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UNITED STATES BUREAU OF EDUCATION 


BULLETIN. 1913, NO. 32 


WHOLE NUMBER 542 


AN EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF A 
SUBURBAN AND RURAL COUNTY 

MONTGOMERY COUNTY, MD. 


By H. N. MORSE and E. FRED EASTMAN 


ucTMmMUVi OF CHURCH AND COUNTRY UFE OF THE BOARD 
OF HOME MISSIONS OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH 


and 


A. C. MONAHAN • 

UNITED STATES BUREAU OF EDUCATION 



WASHINGTON 




CONTENTS. 


Letter of transmittal . . . . 

Introduction 

Location an^l topography 


Chapter I. Economic, Social, and Religious Conditions. 

I. Economic conditions 

IT. Cooperative tendencies in farming. 

III. Land development for suburban purposes 

IV. Transportation and markets 

V. Population 

■ VI. Social mind 

VII. Recreations 

VIII. The Sandy Spring neighborhood 

IX. Religious conditions and activities 

» * r ** 

Chapter II. Educational Conditions. 


* I. General features 

- II. Schools for white children. . ..* 

III. Schools for colored children 

IV. The school budget 

\ V. Private educational institutions 

Chapter III. Patrons op the Public Schools 

Chapter IV. Summary and Recommendations ’ 

Appendix . 

3 


Fac* 

5 

7 

7 


9 

1 ? 

13 

13 

13 

14 
16 * 
17 
19 


23 

24 
40 
46 
49 
51 
58 
63 






ILLUSTRATIONS. 


Page. 

Plate 1A. A Sandy Spring home,..- ...frontispiece. 

IB. A Sandy Spring homo and tho high school. Frontispiece. 

2A. Episcopal church at Laytonville , . ... 20 

2B. Colored church at Rockville. . oq 

3A. The Layton vi lie school 28 

' 3B. The Clarksburg school ...... r „ ... 28 

4A. Colored school, lodge hall, and church, Xorbcck 40 

4B. Norbeck colored school .S 40 

5A and B. Typical colored schools ..... 40 

GA. The Gaithersburg high school 

GB. The Poolesvillc consolidated school 

7A* The Rockville academy.. .* 

7B. Domestic science building, Brookeville high school , 

Figure 1. lxx?ation of churches 

2. Location of schools tfj 25 

3. Proportion of one-teacher schools. , t 27 

4. Enrollment by grades in the schools for vmite children 32 

5. Enrollment in public schools. . , T 35 

6. Average attendance...,. 35 

7. Proportion of one- teacher schools amo'ng the colored ..... 41 

8. Enrollment by gtades in the schools for colored children..... 43 


48 

48 

20 


•V 




1 


FETTER OF TRANSMITTAL. 


Department ok tiik Interior, 

Bureau ok Education, 

' . ' Washington, June 23 , 1913 . 

. : there w great need of accurate information in regard to edu- 
cational conditions in rural communities throughout the* country. 
The ordinary statistics of rural schools and other agencies of educa- 
• t !°" , and tl,( ' lr . results give only averages and fail to tell the truth 

' f° Ut ft "- V P'^iculnr -agency or result. Much good would como 
from a complete educational survey of the United States, and sucli a 
survey should be made. But it would cost many thousand of 
dollars and is far beyond the resources of this bureau. The best tlio 
bureau can now do is to make surveys of a few typical counties, dis*- 
tncts, and townships, in cooptation with local school officers and 
such other agencies as are available. The results of these will havo 
general value, because they reveal mil conditions in typical com- 

The accompanying manuscript gives results t.f an educational 
survey of- Montgomery County, Md. This county adjoins the Dis- 
tnct of C olumbia and contains somo of the new suburbs of Washing- 
0n . lty> Otherwise it is a typical agricultural county of this 
section. This survey is a part of a larger undertaking-a general 
sociological survey, including a study of economic, social, and 
fehgious activities and conditions— made by the department of 
church and country life of the board of home missions of the Presb- 
yterian Qjiurch in the United States of America. All the more 
important results of the survey, except those relating to education, • 
havp been published by tho board in a bulletin entitled "A Rural 
Survey in? Maryland.” 

In the educationa! survey the investigators of tho board -were 
assisted by the division of rural qducation of this bureaii . The 
investigators^ visited most of tho schools of the 'county, and then 
supplemented tjhoir first-hand informatiori from tho records of the 
county board of education, tho county commissioner, and from 
written reports and conversations of teachers and parents The ' 
material was prepared for publication by H. N. Moree, one of- the 
boards investigators, and Mr. A. C. Monahan, of this bureau. A 
brief summary of the economic, social, and religious conditions has : 

. . * „ t 


w;[ :• i 


i' ■iifii-s.V.r'..’- - -r ' 







6 


7 


LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL. 

been included, because of their intimate relation to education. An 
account of the methods of the survey is included because of the 
suggestions it offers for those who may wish to conduct local surveys 
% elsewhere. " 

I recommend that the marrfis^ipt be published as a bulletin *>f the 
Bureau of Education. 

Respectfully submitted. 

, P. P. Claxton, 

Conwiissionet. 

The Secretary of the Interior. 






T 


I 

( 




AN EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF A SUBURBAN A. 
RURAL COUNTY-MONTGOMERY COUNTY, MD. 




INTRODUCTION. ' 

In September, 1911, tte Montgomery County Country Life Com- 
mittee. was organized, with a membership of 53 men and women, 
residents of the county, who wero interested in the problems of rural 
life. The first work of the committee, without which no other cShld 
well be undertaken, was to determine the exact status of affairs in the 
county. Its first official act was to docide upon a sociological survey, 
in order that thero might be obtained, as a scientific basis for future 
work of improvement, accurate information concerning the prevailing 
oconomic, social, educational, and religious conditions. The departs 
ment of church and country' life of the board of homo missions of the 
Presbyterian Church in the Unitod' States of America was invited to 
make the survey. Two fiold investigators, of said department, 
E. Fred Eastman and H. N. Morse, were subsequently detailed for 
this work, which was begun in Januaiy, 1912, and'finished in April 
of the s n me year. 

The survey as finally completed dealt with eight main topics, viz, 
topography and location, economic conditions, population, social, 
mind, recreation and nforals, education, religious conditions and 
activities, and social welfare. The department making the survey 
has issued a bulletin including tho principal material gathered. How- 
ever, the educational conditions are discussed only briefly. The 
present report is intended to supplement the other, giving a full 
account of the educational conditions and a very brief r6sum6 of the 
material collected on other topics.-* 


• LOCATION AND TOPOGRAPHY. 

Montgomery County, Md., lies along tho north bank of the Potomac 
River from the District of Columbia to tho Monocacy River. The 
adjoining Maryland counties aro Frederick, Howard, and Prince 
Georges. The District of Columbia and Loudoun and Fairfax Coun- 
ties, Va., form the remainder "of its boundaiy line. - Its area is 521 
square miles. 

The county is divided into 13 minor civil divisions, dhlled “election 
districts.” These are, in the order of their numerical sequence, Lay- 
tonsville, Clarksburg, Pooleaville, Rockville, Coleeville, Darnestown, 




- 


1. 



8 EDUCATIONAL 8UBVBY OF MONTGOMERY COUNTY, MD. f 

Bethesda, Olney, Gaithersburg, Potomac, Barnesville, Damascus, and 
Wheaton. The town of Rockville, in the Rockville district, is the 
county seat. 

In general the land is liigh, and its surface is rolling, in some sections 
quite hilly. The average height above mean sea level for the whole 
county is approximately 431.5 feet, the highest point being in the 
Damascus district, 822 feet. The centers of population are almost 
without exception the highest joints in their respective neighbor- 
hoods, the tfcwns being for the most part so situated that the land 
slopes off in every direction. The county has much picturesque 
scenery. Not alone from such special features as the Great Falls of 
the Potomac and the Cabin John Bridge, one of the longest single- 
span stone bridges in the world, but from the general contour of the 
land, rolling, partially wooded, and-capably farmed by an intelligent 
people, is its beauty derived. 


s 


\ 






1 




Chapter I. 

ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, AND RELIGIOUS CONDITIONS, 

I. GENERAL ECONOMIC CONDITIONS. \ 

Montgomery County is and always has been primarily, an agri- 
cultural county. At the present time a portion of it is passing 
through a period of economic transition, which is making it less and 
less dependent upon agriculture; but, for at least two-thirds of the 
total area, it will doubtless continue indefinitely to be true that its 
prosperity depends upon the success of its faming operations. 

Its agricultural history is similar to that of many farming com- 
munities in the eastern States. . It is a history of rich land and 
abundant crops, exhausting cultivation, ultimate soil depletion, and 
a long period of slowly and, painfully winning the land back to fer- 
tility. More than a century of unremitting culture of the staple 
crops of tob^co and corn sapped the strength from the soil until i£ 
became practically useless for farming purposes. In consequence, 
during the early years of the nineteenth century, a tide of emigration 
flowed steadily from the county toward the ne wetlands of the West. 

In four decades its population showed a not decrease of over 14 per 
cent. Land values dropped very low. About 1835, in the neigh- 
borhood of Sandy Spring, experiments were begun with various forms 
of chemical fertilizers— lime, Peruvian guano, and bone dust. The 
improvement .in the yield was immediate and pronounced, and the 
use of these and other fertilizers soon became quite general. Under 
the influence of fertilization, aided by a gradual change to rotative 
cropping* the fertility of the sjjiL was restored. The population 
increased, and during the n decades made a net gain of abpyt 
56 per cent. - 

Economic resaur6esr— The mineral resources are chieffy t&o, gold 
and building stone; Tach is important, but neither is important 
enough ever to displace fanning as the great means of wealth . pro- 
duction in thecounty. There are two gold mines near^theGraat 
Falls which H ffve been worked intermittently since 1887, From 
$40,000 to $50,000 worth of gold is said to haveheeh taken from them 
to date* Marketable atone, suitable for building purposes Or for road 
building, is found in at least five districts, &n(l several quarries have 
been opened, \ - * ; ; 

For the county as a whole theaoilk chiefly adapted to'the raising a 


of corn* wh^at, end forage crops. Incertain these stapled 




10 EDUCATIONAL BTJBVEY OP MONTGOMERY COUNTY, MD. 

are supplemented by o&ts, rye, tobacco, potatoes, garden vegetables, 
small fruits, and apples. 

The farmxTVQ assets. The total land area of the county is approxi- 
mately 333,440 acres; 273,270 acres, or 82 per cent of the total, are in 
farms; 209,153 acres, 76.5 per cent of the farm land, are improved. 
Of the remaining 64,117 acres, 59,409 acres are in woodland, leaving 
only 4,708 acres neither wooded nor improved. The total value of 
all farm property is about $21,000,000, an increase of over 38 per 
cent in 10 years. The following table from the 1910 United States 
Census shows how this value is distributed : 


Land in 1910 .. $12, 678,278 

In 1900 . _ q 4Qi qqr» 

Buildings in 1910 _ .... . . . - 5, 163,580 

In 1900 ...... 3, 525, 170 

Implements and machinery in 19 1 0 . 733,843 

In 1900.... ? • 576,010 

Domestic animals, poultry, etc., in 1910 « 2, 282, 768 

1111900 „ J 1,486,558 

Per cent of value of all property in — 

- ..... r ? .. . 60. 8 

Buildings. ..... .1 * . 24. 8 

Implements and machinery * 3 5 

Domestic animals, poultry, etc * 10. 9 

Average values (number of all farms, 2,442): 

All property per farm $8, 542 

Land and buildings per farm ........... 7, 306 

Equipment and stock 1 236 



The Census Office estimated the average value of land per acre for 
the total farming area of the county as 146.39, as against *33.48 in 
1900, an increase of 38.3 per cent. 

There are in all 2,442 farms in the county, of which 2,093, or 85.7 
per cent, are operated by white farmers, and 349, or 14.3 per cent, 
are operated by colored farmers. At present the' average size for all 
farms is about 112 acres, but the tendency is toward smaller farms; 
39 per cent of all farms have less than 50 acres each. The farms 
Operated by negroes are smaller on the average than those operated 
by the whites; 69.3 per cent of all colored farmers have 19 acres or 
^less. 


A flfudy of the kind of tenure reveals some significant facts.. Three- 
fourths of all farms are operated by those who own tter land in whole 
or in parti The proportion of owners among the colored fanners is 
larger than among the white. For the whole county, there has been 
a slight increase in the amount of tenancy during 10 ^ears; in 
least two districts — Laytons ville and Potomac— this increase ‘has 
been considerable, and has meant a. poorer grade of fanning, less 
profitable fanning, md the gftUhial depreciation of the soil On the 









ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, AND RELIGIOUS CONDITIONS, 11 

face of the returns, the per cent of farms operated by owners, 75.4 
per cent, seems like a fair proportion. These farms, however, rep- 
resent only 55 per cent of the total acreage of farm lands. A higher 
proportion of the large farms are subject to absentee landlordism 
than of the small farms. Of the farms of 19 acres or less, 88.6 per 
cent are* operated by owners; of those of 20 to 99 acres, 74.5 per cent 
are so operated; of those of 100 to 259 acres, 60.3 per cent; of those 
of morcthan 259 acres, 51.8 per cent. The points involved in these 
figures which should cause concern are these: Forty-five per cent of 
all farm land is operated under a tenant system, which' means poorer 
farming and the gradual impoverishment of the soil; 25 per cent of 
the entire farming population is shifting and constitutes an unstable 
elemental the community, with an average period of tenure of only 
4 years as against 15 years for farm owners, a fact which must inevit- 
ably hamper all efforts toward the betterment of rural life conditions 
along social, religious, and educational lines. 

The output of the farms. — The 1910 census gives the following table 
of the acreage and yield of the principal crops for the year 1909: 


Corn 

Oats, 

Wheat.... 


§y* 

Potatoes 

Tobacco 

Hay and fence 


Crops. 


Acres. 


Yield. 


30,278 

1,160 

45,112 

3,540 

2,308 

687 

25,006 


1,380,249 bushels. 
22,276 bushels. 
760,280 bushels. 
40,661 bushels. 
103,783 bushels. 
634,314 pounds. 
30,004 tons. 


In two-thirds of th^Nmunty stock feeding is an important source 
of income. Laytonsville^Gaithersburg, and Olney districts lead in 
this respect. Stock breedmg is not carried on extensively any- 0 
where in the county except t (replenish the string of draft horses or 
keep up the dairy herds. In tn^e astern and southern end of the 
county and along the entire length of the Baltimore & Ohio Rail- 
road, dairying is an important industiy. There are at present from 
10,000 to 12,Q00 dairy cows in the county. 

Much of the county is well adapted to raising fruity particularly 
apples. Within a few years many young orchards have been set out, 
particularly in the vicinity of Sandy Spring. This is still for the most 
‘part an industry of the future, but it will doubtless "become increas- 
ingly important. Along the line of the railroad' and in 'Sll sectionh 
which have ready access to the District of Columbia there is a great 
deal of market gardening for the Washington City market. Here 
eggs also are an important product. . 

Farm labor . — Aloet of the farm labor in the county Is colored. The 
wage for day labor varies from 75 cents and board to $1.50, the ayer^ 







12 


EDUCATIONAL SUBVBY OF MONTGOMKBY COUNTY, MD. 


age being about $1. Labor by the month costa from $12, with house 
and allowance, to $30, the average being about $18. In general it 
is difficult to obtain sufficient help of any sort, and good labor is 
particularly scarce. The laborers have apparently very slight chance 
of economic advancement; very few are k reported to have acquired 
farms anywhere in the county during the past 10 years. 

* 

D. COOPERATIVE TENDENCIES IN FARMING. 

The farmers of the county haw taken the first steps toward form- 
ing cooperative organizations. The Tobacco Growers’ Association, 
which includes the tobacco growers of Frederick, Howard, Carroll, 
and Montgomery Counties, was organized seven years ago. Its work 
has been largely educational : The encouragement of better methods 
for the production and care of tobacco, the advocation of honest 
packing, the investigation of market conditions, and the recommen- 
dation to its members of some reliable firm to handle their output. 
Since its organization the cfop yield has almost doubled, through the 
unproved methods of cultivation, and the price has been increased 
about one-third by gaining the confidence of the buyers in the qual- 
ity of the tobacco and the fairness of its packing. 

The Milk Producers’ Association of Maryland, Virginia, and the 
District of Columbia represents about 20,000 dairy cows, of which at 
least two-fifths are in Montgomery County. Its work is to secure 
better legislation, encourage improved methods of handling the 
** herds, and, in general, to better the conditions under which dairymen 
work. No effort has been made to fix prices or sell /ho milk, through 
an agent. 

The Sandy Spring Fruit Growers’ Association was recently formed 
with 26 members, representing about 15,000 trees, mostly in young 
orchards. For the present its work is educational. 

The grange, outside of the Sandy Spring neighborhood, has not yet 
gained a very strong hold upon the farmers of the county. There 
are but three branches in the county, two of which are in the Olney 
district. It has, through its executive committee, undertaken to do 
a considerable amount qf cooperative buying, chiefly of farm imple- 
ments, home furnishings, and fertilizer. J 

There is an annual farmers’ convention held at Sandy Spring 
^ which for 40 years has been bringing together a limited number of the 
farmers of the county for the open discussion of all the problems of 
farm operation and community life. These gatherings are more rep- 
resentative of Sandy Spring than of the entire county, but they have 
come to have considerable importance for those who attend them. 

The County Fair Association has an open membership of over 2,000. 
St owns large fair grounds Rockville sad holds an annual fair in 
September 4 year. 'V ^ _ 







H 




ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, AND HBLIGI0U8 CONDITIONS, 
m. LAND DEVELOPMENT FOR SUBURBAN PURPOSES. 



In the lower end of Montgomery County, whore it adjoins the 
District of Columbia, the conditions are almost ideal for suburban 
development. Development has already taken place to a con- 
siderable extent, chiefly in the Wheaton and Bethosda districts. 
In Wheaton about one-half of the arable land is still farmed, but 
in Bethesda practically all of the land that has not already been 
subdivided has either been bought up and is held awaiting develop- 
ment, or is valuod at so high a figure that farming - is no longer 
! profitable. 

. IV. TRANSPORTATION ANfl MARKETS. 

% % 

The transportation mediums which are important in this county 
are the Metropolitan and Southern Metropolitan branches of the 
Baltimo^& Ohio Railroad, the Chesapeake & Ohio Canal, the 
trolley lines, and the roads. 

, The Metropolitan branch passes through five districts and is 

more or less conveniently available to practically two-thirds of the 
county. The Chesapeake & Ohio Canal parallels'tho Potomac Riyer 
| on the Montgomoiy County side for the entift length of tho county 

line. The trolley lines and tho Southern Metropolitan branch of 
\ the Baltimore & Ohio are of value chiefly to t^o suburbanites and 
the farmers in the southern end of-the county. The total number 
of miles of road in tho county is 830; 99 miles of this total is stone 
road of varying degrees of excellence; 24 miles of the stone road is a 
part of. an old toll-road system. The rest of the stone road is State 
and county built, is relatively now, and for the most part in good 
condition. 

• In general, it may be said that the market for Montgomery County 
is the city of Washington^. which affords ample and accessible market 
for all of its products, except the tobacco crop, which is all shipped 
to Baltimore. 


V. POPULATION. 

The total population of the county is given by the last census as 
32,089, an increase for the decade of 1900-1916 of 5.4 per cent. 
Of this population, 84.6 per cent live in tho open country; 8.1 per 
cent live in villages of from 100 to 750 inhabitants; 7.33 per cent 
live in towns of more than 750 inhabitants. For the county as a 
jwhole, the opeifccountry population is decreasing, while the village 
and town population is increasing. Of the population, 28.8 per 
cent is colored. The figures for the county are, white, 22,847; 
colored, 9,235; other nonwhites, 7. Probably 75 per cent of the 
colored population is found eith’er in settlements or villages tlppugh 




*V '".'Va • 





14 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OP MONTGOMERY COUNTY, MD. 


T 


the county or in colored sections of the larger towns. Olney dis- 
trict has a larger proportion than any other one district. 

To^al population .... . ... . . . , 32, 089 

Per cent living in open country 84. 6 

In villagee of from 100 to 750 inhabitants. ... 8. 1 

In villages of more than 750 inhabitants . .... 7. 3 

White population.*-:..... — ** .per cent. . 71.2 

Negro population - s - * .*r • • * do 28. 8 

VI. SOCIAL MIND. * 

Means of transportation and communication. — The [Problem of 
rural isolation, important from many points of view, is funda- 
mentally related to the problem of developing the social life of the 
community. Adequate means of communication arc of the same 
primary significance socially that adequate means of transportation 
are economically. In general, this isolation is beginning to be 
broken down by tho development of means of communication, which 
not only bring the communities closqr together, but unite thorn more 
closely with the outside world, bringing them in touch with many 
forces and influences making for progress, and bestowing upon them 
many by-products of city civilization in the way of culture, education, 
comfort, and efficiency. # _ 

First are mentioned again the railroad and the trolley lines. Six 
trolley lines enter the county from the south, one running as far as 
Rockville, and the .others connecting the various towns in tho 
Bethesda and Wheaton districts with the District of Columbia. 
There are also two stage linos, one of which connects Poolesville with 
the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad at Barnesville Station, while the 
other connects Ashton with the Baltimore & Ohio at Laurel. 

. It is difficult to overestimate the social sigi^ificance of good roads. 
It is not the social needs of the community which build the roads, 
but.its economic needs. But once they are built, they must inevitably 
extend the limits of tho community by increasing tho distance which 
it is possible comfortably to travel for social intercourse and for 
attendance upon public gatherings, churches, and schools. They* 
must also increase tho solidarity of tho community and strengthen its 
social bonds by facilitating intercommunication. In Montgomery 
County.it will be^found that* the development of th^social life has 
followed very closely the development of the system of good roads. 

The advent of the rural free delivery and of the telephono has 
also been of great social value; 38 rural delivery routes start either 
within the copnty or from town^ adjacent thereto, reaching prac- 
tically all the fanners not conveniently served by the local post 
offices. There are approximately ^1,250 telephones in the county; 
^ pfobably 35 jw of the homes white fanners ar& equipped 
Zinik them. . *.*• 


ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, AND RELIGIOUS CONDITIONS. 15 


Social welfare . — The vitality of the white population of the county 
Ls in general very high. The vitality of the colored population is 
relatively low. There is a county health officer who has- general 
oversight over the public health for the entire county, except the 
Olney district and the town of Takoma Park. .The Olney district 
has its local board of health, chartered by the State legislature. 
Health conditions in the town of Takoma Park are under the super- 
vision of the health department of the District of Columbia. 

The birth rate in 1912 for the white population, of the county was 
14.8 per 1,000 inhabitants. For the colored population, it was 15.3 
pei" 1,000. The death rate was 7.8 for whites and 14.5 for the 
negroes. This birth rate is rather low, but the death rate is also 
low. It is significant that the death rate of the negroes is almost 
double that of the whites, while the birth rate is only slightly higher. 

There are four large well-equipped sanitariums in the county; one 
of these is devoted to the open-air treatment of all forms of tuber- 
culosis; a second is given over to the treatment of nervous and mental 
diseases; the other two arc general in their scope. There are 42 
physicians practicing within the county. 

The average age of marriage among the white population is 25.7 
years for the men and 21.6 years for the women. For the colored 
population the ages are respectively 28.5 and 22.2 years. These 
averages, as compared with the averages in most agricultural com- 
munities, are high. 


The housing conditions in the county would compare very favorably 
with those in any other county similarly situated. The homes of the 
farm owners average 7 or 8 rooms; 95 per cent of the homes are 
painted. A large proportion of them are either two or three stories. 
A fair number are supplied with running water by windmill, ram, or 
engine. Sanitary conditions are usually excellent. 

The homes of the farm tenants are on the average not so good. 
Probably not more than 50 per cent of them are painted. The 
homes of the colored farmers are well above the average for colored 
farmers m other soctions of the country. ' 

Organizations. There are 29 lofcal branches of secret organiza- 
tions., representing 9 orders. These are located in 12 districts, every 
district but Barnes ville having at least one. The aggregate member- 
ship is 1,744; the attendance at the meetings of the societies is about 
15 per cent of the membership. The social importance of these 
organizations is not usually very great. 

There are 40 open fraternal organizations having a' total member- 
ship of about 1,000. This total excludes the societies of the Sandy 
Spring neighborhood, and also certain organizations which are of 
more than local imjwrtanpe.. These will bp discussed in subsequent 
paragraphs. It also excludes three editotry. clubs in t^e Betheeda, 


16 BDUOATIONAL SURVEY OP MONTGOMERY COUNTY, MK 

district with a membership of 1,938, which "4?aw their patronage 
largely from without the county. • , 

The 40 clubs mentioned include farmers’ clubs, improvement asso- 
ciations, card, social, literary, temperance, scientific, and athletic 
societies. Four districts — Clarksburg, Potomac, Barnesville, and 
Damascus — are apparently without organizations of this sort. 

Tho social oiganization of the county is highly uneven, both as 
regards the geographical distribution of these societies and the classes 
in the communities which they reach. Fifty-seven per cent of the 
existing organizations are in the suburban sections. All of the scien- 
tific clubs and the citizens’ improvement' associations are there. The 
best-organized localities are in general those with the best transpor- 
tation facilities, the best roads, and the most compact social groups. 

Only a small proportion of the population is hi nny instance pro- 
vided for by those organizations. There are none of any sort for the 
laboring and tenant classes. The existing societies are those of the 
farm owner and the town dweller. 

There are a great number of negro clubs and associations iri^thW? 
county. Many of these are prosperous benevolent societies, whicn 
care for their members w r hen sick, bury the dead^, and look after theib 
families. The social significance* of many of these clubs for tho lfte 
of their members is without doubt very great, but they are too 
numerous for detailed .oxatninationsmf them to be made. 

Vn. RECREATIONS. 


Types of recreations . — Baseball is pla^^cenerally throughout the 
county. The larger schools have organizeuHeams, and there w r ore 
lafct season 8 organized towm teams playing one^ame each per w T eek. 
These games were usually attended by a crowd of 100 or more. In all 
districts there Is more or less unorganized scrub playing. Basket- 
ball is played in several of the schools and there are tw o town teams. 
Football and soccer are played to a limited extent. Track w’ork is 
popular in some 'sections. Several of the schools occasionally enter 
teams in State meets. An annual meet is held during the summer 
at Washington Grove, which has come to be an important e^ ent, 
attracting athletes from all neighboring States. Tennis is popular 
in at least six districts. Tournaments are often held, both for par- 
ticular sections and for the county. 

There is very little commercial drama at any time in the county, 
hardly more than one or two inexpressibly poor shows a year. Enter- 
tainment is provided by one moving-picture* theater in Rockville. 
Home-talent plays and minstrel shows are, however, very popular, 
and are generallyifell supported. 

There are not many public dances held anywhere ip the county, 
are tery many private7 semi-mvitation dances during the 

iM 



ECONOMIC, SOCIAI^N© RELIGIOUS CONDITIONS.* 17 

winter in almost every district. These are held in town, lodge, and 
grange halls, in clubhouses, and in private homes. 

Outside of the Washington Grove Summer Chautauqua and some 
of the towns in the Wheaton district; lectures and public entertain- 
ments by outside talent are, not much in vogue anywhere in the 
county. There *are more oyster suppers, strawberry festivals, and 
lawn parties than any other form of entertainment. Practically 
every organization in the county which requires money gives them. 
For the support of the churches and, lodges, the strawberry and the 
oyster may be termed the first aids to tho budget. There aro also 
probably 30 or 40 lodge and church fairs held during tho year and 
twice that number of public picnics. The picnics are especially 
popular, and aro almost everywhere an important factor in the social 
life of tho community. Many features aro combined with them, such 
as athletics, dancing, sales, and sometimes raffles and similar money- 
making devices. 

Washington Grove, in tho Gaithersburg district) is the only strictly 
summer resort in tho county. Among .its annual features aro a 
Chautauqua program of 12 lectures,, concerts, and entertainments, 
an athletic carnival, and a 10-day camp meeting. There is a largo 
amusement park at Glen Echo in the Bethesda district. Cabin John 
and Chevy Chase Lake are popular resorts during tho summer. These 
last draw much of their patronage from Washington. 

Agencies furnishing recreation facilities . — Under this head it must 
bo noted that there is apparently no organization in tho coynty which 
feels impelled to furnish recreative facilities out of any sense of its 
obligations to the community. ’It is not a desire for service, but the 
need for money, that pushes the church and lodge into this field. 
The fact that they do perform a public service in fumishijig recreation 
is quite incidental to the fact that they find it a convenient way to 
raise funds and, h<%ice, as a regular policy, exploit recreation for the 
sake of their treasuries. Such facilities as do not owe their existence 
to this circumstance are the result of tho efforts of individuals or 
groups organized for that purpose, such as card clubs, athletic asso- 
ciations, etc. The result of this must be that those who, because of 
economic disability, lack of personal initiative due to -the conditions 
of their life, or some other cauwLcan not provide their own rccreatioiv 
facilities are left without themf These, too, are tho classes upo(P 
which the church and the lodge have the slightest hold, and are, 
generally speaking, the classes most in need of thoir ministrations in 
this regard. 


VUL THE SANDY SPRING NEIGHBORHOOD* 

The territoiy included in the “Sandy Spring neighborhood” lies 
partly wthin the Olney and partly within the GdeeyiUo districts* 




v -: ^ 








18 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF MONTGOMERY COUNTY, MD. 

The term u neighborhood ” is used advisedly. Sandy Spring is not 
a town or village or civil division of any sort. It is 10 miles from any 
town or railroad. It is nothing more nor less than a section of open 
farming country settled by a group of people who are united by the 
bonds of religion and blood kinship <fmd contrasted more. or less 
sharply with the people of the adjoining territory by differences of ‘ 
thought, feeling, and custom: The first settlement was made by 

the Society of Friends early in the eighteenth century, and the com- 
’ muni ty has always been largely under their influence. The Friends’ 
Meeting, which since its organization has been xhe mainspring of the 
life of this community, has had a recorded existence since i. 753. 

Many points in the history of this neighborhood are interesting and 
significant Before the opening of the Revolutionary War, “The 
testimony against slavery” was taken up, and the beginning was 
made of committing this people to the policy of froo labor owning 
the soil. 

Shortly after 1830, prohibition was voted for the district surround- 
ing the meetinghouse, and it was tho influence of this settlement, 
working through the subsequent period of 50 years, which ultimately 
extended prohibition throughout tho county. 

Many institutions of great social and economic importance which 
still enjoy a flourishing existence had their beginnings in the second 
and third quarters of the nineteenth century. In 1844 a library 
company was organized^ and a library" was established at $andy 
Spring. In 1844 tho first iarmcrs’ club for men and in 1857 the first 
club for women wore organized. 

The organization of a lyeeum stock company in 1858 gdvo rise to 
one of the most interesting customs of tho neighborhood. As a 
means of encouraging attendance at the annual stockholders’ meeting 
of this company, a neighborhood annalist was appointed who should 
keep a record of all community happenings and rc^l it at the annual 
meeting. This practice is still continued. At ®e close pf every 
12-year period th annals are published in book form. * 

The Mutual Fire Insurance Co., the Savings Institution, tho Grange, 
and Animal Convention of Farmers’ Clubs, the Suffrage Association, 
and many othor public enterprises were inaugurated in -the third 
quarter of the century. I 

In many respects the criticisms which are often directed against 
agricultural communities are without force here. This is true, for 
example, as regards social organizations. Here, as elsewhere, 
societies have come an 4 gone, but more often fhey have come than 
gone. There are at ldost 0 societies in existence now which arb 
40 years old or more; » societies now enjoying vigorous health may 
.be enwj^r&ited* These include 10 agricultural societies of various 
book dub, to literal? society, & benevolent aijjt society, * 
•uffrega association, and Various others. 


1 







ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, AND RELIGIOUS CONDITIONS. * 19 

Tho place occupied by the agricultural societies is very important, 
as they have been to a large extent responsible for the introduction 
of the improved methods of* agriculture which prevail here and for 
raising farm life to its present high plane. 

The social significance of all of these societies is great. Even if 
the community had no other opportunity for recreation than that 
furnished by its clubs, it would yet be better provided for than the 
average rural community. 

The activities of the clubs do not, however, begin to exhaust the 
list of tho amusements of this neighborhood. Every season has its 
lectures and its concerts, at least two Or three of each, and a dozen 
or more .ho me- talent plays and school entertainments of various 
sorts. There are at least 8 or 10 dances in the neighborhood each 
winter. In addition, there are all the various out-door activities of 
a well-organized community— teimis, baseball, 1 basket ball, private 
picnics and outings, and similar functions. 

IX. RELIGIOUS CONDITIONS AND ACTIVITIES. 


Distribution . — There are in Montgomery County 135 churches in 
various conditions of -health and activity. Of this number, 95 are 
white churches and 40 are colored. It is more convenient to consider 
these groups separately, troating the white churches first. 

If the churches were evenly distributed, there would be one white 
church to every 5$ square miles and to every 241 of the white popu- 
lation, a ratio which would provide more than adequate church 
facilities for th'o entire county. Their distribution has not this 
uniformity, but, as a matter of fact, there is no point in tho county * 
more than 5 miles distant from feomo church. The tendency in 
locating the churches has, however, been to anticipate tho mov?ment 
of the people out of tho country into the town, by placing the churches 
at tho centers of population. Nearly 85 percent of the population live 
in tho country, but tho country claims only 55 per cent of the churches. 
Many of the town churches must rely for support upon tho country 
and many people of the country must look to the towns for their 
church life. % 

Denominational classification and growth . — Eighty-six of the white 
churches are Protestant and 9 are Roman Catholic. The Protestant 
churches represent 15 different denominations. The bulk of their 
strength is divided between .5 denominations; 9 denominations have, 
each, 3 churches or less. The total membership* of all churches .is 
9,701, of which 6,994 ^are Protestant and 2,70.7 Catholic. 

Of the total white population, approximately 20,000 may be termed 
Protestant, or, at least, non-Catholle. Every Protestant church 
has, on an average, a possible membership of 234. Just how v^ell _ 
thi ft l has bcien cultivated may* beinferred from the faet that tbe v 

*, V, , - • - £ * vV ; - r ' **-..> -f - Jgf* > 




;c- 


20 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF MONTGOMERY COUNTY, MD. 

average membership df all church Ss’iS'only 81 ; hardly 35 per cent of 
tho population^aro in thfl churches. 

Of tho 86 Protestant churches mentioned, G2 are growing, 3 are 
barely holding their own, 1(> are losing ground more or less rapidly, 5 
are practically oh their deathbeds. Ten other churches not included 
in this total have passed away within recent years tfnd must be 
numbered with the departed. 

Working force. — There Ure 44 ministers working regularly in tho 
county, of whom 39 are Protestant and 5 are Roman Catholic.^ 


\ 



+ rc cms**c*+ 

$ CQiCWP CAf4J#C» 
♦ *S**0O*C.C> Or 


> Fio. 1.— Location of churches 

Three churches — Hicksite and Orthodox, Friepds and Christian 
Scicnco — do not have regularly employed ministers; 8 other churches 
are at present pastorless. The 39 Protestant ministers >aro in charge 
of 75 churches. 

In tho distribution of this force we see the remnants of that old 
system of farming out churches on circuits which has always con- 
stituted the grea’t weakness of tho country church. 

, Of the 39 Protestant ministers, 15 have 1 church each; 13 have 2 
^chuxohcs each ; p have 3 churches each; 7 hav* 4 churches each; 1 has 
,, * 8 churches. , - -t ' 

^ I •? .» j ... - r. ■ ■* ... .■ 






A. EPISCOPAL CHURCH AT LA YTON VI LLE. 


BUREAU OF EDUCATION 


BULLETIN, 1913,* NO. 32 PLATE 




ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, AND RELIOIOO^ CONDITIONS. 21 

Of the churches over which these men have charge 49 are without 
a resident ministe'r. Here is, the source of one of the great problems 
of church efficiency. Fifty churches aim to hold a preaching service 
every Sunday, 41 have services every second Sunday, 4 have 
services every fourth Sunday. In these are intruded 11 churches 
which at the present time, for various reasons, are not holding regular 
services at all. 

Forty-nine churches are' without any form of organization for young 
people and 81 have no organization for their men. The church is 
here neglecting not only an effective method of religious work, but also 
an opportunity to teach men the needed lesson of cooperation in 
all their affaire by helping'them to practice it in their chilrch life. 

The churches are making little effort to serve the community as a 
Social center. Their activities are undertaken for the sake of the 
money to be raised by them and not because the church feels itself 
obligated to furnish recreation and social facilities for their own sakes. 
In general, the social life of the churches is at a distinctly low ebb. 

The community's service to the church . — The aggregate annual bud- 
get for all the Protestant churches is $88,519. The total amount ex- 
pended on salaries per year is $31 ,247, and the average per minister is 
$842, the maximum being $1,500 add the minimum $250!* Of every 
dollar, 35.3 cents is for-the minister’s salary; 24 cents is con ibuted 
toward various benevolences, practically all of it going to th^Wab- 
lished boards' of the different denominations; 3.3 cents is the coot of 
maintaining Sunday schools, while the remaining 37.4 cents is re- 
quired for the care of the church property and other nfnning expenses. 

The colored churches. The colored churches are not so evenly dis- 
tnb«te4 throughout the edmmunity as the white churches, for the 
reason that the colored population is not evenly distributed. There 
are 40 in all, one to every 231 of the colored population. .Three de- 
nominations are at work in the county, one of these having more than 
half of the churches. 

. 'Hie average membership is 49.5 per church, and the total is 1,981, 1 
which is only 21.2 per cent of the population. That is to say, each 
church is reaching hardly more than one-fourth of its possible fol- 
lowing. AtHJmost every point the colored church is milch more 
inefficient than the^ white church. Not only have they a smaller 
proportion of their population enrolled, but their efforts at progress 
are in comparison feeble. In six-years their net gain has been only 
10.8 per cent, as .against 28.2 per cent for the white church. Only 15 . 

the 40 churches are growing at the present time, 10 are stationary,' 
n) are steadily losing ground, while 5 are unmistakably dying. 
These churches all cling to life with a remarkably tenacious, grip. 
They rarely make an end of . dying. Hence none of them have been 
abandoned. Yet very tm of them have'robust health. 


-- 







22 


EDUCATIONAL 8UBVT5Y OP MONTOOMEBY COUNTY, MD. 


There are 37 church buildings, valued at 137,260, the average value 
being about $1,000; 33 of these are one-room structures. Perhaps 
one-fourth of them are in reasonably good condition; the remainder 
are in various stages of dilapidation and decay. 

There are 18 ministers in charge of 38 churches, 2 churches af*the 
present time being pastorless. 

Of the 18 colored ministers, 6 have 1 church each ; 7 have 2 churches 
each; 2 have 3 churches each; 3 have 4 churches each. 

On the face of it, this seems like a fair record, but it looks better 
than it is; for with two possible exceptions; the churches which have 
a minister on full time are in poorer condition than many of those on 
circuits. 

Of the 40 churches, 12 have a service every Sunday; 24 have two 
services a month; 4 have one service a month. The total attendance 
in all churches holding service is, on an average Sunday, a little more 
than 1,000. 

Thirty-eight of the churches have Sunday school, of which 28 are 
in session throughout the year. Their total membership is 1,402, and 4k 
the total average attendance is 991. This is an average attendance 
and membership per school of 26 and 37, respectivelv. There are in 
all 164 teachers, 1 to every 6 pupils in regular attendance. 

There are 15 young people’s organizations, with a memberskip of 
418; 7 women's societies, with a membership of 370; 3 organizations 
for men, with a membership of 33, and 2 other organizations, with 
a membership of 75. This makes a total of 37 organizations, with 
an aggregate membership of 896. Twenty-five churches have no 
organizations at all excepting the Sunday school. 

The colored church appears to occupy a larger place socially in the 
lives of its members than the white church does. A great majority 
df the churches have some regular social futures. Tho relation be- 
tween the church, the school, and the lodge usually is a close one. 
Most of the entertainments have tho same financial consideration as 
in the white churches, but their sociahsignificance is great. 

.. The annual budget of the churches totals $10,867, an average of 
about $272 per church). Of this amount, $6,560 is for salaries. The 
average salary is only $364.45; the maximum is $748, the minimum 
$50' - * 


r 


f* 








Chapter II. 

EDUCATIONAL CONDITIONS. 


I. GENERAL FEATURES. 


Any discussion of the educational conditions of the county must 
center about the public-school system. It is here that the most 
accurate register is found of the general characteristics of the people - 
as a whole. The public schools are not only by far the most important 
single factor in the educational process for the average community; 
they also sympathetically register the achievements of a people. 
t An intelligent and progressive people build for themselves strong, 
adequate schools. An ignorant and nonprogressive people build 
their schools on the normal level of their lives. This is because the 
school is a social institution. Prosperous social institutions must 
always presuppose a prosperous population. As society is now 
organized, the school offers the community probably its one best 
opportunity to act as a unit. This opportunity it does not always 
grasp. Nevertheless, the school is apt to be a fairly accurate index 
both of the spirit of a community and of the ideals to which it responds. 

Organization and supervision . — The management and supervision 
of the public schools of Montgomery County are intrusted to a con- 
tinuing board composed of 6 commissioners, each appointed by the 
governor of the State for a tomn of 6 years, and to. a county super- 
intendent appointed by the board. Each school has 3 local trustees, 
also appointed by the county board, who cooperate with it and under 
its direction has the immediate oversight of the woi*k of the school^ 
The county board, however, has complete and final control over the 
schools, and all matters of policy and administration rest with it and 
with the superintendent. 

Separate schools are provided for the white children and for the 
colored children, but both are under the same management and 
supervision and are parts of one system. 

Undor this 'organization the management of each individual set 
is very direct and complete. The unit is the county. The supe 
tendent aftjm agent of tho board is required to visit each school 
the county fold personally see to its needs. One advantage of^tae 
system lies in the uniformity of its results. In no case can one school 
or the schools of one locality fall much below the general level for 
the county. The same standards of teaching efficiency are main- 
tained'throughout the county. The course of study and the schedule 
of work are planned for all s qhgo ls and given to the various teachers 
by the superintendent. All examination questions are also sent 




... S . 





ERIC 


&4 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY ON MONTGOMERY COUNTY, MD. 

from his office. The instructional work of the schools is supervised 
as far as it is possible for one man to do so by the county superin- 
tendent . 1 However, the county is so large and its schools so numer- 
ous that the proper supervision involves mdre work than one man 
can accomplish well. 

In organization for the management of the schools, the system in 
Montgomery County is the general type of organization for. the entire 
State of Maryland. The Montgomery County board is composed of 
highly efficient men, genuinely concerned for the welfare of the 
schools and discharging their duties faithfully and with marked 
ability. 

In the detailed discussion which follows it is convenient to discuss 
the schools for white children and those for the colored children in 
separate sections. The former will be considered first. 

0. SCHOOLS FOR WHITE CHILDREN. 

Number , distribution , and hind of schools . — The total population 
of the county between the ages of 5 and 20 years is 10,800. Of 
this number, approximately 7,710 are white and 3,090 colored. 
There are in all 106 sChoolhouses in the county, 76 of which are for 
white pupils. 3 The county owns 103 of the buildings and rents 3, 
There is one school for every 101 of the white population of school 
.age and one for every 103 of the negro population of school age. The 
76 schools for white children include 7 high schools and 69 elementary 
schools. Of the elementary schools, 52 are one-room one-teacher 
schools, with seven or eight grades. The other 17 elementary schools 
have two or more rooms, and many carry the work as far as the tenth 
grade. 

The following table gives the distribution of the schools by election 
districts: 

Dutributxon of tchooU. 


Election districts. 

One-room 

Other 

High 

schools. 


elementary 

schools. 

elementary 

sohdbls. 

Total. 

1. Laytonavflle 

g 

2 

n 


3. Clarksburg - . 

7 

2 

U 

A 

3. PootofviUe 

4 

q 

0 

| 

V 

g 

4. Rockville 

5 

i 

j 

j 

7 

4. Coles villa. 

4 

0 

1 

Q 

R 

A Daroestown 

4 

1 

2 

0 

6 

7. Bethesda ?. 

o 



3 

2 

o 

2 

4 


2 

1 

o 

C 

ft 


4 


D 

ft 

11. Bamesvflle 

4 

1 

2 

0 

0 

ft 

19. Damascus 

4 

I 

D 

-f 

Wheaton 

6 

2 

0 

i 

7 






Total 

63 

17 

7 



#0 


T 




feDTJCATIONAL CONDITIONS. 


25 


m 


Seventeen of the schools are located in towns; 59 are located in the 
open country or in very small villages. The geographical distribu- 
tion is fairly even, and there is no section of the county without a 
school reasonably accessible; 41 of the schools are so situated as to be 
adjacent to stone roads, railroads, or trolley lines. 

Only one school in the county is a consolidated school with trans- 
portation of pupils at public expense. 1 This is the Poolesvillo 
School, which maintains both an elementary department and a high- 



FiO. 2. — Location of schools. 


school department. A glance at the school map above shows that 
this does not exhaust, the possibilities for consolidation in the 
county. It will be noted that there are many groups of three or four 
small schools so situated that their pupils live within easy haul of some 
convenient center. Indeed it would not be at all difficult to plot out 
the county into districts, say from 15 to 20 in number, within which 
all the schools might be centralized. In several sections agitation .has 

already begun for some Buch readjustment. - 

i Twotddltkaui oiHMoUdfcttd school* hftvojjpca esUbllihed a too tha mrvey wua made. 







26 educational subvby op montgomxby county, md. 

The material equipment — The 76 schools occupy 77 buildings, 70 
of which are frame structures, 5 are brick, and 2 are stone. The 
total number of rooms is 151, of which 140 were used for school pur- 
poses in 1912. The school law requires the maintenance of a certain 
average attendance before two teachers can be assigned to one school, 
so that a number of two-room buildings were in effect only one-room 
schools. 

In the following the total number of rooms, the number used for 
school purposes last year, and the number of one-teacher schools is 
shown by election districts: 



Schoolrooms by election districts. 



1. LsytorLsvfUe.. 

2. Clarkaburj?... . 

& Poolesville.. . 
4. Rockville 

6. ColeavtUe 

t Daraestown . . 

7. Betheadt 

8. Olney 

0. G&ltbersbuig.. 

10. Potomac 

11. Bamesvllle... . 

12. Damascus. . . . 

13. Wheaton 


Total. 


Number 
I of school 
, rooms. 

I- 

Used for 
school 
purposes. 

One-room 1 

one- 
teachcr 
schools. 

( 

i i'- 

10 

C 

ll 

11 

7 1 

8 

7 

‘ 4 i 

20 

19 

5 

8 

6 

4 

1 ‘ 10 

10 

4 

5 

6 

0 

20 

20 

3 

IG 

14 

2 

6 

6 

6' 

4 

4 

12 

11 

4 

10 

15 

5 J 

161 

140 

52 


The ono-room school is the greatest problem in*the development of 
rural education. The most frequent criticism brought against the 
rural schools is that their courses of study and their teaching methods 
have been borrowed from the city schools, and that nothing has been 
offered the country pupils distinctly adapted to their actual sphero 
in life. In anotljfer connection is discussed the movement for broad- 
ening the curriculum of the rural schools by the introduction of 
studies intended directly to equip the pupils for farm life. The later 
discussion of this subject may be antici^t^d, by calling attention at 
this point to the relation which the proportion of one-room schools 
has to the problem. It must be rouiembered that the demand for 
broadening the curriculum is accompanied by an equally insistent 
demand for more efficient teaching. In the school in which one 
teacher has 30 or more pupils in 8 different grades, with the average 
length of the recitation period from 10 to 15 minutes, it is very diffi- 
cult to increase the efficiency of the teaching and to introduce new 
subjects into the curriculum. 

The chief defects of the school buildings are defects of architecture, 
rather than of equipment or condition. In general, it must be said 
that their’ equipment for school purposes is above the average for 
simQ&F co mm un i ties, All of the buildings are in a fair state of repair, 
of them are ia good cqndftioiiT Nearly half of them *have 



■ 


EDUCATIONAL CONDITIONS. . 27 

been built within the past 10 years. They are of suitable size, con- 
taining on an average about G50 square feet of floor space, with a 
ceiling 10 to 12 feet high. 

Their weakness from an architectural point »f view arises froVn the 
fact that they appear to have been built with om ; dea in mind, that of 
providing seating accommodations for a given .umber of pupils. 
Little attention was paid to the questions of proper lighting, heating, 
and ventilation, three considerations of prime importance. 

In regard to the lighting in the 102 rooms in the buildings which 
contain the one, two, three, and four room schools, the arrangement ( 



Fio. 3.— Proportion of <me 4 escher schools. 


of the windows is as follows; 64 rooms have windows on the right 
and the left sides; 10 rooms have windows on the right and left sides 
and also in the rear; 16 roogis have windows at the left and rear; 10 
rooms have windows at tb& right and rear; 2 one-room buildings 
have windows on all four sides. 

’It has been very generally agreed by authorities on the subject of 
^ school architecture that no schoolroom should be lighted from more 
than two sides and that, preferably, the light should come from on© 
side only. In all cases, the strongest light should fall over the left 
shoulder of. tho pupil^-4f windows are provided on two sides ot the 
huflding, they shouloybe afc^he left of the pupils apd at their rear. . 


Wmdows at both 




cause a cross light which byotf* 




28 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF MONTGOMERY COUNTY, MD. 

confusing and is harmful to the eyes of the children. Windows at 
the front of the room should not be tolerated under any conditions. 

There is no roofn in all these smaller schools which is lighted from 
one side only, and only 16 in which the windows are placed at the left 
and rear of the pupils. In 86 out of 102 rooms the method of lighting 
is distinctly faulty. 

The amount of window surface relative to the amount of floor space 
in the room is a matter of importance. Authorities agree that the 
total window space should equal at least one-fifth of the total floor 
space. Figures on this point are available for 90 rooms. In 41 of 
these the total amount of window surface was adequate, that is, it 
was equal to or in excess of one-fifth 4 >f the floor space. In 49 rooms 
it was inadequate, the amount of window space varying from one-, 
sixth to one-tenth of the floor space. 

The color of the walls of a schoolroom lias its effect on the lighting 
and on the pupils’ eyes. Data were obtained on this point from 77 
rooms. In 36 of these the walls are now, or were at one time, white. 
In 19 they are of a tan or buff color, in 9 cream, hi 6 green, and hi 5 
light blue. White has several disadvantages, among which are the 
facts that it is easily soiled and when finished with a smooth surface 
has a glare that is relatively hard on the eyes. The most satisfactory 
color is a light-buff tint or a light gray. The space between the win- 
dow sills and floor might be light brown. 

The heating arrangements in the 77 separate buildings are as fol- 
lows: Seven of the buildings are Seated by furnaces; 10 are heated 
by jacketed stoves; 60 are heated by unjacketed stoves. 

With the jacketed stove it is comparatively easy to heat a school- 
room evenly and t6 a proper temperature and to assure proper venti- 
lation. With an un jacketed stove it is very difficult to do either. 
The question of ventilation is a serious one in the one-room schools. 
Pupils can not do their best work without a proper supply of fresh 
air. The jacketed stove furnishes this fresh air at an even 'tempera- 
ture tp all parts of the room, and it also removes the foul air from the 
room. In schools with the unjacketed stove the usual method of 
ventilation is by use of the windows. In cold weather particularly it 
is difficult to heat the room satisfactorily even witj^the windows 
closed. With them open for ventilation it is practically impossible 
to secure a satisfactory temperature in all parts of the room. 

In regard to the blackboard space provided^ In 90 rooms from 
which data were obtained this varied from. 25 to 245 square feet per 
room. The average for the 90 rooms. was 86 square feet, an amount 
sufficient { o accommodate amply 9 pupils at the board at on time. 
In 31 rooms the amount provided was insufficWut. The quality of 
the board tised was in most instances satisfactory. In most of the 
^ rooms the bflttqpf .of board was 36 inches or mm from the floor. 

- 1 - - v 


T 


| 

i 

f 

* 

r 







EDUCATIONAL CONDITIONS. 


29 


This is a convenient height for pupils above the third gfade, but it is 
too high for those in the lower grades. In 46 one-room schools with 
eight grades each only 4 had the blackboard 26 inches or less from the 
floor, the proper height for the youngest children. In 1 7 other rooms, 
used for first and second grades only, only 5 had the blackboard 
placed at this height. 

In all but 13 schools the seating facilities are quite ample for pres- 
ent needs. In the Poolesville, Rockville, and Damascus districts 
there are two schools each without ample seating facilities. In all 
of the other districts, except. Wheaton, Bethesda, and Laytonsville 
there ls one school each without sufficient seats for all the pupils'. In 
28 schools there are musical instruments, either piano or organ. 

Twenty-two per cent of all rooms are fitted with single desks; 
practically ’all of these rooms are hi the high schools and the larger 
4 olementary schools; 78 per cent have the old double desks. Only a 
very few rooms have adjustable desks. In the one-room schools 
particularly desks of proper size for the pupils were not found, and 
many children were using desks either too large or too small for them. 

In almost all of the schools throughout the county more or less 
attention has been paid to improving the interior by the use of pic- 
tures of noted men and women and of buildings or Of scenery. These 
decorations represent all degrees of artistic appreciation and taste, 
but for the most part they are good. The Rockville High School 
deserves especial mention. It has recently purchased some excel-- 
lent plaques and friezes from funds amounting to several hundred 
dollars raised by the pupils themselves. 


nrty schools have pupds’ cloakrooms; 26 have not; hi only f 
schools are’teachers’ rooms provided. All but 11 schools have gooc 
water supply; 56 have wells and 9 have springs on the school prop 
erty or within a convenient distance. Sanitary conditions are ir 
the main goo^ All but 4 schools have outside toilets, but only 12 ol 
them fire in any respect insanitary. ’ * ^ 

Certain special features in equipment should be mentioned. As- 
sembly halls are provided in 5 schools. Well-equipped domestic- 
science and manual-training rooms are provided wherever these 
subjects are taught. The domestic-science room at the Rockville 
High School ii* particularly complete. Here each pupil Ls furnished 
with a small alcohol stove for the cooking experiments. Brookeville 
High School has a special domestic-science building. The latter 
high school is interesting in another respect also, in that it has room. 
mg and boarding accommodations for nearly 20 pupils, who drive in 
from the surrounding country on Monday morning and return to 
their homes on Friday night. 

Both as regards buildings and equipment, the policy of the present 
school adn >n ^ has* been one. of expansion: 26 new schoc 1 




80 EDUCATIONAL BUBVBY OF MONTGOMERY COUNTY, MD. 

buildings have been erected witliin the past six years. Only 6 of 
these have been one^room buildings. In many of these provision has 


bepn made for a considerable growth in the future. The^oodside 
school, for example, is a two-story brick building with 7 recitation 
rooms and an t assembly hail. Only 4 recitation rooms ore at p resign t 
required, The giber 3 will be finished and opened as soon as there 
is need for them. 

Grounds . — The total acreage of the school grounds is 98$. This 
includes a 32-acre farm adjacent to the Brookeville High SehqH, 


Thirteen of tlie school lots are fenced; 36 are fairly level; 41 are 
either rolling or hilly; 11 have good walks; 63 have trees; 13 have 
flower beds; and 1 has a vegetable garden. 

The grounds of the larger schools are frequently well kept. The 
Brookevillo High School is the best illustration of this. A fine lawn, 
beautiful trees, and a good athletic field mako the appearance of tliis 
school very attractive. At the newer schools the grounds have not 
yet received much attention, and little effort has been made to 
. beautify the surroundings of the one-room schools. 

• In planning buildings and grounds, except as noted below, rela- 
tively littl|j attention lias been paid to the needs of the pupils for 
recreation. In another connection the lack of recreation facilities 
in the county is noted, and attention is called to the fact that there 
is apparently no institution which at present furnishes such facilities 
for their own sakes. It is very much to be desired that the school 
should enter tliis field and provide recreation in a systematic and 
thorough faaliion. 

At several of the larger schools, notably the Sandy Spring, Brooke- 
ville, Gaithersburg, and Rockville High Schools, provision has been 
made for recreation. Tennis courts, basket-ball grounds, and baseball 
fields are available. Rockville High ^School has equipment for 
formal indoor gymnastics. Dumbbells and Indian clubs are pro- 
vided. This school also has guns and uniforms for a boys’ battalion. 
In only 11 schools of the entire 76 is there any sort of play apparatus. 
At nearly one-half of the schools there is not even a suitable play- 
group. The school lots are either too small or undrained, and 
therefore apt to be muddy in winter and spring, or they are so rough 
and broken that the ordinary games can not easily be played upon 
them. In onlv a verv few instances was it fonnVhthftt, the tAAchers 



which is used in connection with the courses in elementary agri- 
culture. 



EDUCATIONAL CONDITIONS. 


31 


Schools not being included in the totals} for their respective districts 
or for the county, since jthey are not the property of the. county: 


Election districts: 

1. Laytonsville 

2. Clarksburg /. 

3. Poolcsville 

4. Rockville 

5. Colesvillc 

6. Daniostown 

7. Uethesda 

8. Olney 

9. Gaithersburg 

10. Potomac 

11. IJarncBvillc 

12. Pamascun 

13. Wheaton.; 


Total value 




Value of 
school 

* ’buHdinfts. 
...... $6,850 

6, 750 

3,700 

..:... 35, 900 

9,300 

2, 250 

10,500 

17, 700 

....... .24,100 

2, 650 

• . . . . 3, GOO 

7, 700 

24,050 


155,050 


Teaching force The total teaching force in the wliite schools when 
the survey was made wa9 4 28, of whom 27 were niahSs and 101 
females. An attempt was made to obtain information as to the 
general education and professional training of th« 3 Q teachers. The 
data obtained were incomplete, but accurate data were obtained of 
the teaching force for the term beginning in September, 1912. They 
are included in the taj>le below. It will be noted that the white 
teacliing force has increased from 128 to 145. The general education , 
and professional training of the white teaching force is as follows: 


Teachers who have completed — 

Elementary school only 

One year of high school 

Two yeans of high school 

Three years of high* school 

Four years of high Bchool. . . . . 
One year of normal school. . . . 
Two years of normal school . . . 
Three years of normal school. 
Four years of normal school. . 

One year at college 

Two years at college 

Three years.at college 

Four years at college.... 


9 

2 

7 

9 

48 

7 

13 

14 
7 
6 
5 
4 

14 


Twenty-seven 'teachers attended summer school for 1 year; 9 
attended for 2 years;* 7 for 3 years; and 3 foi-2 years. 

One of the chief weaknesses of rural schools in the United States 
8s a whole is due to-the constant, Shifting of teachers from, one school 
to another. It is probable that, for the United States as a whole, 

jo^tbaajjO per cent of the rural schools are ta ught. ^ a. different 

1 4 ' aj 1 




educational conditions. 33 

if 

teacher each year. In this respect Montgomery County is fortunate. 
All the teachers in the spring of 1912 reported the length ofc time in 
the position .they were then holding. The average length of time for 
the entire county was four school years. .The average is very high. 

-. is partly due to a few teachers whose length of service has been 
exceptionally long. Omitting these, Ihe average tenure was approxi- 
mately three years. The average number of positions held by all 
* the teachers during the past five years was 1 .6, which is low when 
. compared to averages for the United States. The average number 
of years of teaching experience was 8.1. 

An inquiry was made to determine whether the teachers looked 
upon their teaching occupation as a life work or not. Fifty-five 
reported that it was their intention to continue teaching indefinitely; 
5(ljia(J) definitely decided to give up teaching in the near future; and 
“0) mostly of the younger group of women teachers, had not as yet 
made up their minds on-this point. 

Nine special teachers are employed in the county — four for domes- - 
tic science, two for commercial branches anil one each for manual 
training, agriculture, and music. The four domestic science teachers 
are in the high schools at Rockville, Gaithersburg, Brookeville, and 
Sandy Spring. The commercial teachers are in the Rockville and 
Gaithersburg High Schools. The Rockville and Gaithersbuig 
elementary and high schools and the Kensington elementary school 
share the time of the manual training teacher. Sandy Spring and 
Brookeville High Schools share between them a male teacher of 
agriculture. Sandy Spring elementary and high 'schools have a 
teacher of music. . ; * 

Pupils.— The total enrollment of the schools is 3,927— <1,999 boys 
and 1,928 girls. The first table which follows gives the total enroll- 
ment by districts. The second gives the enrollment by grades: 

. Enrollment in eUciwridiitru'U. 


K lection districts. 

! .Male. 

Kemble. 

TotAl 

1. Laytonsrille P 

1 1 fl 



2. Clarksburg 

1 lo 

U7> 

1 M 

289 

3. Poolasvflie 

1 At 

■ 1 A) 

1 iTWI. 

396 

4. Rockville 

lw 

oqn 

luo 

Ml) 

211 

6. Colewllle :*•** 

1H 

AM 

09 

111 

943 

233 

fl. Dameetown 

7. Brthttdft 

IM 

114 

247 

ft. Otoey - * 

O* 

Ul 

/ 4 
1 Ad 

196 

9. Oaliherebui* 

101 

IV) 

104 

^ f i f 

* 315 

10. Potfltnift * 

10* 

loo 

640 

11. Benutville 

12. Damascus...,. 

wO 

» 

IfU 

57 

126 

183 

225 

IS. Wheaton 

OJLjt 

107 

326 

Totol * 

1 00Q 

*\» 
% fMO 

816 


if WWW . 

1|938 

9.927 


9635#® — Jit* 3 




% $4 EDUCATIONAL SUBVEY OF MONTGOMERY COUNTY, MD. 


Enrollment by grades. 'if* 


Election districts. 

Ftrtt 1 

Second. 

Third. 

Fourth. 

Fifth. 

Sixth. 

Seventh. 

Eighth.* 

High 

school. 

1. Laytonsvllie 

52 

29 

31 

33 

36 

29 

21 

c 

0 

2, Clarksburg 

102 

35 

65 

69 

53 

30 

12 

o 

o 

8, Pooleeville 

43 

27 

22 

S8 

21 

23 

17 

0 

22 

4. Rockville. 

102 

64 

65 

54 

70 

47 

51 

0 

83 

5. Colesville 

46 

28 

34 

39 

36 

26 

16 

1 

q 

6. Daraeetown 

55 

31 

31 

39 

27 

26 

23 

2 

12 

7. Betheoda 

39 

15 

31 

20 

16 

15 

J2K 

0 

0 

8, Olney 

31 

26 

29 

25 

24 

39 

31 

0 

101 

9. Gaithersburg 

75 

32 

40- 

45 

52 

25 

3! 

2 

38 

10. Potomac 

54 

14 

20 

26 

26 

21 

22 

3 

o 

11. Barneevilie 

62 

14 

30 

31 

11 

16 

10 

3 

o 

12. Damascus 

53 

46 

37 

51 

42 

39 

45 

7 

13 

13. Wheaton 

115 

68 

79 

7! 

47 

53 

47 

16 

0 

Total 

829 

429 

514 

541 

461 

389 

356 

40 

209 


» Under "first grade” are Included the beginner's class as well as the first grade proper. . Two years is 
required tn many cases for admission to second grade work. 

; Pupils pass directly from the seventh grade to the high school. Those under this heading are taking 
advanced work in elementary schools not located within easy reaching distance of any high school. 

The total white population of school age in the county is 7,710. 
The enrollment of the schools is 50.9 per cent of this total. .For the 
entire continental. United States, according to the United States 
Bureau of Education, the proportion of the population of school age 
enrolled in the public schools is 64.2 per cent. Montgomery County, 
then, is nearly 14 per cent below the average for the country as a 
whole, even allowing for the number (probably 60 to 70) who attend 
private schools and colleges. /The State legislature has just passed 
a compulsory attendance law (1912), requiring the attendance of 
children under 14. This la\fr was adopted by the Montgomery 
County board, and goes into effect in the fall of 1913. It should do 
much toward remedying this condition. 1 

The total average daily attendance for all schools was 2,629, or 
67*3 per cent of the enrollment, and 34.1 per cent of the school 
population 5 to 20 years of age, inclusive. This means that 65.9 
per cent of the total number of white children of school age were 
not in regular attendance upon ihe public schools, a proi>ortion 
large enough to cause serious concern. The schools might reasonably 
be expected to show a larger proportion in regular attendance. 
There were some interesting differences between the different districts 
in this respect. 

1 Tbe law enrollment ww due in part to the large number of children In Betheeda and Wheaton districts ' 
attending school in the District of Columbia. Regulations regarding the attendance of nonreeideiit children 
tn the schools of the District of Columbia, effective in September, 1912, increased the enrollment In the 
Montgomery County schools by approximately 600. 

} r* 






EDUCATIONAL CONDITIONS. 






36 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF MONTGOMERY COUNTY, -MD, 

Table showing the total average attendance , average attendance pet school , and the per 
cent of attendance to enrollment oy election district* 


m 

K lection districts. 


Average 

number 

attending 

daily. 

Average 
attendance 
per school. 

Number 
attending 
dally for 
every 100 
enrolled. 

1. Daytonsville 

2. Clarksburg. ...... 

3 Pnnl«rvlllf» 

- 


lei 

243 

146 

20.1 
27.0 
29 2 

08. G 
61.0 
68.8 

4. Rockville. 

398 

66.8 

73.3 

a 

125 

25.0 

538 

6. Darneetown 

7 RaHimHa 



156 

26.0 

63.4 

* 


122 

61.0 

7K2 

R Olnev 

246 

49.2 

78.1 




239 

47.8 

70.2 

10 v Potomac ^ . 

97 

19.4 

53.0 

1 1 *T3amesvllle .. 

118 

23.6 

52.0 

12, Damascus 

210 

30.0 

64.0 

1 1 Whofttnn 

378 

54.0 

72.9 





Total. ....... 



2,639 

347,0 

65.9 

The percentage of attendance 

to enrollment is 

relatively high 




(68 per cent or more) in districts 1 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, and 13. The reasons 
for this are not far, to seek. Poolesville h^d at the time of the survey 
the only consolidated school with public transportation of pupils in 
the oounty. The other six districts have the best transportation 
facilities, both as regards roads and accessibility of railways and 
trolleys. The proportion in regular attendance is relatively low 
(64 per cent or less) in districts 2, 5, 6 ? 10, 11, and 12, where the 
transportation facilities are not good. There is nothing finally 
conclusive about* this, and certain local variations are not thereby 
to be accounted for. This would not explain, for example, why the 
attendance is better in the Damascus district than in the Coles ville 
district. It does, however, show a general tendency and indicates 
that the school as well as the farm needs good roads. 

Student organizations . — There were last year in existence only 13 
student organizations of any sort in the schools in the -county. Of 
this number, 8 were debating and literary societies, 2 were athletic 
associations, and 1 was a boys' brigade. It does not appear that 
full advantage is taken of a fine opportunity. The total membership 
of these 13 societies was about 250, a very small proportion of the 
pupils who might profitably have been organized in a similar way. 

In 1911 a step was taken toward a larger service to the boys in the 
schools when a corn-growing contest was initiated by f the president of 
the board of school commissioners. Not much interest was manifested 
in this the first year, although the contest was sucae^ful in a small 
way. This year the Agricultural High School at Sandy Spring has 
taken charge of the matter and will make this contest a permanent 
feafjite of the year's program in connection with an annual ‘‘corn 
congress," to be held in the fall. Prizes ranging from $5 to 150 have 
offered &nd the contest is open to all boys from 10 to 15 years of 
age, £he conditions of the content a?e ; * 


EDUCATIONAL CONDITIONS. 


87 


n l All of the work must be done by the boy except the plowing. 

O’) The com grown <m the 4cre shall be the property of the hoy, whether he wine a 
prize or not. 

(3) The following bamahall be used in awarding the prizes: 

Pot c*nt. 

Greatest yield per acre ; 40 

Best showing of profit on investment * 40 

Best written account showing history of crop. . . 20 

TuUl 100. 

(4) Boys must keep a record of the time spent in doing the work and of the expendi- 
ture for seed, fertilizer, etc. 

(5) The amount of land used shall be 1 acre for each bov. 

The contt'st- in 1912 was w oil advertised, and great interest was 
manifested in it. It is hoped that results of considerable importance 
will follow. 

Studies .—' The teacher in a one-room school has many things to 
do and very limited time to do them in. This is one of the prime 
reasons why the criticism holds true here, as in every place where the 
one-room school exists, that the curriculum of ihN country school 
contains little or nothing that distinctly prepares mr country life. 

In spite of the fact that conditions, are far better hfte than in many 
other rural communities, the fact is that each teacher in the county 
must conduct on the average 23 recitations per day with the average 
time allotted each recitation onluj 15 minutes. In the one-room 
school the lumber of recitations is^ven greater, being approximately 
30 in' each school. The time for each recitation is of course shorter, 
the average being 11 minutes. A program so full leaves opportunity 
for very little beyond, the limits of the prescribed course of study, 
which contains only those subjects, familiarly referred to as the 
“common branches/' This course of study and the plaa^j^work 
based upon it are prescribed by the county school commissioners, 
and are patterned largely after the town and city school course. It 
emphasizes, particularly in the higher grades, the cultural rather than 
the industrial. It needs to be revised for the country school. The 
curriculum does not take into account the special conditions under 
which the country pupil is to live and work. There is need of a 
fundamental readjustment which will in part take the form of the 
introduction of certain courses having direct bearing upon the country 
pupil's needs and in part take the form of a shift in emphasis through- 
out the entire course of study. It is not to be supposed that cultural 
studies should be dropped from the curriculum of the rural school. 

In certain, instances they .might well receive increased attention. 
The pupils might devote more time to music and drawing than they 
are now doing. 

A beginning has already been made in the larger schools of the 
county..toward this readjustment. Special courses have been mtro^ 
disced apd in some instances special teachers have t^eenprooiiped -tfk'M 




88 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF MONTGOMERY COUNTY, MD. 

train the pupils ajong certain practical lines. An inquiry was made 
as to the extent to which certain subjects, deemed of special impor- 
^-for rural children, were taught. These subjects were nature 
study, elementary agriculture, domestic science, manual training, 
music, and drawing. The following table indicates the number of 
schools teaching each *and the extent of the work. By “little’ * 1 is 
meant that approximately from 15 to 30 minutes per week is given to 
talks, observation, or elementary exercises; by “medium” is meant 
that some systematic effort is made to teach the subject at prescribed 
periods throughout one or two } r eam, enough time being given to it 
to assure some thoroughness; by “much” is meant that there is a 
full four years’ course ofTered, with special teachers. The figures 
refer to the number of schools in which these studies are taught. 

Number of schools teaching certain subject*. 


Subjects. 


Nature st u 

Eleroentti^^rr (culture . 

DomosW 
Manual 1 
Muaic. 

Drawing 


re stu^. . . . 
en(; rlc 

iS 

a]^^Ki£. 




Not at all. | 

Little. 

Medium. | 

43 

20 

i 

4 , 

52 i 

13 

v 4 

63 

4 

0 

67 I 

1 

f 3 

48 1 

19 

4 

46 ! 

1 

22 

4 


Much. 


It will be noticed that the greater proportion of the schools give 
no time at all to these studies, while only a small number attempt to 
teach them thoroughly. Four high schools— Rockville, Gaithers- 
burg, Brookeville, and Sandy Spring — each have a special teacher of 
domestic science; three schools — Rockville, Gaithersburg, and Ken- 
sington — share the time of one man as an instructor in manual train- 
ing. Sandy Spring and Brookeville High School^ share between them 
the entire time of one man for teaching elementary agriculture. 
Rockville and Gaithersburg each have a commercial teacher. Sandy 
Spring has a special teacher giving her entire time to music. The 
Sandy Spring and Brookeville High Schools are probably the most 
interesting schools in the county in these respects. Each is a genuine 
rural high school, making definite and successful efforts to adapt their 
pupils to the conditions of country life. 

Fifty-one schools have libraries varying in size from 1 volume to 
2,000 volumes per school. The total number of volumes in all the 
schools is over 7,000, the average for each school reporting being about 
138. The schools reporting libraries may be grouped as follows: 

8choola having libraries with from— School*. 

1 to 25 volumes 4 

26 to 60 volumes 11 

60 to 76 volumes 0 

• 76 to 100 volumes ...... T.. 6 

\100 to 2C0 volumes. r . ... 17 

200 to 600 volumes 4 

Over 600 .......... V 


I 




educational conditions. 


69 


The books are mostly general literature, histories, essays, poetrv 
and fiction. Per the most part the selection is from a list approved 
by the State Board of education. About 50 per oent of the pupils 
above the fourth grade use the books more or less regularly. 

Forty-six schools reported that they gave in 1911 a total of 151 
public entertainments. These were variously literary or musical 
pro-ams home-talent plays, lectures, or celebrations arranged for 
various holidays. They were largely attended by the school patrons 
m mosfinst ance*s. 

Nine schools are so located that they are affected by private or 
parochial schools. Several schools near the line of the District of 
( olumbia ose a number of their pupils to the Washington City schools. 
The 9C ho°ls in Takoma Park are slightly affected by the Seventh Day 
Advent ist Seminary. The Rockville High School is affected by the 
Kockvillo Academy. / J 

High schools .— There are in the county seven public high schools, 
located at BrookeviUe, Damestown, Gafthersburg, Germantown, 
PoolesvJle, Rockville, and Sandy Spring. / There is one in each of 
five election districts, Poolesville, Rockville, Coles ville, Gaithereburg 
Damestown, and Damascus, and two in Oljiey. The school at_Rock- ' 
ville is the county high school. It is the only high school in the 
county listed by the State department of oducation in “Public high 
schools of the first group.” T> Bmokeville, Sandy Spring, and 
Gaithersburg High Schools are listed by the State depar#nt as 
schools of the Second group . ** j 

To be classed in the “first group” a high school must have 80 or 
more pupils, four or more academic teaehjjrs, a four-year course of at 
least 36 weeks a year, a course of stuejy prescribed by the State 
department, and must conform to several other regulations of the 
State department. A “second group ” school nmst have 35 or more 
pupils, two or more academic teachers, a three-year course of at least 
36 woeksa year, and must conform to thd regulations of the depart • 
ment. The State contributed to each ofUhe schools in the second 
f°P ,1 L' 40 f for the ye8r ended “ June ’ ¥ 12 > and t0 the Rockville 

Of the three graduates' of Sandy Spring School in Jupe, 1912. one 
entered the Pennsylvania State College and dine the University of Vir- 
ginia. Of the eight graduates of Brookeville, two entered the State 
Normal School at Baltimore, two the Western Maiylahd College, and 
one St. Johns College at Annapolis. None of the four graduates at 
Gaithersburg is in a higher institution, but two are teaching in the 


40 EDUCATIONAL 8TJBVBY OF MONTOOMBBY COUNTY, MD. 
The following table gives data regarding the seven schools: 

High schooltAn Montgomery County. 


District*. 

Years 

in 

oou^e. 

Daya 

in 

eee- 

Rion. 

Teach- 

ers. 

Barents, by years. 

Grad- 

uates, 

June, 

1912. 

Book** In 
library. 

Value of 
gTognda 
and 

building*. 

Appa- 
ratus, 
equip- 
ment, 
and fur- 
niture. 

Tirst. 

Sec- 

ond. 

Third. 

Fourth. 

Brookeville 

4 

180 

0 

21 

’19 

13 

8 

8 

200 

$15,000 

SfOO 

Damestown — 

4 

190 

2 

0 

1 3 

0 

4 

4 

209 

35.000 

500 

Gaithersburg. .. 

3 

195 

2 

19 

19 

4 


4 

975 

20,000 

1,500 

German town. .. 

3 

190 

2 

. 23 

5 

7 


0 

200 

5,000 

100 

Poolesville 

3 

180 

2 

«*16 

12 

4 


3 

200 

5,000 

500 

Rockville 

4 

180 

7 

40 

27 

19 

13 

12 

360 

40,000 

6,000 

Sandy Bpring... 

4 

180 

4 

18 

14 

5 

4 

3 

259 

5.000 

500 


m 


f 

\ m. SCHOOLS FOR COLORED CHILDREN. 

Number, distribution , and kind . — There are 30 schools for colored 
children in the county, ono to ovory 103 of the colored population of 
school age. They are all olementary^chools with six or fower grades. 
The number of schools for colored children, by election districts, are ns 
follows: Laytonsville, 3; Clarkesburg, 2; Poolesville, 3 ; Rockville, 2; 
Colosville, 3; Damestown, 4; Bothesda (a colorod school was opened 
in Bethesda district in September, 1912), 0 ; Olney, 4 ; Gaithersburg, 3; 
Potomac, 1; Barnesville, 2; Damascus, 1; Wheaton, 2; total, 30. 

These schools are so located th^t there is no considerable settle- 
ment of negroes anywhere in the county without a school reasonably 
accessible. In the Bethesda district, which is the only district with- 
out a colored school, the children go to the schools in the District of 
Columbia. p 

The colored schools are a part of the county school system, con- 
trolled, supervised, and maintained in the same manner os the white 
schools, but there is a feeling among many in the county that few of 
the negroes are * taxpayers and that, consequently, the support of 
their schools by the county is more or less of a missionary enterprise. 

The material equipment. — There are 28 school buildings, of which 
23 are owned by the county and 5 are rented. One school holds its 
sessions in a church, and one occupies a room in a hall. These build- 
ings contain in all 38 rooms, of which 34 were last year used for 
school purposes. Twenty-eight schools are one-room, one-teacher 
schools. This proportion raises the same problem as with the white 
schools. ?he colored children stand as much in need of braining 
along industrial and agricultural lines as the white children. But 
the introduction of such courses into the curriculum of a one- 
room school is impracticable without good teachers and adequate 
supervision. 

The school rooms vary in size from 374 square feet to 1,000 square 
feet. The average-sized room contains about 660 square feet of 
‘ p^e4islfof the schools &js ^nptr^cient ' 


T 






BUREAU OF EDUCATION 


BULLETIN. 1 9H. NO. 32 PLATE 4 



A. / " r ':.OREU SCHOOL, LODGE HALL. AND CHURCH, NORBECK. 


c 



NORBECK COLORED SCHOOL, 




\ 


3 

ERIC 


\ 









T 

l 


•r 

i 


1 


EDUCATIONAL CONDITIONS. 



for the accommodation of the pupils- who desire to attend. In 16 
schools the seating facilities were not sufficient for the number^ of 
pupils enrolled. 

In all of these rooms the light comes from both sides* and in sev&al 
it comos from both sides and tlie rear. In no instance is the light 
received either from the left only or from left and rear only. In at- 
least 20 of the rooms the total amount of window space is insufficient, 
according to the rule that the' total amount of window space.ghould • 
equal or exceed one-fifth of the total amount of .floor space. 

The average amount of blackboard^provided per room is 48 square 
feet, enough to accommodate five pupils at the board at a time. 



Figusi 7. 


Very few schools have as much board space as they n? ed. In at lea&t 
10 schools the amount provided is wholly inadequate. With a single 
exception, the blackboard is placed from 30 to 42 inches above die 
floor. The average for all rooms is about 36 inches. 

In 20 rooms thcro is provided some sort of decoration, mostly 
unframed pictures and posters. The walls of more than one-half 
were originally white, but ago and use have reduced most of them 
to about the same condition, variously described as cream, buff, or ? 
drab. 4 

In general, nearly all of the schools ate in a morp or lees dilapidated * 
condition. All the buildings are frame* Most of them were origj- 

$g . weU put pp as the schools tof white chfldren ? but they hayf i ^4 






ERiC 


— T 7 . 

42 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF MONTGOMERY COUNTY, MO. 

4 4 

not boon kept up. Consequently they arerout of repair. Few of 
them have been painted. Their general appearance is one of neglect. 

. Twenty-eight of the 30 schools are equipped with double nonad- 
•justablo desks; one has single desks, and one, being a church, has 
pews. All of the buildings are heated by stoves, these being in 26 — 
cases nonjacketed. Only one building has a cloak room, while none 
has a teacher’s roonu At 19 schools there is either a well, a spring, *• 
or a "cistern oh the school property; 11 have no water supply. All 
of the schools have outside toilets. At \4 schools these were in an 
• insanitary condition, and at 10 they were improperly placed. 

Twenty-one schools had globes, maps, and charts of some sort, 
although these are in many oases old and poor. Nine schools have 
none at all. The county furnishes the books for all pupils in the 
colored schools. Not very gdbd care is taken of them bv the pupils; 
consequently, there was usually found an insufficient number of 
books, and those found presented a very ragged appearance. 

, The total acreage of the school grounds is 24. All but 2 schools 
have at least a fair plat of ground, 7 of the lots are fenced, 16 are 
level, 12 are rolling or hilly, 6 have trees, 3 have flower beds, and J 
has a vegetable garden. Practically na attention is paid to beauti- 
fying the surroundings of the schools. 

* None of the schools has any play apparatus of any sort, and prac- 
tically no provisions are made for the recreative life of the pupils. 

' The school grounds are not usually very well adapted for playing 
games. Onl^y three are provided with American flags. 

The county has invested SI 0,750 in the 23 scEool buildings which 
■^it owns. The average value per building is about S470. The follow- 
ing table gives the number of schools owned, the total value, and the 
average value per school by election districts: ~ 

t 

• Building a U9cd for colored schools. t 



f 




EDUCATIONAL, CONDITIONS. 


48 




44 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OP MONTGOMERY COUNTY, MD. 

Teaching force . — The 36 schools have a teaching force of 33 (6 
males and 27 females) ; 27 of these reported that thoy had had a 
normal or industrial school training. The average number of years 
of teaching experience is 9.6. Only 4 teachers wore teaching for 
the first time last year. The average length of time spent in the 
present position was reported as 3 years. This average is in part 
due to a few cases of exceptionally long tenure, but more than ono- 
half of the teachers have held their present positions 2 years or more. 
One-fourth of them have~hold their positions 4 years or more. Tho 
average number of positions held during the last 5 years was 1.8 
per teacher. This means a more than ordinarily stable teaching 
force. Tho advice of the president of the colored teachers' association 
to the teachers on this point of tenure was brief but pithy: “Stay 
in a locality until you know it, and until you make the people love 
you; then leave it while thoy still love you.” Of the 33 teachers, 30 
declared that it was their intention to continue teaching permanently. 
The average salary paid last year was $24.86 per month, or $174 
per annum. 

The general education and professional training of the colored teach- 


ing force is as follows j 
T eachers who have completed— 

Elementary, schools only . . < ? 1 

One year of high qphool 1 

Two years of high school. . ......... ? .. . 5 , . . . 1 

Three years of high school 4 

Four years of high school 10 

One year of normal school. 1 

Two years of normal school w . . . . . 12 

Three yeard of normal, school — 0 

Four years of normal school .. ... — ... - 1 

One year at college 2 

Two years at college 1 

Three years at college . 1 

Four years at college. * - • 3 


Five teachers attended summer school for 1 year, 4 attended for 
2 years, and 2 for 3 years. 

PajyiU . — The total enrollment of all schools last year was 1,782 — 
918 boys and 864 girls. It will be noticod that for the county as a 
whole there is a decided drop in the enrollment after the fourth grade. 
In 2 districts this drop is postponed until after the fifth grade, but 


in no cas^ is the enrollment kept up to the normal standard in the 1 

sixth and seventh grades. 




EDUCATIONAL CONDITIONS. 
Enrollment, by sex and by grades. 


45 


Luytonsville. . 
Clarkes burg. . , 

FoalesvlUe 

Rockville 

Coles ville 

Dames town... 

Betbesda 

* Olney 

Gaithersburg.. 

Potomac 

Barnesrille... 
Damascus. . . . 
Wheaton 


Total... 


I 

Male. 

i 

| Female. 

Total. 

61 

54 

115 

51 

49 

100 

123 

122 

344 

92 

61 

153 

96 

79 

175 

78 

69 

147 

0 

0 

0 

167 

174 

341 

81 

90 

171 

31 

28 

59 

63 

66 

129 

23 

20 

43 

53 

52 

106 

918 

864 | 

1,782 


Grades. 


First. Seoond. Third. Fourth. Fifth. Sixth. Seventh 


50 

45 

IX 

73 

68 

77 

0 

135 

M 


1 804 


354 


^ flnt *** PTOP "* A number 0f 


The total colored population of school ago is 3,090. Of this num- 
ber, according to the figures given, 57.6 per cent are enrolled in school. 
The average attendance is 1,087, or 36 per school, ..which is 60.9 per 
cent of enrollment and 35.1 per cent of the school population — 5. to 
20 years of age, inclusive. This means that only 35.1* per cent of the 
entire number of colored children of school age regularly attend 
school. 

There were only 4 organizat ions for pupils, 2 of which were literary 
societies and 2 temperance societies. They had a total membership 
of 160. 

Studies . — Tho length of the year's session is fixed by the county 
as 140 days. This term, it is generally felt by those in touch with 
the colored schools, is too short for satisfactory work to be accom- 
plished. In certain school districts enough money was raised locally, 
by private subscriptions, to keep- the schools open for 2 months 
longer. Tho average number of recitations held per day was 20 
per teacher, and the average length of the recitation period was 18 
minutes. TWfollowing table shows to what extent the 6 special 
subjects whicn we have previously mentioned were taught. The ' 
figures refer to the number of schools. 


Number of schools in which certain subjects att taught. 


Subjects. 

Not at all 

Little. 

Medium. 

Mach. 

Nature study 

90 

ft 



ZUemftntary agriculture 

94 

9 

A 

9 

0 

Domwtfo science 

91 

19 

m 

7 

a 

9 

0 

Mantel training 

9 

* 

0 

b 

Music •. 

13 

■ 1i 

m 

m 

Drawing 

19 

11 
• 1ft* 

1 

• . ■ — — « ' — 


15 , 

0 

0 


oonhooo 




46 EDUCATIONAL SUBVBT OF- MONTGOMERY COUNTY, MD. 

1 

Fair progress has been made in the work of introducing manual 
training and domestic science. The most interesting school in this 
respect is the Sharp Street Industrial School near Sandy Spring. 
This school offers complete courses in various forms of manual train- 
ing work and domestic science. The need of these courses and their 
practical value for the colored children are readily seen, and efforts 
are making to introduce the work generally throughout the county. 

In the spring ol 1912 an industrial exhibition for all colored schools 
was held at Sharp Street. The results showed that, all things con- 
sidered, in those schools in which industrial training is undertaken at 
all the work done is of a very high class. 

The school as a social center , — It is probably true that the colored 
school fills a larger place, socially, in the lives of its patrons and pupils 
than the white school does. More than half the schools reported 
public entertainments of some sort, such as concerts, special pro- 
grams arranged in celebration of holidays, etc. These were generally 
very well attended. 

IV. THE SCHOOL BUDGET. 


The total cost of the schools for the year 1911-12 was $105,807.95. 
Of this amount $78,897.01 was spent directly on schools for white 
children and $6,158.41 on schools for negroes, as follows: 


Expenditures for schools. 
-S_ 


Items. * 

White 

schools. 

! Negro 
schools. 

fuel 

S3, 045. 23 
714,70 
58,942.80 
6,509.43 
2, 075. 38 
4, 51 1 . (X) 

*626.05 

39.40 

4,728.30 

105.98 

105.62 

462.00 

Apparatus and furniture 

Teachers' salaries 

New buildings and repairs ■ 

Sanitary expenses ana Incidentals 

Cost of books. 

% * 

Total expenses ...... 

78,897.01 

0,158. 41 





__j^ 


The statement of receipts and disbursements for the year ended 
July 31, 1912, given by the county school commissioners, is as follows: 

Receipts, . 

Balance on hand July 31, 1911 $2, 540. 28 

State school tax ", 31, 237. 07 

State free-echool fund 2, 297. 76 

County school tax , 37, 600. 00 

Interest on deposits .86 

High-school fund. v . . . 6, 600. 00 

Sales of books *. . 58. 00 

Library fund . 10. 00 

Brookeville fund «. 600. 00 

freed>ookfund..... 4, 139.06 

Cfelaredthgustrial fund. 1, 500. 00 

Sale of abandoned schools (Spencerville, $310; Old German to yen, $75).' . . 385.00 

jptoewd* ..of notes. ....................... . . ^ 13, 500.00 


EDUCATIONAL CONDITIONS. * € 47 

.Tuition fees received from adjoining counties ^ ^ 

Dameetpwn fund. ............. 

Anticipation county commissioners in non nn 

Refund 1 r ; AO, 000.00 

Sale of coal (1-4, »63; 1-9, $38.90)..: ” 

Sale from agriculture department 

D».UK8,«KTB. 

S:::;.:::::::: t 887 - 50 

JSiS 

Apparatus and furniture 7S4 

Teachers’ salaries ! i” ! ! ! ! . . ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ; ; ; ;; 63, 67 h 10 

New budding. : !, 473.99 

San, Ury cost* 301.58 

1 ncidentala ;; x m i2 

Kindergarten and manual training 1*671*09 

Office expenses " ..**.*'* * 150 5*’ * 

Salaries of secretary, treasurer, and county superintendent i 400 00 

Salary of assistant ’ ^ ^ 

Salaries of school commissioners ^ 00 

Commissioners’ incidentals 44 94 

Tuition fees paid to adjoining counties t 50 

Colored industrial department j 785 79 

Commencement exercises * 50 00 

Discount and interest 1 352 15 

Superintendent's traveling expenses t ’ 250 0 

Agricultural depffrtna^t 1 224 72 

Commercial-course expenses / i Q o tt 

Record books ’ « m 

^ ntin *- • •. 

Domestic science Q1Q 

™r n r ng 154.75 

Freight and drayage 268 64 

Term reports co 1E 

.. , . to . 10 

stamps and stationery ^ ^ 

l nsurance * * * 398 ' 2g 

Expenses of institutes 3 22 42 

Furniture to schools j j2i 31 

Expenses of State and county aaeociation .... .< V 156 00 

Free books and distribution 4 989 72 

School libraries ; * * ’ 35 

Examinations 1Q1 

A lol. 45 

Auditing accounts . go ^ 

Teachers’ registers.... 45 00 

Attorney’* fee*'. !. 30/00 

Bonds, . 90.00 

School supplies * 447* 07 

Notes paid 7 000.00 

Balance cash o^hand, July 31, 1912. .*’* 5^464.92 

' : 

- : ^ 111, 272. 87 

1 Armour Qo^WM; W. J. C. Dalaoy Co., O&ofpts; WpoW* trxmm, m77; • 



46 


EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF MONTGOMERY COUNTY, MD. 


The total amount raised during the year, excluding the balance on 
hand at the beginning, was $108,732.59. This money came from 
the following sources: 

Percent. 

From the State * ■*••• *-♦- .. ..... 42. 0 

'• 8tate school tax 28.7 

State free-achool fund . - * - * * 2. 1 

Iligh-echool fund . . 6. 0 

Free-book fund 3.8 

Colored industrial fund. 1- 4 

From local sources: 

County school tax — ......... . - 34. 5 

Proceeds of notes — , * • ■ * - ■ - - * 12. 1 

Loans in anticipation of the county commissioners. 9- 2 

Other sources.. -* 19 

100. 0 

The expenditures grouped under the general headings used by the 
United States Bureau of Education in classifying school expendi- 
tures are as follows: 

i Percent. 

I. Genetalfcontrol (school board, superintendent and office expenses). it 9 

II. Instruction: 

Salari^^f teachers GO. 0 

Textbobks, stationery, supplies. * - - - - lb 9 

III. Operation and maintenance of school plant (fuel, repairs, etc.)... • 11. 8 

IV. Miscellaneous 4 - 5 

V. Liquidation of debts (bonds, loans, etc.) 0. 6 

VI. Interest on indebtedness.. 3 

Data for 1911-12 showing the amount expended in each election 
district were not available at the time of this survey. The figures 
foT 1910-11 were obtained, and are as follows: 

Expenditures for schools for whites and for colored 


1 


Election districts. 

White schools. 

Colored schools. , 

All Schools, 

grand 

total. 

Salaries. 

Apparatus, 
new build- 
ings and 
repairs. 

Fuel and 
Inci- 
dentals. 

Total. 

Salaries. 
_L. 

Total. 

LaytomviUe 

Clarksburg 

Toolaiville 

Rockville 

CofesvUta 

Darneslown 

Betbeada 

Olney 

QaJtnqrsburg 

Potomac 

Baraesvtlto 

Damascus 

Wheaton 

K 152. 50 
4,551.58 
2.675. 10 
7,002.60 
3,313-48 
3,663.73 
2,579. 15 
5,434.55 
5,531.80 
2,331.30 
2,978.13 
4, 18h 75 
7, 181.08 < 

*31.00 
158.00 
1.085.35 
1,413.03 
5,166.02 
224.06 
10.75 
623.79 
8,717.96 
33.46 
49.65 
4,776.79 
, 991.81 

*253.23 
1,139.31 
373 39 
486.60 
323.57 
180.59 
147.48 
569.79 
462.04 
187.02 
209.88 
173.00 
732.24 

*4,678.73 
5,411.54 
4,274.84 
11,528.63 
9,045.07 
4,299.36 
2,881.38 
8,300. 13 
15,215.23 
2,76178 
8,456.46 
9, 409. 78 
10.319.77 

*450.80 

324.40 
499.20 

490.00 
457.89 
673.50 

0.00 

1,599.50 

479.00 

183.40 

844.00 
*144. 00 

317.00 

*526.81 
406. 47 
601.52 
587.27 
005.85 
701.87 
0.00 
3,064,82 
687.81 
196.50 
476. 14 
194.62 
398.40 

*5,206.54 
5,818. 01 
4,274.84 
11,528,53 » 
0,045.07 
4,299.86 
2,881.38 
11,364.96 
15,903.04 
2,958.24 
3.031. 69 
5! 694.36 
10,718. 17 


56,381.64 

23,270.55 

5,220.25 

99,771 69 

6,862.69 

8,448.08 

108, 219c67 


; ry 










BUREAU OF EDUCATION 


BULLETIN. 1913. NO. 32 PLATE 6 




A. GAITHERSBURG HIGH SCHOOL. 




B. POOLESVILLE CONSOLIDATED SCHOOL. 







BUREAU OF EDUCATION 


BULLETIN, 1913, NO. 32 PLATE 7 




EDUCATIONAL CONDITIONS. 49 

The total expenditure for the county for 1910-11, based on the 
Average daily attendance, and including the expenditure for new 
buildings, amounted to $37.83 per white pupil and $7.77 per colored 
pupil per year. The money spent for supervision, office expenses, 
etc., divided equally among all pupils, colored and white alike, 
assuming that each shares equally in advantages which it purchases, 
would be $2.72 per pupil. This would make the total average cost 
of education for each white pupil in average daily, attendance $40.55. 
The annual expense for each colored pupil, figured in this way, would 
be $10.49 per year. The following table gives, by election districts, 
the average cost for white and colored pupils. The variation between 
districts is partly accounted for by the difference in the amount spent 
lust year for now buildings andr repairs upon the schools of certain 
districts. 

Cost of schools ,i>cr capita of average attendance. 


Klee (ion districts. 




White 

pupils. 

Colored 

pupils. 

Lay tons v llle 




! *31.77 

*9.22 

Clarksburg 





24. 99 

a 14 

PoolesvlUo. A 




31.09 

7.34 

Rockville 




• 31.68 

8.96 

ColasviUo 




; 75. 08 

9.09 

Dameslown 




i 30.28 

10. 18 

Bethesda 




1 20.33 

No schools. 

OUioy 




; 36.45 

18.91 

Gaithersburg * 




! *76.38 

8.59 

1’otomac 




91. 1© 

7.61 

Barnes vllle 




32.00 

7.89 

Damascus 




47.94 

16.62 

Wheaton 




, 31.23 

8.75 

Average, entire county 




1 40.55 

10.49 


If the cost of the new buildings is omitted, the total cost per white 
child amounted to $30.90. This, including the $2.72 for administra- 
tion, amounts to $33.02. The white schools cost, therefore, for main- 
tenance more than three times as much per pupil as the negro schools. 
Including the cost of new buildings, the county expended 3.87 as 
much on every white cliild in average daily attendance as on every 
negro child. ^ 

V. PRIVATE EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS. 

There are six private educational institut^uis in the county — the 
Rockville Academy; Miss Simpson’s PrimarwScliool, at Rockville; 
the Bliss Electrical School; at Takoma Park; rfie Chevy Chase College 
and Seminary; the National Park Seminary^ at Forest Glen; and the 
Washington Foreign Missionary Seminary, at Takoma Park. Only, 
the first two and the last have direct local importance. The 
.Rockville Academy was established over TOO years ago and has been 
maintained continuously ever since. ItSvas one of ft group of four 
*6359°— 13 — -4 


I 


50 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY' OF MONTGOMERY COUNTY, MD. 

V 

academies, of which the other three— the Darnestown Academy, tbm 
Brookeville Academy, and the Sherwood School, at Sandy Spring — 
have been taken over by the county and made" part of the public 
school system. The Rockville Academy, however, continues as a 
private institution. It has practically the same course as* the public 
schools, beginning with the sixth grade and continuing through the 
high school. It has a well-equipped brick building with fine grounds. 
The enrollment last year was about 40. The faculty consists of two 
men. Its pupils are drawn from Rockville and vicinity, all living iii 
the county. Miss Simpson's school has an average enrollment of 
about 20, all from Rockville. The school is held in a private home, 
which is, however, very conveniently arranged. 

The Washington Foreign Missionary Seminary is the only other 
school which draws pupils from within the county. This is a training 
school for candidates for the foreign mission field, and is operated by 
the Seventh Day Adventist denomination in connection with a large 
sanitarium at Takoma Park. Academic work of high-school grade 
is offered, and a number of pupils from the town of Tukoma Park are 
enrolled in the school.. The number, however, is never very great. 
The majority of the students come from other States. The equipment 
of the school is very complete, and its grounds are beautifully arranged. 

The Bliss Electrical School offers a one-year course im^alectrical 
engineering and similar subjects. It has two buildings, with class- 
rooms and laboratories and several dormitories. It has a faculty of 
seven. The graduating class of 1911 numbered 104. It had in 1912 
no pupils from Montgomery County or from the State* of Maryland 
The two girls' seminaries in the county draw nearly all their students 
from other localities. They have considerable influence upon the 
social and educational life of their respective neighborhoods and have 
some economic significance in .that they furnish employment for a 
considerate number of residents. Otherwise they are; not locally 
important. Each school ha§ beautiful grounds and splendid build- 
ings. * • . 




v 







Chapter III. 

PATRONS OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 


In order to estimate t\je significance of the public- school system 
(1 to place tile proper value upon the work which it is doing, it is 
necessary to ascertain what place it actually fills in the life of the 
community. The first stop toward this end is to consider the schools 
objectively, i. c., to investigate the material equipment, tlvo teaching 
force, the enrollment and attendance, and all the various activities 
of each individual school. The second step is to study the attitude 
of the people toward the schools in order that a correct understanding 
may be had of what the schools mean to the people. The latter study 
was tmdertaken. The inquiry was made for the following purposes: 

(а) To determine whether in the opinion of the school patrons the 
schools as actually operated were serving their respective communities 
in a satisfactory manner. 

(б) To determine what the patrons consider to be the principal 
weaknesses of the local schools, and of the general school system of the 
county. 

(c) To obtain suggestions from the patrons for school improvement. 

( d ) To secure statements expressing their attitude toward the 
adoption off ^policy of consolidation of schools with the transporta- 
tion of pupils at public expense. 

( e ) To secure information relative to the general temper and atti- 
tude of the people of the county toward education. / 

The study was made in the following maimer: In the course of 
the general survey of the county, investigators discussed various 
phases of the* school question both privately, with representative 
men and women, and publicly at meetings of farmers' clubs and similar 
organizations. In addition to this, a questionnaire was prepared 
and sufficient copies were sent by the county superintendent of schools 
to all the public-school teachers in the county, so that they might 
obtain from the heads of families in their districts written answers to 
the six more or less pertinent questions on the blanks. These ques- 
tions were as follows: \ * 

1. What, in your opinidn, are the principal weaknesses of the country school? 

2. Do the schools need a different course of study? ' & 

3. HoV may they serve the community other than as an ordinary day schooMr 

children? * ■ . 

4. Do you think consolidation of schools and the transportation of pupils in school 

wagons feasible? ' 

5. Are the schools os they are now operated satisfactorily progressive? ^ 

8. What would you suggest tq improve them? 



.51. 




BeB 


* 

52 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF MONTGOMERY COUNTY, MD. # 

The total number of public-school patrons in the county was roughly + 
estimated as about 2,800, of which number 2,000 were patrons of 
white schools and 800 of the colored schools. Both groups were 
included in the investigation, Abotit 2,00CTblanks were distributed 
and about 700 were returned filled. The investigators labored under 
no delusion as to the efficacy of the questionnaire method to finally 
exhaust any subject. They appreciated thoroughly the danger of . 
trusting too implicitly in the accuracy and value of answers to sfet 
questions asked in this fashion. Also they realized that the number 
of blanks returned was hardly a sufficient proportion of the whole 
number to form ar safe basis for any very definite final conclusions. 
The answers, however, seemed quite representative. They came 
from all classes and conditions of people, and represented all degrees 
of education and general enlightenment. Moreover, though differing 
widely from each other in many particulars and including many shades 
4 Mid varieties of opinion, th< 
running through them all. 


uy pa 


, < 4 Mid varieties of opinion, there tee yet certain general lines of cleavage 



As a result, then, of the two lines of inquiry followed, certain con- 
clusions seem safely established. First, In relation to the white 
schools, it is apparent that on the whole the county has pride in its 
present school system and is satisfied that its present administration 
is making substantial progress along the right lines. Fifteen per cent 
of the patrons answering offered no criticisms at all, favorable or 
otherwise. Sixty-five per cent stated that they considered the schools ' 
satisfactorily progressive and gave reasons for their belief. Many 
others indorsed the school administration, but included adverse 
criticisms anS^uggestions for improvement. 

The chief criticisms advanced were aimed, not so much at the 
method of conducting particular schools or at any particular points 
in the methods of supervision and genera^ administration practices 
in the county, as at the wKoh principle invoiced in such a school system. 
Implicitly and explicitly the one-room one- teacher school was 
attacked. Certain weaknesses of the schools which exist principally 
in such schools were clearly indicated. Certain remedies involving 
fundamentally & departure from such schools were advocated , Yet 
it was evidently not often clear in the minds of the writers where the 
remedy for the defects which they pointed out must inevitably lead,* 
or what sort of a reconstruction the reforms which they suggested 
would make necessary. 

Approximately 75 per cent of the ansWers received are covered in 
effect by the following criticisms: 

(1) There are too few teachers for the amount off work to be cov- 
ered. Each teacher is compelled to teach too many grades. 

(2) The^common branches are not taught with sufficient thorough- 
ness, and yet the "special branches of particular value to country v 




PATBONS OP THE PT7BI.IC SCHOOLS. fig 

) * . 

(3) There is no room in the curriculum for specialization, nor 
would the teachers b£ able to prepare themselves for it if there were. 

(4) The salaries are too low, and in consequence there are too many 
relatively inefficient, poorly trained teachers. 

(5) There is no proper inducement for highly trained men and 
women, desirous of making teaching a life work rather than a tem- 
porary means of gaining a livelihood, to devote themselves to the 
work of education in the country. 

(6) The buildings and equipment are not always up to the stand- 
ard, and the rooms are frequently overcrowded. 

(7) The work te not carried far enough in those schools upon which 
a majority of the pupils are dependent. In many sections pupils 
desiring work beyond the seven or eight grade? 'offered in the one- 
room schools must travel away from home to obtain it. The children 
of poorer families are not able to go away from home to school, con- 
sequently their education is brought to a premature close. 

The attendance of pupils, particularly of the younger pupils, is very 
irregular whenever weather and roads are bad, and consequently 
satisfactory results are hard to obtain. These are all conditions 
which would be in large measure eliminated by closing the small 
schools and providing educational opportunities in a single school 
centrally located. * * 

The demand for more highly specialized courses of study was 
particularly insistent. There was a widespread feeling expressed 
that the country schools do not prepare adequately for country life. 
Suggestions which found many supporters had to do with the intro- 
duction of classes in agriculture and nature study, in domestic science / 
and, jnanual training, and in the principles of business procedure. 
Such courses are already given successfully in a number of the schools 
of the county. Other districts wish the same advantages. As one 
instance of this feeling, a recent meeting of the Goshen Farmers’ 
Club may bfe "cited. • For five hours the following proposition was 
discussed: A large sum of money is now raised by taxation in Mont- 
gomery County for the support of the Maryland, Agricultural College; 
is Montgomery County getting the largest possible return for the 
mofiey spent, or might not a larger return be received if the money 
were used in the county for teaching the principles of agriculture in 
the public schools? The 30 representative farmers present finally 
puf themselves on record as in. favor of the following prepositions: 
That the principles of scientific agriculture by all means ought to be 
taught to country children; that the propeV medium for this is the 
public school; that, therefore, such courses ought to be established ip» 
every school; and, finally, that the money hbsw raised for the; support 
qjpjthe agricultural college would produce hotter. results if used to 
teach agriculture in. the public fchools.* At ^ meeting of the jMont- 


&4 EDUCATIONAL 8UBVEY OP MONTGOMBBY COUNTY, MD. 

the general support of those present. This indicates the attitude 
of the progressive and thinking -farmers throughout the county. 
They are ready to have the ordinary branches of study supplemented 
by these special branches, but do not recognize the difficulties in 
securing instruction in these subjects as long as the school system 
contains so many isolated one-teaeheF schools. 

All the defects in the schools which are mentioned by the patrons 
^ are inherent in a system of separate one-room schools. The condition 
is one which the school administration is helpless to remedy, unless 
public sentiment will support a sweeping policy of reconstruction 
and reform. The school administration is dependent upon the 
sentiment of the people, not only to furnish adequate funds but also 
for moral support. Both of these must be forthcoming in larger 
quantities before any fundamental reconstruction can take place. 

There are two ways to remedy the conditions. One way wpuld be 
to decrease the present number of schools, making each school at 
least a two^room, graded school, equipped with modern appliances; 
to increase the salaries paid teachers, thus attracting to these schools 
trained, efficient men and women ; and in addition to provide special- 
ists to teach the various branches of agriculture, domestic science, 
manual training, business, music, and drawing in each and every ' 
school. 

The other way is to abolish as rapidly as. possible the crossroads 
one-room school, with its one poorly paid teacher Sniggling to teach 
30 or more pupils in seven or eight different grades, and to establish at 
' convenient centers consolidated or centralized schools,. Grades of 
high-school rank could be added to every such school, and teachers 
with special training for agriculture and domestic science be provided 
to teach those subjects no 4 w almost necessarily omitted from the 
curriculum. Public transportation could be provided for the pupils, 
thus doing away with irregular attendance on account of bad weather 
and poor roads. However, the people in those districts which suffer’ 
most under the present ’ system are not yet ready to indorse the 
establishment of consolidated schools. The opinions among all the 
school patrons as expressed in the returns to the questionnaire were 
two to one against consolidation with public transportation of 
pupils. 

jt is not the purpose here to attempt to include a discussion of 
consolidation. A brief statement only wilL be given to point out 
that in a consolidated school it is quite possible^ Remedy the defects ^ 
and meet the demands cautioned by the school patrohs; to. broaden 
the curriculum, increase the number of grades, and at the same time 
^aiae the standard of teaching efficiency Sesra^ thousand comBoli- 
%tc4 schools the United State testify to tfe numm* ©I the plan. 

no| pN^bitive, im ejpf&se ef j uch ».agho4> but 




PATRONS OP THB PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 5g 

little, if any, more than the expense of maintainmg the&Shools which 
it displaces. The Baltimore County Agricultural High Scflpol, a con- 
solidated school with a high-school department, provides training 
of the mind and couples with it an extensive and varied service to the 
community as a whole at a total cost per year ol only $34 per pupil. 

, The schools in Montgomery County cost $40.55 per pupil. In the 
strictly rural schools the cost is at least $30. 

Tho question of consolidation is a point on which there needs to be 
much public education. The term “education” is -used advisedly, 
f At tho present time, judging from the results of the inquiry, the term 
“consolidation” is entirely misunderstood by a great many who 
oppose it in Montgomery County. Many fear that public transporta- 
tion of school children would never be satisfactory because attended 
by such grave moral dangers to the children or because they would 
j l>e subjected to exposure while waiting for the wagon. These diffi- 
culties have not^beon found insurmountable where children are 
transported. As evidence that many did not understand what was 
involved in thequery regarding thoir opinion of consolidation included 
~in the inquiry a fow answers might be quoted. One man replied: 
“1 did not know that the schools had a wagon in them to -transfer 
tho pupils to the different rooms:” Another wrote: “No; the chil- 
dren are away from home too long as it is." A third declared that 
he “did not" think it right for the school children to hang on the 
wagons passing along «tbc road.” t . 


Aside from these, 'other interesting criticisms wore made louching 
points more easily dealt with. For examplo, many asserted the chief 
weakness of the schools to be in the lack of intelligent cooperation on 
the part of parents and trustees. They asserted that a teacher could 
not be expected to conduct a school to the entire satisfaction of a 
community unless she had such cooperation from the patrons and 
the board of trusteos. OtherS"pointed out defects in ventilation, or 
lighting, or sanitary conveniences, or expressed regret at tho lack of 
proper playgrounds, recreational facilities, and attractive surround- 
ings. These things thoy considered an important part of the school’s 
equipment. Still- others very properly advocated the elimination of 
politics from the school system. One wrote in language that deserves 
to beoome classic: “I respectfully suggest that the school secures a 
divorce from poli' ldjtees to it that politics gets a life sentonbe at 
hard labor.” • S > 

Others suggested a compulsory school-attendance law. 1 A^more 
uniform apd careful grading of the schools to facilitate passage from 
one school to another in case of removal; some System of moral train- 
ing; faeililjge for giving proper attention to deficient and backward 
children are all points deserving careful consideration. 

j?* *** * la ? e I *** 1 by tta Suw lagUtnu* tnd buoapt Utwttoiii itoopaau^OouiT 

.ms w'**,-;-- ,.:o •; '=■. 


56 


EDUCATIONAL 8UBVEY OF MONTOOMERV COUNTY, MD. 


The question as to whether the school could serve the community 
other than as an ordinary day school for children was asked in view 
of the possibility of making the school something of a neighborhood 
center, ministering to the community as a whole as well as dispensing 
elementary knowledge to its youth. Many of the answers anticipated 
this conception of tho school’s possible function. “Make it a social 
and civic center” was frequently suggested. “Make it a place where 
the school patrons may meet both formally and informally to discuss 
questions of mutual interest and import.” Few of tlft schools are at 
present doing anything of this sort for their patrons, but .this is a 
field possible of extensivo development, which should materially 
to the school’s value to a community. 

By the fifth question, “Are tho schools as tf&y 'are now operated 
satisfactorily progressive?” it was desired to learn if the peoplo felt 
that ‘the school administration has boon making -sufficiently substan- 
tial progress in adapting the schools to changing conditions and in 
keeping up with modern ideas of school administration, equipment, 
and teaching methods. Of course it was discovered that there are 
some who have no conception of progress, either of its nature or of 
its reason for being; who feel, as one expressed it; “that wo have the 
same old arithmetic, a geography describing the sarao territories, and 
the same methods of spelling; why should the school be progressive?” 
Why, indood! “Tho school is good enough as it is, so let it be.” For 
tho most part, however, tho attitude of the patrons was that prog- 
ress is necessary and that the schools have been making it to a satis- 
factory degress, and that, taking everything into account, they are 
doing all that can reasonably be expected of them. 

Taking the county over, it is undoubtedly true that the patrons 
are not sufficiently impressed with their responsibility toward the 
•school. It has already been remarked that, the school provides the 
community, in its present state of organization, with its ono groat 
Opportunity to act as a unit. In their religious life they are split up 
into denominations and factions; in their struggle for economic ad- 
vancement they are working as individuals and not as a group. But 
the school is tho property of the whole community and furnishes 
practically its cmly opportunity for concerted action. The people 
have, however, almost uniformly failod to grasp tho full significance 
of this opportunity and have hampered the school administration, 
sometimes by their total indifference, sometimes by active criticism 
and opposition to progressive policies, and always by not giving them 
s sufficient funds to carry out their plans. Several happy exceptipns 
are to be recorded. The Sandy Spring school was recently remodeled 
and the Woodside school was built with a large amount of local help. 
These two schools especially are receiving tho intelligent and able 




PATRONS OF THE* PUBLIC SC 


iZl 


OOL8. 



The situation as regards the attitude of the colored patrons is more ' i 
simple. Little needs to bo said, but that little may'be said with 
emphasis. The same opinions were uniformly expressed by intelli- 
gent and ignorant alike, by preacher and layman, by teacher and 
patron, 'these all said in substance: “Give us a longer school term; 
give us better school buildings and equipment; pay our teachers more 
nearly adequate salaries; add to the curriculum courses in manual 
training and domestic science and extend the course of study through 
the eighth grade/’ 

Three ways were suggested by which the schools might enter upon 
a larger service for the colored population. These were to conduct, 
a night school for those who had been compelled to leave school early, 
to have classes in domestic science and industrial training out of 
C school hours for any of the patrons who felt the need of instruction 
along thoso lines, and, lastly, to make of each school a social and civic 
center. As to the progressivencss of the schools, the opinion was 
about evenly divided. * 

In general, it must bo said that the patrons of the negro schools .1 

display a most commendable interest in their welfare and progress. | 

As we havo said before, in several instances they are raising funds and t 
keeping the schools open two months longer than they would be other- 
wise. In other respects they aro for the most part ready to assist the { 
teachers and respond gratefully to their influence. 



i 


| 



r 








Chapter IV. 

GENERAL SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS. 

In this discussion of the educational conditions attention ha a been 
c&llod to what appear to be defects in the public-school system ; 
in the buildings and equipment, in the management, or in the general 
policy of administration. A model county demands a model school 
system. The existing school system has been compared with the 
ideal. The comparison may create an impression that the schools 
of Montgomery County are not as adequate and efficient as the 
schools of the State as a whole. This is not true. Montgomery- 
County schools compare very favorably with those of the other 
counties of Maryland. However, they, with the o there, fall short 
of the ideal of the school system necessary if the country children 
are to receive equal educational opportunities with those of the best 
American cities. 

Bumming up conditions, the chief weaknesses noted are as follows: 
The preponderance of one-room schools and the absence of con- 
solidation; defective methods of lighting, heating, ventilation, and 
of seating pupils; the lack of organizations for pupils and of recre- 
ation facilities; the low proportion of children of school age enrolled 
or in regular attendance; tho slight attention paid to the beautifying 
of the surroundings of the school buildings; and the absence from 
the curriculum of studies preparing for country life. Over against 
these weaknesses we must cite ether and very important sources of 
strength: Direct and capable supervision; uniform grading; a suffi- 
cient number of buildings in good repair; a teaching forco experi- 
enced, relatively stable, and efficient; a fair beginning of introducing 
into the curriculum those subjects most closely adapted to rural 
needs; and a number df high schools which in equipment and in 
the grade of work done are well above the average for similar 
communities. A » 

In view of the facts brought to light by the study, several recom- 
mendations are offered : « 

Orgammt&on and supervision. — The management of the schools of 
Montgomery County, as in all Maryland ^counties, is centralized in 
the hands of one board of education. §ych a system is known as 
the ^county system ’ 1 of organization and is probably the most 
efficient and economical of all systems for rural schools in the* United 
St Only four otfep State are so organized. Under this 





» * 




GENERAL SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS. 


5» 


ii 


system are provided tho best opportunities to promote the educa- 
tional interests of the entire county. Under no other form of 
organization has such rapid development taken place in rural school 
affairs, except under the township organization as found in New 
England and in a few other States. The township system, however, 
has proven especially efficient only in thickly settled sections. Any 
system to be effective must have at the head of its school affairs a 
board of education composed of capablo persons who will perform 
their duties for the best interests of the schools and the communities, 
regardless of the ‘demands of political party affiliations. The Mont^ 
gomery County board is unquestionably composed of capable men, 
and in the management^ school affairs it seems to be free from 
political influence.. 

Tho school system of the county is weak in the amount of super- 
vision given the teacher in her work both in managing the school 
and in teaching. Expert supervision is given by but one person — the 
county superintendent and ho must divido his time between work 
as an agent of the county board in the jqrianagement of the school 
affairs of the county and as a supervisor of the teachers and their 
work. 1 The county includes approximately 521 square miles of 
territory, with 106 separate school buildings distributed quite evenly 
over the entiro county. There are 162 teachers. Under such condi- 
tions little porsonal supervision is possible. The school yoar js 
approximately 180 days in length, the school”* being in session 5$ 
hours per day, or a total of 990 hours in the entire year. If the 
county superintendent could spend this entire 990 hours in the 
schools while classes were, reciting, he could give but 9 hours to 
each building during; the entire year and but 6 hours to each teacher. 
In actual practice he can not devote more than one-half of his time 
to visiting schools, and part of this time is consumed in driving 
from onp school to another. 

_ Contrast this condition with tho amount of supervision in the 
city of Baltimore. Iii 1910 there wore 58 supervisory officers 
devoting half or more than half of their time to supervising the 
work of tho 1,778 teachers employed. And the city was criticized in 
"The Report of the Commission Appointed to Study the System of 
Education in the Public Schools of Baltimore” because the super- 
vision was considered by tho experts who made the study inadequate 
in amount ! Baltimore had but ono such supervisor ' for every 32 
tqaghers, whilo the average for the 18. largest cities in the United 
States that year was one for every 19 teachers. It is on account of - 
this supervision in city systems, that thp great progress has been, 
made in city, schools and for the lack of it that the country schools 
h»ve failed to keep pace. In every business enterprise but public 

Tlw coMfrtf raptrtnteailtat Ma momo» a«ht*at bait it« r.c: 

' ^ v * " ' : V-' 

MM? 


A, 

ijJ- ■ 




y 



60 EDUCATIONAL BUBVEY OF MONTGOMERY COUNTY, MD. 




education it is recognized that tp obtain the best results supervision 
from bottom to top is essential. 

With the present number and distribution of schools Montgomery 
County should employ at least 3 assistant superintendents, who would 
devote their entire time to supervising the work of the teachers. 
This would give 1 to every 35 schools, or 1 to every 54 teachers. The 
amount of supervision would still be inadequate, but would be a 
vast improvement over the present amount. These assistants should 
be under the direct authority of the county superintendent. Kach 
should be assigned a definite part of the county, so that they would 
come to know their schools and their patrons, and could acquire 
close, definite information relative to their district, not only as 
regards educational affairs, but all interests of the community. It 
is only when in possession of such knowledge that it is possible for 
the supervisors to so direct the schools and their work that they 
would fill more nearly the place which the country schools should 
occupy in their communities. 

Other counties in Maryland are seeing the necessity of assisting 
the county superintendent in his field work. Four are now employ- 
ing assistant superintendents to visit schools and assist and supervise 
their work; four employ from one to six special supervisors,' such as 
a “primary supervisor/’ “rural school supervisor,” etc. 

The course of study . — 1 The curriculum of the schools of Montgomery 
County includes little but the common branches which have been 
taught in country and city schools for the past decade. A readjust- 
ment is desirable, so that the studies pursued would be more closely 
correlated with the life and interests of the community. More time 
and attention should be given to instruction in elementary agriculture, 
domestic science, manual training, music and drawing, and the com- 
mon branches should be taught in terms of these subjects. It is 
realized, of course, that the ordinary country teacher herself can not 
do much to bring about tliis readjustment, on account of lack of 
training and lack of information relative to how the readjustment 
may be effected. The county superintendent alone, with the mani- 
fold duties thrust upon him, can do but Little. Such readjustment 
and redirection of the work of the schools can be accomplished sat- 
isfactorily only by a county superintendent assisted by several 
supervising officers working under his authority and direction, who 
can direct and aid the teachers in the introduction of work in these 
newer subjects and in establishing the proper balance and relation- 
ship between them and the older subjects. The problem is greater 
than the mere addition of new studies to the curriculum. Under 
present conditions the average teacher in the one-teacher country 
school conducts about 26 recitations per day of 'approximately 12 
minutes m Jeiigth. There is ho time for additional classes. The 




GENERAL SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS. 


61 


new subjects must be taught by means of and through other subjects 
already in the curriculum in place of useless portions now included. 
Such being the case, the necessity of expert supervision is made all 
the greater. 

Number of schools. The number of schools contained in the 
county, from the standpoint of efficiency and economy, is too great. 
There are 69 elementary schools for white children/ or one for every 
7i square miles of territory. This means that, if the schools were 
symmetrically distributed, no part of the county would be more than 
2 miles from a school, 90 per cent of the territory would be within 1 J 
miles, and 42 per cent within 1 mile. -If the number of schools for 
white diiidren should be decreased to 35, there would be one school 
for every 15 square miles. If the schools should be'located at the 
center of squares 15 square miles in area, or less than 4 miles on a 
side, One-fifth of the territory would be within 1 mile of the school, 
four-fifths within 2 miles, and the farthest point would bo but 2.8 
miles from the building. By a proper arrangement taking into con- 
sideration the geograpliical features of the country and the location 
of the population, the 35 schools could be so placed that approxi- 
, mate ly per cent of the school children w r ould live within 2 ‘miles 
of a school and at least 60 p«* cent within 1 mile. Under such condi- 
tions transportation at public expanse would be necessary only on 
exceptional days, as the children W,ould be within walking distance. 
While it might not be possible to extend the area for each school to 
15 square miles, there are nig/iy sections where consolidation with 
transportation of pupils at public expense is antirely. practicable and 
where the school might serve an area of 25 square miles. 

Decreasing the number of schools would not lessen the number of 
teachers in the county to any great extent, as the number of pppils to' 
each teacher under present conditions is liigh. It would, however, 
increase the size of each school to two or thred^teacher schools with 
enough pupjls to permit a classification In such a way that the effi- 
ciency of the teaching would be doubled or trebled. It would allow 
also adequate expert supervision at a comparatively # small cost and 
would decrease the cost of maintenance appreciably. It would mean 
a much more efficient school service it about the present outlay. 

On the whole the white schools of Montgomery County may be 
said to rank high in the excellence of their work in comparison with 
other county systems. The same may be said about^the negro 
schools,/ although they are relatively inefficient as competed to the 
white schools of the county *nd are poorly housed, equipped, and sup- 
ported. It is probably true that tlie county is expending upon the 
negro schools an amount as great as is paid by the negro population 
in direct taxes. It is becoming a recognized principle of economy,' 
however, that the responsibility of a city, county, or State to its 


62 EDUCATIONAL SUBVEY^OF MONTGOMERY COUNTY, MD. 

people or to any part of them for the beet interests of all the people 
in the political unit can not be measured in terms of the direct taxes 
paid. 

The criticism made relative to the lack of supervision and to the over- 
abundance of small schools \yould apply equally as well to the larger 
number of counties in the majority of States in the Union. From 
the 2,000 inquiries made during the recent | survey of the county a 
general appreciation of these two needs seems to exist. 

In concluding this discussion of the educational conditions, the 
investigators desire to express their appreciation of the kindness of 
all those whose assistance made the survey possible. In particular 
they are indebted to the teachers in the public schools, who all 
cooperated with them in the work, and to Mr. Earle B. Wood, the 
county superintendent of schools, who riot only extended even 
personal courtesy, but also assisted the progress of the investigation 
in every way possible. 

w 


» 




APPENDIX. 

Table No. 1. flow the value of farm property it di$tributed. 

Land in 1910 .... 

Land in 1(H) 

Buildings in 1910 

Buildings In 1900. . . „ ; 

Implements ami machinery In 1910 

Implements and machinery in 1900 * 

Domestic animate, poultry, etc., in 1910 . . /*•••• 


Domestic animate, poultry, etc.', In 1900 
‘ e of aU property (1910) in 


Per crnt of value c 
Land 

Building* x ’ 

Implements and machinery 

Domestic animals, poultry, etc 

Average values (number of all farms, 2 442) 

A U property per farm ... 


Land and buildings per farm 
~-* 1 ■ ^ _ 


Equipment and stock 


$12, 678,27s 
0, 401,930 
A, 163,580 
3,525,170 
-* 733,843 
*576,010 
2,282,768 
1,486, 568 \ 

60.8 

24.8 
3.5 

10.9 

$8,542 

7,306 

1,236 


Table No. 2. —flow the laud it held— Size of farms. 


Site of farms. 

* 

• 

Per cent of 
all farms 
operated 
by while 
farmers. 

Per cent of 
all farms 
operated 
bv colored 
farmers. 

19 acres or lew 




20-49 acres 

50-99 acres 

100-174 acres 


■ 1 7. 67' 

13.4 

18.2 

69.3 

■ 16.0 

6.6 

175-259 acres. . .... . . 

960-499 acres 

500-999 acres 

:::::::::: ::: i 

24. 46 

13.23 

11.61 

1.33 

5.4 

1.7 

.9 


i 

'*"* 


Table No. 3.— flow (A/ land is held— Kind of tenure. 



Per cent of all farms 
operated by— 

White. 

Colored. 

Owoere 

68.7 
.1 

5.8 

21.7 
3.7 

7i.i 

.$ 

7.4 

10.4 

l.t 

Part owner — 

Tenants 

uviWiilvUt * , ■*#**#..•*•*» 


Table No. 4>— The age of farmers. 


> ^ 

Ages. 

T 

& 


Percent 
of total 
number 
white 
farmers. 

Per cent 
of total 
number 
colored 
farmeta. 

\24 years and less 

?5-34yea»... 

$6-44 yean 



3.2 

15,8 

24.3 

0.6 

11.6 

16.1 

96.2 

$17 

$1.6 

66 raw and over 



16.8 

13.6 

.1 


> 0 „ Cjk. ’• X*' X 

W - - J *7 





64 EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF MONTGOMERY (BOUNTY, MD. 


TabU No. 5 — Distribution of public roads* 



District 


Laytonsvllle . 

Oloey 

Damascus . . . . 
Clarksburg — 
Oaithersburg. . 
Darnestown. . . 
Barnes vllle. . . 

Poolesville 

Rockville 

d’otomne 

Bathesda. . 

Coles v Ilk* 

Wheaton 


Total .. . 


Macadamised and ordinary pikes. 


State 

built. 


3.800 

1.295 


4. *75 
.735 
3.000 


County 

built. 


. :t«) 


.5911 
450 
.050 
. /UH1 
1 57M 
i. ft to 
I. Ml) 


Turn- 
pi ki*s 

(toll 

road). 


Total 

•tone. 


.375 
1 -c 125 


4.235 

11875 


5 205 
3. 1 70 
.3 000 
4 500 
2. 4ft I 
12.320 
4.5m 
12-5’ 0 
8. 8"5 
25.250 


V*. 550 
9 01 ■ H“5 
on. ftio 
05. 7% 
51 29U 
50. 2ft) 
57- 450 

50. 430 

44. 7ft) 
37 i HO 

45. :C5 
on 2ft) 


99.040 


Grand 

total. 


on 55 
74 75 
no 5(» 
71 00 
•5H.5H 

02. 25 
02.00 
78. 75 
62. 75 

49.25 
49. 75 

54. 25 
85.50 

829. S8 


TabU No. (i.—'-t'cnms table thou: mg imputation In/dUt riels and towns for 1SPO, 19(jo r l9j0. 

„? 


I 


In 1910. 


Montgomery County 

V» •* . . 

District 1, Laytonsville, Including Laytonsvllle town. 

Laytonsville town.. • - 

District 2 . Clarksburg, including Hyalt.stQwn town . . . * 

HvailstQwn town 

District 3, Poolesville, Including Poolesville low u 

Poolesville town 

District 4, Rockville; Including' Rockville town and part of Garrett Park 

ton'll 

•Garrett Park town (part of). \ 

'Total for Garrett Park town In. districts 4 and 7 

Rockville town \ 

District 5, t'olesvllle 

District 6, Darnestown 

District 7, Bethesda, including Glen Echo and Somerset towns and part 

of Garrett Park tow n 

Garrett Hark town (part of) 

Glen Echo town 

Boraerset town - 

District#, Olney, including Hrookevllle town. 

Brooke vlUe tow n 

District 9, Gaithersburg, Including Gaithersburg town 

Gaithersburg town 

District 10, Potomac . 

District 11, BamesvlUc •• 

District 12, Damascus, Including Damascus town 

Damascus town - • 

District 13, Wheaton, Including Kensington town and part of Takoma 

Park town V — ' *-•■•■••• 

. Kensing ton town - ■ 

Takoma Hark town (part of) 

Total for Takoma Park town In district 13. Montgomery County, and 
district 17-Trinoe Georges County 


32,589 


1 , 800 
133 
1.995 
98 
2,170 
175 

"3,450 

111 

185 

1,181 

2,234 

1,589 

3,217 
74 
203 
173 
2, 82fi 
lft) 
2,92.3 
625 
1,329 
1,865 
1,809 
170 

5,107 

680 

1,159 

1,242 


In 1900*. ; In 1890. 


30,451 


1,981 

148 

2,013 

81 

2,343 

236 

3,488 

175 

175 

1,110 

2,192 

1,675 

2,027 


3 'S’ 

2,383 

647 

1,630 

1,685 

1,770 

148 

3,943 

477 

760. 


27,186 


1,950 

'i,'8i2 

* 2 , 4 i 0 


3,045 


l.ft.'i 

2,2*’> 

l.hM 


3, 21(> 

2,2ft) 


1,422 

1,876 

1,522 


2,659 

' ’ * m 
164 


Tablf No. 7; DinUion of population according to residence. 


•f 



In 1910. I 

In 190tf. 

Population. 

Per cent. 

Population. 

Per cent. 

'2,340 

2,611 

vf,m 

7.3 

8.1 

84.6 

1,800 

1,889 

20,096 

e.i 

6.2 

87.7 

a . 

32,089 


30,461 






APPENDIX. 


65 


* 

Table No. 8 .--Ditnaion of population according to residence, omitting dintrictn 7 and t.t. 


Ill lUlD. In 1900 . - ' 

... | ■*! 
I'opuiau-m. j Percent. Population.; Percent. 


Town ■ 

■ ■* 


i. isr! ,v n 


1 . 1 1ft j 

4.5 

Villa*.- 



1.472 0.2 


1.342 

5.5 

Rural , . 



21.112 Ns. s 


22.0291 

90.0 

Total * ..* 



'23.763 

1 


24. 4M r | 


a 

Table No. 9 

hnmtit i 

nuh' 

until strt nyth . 




‘ 

t hur 

i h"' 

IWiMin^' N J ini 

s- 

McjiiIst- 

V nl n 5 of 


V 


ht' 


shi|.. 

prujHTty. 

Presbyterian, C. S. a 


li 

s 


M3 : 

$07,500 

Methodist Episcopal 


i; 

in 

0 

l.:«6< 

4.5. IKK) 

Proles Unit Episcopal 


in 

in 

11 

1.(141 

m. 400 

Baptist . 


s 

s 

2 


:9i..'m9 

Methodist Episcopal Sout li . . 


t; 

t; ' 

7 

. i . Tun ; 

**6*.. 348 

Methodist ITotoslani 


4 

t 

•J < 

• 372 ; 

111. 400 

Presbyterian, V . S. . . . . . 


2 

2 

1 

113 1 

: io. 3oo 

Seventh Ihiv Adventists 


■> 

t ■ 

0 

41 Kl 


Friends... . ' 




0 

291 

0.500 

Christian ./ . 


'2 

2 

«1 

80 

9. IKK) 

Lutheran 


1 

* 1 

l 

4'» 

3.000 

Free Methodist 


2 

'i ■ 

1 

7<* 

1.000 

Primitive Baptist 



.( . 

2 

At 

3,500 

Christian Sclent Us 

, . 1 

l 

n 

ft 

7 


Catholic ’ . 


(i 

'.i i 

5 

2. 7U7 

* ; 

r 







Cnhmd churO^. \ 







Baptist o i _ V 




4 

209 

i 2 060 

Methodist Kpiscopnl. . . , 


2t 

21 ! 

!l 

1 . 407 

2s!t00 

African Methodist Episcopal 


\\ 


■*' 

' 3il5 

■'# 

5.900 


/ 


T.Um.k Nii H). - The cost of the (7* or, 7, n,<d th< m cost of the School. 


Pro tost util white churches and schools: 

Total amount Invested Itf properly. . 

1 nit; rest on this in ves Lineal at 0 |»r cent 

Total cost of maintenance 

Total number days in use nerwho r- -aggregnto 

Act uni cost jicr day in )m , |!t i T'hurch or school. . . . 
Costner day— real equivalent of interest on proj**rly. 

Total cost |K!r day in use, jwr church or school 

Colored churches and schools: 


Total amount invested In properly.. 

Interest on this Investment at 6 per cent 

Total rest of maintenance. 


. Total miraU'r day^ Ituiso jx*r year- aggregate 

Actual cost per day muse, per church or school 


: Churches ' Schools. 


days 


nut it Eli \ u.n |r\;i i wm u;n’* Liiuitni ui oiaivui • , * . . ..... 

Coat per day— rent equivalent or interest on pnijxrty .... . 
Total cost jwr <Liy in use, per church or school. ......... 


1 $364,757. tXV 
. $2l.KNV42 
1 $00,245.00 
4.21ft 
$1-V 71 
$5. 19 
$ 20 . W 

1 K17.2ttO.Oft 
. : $2, 235. fti 
‘ $K. 150. Oft 
I. Sf5 
$4.35 


S1.J9 | 
$5.M . 


$t 55 ,n 5 o.oo 
fit.itn.oo 
fl lift. 949. ft; 

14.288 
17.48 
*0 67 
$*15 

$10,750. 00 
$645. 00 
$11,393.62 
4.200 
$2.71 
$0. 15 
$ 2.86 


1 Benevolences excluded. 


Blanks v-sed in collecting data rela tire to the sefrooh a n d th e ch u rches . — 
The school blanks were filled by the school-teachers. The investi- 
gators, however, visited the majority of schools in the .county. The 
blanks for the opinions of the heads of ’families were distributed and 
re-^cotyected by the teachers. The church blanks were filled by the 
pastors of the various churches, assisted by the investigators. 

§ej 5 &°-i 3 — 5 * 

^ -v'. - ^ , 



’/if*- fr - 1 a 


66 


' EDUCATIONAL 8UBVEV OF MONTGOMERY COUNTY, MD. 
School Blank. 


1 


No. of school ; name ; location (distance from nearest town); 

Principal or teacher’s name and address. . . .* 


1. MATERIAL EQUIPMENT. 

а. Building. 

(1) Material^ frame, brick, or stone) 

(2"i Number of rooms ; if *1 rooms or less, answer the following questions: 

Dimensiona l ,2 3r 4 

Square feet of window surface, 1 .* 2 3 4 

Square feet of blackboard surface. 1 2 ,3 4 

Height of blacklxiard from floor, 1 ,2 ,3 ,4 

t’olcrfof walls. 1 2 3 ; 4 

What decorations are there? 1 *> 

3 ,4 

Desks, single or double, 1 2 3 4 

- Desks, adjustable, 1 2 ..!.:. .3 ,4 

( 3 ) Lighting, from one side. ...... from two or more sides Kmm what 

% ride do pupils get light? Right. left , both . 

( 4 ) Hating, unjaekeled stove, jacketed stove, or fumape.. * 

* ( 5 ) Are' seating facilities ample? 

(6) Globe, maps, and charts . ; muical instrument 

. ( 7 ) Cloakroom ; teacher's room 

(8) ^ater supply, well, filtered cistern, or unfiltered cistern ,.,k 

( 9 ) Toilets, outside, or in- ; sanitary or insanitary ; decently 

placed % 

(10) Other outbuildings 

б. Grounds. a > . * 4 

{ (1) Size (acres)'. . /. : fenced ; hilly, rolling, or level ; good 

walks. ; trees 

(2) Flower beds : vegetable garden ...... 

. ( 3 ) Play apparatus.?*... i . fc .. Nation's flag 

ci Value of buildings and grotgids . 

. ^ i ' 

TEACHINO FORCE. 

а. Number, male female 

б. Qualifl nations (if there is more than one teacher answer here for principal only, and- 

fer, the others use the reverse side of sheet). . ^ . 

' * fi) Academic training (grade* school, high schodL nqrmal, college, summer 
school, correspondence school) : r *. . . diploma held 

(2) Certificate held...;........ ** W 

( 3 ) Number of year*. experience. . . . ,. . .; how many different positions held 

during last five yeare? — how* long in present position? 

.does he or she intend to make teaching a permanent profession V. 
f. Salary (for this position). „ 

( 1 ) One year ugo, monthly. .....; yearly h. 

(2) Npw, monthly yearly .... 7 ; 

&• Ntsttber of teachers 1 institutes attended , during tb^ -year 

' . . ' • -3. PUPILS. \ , * 



stile.'. . ; . fcinfle;. . . . total . . . . . 


APPENDIX. 


07 


Number of pupils.pi each grade and average attendance: * * 

Grade I— Enrollment. male female : avorofftTat^eu^ance. . / 

II — Enrollment, male female : average attendance 

f III — Enrollment, male female ; average attendance 

IV — Enrollment, male female. average attendance 

V — Enrollment, male female ; average attendance 

V I — Enrollment, male female average attendance 

\ II — Enrollment, male female : average attendance 

VIII— Enrollment, male female : average attendance 

Number of graduated lin*t year, male female : number of these who 

have gone to higher schools, male female 

e. Organizations in the school, names inemtiernhip 

1 Average distance from home to school : means* of transportation 

4. STUDIES. 


/■ 


«. Length of the year's session in days ..... 

Ik Number of recitations per teacher per day : average length nf the recitation 

period 

r. To what extent are the following studies taught? 

^0) Manual training. , 


(1) Nature study. 

(2) Elementary agriculture. 

(3) Domestic science. 


■ 5 w Music 

■ h' Drawing 


n. Number of volumes : total value 

6. Atnount spent this year* 

c. Is the selection one advocated hy the State Imard of education? ; if not, what 

is the character of the selection? 

d. What proportion of the pupils use the Kinks? 

a. THE SCHOOL AS A SOCIAL (V.NTKR. 

X ■ ■ ■ • 

a. Number of entertainments given a year : character of the entertainments 

; to what extent attended Ig^the school patron*?.. 

b. Other purpoees forjvhich the building is used 


7. MISCELLANEOUS. 


o. Is the school effect ed by parochial or private school*?. 
6. Remarks' 


Patrons’ Ulank. 

»>* 

. 1. -What, in your opinion, are the principal weaknesses of the cduntry school? 

* * * * \ *c • 

2. Do the schools need a different course of study?. , : v 

3. How may they serve the cominuniU' other than as an ordinary day school for 

children?..* vv \ 

4 . Do you. think consolidation of schools and- transportation of pupils in school 

wagons feasible? ' „ . ^ 

6 . Are the schpol* as thdy how are satisfactorily progressive? /. 

a txn.^4 La". .... * V- 



T — TT 


68 


EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF MONTGOMERY COUN*, MD. 


• Church Blake. 

Name of Church Denomination 

Location, County ' State 

FiHed out by Addreal Date. 

1. Numberof preaching Sundays a month | 6. Ck-ganizatione— Continued. 


I 


2. Membership— 

10 years ago 

5 years ago 

(If you can not give approximate fig- 
ures, qtate whether membership 
was greater or lew ten and five 
years ago.) 

Now 

Male 

Female r. 

Total 

3. Additions to this church during the last 

church year — 

By confession 

By letter r. 

Total ....* 

Attendance on an average Sunday 

Morning 

Kvening r . 

Sunday school— 

(а) Numberof months a year Sunday 

school is held 

(б) Total membership 

(c) Average attendance 

(<f) Membership iu 

Cradle roll , \ 

Primary department | p 

Junior department 


Women 's.^T . . . 


i Number 

Men's 

; membership 

Number 

; membership. 

Others 

" ~~Numb?r 

. ; membership 

7. .tanual expenses 

-- 

Salary of pastor. 



4. 


I 


I 


Intermediate department | ] 0 . The pastor- 


10 years ago. . 

o years ago 

Benevolences 

Sunday school 

Other expenses. ; 

Total 

' him h pn»j»orty- 

Vnlue 

Encumbrances 

Equipment - 

Number of rooms.. 

Furniture, condition 

Stove or furnac e 

Grounds ■ 

Acres 

Fenced? 

Trees? 

Flower-beds? 

Cemetery in Connection?. 

Outbuildings? 

Is there a parsonage? 

How manv ntoms? 


«* ■(«) 


Senior dopartment. 

Total 

N umber of teachers 

Male.. *..... 

Female... ; 

ToUtf >. 

if) Is there a teachers* training claw? 
(?) Does the Sunday school do tftiy 
minion or charity work?..... , 
Organisations— 4 ^ 

Young people’s * v 

Number ; membership...... 




n 


What other source of in<‘ome has 

the pastor?, 

How many children has he?. . . 
f) Does ho carry life insurance?... 
(*/) How many volumes in his li- 

- , brory? r. 

(r) Dties he reside in town orcoun- 

try?.- ' 

sf > AVirhih his parish? 

Pastor's. name nhd address 

•v- 

* •-**.* i** 


o 


1 j ,y'- ; ’