


5*  In  early  reconstruction,  assess  human  resource  capacity  and  address 
key  capacity  limitations* 

• Is  a system-wide  analysis  of  existing  human  resources  undertaken,  building  on 
the  initial  survey  of  human  resources  and  including  an  inventory  of  skills? 

• Are  steps  taken  with  development  partners  to  identify  exiles  and  potential 
returnees  in  the  diaspora  and  facilitate  their  return? 

• Is  a review  undertaken  of  existing  capacity  for  human  resource  development 
within  the  public  service,  in  universities  and  training  institutions  in  both  public 
and  private  sectors,  and  in  civil  society? 

• Isa  rolling  training  plan  developed,  whereby  capacity  gaps  and  training  needs  are 
identified  and  met  on  an  ongoing  prioritized  basis?  Is  the  plan  flexible  enough  that 
it  can  be  reviewed  and  adjusted  as  the  system  develops  and  is  restructured? 

• Are  sustained  training  programmes  developed  for  officials  in  key  posts?  Are 
training  programmes  supplemented  with  ongoing  on-the-job  support? 

6*  In  early  reconstruction,  expand  and  consolidate  operational  capacity 
and  work  to  ensure  sustained  support* 

• Is  a list  of  operational  capacity  requirements  drafted?  Is  the  list  compiled  based 
on  emerging  system  design?  Does  it  reflect  planning  for  likely  future  restructuring 
(centralization  or  decentralization)?  Does  the  requirements  list  consider: 

• construction,  rehabilitation,  and  equipping  of  regional  and  district  offices? 

• communications  infrastructure  (telephones,  radios,  fax,  email,  etc.)? 

• transport  infrastructure  (including  operating  costs)? 

• printing,  copying  publishing  capacity  (in-house,  outsourced  or  mix)? 

• Does  the  plan  phase  in  development  of  operational  capacity  over  the  next  two 
to  three  years?  Does  it  reflect  system  development  design?  Does  it  indicate 
priorities? 

• Does  the  plan  review  operational  capacity  priorities  with  other  sectors  and 
ministries  to  identify  opportunities  for  sharing  infrastructure  (office  space, 
communications,  transport  etc.)? 

• Does  the  plan  ensure  that  interim  budgets  include  some  provision  for  priority 
operational  capacity? 

• Are  negotiations  planned  with  development  partners  for  assistance  for  operational 
capacity  requirements  not  met  from  the  interim  budget? 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

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Progressively  develop  institutional  capacity  to  meet  the  changing 

needs  of  the  developing  system* 

• Do  activities  build  on  systems  put  in  place  during  the  acute  phase  of  emergency? 

• Is  an  EM1S  system  developed  to  reflect  the  needs  and  priorities  of  the  emerging 
system,  building  on  emergency  systems  put  in  place  during  early  phases,  and 
drawing  on  international  and  local  expertise?  (See  the  Guidebook , Chapter  34 , 
’Data  collection  and  education  management  information  systems  (EMIS)’.) 

• Are  steps  taken  to  develop,  adapt,  and  modernize  key  management  functions  - 
personnel  and  salary  payment,  financial  management,  procurement,  etc.?  (See 
the  Guidebook , Chapter  35 } 'Budget  and  financial  management’.) 

• Are  steps  taken  to  prioritize  establishment  of  a human  resource  development 
component  in  every  employing  authority  within  the  system,  and  to  ensure  rapid 
training  and  support?  (Seethe  Guidebook , Chapter  15,  'Identification,  selection  and 
recruitment  of  teachers  and  education  workers’,  Chapter  18,  'Teacher  training: 
teaching  and  learning  methods’  and  Chapter  36,  'Human  resources:  ministry 
officials’.) 

• Are  communications  functions  or  units  being  established  at  central,  regional, 
and  district  levels  to  facilitate  communication  within  the  education  authority, 
with  other  government  ministries  and  services,  and  with  communities  and  civil 
society? 

• Are  those  units  being  developed  in  line  with  an  overall  communication  strategy? 
(See  the  Guidebook,  Chapter  38,  'Co-ordination  and  communication’.)  Are  the 
units  being  supported  with  training?  With  national  or  international  technical 
assistance  when  needed? 


Chapter  3:  Capacity  building 


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REFERENCES  AND  FURTHER  READING 


INEE  (Inter-Agency  Network  for  Education  in  Emergencies).  2002.  “Training  and  capacity 
building”.  In:  Good  practice  guides  for  emergency  education . Retrieved  29  August  2005 
from  http://www.ineesite.org/training/default.asp 

McKechnie,  A.  2003.  “Building  capacity  in  post-conflict  countries”.  In:  The  World  Bank’s 
Social  Development  Notes,  14,  1-4.  Retrieved  25  August  2005  from: 
http : //lnweb  1 8 .worldbank.org  / E SS  D/  sdvext  .nsf/ 67ByDocName/ 
BuildingCapacityinPost-ConflictCountriesCPRDisseminationNoteNol4/$FILE/ 
CPR+Note+14+SD+88+final+for+printing.pdf 

Rohland,  K.;  Cliffe,  S.  2002.  “The  East  Timor  reconstruction  program:  successes,  problems 
and  tradeoffs”.  In:  Conflict  prevention  and  reconstruction  unit  working  papers,  no.  2, 
November.  Washington,  DC:  Social  Development  Department,  World  Bank. 

UNDP.  1997.  Capacity  development  resources  book.  New  York:  UNDP. 

UNDP.  1998.  Capacity  assessment  and  development,  in  a systems  and  strategic  management 
context . Technical  advisory  paper  3.  New  York:  UNDP. 

UNESCO.  2005.  UNESCO  thesaurus . Retrieved  on  1 August  2005  from: 
http://databases.unesco.org/thesaurus/ 

World  Bank.  2002.  “Rebuilding  the  civil  service  in  a post-conflict  setting:  key  issues  and 
lessons  of  experience”.  In:  CPR  Dissemination  Notes,  no.  1,  March.  Washington, 
DC:  World  Bank. 

World  Bank.  2003.  “Recent  bank  support  for  civil  service  reconstruction  in  post-conflict 
countries.”  PREM Notes,  no.  79,  October.  Washington,  DC:  World  Bank. 

World  Health  Organization  (WHO).  2001.  What  do  we  know  about  capacity  building?  An 
overview  of  existing  knowledge  and  good  practice . Geneva:  WHO. 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


CHAPTER 


3 


SECTION  1 


United  Nations  ] International 

Educational,  Scientific  and  [ Institute  for 

Cultural  Organization  * Educational 

Planning 


o 

w 


Chapter 


< 

w 


EDUCATION  FOR  ALL 
IN  EMERGENCIES 
AND  RECONSTRUCTION 


The  designations  employed  and  the  presentation  of 
material  throughout  this  review  do  not  imply  the  expression 
of  any  opinion  whatsoever  on  the  part  of  UNESCO  or  the 
IIEP  concerning  the  legal  status  of  any  country,  territory, 
city  or  area  or  its  authorities,  or  concerning  its  frontiers 
or  boundaries. 

The  publication  costs  of  this  study  have  been  covered 
through  a grant-in-aid  offered  by  UNESCO  and  by 
voluntary  contributions  made  by  several  Member  States 
of  UNESCO. 


Published  by: 

International  Institute  for  Educational  Planning 
7-9  rue  Eugene  Delacroix,  75116  Paris 
e-mail:  info@iiep.unesco.org 
IIEP  web  site:  www.unesco.org/iiep 


Layout  and  cover  design:  Sabine  Lebeau 
Typesetting:  Sabine  Lebeau 
Printed  in  IIEP’s  printshop 
ISBN:  92-803-1288-X 
©UNESCO  2006 


Chapter □ 

EDUCATION  FOR  ALL  IN  EMERGENCIES 


DAKAR  EDUCATION  FOR  ALL1  (EFA) 
GOALS  RELATED  TO  ACCESS 

1*  Expanding  and  improving  comprehensive 
early  childhood  care  and  education, 
especially  for  the  most  vulnerable  and 
disadvantaged  children. 

2*  Ensuring  that  by  201 5 all  children,  particularly 
girls,  children  in  difficult  circumstances  and 
those  belonging  to  ethnic  minorities,  have 
access  to  and  complete  free  compulsory 
primary  education  of  good  quality. 


5*  Eliminating  gender  disparities  in  primary 
and  secondary  education  by  2005,  and 
achieving  gender  equality  in  education  by 
2015,  with  a focus  on  ensuring  girls'  full  and 
equal  access  to  and  achievement  in  basic 
education  of  good  quality. 

6*  Improving  all  aspects  of  quality  education 
and  ensuring  excellence  of  all  so  that 
recognized  and  measurable  learning 
outcomes  are  achieved  by  all,  especially  in 
literacy,  numeracy  and  essential  life  skills. 

Source:  World  Education  Forum  (2000:  § 7). 


AND  RECONSTRUCTION 


CONTEXT  AND  CHALLENGES 

The  issue  of  access  to  education  for  all  children 
has  become  a priority  for  the  international 
community.  In  2000,  this  global  commitment 
was  reaffirmed  at  the  World  Education  Forum 
in  Dakar,  Senegal,  in  the  form  of  specific 
goals. 

In  addition,  the  United  Nations  Millennium 
Declaration  also  calls  on  the  international 
community  “to  ensure  that,  by  [2015],  children 
everywhere,  boys  and  girls  alike,  will  be  able  to 
complete  a full  course  of  primary  schooling” 
and  that  “girls  and  boys  will  have  equal  access 
to  all  levels  of  education”  (United  Nations, 
2000:  5).  The  Dakar  World  Education  Forum 
explicitly  acknowledges  that  armed  conflicts 
and  disasters  constitute  a major  impediment 
to  the  achievement  of  Education  for  All.  The 
Dakar  Framework  for  Action  included  a pledge 
by  the  international  community  to  “meet 
the  needs  of  education  systems  affected  by 
conflict,  natural  calamities  and  instability  . . .” 
(World  Education  Forum,  2000:  § 8(v)). 


1 

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In  meeting  EFA  and  Millennium  Development  Goals  (MDGs)  as  well  as  governments’  other 
obligations  under  international  treaties  (see  the  Guidebook , Chapter 31,  'Legal  frameworks’), 
educational  authorities  are  faced  with  the  major  challenge  of  ensuring  access  for  all  children, 
regardless  of  their  location,  political  or  ethnic  affiliation,  gender  or  citizenship.  Access  must 
be  ensured  for  the  following: 


• Those  who  recognize  their  government  and  those  who  do  not; 

• Those  who  are  'on  the  authorities’  side’  and  those  who  are  not; 

• Those  who  are  the  easiest  to  get  into  school,  and  those  who  need  school  the 
most;  and 

• Those  who  are  seeking  asylum. 


Crucially,  the  issue  of  access  and  inclusion  is  intricately  linked  with  that  of  quality  of 
education,  as  reflected  in  the  sixth  goal  of  the  Dakar  Framework  for  Action  listed  above.  (See 
also  the  point,  'Linking  access  and  quality’,  under  'Tools  and  resources’  later  in  this  chapter). 
Providing  inclusive  access  to  education,  especially  in  emergencies  and  during  reconstruction, 
involves  getting  children  into  schools,  but  it  is  also  concerned  with  the  following: 


• Non-discrimination:  all  children  having  access  to  education,  regardless  of 
ethnicity,  religion,  political  persuasion,  citizenship,  gender,  disability  or  social 
class. 

• School  ambience:  the  environment  children  encounter  when  they  get  to  school  - 
whether  children  feel  safe  and  supported. 

• Curriculum:  what  children  learn  when  they  are  in  school  - whether  it  is  relevant 
to  their  current  situation  and  provides  them  with  relevant  skills  for  their  future, 
whether  it  is  taught  in  their  mother  tongue,  at  least  in  the  lower  grades  of 
schooling,  and  free  of  divisive  messages,  etc. 

• Teaching  and  learning  processes:  whether  teaching  methods  are  effective  and 
pupil-centred. 

• Attendance:  whether  children  attend  school  on  a regular  basis. 

• Retention:  whether  children  progress  through  various  grades  once  enrolled  in 
school. 

• Alternatives:  whether  non-formal  education  opportunities  exist  for  children  and 
young  people  who  cannot  (for  whatever  reason)  enrol  in  a formal  school,  or 
for  whom  many  years  of  education  have  been  missed  as  a result  of  conflict  or 
displacement. 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


EFA  and  Millennium  Development  Goals  should  be  applicable  during  and  immediately  after 
emergencies.  Civil  wars  and  complex  chronic  conflicts  can  last  for  decades.  Therefore  a 
commitment  to  providing  inclusive  access  to  education  is  just  as  important  in  emergencies 
as  during  peacetime,  if  not  more  so.  The  Minimum  standards  for  education  in  emergencies , 
chronic  crises  and  early  reconstruction  (1NEE,  2004),  launched  in  December  2004,  in  the  form 
of  a Minimum  standards  handbook , is  an  expression  of  this  commitment.  Through  a highly 
collaborative  process,  facilitated  by  the  Inter-agency  Network  for  Education  in  Emergencies, 
and  involving  more  than  2,250  individuals  from  over  50  countries,  global  standards  have  been 
developed  for  the  minimum  level  of  educational  quality  and  access  that  should  be  provided 
in  emergencies,  chronic  crises  and  the  early  reconstruction  phase.  (See  the  Guidebook, 
Chapter  1,  ‘Introduction’,  for  more  information  on  the  standards.) 

The  underlying  objective  of  this  Guidebook  is  to  provide  practical  guidance  to  educational 
authorities  on  how  to  ensure  that  all  children  have  access  to  education  in  line  with  these 
standards,  and  how  to  enhance  the  effectiveness  and  quality  of  their  educational  assistance, 
in  emergencies  and  during  reconstruction.  All  of  the  chapters  in  this  Guidebook  relate  to  the 
issue  of  access  in  one  way  or  another.  For  example,  well-trained,  highly  motivated  teachers 
are  more  engaging.  Because  of  better  teaching,  children  will  be  more  likely  to  attend  school 
regularly  and  learn  more,  in  order  to  continue  their  education.  Similarly,  a curriculum  that 
is  not  divisive  and  that  contains  relevant  messages  for  childrens  current  situation,  and  their 
development,  will  also  increase  the  likelihood  that  students  engage  with  their  education, 
and  attend  regularly.  Furthermore,  access  to  education  is  a tool  that  can  both  protect 
children  (e.g.  from  forced  labour,  military  recruitment  and  prostitution)  and  serve  to  pass 
on  life-protecting  and  life-saving  messages  (Nicolai  and  Triplehorn,  2003).  Finally,  issues 
of  management  and  administration  also  have  an  effect  on  the  ability  of  schools  and  school 
systems  to  function  effectively  and  to  reach  out  to  all  children  and  youth  to  provide  them 
with  the  opportunity  to  develop  to  their  fullest  potential. 

Below  is  a summary  of  the  different  ways  education  can  protect  children  in  emergencies. 


Chapter  4:  Education  for  all  in  emergencies  and 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCAT 


reconstruction 

IONAL  PLANNI 


N G 


THE  POTENTIAL  PROTECTIVE  ELEMENTS  OF  EDUCATION 

IN  EMERGENCIES 


PHYSICAL  PROTECTION 

• Provides  safe,  structured  places  for  learn  and  play; 

• Reaches  out  to  all  children,  without  discrimination; 

• Offers  means  to  identify  children  with  special  needs,  such  as  experience  of  trauma  or  family 
separation; 

• Engages  children  in  positive  alternatives  to  military  recruitment,  gangs  and  drugs; 

• Care  and  supervision  can  be  provided  by  teachers,  in  consultation  with  the  parent  or 
guardian; 

• Offers  children  basic  knowledge  of  health  and  hygiene; 

• Can  improve  children's  nutrition  by  the  provision  of  nutritious  daily  meals  as  part  of  school 
feeding; 

• Prepares  children  for  appropriate  work  which  is  not  harmful  or  threatening  their  health  or 
security. 

PSYCHOSOCIAL  PROTECTION 

• Gives  children  an  identity  as  students,  averts  inadequacy  felt  by  children  out  of  school; 

• Provides  a venue  for  expression  through  play  and  cultural  activities  such  as  sports,  music, 
drama,  and  art; 

• Facilitates  social  integration  of  vulnerable  children  such  as  separated  children  and  former 
combatants; 

• Supports  social  networks  and  community  interaction  for  children  and  their  families; 

• Provides  a daily  routine  and  offers  a sense  of  the  future  beyond  the  immediacy  of  war  or 
conflict. 

COGNITIVE  PROTECTION 

• Helps  children  to  develop  and  retain  the  academic  skills  of  basic  education,  i.e.  literacy 
and  numeracy; 

• Offers  means  for  children  to  access  urgent  life-saving  health  and  security  information; 

• Furnishes  children  with  knowledge  of  human  rights  and  skills  for  citizenship  and  living  in 
times  of  peace; 

• Strengthens  children's  evaluative  skills  in  responding  to  propaganda  and  disparate  sources 
of  information; 

• Encourages  young  people  to  analyze  information,  express  opinions,  and  take  action  on 
chosen  issues. 


Source:  Nicolai  and  Triplehorn  (2003: 10) 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


Standard  1 on  access  and  learning  environment  in  the  Minimum  standards  handbook 
deals  with  equal  access:  “All  individuals  have  equal  access  to  quality  and  relevant 
educationopportunities”  (1NEE,  2004:  41).  The  table  below  lays  out  three  primary 
reasons  (safety-related,  economic  and  institutional)  why  children  might  not  be  in  school, 
and  offers  a few  examples  of  what  can  be  done  to  provide  them  with  access  to  learning. 
The  third  column  of  the  table  provides  cross-references  to  other  chapters  in  this  Guidebook 
that  deal  with  these  issues.  For  a more  comprehensive  outline  of  the  challenges  facing 
educational  authorities  working  with  different  population  groups  in  different  types  and 
phases  of  emergencies  and  reconstruction,  please  see  the  Guidebook , Chapter  2}  'Challenges 
in  emergencies  and  reconstruction’. 


SAFETY-RELATED  REASONS 

WHY  ARE  CHILDREN 
NOT  IN  SCHOOL? 

WHAT  CAN  BE  DONE? 

GUIDEBOOK  CHAPTERS 

Concerns  related  to 
safety  en  route 

• Parents  are  afraid  to  send 
their  children  to  school  due 
to  ongoing  conflict 

• The  route  to  school  is  unsafe 

• Children  are  afraid  to  leave 
their  parents 

• Childrens  movement  is 
restricted  due  to  roadblocks 
or  closures 

• Provide  child  friendly  spaces 
for  schools 

• Facilitate  home  schools 

• Give  psychosocial  training  for 
teachers 

• Arrange  escorts,  school 
buses 

• Arrange  community 
education  or  advocacy 

• Give  distance  education 

• Chapter  6:  Gender 

• Chapter  10:  Learning  spaces 
and  school  facilities 

• Chapter  11:  Open  and 
distance  learning 

• Chapter  19:  Psychosocial 
support  to  learners 

Concerns  related  to 
attending  school 

• Parents  are  concerned  that 
conditions  in  the  school  are 
insecure,  especially  for  girls 

• Girls  risk  sexual  harassment 
and  abuse 

• Lobbying  of  government  by 
local  educational  authorities 
to  render  schools  safe 

• Provide  child  friendly  spaces 
for  schools 

• Mobilize  community 
volunteers  in  schools 

• Set  up  school  management 
committees 

• Exercise  enforced  code  of 
conduct  for  teachers 

• Keep  separate  toilets  for  girls 

• Provide  sanitary  materials  for 
older  girls 

• Chapter  6:  Gender 

• Chapter  10:  Learning  spaces 
and  school  facilities 

• Chapter  32:  Community 
participation 

Concerns  related  to 
distance  to  school 

• Children  have  to  walk  too  far 
to  get  to  school 

• Develop  community  schools 
for  early  primary  grades 

• Early  primary  schools  can 
be  ‘feeder  schools’  for  larger 
schools  with  higher  primary 
grades  as  older  children  can 
walk  farther  to  a bigger 
school 

• Use  ‘satellite’  schools  or 
classes  for  early  years  of 
schooling,  administered  as 
part  of  larger  schools 

• Set  up  school  buses 

• Chapter  5:  Rural  populations 

• Chapter  6:  Gender 

• Chapter  8:  Children  with 
disabilities 

• Chapter  10:  Learning  spaces 
and  school  facilities 

• Chapter  11:  Open  and 
distance  learning 

• Chapter  35:  Budget  and 
financial  management 

Chapter  4:  Education  for  all  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 


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5 


ECONOMIC  REASONS 

WHY  ARE  CHILDREN 
NOT  IN  SCHOOL? 

WHAT  CAN  BE  DONE? 

GUIDEBOOK  CHAPTERS 

• Children  must  work  for  their 
families  - doing  planting/ 
harvesting,  water  and/or 
firewood  collection,  rations 
collection,  etc. 

• Child/sibling-minding 
responsibilities 

• Parents  cannot  afford  the  direct 
cost  of  schooling,  including 
registration,  school  fees,  tuition 
and  examination  fees,  unofficial 
fees  charged  by  schools  and 
informal  payments  of  teachers, 
community  contributions 

for  school  construction  and 
maintenance,  uniforms/decent 
clothes,  transport,  learning 
materials,  etc. 

• Parents  do  not  prioritize 
education  for  their  children 

• Arrange  for  alternative  school 
times 

• Arrange  for  alternative  times 
for  food/water  distribution  in 
camps 

• Engage  primary  schools  or 
satellite  premises  that  have  free 
creche  and  pre-school  facilities 

• Provide  school  feeding/food 
items  based  on  attendance  as 
incentive  for  family 

• Abolish  compulsory  school 
uniforms,  provide  second-hand 
clothing  to  poor  children 

• Facilitate  study  groups 

• Arrange  catch-up  classes, 
classes  for  working  children 

• Arrange  peer  teaching 

• Provide  learning  programmes 
for  adults,  persuading  them 
of  the  value  of  education  for 
themselves  and  their  children 

• Put  stress  on  governments’ 
obligation  to  provide  access 
to  free  primary  education, 
(which  includes  paying  teachers 
regularly)  and  to  facilitate 
access  to  secondary  and  higher 
education,  e.g.  through  non- 
discriminative  scholarships, 
refugee/IDP  schools,  distance 
education 

• International  organizations  can 
provide  materials,  scholarships, 
teacher  incentives  (especially 
in  the  acute  phase  and  for 
displaced  populations) 

• Chapter  5:  Rural  populations 

• Chapter  10:  Learning  spaces  and 
school  facilities 

• Chapter  27:  Textbooks, 
educational  materials  and 
teaching  aids 

• Chapter  37:  Donor  relations  and 
funding  mechanisms 

Guidebook 

IIEP  • I N T 


for  planning  education 

ERNATIONAL  INSTITU 


i n 

T E 


emergencies  and  reconstruction 

FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


INSTITUTIONAL  REASONS 

WHY  ARE  CHILDREN 
NOT  IN  SCHOOL? 

WHAT  CAN  BE  DONE? 

GUIDEBOOK  CHAPTERS 

• Ambiguous  legal  frameworks 

• Waive  procedures  to  get 

• Chapter  4:  Education  for 

CO 

CO 

ft) 

• Authorities  and  schools 

children  into  school 

all  in  emergencies  and 

require  records  of  previous 

• Provide  counsellors  to  help 

reconstruction 

O 

O 

schooling,  identity  papers, 

urban  refugee/IDP  children 

• Chapter  27:  Textbooks, 

0 

* 

Co 

birth  certificates  etc. 

enter  existing  national 

educational  materials  and 

• Lack  of  opportunity  to 

schools 

teaching  aids 

S 

proceed  from  primary  to 

• Support  testing  for  older 

• Chapter  31:  Legal 

secondary  education 

children  to  enter  appropriate 

frameworks 

s 

• Lack  of  school  leaving 

grades  in  the  national  schools 

• Chapter  3 7:  Donor  relations 

a 

certificates  accepted  in 

• Provide  bridging  tuition/ 

and  funding  mechanisms 

G 

s 

the  concerned  country/ies 

classes  to  prepare  refugee 

0 

reduces  future  economic 

children  to  enter  local 

3 

< 

s 

o 

3 

3 

£ 

3 

CQ 

opportunities 

schools/colleges 

• Put  stress  on  governments’ 
obligation  to  provide  access 
to  free  primary  education, 
(which  includes  paying 
teachers  regularly)  and  to 
facilitate  access  to  secondary 
and  higher  education,  e.g. 
through  non-discriminative 
scholarships,  refugee/IDP 
schools,  distance  education 

• The  curriculum  is  divisive 

• Lighten  curriculum  during 

• Chapter  20:  Curriculum 

• The  curriculum  is  not 

and  immediately  after 

content  and  review  processes 

considered  interesting  or 

emergency,  thereby  ‘making 

• Chapter  27:  Textbooks, 

relevant,  or  is  not  valued, 

space’  for  subsequent 

educational  materials  and 

etc. 

revisions,  creating  less 
pressure  on  students  and 
teachers,  especially  if  school 
hours  are  short  due  to  the 
use  of  multiple  shifts 

teaching  aids 

• Chapter  32:  Community 
participation 

• Chapter  37:  Donor  relations 

Curriculum  issues 

• Conduct  curriculum  review; 
engage  and  consult  with 
community 

• Use  children’s  mother  tongue 
as  language  of  instruction,  at 
least  in  early  primary 

• Use  country /area  of  origin 
curriculum  for  refugees  when 
possible 

• Facilitate  recreational/ 
cultural  activities  liked  by 
boys,  girls,  parents 

• Teach  positive  moral  values, 
peace,  citizenship,  adolescent 
health,  in  a way  that  is 
culturally  acceptable 

and  funding  mechanisms 

Chapter 

IIEP  • I N T 


4:  Education  for  all 

ERNATIONAL  INST 


in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

TUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


7 


INSTITUTIONAL  REASONS 

WHY  ARE  CHILDREN 
NOT  IN  SCHOOL? 

WHAT  CAN  BE  DONE? 

GUIDEBOOK  CHAPTERS 

Inadequate  school  facilities 

• Over-crowding;  not  enough 
schools,  classrooms,  school 
tents,  plastic  sheeting,  etc. 

• Fighting  parties  using  schools 
for  their  own  purposes 

or  schools  having  been 
destroyed  by  fighting  or 
natural  disasters 

• Consider  multiple  shifts 

• Repair  damaged  schools 

• Build  temporary  schools 

• Build  new  schools  (seek 
outside  assistance) 

• Consider  use  of  other 
structures  (religious 
buildings,  privately  owned 
buildings,  etc.) 

• Consider  open-air  semi- 
sheltered  spaces  that  can  be 
made  secure  and  available 

• Chapter  5:  Rural  populations 

• Chapter  10:  Learning  spaces 
and  school  facilities 

• Chapter  32:  Community 
participation 

• Chapter  35:  Budget  and 
financial  management 

Problems  of 
marginalization 

• Children  and  youth  at  risk  are 
often  marginalized  and  not 
included  in  education1 

• Pro-active  measures  to 
identify  and  draw  in  children 
and  youth  at  risk 

• Educational  authorities  and 
international  organizations 
set  goals,  develop  and 
implement  strategies  to 
achieve  universal  primary 
education 

• Chapter  8:  Children  with 
disabilities 

• Chapter  9:  Former  child 
soldiers 

• Chapter  32:  Community 
participation 

Staff  issues 

• Not  enough  or  poor-quality 
teachers 

• Not  enough  women  teachers 
to  encourage  families/girls  to 
continue  with  schooling 

• Recruit  and  hire  more 
teachers,  including  new 
teachers  if  necessary,  and 
including  a substantial 
proportion  of  women 

• Provide  substantive  in- 
service  teacher  training 

• Solicit  outside  help,  if 
necessary  initially,  in 
developing  teacher-training 
modalities 

• Provide  teacher  incentives  (at 
a sustainable  level)  to  reduce 
turnover 

• Develop  programmes  for 
attracting  teachers  to  rural 
areas  (and  retaining  them) 

• Chapter  5:  Rural  populations 

• Chapter  15:  Identification, 
selection  and  recruitment 
of  teachers  and  education 
workers 

• Chapter  16:  Teacher 
motivation,  compensation 
and  working  conditions 

• Chapter  18:  Teacher  training: 
teaching  and  learning 
methods 

• Chapter  35:  Budget  and 
financial  management 

• Chapter  37:  Donor  relations 
and  funding  mechanisms 

Concerns  related  to 
vulnerable  groups 

• Teachers  not  qualified  or 
have  no  training  in  dealing 
with  children  with  special 
needs  (e.g.  traumatized 
children,  children  with 
hearing  or  sight  problems, 
children  with  physical 
disabilities,  children  with 
learning  disabilities,  etc.) 

• Bring  in  outside  experts 
and  teachers  if  necessary, 
especially  initially 

• Give  teacher  training 

• Introduce  psychosocial 
programmes 

• Provide  recreation, 
‘expressive’  activities  and 
community  services  for 
traumatized  child  and 
adolescent  populations 

• Chapter  8:  Children  with 
disabilities 

• Chapter  18:  Teacher  training: 
teaching  and  learning 
methods 

• Chapter  35:  Budget  and 
financial  management 

• Chapter  3 7:  Donor  relations 
and  funding  mechanisms 

1.  Categories  may  include:  orphans,  child  victims  of  abuse,  violence  and  rape;  ex-child  soldiers,  child  perpetrators  of 
violence;  children  in  child-headed  families,  child  heads  of  families,  children  with  HIV,  children  of  HIV-positive  parents; 
children  providing  for  parents  in  prison;  displaced  children;  girls;  girls  after  puberty;  children  from  disadvantaged  minority 
communities;  returning  exiles;  children  separated  from  their  families;  children  with  special  needs;  child  victims  of  war, 
war  wounded  children,  traumatized  children;  lost,  demoralized  and  disoriented  children. 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


RELEVANCE  /MOTIVATIONAL  REASONS 

WHY  ARE  CHILDREN 
NOT  IN  SCHOOL? 

WHAT  CAN  BE  DONE? 

GUIDEBOOK  CHAPTERS 

Concerns  related  to 
age  disparities 

• Older  children  and  youth 
who  have  missed  years  of 
schooling  may  not  want  to 
attend  early  primary  grades 
with  young  children  or  may 
have  lost  interest  in  school 

• Special  primary  classes  for 
older  children/boys 

• Accelerated  learning  or 
bridging  programmes 

• Literacy/numeracy 
programmes 

• Non-formal  education 

• Chapter  12:  Non-formal 
education 

Lack  of  perspective 

• Youth  who  have  completed 
primary  school  have  no  other 
educational  options 

• Provide  post-primary 
learning  opportunities, 
such  as  secondary  school, 
vocational  training,  skills 
training,  etc. 

• Provide  scholarships  for 
secondary  and  higher 
education 

• Consider  distance  learning 
options  for  post-primary 
students 

• Chapter  11:  Open  and 
distance  learning 

• Chapter  12:  Non-formal 
education 

• Chapter  14:  Post-primary 
education 

• Chapter  26:  Vocational 
education  and  training 

Chapter  4:  Education  for  all  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 


E P • 


INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


9 


KEY  PRINCIPLES 


In  her  seminal  work  entitled  Planning  education  in  and  after  emergencies,  Sinclair  (2002:  29-30) 
outlined  a series  of  key  principles  that  apply  to  all  such  operations. 


SINCLAIR'S  PRINCIPLES  OF  EMERGENCY  EDUCATION 


ACCESS 

• The  right  of  access  to  education,  recreation  and  related  activities  must  be  ensured,  even  in 
crisis  situations. 

• Rapid  access  to  education,  recreation  and  related  activities  should  be  followed  by  steady 
improvement  in  quality  and  coverage,  including  access  to  all  levels  of  education  and 
recognition  of  studies. 

• Education  programmes  should  be  gender-sensitive,  accessible  to,  and  inclusive  of  all 
groups. 

• Education  should  serve  as  a tool  for  child  protection  and  harm  prevention. 

RESOURCES 

• Education  programmes  should  use  a community-based  participatory  approach,  with 
emphasis  on  capacity  building. 

• Education  programmes  should  include  a major  component  of  training  for  teachers  and 
youth/adult  educators  and  provide  incentives  to  avoid  teacher  turnover. 

• Crisis  and  recovery  programmes  should  develop  and  document  locally  appropriate  targets 
for  resource  standards,  adequate  to  meet  their  educational  and  psychosocial  objectives. 

ACTIVITIES/CURRICULUM 

• All  crisis-affected  children  and  young  people  should  have  access  to  education,  recreation 
and  related  activities,  helping  meet  their  psychosocial  needs  in  the  short  and  longer  term. 

• Curriculum  policy  should  support  the  long-term  development  of  individual  students  and  of 
society  and,  for  refugee  populations,  should  be  supportive  of  a durable  solution,  normally 
repatriation. 

• Education  programmes  should  be  enriched  to  include  skills  for  education  for  health,  safety, 
and  environmental  awareness. 

• Education  programmes  should  be  enriched  to  include  life  skills  for  education  for  peace/ 
conflict  resolution,  tolerance,  human  rights,  and  citizenship. 

• Vocational  training  programmes  should  be  linked  to  opportunities  for  workplace  practices 
of  the  skills  being  learned. 

CO-ORDINATION  AND  CAPACITY  BUILDING 

• Governments  and  assistance  agencies  should  promote  co-ordination  among  all  agencies 
and  stakeholders. 

• External  assistance  programmes  should  include  capacity  building  to  promote  transparent, 
accountable  and  inclusive  system  management  by  local  actors. 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


Writing  for  the  World  Bank  (2005:  30-32),  Buckland  complemented  Sinclair’s  insights  with 
four  additional  principles: 

• Education  is  a development  activity.  While  education  and  schooling  may  be  an 
important  'fourth  pillar’  of  humanitarian  assistance  and  critical  for  child  and 
social  protection,  it  is  also,  from  the  beginning,  a development  activity,  and 
should  be  oriented  toward  social,  economic  and  political  development,  and  the 
longer-term  interests  of  the  learners  and  the  society. 

• Education  reconstruction  begins  at  the  earliest  stages  of  a crisis.  It  is  undertaken 
concurrently  with  humanitarian  relief,  assuming  an  increasing  share  of  activities 
as  the  polity,  civil  society,  administrative  capacity,  and  access  to  resources 
develop.  Education  reconstruction  has  no  sharp  distinction  between  a 
humanitarian  phase  and  a reconstruction  phase. 

• Post-conflict  education  reconstruction  is  centrally  concerned  with  conflict 
prevention  to  ensure  that  education  does  not  contribute  to  the  likelihood  of 
relapse  into  violence  and  actively  builds  social  cohesion  to  help  prevent  it. 
The  lessons  from  post-conflict  education  reconstruction  should  be  applied  in 
countries  at  risk  of  conflict  and  countries  currently  affected  by  conflict.  One  of 
the  most  significant  contributions  education  can  make  is  to  help  to  reduce  the 
risk  of  violence  in  'at-risk’  countries. 

• Post-conflict  reconstruction  in  education  calls  for  a prioritized  approach  within 
a broad  sector-wide  framework.  The  focus  on  basic  education  that  is  strongly 
reflected  in  this  study  and  in  the  literature  is  based  on  the  recognition  that  primary 
education  is  the  basis  of  the  entire  system  and  therefore  warrants  high  priority. 
However,  the  clear  evidence  from  this  study  is  that  without  systematic  focus 
on  all  sub-sectors  (pre-primary,  primary,  secondary  and  tertiary)  and  delivery 
modes  (such  as  formal,  non-formal  and  distance),  there  is  a danger  that  post- 
conflict reconstruction  will  introduce  or  exacerbate  imbalances  in  the  system. 
Apart  from  the  system  and  development  logic  underlying  this  argument  is  the 
simple  fact  that  the  recovery  of  the  basic  education  system  requires  teachers, 
who  are  produced  in  the  secondary  and  tertiary  sub-sectors. 


Chapter  4:  Education  for  all 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INST 


in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

TUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


SUGGESTED  STRATEGIES 


All  chapters  of  this  Guidebook  offer  suggestions  for  strategies  that  will  enhance  access  to 
quality  education.  Some  of  the  key  strategies  and  issues  specifically  related  to  access  are 
noted  below.  A checklist  of  points  and  ideas  for  developing  and  implementing  each  strategy 
is  provided  under  the  ‘Guidance  notes’  that  follow. 


Summary  of  suggested  strategies 
Access  and  inclusion 

1.  Be  active  in  education  for  emergency-affected 
communities,  and  provide  leadership  in  needs 
assessment  activities. 


2.  Assess  the  educational  needs  of  children  who  are 
out  of  school  as  well  as  those  attending  school. 

3.  Collect  data  on  school  enrolment,  retention  and 
completion  for  different  groups  and  areas. 

4.  Ensure  participation  of  emergency-affected 
populations  in  educational  planning  and  decision- 
making. 

5.  Work  to  make  schools  and  access  to  schools  safe. 

6.  Advocate  for  equitable  access  to  international 
assistance  for  all  emergency-affected  sections  of  the 
population. 

7.  Consider  absorbing  limited  numbers  of  IDP  or 
refugee  students  in  local  schools. 

8.  Plan  or  facilitate  the  establishment  of  separate 
schools  for  large  refugee  or  IDP  populations. 

9.  Plan  education  in  refugee  or  IDP  schools  to  support 
repatriation/return  home,  including  the  use  of  a 
curriculum  (especially  language  of  study)  that  is 
similar  to  that  of  the  area  of  origin. 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


Guidance  notes 


L Be  active  in  education  for  emergency-affected  communities,  and 
provide  leadership  in  needs-assessment  activities* 

• Whenever  possible,  educational  authorities  must  be  active  and  present  in  war- 
affected  communities  for  which  they  have  responsibility.  Indeed,  bold  and  visionary 
leadership  is  essential  to  the  continuance,  reconstruction  and  transformation  of 
education  services. 

• Standard  2 on  policy  and  co-ordination  in  the  Minimum  standards  handbook 
deals  with  planning  and  implementation:  “Emergency  education  activities  take 
into  account  national  and  international  educational  policies  and  standards  and 
the  learning  needs  of  affected  populations”  (1NEE,  2004:  73).  Needs-assessment 
missions  by  international  agencies  and  organizations  should  be  co-ordinated  to  the 
greatest  extent  possible  by  the  education  ministry,  which  should  be  represented 
on  all  the  specialist  sub-groups  dealing  with  different  levels  and  types  of  education 
and  overall  educational  planning. 

• Determine  whether  certain  areas  of  the  country  are  inaccessible  due  to  landmines 
or  destroyed  infrastructure  (such  as  bridges  or  roads),  ongoing  civil  conflict  or 
issues  of  control  over  contested  areas. 

• If  so,  is  anything  known  about  how  many  children  are  in  the  inaccessible  areas? 
How  many  are  in  their  home  areas,  and  how  many  belong  to  internally  displaced 
or  refugee  populations? 

• Are  local  schools  or  other  schools  operating?  If  so,  how  many?  At  what 
level? 

• Is  anything  known  about  how  many  children  (boys,  girls)  are  attending  school? 
Especially  in  areas  of  ongoing  conflict,  parents  may  be  reluctant  to  send  their 
children  to  school,  especially  girls. 

• When  certain  areas  are  inaccessible,  educational  authorities  may  not  be  able  to 
fulfil  their  responsibilities.  If  educational  authorities  are  not  functioning  in  the  area, 
access  by  the  relevant  United  Nations  agencies  should  be  facilitated. 

• Can  civil-society  organizations  or  non-governmental  organizations  reach  the 
affected  populations,  with  the  consent  or  support  of  the  educational  authori- 
ties? 

- Do  they  have  the  mandate,  funding  and  adequately  trained  and  experienced 
staff  to  undertake  this  responsibility? 

- What  information  do  they  have  regarding  how  many  children  have  access 
to  schooling  and  the  quality  of  education  the  children  are  receiving? 

- How  can  they  support  education  for  these  inaccessible  communities,  for 
example  provision  of  teacher  training,  materials,  etc.? 

- How  can  the  government  support  or  work  with  these  organizations? 


Chapter  4:  Education  for  all  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction  13 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


• Are  local  or  regional  education  officials  able  to  travel  from  the  affected  area 
in  order  to  report  on  the  educational  situation? 

• Is  use  being  made  of  available  channels  of  communication,  e.g.  radio? 

• Are  needs  assessments  being  organized  by  international  organizations,  in 
the  country  concerned  or  elsewhere?  (See  also  the  Guidebook , Chapter  28} 
Assessment  of  needs  and  resources’.) 

- Are  the  national  educational  authorities  and  their  specialist  staff  involved 
in  all  the  needs-assessment  activities? 

- If  this  is  not  possible,  are  reputed  national  education  specialists  involved  in 
all  these  activities? 

Assess  the  educational  needs  of  children  who  are  out  of  school  as 
well  as  those  attending  school. 

Assessing  childrens  access  to  education  and  learning  is  an  essential  part  of  both  the 
planning  and  implementation  of  educational  programmes,  as  the  assessment  will  affect 
the  quality  and  relevance  of  the  education  provided.  Anyone  involved  with  this  task 
should  also  consult  the  Guidebook , Chapter  28 , Assessment  of  needs  and  resources’. 
Below  is  a summary  of  some  of  the  questions  educational  authorities  must  consider 
when  assessing  children’s  access  to  education  and  learning: 

• Which  children  are  not  enrolled  in  school?  Why? 

• Which  children  are  not  attending  school?  Why? 

• Which  children  do  not  complete  primary  and/or  secondary  school?  Why? 

• What  are  the  educational  needs  of  the  community,  e.g.  health  and  hygiene, 
HIV/AIDS,  literacy,  livelihood  skills? 

• How  do  the  educational  status  and  needs  differ  by  age,  gender,  ethnicity,  language 
group,  etc.?  (Which  groups  are  particularly  vulnerable;  e.g.  girls,  youth,  children 
with  disabilities,  households  without  an  adult  breadwinner,  etc.?  Have  older 
children  been  deprived  of  primary  education?  Are  they  willing  to  attend  classes 
with  young  children,  or  do  they  need  separate  primary  classes  for  adolescents?) 

Collect  data  on  school  enrolment,  retention  and  completion  for 
different  groups  and  areas. 

If  available,  review  gross  and  net  enrolment  ratios  for  emergency-affected  provinces 
or  districts,  and/or  refugee  or  1DP  camps  or  settlements,  within  the  country.  (See 
the  ‘Tools  and  resources’  section  of  this  chapter  for  an  explanation  of  calculation  of 
gross  and  net  enrolment  ratios.) 

• Are  there  differences  in  enrolment  ratios  in  certain  areas  of  the  country? 

• If  enrolment  statistics  are  not  available,  consult  with  provincial/ district  educational 
authorities.  (See  also  the  Guidebook , Chapter  28 , Assessment  of  needs  and 
resources’,  and  Chapter  34 , ‘Data  collection  and  education  management 
information  systems  (EM1S)’,  for  guidance  on  collecting  educational  statistics.) 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


• Do  local  authorities  have  enrolment  statistics  for  their  area?  What  is  the  date 
of  the  statistics?  Have  they  been  validated  by  recent  visits  to  schools? 

• If  local  authorities  do  not  have  current  enrolment  statistics,  is  it  possible  to 
obtain  them,  at  least  for  some  of  the  schools  in  their  area? 

• If  population  statistics  are  not  available,  how  was  the  population  of  school-age 
children  in  each  province/district  estimated? 

• Consult  with  the  national  statistical  office  or  institute  to  determine  whether 
they  have  developed  provincial/district  population  estimates. 

• If  gross  population  estimates  are  available,  consider  estimating  the  school-age 
population.  (See  the  ‘Tools  and  resources’  section  of  this  chapter  for  basic 
principles  on  estimating  the  school-age  population.) 

• Consult  with  key  informants  to  estimate  the  ratio  of  children  in  school  to  the 
total  numbers  in  the  relevant  age  group. 

- Have  provincial/district  authorities  talked  to  local  community  members/ 
leaders  to  ask  how  many  children  in  the  relevant  age  group  are  or  are  not 
in  school? 

- Have  representatives  from  all  segments  of  the  community  been  consulted 
(e.g.  men,  women,  children,  community  leaders,  members  of  different  ethnic 
groups,  etc.)? 

4 ♦ Ensure  participation  of  emergency-affected  populations  in 
educational  planning  and  decision-makings 

Standard  1 on  community  participation  in  the  Minimum  standards  handbook  states  that 
“Emergency-affected  community  members  actively  participate  in  assessing,  planning, 
implementing,  monitoring  and  evaluating  the  education  programme”  (1NEE,  2004: 14). 
Educational  authorities  and  other  educational  providers  must  design  education 
programmes  that  are  relevant  to  the  community  based  on  assessment  or  survey 
results. 

• What  are  the  best  or  most  feasible  education  options? 

• Formal  education  - primary  as  well  as  secondary. 

- Integration  into  local  classrooms. 

- Schools  or  education  programmes  run  by  external  agencies. 

• Non-formal  options  with  an  emphasis  on  psychosocial  support  and  recreation 
to  facilitate  healing. 

• Vocational  and/or  skills  training. 

• Early  childhood  development  programmes. 

• Literacy  programmes. 

• Accelerated  learning  programmes  for  youth  who  have  missed  several  years  of 
education. 


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• What  is  needed  to  implement  these  options? 

• Learning  spaces. 

• Teachers  - teachers  already  in  service,  where  applicable;  volunteer  teachers, 
if  required  - who  will  need  some  kind  of  regular  incentives,  in  cash  or  kind. 

• In-service  teacher  training. 

• Learning  materials  (see  also  the  Guidebook , Chapter  27,  'Textbooks,  educational 
materials  and  teaching  aids’,  for  more  information) . 

• Building  materials  - or  some  components,  such  as  plastic  sheeting,  poles, 
cement,  gravel,  etc. 

• International  assistance. 

• What  is  needed  to  attract  students? 

• Interesting,  high-quality  learning  environments  and  pedagogical  approaches. 

• Curricula  that  are  relevant  to  all  students  and  free  of  divisive  messages. 

• Compassionate  teachers,  with  sound  interpersonal  skills. 

• Safety. 

• School  feeding  (see  the  'Tools  and  resources’  section  of  this  chapter  for 
arguments  for  and  against  school  feeding). 

• N on-formal  approaches  for  special  groups  such  as  adolescents  who  cannot 
attend  regular  school  or  need  help  with  (re-)  entry  to  schooling. 

• Elimination  of  bureaucratic  hurdles  to  enrolment,  e.g.  the  requirement  for  birth 
certificates,  previous  diplomas,  etc. 

• What  is  needed  to  attract  teachers? 

• Training  and  other  forms  of  support. 

• Salaries/incentives. 

• Other  compensation  such  as  housing,  food,  etc. 

• Some  incentive  to  teachers  who  are  not  on  the  government  payroll,  to  com- 
pensate for  income  lost  due  to  time  spent  teaching. 

• What  is  needed  to  gain  the  support  of  parents  and  communities? 

• No  school  fees  - explicit  or  hidden  such  as  uniforms,  materials,  payments  to 
teachers. 

• Safety. 

• School  feeding  or  food  items  in  return  for  regular  attendance  (see  Point  4 on 
school  feeding  under  'Tools  and  resources’,  below). 

• 'Quality’  education  (see  Point  1 on  quality  under  'Tools  and  resources’,  below). 

• Involvement  - school  management  committee,  etc. 


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Q INTRODUCTION  OF  ACCELERATED  LEARNING  IN  RWANDA 

“In  September  2002,  at  a time  when  an  estimated  94  percent  of  adolescents  were  out  of  school, 
the  Rwandan  Ministry  of  Education  began  an  accelerated  learning  programme  to  cover  the  six  year 
primary  education  in  three  years  for  out  of  school  students.  Catch-up  classes  are  free,  children  are  not 
asked  to  buy  writing  materials,  and  no  uniform  is  required.  To  the  surprise  of  the  Ministry  the  demand 
was  overwhelming. 

Unfortunately,  the  first  reaction  of  the  Catch-Up  field  managers  was  to  ignore  the  carefully  designed 
programme  they  had  drawn  up  for  themselves.  They  could  not  resist  accepting  every  applicant. 
All-comers  were  accepted;  classes  were  allowed  to  grow  beyond  the  well  set  limits;  the  ages  of 
children  were  not  monitored;  nor  were  the  children  allocated  to  classes  or  streamed  according  to 
their  previous  schooling  experience.  Classes  opened  before  the  teachers  had  been  oriented  and 
before  the  teaching  and  learning  materials  reached  the  centres.  It  has  been  pointed  out  to  [the 
Ministry  of  Education]  that  unless  the  basic  design  of  the  programme  is  respected,  it  will  not  achieve 
its  goal  . . . Without  such  a framework  the  programmes  will  be  in  immediate  danger  of  failure  and  of 
disappointing  the  children,  the  Ministry  and  education  planners  with  this  first  and  well-publicized 
attempt  in  Rwanda  of  providing  much  needed  alternative  education  programmes.  A planning 
process  has  to  result  in  respect  for  the  plan  drawn  up.  Rwanda  needs  a success  with  this  first  official 
alternative  education  programme." 

Source:  Obura  (2003: 137-138) 


5 ♦ Work  to  make  schools  and  access  to  schools  safe* 

Standard  2 on  access  and  learning  environment  in  the  Minimum  standards  handbook 
deals  with  protection  and  well-being:  “Learning  environments  are  secure,  and  promote 
the  protection  and  mental  well-being  of  learners.”  (1NEE,  2004:  41). 

• What  efforts  have  been  made  to  encourage  community  involvement? 

• As  guards. 

• As  monitors  of  teacher  and  student  attendance  and  behaviour. 

• As  guides  on  gender  issues  for  teachers  and  students. 

• As  escorts  for  children  travelling  to  and  from  school. 

• As  negotiators  with  warring  parties  in  areas  of  conflict. 

• As  partners  in  helping  to  keep  the  school  premises  (including  latrines)  in  good 
repair. 

• Have  all  staff  received  gender  training? 

• Have  efforts  been  made  to  recruit  more  female  teachers? 

• Are  schools  located  close  to  childrens  homes,  especially  for  the  early  primary 
grades,  so  children  do  not  have  to  travel  far  to  attend  school? 

• Are  school  latrines  sex- segregated  and  visible  from  the  classrooms? 


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6*  Advocate  for  equitable  access  to  international  assistance  for  all 
emergency-affected  sections  of  the  population. 

When  international  organizations  are  providing  assistance,  ensure  that  such  assistance 
benefits  local  populations  as  well  as  those  who  have  been  displaced,  or  those  who 
are  returning. 

• When  displaced  children  are  integrated  into  local  schools,  for  example,  international 
organizations  could  target  material  assistance  (such  as  teaching  and  learning 
materials)  to  whole  schools  so  all  children  benefit. 

• Newly  constructed  or  rehabilitated  schools  should  be  for  the  local  community, 
either  immediately  or,  in  the  case  of  refugee  schools,  once  the  refugees  have 
returned  to  their  home  country. 

• Out-of-school  activities  can  be  offered  to  both  host  and  displaced  children. 

• Some  external  teacher-training  initiatives  for  conflict-affected  populations  can 
also  be  offered  to  local  teachers  to  improve  their  teaching  skills  or  to  train  them 
in  particular  subjects  such  as  peace  education  and  conflict  resolution,  H1V/A1DS 
prevention,  etc. 


7.  Consider  absorbing  limited  numbers  of  IDP  or  refugee  students  in 
local  schools. 

It  may  be  possible  to  absorb  a limited  number  of  refugee  or  IDP  students  into  local 
schools  early  in  an  emergency,  if  they  use  the  same  language  of  instruction  and  similar 
curricula. 


• Do  refugees  or  IDPs  and  local  students  share  a common  language  and  curriculum? 

• How  many  displaced  children  need  access?  Do  the  schools  have  the  capacity  to 
absorb  all  of  these  additional  students? 

• Are  donor  support  and  technical  assistance  available? 

• Can  refugee/ IDP  educators  also  be  absorbed  into  the  host  education  school  system? 


Q THE  PROBLEM  OF  PROVIDING  EDUCATION  FOR  A RAPID  REFUGEE  INFLUX 

As  the  state  education  authority,  the  [Government  of  Indonesia]  Gol  played  a part  in  provision 
of  education  for  refugee  children  [in  West  Timor];  however,  schools  found  it  very  difficult 
to  cope  with  the  overwhelming  numbers.  UNICEF,  working  with  the  Gol  at  the  central  level, 
came  up  with  an  alternative.  ...  In  an  effort  to  immediately  reach  the  high  numbers  of  refugee 
children  who  could  not  access  local  schools,  the  UNICEF  programme  focused  on  setting  up 
schools  within  the  refugee  camps.  The  main  objective  of  the  programme  was  to  “provide 
temporary  basic  education  to  primary  school  age  children  in  order  to  maintain  their  basic 
competencies  attained  in  the  former  schooling  and  to  be  ready  to  learn  in  normal  schooling 
in  their  future  resettlement  areas”.  The  tent  schools  were  meant  to  be  a “short  term,  gap  filling 
measure”,  with  the  ultimate  aim  to  “integrate  refugee  children  who  remain  in  West  Timor  into 

the  regular  school  system”  (UNICEF,  2000:  3).  „ kl.  . 

° Source:  Nicolai  (2004) 


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8* 


Plan  or  facilitate  the  establishment  of  separate  schools  for  large 
refugee  or  IDP  populations. 

When  refugee  or  displaced  children  are  integrated  into  local  schools,  consider 
providing,  or  seeking  assistance  for  the  following: 

• Teacher  training  on  managing  large  classes  and/or  multi-age  classrooms. 

• Additional  school  supplies. 

• Support  for  repair  work,  new  furniture  or  classrooms. 

• Tuition  waivers  and  uniforms/clothing  given  directly  to  marginalized  children. 

• Hiring  additional  refugee/IDP  teachers  or  classroom  assistants. 

• Scholarships  for  displaced  students  to  attend  secondary  and  higher  education  in 
local  institutions  or  elsewhere  in  the  country. 

9.  Plan  education  in  refugee  and  IDP  schools  to  support  repatriation/ 
return  home. 

When  separate  primary  schools  are  established  for  refugee  or  IDP  children,  use 
the  curriculum  from  their  place  of  origin  and  their  mother  tongue  as  language  of 
instruction  when  possible.  This  will  facilitate  their  access  to  the  school  system  in 
their  home  area/country  after  repatriation  or  return  from  internal  displacement. 
Standard  1 on  teachers  and  other  educational  personnel  in  the  Minimum  standards 
handbook  deals  with  recruitment  and  selection:  “A  sufficient  number  of  appropriately 
qualified  teachers  and  other  education  personnel  is  recruited  through  a participatory 
and  transparent  process  based  on  selection  criteria  that  reflect  diversity  and  equity.” 
(1NEE,  2004:  65). 

• Hire  teachers  from  among  the  refugee  or  displaced  population. 

• Hire  former  teachers  who  are  familiar  with  the  curriculum  from  the  place  of 
origin. 

• Recruit  and  train  teachers  who  speak  the  childrens  mother  tongue. 

• When  insufficient  experienced  teachers  are  available,  select  and  train  educated 
community  members  as  teachers. 

• Offer  teacher  training  on  managing  large  class  sizes  and  psychosocial  support. 


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TOOLS  AND  RESOURCES 


1.  Linking  access  and  quality 

Access  is  intricately  linked  to  the  quality  of  education,  a fact  that  is  also  reflected  in  the 
goals  of  the  Dakar  Framework  for  Action  (World  Education  Forum,  2000) . Without  quality, 
children  will  drop  out  of  school.  Children  who  feel  they  are  not  learning,  or  that  what 
they  are  learning  is  largely  irrelevant,  will  leave  even  if  their  fees  are  paid  for  and  there 
are  places  available.  Likewise,  parents  will  weigh  the  benefits  of  sending  their  children 
to  school  against  the  opportunity  cost.  If  there  are  no  teaching  and  learning  materials,  if 
the  teachers  are  mostly  absent  or  only  have  limited  teaching  skills,  or  there  are  no  post- 
primary education  or  employment  opportunities  available,  parents  are  likely  to  regard  the 
opportunity  costs  as  too  high  for  education  to  be  worthwhile. 

Defining  quality  of  education 

There  is  no  universal  definition  of  the  term  quality’.  One  common  misperception  is 
that  access  to  education  must  precede  attention  to  quality.  Surely,  one  cannot  have 
quality  without  access,  but  access  without  quality  is  also  meaningless  (Pigozzi,  2004). 
It  is  therefore  crucial  that  educators,  leaders  and  national  planners  seek  to  define  the 
elements  of  quality,  and  the  standards  and  indicators  that  can  be  utilized  for  assessing 
and  improving  it.  Only  by  doing  so  are  they  able  to  address  the  fundamental  purpose  of 
education,  as  a human  right  on  its  own,  and  as  a right  that  facilitates  the  fulfilment  of 
other  rights.  In  reference  to  emergencies,  attention  devoted  to  quality  may  also  help  to 
reveal  those  elements  of  education  that  are  in  fact  part  of  the  conflict  itself:  If  not  given 
careful  attention,  education  may  reinforce  discrimination  and  work  as  a channel  for  the 
hatred  and  divisive  messages  that  spurred  conflict  in  the  first  place. 

Amongst  the  myriad  of  definitions  of  quality,  education  planners  and  providers  together 
must  identify  the  specific  elements  and  implications  relevant  for  their  context.  The 
following  table  summarizes  some  of  the  meanings  of  quality,  and  ways  to  measure  and 
conceptualize  them: 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

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MEANING 
OF  QUALITY 

MEASUREMENT  AND  CONCEPTUALIZATION 

REPUTATION 

• Measured  informally,  socially 

• Difficult  to  quantify,  despite  general  agreement 

INPUTS 

• Measures  include:  number  of  teachers;  education  levels  of  teachers;  class  size; 
number  and  class  of  school  buildings;  background  characteristics  of  students; 
numbers  of  textbooks;  instructional  materials;  extent  of  laboratories;  libraries  and 
other  facilities 

• Easy  to  conceptualize  and  quantify 

PROCESS 

• Measures  include:  interactions  of  students  and  teachers;  teaching  and  learning 
processes;  quality  of  life’  of  the  programme,  school,  or  system 

• Difficult  to  conceptualize  and  quantify 

CONTENT 

• Measures  include:  skills,  attitudes,  behaviours  and  values  to  be  transmitted 
through  the  intended  curriculum 

• Easy  to  conceptualize  and  quantify  formally  espoused  values;  difficult  to  identify 
implicit  values 

OUTPUTS 

• Measures  typically  include:  cognitive  achievement;  completion  ratios;  entrance 
ratios  to  next/higher  level  of  education;  acquisition  of  desired  skills;  attitudes, 
values,  skills  and  behaviours,  values 

• Easy  to  conceptualize,  while  others  are  more  difficult,  more  difficult  to  measure 

OUTCOMES 

• Typical  measures  include:  income;  employment;  health;  civic  engagement;  social 
cohesion;  social  levels  of  desirable  attitudes,  values,  skills  and  behaviours 

• Some  concepts  easy  to  conceptualize,  while  others  are  more  difficult,  all  are 
difficult  to  measure 

VALUE-ADDED 

• Measures  extent  of  improvement 

• Relatively  easy  to  conceptualize,  depending  on  specifics,  change  is  difficult  to 
measure  and  requires  baseline 

SELECTIVITY 

• Measures  include:  percentages  of  children  excluded,  or  failed 

• Easy  to  conceptualize,  easy  to  measure 

Source:  Adams  (1997)  in  Williams  (2001:  89). 

The  need  to  define  and  promote  quality  of  education,  especially  in  situations  of  emergencies, 
is  increasingly  recognized  by  a number  of  actors.  One  recent,  concrete  effort  to  address 
the  implications  of  this  need  has  been  the  development  of  global  minimum  standards  for 
education  in  emergencies  (MSEE). 


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0 DEVELOPING  MINIMUM  STANDARDS  FOR  EDUCATION  IN  EMERGENCIES,  CHRONIC 
CRISES  AND  EARLY  RECONSTRUCTION  (MSEE) 

The  MSEE  initiative  was  hosted  within  the  Inter-Agency  Network  for  Education  in  Emergencies 
(INEE),  an  open  network  of  United  Nations  agencies,  NGOs,  donors,  practitioner  and 
researchers  and  individuals  from  affected  populations  working  together  to  ensure  the 
right  to  education  in  emergencies  and  post-crisis  reconstruction.  Starting  in  2003,  the  INEE 
working  group  facilitated  a broad  base  of  stakeholders  to  develop  standards,  indicators 
and  guidance  notes  that  articulate  the  minimum  level  of  educational  access  and  provision 
to  be  attained  in  emergencies  through  to  early  reconstruction.  Over  2,250  individuals  from 
more  than  50  countries  contributed  to  the  development  of  the  minimum  standards,  which 
were  presented  in  the  form  of  a handbook  at  the  second  Global  Inter-Agency  Consultation 
on  Education  in  Emergencies  and  Early  Recovery,  in  Cape  Town,  in  December  2004.  The 
minimum  standards  are  built  on  the  foundation  of  the  Convention  of  the  Rights  of  the  Child 
(CRC),  the  Dakar  2000  ‘Education  for  AIT  (EFA)  goals  and  the  Sphere  Project’s  Humanitarian 
Charter.  According  to  the  INEE  Minimum  Standards,  quality  of  education  includes,  but  is 
not  limited  to:  (a)  adequate  materials  for  teaching  and  learning;  (b)  competent  and  well- 
trained  teachers  who  are  knowledgeable  in  the  subject  matter;  (c)  participatory  methods  of 
instruction;  (d)  reasonable  class  sizes;  and  (e)  a safe  learning  environment. 

Quality  education  in  complex  emergencies  considers  strategies  to  provide  the  basic 
conditions  for  a sustainable  process  of  support  to  a ‘healing  climate’  in  the  educational 
environment.  There  is  an  emphasis  on  recreation,  play  and  the  development  of  related 
creative  activities  as  well  as  the  provision  of  reading,  writing,  numeracy  and  life  skills  based 
education  activities.  Education  should  help  learners  to  improve  not  only  cognitive  skills,  but 
also  prevent  a cycle  of  anger  and  human  destructiveness  at  social  and  generational  level. 

Source:  INEE  (2004). 


Improving  quality  of  education 

As  there  are  multiple  meanings  of  quality,  there  exists  no  one  single  way  to  improve  it. 
Moreover,  a definition,  or  even  a description  of  the  characteristics  of  high-quality  education 
is  not  the  same  as  a strategy  for  moving  from  low  to  higher  quality.  Overall,  focus  needs 
to  be  broadened  from  planning  at  ministry  level  to  consideration  of  what  is  actually  taking 
place  in  the  school  and  the  classroom.  The  characteristics  and  capacities  of  the  individual 
child,  supporting  inputs,  enabling  conditions  and  teaching  and  learning  processes  are 
factors  that  will  significantly  affect  school  quality  (Williams,  2001:  90).  More  important 
than  the  quality  of  inputs,  is  the  way  inputs  are  used.  Strategies  will  vary  depending  on 
the  context,  yet  the  following  table  may  indicate  some  ‘dos’  and  ‘don’ts’  regarding  the 
improvement  of  school  quality. 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

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STRATEGIES  TO  IMPROVE  STUDENT  ACHIEVEMENT 

PROMISING  AVENUES 

BLIND  ALLEYS 

Curriculum 

• Improving  the  implemented  curriculum 

• Adjusting  the  intended  curriculum 

Learning  materials 

• Good  textbooks  and  teacher  guides 

• Computers  in  the  classroom 

Teaching  quality 

• In  service  training 

• Interactive  radio  instruction  (with  pupils) 

• Programmed  materials 

• Lengthening  pre-service  pedagogical  training 

Teaching  time 

• Setting  and  maintaining  standards  for  instructional 
time:  25  hours  of  instruction  per  week  for  core 
subjects 

• Lowering  class  size 

Teachability 

• Preschools  (targeted  at  disadvantaged) 

• Nutritional  interventions-school  snacks/breakfasts, 
micronutrients,  treat  parasites 

• Vision  and  auditory  screening 

• School  lunches 

Source:  Lockheed  and  Vers  poor  (1991)  in  Williams  (2001: 102). 


When  attempting  to  improve  the  quality  of  education  therefore,  two  principles  should  be 
kept  in  mind,  independent  of  contextual  factors  (Williams,  2001:  106): 

“Improvements  in  educational  quality  do  not  necessarily  require  large  investments  of 
resources.  A number  of  the  elements  of  educational  quality  identified  in  the  preceding 
discussion  do  not  rely  primarily  on  large  outlays  of  resources.  Instead,  many  of  these  elements 
depend  on  the  organization  and  management  of  inputs,  and  the  participation  of  critical 
actors  such  as  parents,  teachers  and  principals,  and  so  forth.  Thus,  the  primary  constraint 
to  quality  improvement  is  not  necesarily  cost.” 

“School  improvement  strategies  are  most  effective  when  developed  on  site  and  in 
collaboration  with  stakeholders  and  implementers...  To  improve  quality,  the  role  of  central 
authorities  is  less  one  of  providing  quality  than  of  fostering  environments  that  support  site- 
based  improvement.  Innovations  are  less  effectively  'replicated ’ than  promoted.” 

The  remaining  chapters  of  the  Guidebook  are  all  concerned  with  the  practical  implications 
of  these  principles. 


Chapter  4:  Education  for  all  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 


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23 


2.  Calculating  gross  and  net  enrolment  ratios 


• The  gross  enrolment  ratio  is  equal  to  the  total  number  of  children  enrolled  in  a certain 
level  of  schooling  (e.g.  primary  or  secondary)  divided  by  the  population  of  children 
that  corresponds  to  the  official  age  group  for  that  particular  level.  For  example, 
in  a country  where  the  official  ages  for  primary  school  are  6-11,  the  primary  gross 
enrolment  ratio  is: 

Total  number  of  children  enrolled  in  primary  school 
Total  number  of  children  aged  6-11 

• The  net  enrolment  ratio  is  the  number  of  children  of  official  school  age  (as  defined 
by  the  national  education  system)  who  are  enrolled  in  a particular  level  divided  by 
the  total  number  of  children  of  that  age  group  in  the  population.  For  example,  the 
net  primary  school  enrolment  ratio  in  a country  where  the  official  ages  for  primary 
school  are  6-11  is: 

Total  number  of  6-11  year  old  children  enrolled  in  primary  school 
Total  number  of  children  aged  6-11 

When  children  who  are  older  than  the  official  age  for  a particular  level  of  schooling 
(such  as  primary),  are  enrolled  in  that  level,  the  effect  will  be  to  increase  the  gross 
enrolment  ratio.  This  can  disguise  the  non-participation  of  children  from  poor  families 
in  schooling. 

" 

0 GROSS  ENROLMENT  RATIOS  IN  REFUGEE  CAMPS  AND  SETTLEMENTS 

Gross  enrolment  ratios  (GER)  can  exceed  100  per  cent  if  there  is  a large  backlog  of  unmet 
educational  need.  Of  the  about  100,000  Bhutanese  refugees  living  in  camps  in  Nepal,  over 
40,000  are  enrolled  in  primary  and  secondary  school,  giving  an  estimated  gross  enrolment 
ratio  for  these  levels  of  schooling  combined  of  120  per  cent  (although  an  accurate 
calculation  would  require  survey  data  on  the  population  structure  by  age).  This  reflects  the 
high  value  placed  on  education  in  this  culture,  as  well  as  disruption  of  schooling  before  the 
population  became  refugees.  Likewise,  in  the  refugee  camps  of  Guinea,  a ratio  of  107  per 
cent  was  recorded  for  male  refugees  and  84  per  cent  for  females,  while  in  Kakuma  camp  in 
Kenya,  rates  of  129  per  cent  for  males  and  91  per  cent  for  females  were  recorded,  again  for 
primary  and  secondary  education  combined  (age  group  5-17  years).  Despite  these  figures,  it 
is  likely  that  children  from  poor  families  with  illiterate  parents  are  missing  out  on  schooling. 
Only  by  surveying  a sample  of  households  and  talking  with  community  groups  can  data  be 
obtained  on  out-of-school  children  and  adolescents.  Poverty  and  illiteracy  as  well  as  cultural 
factors  contribute  to  the  lower  ratios  found  in  most  situations  (as  in  the  gross  enrolment 
ratio  of  26  per  cent  computed  for  Afghan  refugee  children  aged  5-17  in  the  refugee  camps 
in  Pakistan). 

Sources:  Brown  (2001),  Bethke  and  Braunschweig  (2004). 


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3.  Estimating  the  school-age  population 


The  following  methods  for  estimating  school-age  populations  should  be  used  with  caution. 
They  will  only  provide  educational  planners  with  approximations.  Rough  estimates  should 
be  replaced  with  more  precise  figures,  as  more  detailed  assessments  or  statistically  valid 
samples  are  conducted  by  specialist  educational  statisticians. 

For  a quick  estimate  of  the  number  of  school-age  children  in  an  emergency-affected 
population,  consider  one  of  the  following: 

• Sinclair  (2001:  6)  states  that,  “In  many  displaced  populations,  about  one  in  three 
persons  are  in  the  age  group  for  schooling  and  other  child  and  adolescent  activities”. 
This  is  based  on  one  sixth  being  in  the  primary  school  age  group  and  one  sixth 
being  in  the  secondary  school  age  group.  (The  calculation  assumes  that  half  the 
population  is  under  18  and  that  primary  and  secondary  schooling  are  for  six  years 
each;  it  overestimates  the  number  of  children  of  secondary  school  age  if  there  has 
been  rapid  population  growth) . 

• The  Sphere  Project  minimum  standards  in  disaster  response  (2000)  provides 
the  following  table  to  estimate  the  age  breakdown  of  many  emergency-affected 
populations. 


GROUP 

PERCENTAGE  OF  POPULATION 

0-4  years 

12.37 

5-9  years 

11.69 

10-14  years 

10.53 

15-19  years 

9.54 

20-59  years 

48.63 

60+  years 

7.24 

Source:  WFP/UNHCR  (December  1997)  and  WHO  (1997)  cited  in  Sphere  Project  (2000:  83). 


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4*  School  feeding 


Arguments  for  and  against  school  feeding 

The  combination  of  education  and  food  assistance  enjoys  a long  history  in  the  field  of 
international  development,  and  is  widely  promoted  by  United  Nations  agencies  such  as  the 
World  Food  Programme,  the  World  Health  Organization  and  the  Food  and  Agricultural 
Organization.  It  is  still  an  area  of  much  controversy,  as  is  illustrated  in  the  table  below. 
Some  agencies  prefer  to  use  the  term  ‘ food-assisted  education’,  which  refers  to  a broad 
range  of  programming  options,  including  school  meals  / wet  feeding  and  dry  feeding/  take- 
home  rations. 

Below  is  a summary  of  the  main  arguments  for  school  feeding,  and  their  corresponding 
critiques  and  problems. 


SCHOOL  FEEDING  FOR  ENROLMENT  AND  ATTENDANCE 

ARGUMENTS  IN  FAVOUR 

ARGUMENTS  AGAINST 

• School  feeding  can  increase  the  awareness 
and  attitudes  of  communities  regarding 
education,  and  thereby  boost  enrolment. 

• Provision  of  school  meals  (wet  feeding)  or 
take-home  rations  (dry  feeding)  provides 
an  incentive  or  a reward  for  both  enrolment 
and  regular  attendance.  School  feeding  can 
therefore  contribute  to  decreasing  dropout 
and  improving  retention. 

• Food  aid  provides  an  income  transfer  to 
families  who  face  high  opportunity  costs  for 
sending  their  children  to  school. 

• School  feeding  can  counter  inequality 
through  positive  discrimination  in  favour  of 
disadvantaged  groups,  such  as  girls. 

• In  communities  where  education,  especially 
for  girls,  is  considered  to  be  of  little 
importance  or  even  detrimental,  school 
feeding  can  increase  the  reputation  of 
schooling. 

• Performance-based  contracts  with  schools, 
municipalities  or  districts  may  act  as  a lever  for 
school  quality  improvement. 

• Food  alone  will  not  bring  children  to  school. 

• Children  enrol  in  school,  but  frequently  drop 
out  once  the  programme  stops.  With  take- 
home  rations/dry  feeding,  children  tend  to 
come  to  school  only  on  the  day  the  rations  are 
distributed. 

• School  feeding  is  costly  and  rarely  sustainable. 
One  risks  creating  dependency  for  something 
that  cannot  be  provided  long  term. 

• School  feeding  alone  does  not  address  the 
issue  of  quality  of  education  (see  the  part  on 
defining  quality  above).  Promoting  education 
by  extrinsic  benefits  where  the  educational 
structure  in  itself  does  not  provide  sufficient 
intrinsic  motivation  may  be  considered  a self- 
contradiction. 

• Like  any  other  incentive  programme  (e.g.  cash 
transfer),  the  risk  is  to  create  a generation  that 
expects  to  be  rewarded  for  something  that 
should  essentially  be  a benefit  to  them.  People 
should  not  expect  to  be  paid  to  go  to  school. 

• It  is  not  sound  psychology  to  make  beneficiary 
of  the  programme  one  section  of  the 
population  over  another,  for  example  refugees, 
IDPs  or  returnees,  girls,  child  soldiers,  etc. 

This  may  sow  the  seeds  of  continued  or  new 
conflict. 

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SCHOOL  FEEDING  AND  THE  IMPROVEMENT  OF  CHILDREN  S HEALTH 

ARGUMENTS  IN  FAVOUR 

ARGUMENTS  AGAINST 

• In  areas  of  crisis,  school  feeding  programmes 
are  an  effective  strategy  to  improve  childrens 
health,  especially  when  combined  with 
specific  health  interventions. 

• School  feeding  (especially  wet  feeding) 
stabilizes  the  individual  child’s  food  supply. 

• A school  feeding  programme  with  an 
established  mechanism  for  storing  and 
delivering  food  can  be  used  to  increase 
distributions  to  a broader  target  population 
without  having  to  establish  an  entirely  new 
infrastructure. 

• School  feeding  may  alter  the  children’s  access 
to  food  in  their  homes,  if  parents  give  children 
less  food  because  they  have  eaten  at  school. 

• Take-home  rations  have  no  guaranteed 
nutritional  effects  on  the  students,  as  food 
rations  may  be  sold,  shared  by  the  whole 
family,  etc. 

• As  food  given  at  school  is  often  the  same  as 
provided  in  regular  distribution,  it  may  lack  the 
micronutrients  and  vitamins  required. 

SCHOOL  FEEDING  AND  LEARNING  CAPACITY 

ARGUMENTS  IN  FAVOUR 

ARGUMENTS  AGAINST 

• As  many  children  arrive  at  school  without 
breakfast  and/or  after  a long  walk  to  school,  a 
breakfast  or  mid-morning  snack  will  decrease 
their  short-term  hunger. 

• Providing  students  with  a nutritious  meal 
may  improve  their  learning  capacity  and 
performance. 

• School  feeding  can  help  to  provide  stability 
and  regularity  in  the  time  schedule. 

• Increased  learning  capacity  is  difficult  to 
document,  especially  with  take-home  rations, 
as  there  is  no  guarantee  that  the  learners 
actually  get  the  food. 

• Children  wait  in  long  queues  for  food,  which  is 
not  effective  use  of  limited  school  time. 

• School  personnel  (teachers  and 
administrators)  are  expected  to  oversee  the 
programmes,  to  the  detriment  to  their  other 
educational  responsibilities. 

SCHOOL  FEEDING  AND  COMMUNITY  PARTICIPATION 

ARGUMENTS  IN  FAVOUR 

ARGUMENTS  AGAINST 

• School  feeding  can  encourage  community 
participation  in  education,  especially  through 
its  participation  in  the  implementation  of  the 
programme. 

• The  logistics  of  a school  feeding  programme 
or  the  running  of  a school  garden  may  create 
employment  opportunities  in  the  local 
community. 

• A school  feeding  programme  can  be  a good 
platform  for  other,  complementary  types  of 
interventions,  at  and  around  the  schools. 

• School  feeding,  especially  wet  feeding, 
requires  support  structures,  such  as  water, 
fuel,  additional  food  items  such  as  salts  and 
spices,  and  cooking.  These  are  often  scarce 
commodities,  and  the  opportunity  cost  of 
providing  these  to  a large  group  rather  than 
with  the  family  can  be  very  high. 

• The  local  offices  of  the  Ministry  of  Education 
and  local  communities  are  often  not  in  a 
position  to  respond  effectively  by  contributing 
time  and  labour. 

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Conditions  for  successful  school  feeding 


Nobody  would  dispute  that  children  have  a right  to  be  fed  properly,  and  that  this  will 
increase  their  ability  to  learn.  The  issue  is  therefore  not  whether  children  need  food,  but 
how  childrens  nutritional  and  educational  needs  may  best  be  met.  Part  of  that  decision 
depends  on  how  many  resources  and  how  much  time  is  spent  by  education  administrators 
and  teachers  administering  an  adjunct  to  an  education  programme.  When  considering 
school  feeding,  planners  and  implementers  should  therefore  ensure  that: 

1 ♦ Its  direct  and  indirect  benefits  cannot  be  met  more  cost  effectively  by  other 

non-food-assisted  means, 

• Establish  as  precisely  as  possibly  what  problems  the  school  feeding  programme 
is  intending  to  solve  (low  enrolment,  attendance,  high  dropout,  gender  gaps), 
and  what  causes  these  problems. 

• If  school  feeding  is  meant  to  be  a motivational  incentive,  consider  whether  this 
can  be  provided  in  other  forms  than  food  (cash  stipends,  fee  waivers,  free  school 
uniforms  or  textbooks,  etc.) 

• Review  carefully  the  funding  sources  for  school  feeding  compared  to  those  for 
other  educational  programmes,  whether  the  sources  are  stable,  and  for  how  long 
they  are  expected  to  last. 

• Select  programme  modality  (wet  or  dry  feeding)  in  line  with  objectives,  and 
keeping  in  mind  practical  and  logistical  considerations. 

2*  Food  resources  are  readily  available  to  programme  implementers, 

• Wet  feeding:  Choose  locally  acceptable  and  easy-to-prepare  commodities. 
Consider  the  fortification  of  commodities  with  micronutrients  where 
necessary. 

• Take-home  rations:  Choose  commodities  of  high  nutritional  value  (e.g.  vegetable 
oil,  local  staple  cereal),  but  low  cash  value  and  easy  to  transport. 

3,  Beneficiaries  are  well  targeted,  and  relatively  large  in  number, 

• Clearly  define  the  target  group,  whether  by  geographical  location,  educational 
level,  or  school  selection. 

• Make  sure  schools  have  the  necessary  infrastructure  for  school  feeding. 

• Do  not  select  students  within  schools  for  wet  feeding. 

4,  Complementary  activities  can  address  the  underlying  causes  of  short-term 

hunger  and  poor  educational  access,  and  fill  the  void  when  food  aid  ceases, 

• Combine  with  other  school  health  programmes  interventions  (de-worming, 
drinkable  water  supply  at  schools,  provision  of  school  latrines,  etc.). 

• Combine  school  feeding  programmes  with  complementary  interventions 
targeting  other  obstacles  to  enrolment  and  retention.  Make  school  quality  a 
first  priority. 


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• Ensure  programmes  are  targeted  only  to  those  areas/population  groups  where 
they  are  most  needed.  Re-target  as  necessary  as  the  situation  develops. 

• Develop  exit  strategies  already  at  the  onset  of  the  programme,  as  well  as  strategies 
in  the  case  of  unexpected  termination  of  funds,  resources  or  need. 

5*  There  is  host  government  and  popular  support  for  food  assistance. 

• The  Ministry  of  Education  must  have  overall  ownership  of  the  programme,  even 
if  capacity  is  weak.  External  agencies  should  build  their  capacity  if  necessary. 

• Involve  communities  from  the  start,  without  overloading  them,  in  the 
implementation  and  the  monitoring  of  the  programme.  Consult  with  communities 
on  the  choice  of  commodities,  and  select  foods  for  which  the  need  for  additional 
commodities  is  minimal.  Provide  fuel-efficient  stoves  to  reduce  the  need  for  fuel 
wood. 

• If  take-home  rations  are  targeted  to  specific  schools  in  an  area,  for  example,  or 
to  groups  such  as  girls  only,  discuss  with  communities,  families  and  school  staff 
beforehand  to  ensure  they  understand  the  reasons  for  this  positive  discrimination. 
Monitor  that  the  positive  discrimination  has  no  negative  effects  on  girls. 

If,  in  a cost-benefit  analysis,  the  advantages  outweigh  the  disadvantages,  and  school 
feeding  is  available,  implement  it.  Do  not  expect  school  feeding  to  solve  problems  of 
teacher  training  or  curriculum,  however.  If  the  disadvantages  are  not  outweighed  by  the 
advantages,  leave  school  feeding  and  concentrate  on  the  real  educational  issues. 

Sources:  Baxter  (2004);  CRS  (2003);  Janke  (2001);  INEE  (2003);  Meir  (2004);  Nazaire  (2000);  World  Food 
Programme  (2003). 


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REFERENCES  AND  FURTHER  READING 

Adams,  D.  1997.  “ Defining  educational  quality”.  \n:  Educational  Planning,  9(3),  3-18. 

Baxter,  P.  2004.  School  feeding . Paper  presented  at  the  IIEP  Summer  School,  28  June  to 
9 July  2004. 

Bethke,  L.;  Braunschweig,  S.  2004.  Global  survey  on  education  in  emergencies . New  York: 
Women’s  Commission  for  Refugee  Women  and  Children. 

Brown,  T.  2001.  “Improving  quality  and  attainment  in  refugee  schools:  the  case  of  the  Bhutanese 
refugees  in  Nepal”.  In:  J.  Crisp,  C.  Talbot  and  D.  Cipollone  (Eds.),  Learning  for  a future: 
refugee  education  in  developing  countries  (pp.  109-159).  Geneva:  UNHCR. 

Bruns,  B.;  Mingat,  A.;  Rakotomalala,  R.  2003.  Achieving  universal  primary  education  by  2015: 
a chance  for  every  child . Washington,  DC:  World  Bank. 

Chowdhury,  K.  Literacy  and  primary  education  (Human  capital  development  and  operations 
policy  working  paper  no.  50).  Retrieved  30  August  2005  from 
http://www.worldbank.org/html/extdr/hnp/hddflash/workp/wp_00050.htm 

1ASC  (Inter-Agency  Standing  Committee).  2002.  Growing  the  sheltering  tree . Protecting 
rights  through  humanitarian  action . Geneva:  UN1CEF-1ASC. 

1NEE  (Inter-Agency  Network  for  Education  in  Emergencies).  2003.  School  feeding. 
Retrieved  30  August  2005  from  http://www.ineesite.org/school/feeding.asp 

1NEE  (Inter-Agency  Network  for  Education  in  Emergencies).  2004.  Minimum  standards  for 
education  in  emergencies,  chronic  crises  and  early  reconstruction.  Paris:  1NEE. 

Janke,  C.  2001.  Food  and  education:  background  considerations  for  policy  and  programming . 
Retrieved  30  August  2005  from 

http://www.synergyaids.com/documents/3350_CRS_paper_on_food_and_ed.doc 

Lockheed,  M.;  Verspoor,  A.  1991.  Improving  primary  education  in  developing  countries:  a 
review  of  policy  options . London:  Oxford  University  Press. 

Meir,  U.  2004.  School  feeding  to  overcome  poverty  related  obstacles  to  school  enrolment  and 
retention  - how  to  do  it  right . Paper  presented  at  the  IIEP  Summer  School,  28  June 
to  9 July  2004. 

Nazaire,  J.  2000.  Selected  CRS  targeting  and  design  guidelines  for  school  feeding  and  other 
food-assisted  education  programs . Retrieved  on  30  August  2005  from 
http://www.catholicrelief.org/about_us/newsroom/publications/Fae_desigin_ 
guide.PDF 

Nicolai,  S.  2003.  Education  in  emergencies:  a tool  kit  for  starting  and  managing  education  in 
emergencies . London:  Save  the  Children. 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


Nicolai,  S.  2004.  Learning  independence:  education  in  emergency  and  transition  in  Timor-Leste 
since  1999 . Paris:  IIEP-UNESCO. 

Nicolai,  S.;  Triplehorn,  C.  2003.  The  role  of  education  in  protecting  children  in  conflict  (Humanitarian 
Practice  Network  Paper  No.  42).  London:  Overseas  Development  Institute. 

Obura,  A.  2003.  Never  again:  educational  reconstruction  in  Rwanda . Paris:  IIEP-UNESCO. 

Pigozzi,  M.  2004.  How  should  we  define  the  quality  of  education?  Working  paper  presented  for 
international  invitational  policy  forum  on  11EP-1NWENT,  Paris,  17-18  June  2004. 

Sinclair,  M.  2001.  “Education  in  emergencies”.  In:  J.  Crisp,  C.  Talbot  and  D.  Cipollone, 
(Eds.),  Learning  for  a future:  refugee  education  in  developing  countries  (pp.  1-83). 
Geneva:  UNHCR. 

Sinclair,  M.  2002.  Planning  education  in  and  after  emergencies.  (Fundamentals  of  educational 
planning  no.  73).  Paris:  IIEP-UNESCO. 

Sphere  Project.  2000.  Humanitarian  charter  and  minimum  standards  in  disaster  response . 
Geneva:  The  Sphere  Project. 

UNICEF.  2000.  Revised  West  Timor  appeal . Part  of  the  Consolidated  Interagency  Appeal, 
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www.reliefweb.int/w/rwb.nsf/OpenDocument 

United  Nations.  2000.  “United  Nations  Millennium  Declaration”.  Resolution  adopted  by 
the  General  Assembly.  A/Res/55/2.  18  September  2000. 

Williams,  J.  2001.  “On  school  quality  and  attainment”  In:  J.  Chris,  C.  Talbot  and  D. 
Cipollone,  (Eds.),  Learning  for  a future:  refugee  education  in  developing  countries 
(pp.  85-108).  Geneva:  UNHCR. 

World  Bank.  2005.  Reshaping  the  future:  education  and  postconflict  reconstruction.  Washington, 
DC:  World  Bank. 

World  Education  Forum.  2000.  The  Dakar  Framework  for  Action  - Education  for  All:  meeting 
our  collective  commitments.  Paris:  UNESCO. 

World  Food  Programme.  2004.  School  feeding  in  an  emergency  situation  guidelines.  Rome: 
WFP. 

World  Food  Programme.  2003.  School  feeding  today.  Rome:  WFP  School  Feeding  Support 
Unit. 


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CHAPTER 


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SECTION  2 


United  Nations  ] International 

Educational,  Scientific  and  [ Institute  for 

Cultural  Organization  * Educational 

Planning 


o 

w 


Chapter 


RURAL  POPULATIONS 


The  designations  employed  and  the  presentation  of 
material  throughout  this  review  do  not  imply  the  expression 
of  any  opinion  whatsoever  on  the  part  of  UNESCO  or  the 
IIEP  concerning  the  legal  status  of  any  country,  territory, 
city  or  area  or  its  authorities,  or  concerning  its  frontiers 
or  boundaries. 

The  publication  costs  of  this  study  have  been  covered 
through  a grant-in-aid  offered  by  UNESCO  and  by 
voluntary  contributions  made  by  several  Member  States 
of  UNESCO. 


Published  by: 

International  Institute  for  Educational  Planning 
7-9  rue  Eugene  Delacroix,  75116  Paris 
e-mail:  info@iiep.unesco.org 
IIEP  web  site:  www.unesco.org/iiep 


Layout  and  cover  design:  Sabine  Lebeau 
Typesetting:  Sabine  Lebeau 
Printed  in  IIEP’s  printshop 
ISBN:  92-803-1288-X 
©UNESCO  2006 


Chapter 


RURAL  POPULATIONS 


^ MAIN  OBJECTIVES 

• To  ensure  that  all  emergency-affected 
children  and  youth,  irrespective  of 
whether  they  are  in  a rural  or  urban 
area,  have  access  to  educational 
opportunities. 

• To  provide  children  and  youth  in  rural 
areas  with  learning  opportunities 
that  are  relevant  to  their  context  and 
that  may  lead  to  further  education  or 
employment  opportunities. 


CONTEXT  AND  CHALLENGES 

Even  before  conflict,  rural  areas  tend  to  have 
fewer  economic  and  human  resources,  and 
thus  a greater  prevalence  of  those  household 
risk  factors  associated  with  reduced  access  to 
education:  poverty  and  hunger,  poor  health, 
greater  gender  inequities,  a high  proportion 
of  child  labour  and  often  reduced  private  and 
public  funding  for  education.  There  is  often  a 
lack  of  awareness  amongst  educational  planners 
and  officials  as  well  as  within  the  international 
community  about  the  educational  needs  of  rural 
people.  Schools  that  do  exist  will  most  frequently 
be  primary  schools,  and  with  only  limited 
opportunities  for  both  preschool  and  post- 
primary education.  Moreover,  the  curriculum 
in  place  may  not  be  relevant  to  rural  economic 
opportunities.  Because  rural  areas  are  often 
populated  by  minority  groups  and  indigenous 
peoples  who  may  already  perceive  themselves 
to  be  socially  disadvantaged,  it  is  crucial  that 
existing  social  and  economic  tensions  are  not 
exacerbated  by  the  neglect  of  education  in 
rural  areas. 

Emergencies  and  civil  conflict  tend  to  aggravate 
these  difficulties,  and  quite  often  educational 
systems  in  rural  areas  are  the  hardest  hit.  One 
reason  is  that  rural-urban  migration  is  frequently 
intensified  during  emergencies  as  cities  are 
generally  safer  and  provide  more  income-earning 
opportunities.  Because  teachers  are  among  the 
most  educated  members  of  rural  society  and 
often  have  either  more  income  or  more  income- 
generating options  than  others,  during  conflict 
they  tend  to  migrate,  either  to  urban  areas  or  to 
a safe  place  in  another  country.  Teachers  that  do 
not  migrate  may  have  less  teaching  experience 
or  fewer  educational  qualifications.  In  situations 


1 

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where  education  has  been  politicized,  teachers  may  be  the  targets  of  attacks  and  therefore 
may  migrate  to  save  their  lives.  As  a result,  education  services  in  rural  areas  will  normally 
require  particular  attention  during  emergencies  and  reconstruction. 

Physical  access  in  rural  areas  is,  by  its  very  nature,  often  particularly  difficult.  Rural  areas 
often  have  a poorer  infrastructure  in  place  due  to  urban  biases  in  the  allocation  of  resources. 
Rural  education,  even  in  times  of  peace  and  stability,  often  suffers  from  lack  of  teaching 
materials  and  remoteness  from  information  sources,  and  the  fact  that  children  must  often 
travel  long  distances  through  difficult  terrain  to  reach  schools.  These  problems  will  also  be 
compounded  by  emergencies.  Rural  areas  are  more  likely  to  be  cut  off  by  fighting,  landmines 
and  other  manifestations  of  conflict,  or  to  be  under  the  control  of  forces  in  conflict  with 
government.  This  will  make  the  route,  and  thus  physical  access  to  school,  very  dangerous  or 
even  impossible  for  many  rural  children.  Teachers,  teacher  trainers,  school  supervisors  and 
even  supplies  may  be  cut  off  from  rural  areas.  Similarly,  centralized  educational  authorities 
and  other  education  providers  will  have  greater  difficulties  undertaking  needs  assessment, 
supervision  and  monitoring. 

When  children  have  to  travel  long  distances  across  difficult  terrain  to  get  to  the  nearest 
school,  parents  may  not  send  their  young  children  and  adolescent  girls  to  school  out  of  fear 
for  their  safety  with  regards  to  both  sexual  abuse  and  unexploded  ordnances.  In  times  of 
conflict,  these  security  concerns  are  compounded.  In  rural  areas  in  particular,  schools  may 
be  targeted,  used  as  places  of  recruitment,  or  taken  over  by  military  forces.  Landmines 
or  ongoing  fighting  may  also  block  physical  access  to  schools.  In  areas  of  intense  fighting, 
schools  may  also  be  used  as  temporary  shelter  for  displaced  people.  This  will  result  in  fewer 
schools,  and  thus  decrease  the  supply  of  available  rural  education.  International  organizations 
and  local  NGOs  that  assist  with  education  also  tend  to  be  concentrated  in  more  densely 
populated  areas  for  logistical  and/or  security  reasons. 


0 SIERRA  LEONE:  LESS  ACCESS  TO  SECONDARY  SCHOOLS  IN  RURAL  AREAS 

“For  adolescents  living  in  rural  areas,  schools  are  often  too  far  away  to  attend,  especially 
secondary  schools.  Those  who  wish  to  go  to  secondary  school  must  find  funding  either  to 
attend  boarding  school  or  pay  for  transportation  back  and  forth  from  home  each  day.  These 
costs  are  exorbitant  and  impossible  for  most  Sierra  Leoneans,  and  rural  adolescents  and 
youth  are  at  a particular  disadvantage.  While  reaching  secondary  schools  in  busy  Freetown  is 
also  very  difficult  for  many  students,  there  are  more  secondary  schools  there  in  general. 

In  York  district  in  the  Western  Area,  adolescents  can  attend  classes  one  through  six,  but  the 
nearest  secondary  school  is  ten  miles  away.  Although  adolescents  also  believe  education 
to  be  better  in  the  towns,  they  do  not  have  enough  money  for  transportation.  They  ask  for 
more  secondary  schools  to  be  constructed  in  rural  areas  and  that  free  transportation  be 
provided  for  young  people  living  a prohibitive  distance  away.” 

Source:  Lowicki  and  Pillsbury  (2002: 18). 


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Because  poverty  is  often  particularly  acute  in  rural  areas,  families  are  generally  less  able  to 
contribute  financially  to  their  children’s  education,  either  through  school  fees  or  payments 
for  school  materials  and  uniforms  or  decent  clothing.  Poor  families  may  also  desperately 
need  their  children’s  labour  for  planting  and  harvesting,  caring  for  younger  children,  caring 
for  animals,  gathering  water,  collecting  firewood  or  generating  income  to  help  support  the 
family.  All  of  these  things  have  a negative  effect  on  rural  children’s  access  to  education,  as 
families  perceive  the  opportunity  cost  of  educating  their  children  to  be  greater  than  the 
gains  derived  from  their  labour.  In  emergencies,  poverty  generally  increases  as  an  often 
already  weak  infrastructure  is  destroyed  and  communities  are  cut  off  from  basic  services. 
Roads  to  markets  may  be  blocked,  bridges  may  be  destroyed  and  agricultural  fields  may  be 
mined,  which  greatly  impedes  economic  activity.  This  can  force  children  into  becoming 
economically  active  to  the  detriment  of  their  education. 

In  the  reconstruction  phase  of  an  emergency,  refugees  and  IDPs  may  be  reluctant  to  return 
to  rural  areas  unless  they  are  secure  and  present  economic  opportunities.  Also,  if  difficulties 
of  access  or  insecurity  make  it  difficult  to  establish  or  expand  schools  in  rural  areas,  refugees 
or  IDPs  may  further  delay  their  return  home.  Moreover,  the  lack  of  resources  and  access 
to  paid  employment  in  rural  areas  after  an  emergency  will  discourage  families  from  send- 
ing their  children  to  school.  Many  families  will  focus  their  resources  on  rebuilding  homes, 
restoring  agricultural  or  other  economic  activities,  and  will  have  limited  time  and  resources 
to  help  with  school  restoration.  They  may  also  use  their  children’s  labour  for  economic  or 
domestic  purposes. 

One  further  problem  relating  to  refugees  and  IDPs  in  rural  areas,  both  during  and  after  an 
emergency,  concerns  the  difference  in  the  quality  of  the  education  provided  by  assistance 
agencies  and  local  educational  authorities.  Well-managed  programmes  in  refugee  or  1DP 
camps  in  remote  rural  areas  may,  over  the  years,  develop  schools  that  are  in  some  respects 
better  than  those  in  neighbouring  local  schools.  Development  assistance  programmes  may 
have  neglected  the  neighbouring  'non-camp’  schools  due  to  small  population  size,  a lack  of 
resources  or  mandate.  Humanitarian  agencies  may  not  realize  the  need  to  help  local  schools. 
This  may  create  tensions  and/or  intensify  discontent  within  the  rural  population  over  the 
educational  services  provided  by  the  government. 

Rural  children  and  youth  are  not  the  only  ones  who  miss  out  on  education  during  emergen- 
cies. Displaced  children  and  youth  residing  in  urban  areas,  either  alone  or  with  their  families, 
may  also  lack  the  opportunity  to  attend  school  due  to  poverty,  lack  of  personal  documenta- 
tion or  other  factors,  such  as  schools  overcrowding  or  security  fears.  Some  difficulties  are 
particular  for  urban  areas.  The  majority  of  illegal  refugees  and  internally  displaced  persons 
(IDPs),  who  are  in  hiding,  live  in  cities. 

For  organizations  seeking  to  assist  urban  refugees,  IDPs,  or  nomadic  peoples,  the  task  is 
complicated;  these  populations  are  quite  often  dispersed  and  difficult  to  locate.  In  addition, 
urban  refugees  or  IDPs  often  refuse  to  be  identified  for  fear  of  being  sent  back  to  their  home 
country  or  to  another  refugee  camp  with  fewer  income-generating  options,  or  simply  out  of 
fear  for  their  security.  Refugees  and  IDPs  living  in  camps,  which  are  frequently  located  in  rural 
areas,  are  much  more  likely  to  receive  an  education.  Whilst  this  topic  focuses  on  the  relative 
disadvantages  of  rural  areas,  many  of  the  issues  discussed  will  also  apply  to  urban  areas. 


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SUGGESTED  STRATEGIES 


Educational  authorities,  planners  and  providers  must  keep  the  rural/urban  distinction  in 
mind  when  developing  strategies  for  education  in  emergencies.  Emergency-affected  children 
can  miss  out  on  schooling,  whether  they  live  in  urban  or  rural  areas,  though  sometimes  for 
different  reasons.  In  general,  ensuring  access  to  education  in  rural  areas  requires  particular 
efforts.  Some  key  strategies  are  noted  below. 


Summary  of  suggested  strategies 
Rural  populations 


Assess  the  unmet  educational  needs  of 
emergency-affected  rural  communities, 
including  older  children  and  youth  who  are  not 
currently  enrolled  or  attending  school. 


2.  Prioritize  teacher  recruitment  in  rural  areas. 


3.  Ensure  that  education  in  emergency-affected 
rural  areas  is  completely  free  and  does  not 
adversely  affect  a family’s  economic  situation. 

4.  Work  to  make  physical  access  to  rural  schools 
safe. 

5.  Work  to  ensure  that  rural  populations  receive 
the  best  quality  education  possible. 

6.  Facilitate  alternative  schooling,  such  as 
distance  and  radio  education  for  inaccessible 
areas. 

7.  Align  educational  strategies  with  those  of 
other  relevant  sectors  for  rural  areas,  such  as 
strategies  for  agricultural  development. 

8.  Involve  local  communities  in  the  education 
planning  process. 

9.  Establish  a policy  on  education  for  nomadic 
peoples. 

10.  Establish  a policy  regarding  education  for 
urban  and  self-settled  refugees. 


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Guidance  notes 


L Assess  the  unmet  educational  needs  of  emergency-affected  rural 
communities,  including  older  children  and  youth  who  are  not  currently 
enrolled  or  attending  school. 

• Assessing  childrens  access  to  education  and  learning  is  an  essential  part  of  both 
the  planning  and  implementation  of  educational  programmes,  as  the  assessment 
will  affect  the  quality  of  the  education  provided. 

Also,  consult  the  Guidebook,  Chapter  28,  Assessment  of  needs  and  resources'.  Chapter  4, 
‘Education  for  all  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction'  will  also  provide  some  general 
considerations  related  to  needs  assessment  and  access  to  schooling. 


Q NEEDS  ASSESSMENT  IN  RURAL  TIMOR-LESTE 

In  2001,  Oxfam  Great  Britain  and  UNICEF  conducted  research  on  the  educational  needs  of 
rural  and  remote  East  Timor  in  order  to  map  and  publicize  these  needs.  Among  the  rural 
communities  surveyed,  there  seemed  to  be  no  real  sense  as  to  how  education  could  directly 
improve  their  lives.  One  of  the  exercises  conducted  as  part  of  the  research  was  called  ‘The 
Road  of  Learning’;  this  involved  a small  group  of  men  and  a small  group  of  women  talking 
separately  about  different  activities  they  would  learn  at  different  stages  of  their  lives. 
Examples  of  the  results  from  Maliana  township  are  as  follows: 


Women’s  learning 
Learn  personal  hygiene 
Go  to  school 
Learn  to  cook 

Learn  to  make  tais  (traditional  weaving) 

Get  married  and  look  after  children 

Learn  to  use  a sewing  machine 

Teach  daughters  to  make  tais 

Pass  on  traditional  knowledge  to  children 


Men’s  learning 

Help  look  after  animals 

Work  in  the  gardens/help  in  the  fields 

Learn  to  ride  a bicycle 

Work  by  themselves  in  the  field 

Build  houses 

Sell  in  the  market 

Get  married 

Learn  traditional  laws 

Teach  children 


When  asked  what  education  issues  they  found  important,  some  villagers  discussed  language 
difficulties  in  schools  that  arise  because  many  teachers  do  not  speak  Portuguese.  Others 
highlighted  the  need  for  adult  literacy  classes  in  Tetum  (one  of  the  two  official  languages). 
Still  others  talked  about  the  long  distances  their  children  have  to  travel  to  attend  junior  high. 
Issues  of  youth  leaving  rural  areas  and  moving  to  more  urban  areas  were  also  mentioned, 
with  those  surveyed  emphasizing  that  villages  were  losing  some  of  their  best  talent,  and  that 
large  numbers  of  young  people  in  urban  areas  were  unable  to  find  work.  As  Fox  (2003:  5) 
explained,  “the  educational  system  rapidly  draw[s]  youth  from  the  countryside  and  train[s] 
them  for  non-existent  positions  in  urban  areas”.  While  parents  see  that  literacy  is  important 
in  their  changing  world,  those  youth  in  rural  areas  who  are  successful  in  formal  education 
often  leave  villages  and  do  not  return. 

Source:  Nicolai  (2004:  91-93). 


Chapter  5:  Rural  populations 


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(X>  NEWLY  ACCESSIBLE  AREAS  IN  ANGOLA 

“With  the  end  of  the  war  and  the  success  of  de-mining  operations,  remote  areas  that  were 
inaccessible  during  the  war  are  opening  up.  The  U.S.  Committee  for  Refugees  (2002)  quoted 
relief  officials  as  estimating  that  possible  800,000  people  living  in  newly  accessible  areas 
had  been  mostly  cut  off  from  government  services  for  many  years.  USCR  (2002)  reports  that 
Medecins  Sans  Frontieres  (MSF)  recorded  mortality  figures  ‘nearly  four  times  greater  than 
what  is  internationally  accepted  as  the  threshold  for  an  emergency'  among  civilians  in  these 
areas.  Rapid  assessments  in  newly  accessible  areas  have  also  revealed  that  seven  out  of 
10-  children  did  not  have  access  to  learning  opportunities." 

Source:  Bethke  and  Braunschweig  (2003: 12). 


• Ensure  that  national  education  statistics  are  disaggregated  by  region  and,  if  possi- 
ble, by  district.  See  also  the  Guidebook , Chapter 34}  ‘Data  collection  and  education 
management  information  systems  (EMIS).’ 

• Seek  differentiation  between  educational  statistics  for  urban  and  rural  areas. 

• Train  educational  planners  in  use  of  such  differentiated  statistics  in  the  design 
of  differentiated  educational  offers. 

2 ♦ Prioritize  teacher  recruitment  in  rural  areas* 

(See  also  the  Guidebook,  Chapter  15,  ‘Identification,  selection  and  recruitment  of 
teachers  and  education  workers’.) 

There  is  generally  a shortage  of  teachers  in  rural  areas.  It  may  be  appropriate  for  gov- 
ernments to  intervene  regarding  the  destination  of  teachers.  This  may  be  achieved  in 
a variety  of  ways. 

• Consider  offering  teachers  incentives  such  as  higher  pay,  a housing  or  food  pro- 
vision, or  subsidies  to  work  in  difficult  rural  areas.  Especially  in  areas  of  return, 
teachers  may  need  a guarantee  of  income  and  security/job  stability  to  agree  to 
teach  there.  One  solution  would  be  for  the  Ministry  of  Education  to  agree  to 
finance  teacher  salaries  for  a minimum  period  (for  example  for  at  least  a year) . 

• Provide  teacher-training  programmes  for  those  living  in  rural  areas.  Recruitment 
of  new  teachers  locally,  especially  women,  may  be  necessary. 

• If  the  newly  trained  teachers  are  already  from  the  area,  they  may  be  more 
likely  to  stay. 

• Training  can  be  offered  on  the  condition  that  teachers  stay  in  the  area  after 
completion  of  the  programme. 

• Programmes  that  train  community  members  to  teach  will  ensure  that  teach- 
ers speak  the  same  language  as  their  students. 

• Women  should  be  recruited  even  if  their  education  level  is  less  than  that  of 
some  male  candidates,  provided  they  have  the  aptitude  for  the  work.  They 
may  stay  in  the  area  for  family  reasons,  and  will  encourage  girls’  enrolment 
in  school  by  providing  positive  role  models. 


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© ATTRACTING  TEACHERS  TO  REMOTE  AREAS  IN  SRI  LANKA 

In  Sri  Lanka,  rural  education  has  traditionally  been  of  inferior  quality  and  enrolment  and 
completion  rates  are  still  significantly  lower  in  rural  than  in  urban  areas.  During  almost  20  years 
of  civil  war,  many  IDPs  have  been  displaced  to  remote  and/or  marginally  secure  regions  of 
the  country,  exacerbating  the  problem  of  teacher  shortage  in  already  overcrowded  schools 
in  those  regions.  In  order  to  encourage  teacher  recruitment  to  these  areas,  the  Ministry  of 
Education  has  made  financing  available  and  implemented  an  incentive  and  training  scheme 
for  those  teachers  willing  to  work  in  ‘hardship  posts’  in  rural  areas,  for  a specific  period  of 
time.  The  scheme  involves  cash  stipends,  the  establishment  of  teacher  quarters,  transport 
subsidies  and  accelerated  promotion,  and  has  greatly  helped  to  expand  educational 
opportunities  for  displaced  children. 

Source:  IASC  (2002: 123);  IBE  (2004);  ADB  (2003). 


• Explore  the  possibility  of  developing  distance-learning  programmes,  countrywide, 
especially  for  teachers  in  inaccessible  areas.  This  may  facilitate  the  training  and 
supervision  of  a large  number  of  untrained  teachers. 

• Review  the  forms  of  professional  training  and  other  support  that  will  be  offered 
to  rural  teachers. 

• Train  mentors  (senior  teachers  trained  to  support  new  teachers  in  their 
schools). 

• Mobilize  teacher-training  teams  who  periodically  observe  and  provide  feed- 
back on  teachers’  lessons,  vacation  courses,  radio  programmes. 

• Particular  efforts  must  be  made  to  provide  rural  schools  with  the  same  mate- 
rial and  equipment  as  in  more  accessible  areas.  In  those  instances  where  good 
and  regular  supplies  of  learning  materials  are  not  available,  teachers  should 
be  trained  to  make  the  most  of  their  surroundings.  Guidance  on  how  to  use 
local  resources  and  material  available  from  nature  can  help  protect  schools 
from  the  negative  economic  and  structural  consequences  of  emergencies. 


" 

Q USING  LOCAL  RESOURCES  IN  THE  CLASSROOM:  PHYSICS  LESSONS  IN  TIMOR-LESTE 

Banana  leaf  spines  have  a smooth  track  down  the  centre,  custom  made  for  marbles  to  roll 
down.  Propping  one  up  on  a chair,  marbles  can  be  released  from  different  heights  and  their 
velocity  measured  as  they  race  across  the  floor.  Then  kinetic  and  potential  energy  can  be 
compared  to  see  how  much  was  lost  to  friction. 

A one-wheeled,  rubber-band  powered  car  can  be  made  with  cardboard,  palm-frond  spines 
and  an  aluminium  can.  If  the  force  given  by  the  wound-up  rubber  band  and  the  distance 
the  car  rolls  are  measured,  a simple  bit  of  calculus  can  be  used  to  determine  the  amount  of 
energy  used. 

With  kebab  sticks,  a model  of  the  human  arm  and  hand  can  be  made  to  demonstrate 
muscles,  tendons,  ligaments  and  the  different  types  of  joints. 

Source:  Gabrielson  (2002)  in  Nicolai  (2004: 125). 


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3* 


Ensure  that  education  in  emergency-affected  rural  areas  is  completely 
free  and  does  not  adversely  affect  a family’s  economic  situation* 

Children  in  rural  areas  often  miss  out  on  education  due  to  the  direct  costs  such  as  fees, 
the  need  for  clean  and  undamaged  clothing  (or  even  school  uniforms),  and  purchase 
of  materials,  as  well  as  indirect  costs,  such  as  time  spent  not  helping  with  family  duties 
and  livelihood.  This  applies  also  to  very  poor  urban  migrants,  whose  children  may  be 
withdrawn  from  school  to  undertake  scavenging  or  other  activities.  Genuinely  free 
education  will  give  poor  children  a better  chance  of  attending  school. 

• If  necessary,  solicit  support  from  the  international  community  for  building  or 
rehabilitating  schools  and  classrooms  in  emergency-affected  rural  areas  as  well 
as  for  providing  teaching  and  learning  materials,  uniforms/clothing  and  other 
supplies  to  affected  rural  and,  in  some  cases,  urban  populations. 

• Consider  abolishing  documentation  and  registration  requirements,  as  they  may 
force  children  and  youth  to  travel  long  distances  for  registration,  or  may  prevent 
access  to  education  for  those  children  without  documents. 

• Consider  abolishing  or  relaxing  rules  about  school  uniforms  that  are  costly  for 
poor  families. 

• Consider  the  implementation  of  school  feeding  programmes  (see  also  the  ‘Tools 
and  resources’  section  in  the  Guidebook,  Chapter  4,  ‘Education  for  all  in  emergen- 
cies and  reconstruction’  for  more  information  on  school  feeding) . Look  for  ways  to 
make  these  programmes  sustainable,  for  example  by  establishing  school  gardens 
supported  by  the  parent- teacher  association. 

• Consider  the  possibility  of  compensating  families  for  the  loss  of  their  child’s  income 
through  programmes  such  as  ‘Food  for  attendance’. 

• Consider  implementing  both  flexible  school  hours  and  a school  calendar  that  do 
not  conflict  with  children’s  family  obligations  such  as  chores  at  home  or  in  the 
fields,  or  other  tasks  which  may  contribute  to  the  family’s  income. 


" 

0 ACCESS  TO  EDUCATION  FOR  INTERNALLY  DISPLACED  CHILDREN 

“[In  Colombia]  children  are  forced  to  leave  school  when  they  are  displaced  from  their  homes. 

In  a study  conducted  in  the  capital  Bogota,  in  2000  it  was  found  that  77  percent  of  children 
who  attended  school  before  displacement  did  not  continue  studies  afterwards.” 

“Where  government  schools  are  available,  internally  displaced  children  may  be  prohibited 
from  attending  because  they  lack  the  identification  documents  needed  to  enrol.  In  Colombia, 
families  driven  off  their  land  by  paramilitary  or  guerrilla  groups  have  been  forced  to  keep 
their  identities  hidden  for  fear  of  being  targeted.  As  a result,  their  children  have  no  access  to 
health  care  or  state  services,  including  school.  In  1997,  the  Sri  Lankan  Ministry  of  Education 
allowed  children  without  birth  certificates  to  attend  school,  but  refused  to  allow  them  to  sit 
for  examinations  or  participate  in  sports.” 

Source:  Nicolai  (2003:  74);  Machel  (2001). 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


4* 


Work  to  make  physical  access  to  rural  schools  safe* 

(See  the  Guidebook , Chapter  4 , ‘Education  for  all  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction’, 
and  Chapter  10 , ‘Learning  spaces  and  school  facilities’  for  general  considerations  re- 
lated to  school  safety.) 

Access  can  be  organized  in  the  open  air  (in  some  climatic  conditions),  with  tempo- 
rary shelter  (e.g.  tents  or  plastic  sheeting)  or  school  buildings.  Issues  to  be  considered 
by  national  and  local  educational  authorities,  as  well  as  other  education  providers, 
include  the  following: 

• Are  the  schools  in  an  area  of  ongoing  fighting? 

• Has  there  been  communication  with  all  parties  to  the  conflict  regarding 
the  schools’  designation  as  a ‘safe  area’?  The  Rome  Statute  of  1998,  which 
outlines  the  jurisdiction  of  the  International  Criminal  Court,  includes  protec- 
tion for  educational  institutions  under  Article  8.  Therefore,  the  targeting  of 
schools  and  educational  institutions  can  be  prosecuted  as  a war  crime. 

• Are  parents  afraid  to  send  their  children  to  school,  as  they  fear  for  their  safety 
en  route?  (See  also  the  Guidebook , Chapter  6,  ‘Gender’,  and  Chapter  9}  ‘Former 
child  soldiers’,  for  a discussion  of  how  to  make  schools  safer  from  recruitment/ 
abduction.) 

• Have  landmines  been  removed  from  paths  leading  to  schools? 

• Is  it  possible  to  enlist  adult  escorts  or  older  children  to  escort  young  children 
to  school? 

• Can  a ‘buddy  system’  be  implemented  so  children  never  walk  alone? 

• Can  the  community  organize  transportation  for  children  from  particular 
areas? 

• If  children  must  walk  in  the  dark,  how  are  they  seen?  Do  they  have  reflectors 
or  reflective  tape  on  their  clothing  or  school  bags? 

• If  there  is  a shortage  of  classrooms,  what  alternative,  safe,  learning  spaces  can  be 
used  on  a temporary  basis? 

• Shelter  provided  by  trees. 

• Roof  or  frame  constructed  of  wood  or  bamboo  and  covered  with  a plastic 
sheet  or  tarpaulin. 

• School  tents. 

• Non-school  property  such  as  gyms,  warehouses,  unused  government  build- 
ings, or  religious  buildings  - if  such  facilities  are  safe. 

• What  spaces  can  be  used  for  recreation  and  sports,  preferably  in  proximity  to 
schools? 

• Who  must  grant  permission  for  such  spaces  to  be  used? 


Chapter  5:  Rural  populations 


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NTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


9 


5* 


Work  to  ensure  that  rural  populations  receive  the  best  quality  education 
possible. 


• When  possible,  recruit  teachers  that: 

• Know  the  local  language  and  customs. 

• Are  accountable  and  acceptable  to  the  local  community. 

• Recruit  local  volunteer  teacher  aides,  if  possible. 

• Allow  flexibility  in  curricula  and  vocational  training  so  that  specific  rural  skills  and 
needs  may  be  addressed  in  schools,  for  example  local  agricultural,  environmental, 
local  and  health  topics. 

• Does  the  curriculum  relate  to  local  content,  customs,  livelihoods  and  devel- 
opment activities? 

• Does  the  curriculum  take  teachers’  qualifications  and  training  into  account? 

• Does  the  curriculum  make  use  of  locally  available  skills,  knowledge  and  other 
resources? 

• Give  early  attention  to  material  supports  for  learning. 

• What  materials  are  already  available? 

- Chalkboards,  writing  slates,  exercise  books,  pencils  and  pens? 

• What  materials  can  learners,  particularly  older  children  or  adults,  develop? 

- Maps,  calendars,  or  diagrams? 

- Core  reading  materials? 

• Ensure  the  best  quality  possible  for  educational  facilities. 

• Are  educational  facilities  well  maintained? 

• Do  educational  facilities  have  good  ventilation  and  lighting? 

• Do  they  have  separate  toilet  facilities  for  boys  and  girls? 

• Is  safe  drinking  water  available? 

• Can  local  leaders  and  parents  help  maintain  school  facilities? 

See  the  ‘Tools  and  resources’  section  for  a checklist  on  attributes  of  a good  quality 
school  as  perceived  by  learners,  parents  and  the  community  and  teachers. 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


6* 


Facilitate  alternative  schooling,  such  as  distance  and  radio  education 
for  inaccessible  areas. 


(See  the  Guidebook,  Chapter  11,  ‘Open  and  distance  learning  and  Chapter 26,  ‘Vocational 
education  and  training’.) 

• Which  teachers  do  not  have  access  to  in-service  training  and  further  professional 
studies?  (Review  the  questions  in  the  Guidebook,  Chapter  18,  ‘Teacher  training: 
teaching  and  learning  methods’.)  Make  sure  to  consult  with  children,  youth, 
teachers,  parents  and  community  groups. 

• What  are  the  educational  needs/preferences  of  the  children  and  youth  that  do  not 
have  access? 

• Primary  or  some  form  of  accelerated  learning  to  re-enter  the  formal  system? 

• Post-primary  - formal  secondary,  tertiary? 

• Basic  literacy? 

• Vocational/skills  training? 

• General  knowledge  regarding  health  issues,  citizenship,  human  rights,  environment? 

• For  which  of  the  above  educational  needs/preferences  is  distance  education  a 
viable  option? 

• Are  external  donors  interested  in  supporting  the  strengthening  of  ministry  capacity 
in  this  area? 

• How  can  international  experience  with  open  and  distance  learning  - in  emergency 
and  in  non-emergency  situations  - be  drawn  upon? 

• Who  will  adapt/develop  the  learning  materials  - existing  teachers  and  administra- 
tors or  an  outside  organization  in  consultation  with  educational  authorities?  (Note: 
adaptation  is  much  quicker  than  developing  new  materials  and  testing  them.  It  is 
crucial  that  content  and  examples  fit  the  local  context,  however.) 

• Consider  if  existing  materials  from  a country  with  similar  conditions,  curricula 
and  language  of  study  could  be  adapted,  with  permission  from  the  authorities 
concerned  (this  saves  time,  cost  and  benefits  from  the  pilot  testing,  evaluation 
and  improvements  already  carried  out) . 

• Train  the  writing  team  of  educators  on  the  objectives  of  the  programme,  and 
how  to  prepare  the  materials.  If  possible,  provide  them  with  examples  of  existing 
programmes,  guidelines  and  templates  for  open  and  distance  learning. 

• How  will  the  distance  learning  materials  incorporate  the  existing  curriculum? 

• Are  the  certifications  obtained  by  distance  education  courses  valid  in  the  student’s 
home/host  country? 

• Who  will  produce  and  deliver  lessons  that  will  be  offered  via  radio,  television,  or  online? 

• Identify  teachers  or  other  educators. 

• Provide  them  with  training  relative  to  the  instructional  medium  to  be  used. 


Chapter  5:  Rural  populations 


1 1 


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NTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


7 ♦ Align  educational  strategies  with  those  of  other  relevant  sectors  for 

rural  areas,  such  as  strategies  for  agricultural  development* 

Unfortunately,  education  sector  strategies  do  not  often  address  the  poor  or  displaced 
in  rural  areas.  Similarly,  agricultural  and  rural  development  strategies  do  not  always 
discuss  how  to  provide  education  and  training  for  rural  people.  (White,  2002;  Taylor 
and  Mulhall,  2003).  Nevertheless,  in  rural  areas,  education  will  necessarily  involve  a 
multiplicity  of  providers,  public  and  private,  both  internal  and  external  to  the  educa- 
tion system’. 

• Create  mechanisms  that  can  be  used  for  periodic  consultation  and  planning  among 
different  sectors. 

• Consider  establishing  a common  working  group  within  the  ministries  of  educa- 
tion and  agriculture  (and  other  ministries  where  relevant)  to  deal  with  rural 
people’s  education  and  training  needs. 

• Encourage  the  development  of  strong  links  between  rural  employers  and  the 
schools. 

• Encourage  rural  employers  to  offer  apprenticeships  and  work  placements. 

• Encourage  rural  employers  to  identify  and  communicate  unmet  basic  learning 
needs  to  education  administrators. 


Q VOCATIONAL  EDUCATION  AND  TRAINING  IN  RURAL  BOSNIA  HERZEGOVINA 

In  2002,  a programme  was  started  to  enhance  the  opportunities  and  quality  of  secondary 
education  in  the  rural  areas  of  Bosnia  Herzegovina.  The  programme  focuses  on  collaboration 
between  schools  and  the  labour  market  at  local  and  regional  levels.  After  conducting  a 
labour  market  information  survey  that  identified  high-priority  areas  for  short  courses  and 
new  occupations,  25  schools  were  selected  and  paired  with  local  employment  services 
in  the  different  municipalities.  Together  they  identified  employment  and  training  sectors 
relevant  for  their  areas.  Under  the  programme,  36  new  professions  were  identified,  including 
some  in  the  food  industry  and  in  horticultural  production.  The  challenge  proved  to  be  the 
training  of  teachers  for  these  new  subjects,  and  extensive  in-service  training  and  ‘mentor 
training’  has  been  essential. 

Source:  White  (2002:  28) 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


• Allow  for  flexibility  within  rural  schools.  Given  that  many  children  will  be  involved 
in  labour  on  the  land,  the  system  could  allow  for  seasonal  shifts  in  labour  demands 
or  operate  on  an  alternating  school/work  schedule.  This  is  not  to  say  that  child 
labour  should  in  anyway  be  encouraged,  but  rather  that  the  economic  realities  of 
conflicts  and  early  reconstruction  should  be  acknowledged  if  children  are  to  be 
allowed  meaningful  access  to  education. 

• Collect  data  on  rural  peoples  economic  activities,  education  and  training  needs, 
and  review  their  relevance  in  reference  to  current  and  future  labour  market 
requirements.  (See  also  the  Guidebook , Chapter  26}  ‘Vocational  education  and 
training’,  Chapter  28}  Assessment  of  needs  and  resources’  and  Chapter  34}  ‘Data 
collection  and  education  management  information  systems  (EMIS)’.) 

• Promote  a lifelong  learning  approach  by  developing  and  implementing  policies  that 
enable  schools  and  educational  institutions  to  offer  ‘second-chance’  education  and 
learning  programmes.  This  may  involve  a combination  of  formal  and  non-formal 
activities  within  existing  schools  and  institutions,  for  both  out-of-school  youth 
and  adults. 

• Establish  an  overview  of  all  relevant  formal  and  non-formal  education  and  training 
providers  in  rural  areas.  The  list  may  include: 

• Primary  and  secondary  schools. 

• Private  companies  and  individuals. 

• University  outreach  programmes. 

• Agricultural  research  institutes  and  extension  services. 

• Commodity  based  institutes. 

• NGOs. 

• Farmer  associations  and  organizations. 

• Employers. 


Chapter  5:  Rural  populations 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


8. 


Involve  local  communities  in  the  education  planning  process. 


See  also  the  Guidebook,  Chapter  33,  ‘Structure  of  the  education  system’,  for  more 
information. 


Q EDUCO  SCHOOLS  IN  EL  SALVADOR  - INCREASING  RURAL  ACCESS  THROUGH 
DECENTRALIZATION  AND  COMMUNITY  PARTICIPATION 

El  Salvador's  Community-Managed  Schools  Programme  (EDUCO:  Education  con  Participation 
de  ia  Comunidad)  has  been  remarkably  successful  in  expanding  educational  opportunities 
for  the  poor  in  rural  areas.  Decentralization  has  also  been  instrumental  in  getting  families  and 
communities  more  involved  in  their  children's  schooling.  In  1990,  education  indicators  in  El 
Salvador  were  among  the  worst  in  Latin  America,  with  high  levels  of  repetition  and  dropout. 
The  net  enrolment  rate  was  79  per  cent,  the  dropout  rate  15.3  per  cent,  and  the  average 
annual  promotion  rate  was  77  per  cent.  By  1997,  education  indicators  had  already  shown 
significant  improvement,  with  the  net  enrolment  rate  increasing  to  88  per  cent,  the  dropout 
rate  decreasing  to  4.5  per  cent,  and  the  annual  promotion  rate  increasing  to  87  per  cent. 

The  Ministry  of  Education  in  El  Salvador  initiated  the  innovative  EDUCO  Programme  in  1991, 
with  support  from  the  World  Bank  and  IDB,  as  well  as  parents'  and  teachers’  associations  and 
local  NGOs.  The  programme,  which  envisages  a self-managed,  private  form  of  education, 
was  intended  to  address  coverage  and  quality  problems  in  rural  areas.  In  each  of  the  EDUCO 
schools,  there  is  autonomous  management  by  an  elected  Community  Education  Association, 
drawn  from  the  parents  of  students.  In  these  schools,  the  associations  are  contracted  by 
the  ministry  to  deliver  a given  curriculum  to  an  agreed  number  of  students,  and  are  then 
responsible  for  contracting  (and  dismissing)  teachers,  and  for  equipping  and  maintaining  the 
schools. 

By  March  1996,  about  1,700  parents'  associations  were  managing  3,550  classrooms  and 
serving  160,000  students  - about  15  per  cent  of  that  age  group.  By  the  end  of  1996,  the 
ministry  had  expanded  the  autonomous  model  to  all  of  its  4,000  elementary  and  middle 
schools.  The  results  thus  far  show  that  families  and  communities  are  much  more  involved 
with  schooling,  which  suggests  that  this  decentralized  model  for  education  service  provision 
is  successful  in  this  context.  It  may  also  provide  a model  for  a broader  reform  of  the  national 
basic  education  system. 

Source:  World  Bank  (1998). 


• Encourage  a high  level  of  community  involvement  through  the  promotion  of  parent- 
teacher  associations  and  other  such  groups  that  demonstrate  community  support 
for  schools.  (See  also  the  Guidebook , Chapter  32}  'Community  participation’.) 

• What  opportunities  will  community  members  have  to  express  their  ideas  on 
education? 

• Encourage  community  volunteers  to  ensure  schools  are  safe  and  to  help  with 
school  projects  such  as  constructing  new  classrooms  or  rehabilitating  existing 
ones. 

• Encourage  school  clustering  to  facilitate  peer  exchange  of  experience,  information 
and  resources. 


4 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


9. 


Establish  a policy  on  education  for  nomadic  peoples. 


• Carefully  examine  the  mobility  of  nomadic  peoples,  and  use  this  information  for 
school  location  planning. 

• Many  pastoral  groups  have  semi-permanent  ‘base  camps’  that  can  be 
mapped. 

• School  mapping  should  include  the  participation  of  the  nomadic  children  and 
adults. 

• As  nomadic  encampments  are  often  far  from  school,  consider  building  boarding 
schools. 

• Such  schools  should  be  located  at  the  crossroad  towns  or  at  well-known 
stopping  places  of  the  nomadic  groups,  to  facilitate  communication  between 
boarding  children  and  their  parents. 

• Use  ‘feeder  schools’  that  children  attend  for  the  first  two  or  three  grades  of  primary 
school,  and  from  which  children  are  fed  into  boarding  schools. 

• In  targeting  this  population,  models  of  educational  provision  should  include  a 
combination  of  fixed  and  mobile  schools,  as  well  as  traditional  schools  and  non- 
formal  schools. 

• Ensure  that  non-formal  schooling  has  the  same  status  as  formal  schooling. 

• Strengthen  educational  radio,  specifically  targeting  the  nomadic  population. 

• Provide  correspondence  and  distance  education  courses  for  nomadic  peoples  who 
are  highly  mobile. 

• Use  sensitization  and  awareness-raising  campaigns  to  improve  nomadic  peoples’ 
attitudes  toward  schooling. 


Chapter  5:  Rural  populations 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


1 5 


10*  Establish  a policy  regarding  education  for  urban  and  self-settled 
refugees* 

Urban  and  self-settled  refugees  need  formal  recognition  and  a status  that  grants 
them  access  to  education.  (See  also  the  Guidebook , Chapter  4}  ‘Education  for  all  in 
emergencies  and  reconstruction.) 

• Recognizing  and  protecting  urban  and  self-settled  refugees  and  IDPs  should  be 
an  important  component  of  the  Ministry  of  Educations  strategy  and  policy. 

• Improve  co-ordination  between  educational  authorities  and  aid  agencies  in  order 
to  design  access  strategies  that  accommodate  the  urban  migrants  living  in  the 
cities. 

• Establish  special  programmes  to  help  refugee  students  make  the  transition  to  host 
country  schools. 

• Consider  the  implications  that  incorporating  urban  refugees  or  IDPs  into  existing 
schools  has  on  local  school  systems. 

• Set  up  schemes  to  help  children  living  on  the  streets. 


0 URBAN  CHILDREN  LIVING  ON  THE  STREETS 


The  direct  and  indirect  impacts  of  conflict  can  drive  rural  children  out  of  their  homes  into 
urban  areas  and  on  to  the  streets  of  big  cities.  Without  family  or  local  community  support, 
these  children  lack  the  protection,  supervision,  and  direction  of  responsible  adults.  Urban 
street  children  are  often  at  a higher  risk  of  HIV/AIDS  infection  due  to  sexual  exploitation 
and  substance  abuse.  They  depend  upon  the  informal  sector  and  often  on  the  sex  industry 
and  petty  crime  to  survive.  In  addition,  depending  upon  the  nature  of  the  conflict,  street 
children  may  be  predominantly  from  particular  religious  or  ethnic  backgrounds,  making 
them  more  vulnerable  to  abuse  and  stigmatization.  For  children  living  on  the  streets, 
education  therefore  becomes  particularly  important  as  a tool  of  protection.  Carefully 
designed  education  programmes  for  urban  street  children  are  needed.  These  may  include 
apprenticeships  that  allow  children  to  earn  money  whilst  learning  and  provide  them  with 
practical  skills.  Links  should  be  formed  with  local  companies  and  industries  so  that  once 
these  children  are  trained  in  useful  skills,  they  will  then  have  a better  chance  of  entering  the 
formal  job  market. 

Source:  Limmat  Foundation  (1999). 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE 


emergencies  and  reconstruction 

FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


TOOLS  AND  RESOURCES 


1.  ATTRIBUTES  OF  A GOOD  SCHOOL 


AS  SEEN  BY: 

PUPILS 

• Good  relations  with  teachers 

• Help  with  learning  difficulties 

• Good  communication  with  parents. 

PARENTS  AND  COMMUNITY 

• Accessible  to  all  children 

• Safety,  at  school  and  en  route  between  the  home  and  school 

• Qualified  teachers,  sensitive  to  local  customs  and  conditions 

• Good  learning  environment 

• Good  relations  and  accountability  to  the  community 

• Good  performance  in  examinations. 

TEACHERS 

• Decent  salaries,  paid  on  time 

• Realistic  curriculum  with  appropriate  learning  materials 

• Manageable  class  size,  with  motivated  pupils 

• Good  performance  in  examinations 

• Support  for  teaching  in  the  form  of  materials  and  advice 

• Collegial  teaching  staff 

• Impartial  and  honest  school  management 

• Recognition  of  achievement  and  opportunities  to  advance  professionally. 

ADMINISTRATORS  AND  INSPECTORS 

• Good  performance  in  examinations 

• Good  record  of  attendance 

• Strong  working  relationships  among  staff 

• Extracurricular  activities 

• Good  relations  with  the  community 

• Orderly,  safe  and  well-managed  school  environment. 


Source:  World  Bank  (2000). 


Chapter  5:  Rural  populations  17 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


REFERENCES  AND  FURTHER  READING 


ADB  (Asian  Development  Bank).  2003.  Assessment  of  conflict-related  needs  in  the  districts 
of  Puttalam  Anuradhapura  and  Polonnaruwa  Monergala . Retrieved  on  1 May  2005 
from  www.peaceinsrilanka.org. 

Bethke,  L.;  Braunschweig,  S.  2003.  Global  survey  on  education  in  emergencies:  Angola  country 
report . New  York:  Womens  Commission  for  Refugee  Women  and  Children. 

Carr-Hill,  R.  2005.  The  education  of  nomadic  peoples  in  East  Africa:  synthesis  report . Paris: 
11EP-UNESCO;  Tunis:  ADB. 

Fox,  J.J.  n.d.  East  Timor:  assessing  UNTAET’s  role  in  building  local  capacities  for  the  future . 
Canberra:  Council  for  Asia  Europe  Co-operation.  Retrieved  28  June  2005  from 
www.caec-asiaeurope.org/Conference/Publications/fox.PDF. 

Gasperini,  L.;  Lakin,  M.  2003.  “Basic  education  in  rural  areas:  status,  issues  and  prospects”. 
In:  D.  Atchoarena  and  L.  Gasperini  (Eds.),  Education  for  rural  development:  towards 
new  policy  responses.  Paris/Rome:  1IEP-UNESCO/ FAO. 

1ASC  (Inter-Agency  Standing  Committee).  2002.  Growing  the  sheltering  tree . Protecting 
rights  through  humanitarian  action . Geneva:  UN1CEF/1ASC. 

1BE  (International  Bureau  of  Education).  2004.  The  development  of  education . National 
report . Retrieved  29  August  2005  from 

http://www.ibe.unesco.org/lnternational/lCE47/English/Natreps/reports/srilanka.pdf 

Limmat  Foundation.  1999.  Summary  of  the  programme  street  children  in  Colombia  1995-1990 . 
Zurich:  The  Limmat  Foundation. 

Lowicki,  J.  2002.  Fending  for  themselves:  Afghan  refugee  children  and  adolescents  working 
in  urban  Pakistan . New  York:  Women’s  Commission  for  Refugee  Women  and 
Children. 

Lowicki,  J.;  Pillsbury,  A.  2002.  Precious  resources:  adolescents  in  the  reconstruction  of  Sierra 
Leone . New  York:  Women’s  Commission  for  Refugee  Women  and  Children. 

Machel,  G.  2001.  The  impact  of  armed  conflict  on  children . London:  Hurst  &-  Co. 

Nicolai,  S.  2003.  Education  in  emergencies:  a tool  kit  for  starting  and  managing  education  in 
emergencies . London:  Save  the  Children. 

Nicolai,  S.  2004.  Learning  independence:  education  in  emergency  and  transition  in  Timor-Leste . 
Paris:  11EP-UNESCO. 


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Obura,  A.  2003.  Never  again:  educational  reconstruction  in  Rwanda . Paris:  IIEP-UNESCO. 


Taylor,  P.;  Mulhall,  A.  2003.  “Education  for  rural  people  in  Serbia”.  Unpublished 
manuscript. 

UNESCO.  2000.  The  Dakar  Framework  for  Action  - Education  for  All:  meeting  our  collective 
commitments . Paris:  UNESCO. 

White,  J.  2002.  Education  for  rural  people . Mission  Report.  Project  Identification  Mission 
to  Bosnia  and  Herzegovina  5-20  December  2002. 

World  Bank.  1998.  El  Salvador  EDUCO  basic  education  project . Retrieved  on  8 December 
2004  from  http://www.unesco.org/education/poverty/el_salvador.shtml 

World  Bank,  Basic  Education  Cluster.  2000.  Effective  schooling  in  rural  Africa.  Project  report  1. 
Washington,  DC:  World  Bank. 


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CHAPTER 


5 


SECTION  3 


United  Nations  ] International 

Educational,  Scientific  and  [ Institute  for 

Cultural  Organization  * Educational 

Planning 


The  designations  employed  and  the  presentation  of 
material  throughout  this  review  do  not  imply  the  expression 
of  any  opinion  whatsoever  on  the  part  of  UNESCO  or  the 
IIEP  concerning  the  legal  status  of  any  country,  territory, 
city  or  area  or  its  authorities,  or  concerning  its  frontiers 
or  boundaries. 

The  publication  costs  of  this  study  have  been  covered 
through  a grant-in-aid  offered  by  UNESCO  and  by 
voluntary  contributions  made  by  several  Member  States 
of  UNESCO. 


Published  by: 

International  Institute  for  Educational  Planning 
7-9  rue  Eugene  Delacroix,  75116  Paris 
e-mail:  info@iiep.unesco.org 
IIEP  web  site:  www.unesco.org/iiep 


Layout  and  cover  design:  Sabine  Lebeau 
Typesetting:  Sabine  Lebeau 
Printed  in  IIEP’s  printshop 
ISBN:  92-803-1288-X 
©UNESCO  2006 


Chapter  11 

GENDER 


^ MAIN  OBJECTIVES 

• To  achieve  gender  parity,  equality 
and  equity  in  education,  even  and 
especially  during  emergencies  and  early 
reconstruction. 


CONTEXT  AND  CHALLENGES 

Exposure  to  conflict  is  likely  to  affect  any  child’s 
educational  opportunities.  Its  impact  on  access  to 
schooling,  however,  will  be  different  for  boys  and 
girls,  according  to  their  age  and  maturity.  Gender 
has  a significant  impact  upon  a child’s  life  from  a 
very  early  age.  For  example,  in  many  societies, 
discrimination  against  girls  begins  when  they  are 
young  - they  are  given  less  nutritious  food,  work 
earlier,  and  do  not  have  the  same  educational 
opportunities  as  their  male  siblings.  In  most 
cultures,  discrimination  against  girls  becomes 
more  apparent  as  children  get  older  - girls  are 
less  likely  to  stay  in  school  after  the  early  years 
of  primary  education  and,  in  some  places,  may 
be  subject  to  early  marriage,  which  generally 
results  in  their  dropping  out  of  school. 

While  some  vulnerabilities  (such  as  susceptibility 
to  disease)  decrease  as  children  grow  older, 
maturity  often  brings  new  threats.  At  the 
onset  of  puberty,  and  sometimes  before,  girls 
are  vulnerable  to  sexual  abuse,  rape,  kidnapping 
and  trafficking.  While  these  situations  occur 
during  times  of  peace,  they  are  compounded 
during  times  of  conflict,  as  normal  protection 
systems  within  the  family  and  community  are 
less  effective  or  cannot  be  sustained. 

Standard  1,  on  access  and  learning  environment,  in 
the  handbook,  Minimum  standards  for  education  in 
emergencies , chronic  crises  and  early  reconstruction , 
deals  with  equal  access:  “All  individuals  have 
equal  access  to  quality  and  relevant  education 
opportunities”  (1NEE,  2004:  41)  (see  the 
Guidebook , Chapter  7,  'Introduction’,  for  more 
information  on  the  standards).  Achieving  equal 
access  will  require  appropriate  tackling  of  gender 
issues. 


1 

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DAKAR  EDUCATION  FOR  ALL1  (EFA)  GOALS  RELATED  TO  GENDER 


• Eliminating  gender  disparities  in  primary  and  secondary  education  by  2005,  and  achieving 
gender  equality  in  education  by  2015,  with  a focus  on  ensuring  girls’  full  and  equal  access 
to  and  achievement  in  basic  education  of  good  quality. 

• Achieving  a 50  per  cent  improvement  in  levels  of  adult  literacy  by  2015,  especially  for 
women. 

Source:  World  Education  Forum  (2000). 

MILLENNIUM  DEVELOPMENT  GOAL 

Promote  gender  equality  and  empower  women.  Target  3:  Eliminate  gender  disparity  in  primary 
and  secondary  education,  preferably  by  2005,  and  at  all  levels  of  education  no  later  than  2015. 

Source:  United  Nations  (2000). 

UN  GIRLS1  EDUCATION  INITIATIVE 

The  goal  of  this  10-year  programme  is  to  improve  the  quality  and  level  of  girls’  education,  a 
fundamental  human  right  and  an  essential  element  of  sustainable  human  development. 

Source:  UNESCO  (2002). 


Situations  of  emergency  change  the  dynamics  of  gender  - dynamics  that  may  be  reinforced 
or  challenged  in  the  classroom  - through  role  models,  curriculum  and  teaching  methods.  For 
example,  the  diversion  of  men  and  boys  into  armed  forces  is  likely  to  increase  the  workload 
for  girls  and  women,  and  may  also  alter  their  status  in  the  family  and  in  society.  This  can 
be  both  an  opportunity  and  a barrier  to  enhancing  girls’  access  to  education.  Being  in  an 
emergency  may  deprive  young  men  and  women  of  their  traditional  gendered  tasks  and 
from  access  to  traditional  rites  that  cultivate  their  gender  identity  (rites  and  ceremonies  of 
passage  to  adulthood,  initiation  rituals,  etc.).  This  may  increase  alienation  and  despair.  At  the 
same  time,  emergencies  may,  by  necessity  or  opportunity,  create  an  environment  for  more 
equal  gender  roles  and  opportunities.  For  example,  girls  residing  in  refugee  or  1DP  camps 
may  have  more  opportunities  to  go  to  school  than  in  their  home  country  as  international 
organizations  often  place  a priority  on  girls’  education,  and  some  basic  needs  are  potentially 
met  by  food  rations,  etc.  In  a refugee  or  1DP  setting,  it  may  also  be  possible  to  recruit  more 
women  as  teachers  to  serve  as  role  models  and  counsellors  for  girls,  if  there  are  enough 
educated  women  in  the  population.  However,  this  may  not  always  be  the  case,  especially 
in  rural  populations.  Moreover,  inaccessibility  may  mean  that  female  education  supervisors 
do  not  visit  refugee  and  1DP  camps  regularly.  Interruptions  of  secondary  education  make  it 
difficult  to  recruit  women  teachers  for  the  re-opening  or  expansion  of  schooling,  especially 
in  protracted  emergencies. 


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Emergencies  can  also  exaggerate  gender  inequalities.  Particularly  in  conflict,  there  is  a 
danger  that  masculine  and  feminine  roles  and  stereotypes  will  be  reinforced.  Aggressive 
and  violent  behaviour  mainly  from  men  and  boys  is  sometimes  praised  and  often  considered 
necessary.  The  ‘masculinity’  of  war  may  instruct  men  and  boys  to  devalue  their  bodiliness 
and  emotionality.  Sexual  abuse  and  harassment  thus  tend  to  increase  in  crisis  situations, 
and  are  made  worse  with  the  breakdown  of  governmental  and  community  protection 
structures.  Rape  is  frequently  used  by  soldiers  and  militia  as  a weapon  of  war  to  harm  a 
particular  community  or  ethnic  group,  and  women  and  young  girls  are  at  particular  risk.  In 
crises  situations,  for  many,  commercial  sex  or  the  exchange  of  sex  for  protection  or  food 
may  become  survival  strategies. 

Emergencies  may  exacerbate  some  of  the  practical  barriers  to  equal  access,  especially  for 
girls.  There  may  be  an  increase  in  the  number  of  child  mothers  due  to  cases  of  rape.  These 
young  women  may  be  harassed,  humiliated  and  forced  to  drop  out  of  school.  Head-teachers 
may  themselves  refuse  to  allow  child  mothers  to  attend  school.  Because  girls  can  be  at  risk 
of  rape  or  sexual  assault  during  daily  activities  such  as  fetching  water  or  firewood,  attending 
or  travelling  to  school  or  going  to  the  latrine,  families  often  severely  curtail  their  daughters’ 
movements.  Additionally,  with  the  onset  of  menarche,  girls  have  special  sanitary  needs.  In 
areas  of  crisis,  as  well  as  peace,  lack  of  sanitary  towels  and  soap  can  inhibit  girls  entering 
public  areas.  All  of  these  factors  disrupt  girls’  school  attendance,  and  in  some  cases  result 
in  their  dropping  out  of  school  completely. 

During  and  after  conflict,  educational  authorities  must  carefully  consider  factors  that  are 
preventing  girls  from  attending  school  and  take  steps  to  increase  their  participation.  On  the 
other  hand,  it  is  wrong  to  define  gender’  issues  solely  as  the  concerns  of  girls  and  women. 
This  is  a serious  and  often  punitive  mistake  with  regard  to  many  issues,  school  access  among 
them,  as  boys  and  male  youth  are  also  vulnerable,  and  compromised  by  narrow  gender 
stereotypes.  Boys  may  not  be  as  vulnerable  in  numbers  as  large  as  their  female  counterparts, 
but  the  risks  and  difficulties  facing  boys  are  serious  none  the  less. 

In  situations  where  children  are  recruited  or  abducted  to  serve  as  soldiers,  boys  and  adolescent 
males  are  particularly  at-risk.  (See  also  the  Guidebook , Chapter  9}  ‘Former  child  soldiers’.) 
Military  work  threatens  the  physical  and  mental  well-being  of  boys  and  generally  prevents 
them  from  continuing  their  education.  While  girls  are  also  at  risk  of  military  recruitment, 
the  threat  is  generally  more  serious  for  boys.  In  addition  to  the  risks  associated  with  military 
recruitment,  boys  may  also  be  called  upon  to  sneak  out  of  secure  areas  (such  as  camps, 
villages  or  neighbourhoods  in  more-or-less  safe  areas)  to  visit  their  families’  land  in  the 
areas  from  which  they  fled.  Boys  may  also  migrate  in  search  of  work,  often  to  obtain  jobs 
in  extremely  dangerous  occupations  such  as  mining  or  in  the  sex  industries. 

For  both  boys  and  girls,  growing  older  often  means  that  they  are  increasingly  able  to  work 
and  increasingly  susceptible  to  exploitative  labour.  During  and  following  wars,  economic 
pressures  often  overwhelm  families,  including  those  headed  by  youth.  Boys  and  girls  must 


Chapter  6 : Gender 


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3 


often  contribute  to  securing  food  and  shelter  for  their  families.  Parents  begin  to  think  about 
the  cost  of  education  and  potential  long-term  benefits  compared  to  the  immediate  gains  of 
their  childrens  labour.  In  areas  of  crisis,  where  resources  are  scarce,  there  are  many  children 
(especially  girls  that  do  attend  school),  who  drop  out  as  soon  as  they  are  able  to  perform 
some  income-earning  task.  The  necessity  to  contribute  to  their  families'  income,  therefore, 
can  prevent  both  boys  and  girls  from  starting,  attending,  or  continuing  school. 


CONCEPTS  RELATED  TO  GENDER 

Gender:  Refers  to  the  different  characteristics  of  men  and  women  that  are  socially  determined. 
In  contrast,  the  term  ‘sex’  refers  to  the  different  biological  characteristics  between  males  and 
females.  Gender  refers  to  the  different  roles  men  and  women  have  in  a particular  society.  It 
defines  culturally  acceptable  attitudes  and  behaviours  of  men  and  women,  including  their 
responsibilities,  advantages,  disadvantages,  opportunities  and  constraints.  Gender  roles  are 
learned,  vary  within  society  or  culture,  and  are  thus  changeable. 

Parity:  Refers  merely  to  numerical  proportions.  In  education,  gender  parity  would  involve  the 
same  proportion  of  boys  and  girls  entering  the  school,  or  the  same  proportion  represented  in 
overall  enrolment  figures,  or  the  same  proportion  of  candidates  sitting  an  examination. 

Equality:  Refers  to  a much  wider  concept  than  parity,  and  signifies  equality  in  both  number  and 
quality.  In  education,  gender  equality  means  that  boys  and  girls  experience  the  same  advantages 
or  disadvantages  in  terms  of  access,  opportunities,  treatment  and  outcomes. 

Equity:  Goes  beyond  parity,  equality  and  the  administrations  of  justice.  It  embraces  the  notions 
of  fairness,  social  justice  and  the  ‘level  playing  ground’.  It  addresses  the  need  to  right  the 
wrongs,  and  the  fact  that  there  are  some  severely  disadvantaged  groups  in  society,  and  that 
equal  treatment  of  all  social  groups  will  not  bring  about  equal  outcomes.  Providing  equity  will 
imply  providing  disadvantaged  groups,  for  example  girls,  with  favourable  conditions. 

Sources:  NRC  (2004);  Obura  (2004). 


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SUGGESTED  STRATEGIES 


In  emergencies,  most  girls  are  likely  to  have  reduced  access  to  education,  while  others  may 
have  new  educational  opportunities,  for  example  if  they  move  nearer  to  a school,  or  the 
arrival  of  humanitarian  agencies  is  accompanied  by  the  construction  of  new  education 
facilities.  Gender  issues  should  be  considered  in  relation  to  all  the  topics  covered  in  the 
Guidebook . Readers  are  also  encouraged  to  review  the  guidance  notes  in  the  general  overview 
of  the  Guidebook , Chapter  4 , ‘Education  for  all  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction’,  for  a 
thorough  discussion  of  access  and  inclusion.  Some  key  strategies  are  noted  below. 


Summary  of  suggested  strategies 
Gender 

Review  the  gender-related  goals  found  in  the 
Education  for  All  (EFA)  declaration,  Millennium 
Development  Goals  (MDG)  and  United  Nations 
Girls’  Education  Initiative  (UNGEI),  and  adopt 
appropriate  targets  for  emergency-affected 
populations. 

2.  Ensure  that  gender  disaggregated  data  are 
collected  and  analyzed  as  a matter  of  urgency. 

3.  Assess  the  threats  to  safety  - real  and  perceived  - 
in  school  or  travelling  to  and  from  school,  for  boys 
and  girls  respectively. 

4.  Make  schooling  safer. 

5.  Design  physical  facilities  to  make  education  more 
accessible  for  girls. 

6.  Consider  ways  of  making  the  school  environment 
more  accessible  and  inviting  to  girls. 

7.  Consider  ways  of  making  education  available  to 
young  mothers. 

8.  Consider  educational  activities  such  as  off- 
site schooling,  flexible  school  hours  or  distance 
education,  in  order  to  meet  specific  needs  of  older 
girls  and  boys. 


Chapter  6 : Gender 

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Guidance  notes 


1.  Review  the  gender-related  goals  found  in  the  Education  for  All  (EFA) 
declaration,  Millennium  Development  Goals  (MDG)  and  United 
Nations  Girls’  Education  Initiative  (UNGEI),  and  adopt  appropriate 
targets  for  emergency-affected  populations.  (See  text  box  on  page  2 
of  this  chapter.) 

• What  are  the  gender  issues  in  your  country,  and  how  do  they  relate  to  whether 
these  international  goals  can  be  achieved  in  general,  and  in  emergency-affected 
areas? 

• Determine  whether  international  donors  have  specific  policies  on  reaching  gender 
equity  in  education.  Do  these  policies  agree  with  or  conflict  with  your  country’s 
strategy  for  reaching  gender  equity? 

• Communicate  your  country’s  gender  goals  to  the  donors. 

• Discuss  methods  to  reach  the  same  aim  - education  for  all  - even  when  there 
are  conflicting  policies/approaches. 

• Consider  forming  partnerships  with  donors  and  other  organizations  in  order 
to  increase  girls’  access  to  schooling  (see  point  1 in  the  ‘Tools  and  resources’ 
section  for  specific  suggestions). 

2.  Ensure  that  gender  disaggregated  data  are  collected  and  analyzed  as 
a matter  of  urgency. 

It  is  important  throughout  the  emergency  to  collect  statistical  data  on  school 
enrolments,  retention  and  teachers,  etc.,  with  separate  data  for  female  and  male 
teachers,  and  for  female  and  male  students.  The  data  should  be  improved  over  time 
(e.g.  grade  level  (school  year)  of  students,  examination  results,  teacher  qualifications 
and  training,  infrastructure,  equipment,  textbooks,  supplies)  to  constitute  an  orderly 
education  management  information  system’.  Data  should  also  be  collected  with  the 
help  of  small  household  and  community  group  surveys  to  determine  which  boys  and 
girls  are  not  in  school.  (See  also  the  Guidebook , Chapter  34 , ‘Data  collection  and 
education  management  information  systems  (EMIS)’.) 

• In  many  countries  and  emergency  situations,  girls  tend  to  drop  out  of  primary 
school  after  the  first  three  years.  Since  completion  of  primary  school  is  a key 
educational  objective,  determine  through  consultations  and  household  sample 
surveys  which  girls  stay  in  school,  which  girls  drop  out  and  why . 

• Consult  with  teachers,  students,  parents  and  community  members  to  determine 
reasons  why  girls  and  boys  are  not  attending  school  and,  if  applicable,  their  daily 
activities  and  schedules  that  prevent  them  from  attending  school.  (See  also  the 
‘Tools  and  resources’  section  for  examples  of  barriers  to  girls’  education  and 
possible  responses). 


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■ 


0 RECOMMENDATIONS  TO  PREVENT  FEMALE  DROP-OUT  IN  IRC  REFUGEE  SCHOOLS 
IN  GUINEA 

1.  To  improve  young  girls’  perceptions  of  their  academic  capabilities, 

• Gender  training  programme  for  all  teachers. 

• Showcase  girls’  work  in  early  primary  grades. 

• ‘It’s  not  too  late’  campaign  for  girls  aged  13  or  older  to  return  to  school. 

2.  To  increase  adult  involvement  in  their  daughters’  education. 

• ‘20-minute  a Day’  campaign  for  parents  to  hear  their  daughters  read. 

• Parent/daughter  school  days. 

• Female  education  campaigns  in  target  areas  of  low  enrolment  and  high  dropout. 

3.  To  provide  academic  support  for  girls  who  have  no  adult  assistance. 

• Assist  female  students  living  alone  to  organize  study  groups. 

• Organize  an  academic  ‘buddy  system’  where  each  of  these  girls  is  paired  up  with  a girl 
from  the  next  class  up. 

• Organize  monthly  conferences  with  the  education  co-ordinator  for  the  zone. 

4.  To  ease  the  economic  burden  that  school  poses  for  girls. 

• Provide  clothing. 

• Implement  scholarship  programmes  for  the  very  poor  who  are  academically  talented. 

• Provide  a space  in  school  for  income-generating  activities. 

5.  To  address  reproductive  health  and  contraceptive  issues. 

• Start  contraceptive  education  sooner  (at  grade  three). 

• Revise  the  contraceptive  curriculum  for  upper  primary,  including  negotiation  skills. 

• Organize  young  men’s  social  clubs  to  discuss  responsible  sexuality  (girls’  clubs  already 
exist). 

• Organize  reproductive  health  seminars  with  parents. 

• Experiment  with  conducting  separate  classes  for  pregnant  students. 

• Initiate  co-operation  with  United  Nations  agencies  and  other  international  NGOs 
regarding  sanction  for  any  worker  who  impregnates  a student. 

Source:  Rhodes,  Walker  and  Mar tor  (1998:  21-23). 


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Q GENDER  AND  ACCESS:  THE  CASE  OF  MEDICAL  HIGH  SCHOOLS  IN  KOSOVO 

Whilst  girls  constitute  48  per  cent  of  Kosovo’s  primary  school  student  population,  in  secondary 
schools,  female  dropout  is  more  common.  Only  42  per  cent  of  the  secondary  school  student 
population  are  girls,  and  a large  proportion  of  the  girls  attend  so-called  medical  high  schools. 
Serious  questions  can  be  asked  about  the  relevance  of  the  education  provided  in  the  high 
schools,  and  job  opportunities  for  graduates  who  are  poor.  The  schools  have  therefore  been 
threatened  with  closure. 

The  popularity  and  social  significance  of  the  medical  high  schools  is  important,  however. 
First,  it  is  the  only  option  of  secondary  schooling  available  to  many  girls,  especially  from 
rural  areas.  Second,  parents  clearly  understand  that  a job  may  not  be  waiting  for  their 
daughters  when  they  graduate  from  medical  high  school.  However,  the  skills  and  knowledge 
gained  at  a medical  high  school  are  considered  useful,  regardless  of  the  employment 
situation.  Unemployed  graduates  can  still  apply  their  medical  knowledge  and  skills  to  ‘help 
their  families’  as  daughters,  wives  and  mothers.  This  idea  of  medical  high  schools  became 
particularly  significant  during  what  some  Kosoval  Albanians  referred  to  as  the  ‘war  years’ 
(1990-1999).  As  a medical  high-school  director  recalled,  “Medical  high-school  student 
graduates  had  a high  status  during  the  war  because  of  their  ability  to  aid  others”.  Girls  with 
medical  high-school  degrees  aided  the  injured  during  the  war,  while  in  flight  to  refugee 
camps,  and  following  their  return  to  Kosovo. 

Source:  Sommers  and  Buckland  (2004) 


3*  Assess  the  threats  to  safety  - real  and  perceived  - in  school,  or  travelling 
to  and  from  school,  for  boys  and  girls  respectively* 

In  many  cases,  parents  hesitate  to  send  their  children,  in  particular  their  older 
daughters,  to  school  when  they  are  worried  about  insecurity  or  sexual  harassment. 
If  they  belong  to  a minority  group,  there  may  be  special  hazards,  and  older  girls 
may  be  held  back  from  attending  school.  Standard  1,  on  analysis,  in  the  Minimum 
standards  handbook , deals  with  initial  assessment:  “A  timely  education  assessment  of 
the  emergency  situation  is  conducted  in  a holistic  and  participatory  manner.”  One 
of  the  key  indicators  for  this  standard  is  the  conduction  of  an  initial  rapid  education 
assessment,  taking  into  account  security  and  safety.  When  doing  assessments, 
the  participation  of  the  concerned  population  is  crucial.  Standard  1 on  community 
participation  in  the  MSEE  handbook  requests  that:  “Emergency-affected  community 
members  actively  participate  in  assessing,  planning,  implementing,  monitoring  and 
evaluating  the  education  programme”  (INEE,  2004:  14).  To  find  out  the  threats 
perceived  by  the  children  and  their  families  or  community: 

• Ask  parents. 

• Ask  community  groups  such  as  womens  groups,  community  leaders. 

• Ask  children  and  youth  (boys  and  girls)  about  their  concerns,  and  their  own  and 
other  children  s experiences. 

• Ask  head-teachers  and  teachers  who  live  far  away  from  school,  especially  women 
teachers. 

• Rank  the  threats  in  order  of  severity,  and  according  to  what  resources  may  be 
required  to  eliminate  or  reduce  the  threats. 


8 Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


4* 


Make  schooling  safer* 


Once  the  threats  have  been  identified,  determine  how  access  to  education  can  be 
made  safer.  Standard  2,  on  access  and  learning  environment,  in  the  Minimum  standards 
handbook , deals  with  protection  and  well-being:  “learning  environments  are  secure, 
and  promote  the  protection  and  emotional  well-being  of  learners”  (1NEE,  2004:  41). 
Standard  3 on  access  and  learning  environments  regards  facilities  and  request  that  these 
are  ”...  conductive  to  the  physical  well-being  of  learners”.  Consider  the  following: 

• Children,  particularly  girls  and  minorities,  are  susceptible  to  abuse  when  travelling 
to  and  from  educational  activities. 

• In  some  situations,  it  may  be  possible  to  establish  schools  (or  places  of  learn- 
ing) that  are  closer  to  the  students. 

• In  extreme  situations,  more  targeted  interventions  may  be  required. 

- Recruit  parents  or  students  from  the  community  to  escort  at-risk  children 
to  school. 

- Minimize  police  or  military  escorts  as  their  presence  will  help  to  militarize 
the  school  environment,  and  will  also  diminish  the  community's  responsi- 
bility for  protection. 

• Children  are  also  vulnerable  to  abuse  while  at  school.  Teachers  may  abuse  their 
authority  by  offering  better  grades  or  money  to  pressure  girls  for  sexual  favours 
or  'dating.'  Girls  may  have  sex  with  teachers  for  better  grades.  Students  may  also 
abuse  or  harass  other  students.  Some  of  the  ways  student  safety  can  be  tackled 
include: 

• Incorporate  a code  of  conduct  into  teachers'  and  school  administrators' 
contracts.  (See  also  the  Guidebook , Chapter  16 , 'Teacher  motivation,  com- 
pensation and  working  conditions'.)  In  addition  to  training  the  teachers  and 
administrators  on  this  code  of  conduct,  ensure  that  students  are  also  trained 
or  oriented. 

- Students  should  be  made  aware  of  their  rights  with  regard  to  sexual 
harassment,  corporal  punishment  and  discrimination. 

- The  code  of  conduct  should  specifically  forbid  sexual  relations  between 
teachers  and  students,  stating  that  the  teacher  should  be  automatically 
dismissed  and  criminal  proceedings  initiated  should  any  form  of  sexual 
relations  occur. 

- The  code  of  conduct  should  define  sexual  harassment  and  punishments. 
These  should  be  developed  in  collaboration  with  students  to  define  the 
kinds  of  abuses  that  tend  to  occur,  including  sexual  advances,  fondling, 
lifting  girls'  dresses,  boys  entering  girls’  toilets  or  girls’  dormitories. 

- Administrators  and  teachers  should  be  instructed  to  avoid  stigmatizing 
those  who  are  victims  of  abuse.  In  the  case  of  sexual  harassment  of  both 
boys  and  girls,  this  kind  of  stigmatization  can  permanently  interrupt  their 
education,  as  well  as  affect  their  emotional  and  social  well-being. 


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9 


• Develop  multiple  channels  through  which  students  can  report  abuses. 
Possibilities  include: 

- Clarification  of  students'  rights  during  the  student  orientation. 

- Designation  of  a female  staff  person  in  whom  girls  can  confide. 

- Election  of  student  representatives  who  can  take  issues  forward  to  the 
school  administration  or  the  parent  teacher  association. 

• Develop  and  inform  all  stakeholders  about  reporting  procedures.  Make  infor- 
mation widely  accessible  through  the  use  of  posters,  handbills,  etc.  Emphasis 
must  be  put  on: 

- Confidentiality,  meaning  that  information  is  kept  private  between  consent- 
ing individuals.  Information  can  only  be  shared  with  those  who  need  to 
know  in  order  to  provide  assistance  and  intervention,  and  only  with  the 
consent  of  the  offended  party. 

- Consent,  implying  mutual  agreement.  Informed  consent  means  making 
an  informed  choice  freely  and  voluntary  by  persons  in  an  equal  power 
relationship. 

• Consider  alternatives  such  as  all  girls'  schools  if  parents  refuse  to  send  their 
girls  to  school.  In  some  cultures,  it  will  also  be  necessary  to  ensure  that  female 
teachers  teach  girls. 

• Ensure  that  women  are  represented  on  school  management  committees  and 
support  their  input  regarding  school  safety. 


Q THE  USE  OF  FEMALE  CLASSROOM  ASSISTANTS  TO  MINIMIZE  SEXUAL  EXPLOITATION 
OF  STUDENTS 

In  order  to  prevent  male  teachers  from  exploiting  female  students  by  trading  good  grades 
for  sex,  the  International  Rescue  Committee  (IRC)  hired  female  classroom  assistants  for 
its  refugee  schools  in  Guinea.  These  assistants  monitor  the  grading  of  students,  provide 
confidential  referral  and  counselling  services,  monitor  the  progress  of  students,  organize 
academic  extracurricular  activities  for  girls  and  follow-up  with  parents  who  do  not  send 
their  girls  to  school.  In  addition,  the  IRC  provides  training  on  gender-based  violence  issues 
for  staff,  teachers,  parents,  youth  leaders  and  students. 

Source:  IRC  (2003). 


Guidebook  for  planning  education 

IIEP  • INTERNATI 


in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 


ONAL  INSTITUT 


FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


5* 


Design  physical  facilities  to  make  education  more  accessible  for  girls* 

To  facilitate  girls'  participation  in  schooling,  talk  with  girls,  mothers  and  female  teachers 
from  the  affected  community  to  identify  factors  that  they  consider  important. 
Participatory  drawing/mapping  of  school  compounds  with  girls  and  boys  can  assist 
in  this  process.  Factors  to  consider  are: 

• School  should  not  be  too  far  from  home;  there  should  be  a safe  route  (perhaps 
using  escorts  or  buses). 

• Facilities  for  girls  and  female  teachers  to  pray  should  be  made  available. 

• Water  access  and  separate  toilets  for  girls  and  boys  and  for  teachers  and  students 
should  be  close  to  the  classroom  and  preferably  visible  from  the  staffroom. 

• If  necessary,  schools  should  have  a provision  of  appropriate  clothing  and  sanitary 
supplies. 

6*  Consider  ways  of  making  the  school  environment  more  accessible  and 
inviting  to  girls* 

• Place  special  emphasis  on  hiring  and  training  women  teachers,  classroom 
assistants,  administrators  and  other  education  workers. 

• Review  the  curriculum  and  textbooks  for  gender  bias,  and  eliminate  and  adapt 
content  as  necessary.  Ensure  that  the  text,  as  well  as  examples  and  illustrations, 
refer  to  both  boys  and  girls.  Make  special  efforts  to  include  curriculum  content  that 
challenge  dominant  notions  of  masculinity  and  femininity,  for  example  by  using 
pictures/drawings  of  women  performing  traditional  mens  tasks  and  vice  versa. 

• Make  special  efforts  to  include  elements  in  the  curriculum  and  reference  material 
that  has  special  relevance  for  girls. 

• Offer  appropriate  sports  and  recreation  activities  for  girls. 

• Offer  education  on  reproductive  health. 

• Provide  leadership  opportunities  for  girls  in  the  classroom  and  in  the  school. 

• Train  teachers  on  the  importance  of  ensuring  that  girls  have  equal  access  to 
resources,  including  the  teachers  time  and  attention.  This  point  is  reflected  in 
Standard  2 on  teaching  and  learning  in  the  MSEE  handbook,  and  requires  that 
“teachers  and  other  education  personnel  receive  periodic,  relevant  and  structured 
training  according  to  need  and  circumstances”.  If  teachers  are  expected  to  sensitize 
their  students  on  gender  issues,  they  themselves  must  first  be  sensitized. 


Chapter  6 : Gender 


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NTERNATIONAL  INSTITUT 


FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


0 HOME  SCHOOLS  FOR  GIRLS  IN  AFGHANISTAN 

Afghanistan  has  one  of  the  lowest  literacy  rates  in  the  world;  less  than  one  third  of  the 
population  over  the  age  of  15  can  read  and  write.  Under  the  Taliban,  it  was  estimated  that 
only  39  per  cent  of  boys  and  3 per  cent  of  girls  had  access  to  education.  Most  schools  in 
Afghanistan  were  destroyed  during  the  Soviet  war  after  1979  and  about  85  per  cent  of  the 
country’s  teachers  fled. 

Until  November  2001,  a large  number  of  home-based  schools  had  mushroomed  in  the  major 
cities,  mostly  under  female  teachers  who  were  no  longer  permitted  to  work  in  the  formal 
sector.  The  Taliban  responded  to  agencies’  assistance  to  support  these  non-recognized 
schools  by  closing  all  externally  supported  home  schools  in  1998,  decreeing  that  schools 
could  no  longer  teach  girls  over  the  age  of  8 years,  and  were  required  to  use  curricula  based 
on  the  Koran.  Still,  it  was  estimated  that  more  than  45,000  girls  under  the  age  of  10  years 
were  engaged  in  secret  learning  at  primary  level  in  Afghanistan  up  to  the  fall  of  the  Taliban 
regime  in  November  2001.  Despite  the  new  developments  and  a massive  government-led 
back-to-school  campaign,  a large  proportion  of  Afghan  children  still  did  not  have  access  to 
formal  schooling  three  years  later.  For  many  of  them,  especially  girls,  home-schools  continue 
to  play  an  important  role  in  providing  alternative  education. 

Sources:  Campbell  (2001);  Nicolai  (2003);  and  TDH  (2004). 


7 ♦ Consider  ways  of  making  education  available  to  young  mothers* 

• Ensure  that  head  teachers  do  not  refuse  to  allow  young  mothers  to  attend 
school. 

• Make  it  possible  for  female  students  and  teachers  to  bring  their  children  to  school, 
perhaps  by  providing  nursery  or  preschools.  (See  also  the  Guidebook , Chapter  13, 
'Early  childhood  development’). 

• Consider  providing  food  and  other  supplies  for  babies  at  the  school. 

• Organize  home  schools  or  evening  classes,  and  set  up  a buddy  system  that  allows 
girls  to  walk  in  groups  from  their  homes. 

• Organize  non-formal  literacy/numeracy  programmes  that  are  offered  at  flexible 
times  and/or  provide  childcare. 

• Organize  distance  education  (for  those  who  have  completed  primary 
education) . 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


8* 


Consider  educational  activities,  such  as  off-site  schooling,  flexible 
school  hours  or  distance  education,  in  order  to  meet  specific  needs 
of  older  girls  and  boys* 

If  children  must  work  to  support  themselves  and  their  families,  consider  designing 
flexible  educational  activities  such  as  off-site  schooling,  flexible  school  hours  or  distance 
education  in  order  to  provide  education  at  times  and  places  where  children  and  youth 
can  attend. 

• Find  out  from  children,  their  family  and  community  members  which  gender- 
sensitive  conditions  and  timeframes  are  needed  to  ensure  that  both  girls  and  boys 
have  access  to  effective  education. 

• Consider  programmes  such  as  vocational  education  and  apprenticeships  when 
youth,  especially  boys,  perceive  a lack  of  relevant  educational  opportunities. 

• Establish  what  non-formal  educational  practices  already  exist,  including  traditional 
rites  and  ceremonies  related  to  gender  roles  (initiation  rituals,  traditional  ‘training' 
for  adulthood,  etc.).  Encourage  and  facilitate  the  continuation  of  these  practices 
where  appropriate.  Bear  in  mind  that  they  may  be  an  important  part  of  young 
peoples  learning  and  maturing  process,  but  may  also  help  sustain  gender 
inequalities  and  discriminatory  practices. 


Chapter  6 : Gender 


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NTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


TOOLS  AND  RESOURCES 


1*  Examples  of  barriers  to  girls’  education  and  possible  responses 

Note:  These  barriers  may  be  intensified  in  times  of  emergency  and  early  reconstruction. 


BARRIERS 

POSSIBLE  APPROACHES/RESPONSES 

HOUSEHOLD  BARRIERS  AND  FAMILY  RESOURCE  LEVELS 

• Direct  costs: 

- School  tuition  fees 

- Clothing  and  shoes 

- School  books/supplies 

• Indirect  costs: 

- Household  girls’/boys’  work 

- Fetching  wood,  fodder,  and  water 

- Market  activity 

- Girls’  malnutrition 

- Disabilities 

• Poverty 

• Low  status  for  women 

• Parental  illiteracy/lack  of  awareness  about 
education 

• Early  marriage 

• Family  values 

• Economic  incentive  programmes  (e.g.  small 
scholarships,  subsidies,  school  supplies  and 
clothing/ uniforms) 

• School  fee  waivers 

• Vouchers  (clothing,  shoes,  supplies) 

• Micro-enterprise  programmes 

• Child-care  programmes  for  siblings 

• Labour-saving  technologies 

• Reallocation  of  household  labour 

• Mothers’/parent  education 

• Mothers’/parent  participation 

• Social  mobilization  campaigns 

POLICY  BARRIERS 

• Insufficient  national  budget  for  primary / 
secondary  education 

• Absence  of  policies  to  address  dropout  caused  by 
examinations/pregnancy,  etc. 

• Absence  of  child  labour  laws 

• Lack  of  enforcement  of  compulsory  education 
policies 

• Policy  favouring  boys/males  as  workers 

• Fees  policy 

• The  policy  of  free  education  is  weak  or  not 
implemented 

• Formulation  of  curricula 

• Support  of  conventional  role  for  women 

• Education  policy  against  married  students 

• Analysis,  planning,  and  implementation  of 
policies  supporting  girls’  education 

• Analysis  and  implementation  of  labour  laws 

• National  dialogue 

• National  media  campaign 

• Resource  reallocation  of  national  budget  to 
education 

• Variety  of  approaches  to  make  education 
available 

• Laws  to  ensure  girls’  safety  and  prevent 
harassment  by  teachers 

INFRASTRUCTURE  BARRIERS 

• Distance  to  school 

• Absence  of  roads/transport 

• Inadequate  basic  services  in  communities  (e.g. 
water,  electricity,  fuel) 

• Inadequate  basic  services  in  schools  (e.g. 
separate,  clean  latrines) 

• Absence  of/poor  facilities 

• Poor  design,  not  meeting  pedagogical  and 
cultural  requirements 

• National  budget  analysis,  reallocation,  and 
implementation 

• Rural  electrification/water  programmes 

• Infrastructure  programmes  (e.g.  road  building; 
rural  housing  for  female  teachers) 

• Improved  latrines,  especially  for  adolescent  girls 

• Community  support  programmes  (labour 
contributions,  etc.) 

• School  mapping  to  further  policy  goals 

• Schools  close  to  home 

• Small  school  strategies  such  as  multi-grade, 
cluster  schools 

• Programmes  that  make  schools  safe  and 
protective  environments 

Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


BARRIERS 

POSSIBLE  APPROACHES/RESPONSES 

COMMUNITY  BELIEFS  AND  PRACTICES 

• Lack  of  knowledge  of  the  social  and  private 
benefits  of  education 

• Gender  and  cultural  stereotypes 

• Perceptions  of  insecurity 

• Limited  roles  for  girls  and  women 

• Differential  treatment  of  girls  (e.g.  poor  nutrition 
and  health  care) 

• Lack  of  economic  and  social  opportunities  for 
educated  girls 

• Early  marriage 

• Glorification  of ‘motherhood’ 

• Female  seclusion 

• Sexual  abuse/harassment 

• Domestic  violence 

• Belief  that  girls  should  leave  school  as  soon  as 
they  have  enough  education  to  make  money 

• Men  viewed  as  breadwinners 

• Inheritance  patterns 

• Male-dominated  education  system 

• Gender-differentiated  child  rearing  practices 

• Culturally  appropriate  schools 

• Endorsement  by  religious  leaders 

• Practices  that  ensure  girls’  safety 

• Media  programmes/social  marketing 

• Motivational  materials 

• Village  committees  organized  to  promote 
culturally  acceptable  female  education 

• Female  social  promoters  who  tutor  girls  and 
provide  encouragement 

• Motivational  materials  (e.g.  posters,  story  books) 

• Incentives  for  female  teachers  in  rural  areas 

• Incentives  for  female  students 

• Equal  access  to  economic  opportunities  for 
educated  girls  (property  laws,  etc.;  hiring 
standards) 

• Family  planning,  health  education:  advocacy  for 
men  and  women 

• Mobilization,  parent-teacher  associations,  radio, 
television,  literacy:  all  with  gender  considerations 
given  priority 

• Gender-awareness  training 

EDUCATIONAL  BARRIERS 

• Lack  of  gender-sensitive  teachers/ curriculum/ 
materials 

• Lack  of  role  models 

• School  calendar/schedule  in  conflict  with  girls’ 
domestic  or  market  responsibilities 

• Curriculum  and  instructional  strategies  not 
relevant  to  girls’  learning  needs 

• Threatening/non-supportive  learning 
environment 

• Expensive  books/school  costs/budgets 

• Teacher  quality 

• Poor  management 

• Lack  of  confidence  in  girls  as  learners 

• Community  school  programmes 

• Teacher  education 

• Curricula  and  educational  materials  that  address 
girls’  learning  needs 

• Gender-sensitive  teachers 

• Flexible  school  calendar  and  schedules 

• Improved  quality  of  education 

• Safe  and  secure  learning  environment 

• Female  education  personnel 

• Incentives  for  female  teachers  in  rural  areas 

• Tutoring  and  girl-to-girl  programmes 

• Increased  school  places 

• Programmes  to  increase  enrolment 

• Better  designed,  cheaper  learning  environments 

Source:  Adapted  from  UNICEF  (2000). 


Chapter  6 : Gender 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


1 5 


2.  Common  interventions  to  assist  girls’  and  women’s 
participation  in  emergency  situations 


ISSUE 

POSSIBLE  INTERVENTION 

SECURITY 

• Insecurity  of  travelling  to  or  from 
school  or  educational  activity 

• Threat  of  sexual  violence 

• Providing  escort  or  transport  to  and  from  educational 
activity 

• Providing  training  in  assertive  behaviour  and  negotiation 
skills 

• Creating  safe  schools  though  participatory  policy 
development 

• Forming  girls  and  boys  groups  to  discuss  and  act  against 
sexual  violence 

• Raising  community  awareness  about  how  to  prevent 
sexual  violence 

CULTURAL 

• Cultural  views  against  female 
education;  often  compounded  if  there 
is  no  certification  or  possibility  for 
employment 

• Education  beyond  a certain  level  is  not 
valued 

• Early  marriage  or  betrothal 

• Gender  roles  requiring  girls  to 
undertake  home  duties  during  school 
hours 

• Gender  work  roles  limiting  time  for 
homework 

• Lack  of  separate  facilities  in  schools 
(latrines  and  in  some  cultures  separate 
classrooms  or  schools) 

• Improving  access  to  firewood,  water  and  childcare 

• Building  equal  numbers  of  latrines  for  male  and  female 
students  and  teachers 

• Distributing  food  through  schools 

• Providing  extracurricular  activities 

• Providing  girls  with  opportunities  and  spaces  for  play 

• Hiring  and  empowering  female  teachers  and  school 
administrators 

• Sensitization  of  community  as  to  benefits  of  girls’ 
education  in  terms  of  employment,  childcare,  etc. 

• Empowering  Parent  Teacher  Associations  to  facilitate  and 
monitor  girls  access  to  education 

• Construction  of  separate  facilities  in  school 

• Inclusion  of  girls’  education  issues  in  teacher  training, 
e.g.  equal  questioning  of  girls  and  boys,  group  work 

• Scholarships 

• Facilitating  discussion  and  removal  of  gender-biased 
policies  and  practices 

• Provision  of  child  care 

ECONOMIC 

• Preference  for  boys’  education  if  the 
family  is  poor 

• Lack  of  proper  clothing,  sanitary 
materials  and  soap 

• Economic  programmes  focusing  on  low-income 
households,  with  the  condition  that  girls  in  the  household 
attend  school 

• Providing  educational  materials  to  all  students  to  decrease 
burden  on  parents 

• Provision  of  sanitary  towels,  soap,  and  clothing  to  girls 
attending  school 

• Discourage  or  make  optional  the  use  of  school  uniforms 

Source:  INEE  (2002). 


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3.  Partnership  and  social  mobilization 


The  very  ambitious  Millennium  Development  Goals  (MDG)  goals  for  education  cannot  be 
achieved  by  ministries  of  education  alone,  or  by  educators,  though  both  are  critical  to  the 
effort.  A broader  coalition  of  partnerships  is  essential  and  education  must  be  taken  beyond 
the  domain  of  the  technical,  turning  it  into  a public  movement  in  each  country  from  the 
community  grassroots  level  to  the  political  leadership.  The  following  actions  should  be 
considered,  with  appropriate  adaptation,  where  emergency  conditions  apply: 

• Engage  the  government  at  national,  governorate  and  district  levels.  Engage  the 
ministry  of  education  as  well  as  the  ministries  of  information,  finance,  and  religious 
affairs  should  they  exist.  If  child  labour  is  an  issue,  encourage  the  participation  of  the 
ministry  of  labour.  The  judiciary  department  should  be  involved  if  laws  concerning 
the  right  to  education  are  violated. 

• Encourage  business  leaders  involved  in  education  to  mobilize  their  possible  engagement 
in  local  financing  of  girls'  education. 

• Support  communities  to  engage  fully  in  mobilizing  efforts  for  girls’  education,  both  in 
order  to  understand  what  they  want  for  the  upcoming  generation  and  to  mobilize  their 
support  to  schools  and  educators  in  their  community,  including  local  financing. 

• Facilitate  NGOs  and  civil-society  organizations,  especially  those  representing 
minority  and  marginalized  groups,  and  professional  and  workers’  associations  (e.g. 
farmers’  association,  teachers’  association,  doctors’  association)  to  lobby  for  girls’ 
education. 

• Enlist  parliamentarians  as  partners  for  girls’  education.  Remain  in  touch  with  their  views, 
to  keep  them  sensitized  to  education  issues,  and  to  ensure  that  they  support  the  girls’ 
education  needs  of  their  constituencies  and  support  national  funding  and  education 
reform  legislation,  especially  as  it  relates  to  access  to  quality  education  for  girls. 

• Engage  religious  leaders  as  critical  partners  and  mobilizers  of  parents  and  communities 
so  that  families  enrol  their  children,  especially  girls,  in  school  and  keep  them  there. 
The  networks  of  houses  of  worship  are  an  indispensable  when  mobilizing  communities 
for  girls’  education. 

• Enlist  the  media  to  raise  awareness  and  public  demand  for  education,  and  keep  girls’ 
education  issues  constantly  on  the  minds  of  leaders  at  national  and  sub-national 
levels. 

• Consider  children’s  views  and  recommendations  in  programme  planning  and  advocacy 
for  girls’  education  to  help  understand  needs  and  concerns.  Children  have  the  right 
to  be  consulted  about  decisions  that  affect  them. 

• Involve  donor  partners  who  can  provide  technical,  advocacy  and  financial  support, 
including  the  World  Bank  and  regional  multi-lateral  funding  institutions. 

• Through  a national  education  policy,  ensure  that  both  private  and  public  education 
efforts  complement  and  support  each  other  and  that  both  demonstrate  a commitment 
to  girls’  education. 

Source:  UNESCO  (2002). 


Chapter  6:Gender  17 

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REFERENCES  AND  FURTHER  READING 


Campbell,  S.  2001.  Lost  changes:  the  changing  situations  of  children  in  Afghanistan  1990-2000 . 
UNICEF.  Retrieved  29  August  2005  from 

http://www.reliefweb.int/library/documents/2001/gmc-afg-30jun.pdf 

1NEE  (Inter-Agency  Network  for  Education  in  Emergencies).  2002.  “Gender  equality/ girls’ 
and  women’s  education”.  In:  Good  practice  guides  for  emergency  education.  Retrieved 
29  August  2005  from  http://ineesite.org/inclusion/gender.asp 

1NEE  (Inter-Agency  Network  for  Education  in  Emergencies).  2004.  Minimum  standards  for 
education  in  emergencies , chronic  crisis  and  early  reconstruction . Paris:  1NEE. 

1ASC  (Inter-Agency  Standing  Committee).  2002.  Growing  the  sheltering  tree:  protecting 
rights  through  humanitarian  action . Geneva:  UN1CEF/1ASC. 

IRC  (International  Rescue  Committee).  2003.  Refugee  protection , education  and  renewal 
activities  in  Guinea . New  York:  IRC. 

Kirk,  J.  2003.  Women  in  contexts  of  crisis:  gender  and  conflict . Paper  commissioned  for  the 
EFA  Monitoring  Report,  2003.  Retrieved  29  August  2005  from 
http://portal.unesco.org/education/en/ev.php-URL_ID=25755&-URL_DO  = DO_ 
TOPIC£rURL_SECTION=201.html 

Kirk,  J.  2004.  “Teachers  creating  change:  working  for  girls’  education  and  gender  equity 
in  South  Sudan”.  In:  Equals , beyond  access:  gender ; education  and  development , 9, 
Nov/Dec  2004.  Retrieved  29  August  2005  from 

http://kl.ioe.ac.Uk/schools/efps/GenderEducDev/10E%20EQUALS%20NO.9.pdf 

Kirk,  J.  2004.  “Promoting  a gender-just  peace:  the  roles  of  women  teachers  in  peacebuilding 
and  reconstruction”.  In:  Gender  and  Development , 12(3),  50-59. 

Nicolai,  S.  2003.  Education  in  emergencies:  a tool  kit  for  starting  and  managing  education  in 
emergencies . London:  Save  the  Children. 

Nicolai,  S.;  Triplehorn,  C.  2003.  The  role  of  education  in  protecting  children  in  conflict 
(Humanitarian  Practice  Network  Paper  No.  42).  London:  OD1. 

NRC  (Norwegian  Refugee  Council).  2004.  “Prevention  of  gender-based  violence”.  In:  Camp 
management  toolkit . Oslo:  NRC. 

Obura,  A.  2004.  Peace,  reconciliation  and  conflict  resolution  education  framework  proposal: 
Rwanda.  Draft.  Kigali:  DFID. 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


Rhodes,  R.;  Walker,  D.;  Martor,  R.  1998.  Where  do  our  girls  go?  Female  dropout  in  the  IRC- 
Guinea  primary  schools.  New  York:  IRC. 

Sommers,  M.;  Buckland,  P.  2004.  Parallel  worlds . Rebuilding  the  education  system  in  Kosovo . 
Paris:  11EP-UNESCO. 

TDH  (Terres  des  hommes).  2004.  Home  schools  for  girls  in  Kabul . Retrieved  29  August  2005 
from  http://www.tdhafghanistan.org/projects3.htm 

UNESCO.  2001.  “Girls’  education”.  In:  World  Education  Forum  Thematic  Study . Paris: 
UNESCO. 

UNESCO.  2002.  The  millennium  development  goals  and  the  United  Nations  girls  education 
initiative:  a guidance  note  to  UN  country  teams . Retrieved  on  29  August  2005  from 
http  ://www.unesco.org/ education/ efa/know_sharing/ flagship_initiatives/ ungei_ 
guidance.pdf 

UNICEF.  2000.  Examples  of  barriers  to  girls  education  and  possible  responses . Retrieved 
29  August  2005  from  http://www.unicef.org/girlseducation/index.php 

United  Nations.  2000.  Millennium  Development  Goals . Available  at:  www.un.org/ 
millenniumgoals/ 

World  Education  Forum.  2000.  The  Dakar  Framework  for  Action  - Education  for  All:  meeting 
our  collective  commitments . Paris:  UNESCO. 


Chapter  6 : Gender 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


CHAPTER 


6 


SECTION  3 


United  Nations  ] International 

Educational,  Scientific  and  [ Institute  for 

Cultural  Organization  * Educational 

Planning 


o 

w 


Chapter 


< 

w 


ETHNICITY 
POLITICAL  AFFILIATION 

RELIGION 


The  designations  employed  and  the  presentation  of 
material  throughout  this  review  do  not  imply  the  expression 
of  any  opinion  whatsoever  on  the  part  of  UNESCO  or  the 
IIEP  concerning  the  legal  status  of  any  country,  territory, 
city  or  area  or  its  authorities,  or  concerning  its  frontiers 
or  boundaries. 

The  publication  costs  of  this  study  have  been  covered 
through  a grant-in-aid  offered  by  UNESCO  and  by 
voluntary  contributions  made  by  several  Member  States 
of  UNESCO. 


Published  by: 

International  Institute  for  Educational  Planning 
7-9  rue  Eugene  Delacroix,  75116  Paris 
e-mail:  info@iiep.unesco.org 
IIEP  web  site:  www.unesco.org/iiep 


Layout  and  cover  design:  Sabine  Lebeau 
Typesetting:  Sabine  Lebeau 
Printed  in  IIEP’s  printshop 
ISBN:  92-803-1288-X 
©UNESCO  2006 


Chapter 


ETHNICITY / POLITICAL  AFFILIATION / RELIGION 


^ MAIN  OBJECTIVES 

• To  ensure  that  all  children  and  youth 
regardless  of  ethnicity,  political 
affiliation  or  religion  have  equal 
access  to  quality  education  even  and 
especially  during  emergencies  and  early 
reconstruction. 


CONTEXT  AND  CHALLENGES 

Political,  religious  and  ethnic  affiliation,  or  some 
combination  of  two  or  three  of  these,  can 
directly  affect  access  to  education.  Throughout 
history,  many  states  have  supported  education 
of  varying  quality  for  different  members  of 
their  populations.  In  such  instances,  access 
to  education  becomes  highly  politicized  as 
less  powerful  groups  demand  better-quality 
education  for  their  children,  and  more  powerful 
groups  seek  to  retain  their  advantage  in  society. 
In  times  of  conflict  and  emergencies,  these 
controversies  are  likely  to  intensify.  Most  of  the 
worlds  conflicts  are  civil  wars.  Of  the  36  armed 
conflicts  in  2003,  only  one  (Iraq)  was  between 
states. 

Political,  religious  or  ethnic  differences  are  almost 
always  components  of  civil  conflict.  Education 
may  be  deeply  embroiled  in  the  conflict  itself,  as 
the  education  system  reflects,  conveys  and/or 
even  aggravates  tension  and  conflict  along 
political,  religious  or  ethnic  lines.  Education  may 
also  be  used  as  a weapon  in  cultural  repression 
of  minorities.  Minorities  may  be  denied  access  to 
education  altogether,  or  education  may  be  used 
to  suppress  their  language,  traditions,  art  forms, 
religious  practices  and  cultural  values.  The  denial 
of  education  may  become  a weapon  of  war  in 
itself,  through,  for  example,  the  forced  closure  of 
schools.  Further  challenges  relate  to  conflicting 
parties'  manipulation  of  history  and  textbooks 
for  political  purposes.  Teachers  may  use  their 
position  in  the  classroom  to  assert  their  ethnic, 
political  or  religious  position,  or  teachers  and 
schools  may  be  seen  as  parties  to  the  conflict  and 
become  targets  of  the  warring  parties.  (Bush  and 
Saltarelli,  2000)  At  the  ministry  level,  instability 
may  lead  to  frequent  changes  in  senior  personnel 


1 

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of  the  Ministry  of  Education,  and  thus,  to  frequent  policy  changes.  For  these  reasons,  it  is 
critical  to  consider  access  and  inclusion  issues  with  regard  to  education  for  all  ethnic,  political 
and  religious  groups  in  a society  in  times  of  crises  or  early  reconstruction. 

Standard  1,  on  access  and  learning  environment,  in  the  handbook  Minimum  standards  for 
education  in  emergencies , chronic  crises  and  early  reconstruction  (MSEE),  (1NEE,  2004a), 
deals  with  equal  access:  “All  individuals  have  equal  access  to  quality  and  relevant  education 
opportunities,,  (1NEE,  2004a:  41).  Access  does  not  simply  mean  that  all  children  are 
‘included’  in  educational  activities.  It  also  means  that  children  have  equal  opportunities 
to  learn  and  therefore  has  to  do  with  the  quality  of  education  that  children  receive  (see 
also  the  discussion  of  the  meaning  of  quality  in  the  Guidebook , Chapter  4}  ‘Education  for  all 
in  emergencies  and  reconstruction’,  and  the  definition  of  equality  in  Chapter  6,  ‘Gender’. 
At  times,  it  may  be  necessary  for  students  with  different  ethnic,  political  or  religious 
backgrounds  to  study  separately  from  one  another  - especially  in  a conflict  or  post-conflict 
situation  where  the  safety  of  children  and  youth  may  be  endangered  if  they  study  together. 
Separate  schooling  may  also  be  necessary  where  children  of  different  ethnic,  political  or 
religious  backgrounds  live  in  geographically  separated  areas.  In  most  instances,  however, 
it  is  desirable  to  move  towards  a policy  of  integrated  education,  where  students  from  any 
political,  religious  or  ethnic  affiliation  have  the  opportunity  to  study  together  if  they  so 
choose.  This  will  normally  require  pro-active  measures  on  the  part  of  ministry  officials, 
educational  experts,  planners  and  implementers. 

When  children  from  different  religious  or  ethnic  groups  speak  different  languages  and 
have  different  traditions,  the  issues  of  access  and  inclusion  become  more  complicated.  In 
these  situations,  educational  authorities  will  need  to  consult  widely  with  members  of  all 
groups  when  determining  policies  and  practices  related  to  language  and  curriculum  (see  the 
Guidebook , Chapter  20}  ‘Curriculum  content  and  review  processes’). 

In  a situation  of  forced  migration,  refugees  and  internally  displaced  persons  (IDPs)  may 
reside  in  a country  or  region  with  different  ethnic,  political  or  religious  groups.  Whilst  the 
level  of  hostility  is  usually  lower  in  the  host  country /region  than  in  the  refugees’  place  of 
origin,  these  differences  may  be  a source  of  new  tension  and  conflict.  Refugees  and  IDPs 
may  be  denied  access  to  local  school  systems  because  of  differences  in  ethnicity,  political 
affiliation  or  religion  (as  well  as  lack  of  places  in  the  local  schools).  If  refugees  or  IDPs  of 
different  ethnic,  political  or  religious  groups  reside  in  the  same  camp,  there  may  be  serious 
tensions  and  possibly  violence,  as  well  as  competition  for  assistance  and  jobs.  Also  in  post- 
conflict situations,  returnees  are  often  subject  to  discrimination  if  they  have  a different 
ethnic  background,  or  belong  to  a different  religious  or  political  group  from  others  in  their 
community.  Discrimination  may  continue  until  conditions  improve  and  trust-building 
measures  are  in  place. 


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SUGGESTED  STRATEGIES 


Differences  in  the  quality  and  content  of  education  received  by  different  ethnic,  political  and 
religious  groups  can  give  rise  to  social  tensions  and  armed  conflict.  These  issues  should  be 
addressed  in  a preventive  manner,  if  possible.  Likewise,  in  renewing  the  education  system 
after  conflict,  steps  should  be  taken  to  reduce  tensions  between  different  sections  of  society, 
in  order  to  build  sustainable  peace.  Some  suggested  strategies  are  indicated  below. 


■ 


Summary  of  suggested  strategies 

Ethnicity / political  affiliation  / religion 


Review  government  policies  related  to 
education  and  non-discrimination. 


2.  Review  government  practices  related  to 
education  and  non-discrimination. 


3.  Ensure  the  protection  and  safety  of  all  children 
affected  by  emergency  situations. 

4.  Conduct  a school  mapping  exercise  to  ensure 
equitable  access. 

5.  Ensure  that  school  management  committees 
and  parent-teacher  associations/organizations 
have  representatives  from  the  various  political/ 
ethnic/religious  groups  within  the  school 
community. 

6.  Consider  establishing  a programme  of 
education  for  peace,  respect  for  diversity, 
human  rights  and  citizenship,  with  a title 
appropriate  to  the  national  situation. 

7.  Consider  extracurricular  means  of  integrating 
children,  such  as  sports  and  recreation 
programmes  that  are  offered  to  all  children. 


Chapter  7:  Ethnicity  / political  affiliation  / religion 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


Guidance  notes 


1.  Review  government  policies  related  to  education  and  non-discrimination. 

• What  does  the  constitution  say  with  regard  to  the  education  of  all  citizens? 

• Does  the  governments  national  ‘Education  for  Alf  (EFA)  strategy  specifically  address 
the  education  issues  of  all  of  the  country’s  various  religious/ethnic/political  groups? 

• What  government  policies  have  an  effect  on  access  to  education  for  the  country’s 
various  religious,  ethnic,  political  groups?  Consider: 

• Language  policies  - is  one  language  of  instruction  mandated  that  can  lead  to  the 
exclusion  of  some  children  from  schooling? 

• Curriculum  policies  - are  some  groups  or  religions  portrayed  negatively  in  the 
national  curriculum  and  textbooks?  (See  the  Guidebook , Chapter  20,  ‘Curriculum 
content  and  review  processes’,  for  more  information.) 

• Recruiting  policies  - for  both  teachers  and  administrators  (including  those  in  the 
Ministry  of  Education):  Do  equal  opportunity  and  non-discrimination  policies 
exist  with  regard  to  hiring  all  education  staff? 

• Non-discrimination  policies  for  students:  Do  education  policies  explicitly  state 
that  all  children  have  a right  to  education  in  institutions  of  the  same  quality?  Does 
this  apply  to  public  and  private  educational  institutions? 

• School  funding  policies:  How  are  funds  allocated  within  the  country?  Was  the 
distribution  formula  developed  based  on  a principle  of  equity  so  that  no  groups 
are  disadvantaged  or  discriminated  against?  (See  the  definition  of  equity  in  the 
Guidebook,  Chapter  6,  ‘Gender’.) 

• Does  the  education  system  encourage  appreciation  of  diversity,  or  does  it  seek  to 
educate  all  students  according  to  the  viewpoint  of  the  majority  or  the  ruling  group? 


0 THE  TWO  FACES  OF  EDUCATION  IN  ETHNIC  CONFLICT 


“Children  do  not  come  to  the  classroom  as  blank  slates.  They  bring  with  them  the  attitudes,  values 
and  behaviour  of  their  societies  beyond  the  classroom  walls  . . . Prejudiced  children  are  more 
likely  to  be  moralistic,  to  dichotomize  the  world,  they  externalize  conflict,  and  have  a higher 
need  of  definiteness.  Under  conditions  of  inter-ethnic  tension  and  conflict,  such  characteristics 
unavoidably  find  their  way  into  the  classroom  and  must  be  taken  into  account  if  the  peace- 
destroying  impact  of  education  is  to  be  minimized.” 


■ 


Source:  Bush  and  Saltarelli  (2000:  3-4). 


. 


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2 ♦ Review  government  practices  related  to  education  and  non-discrimination* 


• Are  members  of  all  political,  religious  and  ethnic  groups  actively  recruited  for  teaching 
and  administrative  positions? 

• Is  education  better  in  some  places  than  others?  For  example,  do  schools  in  some  areas 
of  the  country  have  more  resources  to  pay  for  teachers,  build  schools,  buy  school 
materials,  etc.? 

• Does  the  state  allocation  of  funds  for  education  favour  certain  groups,  such  as  the 
ruling  political  party? 

• How  do  access  and  enrolment  rates  vary  depending  on  the  students’: 

• ethnicity? 

• religion? 

• political  affiliation? 

This  may  be  an  indicator  of  the  effects  of  discriminatory  practices. 

• Do  private  schools  (religious  or  otherwise)  comply  with  state  policies  of  non- 
discrimination? 

• Develop  coherent  strategies  for  addressing  non-compliance,  including  reporting 
mechanisms,  sanctions  and  training. 

• Are  children  of  different  religions,  ethnic  groups,  or  political  affiliation  taught  in  the 
same  classrooms  or  separately? 

• What  are  the  languages  of  instruction? 

• Does  the  use  of  this  language  exclude  some  children  from  school?  Educational 
authorities  should  ensure  that  the  languages  taught  in  the  schools  are  used  by 
the  majority  of  the  population. 

• Consider  the  use  of  bilingual  education  when  the  children’s  mother  tongue  is 
different  from  the  official  language  of  instruction. 

• Do  children  and  their  parents  want  children  to  be  taught  in  their  own  language? 
Alternatively,  do  children  and  their  parents  prefer  to  be  taught  a language  that 
can  lead  to  jobs  or  be  used  to  deal  with  traders,  etc.? 

• How  political  is  a particular  language? 


Chapter  7:  Ethnicity  / political  affiliation  / religion 

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' 

Q THE  importance  of  language  as  part  of  ethnic  and  cultural  identity 

“Through  its  language,  a given  group  expresses  its  own  societal  identity;  languages  are 
related  to  thought  processes  and  to  the  way  members  of  a certain  linguistic  group  perceive 
nature,  the  universe  and  society”  (Stavenhagen,  1996).  In  many  cases,  the  imposition  of  a 
dominant  language  on  ethnic  groups  (both  inside  and  outside  the  formal  school  system)  is 
a repressive  act,  both  in  intention  and  outcome.  It  can  also  have  a unifying  impact,  however. 

In  Senegal,  for  example,  where  there  are  15  different  linguistic  groups  and  where  Islamic 
and  Christian  populations  have  long  coexisted  peacefully,  no  civil  wars  have  occurred  since 
independence  from  France  in  the  1960s.  One  important  factor  in  explaining  the  relative 
‘ethnic  peace’  in  Senegal  is  that  after  independence,  French  was  made  the  official  language 
in  a conscious  effort  to  prevent  linguistic  conflict,  while  Diola,  Malinke,  Pular,  Serer,  Soninke 
and  Wolof  were  declared  to  be  national  languages.  Not  only  are  these  languages  a critical 
part  of  the  curriculum,  they  are  also  used  in  radio  and  television  broadcasts  and  literacy 
campaigns.  While  Wolof  could  have  been  declared  the  country’s  official  language,  given 
its  predominance,  this  was  never  attempted,  as  it  would  have  offended  different  ethnic 
groups. 

Source:  Bush  and  Saltarelli  (2000: 11, 17-18). 


• Are  certain  subjects  or  parts  of  the  curriculum  sensitive?  If  so,  educational 
authorities  should  carefully  make  decisions  related  to  the  timing  (during  or  after 
emergencies)  of  when  certain  subjects  such  as  language,  history,  art,  culture,  etc., 
are  introduced.  For  more  information,  see  the  Guidebook , Chapter  20}  ‘ Curriculum 
content  and  review  processes . 

• When  government  policies  and  current  practices  differ,  consider  how  these 
differences  can  be  addressed.  When  possible,  use  non-political  means,  such  as  the 
Convention  on  the  Rights  of  the  Child,  Education  for  All  targets  or  the  country’s 
Constitution  to  resolve  differences. 


© GOVERNMENT  SUPPORT  TO  EDUCATION  IN  CONFLICT-AFFECTED  AREAS 

In  Northern  Ireland,  segregation  along  religious  lines  was  almost  total  until  the  1980s.  This 
emphasized  differences  and  encouraged  mutual  ignorance  and  perhaps  most  importantly, 
mutual  suspicion  between  Catholics  and  Protestants.  Catholic  school-leavers  were  found 
to  have,  on  average,  lower  qualifications  than  their  Protestant  counterparts,  and  hence 
reduced  job  opportunities.  A government-sponsored  study  in  1973  found  that  this  stemmed 
largely  from  unequal  funding  arrangements.  State  schools,  overwhelmingly  attended  by 
Protestants,  received  full  state  funding,  whereas  independent  Catholic  schools  had  to 
rely  largely  on  their  own  resources.  Some  specialists  called  for  integrated  schools.  Several 
of  these  have  come  with  the  support  of  parents,  but  statistics  show  that  the  majority 
of  students  continue  to  attend  highly  segregated  schools.  More  recently  therefore,  the 
Government  of  Northern  Ireland  equally  funds  Catholic  and  Protestant  schools  and  aims  to 
give  all  children  the  opportunity  to  learn  about  each  other. 

Source:  Bush  and  Saltarelli  (2000: 15)  and  Nicolai  (2003) 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


3*  Ensure  the  protection  and  safety  of  all  children  affected  by  emergency 
situations. 

• Do  integrated  schools  put  some  children  at  risk?  If  so,  consider: 

• Separate  schools  or  classrooms  if  absolutely  necessary. 

• Distance  learning  or  home  schooling  options. 

• Even  when  children  are  separated,  ensure  that  all  children  still  have  access  to  the 
same  quality  education. 


0 EDUCATION  IN  POST-CONFLICT  KOSOVO 

“Given  that  ethnic  discrimination  was  seen  to  be  one  of  the  critical  factors  underlying  the 
conflict,  it  is  not  surprising  that  the  issue  of  ethnically  separate  schooling  was  a key  policy 
concern  in  the  eyes  of  both  internationals  and  Kosovars  at  the  beginning  of  the  post-conflict 
reconstruction.  At  the  level  of  rhetoric  there  appeared  to  be  complete  consensus  - all 
parties  quickly  endorsed  the  position  that  all  children  should  be  accommodated  in  a single, 
inclusive  education  system  that  respected  the  language  and  cultural  rights  of  all.  However, 
the  decade  of  sometimes  brutally  enforced  segregation  and  exclusion  had  taken  its  toll.  In 
the  first  three  months  after  the  end  of  the  NATO  Campaign,  a new  version  of  the  old  parallel 
system  was  re-established  as  the  Kosovo  Albanian  refugees  returned  to  their  villages  and 
homes,  and  many  Serb  and  other  ethnic  minorities  either  left  Kosovo  or  moved  to  areas 
regarded  as  safer. 

Faced  with  this  conundrum  - separate  schooling  was  unacceptable,  but  separate  schooling 
was  a de  facto  reality  and  the  only  way  to  ensure  access  for  all,  UNMIK’s  next  tactic  was 
to  propose  an  incremental  strategy  termed  ‘unification’  which  “proposed  acceptance  of 
the  status  quo  of  schools  already  established,  but  introduced  over  time  a reversal  of  the 
institutional  separation  that  had  developed  after  1992  . . . Progress  towards  integration  of 
all  schools  within  a single,  unified  system,  which  still  remains  the  explicit  goal  of  the  MEST 
and  UNMIK,  has  been  exceptionally  slow.  . . . The  issue  of  unification  of  schooling  provides 
a particularly  graphic  example  of  the  challenges  that  planners  confront  in  a context  where 
official  policy  commitment  to  an  integrated  non-discriminatory  system  runs  directly  against 
the  political  realities  on  the  ground,  and  depends  on  political  agreements  that  are  well 
beyond  the  reach  of  education  officials.” 

Source:  Sommers  and  Buckland  (2004:  81-84). 


Chapter  7:  Ethnicity  / political  affiliation  / religion 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


4. 


Conduct  a school  mapping  exercise  to  ensure  equitable  access. 


• In  situations  of  emergency  and  post-conflict  reconstruction,  where  many 
international  organizations  are  providing  assistance,  school  mapping  is  especially 
important,  as  it  helps  to  establish  the  actual  status  of  educational  services.  This 
will,  in  turn,  help  the  government  in  its  attempt  to  ensure  that  all  areas  of  the 
country  and  all  groups  within  the  country  are  receiving  educational  assistance. 
Different  organizations  might  favour  different  groups  or  geographical  areas  based 
on  their  beliefs,  sympathies,  preferences,  and  political  interests.  Therefore, 
mapping  is  essential  to  ensure  that  all  groups  and  areas  have  access  to  education. 
Such  equitable  provision  can  help  prevent  conflict  or  prevent  it  from  recurring. 

• School  mapping  should  show  which  organizations  are  working  where  and  with 
what  groups. 

• Based  on  the  school  mapping  results,  educational  authorities  may  want  to 
designate  areas  where  additional  assistance  is  needed. 

Consider  consulting  the  IIEP-UNESCO  publication  series  'School  mapping  and  local 
level  planning’,  available  online  at: 

http://www.unesco.org/iiep/spa/publications/recent/rec6.htm  for  further  information. 

5.  Ensure  that  school  management  committees  and  parent-teacher 
associations  and  organizations  have  representatives  from  the  various 
political/ethnic/religious  groups  within  the  school  community. 

See  the  Guidebook , Chapter  32,  ‘ Community  participation . 

6.  Consider  establishing  a programme  of  education  for  peace,  respect  for 
diversity,  human  rights  and  citizenship;  with  a title  appropriate  to  the 
national  situation. 

See  the  Guidebook,  Chapter  25,  ‘ Education  for  life  skills:  peace,  human  rights  and 
citizenship . 

7.  Consider  extracurricular  means  of  integrating  children,  such  as  sports 
and  recreation  programmes  that  are  offered  to  all  children. 

(See  the  Guidebook,  Chapter  12,  lNon-formal  education  and  Chapter  25,  ‘ Education  for 
life  skills:  peace,  human  rights  and  citizenship,  for  additional  information) . 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 


8 


E P • 


NTERNATIONAL  INSTITUT 


FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


Q SOUTH  AFRICAN  CIVICS  EDUCATION 


In  June  2002,  South  Africa  introduced  a ‘Values  in  education  initiative’  aimed  at  promoting 
good  citizenship  and  peace  through  the  education  system.  The  values  informing  this  initiative 
are  laid  out  in  the  ‘Manifesto  on  values,  education,  and  democracy’  and  incorporate  ten 
values  from  the  South  African  Constitution: 

Democracy  Social  Justice  and  Equity 

Equality  Non-racism  and  Non-sexism 

Ubuntu  (Human  Dignity)  An  Open  Society 

Accountability  (Responsibility)  Respect 

The  Rule  of  Law  Reconciliation 

The  manifesto  calls  out  to  all  those  engaged  in  education  to  become  involved  in  the  values 
project:  educators,  administrators,  community  leaders,  parents,  officials,  and,  of  course, 
learners  themselves.  Practically,  the  Manifesto  outlines  sixteen  strategies  for  instilling 
democratic  values  in  young  South  Africans  in  the  learning  environment.  The  first  two 
strategies  deal  with  making  schools  work  better:  nurturing  a culture  of  communication  and 
participation;  promoting  commitment  as  well  as  competence  among  educators.  The  next 
set  of  strategies  focuses  on  the  curriculum,  the  primary  means  of  instilling  knowledge,  skills 
and  values  in  young  people:  infusing  the  classroom  with  the  culture  of  human  rights;  making 
arts  and  culture  part  of  the  curriculum;  putting  history  back  in  the  curriculum;  teaching 
religion  education  and  promoting  multilingualism.  A further  strategy  uses  sport  to  shape 
social  bonds  and  nation  building  at  schools.  A sense  of  equity,  social  justice  and  equality 
in  schools  is  the  thematic  thread  linking  the  next  set  of  strategies:  ensuring  equal  access  to 
education,  promoting  anti-racism,  and  freeing  the  potential  of  girls  as  well  as  boys.  The  last 
cluster  of  strategies  aims  at  preventing  HIV/AIDS  and  nurturing  a culture  of  sexual  and  social 
responsibility,  making  schools  safe  to  learn  and  teach  in,  and  bringing  back  the  rule  of  law  to 
schools;  and,  finally,  nurturing  the  new  patriotism.  Each  strategy  is  accompanied  by  various 
remarks  about  education  sector  initiatives.  The  strategies  are  reflect  the  recognition  that 
values  are  become  real  when  transformed  into  action,  or  in  the  words  of  Nelson  Mandela: 
“We  cannot  assume  that  because  we  conducted  our  struggle  on  the  foundations  of  those 
values,  continued  adherence  to  them  is  automatic  in  the  changed  circumstances.  Adults 
have  to  be  reminded  of  their  importance  and  children  must  acquire  them  in  our  homes, 
schools  and  churches.  Simply,  it  is  about  our  younger  generation  making  values  a part  of 
themselves,  in  their  innermost  being”. 

Source:  Surty  (2004);  James  (2001 ). 

% I 


IIEP 


Chapter 

INTERNAT 


7:  Ethnicity  / political  affiliation  / religion 

IONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANN 


N G 


9 


REFERENCES  AND  FURTHER  READING 


Baxter,  P.  2001.  “The  UNHCR  peace  education  programme:  skills  for  life”.  In:  Forced 
Migration  Review ; 11,  28-30. 

Bush,  K.;  Saltarelli,  D.  2000.  The  two  faces  of  education  in  ethnic  conflict . Towards  a 
peacebuilding  education  for  children . Florence:  Innocenti  Research  Centre- 
UN1CEF. 

Davies,  L.  2004.  Education  and  conflict:  complexity  and  chaos . London:  Routledge  Falmer. 

Hernes,  G.;  Martin,  M.  “Planning  education  in  multi-ethnic  and  multicultural  societies”.  In: 
International  Institute  for  Educational  Planning  Newsletter,  11(3),  1-3. 

1NEE  (Inter-agency  Network  for  Education  in  Emergencies).  2004a.  Minimum  standards 
for  education  in  emergencies,  chronic  crises  and  early  reconstruction . Paris:  1NEE. 

1NEE  (Inter-agency  Network  for  Education  in  Emergencies).  20046.  The  1NEE  technical 
kit  on  education  in  emergencies  and  early  recovery . Paris:  1NEE. 

James,  W.  2001.  Manifesto  on  values,  education  and  democracy . Retrieved  29  August  2005 
from  http://education.pwv.gov.za/content/documents/89.pdf. 

Nicolai,  S.  2003.  Education  in  emergencies:  a tool  kit  for  starting  and  managing  education  in 
emergencies . London:  Save  the  Children. 

Smith,  A.;  Vaux,  T.  2002.  Education,  conflict  and  international  development . London: 
Department  for  International  Development. 

Sommers,  M.;  Buckland,  P.  2004.  Parallel  worlds:  rebuilding  the  education  system  in  Kosovo . 
Paris:  11EP-UNESCO. 

Stavenhagen,  R.  1996.  Ethnic  conflicts  and  the  nation-state . London:  Macmillan  Press  Ltd. 

Surty,  E.  2004.  “South  Africa”.  In:  Linkln  Newsletter  of  the  Commonwealth  Secretariats  Social 
Transformation  Programmes  Division.  Special  Edition,  Education  in  conflict  in  Africa: 
achieving  universal  primary  education  in  conflict  and  difficult  circumstances,  7-10. 

UNESCO.  1997.  Alternative  education  strategies  for  disadvantaged  groups . Paris:  11EP- 
UNESCO. 

UNESCO.  2004.  School  mapping  and  local  level  planning . Retrieved  29  August  2005  from 
http://www.unesco.org/iiep/spa/publications/recent/rec6.htm. 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


CHAPTER 


7 


SECTION  3 


United  Nations  ] International 

Educational,  Scientific  and  [ Institute  for 

Cultural  Organization  * Educational 

Planning 


Chapter 


CHILDREN  WITH  DISABILITIES 


SECTION 


ACCESS 


AND 


N C L U S 


O N 


The  designations  employed  and  the  presentation  of 
material  throughout  this  review  do  not  imply  the  expression 
of  any  opinion  whatsoever  on  the  part  of  UNESCO  or  the 
IIEP  concerning  the  legal  status  of  any  country,  territory, 
city  or  area  or  its  authorities,  or  concerning  its  frontiers 
or  boundaries. 

The  publication  costs  of  this  study  have  been  covered 
through  a grant-in-aid  offered  by  UNESCO  and  by 
voluntary  contributions  made  by  several  Member  States 
of  UNESCO. 


Published  by: 

International  Institute  for  Educational  Planning 
7-9  rue  Eugene  Delacroix,  75116  Paris 
e-mail:  info@iiep.unesco.org 
IIEP  web  site:  www.unesco.org/iiep 


Layout  and  cover  design:  Sabine  Lebeau 
Typesetting:  Sabine  Lebeau 
Printed  in  IIEP’s  printshop 
ISBN:  92-803-1288-X 
©UNESCO  2006 


Chapter  11 

CHILDREN  WITH  DISABILITIES 


^ MAIN  OBJECTIVES 

• To  ensure  that  children  and  youth 
with  disabilities  have  access  to  quality 
education  and  learning  opportunities. 

• To  integrate  children  with  disabilities 
into  the  regular  education  system 
whenever  possible. 


CONTEXT  AND  CHALLENGES 

“War,  crisis  and  disruption  of  communities  can 
significantly  increase  the  number  of  adults  and 
children  with  disabilities.  Gunshot  wounds,  land 
mines,  or  violent  acts  of  chopping  off  limbs  may 
cause  disabilities.  Inadequate  health  care  and 
lack  of  access  to  nutritious  food  during  times  of 
extended  conflict  may  result  in  the  loss  of  sight 
or  hearing.  Often  those  affected,  their  parents, 
teachers  and  community  members,  believe  that 
persons  with  disability  are  a burden  and  do  not 
think  they  are  capable  of  being  educated  or 
contributing  to  society”  (1NEE,  2002). 

The  degree  to  which  an  individual  pupil  may  be 
considered  as  having  a handicap  is  thus  determined 
by  his/her  environment.  The  school  environment 
(organization,  methods  and  attitudes)  may  play 
a central  role  in  the  transformation  of  individual 
characteristics  into  handicaps.  A central  challenge 
to  providing  access  for  children  and  youth  with 
disabilities  is  therefore  the  destruction  of  negative 
and  stigmatizing  perceptions.  Focus  needs  to  shift 
from  the  disabilities  to  the  needs  and  resources 
of  the  individual  child  as  a whole.  In  this 
holistic  perspective,  diagnoses  of  the  particular 
handicap  should  be  abolished  as  they  underline 
shortcomings  of  the  pupil.  The  general  approach 
must  be  that  every  pupil  is  seen  as  potentially  able 
and  creative.  Schools  are  responsible  for  creating 
environments  where  this  potential  can  develop 
(UNESCO,  2004a). 

In  reality,  however,  children  with  disabilities 
are  left  out  of  education  even  during  the  best 
of  times.  During  and  after  an  emergency,  they 
become  even  more  marginalized  as  fewer 
resources  are  available  to  provide  for  their  special 
needs.  Disabled  children  may  be  separated  from 


1 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


KEY  PRINCIPLES  RELATED  TO 
EDUCATION  FOR  CHILDREN  AND 
YOUTH  WITH  DISABILITIES 

• When  in  the  best  interests  of  the  child, 
integration  into  the  regular  education 
system  should  be  encouraged. 

• When  integration  in  the  same  classroom 
is  not  possible,  children  with  disabilities 
should  preferably  be  taught  in  a separate 
room  within  the  same  school  complex  as 
peers. 

• Appropriate  low-cost  aids  should  be 
provided  to  disabled  children  and  adults 
to  support  their  access  to  education. 

• Parents  and  communities  should  be  an 
integral  part  of  supporting  education  for 
children  with  disabilities. 


■ 

Q SPECIAL-NEEDS  EDUCATION 

'The  term  ‘special-needs  education'  has 
come  into  use  as  a replacement  for  the 
term  ‘special  education'.  The  older  term 
was  mainly  understood  to  refer  to  the 
education  of  children  with  disabilities 
that  takes  place  in  special  schools  or 
institutions  distinct  from,  and  outside  of, 
the  institutions  of  the  regular  school  and 
university  system.  In  many  countries  today 
a large  proportion  of  disabled  children 
are  in  fact  educated  in  institutions  of  the 
regular  system. 

Moreover,  the  concept  of  ‘children  with 
special  educational  needs’  extends 
beyond  those  who  may  be  included  in 
handicapped  categories  to  cover  those 
who  are  failing  in  school  for  a wide  variety 
of  other  reasons  that  are  known  to  be 
likely  to  impede  a child's  optimal  progress. 
Whether  or  not  this  more  broadly  defined 
group  of  children  are  in  need  of  additional 
support  depends  on  the  extent  to  which 
schools  need  to  adapt  their  curriculum, 
teaching  and  organization  and/or  to 
provide  additional  human  or  material 
resources  so  as  to  stimulate  efficient  and 
effective  learning  for  these  pupils." 

Source:  UNESCO  (1997b). 

% H 


their  parents  or  caregivers.  Restricted 
access  to  schools  can  make  it  difficult 
to  implement  policies  that  promote  the 
integration  of  children  with  disabilities. 

There  may  be  more  opportunities  for 
children  and  youth  with  disabilities  to 
attend  school  in  refugee  camps  or  even 
1DP  camps,  as  donors  may  provide 
additional  funding  for  this  purpose,  and 
as  travel  distances  to  school  may  have 
decreased.  At  the  same  time,  however, 
teachers,  parents  and  peers  may  view 
children  and  youth  with  disabilities  a 
burden,  and/or  the  provision  of  special 
assistance  as  unfair’.  Refugees  and  IDPs 
may  deem  education  of  children  and 
youth  with  disabilities  futile,  knowing  that 
there  are  few  educational  opportunities 
available  upon  return.  Often,  amongst 
returnees,  disabled  students  who  received 
special  assistance  as  refugees  or  IDPs  may 
find  that  similar  programmes/services  are 
not  available  upon  return  to  their  home 
area.  Education/training  for  the  disabled 
may  not  be  formally  recognized  by  host 
governments  and/or  in  the  refugees’ 
country/area  of  origin. 

Nevertheless,  ‘addressing  disability  is  not 
as  expensive  or  as  unsustainable  as  it  is 
commonly  perceived.  Building  capacity 
to  work  effectively  with  people  with 
disabilities  has  been  shown  to  improve 
the  skills  of  parents,  teachers  and 
communities”  (1NEE,  2002).  Especially 
in  the  reconstruction  phases,  donors  may 
be  willing  to  help  strengthen  national 
education  programmes  for  persons  with 
disabilities,  but  it  is  important  that  this 
be  given  attention  in  the  early  stages 
of  reconstruction.  Providing  physical 
access  for  students  and  teachers  with 
disabilities  by,  for  example,  allowing  for 
wide  doors  and  access  without  steps  to 
a new  building  is  not  costly,  but  it  may  be 
difficult  and  more  costly  to  change  later. 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


SUGGESTED  STRATEGIES 


In  emergencies  and  during  early  reconstruction,  children  with  disabilities  are  even  more 
likely  to  be  excluded  from  educational  opportunities.  Some  suggested  strategies  to  prevent 
this  are  indicated  below. 


Summary  of  suggested  strategies 
Children  with  disabilities 

Review  government  policy  related  to  children 
with  disabilities.  Emphasize  the  importance 
of  education  for  children  with  disabilities  in 
emergency-affected  populations. 


■ 


2.  Enlist  community  support  to  promote  schooling 
for  disabled  children. 


3.  Develop  guidelines  on  integration  of  children 
with  disabilities  into  normal  classes,  where 
appropriate,  or  into  separate  classrooms  or 
facilities. 

4.  Identify  resources  to  promote  the  education  of 
children  with  disabilities. 


5.  Ensure  that  special  training  is  available  for 
teachers. 


6.  Adapt  school  facilities  and  other  education 
buildings  to  promote  access  for  children  with 
disabilities  and  consider  strategies  to  help 
children  and  youth  with  disabilities  physically 
get  to  school. 

7.  Use  the  emergency  to  help  strengthen  national 
capacities  in  education  for  persons  with  a 
disability. 

8.  Provide  technical  and  vocational  education/ 
skills  training  opportunities  for  youth  with 
disabilities. 


Chapter  8:  Children  with  disabilities 


E P • 


NTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


3 


Guidance  notes 


1.  Review  government  policy  related  to  children  with  disabilities. 
Emphasize  the  importance  of  education  for  children  with  disabilities 
in  emergency-affected  populations. 

It  is  important  to  review  policy  guidelines  on  promoting  access  to  education  for  children 
with  disabilities  and  on  recruiting  staff  with  disabilities,  and  to  disseminate  guidance 
to  education  providers  for  the  emergency- affected  population. 

• Do  existing  policies  specifically  address  the  issue  of  access  to  education  for  all 
children,  including  those  with  disabilities? 

• Are  there  equal  employment  policies  that  encourage  the  hiring  of  teachers, 
administrators  and  other  education  workers  with  disabilities? 

• Are  these  policies  for  students  and  staff  known  at  provincial,  district  and  school 
level,  in  emergency-affected  areas?  What  support  is  given  to  education  for  children 
with  disabilities  in  refugee  and  1DP  camps? 

• Should  a policy  be  developed  and  disseminated  to  support  the  education  of 
children  with  disabilities  and  inclusive  staff  recruitment  for  emergency-affected 
populations? 


0 REFORM  OF  POLICY  TOWARDS  DISABLED  CHILDREN  IN  KOSOVO 

Prior  to  1999,  Kosovar  children  with  special  needs  were  either  accommodated  in  a small 
number  of  special  schools,  or  were  unable  to  attend  school.  Estimates  of  the  proportion 
of  children  with  ‘moderate  to  severe  impairments’  in  the  population  range  from  5 to  8 per 
cent,  which  implies  that  more  than  30,000  children  of  school-aged  children  have  moderate 
to  severe  handicaps.  In  2001,  the  department  of  Education  and  Science,  using  the  ‘most 
conservative  estimates  of  children  with  severe  impairments’  (1  per  cent),  estimated  that 
there  were  at  least  4,000  severely  impaired  children  who  could  not  be  accommodated  in 
ordinary  schools  without  special  arrangements. 

In  2001,  a strategy  was  developed  to  implement  the  commitment  of  the  United  Nations 
Interim  Administration  in  Kosovo  to  a policy  of  inclusion  of  children  with  special  learning 
needs.  Over  a period  of  two  years,  a Finnish-based  NGO  in  close  partnership  with  local 
organizations  and  in  particular  the  advocacy  organization,  Handikos,  made  significant 
strides  in  building  support  for  and  developing  consensus  on  a radical  shift  in  the  approach 
towards  the  education  of  children  with  special  needs.  Whereas  the  old  system  failed 
completely  to  meet  their  learning  needs,  or  consigned  them  to  specialized  institutions,  the 
new  policy  encouraged  a graduated  approach  that  accommodated  children  in  a range  of 
institutional  contexts,  from  inclusion  in  mainstream  classrooms,  supported  by  appropriate 
physical  and  pedagogical  accommodations,  through  ‘attached’  special  education  classes  to 
specialized  institutions. 

Source:  Sommers  and  Buckland  (2004:  84-85). 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


2* 


Enlist  community  support  to  promote  schooling  for  disabled  children* 


School  principals,  teachers  and  community  education  committees  may  be  given 
training  on  how  to  enlist  community  support: 

• To  identify  and  promote  the  school  enrolment  of  children  and  youth  with  physical 
handicaps,  visual  or  speech  impairments,  learning  disabilities  and  emotional 
difficulties. 

• Assist  schools  in  arranging  introduction  days  for  parents  and  children. 

• Stimulate  positive  recognition  of  childrens  skills,  display  disabled  childrens  works, 
etc. 

• To  support  integration  of  children  and  youth  with  disabilities  into  regular 
classrooms. 

• To  involve  parents  in  supporting  education  for  children  with  disabilities. 

• To  design  interventions  for  the  disabled  that  can  be  made  or  developed  locally. 

3*  Develop  guidelines  on  integration  of  children  with  disabilities  into 
regular  classes,  where  appropriate,  or  into  separate  classrooms  or 
facilities* 

• As  noted  above,  children  with  disabilities  should  be  integrated  into  normal 
classrooms  whenever  possible,  so  that  they  can  experience  the  same  education 
as  their  peers  and  become  socially  integrated. 

• Children  with  disabilities  can  often  study  alongside  other  children,  perhaps 
with  a peer  assigned  to  assist  them. 

• Consider  a ‘buddy  system’  where  children  with  disabilities  pair  up  with  a peer 
for  activities  outside  the  classroom. 

(See  the  ‘Tools  and  resources’  section  of  this  chapter  for  possible  classroom 
adaptations  and  teaching  strategies  which  facilitate  the  inclusion  of  children 
with  disabilities.) 

• In  some  cases,  special  classes  or  classrooms  may  be  necessary  for  children 
with  disabilities.  (See  the  ‘Tools  and  resources’  section  of  this  chapter  for 
some  advantages  and  disadvantages  of  having  special  facilities  for  children  with 
disabilities.) 

• When  separate  classes  are  established,  try  to  ensure  that  all  children  share  the 
same  school  or  educational  facility,  and  consider  combined  events,  such  as  sporting 
activities  or  field  trips  for  all  children. 


Chapter  8:  Children  with  disabilities 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


Q EDUCATION  FOR  DEAF  REFUGEE  CHILDREN  IN  KENYA 

“Deaf  children  and  youth  have  their  own  classroom  in  one  of  the  normal  primary  schools 
in  each  refugee  camp  in  Dadaab,  Kenya.  A teacher  who  knows  sign  language  teaches  them 
a mixture  of  their  own  (Somali)  signs  and  Kenya  sign  language;  the  students  also  learn  to 
write.” 

Source:  UNHCR  (1995:  37). 


4 . Identify  resources  to  promote  the  education  of  children  with 
disabilities. 

• What  resources  - specially  trained  teachers,  volunteers,  classroom  aides, 
building  modifications,  special  equipment  - are  required  to  enrol  these  children 
in  school? 

• Prepare  a budget. 

• Advocate  with  the  Ministry  of  Finance  and  other  government  officials  for  funds 
to  be  made  available  to  ensure  that  children  with  disabilities  have  access  to 
education. 

• In  situations  of  displacement  where  the  government  is  requesting  international 
assistance  for  educational  needs,  ensure  that  such  requests  include  assistance  for 
children  and  youth  with  disabilities. 

5.  Ensure  that  special  training  is  available  for  teachers. 

Special  training  should  be  provided  to  assist  teachers  in  identifying,  assessing  and 

following  up  on  the  education  needs  of  children  with  disabilities. 

• Request  support  from  the  international  community  if  necessary. 

• Provide  training  for  both  teachers  and  students  so  that  they  understand  disability 
issues  and  methods  of  educating  children  with  different  types  of  disabilities. 

• Consider  giving  introductory  courses  in  sign  language,  Braille,  physical 
therapy,  special  training  methods,  etc. 

• Instruct  teachers  to  share  information  on  childrens  disabilities  with  other  teachers 
as  the  children  progress  to  the  next  grade. 


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' 

0 INCLUSIVE  EDUCATION  IN  SCHOOLS  FOR  BHUTANESE  REFUGEES  IN  NEPAL 

“There  are  1,085  children  with  various  disabilities  in  the  camps,  of  whom  about  30  per  cent 
are  hearing-impaired.  These  children  are  admitted  into  school  at  the  same  time  as  the  normal 
children,  although  some  flexibility  in  age  is  allowed.  Only  one  type  of  disabled  child  is  put  in 
any  one  class  [in  these  large  schools]  and  the  children  are  normally  seated  in  the  front  row 
for  easy  access  to  the  teacher.  Awareness  programmes  have  been  given  to  the  community 
and  all  teachers.  Each  school  has  a special  needs  support  teacher.  The  special  needs  support 
teachers  receive  training  from  the  central  office,  after  which  they  train  the  schoolteachers  in 
how  to  deal  with  disabled  children  in  their  classes.  The  special  needs  support  teacher  also 
provides  support  and  guidance  to  the  disabled  children.  Where  necessary,  remedial  classes 
are  given  to  the  disabled  children  after  school  hours.  The  special  needs  support  teachers 
visit  the  homes  to  guide  and  train  the  parents  so  that  they  can  assist  their  disabled  children 
and  monitor  their  progress.  . . . Contacts  have  been  made  with  donors  who  have  offered 
hearing  aids  or  spectacles  to  the  children  after  they  have  been  tested  physically/’ 

Source:  Brown  (2001: 133). 


6*  Adapt  school  facilities  and  other  educational  buildings  to  promote 
access  for  children  with  disabilities  and  consider  strategies  to  help 
children  and  youth  with  disabilities  physically  get  to  school* 

• Ask  field  staff  to  assess  whether  children  with  disabilities  can  physically  access 
existing  education  facilities. 

• If  modifications  are  required: 

• How  can  these  be  funded? 

• Can  community  members  be  enlisted  to  make  the  modifications? 

• Range  modification  by  the  amount  of  resources/input  required,  and  by 
whom. 

- Modifications  that  require  simple  inputs,  such  as  new  seating  arrange- 
ments. 

- Modifications  that  require  modest  material  inputs/inputs  that  can  be 
provided  by  the  school  or  the  community,  such  as  crutches. 

- Modifications  that  require  substantial  financial/external  inputs,  such  as 
new  stairs,  computers. 

• What  special  equipment  and  materials  are  needed  to  support  learning  for  children 
with  disabilities?  When  provided  by  outside  organizations,  ensure  that  these  are 
technologically  appropriate  for  the  local  setting  (that  is,  sustainable  after  outside 
organizations  have  left) . 

• Train  teachers  to  adapt  seating  arrangements  based  on  students’  disabilities  (e.g. 
children  with  poor  vision  may  be  seated  near  the  front  of  the  classroom),  limit 
background  noise,  and  ensure  good  lighting. 


Chapter  8:  Children  with  disabilities 


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7 


• Identify  situations  where  education  services  can  provide  special  transport  (e.g.  buses) 
or  where  the  community  can  assist  with  transport. 

• Organize  ‘buddy  schemes’  where  children  with  disabilities  are  paired  up  with  a 
peer  who  helps  them  to  get  school  if  necessary. 

7 ♦ Use  the  emergency  to  help  strengthen  national  capacities  in  education 

for  persons  with  disability. 

• Assess  the  need  for  special  expertise  to  educate  children  with  disabilities,  such 
as  teachers  trained  in  reading  and  writing  using  Braille,  teachers  trained  in  sign 
language,  etc. 

• Donors  may  be  willing  to  support  hiring  experts  in  these  areas  to  train  and 
work  with  local  teachers  to  strengthen  their  skills. 

• Assess  the  need  for  teacher-training  institutions  to  strengthen  pre-service  training 
and  in-service  training  in  special-needs  education. 

• Raise  awareness  of  educational  authorities  at  the  national  and  local  level. 


0 INCLUSIVE  EDUCATION  IN  VIET  NAM 

The  aim  of  the  programme  of  inclusive  education  supported  by  Radda  Barnen  (Swedish  Save 
the  Children)  in  Viet  Nam  is  to  integrate  children  with  disabilities  in  the  regular  education 
system.  Discrimination  of  children  with  disabilities  is  counteracted  through  raising  the 
awareness  of  decision-makers  at  national  and  local  level,  capacity  building  of  national 
resource  persons,  teacher  trainers,  principals  and  teachers. 

Teachers  are  looked  upon  as  key  agents  for  change.  To  achieve  effective  inclusion,  the 
development  of  skills  and  attitudes  of  teachers  are  given  high  priority.  The  programme  has 
shown  that  teachers  become  better  teachers  when  they  are  responsible  for  all  children. 
In  assuming  this  responsibility,  teachers  become  more  active,  innovative  and  creative,  and 
learn  to  see  the  needs  of  individuals.  Interviews  with  children  show  how  education  can 
counteract  their  isolation  and  feeling  of  being  different.  Inclusive  education  in  Viet  Nam  is 
developing.  The  focus  is  not  on  ‘sameness’  and  making  children  similar,  but  about  a world 
where  children  are  different. 

Education  that  welcomes  all  children  focuses  on  how  to  learn  together  and  live  together  with 
each  other.  The  programmes  in  the  schools  in  the  pilot  areas  are  supported  by  community 
support  teams  that  involve  parents,  health  personnel,  retired  individuals  and  different  local 
mass  organizations. 

The  strategy  has  facilitated  the  assumption  of  responsibility  and  community  building  in  the 
communes  where  inclusive  strategies  have  been  built. 

Source:  SIDA  (2001:35). 


• Consider  incorporating  inclusive  education  into  ongoing  in-service  teacher 
training. 


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0 TEACHER  EDUCATION  ON  INCLUSION  IN  KENYA 

An  agreement  with  the  Kenya  Institute  of  Special  Education  (KISE)  has  led  to  ongoing 
in-service  training  for  Oriang  teachers.  The  KISE  courses  offer  certificate  and  diploma 
qualifications,  lasting  one  and  two  years  respectively.  There  is  distance  learning  during  term- 
time,  and  meetings  with  tutors  in  the  school  holidays. 

This  model  of  training,  although  available  for  other  curriculum  areas  such  as  mathematics 
and  English,  is  the  first  of  its  kind  in  Kenya  to  incorporate  inclusive  education.  The  results 
of  a baseline  survey  by  LCI  in  1999  played  a significant  role  in  the  design  of  the  course.  At 
the  moment,  15  teachers  are  on  an  in-service  diploma  course  in  inclusive  education,  which 
includes  sign  language,  Braille,  and  use  of  teaching  and  adaptive  aids. 

Source:  UNESCO  (2004a:  17). 


8*  Provide  technical  and  vocational  education/skills  training  opportunities 
for  youth  with  disabilities. 

This  is  especially  important,  as  their  access  to  the  labour  market  may  be  restricted  due  to 
physical  or  mental  capacity.  It  will  also  help  these  youth  become  more  self-sufficient. 

• Reserve  a quota  of  study  places  in  regular  vocational  training  centres  for  students 
with  disabilities.  For  example,  students  with  injuries  to  their  legs  can  take  up 
tailoring,  shoemaking,  etc. 

• Organize  special  training  programmes  and  apprenticeships  near  the  residence  of 
the  youth. 

(See  the  Guidebook , Chapter  26,  ‘Vocational  education  and  training’,  for  more 
information.) 


0 SKILL  TRAINING  FOR  AFGHAN  REFUGEES  WITH  DISABILITIES 


■ 


Many  Afghan  refugees  in  Pakistan  had  severe  injuries  from  war,  landmines  and  disease  or 
congenital  conditions.  Unlike  other  refugees,  they  were  unable  to  go  out  for  daily  labouring 
work.  In  the  early  1990s,  UNHCR’s  Peshawar  office  structured  its  funding  of  NGO  skills 
training  programmes  to  help  them  gain  employment.  Policies  adopted  included: 

1.  Instructing  vocational  training  centres  to  include  refugees  with  disabilities  as  at  least 
5 per  cent  of  their  enrolment. 

2.  Restricting  sponsored  apprenticeships  in  the  fields  of  tailoring  and  shoemaking  to  male 
students  with  disabilities,  and  women  with  disabilities  or  heading  needy  households. 

3.  Creating  mobile  training  units  that  provided  4-  to  6-month  courses  for  refugees  with 
disabilities  in  different  refugee  camps,  to  overcome  problems  of  access. 

4.  Providing  a special  training  centre  for  refugees  with  disabilities,  where  students 
acquired  vocational  skills  and  improved  their  literacy/numeracy  abilities,  followed  by  a 
3-month  apprenticeship  in  the  workplace  to  gain  experience  and  acceptance,  with  a 
monthly  stipend  to  cover  expenses. 


Working  with  Save  the  Children  Sweden,  the  office  also  sponsored  community-based  ‘child 
groups’  for  children  with  disabilities  in  the  camps,  which  provided  a first  step  for  some 
towards  entering  schooling  or  vocational  training. 


Source:  Margaret  Sinclair  (personal  communication). 


Chapter  8:  Children  with  disabilities 


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9 


TOOLS  AND  RESOURCES 


1*  Advantages  and  disadvantages  of  special  schools  for  the 
disabled 


ADVANTAGES 

DISADVANTAGES 

Special  schools  can  be  developed  as  centres  of 
excellence. 

Special  schools  are  usually  not  available  in  the  child’s 
immediate  environment. 

Concentration  of  expertise  on  specific  impairments  is 
possible. 

Expertise  is  only  available  for  a small  group  of  children. 

Smaller  student-teacher  ratio  enables  each  disabled 
child  to  have  more  attention. 

System  of  teaching  is  very  expensive.  It  is  therefore  not 
affordable,  or  sustainable,  for  all  disabled  children. 

Children  grow  up  with  their  peers  and  develop  a 
common  culture. 

Children  find  it  hard  to  re-adapt  to  life  with  their 
families,  peers  and  communities. 

Source:  Save  the  Children  UK  (2002). 


2.  Inclusion  of  children  with  disabilities  into  the  classroom 


WARNING  SIGNS 

THINGS  TO  DO 

VISUAL  DISABILITY 

• Eyes  physically  not  well — red, 
swollen,  watery  eyes,  crossed  eyes, 
eyes  that  do  not  appear  straight 

• Student  rubbing  eyes 

• Difficulty  reading  or  doing  visual 
work.  Student  may  bring  book  or 
object  close  to  the  eyes,  shuts  or 
covers  one  eye  when  reading  or  tilts 
head 

• Student  may  have  difficulty  with 
written  work 

• Student  may  avoid  playground 

• Unusual  incidence  of  squinting, 
blinking,  frowning  or  facial 
distortions  when  reading 

• Unable  to  locate  small  objects 

• Sensitivity  to  light 

CLASSROOM  ADAPTATIONS 

• Find  out  from  the  student  where  the  best  place  is  for  him/her  to  see 
the  chalkboard  i.e.  the  front  of  the  class. 

• Light  should  not  reflect  on  the  board.  Chalk  should  appear  clearly  on 
the  board. 

• If  student  is  sensitive  to  light,  seat  him/her  away  from  the  window  or 
provide  a cardboard  screen  to  shade  reading  and  writing. 

• Ensure  that  the  child  knows  his/her  way  around  the  school  and 
classroom.  Teachers  and  sighted  pupils  can  assist  by  walking  slightly 
in  front  of  visually  impaired  students  or  to  one  side/holding  their 
elbow. 

TEACHING  STRATEGIES 

• Use  large  writing  on  the  chalkboard  and  visual  aids.  Coloured  chalk  is 
recommended.  Let  students  come  close  to  the  board  or  to  teaching 
aids  to  see  more  clearly. 

• Read  aloud  what  is  written  on  the  chalkboard. 

• Prepare  teaching  aids  that  students  can  read  easily  or  provide 
photocopies  with  large  print. 

• Encourage  students  to  use  a pointer  or  their  finger  when  reading. 

• Pair  pupils  with  a seeing  classmate  to  assist  in  organizing  their  work. 

• Use  verbal  praise  or  touch. 

• Use  the  names  of  pupils  during  class  discussion  so  the  student  knows 
who  is  talking. 

• Depending  upon  student  needs  provide: 

- Paper  with  thicker  lines  on  it  to  assist  them  in  writing. 

- Magnifiers. 

- Abacus  for  mathematics  lessons. 

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WARNING  SIGNS 

THINGS  TO  DO 

INTELLECTUAL  DISABILITY 

• Student  has  not  reached  the  same 
level  of  development  as  their  age 
mates  with  regard  to  for  example 
oral  and  understanding  abilities, 
playing/moving,  behaviour 

• Head  injury  or  serious  illness 

CLASSROOM  ADAPTATIONS 

• Reduce  distractions  - keep  desk  clear. 

• With  children  who  are  inclined  to  run  around,  seat  them  by  the 
wall  with  bigger  children  beside  them.  Tasks  can  be  assigned  that 
allow  them  to  move  without  being  disruptive  such  as  distributing 
papers,  notebooks  or  materials. 

• Recruit  volunteers  to  come  to  class  to  provide  one-on-one 
attention  for  the  student. 

TEACHING  STRATEGIES 

• Assess  whether  the  child’s  reduced  learning  capacity  may  in  fact 
relate  to  other  factors.  For  example,  the  child  may  be  trying  to 
hide  visual  or  hearing  problems,  or  may  be  suffering  from  dyslexia. 
In  addition,  responsibilities  at  home  may  be  hindering  the  child  in 
committing  fully  to  his  or  her  studies.  In  some  cases,  behavioural 
problems  have  their  source  in  abuse. 

• Show  the  child  what  you  want  him  or  her  to  do  rather  than  simply 
telling. 

• Use  simple  words  when  giving  instructions  and  check  that  the  child 
has  understood. 

• Use  real  objects  that  the  child  can  feel  and  handle  rather  than  doing 
paper  and  pencil  work. 

• Do  one  activity  at  a time  and  complete  it.  Make  clear  when  one  is 
finished  and  a new  one  begins. 

• Break  tasks  down  into  small  steps  or  learning  objectives.  Have  child 
start  with  what  they  can  do  before  moving  to  a harder  step. 

• Give  plenty  of  praise  and  encouragement  to  the  student. 

• Give  extra  time  for  practice. 

• Pair  the  student  with  a peer  who  can  focus  their  attention. 

HEARING  DISABILITY 

• Poor  attention 

• Poor  speech  development  or  may 
talk  in  a very  loud  or  soft  voice 

• Difficulty  following  instructions 

• May  turn  or  cock  head  when 
listening 

• May  watch  what  other  students 
are  doing  before  starting  his  or  her 
work 

• May  give  inappropriate  answers 

• May  be  shy  or  appear  stubborn  and 
disobedient 

• Reluctant  to  participate  in  oral 
activities 

• May  complain  of  earaches,  colds, 
sore  throat 

CLASSROOM  ADAPTATIONS 

• Seat  student  as  close  as  possible  to  teacher. 

• Instruct  teachers  to  face  their  students  and  not  to  cover  their  faces 
or  talk  when  writing  on  the  chalkboard. 

• Make  sure  students  can  see  teachers  face,  hands  and  lips. 

• Ensure  that  student  can  see  both  the  teacher  and  other  pupils  at 
the  same  time  to  see  how  they  are  responding. 

• Minimize  classroom  noise,  possibly  using  a quieter  part  of  the 
school. 

TEACHING  STRATEGIES 

• Speak  clearly  and  loudly. 

• Make  sure  students’  hearing  aids  are  switched  on. 

• Use  visual  aids  for  teaching. 

• Pair  the  student  with  hearing  students. 

• Check  with  student  to  ensure  they  have  understood. 

• Take  time  to  listen  to  what  the  student  is  saying. 

Source:  Adapted  from  INEE  (2002). 


Chapter  8:  Children  with  disabilities 


1 1 


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REFERENCES  AND  FURTHER  READING 


Brown,  T.  2001.  “Improving  quality  and  attainment  in  refugee  schools:  the  case  of  the 
Bhutanese  refugees  in  Nepal/’  In:  J.  Crisp,  C.  Talbot  and  D.B.  Cipollone  (Eds.), 
Learning  for  a future:  refugee  education  in  developing  countries  (pp.  109-161).  Geneva: 
UNHCR. 

Hegarty,  S.  Educating  children  and  young  people  with  disabilities:  principles  and  the  review  of 
practice . Paris:  UNESCO.  Retrieved  29  August  2005  from 
http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0009/000955/095511eo.pdf 

1NEE  (Inter-Agency  Network  for  Education  in  Emergencies).  2002.  “Inclusive  education 
of  children  at  risk:  persons  with  disability”.  In:  Good  practice  guide . Retrieved  29 
August  2005  from  http://www.ineesite.org/inclusion/disabled.asp 

Nicolai,  S.  2003.  Education  in  emergencies:  a tool  kit  for  starting  and  managing  education  in 
emergencies . London:  Save  the  Children  UK. 

Ogot,  O.  2004.  “Developing  inclusive  environments,  Oriang,  Kenya”.  In:  Enabling  Education, 
S,  16-17.  Retrieved  31  August  2005  from  http://www.eenet.org.uk/newsletters/ 
news8  / page  1 2 . shtml 

Save  the  Children  UK.  2002.  Schools  for  all  London:  Save  the  Children  UK. 

Sommers,  M.;  Buckland  P.  2004.  Parallel  worlds:  rebuilding  the  education  system  in  Kosovo . 
Paris:  11EP-UNESCO. 

Sida  (Swedish  International  Development  Cooperation  Agency).  2001.  Education,  democracy 
and  human  rights  in  Swedish  development  co-operation . (Position  Paper  April  2001). 
Stockholm:  SIDA. 

UNHCR.  1995.  Revised  guidelines  for  educational  assistance  to  refugees . Geneva:  UNHCR. 

UNESCO.  1997a.  First  steps:  stories  on  inclusion  in  early  childhood  education . Retrieved  29 
August  2005  from  http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0011/001102/110238eo.pdf 

UNESCO.  19976.  International  standard  classification  of  education  (ISCED).  Paris: 
UNESCO. 

UNESCO.  2003.  Open  file  on  inclusive  education . Paris:  UNESCO.  Retrieved  29  August 
2005  from 

http://portal.unesco.org/education/en/ev.phpURL_ID=32379£rURL_DO  = DO_ 
TOPIC  &-URL_SECTION  =201. html 


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UNESCO.  2004a.  Inclusive  education . Retrieved  29  August  2005  from 

http://portal.unesco.org/education/en/ev.php-URL_ID=7939&-URL_DO  = DO_ 
TOPIC  &-URL_SECTION =201. html 

UNESCO.  20045.  Guides  for  special  needs  education . Paris:  UNESCO.  Retrieved  29  August 
2005  from  http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0006/000694/069420eo.pdf 


Chapter  8:  Children  with  disabilities 


1 3 


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CHAPTER 


8 


SECTION  3 


United  Nations  ] International 

Educational,  Scientific  and  [ Institute  for 

Cultural  Organization  * Educational 

Planning 


Chapter 


FORMER  CHILD  SOLDIERS 


ACCESS  AND  INCLUSION 


The  designations  employed  and  the  presentation  of 
material  throughout  this  review  do  not  imply  the  expression 
of  any  opinion  whatsoever  on  the  part  of  UNESCO  or  the 
IIEP  concerning  the  legal  status  of  any  country,  territory, 
city  or  area  or  its  authorities,  or  concerning  its  frontiers 
or  boundaries. 

The  publication  costs  of  this  study  have  been  covered 
through  a grant-in-aid  offered  by  UNESCO  and  by 
voluntary  contributions  made  by  several  Member  States 
of  UNESCO. 


Published  by: 

International  Institute  for  Educational  Planning 
7-9  rue  Eugene  Delacroix,  75116  Paris 
e-mail:  info@iiep.unesco.org 
IIEP  web  site:  www.unesco.org/iiep 


Layout  and  cover  design:  Sabine  Lebeau 
Typesetting:  Sabine  Lebeau 
Printed  in  IIEP’s  printshop 
ISBN:  92-803-1288-X 
©UNESCO  2006 


Chapter 


FORMER  CHILD  SOLDIERS 


^ MAIN  OBJECTIVES 

• To  ensure  that  schools  are  safe  places 
that  do  not  present  opportunities  for 
abduction  or  recruitment. 

• To  facilitate  psychosocial  healing, 
reintegration  and  educational 
opportunities  for  former  child  soldiers. 


CONTEXT  AND  CHALLENGES 


WHO  ARE  CHILD  SOLDIERS? 

“A  child  soldier  is  any  person  under  18  years 
of  age  who  is  part  of  any  kind  of  regular  or 
irregular  armed  force  or  armed  group  in  any 
capacity,  including,  but  not  limited  to  cooks, 
porters,  messengers,  and  those  accompanying 
such  groups,  other  than  family  members;  the 
definition  includes  girls  recruited  for  sexual 
purposes  and  for  forced  marriage.  It  does  not, 
therefore,  only  refer  to  a child  who  is  carrying  or 
has  carried  arms.” 

Source:  UNICEF  (1997: 12). 


Child  soldiers  are  among  the  tragic  victims  of 
today’s  armed  conflicts,  and  the  use  of  them 
has  recently  become  more  common  than  ever 
(Lorey,  2001).  More  than  300,000  children 
are  estimated  to  be  actively  participating  in 
more  than  30  conflicts  in  Africa,  Europe,  Latin 
America  and  the  former  Soviet  Union  (UNICEF, 
2004).  At  the  same  time,  more  and  more  legal 
frameworks  devoted  to  stopping  the  use  of 
child  soldiers  and  creating  awareness  about  this 
subject  have  been  written.  Under  the  Geneva 
Convention  and  the  Convention  of  the  Rights 
of  the  Child,  it  is  illegal  to  recruit  soldiers  under 
the  age  of  15.  By  international  norm,  however, 
a child  soldier  is  any  person  under  the  age  of  18 
who  is  part  of  any  kind  of  regular  or  irregular 
armed  force  or  armed  group  in  any  capacity 
(UNICEF,  1997). 


1 

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■ 


0 THE  USE  OF  CHILD  SOLDIERS  IS  A WAR  CRIME:  THE  CASE  OF  SIERRA  LEONE 

The  civil  war  in  Sierra  Leone  generated  some  2 million  refugees,  and  almost  7,000  child 
soldiers.  Since  the  cease-fire  in  1999,  an  international  Special  Court  has  been  set  up  to  rule 
on  charges  of  war  crimes  committed  in  the  country  after  1996.  In  June  2004,  the  Special 
Court  reached  a historic  decision,  confirming  the  recruitment  and  use  of  child  soldiers  as 
a crime  under  international  law,  even  when  and  where  the  International  Criminal  Court’s 
powers  do  not  apply.  The  ruling  by  the  Appeals  Chamber  of  the  Special  Court  recognized 
child  recruitment  under  age  15  as  a crime  under  customary  international  law  - even  before 
the  adoption  of  the  Rome  Statute  for  the  International  Criminal  Court,  in  July  1998.  As  a 
consequence,  those  responsible  for  the  recruitment  of  child  soldiers  in  Sierra  Leone  from 
1 996  onwards  may  be  prosecuted  and  convicted  of  war  crimes.  According  to  the  International 
Coalition  to  Stop  the  Use  of  Child  Soldiers,  the  ruling  was  not  only  a victory  for  all  former 
child  soldiers  and  their  families  in  Sierra  Leone,  but  also  a clear  message  to  recruiters  all  over 
the  world  that  international  judicial  institutions  take  this  issue  very  seriously. 

Source:  Coalition  to  Stop  the  Use  of  Child  Soldiers  (2004). 


Educational  authorities  must  be  familiar  with  the  legal  frameworks  prohibiting  the  use  of 
child  soldiers  (see  the  'Tools  and  resources’  section:  'Legal  frameworks  prohibiting  the  use 
of  child  soldiers’)  in  the  context  of  their  own  country  and  be  prepared  to  advocate  with  their 
counterparts  in  other  government  offices  and  with  community  members  with  the  aim  of: 

• Preventing  children  from  being  recruited  or  abducted  and  used  as  child  soldiers. 

• Preventing  this  from  happening  on  school  premises  or  in  transit  to  or  from 
school. 

• Ensuring  that  former  child  soldiers  have  access  to  educational  opportunities  on 
leaving  or  being  released  from  military  activities. 

Educational  authorities  are  responsible  for  the  safety  of  all  the  children  and  youth  who 
are  enrolled  in  their  schools.  In  times  of  active  conflict,  therefore,  extra  care  may  be 
warranted  to  prevent  or  minimize  the  risk  that  children  and  youth  will  be  abducted  from 
school,  or  that  military  recruiters  will  use  school  grounds  to  enlist  vulnerable  children  and 
youth.  Refugee  camps  situated  close  to  the  border  are  more  likely  to  become  places  of 
recruitment  or  abduction  of  both  boys  and  girls.  1DP  children  without  the  structure  of  a 
refugee  camp  are  more  at  risk  for  recruitment  and  abduction  than  those  children  who  live 
in  camps.  Recruitment  may  take  place  in  or  outside  schools,  by  force  or  through  the  use  of 
incentives.  Refugee  children  and  1DP  children  may  even  be  forced  to  infiltrate  camps  and 
communities. 

In  protracted  conflicts,  older  students  at  well-established  educational  institutions  may  be 
groomed’  to  take  part  in  the  conflict,  and  education  providers  may  be  unaware  of  these 
problems,  or  unable  or  unwilling  to  intervene.  In  situations  where  child  soldiers  are  used 
during  conflict,  educational  authorities  must  work  to  understand  the  situation  of  these 
children  and  youth  - who  they  are,  what  they  have  gone  through,  and  the  impact  of 
their  experiences  on  them.  Child  soldiers  are  deliberately  used  because  children  do  not 


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understand  the  consequences  of  their  actions  to  the  same  degree  as  adults.  They  are  thus 
frequently  assigned  to  carry  out  the  most  serious  crimes,  often  under  the  influence  of 
narcotic  drugs. 

Child  soldiers  are  not  just  boys  - and  sometimes  girls  - with  guns.  They  are  boys  and  girls 
who  serve  many  roles,  including: 

• Porters. 

• Cooks. 

• Messengers. 

• Girls  recruited  for  forced  marriages  and  sexual  purposes. 

• Human  shields. 

• Spies. 

• Sentries. 


Q DIFFERENT  ROLES  OF  CHILD  SOLDIERS  IN  CAMBODIA 

A UNICEF  study  based  on  interviews  of  child  soldiers  in  three  provinces  of  Northwest 
Cambodia  (Battambang,  Siem  Reap  and  Oddar  Meanchey),  presented  in  2000,  illustrates 
the  large  variety  of  activities  in  which  children  were  involved.  Amongst  the  interviewees, 
35  per  cent  had  functioned  as  cooks  or  cleaners,  21  per  cent  as  guards  and  6 per  cent  as 
porters;  16  per  cent  considered  themselves  active  combatants,  16  per  cent  as  bodyguards 
and  5 per  cent  as  spies;  57  per  cent  of  the  children  reported  to  have  had  exposure  to 
frontline  situations. 

Source:  Deng  (2001 ). 


It  is  crucial  that  all  these  children  and  youth  are  identified,  and  provided  with  appropriate 
rehabilitation  programmes.  In  addition  to  the  trauma  of  having  been  a child  soldier,  former 
child  soldiers  often  face  much  suspicion  and  fear  from  their  communities  when  they  return 
home.  They  may  be  viewed  as  spies  working  undercover  or  as  having  been  active  contributors 
to  extreme  violence.  These  views  are  often  warranted,  yet  former  child  soldiers  are  also 
victimized  returnees  from  war  and  abuse.  There  is  a great  need  to  sensitize  communities 
and  families  of  former  child  soldiers  on  the  plights  and  needs  of  the  children,  and  to  develop 
appropriate  rehabilitation  and  reintegration  programmes  that  address  these  needs. 

Child  soldiers  are  rarely  willing  (or  Voluntary’)  members  of  fighting  forces,  or  in  a position  to 
give  their  informed  consent  to  their  recruitment.  Many  are  forcibly  abducted  and  still  others 
join  out  of  desperation;  they  often  have  no  way  to  support  themselves,  have  been  separated 
from  their  families  and/or  their  parents  have  been  killed.  In  such  circumstances,  promises  of 
food  and  shelter  may  have  been  life  saving.  Some  child  soldiers  may  wish  to  give  up  fighting 
and  enrol  in  school,  but  lack  the  resources  to  support  themselves  while  studying. 


Chapter  9:  Former  child  soldiers 


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3 


0 SRI  LANKA:  CHILD  TSUNAMI  VICTIMS  RECRUITED  BY  TAMIL  TIGERS 

Various  sources  estimate  that  the  rebel  (Liberation  Tigers  of  Tamil  Eelam  (LTTE))  lost  between 
700  and  2,000  soldiers  during  the  tsunami,  including  nearly  400  women  and  girls  who  were 
washed  away  from  an  LTTE  training  camp  in  Mullaitivu.  Sri  Lankan  government  sources  have 
reported  that  the  LTTE  navy  suffered  major  losses. 

Human  Rights  Watch  said  that  the  Tamil  Tigers,  who  were  already  recruiting  large  numbers 
of  child  soldiers,  now  might  seek  to  replace  forces  lost  to  the  tsunami  with  child  recruits. 
“As  the  LTTE  seeks  to  rebuild  its  forces  after  the  tsunami,  children  are  at  enormous  risk/’  said 
Becker.  “Children  have  always  been  targeted,  but  children  who  have  lost  their  homes  or 
families  from  the  tsunami  now  are  even  more  susceptible  to  LTTE  recruitment.” 

The  LTTE  is  reportedly  pressuring  many  camps  for  tsunami  victims  to  relocate  from 
government-held  areas  to  LTTE-held  territory.  Human  Rights  Watch  expressed  strong  concern 
that  such  relocation  will  put  children  at  greater  risk  of  recruitment. 

Source:  Human  Rights  Watch  (2005). 


Many  former  child  soldiers  have  also  been  subjected  to  horrific  experiences  - having  been 
intentionally  traumatized,  brutalized,  and  sexually  assaulted  or  having  been  forced  to 
commit  dreadful  acts  themselves.  Some  became  addicted  to  drugs  as  a result  of  those  they 
were  given  in  order  to  desensitize  and  encourage  them  to  commit  atrocities.  Others  have 
been  infected  with  HIV/AIDS  or  other  sexually  transmitted  infections,  and  girls  may  have 
become  pregnant  and  may  have  small  children  of  their  own.  Many  girl  'child  soldiers’  have 
been  used  as  labourers,  for  sexual  purposes  or  for  forced  marriages.  Returnee  children  may 
also  have  physical  disabilities,  in  addition  to  their  trauma. 

Many  child  soldiers  have  had  limited  or  no  access  to  formal  education  because  they  were 
recruited  at  an  early  age,  their  education  has  been  disrupted  by  conflict  or  their  families 
have  not  been  able  to  keep  them  in  school.  They  may  thus  have  learned  no  skills  other  than 
those  required  for  fighting  and  surviving  in  an  armed  group.  However,  despite  the  horrors 
experienced  by  many  child  soldiers,  some  will  also  have  gained  considerable  maturity  and 
be  quite  experienced  in  survival  skills,  leadership,  negotiation,  organization,  information 
sharing  and  communication.  This  may  complicate  their  social  relations  with  other  children 
of  the  same  age  and  can  create  particular  challenges  regarding  their  integration  into  regular 
schools  and  classrooms. 

In  the  immediate  aftermath  of  war,  donors  may  be  willing  to  quickly  fund  programmes 
for  ex-combatants.  Quick  decisions  on  programme  structure,  however,  may  be  counter- 
productive if  the  ex-combatants  are  not  consulted  and  do  not  perceive  the  programmes  as 
relevant  and  choose  not  to  participate.  Should  this  occur,  there  is  a risk  that  demobilized 
child  soldiers,  lacking  better  options,  will  return  to  a life  of  violence  or  criminal  behaviour 
- either  re-enlisting  with  armed  forces  or  militias  or  becoming  members  of  street  gangs  that 
terrorize  local  communities  in  order  to  survive.  To  help  prevent  this,  educational  authorities 
must  work  to  find  ways  of  giving  former  child  soldiers  access  to  relevant  educational 


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opportunities  - whether  these  consist  of  formal  schooling,  some  type  of  vocational  or 
skills  training  programme,  or  an  organized  recreation  programme  to  help  them  re-adjust 
to  community  life. 

While  such  efforts  are  critical,  educational  authorities  must  also  be  aware  of  the  dangers 
of  aiming  programmes  exclusively  at  demobilized  child  soldiers.  Such  programmes  run  the 
risk  of  further  stigmatizing  child  soldiers  and  of  excluding  other  children  and  youth  who 
managed  to  resist  or  avoid  becoming  child  soldiers.  Children  and  youth  who  did  not  become 
child  soldiers  may  resent  programming  efforts  targeted  specifically  at  former  child  soldiers. 
In  extreme  cases,  they  may  even  take  up  arms  just  to  gain  access  to  the  programme.  Girls 
who  served  in  some  capacity  with  the  fighting  forces  may  be  excluded  from  programmes 
for  former  child  soldiers  and  particularly  vulnerable  as  they  may  be  isolated  from  their 
community  as  well.  A strategy  must  be  developed  for  the  identification  of  children  eligible 
for  rehabilitation  programmes,  using  the  broadest  definition  of  a child  soldier.  It  is  crucial  not 
to  nourish  the  serious  and  dangerous  perception  that  former  combatants  are  being  rewarded 
with  a programme,  job  skills,  or  other  incentives  that  are  not  available  to  others.  Therefore, 
it  is  essential  that  programme  designers  understand  child  soldiers  and  their  experiences  as 
well  as  the  educational  needs  of  the  entire  affected  community.  See  also  the  Guidebook , 
Chapter  19,  'Psychosocial  support  to  learners’  and  Chapter  25 , 'Education  for  life  skills:  peace, 
human  rights  and  citizenship’. 


Chapter 


9:  Former  child 

NSTITUTE  FOR 


soldiers 

E D U C A T 


O N A L 


I N G 


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P L A N N 


5 


SUGGESTED  STRATEGIES 


Educational  authorities  have  a central  role  to  play  with  regard  to  how  former  child  soldiers 
are  integrated  into  educational  initiatives  because  initiatives,  if  handled  improperly,  can  lead 
to  much  disruption,  or  the  continued  alienation/isolation  of  the  children  concerned.  Some 
key  strategies  for  doing  so  are  noted  below. 


Summary  of  suggested  strategies 
Former  child  soldiers 

Prevent  schools  from  becoming  places  of 
recruitment  or  abduction. 


2.  Identify  and  co-ordinate  education 
programmes  that  are  currently  being 
conducted  for  former  child  soldiers  in  the 
country. 

3.  Conduct  or  participate  in  needs  assessments 
regarding  the  reintegration  of  child  soldiers. 

4.  Develop  plans  for  the  (re)  integration  of  former 
child  soldiers  into  the  national  school  system. 

5.  Design  or  support  the  educational  activities 
that  were  identified  through  the  participatory 
assessment. 

6.  Ensure  monitoring  and  evaluation  of  all 
programmes  designed  to  increase  the 
educational  access  of  demobilized  child 
soldiers. 


. 


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Guidance  notes 


L Prevent  schools  from  becoming  places  of  recruitment  or  abduction. 

• Has  training  related  to  child  protection  and  the  prevention  of  child  soldier 
recruitment  or  abduction  been  provided  for  teachers,  administrators  and  other 
education  workers? 

• Which  organizations  can  provide  such  training? 

• How  can  teachers  and  administrators  convey  this  information  to  parents  and 
students? 

• Are  head-teachers  empowered  to  make  schools  and  surrounding  compounds 
physically  safe,  considering  factors  such  as: 

• Is  entry  to  the  school  grounds  regulated?  Who  monitors  access? 

• In  situations  of  ongoing  conflict,  has  the  use  of  guards  been  considered? 

• Is  the  school  area  fenced?  Is  it  practical  to  consider  a fence  to  protect  the 
school  compound? 

• Are  teachers  trained  to  monitor  attendance?  A sudden  disappearance  from  school 
may  be  an  indicator  that  a child  has  been  abducted. 

• Have  community  awareness  efforts  been  undertaken  to  inform  parents  and 
the  community  about  the  need  to  prevent  military  recruitment  or  abduction  of 
children? 

• Consider  involving  parent-teacher  associations  or  school-management 
committees  in  recruitment-prevention  initiatives,  such  as  making  the  school 
safer. 

• Ensure  that  these  efforts  include  information  on: 

- The  definition  of  a child  soldier. 

- The  Convention  on  the  Rights  of  the  Child,  which  prohibits  the  use  of 
child  soldiers,  and  which  almost  all  countries  have  ratified. 

- National  or  local  laws  that  prohibit  the  use  of  child  soldiers. 

- How  to  avoid  recruitment  and  avenues  of  appeal  if  a child  is  recruited. 


Chapter  9:  Former  child  soldiers 

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2 ♦ Identify  and  co-ordinate  education  programmes  that  are  currently 
being  conducted  for  former  child  soldiers  in  the  country* 

(See  also  the  Guidebook , Chapter  28}  ‘Assessment  of  needs  and  resources’  and 
Chapter 34,  ‘Data  collection  and  education  management  information  systems 
(EMIS)\) 

• Do  all  programmes  have  an  education  component? 

• Where  are  education  activities  occurring? 

• In  demobilization  or  transit  camps? 

• In  interim  care  centres? 

• Which  of  the  following  types  of  programme  are  being  offered  (in  addition  to  access 
to  normal  schooling)? 

• Structured  recreational  activities  or  youth  clubs  to  increase  self-esteem  and 
decrease  isolation? 

• Accelerated  primary  education?  (e.g.  six  years  condensed  to  three  years). 

• Basic  literacy/numeracy? 

• Skills  training? 

• Who  is  conducting  the  education  activities  and  where? 

• Local  NGOs? 

• International  NGOs? 

• UNICEF  or  another  United  Nations  agency? 

• Religious  organizations? 

• Other  government  ministries,  particularly  those  responsible  for  children  and 
youth,  health,  welfare  and  development,  disarmament  and  demobilization, 
and  reconstruction  and  rehabilitation? 

• Who  is  funding  the  initiatives? 

• For  programmes  that  are  being  offered  in  demobilization  or  interim  care  centres, 
what  are  the  plans  for  where  the  children  will  go  and  what  they  will  do  after  they 
leave  the  centres? 

• Can  members  of  the  community  participate  in  the  programmes  offered  in 
these  centres? 

• When  are  children  expected  to  be  reintegrated  into  their  communities,  and  which 
communities  will  be  affected? 


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3 ♦ Conduct  or  participate  in  needs  assessments  regarding  the  reintegration 

of  child  soldiers. 

Needs  assessment  should  examine  the  current  circumstances  and  plans  or  interests 
of  former  child  soldiers  with  regard  to  education.  Assessments  that  are  participatory 
and  involve  former  child  soldiers  in  their  design  and  implementation  will  help  ensure 
relevant  programming  decisions  based  on  the  assessments.  (See  also  the  Guidebook , 
Chapter  28,  Assessment  of  needs  and  resources’  and  Chapter  34,  ‘Data  collection  and 
education  management  information  systems  (EMIS)’.) 

• Have  the  needs  and  conditions  of  all  former  child  soldiers  been  assessed? 

• Boys  and  girls? 

• Former  combatants  and  those  who  served  another  supporting  role? 

• What  is  the  educational  background  of  the  former  child  soldiers? 

• How  many  former  child  soldiers  - both  boys  and  girls  - would  like  to  enter  the 
formal  school  system? 

• Are  special  programmes,  such  as  accelerated  learning  or  bridging,  needed  to  (re) 
integrate  former  child  soldiers  into  the  formal  education  system?  (See  also  the 
Guidebook,  Chapter  12,  ‘Non-formal  education.’) 

• Where  would  such  programmes  be  located? 

• Are  there  teachers  who  are  trained  and  available  to  implement  these  types 
of  programmes? 

• If  outside  assistance  is  needed,  are  there  organizations  in  the  area  that  can 
support  the  design  and  implementation  of  such  programmes? 

• How  will  these  programmes  be  linked  to  the  formal  system  to  ensure 
that  students  can  successfully  make  the  transition  from  the  accelerated 
programme  to  the  national  school  system? 


" 

0 INFORMAL  EDUCATION  FOR  FORMER  CHILD  SOLDIERS  IN  LIBERIA 

In  Liberia,  former  child  soldiers  residing  in  interim  care  centres,  managed  by  Save  the  Children 
UK,  took  part  in  daily  activities  designed  to  give  structure  to  their  lives.  The  children  helped 
with  the  maintenance  and  repair  of  their  centres.  This  instilled  a pride  in  their  surroundings, 
and  a sense  of  responsibility  for  their  own  environment.  Over  the  course  of  these  activities, 
they  also  acquired  skills  such  as  carpentry  and  roofing.  They  grew  their  own  vegetable  plots, 
which  gave  children  a sense  of  achievement  and  pride  in  their  efforts,  and  encouraged  them 
to  work  together  to  help  each  other  achieve  a common  goal. 

Source:  Lorey  (2001 : 29). 


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• What  other  types  of  education  programmes  are  needed/wanted  by  child 

soldiers? 

• Literacy /numeracy  programmes. 

• Skills  training  and/or  apprenticeships. 

• Health  education. 

• Peace  education,  conflict  resolution,  etc. 

• Psychosocial  programmes  consisting  of  “structured  recreation  activities  that 
include  sports  and  games,  dancing,  music,  drawing  and  other  art,  theatre, 
story  telling,  and  other  forms  of  group  recreation.  These  activities  provide  a 
physical  and  emotional  space  for  children  to  relieve  tension,  express  emotion, 
learn  appropriate  modes  of  interacting  with  others,  and  come  to  terms  with 
their  past  experiences  and  present  situation”  (Lorey,  2001). 


Q LEARNING  PEACE 

“Peace  education  is  an  important  dimension  of  demobilization  and  reintegration  projects. 
Intensive  involvement  in  armed  struggles  tends  to  force  alignment  of  the  combatant's  beliefs 
with  the  ideology  of  the  group,  as  well  as  the  legitimization  of  violence.  Such  belief  systems 
do  not  disappear  when  child  soldiers  hand  over  their  guns.  To  move  towards  peace,  these 
belief  systems  must  be  addressed  in  school  curricula  through  peace  education  as  well  as 
experimental,  non-formal  programmes.  Part  of  demobilization  is  the  slow  shift  of  antagonisms 
and  the  glorification  of  violence  to  constructive  ideologies  that  offer  an  inclusive,  peace- 
oriented  vision  of  the  future. 

Child  soldiers  face  the  difficult  task  of  coming  to  terms  with  moral  sensibilities  deformed 
by  war . . . New  child  soldiers  are  often  forced  to  commit  acts  of  violence  in  ways  that 
are  designed  to  alter  their  identities  and  eliminate  moral  concern  for  victims.  Without 
appropriate  support  and  assistance,  child  soldiers  may  easily  revert  back  into  learned 
patterns  of  aggression  as  a means  of  satisfying  their  immediate  needs.  Having  broken  moral 
barriers  and  learned  to  devaluate  members  of  rival  groups,  child  soldiers  have  advanced  far 
along  a progression  of  destructive  behavior,  a progression  that  makes  further  violence  much 
easier  to  undertake"  (Staub,  1989). 

Source:  Miller  and  Affolter  (2002:  34). 


4 ♦ Develop  plans  for  the  (re)  integration  of  former  child  soldiers  into  the 
national  school  system. 

• How  can  plans  be  developed  that  take  into  account  the  needs  of  former  child 
soldiers  while  not  neglecting  the  needs  of  other  children  and  youth  in  the  area? 

• What  gaps  exist  in  educational  opportunities  for  demobilized  child  soldiers? 

• How  can  these  gaps  best  be  addressed? 

• Can  local  or  district  educational  authorities  address  the  gaps? 

• Are  outside  resources  necessary? 


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• If  all  the  former  child  soldiers  that  want  to  continue  (or  start)  their  formal  education 
were  integrated  into  the  national  system,  how  many  additional  children  would 
enter  the  system  - where  and  in  what  grades? 

• What  additional  resources  - teachers,  classrooms,  supplies,  etc.  - would  be 
necessary  to  accommodate  these  children? 

• Are  additional  resources  available  from  other  organizations? 

- How  can  resources  be  made  available  to  former  child  soldiers  without 
singling  them  out  for  special  treatment? 

- Can  resources  be  provided  to  the  entire  school  so  all  benefit? 

- Can  certain  resources,  such  as  clothing/school  uniforms  or  supplies, 
be  delivered  directly  to  former  child  soldiers  to  allow  them  to  attend 
school? 

• What  must  be  done  to  prepare  the  schools  to  receive  former  child  soldiers? 

• What  steps  must  be  taken  to  protect  the  identities  of  former  child  soldiers? 

• Do  administrators,  teachers  and  other  education  workers  need  training  related 
to  child  soldiers  on  the  following  subjects? 

- How  to  avoid  stigmatizing  them. 

- How  to  handle  violent  outbursts. 

- How  to  mediate  or  resolve  conflicts  (see  also  the  Guidebook , Chapter  25 , 
‘Education  for  life  skills:  peace,  human  rights  and  citizenship’). 

- How  to  refer  child  soldiers  (and  others)  for  special  counselling  if  necessary. 

• Are  awareness  raising  campaigns  or  community  education  programmes  necessary 
or  desirable? 

• Who  will  conduct  them? 

• What  will  be  the  role  of  parent-teacher  associations  or  school-management 
committees? 

• Initial  meetings  should  focus  on  listening  to  the  concerns  of  community  members 
and  identifying  how  these  concerns  can  be  addressed  (Lorey,  2001). 


0 COMMUNITY  EDUCATION  INVESTMENT  PROGRAMME  IN  SIERRA  LEONE 

One  component  of  the  Community  Education  Investment  Programme  in  Sierra  Leone  was 
the  reintegration  of  former  child  soldiers  back  into  Sierra  Leonean  schools.  As  an  incentive 
for  local  schools  to  participate  in  the  programme,  schools  that  enrolled  the  former  child 
soldiers  were  given  educational  supplies  and  materials  so  that  all  children  benefited.  In 
addition,  former  child  soldiers  were  given  uniforms  and  had  their  enrolment  and  tuition  fees 
waived  to  enable  them  to  attend. 

Source:  Lowicki  and  Anderson-Pillsbury  (2002). 


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Design  or  support  the  educational  activities  that  were  identified 
through  the  participatory  assessment. 

(See  also  the  Guidebook , Chapter  19,  'Psychosocial  support  to  learners’  and  Chapter  25, 
'Education  for  life  skills:  peace,  human  rights  and  citizenship’.) 

• Involve  young  people  (both  former  combatants  and  community  youth)  in  the 
design  and  development  processes  to  ensure  the  activities  meet  their  needs  and 
that  they  will  participate  in  them. 

• Consider  the  potential  negative  effects  of  such  programmes  and  seek  input  from 
community  members  (see  also  'Tools  and  resources’:  'Potential  negative  effects 
of  programmes  and  how  to  address  them’). 

• Seek  outside  assistance/support  as  necessary. 

• Consider  whether  different  types  of  programmes  are  needed  for  former  child 
soldiers  of  varying  ages. 

• Consider  flexible  hours  for  the  education  programmes  so  that  working  students 
may  also  attend. 

• Consider  including  some  form  of  skills  training  in  or  linked  to  formal  schools. 

• Consider  out-of-school  activities  for  informal  interaction  among  children  (former 
child  soldiers  and  community  members) . 

6.  Ensure  monitoring  and  evaluation  of  all  programmes  designed  to 
increase  the  educational  access  of  demobilized  child  soldiers. 

• Are  former  child  soldiers  attending  regularly?  Retention  and  attendance  are  keys 
to  the  success  of  these  programmes. 

• If  former  child  soldiers  are  not  attending  regularly,  determine  why  not.  Is  it 
because: 

• They  do  not  think  the  programme  is  relevant?  If  so,  adjust  the  programme 
to  meet  their  needs. 

• Programme  hours  conflict  with  their  need  to  generate  income  for  survival? 
If  so,  consider  adjusting  programme  hours  to  times  they  can  attend. 

• Young  women  have  small  children  and  therefore  cannot  attend?  If  so,  consider 
ways  of  providing  childcare  so  young  mothers  can  attend. 

• Children  are  being  re-recruited  into  armed  forces?  If  so,  work  with  other 
government  ministries  and  all  concerned  organizations  to  find  ways  of 
keeping  children  out  of  armed  forces  - either  through  educational  or  income- 
generating opportunities. 

• Include  former  child  soldiers  as  active  participants  in  programme  monitoring  and 
evaluation  activities. 


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TOOLS  AND  RESOURCES 


1.  Legal  frameworks  prohibiting  the  use  of  child  soldiers 


The  Convention  on  the  Rights  of  the  Child  ( CRC)  is  the  most  comprehensive  and  widely 
ratified  human  rights  treaty  in  existence.  Although  it  defines  a child  as  anyone  under  the 
age  of  18  and  sets  out  provisions  for  the  protection  and  care  of  children  affected  by  armed 
conflict,  it  somewhat  incongruously  puts  the  age  of  legal  recruitment  and  participation  in 
armed  conflict  at  15. 

Formally,  the  CRC  is  only  legally  binding  on  governments,  but  it  can  also  be  used  to 
advocate  with  armed  opposition  groups.  The  Optional  Protocol  to  the  CRC  on  the 
Involvement  of  Children  in  Armed  Conflict  addresses  the  age  discrepancy  in  the  CRC 
by  explicitly  establishing  18  as  the  minimum  age  for  direct  participation  in  armed  conflict. 
It  also  requires  all  states  parties  to  make  it  a criminal  offence  for  non-governmental  armed 
groups  to  recruit  anyone  under  18.  While  governments  must  not  conscript  children  under 
18  into  the  armed  forces,  they  may  recruit  persons  between  the  age  of  16  and  18  with  a 
series  of  established  safeguards  ensuring  that  such  recruitment  is  genuinely  voluntary, 
that  it  is  done  with  the  informed  consent  of  the  minors  parents  or  legal  guardians,  that 
recruits  are  fully  informed  of  the  duties  involved  in  military  service,  that  proof  of  age  is 
established,  and  that  soldiers  are  not  deployed  before  the  age  of  18. 

The  African  Charter  on  the  Rights  and  Welfare  of  the  Child  defines  a child  as  anyone 
under  the  age  of  18.  The  Charter  precludes  the  recruitment  of  children  and  their 
participation  in  armed  conflict.  It  further  requires  states  parties  to  protect  civilians  and 
ensure  respect  for  all  rules  of  international  humanitarian  law  applicable  to  children  in  all 
armed  conflict,  including  internal  conflict. 

The  1977  Additional  Protocols  to  the  1949  Geneva  Conventions  set  the  legal  age  of 
recruitment  at  15  and  require  special  protection  and  treatment  for  children  in  armed 
conflict.  Importantly,  the  protocols  also  apply  to  all  parties  to  a conflict;  Additional 
Protocol  1 relates  to  international  armed  conflicts  and  Additional  Protocol  11  relates  to 
non-international  or  internal  conflicts  within  states. 

The  Statute  of the  International  Criminal  Court  lists  the  use  of  child  combatants  younger 
than  15  as  a war  crime.  The  court  has  jurisdiction  over  both  international  armed  conflicts 
and  those  internal  conflicts  that  meet  certain  criteria. 

Although  not  a legal  document,  the  Cape  Town  Principles  represent  an  important  consensus 
among  major  international  NGOs  and  UNICEF,  and  offer  useful  guidance  in  developing 
policy  and  programmes  that  protect  and  support  child  soldiers.  In  addition  to  defining  key 
terms,  the  principles  provide  a comprehensive  overview  of  appropriate  action  related  to  the 
prevention  of  recruitment,  demobilization,  and  reintegration  of  child 


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These  developments  in  the  legal  framework  are  supported  and  reflected  in  a growing 
international  consensus  against  the  use  of  children  as  soldiers: 

The  new  International  Criminal  Court  will  treat  the  use  of  child  soldiers  as  a war 
crime; 

The  International  Labour  Organization  (ILO)  has  defined  child  soldiering  as  one  of  the 
worst  forms  of  child  labour. 

The  United  Nations  Security  Council , the  United  Nations  General  Assembly,  the 
United  Nations  Commission  on  Human  Rights,  the  Organization  for  African  Unity,  the 
Organization  of  American  States  and  the  Organization  for  Security  and  Co-operation 
in  Europe,  have  all  condemned  the  abuse. 


2.  Potential  negative  effects  of  child  soldier  reintegration 
programmes  and  how  to  address  them 

It  is  critical  to  consider  carefully  the  potential  negative  effects  of  child  soldier  reintegration 
programmes  and  make  plans  of  how  to  avoid  or  mitigate  these  effects.  Possible  negative 
consequences  of  child  soldier  programmes  include  the  following: 


POTENTIAL  NEGATIVE  EFFECTS 

RESPONSE 

The  solidarity,  esprit  de  corps,  and  authority 
structures  among  child  soldiers  may  be  reinforced 
if  they  stay  together  for  long  periods  in  an  interim 
care  centre  or  other  facility.  This  can  lead  to  re- 
recruitment or  mass  departure  of  the  children. 

Develop  activities  to  facilitate  a break  with 
military  life  after  demobilization  and  encourage 
programming  with  small  groups  of  children. 
Emphasize  community  reintegration  when  possible 
to  prevent  long-term  stays  in  care  centres. 

Former  child  soldiers  may  become  dependent  on 
the  services  provided  at  an  interim  care  centre, 
leading  to  unwillingness  to  depart. 

Minimize  the  duration  of  children’s  stay  and  do  not 
provide  support  that  greatly  exceeds  the  support 
available  in  the  community  where  the  child  will  be 
reintegrated. 

Assembling  a large  group  of  ex-child  soldiers  in  one 
site  may  attract  recruitment  or  retaliation. 

Locate  facilities  at  a reasonable  distance  from  active 
conflict  zones,  ensure  that  security  is  strong  at  the 
facility,  and  resettle  children  in  family  situations  as 
rapidly  as  possible. 

Children  who  are  reintegrated  into  a community 
may  face  retaliation  by  community  members  or  by 
members  of  the  armed  group  that  they  left. 

Work  with  community  leaders  in  advance  of 
reintegration  to  ensure  acceptance  and  protection 
of  children  by  the  community.  If  children  are  in 
danger  of  retaliation  from  their  former  armed 
group,  consider  reintegrating  the  children  into  other 
communities  and  maintaining  confidentiality  about 
their  locations. 

Resentment  may  emerge  toward  former  child 
soldiers  if  they  are  seen  as  recipients  of  more 
benefits  than  other  children;  this  perception  may 
also  provide  another  ‘incentive’  to  join  an  armed 
group  for  other  children  and  their  families. 

Balance  assistance  to  ex-child  soldiers  with 
assistance  for  all  war-affected/vulnerable  children 
in  an  area.  Avoid  programming  that  isolates  or 
differentiates  ex-child  soldiers  from  other  children. 

Source:  Adapted  from  Lorey  (2001 : 56). 


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REFERENCES  AND  FURTHER  READING 


Clark,  C.  2004.  Child  soldiers:  challenging  sensational  stereotypes . World  Hunger  Notes. 
Retrieved  29  August  2005  from 

http://www.worldhunger.org/articles/04/global/clark_child_soldiers.htm 

Coalition  to  Stop  the  Use  of  Child  Soldiers.  2001.  Child  soldiers  global  report . London: 
Coalition  to  Stop  the  Use  of  Child  Soldiers.  Retrieved  29  August  2005  from 
www.child-soldiers.org 

Coalition  to  Stop  the  Use  of  Child  Soldiers.  2004.  Sierra  Leone:  Special  court  affirms  child 
soldier  recruitment  is  a crime . Retrieved  29  August  2005  from  http://www.chHd- 
soldiers.org/cs/childsoldiers.nsf/0/fb31e08966633ae080256ea7003884cd?0pen 
Document 

David,  K.  1998.  The  disarmament , demobilisation  and  reintegration  of  child  soldiers  in  Liberia . 
1994-1997:  The  process  and  lessons  learned . New  York;  Monrovia:  UNICEF. 

Deng,  W.  2001  .A  survey  of programmes  on  the  reintegration  of  former  child  soldiers . Retrieved  29 
August  2005  from  http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/human/child/survey/index.html 

Human  Rights  Watch.  2005.  Sri  Lanka:  Child  tsunami  victims  recruited  by  Tamil  Tigers 
Retrieved  30  August  2005  from 

http://www.hrw.org/english/docs/2005/01/14/slankal0016.htm 

1LO  (International  Labour  Organization) . 1997.  Manual  on  training  and  employment  options 
for  ex-combatants . Geneva:  International  Labour  Office. 

Lorey,  M.  2001.  Child  soldiers:  care  and  protection  of  children  in  emergencies . A field  guide . 
Washington,  DC:  Save  the  Children. 

Lowicki,  J.;  Anderson-Pillsbury,  A.  2002.  Precious  resources:  adolescents  in  the  reconstruction 
of  Sierra  Leone . New  York:  Women’s  Commission  for  Refugee  Women  and 
Children. 

Miller,  V.;  Affolter,  F.  2002.  Helping  children  outgrow  war  (SD  technical  paper  no.  116). 
Washington,  DC:  USAID.  Retrieved  29  August  2005  from 
http://www.dec.org/pdf_docs/PNACP892.pdf 

Nicolai,  S.  2003.  Education  in  emergencies:  a tool  kit  for  starting  and  managing  education  in 
emergencies . London:  Save  the  Children. 

Sommers,  M.  1997.  The  childrens  war:  towards  peace  in  Sierra  Leone . New  York:  Women’s 
Commission  for  Refugee  Women  and  Children. 


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Staub,  E.  1989.  The  roots  of  evil:  the  origins  of  genocide  and  other  group  violence . New  York: 
Cambridge  University  Press. 

UNHCR  and  International  Save  the  Children  Alliance.  2001.  Action  for  the  rights  of  children 
resource  pack:  child  soldiers . Retrieved  on  29  August  2005  from 
http://www.savethechildren.net/arc/files/main.html 

UNICEF.  1997.  Cape  Town  principles  and  best  practices . Principles  adopted  by  the  participants 
in  the  Symposium  on  the  Prevention  of  Recruitment  of  Children  into  Armed  Forces 
and  Demobilization  and  Social  Reintegration  on  Africa,  Cape  Town,  South  Africa, 
27-30  April  1997.  Retrieved  on  29  August  2005  from 
http://www.unicef.org/emerg/files/Cape_Town_Principles.pdf 

UNICEF.  2004.  Fact  sheet  on  child  soldiers . Retrieved  on  29  August  2005  from 
http://www.unicef.org/protection/files/childsoldiers.pdf 


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CHAPTER 


9 


SECTION  3 


United  Nations  ] International 

Educational,  Scientific  and  [ Institute  for 

Cultural  Organization  * Educational 

Planning 


LEARNING  SPACES 
AND  SCHOOL  FACILITIES 


The  designations  employed  and  the  presentation  of 
material  throughout  this  review  do  not  imply  the  expression 
of  any  opinion  whatsoever  on  the  part  of  UNESCO  or  the 
IIEP  concerning  the  legal  status  of  any  country,  territory, 
city  or  area  or  its  authorities,  or  concerning  its  frontiers 
or  boundaries. 

The  publication  costs  of  this  study  have  been  covered 
through  a grant-in-aid  offered  by  UNESCO  and  by 
voluntary  contributions  made  by  several  Member  States 
of  UNESCO. 


Published  by: 

International  Institute  for  Educational  Planning 
7-9  rue  Eugene  Delacroix,  75116  Paris 
e-mail:  info@iiep.unesco.org 
IIEP  web  site:  www.unesco.org/iiep 


Layout  and  cover  design:  Sabine  Lebeau 
Typesetting:  Sabine  Lebeau 
Printed  in  IIEP’s  printshop 
ISBN:  92-803-1288-X 
©UNESCO  2006 


Chapter 

LEARNING  SPACES  AND  SCHOOL  FACILITIES 


^ MAIN  OBJECTIVES  CONTEXT  AND  CHALLENGES 

• To  ensure  access  to  safe  learning  spaces  The  space  to  learn  is  one  of  the  most  basic 
and  provide  for  children’s  daily  basic  elements  necessary  to  ensure  access  to 

needs  during  school  hours.  education.  Although  school  classrooms  are 

the  most  common  location  in  which  structured 
learning  takes  place,  education  can  (and  does) 
take  place  in  a variety  of  locations  - in  permanent 
school  facilities;  in  tents  or  temporary  school 
structures;  under  plastic  sheeting  or  trees; 
in  places  of  worship;  in  people’s  homes,  etc. 
Spaces  for  learning  are  essential  and  should 
be  demarcated  even  at  the  earliest  stage  of 
the  creation  of  a new  settlement  or  camp. 
Refugee  children,  and  sometimes  1DP  children, 
especially  those  in  camps,  cannot  generally  be 
accommodated  in  local  schools,  which  may  be 
subject  to  overcrowding  if  they  are  opened  to 
these  children.  Construction  of  refugee  schools 
is  sometimes  undertaken  by  external  agencies 
without  consulting  the  concerned  local  and 
national  authorities  of  the  host  country. 
This  may  cause  resentment  among  the  local 
population,  unless  appropriate  measures  are 
taken.  For  this  reason,  safe  spaces  for  learning 
are  needed  within  the  camps  themselves  - a 
requirement  that  will  be  more  challenging  if  the 
camps  are  overcrowded. 

However,  in  acute  emergencies  it  is  more 
important  for  children  to  have  swift  access  to 
learning  opportunities  than  to  buildings  and 
actual  facilities.  Although  some  form  of  shelter 
is  usually  needed,  the  initial  temptation  to  begin 
with  the  construction  of  new  buildings  as  soon 
as  possible  should  not  override  the  more  critical 
need  to  hire  and  train  teachers  and  to  begin 
classes  in  a temporary  structure  so  that  children 
can  quickly  engage  in  educational  activities. 
National  and  international  education  providers 


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may  begin  unco-ordinated  construction  of  inappropriate  schools,  without  proper  safety 
factors,  adequately  sized  classrooms,  access  for  the  disabled,  or  space  for  future  expansion. 
There  may  be  no  or  inadequate  information  available  on  both  the  number  of  students  or 
teachers  to  expect  and  their  educational  levels  or  needs.  While  learning  spaces  are  important, 
what  is  happening  inside  them  is  paramount,  especially  in  emergency  settings. 

Conventional  learning  spaces  are  often  destroyed,  inaccessible,  or  occupied  for  purposes 
other  than  schooling  - such  as  housing,  storage  or  medical  care.  Particularly  during  civil 
conflicts,  school  buildings  are  often  targeted  due  to  their  status  as  gathering  points  for  the 
community  and  as  training  grounds  for  future  community  leadership.  This  is  less  common 
in  the  context  of  international  conflict,  due  to  international  rules  of  engagement  such  as  the 
Geneva  conventions.  However,  this  may  be  exploited  by  the  warring  parties  who  often  use 
school  premises  to  conceal  weapon  stores,  etc.,  rendering  the  schools  intrinsically  unsafe. 
In  situations  of  conflict,  school  premises  can  also  become  places  for  recruitment  of  both 
male  and  female  child  soldiers. 

In  all  types  of  conflict,  parents  are  often  afraid  to  send  their  children  to  school  during  periods 
of  active  fighting,  since  both  schools  and  their  access  and  exit  routes  may  be  unsafe.  In  the 
case  of  protracted  emergencies,  premises  may  become  progressively  more  inadequate  - due 
to  deliberate  damage,  looting  and/or  lack  of  repair  and  maintenance.  Environmental  damage 
can  occur  if  natural  materials  are  used  for  rapid  educational  response,  but  communities  are 
often  left  with  no  choice  but  to  attempt  to  repair  old  school  buildings  with  what  limited 
resources  they  have.  The  most  important  factor  remains  the  provision  of  a safe  and  secure 
environment  in  which  a level  of  quality  education  may  be  provided. 


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SUGGESTED  STRATEGIES 


Developing  and  providing  learning  spaces  in  emergencies  and  during  early  reconstruction 
is  a costly  and  significant  investment.  Special  consideration  must  be  given  to  the  fact  that 
the  actual  teaching  and  learning  processes  are  more  important  than  buildings  - but  the 
latter  may  help  to  facilitate  the  former.  Providing  safe  and  adequate  learning  spaces  should 
therefore  be  a priority  also  and  especially  during  emergencies  and  early  reconstruction.  The 
strategies  listed  below  outline  some  of  the  key  considerations  with  regard  to  the  provision 
of  safe  learning  environments. 


Summary  of  suggested  strategies 
Learning  spaces 

In  early  emergencies,  ensure  immediate  access  to  schooling  for 
as  many  children  as  possible. 


2.  Ensure  that  existing  learning  spaces  are  safe. 


3.  Take  steps  to  strengthen  the  education  ministry’s  department 
for  construction  and  infrastructure. 


■ 


4.  Prepare  and  implement  a plan  for  the  rehabilitation, 
reconstruction  or  replacement  of  damaged  buildings. 

5.  Determine  whether  new  schools  or  additional  learning  spaces 
are  needed. 


6.  Determine  where  new  schools  will  be  located. 

7.  Prepare  guidelines  regarding  permanent  and  temporary 
building  standards,  if  needed. 

8.  Consider  the  establishment  of  learning  spaces  that  address  the 
needs  of  the  whole  child,  including  food  and  health. 

9.  Promote  access  to  safe  drinking  water.  Schools  and  health 
centres  should  have  priority  in  emergency  water  supply 
programmes. 

10.  Emphasize  the  need  for  adequate  and  well-functioning  latrines. 

11.  Communicate  the  necessity  of  establishing  waste  disposal 
programmes  at  the  school  level. 

12.  Encourage  schools  to  seek  the  support  of  the  local  community. 

13.  Determine  and  prioritize  needs  for  school  furniture,  equipment 
and  supplies. 


Chapter  10:  Learning  spaces  and  school  facilities 


E P • 


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3 


Guidance  notes 


L In  early  emergencies,  ensure  immediate  access  to  schooling  for  as  many 
children  as  possible. 

Access  can  be  organized  in  the  open  air  (in  some  climatic  conditions),  with  temporary 
shelter  (e.g.  tents  or  plastic  sheeting)  or  school  buildings.  (See  the  ‘Tools  and  resources’ 
section  for  examples  of  what  can  be  done  ‘immediately,  sooner,  later’.)  Issues  to  be 
considered  by  national  and  local  educational  authorities,  as  well  as  other  education 
providers,  include  the  following: 

• Can  displaced  children  be  integrated  directly  into  existing  schools  and 
classrooms? 

• In  the  case  of  refugees,  is  this  option  acceptable  to  government  authorities 
and  community  members? 

• Is  it  feasible,  for  example  if  refugee  numbers  are  high? 

• For  refugee  students,  how  are  critical  considerations  such  as  curriculum 
issues  and  language  of  instruction  to  be  addressed?  (See  also  the  Guidebook , 
Chapter  20,  ‘Curriculum  content  and  review  processes’.) 

• Is  there  enough  space  so  that  classrooms  will  not  be  overcrowded? 

• If  classrooms  are  already  overcrowded,  can  they  be  used  during  non-school 
hours  for  the  education  of  displaced  children? 

• Does  the  inclusion  of  displaced  populations  require  amendments  to  the 
learning  spaces,  for  example  to  provide  separate  classrooms  for  girls,  access 
for  disabled  children,  etc.? 

• If  there  is  a shortage  of  classrooms,  what  alternative,  safe,  learning  spaces  can  be 
used  on  a temporary  basis? 

• Shelter  provided  by  trees. 

• Roof  or  frame  constructed  of  wood  or  bamboo  and  covered  with  a plastic 
sheet  or  tarpaulin. 

• School  tents. 

• Non-school  property  such  as  gyms,  warehouses,  unused  government  buildings, 
or  religious  buildings  - if  such  facilities  are  safe. 

• What  spaces  can  be  used  for  recreation  and  sports,  preferably  in  proximity  to 
schools? 

• Who  must  grant  permission  for  such  spaces  to  be  used? 

• Do  the  plans  for  temporary  structures  ensure  that  children  are  protected  from 
rain,  sun  and  cold?  All  construction  should  be  appropriate  for  the  local  climate 
and  allow  for  adequate  light,  ventilation  and  heat,  if  necessary. 


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2 ♦ Ensure  that  existing  learning  spaces  are  safe* * 

Standard  2 on  access  and  learning  environment  in  the  Minimum  standards  handbook  deals 
with  protection  and  well-being:  “Learning  environments  are  secure,  and  promote  the 
protection  and  emotional  well-being  of  learners/’  (1NEE,  2004:  41).  The  key  indicators 
related  to  learning  that  may  show  whether  this  standard  has  been  met  include: 

KEY  INDICATORS  OF  PROTECTION  AND  WELL-BEING 

• Schools  and  other  learning  environments  are  located  in  close  proximity  to  the  populations 
they  serve. 

• Access  routes  to  the  learning  environment  are  safe  and  secure  for  all. 

• The  learning  environment  is  free  from  dangers  that  may  cause  harm  to  learners. 

• Training  programmes  for  teachers,  learners  and  the  community  are  in  place  to  promote 
safety,  security  and  protection. 

• Teachers  and  other  education  personnel  are  provided  with  the  skills  to  give  psychosocial 
support  to  promote  learners’  emotional  well-being. 

• The  community  is  involved  in  decisions  concerning  the  location  of  the  learning  environment, 
and  in  establishing  systems  and  policies  to  ensure  that  learners  are  safe  and  secure. 

• The  nutrition  and  short-term  hunger  needs  of  learners  are  addressed  to  allow  for  effective 
learning  to  take  place  at  the  learning  site. 

Source:  (INEE,  2004:  45). 


See  also  the  ‘Tools  and  resources’  section  for  a full  overview  of  Standard  3,  on  access 
and  learning,  in  the  Minimum  standards , which  concerns  facilities. 

• What  is  the  condition  of  existing  school  facilities?  Have  local  supervisors  and 

head-teachers  reviewed  the  following: 

• How  many  schools  have  been  damaged  during  the  conflict?  Bombed? 
Burned? 

• Have  the  building  and  grounds  been  officially  cleared  of  landmines  and 
unexploded  ordnance? 

• Have  sharp  and  dangerous  objects  been  removed  from  both  inside  and  outside 
the  school? 

• Has  there  been  an  assessment  to  determine  whether  each  building  is 
structurally  sound?  If  a building  is  determined  to  be  a hazard,  has  it  been  clearly 
communicated  to  all  concerned  that  the  building  should  no  longer  be  used? 

• Are  the  schools  in  an  area  of  ongoing  fighting? 

• Has  there  been  communication  with  all  parties  to  the  conflict  regarding  the 
schools’  designation  as  a ‘safe  area’  ? The  Rome  Statute  of  1998,  which  outlines 
the  jurisdiction  of  the  International  Criminal  Court,  includes  protection  for 
educational  institutions  under  Article  8.  Therefore,  the  targeting  of  schools 
and  educational  institutions  can  be  prosecuted  as  a war  crime. 


Chapter  10:  Learning  spaces  and  school  facilities 

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• What  steps  have  been  taken  to  prepare  the  students  and  schools  for  safety 
if  fighting  occurs? 

• Are  there  evacuation  plans? 

• What  plans  have  been  put  in  place  to  reunite  students  with  their  families  if 
attacks  occur? 

• Are  bomb  shelters  needed? 

• Are  buildings  suitably  reinforced  for  fighting,  using  sacks  filled  with  dirt  or 
sand,  for  example,  to  catch  ricocheting  bullets  and  provide  additional  support 
for  walls  and  ceilings? 

• Are  parents  afraid  to  send  their  children  to  school,  as  they  fear  for  their  safety 
en  route?  (See  also  the  Guidebook , Chapter  6,  ‘Gender’  and  Chapter  9}  ‘Former 
child  soldiers’,  for  a discussion  of  how  to  make  schools  safer  from  recruitment / 
abduction.) 

• Is  it  possible  to  enlist  adult  escorts  or  older  children  to  escort  young  children 
to  school? 

• Can  a ‘buddy  system’  be  implemented  so  children  never  walk  alone? 

• Can  the  community  organize  transportation  for  children  from  particular 
areas? 

• If  the  school  is  near  a busy  road,  what  provisions  have  been  made  for  children 
to  cross  the  road?  Are  children  trained  in  road  safety? 

• If  children  must  walk  in  the  dark,  how  are  they  seen?  Do  they  have  reflectors 
or  reflective  tape  on  their  clothing  or  school  bags? 

3*  Take  steps  to  strengthen  the  education  ministry’s  department  for 
construction  and  infrastructure* 

• Do  staff  have  the  expertise  to  cope  with  planning  and  co-ordination  roles  for 
learning  space  repair  and  reconstruction  in  urban  and  rural  areas  affected  by 
conflict  or  natural  disasters?  There  will  likely  be  extra  work  involving  project 
design  and  management  in  relation  to  multiple  organizations  and  donors. 

• Are  external  donors  interested  in  supporting  the  strengthening  of  ministry  capacity 
in  this  area? 


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0 CHILD  FRIENDLY  SPACES 

“Developing  designated  safe  areas  in  the  aftermath  of  an  acute  crisis  can  be  an  important 
mechanism  of  protection  for  children.  In  refugee  camps,  for  example,  the  simple  demarcation 
of  an  area  with  rope,  plastic  tape  or  stones  can  preserve  a space  for  children  that  can  later  be 
developed  into  a school  or  a playing  area.  UNICEF's  ‘Child  Friendly  Spaces'  provide  integrated 
educational,  health  and  social  support  services  for  conflict-affected  families.  The  concept 
was  first  used  in  1999  in  the  Kosovar  refugee  camps  in  Albania  and  Macedonia.  While  school 
classes  and  recreation  served  as  core  activities,  the  model  offered  a structure  for  ensuring 
that  other  children's  services,  such  as  early  childhood  care,  psychosocial  counselling,  infant 
feeding,  nutritional  support,  basic  health  care  and  hygiene,  were  available.  The  concept  has 
subsequently  been  adapted  for  use  in  Afghanistan,  Angola,  East  Timor,  El  Salvador,  Guinea, 
Kosovo,  Liberia  and  Turkey." 

Source:  Siegrist,  cited  in  Nicolai  and  Triplehorn  (2003:  20). 


4 ♦ Prepare  and  implement  a plan  for  the  rehabilitation,  reconstruction 
or  replacement  of  damaged  buildings. 

Depending  on  the  scale  of  the  emergency,  this  may  be  a matter  of  a few  buildings  or 
it  may  cost  millions  of  dollars.  A detailed  survey  is  needed  to  identify  the  condition 
of  buildings,  prioritize  maintenance,  repair  or  reconstruction  work  and  decide  which 
buildings  are  unsafe  and  must  be  vacated. 

• What  is  the  condition  of  the  buildings?  The  water  supply?  Latrines?  Electricity 
supply? 

• How  much  work  can  communities  undertake,  if  certain  materials  are  provided? 

• Consider  establishing  district  or  sub-district  centres  with  roofing  materials, 
etc.,  for  reconstruction  of  schools  and  on-site  examples  of  how  to  use  the 
materials. 

• How  much  will  it  cost  to  rehabilitate,  reconstruct  or  replace  the  damaged 
buildings? 

• Is  international  assistance  required? 

• If  so,  how  will  such  assistance  be  co-ordinated  to  ensure  that  schools  through- 
out the  country  are  repaired  and  replaced? 

• Have  district  education  offices  been  rehabilitated/ reconstructed?  These  offices  will 
be  essential  for  the  co-ordination  of  school  rehabilitation  or  (re)  construction. 

• Is  a national  construction  unit  required  to  handle  major  infrastructure 
programmes? 


Chapter  10:  Learning  spaces  and  school  facilities 

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0 SCHOOL  REHABILITATION  IN  EAST  TIMOR 


■ 


A team  of  East  Timorese  engineers  and  school  architects,  hired  in  early  2000  to  conduct 
a civil  engineering  survey,  reported  that  nearly  half  the  schools  surveyed  needed  to  be 
demolished  and  replaced.  According  to  the  Ministry  of  Education,  Culture,  Youth  and 
Sports,  district  education  committees  made  the  decision  on  which  schools  to  rehabilitate, 
based  on  damage  reports  and  enrolment  estimates.  A group  of  supervising  engineers  then 
set  out  to  inspect  the  schools  selected  to  assess  whether  they  were  repairable,  and  if  so, 
to  scope  the  repair  work.  School  principals,  in  consultation  with  school  councils  where 
they  existed,  managed  the  rehabilitation.  As  deemed  appropriate,  this  could  be  done 
through  volunteer  labour  or  sub-contracted.  Overall,  some  US$1.19  million  was  paid  out  to 
communities  for  work  on  minor  school  construction.  In  addition  to  local  volunteer  labour, 
52  different  local  businesses  and  community  co-operatives  were  contracted  to  rehabilitate 
schools.  To  inform  the  community  of  these  activities,  posters  were  translated  into  local 
languages  and  posted  at  school  sites.  They  contained  information  on  the  total  amount  of 
the  sub-grant,  its  expected  outcomes,  names  of  the  construction  workers  and  the  expected 
start-up  and  completion  dates. 

Source:  Nicolai  (2004: 106). 


5 ♦ Determine  whether  new  schools  or  additional  learning  spaces  are 
needed. 

(Refer  also  to  the  Guidebook , Chapter  4 , 'Education  for  all  in  emergencies  and 
reconstruction’  for  a general  discussion  on  access  and  how  many  children  are  not  in 
school.) 

• How  many  children  are  estimated  to  be  out  of  school  and  seeking  admission? 

• How  many  additional  learning  spaces  are  available? 

• What  are  the  local  norms  or  standards  for  how  many  children  should  occupy  a 
classroom  at  one  time? 

• Has  the  possibility  of  multiple  shifts  been  considered? 

• UNHCR  (2003 : 73)  recommends  a minimum  of  6 hours  per  day  for  students 
in  grade  4 and  above,  which  in  many  conditions  means  a full-day  session. 

• How  many  additional  classrooms/learning  spaces  are  needed?  Is  this  estimate 
based  on  the  use  of  shifts  for  students  in  lower  primary,  or  for  higher  grades? 

• Have  learning  resource  centres/libraries  for  students  and  adults,  and  teacher 
resource  centres  been  considered?  These  may  help  to  raise  education  standards, 
and  provide  places  for  study  and  lesson  preparation. 

• Have  donors  been  asked  to  provide  support  for  temporary  structures  in  all 
locations  rather  than  modern  school  buildings  for  a few  central  locations? 


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6* 


Determine  where  new  schools  will  be  located. 


• Have  site  selection  committees  been  formed?  The  committees  should  include: 

• Teachers. 

• Parents  and  community  members. 

• Local  government  officials. 

• Engineers  or  site  planners. 

• Health  and  social  workers. 

• If  a site  selection  committee  is  not  established,  are  communities  consulted 
regarding  the  proposed  locations  of  new  schools/classrooms? 

• Has  the  distance  from  students’  homes  been  considered  in  the  site  selection 
process? 

• Ideally,  lower  grade  primary  schools  should  be  located  within  walking  distance 
so  that  young  children  will  be  able  to  attend.  If  the  schools  are  too  far  from 
home,  parents  will  be  reluctant  to  send  their  children.  Therefore,  the  use  of 
multiple,  smaller  ‘feeder’  primary  schools  or  ‘satellite  campuses’  should  be 
considered. 

• For  upper  primary  grades,  larger  schools  that  take  students  from  multiple 
‘feeder’  schools  or  ‘satellite’  campuses  in  the  area  can  be  constructed.  These 
schools  can  be  further  from  students’  homes  as  the  children  will  be  able  to 
walk  longer  distances. 

• In  times  of  insecurity,  older  girls  should  be  allowed  to  attend  classes  at  sites 
nearer  to  their  homes.  (See  box  on  ‘Home  schools  for  girls  in  Afghanistan’  in 
the  Guidebook , Chapter  6,  ‘Gender’.) 

• Do  the  proposed  sites  have  water  access?  (See  below  for  more  on  water  access 
and  latrines.) 

• Do  the  proposed  sites  allow  for  expansion  of  the  school  as  more  children  begin 
schooling  each  year? 

• Do  the  proposed  sites  have  spaces  for  sports  and  recreation? 

• Is  government  land  available  for  new  schools? 

• If  government  land  is  not  available,  who  owns  the  land? 

• What  procedures  must  be  followed  in  order  to  use  the  land? 

• What  procedures  must  be  followed  for  the  government  or  the  local  community 
to  obtain  ownership  of  the  land? 

• If  either  temporary  or  permanent  schools/classrooms  are  to  be  constructed 
within  the  boundaries  of  a refugee  or  1DP  camp,  will  the  local  community  also 
be  allowed  access  to  the  school  (if  language  and  curriculum  considerations  make 
this  appropriate)? 

• In  refugee  or  1DP  situations,  what  procedures  will  be  put  in  place  to  ensure  that  the 
local  community  benefits  from  the  school  after  the  refugees  or  IDPs  return  home? 


Chapter  10:  Learning  spaces  and  school  facilities 

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7* 


Prepare  guidelines  regarding  permanent  and  temporary  building 
standards,  if  needed* 

Semi-permanent  or  permanent  school  facilities  may  be  constructed  in  protracted 
emergencies  or  during  early  reconstruction.  The  decision  of  what  type  of  facility  to 
construct  should  be  based  on  the  materials  available  and  their  adequacy  - both  in  terms 
of  educational  quality  and  students’  and  teachers’  health.  Consideration  must  also  be 
given  to  how  long  they  will  last  in  the  climatic  conditions  of  the  place  concerned.  The 
Environmental  standards  (UNHCR,  2003)  and  the  Sphere  handbook  (Sphere  Project, 
2004)  should  be  consulted  when  setting  these  standards.  Other  points  to  consider 
regarding  new  school/classroom  construction  include  the  following: 

• Have  national  standards  been  established  for  key  aspects  of  classroom  size, 

building  design,  etc.,  to  ensure  good  practice  in  erecting  temporary  as  well  as 

permanent  schools? 

• If  outside  organizations  are  building  permanent  schools/classrooms,  are  they 
being  built  to  the  government’s  standards?  Are  guidelines  needed  to  guide  the 
construction  of  temporary  schools  (e.g.  classroom  size,  roof  overhang)? 

• If  there  is  not  an  official  school  standard,  consider  establishing  one.  The 
standard  may  reflect  the  example  set  by  an  already  existing  school,  such  as 
a well-run  local  government  school  near  the  capital. 

• Ensure  that  local  building  standards  or  good  practice  (where  standards  are 
not  practicable  for  temporary  or  semi-permanent  structures  in  rural  areas) 
are  followed  and  that  proper  permits  are  obtained  when  necessary. 

• Encourage  local  purchase  and  the  use  of  local  materials,  such  as  bamboo  or 
mud. 

• If  temporary  schools  are  built,  what  is  the  plan  for  replacing  them  and  building 
semi-permanent  or  permanent  structures? 

• Have  the  needs  of  students  with  disabilities  been  considered? 

• Schools  and  classrooms  should  be  accessible  to  children  and  teachers  with 
disabilities. 

• Latrines  should  be  accessible  to  children  and  teachers  with  disabilities.  (See 
also  the  Guidebook , Chapter  <?,  'Children  with  disabilities’.) 

• In  camp  situations,  is  regular  monitoring  of  the  condition  of  school  and  classroom 

structures  conducted? 

• This  will  indicate  the  types  of  classrooms  that  work  the  best  (in  terms  of 
durability  and  classroom  instruction)  and  should  be  replicated  in  future 
construction. 

• It  will  also  indicate  the  need  for  repairs  and  maintenance. 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

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8* 


Consider  the  establishment  of  learning  spaces  that  address  the  needs 
of  the  whole  child,  including  food  and  health* 


• Is  a school  feeding  programme  desirable?  (For  more  information  on  school 
feeding,  see  ‘Tools  and  resources’  in  the  Guidebook , Chapter  4}  ‘Education  for  all 
in  emergencies  and  reconstruction’.) 

• Are  health  services  integrated  into  the  schools?  Consider  the  use  of  UNICEF’s 
‘child  friendly  space’  concept  where  routine  health  procedures,  such  as 
immunizations,  are  also  offered  on  the  school  grounds. 

• Are  sanitary  supplies  for  girls  made  available?  This  may  be  important  in  securing 
older  girls’  access  to  school  and  their  regular  attendance. 

9*  Promote  access  to  safe  drinking  water*  Schools  and  health  centres 
should  have  priority  in  emergency  water-supply  programmes* 

• Consider  the  following  challenges  to  providing  access  to  safe  drinking  water  in 
schools: 

• What  is  the  availability  and  sustainability  of  a sufficient  quantity  of  water? 

• Is  water  treatment  required?  If  so,  what  is  the  feasibility  of  water  treatment 
plans? 

• How  much  time,  technology  or  funding  are  required  to  develop  a source? 

• Is  the  source  within  the  proximity  of  the  affected  population? 

• Are  there  any  social,  political  or  legal  factors  concerning  the  source? 

• Water  points  should  be  located  in  areas  that  are  accessible  to  all  regardless  of,  for 
example,  gender  or  ethnicity. 

• In  urban  situations,  it  may  be  necessary  to  supply  water  into  individual  buildings 
to  ensure  that  toilets  continue  to  function. 

• In  situations  where  water  is  rationed  or  pumped  at  given  times,  this  should  be 
planned  in  consultation  with  the  users. 

• Times  should  be  set,  which  are  convenient  and  safe  for  women,  and  others 
who  have  responsibility  for  collecting  water;  all  users  should  be  fully  informed 
of  when  and  where  water  is  available. 

• If  children  are  responsible  for  collecting  water,  school  hours  should  be  flexible 
and  permit  them  to  do  so. 

• Schools  should  have  appropriate  vessels  to  collect  water. 

• Vessels  should  be  clean,  hygienic  and  easy  to  carry,  and  be  appropriate  to 
local  needs  and  habits,  in  terms  of  size,  shape  and  design. 

• Some  hand  pumps  and  water- carrying  containers  may  need  to  be  designed  or 
adapted  for  use  by  children,  people  living  with  HI  V/A1DS,  older  and  disabled 
people. 


Chapter  10:  Learning  spaces  and  school  facilities  11 

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Emphasize  the  need  for  adequate  and  well-functioning  latrines. 

Standards  for  school  construction  and  operation  should  take  account  of  the  following: 

• Latrines  should  be  at  least  50  metres  away  from  the  school,  30  metres  away  from 
any  ground  water  sources  and  at  least  1.5  metres  above  the  water  table.  Care 
should  be  taken  to  ensure  that  “ drainage  or  spillage  from  defecation  systems 
does  not  run  towards  any  surface  water  source  or  shallow  ground  water  source” 
(Sphere  Project,  2004). 

• Schools  (and  health  centres)  should  have  priority  in  emergency  sanitation 
programmes. 

• Latrines  should  be  built  separately  for  boys  and  girls  and  for  teachers  and  students. 
Consider  the  use  of  the  following  WFP  standards  (1NEE,  2002): 

• One  toilet  cubicle  for  every  25  girls. 

• One  toilet  cubicle  for  every  100  boys  and  one  urinal  for  every  40-60  boys. 

• Consider  the  type  of  latrine  that  is  most  appropriate  for  the  situation. 

• Pit  latrines:  These  require  covers  and  use  of  wood  ash  or  soil  to  prevent 
flies. 

• Ventilated  improved  pit  (VIP)  latrines:  While  more  expensive,  VIP  latrines 
are  preferred  because  they  prevent  flies  from  spreading  germs. 

• Flush  toilets:  If  flush  toilets  are  installed,  it  will  be  essential  to  have  plans  for 
both  maintenance  and  the  supply  of  spare  parts. 

• Defecation  fields:  These  are  not  an  acceptable  option  as  the  risk  of  spreading 
disease  among  schoolchildren  is  too  great. 

• Soap  and  water  are  needed  so  children  can  wash  their  hands  immediately  after 
using  the  latrine.  Determine  who  will  provide  the  soap  and  how  often. 

• Incorporate  sanitation  issues  into  the  health  curriculum.  (See  also  the  Guidebook, 
Chapter  21,  ‘Health  and  hygiene  education’.) 

• Establish  responsibility  for  inspecting,  cleaning  and  maintaining  latrines. 

Communicate  the  necessity  of  establishing  waste  disposal  programmes 
at  the  school  level. 

• Have  head  teachers  implemented  provisions  for  disposing  of  waste  and  keeping 
the  school  compound  clean? 

• Are  rubbish  bins  available  or  have  pits  been  dug  for  waste  disposal? 

• Is  there  stagnant  water  close  to  the  school?  How  will  it  be  drained  to  prevent 
mosquitoes? 


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Encourage  schools  to  seek  the  support  of  the  local  community* 


• Have  head  teachers  and  supervisors  received  training  on  working  with  the 

local  community  and  encouraging  community  participation?  Possible  areas  of 

participation  include: 

• Site  selection  committees. 

• Construction  of  schools  - helping  with  construction,  carrying  sand  or  water,  etc. 

• Maintenance  and  upkeep  of  schools  - cleaning  and  maintaining  classrooms, 
grounds  and  latrines. 

• Provision  of  funds  for  school  construction  or  maintenance  needs. 

• Assistance  with  school  safety  and  security  - providing  escorts  to  children, 
acting  as  school  guards,  if  the  situation  warrants. 

• Responsibility  for  school  gardens. 

• Can  parent-teacher  associations  be  established  to  facilitate  co-operation? 

• Are  school  facilities  available  for  community  events?  This  will  help  integrate  the 

school  into  the  community. 

Determine  and  prioritize  needs  for  school  furniture,  equipment  and 
supplies,  in  collaboration  with  other  education  providers  and  assistance 
agencies* 

(See  the  Tools  and  resources’  section  for  examples  of  what  can  be  done  'immediately, 

sooner,  later’.) 

• What  type  of  seating  is  appropriate  for  students? 

• Seating  and  furnishings  should  be  based  on  student  needs  and  local  norms, 
e.g.  mats  with  low  tables,  desk/bench  units  for  two  to  three  students,  desks 
with  individual  chairs  or  chair  desks. 

• Furniture  should  be  appropriate  for  the  students’  age  and  height.  Care  should 
be  taken  in  multi-age  classrooms  that  both  older  and  younger  children  in  the 
classroom  can  be  comfortably  seated. 

• Consider  the  use  of  participatory  teaching  methods  when  selecting  school 
furniture.  Will  children  be  able  to  move  around  the  classroom  and  work 
together  in  small  groups? 

• How  many  desks,  chairs,  benches  and/or  mats  are  necessary? 

• How  many  and  what  size  blackboards  are  required? 

• Blackboards  should  be  positioned  so  that  all  children  can  easily  see  them. 

• Blackboards  should  be  repainted  when  necessary. 


Chapter  10:  Learning  spaces  and  school  facilities 

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• How  many  tables  and  chairs  are  needed  for  teachers?  In  classrooms?  In  staff 
rooms? 

• What  other  furniture  is  needed,  for  example  lockable  cupboards  for  supplies? 

• Is  school  furniture  permanently  marked  with  the  school’s  name? 

• Are  local  carpenters/businesses  used  to  build  school  desks,  benches  or  chairs? 
Do  other  local  purchase  options  exist? 

• Can  young  people  assist  with  furniture  production  - perhaps  through  a 
vocational/skills  training  or  apprenticeship  programme? 

• What  procedures  will  be  put  in  place  to  maintain  the  furniture  and  equipment? 


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TOOLS  AND  RESOURCES 


1*  INEE  minimum  standards  for  access  and  learning  environment1 

Standard  3 

Education  facilities  are  conducive  to  the  physical  well-being  of  learners. 

Key  indicators 

• The  learning  structure  and  site  are  accessible  to  all,  regardless  of  physical  ability. 

• The  learning  environment  is  marked  by  visible  boundaries  and  clear  signs,  as 
appropriate. 

• The  physical  structure  used  for  the  learning  site  is  appropriate  for  the  situation  and 
includes  adequate  space  for  classes  and  administration,  recreation  and  sanitation 
facilities  (see  guidance  note  1). 

• Class  space  and  seating  arrangements  are  in  line  with  an  agreed  ratio  of  space 
per  learner  and  teacher,  as  well  as  grade  level,  in  order  to  promote  participatory 
methodologies  and  learner-centred  approaches  (see  guidance  note  1). 

• Communities  participate  in  the  construction  and  maintenance  of  the  learning 
environment  (see  guidance  note  2). 

• Basic  health  and  hygiene  are  promoted  in  the  learning  environment. 

• Adequate  sanitation  facilities  are  provided,  taking  account  of  age,  gender  and  special 
education  needs  and  considerations,  including  access  for  persons  with  disabilities  (see 
guidance  note  3). 

• Adequate  quantities  of  safe  drinking  water  and  water  for  personal  hygiene  are 
available  at  the  learning  site  (see  guidance  note  4) . 

INEE  minimum  standards  guidance  notes 

• Structure:  appropriateness  of  the  physical  structure  should  take  into  account  its 
long-term  use  (post-emergency),  the  available  budget,  community  involvement  and 
whether  it  can  be  maintained  by  local  authorities  and/or  the  local  community  at  a 
reasonable  cost.  The  structure  may  be  temporary,  semi-permanent,  permanent,  an 
extension  or  mobile. 

The  following  elements  should  be  kept  in  mind: 

• Locally  procured  materials  and  labour,  when  available,  should  be  used  to  build 
the  structure.  Steps  should  be  taken  to  ensure  that  structures  are  cost-effective 
and  that  physical  features  (e.g.  roofs,  floors)  are  durable. 


1.  Source:  INEE,  2004:  47-48. 


Chapter  10:  Learning  spaces  and  school  facilities  15 

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• Adequate  lighting,  cross-ventilation  and  heating  (wherever  required)  should  be 
available  to  promote  a quality  teaching  and  learning  environment. 

• A locally  realistic  standard  should  be  set  for  maximum  class  size,  and  every  effort 
should  be  made  to  provide  enough  space  for  additional  classrooms  if  enrolment 
increases,  to  enable  progressive  reduction  in  the  use  of  multiple  shifts. 

• Education  programmes  need  not  wait  until  all  of  the  infrastructure  components 
and  adequate  space  mentioned  above  are  secured.  These  components,  however, 
should  be  supplied  or  adhered  to  as  rapidly  as  possible. 

• Maintenance  of  the  learning  environment:  this  should  include  facilities  (e.g.  latrines, 
water  pumps,  etc.)  and  furniture  (e.g.  desks,  chairs,  blackboards,  cabinets,  etc.). 

• Sanitation  facilities:  these  should  include  solid  waste  disposal  (containers,  waste 
pits),  drainage  (soak  pits,  drainage  channels)  and  adequate  water  for  personal  hygiene 
and  to  clean  latrines/toilets.  Learning  environments  should  have  separate  toilets  for 
males  and  females  and  adequate  privacy.  Sanitary  materials  should  be  available  for 
females. 

• Water:  this  should  be  available  within  or  in  close  proximity  to  the  learning  environment 
as  per  local/international  standards  (see  Linkages  to  Sphere  Standards  annex  on  the 
MSEE  CD-ROM  for  the  relevant  Sphere  water  standards). 


2.  Excerpt  from  the  ‘immediately,  sooner,  later*  matrix  of  response 


TOPIC 

PROGRAMME  EXAMPLES 

IMMEDIATELY 

SOONER 

LATER 

SITE  SELECTION 
AND  SHELTER 

• Safe  areas  for  child- 
related  activities, 
within  walking  distance 
for  children 

• Plastic  sheeting  and 
mats  or  special  school 
tents 

• Educational  areas 
should  be  marked  and 
fenced 

• Male/female  latrines 
for  students/teachers 

• Potable  water  supply 

• Cost-effective  shelter 
(taking  account  of 
climate),  typically  good 
roof  and  floor,  low-tech 
walls 

• Access  for  the  disabled 

• Construction  with 
minimal  impact  on  the 
environment 

• Where  applicable, 
construction  of  schools 

• For  refugee  schools, 
priority  to  locations 
where  schools  can  later 
be  used  by  nationals 

FURNITURE 

• Blackboards  and 
supports,  teachers’ 
chairs 

• Benches/desks  of 
the  correct  size  for 
students  preferably 
made  by  refugee  youth 
apprentices 

• Oldest  students  receive 
desks  before  younger 

• Chairs  and  tables  for 
teachers  for  school 
administration 

• Locking  cabinets  for 
school  books  and 
administration 

Source:  Nicolai  and  Triplehorn  (2003). 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

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REFERENCES  AND  FURTHER  READING 


INEE  (Inter-Agency  Network  for  Education  in  Emergencies).  2002.  “School  Environment 
and  Supplies”.  In:  INEE  good  practice  guide.  Retrieved  29  August  2005  from 
http : / / w w w.  ineesite . org/ school  / 

INEE  (Inter-Agency  Network  for  Education  in  Emergencies).  2004.  Minimum  standards  for 
education  in  emergencies , chronic  crises  and  early  reconstruction . Paris:  INEE. 

Nicolai,  S.  2003.  Education  in  emergencies:  a tool  kit  for  starting  and  managing  education  in 
emergencies . London:  Save  the  Children. 

Nicolai,  S.  2004.  Learning  independence:  education  in  emergency  and  transition  in  Timor-Leste 
since  1999 . Paris:  IIEP-UNESCO. 

Nicolai,  S.;  Triplehorn,  C.  2003.  The  role  of  education  in  protecting  children  in  conflict 
(Humanitarian  practice  network  paper  no.  42).  London:  ODI. 

The  Sphere  Project.  2004.  Sphere  handbook . Humanitarian  charter  and  minimum  standards 
in  disaster  response . Geneva:  Sphere  Project. 

UNHCR.  1996.  Environmental  guidelines.  Geneva:  UNHCR. 

UNHCR.  2003.  Education  field  guidelines.  Geneva:  UNHCR. 


Chapter  10:  Learning  spaces  and  school  facilities  17 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


CHAPTER 


10 


SECTION  3 


United  Nations  ] International 

Educational,  Scientific  and  [ Institute  for 

Cultural  Organization  * Educational 

Planning 


o 

w 


Chapter 


OPEN  AND  DISTANCE  LEARNING 


The  designations  employed  and  the  presentation  of 
material  throughout  this  review  do  not  imply  the  expression 
of  any  opinion  whatsoever  on  the  part  of  UNESCO  or  the 
IIEP  concerning  the  legal  status  of  any  country,  territory, 
city  or  area  or  its  authorities,  or  concerning  its  frontiers 
or  boundaries. 

The  publication  costs  of  this  study  have  been  covered 
through  a grant-in-aid  offered  by  UNESCO  and  by 
voluntary  contributions  made  by  several  Member  States 
of  UNESCO. 


Published  by: 

International  Institute  for  Educational  Planning 
7-9  rue  Eugene  Delacroix,  75116  Paris 
e-mail:  info@iiep.unesco.org 
IIEP  web  site:  www.unesco.org/iiep 


Layout  and  cover  design:  Sabine  Lebeau 
Typesetting:  Sabine  Lebeau 
Printed  in  IIEP’s  printshop 
ISBN:  92-803-1288-X 
©UNESCO  2006 


Chapter 


OPEN  AND  DISTANCE  LEARNING 


^ MAIN  OBJECTIVES 

• To  provide  access  for  children,  youth 
and  adults  who  would  not  otherwise  be 
engaged  in  educational  activities. 

• To  provide  access  to  educational 
opportunities,  such  as  post-primary 
education,  that  might  not  otherwise  be 
available. 


CONTEXT  AND  CHALLENGES 

WHAT  IS  DISTANCE  EDUCATION? 

“Distance  education  describes  a set  of  teaching 
and  learning  strategies  (or  education  methods) 
that  can  be  used  to  overcome  spatial  and 
temporal  separation  between  educators  and 
learners.  These  strategies  or  methods  can  be 
integrated  into  any  education  programme 
and-  potentially-  used  in  any  combination 
with  any  other  teaching  and  learning  strategies 
in  the  provision  of  education  (including  those 
strategies  which  demand  that  learners  and 
educators  be  together  at  the  same  time  and/or 
place)”. 

Source:  Butcher  (2000). 


Open  and  distance  learning  has  the  potential 
to  dramatically  expand  access  to  education  in 
emergencies.  Children,  youth  and  adults  who 
are  excluded  from  conventional  education 
because  of  work  or  family  commitments, 
geographical  distance,  insecurity  or  poor  quality 
or  inadequate  prior  learning  experiences  may  be 
able  to  participate  through  open  and  distance 
education.  Self-study  correspondence  courses, 
radio  education,  and  education  with  the  use  of 
computers  and  the  internet  are  all  possible  delivery 
mechanisms.  In  addition,  in  many  countries,  there 
is  already  an  educational  component  to  national 
radio  and  television  programmes,  and  one  or  more 
established  (non-open)  colleges  and  universities 
may  have  an  external/extramural  studies 
department  or  a correspondence  section.  There 
may  also  be  one  or  more  government  or  private 
open  universities  or  correspondence  schools.  Any 
of  these  open  and  distance  programmes  that  exist 
can  be  expanded  upon  during  emergencies  and 
early  reconstruction.  In  addition,  assistance 
agencies  may  also  have  begun  activities  such 


1 

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as  community  radio  or  computer  centres  used  for  e-learning.  Both  in  acute  and  protracted 
emergencies,  as  well  as  in  the  phases  of  return  and  early  reconstruction,  radio  can  be  a powerful 
communication  and  education  tool,  provided  that  a sufficient  number  of  the  population  has 
functioning  radios.  However,  it  should  be  noted  that  in  a conflict  situation,  radio  may  equally 
be  used  by  conflicting  parties  for  disseminating  divisive  messages  and/or  instructions  of 
violence. 

In  many  emergency  situations,  children  and  youth  may  be  cut  off  from  formal  schooling 
activities  as  a result  of  ongoing  conflict  and  insecurity.  It  may  therefore  be  useful  to  consider 
distance  education  alternatives  to  enable  them  to  continue  learning  - even  if  they  cannot 
physically  attend  school. 

In  emergency  and  reconstruction  situations,  open  and  distance  learning  may  also  provide 
additional  educational  opportunities  at  the  secondary  and  tertiary  levels  to  refugee  and 
displaced  people,  as  well  as  non-migrant  nationals.  It  may  allow  youth  and  adults  who  have 
to  work  to  continue  learning.  Youth  and  adults  who  have  no  opportunity  to  work  may  also 
benefit  from  open  and  distance  learning  initiatives,  such  as  tertiary  or  professional  training 
courses  that  may  lead  to  future  employment.  However,  face-to-face  contact  or  study  support 
is  still  needed.  Among  both  refugees  and  IDPs,  many  students  will  be  too  emotionally  disturbed 
and  lack  study  skills  and  facilities  to  be  able  to  follow  distance-learning  courses  on  their  own. 
In  some  camps,  there  may  be  an  insufficient  number  of  refugee  teachers  with  the  skills  to 
facilitate  distance  education  in  certain  subjects.  It  may  also  be  difficult  for  refugee  and  even 
1DP  students  to  enrol  in  distance  education  courses  in  the  host  country/area  because  of 
language  differences  or  bureaucratic  constraints  limiting  enrolment  to  national  citizens  and/ 
or  those  with  documented  educational  achievements.  Establishment  of  a testing  scheme  for 
admission  of  refugees  without  school  documentation  takes  time.  For  secondary  education,  the 
establishment  of  temporary  schools  is  thus  likely  to  be  speedier  and  more  effective.  However, 
for  returnees,  the  process  of  return  and  reintegration  may  be  facilitated  by  their  participation 
in  a distance  education  programme  prior  to  their  return,  provided  that  it  is  run  by  or  at  least 
recognized  by  their  home  country /area. 

While  distance  education  has  the  potential  to  reach  large  numbers  of  people,  there  are 
significant  obstacles  associated  with  its  implementation.  Foremost  among  these  is  the  lack 
of  resources,  particularly  funding.  Open  and  distance  learning  programmes  generally  require 
up-front  and  ongoing  investments  in  the  development  and  revision  of  course  materials.  For 
initiatives  that  rely  on  technology,  there  are  also  investments  associated  with  the  initial 
acquisition  of  equipment  such  as  computer  servers,  television  and  radio  transmitters,  as 
well  as  for  ongoing  training,  maintenance  and  operating  costs;  start  up  times  for  technically 
reliant  programmes  are  therefore  often  considerable.  In  addition,  there  are  ongoing  costs 
associated  with  providing  educational  support  to  students  in  the  form  of  personal  mentoring 
and  correction  of  work.  Frequently  fellow  students,  older  siblings,  parents  or  teachers  can 
provide  this  support  without  cost,  but  sometimes  it  requires  payment  of  educators  or  others 
who  do  so. 

In  general,  it  is  difficult  to  make  distance  education  programmes  self-sustaining  as  refugee  or 
internally  displaced  students  and  their  families  do  not  have  the  resources  to  pay  even  modest 
course  fees,  such  as  the  cost  of  returning  their  materials  via  post  to  a distance  education 


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provider.  Communications  may  also  be  cut  off  due  to  conflict  or  the  effects  of  a natural 
disaster.  The  use  of  mail,  emails  and  the  internet  may  or  may  not  be  possible.  For  the  same 
reason,  organizers  may  be  unable  to  inform  people  about  or  co-ordinate  such  programmes. 
In  an  acute  emergency,  low  technology  solutions  - such  as  learning  worksheets  distributed  to 
pupils’  homes  - may  offer  an  opportunity  to  continue  childrens  education  in  situations  where 
formal  education  has  been  interrupted,  if  logistics  and  security  conditions  permit. 


Q EXAMPLES  OF  LOW-COST  DISTANCE  EDUCATION 

Despite  the  obstacles  to  distance  education,  it  offers  exciting  possibilities,  some  of  which 
can  be  low  cost.  Consider  the  following  examples: 

In  Palestine,  the  Ministry  of  Education  and  teachers  developed  self-study  worksheets  for 
students  to  use  when  curfews  and  insecurity  prevented  them  from  leaving  their  homes  to 
attend  school.  Teachers  delivered  the  worksheets  to  their  students’  homes  or  students 
picked  up  the  worksheets  at  their  schools  on  days  when  the  curfew  was  lifted  and  people 
could  travel  more  freely.  (Sultana,  n.d.) 

Burundian  refugees  in  refugee  camps  in  Western  Tanzania  learn  English  through  the  Southern 
African  Extension  Unit  (SAEU),  based  in  Dar  es  Salaam.  The  course  consists  of  eight  modules 
and  is  made  up  of  printed  materials,  audio  cassettes,  and  face-to-face  support  twice  weekly  by 
part-time  tutors  (Butcher,  2000).  The  organization  had  earlier  facilitated  secondary  education 
by  correspondence  for  South  African  refugees  in  camps  in  southern  Africa. 

In  Guinea  and  Liberia,  Sierra  Leonean  refugee  teachers  can  take  part  in  a modular  distance 
education  project  offered  by  the  Freetown  Teachers’  College.  Teachers  study  the  modules 
with  refugees  and  upon  their  return  to  Sierra  Leone  they  can  sit  for  the  Teacher  Certification 
Exam  to  earn  a Sierra  Leonean  teaching  certificate  (INEE,  2004). 

Many  young  teachers  in  the  Bhutanese  refugee  camps  in  Nepal  follow  degree  courses  from 
open  universities  in  India  (Brown,  2001). 

The  Sudan  Open  Learning  Organization  has  provided  various  courses  for  internally 
displaced  people,  including  a Teacher  Assistance  Course,  using  printed  self-study  booklets 
and  group  meetings  (Bradley,  2001). 

In  Burundi,  ‘Radio  Ndragakura’  broadcasts  for  three  hours  a day  throughout  the  country. 
In  addition  to  school  subjects,  the  programmes  also  cover  health  and  interpersonal  issues, 
human  rights,  reconciliation  and  HIV/AIDS  (NRC,  2002). 

In  1995,  the  Jesuit  Refugee  Service  established  Radio  Kwizera  for  Rwandan  refugees  in 
Tanzania,  broadcasting  programmes  on  issues  such  as  the  peace  education  initiative, 
environment,  health  and  culture.  Radio  Kwizera  later  became  a mechanism  for  conducting 
distance  teacher-training  courses  for  Burundi  refugee  teachers  in  the  camps  (Bird,  2003:  60). 

In  Mtabila  refugee  camp  in  Tanzania,  volunteers  constructed  a Community  Internet  Centre, 
which  is  used  for  programmes  for  secondary  school  students,  women  and  professionals. 
Solar  power  is  used  to  generate  electricity  and  a VSAT  terminal  is  used  for  internet  access 
(Global  Catalyst  Foundation,  2000). 

The  ‘New  home,  new  life’  radio  soap  opera  was  developed  by  UNESCO  and  the  BBC  to 
encourage  and  facilitate  repatriation  of  Afghan  refugees  from  Pakistan.  The  soap  opera,  a 
story  of  returning  refugees,  found  its  audience  with  Dari-  and  Pashto-speaking  refugees  both 
in  Afghanistan  and  in  refugee  camps  in  Pakistan.  A high  proportion  of  the  households  listened 
to  the  programme,  which  incorporated  health  and  other  messages  (UNESCO,  1999). 

These  examples  illustrate  the  wide  range  of  distance  learning  opportunities  that  are 
available,  from  low  technology  to  high  technology. 


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SUGGESTED  STRATEGIES 


In  emergencies,  some  children  and  youth  have  reduced  access  or  are  cut  off  from  schooling 
and  other  learning  opportunities.  Distance  education  may  be  an  option  for  reaching  some 
of  these  children  and  youth.  Some  possible  steps  for  the  development  and  implementation 
of  distance  education  programmes  are  noted  below. 


Summary  of  suggested  strategies 

Open  and  distance  learning 

Conduct  a survey  of  which  distance  education 
programmes  are  already  in  operation  in  the 
country,  run  by  the  government  ministries  as 
well  as  by  other  organizations. 

2.  Determine  whether  some  form(s)  of  open  and 
distance  learning  could  help  meet  the  current 
educational  needs  of  the  population. 

3.  Take  steps  to  strengthen  the  capacity  of  the 
education  ministry  in  the  field  of  open  and 
distance  learning. 

4.  Based  on  consultations  with  community 
members  and  teachers,  determine  primary  target 
groups  for  distance  education. 

5.  Review  the  options  for  a cost-effective  open  and 
distance  learning  initiative,  including  potential 
partners  and  donors. 

6.  Review  existing  materials  from  various  sources 
and  adapt  (or  if  necessary  develop)  open  and 
distance  education  materials. 


7.  Pilot  test  and  revise  the  programme  as  necessary. 

8.  Implement  and  monitor  the  programme. 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

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Guidance  notes 


1.  Conduct  a survey  of  what  open  and  distance  learning  activities  and 
programmes  are  already  in  operation  in  the  country,  run  by  the 
government  ministries  as  well  as  by  other  organizations. 

(See  also  the  Guidebook , Chapter  28,  ‘Assessment  of  needs  and  resources’.) 

• How  can  these  activities  be  included  in  the  national  reconstruction  plan  as  well 
as  in  the  national  plan  for  education? 

• Which,  if  any,  government  ministries  or  offices  have  the  main  responsibility  for 
open  and  distance  learning? 

• Has  a co-ordination  working  group  been  set  up  among  the  concerned  government 
ministries/offices  and/or  with  external  partners? 

2.  Determine  whether  some  form(s)  of  open  and  distance  learning  could 
help  meet  the  current  educational  needs  of  the  population. 

Open  and  distance  education  may  be  a tool  for  providing  equal  access  and  inclusion, 
but  will  never  solve  all  problems  related  to  this  task  on  its  own.  Other  interventions  are 
necessary,  and  should  be  undertaken  with  due  consideration  of  fundamental  issues, 
such  as  quality  of  education  provided.  See  the  Guidebook , Chapter  4}  ‘Education  for 
all  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction’,  and  the  point  on  quality  under  the  ‘Tools  and 
resources’  section  in  this  chapter  for  further  information. 

• Which  young  people  do  not  have  access  to  education  and  might  benefit  from 
distance  learning?  (Review  the  access  questions  in  the  Guidebook,  Chapter  4, 
‘Education  for  all  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction.’)  Make  sure  to  consult  with 
children,  youth,  teachers,  parents  and  community  groups. 

• Which  teachers  do  not  have  access  to  in-service  training  and  further  professional 
studies?  (Review  the  questions  in  the  Guidebook,  Chapter  18,  ‘Teacher  training: 
teaching  and  learning  methods’.)  Make  sure  to  consult  with  children,  youth, 
teachers,  parents  and  community  groups. 

• What  are  the  reasons  that  young  people  do  not  have  access  to  education? 

- Is  the  distance  to  school  too  far  or  the  route  too  insecure  for  children  to 
travel? 

- Are  children  and  youth  engaged  in  income-generating  activities  during 
school  hours? 

- Do  young  women  have  children  of  their  own  or  other  domestic  responsi- 
bilities that  prevent  them  from  attending  formal  schooling? 

- Do  post-primary  opportunities  exist  locally? 


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• What  are  the  educational  needs/preferences  of  the  children  and  youth  that 
do  not  have  access? 

- Primary  or  some  form  of  accelerated  learning  to  re-enter  the  formal  system? 

- Post-primary  - formal  secondary,  tertiary? 

- Basic  literacy? 

- Vocational/skills  training? 

- General  knowledge  regarding  health  issues,  citizenship,  human  rights, 
environment? 

- For  which  of  the  above  educational  needs/preferences  is  distance  educa- 
tion a viable  option? 

3*  Take  steps  to  strengthen  the  capacity  of  the  relevant  ministry  in  the 
field  of  open  and  distance  learning* 

• Are  external  donors  interested  in  supporting  the  strengthening  of  ministry  capacity 
in  this  area? 

• How  can  international  experience  with  open  and  distance  learning  - in  emergencies 
and  in  non-emergency  situations  - be  drawn  upon? 

4*  Based  on  consultations  with  community  members  and  teachers, 
determine  primary  target  groups  for  distance  education* 

• Is  distance  learning  a viable  way  of  providing  access  to  schooling  or  higher 
education  for  out-of-school  children,  youth  and  adults,  non-formal  or  informal 
education  for  children  and  adults,  or  in-service  training  for  teachers? 

• Would  children,  youth,  adults  or  teachers  participate  in  a distance-learning 
programme  in  sufficient  numbers  to  make  it  cost-effective? 

• What  options  most  interest  each  group  (e.g.  self-study  materials  for  use  at 
home,  radio,  television,  computer/internet)? 

• What  constraints  to  participation  will  children,  youth  and  adults  face  (e.g.  no 
one  to  provide  educational  support,  lack  of  time  for  study,  lack  of  resources, 
lack  of  technology,  etc.)? 


© OPEN  LEARNING  FOR  TEACHERS  IN  SOMALIA 

UNESCO’s  Programme  for  Education  in  Emergencies  and  Reconstruction  (PEER)  used  open- 
learning methods  in  the  1990s  in  the  form  of  the  Somali  Open  Learning  Unit  (SOMOLU).  This 
drew  on  the  experience  of  the  Institute  of  In-Service  Teacher  Training,  which  had  previously 
operated  in  Somalia  for  almost  ten  years,  and  of  the  Sudan  Open  Learning  Unit  (SOLU). 
Trainees  set  their  own  learning  pace  and  appeared  for  an  examination  after  completion  of 
30  course  assignments  and  could  then  obtain  a Certificate  of  Basic  Teacher  Training.  The 
SOMULU  centres  had  resident  tutors  who  conducted  tutorials  for  individuals  and  groups. 

Source:  Retamal  and  Devadoss  (1998). 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


5*  Review  the  options  for  a cost-effective  open  and  distance  learning 
initiative* 

• What  is  the  goal  of  the  programme?  For  example: 

• Is  it  to  maintain  childrens  learning  as  part  of  the  formal  curriculum  at  a time 
when  they  are  unable  to  attend  school? 

• Is  it  a stand-alone  programme  for  which  learning  will  ultimately  be  certified 
(e.g.  a distance  teacher  training  or  nursing  programme)? 

• What  delivery  option(s)  best  match  the  goals  of  the  programme? 

• Self-study  materials  for  use  in  the  home,  preferably  with  regular  support  in 
face-to-face  learning  groups,  led  by  a teacher/facilitator/specialist  trainer? 

• Radio? 

• Television? 

• Computer/internet? 

• What  are  the  barriers  to  the  implementation  of  each  of  the  options  identified? 

• Cost? 

• Limited  access  to  technology  and  infrastructure  to  support  it?  (Note  that 
distance-learning  courses  that  utilize  computer  technology  may  be  very 
popular  with  young  people,  and  may  result  in  greater  than  anticipated 
demand.) 

• Lack  of  support  (parent,  teachers,  etc.)  for  students  studying  at  a distance? 

• Sustainability? 

• Language? 

• Facilities  (e.g.  a computer  centre  will  likely  be  necessary  for  any  kind  of 
internet/computer  program)? 

• Lack  of  access  to  laboratories  for  science  subjects 

• What  is  needed  to  begin  the  programme? 

• Funding?  (See  also  the  Guidebook , Chapter  37,  ‘Donor  relations  and  funding 
mechanisms.) 

• Development,  adaptation,  or  procurement  of  materials  and  equipment?  (See 
below.) 

• Training  - for  participants,  teachers  and  others  who  will  support  the  learning 
process? 

• Construction  (e.g.  of  a learning  or  internet  centre)? 

• Arrangements  for  the  use  of  local  radio  or  television  facilities  (e.g.  air  time, 
use  of  equipment,  cost,  etc.)? 


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• Have  similar  programmes  been  used  in  other  countries  that  could  be  adapted  to 

the  current  situation? 

• Consult  with  UNICEF,  UNESCO,  World  Bank  representatives  and  NGOs 
to  determine  which  options  have  been  tried  in  similar  circumstances. 

• Consider  submitting  a request  to  the  1NEE  discussion  list  (via  internet  at 
http://www.ineesite.org/post.asp  or  via  email  to  coordinator@ineesite.o 
rg)  to  obtain  information  and  advice  from  organizational  members  of  the 
Inter-Agency  Network  for  Education  in  Emergencies  (1NEE)  who  have 
implemented  such  programmes  or  may  be  currently  running  such  programmes 
in  your  country. 

• Contact  international  organizations  supporting  distance  education  such  as 
the  Commonwealth  of  Learning,  Vancouver,  Canada  and  the  Consortium 
International  Francophone  de  Formation  a Distance , Bordeaux,  France;  or 
distance  learning  institutions,  such  as  open  universities  and  secondary 
schools. 


Q CONCLUSIONS  REGARDING  OPEN  AND  DISTANCE  LEARNING 

Open  and  distance  learning  has  to  be  matched  with  the  technological  level  in  the  country 
or  area  in  question.  The  overall  experience  is  that  distance  education  can  be  less  costly 
than  traditional  education,  depending  on  the  model  adopted  and  the  number  of  students 
enrolled.  The  opportunity  costs  for  students  are  high,  since  the  students  have  to  spend  their 
spare  time  on  studies,  and  cannot  have  other  jobs.  Use  of  printed  materials  for  distance 
education  correspondence  is  most  common.  Some  key  observations  include: 

The  start-up  of  an  open-  and  distance-learning  programme  takes  time,  especially  if  there  is 
to  be  a comprehensive  teacher-training  programme  with  national  outreach.  This  approach 
may  be  more  suited  to  post-conflict  reconstruction  or  protracted  situations  than  acute 
emergencies. 

Face-to-face  interaction  is  necessary  for  success.  The  distance  education  programme  for 
teacher  education  in  Sri  Lanka  allows  teachers  to  earn  their  teaching  certificate  whilst  they 
continue  working,  thus  ensuring  that  the  teachers  can  practise  their  new  skills  on  a daily 
basis.  In  addition,  trainees  have  to  pick  up  self-instructional  manuals  at  regional  centres  and 
hand  in  assignments  to  tutors.  Group  tutors  visit  the  teachers  in  their  schools  to  assess  their 
progress. 

Steady  supervision  and  follow  up  is  crucial.  Lack  of  interaction  between  tutors  and  students 
lowers  motivation  and  effectiveness. 


Source:  Johannessen  (forthcoming). 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

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6* 


Review  existing  materials  from  various  sources  and  adapt  (or  if 
necessary  develop)  open  learning/distance  education  materials. 


• Who  will  adapt/develop  the  learning  materials  - existing  teachers  and 
administrators  or  an  outside  organization  in  consultation  with  educational 
authorities?  (Note:  adaptation  is  much  quicker  than  developing  new  materials 
and  testing  them.  It  is  crucial  that  content  and  examples  fit  the  local  context, 
however.) 

• Consider  if  existing  materials  from  a country  with  similar  conditions,  curricula 
and  language  of  study  could  be  adapted,  with  permission  from  the  authorities 
concerned  (this  saves  time,  cost  and  benefits  from  the  pilot  testing,  evaluation 
and  improvements  already  carried  out) . 

• Train  the  writing  team  of  educators  on  the  objectives  of  the  programme  and 
how  to  prepare  the  materials.  If  possible,  provide  them  with  examples  of  exist- 
ing programmes,  guidelines  and  templates  for  open  and  distance  learning. 

• How  will  the  distance  learning  materials  incorporate  the  existing  curriculum? 
Are  the  certifications  obtained  by  distance  education  courses  valid  in  the 
student’s  home/host  country? 

• Who  will  produce  and  deliver  lessons  that  will  be  offered  via  radio,  television,  or 
online? 

• Identify  teachers  or  other  educators. 

• Provide  them  with  training  relative  to  the  instructional  medium  to  be  used. 

7.  Pilot  test  and  revise  the  programme  as  necessary. 

(See  also  the  Guidebook,  Chapter  28,  Assessment  of  needs  and  resources’). 

• Did  the  programme  reach  the  target  population  in  the  pilot  phase? 

• Of  the  children,  youth  and  adults  who  enrolled,  how  many  finished  the 
programme? 

• What  is  the  impact  of  the  programme? 

• If  the  distance-learning  programme  is  an  effort  to  maintain  students’  academic 
achievement,  consider  developing  a pre-test  and  a post-test  that  can  be  given 
to  young  people  who  participated  in  the  pilot  programme  and  another  similar 
group  who  did  not.  (Note:  for  this  type  of  impact  assessment  to  be  valid,  pro- 
gramme participants  must  be  selected  randomly  out  of  a group  of  applicants, 
and  the  pre-test  and  post-test  should  be  given  to  both  groups,  although  it 
may  be  difficult  to  locate  and  deliver  the  post-test  to  the  non-participants.) 

• Do  students  who  complete  the  programme  obtain  a certificate?  Will  the  certificate 
be  recognized  by  others? 

• Will  the  certificate  help  programme  graduates  obtain  a job  or  re-enter  the  formal 
system? 


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• Will  it  lead  to  promotions  or  higher  pay  for  teachers  who  complete  an  in-service 
training  course? 

• To  what  extent  do  the  materials  need  to  be  revised? 

• To  what  extent  do  distance  learning  educators  need  additional  training? 

• How  can  access  to  the  programme  be  expanded  to  include  more  children,  youth, 
adults,  and  teachers  in  other  areas  of  the  country?  (See  also  the  Guidebook , 
Chapter  15,  'Identification,  selection  and  recruitment  of  teachers  and  education 
workers’.) 

• Consult  with  community  groups  and  local  educators  to  obtain  their  support 
for  the  programme. 

• Enlist  programme  participants  in  the  promotion  of  the  programme  to  other 
out-of-school  children  and  youth. 

• Consider  developing  a public  awareness  campaign  to  reach  eligible  children, 
youth  and  adults. 

8*  Implement  and  monitor  the  programme* 

• Are  there  any  patterns  of  enrolment  and  retention  that  indicate  who  is  attending 
and  who  is  not,  and  why? 

• How  adaptable  is  the  programme  to  the  security  and  education  needs  of  its 
students? 

• Are  there  opportunities  for  students,  parents  and  educators  to  provide  feedback 


on  the  programme? 


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1.  Cost  considerations  in  technology-based  distance  education 

The  cost  of  a technology-based  programme  heavily  depends  on  its  combination  of  fixed 
and  variable  costs. 

• The  cost  of  the  hardware  represents  about  a quarter  of  the  total  cost  of  introducing 
technology  to  the  classroom. 

• Distance  education  systems  have  higher  fixed  costs  and  lower  variable  costs  than 
the  conventional  alternative.  Consequently,  they  can  achieve  economies  of  scale. 
However,  the  numbers  of  students  must  be  high. 

• Cost  effectiveness  is  difficult  to  measure,  but  applications  exist  that  are  more  cost- 
effective  than  the  conventional  alternative.  This  has  been  the  case  for  many  teacher 
development  programmes  and  some  tertiary  education  programmes. 

• Technologies  with  higher  fixed  costs  and  lower  variable  costs,  such  as  radio,  can  be 
inexpensive  if  they  serve  large  numbers  of  students  and  recurrent  costs  are  managed. 
Studies  have  shown  that  interactive  radio  instruction  in  primary  schools  can  deliver 
learning  more  cost-effectively  than  textbooks  or  increased  teacher  training. 

• Technologies  with  higher  variable  costs  and  that  work  in  conjunction  with  conventional 
teachers,  such  as  personal  computers,  may  increase  quality  but  are  unlikely  to  bring 
any  cost  advantage.  Indeed,  they  may  be  prohibitive  at  the  primary  school  level, 
where  teacher  supervision  is  a requirement.  In  higher-education  institutions  and  for 
teacher  training,  the  cost  of  their  use  may  be  lower  if  they  do  not  require  faculty 
supervision. 

• Technologies  that  rearrange  the  structure  of  educational  costs  and  reduce  large  cost 
items,  such  as  in-service  teacher  development,  while  they  maintain  or  improve  quality, 
are  likely  to  be  attractive.  Distance  education  for  teacher  development  is  attractive 
for  this  reason. 

• Low  cost  applications  that  increase  quality  may  be  justifiable  if  they  fit  within  cost 
limitations. 

• The  issue  of  who  bears  the  costs  and  how  recurrent  costs  are  covered  after  a 
programme  goes  to  scale  must  be  addressed  early  in  the  programme  design. 

Source:  Murphy  eta/.  (2002:  38-39). 


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REFERENCES  AND  FURTHER  READING 


Bird,  L.  2003.  Surviving  school:  education  for  refugee  children  from  Rwanda  1994-1996 . Paris: 
IIEP-UNESCO. 

Bradley,  J.  2001.  Distance  education  for  refugees:  the  IEC  experience . Cambridge:  International 
Extension  College.  Retrieved  23  August  2005  from 
http://www.iec.ac.uk/resources_online.html 

Brown,  T.  2001.  “Improving  quality  and  attainment  in  refugee  schools:  the  case  of  the 
Bhutanese  refugees  in  Nepal.”  In:  J.  Crisp,  C.  Talbot  and  D.B.  Cipollone  (Eds.), 
Learning  for  a future:  refugee  education  in  developing  countries  (pp.  109-161).  Geneva: 
UNHCR. 

Butcher,  N.  2000.  Distance  education  in  developing  countries  (Knowledge  Bank  paper  3). 
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http://imfundo.digitalbrain.com/imfundo/web/teach/kb3/?verb=view. 

Global  Catalyst  Foundation.  2000.  Kasulu  and  Mtabila  internet  project . Retrieved  23  August 
2005  from  http://www.global-catalyst.org/kasulu.htm. 

1NEE  (Inter-Agency  Network  for  Education  in  Emergencies).  2004.  Minimum  standards  for 
education  in  emergencies , chronic  crises  and  early  reconstruction . Paris:  1NEE. 

Johannessen,  E.  Forthcoming.  Management  of  teachers  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction . 
Paris:  IIEP-UNESCO. 

Murphy,  P.  et  aL  2002.  Enhancing  learning  opportunities  in  Africa:  distance  education  and 
information  and  communication  technologies  for  learning  (Africa  region  human 
development  working  paper  series).  Washington  DC:  World  Bank. 

NRC  (Norwegian  Refugee  Council).  2002.  Burundi  country  programme.  Retrieved  29  August 
2005  from  http://www.nrc.no/NRC/eng/frames/programs.htm. 

Perraton,  H.  2000.  Open  and  distance  learning  in  the  developing  world . London: 
Routledge. 

Perraton,  H.;  Potashnik,  M.  1997.  Teacher  education  at  a distance . Washington,  DC:  World 
Bank. 

Retamal,  G;  Devadoss,  M.  1998.  “Education  in  a nation  with  chronic  crisis:  the  case  of 
Somalia”.  In:  G.  Retamal,  R.  Aedo-Richmond  (Eds.),  Education  as  a humanitarian 
response  (pp.  74-93).  London:  Cassell. 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


Shresta,  G.  1997.  A review  of  case  studies  related  to  distance  education  in  developing  countries . 
Retrieved  29  August  2005  from 

http://www.undp.org/info21/public/review/pb-rev3.html 

Sultana,  R.  n.d.  Education  under  siege:  the  distance  remedial  education  project  in  Hebron . 
Unpublished  document. 

Thomas,  J.H.  1996.  Distance  education  for  refugees:  the  experience  of  using  distance  and 
open  learning  with  refugees  in  Africa,  1980-1995 . Cambridge:  International  Extension 
College. 

UNESCO.  1999.  Towards  a shared  knowledge  of  education  in  emergencies  and  post-emergency 
situations:  analysis  of  strategy  and  practice . Retrieved  on  29  August  2005  from 
http://www.unesco.org/education/educprog/emergency/themes/knowledge.htm 

Watson,  J.;  Smith,  W.  n.d.  Going  home  and  teaching  again:  IRC’s  experience  with  certification 
of  Sierra  Leonean  teachers  in  Guinea  and  Liberia . Retrieved  on  29  August  2005  from 
http : / / www.ineesite.org/ featured/  0802.  asp 

World  Bank.  1998.  Latin  America  and  the  Caribbean:  education  and  technology  at  the 
crossroads  (Discussion  paper).  Washington,  DC:  Human  Development  Network 
Education  Group,  World  Bank. 

Yates,  C.  2000.  Teacher  education  at  a distance:  lessons  and  experience  from  Sub-Saharan  Africa . 
Cambridge:  International  Extension  College.  Retrieved  29  August  2005  from 
http : / / w w w.  iec . ac.uk/ resources/ c_y  ates_paper_  1 . pdf 


Chapter  1 1 

INTERNATIONAL 


Open  and  distance  learning 

NSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


CHAPTER 


11 


SECTION  3 


United  Nations  ] International 

Educational,  Scientific  and  [ Institute  for 

Cultural  Organization  * Educational 

Planning 


o 

w 


Chapter 


NON-FORMAL  EDUCATION 


The  designations  employed  and  the  presentation  of 
material  throughout  this  review  do  not  imply  the  expression 
of  any  opinion  whatsoever  on  the  part  of  UNESCO  or  the 
IIEP  concerning  the  legal  status  of  any  country,  territory, 
city  or  area  or  its  authorities,  or  concerning  its  frontiers 
or  boundaries. 

The  publication  costs  of  this  study  have  been  covered 
through  a grant-in-aid  offered  by  UNESCO  and  by 
voluntary  contributions  made  by  several  Member  States 
of  UNESCO. 


Published  by: 

International  Institute  for  Educational  Planning 
7-9  rue  Eugene  Delacroix,  75116  Paris 
e-mail:  info@iiep.unesco.org 
IIEP  web  site:  www.unesco.org/iiep 


Layout  and  cover  design:  Sabine  Lebeau 
Typesetting:  Sabine  Lebeau 
Printed  in  IIEP’s  printshop 
ISBN:  92-803-1288-X 
©UNESCO  2006 


Chapter 


NON-FORMAL  EDUCATION 


^ MAIN  OBJECTIVES 


CONTEXT  AND  CHALLENGES 


• To  provide  emergency-affected 
out-of-school  children,  youth  and  adults 
with  educational  activities  that  meet 
their  needs  and  interests. 

• To  supplement  formal  schooling  of 
emergency-affected  children  and 
youth  with  subjects  relevant  to  their 
protection,  well-being  and  psychosocial 
needs. 


DEFINITION  OF  NON-FORMAL 
EDUCATION 

“Any  organized  and  sustained  educational 
activities  that  do  not  correspond  exactly  to 
the  definition  of  formal  education.  Non-formal 
education  may  therefore  take  place  both  within 
and  outside  educational  institutions,  and  cater 
to  persons  of  all  ages.  Depending  on  country 
contexts,  it  may  cover  educational  programmes 
to  impart  adult  literacy,  basic  education  for 
out-of-school  children,  life-skills,  work-skills, 
and  general  culture.  Non-formal  education 
programmes  do  not  necessarily  follow  the 
‘ladder’  system,  and  may  have  differing  durations, 
and  may  or  may  not  confer  certification  of  the 
learning  achieved.” 

Source:  UNESCO  (1997:  41). 


In  many  countries  that  are  affected  by  emergencies 
or  facing  the  task  of  early  reconstruction,  the 
formal  school  system  does  not  have  the  capacity 
to  enrol  all  of  the  country’s  children  and  youth 
and/or  children  are  not  able  to  take  advantage 
of  it.  Parents  and  children  as  well  as  teachers 
and  educational  authorities  tend  to  seek  rapid 
restoration  of  formal  schooling  to  avoid  losing 
a year  of  school  studies.  The  possibilities  of 
non-formal  education  may  be  overseen  or 
underestimated,  resulting  in  denied  educational 
opportunities  for  children  and  youth  who  cannot 
enrol  in  formal  education.  Non-formal  educational 
activities  give  out-of-school  children  and  youth 
access  to  structured  learning,  reinforce  their  self- 
esteem and  help  them  find  ways  to  contribute  to 
their  communities.  In  some  cases,  these  activities 
may  serve  as  a ‘bridge’  to  help  out-of-school 
children  and  youth  improve  their  academic  skills 


1 

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to  the  point  where  they  can  re-enter  the  formal  school  system.  In  emergencies,  however, 
national  organizations  that  already  undertake  non-formal  education  may  be  interrupted  by 
lack  of  core  and  stable  funding  to  cope  with  a greatly  expanded  scale  of  operations.  Such 
funding  should  therefore  be  sought  and  also  included  in  project  budgets.  Non-formal  education 
activities  are  frequently  affected  and  curtailed  during  periods  of  conflict  and  insecurity  and 
their  organization  is  not  necessarily  easier  than  organization  of  formal  schooling. 

Non-formal  educational  activities  can  take  the  form  of  literacy  and  numeracy  classes, 
cultural  activities  such  as  music,  dance  or  drama,  sports  practices  and  teams,  education 
regarding  child  rights  or  more  subject-specific  learning.  Depending  on  the  provider  and  the 
context,  non-formal  education  may  also  include  so-called  accelerated  learning  programmes 
aimed  at  getting  youth  and  children  who  have  missed  years  of  schooling  back  into  the  formal 
education  system. 


ACCELERATED  LEARNING  PROGRAMMES 

Most  accelerated  learning  programmes  (ALP)  are  ‘catch  up’  initiatives  to  assist  older  children/ 
youth,  who  have  missed  years  of  schooling,  to  complete  their  basic  education  and  to  obtain 
educational  qualifications  in  a relatively  short  period  of  time.  For  example,  an  ALP  can  be  a 
three-year  programme  that  condenses  six  years  of  primary  schooling.  Planned  in  partnership 
with  educational  authorities  and  covering  essential  elements  of  the  official  curriculum,  a 
programme  attempts  to  cover  rapidly  education  content  spanning  years  of  missed  schooling.  In 
reality,  accelerated  learning  is  difficult  to  achieve,  and  will  only  become  possible  when  effective 
teaching  and  learning  methods  are  a strong  focus.  At  the  end  of  the  ‘catch-up’  period,  students 
are  integrated  into  a regular  classroom.  Specific  target  populations  can  include  displaced 
children,  girls,  or  child  soldiers.  As  these  children  have  missed  significant  portions  of  schooling, 
reintegration  into  formal  school  is  a strong  support  to  demobilization. 

Source:  NRC  (2005:  56);  Nicolai  (2003:  40). 

(See  also  the  Tools  and  resources’,  section  3,  ‘Key  considerations  of  accelerated  learning  programmes’.) 


For  adolescents  in  particular,  non-formal  educational  activities  may  greatly  expand  their 
opportunities  for  learning.  Non-formal  courses,  workshops  or  vocational  training  are  likely 
to  be  in  high  demand  amongst  refugees  and  IDPs  who  lack  other  employment  opportunities. 
In  situations  of  conflict,  many  adolescents  will  have  missed  years  of  formal  schooling  and 
may  not  want  or  have  the  time  to  attend  primary  classes  with  younger  children.  As  a 
consequence,  they  may  drop  out  of  the  educational  system  completely  if  other  options  do 
not  exist.  Some  may  want  to  enter  the  formal  school  system  but  may  be  prevented  from 
joining  because  of  space  constraints  or  due  to  legal  age  restrictions.  Adolescents  who  do 
not  have  readily  available  and  accessible  educational  options  are  much  more  vulnerable  to 
dangerous  situations,  such  as  recruitment  to  armed  militias,  engagement  in  illegal  activities 
and  involvement  in  unsafe  income-generating  activities.  Non-formal  education  therefore 
serves  as  a positive  alternative,  and  can  often  be  a vital  protection  strategy. 


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Even  in  acute  emergencies,  in  secure  camp  situations,  non-formal  education  activities  can  be 
organized  quickly  to  provide  children  with  positive  ways  to  spend  their  time  until  other,  more 
formal,  options  are  put  into  place.  However,  co-ordination  is  vital  as  non-formal  education 
activities  are  often  organized  by  a variety  of  education  providers,  as  well  as  organizations 
supporting  health  programmes,  income-generation  projects,  etc. 

Non-formal  education  may  also  be  a critical  supplement  for  students  enrolled  in  formal 
schools.  In  emergency  situations,  formal  school  curricula  often  cover  core  subjects  only  or 
certain  topics  critical  to  survival  in  their  new  environment.  The  short  length  of  school  days 
in  most  early  emergency  situations  makes  it  difficult  to  add  more  subjects  to  the  curriculum. 
An  alternative  that  can  reach  some  of  the  students  is  to  offer  extracurricular  non-formal 
learning  activities.  In  conflict,  or  after  a natural  disaster,  non-formal  education  activities 
may  need  to  be  focused  on  specific  subjects,  such  as  environmental  education,  landmine 
awareness,  peace  education  and  conflict  resolution,  reproductive  health,  hygiene,  disease 
prevention  (such  as  cholera),  HIV/AIDS  awareness  and  prevention,  psychosocial  awareness, 
and  human  rights.  The  case  study  below  gives  a good  example  of  specific  issues  caused  or 
exacerbated  by  a natural  disaster  which  non-formal  education  programmes  could  be  used 
to  address. 

These  themes  can  be  explored  through  non-formal  courses  to  further  students’  understanding 
and  to  provide  them  with  accepting  social  environments  in  which  to  discuss  these  issues. 
Many  children  who  attend  school  will  not  participate  in  non-formal  courses,  however,  due 
to  other  commitments,  parental  concerns  about  security,  etc.,  and  will  therefore  miss  out 
on  life-saving  messages.  When  possible,  therefore,  these  topics  should  also  be  included  in 
the  formal  school  programmes. 

For  returnees  and  non-migrants,  the  reconstruction  of  homes,  rehabilitation  of  fields,  etc. 
may  mean  that  people  have  little  time  for  non-formal  education.  This  is  especially  the  case 
if  people  have  to  travel  long  distances  to  attend  courses  or  workshops.  Organizations  that 
provide  non-formal  education  and  accelerated  learning  programmes  during  protracted 
emergencies  and  reconstruction  may  focus  their  efforts  in  only  a few  locations,  leaving 
many  areas  uncovered;  and  co-ordination  can  be  problematic.  Although  the  community 
may  prefer  that  teacher  training  and  education  efforts  be  directed  to  re-opening  schools, 
attempts  should  be  made  to  emphasize  the  importance  of  a combination  of  formal  and 
non-formal  educational  programmes. 

When  designing  non-formal  educational  activities,  it  is  important  not  to  overlook 
or  underestimate  learner  concerns  or  needs.  Some  may  be  unrealistic,  but  none  are 
unimportant.  Learners  should  know  that  their  concerns  have  been  heard  and  that  their 
ideas  have  been  incorporated  as  far  as  is  possible.  Quality  education  is  partly  a result  of 
gaining  buy-in,  trust,  and  participation/ownership  from  learners. 


Chapter  12:  Non-formal  education 


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3 


SUGGESTED  STRATEGIES 


Whilst  school  enrolment  and  the  provision  of  free  and  compulsory  quality  education  for 
all  will  be  a priority  for  educational  authorities  and  providers,  non-formal  education  should 
be  considered  a way  to  complement  and  strengthen  these  efforts.  Non-formal  education 
is  easily  organized  in  refugee  and  sometimes  also  in  1DP  camps  since  travel  distances  for 
government  and  agency  staff  are  relatively  small,  and  NGOs  are  often  present.  Outside 
camps,  the  provision  and  co-ordination  of  non-formal  education  may  prove  to  be  more 
difficult.  In  early  reconstruction,  funding  and  expertise  may  be  sought  to  rebuild  the 
education  ministry’s  programme  for  non-formal  education.  When  possible,  the  use  of  non- 
formal  educational  tools  such  as  radio  may  be  considered  for  maximum  outreach.  Some  key 
strategies  for  exhausting  the  opportunities  of  non-formal  education  are  noted  below. 


Summary  of  suggested  strategies 
Non-formal  education 

Prepare  a framework  for  non-formal  education,  according  to 
the  phase  of  emergency.  At  the  early  reconstruction  phase, 
prepare  a national  plan  of  action. 


■ 


2.  Provide  guidance  to  civil-society  organizations  on  the  conduct 
of  non-formal  education  programmes. 


3.  In  the  immediate  aftermath  of  an  emergency,  education 
providers  should  consider  establishing  organized  sports  and 
recreational  activities. 


4.  When  setting  up  non-formal  education  activities,  education 
providers  should  consult  with  children,  youth,  parents  and 
community  groups. 

5.  Education  providers  should  consider  enriching  formal  schooling 
with  non-formal  activities. 


6.  Education  providers  should  develop  a plan  for  raising  interest  in, 
and  pilot  testing,  the  proposed  non-formal  education  activities. 

7.  Education  providers  should  develop  a system  of  monitoring  and 
feedback. 


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Guidance  notes 


1*  Prepare  a framework  for  non-formal  education,  according  to  the  phase 
of  emergency*  At  the  early  reconstruction  phase,  prepare  a national 
plan  of  action* 

Consider  the  following  when  designing  non-formal  education  activities: 

• According  to  the  educational  needs  assessment  (see  the  Guidebook , Chapter  4 , 
'Education  for  all  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction’  and  Chapter 28 , Assessment 
of  needs  and  resources’),  how  many  children  and  young  people  are  not  in  school? 
Based  on  the  current  situation  and  past  approaches,  assess  the  demand  for  non- 
formal  education  for  adults. 

(See  the  'Tools  and  resources’  section  of  this  chapter  for  possible  non-formal 
education  activities.) 

• Consider  a range  of  activities,  from  radio  programmes  to  short  thematic 
courses,  literacy  courses  and  accelerated  learning  courses. 

• Consider  linking  non-formal  education  with  sports,  recreation  and  cultural 
activities. 

• Liaise  with  other  ministries  that  provide  non-formal  education  and  training 
(youth,  sport,  culture,  health,  labour,  agriculture,  etc.). 

• Develop  a programme  for  the  training  of  trainers  and  teachers  for  non-formal 
education  and  youth  outreach. 

• Address  issues  of  certification  for  students  and  teachers. 

• Address  issues  of  payment  for  teachers  working  full  time,  part  time  or 
occasionally  in  non-formal  education. 

• Develop  a strategy  for  involving  civil  society  in  providing  non-formal  educa- 
tion, for  piloting  and  evaluating  innovative  programmes  such  as  community 
learning  centres,  for  the  use  of  radio  and  other  communication  technologies, 
etc. 

• Are  there  experienced  non-governmental  organizations  that  can  manage/ 
implement  the  selected  non-formal  education  activities? 

• Consult  with  United  Nations  organizations  and  NGOs  (international  and 
national)  that  are  present  in  the  country. 

• If  the  desired  experience  is  not  already  present,  solicit  assistance  from 
UNESCO  or  UNICEF  to  locate  experienced  organizations. 


Chapter  12:  Non-formal  education 


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5 


ACCELERATED  LEARNING  PROGRAMMES:  CREPS  IN  SIERRA  LEONE 


The  Complementary  Rapid  Education  Program  for  Primary  Schools  (CREPS)  was  set  up  in  May 
2000  by  the  Government  of  Sierra  Leone’s  Ministry  of  Education,  Science  and  Technology 
(MEST))  with  support  from  UNICEF  and  the  Norwegian  Refugee  Council  (NRC)  as  an  accelerated 
learning  programme.  It  was  designed  to  target  children  between  the  ages  of  10-16,  who  had 
been  unable  to  complete  their  education  during  the  conflict  either  because  of  involvement 
with  fighting  factions  or  due  to  school  closures  or  displacement.  It  was  estimated  that 
500,000  children  were  eligible.  CREPS  condenses  the  regular  6 years  of  primary  schooling  into 
3 years,  after  which  the  children  are  able  to  mainstream  into  the  formal  school  system.  Classes 
are  held  in  primary  schools  usually  in  the  afternoons  when  the  buildings  are  not  being  used 
or  in  temporary  shelters.  Teachers  are  trained  specifically  to  deliver  the  CREPS  programme 
and  are  supported  with  ongoing  training.  All  learning  materials  are  provided,  children  do 
not  have  to  pay  fees  to  attend  classes  and  uniforms  are  not  compulsory.  The  programme 
is  functioning  in  185  centres  across  the  country,  and  enrolment  in  March  2004  was  26,646. 
Demand  for  the  CREPS  programme  continues  to  be  growing  but  expansion  is  being  stymied 
by  the  government’s  inability  to  pay  the  salaries  of  the  recruited  teachers. 

Source:  UNICEF  (2005). 

■ -■ 

(For  additional  information  on  accelerated  learning  programmes,  see  the  ‘Tools  and 
resources’  section  of  this  chapter.) 

• Who  will  teach  or  support  the  activities? 

• If  non-governmental  implementing  partners  are  used,  how  will  they  be  selected? 

• How  will  teachers/facilitators  be  identified?  (See  also  the  Guidebook , Chapter  15, 
‘Identification,  selection  and  recruitment  of  teachers  and  education  workers’.) 

• Are  special  qualifications  needed? 

• How  much  training  will  teachers  need?  Who  will  conduct  the  training? 

• Will  teachers  be  compensated?  Who  will  pay  them?  (See  also  the  Guidebook , 
Chapter  16,  ‘Teacher  motivation,  compensation  and  working  conditions’.) 
How  does  this  relate  to  previous  or  current  payment  schedules  for  non-formal 
education  in  the  country  concerned  (or  country  of  origin  of  refugees)? 

• Who  will  support  and/or  monitor  the  teaching  or  programme  activities?  (See 
also  the  Guidebook,  Chapter  17,  ‘Measuring  and  monitoring  teachers’  impact’.) 

• What  materials  or  supplies  will  be  needed  for  the  programme? 

• Adapt  existing  in-country  or  international  materials  to  the  local  environment. 

• Develop  new  material  only  when  satisfied  that  appropriate  models  do  not 
exist  elsewhere. 

• Is  funding  available?  (See  also  the  Guidebook,  Chapter  35,  ‘Budget  and  financial 

management’  and  Chapter  37,  ‘Donor  relations  and  funding  mechanisms’.) 

• Will  the  non-formal  activities  lead  to  something  else?  For  example, 

• (Re) entry  to  the  formal  system? 

• Some  type  of  certificate? 

• Better  employment  options? 

• Better  health,  and  peace-promoting  activities? 


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0 NON-FORMAL  EDUCATION  IN  TIMOR-LESTE 


■ 


The  International  Rescue  Committee  (IRC)  non-formal  education  project  in  the  Oecussi 
district  of  Timor-Leste  “. . . explored  means  of  mobilizing  local  resources  within  schools,  youth 
organizations,  and  other  community  groups  to  increase  available  education  and  recreation 
opportunities.  Through  an  emphasis  on  a participatory  planning  process,  the  activities  were 
community  defined  and  developed  in  partnership  with  local  organizations.  Each  initiative 
undertaken  was  led  by  a local  group:  a children’s  centre  was  organized  and  staffed  by  the 
young  women’s  group  Grupo  Feto  FoinSae  Enclave  Timor;  structured  sports  activities  were 
arranged  by  the  youth  group  network  Juventude  Lorico  Lifau;  and  the  Oecussi  District 
Education  Committee  took  leadership  in  district  teacher  training” . 

Source:  Nicolai  (2004:  81). 


2 ♦ Provide  guidance  to  civil  society  organizations  on  the  conduct  of  non- 
formal  education  programmes* 

The  field  of  non-formal  education  attracts  many  organizations  that  may  lack  the 
pedagogical  expertise  needed  for  effective  programmes.  There  may  also  be  a clash 
between  organizational  modalities  and  policies  that  can  cause  difficulties,  on  matters 
such  as  payments  to  teachers,  arrangements  for  in-service  training,  certification,  etc. 
Some  elements  of  good  practice  are  indicated  in  points  5-9  below. 


0 COMMUNITY  LEARNING  CENTRES  IN  THE  ASIA-PACIFIC  REGION 


“In  the  Asia  and  Pacific  region,  Community  Learning  Centres  (CLCs)  have  emerged  as  potential 
grassroots-based  institutions  for  the  delivery  of  literacy,  basic  and  continuing  education  and 
other  community  development  activities. 

Learning  centres  are  defined  in  the  Asia-Pacific  Programme  of  Education  for  All  training 
materials  ...  as:  local  institutions  outside  the  formal  education  system  for  villagers  or  urban 
areas  usually  set  up  and  managed  by  local  people  to  provide  various  learning  opportunities 
for  community  development  and  improvement  of  people’s  quality  of  life.  Community 
Learning  Centres  are  for  every  citizen  and  are  adapted  to  the  needs  of  all  people  in  the 
community  through  active  community  participation.  The  CLC  is  often  located  in  a simple 
building.  Its  programmes  and  functions  are  flexible  and  well  adapted  to  the  needs  of 
the  community  in  that  they  cater  to  the  needs  of  adults  as  well  as  young  people,  and  in 
particular  to  disadvantaged  groups.” 

The  programmes  are  found  in  Bangladesh,  Bhutan,  Cambodia,  China,  India,  Indonesia,  Iran, 
Lao  PDR,  Malaysia,  Mongolia,  Myanmar,  Nepal,  Pakistan,  Papua  New  Guinea,  Philippines, 
Thailand,  Uzbekistan  and  Viet  Nam.  CLC  activities  may  include  education  and  training,  such 
as  literacy  classes,  provision  of  education  and  skills  training  activities,  promotion  of  lifelong 
learning  and  training  of  non-formal  education  personnel.  They  may  also  have  a function 
in  community  information  and  dissemination  of  resources,  community  development,  co- 
ordination and  networking  between  government  and  NGOs,  linking  traditional  village 
structures  with  official  administrative  structures,  etc. 

Source:  UNESCO  (n.d.a). 

■ — 


( For  information  on  how  to  set  up  CLCs,  see  the  'Tools  and  resources’  section  of  this 
chapter.) 


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5*  In  the  immediate  aftermath  of  an  emergency,  education  providers 
should  consider  establishing  organized  sports  and  recreational 
activities  ♦ 

Organized  activities  will  help  structure  childrens  time  and  are  a valuable  part  of  their 
psychosocial  healing  process  and  (re-)  learning  of  social  and  emotional  skills.  (See  also 
the  Guidebook , Chapter  19,  ‘Psychosocial  support  to  learners’.) 

• Who  can  organize  sports  and  arts  activities,  so  that  safety,  order  and  supervision 

are  ensured?  Can  parents  be  involved? 

• Have  activities  for  both  boys  and  girls  been  considered? 

• What  supplies  are  needed? 

• Are  they  readily  available? 

• What  can  be  contributed  from  parents  or  the  wider  community? 

• Can  children  and  youth  be  engaged  in  making  or  collecting  the  supplies  that 
are  needed? 

• Can  they  be  procured  locally  or  can  they  be  accessed  quickly  through 
UNICEF? 

• Has  a system  been  developed  to  encourage  regular  activities  and  attendance? 

Who  will  be  responsible  for  maintaining  the  schedule? 

• Has  a detailed  programme  been  developed  in  collaboration  with  the  com- 
munities, and  has  the  programme  been  publicized? 

• Are  all  potential  participants  able  to  access  the  programme?  If  not,  how  are 
barriers  to  access  being  overcome? 

• Has  a register  been  developed  of  who  is  responsible  for  running  the  different 
activities,  and  who  may  be  able  to  provide  backup  if  someone  leaves,  falls  ill, 
etc.? 

• Has  a system  been  developed  by  which  both  facilitators  and  participants  can 
report  if  a programme  is  not  running  satisfactory?  Who  will  be  responsible 
for  follow-up? 

6*  When  setting  up  non-for mal  education  activities,  education  providers 

should  consult  with  children,  youth,  parents  and  community  groups* 

Consultations  should  be  as  inclusive  as  possible. 

• What  types  of  educational  activities  do  people  want  (see  the  ‘Tools  and  resources’ 

section  for  brief  descriptions  of  various  non-formal  options)?  Under  which 

circumstances  would  they  attend? 

• What  is  their  educational  background? 


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• What  are  the  reasons  that  some  children  and  youth  are  not  in  school?  (See  the 

Guidebook , Chapter  4}  'Education  for  all  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction’.) 

• Lack  of  places  in  formal  schooling? 

• Youth  are  too  old  to  attend  primary  school  or  do  not  wish  to  attend? 

• Youth  are  engaged  in  income  generating  activities  or  have  domestic  respon- 
sibilities? 

• At  which  times  can  out-of-school  children  and  youth  or  adults  (men,  women) 

participate  in  non-formal  education? 

• When  can  the  activities  be  offered?  How  frequently  will  they  be  offered? 

• Will  the  proposed  times  conflict  with  the  schedules  of  working  children  and 
youth? 

• Will  there  be  multiple  offerings  for  different  groups,  e.g.  adolescents,  teenage 
mothers,  working  youth,  etc.? 


0 NON-FORMAL  EDUCATION  FOR  WAR-AFFECTED  YOUNG  ADULTS  IN  SIERRA  LEONE 

The  Youth  Reintegration  and  Education  for  Peace  Program  sponsored  by  the  United  States 
Agency  for  International  Development  Office  of  Transition  Initiatives  in  Sierra  Leone  emerged 
as  a nationwide,  community-based,  non-formal  education  initiative  for  ex-combatant  and 
war-affected  young  adults.  The  programme  consists  of  five  modules  based  on  issues  that 
community  focus  groups  considered  ‘critical  components  for  building  peace  in  Sierra 
Leone’. 

• Who  am  I?:  Module  1 is  a course  for  improving  self-awareness,  designed  to  facilitate  the 
movement  of  youth  from  a world  of  warfare  to  an  environment  promoting  values  related 
to  peace. 

• Healing  mind,  body,  and  spirit:  Module  2 is  a life-skills  course  designed  to  enable 
youth  to  improve  their  ability  to  manage  their  daily  lives,  improve  their  ability  to  take 
calculated  risks,  make  sound  judgements,  communicate  effectively,  manage  their 
emotions,  and  solve  day-to-day  problems. 

• Our  environment  - what  it  is,  preserving  it,  conserving  it,  and  using  it  effectively: 

Module  3 is  a course  aimed  at  raising  participant  awareness  of  the  need  to  reclaim 
the  environmental  foundation  of  Sierra  Leone,  provide  knowledge  of  ways  to  prevent/ 
reduce  environmental  hazards,  promote  good  farming  practices,  and  increase 
awareness  about  judicious  use  of  the  environment. 

• Health  and  well-being:  Module  4 provides  information  on  the  symptoms  and  treatment 
of  common  local  diseases,  the  medicinal  use  of  local  herbs  and  roots,  methods  for 
clean  drinking  water,  prevention,  identification  and  treatment  of  sexually  transmitted 
diseases  (including  HIV/AIDS),  and  maternal  and  child  health. 

• Democracy,  good  governance  and  conflict  management:  Module  5 focuses  on 
democracy  as  a form  of  government,  the  basic  principles  of  democracy  and  how  they 
work  in  action,  the  causes,  costs,  and  control  of  corruption,  conflict  management,  and 
how  citizens  can  contribute  to  rebuilding  Sierra  Leone. 

Source:  Hansen  eta/.  (2002:  22-25). 


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Education  providers  should  consider  enriching  formal  schooling  with 
non-formal  activities* 

When  considering  supplementary  non-formal  activities  for  children  and  youth 
who  are  attending  formal  schools,  discuss  options  with  educators,  the  community, 
parents,  children  and  youth.  (See  also  the  Guidebook , Chapter 21,  ‘Health  and  hygiene 
education’,  Chapter 22,  ‘HIV/AIDS  preventive  education’,  Chapter 23,  ‘Environmental 
education’,  Chapter 24,  ‘Landmine  awareness’  and  Chapter 25,  ‘Education  for  life  skills: 
peace,  human  rights  and  citizenship.’)  Note  that  these  topics  should  also  be  included 
in  formal  schooling,  since  many  students  may  not  have  time  or  family  permission  to 
participate  in  non-formal  supplementary  activities. 

• Which  subjects  are  needed? 

• Consult  with  national  organizations  of  civil  society  (NGOs,  religious  groups, 
labour  unions,  employer  organizations,  universities,  etc.)  to  determine 
needs. 

• What  resources  will  be  needed  to  introduce  these  subjects  (teachers,  meeting 
places,  materials,  etc.)? 

• Consult  with  UNICEF,  UNESCO,  UNHCR  and  non-governmental  organi- 
zations (NGOs)  present  in  the  country  to  determine  what  materials  already 
exist. 

• Review  existing  materials  and  adapt  them  to  meet  the  local  situation.  Obtain 
input  from  community  members  and  local  educators. 

• Work  with  school  directors,  education  leaders,  etc.,  to  make  sure  that  the  time 
for  testing  the  modules,  training  the  teachers,  and  starting  the  activities  does 
not  interfere  with  core  subject  work.  Under  conditions  of  severe  stress  and  low 
salaries,  efforts  must  be  made  to  involve  teachers  and  administrators  in  new 
initiatives  in  a way  that  minimizes  strain  and  resentment.  Resentment  is  especially 
likely  to  occur  if  programmes  are  seen  as  imposed  from  the  outside  and  interfering 
with  the  work  of  running  a school  and  teaching  students. 

Education  providers  should  develop  a plan  for  raising  interest  in  and 
pilot  testing  the  proposed  non-formal  education  activities* 

• What  type  of  ‘advertising’  will  be  used? 

• Announcements  in  formal  schools  that  children  can  pass  on  to  their  families 
and  friends. 

• Support  from  members  of  parent-teacher  associations  or  school  manage- 
ment committees  who  will  agree  to  tell  other  community  members  about 
the  programme. 

• Announcements  through  community  or  religious  leaders. 


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Consider  a pilot  test  of  the  project  to  increase  interest  among  targeted  groups. 


• Share  draft  plans  with  targeted  learners. 

• Revise  the  project  according  to  the  concerns,  needs  and  ideas  of  the  pilot 
participants  and  community  members. 

• Enlist  young  people  from  the  potential  participant  group  to  help  with  the 
evaluation  of  the  pilot  project. 

• Enlist  the  support  of  programme  participants  to  encourage  others  to  enrol/ 
attend. 

Education  providers  should  develop  a system  of  monitoring  and 
feedback. 

• Are  the  non-formal  activities  reaching  the  intended  target  group  of  children  / 

youth/adults? 

• Do  the  children/youth/adults  that  enrol  attend  throughout  the  programme? 

• If  so,  why?  If  not,  why  not? 

• What  adjustments  can  be  made  to  the  programme  to  encourage  attendance  / 
completion? 

• Do  the  activities  achieve  their  intended  impact,  such  as: 

• Behaviour  change  (e.g.  less  aggression  and  anxiety  among  children,  adoption 
of  specific  hygiene  practices,  etc.) 

• Entry  into  the  formal  school  system:  do  children/youth  that  complete 
bridging/accelerated  learning  programmes  re-enter  formal  school?  For  those 
that  enter,  do  they  start  at  the  intended  grade  level? 

• Literacy:  can  children/youth/adults  read  at  a functional  level  after  completion 
of  the  programme? 

• Employment  ability:  do  employers  seek  graduates’  from  these  programmes? 
Do  graduates’  succeed  in  starting  their  own  businesses? 


Chapter  12:  Non-formal  education 

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TOOLS  AND  RESOURCES 


1.  Options  for  non-formal  education  activities 

Organized  recreational  and  sporting  activities.  These  activities  can  be  started  early  in 
the  acute  phase  of  an  emergency  and  give  children  and  youth  a critical  opportunity  for  play 
and  socialization  that  will  aid  in  their  healing  processes.  While  open  access  to  these  activities 
is  critical,  social  tensions  must  also  be  kept  in  mind.  Competitive  games,  if  not  organized 
with  peace-building  in  mind,  can  support,  and  not  defuse,  social  rivalries  in  communities. 
In  addition,  organizers  of  sports  and  recreational  activities  must  make  sure  to  consider  the 
needs  of  both  boys  and  girls. 

UNICEF  has  pre-packaged  recreational  kits  that  can  be  made  available  quickly  during  an 
emergency.  These  kits  consist  of: 

• Balls  for  several  types  of  games. 

• Coloured  tunics  for  different  teams. 

• Chalk  and  a measuring  tape  for  marking  play  areas. 

• A whistle  and  scoring  slate. 

Organized  cultural  activities  including  music,  art  and  drama.  These  activities  can  have 
powerful  healing  effects  on  children,  youth  and  adults  who  have  experienced  the  horror  of 
displacement.  In  addition,  vital  messages  related  to  peace,  awareness  of  HIV/ AIDS  or  other 
health  issues  could  be  usefully  conveyed  via  these  media.  This  results  in  increased  knowledge 
of  both  programme  participants  and  community  members  who  view  their  work. 

Basic  literacy/numeracy  training:  For  children,  youth  and  adults  who  cannot  or  will  not 
attend  formal  school,  such  training  may  be  the  only  way  they  will  achieve  literacy.  These 
programmes  can  be  offered  in  people’s  homes  or  in  community  facilities,  and  programme 
times  can  be  scheduled  around  the  work  schedules  of  participants. 

Foreign-language  training:  Especially  in  refugee  situations  where  the  refugees  and  the 
host  community  speak  different  languages,  language  training  may  help  refugees  communicate 
with  their  surrounding  hosts.  Learning  or  improving  competency  in  an  international 
language  increases  self-esteem  and  employability,  and  may  be  helpful  if  formal  education 
is  resumed.  In  some  instances,  learning  the  language  (s)  used  in  the  country  of  asylum  may 
help  refugees  acquire  jobs  and,  especially  for  older  students,  allow  them  the  opportunity 
to  attend  secondary  school  in  the  host  country. 

Bridging  programmes:  The  objective  of  bridging  programmes  is  to  enable  older  students 
who  have  missed  years  of  education  to  (re)  enter  the  formal  school  system.  In  general,  these 
programmes  are  aimed  at  adolescents  (aged  10-17)  who  study  intensively  for  one  year  and 
then  take  a national  examination  to  enter  the  school  system.  The  goal  is  often  for  these 


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students  to  begin  their  formal  schooling  in  grade  2 or  3.  Bridging  programmes  may  also  be 
required  for  students  in  higher  grades  who  are  transferring  from  one  system  of  education 
to  another. 

Accelerated  learning  programmes:  The  goal  of  accelerated  learning  programmes  is  to 
provide  educational  opportunities  to  adolescents  who  have  not  completed  (or  started)  a 
primary  education.  In  many  post-conflict  situations,  adolescents  have  often  been  denied  their 
right  to  education.  In  general,  these  programmes  were  developed  to  enable  them  to  study 
six  years  of  the  standard  curriculum  in  three  years.  Upon  completion  of  the  accelerated 
learning  programme,  students  should  have  achieved  functional  literacy  and  numeracy  and 
can  take  an  examination  in  order  to  (re) enter  the  formal  school  system. 

Vocational  programmes:  Non-formal  training  for  emergency-affected  programmes  can 
be  provided  through  training  centres  or,  often  more  effective,  sponsored  apprenticeships 
with  local  craftsmen  and  businesses.  These  can  be  combined  with  literacy/numeracy  and 
life  skills  courses  where  desired.  (See  the  Guidebook , Chapter  26}  ‘ Vocational  education 
and  training'.) 


Chapter  12:  Non-formal  education 


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2.  Steps  for  setting  up  CLCs  and  preparing  CLC  activities 


All  community  learning  centres  (CLCs)  benefit  enormously  from  community  involvement. 
Discussions  with  the  community  members  precede  the  establishment  of  a CLC  in  order 
to  assess  the  community’s  needs.  In  many  cases,  local  materials  and  labour  are  used  to 
build  CLCs.  In  order  for  a CLC  to  be  self-sustaining,  community  members  are  mobilized 
to  establish  and  manage  their  centre  themselves.  Administration  of  the  centre  is  the 
responsibility  of  a management  committee,  which  consists  of  schoolteachers,  retired 
professionals,  community  and  religious  leaders  and  other  community  members. 


National/provincial  level 

Establish  criteria  and  identify  communities 

Community  level 

Create  community  awareness 

Establish  CLC  Management  Committee 

Identify  target  clientele  and  their  learning  needs 
and  determine  income-generation  activities 

Develop  CLC  programme  objectives 

Design  and  develop  programme  activities 

Prioritize  specific  programme  activities 

Establish  CLC  physical  facilities 

Establish  action  groups  (volunteers) 

Mobilize  community  resources 

Establish  support  linkages 

Organize  staff/volunteers  training 

Implement  programme  and  activities 

Monitor  and  revise  activities 

T 

Evaluate  activities 

Experience  sharing  with  other  communities,  e.g.  creating  CLC  clusters 
Develop  district/provincial  resource  centers  and  national  networks 
Strengthen  national  policy,  commitment  and  support 


Source:  UNESCO  (n.d.b). 


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3.  Key  considerations  for  accelerated  learning  programmes 


KEY  CONSIDERATIONS 

COMMON  ACTIVITIES 

ACCELERATED 

LEARNING 

PROGRAMMES 

• With  catch-up  curriculum,  teaching 
quality  is  doubly  important  as  there  is 
less  time  to  learn  the  same  amount 

• Groups  targeted  are  out-of-school  for 
significant  periods  - this  might  include 
child  soldiers,  girls,  or  displaced  children 

• Sitting  in  classrooms  with  younger 
children  can  be  a disincentive  to  attend 

• To  promote  integration,  where 
possible,  involve  other  community 
children 

• Develop  curriculum  based  on  approved 
state  content 

• Train  teachers  in  new  curriculum  and 
child-centred  teaching  pedagogy 

• Co-ordinate  with  education  ministry 
so  that  examinations  will  be  recognized 
and  allow  for  entry  into  state  system 

• Monitor  childrens  progress  as  they 
integrate  into  the  state  school  system 

Source:  Nicolai  (2003:  40). 


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REFERENCES  AND  FURTHER  READING 


Hansen,  A.;  Nenon  J.;  Wolf,  J.;  Sommers,  M.  2002.  Final  evaluation  of  the  office  of  transition 
initiatives  program  in  Sierra  Leone  final  report . Washington,  DC:  CARE,  Inc.  &- 
Creative  Associates. 

1NEE  (Inter-Agency  Network  for  Education  in  Emergencies).  2002.  “Out-of  school 
programmes”.  In:  Good  practice  guides  for  emergency  education.  Retrieved  25  August 
2005  from  http://www.ineesite.org/guides.asp 

Nicolai,  S.  2003.  Education  in  emergencies:  a tool  kit  for  starting  and  managing  education  in 
emergencies . London:  Save  the  Children. 

Nicolai,  S.  2004.  Learning  independence:  education  in  emergency  and  transition  in  Timor-Leste 
since  1999 . Paris:  11EP-UNESCO. 

NRC  (Norwegian  Refugee  Council).  2005.  “Education  programme  methods”.  In  Forced 
Migration  Review ; (22),  56. 

UNESCO.  1997.  International  standard  classification  of  education  ISCED  1997 . Paris: 
UNESCO. 

UNESCO,  n.d.a.  Community  learning  centres . Asia-Pacific  Programme  for  Education  for 
All.  Retrieved  on  25  August  2005  from 
http://www.unescobkk.org/education/appeal/topic01.htm 

UNESCO,  n.d.6.  Steps  for  setting  up  CLC  and  preparing  CLC  activities . Asia-Pacific 
Programme  for  Education  for  All.  Retrieved  on  25  August  2005  from 
http://www.unescobkk.Org/education/appeal/clc/about.htm#Steps%20for%20S 
etting%20up%20CLCs%20and%20Preparing%20CLC%20Activities 

UNICEF.  2005.  Education  programme . Retrieved  29  August  2005  from 

http://www.daco-sl.org/encyclopedia/4_part/4_2/icef_edu_may05.pdf 


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CHAPTER 


12 


SECTION  3 


United  Nations  ] International 

Educational,  Scientific  and  [ Institute  for 

Cultural  Organization  * Educational 

Planning 


o 

w 


Chapter 


EARLY  CHILDHOOD 
DEVELOPMENT 


The  designations  employed  and  the  presentation  of 
material  throughout  this  review  do  not  imply  the  expression 
of  any  opinion  whatsoever  on  the  part  of  UNESCO  or  the 
IIEP  concerning  the  legal  status  of  any  country,  territory, 
city  or  area  or  its  authorities,  or  concerning  its  frontiers 
or  boundaries. 

The  publication  costs  of  this  study  have  been  covered 
through  a grant-in-aid  offered  by  UNESCO  and  by 
voluntary  contributions  made  by  several  Member  States 
of  UNESCO. 


Published  by: 

International  Institute  for  Educational  Planning 
7-9  rue  Eugene  Delacroix,  75116  Paris 
e-mail:  info@iiep.unesco.org 
IIEP  web  site:  www.unesco.org/iiep 


Layout  and  cover  design:  Sabine  Lebeau 
Typesetting:  Sabine  Lebeau 
Printed  in  IIEP’s  printshop 
ISBN:  92-803-1288-X 
©UNESCO  2006 


Chapter 


EARLY  CHILDHOOD  DEVELOPMEHT 


A MAIN  OBJECTIVES 


CONTEXT  AND  CHALLENGES 


• To  ensure  that  young  children  have 
safe  places  to  play  where  their 
developmental  and  educational  needs 
can  be  met. 

• To  prepare  children  socially,  emotionally 
and  intellectually  for  later  education. 

• To  enable  older  siblings  or  adolescent 
mothers  to  attend  educational  activities. 


“Learning  begins  at  birth.  Systematic  develop- 
ment of  basic  learning  tools  and  concepts 
therefore  requires  that  due  attention  be  paid 
to  the  care  of  young  children  and  their  initial 
education,  which  can  be  delivered  via  arrange- 
ments that  involve  parents,  the  community  or 
institutions,  depending  on  requirements/’ 

Source:  World  Conference  on  EFA  (1990:  Art.  5). 


Early  childhood  development  is  critical  for  the 
future  well-being  of  young  children.  During  the 
first  few  years,  children’s  brains  develop  in  ways 
that  have  a lasting  impact  on  their  binocular 
vision,  emotional  control,  habitual  ways  of 
responding,  language  abilities  and  early  cognitive 
skills  (UNICEF,  2001:  12).  Consequently, 
early  childhood  development  programmes 
play  an  important  role  in  preparing  children 
socially,  emotionally  and  intellectually  for  later 
education.  “Young  children  learn  through  play 
and  exploration  ...  Early  childhood  development 
(ECD)  programmes  can  take  place  at  home  with 
the  family,  in  community  groups  where  carers 
support  one  another  in  providing  educational  play 
opportunities,  or  in  pre-schools  where  children 
are  left  in  the  care  of  others.  ECD  efforts  should 
support  the  carers’  ability  to  care  - by  giving 
practical  advice  and  training  or  supporting 
schemes  for  sharing  childcare.  Elements  beyond 
education,  such  as  nutrition  and  health,  should 
also  form  a major  part  of  ECD  projects”  (Nicolai, 
2003:45). 


In  emergencies,  very  young  children  are  often  an 
invisible  group  since  an  assumption  is  frequently 
made  that  they  are  being  adequately  cared  for 


1 

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by  their  parents  or  other  relatives.  Yet,  emergencies  have  a significant  impact  on  the  care 
and  development  of  young  children  because  traditional  support  structures  are  disrupted 
and  families  are  experiencing  extraordinary  stress.  In  most  emergencies,  existing  EDC 
programmes  are  likely  to  be  disrupted,  along  with  other  educational  programmes,  denying 
young  children  a chance  to  learn  and  grow  in  a supportive  environment  during  one  of  the 
most  critical  stages  of  their  development  (Sinclair,  2001:  33).  Because  Articles  18  and  19  of 
the  Convention  on  the  Rights  of  the  Child  stipulate  that  States  have  an  obligation  to  support 
parents  in  raising  children  and  in  protecting  them  from  abuse  and  neglect,  support  for  early 
childhood  development  activities  during  emergencies  is  a policy  requirement.  However,  in 
any  given  emergency  situation,  there  may  be  no  agency  responsible  for  the  implementation 
and  running  of  these  activities,  and  the  success  of  such  programmes  requires  the  direct 
involvement  of  parents.  Their  ownership  and  sense  of  responsibility  for  childrens  learning 
is  critical. 

Family  roles  and  responsibilities  may  change  as  a result  of  an  emergency,  and  support  of 
early  childhood  programmes  is  important  to  encourage  girls’  attendance  in  schools.  As 
older  children  may  leave  the  family  for  various  reasons,  and  poverty  generally  increases, 
younger  children,  particularly  girls,  may  be  expected  (out  of  necessity)  to  take  on  larger 
responsibilities  at  home,  or  to  participate  in  income-generating  activities.  Adolescent  girls 
may  also  have  their  own  children  to  care  for.  The  provision  of  early  childhood  programmes 
can  therefore  facilitate  girls’  access  to  education. 

The  outlook  of  an  early  childhood  development  programme  will  depend  on  the  severity  of 
the  emergency,  the  availability  of  resources  and  the  level  of  access  of  different  groups  in 
the  programme  area.  In  some  camp  situations,  children  often  have  more  opportunities  to 
participate  in  ECD  programmes  than  they  would  in  their  home  country,  since  NGOs  may 
be  equipped  with  greater  resources  in  these  areas  for  the  development  of  home-based, 
play-group  and  pre-school  programmes.  In  a conflict-affected  country  with  a scattered 
population,  the  most  effective  action  initially  may  be  radio  broadcasts  to  influence  parents 
and  caregivers. 


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BENEFITS  OF  EARLY  CHILDHOOD  DEVELOPMENT  (ECD)  PROGRAMMES 


For  children,  good  ECD  programmes: 

• Can  replace,  on  a temporary  basis,  familiar  routines  and  child-rearing  activities  interrupted 
by  conflict. 

• Enable  children  to  express  their  views  and  be  listened  to. 

• Create  a secure  and  safe  environment  where  children  can  flourish. 

• Enable  children  to  be  together  in  groups,  and  to  develop  negotiation  and  problem-solving 
skills. 

• Enable  children  to  adapt  to  rapid  change. 

For  families  and  communities,  good  ECD  programmes: 

• Support  women  as  the  main  carers  by  providing  time  for  work,  other  responsibilities  or  a 
short  break  from  domestic  tasks. 

• Build  on  what  is  already  there,  by  strengthening  existing  skills  and  practices  evolved  over 
generations. 

• Act  as  a catalyst  for  communities  to  create  and  build  upon  social,  political  and  economic 
networks. 

• Provide  a sense  of  continuity  in  times  of  change,  and  an  opportunity  to  reflect  and  transmit 
community  beliefs  and  values. 


Provide  opportunities  for  adults  to  work  as  volunteers  or  assistants,  thus  acquiring  valuable 
child-caring  experience. 

Source:  Save  the  Children  UK  (2001 ) 


(2001  > j 


Chapter  1 3 : 

INTERNATIONAL 


Early  childhood 

INSTITUTE  FOR 


development 


I N G 


E P • 


EDUCATIONAL 


P L A N N 


3 


SUGGESTED  STRATEGIES 


Educational  activities  in  the  early  childhood  years  are  crucial  in  preparing  children  for 
basic  education,  helping  them  acquire  skills  and  increasing  performance  and  retention  in 
school  later  on.  Even  in  situations  of  emergencies,  and  with  limited  resources,  education 
interventions  should  begin  with  investment  in  early  childhood  development  activities  to 
ensure  that  basic  rights  of  children  to  survival,  protection,  care  and  participation  are  fully 
protected  from  birth  to  school  age  and  onwards. 

Some  of  the  key  strategies  and  issues  are  noted  below.  A checklist  of  points  and  ideas  for 
developing  and  implementing  each  strategy  is  provided  under  the  ‘Guidance  notes’  that 
follow. 


Summary  of  suggested  strategies 

Early  childhood  development 

Conduct  a review  of  pre-primary  education  programmes  being 
conducted  under  government  auspices,  through  civil-society 
organizations  and  external  agencies  and  NGOs,  and  establish 
a co-ordination  mechanism. 

2.  Take  steps  to  strengthen  the  capacity  of  the  education 
ministry’s  department  for  pre-primary  education. 

3.  Prepare  a framework  for  pre-primary  education,  according  to 
the  phase  of  emergency.  At  the  early  reconstruction  phase, 
prepare  a national  plan  of  action,  if  there  is  sufficient  interest. 
Ensure  that  pre-primary  education  is  included  in  plans  for 
educational  reconstruction. 

4.  Provide  guidance  to  civil-society  organizations  on  the  conduct 
of  pre-primary  education  programmes,  including  elements 
such  as  those  listed  below. 

5.  Ensure  the  participation  of  emergency-affected  populations 
and  local  communities  when  planning  and  designing  early 
childhood  development  activities. 

6.  Consider  establishing  training  programmes  for  parents  and 
community  members. 

7.  Develop  strategies  that  ensure  the  sustainability  of  the  early 
childhood  activities. 


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Guidance  notes 


L Conduct  a review  of  pre-primary  education  programmes  being  carried 
out  under  government  auspices,  through  civil-society  organizations 
and  external  agencies  and  NGOs,  and  establish  a co-ordination 
mechanism* 

Organizations  with  a particular  focus  on  the  welfare  of  young  children  may  have 
developed  high-quality  programmes  in  specific  locations.  Other  governmental  and 
civil-society  organizations  may  benefit  from  this  expertise.  (See  also  the  Guidebook , 
Chapter  28,  ‘Assessment  of  needs  and  resources’.) 

• What  types  of  early  childhood  activities  existed  in  the  affected  population  before 
the  crisis? 

• What  activities  were  offered? 

• What  ages  were  the  children  who  participated  in  the  activities? 

• Was  food  provided? 

• Was  the  service  half  day  or  full  day? 

• In  what  areas  did  early  childhood  education  exist? 

• Which  children  participated? 

- Only  children  whose  parents  could  pay? 

- Only  children  whose  parents  worked  for  a certain  company  or  the  govern- 
ment? 

- Were  all  children  - particularly  minorities  or  children  with  disabilities  - able 
to  access  the  early  childhood  education  activities? 

• Did  the  government  support  the  early  childhood  programme? 

• Who  were  the  early  childhood  teachers/volunteers? 

- Did  they  receive  special  training? 

- Were  young  people  or  the  elderly  trained  to  provide  early  childhood 
activities? 


Chapter  13:  Early  childhood  development 

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FLUCTUATIONS  IN  THE  PROVISION  OF  EARLY  CHILDHOOD 
DEVELOPMENT  PROGRAMMES  IN  TIMOR-LESTE 


“During  the  years  of  Indonesian  rule,  there  were  64  kindergartens  in  East  Timor,  the  vast 
majority  operated  by  the  Catholic  Church.  Some  5,000  pupils  attended  these  pre-schools, 
approximately  10  per  cent  of  those  between  age  5 and  6.  During  the  transitional  period 
this  rate  of  enrolment  fell,  according  to  UNICEF  ...  partially  due  to  the  fact  that  early 
childhood  was  ignored  in  national  priorities  - and  thus  in  budgets.  In  November  2001,  the 
Joint  Donor  Education  Sector  Mission  found  that  4,500  children  were  attending  a total  of 
41  kindergartens.  However,  other  types  of  early  childhood  education  have  also  developed. 
All  eight  of  UNICEF’s  Child  Friendly  Spaces  include  a component  of  early  childhood 
development  and  Christian  Children’s  Fund  has  worked  with  a number  of  communities  in 
providing  their  own  early  childhood  care.  Regardless  of  type,  the  government  does  not  pay 
pre-school  teacher  salaries,  which  instead  must  come  out  of  parent  contributions  and  fees. 
An  Early  Childhood  Forum  was  brought  together  beginning  in  2000;  through  UNICEF  and 
Ministry  of  Education,  Culture,  Youth  and  Sports,  it  counts  a draft  national  policy  on  Early 
Childhood  Education  as  one  of  its  achievements.” 


Source:  Nicolai  (2004:  85-86). 


• What  early  childhood  activities  are  currently  taking  place?  Conduct  a review  of 
those  activities  to  determine  whether  additional  support  is  needed.  For  each  site: 

• Is  the  available  space  sufficient  for  both  indoor  and  outdoor  play? 

• If  space  is  insufficient,  can  activities  be  held  in  the  morning  and  afternoon  in 
order  to  accommodate  all  children? 

• Are  the  teachers/facilitators/volunteers  trained?  Where  were  they  trained? 
Could  young  people  or  the  elderly  be  involved  in  organizing  and  helping  with 
the  activities  for  children? 

• Is  there  a system  of  referral  in  place  for  traumatized  children  or  children  with 
special  protection  needs?  Where  are  they  referred?  What  cases  have  been 
referred? 

• What  is  the  relationship  between  the  existing  activities  and  the  government?  Are 

the  early  childhood  development  activities  registered  with  the  government? 


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Take  steps  to  strengthen  the  capacity  of  the  education  ministry’s 
department  for  pre-primary  education. 

There  is  a wide  range  of  international  experience  of  education  at  the  pre-primary  stage, 
both  in  emergencies  and  in  normal  situations.  External  donors  may  be  interested  in 
supporting  the  strengthening  of  ministry  capacity  in  this  area.  (See  also  the  Guidebook , 
Chapter  3,  ‘Capacity  building'.) 

Prepare  a framework  for  pre-primary  education,  according  to  the  phase 
of  emergency.  At  the  early  reconstruction  phase,  prepare  a national 
plan  of  action,  if  there  is  sufficient  interest.  Ensure  that  pre-primary 
education  is  included  in  plans  for  educational  reconstruction. 

(See  the  ‘Tools  and  resources'  section  of  this  chapter  for  possible  needs  and  responses 
involved  in  developing  early  childhood  development  programmes.) 

Provide  guidance  to  civil-society  organizations  on  the  conduct  of  pre- 
primary education  programmes,  including  elements  such  as  those  listed 
in  points  5-7  below. 

• Is  there  sufficient  information  available  on  learners’  needs  and  appropriate 
responses? 

• Are  organizations  invited  to  co-ordinate  their  activities  within  a national/ regional 
action  plan? 

• Are  training  events/information  campaigns  followed  by  appropriate  follow-up 
and  monitoring? 


Chapter  13:  Early  childhood  development 


E P • 


NTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


7 


0 EARLY  childhood  development  PROGRAMMES  IN  KOSOVO 

In  1999,  as  part  of  UNICEF’s  Child  Friendly  Spaces  programme,  Save  the  Children  UK  assisted 
in  setting  up  ECD  programmes  for  children  of  Kosovo  refugees  in  Albania.  ECD  programmes 
were  considered  a priority,  and  included  infant  care,  pre-  and  primary  school  education, 
recreational  activities,  psychosocial  support  for  infants  and  toddlers  and  counselling  for 
children  and  their  families.  The  account  of  the  organization’s  effort  to  establish  an  ECD 
programme  in  the  camp  Stankovec  1 provides  useful  lessons  on  some  of  the  obstacles  to 
such  programmes: 

Stankovec  1 had  been  set  up  by  NATO,  and  in  some  respects  bore  resemblance  to  an  army 
camp.  There  was  no  tent  large  enough  to  house  a playroom,  and  no  free  space  to  set  up  a 
new  one.  There  was  an  initial  attempt  to  share  spaces  with  other  agencies,  such  as  Oxfam, 
but  this  fell  through  with  the  arrival  of  new  refugees.  A tent  5x15  metres  thus  had  to  serve 
up  to  3,000  young  children.  As  a response,  the  playroom  was  run  by  a shift  system,  where 
children  could  attend  an  hour  at  a time,  in  seven  different  sessions  a day. 

Similar  ECD  tents  were  later  established  in  five  other  camps,  but  requisitioning  proved 
difficult,  and  the  need  to  fill  out  request  forms  and  lack  of  equipment  caused  much  delay. 

Among  the  many  problems  illustrated  in  this  experience  were: 

• Difficulty  of  securing  any  adequate  space. 

• Lack  of  materials  and  equipment. 

• Some  agencies  providing  unsuitable  materials  and  equipment. 

• Started  programme  where  the  staff  had  no  contacts  and  people  in  the  camp  did  not 
know  the  team. 

• Lack  of  prepared,  informed  training  programmes. 

• Lack  of  co-ordination  with  other  agencies  affecting  all  aspects  of  the  programme. 

• SC  team  had  very  little  preparation  time. 

• No  agency  identified  beforehand  to  look  after  severely  traumatized  children. 

• Lack  of  policy  regarding  volunteers/paid  workers. 

• Lack  of  forethought  about  post-conflict  situation. 

Amongst  the  solutions  and  achievements  were: 

• The  creation  of  a play  space  with  a clean  and  homely  atmosphere,  having  replaced  the 
usual  plastic  sheeting  on  the  floor  with  a cheap  wooden  one,  to  protect  from  camp 
mud. 

• Avoidance  of  expensive  or  inappropriate  toys. 

• Registration  of  teachers  and  other  educators,  and  regular  meetings  with  these. 

• Registration  of  small  children  and  preparation  of  shift  schedules. 

• The  recruitment  and  training  of  volunteers. 

• The  recruitment  of  unemployed  Albanian  caretakers  outside  the  camp  for  paid 
positions,  so  as  not  to  create  financial  expectations  within  the  camp  for  reward  that 
were  not  sustainable. 

Source:  Save  the  Children  UK  (2001 ). 


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5*  Ensure  the  participation  of  emergency-affected  populations  and  local 

communities  when  planning  and  designing  early  childhood  development 
activities  ♦ 

(See  also  the  ‘Tools  and  resources’  section  for  suggested  principles  to  consider  when 
developing  early  childhood  development  programmes  and  for  examples  of  early 
childhood  activities.) 

For  each  site,  consider  the  following. 

• Review  existing  assessment  data  to  determine  which  young  children  are  the 
most  vulnerable.  (See  also  the  Guidebook , Chapter  28,  ‘Assessment  of  needs  and 
resources’.) 

• How  many  young  children  (aged  0-5)  are  present? 

• Are  there  young  children  who  are  separated  from  their  parents? 

• How  many  child-headed  households  exist? 

• What  age  groups  will  be  targeted:  0-3?  4-5? 

• What  parts  of  the  community  will  be  targeted?  Are  minority  and  other  vulnerable 
children  - children  with  a disability,  children  of  adolescent  mothers,  children 
separated  from  their  parents  - targeted  for  inclusion? 

• What  activities  are  most  needed  for  these  children  (e.g.  nursery  care  while  parents 
are  working/siblings  are  studying  or  attending  educational  activities  or  pre-school 
activities  that  focus  on  children’s  development  and  school  readiness)? 

• How  can  local  culture  and  child-care  customs  be  used  to  enhance  the  acceptance 
and  effectiveness  of  early  childhood  development  programmes? 

• Can  early  childhood  development  activities  be  built  into  indigenous  education 
structures  such  as  religious  schools,  or  traditional  songs  and  story  telling  by 
elders? 

• What  are  the  local  child-rearing  customs?  How  do  these  affect  the  planned 
programme?  For  example,  in  some  parts  of  the  world,  older  siblings  take  care 
of  their  young  siblings  rather  than  the  parents,  grandparents  or  relatives. 
With  this  in  mind,  early  childhood  development  activities  should  target  not 
only  adults  but  also  older  children. 

• Where  and  when  will  early  childhood  activities  take  place? 

• In  homes? 

• In  clearly  identified  safe  spaces? 

• Is  there  a need  for  multiple  shifts? 

• Who  will  implement  the  activities  and  what  training/materials/supplies  are 
needed? 


Chapter  13:  Early  childhood  development 


E P • 


NTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


9 


• How  can  early  childhood  programmes  be  integrated  with  other  humanitarian 
services  such  as  feeding,  health  or  immunization  programmes  (1NEE,  2003)? 

• Ideally,  early  childhood  activities  should  be  conducted  close  to  maternal  child 
health  (MCH)  clinics  to  ensure  that  childrens  health  concerns  and  immuniza- 
tion needs  are  addressed. 

• Early  childhood  development  activities  for  children  and  training  for  parents 
should  also  be  included  in  therapeutic  feeding  programmes. 

Consider  establishing  training  programmes  for  parents  and  community 
members* 

• Who  will  conduct  the  training  of  trainers,  and  trainings  of  parents  and  community 
members? 

• Government  education  officers  (training  of  trainers)? 

• UNICEF  or  UNESCO  (training  of  trainers)? 

• Non-governmental  organizations? 

• What  will  the  training  consist  of? 

• The  importance  of  parents  and  caregivers  regularly  discussing  their  experi- 
ences and  the  challenges  of  raising  children  in  a difficult  environment.  This 
can  be  an  effective  way  for  parents  to  reduce  the  stress  of  child-rearing. 

• The  importance  of  early  childhood  development  activities. 

• Child  rights. 

• Activities  that  parents  can  do  with  their  children  at  home. 

• Who  will  participate  in  the  training? 

• Parents? 

• Older  siblings? 

• Grandparents? 

• How  has  the  community  been  sensitized  to  the  importance  of  early  childhood 
education? 

(See  the  ‘Tools  and  resources’  section  of  this  chapter  for  information  on  how  to  link 
home  to  pre-school  and  primary  school.) 

Develop  strategies  that  ensure  the  sustainability  of  the  early  childhood 
activities* 

• Do  parents  and  community  members  serve  as  volunteers? 

• Do  they  have  sufficient  training  to  conduct  the  early  childhood  activities  without 
outside  support? 

• Have  educational  authorities  at  all  levels  been  trained  to  set  up  and  monitor 
ongoing  early  childhood  development  programmes? 

• What  type  of  ongoing  monetary  and  material  support  will  be  needed? 


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TOOLS  AND  RESOURCES 


1*  Early  childhood  development  programmes:  needs  and  responses 


PROGRAMME 

APPROACH 

PARTICIPANTS  AND 
BENEFICIARIES 

OBJECTIVES 

MODELS/EXAMPLES 

DELIVERING 

SERVICES 

Children  aged  0-2  and  3-6 
years  old 

• Survival 

• Overall  development 

• Socialization 

• Caregiver  child  care 

• Home  day  care 

• Formal  and  non-formal 
pre-schools 

EDUCATING 

CAREGIVERS 

Parents 

Family 

Siblings 

• Create  awareness  and 
change  attitudes  of  the 
importance  of  ECD 

• Improve  practice 

• Home  visiting 

• Parental  education 

• Child-to-child 
programmes 

PROMOTING 

COMMUNITY 

INVOLVEMENT 

Promoters 

Leaders 

• Increase  awareness 

• Mobilize  for  action 

• Change  conditions 

• Technical  mobilization 

• Social  mobilization 

Source:  INEE  (2003). 

2+  Creating  links  between  home,  preschool  and  primary  school 

The  first  days  and  months  of  schooling  are  traumatic  for  many  young  children,  and  are 
stressful  for  most.  Upon  entering  primary  school,  6-  or  7-year-old  children  are  thrown  into 
situations  quite  different  from  what  they  are  used  to,  and  they  are  expected  to  adapt  quickly. 
The  following  are  some  of  the  transitions  children  must  make  upon  entering  school: 

• They  make  a shift  from  learning  informally  through  observation  and  practice  in  the 
home,  or  through  play  in  a preschool,  to  more  formal  modes  of  learning. 

• They  are  expected  to  move  quickly  from  an  oral  culture,  in  which  they  are  only 
beginning  to  gain  comfort  and  competency,  to  a written  culture. 

• Most  children  are  expected  to  sit  still  and  follow  a whole  range  of  new  rules  when 
they  are  used  to  more  activity  and  freedom  of  movement. 

• Many  children  have  to  make  an  adjustment  from  the  practices  and  behaviour  patterns 
of  a minority  or  popular  culture  in  their  home,  to  the  practices  and  expectations  of 
a majority  or  dominant  culture  adhered  to  by  the  school. 

• They  are  sometimes  required  to  learn  and  use  a new  language,  with  little  or  no 
adjustment  time  or  direct  language  instruction. 

• For  some,  the  shift  involves  a change  from  being  an  only  child  or  part  of  a small  group 
of  children  in  the  family,  to  being  part  of  a larger  group.  This  requires  them  to  develop 
new  social  skills  quickly,  and  to  take  on  new  roles,  including  the  role  of 'student’,  which 
requires  greater  independence  of  children  who  may  or  may  not  be  developmentally 
ready  for  it. 


Chapter  13:  Early  childhood  development 

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Even  one  of  these  challenges  can  block  a child’s  healthy  growth  and  success  in  the  new 
setting.  When  several  of  these  changes  are  encountered  by  a child  at  the  same  time,  the 
stress  of  moving  into  the  new  learning  environment  of  the  school  can  be  overwhelming. 
The  result  is  often  that  the  child  fails  to  perform  well,  ends  up  repeating  grades,  becomes 
disaffected  with  learning,  develops  a sense  of  failure  and  low  self-esteem,  and  ultimately 
drops  out.  Thus,  the  way  in  which  the  transition  from  home  or  preschool  to  school  is  handled 
can  have  important  effects  on  childrens  future  success  and  happiness,  as  well  as  on  their 
ability  to  enjoy  and  take  advantage  of  schooling  in  the  present. 

However,  concern  with  transitions  goes  well  beyond  concern  for  individual  children  and 
their  futures;  it  encompasses  the  entire  school  system  and  its  ability  to  educate  students 
successfully,  for  the  greater  good  of  society.  Because  the  disjunction  among  diverse  worlds’  or 
'learning  environments’  is  usually  greater  for  children  from  poor  and  disadvantaged  or  minority 
backgrounds,  the  failure  to  anticipate  potential  difficulties  related  to  differences  between  home 
and  school  can  perpetuate  and  even  create  inequities  among  the  'haves’  and  the  'have  nots’ 
and  among  different  cultural  groups  in  school  and  beyond.  A society  that  aspires  to  equity 
cannot  afford  to  ignore  problems  that  arise  in  the  transition  from  home  to  school. 

Source:  Myers  (1997:2-3). 

3.  Creating  links  between  education,  health  and  child  protection 
interventions 

It  is  vital  to  recognize  that  complementary  interventions  in  the  areas  of  sanitation  and 
hygiene,  health  and  nutrition,  protection  and  early  stimulation  and  learning  are  important 
for  the  balanced  development  of  young  children.  This  integrated  approach  in  support  of 
early  child  development  is  particularly  applicable  in  emergency  situations  when  children  are 
especially  vulnerable. 

The  implementation  of  the  Integrated  Early  Childhood  Development  scheme  as  part  of 
the  Support  to  War  Affected  Children  and  Youth  project  by  UNICEF  Liberia  provides  an 
excellent  example  of  this  approach: 

The  Support  to  War- Affected  Youth  networks  (SWAY)  is  a consortium  of  six  community-based 
non-governmental  agencies  that  combines  education,  health  and  child  protection  advocacy 
to  children  in  situations  of  crisis  and  instability.  In  Liberia,  the  SWAY  project  facilitates  the 
implementation  of  youth  clubs,  focusing  on  H1V/A1DS  prevention,  several  girls’  resource  centres, 
life  skills  education  for  teenage  mothers,  six  transit  homes  for  vulnerable  youth,  early  childhood 
development  programmes,  vocational  skills  training  and  sports  and  recreation  activities.  Early 
childhood  development  care  classes  are  offered,  which  contain  advice  on  hygiene,  nutrition  and 
the  importance  of  play  for  the  development  of  the  young  child.  In  the  1DP  camps  in  which  SWAY 
operates,  the  integrated  approach  for  early  childhood  development  is  applied  in  the  management 
of  the  camps  and  various  services  related  to  health,  nutrition,  early  stimulation  and  learning, 
water,  hygiene,  sanitation  and  protection  of  young  children  are  available. 

Successful  projects  such  as  this  that  co-ordinate  and  integrate  various  aspects  of  childcare  provide 
useful  lessons  for  the  future  implementation  of  early  childhood  development  schemes. 

Source:  UNICEF  (2004). 


1 2 Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


4*  Theoretical  principles  of  child  development  and  learning 


These  principles  should  be  viewed  in  conjunction  with  the  ‘Teaching  and  learning  standard  3: 
Instruction'  in  the  1NEE  Minimum  standards  for  education  in  emergencies , chronic  crises  and 
early  reconstruction , which  outlines  the  concept  of  learner-centred,  participatory  and 
inclusive  instruction  (1NEE,  2004:  61). 


PRINCIPLE 

PRACTICE 

Children  learn  best  when 
their  physical  needs  are  met 
and  they  feel  psychologically 
safe  and  secure. 

This  approach  respects  children’s  biological  needs.  For  example,  children 
are  not  made  to  sit  and  attend  to  paperwork  or  listen  to  adult  lectures 
for  long  periods  of  time.  The  concept  calls  for  active  play  and  periods 
of  quiet,  restful,  activity.  The  environment  is  safe  and  secure  where 
everyone  is  accepted. 

Children  construct 
knowledge. 

Knowledge  is  constructed  as  a result  of  dynamic  interactions  between 
the  individual  and  the  physical  and  social  environments.  In  a sense,  the 
child  discovers  knowledge  through  active  experimentation.  Central  to 
experimentation  is  making  ‘constructive  errors’  that  are  necessary  to 
mental  development.  Children  need  to  form  their  own  hypotheses  and 
keep  trying  them  out  through  mental  actions  and  physical  manipulations 
- observing  what  happens,  comparing  their  findings,  asking  questions,  and 
discovering  answers  - and  adjust  the  model  or  alter  the  mental  structures 
to  account  for  the  new  information. 

Children  learn  through  social 
interaction  with  other  adults 
and  other  children. 

A prime  example  is  the  parent-child  relationship.  The  teacher  encourages 
and  fosters  this  relationship  as  well  as  relationships  with  peers  and  other 
adults  by  supporting  the  child  in  his  or  her  efforts  and  later  allowing  the 
child  to  function  independently.  The  teacher’s  role  is  one  of  supporting, 
guiding,  and  facilitating  development  and  learning. 

Children  learn  through  play. 

Play  provides  opportunities  for  exploration,  experimentation,  and 
manipulation  that  are  essential  for  constructing  knowledge  and 
contributes  to  the  development  of  representational  thought.  During  play, 
children  examine  and  refine  their  learning  in  light  of  the  feedback  they 
receive  from  the  environment  and  other  people.  It  is  through  play  that 
children  develop  their  imaginations  and  creativity.  During  the  primary 
grades,  children’s  play  becomes  more  rule-oriented  and  promotes  the 
development  of  autonomy  and  co-operation  that  contributes  to  social, 
emotional  and  intellectual  development. 

Children’s  interests  and  need 
to  know’  motivate  learning. 

Children  have  a need  to  make  sense  of  their  experiences.  In  a 
developmentally  appropriate  classroom,  teachers  identify  what  intrigues 
their  children  and  then  allow  the  students  to  solve  problems  together. 
Activities  that  are  based  on  children’s  interests  provide  motivation  for 
learning.  This  fosters  a love  of  learning,  curiosity,  attention,  and  self- 
direction. 

Human  development  and 
learning  and  are  characterized 
by  individual  variation. 

A wide  range  of  individual  variation  is  normal  and  to  be  expected.  Each 
human  being  has  an  individual  pattern  and  timing  of  growth  development 
as  well  as  individual  styles  of  learning.  Personal  family  experiences  and 
cultural  backgrounds  also  vary. 

Source:  Adapted  from  Bredekamp  etal.  (1992). 

Chapter  13:  Early  childhood  development  13 

EP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


5+  Suggested  principles  for  early  childhood  development 
programmes 

TOPS:  An  easy  way  to  remember  the  principles  of  early  childhood 
development  programmes 

T - for  trust,  time  and  talking 

O - opportunities  to  play 

P - partnership  with  parents  (and  other  carers) 

S - for  space  and  structure. 

T - for  trust,  time  and  talking 

Points  to  remember: 

• Trust  is  an  early  casualty  of  wan 

• Time  is  needed  to  re-establish  trust. 

• Trusting  relationships  are  established  through  talk,  playing  and  other  means  of 
communication. 

• Allow  time  for  children  to  talk  - to  other  children,  to  staff  and  to  other  adults.  This 
is  a vitally  important  element  of  an  ECD  programme. 

O - opportunities  to  play 

Points  to  remember: 

• Providing  opportunity  to  play  is  essential  to  any  ECD  programme. 

• There  should  be  opportunities  for  children  to  take  part  (individually  or  in  groups)  in 
a range  of  activities  that  enable  them  to  use  their  imagination,  spontaneity  and  social 
skills  (e.g.  role-play). 

• Play  should  include  organized  activities  allowing  for  physical  expression  (e.g.  football, 
dancing),  and  also  quiet  time’  (e.g.  drawing,  reading,  playing  with  individual  toys). 

P - partnership  with  parents  (and  other  carers) 

Points  to  remember: 

• Make  parents  and  carers  feel  welcome  in  the  ECD  programme,  and  encourage  them 
to  take  part  as  much  - or  as  little  - as  they  want. 

• Give  families  the  chance  to  do  everyday /family  activities  together,  such  as  preparing 
a snack/meal,  going  for  a walk,  singing  songs. 

• Give  opportunities  for  elder  and  younger  siblings  to  play  and  do  other  things 


together. 


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• Give  time  and  space  for  carers  and  children  to  re-establish  their  relationships  in  a safe 
place,  such  as  an  informal  play  setting. 

• Provide  opportunities  for  parents /carers  to  talk  about  their  hopes,  fears  and  concerns 
for  their  children. 

S - for  space  and  structure 

Points  to  remember: 

• Space  must  be  provided,  which  is  safe,  with  enough  room  to  be  used  by  young  children 
and  their  families,  for  at  least  an  hour  or  more  a day. 

• Reliability  of  staff  is  absolutely  essential  to  build  a steady  routine,  thus  helping 
psychologically  to  create  feelings  of  safety. 

• Always  do  what  you  have  said  you  were  going  to  do  and  never  make  promises  you 
know  cannot  be  kept:  this  is  particularly  vital  when  talking  to  children. 

Source:  Adapted  from  INEE  (2003). 


Chapter  13:  Early  childhood 

INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR 


development 

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REFERENCES  AND  FURTHER  READING 

ADEA.  Working  group  on  early  childhood  development . Retrieved  25  August  2005  from 
http : / / www.  adeanet . org/ workgr  oups  / en_wgecd . html 

Bredekamp,  S.;  Knuth,  R.A.;  Kunesh,  L.G.;  Shulman  D.D.  1992.  What  does  research  say 
about  early  childhood  education?  Oak  Brook:  North  Central  Regional  Educational 
Laboratory. 

Gustafson,  L.H.  1986.  “The  STOP  sign:  a model  for  intervention  to  assist  children  in  war”. 
In:  Action  for  children:  NCO  forum  on  children  in  emergencies  (pp. 20-26).  New  York: 
Radda  Barnen. 

1NEE  (Inter-Agency  Network  for  Education  in  Emergencies).  2003.  “Educational  content 
and  methodology:  early  childhood  development  and  education”.  In:  Good  practice 
guides  for  emergency  education . Retrieved  on  25  August  2005  from 
http://www.ineesite.org/edcon/early.asp. 

1NEE  (Inter-Agency  Network  for  Education  in  Emergencies).  2004.  Minimum  standards  for 
education  in  emergencies , chronic  crises  and  early  reconstruction . Paris:  1NEE. 

Myers,  R.  1994.  “Creating  the  foundation  stones  for  education  for  all:  action  initiatives  in  early 
childhood  care  and  development”.  In:  The  coordinators'  notebook , 14(1993/94),  1-8. 
Retrieved  on  26  August  2005  from  http://www.ecdgroup.com/download/ccll4cci.pdf 

Myers,  R.  1997.  “Removing  roadblocks  to  success:  transitions  and  linkages  between  home, 
preschool  and  primary  school”.  In:  The  coordinators  notebook,  21(1997),  1-27.  Retrieved 
on  26  August  2005  from  http://www.ecdgroup.com/download/ccl21ari.pdf 

Nicolai,  S.  2003.  Education  in  emergencies:  a tool  kit  for  starting  and  managing  education  in 
emergencies . London:  Save  the  Children. 

Nicolai,  S.  2004.  Learning  independence:  education  in  emergency  and  transition  in  Timor-Leste 
since  1999 . Paris:  11EP-UNESCO. 

North  Central  Regional  Educational  Laboratory.  1992.  What  does  research  say  about  early 
childhood  education?  Oak  Brook:  NCREL. 

Save  the  Children  UK.  200 1 . Guidelines  for  early  childhood  development  programmes  in  conflicts 
and  emergencies  in  the  Balkans . London:  Save  the  Children. 

Sinclair,  M.  2001.  “Education  in  emergencies”.  In:  J.  Crisp,  C.  Talbot  and  D.B.  Cipollone 
(Eds.),  Learning  for  a future:  refugee  education  in  developing  countries  (pp.  1-83). 
Geneva:  UNHCR. 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


UNESCO.  2006a.  UNESCO  Policy  Brief  on  Early  Childhood . Retrieved  10  March  2006  from 
http://portal.unesco.org/education/en/ev.php-URL_ID  = 45372&-URL_DO  = DO_ 
TOPIC  &-URL_SECTION =201. html 

UNESCO.  20066.  UNESCO  Early  Childhood  and  Family  Policy  series . Retrieved  10  March 
2006  from 

http://portal.unesco.org/education/en/ev.php-URL_ID  = 45372&-URL_DO  = DO_ 
TOPIC  &-URL_SECTION =201. html 

UNICEF.  2001.  The  state  of  the  world’s  children . New  York:  UNICEF. 

UNICEF.  2004.  Early  childhood  development  in  emergency , West  and  Central  Africa  Region . 
Unpublished  document. 

World  Conference  on  Education  for  All.  1990.  World  declaration  on  Education  for  All:  meeting 
basic  learning  needs.  Paris:  UNESCO. 


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development 

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CHAPTER 


13 


SECTION  3 


United  Nations  ] International 

Educational,  Scientific  and  [ Institute  for 

Cultural  Organization  * Educational 

Planning 


o 

w 


Chapter 


POST-PRIMARY  EDUCATION 


The  designations  employed  and  the  presentation  of 
material  throughout  this  review  do  not  imply  the  expression 
of  any  opinion  whatsoever  on  the  part  of  UNESCO  or  the 
IIEP  concerning  the  legal  status  of  any  country,  territory, 
city  or  area  or  its  authorities,  or  concerning  its  frontiers 
or  boundaries. 

The  publication  costs  of  this  study  have  been  covered 
through  a grant-in-aid  offered  by  UNESCO  and  by 
voluntary  contributions  made  by  several  Member  States 
of  UNESCO. 


Published  by: 

International  Institute  for  Educational  Planning 
7-9  rue  Eugene  Delacroix,  75116  Paris 
e-mail:  info@iiep.unesco.org 
IIEP  web  site:  www.unesco.org/iiep 


Layout  and  cover  design:  Sabine  Lebeau 
Typesetting:  Sabine  Lebeau 
Printed  in  IIEP’s  printshop 
ISBN:  92-803-1288-X 
©UNESCO  2006 


Chapter 


POST-PRIMARY  EDUCATION 


MAIN  OBJECTIVES 

To  reduce  the  trauma  of  emergencies  by 
ensuring  that  the  ladder  of  educational 
opportunity  remains  open,  with 
possibilities  for  continued  education 
after  completion  of  primary  schooling. 

To  enable  refugees  and  I DPs,  whose 
post-primary  education  was  interrupted 
by  displacement,  to  resume  their 
studies. 

To  provide  skilled  labour  for  national 
reconstruction  and  socio-economic 
development. 

To  provide  a pool  of  potential  recruits 
for  primary  school  teaching. 


CONTEXT  AND  CHALLENGES 

During  times  of  crises,  the  number  of  children 
(and  especially  youth)  without  access  to 
educational  opportunities  is  likely  to  increase. 
These  children  and  youth  miss  out  on  the 
vital  psychosocial  support  and  protection  that 
education  can  provide.  Whilst  donors  and 
agencies,  and  sometimes  ministries,  tend  to 
focus  on  primary  education,  there  are  a number 
of  reasons  why  investment  in  quality  post- 
primary education  should  be  considered  also 
in  situations  of  emergency  and  reconstruction. 
Adolescents  have  psychosocial  needs  in  and 
after  conflict,  just  as  much  as  younger  children 
do.  Lack  of  access  to  adequate  educational 
opportunities  may  render  them  more  vulnerable 
to  abuse  and  to  abduction,  or  may  force  them 
to  take  jobs  in  dangerous  working  conditions. 
No  longer  children,  but  not  yet  able  to  take 
on  adult  roles,  adolescents  without  access  to 
further  education  can  be  easy  targets  for  those 
who  do  want  their  skills  - recruiters  from  the 
military,  criminal  gangs,  and  the  sex  industry. 
Lack  of  quality  educational  programmes  may  be 
a cause  of  youth  unrest,  anti-social  behaviour 
or  depression.  It  is  thus  central  to  engage  young 
people  in  education,  which  can  enable  them 
to  play  a responsible  and  positive  role  in  their 
families  and  society. 

The  division  between  primary  and  secondary 
education  is  essentially  an  administrative  one, 
with  the  duration  of  primary  varying  from  four 
or  five  years  in  some  countries  to  nine  in  others. 
The  variation  reflects  historical  and  demographic 
conditions.  With  a largely  rural  population,  there 
may  be  advantages  in  extending  the  number  of 
grades  included  in  primary  school  so  that  more 
children  can  have  access  near  their  homes.  As 


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1 


the  proportion  of  children  proceeding  to  secondary  level  increases,  this  consideration 
becomes  less  important,  and  other  matters,  such  as  making  the  best  use  of  highly  qualified 
teachers  in  scarcity  subjects  such  as  science,  mathematics  and  foreign  languages  come 
to  the  fore. 

The  different  structures  of  schooling  in  different  countries  make  it  difficult  for  international 
agencies  to  clarify  their  policies  regarding  secondary  schooling.  One  approach  is  to  provide 
priority  support  to  the  period  of  schooling  that  a country  considers  all  its  citizens  should 
complete  - which  was  defined  at  the  Jomtien  Conference  on  Education  for  All  in  1990  as 
‘basic  education’.  In  many  countries,  basic  education  now  includes  the  first  eight  to  ten 
years  of  schooling.  This  should  be  the  target  for  universal  coverage  in  emergencies  as  well 
as  in  normal  times,  since  young  people  will  need  more  skills  and  self-esteem  to  tackle  the 
problems  of  post-emergency  reconstruction. 

As  a result  of  conflict  or  natural  disaster,  secondary  schools,  universities  and  technical 
or  vocational  institutions  may  be  damaged,  destroyed,  looted  or  taken  over  for  other 
purposes,  such  as  the  provision  of  military  accommodation.  Staff  may  be  scattered  due 
to  displacement  and  emigration.  Provision  of  salaries,  textbooks  and  other  education 
materials  may  be  interrupted,  as  may  the  holding  of  national  examinations.  However, 
access  to  adequate  primary  and  post-primary  education  in  these  times  is  crucial.  If  access 
to  the  labour  market  is  limited  for  young  people,  as  it  often  is  in  situations  of  emergency 
and  reconstruction,  they  need  the  stimulus  and  challenge  of  education  to  absorb  their 
energies  and  lessen  their  frustrations  and  anxiety  about  the  future. 

There  are  close  relationships  between  primary  and  secondary  schooling  that  are  often 
neglected  by  those  who  seek  to  emphasize  primary  education.  One  is  that  children  from 
poorer  families  may  be  allowed  or  encouraged  by  their  families  to  drop  out  of  primary 
school  without  completing  it  if  there  is  limited  or  no  access  to  secondary  education  in  the 
area.  A major  problem,  particularly  in  periods  of  emergency,  is  that  secondary  and  tertiary 
education  is  nearly  always  fee-based.  Families  affected  by  conflict  and  disasters  are  often 
unable  to  meet  these  costs. 

Lack  of  access  to  post-primary  education  often  impedes  the  achievement  of  goals  normally 
associated  with  primary  education.  The  conditions  of  primary  schooling  in  many  countries 
are  such  that  those  who  drop  out  of  education  after  primary  school  often  do  so  without 
having  reached  sustainable  literacy.  Indeed,  where  primary  schools  are  under  resourced 
and  lack  reading  materials,  sustainable  literacy  may  not  be  attained  except  by  those  who 
complete  post-primary  studies.  These  problems  are  exacerbated  in  emergency  situations, 
where  the  problems  of  resource  shortages  and  underpaid  and  untrained  teachers  become 
more  acute,  and  students  and  teachers  themselves  face  additional  challenges  such  as 
trauma  or  physical  handicaps. 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


SIX  REASONS  FOR  INVESTING  IN  SECONDARY  EDUCATION 


1.  Programmes  to  universalize  primary  education  have  increased  demand. 

Access  to  secondary  school  will  become  a major  political  and  social  preoccupation  in  those  countries 
with  low  secondary  enrolment  rates  and  successful  universal  primary  education  (UPE)  programmes. 
Over  the  last  decade,  secondary  enrolment  rates  have  not  increased  substantially  in  many  of  the 
poorest  countries.  Access  remains  highly  unequally  distributed  geographically,  and  in  terms  of  the 
socio-economic  backgrounds  of  those  who  participate.  Transition  rates  from  primary  to  secondary 
appear  to  have  been  falling  in  Sub-Saharan  Africa. 

2.  Achieving  the  two  most  cited  millennium  development  goals  (MDGs)  can  only  happen  if  there  is 
expanded  post-primary  enrolment. 

To  attain  the  first  goal  of  universalizing  primary  access  and  completion,  countries  must  maintain  or 
increase  their  transition  rates  to  secondary:  if  they  fall  dramatically,  retention  in  upper  primary  will 
decrease  as  it  becomes  clear  that  for  many  there  will  be  no  progression  to  higher  education  levels. 
Universalizing  primary  access  and  completion  also  depends  on  an  adequate  supply  of  qualified  primary 
teachers.  Quality,  achievement  and  persistence  at  the  primary  level  will  suffer  without  adequate 
numbers  of  students  successfully  completing  secondary  schooling  and  electing  to  train  as  teachers, 
and  pupil/teacher  ratios  will  remain  stubbornly  high. 

To  attain  the  second  goal  of  gender  equity  at  primary  and  secondary  levels  also  requires  greater 
enrolments  at  the  secondary  level.  Few  countries  in  Sub-Saharan  Africa  having  gross  enrolment  rates 
at  secondary  (GER2)  of  less  than  50  per  cent  approach  gender  parity  or  have  more  girls  than  boys 
enrolled.  On  the  other  hand,  most  of  those  countries  with  GER2  greater  than  50  per  cent  have  achieved 
parity  or  better. 

3.  Secondary  education  has  a responsibility  in  the  battle  against  HIV/AIDS. 

The  consequences  of  HIV/AIDS  permeate  all  aspects  of  educational  development:  increased  morbidity 
and  mortality  among  teachers,  unprecedented  numbers  of  orphans,  and  impact  on  the  labour  force. 

Secondary  schooling  has  special  roles  to  play  in  influencing  informed  choice  related  to  sexual 
behaviour,  increasing  tolerance  and  support  for  those  infected.  A reduced  risk  of  HIV/AIDS  is  associated 
with  higher  levels  of  education,  and  children  in  school  are  less  at  risk  than  those  out  of  school. 

4.  Poverty  reduction  has  direct  links  with  investment  and  participation  at  the  secondary  level. 

As  primary  schooling  becomes  universalized,  participation  at  the  secondary  level  will  become  a major 
determinant  of  life  chances  and  a major  source  of  subsequent  inequity.  Access  to  and  success  in 
secondary  will  continue  to  be  highly  correlated  with  subsequent  employment  and  income  distribution 
patterns.  Many  groups  are  marginalized  from  attending  secondary  school.  This  marginalization  will  be 
increased,  not  reduced,  if  competition  for  scarce  places  in  secondary  school  increases. 

5.  National  competitiveness  depends  on  the  knowledge  and  skills  of  its  citizens;  in  high  value-added 
sectors  these  are  acquired  in  secondary  school. 

There  is  much  evidence  to  suggest  that  those  with  secondary  schooling  acquire  useful  skills  and 
increase  their  chances  of  formal  sector  employment  and  informal  sector  livelihoods  and  that  export- 
led  growth  is  associated  more  with  investment  at  the  post-primary  than  at  the  primary  level. 

6.  Investment  in  secondary  education  is  especially  critical  in  post-conflict  situations. 

Where  a generation  or  more  has  missed  out  on  secondary  schooling,  the  labour  force  will  be  short  on 
members  with  more  than  a basic  education.  Positions  in  government  and  productive  enterprises,  which 
require  analytic  skills,  will  be  filled  with  those  lacking  formal  education  and  training  to  an  appropriate 
level.  Demobilized  militia  left  with  unfulfilled  promises  of  opportunities  for  employment  and  livelihoods 
may  well  feel  excluded  and  betrayed,  with  adverse  social  conditions. 

Source:  Lewin  (2004). 


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3 


Secondary  education  prepares  the  primary  teachers  of  the  future.  Many  secondary 
school  graduates  enter  teaching.  In  prolonged  emergency  situations,  the  discontinuation 
of  secondary  education  means  that  there  will  be  a shortage  of  primary  school  teachers 
in  the  future.  In  contrast,  a refugee  education  system,  such  as  that  established  by  and  for 
Bhutanese  refugees  in  Nepal,  uses  many  of  its  secondary  school  graduates  as  teachers  for 
the  refugee  primary  school  classes  (Brown,  2001). 

Other  than  formal  schooling,  an  option  for  primary  school  graduates,  and  indeed  for 
those  who  may  not  have  completed  primary  school,  is  vocational  skills  training  for  work  as 
mechanics,  carpenters,  tailors,  horticulturalists,  etc.  (See  also  the  Guidebook , Chapter  26} 
‘Vocational  education  and  training).  Formal  courses  in  such  skills  are  expensive  to  establish, 
however,  and  can  only  accommodate  a very  small  number  of  students.  These  courses 
also  have  a poor  record  of  preparing  students  for  waged  or  self-employment  in  emergency 
situations,  since  they  usually  have  a theoretical  bias  and  often  prepare  far  more  graduates 
than  can  be  absorbed  in  the  local  or  regional  employment  market.  Sponsored  apprenticeship 
schemes  have  done  better,  but  again  can  only  take  in  a limited  number  of  students.  If  the 
number  of  students  trained  is  greater  than  the  number  who  can  obtain  work  experience 
under  prevailing  market  conditions,  the  training  is  largely  lost  because  the  skills  are  not 
refined  or  consolidated. 

The  importance  of  post-primary  education  is  acknowledged  by  national  governments.  It 
should  be,  and  often  is,  acknowledged  by  international  agencies  that  fund  education  for 
emergency-affected  persons.  Good  secondary  school  programmes  for  refugees  have  been 
established  in  countries  such  as  Guinea,  Uganda,  Nepal  and  Pakistan.  However,  since  it 
takes  longer  to  establish  post-primary  institutions  in  camps  than  primary  schools,  primary 
schooling  still  tends  to  get  more  of  the  initial  attention  and  is  usually  more  appealing  to 
donors.  Other  factors  such  as  a severe  shortage  of  experienced,  capable  teachers  and  the 
specialized  equipment  often  required  at  secondary  and  tertiary  level  education,  add  to  the 
difficulties  of  creating  and  sustaining  post-primary  institutions  in  situations  of  emergency 
and  reconstruction.  Lack  of  funding  may  also  force  secondary  schools  to  close  their  doors 
or  reduce  the  number  of  students  admitted  to  their  institutions  (Brown,  2005). 

In  crises,  the  best-qualified  education  personnel  tend  to  be  the  first  ones  to  leave  the  area 
or  the  country,  as  they  often  have  the  greatest  resources  and  the  possibility  to  do  so.  In 
some  refugee  situations,  it  has  proved  more  economical  to  provide  scholarships  for  refugee 
students  to  attend  national  educational  programmes  than  to  create  opportunities  for 
post-primary  education  in  the  camp.  Scholarships  have  been  given  for  secondary  schools, 
technical  education  programmes  and  universities,  although  refugees  are  often  subject  to 
restrictions  in  terms  of  enrolment  in  local/national  schools. 

Students  who  have  completed  primary  school,  but  some  time  back  and  in  a different 
location,  may  need  help  refreshing  and  updating  their  skills  before  beginning  post-primary 
opportunities.  Accelerated  learning  to  complete  the  primary  school  curriculum  in  a shorter 
period  of  time  may  be  an  important  intervention  to  give  emergency-affected  adolescents 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

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access  to  secondary  schools.  (See  also  the  Guidebook , Chapter  12}  ‘Non-formal  education’, 
for  a definition  and  important  considerations) . This  may  involve  using  condensed  materials, 
an  arrangement  of  flexible  class  schedules  or  the  provision  of  childcare  for  teenage  parents. 
The  pressure  to  earn  a living  or  contribute  to  the  family  income  can  prevent  adolescents  from 
accessing  education  opportunities.  Advocates  for  post-primary  education  often  therefore 
include  non-formal  education  for  adolescents  and  young  people  as  part  of  the  educational 
package  needed  in  emergencies  and  early  reconstruction. 


Higher  education 

Higher  education  institutions  play  a vital  role  in  restoring  national  stability  - post-conflict 
or  post-disaster.  Higher  education  is  also  critical  to  restoring  a highly  qualified  workforce 
in  the  country,  which  is  often  depleted  by  emigration  during  a prolonged  conflict.  Because 
higher  education  institutions  serve  students  who  have  often  completed  basic  schooling, 
which  has  deteriorated  over  the  course  of  an  emergency  or  crisis,  higher  education  systems 
are  faced  with  specific  challenges  during  and  immediately  after  an  emergency.  Students 
will  have  varying  academic  levels  as  many  students  have  had  their  education  interrupted 
while  others  have  been  able  to  continue  their  schooling,  but  in  different  settings.  Without  a 
comprehensive  national  system  of  primary  and  secondary  education,  equitable  admission  to 
higher  education  is  difficult,  as  students  are  unable  to  compete  on  the  same  level.  Academic 
enrichment  programmes  may  help  students  whose  education  has  been  delayed  to  catch 
up  to  their  peers.  In  crisis  settings,  many  students  will  have  suffered  trauma  and  will  need 
counselling  services  in  universities  and  other  higher  education  institutions. 

Higher  education  systems  are  faced  with  a very  diverse  population  when  refugees  return 
home  after  a crisis.  In  addition,  there  may  be  a significant  discrepancy  between  student 
demand  and  availability  of  places  in  higher  education  institutions.  As  a result,  admission  may 
become  more  selective.  Frequently,  access  is  limited  or  even  denied  to  groups  of  refugees, 
ethnic  minorities  and  physically  handicapped  individuals.  Implementation  of  affirmative 
action  programmes  may  help  to  reduce  this  disparity. 

Staffing  universities  in  crisis  settings  can  often  be  problematic,  as  professors  have  often 
fled,  secure  working  conditions  can  be  difficult  to  provide,  and  salaries  are  often  irregular 
or  too  low  to  incite  professors  to  teach.  In  addition,  there  may  be  fewer  opportunities  for 
professional  development  or  training.  It  is  important  to  set  up  appropriate  staff  development 
programmes  - academic,  managerial  and  technical  - in  quantity  and  quality,  through  on- 
campus  training  but  also  through  provision  of  a scholarship  programme  and  twinning  of 
universities. 

As  with  secondary  schools,  the  infrastructure  and  facilities  of  higher  education  institutions 
have  often  been  damaged.  Library  stocks  may  have  been  either  partially  or  completely 
damaged.  Technical  institutes  may  no  longer  have  the  necessary  materials,  which  can  reduce 
the  number  of  professions  for  which  graduates  may  be  trained. 


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Because  higher  education  becomes  even  more  expensive  in  crises  or  reconstruction  (and 
is  largely  fee-based),  some  universities  or  donors  may  provide  scholarships  for  tertiary 
education  for  refugee  students. 


© SCHOLARSHIPS  IN  PAPUA  NEW  GUINEA 

With  the  help  of  a German  programme  set  up  to  commemorate  Albert  Einstein,  a group  of 
young  refugees  have  just  completed  their  first  year  as  DAFI  scholars  at  a teachers'  college  in 
Papua  New  Guinea  (PNG).  This  brings  them  one  step  closer  to  helping  other  youths  in  their 
refugee  settlement. 

The  worldwide  DAFI  Scholarships  Programme,  funded  by  the  German  government's  Albert 
Einstein  German  Academic  Refugee  Initiative,  promotes  self-reliance  among  refugees  by 
helping  them  access  tertiary  education  in  their  country  of  asylum  and  boost  their  chances 
of  future  employment.  Since  1992,  the  German  government  has  donated,  on  average,  more 
than  $2  million  every  year  to  UNHCR  for  this  programme. 

In  PNG  this  year  [2004],  the  programme  focuses  on  helping  young  refugees  become  qualified 
teachers  so  they  can  in  turn  teach  the  younger  children  in  the  remote  refugee  settlement  in 
East  Awin.  The  scholarships  are  awarded  on  academic  merit  and  cover  tuition  and  boarding 
fees,  books,  clothing,  medical  and  other  living  costs,  as  well  as  travel  between  East  Awin  and 
Wewak,  where  four  refugee  scholars  are  studying  at  St  Benedict’s  Teachers'  College. 

Source:  UNHCR  (2004). 


(See  the  ‘Tools  and  resources’  section  of  this  chapter  for  a list  of  eligibility  requirements 
for  the  DAFI  scholarships.) 


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SUGGESTED  STRATEGIES 


Summary  of  suggested  strategies 

Post-primary  education 

Carry  out  a review  of  the  programmes  being  conducted  on  secondary, 
technical/vocational  and  higher  education,  under  government  auspices, 
through  civil-society  organizations  and  external  agencies  and  NGOs. 


1 


2.  Take  steps  to  strengthen  the  government  ministry/ministries  or  councils 
responsible  for  secondary,  technical/vocational  and  higher  education. 


3.  Consider  establishing  a programme  of  in-service  training  in  subject 
matter  and  methodology  for  teachers. 


4.  Work  to  allow  students  from  displaced  populations  to  attend  local/ 
national  secondary  and  technical/vocational  schools,  or  set  up 
alternative  courses. 


5.  Take  steps  to  ensure  that  students  in  refugee  schools  can  sit 
examinations  recognized  by  the  country/area  of  origin  and/or  by  the 
host  government. 

6.  Provide  the  maximum  support  possible  to  national  schools  in  emergency- 
affected  areas  and  to  IDP  schools. 


7.  At  the  phase  of  early  reconstruction,  undertake  a school  mapping 
exercise  to  identify  the  functioning  post-primary  institutions  and  their 
catchment  areas. 

8.  Undertake  a review  of  labour  market  conditions,  so  that  the 
reconstruction  of  technical/vocational  education  can  be  linked  to 
employment  opportunities  and  the  need  for  special  skills. 

9.  Prepare  a plan  and  project  proposals  to  support  the  renewal  of 
secondary  education,  and  advocate  with  donors  for  funding. 

10.  Prepare  a plan  and  project  proposals  to  support  the  renewal  of 
technical/vocational  education,  and  advocate  with  donors  for  funding. 

11.  Prepare  a plan  and  project  proposals  to  support  the  renewal  of  higher 
education,  and  advocate  with  donors  for  funding. 

12.  As  part  of  the  reconstruction  plan,  initiate  a feasibility  study  on  the 
use  of  open  and  distance  learning  to  support  secondary  and  tertiary 
education  that  would  help  expand  education  opportunities  in  regions 
that  had  been  affected  by  conflict. 


Chapter  14:  Post- p ri m a ry  education 


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Guidance  notes 


1.  Carry  out  a review  of  the  programmes  being  conducted  on  secondary, 
technical/vocational  and  higher  education,  under  government 
auspices,  through  civil-society  organizations  and  external  agencies 
and  NGOs. 

(See  also  Chapter  28,  ‘Assessment  of  needs  and  resources’,  and  Chapter  38,  ‘Co- 
ordination and  communication’.) 

2 . Take  steps  to  strengthen  the  government  ministry/ministries  or 
councils  responsible  for  secondary,  technical/vocational  and  higher 
education. 

• Review  the  current  staffing  and  capacity  level.  (See  also  the  Guidebook,  Chapter  3, 
‘Capacity  building’.) 

• When  approaching  donors  and  agencies  for  support  to  the  sector,  include  proposals 
for  staff  recruitment  and/or  training. 

• Invite  senior  management  of  universities  and  other  large  educational  institutions 
to  trainings  and  briefings  for  ministry/ministries  or  councils. 

3.  Consider  establishing  a programme  of  in-service  training  in  subject 
matter  and  methodology  for  teachers. 

Many  teachers  will  be  reluctant  to  teach  at  higher  grades  or  in  secondary  school 
because  they  feel  that  they  themselves  do  not  know  enough  about  the  subject  or 
how  to  handle  older  students.  Provide  any  support  possible  through  local  education 
services. 

• Can  local  trainers  provide  in-service  training  in  subject  matter  and/or  methodology 
to  teachers  or  older  students? 

• Are  there  distance  education  courses  available  that  teachers  can  participate  in? 

• Can  older  students  or  people  who  have  advanced  knowledge  of  a subject  or  a 
craft  assist  in  the  in-service  training  of  teachers? 


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4 ♦ Work  to  allow  students  from  displaced  populations  to  attend  local/ 
national  secondary  and  technical/vocational  schools  on  equal  terms 
as  local  students,  or  set  up  alternative  courses* 

Where  moderate  numbers  of  refugees  have  the  right  language  skills  to  study  in  local  / 
national  secondary  and  technical/vocational  schools,  they  should  be  permitted  to  do 
so.  This  is  in  line  with  Article  22  of  the  1951  Convention  on  the  Status  of  Refugees 
(UNHCR,  1951)  and  UNHCRs  Education  field  guidelines  (UNHCR,  2003:  27-28). 


CONVENTION  AND  PROTOCOL  RELATING  TO  THE  STATUS  OF  REFUGEES 

Article  22:  “The  Contracting  States  shall  accord  to  refugees  treatment  as  favourable  as  possible, 
and,  in  any  event,  not  less  favourable  than  that  accorded  to  aliens  generally  in  the  same 
circumstances,  with  respect  to  education  other  than  elementary  education  and,  in  particular,  as 
regards  access  to  studies,  the  recognition  of  foreign  school  certificates,  diplomas  and  degrees, 
the  remission  of  fees  and  charges  and  the  award  of  scholarships.” 


• Governments  and  agencies  should  negotiate  with  international  donors  to  provide 
them  with  scholarships  and/or  to  provide  additional  classrooms,  furniture, 
dormitories,  equipment  and  textbooks  to  expand  the  schools’  absorptive 
capacity. 

• Where  admission  to  local/national  schools  is  impossible,  have  resources  from 
the  local  community  or  from  within  the  displaced  population  been  mobilized  to 
provide  alternative  secondary  and/or  technical/vocational  education? 

• Can  a limited  number  of  refugees  or  IDPs  be  admitted  into  local  school  courses? 

• Is  special  tuition  needed  in  subjects  such  as  language  or  mathematics? 

• Can  they  be  offered  catch-up  classes  over  a period  before  entering  local 
schools? 

• Where  the  capacity  of  local  schools  are  already  exhausted,  can  the  refugees 
or  IDPs  use  a local  school  on  a second  shift  basis,  or  can  alternative  courses  be 
established? 

• Can  students  from  the  camp  be  given  occasional  access  to  laboratories  or 
other  facilities  in  a local  school,  under  an  arrangement  whereby  the  science 
teacher  is  given  an  allowance  for  supervising  their  practical  work? 

• If  textbooks  from  the  refugees’  home  country  are  not  available,  can  the 
students  use  host  country  textbooks? 

• Can  specialist  teachers  from  the  host  country  provide  help  in  establishing 
science  and  other  courses  in  refugee  secondary  schools?  (It  is  quite  difficult 
for  refugee  teachers  to  get  equipment  and  materials  and  organize  practical 
work,  especially  if  they  are  inexperienced.) 


Chapter  14:  Post-primary  education 

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• Where  there  is  a shortage  of  teachers,  can  older  students  or  people  who  have 
advanced  knowledge  of  a subject  or  a craft  be  given  training  in  methodology 
to  act  as  post-primary  teachers  themselves? 

• Ensure  that  refugee  students  at  secondary  and  tertiary  levels  of  education  do  not 
have  to  pay  fees  higher  than  those  charged  to  nationals. 

• Can  international  agencies  be  persuaded  to  fund  scholarships  for  refugee  or 
1DP  students? 

• Have  donors  and  international  agencies  been  approached  to  provide  equip- 
ment, textbooks  and  other  supplies  to  schools  and  university  departments 
that  accommodate  considerable  numbers  of  refugee  or  1DP  students? 

Take  steps  to  ensure  that  students  in  refugee  schools  can  sit  exami- 
nations recognized  by  the  country/area  of  origin  and/or  by  the  host 
government* 

• Can  discussions  be  held  with  the  country  of  origin  educational  authorities  on  this 
matter? 

• Can  organizations  such  as  UNICEF,  UNHCR  and  UNESCO  assist? 

• Can  the  students  sit  the  host  country  examinations  or  a special  version  of  them? 

• Are  there  internationally  recognized  school  examinations  that  some  students 
could  take? 

• Are  there  distance-learning  courses  that  could  be  taken  through  the  school? 

• Could  students  take  examinations  in  particular  subjects,  e.g.  international  language 
skills? 

Provide  the  maximum  support  possible  to  national  secondary  and 
technical  /vocational  schools  in  emergency-affected  areas  and  to  IDP 
schools* 

In  an  emergency  situation,  local  schools  - both  with  and  without  the  influx  of  displaced 
populations  - are  likely  to  lack  the  full  cadre  of  qualified  teachers,  and  have  insecure 
supplies  of  textbooks.  Make  arrangements  so  that  their  students  are  able  to  sit  the 
national  examinations  without  expensive  and  insecure  travel  over  long  distances. 

• Are  supervisors  able  to  reach  these  schools,  and  to  distribute  salaries,  textbooks, 
etc.? 

• Is  there  communication  through  district  offices,  by  telephone  or  radio,  to  pass 
over  information  about  needs? 

• Are  the  teachers  in  IDP  schools  still  getting  their  salaries? 

• Can  textbooks  be  redirected  to  the  district  where  the  IDPs  are  now  living? 

• What  arrangements  can  be  made  regarding  the  holding  of  examinations? 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

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At  the  phase  of  early  reconstruction,  undertake  a school  mapping 
exercise  to  identify  the  functioning  and  capacity  of  post-primary 
institutions  and  their  catchment  areas. 

The  data  emerging  from  the  exercise  should  be  used  in  comparison  with  the  number 
of  students  expected  to  emerge  from  primary  schools,  as  well  as  returnees,  if  any. 

• Are  provincial/district  education  offices  functioning,  and  do  they  have  adequate 
statistics  on  enrolment  in  the  different  years  of  schooling? 

• Can  training  be  arranged  for  provincial/district  offices  in  educational  statistics 
and  school  mapping? 

• If  school  census  data  has  been  collected  for  an  EM1S,  is  this  data  available  at  local 
level? 

Undertake  a review  of  labour  market  conditions,  so  that  the  reconstruc- 
tion of  technical/vocational  education  can  be  linked  to  employment 
opportunities  and  the  need  for  special  skills. 

At  the  time  of  early  reconstruction,  decisions  may  have  to  be  made  about  which 
courses  should  be  resumed,  and  in  which  institutions.  In  some  cases,  the  previous 
courses  did  not  lead  to  employment,  and  should  be  discontinued.  Which  courses 
should  take  their  place?  The  best  approach  is  not  to  undertake  a massive  survey  but 
to  talk  to  key  informants.  (See  also  the  Guidebook,  Chapter  11,  ‘Open  and  distance 
learning’,  Chapter  12,  ‘Non-formal  education’  and  Chapter 26,  ‘Vocational  education 
and  training’.) 

• Have  any  labour  market  studies  been  conducted  by  government  or  other  agencies 
in  recent  years?  If  so,  obtain  copies  and  incorporate  the  findings  in  the  national 
reconstruction  plan. 

• Is  data  available  on  the  employment  of  ex-trainees? 

• Gather  information  from  key  informants  - trainers,  employers,  students  and  ex- 
students - to  identify  which  students  get  employment  and  which  do  not.  Identify 
new  areas  in  which  employment  opportunities  are  growing.  Remember  that  labour 
markets  are  easily  saturated,  if  colleges  produce  graduates  in  a particular  subject 
year  after  year. 

• Review  possibilities  for  work  experience  placements  during  and  after  courses  of 
study,  to  increase  employability. 

• If  possible,  budget  for  at  least  one  full-time  staff  member  per  institution  to  facilitate 
the  placement  of  ex-trainees  in  employment. 


Chapter  14:  Post-primary  education 


1 1 


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Prepare  a plan  and  project  proposals  to  support  the  renewal  of 
secondary  education,  and  advocate  with  donors  for  funding* 

• Are  renewal  proposals  relevant  to  cultural  traditions  and  local  economic 
demands? 

• Do  plans  work  to  integrate  adolescents  into  the  world  of  work  and  adult  social 
roles? 

• Are  private  firms  involved  in  training  apprentices? 

• Secondary  educational  opportunities  should  be  allocated  without  regard  to  social 
status. 

• Is  access  to  secondary  schooling  determined  by  family  background,  or  has 
primary  schooling  erased  these  advantages  and  placed  all  students  on  an  even 
footing? 

• Does  achievement  in  school,  rather  than  social  status,  influence  occupational 
mobility? 

• Will  secondary  schooling  be  controlled  centrally  by  the  government? 

• Can  the  government  financially  supply  secondary  schools  at  a pace  that 
responds  to  the  growing  popular  demand? 

• Can  the  private  market  participate  in  the  development  of  secondary 
schools? 

- Will  a greater  diversity  of  secondary  educational  opportunities  increase 
or  reduce  any  economic  benefits  from  secondary  schooling?  (If  quality  of 
private  schools  is  low,  or  local  social  agendas  dominate  curriculum,  benefits 
will  most  likely  be  reduced.) 

- Will  the  expansion  of  private  secondary  schools  diminish  meritocratic 
incentives?  (If  private  schools  mainly  serve  affluent  families,  social-status 
inequalities  will  be  reinforced.) 

- How  will  the  expansion  of  private  schooling  advance  national  and  local 
social  objectives? 

• Who  will  control  the  structure  and  content  of  secondary  curricula? 

• Are  there  enough  highly  trained  teachers  to  teach  the  content  of  the 
curriculum? 

• Will  university  professors  provide  their  input  of  the  latest  knowledge  to  the 
curriculum? 

• Is  there  too  great  a focus  on  renewal  of  primary  curriculum  when  there  is  an 
urgent  need  also  for  curriculum  renewal  at  secondary  and  tertiary  level? 

• How  much  room  for  student  or  parental  choice  regarding  course  selection  will 
be  permitted? 


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• Consider  using  a core  curriculum. 

- Uniformity  of  learning  is  more  easily  assured. 

- Targeting  specific  learning  objectives  is  easier. 

- Resource  requirements  are  more  easily  organized. 

• How  specialized  will  secondary  school  curriculum  become? 

• At  what  stage  of  schooling  will  the  curriculum  become  specialized? 

• When  will  students  make  choices  about  course  selection? 

• How  many  specialized  tracks  will  there  be? 

• How  easy  will  it  be  to  move  from  one  track  to  the  other? 

• Will  secondary  schooling  include  learning  from  the  social  and  physical  environment 
that  surrounds  the  school  as  an  arena  for  learning? 

• How  can  the  curriculum  be  written  in  such  a manner  as  to  draw  on  the  social 
and  physical  environments  efficiently? 

• What  can  be  done  to  introduce  effective  education  for  health  and  H1V/A1DS 
prevention  through  life  skills,  education  for  peace,  human  rights,  active  citizenship, 
and  environmental  responsibility,  in  secondary  and  tertiary  level  institutions? 

• Can  a working  group  be  set  up  to  look  into  this? 

• Can  these  themes  be  integrated  into  other  subjects  or  disciplines? 

• Is  it  possible  to  reduce  the  high  costs  of  secondary  schooling  by  using  parent- 
supported  self-help  schools? 

• Is  new  equipment  needed,  related  to  the  curriculum  and  staff  training  in  practical 
work? 

Prepare  a plan  and  project  proposals  to  support  the  renewal  of  technical/ 
vocational  education,  and  advocate  with  donors  for  funding* 

(See  the  ‘Tools  and  reference’  section  of  this  chapter  and  the  Guidebook , Chapter 
26 , ‘ Vocational  education  and  training’,  for  more  information  on  planning  vocational 
education  programmes.) 

Prepare  a plan  and  project  proposals  to  support  the  renewal  of  higher 
education,  and  advocate  with  donors  for  funding* 

(See  the  ‘Tools  and  resources’  section  of  this  chapter  for  a sample  higher  education 
action  plan) . 

• Use  a comprehensive-sector  approach  for  action  planning  as  soon  as  possible  after 
the  crisis. 


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■ 


Q HIGHER  EDUCATION:  A TOP  PRIORITY  IN  RWANDAN  RECONSTRUCTION 

“The  damage  to  the  higher  education  sub-sector  was  indescribable.  The  National  University 
of  Rwanda  (NUR)  had  been  specifically  targeted  by  the  perpetrators  of  the  genocide.  The 
toll  of  deaths  among  the  staff  was  153  people;  106  disappeared;  800  fled. 

One  of  the  major  new  government  policies  developed  in  the  wake  of  the  genocide  was  to 
replenish  and  expand  the  country’s  skilled  work  force  at  the  highest  levels,  and  in  increasing 
numbers,  within  country  and  through  studies  abroad.  The  aim  was  to  accelerate  economic 
development.  Human  capacity  development  was  to  receive  marked  attention  in  terms  of 
funding.  High  priority  was  therefore  given  to  tertiary  institutions  from  the  start,  justifying  the 
large  proportion  of  the  national  education  budget  allocated  to  higher  institutions. 

The  separate  Ministry  of  Higher  Education  was  maintained  as  such,  to  emphasize  the  priority 
of  higher  education,  and  the  sub-sector  was  run  by  a series  of  directives  from  that  ministry, 
as  expansion  ran  ahead  of  fully  developed  policy  but  within  the  Government’s  overall  goals. 
From  an  allocation  of  2 per  cent  of  the  government’s  total  recurrent  budget  in  1990  during 
the  lean  years,  as  compared  with  the  22  per  cent  for  primary  and  secondary  education 
(Cooksey,  1992:  4),  higher  education  was  to  receive  over  one  third  of  the  budgetary 
allocation  for  the  education  sector  in  2000,  to  the  dramatic  disadvantage  of  primary 
education  (MoE,  2002b:  22). 

In  early  1994,  before  the  crisis,  there  were  thirteen  institutions  of  higher  education  ...  In 
1997,  eleven  institutes  of  higher  learning  were  operational  . . . Three  of  the  state  institutions 
were  entirely  new,  started  since  the  war:  KHI , KIST  (1997),  and  KIE  (January  1999).  As  early 
as  1996-97,  the  National  University  of  Rwanda  initiated  the  first  doctoral  programme  in  the 
university,  a four  year  programme  in  the  Faculty  of  Medicine. 

The  development  of  the  tertiary  sector  was  driven  by  the  determination  of  the  Government 
of  Rwanda.  External  partners  offered  funding  initially,  institution  by  institution,  rather  than 
in  accordance  with  an  overall  plan.  The  second  observation  is  that  considerable  funds 
were  spent  on  bursaries  to  all  first  year  students  for  full-time  residential  one-year  language 
courses  - instead  of  devising  a less  costly  option  such  as  vouchers  to  students  in  private 
sector  language  schools  as  a prerequisite  for  a place  in  the  university.  In  [the]  future,  external 
partners  should  support  higher  education  planning  processes  from  the  start,  in  an  attempt 
to  utilize  education  sector  funding  effectively  across  the  sector.” 

Source:  Obura  (2003: 114-121). 


• Who  will  be  responsible  for  deciding  the  basic  structure  of  higher  education? 

• Will  a new  ministry  be  created  specifically  for  higher  education,  or  will 
a department  within  the  Ministry  of  Education  be  responsible  for  higher 
education? 

• How  will  this  authority  prioritize  among  different  types  of  studies  so  that  the 
system  does  not  become  distorted  by  too  many  students  entering  a particular 
field? 

- The  authority  responsible  for  higher  education  should  be  required  to 
give  their  approval  to  any  institution  wishing  to  establish  itself  as  a higher 
education  institution. 

- This  approval  should  be  conditional  on  explicit  accounting  for  financing, 
qualification  requirements  for  staff,  requirements  for  admission,  and 
systems  of  examinations  leading  to  diplomas. 


4 


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IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


• How  much  autonomy  will  be  given  to  universities? 

• How  will  officials  ensure  the  equal  distribution  of  resources  to  all  higher 
education  institutions? 

• What  new  opportunities  for  tertiary  education  exist  within  the  private  sector? 


Q PRIVATE  HIGHER  EDUCATION  IN  EAST  TIMOR 

“There  were  several  higher  education  institutions  in  East  Timor  before  the  consultation: 
the  public  university  Universitas  Timor  Timur  (UNTIM),  one  national  polytechnic,  a teachers 
college  for  primary  school  teachers,  one  state  health  academy,  the  Catholic  Pastoral  Institute 
and  a private  School  of  Economics  (Joint  Donor  Education  Sector  Mission,  2000:  28).  Under 
the  transitional  authority  the  public  university  UNATIL  opened.  On  re-opening,  its  biggest 
problem  was  over-enrolment  as  all  comers  were  admitted.  A test  was  given  for  second 
year  registration,  which  reduced  admissions  and  solved  this  issue  for  the  university.  It  did 
not,  however,  solve  the  problem  for  the  large  numbers  who  wanted  tertiary  education. 
Additional  private  institutions  of  higher  education  have  since  been  set  up  to  cope  with 
demand,  or  according  to  some  cynics,  “to  make  a fast  buck”;  the  latest  count  lists  14,  an 
excessive  number  for  such  a small  population.  Half  the  professors  at  these  institutions  have 
only  a Bachelors  degree  (La’o  Hamutuk,  2003).  The  Directorate  for  Higher  Education  (2002) 
is  now  putting  forward  a set  of  draft  regulations  to  govern  private  institutions.” 


• In  what  ways  will  higher  education  curricula  need  revising  or  adapting? 

• How  will  admission  to  higher  education  institutions  be  determined? 

• Based  on  secondary  school  results? 

• Upon  completion  of  a preparatory  year  for  all  first-year  students? 

• Upon  completion  of  a series  of  foundation  courses  taken  at  the  same  time  as 
regular  university  courses? 

• After  successfully  completing  a national  admissions  examination? 

• How  can  female  enrolment  be  enhanced  in  higher  education  institutions? 

• Consider  implementing  a sensitization  campaign  targeting  girls  in  secondary 
schools. 

• Make  provisions  for  women’s  dormitories  in  all  institutions. 

• Give  priority  to  female  students  for  room  allocations,  or  to  attend  universities 
close  to  their  homes. 

• Use  staff  recruitment  techniques  that  are  gender  sensitive. 

• Consider  using  affirmative  action  programmes  to  encourage  female  enrol- 


•  How  will  ministry  officials  regulate  these  offers  for  higher  education? 


Source:  Nicolai  (2004:  86-87) 


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• Build  child-care  centres  on  campus  to  allow  women  with  children  to  participate 
in  higher  education. 

• Consider  exchange  programmes  with  foreign  universities. 

• How  can  graduates  become  involved  as  partners  in  the  development  of  higher 
education? 

• Will  there  be  provisions  for  security  services  on  university  grounds? 

• What  types  of  student  services  will  need  to  be  developed? 

• Counselling  services? 

• Monitoring  discrimination  and  harassment? 

• Health  care  units  that  deal  with  HIV/AIDS? 

• How  will  academic  staff  be  recruited? 

• Nationally,  or  individually  by  higher  education  institutions? 

• Will  staff  be  employees  of  the  government? 

• How  will  students  be  evaluated? 

• Continuous  assessment? 

• Final  examinations? 

• How  will  the  academic  year  be  divided? 

• Semesters,  trimesters? 

• Will  evening  and  weekend  courses  be  available  to  students? 

• Who  are  the  target  students  of  these  courses? 

- University  employees? 

- Public  and  private  employees? 

- School  leavers? 

12 ♦ As  part  of  the  reconstruction  plan,  initiate  a feasibility  study  on  the 

use  of  open  and  distance  learning  to  support  secondary  and  tertiary 
education  that  would  help  expand  education  opportunities  in  regions 
that  had  been  affected  by  conflict* 

The  establishment  of  open  and  distance  learning  programmes  is  expensive  and  takes 
time.  Some  elements  such  as  radio  can  be  used  in  emergency  and  early  reconstruction. 
For  the  longer  term,  it  is  best  to  undertake  a thorough  study  of  the  different  options, 
their  advantages  and  disadvantages  in  the  particular  context  (see  also  the  Guidebook , 
Chapter  11,  ‘Open  and  distance  learning’). 


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TOOLS  AND  RESOURCES 


1.  Refugee  scholarships 


UNHCR  sometimes  supports  scholarships  at  secondary  level  under  its  regular  budget  or  trust 
fund  arrangements.  Since  the  early  1990s,  it  has  benefited  from  a donation  from  the  Government 
of  Germany  for  funding  scholarships  at  university  level. 

Who  can  apply  for  DAFI  scholarships? 

In  order  to  be  eligible,  candidates  should  normally  meet  all  of  the  following  criteria: 

• Be  a refugee  with  recognized  refugee  status. 

• Have  successfully  completed  secondary  schooling  to  a high  standard  in  camp-based 
refugee  schools,  or  in  national  schools  of  the  country  of  origin  or  asylum. 

• Have  no  other  means  of  support  for  university  studies. 

• Select  a course  of  study  that  is  likely  to  lead  to  employment. 

• Not  be  older  than  28  years  at  the  beginning  of  studies. 

• Choice  of  study  course  with  maximum  four-year  duration. 

Source:  UNHCR  (2005). 


However,  these  funds  are  limited.  There  are  also  a small  number  of  scholarships  available 
for  refugees  and  IDPs  through  NGOs. 


Chapter  14:  Post- p ri m a ry  education 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


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2.  Checklist  for  planning  vocational  education  programmes  in 
emergencies 

(see  also  the  Guidebook , Chapter 26,  'Vocational  education  and  training’). 

1*  Enterprise-based  training  or  apprenticeships  are  the  most  recommended  method  of 
skills  acquisition  because  trainees  are  exposed  to  real  constraints  faced  within  a small 
enterprise,  the  training  is  practical  and  the  products  will  have  to  be  sold. 

2*  Assess  viability  of  income-generating  activities  and  feed  that  information  into  the 
process  of  planning  vocational  training.  This  will  reduce  repetition  of  redundant 
courses  that  offer  inappropriate  skills. 

3*  Incorporate  business  skills  in  vocational  training  regardless  of  the  skill. 

4*  In  post-conflict  recovery  and  reconstruction,  there  should  be  increased  linkages 
between  vocational  skills  training  and  provision  of  micro-finance,  so  that  youth  with 
skills  will  have  the  capital  to  apply  their  trade  as  self-employed. 

5*  Community-based  training  (e.g.  taking  trainers  to  the  displaced  populations  in  or 
near  their  compounds)  can  attract  women  into  the  programmes  and  allow  them  to 
continue  with  daily  life. 

6*  Cultivate  positive  attitudes  among  youths  about  practical  work.  Schools  should  avoid 
using  manual  work  as  a form  of  punishment. 

7*  Group-based  training  enables  tools  and  equipment  to  be  shared,  cultivates  a spirit  of 
working  together  and  can  allow  the  integration  of  disabled  members. 

8*  Youth  in  conflict  areas  may  need  life  skills  training  such  as  landmine  awareness,  health 
and  conflict  resolution  to  be  integrated  into  vocational  skills  transfer. 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


3.  Sample  higher  education  action  plan  in  a conflict-affected 
country 


PROJECT 

ACTIVITIES/TASKS 

INDICATORS 

1 . STRUCTURE  AND  INSTITUTIONAL  ISSUES 

Prepare  a national  higher 

• Formulate  higher  education 

• Draft  law  produced 

education  law 

law 

• Organize  consultation 
activities 

• Consultation  meetings  held 

• Get  law  officially  ratified 

• Parliament  approves  law 

Agree  on  structure  for  higher 

• Agree  on  the  different  types 

• Agreement  achieved 

education  and  on  the  institutions 

of  IHE 

of  higher  education  to  be 

established/developed/merged 

• Merge  geographically  close 
institutions 

• Number  of  institutions  merged 

• Affiliate/merge  pedagogic 
institutes  with  faculties  of 
education  at  nearest  regional 
universities 

• Number  of  institutions  merged 

• Decide  on  new  institutions 
to  be  set  up.  (e.g.  regional 
universities,  community 
colleges) 

• Decision  taken 

Develop  professional  profiles, 

• Decide  on  specializations  of 

• Document  produced  by 

promote  professional 

each  IHE 

committee  of  experts 

co-operation  and  integration 

among  IHE 

• Reorganize  faculties 

• Document  produced  by 
committee  of  experts 

• Introduce  professional  training 
programme  for  secondary 
teachers 

• Number  of  teachers  trained 

• Set  up  credit  system 

• Number  of  institutions  using 
system 

• Network  Ministry  of 

• Number  of  institutions  linked 

Higher  Education  and  IHE 
electronically 

to  internet 

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PROJECT 

ACTIVITIES/TASKS 

INDICATORS 

2.  STUDENT  RECRUITMENT  AND  WELFARE  SERVICES 

Formulate  a student  recruitment 
policy  based  on  merit  and  equity 
criteria,  social  demand,  economic 
need  for  skills  and  need  for 
teachers  at  secondary  schools 

• Conduct  a study  on  social 
demand  for  higher  education 

• Conduct  a work-force  needs 
assessment  study  including  a 
study  on  need  for  secondary 
school  teachers 

• Studies  and  simulation  model 
produced 

• Conduct  a study  on  disparity 

• Construct  a simulation  model 
for  admissions  planning 

Increase  access  of  female 
students 

• Introduce  affirmative  action 
programmes,  including 
financial  incentives  to 
institutions 

• Percentage  rate  of  females 
increases 

• Organize  awareness 
campaigns 

• Campaigns  launched 

• Provide  child-care  services 

• Day-care  centres  established 

Increase  access  of  disadvantaged 
groups 

• Introduce  affirmative  action 
programmes 

• Percentage  of  disadvantaged 
students  increases 

• Organize  awareness 
campaigns 

• Campaigns  launched 

• Introduce  supplementary 
instruction  for  the 
academically  challenged 

• Percentage  of  disadvantaged 
students  covered 

• Make  buildings  more 
accessible  to  physically 
handicapped 

• Number  of  buildings  covered 

Improve  admission  procedures 

• Agree  on  criteria  for  selection 
of  students 

• Criteria  adopted 

• Increase  Ministry  of  Higher 
Education’s  capacity  to 
organize  and  score  entrance 
examinations 

• Number  of  officials  trained, 
equipment  in  place 

• Set  up  testing,  evaluation  and 
measurement  centre 

• Centre  operating 

Improve  student  welfare  services 

• Introduce  counselling  services 

• Number  of  students 
counselled 

• Improve  health  care  and 
preventive  measures  (HIV/ 
AIDS) 

• Number  of  IHE  covered 

• Set  up  a committee  to 
watch  for  discrimination  and 
harassment 

• Structure  being  set  up 

Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


PROJECT 

ACTIVITIES/TASKS 

INDICATORS 

3,  RECRUITMENT,  ORGANIZATION  AND  DEVELOPMENT  OF  STAFF 

Create  a national  recruitment 
system 

• Survey  the  needs  of  I H E for 
academic  and  administrative 
staff 

• Data  secured  in  EMIS 

• Decide  on  qualifications 
needed 

• Decision  taken 

• Set  up  interview  boards  in 
IHE 

• Boards  set  up 

Improve  the  working  and  living 
conditions  of  staff 

• Provide  health  care  for  staff 
and  family  members 

• Percentage  of  staff  covered 

• Provide  transportation  and 
housing  allowance 

• Provide  better  work 

environment  (office  space, 
equipment) 

Design  a project  for  staff 
development 

• Assess  training  and  staff 
development  needs 

• Staff  development  needs 
identified 

• Provide  scholarships  for 
further  studies  and  training 
nationally  and  internationally 

• Number  of  scholarships 
provided 

• Provide  in-country  training 
by  regional  experts  in  relevant 
disciplines 

• Number  of  staff  trained 

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PROJECT 

ACTIVITIES/TASKS 

INDICATORS 

4.  PHYSICAL  RESOURCES 

Encourage  IHE  to  acquire, 
manage  and  use  land  for  income 

• Acquire  land  for  income 
generation 

• Area  of  land  acquired 

generation 

• Manage  and  use  land  for 
income  generation 

• Amount  of  income  generated 

Develop  a national  system  of 

• Formulate  an  architect’s  brief 

• Brief  formulated 

space  standards,  including  a 

database  incorporating  additional 
needs  for  building  and  physical 

• Set  national  system  of  space 
standards 

• Space  standards  set 

facilities 

• Set  up  and  continuously 
update  database  on  physical 
facilities 

• Database  in  use 

Encourage  co-ordination  among 

• Centralize  allocation  of  space 

• Mechanism  established 

departments  at  IHE  for  better 
space  management 

Renovate  and  expand  existing 
IHE 

• Proper  sanitation  for  all  IHE 

• Number  of  IHEs  covered  with 
proper  sanitation 

• Convert  old  laboratories  into 
offices  and  classrooms 

• Number  of  laboratories 
converted 

• Remodel  auditoriums  and 
increase  their  use 

• Number  of  auditoria 
remodelled 

• Build  new  laboratories 

• Number  of  new  laboratories 
built 

• Refurbish  classrooms  and 
libraries 

• Number  of  classrooms  and 
libraries  refurbished 

• Conduct  of  needs  assessment 
for  computer  centres  and 
internet 

• Survey  completed 

• Improve  IT  facilities 

• Number  of  institutions  with 
improved  IT  facilities 

Housing  for  students 

• Re-examine  policy  on  student 
housing 

• Housing  policy  revised 

• Construct  female  dormitories 
in  all  major  institutions 

• Number  of  female  dormitories 
constructed 

Improve  management  and 
maintenance  of  physical 
resources 

• Create  planning,  procurement 
and  equipment  servicing  units 
at  each  institution 

• Units  created 

• Introduce  incentives  for 
innovations  and  proper 
maintenance 

• Number  of  IHE  receiving 
incentives 

• Organize  workshops  on 
maintenance  of  physical 
resources  including  equipment 

• Number  of  participants 
trained 

Source:  Adapted  from  Ministry  of  Higher  Education,  Afghanistan  (2004:  83-94). 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


REFERENCES  AND  FURTHER  READING 


Brown,  T.  2001.  “Improving  quality  and  attainment  in  refugee  schools:  the  case  of  the 
Bhutanese  refugees  in  Nepal/’  In:  J.  Crisp,  C.  Talbot  and  D.B.  Cipollone  (Eds.), 
Learning  for  a future:  refugee  education  in  developing  countries  (pp.  109-161).  Geneva: 
UNHCR. 

Brown,  T.  2005.  “Time  to  end  neglect  of  post-primary  education.”  In:  Forced  Migration 
Review , (22),  31. 

Holsinger,  D.B.;  Cowell,  R.N.  2000.  Positioning  secondary  school  education  in  developing 
countries . Paris:  11EP-UNESCO. 

Howgego-Mugisha,  C.  2005.  “Gender  imbalance  in  secondary  schools.”  In:  Forced  Migration 
Review , (22),  32-33. 

1NEE  (Inter-Agency  Network  for  Education  in  Emergencies).  2004.  Minimum  standards  for 
education  in  emergencies , chronic  crises  and  early  reconstruction . Paris:  1NEE. 

Lewin,  K.  2004.  Mapping  the  missing  link  - an  overview  of  key  issues  for  secondary  education 
in  Africa  and  their  implications  for  resource  allocation  and  finance . Paper  presented  at 
the  SE1A  Conference,  Dakar,  Senegal  6-9  June  2004. 

Ministry  of  Higher  Education,  Afghanistan;  11EP-UNESCO.  2004.  Strategic  action  plan  for 
the  development  of  higher  education  in  Afghanistan.  Paris:  11EP-UNESCO. 

Nicolai,  S.  2004.  Learning  independence:  education  in  emergency  and  transition  in  Timor-Leste 
since  1999.  Paris:  11EP-UNESCO. 

Obura,  A.  2003.  Never  again:  educational  reconstruction  in  Rwanda.  Paris:  11EP- 
UNESCO. 

Refugee  Education  Trust.  2002.  RET  Symposium  report  2002:  first  international  symposium  on 
post-primary  education  for  refugees  and  internally  displaced  persons  (IDPs).  Retrieved 
25  August  2005  from 

http://www.mcart.org/clientsecure/ret/ftp/ret_symp2002_rpt.pdf 

UNESCO.  2004.  Progress  reports  on  secondary  education.  Retrieved  25  August  2005  from 
http://portal.unesco.org/education/en/ev.php-URL_ID=31357&-URL_DO  = DO_ 
TOPIC  &-URL_SECTION =201. html 

UNHCR.  1951.  Convention  and  protocol  relating  to  the  status  of  refugees.  Geneva: 
UNHCR. 

UNHCR.  2003.  Education  field  guidelines.  Geneva:  UNHCR. 


Chapter  14:  Post-primary  education 


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UNHCR.  2004.  German  scholarship  helps  train  refugee  teachers  in  PNG . Australia:  UNHCR 
News  Stories.  Retrieved  23  August  2005  from 

http://www.kabar-irian.com/pipermail/kabar-irian/2004-December/000601.html 

UNHCR.  2005.  Scholarships  for  universities  and  other  tertiary  institutions:  the  Albert  Einstein 
German  academic  refugee  initiative  fund  (DAFI).  Retrieved  23  August  2005  from 
http://www.unhcr.ch/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/protect/opendoc.pdf7tbHPROTECT10N 
&-id=40dbee984 


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CHAPTER 


14 


SECTION  3 


United  Nations  ] International 

Educational,  Scientific  and  [ Institute  for 

Cultural  Organization  * Educational 

Planning 


o 

w 


Chapter 


< 

w 


IDENTIFICATION,  SELECTION 
AND  RECRUITMENT  OF  TEACHERS 
AND  EDUCATION  WORKERS 


The  designations  employed  and  the  presentation  of 
material  throughout  this  review  do  not  imply  the  expression 
of  any  opinion  whatsoever  on  the  part  of  UNESCO  or  the 
IIEP  concerning  the  legal  status  of  any  country,  territory, 
city  or  area  or  its  authorities,  or  concerning  its  frontiers 
or  boundaries. 

The  publication  costs  of  this  study  have  been  covered 
through  a grant-in-aid  offered  by  UNESCO  and  by 
voluntary  contributions  made  by  several  Member  States 
of  UNESCO. 


Published  by: 

International  Institute  for  Educational  Planning 
7-9  rue  Eugene  Delacroix,  75116  Paris 
e-mail:  info@iiep.unesco.org 
IIEP  web  site:  www.unesco.org/iiep 


Layout  and  cover  design:  Sabine  Lebeau 
Typesetting:  Sabine  Lebeau 
Printed  in  IIEP’s  printshop 
ISBN:  92-803-1288-X 
©UNESCO  2006 


Chapter 


IDENTIFICATION,  SELECTION  AND  RECRUITMENT 
OF  TEACHERS  AND  EDUCATION  WORKERS 


MAIN  OBJECTIVES  CONTEXT  AND  CHALLENGES 


To  retain  existing  teachers  and 
education  workers. 

To  recruit  new  teachers  and  education 
workers  to  meet  the  new  educational 
needs  created  by  emergency  situations. 


EXAMPLES 

OF  EDUCATION  WORKERS 

• Teachers  in  formal  primary,  secondary, 
vocational/technical  institutions,  university 
teachers 

• Teacher  trainers 

• Trained  youth  workers 

• School  administrators 

• Non-formal  educators  (e.g.  teachers  of  life 
skills  programmes,  teachers  of  accelerated 
learning  programmes,  those  offering  appren- 
ticeships, etc.) 

• Adult  literacy  teachers 


In  situations  of  emergency  or  post-conflict,  there 
is  often  a shortage  of  trained  and/or  experienced 
teachers.  Teachers  may  be  targeted  during 
conflict:  many  may  be  killed  and  many  more 
may  flee  the  area.  They  are  often  accused  of 
having  sided  with  the  enemy’  and  therefore 
hide  their  profession  while  displaced.  At  the 
same  time,  there  is  usually  an  urgent  demand 
for  education  - many  children  and  youth  with 
no  opportunity  to  go  to  school,  and  many  who 
have  missed  out  on  years  of  formal  education. 
Educational  authorities  must  find  fast  and 
efficient  means  of  responding  to  this  situation. 

Normal  processes  of  teacher  training  and 
recruitment  may  break  down  in  times  of 
emergency,  thereby  weakening  the  school 
system  and  creating  future  problems  with 
regard  to  the  country’s  supply  of  teachers  and 
educators.  Additional  teachers  may  be  needed 


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simultaneously  in  more  than  one  area  of  the  country  as  multiple  areas  may  be  affected  by 
conflict  or  migration.  Therefore,  depending  on  the  type  and  scale  of  a disaster,  it  may  be 
necessary  to  relocate  teachers  temporarily.  Teachers  who  are  themselves  displaced  within 
their  own  country  may  not  be  able  to  receive  their  salaries,  as  governments  often  register 
teachers  to  work  in  a specific  region  and  their  salaries  do  not  necessarily  follow  them  if  they 
move.  Some  1DP  teachers  living  among  local  populations  may  be  discriminated  against  in 
the  competition  for  jobs  and  conditions  such  as  these  lead  to  teachers  seeking  alternative 
sources  of  income. 

There  is  likely  to  be  a shortage  of  teachers  in  areas  of  return,  particularly  in  rural  areas, 
and  some  kind  of  incentive  and  evidence  of  security  may  be  necessary  to  attract  teachers 
to  these  areas. 

Teachers  in  exile  or  displaced  within  their  own  country  may  be  reluctant  to  return  unless 
they  know  there  is  a school  there  and  a chance  for  employment.  Teachers  trained  in  exile 
may  not  be  recognized  as  qualified  by  their  home  government  and  therefore  will  be  unable 
to  obtain  employment  as  teachers  if  they  should  return.  Those  teachers  who  do  return  face 
the  same  challenges  as  others:  the  need  to  re-establish,  build  houses,  resume  agricultural 
activities,  etc.,  and  may  therefore  need  special  incentives  to  be  able  to  work  as  teachers, 
such  as  a food  basket  or  housing.  (See  also  the  Guidebook , Chapter  16,  ‘Teacher  motivation, 
compensation  and  working  conditions’).  Teachers  who  have  received  special  training  as  IDPs 
or  refugees  may  be  a good  resource  when  it  comes  to  establishing  non-formal  education 
programmes  (e.g.  bridge  programmes  to  integrate  older  returnee  or  1DP  children  into  the 
formal  school  system)  in  the  returnee  area. 

The  immediate  identification  of  teachers  and  education  workers  is  fundamental.  It  is  a 
process  that  starts  with  the  most  qualified,  and  selects  downwards.  In  order  of  desirability, 
teachers  should  be  identified  from  the  following  broad  categories: 

1 . Qualified  teachers  who  have  completed  formal  teacher  training  and  are  qualified 
by  their  government  to  teach  or  instruct  at  a given  level  - preschool,  primary, 
secondary,  vocational.  Teachers  available  for  recruitment  may  have  been  displaced 
by  the  emergency  or  their  schools  destroyed  or  closed.  For  reasons  of  access  and 
security,  it  may  be  particularly  difficult  to  identify  qualified  or  potential  teachers 
in  areas  of  conflict.  Others  may  have  retired  from  the  profession,  or  have  left  for 
family  reasons  (especially  women) . If  governments  (or  other  education  providers) 
are  unable  (or  unwilling)  to  pay  teachers’  salaries,  some  will  leave  the  profession  in 
order  to  support  themselves  and  their  families.  Youth  workers  and  social  workers, 
however,  may  be  qualified  to  organize  psychosocial/recreational  activities  and  non- 
formal  education. 

2*  Teachers  who  have  extensive  teaching  experience  but  who  do  not  hold  a formally 
recognized  teaching  qualification.  Some  of  these  teachers  may  have  benefited  from 
in-service  training. 


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3*  Those  that  have  teaching  potential  or  some  classroom  or  practical  experience  but 
no  formal  recognition  (e.g.  classroom  assistants  or  literate  adults  in  the  community). 
Insecure  conditions  may  make  it  difficult  to  provide  in-service  training  to  enable  new 
teachers  to  function,  to  help  existing  teachers  adapt  to  new  and  difficult  situations, 
and  to  help  school  principals  cope  with  the  difficult  crisis  or  the  post-conflict  situation. 
New  teachers  need  in-service  training  and  in-school  support,  but  district-level  school 
supervisors  may  not  be  in  place,  or  not  trained  in  administration,  modern  pedagogy 
and  new  curriculum  developments. 

4*  In  some  situations,  people  with  specific  expertise  related  to  health,  sanitation,  food  and 
nutrition,  agriculture,  commerce,  etc.,  could  be  utilized  for  enrichment  of  education 
programmes,  although  this  is  difficult  to  organize  and  teachers  often  resist  it. 

Individuals  who  previously  did  not  have  the  opportunity  to  become  teachers  (e.g.  women 
heading  households)  may  be  interested  in  teaching,  though  their  education  level  may  be  less 
than  that  of  men.  Youth  who  have  finished  ninth  or  tenth  grade  may  have  few  employment 
opportunities  and,  if  security  conditions  permit,  may  also  be  interested  in  receiving  training 
to  teach.  However,  it  is  important  to  remember  that  untrained  individuals  may  want  to 
become  teachers,  especially  if  a ‘salary’  or  some  kind  of  remuneration  is  available.  If  teachers 
receive  some  form  of  compensation,  unqualified  individuals  may  claim  that  they  have  the 
necessary  qualifications  and  it  may  be  difficult  to  establish  which  teachers  were  previously 
on  the  government  payroll,  and  to  eliminate  false  claimants  and  ‘ghost’  teachers  - individuals 
who  do  not  work  but  who  draw  a teacher  salary.  Testing  may  be  needed. 

Selection  processes  should  also  be  tempered  by  gender  and  ethnic  considerations  to 
maintain  balance  as  appropriate  to  the  situation.  Care  is  needed  to  ensure  equity  in  respect 
of  ethnicity/political  affiliation/religion,  and  between  migrants  and  non-migrants.  In  some 
circumstances,  recruitment  tends  to  be  biased  towards  particular  ethnic/political/religious 
groups,  and  women  may  be  neglected  by  male  selectors.  International  organizations  may 
assume  sole  responsibility  for  the  selection  of  teachers,  without  sufficient  awareness  of 
such  considerations.  As  women  frequently  stay  longer  in  the  teaching  profession  than  men, 
the  recruitment  of  more  women  at  the  beginning  will  likely  decrease  the  need  for  frequent 
recruitment  and  training.  This  may  mean  separate  recruitment  criteria  for  men  and  women. 
Where  woman  lack  the  skills  needed,  plans  must  be  drawn  up  for  their  training.  Schools 
should  have  at  least  two  women  teachers  (except  boys’  schools)  and  preferably  a woman 
head  or  deputy  head,  to  encourage  the  enrolment  of  girls. 


Chapter  1 5 : 

Identification,  selection  and  recruitment  of  teachers  and  education  workers  3 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


SUGGESTED  STRATEGIES 


Summary  of  suggested  strategies 

Identification,  selection  and  recruitment 
of  teachers  and  education  workers 

1.  Conduct,  co-ordinate  or  facilitate  a survey 
of  teacher  availability  and  needs  in  the 
emergency-affected  populations,  and  develop  a 
plan  for  hiring  required  staff. 

2.  In  situations  where  NGOs  are  supporting  the 
education  system,  ensure  that  the  recruitment 
of  new  teachers  and  educational  staff  for 
their  programmes  does  not  disrupt  existing 
educational  structures. 

3.  Ensure  that  education  ministry  staff  and/or 
other  education  providers  establish  minimum 
requirements  for  the  selection  of  teachers,  and 
conduct  recruitment  in  a transparent  manner. 

4.  Advertise  the  need  for  educators  as  widely  as 
possible.  Ideally,  the  whole  community  should 
know  of  the  need  for  teachers  and  education 
workers. 

5.  Clearly  document  the  working  relationship 
with  the  educators  that  are  selected. 

6.  Ensure  recognition  of  prior  teacher  training 
and  accreditation. 

7.  Decide  the  contractual  status  under  which  new 
teachers  are  to  be  recruited. 

% 


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IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


Guidance  notes 


L Conduct,  co-ordinate  or  facilitate  a survey  of  teacher  availability  and 
needs  in  the  emergency-affected  populations,  and  develop  a plan  for 
hiring  required  staff 

(See  also  the  Guidebook , Chapter  28 , ‘Assessment  of  needs  and  resources’). 
Government  and/or  other  education  providers  should: 

• Assess  educational  capacities  in  the  affected  area. 

• What  are  the  minimum  teacher  qualifications  - in  the  home  country?  In  the 
host  country  (where  applicable)? 

• Undertake  a sample  survey  or  develop  a list  of  teachers  who  are  at  present 
providing  education  in  the  affected  area(s):  males/females;  educational  quali- 
fications; teaching  experience  (number  of  years),  which  subjects  and  grades 
they  have  taught;  subjects  and  grades  they  are  qualified  to  teach;  languages 
spoken,  etc. 

• Are  there  other  qualified  persons  within  the  community  who  can  provide 
educational  services,  for  example,  certified  teachers  (who  are  not  teaching 
or  who  could  teach  more),  educated  adults  who  are  interested  in  becoming 
teachers,  trained  youth  workers,  or  skilled  trades  people?  What  are  their 
qualifications? 

• Are  the  skills  of  administrators  and  trainers  being  fully  utilized?  That  is,  are 
they  employed  where  they  are  most  needed,  and  are  they  working  full- 
time? 

• Are  there  non-formal  educators  within  the  community  who  can  and  would 
be  willing  to  provide  mentoring  and  apprenticeships? 

• Assess  the  educational  needs  in  the  affected  area. 

• Give  breakdowns  of  the  total  number  of  children  and  youth  in  the  affected 
area  by  level  of  education  completed,  age,  gender,  ethnicity  and  religion,  as 
appropriate. 

- How  many  children/youth  are  presently  attending  an  education  pro- 
gramme? 

- What  is  the  number  of  over-age  youth  who  are  not  in  school  and  who 
have  missed  out  on  basic  educational  opportunities? 

- For  out-of-school  youth,  what  type  of  education  programme  would  they 
be  willing  to  attend  (e.g.  formal  primary,  accelerated  learning  programme, 
skills  training,  etc.)? 

• Determine  how  many  teachers  and  other  education  workers  are  necessary  to 
support  the  educational  needs  of  the  affected  community. 


Chapter  1 5 : 

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IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


• Do  the  number  and  type  of  existing  educators  meet  the  community's  edu- 
cational needs?  For  example,  are  there  additional  needs  for  preschools  or  for 
non-formal  education  programmes  for  out-of-school  youth? 

• What  are  the  local  standards  for  pupil/class  and  pupil/teacher  ratios?  (See 
the  ‘Tools  and  resources'  section  for  details  on  calculating  these  ratios.) 

• How  many  new  teachers  are  required  to  meet  the  local  standards?  If  multiple 
areas  of  the  country  have  been  affected,  how  does  this  vary  by  location? 
Consider  the  following: 

- What  are  the  current  pupil/class  and  pupil/teacher  ratios  in  the  schools? 

- If  out-of-school  children  were  enrolled,  what  would  the  pupil/class  and 
pupil/teacher  ratios  be?  (It  may  be  necessary  to  make  an  estimate  of 
the  number  of  children  out  of  school.  For  more  information,  review  the 
Guidebook , Chapter  28,  ‘Assessment  of  needs  and  resources'.) 

• Do  existing  educators  reflect  the  needs  of  the  students  with  regard  to  level 
of  education,  gender  and  language? 

• What  are  the  budgetary  requirements  for  meeting  the  identified  need  for  ad- 
ditional teachers  and  education  workers?  (See  also  the  Guidebook , Chapter  35, 
‘Budget  and  financial  management'.) 

• Develop  a plan  for  hiring  teachers  and  educational  staff.  The  plan  should  describe 
the  requirements  for  each  relevant  district  or  administrative  unit  in  the  affected 
area  and  should  include  the  following  components: 

• Number  of  additional  teachers,  administrators  and  other  education  workers 
that  are  required. 

• Budgetary  requirements. 

• Plans  for  identifying/recruiting  individuals  for  the  new  positions. 

• Criteria  for  selecting  teachers. 

• Identification  of  who  will  select/hire  the  new  employees. 

• Minimum  training  requirements  for  unqualified  teachers. 


0 TEACHER  SALARIES  FOR  IDPS 

Salaries  for  teachers  in  Colombia  are  allocated  to  the  teachers’  province  of  origin.  Therefore, 
one  of  the  difficulties  faced  by  internally  displaced  teachers  is  that  it  takes  a long  time  to  have 
their  salaries  transferred  to  a temporary  area  - even  if  there  is  a need  for  teachers  in  those 
areas. 

In  Indonesia,  teachers  who  fled  the  conflict  on  the  island  of  Halmahera  and  took  refuge 
in  Sulawesi  were  able  to  have  their  salaries  transferred,  but  indicate  that  part  of  their 
reluctance  to  return  to  their  home  communities  is  the  time  it  will  take  to  have  their  salaries 
transferred  back  with  them. 


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• In  I DP  situations,  consider  the  development  of  a flexible  system  for  redistributing 
government  teachers  within  the  government  system  to  meet  the  educational 
needs  of  the  moving  population. 

• Are  administrative  procedures  in  place  to  facilitate  such  transfers? 

• How  can  teachers’  salaries  be  transferred  with  them  when  they  move? 

• In  refugee  situations,  home-country  governments  should  consider  establishing  a 
policy  to  keep  teachers  in  exile  on  the  human  resources  list  (if  their  whereabouts 
are  known),  and  take  them  off  the  government  payroll.  This  may  facilitate  the 
re-appointment  of  teachers  upon  their  return. 

2 * In  situations  where  NGOs  are  supporting  the  education  system,  ensure 
that  the  recruitment  of  new  teachers  and  educational  staff  for  their 
programmes  does  not  disrupt  existing  educational  structures* 

• Teachers  should  not  be  recruited  away  from  local  schools  or  existing 
programmes. 

• Government  compensation  scales  should  be  communicated  clearly  to  UN  and 
NGO  representatives  so  that  the  scales  they  develop  are  commensurate  with 
those  of  the  government.  (See  the  Guidebook , Chapter  16 , ‘Teacher  motivation, 
compensation  and  working  conditions’,  for  a thorough  discussion  of  teacher 
compensation  and  establishing  pay  scales.) 

• Priority  should  be  given  to  members  of  the  emergency-affected  or  refugee 
community  before  external  educators  are  brought  in.  For  example,  if  there  are 
not  enough  existing  teachers,  are  there  educated  persons  who  can  be  trained  as 
teachers? 

• Educational  authorities  should  assume  responsibility  and/or  be  involved  in  the 
training  of  new  teachers. 

3*  Ensure  that  education  ministry  staff  and/or  other  education  providers 
establish  minimum  requirements  for  the  selection  of  teachers,  and 
conduct  recruitment  in  a transparent  manner* 

(See  the  ‘Tools  and  resources’  section  of  this  chapter  for  more  information  on  teacher 
recruitment  and  selection.) 

• Identify  the  appropriate  criteria  for  recruitment  and  the  minimum  level  of 
education  and  training  required. 

• Note  that  in  situations  of  emergency  and  post-conflict  reconstruction, 
established  requirements  for  teachers’  educational  qualifications  may  need 
to  be  relaxed  in  order  to  hire  a sufficient  number  of  new  teachers,  especially 
women.  In  such  situations,  in-service  training  and  monitoring  must  be 
ongoing.  (See  also  the  Guidebook , Chapter  17}  ‘Measuring  and  monitoring 
teachers’  impact’  and  Chapter  18 , ‘Teacher  training:  teaching  and  learning 
methods’.) 


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IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


Q RECRUITING  TEACHERS  IN  POST-GENOCIDE  RWANDA 

After  the  genocide  in  Rwanda,  “to  overcome  the  shortage  of  primary  teachers  the  Ministry 
called  for  secondary  leavers  and  even  secondary  drop-outs  to  come  and  fill  the  vacant 
posts.  ...  In  late  1994  the  Ministry  assisted  12th  grade  students  to  sit  their  final  examinations. 
Their  strategy  was  to  channel  them  as  soon  as  possible  into  primary  teaching  posts.  This 
was  a well  thought  out  yet  very  quick  response  on  the  part  of  MoE.  Less  known  - and 
perhaps  the  most  important  contribution  of  all  to  attracting  teachers  into  schools  and 
to  supporting  those  first  days  in  school -was  UNICEF’s  one-off  contribution  to  teachers’ 
salaries,  which  amounted  to  US$800,000,  called  ‘a  one  time  incentive  payment’.  Under 
normal  circumstances,  international  development  agencies  try  to  avoid  paying  the  salaries 
of  civil  servants.  But  these  were  exceptional  circumstances.  Looking  back,  many  people  have 
lauded  that  courageous  step  of  breaking  with  tradition  that  helped  to  assist  teachers  back 
into  school”. 


Source:  Obura  (2003:  64-65). 


• How  much  weight  should  be  given  to  prior  teaching  experience? 

• What  evidence  is  required  to  prove  that  a person  has  the  specified  qualifica- 
tions or  experience?  (They  may  have  been  displaced  without  having  time  to 
collect  their  personal  documents,  or  they  may  have  been  robbed  of  them.) 

• How  much  of  the  curriculum  content  must  teachers  know  in  order  to  be 
hired? 

• What  are  the  strengths  and  weaknesses  of  the  prospective  teachers  in  the 
following  areas:  writing  learning  objectives,  developing  teaching  materials, 
conveying  subject  matter,  and  using  participatory  methods? 

• What  is  the  range  of  teaching  techniques  that  have  been  practised  by  the 
teacher  (lecture,  question  and  answer,  recitation  drill,  small  group  work, 
brainstorming,  role-play,  drama  and  music,  field  trips,  individualized  learning, 
student  projects)? 


Q WORKING  WITH  NGOS  TO  HIRE  TEACHERS 

In  post-conflict  Sierra  Leone,  UNICEF  worked  with  the  government  Ministry  of  Education, 
Science  and  Technology  (MEST)  to  develop  an  accelerated  learning  programme  for 
10-13  year-olds  whose  education  was  disrupted  by  the  conflict  in  order  to  facilitate  their 
return  to  the  formal  school  system.  The  programme  was  implemented  by  the  Norwegian 
Refugee  Council  (NRC)  whose  staff  worked  directly  with  the  ministry  to  identify  and  hire 
teachers  and  trainers  based  on  an  open  announcement/invitation  to  apply. 

To  avoid  disrupting  the  country’s  education  system,  one  of  the  conditions  for  employment 
was  that  teachers  could  not  be  employed  in  a government  school.  In  addition,  qualified 
candidates  were  selected  with  an  objective  of  balancing  gender,  IDP/local  background, 
ethnic,  religious  and  other  relevant  considerations. 

Source:  NRC  (2005:  5b). 

■ 1 


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• Ensure  the  recruiting  and  hiring  processes  are  transparent  and  meet  the  needs  of 
the  affected  population 

• What  are  the  existing  recruitment  and  selection  processes  for  teachers  and 
other  education  staff? 

• Involve  all  stakeholders  in  the  process  of  selecting  educators.  These  include: 

• Community  leaders. 

• Parents  of  the  displaced. 

• Ministries  of  education  (preferably  of  both  home  and  host  countries  in  refugee 
situations,  though  this  is  not  usually  possible). 

• School  inspectors  and  monitors. 

• Maintain  a constant  awareness  of  ethnic,  gender,  religious  and  language 
considerations  in  the  selection  process. 

• Appoint  a woman  as  principal  or  deputy  principal  of  a mixed  school  to  minimize 
gender  harassment  and  to  provide  a good  role  model.  If  there  is  no  woman 
sufficiently  qualified,  appoint  a woman  as  a senior  teacher  with  responsibility  for 
promoting  girls’  education. 

• Make  a special  effort  to  recruit  minorities  and  women  to  encourage  the  attendance 
and  retention  of  minority  and  female  students.  (Note:  in  emergency  situations, 
highly  qualified  teachers,  especially  men,  are  often  attracted  to  jobs  outside  the 
teaching  profession,  which  creates  a perpetual  need  for  training  new  teachers. 
As  less  educated  women  are  more  likely  to  stay  in  the  educational  system  longer, 
there  is  an  additional  programmatic  justification  for  hiring  them.) 

• In  order  to  recruit  more  women,  it  may  be  necessary  to  hire  women  with 
lower  levels  of  education  than  men,  provided  that  they  meet  certain  minimum 
educational  standards. 

• Consider  providing  additional  or  special  in-service  training  for  unqualified 
female  teachers  in  order  to  improve  their  subject  knowledge  and  teaching 
skills. 

• Consider  the  following  strategies  to  ensure  transparency: 

• In  stable  situations,  it  may  be  possible  to  select  educators  - that  are  currently 
not  working  or  who  may  have  extra  capacity  - from  existing  governmental 
rosters  based  upon  documentation  of  training  and  experience. 

• In  unstable  areas  where  documents  may  have  been  lost: 

- Develop  a standardized  interview  procedure. 

- Consider  the  use  of  panel  interviews. 

- Develop  a written  test  to  gauge  literacy,  numeracy,  language  skills  and 
if  possible  a practical  test  of  teaching  proficiency.  Agree  on  a minimum 
threshold  for  passing  the  test. 


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9 


4. 


Advertise  the  need  for  educators  as  widely  as  possible.  Ideally,  the 
whole  community  should  know  of  the  need  for  teachers  and  education 
workers. 


• Possible  methods  of  informing  communities  include: 

• Contacting  community  leaders. 

• Advertising  by  radio,  newspaper,  or  television. 

• Making  announcements  at  community  gathering  points  such  as  markets  or 
churches. 

• Creating  basic  recruitment  posters. 

• Developing  specific  advertising  strategies  for  women  and  minority  groups  (for 
example,  advertising  in  women’s  hairdressing  salons  in  Africa). 

• Advertisements  for  teachers  should  include: 

• Necessary  qualifications  and  experience:  minimum  number  of  years  of  edu- 
cation completed  or  certificate  required,  etc. 

• The  number  of  teachers  expected  to  be  hired. 

• Teaching/professional  expectations  for  those  who  will  be  hired. 

• Pay  range  based  on  experience,  qualifications  and  hours  of  teaching  per 
week. 

• Key  elements  of  the  job  description. 

• Hiring  conditions  based  on  balancing  gender  and  background. 

5.  Clearly  document  the  working  relationship  with  the  educators  that 
are  selected. 

• Develop  a standard  contract  and  accompanying  job  description  that  clearly  defines 
the  working  relationship.  When  possible,  these  should  be  based  on  existing  job 
descriptions  used  by  the  educational  authorities. 

• For  job  descriptions,  consider  including  items  such  as: 

• Requirements  for  lesson  planning  and  preparation. 

• Requirements  for  assessing  student  learning. 

• Extent  of  curriculum  content  that  teachers  must  know  and  teach. 

• Desired  familiarity  with  various  teaching  methods. 

• Accepted  rules  for  discipline. 

• Professional  code  of  conduct.  (See  the  ‘Tools  and  resources’  section  for  an 
example.) 

• Ensure  that  teachers  sign  their  contract  and  obtain  a copy  of  their  job  description. 


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• Where  possible  (e.g.  in  refugee  situations  where  teachers  may  be  hired  on  a 
temporary  basis),  initial  contracts  should  be  of  two  to  three  months’  duration, 
with  an  option  for  renewal. 

• Where  possible,  ensure  that  contracts  follow  local  labour  practices,  specifically 
with  regard  to  working  hours,  compensation  and  standards  of  behaviour. 

• Educators  should  sign  a code  of  conduct  establishing  acceptable  and  unacceptable 
behaviour  and  ramifications  to  avoid  ethnic  and  gender  discrimination  and  abuse. 
(See  the  ‘Tools  and  resources’  section  for  a sample  code  of  conduct.) 

• When  new  staff  positions  (e.g.  peace,  health  or  landmine  education  programme 
staff)  are  being  created,  their  job  descriptions  and  pay  should  be  harmonized  with 
the  pre-existing  system. 

6*  Ensure  recognition  of  prior  teacher  training  and  accreditation* 

(See  also  the  Guidebook , Chapter  16,  ‘Teacher  motivation,  compensation  and  working 
conditions’  and  Chapter  18,  ‘Teacher  training:  teaching  and  learning  methods’.) 

• What  documentation  will  be  required? 

• What  teacher  training  will  be  accepted? 

• What  will  be  the  process  for  recognizing  and  recruiting  teachers  from  areas  of 
asylum,  or  teachers  returning  from  exile? 

• How  can  the  educational  authorities  facilitate  the  redistribution  of  teachers  to 
cover  educational  needs  in  the  country  (e.g.  need  for  teachers  in  rural  areas)? 

7*  Decide  the  contractual  status  under  which  new  teachers  are  to  be 
recruited* 

• Is  it  possible  to  employ  newly  recruited  teachers  on  fixed-term  contracts,  instead 
of  indefinite  contracts? 

• What  arrangements  will  be  made  for  those  teachers  who  stayed  in-post  during 
the  crisis? 

• What  arrangements  will  be  made  for  unqualified  volunteers,  who  filled  in  for 
missing  teachers  during  the  crisis? 

In  deciding  these  questions,  it  will  be  necessary  to  balance  the  need  to  fill  the  deficit  of 
teachers  quickly  with  realistic  projections  of  the  government’s  revenues,  and  industrial 
relations  and  political  concerns. 

Research  in  West  Africa  suggests  that  the  contractual  status  of  teachers  has  little 
effect  upon  the  learning  attainments  of  pupils.  Pupils  whose  teachers  are  fully  fledged 
civil  servants  on  indefinite  contracts  do  not  perform  significantly  better  than  pupils  who 
are  taught  by  teachers  on  fixed-term  contracts.  The  factors  that  make  a difference  are 
the  quality  of  administrative  and  pedagogical  support  received  by  teachers,  whatever 
their  contractual  status  may  be. 


Chapter  1 5 : 

Identification,  selection  and  recruitment  of  teachers  and  education  workers  1 1 

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TOOLS  AND  RESOURCES 


1*  INEE  minimum  standards  for  teachers  and  other  education 
personnel 

Standard  1:  Recruitment  and  selection 

A sufficient  number  of  appropriately  qualified  teachers  and  other  education  personnel 

is  recruited  through  a participatory  and  transparent  process  based  on  selection  criteria 

that  reflect  diversity  and  equity. 

Key  indicators 

• Clear  and  appropriate  job  descriptions  are  developed  prior  to  the  recruitment  process. 

• Clear  guidelines  exist  for  the  recruitment  process. 

• A selection  committee,  including  community  representatives,  selects  teachers 
based  on  a transparent  assessment  of  candidates’  competencies  and  considerations 
of  gender,  diversity  and  acceptance  by  the  community. 

• The  number  of  teachers  recruited  and  deployed  is  sufficient  to  prevent  oversized 
classes. 

INEE  minimum  standards  guidance  notes 

1*  Job  descriptions:  These  should  include,  among  other  components,  roles  and 
responsibilities  and  clear  reporting  lines,  as  well  as  a code  of  conduct. 

2*  Experience  and  qualifications:  In  an  emergency,  the  aim  should  be  to  recruit  qualified 
teachers  with  recognized  qualifications  but,  in  some  situations,  those  with  little  or 
no  experience  will  need  to  be  considered.  Training  will  therefore  be  required  in  these 
cases. 

If  qualified  teachers  no  longer  have  certificates  or  other  documents,  it  is  important 
to  provide  alternative  means  of  verification,  such  as  testing  of  applicants.  While  the 
minimum  age  for  teachers  should  be  18,  it  may  be  necessary  to  appoint  younger 
teachers.  In  some  situations,  it  is  necessary  to  recruit  female  teachers  proactively, 
and  to  adjust  the  recruitment  criteria  or  process  to  promote  gender  parity,  where 
possible  and  appropriate. 

It  is  necessary  to  recruit  teachers  who  speak  the  home  language  (s)  of  learners  from 
minorities  who  are  taught  in  a national  language  not  their  own.  Where  possible  and 
appropriate,  intensive  courses  in  the  national  and/or  host  country  language  (s)  should 
be  provided  (see  also  Teaching  and  learning  standard  1,  guidance  note  7’). 

3*  Criteria  may  include  the  following: 

• Professional  qualifications:  academic,  teaching  or  psychosocial  experience;  other 
skills/experience;  relevant  language  ability. 


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• Personal  qualifications:  age;  gender  (recruiters  should  aim  for  gender  balance  if 
possible);  ethnic  and  religious  background;  diversity  (to  ensure  representation  of 
the  community) . 

• Other  qualifications:  acceptance  by  and  interaction  with  the  community; 
belonging  to  the  affected  population. 

4*  Selection:  Teachers  and  other  education  personnel  should  primarily  be  selected  from 
among  the  affected  population,  but  if  necessary  can  be  recruited  from  outside.  If  a site 
is  established  for  refugees  or  internally  displaced  populations,  applications  from  eligible 
local  candidates  may  be  accepted  if  this  will  help  to  foster  good  relations.  Selection 
should  be  carried  out  in  consultation  with  the  community,  the  host  community  and 
local  authorities. 

5*  References:  In  crisis  settings,  a reference  check  should  be  carried  out  for  teachers 
and  education  personnel  to  avoid  employing  individuals  who  could  have  an  adverse 
effect  on  learners  and/or  who  do  not  fully  respect  their  rights. 

6*  A locally  realistic  standard  should  be  set  for  maximum  class  size:  Every  effort  should 
be  made  to  recruit  enough  teachers  to  avoid  major  deviations  from  this  standard. 
Monitoring  reports  should  indicate  the  number  of  oversized  classes  at  the  different 
levels  of  schooling. 

Source:  INEE  (2004:  66-67). 


2.  Pupil/class  and  pupil/teacher  ratios 

The  pupil/class  ratio  is  the  average  number  of  students  per  class.  A class  is  defined  as  a group 
of  pupils  receiving  instruction  together.  In  small  schools,  students  from  different  grades  may 
be  present  in  the  same  ‘multigrade’  class,  as  occurs  in  one-teacher  or  two-teacher  schools. 
Conversely,  a school  may  have  a number  of  classes  for  the  same  grade.  The  intent  behind 
this  ratio  is  to  encourage  educators  to  avoid  overcrowding  in  the  classroom  based  on  the 
assumption  that  teachers  with  too  many  students  will  not  be  able  to  provide  a quality 
education,  and  that  students  who  cannot  keep  up  with  the  lessons  will  drop  out. 


The  pupil /teacher  ratio  is  the  average  number  of  pupils  per  teacher  in  an  education  system. 
This  ratio  is  generally  used  with  regard  to  cost  considerations.  It  can  be  helpful  in  identifying 
areas  of  the  country  that  have  too  many  teachers  (poor  deployment)  and  it  can  be  used 
for  estimating  the  financial  implications  of  potential  policies  such  as  hiring  more  teachers 
in  a particular  area. 

Standards  for  both  of  these  ratios  are  often  specified  at  the  national  level.  During  emergency 
situations,  educational  authorities  should  consider  the  impact  of  conflict  on  children  when 
deciding  targeted  class  sizes.  (Note  that  children’s  psychosocial  healing  will  benefit  from 
smaller  classes  where  they  can  receive  more  individual  attention.)  Class  sizes  are  a function 
of  demand  and  the  number  of  available  teachers,  but  overcrowded  classrooms  do  have  an 
effect  on  the  quality  of  education,  especially  when  many  teachers  are  untrained  or  severely 
affected  by  the  emergency  themselves. 


Chapter  1 5 : 

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3.  Sample  code  of  conduct  for  teachers 

All  members  of  the  teaching  staff  are  expected  to  abide  by  the  following  general  guidelines: 

At  all  times,  the  teacher: 

• Acts  in  a manner  that  maintains  the  honour  and  dignity  of  the  profession. 

• Protects  the  confidentiality  of  anything  said  by  a student  in  confidence. 

• Protects  students  from  conditions  that  interfere  with  learning  or  are  harmful  to  the 
students'  health  and  safety. 

• Does  not  take  advantage  of  his  or  her  position  to  profit  in  any  way. 

• Does  not  sexually  harass  any  student  or  have  any  manner  of  sexual  relationship  with 
a student. 

• Isa  good,  honest  role  model. 

In  the  classroom,  the  teacher: 

• Promotes  a positive  and  safe  learning  environment. 

• Teaches  in  a manner  that  respects  the  dignity  and  rights  of  all  students. 

• Promotes  students'  self-esteem,  confidence  and  self-worth. 

• Promotes  high  expectations  of  students  and  helps  each  student  to  reach  his/her 
potential. 

• Encourages  students  to  develop  as  active,  responsible  and  effective  learners. 

• Creates  an  atmosphere  of  trust. 

In  their  professional  life,  the  teacher: 

• Displays  a basic  competence  in  educational  methodology  and  his/her  subject. 

• Displays  an  understanding  (in  his/her  teaching)  of  how  children  learn. 

• Is  always  on  time  for  class  and  prepared  to  teach. 

• Does  not  engage  in  activities  that  adversely  affect  the  quality  of  his/her  teaching. 

• Takes  advantage  of  all  professional  development  opportunities  and  uses  modern, 
accepted  teaching  methods. 

• Teaches  principles  of  good  citizenship,  peace  and  social  responsibility. 

• Honestly  represents  each  student's  performance  and  examination  results. 

With  respect  to  the  community,  the  teacher: 

• Encourages  parents  to  support  and  participate  in  their  children's  learning 

• Recognizes  the  importance  of  family  and  community  involvement  in  school 

• Supports  and  promotes  a positive  image  of  the  school. 

In  addition  to  the  items  mentioned  here,  the  teacher  is  expected  to  abide  by  all  other  rules 
and  policies  of  the  wider  environment  (camp,  school,  etc.). 


Source:  INEE  (2004:  70). 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

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REFERENCES  AND  FURTHER  READING 


Halliday,  I.G.  1995.  Turning  the  tables  on  teacher  management.  London:  Commonwealth 
Secretariat. 

IIEP  (International  Institute  for  Educational  Planning).  2002.  “Planning  the  recruitment 
and  utilization  of  teachers”.  Module  4 of  the  IIEP  Advanced  training  programme  in 
educational  planning  and  management  2002/2003.  Paris:  11EP-UNESCO. 

1NEE  (Inter-Agency  Network  for  Education  in  Emergencies).  2003.  “Assessment  of  teacher/ 
facilitator  availability  and  capacity,  including  selection”.  In:  Good  practice  guides  for 
emergency  education.  Retrieved  on  26  August  2005  from 
http://www.ineesite.org/assess/teacher.asp 

1NEE  (Inter-Agency  Network  for  Education  in  Emergencies).  2004.  Minimum  standards  for 
education  in  emergencies , chronic  crises  and  early  reconstruction.  Paris:  1NEE. 

NRC  (Norwegian  Refugee  Council).  2005.  “Education  programme  models”.  In:  Forced 
Migration  Review,  22  (56). 

Obura,  A.  2003.  Never  again:  educational  reconstruction  in  Rwanda.  Paris:  11EP- 
UNESCO. 

Phelps,  M.R.  2001.  Accreditation  andthe  quality  assurance  system  for  higher  education.  Jakarta: 
Asian  Development  Bank 


Chapter  1 5 : 

Identification,  selection  and  recruitment  of  teachers  and  education  workers 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


1 5 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


CHAPTER 


15 


SECTION  4 


United  Nations  ] International 

Educational,  Scientific  and  [ Institute  for 

Cultural  Organization  * Educational 

Planning 


< 

w 


TEACHER  MOTIVATION, 
COMPENSATION  AND 
WORKING  CONDITIONS 


The  designations  employed  and  the  presentation  of 
material  throughout  this  review  do  not  imply  the  expression 
of  any  opinion  whatsoever  on  the  part  of  UNESCO  or  the 
IIEP  concerning  the  legal  status  of  any  country,  territory, 
city  or  area  or  its  authorities,  or  concerning  its  frontiers 
or  boundaries. 

The  publication  costs  of  this  study  have  been  covered 
through  a grant-in-aid  offered  by  UNESCO  and  by 
voluntary  contributions  made  by  several  Member  States 
of  UNESCO. 


Published  by: 

International  Institute  for  Educational  Planning 
7-9  rue  Eugene  Delacroix,  75116  Paris 
e-mail:  info@iiep.unesco.org 
IIEP  web  site:  www.unesco.org/iiep 


Layout  and  cover  design:  Sabine  Lebeau 
Typesetting:  Sabine  Lebeau 
Printed  in  IIEP’s  printshop 
ISBN:  92-803-1288-X 
©UNESCO  2006 


Chapter  [F 


TEACHER  MOTIVATION,  COMPENSATION 
AND  WORKING  CONDITIONS 


^ MAIN  OBJECTIVES 


CONTEXT  AND  CHALLENGES 


• To  adequately  compensate  and 
recognize  the  efforts  of  teachers,  with 
regard  to  prevailing  conditions. 

• To  support  the  re-establishment  of  a 
proper  and  ongoing  system  of  educator 
payment. 

• To  enable  adequately  compensated 
educators  to  provide  a quality 
educational  service. 

• To  provide  teachers  with  the  necessary 
support  and  physical  conditions 

to  enhance  their  performance  and 
motivation. 


Teachers  are  the  most  important  factor  in 
determining  the  quality  of  education  that  children 
receive.  As  such,  governments  have  a responsibility 
to  ensure  that  teachers  perform  to  the  best  of 
their  abilities.  To  do  this,  governments  must 
pay  attention  to  a number  of  factors  that  affect 
teachers’  performance.  Teacher  compensation 
is  a critical,  but  not  the  only  factor  in  teacher 
motivation;  it  constitutes  both  a formal  and  a 
social  recognition  of  their  work.  Educators  may 
be  compensated  through  salaries  or  other  cash 
payments,  food,  training,  or  special  assistance 
such  as  shelter,  transport  or  agricultural  support. 
If  staff  are  not  paid,  they  will  not  teach  regularly 
or  will  leave  the  profession;  if  compensation 
is  irregular,  or  frequently  withheld,  teacher 
motivation  may  be  affected.  Therefore,  an 
established  teacher  compensation  system  helps 
to  stabilize  the  education  system  and  decreases 
teacher  absenteeism  and  turnover.  As  discussed 
in  the  Guidebook , Chapter  18 , ‘Teacher  training: 
teaching  and  learning  methods’,  compensation 
protects  the  investment  made  in  teacher 
training  programmes,  especially  those  that 
focus  on  relevant  and  meaningful  sensitization, 
methodology  and  new  topic  areas  where  trained 
teachers  are  usually  difficult  to  find. 


1 

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In  addition  to  compensation,  teachers  are  motivated  by  a range  of  other  factors  including: 


• Dedication  to  the  profession  and  teaching  children. 

• Success  in  the  classroom  - professional  rewards  of  seeing  children  achieve. 

• Status  in  their  communities  from  exercising  a respected  profession. 

• Training  and  mentoring,  particularly  recognized  and  certificated  in-service  training. 

• Appropriate  working  conditions  - including  issues  such  as  the  number  of  hours 
taught  each  week;  the  number  of  students  in  the  classroom,  support  of  the 
head-teacher,  availability  of  teaching  and  learning  materials,  parental  involvement 
and  support,  clear  school  policies  and  guidelines  and  the  physical  condition  of  the 
learning  space/classroom. 

• The  prospect  of  promotion  and  career  advancement. 

In  situations  of  emergency,  the  challenges  of  teacher  compensation,  motivation  and 
working  conditions  become  more  complex.  Frequently,  government  systems  break  down 
and  education  budgets  - many  of  which  were  limited  before  the  emergency  - are  reduced 
even  further.  Therefore,  although  the  government  is  responsible  for  paying  teachers, 
salaries  may  be  in  arrears,  and  as  a result  of  the  economic  disruption,  there  may  be  a lack 
of  a tax  base  to  pay  teachers.  Returnee  teachers  who  were  employed  by  the  government 
in  a specific  region  before  the  conflict  may  be  unable  to  access  their  salaries  in  the  areas 
to  which  they  return  (see  also  the  Guidebook , Chapter  15 , ‘Identification,  selection  and 
recruitment  of  teachers  and  education  workers’).  Teachers  often  do  not  receive  any  form 
of  compensation  for  months.  Initially  teachers  may  work  voluntarily,  but  they  will  quickly 
want  some  form  of  remuneration  for  their  services.  Therefore,  there  is  a need  to  establish 
a compensation/incentive  system  as  soon  as  possible  and  unless  this  is  prioritized,  there  will 
be  high  levels  of  turnover  as  teachers  leave  the  profession  in  search  of  other  employment. 
Where  necessary  (to  support  their  families),  teachers  may  take  on  other  work  in  addition 
to  teaching,  reducing  standards  and  teacher  attendance. 

At  the  same  time,  teachers  may  work  in  increasingly  difficult  conditions  with  overcrowded 
classes,  no  educational  materials  and  in  schools  where  the  buildings  have  been  damaged  or 
destroyed.  Often  they  will  be  forced  to  teach  in  temporary  or  open-air  classrooms  with  a 
severe  lack  of  resources.  They  may  be  targeted  by  armed  groups  or  there  may  be  insecurity 
that  decreases  their  motivation.  Teachers  in  insecure  areas  may  experience  high  levels 
of  stress  due  to  the  insecurity  - they  may  have  witnessed  atrocities;  or  family  members, 
students  or  colleagues  may  have  been  killed  or  are  missing.  They  may  also  have  to  deal  with 
traumatized  and  disturbed  students. 

In  such  situations,  governments  will  often  turn  to  the  international  community  for  support 
in  providing  educational  assistance  to  displaced  and  war-affected  populations.  Even  when 
such  assistance  is  provided,  however,  governments  must  still  play  a role  in  the  provision 


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of  education  to  their  citizens  and  to  refugees  in  their  country.1  United  Nations  agencies 
and  NGOs  may  support  educational  initiatives  as  an  interim  measure  to  supplement  the 
government’s  efforts,  but  co-ordination  may  be  difficult,  especially  where  distances  are 
considerable,  or  when  communications  are  disrupted.  Issues  such  as  compensation  of 
refugee  or  1DP  teachers  have  an  impact  on  local  economies  and  can  create  tensions  among 
government  educators  if,  for  example,  displaced  teachers  receive  a higher  salary  or  have 
better  working  conditions.  Compensation  scales  of  international  organizations  can  also 
have  a long-term  impact  on  national  education  budgets.  Therefore,  government  educational 
authorities  must  be  involved  in  the  development  of  emergency  education  programmes  to 
avoid  later,  unintended  consequences. 

Often,  in  refugee  situations,  little  financial  support  will  come  from  the  asylum  or  home 
government  to  pay  for  education  programmes.  Therefore,  these  are  often  partially  or 
completely  supported  by  the  international  community.  Refugee  teachers  will  likely  receive 
‘incentives’  rather  than  ‘salaries’  as  it  is  recognized  that  they  are  not  being  fully  compensated 
for  their  services.  There  will  be  a need  to  harmonize  teacher  compensation  with  that  of 
other  relief  workers.  Salaries  should  not  exceed  those  of  local  teachers  in  the  host  country 
or  teacher  salary  scales  in  the  country  of  origin  (this  rule  may  not  be  practicable  where  the 
education  system  in  the  emergency-affected  country  is  not  functioning  properly).  This 
is  to  avoid  disparities  between  groups,  the  provocation  of  tensions  and  the  creation  of 
unsustainable  funding  arrangements. 

As  repatriation/return  approaches,  the  government  will  need  to  reassume  responsibility  for 
teachers’  salaries.  Educational  authorities  must  consider  how  the  system  will  absorb  new/more 
teachers  and  how/whether  the  education  budget  can  accommodate  the  increase. 

This  chapter  is  specifically  focused  on  issues  related  to  teacher  motivation,  compensation 
and  working  conditions.  Readers  are  encouraged  to  also  review  the  Guidebook , Chapter  10, 
‘Learning  spaces  and  school  facilities’,  Chapter  18 , ‘Teacher  training:  teaching  and  learning 
methods’,  Chapter  27}  ‘Textbooks,  educational  materials  and  teaching  aids’  and  Chapter  32 , 
‘Community  participation’,  since  each  of  these  issues  also  has  an  effect  on  teacher  motivation 
and  working  conditions. 


1.  Countries  that  are  signatories  to  the  1951  Convention  relating  to  the  Status  of  Refugees  have  an  obligation  to 
admit  refugees  to  the  compulsory  stage  of  education  alongside  nationals,  but  in  many  impoverished  countries, 
schools  in  the  refugee-receiving  areas  cannot  accommodate  them.  Governments  therefore  facilitate  the 
provision  of  refugee  education  by  other  providers  such  as  NGOs,  often  funded  by  UNHCR  and  bilateral 
donors. 


Chapter  16:  Teacher  motivation,  compensation  and  working  conditions 

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SUGGESTED  STRATEGIES 


Summary  of  suggested  strategies 

Teacher  motivation,  compensation  and 
working  conditions 


1.  Conduct,  co-ordinate  or  facilitate  a survey  of 
teacher  remuneration  and  conditions  of  work  in 
the  emergency-affected  populations,  prepare 
a budget  for  government  teacher  salaries  and 
develop  a policy  on  remuneration  by  other 
education  providers. 


2.  Consider  non-monetary  forms  of  support 
that  can  be  provided  to  increase  teachers’ 
motivation,  in  addition  to  sal aries/cash 
payments. 


3.  Consider  initiatives  to  encourage  community 
support  of  teachers. 


4.  Review  financial  control  systems  related  to 
teacher  payment. 


5.  In  situations  where  teachers  or  educated  people 
have  fled  persecution,  ensure  that  payroll  lists 
cannot  be  used  as  a means  of  identifying  and 
targeting  individuals. 


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Guidance  notes 


L Conduct,  co-ordinate  or  facilitate  a survey  of  teacher  remuneration 
and  conditions  of  work  in  the  emergency-affected  populations,  prepare 
a budget  for  government  teacher  salaries  and  develop  a policy  on 
remuneration  by  other  education  providers ♦ 

(See  also  the  ‘Tools  and  resources’  section:  ‘INEE  minimum  standards’  for  more 
information  on  teachers’  salaries  and  working  conditions.) 

• Review  the  government  pay  scale,  and  current  levels  of  payment,  for  teachers 
and  other  education  workers  in  emergency-affected  areas. 

• Are  teachers  leaving  the  schools?  Why?  Are  they  getting  more  pay  elsewhere? 
If  so,  how  much? 

• What  are  teachers’  other  sources  of  income?  Can  these  be  enhanced  or  can 
the  pay  scale  be  adjusted  upwards? 

• Payment  or  compensation  scales  should  take  into  account  policies  of  non- 
discrimination by  gender,  ethnic  or  religious  group,  or  disability,  i.e.  equal  pay 
for  equal  work.  Make  sure  that  the  system  of  payment  is  based  on: 

- Qualifications. 

- Training. 

- Previous  teaching  experience  (if  this  can  be  validated). 

• Does  the  pay  scale  allow  unqualified  teachers  to  qualify  for  higher  salaries 
once  they  are  trained? 

• Determine  short-,  medium-  and  long-term  impacts  of  teacher  compensation  scales 
(See  also  the  Guidebook , Chapter  15 , ‘Identification,  selection  and  recruitment 
of  teachers  and  education  workers’  and  Chapter  35,  ‘Budget  and  financial 
management’.) 

• Calculate  the  overall  impact  on  the  education  budget  of  changing  the  pay 
scale  and/or  hiring  additional  teachers.  As  the  number  of  qualified  teachers 
increases,  the  budget  will  increase  accordingly  and  new  funds  must  be  made 
available. 

• Consider  the  long-range  implications  of  salary  scales.  A low  salary  scale  can 
be  adjusted  upwards,  while  a high  salary  scale  can  only  be  lowered  with  great 
difficulty. 

• Determine  whether  there  are  sufficient  funds  available  to  pay  government  teachers 
affected  by  emergency  or  post-conflict  conditions. 

• If  necessary,  seek  outside  support  - from  the  United  Nations,  World  Bank,  bilateral 
donors. 


Chapter  16:  Teacher  motivation,  compensation  and  working  conditions  5 

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TEACHER  SALARIES  IN  RECONSTRUCTION 


The  single  largest  cost  item  in  any  education  system  is  the  salary  bill  for  teachers,  accounting 
for  more  than  70  per  cent  of  recurrent  spending  in  most  developing  countries.  Across  these 
countries,  there  is  wide  variation  in  average  annual  salaries,  typically  ranging  from  0.6  to  9.6 
times  per  capita  gross  domestic  product  (GDP).  An  appropriate  target  for  developing  country 
ministries  of  education  by  2015  is  3.5  times  per  capita  GDP,  as  this  is  a sustainable  level  of 
expenditure.  Because  the  average  level  of  teacher  salaries  is  a very  politically  sensitive  issue,  the 
pace  at  which  that  target  figure  may  be  reached  will  vary  from  country  to  country. 

For  countries  below  the  target,  where  average  salaries  need  to  be  raised,  the  political  dynamics 
are  easier.  Given  the  positive  impact  on  system  quality  such  a change  could  have,  it  would  be 
desirable  to  implement  such  a reform  as  quickly  as  possible.  Unlike  other  parameters  (such  as 
lowering  the  pupil-teacher  ratio,  which  requires  additional  classroom  construction),  it  is  also 
technically  possible  to  implement  an  upward  salary  adjustment  almost  immediately.  And,  given 
the  political  popularity  of  such  a move,  implementing  it  sooner  rather  than  later  could  help 
consolidate  support  for  a reform  programme  as  a whole. 

The  major  constraint  to  this  particular  reform  is  fiscal  sustainability,  not  political  opposition. 
But  as  countries’  adoption  of  needed  reforms,  such  as  salary  adjustment,  would  constitute 
a credible  plan  for  EFA  attainment,  it  is  justifiable  that  any  resulting  financing  gaps  would  be 
supported  by  international  donors. 

It  is  essential  that  such  a reform  be  implemented  in  an  intelligent  manner  that  would  maximize 
the  positive  impact  on  schooling  quality  — for  example,  by  establishing  new  and  higher 
standards,  weeding  out  the  weakest  performers,  introducing  a structure  of  incentives  to  reward 
performance,  and  putting  in  place  stringent  processes  for  new  teacher  selection. 

The  size  of  the  upward  adjustment,  which  is  very  significant  in  some  cases,  raises  obvious 
questions  about  the  realism  of  assuming  that  such  a change  could  be  implemented  for  one 
segment  of  the  civil  service  in  isolation. 

Because  raising  average  salaries  can  be  expected  to  improve  the  quality  of  the  teaching  force 
as  well  as  reduce  absenteeism,  stimulate  greater  accountability  for  teaching  effectiveness,  and 
create  incentives  for  high  performance  or  deployment  to  remote  areas,  it  is  considered  a quality 
improvement  in  countries  with  salaries  currently  below  the  target. 

For  countries  with  teacher  salaries  above  the  target  level  of  3.5  times  per  capita  GDP,  the 
adjustment  downward  is  considered  an  efficiency  improvement.  Since  it  is  legally  and  politically 
impossible  in  most  contexts  to  reduce  the  salaries  of  civil  servants,  this  reform  must  be 
implemented  in  an  especially  gradual  way.  It  should  be  assumed  that  a new  cadre  of  teachers 
is  recruited  at  the  pace  of  new  classroom  construction  and  paid  at  the  target  level  of  3.5  times 
the  per  capita  GDP,  and  that  all  recruitment  of  higher-paid  civil-service  teachers  is  suspended. 
A number  of  countries  in  francophone  Africa  and  elsewhere  have  in  fact  implemented  such  a 
reform  in  teacher  contracting  and  have  generally  found  no  shortage  of  well-qualified  candidates 
willing  to  work  at  the  lower  salary  level,  suggesting  that  the  higher  salary  is  not  (or  is  no  longer) 
an  efficiency  wage  in  these  economies.  However,  the  longer-term  impact  of  this  reform  on 
teacher  motivation  and  performance  and  student  learning,  as  well  as  its  political  sustainability, 
are  still  open  questions  and  merit  further  research. 

Incumbent  teachers  should  continue  to  be  paid  on  their  current  salary  scale,  but  over  time  their 
weight  in  the  overall  salary  bill  will  diminish  through  retirement.  Thus,  the  average  salary  will 
approach  the  target  level. 


Source:  Adapted  from  Bruns  eta/.  (2003:  74-7 


6 


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• Develop  a policy  for  remuneration  by  other  education  providers,  e.g.  NGOs. 

• Co-ordinate  pay  scales  with  the  organizations  involved.  (See  also  the  ‘Tools  and 
resources’  section  for  ideas  on  how  NGOs  can  support  education  in  emergencies, 
and  the  Guidebook , Chapter  37}  ‘Donor  relations  and  funding  mechanisms’.) 

• Inform  outside  agencies  of  the  government’s  pay  scale. 

• In  refugee  situations,  is  there  a government  or  refugee  camp  salary  scale  in 

place? 

- How  do  the  salaries  of  teachers/facilitators  and  educational  staff  compare 
to  those  of  local,  government  teachers? 

- How  do  salaries  compare  to  those  of  teachers  in  the  refugees’  home 
country?  (This  will  have  an  impact  on  their  eventual  return.) 

- When  developing  a salary  scale  for  refugee  teachers,  the  base  wage  should 
not  be  less  than  the  earnings  of  unskilled  labour  and  petty  traders  in  order 
to  avoid  teacher  turnover.  If  the  salary  or  incentives  are  too  high,  however, 
a precedent  may  be  set  that  prevents  the  government  and  NGOs  from 
implementing  services  in  the  future,  and  may  deter  repatriation. 

- Ideally,  salary  scales  in  the  education  and  health  sectors  (the  two  largest 
employers  in  crisis  situations)  should  be  the  same  to  avoid  strikes  and  riots 
later. 

- Wherever  possible,  it  is  better  to  delay  the  establishment  of  a monetary 
increase  every  year  and  explore  alternatives  such  as  the  provision  of  tools, 
seeds  or  rucksacks  to  teachers 

• In  some  instances,  three  pay  scales  must  be  developed  to  accommodate  hiring: 

- Members  of  the  emergency-affected  community. 

- Local  professionals  from  the  area. 

- Skilled  professionals  from  outside  the  immediate  area  who  are  hired 
because  of  their  special  expertise,  e.g.  secondary  education  teachers  or 
teachers  who  work  with  children  with  disabilities. 


Q TEACHER  PAYMENTS  IN  REFUGEE  SITUATIONS 


In  Tanzania,  a single  simple  pay  scale  was  adopted  for  refugee  and  Tanzanian  educators. 
The  payment  matrix  included  a modest  pay  scale  for  refugee  staff  (who  also  benefited  from 
relief  assistance  such  as  free  food,  health  care  and  shelter),  a slightly  higher  pay  scale  for 
locally  recruited  national  staff  (to  compensate  for  their  not  receiving  relief  assistance)  and 
a significantly  higher  pay  scale  for  staff  recruited  from  the  capital,  who  had  to  relocate  and 
perhaps  maintain  two  homes. 

Over  seven  years,  Liberian  refugee  teachers  in  Guinea  and  Cote  d’Ivoire  slowly  increased 
their  salaries  to  US$80  per  month.  Upon  repatriation,  however,  the  Liberian  government 
could  only  pay  US$10  per  month,  which  created  a disincentive  to  repatriate  and  for  those 
who  did  return,  a disincentive  to  continue  teaching  - further  disrupting  the  education  of 
the  children. 


Source:  Sinclair  (2002)  and  Julian  Watson,  personal  communication. 


Chapter  16:  Teacher  motivation,  compensation  and  working  conditions 

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• Education  systems  are  typically  the  largest  employers  in  areas  of  conflict.  For  this 
reason,  such  employment  should  benefit  as  many  people  as  possible. 

• Educators  should  not  have  more  than  one  job. 

• Women,  especially  those  who  are  single  with  children,  should  be  considered 
for  teaching  and  non-teaching  jobs. 

2 * Consider  non-monetary  forms  of  support  that  can  be  provided  to 
increase  teachers’  motivation,  in  addition  to  salaries/cash  payments* 

There  are  a number  of  alternative  sources  of  incentives  and  support: 

• In-service  training  to  support  teachers  in  their  task  and  provide  necessary 
motivation. 

• Mentoring  systems  to  support  teachers. 

• Other,  non-cash  incentives,  such  as  food  or  housing  allowances. 

• Bicycles,  if  distances  are  great  between  teachers’  homes  and  their  schools. 

• Improvements  in  working  conditions  (see  also  the  Guidebook , Chapter  10 , ‘Learning 
spaces  and  school  facilities’  and  Chapter  27,  ‘Textbooks,  educational  materials  and 
teaching  aids’). 

• How  many  children  are  in  the  classroom?  Are  there  systems  in  place  to 
evaluate  whether  classrooms  are  overcrowded,  and  what  can  be  done  to 
assist  teachers  who  have  too  many  students  (e.g.  hiring  additional  teachers, 
hiring  classroom  aids  or  engaging  community  volunteers)? 

• What  are  the  physical  conditions  in  which  teachers  work?  Are  classrooms 
large  enough  to  accommodate  all  the  children  comfortably?  What  can  be  done 
to  improve  classroom  space,  e.g.  efforts  to  make  classrooms  more  soundproof 
so  that  teachers  and  students  can  hear  and  engage  in  learning  more  effec- 
tively, provision  of  movable  furniture  so  children  can  work  in  groups,  etc.? 

• Do  the  teachers  have  teaching  and  learning  materials  to  assist  them  with 
lesson  planning  and  preparation?  Issue  a complete  set  of  textbooks  and 
teacher  guides  to  each  teacher,  if  not  already  provided. 

3*  Consider  initiatives  to  encourage  community  support  of  teachers* 

Head  teachers  and  supervisors  can  be  trained  in  promoting  community  support 

for  schools,  which  may  also  benefit  teachers.  (See  also  the  Guidebook , Chapter  32, 

‘Community  participation’.) 

• Can  communities  contribute  to  the  payment  of  teachers? 

• Can  communities  provide  other  forms  of  compensation  such  as  food  or  housing? 

• If  cleaners,  guards,  or  cooks  are  paid  out  of  the  education  budget,  can  the 
community  take  responsibility  for  these  tasks? 


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• Are  there  other  forms  of  support  that  communities  can  provide,  e.g.  special  events 
to  recognize  teachers’  efforts,  support  to  school  gardening  projects,  physical  labour 
to  construct  classrooms  in  order  to  improve  the  learning  environment  for  teachers 
and  students,  etc.? 

4 ♦ Review  financial  control  systems  related  to  teacher  payment ♦ 

Government  and  other  education  providers  should  review  their  systems  of  financial 

control.  (See  also  the  Guidebook,  Chapter  35,  'Budget  and  financial  management’.) 

• By  what  mechanism  do  teacher  actually  receive  their  salary?  Are  they  being 
paid  regularly  and  on  time?  Who  handles  the  money?  Are  teachers  receiving 
the  correct  amount?  If  not,  review  the  payment  process  to  determine  necessary 
controls  to  minimize  corruption  in  the  teacher  payment  process. 

• Are  teachers  paid  in  cash?  If  so,  are  systems  in  place  to  move  this  amount  of 
hard  currency  safely  into  the  field?  Is  it  possible  to  pay  teachers  through  a local 
bank? 

• Are  teachers  in  remote  rural  areas  required  to  travel  periodically  to  a town,  or  to 
the  capital  city,  to  receive  their  payments?  This  disrupts  their  classroom  duties. 
If  so,  make  arrangements  for  local  payment  of  salaries. 

• Does  the  school  administration  deduct  items  such  as  union  dues  out  of  the  wages? 
How  has  this  been  decided?  Are  the  dues  accounted  for? 

• Are  there  mechanisms  to  ensure  that  only  active  teachers  and  not  ghost  teachers’ 
are  on  the  payroll?  Ghost  teachers  may  include  teachers  in  exile,  teachers  who 
have  obtained  other  employment  but  are  still  receiving  their  teacher  salaries,  or 
deceased  teachers. 

5*  In  situations  where  teachers  or  educated  people  have  fled  persecution, 
ensure  that  payroll  lists  cannot  be  used  as  a means  of  identifying  and 
targeting  individuals. 

• Consider  who  has  access  to  the  lists. 

• Store  the  lists  in  a safe  and  secure  location  with  limited  access. 


Chapter  16:  Teacher  motivation,  compensation  and  working  conditions 

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TOOLS  AND  RESOURCES 


1*  INEE  minimum  standards  for  teachers1  compensation  and  working 
conditions 

Standard  2:  Work  conditions 

Teachers  and  other  education  personnel  have  clearly  defined  conditions  of  work,  follow 

a code  of  conduct  and  are  appropriately  compensated. 

Key  indicators 

• Compensation  and  conditions  of  work  are  specified  in  a job  contract,  and  compensation 
is  provided  on  a regular  basis,  related  to  the  level  of  professionalism  and  efficiency  of 
work. 

• International  actors  co-ordinate  with  educational  authorities,  community  education 
committees  and  NGOs  to  develop  appropriate  strategies,  and  agree  to  use  fair, 
acceptable  and  sustainable  remuneration  scales  for  the  various  categories  and  levels 
of  teachers  and  other  education  personnel. 

• The  code  of  conduct  and  defined  conditions  of  work  are  developed  in  a participatory 
manner,  involving  both  education  personnel  and  community  members,  and  there  are 
clear  implementation  guidelines. 

• The  code  of  conduct  is  signed  and  followed  by  education  personnel,  and  appropriate 
measures  are  documented  and  applied  in  cases  of  misconduct  and/or  violation  of  the 
code  of  conduct. 


INEE  minimum  standards  guidance  notes 

1*  Conditions  of  work  should  specify  job  description,  compensation,  attendance, 
hours/days  of  work,  length  of  contract,  support  and  supervision  mechanisms,  and 
dispute  resolution  mechanisms  (see  also  'Standard  1,  guidance  note  V above). 

2*  Compensation  can  be  monetary  or  non-monetary,  should  be  appropriate  (as  agreed 
upon),  and  paid  regularly.  The  appropriate  level  of  compensation  should  be  determined 
through  a participatory  process  ensuring  co-ordination  between  the  actors  involved. 
It  should  aim  to  be  at  a level  that  ensures  professionalism  and  continuity  of  service 
and  sustainability.  In  particular,  it  should  be  sufficient  to  enable  teachers  to  focus 
on  their  professional  work  rather  than  having  to  seek  additional  sources  of  income 
to  meet  their  basic  needs.  Compensation  should  be  contingent  on  adherence  to  the 
conditions  of  work  and  code  of  conduct. 

Care  should  be  taken  to  avoid  a situation  where  teachers  from  different  backgrounds 
(e.g.  nationals  and  refugees)  receive  different  levels  of  pay.  Key  actors  should  be 


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involved  in  the  development  of  long-term  strategies  for  a sustainable  compensation 
system.  There  should  be  co-ordination  between  United  Nations  agencies,  NGOs, 
educational  authorities  and  other  organizations  to  determine  common  levels  of 
compensation. 

3*  The  code  of  conduct  should  set  clear  standards  of  behaviour  for  education  personnel 
and  specify  the  mandatory  consequences  for  persons  who  do  not  comply  with  these 
standards.  The  code  should  apply  to  the  learning  environment  and  to  education 
programme  events  or  activities.  The  code  should  ensure  that  teachers  and  education 
personnel  promote  a positive  learning  environment  and  the  well-being  of  learners. 

The  code  should  state,  among  other  things,  that  education  personnel: 

• Exhibit  professional  behaviour  by  maintaining  a high  standard  of  conduct,  self- 
control  and  moral/ethical  behaviour. 

• Participate  in  creating  an  environment  in  which  all  students  are  accepted. 

• Maintain  a safe  and  healthy  environment,  free  from  harassment  (including  sexual 
harassment),  intimidation,  abuse  and  violence,  and  discrimination. 

• Maintain  regular  attendance  and  punctuality. 

• Demonstrate  professionalism  and  efficiency  in  their  work. 

• Exhibit  other  behaviours  as  deemed  appropriate  by  the  community  and  education 
stakeholders. 

4*  Code  implementation  guidelines:  there  should  be  training  on  the  code  of 
conduct  for  all  education  and  non-education  personnel  who  work  in  the  learning 
environment.  Training  and  support  should  be  provided  to  members  of  community 
education  committees  and  education  supervisors  and  managers  on  their  roles  and 
responsibilities  in  monitoring  the  implementation  of  codes  of  conduct.  They  should 
also  be  helped  to  identify  and  incorporate  key  concerns  around  codes  of  conduct 
into  school/non-formal  education  programme  action  plans.  Supervisory  mechanisms 
should  establish  transparent  reporting  and  monitoring  procedures,  which  protect  the 
confidentiality  of  all  parties  involved. 

Source:  INEE  (2004:  67-68). 


Chapter  16:  Teacher  motivation,  compensation  and  working  conditions  11 


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2.  INEE  minimum  standards  - teacher's  code  of  conduct 


At  all  times,  the  teacher: 

• Acts  in  a manner  that  maintains  the  honour  and  dignity  of  the  profession. 

• Protects  the  confidentiality  of  anything  said  by  a student  in  confidence. 

• Protects  students  from  conditions  that  interfere  with  learning  or  are  harmful  to  the 
students'  health  and  safety. 

• Does  not  take  advantage  of  his  or  her  position  to  profit  in  any  way. 

• Does  not  sexually  harass  any  student  or  have  any  manner  of  sexual  relationship  with 
a student. 

• Is  a good,  honest  role  model. 

In  the  classroom,  the  teacher: 

• Promotes  a positive  and  safe  learning  environment. 

• Teaches  in  a manner  that  respects  the  dignity  and  rights  of  all  students. 

• Promotes  students'  self-esteem,  confidence  and  self-worth. 

• Promotes  high  expectations  of  students  and  helps  each  student  to  reach  his/her 
potential. 

• Encourages  students  to  develop  as  active,  responsible  and  effective  learners. 

• Creates  an  atmosphere  of  trust. 

In  his/her  professional  life,  the  teacher: 

• Displays  a basic  competence  in  educational  methodology  and  his/her  subject. 

• Displays  an  understanding  (in  his/her  teaching)  of  how  children  learn. 

• Is  always  on  time  for  class  and  prepared  to  teach. 

• Does  not  engage  in  activities  that  adversely  affect  the  quality  of  his/her  teaching. 

• Takes  advantage  of  all  professional  development  opportunities  and  uses  modern, 
accepted  teaching  methods. 

• Teaches  principles  of  good  citizenship,  peace  and  social  responsibility. 

• Honestly  represents  each  student's  performance  and  examination  results. 

With  respect  to  the  community,  the  teacher: 

• Encourages  parents  to  support  and  participate  in  their  children's  learning. 

• Recognizes  the  importance  of  family  and  community  involvement  in  school. 

• Supports  and  promotes  a positive  image  of  the  school. 

In  addition  to  the  items  mentioned  here,  the  teacher  is  expected  to  abide  by  all  other  rules 
and  policies  of  the  wider  environment  (camp,  school,  etc.). 

Source:  INEE  (2004:  70). 


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3.  NGO  support  to  education  in  emergencies2 


Governments  in  disaster  and  post-conflict  situations  often  do  not  have  the  funds  to  pay 
teachers  an  appropriate  wage.  The  matrix  below  presents  some  ideas  for  how  NGOs  can 
support  government  schools,  and  some  potential  positive  and  negative  impacts  of  each 
strategy. 


POSITIVE  IMPACTS 

NEGATIVE  IMPACTS 

STRATEGIES  TO  ASSIST  THE  GOVERNMENT 

NGO  pays  teachers  and 
school  administrators 
a full  or  partial  salary 
while  government 
systems  are  established 

• Education  system  starts  and 
maximum  number  of  children  attends 
school. 

• Undermines  government 
authority 

• Unsustainable  and  raises 
the  question  of  when  the 
government  will  be  able  - or 
willing  - to  pay  salaries 

• May  create  disincentives  for 
teachers  to  continue  teaching 
after  NGO  programme  ends 

NGO  pays 

incentives  - all  teachers 
receive  the  same 
amount  regardless 
of  experience  and 
qualifications  - for  a 
limited  period,  e.g. 
the  duration  of  a 
programme. 

The  expectation  is  that 
the  government  will 
resume  payment  of 
teacher  salaries  as  soon 
as  possible 

• Pressure  on  government  to  receive 
and  take  responsibility  for  the 
teachers  as  well  as  for  children  and  for 
new  classrooms  as  part  of  the  total 
programme 

• Trained  teachers  will  continue 
teaching;  children  who  complete 
NGO  programmes  can  enter  public 
school  system  afterwards 

• New  teachers  prove  their  skills 
and  government  has  some  time 
to  consider  and  plan  for  additional 
salaries 

• Teachers  will  be  unhappy  with 
the  incentive  system  and  the 
lack  of  a pay  scale 

• Despite  an  agreed  commitment 
to  pay  salaries,  the  government 
may  be  unable  or  unwilling  to 
pay  the  salaries  regularly.  This 
will  result  in  severe  motivation 
problems  for  teachers  who 
have  become  used  to  regular 
payments  from  the  NGO 

NGO  advocacy  with 
local  government  to 
compensate  teachers 

• Additional  pressure  on  the 
government  to  pay  teachers 

• Identification  of  whether  the  problem 
is  lack  of  money  or  administrative  (e.g. 
no  computers  to  compile  payroll  or 
transportation  to  deliver  salaries  to 
schools) 

• Identification  of  alternative  means  to 
support  teachers.  In  some  countries, 
teachers  and  civil  servants  are  given 
an  allocation  of  farmable  land  instead 
of  monetary  compensation. 

• Possible  loss  of  political 
capital  and  leverage  on  a very 
complicated  and  political  issue 

NGO  advocacy  with 
donors 

• Pressure  on  the  local  government 
separate  from  NGOs 

• Possible  attention  and  assistance 

• Possible  loss  of  political  leverage 

2.  This  matrix  is  adapted  from  the  Inter-agency  Network  for  Education  in  Emergencies  (INEE)  Good  practice 
guides:  compensation  and  payment  of  educational  staff  which  can  be  found  at  http://www.ineesite.org/ 
edstruc/payment.asp. 


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POSITIVE  IMPACTS 

NEGATIVE  IMPACTS 

STRATEGIES  TO  SUPPORT  SCHOOLS  THROUGH  COMMUNITIES 

Help  in  establishing  school  fees 
(and  exemptions  for  the  poor) 

• Sustainable 

• Typically  part  of  the  pre- 
conflict culture 

• Some  children  might  be  able  to 
attend  school 

• Some  children  might  not  be 
able  to  attend  school 

• Fees  might  not  provide 
adequate  income  to  teachers 

NGO  support  for  school 
agriculture  or  income  generation 
projects  (cash  crops,  animal 
husbandry,  bees) 

• Sustainable  (but  often 
ineffectual  since  school 
administration,  parents 
and  teachers  may  not  be 
good  managers  of  income 
generation  projects) 

• Typically  part  of  the  pre- 
conflict culture 

• Educational  opportunity  in 
regard  to  teaching  agriculture, 
business,  and  animal 
husbandry 

• Students,  often  of  one  gender, 
are  frequently  used  for  labour 
in  the  school  fields,  taking 
away  from  the  time  they  could 
be  studying 

• Takes  school  administrators’ 
time  away  from  education 

Teacher  housing 
incentives  (NGO 
to  build  houses  for 
returning  teachers) 

On  school 
compound 

• Can  enhance  school’s 
permanent  capital 

• May  hinder  permanent 
settlement  of  families  since 
they  are  living  on  school 
property 

• Creates  a precedent  for 
returning  teachers  and  other 
professionals 

Off  school 
compound 

• Enhances  community  and 
family  return 

• Disadvantages  teachers  who 
stayed  during  the  crisis 

Paying  school  teachers  for 
additional  work  on  NGO 
sponsored  supplementary 
education  projects,  such  as  adult 
literacy 

• Provides  services  for  other 
portions  of  the  population 

• Lays  the  groundwork  for  these 
services  being  included  in  the 
national  agenda 

• Potentially  overworks  teachers 
and  school  administrators 

• Potentially  unsustainable  by 
the  community  and  by  the 
government 

NGO  support  for  creation  of  a 
mentoring  system  for  teachers 
in  which  mentors  receive  an 
incentive 

• Increases  the  quality  of 
education 

• Unsustainable 

• Assists  few  teachers 
financially 

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REFERENCES  AND  FURTHER  READING 


Bruns,  B.;  Mingat,  A.;  Rakotomalala,  R.  2003.  Achieving  universal  primary  education  by  2015: 
a chance  for  every  child . Washington,  DC:  World  Bank. 

Chapman,  D.  1994.  Reducing  teacher  absenteeism  and  attrition:  causes , consequences  and 
responses . Paris:  11EP-UNESCO. 

1NEE  (Inter-Agency  Network  for  Education  in  Emergencies).  2002.  “Education  structures 
and  management:  compensation  and  payment  of  educational  staff”.  In:  Good  practice 
guides  for  emergency  education . Retrieved  26  August  2005  from 
http://www.ineesite.org/edstruc/payment.asp 

1NEE  (Inter-Agency  Network  for  Education  in  Emergencies).  2003.  “Assessment  of  teacher/ 
facilitator  availability  and  capacity,  including  selection”.  In:  Good  practice  guides  for 
emergency  education . Retrieved  26  August  2005  from 
http://www.ineesite.org/assess/teacher.asp 

1NEE  (Inter-Agency  Network  for  Education  in  Emergencies).  2004.  Minimum  standards  for 
education  in  emergencies , chronic  crises  and  early  reconstruction . Paris:  1NEE. 

Johannessen,  E.  M.  Forthcoming.  Management  of  teachers  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction. 
Paris:  11EP-UNESCO. 

Mehrotra,  S.;  Buckland,  P.  1998.  “Managing  teacher  costs  for  access  and  quality.”  UNICEF 
staff  working  papers,  evaluation,  policy  and  planning  series,  EPP-EVL-98-004. 

Sinclair,  M.  2002.  Planning  education  in  and  after  emergencies.  (Fundamentals  of  educational 
planning  no.  73).  Paris:  11EP-UNESCO. 


Chapter  16:  Teacher  motivation,  compensation  and  working  conditions 

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1 5 


CHAPTER 


16 


SECTION  4 


United  Nations  ] International 

Educational,  Scientific  and  [ Institute  for 

Cultural  Organization  * Educational 

Planning 


o 

w 


Chapter 


MEASURING  AND  MONITORING 

TEACHERS'  IMPACT 


The  designations  employed  and  the  presentation  of 
material  throughout  this  review  do  not  imply  the  expression 
of  any  opinion  whatsoever  on  the  part  of  UNESCO  or  the 
IIEP  concerning  the  legal  status  of  any  country,  territory, 
city  or  area  or  its  authorities,  or  concerning  its  frontiers 
or  boundaries. 

The  publication  costs  of  this  study  have  been  covered 
through  a grant-in-aid  offered  by  UNESCO  and  by 
voluntary  contributions  made  by  several  Member  States 
of  UNESCO. 


Published  by: 

International  Institute  for  Educational  Planning 
7-9  rue  Eugene  Delacroix,  75116  Paris 
e-mail:  info@iiep.unesco.org 
IIEP  web  site:  www.unesco.org/iiep 


Layout  and  cover  design:  Sabine  Lebeau 
Typesetting:  Sabine  Lebeau 
Printed  in  IIEP’s  printshop 
ISBN:  92-803-1288-X 
©UNESCO  2006 


Chapter 


MEASURING  AND  MONITORING  TEACHERS'  IMPACT 


^ MAIN  OBJECTIVE 

• To  improve  the  quality  of  education 
through  support  and  guidance  to 
teachers  in  their  workplace. 


CONTEXT  AND  CHALLENGES 

In  emergencies  and  early  reconstruction, 
there  are  often  teachers  who  are  new  to  the 
profession,  and  all  teachers  and  head-teachers 
have  to  face  unusual  difficulties.  Teachers  may 
be  isolated  and  it  may  be  difficult  for  inspectors 
or  monitors  physically  to  access  teachers  and 
schools  to  observe  and  support  them. 

Most  education  programmes  organize  in-service 
training  courses  for  teachers,  if  the  emergency 
conditions  permit.  However,  the  desired  result 
is  good  education  in  the  schools.  To  ensure  that 
this  takes  place,  education  programmes  employ 
field  staff  with  administrative  and  advisory 
functions.  In  some  cases,  these  functions  are 
performed  by  separate  people  while  in  others 
they  are  combined. 

New  teachers  without  proper  qualifications  and 
training  receive  quick  induction  training  and  will 
need  more  observation  and  guidance.  These 
teachers  should  be  evaluated  against  their  actual 
level  of  experience  and  training.  Traditional 
expectations  of  teachers’  performance  may  need 
to  be  reviewed  and  adjusted  accordingly. 

Emergency  situations  often  provide  the 
opportunity  for  participatory  and  child-centred 
methods  to  be  introduced.  Teachers  who  are  not 
familiar  with  these  methods  will  need  training 
and  follow-on  support  in  order  to  implement 
these  methods  successfully. 

New  subjects  or  topics  such  as  landmine 
awareness,  environmental  awareness,  material  on 
safe  drinking  water  and  other  health  and  hygiene 
issues,  HIV/AIDS  prevention  or  peace  education 
may  have  been  added  to  the  curriculum.  Methods 


1 

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for  measuring  teachers’  impact  and  providing  in-school  support  with  regard  to  these  new 
topics  will  need  to  be  developed,  and  will  help  guide  training  in  these  subjects. 

In  refugee  and  1DP  emergencies,  measuring  and  monitoring  teachers’  impact  may  be  done 
by  NGOs,  United  Nations  agencies,  government  inspectors  or  some  combination  of  these, 
and  a co-ordinated  approach  is  needed.  Agencies  must  be  encouraged  to  keep  systematic 
records  of  teachers’  performance,  which  will  be  needed  to  facilitate  their  return  and  be 
recognition  of  their  qualifications  and  experience. 

In  early  reconstruction,  teacher  supervision  and  guidance  will  likely  be  done  by  regular 
government  inspectors,  but  they  may  have  little  access  to  initially  insecure  rural  areas. 
Returnee  teachers  must  be  informed  of  new  expectations  and  of  the  government’s 
inspection/observation  policy.  Governments  must  further  increase  their  field  supervision 
capacity  to  absorb  new  teachers  into  the  system,  at  a time  when  experienced  personnel 
are  scarce  and  busy  with  many  reconstruction  tasks. 

Teacher  evaluations  will  need  to  be  adapted  in  order  to  take  into  account  the  circumstances 
that  teachers  face  in  their  classrooms.  For  example: 

• Children  may  have  been  out  of  school  for  a long  time.  What  impact  does  this  have 
on  the  teacher’s  ability  to  perform  effectively? 

• Children  may  be  hungry.  Is  there  a school  feeding  programme  to  support  them 
so  that  when  they  are  in  the  classroom  they  are  able  to  concentrate? 

• Children  may  have  special  emotional  needs.  Have  they  been  severely  traumatized? 
If  so,  this  will  have  an  impact  on  their  ability  to  learn. 

• Teachers  may  also  have  faced  traumas,  and  need  help  coping  with  it. 

• Large  classes  may  make  it  difficult  for  the  teachers  to  do  their  job  and  for  students 
to  learn. 

• Teaching  and  learning  materials  may  be  scarce. 

Administrative  issues  facing  teacher  supervisors  include  ensuring  that  teachers  attend 
school  regularly,  act  in  line  with  procedures  and  policies,  and  conduct  themselves  in  an 
ethical  manner  (e.g.  not  harassing  colleagues  and  students).  Field  staff  combine  this  with 
other  administrative  tasks  such  as  checking  the  attendance  records  of  pupils,  looking  into 
the  condition  of  buildings,  furniture  and  equipment,  distributing  materials,  and  so  on.  This 
administrative  role  has  a disciplinary  aspect,  in  that  head-teachers  and  teachers  can  be 
penalized  for  not  observing  the  rules. 

It  is  difficult  to  combine  this  administrative  and  disciplinary  aspect  with  the  role  of  mobile 
trainer  and  adviser.  Nevertheless,  in  many  places  the  two  roles  are  combined,  in  the  ‘inspector’ 
or  ‘supervisor’.  This  is  often  due  to  logistical  factors.  Especially  in  rural  areas,  it  may  not  be 
practicable  to  send  administrators  and  advisers  separately  to  remote  locations.  This  is  even 
more  true  if  the  area  is  insecure,  if  public  transport  is  not  operating,  and  if  there  is  limited  budget 


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or  fuel  for  field  missions.  If  however,  there  is  a concentrated  population,  combined  with  a large 
number  of  new  teachers,  as  is  often  the  case  in  a refugee  situation,  then  it  may  be  possible  to 
separate  the  two  roles,  as  was  done,  for  example,  in  the  refugee  schools  in  Guinea.  (See  the 
example  in  the  Guidebook , Chapter  18,  ‘Teacher  training:  teaching  and  learning  methods’.) 


Recent  trends  in  teacher  supervision 

In  many  countries,  these  trends  are  being  observed  (Carron  and  De  Grauwe,  1997): 


• More  coherent  job  descriptions  for  supervisors.  This  implies  separating  advisory 
from  control  functions  and  administrative  from  pedagogic  duties.  Many  countries 
are  moving  in  this  direction. 

• More  openness  and  transparency  regarding  reports  and  assessments  from 
supervisors. 

• More  openness  and  discussion  with  those  being  appraised.  Clear  criteria  and 
procedures  are  being  established  for  appraisal  and  assessment. 

• Strengthening  follow-up  actions  on  supervision  meaning  that  the  supervision 
has  to  include  conversations  with  the  supervisees  and  also  to  make  sure  that  the 
supervisors  recommendations  are  being  implemented. 

• A change  from  individual  teacher  supervision  to  whole  school  evaluation. 

• Increasing  involvement  of  supervision  and  support  services  in  system  evaluation. 


Q FIELD  SUPERVISION:  THE  SUPPORT  SYSTEM  IN  GTZ’S  BASIC  EDUCATION  FOR 
AFGHAN  REFUGEE’S  (BEFARE)  PRIMARY  SCHOOL  PROGRAMME  FOR  AFGHAN 
REFUGEES  IN  PAKISTAN 

The  BEFARe  teachers  have  completed  grade  12  and  a 10  days’  basic  training  course  only.  The 
training  is  not  sufficient,  but  the  field  education  supervisors  (FES)  support  the  teachers  regularly. 
They  visit  the  schools  once  or  twice  a week  and  observe  the  teachers  in  the  classroom.  The 
steady  presence  of  a FES  keeps  the  teacher  on  the  right  track,  and  communicates  an  interest 
in  the  teacher’s  performance.  It  helps  him  or  her  to  translate  the  knowledge  and  skills  taught 
in  the  basic  training  course  to  the  classroom.  The  FES  also  notes  attendance  and  dropouts. 
FES  co-operates  closely  with  the  Head  teacher  (HT)  and  reports  what  he/she  has  observed. 
The  field  education  supervisor  also  needs  support,  training  and  supervision.  Here  is  where  the 
master  trainer  (MT)  comes  in.  His/her  job  is  to  supervise  the  FES,  and  to  train  them.  The  MT  and 
FES  report  to  the  BEFARe  regional  sub-centre. 

Without  a support  system,  it  would  not  have  been  possible  to  guide  the  teachers  in  the  right 
direction.  A basic  training  course  is  not  enough.  It  is  through  daily  teaching  that  the  teacher  is 
able  to  practise  what  he/she  has  learnt.  Regular  pedagogical  supervision  on  the  spot  invites 
the  teacher  to  revise  his/her  practice.  Through  refresher  courses,  which  are  based  on  the 
field  education  supervisors’  experience  from  the  supervision,  the  teachers  receive  necessary 
upgrading. 

Source:  Johannessen  etai  (2002:  50-51). 


Chapter  17:  Measuring  and  monitoring  teachers’  impact 


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3 


The  selection  and  training  of  supervisors 


There  is  a worldwide  tendency  to  think  that  any  experienced  teacher  can  be  a good 
supervisor.  This  is  only  one  criterion,  although  important.  Formal  qualifications  and 
experience  at  least  give  supervisors  the  necessary  authority  and  respect.  However,  this  is  not 
sufficient.  A good  supervisor  also  needs  to  be  a good  observer  and  to  be  able  to  base  his/her 
guidance  on  the  teachers  actual  performance  in  a way  that  is  supportive  and  encouraging. 
Another  criterion  is  to  make  sure  that  they  are  familiar  with  the  programme. 

Many  years  of  service  do  not  guarantee  that  teachers  are  suitable  to  supervise.  It  depends 
on  how  they  have  reflected  upon  their  experience  and  are  able  to  build  upon  it  when  advising 
others.  There  is,  however,  a worldwide  tendency  for  supervisors  to  be  promoted  on  the 
basis  of  their  experience  and  seniority  as  teachers.  Therefore,  the  inspectors  are  relatively 
old  and  perhaps  conservative  in  their  approach.  Fresh  blood  may  be  needed  to  renew  the 
system  and  the  ways  of  supervising.  One  solution  may  be  to  engage  people  on  shorter 
contracts,  so  that  inspectors  do  not  stay  in  their  position  indefinitely. 


Characteristics  of  good  supervision 

Before  supervisors  offer  comment,  they  should  allow  the  teacher  to  give  his  or  her  own 
assessment  of  the  lesson  that  has  just  been  observed. 

Teachers  often  welcome  supervision  that  is  based  on  detailed,  non-judgemental  observations 
and  are  interested  in  feedback,  even  when  they  work  under  very  difficult  circumstances. 
This  requires  that  supervisors: 

• Present  their  observations  in  a factual  way,  asking  for  the  teachers  comments. 

• Not  direct  teachers  to  teach  in  a way  they  have  not  been  trained  to  do  or  are  not 
familiar  with. 

• Start  by  looking  for  the  teachers  strengths. 

• Yet  be  able  to  correct  and  handle  weak  teaching  and  unacceptable  treatment  of 
pupils. 

Parents,  children,  teachers,  education  officials  and  the  community  are  all  affected  by 
teachers’  performance.  Therefore,  it  is  critical  that  each  of  these  stakeholders  has  an 
opportunity  to  be  involved  in  the  development  of  plans  and  procedures  for  measuring 
teachers’  impact.  Since  teachers  are  the  ones  who  will  be  directly  monitored,  however,  it 
is  essential  that  they  be  informed  clearly  on  how  this  will  be  done  and  on  what  basis  they 
will  be  assessed  under  the  actual  circumstances. 


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SUGGESTED  STRATEGIES 


Summary  of  suggested  strategies 

Measuring  and  monitoring  teachers1  impact 

Conduct,  co-ordinate  or  facilitate  a survey  of  teacher 
monitoring  and  in-school  support  in  the  emergency- 
affected  populations,  and  develop  policy  guidelines 
based  on  best  practice  among  education  providers* 


Guidance  notes 

1*  Conduct,  co-ordinate  or  facilitate  a survey  of  teacher  monitoring  and 
in-school  support  in  the  emergency-affected  populations,  and  develop 
policy  guidelines  based  on  best  practice  among  education  providers* 

(See  the  ‘Tools  and  resources’  section  for  more  information  on  supervision  and  support 
mechanisms  as  well  as  a sample  teachers’  performance  checklist.) 

• Consider  the  teacher’s  personal  situation  when  assessing  his/her  performance  in 

emergency  situations,  especially  initially. 

• Is  the  individual  a qualified  teacher  with  previous  teaching  experience  or  a 
literate  adult  who  has  agreed  to  teach?  Standards  of  performance  should  be 
different  based  on  qualifications. 

• Does  the  teacher  have  a good  sense  of  the  stress/trauma  of  his  or  her  own 
experience?  (See  also  the  Guidebook , Chapter  19,  ‘Psychosocial  support  to 
learners’.) 

• Is  the  teacher  expressing  the  need  for  and  receiving  support  from  parents,  the 
head-teacher,  other  fellow  teachers,  the  education  committee  and  community 
leaders? 

• Is  international  humanitarian  support  being  solicited  to  support  teachers’ 
working  conditions  and  improve  their  performance? 


Chapter  17:  Measuring  and  monitoring  teachers’  impact 

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• Assess  regularly  the  situation  of  schools  and  teachers  that  can  be  reached  and 
keep  records  for  the  benefit  of  the  school  system  and  the  individual  teachers. 

• Are  local  schools  working,  and  are  the  majority  of  children  and  teachers  in 
place  in  certain  areas? 

• In  active  conflict  situations  where  displacement  has  occurred,  is  it  possible 
to  monitor  the  teachers  who  remain? 

• Ensure  that  refugee  teachers’  qualifications  and  experience  are  evaluated  so  that 
they  can  be  hired  and  given  the  appropriate  working  conditions  and  salary  upon 
return  to  their  home  country.  (See  also  the  Guidebook , Chapter  16}  'Teacher 
motivation,  compensation  and  working  conditions’.) 

• Has  this  process  been  prepared  in  advance  so  that  teachers  in  exile  may  be 
more  willing  to  return  home  when  conditions  permit? 

• Review/revise  the  criteria  and  expectations  that  will  be  used  for  monitoring  and 
measuring  teacher  performance  and  achievements.  (See  the  'Tools  and  resources’ 
section  for  examples  of  how  to  assess  teachers’  performance.) 

• What  changes  in  teacher  requirements  are  necessary  to  adapt  to  the  special 
challenges  and  circumstances  that  teachers  face? 

• Have  new  subjects  been  added  to  the  formal  curriculum  that  demand 
different  performance  from  the  teachers? 

- Are  additional  guidelines  needed  on  how  to  measure  understanding  and 
achievement  in  additional  subject  areas? 

- How  can  the  children’s  understanding  and  absorption  of  topics  be 
measured  in  order  to  assess  the  teacher’s  ability  to  transmit  the  new 
messages/topics? 

- Are  there  educational  authorities  or  other  teachers  who  are  able  to 
monitor,  assess  and  advise  the  teachers  in  the  new  subjects  on  a regular 
basis?  If  not,  can  such  support  be  provided  by  UNICEF,  UNESCO  or 
NGOs? 

• For  complementary  or  non-formal  education  programmes,  such  as  accelerated 
learning,  literacy  or  skills  training,  which  are  run  by  non-governmental  actors, 
consider  the  following: 

• Do  certain  government  standards  apply  to  these  programmes? 

• What  is  the  government’s  role  with  regard  to  monitoring  teachers’  impact  in 
these  programmes? 

• Do  guidelines  for  teacher  monitoring  and  assessment  exist?  Are  they  accept- 
able to  the  government?  If  not,  can  educational  authorities  and  programme 
officers  work  together  to  develop  agreed-upon  guidelines? 

• Do  these  programmes  include  a teacher-training  component  as  a means  of 
improving  teacher  performance? 


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• Agree  with  community  leaders  and  parents  (as  relevant)  how  students’  well-being 
will  be  monitored  and  assessed.  Possible  items  to  monitor  include: 

• Children’s  attendance  rate. 

• The  teacher’s  behaviour  in  class. 

- Has  the  teacher  created  an  environment  conducive  to  learning  where  the 
children  feel  safe  and  appreciated?  Initially,  human  relationships  with  the 
children/students  should  count  more  than  formal  job  requirements  and 
results. 

- Do  the  children  seem  interested? 

- Has  the  teacher  been  able  to  adopt,  use  and  promote  (among  parents 
and  community  leaders)  a methodology  consistent  with  the  needs  of  the 
pupils/students? 

- Are  classes  organized  in  a way  that  enables  students  to  benefit  and  not 
lose  concentration? 

- Is  the  teacher  behaving  the  same  towards  all  of  the  children? 

- Do  all  children  have  an  equal  chance  to  participate? 

- Is  the  teacher  able  to  give  advice  and  support  to  the  children  in  an  unfamiliar 
environment? 

- Is  the  teacher  able  to  detect  and  act  if  a child  shows  signs  of  needing  special 
assistance  or  referral? 

• Is  the  teacher  able  to  achieve  results?  What  is  the  academic  performance  of  the 
students  - pass  rates,  subject  knowledge,  etc.? 

• If  performance  is  generally  poor,  what  has  been  done  to  identify  the  causes? 

• Would  special  training  for  the  teacher  help  improve  both  teacher  and  student 
achievements? 

• Are  classes  organized  with  a consistent,  regular  timetable  for  the  students? 

• Is  the  teacher/facilitator  on  time  and  present  to  receive  the  students? 

• Are  recreational  activities  and  breaks  included  in  the  timetable? 

• Develop  procedures  for  monitoring  teachers  and  improving  their  performance. 

• Who  will  do  the  monitoring  and  provide  classroom  guidance? 

• Head-teachers,  mentors,  government  education  inspectors,  NGO  staff, 
community  members,  others? 

• Senior  staff  within  a school  cluster? 

• Community  education  committees  (especially  regarding  teacher  attendance 
and  conduct) 

• If  educational  authorities  and  NGOs/religious  groups/others  are  co-operating 
in  the  assessment  of  teachers,  do  teachers  clearly  understand  the  roles  of  the 
different  actors? 


Chapter  17:  Measuring  and  monitoring  teachers’  impact 


E P • 


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7 


• How  will  monitoring  of  teachers’  performance  take  place? 

• Classroom  observations. 

• Dialogue  between  teachers  and  observers/supervisors. 

• Self-evaluation  by  teachers  coupled  with  recommendations  from  observers. 

• Statistics  such  as  attendance  rates  of  students  and  teachers,  pupil  achieve- 
ment, etc. 

• With  what  frequency  will  monitoring  and  assessment  of  teachers’  performance 

take  place? 

• What  is  the  system  for  following  up  on  teacher  observations  etc.?  How  can  poor 

performance  be  remedied? 

• Improve  teachers’  performance. 

• Ensure  that  records  are  maintained  of  teachers’  performance. 

• What  records  can  be  obtained  of  teachers’  past  model  demonstration  les- 
sons. 

• Feedback  on  classroom  observations. 

• In-service  training  on  content,  methodology  and  changes  in  job  require- 
ments. 

• Provision  of  support  materials  such  as  textbooks  and  teaching  aids. 

• Consideration  of  teachers’  working  conditions  (e.g.  if  there  are  60  children 
in  the  classroom,  education  providers  may  need  to  explore  ways  to  reduce 
class  size  in  order  to  improve  performance). 

• For  refugee  teachers,  is  there  a way  to  contact  the  Ministry  of  Education  in 
the  home  country  directly,  or  through  UNICEF  or  UNESCO? 

• For  teachers  displaced  within  their  own  country,  how  can  records  be  accessed 
from  their  area  of  origin? 

• What  records  need  to  be  developed  and  kept  regarding  teachers’  perform- 
ance? 

• In  refugee  situations,  can  home  country  guidelines  and  requirements  be 
obtained  so  that  teachers  can  be  evaluated  against  familiar  criteria? 

• Consider  the  development  of  a database  of  teacher  qualifications  and 
experience  that  can  be  made  available  to  the  teachers’  home  country  prior 
to  return.  This  may  facilitate  teacher  certification  in  their  home  country. 
(See  also  the  Guidebook , Chapter  16}  ‘Teacher  motivation,  compensation  and 
working  conditions’.) 

• Ensure  clear  dissemination  of  information. 

• In  an  emergency  situation,  have  teachers  been  informed  of  any  new  rules 
and  regulations  or  changes  in  expectations  that  have  been  introduced? 


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• Prior  to  repatriation: 

- Have  refugee  teachers  been  informed  of  requirements  for  recognition 
and  certification  in  their  home  country,  particularly  if  there  have  been 
changes? 

- Have  they  been  made  aware  of  teaching  opportunities  in  their  home 
country? 

- Do  they  need  training  to  be  able  to  qualify  and  pass  required  performance 
standards? 

• During  return  and  early  reconstruction: 

• Have  national  teachers  who  did  not  move  during  the  conflict  been  clearly 
informed  about  how  the  education  system  in  their  country  will  absorb 
returning  teachers  into  the  workforce? 

• Has  information  been  disseminated  on  how  the  performance  of  returning 
teachers  will  be  measured/rewarded  - if  initially  different  from  national 
standards? 

• Have  all  teachers  been  informed  of  guidelines  and  requirements  for  teacher 
achievements  - for  both  formal  and  other  recognized  education  programmes  - 
how  these  will  be  enforced  and  when  will  the  new  requirements  begin? 

• Have  teachers,  relevant  educational  authorities  and  officers  been  informed 
of  any  special  considerations  and  exceptions  during  the  reconstruction 
period? 


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TOOLS  AND  RESOURCES 


1*  INEE  minimum  standards  for  teacher  support  and  supervision1 

Standard  3 

Supervision  and  support  mechanisms  are  established  for  teachers  and  other  education 

personnel,  and  are  used  on  a regular  basis. 

Key  indicators 

• A supervisory  mechanism  provides  for  regular  assessment,  monitoring  and  support 
for  teachers  and  other  education  personnel. 

• Staff  performance  appraisals  are  conducted,  written  up  and  discussed  with  the 
individual (s)  concerned  on  a regular  basis. 

• Appropriate  and  accessible  psychosocial  support  and  counselling  are  provided  to 
teachers  and  other  education  personnel,  as  needed. 

INEE  minimum  standards  guidance  notes 

1 ♦ Supervisory  mechanisms:  Each  country  or  affected  area  should  define  standards 
for  teachers  and  education  personnel  and  develop  and  implement  a support 
and  supervision  mechanism.  This  mechanism  may  include  representatives  from 
the  community  (including  traditional  and  religious  leaders),  community  school 
organizations  such  as  parent-teacher  associations,  local  authorities,  head  teachers 
and  teachers'  unions.  The  supervisory  mechanism  should  be  closely  linked  to  the 
community  education  committee.  The  committee  should  include  in  its  terms  of 
reference  the  monitoring  of  education  personnel  in  relation  to  codes  of  conduct, 
with  a focus  on  professionalism,  work  efficiency  and  appropriate  conduct. 


3*  Staff  performance  appraisals  should  include  an  assessment  of  the  efficiency 
and  effectiveness  of  the  teachers  or  other  education  personnel  and  should  provide 
consultation  opportunities  for  teachers,  head  teachers  and  other  relevant  personnel 
to  identify  issues  and  develop  follow-up  activities  that  are  agreed  upon  collaboratively. 
Where  appropriate,  appraisals  should  recognize  and  celebrate  achievement  in  order  to 
motivate  education  personnel.  Monitoring  and  participatory  evaluation  may  motivate 
teachers  and  increase  their  competence. 

4*  Crisis  support:  Even  trained  and  experienced  teachers  and  other  education 
personnel  may  find  themselves  traumatized  by  events  and  faced  with  new  challenges 
and  responsibilities  vis-a-vis  learners,  and  their  ability  to  cope  and  perform  depends 
on  relevant  support  being  available.  A support  mechanism  should  be  established  in 
the  community  to  assist  teachers  and  other  education  personnel  dealing  with  crisis 
situations. 


1.  Source:  INEE  (2004:  69). 


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2.  Save  the  Children  UK  form  for  assessing  quality  in  schools 

Is  this  school  good  for  children?2 

• School  is  a place  where  children  learn.  If  it  is  open,  friendly  and  welcoming,  then 
children  will  feel  safe  and  comfortable.  Then  they  will  learn  better. 

• How  do  we  know  if  our  school  is  good  for  children?  We  can  look  for  things  that  show 
we  care  about  children  and  are  concerned  for  their  safety  and  well-being. 

• Start  with  what  you  can  see  happening  in  school.  Look  at  the  list  and  mark  ‘Yes’. 

• Look  at  the  list  and  see  what  is  not  happening  yet.  Make  a plan  and  set  a time  line. 

• In  one  month,  do  the  checklist  again.  Has  the  school  made  positive  changes? 

• Do  the  checklist  on  a regular  basis  and  keep  a record  of  the  date.  Improvement  will 


be  shown  each  time  you  check. 


YES 

NOT  YET 

1 . Teachers  smile  frequently  and  speak  in  a friendly  tone. 

2.  Teachers  listen  attentively  to  children. 

3.  Teachers  bend  down  to  children’s  level  and  make  eye  contact. 

4.  Teachers  call  children  by  name. 

5.  Teachers  help  children  deal  with  feelings  and  help  children  solve  problems  in  a positive  manner. 

6.  Teachers  treat  all  children  with  respect. 

7.  Children  treat  each  other  with  respect. 

8.  Children  treat  teachers  with  respect. 

9.  The  school  is  neatly  organized  with  learning  resources  accessible  to  children. 

10.  Children’s  work  is  displayed  at  their  eye  level. 

11.  The  building  and  immediate  outside  area  are  as  safe  and  clean  as  possible. 

12.  The  daily  programme  includes  small  group  activities. 

13.  Children  spend  more  time  in  class  doing  things  than  they  do  waiting,  or  listening  to  the 
teacher. 

14.  The  daily  programme  allows  children  some  choice  in  activities. 

15.  Teachers  focus  on  what  children  learn  and  what  they  can  do. 

16.  Teachers  use  small  group  time  to  move  from  group  to  group  and  from  child  to  child  for  brief 
conversations  and  positive  encouragement. 

17.  Teachers  develop  activities  for  children  using  a range  of  resources. 

18.  Local  children  and  refugee  children  have  access  together  to  school  resources. 

19.  There  are  mats  available  for  floor  activities. 

20.  Parents  are  welcomed  in  the  school. 

21.  Teachers  greet  parents  warmly  by  name. 

22.  Parents  work  in  the  school  on  a regular  basis  and  help  support  the  school  in  other  ways. 

23.  An  up-to-date  and  attractive  parent  corner  or  information  board  is  maintained. 

24.  Parents  meetings  are  held  at  least  every  term. 

25.  Information  on  the  progress  of  each  child’s  learning  is  recorded. 

26.  Some  of  the  child’s  work  is  kept  by  the  teacher,  some  is  displayed  and  some  is  taken  home  by 
the  child. 

27.  Drinking  water  is  available  to  children  who  do  not  bring  their  own. 

28.  There  is  a place  for  children  to  wash  their  hands. 

29.  Separate  girls’  and  boys’  latrines  are  available  in  a safe  location. 

30.  Teachers  say  goodbye  to  children  before  the  children  go  home. 

2.  Source:  Nicolai  (2003: 143-144). 


Chapter  17:  Measuring  and  monitoring  teachers’  impact  11 

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3.  Teacher  competencies 


There  are  valuable  examples  of  well-developed  schemes  of  measuring  competence  and 
performance  of  teachers  in  exile.  One  of  these  is  ‘Teacher  competencies  - indicators 
of  teacher  effectiveness’,  developed  by  Consortium-Thailand,  for  primary,  middle  and 
secondary  school  teachers  in  refugee  camps  on  the  Thailand-Burma  border.  This  material 
is  a useful  example  of  a tool  for  measuring  teachers’  impact  in  emergency  situations, 
although  modifications  will  be  necessary  based  on  the  particular  context,  situation  and 
cultural  background  of  the  target  groups. 

The  document  defines  basic  competencies  of  a classroom  teacher  and  states  that  refugee 
educators  can  use  this  document  to  assess  the  quality  of  the  teaching  in  their  schools. 
Teachers  can  use  the  document  to  assess  their  own  teaching  and  areas  of  needed  skill 
development.  Finally,  providers  of  educational  training  can  use  this  document  to  provide 
direction  for  the  content  and  level  of  teacher  training  they  provide  (Consortium-Thailand, 
2000:2). 

The  competencies  are  divided  into  the  following  areas: 

1 ♦ Knowledge. 

• Learning  principles. 

• Subject  matter  and  curriculum. 

2*  Management  of  the  learning  environment* 

• Teaching  skills:  planning. 

• Teaching  skills:  delivery. 

• Teaching  materials. 

• Assessment. 

• Communication  and  teamwork. 

• Classroom  management. 

3*  Professional  practice* 

• Professional  attitudes  and  behaviours. 

• Professional  development. 


Below  are  two  examples  of  teacher  competencies  from  the  Consortium-Thailand  booklet. 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

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SUBJECT  MATTER: 

THE  TEACHER  KNOWS  THE  SUBJECT  AND  CURRICULUM  AND  APPLIES  THIS  KNOWLEDGE  IN  THE  CLASSROOM. 


COMPETENCIES 

NEEDS  IMPROVEMENT 

ACCEPTABLE 

TARGET 

1.  The  teacher 
demonstrates 
knowledge  of  the 
subject  he/she 
teaches. 

• The  teacher  often 
communicates  wrong 
information. 

• The  teacher  does  not  tell 
when  he/she  does  not 
know  something. 

• The  teacher  never  asks 
for  help  when  he/she  does 
not  know  or  understand 
something. 

• The  teacher  usually 
communicates  accurate 
information  to  the 
students. 

• The  teacher  tells  students 
when  he/she  does  not 
know  something. 

• The  teacher  usually  asks 
for  help  when  he/she  does 
not  know  or  understand. 

• The  teacher  consistently 
communicates  accurate 
information  to  students. 

• The  teacher  consistently 
tells  students  when  he/she 
does  not  know  something. 

• The  teacher  always  asks 
for  help  when  he/she  does 
not  know  or  understand. 

2.  The  teacher 
understands  and 
uses  the  curriculum 
appropriately. 

• The  teacher  often  cannot 
explain  the  objectives  of 
lessons  he/she  teaches. 

• The  teacher  never  asks 
for  help  when  he/she 
does  not  understand  the 
curriculum. 

• The  teacher  usually 
knows  and  can  explain  the 
objectives  of  most  lessons 
he/she  teaches. 

• The  teacher  usually  asks 
for  help  when  he/she  does 
not  know  or  understand 
the  curriculum. 

• The  teacher  consistently 
can  explain  the  objectives 
of  lessons  he/she  teaches. 

• The  teacher  uses  the 
curriculum  flexibly  and 
adapts  it  to  real  life 
situations. 

TEACHING  SKILLS  - PLANNING: 

THE  TEACHER  PLANS  APPROPRIATE  AND  EFFECTIVE  LESSONS  FOR  THEIR  CLASSES. 


COMPETENCIES 

NEEDS  IMPROVEMENT 

ACCEPTABLE 

TARGET 

1 . The  teacher  has  clear 
(written  or  unwritten) 
objectives. 

• The  teacher  does  not  have 
lesson  objectives. 

• The  teacher  sometimes 
has  achievable, 
measurable  objectives. 

• The  teacher  always  has 
achievable,  measurable 
objectives  for  each  activity 

2.  The  teacher  provides 
appropriate  content, 
according  to  the 
curriculum. 

• The  content  of  the  lesson 
is  not  relevant  for  the 
students  according  to  the 
curriculum. 

• The  teacher  provides 
some  content  relevant  for 
the  students’  age,  level 
and  interests,  according  to 
the  curriculum. 

• The  subject  content 
provided  is  always  suitable 
for  the  students’  age,  level 
and  interests,  according  to 
the  curriculum. 

3.  The  teacher  identifies 
and  plans  to  use  a 
variety  of  methods. 

• The  teacher  plans  use  of 
only  one  method. 

• The  teacher  often 
plans  use  of  a variety  of 
methods  in  a sequence  of 
lessons  so  students  learn 
by  seeing,  hearing  and 
doing. 

• The  teacher  consistently 
plans  use  of  a variety  of 
methods  in  a sequence  of 
lessons  so  students  learn 
by  seeing,  hearing  and 
doing. 

4.  The  teacher 

sequences  the  steps 
of  the  lesson. 

• The  steps  of  the  lesson 
are  out  of  order  or  there 
are  no  steps. 

• The  teacher  plans  lessons 
with  broad  steps. 

• The  teacher  plans  specific 
steps  in  logical  order  to 
achieve  objectives. 

5.  The  teacher  plans 
lessons  using 
teaching  materials. 

• The  teacher  never  uses 
teaching  materials. 

• The  teacher  uses  some 
teaching  materials. 

• The  teacher  always  uses 
teaching  materials  to 
encourage  learning  by 
seeing,  hearing  and  doing. 

Chapter  17:  Measurins  and  monitorins  teachers’  impact 

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4.  Codes  of  conduct  for  teachers 


Sexual  harassment  of  students  in  return  for  better  marks  is  a serious  problem  in  a number 
of  countries,  and  strict  rules  are  needed.  There  may  also  be  harassment  of  staff  A study 
of  junior  secondary  schools  in  Ghana,  Malawi  and  Zimbabwe  found  sexual  abuse  of  girls 
by  older  students,  teachers  and  ‘sugar  daddies',  which  the  researchers  saw  as  part  of  a 
wider  problem  of  school-based  violence,  including  excessive  corporal  punishment  and 
bullying  (Leach  et  ai , 2003).  There  is  a culture  of  apathy  on  the  matter  and  reluctance  to 
believe  girls  who  make  allegations.  The  issue  is  a serious  barrier  to  the  retention  of  girls  in 
school  after  puberty,  since  parents  are  wary  of  unwanted  pregnancies  and  AIDS.  Some 
programmes  recommend  that  each  school  have  at  least  two  female  teachers  - one  as  head 
or  deputy  head  (where  a qualified  woman  is  available)  and  one  as  a focal  point  or  counsellor 
for  girls.  The  development  of  a code  of  conduct  is  seen  as  one  response  to  this  problem 
(Johannessen,  forthcoming) . 

Teacher's  code  of  conduct3 

At  all  times,  the  teacher: 

• Acts  in  a manner  that  maintains  the  honour  and  dignity  of  the  profession. 

• Protects  the  confidentiality  of  anything  said  by  a student  in  confidence. 

• Protects  students  from  conditions  that  interfere  with  learning  or  are  harmful  to  the 
students'  health  and  safety. 

• Does  not  take  advantage  of  his  or  her  position  to  profit  in  any  way. 

• Does  not  sexually  harass  any  student  or  have  any  manner  of  sexual  relationship  with 
a student. 

• Isa  good,  honest  role  model. 

In  the  classroom,  the  teacher: 

• Promotes  a positive  and  safe  learning  environment. 

• Teaches  in  a manner  that  respects  the  dignity  and  rights  of  all  students. 

• Promotes  students'  self-esteem,  confidence  and  self-worth. 

• Promotes  high  expectations  of  students  and  helps  each  student  to  reach  his/her 
potential. 

• Encourages  students  to  develop  as  active,  responsible  and  effective  learners;  creates 
an  atmosphere  of  trust. 


3.  This  code  of  conduct  was  used  by  UNHCR  Eritrea  as  a model,  which  schools  then  adapted  for  themselves 
(INEE,  2004:  70) 


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In  their  professional  life,  the  teacher: 

• Displays  a basic  competence  in  educational  methodology  and  his/her  subject. 

• Displays  an  understanding  (in  his/her  teaching)  of  how  children  learn. 

• Is  always  on  time  for  class  and  prepared  to  teach. 

• Does  not  engage  in  activities  that  adversely  affect  the  quality  of  his/her  teaching. 

• Takes  advantage  of  all  professional  development  opportunities  and  uses  modern, 
accepted  teaching  methods. 

• Teaches  principles  of  good  citizenship,  peace  and  social  responsibility. 

• Honestly  represents  each  students  performance  and  examination  results. 

With  respect  to  the  community,  the  teacher: 

• Encourages  parents  to  support  and  participate  in  their  childrens  learning. 

• Recognizes  the  importance  of  family  and  community  involvement  in  school. 

• Supports  and  promotes  a positive  image  of  the  school. 

In  addition  to  the  items  mentioned  here,  the  teacher  is  expected  to  abide  by  all  other  rules 
and  policies  of  the  wider  environment  (camp,  school,  etc.). 


Chapter  17:  Measuring  and  monitoring  teachers’  impact 

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1 5 


REFERENCES  AND  FURTHER  READING 


Carron,  G;  De  Grauwe,  A.  1997.  Current  issues  in  supervision:  a literature  review . Paris: 
11EP-UNESCO. 

Consortium-Thailand.  2000.  Teacher  competencies  - indicators  of  teacher  effectiveness . 
produced  for  primary , middle  and  secondary  school  teachers  in  refugee  camps  on  the 
Thai-Burma  Border  n.p.:  Consortium-Thailand. 

1NEE  (Inter-Agency  Network  for  Education  in  Emergencies).  2003.  ‘Assessment, 
monitoring  and  evaluation”.  In:  Good  practice  guide  for  emergency  education.  Retrieved 
26  August  2005  from:  http://www.ineesite.org/assess/teacher.asp 

INEE  (Inter-Agency  Network  for  Education  in  Emergencies).  2004.  Minimum  standards  for 
education  in  emergencies , chronic  crises  and  early  reconstruction . Paris:  INEE. 

Johannessen,  E.M.  Forthcoming.  Management  of  teachers  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction . 
Paris:  IIEP-UNESCO. 

Johannessen,  E.M.;  Ekanayake,  S.B.;  Bude,  U.  2002.  Evaluation  of  GTZ/Basic  education 
for  Afghan  refugees  (BEFARe)  in  Pakistan . Geneva:  UNHCR/GTZ. 

Leach,  F.;  Fiscian,  V.;  Kadzamira,  E.;  Lemani,  E.;  Machakanja,  P.  2003.  An  investigative 
study  of  the  abuse  of  girls  in  African  schools . London:  DFID. 

Nicolai,  S.  2003.  Education  in  emergencies:  a tool  kit  for  starting  and  managing  education  in 
emergencies . London:  Save  the  Children. 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

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CHAPTER 


17 


SECTION  4 


United  Nations  [ International 

Educational,  Scientific  and  ] Institute  for 

Cultural  Organization  * Educational 

Planning 


TEACHER  TRAINING:  TEACHING 
AND  LEARNING  METHODS 


The  designations  employed  and  the  presentation  of 
material  throughout  this  review  do  not  imply  the  expression 
of  any  opinion  whatsoever  on  the  part  of  UNESCO  or  the 
IIEP  concerning  the  legal  status  of  any  country,  territory, 
city  or  area  or  its  authorities,  or  concerning  its  frontiers 
or  boundaries. 

The  publication  costs  of  this  study  have  been  covered 
through  a grant-in-aid  offered  by  UNESCO  and  by 
voluntary  contributions  made  by  several  Member  States 
of  UNESCO. 


Published  by: 

International  Institute  for  Educational  Planning 
7-9  rue  Eugene  Delacroix,  75116  Paris 
e-mail:  info@iiep.unesco.org 
IIEP  web  site:  www.unesco.org/iiep 


Layout  and  cover  design:  Sabine  Lebeau 
Typesetting:  Sabine  Lebeau 
Printed  in  IIEP’s  printshop 
ISBN:  92-803-1288-X 
©UNESCO  2006 


Chapter 


TEACHER  TRAINING: 

TEACHING  AND  LEARNING  METHODS 


^ MAIN  OBJECTIVES 


CONTEXT  AND  CHALLENGES 


• To  offer  teacher  training  based  on 
the  need  to  understand  and  respond 
appropriately  to  educational  needs  in 
various  phases  of  an  emergency. 

• To  train  teachers  on  new  topics  such 
as  landmine  awareness,  psychosocial 
implications  of  emergencies,  peace 
education,  conflict  resolution  - topics 
that  may  be  relevant  to  the  emergency 
situation  and  people’s  corresponding 
needs. 

• To  further  develop  teacher-training 
capacity. 


Emergencies  may  affect  complete  communities 
and,  though  their  teachers  may  be  familiar  with 
their  jobs,  they  may  need  additional  support 
to  cope  with  emergency  conditions.  At  the 
other  extreme,  communities  may  be  broken 
up,  there  may  be  few  experienced  teachers, 
and  many  people  therefore  enter  the  teaching 
profession  for  the  first  time  under  difficult 
conditions.  Even  those  with  previous  teaching 
experience  may  need  training  on  new  topics  to 
be  taught  in  displacement  or  returnee  situations 
(e.g.  life  skills  messages,  etc.).  Teachers  are 
likely  to  need  training  related  to  psychosocial 
support  for  students.  They  may  also  have  been 
traumatized  themselves  and  may  need  help  with 
processing  their  own  traumas.  Teacher  training 
is  thus  one  of  the  most  important  dimensions  of 
an  emergency  education  response. 


1 

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WHAT  IS  DIFFERENT  ABOUT  TEACHER  TRAINING 
IN  SITUATIONS  OF  EMERGENCY? 


1.  Stressful  environment:  ongoing  conflict,  family  members  killed  or  missing,  traumatic 
experiences  for  both  teachers  and  students. 

2.  Need  for  rapid  training  of  unqualified  teachers  (often  large  numbers),  either  to  work  in 
government  system  or  in  NGO-  or  United  Nations-supported  schools. 

3.  Need  for  training  in  non-traditional  topics  (landmine  awareness,  health  and  hygiene  issues, 
cholera  awareness,  peace  education,  conflict  resolution). 

4.  Need  for  training  in  non-traditional  methods  (child-centred  pedagogy,  psychosocial 
referrals,  participative  classroom  techniques). 

5.  Need  for  training  to  be  recognized  by  government  so  teachers  can  be  adequately  certified, 
compensated  and  recognized,  at  least  post-emergency. 

6.  Formal  teacher  training  institutes  may  not  be  functioning  or  may  not  have  capacity  to  train 
large  numbers  of  new  teachers. 

7.  Need  for  training  in  non-traditional  education  programmes  (e.g.  bridging  programmes, 
accelerated  learning  programmes,  etc.). 

8.  Training  may  be  conducted  by  NGOs  or  United  Nations  organizations,  either  for  the 
government  school  system  or  for  schools  run  by  NGOs. 


Much  confusion  can  arise  if  different  agencies  use  different  models  for  teacher  training 
without  any  co-ordination.  Although  in  acute  emergencies,  there  may  be  a need  for  short 
and  improvised  courses  for  the  teachers,  the  continuing  courses  should  be  designed  so  that 
they  both  increase  teacher  effectiveness  and  also  cumulatively  build  up  the  equivalent  of  a 
teaching  qualification  for  the  teachers. 


In  a refugee  situation,  UNHCR,  UNICEF,  international  NGO  implementing  partners  and 
the  host  government  should  decide  on  the  basic  approaches  and  structures  to  be  adopted, 
in  consultation  with  organizations  already  providing  in-service  teacher  training.  If  possible, 
there  should  also  be  consultation  with  the  government  of  the  country  of  origin  of  the 
refugees.  It  is  important  to  ensure  that  training  provided  in  refugee  situations  and  outside 
of  official  government  training  facilities  or  programmes  is  recognized  by  the  government. 
(See  also  the  Guidebook , Chapter  15,  ‘Identification,  selection  and  recruitment  of  teachers 
and  education  workers’.) 


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0 WHAT  DO  THE  TEACHERS  NEED  TO  LEARN? 

THE  CONTENTS  OF  TEACHER  EDUCATION 

Teacher  education  should  cover  theoretical  knowledge  in  the  subjects  to  be  taught  and  in 
pedagogy  as  well  as  observation  of  role  models,  microteaching  and  simulated  and  actual 
classroom  practice.  Some  research  indicates  that  most  of  the  teaching  skills  a teacher  uses 
are  acquired  during  the  first  five  years  of  practice. 

In  brief,  teachers  in  emergencies  need  to  have  knowledge  and  skills  in: 

• The  basic  subjects  that  are  taught. 

• Teaching  methods,  particularly  participatory  methods. 

• New  subject  areas  and  ‘life  skills'  in  the  fields  of  environmental  education,  HIV/AIDS 
prevention,  peace  education  and  reconciliation,  developing  respect  for  human  rights, 
citizenship/civic  education  and  moral/ethical  education. 

• Trauma  and  trauma  healing. 

• Teaching  methods  for  pre-school  children  or  for  adults  (where  applicable). 

• Child  protection  and  non-harassment  of  students  or  colleagues. 

Source:  Johannessen  (forthcoming). 


Teacher  education  colleges,  like  other  educational  institutions,  may  be  destroyed  or 
otherwise  damaged  during  armed  conflict,  whether  through  direct  attack,  use  as  dormitories 
or  stores,  looting,  or  through  lack  of  maintenance  during  a period  of  insecurity.  Furniture 
and  equipment  may  have  been  looted.  It  is  important  that  renewal  of  the  country’s  system 
of  pre-service  (full-time)  teacher  training  be  prominent  in  the  plan  for  post-conflict 
reconstruction,  and  that  renewal  of  content  and  pedagogy,  as  well  as  infrastructure,  be 
included.  Needs  assessment  for  teacher  training,  both  in-service  and  pre-service,  should 
be  seen  as  an  integral  part  of  Tack  to  school’  and  school  reconstruction  programmes.  The 
emergency  may  be  an  opportunity  to  introduce  or  strengthen  teaching  methods  such  as 
those  related  to  participatory  approaches  and  child-centred  methodologies. 


0 DAMAGE  TO  TEACHER  TRAINING  INSTITUTIONS  IN  IRAQ 


■ 


In  Iraq,  a recent  needs  assessment  survey  showed  that  after  years  of  economic  sanctions  which 
limited  funding  for  maintenance,  and  the  conflict  in  March/April  2003,  only  41  (27  per  cent) 
of  the  teacher  training  institutions  had  use  of  buildings  that  were  in  good  condition.  Fifty-six 
teacher-training  institutions  (37  per  cent)  were  in  buildings  that  were  partially  damaged, 
31  (21  per  cent)  were  in  buildings  that  were  seriously  damaged,  and  22  (15  per  cent)  in 
premises  that  were  considered  seriously  unsafe.  A total  of  77  war-related  incidents  were 
reported  on  teacher-training  institutions  by  survey  respondents,  in  15  governorates.  Looting 
was  most  common  (55  reported  incidents),  followed  by  burning  (12)  and  bombing  (10).  It 
was  also  reported  by  31  institutes  that  they  were  used  by  the  military  as  barracks  following 
the  war. 


■- 


Source:  UNESCO  (2004:  72). 


Chapter  18:  Teacher  training  : teaching  and  learning  methods 


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3 


SUGGESTED  STRATEGIES 


Summary  of  suggested  strategies 

Teacher  training:  teaching  and  learning  methods 

Co-ordinate  or  facilitate  a needs  assessment  for  teacher 
education  and  training,  including  development  of  a systematic 
structure  that  best  meets  the  present  and  future  needs  of  the 
emergency-affected  populations. 

2.  In  consultation  with  other  education  providers,  develop  a 
framework  such  that  in-service  teacher  training  provided  during 
emergencies  can  build  up  cumulatively  towards  recognized 
professional  teacher  status. 

3.  Design  an  integrated  programme  for  teacher  training  that 
provides  an  introduction  to  the  needed  competencies,  together 
with  continuing  in-school  guidance  and  support. 

4.  Promote  classroom-based  training. 

5.  Consider  establishing  teacher  resource  centres. 

6.  Support  teachers  through  provision  of  teachers’  manuals  and 
teaching  materials. 

7.  Recognize  that  teachers  may  have  suffered  stress  during  the 
emergency  and  prepare  them  to  help  students  with  psychosocial 
problems. 

8.  Train  selected  teachers  in  education  for  ‘survival  skills’  and 
curriculum  enrichment  themes  related  to  the  emergency  such  as 
health,  safety,  peace,  citizenship  and  environment. 

9.  Train  bilingual  teachers  where  necessary. 

10.  Facilitate  the  training  of  teachers  and  volunteers  for  early 
childhood  development  and  pre-school  programmes. 

11.  Plan  for  the  renewal  of  full-time  pre-service  teacher  education 
and  training. 

12  Consider  the  use  of  open  and  distance  learning  for  training 
teachers. 


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Guidance  notes 


1.  Co-ordinate  or  facilitate  needs  assessments  for  teacher  education  and 
training,  including  the  development  of  a systematic  structure  that 
best  meets  the  present  and  future  needs  of  the  emergency-affected 
populations. 

(See  also  the  Guidebook , Chapter  28,  ‘Assessment  of  needs  and  resources’ ). 

• In  the  case  of  an  inter-agency  multi-sectoral  needs  assessment,  undertaken  jointly 
with  the  government,  ensure  that  teacher  training  is  represented  in  the  needs- 
assessment  team  by  international/national  educators  with  experience  of  both 
pre-service  and  in-service  training  in  the  region/country  concerned. 

• Set  in  motion  a detailed  review,  for  emergency-affected  areas,  of  teacher  numbers 
in  the  various  levels  and  types  of  schooling,  their  gender,  qualifications  and  training, 
ongoing  training  programmes  and  the  future  need  for  in-service  training  and 
support. 

• Collect  information  on  the  structure  and  contents  of  teacher  training  being 
undertaken  by  the  United  Nations,  NGOs  and  other  education  providers. 

2.  In  consultation  with  other  education  providers,  develop  a framework 
such  that  in-service  teacher  training  provided  during  emergencies 
can  build  up  cumulatively  towards  recognized  professional  teacher 
status. 

• Compare  the  contents  of  ongoing  teacher  training  with  the  national  curricula  for 
qualified  teacher  status,  and,  in  the  case  of  refugees,  the  curricula  for  qualified 
teacher  status  in  their  country  or  area  of  origin. 

• Design  a curriculum  framework  that  enables  teachers  to  cover  the  curriculum 
for  qualified  teacher  status  through  in-service  training  modules,  which  also  meet 
current  emergency  needs. 

• Work  towards  recognition  of  this  framework  by  the  national  government  and, 
for  refugees,  by  the  government  of  the  country  of  origin. 

• Meanwhile,  encourage  field  staff  and  other  education  providers  to  re-structure 
their  training  to  meet  this  framework. 

• In  areas  with  acute  teacher  shortages,  teachers  who  have  not  completed 
established  certification  processes  but  who  possess  alternative  qualifications’ 
should  be  formally  recognized.  This  is  especially  important  for  promoting  access 
to  education  in  early  reconstruction  contexts  such  as  Afghanistan. 


Chapter  18:  Teacher  training  : teaching  and  learning  methods 

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5 


Q NEED  for  teacher  training  curriculum  structure 

“Seminars  and  design  workshops  involving  education  ministry  officials  and  other  stakeholders 
active  in  education  and  in-service  teacher  training  are  needed  early  in  the  reconstruction 
process,  to  harness  the  energies  of  the  NGO  and  agency  staff  as  well  as  the  teachers  to 
implementing  training  on  a common  basis  across  programmes,  with  common  patterns 
of  incentives,  within  a well-developed  modular  framework.  If  the  Ministry  of  Education 
suggests  a structure,  and  possible  modalities  for  implementation,  it  will  help  the  NGOs  and 
other  agencies  to  plan  their  support/’ 

Source:  Johannessen  (forthcoming). 

“The  International  Rescue  Committee,  which  supported  schools  for  refugees  from  Liberia 
and  Sierra  Leone  who  had  taken  refuge  in  Guinea,  offered  extensive  in-service  training  and 
in-school  support  to  the  refugee  teachers.  The  Ministry  of  Education  in  Liberia  subsequently 
recognized  the  good  performance  of  returnee  teachers,  but  had  difficulty  in  awarding 
qualified  teacher  status,  which  required  completion  of  a specified  training  curriculum.  A 
compromise  was  reached  whereby  a teacher,  having  received  training  while  in  exile,  was 
awarded  a basic-level  teacher  qualification.  However,  it  was  observed  that  projects  providing 
training  for  refugee  teachers  should  include  the  elements  required  for  qualified  teacher 
status  in  the  home  country  and  should  be  well  documented.” 


Source:  Sinclair  (2002:  56). 

% 

3*  Design  an  integrated  programme  for  teacher  training  that  provides 
an  introduction  to  the  needed  competencies  together  with  continuing 
in-school  guidance  and  support* 

• Allocate  sufficient  resources  for  teacher  training,  since  many  teachers  may  be 
inexperienced  and  even  trained  teachers  are  facing  new  challenges. 

• Organize  courses  during  vacations  and  weekends,  but  supplement  them  with 
continuing  support. 

• Where  possible,  do  not  use  the  cascade  method  for  training  teachers  as  trainers, 
unless  there  is  close  professional  support  for  these  trainers  over  a period  of  years. 
The  cascade  method  is  especially  unsuccessful  in  transforming  methodologies  of 
teaching. 

• Ensure  that  teacher  trainers  have  good  pedagogical  experience  of  the  type  of 
teaching  concerned  (e.g.  university  lecturers  may  have  no  experience  of  child- 
centred  learning  activities  for  primary  schools) . 

• Make  a continuing  linkage  from  the  training  course  to  the  classroom  through  the 
use  of  mobile  trainers,  school  clusters,  in-school  mentors,  etc.  (see  below). 

• Consider  training  all  the  staff  of  a school  at  the  same  time,  so  that  there  is  less 
rejection  of  new  methods  than  when  trained  staff  come  back  to  a school  where 
new  ideas  are  unwelcome. 


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0 IN-SERVICE  TRAINING  IN  GUINEA 

“In  1991  the  International  Rescue  Committee  (IRC)  initiated  a programme  of  support  for 
ongoing  self-help  refugee  education  programmes  in  Guinea,  as  the  implementing  partner 
for  UNHCR.  In  1998  around  60,000  refugee  students  from  Liberia  and  Sierra  Leone  benefited 
from  the  programme,  which  employs  about  1,400  teachers  in  160  schools.  The  programme 
covers  all  levels,  from  ABC  Kindergarten  to  higher  secondary  and  in-service  teacher  training. 
An  outstanding  feature  of  the  programme  is  the  development  of  human  resources  through 
continuous  teacher  training  and  guidance.  The  initial  training  is  not  extensive:  a workshop 
lasting  five  days.  The  strength  of  the  system  lies  in  the  education  co-ordinators,  a group  of 
field-based,  mobile  advisers.  Each  education  co-ordinator  is  assigned  a zone  consisting 
of  eight  to  thirteen  schools  depending  on  size  and  distances.  The  co-ordinators  monitor 
teacher  performance  and  provide  professional  in-service  training  and  assistance  by  way  of 
one-to-one  ‘conferences’  or  mini-workshops  for  teachers  in  their  own  schools  as  necessary. 
They  also  assess  training  needs  and  communicate  and  enforce  IRC  policies.” 

Source:  Lange  (1998:  5). 


4 ♦ Promote  classroom-based  training* 

• Ensure  that  teachers  receive  classroom-based  training  from  mobile  trainers 
or  supervisors  (see  the  Guidebook , Chapter  15,  ‘Identification,  selection  and 
recruitment  of  teachers  and  education  workers’),  for  situations  when  mobile 
trainers  also  serve  as  school  supervisors. 

• Establish  a mentor  training  programme  whereby  senior  staff  are  trained  to  act  as 
mentors  to  junior  staff  in  their  own  schools. 


0 IN-SCHOOL  TEACHER  TRAINING  FOR  BHUTANESE  REFUGEE  TEACHERS  IN  NEPAL 

“Newly  appointed  teachers  have  a three-day  workshop  in  which  they  are  given  the  basics  in 
lesson  planning  and  delivery.  This  includes  demonstration  and  practice  lessons,  after  which 
they  have  some  confidence  to  enter  the  classroom.  All  primary  teachers  have  a meeting 
every  week  with  the  in-school  resource  teachers  (on  Saturday  mornings),  when  they  plan 
for  the  following  week’s  lessons.  During  the  week,  the  in-school  resource  teachers  observe 
the  teachers  and  support  them  with  further  ongoing  guidance  and  advice,  especially  those 
who  are  newly  appointed.  Workshops  on  particular  subjects  are  arranged  by  the  resource 
teachers,  as  and  when  necessary  . . . The  primary  school  teachers  are  given  basic  classroom 
management  and  child  psychology,  for  example.  The  in-school  resource  teachers  are  trained 
in  subject  matter  and  development  of  alternative  learning  resources.  The  head  teachers 
receive  training  in  counselling,  alternative  ways  of  disciplining  students,  children’s  rights, 
and  leadership  and  managerial  skills,  and  the  central  office  staff  are  trained  in  management, 
training  of  trainers  and  conflict  resolution.” 

Source:  Brown  (2001: 134). 


• Consider  establishing  a cluster  of  schools,  where  senior  staff  are  trained  to  act  as 
mobile  trainers/mentors  for  junior  staff  within  the  school  cluster. 


Chapter  18:  Teacher  training  : teaching  and  learning  methods 


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7 


5* 


Consider  establishing  teacher  resource  centres 


Many  systems  of  education  have  teachers’  support  centres,  though  their  efficacy  in 
changing  classroom  practice  varies.  They  are  especially  relevant  in  locations  (such  as 
refugee  camps)  where  there  is  a high  population  density,  and  teachers  from  several 
schools  can  use  the  centre  easily.  In  another  approach,  resource  centres  may  also 
serve  students. 


0 THE  ZIP  (ZONA  DE  INFLUENCIA  PEDAGOGICA)  IN  MOZAMBIQUE: 
A SCHOOL  SUPPORT  SYSTEM 


A school  district  is  divided  into  ZIPs.  The  ZIPs  were  established  in  1974  to  implement  a new 
education  system.  The  idea  was  that  the  school  directors  and  teachers  within  each  ZIP  meet 
regularly  to  discuss  pedagogical  topics,  joint  planning  and  elaboration  of  teaching  methods. 
The  ZIP  system  is  being  revitalized  and  has  been  given  much  emphasis  in  the  country’s 
strategic  plan.  Meetings  are  supposed  to  take  place  every  second  week. 

The  teachers  mainly  use  the  ZIPs  as  a place  where  they  exchange  experience  and  present 
their  problems,  and  they  get  new  ideas  and  support  from  their  colleagues.  They  have  closer 
contact  with  the  director  of  ZIP  and  their  colleagues  within  the  ZIP  than  with  the  district 
director’s  office. 

In  the  guide  for  the  future  of  the  ZIPs  from  1998,  the  plans  were  to  develop  the  ZIP  as  a 
support  to  the  teachers,  students  and  the  community.  It  would  offer  training  and  seminars 
to  teachers  and  parents,  arrange  meetings  and  discussions  as  well  as  exchanges  between 
ZIPs,  provide  supervision  to  the  schools,  and  establish  resource  centres  for  books  and 
didactic  material  for  teachers  and  students. 


Source:  Johannessen  (1998). 


■ 


6*  Support  teachers  through  provision  of  teachers’  manuals  and  teaching 
materials 

• Although  countries  may  have  teacher  guides  for  the  various  subjects,  or 
corresponding  to  each  textbook,  there  are  often  few  copies  available.  Providing 
existing  or  new  teacher  guides  may  be  helpful  to  inexperienced  teachers. 

• Teacher  training  often  suggests  that  teachers  prepare  their  own  teaching  aids. 
However,  they  may  not  have  the  time,  materials,  inclination  or  expertise  to  do 
this.  Basic  teaching  aids  should  be  provided  wherever  possible  (including  alphabet 
and  number  charts,  maps,  science  charts,  etc.). 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

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7* 


Recognize  that  teachers  may  have  suffered  stress  during  the  emergency 
and  prepare  them  to  help  students  with  psychosocial  problems* 


Training  for  teachers  in  understanding  childrens  psychosocial  needs,  often  covered  in 
separate  teacher-training  sessions/modules,  should  be  integrated  into  general  teaching 
methodology  trainings.  (See  also  the  Guidebook , Chapter  19,  'Psychosocial  support  to 
learners’.) 

• Have  all  teachers,  or  at  least  one  or  two  teachers  per  school,  received  training 
regarding  the  psychosocial  effects  of  trauma? 

• Have  teachers  received  a guidance  pamphlet  on  how  to  cope  with  their  own 
problems  and  how  to  adapt  their  teaching  to  meet  childrens  needs? 

• Have  teacher  trainers  been  trained  to  undertake  this  work,  including  the  following 
messages: 

• Many  children  in  emergency  situations  have  difficulty  in  concentrating,  so  the 
lessons  should  have  discrete  units,  and  a very  specific  beginning  and  end. 

• Questioning  skills:  teachers  should  ask  open-ended  questions  and  should 
encourage  the  participation  of  all  children,  even  of  those  who  may  be  passive 
and  withdrawn  due  to  their  experiences. 

• Appropriate  policy  on  discipline:  a less  authoritarian  and  gentler  form  of 
discipline  should  be  used  where  possible,  and  strategies  developed  to  cope 
with  students  who  are  confrontational  as  an  aftermath  of  trauma. 

8*  Train  selected  teachers  in  education  for  ‘survival  skills’  and  curriculum 
enrichment  themes  related  to  the  emergency,  such  as  health,  safety, 
peace,  citizenship  and  environment* 

(See  also  the  section  'Curriculum  and  learning  materials’,  in  the  Guidebook , 
Chapters  20-27) 

• Selected  teachers  from  each  school  should  receive  training  in  these  themes  and 
in  the  active  learning  approach  they  require,  to  develop  school  programmes  in 
these  areas. 

• All  teachers  may  benefit  from  some  training  in  these  themes,  to  encourage  them 
to  reinforce  them  during  their  normal  teaching. 


Chapter  18:  Teacher  training  : teaching  and  learning  methods 

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9. 


Train  bilingual  teachers  where  necessary* 


• Provide  additional  training  for  teachers  in  national  languages  of  instruction,  as 
necessary. 

• Take  steps  to  enable  the  early  years  of  primary  education  to  be  conducted  in  the 
child’s  mother  tongue,  so  far  as  practicable. 


0 TRAINING  BILINGUAL  TEACHERS  IN  GUATEMALA 

In  Guatemala,  Save  the  Children  Norway  together  with  other  donors  are  supporting  a 
programme  that  focuses  on  the  education  and  certification  of  educators/teachers  who 
work  with  indigenous  (Maya)  refugee  children  in  the  areas  where  they  live  (comunidades  de 
retornados)  The  intention  is  to  enable  them  to  obtain  the  title  Bilingual  Teacher  in  Primary 
Education,  which  comprises  two  and  a half  years'  training.  Another  objective  is  to  strengthen 
the  teachers'  association. 

To  reach  the  objective,  education  materials  have  been  developed  based  on  Paulo  Freire’s 
approach.  The  Ministry  of  Education  has  approved  this  experiment  under  the  country’s 
official  teacher-training  programme. 

The  curriculum  includes: 

• One  semester  study  of  basic  education. 

• Basic  cycle  of  bilingualism  (Maya  and  Spanish)  - prepare  three  courses  of  four  months 
each. 

• Professional  studies  adapted  to  the  teachers/educators,  which  consists  of  psycho- 
pedagogical  and  didactic  material. 

When  these  courses  have  been  completed,  the  teachers  are  qualified  to  receive  the  certificate 
of  ‘Teacher  in  Primary  Bilingual  Education'.  Eighty-nine  teachers  were  trained  in  1998,  and  85 
in  1999.  The  project  is  part  of  the  educational  reform  initiated  by  the  government. 


10*  Facilitate  the  training  of  teachers  and  volunteers  for  early  childhood 
development  and  pre-school  programmes* 

• The  education  of  teachers  for  early  childhood  and  pre-school  education  should 
focus  on: 

• How  the  child  develops  socially,  intellectually,  emotionally,  physically,  and 
morally. 

• Methods  adapted  to  the  child’s  development  emphasizing  play,  drama,  games, 
artistic  expression,  gross  and  fine  motor  activities  (not  lectures). 

• Basic  concepts  as  a basis  for  later  formal  instruction  in  the  subjects. 

• Community  members  may  volunteer  as  facilitators  of  playgroups  and  pre-school 
groups.  They  should  not  normally  be  remunerated,  but  this  will  not  be  sustainable 
over  the  longer  term;  there  may  be  a need  for  full-time  paid  teachers  to  train  the 
volunteers  and  support  the  functioning  of  the  groups. 

• Consider  involving  the  community  and  training  mothers  as  facilitators/teachers. 


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0 CORE  MOTHERS  IN  CAMBODIA 

The  large  unsatisfied  demand  for  early  childhood  education  was  met  by  the  Core  Mothers' 
project.  Community  leaders  worked  with  the  school  director  to  identify  a group  of  mothers 
with  small  children  in  the  community,  interested  in  helping  their  children  to  learn  at  home. 
Most  of  the  women  involved  had  themselves  completed  primary  education,  and  some 
had  participated  in  secondary  education.  The  mothers  volunteered  to  attend  a four- 
session  workshop  at  the  school,  and  were  given  a reference  book  to  take  home.  The  book 
contained  descriptions  of  psychomotor  activities  for  children,  associated  with  the  task 
of  food  preparation,  through  which  they  could  teach  their  children  basic  concepts  (big- 
small,  thick-thin,  hot-cold,  shapes  and  colours  and  so  on).  As  mothers  carried  out  their 
food  preparation  activities,  they  talked  to  their  children,  gave  them  things  to  play  with, 
and  observed  the  learning  that  was  occurring  through  play.  From  day  to  day,  they  worked 
through  a checklist  of  statements  about  children’s  learning,  understanding  and  skills  in  the 
reference  book,  and  also  wrote  down  their  own  observations.  They  met  with  the  pre-school 
teacher  once  every  two  weeks  to  discuss  their  progress. 

Source:  Johannessen  ( 2001 ). 


11.  Plan  for  the  renewal  of  full-time  pre-service  teacher  education  and 
training* 

In  the  post-conflict  reconstruction  phase,  there  is  a good  opportunity  to  raise  the 
quality  of  pre-service  teacher  education  as  part  of  an  internationally  supported 
programme  for  the  renewal  of  the  education  system. 

• Ensure  that  the  needs-assessment  and  fund-raising  activities  prioritize  the 
rehabilitation  of  teacher-training  institutions  and  of  education  faculties  at  the 
universities,  not  only  physical  infrastructure  and  equipment,  but  also  staff  training, 
curricula,  arrangements  for  practice  teaching,  and  other  measures  to  improve  the 
quality  of  teacher  preparation. 

• Consider  using  teacher-training  institutions  as  centres  for  in-service  teacher 
training  for  teachers  in  the  surrounding  areas,  as  well  as  for  full-time  students. 

• Take  steps  to  strengthen  the  teaching  practice  component  of  teacher  training. 

■ 


0 TEACHER  IDENTITY 

In  Ethiopia,  especially,  teachers  felt  that  they  could  not  be  good  teachers  until  they 
completed  their  own  education,  regardless  of  the  amount  of  in-service  training  they  had 
received.  Women  teachers  in  particular  (who  generally  have  lower  levels  of  education 
than  the  men),  were  very  aware  of  their  limitations  and  lacked  confidence  in  their  abilities. 
Teacher’s  self-image  plays  an  important  role  in  delivering  quality  education  and  must  be 
taken  into  account  in  designing  teacher  development  programming. 

Source:  Winthrop  and  Kirk  (2004: 19). 


Chapter  18:  Teacher  training  : teaching  and  learning  methods 


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0 RECONSTRUCTION  OF  TEACHER  EDUCATION  AT  UNIVERSITY  LEVEL  IN  IRAQ 


■ 


“The  situation  in  the  educational  sector  in  Iraq  in  general,  especially  the  availability  of  qualified  teachers, 
was  raised  constantly  in  discussion  meetings,  such  as  the  stakeholders’  meeting  in  higher  education  for  the 
UNDG/World  Bank  report  in  August  2003.  Teacher  availability  is  a very  complex  matter  that  has  different 
elements  (motivation  related  to  level  of  salaries,  social  reputation,  working  conditions  etc.)  For  the  higher 
education  sector,  where  over  half  of  future  teachers  are  educated,  the  following  problems  were  raised 
during  the  discussions,  as  well  as  in  interviews: 

Education  colleges  were  getting  students  with  weaker  performance  than  other  colleges,  especially  medical 
and  engineering. 

The  importance  of  education  science  has  always  been  underestimated. 

New  methodologies  in  teaching,  particularly  methods  that  promote  creativity  and  practical  experience,  are 
urgently  needed. 

International  exchange  is  needed  for  staff  to  get  acquainted  with  current  trends  in  education. 

New  structures  and  courses  might  be  considered  for  the  educational  colleges,  such  as  offering  special 
education  studies  mainly  at  the  master’s  degree  level  for  graduates  of  colleges  of  arts  and  sciences. 

The  educational  colleges  clearly  need  special  attention  in  the  process  of  restructuring  and  renewal  of 
the  higher  education  system  aimed  at  improving  the  quality  of  future  teachers,  given  the  importance  of 
education  in  the  emerging  knowledge-based  society.” 


■ 


Source:  UNESCO  (2004). 


12 ♦ Consider  the  use  of  open  and  distance  learning  for  training  teachers* 

(See  the  Guidebook , Chapter  11 , ‘Open  and  distance  learning'). 

The  start-up  of  an  open  and  distance  learning  programme  takes  time,  especially  if 

there  is  to  be  a comprehensive  teacher-training  programme  with  national  outreach. 

This  approach  may  be  more  suited  to  post-conflict  reconstruction  or  protracted 

situations,  rather  than  acute  emergencies. 

• Consider  the  use  of  radio  to  communicate  new  teaching  methods  and  content  to 
teachers  in  emergency-affected  locations. 

• Small-scale  open  learning  and  distance  learning  can  sometimes  be  arranged  in 
situations  of  chronic  conflict  (e.g.  hand-carried  lessons  for  home  study,  magazines 
for  children,  etc.). 

• Consider  linking  teachers  to  existing  distance  learning  opportunities,  for  teacher 
training  or  otherwise. 

• It  is  preferable  to  link  distance  education  to  regular  teacher-training  institutions 
or  universities,  drawing  upon  the  experiences  of  their  teacher  trainers  and  their 
education  materials. 

• Match  open  and  distance  learning  with  the  technological  level  in  the  country  in 
question. 

• Use  of  printed  materials  for  correspondence  is  most  common. 

• Face-to-face  interaction  is  necessary  to  succeed. 

• Steady  supervision  and  follow-up  is  crucial.  Lack  of  interaction  between  tutors 
and  students  lowers  motivation  and  effectiveness. 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

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0 DISTANCE  LEARNING  FOR  TEACHERS:  ZIMBABWE  INTEGRATED  NATIONAL  TEACHERS 
EDUCATION  COURSE  (ZINTEC) 

The  Zimbabwe  Integrated  National  Teachers  Education  Course  (ZINTEC)  was  a way  to  meet  the  excess  demand 
for  new  teachers  after  independence.  ZINTEC,  initiated  in  1981,  was  the  most  acclaimed  post-independence 
teacher  education  programme  in  Zimbabwe.  One  of  the  aims  was  to  improve  teaching  practice  by  assigning 
the  student  teachers  to  teach  in  schools  on  several  occasions  during  the  teacher-training  period.  During 
their  practice,  they  were  helped  by  distance  teaching  materials  and  supervised  by  college  lecturers  and  also 
by  school  principals  and  education  officers.  A production  unit  was  responsible  for  writing  all  the  distance 
learning  materials  student  teachers  used  when  they  were  deployed  in  the  schools,  and  the  materials  were 
dispatched  to  the  regions  through  ZINTEC  colleges. 

The  ZINTEC  programme  included: 

• Theory  of  education  (distance  study). 

• Reinforcing  the  distance  education  through  vacation  courses  and  weekend  seminars. 

• Practising  teaching  on  a full-time  basis  with  the  same  responsibilities  as  qualified  teachers. 

Lecturers  visited  students  at  least  once  each  term,  and  others  also  supervised  them  (e.g.  school  principals, 
district  education  officers  and  education  officers).  The  University  of  Zimbabwe  certified  candidates  trained 
under  the  programme.  From  the  beginning,  the  pass  rates  were  relatively  high,  and  the  dropout  rate 
insignificant.  The  actual  percentage  of  students  who  completed  their  course  varied  from  86  per  cent  to  97 
per  cent.  An  important  finding  was  that  the  final  results  of  the  ZINTEC  candidates  and  those  trained  in  regular 
colleges  were  similar. 

Following  the  experience  gained  in  the  ZINTEC  programme,  the  mode  of  training  other  non-graduate  primary 
and  secondary  teachers  changed  from  three  to  four  years.  Student  teachers  spend  their  first  and  third  years 
at  college  and  their  second  year  in  the  schools  as  full-time  teachers  receiving  their  tuition  through  distance 
education  modules  from  the  National  Centre  for  Distance  Education. 

Evaluations  of  ZINTEC  in  1982  and  1986  led  to  the  following  conclusions: 

• ZINTEC  colleges  and  regional  centres  should  be  administratively  and  physically  united  to  facilitate  closer 
co-ordination  and  co-operation  between  field-  and  college-based  lecturers. 

• The  supervisors  (college  lecturers)  had  too  many  students  to  supervise. 

• ZINTEC  lecturers  were  university  graduates  who  were  not  trained  to  teach  at  primary  level. 

• Those  teaching  at  secondary  colleges  were  not  trained  in  teacher  education,  or  in  distance  teacher 
education. 

• Field  supervision  of  student  teachers  by  lecturers  formed  one  of  the  most  important  activities  in  the 
training  of  teachers  through  distance  education.  However,  the  number  of  times  a student  was  visited  in 
the  field  is  not  sufficient  (80  per  cent  were  visited  only  once  per  term). 

• It  was  reported  that  lecturers  spent  more  time  checking  schemes  of  work,  lesson  plans  and  records 
rather  than  helping  students  reinforce  concepts  and  skills  and  link  theory  with  practice  (due  to  lack  of 
funds,  vehicles  and  staff). 

• The  content,  relevance  and  comprehensiveness  of  the  modules  produced  for  the  distance  education 
were  tested.  A majority  of  the  students  did  not  manage  to  explain  basic  terms  in  their  own  words,  and 
consequently  the  modules  had  to  be  changed  to  match  the  students'  level. 

• Lecturers  were  slow  to  return  students'  distance  education  assignments,  and  it  turned  into  a vicious 
circle  when  the  students  became  unmotivated,  as  they  did  not  get  sufficient  feedback. 

• Mismatch  was  found  between  plans  at  the  schools  and  plans  at  the  college,  and  some  colleges  did  not 
provide  the  students  with  proper  planning  guidelines. 

• The  good  teaching  some  of  the  student  candidates  practised  was  not  transferred  to  the  classroom  once 
they  became  fully  qualified  teachers. 

• A pilot  study  showed  that  ZINTEC-trained  teachers  seemed  to  be  more  effective  compared  to  their 
colleagues,  and  the  conclusion  is  that  distance  education  seems  to  be  an  effective  method  of  training 
pre-service,  non-graduate  teachers. 

• Weaknesses  noted  by  the  students  were:  inadequate  supervision,  lack  of  feedback  on  assignments,  lack 
of  books,  poor  postal  service  hindering  communication  between  colleges  and  students,  relatively  heavy 
teaching  loads. 

Source:  Shresta  (1997). 


Chapter  18:  Teacher  training  : teaching  and  learning  methods 


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TOOLS  AND  RESOURCES 


An  excellent  resource  kit  on  teacher  training  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction  has  been 
published  by  INEE  (20046). 

1*  Key  elements  for  teacher  training 

Teacher  training  should  include  the  following  very  practical  items: 

• Planning ; Preparation  and  planning  of  lessons  is  a first  step  in  teacher  education.  It  is 
important  in  all  phases  of  emergencies. 

• How  to  organize  the  classroom . The  placement  of  benches/desks  and  blackboard 
and  how  the  children  are  seated.  Moving  the  learners  around  in  the  classroom,  and 
avoiding  having  weaker  learners  sitting  at  the  back. 

• What  is  learning?  Basic  child  psychology:  how  children  learn  and  develop,  inductive 
and  deductive  teaching,  how  the  teacher  relates  to  the  children. 

• Didactics  of  teaching  The  principles  may  vary  from  one  country  to  another  (shows 
how  to  build  up  a lesson). 

• How  the  time  is  spent . Making  sure  that  the  time  is  spent  on  different  teaching 
activities.  Avoiding  extensive  lecturing  and  copying  from  the  blackboard. 

• Curriculum  relevancy . Allowing  children  to  draw  upon  their  own  experience. 

• Simple  and  understandable  language  adapted  to  the  learners  level  Ensuring  that  the 
teacher  is  able  to  explain  the  topic  in  a way  that  the  learners  are  able  to  understand. 

• Concept  teaching . Starting  with  basic  concepts  and  making  sure  that  the  learner 
understands  them. 

• Teachers  questions . Use  of  open-ended  questions  that  stimulate  discussion,  curiosity 
and  problem  solving.  Avoiding  questions  to  the  whole  group,  which  may  be  answered 
in  unison  by  yes  or  no,  or  some  memorized  phrases. 

• Encouraging  the  children  to  ask  questions . It  is  a healthy  sign  in  a classroom  if  the  children 
ask  questions. 

• Use  of  available  teaching  material  Blackboard,  slates,  notebooks,  textbooks,  teacher 
guides,  charts,  maps,  cubes  and  pictures. 

• How  to  develop  and  where  to  find  local  teaching  material  Identifying  material  available 
in  the  surroundings  and  showing  how  it  can  be  used.  Presenting  a variety  of  teaching 
material  that  is  easy  to  develop  locally  and  demonstrating  how  it  can  be  used  in 
different  subjects. 

• The  use  of  a variety  of  child-centred  methods . Demonstrating  the  planning  and 
implementation  of  group  work  throughout  the  training  process,  working  in  pairs, 
role  play,  songs,  games,  drama,  drawing,  music,  problem  solving,  project  work. 


14 


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• How  to  reduce  the  teachers  talking  and  increase  the  students’  participation . Ways  of 
encouraging  learners'  oral  presentation  and  participation  in  discussions. 

• The  teacher’s  role  as  a facilitator  How  the  teacher's  role  changes  in  child-centred 
methods,  how  the  teacher  provides  a good  climate  for  learning  and  guiding  the  learning 
process. 

• The  use  of child-to-child  tutors . Demonstrating  how  to  make  use  of  children  as  teachers 
and  tutors,  how  the  more  advanced  students  may  help  the  weaker. 

• How  to  teach  big  classes . Demonstrating  teaching  methods  that  are  applicable  in  big 
classes. 

• The  use  of  two  teachers  in  the  classroom . Demonstrating  how  to  make  use  of  a two- 
teacher  system. 

• Observation  of  children . Demonstrating  observation  as  a tool  to  better  understanding 
of  the  individual  child  and  the  group. 

• How  to  teach  children  who  are  slow  or  who  have  learning  difficulties . Methods  to  support 
slow  learners.  Avoiding  spending  most  of  the  time  on  the  clever  students. 

• Children  with  special  needs . Methods  of  teaching  adapted  to  children  with  special 
needs  that  may  also  be  relevant  to  all  children. 

• Praising  children . How  praise  can  be  used  to  encourage  the  learner's  achievements. 

• Checking  that  a child  has  understood . Demonstrating  ways  of  checking  the  results  of 
the  teaching,  through  individual  and  group  tasks,  oral  and  written. 

• How  to  treat  the  child  with  respect  and  dignity  Avoiding  stigmatization  of  weak  children, 
children  who  do  not  readily  understand  corporal  and  psychological  punishment. 
Teaching  students  how  to  behave  towards  each  other. 

• How  to  guide  children  to  become  more  independent  learners . Some  children  need  more 
support  than  others,  but  they  also  have  to  learn  gradually  how  to  manage  on  their 
own. 

• How  to  increase  the  child’s  sense  of  competency : Focusing  on  what  the  child  manages 
and  less  on  his/her  weaknesses. 

• Classroom  discipline . Rules  of  behaviour  in  the  classroom,  replacing  strict  discipline  with 
positive  discipline.  The  difference  between  productive  and  unproductive  noise. 

• How  to  encourage  girls’  participation  in  the  classroom . Finding  ways  that  increase  girls' 
motivation  for  schoolwork  and  their  participation.  Some  teachers  do  not  expect  as 
much  from  girls  as  from  the  boys. 

• How  to  make  the  lesson  enjoyable . How  to  stir  the  natural  pleasure  for  learning  by 
stimulating  curiosity,  concentration  and  productive  work. 

• Extensive  practical  classroom  experience . This  needs  to  be  arranged  for  students 
following  full-time  courses  of  teacher  education  and  training. 

Source:  Johannessen  (forthcoming). 


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2*  Training  topics:  ideas  for  building  awareness 


Inclusive  education 

Key  concept:  Because  all  children  have  a right  to  education,  teachers  are  obliged  to  make 
a special  effort  to  reach  those  traditionally  excluded  - girls,  disabled  children,  those  from 
minority  ethnic  communities,  etc. 

Discipline  in  the  classroom 

Key  concept:  Physical  punishment,  using  violent  means  or  embarrassing  children,  reinforces 
a violent  society  and  perpetuates  cycles  of  disrespect  and  hate. 

Involving  parents  in  a child's  learning 

Key  concept:  It  is  essential  for  parents  to  contribute  actively  to  childrens  learning,  both  at 
home,  and  by  periodically  assisting  in  the  classroom. 

Role  of  a teacher 

Key  concept:  Essential  qualities  of  a good  teacher  include  respecting  children  as  individuals, 
letting  students  know  what  is  expected,  and  helping  students  to  practise  and  to  learn 
from  mistakes. 

Source:  Nicolai  (2003:  99). 

3.  INEE  minimum  standards  for  teaching  and  learning1 

Standard  2 

Teachers  and  other  education  personnel  receive  periodic,  relevant  and  structured  training 
according  to  need  and  circumstances. 

Key  indicators 

• Training  corresponds  to  prioritized  needs,  objectives  of  education  activities  and 
learning  content. 

• Where  appropriate,  training  is  recognized  and  approved  by  relevant  educational 
authorities. 

• Qualified  trainers  conduct  the  training  courses  and  provision  is  made  for  ongoing 
support  and  guidance,  appropriate  follow-up,  monitoring  and  supervision  in  the  field, 
and  refresher  training. 

• Training,  including  follow-up  monitoring,  encourages  the  teacher  to  be  a facilitator 
in  the  learning  environment,  promotes  participatory  methods  of  teaching,  and 
demonstrates  the  use  of  teaching  aids. 


1.  Source:  INEE  (2004:  69). 


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• Training  content  is  regularly  assessed  to  determine  if  it  meets  the  needs  of  teachers, 
students  and  the  community,  and  is  revised  when  necessary. 

• Training  provides  teachers  with  appropriate  skills  to  be  able  to  assume  leadership 
roles  when  required  by  members  of  the  community. 

INEE  minimum  standards  guidance  notes 

Training  support  and  co-ordination . Once  the  emergency  has  stabilized,  national  and  local 
educational  authorities  and  community  education  committees  should  be  involved  in  the 
design  and  implementation  of  formal  and  non-formal  teacher-training  activities,  whenever 
possible.  It  is  advisable  to  start  a dialogue  on  curricula  for  in-service  teacher  training, 
and  mechanisms  for  recognition  of  training  received,  at  the  beginning  of  the  emergency 
response.  However,  in  many  refugee  situations  there  is  often  no  connection  between  the 
refugee  community  and  its  education  programmes  and  the  local  education  system. 

Where  possible,  local  trainers  should  be  identified  to  develop  and  implement  appropriate 
training  for  teachers,  with  capacity  building  for  their  facilitation  and  training  skills,  as 
needed.  Where  there  are  limited  numbers  of  trainers  available  or  they  are  themselves 
inadequately  trained,  external  agencies  (e.g.  United  Nations,  international  NGOs)  and 
local,  national  and  regional  institutions  should  make  co-ordinated  efforts  to  strengthen 
existing  or  transitional  structures  and  institutions  providing  in-service  and  pre-service 
teacher  training. 

Recognition  and  accreditation . Approval  and  accreditation  by  national  and  local  educational 
authorities  is  sought  in  part  to  ensure  quality  and  recognition  in  the  immediate  situation, 
and  in  part  with  a view  to  the  post-emergency  situation.  In  the  case  of  refugee  teachers, 
the  educational  authorities  of  the  host  or  home  country/area,  or  at  least  one  of  these, 
should  recognize  the  training.  For  this  purpose,  it  is  essential  that  teacher-training  courses 
be  well  structured  and  well  documented,  and  meet  the  teacher  qualification  requirements 
of  the  educational  authorities,  as  well  as  including  any  additional  components  related  to 
the  emergency. 


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REFERENCES  AND  FURTHER  READING 


Andersson,  L.  1991.  Increasing  teacher  effectiveness.  Paris:  IIEP-UNESCO. 

Brown,  T.  2001.  “Improving  quality  and  attainment  in  refugee  schools:  the  case  of  the 
Bhutanese  refugees  in  Nepal”.  In:  J.  Crisp,  C.  Talbot  and  D.B.  Cipollone  (Eds.), 
Learning  for  a future:  refugee  education  in  developing  countries  (pp.  109-161).  Geneva: 
UNHCR. 

Farrell,  J.P.;  Oliveira,  J.  (Eds).  1993.  Teachers  in  developing  countries:  improving  effectiveness 
and  managing  costs . Washington:  World  Bank. 

1NEE  (Inter-Agency  Network  for  Education  in  Emergencies).  2002.  “Training  and  capacity 
building”.  In:  Good  practice  guide  for  emergency  education . Paris:  1NEE.  Retrieved 
26  August  2005  from 

http://www.ineesite.org/training/service.asp 

1NEE  (Inter-Agency  Network  for  Education  in  Emergencies).  2004a.  Minimum  standards 
for  education  in  emergencies , chronic  crises  and  early  reconstruction . Paris:  1NEE. 

1NEE  (Inter-Agency  Network  for  Education  in  Emergencies).  20046.  Teacher  training 
resource  kit.  Paris:  1NEE. 

Johannessen,  E.  M.  1998.  More  and  better  schools  for  all:  a review  of  Save  the  Children  UK's 
work  on  education  in  Mozambique  as  basis  for  a strategy . Maputo:  Save  the  Children 
UK. 

Johannessen,  E.  M.  2001.  An  inclusive , relevant  and  developmental  basic  education  for  all: 
thematic  evaluation  of  Save  the  Children  Norway's  basic  education  programme . Oslo: 
Save  the  Children  Norway. 

Johannessen,  E.  M.  Forthcoming.  Management  of  teachers  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction . 
Paris:  IIEP-UNESCO. 

Lange,  E.  1998.  A best  practice  study:  the  International  Rescue  Committee  Education  Programme 
for  Refugees  in  Guinea , 1991-1998.  Geneva:  UNHCR. 

Nicolai,  S.  2003.  Education  in  emergencies:  a tool  kit  for  starting  and  managing  education  in 
emergencies.  London:  Save  the  Children. 

Save  the  Children  Norway.  2001.  Alternativa  Educacion  de  calidad.  Los proyectos  educativos 
de  ASCATED , FUNDEMI , PENNAT  y PRODESSA.  Guatemala  City:  Save  the 
Children  Norway. 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


Shresta,  G.  1997.  A review  of  case  studies  related  to  distance  education  in  developing  countries . 
Retrieved  26  August  2005  from 

http://www.undp.org/info21/public/review/pb-rev3.html 

Sinclair,  M.  2002.  Planning  education  in  and  after  emergencies.  (Fundamentals  of  educational 
planning  no.  73).  Paris.  11EP-UNESCO. 

Thompson,  A.R.  1995.  The  utilization  and  professional  development  of  teachers:  issues  and 
strategies . Paris:  11EP-UNESCO. 

UNESCO.  2004.  Iraq:  education  in  transition:  needs  and  challenges . Paris:  UNESCO. 

Villegas-Reimers,  E.  2003.  Teacher  professional  development:  an  international  review  of  the 
literature . Paris:  11EP-UNESCO. 

Winthrop,  R.;  Kirk,  J.  2004.  “Teacher  development  and  student  well-being”.  In:  Forced 
Migration  Review,  22,  18-21. 


Chapter  18:  Teacher  training  : teaching  and  learning  methods  19 

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CHAPTER 


18 


SECTION  4 


United  Nations  [ International 

Educational,  Scientific  and  ] Institute  for 

Cultural  Organization  * Educational 

Planning 


PSYCHOSOCIAL  SUPPORT 

TO  LEARNERS 


The  designations  employed  and  the  presentation  of 
material  throughout  this  review  do  not  imply  the  expression 
of  any  opinion  whatsoever  on  the  part  of  UNESCO  or  the 
IIEP  concerning  the  legal  status  of  any  country,  territory, 
city  or  area  or  its  authorities,  or  concerning  its  frontiers 
or  boundaries. 

The  publication  costs  of  this  study  have  been  covered 
through  a grant-in-aid  offered  by  UNESCO  and  by 
voluntary  contributions  made  by  several  Member  States 
of  UNESCO. 


Published  by: 

International  Institute  for  Educational  Planning 
7-9  rue  Eugene  Delacroix,  75116  Paris 
e-mail:  info@iiep.unesco.org 
IIEP  web  site:  www.unesco.org/iiep 


Layout  and  cover  design:  Sabine  Lebeau 
Typesetting:  Sabine  Lebeau 
Printed  in  IIEP’s  printshop 
ISBN:  92-803-1288-X 
©UNESCO  2006 


Chapter  ETJ 

PSYCHOSOCIAL  SUPPORT  TO  LEARNERS 


^ MAIN  OBJECTIVE 

• To  provide  educational,  psychological 
and  social  opportunities  which  support 
the  well-being  of  children  affected  by 
the  trauma  of  conflict  or  natural  disaster. 


CONTEXT  AND  CHALLENGES 

Defining  psychosocial  support 

The  impact  of  conflict  or  disaster  on  individuals 
depends  upon  their  natural  resiliency,  exposure 
to  disturbing  events  and  the  type  of  support 
they  receive  following  the  experience.  The 
word  ‘psychosocial’  is  a combination  of  the 
concepts  of  the  individual  ‘psyche’  and  the 
‘social’  community  in  which  the  person  lives  and 
interacts.  “Psychosocial  support  recognizes  the 
importance  of  the  social  context  in  addressing 
the  psychological  impact  of  stressful  events 
experienced  in  emergencies.  In  practice,  this 
means  facilitating  the  reconstruction  of  local 
social  structures  (family,  community  groups, 
schools)  which  may  have  been  destroyed  or 
weakened  by  an  emergency,  so  that  they 
can  give  appropriate  and  effective  support  to 
those  suffering  severe  stress  related  to  their 
experiences”  (Nicolai,  2003a:  117). 


1 

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Target  population 


Children  and  families  who  are  part  of  the  same  community  (and  have  endured  the  same 
sequence  of  events)  will  nevertheless  have  different  experiences  and  responses.  It  is  possible 
to  distinguish  between  three  groups,  according  to  the  degree  of  risk: 

• Generally  affected  group.  The  largest  proportion  of  the  population  consists  of 
individuals  who  may  not  have  been  directly  affected  by  crisis  events  and  whose 
families  may  be  largely  intact.  Children  and  adults  in  this  group  may  be  suffering 
from  physical  and  mental  exhaustion,  for  example,  but  are  not  experiencing  the 
level  of  distress  felt  by  those  in  the  severely  affected  or  at-risk  groups. 

• At-risk  group.  Individuals  in  this  group  may  have  experienced  severe  losses 
and  disruption,  be  significantly  distressed,  and  may  be  experiencing  despair  and 
hopelessness.  However,  their  social  and  psychological  capacity  to  function  has 
not  yet  been  overwhelmed,  although  they  are  at  particular  risk  of  psychological 
and  social  deterioration  if  their  needs  are  not  addressed  through  timely  support 
mechanisms. 

• Severely  affected  group.  The  psychological  and  social  functioning  of  children 
and  adults  in  this  group  may  be  severely  compromised.  Children,  such  as  former 
child  soldiers,  who  may  have  been  forced  to  watch  and/or  commit  violent  acts, 
are  likely  to  fall  into  this  group.  They  require  intensive,  individual  psychological 
attention  to  address  the  more  severe  traumatic  and/or  depression  disorders. 

Source:  Adapted  from  Duncan  and  Arntson  (2004). 


CHILDREN  AND  ADOLESCENTS  AFFECTED  BY  CONFLICT 


Source:  Duncan  and  Arntson  (2004). 


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Coping  mechanisms 


It  is  important  to  emphasize  that  what  people  in  crisis  are  experiencing  after  a traumatic 
event  is  a normal  reaction  to  very  abnormal  events.  Those  affected  should  be  assured  that 
their  situation  over  time  will  improve;  most  people  will  recover.  Giving  people  this  simple 
explanation  helps  them  understand  and  address  their  stress.  ‘Normal  patterns’  of  daily  life 
such  as  going  to  school,  social  interaction,  and  play  are  known  to  mitigate  the  impact  of  the 
conflict.  The  re-establishment  of  weekly,  monthly  and  yearly  events,  such  as  the  school 
year,  and  religious,  cultural  and  social  events,  provides  hope,  as  people  are  able  to  plan  for 
the  future.  In  addition,  when  children  go  to  school,  their  parents  and  caregivers,  who  are 
also  under  enormous  pressure,  can  focus  on  daily  survival  tasks  without  worrying  about  the 
well-being  of  their  children.  This  also  serves  to  reduce  stress  levels  within  families. 

In  recent  years,  research  into  what  elements  increase  a child’s  ability  to  survive,  cope  and 
thrive  following  a traumatic  experience  has  clearly  demonstrated  the  important  role  that 
teachers,  other  educators  and  school  routine  can  play.  Several  key  characteristics  (assets 
or  resources  of  individuals  who  are  able  to  best  deal  with  stressful  experiences)  have  been 
identified: 

• Cognitive  competence  - a reasonable  level  of  intelligence,  skills  in  communication, 
or  realistic  planning. 

• A positive  sense  of  self-esteem,  self-confidence  and  self-control. 

• An  active  coping  style  rather  than  a passive  approach  - a tendency  to  look  to  the 
future  rather  than  to  the  past. 

• A sense  of  structure  and  meaning  in  the  individual’s  life. 

Teachers  and  educators  are  in  a good  position  to  encourage  and  nurture  all  these  elements. 
It  has  also  been  shown  that  several  aspects  of  a child’s  immediate  social  environment  can 
play  a key  role  in  their  ability  to  cope: 

• Good  and  consistent  support  and  guidance  from  parents  or  other  caregivers. 

• Support  from  extended  family  and  friendship/community  networks  and  teachers 
and  the  re-establishment  of  a normal  pattern  of  life. 

• An  educational  climate  that  is  emotionally  positive,  open  and  supportive. 

• Appropriate  role  models,  which  encourage  constructive  coping. 

Source:  Adapted  from  Nicolai,  2003a. 


Chapter  19:  Psychosocial  support  to  learners 

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Best  practices  in  providing  psychosocial  support 


For  education  professionals,  psychosocial  work  is  nothing  new  - as  good  teaching  and 
learning  practices  are  good  psychosocial  practices.  Educators  should  strive  to  create  a 
comfortable  and  supportive  learning  environment  where  learners  feel  safe,  and  should 
recognize  that  learners  affected  by  conflict  may  especially  need  frequent  breaks  and  a 
nurturing  atmosphere  to  help  them  recover  from  the  conflict.  In  emergencies  (and  during 
early  reconstruction) , all  education  personnel  should  be  provided  with  a basic  understanding 
of  the  psychosocial  impact  of  conflict  (see  also  point  2 in  the  ‘Tools  and  resources’  section.) 
However,  it  should  also  be  remembered  that,  in  conflict  situations,  or  following  natural 
disaster,  educators  also  have  their  own  physical  and  psychosocial  needs.  In  many  cases,  these 
needs  add  additional  stress  to  an  educator’s  life  and  may  lead  to  absenteeism,  burnout  and 
leaving  the  profession.  In  natural  disasters,  additional  sources  of  stress,  for  both  education 
personnel  and  children,  may  include:  physical  injury;  loss  of  home  and  public  services;  loss 
of  parent  or  other  relatives;  heightened  poverty  and  a sense  of  vulnerability. 

People  experience  extraordinary  stress  when  their  communities  are  divided  by  conflict: 
Families  face  long-term  separation,  they  must  live  as  refugees  or  IDPs,  they  are  exposed  to 
violence  as  either  a witness  or  a victim,  participate  in  conflict  and  experience  broken-down 
trust  in  society.  Refugees  and  IDPs  may  not  have  access  to  traditional  coping  mechanisms 
as  a result  of  the  breakdown  in  society  that  occurs  following  conflict.  Severely  traumatized 
refugees  and  IDPs  may  also  not  have  access  to  qualified  mental  health  professionals  and 
people  living  in  areas  of  conflict  may  have  been  impacted  by  multiple  disturbing  events.  The 
psychosocial  role  that  educators  can  play,  in  situations  such  as  these,  is  vital. 


WHY  PSYCHOSOCIAL  SUPPORT  AS  PART  OF  EDUCATION? 

• Teachers  can  provide  a stable,  affectionate  relationship  for  a child. 

• Education  staff  can  be  aware  of  those  having  special  difficulties  in  coping. 

• Time  can  be  dedicated  to  better  understanding  the  crisis  and  its  impact. 

• Successes  in  learning  will  increase  the  self-confidence  of  a child. 

• Local  sports  and  art,  such  as  drama  and  dance,  help  children  relax,  develop,  value  their 
cultural  identity  and  build  a sense  of  belonging. 

• Schools  and  structured  activities  reinforce  the  social  web  of  community. 

Source:  Nicolai  (2003a). 


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SUGGESTED  STRATEGIES 


In  emergencies  and  during  early  reconstruction,  children  and  young  people  often  experience 
multiple  sources  of  distress.  Some  suggested  strategies  for  addressing  their  psychosocial 
needs  are  indicated  below. 


Summary  of  suggested  strategies 

Psychosocial  support  to  learners 

1.  Train  teachers  to  monitor  children  and 

identify  those  who  may  be  experiencing  special 
difficulties  when  they  are  in  school. 


2.  Provide  necessary  support  to  teachers  so  that 
they  can  support  distressed  children. 

3.  Begin  structured  education  activities  as  soon 
as  possible  in  order  to  mitigate  the  psychosocial 
impact  of  the  emergency  on  children  and 
youth. 

4.  In  protracted  emergencies,  support  parents, 
families  and  communities  with  activities  to 
address  stress. 

5.  Establish  programmes  that  focus  on  longer- 
term  concepts  of  justice,  peace  and  democracy. 

6.  Support  good  teaching  and  learning  practices. 

7.  Incorporate  training  in  the  psychosocial  impact 
of  the  conflict  with  pedagogical  training. 

8.  Put  a referral  system  into  place. 

9.  Support  the  physical  and  psychosocial  needs  of 
educators  and  learners. 

10.  Monitor  the  success  of  any  psychosocial 
programmes. 


. 


Chapter  19:  Psychosocial  support  to  learners 

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Guidance  notes 


1.  Train  teachers  to  monitor  children  and  identify  those  who  may  be 
experiencing  special  difficulties  when  they  are  in  school. 

• Basic  ways  of  understanding  distress  include: 

• Observe  childrens  behaviour  and  interaction  with  others  for  signs  of  distress.  (See 
‘Symptoms  of  distress’  in  the  ‘Tools  and  resources’  section  of  this  chapter.) 

• Listen  to  children.  In  order  to  help  children  talk  and  share  their  feelings,  create 
a supportive  educational  environment  where  teachers  regularly  interact  with 
children  on  an  individual  level. 

• Recognize  and  build  on  the  experience  and  potential  of  children  who  have 
been  affected  by  the  emergency.  Valuing  and  emphasizing  their  skills,  personal 
resources,  resilience  and  capacity  to  overcome  challenges  can  help  children  to 
build  self-esteem  and  confidence,  and  take  a positive  attitude  to  their  future. 

2.  Provide  necessary  support  to  teachers  so  that  they  can  support 
distressed  children. 

• In  teacher  training,  emphasize  that  an  individual  teacher  cannot  do  everything  or 
solve  all  the  children’s  problems. 

• Whenever  possible,  provide  regular  breaks  for  teachers. 

• Regularly  rotate  responsibilities  among  teachers,  so  that  one  or  a few  teachers  do 
not  bear  the  burden  of  all  that  needs  to  be  done. 

• Schedule  regular  staff  meetings  and  in-service  training. 

• Encourage  peer  support. 

• Provide  opportunities  for  teachers  to  improve  their  skills,  which,  in  turn,  will 
increase  their  sense  of  professionalism,  self-esteem  and  motivation. 


0 PSYCHOSOCIAL  SUPPORT  SHOULD  BE  CULTURALLY  APPROPRIATE 

The  cause  and  meaning  of  the  symptoms  of  psychosocial  impact  vary  between  cultures 
and  affect  how  and  where  those  affected  seek  treatment.  In  Angola,  some  people  felt  that 
recurrent  bad  dreams  were  caused  by  spirits  of  family  members  who  were  not  properly 
buried  during  the  war.  Organizations  assisted  those  affected  to  perform  the  proper 
burial  rituals  to  appease  the  spirits.  In  other  parts  of  the  world,  people,  and  especially 
children,  seek  traditional  assistance  and  charms  to  ward  off  bad  spirits.  These  traditional 
perceptions  and  cures  are  just  as  valid  as  Western  mental-health  practices.  Learners  should 
be  encouraged  to  seek  whatever  is  effective  as  long  as  it  does  not  cause  physical  harm. 


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Begin  structured  educational  activities  as  soon  as  possible  in  order  to 
mitigate  the  psychosocial  impact  of  the  emergency  on  children  and 
youth. 

• Provide  a safe  place  for  educational  and  recreational  activities  and  ensure  that 
these  activities  are  available  for  everyone  in  the  community,  especially  girls  and 
minority  groups. 

• Take  steps  to  re-establish  regular  patterns  of  life  for  the  learners. 

In  protracted  emergencies,  support  parents,  families  and  communities 
with  activities  to  address  stress. 

• Support  community  efforts  to  re-establish  schools. 

• Consider  providing  cultural,  social  and  sporting  activities. 

Establish  programmes  that  focus  on  longer-term  concepts  of  justice, 
peace  and  democracy. 

(See  also  the  Guidebook , Chapter  25,  'Education  for  life  skills:  peace,  human  rights 
and  citizenship’.) 

Support  good  teaching  and  learning  practices. 

(See  also  the  Guidebook , Chapter  18,  'Teacher  training:  teaching  and  learning 
methods’.) 

• Encourage  educators  to  plan  lessons  with  clear  learning  objectives. 

• Provide  students  with  frequent  breaks. 

• Instruct  teachers  not  to  beat  or  punish  the  learners. 

• Provide  training  in  and  encourage  teachers  to  use  teaching  aids  and  participatory 
teaching  methods. 

Incorporate  training  in  the  psychosocial  impact  of  the  conflict  with 
pedagogical  training. 

• Provide  pedagogical  training  for  teachers. 

• In  some  instances,  trained  teachers  may  be  hesitant  to  attend  pedagogical 
training  as  they  feel  they  have  already  been  sufficiently  trained.  In  this  case, 
training  on  the  impact  of  conflict  can  be  structured  as  a new  subject  to  attract 
their  attendance. 

• Include  participatory  teaching  methods,  such  as  questioning  strategies,  and 
group  work. 

• Emphasize  why  using  good  teaching  methods  is  particularly  important  in 
areas  of  conflict. 


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7 


• Train  educators  to  identify  psychosocial  stress  and  trauma,  and  provide  them  with 
strategies  to  assist  the  learners.  Teachers,  however,  should  not  be  overburdened 
with  responsibility  in  this  area,  as  they  themselves  may  also  be  traumatized. 
They  should  not  be  expected  to  assume  responsibility,  beyond  the  identification 
of  troubled  children,  for  an  area  in  which  they  are  not  specialized,  or  qualified. 

• Provide  educators,  parents  and  community  leaders  with  an  orientation  to  the 
possible  impacts  of  conflict,  and  how  to  identify  them. 


Q PSYCHOSOCIAL  TRAINING  IN  TIMOR-LESTE 

In  Timor-Leste,  experts  from  UNICEF,  Community  and  Family  Services  International,  the 
University  of  Indonesia  and  the  Child  Protection  Institute  produced  a training  package  and 
manual  on  basic  psychosocial  support.  Training  included  information  on  the  importance  of 
psychosocial  support  for  children,  discussion  on  the  culture  of  East  Timor  and  psychosocial 
implications,  as  well  as  skill  development  on  identification  of  children  with  special  needs. 
Additionally,  topics  such  as  communication  with  children,  helping  children  in  need  of 
protection  and  the  process  of  mourning  were  included  (Jiyono,  2000:  8).  There  was  little 
effort  to  address  teachers’  psychosocial  needs  and,  according  to  one  NGO  worker  there 
at  the  time,  “teachers’  emotional  trauma  sometimes  interfered  with  their  ability  to  provide 
a safe  emotional  and  physical  space  for  teaching  and  relationships  with  children”.  Teachers 
in  the  camp  schools  received  introductory  training  in  psychosocial  counselling,  and  were 
supported  to  better  identify  students  who  may  have  had  mental  problems  due  to  the  crisis. 

Source:  Nicolai  (2004:  65-66). 


8*  Put  a referral  system  into  place. 

• Some  learners  may  need  support  and  assistance  from  mental  health  professionals. 

• Train  educators  to  screen  learners  so  that  they  can  refer  specific  learners  for  more 
assistance. 

• Provide  referral  mechanisms  for  students  who  need  individual  assistance  and 
clearly  communicate  these  to  educators.  Possible  referrals  include: 

• School  counsellors. 

• Traditional  healers. 

• Mental  health  professionals. 

• Existing  local  mental  health  and  social  services. 

• Ensure  that  system  (s)  have  been  put  in  place  to  respect  the  privacy  of  the  individual 
who  is  referred. 

• Are  specialized  services  or  times  available  for  women,  girls,  and  youth  to 
access  services  confidentially? 

• Are  services  offered  in  the  appropriate  languages  by  professionals  of  the 
appropriate  gender  and  ethnicity? 


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• Determine  what  hinders  access  to  local  services. 

• Distance? 

• Lack  of  money? 

• 1DP  or  refugee  status? 

• The  implementation  of  a three-stage  system  of  referral  may  be  useful: 

• Teachers  are  trained  in  trauma-symptom  recognition.  Confidential  reports 
may  go  to  the  head-teacher  of  the  school. 

• The  head-teacher  should  then  take  responsibility  for  the  referral  of  at-risk 
children  to  a context  in  which  play  and  social  interaction  can  take  place, 
animated,  supervised  and  observed  by  trained,  experienced  psychologists. 

• The  psychologists  may  initiate  referral  of  very  severely  traumatized  children 
for  therapy  with  psychiatrists  if  necessary. 

9*  Support  the  physical  and  psychosocial  needs  of  educators  and 
learners* 

• Encourage  teachers  to  support  each  other  and  to  discuss  among  themselves 
strategies  for  assisting  students. 

• Determine  the  causes  of  stress  for  educators  and  learners.  Educational  authorities 
should  either  address  these  causes  of  stress  or  find  organizations  that  are  willing 
to  assist. 

• Security? 

• Lack  of  basic  needs  such  as  food,  shelter,  clothing? 

• Determine  whether  educators  feel  confident  in  providing  psychosocial  support. 

• Are  regular  meetings  held  so  that  educators  can  discuss  how  psychosocial 
support  is  given  within  the  schools? 

• Are  communities  supported  to  re-establish  schools?  Cultural  and  social  activities? 
Sports? 

10*  Monitor  the  success  of  any  psychosocial  programmes* 

Establish  methods  for  measuring  the  success’  of  psychosocial  programmes,  e.g.  decrease 
in  symptoms,  etc.  For  details  of  approaches  that  may  be  adopted,  see  Duncan  and 
Arntson  (2004). 


Chapter  19:  Psychosocial  support  to  learners 

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TOOLS  AND  RESOURCES 


1.  Symptoms  of  distress 

Children  from  different  age  groups  react  to  stressful  experiences  in  different  ways. 
Generally  speaking,  symptoms  of  distress  can  include  the  following: 


AGE  GROUP 

POSSIBLE  SYMPTOMS 

VERY  YOUNG  CHILDREN 

(0-5  years) 

Not  able  to  rationalize  what  is  happening  around 
them  and  not  able  to  understand  the  concept  of  death, 
equating  it  with  separation. 

• Anxious  clinging  to  caregivers 

• Temper  tantrums 

• Regression,  e.g.  in  speech  development 

• Fear  of  going  to  sleep 

• Nightmares  and  night  terrors 

• Excessive  fear  of  real  or  imagined  things, 
e.g.,  thunder,  monsters 

YOUNG  CHILDREN 

(6-12  years) 

Can  recall  and  rationalize  events  in  a more  logical  way. 
They  will  often  use  fantasy  to  deal  with  a stressful 
event,  e.g.  re-enacting  or  imagining  a different  outcome. 
They  are  more  prone  to  feelings  of  guilt  that  they  have 
not  prevented  bad  things  from  happening. 

• Poor  concentration,  restlessness  or  bad  behaviour 
in  school 

• Anxious  behaviour  including  hyperactivity, 
stuttering  and  eating  problems 

• Psychosomatic  complaints,  e.g.  headaches, 
stomach  pains 

• Behavioural  change,  becoming  aggressive  or 
withdrawn  and  passive 

• Sleeping  problems 

• Regression  - acting  like  a younger  child 

ADOLESCENTS 

(13-16  years) 

Have  a good  understanding  of  what  has  happened  and 
also  what  the  consequences  might  be.  They  are  dealing 
with  the  emotional  and  physical  changes  of  adolescence 
as  well  as  coping  with  events  and  experiences  related  to 
the  emergency. 

• Self-destructiveness  and  rebelliousness,  e.g.  drug 
taking,  stealing 

• Withdrawal  - cautious  of  others  and  fearful  of  the 
future 

• Anxiety,  nervousness 

• Psychosomatic  complaints 

Source:  Nicolai  (2003 b),  adapted  from  Macksoud  (1993). 


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2.  Best  practices  in  providing  psychosocial  support 


The  best  practices  in  providing  psychosocial  support  to  children  through  education  are 
often  reminiscent  of  effective  classroom  practices  in  general. 


CHILDREN’S  NEEDS 

POSSIBLE  PSYCHOSOCIAL  INTERVENTIONS 

A SENSE  OF  BELONGING 

• Establish  an  educational  structure  where  children  feel  included. 

• Promote  the  restoration  of  cultural,  traditional  practices  of  childcare. 

RELATIONSHIPS  WITH  PEERS 

• Provide  a dependable,  interactive  routine,  through  school  or  other 
organized  educational  activity. 

• Offer  group  and  team  activities  (i.e.  sports,  drama,  etc.)  that  require 
co-operation  and  dependence  on  one  another. 

PERSONAL  ATTACHMENTS 

• Enlist  teachers  who  can  bond  with  children. 

• Provide  opportunities  for  social  integration  and  unity  by  teaching  and 
showing  respect  for  all  cultural  values,  regardless  of  difference. 

INTELLECTUAL  STIMULATION 

• Enhance  child  development  by  providing  a variety  of  experiences. 

PHYSICAL  STIMULATION 

• Encourage  recreational  and  creative  activities,  both  traditional  and 
new,  through  games,  sports,  music,  dance,  etc. 

TO  FEEL  VALUED 

• Create  opportunities  for  expression  through  group  discussions, 
drawing,  writing,  drama,  etc.,  which  promote  self-confidence. 

• Recognize,  encourage  and  praise  children. 

Source:  International  Rescue  Committee  (2003). 

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REFERENCES  AND  FURTHER  READING 


Duncan,  J.;  Arnston,  L.  2004.  Children  in  crisis:  good  practices  in  evaluating  psychosocial 
programming . n.p.:  The  International  Psychosocial  Evaluation  Committee  and  Save 
the  Children. 

INEE  (Inter-Agency  Network  for  Education  in  Emergencies).  2002.  “Training  teachers 
to  meet  psycho-social  needs”.  In:  Good  practice  guides  for  emergency  education . 
Retrieved  26  August  2005  from  http://www.ineesite.org/edcon/psy_soc.asp 

International  Rescue  Committee.  2003.  The  IRC' s psychosocial  teacher  training  guide.  Draft 
copy. 

International  Save  the  Children  Alliance.  1996.  Promoting  psychosocial  well-being  among 
children  affected  by  armed  conflict  and  displacement:  principles  and  approaches. 
Retrieved  26  August  2005  from  http://www.ineesite.org/edcon/promoting.asp 

Loughry,  M.;  Eyber,  C;  2003.  Psychosocial  concepts  in  humanitarian  work  with  children: 
A review  of  the  concepts  and  related  literature.  Washington,  DC:  The  National 
Academies  Press. 

Lowicki,  J.  2000.  Untapped  potential:  adolescents  affected  by  armed  conflict.  A review  of 
programs  and  policies.  New  York:  Womens  Commission  for  Refugee  Women  and 
Children. 

McDonald,  L.  2000.  Psycho-social  and  mental  health  programmes:  useful  resources  and 
information  to  guide  interventions.  Geneva:  UNHCR. 

McMallin,  M.  (Ed.).  1996.  The  psychological  well-being  of  refugee  children:  research , practice 
and  policy  issues.  Geneva:  International  Catholic  Child  Bureau. 

Macksoud,  M.  1993.  Helping  children  cope  with  stresses  of  war.  New  York:  UNICEF. 

Ministry  ofYouth,  Education  and  Sport;  UNICEF;  Norwegian  Refugee  Council.  2000.  Rapid 
response  education  programme:  trauma  healing.  Freetown,  Sierra  Leone:  Ministry  of 
Youth,  Education  and  Sport. 

Nicolai,  S.  2003a.  Psychosocial  needs  of  conflict- affected  children  and  adolescents  (World  Bank- 
IIEP  Summer  School  7-15th  July  2003.  Background  paper).  Paris:  IIEP-UNESCO. 

Nicolai,  S.  20036.  Education  in  emergencies:  a tool  kit  for  starting  and  managing  education  in 
emergencies.  London:  Save  the  Children. 

Nicolai,  S.  2004.  Learning  independence:  education  in  emergency  and  transition  in  Timor-Leste 
since  1999 . Paris:  IIEP-UNESCO. 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


The  Psychosocial  Working  Group.  2003a.  Psychosocial  intervention  in  complex  emergencies: 
a conceptual  framework  (Working  Paper).  Edinburgh:  The  Psychosocial  Working 
Group. 

The  Psychosocial  Working  Group.  2003b.  Psychosocial  intervention  in  complex  emergencies: 
a framework  for  practice  (Working  Paper).  Edinburgh:  The  Psychosocial  Working 
Group. 

The  Psychosocial  Working  Group.  2004.  Considerations  in  planning  psychosocial  programs 
(Working  Paper).  Edinburgh:  The  Psychosocial  Working  Group. 

UNICEF;  NRC.  2000.  Rapid  response  education  programme:  trauma  healing. 

Van  Ommeren,  M.;  Saxena,  S.;  Saraceno,  B.  2005.  “Mental  and  social  health  during  and 
after  acute  emergencies:  emerging  consensus?  ”.  In:  Bulletin  of  the  World  Health 
Organization , 83(1),  71-77. 

Wessells,  M.;  Monteiro,  C.  2001.  “Psychosocial  intervention  and  post-war  reconstruction 
in  Angola:  interweaving  Western  and  traditional  approaches”.  In:  D.  Christie,  R. 
Wagner,  D.  Winter  (Eds.),  Peace , conflict  and  violence:  peace  psychology  for  the  21st 
century  (pp.  262-275).  Upper  Saddle  River,  NJ:  Prentice  Hall. 

Williams,  G.;  Aloyo  Obonyo,  C.;  Annan,  J.  2001.  Resilience  in  conflict:  a community-based 
approach  to  psycho-social  support  in  northern  Uganda.  Uganda:  UNICEF;  AVS1. 


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CHAPTER 


19 


SECTION  4 


United  Nations  [ International 

Educational,  Scientific  and  ] Institute  for 

Cultural  Organization  * Educational 

Planning 


CURRICULUM  CONTENT 
AND  REVIEW  PROCESSES 


The  designations  employed  and  the  presentation  of 
material  throughout  this  review  do  not  imply  the  expression 
of  any  opinion  whatsoever  on  the  part  of  UNESCO  or  the 
IIEP  concerning  the  legal  status  of  any  country,  territory, 
city  or  area  or  its  authorities,  or  concerning  its  frontiers 
or  boundaries. 

The  publication  costs  of  this  study  have  been  covered 
through  a grant-in-aid  offered  by  UNESCO  and  by 
voluntary  contributions  made  by  several  Member  States 
of  UNESCO. 


Published  by: 

International  Institute  for  Educational  Planning 
7-9  rue  Eugene  Delacroix,  75116  Paris 
e-mail:  info@iiep.unesco.org 
IIEP  web  site:  www.unesco.org/iiep 


Layout  and  cover  design:  Sabine  Lebeau 
Typesetting:  Sabine  Lebeau 
Printed  in  IIEP’s  printshop 
ISBN:  92-803-1288-X 
©UNESCO  2006 


Chapter  00 

CURRICULUM  CONTENT  AND  REVIEW  PROCESSES 


.A  MAIN  OBJECTIVES  CONTEXT  AND  CHALLENGES 


• To  contribute  to  common  understanding 
of  the  broad  objectives  of  a national 
process  of  curriculum  change. 

• To  ensure  that  the  curriculum  strategy/ 
design  advances  the  achievement  of 
those  objectives. 

• To  ensure  that  textbooks,  educational 
materials  and  teaching  aids  do  not 
contribute  to  or  exacerbate  conflict. 

• As  necessary,  to  introduce  teaching 
of  life  skills,  to  protect  children 

in  situations  of  emergency  and 
reconstruction. 


There  is  no  single  definition  of  'curriculum’. 
The  narrower  definitions  focus  on  learning 
content  as  defined  by  syllabi,  which  are 
translated  into  textbooks  and  other  learning 
materials.  The  broader  definitions  include  all 
desired  learning  experiences  within  the  school 
environment  including  those  not  defined  in  the 
official  curriculum  (often  called  the  'hidden 
curriculum’).1 

In  general,  the  term  'curriculum’  should  be 
taken  to  mean  'the  organization  of  sequences 
of  learning  experiences  in  view  of  producing 
desired  learning  outcomes’  (Tawil  and  Harley, 
2004:  17).  It  represents  a 'guide  for  teachers 
to  plan  the  activities  for  an  academic  year  and 
prepare  individual  lessons’  (1NEE,  2002a). 
The  curriculum  may  be  expressed  in  a series 
of  documents  including  'legislative  decrees, 
policy  documents,  curriculum  frameworks 
or  guidelines,  standards  frameworks,  syllabi, 
textbooks  and  other  instructional  materials’ 
(Tawil  and  Harley,  2004:  17). 


In  situations  of  armed  conflict,  the  education 
system,  while  perhaps  not  the  root  of  the  conflict, 
can  often  be  manipulated  to  reflect  a particular 
or  dominant  national  view,  which  may  have  a 
significantly  divisive  impact  on  a society.  In  this 
way,  the  curriculum  can  play  a contributing  role 
in  the  conflict.  Likewise,  adjustments  to  the 
curriculum  can  help  a society’s  healing  process. 


1.  In  many  countries,  there  is  an  examination-oriented 
syllabus  for  the  schools,  serving  as  a framework 
for  national  textbooks  prepared  by  the  ministry  of 
education.  This  is  often  referred  to  loosely  as  the 
‘curriculum’,  although  many  specialists  consider  that 
a curriculum  should  include  a broader  definition  of  the 
aims  and  methodology  of  the  education  process. 


1 

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Civil  conflicts  are  rooted  in  power  relations  between  two  or  more  groups  based  on  ethnicity, 
religion,  or  political  affiliation.  The  dominant  group  will  likely  have  control  over  the  curriculum 
and  its  presentation  of  the  'other/  This  may  preclude  the  use  of  the  curriculum  (or  sections 
of  it)  by  the  ‘other’  as  well  as  create  the  possibility  of  increased  tensions  and  exacerbating 
conflict  within  a country. 

The  process  of  curriculum  review  and  renewal  typically  takes  place  in  the  post-conflict 
situation,  when  a new  beginning  is  sought,  often  by  a newly  constituted  government.  It 
can  also  be  undertaken  on  a preventive  basis,  if  there  are  tensions  in  civil  society.  Another 
situation  where  curricula  are  reviewed  is  in  refugee  camps,  where  decisions  have  to  be  made 
regarding  studies  within  refugee  schools. 

An  initial  rapid  assessment  of  the  syllabus  (which  is  often  limited  to  a review  of  textbooks) 
is  necessary  both  to  identify  areas  of  strength  to  build  on  and  areas  that  may  be  particularly 
susceptible  to  manipulation.  The  initial  review  represents  the  first  step  in  a long-term  and 
ongoing  process  of  review  and  revision  of  all  the  components  of  curriculum  - the  content, 
methodology,  democratization  of  the  classroom  and  the  school  system  philosophy  (especially 
in  view  of  girls’  education  and  corporal  punishment)  that  will  be  updated. 

A first  priority,  during  the  initial  review,  is  simply  to  remove  potentially  divisive  elements 
(e.g.  negative  depiction  of  a particular  ethnic/political/religious  group)  until  a thorough 
curriculum  review  and  revision  strategy  can  be  conducted.  This  may  make  it  easier  to 
insert  important  non-traditional  topics  into  the  learning  process,  such  as  health  and  hygiene 
education,  HIV/ AIDS  prevention,  education  for  peace,  human  rights  and  citizenship,  and 
environmental  and  landmine  awareness  (see  the  Guidebook , Chapters  21-25  for  more 
information  on  these  subject  matters).  Their  integration  and  inclusion  may: 

• Become  part  of  the  longer-term  vision  for  the  country’s  curriculum. 

• Be  a life-saving  measure  in  some  circumstances. 

In  situations  of  both  armed  conflict  and  natural  disaster,  the  curriculum  can  play  a vital 
role  in  helping  address  the  health  and  safety  needs  of  children  and  youth.  Messages  such 
as  proper  treatment  of  contaminated  water  and  landmine  awareness  can  be  life  saving  if 
quickly  incorporated  into  teaching  and  learning  materials.  The  objective  of  introducing 
such  new  areas  is  to  create  behaviour  change  that  protects  children.  This  may  involve 
experiential  and  active  learning,  and  may  necessitate  immediate  training  and  re-training  of 
at  least  some  teachers  so  that  these  messages  and  the  experiential  learning  framework  can 
be  implemented  into  the  schools  in  the  minimum  time.  In  order  to  ensure  the  effectiveness 
of  a revised  curriculum  all  teachers  should  be  trained  in  experiential  learning  techniques  in  a 
timely  fashion,  which  will  require  more  resources  and  technical  inputs  to  support  and  sustain 
this  change  over  time.  (See  also  the  Guidebook,  Chapter  18,  ‘Teacher  training:  teaching  and 
learning  methods’.) 


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Q PREVENTATIVE  MEASURES  FOR  EARTHQUAKES:  THE  USE  OF  DIFFERENT  MEDIA 
IN  TURKEY 

Shortly  after  the  Kokaeli  and  Duzce  earthquakes,  Bosphorus  University  Kandilli  Observatory 
and  Earthquake  Research  Institute  signed  a protocol  with  the  Ministry  of  Education  to 
provide  earthquake  preparedness  education  for  schools.  Professor  Isikara  embarked  upon 
an  extensive  yearlong  tour  throughout  the  country,  bringing  earthquake  education  to 
schoolchildren  in  29  provinces. 

The  first  books  for  young  children  about  earthquakes  were  published  with  the  support  of 
Professor  Isikara  and  Kandilli.  One  of  these,  for  pre-school  children,  was  sponsored  by  the 
Mother  Child  Education  Foundation  and  featured  popular  singer  Baris  Mancho;  the  title  of 
the  book,  Getting  ready  for  earthquakes  with  Barish,  was  a play  on  the  singer's  name,  which 
means  ‘peace’.  The  second  book,  Restless  earth,  was  aimed  at  early  elementary  school 
children. 

Simultaneously,  a small  American  non-governmental  organization,  American  Friends  Service 
Committee  (AFSC),  provided  community  disaster  preparedness  for  basic  disaster  awareness, 
e.g.  the  ‘Earthquake  hazard  hunt’  and  the  ‘Family  disaster  plan’.  These  documents  were 
designed  to  be  distributed  on  a single  double-sided  sheet  of  paper.  The  design  deliberately 
focused  on  a simple,  consistent  message,  and  two  worksheets  that  required  individual  and 
family  action. 

AFSC  partnered  with  CNN  Turk  in  the  production  of  12  five-minute  interstitial  segments 
entitled  ‘Five  minutes  for  life’,  which  was  prepared  for  the  first  anniversary  of  the  earthquake. 
Later  this  series  would  be  adapted  for  presentation  on  a CD-ROM,  with  individual  segments 
separately  accessed  and  with  accompanying  fact  sheets. 

The  Suadiye  Rotary  Club  and  a commercial  animation  studio  co-operated  to  produce  a 
three-part  cartoon  series  entitled  ‘Uncle  Quake  and  Nature’,  which  was  released  to  the 
delight  of  children  and  educators. 

Source:  Petal  etal.  (2004). 


In  post-conflict  reconstruction,  curricular  change  may  be  sought  due  to  perceived  social, 
political  and  educational  needs  for: 


• Updating  of  syllabus  content  - greater  modernity  and  accuracy. 

• Pedagogical  improvement  - e.g.  making  the  curriculum  and  learning  methodologies 
more  learner-centred. 

• Relevance  - making  the  curriculum  more  responsive  to  the  circumstances  in  the 
country,  which  have  changed  as  a result  of  the  conflict. 

• Reconciliation  between  formerly  (or  even  still)  antagonistic  political,  ethnic, 
religious  or  other  social  groups. 

• Social  cohesion,  which  may  involve  movement  from  exclusive  to  more  inclusive 
definitions  of  national  and  group  identity,  involving  increased  respect  for  human 
dignity  and  diversity. 


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After  conflicts,  societies  often  redefine,  or  define  for  the  first  time,  the  meaning  of  national 
identities,  citizenship  and  shared  destiny.  They  examine  the  content  of  collective  memory. 
They  face  crucial  questions  over  who  has  the  right  to  take  such  decisions,  on  what  basis 
and  how,  with  what  type,  breadth  and  intensity  of  consultation.  In  such  essentially  political 
processes  of  national  self-examination,  the  school  curriculum  can  be  the  most  important 
contested  terrain  (Tawil  and  Harley,  2004:  25-26). 

In  post-conflict  reconstruction,  three  major  demands  are  placed  upon  those  involved  in  the 
curriculum  development  process  (Tawil  and  Harley,  2004:  26): 

1 ♦ To  become  aware  of,  and  acknowledge  the  role  that  the  curriculum  may  have 
played  as  a contributing  factor  to  violent  conflict  in  the  past. 

2*  To  deal  with  the  legacy  of  violent  conflict,  by  incorporating  reconciliation  and 
peace-building  approaches  and  practices. 

3*  To  help  prevent  any  further  outbreak  of  violent  conflict,  by  promoting  tolerance 
and  an  inclusive  set  of  values. 

The  major  difference  in  an  emergency  or  post-conflict  situation  is  that  the  crisis  often 
provides  a critical  opportunity  for  educational  authorities  to  examine  the  curriculum  and 
revise  it,  or  develop  a broad  curriculum  philosophy  in  keeping  with  the  country's  recent 
experiences.  The  box  below  shows  an  example  developed  by  the  Rwandan  Ministry  of 
Education  in  1996.  Such  a long-term  vision  allows  educational  authorities  to  make  deletions 
or  add  elements  to  the  curriculum  that  are  seen  as  reinforcing  the  overall  mission. 


RWANDAN  MINISTRY  OF  EDUCATION  STATEMENT 
OF  CURRICULUM  GOALS 

• To  prepare  a citizen  who  is  free  from  ethnic,  regional,  religious  and  sex  discrimination. 

• To  prepare  a citizen  who  is  aware  of  human  rights  and  responsible  to  society. 

• To  promote  a culture  of  peace  and  emphasize  national  and  universal  values  such  as  justice, 
peace,  tolerance,  solidarity  and  democracy. 

• To  promote  a culture  based  on  genuine  Rwandese  culture,  free  from  violence. 

• To  promote  freedom  of  formulation  and  expression  of  opinion. 

Source:  Obura  (2003:  94). 


Thorough  curriculum  review  processes  require  resources,  as  well  as  a national  commitment  to 
the  process,  legitimate  national  educational  authorities,  expertise  in  curriculum  development 
processes  and  curriculum  writing,  capacity  building  for  staff,  and  sufficient  time  to  undertake 
reform.  Successful  curriculum  review  processes  need  to  be  inclusive,  incorporating  multiple 


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groups  and  perspectives,  which  can  sometimes  present  difficulties.  Support  may  be  needed 
from  international  organizations  to  ensure  effective  and  inclusive  curriculum  review. 

Existing  textbooks  and  educational  materials  may  include  stereotypes  of  different  groups  in 
a society.  Such  text  and  images  may  fuel  conflict  and  reinforce  the  stereotypes.  They  may 
also  affect  some  children’s  access  to  or  willingness  to  attend  school  where  such  materials 
are  in  use.  Where  curricula  and  textbooks  are  not  in  an  international  language,  it  may 
be  difficult  to  organize  a quick  review  to  eliminate  bias,  since  editors  may  themselves  be 
unconsciously  biased. 

The  skills  associated  with  peace  education,  reconciliation  and  active  citizenship,  as  well  as 
health  and  HIV/AIDS  prevention  should  be  added  to  the  curriculum.  This  will  require  the 
organization  of  special  training  and  support  for  selected  teachers  as  well  as  finding  extra  time 
in  the  usually  overcrowded  school  timetable  (see  also  the  Guidebook , Chapter  18 , ‘Teacher 
training:  teaching  and  learning  methods’). 

Political  pressure  for  immediate  action  on  curriculum  and  textbooks  needs  to  be 
counterbalanced  by  a realization  that  a thorough  renewal  of  curriculum  and  the  production 
and  testing  of  a new  generation  of  textbooks,  followed  by  training  of  teachers  and  phased 
introduction,  takes  at  least  five  years. 


Q TEXTBOOK  USE  IN  TIMOR-LESTE  DURING  TRANSITION 

“To  select  student  learning  materials  and  textbooks,  a committee  of  around  70  teachers  met 
in  early  2000  under  the  guidance  of  UNTAErs  [the  UN  Transitional  Authority  in  East  Timor's] 
Division  of  Education.  Because  it  had  been  agreed  that  Bahasa  Indonesian  materials  would 
be  used  as  a transitional  measure,  samples  of  various  Indonesian  textbooks  were  shipped  in 
to  be  considered.  This  committee  recommended  a set  that  required  only  minimal  changes  to 
their  original  versions  and  marked  text  to  be  cut."  The  procurement  of  textbooks  included: 

• Indonesian  textbooks.  Purchased  from  Indonesian  publishers,  photos  of  East  Timorese 
children  were  put  on  the  covers  of  these  books,  a preface  by  CNRT  leader  and  future 
president  Xanana  Gusmao  was  added,  and  controversial  texts  around  history  and 
national  identity  were  removed. 

• Portuguese  textbooks.  Portuguese  books  were  purchased  for  grades  1 and  2 in  the 
subjects  of  language,  mathematics,  and  social  and  physical  studies.  For  grades  3 to  6 
and  all  secondary  school  grades,  language  books  were  purchased. 

• Picture  books.  For  grade  1,  picture  books  were  purchased  to  help  build  communication 
skills.  Sourced  from  Finland,  these  were  wordless  books  used  to  encourage  discussion 
in  the  mother  tongue  or  facilitate  second  language  teaching. 

Source:  Nicolai  (2004: 110). 


Chapter  20:  Curriculum  content  and  review  processes 


E P • 


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5 


SUGGESTED  STRATEGIES 


Summary  of  suggested  strategies 

Curriculum  content  and  review  processes 

Initiate  a rapid  review  of  curriculum  and 
textbooks  to  remove  elements  that  may  fuel 
conflict. 


2.  Conduct  a curriculum  and  textbook  analysis. 

3.  In  refugee  operations,  consult  with  refugee 
educators  and  leaders  regarding  the  curriculum 
that  will  help  them  prepare  for  voluntary 
repatriation  and  reintegration. 

4.  Prepare  a programme  of  action  for  renewal 
of  the  curriculum  framework,  syllabi  and 
textbooks,  through  a consultative  process 
involving  all  stakeholders. 

5.  In  post-conflict  situations,  consider  including  in 
the  national  curriculum  framework  objectives 
for  behavioural  skills,  and  concepts  and  values 
development  that  support  peace,  human  rights 
and  active  citizenship. 

6.  Assemble  expert  groups  to  review  the  key 
content  areas  of  the  curriculum. 


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Guidance  notes 


L Initiate  a rapid  review  of  curriculum  and  textbooks  to  remove  elements 

that  may  fuel  conflict* 

In  post-conflict  situations,  times  of  refugee  return,  during  prolonged  insecurity,  for 
prevention  of  conflict,  or  in  refugee  situations,  consider  the  following  (or  verify  that 
these  items  have  been  considered) : 

• A quick  review  to  determine  the  extent  to  which  existing  textbooks,  educational 
materials  and  teaching  aids  reflect  particular  or  dominant  national  views  that  may 
have  a significantly  divisive  impact  on  society.  Ask  the  following  questions: 

• Do  textbooks  promote  the  superiority  of  one  ethnic  or  religious  group  over 
another? 

• Do  textbooks  contain  nationalistic  images  and  calls  to  young  people  to  ‘fight 
for  their  country?  ’ 

• Are  contested  historical,  geographical,  literary,  religious  or  civics  interpreta- 
tions being  used  to  politically  mobilize  conflicting  opinions  and  positions? 

• Remove  potentially  divisive  materials  from  circulation  until  they  can  be  thoughtfully 
revised. 

• Prioritize  less  sensitive  subject  areas  such  as  mathematics  and  science. 

• Introduce  or  reinforce  non-traditional  curricular  elements  such  as  landmine 
awareness,  health  and  hygiene,  environmental  awareness,  HIV/AIDS  prevention, 
conflict  resolution,  etc.,  that  may  be  critical  to  childrens  health  and  survival. 


0 SOUTH  AFRICAN  CURRICULUM  TRANSFORMATION 

After  an  evaluation  of  their  current  curriculum  that  presented  their  “learners  as  divided 
and  different;  inferior  and  superior”,  the  South  African  Ministry  of  Education  decided 
to  develop  and  implement  a new  curriculum.  Since  1994,  this  transformation  has  taken 
place  through  the  National  Qualifications  Framework,  and  has  integrated  education  and 
training,  academic  and  vocational  in  order  to  create  an  outcomes  based  education  aimed  at 
providing  learners  with  the  skills  needed  to  ensure  economic  prosperity  and  to  contribute 
to  the  development  of  a common  citizenship.  A specific  subcommittee  was  established  with 
the  goal  of  integrating  human  rights  education  into  each  of  the  eight  learning  areas  defined 
by  curricula  developers.  The  social  sciences  learning  area  statement,  for  example,  “aims  at 
contributing  to  the  development  of  informed,  critical  and  responsible  citizens  who  are  able 
to  participate  constructively  in  a culturally  diverse  and  changing  society”. 

Source:  Surty(2004:  7-10). 


Chapter  20:  Curriculum  content  and  review  processes 

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2 ♦ Conduct  a curriculum  and  textbook  analysis. 

• Assemble  a review  team. 

• Ensure  that  the  team  represents  different  groups  in  society  (based  on  gender, 
culture,  ethnicity,  race,  political  affiliation,  etc.).  Particularly  in  the  context 
of  civil  conflict,  a cross-cultural  analysis  of  textbooks  or  education  materials 
is  desirable. 

• Determine  the  phasing  of  the  review. 

• A rapid  review  may  be  needed  urgently  before  textbooks  are  reprinted  for  the 
next  school  year,  focusing  on  the  removal  of  elements  that  may  be  offensive 
or  ignite  conflict. 

• A more  detailed  review  may  follow,  helping  with  the  formulation  of  a new 
curriculum  framework  and  preparing  the  ground  for  a new  generation  of 
textbooks,  updated  in  terms  of  subject  matter  such  as  science,  and  promoting 
peace  building,  reconciliation  and  responsible  citizenship. 

• Determine  the  review  approach. 

• Quantitative:  How  many  times  is  a term  used  or  how  much  space  is  allotted 
to  a particular  people  or  group  of  the  society  (gender,  class,  ethnicity, 
religion,  disability,  etc.)?  How  often  are  specific  countries,  topics,  groups, 
etc.  mentioned? 

• Qualitative:  How  are  underlying  assumptions  revealed?  What  message (s) 
does  the  text  transmit?  What  images  are  conveyed? 

• Combination  of  quantitative  and  qualitative:  types  of  texts,  modes  and 
perspectives  of  presentation. 

• Develop  sensitivity  criteria  to  identify  parts  of  a curriculum  that  may  provoke  a 
reaction  from  a segment  of  the  population  because  of  their  ethnic  origin,  religion, 
or  social  background.  (See  the  'Tools  and  resources’  section  for  examples  of 
sensitivity  criteria.) 

• Ensure  that  all  members  of  the  assessment  team  have  the  same  understand- 
ing of  the  different  sensitivity  criteria. 

• Based  on  the  approach  and  the  sensitivity  criteria,  design  a form  to  be  used  by  the 
curriculum  assessment  team.  Consider  the  following  when  designing  the  form: 

• In  what  context  are  the  terms  and  people  placed  in  the  texts?  What  type  of 
language  is  used  and  what  potential  biases  exist? 

• Analyse  the  contents  of  the  texts  for: 

- Factual  accuracy/completeness/errors. 

- Up-to-date  portrayal  of  events. 

- Topic  selection/emphasis  and  balance/representativeness. 

- Proportion  of  facts  and  views/interpretation. 


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1 

0 THE  RELATIONSHIP  BETWEEN  TEXTBOOKS  AND  CONFLICT  IN  SRI  LANKA 

“UNESCO  has  recently  concluded  that  the  tendency  of  history  textbooks  to  exalt  nationalism 
and  address  territorial  disputes  correlates  with  the  xenophobia  and  violence  found  in  many 
countries  today.  What  is  taught  in  history  class  and  how  it  is  taught  is  highly  political  and  can 
foster  either  animosity  or  peace.  A review  of  the  textbooks  used  in  the  segregated  schools 
of  Sri  Lanka  in  the  1970s  and  the  1980s,  for  example,  found  Sinhalese  textbooks  scattered 
with  images  of  Tamils  as  the  historical  enemies  of  the  Sinhalese,  while  celebrating  the  ethnic 
heroes  who  had  vanquished  Tamils  in  ethnic  wars.  Ignoring  historical  fact,  these  textbooks 
tended  to  portray  Sinhalese  Buddhists  as  the  only  true  Sri  Lankans,  with  Tamils,  Muslims 
and  Christians  seen  as  non-indigenous  and  extraneous  to  Sri  Lankan  history.  This  version  of 
national  history,  according  to  one  commentator,  has  been  deeply  divisive  in  the  context  of 
the  wider  state/’ 


Source:  Bush  and  Saltarelli  (2000: 13). 


3*  In  refugee  operations,  consult  with  refugee  educators  and  leaders 
regarding  the  curriculum  that  will  help  them  prepare  for  voluntary 
repatriation  and  reintegration* 

(See  the  'Tools  and  resources’  section  entitled  'Lessons  learned  from  Rwanda  for 
suggestions  on  curricula  preparation.) 

• Asa  minimum,  the  authorities  in  the  host  country  should  discuss  with  UNHCR 
the  issue  of  the  curriculum  for  refugee  schools.  This  should  normally  be  based 
on  the  curriculum  of  the  country  or  area  of  origin,  to  facilitate  repatriation  and 
reintegration.  In  prolonged  situations,  there  may  be  use  of  the  curriculum  of  the 
country  of  asylum,  if  the  language  of  study  is  the  same.  What  should  be  avoided  is 
that  refugee  children  do  not  learn  the  language  of  instruction  used  in  their  country 
or  area  of  origin. 

• Authorities  may  also  consider  consulting  with  UNICEF,  representatives  from  the 
refugee  community,  proposed  education  implementing  partners  and,  if  feasible, 
educational  authorities  from  the  refugees’  country  of  origin. 

• If  the  refugees  will  follow  their  home  country  curriculum: 

• Are  copies  of  it  available? 

• Are  there  textbooks  that  match  the  curriculum?  Have  teachers  and  students 
brought  a complete  set  with  them?  Can  they  be  obtained  from  the  country 
of  origin? 

• Are  there  facilities  for  reproducing  the  curriculum  and  textbooks?  (See  also  the 
Guidebook , Chapter  27,  'Textbooks,  educational  materials  and  teaching  aids’.) 

• Where  possible,  there  should  be  agreement  regarding  refugee  curriculum  with 
the  educational  authorities  in  the  home  country  so  that  students’  learning  and 
achievements  are  to  be  recognized.  However,  this  may  not  be  possible  if  there 
is  hostility  or  distrust  between  the  refugees  and  the  home  government. 


Chapter  20:  Curriculum  content  and  review  processes  9 

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INCLUSIVE  CURRICULUM  REVISION  PROCESSES 
IN  POST-WAR  GUATEMALA 

Following  the  settlement  of  Guatemala’s  civil  war,  a Consultative  Commission  for  Education 
Reform  (CCRE)  was  established  in  1997  to  help  design  educational  reforms  for  the  country.  The 
CCRE  is  a decision-making  body  with  broad  representation... including  Mayan  organizations, 
women’s  organizations,  teachers’  unions  and  associations,  students,  journalists,  churches, 
universities,  private  education  centres  and  private  enterprise. 

Source:  Salazar  Tetzaguic  and  Grigsby  (2004: 123). 


• In  situations  of  return  and  reintegration,  consider  establishing  a co-ordination 
mechanism  for  textbook  review,  especially  when  refugees  made  creative  additions 
to  the  home-country  curriculum  when  they  were  in  exile. 

• Include  representatives  from  various  local  contexts. 

• Share  lessons  learned. 

• Consider  ways  that  innovative  education  materials  might  be  integrated  into 
the  official  curriculum  after  repatriation. 

4 ♦ Prepare  a programme  of  action  for  renewal  of  the  curriculum 
framework,  syllabi  and  textbooks,  through  a consultative  process 
involving  all  stakeholders. 

(See  ‘Tools  and  Resources',  ‘INEE  standard  on  teaching  and  learning:  Curricula  for 
detailed  information  about  curriculum  revision  during  emergencies.) 

Especially  following  conflict,  educational  authorities  may  wish  to  consider  developing 
a strategy  for  curriculum  renewal.2 

• Who  will  be  responsible  for  revising  the  curriculum? 

• Are  members  of  different  groups  in  society  (based  on  gender,  culture,  ethnicity, 
race,  religious  or  political  affiliation,  etc.)  represented  in  the  process? 

• Are  both  subject-matter  specialists  and  experts  in  pedagogy  involved  to  update 
the  contents  and  pedagogical  aspects  of  the  curriculum  and  textbooks? 

• If  some  elements  of  the  curriculum  are  particularly  sensitive,  is  it  possible  to  de- 
emphasize  or  suspend  their  use  pending  the  full  curriculum  review? 

• Which  national  bodies  must  authorize  changes  to  the  curriculum? 


2.  This  guidance  note,  and  the  ones  that  follow,  apply  to  curriculum  reform  in  all  societies  irrespective  of 
whether  the  society  has  experienced  conflict.  Often,  however,  curriculum  review  is  an  essential  element 
of  a society’s  reconstruction  after  conflict  so  these  generic  steps  are  offered  as  a guide  for  educational 
authorities  considering  the  implementation  of  a curriculum  review  process. 


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• What  aspects  of  the  curriculum  will  be  revised? 


• Mission  or  values  statements  regarding  the  role  of  education  in  society. 

• Syllabi  - which  subjects  are  taught  in  each  grade  and  the  expected  results. 

• Textbooks  and  learning  materials  - what  is  the  objective  of  these?  Are  they: 

- Sources  of  information? 

- The  only  sources  of  information  or  do  students  and  teachers  have  access 
to  multiple  resources? 

- Reinforcement  for  classroom  practices? 

- Sources  of  guidance  for  development  of  critical  thinking  and  life  skills? 

- Directive  models  for  use  in  the  classroom? 

- Promoters  of  norms,  social  rules,  etc.? 

• Teaching  practices  - are  current  practices  in  accord  with  proposed  changes 
to  the  curriculum?  (See  also  the  Guidebook , Chapter  18}  ‘Teacher  training: 
teaching  and  learning  methods’.) 

• Are  students  encouraged  to  think  critically  and  consider  multiple  perspectives 
or  are  they  encouraged  to  memorize  the  facts  as  presented? 

• Consider  starting  the  review  process  with  less  controversial  subjects  such  as 
mathematics  and  science. 

• Does  the  curriculum  review  (see  notes  below  on  the  review  of  textbooks  and  key 
content  areas)  suggest  that  one  interpretation  of  priorities  or  viewpoints  has  been 
dominant  in  the  preparation  of  existing  materials? 

• How  might  a process  of  consensus  work  at  including  multiple  interpretations 
or  perspectives  into  the  revised  curriculum? 

• Is  it  likely  that  multiple  resource  materials,  rather  than  textbooks,  would  be 
more  responsive  to  immediate  needs? 

• What  will  be  the  time  schedule,  writing  and  consultative  processes  for  curriculum 
and  textbook  renewal? 

• Capacity  building  for  staff  and  specialists  in  subject  matter  and  pedagogy. 

• Stakeholder  consultations. 

• Preparation  of  new  curriculum  framework. 

• Preparation  of  syllabi  and  peer  review. 

• Drafting  and  piloting  of  textbooks. 

• Training  of  teachers  in  the  new  curriculum  (and  providing  copies). 

• Phased  introduction  of  new  textbooks  into  the  different  years  of  schooling. 

• Will  a plan  be  developed  for  the  distribution  of  new  materials  and  the  collection 
of  old  materials?  (Unless  old  materials  are  replaced,  teachers  will  continue  to  use 
them.) 


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5* 


In  post-conflict  situations,  consider  including  in  the  national 
curriculum  framework  objectives  for  behavioural  skills,  and  concepts 
and  values  development  that  support  peace,  human  rights  and  active 
citizenship. 

(See  the  Guidebook  Chapter  25,  ‘Education  for  life  skills:  peace,  human  rights  and 
citizenship’ ). 

6.  Assemble  expert  groups  to  review  the  key  content  areas  of  the 
curriculum. 

Note  that  an  outstanding  digital  library  of  resource  materials  for  teaching  and  learning 
in  emergency  settings  is  available  on  CD-ROM  from  1NEE,  the  Inter-agency  Network 
for  Education  in  Emergencies  (2004). 

• History 

• Is  the  text  organized  around  the  systematic  recounting  of  previous  conflicts 
(as  opposed,  for  example,  to  a focus  on  national  or  social  achievements)? 

• Are  the  principal  figures  or  protagonists  heroes  of  previous  conflicts  or 
struggles?  If  so,  according  to  which  members  of  society  and  relative  to  what 
kind  of  struggle? 

• Is  the  history  of  each  component  group  of  society  represented?  Is  there 
stereotyping  involved  in  this  representation?  How  is  the  ‘other’  treated? 

• Are  there  different  social  groups  who  have  expressed  a concern  about 
exclusionary  or  marginal  interpretation  of  their  culture  in  the  texts? 

• Is  the  textbook  the  only  source  of  information  for  history  classes  or  do 
students  and  teachers  have  access  to  multiple  resources? 

• Are  controversial  issues  avoided?  What  methods  can  be  used  to  bring  these 
issues  into  the  lessons  in  a balanced  and  sensitive  way? 

• Civics/ citizenship 

• How  is  a citizen  defined?  Does  that  definition  exclude  any  social  groups? 

• Is  citizenship  infused  through  all  subjects  (history  and  geography  in  particular)? 

• Does  the  curriculum  highlight  what  citizens  of  the  country  have  in  common, 
such  as  their  shared  objectives  and  experiences,  so  as  to  create  a common 
ground?  This  will  be  necessary  for  the  construction  of  a strong  bond  between 
civil  society  and  the  state. 

• Does  the  civics/citizenship  curriculum  provide  for  the  students  to  discuss  and 
practice  key  skills  and  values  such  as  gender  equity,  tolerance,  respect  for 
human  rights  and  humanitarian  norms,  conflict  resolution  and  reconciliation, 
service  to  the  community  and  especially  vulnerable  groups  and  environmental 
protection?  (See  the  Guidebook,  Chapter  25,  ‘Education  for  life  skills:  peace, 
human  rights  and  citizenship’.) 


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Geography 


• Are  place  names,  regions,  etc.  linked  to  contested  historical  events  and/or 
borders? 

• At  the  secondary  level,  does  the  geography  syllabus  cover  themes  such  as 
environmental  management  and  economic  and  social  development,  or  is  it 
restricted  to  descriptive  place  geography? 

• Language/literature 

• What  is  the  language  of  instruction? 

- Does  instruction  take  place  in  the  students'  mother  tongue  or  the  official 
or  national  language? 

- Is  there  a progression  from  instruction  in  mother-tongue  languages  in  the 
early  grades  to  the  official/national  language  in  later  grades? 

- Does  the  use  of  one  language  exclude  certain  social  groups  from  the  edu- 
cation process? 

- What  is  the  status  of  minority  languages  in  the  curriculum?  Can  pupils 
study  them  as  elective  subjects? 

- Are  sufficient  quantities  of  textbooks  and  other  learning  materials  avail- 
able in  the  pupils'  mother  tongues? 

- In  what  language  are  official  examinations  given?  How  does  this  affect 
children's  ability  to  take  and  pass  examinations? 

• Can  pupils  study  international  languages,  such  as  English,  French,  Spanish, 
Arabic,  Russian,  Chinese  or  Portuguese? 

• Does  the  language  used  in  the  texts  convey  certain  biases,  such  as  the  use 
of  words  such  as  rebels’  or  'terrorists'  to  describe  certain  groups,  or  make 
armed  conflict  seem  glorious? 

• Is  the  selection  of  literature  biased  vis-a-vis  the  cultural  specificities  of  the 
population?  Are  selected  authors  all  members  of  the  dominant  social  class 
or  do  they  represent  the  social  diversity  of  the  population? 

• Does  the  thematic  content  tend  to  reinforce  stereotypes  and  grievances 
negatively? 

• Does  the  literature  reflect  a local,  regional,  or  global  context  (i.e.  narrowly 
exclusive  or  broadly  inclusive)?  Does  it  foster  international  and  intercultural 
understanding? 

• Culture 

• Do  the  cultural  heritage  and  traditions  of  one  group  dominate  the  curriculum? 

• Are  cultural  references  and  illustrations  for  the  various  ethnic  groups  equally 
represented  in  textbooks,  in  respectful  ways? 

• Are  the  art  forms,  music  and  literature  of  all  groups  represented? 

• Is  there  positive  coverage  of  women  and  men,  girls  and  boys? 


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Religion 


• Are  or  were  religious  affiliations  mobilized  as  part  of  the  conflict?  If  so,  it  may 
be  useful  to  de-emphasize  religious  elements  of  the  curriculum  initially. 

• Is  religion  included  in  the  curriculum  only  as  religious  education  (that  is,  edu- 
cating children  in  a particular  faith)?  Does  the  curriculum  include  a world 
religions’  component  to  explain  others’  beliefs? 


TOOLS  AND  RESOURCES 


1*  INEE  minimum  standards  for  teaching  and  learning3 

Standard  1:  Curricula 

Culturally,  socially  and  linguistically  relevant  curricula  are  used  to  provide  formal  and 

non-formal  education,  appropriate  to  the  particular  emergency  situation. 

Key  indicators 

• Existing  curricula  are  reviewed  for  appropriateness  to  the  age  or  developmental  level, 
language,  culture,  capacities  and  needs  of  the  learners  affected  by  the  emergency. 
Curricula  are  used,  adapted  or  enriched  as  necessary. 

• Where  curriculum  development  or  adaptation  is  required,  it  is  conducted  with  the 
meaningful  participation  of  stakeholders  and  considers  the  best  interests  and  needs 
of  the  learners. 

• Curricula  address  life  skills,  literacy,  numeracy  and  core  competencies  of  basic 
education  relevant  to  given  stages  of  an  emergency. 

• Curricula  address  the  psychosocial  well-being  needs  of  teachers  and  learners  in  order 
for  them  to  be  better  able  to  cope  with  life  during  and  after  the  emergency. 

• Learning  content,  materials  and  instruction  are  provided  in  the  language  (s)  of  the 
learners  and  the  teachers,  especially  in  the  early  years  of  learning. 

• Curricula  and  methods  of  instruction  respond  to  the  current  needs  of  learners  and 
promote  future  learning  opportunities. 

• Curricula  and  instructional  materials  are  gender-sensitive,  recognize  diversity  and 
promote  respect  for  learners. 

• Sufficient  teaching  and  learning  materials  are  provided,  as  needed,  in  a timely  manner 
to  support  relevant  education  activities.  Preference  is  given  to  locally  available 
materials  for  sustainability. 


3.  Source:  INEE  (2004:  69). 


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INEE  minimum  standards  guidance  notes 

1*  Curriculum.  A curriculum  may  be  defined  as  a plan  of  action  to  help  learners 
broaden  their  knowledge  and  skill  base.  For  the  purposes  of  the  minimum  standards, 
'curriculum’  is  used  as  an  umbrella  term  that  applies  to  both  formal  and  non-formal 
education  programmes.  It  includes  learning  objectives,  learning  content,  teaching 
methodologies  and  techniques,  instructional  materials  and  methods  of  assessment. 
Both  formal  and  non-formal  education  programmes  should  be  guided  by  a curriculum 
that  builds  on  learners’  knowledge  and  experience,  and  is  relevant  to  the  immediate 
environment.  For  the  minimum  standards,  the  following  definitions  are  used: 

• Learning  objectives  identify  the  knowledge,  skills,  values  and  attitudes  that  will 
be  developed  through  the  education  activities. 

• Learning  content  is  the  material  (knowledge,  skills,  values  and  attitudes)  to  be 
studied  or  learned. 

• Teaching  methodology  refers  to  the  approach  chosen  for,  and  used  in,  the 
presentation  of  learning  content. 

• Teaching  technique  or  approach  is  a component  of  methodology  and  constitutes 
the  process  used  to  carry  out  the  overall  methodology. 

• Instructional  material  refers  to  books,  posters  and  other  teaching  and  learning 
materials. 

Relevant  formal  and  non-formal  education  curricula  should  have  quality  learning 
content  that  is  gender-sensitive,  appropriate  to  the  level  of  learning  and  is  in  the 
language (s)  that  both  learners  and  teachers  understand.  Participatory  methodologies 
should  also  be  part  of  the  curricula,  to  encourage  learners  to  take  a more  active  role 
in  their  learning. 

2*  Age-appropriate  and  developmental  levels.  Curricula  should  be  examined  to 
ensure  that  they  are  not  only  age-appropriate,  but  also  that  the  developmental 
level  is  compatible  with  learners’  progress.  Age  and  developmental  levels  may  vary 
widely  within  both  non-formal  and  formal  education  programmes  in  emergencies, 
requiring  an  adaptation  of  curricula  and  methods.  The  term  age-appropriate’  refers 
to  chronological  age  range,  while  ‘developmental^  appropriate’  refers  to  the  learners’ 
actual  needs  and  cognitive  development. 

3*  Curriculum  development.  This  can  be  a long  and  difficult  process  but,  in 
emergencies,  curricula  are  often  adapted  from  either  the  host  country,  the  country 
of  origin  or  other  emergency  settings.  It  is  important  to  ensure  that  both  formal  and 
non-formal  rapid  start-up  curricula  consider  the  special  needs  of  all  learners,  including 
children  associated  with  fighting  forces  (CAFF),  girls,  learners  over-aged  for  their 
grade  level,  school  dropouts  and  adult  learners.  It  is  equally  important  to  ensure  that 
stakeholders  are  actively  involved  in  the  design  of  curricula,  as  well  as  the  periodic 
review  of  education  programmes.  A range  of  actors  may  be  consulted,  including 
learners,  community  members,  teachers,  facilitators,  educational  authorities  and 
programme  managers,  among  others. 


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Where  formal  education  programmes  are  being  established  during  or  after 
emergencies,  preference  should  be  given  to  using,  and  if  necessary  adapting  and 
enriching,  recognized  primary  and  secondary  school  curricula.  For  formal  education 
programmes  for  refugees,  it  is  preferable  to  adopt  the  curricula  of  the  country  of 
origin  to  facilitate  voluntary  repatriation,  although  this  is  not  always  possible  or 
appropriate.  Refugee  and  host  country  perspectives  should  be  fully  considered  in 
these  decisions. 

Ideally,  in  longer-term  refugee  situations,  curricula  need  to  'face  both  ways'  and  be 
acceptable  in  both  the  country  of  origin  and  the  host  country.  This  requires  substantial 
regional  and  inter-agency  co-ordination  to  harmonize  educational  activities  and 
refugee  caseloads  in  different  countries.  Specific  issues  to  be  decided  include  language 
competencies  and  recognition  of  examination  results  for  certification. 

4*  Appropriate  instructional  methodologies.  These  should  be  developed  and 
tailored  to  suit  the  context,  needs,  age  and  capacities  of  learners.  Implementation 
of  new  methodologies  during  the  initial  stages  of  an  emergency  may  be  stressful  for 
experienced  teachers,  as  well  as  learners,  parents  and  community  members,  who 
could  perceive  this  as  too  much  change  and  too  fast.  Education  in  emergencies  or  in 
early  reconstruction  should  offer  teachers  in  a formal  education  setting  an  opportunity 
for  change,  but  transition  to  more  participatory  or  learner-friendly  methods  of 
instruction  must  be  introduced  with  care  and  sensitivity.  With  non-formal  education 
interventions,  learner- centred  approaches  may  be  introduced  more  quickly  through 
the  training  of  volunteers,  animators  and  facilitators. 

5*  Core  competencies.  These  should  be  identified  prior  to  the  development  or 
adaptation  of  learning  content  or  teacher  training  materials.  Beyond  functional 
literacy  and  numeracy,  core  competencies  of  basic  education'  refers  to  the  essential 
knowledge,  skills,  attitudes  and  practice  required  by  learners  in  an  emergency-affected 
population  to  participate  actively  and  meaningfully  as  members  of  their  community 
or  country. 

6*  The  psychosocial  needs  and  development  of  learners.  As  well  as  education 
personnel,  these  must  be  considered  and  addressed  at  all  stages  of  an  emergency, 
including  crisis  and  recovery.  All  education  personnel,  formal  and  non-formal,  should 
be  trained  in  recognizing  signs  of  distress  in  learners,  and  steps  taken  to  address  and 
respond  to  this  behaviour  in  the  learning  environment.  Referral  mechanisms  should 
be  clearly  outlined  for  education  personnel  to  provide  additional  support  to  learners 
who  exhibit  severe  distress.  Teaching  methods  for  child  and  youth  populations  who 
have  been  exposed  to  trauma  should  include  predictable  structure,  shorter  learning 
periods  to  build  concentration,  positive  disciplinary  methods,  involvement  of  all 
students  in  learning  activities,  and  co-operative  games. 

The  psychosocial  needs  of  education  personnel  will  also  need  to  be  considered,  as 
personnel  are  often  drawn  from  the  affected  population,  and  face  the  same  stressors 
or  trauma  as  learners.  Training,  monitoring  and  follow-up  support  should  clearly 
consider  these  factors. 


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7*  Language.  It  is  not  uncommon  for  asylum  countries  to  insist  that  refugee  education 
programmes  comply  with  their  standards,  including  the  use  of  their  own  language  (s) 
and  curricula.  However,  it  is  important  to  consider  the  future  of  the  learners,  especially 
those  who  wish  to  continue  their  studies  after  the  emergency.  Humanitarian  actors 
should  strongly  encourage  host  governments  to  permit  refugees  to  study  in  their 
home  or  national  language  (s) . If  this  is  allowed,  all  significant  learning  content,  teacher 
guides,  student  texts  and  other  written  and  audio-visual  materials  not  in  the  home 
language  of  the  learners  and  teachers  will  need  to  be  translated  into  the  language  of 
instruction.  If  this  is  not  allowed,  supplementary  classes  and  activities  in  the  language 
of  the  learners  should  be  developed. 

8*  Learning  content  and  key  concepts.  When  determining  learning  content, 
consideration  should  be  given  to  the  knowledge,  skills  and  language  (s)  useful  for 
learners  at  each  stage  of  an  emergency  and  those  skills  that  would  enhance  their 
capacity  to  lead  independent,  productive  lives  both  during  and  after  the  emergency 
and  to  be  able  to  continue  to  access  learning  opportunities. 

Appropriate  learning  content  and  key  concepts  should  draw  on  the  following: 

• Skills-based  health  education  (appropriate  to  age  and  situation):  first  aid, 
reproductive  health,  sexually  transmitted  infections,  HIV/AIDS. 

• Human  rights  and  humanitarian  norms;  active  citizenship;  peace  education/ 
peace  building;  non-violence;  conflict  prevention/management/resolution;  child 
protection;  security  and  safety. 

• Cultural  activities,  such  as  music,  dance,  drama,  sports  and  games. 

• Information  necessary  for  survival  in  the  new  environment:  landmine  and 
unexploded  ordnance  awareness,  rapid  evacuation,  and  access  to  services. 

• Child  development  and  adolescence. 

• Livelihood  skills  and  vocational  training. 

9*  Diversity.  Diversity  should  be  considered  in  the  design  and  implementation  of 
educational  activities  at  all  stages  of  an  emergency,  in  particular  the  inclusion  of  diverse 
learners,  inclusion  of  teachers/facilitators  from  diverse  backgrounds  and  promotion 
of  tolerance  and  respect.  Aspects  to  consider  in  encouraging  diversity  may  include, 
among  others,  gender,  culture,  nationality,  ethnicity,  religion,  learning  capacity, 
learners  with  special  education  needs,  and  multi-level  and  multi-age  instruction. 

1 ()♦  Locally  available  materials  for  learners.  This  should  be  assessed  at  the  onset 
of  an  emergency.  For  refugees,  this  includes  materials  from  their  country  or  area  of 
origin.  Materials  should  be  adapted,  developed  or  procured  and  made  available  in 
sufficient  quantities.  Monitoring  of  storage,  distribution  and  usage  of  all  materials 
is  required.  Learners  should  be  able  to  relate  to  the  learning  content,  and  materials 
should  reflect  and  be  respectful  of  the  culture  of  the  learners. 


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2.  Sensitivity  criteria 


The  following  is  a list  of  sensitivity  criteria  that  can  be  used  during  a textbook  review 
process.  The  list  should  be  modified,  and  relevant  criteria  selected  based  on  the  situation. 
When  reviewing  textbooks,  consider  whether  there  are  offensive  or  stereotyped 
representations  of  the  groups.  Consider  also  whether  there  are  balanced  positive 
references  to  males  and  females  and  to  other  groups  (as  applicable) . Does  the  presentation 
reinforce  existing  stereotypes? 

• Gender  equality. 

• Religious  affiliations. 

• Ethnicity  (understood  as  the  mutually  agreed  upon  identity  of  a social  group). 

• Minority/majority  groups. 

• Linguistic  groups. 

• Socio-economic  groups. 

• Geographic  groups. 

• Political  groups. 

• Street  children. 

• Persons  with  disability  or  HIV/AIDS. 

Consider  also  the  need  to  include  examples  of  positive  behaviour  modelling  skills-based 
approaches  to  health  and  H1V/A1DS  prevention;  peace,  tolerance,  respect  for  diversity; 
respect  for  human  rights  and  active  citizenship;  respect  for  the  environment. 

Textbooks  should  be  assessed  for  regional/national/local  taboos,  such  as  food  taboos,  in 
the  depiction  of  agricultural  practices  in  the  science  curriculum. 


3.  Lessons  learned  from  Rwanda 

In  her  case  study  regarding  the  reconstruction  of  the  education  system  in  Rwanda, 

Obura  (2003:  98,  106)  notes  the  following  lessons  learned  with  regard  to  the  process  of 

curriculum  revision: 

• Be  aware  that  without  teaching  materials,  syllabuses  will  not  be  taught. 

• Lighten  curricula,  if  possible,  during  the  emergency  and  immediately  after,  so  as  to 
concentrate  on  fundamentals  first  and  to  clear  space’  for  subsequent  curriculum 
innovation. 

• Early  on,  move  from  tinkering  with  syllabuses  to  curriculum  overhaul,  and  at  all  times 
be  aware  of  curriculum  balance. 

• Be  aware  that  the  structure  of  the  education  system  is  as  much  an  item  of  learning 
as  the  syllabus  topics.  If  the  aim  is  to  teach  equity,  schools  must  practise  it  through 
entrance  mechanisms,  relationships  within  the  school,  etc. 


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• Designate  a team  of  curriculum  watchers’  to  monitor  and  assess  the  curriculum 
development  process,  so  that  curriculum  events  as  well  as  decisions  can  be  anticipated 
and  translated  into  decisions. 

• Provide  education  planners  and  decision-makers  with  exposure  to  innovations  and 
global  developments  as  soon  as  possible,  structuring  the  process. 

With  regard  to  history,  in  particular 

• Within  the  first  twelve  months,  initiate  discussion  on  history  teaching  and  civic 
education,  knowing  that  curriculum  building  will  take  time  in  these  sensitive  but 
most  important  subjects. 

• When  the  time  is  right,  assist  curriculum  developers  to  go  beyond  syllabus/topic 
listings  to  envisaging  the  lessons,  to  trialling  lessons  and  to  developing  teachers’  guides 
and  theme/topic  materials  for  pupils.  Go  slowly. 

• Keep  in  mind  that  moving  from  the  stage  of  rebuilding  national  history  to  producing 
a pedagogical  course  needs  several  intermediate  steps. 

• Note,  in  the  light  of  experience,  that  without  teaching  materials,  teachers  will  simply 
not  teach  difficult  or  sensitive  topics. 

• Regularly  find  ways  of  assisting  the  media  to  disseminate  research  findings  in  populist 
terms,  so  that  constructive  and  unifying  ideas  can  circulate. 


Chapter  20:  Curriculum  content  and  review  processes 

INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


REFERENCES  AND  FURTHER  READING 


Bush,  K.D.;  Saltarelli,  D.  2000.  The  two  faces  of  education  in  ethnic  conflict:  towards 
a peacebuilding  education  for  children . Florence:  Innocenti  Research  Centre- 
UNICEF. 

1NEE  (Inter-Agency  Network  for  Education  in  Emergencies).  2002a.  “Curriculum  and 
testing”.  In:  Good  practice  guides  for  emergency  education . Retrieved  26  August  2005 
from  http : / / w ww.  ineesite . org/ edcon / curriculum . asp 

1NEE  (Inter-Agency  Network  for  Education  in  Emergencies).  20026.  “Revising  and 
negotiating  the  curriculum”.  In:  Good  practice  guides  for  emergency  education . 
Retrieved  26  August  2005  from  http://www.ineesite.org/edcon/revise_curr.asp 

1NEE  (Inter-Agency  Network  for  Education  in  Emergencies).  2004a.  Minimum  standards 
for  education  in  emergencies , chronic  crises  and  early  reconstruction . Paris:  IN  EE. 

1NEE  (Inter-Agency  Network  for  Education  in  Emergencies).  20046.  The  I NEE  technical  kit 
on  education  in  emergencies  and  early  recovery:  a digital  library  - 2004 . (CD-ROM). 
Paris:  1NEE. 

Nicolai,  S.  2004.  Learning  independence:  education  in  emergency  and  transition  in  Timor-Leste 
since  1999 . Paris:  11EP-UNESCO. 

Obura,  A.  2003.  Never  again:  educational  reconstruction  in  Rwanda . Paris:  11EP- 
UNESCO. 

Petal,  M.;  Isikara,  A.M;  Sezgin,  R.  2004.  “Disaster  preparedness  education:  strategies 
for  Turkey’s  schools”.  In:  OECD  (Eds.),  Educational  facilities  and  risk  management . 
Natural  disasters  (pp.  lb-11).  Paris:  OECD. 

Pingel,  F.  1999.  UNESCO  guidebook  on  textbook  research  and  textbook  revision . Paris: 
UNESCO;  Braunschweig:  Georg  Eckert  Institute  for  International  Textbook 
Research. 

Salazar  Tetzaguic,  M de  J.;  Grigsby,  K.  2004.  “Curriculum  change  and  social  cohesion  in 
multicultural  Guatemala”.  In:  S.  Tawil,  A.  Harley  (Eds.),  Education , conflict  and 
social  cohesion  (pp.  85-157).  Geneva:  1BE-UNESCO. 

Sinclair,  M.  2004.  Learning  to  live  together:  building  skills , values  and  attitudes  for  the  twenty- 
first  century  (Studies  in  comparative  education).  Geneva:  1BE-UNESCO. 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


Surty,  E.  2004.  “South  Africa”.  In:  Linkln  Newsletter  of  the  Commonwealth  Secretariat's 
Social  Transformation  Programmes  Division.  Special  Edition,  Education  in  conflict  in 
Africa:  achieving  universal  primary  education  in  conflict  and  difficult  circumstances, 
7-10. 


Tawil,  S.;  Harley,  A.  (Eds).  2004.  Education , conflict  and  social  cohesion  (Studies  in 
comparative  education).  Geneva:  IBE-UNESCO. 

UNESCO.  1992.  Guidelines  for  curriculum  and  textbook  development  in  international  education . 
Paris:  UNESCO. 


Chapter  20:  Curriculum  content  and  review  processes 


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21 


CHAPTER 


20 


SECTION  5 


United  Nations  [ International 

Educational,  Scientific  and  ] Institute  for 

Cultural  Organization  * Educational 

Planning 


o 

w 


Chapter 


HEALTH  AND  HYGIENE 

EDUCATION 


The  designations  employed  and  the  presentation  of 
material  throughout  this  review  do  not  imply  the  expression 
of  any  opinion  whatsoever  on  the  part  of  UNESCO  or  the 
IIEP  concerning  the  legal  status  of  any  country,  territory, 
city  or  area  or  its  authorities,  or  concerning  its  frontiers 
or  boundaries. 

The  publication  costs  of  this  study  have  been  covered 
through  a grant-in-aid  offered  by  UNESCO  and  by 
voluntary  contributions  made  by  several  Member  States 
of  UNESCO. 


Published  by: 

International  Institute  for  Educational  Planning 
7-9  rue  Eugene  Delacroix,  75116  Paris 
e-mail:  info@iiep.unesco.org 
IIEP  web  site:  www.unesco.org/iiep 


Layout  and  cover  design:  Sabine  Lebeau 
Typesetting:  Sabine  Lebeau 
Printed  in  IIEP’s  printshop 
ISBN:  92-803-1288-X 
©UNESCO  2006 


Chapter  Vki 

HEALTH  AND  HYGIENE  EDUCATION 


^ MAIN  OBJECTIVES 

• To  equip  students  and  teachers 
to  prevent  diseases,  both  for  their 
own  well-being  and  that  of  their 
communities. 

• To  change  risky  health  behaviours. 

• To  encourage  co-ordination  with  relevant 
health  authorities. 


CONTEXT  AND  CHALLENGES 


“Thousands  of  children  are  killed  each  year  as 
a direct  result  of  armed  conflict  and  natural 
disasters.  Many  more,  however,  die  from  the 
increased  rates  of  malnutrition  and  disease  that 
typically  accompany  such  emergencies  ...  The 
interruption  of  food  supplies,  the  destruction 
of  crops  and  agricultural  infrastructure,  the 
disintegration  of  families  and  communities,  the 
displacement  of  populations,  the  disruption  of 
health  services,  and  the  breakdown  of  water 
and  sanitation  systems  all  take  a heavy  toll  on 
the  health  and  nutrition  of  children.  Many  die 
as  a result  of  severe  malnutrition,  while  others 
become  unable  to  resist  common  childhood 
diseases  and  infection/’ 


Source:  UNICEF  (2001). 


In  emergencies,  primary  health  care  is  a priority 
response  in  order  to  avoid  death  from  diseases 
such  as  measles,  diarrhoea  (including  dysentery 
and  cholera),  acute  respiratory  infections, 
malnutrition,  malaria  (where  prevalent)  and  other 
illnesses  endemic  to  a region,  such  as  yellow  fever 
or  typhoid,  in  addition  to  outbreaks  of  opportunistic 
diseases  such  as  leptospirosis.  Emergency- 
affected  populations  are  particularly  susceptible 
to  these  diseases  due  to  their  conditions  of  life: 
overcrowded  spaces,  inadequate  quantities  and 
quality  of  water,  poor  sanitation,  inadequate 
shelter  and  inadequate  food  supply  (Sphere 
Project,  2004).  In  situations  where  government 
systems  and  traditional  social  networks  break 
down,  there  is  an  increased  risk  of  sexually 
transmitted  diseases,  as  well  as  an  increased 
incidence  of  exposure  to  drugs,  alcohol,  and 
cigarettes.  Where  there  is  armed  conflict,  a 
military  force  on  the  move  constitutes  a health 
risk  to  the  populations  with  whom  it  comes  into 
contact. 


1 

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Wars  bring  huge  institutional  challenges  to  national  health  systems.  A country’s  health 
infrastructure  may  have  been  specifically  targeted  during  the  crisis,  destroyed  or  severely 
disrupted.  Education  service  providers  such  as  NGOs  may  not  co-ordinate  their  efforts  with 
health-service  providers.  Depending  on  the  scale  of  the  disaster,  international  organizations 
may  be  present  and  responding  in  the  health  sector.  Therefore,  educational  authorities  may 
need  to  co-ordinate  health-education  efforts  with  these  health  providers. 

Refugees  and  IDPs  will  be  unfamiliar  with  the  local  context  and  may  not  be  accustomed  to 
or  equipped  for  local  health  threats.  Therefore,  they  have  less  access  to  adequate  health 
care  and  a higher  morbidity  rate  than  others  in  the  same  community.  Refugees  and  IDPs 
often  arrive  in  poor  health  due  to  problems  encountered  en  route  as  well  as  having  inadequate 
health  care  prior  to  displacement.  Refugee  camps  may  not  always  be  situated  close  to 
adequate  clean  water  sources,  and  may  be  located  in  endemic  disease-affected  areas. 

Once  repatriation  is  under  way,  returnees  from  under-supported  refugee  or  1DP  camps 
may  be  in  poorer  general  health,  due  to  increased  stress,  poor  hygiene  practices  in  camps, 
and  inadequate  access  to  health  care.  Children  whose  families  are  returning  from  long-term 
exile  may  have  less  immunity  to  local  diseases  and  be  accustomed  to  good  health  care. 
Establishment  of  health  services  in  insecure  rural  areas  may  be  difficult  and  take  time. 

Education  can  play  a critical  role  in  supporting  the  efforts  of  primary  health-care  providers 
by  teaching  children  about  healthy  behaviours,  especially  those  most  relevant  to  their  current 
situation.  Effective  skills-based  health  education  has  two  goals: 

1 ♦ Children  will  change  their  own  behaviours  and  adopt  more  healthy  practices. 

2*  Children  will  share  the  information  they  learn  in  school  with  their  parents  and 
siblings,  which  may  result  in  behaviour  changes  in  their  families. 

For  these  reasons,  inclusion  of  health  and  hygiene  messages  in  the  curriculum  can  be  an 
effective  means  of  transmitting  information  to  a large  segment  of  the  emergency-affected 
population.  Educational  authorities  should  co-ordinate  with  other  officials,  such  as  those 
responsible  for  health  services  or  water  and  sanitation,  to  ensure  that  appropriate  messages 
are  developed  and  incorporated  into  the  curriculum.  “Overall  school  health  education  seeks 
to  help  individuals  adopt  behaviours  and  create  conditions  that  are  conducive  to  health” 
(Aldana  and  Jones,  1999:  17). 

Yet  educational  planners  must  go  beyond  awareness  raising  and  ‘passing  messages’. 
Assumptions  about  children’s  capacity  or  willingness  to  change  their  attitudes,  values  and 
behaviours,  based  on  ‘messages’  passed  in  class  must  be  articulated  in  curriculum  development 
and  educational  programme  design.  Similarly,  the  curriculum  and  instructional  design  must 
make  explicit  the  manner  in  which  children’s  listening  to  messages  will  be  transferred  into 
behavioural  change  among  adult  members  of  their  families.  This  implies  understanding  of 
modes  of  cultural  transmission  and  intra-family  communication.  Developing  skills  is  both 
more  valuable  and  lasting,  and  much  more  difficult  than  merely  passing  messages. 


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IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


SUGGESTED  STRATEGIES 


Summary  of  suggested  strategies 
Health  and  hygiene 

Conduct  a review  of  health-education 
programmes  being  carried  out  under 
government  auspices,  through  civil-society 
organizations  and  external  agencies  and 
NGOs,  and  establish  a joint  working  group 
to  prepare  best  practice  guidelines  for  health 
education  providers. 


2.  Health-education  providers  should  assess 
health-education  needs  and  develop  skills- 
based  health-education  curricula/programmes 
using  the  assessment  results. 

3.  Educational  authorities  and  providers  should 
facilitate  or  conduct  health-education 
campaigns,  designed  in  collaboration  with 
community  members  and  teachers. 

4.  Consider  developing  an  associated  education 
strategy  for  security,  protection,  administrative 
and  other  personnel  who  come  into  habitual 
contact  with  youth. 


Chapter  21 : 


Health  and  hygiene  education 

INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL 


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Guidance  notes 


1*  Conduct  a review  of  health-education  programmes  being  carried  out 
under  government  auspices,  through  civil-society  organizations  and 
external  agencies  and  NGOs,  and  establish  a joint  working  group  to 
prepare  best  practice  guidelines  for  health-education  providers* 

• Health  education  is  often  provided  by  schools,  health  services  (especially  primary 
health  care  programmes),  youth  programmes,  women's  programmes,  etc. 
Consider: 

• Which  organizations  are  involved  in  delivering  programmes?  What  health- 
education  programmes  are  they  delivering? 

• How  is  the  education  ministry  involved? 

- Is  it  directly  involved  or  in  an  advisory/consultative  capacity  with  school 
programmes? 

- Is  the  education  ministry  involved  with  non-formal  health  education  for 
youth  and  adults? 

• Are  existing  health-education  programmes  delivered  through  timetabled 
curriculum  periods  for  health  education? 

• Are  programmes  taught  by  specially  trained  teachers  or  are  health  programmes 
included  in  other  elements  of  the  school  curriculum? 

• To  achieve  the  best  results  for  emergency-affected  populations,  the  educational 
authorities  and  organizations  providing  health  education  should  form  a working 
group  to  develop  health  education  guidelines  and  materials  suited  to  local  needs, 
adapting  existing  materials  from  the  country/countries  concerned  as  well  as  from 
international  sources. 

2*  Health  education  providers  should  assess  health  education  needs  and 
develop  skills-based  health-education  curricula/programmes  using  the 
assessment  results* 

(See  the  'Tools  and  resources'  section  of  this  chapter  for  ways  to  assure  health 
promotion  through  education.) 

• In  co-ordination  with  health  authorities,  assess  the  health  needs/issues  in  the 
community,  and  prioritize  areas  of  greatest  urgency.  (See  also  the  Guidebook, 
Chapter  28,  Assessment  of  needs  and  resources'.) 

• What  are  the  leading  causes  of  morbidity  and  mortality  within  the  community? 

• What  important  health  issues  are  affecting: 

- Younger  children? 

- Adolescents? 

- Mothers  (particularly  lactating  mothers  and  pregnant  women)? 

- The  elderly? 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


• Do  these  health  issues  have  varying  impacts  on  different  segments  of  the 
population? 

• What  do  health  professionals  consider  to  be  the  priority  health  issues?  What 
does  the  community  consider  to  be  priority  health  issues?  Are  they  the  same 
or  different? 

- If  they  are  different,  what  communication  mechanisms  are  necessary  to 
bridge  this  gap  between  the  health  authorities  and  the  population? 

- Such  differences  indicate  areas  for  particular  focus  in  the  design  of 
materials. 

• What  are  the  social  taboos  or  other  barriers  to  young  people  regarding 
education  for  reproductive  health?  Do  young  people  have  suggestions  for 
overcoming  them? 

• Make  sure  to  consider  the  following  key  areas: 

- Access  to  clean  drinking  water. 

- Waste  disposal  - including  latrines. 

- Nutrition. 

- Drug  use. 

- Reproductive  health. 

- Immunization. 

- Psychosocial  needs  (See  the  Guidebook , Chapter  19,  ‘Psychosocial  support 
to  learners’  for  additional  information.) 

- H1V/A1DS  (see  the  Guidebook , Chapter  22,  ‘HIV/AIDS  preventive 
education’). 


0 LESSONS  LEARNED  FROM  A HEALTH-EDUCATION  PROGRAMME  IN  GUINEA 

In  1994,  the  International  Rescue  Committee  (IRC)  initiated  an  adolescent  health-education 
programme  for  Liberian  and  Sierra  Leonean  refugees  living  in  the  Republic  of  Guinea.  The 
programme  was  integrated  within  IRCs  general  education  programme  through  the  use  of 
formal  health-education  classes.  Additional  activities  included  the  formation  of  voluntary 
after-school  ‘health  clubs’  and  young  women’s  social  clubs  that  were  involved  in  promoting 
positive  reproductive  and  general  health  practices. 

IRC  reported  that  given  the  chance  to  repeat  the  programmes  the  following  changes  would 
be  made: 

• A needs  assessment  would  be  carried  out  to  enable  more  efficient  targeting  of  activities 
and  messages. 

• Programme  activities  would  be  initiated  earlier  after  the  arrival  of  the  refugees. 

• Increased  involvement  of  the  programme  recipients  in  programme  planning. 

• Better  monitoring  and  evaluation  of  programme  activities. 

• Increased  training  for  staff. 

Source:  Pfeiffer  (1999). 


Chapter  21:  Health  and  hygiene  education 

INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


• Develop  skills-based  health-education  curricula/programmes  based  on  the 
assessment. 

• What  are  the  behaviours  that  the  health  programme  seeks  to  change? 

- What  pedagogical  techniques,  partnerships,  and/or  other  resources  will 
help  make  behaviour  change  more  realistic? 

• Who  are  the  different  target  audiences  (e.g.  primary-age  schoolchildren, 
adolescents,  etc.)? 

• How  will  differences  in  age,  gender,  religion  and  cultural  specificity  affect  the 
type  of  information  students  will  require  and  the  way  it  should  be  delivered? 


0 DEVELOPING  SCHOOL  HEALTH-EDUCATION  PROGRAMMES 


■ 


“School  health-education  should  be  a planned,  sequential  course  of  instruction  from  the 
primary  through  the  secondary  levels,  addressing  the  physical,  mental,  emotional  and  social 
dimensions  of  health.  It  can  be  taught  as  a specific  subject,  as  part  of  other  subjects  or  as  a 
combination  of  both.” 


Source:  Aldana  and  Jones  (1999:  21). 


• Have  health-education  materials  been  developed  in  the  multiple  languages 
present  in  the  community?  If  this  is  impractical  or  too  expensive,  consider 
developing  clear  visual  representations,  such  as  posters,  or  short  skits  or 
mimes  that  do  not  require  language  to  convey  the  desired  message. 

• How  can  multiple  approaches,  or  a ‘comprehensive  approach’  be  used  to 
convey  the  information/skills? 

- Are  there  implications  for  teacher  training  if  a different  pedagogic  style  is 
to  be  employed? 

• Are  there  sufficient  resources  available  to  meet  the  desired  programme  design? 
(For  example,  if  teaching  about  safe  sex,  are  there  sufficient  condoms  available? 
If  teaching  about  waste  disposal,  are  there  shovels  to  dig  latrines?  Is  there  safe 
drinking  water  if  the  lesson  is  to  be  about  preventing  water-borne  illnesses?) 

• Have  programme  designers  accessed  the  existing  teaching  materials  and  other 
educational  resources  available  through  national  governments  and  international 
organizations?  These  may  be  used  for  reference  in  local  materials  development, 
or  made  available  directly  to  teachers,  if  appropriate  in  terms  of  content  and 
language.  See  ‘Tools  and  resources,  section  T for  a list  of  health-education 
tools  available  from  the  1NEE  Technical  Kit  (1NEE,  2004a). 

• Have  emerging  (or  pre-existing)  risk  factors  (such  as  trafficking  or  HI  V/A1DS) 
been  considered? 

• Has  the  health  and  hygiene  curriculum  been  developed  multi-sectorally? 

- Consider  establishing  links  between  health,  protection  and  psychosocial 
services,  education  and  vocational  training,  and  community-based 
organizations  for  young  people. 


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Q HEALTH-EDUCATION  IN  AFGHANISTAN 

Under  the  Taliban  regime,  Afghanistan  had  “one  of  the  worst  child  health  records  in  the 
world.  Because  of  the  urgent  health  needs  of  Afghan  children  and  obstacles  to  working  with 
the  Taliban  school  system,  Save  the  Children  focused  on  out-of-school  structured  learning 
activities.  A programme  of  child-focused  health  education  was  developed  to  promote  the 
rights  of  Afghan  children  - girls  in  particular  - to  health,  education  and  participation.  Activities 
took  place  both  in  refugee  camps  in  Pakistan  and  within  Afghanistan  itself. 

“Volunteer  facilitators,  supported  by  local  partner  organizations,  formed  children’s  groups  and 
took  the  groups  through  a series  of  child-focused  health-education  modules.  Topics  included 
diarrhoea,  coughs  and  colds,  worms,  hand  washing,  safe  water,  and  flies.  Each  module  [had]  a 
booklet,  cloth  flipchart,  cloth  poster  and  a carry  bag.  The  modules  [took]  two  to  three  months 
to  complete.  The  project  emphasized  partnerships  with  NGOs  and  local  authorities  in  order 
to  deliver  education  messages  ...  Since  the  project  began,  improvements  in  children’s  health- 
related  behaviour  were  noted.  Children  were  visibly  cleaner  in  appearance  and  some  children 
took  responsibility  for  cleanliness  within  their  home  environments.” 

Source:  Nicolai  (2003:  43). 


• Pre-test  the  health-education  materials  that  have  been  developed. 

• Are  there  small  groups  of  students  who  are  representative  of  the  larger  target 
audience  who  can  participate  in  the  pre-test? 

• Did  the  pre-test  group  understand  the  message  conveyed? 

• Were  combinations  of  approaches  used?  Which  approaches  seemed  to  be 
the  most  effective? 

• Were  the  results  from  the  trial  group  used  to  modify  and  revise  the  curriculum? 

• Was  the  trial  group  followed  up  to  determine  whether  the  information  had 
been  merely  received  as  opposed  to  understood  and  then  practised? 

• Build  flexibility  and  sensitivity  into  the  programme. 

• Have  contingency  plans  been  developed  to  allow  for  a rapid  education 
response  to  sudden  epidemic  outbreaks?  Have  the  types  of  diseases  that 
provoke  sudden  outbreaks  been  identified  (measles  is  a prime  example)? 

• Are  there  issues  that,  due  to  social  taboos,  would  be  better  discussed  sepa- 
rately by  male  and  female  students?  Are  there  sufficient  teachers  available 
for  same  sex  classes  of  this  kind?  In  other  words,  if  the  topic  is  sensitive, 
what  can  be  done  about  creating  a ‘safe’  or  'secure’  environment  in  which 
to  discuss  it?  Co-operation  in  this  area  could  include: 

- Creating  opportunities  for  group  discussions. 

- Confidential  counselling. 

- Other  creative  activities  for  young  people  to  consider  reproductive  health 
issues  in  schools  or  other  places  of  learning  and  interaction. 

• Consider  setting  up  a confidential  reporting  system  for  young  people  to  report 
gender-based  violence.  Ensure  that  data  are  continuously  monitored  and  used 
to  inform  protection  and  other  services  for  survivors  as  well  as  for  education 
and  other  prevention  efforts. 


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3*  Educational  authorities  and  providers  should  facilitate  or  conduct 
health-education  campaigns,  designed  in  collaboration  with  community 
members  and  teachers  ♦ 

• Education  providers  should  form  a committee  with  representatives  of  health 

organizations,  community  members  and  teachers  to  design  a health-education 

campaign. 

• Consider  including  youth  representatives  on  this  committee  as  peer  education 
has  proven  to  be  quite  successful  in  past  efforts. 

• Do  the  committee  participants  have  experience  in  designing  community  or 
school  health  campaigns?  If  so,  what  have  they  found  to  be  most  effective 
in  the  past? 

• Are  committee  members  representative  of  the  community  in  terms  of  age 
and  social  group,  language  group,  gender,  ethnicity,  etc.? 

• Have  young  people  from  the  target  population  and  from  the  surrounding 
local  communities  been  asked  to  express  their  concerns  in  the  development 
of  the  curriculum? 

• Does  the  committee  have  clear  terms  of  reference? 

• Does  the  committee  have  a way  of  communicating  its  priorities  to  funding 
agencies? 

• Will  there  be  a comprehensive  approach  including  school-based,  non-formal 
and  informal  health  education  using  multiple  channels  of  communication? 

• Consider  developing  a mechanism  for  data  collection  that  continues  to  identify 

and  involve  young  people,  and  monitor  their  health  and  education  needs. 

• Can  gaps  in  the  provision  of  and  access  to  health  services  be  addressed? 

• Does  the  way  in  which  young  people  engage  in  destructive  and  constructive 
activities  change  over  time? 

- Are  young  people  involved  directly  in  decision-making  at  all  levels  and 
stages  of  health  education  and  health  services  policy  formation  and  pro- 
gramme design,  implementation,  monitoring  and  follow  up? 


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CHILDREN  CAN  TAKE  ACTION  IN  DIFFERENT  PLACES: 

AT  SCHOOL 
CHILDREN  CAN  ... 

AT  HOME 
CHILDREN  CAN  ... 

IN  THE  COMMUNITY 
CHILDREN  CAN  ... 

• Learn  together  actively 

• Help  and  teach  their  friends 

• Help  and  protect  younger 
children 

• Help  to  make  their 
surroundings  healthy 

• Describe  and  demonstrate  what 
they  learn 

• Help  their  families  with  good 
health  practices 

• Teach  and  help  younger 
brothers  and  sisters 

• Play  with  children  who  do  not 
go  to  school 

• Keep  the  home  surroundings 
healthy 

• Pass  on  messages  through  plays 
and  songs 

• Act  as  messengers  and  helpers 

• Participate  in  health  campaigns 

Source:  UNHCR  and  Save  the  Children  (2001 ). 


4 ♦ Consider  developing  an  associated  education  strategy  for  security, 
protection,  administrative,  and  other  personnel  who  come  into 
habitual  contact  with  youth* 

• Are  community  authorities  sensitized  to  the  particular  health  needs  of  youth? 

• Has  it  been  recognized  that  threats  to  young  people,  including  rape  and  other  forms 
of  sexual  violence  relating  to  reproductive  health,  may  come  from  international 
and  local  humanitarian  and  educational  staff? 

• Have  clear  guidelines  for  interaction  with  adolescents  been  established  and 
disseminated?  Are  there  mechanisms  for  reinforcing  the  guidelines? 

• What  education  programmes  are  needed  in  this  connection? 


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TOOLS  AND  RESOURCES 


1.  Assure  health  promotion  and  education 

“The  promotion  of  healthy  practices  and  positive  behaviour  through  education  takes  on 
added  urgency  in  an  emergency.  Health-education  efforts  in  the  initial  emergency  phase 
should  be  simple,  focused  and  directly  related  to  immediate  public  health  problems.  Other 
health  concerns  can  be  part  of  broader  awareness-raising  efforts  as  the  situation  evolves. 
Critical  initial  messages  include: 

• Proper  personal  and  food  hygiene. 

• Safe  water  and  hygiene  and  sanitation  practices. 

• Measles  immunization. 

• Oral  rehydration  therapy. 

• Recognition  and  referral  of  childhood  diseases. 

• STD  / HI V/A1DS  prevention. 

Health-education  strategies  will  depend  on  communication  channels  and  culture-specific 
means  with  which  information  is  transmitted  and  received.  Those  from  within  the  affected 
community  are  usually  more  effective,  especially  over  outsiders  without  knowledge  of 
the  local  culture.  It  is  useful  to  involve  respected  local  citizens,  such  as  teachers,  religious 
leaders,  traditional  healers,  or  traditional  birth  attendants  (TBAs),  who  can  disseminate 
health  messages  through  their  daily  contacts  with  the  community.  Female  communication 
agents,  including  community  health  workers,  should  be  mobilized  to  ensure  women  access 
to  basic  health  information.” 

Source:  UNICEF  (2001). 


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2.  Tools  on  health  education  available  from  the  INEE  technical  kit 


These  tools  are  available  on  the  INEE  Technical  kit,  which  can  be  ordered  by  e-mail 
(coordinator@ineesite.org)  or  from  their  website:  www.ineesite.org. 


• HPN,  ODI.  2002.  HIV/AIDS  and  emergencies:  analysis  and  recommendations  for  practice . 

• IRC.  1999.  Health  education  curriculum  for  kindergartens. 

• ISCA.  2002.  HIV  and  conflict:  a double  emergency. 

• NIKK.  2002.  Gendering  prevention  practices  - a practical  guide  to  working  with  gender  in 
sexual  safety  and  HIV/AIDS  awareness  education. 

• UNHCR.  2001 . HIV/AIDS  education  for  refugee  youth  - the  window  of  hope. 

• UNESCO.  Living  and  learning  in  a world  with  HIV/AIDS  - HIV/AIDS  at  school. 

• UNICEF.  1993.  Malaria  - lessons  on  health  for  grade  5. 

• UNICEF.  1993.  Children  for  health  - children  as  communicators  of  facts  for  life  child-to- 
child. 

• UNESCO,  WHO.  1994.  School  health  education  to  prevent  AIDS  and  sexually  transmitted 
diseases  (STD):  Handbook  for  curriculum  planners. 

• UNESCO,  WHO.  1994.  School  health  education  to  prevent  AIDS  and  sexually  transmitted 
diseases  (STD):  students'  activities. 

• UNESCO,  WHO.  1994.  School  health  education  to  prevent  AIDS  and  sexually  transmitted 
diseases  (STD):  teachers'  guide. 

• UNAIDS,  UNESCO,  WHO.  1999.  WHO  information  series  on  school  health  - document  6 
- preventing  HIV/AIDS/STI  and  related  discrimination  - an  important  responsibility  of  health - 
promoting  schools. 

Source:  (INEE,  2004). 


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REFERENCES  AND  FURTHER  READING 


Aldana,  S.I;  Jones  J.T.  1999.  Preventing  HIV/AIDS/STI  and  related  discrimination : an 
important  responsibility  of  health-promoting  schools . (WHO  information  series  on 
school  health,  document  6).  Geneva:  WHO;  UNESCO;  UNAIDS. 

Allegrante,  J.  1998.  “School-site  health  promotion  for  faculty  and  staff:  a key  component 
of  the  coordinated  school  health  program”.  In:  Journal  of  School  Health , 68(5), 
190-195. 

1NEE  (Inter-Agency  Network  for  Education  in  Emergencies).  2004a.  Technical  resource  kit 
for  emergency  education . Retrieved  26  August  2005  from 
http://www.ineesite.org/about/TTLMBKLT.pdf 

1NEE  (Inter-Agency  Network  for  Education  in  Emergencies).  20046.  The  INEE  technical 
kit  on  education  in  emergencies  and  early  recovery . Paris:  INEE. 

Mangrulkar,  L.;  Whitman,  C.V.;  Posner,  M.  2001.  Life  skills  approach  to  child  and 
adolescent  healthy  human  development . Washington,  DC:  Pan  American  Health 
Organisation. 

Nicolai,  S.  2003.  Education  in  emergencies:  A tool  kit  for  starting  and  managing  education  in 
emergencies . London:  Save  the  Children. 

Pfeiffer,  M.  1999.  The  silent  emergency:  HIV  & AIDS  in  conflicts  and  disasters  - a review  of 
current  policies  and  responses . London:  UK  Consortium  on  AIDS  and  International 
Development. 

Sphere  Project.  2004.  The  Sphere  project  handbook:  humanitarian  charter  and  minimum  standards 
in  disaster  response.  Geneva  and  Oxford:  Sphere  Project  and  Oxfam  GB.  Retrieved 
26  August  2005  from  http://www.sphereproject.org/handbook/index.htm 

UNHCR;  Save  the  Children.  2001.  Action  for  the  Rights  of  Children  resource  pack:  critical 
issues  - Education . Retrieved  26  August  2005  from 
http://www.savethechildren.net/arc/files/Brch0502.pdf 

UNHCR;  Womens  Commission  for  Refugee  Women  and  Children.  2002.  Work  with  young 
refugees  to  ensure  their  reproductive  health  and  well  being:  it's  their  right  and  our  duty:  a 
field  resource  for  programming  with  and  for  refugee  adolescents  and  youth . New  York: 
UNHCR  and  WCRWC.  Retrieved  26  August  2005  from 
www.rhrc.org/pdf/unhcr_paper_new.pdf 

UNICEF.  2001.  Protecting  and  promoting  health  (UNICEF  technical  notes:  special 
considerations  for  programming  in  unstable  situations).  Unpublished. 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


UNICEF;  UNESCO;  WHO;  World  Bank.  2001.  Focusing  resources  on  effective  school  health: 
a FRESH  start  to  improving  the  quality  and  equity  of  education . Retrieved  26  August 
2005  from  http://www.schoolsandhealth.org/FRESH.htm 

Whitman,  C.V.;  Aldinger,  C.  2002.  Skills-based  health  education  including  life  skills  (draft). 
New  York:  UNICEF;  Geneva:  World  Health  Organization. 

World  Health  Organization.  2003.  Skills  for  health  - skills-based  health  education  including 
life  skills:  an  important  component  of  a child-friendly/ health-promoting  school  (WHO 
global  school  health  initiative).  Geneva:  WHO.  Retrieved  26  August  2005  from 
http://www.who.int/school_youth_health/gshi/en/ 


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SECTION  5 


United  Nations  [ International 

Educational,  Scientific  and  ] Institute  for 

Cultural  Organization  * Educational 

Planning 


o 

w 


Chapter 


HIV/AIDS  PREVENTIVE 

EDUCATION 


The  designations  employed  and  the  presentation  of 
material  throughout  this  review  do  not  imply  the  expression 
of  any  opinion  whatsoever  on  the  part  of  UNESCO  or  the 
IIEP  concerning  the  legal  status  of  any  country,  territory, 
city  or  area  or  its  authorities,  or  concerning  its  frontiers 
or  boundaries. 

The  publication  costs  of  this  study  have  been  covered 
through  a grant-in-aid  offered  by  UNESCO  and  by 
voluntary  contributions  made  by  several  Member  States 
of  UNESCO. 


Published  by: 

International  Institute  for  Educational  Planning 
7-9  rue  Eugene  Delacroix,  75116  Paris 
e-mail:  info@iiep.unesco.org 
IIEP  web  site:  www.unesco.org/iiep 


Layout  and  cover  design:  Sabine  Lebeau 
Typesetting:  Sabine  Lebeau 
Printed  in  IIEP’s  printshop 
ISBN:  92-803-1288-X 
©UNESCO  2006 


Chapter 


HIV/AIDS  PREVENTIVE  EDUCATION 


MAIN  OBJECTIVES 

To  teach  learners  how  to  avoid 
contracting  HIV/AIDS. 

To  help  learners  recognize  symptoms 
and  to  encourage  victims  to  seek 
appropriate  medical  care  and 
counselling. 

To  teach  learners  how  best  to  help  HIV/ 
AIDS  victims  within  their  own  families 
and  communities. 


CONTEXT 

The  HIV/AIDS  pandemic  has  grown  to  a global 
phenomenon  over  the  past  two  decades.  On 
25  November  2003,  Dr  Peter  Piot,  executive 
director  of  UNAIDS,  told  a news  conference 
in  London  that  “this  is  an  epidemic  that  at 
the  start  was  a white  middle-class  gay  man’s 
disease.  Today,  if  you  use  a stereotype,  the  face 
of  AIDS  is  a young  woman  from  Africa”.  In 
2005,  approximately  40  million  people  globally 
were  estimated  to  be  living  with  HIV.  As 
many  as  95  per  cent  of  those  living  with  HIV 
do  not  know  that  they  carry  the  virus,  which 
contributes  to  its  rapid  spread.  Every  day, 
more  than  15,000  people  contract  the  human 
immunodeficiency  virus  (HIV).  In  2004  alone, 
3.1  million  died  in  the  AIDS  epidemic.  These 
results  have  been  devastating  in  all  affected 
communities.  Notably,  chronic  emergency  and 
disaster-prone  countries  and  regions  have  been 
the  most  directly  affected. 

“Sub-Saharan  Africa  accounts  for  over  70  per 
cent  of  the  global  H IV  burden,  with  approximately 
25.3  million  people  living  with  H1V/A1DS.  The 
majority  of  chronic  complex  emergencies  also 
occur  in  sub-Saharan  African  countries  such  as 
Sierra  Leone,  Liberia,  the  Democratic  Republic 
of  Congo,  Sudan  and  Angola.  In  these  countries, 
UNAIDS  estimates  that  between  4 per  cent  and 
35  per  cent  of  the  population  are  HIV  positive.” 
(Merlin,  n.d.) 

Unprotected  sexual  intercourse  and 
intravenous  drug  use  account  for  the  majority 
of  HIV  infections  globally.  Today,  virtually  every 
country  in  the  world  is  affected  by  H1V/A1DS, 
but  90  per  cent  of  people  living  with  HIV  are  in 
the  developing  world.  Women  are  at  particular 


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risk.  Lack  of  awareness  and  information,  poverty  and/or  intimidation  makes  it  difficult  for 
many,  especially  women,  to  request  that  their  partners  use  condoms  during  intercourse. 

“For  every  four  men  infected  with  HIV,  six  women  are  infected.  While  women  and  young 
children  are  physically  more  vulnerable  to  HIV/AIDS,  it  is  now  recognized  that  H1V/A1DS 
is  a wider  social  and  economic  issue  firmly  rooted  in  power  imbalances  in  gender  relations 
in  all  social  classes.  These  power  imbalances  are  more  acute  in  resource-poor  countries 
and  regions.”  (Elliott,  1999.) 

There  are  close  relationships  between  emergency  situations,  displacement  and  HIV.  In  both 
acute  and  prolonged  emergency  situations,  as  well  as  in  the  reconstruction  phases,  infection 
rates  normally  increase.  At  the  same  time,  the  loss  or  disruption  of  social  and  health  services 
tend  to  reduce  treatment  and  support  for  victims. 


© HIV/AIDS  AND  NATURAL  DISASTERS:  THE  CASE  OF  HONDURAS 

“Before  hurricane  Mitch,  Honduras  had  one  of  Latin  America’s  highest  HIV  infection  rates, 
ranking  third  behind  Guyana  and  Belize.  Conservative  estimates  suggested  that  some  40,000 
people,  mainly  in  the  15-29-year  age  bracket,  were  infected  ...  Mitch  had  a number  of  effects 
on  the  prevalence  of  HIV,  and  on  the  treatment  and  support  of  people  with  HIV/AIDS.  The 
health  infrastructure  was  severely  damaged,  while  health  workers  focused  predominantly 
on  tackling  health  problems  directly  linked  with  the  disaster,  such  as  malarial  infections 
caused  by  the  collapse  of  sanitation  systems.  NGOs  suspended  HIV  prevention  programmes 
in  favour  of  providing  food,  shelter  and  short-term  palliative  care.  Staff  were  also  called  on 
to  participate  in  national  efforts  to  prevent  epidemics. 

Mitch  also  had  other  effects  related  to  pre-existing  social  and  economic  conditions.  In  its 
wake,  child  labour  increased  and  the  number  of  girls  and  young  women  involved  in  sex  work 
grew.  Children  made  homeless  and  forced  onto  the  streets  of  the  country’s  cities  were  at 
increased  risk  of  sexual  exploitation  and  violence.  Population  movements  within  the  country 
and  across  its  borders  increased  as  people  looked  further  afield  for  work.  Particularly 
vulnerable  groups  such  as  sex  workers  relocated  to  areas  with  high  levels  of  sex  tourism, 
such  as  San  Pedro  Sulas,  La  Ceiba,  Comyagua  and  Tegucigalpa.  For  women  and  children, 
sexual  violence  has  been  exacerbated  by  the  pressures  of  homelessness  and  relocation  to 
new  and  unfamiliar  areas.” 

Source:  Artiles  quoted  in  Smith  (2002:  9). 


There  are  several  reasons  why  H1V/A1DS  spreads  and  prevalence  increases  in  times  of 
emergencies.  In  conflict  situations,  widespread  violence  and  changing  front  lines  are  often 
associated  with  incidences  of  mass  rape,  including  systematic  rape  as  a military  or  terrorist 
strategy  to  demoralize  opponents.  Forced  sex  is  associated  with  higher  HIV  infection 
rates  than  consensual  sex.  Soldiers  are  often  poorly  informed  and/or  in  denial  about  the 
risk  of  HIV/AIDS.  Moreover,  soldiers  (both  local  and  international)  and  the  presence  of 
large  military  camps/bases  often  lead  to  the  institutionalization  of  prostitution  - thereby 
increasing  the  rate  of  HIV  infection.  In  emergencies,  especially  chronic  emergencies  where 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

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impoverished  communities  have  lost  their  normal  livelihoods  and  families  are  broken  apart, 
many  women  and  girls  turn  to  prostitution  as  a key  survival  strategy  - thereby  increasing 
their  risk  of  contracting  HIV/AIDS.  Poor  medical  services  lead  to  infection  through  re-use 
of  contaminated  syringes,  etc.  Refugees  and  internally  displaced  people  (IDPs)  who  are 
dependent  on  humanitarian  assistance  for  food  and  other  services  are  vulnerable  to  sexual 
exploitation  by  military/peacekeepers,  aid  workers  and  others  persons  in  positions  of  power, 
which  makes  them  vulnerable  to  contracting  HIV/AIDS. 

Weakened  health  services  in  conflict-affected  areas  make  it  difficult  to  advocate  protective 
behaviour  and  spread  contamination.  Infections  and  diseases  from  other  sources,  engendered 
by  the  general  collapse  of  health  services,  complicate  AIDS  symptoms,  diagnosis  and 
treatment.  In  situations  of  widespread  violence,  open  wounds  and  contact  with  contaminated 
blood  may  increase  the  spread  of  H1V/A1DS. 

Generally,  natural  disasters  do  not  disrupt  national  H1V/A1DS  prevention  and  care  systems. 
However,  local  budgets  might  be  diverted  away  from  these  programmes  to  more  pressing 
disaster  response  activities,  as  in  the  case  of  Hurricane  Mitch,  and  local  clinics  may  be 
damaged  or  destroyed. 

The  breakdown  in  traditional  structures  and  norms  that  may  accompany  refugee  outflows 
and  other  mass  displacements  may  affect  longstanding  sexual  norms  and  practices,  leading 
to  higher  numbers  of  sexual  partners  at  earlier  ages  and  higher  HIV  infection  rates.  The 
typical  disruption  of  health  and  social  services  that  accompanies  these  emergencies  only 
makes  matters  worse.  Without  effective  outreach  and  wide  community  understanding, 
the  H1V/A1DS  epidemic  will  continue  to  spiral  out  of  control.  Basic  community  education 
on  H1V/A1DS  prevalence  and  safe  behaviours  to  help  people  avoid  becoming  infected  are 
primary  responses  to  gaining  control  of  this  problem.  “In  the  decade  ahead,  H1V/A1DS  is 
expected  to  kill  ten  times  more  people  than  conflict.  In  conflict  situations,  children  and  young 
people  are  most  at  risk  - from  both  H1V/A1DS  and  violence”  (Lawday,  2002:  1). 

Education  systems  all  over  the  world  will  be  severely  affected  by  the  pandemic.  H1V/A1DS 
leads  to  the  death  of  a large  number  of  teachers.  The  illness  or  death  of  teachers  is  especially 
devastating  in  emergency  situations,  where  there  is  often  already  a shortage  of  educational 
services,  and  in  rural  areas  where  schools  depend  heavily  on  one  or  two  teachers.  Moreover, 
skilled  teachers  are  not  easily  replaced.  Teacher  absenteeism  is  increased  by  H1V/A1DS, 
as  the  illness  itself  causes  increasing  periods  of  absence  from  class.  Teachers  with  sick 
families  also  take  time  off  to  attend  funerals  or  to  care  for  sick  or  dying  relatives  and  teacher 
absenteeism  also  results  from  the  psychological  effect  of  the  epidemic  (World  Bank,  2002). 
When  a teacher  falls  ill,  the  class  may  be  taken  on  by  another  teacher,  be  combined  with 
another  class  or  left  untaught. 

With  regard  to  H1V/A1DS  education,  “schools  have  been  successful  in  helping  young 
people  acquire  the  knowledge,  attitudes  and  skills  needed  to  avoid  infection.  Education, 
when  it  is  appropriately  planned  and  implemented,  is  one  of  the  most  viable  and  effective 
means  available  for  stopping  the  spread  of  HIV  infection”  (Aldana  and  Jones,  1999:  9). 


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Notably,  children  between  the  age  group  5-14  have  the  lowest  HIV/AIDS  prevalence  in 
the  population.  This  means  that  whilst  they  are  an  extremely  vulnerable  group,  they  also 
represent  a key  target  for  HIV/AIDS  education.  Schools  are  a priority  setting  for  H1V/A1DS 
education  because  they: 

• Provide  an  efficient  and  effective  way  to  reach  large  portions  of  the  population, 
including  young  people,  school  personnel,  families  and  indirectly  community 
members. 

• Can  provide  learning  experiences,  linkages  to  services,  and  supportive 
environments  to  help  reduce  infections  and  related  discrimination. 

• Reach  students  at  influential  stages  in  their  lives  when  lifelong  behaviours  are 
formed. 

Many  people  living  with  H1V/A1DS  face  prejudice,  discrimination  or  even  seclusion  from 
their  communities.  Education  is  a central  means  of  distributing  information  about  the  disease, 
and  helping  people  with  H1V/A1DS  live  meaningful  lives,  contributing  to  their  families  and 
communities. 


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SUGGESTED  STRATEGIES 


Summary  of  suggested  strategies 

HIV/AIDS  preventive  education 

Take  steps  to  strengthen  the  education 
ministry’s/ies’  capacity  for  skills-based  health 
education  for  HIV/AIDS  prevention  and 
related  issues. 


2.  Conduct  or  facilitate  a review  of  HI  V/AIDS 
education  programmes  being  carried  out 
under  government  auspices,  through  civil- 
society  organizations  and  external  agencies 
and  NGOs,  for  the  emergency-affected 
populations,  and  establish  a working  group  on 
this  topic. 

3.  Provide  guidance  to  educational  authorities  in 
emergency-affected  areas  and  to  civil-society 
organizations  on  the  conduct  of  HIV/AIDS 
education  programmes. 

4.  Provide  resources  and  train  teachers  for 
HIV/AIDS  education. 

5.  In  refugee  or  internal  displacement  situations 
where  HIV/AIDS  awareness  and  prevention 
education  programmes  are  being  implemented 
in  camps,  establish  programmes  for 
neighbouring  populations. 


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5 


Guidance  notes 


1.  Take  steps  to  strengthen  the  education  ministry,s/ies,  capacity  for 
skills-based  health  education  for  HIV/AIDS  prevention  and  related 
issues. 

• Does  the  education  ministry  already  have  capacity  in  this  area? 

• Review  the  capacity/level  of  current  functioning  taking  into  consideration 
that  the  emergency  will  pose  new  challenges. 

• Is  the  education  ministry  collaborating  with  the  ministry  of  health? 

• There  is  an  opportunity  to  benefit  from  international  experience  of  HIV/AIDS 

education,  in  emergencies  and  in  normal  situations.  Are  external  donors  interested 

in  supporting  the  strengthening  of  ministry  capacity  in  this  area? 

• How  can  international  experience  with  H1V/A1DS  in  emergencies  and  in 
normal  situations  be  drawn  upon? 

• Seek  assistance  for  staff  training. 

2.  Conduct  or  facilitate  a review  of  HIV/AIDS  education  programmes 
being  carried  out  under  government  auspices,  through  civil-society 
organizations  and  external  agencies  and  NGOs,  for  the  emergency- 
affected  populations,  and  establish  a working  group  on  this  topic. 

• What  H1V/A1DS  education  programmes  already  exist,  and  who  is  funding  them? 

• How  are  programmes  being  delivered? 

• Is  it  via  formal  or  informal  education,  e.g.  talks,  posters,  videos,  drama 
presentations,  leaflets,  television  shows  or  other  media  broadcasts? 

• If  it  is  via  formal  education,  are  programmes  integrated  across  the  core 
curriculum  and/or  within  school  health  education? 

• Consider  the  following  when  looking  at  the  content  of  HIV/ AIDS  prevention 

programmes: 

• Are  the  programmes  founded  on  statistical  facts  and  figures? 

• Is  the  information  appropriate  for  the  grade  and  level  at  which  it  is  delivered? 

• Are  local  cultural  and  religious  beliefs  taken  in  to  consideration? 

• Does  the  content  project  accurate  understanding  of  the  nature,  means  and 
likely  causes  of  infection  and  include  training  in  behavioural  skills  for  respon- 
sible sexual  behaviour  to  avoid  HIV  and  other  sexually  transmitted  infections 
(STls),  pregnancy,  alcohol  or  drug  abuse? 

• Does  the  content  include  sessions  in  empathy  and  information  on  what  is 
appropriate  care  for  persons  who  are  infected  with  HIV? 


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• Are  participatory  teaching  methods  encouraged  as  a teaching  strategy? 

• Does  the  teaching  methodology  enable  students  to  recognize  their  attitudes 
and  feelings  about  HIV  and  people  living  with  AIDS? 

• Who  is  delivering  the  programme  - teachers,  peer  educators,  health  workers,  etc? 

• What  kind  of  training  have  facilitators  undergone? 

• Are  any  counselling  services  provided? 

Provide  guidance  to  educational  authorities  in  emergency-affected  areas 
and  to  civil-society  organizations  on  the  conduct  of  HIV/AIDS  education 
programmes,  including  elements  such  as  those  listed  below* 

(See  also  the  ‘Tools  and  resources’  section  of  this  chapter  for  information  on  the 
possible  content  of  H1V/A1DS  programmes,  as  well  as  for  ways  to  promote  effective 
H1V/A1DS  education  for  behaviour  change.) 

• In  the  acute  phase  of  an  emergency,  consider  the  use  of  multiple  channels  for 
H1V/A1DS  awareness,  especially  where  regularly  attended  school  programmes 
cannot  be  assured.  Consider  the  use  of  community  education,  radio,  television, 
leaflets,  or  other  mechanisms  to  convey  information  on  H1V/A1DS  and  safe 
practices.  (To  prevent  the  spread  of  HIV,  it  may  also  be  equally  important,  if  not 
more  so,  to  reach  soldiers  with  these  messages.) 

• Involve  all  stakeholders  in  the  design  of  H1V/A1DS  education  programmes. 

• Before  starting  new  educational  programmes  on  H1V/A1DS,  involve  teach- 
ers, community  leaders,  women’s  groups  and  youth  in  focused  discussions 
or  workshops  related  to  H1V/A1DS  education. 

- Since  the  discussion  of  sexual  practices  and  HIV/AIDS  is  always  cultur- 
ally sensitive,  great  care  must  be  used  at  the  beginning  of  this  process  to 
provide  a sense  of  ownership  to  teachers  and  the  larger  community. 

- Teachers,  peer  educators  or  group  leaders  must  be  trained  to  facilitate 
these  discussions. 

• Assess  the  need  for  H1V/A1DS  prevention  education  for  students  and  for  the 
broader  community. 

• What  are  the  facts  related  to  H1V/A1DS  prevalence  and  risk  in  the  displaced 
community,  the  surrounding  community,  the  country  or  area  of  origin  and  the 
host  country  (in  refugee  situations)? 

• What  specific  risky  behaviours  exist? 

• What  knowledge,  attitudes,  belief,  values,  skills  and  services  positively  or 
negatively  influence  behaviours  and  conditions  most  relevant  to  HIV  and 
other  sexually  transmitted  infections  (STls)?  (See  also  the  ‘Tools  and 
resources’  section  for  examples  of  the  types  of  knowledge,  attitudes,  beliefs 
and  skills  that  are  needed  to  prevent  HIV  transmission.) 


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7 


• Can  an  HIV/AIDS  prevention/awareness  programme  be  directly  imple- 
mented in  schools? 

• What  alternatives  are  possible  if  full  inclusion  into  the  curriculum  is  not 
possible  (after-school  or  weekend  activities,  holiday  programmes,  etc.)? 


0 HIV  EDUCATION  PROGRAMMES  FOR  ADOLESCENTS 

Save  the  Children  Fund  (UK)  has  carried  out  adolescent  education  programmes  on 

reproductive  health  and  HIV  in  South  East  Asia.  Some  important  messages  emerged: 

• Personalize  the  AIDS  problem  so  that  all  are  aware  of  the  fact  that  everyone  is  at  risk  in 
different  ways. 

• Involve  programme  recipients  in  planning  to  ensure  sustainability  and  accordance  with 
certain  rights  of  the  child. 

• Include  components  of  self-esteem  building  based  on  the  premise  that  “young  people 
will  only  protect  themselves  if  they  have  a sense  of  their  own  worth”. 

• Encouragement  from  adults  is  essential.  Children  are  likely  to  confront  HIV  more 
effectively  if  not  limited  by  adult  restrictions. 

Source:  Pfeiffer  (1999). 


• Does  the  community  support  education  related  to  HIV/AIDS  awareness  and 
prevention,  'safe  sex'  and  care  for  and/or  rights  of  AIDS  victims? 

• What  types  of  educational  activities  does  the  community  want/support? 
(Community  participation  requires  a series  of  open  discussions  where  the 
elements  and  ramifications  of  H1V/A1DS  education  programmes  are  openly 
and  frankly  discussed.) 

- Inclusion  in  the  formal  school  curriculum? 

- Workshops  or  non-formal  education  on  these  themes? 

• Consider  establishing  school  health  teams  (see  also  the  Guidebook , Chapter  21, 
'Health  and  hygiene  education’)  to  co-ordinate  and  monitor  health  promotion 
policies  and  activities,  including  those  related  to  H1V/A1DS. 

• Potential  members  of  the  teams  include:  teachers,  administrators,  students, 
parents  and  health-service  providers. 

• The  involvement  of  parents  and  teachers  will  help  ensure  that  programmes 
are  developed  in  a culturally  appropriate  manner. 


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• Consider  involving  youth  in  all  stages  of  HIV/AIDS  education  programmes, 

including  their  planning,  implementation  and  evaluation. 

• Young  people’s  involvement  is  critical  since  they  get  much  of  their  sexual 
health  knowledge  from  their  peers. 

- Peers  can  convey  messages  about  what  is  - and  what  is  not  - safe  sexual 
behaviour. 

- Young  people  can  use  language  and  arguments  that  are  relevant  and 
acceptable  to  their  peers. 

- Young  people  have  credibility  with  their  peers  and  may  be  able  to  offer 
applicable  solutions  to  prevention  problems. 

• For  peer  education  to  work,  peer  educators  need  training  and  supervision. 

• Those  trained  as  peer  educators  may  benefit  from  improved  self-esteem  and 
skills  and  attitudes  with  regard  to  sexuality  and  health. 

• Identify  modifications  required  in  the  current  curriculum  to  ensure  inclusion  of 

HI V/A1DS  awareness  and  prevention  issues.  (See  also  the  Guidebook , Chapter  20} 

‘Curriculum  content  and  review  processes.’) 

• Can  H1V/A1DS  prevention/life  skills  be  taught  as  a separate  subject?  This 
will  take  persuasion  but  may  be  possible  where  decision-makers  are  sincerely 
concerned  about  building  an  AIDS -free  future.  (See  the  ‘Tools  and  resources’ 
section  for  a discussion  of  where  to  place  life-skills  based  education  in  the 
curriculum.) 

• If  HI  V/A1DS  prevention  is  not  taught  as  a separate  subject,  can  one  particular 
subject  (health  or  biology,  for  example)  be  designated  that  will  allocate  one 
specified  period  per  week  to  this  topic? 

- “Education  to  prevent  H1V/ST1  and  related  discrimination  should  be 
combined  with  education  about  life  skills,  reproductive  health  and 
alcohol/substance  use  so  that  the  learning  experiences  will  complement 
and  reinforce  each  other”  (Aldana  and  Jones,  1999:  22). 

• Are  there  curriculum  writing  revision  groups  in  existence  who  can  be  trained 
to  include  elements  of  H1V/A1DS  education  as  well? 

- Consider  involving  students,  parents,  teachers,  representatives  of  minis- 
tries, curriculum  developers,  school  personnel,  persons  living  with  HIV, 
and  community  leaders  at  key  stages  of  curriculum  development. 

- Determine  which  outside  groups  are  already  working  on  H1V/A1DS 
awareness/prevention/life  skills  and  seek  to  collaborate  with  them. 


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• Can  existing  H I V/AI DS  programmes  be  adapted  for  use  in  the  current  environment? 

When  reviewing  the  curriculum,  consider  whether  the  curriculum: 

• Integrates  HIV/AIDS  education  across  the  core  curriculum  and/or  within 
comprehensive  school  health  education. 

• Provides  all  students,  at  each  grade  level,  with  age-  and  gender-appropriate 
learning  experiences,  and  considers  cultural  and  religious  beliefs. 

• Includes  information  about  the  prevalence  of  H1V/ST1  among  young  people 
in  the  nation/area  and  the  extent  to  which  young  people  practise  behaviours 
that  place  them  at  risk  of  infection. 

• Sets  objectives  that  reflect  the  needs  of  students,  based  on  local  assessment 
and  relevant  research. 

• Includes  scientifically  accurate  information  about  the  prevention  of  HIV 
infection. 

• Includes  behavioural  skills  for  responsible  sexual  behaviour  to  avoid  H1V/ST1, 
pregnancy  and  alcohol  and  drug  use. 

• Includes  learning  experiences  to  promote  empathy  for  and  appropriate  care 
of  persons  who  are  infected  with  HIV. 

• Addresses  the  use  of  effective  teaching  strategies  (using  participative  meth- 
ods). 

• Provides  opportunities  for  parents  and  the  community  to  learn  about  and 
reinforce  education  about  HIV/STI. 

• Helps  students  recognize  their  attitudes  and  feelings  about  HIV  and  people 
living  with  AIDS. 

Provide  resources  and  train  teachers  for  HIV/AIDS  education* 

• Identify  resources  required  for  implementation  of  the  accepted  programme.  (See 

also  the  Tools  and  resources’  section  for  some  challenges  related  to  implementing 

skills-based  health  education.) 

• What  consumable  resources  are  required?  These  should  be  a minor  part  of 
the  budget  so  that  the  programme  remains  sustainable  even  in  the  event  of 
budget  cuts. 

• How  will  suitable  teachers  be  identified  and  made  available  - will  new  teachers 

be  hired  or  will  teachers  be  selected  for  training  from  the  existing  staff? 


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EFFECTIVE  LIFE-SKILLS  PROGRAMME  PROVIDERS 

CAN  BE  ... 

SHOULD  BE  PERCEIVED  AS  ... 

SHOULD  HAVE  THESE  QUALITIES  ... 

• Counsellors 

• Peer  leaders 

• Social  workers 

• Health  workers 

• Teachers 

• Parents 

• Psychologists 

• Physicians 

• Other  trusted  adults 

• Credible 

• Trustworthy 

• High  status 

• Positive  role  model 

• Successful 

• Competent 

• Competent  in  group  processes 

• Able  to  guide  and  facilitate 

• Respectful  of  children  and  adolescents 

• Warm,  supportive,  enthusiastic 

• Knowledgeable  about  specific  content 
areas  relevant  to  adolescents 

• Knowledgeable  about  community 
resources 

Source:  Education  International  and  the  World  Health  Organization  (2001). 

• How  much  training  and  in-school  mentoring  of  teachers  is  required?  (See 
additional  points  on  training  below.) 

• How  will  the  programme  be  funded  and  for  what  period? 

• After  the  initial  start  up  phase,  ensure  the  sustainability  of  the  programme  by 
including  the  necessary  teachers  and  other  resources  in  the  normal  education 
budget. 

• What  technical  support  is  required? 

• Who  will  supply  it? 

• What  linkages  can  be  made  with  local  health  providers  (e.g.  for  referral  of 
students  for  medical  care  or  testing)  or  other  organizations  supporting  HIV 
prevention  (e.g.  for  condom  distribution)? 

• Provide  awareness  training  for  all  educational  administrators  and  other  education 
workers  not  directly  involved  in  the  H1V/A1DS  education  programme. 

• It  is  essential  that  all  schoolteachers  and  education  personnel  be  trained  on 
H1V/A1DS  prevention  and  education.  They  need  to  know: 

- The  rationale  for  implementing  H1V/ST1  education. 

- Accurate  information  about  H1V/ST1  prevention. 

- Accurate  information  about  sexual  behaviour,  beliefs  and  attitudes  of 
young  people. 

- Accurate  information  about  alcohol  and  substance  use  in  relation  to  H 1 V/ ST1 
prevention. 

- How  to  refer  students  with  sexual  health  problems  to  appropriate 
services. 


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• They  need  to  have: 

- Opportunities  to  examine  their  own  standards  and  values  concerning 
sexuality,  gender  roles  and  substance  use.  Codes  of  conduct  should 
prohibit  sexual  relationships  between  education  personnel  and  students. 

- Practice  using  various  methods  to  impart  knowledge,  develop  attitudes 
and  build  skills  related  to  H1V/ST1  prevention  and  responsible  sexual 
behaviour. 

- Conflict  management  and  negotiation  skills. 

• For  teachers  and  other  education  workers  who  will  be  directly  responsible  for 
HIV/AIDS  education,  ensure  that  their  training  includes  the  use  of  participatory 
methods.  The  training  should  be  participatory  and  include: 

• Training  objectives  and  content  that  meet  the  identified  needs  of  teachers. 

• Follow-up  sessions  or  some  other  way  periodically  to  provide  updates  on  HIV 
and  other  important  health  problems. 

• Practice  to  increase  teachers’  comfort  when  discussing  sexual  behaviour, 
intravenous  drug  use  and  slang  terms. 

• Ways  to  deal  sensitively  yet  firmly  with  cultural  and  religious  traditions  that 
perhaps  hinder  discussion  about  sex  and  sex-related  matters  in  the  school. 

• The  use  of  participatory  techniques  and  skill-building  exercises. 

• Referral  skills  and  ways  to  access  health  and  social  services. 

• Methods  to  asses  the  impact  and  effectiveness  of  the  training,  with  revisions 
in  the  training  format  made  as  needed. 

• In  returnee  situations,  make  use  of  returning  teachers  who  have  been  trained  in 
H1V/A1DS  education. 

• Consider  using  the  knowledge  and  experience  of  trained  returnee  teachers 
to  help  establish  education  for  H1V/A1DS  prevention  and  general  community 
health  in  the  curriculum  of  the  home  country. 

In  refugee  or  internal  displacement  situations  where  HIV/AIDS 
awareness  and  prevention  education  programmes  are  being  implemented 
in  camps,  establish  programmes  for  neighbouring  populations. 

• Ensure  that  there  are  parallel  education  programmes  in  the  host  community  to 
ensure  mutual  reinforcement  and  common  behaviour  modifications  to  minimize 
the  spread  of  HIV/AIDS. 

• What  related  programmes  exist  in  the  general  community? 

• Are  the  concept  areas  and  attitudes  similar? 

• Do  the  programmes  encompass  and  cater  to  members  of  all  social  groups 
(e.g.  girls/women,  youth,  minority  groups,  religious,  cultural  groups,  etc.)? 


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TOOLS  AND  RESOURCES 


1*  Some  basic  facts  about  HIV  and  AIDS 

What  is  HIV  and  AIDS? 

The  human  immunodeficiency  virus,  or  HIV,  attacks  the  body’s  immune  system.  By 
weakening  the  body’s  defences  against  disease,  HIV  makes  the  body  vulnerable  to  a 
number  of  potentially  life-threatening  infections  and  cancers.  HIV  is  infectious,  which 
means  it  can  be  transmitted  from  one  person  to  another.  AIDS  stands  for  acquired 
immunodeficiency  syndrome’  and  describes  the  collection  of  symptoms  and  infections 
associated  with  acquired  deficiency  of  the  immune  system.  Infection  with  HIV  has 
been  established  as  the  underlying  cause  of  AIDS.  The  level  of  HIV  in  the  body  and  the 
appearance  of  certain  infections  are  used  as  indicators  that  HIV  infection  has  progressed 
to  AIDS. 

How  is  HIV  transmitted? 

People  can  be  exposed  to  HIV  in  the  following  three  ways: 

• Unprotected  sexual  contact,  primarily  through  unprotected  vaginal  or  anal  intercourse 
with  an  infected  partner.  Worldwide,  sexual  intercourse  is  the  leading  mode  of  HIV 
transmission.  Oral  sex  is  much  less  likely  than  vaginal  or  anal  intercourse  to  result  in 
the  transmission  of  HIV.  Women  are  more  likely  to  contract  HIV  from  men  than 
vice  versa.  Among  females,  the  risk  is  greatest  for  adolescent  girls  and  young  women, 
whose  developing  reproductive  systems  make  them  more  likely  to  become  infected 
if  exposed  to  sexually  transmitted  infections  (STls),  including  HIV. 

• Exposure  to  infected  blood.  The  most  efficient  means  of  HIV  transmission  is  the 
introduction  of  HIV-infected  blood  into  the  bloodstream,  particularly  through 
transfusion  of  infected  blood.  Most  blood-to-blood  transmission  now  occurs  as  a 
result  of  the  use  of  contaminated  injection  equipment  during  injecting  drug  use.  Use 
of  improperly  sterilized  syringes  and  other  medical  equipment  in  health-care  settings 
can  also  result  in  HIV  transmission. 

• Transmission  from  a mother  with  HIV  infection  to  her  child,  during  pregnancy,  during 
delivery  or  as  a result  of  breastfeeding. 

How  is  HIV  not  transmitted? 

HIV/AIDS  is  the  most  carefully  studied  disease  in  history.  Overwhelming  evidence 
indicates  that  you  cannot  become  infected  in  any  of  the  following  ways: 

• Shaking  hands,  hugging  or  kissing. 

• Coughing  or  sneezing. 

• Using  a public  phone. 


Chapter  22:  HIV/AIDS  preventive  education  13 

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• Visiting  a hospital. 

• Opening  a door. 

• Sharing  food,  eating  or  drinking  utensils. 

• Using  drinking  fountains. 

• Using  toilets  or  showers. 

• Using  public  swimming  pools. 

• Getting  a mosquito  or  insect  bite. 

• Working,  socializing,  or  living  side  by  side  with  HIV-positive  people. 

How  can  I avoid  becoming  infected? 

HIV  infection  is  entirely  preventable.  Sexual  transmission  of  HIV  can  be  prevented  by: 

• Abstinence. 

• Monogamous  relations  between  uninfected  partners. 

• Non-penetrative  sex. 

• Consistent  and  correct  use  of  male  or  female  condoms. 

Additional  ways  of  avoiding  infection: 

• Injecting  drug  users  should  always  use  new  needles  and  syringes  that  are  disposable, 
or  those  that  are  properly  sterilized  before  reuse. 

• For  blood  transfusion,  blood  and  blood  products  must  be  tested  for  HIV  and  blood 
safety  standards  are  implemented. 

Source:  Adapted  from  UNAIDS  (2004b)  and  UNAIDS  (2005a) 


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2.  What  knowledge,  attitudes,  beliefs,  values  and  skills  related  to  HIV 
transmission  are  needed? 


KNOWLEDGE 

Students  will  learn  that: 

ATTITUDES/BELIEFS/VALUES 

Students  will  demonstrate: 

SKILLS 

Students  and  others  will  be  able  to: 

YOUNG  CHILDREN 

• HIV  is  a virus  some  people  have 
acquired 

• HIV  is  difficult  to  contract  and 
cannot  be  transmitted  by  casual 
contact,  such  as  shaking  hands, 
hugging  or  even  eating  with  the 
same  utensils 

• People  can  be  HIV-infected  for 
years  without  showing  symptoms 
of  this  infection 

• Many  people  are  working  diligently 
to  find  a cure  for  AIDS  and  to 
stop  people  from  contracting  HIV 
infection 

• Acceptance,  not  fear,  of  people 
with  HIV  and  AIDS 

• Respect  for  themselves 

• Respect  between  adolescent 
males  and  females  - tolerance  of 
differences  in  attitude,  values  and 
beliefs 

• Understanding  of  gender  roles  and 
sexual  differences 

• Belief  in  a positive  future 

• Empathy  with  others 

• Understanding  of  duty  with  regards 
to  self  and  others 

• Willingness  to  explore  attitudes, 
values  and  beliefs 

• Recognition  of  behaviour  that  is 
deemed  appropriate  within  the 
context  of  social  and  cultural 
norms 

• Support  for  equity,  human  rights 
and  honesty 

• Acquire  practical  and  positive 
methods  for  dealing  with  emotions 
and  stress 

• Develop  fundamental  skills 
for  healthy  interpersonal 
communication 

PRE-ADOLESCENTS 

• Bodily  changes  that  occur  during 
puberty  are  natural  and  healthy 
events  in  the  lives  of  young 
persons,  and  they  should  not 

be  considered  embarrassing  or 
shameful 

• The  relevance  of  social,  cultural, 
and  familial  values,  attitudes  and 
beliefs  to  health,  development  and 
the  prevention  of  HIV  infection 

• What  a virus  is 

• How  viruses  are  transmitted 

• The  difference  between  AIDS  and 
HIV 

• How  HIV  is  and  is  not  transmitted 

• Commitment  to  setting  ethical, 
moral  and  behavioural  standards 
for  oneself 

• Positive  self-image  by  defining 
positive  personal  qualities  and 
accepting  positively  the  bodily 
changes  that  occur  during  puberty 

• Confidence  to  change  unhealthy 
habits 

• Willingness  to  take  responsibility 
for  behaviour 

• A desire  to  learn  and  practice  the 
skills  for  everyday  living 

• An  understanding  of  their  own 
values  and  standards 

• An  understanding  of  how  their 
family  values  support  behaviours 
or  beliefs  that  can  prevent  HIV 
infection 

• Concern  for  social  issues  and  their 
relevance  to  social,  cultural,  familial 
and  personal  ideals 

• A sense  of  care  and  social  support 
for  those  in  their  community 

or  nation  who  need  assistance, 
including  persons  infected  with  and 
affected  by  HIV 

• Honour  for  the  knowledge, 
attitudes,  beliefs  and  values  of  their 
society,  culture,  family  and  peers 

• Communicate  messages  about 
HIV  prevention  to  families,  peers 
and  members  of  the  community 

• Actively  seek  out  information  and 
services  related  to  sexuality,  health 
services  or  substance  use  that  are 
relevant  to  their  health  and  well- 
being 

• Build  a personal  value  system 
independent  of  peer  influence 

• Communicate  about  sexuality  with 
peers  and  adults 

• Use  critical  thinking  skills  to 
analyse  complex  situations  that 
require  decisions  from  a variety  of 
alternatives 

• Use  problem-solving  skills  to 
identify  a range  of  decisions  and 
their  consequences  in  relation  to 
health  issues  that  are  experienced 
by  young  persons 

• Discuss  sexual  behaviour  and  other 
personal  issues  with  confidence  and 
positive  self  esteem 

• Communicate  clearly  and 
effectively  a desire  to  delay 
initiation  of  intercourse  (e.g. 
negotiation,  assertiveness) 

• Express  empathy  toward  persons 
who  may  be  infected  with  HIV 

Chapter  22:  HIV/AIDS  preventive  education 


1 5 


E P • 


NTERNATIONAL 


NSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


KNOWLEDGE 

Students  will  learn: 

ATTITUDES/BELIEFS/VALUES 

Students  will  demonstrate: 

SKILLS 

Students  and  others  will  be  able  to: 

ADOLESCENTS 

• How  the  risk  of  contracting  HIV 
infection  can  be  virtually  eliminated 

• Which  behaviours  place  individuals 
at  increased  risk  for  contracting 
HIV  infection 

• What  preventive  measures  can 
reduce  risk  of  HIV,  STI  and 
unintended  pregnancies 

• How  to  obtain  testing  and 
counselling  to  determine  HIV 
status 

• How  to  use  a condom 
appropriately 

• Understanding  of  discrepancies  in 
moral  codes 

• A realistic  risk  perception 

• Positive  attitude  towards 
alternatives  to  intercourse 

• Conviction  that  condoms  are 
beneficial  in  protecting  against 
HIV/STI 

• Willingness  to  use  sterile  needles,  if 
using  intravenous  drugs 

• Responsibility  for  personal,  family 
and  community  health 

• Support  for  school  and  community 
resources  that  will  convey 
information  about  HIV  prevention 
interventions 

• Encouragement  of  peers,  siblings 
and  family  members  to  take  part  in 
HIV  prevention  activities 

• Encouragement  of  others  to 
change  unhealthy  habits 

• A leadership  role  to  support  the 
HIV  prevention  programme 

• Willingness  to  help  start  similar 
interventions  in  the  community 

• Refuse  to  have  sexual  intercourse  if 
they  so  choose 

• Assess  risk  and  negotiate  for  less 
risky  alternatives 

• Seek  out  and  identify  sources  from 
which  condoms  can  be  obtained 

• Appropriately  use  health  products 
(e.g.  condoms) 

• Seek  out  and  identify  sources  of 
help  with  substance  use  problems, 
including  sources  of  clean  needles 
or  needle  exchange 

Source:  Aldana  and  Jones  (1999: 19-21). 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in  emergencies  and  reconstruction 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


3.  Promoting  effective  HIV/AIDS  education  for  behaviour  change 


The  activities  and  methods  used  for  teaching  about  HIV/AIDS  are  sometimes  as 

important  as  the  content  of  the  information.  Methods  could  include: 

• Instruction:  providing  an  explanation  and  rationale  for  learning  the  new  skill. 

• Modelling:  providing  an  example  of  effective  enactment  of  the  behaviour  by  a credible 
model. 

• Practice:  role-playing  potential  risk-inducing  situations  to  practise  the  new 
behaviour. 

• Feedback:  using  feedback  on  performance  from  group  leader  and  fellow  group 
members  to  support  and  reinforce  behaviour  changes. 

Source:  Kalichman  and  Hospers  (1997). 


4.  Where  to  place  life-skills-based  education  in  the  curriculum? 

A major  policy  issue  is  where  to  place  life  skills  for  H1V/A1DS  prevention  in  the  curriculum. 
Experience  suggests  that  it  needs  a special  place,  within  a carrier  subject’  in  the  short  term 
and  as  a separate  curriculum  element  in  the  longer  term.  The  advantages  and  difficulties 
associated  with  different  approaches  are  shown  below. 

Approach  (1):  ‘Carrier*  subject  alone 

In  this  approach,  skills-based  education  is  integrated  into  an  existing  subject,  which  is 
relevant  to  the  issues,  such  as  civics,  social  studies  or  health  education. 

Conclusion:  good  short-term  option. 


ADVANTAGES 

DISADVANTAGES 

• Teacher  support  tends  to  be  better  than  for 
infusion  across  all  subjects. 

• Teachers  of  the  carrier  subject  are  likely  to  see 
the  relevance  of  the  topic  to  other  aspects  of 
the  subject. 

• Teachers  of  the  carrier  subjects  are  likely  to  be 
more  open  to  the  teaching  methods  and  issues 
being  discussed  due  to  their  subject  experience. 

• Training  of  selected  teachers  is  faster  and 
cheaper  than  training  all,  for  the  infusion 
approach. 

• Cheaper  and  faster  to  integrate  the  curriculum 
components  into  materials  of  one  principal 
subject  than  to  infuse  across  all. 

• The  carrier  subject  can  be  reinforced  by 
infusion  through  other  subjects. 

• Risk  of  an  inappropriate  ‘carrier’  subject  being 
selected,  e.g.,  biology  is  not  as  good  as  health 
education  or  civic  education  because  the  social 
and  personal  issues  and  skills  are  unlikely  to  be 
addressed  adequately  by  science  teachers. 

Chapter  22:  HIV/AIDS  preventive  education 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


1 7 


Approach  (2):  Separate  subject 

In  this  approach,  skills-based  education  is  taught  as  a specific  subject,  perhaps  in  the 
context  of  other  important  issues,  such  as  health  education  or  health  and  family  life 
education. 

Conclusion:  good  longer-term  option. 


ADVANTAGES 

DISADVANTAGES 

• Likely  to  have  teachers  who  are  focused  on  the 
issues,  who  are  more  likely  to  be  specifically 
trained  (but  this  is  not  guaranteed). 

• Most  likely  to  have  congruence  between  the 
skills-based  content  and  the  participative 
teaching  methods  needed  in  the  subject,  rather 
than  shortcutting  and  omission  of  content, 
which  may  occur  with  ‘infusion’  or  ‘carrier 
subject’  approaches. 

• The  subject  may  be  attributed  very  low  status 
and  not  seen  as  important,  especially  if  not 
examinable. 

• Requires  additional  time  to  be  found  in  already 
overloaded  curriculum. 

Approach  (3):  Integration/infusion  across  subjects 

In  this  approach,  skills-based  education  is  included  in  all  or  many  existing  subjects  through 
regular  classroom  teachers. 

Conclusion:  least  effective  option. 


ADVANTAGES 

DISADVANTAGES 

• A ‘whole  schools’  approach  can  be  taken. 

• Utilizes  structures  that  are  already  in  place  and 
is  often  more  acceptable  than  a separate  course 
of  sex  education. 

• Many  teachers  involved  - even  those  not 
normally  involved  in  the  issue. 

• High  potential  for  reinforcement. 

• The  issues  can  be  lost  among  the  higher  status 
elements  of  the  subjects. 

• Teachers  may  maintain  a heavy  information 
bias  in  content  and  methods  applied,  as  is  the 
case  with  most  subjects. 

• Very  costly  and  time  consuming  to  access  all 
teachers,  and  influence  all  texts. 

• Some  teachers  do  not  see  the  relevance  of  the 
issue  to  their  subject. 

• Potential  for  reinforcement  seldom  realized  due 
to  other  barriers. 

Source:  Adapted  from  UNICEF  (n.d.). 


Guidebook  for  planning  education  in 

IIEP  • INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE 


emergencies  and  reconstruction 

FOR  EDUCATIONAL  PLANNING 


5.  Some  challenges  to  implementing  skills-based  health  education 

1.  Health  care  providers,  youth  workers  and  teachers  are  often  expected 
to  help  adolescents  develop  skills  that  they  themselves  may  not  possess. 

Programme  providers  may  need  help  building  assertiveness,  stress-management, 
and/or  problem-solving  skills  for  themselves  before  being  able  to  teach  these  skills 
in  the  classroom.  Therefore,  an  important  component  of  any  training  programme 
is  the  inclusion  of  activities  in  which  potential  providers  can  also  address  their  own 
personal  needs. 

2*  There  is  a need  to  train  adults  in  using  active  teaching  methodologies.  Skills- 
based  health  education  encourages  participation  by  all  students  and,  as  a result,  can 
create  classroom  dynamics  with  which  some  teachers  are  not  familiar.  Research, 
however,  has  found  that  teachers  who  were  initially  uncomfortable  with  the  idea  of 
using  participatory  methodologies  in  their  classrooms  overcame  their  reluctance  after 
practising  these  methods  during  training  sessions.  Provider  confidence  is  essential  to 
the  success  of  skills-based  education. 

3*  Programme  providers  may  feel  uncomfortable  addressing  the  sensitive  issues 
and  questions  that  may  arise.  Some  providers  may  feel  unprepared  to  communicate 
with  their  students  about  sensitive  topics  such  as  sexual  and  reproductive  health, 
violence  and  relationships.  They  also  may  not  know  where  to  go  to  access  additional 
information  on  these  topics.  Again,  training  teachers  prior  to  implementation  on  how 
to  best  address  and  respond  to  questions  or  comments  about  sensitive  topics  is  the 
key  to  overcoming  this  challenge.  Providers  should  also  be  encouraged  to  interact  and 
meet  with  one  another  throughout  the  school  year  to  share  ideas  and  suggestions. 

4*  Programme  providers  are  underpaid  and  overworked.  Programme  providers 
may  not  have  the  morale  or  energy  to  learn  new  teaching  methodologies.  Therefore, 
providers  need  to  understand  how  skills-based  education  can  have  immediate  and 
long-lasting  benefits  not  only  on  their  students’  lives  but  also  on  their  own  personal  and 
professional  lives.  Training  programmes  should  include  activities  which  help  teachers 
build  skills  that  they  can  use  in  their  daily  lives,  e.g.  to  improve  relationships,  avoid 
sexual  violence  or  harassment,  or  overcome  alcohol  or  drug  use.  Studies  have  shown 
that  skills-based  education  programmes  can  indeed  improve  attendance  and  morale 
among  providers  (Allegrante,  1998). 

5*  Teachers  are  often  asked  to  implement  many  different  curricula  and 
instructional  efforts,  without  a clear  understanding  of  the  relationships 
among  them  and  the  relative  benefits  of  each.  A lack  of  co-ordination  between 
school  administrators,  curriculum  co-ordinators  and  health  and  education  sectors 
can  result  in  a number  of  competing  curricula.  This  can  prove  to  be  frustrating  to 
overworked  teachers  who  may  start  to  view  new  programmes  as  just  another  addition 
to  their  existing  workload.  Key  to  overcoming  this  challenge  is  a close  collaboration 
between  all  involved,  including  teachers,  so  that  there  is  a clear  understanding  of 
how  new  curricula  can  realistically  be  used  to  complement  what  is  already  being 
implemented. 

Source:  Education  International  and  the  World  Health  Organizatio