Skip to main content

Full text of "ERIC EJ1159164: Teaching ELF as a Motivation Source for Learners: An Action Research Study"

See other formats

Available online at 


ISSN: 1305-578X 

Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 13(2), 71-81; 2017 

Teaching ELF as a motivation source for learners: An action research study 

Emrah Muyan '©, Mehmet Tunaz b * 

a b Erciyes University, School of Foreign Languages, Kayseri 38280, Turkey 

APA Citation: 

Muyan, E., & Tunaz, M. (2017). Teaching ELF as a motivation source for learners: An action research study. Journal of Language and 
Linguistic Studies, 13(2), 71-81. 

Submission Date: 2017/01/12 
Acceptance Date: 2017/09/09 


The purpose of this study was to explore if teaching ELF would help students change their beliefs about 
language and language learning. Firstly, students were interviewed in person, and they were found to have a lack 
of motivation and negative attitudes towards learning English with standard norms. It was also noticed that the 
students are not familiar with varieties of English spoken worldwide. Then, according to students’ responses, a 
two-week ELF-based teaching was planned and applied based on Jenkins’ and Seidlhoffer’s suggestions on ELF 
core and teaching. The lessons were based on intelligibility of natural spontaneous communication, and students 
were guaranteed not to be judged by their mistakes. Hence, friendly classroom atmosphere was sustained utmost 
for two weeks. At the end of two-week period, the students were interviewed once more to get insight into their 
beliefs about language learning. The results revealed that students’ perception changed to some extent, and they 
were observed to develop more affirmative attitudes towards English language learning. It was found that ELF 
teaching can be used as a starting point to engage students to learn a language by abandoning Standard English 
norms imposed by course books and teachers. 

© 2017JLLS and the Authors - Published by JLLS. 

Keywords: ELF; teaching ELF; learner attitude; motivation 

1. Introduction 

It is a fact that most students learning English at schools in Turkey will use English for 
communicative purposes, and their interlocutors will mostly be non-native speakers (NNSs) from all 
around the world. It implies that they need to learn English as a lingua franca to be able to 
communicate with their interlocutors whether they are native or non-native speakers, the latter are 
majority though. As cited in Leshem and Markovits (2013, p.212), “Beneke (1991) estimates that 
about 80 percent of verbal exchanges in which English is used as a second or foreign language do not 
involve any native speakers of English”. 

On the one hand, the role of English as a lingua franca has affected English language teaching 
programs. According to Alptekin, educators do not believe that the common idea of learning English 
only to be able to communicate with native speakers of the language is still valid. Alptekin adds that 

Corresponding author. Tel.: +90-352-207-6666 
E-mail address : 


Muyan, E., & Tunaz, M. / Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 13(2) (2017) 71-81 

“the native speaker-based notion of communicative competence is described as utopian, unrealistic, 
and constraining” (Alptekin, 2005: 5-11). Parallel to Alptekin’s idea, Ur claims that most of the 
teachers teaching English in non-English speaking countries are not native speakers, so students do not 
have native role models, and under these conditions, targeting native-like competence is utopian for 
learners (Ur, 2010: 27). 

On the other hand, when it comes to teaching, some common learner usages like “he drink or 1 was 
go” are still discussed. It is a big question whether teachers should accept these expressions believing 
that the student is able to express himself or they should correct them. Ur believes that “teachers, as a 
matter of professional ethics, are committed to teaching their students correct and acceptable English 
forms as used by [native] speakers” (Ur, 2010: 88). Moreover, learners expect to be taught such forms, 
and to be corrected if they get wrong. It is evident that teaching English as a lingua Franca has a long 
way to go. 

1.1. Review of Literature 

1.1.1. Description of ELF 

Lingua Franca means “any lingual medium of communication between people of different mother 
tongue, for whom it is a second language” (Samarin, 1987: 371). This definition shows that native 
speakers are excluded from the definition of English as lingua franca. Firth and House support this 
definition, too. According to Firth, lingua franca is “a 'contact language' between persons who share 
neither a common native tongue nor a common (national) culture, and for whom English is the chosen 
foreign language of communication” (Firth, 1996: 240). House states that “ELF interactions are 
defined as interactions between members of two or more different lingua culture in English, for none 
of whom English is the mother tongue” (House, 1999, 73-89). However, the definition might be 
broadened to include native English speakers. It means that ELF communication may also take place 
between native speakers and nonnative speakers. It should be kept in mind that ELF interaction may 
include interlocutors from inner and outer circles, and take place in these contexts, too. Therefore, it is 
better to use ELF as “any use of English among speakers of different first languages, for whom 
English is the communicative medium of choice, and often the only option” (Seidlhoffer, 2011: 7). 
Recently, the number of nonnative speakers of English has outnumbered total native speakers of 
English. Although this case has aroused the issue of language ownership, ELF is accepted to meet the 
communicative needs of majority of English users. 

1.1.2. ELF basics 

ELF context may include both native and nonnative speakers, and it requires intercultural 
communication rather than over-deference to native speaker norms. Hence, the main concern of ELF 
context is to use the language and convey the intended messages effectively to someone whose first 
language is different. From this perspective, the most important issue in ELF is to have equal 
communicative rights for all the users regardless of their mother tongue or cultural background 
(Hiilmbauer, Bohringer, & Seidlhoffer, 2008: 25-36). As Gnutzmann states, English is not the property 
of its native speakers when it is used as a lingua franca (Gnutzmann, 2000: 356-359). According to 
Widdowson, no nation has the right to intervene or pass judgement due to the fact that English is the 
international language. In fact, native speaker norms may constitute a restraint on themselves in 
international context, because native speakers’ use of idiomatic phrases may cause deficiency in 
communication when non-natives cannot sort out the intended messages. Moreover, when the number 
of nonnative speakers is taken into consideration, it is more feasible to develop ELF’s own norms 
without conformity with the established native speaker norms (Widdowson, 1994: 377-389). 

Muyan, E., & Tunaz, M. / Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 13(2) (2017) 71-81 


1.1.3. ELF core 

Jenkins suggested a list of items which are required for nonnative speakers to perform intelligible 
communication (Jenkins, 2000: 27-80). Actually, the main purpose was to identify two sets of 

Steps which obstacle effective communication and must be disregarded by the teachers: For 

instance, some phonemes which are specific to English language and difficult to utter should not be 
taken into consideration when the main purpose is communication, as they are not necessary for 
international intelligibility. Therefore, according to Jenkins, ELF speakers can disregard native norms 
without any concern about the intelligibility for the listeners at least in these areas (Jenkins, 2000: 27- 

• Weak forms are excluded from the core since they are not necessary for the intelligibility of 
the conversation, so utterance of full vowel sounds instead of some specific sounds like 
schwa is proposed, 

• Features of connected speech are not necessary and can even deteriorate the effective 

• Word stress is not teachable and specific to native speakers, 

• Stress-Time rhythm is not included in ELF since weak forms are also excluded, 

• Pitch movement is claimed to enable the speakers to convey attitudes and grammatical 
meaning, but changing the meaning just by changing intonation is not applicable for ELF 

Steps which utilize communication and teachers must prioritize in their lessons: Jenkins 
prescribed a list of effective steps for teachers to prioritize in their lessons. These are suggested so as 
to guarantee the intelligibility of communication, and basically include substitution of some sounds, 
aspiration after /p/ /t/ A/, appropriate vowel length before some consonants, word-initial and word- 
medial consonant cluster, and maintenance of contrast between long and short vowels (Jenkins, 2000: 

1.1.4. Debate over standards 

One of the most debated topics in terms of ELF is undoubtedly the term “standard”. Firstly, the 
question of “what is standard and according to whom?” is aroused to support the idea that there is no 
specific standard of English, but rather varieties such as British, American, Australian or New 
Zealand. Beneke stated that the number of ELF speakers has already outnumbered the native speakers 
(Beneke, 1991: 54-56). Therefore, it would be nonsense to make the whole world obey the norms and 
rules of the minority. Secondly, a person who has enough amount of language to communicate has the 
rights to protect his identity while having the chance to communicate in any varieties of English. 
Widdowson stated that the center of ownership shifted from native speakers (inner circle) to nonnative 
speakers (outer and extended circle), and native speakers do not have the right to impose their norms 
on nonnative speakers (Widdowson, 1994: 377-389). For this reason, learners are the ones to learn and 
shape their language environment without conforming to the norms of native speakers presented to 
them (Takatsuka, 2008: 79-90). 

1.1.5. Teaching ELF and motivation 

The growing awareness of the role of English has also some implications in English language 
teaching. It is known that languages tend to change in their forms and their uses. Therefore, it is 
expected that something in teaching will also change. Widdowson says that “linguistic description 
cannot automatically meet pedagogic requirements” (Widdowson, 2003: 106). It is understood that 


Muyan, E., & Tunaz, M. / Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 13(2) (2017) 71-81 

language pedagogy should be descriptive, not prescriptive. However, “so far, the absence of sufficient 
descriptive work as a necessary precondition for ELF- focused curricula has been an obstacle to the 
adoption of ELF for teaching, even where this is perceived as appropriate” (Seidlhoffer, 2004: 225). 
As for actual teaching goals and approaches, McKay identified the following priorities: 


• Ensuring intelligibility rather than insisting on correctness 

• Helping learners develop interaction strategies that will promote comity (friendly relations) 

• Fostering textual competence (reading and writing skills for learner-selected purposes) 


• Sensitivity in the choice of cultural content in materials 

• Reflexivity in pedagogical procedures 

• Respect for the local culture of learning 

(cited in Seidlhoffer, 2004: 226) 

It seems that some basic innovations in English teaching should take place in pedagogy, curriculum 
and materials. It may not be easy to provide pedagogical suggestions for ELF teaching; however, 
raising language awareness, abandoning native speaker norms, and aiming intelligibility in 
international communications may be important key points in ELF teaching settings. It is inevitable 
that innovations in teaching will bring together some dramatic changes in assessment. For instance, in 
terms of pronunciation, Jenkins comes to the conclusion that “an overhaul of pronunciation testing 
will be necessary” (Jenkins, 2000: 27-80). We can conclude from Jenkins’ statement that, as opposed 
to traditional pronunciation testing which focuses on approximation to a native speaker accent, a fresh 
new ELF testing, which does not exist yet, may provide the acceptance of variety by increasing the 
learners’ motivation through success. 

1.1.6. ELF and motivation 

It is a fact that the numbers of non-native speakers outnumber the native speakers, so 
communications in English usually take place without a native speaker present. This fact fosters 
learners’ motivation whose ultimate aim is not a native-like accent. Learners are aware that they need 
language to communicate rather than mastering the rules of that language. Focusing on ELF 
considering learners’ beliefs is a great source for motivation. Learners’ main aim is not to 
communicate with native speakers any more. Therefore, the idea that native speaker of English being 
the model for correct language use is not valid any longer. 

Aliakbari and Monfared (2014) investigated the attitudes of Iranian students toward English as an 
international language, its significance in the country, and their motivations to learn it. The findings 
indicated that participants recognized English as the international language of the world which can 
help development of the country, and that they appeared to have instrumental motives to use it. 

Stephen (2011) claimed that the role of English in the world is as a lingua franca, but it is ignored 
by current educational practice in Japan. Therefore, he focused on the use of English as a global lingua 
franca and language learning motivation. Stephen (2011) proposed four concrete steps for educators 
and researchers that may facilitate the integration of English as a lingua franca perspective into 
English education in Japan and foster learners’ motivation to learn English: 

1) Research needs to be conducted to investigate the attitudes and beliefs of learners, teachers and 
administrators connected with English education in Japan. 

Muyan, E., & Tunaz, M. / Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 13(2) (2017) 71-81 


2) At a macro level, efforts need to be made to promote models of English that emphasise 
Japanese speakers of English rather than ‘native speaker’ models, thus reinforcing English as a part of 
the self-concept of Japanese learners. 

3) At a micro level, teachers and those involved in curriculum design need to exploit the findings 
of a substantial body of research into ELF use in the design and construction of teaching materials. 

4) Both at a macro- and a micro- level, assessment and testing must pay greater attention to ELF 

2. Method 

The steps of doing an action research described by Nunan are followed in this study. As cited in 
Ozcan (2010, p.22), “according to Nunan (1992: 18-23), any research which is initiated by a question, 
supported by both data and interpretation, and is carried out by a practitioner investigating aspects of 
his or her own context and situation is called action research”. Ozcan (2010, p.22) also cited that “the 
cycle of action research includes four stages: the initial reflection to identify an issue or problem, 
planning an action to solve the problem, implementation of the planned action, observation of the 
action, and reflection on the observation (Richards & Lockhart, 1996: 12-14)”. 





Figure 1 . “Reflective cycle of action research” as cited in Ozcan (2010, p.22) 

The reason for an action research being chosen for this study was to collect data on our own 
practice, and analyze it to come up with some decisions about what our future practice should be in 
terms of teaching ELF. 

2.1. Sample /Participants 

The sample consisted of 42 preparatory class students from different majors at the School of 
Foreign Languages, Erciyes University, Kayseri. The students were general EFL learners at 
preparatory classes who were supposed to study at various departments after one-year of compulsory 
English language education. The age of the participants varied from 18 to 26. The number of female 
participants was 22 while the number of male students was 20. 

2.2. Limitations of the study 

There is not a curriculum which describes ELF teaching. Therefore, this study does not prescribe 
how ELF curriculum should be developed. Similarly, there is not an ELF testing method available, so 
we did not apply any assessment instrument to determine if the students would be more successful in 
ELF context. 


Muyan, E., & Tunaz, M. / Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 13(2) (2017) 71-81 

3. Problem identification 

When English is used as a lingua franca between speakers of other languages, native-speaker (NS) 
norms and usages may not be relevant in such a context (Jenkins, 2006: 157-181). Therefore, the 
tai'gct model for English learners in non-English- speaking countries should start to shift from NSs to 
bilingual or multilingual speakers (Pakir, 2009: 224-235). Not a long time ago, it was very common to 
hear scholars believing learning American/British culture would help learners learn the language. As 
cited in Ke and Cahyani (2014, p.28 - 38), “the cultural contents in English courses should be 
expanded to include international cultures, world cultures, and local cultures so that they can 
encompass the hybrid and dynamic nature of ELF at individual, discursive, and community levels”. 

A shift from traditional language teaching to ELF is widely supported in literature. However, it 
fails when it comes to apply theory into practice. Many of the course books which are available are 
mostly based on American/British English. They do not show any varieties related to language use. In 
terms of culture, they generally impose American or British culture. Many teachers believe that 
American/British English is the best, and they stick to American/British English. Students are not 
aware of the ELF concept which is getting more and more attention all around the world. They try to 
speak English, and they feel failure when they cannot reach the American/ British English standard 
exposed by course books, teachers and testing. 

As the stalling point of this study, we encountered the following problems: 

• Excessive de-motivation to learn language 

• Repetitive failure in English proficiency exams because of testing norms 

• Being uncomfortable to speak in English because of feeling incapable of meeting the 
standards of native speakers 

• Teachers’ demanding expectations 

• Lack of needs analysis 

4. Planning and action 

Firstly, in order to explore students’ beliefs towards language learning, we conducted a pre-semi- 
structured interview, which included six questions. 42 preparatory class students from different majors 
were interviewed in person, and their responses were tape-recorded (see Appendix for interview 

Findings of Q1 (Do you think English is a difficult language to learn?): Regarding the first 
question, 37 of the students who constitute 88% of the total number said that they find English as a 
difficult language to learn. When they were asked to give some reasons for this belief, 67% 
complained about the rules of English language and pronunciation. 

Findings of Q2 (Do you want to speak English as your mother tongue?): 86% of the students 
answered this question by stating that they want to speak English as their mother tongue, but they 
believe that it is almost impossible to reach native like competence because of the educational system 
which is mostly based on grammar teaching. 

Findings of Q3 (Why are you studying English?): 97% of the students stated that it is 
compulsory to study English preparatory program to be able to continue their education in their own 
departments. 60% also stated that English will be necessary for their future careers. 78% implied that 
they learn English to communicate with foreigners. 

Muyan, E., & Tunaz, M. / Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 13(2) (2017) 71-81 


Findings of Q4 (Do you think that speaking English with a Turkish accent is bad?): Most of 
the students (92%) claimed that Turkish people do not sound natural when they speak English. 
Following this question, students were asked to rate the best accents. 

Findings of Q5 (Which is the best English accent: American, British, or any other?): 57% of 

the students said that American English is the best while 43% rated British English as the best accent. 
Surprisingly, none of the students claimed any other accents as superior to American or British 
English. The main reason for this might be the fact that they are not familiar with any other accents of 
English. When they were asked what they thought of Indian or Chinese accents, they were not sure if 
such accents existed. 

Findings of Q6 (Do you try a lot to learn English?): 65% of the students responded that they try 
to do their best to learn English; however, they claimed that there is always something missing. They 
explained that even if they know the words, their pronunciation is always problematic or even if they 
know the grammar, they do not have enough vocabulary to express their ideas and feelings. Most of 
the students stated that they are fed up with failure in the exams although they study really hard, and 
this fact de-motivates them to learn. 

As a result of the pre-interview, we found that some of the reasons for lack of motivation stem 
from the belief that students will never able to show native like competence. Secondly, they are not 
aware of varieties in English accents. They think that only American or British English exists, which 
increases the expectation of learners towards language learning and causes lack of motivation. Thirdly, 
due to the endless (students’ belief) rules of English language, students feel desperate to learn it 
although they want and try a lot. 

Based on the feedback from the interview, we decided to plan a two-week program which aimed to 
show different varieties of accents, welcoming to mistakes, focusing on intelligibility, raising 
awareness on ELF issue, and sustaining communication despite of mistakes or errors in international 
communication contexts. Firstly, we wanted students to get aware of ELF issue in the world. To 
achieve this aim, we prepared a mini presentation to inform our students about ELF. In this 
presentation, basic definitions of ELF and some examples were provided to increase awareness. 
Regarding Jenkins’ ELF teaching items, we conducted our lesson by disregarding standard norms 
imposed by text books and curriculum. Some discussion topics which were elicited from students’ 
interests (social networking sites, dating, smart phones and applications, computer and video games, 
shopping, sports, TV programs etc.), some videos and listening texts were brought to classes in two- 
week period only to the sample classes. The students were guaranteed that they would not be judged 
by their mistakes or pronunciation during the lessons, and the only criteria was stated to be the 
intelligibility of their speech. 

5. Observation 

As we planned in advance, we conducted our lessons based on the combination of McKay and 
Jenkins’ ELF teaching suggestions. We ensured intelligibility rather than insisting on correctness, and 
created a friendly atmosphere in class to lower students’ affective filter. We did not only focus on 
American or British culture, but we also enabled students to be familiar with other cultures such as 
Indian and Chinese. 

We observed that students’ beliefs changed to a favourable extent. For example, students were 
eager to participate in the activities, and at the beginning of each lesson, they asked questions like 
“What kind of English are we going to study today?” Such questions were valuable for us, because 
they gave the impression of getting familiar with various English accents. Surprisingly, their 


Muyan, E., & Tunaz, M. / Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 13(2) (2017) 71-81 

motivation was much higher than previous classes. Even the students with low grades were interested 
in lessons, and they tried to participate actively. As the students were aware of our expectation in 
advance, they were comfortable to express their feelings and ideas in an intelligible way. The friendly 
atmosphere of classroom also helped students to be more engaged in lessons. It needs to be clarified 
that we did not change our classroom atmosphere in a day from unfriendly to friendly atmosphere. 
Rather, we adhered to classroom and school rules; however, we were more tolerant to mistakes 
especially during speaking sessions of the lessons. 

In order to see if we were right with our observation, we decided to interview students in person at 
the end of the two-week period. We asked the same questions which were asked during the pre¬ 
interview (see Appendix). The students’ responses in the post-interview were notably different from 
the pre-interview. For the first question in the post-interview, 68% (which was 88% in pre-interview) 
of the students stated that learning English is difficult. However, most of them stated that the varieties 
in English comforted them by giving the impression that many people do not speak proper English. 
One of the students uttered that “If we do not need to abide by rules, of course we can learn English.” 

For the fourth question which is “Do you think speaking English with Turkish accent is bad?” 60% 
of the students were found to have a more moderate attitude towards Turkish English accent, which 
was quite the opposite during the pre-interview. After seeing varieties of English, they were more 
welcoming to Turkish accent, as well. This might encourage them to speak at every occasion which is 
the main goal of language teaching. When they were asked to rate the best English accents, they 
mostly rated British or American English as the best ones during the pre-interview. However, 20% of 
the students, after the two-week period- rated Turkish English as superior to other English accents. 
And, when they were asked why they changed their ideas, their reaction was surprising since they all 
stated that if intelligibility is the most important component of speaking a language, they can 
understand their Turkish interlocutors easier than the others, as they share a common culture. They 
gave an example to support their claim by stating “open TV” instead of “turn on the TV”. 

6. Reflection 

In our study, we did not apply an assessment test to evaluate students’ level of English since there 
is no such assessment tool developed for ELF context. Rather, we could observe the affirmative 
changes in students’ attitudes, motivation and beliefs related to learning English. Regarding that 
motivation is a key factor in learning in all fields, we can claim that our action reached its goals. We 
proved that ELF can be used as a stalling point to make the students realize that English is achievable. 
ELF can also foster students’ initial motivation by providing them enough space to play with the 
language. Raising awareness in terms of varieties in English lets students be more comfortable in 
speaking English. This study helped students gain confidence and self-respect by displaying that many 
people speak English by abandoning the standard norms established by native speakers and course 
books. All these findings comply with the ELF description of Jenkins’, Seidlhoffer’s and Ur. Parallel 
to our study, Seidlhoffer argues that ELF cannot be based on a single form of the language 
(Seidlhoffer, 2011: 7). 

Similarly, Prodromou claimed: 

‘Rather than set up a core which all users of ELF have to follow, it is surely time that we 
recognized the diversity among users and the multiplicity of users to which English is put worldwide 
and think in terms of varied processes of interaction rather than a single prescriptive.’ (cited in Ur, 
2010 : 88 ). 

Muyan, E., & Tunaz, M. / Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 13(2) (2017) 71-81 


7. Implications 

This study was a small scale research, but still some suggestions may be presented for teachers of 

• ELF can be used as a starting point of motivation, 

• Pluralism and diversity can be provoked through ELF involvement, 

• Introducing other cultures except American and British may help students learn English 

• ELF should be introduced to teachers, and intelligibility vs. standard norms should have a 
priority especially in speaking courses. 


These and the Reference headings are in bold but have no numbers. Text below continues as 
normal. Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references 
and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here 
those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing 
assistance or proof reading the article, etc.). 


Aliakbari, M., & Monfared, M. (2014). Iranian Students’ Beliefs and Motivations towards 
English. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 98, 200-206. 

Alptekin, C., (2005). “Dual language instruction: Multiculturalism through a lingua franca”. 

In: TESOL symposium on dual language education: Teaching and learning two languages in the 
EFL setting. 

Beneke, J., (1991). Englisch als lingua franca oder als Medium interkultureller 
Kommunikation Grenzenloses Sprachenlernen. Cornelsen, Berlin, 54-66. 

House, J., (1999). Misunderstanding in intercultural communication: Interactions in English as a 

lingua franca and the myth of mutual intelligibility. In C. Gnutzmann (Ed.), Teaching and learning 
English as a global language Tubingen. Stauffenburg, 73-89. 

Hiilmbauer, C., Bohringer, H., & Seidlhoffer, B., (2008). Introducing English as a lingua franca 
(ELF): Precursor and partner in intercultural communication. Synergies Europe, 3, 25-36. 

Firth, A., (1996). The discursive accomplishment of normality: On ‘lingua franca’ English and 
conversation analysis. Journal of Pragmatics, 26, 237-259. 

Gnutzmann, C., (2000). Lingua franca. The Routledge Encyclopedia of Language Teaching and 
Learning, Routledge, London, 356-359. 

Jenkins, J., (2000). The phonology of English as an international language: New models, new norms, 
new goals. Oxford University Press. 

Jenkins, J., (2006). Current perspectives on teaching world Englishes and English as a lingua 
franca. Tesol Quarterly, 40(1), 157-181. 


Muyan, E., & Tunaz, M. / Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 13(2) (2017) 71-81 

Ke, I. C. & Cahyani, H., (2014). Learning to become users of English as a Lingua Franca (ELF): How 
ELF online communication affects Taiwanese learners' beliefs of English. System. 46, 28-38. 

Leshem, S., & Markovits, Z. (2013). Mathematics and English, two languages: Teachers' 
views. Journal of Education and Learning, 2(1), 211 - 221. 

Nunan, D., (1992). Research methods in language learning. Cambridge University Press, 18-23. 

Ozcan, S. (2010). The effects of asking referential questions on the participation and oral production 
of lower level language learners in reading classes (Doctoral dissertation. Middle East Technical 

Pakir, A., (2009). English as a lingua franca: analyzing research frameworks in international English, 
world Englishes, and ELF. World Englishes, 28(2), 224-235. 

Richards, J. C., & Lockhart, C., (1994). Reflective teaching in second language classrooms. 
Cambridge University Press, 12-14. 

Samarin, W., (1987). Lingua franca. In U. Ammon, N. Dittmar, & K. Mattheier (Eds.), 

Sociolinguistics: An international handbook of the science of language and society. Walter de 
Gruyter, Berlin, 371. Retrieved from: 
%20%28HSK%29%20v3.1 .pdf 

Seidlhofer, B. (2004). 10. Research perspectives on teaching English as a lingua franca. Annual 
review of applied linguistics, 24, 209-239. 

Seidlhoffer, B., (2011). Understanding English as a Lingua Franca. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 

Stephen, R. (2011). Integrating an ELF perspective to English education in Japan: Motivational 
challenges and opportunities. 41, 197-218. 

Takatsuka, S., (2008). English as a lingua franca: Recent developments in ELF research and their 
pedagogical implications. Bulletin of Faculty of Education, Okayama University, 79-90. 

Ur, P., (2010). English as a lingua franca: a teacher’s perspective. Cademos de Letras (UFRJ), 88. 
Retreived from: 
Widdowson, H. G., (1994). The ownership of English. TESOL quarterly, 28(2), 377-389. 
Widdowson, H. G., (2003). Defining issues in English language teaching. OUP, Oxford. 

Muyan, E., & Tunaz, M. / Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 13(2) (2017) 71-81 


ingiliz dilinin ‘Lingua Franca’ olarak ogretilmesinin ogrenci motivasyonuna 

etkisi: Bir eylem ara§tirmasi 


Bu fali^mamn temel amaci; ingiliz dilinin standart kural ve kaynaklarina bagli kalmadan ‘Lingua Franca’ olarak 
ogretilmesinin, ogrencilerin dile ve dil ogrenmeye kar§i tutumlarim nasil etkiledigini gozlemlemektir. 
£ali§mamn ilk a§amasi olarak, ogrencilerin bireysel olarak miilakat sorulanyla fikirleri toplanmi§ ve ingiliz 
dilini standart norm ve kurallara bagli kalarak ogrenmeye kar§i olumsuz tutum i^inde olduklari ve dil ogrenme 
isteklerinin olduk?a dii§iik oldugu gozlemlenmifjtir. Ogrencilerin ayrica, ingiliz dilinin diinya fapmda kullamlan 
?e§itlerini bilmedikleri de gozlemlenmifjtir. Daha sonra, ogrencilerin miilakat sorularina verdikleri cevaplar 
dikkate almarak, Jenkins ve Seidlhoffer’in ingiliz dilinin ‘Lingua Franca’ olarak ogretilmesi ilkelerine gore 2 
haftalik dil ogretim modeli planlanmi^ ve uygulanmi^tir. Dil ogretim modeli anlik dogal ileti^imin algilanmasi 
iizerine kurgulanmi§ ve ogrencilerin hata yapma konusunda rahat olmalari, ileti^im kurmak i?in rahat 
hissetmeleri saglanmifjtir. Bu yiizden, rahat ve stressiz bir sinif ortami iki hafta boyunca surdurulmu§tur. iki hafta 
sonunda, ogrenciler, uygulanan model ile ilgili du§tinceleri aimak amaciyla tekrar miilakata alinmi^tir. Sonuglar 
gostermi^tir ki ogrencilerin dil ogrenme algi ve istekleri bu iki haftalik siircgte olumlu yonde degi^mi^tir ve 
ingilizce ogrenmeye kar^i olumlu tutum gelifjtirdiklerini ifade etmi^lerdir. ingiliz dilinin ‘Lingua Franca’ olarak 
ogretilmesi ve ogrencilerin kaynaklar ve ogretmenler tarafindan dilin standart kurallarim ogrenmeye 
zorlanmamasi, dil ogrenmeye kar§i olumlu tutum gelifjtirmede onemli bir rol oynayabilmektedir. 

Anahtar sozciikler: lingua franca; ortak dil; ogretim; ogrenci; tutum 


Emrah Muyan is an English language teaching instructor in Erciyes University, School of Foreign Languages. 
Currently he is a PhD candidate at Erciyes University, English Language and Literature Department. He got the 
MA degree from Qag University in 2013; BA degree from Erciyes University in 2009. Teacher education and 
development, language teaching methodologies, and program evaluation are among the fields of his interest. 

Mehmet Tunaz is an English language teaching instructor in Erciyes University, School of Foreign Languages. 
Currently he is a PhD candidate at Erciyes University, English Language and Literature Department. He got the 
MA degree from C,'ul<urova University, English Language Teaching Department in 2014; BA degree also from 
(,'ukurova University, English Language Teaching Department in 2010. Program evaluation and development for 
language teaching, language teaching methodologies, teacher education and development, curriculum design and 
assessment/evaluation in language teaching are among the fields of his interest.