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Interim Administrators in Higher Education: 
A National Study 


Marie Thielke Huff, Ph.D, M.S.W. 

Dean of the College of Health and Human Services 

Bowling Green State University 
100 Health and Human Services Building 
Bowling Green, Ohio 

Judy Neubrander, Ed.D., R.N. 

Director of the School of Nursing 
336 Health & Human Sciences Building 
Western Carolina University 
Cullowhee, North Carolina 

ABSTRACT 

The focus of this paper is on the roles and experiences of interim administrators in higher education. A survey was 
given to current and recent interim administrators in four-year public universities and colleges across the United 
States. The goals were to identify the advantages and disadvantages of using and serving as interims, and to solicit 
advicefor institutions and individuals who are considering the interim role. Results ofthe study indicate that partici¬ 
pants believe there are clear advantages to serving as an interim, such as gaining new skills and a broader perspective 
of the academic community, but there are also disadvantages, such as a loss ofscholarship time and loss of colleague 
relationships. This paper offers guidance for potential interims andfor the institutions where they are employed, as 
well as recommendations for future research. 


INTRODUCTION 

As the saying goes, “There is nothing permanent except 
change.” In the world of academia, change is a constant 
and with that change comes the need for interim leader¬ 
ship. Interims by definition are individuals who serve in 
a position on a temporary basis. Faculty agree to take on 
the interim administrative role for a number of different 
reasons, and the experiences of the interim are as diverse 
as the number of roles they fill. The focus of this paper is 
on the roles and experiences of interim administrators in 
higher education. A survey was given to current and re¬ 
cent interim administrators in four-year public universi¬ 
ties and colleges across the United States. The goal of the 
survey was to identify the advantages and disadvantages 
of using and serving as interims, and to provide advice for 
institutions and individuals who are considering the in¬ 
terim role. 

LITERATURE REVIEW 

There is a dearth of research and scholarly articles in the 
professional literature regarding the selection and imple¬ 
mentation of interim administrators in higher education. 
Although most of the published articles found on this 


topic were anecdotal and described the experiences of one 
or two individuals who served as interims, a number of 
themes emerged. First, many of the authors delineated 
the advantages and disadvantages for individuals who are 
serving as interims, as well as benefits and drawbacks for 
the department or institution using interim administra¬ 
tors (Huff & Neubrander, 2012; Munde, 2000). Most 
of the articles also provide tips for new interims (Rud, 
2004; Powers & Maghroori, 2006) as well as advice for 
the institution seeking to hire a temporary administra¬ 
tor (Thompson, Cooper & Ebbers, 2012; Barbieri, 2005). 
All of the articles found in the literature focused on the 
qualitative experiences of one or more individuals who 
had served as interim academic administrators, including 
chairs, deans, provosts and presidents. 

While individuals are frequently asked to accept an in¬ 
terim position with little notice or experience, some ad¬ 
vantages for individuals who agree to serve in this capacity 
include being able to “try out” the job and gain valuable 
experience before deciding whether or not to apply for the 
permanent administrative position (Huft & Neubrander, 
2012; Rud, 2004). Administrative experience attained 
as an interim can also help to prepare individuals who 
choose to apply for future administrative positions. In 


Journal of Academic Administration in Higher Education 


9 



Marie Thielke Huff & Judv Neubrander 


Interim Administrators in Higher Education: A National Study 


addition, serving in a leadership role provides individuals 
with a new perspective as they begin to view the university 
structure through a broader lens than was available with¬ 
in their previous roles (Huft & Neubrander, 2012; Rud, 
2004). Rud (2004) suggests that once individuals serve 
in an interim chair’s role, they learn to be less judgmental 
and more appreciative of the chair’s role when they return 
to faculty. Advantage identified for institutions that hire 
interims is that it allows others to observe the individu¬ 
als in these roles before hiring them into the permanent 
position (Vaillancourt, 2012; Rud 2004), it gives the 
university more time to conduct a thorough search (Bar- 
bieri, 2005) and provides the university with some salary 
savings as they conduct the search (Huft & Neubrander, 
2012 ). 

There are also numerous disadvantages for interim ad¬ 
ministrators cited in the literature. For example, some¬ 
times individuals are called upon to perform a wide range 
of administrative functions without managerial training 
or experience (Powers & Maghroori, 2006). Vaillan¬ 
court (2012) argues that too often “interims are treated 
like interims” and are not perceived as being qualified 
enough to be appointed to the permanent role. In addi¬ 
tion, interims are expected to make effective decisions 
that have both short and long-term implications for the 
academic unit without the luxury of having the time to 
build trust or long-term relationships with the faculty 
and staff. While interims will inevitably make mistakes, 
they may never have the chance to correct their mistakes 
or show the faculty and staff that they have learned from 
this experience because they are only in the position for a 
short time (Munde, 2000). Barbieri (2005) suggests that 
interims have a “short honeymoon period” because they 
are forced to work fast to get the job done. When describ¬ 
ing her experiences as an interim, Vaillancourt (2012) dis¬ 
cusses what she calls the “perils of interim appointments”. 
She argues that a major disadvantage for the interim who 
wants to be considered for the permanent position is the 
temptation to avoid making controversial decisions be¬ 
cause of the fear of how those choices will be perceived 
by those individuals who have influence over the hiring 
process. Having a policy that prevents the interim from 
applying for the permanent position or hiring interims 
from a professional firm are two alternative ways to ad¬ 
dress this potential conflict of interest (Munde, 2000). 
Anyaso (2009) discusses the use of former administrators 
who are able to “hit the ground running” since they have 
a good understanding of the position. Because these indi¬ 
viduals would not be applying for the permanent position, 
the institution is free to conduct a cleaner search and the 
interim can focus on helping the institution prepare for 
their new leadership. 


Munde (2000) describes the interim job responsibilities as 
being consumed by the routine tasks of leadership, which 
can be less rewarding than making and implementing 
long-term, strategic changes. He states that “leading in 
limbo is the hallmark of the interim experience.” In addi¬ 
tion, faculty and staff who are not in agreement with the 
interim’s vision may be content to “wait them out” until 
a permanent administrator is hired while others may see 
this as an opportunity to quickly push their own agen¬ 
das through the system (Huft & Neubrander, 2012; Rud, 
2004; Munde, 2000). 

The literature provides tips for new interim administra¬ 
tors based on the challenges experienced or observed by 
the authors. For example, several articles advise interims 
to focus on moving the institution forward and to fulfill 
their job roles as if they are in the permanent position 
(Thompson, Cooper Ebbers, 2012; Huft & Neubrander, 
2012; Powers, & Maghroori, 2006; Barbieri, 2005; Rud, 
2004). Simply serving as a placeholder administrator is 
rarely an option since interims are expected to make im¬ 
portant decisions and strategic hires that will have both 
long and short-term consequences for their departments. 
Some of the responsibilities of the interim are directly re¬ 
lated to their predecessors and the unpopular decisions 
that were made prior to them entering the interim posi¬ 
tion (Thompson, Cooper & Ebbers, 2012; Warner, 2009). 
In these situations interim administrators are advised to 
use this opportunity to help mend internal and external 
relationships and to facilitate healing among the unit’s 
faculty and staff. In their qualitative study of two interim 
presidents, Thompson, Cooper and Ebbers (2012) identi¬ 
fied some common themes related to repairing poor in¬ 
stitutional morale caused by the previous administrators. 
The authors suggest that interims should promote open¬ 
ness and transparency and seek the counsel of key stake¬ 
holders as they attempt to build cohesion and trust among 
the staff. Similarly, Rud (2000) states interims should 
consider setting up regular faculty conversations to “give 
the impression of stability among change.” Powers and 
Maghroori (2006) advise that it is important to remem¬ 
ber that socializing is part of the job and they encourage 
interims to spend time visiting faculty in their offices to 
build relationships and encourage open communication. 

The literature also provides some personal advice to inter¬ 
ims and other aspiring administrators. For example, the 
importance of being open to criticism and avoiding tak¬ 
ing things personally was suggested by several of the au¬ 
thors (Huft & Neubrander, 2012; Warner, 2009; Powers 
& Maghroori, 2006). Barbieri, (2005) posits that being an 
interim demands a “healthy dose of humility” because it 
is so easy to get hurt feelings when one is reminded of the 
search committee’s ongoing efforts to find a suitable re¬ 
placement. Interims sometimes hear some negative com¬ 


ments about their performance as a leader or previous de¬ 
cisions when they return to their original position (Rud, 
2004). When this happens it is helpful to remember two 
pieces of sage advice. First, as an interim you should “leave 
your heart at the door” and not take criticism personally 
and second, remember this is the job you signed up for 
and be ready to move on when your services are no longer 
needed (Huft & Neubrander, 2012; Barbieri, 2005). 

METHOD 

To find participants for this study a modified systematic 
sampling approach was conducted. After the research¬ 
ers obtained a list of all four-year public universities and 
colleges in the United States, approximately every tenth 
school was selected while also ensuring that every state was 
represented. A graduate assistant was assigned to call ad¬ 
ministrative assistants at those schools and/or to explore 
their web sites to ascertain the names of interim academic 
administrators at the selected institutions. A total of 201 
emails were sent to potential participants asking them to 
complete the survey in fall of 2013, with one email re¬ 
minder sent out three days later. The purpose of the study 
and an informed consent was included in the email. Nine 
emails “bounced back” and 99 (51%) of individuals who 
received the email completed the online survey. 

The survey questions were developed after the researchers 
conducted a small qualitative study of interim academic 
administrators in 2011. The survey focused on the per¬ 
ceived advantages and disadvantages of interim adminis¬ 
trators and for the department or unit where s/he was em¬ 
ployed. Other questions solicited advice for new interims 
while additional sections highlighted policy issues related 
to the hiring of interim administrators at their institu¬ 
tions. The information collected through this study can 
benefit individuals who are considering an interim role 
and will enable institutions to use interim academic ad- 
ministators more effectively as they develop more fair and 
consistent policies. 

PARTICIPANTS 

The participants were employed in a variety of adminis¬ 
trative roles, with 39% serving as interim dean, 26% as 
interim department head/chair and 11% as interrim pro¬ 
vost. Other interim positon titles included associate pro¬ 
vost, associate dean, director and chancellor. The major¬ 
ity (78%) of participants stated they were recruited and/ 
or asked to take on this role by higher administration, 
while 20% said they were in an assistant or associate posi¬ 
tion when they stepped into the interim role. The average 
length of time that participants served in the interim role 
at the time of the study ranged from six months to one 


Spring 2015 (Volume 11 Issue 1) 


year (39%) while 43% stated they were in the interim posi¬ 
tion for over a year. 

When asked what happened to their predecessors the par¬ 
ticipants gave a range of responses. Twenty-one percent 
stated that their predecessors left their university for an¬ 
other job, 20% reported that they had retired or resigned 
in good standing, 19% stated they were fired or asked to 
step down from the position and 16% stated their prede¬ 
cessors were promoted within the university. When asked 
if they plan to apply for the permanent position, 51% of 
the respondents said they were not applying while 11% 
said they had already applied. An additional 21% stated 
they were planning to apply and 25% indicated they were 
unsure as to whether or not they would apply for the per¬ 
manent role. 

RESULTS 

Policy Issues 

Few of the schools involved in this study have definitive 
policies related to the hiring of interim administrators. 
Only 31% of respondents said their schools had policies 
regarding the salaries provided to interim administra¬ 
tors and a small percentage (18%) said they had policies 
or guidelines related to the length of time one can serve 
in an interim role. There is also an absence of policies as 
to whether or not an individual serving in an interim role 
is allowed to apply for the permanent position, with 83% 
of respondents stating there was no policy to address this 
issue at their institution. When asked if their university 
tends to hire “internal” candidates into administrative 
positions, 67% of the respondents reported that those 
decisions tend to vary between positions, and only 9% of 
respondents indicated that this tendency had any influ¬ 
ence over their decision whether or not to apply for the 
position. There also seems to be a lack of clarity relating 
to the terms “acting” and “interim” and only 9% of the 
participants said their institution distinguishes between 
the titles of “acting” versus “interim” administrative titles. 

Disadvantages of Being in an Interim Role 

Participants were asked about some of the challenges or 
disadvantages they faced while serving in an interim role 
(see Table 1). Many (60%) of the participants agreed that 
being in an interim position limits one’s ability to do long¬ 
term strategic planning while about a third (34%) dis¬ 
agreed. Just over half (57%) of the participants indicated 
that it is a disadvantage when faculty/staff view interims 
as “temporary” while 21% disagreed with this statement. 
A majority (66%) of participants agreed that a disadvan¬ 
tage for individuals serving in an interim role is having to 


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Journal of Academic Administration in Higher Education 


11 



Marie Thielke Huff & Judv Neubrander 


Table 1 

Disadvantages of Being in an Interim Role ** 

A challenge or disadvantage of being in an interim role is... 

SA 

A 

N 

D 

SD 

Faculty/stafi tend to view you as “temporary.” 

13 

44 

21 

14 

6 

Faculty/staff seem to lack confidence in your ability to do the job. 

2 

20 

25 

38 

15 

It limits your ability to do long-term strategic planning. 

20 

40 

5 

26 

8 

Your concern that making tough decisions might negatively affect sup¬ 
port for you being selected the permanent position. 

12 

24 

18 

29 

17 

Faculty/staff are choosing to “wait you out” until you leave. 

7 

37 

21 

26 

9 

You make less money than you would in the “permanent” position. 

17 

25 

13 

29 

16 

Higher administration (e.g. Chancellor or President/Provost) does not 
acknowledge you as the “leader” of your unit. 

1 

12 

14 

40 

34 

It is difficult to build community relationships as an interim. 

6 

27 

17 

33 

17 

It is difficult to begin and follow through with initiatives to raise money 
because you are in an interim position. 

12 

30 

26 

29 

3 

Returning to a position with individuals whom you previously super¬ 
vised. 

7 

25 

28 

31 

8 

Having to put one’s own professional goals or scholarship on hold. 

20 

46 

9 

21 

3 

** Percentage of Respondents who selected strongly agree (SA), agree (A), neutral (N), disagree (D) or strongly 
disagree (SD) 


put one’s professional or scholarship goals on hold. While 
the participants did not seem as strongly concerned that 
there about the potential disadvantages for faculty and 
staff who are working under an interim administrator (see 
Table 2), 52% agreed that there is a sense of anxiety related 
to perceived instability of the unit among the faculty and 
staff when there is an interim administrator in place. 

An analysis of the narrative comments yielded some inter¬ 
esting themes related to the disadvantages for interim ad¬ 
ministrators. Several respondents described the extensive 
amount of work required for the interim while receiving 


only a minimal pay increase. For example, some of the re¬ 
spondents commented on how their workload increased 
because they were expected to continue to meet their pre¬ 
vious job responsibilities while also taking on new admin¬ 
istrative duties. One individual wrote that “it was a huge 
amount of work for no sustained appointment.” Others 
noted that their relationships with colleagues changed and 
this was seen as a loss. One respondent stated, “the biggest 
surprise was the change in attitude toward me by people I 
considered colleagues and friends. I also saw a very differ¬ 
ent side to people in the way they treated others.” Another 


Table 2 

Disadvantages for Faculty/Staff/Department ** 

A Disadvantage for faculty, staff, or departments who are working with an 
interim administrator is... 

SA 

A 

N 

D 

SD 

There is a sense of anxiety related to instability among the faculty/staff. 

7 

45 

28 

14 

6 

Programs cannot move forward with their own initiatives. 

1 

20 

19 

51 

9 

There is a lack of leadership within the department/unit. 

1 

10 

20 

51 

18 

There is perception that there is a lack of commitment to the depart¬ 
ment/unit from the interim administrators. 

2 

10 

19 

54 

15 

It contributes to low faculty/staff morale. 

1 

13 

23 

43 

17 

** Percentage of Respondents who selected strongly agree (SA), agree (A), neutral (N), disagree (D) or strongly 
disagree (SD) 


12 


Spring 2015 (Volume 11 Issue 1) 


Interim Administrators in Higher Education: A National Study 


challenge identified by respondents was the difficulty of 
working with a predecessor who is still employed at the 
institution and is unable to give up full control of the posi¬ 
tion. One respondent commented that it was a challenge 
because of the “inability of the person who formally held 
the job and is still on campus to ‘give up the reins.’” Last, 
respondents commented on the disadvantages associated 
with beginning a job with little training or preparation 
and/or with little institutional support, along with the 
perception that one is seen as “good enough to be interim 
but not good enough to be permanent.” 

Advantages of Being in an Interim Role 

Participants were asked several questions about the advan¬ 
tages of being in an interim role (see Table 3). Fifty-seven 
percent of respondents agreed that having an interim ad¬ 
ministrator allows for difficult decisions and changes to 
be made without compromising new long-term depart¬ 
mental leadership and 67% agreed that interims have the 


advantage of being able to resolve long standing issues 
before a permanent administrator is hired or begins. A 
large majority of respondents (81%) agreed that serving 
as an interim gives one an opportunity to “try out” the 
job before applying for it and 94% agreed that being in 
an interim roles gives one a broader university perspective 
and understanding regarding the politics of conducting 
university business. 

The participants were also questioned about the advan¬ 
tages for the faculty and staff who work with an interim 
administrator (Table 4). The majority (92%) of respon¬ 
dents agreed that having an opportunity to observe the in¬ 
terim’s leadership style and abilities was an advantage for 
the individuals who work with them. Most (89%) agreed 
that another advantage is that they are able to work with 
someone they already know and with whom they have a 
relationship. The majority (73%) also agreed that an ad¬ 
ditional advantage of using interims is that it give the 
institution more time to conduct a thorough job search 


Table 3 

Advantages of Being in an Interim Role ** 

An ADVANTAGE of being in an interim role is... 

SA 

A 

N 

D 

SD 

...difficult decisions and changes can be made without compromising 
new long-term departmental leadership 

5 

48 

24 

16 

0 

...you are able to resolve long standing issues before permanent adminis¬ 
trator is hired or begins. 

14 

49 

18 

12 

1 

...it gives you an opportunity to “try out” the job before applying for it. 

30 

47 

9 

6 

3 

...you are able to make more money than in your previous position. 

14 

48 

15 

11 

7 

...gives you a broader university perspective and understanding regarding 
the politics of conducting university business. 

44 

46 

4 

1 

0 

** Percentage of Respondents who selected strongly agree (SA), agree (A), neutral (N), disagree (D) or strongly dis¬ 
agree (SD) 


Table 4 

Advantages for Faculty/Staff/Department ** 

An ADVANTAGE for faculty/staff/departments who are working with an 
interim administrator is... 

SA 

A 

N 

D 

SD 

...it gives faculty/staff an opportunity to observe the interim’s leadership 
style/abilities. 

24 

62 

8 

0 

0 

...the faculty/staff already “know” the person in the interim role and/or 
have a relationship with that person. 

24 

50 

16 

3 

1 

...it gives the institution more time to perform a thorough job search 
while providing the university with some salary savings. 

17 

51 

17 

6 

1 

...it provides stability and continuity within the department/unit. 

16 

56 

18 

3 

1 

** Percentage of Respondents who selected strongly agree (SA), agree (A), neutral (N), disagree (D) or strongly dis¬ 
agree (SD) 


Journal of Academic Administration in Higher Education 


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Marie Thielke Huff & Judv Neubrander 


Interim Administrators in Higher Education: A National Study 


while providing the university with some salary savings. 
Last, the most participants agreed (77%) that having an 
interim administrator provides stability and continuity 
within the department or unit. 

The narrative comments concerning the advantages for 
the interim focused on the unique opportunity to try 
out the job. Skills acquired in the new position were seen 
as a great advantage along with exposure to a variety of 
administrators and deans. Several respondents indicated 
that serving in an interim role helps to prepare individuals 
for future administrative positions and gives them a dif¬ 
ferent university perspective. One respondent commented 
that having an interim in place gives the institution “time 
to conduct a proper search while providing a nice transi¬ 
tion from the old leadership to the new”. 

Advice for the Interim 

Respondents were asked an open-ended question about 
what advice they might give someone who is considering 
taking on an interim administrative role. The most fre¬ 
quent advice given was to focus on the job “as if you are 
not an interim”. One respondent stated, “act like you have 
the permanent job and make decisions for the long term 
and in the best interest of the organization.” New interims 
were advised to have a frank discussion with their college 
administrators regarding the job responsibilities, the in¬ 
terim salary and what will happen when the interim job is 
over. They advised that individuals need to ask themselves 
if this is a good lit for them in the long run and be ready to 
give up time that is normally spent focusing on one’s own 
scholarship. Many of the respondents commented that 
serving in an interim role can be a great learning experi¬ 
ence for the individual who is interested in applying for a 
future administrative position. 

DISCUSSION 

Taking on the role of an interim can be both an enriching 
and a disheartening experience influenced by a number of 
factors, including the circumstances that resulted in the 
need for an interim in the first place. For example, was is a 
planned exit where the predecessor left in good standing, 
or was it a sudden exit caused by an extreme event such as 
a firing, illness, death or a scandal? Was the predecessor a 
respected administrator who left the unit in good shape, 
or was s/he a poor manager who was reviled by the fac¬ 
ulty and staff? The extreme circumstances can result in an 
extra layer of work for interims. Not only do they have 
to learn on the job, but they have to potentially deal with 
grief or mistrust by the faculty and staff as they work to 
repair broken relationships and build cohesion and trust 
within the unit. The circumstances under which an in¬ 


terim takes over are significant and should be taken into 
consideration as one decides whether or not to take on the 
interim role. 

It is advisable for potential interims to ask for expectations 
in writing such as salary, length of position, option to ap¬ 
ply for the permanent position and details about how/if 
they might return to their previous position. All these 
particulars should be determined prior to taking the posi¬ 
tion. Individuals who neglect to attend to these details at 
the beginning of their term risk serving in the interim role 
for an extended period of time with a lower salary than is 
desirable, while putting one’s own professional goals and 
scholarship on hold. 

Individuals should decide if the opportunity to serve as 
an interim is a good fit for them depending where they 
are in their own career path. Becoming an interim takes 
a new mindset, and they have to function like they are in 
a permanent role while also keeping in mind that their 
days in this position are limited. Paradoxically, higher 
administration often expects interims to function as if 
they are the permanent administrator. For example, they 
may be charged with working with faculty on unit strate¬ 
gic plans knowing they are unlikely to be around to help 
implement it. Successful interims somehow find a way to 
balance these expectations while making the tough deci¬ 
sions, thinking long-term and implementing the job as 
if they are in the permanent role. In doing so, interims 
should know they also risk being unpopular and losing 
friendships among their colleagues. They also learn new 
perspectives related to the university structure and gain 
valuable skills as they prove to themselves and others that 
they can do the job effectively. They leave the position and 
the college/unit better than they found it. 

The results of the survey suggest that the interim position 
can be a big advantage to both the faculty member and 
to the university. It give both parties the chance to “test 
drive” the relationship without a long-term commitment. 
One should keep in mind that being an interim has its 
own unique challenges, including having to do the job in 
a short, time-limited period without the luxury of having 
time to nurture collegial relationships and build rapport. 
Also, every decision and mistake will be closely monitored 
by the unit faculty and staff which can put them some¬ 
what at a disadvantage if they are being compared to ex¬ 
ternal candidates who are also applying for the position. It 
can also be awkward as they go through the interviewing 
process. They should expect fewer people to show up for 
their presentation or open interviews than would come to 
meet with an external candidate who is not known to the 
faculty or staff'. 


LIMITATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR 
FUTURE RESEARCH 

A limitation of all survey research is the risk that those 
who had a very positive or negative experience may have 
decided not to participate in the study. In addition, some 
potential respondents may not have received the survey 
because they had left the position or the university before 
receiving the email request to participate in the study. 
There were also a number of questions that were not ad¬ 
dressed in the survey and some potential questions for fu¬ 
ture research are outlined below. 

► What percentage of interim administrators 
choose to resign if they are not selected for the 
permanent position, and what is the long-term 
impact on the university? 

► What impact does gender and ethnicity have 
on the selection of interims, their salaries and 
whether or not one is selected for the permanent 
position? 

► What percentage of universities have specific poli¬ 
cies related to the use of interim administrators, 
and how do these policies affect the individual 
interim and the institution? 

► At the end of the interim experience, whether or 
not one is selected as the successful candidate, it is 
helpful to remember that this is what you signed 
up for. It is important to effectively manage and 
make decisions that have long term impact on the 
unit, interims must also make personal prepara¬ 
tions for the position to end. One of the partici¬ 
pants of this study summed up the feelings of 
many of the respondents by stating, “the experi¬ 
ence was tough but rewarding. And I am glad it is 
over.” 

REFERENCES 

Anyaso, H. H. (2009). Interim expertise. Diverse Issues in 
Higher Education. 26(20). 14-15. 

Barbieri, R. (2005). Experience of an interim. Indepen¬ 
dent School Magazine, 64(2) 68-75. 

Huff, M. T. & Neubrander, J. (2012, August). Navigating 
the interim role and avoiding the traps and pitfalls. The 
Department Chair, 23(1). doi: 10.1002/dch 

Munde, G. (2000). My year as an interim: Six things I 
learned for free. College and Research Library News, 

51(5). 416-419. 


Spring 2015 (Volume 11 Issue 1) 


Powers, C. & Maghroori, R. (June 9, 2006). The acciden¬ 
tal administrator. Chronicle of Higher Education. C2- 
C9. 

Rud, A. (2004). The interim chair: Special challenges and 
opportunities. New Directions for Higher Education, 
126. 45-54. doi: 10.1002/he.l47 

Thompson, M., Cooper, R. & Ebbers, L. (2012) Presiden¬ 
tial transition: The experience of two college interim 
presidents. Community College Journal of Research and 
Practice, 36, 300-309. doi:10.1080/10668926.2012.63 
7869 

Vaillancourt, A. (January 13, 2012). The perils of interim 
appointments. Chronicle of Higher Education, 58(19). 
pA25-A25. 

Warner, J.R. (May 8, 2009). When the dean dies. Chroni¬ 
cle of Higher Education. A37-A39. 


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