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Student 

Success 


Adult 

Learners 


8th Report on the Condition 
of Higher Education in Ohio 


Ohio 


Department of 
Higher Education 





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Ohio 


Department of 
Higher Education 

John R, Kasich Governor 
John Carev< Chancellor 


On December 31, 2015, the Board of Regents' Condition Report Subcommittee submitted the 
Eighth Report on the Condition of Higher Education in Ohio; Student Success for Adult Learn- 
ers to the Chancellor for consideration. After review and discussion, the report was unani- 
mously approved. 


t 


1 ^ * 


D • l< 




Vi nod K. Gupta 
Chairman 


/ 


-sS-C— 


Virginia M. Lindseth, Ph.D 
Secretary 



Elizabeth Kessler 


Dh n 



Ex-Officio Members 



8 th REPORT on the CONDITION OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN OHIO 



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Ohio 


Department of 
Higher Education 


John R. Kasich Governor 
John Carey, Chancellor 


Honorable Governor Kasich, Ohio Senate President Faber, Ohio House Speaker Rosenberg, 
Ohio Senate Minority Leader Schiavoni, and Ohio House Minority Leader Strahorn, 

With a clear focus on the imperative to increase the number and percentage of adults with degrees 
or other postsecondary credentials, the Ohio Board of Regents respectfully submits its Eighth Re- 
port on the Condition of Higher Education. This report, entitled Student Success for Adult Learners, 
identifies the most relevant considerations adults have when assessing options to pursue higher 
education. The report further details what factors institutions of higher education need to consider 
in order to successfully attract, enroll, retain and graduate adult student populations. 

The report also highlights why the increased educational attainment of adults in the state of Ohio 
is deserving of increased focus and attention. Data show that by 2025, the vast majority of the jobs 
created in Ohio will require a postsecondary degree or credential. The current pipeline of individu- 
als currently in higher education and high school will not be sufficient to fill Ohio jobs of the future. 
Increasing the educational attainment of adults will be an essential component in filling the state's 
workplace needs and securing its future economic prosperity. 

There are a significant number of adults across Ohio with some college and no degree or without 
any college experience at all; this population provides a significant opportunity to increase the 
educational attainment of adults in Ohio. The report's recommendations identify opportunities for 
improving data collection, communication strategies, student engagement efforts and education- 
al options for adults. The recommendations further emphasize the need for collaborative efforts 
between the Ohio Department of Higher Education and Ohio's institutions of higher education to 
achieve the goal of improving the educational attainment of adults. 

The state of Ohio is fortunate to have leaders that clearly understand and support the vital role 
that higher education plays in our state. We look forward to discussing the report with you in more 
detail and exploring opportunities for achieving this important state imperative. 

Respectfully submitted, 




Vinod (Vinny) Gupta 

Chair, Ohio Board of Regents 


Elizabeth Kessler 

Chair, Condition Report Subcommittee 


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Table of 
Contents 

Executive Summary 2 

Introduction 8 

Question 1: Who are Ohio’s adult learners and how does 

their success impact the state? 10 

Question 2: What challenges do Ohio’s adult learners face 

and what assets do they bring? 16 

Question 3: What encourages Ohio adults to enroll in 

postsecondary education? 20 

Question 4: How are Ohio’s public institutions meeting 

the needs of adult learners? 30 

Conclusion 42 

Appendices 44 


8 th REPORT on the CONDITION OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN OHIO 


1 


Executive Summary 


L abor economists project that 64 percent of jobs in Ohio will require a postsecondary 
credential - certificate, associate degree, bachelor's degree, or more - by 2025. 1 If Ohio 
is to meet the goal of 64 percent, efforts must also be made to increase the educational 
attainment of adults already in the workplace. This report on the Condition of Higher Education 
in Ohio addresses four main themes surrounding success of adult learners (defined as those 
over the age of 25). 

These four themes are: 

• Who are Ohio's adult learners and how does their success impact the state? 

• What challenges do Ohio's adult learners face and what assets do they bring? 

• What encourages Ohio adults to enroll in postsecondary education? 

• How are Ohio's public institutions meeting the needs of adult learners? 


1 Carnevale, A., Smith, N., & Strohl, J. (2013). Recovery: Job growth and education requirements through 

2020. Retrieved April 30,2015, from, Georgetown University, Center on Education and the Workforce website: 

https://cew.georgetown.edu/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/Recovery2020.FR .Web .pdf 


2 


STUDENT SUCCESS for ADULT LEARNERS 


Question 1: Who are Ohio’s adult learners and how does their success 


impact the state? 

Nationally, there is no consensus on how best to define adult learners. Adult learners are 
typically defined by age or by characteristic. Thirty percent of Ohio institutions reported not 
collecting data elements to track adults by characteristic (working full-time, parent, etc.). For 
the purposes of this report, adult learners are defined as age 25 or older. Using this standard, 
Ohio has 3.7 million adults between 25 and 64 who do not hold a postsecondary credential, 
according to the 2013 Census figures. 2 Approximately 150,000 - or 34 percent - of the nearly 
440,000 undergraduate students enrolled in Ohio's public colleges and universities in the fall of 
2013 were 25 or older. 3 Ohio is slightly behind the national average of 37 percent for enrolled 
adults. 4 Based on current rates of postsecondary attainment, projections show Ohio will be 
nearly 20 percentage points behind where it needs to be by 2025. 5 

2 Note: An estimated 7 percent of the people in Some College, No Degree category have earned a 
postsecondary certificate with transparent labor market value. These nearly 100,000 students have earned 
a postsecondary credential, but the current U.S. Census categories don't reflect that. For purposes of this 
conditions report, we changed the totals without postsecondary credentials to reflect those estimates. 

3 All Ohio data cited are from research from HEI and OTC data files accessed by the Ohio Education Research 
Collaborative for the Ohio Board of Regents in May 2015. 

4 National Center for High Education Management Systems. (2015). Calculating the economic value of 
increasing college credentials by 2025 in Ohio. Retrieved May 15, 2015 from, http://www.nchems.org/ 
NCHEMSCLASPOhioModel.swf 

5) Applegate, J. (2012, November). Goal 2025: The college completion imperative for Ohio. Retrieved 


8 th REPORT on the CONDITION OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN OHIO 


3 


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 


In order to strengthen efforts to increase adult postsecondary educational attainment, recom- 
mendations are: 

1. The Ohio Department of Higher Education should implement a uniform statewide defi- 
nition of adult learner as those "25 and older" and work with institutions to facilitate 
more consistent data collection. 

2. The Department of Higher Education should work with institutions to develop state- 
wide goals for adult postsecondary attainment as part of overall attainment goal-set- 
ting efforts. 


Question 2 : What challenges do Ohio’s adult learners face and what 
assets do they bring? 

The complexity of adult lives means they have needs that differ from those of traditional stu- 
dents. Adult college students face the challenges of balancing school with work, parenting and 
other responsibilities; outcomes indicate students with at least one of these factors are less 
likely to graduate and may require specialized support and services . 6 As the proportion of adult 
students grows on college campuses, more services will be needed to address the concerns of 
this population. As a step forward, it is recommended: 

1. Institutions of higher education should conduct a self-assessment of current services 
and institutional capacity to serve adult students. 


Question 3 : What encourages Ohio adults to enroll in postsecondary 
education? 

Adult students often have questions or concerns that differ from those of traditional students. 
Moving adult students from having a vague interest to enrollment and completion requires 
purposeful, planned efforts. How institutions of higher education plan, execute, and sustain 
communication and outreach efforts to current and prospective adult students is critical to 
adult recruitment and enrollment. Institutions wishing to succeed in attracting adults must 
make conscious decisions and strategic commitments to develop communication, recruitment 
and enrollment strategies geared specifically toward adults. To address these concerns, it is 
recommended: 

1. Institutions of higher education should develop recruitment, enrollment and reenroll- 
ment strategies that address adult barriers. 

2. The Ohio Department of Higher Education should capture and disseminate best prac- 
tices from Ohio institutions with established concierge models that support moving 
adult students from interest to enrollment. 

from https://www.ohiohiahered.ora/sites/ohiohiahered.ora/files/uploads/completion/Appleaate%20 

Complete%20Colleae%200hio%20November%202012%20Presentation.pptx 
6 Center for Postsecondary and Economic Success. (2011 ). Yesterday's non-traditional student is today's 
traditional student. Retrieved from http://www.clasp.org/resources-and-publications/publication-1/IMon- 
traditional-Students-Facts-2011.pdf 


4 


STUDENT SUCCESS for ADULT LEARNERS 


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 


3. The Ohio Department of Higher Education should collaborate with colleges to explore 
ways to provide financial incentives for adults in technical certificate programs. The 
Ohio Department of Higher Education should work with institutions to develop a pro- 
posal for the next biennial budget that provides adults over 25 with financial incentives 
to return to less-than-one-year technical programs that are part of a pathway to a de- 
gree and address labor-market needs. 

4. Institutions of higher education should develop career pathways that align public ed- 
ucation and training resources in ways that help adult learners earn postsecondary 
credentials. 


Question 4 : How are Ohio’s public institutions meeting the needs of 
adult learners? 

The Ohio Department of Higher Education analyzed data from three cohorts of students to re- 
view completion rates six years after the year they started. This analysis found little variation 
from year to year of the three cohorts, but found a 20 percentage point difference in comple- 
tion rates at public universities and an 8 percentage point difference at community colleges 
between adults under 25 and students 25 or older. 7 Adults over age 25 fare better in the shorter 
certificate programs at OhioTechnical Centers, where more than 65 percent earned a credential 
in 201 3. 8 

Ohio must address both policy and practice concerns in order to address adult student suc- 
cess. However, Ohio's public postsecondary institutions have different missions; no one size 
will fit all for improving adult student success. Promising practices to increase adult student 
success that have shown potential in Ohio or in other states include: 

• Stacking certificates into degree programs 

• Guided Pathways to Success 

• Co-requisite remediation 

• Intrusive advising 

• Predictable scheduling 

• Online and blended learning 

• Prior learning assessment 

• Veterans strategies 

• Competency-based education 

• Improving teaching and learning for adults 

• Repackaging financial aid 

• Supportive services 

• Career advising 


7 Ibid 

8 Ibid 


8 th REPORT on the CONDITION OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN OHIO 


5 


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 


Many Ohio institutions have already investigated and implemented versions of strategies 
mentioned above, but it is necessary to strategically build upon what is already in place and 
enhance to scale to better serve the needs of adult students. No matter the intervention(s), 
campuses should develop a coherent, adult-focused strategy for completion. Recommenda- 
tions for addressing adult student success include: 

1. Institutions of higher education should include an adult-focused set of strategies to 
improve completion when updating their completion plans for June 2016. 

2. The Ohio Department of Higher Education should accelerate efforts to provide profes- 
sional development and technical assistance to campuses to more effectively imple- 
ment prior learning assessment. 

3. The Ohio Department of Higher Education should work with institutions to prioritize 
the development of competency-based programming on their campuses and ensure 
that established initiatives address the needs of adult learners. 

4. Campuses should examine their professional development offerings for instructional 
faculty and consider implementing development opportunities for adult learners. 

5. Campuses should promote effective career counseling and advising models targeted 
toward adults. 

In order to comprehensively address the needs of adults enrolling in and completing college 
credentials, the Ohio Board of Regents strongly suggests that institutional leaders and policy- 
makers redouble their efforts to serve this important population. 


6 


STUDENT SUCCESS for ADULT LEARNERS 


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 


Priorities Moving Forward 

While the recommendations contained in this Report reflect a systemic approach to better 
serving adult student populations, the Ohio Board of Regents recognizes that executing a com- 
prehensive, statewide approach will take time. 

Therefore, in implementation, priority should be given to recommendations that most directly 
build upon and enhance current state and institutional student success initiatives or that have 
the capacity to have immediate positive impact on adult students. Recommendations pro- 
posed by the Ohio Board of Regents for prioritization include: 

1. Campuses should include an adult-focused set of strategies to improve completion 
when updating their completion plans for June 2016. 

2 . The Ohio Department of Higher Education should work with institutions to prioritize 
the development of competency-based programming on their campuses, and ensure 
that established initiatives address the needs of adult learners. 

3 . Campuses should promote effective career counseling and advising models targeted 
toward adults. 

4. The Ohio Department of Higher Education should accelerate efforts to provide profes- 
sional development and technical assistance to campuses to more effectively imple- 
ment prior learning assessment. 

5 . Campuses should develop career pathways that align public education and training 
resources in ways that help adult learners earn postsecondary credentials. 

Prioritizing the implementation of these recommendations will complement work already un- 
derway and increase the likelihood that efforts to improve the educational attainment of adults 
have an impact in the near future. 


8 th REPORT on the CONDITION OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN OHIO 


7 


Introduction 


L abor economists predict nearly 64 percent of Ohio jobs will require some postsecondary 
education by 2025. 9 However, projections show Ohio will have only a 44 percent attain- 
ment rate by 2025, nearly 20 percentage points behind anticipated needs. 10 Given the 
64 percent projection, Ohio needs an additional 1.2 million residents to earn postsecondary 
credentials above and beyond current attainment rates by 2025. 11 Ohio businesses will be chal- 
lenged to remain competitive without access to the workforce they need, while Ohioans will 
struggle to find gainful employment. 

This 64% attainment goal cannot be reached by solely focusing on recent high school gradu- 
ates, as demographic projections estimate a decline in the number of Ohio's high school grad- 
uates in coming years. 12 Ohio must implement a strategy to help more adults enroll in - and 
complete - some postsecondary education. This is no small challenge: currently Ohio has 3.7 


9 Carnevale, A., Smith, N., & Strohl, J. (2013). Recovery: Job growth and education requirements through 
2020. Retrieved April 30,2015, from, Georgetown University, Center on Education and the Workforce website: 
https://cew.georgetown.edu/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/Recovery2020.FR .Web .pdf 

10 10) National Center for High Education Management Systems. (201 5). Calculating the economic value of 
increasing college credentials by 2025 in Ohio. Retrieved May 15, 2015 from, http://www.nchems.org/ 
IMCHEMSCLASPOhioModel.swf 

11 Ibid 

12 Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education. (2013). Knocking at the college door. Retrieved February 
25, 2015 from, http://www.wiche.edu/info/knocking-8th/profiles/oh.pdf 


8 


STUDENT SUCCESS for ADULT LEARNERS 



million adults between the ages of 25 and 64 without postsecondary credentials; just 37.5% of 
adults hold some sort of postsecondary degree. 13 

Fortunately, Ohio's public universities, community colleges and Ohio Technical Centers are 
well-dispersed across the state to provide this needed education to Ohio's adult learners. Con- 
venience of location is not enough to ensure that sufficient numbers of adults participate in 
and successfully complete postsecondary education. Knowledge of the specific needs of adult 
learners, and practice of the most effective methods to address their needs, is critical to attract- 
ing adults into postsecondary education and ensuring they succeed. 

This report on the Condition of Higher Education in Ohio addresses four main themes sur- 
rounding adult learners. In exploring these themes, the Ohio Board of Regents outlines the 
most salient points for each and makes recommendations that will help position Ohio's higher 
education system as a leader in adult learning. These four themes are: 

• Who are Ohio's adult learners and how does their success impact the state? 

• What challenges do Ohio's adult learners face and what assets do they bring? 

• What encourages Ohio adults to enroll in postsecondary education? 

• How are Ohio's public institutions meeting the needs of adult learners? 


13 Lumina Foundation. A stronger nation through higher education. (2015). Retrieved May 28, 2015 from, http:// 
stronqemation.luminafoundation.orq/report/#ohio 


8 th REPORT on the CONDITION OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN OHIO 


9 



Question 1 

Who are Ohio’s adult learners 
and how does their success 
impact the state? 


Defining Adult Learners 

Nationally, there is not a consensus on how best to define adult learners. Common definitions 
of adult learners describe the student group by either age or characteristic. Defining adult stu- 
dents by age facilitates data collection and reporting, but omits a wide swath of individuals 
who could be considered non-traditional adult students. Identifying adult students by char- 
acteristics (such as having dependents, being employed full-time, delaying entry to college) 
provides a more holistic view of adult learners, but presents challenges in data collection and 
analysis. For example, 30 percent of Ohio institutions reported not having those data elements 
available. Weighing the strengths and weaknesses of each approach, for the purposes of this 
report, adult learners are defined as age 25 or older. In addition to simplifying data collection, 
using 25 and older aligns with several policy levers. For example, age 25 or older is currently 
used as an "at-risk" category in Ohio's performance-based funding formula. Additionally, this 
definition aligns with the United States Department of Education (USDoE) age definitions of 
independent students forTitle IV aid. 

Gaps in comprehensive data on adults present challenges to campuses and policymakers. To 
understand all of the factors facing adults and track progress across the state, Ohio needs con- 
sensus on a definition for "adult learner" and needs to use the new definition to improve data 
collection across Ohio's educational system. 


10 


STUDENT SUCCESS for ADULT LEARNERS 



Ohio’s Adult Learners 


The pool of potential adult learners is large in Ohio; as previously mentioned, the state has 3.7 
million adults between 25 and 64 who do not hold a postsecondary credential, according to 
the 2013 Census figures. 14 Ohio's 37.5% rate of higher education attainment for this population 
is below the national average of 40 percent. 15 


14 Note: An estimated 7 percent of the people in Some College, No Degree category have earned a 
postsecondary certificate with transparent labor market value. These nearly 100,000 students have earned 
a postsecondary credential, but the current US Census categories don't reflect that. For purposes of this 
conditions report, we changed the totals without postsecondary credentials to reflect those estimates. 

15 Lumina Foundation. A stronger nation through higher education. (2015). Retrieved May 28, 2015 from, http:// 
strongernation.luminafoundation.org/report/#ohio 


8 th REPORT on the CONDITION OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN OHIO 


11 


QUESTION 1: WHO ARE OHIO'S ADULT LEARNERS AND HOW DOES THEIR SUCCESS IMPACTTHE STATE? 


Educational Attainment of Ohio Adults Age 25 to 64 

Educational attainment 

Number 

Percent of Population 

Less than ninth grade 

139,178 

2.30% 

Ninth to 12th grade, no diploma 

408,220 

6.74% 

High school graduate (including equivalency) 

1,938,142 

32.02% 

Some college, no degree 

1,298,424 

21.45% 

Associate degree 

568,058 

9.38% 

Bachelor's degree 

1,089,756 

18.00% 

Graduate or professional degree 

611,513 

10.10% 


Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2013 American Community Survey 


Approximately 150,000 - or 34 percent - of the nearly 440,000 undergraduate students en- 
rolled in Ohio's public colleges and universities in the fall of 2013 were 25 or older. 16 This per- 
centage held steady for the past five years, putting Ohio slightly behind the national average 
of 37 percent for enrolled adults. 17 


Total Enrollment by Age & Institution Type 


250,000 


200,000 


150,000 


100,000 


50,000 



2009 


2010 


2011 


2012 


2013 



Source: Ohio Education Research Collab- 
orative accessing Ohio Higher Education 
Information system data. May 2015. 


16 All Ohio data cited are from research from HEI and OTC data files accessed by the Ohio Education Research 
Collaborative for the Ohio Board of Regents in May 2015. 

17 National Student Clearinghouse. (2014). Current term enrollment estimates: Fall 2014. Retrieved from http:// 
nscresearchcenter.Org/currenttermenrollmentestimate-faM2014/#more-3770 


12 


STUDENT SUCCESS for ADULT LEARNERS 









QUESTION 7: WHO ARE OHIO'S ADULT LEARNERS AND HOW DOESTHEIR SUCCESS IMPACTTHE STATE ? 


There were over 15,000 students enrolled in certificate programs at Ohio Technical Centers 
(OTCs) in the fall of 2013. 18 Students at OTCs accounted for three percent of all undergraduate 
students. While many of those served by OTCs are adults over 25, the fact that not all OTCs 
reported age data on their students presents some gaps; 17 percent of OTC students had no 
reported age, 30 percent were under 25, and 53 percent were 25 or older. One year of Ohio 
Technical Center data is included in this report to provide a glimpse into the scale and scope 
of the sector; additional years are not included because the data is migrated from the Ohio 
Department of Education to the Ohio Department of Higher Education and this creates incon- 
sistencies. 

Around 4 percent of the 3.7 million Ohio adults without a postsecondary credential are en- 
rolled in a public postsecondary institution in the state. This large group presents a relatively 
untapped enrollment opportunity to address skills gaps in our state. 


Impact of Adult Learners on the State 

A well-educated workforce is vital to the economic health of Ohio; it is projected that 65 percent 
of all American jobs and 64 percent of Ohio jobs will require some postsecondary education 
by 2020. 19 Between 2008 and 2018, Ohio is projected to have 1.7 million job vacancies due to 
retirement or newly created jobs, with the majority requiring some postsecondary education 
credential. 20 

Ohio cannot reach its postsecondary attainment goals by solely focusing on recent high school 
graduates. After peaking in 2008-09, Ohio had a decrease of high school graduates annually. 
Despite a brief projected uptick in graduates through 2017-18, the number is projected to once 
again decline. 21 


18 Ibid 

19 Carnevale, A., Smith, N., & Strohl, J. (2013). Recovery: Job growth and education requirements through 
2020. Retrieved April 30,2015, from, Georgetown University, Center on Education and the Workforce website: 
https://cew.georgetown.edu/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/Recovery2020.FR .Web .pdf 

20 Carnevale, Anthony; Smith, Nicole; Strohl, Jeff. 2010. Help Wanted. Georgetown University Center for 
Education and the Workforce. Washington, DC. https://cew.georgetown.edu/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/ 
State-LevelAnalysis-web.pdf 

21 Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education. (2013). Knocking at the college door. Retrieved February 
25, 2015 from, http://www.wiche.edu/info/knocking-8th/profiles/oh.pdf 


8 th REPORT on the CONDITION OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN OHIO 


13 


QUESTION 1: WHO ARE OHIO'S ADULT LEARNERS AND HOW DOES THEIR SUCCESS IMPACTTHE STATE? 


Production of High School Graduates 



Source: Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education. 2013. Knocking at the College Door 


Based on current rates of postsecondary attainment, projections show Ohio will be nearly 
20 percentage points behind the 2025 needed projections. 22 According to projections by the 
National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (NCHEMS), even if Ohio were to 
increase both the percentage of residents graduating from high school and the percentage en- 
rolling directly into college, Ohio would still fall well short of the 64 percent goal. 23 Therefore, 
any strategy to meet the projected 64 percent attainment must include ways to increase the 
number of Ohio adults returning to college. As a state, Ohio must set attainment goals for adult 
students and consistently track progress toward those goals. 


22 Applegate, J. (2012, November). Goal 2025:The college completion imperative for Ohio. Retrieved 
from https://www.ohiohiahered.ora/sites/ohiohiahered.ora/files/uploads/completion/Appleaate%20 

Complete%20Colleae%200hio%20November%202012%20Presentation.pptx 

23 National Center for High Education Management Systems. (2015). Calculating the economic value of 
increasing college credentials by 2025 in Ohio. Retrieved May 15, 2015 from, http://www.nchems.org/ 
NCHEMSCLASPOhioModel.swf 


14 


STUDENT SUCCESS for ADULT LEARNERS 


QUESTION 7 : WHO ARE OHIO'S ADULT LEARNERS AND HOW DOESTHEIR SUCCESS IMPACTTHE STATE ? 


Recommendations for Ohio 

1. The Ohio Department of Higher Education should implement a uniform statewide 
definition of adult learners as those "25 and older" and work with institutions to fa- 
cilitate more consistent data collection. While surveying campuses for information 
on adult student outcomes, the Ohio Board of Regents found there is not a single, 
consistent definition of adult learners in Ohio. The Ohio Department of Higher Edu- 
cation should work with public postsecondary institutions to implement a standard 
definition of adult learners as those 25 and older. In addition to a uniform definition, 
the Ohio Department of Higher Education should work with institutions to develop 
consistent data elements regarding adult learners. This could be developed by a 
group of campus institutional research personnel, institutional marketing or insti- 
tutional advancement personnel, and academic program chairs at institutions that 
have been targeted as key programs for adult learners. This group would be charged 
with preparing an outline of the adult learner data important to collect and analyze. 
The data outline would be incorporated into the requirements of the Higher Educa- 
tion Information (HEI) system. This would enable both institutional and state-level 
planning to take place related to identifying and providing targeted marketing strat- 
egies and supportive service design to attract and retain adult learners across the 
system. 

2. The Ohio Department of Higher Education should work with institutions to develop 
statewide goals for adult postsecondary attainment as part of overall attainment 
goal-setting efforts. The Ohio Department of Higher Education is currently working 
with stakeholders to develop postsecondary attainment goals for the state. The ef- 
forts of the Postsecondary Attainment Working Group should include explicit sub- 
goals for increasing the postsecondary attainment of Ohio's adult workforce and be 
disaggregated by county and region. 


8 th REPORT on the CONDITION OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN OHIO 


15 


Question 2 

What challenges do Ohio’s adult 
learners face and what assets do 
they bring? 


T he typical college student is no longer an 18-year-old who enrolled immediately after 
high school, attends full-time and lives in a dormitory. Only 16 percent of students en- 
rolled in college are between the ages of 18 and 22, attend full-time, and live on-cam- 
pus. 24 Societal perceptions of a typical college student do not match the 21st century reality. 

The multiple demands on adult students' time and resources are not reflected in the historical 
higher education model, which is based on the assumption of abundant time and financial re- 
sources. A 2012 study showed 38 percent of non-traditional undergraduates left school in their 
first year, as opposed to 16 percent of traditional undergraduates. 25 Adult students need higher 
education programming that addresses adult needs. 


24 Pelletier, S. (2010, Fall). Success for adult students. Public Purpose. Retrieved from http://www.aascu. 
ora/uploadedFiles/AASCU/Content/Root/MediaAndPublications/PublicPurposeMaaazines/lssue/10fall 

adultstudents.pdf 

25 Advisory Committee on Student Financial Success. (2012) Pathways to Success: Integrating Learning With Life 
and Work to Increase National College Completion: A Report to the US Congress and Secretary of Education. 
Washington, DC. http://www2.ed.gov/about/bdscomm/list/acsfa/ptsreport2.pdf 


16 


STUDENT SUCCESS for ADULT LEARNERS 


Juggling Multiple Responsibilities 


The complexity of adult lives means they have needs that differ from those of traditional stu- 
dents. Adult college students face the challenges of balancing school with work, parenting and 
other responsibilities; outcomes indicate students with at least one of these factors are less 
likely to graduate and may require specialized support and services. 26 Of all college students 
nationally, 

• 36 percent are over age 25; 27 

• 47 percent are considered independent students for purposes of federal financial aid; 28 

• 75 percent of students balance work and college; 

» 32 percent of college students work full-time 

» 43 percent of students work part-time 29 

• 26 percent of college students have legal dependents. 30 


26 Center for Law and Social Policy. (2011) Yesterday's Non-traditional Student isToday'sTraditional Student. 

http://www.clasp.orq/resources-and-publications/publication-1/Non-traditional-Students-Facts-2011.pdf 

27 Ibid 

28 Ibid 

29 Ibid 

30 Gault, B.,Reichlin, L., Reynolds, E., & Froehner, M. (2014). 4.8 million college students are raising children 
(IWPR Report C424). Retrieved from Institute of Women's Policy Research website: http://www.iwpr.org/ 
publications/pubs/4.8-million-college-students-are-raising-children 


8 th REPORT on the CONDITION OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN OHIO 


17 


QUESTION 2: WHAT CHALLENGES DO OHIO'S ADULT LEARNERS FACE AND WHAT ASSETS DOTHEY BRING? 


Many colleges and universities will benefit from reviewing their policies and practices to de- 
termine how they might support or inhibit adult students. Are campus administrative offices 
accessible at times outside of standard working hours? Do campuses analyze when critical 
courses are offered to determine if they accommodate working adults? Does the campus offer 
financial aid programs to part-time students? 


Adults’ Perception of College 

Adults have a strong interest in higher education, but believe that fitting into a traditional high- 
er education mold is a barrier. In April 2015,The American Enterprise Institute (AEI) surveyed 
adults without college credentials about their interest in pursuing postsecondary education. 
Results showed that: 

• 84 percent of respondents felt that some education after high school was necessary 
today; 

• 57 percent agreed that today's colleges are not set up for adult students with family and 
work responsibilities; 

• 60 percent saw college as being worth the investment of time and money; but 

• 76 percent perceived that "even with financial aid, college is still too expensive for most 
people to afford." 31 

Such perceptions have an effect on adult enrollment in college. Because it is often a bigger hur- 
dle to enroll and persist in postsecondary education, adults tend to take a pragmatic approach 
to their education. Prior to pursuing postsecondary education, most adults seek to address 
three main concerns: 

• How much time will it require? 

• What will it cost? 

• What is my return on investment? 32 

As campuses work to build an educational setting more conducive to adult success, they will 
need to reflect the concerns in the information they share with adult students. Resources that 
address time, cost and investment questions will provide a significant tool to increase adult 
college enrollment. 


31 Kelly, A. (2015). High costs, uncertain benefits. Retrieved from American Enterprise Institute website: https:// 
www.aei.orq/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/Hiqh-Costs-Uncertain-Benefits.pdf 

32 Michelau, D. (2015, April). Adult college completion: Strategies for success. Presentation conducted at the 
meeting of the Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus, OH. 


18 


STUDENT SUCCESS for ADULT LEARNERS 


QUESTION 2: WHAT CHALLENGES DO OHIO'S ADULT LEARNERS FACE AND WHAT ASSETS DOTHEY BRING? 


Strengths of Adult Learners 

While adult learners are a diverse group, their individual life experiences enable them to bring 
valuable perspectives to their learning. Malcolm Knowles, an American adult educator, pio- 
neered theories of andragogy - or teaching strategies for adults to provide an effective frame- 
work for viewing adult learner perspectives within the classroom. According to this frame- 
work, adults are assumed to: 

• prefer self-direction in learning; 

• bring a vast reservoir of experience that should be considered in planning learning ex- 
perience; 

• exhibit a readiness to learn that is based on a need to know something or do something; 

• exhibit an orientation to learning that is task- or problem-centered rather than sub- 
ject-centered; and 

• exhibit a relatively high degree of internal motivation. 33 

These theories provide suggestions for teaching and learning environments for adult learners. 
Adult students often have a different frame than younger college students in their approach to 
attending college, tending to look at postsecondary education pragmatically. Work experiences 
provides a history of meeting deadlines, a greater focus on goals, as well as a willingness to 
be engaged in the classroom and contribute to the discussions. Overall, their life experience 
enables them to share from a position of knowledge and experience; these strengths make 
them valuable members of the college community. 


Recommendations for Ohio 

1. Institutions of higher education should conduct a self-assessment of current services 
and institutional capacity to serve adult students. An important first step for cam- 
pus-level efforts is to understand how existing capacity and policy affect adult learn- 
ers. In addition to looking more closely at campus data for adults, campuses should 
conduct a baseline assessment of policies and services focused on adults to inform 
decision-making and strategic actions. Rather than have each campus research the ele- 
ments necessary for assessing their adult serving capacity, there is value in a common 
tool that is cost-effective to administer. One leading tool is the Council for Adult and 
Experiential Learning's (CAEL) Adult Learning Focused Institution (ALFI) tool. 34 The Ohio 
Department of Higher Education should compile a list of tools for campuses to assess 
their capacity to serve adult learners and investigate joint purchasing opportunities to 
reduce cost. 


33 Ross-Gordon, J. (2011). Research on adult learners: Supporting the needs of a student population that is no 
longer non-traditional. Association of American Colleges and Universities ,31 (1 ). Retrieved from https:// 
www.aacu.ora/publications-research/periodicals/research-adult-learners-supportina-needs-student- 

population-no 

34 Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (CAEL). (2015). Adult focused learning institution principles. 
Retrieved May 28, 2015, from http://www.cael.orq/whom-we-serve/colleaes-and-universities/adult-student- 
services/alfi-assessment-tools#sthash.al9fWDAb.dpuf 


8 th REPORT on the CONDITION OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN OHIO 


19 


Question 3 

What encourages Ohio adults to 
enroll in postsecondary education? 


A dult students often have questions or concerns that differ from those of traditional 
students. Moving adult students from having a vague interest to enrollment and com- 
pletion requires purposeful, planned efforts. How institutions of higher education plan, 
execute and sustain communication and outreach efforts to current and prospective adult stu- 
dents is critical to adult recruitment and enrollment. Institutions wishing to succeed in attract- 
ing adults must make conscious decisions and strategic commitments to develop communica- 
tion, recruitment and enrollment strategies geared specifically toward adults. 


Targeted Recruitment Strategies 

Prospective adult students must be able to recognize that institutions are attuned to their needs 
and are committed to meeting them. Moving adult students from recruitment to enrollment re- 
quires engagement with institutional staff to help answer potential adult students' core ques- 
tions of time, cost and return on investment. Much of what has been effective in getting adults 
to enroll in postsecondary education has required active guidance and support . 35 


35 Western Interstate Collaborative for Higher Education. (2010). Bringing adults back to college: Designing 
and implementing a statewide concierge model. Retrieved from http://www.wiche.edu/info/publications/ 
ntnmConciergeBrief.pdf 


20 


STUDENT SUCCESS for ADULT LEARNERS 


Communication through online resources is the most-used mechanism for advertising infor- 
mation about an institution and recruiting adult students. Prospective adult students indicate 
websites, in addition to friends and colleagues, are the leading ways in which they obtain infor- 
mation regarding higher education opportunities. 36 Therefore, providing easy-to-find, current, 
accurate, online information is an essential approach for colleges and universities. Institutions 
indicate they are paying more attention to the primary needs and concerns of adults and are 
beginning to construct web messaging around how their institutions address things such as 
affordability, time to completion, student support and flexible course offerings. 

Some institutions use data in ways that support engaging adult students. This includes collect- 
ing and analyzing data of prospective, successful and failed adult students. Customer Relation- 
ship Management (CRM) systems are commonly used to support institutional web and search 
engine optimization strategies and identify promising adult student prospects. 37 Through this 
data, institutions develop targeted outreach strategies, refine website content and develop 
social media strategies to reach prospective adult students. 38 


36 Ross-Gordon, J. (2011 ). Research on adult learners: Supporting the needs of a student population that is no 
longer non-traditional. Association of American Colleges and Universities ,31 (1 ). Retrieved from https:// 
www.aacu.orq/publications-research/periodicals/research-adult-learners-supportinq-needs-student- 

pppulation-no 

37 Ibid 

38 Ibid 


8 th REPORT on the CONDITION OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN OHIO 


21 


QUESTION 3: WHAT ENCOURAGES OHIO ADULTS TO ENROLL IN POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION? 


Smoothing the Path 
to Reenrollment 

Many adult students seek to return to col- 
lege after an unsuccessful start. Students 
with some college but no degree may 
have academic and financial blemishes 
on their records that stand as barriers to 
reenrolling. Further analysis of CRM data 
can be helpful in re-engaging previously 
enrolled students. Critical data points in 
focusing on this population include: 

• why students left the institution; 

• how close students were to com- 
pleting a degree or credential; 

• student academic standing when 
they left; and 

• student engagement with the insti- 
tution after leaving. 

Collecting and analyzing institutional data 
helps determine gaps and can identify ar- 
eas of focus. For example, some institu- 
tions provide advice on loan rehabilitation 
for defaulted loans in order to reestablish 
aid eligibility, fee waivers and institutional 
debt forgiveness programs. Most institu- 
tions have academic amnesty policies to 
ameliorate poor academic performance in 
the final semester of a previous attempt 
at postsecondary education standing as a 
barrier to re-enrolling in college. 

Holistic Single Point of Contact 
on Campus 

For many adults, the bureaucracy and jar- 
gon of the multi-step enrollment process 
can be daunting, ultimately delaying or 
preventing enrollment. This is especially 
true for adults who are either first-gener- 
ation college students or who have never 
enrolled in college. 


Jane began course work at The Univer- 
sity of Akron immediately after gradu- 
ating from high school in 1990. Within 
two years, Jane was the sole provider 
for herself and her two small children. 
Challenged by juggling school and her 
family responsibilities, her grade point 
average sunk to a 0.65 and she was 
dismissed. In order to provide for her 
family, Jane worked a variety of cleri- 
cal and administrative positions. 

Jane decided the only way to obtain 
steady employment at a living wage 
was to complete a college degree. She 
returned to The University of Akron 
in 2006, unsure if she would be eligi- 
ble to return due to her grades. Hav- 
ing achieved excellent grades after 
her return to UA (3.0 or higher), Jane 
was a prime candidate for the Uni- 
versity’s academic reassessment pol- 
icy. Academic Reassessment raised 
Jane’s GPA and she decided on a de- 
gree-completer program in organiza- 
tional supervision. With her improved 
grade point average, Jane began to 
apply for scholarships for adults and 
was awarded The University of Ak- 
ron’s Verna Trushel Displaced Home- 
maker Scholarship and the Degree 
Completer Scholarship for two succes- 
sive years. 

As Jane completed her associate de- 
gree, she began to apply for jobs. She 
has been successful in her search and 
is now working a steady job with good 
pay for the Veterans Administration. 
Jane has continued her studies and 
will graduate with her bachelor’s de- 
gree in December 2015. She has al- 
ready applied for graduate school. 

Source: The University of Akron 


22 


STUDENT SUCCESS for ADULT LEARNERS 


QUESTION 3: WHAT ENCOURAGES OHIO ADULTS TO ENROLL IN POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION? 


Many colleges and universities have an 
office dedicated to providing a range of 
services geared toward adult student suc- 
cess. In many instances, office staff direct 
phone calls and information requests, 
connecting students to the relevant re- 
sources for their specific need or question. 
Having an office that serves as a single 
point of contact for adult students reduc- 
es the guesswork about the steps neces- 
sary to enroll and connects potential adult 
students with existing resources. 

Some institutions have developed a 
"concierge" service for adult students, 39 
providing an intensive one-on-one ser- 
vice for returning adults to navigate the 
application, enrollment and registration 
processes, as well as to overcome barri- 
ers to college success. The concierge also 
helps institutions and systems identify ar- 
eas where change can help minimize or 
remove the barriers that students face. 40 


Promoting Certificate Programs 

Certificates are an organized program of 
study in a prescribed technical area de- 
signed for an occupation or specific employment opportunities. Most certificates prepare stu- 
dents for an occupational license or third-party industry certification in a year or less. After 
completing a certificate, students can continue on to degree programs to advance their studies 
and attainment. Indeed, 25 percent of recipients completing a postsecondary certificate move 
on to earn a college degree. 41 

Certificate programs play a role in adult student success as adult students are more likely to 
complete certificate programs than any other postsecondary credential. 42 For an adult learner, 
the shorter time required to complete a postsecondary certificate conveys multiple benefits. 
Postsecondary certificates allow students to gain academic confidence while increasing in- 
come. Men in particular benefit from postsecondary certificates by earning "27 percent more 


39 Western Interstate Collaborative for Higher Education. (2010). Bringing adults back to college: Designing 
and implementing a statewide concierge model. Retrieved from http://www.wiche.edu/info/publications/ 
ntnmConciergeBrief.pdf 

40 Ibid 

41 Ibid 

42 Doyle, W., & Gorbunov, A. (2011). Effect of delayed enrollment on postsecondary attainment. Unpublished 
manuscript. Department of Leadership, Policy and Organizations, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. 


In Ohio, the University of Toledo Col- 
lege of Adult and Lifelong Learning 
(CALL) provides a student success 
coach to approximately 3,000 stu- 
dents identified as adult learners 
throughout the university. In addi- 
tion, CALL provides academic ad- 
vising to more than 500 adult stu- 
dents enrolled in degree programs 
and approximately 200 students 
who are either undecided or cur- 
rently ineligible for their academ- 
ic major of choice. Assistance and 
guidance are available in the areas 
of academic options, planning and 
requirements, career goals and con- 
cerns, adjustment/readjustment to 
college, personal support, referrals 
to appropriate financial, mental 
health, tutoring and student life re- 
sources. 

Source: httos://www. utoledo. edu/call 


8 th REPORT on the CONDITION OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN OHIO 


23 


QUESTION 3: WHAT ENCOURAGES OHIO ADULTS TO ENROLL IN POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION? 


than men with high school diplomas, 
while women earn 16 percent more." 43 
Certificate offerings directly address adult 
concerns regarding time and labor market 
return. 

Policies to Address Financial 
Concerns 

One of the most important considerations 
that prospective adult students have 
when weighing the decision to pursue 
higher education is how they will pay for 
school. 44 Some adults will pursue higher 
education for the first time while working 
full- or part-time jobs and juggling exist- 
ing financial obligations. General percep- 
tions for adult students pursuing higher 
education will involve taking on debt, 
which in many cases ends their explora- 
tion into higher education opportunities. 

Access to accurate, transparent informa- 
tion regarding available degrees, college 
costs and financial aid opportunities is 
critical for adult students. In part, students 
base college-related decision making on 
their perception of financial aid availabil- 
ity. 45 Unfortunately, prevalent myths re- 
garding access to financial aid for adults 
may mask educational opportunities. 
Common misconceptions include: 

• There is an eligibility age limit for 
federal grant, student loans and 
student aid. 

• Adults need to pass a credit check 
in order to qualify for aid. 


Manny fled Cuba for America on a 
27-foot fishing boat when he was 
22 years old. Opportunities had 
disappeared in Cuba after the So- 
viet Union had collapsed and he 
was hoping he could earn money to 
send to his father and ailing moth- 
er. 

Manny lived in Florida for a number 
of years before eventually settling 
in Ohio around 2007. He did a bit of 
bouncing from job to job, and then 
decided he wanted to find a career. 
He had previously attended two 
years of mechanical engineering 
school in Cuba, and explored the 
Career and Technology Education 
Centers (CTEC) of Licking County’s 
multicraft maintenance program. 

He has since graduated from C-TEC 
with a certification in industrial 
maintenance. Manny has also ob- 
tained a job with Axium Plastics. 
“Since I got this job, every day I’ve 
been working there has been so 
good,” he said. “I’ve been given so 
much room to grow. They’ve trust- 
ed me so much. I plan to stay with 
the company. ” 

Source: Career and Technology Centers of Licking 
County 


43 Ibid 

44 Hagelskamp, C.,Schleifer, D., & DiStasi, C. (2013). Is college worth it for me? How adults without degrees think 
about going (back) to school. Retrieved from Public Agenda website: http://www.publicagenda.org/pages/ 
is-college-worth-it-for-me 

45 De La Rosa, M.L.,&Tierney, W.G,. (2006). Breaking through the barriers to college empowering low-income 
communities schools , and families for college opportunity and student financial aid. Retrieved from 
University of Southern California Center for Higher Education Policy website: http://www.usc.edu/dept/ 
chepa/pdf/Breaking through Barriers final.pdf 


24 


STUDENT SUCCESS for ADULT LEARNERS 


QUESTION 3: WHAT ENCOURAGES OHIO ADULTS TO ENROLL IN POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION? 


• It costs money to apply for federal 
student aid. 

• Filling out the Free Application for 
Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) is less 
important for adult students. 46 

Targeted efforts must be made to ensure 
relevant information is reaching adults. 

Some state systems and higher education 
institutions have addressed these issues 
by developing websites specifically ded- 
icated to adults that address financial aid 
and other financing options. 47 

Ensuring access to current, accurate infor- 
mation should be viewed as a first step in 
the process of effectively assisting adults 
in evaluating their financial options for 
pursuing higher education. Adults will 
need access to knowledgeable individuals 
who will take the time to explain the overall landscape and vet the different financial options 
specifically as it relates to their individual situations. 48 Some institutions are taking these per- 
sonalized services outside of the confines of their institutions by holding financial aid sessions 
with community organizations and establishing relationships with employers to hold financial 
aid counseling sessions in the workplace. 

Accurate information coupled with supportive services to assist prospective adult students in 
understanding the financial aid process can dispel many of these myths and lead to the reali- 
zation that access to financial aid is possible and higher education goals are achievable. 

The majority of federal, state and local financial aid programs are geared toward full-time 
students. Opportunity exists to leverage adult student interest in certificate programs by ex- 
ploring the development of aid programs that fund adult students - full- and part-time - in 
high-demand certificate programs that can scaffold to degree programs. 

One existing state strategy that has attracted adult participation is the Choose Ohio First (COF) 
Scholarship Program. First implemented in 2008, COF awards Ohio colleges, universities and 
their Ohio business partners that have developed innovative academic programs to recruit 
more Ohio students into science, technology, engineering, mathematics or medicine (STEMM) 
fields. To date COF scholarship funds have been awarded to 41 of Ohio's public and private 
colleges and universities. Scholarship awards range from $1,500 to $4,700 per student per aca- 
demic year. In academic year 2014, of the 4,255 students receiving COF scholarships, nearly 25 

46 Federal Student Aid. (2015). Retrieved from www.studentaid.ed.aov 

47 Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education. (2015). Financial aid. Retrieved from www.okhiahered.ora/ 
adult-students/financial-aid.shtml 

48 Hagelskamp, C.,Schleifer, D., & DiStasi, C. (2013). Is college worth it for me? How adults without degrees think 
about going (back) to school. Retrieved from Public Agenda website: http://www.publicaaenda.org/paaes/ 
is-colleae-worth-it-for-me 


The Connecticut State College and 
University Governing Board estab- 
lished the “Go Back to Get Ahead” 
program. Under the program, adults 
returning to state institutions with 
prior college credit were eligible 
for up to three free courses under a 
buy-one-get-one-free arrangement . 
In less than one year of operation 
(June 2014 through March 2015), 
state institutions received over 
9,000 inquiries and enrolled over 
1,400 students. 

Source: www. gobacktogetahead. com 


8 th REPORT on the CONDITION OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN OHIO 


25 


QUESTION 3: WHAT ENCOURAGES OHIO ADULTS TO ENROLL IN POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION? 


percent were age 25 or older. The success 
rates for adult COF students were consis- 
tent with students between the ages of 18 
and 24. These students also outperformed 
other adult students in STEMM programs 
not receiving the scholarship. 49 

Partnerships for Engagement 
and Enrollment Transition 

Strategic partnerships provide adults with 
the support necessary to address their 
questions about pursuing postsecondary 
education. The common element in these 
partnerships is a focus on transitioning 
adults into postsecondary programs. 
These partnerships include educational 
providers, workforce development pro- 
grams, community-based organizations 
and more. 

Key to a successful partnership is the 
willingness of the college or university to 
play an active role in transitioning adult 
students into certificate and degree pro- 
grams. While the shared efforts provide 
access to a potential pool of new students 
for the institution, successful partnerships 
require braiding of funding sources and 
commitments by all parties to the long- 
term sustainability of their efforts for the 
benefit of the students and each partner. 
Examples of partnerships include: 

• college partnerships with the 
ODHE-administered Adult Basic 
and Literacy Education (ABLE) 
programs provide a pathway for 
students completing their general 
education development (GED) cre- 
dential into further postsecondary 
education and training; and 

• institutional partnerships with 
community-based organizations 
that work with adults. 


In Ohio, the Health Careers Col- 
laborative of Greater Cincinnati is 
a partnership between postsec- 
ondary educational partners, com- 
munity-based organizations and 
employers focused on promoting 
career pathways and education to 
unemployed and underemployed 
adults as well as incumbent work- 
ers. USO partners include Cincin- 
nati State Community College, 
Great Oaks Career and Technolo- 
gy Center, and Miami University’s 
Middletown campus, along with 
multiple hospital systems and com- 
munity-based organizations. This 
partnership provides referrals and 
connections for recruitment, and 
builds the support and network to 
engage students in their educa- 
tional career pathways. 

Since 2008, the collaborative has 
served more than 3,700 job seek- 
ers and incumbent workers with 
occupational training, with 88 per- 
cent completing training and earn- 
ing more than 3,800 credentials, 
88 percent obtaining employment, 
and 81 percent retaining employ- 
ment after 12 months. Of the group 
that received initial training, more 
than 400 have continued their edu- 
cation and obtained their associate 
degrees, with a higher retention 
and completion rate than the gen- 
eral college population. 

Source: Partners for a Competitive Workforce 
website. http://www. competitiveworkforce. com / 
Health-Care.html accessed May 8, 2015. 


49 Choose Ohio First. (2015). Retrieved from https://www.chooseohiofirst.org 


26 


STUDENT SUCCESS for ADULT LEARNERS 


QUESTION 3: WHAT ENCOURAGES OHIO ADULTS TO ENROLL IN POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION? 


Alignment with the Workforce System 

The Governor's Office of Workforce Transformation is working to help postsecondary educa- 
tion and training have a more robust role in developing the adult workforce. The development 
of a combined plan for federal Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) and Carl D. 
Perkins Career and Technical education funding creates an opportunity for colleges, universi- 
ties and OTCs to be active partners in Workforce Investment Board (WIBs) in Ohio. This part- 
nership and alignment of resources will better support adults by promoting connection with 
employers to better understand the workforce needs of the region by industry to assist adults 
in choosing potential careers. Moreover, local OhioMeansJobs (OMJ) Centers are an import- 
ant part of the successful education and training equation for some adults, providing both 
information and funding for education and training programs in the region. OMJ centers and 
OhioMeansJobs.com often serve as the primary source of information for adults when making 
decisions about postsecondary training. 


Recommendations for Ohio: 

1. Institutions of higher education should develop recruitment, enrollment and reenroll- 
ment strategies that address adult barriers. Research cited earlier in the report demon- 
strated that adults do not always have the knowledge of the opportunities available for 
them to engage in postsecondary education. Institutions will be well-served to build 
upon the efforts identified in the campus self-assessment and implement strategies 
that directly address the concerns of adult learners in their outreach, recruitment and 
reenrollment efforts. 

2. The Ohio Department of Higher Education should capture and disseminate best prac- 
tices from Ohio institutions with established concierge models that support moving 
adult students from interest to enrollment. Some Ohio institutions reported offering 
services similar to the concierge approach. The Ohio Department of Higher Education 
should study these efforts to better understand costs, structures and outcomes of this 
approach in Ohio. Ideally, these analyses should include consideration of both the direct 
cost of such a program and the longer-term returns of better enrollment, retention and 
completion - especially factoring Ohio's performance-based funding models that pro- 
vide weighted funding for adult learners. This research would better explicate how the 
concierge model can support adult students in the Ohio context. 

3. The Ohio Department of Higher Education should collaborate with colleges to explore 
ways to provide financial incentives for adults in technical certificate programs. The 

Ohio Department of Higher Education should work with institutions to develop a pro- 
posal for the next biennial budget that provides adults over 25 with financial incentives 
to return to less-than-one-year technical programs that are part of a pathway to a degree 
and address labor-market needs. Two realities facing adults in returning to postsecond- 
ary education is time and money. Technical certificate programs that are less than one 
year offer great opportunities for adults to obtain skills that the labor market needs in a 
shorter period of time. In most cases, these technical certificate programs articulate to 


8 th REPORT on the CONDITION OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN OHIO 


27 


QUESTION 3: WHAT ENCOURAGES OHIO ADULTS TO ENROLL IN POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION? 


degree programs through initiatives such as the OneYear Option and CareerTech Credit 
Transfer (CT 2 ), offering a strong foundation to continue their academic career. The Ohio 
Department of Higher Education should convene a working group of institutional lead- 
ers to develop a proposal for the next biennial budget that provides adults over 25 with 
financial incentives to return to less-than-one-year technical programs that are part of 
a pathway to a degree. Done effectively, this proposal would include research into how 
the funding formula can be leveraged to provide financial resources for adult students. 
Other possibilities include research into braiding other funding sources, dedicating a 
portion of existing state grant funds to adults or identification of a separate, discrete 
funding source. 

4. Institutions of higher education should develop career pathways that align public ed- 
ucation and training resources in ways that help adult learners earn postsecondary 
credentials. The Governor's Office ofWorkforceTransformation is spearheading efforts 
to foster alignment of public resources supporting workforce development. Postsec- 
ondary education and training is a key partner in this system, and Ohio has included 
deployment of federal Carl D. Perkins Career andTechnical Education funding as part of 
the state's combined plan to distribute workforce funding. This alignment will provide 
opportunities to promote connecting resources and allow more adults to move through 
the system in ways that lead to meaningful education and jobs. Students entering the 
public workforce system should know which institution offers the education to help 
them toward their career goal. Moreover, this will also help ensure campuses are work- 
ing with the workforce development system to evaluate certificate offerings to ensure 
they are responsive to employer needs and are in fields with high demand. 


28 


STUDENT SUCCESS for ADULT LEARNERS 


QUESTION 3: WHAT ENCOURAGES OHIO ADULTSTO ENROLL IN POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION? 


Another large and important group of Ohio adults needing addition- 
al education and training are those without a high school diplo- 
ma or equivalent. For the nearly one million Ohioans over age 18 
without a high school diploma, the Adult Basic Literacy and Edu- 
cation (ABLE) system helps provide a pathway to a General Edu- 
cation Diploma (GED). ABLE is jointly funded by the U.S. Depart- 
ment of Education Adult Basic Education grant and the State of 
Ohio; these funds are distributed by the Ohio Department of Higher 
Education through grants. There are currently 56 local ABLE programs providing free 
services to adult learners in all 88 Ohio counties. ABLE served more than 32,650 adults 
in 2014, with an annual cost per student of $716. 50 Sixty-eight percent of all ABLE stu- 
dents are aged 25 or older, with 59 percent of all ABLE students being women. Seven- 
ty-seven percent of ABLE students saw measurable gains in their academics in 2014. 51 

Adult students use ABLE services for a wide variety of reasons, not just GED. These 
services, which assist adults in acquiring the skills needed to be successful in post-sec- 
ondary education and training, as well as future employment, include: 

• Basic math, reading and writing skills 

• Adult secondary education/GED preparation 

• English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) 

• Transition services to post-secondary and employment 

• Family literacy 

• Workplace literacy 

ABLE provides an academic foundation for adult students and helps facilitate tran- 
sitions to the workplace or further education and training. Once basic academic and 
workforce skills are developed, learners have access to a seamless career pathway by 
easily transitioning to a credential/certificate program and/or a community college or 
university within Ohio. Local ABLE programs collaborate - often co-locating - with oth- 
er partners within Ohio, (e.g., adult workforce centers, community colleges, universi- 
ties and their regional branch campuses), allowing continued access to services over a 
lifetime of learning and career advancement. 

ABLE programs provide a great pathway for adult students, and also have the capacity 
to do more. In 2013, among contracted Ohio providers, there was an unfilled enrollment 
capacity of 7,435 across the state. 

In 2014, the Ohio Department of Higher Education staff produced the Diploma to Career 
Pathways report for the legislature, which highlighted strategies and opportunities for 
diploma-to-career pathways for adults without a high school diploma. 52 The report de- 
scribed examples and opportunities for this large and important group of Ohioans, and 
parallels the information contained within this condition report. 


50 Department of Ohio Higher Education. (2015). Adult basic and literacy education (ABLE): Fast facts. Retrieved 
June 30, 2015 from https://www.ohiohighered.org/sites/ohiohighered.org/files/uploads/able/reference/ 
accountability/ABLE FastFacts 2014.pdf 

51 Ibid 

52 Department of Ohio Higher Education. (2015). Diploma to career pathways. Retrieved June 30, 2015 from 

https://www.ohiohighered.org/sites/ohiohighered.org/files/uploads/reports/Diploma-to-Career-Pathways 

FIIMAL.pdf 



8 th REPORT on the CONDITION OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN OHIO 


29 


Question 4 

How are Ohio’s public institutions 
meeting the needs of adult 
learners? 


M any of Ohio's public colleges and universities reported having adult learner-specific 
programs in place to help more adult students succeed. While many programs pro- 
vide support that help students succeed, it is often in smaller numbers. Analysis of 
student outcome data indicates a significant difference between completion rates of adult stu- 
dents and traditional-aged students. 53 

The Ohio Department of Higher Education analyzed data from three cohorts of students to re- 
view completion rates six years after the year they started. This analysis found little variation 
from year to year of the three cohorts, but found a 20 percentage point difference in comple- 
tion rates at public universities and an 8 percentage point difference at community colleges 
between adults under 25, and students 25 or older. 54 Complete tables of outcome data are 
included in the appendix. 

At OTCs, 65 percent of people younger than 25 earned a credential, while 67 percent of those 
over 25 earned a credential in 2013; most credentials at OTCs are a year or less and are struc- 
tured within a cohort and as a complete program. 55 As noted earlier, some OTCs did not con- 
sistently collect data on student age. 


53 All Ohio data cited are from research from HEI and OTC data files accessed by the Ohio Education Research 
Collaborative for the Ohio Board of Regents in May 201 5. 

54 Ibid 

55 Ibid 


30 


STUDENT SUCCESS for ADULT LEARNERS 



Total number of students 
first enrolled at any Ohio public institution 


Cohort Analysis 


60,000 


50,000 


40,000 


30,000 


20,000 


10,000 



_EH9_ 



_I TM 


2006 


2007 


2008 


Community Colleges 

c 

Younger than 25 

25 and older 

H 

Any degree or certificate within 6 years 

Universities 

■ 

c 

Younger than 25 

25 and older 

D 

Any degree or certificate within 6 years 


Source: Ohio Education Research Collaborative accessing Ohio Higher Education Information system data. May 2015. 


8 th REPORT on the CONDITION OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN OHIO 









QUESTION 4: HOW ARE OHIO'S PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS MEETINGTHE NEEDS OF ADULT LEARNERS? 


The disparity in these numbers stands as a call to action for more comprehensive interven- 
tions to serve this important group of students. While a number of boutique programs offer 
services to adult students, there is a need for systemic approaches to serving adult students if 
we hope to move the completion rate of adult students closer to that of students starting col- 
lege directly from high school. 


Leveraging Public Postsecondary Strengths 

With 56 ABLE providers, 53 OhioTechnical Centers, 23 community and technical colleges, and 
14 universities that also have 23 regional campuses, Ohio has a robust array of public postsec- 
ondary providers across the state. There are meaningful differences between the missions of 
these providers, and it is critical to leverage the strengths of all public postsecondary partners 
to benefit adult students. Policies and partnerships that ease student transition between insti- 
tutions facilitate more student success. 

Ohio is bolstered by the strength of the Ohio Articulation andTransfer Network (OATN), which 
helps guarantee transfer of credits between public institutions; the result is reduction of po- 
tential duplication of coursework and savings of time and money for students. The work of the 
OATN helps establish effective low-cost pathways between institutions in ways that support 
the price sensitivity that concerns many adult learners. Examples of statewide articulation and 
transfer opportunities that benefit adults include Career-Technical CreditTransfer (CT) 2 and the 
OneYear Option. 56 

Beyond statewide articulation and transfer, there is also a significant number of bilateral part- 
nerships examples between two different entities that leverage one another's strengths for 
student success; examples of bilateral partnerships include bridge programs from ABLE to 
community colleges and OTCs, two-plus-two agreements between community colleges and 
universities, and university partnerships on community college campuses. 

Implementation of effective strategies for serving adults requires commitment and resourc- 
es from administration and faculty. In most instances, it may require reallocation of existing 
resources to ensure effective implementation. Ohio is one of a few states in the nation that 
has instituted a funding system that is based exclusively on performance. One of the compo- 
nents of Ohio's performance funding system is weighted funding provided to institutions for 
adults 25 and older persisting to obtain degrees or certificates. Weighted funding within the 
outcomes-based funding system to better serve adults can provide incentive, rationale and 
eventually resources to build capacity for this population. 


56 CreditTransfer. (2015) Retrieved from https://www.ohiohiahered.org/transfer 


32 


STUDENT SUCCESS for ADULT LEARNERS 


QUESTION 4: HOW ARE OHIO'S PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS MEETINGTHE NEEDS OF ADULT LEARNERS? 


Promising Strategies to Help Adult Learners 

Improving student success, especially for adult students, requires multiple approaches and 
comprehensive reforms. 57 Ideally, campuses will strategically build upon what is already in 
place, enhance to scale and better serve the needs of adult students. In most instances, it may 
require reallocation of existing resources to ensure effective implementation. 

Many of the approaches that show promise for serving adults focus on the modalities of de- 
livering programs, not content. Adults prefer having a comprehensive understanding of all 
of the steps necessary to earning their desired credential; they prefer knowing the steps and 
sequencing of coursework rather than leaving room for academic exploration. 58 Additionally, 
adults prefer predictability of how they can juggle academics and other areas of their lives. 59 
Implementing these approaches requires a departure from tradition, but these differences 
must not result in diminishment of academic quality and rigor. 

In addition to state policy opportunities, colleges and universities must also address insti- 
tutional practices to improve adult student outcomes. Because Ohio's public postsecondary 
institutions have different missions, no one size will fit all for improving adult student success. 
What follows are practices to increase adult student success that have shown promise in Ohio 
or in other states. Selected opportunities include: 

• Guided Pathways to Success 

• Co-requisite remediation 

• Intrusive advising 

• Predictable scheduling 

• Online and blended learning 

• Prior learning assessment 

• Veterans strategies 

• Competency-based education 

• Improving teaching and learning for adults 

• Repackaging financial aid 

• Supportive services 

• Career advising 

While many Ohio institutions have already investigated and implemented versions of strate- 
gies mentioned above that are focused on adult student success, they have not been consid- 
ered by all institutions and are often not implemented at scale. Institutions must pursue strat- 
egies that fit their missions and improve capacity to better serve adult students. Because there 
are multiple approaches to improving student success, as mentioned previously, campuses 

57 Center for Community College Student Engagement. (2012). A Matter of Degrees: Promising Practices for 
Community College Student Success, A First Look. https://www.ccsse.ora/docs/Matter of Dearees.pdf 

58 Hagelskamp, C.,Schleifer, D., & DiStasi, C. (2013). Is college worth it for me? How adults without degrees think 
about going (back) to school. Retrieved from Public Agenda website: http://www.publicaqenda.org/paqes/ 
is-colleqe-worth-it-for-me 

59 Ibid 


8 th REPORT on the CONDITION OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN OHIO 


33 


QUESTION 4: HOW ARE OHIO'S PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS MEETINGTHE NEEDS OF ADULT LEARNERS? 


should objectively assess their capacity and efforts to better serve adult learner outcomes. As 
campuses work to revisit the legislative requirement to update institutional completion plans, 
considerations should be given to include an adult-focused set of strategies to improve com- 
pletion. 


Guided Pathways to Success 

Guided Pathways to Success (GPS) is a multi-faceted, comprehensive approach to student 
success that combines critical interventions that are tightly interconnected. GPS starts with 
faculty identifying comprehensive programs of study that include a clear path to completion 
with sequenced courses and identified milestones. Students uncertain of a specific major are 
advised into meta-majors in broad areas to help guide their choices. Once a major is selected, 
a student is placed on a default pathway unless given permission from their advisor. Intrusive 
advising remains a key component, providing supports when problems emerge. Institutions 
that have implemented all of the facets of GPS have seen significant increases in their grad- 
uation rates . 60 GPS provides clear structure and pathway to a degree that adults identify as a 
priority. Students know exactly what they are expected to take and when they're expected to 
take it. 


Co-Requisite Remediation 

Remedial coursework often stands as a barrier to adult student success, lengthening their time 
and cost to obtain a degree . 61 Co-requisite remediation addresses this barrier by placing stu- 
dents with academic needs into credit-bearing college-level gateway courses that are paired 
with mandatory, just-in-time instructional support. This approach helps students by shortening 
the pathways through the college gateway mathematics and English courses, which speeds 
them to their major coursework. 

The passage rates of co-requisite courses generally exceed those students having to enroll 
and pass stand-alone remedial courses prior to enrolling in gateway academic courses. 62 This 
approach is particularly promising for adults whose academic skills may only need refreshing 
have an expedited pathway to credit-bearing gateway college courses. The additional support 
in the co-requisite approach provides necessary assistance to refresh skills without delaying 
studies. 


60 Complete College America. (2015). Best practices: Guided pathways to success. Retrieved May 18, 2015 from, 

http://completecolleae.Org/strateaies/#stratHolderPathwavSuccess 

61 MDRC. (2012). What we have learned about learning communities. Retrieved May 28, 2015 from, http://www. 
mdrc.orq/publication/what-have-we-learned-about-learninq-communities-communitv-colleaes 

62 Vandal, B. (2014). Promoting gateway course success: Scaling co-requisite academic support. Retrieved June 
2, 201 5 from, http://completecolleqe.orq/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/Promotinq-Gatewav-Course-Success- 
Final.pdf 


34 


STUDENT SUCCESS for ADULT LEARNERS 


QUESTION 4: HOW ARE OHIO'S PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS MEETINGTHE NEEDS OF ADULT LEARNERS? 


Intrusive Advising 

Effective advising is essential to student success, as it helps students discern academic path- 
ways and understand which courses to take in what sequence. 63 Development and implemen- 
tation of systems, policies and mechanisms that support intrusive advising and other supports 
that monitor student progress have been shown to promote success for all students, and es- 
pecially adults. These activities provide regular outreach at all stages of students' postsecond- 
ary education experiences, and identify and deploy intervention strategies as needed to keep 
students on track toward completion. 

Development of an intrusive advising model— in which assistance is provided to students 
whether they seek it out or not— can help students through intentional contact with key ad- 
visors. This model fosters effective and caring relationships with students that will lead to 
academic progress; builds a sense of belonging to the college/university community; and con- 
nects adult students more broadly with the institution, all of which resonates with concerns of 
adult learners and enhances retention and completion. 64 


Predictable Scheduling 

Complete College America, a national nonpartisan group focused on increasing college com- 
pletion rates, recommends restructuring course and program delivery in ways that enable 
students to schedule classes while balancing both work and school. 65 The first step to meeting 
the scheduling needs of adult students includes offering evening and weekend classes rath- 
er than primarily daytime classes. These approaches help working students balance jobs and 
school, enabling many more students to attend college full-time and shortening their time to 
completion. 

Predictable scheduling is a growing trend nationally, with 70 percent of institutions offering 
courses in the evenings and on weekends. 66 While this is a good first step, institutions must 
ensure the evening and weekend schedules include gateway courses, electives, and the ad- 
vanced courses required for degree-certificate completion. Without electives and required 
courses across the continuum of academic programs available in the evening and weekend 
timeframe, adult students often lack access to key courses. Inaccessibility to courses can lead 
to completion delays or students leaving a program. 67 

All of Ohio's postsecondary institutions offered evening and weekend classes in fall semester 
2014.This flexibility across the state opened new doors for prospective adult students. In some 


63 Center for Community College Student Engagement. (2012). A matter of degrees: Promising practices for 
community college student success , a first look. https://www.ccsse.org/docs/Matter of Degrees.pdf 

64 City University of New York. (2015). ASAP evaluation. Retrieved May 22 , 2015 from, http://www1.cuny.edu/ 
sites/asap/evaluation/#about-evaluation 

65 Complete College America (2015). Restructure delivery for today's students. Retrieved May 8, 2015 from, 

www.completecolleqe.org 

66 Employment andTraining Administration. (2007, March). Adult learners in higher education: Barriers to 
success and strategies to improve results (Issue Brief No. 2007-03). Washington D.C: Chao, E., Stover- 
DeRocco, E., & Flynn, M.K. 

67 Ibid 


8 th REPORT on the CONDITION OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN OHIO 


35 


QUESTION 4: HOW ARE OHIO'S PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS MEETINGTHE NEEDS OF ADULT LEARNERS? 


cases, classes began as late as 8:00 p.m. and concluded at 11 :00 p.m. In other scenarios, class- 
es were available throughout the day on Saturday, with a few schools even providing Sunday 
options. 


Online and Blended Programs 

The flexibility of online programming provides adults the ability to predict and control how 
and when they pursue their coursework, making it an attractive option. There are many deliv- 
ery systems of online coursework and a need to better understand how to integrate these mo- 
dalities in delivering programs to adults. Moreover, there is a need to ensure faculty members 
are well-equipped to teach in an online environment. 

Another important strategy emerging to support adult learners is blended learning courses 
and programs. Blended learning is defined as "the range of possibilities presented by com- 
bining Internet and digital media with established classroom forms that require the physical 
co-presence of teacher and students." 68 Blended learning offers adults the convenience of on- 
line learning with the support and personal relationship offered by face-to-face experiences. 
Governor Kasich in his Mid-Biennium Review, Ohio's 21st Century Education and Workforce 
Plan, highlighted the value of blended learning as he outlined his priorities for higher educa- 
tion. 69 


Prior Learning Assessment 

Another strategy for shortening the path to college completion is to award credits for col- 
lege-level learning acquired prior to enrolling in college through work experience, employ- 
ee training programs, independent study, non-credit courses, military service or non-college 
courses or seminars. Prior Learning Assessments (PLAs) measure what students have learned 
outside of the college classroom, evaluate whether that learning is college-level and then de- 
termine the equivalent number of college credits to be awarded for the prior learning. 70 PLAs 
take different forms, including portfolio assessments, evaluations of corporate and military 
training, customized exams for specific programs, and standardized exams. 

Credits earned through PLAs are closely tied to learning outcomes rather than measures of 
seat time. PLA is not a method of evaluation, but instead a blanket term for a number of meth- 
ods. PLAs are an important asset in the engagement of adults in postsecondary education and 
validate the adult learning theory recognizing that adults return to college with high-quality 
learning experiences. 


68 Friesen, N. (2012) Defined blended learning. Retrieved June 2, 2015 from, http://learninaspaces.ora/papers/ 
Defining Blended Learning IMF.pdf 

69 Office of Budget and Management. (2012). Transforming Ohio for growth. Retrieved June 4, 2015 from http:// 
obm.ohio.gov/Budaet/mid-biennium/doc/2012/Education-Workforce-Plan.pdf 

70 Council for Adult and Experiential Learning. (2015.) Prior learning assessments. Retrieved from http://www. 
cael.org/pla.htm 


36 


STUDENT SUCCESS for ADULT LEARNERS 


QUESTION 4: HOW ARE OHIO'S PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS MEETINGTHE NEEDS OF ADULT LEARNERS? 


Ohio has been promoting its PLA with a Purpose initiative since 2012, working collaboratively 
with the state's colleges, universities and adult career-technical centers to identify and promote 
promising practices for the assessment and purposeful connection of prior learning competen- 
cies to training and degree programs. This initiative engaged over 100 stakeholders to create 
a framework for PLA in Ohio. This framework was published in 2014 and establishes a uniform 
approach to PLA. 71 How PLA is implemented varies based upon campus mission and size. 
ODHE has continued to develop resources and tools that provide concrete elements that each 
campus must address to implement PLA. This includes development of a guidebook that helps 
provide examples for campuses to move from design to delivery of PLA. 


Supporting Veterans 

Veterans comprise a large and important group of adult learners in Ohio. As a result of an 
Executive Order from Governor John R. Kasich, the Chancellor collaborated with Ohio's pub- 
lic institutions to develop a review of institutional policies and practices and to make recom- 
mendations for simplifying and improving the process for awarding college credit for military 
training, experience and coursework. House Bill 488 soon followed, which legislated many of 
recommendations from the Ohio Values Veterans Report and became law in June 2014. 72 

The Ohio Department of Higher Education has impaneled the Military Strategic Implementa- 
tionTeam (MSIT) to ensure the law is effectively rolled out on campuses. 73 Key components of 
the legislation require that each campus designate representative for veterans, offer priority 
registration, establish campus support policies and review military training and experience for 
credit. Additionally, training for faculty to help review and award appropriate equivalent credit/ 
course for military training, experience and coursework is required. This effort has been well 
received within institutions, across the state and nationally. 


Competency-Based Education 

Competency-based education (CBE) is quickly gaining attention as an approach to teaching and 
learning; credentials are awarded on the basis of mastery of competencies, rather than seat 
time. In CBE programs, learning is fixed and time is variable. Students proceed at their own 
pace and advance only when they successfully demonstrate what they know and can do. 

CBE is just beginning to emerge in a scalable way among Ohio institutions. Variation exists in 
how competencies are established, how faculty and other institutional staff members are used, 
the types of students admitted, whether or not competencies are tied back to courses and 
credit hours, and how pricing is structured. No single model has yet emerged as best practice. 


71 Ohio Department of Higher Education. (2014). PLA with a Purpose: Prior Learning Assessment and Ohio's 
College Completion Agenda. Retrieved May 8, 2015 from, https://www.ohiohighered.org/sites/ohiohighered. 
org/files/uploads/PLA/PLA-with-a-Purpose Report FINAL 041614 O.pdf 

72 Ohio Department of Higher Education. (2015). Ohio Values Veterans. Retrieved June 2, 2015 from https:// 
www.ohiohighered.org/ohio values veterans 

73 Ibid 


8 th REPORT on the CONDITION OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN OHIO 


37 


QUESTION 4: HOW ARE OHIO'S PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS MEETINGTHE NEEDS OF ADULT LEARNERS? 


CBE models hold particular promise for adult students, who bring years of accumulated knowl- 
edge from experience to the educational setting and can often earn competencies and com- 
plete credentials at an accelerated rate. Moreover, because CBE is often offered online and 
flexibly paced, it allows adults to juggle the demands of education with their busy lives. Suc- 
cessful CBE programs can be found across the country at institutions such as Western Gover- 
nor's University, Southern New Hampshire University, and UW Flex— available from both the 
University of Wisconsin Extension and Brandman University. Nationally, a new network, the 
Competency-Based Education Network (C-BEN) has been formed to "address shared challeng- 
es to designing, developing and scaling high-quality competency-based degree programs ." 74 

Plans are underway with representatives from Ohio public colleges and universities to set 
goals for the development of pilot CBE projects. 


Improving Teaching and Learning for Adults 

For adult students, quality of teaching is a top concern . 75 However, the majority of higher ed- 
ucation faculties begin their careers with little to no experience teaching students; most learn 
to teach by teaching. As a result, many campuses have invested significant resources into 
establishing- campus based- high quality faculty development services in order to strengthen 
teaching skills improve the quality of academic programs and enrich the learning experience of 
their students. Many have established dedicated centers specifically designed for this purpose. 
These centers are generally established with the collaboration of faculty and offer services 
across a wide range of teaching and learning disciplines to accommodate both new and highly 
experienced faculty . 76 

As institutions examine their ability to effectively serve adult students, they must include an 
analysis of how teaching and learning concepts specific to adults are incorporated into faculty 
development opportunities. This analysis starts with a review of the basics principles of adult 
learning theory that were mentioned previously in this report. Adult Learning Theory or "An- 
dragogy" emphasizes the value of the process of learning. It uses approaches to learning that 
are problem-based and collaborative rather than didactic, and also emphasizes more equality 
between the teacher and learner . 77 


74 Competency-Based Education Network (2015). Overview. Retrieved on May 29, 2015 from http://www. 
cbenetwork.org/about/ 

75 Hagelskamp, C.,Schleifer, D., & DiStasi, C. (2013). Is college worth it for me? How adults without degrees think 
about going (back) to school. Retrieved from Public Agenda website: http://www.publicaqenda.org/paqes/ 
is-colleqe-worth-it-for-me 

76 Shahid, A. (2013). A checklist for effective faculty development programs. Retrieved June 22. 2015, from 

http://www.facultvfocus.com/articles/facultv-development/a-checklist-for-effective-facultv-development- 

programs/ 

77 Lieb, S. (1991). Principles of adult learning. VISION journal [electronic version]. Retrieved on April 4, 2015 
from, Honolulu Community College http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/quidebk/ 
teachtip/adults-2.htm 


38 


STUDENT SUCCESS for ADULT LEARNERS 


QUESTION 4: HOW ARE OHIO'S PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS MEETINGTHE NEEDS OF ADULT LEARNERS? 


Repackaging Financial Aid 

Ohio institutions of higher education have 
robust financial aid services and are ac- 
tively engaged in identifying new resourc- 
es to assist students and families with the 
cost of higher education. Currently, the 
vast majority of financial aid services and 
initiatives at Ohio institutions are direct- 
ed toward traditional students with few 
reporting having scholarships programs 
specifically directed toward adults. 

There are innovative initiatives across the 
country with financial incentives directed 
specifically towards prospective adult stu- 
dents. There are also initiatives underway 
exploring if the distribution of financial 
aid effects student performance and com- 
pletion; promising approaches include 
performance-based scholarships 78 that 
require students to maintain adequate 
progress to maintain funding and dis- 
tributing aid like a paycheck 79 at intervals 
throughout the semester instead of lump 
sum payments at the start of a term. 


Supportive Services 

Many of the barriers adult students face 
are outside academics. Indeed, juggling 
child care, work, school and other family 
responsibilities often presents challenges 
that limit adult students' abilities to focus 
on their coursework. Adults also may face 
emotional challenges that a targeted insti- 
tutional support structure can help over- 
come. Supportive services are provided 
by the college or through a partnership 
with an external organization and address 
some of the non-academic challenges 


After Sue’s 10-year-old daughter 
Sarah passed away of an unde- 
tected heart condition, she found 
it difficult to see the future ahead. 
Determined to honor the memo- 
ry of her daughter and her love of 
reading, Sue established an annu- 
al community event geared toward 
literacy. Each year the event grew 
bigger and soon turned into a non- 
profit organization. Sue was proud 
of the legacy she had created in 
Sarah’s honor and encouraged by 
the hundreds of children who now 
also developed the same passion 
for books. 

Sue was encouraged by a friend 
to look at finishing the degree she 
had begun so many years ago. She 
reenrolled in college at the Univer- 
sity of Toledo and, with the help 
of her success coach, she soon 
learned she only needed 36 credit 
hours to complete her degree. Sue 
also received support to determine 
that she was a good candidate for 
prior learning assessment and was 
able to complete two portfolios, 
one for a business communications 
course and one for a community 
event-planning course. Sue grad- 
uated with her bachelor’s degree 
within two semesters. 


78 Mayer, A., Patel R., & Gutierrez, M. (2015). Four year effects on degree receipts and employment outcomes 
from a performance based scholarship program in Ohio. Retrieved from MDRC website: http://www.mdrc. 
org/sites/default/files/Four-Year Effects on Degree Receipt O.pdf 

79 MDRC. (2013, September). Aid like a paycheck: Incremental aid to promote student success. (Issue Brief No 
1). Ware, M., Weissman, E., & McDermott, D. 


8 th REPORT on the CONDITION OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN OHIO 


39 




QUESTION 4: HOW ARE OHIO'S PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS MEETINGTHE NEEDS OF ADULT LEARNERS? 


many adult students face. Because these are often different sorts of challenges, services are 
often provided through more than one campus office or organization. 

Campuses have worked to provide supportive services or develop partnerships that enable 
students to receive support. Many campuses have offices dedicated to serving adult learners; 
these offices not only provide support that moves students from interest to enrollment, but 
they also serve as a clearinghouse for access to supportive services. These may include wrap 
around services that address issues such as transportation, childcare, utility-emergency help, 
food assistance and other social support. 80 


Career Advising 

Adult learners were recognized in ODHE's Seventh Condition Report, Pre-K to Jobs: Higher 
Education's Role in Developing Students for Careers, as benefiting from targeted career ser- 
vice support. The loss of a job and need for retraining is a common reason adults seek further 
education. A career service center with career exploration and support may be a critical link 
on the path to education or training completion. 81 In particular, the OhioMeansJobs resources 
combined with the In-Demand Occupations list may assist adults. 82 


Recommendations for Ohio: 

1. Institutions of higher education should include an adult-focused set of strategies to 
improve completion when updating their completion plans for June 2016. House Bill 59 
called for each public college and university to submit a campus completion plan that 
was approved by its board of trustees to the Chancellor by June 30, 2014.This legislation 
further stated that these plans are to be updated every two years; an update of these 
plans is due on June 30, 2016. Completion plans provide a continuous improvement 
framework that can allow campuses to identify and implement strategies to increase the 
number and percentage of students earning meaningful postsecondary credentials. The 
process of updating plans provides an opportunity for institutions to explicitly include 
adult-focused completion strategies that are informed by the campus self-assessments 
mentioned in an earlier recommendation. Some of the aforementioned strategies such 
as guided pathways to success, corequisite remediation, intrusive advising and pre- 
dictable scheduling provide opportunities for inclusion in an updated completion plan. 
Moreover, the Ohio Department of Higher Education can support these efforts by con- 
tinuing to capture and disseminate additional research and information on promising 
practices for serving adult students. 

80 Hoffman, L., & Reind,T. (2011). Complete to compete: Improving postsecondary attainment among adults. 
Washington, DC: National Governor's Association. 

81 Ohio Board of Regents, Seventh Report on the Condition of Higher Education in Ohio. (2014). Pre-k to jobs: 
Higher education's role in developing students for careers. Retrieved from https://www.ohiohiqhered.org/ 
sites/ohiohiqhered.orq/files/uploads/board/condition-report/2014-Conditions-Report FINAL.pdf 

82 Ibid 


40 


STUDENT SUCCESS for ADULT LEARNERS 


QUESTION 4: HOW ARE OHIO'S PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS MEETINGTHE NEEDS OF ADULT LEARNERS? 


2. The Ohio Department of Higher Education should accelerate efforts to provide profes- 
sional development and technical assistance to campuses to more effectively imple- 
ment prior learning assessment. Prior learning assessment has been shown to be an 
important asset in the engagement of adults in postsecondary education. It validates 
adult learning theory and recognizes that adults return to college with high-quality 
learning experiences. Ohio's colleges and universities have responded to the Ohio De- 
partment of Higher Education's PLA with a Purpose initiative by expanding opportuni- 
ties to award credit for prior learning. As part of these efforts, there has been continued 
interest in gathering and disseminating information as well as looking for opportunities 
to provide professional development to faculty on PLA in their role as assessor. The 
Ohio Department of Higher Education should continue to collect data and provide pro- 
fessional development opportunities that would enable campuses to be more effective 
in offering credit for prior learning. 

3. The Ohio Department of Higher Education should work with institutions to prioritize 
the development of competency-based programming on their campuses and ensure 
that established initiatives address the needs of adult learners. Competency-based ed- 
ucation holds great promise for adult learners; done well, it can provide the flexibility 
that many adults require when returning to postsecondary education. The Ohio Depart- 
ment of Higher Education's working group on competency-based postsecondary educa- 
tion should explicitly include adult learners as a key constituency and strive to consider 
their needs in development of new delivery models. 

4. Campuses should examine their professional development offerings for instructional 
faculty and consider implementing development opportunities for adult learners. The 

majority of Ohio's public universities reported having dedicated centers for teaching 
and learning on their main or branch campuses that have established goals for the 
continuous development of their faculty. It appears, however, that there are limited ex- 
amples of institutions that incorporate specific faculty development activities related to 
adults within their centers for teaching and learning. As the state continues to develop 
its student attainment goals, there must be a greater emphasis on promoting the need 
for institutions to focus on developing systemic approaches to faculty development re- 
lated specifically to adult learners. The non-traditional student population is expected to 
increase, and institutions will need faculty skilled in the teaching and learning of adults 
if the state expects to be successful in moving greater percentages of this population to 
completion and into the workforce. 

5. Campuses should promote effective career counseling and advising models targeted 
toward adults. Adult learners also face the challenge of translating new knowledge and 
skills into the marketplace to improve their status in a new or existing career path. 83 
Postsecondary education should help adults understand not only how a degree or cer- 
tificate can pay off in the marketplace, but also the pathways available to further their 
education. Campuses have undertaken efforts to implement enhanced career advising 
and experiential work-based learning to partnerships with employers that expand in- 
cumbent workers' knowledge and skills. Institutions will be well-served to strengthen 
these efforts by building adult-focused services. 


83 Kasworm, C. (2008) Emotional challenges of adult learners in higher education. In Dirkx, J. (Ed). Adult 
Learning and the Emotional Self. (pp. 27-34). New Directions in Adult and Continuing Education (No. 120). 
San Francisco: Jossey Bass 


8 th REPORT on the CONDITION OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN OHIO 


41 


Conclusion 


O hio must be successful in increasing the percentage of adults in the workplace with 
meaningful postsecondary credentials. These efforts are critical for developing and 
sustaining the workforce needed for Ohio's ongoing economic health. Increasing the 
number of adult learners and enhancing their success requires comprehensive, coordinated 
and purposeful action on campuses. 

While many Ohio institutions have implemented strategies to better serve adult students, 
there is mounting evidence that improving student success - especially for adult students - 
requires multiple approaches and comprehensive reforms. Institutions will need to assess and 
enhance-to-scale effective strategies in order to better target serving adult learners and the 
desired successful outcomes. 

In order to comprehensively address the needs of adults enrolling in and completing college 
credentials, the Ohio Board of Regents strongly suggests that institutional leaders and policy- 
makers redouble their efforts to serve this important population. 


42 


STUDENT SUCCESS for ADULT LEARNERS 




■ 


8 th REPORT on the CONDITION OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN OHIO 


43 


Appendices 


Analysis Descriptions & Variable Definitions 

The Enrollment Charts provide the number of students enrolled at each institution during the 
autumn quarter of each year by level of program, by age of the student. 

Program Level - Program level is created using the variable "admission area in which stu- 
dent is enrolled." The options are High School, Undergraduate, Graduate Student, Non-degree 
Graduate, and Professional Student. The levels provided in this analysis are High School, Un- 
dergraduate, and Graduate (which is a combination of Graduate Student, Non-degree Gradu- 
ate and Professional Student). 

Age Categories - the age categories (Younger than 25, Between 25 and 44, Older than 44, 25 
and Older) are all calculated using date of birth during the quarter of enrollment. If an individ- 
ual is 25 on the last day of the quarter, he or she is included in "between 25 and 44." Similarly, 
if an individual is 44 on the first day of the quarter, he or she is included in "between 25 and 44." 


44 


STUDENT SUCCESS for ADULT LEARNERS 



Cohort Analysis provides three cohorts of graduation or certificate-earning outcomes for stu- 
dents by age group. The age group is calculated the same way in the Cohort Analysis as in the 
Enrollment Charts. For each year, the analysis includes all students who were first enrolled at 
the institution in autumn of the relevant year, and next the students who were first enrolled 
in any undergraduate program during the autumn of that year. The larger number includes 
students who started at a college, but likely transferred from another college, or at least trans- 
ferred credits. The first-time undergraduates would have credits transferred in only if they 
earned them while enrolled in high school. 

Associate (or less than four-year) degree within four years -The percentage of students who 
earned either a certificate or an associate degree at a public Ohio college or university within 
four years of first enrollment. 

Bachelor's degree within six years -The percentage of students who earned a bachelor's de- 
gree at a public Ohio college or university within six years of first enrollment. 

Any degree or certificate within six years -The percentage of students who earned any degree 
or certificate (from a one-year certificate to a graduate degree) within six years of first enroll- 
ment. 


8 th REPORT on the CONDITION OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN OHIO 


45 


APPENDICES 


Enrollment by Age: 2013 


Institution 

Main or 

Branch 

Campus 

Program Level 

Total 

Age 

Missing 

Younger 

than 25 

Between 

25 and 44 

Older 

than 44 

25 and 

older 

State of Ohio 


High School 

32,445 

0% 

98% 

1% 

0% 

1% 

State of Ohio 


Undergraduate 

423,521 

0% 

67% 

26% 

7% 

33% 

State of Ohio 


Graduate/Professional 

61,340 

0% 

27% 

63% 

9% 

73% 

University of Akron 

Main 

High School 

1,058 

0% 

100% 

0% 

0% 

0% 

University of Akron 

Main 

Undergraduate 

19,749 

0% 

77% 

19% 

4% 

22% 

University of Akron 

Main 

Graduate/Professional 

4,766 

0% 

25% 

64% 

11% 

75% 

University of Akron 

Branch 

High School 

588 

0% 

100% 

0% 

0% 

0% 

University of Akron 

Branch 

Undergraduate 

1,750 

0% 

61% 

31% 

8% 

39% 

Bowling Green State 

University 

Main 

High School 

234 

0% 

100% 

0% 

0% 

0% 

Bowling Green State 

University 

Main 

Undergraduate 

14,257 

0% 

93% 

6% 

1% 

7% 

Bowling Green State 

University 

Main 

Graduate/Professional 

2,477 

0% 

31% 

61% 

8% 

69% 

Bowling Green State 

University 

Branch 

High School 

670 

0% 

100% 

0% 

0% 

0% 

Bowling Green State 

University 

Branch 

Undergraduate 

1,761 

0% 

57% 

35% 

8% 

42% 

Bowling Green State 

University 

Branch 

Graduate/Professional 







BelmontTechnical College 

Main 

High School 

27 

0% 

100% 

0% 

0% 

0% 

BelmontTechnical College 

Main 

Undergraduate 

1,286 

0% 

53% 

37% 

9% 

46% 

University of Cincinnati 

Main 

High School 

471 

0% 

100% 

0% 

0% 

0% 

University of Cincinnati 

Main 

Undergraduate 

25,007 

0% 

84% 

14% 

2% 

16% 

University of Cincinnati 

Main 

Graduate/Professional 

10,321 

0% 

25% 

67% 

8% 

75% 

University of Cincinnati 

Branch 

High School 

421 

0% 

100% 

0% 

0% 

0% 

University of Cincinnati 

Branch 

Undergraduate 

9,927 

0% 

67% 

28% 

5% 

33% 

University of Cincinnati 

Branch 

Graduate/Professional 

133 

1% 

29% 

50% 

20% 

70% 

Cleveland State University 

Main 

High School 

288 

0% 

100% 

0% 

0% 

0% 

Cleveland State University 

Main 

Undergraduate 

12,071 

0% 

65% 

28% 

6% 

34% 

Cleveland State University 

Main 

Graduate/Professional 

5,371 

1% 

22% 

66% 

12% 

78% 

Clark State Community 

College 

Main 

High School 

602 

0% 

100% 

0% 

0% 

0% 

Clark State Community 

College 

Main 

Undergraduate 

5,051 

1% 

43% 

46% 

10% 

56% 

Cincinnati State Tech. & 

Community College 

Main 

High School 

1,075 

1% 

99% 

0% 

0% 

0% 

Cincinnati State Tech. & 

Community College 

Main 

Undergraduate 

10,867 

1% 

43% 

45% 

10% 

56% 

Central State University 

Main 

Undergraduate 

2,019 

0% 

82% 

13% 

4% 

18% 

Central State University 

Main 

Graduate/Professional 

32 

3% 

0% 

56% 

41% 

97% 

Central OhioTechnical 

College 

Main 

High School 

325 

0% 

99% 

0% 

0% 

1% 


46 


STUDENT SUCCESS for ADULT LEARNERS 



APPENDICES 


Institution 

Main or 

Branch 

Campus 

Program Level 

Total 

Age 

Missing 

Younger 

than 25 

Between 

25 and 44 

Older 

than 44 

25 and 

older 

Central OhioTechnical 

College 

Main 

Undergraduate 

3,433 

0% 

44% 

49% 

7% 

56% 

Columbus State 

Community College 

Main 

High School 

713 

0% 

100% 

0% 

0% 

0% 

Columbus State 

Community College 

Main 

Undergraduate 

24,647 

0% 

53% 

39% 

8% 

47% 

Cuyahoga Community 

College 

Main 

High School 

5,022 

0% 

91% 

6% 

3% 

9% 

Cuyahoga Community 

College 

Main 

Undergraduate 

24,245 

0% 

41% 

44% 

15% 

59% 

Cuyahoga Community 

College 

Branch 

High School 







Cuyahoga Community 

College 

Branch 

Undergraduate 







Edison State Community 

College 

Main 

High School 

631 

0% 

100% 

0% 

0% 

0% 

Edison State Community 

College 

Main 

Undergraduate 

2,315 

0% 

46% 

44% 

9% 

53% 

HockingTechical College 

Main 

High School 

447 

0% 

100% 

0% 

0% 

0% 

HockingTechical College 

Main 

Undergraduate 

3,962 

0% 

67% 

27% 

5% 

32% 

Jefferson Community 

College 

Main 

High School 

488 

1% 

99% 

0% 

0% 

0% 

Jefferson Community 

College 

Main 

Undergraduate 

2,439 

0% 

49% 

39% 

11% 

50% 

Kent State University 

Main 

High School 

345 

1% 

99% 

0% 

0% 

0% 

Kent State University 

Main 

Undergraduate 

22,682 

0% 

85% 

13% 

2% 

15% 

Kent State University 

Main 

Graduate/Professional 

6,145 

0% 

21% 

65% 

14% 

79% 

Kent State University 

Branch 

High School 

1,041 

0% 

100% 

0% 

0% 

0% 

Kent State University 

Branch 

Undergraduate 

17,822 

0% 

58% 

35% 

6% 

42% 

Kent State University 

Branch 

Graduate/Professional 

123 

0% 

7% 

71% 

23% 

93% 

Lorain County Community 

College 

Main 

High School 

1,736 

0% 

100% 

0% 

0% 

0% 

Lorain County Community 

College 

Main 

Undergraduate 

10,540 

0% 

52% 

38% 

10% 

47% 

Lakeland Community 

College 

Main 

High School 

803 

0% 

100% 

0% 

0% 

0% 

Lakeland Community 

College 

Main 

Undergraduate 

8,161 

0% 

50% 

37% 

12% 

50% 

James A. Rhodes State 

College 

Main 

High School 

364 

0% 

100% 

0% 

0% 

0% 

James A. Rhodes State 

College 

Main 

Undergraduate 

2,980 

0% 

55% 

38% 

6% 

45% 

Zane State College 

Main 

High School 

1,222 

1% 

99% 

0% 

0% 

0% 

Zane State College 

Main 

Undergraduate 

2,430 

1% 

52% 

39% 

8% 

47% 


8 th REPORT on the CONDITION OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN OHIO 


47 



APPENDICES 


Institution 

Main or 

Branch 

Campus 

Program Level 

Total 

Age 

Missing 

Younger 

than 25 

Between 

25 and 44 

Older 

than 44 

25 and 

older 

Medical University of 

Ohio 

Main 

Graduate/Professional 







Miami University 

Main 

High School 

31 

0% 

100% 

0% 

0% 

0% 

Miami University 

Main 

Undergraduate 

15,708 

0% 

97% 

3% 

0% 

3% 

Miami University 

Main 

Graduate/Professional 

2,774 

0% 

20% 

64% 

15% 

80% 

Miami University 

Branch 

High School 

492 

0% 

100% 

0% 

0% 

0% 

Miami University 

Branch 

Undergraduate 

7,075 

0% 

69% 

26% 

5% 

31% 

Miami University 

Branch 

Graduate/Professional 

48 

2% 

2% 

69% 

27% 

96% 

MarionTechnical College 

Main 

High School 

649 

0% 

100% 

0% 

0% 

0% 

MarionTechnical College 

Main 

Undergraduate 

2,042 

1% 

42% 

46% 

11% 

57% 

North Central State 

College 

Main 

High School 

478 

0% 

100% 

0% 

0% 

0% 

North Central State 

College 

Main 

Undergraduate 

2,480 

0% 

52% 

40% 

8% 

48% 

Northeastern Ohio 

Universities College of 

Med 

Main 

Undergraduate 

13 

0 % 

100 % 

0 % 

0 % 

0 % 

Northeastern Ohio 

Universities College of 

Med 

Main 

Graduate/Professional 

823 

0% 

66% 

33% 

1% 

34% 

Northwest State 

Community College 

Main 

High School 

530 

0% 

100% 

0% 

0% 

0% 

Northwest State 

Community College 

Main 

Undergraduate 

4,126 

1% 

35% 

48% 

15% 

64% 

Ohio State University 

Main 

High School 

256 

0% 

100% 

0% 

0% 

0% 

Ohio State University 

Main 

Undergraduate 

44,825 

0% 

90% 

9% 

1% 

9% 

Ohio State University 

Main 

Graduate/Professional 

13,317 

0% 

33% 

63% 

5% 

67% 

Ohio State University 

Branch 

High School 

117 

0% 

100% 

0% 

0% 

0% 

Ohio State University 

Branch 

Undergraduate 

6,675 

0% 

85% 

13% 

2% 

15% 

Ohio State University 

Branch 

Graduate/Professional 

162 

0% 

34% 

49% 

17% 

66% 

Ohio University 

Main 

High School 

66 

0% 

100% 

0% 

0% 

0% 

Ohio University 

Main 

Undergraduate 

23,438 

0% 

72% 

22% 

6% 

28% 

Ohio University 

Main 

Graduate/Professional 

5,282 

0% 

23% 

67% 

10% 

77% 

Ohio University 

Branch 

High School 

507 

1% 

99% 

0% 

0% 

0% 

Ohio University 

Branch 

Undergraduate 

9,564 

0% 

60% 

34% 

6% 

40% 

Owens State Community 

College 

Main 

High School 

1,450 

0% 

100% 

0% 

0% 

0% 

Owens State Community 

College 

Main 

Undergraduate 

13,763 

0% 

47% 

43% 

9% 

52% 

Owens State Community 

College 

Branch 

High School 







Owens State Community 

College 

Branch 

Undergraduate 







Rio Grande Community 

College 

Main 

High School 

107 

0% 

100% 

0% 

0% 

0% 


48 


STUDENT SUCCESS for ADULT LEARNERS 




APPENDICES 


Institution 

Main or 

Branch 

Campus 

Program Level 

Total 

Age 

Missing 

Younger 

than 25 

Between 

25 and 44 

Older 

than 44 

25 and 

older 

Rio Grande Community 

College 

Main 

Undergraduate 

1,624 

1% 

61% 

33% 

6% 

39% 

Shawnee State University 

Main 

High School 

135 

1% 

98% 

0% 

1% 

1% 

Shawnee State University 

Main 

Undergraduate 

4,097 

0% 

77% 

19% 

4% 

23% 

Shawnee State University 

Main 

Graduate/Professional 

88 

0% 

42% 

53% 

5% 

58% 

Sinclair Community 

College 

Main 

High School 

1,510 

0% 

100% 

0% 

0% 

0% 

Sinclair Community 

College 

Main 

Undergraduate 

21,343 

0% 

43% 

37% 

20% 

57% 

Southern State 

Community College 

Main 

High School 

424 

0% 

100% 

0% 

0% 

0% 

Southern State 

Community College 

Main 

Undergraduate 

2,007 

0% 

51% 

39% 

9% 

48% 

Southern State 

Community College 

Branch 

High School 







Southern State 

Community College 

Branch 

Undergraduate 







Stark State College of 

Technology 

Main 

High School 

2,315 

0% 

100% 

0% 

0% 

0% 

Stark State College of 

Technology 

Main 

Undergraduate 

12,648 

0% 

39% 

48% 

13% 

60% 

University ofToledo 

Main 

High School 

3,526 

0% 

100% 

0% 

0% 

0% 

University ofToledo 

Main 

Undergraduate 

12,609 

0% 

78% 

18% 

4% 

21% 

University ofToledo 

Main 

Graduate/Professional 

4,679 

0% 

34% 

59% 

8% 

66% 

Terra State Community 

College 

Main 

High School 

565 

0% 

100% 

0% 

0% 

0% 

Terra State Community 

College 

Main 

Undergraduate 

2,333 

0% 

44% 

46% 

10% 

56% 

Washington State 

Community College 

Main 

High School 

557 

1% 

99% 

0% 

0% 

0% 

Washington State 

Community College 

Main 

Undergraduate 

1,230 

0% 

61% 

32% 

7% 

39% 

Wright State University 

Main 

High School 

262 

0% 

100% 

0% 

0% 

0% 

Wright State University 

Main 

Undergraduate 

12,293 

0% 

77% 

20% 

3% 

22% 

Wright State University 

Main 

Graduate/Professional 

3,889 

1% 

29% 

59% 

11% 

71% 

Wright State University 

Branch 

High School 

238 

0% 

100% 

0% 

0% 

0% 

Wright State University 

Branch 

Undergraduate 

937 

0% 

74% 

22% 

4% 

26% 

Wright State University 

Branch 

Graduate/Professional 

37 

0% 

27% 

57% 

16% 

73% 

Youngstown State 

University 

Main 

High School 

342 

1% 

99% 

0% 

0% 

0% 

Youngstown State 

University 

Main 

Undergraduate 

11,806 

0% 

73% 

22% 

4% 

26% 

Youngstown State 

University 

Main 

Graduate/Professional 

1,215 

0% 

24% 

61% 

14% 

76% 


8 th REPORT on the CONDITION OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN OHIO 


49 



APPENDICES 


Cohort Analysis: Ohio Public Universities (2008) 



All students first enrolled at the 
institution in Autumn 2008 

Students first enrolled in the 
institution who are new to any 
undergraduate program in Autumn 
2008 

Institution 

Age 

Students 

Enrolled 

Bachelor's 
degree 
within 6 

years 

Any 

degree or 
certificate 
within 6 

years 

Students 

Enrolled 

Bachelor's 
degree 
within 6 

years 

Any degree 
or certificate 
within 6 years 

State of Ohio 

Younger than 25 

59,340 

54% 

58% 

47,230 

53% 

57% 

State of Ohio 

25 to 44 

5,003 

28% 

39% 

1,617 

8% 

18% 

State of Ohio 

Older than 44 

941 

22% 

33% 

293 

6% 

17% 

State of Ohio 

25 and Older 

5,944 

27% 

38% 

1,910 

8% 

18% 

State of Ohio 

Age Missing 

13 

23% 

23% 

9 

22% 

22% 

University of Akron 

Younger than 25 

5,262 

40% 

47% 

4,245 

40% 

46% 

University of Akron 

25 to 44 

465 

21% 

36% 

146 

10% 

23% 

University of Akron 

Older than 44 

79 

22% 

33% 

14 

0% 

29% 

University of Akron 

25 and Older 

544 

21% 

36% 

160 

9% 

23% 

Bowling Green State University 

Younger than 25 

3,986 

56% 

60% 

3,449 

54% 

59% 

Bowling Green State University 

25 to 44 

239 

28% 

37% 

104 

8% 

16% 

Bowling Green State University 

Older than 44 

40 

20% 

32% 

19 

0% 

16% 

Bowling Green State University 

25 and Older 

279 

27% 

36% 

123 

7% 

16% 

University of Cincinnati 

Younger than 25 

6,158 

49% 

56% 

4,722 

47% 

54% 

University of Cincinnati 

25 to 44 

757 

24% 

40% 

256 

4% 

20% 

University of Cincinnati 

Older than 44 

169 

21% 

31% 

61 

0% 

11% 

University of Cincinnati 

25 and Older 

926 

24% 

39% 

317 

3% 

18% 

Cleveland State University 

Younger than 25 

1,762 

52% 

56% 

948 

40% 

45% 

Cleveland State University 

25 to 44 

424 

48% 

54% 

77 

5% 

16% 

Cleveland State University 

Older than 44 

109 

35% 

38% 

50 

8% 

10% 

Cleveland State University 

25 and Older 

533 

45% 

50% 

127 

6% 

13% 

Central State University 

Younger than 25 

720 

24% 

25% 

632 

23% 

24% 

Central State University 

25 to 44 

36 

28% 

28% 

5 

20% 

20% 

Central State University 

Older than 44 

10 

40% 

40% 




Central State University 

25 and Older 

46 

30% 

30% 

5 

20% 

20% 

Kent State University 

Younger than 25 

598 

21% 

35% 

5,154 

47% 

51% 

Kent State University 

25 to 44 

97 

22% 

41% 

268 

10% 

21% 

Kent State University 

Older than 44 

2 

50% 

50% 

37 

14% 

27% 

Kent State University 

25 and Older 

99 

22% 

41% 

305 

11% 

22% 

Miami University 

Younger than 25 

5,146 

68% 

69% 

4,538 

70% 

71% 

Miami University 

25 to 44 

260 

19% 

32% 

115 

8% 

17% 

Miami University 

Older than 44 

30 

10% 

47% 

4 

0% 

25% 

Miami University 

25 and Older 

290 

18% 

34% 

119 

8% 

17% 

Ohio State University 

Younger than 25 

11,598 

70% 

73% 

9,108 

71% 

74% 

Ohio State University 

25 to 44 

643 

39% 

49% 

61 

15% 

30% 

Ohio State University 

Older than 44 

109 

23% 

28% 

4 

25% 

25% 

Ohio State University 

25 and Older 

752 

37% 

46% 

65 

15% 

29% 


50 


STUDENT SUCCESS for ADULT LEARNERS 



APPENDICES 




All students first enrolled at the 
institution in Autumn 2008 

Students first enrolled in the 
institution who are new to any 
undergraduate program in Autumn 
2008 

Institution 

Age 

Students 

Enrolled 

Bachelor's 
degree 
within 6 

years 

Any 

degree or 
certificate 
within 6 

years 

Students 

Enrolled 

Bachelor's 
degree 
within 6 

years 

Any degree 
or certificate 
within 6 years 

Ohio University 

Younger than 25 

6,022 

61% 

65% 

4,637 

60% 

64% 

Ohio University 

25 to 44 

505 

19% 

31% 

235 

8% 

17% 

Ohio University 

Older than 44 

112 

13% 

24% 

60 

5% 

13% 

Ohio University 

25 and Older 

617 

18% 

30% 

295 

7% 

16% 

Shawnee State University 

Younger than 25 

1,058 

28% 

38% 

929 

26% 

35% 

Shawnee State University 

25 to 44 

102 

23% 

33% 

64 

14% 

20% 

Shawnee State University 

Older than 44 

7 

14% 

29% 

4 

0% 

0% 

Shawnee State University 

25 and Older 

109 

22% 

33% 

68 

13% 

19% 

University ofToledo 

Younger than 25 

4,948 

47% 

50% 

3,995 

46% 

49% 

University ofToledo 

25 to 44 

355 

32% 

41% 

54 

11% 

17% 

University ofToledo 

Older than 44 

86 

20% 

30% 

4 

0% 

0% 

University ofToledo 

25 and Older 

441 

29% 

39% 

58 

10% 

16% 

Wright State University 

Younger than 25 

3,755 

46% 

50% 

3,107 

44% 

48% 

Wright State University 

25 to 44 

302 

38% 

47% 

53 

8% 

25% 

Wright State University 

Older than 44 

44 

34% 

39% 

4 

25% 

50% 

Wright State University 

25 and Older 

346 

38% 

46% 

57 

9% 

26% 

Youngstown State University 

Younger than 25 

2,353 

37% 

42% 

1,975 

35% 

40% 

Youngstown State University 

25 to 44 

318 

15% 

23% 

181 

6% 

10% 

Youngstown State University 

Older than 44 

50 

12% 

26% 

32 

9% 

28% 

Youngstown State University 

25 and Older 

368 

15% 

23% 

213 

6% 

13% 


8 th REPORT on the CONDITION OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN OHIO 


51 



APPENDICES 


Cohort Analysis: Ohio Community Colleges (2008) 







Students first enrolled in the 



All students first enrolled at the 

institution who are new to any 



institution in Autumn 2008 

undergraduate program in Autumn 







2008 


Institution 

Age 

Students 

Enrolled 

Bachelor's 
degree 
within 6 

years 

Any 

degree or 
certificate 
within 6 

years 

Students 

Enrolled 

Bachelor's 
degree 
within 6 

years 

Any degree 
or certificate 
within 6 years 


State of Ohio 

Younger than 25 

33,278 

14% 

24% 

25,668 

13% 

22% 

State of Ohio 

25 to 44 

11,265 

13% 

19% 

7,574 

10% 

15% 

State of Ohio 

Older than 44 

3,050 

11% 

14% 

2,017 

8% 

11% 

State of Ohio 

25 or older 

14,315 

13% 

18% 

9,591 

10% 

14% 

State of Ohio 

Age Missing 

112 

1% 

4% 

95 

1% 

5% 

BelmontTechnical College 

Younger than 25 

391 

27% 

31% 

306 

25% 

29% 

BelmontTechnical College 

25 to 44 

123 

20% 

23% 

71 

15% 

18% 

BelmontTechnical College 

Older than 44 

31 

23% 

29% 

18 

22% 

28% 

BelmontTechnical College 

25 or older 

154 

21% 

24% 

89 

17% 

20% 

Clark State Community College 

Younger than 25 

732 

10% 

19% 

532 

9% 

17% 

Clark State Community College 

25 to 44 

305 

17% 

24% 

137 

12% 

18% 

Clark State Community College 

Older than 44 

74 

15% 

18% 

28 

18% 

18% 

Clark State Community College 

25 or older 

379 

16% 

23% 

165 

13% 

18% 

Cincinnati State Tech. & Community 

College 

Younger than 25 

1,633 

17% 

24% 

1,005 

16% 

21% 

Cincinnati State Tech. & Community 

College 

25 to 44 

629 

15% 

21% 

158 

19% 

25% 

Cincinnati State Tech. & Community 

College 

Older than 44 

238 

8% 

10% 

20 

20% 

25% 

Cincinnati State Tech. & Community 

College 

25 or older 

867 

13% 

18% 

178 

19% 

25% 

Central OhioTechnical College 

Younger than 25 

599 

24% 

29% 

405 

22% 

26% 

Central OhioTechnical College 

25 to 44 

330 

28% 

33% 

149 

19% 

24% 

Central OhioTechnical College 

Older than 44 

66 

29% 

32% 

21 

33% 

33% 

Central OhioTechnical College 

25 or older 

396 

29% 

33% 

170 

21% 

25% 

Columbus State Community College 

Younger than 25 

5,034 

12% 

29% 

3,965 

11% 

25% 

Columbus State Community College 

25 to 44 

1,252 

13% 

23% 

762 

9% 

16% 

Columbus State Community College 

Older than 44 

243 

12% 

18% 

166 

8% 

13% 

Columbus State Community College 

25 or older 

1,495 

13% 

22% 

928 

9% 

16% 

Cuyahoga Community College 

Younger than 25 

4,962 

7% 

19% 

3,886 

5% 

15% 

Cuyahoga Community College 

25 to 44 

1,779 

9% 

16% 

1,397 

4% 

11% 

Cuyahoga Community College 

Older than 44 

511 

6% 

10% 

440 

2% 

6% 

Cuyahoga Community College 

25 or older 

2,290 

8% 

15% 

1,837 

4% 

9% 

Edison State Community College 

Younger than 25 

522 

18% 

29% 

394 

18% 

27% 

Edison State Community College 

25 to 44 

213 

20% 

25% 

152 

14% 

20% 

Edison State Community College 

Older than 44 

72 

7% 

8% 

62 

6% 

6% 

Edison State Community College 

25 or older 

285 

16% 

21% 

214 

12% 

16% 


52 


STUDENT SUCCESS for ADULT LEARNERS 



APPENDICES 







Students first enrolled in the 



All students first enrolled at the 

institution who are new to any 



institution in Autumn 2008 

undergraduate program in Autumn 







2008 


Institution 

Age 

Students 

Enrolled 

Bachelor's 
degree 
within 6 

years 

Any 

degree or 
certificate 
within 6 

years 

Students 

Enrolled 

Bachelor's 
degree 
within 6 

years 

Any degree 
or certificate 
within 6 years 


HockingTechical College 

Younger than 25 

1,542 

22% 

28% 

1,121 

20% 

25% 

HockingTechical College 

25 to 44 

326 

21% 

23% 

227 

17% 

19% 

HockingTechical College 

Older than 44 

72 

22% 

24% 

47 

11% 

11% 

HockingTechical College 

25 or older 

398 

21% 

23% 

274 

16% 

18% 

Jefferson Community College 

Younger than 25 

440 

18% 

28% 

305 

19% 

28% 

Jefferson Community College 

25 to 44 

93 

22% 

28% 

72 

19% 

25% 

Jefferson Community College 

Older than 44 

17 

29% 

29% 

11 

9% 

9% 

Jefferson Community College 

25 or older 

110 

23% 

28% 

83 

18% 

23% 

Lorain County Community College 

Younger than 25 

1,875 

15% 

32% 

1,706 

14% 

30% 

Lorain County Community College 

25 to 44 

421 

16% 

24% 

386 

14% 

22% 

Lorain County Community College 

Older than 44 

99 

7% 

12% 

82 

6% 

11% 

Lorain County Community College 

25 or older 

520 

14% 

21% 

468 

13% 

20% 

Lakeland Community College 

Younger than 25 

1,924 

16% 

28% 

1,637 

16% 

28% 

Lakeland Community College 

25 to 44 

482 

12% 

16% 

318 

9% 

12% 

Lakeland Community College 

Older than 44 

130 

11% 

15% 

95 

8% 

13% 

Lakeland Community College 

25 or older 

612 

11% 

16% 

413 

9% 

12% 

James A. Rhodes State College 

Younger than 25 

632 

27% 

36% 

463 

26% 

34% 

James A. Rhodes State College 

25 to 44 

216 

21% 

32% 

127 

20% 

30% 

James A. Rhodes State College 

Older than 44 

35 

37% 

43% 

20 

30% 

35% 

James A. Rhodes State College 

25 or older 

251 

24% 

33% 

147 

21% 

31% 

Zane State College 

Younger than 25 

421 

34% 

38% 

305 

30% 

31% 

Zane State College 

25 to 44 

163 

34% 

36% 

141 

30% 

33% 

Zane State College 

Older than 44 

41 

46% 

49% 

32 

47% 

47% 

Zane State College 

25 or older 

204 

37% 

39% 

173 

34% 

35% 

MarionTechnical College 

Younger than 25 

362 

28% 

35% 

269 

26% 

33% 

MarionTechnical College 

25 to 44 

165 

35% 

38% 

148 

32% 

34% 

MarionTechnical College 

Older than 44 

36 

22% 

22% 

31 

23% 

23% 

MarionTechnical College 

25 or older 

201 

33% 

35% 

179 

30% 

32% 

North Central State College 

Younger than 25 

603 

15% 

22% 

423 

13% 

20% 

North Central State College 

25 to 44 

174 

18% 

23% 

97 

14% 

18% 

North Central State College 

Older than 44 

37 

14% 

14% 

21 

19% 

19% 

North Central State College 

25 or older 

211 

18% 

21% 

118 

15% 

18% 

Northwest State Community College 

Younger than 25 

547 

20% 

31% 

520 

20% 

31% 

Northwest State Community College 

25 to 44 

223 

7% 

9% 

214 

7% 

8% 

Northwest State Community College 

Older than 44 

82 

9% 

11% 

81 

9% 

11% 

Northwest State Community College 

25 or older 

305 

7% 

9% 

295 

7% 

9% 

Owens State Community College 

Younger than 25 

3,906 

9% 

18% 

3,374 

7% 

16% 

Owens State Community College 

25 to 44 

1,697 

5% 

9% 

1,396 

3% 

6% 

Owens State Community College 

Older than 44 

547 

4% 

6% 

500 

2% 

4% 

Owens State Community College 

25 or older 

2,244 

5% 

8% 

1,896 

3% 

5% 


8 th REPORT on the CONDITION OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN OHIO 


53 




APPENDICES 


All students first enrolled at the 
institution in Autumn 2008 

Students first enrolled in the 
institution who are new to any 
undergraduate program in Autumn 
2008 

Institution 

Age 

Students 

Enrolled 

Bachelor's 
degree 
within 6 

years 

Any 

degree or 
certificate 
within 6 

years 

Students 

Enrolled 

Bachelor's 
degree 
within 6 

years 

Any degree 
or certificate 
within 6 years 

Rio Grande Community College 

Younger than 25 

416 

15% 

25% 

416 

15% 

25% 

Rio Grande Community College 

25 to 44 

120 

30% 

32% 

120 

30% 

32% 

Rio Grande Community College 

Older than 44 

39 

21% 

21% 

39 

21% 

21% 

Rio Grande Community College 

25 or older 

159 

28% 

30% 

159 

28% 

30% 

Sinclair Community College 

Younger than 25 

3,078 

16% 

27% 

1,633 

16% 

24% 

Sinclair Community College 

25 to 44 

1,101 

16% 

23% 

511 

16% 

19% 

Sinclair Community College 

Older than 44 

386 

11% 

13% 

99 

16% 

20% 

Sinclair Community College 

25 or older 

1,487 

15% 

20% 

610 

16% 

19% 

Southern State Community College 

Younger than 25 

407 

20% 

25% 

346 

19% 

24% 

Southern State Community College 

25 to 44 

152 

24% 

27% 

110 

25% 

26% 

Southern State Community College 

Older than 44 

44 

23% 

27% 

31 

26% 

26% 

Southern State Community College 

25 or older 

196 

24% 

27% 

141 

25% 

26% 

Stark State College ofTechnology 

Younger than 25 

2,963 

9% 

18% 

2,340 

9% 

17% 

Stark State College ofTechnology 

25 to 44 

1,060 

8% 

14% 

667 

7% 

12% 

Stark State College ofTechnology 

Older than 44 

180 

9% 

13% 

113 

11% 

14% 

Stark State College ofTechnology 

25 or older 

1,240 

8% 

14% 

780 

8% 

13% 

Terra State Community College 

Younger than 25 

420 

19% 

25% 

407 

19% 

24% 

Terra State Community College 

25 to 44 

167 

14% 

23% 

167 

14% 

23% 

Terra State Community College 

Older than 44 

33 

21% 

27% 

33 

21% 

27% 

Terra State Community College 

25 or older 

200 

16% 

23% 

200 

16% 

23% 

Washington State Community 

College 

Younger than 25 

395 

26% 

32% 

335 

25% 

32% 

Washington State Community 

College 

25 to 44 

123 

19% 

24% 

75 

15% 

21% 

Washington State Community 

College 

Older than 44 

43 

12% 

12% 

29 

3% 

3% 

Washington State Community 

College 

25 or older 

166 

17% 

21% 

104 

12% 

16% 


54 


STUDENT SUCCESS for ADULT LEARNERS 




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