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GREEK GRAMMAE RULES. 



#j 



The most necessary and important rules of Greek Syntax are here very briefly stated. Although they are presented in 
such smair compass, yet any boy who takes the trouble to master them will have laid a secure foundation for future 
attainments in scholarship. In a ^ Brief Greek Syntax' recently published, I have rendered more complete and systematic 
assistance to young scholars, and have furnished a large number of illustrations and explanations. 



THE AETIGLE. {To '"ApOpov.) 

I. Thd Article was origiDaUy (a) a demonstrative pronoun, which also served as (/3) a personal pronoun, and (y) as a relative : 
(a) (pdl(T£L ae to aov fxivog, that courage of thine will ruin thee. | (/3) r?)v 3' kyto ov Xvcru), her I will aot set free.— HoM. 

(y) ^tTrX^ juaoTtyt r))v "A|0??c 0iX£t, with the double whip i<;AzcA Ares loves. — jEsch. 
So in German, Der Mensch den ich befreundete, cZer hat's gethan, the man whom I befriended he has done it— -Clyde. 

n. The Article distinguishes the subject from the predicate, which latter does not generally take the Article ; as, 
vvl f} fjfxipa kyevETo, the day was turned into night. \ Qeog fiv 6 Aoyog, the Word was God. 

III. * The good man ' (and every similar collocation of the Article, Adjective, and Substantive) is put m Greek in the same order as in English 

6 ayadog dvdpwTroQ [or, with the Article repeated, 6 avOpcj'n'og 6 ayadog']. 
■ If the Adjective is placed ji^rs^ or last it is not an epithet Q th^ good man'), but a predicate ; as, 

o^vv i')(EL Tov TriXeKvvj the axe which he has is sharp. 









6 avdpwTTog ayadog. 1 , -, / . ^ , 

ol \6yoL xpevhlg kXix^rjcray, the words spoken were false. 



^LirXd 'iriaav da/jLaprLa, the penalty they paid was twofold. 
KaXovg iyEL rovg 6<j>6a\fjLovg, il a les yeux beaux. 



■ Thus, ri pLECTY] vrjcrog is the middle island.„Qf three; but*^ vrjcrog fiia-r) is tKe island where it is midmost, i. e. the middle of the 
island ; and ettI rw atcporaTO} oplt = on the highest mountain; but Itt' aKpordro) rf opec = on the highest part of the mountain. 
And -similarly in all cases. 

N.B. i. The Article must not immediately precede ovroc, IkeIvoc^ 6Ee, EKaaroQy eKarepog^ ajj^cpit), ajicporepog : 

This man = oiJTog 6 avOpctJiroc. | This sentiment = ^'^e ^ yj^w/xry, &c. ' .■ 

Or, which is equally correct but less emphatic, 6 avdpwn-og ovrac, fj yvio^r) fj^Ej &c. ; but never 6 ovroc^ &c. 
When ovroc, £/cEti^oc, &c. are used with a substantive which is without the article, they are in apposition ; as, tovto) Trapaltiyp.ari "xp^jfiepog, 
using this as an example. 



7. 

8. 
9. 



avTog 6 avdpoJTTogj T 

or, avdpwirog avrog, J 



the man himself; 



10. 
11. 



but, o avTog avOpojirog = the same man: avrog, preceded by the article, always means the same; (avrog, avrr], ravro or 
TavToy = avTOCj fj avriiy to ai/ro). 

iii. My friend = o ifiog (plXog or 6 (plXog /xov ; but not 6 pLOv (plXog. 

The' river Euphrates ==o Evcpparrjg noTapLog; the promontory of Sunium = 7o ^ovvlov aKpov. 
iv. The Article is sometimes distributive \ as, h\g tov prjpog, twice each month : sometimes generic; as, top yipovja al^elaOaL 'xpv, 
one should honour an old man. Notice these phrases: tcl pikv . . . to. ^e, partly . . . partly; kv -Tolg- it pu}Toi=^ inter 
primes; oI Traj^v, the elite ; rJ = therefore ; ro ^e = whereas (Plato). 
V. aXXotj others, ahi ; ol aXXoi, the rest, coeteri : ttoXXoI, many ; ol ttoXXoi, the greater number, the plels, 

' CASES. (nrcScrets.) 

Of the eight Sanskrit cases Greek has five, and Latin six ; the Greek Genitive being also Ablative, and the Greek Dative also Instrumental 
and Locative, 



I. The Predicate agrees with the Subject after all Copulative Verbs (i. e. verbs of being, seeming, being caUed, appointed, &c); as, 
KadiffTTjKe ^aaiXEvg, he is appointed king. | ' QEog wvopia^ETo, he was named a god. 

12. II. The Genitive expresses three main conceptions, to which aU its uses may be referred : 

1. Ablation, ^ from,' like the Latin ablative, 

2. Partition, * some of,' or wherever any such conception may be involved. 



13. 



3. Relation. 
1. Under the notion of Ablation fall the Genitives of a, cause, 5. material, c, separation, d. perception of all kinds (as coming /rom an 

object) ; as, ^ . ^ - 



a. o'lpLoi Trig Tvxv^i alas/or my lot ! (cf the German des Leides /) 

b. vopLLdpta apyvpiov, a coin q/ silver. 



c. aTTExofxai dlvov, I abstain from wine. 

d, ov /.ivpov TTi'Eoy, not redolent o/ perfume. 



- -. ,^-* ^■- .*i.S 



14. 

15. 

16. 



2. Under tlie notion of Partition faH' tlie Genitives of a. time, h. possession, c. place, &c., and d. all conceptions that imply ' some of; ' as, 

c, avTov, theve: TTov; where? &c. Otherwise the genitive of 

place is mainly poetical. 
d, wdarae 8' aXog, and he sprinkled it with (some) salt. 
N.B. The Possessive Genitive rarely becomes a mere epithet, as in dcrrpojy eijcpporrj, a night of stars; y.oVoc TrrepuJ, a wine? 
of snow (cf. * His cap of darlcness on his head he placed,' &c.). ' a, r ; & 

S. Under the notion of Belation fall the Genitives of a. comparison, h, value, c. price, &c. 



a. j/v/croc KUL f]fj,£paQ, by night and by day (cf. ^o'nights,' &c.) 

b. KnTTot 'EwLKovpov, gardens of Epicurns. 
c Tov Bevdpov KapiroQ, the tree's fruit. 



as, 



17. 



^ ^ a, Ixei'Cwv TOV irarpog, taHer than his father. I c. )(pvaea xaX/cs/w;/, golden for brazen. 

V>: "' '^oarov TijuLdrai; how much is it worth ? | 

And those numerous cases in which the Genitive expresses the ohject ; as, 

o (p6(3oQ T(vp TToXefxtioy, fea.v of (Le, about) the enemy, (cf, 4:4:), 
A large number of its uses may be represented by the English ^ with respect to.' 

N,B. TheGenitive Absolute is originaUy a ca^^^aZ Genitive, andis used, asinLatin,in connexion with Paorticiples. Itisthere- 
fore a genitive of ahlatwn, and so resembles the Latin Ablative Absolute. It derives its te7nporal and other meanings 

' ™1 ! ^^f "^P " ^f" ""^^^ '^ VT^r . ^^ ^' ^^'' ^"^^^^^^ *^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^i^^ Absolute, because the Greek 

,,jjrn. n ' m/ J^""'^^''^' ^^'^ participles active and the Latm does not. Thus ravra d^ovre, cury^^ey would be in Latin His dicUs. 

18. in. Ti^^ATiVE The fundamental conception of the Dative i. juxta^osiUon. Thus we find it after verbs compounded with h, aijy k.i 

Hence it is used for aU acoessorieB of manner, time, &c, and all instrumen,ts ; it expresses the agent after passive verbs • and TenerX 

Tr?)^'''^ l"^ '"^ '^'-^'"^ ^nc^^r.c% refers, or whose advantage and disadvantage the verbal notion affecl. ' ^ ^ 

15. The Dative of place even m poetry, usually takes iv. Accompaniment is usually expressed by a{jv, except when ahrhg is used as aiav 

vavv avTOLQ ardpaair, a single ship, crew and all, J ) ^f^ ^^«^ avros is usea, as fxiav 

20. The Ethic Dative is a Dative expressive of interest in the subject (^Qoe) • as 

21. lY. T^^'Zliji^^ :!!""'' ^""^ ^'^^''^' my grandfather is ! (Comp. Quid mki Celsus agit ?--Hob. Knock me on this door.-SnAKSP. &c.) 

I. The fundamental conception of the Accusative is (a) motion towards, and therefore (5) extension over space (or time) ; as, 
a. rJKiv rrjrh ndXtv, I have reached this city. h, kirix^L crraoiovQ kirrd, it is seven stadia off. 

T+ ^rnii T>^ ^r...^A i--u A. 4.-U • r. .1 . ■, . , , '^fiEvov Tpelg fifjvaQ, they were staying? three months. 

\"cL\X?^^^^^^^^ 
''' ^t>Vo?.Tr''' "' '\' ^^''\ and immediate object of the verb ; as, r^.ro, ahr6y, 1 strike him: or, ii. defines the extent of the verbal 

1 ache-as ^(? ^^6 i^^ac?; Travraei^aae^ove., he is happy-zTiaZZ r65j9^C^5; ^o^vdya^o^^ / / y> / , 



BBW 



23. II. We often have two or even i^ree Accusatives after a verb, one of which limitis and defines the other, being in apposition with it : 

(this is called the whole-and-part figure, c^T/jUa KaO^'oKor koi fiepoQ) ; as, 
Tpioag drj rpofiog alvog virrikvQs yvla eKacrroK, dread tremor pervaded the Trojans, each of them, as to his limbs [in English, * each 
• Trojan's limbs'], 

24. " III* In other instances of the double Accusative, one of theni expresses the external object affected by the verb, and the other defines its 

action, or adds to it some cognate conception of the verb ; as, 

kli^a^a tov iraila Ttjv ixovaiKriVy I taught the hoy music, \ Kvpov (ttoXyiv kvilvcrev, he clad Gyrus in a robe, 

25. N.B. Observe in general that the Genitive denotes motion from, or separation ; the Dative denotes rest and conjunction; the 

Accusative denotes motion to, or approach. Thus the Accusative and the Genitive cases are the two opposite poles. 

' 26. Compare vvKTog, noctu, during the night (part). 

vvKTL, in the night (accessory — when ?). 



Compare ttoctov Truykeig ; at how much do you sell ? (price). 

, TTocw h)vei ; for how much do you buy ? (instrument). 
^:h^'' irocrov Bvvarat; how much is it worth? (extension). 



vvKTa, noctem, all night long (extension — how long ?). 

PEEPOSITIONS. (npo^eVets.) 

27. I. The Prepositions were originally, like the case-endings, mere adverbs of place, used to make the meanings of the case more distinct. 

Hence, oltto, '- from^ is only joined with a Genitive; kv, ^in,^ only with a Dative; etc, * into,^ ' to,^ only with an Accusative. When 
they appear to change their meaning with the case which they define, it is, in reality, the case which gives the meaning, woi the 
Preposition. This fact may be seen most clearly in the use of irapa : 

28. napa=*apud,' * alongside of.' 

Hence, Trajoa gov = * from you' (i. e. from alongside-of you, de chez) 
Ttapa Goi =near or by you (i.e. at alongside-of yotf). 
Trapct ae = towards you (i. e. towards alongside-of you). 

5s9. Aid, through, Bia trov = per te, by means of you. ^ta tovtcjv, hj these means. 

^LCL ae =z propter te, for your sake, on your account (* aU through you'), dia ravra, therefore, on this account. 
di' ov to. iravTa koX ZC ov tcl iravTa (Heb. ii. 10), on whose account, and by whose means, aU things exist. 
SO. 'Ett/, upon, has very various uses. Generally, kirl with Gen. implies partial superposition ; as, 

l(^' iTTTTov, on horseback : 
with Dat. implies total juxtaposition, and hence = close to ; as, 

oIkeovteq IttI ^TpvjjLovi, liviug by the Strymon : 
with Accus. it implies motion with a view to superposition ; as, 
avaj3alyeLV k<^^ ittttov, to mount on horseback. 

5 



J 



A_ 



32. 



34. 



36. 



81. Notice the plirases: sttI with Gen. : IttI Aajoe/ov, in Darius' days; e^' i7juwj^, nostra memoria; ecp'' eavrovj sua sponte. 

ewl with Dat. : etti tovtolq^ pr^terea, besides or ' consequently ^ \ to kirl (tolj as far as you can, quod te penes est'^ cttI 
Tolcrde, on these conditions; yaipeiv kw'i tlvl^ to rejoice at a thing; kirl Qripa, e^Leyatj to go a hunting, eirl with Ace. : 
STT^ ijuLej down to my days ; lirl ri ; quare ? 
^^'Kard, down, Xiyeiv Kara tlvoq, to speak against a person. 

TO KUTO. 'Iioavvrjv evayyeXioVj the gospel according to John. 
Merd, with (Germ. mit). julstcl with the Gen. =:with : f.ieTa 6ewy = crvv deolg ; /zer' aXrjdelagy with truth. 

with the Dat. = among (only in Epic poetry). . 

with the Accus. = ^ after ' (either of time or place, and in all English senses of the word) ; as, fxsTa 
Tavraj ^ after these things.' . And also, ' in quest of: ' fXErairin'Trofj.ai rtva, I send for a person.* 
Uapdj along, (see above) eXdfcy irapa tlvoq =Yemr de chez quelqu'un. 
^y Trapa Tu jSaaiXelyhe wsiS with the "king. 
.a<piK0VT0 irapa Kpolaoy, they came to Croesus. 
Ujoof , to, irpoQ TovTUJVj in consequence of this. [^rrppQ ge Oecov atrou^at, per te Decs oro."] 

TTjOoc TovTOLQ, lu addition to this. 

TTpog Tavra, with reference to this ; i. e. therefore. [_7r poQ x^ptv tlvoq, for a person's sake,] 
'Ytto, under, . The physical and original meaning of vtto as an adverb of place is very distinct : 

with the Gen. = motion from under: vtto Trrepibv aTrdaag, dragging from under wings. 
with the Dat. =. position under : KuXy vtto TrXaravtorw, under a fair platanus. ' 

with the Ace. = motion to under : vn "IXtov ^proj sped under (the walls of) Ilium. 
VTTO with the Gen. is the common way of expressing the cause or agent; as, KTsiv^crdaL vtto tlvoq, yLaivecr&aL vtto 

fiidrjQ, &c. 
i/TTo with the Ace. = about, or, just after; as, vtto vvKra, sub noctem, about nightfall. [Cf. Suh hsec, hereupon.] 

37. n. By a very common terseness of expression, called the constructio prcegnans, a Preposition often implies an entire clause; as, 

GTaa f $ OvXvfiTTOLo, standing (on and looking) from Olympus. 

(^lXlttttoq de evpidrj elg "A^wrov, lit. Philip was found into Azotus, i. e. was carried into, and found at. 
N.B. L v0' ou = by whom (the agent) ; di ov, by whose means (instrument) ; e^ ov, out of which (material) ; It 6, on account of, 
which (final cause) ; irpbg ov, at whose hands ; d^' ov, starting from whom, 
ii. fca6' 7}fj.ipav, day by day, singulis diebus, 

7rap\f]fj,epav, during the day, per diem : also, from day to day, alternis diebus, 
jue0' f]fjiepav, in the day time, by day, interdiu (properly, after day-dawn), 
iii. ava (observe the accents) =dva<7rr;0£, rise ! or = oh king ! /jiira, irdpa, &c.=fJLir£(TrL, irapeaTL, &c. ; Trepi is a prep., TrepL an adv. 
^exceedingly. (piXwv cltto: account for the accent of aTro here. 
__^_^^' ' ■ ■ .^ ■ - ^ 



38.. 



39. 




PRONOUNS. Y^vro}vviJ.iai,) 

Personal Pronouns. 'Eyio, I ; av, thou. For the third Personal Pronouns, * he, she, it,^ the Attic uses the demonstratives ovtoq, oh, 

kicelyoQ. For the Accusative in poetry vtV (both sing, and plur.), and u(pL The Ionic uly is not used in Attic. 
ov, ol, e, of which the Nom. '/ is obsolete, is in Attic not personal, but reflexive throughout, * of himself &c.; but in Homer it is demon- 
strative, and means * ofhim,^ &c. It borrows for its Nominative avroc, -V, -o, -self 

Thus, avTOQ, '71, -0 (in the Nom. only) means -self and is reflexive; but all the other cases are demonstrative, — avrov, of Azm, &c. 
42* U. I. Avroc when placed ^rst i^ emphatic '. avrov hv^ev, he Btruok him (eTv\pey ai/rov, merely * he struck him'). AvroQtipri, ^ the master 
said so;' avrov yap Ellov,ior I saw the man himself Ai^ro/ eo"/iev, we are alone=(by) ourselves. Tiraprog, TveixTrroQ avroQ, with 
three, four, &c., others. {Cf. 11 eMsiit lui cinquieme.) • .' , / -u- -7 

N.B. 6 avTog aviip, the same man; 6 avrip avroc, the man himself; 6 iralg avrov, his son; vavv avrolg avdpaffiv, a ship, sailors and 
all; [in this use of avrog the preposition avv is not often added]. 
ovroc=hic; £/c£ti/o£=ille or iste; oSe^hicce. "0^£ is used dELKriKcog, and means * lo P [cf. the Italian questo, cotesto, quello]. 
rouro = something preceding, ro^£= something which foUows; as, rovro jiev av XiyzLg, irap rjixwv S' airayyeXXe rade. 
So too TOLavra, as aforesaid, roiade, as follows. Ovrog !=heus tu ! ho there ! 
44 III. I. Soc TTodog may mean either 'your regret' (subjective) or * regret /or you' (objective). Big r^v efiriv iLva/ivriffLV, in remembrance of me. 
(Luke xxii. 19.) 'O aog vlog, ox o vldg aov; 6 kfiog Trarrjp, or 6 Trarrjp /iov. Notice the order, which is invariably preserved. 

II. Adjectives &c. often agree with the Personal Pronoun understood from the possessive; as, rd/ict Ivarrivov KaKa, the woes of me 
unhappy; [of.meas(sri-^t2itimentis,&,o, HoR.]. ^v ' • ^r 

III. 'AvTov = his, kavTOv=his own; as ixErErzEix-J^aro r^v kavrov dvyaripa Kalrbv Tralf^a ahrrjg, arcessivit suam filiam, ejusque filium. 

lY. The Relative is often attracted into the case of the antecedent ; as in 

XpCJfxaL oh ex(o j3iPXioLg, I use the books which I have. | ohic epa/iat olov aov avdpog, I don't love a person like you 

I. Scrrig, bwdrepog, bitolog, &c. are used for the simple forms (rig ; irorepog ; irolog ; &c.) in dependent questions ; as, tIq h ; ohic oW 6jtlq ^v. 

iroaovg aXXerai irodag ; how many feet does it leap ? but avrjpeTO oivotTovg oXXolto irodag, 
II. ocrrLg is more indefinite than og. Thus, 

EffTLV dUrjg 6(i>daXjjLbg og to. 7rdv0' 6p^, there is an eye of justice which (definite) sees aU things. But 
avEXEvQepog irdg oarig elg do^av PXettel, every one is a slave whoever has an eye for reputation. 
N.B. a. arra is contracted for arLva ; but arra is used for tlvo., neut. plur. of rig, some one.. 

b. In^a'oc, ' said Ae,' the relative retains its. original demonstrative force. So og fiEv TVELvq, og U fXEdvEi, one is hungry, 
another drunken. 
VL ''AXXog,%lius, any other; ErEpog, alter, another of two; ol dXXoL, ccEteri, the rest; olhEpoL, altera pars, the opposite party. 

yn. The Reflexive and Reciprocal Pronouns are often interchanged ; as, n • r • i\ 

diEXEyofXEda i}f.L-iv aWo7c, we were conversing with ourselves (= with one another ; reflexive lor reciprocal). 
So in EngHsh, ' They difier among one another ' (reciprocal for reflexive).— Spectator. Cf in. iii. infra, and cf. lis se battent, se 
regardent, &c. 



43. 



45. 

46. 

47. 



48. V. 
49. 

50. 

&1. 
62. 



L 






?^?pgs^'; ij^f^m m^ . 



63. 



.#, 



THE VEEB. CPwa-) 

VOICES. 



I. An Active Yerh may be either transitive or intransitive, and many Verbs vary in their meanino. hpfwPAr, i-ha i.^^ . - t , 

ecrrrjKa I stand. (Cf. the EngHsh Verbs, stoj>, change, &c.>. ^ ^ ^^^'^^^'^ *^^ ^"^^ • ^- «" '^^'^^'^ ^ P^^c^' 

n. Mer ^Passive Verb the. agent is sometimes regarded as an instrument, and expressed by the Dative; as, 

eiioL TriirpaKTai rovpyov, the deed has been done by me. 
But more frequently by vTTo ; as, • 

Apiu)y ecTujdr] vtto deX(p7vog^ Arion was saved by a dolphin. 
IN.B. 1. ol 'TTol^eg ^iddcrKOVTat rrjv iJ.ovcnK7]v. 

'^^Ve AccVitire. ^''^^ ^°^''°' *'''' Accusatiyes, &e person becomes the subject of the passive Verb, the thing remains 

11. o ^evo-r/^c ov TTdoreverat, a liar is not believed. 
6 irXovaioQ (pdoveirai^ a rich man is envied. 

How does the Greek here differ from the Latm idiom ? 
57. HI. The chief uses of the Middle are— , 

. I. Eeflexive : a, directly—an action on self; as, Xoiofxai, I wash myself. 

or, b, indirectly—an action for oneself; as, afxh'oiiaL rbv TroXiutop, I ward off from myself the enemy. 



54. 



5o. 



56. 



58. 
59. 

60. 



II. Causative, for self; as, UdcrKOfiaL rhv vl6y, I get my son taught, docendum euro fihum. 
"• ""'S^lyXll^^^^S^ t^^^ S'so'^l^^l^^" (*^^^ '' -peciaU, frequent with compounds of S.'a; 



N.B. cLTTodl^ioixij I give back ; aTrodldofxatj I sell. 
davel^io, I lend ; davel^o/xai, I borrow, 
a^xw, I rule; apxofiai, I begin. 
atpeujj I take ; aipovfiai, I choose. 
(TKOTru), I look ; cFKoirov^ai^ I consider. 
fiKTdaj, I let ; fiLordovixaL, I hire. 
7r£t0w, I persuade ; Treldofiai, I obey. 




► 52. supra. 

Travo), I make to cease ; Travofjiaiy I cease. 

cririvZio, I pour a libation ; anriydo/jLaty I make a treaty. 

ya/xw, duco uxorem ; yajnovfiai, nubo viro. 

Ovw, I sacrifice ; Ovofxat, I take the auspices. 

TiQivai voiiov, of a despot; TtdeadaL vofxovsj of Si republican. 

TLfiu}pElv TLvi, to avenge a man ; TLfXLjpEiffdat nva, to punish. 

o 0££c, the mortgager ; 6 Oe/jLevog ri, the mortgagee. 



61. 



TENSES. (Xpovoi.) 

A complete Indicative Mood would have m?z6 Tenses, because every act must be (i.) either ^a5^,;?re5e7i^, or /w^^w^^^ ^ .- . 

^ And (ii.) every act, whether past, present, or future, may be regarded as either finished (perfect), unfinished (imperfect), or indefinite 
(aorist). [3x8=9].* - 

62. n. Of these mrie tenses, English has only two,--both of them aorists (viz. a present aorist, e.g. ^ I dine;' and a past aorist, e.g. * I dined'); 

Latin has six ; and Greek has six ; as •\vill be seen by the following easy table, which should he understood and mastered once for all i 

CVzsijlhad dlnedi, kleleiTTviiKY], coenaveram. 
Three (finished or) Perfect tenses . . < Present, I have (sc. novj) dined, dedeiirvrjKa, ccenavi. 

[Future, I shall have dined [wanting in Greek], coenavero. l 

fPast, 1 was dining, kceiTrvovv, coenaham. 
Three (unfinished or) Imperfect tenses < Present, I am dining, denrvp, ca^no. 

L Future, I shall be dining, [wanting both in Greek and Latin] .f 

r Past, I dined, l^f t7^)/^7(Ta, [wanting in Latin, c^?^av^ used instead]. 
Three (indefinite or) Aorist . . . .< Present, I dine, [wanting both in Greek and Latin]. 

[_ Future, I shall dine, deLTrvrjcrWf coenabo, 

63. ' N.B. i. Both of the only two English tenses, viz. the Aorist present ^ I dine,' and the Aorist past ^ I dined/ (Greek, edel7rv7](Ta) are 
wanting in Latin ; and the former of them in both Greek and Latin. 

ii. Avoid translating an Aorist by have, which is the sign of a Perfect tense. 

iii. htirvLv, TVTTTU), &c. whcu construod with ^^r/^c^ accuracy, are not present- Aorists, ' I dine,' '1 strike,' &c., but present- 
Imperfects, 'Lam dining,' ' I am striking; &c. The Greeks dehghted in the use of these picturesque Imperfect tenses, 
which represent actions as going on before the eyes (the 7rp6 6fXfi6.Tb)v iroieiv), 
iv. Some verbs have two forms of the present-Perfect (rirvcpa, reTvira), of which the second (erroneously called the Perfect- 
middle) is older, is formed from the root, and is oflen intransitive ; as, oXb)Xa, I am undone ; eaya, I am broken, &c. 
Some verbs have two forfas of the past- Aorist {erv^a, 'irviroy) ol which the second is the older, and is formed from the 
root. Very few verbs have both Aorists or both Perfects in use (e.g. rirvtpa is not found in Greek). 
V. The Present, Perfect, and Future (ordinarily, but inaccurately, $ so called) are Primary tenses. Their duafe end in ov^ 
and they are unaugmented. 
The rest are called Historical tenses ; their duals end in riv, and they are augmented. 

^ mi,-.- ^p^ .f xr^Q +gj.ggg ia inainlv taken from Mx. F. WliaUey Harper's * Power! 'of tlie Greek Tenses.' It is most easily learned, and can le understood by the youngest, and is invaluable to a 
right nercention of the niceties of Greek. It is more fully explained in ' A Brief Greek Syntax/ which has heen recently pubUshed. ^ ^ ,^ .^ ^ ., . . , , • „ r-' . 

rignt perception OTW^^ (or the prospectiye future jue'AAo, with the infin.), are used as substitutes; hnt expressions formed ^ the aid of auxzhanes are not, strictly speaUng, tenser. 

n^Tiic iaww ^f u qfQfpH flhovp that English has only two tenses (I dine, I dined), all the others being mere auxiliary compounds. 

tZclr^iSj^eyshZ^ be called Present-Sp^ Present-perfect, and Puture-aorist, as in the above table. It will be seen from the aboye table that there are three present, three past, 

and three future-tenses. O 



64. 
65. 

66. 
67. 



^•o^^m^wmo^ii 



!!g< WP' t »W|' '^' , i< !tfw«H^g >J W » M''*''J' ' iil''"«M - »^^^ t»»A;j) ii u.. .u,. l ^ lli.y^wig■^■y^^t!jy^J«^>f^^ 



THE VEEB. {"Prjixa.) 

"^ V^OICES. 

■ .# 

63. I. An Active Verb may be either transitive or intransitive, and many Verbs vary in tlieir meaning between the two : e. g. lorry^i, I place.* 

earrjKa I stand. (Cf. the English Verbs, stop, change, &c.). 
54. n. After a Passive Verb the. agent is sometimes regarded as an instrument, and expressed by the Dative ; as, 

e/xol TriirpaKTaL rovpyov, the deed has been done by me. 
But more frequently by vTTo ; as, • 

'Apicjy kab}Qri vtto deXfiyog^ Arion was saved by a dolphin. 

65. N.B. i. ol TvaideQ ^idda-KOVTai rr}v jj,ov(nK7]v. 

When a Verb in the active governs two Accusatives, the person becomes the subject of the passive Verb, the thing remains 
in the Accusative. ■ 

56. ii. o -ipevarrjg ov Trtoreverat, a liar is not believed. 

6 irXovaioQ (pdovEirai, a rich man is envied. 

How does the Greek here differ from the Latin idiom? 

67. HI. The chief uses of the Middle are — 

I. Bejiexive: a, directly — an action on self ; as, Xovo^ai, I wash myself. 

or, h. indirectly — an action /or oneself; as, a/iurojuat tov ttoXeuwv, I ward o^ from myself ^Q enemy. 

68. II. Causative, for self; as, lilacrKoixai tov vlov^l. get my son taught, docendum euro fiHum. 

69. III. Eeciprocal : as, CjOovyraij they push each other ; diafiaxoyraL, they fight each other (this is especially frequent with compounds of dla ; 

as, diaXeyof^aij I converse; ^taXvofxaLj I make it up with, &c.). Cf. 52. supra. 



60. 



N.B. awodidw/xij I give back ; aTrodLdojjLai, I sell. 
daveiitj, I lend; davei^ofjiaij I borrow. 
a.pxo}j I rule ; ixp^o^ai, I begin. 
alpewy I take ; alpovjxaij I choose. 
(TKoirCJ, I look ; c/coTrovjuat, I consider. 
fiiffdut, I let ; ixiadovfxaLj I hire. 
weldu), I persuade ; ireidofj.ai, I obey. 



Tcavu), I make to cease ; iravofxai, I cease. 
(TTrevdu), I poiu" a Jibation ;' crTriyBofxai, I make a treaty. 
yafxQf duco uxorem ; yafiov/jiai, nubo viro. 
6vu}j I sacrifice ; Bvofxat, I take the auspices. 
TiQevai voyiovj of a despot ; rideaQai vofiovQ, of a republican. 
TLniopeiv TLVLy to avenge a man ; TiynDpEiadai riva, to punish. 
6 deig^ the mortgager ; 6 Oeixevog ti, the mortgagee. 
- 8 



.:/ TENSES. (Xpoyoi,) 

61. ■ A complete Indicative Mood would have nine Tenses, because every act must be (i.) either past, present, ov future, 

^ * And (ii ) every act, whether past, present, or future, may be regarded as either finished (perfect), unfinished (imperfect), or indefinite 
(aorist). [3x3=9].* 

62. n. Of these nme tenses, English has onli/ two,- — both of them aorists (viz. a present aorist, e.g. ^ I dine; ' and a past aorist, e.g. * I dined'}; 

Latin has six ; and Greek has six ; as mil be seen by the following easy table, which should he understood and mastered once for all i 

("P.SiStj 1 had dined, ededeiTTvrjKrjy cosnaveram. " 

Three (fimished or) Perfect tenses . . < Present, I have (sc. now) dined, ^edeiTrprjKa, ccenavi. 

[Future, I sAa^Z y^ave dined [wanting in Greek], c^Tiayero. l 

("Fast, 1 was dining, eceiTTvovy, cosnaham. 

Three (unfinished or) Imperfect tenses < Present, I am dining, leiwvG), coeno* 

[_ Future, I shall he dining, [wanting both in Greek and Latin].| 
rPast, I dined, edeLiryrjaa, [wanting in Latin, ccenavi used instead]. 

Three (indefinite or) Aorist . . . .< Present, I dine, [wanting both in Greek and Latin]. 

(^Future, I shall dine, detiryncru), coenaho, 

63. ' N.B. i. Both of the only two English tenses, viz. the Aorist present ^ I dine,' and the Aorist past * I dined,* (Greek, kMirvricTa) are 

wanting in Latin ; and the former of them in both Greek and Latin. 
g4^ ii. Avoid translating an Aorist by have, which is the sign of a Perfect tense. 

g. iii. leiiryCo, tvtttu), &c. when construed with ^er/^c^ accuracy, are not present- Aorists, ' I dine,' '1 strike,' &c., but present- 

Imperfects, ' 1 am dining,' ' I am striking,' &c. The Greeks delighted in the use of these picturesque Imperfect tenses, 
which represent actions as going on before the eyes (the Trpo ofAfxdrwy Tvoiely). 
66, iy. Some verbs have two forms of the present-Perfect (rirvcpa, rirvTra), of which the second (erroneously called the Perfect^ 

middle) is older, is formed from the root, and is often intransitive ; as, oXu)\a, 1 am undone ; taya, I am broken, &c. 
Some verbs have two forms of the past- Aorist (ervxpa, erviroy') oi which the second is the older, and is formed from the 
root. Very few verbs have loth Aorists or hoth Perfects in use (e.g. rirvda is not found in Greek). 
V. The Present, Perfect, and Future (ordinarily, but inaccurately, | so called) are Primary tenses. Their duals end in ov, 
and they are unaugmented. 
The rest are called Historical tenses ; their duals end in rjy, and they are augmented. 

« Thiq vipw of the tenses is mainly taken from Mr. P. WhaUey Harper's * Powerlof tlie Qreek Tenses.' It is most easily learned, and can U understood ly the youngest, and is invaluable to a 
riehtnercention of the niceties of Greek. It is more fully explained in ' A Brief Greek Syntax/ wMch lias been recently pubUshed. ,,,,., ^ .,. . . . • ./ y- . 

i^T^!aaX^^vfvfSur^^ (or the prospective future fxdK\o> witH the infin.),a^e used as substitutes; hnt expressions formed WtM aid of auxiliaries are not, sirzctly speahng, tenser. 
This is why it is stated above that English has only two tenses (I dine, I dined), all the others being mere auxiliary compounds. ^ ,^ ^ ^ ,, ,^ ^ ^^ ,^ \ ,^ 

t ATcm:S«ly they s be called Present-imperfect, Present-perfect, and Puture-aorist, as in the above table. It will be seen from the above table that there are three present, three past, 

and three future-tenses. g 



67. 



i 



USE OF THE TEKSES. 



<^3. 



I. Distingnisli carefully between Imperfect and Aorist tenses, when (as is very often the case) they occur in the same passage : Imperfects 
denote continuous, Aorists denote instant or single acts; as, ^ 

Xf^^^T^ov TO iroLEtv, TO U Ke\ev(TaL poidwyy to give an ordei" is easy, to carry it out difficult. 

o TTOLELQ 7roLr)(Tov, what you are about, do at once, 

KaTsvoovv Koi sldoy, 1 began to distinguish^ a^nd saw. 

ef^alll^ojiev kul KaTeXajSojuev, we were walking, and overtook, 

arwXoXv^e Kcil KaTyds, she raised her voice, and began to sing 

fXTj TVTTTE-, dcn't be striking; fir} tv\L7]q, don't strike. 

I ^^. XL 1. The Historic Present is used (graphically) of past events; and is regularly employed with verbs of which the effects, continue: ikoi 
oixof^ctL, aKovo), (f>evyw, viKio, &c. ; as, ' 

, dprt jxavdavwy I have recently learnt ; el ttov clkovelq, if perchance you have heard. 

airayyeWere 'Aptcda) otl f]p.ElQ vLKCjfiEv [Dacrikia, tell Ari^us that we have conquered the great king. : 

2. Both the present and imperfect sometimes imply an attempt (conatus rei efficiendce) ; as, 

Gv fxov viiTT£LQ "^ovQ TToEaQ ] ( Johu xill. 6), Dost Thou mean to wash my feet ? 
6 de ^lujavvriQ ^LeKojXvev avTov (Matt. iii. 14), John tried to prevent him. 
e'^avax(^peL TCL elprjfiiya, he tried to back out of his words. — Thuc. iv. 28. 

70 III. The Aorist is the ordinary tense of narration both in Greek and English. Hence it is used in proverbs, &c. {gnomic Aorist) ; as, ' 

TToXXa STrscrev irapa rrfv yvw/iTji^, many things fall out contrary to expectation. 

As Greek has no ^r^^^TZ?!- Aorist, it sometimes uses the joas^Aorist for it: thus £7ryye(ja = l praise; aireTTTVffa, 1 loathe; idavfiaaa, 
I wonder, &c. The greater indirectness thus given to these personal statements suited the temperament of Greeks, ' qui amant omnia 
dubitantius loqui^ 

71. IV. The Perfect is really a present-Perfect (I have dined=I have {now) dined). It is also used to describe past actions of which the result 

remains ; as, 

7rp\e/j.og irei'EcrTEpovQ rjf.idQ TreTToirjKe Koi. ttoXXovq klvIvvovq v7rop.iveiv -qvayKacre, the war has made US poorer [we still are so], and 

z^ C0772peZZe<i W5 [aor.] to undergo many dangers. 
dyfj(7K€, he dying; dave^die ! TiQvadi, lie dead ! 

72. V. The Pluperfect (i.e. past-Perfect) is used when one action was finished before another took place : hence it often implies rapidity j as, 

Tov ixev Mr}pi6vr)Q ore d^ KaTifxapTTTe dtcjKojy j3e/3A?7fcet, the moment he was seizing. him he had (instantly) slain him. 

10 




MOODS. {'Ey/cXla-sc^.y 

IB, t The Indicative (£V/cXtcrtco/)ioTi/c?7) deals with facts, certainties, direct questions, &c. It is the Objective Mood-; hence the ^^W5e- distinctions 
exist^mainly in this inood. 

74. IL The Subjunctive and Optative (which are « by-forms of the iuture and of the aorist') form in reality but one mood, which deals with 

contingencies, suppositions, dependent statements, &c. It is the Subjective Mood. The Subjunctive-tenses are used when there is 
reference to the present and future ; the Optative when there is reference to the past [in other words, the Optative is the Subjective of 
the Past or Historical Tenses'] ; e.g., 

(XTTovda^u) tva fxavdavu) or fxadu), I am diligent that I may learn. | eairovlaZov Iva jiavdavoinL or nadoifxi, I was diligent that I might learn. 
N.B. The Subjunctive can generally be represented by may or may have (the Latin present and perfect Subjunctive) ; the Optative 
' by might or might have (the Latin imperfect and pluperfect Subjunctive). 

75. III. In simple sentences the Subjunctive {tyKXtcng viroTaKTiKri) is used, i. in prohibitions ; _ as, fxri KXixpyg, do not steal : ii. deliberatively ; as, ti (pio ; 

what am I to say ? iii. hortatively ; as, iu)pi£v, let us go (the two latter uses are confined to the first person singular and plural) : iv. in- 
strong negations (with oh fxrj and the Subj. aor.) ; as, ov fiij (pvyrjQj you certainly will not escape. 

76. IV. In simple sentences, the Optative {tyKXiaig evktikt]), without ay, expresses, i. a wish ; as, TvirTOLfxi, might I strike I (but tvtttoijjll ay, I would 

strike, i. e. under certain circumstances) ; firj yeyouo, God forbid I {lit. Mig%t it not be !) 
(h Tral, yeyoLO TraTpog evTvx^(^Tepog, 
Ta 2' aXX' ofjoLog mt yiyot' ay ov KaKog. — SoPH. Aj. 550. (Boy, mayest thou (lit. mightest thou) be more fortunate than thy [ 

father, but like in all else, and then thou wouldst be noble I) 
ovt' ay dvyalfirjy ixtjt' eTTKTTaifirjy Xiyety. — SoPH. Ant. 682. (I could not, and may I never know how to say, &c.) 
11. potentiality, £L7tol tlq, dixerit quispiam, some one might say. But this use is rare, poetical, and disputed. 

iii. The Optative is also used in compound sentences which imply indefinite frequency ; as, owote TrpoafiXi^eii nya, every time, he saw any 
one. This however is only an accident of the mood, and not any part of its essential meaning. 

''Av, WITH THE MOODS. 

77. I. With the Indicative, ay is only used with the imperfect (of continued acts), the aorist (of momentary acts), and, less frequently, the 
pluperfect (of abiding results) ; it always implies some condition expressed or understood. 



cLTredyTjfTKey, he was dying; a7:idyr](jKey ay, he would be, or woidd I airidayey, he died ; airiQayey ay, he would have died. 

have been, dying. | iredyrjKEt, he was dead ; sTEdvfjKEL ay, he would have been dead. 



n 



.!%^ 



78. With the Imperfect it also implies iteration ; e. g., ' ^a 

kirpiaT' av maj mean either^ ^he used to he bnying,' as often as the opportunity occurred; or \ '' .^ 

* he would have beenhujing^'' if it had been possible. "^ 

7d. n. With the Optative ay expresses, i. potentiality; as, rovro ykvoir av, this might happen: ii. a civil command; as, x^P^^^ "^ %^) ^® ^^ 
good as to go in (i. e. el QiXoigj xwpotc clv ftcrw) : iii. a milder future; as, ovk av di^a^atfX7]v a en, I could not teach you any longer. 

80. in. *Ar does not properly go with the Suhjunctive, but it qualifies el, og, ohg, irpiv, scjg, &c., often coalescing with some other word (as in 

irreiMv, oravj edvj &c.); and these forms always take the Subjunctive. The rule is, * Relativa et relatives particulce cum dv, Suhjunctivum 
exiguntJ* 

oc,who; 6g dv, whoever-, oc a v Xeyr?, whoever may say, or says. ^ "^ 

iva, where; Iva dv, wheresoever ; irarplg yap kdn iraai* iV av Trparrrj rig ev, every land, wheresoever one may be prospering, ia one^s 

native land. [N.B. Iva av does not mean ^ in order that,' but = ubicumque.'] 
ovc el^e^y those whom he saw. 

ovQ 'ihi iirrivei, whomever he saw he praised (i. e. * as often as he saw them,' the Opt. being iterative). 
ovg av "torj kTzaivel, whomsoever he sees he praises (implying the condition kav nvag 'idr}). 
In all such cases the av used with the indefinite relative implies that the verbal action must be hypothetical. . ^ 

But in any such sentence as kadrjra dt' fjv av fiaXtara ij Spa dtaXafiTrot Q dress such as through it her beauty mightiest shine ')j^^}^ ^f-^ 
belongs to the Optative, not to the relative ; e.g.. we must render .^t' rjv, through which, &c. av dLaXdfUTcoi, might shme-, not di fiv av, 
through whichsoever. So too ovK-exco-oTrcjg avaTncrrotrjv, I know not how I-could-possibly-disbelieve ; not diriDg-dv. 

N.B. oTTwc av and, in poets, wc av^in order that (but never iVa ct^). In prose t^c a j/=: according as. [In one or two tragic 
liaes ihg av seems to mean ^ so long as.'j ' -' ■ 

81. IV. *Ar gives to the Infinitive and Participle a potential or hypothetic meaning ; as, ^ 

£1 k(Mb3(Tev dpiarog av IokeI yevkadai, had he lived, he would, I thinJc, have been firsts-rate (== ol^at on av kykvero). 
Bvvr}6elg av avTog exetv aTredcJKev, though he might have kept it, he gave it back {=dv edvvr)dr]). 

82. N.B. T. hv as a conjunction, means 'if'=zkdv, ijv, in Plato,^ often; as, av Oebg kSiXy. It may be distinguished irojn the 

particle av by its standing ^?'si, which the particle av never does. 
II. hv may be repeated, either with an emphatic word (especiaHy the negative), or with the verb (especially if tiie 
sentence be long) ; as, ovket' av dddvotg av, you could not possibly be too soon. One av is called ^vvrjnKoVy the 
other TrapaTrXrjpiofxanKov. ,. 

' III. hv is sometimes easily understood ; as, Treidot' av el iretdoi', cnreLdoirjg h' Uo)g, obey (cf 79, ii.), if thou wouldst obey ; 
perhaps thou wouldst not (where, however, the Optative airetdoirjg, taken with "caujg, may be Potential without 
understandiQg av). 
IV. av is sometimes misplaced, as in ovk oW av el ireiaai^i, where ovK-cW-el (=haud Scio an), I think it doubtful 
whether, TTftcrai/x' av, I could persuade. (This is called Hyperbaton.) 



.83. • FINAL SENTENCES 

are those which express an end or purpose, tva, oircog, bjg==^in order that,"* 

84. I. These particles take, i. the Subjunctive after the Primary tenses. 

II. the Optative after the Historical tenses ; as, 

i. ypd(jno, ypdxpo), yeypa(pa 'Iva fxavdavyg or fxddTjg = 1 am writing, shall write, have written, that you may be learning, or may 
learn; scribo, scribam, scripsi (Present-perfect), ut cZiSca^. 

■ ii. eypacpov, eypa\ha, kyeypd(j)r} Ira fiavdavotg, or fxadoigy I was writing, wrote, had written, that you might be learning, or might learn ; 
scribebam, scripsi (Past-aorist), scripseram, ut disceres. 

N.B. I. The Historical present is not usually regarded as a primary tense, and may therefore be followed by the Optative. 

II. With Past tenses of the Indicative a»c, &c., imply an impossible or unfulfilled result; as, tl fx* ov Xafiwv 

eicretvag evdvg, wg edei^a fxrjTrore . . ., why didst thou not seize and slay me instantly, that / might never have 

shown, &c. (or, in which case I should not have, &c. ; this rendering however is probably incorrect, as it would 

rather require oviroTe, and also av). 

85. n. The same rule holds in correlative sentences ; as, 

OVK e'x^ oTToi TpcLTTCjfjLaL, 1 khow not whither to turn myself. | ovx elxov ottol roaTroifxrjv, I knew not whither I could turn myself. 

In all the sentences to which this rule applies, the occasional violations of it are due to the desire to be dramatic and graphic; to 
represent hypotheses as facts, and past events as though they were stiU going on ; e.g. kg oI3/x' dXog fJ-edfix^i '^^^ avrbg xpvcov kv do/jLoig exy, he 
flung me into the sea- wave that he may keep the gold in his house. 

Sometimes the subjunctive and optative are interchanged after the same principal clause — the subjunctive to express the immediate, and 
the optative to imply the ulterior and contingent consequence; as, irapavlcrxov .... (ppvKTovg .... dinog daa(l)ii to. (rrjfjiela y . . ... Kal fxij 
fioYjdoLEv, they kept raising counter-beacons that the signals may be uncertain, and so (in that case) the enemy might not bring assistance. — 
Thuc. iii. 22. Cf JZ. v. 567 ; Eur. M. 56 ; and in Latin, Virg. u^n. i. 298. 

OKATIO OBLIQUA. 

86. In reported speech — ^I. The Indicative, with wg or on may be used, a. where the exact words of another are quoted ; or /3. where the 
statement is vouched for as a fact; or y. when some special emphasis is laid on some one part of a sentence. II. The Optative is the ordinary 
mood of the oratio obliqua after all Historical tenses, including the Historic Present. 

13 



,87. I. The Indicative of quotations, facts, or important words : • 

a. eXeyov on KvpoQ TidynKsVj Thej said ^ Cyrus is dead.' . . . . ' 

p. (pag ETTL x^PV^ ^^^'■^ o0£v xpy(^^^ oLcrovrai, saying he would lead them against a country whence they will {certainly) win gold, 
y. davfxaiovree ottol irore Tpi-^ovrai OL"EXkr]veQ Kat tl kv v^ exot£>^, wondering whither the Greeks loill turn themselves, and what their 
purpose might he. 

In these and all similar cases there is, in reality, a retiu-n to the oraj^io recjJai 

88. II. The Optative, the ordinary mood after Historic Tenses : 

I'lpero el alordayoLTOj he asked whether he felt it ? 

89. The Accus. and Infin. may alivays be used in oratio obliqua, for the principal clauses ; as, 

(e0??) av^pa ol IokUiv oTrX/rT^v avTt(Trrjvai fxiyap, he fancied that a tall man-at-arms withstood him. 

90. N.B. Sometimes, when the future is distinctly referred to, the Subjunctive is colloquially retained in the oratio oUiqua ; involving, in 

fact, a return to the oraifzo rec^a ; as, 

tXeyov wQ xPV^ yj^^'f-Q evXafDetadat ^jly] i/tt' kixoy elaTraTTjdTJre, I kept telling you that you ought to be on yom: guard, lest you 
may he deceived by me. . 

CONDITIOISrAL SENTENCES. 

91. There are four types of Conditional Sentences, which, with their Latin and English equivalents, should be Understood and learnt hy heart 
They express— I. Possibility or mere assumption. 11. Slight Probability. III. Complete Uncertainty. lY.^ Impossibility, or belief that the 
thing is not so. In I. the condition {^assumed ; in II. it iapossihle ; in III. it is purely imaginary ; in lY. it is denied, 

92. I. Possihility, or mere assumption (involved only in the word £t) * 

si TL exei, ^idwm, if (it be the fact that) he has anything,, he gives it (si quid hahet, dat), 

ELTL Uo) dujcTO), if I shall have anything, I will give it (si quid haheio, daho). ^ 

[N.B. el iJu, vi(pr] luTL, if it is raining, there are clouds ; but el ixrei, vLKrjffOfieVj if it rains (i. e. at some future time), we shall win.] 

93. n. Slight Prohahility : 

eav TL exy, ^(oaci, if he have anything, he will give it (si quid haheat, dahit), 

94. III. Complete Uncertainty : 

ei TL exoLj ^L^olri civ, if he were to have anything, he would give it (si quid haheat, det, or, more frequently, si quid haheret, daret). 




S5. lY. /mpo55iM%, or the non-fulfihnent of the condition : 

a. ei Tl elxey edidov dv, if he were having anything, he would be giving it ; or, * if he had been having anything, he would have been 

giving it (si quid haberet, daret) ; i. e. if, which is not the case, he had anything, &c. 
/3. ei Tieax^v eliOKev av, if he had had anything, he would have given it (si quid hahuisset, dedisset). 
[Similarly, unfulfilled wishes are expressed by eiQe, el yap, with the imperf. (of continuous) and aor. indicative (of single acts) ; as, 
ei& ficrda ^vvaroQ tovto ^pdr, would that you had been able to do this; eide ae firiTroT eldofxrjr, wo^ild I had never seen youl] 

96. N.B. el takes the Indicative and Optative, very rarely the Subjunctive; eav, rjv, always take the Subjunctive. 

With the Indicative el assumes as a fact ; with the Optative it expresses a purely imaginary picture ; with the Subjunctive 
(very rarely) it involves a supposition without calling attention to any conditions. 

97. TEMPOEAL SENTENCES. 

After ore, irplv, etag, 

I. The Indicative is used when facts are stated ; as, 

ecjivyov ore ^Xdov ol ffv/zjuaxoi, they iled when the allies came. 

98. II. The Subjunctive with a v after primary tenses when the statement is in any degree uncertain ; as, 

£7ret3aj/ aTTttj/ra d/covcTjre, KrptVare, whenever you have learnt aU, judge. 
ewg B' av eKfxadyg ex eXirida, but until thou hast ascertained, keep hope. 

99. III. The Optative after Historical tenses, and of repeated evetits—5'67iemZZy without aV ; as, 

TrepLBfjievofxev kacTTOTe ea)g avoLxMri to defffjitoTripLov, we used to stop each time till the prison was opened. 
ohK ^0ovXoPTo fxaxrjv iroLeladaL nptv ol avu^iaxoi irapayevoivTo, they didn^t wish to fight till the allies came up. 



100. N.B. 



USES OF ecog and Trpiv. 

i. ea)c av, with Subj. often = 80 long as : cniOKaTe 'euyg hv Kadeidy, as long as he is asleep, be silent. ,- , ;,:.•, „x 

ii. a., ^plv may always go with the Ace. and In£ (except where a negative statement is limited by a future contingent condition). 

b. It takes the Indie, when certain /ac2^5 are spoken of in the^as^ [=until]. , , . ^ ^a rr. *■ ,,c,,.oiKr .^^\. ;i,n 

c. Tvplv with the Subj. may be used of things which are certain in the future ; as, fxn uTeva^e rrpLv fxadrjg [but usually with avj, 

d. irplv and ttoIv av never take the Subj. or Opt. unless a negative notion precedes. ■ ^ „^ , ^ ^n 

e izolv (without av) takes the Opt. in oratio ohliqua-, and oipast acts ; and after another Opt. ;^ as, oXoio fxn^w Tvptv fMadoLfXL, 
/. irplv dsLTTvelv, priusquam coenem ; irplv leiirvnaaL, priusquam coenavero ; irplv leleiirvn^evaL, pnusquam a ccena surrexero. 

15 



X 



THE INFINITIVE. 

lOL I. Tlie Infinitive mood is used in Greek almost as extensively as in English, and mucli. more so than in Latin. 
E.g. Compare the following in Greek, Latin, and English : * 

iravTEQ alrovyrat top Qebv rayaOa lilovai, all men implore the Deitj to grant them blessings (omnes homines precantur Deum, 
ut bona largiatur), 

TLQ (tlXLTTTTov Kis)\v(T£i devpo (^adi^eLv] "who will prevent Philip /rom coming hither ?(qTiis Philippum impediet quominus hue veniat ? ). 

ol AaKslaLjiovLoi rotg AlyLyrjraLQ 'idocrav Qvpiav olKsiv, the Lacedemonians gave Thjrea to the jEginetans to inhaUt 
(Laced^monienses ^ginetis Thyream habitandam dederunt). 

(pojjepog opdvj terrible to loolc at (horribilis aspectu). 

It may even express a consequence, nearly resembling a purpose ; as, fiayQdyetv rJKOfjLev, we have come to learn.. 

102. IL The subject of the Infinitive when it is the same as that of the main Verb, is put in the Nominative , and not in the Accusative ; as, 

ovK £(prj avTOQ dXX' ekClvov crrparTjyElvy he said that not he himself but Nicias was general. — Thuc. iv. 28. 
This may perhaps be a mere contraction for avrbg e^rj ov^ ^clvtov ffrparrjyeiv. 

103. III. The Infinitive is used elliptically in wishes and commands ; as, xaipeiv, good morning = fceXevw ae 'xaipeiv, 

104. IV. English differs from Greek and Latin in taking a, present, instead of a. future Infinitive after verbs of promising, &c.; e.g. 

eXTri^o) evrvxw^^y (or evrux^^^ctt av), I hope to he happy (spero me beatum fore), or * that I should be happy.' 
vTricrxero du)(TeLv irivre fivag, he promised to give five minse (promisit se quinque minas daturuni), 

10$. V. The Greek Infinitive is declinable by means of the Article (to TvirreiVj striking; tov rvirreLy, of striking, &c.) ; and so supplies the 
want of a Gerund. Something like this is found in English ; as, 

' For not to have been dipped in Lethe's stream 
Could save the son of Thetis /rowi ^0 (?/e.' — Spenser. , . '.' 




THE PAETICIPLE. 

The uses of the Participle fall under two main heads : 

106. I. It completes the verbal notion ; as, aKovoj iKOKparovg Xiyovrog. 

107. IL It/ expresses the accidents (time, cause, manner, &c.) of the verbal notion; as, reXevrioy eTire, at last he said ; XrflSofxevoL t;ib(nv, they live by 

plunder, &c. These conceptions are often further defined by particles; as, ^ijna Tropevofxevot, whilst marching; /xera^u denrvujy, during dinner. 

108. N.B. i. After verbs of perception (knowing, &c.) and emotion (grieving, &c.), and many which express a state or condition (begin- 

ning, happening, ceasing, &c.), the Participle is used instead of the Infinitive, equivalently to a separate clause introduced 
by on ; e.g. olda QyrjTog uty, I know that I am mortal. 

ii. With the Infinitive some of these Verbs express an entirely different meaning ; as, 

ETTiorajuat irotujy, I know that I am doing it ; but, 

ETTiVra/iat irOLely, I know how to do it. 

oTda ayadog &v, I know that 1 am good ; olZa ayadog elvai, how to be good. 

^atVo/iat (I;?^, apparet me esse ; 0a<Vo/zai etj/at, esse videor. 

• So in Latin, Sensit medios delapsus in hostes, * perceived that he had fallen into the midst of foes.* 
And Milton copies it in English {Par. Lost, ix. 792): ^ , 

* She engorged without restraint. 
And knew not eating death.' 

(i. e. that she was eating death.) 

iii. kt,6y, irapoy, irapexoy, vwapxoy, hoy, and other neuter accusative Participles (chiefly of impersonal verbs), are used 
absolutely = it being lawful, quum liceat, &c. 

109. ^ THE VEEBAL ADJECTIVE 

may be used either i. Personally ; as, aaKrjrea aoi kariy rj apsTtj : or, 
ii. Impersonally ; as, aaKrjrioy ecttl aoi Trjy aperijy. 



* These instances are given in ' Die wiclitigsten Eegeln der GriecMsclien Syntax,' by Dr. Klein. 

17 



i^^ffft^^^^^^^'^^^^ llffifeeflai^rr ^gi^^^ 1 1 - iirf^if^^!^m^ KKtnnmm im n I inr ^^ffrn^a^^lifiifliiti i r 



-fi 



Ov, Mr], 

110. I. i. ov denies; /a?) forbids ; as, ov/v ean mura, it is not so ; jud) /cXfVre, do not steal. .;^ " 

ii. ov is o5;*6c^2z;g, i. e. it negatives facts, positive assertions, &c. - 

f^V is subjective^ i. e. it negatives hypotheses, conceptions^ thoughts^ &c. 

N.B. 'ovnegat; ^J7vetat; ov negat rem ; /uj conception em quoqne rei.' — Herm. ' 

iii. oif ; expects the answer Yes : ap' oh ; =nonne, is it not ? 

fiT] ; expects tlie answer No : apa fxl] ;—fiwy \=.num^ it is not — is it? . 

Hence fi-^ is used, a. after el ; b. after indefinite relatives ; c. after final particles ; and {generally) after Hare ivzth the Infin. ; d. in 
ivishes, prohibitions, hypotheses; e. with the deliberate Subjunctive; and t with the dependent Infinitive. 

111. II. An apparently superfluous fx^ usually follows verbs of denying, doubting, fearing, hindering, &c.; as, 

apvovfxat fxij elUvai, I deny that I know ( 0o/3o{)^ai /^j) ridi^rjKey, I fear that he is dead (vereor ne mortuus sit). 

So in French, * Je crains que sa maladie ne soit mortelle,' I fear that his disease is fatal. 
Hence, didotm firj cv Qavrj = I fear he will not die. 

112. III. i. Oh is the proper^ negative of the Indicative moodi, and of all forms that directly represent an Indicative. Hence it is used in.oratio 

obliqua after on and a>c, after relatives and temporal particles when they do not involve any supposition, and after ware with the 
Indicative. 

ii, oh has a power of ^coalescing with single words so as to reverse their meaning; thus, ovk £5= veto ; oh Tra^^v^omnino non; ov (pr^nL 
==-negOj &cry ovT£=:necj ohdi, ne . . quidem. 

N.B. i. 6 oh TTKTTevujy ~ he who does not believe (is qui non credit) ; where the relative is definite. 

fxi] TTLdreviov = qui, or si quis non credat, whoever does not believe ; where the relative is indefinite. 

ii.. Since oh with the interrogative future is a command (as,- oh juevelc ; stop !), and jmri is a prohibition, the two are often 
united, as in oh alya ; iir]Uv TuJvd' epelg ; be silent ! say nothing of this kind ! oh dly' avi^ei, p,r]U hiXlav apeig ; keep 
silent and assume not cowardice ! It is more usual however to explain all such passages by understanding the oh 
before the following jj-nSe, as explained in 115 infra: 18 



113. 




Ov firj, , 

114. . N.B. I. 01/ /i?) iroLTjijELQ ; do not do this I 

^ II. ov /x]^ TroLrjaTjg, you certainly will not do this. 

115. I. oh fxri'^ with the 2nd person of the future is a stvong prohibition : oh firj TrodiffEiQ ; [=you will not do it,— /xij ; will you?] i. e.=cZo not do 

it I oh fjLYl \7}prj(TeLQ ; don't talk nonsense ! 

oh fjLrj TTpoaoiaeiQ X^lpdj (^aKX^vffeiQ 3' lu)v 

firjd^ E^ofjLop^eL fJLijjplav rriv ffijv efxoi. — ^EuR. Bacch. 243. 

(Don't put your hand on me, but go and play the bacchanal, and don't wipe off your folly on me.) 
Observe that the commencing oh is understood both before j3aKX£vcTeiQ and fxr}d\ 

IW, n. oh firi with the Aor. Subj. is a strong negation: ov firj 'iroLrtcrrjQ, you certainly won't do it. So too with the future except the 2nd person, 
as ov aoL fjL^ fxedexpofjLai ttote, I shall certainly never follow you. . ' 

This is usually explained by an ellipse of ^eog or hivov, which are sometimes expressed; as, oh {diog) fxrj TroLrjffrjg, there is no fear of 
your doing it ; i. e. you certainly will not. [Some prefer to explain it by a (suppressed) question. Thus, oh fxii fxev(o = oh firi'-f.iiv(a ; 
== OVK U ; must I not go ? Yes ! = I certainly will not stay. But this explanation is undoubtedly open to the objection that it gives 
to fxri the power of coalescing with, and so reversing, the verb — a power which properly belongs to oh and not to fxr],} 

Mrj ov. 

117. I. fiii ov=ine non, or ut, is used after Verbs expressive of negative notions (fear, doubt, shame, disapprobation, &c.), and in indirect ques- 

tions. The fxri really belongs to the Verb, and the oh expresses the negative result ; as, 

ohlev K(s)\v£L fxrj ohK aXrideg elvai tovto, nothing hinders this fi:om being true. 
&QpsL fjLTi oh TovTo y TO dya^dv, consider whether this may not be the good. 
oh Ivva^iai fxrj ov Xiyeiv, non possum quin dicam. 

118. II. {JLTi oh is only used with the Infinitive and Participle after negatives ov quasi-negatives ; as, /xtJ wapyg to fiil ov <^pdffai, do not omit 

saying it. 

dvaaXyrjTog yap au 
eirjv Totav^e firj oh KaroLKTeiptJV 'idpav, — SoPH. CE. T. 12. 

(I should be ruthless (a quasi-negative), if I did not pity such a suppliant posture.) 

. 19 : 

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SpOTTIS-WOODE & Co., PeINTEES, NbTV-STEEET SaUABE AND 30 PABI.IAMENT StEEET, LoNDON. 



j^te:^-: 



^^|l^^!f!^ 



m0^'0^^^W^M^^^'fi'^- 



mi 



Ov^ Mr], 

110. I. i. ov denies ; ju?) forbids ; as, ov;. ean raura, it is not so ; ju/) /cAeVre, do not steal. - 

ii. ov is objective, i. e. it negatives facts, positive assertions, &c. 

/i?) is subjective, i. e. it negatives hypotheses, conceptions, thoughts, &c. 

N.B. ^oi/negat; juj^vetat; ov negat rem ; /u) conception em qnoqne rei.' — Herm. 

iii. ov ; expects the answer Yes : ap' ov ; =nonne, is it not ? 

fi?? ; expects tlie answer No : apa fxl] ',=iiwy ',=num, it is not — is it? . 

Hence f.irj is used, a. after el ; b, after indefinite relatives : c. after final particles ; and {generally) after (jjctte with the Infin, ; d. in 
wishes, prohibitions, hypotheses ; e. with the deliberate Subjunctive ; and f. with the dependent Infinitive, 

111. II. An apparently siiperfliious /i?) usually follows verbs of denying, doubting, fearing, hindering, &c.; as, 

apvovfjLai fxrj ellevai, I deny that I know | 0o/3oi5/zat ju?) TiQyr]K£v, I fear that he is dead (vereor ne mortuus sit). 

So in French, ^ Je crains que sa maladie ne soit mortelle,' I fear that his disease is fatal. 
Hence, leZoiKa fi^ cv Oavrj = I fear he will not die. 

112. III. i. Ov is the proper negative of the Indicative mood, and of aU forms that directly represent an Indicative. Hence it is used in.oratio 

obliqua after otl and wq, after relatives and temporal particles when they do not involve any supposition, and after ware with the 
Indicative. 

ii. ov has a power of coalescing with single words so as to reverse their meaning; thus, ovk £a)=veto ; ov 7ra>^i;=:omnino non; ov (prjixt 
= nego, &cr, ovTe^=:nec; ovdi, ne . . quidem. 

N.B. i. 6 ov 7n(7Tevu)y = he who does not believe (is qui non credit) ; where the relative is definite. 

6 firj TTiUTEvwi' = qui, or si quis non credat, whoever does not beheve ; where the relative is indefinite. 

ii.. Since oh with the interrogative future is a command (as,- ov p.eveic ; stop !), and/z?) is a prohibition, the two are often 
united, as in ov alya ; firjdev Tcbyd^ kpelQ ; be silent ! say nothing of this kind ! ov aly' api^ei, /xr^^e hiXiay apeig ; keep 
silent and assume not cowardice 1 It is more usual however to explain all such passages by understanding the ov 
before the following /j-qSe, as explained in 115 infra: 18 



113. 



114. 



Ov jJLrj. 

N.B. I. ov fiYj TToajauQ ; do not do this I 

II. ov firf TOLTjGTjq, you certainly wiU not do this. 



115. I. ov/xT/; with the 2nd person of the Muxe is b. strong prohibition : ov fxrj TvoLiicTELg ; [=:you will notdo it,--/xi?; vnE youl} i. e.=zdo not do 

it ! oh [JLTI XrjprjaeLQ ; don't talk nonsense ! 

oh fMrj TrpoaolffELQ X^'P^> PaKXEvaeiQ 3' lu)y 

/xijS' i^ofjLOp^eL iiwplav ttiv ffijv eixoi. — ^EuR. Bacch. 243. 

(Don't put your hand on me, but go and play the. bacchanal, and don't wipe off your folly on me.) 

Observe that the commencing oh is understood both before PaKxevasLg and fir]d\ 

116. n. oh fiii with the Aor. Subj. is a strong negation: ov )iij TroL^jcryg, you certainly won't do it. So too with the future except the 2nd person, 

as ov <rot ju^ /if 0£;//o/iat TTorc, I shall certainly never foUow you. . ' 

This is usually explained by an elHpse of diog or ^eivov, which are sometimes expressed; as, oh (diog) fxrl Troiiitrrig, there is no fear of 
your doina: it • i. e. you certainly wiU not. [Some prefer to explain it by a (suppressed) question. Thus, oh fxrj fxivco = oh fiij-f.iiv(^ ; 
= ovK 'ico r must I not go ? Yes I = I certainly wHl not stay. But this explanation is undoubtedly open to the objection that it giv^s 
to ixrj the power of coalescing with, and so reversing, the verb— a power wHch properly belongs to oh and not to /xt?.] 

Mri ov, 

117. I. fiij oh=:ne non, or ut, is used after Verbs expressive of negative notions (fear, doubt, shame, disapprobation, &c.), and in indirect ques- 

tions. The fxrj really belongs to the Verb, and the oh expresses the negative result ; as, 

ohdev KwXvet firj ohic aXrjdeg elvai tovto, nothing hinders this from being true. 
^dpeL firi oh tovto y to aya0dv, consider whether this may not be the good. 
oh ^vvafxaL firi oh Xiyeiv, non possum quin dicam. 

118. II. fi^ ov is only used with the Infinitive and Participle after negatives ov quasi-negatives ; as, /ij} ir&pyg to fiil oh ^p6.aai, do not omit 

• saying it. 

ZvackXyriTog yap av 
eirjv TOLavBe (jtrj oh KaTOLKTeipwv edpav, — SoPH. CE. T. 12. 

(I should be ruthless (a quasi-negative), if I did not pity such a suppliant posture.) 



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