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JOURNAL OF NEW APPROACHES IN EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH 

Vol. 6. No. 2. July 2017. pp. 159-164 ISSN: 2254-7339 DOI: 10.7821/naer.2017.7.249 


ORIGINAL 


Diagnosis of the Skills of the Master’s Degree: Case Study at 
the University Pablo of Olavide 

Eva Ordonez Olmedo 1 *©, Miguel Baldomero Ramfrez-Fernandez 2 

Postgraduate Studies Centre (CEDEP), Pablo de Olavide University (Seville), Spain {eordolm@acu.upo.es} 
2 Educacion and Social Psychology Department, Pablo de Olavide University (Seville), Spain {mbramfer@upo.es} 

Received on 13 May 2017; revised on 16 May 2017; accepted on 19 May 2017; published on 15 July 2017 

DOI: 10.7821/naer.2017.7.249 I fal jj|gjgjl 



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ABSTRACT 

The work team of the Postgraduate Studies Centre (henceforth 
CEDEP) of Pablo de Olavide University (henceforth UPO) has 
submitted a questionnaire in order to identify the training needs 
of the directors of the master’s degrees which are implemented in 
The UPO during the academic year 2016/2017. This article aims to 
analyze how the lessons are planned and how the acquisition of the 
competencies defined in each master’s degree are achieved, in or¬ 
der to assess the current situation and propose solutions for univer¬ 
sity quality improvement. This research presents a mixed design: 
quantitative and qualitative non-experimental descriptive through a 
questionnaire. Further to the study analysis conducted, the need to 
create a manual of recommended practice to arrange curricula by 
competencies at the master level is presented, as 62.16% of the 
participants reflect a great lack of knowledge about the theoretical 
description of the competencies classification and 73% support a 
complementary material need for the design of the curriculum. 

KEY WORDS: HIGHER EDUCATION, COMPETENCIES, MAS¬ 
TER’S DEGREE, UNIVERSITY CURRICULUM 

1 INTRODUCTION 

The implementation of the European Higher Education Area 
(henceforth EHEA) in official university master’s degrees warns 
that the didactic planning of a curriculum can not be restricted to 
distribute contents to different subjects in a schedule using the 
European Credits Transfer System (henceforth ECTS) as a count¬ 
ing system of the teaching activity. It is true that they have taken 
into account this situation and that they have designed working 
environments which deployinterconnected differential strategies 
conforming to planning based on competencies (Alvarez -Arregui, 
Rodriguez-Martin, Madrigal-Maldonado, Grossi-Sampedro, & 
Arreguit, 2017). However, university education still requires the 
improvement of innovative pedagogical processes and scientif¬ 
ic-technical development (Moreno-Murcia, Silveira, & Belando, 
2015). 

Designing a curriculum should start with necessary training on 
competencies by the persons in academic positions on the mas¬ 
ter’s degrees as agreed in the Bologna Declaration (1999). The 
competencies to be achieved in each master’s degree must subse¬ 
quently be established. The planning of each module, composed 


*To whom correspondence should be addressed: 
Pablo de Olavide Univertsity. 

Ctra. Utrerakm 1 CP: 41013 Seville 


of one or more subjects, requires a suitable teaching-learning 
methodology, as well as evaluation criteria and systems which 
verify its development for an appropriate acquisition. That is 
why a competency-based training model, where graduates build 
up their knowledge and achieve more complete professional and 
personal training (Fernandez-Jimenez, Polo, & Femandez-Cabe- 
zas, 2017), is defended. Thus, some teacher and student’s working 
modalities and methodologies, which are adequate for achieving 
the competencies and are proposed as learning goals (De Miguel, 
2006), should be designed. 

Accordingly, a questionnaire has been launched by the CEDEP 
in order to detect the training needs of the persons in academic 
positions on the master’s degrees implemented at the UPO in the 
academic year 2016/2017. 

The research study carried out aims to identify the structure 
of the current curricula of the official university masters’ degree 
submitted to verification (subject to verification?), to improve 
technical and academic advice on competencies given to the aca¬ 
demic commissions. 

This article analyzes how teaching is planned; focusing specifi¬ 
cally on how the acquisition of the competencies defined in each 
masters degree are guaranteed, in order to start from the current 
reality and to propose solutions for the improvement of future 
verification reports and university quality. Therefore, the question 
to be answered is: are university teachers trained to plan and teach 
a curriculum based on competencies? 

2 CONCEPTUALIZATION 

The concept of competence originates from the business environ¬ 
ment, but for several decades it has been used in the academic 
world (Aguaded-Gomez & Perez-Rodrlguez, 2012). In spite of 
the ambiguous and contradictory meanings attributed to this term, 
conducting a review of the most relevant contributions in this 
field is absolutely necessary. 

The term competence has several meanings and nowadays 
has become a frequently discussed concept among the differ¬ 
ent professionals of Higher Education (Ruiz, Rubia, Anguita, & 
Fernandez, 2010). This polysemy of meanings can give rise to 
free interpretations which could be due to the fact that in the doc¬ 
uments developed by the framework of the EHEA, the term is 
not correctly conceptually delimited (Angulo, 2008). This author 
points out that in the official documents (Sorbonne Declaration, 
Bologna Declaration, Prague Communique, Berlin Communique, 
Bergen Communique), it is referred to as competent authorities', 
as increasing competitiveness but not as competencies as it has 


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Ordonez, E.; J.; Ramirez, M. B. I Journal of New Approaches in Educational Research 6(2) 2017. 159-164 


recently been extended according to personal, professional, ed¬ 
ucational and contextual interests in which they are to be used 
(Perrenoud, 2004; Zabala & Arnau, 2007). Following Westera 
(2001)’s words, the competence construct is differently defined 
in many studies and the debate about its own definition continues. 

2.1 Competencies 

According to Zetina, Magana and Avendaiio (2017), competence 
in Higher Education is synonymous of qualification, since it gives 
a professional vision, a training to the students that enables them 
to put into practice their abilities, skills and knowledge required 
by the master’s degree for which they should be competent. 

Likewise, Posada (2004) states that the concept of competence 
is quite broad, since it integrates aspects such as knowledge, 
potential, ability, skills, practice and action of different kinds (per¬ 
sonal, collective, affective, social, cultural) in different learning 
and teaching scenarios. 

The executive summary elaborated by the Organization for 
Economic Cooperation and Development under the DeSeCo 
(Definition and Selection of Competencies) Project also indicates 
that “competence is more than knowledge and skill. It involves 
the ability to face complex requirements, drawing on knowledge 
and mobilizing psychosocial resources (including skills, abilities 
and attitudes) in a particular context” (OECD, 2006, p. 3). 

Other authors consider competencies as capacities that encom¬ 
pass knowledge, know-how and knowing how to be which must 
be developed and kept up-to-date in order to face reality from the 
initial training (Martinez, 2009). Therefore, several authors agree 
that competencies are made up by the linkages of knowledge, 
where the conception of the four knowledges are articulated: be¬ 
ing, knowing, doing and living together (Cabrera & Gonzalez, 
2006; Larrain & Gonzalez, 2005). 

Consequently, competencies are considered to be a synthesis 
of acquired knowledge, skills and attitudes. These are developed 
from integrative learning experiences in which knowledge and 
skills interact in order to give an efficient response to the task be¬ 
ing perfonned. Demonstrations involve the application of learned 
skills in specific contexts. 

Thus, Suarez (2005) points out that educating in competencies 
means educating in knowledge, directing them towards building 
people up in a broad and integral sense. That is why establish¬ 
ing the foundations and the satisfactory disciplinary deepening to 
ensure both personal and intellectual development develop in har¬ 
mony with the social demands and the labor market are necessary 
(Tejada & Ruiz, 2016). 

Finally, several references on the topic of competencies in the 
field of education can be found since the mid-1990s in expres¬ 
sions such as competency-based training, curricula established 
in competence-based approaches, as an alternative option to im¬ 
prove the academic training processes at basic education level, 
of the middle technician and professional with studies in Higher 
Education (Diaz, 2006). 

2.2 Competencies formulation 

Beyond the conceptual domain, as already mentioned, reaching 
an agreement on a competency profile developed in the university 
context does not seem to be a simple task. This section outlines 
the necessary parameters for competence formulation, support for 
the organization of curricula in Higher Education, specifically in 
postgraduate degrees at official university master’s level. 

Perrenoud (2004) makes explicit that competencies formula¬ 
tion is not an objective disposition, but it is a set of theoretical 


and ideological options and, therefore, leaves great room for in¬ 
terpretation. 

Training for competencies provides a management and devel¬ 
opment approach to lifelong learning in which learning is learned, 
transforming the reality in which one is immersed is tried, adapt¬ 
ing to social, productive, economic and technological changes 
(Hernandez, Martinez -Clares, Martinez-Juarez, & Monroy, 2009). 

As a summary, the following definition of competence is used 
as reference in future headings. It is used by the Directorate for 
Evaluation and Accreditation (henceforth DEVA) of the Andalu¬ 
sian Knowledge Agency: 

The set of knowledge, skills, and attitudes acquired or 
developed through coordinated formative experiences. 
These have the purpose of achieving functional knowl¬ 
edge which responds efficiently to a task or problem of 
daily and professional life, requiring a teaching-learn¬ 
ing process (DEVA, 2016, p. 46). 

Therefore, functional knowledge would be the learning out¬ 
comes derived from competencies. 

2.3 Competencies in Higher Education 

Prior to the EHEA institutionalization, curricula were organised 
by objectives, taking into account that these are intentions and 
purposes which serve as a reference to select training activities 
and contents for each subject. Through them, the formative pro¬ 
cess is defined. Therefore, they refer to the discipline content 
which was taught and they were directly related to the evaluation 
criteria (Merida & Garcia, 2005). 

On the other hand, the competence-based curriculum structure 
entails a higher level of generality than that by objectives. Start¬ 
ing from a hierarchical level, first the basic competencies must be 
established. These are determined in an equitable and common 
way at a master’s level and they cannot be modified, but they are 
compulsorily acquired at the postgraduate level, as established by 
the Spanish Qualification Framework for Higher Education (in 
Spanish, MECES) (MEC, 2011). 

It should be pointed out that the general competencies, refer¬ 
ring to the degree capacities as a whole, are related to behaviours 
and attitudes of different fields of knowledge, and can be gener¬ 
alised for most curricula, although with a different incidence and 
contextualized in each degree (Ordonez, Caballero, & Lopez-Me- 
neses, 2016). 

On the other hand, specific competencies are taken into ac¬ 
count. They determine the type of graduated professionals who 
want to train. They are particularly applied to each discipline, de¬ 
pending on the field and branch of study that each master’s degree 
has established. They give identity and coherence to any degree 
(Ordonez, Ramirez, & Rey, 2016). 

Finally, identifying transversal competencies common to any 
master’s degree in the same university is necessary. These are not 
associated to specific modules, but to the way of presenting and 
focusing any module in particular and the curriculum in general 
in order to lead to the acquisition of the other types of compe¬ 
tencies. They intend to entirely train citizens. Following this 
hierarchy in a competency-based curriculum, the planning and 
the development of teaching, facilitating transversal spaces of 
connection between disciplines, are guaranteed. 

3 MATERIAL AND METHOD 

In order to answer the question raised in this research, a mixed 
design was chosen: Quantitative and qualitative non-experimen- 


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Diagnosis of the Skills of the Master’s Degree: Case Study at the University Pablo of Olavide 


tal descriptive using a questionnaire (McMillan & Schumacher, 
2005). This type of study is most appropriate when the field of 
educational research is given in a real context (Lozada & Lopez, 
2003), since it offers the possibility of knowing, analyzing, 
discovering and describing reality (Roig, Mengual-Andres, & 
Suarez, 2014). 

The questionnaire presents Krippendorff (1990)’s content anal¬ 
ysis methodology, based on data obtained through questionnaires 
addressed to the persons with academic position from the mas¬ 
ter’s degrees. Reproducible and valid inferences, which can be 
applied in context by means of special procedures for the process¬ 
ing of scientific data, are obtained. The items statement and the 
questionnaire format followed the guidelines marked by Moreno, 
Martinez and Muniz (2004). 

Content analysis was identified as the most appropriate research 
methodology for gathering information because it reveals the in¬ 
terests of a person, group or community (Hernandez, Fernandez 
Collado, & Bautista, 2000). This qualitative technique provides 
an objective, systematic and quantitative description of the man¬ 
ifest content of communication (Berelson, 1952). According to 
Stone, et al. (1966), the questionnaires contents will be analyzed 
and inferences, which will be identified in a systematic and ob¬ 
jective way, certain characteristics specified within the answers, 
will be raised. 

This analysis technique has a major application in education 
(Stone, Dunphy, Smith, & Ogilvie, 1966) and in monitoring the 
development of academic studies (Berelsol, 1952). Therefore, this 
methodology is reinforced by our research. 

The criteria on the quality of content analysis, according to 
Krippendorff (1990), are based on analysis validity and reliability. 

The importance of reliability stems from the security it offers 
concerning the data being obtained regardless of the event, instru¬ 
ment or person who measures it. Consequently, reliable data is 
that that remains constant in all variations from the measurement 
process. In this case, reliability has been measured with the Cron- 
bach’s Alpha. 

The reliability coefficients calculated on each of the questions 
exceeded 0.8, indicating a high level of reliability in coding. 

Reliability, according to Krippendorff (1990), establishes limits 
to the potential validity of the research results, but it does not 
guarantee the results validity. 

3.1 Participants 

The population of this research is composed of persons with aca¬ 
demic position from UPO official master’s degrees (N = 157). The 
sampling used (n = 59) has been non-probabilistic. It is the most 
frequent technique in educational research, since the researcher 
selects a representative sample under study on the basis of knowl¬ 
edge (McMillan & Schumacher, 2005). 

Table 1 shows a breakdown of academic positions by sex, 
47.46% belong to men and 52.54% to women; among these sub¬ 
jects, 57.63% have the position of management or co-management 
of the master’s degree, 30.50% are members of the coordination 
and 11.87% are quality managers. 


Another important characteristic of the sample is to highlight 
the typology of the university master’s degree, that is to say, 
5.40% belongs to inter-university masters’, coordinated by the 
UPO, and 2.70% are master’s degrees jointly shared with other 
universities and coordinated by another university other than the 
UPO. Finally, it should be pointed out that almost 92% of the 
respondents to the survey are members of master’s degrees taught 
and coordinated only by the UPO. 

3.2 Material 

The evaluation process about the present state of the master’s 
postgraduate curricula at the UPO has been carried out through a 
questionnaire which takes into account different quantitative and 
qualitative aspects reached after the evaluation of the obtained 
results. 

Competency-Based Study Curricula Assessment Questionnaire 
(in Spanish, CEPEBEC ®), is registered in the Spanish Patent and 
Trademark Office with docket no: 3640704. This tool consists of 
15 items distributed in three dimensions. They represent different 
domains of competency-based curriculum planning, the study in¬ 
terest, and a set of sociometric data. 

A. Diagnostic dimension: 

This section establishes 5 multiple response items and 1 free 
response item. Item 1 demonstrates, in its first response, the plan¬ 
ning of an objective-based curriculum. The second answer shows 
the implementation of a competency-based curriculum, and the 
third raises an objection of ignorance of the matter. 

Item 2 intends to demonstrate that educational professionals are 
aware of the concept of competence, and typifies the two remain¬ 
ing answers as incorrect. 

The third item focuses on the competencies typology. Once 
again, the first answer does not show any relation to the compe¬ 
tency-based curriculum structure. The second objection is based 
on the objectives typology and, finally, the third answer shows the 
ideal classification of competencies. 

Item 4 corresponds to an open question, a free response. The in¬ 
tention is determining if the persons of academic positions of the 
official master’s degrees correctly formulate a competence, taking 
into account the three fundamental aspects that it must contain and 
the syntactic procedure of the same. Therefore, users’ responses 
have been classified into three categories, following Berelson’s 
(1967) recommendations. The selected categories were exhaus¬ 
tive (until the exhaustion of the whole text) and exclusive, taking 
into account that the same element of the content cannot be ran¬ 
domly classified into other categories (Noguero, 2002). 

In this way, the answers are classified according to the exclu¬ 
sive and exhaustive wording of the competence exposed by the 
users. Thus, they are typified with these responses in: 

• Type 1: Being aware of the theory or cognitive process, for 
example, the ability to..., with a content to rely on the disci¬ 
pline context. Besides, a context depending on the master’s 
degree. 


Table 1 . Distribution and participation by sex and academic position 

Sex Management Coordination Quality management Porcentaje % Design participation 

Male 21 6 1 28 45,76% 

Female 13 12 6 31 25,42% 


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Ordonez, E.; J.; Ramirez, M. B. I Journal of New Approaches in Educational Research 6(2) 2017. 159-164 


• Type 2: Slight deficiency in the theory. It exposes, at least, 
one criterion (cognitive process / content / context). 

• Type 3: Ignorance of the theory. It shows an answer that 
cannot be classified in any of the types previously described, 
due to ignorance on the subject matter. 

The fifth question determines whether users are aware of the 
characteristics of the different types of competencies, as men¬ 
tioned in the section devoted to the organization of curriculum in 
Higher Education, where the difference between basic, general, 
specific and transversal competencies is shown. 

Item 6 of this section questions how the evaluation system has 
been described in each master’s degree; the first response is the 
ideal one when the master’s degree curriculum is based on com¬ 
petencies, the second one when structured on objectives and the 
third response affirms a lack of knowledge about the topic. 

B. Study interest dimension: 

This dimension is composed of a dichotomous item (yes / no), 
which is equivalent to the seventh question in the survey. It meas¬ 
ures the need to propose a recommendations guide. Item 8 (free 
response) contributes to a request for help or suggestion to im¬ 
prove the curriculum approach. 

C. Sociometric data dimension: 

The sociometric data is composed of five dichotomous items 
which reveal the macro-area belonging to the concerned popu¬ 
lation based on DEVA criteria: gender perspective, academic 
position, participation in curriculum design and the typology 
which defines its master’s degree (inter-university or not). 

3.3 Methodology 

The CEPEBEC ® questionnaire was outlined during the month 
of June 2016 and on July the 7th, a draft which consists of 13 
items is issued. This instrument was reviewed and validated by 
several experts from Eduinnovagogia HUM-971 research group, 
after having been previously studied by CEDEP’s technical staff 
- with a decade of experience in offering advice to academic com¬ 
missions in the verification process - by the master’s and PhD’s 
area director, and by a member of the Postgraduate and Ongoing 
Training Vice-Rectorate. 

Among the contributions, the field variable of study of the 
master’s degree was incorporated into the draft, according to the 
criterion established by the DEVA, since this data provides in¬ 
formation on other master’s degrees in the same area structured 
according to competencies. Similarly, the inter-university mas¬ 
ter’s variable could bring significant differences concerning the 
coordination of master’s degrees. 

Once the final questionnaire in electronic version was created 
and after a second exhaustive review, it was disseminated through 
the Limesurvey platform. The questionnaire was sent to subjects 
twice, the first of which was done in mid-September 2016, and the 
second one as a reminder a month later. 

The Limesurvey application is a web services platform for on¬ 
line survey management. It is a multilingual tool developed in 
Open Source and it allows the definition of surveys related to 
competency-based curriculum planning. 

With the SPSS 23.0 (2014) software, item discrimination anal¬ 
ysis (item-corrected correlation), reliability (internal consistency 
coefficient) and construct validity were performed, the latter be¬ 
ing performed using a principal component factor analysis with 
varimax rotation. 


3.4 Results 

The following section presents the results of the research study. 
First, different tables that break down the frequencies and percent¬ 
ages of responses to the items of paragraph CEPEBEC® diagnostic 
questionnaire are shown. 


Table 2. Curriculum design 


Item 1 f 


% 

(l.a) Answer 

9 

15,25% 

(l.b) Answer 

29 

49,15% 

(l.c) Answer 

21 

35,59% 

Total 

59 

100,00% 

Table 3. Competency concept 

Item D2 1' 


% 

(2. a) Answer 

10 

16,95% 

(2.b) Answer 

7 

11,86% 

(2.c) Answer 

42 

71,19% 

Total 

59 

100,00% 

Item 2, as shown in Table 3, is the highest scoring, since 71.19% 
of the participants correctly delimit the concept of competencies, 
as opposed to 28% of the selection of both incorrect definitions. 

Table 4. Competencies typology 



Item D3 1' 


% 

(3. a) Answer 

2 

3,45% 

(3.b) Answer 

24 

41,38% 

(3.c) Answer 

32 

55,17% 

Total 

58 

100,00% 


Besides, Table 4 represents item 3, with 55.17%, which shows 
the knowledge on the competencies classification. In contrast to 
the data of 3.45%, which recognizes the exclusive typology of 
generic competencies and 41.38%, which mentions objectives 
types, both being equally incorrect. 

Table 5. Competencies classification 


Item D5 f % 


(5.a) Answer 

14 

37,84% 

(5.b) Answer 

12 

32,43% 

(5.c) Answer 

11 

29,73% 

Total 

37 

100,00% 


The fifth item reflects a great lack of knowledge concerning the 
theoretical description of the competencies classification (Table 
5). Thus, it shows the count of 37.84% correct answers versus 
32.43%, which argue that the specific competencies are particular 
to each discipline field. They give identity and consistency to any 
degree and they do not belong to the general competencies, and 
29.73%, which mentions a statement related to transversal com¬ 
petencies and not to specific competencies. 


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Diagnosis of the Skills of the Master’s Degree: Case Study at the University Pablo of Olavide 


Table 6. Evaluation system 


Item D6 

1 

% 

(6.a) Respuesta 

15 

40,54% 

(6.b) Respuesta 

9 

24,32% 

(6.c) Respuesta 

13 

35,14% 

Total 

37 

100,00% 


67 I would like the university to help finance the invest¬ 
ments that some of us make in teacher training. At the 
moment it does not: it does not give the training, nor does 
it finance it when you have completed it. It is somewhat 
reprehensible. 

99 The UPO training plans offered and, today, offer assistan¬ 
ce in those points. 


4 DISCUSSION 


Finally, Table 6 represents the statistics of item 6, which refers 
to the assessment system. It is emphasized that 40.54% of us¬ 
ers are aware that learning outcomes should be evaluable and in 
relation to the competencies exposed in the curriculum. Instead, 
incorrect answers are established: on the one hand, the option 
that the evaluation system is established when a curriculum is de¬ 
signed according to the proposed objectives with 24.32%. On the 
other hand, 35.14%, state that key competencies are established 
by the MECES as corroborated in the previous question, but a 
description of the evaluation system, described in the master’s 
degree is not taken into account. 

It is important to emphasize, after the analysis of the answers in 
item 4, and according to Figure 1, that there are deficiencies in the 
writing of the competencies by some of the participants. 


■ Knowledge in the theory 


■ Lack of knowledge in 
the theory 


■ Ignorance in the theory' 



Figure 1. Responses from item 4 CEPEBEC® 

Following the qualitative analysis of the study, item 8 shows 
that 64.86% of users do not present any help or suggestion, 
whereas 35.14% of participants propose some important sugges¬ 
tions in order to rectify the users’ requests while the project is 
being carried out in the CEDEP, as shown in Table 7. 


Table 7. Suggested users provided by the questionnaire in item 8 


Users 

Answers 

34 

It would be advisable to have documentation on different 
assessment systems. 

50 

Academic commissions should be trained in the design of 
new training plans and in the elaboration of the existing 
curriculum modifications towards practical guidance 
rather than from a purely pedagogical point of view. 

54 and 
113 

Advice on the identification of different competencies, 
as well as the definition of training activities, learning 
outcomes and evaluation. 

55; 59; 
103; 117 

I am especially interested in going further into assessment 
in teaching methodology, as much progress is being made 
and we need to adapt. In terms of suggestions, I propose 
the dissemination of a programming model that I have 
designed for Vocational Training, which has an impact 
because it is a strong curriculum innovation, its effecti¬ 
veness in leading teaching towards the achievement of 
learning outcomes and competencies is indisputable. 


The results achieved show that university teachers make mistakes 
when planning and teaching a competency-based curriculum. 
Besides, they highlight that there are deficiencies in the conceptu¬ 
alization of the competencies. Therefore, this research responds to 
the main question and proposes the development of a recommen¬ 
dations guide to structure competency-based curriculum. 

Although there is a large amount of research surveys on the or¬ 
ganization of competency-based curriculum, this is a pioneering 
study in the UPO. It proposes, as a prospective line, its imple¬ 
mentation in other universities in Andalusia, due to the demand 
for solutions to the problem manifested by the great majority and 
to the great interest shown to the lead investigator of the group 
Eduinnovagogia HUM-971 for the treatment made into it. 

In terms of limitations, it is noted that 37% of the respondents 
did not distinguish answers for certain items. Therefore, this re¬ 
search shows a weakness in this regard. 

5 CONCLUSIONS 

After the verification of the results obtained, the conclusions 
drawn from the study are presented. The result of user participa¬ 
tion concerning the master’s degree curriculum design can be a 
reflection point, since 29% of the participants in the questionnaire 
were not involved in its design: the master’s degree was imple¬ 
mented and designed before the incorporation of these members 
to the academic commission. However, this does not justify the 
confirmed ignorance about the arrangement of competency-based 
curriculum. 

In addition, any users of the Engineering and Architecture 
macro-area have participated in the questionnaire. This fact 
demonstrates the uncertainty and the ignorance of competencies 
by the persons with academic positions in this area. In this regard, 
the low participation of members of Health Sciences (5.40%) is 
also determined. In future research, efficient competencies train¬ 
ing for all persons with academic positions in master’s degrees 
offered at the UPO is necessary, and especially for those whose 
fields are deficient. 

Therefore, there is a need to create a guide or handbook of 
recommendations in order to structure competency-based curric¬ 
ulum at master level, a proposal endorsed by 73% of surveyed 
participants. However, from the research group Eduinnovagogia 
HUM-971 and from the outline of this work by the CEDEP team, 
further studies and research have been started. This has resulted 
in the publication of a guide for teachers on the elaboration of 
competency-based curriculum, intended to improve teacher train¬ 
ing and university educational practice, guiding and strengthening 
graduates professionalization. 

According to Merida and Garcia (2005), much controversy re¬ 
garding the level of concreteness in which competencies should 
be developed exists, since the dialectics between the level of gen¬ 
erality or the chosen contextualization is highlighted. 

In the survey, the requirement for ongoing training for teachers 
in order to take up the challenge of training the students who re¬ 
quire competencies in constant evolution is needed (Cuban, 2001; 


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Gisbert & Lazarus, 2015; UNESCO, 2004; Wilson, Grizzle, Tu- 
azon, Akyempong, & Cheung, 2011). It is usually shown that 
teachers have vague references and are contaminated by the still 
present behaviorism in education, as well as by the famous and 
limited technicist pedagogy which stemmed from it. Therefore, a 
review of training curricula currently offered in the UPO as well 
as an adaptation to the detected needs according to this study are 
necessary. 

In conclusion, university teachers non-rewarded workload is 
a negative facto, which influences the organization of the com¬ 
petency-based curriculum model (Gonzalez, Archer, & Hassall, 
2014). Therefore, the CEDEP facilitating and minimizing admin¬ 
istrative and academic work in postgraduate degrees is required. 

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How to cite this article: Ordonez, E., & Ramirez, M. B. (2017). Inter¬ 
net and people with intellectual disability: an approach to caregivers’ 
concerns, prevention strategies and training needs. Journal of New 
Approaches in Educational Research, 6(2), 159-164. doi: 10.7821/ 
naer.2017.7.249 


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