Skip to main content

Full text of "ERIC EJ1158931: Information Literacy for Future Teachers"

See other formats


www.sciedu.ca/wje 


World Journal of Education 


Vol. 2, No. 1; February 2012 


Information Literacy for Future Teachers 

Ivana Batarelo Kokic 
Faculty of Philosophy, University of Split 
Sinjska 2, 21000 Split, Croatia 
E-mail: batarelo@ffst.hr 

Accepted: Octoberl4, 2011 Published: February 1, 2012 

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.5430/wje.v2nlp45 


Received: September 18, 2011 
doi:10.5430/wje.v2nlp45 


Abstract 

The main goal of this study is to evaluate primary teacher education programs in Croatia. Prior to evaluation of the 
primary teacher education programs, expected primary teacher education competencies were defined. The expected 
teacher competencies were determined according to the goals stated in the Croatian national curriculum. In addition, 
international guidelines for information literacy development among primary education teachers were used. An 
extensive literature review on information literacy curriculum in teacher education higher education was conducted as a 
part of this study. The evaluation of primary teacher education programs is conducted according to the content analysis 
methodology. Since current primary teacher education programs do not state learning outcomes, future teacher 
competences are evaluated according to the state course goals. The content analysis indicates that the majority of the 
current primary teacher education programs include goals that could be linked to information literacy standards. Future 
teachers are most frequently taught how to evaluate information, but lack instruction on fair use of information. The 
discussion includes recommendations to raise information literacy among teacher educators and to align course syllabi 
with the common theoretical frameworks. 

Keywords: Higher education; Teacher education curriculum. Curriculum research. Information literacy 

1. Introduction 

According to the recent developments information literacy is a skill that has to be acquired in the primary schools. The 
concept of information literacy was first introduced in 1974, when Paul Zurkowski suggested that 1) information 
resources are applied in a work situation; 2) techniques and skills are needed for using information tools and primary 
sources; and 3) information is used in problem solving (Behrens, 1994). Nowadays, the majority of information literacy 
interpretations are associated with lifelong learning. According to UNESCO (2006) information literacy is a vital 
element for successful lifelong learning. The concept of lifelong learning has evolved with an increased need for 
employees to acquire new competences at the workplace (Kendall, 2005). According to the most common definitions, 
information literacy has a large impact on the development of problem based learning skills, and direct influence on the 
life accomplishments (Chambers, 2002). Since information literacy should be introduced in the primary schools, 
teachers become a main link in the information literacy development. Information literacy initiatives in higher education 
seek to meet the demands of the knowledge based and information society (Petrides & Nodine, 2003). Chevillott (2007) 
emphasizes that positive changes outside the universities influence information literacy requirements for all future 
school teachers. Williams & Coles (2007) write that teachers’ information literacy skills greatly influence use of 
research evidence in their work and the development of an information culture within schools. It is apparent that primary 
school teachers should be have information literacy competency in order to function in the nowadays schools and 
changes in initial teacher education are of a great importance. Hence, in this research study we aim to answer the 
following questions: 

1) What types of the information literacy standards are present in the primary teacher education program 
syllabi? 

2) What types of goals relate to the particular information literacy standards present in the primary teacher 
education program syllabi? 

2. Theoretical Framework 

2. 1 Higher Education and Teacher Education 

When looking into teacher education it is necessary to place it in the wider context of higher education. Due to 


Published by Sciedu Press 


45 




www.sciedu.ca/wje 


World Journal of Education 


Vol. 2, No. 1; February 2012 


implementation of the Bologna process, Croatia is passing through an ongoing reform of higher education. The rationale 
behind the Bologna process is to create the common area of European higher education, by the means of more 
comparable and compatible academic degree and quality assurance standards throughout Europe (Benelux Bologna 
Secretariat, 2007). While the Bologna process has a strong emphasis on lifelong learning (The European Association for 
University Lifelong Learning, 2005), it also requires continuous evaluation of students through their involvement in 
problem solving activities, critical thinking and active learning, which are some of the information literacy indicators. 
The implementation of the Bologna process throughout European higher education includes wide number of the bodies 
and institutions, and involves highly structured strategy planning and implementation efficiency analysis (Kettunen, & 
Kantola, 2006). Bologna process reinforced positive changes in regards to inclusion of information literacy in the new 
definition of ECTS (Chevillotte, 2007). Loncaric & Pejic Papak (2009) gave an overview of European and Croatian 
policies in the area of teacher education. They write about demands that are placed in front of teachers by the 
contemporary curriculum, providing the examples of national guidelines and standards including teacher competences. 
Literacy development among preservice teachers should be discussed in relation to the teacher competencies listed in the 
European Qualifications Framework (European Commission: Education and Culture, 2008). According to European 
Qualifications Framework the competency profile for teacher preparation programs should include language, 
mathematics, and information-communications competencies. There is limited theoretical alignment of the current 
educational policy documents and higher education programs documentation in Croatia. While current educational 
policy documents typically discuss future teacher competencies, actual teacher education program documentation at 
universities in Croatia remains on the level of course goal definition. While course goals broadly state what the student 
will be able to do upon completion of the instruction, according to Spady (1977) competency based education approach 
implies framing of outcome goals in applied life-role terms and making major changes in curricula, instruction and 
evaluation procedures. 

2.2 Literacy and Information Literacy 

Learning to learn is one of the lifelong learning key competences (European Commission, 2004). Education Council 
(2006) provides an extensive definition of the learning to learn concept which includes: the ability to pursue and persist 
in learning, the ability to organize one’s own learning, effective management of time and information, awareness of 
one’s learning process and needs, ability to identify available opportunities, the ability to overcome obstacles in order to 
learn successfully and the ability to gain, process and assimilate new knowledge and skill as well as seeking and making 
use of guidance. 

Similar to the definition of an information literate person given by the American Library Association standards, the 
development of learning to learn competence is closely related to the level of information literacy skill development. 
According to the American Library Association (2006), the information literate person is able to: (a) determine the 
information needed; (b) access needed information; (c) evaluate information; (d) use information; and (e) understand 
economic, legal, and social issues surrounding the use of information. Educational policy makers need to include the 
lifelong learning requirements into all aspects of educational provisions (Kendall, 2005). With a goal to educate 
information literate students, it is necessary to incorporate information literacy across curricula, in different programs 
and university services. Achieving the goal of educating information literate students requires collaborative efforts 
among faculty, librarians, and university administrators (American Library Association, 2006). Several researchers 
write about collaboration between librarians and faculty in order to promote information literacy that is directly linked to 
critical literacy (Jacobs, 2008; Elmborg 2006). Jacobs (2008) examines information literacy pedagogy and suggests that 
academic librarians can improve pedagogical praxis by encouraging students to be engaged learners. This postulate is in 
line with Freire’s critical pedagogy where teachers become engaged learners, delve into problem posing, and embody the 
kind of engagement they want to see in students. Elmborg (2006) uses critical literacy theory to define information 
literacy and suggests that focus of librarians’ work should not be solely information transfer but also development of 
students’ critical consciousness. 

The literature review indicates that the traditional notion of information literacy is inadequate to address the learning 
needs of students in the 21st century. It is necessary to adjust curricular and teaching approaches in higher education to 
develop students' information literacy (Johnston & Webber, 2003; Williams & Coles, 2007). Current information literacy 
practices are associated with surface learning approaches, lack of engagement by teachers, lack of educational training 
for librarians and poor assessment methods (Johnston & Webber, 2003; Williams & Coles, 2007). In contrast, Kellner 
(2000) argues that that multiple literacies are needed in multicultural society. These new literacies should meet the 
challenge of the new technologies while nurturing print literacy. Bawden (2001) definition of information and digital 
literacy states that these are general concepts which are based on knowledge, perceptions and attitudes, but still include 
simple skills-based literacies. While emphasizing that information literacy is one of the initial elements of the 


46 


ISSN 1925-0746 E-ISSN1925-0754 




www.sciedu.ca/wje 


World Journal of Education 


Vol. 2, No. 1; February 2012 


information culture, Gilyarevskii (2007) writes that information literate students should be able to find, use, and protect 
information. 

2.3 Information Literacy Curriculum Research 

Several research studies determined an overall positive impact of implementation of information literacy curriculum in 
the higher education arena (Branch, 2003; Brown & Krumholz, 2002; Rader, 1995). Rader (1995) writes that efforts of 
academic librarians in integration of information literacy into the undergraduate curriculum were successful due to 
implementation of technological developments and educational reforms. More specifically. Branch (2003) examined 
impact of an information literacy course on students’ information-seeking behaviors. The study participants indicated 
that knowledge and skills they gained were transferrable to the work and home environment. The findings of the Brown 
& Krumholz (2002) study are ambivalent. The authors determined that direct instruction in the use of bibliographic 
finding tools increased some of the information literacy related skills. Although the participants were required to critique 
and discuss information, these skills were not improved during the study. 

Research studies on information literacy curriculum for preservice teachers were of particular interest for this paper. 
Findings indicated an overall positive impact of direct instruction on information literacy (Chambers, 2002; Novosel & 
Batarelo, 2008) and benefits of collaboration among teacher educators and librarians (Duke & Ward, 2009; Floyd, 
Colvin, & Bodur, 2008). Novosel and Batarelo (2008) determined levels of information literacy among pedagogy majors. 
A quantitative methodology was used to determine differences in information literacy, frequency and extent of library 
catalogue and database use between students. Students who had courses that dealt with database search and scientific 
writing skills significantly higher scores on the information literacy test. Chambers (2002) revealed substantial benefits 
for teacher education students when using a problem based learning approach for information literacy and independent 
learning skills instruction. Floyd, Colvin and Bodur (2008) indicates statistically significant changes in information 
literacy levels among preservice teachers when they were involved with librarians in the information literacy teaching 
process. Duke and Ward (2009) conducted a metasynthesis of empirical and nonempirical literature focusing on to the 
preparation of information literate teachers. The results indicate positive impact of collaboration between teacher 
educators and librarians in order to prepare teachers to teach information literacy skills. 

2.4 Information Literacy Curriculum Formats 

Typically, courses that facilitate information literacy development are student-centered and rely on inquiry and 
problem solving activities (American Library Association, 2006). This type of courses could be taught both by faculty 
and academic librarians. Findings from several research studies indicate that the increase in preservice teachers 
information literacy is a result of combination of library instruction and guidelines given by faculty (Cooney & Hiris, 
2003; Floyd, Colvin, & Bodur, 2008; Owusu-Ansah, 2004). 

In a research of information literacy curriculum formats, of a great importance are studies dealing with the course 
information literacy content. Warner (2008) analysed teacher education syllabi in order to identify the information 
literacy skills that were taught in the courses as reflected in the course description and description of the assignments. 
However, Warner found that, even though information literacy objectives were identified in the syllabi, there is no 
assurance that all aspects of the objective were taught. Novosel and Batarelo (2008) analyzed undergraduate study 
program to identify teaching approaches for the pedagogy majors. There is a one core course which directly focuses on 
the development of the digital and information literacy skills. Additionally, several other courses taught during the first, 
second, and third years of study also include problem-solving activities that facilitate information literacy development. 

Several researchers propose new information literacy frameworks for higher education (Brown & Krumholz, 2002; 
Markless, 2009. Based on research results. Brown and Krumholz (2002) propose an information literacy curriculum 
model according to which library instruction should a) be paired with critical analysis of the research literature, b) 
include instruction in time management and documentation of sources consulted, c) explain details about the 
accessibility of external resources and the details on key word and subject searching, d) be scheduled in shorter and 
more frequent sessions for , both individual and group learning sessions, and e) make materials available on the Web. 
Markless (2009) offers a new information literacy framework based on the idea to support student choice in learning 
rather than teaching information literacy. The framework offered tasks that combine academic work content and process 
together, activities that enable students to recognize and reflect on current information strategies and skills. Finally, the 
activities should be based on the principles of constructivism, requiring a high level of intellectual engagement from the 
students. 

2.5 Literature Review Summary 

The graphic in Figure 1 is derived from the literature review that focused on higher education and teacher education. 


Published by Sciedu Press 


47 




www.sciedu.ca/wje 


World Journal of Education 


Vol. 2, No. 1; February 2012 


literacy and information literacy, information literacy curriculum research and information literacy curriculum formats. 
Issue of the future teacher information literacy in educational policy documentation is presented through variety of 
documents on information literacy standards, lifelong learning policy, Bologna process and European Qualifications 
Framework. These documents promote learning to learn competence and directly influence teacher education programs. 

<Figure 1 about hero 

The findings of the analyzed research studies in regards to information literacy development may be grouped around 
three main conclusions: (1) there is a positive impact of collaboration between faculty and librarians, (2) positive impact 
of technological developments on the information literacy competencies of future teachers, and (3) positive impact of 
direct instruction on information literacy across curriculum. Finally, the reviewed literature indicates that proposed 
curricular formats for information literacy teaching at higher education institutions proceed from the relevant research 
findings. 

3. Primary Teacher Education Programs Analysis 

3. 1 Methodology 

The technique of content analysis was used to gather the frequency of information literacy content incidents. A similar 
analysis was conducted by Mbabua (2007) who collected primary teacher education syllabi from the Internet and 
designed an instrument focusing on the analysis of teacher education programs and educational levels. The following 
procedure from Mbabua (2007) was adopted and applied in the current study: 

1. Available primary teacher education programs were selected for analysis. Those whose syllabi were publicly posted 
on the World Wide Web were identified and harvested. 

2. Two coders participated in the coding process. Both coders were trained on the common text in order to establish 
intercoder reliability. The practice session was conducted using syllabuses separate from the syllabuses that were 
part of the primary teacher education programs selected for analyses. Through the training session, coders were 
familiarizing with the coding procedure and developing a consensus on the definitions of the categories. Content 
analysis software was not used for this study purpose. 

3. Contingency tables were constructed for recording the number of information literacy related goals present in the 
syllabi. The analyzed teacher education programs syllabi include course goals, while specific instructional 
objectives are not included. The table is constructed according to the ALA information literacy standards (2000) and 
Warner’s syllabi analysis of information literacy skills (2008). 

4. Collected data were analyzed by researcher. 

3.2 Analysis Results 

<Table 1 about here> 

Five information literacy standards (ALA, 2000) with the abbreviated titles used in this research are listed in table 1. In 
the attempt to answer the first research question on types of the information literacy standards which are present in the 
primary teacher education program syllabi, the analyzed data is quantified and presented in table 2. One count indicates 
the presence of at least one information literacy related goal per course. The data in the rows represent the count of goals 
related to information literacy in either core or elective courses for the programs at four universities. A visual inspection 
of the table shows that the four teacher education programs differed slightly according to the syllabus structure, but all 
four programs clearly stated course goals related to information literacy and types of information literacy standards 
which are present in the primary teacher education program syllabi. The most common information literacy standard is 
related to evaluation of information, this standard is followed by effective use of information standard, effective access 
to information standard, ability to determine information need standard and fair use standard. 

<Table 2 about hero 

Further descriptive analysis was needed to answer the second research question on types of goals that relate to the 
particular information literacy standards present in the primary teacher education program syllabi. Hence a separate 
description of each analyzed study program is presented in the below sections. 

The overview of the primary teacher education study program at University in Pula indicates that there is a larger 
number information literacy relevant goals among core courses. The most frequently occurring information literacy 
goals are those that could be linked to the information evaluation standard. The reviewed courses, list the goals related 
to students’ critical reflection on certain educational problems, critical thinking that includes summarizing and 
evaluation of ideas, and strategic approach to reading. The second most frequently occurring information literacy 


48 


ISSN 1925-0746 E-ISSN1925-0754 




www.sciedu.ca/wje 


World Journal of Education 


Vol. 2, No. 1; February 2012 


standard present among course goals is access to needed information. In different courses, students are taught how to 
select efficient and effective approaches for accessing the information from media, literature and how to select school 
documents. In research methods course, students are taught to identify appropriate investigative methods in order to 
reach research results. Effective information use related goals are: use of information in educational environment, use of 
information in research, communicating product or performance to other by use gathered scientific information in 
written or oral form. Fair use is recognizable through appropriate conduct with statutory and school documents and it is 
listed as a goal in for the teaching practice. The only course in which the stated goal is to enable students to determine 
nature and extent of information needed is the educational research methodology course. The research process requires 
the ability to recognize specific needs for information, to articulate information needs, and to consider cost and benefits 
of acquiring the needed information. 

The most frequently occurring information literacy standards among teacher education program goals at the University 
of Split are linked to evaluation of information. These goals are present both among core and elective courses and are 
related to: logical analysis of the text, critical thinking, research capabilities that include evaluation of information, 
ability to use information, evaluation of ideas and experiences. One of the courses states that media literacy is a course 
goal, and media literacy included evaluation of information. Effective information use standard related goals are: use of 
information when dealing with different themes and in different areas, and in concrete educational environment, use of 
scientific results in professional work which includes ability to communicate information to others, team work and 
problem solving. Media literacy development among other things includes ability to communicate product or 
performance effectively to others. Access to needed information related goals are: identifies appropriate investigative 
methods for scientific work, selecting efficient approach for accessing information from different sources. Fair 
information use development of media literacy that includes understanding of ethical, legal and socio-economic issues 
surrounding information and produced materials, ability to use information according to law and regulations and 
institutional policies. Standard related to determining nature and extent of information needed is addressed with the 
following goals: enabling students to find interesting and relevant motives for artistic expression and creation, media 
literacy development which includes identifying a variety of types and formats of potential sources for information, 
research skills and critical thinking skills that require ability to define and reevaluate the nature and extent of the 
information need. 

Similarly to the teacher education programs at other universities, the most frequently occurring information literacy 
standard at the Josip Juraj Strossmayer University, Osijek is evaluation of information. This standard may be achieved 
with the following goals present both among core and elective courses: critical thinking, literature use and analysis of 
the written text that includes ability to synthesize and summarize main ideas, learning research methods that require 
ability to articulate and apply evaluation criteria, Internet search and media use that require from student to apply 
evaluation criteria. Effective information use standard may be achieved through literature, media and internet use that 
require students to apply new and prior information in the creation of the course tasks. Access to needed information 
standard is achieved in a research methodology and teaching methods courses. While research methodology requires 
ability to select the most appropriate investigative methods, teaching methods courses requires a certain level of 
independence from students and ability to manage information and sources. Standard related to determining nature 
and extent of information needed is achieved through the following goals: ability to define and articulate research 
information, ability to identity different formats and sources of information that could be used in curriculum 
development, preparation of teaching materials and actual teaching. The least frequently occurring information literacy 
standard this teacher education program is a fair information use. The goals which relate to this standard are mentioned 
in the research methodology course, where research practices should be aligned with the laws and regulations. A similar 
result can be seen with the teaching practice and teacher ethics courses that require future teachers to be able to follow 
institutional policies related to access and use of information. 

The teacher education program at the University of Rijeka most commonly includes goals that could be related to the 
information evaluation standard. These goals are predominantly present in description of core courses and according to 
them, students should be able to compare and evaluate various topics, analyze information from various sources, apply 
skills of critical thinking and use research skills. Critical thinking and research skills include the ability to evaluate 
information. A relatively large number of courses state goals that could be related to effective information use standard. 
These goals require students to be able to organize and use information in appropriate context and ability to manage and 
present information. Access to needed information standard related goals demand from students to be able to: find 
needed information, manage information and obtain information from various sources. Standard related to 
determining nature and extent of information needed is met by goals that state that students should be able to work 
independently, which involves ability to define and identify needed information and by the goal that requires from 


Published by Sciedu Press 


49 




www.sciedu.ca/wje 


World Journal of Education 


Vol. 2, No. 1; February 2012 


students to apply logical thinking. The least frequently occurring information literacy standard is related to fair 
information use. This standard is met by the goals stating that students should be able to apply research skills, which 
implies understanding of ethical issues surrounding information and appropriate use of topics. 

3.3 Study Limitations 

The primary teacher education programs that were used for analysis are programs licensed by the state Ministry of 
Science, Education and Sport. Limitations of the study are related to the fact that analyzed syllabuses were included in 
the official programs published three to five years ago and it is likely that teacher educators are implementing 
considerable changes to their syllabuses each semester. Also, the extended versions of the syllabuses which are not 
readily available online may include learning outcomes that could give more insight into how the information literacy 
curriculum is implemented. Although teacher educators are likely to use extended versions of the syllabi, these syllabi 
are not validated by the relevant Ministry and for that reason are not used in the study. 

Currently there are eight teacher education programs in Croatia and four of them were analyzed as a part of this study. 
Although the study findings indicate similarities in regards to the presence of information literacy related goals among 
analyzed teacher education programs, it is necessary to be cautious when generalizing these study findings to other 
university programs. 

4. Discussion 

The majority of the research studies critiqued in this review show that there is a positive impact of the information 
literacy related content on the various aspects of students’ information literacy. Nevertheless, when discussing research 
findings based on the analysis of the teacher education programs, further research is needed to understand the 
complexities of teaching practices considering actual implementation of the analyzed syllabuses. More in-depth analysis 
would reveal the level of actual implementation of information literacy in preservice teacher education programs. This 
analysis should be based on the extended course syllabi that might offer insight on the teaching-learning procedures and 
actual learning outcomes. Furthermore, researchers might follow up with direct observations of graduates to notice how 
information literacy competencies are being implemented with pupils. 

The evaluated primary teacher education programs are entering an official review process in the academic year 
2011/2012, hence this study could be of a great relevance both to the field of study and teacher education practitioners. 
This study results may have an impact on the changes in the preservice teacher education curriculum. The analysis 
revealed that primary teacher education programs are not following theoretical frameworks described in the literature 
review. In addition to a lack of theoretical frameworks, some of the primary teacher education programs at universities 
in Croatia do not require teacher educators to state course goals in their syllabi. Hence, it was not possible to analyze 
these programs for purposes of this study. The analyzed primary teacher education programs in Croatia differ according 
to the presence of the information literacy relevant goals. Nevertheless, it is apparent that the programs are rather similar 
according to information literacy standards that they are focusing on. The findings regarding presence or absence of 
certain information literacy standards in the teacher education programs may be taken into consideration in the program 
revisions. The most frequently occurring information literacy standard is evaluation of information. The second most 
frequently occurring standard is the effective information use standard, after which follows access to needed information 
standard. Not many programs included goals related to determining the nature and extent of information needed and fair 
information use principles. The analysis of course descriptions revealed that the least focus was given to fair use. Future 
teachers in their work will frequently deal with fair use issues such as imitation and plagiarism. Xeroxing multiple 
copies of copyrighted materials, and so on. Knowing the high importance and actuality of the fair use issue in 
educational environments, this finding should be should also be reviewed from the wider sociological scope. 

Although the analysis revealed that number of course goals related to information literacy, it is apparent that teacher 
educators do not necessarily think about information literacy when writing these goals and this finding may have impact 
on the field of study. The majority of the goals that were recognized as related to information literacy are linked to the 
development of critical thinking skills, problem solving and decision making, which are popular terms in professional 
literature. The question remains, how do teacher educators teach these skills in their courses. More direct guidance for 
teacher educators should be provided, in order for them to recognize the importance of information literacy and find the 
way to implement elements of information literacy in their courses. 


50 


ISSN 1925-0746 E-ISSN1925-0754 




www.sciedu.ca/wje 


World Journal of Education 


Vol. 2, No. 1; February 2012 


References 

American Library Association (2000). Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education. Chicago, IL: 
American Library Association. [Online] Available: http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/standards/standards.pdf 

Bawden, D. (2001). Information and digital literacies: a review of concepts. Journal of Documentation, 57(2): 218-259, 
http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/EUM0000000007083 

Behrens, S. J. (1994). A conceptual analysis and historical overview of information literacy. College and Research 
Libraries, 55(4): 309-322. 

Benelux Bologna Secretariat. (2007). Bologna Process 2007-2009. [Online] Available: 
http://www.ond.vlaanderen.be/hogeronderwijs/bologna/ 

Branch, J. L. (2003). Nontraditional undergraduates at home, work, and school: an examination of information-seeking 
behaviors and the impact of information literacy instruction. Research Strategies, 79(1), 3-15, 
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.resstr.2003.09.002 

Brown, C. & Krumholz, L. R. (2002). Integrating Information Literacy into the Science Curriculum. College & 
Research Libraries, 63(2): 111-123. 

Chambers, D (2002). Using problem based learning to hone information literacy and independent learning skills. 
Lifelong Learning Conference. [Online] Available: http://lifelonglearning.cqu.edu.au/2002/papers/chambers.pdf 

Chevillotte, S. (2007). French Speaking Countries: Belgium, France, Quebec, Switzerland Information Literacy 
State-of-the Art Report. In Lau, J. (Ed.) Information literacy: an international state of the art report. InfoLit Global. 
[Online] Available: http://www.ifla.org/files/information-literacy/UNESCO_IL_state_of_the_art_fre_2010.pdf 

Cooney, M. & Hiris, L. (2003). Integrating information literacy and its assessment into a graduate business course: A 
collaborative framework. Research Strategies, 79(3/4): 213-232, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.resstr.2004.ll.002 

Duke, T. S. & Ward, J. D. (2009). Preparing information literate teachers: A metasynthesis. Library & Information 
Science Research, 37(4): 247-256, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.lisr.2009.04.003 

Education Council (2006). Recommendation of the European Parliament and the Council of 18 December 2006 on key 
competencies for lifelong learning. Brussels: Official Journal of the European Union, 30.12.2006 

Elmborg, J. (2006), Critical Information Literacy: Implications for Instructional Practice. The Journal of Academic 
Librarianship, 32(2): 192-199, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.acalib.2005.12.004 

European Commission. (2004). Key competences for lifelong learning a European reference framework. [Online] 
Available: http://ec.europa.eu/education/policies/2010 

European Commission: Education and Culture (2008). The European Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning 
(EQF). [Online] Available: http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/education_culture/publ/pdf/eqf/broch_en.pdf 

Floyd, D. M., Colvin, G., & Bodur; Y. (2008). A faculty-librarian collaboration for developing information literacy 
skills among preservice teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24(2): 368-376, doi:10.1016/j.tate.2006.11.018, 
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.tate.2006.ll.018 

Gilyarevskii, R. S. (2007), Information Culture in Higher Education. Scientific and Technical Information Processing, 
34(1): 40-43, http://dx.doi.org/10.3103%2FS0147688207010066 

Jacobs, H. L. M. (2008). Information Literacy and Reflective Pedagogical Praxis. The Journal of Academic 
Librarianship, 34(3): 256-262, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.acalib.2008.03.009 

Johnston, B. & Webber, S. (2003). Information Literacy in Higher Education: a review and case study. Studies in Higher 
Education, 28(3): 335-352, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080%2F03075070309295 

Josip Juraj Strossmayer University (2005). Integrated undergraduate and graduate five-year university class teacher 
studies. Osijek: Josip Juraj Strossmayer University, The Faculty of Teacher Education. [Online] Available: 
http://www.ufos.hr/DATA/studijski_programi/Class_teacher_Osijek.pdf 

Juraj Dobrila University of Pula (2008). Studijski program integrircmog preddiplomskog i diplomskog sveucilisnog 
uciteljskog studija s izmjenama i dopunama. Pula: Juraj Dobrila University of Pula, Department of Preschool and 
Primary Education. [Online] Available: 

http://www.unipu.hr/uploads/media/Microsoft_Word_-_INTEGRIRANI_SVEUCILISNI_UCITELJSKI_STUDIJ_- 
_s_izmj enama_i_dopunama_02 .pdf 


Published by Sciedu Press 


51 





www.sciedu.ca/wje 


World Journal of Education 


Vol. 2, No. 1; February 2012 


Kellner, D. (2000). New Technologies/New Literacies: reconstructing education for the new millennium. Teaching 
Education, 11(3): 245-265, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/713698975 

Kendall, M. (2005). Lifelong Learning Really Matters for Elementary Education in the 21st Century. Education and 
Information Technologies, 10(3): 1573-7608, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007%2Fsl0639-005-3011-x 

Kettunen, J. & Kantola, M. (2006). The implementation of the Bologna Process. Tertiary Education Management, 12(3): 
257-267, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080%2F13583883.2006.9967172 

Loncaric, D., & Pejic Papak, P. (2009). Profiliranje uciteljskih kompetencija. Odgojne znanosti, 11(2): 479 - 497. 

Markless, S. (2009). A New Conception of Information Literacy for the Digital Learning Environment in Higher 
Education. Nordic Journal of Information Literacy in Higher Education, 7(1), 25-40. 

Mbabua, L. G. (2007). Content analysis of information literacy courses in master s degree programs of library’ and 
information studies. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Athens, OH: Ohio University. 

Novosel, V. & Batarelo, I. (2008). Information Literacy among Pedagogy Majors. Poster Abstracts of the ITI2008: 30th 
International Conference on Information Technology Interfaces / Luzar-Stiffler, Vesna ; Hljuz Dobric, Vesna ; 
Bekic, Zoran (Eds.). - Zagreb: University of Zagreb, University Computing centre SRCE , 23-24. 

Owusu-Ansah, E. K. (2004). Information Literacy and Higher Education: Placing the Academic Library in the Center of 
a Comprehensive Solution. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 30(1): 3-16, 
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.jal.2003.ll.002 

Petrides LA, & Nodine TR. (2003). Knowledge management in education: Defining the landscape. The Institute for the 
Study of Knowledge Management. [Online] Available: http://www.iskme.org/kmeducation.pdf 

Rader, H. B. (1995). Information Literacy and the Undergraduate Curriculum. Library Trends, 44(2): 270-278. 

The European Association for University Lifelong Learning (2005). University lifelong learning in the Bologna 
process: From Bergen to London and beyond. [Online] Available: http://www.eucen.org/ 

UNESCO (2006). Information Literacy key for lifelong learning. Information Literacy Summit. [Online] Available: 
http://portal.unesco.org/ci/en/ 

Spady, W. G. (1977). Competency based education: Abandwagon in search of a definition. Educational Researcher, 6(1), 
9-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1175451 

Sveuciliste u Rijeci (2008). Studijski program - Integriranipreddiplomski i diplomski sveucilisni uciteljski studij. Rijeka: 
Sveuciliste u Rijeci, Uciteljski Fakultet u Rijeci. [Online] Available: 
http://www.ufri.uniri.hr/data/sveucilisni%20uciteljski%20studij.pdf 

Sveuciliste u Splitu (2005). Nastavni plan i program - Integrirani sveucilisni studij za piwostupnika i magistra 
primarnog obrazovanja. Split: Sveuciliste u Splitu, Filozofski fakultet. [Online] Available: 
http://www.ffst.hr/odsjeci/uciteljski/program.pdf 

Warner, D. A. (2008). A Disciplinary Blueprint for the Assessment of Information Literacy. Westport, CT: Libraries 
Unlimited. 

Williams D, Coles L. (2007). Teachers’ approaches to finding and using research evidence: an information literacy 
perspective. Educational Research, 49(2): 185 -206, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080%2F00131880701369719 


52 


ISSN 1925-0746 


E-ISSN1925-0754 




www.sciedu.ca/wje 


World Journal of Education 


Vol. 2, No. 1; February 2012 


Table 1. Information literacy standards (ALA, 2000) 


Standard 

Full description 

Abbreviated title 

Standard 1 

The information literate student determines the nature and extent of 
the information needed. 

Determine extent of 
needed information 

Standard 2 

The information literate student accesses needed information 
effectively and efficiently. 

Access needed 
information 

Standard 3 

The information literate student evaluates information and its 
sources critically and incorporates selected information into his or 
her knowledge base and value system. 

Evaluate information 

Standard 4 

The information literate student, individually or as a member of a 
group, uses information effectively to accomplish a specific 
purpose. 

Effective information 

use 

Standard 5 

The information literate student understands many of the 
economic, legal, and social issues surrounding the use of 
information and accesses and uses information ethically and 
legally. 

Fair use of 
information 


Table 2. Information literacy related goals contingency list 


University 

Course 

Type 

Information Literacy Standards 

Determine extent 
of needed 
information 

Access needed 
information 

Evaluate 

information 

Effective 

information 

use 

Fair use of 
information 

Osijek 

Core 

3 

5 

7 

6 

2 

Elective 

3 

3 

5 

4 

2 

Pula 

Core 

1 

5 

10 

6 

2 

Elective 

0 

3 

4 

3 

0 

Rijeka 

Core 

6 

9 

11 

8 

2 

Elective 

1 

2 

5 

5 

2 

Split 

Core 

1 

3 

8 

5 

3 

Elective 

4 

5 

10 

9 

1 


19 

35 

60 

46 

14 


Published by Sciedu Press 


53 






www.sciedu.ca/wje 


World Journal of Education 


Vol. 2, No. 1; February 2012 


INFORMATION LITERACY & EDUCATIONAL POLICY 



HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS 


,, 


RESEARCH FINDINGS 


T 


POSITIVE IMPACT OF 
COLLABORATION 
BETWEEN FACULTY AND 
LIBRARIANS 


CURRICULAR 

FORMATS 

- 1 - 


MORE STRUCTURED 
INSTRUCTION ON 
INFORMATION LITERACY IN 
LIBRARY SETTINGS 


POSITIVE IMPACT OF 
TECHNOLOGICAL 
DEVELOPMENTS ON THE 
IL COMPETENCIES OF 
FUTURE TEACHERS 


STUDENT CENTERED 
COURSES IN THE 
TECHNOLOGY RICH 
ENVIRONMENT 


POSITIVE IMPACT OF 
DIRECT INSTRUCTION ON 
INFORMATION LITERACY 
ACROSS CURRICULUM 


INFORMATION LITERACY 
INCORPORATED ACROSS 
CURRICULUM 


Figure 1. Information literacy related policies and its influence on teacher education curriculum 


54 


ISSN 1925-0746 


E-ISSN1925-0754