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Universal Journal of Educational Research 4(8): 1753-1756, 2016 
DOl: 10.13189/ujer.2016.040802 


http://www.hrpub.org 


Media Education in Kazakhstan: Work Experience 

Akhmetova Laila 


Department of Journalism, Kazakh National University al-Farabi, Kazakhstan 


Copyright©2016 by authors, all rights reserved. Authors agree that this article remains permanently open access under the 
terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International License 


Abstract In the Republic of Kazakhstan in 2012 started 
work on formation of literacy in the field of media 
education for journalists, educators, and youth. Studied 
publishing foreign scientists, work experience in different 
countries, manuals, seminars and workshops, publishes 
scientific works in the Kazakh and Russian languages, and 
considers issues of media education in social networks on 
scientific, methodical and practical conferences. 
Development of complex measures on improvement of 
media education in Kazakhstan. Project goal: development 
of methodical materials on the formation of literacy in the 
field of media education in Kazakhstan for training target 
groups and informing the public. 

Keywords Media, Media Education, Kazakhstan, Youth, 
Literacy, Education, Training, Information, Teachers, 
Journalists, NGOs, Civil Society 


1. Introduction 

The problem of training of citizens of the country and, first 
of all, journalists has arisen with creation of the sovereign 
state, that is 25 years ago, since the end of 1991 when there 
was a demolition of the Soviet system. Having become the 
sovereign country, Kazakhstan needed to change ideology. 
And it has appeared rather not easy as the Soviet ideology 
has been introduced in minds of people of nearly 70 years. It 
was difficult for all generations of people, but it was 
necessary to learn, first of all, the younger generation of the 
country to different views, not it to what presented it and 
teachers who had to train youth. 

Practically this process goes still. Though the senior 
generation which has still met independence of the country 
has already left, and all have ceased to look back at the 
Soviet past. At the same time, on many questions the senior 
generation couldn't pass on positive experience and XX 
century times. Revival and comprehension of the past has 
just now begun. And adequate comprehension, that is taking 
into account both negative, and positive sides. Naturally, 
there were always many questions in the field of ideology. 


There are problems and today. 

1. The tasks facing Kazakhstan in the field of training 
by means of media 

2. Transfer of all country to new information 
technologies 

3. Ethics and the principles of modern journalists 
according to the international standards 

4. Work in online mode 

5. Efficiency, relevance, novelty of information 

6. Use of new technologies in work of media 

2. Methods 

Methodology of comparative-historical research, 
methodology and equipment of sociological research, social 
forecasting and design, system and structurally functional 
approach in a combination to a comparative-historical 
method and the analysis of statistical data, and also studying 
of the official documents characterizing policy of the 
international community and the Kazakhstan state, legal 
regulation, etc. Use of advantages of interdisciplinary 
methodology, mathematical and statistical methods and 
software of processing of social information, the content 
analysis and the qualitative analysis of documents, methods 
of comparative researches is supposed also. 

3. The Historical Background of 
Training by Means of Media in 
Kazakhstan 

As the system of media education got its direction and 
development of just over two or three decades ago. Of course, 
we can speak about the role of cinema, radio, television, 
press. But, in studying the trends in the 20th century, we are 
not so much talked about education, how drew attention to 
the ideological component. In the Soviet Union was 
preparing ideologists of journalists, film Directors, script 
writers, writers and specialists in other Humanities. And at 
the faculty of journalism were the most strict rules, because, 
at the greatest competition during admission to the 
profession, was also a serious ideological selection. Only, 



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Media Education in Kazakhstan: Work Experience 


for example, in 1971 for the first time in Kazakhstan were 
adopted at the journalism faculty of the Germans of the 
Soviet origin, Crimean Tatars, Chechens and other peoples 
who once exiled to Kazakhstan. Until this year, they simply 
didn't accept the documents for the competition, that is, 
people of certain nationalities simply could not get higher 
education in the field of media. 

Yes, and the distribution of graduates at the time was strict 
and demanding, and the work went there, which divided the 
party of Communists. Journalists are the only subject, which 
were distributed by the Central Committee of the 
Communist party of Kazakhstan. The same situation existed 
in the Soviet Union, therefore, to speak of media education 
for everyone not accounted for. Naturally, there were no 
experts in this sector. Yes, and the word of the media was not 
used neither in the everyday life of ordinary people, neither 
in the scientific community, because it just wasn't there. 
Before the entire media industry like structure wore a loud 
and terrible name - media and propaganda, where advocacy 
was given more space than information. 

The first steps media did in the mid 90-ies. It was 
mentioned very rarely. Basically, specialists from abroad, 
rarely coming to us. These were journalists, researchers, 
businessmen, teachers. In the second half of the 90-ies of the 
20th century the term media began to appear in the 
environment of training and awareness-raising workshops 
for civil society leaders and journalists. 

In the 90th years of the XX century early studies in the 
field of media already from the point of view of new views 
on the world have appeared. The Soviet ideology hardly left, 
practices of what occurred at that time appear. There were 
failures, but more nevertheless there was an analysis of what 
was available in the present. Different views were allowed. 
There are rudiments of democracy and the beginning of civil 
society. 

We get acquainted with words transparency, tolerance. A 
gender desperately we confuse the tender to the word. And 
many know that, other word. 

In the mid-nineties through the trainings organized by the 
international funds and embassies of the western countries 
many leaders of non-governmental organizations are trained 
in ways of the prevention and resolution of conflicts, 
fundraising, leadership skills, work with media, the 
organization and holding press conferences, writing of press 
releases. 

New programs at faculty of journalism in Al-Farabi 
Kazakh National University are at the same time developed. 
I am proud of the fact that in the second half of the 90th years 
of the XX century for the first time in Kazakhstan "The 
conflict science for journalists", "Management of mass 
media", "Marketing of mass media", "Psychology in mass 
media" began to read disciplines. 

At the same time at that time passions are raging in the 
media space. There are conflicts of interests between the 
senior and young generations, we call them the conflicts of 
fathers and children, between Kazakh-speaking and 
Russian-speaking journalism, they began to go the in the 


way left from each other more and more. There are on an 
advancing private channels, they represent the worthy 
competition to public channels. The question of public 
television is discussed. The Kazakhstan press club, a bit later 
the National press club and other media public organizations 
are created. 

By 2000, everyone began to talk about it and at the faculty 
of journalism and the departments of other universities, 
where there is a preparation on a specialty "Journalist". 

In 2003 the department of management and advertising at 
faculty of journalism of Al-Farabi Kazakh National 
University has opened. The journalistic specialty becomes 
not only creative. It includes economy questions, then 
management, marketing, advertising. We begin to 
understand that the economic component in journalism gives 
freedom of speech and actions. The understanding that 
journalism is a dangerous profession comes. Legal 
knowledge and new skills are necessary to protect yourself 
and the edition. 

Moreover, gradually began to learn to speak in the 
scientific and educational environment professionals: 
journalists, political scientists, teachers, philologists, 
psychologists, etc. Today, practically all speak of the media 
to the word and the word. Most often criticized, disliked, 
criticize, criticize, but in any case not afraid. For the 
published critical materials, if they have been confirmed, 
people fired from work, no matter what you took a place 
under the sun. This does not exist today. Today, anyone can 
count himself insulted and sue. And, most of all, wins, taking, 
for his offended the honor and dignity of millions of tenge. 
Media began to take the staff whole departments lawyers, 
without which they cannot exist. The paradox is that 
sometimes journalists less than lawyers. Yes and salary 
lawyers in media structures are much higher than journalists. 
This is a small prehistory media. We are about media 
education as the problem literally talking three or four years 
ago. And it's sad, because the world community is moving 
forward with rapid steps, and we are only beginning to 
approach this problem. Surprising that media education is 
perceived as in previous years, as the education of future 
journalists or as their professional development. When you 
start to explain and talk about this topic, people like you start 
to understand, but still dealing with the global theme, your 
own problems or lobbying on one issue or another, media 
education is pushed again and constantly on the next day, 
then when the time. But they had no time. It continued for 
several years. 

Perhaps due to the fact that this question is not active civil 
sector. Practically it was decided in 90-s and currently are 
solved now urgent topics of modern times. 

4. Look at This Issue Through the Prism 
of the International Community 

In the world for over two decades actively promoting the 
issues of media education in the understanding that has 



Universal Journal of Educational Research 4(8): 1753-1756, 2016 


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developed in modem society, thanks to new information 
technologies, the widespread use of the Internet, tolerance, 
transparency, freedom of speech and media. In Canada and 
Australia media education is already in the age when the 
child attends kindergarten. In the United States and Europe 
teach this in school. Russia introduced the education of 
teachers and as a specialty in higher education in 2000, and 
in 2002 introduced the subject in average education link. In 
Russia published thousands of articles, several dozens of 
textbooks, there are magazines, defended the thesis and PhD 
thesis [1], In Kyrgyzstan, a more active civil society leaders, 
which talked about it and carried out various kinds of 
educational seminars and trainings. In Kazakhstan they went 
another way [2]. To say that the issues of media education is 
not engaged, it is impossible, because a number of issues are 
solved, but the system and gradual introduction of media 
education in youth. 

Let me explain with examples. 

For 4 year I leaded a project of the Ministry of education 
and science of the Republic of Kazakhstan "Development of 
technologies of media education for the formation of 
intellectual potential of the country". About the work on the 
project told on the website of the Kazakh school of socially 
responsible journalism [3]. A small team was made a certain 
amount of work: identification of the main functions of 
network technologies and their influence on the formation of 
the ideological context of modern culture in the context of 
the problems of media education. Conceptual bases of 
formation of media protection. A comparative study of the 
international experience in the field of media and 
information literacy. The developed scientific-methodical, 
scientific-practical recommendations on the formation of 
media literacy of Kazakhstan youth [4]. 

Summarize the results of a comprehensive analysis of the 
current state and prospects of development of modern media 
education in Kazakhstan in the light of the basic principles of 
the formation of an intellectual nation. It was carried out a 
comprehensive study aimed at disclosure of the contents of 
the basic concepts characterizing the process of the 
formation of the global information society and the 
description of the structure of modern information and 
communication space of Kazakhstan; published analysis of 
communicative space of Kazakhstan in the context of the 
problems of media education development. A sociological 
analysis of the impact of the Kazakhstan media technologies 
and media on the mass consciousness of the population 
studied media preferences modern youth audience to take 
account of the age and ideological peculiarities in the use of 
technologies of the education, development and 
concretization of the methodological approaches to media 
literacy in the environment of Kazakh youth. There is a 
studying of existing models and technologies of media 
education and elaboration of recommendations on 
introduction of principles of media literacy at various levels 
of the modern educational system of Kazakhstan. Conducted 
the identification of the main theoretical and methodological 


concepts in the Kazakh media education, which can be a 
promising basis for the further successful development of an 
intellectual nation. 

The scientists, members of the project of media education 
in Kazakhstan acted as the organizers of the international and 
Republican conferences, actively participated in the joint 
projects and as participants of conferences, round tables, 
seminars and trainings. [5] Project participants published 
articles in foreign and Kazakhstani journals and conference 
proceedings [6], tutorials "media education in Kazakhstan" 
and "Press release. The press conference. Experience". [7] 
Thus, organized and carried out development of methodical 
materials on the formation of literacy in the field of media 
education in Kazakhstan for training target groups: 
journalists, teachers, youth and informing the public. 

Except the website we have pages of professionals on 
Facebook where we communicate - "UNESCO department 
on journalism and communication" and "Media and 
Information Literacy (MIL)" [8]. 

In 2015 the group of authors has published books: "Media 
education and media literacy: theory, methodology, 
practice" and "Media and information literacy". 

The first book was highly appreciated by UNESCO. The 
second book published for the first time in Kazakhstan in the 
form of comics on media and information literacy has been 
prepared by request of UNESCO in the Kazakh and Russian 
languages. 

Thus we carry out the international standards of UNESCO 
in the field of training of journalists. 

5. Results 

• educational and methodical materials according to the 
international standards will be developed; 

• the condition of a problem in Kazakhstan in the 
theory and practice will be studied; 

• informing of the public about media education; 

• stereotypes concerning media education will be 
changed; 

• target groups are trained; 

6. Conclusions 

Practical significance of the research lies in the possibility 
of the use of its results in the field of pedagogy, culture, 
history, journalists, political scientists, teachers, students and 
graduate students of universities, students. 

7. Recommendations 

The results of the research can be integrated in the 
educational and training processes. Kazakhstan's experience 
in media education can be represented in the international 
educational structures, the Bologna process in the CIS, 
countries of Central Asia. 



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Media Education in Kazakhstan: Work Experience 


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[3] The website of the Kazakhstan school of socially responsible 
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ps/295672907171311/ 

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Mettnao6pa30Banne h MeqnarpaMOTHOCTb: Teopna, 

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