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[ Whole Number S66 

UNITED STATES BUEEAU OF EDUCATION. 
CIRCULAR OF INFORMATION NO. 4, 1900. 

CONTRIBUTIONS TO AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL HISTORY. 

EDITED BY HEBBEKT B. ADAMS. 



No. 29. 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION 

US 

VERMONT. 

BY 

GIEORGLE CLARY BUSH. RL. B. 




WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. » 

1900 . 




UNIVERSITY OF VERMONT. VIEW FROM NORTH END OF COLLEGE PARK. 




[ ^ylwle Xuynber 265 



UNITED STATES BUREAU OF EDUCATION. 

CIRCULAR OF IXFORAIATIOX RO. 4, 1900. 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL HISTORY. 

EDITED BY HERBERT B. ADAMS. 



No. 29. 



HISTORA" OF EDUCATIOK 



IK. 



A^ERAIONT. 



BY 



G-EORGi-E GAR A' BUSH, Rli- E>. 



WASHINGTON: 

GOVERXIIEXT PRINTING OFFICE. 

19 0 0 . 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL. 



Department of the Interior. 

Bureau of Education, 
Washingtmi, D. C., September 20, 1900. 

Sir: In the History of Education in Vermont, herewith presented, 
the writer shoM’s that Vermont had schools before any formal school 
legislation. Beginning as early as 1761, and continuing until the 
adoption of a State constitution, the records of the towns make evi- 
dent that as soon as the people were organized into communities 
means were generally instituted to introduce such literary training as 
was practicable. Out of this grew that independency of action that 
left its impress for some time upon the common-school system — a 
system of town or district schools, controlled almost entirelv by the 
communities that had established them. 

Attention is called to the most important school laws. Among these 
is the law of 1782, providing for a division into convenient school dis- 
tiicts, appointing trustees who should have the care of these schools, 
and providing means, partly by rates and partly by taxes or subscrip- 
tions, through which a steady support could be assured to them; the 
law of 1797, when State supervision was first introduced, and when 
the legislature called upon each town to support a school or schools 
foi the instruction of youth in English reading, writing, and arithme- 
tic; that of 182 ( authorizing the appointment of town superintending 
committee's and a State l)oard of commissioners; the law of 1815 creat- 
ing the offices of county and State superintendents of common schools. 

n this review of State legislation the history is jiresented, not only 
ot common-school education, but also of that of the higher grades and 
ot normal training. 

Meiition IS made of the several secretaries of the board of education 
and the superintendents of public instruction, of the condition of the 
schools of the State during their terms of office, and of the various 
re oinis effected by them. There is brief reference to the formation 
o the btete teachers’ association, the establishing and holding of 
eac eis institutes, and the benefits resulting therefrom to the cause 
ot education in the State. 

The varioms methods adopted to secure means for the support of the 
schools are given, and the history of the movement is traced by which 

3 



4 



LETTEK OF TRAWSMITTAL. 



the schools at length became free, and Vermont had within her borders 
‘‘ two hundred and forU'-one republics, organized as pure democracies, 
possessed of large municipal powers, each voluntarity accepting the 
support of schools as a part of its duty, and each acting upon the 
principle that the school is of beneht to every citizen, and that every 
citizen is bound to contribute to its support.” 

After a comparatively full treatment of the growth and develop- 
ment of the common-school system, with a definition of the powers 
and duties of State and town superintendents, and prudential commit- 
tees and the latest table of school statistics, the monograph proceeds 
to give a brief history of the three normal schools. In chapter second 
a very intei’esting paper upon the early academies and county gram- 
mar schools of the State is introduced, prepared by Mr. Joseph 
A. DeBoer, of Montpelier. 

Following this there are presented historical sketches of many of 
the academies and seminaries of the State, most of which are doing 
excellent educational work. It will be seen from these papers that 
during the past ' twenty years a great advance has been made in 
secondary education. This especially is noticeable in that buildings 
and grounds have been improved, a larger number of teachers pi’o- 
vided, better appliances are in use, more attention is bestowed upon 
athletics and upon military drill, and year by year the number of 
students in attendance is increasing. 

The last chapter comprises three papers which treat of the University 
of Vermont, Middlebury College, and the Norwich University, the 
first and second of which are among the oldest of the New England 
colleges, having now nearly reached their centennial year. 

This document forms No. ^9 of contributions to American Educa- 
tional History arranged for by my predecessor. Col. N. II. R. Dawson, 
Commissioner of Education 1886—1889. prepared under the editorship 
of Prof. H. B. Adams, of Johns Hopkins University. 

Very respectfully, your obedient .servant. 

W. T. Harris. Commissioner. 

Hon. E. A. Hitchcock. 

Sea'etary of the In ter wr. 



C O N T E NTS. 

Chapter I. 

^ THE COMMON SCHOOLS. 

' Pase. 

The early measures taken for their establishment 11 

The rapid growth of the school system after 1 841 13 

The laws of 1827 and 184.5 14 

Various legislative acts affecting the schools 14 

School statistics in 1 846 14 

State superintendency 15 

The defects of the system when the new supervision was introduced 15 

The mode of taxation for school purposes 16 

The School Journal and Vermont Agriculturist 17 

Teachers’ institutes. _ 17 

State Teachers’ Association 18 

H7o State supervision of schools from 1851 to 1856 19 

The law of 1856 providing for a board of education 19 

Hon. J. S. Adams the first secretary 19 

“The Vermont system of schools a good one ’’ 21 

Able supervision of the schools during the eleven years Mr. Adams held office. 21 

Establishment of graded and union schools 22 

Academies and select schools 23 

No legal provision yet (1857) for normal instruction 23 

Important law of 1858 23 

A reliable exhibit of facts in 1860 24 

Candidates for teachers’ certificates to be examined in public 25 

Too great subdivision of school districts 25 

Increase<l interest taken by the people in education 25 

The moral element in education 25 

How the schools became free 26 

History of the movement ) 26 

A marked improvement in the schools nf tlie State 27 

Complaint that there are not enough grailed and high schools. 29 

The “school lands” 30 

The Government grant for an agricultural college 30 

An effort to unite the colleges at Burlington and Middlebury 30 

Increased employment of female teachers 30 

Beneficial effects arising from town, county, and State teachers’ associations.. 31 

In 1866 no funds were raised “on the scholar ” 31 

Legislature authorizes new courses of study 31 

Examinations at teachers’ institutes made more thorough 31 

Establishment of normal schools 32 

History of the selection of text-books 32 

The board of education act of 1866 32 

Trustees of the “ United States deposit money ” 34 

5 



6 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Hon. A. E. Rankin chosen secretary, 1867 34 

Children l)etween the ages of 8 and 14 to have three months’ schooling 34 

Central schools for advanced pupils authorized by the legislature 34 

Hon. John H. French chosen secretary 35 

Law that teachers must hold institute certificates not enforced _ 35 

County gathering of town superintendents 36 

State appropriation to normal schools 36 

Division into town rather than into school districts advocated 36 

The towns authorized to abolish the di.stricts 36 

The period of school age changed 37 

Attendance made compulsory (1870) 37 

The legal school year to be 20 weeks 37 

“ Vermont has no school fund ” 37 

Sources of revenue for school purposes 38 

Law relating to school supervision modified 38 

Hon. Edward Conant chosen superintendent 38 

The duties of State superintendent 38 

List of superintendents and secretaries 39 

The town superintendent 39 

The prudential committee 40 

Further school legislation 44 

Low wages of teachers 44 

Educational meetings in the place of teachers’ institutes 42 

Teachers’ licenses in 1880. . 42 

The last enumeration by district clerks in 1874 42 

Children not attending any school { 1883-84) 42 

Number of iiupils in high and graded schools 49 

Town versus di.strict system 42 

In 1884, 24 weeks become a legal school year 43 

Income for school purposes and enrollment 43 

Temperance instruction authorized by the legislature 43 

A new educational bill prepared and adopted 44 

Change from town to county superHsion 44 

Favorable effect of the law of 1888 44 

Office of town superintendent restored in 1890. 45 

Increased number of teachers’ meetings held, and town associations formed.. 45 

The schoolmasters’ club 46 

Statistics 40 

Number of graded schools with high-school departments 47 

Rate of taxation for school purposes 47 

The Vermont “school fund ’’ 4g 

Deposit received from the National Government 48 

Ch.vpter II. 

SEOOXD.ARY EDtrc.ATIOX. 

The early academies and the county grammar schools 50 

A survey of the rise of the academies and county grammar schools 51 

Tables of statistics 63 

Sketches of Clio Hall, iMontpelier Academy, Burr and Burton Seminary, Black 
River Academy, Randolph .Academy, Lamoille Academy, Rutland County 
Grammar School, Beeman (formerly New Haven) Academy, Derby Acad- 
emy, Green Mountain Perkins Academy, Oak Grove Seminary, Chelsea 
Academy, Peacham Academy, and Glenwood Seminary 73 



CONTENTS. i 

Chapter III. 

SECONDARY EDUc.\TioN — Continued. 

Paffe- 

Barre Academy, by J. Henry Jackson, il. D 99 

Goddard Seminary, by Prof. D. L. iSIaulsby 103 

Vermont Academy, by Eev. W. II. Eugg 107 

The Vermont Episcopal In.“titute 112 

Bishop Hopkins Hoe School for Young Ladies _ 113 

Lyndon Institute, by W. E. Eanger, A. M., principal 114 

Green Moimtain Seminary 116 

Troy Conference Academy 116 

Vermont iMethodist Seminary 118 

St. Johnsbury Academy, by C. E. Putney, Ph. D., principal 124 

Mrs. Emma Willard’s life and work in Middlebury, by President Ezra Brainerd . 130 

Chapter IV. 

HIGHER EDCC.YTION. 

University of Vermont 138 

Middlebury College, by Prof. C. B. Wright 169 

Norwich University, by Eev. Homer White 186 

Appendi.v I. 

The school law of 1782 199 

Early action of several towns relative to schools 201 

The State normal schools 203 

Bibliography of education in Vermont 214 

Appendix II. 



In memoriam George Gary Bush, Ph. D 



215 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 

University of Vermont: 

^ iev from north end of collejre park .... .Frontispiece. 

Old college building Ijefore remodeling 13g 

Old college building, as remodeled in 1883 142 

Williams science hall 440 

Converse dormitory 45Q 

Electrical laboratory. 454 

Chemical laboratory 454 

Biological laboratory 458 

Billings library 40.7 

ilain book room of library 404 

Physical laboratory 408 

Testing laboratory of engineering department 408 

liliddlebury College; 

The old college row; from the west 472 

The Joseph Warner ilemorial Hall of Science 178 

The chapel and Painter Hall 482 



9 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION lY VERMONT. 



Chapter I. 

THE COMMON SCHOOLS. 

In the tirst constitution of the State of Vermont, as adopted by a 
convention of delegates from the different towns, held at Windsor on 
July 2, 1777, it is declared that “a school or schools shall be estal:- 
lished in each town by the legislature for the convenient instruction of 
youth,'’ and that “one grammar school in each county and one uni- 
versity in this State ought to be established by direction of the general 
assembly.’’ ' 

Each town was also authorized to make proper use of school lands 
and secure a suitable salary for the master. 

Here in the first legislation of the State there is found a clear and 
full recognition of the intimate relation that should exist between the 
common school, the grammar school, and a school for higher education. 
A similar recognition is traceable in all subsequent legislation respect- 
ing schools, receiving at some times a more e.xplicit announcement than 
at others, but constantly reappearing from 1777 down to our day. 
The first school law that appears upon the statute books was enacted 
October 22. 1782. and from that time dates the organization of the 
V ermont school system. 

It is to such wise provisions, laid at the very foundation of the 
Commonwealth, and to the laws which were afterwards enacted in 
accordance therewith, that Vermont is indebted for the success she 
has achieved in the cause of education both within and beyond her 
borders. 

Deeply interested in the education of their children, the first inhab- 
itants, as soon as they were organized into communities, seem generally 
to have instituted such means of literary training as was practicalile. 

Instead of waiting, as in many of the States, for teachers to establish 
schools and invite the children to them, the people of Vermont set up 

The fiist mention of the establishment of anv school i.s found at Guilford, Decem- 
ber 23, 1761. 



11 



12 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 



the schools and then invited teachei’s.'’ The town records show that a 
steady succession of acts looking' to this end appear from 1761 to 1787. 

.Samuel M illiams, in his Natural and Civil Historvof Vermont, pub-| 
lished in 1809, says of 1794 that “ one of the first things the new set 
tiers attend to is to procure a schoolmaster to instruct their children 
in the arts of reading, writing, and arithmetic, and where they are not 
able to procure or hire an instructor the parents attend to it them' 
selves. ’ He goes on to say that “ no greater misfortune could attenc 
a child than to arrive at manhood unable to read, write, and keep smal^ 
accounts, for he is viewed as unfit for the common business of the 
towns and plantations, and in a state greath’ inferior to his neighbors. 

It would seem that at that time the people of Vermont did not 
enjoy such advantages for obtaining a higher education as were 
enjoyed by the people of other States. Attention was given to the 
education of children but scarcely any provision had been made for 
instruction in those studies that would fit young men for the profes- 
sion of divinity, law, or medicine. The body of the people seemed to 
be more sensible of this defect than professional men themselves. As 
has been stated, the legislature from the first assumption of the powers || 
of government had in contemplation the establishment of a university, 
and with this in view had reserved one “right” of land in all the 
townships of the State. In November, 1791, it had passed an act 
that the university should be located at Burlington and established 
upon a liberal, catholic, and judicious foundation.* 

Before the close of the eighteenth century the records show thati 
many of the towns had established schools and were generoush" rais- 
ing funds by taxation, in whole or in part, for the building of school- 
houses and for paying the salaries of teachers. 

In some of the towns school committees were chosen, exact lists| 
kept of the scholars, “ their names, ages, together with the length of 
time to a day that each one is taught;” appointment was made of per- 
sons to receive the aforesaid lists and divide the school money among 
the several scholars taught, and further, it was provided, “that no 
district be entitled to draw any of the public money on account of 
schooling, except the teacher of the school has been actually examined 
and approbated by a committee appointed by the town for that 
purpose.” 

Piesident Dwig'ht, in his Travels in New England, written about 
1812, states that — 

In Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Vermont schools are everywhere estab- 
lishing. They are often styled parochial schools. You will not suppose that each 
parish has a school distinguished by this title, hut that each parish has a sufficient 
number of schools to admit all the children which it contains. To these little 
seminaries the children of New England are commonly sent from 2, .3, 4, and 5 



'The university, however, was not formally established until some years later. 



THE COMMOH SCHOOLS. 



13 



years of age to the period in wliich they tiave learned to read, write, and keep 
accounts. * ■* * 

At the earliest period children of both sexes are placed under the direction of 
female teachers, and at more advanced .stages of their education under that of men. 
I speak of the common schools only. 



At this period, in a con.sideralde part of New England, the female 
puitils were sent to schools that were separate from the boys’ schools. 

The earliest educational conventions in Vermont of which there 
appears to he any record were held in the winter of 1830-31. and 
were connected with the movement in behalf of lyceums tvhich had 
become so general throughout the country. They were held in all the 
counties of the State and were attended by Mr. Holbrook, the origi- 
nator of the system. The plan adopted was to have weekly meetings 
of teachers and semiannual conyentions in each county, aiid that apjja- 
ratus should be procured for use in the schools. Committees were 
apjjointed and times chosen for town and county meetings to organize 
lyceums or associations for the improyement of schools and the adyance- 
ment of the general interests of education. Some of these lyceums 
continued in operation for seyeral years, but there is unfortunatelj^ 
yery little on record to show that much was accomplished by them.’ 
The Annals of Education for June, 1836, contains a notice for a State 
conyention of teachers and others to be held at Montpelier on the 23d 
of the following August, and a li.st is giyen of the subjects proposed 
for discussion. No further mention, howeyer, is found of this con- 
v'ention and no report of its proceedings appears to haye been pub- 
lished. 

An educational conyention was held in Brandon in 1811, and in the 
following year seyei'al important meetings were held in the State to 
consider the question of an improyed system of education.^ One of 
the most important of these meetings was held in January, 1812, and 

man\ of the best informed and most energetic men of the State were 
present. 

Public discussions of the school .system were continued during the 
\eais 1813-1815. Early in 1815 a convention was held in Middlebuiy 
anc a committee appointed to jjrocure authentic information respect- 
ing the school laws of the free States. On October 18 of the same 
jeai a convention met at Montpelier for the formation of a State 
nailed the “Vermont Society for the Impi'ovmnent 

. 1 ^ School.” A little later, November 5, 1815, the prin- 

c ipa su )]ect proposed for its action was removed by the passage in the 
eimont egi.slature of an act providing for town, county, and State 
-upeiintenc ent.s, the visitation of .sch ools, examination of teachens, and 

reference tf> this subject see chapter upon the early Vermont acade- 



a,hrnt*«m?* " to take definite action wa.s Hrattlehoro, which, in 1841 , 

adopted the Massachusetts system of graded schools. 



14 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 



an annual county convention of teachers. The development of the 
sj'stem of education in Vermont dates from this act. By the following 
year there was a fully organized State school system in active and 
general operation. 

As early as 1827 an act passed the legislature authorizing the ap- 
pointment of a town superintending committee, to be chosen by the 
qualified voters of the town, and directing that towns requiring more 
than one school should be divided into school districts. It also author 
ized a State board of commissioners; but this last clause was repealed 
in 1833. 

By the law' of 1845 the offices of county and of State superintenden 
of common schools were created. The State superintendent was h 
be elected annually by the general assembly, and his duties were to b< 
essentially those of the secretary of the board of commissioners undei 
the lav of 182 <, except that he was not required to recommend th< 
text-books to 1 m' used in the schools. After four years the office of 
county supcrmtendent. who was appointed by the countv courts, was. 
abolished, and two years later the other office fell into desuetude. 

By an act approved Xovember 15, 1847. the school year was made to 
date from the first day of April in each year and end on the last day 
of the folloM'ing IMarch. The district clerks of the several school dis- 
tricts in the State were required to make out full statistical returns 
to the various town clerks between the loth day of February and the 
1st day of ^lai ch of each year. V ithin the month following it became^ 
the duty of each town clerk ‘Ao prepare an abstract of the” returns o 
the several district clerks and deliver the same to the town or county 
superintendent of schools when called for.”* 

This was to be so reported as to show the number of heads of fami 
lies, the number of children of school age — that is. between 4 and 11 
years old. the number of weeks taught by male and by female teach 
ers. and the wages recei\ ed liy each; also, the cost of board and fue 
and the share of the public money belonging to each district, and thes< 
were to be “the only items required by law.” 

The selectmen of each town were required to leave with the town 
clerk in iMarch a written statement of the amount of money assignee 
to each district during the current school year. 

The whole number of school districts at this time (1846) was believec 
to be about 2,750, and the number of children of school age not prob 
al)ly lejis than 100,000. The' record for the previous year showed thal 
in all 7i,158 children had been enrolled, but of these 15.000 or ovei 
had attended sehool less than thirty days, and that only about 51,00( 
were in school at the same time; moreover, that the average attendanc( 
for the year was not over sixty -eight days. 



’■The town su])erinteiulents were required to furnish tlie answers to the inquiriei 
of the secretary of the board of education. 






THE COMMON SCHOOLS. 



15 



le 

g 

id 

5 - 

le 



■e 



The State was divided into 14 counties, and 240 organized towns, 
with a county superintendent for each county, a town superintendent 
in each town, and a prudential committee in each district. In 12 of 
these counties and 2 towns of another, the amount of public money 
distributed in 1846 to the several districts was $71,177.27, and the 
amount paid to teachers in the same districts was reported to be 
$90,469.70, of which sum $52,236.07 was paid to male teachers and 
$38,233.63 to female teachers. The amount paid to teachers in the 
whole State exceeded $125,000, but of this sum less than one-third, 
that is, from $36,000 to $40,000, was derived from voluntary taxation 
b}’ districts. If we add to the whole amount given above the interest 
upon the cost of school buildings and school apparatus and other 
appliances, and the amount paid for teachers’ board and for fuel, it is 
found that the common schools of Vermont were then maintained at an 
annual expense of not much less than $ 200 , 000 . 

As a condition of receiving its share of the public school funds, the 
State requii'ed each district to support a school two months in the year 
by district taxation, or at least out of its owm funds. As a matter of 
fact, however, at the time to which we are referring many of the 
districts did not expend for the support of their schools even the whole 
of the public money the^' received. 

STATE SUPEEINTEXDENCY. 

Under the new sj'stem of supervision, the Hon. Horace Eaton was 
chosen State superintendent of common schools, and continued in the 
office for five 3 ’ ears. In his first report, presented to the legislature in 
October, 1846, a graphic picture is given of the condition, needs, and 
prospects of education in the State. The prominent defects, as thej" 
appeared to him, were an excessive number of school districts; the 
“miserable condition” of schoolhouses, their “repulsive aspect” inter- 
nally and externallj", and their “exposed, unpleasant, and uncomfort- 
able” location — the choice of site being usualh' that spot “which is of 
the least value for anj^ other purpose.” The lack of apjjaratus was 
“universal through the State” — fortunate and rare being the school 
that had so vasth’ important an article as a blackboard. In fact, the 
proportion of schools having it varied in the different counties from 
less than one-sixth to about three-fourths. As might be supposed, 
the need of a more uniform sv'stem of text-books was veiw urgent. 
Two counties reported fifty different kinds of books in use in each 
countv, and even others besides those named were more or less used. 

Another evil was the shortness of the school j'ear and the low 
percentage of attendance — since statistics showed that 22,000 children 
of school age never entered a schoolroom. 

But above all other defects, the one most painfully apparent to the 
new superintendent, the one that he styles the “paramount evil,” was 



16 



HISTOKY OF EDUCATION IN VEK3IONT. 



“the want of thoroughh' qualified teachers.” The .small districts 
especially he found to be the paradi.se of inefficient and ignorant teach- 
ei’s. Their average age was then, for the winter term, from 20 to 25 
years. 

There was as yet no provision by the State for teachers’ institutes 
or normal .schools, and the conduct and support of such institutes as 
were held in some parts of the State fell mainly to the charge of the 
county superintendents. 

Such was the condition of Vermont, educationally considered, when 
the new system of supervision was introduced and Mr. Eaton assumed 
the duties of superintendent. From the first decidedly beneficial 
effects were seen in the gradual elevation and improvement of the com- 
mon schools. 

The regulation that all teachers must previously pass the ordeal of 
an examination increased the attendance and stimulated to a more vig- 
orous effort the students in the academies and high .schools of the State, 
as a large proportion of these had a longer or shorter service of teach- 
ing in view. 

The apportionment of the public school money was still made only 
with reference to the number of pupils in a district, without regard to 
the wants of the school and without making the attendance of pupils 
the basis of distribution. 

The report of the superintendent for 1848 shows a marked improve- 
ment in the furnishing of school buildings. Where three years before 
scarcely one-sixth of the schools were furnished with blackboards, 
then nearly all had been supplied, though there was still a deplorable 
lack of maps, charts, and globes. The per cent of children who did not 
attend school remained about the same; that is, more than one-fifth of 
the children of the State were not enrolled in the schools; many of whom 
were of foreign bii’th and had but an imperfect knowledge of the Eng- 
lish language. 

W ritten examinations of teachers had now been adopted in the place 
of the oral and very lax examinations formerly required, and a superior 
class of teachers was being secured. 

In the years immediately following frequent reference is made to 
the continued improvement in the qualifications of teachers, and to 
increased earnestness and devotion to study on the part of the pupils. 
Besides, there was an increase in the length of the terms, so that the 
average of the school year did not fall below 25 weeks. 

In 1849 the wages paid to teachers, aside from the cost of board, fuel, 
and the like, amounted to about $1.30.000. To meet this expenditure 
the towns received the income derived from the public money, which 
amounted to nearly $85,000, leaving a balance of some $45,000 to be 
raised by a voluntary tax levied by the school districts of the State. 

The mode of taxation then adopted favored the rich rather than 



THE COMMON SCHOOLS. 



17 



the poor by requiring the latter to pay “on the basis of numbers;” 
that is, according to the number of children enjoying school privi- 
leges. 

Complaint Mas made by the superintendent that great apathy was 
still shown in the support of schools, and that this arose from a lack 
of confidence in the common schools as they were then conducted, and 
perhaps also from a “too prevailing distrust of the practicability of 
elevating them.” 

At about this time there was established a periodical with the title 
of “The School Journal and Yermont Agriculturist.” Its design was 
to put in operation, in connection with an agricultural paper, a State 
journal to promote the best interests of the common schools. It made 
its influence felt in Yermont for a time, and was thought to have 
accomplished valuable results. 

teachers’ IN.STITUTES. 

Teachers’ institutes began to be held in 1846 (the first was at Essex 
Center) under the direction of the State superintendent of schools, and 
soon became of common occurrence, though still unassisted by the 
State. But at length, in 1849, provision was made by the legislature 
for their maintenance, and an appropriation not exceeding SlOO for 
each institute was granted, and a new era soon opened in the history 
of Yermont schools. Xever before, according to the annual report 
of the superintendent for 1850, had there been a time when so deep 
and so ardent an interest in the cause of common schools pervaded 
every part of the State. The step taken by the legislature was con- 
sidered in the line of advancement “toward a true free .school .sys- 
tem, as being alike ju.st, politic, and wise, and creditable to the State.” 

In 1850-51 two months in the spring and two in the autumn were 
devoted by the State superintendent to the holding of teachers' insti- 
tutes, twelve in all, for the fourteen counties of the State. Each 
in.stitute continued through .seven days, “from 9 o’clock in morning 
until 9 in the evening,” and by affording instruction in the proper 
methods of teaching by reviewing the branches of study usually taught 
in the common schools, by lectures upoji the classification of pupils, 
the theory of teaching, the best modes of government and of securing 
order, punctuality and propriety of conduct, interest and diligence in 
study, and by suggestions designed to enlarge the views of teachers 
and awaken in the community a lively interest in education. 

By the law of November 18, 1856, one teachers’ institute was 
required to be held annually in each county “in connection with the 
schools in the State during their fall and .spring terms.” 

The first institute held after the passage of this act was opened at 
Yergennes July 13, 1857. There was a goodlv gathering- of teachers. 

3177 2 



18 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 



and much of the .success that attended it “ wa.s owing to the warm and 
generous interest of the citizens of Vergennes.” The time occupie 
by the institutes of this year was limited to "3 evening lectures an 
a coui'se of le.ssons occupying two days.” 

Later (see act of 1870) the length of teachers' institutes was extended 
to five days. 

At this time taxes for the payment of teachers’ wages were raisedl 
upon the 'Alrand list" of the property of the State, while the expens 
for board and fuel was, at the option of each di.strict. paid either 
the same way or as a charge upon each scholar. 



STATE teachers’ ASSOCIATION. 

The first to suggest the holding of a State teachers’ association was 
Hiram Orcutt, LL. D., a name since well known in New Hampshire 
and Massachusetts. Early in the year 1850 the suggestion was made 
in a communication to the I'ermont Chronicle, and so well received by 
the teachers of the State that a call was soon published for a meeting 
to be held at Montpelier on the 16th of October following. Its object 
was stated to be the organization of a State society and for a full 
interchange of views upon the subject of education in Vermont. 

Accordingly, at the date named, a State teachers’ association was 
organized and a constitution adopted, in which the following declara 
tion was made, that the object of the association was “to arouse fron 
its slumbers the public mind, to interest and encourage the heart ol 
the common school teacher, and to impress upon superintendents anc 
teachers of academies and higher seminaries their great responsibilij 
ties as exponents of the pullic school interests.” 

The meeting of the association in 1856 was held at Barre and con 
tinned Imt for a single day*. Yet it is .said that to the influence of thii 
small meeting must be attributed much of the credit for the establish 
ment of the present school .system of Vermont. Certain it is that th 
bill there prepared to be laid before the legislature at its approachin 
session embraces the general features of the sy’stem of instruction as i 
is now. 

To Governors IVilliam Slade and Horace Eaton, Vermont is great! 
indebted for the awakening that culminated in the formation of teach 
ers’ institutes and associations, the founding of the normal schools, an< 
the improvement of the school system. 

IMore and more interest was taken in the.se associations as the year* 
went by, and in 1859 it was reported of its annual meeting that i* 
“was one of the most successful educational gatherings ever held m 
the State."’ and. indeed, one of the most important meetings of any 
kind ever assembled in Vermont. At this convention town and county 
teachers' associations were recommended, and these were afterward* 
organized and held in different counties of the State. I 



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THE COMMOH SCHOOLS. 



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LAPSE OF PUBLIC IXTEREST. 

After a service of live years, during which great advancement was 
made in the common schools of the State. iSIr. Eaton was succeeded by 
the Hon. Charles G. Burnham, who entered upon an efficient adminis- 
tration of his office; but after he had served one year the general 
assembly refused to choose a superintendent of schools, and for a 
period of live years there was no State supervision of schools. The 
only supervision (and even that was provided or not as the towns 
chose) was that exercised by the town superintendents and the pruden- 
tial committees. 

Secretary J. S. Adams (see annual repoi’t for 1863) said of this period: 

The topic of schools ceased by discussion to stir the public mind; the people began 
to look upon the subject of education with comparative indifference ; its introduction 
to the attention of the legislature was barely tolerated; the local supervision became 
merely formal, and therefore useless; from the disinclination of the people generally 
to accept an office in the district, to the disinclination of eminent and prominent 
legislators to act upon the educational committees in either legislative house; all 
lietokened a belittling of the general subject in the public mind. 

For years no statistics were gathered showing the number of school 
children, their average attendance, and the aggregate expense of sus- 
taining the schools, no in.stitutes nor general meetings were held, and no 
reports made by direction of law. The only faithful and determined 
friends of the common schools were said to be ‘‘ mainly clergymen of 
dili'erent denominations. ” 

In 1856 a law was passed providing for a board of education, chosen 
annually by the legislature and con.sisting of live members, with 
powers substantially the same as those granted in 1827 to the board of 
commissioners, except that the latter board was authorized to appoint 
a secretaiy. This law' left the act of Jsovember 15, 1817, materially 
unchanged. The duties discharged by the secretary from that time 
until 1871 were the same as have since been performed by the State 
suyjerintendent of schools. 

The first to be chosen to the office of secretary was the Hon. J. S. 
Adams, who in 1856 entered upon the performance of the duties which 
in the years to follow' he proved himself so w ell titled to discharge. 

At this period Vermont was well supplied w ith academies and private 
schools, and this fact will doubtless account for much of the public 
apathy respecting her 3.000 common schools. It w as stated in 1856-57 
that in addition to the 3 institutions for the higher education the State 
had “between 70 and 80 academies and many hundreds of select and 
private schools of every conceivable degree and grade,"’ and that upon 
these the sympathy and interests of the friends of education were 
largely centered. 

Of the “three excellent but weak and neglected collegiate institu- 
tions,” the report says they “barely subsisted, struggling along 



20 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 



Ill 



through the very valley of the shadow of death, while the peers of 
the best and most favored institutions in many other States for excel- 
lent management and for substantial fruit. 

Under the supervision of the new board of education, led by thei: 
able secretary, a marked improvement in the character and qualitica 
tions of teachers and in the general condition of the schools was soon 
manifest. Even before 1856 it was said that “the standard of quail 
fications for teachers was slowly but gradualh" rising.” 

In his report for 1857 the secretary says that “ the average attendan 
of pupils does not exceed two-thirds of the attendance enrolled,” or 
in other words, “ one-half of all the children of the State do not attenc 
upon the public schools at all;” one-tenth, perhaps, attended academies 
and select schools, and four-tenths never entered a schoolroom. 

At this time ^100.000 was dis'tributed annually to the various dis 
tricts of the State, which was nearly two-thirds of the total amounj 
paid during the year for teachers’ wages. Of this amount one-fourti 
was divided equally, according to the vote of the town, among th( 
school districts; the remaining three-fourths was divided between 
the districts in proportion to the number of children in each between 
the ages of 1 and 18 j'ears. 

The total amount expended for the schools (including about §27,00( 
for building and repairs) during the year ending March 1, 1857, was 
$297,812. This was some $10,000 more than was expended in 1850 

The duties and compensation of the town superintendents were foJ 
a long time the occasion of much bitterness of feeling among thi 
people, and of a determination upon the part of many not to conforD 
to the law. 

Teachers were legally required to obtain their certificates from th( 
town superintendent, but the law was disregarded by more than one 
sixth of the districts of the State. Besides, the compensation of thP 
superintendent was so small, ^'$1 a day, that the supel^ising an 
visiting of the schools was neglected, and doubtless many of the defi 
ciencies then existing in the schools may be accounted for by ^thi 
fact. The real seat of the trouble seems to have been that the Stai 
enacted the law that each town should choose a superintendent, an( 
then required the tmen to pay for his services. 

The opinion was held by some that the schools in each town well 
matters of town concern alone, and education was a personal and pri- 
vate and not a public and common intere.st; that it should be left t( 
communities and di.^tricts to say whether schools should be protected 
or left to languish and die. Again, on the other hand, the belief 
entertained “that the public school system was a charitable and kin< 
provision on the part of the State for the education of t he childr en o. 



'These institutions, as well as the Agricultural College at Burlington, are no 
receiving substantial aid from the State. 



THE COJIMOH SCHOOLS. 



21 



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he poor and the weak out of the abundant means of their more pros- 
pcrou.s neighbors; and that in this, its kindly and eharitablc intention, 
Is found its strongest appeal to the supjiort of all.” The.se views, 
whieh pervaded every elass in the community, had the effect to lower 
the school system in the eyes of the people. 

In fact, the underlying pruieiple in the Vermont school system, as 
in those of the other States, was “identical with that upon whieh the 
Puritans ffrst built when they established themselves in Massachusetts; 
and to consider it as merely or mainly a charitable or eleemosynary 
principle is to weaken rather than to strengthen the principle itself, 
land to lower the high character of these noble men.’” 

The secretary said further that “the State school system is the 
means provided by the State to secure to every child within its bor- 
ders, irrespective of condition, that culture, both mental and moral, 
which can alone enable them to till up the measure of faithful and 
profitable citizenship, as well to ijromote their good as to secure its 
own well-being'.'’ 

But the want of contidence in the schools was, nevertheless, well- 
nigh universal, and was found especially to characterize that elass of 
citizens who are always supposed to be the natural friends of the com- 
nion school the men of education, the legislators, lawyers, clergymen, 
and merchants. IhisAvant of conffdence, though unreasonabie and 
unjust, was a very grave obstacle in the way of accomplishing any 
permanent improvement. It doubtless grew out, in part, of a lament- 
able lack of information relative to school matters, such, for example, 
a.s tho.se \\ hich had reference to the powers and duties of iirudential 
committees, superintendents, moderators, clerks, collectors, etc. 

ut Secietary Adams from the ffrst entrance upon his office main- 
ainec t lat the ^ ermont system of schools was a good one, far bet- 
ei lan was supposed by many of those who claimed to be its especial 
1 leiu s. That upon a system originallv liberal and good the exeel- 
enciesiff other States, especially those of Massachusetts, “have been 
ffiiie \ ac opted and incorporated into our own law, and that this has 

noise and no notice, because it has been accom- 
plished without opposition.” 

in 'fi Jfi sided school, the union high school, and the teachers’ 

tioi recognized as efficient and useful agents in educa- 

tifo pi'ovision had been made for their adoption in prac- 

cxeellenl”? 7 the people may have de.sired them.” So 

State ' 11 ’ ^ ('I'lnont si’stem appear to some of the other 

The d/7 in 1857, adopted a system very similar to it. 

parative of the \ ermont school law was its corn- 

enforced 1 stringent provisions that were to be 

enroiced by .severe penalties, and from anv 



compulsory enactments 



’Secretary’s Reixirt, 1857. 



22 



HISTORY OF EnrCATIOH IN VERMONT. 



to 



111 



for the support of schools of particular grades. The law requirec 
every town to sustain one or more schools that should be provided 
with competent teachers. It g’ave the town authority to divide^! 
territory into districts, and it laid the obligation upon it to raise a ta: 
of a certain amount at least. It required of each district that it should 
sustain a school for not less than two months in each year. With thii 
exception the law left the Avhole matter of sustaining the schools to the' 
town and district. At a school meeting legally warned and conduct! " 
the districts could determine all matters relating to the grade or qualr 
of school, the length of the school year, and the expenses to 
incurred. The district could unite with other districts and form 
union high school, and thus secure instruction in all departments from he 
the alphabet to the languages and the higher mathematics. 

To assist in the encouragement of schools the State agreed to giv( 
annually, to each district that shall sustain a school for two months oi 
its own funds, an amount “generally equal to 81 on each scholar.” 

The Vermont law with reference to the examination of teachers wa* 
then the most perfect and stringent that anywhere existed. To payj” 
wasies to any teacher who had failed in the attempt to pass an exami-J ^ 
nation and receive a certiiicate was made a peiml offense. J 

By the census of 1850 it was found that in Vermont only 1 in 53 o: 
the population was unable to read and write. 

Before 1857 several of the larger towns had established graded an< 
union schools that were in successful operation and giving good satis^ . 
faction. They made necessary a somewhat heavier tax, but a contem- 
porary says: 

It is doubtful if the towns where they have been organized would be willing t( 
dispense with them on that accomit, or on any consideration. 

The same was also true of the union high schools. 

At a period a little later [1859] a large graded school was establishe 
at Iklontpelier for the free instruction of all children within the v' 
lago. A school building Avas erected at a cost of 820,000, the mom 
being raised on the grand list of the districts. Previous to 
schools had been established on a similar basis at Brattleboro, Burlin: 
ton, Kutland, St. Albans, Wood.stock, Wind.sor, and St. Johnsbury 
The idea of a graded school is one in which scholars of the sai 
degree of attainments are brought together and are kept together 
the same studies and in the same class.* 



’Though at a later period the division and subdivision of districts tecame in Vf 
mont, a.s in New Hampshire, one of the crying evils of the system. 

^ Section 102 of Vermont school statutes delines a graded school as follows: | 

school maintained by a town or district not less than 30 weeks each year and co^ 
sisting of 3 or more departments taught by i or more teachers, having an establish 
course of study and having all the department.s under the control oi one 
teacher, shall lie a graded school.” The high school is tho upper department of 
graded schools. 



THE COMHON SCHOOLS. 



23 



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idee 



The first enaotiuent in the State looking toward grading the com- 
non schools was passed in 1S41, and the first making complete pro- 
' it* I'ision for such grading was passed in 18J4. This organization into 
taimion districts was really a change of system and required in order 
o be fairly dev'eloped an entire regrading of all the private or district 
chools. 

In 1857 there were in the State ld9 select schools, with an enroll- 
uent of 5.499 pupils. The expense of sustaining these schools must 
have been over SlOO.OUU a vear — that is, more than one-third of the 
total expense incurred for all the public schools of the State. The 
select schools were doubtless regarded with favor in a community, 
because they added much more than a public school would have done 
|to its social and intellectual life. 

The average wages of male teachers were in the year just named 
S22.9:> a month, including board; of female teachers it was §13.64, esti- 
mating board at §1.50 per week. 

Kxcept so far as teachers’ institutes are in the nature of normal 
lay instruction, no legal provision for the organization of normal schools 
nijhad as yet been made. Some of the academies and higher schools 
were in many respects qualified and were attempting to furnish that 
immediate normal instruction that teachers required. 

At last, with the creation of the Board of Education and with the 
leady and hearty support it received from the newspaper press and 
from the great body of the people of the State, with the feeling that 
it at once inspired, and the constant evidences of greater activity in 
the administration of the school law, the hope was entertained by all 
that a new educational era had opened for Vermont. 

the opening of a new era. 

B\ an act of the legislature approved November 23, 1858, a decided 
an ladical change was made in existing school laws. One of the most 
inipoitant provisions of the revised law was that the public school 
mone\ s. IV hich had heretofore been distributed among the several dis- 
tiicts .ucoiding to the number of scholars, should hereafter be distrib- 
ut( ai I oi ding to the average daily attendance, during the preceding 
between the ages of 4 and 20 years, one-fourth 
le pulilic money being, however, divided equallv as before among 
the various districts. 

th Among the leading aims and purposes of the law there was, first, 

1 ^-t H****\*'^ authentic presentation of all the facts con- 

the ^ -h" 'V s*^'bools: second, a thorough and faithful supervision of 

increasing the attendance, so that if possible 
\t^l>^ 1 ^i&bt be gathered into the schools, 

by tlie^Sp*^ * " been so long demanded by the towns was granted 

ate that the town superintendents should be paid out of the 



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24 



HISTOEY OF FDIj CATION IN YEKMONT. 



State trcasuiy. These officers therefore became State agents, and, ■ 
together with the town and di.strict clei’ks, under the special direction [ 
of the secretary of the hoai-d of education, constituted a continuous 
chain of communication through which was conveyed complete infor- 
mation respecting the entire operation of the schools or the perversion I 
of the school laivs. ^ 

It was now po.ssihlo to make a reliable exhibit of the facts in detaU ! 
concerning the common .schools, and this is found in the .secretary’s 
report of I860 for the preceding school year, and is as follows: 



Number of children between the ages of 4 and 18 years 89 697 

Number of district schools 2* 754 

Number of select and private schools 491 

Scholars in select and private schools 7 711 

Average attendance of pupils between the ages of a and 18 years 45, 701 

Average attendance between 4 and 20 47 K 

Number between 4 and 18 attending school 70 2i 

Number between 18 and 20 attending school 3, 

Number of academies 



Amount paid for teachers’ wages and for board and fuel S246, 73 

Amount paid toward the building of schoolhouses 60, 53 

Amount paid for repairing schoolhouses 14 25 

Interest, estimated at 6 per cent, on 2,680 schoolhouses and lots, at .8400 
each 



64, 



Furniture and incidentals 10 ( 

Salary of .superintendents 5P 



Total amount to be accredited to expenditures for schools 405. 

It will be .seen from this exhibit that at no time were there mor( 
than three-tifths of the children of school age in attendance upon anj 
of the schools of the State. Mr. Adams showed by statistics tha 
\ ermont thus .stood ‘■‘far behind any one of the Eastern States ”h 
the matter of attendance upon the public .schools. Vermont .schoo' 
e.specially sutfered from nonattendance and the thousand evils ths 
spring therefrom during the years from 1852 to 186<1. 

At the time the report of 1860 was issued there was already percep 
tible a very hopeful change in the schools with reference to attendanc 
and other interests atfecting the welfare of common-school educatio) 



in Vermont. 

In 1860 the average wages of male teachers were ^17.44 per montl 
exclusive of board. This was an advance of one-third since 1846, whe 
the average wages paid were but ^11.72 per month. Female teachei 
were paid in 1846 an average of ^.75 per month, besides board, an 
in 1859—60 it had increased to §7.80. There vv^ere then three times J 
many female as male teachers. 

Ihe average duration of the school year at this period, and even a 
late as 1866. was from 23 to 24 weeks, which was somewhat less tha 
in 1848. The support t>f a school for 2 months by each district up<i 



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THE COMMON SCHOOLS. 



25 



its own funds w:is still made a condition precedent to its receiving any 
share of the public money. 

By a moditication of the school law, candidates for teachers’ certifi- 
cates were required to be examined in public, after due notice of time 
and place had been given. The reports of the town superintendents 
make favorable mention of this change as ijroductive of much good. 
Since 1S45 the law had required teachers to pass an examination before 
engaging in teaching, but up to 1857 this requirement had been fre- 
quently violated, and in that year it was found that 467 teachers were 
teaching without certificates; but two 3 ’ears later statistics .showed that 
onh’ 89 had violated the law in this respect. Schools so taught were 
not legal schools, and were not, therefore, entitled to an\’ portion of 
the public monev. The same condition was true of all disti'icts whose 
school registers were not properlv filled out and placed on file in the 
town clerk's office as the law required. One serious defect in the 
school svstem of the State was the too great subdivision of the dis- 
tricts, so, that the schools in man}' of the rural towns were too small 
to be able to emplo^^ efficient teachers. 

There was still a great deficiencv of school apparatus, of maps, 
globes, dictionaries, and other books of reference, and even of black- 
boards. In this respect Vermont was said to be behind all the other 
States except those of the South. A record of corporal punishment 
was kept b^' the teachers, and it was found that it was then inflicted 
upon 1 out of everv 7 who entered the doors of the school room. 

Ihe secretaiq ’s report for 1861 took a most hopeful view of the 
condition of the common .schools of the State. Never before had their 
claims received such earnest attention from the people; never before 
had there been so large an attendance of children, and never before 
had the attendance been so punctual and steady. The wages of 
teachers were higher and their qualifications superior to those of for- 
mei- vears. 1 he educational meetings of the preceding 3 ^ear had been 
of greater interest and more largelv attended. This was especialh^ 
tiue of teachers institutes, which had seemed to awaken more enthu- 
si.iMii and to be of more practical benefit than ever before, 

The moral element in education was alreadv beginning to attract 
e.''pecial attention among the leading educators of the State. It 'was 
e t ihat howevei- much intellectual discipline ma\’ accomplish for the 
,\oung. it was “after all inadequate to the demands of society' in its 
iig n I lelations. and still less so to the higher interests of man as an 
nmnoital being. In the educational conventions held at this period 
a I us.sions over the question of religious instruction in the schools 
and especiallv of the place the Bible should hold in 
(oimnon school, were carried on with the greatest earnestness, and 
V inter of 1860-61 became exceedingh'^ heated, and evoked 
classes of people. Little, however, was accom- 



during tin 
great inh'rest from 



all 




HISTORY OF EDUCATION IX VERMONT. I 

phshed. except to arouse the public mind to the importance of thJi 
moral and religious element in education. The Scriptures werJ 
lecpiired to be read daily in the schools, but no pupil was compelled to " 
participate in the exercise. 

In 1861-62 the amount of the public money distributed was $105,165 
The amount raised on the grand list. $117,^8, and the amount raised 
“on the scholar.” $21,670; schoolhouses were built during the vear at 
a cost of $51,019. 

c 

HOW THE SCHOOLS BECAME FREE. 1 

In 1863 the secretary said: ^ 

It is getting to be the usage in all our di.stricts to raise all the money on the grand ( 



The history of the movement by which the schools of Vermont at 1 
length became free is somewhat as follows: | , 

By the first school law the action of the towns in regard to thJ 1 
school was in great measure optional, but as the government becaml ] 
settled in its methods, and the number of the towns was increased, wm 1 
find the first show of State control when the legislature in 1797 comJ s 
manded the towns to support schools, and required that they should ] 
be kept a specified number of weeks as a condition of receiving theii i 
portion of the town school tax. Later, in 1810 a State school tax wai 1 
required to be assessed under certain conditions in all organized towns, i 
and in 1821 it was provided that the grand jury of each county should : 
inquire annually whether the several towns in the countv had raisei 
and properly expended the State school tax, and every delinquenl 
town was made liable to fine, a provision which now applies to all the 
public money. The school law of 1782 gave to the town power to 
divide its territory into school districts and to alter the same; it 
appointed trustees and provided for the support of schools parth' by 
rates and partly by taxes or subscriptions, but otherwise the districl 
was independent of the town, and it has since come under the super- 
vision and control of the town only by a slow process. The first step 
in this direction was a requirement that the town, in the annual divi- 
sion of the public money, should withhold the share, otherwise due, 
from a district that had not supported a school during the previous 
year. Next came the provision, introduced in 1827. that persons 
enqfioyed as teachers must be licensed by town officers. The provi- 
sions requiring the selectmen of the town, in certain cases, to set up 
a school, and even to build a schoolhouse, in and for a district, and to 
assess and cause to be collected a tax on the inhabitants contained in 
the grand list of the district, in order to pay for the same, left but a 
single step further in that direction. This was taken in the law of 
1870, which permitted the towns to abolish the districts, and to intrust 
the management of the schools to a committee chosen by the town. 



THE COMMON SCHOOLS. 



27 






lUnder the first school law. the districts had power to raise money by 
la tax on the grand list or on the scholar; consequently the question, 
shall the school after expending the public money be supported wholly 
bv a tax based on the grand list and thus be wholly free, amuially 
arose for decision in every school district in the State. This question 
probably has been more widely and fully discussed, through a long 

I period, than any other before the people of Vermont, and the history 
of the legislation on the subject is proportionately important. The 
law of 17S2 gave to the prudential committee of the district jjower to 
assess a tax, according to the grand list of the district, sufficient to 
pay one-half of all the school expenses, and to the district the power 
to vote the other half on the basis of the grand list, or on the scholar.* 
The revised school law of 1797 provided that the district might vote 
the entire sum on either basis, and this provision was not repealed 
until thirty years later. In 1827, however, the power of the district 
to raise money on the scholar to build and repair schoolhouses, and in 
1850 the power to raise money in a similar way to pay the wages of 
teachers’ were revoked. Other expenses for the support of schools, 
such as the cost of wood and of the teachers' board, were laid on the 
piqjil until ISfil; but in that year it nris enacted that “All expenses 
incurred by school districts for the support of schools shall l)e defrayed 
by a tax upon the grand list of the district.” The determination of 
the people, after eighty-two years of discussion, was that the public 
schools should be wholly free. 

One has well .said: 

W hile our fathers held that .schools for all were a necessity, we Hold that the 
school.s fur all must he free for all; while they held that the town has a right to act 
for the e.stablishment ami maintenance of schools, we require the town to act for the 
establishment and maintenance of schools; with them we hold the authority of the 
tow n to he subordinate to the authority of the State. Here are the three article.® of 
our educational faith. ^ 



-V MARKED IMPROVEMENT IX THE SCHOOLS OF THE STATE. 



Compiircfl with the year ISlfi when ^Ir. Eaton, who was afterwards 
got ernor, was state superintendent of schools, it tvas ea.sy to perceive 
thiit !i great advance had been made in common school education. 
1 hen the w hole attention of the .schools was mainly engro.s.sed in read- 
spelling, writing, and arithmetic. A little later, when the study 
ot giannnar tvas introduced, it “was considered an outrage upon the 
publie Schools. Little bt* little changes had taken place. Less time, 
toi instance, was given in arithmetic to mere ciphering and more to 

In 18,13 a tax of 3 per cent tvas levied on the grand list which amounted to 
ween 550,000 and 500,000, and alxmt as much more was supiiosed to be raised by 
8clu«)l district taxes. 

Edward Conant, in sui)erintendent’s report, 1874 . 



28 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 



demonstration and explanation. More time was now devoted to the 
study of grammar and composition, and besides this geography and 
history were already receiving a good share of attention. Geology, 
phi’siology, and botany had been introduced into the public schools of 
other states but they were as yet unknown in those of Vermont. As 
late as 1862 the secretary could say: 

Not a single class in geology is believed to exist in the pulilic schools of an ordi 
nar^ grade in onr whole State, and vet within a few years a very general appreciatioi 1 
of thin science hat:! been rapidly growing. ^ 

He earnestly recommends the introduction of geology and naturt ‘ 
history, and adds the following in regard to music: i 

I am glad to say that within the past few years, as the result of much public dia ® 
cussion both within and without the State, the practice of opening and closing th< ® 
schools with vocal music has been rapidly gaining ground. a 

He emphasizes the importance of a thorough knowledge of the geoj 
raphy and history of Vermont, and special provisiozi was made by tt 
legislature at its next session for instruction in these branches in ordt 
that the intpils might become imbued with the ideas of patriotism, an 
thus be qualitied for good citizenship, “the end and purpose for whic 
schools were established." Nor is this all. “The State bill of ri^hi 
and the leading features of the State and national constitutions, with ^ 
knowledge of the different departments of government,” should I 
topics of common conversation and of particular instruction in ever ^ 
common school. ^ 

The common-school system was evidently gaining steadilv in popula ^ 
favor, as it increased in efficiency and proved itself competent t ^ 
accomjilish all that its friends predicted for it. Parents were takinj ^ 
a deejier interest in the schools, and were more willing to tax then ^ 
seh es that they might have better schoolhouses, the teachers wer 
better, and the children were more studious, happier in their schoo ^ 
tasks, and more v tiling' to pursue those branches that were calculate: 
to gi^ e immediate pi’actical benetit, ' such, for instance, as the gran a 
matical use of language. ” f 

A year or two lateiythe secretarv says: t 

No statistics, however exact and copious, can give an ailequate idea of the life thj f 
has been infused into all the educational movements of the State during the eigh j 
years that have now elapsed since the system went into operation. 

In 1863 attention was called to the importance of establishing towi ^ 
school libraries. Isome had already been established, and the move ^ 
ment vhich then began without question resulted in great good to tb | 
children and vouth of the State. ^ 

Ihe points in favor of the Vermont school system, as it was thei I 
developed, can Tie stated as follows: Public examination of teachers i 
the arrangement for local supervision simple, economical, and efficient 



the the power of revoking certificates was limited to certain specific causes; 
ind the leval provision by which the distribution of the public money to the 
?y, various districts was made to depend upon the daily average attendance 
iof upon the schools; and the provision for an authorized list of school 



As 

rdi 

ia 

ra 



li» 



THE COMMON SCHOOLS. 



29 



tg,\t-l)ooks, maintaining a uniformity in their use in the schools with 
very little disturbance or opposition. 

Of the common schools Vermont could already cherish a just pride, 
but of graded schools of a higher character the secretary, as late as 
18fi3, could say, "she has almost none.” And he raises the question, 
“Why are there not more graded and union schools?” The first 
reply is that too many academies (though the numlier of these was 
steadily diminishing) were doing the work of the common schools; 
and second, the welfare of- the public .schools is “still more seriously 
atl'ected by the multiplicity of private and select schools than by any 
other cause, and probablv more than by all other causes combined.” 
The fathers and founders of the State, in their plan of the common 
school, the grammar school, and the university, evidently laid a foun- 
dation that their children would have done well to build upon. Had 
their plan never been altered, the educational interests of the Stfite 
might have been better sub.served. The power and efficiency of the 
grammar schools were for a long time greatly impaired through 
acts of legislation which divided and subdivided the State fund estab- 
lished for their support.^ Still it should be said that the academies of 
Vermont rendered a most essential service in the educational elevation 
of the State. They were the only colleges that most of the young 
men and women ever knew, and they helped wonderfully to broaden 
their views of life and implant within them truer conceptions of the 
work they were fitted to do. 

Later the excellencies of the graded schools became more and more 
apparent. They seemed to be in great part free from the j)rijicipal 



'In 1878 the legislature made it the duty of the State superintendent to learn the 
amount of income from the grammar-school lands (granted by the authority of the 
State of t ermont) in each of the several towns where they existed, the appropria- 
tion that had been made of it, and the character of the schools to the support of 
which such income had been applied. The superintendent made a report of the 
facts ascertained to the governor of the State as required by the resolution, which 
may l>e found in the appendix to the Twenty-sixth Vermont School Report (1880). 

In regard to these school lands it might be said that they are found in most of the 
tow ns of the State. They “are lands the rent of which is devoted to the support of 
t e common schools, the county grammar schools, the State university, and particu- 
ar institutions designated by the donors. Of the lands whose rent is devoted to the 
support of the common schools, some were set apart for that purpose in the original 
c arter of the town, .some were set apart in the charter as glebe lands and afterwards, 
J act of legislation, devoted to the support of schools, and others were given by 

4 n fiy corporations for that purpose.” (State Report for 1875-76, pp. 

•iU, 41. ) 



30 



HISTOKY OF EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 



lOI 



difficulties and obstacles that encumber the working of the commo 
district school. 

During the twenty -live years previous to 1870 they had becomi 
established in the cities and in nearly all the large villages of the State, ; 



many of the academies having become graded schools. In many o } 



the small l illages the districts were united, good buildings erected o 
and schools with i or 3 departments carried on in the place of separah 
district schools. But the country schools were, without exception ii 
ungi-aded. 

In the year last named out of the 66,310 children attending publi 
schools, 10,000 were found in the graded schools. 

In 1862 Congress passed an act giving to all the States, under cer 
tain conditions, a grant of lands for the establishment of an agricultural 
college. This was at once accepted by Vermont, and in 1866 a com-, 
pletely organized State agricultural college was established at Burlin«1 
ton and united with the Unicersitv of Yennont. In 1865 the Sta 
reform school was authorized by the legislature and established 
V aterbur\ , but ten years later this was removed to Verg'enn^. 

In receiving the land-grant from the Government, the general assen 
bly of \ ermont urged the concentration of educational strength, man 
holding that it would be better for the State if the colleges at Burling 
ton and IMiddlebury could unite and form a single State nniversitj 
A vigorous ellort to this end. and one that came near being siu'cessfu 
had alieaclA been made in 18-1 18. Still, so manv and g'reat were tt 
supposed difficulties to be overcome that the idea of a juncture the 
failed of accomplishment, and for years afterwards no further attemp 
was made; but when, after the Government grant, it became necessar 
to incorjioiate the \ ermont State L niversity and associated college! 
the time was recognized by many intelligent friends of education 
favorable for the accomplishment of the long-cherished project 
union of the colleges, without which, as it seemed to them, a complel 
and symmetrical system of State education would be impossible. Bi 
however desirable this juncture of the colleges appeared, it came 
nearer accomplishment than at the period to which we have referr© 

At about the period of the close of the ci^ il war there was "a grot 
ing conviction in the public mind that female teachers are preferab 
to male. Doubtless their more general employment during- the wa: 
when it was more difficult to secure male teachers, and their (juite un 
form success in teaching, and the excellence of their characters an 
influence had much to do in producing this c-onviction; yet I doubt nt 
that the question of greater economy had much more weight in th 
decision to employ female teachers than many would have been willin 
to confess, for the a\ erage wages paid was still oidy SS.16 a month 
exclusive of board, and that, too, in a depreciated currency. How- 
ever, it was generally believed that •'contemporaneous with'the grad 
ual change from male to female teachers, which has been mentioned 



the common schools. 



31 



aoi 

)m( 

3,1 

' 0 ] 

;e( 

■a1 

01 

;e: 

iral 

)m- 

tij 



here has taken place a graduad improvement in the schools of the 
itate.’' 

Good behavior was among the things which the State required to be 
amdit in the common schools, and in conforming to this law it is said 
hat the superior mei'its of female teachers were eminently conspicu- 
)us. In 1870 Gen. John W. Phelps, of Brattleboro, suggested the 
oreparation of a manual, to be used in the schools, “which should 
inculcate the few simple rules of courtesy. 

In 1865 it was still customary for teachers to "board around,” thus 
laying the most burdensome tax upon those parents who had children 
in .school. 

The various town, county, and State teachers’ associations which 
i^prang into existence mainly within the decade between 1855 and 
1865 proved themselves of great benefit to the teachers of the State. 
These associations gathered together those who were actually engaged 
in the vocation of teaching and were entirely voluntary and self- 
sustaining in their character. The State Teachers’ Association had 
rapidly increa.sed in numbers and influence, though it could not be said 
as yet to have enlisted the cooperation of influential men outside the 
schools — that is, of those who were eminent in social and political life. 

In 1866 for the first time no funds were raised “on the scholar,” the 
whole amount necessary to meet the expenditures for the school year 
being provided by the distribution of the public moneys or raised on 
the grand list. 

The common-school curriculum had remained practically unchanged 
for more than half a century, the only important text-book intro- 
duced during this time being a composite work which combined in one, 
geography, history, and the con.stitution of Vermont; but the legisla- 
ture of 1866 called upon the board of education to arrange two courses 
of study; one of the.se to include all the branches required to be taught 
in the common schools of the State, the other to include in addition 
such higher English bi’anches as the board should deem best adapted 
to the use of more advanced classes. Thej" further enacted that at 
each teachers’ institute there should be held an examination in one or 
both of these courses, and that those who presented themselves and 
passed the examination shoidd receive certificates entitling them to 
teatli in any part of the State “for the term of five or of fifteen years, 
according as they passed a .satisfactory examination in one course or in 
both.” In conformity with this requirement of the legislature the 
board of education determined that the <-andidates shoidd be examined 
in eight distinct subjects, the first seven of which must be partly writ- 
ten. These subjects included, besides the common branches, the his- 
tory of the United States, the history of Vermont, with map drawing, 
the Constitution of the United States and of Vermont, single entry 
bookkeeping, and the elements of elocution and of vocal culture. 



32 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 



Candidates for the second course, having passed a satisfactory 
examination in the subjects just named, were to be examined furthei 
m bookkeeping by double entry, algebra, physical geography, physi 
ology, elements of botany, natural philosophy, a thorough analvsis 
and explanation of one book of Cowper or Thompson, a critical expo- 
sition of jVXilton s Paradise Lost or Paeon’s Essavs, and two other 
subjects to be chosen from the following: Geometry, astronomy, 
chemistry, geology, surveying, zoology, evidences of Christianity’ 
rhetoric, intellectual philosophy, and moral philosophy. 

The chaiactei of the institutes was very much changed by the act 
of 1866. The new law required that two or more practical teachers 
should be associated with the secretary in conducting the examinations 
at teachers institutes. The selection of these teachers was to be made 
by the board of education. 

The effect of the introduction of these examinations was felt at once, 
since it made the State certificate a prize well worth striving for, and 
opened the eyes of teachers to their lack of qualifications for the 
responsible positions which they sought to occupy. 

In the same year (1866) another act of great importance to the State 
was passed by the legislature, authorizing the establishment under 
certain conditions of normal schools. In accordance with this act 
normal schools were soon established in each of the three Congres-j 
sional districts into which the Shite was then divided. The towns in 
which these were located were Randolph, John.son, and Castleton. and 
in the tM’o former the schools ivere already opened by February, 1867, 
only three months after the passage of the act authorizing their estab- 
lishment. The one at Castleton was opened on September 23, 1868. 
Examinations were to take place twice a year, and certificates of the a 
same grade as at the teachers’ institutes, and requiring the same quali- “ 
fications, were given to those who were entitled to them. These cer " 
tificates could be revoked for sufficient cause by the board of educa i" 
tion. A year later an appropriation of Sl,500 ivas made by the leg .'l 
islature for the benefit of pupils needing assistance in the norma 'I 
schools, S500 to be paid by the State treasurer to the board of trustees 
of each of the normal schools. To these acts of legislation of 1866 
was added the provision that after five years from the time of their 



passage no iierson could teach in any of the common schools of the 
State unless possessed of such a certificate of examination as the law 



ih 



required. In practice, however, it was afterivards found difficult to - 
compR- with this provision. Still the legislation referred to had a 
permanent and excellent effect upon the qualifiations of the teacher, s,* T 
and therefore upon the progress of education in the State. Anionj 't 
other legislative acts of this year was one authorizing a revised list o , 

school books. This list was prepared and published the following ^ 



THE COMMON SCHOOLS. 



33 



tory 

thei 

ysi 

ysii 

;po 

the: 

my, 

ity, 



The first attempt to regulate the selection of text-books was 
ade in 18:i8, when the board of commissioners for common schools, 
hough they said that their duty' was only' advisory', proposed a list of 
looks as suitable and proper to be used in the schools. They' author- 
ed town committees to select from this list such books as they' thought 
•st adapted to their needs. ^ This law was enacted in 1827 and 
epealed in 1833, though it seems never to have secured any' effective 
ecoimnendations of books. The first notice of text-books being 
hosen bv the board of education was in 1858. Between that ckte and 
actfee yea 1880 there had been at different periods four recommendations 
lers f text-books. 

Secretary J. S. Adams, after eleven years of faithful and efficient 
adc§,.rvice, could look with much gratification upon the very' material 
advance that had been made in all departments of school work through- 
lit the State. In 1867 there was scarcely' a large village in Akrmont 
d hat was not provided with higher schools of some descrijition, and the 
('ntiment in favor of graded schools was constantly' increasing. The 
lonor of the changed condition of the schools and of the healthier tone 
if public opinion respecting them belongs, doubtless, in great part to 
rlr. Adams, but much credit is also due to the first board of education, 
rhich was composed of men whose names should ever be gratefullv 
emembered in the State. They were Calvin Pease, Dorr Bradley, 
nd Hon. T. P. Eedfield. 

President Buckham, of the University' of Vermont, jjays this fitting 
vibute to the character and services of Hon. John S. Adams: 

He va.s a remarkable man. * * * JJ 0 a ready and apt speaker; could 
ather and interest larger audiences than any man of his time in Vermont, and was 
the apable on occasion of a real eloquence which few public men can approach. He 
new the people of Vermont thoroughly — knew how to manage them for their own 
od. He could argue, flatter, scold, ridicule, according as the needs were, and 
irely failed to make his hearers see as he saw, feel a,s he felt. On the organization of 
he board of education in 18.56 >Ir. Adams was appointed secretary. He threw him- 
^•If into the pioneer work, which was then most needed and for which he was admira- 
lial * y fitted, with all the ardor of an enthusiast. In this work he labored eleven years 
ith the greatest energy and the most useful results to the school system of Ver- 
lont. The State owes to few of the public men who have devoted themselves to 
ler highest interests a greater debt of gratitude than to Mr. Adams. 

By act of November 18, 1866, the board of education wa.s to be 
hosen a.s follotvs: 

The goi eriior shall annually [after 1870 biennially] nominate and by and with 
le at \ ice and consent of the senate shall appoint a board of education, consisting of 
X persons, two of whom shall be residents of each Congressional district, and three 
e number at least shall be practical educators. And the governor of the State 
T the time being shall be ex otficio a memlier of said board. 



ice 

aiii 

the 

:ate 
der 
act 
■es 
in 
me 
6 
ah 
68 , 



dl 
er- 
ca 

3gt 



.'es 

;66 

eir 

he 

tw 

to 

a 

fS 



This State 



commission issued what is accounted the first Vermont school report. 



le ..tate has since received the Ijenefit of better classified text-books and better 
■tructed schools. 

3177 3 



34 



HISTOEY OF EDUCATION IN VEKMONT. 



Previous to this act the board had consisted of but live persons. 

Among other school legislation of that _year was the following: 

The several towns shall, at each annual meeting, elect one or more trustees, no 
exceeding three, * * * whose duty it shall be to receive, take care of, and mar 
age the money deposited with the respective towns. 

This has reference to the United States deposit monej". Accordinj 
to existing law the State treasurer had authority “to receive ant 
moneys belonging to the United States, hereafter to be deposited wit 
this State, and give a certificate of deposit.” The interest on thi; 
deposit money received from the Government, which by the act o 
1836 is appropriated to the support of common schools, “is not to b 
taken as a part of the proceeds of the school fund within the purvie 
of the proviso to the ninth section of the act of 1827, entitled ‘A 
act to provide for the support of common schools.’ and to go so far s ti 
a relief against the 3-cent tax required by law.” 

In 1867 Hon. A. E. Rankin was chosen secretary of the board o|^ 
education to succeed Mr. Adams. In his first report (1868) he says; 

It is to the cleigy, more than to any other profession — and more than to 
others — that the cause of education is indebted. They have more sympathy wit C( 
and a higher appreciation of the importance of thorough and efficient educations tl 
work. 

This is probably not too strong a stating of the case, for it is, with 
out doubt, true that as in the earU history of New England, so in it 
later history, the clergy have been the warmest, most faithful, an iv 
most intelligent fosterers and friends of education. The new se( 
i-etary said: “Every dollar judiciously expended in the cause of edi 
cation will give a larger return in kind than any other investmei 
which it is possible to make,” and he made a strong plea for mor 
and religious instruction in the school, maintaining that the Constiti 
tion of the United States and the framers of the State constitutioi 
did not design to exclude moral and religious instruction from t^ 
public school. He .sa\'s that according to Chief Justice Shaw “t 
public-school system was intended to provide a system of moral traj 
ing.” “Christianity is a part of the law of England,” says Blac 
stone, and, in a note to an American edition of his commentaries 
declares that “we have received the Christian religion as a part of tl 
common law.” 

In the legislation of 1867 there was a requirement that parents ai 
guardians should give “their children and wards between the agea( 

8 and 14 years three months’ schooling annually at the iiublic sch- 
or an equivalent, and prohibiting manufacturing companies fu 
employing those who have not enjoyed such schooling,” a penalty 
from $10 to $20 being affixed for the violation of this law. 

The general assembl 3 ’ also authorized each town to establish a^ 
maintain one or moi’e central schools for the education of advam 



THE COMMON SCHOOLS. 



35 



o 
► 5 
ie> 



pupils of the several districts. To support these schools each pupil 
Mas to pay to the town treasurer such sum per term for tuition as the 
prudential committee, chosen by the town to have the oversight of 
la Jthese central schools, should determine. 

After serving as secretarv of the board of education for three years 
1\I r. Eankin resigned the otEce. His important services while holding 
thi> high office, his tine culture, and sound and thorough view’s of 
riti educatio!!, and his earnest discussion of the important principles of 
[hi school reform placed him in high esteem among the friends of educa- 
tion in Vermont. The hopeful features of the school S 3 ’stem during 
the period of his incumbencv was a greater regularitv in the attend- 
ance of pupils and a verv decided elevation in the standard of require- 
Ajnients in the examinations by superintendents of candidates for 
teachers’ certiticates. 

The establishment of three normal schools had from the first met 
with much opposition. It was believed by some that the system estab- 
lished ‘-was wholly unworthy of any State that aims to make liberal 
provision for public education.” The true thought, thej’ said, was 
it concentration. Instead of three normal schools with divided strength, 
Hi there should be one strong central school, provided w’ith means for 
its work. It was certainlj^ the duty of the State to train teachers for 
its schools, and it was more economical to train them herself than, bv 
it affording inferior facilities, to compel them to seek this training else- 
where. 

The Ijoard of education was in favor of concentration, and recom- 
mended the establishing of one normal school and the appropriation 
of !?5,000 thereto in addition to what the State alread\- paid for nor- 
mal instruction and for the institutes; but the legislature was unable 
to agree upon any provision more satisfactorv than that which already 
existed, and therefore the three normal schools were left undisturbed 
to carr\- on, as best thej’ could with limited means, the training of 
teachers for the State. 

On May 14, 1870, Hon. John H. French, LL. D., of Albainq N. Y., 
I wa.s ihosen secretaiy of the board of education to succeed Mr. Ran- 
I kin. Mr. French was then a resident of Albany, N. Y. He made an 
tlj e uent secretarv, and there was a substantial improvement in the 
common schools during his administration of the office. 

efei ence has alreacH been made to the act passed in 1860, which 
lequiiec that after the expiration of five }’ears all the teachers of the 
.1 e must hold the institute certificate of examination or its ecpiiva- 
■t‘ t diploma of the normal schools. At the expiration of the time 
* ’ ^o^cver, it was found that not much more than 4()0, and per- 

aps ess than that number, of certificates were held bj’ those who 
sa children of the State. It therefore became neces- 

T3 o agree upon some modification of the law, and the plan agreed 



ith 



am 

-e( 

le: 

jr 
it 
01 
t 



am 

id 



arf 

Cl 



36 



HISTOKY OF EDUCATION IN VEBMONT. 



upon wa« to require two public examinations of teachers to be held in 
each town annually, the examinations to be held on the same day 
throughout the county, and the certificates, which were granted by 
the town superintendents, to hold good until the first day of the fol- 
lowing April. All persons appljdng to be examined at other times 
were required to i^resent themselves before at least one of the pru- 
dential committee of the school in which such person proposed to 
teach and before one other intelligent adult person. For a certificate 
granted upon such an examination the candidate was required to payl 
to the superintendent igl, and the prudential committee were to pa^ 
him $ 2 . Some other conditions were also added. The law requireJ 
the town superintendents in the several counties to meet annually oJ 
the third Tuesday" of March for the purpose of agreeing upon quesj 
tions to l)e used in the written examinations of teachers throughout 
the county and of fixing a standard of qualifications of teachers foJ 
the ensuing 3 'ear. J 

At these gatherings, in addition to agreeing upon those questions 
that were to be asked of the candidates at the regular public examina-l 
tions, the\' established certain regulations and acquainted themselveJ 
with the condition of the schools. From the first these meetings! 
which began in 1871, were jery popular wdth tow n superintendents! 
jirogressive teachers, and active friends of common schools, and bw 
means of them a deep interest was eveiywhere awakened on the sulJ 
ject of the qualifications of teachers. ■ 

At the institutes held each y'ear in the fourteen counties of the Stat! 
certificates valid for five A^ears were awarded bj' the secretarv, accoi’M 
iug to the provisions of the act of 1866, to which we have referre* 
The examination was confined wholh' to the subjects of studj- piJ 
sued in the common schools of Vermont. In 1870 an amendment wfl 
made to the former act, according to w'hich, in addition to a know 
edge of common-school studies, the candidates for State certificaJ 
must have had a practical and successful experience in teaching of il 
less than forte’ w eeks during the four 3 ’ears immediateh’ preceding tH 
time of their examination. I ’ 

In this 3 ’ear the State appropriated $1,000 to each of the throe n J 1 
mal schools for the purpose of aiding such j’oung men and women H ' 
would agree to hold themselves in readiness to teach in the schools J 
the State for at least two 3 ’ears immediateh’ following their graduation ' 
Two 3 ’ears later the legislature appropriated the further sum of $5(B * 
to each of the normal schools. I '< 

As earh’ as 1866 or earlier the secretarv of the board of educaticn ‘ 
had advocated abolishing the school districts and the formation of J I 
the districts in each tow’n into a single district controlled b\’ the towj * 
At different times the board of education had strongh’ i-ecommendel 
this change, believing that on account of the multiplicite’ of schools! < 
large part of the expenditures for schools was w’asted. Moreover, thel ^ 



THE COMMON SCHOOLS. 



37 



111 



lay 

H 



ol 

let 

I'U- 



to 



itej 

•av 



•av 



eS' 

)Ul 



Eo: 



ms 

la- 



:ei 






lb 



believed that 40 per cent was wasted through the failure of the children 
to attend school. They held that with the establishment of a town 
.s^'stem of schools much of the annual expenditures could be saved and 
at the same time the educational interests could be carried on in a way 
to secure much better results. At length, in 18T0, the general assem- 
bly' consented to pass the following bill: 

Any town in this State may at its annual Marcli meeting in 1871, or at any annual 
IMareh meeting thereafter, by vote, by a majority of the voters present at any such 
meeting, alwlish the school-district system in such town, and the selectmen of each 
town shall insert an article for that purpose in the warning for the annual March 
•CC |meeting in 1871, and in the warning for any subsequent annual meeting upon the 
01 



application of 3 legal voters in such town. 

Lp to the y'ear 1884 19 towns had changed from the district to 
In so doing they placed the schools under better 



lb 



the town system. 

and more permanent teachers and secured more efficient management 
and supervision. The sentiment in favor of the town .system was 
rapidly increasing. 

The period of school age, which had been from 4 to 18 years, was now 
hanged to that between 5 and 20 ymars. Thereafter two-thirds of the 
money' that was appropriated to the support of the common schools of 
each town was to be divided between the common-school districts, 
including also any union districts, ‘‘in proportion to the aggregate 
attendance of the scholars of such district between the ages of o and 
20 y'cars upon the common schools in such district during the preced- 
ing school ymar.” 

By an act approved November 23, 1870, attendance at school was 
made compulsory upon all children between the ages of 8 and 14 
years. 

1 revious to 1866 no school district could receive any' share of the 
public money^s unless during the preceding y'ear it had maintained a 
school for two months from money' raised in the town. In the year 
named the statute was amended so as to make the legal school vear 
four months; and bv a further amendment in 1870 the length of the 
legal .school vear was fixed at twenty weeks. Up to 1872 live and a 
half day's constituted a legal school week, but in that year the law was 
amended so as to read live day's, and it so remains. 

In case any pupil in a public school is not provided by the parent, 
mastei , or guardian ivith the recjuisite text-books, it is made the duty' 
of the prudential committee of the district, or of the school board in 
any toi\n which has abolished school districts, to notify' such parents 
Ol legal guardians, and if within a week thereafter such books are not 

pio\ ided, the prudential committee or school board shall be authorized 
to supply them. 

\ eimont ha.s no school fund; all the money to defray' the expenses 
o lei common schools is raised annually' bv direct tax on town and 
A. system of free public education is based on the projjosi- 



district.’ 



38 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN VEKMONT. 



11 

n' 



tion that “the property of the State should educate tlie children of th 
State. ’ Another proposition equally true i.s that “equal taxatio' 
shoidd secure equal advantages to all for whose benefit the tax i 
imposed.” 

The total current expen.ses of all the public .schools for the year enc p^ 
ing March 31. 187-1, were $516,198.89, and the total expenditures fo 
all school jmrposes amounted to $6:32,327.^8. This money was raise o 
as follows: By the 9 cent town tax, $123,685. 55; by towns, $66, 685. 9J e: 
by tax on districts, $109,421.1:5. 

It will thus l)e seen that more than two-thirds of the total ainouB 
was raised by tax on the districts. In the live years between 1869 an 8 
1874 the expenditures for school purposes had increa.sed nearlv 25 pe si 
cent. In the poorer districts the rate of taxation for the support o 
schools had become so great as to be somewhat burdensome, and thei 
was reason for fear lest a still larger number of districts should fail t 
support any school. Believing, therefore, that there must be som 
moditication of the law the secretary advocated the levving of a Stat 
property tax of nearly one-half the amount to l^e raised, one-half 
much more by town tax, a poll tax of $2 each on the 70,000 polls o 
the State, and the small balance remaining bi’ a tax on the districts 

Ten years later the sources of revenue for school purposes are statei 
to be as follows: Fir.st, the interest upon the United States deposi 
money loaned to the State by the National Gov'ernment; second, th( 
rent of lands set apart for the suppoit of the common schools; thin 
the income from funds donated to towns by individuals or otherwii 
and, fourth, the town and district taxes. 

In 48 (4 the law relating to school supervision was again modifi* 
and an act passed authorizing a return to the former .system of cho 
ing a State superintendent of schools, and Edward Conant, who hi 
lieen at the head of the State Normal School at Kandolph since 
establi.shment in 1867, was chosen siqierintendent. The ofScers 
the school system, as now constituted, consist of a State superinteii 
ent of public instruction, town superintendents of .schools, and di 
trict prudential committees, with the usual associated officers. Th' 
duties are defined as follows: 



DITTIES OF STATE Sl'PERINTENDENT. 






The joint a.ssembly of the legislature elect bienniallv a State sup 
intendent of public instruction. Among the duties assigned him t 
following are the essential ones: To promote the highest educatioi 
interests of the State. To do this he miLst visit every county 
town during the year; deliver lectures upon the subject of educati< 
confer with town superintendents, visit schools with them, and p 
scribe and furnish them with blank forms for a school register and 
collecting school statistics. He must hold a teachers’ institute annua 



of 



THE COMMON SCHOOLS. 



39 



tliBn every county where 25 teachers make application therefor, and he 
io must hold a county convention of town superintendents annually in 
each county. He must give such information as will enable the select- 
men of each town to divide the public money according to law; pre- 
nc pare and annually furnish to each town superintendent blank certifi- 
ates for teachers. He must have supervision of the normal schools 
se of the State and visit them twice in each term. Together with three 
95 examiners apiiointed l)y the governor, he examines candidates for 
normal graduation and determines their fitness for receiving- certifi- 
u Jcates. He also at the teachers’ institutes examines candidates for the 
State teachers’ certificates. It is also within the province of the State 
superintendent to request trustees of incorporated academies and gram- 
mar schools to cause their principals to return correct answers to the 
el statistical inquiries that he may address to them. It is his duty to 
prepare and present to the legislature, on the first day of each bien- 
nial session, a report of his official acts for the preceding two years, 



m 

at together with a statement of the condition of the schools, the distribu- 
a tion of the school funds, etc., and have this report printed and distrib- 
Q uted according to law. 

•ts governor has power to appoint a superintendent when a vacancy 

tec occurs during the term for which he was chosen. The duties of the 
,gj secretarj- of the board of education were similar to those of the State 
tjj, superintendent.^ 

THE TOWN SrPERINTEXDENT.^ 

The town superintendent, elected to hold office for one year, is 
chosen by the qualified voters of the town at the annual March meet- 
ing, and enters upon his duties on the 1st day of April following. It 
IS his duty to visit all legalH organized common schools in town — the 
average number being about 10 — at least once each year and give 
advice to the teachers respecting the government of the pupils and the 
courses of stud}-; he must inspect the school buildings, and adopt all 
requisite measures for the inspection of the schools and the improve- 
ment of the .scholars; receive and distribute school census blanks and 



The following is a list of the State superintendents and secretaries of the board 
of education, with their terms of service; 

-Sate superintendent.— Horace Eaton, 1845-50; Charles G. Burnham, 1850-51. 

-State hoard of education . — John S. Adams, 1856-67; Andrew E. Rankin, 
1867-70; JohnH. French, 1870-74. 

-S'tate enperintendent.— Edward Conant, 1874-80; Justns Dartt, 1880-88; Edwin F. 
Pahner, 1888 (still in office). 

, Pickard says in his work on School Supervision, published in 1890, 

tow States except Vermont retain the town as the unit with 

''n supervision. All others have adopted the county or parish system except 
retains the town system.” Massachusetts, however, allows two or 
more wns to combine and choose a superintendent, and Vermont returned to the 
own sjstem in 1890, having discontinued it July 1, 1889. 



40 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 






school registers furnished hy the State superintendent, and see tl 
they are properly kept, and make to him an annual report: he mi 
make a detailed report of the condition of the schools to be present 
to the annual March meeting. He is required by law to meet annual 
or oftener if it seemed necessary, the other superintendents of t 
county, at the call of the State superintendent, to consider the intere 
of education in the county. The town superintendent is entitled ti 
“rea.sonable compensation” for his services. In 1856 it was not 
exceed $1 per day for time actually spent in the work of his offi. 
By the law of 1856 the secretary of the board of education was requii 
to vi.sit the .schools in addition to the town superintendent. Tl 
constituted “the supervising system of the public .schools of the Sta 
partly of a State character and jiartly of a town character.” ^ 



PRUDENTIAL COMMITTEE. 



This committee may consist of one or three legal voters in a schc 
district, and is cho.sen at the annual school meeting held on the fi' 
Tuesday in March. It is the duty of the committee to hire and pi 
teachers, and remove them when necessary; provide a suitable pla 
for each school and keep the schoolhouses in good repair; see th 
fuel, furniture, and all appliances necessary for the welfare of t 
.school are provided; adopt all requisite measures for the inspectic 
examination, and regulation of the school; and exerci.se over t 
school and the teachers the only actual and active power that is exe 
cised at all, or can be. The committee is responsible alone to the di 
trict which appoints it. It is their duty to compel all children betwei 
the age of 8 and 11 years to attend school foi' at least three months' 
each year, and to prevent their employment in any mill or factory uni 
they shall have first .spent the required three months in school, 
case a conflict of opinion ari.ses between the prudential committee ai 
the town superintendent, the measures adopted bv the latter are 
govern. However, the work to be done by the prudential committ 



^The supervision exercised by the town on one side resembles that of the Stat 
The town controls the formation and regulates the boundaries of school districts 
at pleasure atelishes all school districts. It is within the power of the town to as 
the districts in the support of schools beyond the requirements of the State 
town may supplement the work of the" district schools by supporting a cent, 
graded, or high school. The towm, acting through its proper officers, may in certi 
cases build schoolhouses or establish schools in school districts and require the 
tricts to pay for the same. 

On the other side the supervision exercised bv the town differs from that of t 
State. In most cases the approval of the teacher bv the town superintendent 
necessary that a common school may be opened, and the continued approval of t 
teacher by the town superintendent is also in most cases necessarv to the continua 
of the school. The town superintendent is required to “adopt all requisite meas 
for the inspection, examination, and regulation of the schools.” (Edward Co 
State superintendent’s report, 1874. ) 






THE COMMON SCHOOLS. 



41 



hfiR always been important, and during its entire history the character 
'^^mind success of the schools hare depended very largely upon it. 

In 1868 the legislature authorized a prudential committee for the 
‘central schools,” then first established. The law provides for the 
election of three, six, or nine persons as prudential committee, one- 
third of the number to be chosen each year for a term of three years, 
except that at the first election one-third of the committee should be 
chosen for one year, one-third for two years, and one-third for three 
years. 

FURTHEK SCHOOL LEGISLATION. 



By acts of legislature (1870 and 187-10 the trustees of the State 
Normal School at Randolph were required to use the sum of §2,000 in 
furnishing free scholarships in said normal school during the two I'ears 
l)eginning in February, 1875; and the laws of 1874 required that the 
free scholarships should be assigned to the several counties of the 
(Jongressional districts according to their population. 

In 1876 a further act was approved “to encourage the training of 
eachers for the common schools,” and in accordance therewith a train- 
ing department was organized, in the early part of 1877, in connection 
with the graded school at Bennington. The first class consisted of 
seven young ladies, all of whom passed a satisfactoiy examination in 
tne first cour.se of study such as was established for the normal schools 
of the State, and received licenses to teach in the common schools of 
Vennont for the period of five years. But only those who had com- 
)leted the high-.school cour.se of study were eligible to enter the normal 
lass. The time was spent entirely upon a course of training of a pro- 
fessional character. The principles of object teaching were discussed 
find applied to the various branches taught in our public schools. Each 
tudent took entire charge for a number of weeks of a room containing 
primary pupils. 

There was, however, at this time little encouragemient in Vermont 
to follow the vocation of a teacher. Statistics .showed that for a num- 
>ei of years the schools had cost less and less, the entire cost for the 
\ear ending March, 1878, being but §504,692.22. The average wages 
pel week (and teachers had to pay for their board out of this) were 
• 7. 61 for male teachers, and §5 for female teachers. The result 
ot this was that as soon as teachers became qualified to do really good 
"oi thei- left the schools. Still the legislature was repeatedly doing 
lat It could for the improvement of teachers. It provided in 1878 
uiat instead of teachers’ institutes there might be held in counties 
fw eie institutes were not called for before Juh' 1 of any year) educa- 
loiu meetings to continue onh’ one daj^ and evening each. Of these 
mee ings there must be in the county not less than three nor more than 



fir 
I 

>laff 
th 



1C 

t 

xe 
d^ 

•01 
IS 
int 

ai0 

tti 

tal 
s,( 






hi m ^ In accordance with this enactment 46 educational meetings 
le m the State, all but two of which were in 1879. 



were 



42 



HISTOEY OF EDUCATION IN VEKMONT. 



The work done was very similar to that in the teachers’ instituh 
consisting mostly of lectures, essay's, discussions, and lesson exercis 
sometimes with extemporized classes. Unquestionably, as a result , 
the encouragement given by the State to normal iustruction, the pri 
portion of normal teachers employed in the public schools ^yas steadi 
increasing. Still the superintendent could say in his biennial repoC.t 
(1878) that only “ 1 in 9 of the teachers employed * * * fop 
last two years, and 1 in 8 of those employed during the last scho< [„ 
year has attended a Vermont normal school.” 

In 1880 teachers’ licenses were derived from three sources — tt 
town, the county, and the State. The town license was granted h p. 
the town superintendent; the county license by an examining board < 
three, two of whom must be practical teachers, and the third mui ^ ( 
be a town superintendent; and the State license by an examining Ijoar q 
of three, two of whom must be teachers, and the third the Stal l„ 
superintendent. 

Modifications were from time to time being made in the studie 
pursued in the common schools. In the year just named the metri le 
system was recommended by the superintendent, though it had ahead fi 
been taught in some of the schools of the State. The belief ws !u 
entertained by some that a law should be passed making such stud ■s,'; 
compulsory. 1 ^ 

In 1874 the number of children of legal school age was 89,54 



Four years later the number was reported as 92,831. This was t 
last enumei-ation by district clerks, the law requiring it having be 
repealed. By the United States cen.sus of 1880 the number of ch 
dren of school age was given at 99,463. The whole number enroll 
in the schools for the year 1883-84 was 72,744. In only three ye 
has the number been larger, viz, in 1879, 1880, and 188^ The nil 
her attending private schools during 1883-84 was 8,004, making t 
whole number in school over 80,000, and leaving a balance of th 
who did not attend school of over 18,000. This was certainly a ve 
large number to grow up without school privileges, especially wh 
the schools were free to all who chose to enter them. 

The number of schools at this time was 2,550, and the average dai 
attendance was 47,607. There were employed 540 male teachers a 
3,723 female teachers, or 4,263 in all. Of this number 521 h 
attended one of the normal schools. The average weekly wages 
male teachers was $8.58, and of female teachers $5. This was a sligh' 
increase over foi-mer years 

In 1884 in 27 towns there were graded schools of four or mo; 
departments, supporting not less than thirty weeks of school, most 
them, in fact, supporting schools for a longer period. Four of th 
schools were combined with academies. Six towns in addition 
those named had graded schools of three departments, with prescril 



THE COMMON SCHOOLS. 



43 



oursc.s of study. In thc.se graded schools there were enrolled during 
he year 13.631 pupils, of whom 1,9611 were in the high schools. Of 
iigli-school pupils 541 studied Latin, 80 Greek, and 160 French or 
iei-inan. Of the 148 graduates of that year 39 were fitted for col- 
lege. This, of course, did not include tho.se in the academies and 
'P® )ther preparatory schools, of which there were a sufficient number 
[o accommodate all who sought to secure a secondary course of 
'ho< instruction. 

It was found that nearly six-sevenths of the whole number of pupils 
— tl were in ungraded schools. In 1884 all towns haying the district sys- 
i tern were required to yote upon the question of abolishing the district 
I'd ( 5y.stem and adopting the town system. Preyious to that 34 towns had 
mui s oted in fa\'or of the town system and adopted it. This question of 
oai Hie town yersus the district system was also for a long time agitated, 
5tat both in Xew Hampshire and in Massachusetts, and in both States the 
town system was adopted. 

idie From the date aboye named 24 weeks instead of 20 became the 
etr legal school j’ear. As a result the average length of schools increased 
from 126 days in 188 tG 85 to 136 in the year following. But .still the 
wi average number of days’ attendance for each scholar enrolled was only 
;udj,S8: that is, 48 days were lost by irregular attendance. Two years 
later the average number of days for each pupil had increased to 92. 
During 188’5-86 of the teachers of the State 534 had attended a Yer- 
tl mont normal .school, and 407 of this number were graduates from 
normal schools either in Vermont or in other States. The wages 
ot teachers remained very nearly the same as they had been for a 
number of years before, though the school funds were increased by 
the income from the Huntington fund (amounting to §10,000) and 
from other sources. The income for school purposes, including taxes, 
was for the year 1885-86 §621,370.29. The total amount expended, 
though not including supervision (usually about §10,000 a year), was 
duiing the same year §588,1.37.67. Two years later the expenditures 
had increased more than §50,000. 

The number of graded and high schools was each year increasing. 
In 1887-88 there were 47 of these schools, with an attendance in all 
glades of 14,647, of which number 2,367 were in the high .schools. Of 
the.se pupils 145 were studying Greek, 688 Latin, and 146 French 
oi German. The graduates from the high schools during the j-ear 
’’^“''hpred 2.32, and of these 58 were intending to enter college, 
ese schools were the best of the public schools of the State, and as 
a whole were constantly improving. But in this same year the enroll- 
ment in the common schools shows a falling off of nearly 3,000 pupils 
lorn the figures of the preceding year, and, moreover, was smaller 



ol 



ore 



lan that reported for any A'ear during the preceding decade 
tew jears pi'evious to this the question of introducing te 



■ temperance 



44 



HISTOEr OF EDUCATION IN VEEHONT. 



insti-uction into the schools had been agitated, and through the effor 
of the Oman’s Christian Temperance Union a law M as enacted I 
the legislature, making the study of elementary physiology ai 
hygiene, which should giye special promineiice to the known etiec 
of stimulants and narcotics upon the human system, a part of tl 
common-school course of instruction. This was done in maintenan 
of the principle that the most important part of education is to for 
character 1>y inculcating correct ideas of conduct and the formation 
good habits. 

In 1886 the legislature proyided that text-books on the nature 
alcoholic drinks and narcotics should be furnished at the expense 
the State; and a committee was appointed by the goyernor to sele 
the books and make the necessary regulations for their distributio 
The law required that instruction on this subject should be giyen “ 
all pupils in all public schools of the State.” 

As shoMm by the records of the secretary of state, between Januar 
1, 188 (, and May 31, 1888, there were furnished to the town superi 
tendents of \ ermont i5, 1 1 1) copies of such text-books upon temperani 
as the committee had selected at a cost to the State of 554.48. 

In 1886 an act had been passed by the legislature “appointing 
committee of three to reyise, redraft, and, so far as necessary, to dra 
a iieM" educational bill, so as to increase the efficiency and improye tl 



public schools of the State.” The goyernor ajipointed as this coi 



mittee Judge Loyeland Munson, President Ezra Brainerd, and Pro 
S. M . Landon. The bill y hich they prepared was reported at the ne 
biennial session and adopted lyy the legislature with little alteration. 

The legislature of 1888 made radical changes in the school laws) 
Vermont, the most important being’ the change from town to cou 
superintendency, thus placing the State in harmony with the usag 
neaiB all tlie State.s of the American I nion. The neiy .sy.stem w< 
into effect July 1, 1889, at which date the school 3 ’ear was to oj: 
and though it at first met M’ith more or less opposition from those \ 
did not fully understand its beneficent proyisions, it was at once po 
lar with the better class of teachers. Indeed, the most marked eff* 
of the new law is seen in the changes wrought in the teaching forced 
the State. M here preyiousU’ yer^' few^ had taken ani’ educationi 
journal, to-day “it would be difficult to find any good teacher who 
not either taking one or more educational papers or journals, or studp 
ing some work on the science of teaching or some kindred work 
Ther’ haye come to the conclusion that if they would be successfi 
teachers they must prepare for the work and keep abreast of the times 
or fall out of the ranks. ” The laiy has demonstrated its abilitir to p« 
new life and yigor into the school sj-stem— both school officer.s and J| 
interested lieing found working together with a good degree of har- 
mony and an ambition to improye the condition of the schools. It* 



THE COMMON SCHOOLS. 



45 



or 

11 



results, already apparent, maj" be siiniinarized as follows: School 
iti'airs are now more thoroughly discussed; a spirit has been awakened 
ar n many towns favoring the repairing of school buildings and furnish- 
ec ng them with modern school appliances; regularity in attendance of 
ti lupils has improved; teachers have been more adequately paid for 
heir services, and in return they have made better preparation for each 
lay's wcu’k and have sought to improve themseh’es 1>y educational 
lapers. books, and helps with a zeal that is encouraging and commend- 
ible. An impetus has also been given to the teaching of music, drav'- 
ng, and phonics, and especially to the last named, to the study of 
which it was said that in the year preceding the last school report 
jg nearly all the teachei's in one county had devoted much time. 

To hold a teacher’s certificate means more than ever before. It is 
granted by the county examiner upon pa,ssing a public examination, 
ind is of three gi’ades, the third grade granting authority to teach for 
one 3 ’ear onh’. The examiners are also empowered to grant license.s 
,.j or permits to keep or teach a particular school for one term. These 
lire granted to applicants who attended the puhlic examinations, and 
also to those who attended private examinations under section 56 of 
the school laws. There is said to l)e at present a scarcity of teachers 
Iw reason of the more stringent system of examination. Yet fortu- 
natehq in consequence of the greater demand and the better wages 
ottered, a considerahle number of first-class teachers who had tempo- 
rarily withdrawn from service have returned to active work. 

As an indication of the advance in wages over former reports, New- 
biuy (which paid the highest wages in Orange Count}’ in 188!M>0) jDaid 
an average per week of §17.61 for male teachers and of §8.81 for 
female teachers. 

I he legislature of 1890 abolished the offices of count}^ supervi.sor and 
count}' board of education, established by the school law of 1888, and 
restored the office of town superintendent. The provision of the law 
''^‘^i^cing the school age to 18 years was repealed, and the 
school age is now, as formerly, from 5 to 20 years. 

The State superintendent and governor are required to appoint an 
examiner in each county, whose duty it is to hold examinations in the 
^ung and autumn of each year and also conduct teachers’ institutes. 
^ o teac her, except the principal of the highest department of a graded 
sc lool, i.s allowed to teach without a certificate or permit. The other 
jjjprovisions of the school law of 1888 remain unchanged. 

ouhtless majiy improvements are still needed in order to make the 
s} s cm inost efficiei\t. Among other things should be better school- 
Mses in niany sections of the State, with more modern apparatus and 
'. to the teacher. The district system, which still 

should be abolished, and the town system e.stab- 
e in its stead. Probably the most difficult problem to be solved 









46 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 



is the maintenance of suitable schools in the sparsely settled district 
This is already receiving the attention of the best friends of educath 
in the State. 

The fortieth annual meeting of the State Teachers’ Association w 
held in St. Albans in October, 1889. Many valuable papers we 
read and many earnest and able discussions upon educational topi 
took place. In the several towns throughout the State more than fif 
teachers’ associations had been formed during the j'ear. 

Besides the teachers’ institutes held in each county, many education 
meetings had been held from time to time at different points. In son 
of the counties as many as four of these meetings were I’eported f 
the year. 

In the s])ring of 1890 a schoolmasters’ club was formed at Burlinj 
ton. Its object is “to increase interest and proficiency in the woi 
of secondary schools and to bring the members of this club into close ii 
relations of mutual helpfulness.” 



SCHOOL STATISTICS. 



fc 

lii 



Summary of school statistics for the school year ending June 30 ^ 1890. 

Number of school districts 

Number of public schools 

Average number of school days per year 

Number of pupils Itetween o and 18 years of age enrolled in the public 

schools 

Average daily attendance ' 

Number of pupils attending private schools 

Number of pupils attending parochial schools 

Number of male teachers 

Number of female teachers 

Number of teachers who had attended a Vermont normal school 

Number of teachers, graduates of normal schools 

Average wages per week of male teachers 

Average wages per week of female teachera 

Number of schools having not more than 6 pupils 

Number of schools having more than 6 and not more than 12 jmpils . 



et 



Amount raised by town taxes for school purposes 

Amount raised by district taxes 

Amount received from land rents 

Amomit received from all other sources 



$167,257.3* 
4.56,396.0* VT 
14,821.25 
74, 514. ff 44 



Total revenue for schools . 

Amount paid for teachers’ wages 

Amount paid for fuel 

Amount paid for repairs 

Amount paid for new buildings . 

Amount paid for incidentals 

Amount paid for new furniture. . 



$712, 988. 77 

$525, 540. 89 
35, 976. 00 
.35, 403. SO 
37, 764. 92 
45, 188. 28 
10, 042. 91 



to 

bi 

la 

w 

th 

te 



THE COMMON SCHOOLS. 



47 



^.ppropriations to normal schools |!9, 648. 00 

[Expenses of office of State superintendent 3, 910. 82 

Exjienses of county supervision . . 15, 299. 16 

Cost of temperance text-books - 1, 944. 50 

Exi>en.ses of normal school examiners 67. 43 

To institutes, educational meetings, etc 1, 142. 27 



Total expenditures for the year. 



721,928.98 



In 1890 there were 46 .schools that reported .stati.stics as graded 
[.schools. They had an enrollment of 15,644 pupils, or about one-quar- 
ter of all who had enrolled in the State, and were taught by 53 male 
teachers and 311 female teachers. In the high-school department (that 
the upper department of the graded .schools) there were 3,432 pupils, 
f whom 122 were studying Greek, 737 Latin, and 209 French or Ger- 
nan. From the same there were graduated 216 pupils, of M'hom 60 
intended to enter college. 

During the .school jmar 1889-90 the average rate of district taxes 
for schools of 30 or more weeks was but 28.9 per cent of the “grand 
list” ; for schools kept but 24 weeks it was 33 pei cent, and for schools 
in smaller localities the average rate for 24 weeks went as high as 49 
per cent. The average length of schools in the State was 27.2 weeks. 
Of the children of school age 23,655 attended schools of onlv 24 
weeks’ duration, and 36,246 were in school during the year 30 and 
36 weeks; 5,000 to 6,000 more were in schools of 26 and 28 weeks’ 
duration. 

The legislature of 1890 enacted that a State tax of 5 cents Oil each 
I^'IOO of the grand list should be levied annually and the proceeds 
apportioned to the towns and cities according to the number of legal 
schools su.stained during the preceding year. 

It is evident that .some method should be devised to make the tax 
eijual in all schools where legal studies are taught. 

The new school law provides that — 

M hen a district actually expends in any school year in the maintenance of a legal 
puhlic school (for not more than 24 weeks), other than in the construction and rejjair 
of buildings, a sum greater than the amount of its school moneys for that year and 
one-third of its grand list, it shall receive from the town one-half of such excess, 
prov ided such expenditure be reasonable. 

In his report for 1890 the State superintendent recommends: 
First, a State tax to equalize taxation among the towns; second, the 
town system to equalize taxation among the districts, and, third, a com- 
ination of several hundred of the .smaller districts.” Under the 
force, whether district be compared with district, town 
^it tow n, or county w ith county, the same ineqviality of taxation runs 
lough the entire system; and yet the school system is a State sys- 
em, and the State has supervision over it. 



48 



HISTORY OF EDUCATIOJf IN VERMONT. 



HISTORY OF THE VERMONT SCHOOL FUND. 



As early as the year 1825 the general assembly laid the foundatu ii 
for this fund by granting to the several towns in the State, “for t 
benelit of common schools, the amount of the avails accrued and thei 
after to accrue to the State from the Vermont State Bank, and at fo 
the amount of State funds accruing from the 6 per cent on the n 
protits of the lianks received and to be received, and the amoui 
received and to be received from licenses to peddlers.” It was provid* 
that "said funds, with annually accruing interest, should be invested 
approved liank stocks or other productive securities and should not I 
appropriated to the use of schools until the amount should increase I ■<’ 
a sum whose annual interest should be adequate to defray the expensl 
of keeping a good, free, common school in each district in the Stat 
for the period of two months annuall}".” 

The State treasurer was constituted a commissioner for the manag( 
ment of the funds, and from time to time as it accrued he invested tl 
same until the year 1833, when by legislativ'e enactment further loa 
were prohibited and he vas directed to hold the same in the Sta®^^ 
treasury as it should accrue, keep an account of it, and annual 
charge the interest on the same to the State, which money, as tl 
legislature happily phrased it, should “be considered as borrowe 
from the fund.” The treasurer, moreover, was directed “to pay oi 
of such fund to meet any appropriations which should be made.” 
other words, the State borrow’ed the school fund and appropriated i 
to meet its own miscellaneous expenses. 

In this condition the fund remained until the year 1845, when it hi 
reached the sum of about 8235,000. If it had been allowed to accr 
imtil 1890 at compound interest, it would have reached a sum the 
interest of which would support a common school in each district ft 
the State for two months annually; but the State was in debt to th^ 
fund to the amount of 8224,000. An easy way to cancel this debt 
to appropriate the fund to its payment. This was done by the general 
a.sseml)ly of 1845. 

Besides this fund Vermont received, in 1836, on deposit, as has be# 
already stated, 8669,086.79 as its share of the surplus revenue divided 
and loaned to the several States by the National Government. Thf 
general assembly enacted that the money should be apportioned to the 
several towns in proportion to the population, as show n bv the censO* 
of 1830. It required each town to elect trustees, who should invest 
and care for its share of the fund so received and make return of th9 
whole or any portion of it to the State treasury whenever called fot 
by the treasurer, upon the requisition of the Tinted States, or when 
desired for the purpose of a new apportionment. The interest of tbi 
money thus loaned to the towns was to be used for the support and 



haj 

;in|| 



the common schools. 



49 



idvancenient of coimiioii schools, except only in such towns as had 
)ther funds sufficient to support schools for six months of each year. 
ti( in such case the income might be devoted to some other purpose. In 
he cv'ent of the failure of any town to comply with the provisions of 
the law relative to the disposition of this fund, the State required it to 
forfeit to the treasurer of the countA' a sum not exceeding tAvice the 
imount of the interest upon its share of the fund. The toAvns still 
njoy the benetits of this fund, subject to the same provisions. 

In thus tracing A^ery briefly the history of common-school education 
n 4'emiont it will be seen that the State, in the interest it takes in the 
1 1 ntffiligent training of her youth and their preparation for future citi- 
enship, compares not unfaA'orably with her sister States of New 
js^higland. Though not blessed with so great wealth as many of the 
)ther States, the constant advance from those early beginnings of more 
lian a centuiy ago, and especiallA’ the rapid development in resources, 
nethods, and appliances since the reaAvakening of the people in 1856, 
q ffirnishes occasion for great gratitude for the work already accom- 
g, jlished and giA^es a reasonable assurance of still better results in the 
uture. 



■Si 



Chapter II. 

SECONDARY EDUCATION. 



THE EARLY VERMONT ACADEMIES AND COUNTY GRAIEMAR SCH(X||u 

By Joseph A. DeBoee. 



It has been suggested by the historian Fronde that a ’syl'iter on p 
events perfonns his duty in a general way by placing before his rei 
ers the facts relating to the subject considered. This can not be d i. 
in regard to the early academies of Vermont. Indeed, not only 
the facts in this case not been brought together in any one place,* 
all are not even obtainable, and what may still be saved from a rapii 
settling oblivion can be had only through an expenditure of mi 
energy, time, and means. In the gazetteers of Thompson and 
enway, and in individual town histories, of which few have been 
lished. the stories of some, but not all secondary schools have 
written; but the accounts are in general meager and, it must be feai 
not infrequently erroneous. The Vermont histories of Dr. Sai 
Williams and Ira Allen printed, respectively, in 1791 and 1798, 
the descriptive letters of Dr. John Andrew Graham to the D 
iNIontrose, published in 1797, are practically silent on this sub 
The reports of State superintendents of education, coming as the 
yeiy late in the present century, devote but little space to the a( 
mies of the State. They deal almost entirely with the elementary scb 
Even the records of the secretaries of boards of trustees supply si 
material for an account of much size. These latter throw, it is 9 
some light upon the subjects of disbursements and receipts, election 
trustees and officers, ways and means of raising money, rules and r^lit 



10 



lations; but so far as falls under observation, the teacher and the 



have but little share in these records. In one instance, that of ' 
Montpelier Academy, since 1813 continued as the Washington Cc 
Graimuar School, we have records covering a period of over eiffl 
years, but nowhere in them is mention made by name of a single pf 
cipal or preceptor, excepting two or three who in after years.' 
transferred to the board of trustees. Newspapers, old Vermont 
isters, catalogues, reports, programmes, manuscript relics, conV< 
tions with suiwiving citizens of the earlier years, all these niS 
drawn upon for bits of varied information. In the absence of a syi 



hf 



tu 



SECONDARY EDUCATION. 



51 



tic protection of school records, this work will be found extremely 
illicnlt and tedious; for the labor of discovery must be increased by 
hat of verification and construction, and when all is done, much of 
nportance in relation to classes, number of graduates, modes of instrue- 
on. and actual influence of teachers and officers will doubtless be 
initted. 

Now, this apparent dearth of published material is the more remark- 
l)le because of the intense and earh" interest in education exhibited 
V I’ermonters; also, because, considering its wealth and education, 
iiere have existed and perished in this State since 1780 a very large 
KlJuniber of secondary schools. The absence, however, of a well-organ- 
?ed State supervision during all these years, the very rapidly succeed- 
iig changes in preceptors, lack of interest and means, an early 
{ estructif)!! of some schools, and a failure to appreciate records in 
thers are doubtless satisfactoiw explanations of this fact. It likewise 
nds to the suspicion that these schools may possilily have been of 
111 light public importance. The reverse of this latter position could lie 
asily maintained bj’ him who will take the trouble to read over the 
iographies given in the Vermont legislative directories, of officers 



H inder the Government and the State; the catalogue of graduates from 
Sf ho early academies there obtainable, would of itself prove the great 
P< vorth to the State of these little, but highly honorable institutions, 
h| vith their useful but manj^ times pathetic history. A complete his- 
al ory of education in Vermont, when written, will prove to be as 
1 emarkable as its military, political, and civil history; remarkable in 
,1 ts having been coexistent with the first settlement, in the fact of its 
laving received State support from a people not at all sure at that 
)]• .ime of the stability of their government; and remarkable in the devo- 
V^ion, self-sacrifice, and efl'orts of teachers, officers, and pupils who 
un e constant!}’ displayed those virtues which, as Ira Allen expressed 
iWt ^hen referring to the object of their earlv education, made “good 
nen lather than great scholars.” 

1 he first academy, Clio Hall at Bennington, was incorporated Novem- 
'fi 3, 1780. In order properly to understand the nature of the con- 
iitions under which after that date these secondary schools arose and 
'pmated, it will be necessary to grasp by a brief survey the training 
I'hich as a people Vermonters were subject from the settlement of 
[^oit Dimmer in 1721 up to their admission as a State in 1791. In 
lat tiiiining, in their having long been a distinctively moral people, 
affecting increase and distribution of population 
'^ e^tie main facts that aid us in understanding both the history and 
sting condition of education in this State. 



Fort Dum 



mer was a mere military, missionary trading station up to 



Wained, 



close of the first French and Indian war, in 1719. It wa: 



mam- 



as It 



was established, by physical energy. There had not 



52 



HISTORY OR EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 



grown in these regions, during those twenty -five years, any ol 
fort or settlement, or if any settlements had been attemi 
during that period they had no existenee at its close. The s( 
French and Indian war, 1749-1756, did this State the servii 
disclosing to the soldiers who marched across its lands 
beauty, value, and fertility. The first township grant had 
made .Tanuary 4, 1(49, by the New Hampshire governor, Bei 
AVentworth, but an organization under this grant was not made _ 
Alarch 31, 1762. After this date grants were obtained in large ni 
bers from the same source, and settlements were rapidly pushed, 
ticularly in the southern part of the State. But while the people . 
busying themselves with the making of farms, roads, and homes, 
all things promised rapid growth in wealth and population, an ui 
tunate barrier was placed in their way by the State of New Yol 
December 28, 1(63, that State set up the claim of jurisdiction over" 
lands reaching eastward to the Connecticut River, basing said j _ 
diction upon a grant made in 1664 l)y Charles II to the Duke, 
1 ork. The King and council continued this boundary July 20, 17< 
and New York at once ordered the settlers to give up their charl 
and to repurchase their lands under grants from that State. A1 
138 township grants were involved. The settlers were ready to at, 
the tiansference of jurisdiction, but denied to the Kingls order a re| 
spective action upon titles already obtained. The writs of ejectini 
duly stamped with the “ birch seal,” and returnable to the suprt 
court at Albany, were not recognized. The officers sent from iUl 
to serve them were returned in their stead. For ten years the 
resisted, through a series of most energetic and interesting measi 
the State of New Y^ork. It was the period of Ethan Allen, Seth 
ner, and the Green Mountain Boys. The local incidents of that 
are well and truthfully described bv D. P. Thompson in his novel 
that name. Its story has become household propertv in VernM 
teaching our sons and daughters to love their firesides oidy less dt 
than their country, and reminding them that in this school of si 
theii foiefathers learned lessons of endurance, self-sacrifice, coui 
independence, and economy. Others observe that there was sowi 
these former and subsequent years of adversity and conflict that d< 
rooted opposition to centralization of power which in all things, 
in none more than in educational matters, has always characteriJ 
the people of Vermont. The agrarian difficulties were in a de}, , 
checked by the adv’ent of the Revolution, all the dangers, honors, 
costs of which Vertnonters honorably shared. General Burgoyn' 
wrote to Lord George Germaine at this time: 

The district of the New Hampshire grants, a wilderness little known in the li 
Mar, now abounds with the most active, rebellious, hardy race of men on the conf 
nent, who hang, like a gathering storm, ready to burst on my left. 



1 



SECONDARY EDUCATION. 



53 



I'iconderoga, Lake Champlain, Hubbarton, and Bennington sustain 
his opinion. 

From Fort Dumner to the admission to Statehood, Mardi d, 1791, is 
ixtv-seven vears. During that time Vermonters laid the foundations 
)f their subsequent civdl histoiy. During that period they made 
jn^lwclling places in virgin forests, endured the hostility of the Indians, 
ided in prosecuting the two French and Indian wars, sustained for 
more than ten years the governmental hostility of New York, took part 
in the protiacted struggles of the Revolution, appealed to Congress 
for an honorable admission; in short, from first to last labored and 
lived amid as many dangers to life and property and obstacles to 
peaceful growth as in this country have ever attended a rising State. 

This long-drawn experience, so dearly bought and held, produced a 
people of true and solid characteristics, earnest, manly, economical, 
independent, and true. To know the origin of a special people is 
essential to an understanding of the stoiw of their education. It 
afl'ected their views of the rights to school supervision within the dis- 
trict; it was responsible, doubtless, for the failure of the county gram- 
uiar school as a public scheme. It probably imjiaired, in some degree, 
the future usefulness of their colleges; it largely explains the multi- 
plicity of academies over territories too thinly populated to properly 
support them, but, in exchange for all this, it put quality into char- 
icter, solidit}^ into thought, and earnestness into life. The early 
\ erniont men were identities, nor was identity lost in their training. 
I heir originality remained intact; their progress was by individuals, 
not by classes. Their history gave them a character, and their char- 
acter so colored their early schools as to make them a special phase of 
Xew Lngland life. No other schools have done or could have done 
the peculiar work of these early academies. 

The character of a people’s schools is also in a measure determined 
b\ their interest in them, by their numbers, and their wealth. Ver- 
mont, when admitted in 1791, had, according to that year’s census, a j)op- 
ulation of 85,539, of whom, according to Dr. Samuel IVilliams, 22,328 
'\eie males under 16. Mr. Edward Conant, a careful student, declares 
State at this time had 185 towns, of which 23 had each more 
bd inhabitants, and each of 100 had more than 300 inhabitants, 

e increase in population, according to the census of the United 
I “ the following figures: 1791, 85,539; 1800, 151,465; 

tSlO, ^^217,895; 1820, 235,966; 1830, 280,652; 1840, 291,948; 1850, 
population, in view of its distribution and the lack of 
a V tran.sportation, was at no time sufficient to warrant the existence 
las academies, or, if this does not follow, it was not able to 

' whole tiigh standard of interest and efficiency, taken as a 

° t °t’ the academies, halls, seminaries, grammar schools, 
societies remained small; or if enlarged, as they often were, by 



onti 



,p 

W( 

,a 

iif( 
'or 
;r 
un 
:e 
76 
rtei 
bo 
dn 

3tl 

lei 

•ei 
lan 

opB 

iia 

i'll 

tiiiif 

lU 

ont 
arl 
rii 
aga 
a 
?ep 
bd 

izd 

air 

mi 



:: 



54 



HISTORY OP EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 



rll 

or 

:lll( 



f 



le 

ioi 



>i-( 

lei 



primary and intermediate departments, they lost in efficiency of oi 
ization and direction, but at all times none the less retained 
special and valuable characteristic of identity. Scholarship was 
inal, if not profound. Boys grew into thinking men, if not 9 
scholars. The schools did beyond the means of doing and do so 1 
It should also be noticed, with the aid of the historian. Dr. 'Willii 
that town representation to the legislature of 1781 was limited h 
In 1791 there were 1:16 towns represented, and in 1806, 187. By 
11 counties had been incorporated, all of which tends to show a Mni] 
rapid and solid growth of governmental power in the State, 
actual wealth of the people, during these early decades can liardl 
predicated as an item of fact, but there are lists of ratable prop»oi 
mentioned as follows: 1781, £149,541 17s. 6 d. ; 1791, £3:14,796 18s^ ten 
1806, 82,738,632. As, however, the legislature by act established in 
value of capital articles — say' an ox at £3 if 4 vears old, a horse 1 
old at 20 shillings, 2 ymars old 40 shillings, etc. — the above list sh 
probablv be doubled for an approximate real valuation. In fac(^ 
figures suggest the alisence of preponderating wealth and a 
dependent upon effort and a fruitful land. And this was so. 
woods were much in excess of their cleared lands; their roads 
poor; their chief conveyance the horse, later the coach; their Ir 
were rude, but comfortable. Graham speaks, indeed, of Ticheni 
polished mantelpieces in his homestead at Bennington, but assu 
and in a way as if the fact were strange, that that gentleman 
declared to him that the work had mainly’ been wrought with his (M 
hands. Tichenor afterwards became governor of Vermont. In 
eral, there were few or no public buildings in the towns; if an 
schoolhpuse or a church, taxes being levied for the support of 1 
Judge Munson, of the State supreme court, a graduate of Burra#’^^* 
Burton Seminarv, suggests the whole pictui-e when he writes of etf ^ 
Manchester. “ Their tables boasted no luxuries save those suppB 
from their gardens, their streams, and their woods. But. on tlf'f 
other hand, sav Carpenter and Arthur: 



peq 



Their govenmient proceeds as gently and with as much benefit to the i>eopK 
that of any State on the continent. The laws were few and simple and well 
istered. Taxes were light and the salaries of State officers were on a more f 
scale than in any other public community in the world. 




Graham in his graphic correspondence gives the total State govef 
ment expen, se from October 1 , 1791, to October 1 , 1792, as £3,219 8 
9d., and Ira Allen finds that each per, son in that y’ear ‘‘paid only 
pence 3 farthings to government for protection to his jierson, liberf 
and property’.” Xow, in these facts again, in the absence of wcalt 
in the enforced economical habits of the people, in the apparent an 
actual failure to recognize a high order of intellectual service ’'*1 
proper jiay’, in an inability’ to create endowments for their seconda? 



SECONDARY EDUCATION. 



55 



fommand the services of educa- 



in the con.setjuent failure to oc 

inv leiitrth of time, herein also, as before in the distribution 



liools. 

|()i-s for . 

ind loss of population, may be seen a reason tor the disintegration 
if so many of these early schools. 

.A. further element of great weight in the rise, progress, and character 
f the early academies was the inspiration, aid. and direction which 
he\- received from religious bodies and the clergy of all denomina- 
s. I'his especially commends itself to the student as a matter of 
importance because of the early cooperation afforded by the State and 
aiise of the mutual good understanding existing between the various 
lenomi nations themselves. The people were persuaded that “ the 
;overnnient had nothing to do with their particular and distinguishing 
diets. ■' They aimed at equality under the law in this respect, not 
nerely toleration, and excluded liy constitutional enactment any legal 
ii-cduinence to any class. So fully established was this principle of 
i'cligious liberty and so sincere was their recognition of the worth of 
^oldim instruction that instance upon instance may be cited wherein 
owns, acting in their corporate capacity, laid and collected taxes for 
hi' erection of churches and for the support of their clergy. They 
•lected also, at their meetings in IMarch, “tithing men'' to serve as 
irderlies about places of public worship and also other men to serve 
IS choristers. Mr. Edward Conant, already quoted, states that prior to 
he close of 1791 " there were 46 organized Congregational churches, 35 
laptist, S Pipiscopalian, and a few Quaker churches.” Twenty years 
ater the. Congregationalists had more than 100 churches. The Baiitists 
lad doubled their sphere of operation, Presbyterians had taken ground, 
^lethoclists were rapidly increasing, and Universalists, Free Baptists, 
and t hristians were in the State. These twenty years were character- 
ized by an unusual amount of religious and educational activity. Indeed, 
a student of the times would be impressed with the idea that this was a 
)lS period of reaction. The people were now making progress in the arts 
lljof peace. The need and the desire of moral and intellectual improve- 
luent was felt, not by a few, but bj' all. Middleburv College and the 
I J'i' ersity of \ ermont, respectiveh" incorporated in 1800 and 1791, had 
Id 1812 together graduated 166 students. The legislature had incorpo- 
lated previous to this year 23 secondary schools and 3 medical socie- 
les, while 15 newspapers were being published in the State. The 
iff to acaffemies from religious bodies was threefold in character — 
ctual subscription of funds for their support; direction, through the 
^iMces of clergymen upon boards of trustees; instruction, through 
^^g’l.nien devoting time and energy to that pursuit. Religious 
oueties and individuals identified therewith not alone created and 
' 'uintained schools of their own, as did the ^Methodists at Poultne}*, the 
rit *'*ptists at Ludlow, the Episcopalians subsequently at Burlington, but 
lej, cordially extended to the public grammar schools an assistance 



l9l 





56 



HISTOEY OP EDUCATION IN VEKMONT. 



■J'l 



the worth of which can not be overestimated. Prominent in all 
of academical incorporators stand the clergy. By almost con^. 
consent the resident clergymen were made trustees of county .-ran i‘‘ 
schools. In :\Iontpelier 26 out of 81 trustees who have thus far .se^” 
the Washington County Grammar School have been clergymen, 
moral support, the direction of intellectual activity, the” niaintem 
of proper standards of education thus derived have been great fac 
in giving force to these early schools. “ j 

But the sentiment of Vermonters in relation to schools, acadenS 
and colleges should be recognized in this connection. How did ( 
view this cpiestion ? What scheme of public education did they set 
The answer is not uncertain. Prior to 1780 there was a limit 



of kind and quality, to education. The rule of three was the’ us 



sh 



m 



limit m mathematics; grammar was not then taught, and the same 
still to an extent true ; and there was but little reading. Ira AUen si 
up the situation in his published history of 1798 as follows: “Thefi 
settlers,” meaning a date not earlier than 1765, “labored under j 
disadvantages in educating their children for want of proper seh„. 
yet, nevertheless, care was taken to instruct them to read and write 
the English language, and so much of arithmetic as to do any com: 
business and keep small accounts. There is scarcely a man in the S 
who can not do this, or a female who can not read or write. Thi 
difficulties have in a great measure subsided, except in the new 
tricts.” This testimony, however, tends to show that arithmetic 
thought to be more essential to a boy’s education than a girl’s, and 
Hollister in his history of Pawlet confirms this view. Eow,j 
Ira Allen’s statement be true, and it probably was, then it follows 
the district school was being rapidly developed, and that a proper L 
on which to organize academies and other schools of secondarv insti 
tion was being formed. The State library possesses the original Gw« 
Mountain Boys’ petitions, sent in 1767 to George HI. These pajrf 
are subscribed to in the handwriting of the petitioners. The first pf 
tition carries 180 names, but of these there is ground for holding tW 
68 could not write, for these latter names, all in the same hand, al * 
prweded by the statement, “The following is a list of the inhabitani 
of PowTiall, who are all on the spot.” 

Graham, who writes in detail more than Allen or Williams, c 0 | 
cedes to Bennington “a small academy and several day schools.” Trf 
academy was Clio Hall, the oldest and first chartered academy in th 
State. JManchester is reported “as having several dav schools 
educating children.” Dorset has “three schools to a population c 
1,100.” Eupert. population of 1,200, and Brattleboro “have school 
foi j outh. These aie, so far as I have found, the onlv references t 
schools made by Graham, who wrote toward the close of the cental^ 
The town court-houses and jails were good, but schools and churcbfl 
were as yet deficient. But the State government had from the fii|f 



SECONDARY EDUCATION. 



57 



taken nil aetive interest in the matter and a right view of its impor- 
tji, !(•(>. ' Tiie Wentworth grants, all before 1765 and aliout 138 in num- 
OJ ber. had set aside one site of about 340 acres for school pui-poses. 
» riie Vermont grants reserved a like right, but added a second for the 
' ise of eounty grammar schools. 

u In Octobei, 1782, the first general school law was passed, but the 
d jrammar school or county academy project was never carried out 
ander this law. As a part of a .system the district school, the county 
a icademy. and the State university had been sugge.sted in the first con- 
tl ditution. Again, in 1875, in the second constitution the idea is 
;i rejat'ated, but with this difl'erence: “One or more grammar .schools 
bi should lie incorporated and properly supported in each county in this 
IS 8tate." From the elementary conditions, thus imperfectly described, 
ne t may be surmised that Vermonters, at the commencement of the 
iin lineteenth century, were ^irepared to push a good deal of substantial 
fii 'haracter over rather poorh^ prepared roads into grammar schools, 
rre leademies, and seminaries, all of which were destined to be hampered 
(X] ty the want of means for their adequate support. The surprising 
te het is not that there were academies in those early years, but that 
nj hey were so numerous; not that many have perished, but that so 
iti anv have survived; not that their work in some cases was moderate 
y md deficient, but that, in most cases, it was so thorough and far-reach- 
ing in its infiuence. 

^ 4 liough \ ermont made no absolute requirement of its people by the 

j law of 1782, public opinion early recognized the directive power of 
i the State. It took, however, many years for the establishment of the 
doctrine that the grand lists should be the basis upon which to pro- 
11 vide for the support of schools, and that in general the people were 
impre.ssed with a sense of personal obligation to look after and provide 
^ tor, in their own way, the education of their children. Secondary 
^ I'ducation, therefore, became very generally, though not always, a mat- 
p tei of private concern. The .statesmen of those times fully appreciated 
tM ^^i®i'Pi‘ipi'ocal dependence of the secondary school upon the district .school 
gp md the college. To them credit must be given for thus outlining a 
inl ^3ioad, liberal, and correct scheme of public education. But this design 
'' hut partially carried out, because of local conditions resulting from 
; 0 ® ‘^■onment, and the mistake of delegating public secondary educa- 
[■hii 3UU to the county, a unit lacking political vitality. The academy or 
tbi * 2 condar 3 ' school, according^, mainte owed its creation, maintenance, 
foi progress to the labor, the patience, the self-sacrifice, and the indomi- 
0 ®nerg\- of the leading public men and philanthropists in the dif- 
joli communities. A few such n en, iuqjx’essed with a sense of 

5 tc ' ''Puusibilitj- for the education of the children in their neighborhood, 
' ould gather together in a meeting, dulj^ warned, and after much dis- 
jjg iission would pass a resolution to the eflect that thev were of opinion 
•J# lat an academy should be located in their town. This resolution was 



11 



58 



HISTORY OF EDUCATIOI^ 1ST VERMONT. 



of foiirse followed by a second, looking toward the apiiointmentj 
committee on solicitation of subscriptions and the selection of 
committee. This committee would accept, as suitable to the e 
view, pledges of money, of material, or of labor. A second meeti 
warned for the purpose of receiving this report, would direct! 
appointment of a further committee on building, and so. through 
mittees, by personal solicitations, by direct sacrifice of themsefve, 
their means and their abilities, aided by an anxious and willing pe 
theie would finally ari.se a building humble in proportions, pc 
equipijed, but destined to do its allotted work in education. The 
cess of creation was not dissimilar in the case of denominational scho 
The next .step, as a rule, was the appointment of a preceptor and 
opening of the school. As soon as practicable an act of incorpora 
was secured and a corporation organized under its provisions. Tf'' 
lists of academical trustees are hard to obtain and would, in anyeva 
prove but dry reading; yet among them there would be found the nam ' 
of all those who from the earliest days of Veraiont to the present til ^ 
have attained to an honorable position in the walks of private and pi " 
lie life. The activity and interest of the trustees kejit alive iiianyi 
academy which would otherwise have soon perished from the lackj 
funds, from the constant changes in teachers, and from local caust ' 
At the same time it was true that these academies, though thus orgi 
ized and though suiiported almost wholly by tuition fees, were, with tl ‘ 
exceptions of purely church schools, practically public insdtution '' 
It happened, as in the case of the Randolph and ilontpelier acadcin^* 
that the public lands, granted to county schools by the State, prove 
too attractive to remain unappropriated. On application, then 
fore, the legislature revoked their charters as academies and recltf 
tered them as county grammar schools. In the case of the Chittendei 
County Grammar School, incorporated November 3, 1801, we haV 
an intere-sting illmstration of another matter. A building wasj fin 
erected by private enterprise, and thereafter an act of Incorpora 
tion was secured. The trustees, not yet having opened their build 
ing as a school, applied to the town of Waterbury, in which the 
school stood, for support. The refusal of the people to aid tin 
project caused its immediate abandonment, and the building wai 
moved across the street and converted into a hotel. Montpeliei 
twelve years later secured the county school for this section, fiw 
known as the Jeflerson County Grammar School, but afterwards an< 
■still known as the Washington County Gx’ammar School. As mark 
ing a high objective in public education, the countv grammar schoo 
of Vermont will always be an interesting study; but, even apart froD 
this, they deserve notice for having done a vast amount of good worl 
with little means, and because, in most cases, they were started as pi'l 
vate academies and, with no exception so far as known, does anv nov 
exist save as a noimal school or as the high school of a village grade' 



111 



SECONDARY EDUCATION. 



59 



system. The Oraiigo County Granmiar Si-hool began as the Eandolph 
icadeniy as far back as ISOO, was made a grammar sehool in 1805, 
md in 18ti<‘> ])eeame a normal school by the action of its trustees. The 
(.o-called Gambrel-roof schoolhouse was estal)lished by the people of 
’astleton in 1786. In 1787 it was incorporated as the Rutland County 
irammar School and so continued until its conversion into a normal 
chool in 1867. This is the oldest chartered institution existing in the 
hate. So, too, the Johnson Normal School, established February 26, 
867. had in 1836 been incorporated as the Lamoille County Grammar 
hliool. but previous to that it had served the town of Johnson as an 
cademy. On the other hand, it is to be ohseiwed that not only did 
ho early academies, in some cases, lay the foundation for the normal 
ichool .system of Vermont, but .superintendents of .education have at 
all times stood ready to acknowledge their service as the chief and 
dinost only supply of teachers for the district schools. In this respect 
he ■■ reciprocal dependence" has mainly worked to the advantage of 
he common schools. But more than this is due to these little acade- 
nies. They became in the evolution of the present State .system the 
iieans of establishing with the least friction and with evidently favor- 
tb'e conseciuences a reasonably good graded .system of schools in many 
owns. An act looking toward this end was not passed until 1811. and 
t was not until ISU that complete provision for the establishment of 
I graded .st’stcm, including primary, intermediate, grammar school, 
uid high school work, was made. As the effect of these acts the 
■uperintendent of education. Edward Conant, was enaltled to report 
n 18 <6 that the folloM’ing academies and county grammar schools had 
iccome associated with the graded sj'stems of their respective towns: 
llarton Academy, Bradford Academy, Phillips Academy at Danville, 
lardwick Academy, Lamoille Central Academj’ at Hyde Park. Black 
river Academy at Ludlow, Addison County Grammar School at IMid- 
leburv, V ashington County Grammar School at ^lontpelier, The 
eople s Academy at Morrisville, Newport Academy. Northtield 
Icadf'iny. Franklin Countj' Grammar School at St. Albans, St. Johns- 
•ury Academy, and Swantdn Academy. Like changes have been 
^ >ro light to pass at Burlington, Williston, Bellows Falls, Brandon, 
iji A oodstock. and elsewhere. 

I pon the basis of the limited and, it is feared, uncertain data at 
pj land, the conclusion seems warranted that in proitortion as the num- 
lei ot persons on whom financial re.sponsibility rested decreased (or 
.ithor in the degree of passage from a public to a strictly private 
^ 'iigin of ways and mean.s), in that degree the academies so founded 
od maintained pro.spered and grew. Pretty much all schools created 
’3 ‘ffipeals to public support have been absorbed into the State system 
1 u\ 0 wholly disappeared. Schools of a denominational character, 
! ^ ermont Methodist Seminary, the Tiw Conference Seminary, 

•e Episcopal Institute, the Vermont Academy, the Lyndon Institute, 



ID< 

r] 

»r 

iri 

oil 



60 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 



etc., have, though at times hard pressed for funds, performed 
important work, and are to-day active, prosperous, and well attenc *' 
But the academy which, of all others, has constantly stood forth as 
most progressive, most prosperous, liest attended, and for coll 
preparatory woi'k. the most successful institution in the State, is 
St. Johnsi)ury Academy. There are many reasons, jierhaps, why 
is so — a favoring location, a magnificent plant, very complete eqi 
ments, eminent instructors, and a careful selection of pupils; but 
this in turn was born of that which in other academies was wantii 
well-directed, ample, unrestricted private munificence. Februar 
1842, Jos. P. Fairbanks, esq., of St. Johnsbury, wrote to Prof. Jai 
K. Colby, the first preceptor of the academj’: 

The design of this institution has l^en formed by my brothers and myself, an ,j 
carried out will be done principally at our expense. 

This fac't, coupled with the peculiarly brilliant history of this act 
emy and the mention of Professor Colby’s name, recalls the objectq 
made at odd times to the multiplicity of academies and their work. 

At a jueeting of the State Teachers’ Association in 1858 there 
introduced and referred to the executive committee of the associat 
the following resolution: 



Mesoh'ed, That our academies would more effectually serve the cause of educa 'll 



by insisting that all persons admitted as scholars shall have ma<le definite ao 
tions, and by ascertaining the fact by actual examinations. 



1>1 



Prof. J . K. Colby reported on the resolution at the meeting of ll 
His paper, printed in full on jtage 119 of the State superintendenl 
report for 1860, mat' be categorically summarized as follows: 

(1) The State of \ ermont, it is believed, has, in proportion to 
wealth and population, more and better patronized academies than 
other State with a common school .system. 

(2) Instead of the single grammar school originally contempla' 

every village of size has its incorporated academy or its intermitti 
select school. ' ' 

(3) These academies, as a rule, admit pupils at all ages and weak0 ^ 

the efiicienc}' of their work by trying to cover the whole range « 
undercollegiate instruction. n 

(4) It is a fact that the academies are not in harmony with otli* t 
institutions, either above or below them; that they ill adjust themselvf 
to the State sj^stem, and that they tend to render the common schoo l( 
in their neighborhood less A'aluable to the people. 

(5) The attendance upon these academies is irregular and uncertai) 1 

rising in spring and fall and dropping again in winter, when latjl 
numbers of pupils return to the district school. I' 

(6) Not only do the academies divert force and power from the coD 
mon schools, but their own capacity for doing good work in the fu 
damental branches is by no means large. In 1860 four-fifths of the 
academies relied wholly upon tuition for their support. 



I'l 



SECOKDABY EDUCATION. 



61 



1« 
it 

V 



1 “ 



(7) The character, also, of their teaching force is lamentabh' iinpov- 
irished In' the fact that their government is for the greater part 
inder the guidance of collegiates who aim at one of the learned pro- 
essions, and whose attention to their labors as schoolmen therefore 
u ks in objective and zeal. 

Horace Eaton, Vermont’s first state superintendent of schools, wrote 
I his report for 1849, page 19: 

We <lo not liere mean to imply that we would have our academies and high 
hools almlished, hut we would drive them away from the comparatively humble 
rounds which our common schools ought to occupy for the benefit of all, and have 
lem plant foundations on a loftier eminence whence they mav shed a brighter and 
lU r oa er light over the plains below. 

Mr. Eaton’s successor, Snpt. Chas. G. Burnham, on page 29 of the 
•hool report of 18.51, gave utterance to similar views: 

The academy can never fulfill its design until the common school is improved. It 
u never take the place of the common school, and those parents who take their 
tk lildren from the district school and send them to the academy generally misjudge, 
k. lie teachers of the academies have too many classes in the advance studies to attend 
elementary teaching. 

November 18, 1856, an act creating a State board of education was 
)proved. The first secretary of that board. Mr. J. S. Adams, of 
urlington, one of the most successful educators the State ever had, 
man who for eleven years labored to give the best guidance to public 
lucation and who wrote eleven of the thirtv-one existing State reports 
^.on education, also took up the cudgel in support of the common 
elf -hools. On page 120, rei^ort of 1863, Mr. Adams expresses this 
l»inion: 

The public schools when fully improved would drive many of the private schools 
“T indeed, all of an inferior character from existence. 

^(1 It will be interesting briefly to trace the references to secondary 
,tei hools in the reports of Secretary Adams. ^ In 1857, page 37, we find 
m lamenting ‘"the constant change of teachers, very many of whom 
ike 'Uie from the academies;” and on page 71 he takes pleasure in report- 
establishment of “Union high schools at St. Johnsbury, Rut- 
'' j Biulington, St. Albans, Williston, and Montpelier,” under the 
at \ ancing the interest of the union and graded system. In the 
lv< 1^^*^ of I860, page vi, he writes: “Districts could be named where 
00 , et schools have been discontinued, and the children of the rich and 
• ^^ood together the same school under teachers fully competent 
all oat and train them all.” The report of 1860, page 119, gives this 
ii] dement: 

■oD lius' statistical summary it appears that there were 69 academies in operation 
■ V caiT ixtrtion t>f the last year. It is difficult to Itelieve that any neces- 

fear th^^**^^ such a multitude of these higher institutions, and there is rea.«on 
■so many academies do find even a precarious .support it must be 
a the expense of the institutions both above and below them. 



thi 



62 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION IH VERMONT. 



r<- 



'W •>' 



As already stated, Secretary Adams expressed the hope thi 
improvement of the public schools would result in the extinctid 
many of the private schools and the academies. Secretary Aching 
not an enemy of the academy, as such, but stronglv opposed the 
tinuance of a system of schools under which effective supervision o W 
not be applied, which rendered the common schools inferior, 
tended to keep down the ratio of attendance, and which, over 
served to dissipate and misapply both private and public funds, ifi 
also the vast energies of large bodies of pupils and teacher 
objection to the academy was that “it had never been free." 
equal cogency and force the argument was applied to the two colH(''i 
and one military school existing in the State, and on page 135, n 
of 1863, we find him saving: “And during all this time more 
monters have graduated from Dartmouth, Cambridge, Amheret, 
liams, Ti ale, and Union than from both these institutions togethe 
referring to the Vermont University and IMiddlebury College, 
these quotations, suggesting the academy as the supply of teachers 
the common schools, crediting the academy as the source of instruct 
for the county, town, and State institutes, admitting large IrodiB 
graduates from these academies as both entering and graduating fr 
our best colleges, and practically admitting that the graded system 
public schools, if at all prosperous, must get its start and maintenai 
in what these academies are and were — all these things may cer 
be employed to mark the value of the early academies in the edii 
tional work of the State. 

Passing over the reports of 1868-69, rendered by Secretary A. E. ft 
kin, and in which no mention is made of an acadenu', barring af 
statistical summaries,we come to the report of 1870, prepared by SeJ 
tary J. H. French, up to date the fullest report in the series. On pi 



lU] 

ei 



158 Mr. French calls attention to the fact that statistics had not be 



id 

d 



returned by academic institutions, although the law required. s» 
returns from trustees on or before the 1st day of April in each jl 
It also appears that the secretary was unable to find a list of the ediK 
tional institutions in the State in the archives of his oflice, or 
materials from which to prepare one. “In the month of Septemb#th 
(18T0), he writes, “I issued a circular to town superintendents ask# '] 
for the names of incorporated academies, principals, number of pup i-l 
and teachers empfioyed last year ” (1869-70). One hundred and eigh* 
five superintendents replied, and the opinion was expressed that, 
the 56 towns not replying were small and located in sparsely settl 
sections of the State, every town having an academy had been 
from. The number of academies and their distribution by counties ^ 
as follows: Addison Counti', 3; Bennington County, 5; Caledc ( 
County, 6; Chittenden County, 9; Essex County, 1; Franklin Coui 
7; Grand Isle County, 2; Lamville County 3; Orange County,' 
Orleans County, 12; Eutland County, 1; Washington County 
"W indham County, 7; Windsor County, 5; total, 77; reportind 



u: 

oi 

a 



SECONDARY EDUCATION. 



63 



ktD'iidiUlco of 3. -128 pupils. But 42 academies of this number made no 
h-turns. The e.stimated attendance upon all is placed at 6,000. 

Since 1870 the superintendents of education have made luennial 
rciKirts. In his report for 1872, page 266, Mr. French gives a list of 
)6 academies, but no other important notice of the subject is taken, 
[n his report for 1874 Mr. French says on page 285: 

Of the 87 schools of these classes in operation in the State the past year, rei)orts 
,ere received from hut 26. 

It seems that the board of education had no official connection with 
[hose institutions and could not compel them to make returns. Sub- 
idned is given an epitomized statement of all interesting facts that 
car upon this subject. The returns are evidenth^ uncertain and 
Incomplete; but, so far as they go, it would seem that a cpiarter of a 
jentury ago the academic attendance was about 50 per cent of the gen- 
al enrollment, the nuhiber of pupils pursuing common -school and 
|igher English branches about evenh' divided, and the number of 
fupils actually in school with a view to entering college was about 8 
ic'r cent of the total. This seems to demonstrate reasonably well the 
iublic rather than the pidvate character of their work. 

Stdtiiiticx of tiventy-stix academic mstitHtimw for year ■ending Jfarrh SI, 1874. 



Name of institution. 



‘UtK Springs Aoailemv 
‘ .Awidemv . 



if( 





•min Academy, New Haven. . . . 

IfnwiT' Ludlow. ... 

^ 

’X Cla.ssirnl f 



1870 

lSt)9 



1820 






Mard Seminan- 



. Bibik-aY iiVstitVitk 

M ■ 



^ohooi: 





1829 

1839 

1869 
1863 
1848 

1852 
1867 

1870 
1870 
1867 

1853 



1787 

1867 



Total 



1862 

1871 



Number of toacherH. 


I’upils enrolled dur- 
ing your. 

1 


I 

' Avemge attendance 
during year. 


In common Engluni 
branches. 


"r. 

5”” 


Preparing for col- 
lege. 


2 


54 


29 


35 


19 




6 


196 


85 


30 


150 


50 


4 


47 


25 


24 


16 


1 


o 


88 


50 


22 


66 


12 


6 


215 


125 


50 


187 


12 


a 

4 


180 


90 


130 


50 


8 


8 


160 


98 


24 


136 


26 


3 


126 




1 






3 


88 




80 






12 


173 


80 


58 


.50 


13 


7 


84 


41 


39 


43 


10 


3 


48 


25 


45 


3 




4 


143 


70 


62 


/ i 


14 


4 


268 


165 


168 


50 




3 


135 


62 




65 


8 


5 


111 


52 


49 


40 


8 


2 


80 


40 


34 


10 


1 


4 


282 


110 


43 


159 




10 


117 


75 


96 


28 


9 


3 


119 


75 


31 


45 


14 


2 


33 


23 




33 


4 


11 


262 


131 


20 


‘>40 


18 


3 


112 


73 


60 


52 


4 


7 


300 


163 


250 


28 


4 


3 


157 


90 


100 


25 


3 


129 


3,578 


1,777 


1,506 j 


1,572 


234 



I^UIICS n ] » vaav..:,,^ wv/ CVV tLVAV lllACO *tU HIIU 0± 

tfession*'* them reported their intention to make teaching a 

a nornr 1 s of these teachers had attended a college, and 

‘I Sc ool. It is also to lie noticed that with few exceptions 




64 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 



the principals of these institutions had had charge thereof for p^f 
of less than two years. The exceptions were the following proini 
educators: J. S. Spaulding, LL. D., had at this time seen twenty 
years of service as principal of the Barre Academy; Judah Dana,.i 
seven and one-half years as principal of the Eutland High S(4 
Capt. A. E. Leavenworth, six years as principal of the Beemanil 
emy; Kev. K. G. Williams, live years principal of the Castletonii 
inary. Of the 3,578 pipiils enrolled 1,832 were males, 1,746 fent 
and 413 of these pupils were reported to be common-.school te^ 
in attendance upon the academies. The subjects of study puis 
during the preceding j-ear are given on page 291 of the Edutati 
Rejiort for 1874. As a fair illustration the list of the Peoiile’s Acad 
at Morrisville may be taken: “Conmion English, algebra, geoif 
physiology, philosophic, physical geography, civil government, i 
ing, rhetoric, Latin, Greek, French, and music.” 

German was taught at the Black River Academy, Rutland I 
School, and St. Johnsbury. At the Burr and Burton Seminaiyp 
ing and telegraphy were included in the course of studies, and al 
Rutland County Grammar School Butler’s Analogic and Paley’s Xal 
Theology. In all the better class of schools the lists included,^ 
surveying, astronomy, history, botany, English literature, and iw 
and moral science. 



d. 



n 

le 



Stritigf ifs of tiuenty-si.c academic institutions for the year ending March 31, Wt- I’ 



Name of institution. 



Alburgr Springs Acatlemy 

Barre Academy 

Barton Academy, etc 

Beeman Academy, New Haven 

Black River Academy, Ludlow 

Bradford Academy, etc 

Brattleboro Academy 

Burr and Burton Seminarj' 

Castleton Seminary 

Derby Academy 

Essex Classical Institute 

Goddard Seminary 

Green Mountain Perkins Academy.. 

Londonderry Academy ’. . . 

LjTidon Literary and* Biblical In- 
stitute 

North Bennington Graded School . . 

Northfield Graded School 

Norwich Classical and English 

School 

Oak Grove Seminary 



Peoples Academy, etc 

Rutland High School 

St. Albans Academy 

St. Johnsbury Academy 

Springfield High School . . . 

Swan ton Academy, etc 

Waterbury Graded School . 



33 



Total. 



Tuition per year. 



m.oo 

25.00 
9.00 

24.00 

17.00 

18.00 



18.00 

10.00 

16.50 

18.00 

20.00 

16.50 



21.00 

9.00 

18.00 



18.00 

20.00 



15.00 



18.00 

20.00 

24.00 

15.00 

15.00 

12.00 



P 

- 



$ 28.00 

10.50 

27.00 
20.40 

21.00 



24.00 

16.00 
19.50 
21.00 
26.00 
19.50 



22.50 

13.50 
21.00 



21.00 
28.00 
/ 1.50 
X each. 
21.00 



p o 

pB 

Iz; = 



$ 30.00 t 
20.40 I 
24.00 I 



6 

150 

1,106 



20.00 

22.50 

24.00 

28.00 
21.00 



24.00 

18.00 
24.00 



1,200 

300 

700 



$ 295.00 

1 , 800.00 

1 . 420.00 
1 , 785.20 

1.200.00 
1,112.00 
8,000.00 



150.00 



525 

350 

175 



27.00 : 

28.00 I 



•Extra.' 
24.00 ! 



1,-500 

50 

500 



18.00 I 



7,507 



1 , 370.00 



2 . 500.00 

1 . 870.00 

3, moo 



1 , 400.00 



732.73 



5 , 957 . 7 d 
330.00 
7 , 000.00 
35.00 
2 250.00 
1 , 700.00 



44 , 207.00 



rtn 



-1 

Vf 



til 



I): 



T 



rti 



■u 



V 



SKCONDAKY EDUCATION. 



65 






Of tlic.se twenty -six institutions, nine made no report in the matter of 
iippanitus for illustrating- the sciences, eight reported apparatus as being 






fair.” "very poor.” or "barely tolerable.” The apparatus of nine 
was .Slid to be "good.” as follows: Barre, Beeman, Black River, Burr 
Old Burton. Essex. Goddard. Londonderry, Rutland, St. Johnsbuiy. 
I'he following academies reported cabinets of specimens: Barre, geol- 
>gy. 1 . 000 : Beeman, geology and zoology, 300: Black River, geology 
nd mineralogy, 125; Bradford, geology, 200: Burr and Burton, geol- 
igy and zoology, 1 , 000 ; Northfield, uncla.ssified, 500; Rutland County 
Grammar School, geology, 2,000; St. Johnsbury, mineralogy, 300; 
'pringlield. unclassitied, 1,000. Other statistical matters of interest 
i-ere reported, but all are of only relative value in the absence of com- 
ileteness and because of the evident estimated character of the 
eturns. The total receipts, S44,20T, were derived, from tuition fees 
15.01)0. from all other sources $28,247. The annual income from 
tate funds was small: Barton, $80; Bradford, $90; Burr and Bur- 
n. S72; North Bennington, $332; Northfield, $ 100 . It is clear that 
le report in this matter is very imperfect. The annual income from 
iTiianent funds was as follows: Beeman, $685.20; Bradford. $212- 
•irr and Burton, $1,500; Es.sex, $600; Perkins Academy, $700; Lyn- 



•n. $lo 0 ; Rutland County Grammar School. $300; St. Albans 
|•adelny. $250: total, $4,397.20. The libraries of these academies, so 
a. i*‘Porte . were given a value of $4,810; the apparatus, $5,050; 

other property, exclusive of grounds and 
uldings. $13,600; total, $25,060. 

^ere reported to be in debt in 1874: Barre 
• m- r' Seminary, $1,250; Derby Academy, 

nniimXnVr • Lyndon Institute, $ 1 , 000 ; North 

,00u-'’total ^$^ 4 ^ 0 - 0 ^^°°^’ Rutland County Grammar School, 

poi ts of 187(h 1878, and 1880, made by Superintendent Edward 
al sumiii'n-; ^ normal schools,” continue the statis- 

S * atteinut ‘ make no effort to renew 

‘ incornni-n\ Predecessor in the matter of academic histories. To 
e <4 .school ■ of the State, iia.st and present, and to the 

'he . ^r-ibute is paid on page 15, report of 1876: 

^ le lause ot education owes much to both classes of schools. 

in the academies other than in the statistical tables 

i 'Oft of Siino, ^®Ports of Superintendent Justus Dartt or in the 
I page 8 Palmer for 1890. Mr. Dartt. how- 

^ had been ° 1882, directs attention to the fact that 70 acad- 
^ h^'Hod acade^*^-^°^ ^ existing in the State in 1857; that since 

■'idered hv hi given place to graded schools, a condition 






3177 



a general improvement. 



66 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 

It is not at all likely that complete and reasonably coiTed 
nients of the attendance upon the State academies, or even the a 
of academies existing during any given year in the State, will n 
sought for or ascertained. When public officials, by the direct 
statutory provisions, have sought to obtain this information and 
it can scarcely be expected that private enterprise will succeed 
it is perhaps worth while to bring together in condensed font 
information upon these subjects as the existing reports furnish, 
is it likely that these figures will overstate the actual facts | 
were known. Some of the larger and more fruitful schools c»i 
ph' full and correct records, but these are more properly refa 
special histories than to a general summary. 

The estimated attendance upon acadehiies and select schools 
report of 1817 is placed at 3,000; in that of 1818 at 2,910— that is 
cent of the estimated school population. This was probably an 
cient conclusion, as in 1857 the same item is reported as 5,199 i i 
select schools. In the report for 1860 mention is made of 191 1 
schools, wdth an attendance of 7,711 pupils. For the years 18ft ^ 
the number of academies reported as existing in the State j 
respectively, 69, 71, 81, 61, 66, 66, 60, 58, 58, 36, and 59. The| t 
ance during these eleven years upon select schools (and no disS 
is here clearly drawn between academies and select schools) is j : 
7,711, 7,785, 7,121, 7,100(2), 7,881, 7,291, 6,001, 9,261, 8,755, f 
and 6,610. No analysis or division of these figures can be safd; ( 
although it may be said that of 77 academies reported by town! : 
intendents in 1870, 12 were said to have an enrollment of 3,128[ 
The following items are from the State reports, and are If 
together for what they are worth, being the total statistical id 
tion for those years. It was observed by Mr. Adams that it 
when Vermont reported 66 academies, and this number was doi 
too small, Mas.sachusetts reported only 59 academies. 

In 1872 and 1891 the number of academies was reported as’ 
87, respectiveh'. From this time on the superintendents « 
their tabulations in the main to incorporated academies only- ^ 
school systems were classified by themselves. The following’! 
summary may be of value; 



Year of report. 


Number of 
academies. 


Number of 
teachers. 


Number of 
different 
scholars 
during the 
year. 


Greatest 
number of 
scholars 
in one 
term. 


Number 
studying 
Greek 
or Latin, 
or both. 


Usiti\ 

1 3 o> fc- 


IS84 


21 


123 


2,985 






221 


1S86 


25 


111 






189 


1888 


27 


131 


3' 224 


2,228 


798 


289 j 


1890 


27 


119 


2,920 


2,257 


669 


250 ! 



The following table is transferred from the excellent school 
of State Superintendent Edwin F. Palmer for 1890: 



SECONDARY EDUCATION. 



67 



1 

1 

! i 

■•r 

= 

- 

y. 




!, illftft II J| 

p iiiii 


.M[» III s.iimitoA JO j.>qnmvv 


mmi^m 


ii ipii i i 


P§ ii 

1-^ • OJ 


ilii 


i 


Aqi ui 

{«H»q.)s JO sjfao.u jo j^quiux; 




ss :2a?5as3ga§sa 


:S?sa 




-.lAqiiu <>i .Suio;^ j.xiniuvc 


--I H I' i • to CO 


• OJ • -T* OJ OJ to i 


-o 


■ 




-t* 


•J«^A 

>tqi s.»jmipBjS JO joquiiix: 


'oj • 


i” i i 




is 


to 


?r 


■inuujof) lo 

q.m.»4j^ ^uiApnjs' jiKimnx 


'-t l" O !'• 1 OJ • • 


:SS2g : : 


:=^2 :S 


• « « 04 


i 


■iiiiirj ;iinApiij'4 joqiunx 




32 :gi3*2 = ”g-rgxp 


igsn 


I 


•?{Aojf> J^uiApnjs joqmnx 


T-t • O * to 1-H CO -H 


• tc • o oj oi o ' L 


= :3"gj 


: 


c, 




•UUAJ OUO Ul SJK 

■[oq.w JO wqtanu jsajBajg 


-23i622gS^ 


?s :SgggS3=2s=g 


i|SS 


i i 

of 


•jboa’ Aqi Suijnp sjb 
- loqDs jaojA^ip JO joqiunx 


^i^ggsgs 






b 


!<JAq,)B.^ j opuuAj joaoqninx 


'-l^4CCOC'li-(?^i-( 


o • 1 ' 0 1.0 o) -r CO I c 


1 OI ^ OJ lO 


■ uooiTr- 


^ i 


sjaq.jBAj optui JO j->qianx 


•-if-'M.— ^,-1— 1^, 


-< Tj« • -?* CO — tr; — ( T— ^ 


- X 


be • 


N 


S 


t 


.. New Jlavon 

. . Jiakorwlield 

. ManehcHter 

. Ludlow 

. Bradford 

. Chelsea 

. (’mftsbury 

• Derby 


Biiriington 

West Bratllcboro 

Barre 

Waterbury Center 

Hardwick 

Lyndon Center 

Townshend 

Meliidoos Falls 


llovalton 

Kt. Johnsbury 

Thetford 

Poultnev 

!«ill vfi\T>u ^^^T7or> 


Montpelier 

South Woodstock 




i! 




68 



HISTORY OF EDUCATIO]!! IH VERMONT. 



li 

I 



[H 

h 



This very likely is an almost perfect list of all secondarj' st 
other than such as have been merged into graded s^'stems. W 
State register for 1890 gives by actual count an academy. seniS 
institute, or high school to 68 towns, and the number of "li| 
institutions” so credited is 74. Superintendent Palmer repoitss 
tics for 46 graded schools, which number, added to the 27 acada >' 
produces 73, the number of schools in which, on a somewhat t 
scale and better system, the work of the old Vermont acadeni 
to-day being done. This evolution of the graded system upoi 
foundations of the small academies is a matter for congratuh 
The 46 “graded schools” during 1890 employed 53 male am 
female teachers. In them. 15,644 scholars, “or about one-quan 
all in the State,” were educated. The high schools contained 
pupils, 122 studying Greek, 737 Latin, 209 French or German, 
were 216 graduates, of whom 60 were reported as “going to coll 
Inasmuch as the academies are generally considered to be doing 
work fairly well, it seems not unfair to draw the conclusion, 
these figures are compared with the corresponding items fffl 
academies, that the efforts of educators to make the academy oi 
years the means to a more useful end have been successful am 
the resultant arrangement produces greater retuims for the welfs 
all the people. 

With few exceptions the academies of Vermont have been depei 
upon tuition fees for support. The desirability of having an en 
ment for eveiy school was recognized, and in some instances, no< 
in the case of church schools and academies which hand dow 
name of some prominent donor, efi'orts have been made with limite 
cess to create one. The effect of land grants to county grammar st 
upon education in certain towns has been very marked, not 
standing the fact that these grants were, as the event denionstr 
inconsequential and entirely insufficient. Not only was it truf 
the townships granted by the government of New Hampshire 
set aside lands for this object, but the lands so sequestered underl 
ship grants by Vermont were not infrequently located in sectio 
the State least calculated to make them valuable, and hence the 
derived therefrom has been insignificant though useful. Sup 
tendent Dartt, in his report for 1888, throws some light upon 
subject. 

The reported number of acres in the State is 23,853, valu<|!i 
8173,557, from which the rents amount to about 82,800. 

The following facts have been ascertained by counties: 

Addison County . — Lands located in Goshen, Granville, Hancock, and Start 
The income, about |90, paid to Middlebury Graded School. 

Bennington County . — No grammar school lands reported. 

Caledonia County.— Income from lands, about $439, paid to Peacham Ai'ad®“ 
Bsse.e County . — One thousand one hundred and forty-two acres in Brigld^’® 
cord. East Haven, and Victory. The rents of those in Brighton, $40, go to 5" 
Grammar School. 



:\ 

I 






ti 



SECONDABY EDUCATION. 



69 



Franklin Liin'I>' i“ BerMiire, Enosburg, ami Franklin, rental f;73, paid to 

Vaiiklin Countv Grammar School at St. Albans. LamU in Fletcher, iVIontgomery, 
nd Richford. rental $70, j>aid to graded school at Richford. 

Ornwl Me Omnti/.—yo land.- reported. 

I/imuille Oniiily. — Two thousand eight himdred and eighteen acres, rental $262, 
ivided lietween the Johnson Xorinal School and the iMorrisville Academy. 

Orange f'oHah/.— Income $o3o. This is divided between 7 schools, Randolph 
omial. West Randoliih Grade<l, Newbury, Thetford, Bradford, Corinth, and Chelsea 

Orleans f'lmnti/. — Income $.o47. Craftsbury Academy receives the rent from lands 
Craftsburi', Greensboro, and Irasburg. The land rents of Barton and Westmore 
e paid to Barton Academy and Graded School. Derby ^^cademy i-eceives the rents 
lands in Derby. All other lands in the county contribute their rentals to the 
hools where said land lies. 

Hnllnnd f'oiwtii. — Income $1.3.5. Paid to Castleton Normal School. 

Washinghm Cnanty . — Income $357 from 2,.545 acres. Divided to Peacham Academy, 
xldard Seminary, Northiteld Graded School, and Washington County Grammar 
hool, Mont})elier. 

mtnlmr Cm/n/y.— Income $163 from 1,083 acres, paid to Royalton Academy. 
Wmdham Co»»/y. —Djndonderry has 479 acres; income $79, applied for common 
tools. 



There were also f6rmed in the early years of the century a variety of 
iietie.s which tended to promote an interest in and afi'oi’d stimulus to 
Cornwall, Addison Countv, as early as 1804 
180o. there existed a -‘roung Gentlemen’s Society” having for its 
ject the .study of literature and the practice of debate. It was 
xiHecI after the Philomathesian Society of Middlebury College, and 
•p<h .supporters ex-Governor William Slade, 

vi tVi ^ ^ pM Hon. A.shley Sam^^on, Eev. Reuben Post, and 

inrv of .society collected together a w’ell-selected 

i.soci.itif unbred volumes. Subsequen dy the “Lane Library 
I .mp Diganizedin consequence of a legacy left by Gilbert 

ieties',., , *^^ied at the close of 1858. The.se two 

liable r. ** libraries and afforded the town thereby a 

uabie .source ot improvement. 

P’T-ts is effort in behalf of advancing educational 

IlL Thomas 

il .1 iner had been established 

hor of^ and then 

nienwav “’'Pui'tant works, described on page 961 of the 

tter.s was very interest and activity in school 

struck. 



H. Palmer, of Pittsford. 
m a book-printing bu.siness in 
re years. In 1828 he bought a 
lived until his death. He was the 



jjg ■ A® of “three town .superintendents” he 

'ug a foiindatr*' ^f inefficiency of these institutions in 

enunciation °'f the chief aim appearing to be the 

'• niechani(.all*^- vocables.” as Carlyle styles words, without 

>iinds.” "hole little better than a mere gabble 



ehcock, ill- p 1 ^ ^'ntiiinn of 1829, in company with Mr. Joseph 
nils for eanvassed the town with a view to procuring 



. , "■ ■^^>>11 >viLij a, view lo pi'( 

a IS ment of “town and county lyceums, 



;-mg 
which 



70 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION! IN VERMONT. 



were to combine the discussion of scientific subjects with that 
education. He obtained the necessary money with which to 
apparatus for the purpose of illustration, and was joined in the weelj 
lectures by W. Child, D. D., of Castleton. and Dr. A. G. Dana/ 
Bi’andon. Immediately thereafter like lyceums were instituteif 



1 



Butland, Castleton, and other places, proving the popularity and 



1 . 



of the idea. Mr. Palmer went further. He caused a meeting ti 
held at Montpelier for the purpose of inquiring into the best meani 
introducing these Ivceums into efiective operation through e 
county in the State. The meeting appointed committees to introi 
the subject into the several counties, that for Rutland being Solod 
Foote, then principal of Castleton Seminaiy, afterwards United S 
Senator, Amos Bliss, of Poultney, and Thomas H. Palmer. At Pi 
ford, soon after, this committee effected an organization with Jui 
"Williams, of Rutland, as president, and considerable interest in pul 
education was awakened. It is difficult to trace the effect of this 
of agitation in the several counties, although it is certain that ti 
question of school supplies did the trustees of academies give gn 
attention than to that 6f apparatus for their physical and che 
laboratories. At no time, perhaps, did the total value of such inal 
reach a large sum; but, in view of their means and the then opportun 
of purchasing such apparatus for school use, it is safe to affirm that 
early academies gave as good objective instruction in the science 
they do to-day. 

The preceding paragraphs suggest something of the personal 
sacrifice and exalted patriotism, of which abundant evidence ex 
that manifested itself in connection with the projection, incorporat 
maintenance, and operation of all these little academies. The com 
objects of criticism, they have yet been the means of preparing fi 
sands of the best sons of V ermont for business and for profcssl®* 
work and for entrance upon courses of study in all the best collff 
of New England. And who shall say that if schools be adj 
worthy of praise, provided their sons and daughters attain to 
tions of digniti', honor, and affluence and manifest in all 
actions the effects of wholesome intellectual and moral culture-4 
shall say that the history of the last four generations of Vernion* 
in civil as well as military life does not entitle their educational 
tutions, however organized and conducted, to words of distinction 
commendation? When the Rev. Lyman Coleman in 1832 
Burr Seminar}- at Manchester he found, as he declares, a coininn* 
of farmers, unable to appreciate the requisites for a seminar'- 
pretty nearly his own language he declared: — ^ 

I found no windows in place, no doors hung, no boarding house furnbh^|ple 
plastering finished, but I did find the opening of school advertised broaOi 
finished off a room as soon as possible for my own use. A meeting of the 
was called, but there was no quorum. Judge Skinner came, stayed a « ' 
dropped out. Then Judge Clark showed up, and by and by he, too, droifi 
And so it went on. The people had too much business-of their own to -i 



IC: 



0 









fst 

‘liii 



u]t 

11C( 




SECONDAEY EDUCATION. 



71 



lut Mr. Coleman was equal to the emergency. By threats of with- 
lawing he obtained action by the trustee.s. By solicitations and 
tures in other towns he raised means. Eeturning one night from 
1< se tours and in the winter season he plowed his way through the 
broken snow to his school and managed to make his horse comfort- 
le, but when he endeavored to strike a light with his tinder his 
forts failed, and he was obliged to retire to a damp bed, cold and 
ngry, while sleep was impossible. And jmt he said, “This was a 
al rather of the heart than the body.” This personal example of 
,-otion to education can be many times multiplied in connection with 
r early schools. Trustees, teachers, and pupils have been inde- 
ndent, courageous, energetic, and, in general, successful. 

'apt. Henry B. Atherton, in his historical address on Ludlow Acad- 
ny, describes what was, in undoubtedly a great many cases, the wa}"^ in 
ich the buildings were secured: 

he brick were made on the south side of the river near Smithville. One who 
more capacity to labor than money helped with his team to draw them as his 
tfrcription. Another furnished timber, another lime; one worked at the founda- 
, another upon the frame, and so on. Many hands made the burden light. 

Al e give herewith a list of as many of the academies, with dates of 
-oipoiation, as have been found. These are followed bv a few his- 
1 ical sketches. The full records of the AAashington County Grammar 
ool ate referred to not because of any special merit inherent in 
available to the writer and as fairH descriptive of 
e object has been salvage, not construction, 
e^ ollowing is the list of academies, so far as can be ascertained, 
’’ ' ® existent. Neither has it been learned with ref er- 

tbf ^ ^ that any other secondary institution takes their place, 
i® 

Iff 



111 
it 
•a 



4 

iti 



Name. 



1 
111 
111 



Hall 

nil Academy 

‘?tcr Academy 

A^c^emy^.''®‘*''“5’ - - ^ h’ ! i ] 
i”h^ Aca^em™'^’® a'lemy ! ! ! ] i 

'T Academy * . . , 



fc. J^*7.Schooi ^ 

* Hand 



Location. 



Bennington 
Norwich . . . 

Athens 

Cavendish . 
Newfane... 
Waterbury . 
Dorset...... 

do 

Addison 

Hubbard ton 

Chester 

Arlington .. 
Bennington 
Poultney... 

Concord 

St. Johnshury . 

Jericho ' 

Castleton... 
Middlebury 

Barre .*. 

Londonderrj 
NorAvich ... 

Poultney 

Londonderry 

Pawlet 

Rutland ... 

Franklin 

Alburg Springs 
Holland. 



Incorporated. 



Nov. 


3,1780 


Jan. 


17, 1785 


Nov. 


3,1791 


Oct. 


26, 1792 


Oct. 


30,1801 


Nov. 


3,1801 


Nov. 


9,1804 


Oct. 


26, 1807 


Nov. 


1. 1810 


Oct. 


26, 1812 


Oct. 


30, 1814 


Nov. 


29, 1817 


Oct. 


30, 1817 


Nov. 


11, 1819 




5, 1823 


Nov. 


27, 1824 


Oct. 


28, 1828 


Oct. 


29,1828 


Oct. 


22,1828 



1849 

1852 

1867 



72 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 



The following academies and grammar schools have, in the ev( 
of the btate system of education, become normal schools: 



Name. 



Location. j Ineorpomted. 



Remarks. 



1786 

Oct. 15,1787 
Aug. 23,1867 



Gambrel-Roof School Castleton 

Rutland County Grammar Sch(X)l do 

Castleton Normal School do 

Randolph Academy i Randolph 

Randolph Grammar School do 

Randolph Normal School do 

Lamoille Academy ■ Johnson Nov. 81832 

Lamoille County Grammar School J... 

Johnson Normal School 



Nov. 8, 1805 
Feb. 26,1867 



^A. E. Leavenworth. A. ] 
cipal since August, 18 

lEdward Conant, A. JI. 
pal, 1867-1874: also sii 



anson Nov. 8,1832 1 . v. ^ „ 

-do f Nov. 15,1836 \ 

.do Dec. — ’l866 j Pal since 1884. 



The following academies, grammar schools, etc., have, so 
ascertained, become identified with a graded system of schools in 
respective towns. It is possible that others, classified as defun 
given in the list of secondary schools, still existing as such, s 
also be classified with this group: 



Name. 



Addison County Grammar SchopL 

Franklin County Grammar School. 
Montpelier Academy 



Brattleboro Academv 

Vermont Academy . ! 

Brandon Academy 

West Rutland Academy 

Washington Countv ’ Grammar 
School. 

Wallingford Academy 

Wind.sor Female Academy 

Vergennes Academy *. 

Hinesburg Academv 

Columbian Academv 



Location. 



Middlebiiry 

St. Albans . . 
Montpelier . 



Incorporated. 



Brattleboro 

Rutland 

Brandon 

West Rutland . 
Montpelier 



Wallingford . 

Wind.‘?or 

Vergennes... 
Hinesburg... 
Windsor 



Enosburg Academy 

Hartford Academy 

Phillips Academv' 

Swan ton Falls Academy 

Barton Academy 

Literary and Scientific Institute. 

People’s Academy 

Newbury Seminary 

West Randolph Academy 

Northfield Institute T 

Mis.sisquoi Valley Academv 



Enosburg 

Hartford 

Danville 

Swanton 

Barton 

Bristol 

Morrisville 

Newbury 

West Randolph. 

Northfield 

North Troy 



Nov. 


8, 1797 


Nov. 


4,1799 


Nov. 


7,1800 


Nov. 


4,1801 


Oct. 


29, 1805 


Nov. 


6, 1806 


Nov. 


1,1810 


Nov. 


18, 1813 


Nov. 


9, 1814 


Nov. 


10, 1814 


Oct. 


24, 1822 


Nov. 


12, 1824 


Nov. 


15, 1826 


Oct. 


23, 1839 


Oct. 


29, 1839 


Oct. 


21,1840 



Remarks. 



1862 

1870 



Inception of Middlebu 
lege. 

Wa.«hington Countv Gi 
School, 1813. 



April 7, 1859. 
Rechartered Oct. 24, 18i 



A private school, probal 
the Female Academy. 



Also Danville Academ;^ 



The following i.s the list of academies or secondary schools now ' 
ating in the State of Vennont and disassociated from the puhlic-S( 
system as re.spects their control. They doubtless serve as high scho^ 
the common schoots of their respective towns, .save when other prov 
is made for that purpose, as in Rutland, Burlington, and Montpe 
The schools not starred are known to exist as academies or other 
\ate schools, while those marked with an a.sterisk represent in.'-titu 
credited to the several towns in the last edition of Walton’s Vernl 
Register. 



SECONDARY EDFCATION. 



73 



Xame. 



edoniu County Grammar 
•liool. , , 

: County Grammar School.. 

valton Academy 

airfield Academy 

ewton .\eademy 

etford Acaden ' 

■ dford ,\.caden 

and and Grav, minary 



rr and Burton Seminary 

fisbury Academy 

urlington High School 

rmont Methcxiist Seminary. 



y Conference Academy 

i'k River Academy '. 

eorgia A<*ademy 

rby Academy..’ 

John.sbiiry Academy 

en Mountain Perkins .\cad- 
my. 

elsea Academy 

rleans Liberal Institute 

ak Grove Seminarj' 

\*st field Grammar School 

‘dard Seminary 

don Institute.*. 

•man Academy 



ex Classical Institute 

■gham Academy 

rmont Episcopal Institute . . 
nwjMxl Classical Seminary. 
*en Mountain Seminarv... . 



rdtriek Academv 

Indoes Falls Academy ! 

rniont Academv 

tlan<i English' aii(i Classical* 
School. 

Ibany Academy 
harleston Academy. 

oventry .\caderay ' ' 

Academv 

moille Central Academv 

organ Academy 

ew Hampton Institute” 

.County Grammar School . 

nderhill Institute 

illistoii Academv 



Location. 


Incorporated. 


Remarks. 


Peacham 


Oct. 27,1795 


Also Peacham Academy. 


Guildhall 


Nov. 8, 1805 




Rovalton 


Xov. 11,1807 




Fairfield 


Nov. 4, 1808 




Shoreham 


Oct. 21,1811 




Thetford 


Oct. 29,1819 




Bradford 


Nov. 2, 1820 




To^vnshend 


Nov, 15. 1820 


Known first as Townshend 






.Acudemyand Leland Classical 
and English School, and.once 
Leland and Grav Seminarv. 


Manchester 


Oct. 28,1829 


First Burr Seminary. 


Craftsburv 


Oct. 29,1829 


Burlington 


Oct. 22,1829 


Part of the citv svstem. 


Montpelier 


Nov. — .iaS3 


The title •* and Female College ” 
was formerly added. 


Poultnev 


Oct. 25,1834 


Ludlow 


Oct. 23,1834 




Georgia 


Nov. 5,1838 




Derbv 


1839 




Pt. Johnsbnrv . . . 


1842 




South Wood- 


1848 




stock. 

Chelsea 


1851 




Glover 


1852 




Pownal 


1853 




Westfield 


1857 




Barre 


1863 




Lvndon Center.. 


1867 




New Haven 


1869 


Chartered in 1865 as the “New 






Haven Academv." 


Essex Center 


1869 




Burlington 


1858 




\\ est Brattleboro 


1860 




Waterbury Cen- 
ter. 


1871 










Saxtons River... 


1871 





Rutland . 



Albany 

Charleston 

Coventry 

Underhill Center : 

Hyde Park \ 

Morgan 

Fairfax 

Brownington 

Underhill Flats.. 
■\Villiston 



-Vccordino- to this classitieation, which presimiabiy is incorrect in 
rts. hut which in general is as complete and will he found as 
i^tiuctive as other tables heretofore prepared, we have, admitting 
iplications, 1U3 secondary schools accounted for, as follows: Twenty- 
iie extinct, 6 merged into 3 normal schools, 24 into graded systems 
ppoi ted })v the public, 18 supposed to be alive, 26 positively active 
< so leported by the State superintendent in 1890. 



EARLY ACA )EMES. 

^6^^ ^ liennmgton., Koveinber 3, 1780 ). — The act incorporating 

>st academy in *V'ermont is here cited in full as a matter of his- 
neal interest: 

ve ^ number of persons, for the laudable purpose of promoting literature. 
■ . ^ ^ voluntary association and subscription for erecting a seminary of 

ng in this State, to be kept for the time being at Bennington, but afterwards 



74 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION IX VERMONT. 



at such place as the legislature shall direct, to be called and known by the na®, 
Clio Hall, and have appointed a board of trust for the well managing its polie^P* 
government; 

And whereas said board of trust have petitioned this assembly that they aiK^Rc 
successors in office may hareafter be known and acknowledged in law, to all iiX[>i 
and purposes, as a body politic and corporate, by the name of trustees of CTio|^L' 
Therefore, . 

Be it enacted, and it is hereby enacted, by the representatives of the freemen of the SiJl ' 
Vermont, in general assembly met, and by the authority of the same. That ThomaS ' 
tenden, esq., governor; Timothy Dwight, M. A.; the Rev. David Avery; h ^ 
Tichenor, esq.; the Hon. ;Moses Robinson, esq.; the Hon. Jonas Fay, esq.; E it 
Styles, jr., esq.; Stephen Row Bradley, esq.; the Rev. Mr. Daniel Colling J l\- 
Benjamin Simonds; Bela Turner, esq., and Thomas Porter, esq., constituted a ta 
of trust for Clio Hall, be, and are hereby, for themselves and successors in offi 
created a body politic and corporate, to be known and acknowledged in law, to 
intents and purposes, and calletl the trustees of Clio Hall. 

The people of Bennington obtained the distinction of this fii r 
charter by rea.son of their early interest in educational matters. Thf i 
township was granted and surveyed in 1749, their first permaj 
settlement was effected in 1761, and by 1765 the town had more fi 
1,000 inhabitants, and a well-organized system of local govemnn 
for their protection. One of their first acts consisted in a petition n< 
the general court of New Hamp.shire for the raising of “ a tax on) ‘ 
lands in Bennington, resident and nonresident, to build a meetinghotf 
and schoolhouse, and mills, and for highways and bridges.” Bifte 
years later as representative a body of men as a young State ev , 
brought together applied to the people for an act incorporating 
academy. That this academi’ would draw for support on a limit' 
territory and a small population did not concern them. They labor 
under the conviction that education — the higher and the more extendi 
the better — was a necessity, and they acted upon the impulse, looking 
the future for results. John Graham wrote in 1798 that Benningb ^ 
possessed “a small academy and several day schools.” A conveniei '' 
building had been erected on the site subsequently controlled by ^ 
Center Meetinghouse. Here were taught, with frequent changes i. 
the teaching force, languages and the higher branches of Engli r 
education. The school is said to have been “sometimes prospei’OD ^ 
but does not appear to have been steadiH and continually kept.” , 
1803 the building was destroyed by fire, and. as an institution, entire 
disajipeared. ; 

Montpelier Academy, (^November 7, 1800 ). — No permanent setd 
located on Montpelier territory until May 3, 1787. Two years lal 
Col. Jacob Davis, having made roads, cleared lands, and erect 
houses, mills, and barns, is found teaching in a log schoolhouse)' 
the banks of the Onion near the Middlesex line. In 1791 the popui 
tion of Montpelier was only 113. In 1800 it had reached 890. ^ ' ' 
the basis of this population the town projected its first academy. '* 



SECONDARY EDUCATION. 



75 



Daviil Wing procured an act incorporating the trustees of the 
^"toelicr Academy. The men so incorporated proceeded, with the 
rif o-eneral suhscription.s. to erect a two-story building. 44 by 36 
et. near a place now known as the Academy Bridge, in the village 
f Montpelier. It is impossible, to state anything very definite about 
li.s small academy. Its work was probably confined to a limited area, 
in November 18, 1813, the legislature passed an act incorporating the 
rashington County Grammar School, and this new organization took 
le place of the early academy. The change was doubtless made with 
vii'w to securing the rents from public lands and the prestige arising 
om being a county institution. The history of this institution is 
crewith submitted in somewhat full form, because it will illustrate 
L'rv fairly the functions, powers, aims, and operations of this class of 
■condary schools. 

The act incorporating the Washington, then the Jefferson County 
rammar School, cites as the basis of legislative action the following: 

Wherea.« several individuals, inhabitants in the town of ^lontpelier and its vicinity, 
ave at a very considerable expense erected a building convenient for the accommo- 
® ntion of a grammar school, and have conveyed the lower story of the same in fee, 
ad the use and occupancy of a large hall in the upper story for the purpose of exam- 
latioms and exhibitions for the use and benefits of a county grammar school, and it 
jU ppearing reasonable that a county grammar school should te established in said 
I'fferson County, and that the rents and profits of certain lands lying in said coimty 
tould be appropriated for the tenefit of the same: Therefore, etc. 

The incorporator.s under this act were as follows: Ezra Butler, 

obii Peck. Charles Buckley, Chester Wright, Aaron Palmer, James 
isk. Abel Knapp, Nicholas Baylies, Nathan Robinson, Ananiah Chand- 
r, Caleb Curtis, and Jonathan Kinne. Upon these men, under the 
t. the following powers were conferred: 

They are hereby constituted and appointed trustees of said county grammar school, 
k 1 they and their successors are hereby declared to be a lx>dy corporate and politic 
all intents and purposes. They have the full power to take by gift, grant, pur- 
_ or devise, any estate, either real or personal, for the use of said grammar school, 
receive aud appropriate all such donations as shall have been or shall hereaf- 
flSr made for the use of said grammar school, and, by themselves or attorney, to 
gj '•htute, maintain, and defend any suit or suits relating to the interest of said insti- 
hon; and may have a common seal and the same alter at pleasure; to appoint and 
pi-t, support and remove from time to time all such teachers, officers, and seiwants 
they may find necessary; to make and establish all such rules, regulations, and 



ti 1*" ^ found necessary for the orderly government of said schools, the 

’’t'les, regulations, and by-laws not to be repugnant to the laws of the State; 
t" also may do any other thing that shall he found necessarv for the welfare of the 
titution. 



u) 



1 fie board of trustees was limited to fifteen members and was given 
de.signate their successors, by a ballot vote, at anj' meeting 
' ffu urly w’arned. Real and personal estate to an amount of the yearly 
not exceeding ^500. was rendered free and forever exempt 



76 



HISTOKY OF EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 




re 



from all taxes, while the rents and profits of grammar-school 
Jefl'erson County were appropriated for the use of the school, 
latter grant there was a two years’ restriction in favor of the Cal( 
Grammar School, touching certain lands leased by it within its on 
limits. In relation to these lands the auditor of the board, i\Ir. ] 
Prentiss, made a report July 2.3, 1857, the summations being | 
acres, located in eight dift’erent towns, and producing an annual 
of S.358.22. The act further specified Monday, December 6, 1811 
the time for the first meeting of the trustees. It also reservd 
future legislatures the right to order by law a “dividend” of the 
ceeds or avails of the grammar-school lands in the State, and ore 
that in such “dividend’" the Jefferson County Grammar School sk 
share in equal proportions with other counties in the State, 
carefully did these early legislators seek to place upon a sure foot 
a system of substantial public secondary education. The board org 
ized under this act December 6, 1813, but did not adopt a set of by 
until Jmie 6, 1811. The following articles are extracted as of value 






Art. 2. The officers of this board shall consist of a president, clerk, agent, 
dential committee of three members, and a treasurer. These officers 
annually appointed by Ijallot at the annual meeting. 

Art. 6. It f^hall be the duty of the agent to take charge of all the real estate bd( 
ing to the institution and lease the same, under the direction of the board, 3 upt 
tend needed repairs of the public building or buildings, receive the rents and 
them over to the treasurer, and perform all other duties for the interest of thish 
not required of other officers by the laws of this State or by the by-laws of 
board. 

Art. 7. It shall be the duty of the prudential committee to manage the jjrudei' 
concerns of the institution, to contract with instructors agreeably to the directifi 
the board, to examine and decide on the qualifications of such as mav apply 
admission into the school when requested by the preceptor, to inspect the school 
see that the laws of the same are faithfully executed and duly observed, toatt< 
all public examinations, to sit in judgment with the preceptor in cases wherein 
may l_>e authorized to do so by the laws of the school, and to draw orders on 
treasurer for the payment of such sums as they shall appropriate pursuant to 
direction of the board. 



nd 

no 

•en 

(J 

•re( 

fiiic 

mi 

net 



hsl 

th€ 

(f 

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nd 



al 

i‘pt 



le 

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) .T 
igh 
(? 
te: 
[up 



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(8 



The fii-.st officers appointed under this arrangement were Chai 
Bulkeley, president; Rev. Che.ster Wright, clerk; Nicholas Bavt 
agent; Rev. Che.ster Wright, treasurer; John Peck, Aaron PaliM 
and Nicholas Baylies, committee. 

The following by-laws, believed to be representative of their ^ *6 
were adopted July 20, 1817, for the use of the school. I reduce tbe 

(1) Every scholar admitted into the school .shall he 10 years of age, excepi i tl 
that for the study of the Latin and Greek languages scholars under that age 
admitted; and every scholar admitted shall be able to read and write decently; >1 hi 
sustain a good moral character, and shall produce from the treasurer a receipt fod fry 
quarter’s tuition. [No pupil was admitted for a shorter term than half a qud* 
The admission age was in the same year changed from 10 to 9.] 



SECONDARY EDUCATION. 



( 2 \ Everv member of the school shall attend punctually during the hours of study, 
li ill he siii>ject to the preceptor as regards conduct, both in school and elsewhere, 
hall treat him and all other persons with becoming respect, shall avoid gaming, 
ll'eness. tavern hunting, late hours abroad, profanity, intemperance. Sabbath break- 
no every species of immorality and indecency, shall attend public worship on the 
abbath, shall exhibit a pattern of industry, sobriety, regularity, and good manners; 
i:d for any violation of this rule shall be subject to reproof, public confession, pri- 
■ate or public admonition, restriction, or expulsion, according to the nature or 
looravation of the offence. [In the matter of expulsion, the prudential committee 
,nd the preceptor by a majority vote reached final action. Refusal on the part of a 
mowini' pupil to give testimony in any matter subjected him or her to the highest 
lenalties of the school.] 

(3) All damages done to the building in which the school is kept shall by the 
receptor be assessed on him or them by whom such damages are done, and shall Ire 
mid within four weeks, under penalty of dismission from the school. 

(4) The school shall be opened in the morning and closed at evening by prayer in 
nnnection with the reading of a portion of the Holy Scriptures. 

(5) Instruction shall be afforded in reading, writing, English grammar, arith- 
letic, geography, Latin and Greek, geometry, trigonometry, surveying, navigation, 
Dinposition, elocution, and history. From March 20 to September 20 the school 

B hall open at 9 a. m. and close at 12, and again at 2 p. m. and close at 5. During the 
ther half of the year the afternoon session shall begin at 1 p. m. and close at 4. 

. (6) On every Wednesday afternoon the males shall be exercised in speaking and 

: he females in reading, and at these times the attendance of visitors shall be admitted 
, )id encouraged. Every member of the school shall be required to exhibit an exer- 
in composition once a week [afterwards two weeks], and every declamation 
^ hall Ijefore being pronounced in school be submitted to the inspection of the pre- 
pptor. [The retjuirements of this rule after a little were made entirely subject to 
"le judgement of the preceptor. ] 

( I ) There shall be two vacations of 4 weeks each, following the Monday preced- 
ig the second Thursday in April and October, making each quarter to consist of 11 
jjl eeks. [Subsequently changed to one, two, one and four weeks, the latter falling 
July and August. The total length of school year to-day is 36 weeks, a loss of 
ght, a- compared with 1817.] 

(3) tin the week preceding each vacation there shall be a public examination, 
tended by the prudential committee, and visited by all persons so disposed. Every 
shall be examined in the several branches by him or her pursued during the 
rm [Public examinations were by vote changed so as to fall after the second and 
lei Their use has not yet disappeared, but the manner of conducting 

em IS wholly in the hands of the principal. The examination was directly made 
^(91 committee certainly as late as 1875.] 

,. J price of tuition for scholars living within this county shall be $1.50 per 
h T' without, $2. [In the case of sickness or death the board agreed to 

'UK anj tuition the use of which had not been enjoyed. In 1820 the tuition rose 
(iof% further modified in after years.] 

- o boarding scholars shall board and lodge at anv house disapproved by the 
b« prudential committee. 

I the Everj' member shall be furnished with a Bible to be used 

f'ok.-i used° ^ serious manner connected with religious exercises, and all other 

>n the school shall be recommended by the prudential committee, together 



® fund i 
Idl 



Ml 



^ ith th 

— 1 . _P^uceptor, and such scholars as neglect to furnish themselves with neces- 
opportunity is given shall be dismissed. 



tr' ‘O' books after due 

iW 



78 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 



Under such an act of authority and with such a form of organ 
in view of the foregoing ideas of education and conduct, it may 
sumed that most secondary schools were operated. Anv \'a 
were comparatively slight and relatively unimportant. As des 
of the questions in which the trustees were most concerned, iti 
haps be advisable to summarize chronologically their leading j 
or votes: 



k 



April, I8I0.—T0 purchase that right in tlie academy which belongs 
Palmer. To repair the academy for the reception of the county school. 

December 4, 1815. — To instruct the agent to appear in and defend to final ji 
an action in the Orange County court against a holder of lands for the use: 
the board claims rent. 

My 20, 1817. — To engage a preceptor for one year “at such wages" as 
agreed upon to be paid out of tuitions and rents that may hereafter accrue! 

May 7, 1822 . — To appoint Rev. Chester AV right for the purpose of solieii 
scriptions for the building of an academy. [The old building had l>een d 
by fire.] 

May 14, 1823. — To erect an academy on the old site, and out of brick. Fa( 

Auffust, 1826.— To furnish the upper story of the new academy, erect a ci 
a bell, and build a suitable fence or inclosure. 

August 5, 1828 . — To admit scholars under 9 years of age to the female de] 
for the present year. [Arrangement continued.] 

August 5, 1829.— To publish an address of the preceptor, a statement of 1 
the board, and to raise, by solicitation among the wealthy inhabitants of the 
money for the purchase of chemical and physical apparatus. 

October 13, 1829. — To issue honorary certificates upon the basis of e.xami 
the following studies: Orthography, reading, writing, composition, geographi 
mar, arithmetic, rhetoric, Vermont history. United States history', general! 
logic, moral philosophy, evidences of Christianity, natural philosophy, asl 
chemistry, drawmg, geometry, algebra, surveying, mensuration of superfl 
solids, lineal drawing. 

August 10, 1831. — To appoint a special agent to solicit subscriptions to the ai 
$400 for apparatus, and, if that sum be realized, to authorize a loan of $3' 
similarly applied. 



h 



"I* 



V 



July £5, 1833. To devote $100 to the further purchase of philosophical apf 
July 39, 1839. — To establish tuition fees as follows: Three dollars for orthogj 
reading, arithmetic, English grammar, geography, and composition; So 
languages and mathematics, except arithmetic and Latin; $4 for all other sti 
July 39, 1839. To publish, in connection with the by-laws of the board, a cd 
of the academy. [This is the first catalogue named.] 

August 22, 1844.—Tlo amend the by-laws of the school. Notable changei^ 
following: (1) The minimum age limit of admission placed at 10. (2) “Eud 
of education” required as a means of admjssion. (3) Teachers to work si 
per day. (4) Examinations in writing and oral at end of each term, foul 
(5) Introduction of marking system, with public announcements of results, 
pupils attend to the number of fifty, a catalogue to be published, with coi 
study, if adopted. (7) Introduction of prizes in the form of books to the valia 
My 27, i^'50.— Tuition in French, $4 per quarter; to employ a native 
teacher; to engage a female assistant; to advertise in the Green Mountain Fi 
May 10, 1853.— To elect as trustee the Rev. William Lord, a very able and 
tial thinker and preacher. [Dr. Lord reopened the discus.siou of a new buili 
discussion of great import as events proved.] 



SECONDAKY EDUCATION. 



79 



[This 



iiirtust 1 1854 — T^o redivide the school year into three terms instead of four. 

,liviXTwa.-ma<le but is not recorded.] 

JuU 11 1856 —To appoint Messrs. Lord, Merrill, and Walton a committee to de\nse 
a system’ of graded schools in connection with the Washington County Grammar 

1557 .— To accept the report of the committee, advising an “arrangement 
plan of union of action between the Washington Comity Grammar School and the 



or 



Montjielier Union District.” 

XoTK.— Thi.« agreement or coalition on the part of the districts and grammar school 
coriioration was signed April 7, 1859. Under it the board of trustees practically 
passeil over the proceeds and avails of all their property, agreed to furnish an aca- 
demical education to the pupils of the villt^e, but retained their corporate capacities 
to the fullest extent.” The resultant was one school, graded and high school, 
under the direction of one committee, three of whom are selected by the trustees, 
four bv their respective school districts, and one by the union district at large. This 
latter is chairnum of the board. The board of trustees hereafter did little more than 
keep up a show of existence. 

AprU 4, 1859. — To dispose of the academy building and grounds. 

.Tune SO, 1859.— To apply on the library a legacy left by C. J. Keith. [The amount 
i.a not stated.] 

■January 1, 186S. — To execute to James R. Langdon the deed of this date presented 

I to the trustees by their committee; to deed to the town of ^Montpelier the remainder 
I* of the land of the corporation for $300; to sell and cause to be removed the old 

I I academy building. [This latter was sold June 26, 1862, for $550.] 

■Jimr 26, 1862. — To appropriate not more than $200 for the purchase of library 

b<Hiks, including the Enclyclopsedia Britannica and Index. [This is the first 
recorded vote of such a purchase.] 

There are no other records of special interest or importance. For 
the la.st thirty years the grammar school has practically been supported 
by the village of Montpelier through means and in ways directed by 
the prudential committee already mentioned. In this way the small 
academy of 1800, the little county institution of 181-3, has finally 
become a public high school, although it retains the hereditary impulses 
and characteristics of its past history, and has really never lost its cor- 
porate powers. Among its eminent and most valuable trustees, of 
"bom there have been eighty -one in all. were the Rev. ChesteiAVright, 
who served as clerk, president, treasurer, and committee, over a period 
of 23 years; Nicholas Bavlies, esq., for 9 years the agent of the board; 
-Mianiah Chandler, for 19 years an active member; the Rev. Jonathan 
T« Kinney, and the Hon. Samuel Prentiss, who respectively served 13 
•fifsind 1 ( years. Then there were Gen. E. P. IValton, 31 years: the Hon. 
o.seph Reed. 24 years: the Hon. Joseph Howes, 12 years; the Hon. 
• ohn Spalding, who served from 1832 to 1864, and was for twenty -one 
m the treasurer of the board; Henry Nutt, esq., served from 1843 

F ^ period of 48 years. Other distinguished trustees were Col. 
tl D Ho*" Isaac F. Redfield, D. P. Thompson, the novelist; 

Lord, the Rev. Eli Ballou. Hon. E. P. IValton, jr., 
1 \ p tl*e Rev. F. IV. Shelton. Hon. Chas. W. IVillard. M. C.; John 
[ ■ State treasurer; .John. C. Emery, esq.; Gen. P. P. Pitkin, 



80 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN V^EKMONT. 



11 ^ 

irm 



Judge T. P. Redfield. The present president of the Ijoard. th( 
Charles Dewey, has served since 1864, and its present secre 
Hon. Fred. E. Smith, since 1873. 

It is now wholly impossible to learn anything as to the iu„ 
pupils educated by this institution during its entire period of ex 
It was very large. At one time certainly this school was thi 
secondary institution of importance in this countv. It is also 
to give the duration of the service of the different principals an< 
ceptors. The list as reported in the history of ilontpelier b\ 
son is as follows: James horter; James Dean, afterwards pro 
of mathematics. University of Vermont; Joseph Sill; Benton PB 
afterward clergyman and Indian missionary; Ira Hill; Thomas, 
Justus W. French, afterward clergyman in Vermont. New YorJ 
New Jersey; Seneca IVhite; Heman Rood; John Stevens; Jonathj 
SoLithmayd, for twelve years principal and under whom the s< 
attained a high reputation in the State; J. B. Eastman; Au„_ 
Wood, afterward clergyman in New York; Aaron G. Pease, afti, 
clergyman in Vermont; Calvin Pease,^ afterward president of Ui 
sity of Vermont and Presbyterian clergyman at Rochester. N. Y.f 
ilorse; M. Colburn; George N. Clark, afterward professor in 
sity of Vermont and secretary of the American Board of Foreign 
sions; Davis Strong; Horace Herrick; J. E. Goodrich; Charles I 
and C. R. Ballard. Others were temporarily employed, including 
Hon. Joshua \ . \ ail in the earlier years and Robert Hale in the I 
During the interim between the destruction of the first acad 
building and the erection of the second a Mr. Sherard kept a claa 
school. This completes the list of instructors up to the period of 
coalition with the village system, a combination prompted by a H 
of Si, 000 by Hezekiah H. Reed and admitted under general stat! 
and acts passed in 1868-59. From this time on a course of studieg 
adopted embracing all things neces.sary. from ‘'a’’ primary, thW 
a graded school up to a preparation for the college and unireB 
The following principals have since served: M. :j. Marsh, 1859-1! 
Daniel D. Gorham, 1862-1871, to whom the successful projectio 
the new system is largely to be credited; C. IV. IVestgate, 1872-H 
J. E. Miller, 1875-1877; A. W. Blair, 1878-79; IV. W. Prescott, ^ 
H. R. Brackett. 1881-1883; B. F. Brown, 1881^85; Joseph A. DeB 
1886-1889; Xenophon Wheeler, 1890-91; S. D. Blanpied. 1892. 

In 1889 the school building underwent enlargement and rep 
a cost of about ^20,000, and in 1891 this work was completed 
placed in use. Montpelier now possesses one of the largest, 
ventilated, most convenient school edifices in the State. In it t 
teachers, of whom two are men. give instruction to over 130 
each year. It has a well-selected library of over 3,000 l oluiue 
a well-equipped physical and chemical laboratory. 



SECONDAKY EDUCATIOIf. 



81 



St 

til 

■n 

ni 



It is impossible to give statistical records of all these schools, but it 

iiav truthfullv be said that to Washington Count}' and the State of 

(>nnont this school at Montpelier has been of great and lasting service. 

'heir graduates have found entrance and standing not alone in the col- 

■K-es and universities of the Eastern States, but, what is more worthy 

f record, in all the \ aried callings and professions of life. 

liuiT and Burton Seminary {Manchester. T’?., Octoher 38. 1829 ). — 

'his seminary is located on the line of the Bennington and Kutland 

lailway. 30 miles soidh of Rutland and 56 miles northeast from Tro}', 

Y. It had its origin in a bequest of Joseph Burr, esq., a merchant 

u if Manchester, Vt., who left an estate “amounting to considerably 

Hi [lore than 8100,000.” By his will the bulk of this was bequeathed to 

ittei-ent benevolent institutions and for charitable uses. Among these 

equests was one of 810,000 to certain trustees, “to be applied in edu- 

ating, in the village of Manchester, poor and pious youth having in 

lew a preparation for the Christian ministry.” This bequest had two 

nditions affixed: The establishment within live years from his 

ecease, which occurred in April, 18:18, of a corporation, and the rais- 

3g of an equal amount of money with which to erect suitable build- 

1829 the act of incorporation was procured from the 

gi.slature of\ermont for an institution to be denominated “The 

K lurr Seminary.” December 16, 1829, the trustees held their first 

leeting. During the following year the needed money was secured. 

II Maich, 1831, the board decided “to go ahead and buy and build.” 

idi^ccordingly a “lot of Ephraim Munson” was purcha.seci and a “suit- 

’ e ui ding,' constructed of stone, was erected, which, with its fur- 

i me and apparatus, having been appraised at 811,383, the bequest of 

fin Burr was paid over to the trustees. This 810,000 has been pre- 

1 ' e as an endowment, and its proceeds have been regularly applied, 

^ ‘U as M as po.ssible, to the end for which ]Mr. Burr designed his 
t“quest. ^ 

tsf, -'StH of .Tuly, 18.32, the Rev. Lyman Coleman, who had been 
lerlv Church Belchertown, Mass., and for- 

•hool i ^ College, was elected principal. He, finding the 

ildionsT receive pupils, entered upon a series of visi- 

■■ Idres.se^^ h By the persua.siveness of his 

f the so*" in interesting others in the character and object 

usti'e.- ™^*'*^*' ’ able, with the steadfast cooperation of the 

^ "orthv^ ®Pen the institution May 15, 1833, with “a large number 
I'd theOi, young men from abroad, most of whom 

L .. 'oHiistry in view.” 



lii 



He fir.st 



The actual mmiber was 114 men. 



catalogue gives 146 names, and this attendance, it is said 



uriiitr tlioc„ during the years iinmediatelv following. 

. contaii.. 

benefit it was designed than at any 



'vlio.se of iHe school it contained more 



young men 
other time in its 



82 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 



hi.stoiy. This is attributed in degree to the serious religious i-pyj 
of that period, through whose influence I’oung men were turned f 
secular pursuits to the preparatory studies of the ministry. V 
many of these young men were self-dependent, a fact recognizd 
the trustees, who appointed a special committee to look up wort 
such students in the neighborhood. The opening exercises coni 
in a discourse by the Eev. Alexander Proudfit, D. D., presiden 
the board, and an address by Principal Coleman. Joined with 
latter on the first board of instruction were John Aiken, assj 
principal, and Hiram Buckley. The control of the school, how$ 
was retained by the board, which passed the following rules 
orders: That nonbeneflciaries should be charged a tuition fee of 
per annum for common English branches, and additional "‘for 
languages;” that board should be .supplied at a cost ‘Plot exce<| 
$1.25 per week;” that .students be advised “to dispense with tea 
coffee,” and adopt “for the most part a vegetable diet;” that 
bell be rung at sunrise during the summer months, at which time 
students will be expected to rise.” The 4-dollar languages 
edly refer to Greek and Latin. 

Ml'. Aiken retired in January, 1834, and was succeeded by 
N. "Worcester, previously a tutor in Dartmouth College. Mr 



)i 



n 



cester took the assistant’s place in the classical department, while 



James Tuffts, a graduate of the school, became an instructor fl 
English department. All these gentlemen largely contributed to 
early and great success of the seminaiy. At this period the so 
possessed a house for the principal, some 25 acres of land, an in 
from $10,000, and a debt of about $4,500. Of this debt $2,50( 
paid by subscription in 1841 and the balance expunged b}^ a portS 
the Josiah Burton legacy in 1854, but a new debt was created bj 
repairs made in 1863-64. Up to about the year 1851 the approsi 
the seminaiy was by a footpath. In this year a wood walk war 
structed, but entrance was still by a private lane, which in 1854 l>nf 
public. In 1858 this walk was made of marble, of which large J' 
titles are found near by. Identifled with the opening of the seiui' 
was the interesting experiment of a manual-labor department, 
soon found to be more expensive than profitable and abandoneJi 
in its work of moral and mental culture the school was earW a sUfJ 
Its graduates gave evidence of skillful, careful instruction and| 
ance by the high rank which large numbers of them took and ® 
tained in the various colleges to which they went, Harvard, ^ 
Williams, Dartmouth, Middleburv, Eniversity of Vermont. Amli*! 
and elsewhere. 

In 1837 ilr. Coleman resigned his office to accept a like posit'*’’ 
Andover, Mass. Mr. S. Stoddard was elected in his place, but dr*" 
to serve, although for a few terms he performed the duties of cb*^ 



I 



SECONDARY EDUCATION. 



83 



Beaehcr and then withdrew to accept a professorship in Middlebuiy 
'olleg-e. The next principal was the Eev. J. D. Wickham/ D. D., 
inder whom the seminary enjoyed a calm and highh' useful season of 
irosperity. To his historical address, delivered at the reunion of 
hTl. this article is greatly indebted. Meantime, an English depart- 
..nt had been established in 1835 under a formal vote of the board 
tid placed under the efBcient charge of Mr. William A. Burnham, and 
uring a portion of this same period the Eev. Samuel J. M. Merwin 
as employed as a teacher of languages and elocution. Principal 
nekham was followed in 1854 by the Eev. Joseph Steele, of Castle- 
m, Vt., who was in turn, after two years, succeeded by his predeces- 
)r. who had been, with much solicitation, prevailed upon to resume the 
i-incipalship. In the spring of 1860 Mr. ’William A. Burnham died, 
•a le was a teacher of great force, ability, and influence, and was greatly 
loved l)y his pupils and by all the people. In 1862 the Eev. J. D. 
ickham, after twentj’-three 3 'ears of service, resigned. Mr. Burn- 
im’s connection with the school covered a period of twentj’-five j-ears. 
0 these two men the seminaiy was greath^ indebted for its character 
id reputation. During their term of oflice two important steps had 
cn taken. The earh' problem had been how to push students 
lough preparatorj^ studies at the least possible expense. The 
anual-training experiment had failed. After a time, also, material 
It A hich to cany out the original design of the school was lacking, 
ence the classical department proved insufficient and it was found 
ccNsan to open an English department. Step by step came ampli- 
.1 ion and extension of the course of studies to meet the wants of 
os( A o lequired not a special but a general education. The resi- 
I- f"! ‘“tuce increased and this onlv operated to decrease the num- 
lom abioad. The design changed graduaU\^ but sureW from that 
school for A^oung men serioush’’ and religioasty inclined 
loc- E fT” for general education. This was due lai-gel\- 

pir d *'* Citizens of Manchester wanted like privileges for 

inissin^'^f 16 J'oung ladies were allowed 

anche'iter^ classes. These ladies all came from the toAvn of 



c name - n gave satisfaction, and so, in July of 

a ladi^^^^' 1 P^'^^®otial committee was given power “to estab- 
\- juvenile department, provided it can be done without 

fiingement on the Burr fund.” 



The • ... ^uersurrtund." 

^ Josiah 'bui\ down was entireW met bj" the bequest of 



April, 1853. Mr. Burton had set 



‘■pared aEnv " ^ tefore his death, and at the age of nearly 94, kindly 



^ lliv rcir liac cigc Ui llCcUlV 

'■■at paper hoive^^ sketch of Burr and Burton Seminary. 



As the 

Ja in its ,stea() th '^'n' ^/uieA’hat more extended, I have thought best to insert 
B. ’ uiaking valuable additions to it from Dr. Wickhatu’s sketch. — 



84 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 






aside a larger fund for a female seminary, providing it shouj 
established within four years from his decease. The trustees bj 
the possessors of this fund, some 81^,400, and, having applied ft 
of this to free the school from debt, devoted the balance to "fa 
education.” By act of legislature and in view of this I)eque8t 
title of the school was changed in 1860 to •‘Burr and Burton Si 
narj'.’” In 1871 Dr. Wickham summed up the tinancial history o( 
institution as follows: 

Including the legacies of Mr. Burr and Mr. Burton and the donations of i 
residents of Manchester, the amount given in this town appears to have heen$S 
Adding the contributions from nonresidents, amounting to |3,384, and we lia* 
total sum given to the institution, §37,610. For this we have to show, as the pi 
property of the corporation, between 20 and 30 acres of land with the building! 
it and their appurtenances, and a permanent fund of $15,000, with an indebt^i 
of about $2,500. 

Then there existed at this time (1871) two legacies of 810,000 b 
contingent, one in two and the other in five years from the de«H 
two nieces of Joseph Burr. Margaret Burr died in 1862, bequea( 
a permanent fund of 810,000; Mary Burr died in 1865, bequea 
810,000 for general purposes. In September, 1884, the treasure 
the seminary received, on account of these legacies, 831,600, of ffl 
about 810,000 was at once available, and of this sum about 85,00^ 
used to clear off existing indebtedness. 

The retirement of Principal AVickham in 1863 was followed)! 
temporary cessation of the school. Not only was there need of rep 
alterations, and additional buildings, but causes everywhere operal 
at this period had greatly affected the attendance. About 85,00^ 
expended. The school reopened with the spring term of 1864 ui 
the direction of AYilliam F. Bascom, esq., and Mr. Solon Albee. 
former retired in I860 and afterwards became a professor in HaH 
College; the latter conducted the classical department for a fewtl ■' 
and in 1866 accepted a professorship in Middleburv College, h 
next eight principals of the school were, in order, the Rev. F' ' 
Olmstead, 1865-66; the Rev. Roswell Harris, jr.. 1867; the ® 

L. A. Austin, 1868-1871; Mr. H. H. Shaw, 1873-1878; Rev. J '■ 
Fletcher, 1878-1881; Mr. Simonds, 1881-82; Rev. M. L. Seven 
1882—1888; A. C. Ferrin, A. B., 1888 — . In a note to Mr. Ferrin, H 
date of February, 1892, he .says: “It is impo.s.sible for me to gi'fli 
a tabulated account of the attendance and graduates, as no coin '* 

records were kept. The attendance has fluctuated much, rising *' 

— A a 

'As the bodies of these two Mends were buried side by side, a common moni [u 
over the graves of both with suitable inscription has been erected to their 
and is one of the conspicuous ornaments of the Del wood Cemetery. But “Tb< 
Seminary,” the name of the marble structure less than a mile distant for thesl 
modation of the school, will stand a not less fitting memorial of the friends ^ 
cation whose names are associated in that of the institution. — ,1. D. W. 



SECONDARY EDUCATION. 



85 



« 

fa 

St 

t 









,u to loO: since 1 biivc I)een here it has been from 60 to 90. The 
nuluate.s have averaged aiiout T a year, T think.” Credit is due Mr. 
errin for assistance in preparing this sketch. 

Tlic original benefactions to this institution provided “for the educa- 
if)ii of deserving young men of limited means who are j^reparing for 
le niini.strv.” This object is not yet lost sight of, for all young men 
ho have the gospel ministry in view enjoy tuition and room in the 
'ininarv building free of cost, while all bills to clergymen’s children 
re discounted 1.5 per cent. But the annual catalogue to-day discloses 
|jj lese as the present objects of the school: Thorough training for both 
xes in the classics and English branches; ample preparation for ad- 
pi lission to any New England college; preparation for the duty of citi- 
puship, and “to provide a well-appointed Christian home.” Instruc- 
on is given by a corps of 6 teachers — 3 gentlemen and 3 ladies — all 
io.sen with reference to fitness for their work. Six courses of study 
outlined — the classical, Latin-English, modern language, higher 
■nglish, prepiiratory, and music. Attention is given, though the 
rhool is nonsectarian, to religious training. Pupils are required to 
ttend two sen’ices on the Sabbath, while daily devotions and a weekly 
rayer meeting are maintained. The seminary possesses also a gym- 
^ i.siuni. bj' no means elaborate but sufficient with the opportunities 
)r outdoor exercises to promote the interests of physical culture. 
« o literary societies, under the direction of the teachers and supple- 
I lenting the regular work of the school, are maintained. All the 
‘P* iipils are expected to become members of one or the other of these 
m Jcieties. The librarA’, in the report for 1890, was said to contain 100 
•0 oluines. while a reading room, supplied with the be.st magazines, 
^ ewspapers, and reviews, is open for daily use. A tax of 25 cents a 
-im is levied for its support. By vote of the trustees there was 
in t,i j ished in 1890, as a permanent feature of the school, the seminary 
tf TOurse, in which “persons of well-known ability” address the 

sciences are taught objectivelj^ and expeidmentally, 
rm h existing for that purpose. At the close of each 

i-illv ^ examined as to progress and proficiency, both 

I through written exercises, while once each year assistance 

ho 1^ ^ giuen by an examining board appointed by the trustees. 

Ion trustees in 1891 numbered 11 members, headed by the 

^ iov A president. One of its members, Hon. 

^,j. o/h -A.- M., is the historian of Manchester and a mem- 

aiiies court of Vermont. The 1891 catalogue gives the 

Hudents, divided as follows: Postgraduate, 1; seniors, 9; 
^ '*• 1 I'll first jmar, 31 ; preparatory, 13; unclassified, 

^tensive ^ large stone structure with handsome front and 

1 Jeuiitaiu'f * *^*^*'*^*^' 11^^ village of Manchester, with Equinox 

on the west and the Green Alountain range on the east. It 



Cl 



86 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 



accommodates about 50 students, and this is apparently sufficieu 
of the 95 pupils registered last year 50 gave Manchester as their 
dence. 

Both the seminary building and the principal’s house are heats 
steam and furnished with every appliance for convenience and com: 
Black River Academy {Ludlow, October 23, ISSIf ). — About the 
1833 the Baptist denomination proceeded to take measures l«i 



\1 






toward the establishment of a secondary school in Windsor C® 
The towns of Cav^endish and Ludlow, having a population of about 1 
and 1,250 respectiveh’-, were appealed to for aid. The town of Luc 
agreed to erect a iiroper building, and secured thereby an institutio 
great importance to Windsor County and the State. The Wind. 
County residents thereupon determined to locate a like institutio 
Townshend. The former school was given the title of Black R 
Academy, the latter that of Leland Classical and English Scl 
May 20, 1834, there met at the hotel of John Howe, esq., in thet 
of Ludlow, a body of gentlemen who voted first to establish an 
emy at Ludlow, and next to give power to a committee, compose 
Horace Fletcher, esq., R. Washburn, esq., Hon. Jabez Proctp% 
J . Lawrence, esq. , to secure proper legislation. This was obtaine 
the form of a charter October 23, 1834. The following incorp 
tors are named: Daniel Packer, Baptist pastor at Mount Holly; Jus 
M. Graves, Baptist pastor at Ludlow: Jabez Proctor, a leading 
chant of Proctorsville, and father of Senator Proctor, of Venn 
Moses Pollard, of Plymouth; Judge Reuben Washburn, Rev, 
Hodges, Rev. Joseph Freeman, Rev. Jacob S. McCollom, Congr 
tional pastor at Ludlow; John F. Colton, esq., Horace Fletcher 
and afterwards Baptist pastor at Townshend; Jonathan Laurence, 
Stephen Cummings, esq.. Dr. A. G. Taylor, Dr. Xathaniel Tolled 
Augustus Haven, a merchant. Organization was efl'ected Decembc 
1834. This meeting also adopted the plan of soliciting funds thn 
subcommittees, the funds to be applied in the purchase of astrono® 
chemical, and philosophical apparatus. Efficient work on this 
resulted in the possession within a year of an excellent equipmei 
the academy. Special mention is made of an “elegantly nio“ 
refractory telescope,” costing $300, and an “excellent piano 
this meeting, December 31, 1834, Mrs. Rebecca Angell was 
principal of the “ female department,” at a salary of $200 per 
The board decided, on the 23d of January, 1835, to open the at:! 
on “Monday, March 9,” following. Tuition was established a* 
lows: Common English studies, $3 per quarter; higher English 
ancient languages, $3.50; modern language, $4. Mr. Zebulon ' 
was placed in chargq for the spring term, 1835. The closing ter^ 
the first school year were presided over by N. N. Wood, A. B- 
attendance this year numbered 180 pupils — 95 boys, 85 



elf 



h 



in 



30 



SECONDAEY EDUCATION. 



87 



,f these 137 pursued the English bninehes and -13 the languages, 
u-oh'ihlv the ancient classics. Of the latter, 35 were boys who doubt- 
le.><s wn'teniplated a preparation for college. 

\fter the close of the spring term in 1836 the trustees decided to 
“Aidopt the plan of placing the financial responsibility upon the princi- 
3 ;d. Mr. AVood. having refused this offer, was succeeded by the 
» le\-. D. N. Ranney, who was followed one year later by the Rev. 
W. D. Upham. and he in turn was succeeded, until December, 1840, 
Mr. Franklin Everett, subsequently a resident of Michigan. The 
luc icademy had now been in operation nearty six years, a matter of some 
wenty-three terms of 11 weeks each, and had alreadi^ had four princi- 
idi 3 uls, but notwithstanding this fact the institution was in a prosperous 
lW ‘imdition. Identified with the school during much of this period and 
ip to 1841 was Mr. James H. Barrett, as assistant principal. Mr. 
kf larrett's service, being continuous and well applied, was of great 
alue to the institution. He afterwards went to Ohio, and was made 
Commissioner of Pensions by President Lincoln, of whom he wrote 
well-composed biography. The fifth principal was R. M". Clark, 
q C B. (Dartmouth). Mr. Clark acted for a period of four years, 
icking one term. He afterwards read law with Gov. P. T. AYash- 
)urne and Hon. D. Bradley, and located in the practice of his profes- 
ion at Brattleboro. 

The great and often irreparable misfortune of destruction bj^ fire 
it'fell Ludlow Academy on the night before the opening of the fall 
^ erm of 1844. Such a calamity doubtless completed the annihilation 
•f Clio Hall in 1803. It temporarilj" closed the grammar school in 
a? vutland County in 1800. It well-nigh ruined the Montpelier Academy, 
t y as the contingency by which the future of many an early academy 
'<i.s constantly threatened. In the case of Ludlow Academy the result 
' ^ ^^^•'^fsrence to the upper half of a brick meetinghouse, erected 
Jihu Ives in 1819. In this place it remained until August 27, 1889. 
t icn entered a new and magnificent building, dedicated on that day. 

iincipal Clark did not complete the school year of 1845, the spring 
nn of that year being taught bj" C. H. Chapman, esq. 

V hp. principal was AAh B."^ Bunnell, A. M. (1845-46), assisted 
. us wife. He also for a time .served in like capacity in the Town- 
-Academy and subsequently moved to Illinois, where he died, 
he -ibl ‘ academy enjoyed a period of prosperity under 



1 ' 1^^^'^rstent, and popular guidance of Claudius B. Smith, A. M. , 
i„ tij ^liddlebury College. He was assisted by C. Knowlton 

ivij,) ^ ^ ^'^^ical department and by Miss S. P. AA^ilder, preceptress. 



3nd II *'*^^*^^*^ Hon. James AA". Patterson, ex-United States Senator 
^'^P^rintendent of schools 
" Adams, A. B. 

M., of 



^ew York. 



for New Hampshire. During 1848 
, was the assistant, as was Hiram Hitchcock, 
in 1849-1851. All these were men of ability 



88 



HISTORY OF EDFCATIOH IN VERMONT. 



and made for themselves distinguished rceords. Mr. Smith^t 
leaving the Black River Academy, acted as principal of the Rj 



C' 



mil 

iir 



:i( 



it 
I St 



ill 



rii 

1 



V] 



Seminaiy for seven years and then took charge of Brandon Aca^ 
until 186-f. During 1861 and 1862 he served as chaplain of 
Second Vermont Volunteers, and since 1861 has been employed w 
Treasury Department at AVashington. Austin Adams graduated| 
Dartmouth College in 1818. He taught at Ludlow and Randolph, 
a few years. Entering upon the practice of law, he was eininaBji, 
successful, becoming, in 1885, a judge of the supreme court of lo 
to which State he had moved. Hiram Hitchcock entered busii 
His health failing, he was forced to travel, and gave much attentia nd 
archaeology. He is a trustee of Dartmouth College, the Metropcl 
Aluseum of Art, the Lenox School for Boys (New York City), am: 
the Black River (Vermont) Academy. Mr. Hitchcock is also am' 
ber of the British Society of Archaeology, the New York Academj vc 
Sciences, and the American Geographical Society. Besides thj ut 
gives attention to the duties of a directorship in various banks 
railways. Mr. Hitchcock married Miss Mary Maynard, a student 
the Black River Academy in 1818-1850. She was a lady of gi 
power, personal magnetism, and culture, and shared the studies of 
husband. Their common work in the interests of education, truth, 
science has the merit of an unobtrusive activity and the virtue of '*• 
directed application. A magnificent hospital building, adjunct to 
Dartmouth Medical College, at Hanover, N. H., is her memor 
Under the guidance of such men Black River Academy prosper 
In the jmar 1852 George M’^. Gardner, D. D., accepted the princi 
ship. He remained one year, assisted b_v Air. J. J. Ladd, A. B. 
Gardner eventually became the president of the Centi’al UniversitJ 
Iowa, retiring therefrom in 1881 by reason of poor health. Dur 
the school year 1853-51 the Rev. Alark A. Cummings was the pi 
cipal. He was followed by Aloses Burbank, A. AI., afterwards 
editor of the Black River Gazette, published at Ludlow. Air 
bank taught until 1860, devoting six years of able, painstaking seii 
to the school. He died at Ludlow, Alarch 11, 1867. Air. Burba^" 
successor was the Rev. Arthur Little, D. D., now of Dorchester, A 
Air. Little was a graduate of the Kimball Union Academy, Alerii 
N. H., and of Dartmouth College, class of 1860. He taught at 
Lyndon Academy in the fall of 1860, Thetford Academy in the fol 
ing winter, and Black River Academy in the spring, summer, 
winter of 1861. Air. Little afterwards studied theology at the Ando’ 
and Princeton seminaries, and has earned a wide reputation 
preacher and theological writer. Alore recent principals have 
the following: Alilton C. Hyde, A. AI., 1862-1870, whose place for 
year was taken by Capt. L. E. Sherman and W. B. Stickney, 

S. A. Giffin, A. B., 1870-1871; Herbert Tilden, A. AI., 1875; 



G. 



la 



1. 

1C 



hi 

il'*’ 



Ol 



le 

III 



at 



11 

lit 



1 " 






SECt>NDARY EDUCATION. 



89 



•well V. B.. 1S76-1883; John Pickard, A. B.. 1SS3-S-4; Henry H. 
eiidill A. B.,1S85: George Sheriuan, A. M. 

('■ipt Henry B. AUerton, from whose historical address, delivered 
I the above facts are largely gathered, gives a long list^ of 
lines representing the academy’s graduates who served in the civil 
, 11 -. Among these are found that of Gen. George E. Bryant, of 
adison. Wis.; Col. Henry M. Pollard, member of Congress from 
issouri; Col. Kedlield Proctor, class of 1846, ex-governor and pres- 
it I'nited States Senator from Vermont; Rufus Freeman Andrews 
sKi). survevor of the port of New York under President Cleveland, 
1(1 .Hanson Beard (1846), collector of the port of Boston in 1885. 
I’robably,” wTites i\Ir. Atherton, “the Black River Academy has 
!i(l over 5.00U pupils who received some of the elements of a higher 
Incation during the fifty years of its existence, or an average of 
er UM) new students each year.” It has performed this work with- 
it endowment, and, because of its poverty, with an average change of 
iiicipals every other year. 

In the year 1885 the academy celebrated its semicentennial anniver- 
I V. On this occasion the Hon. W. H. Walker, of Ludlow (1853-54), 
livered the address of welcome. Capt. H. B. Atherton (1851-55), 
w N shua, N. H., read a valuable histoidcal address. Rev. Homer 
hite, of Randolph. Vt., and Edwin Blood (1851), of Newburyport, 
lass., read original poems. The orator of the day was the Rev. 
rthiir Little. D. D., principal in 1861. The following year there 
as another reunion of the alumni, presided over by the Hon. R. W. 
larke. second principal of the academy. At this meeting Judge W. 

• alker announced the need of raising 815,000 for the erection of a 
lew ."chool building. Friends and alumni of the academy undertook 
woik of raising this money and succeeded in obtaining 816,385.35. 
hcaiiest donors were Hiram Hitchcock, of New York; Dexter 
fiichurds, of Newport. N. H.; Edward E. Parker and Harry P. Stim- 
on. of Kansas City. Hon. Redtield Proctor furnished a marble slab 
01 t le front elevation, with the inscription “Black River Academi’,” 
^ Heald. of Neiv York, a 1,017-pound bell, 
ic'id * °i’g^ioizcd. the academy supplies instruction under four 

. a ii “'™mnar grade, the English course, the Latin-scientitic course, 

-Id die classical course. 

students for the I’ear 1890-91 was as follows: English 
1; tot' boys, 42; total, 104. Classical course — girls, 4; boj-s, 

‘teiida ' Li^tin-scientilic — girls, 25; boi’s, 8; total, 33. The total 

The*^’^^^ the I'ear was 152. The graduating class numbered 8. 

provided by a corps of four teachers — principal, 
ipacitv^'^f ’ assistants. A special committee acts in the 

1691 are ®^‘^“^biers, while the trustees, of whom there were 24 in 
« I’lah ex officio. Connected with the school is a literary and 



90 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 



debating society by the title of ‘Mdelphic Union/’ Go 
including room, wood, lights, and washing, can be obtained i 
ranging from $2.50 to $3 per week. Expenses: Common j 
branches, $6 per term; higher English and languages, $7.20- 
RandoLijJi Academy or Orange County Grammar School (} 
8 , 1805 ). — The town of Kaudolph, Vt., has for juany years \ 
and deserved the reputation of being an active, though small 
of educational activity. This merit it has acquired very 
through the efforts of a few energetic, persistent, practical h 
who have become well known to the citizens of this State, 
men are Edward Conant, A. M., A. E. Leavenworth, A. 
Andrew W. Edson, A. M. The first two still serve the . 
principals of the Randolph and Castleton normal schools, wh 
Edson has won the esteem of educators in Massachusetts. 

As early as October, 1792, it was voted by the citizens of _ 
“to petition the general assembly for liberty to set up an aca 
this place.” It was not, however, until 1802 that it was decid 
build a county grammar schoolhouse where the State committ 
set the stake,” provided it should be set in Randolph. A coi 
headed by the Hon. Dudley Chase, was in this year appoi 
solicit subscriptions for that purpose. Tn 1801 Joseph Edson ( 
to this Mr. Chase and nineteen other gentlemen a piece of land 
center of which the old academy was erected. To-day the sa 
is occupied and controlled by the State Normal School. 

The following list of the principals of the old Randolph Aca 
reprinted in the Vermont Historical Mag-azine from Thou 
Gazetteer: William Nutting, 1807-1813; D. Breck, 1813-11; 
Nutting, 1811-1818; George Bush, 1818-19; Samuel A. AVor 
1819-20; Joseph Saw 3 'er, 1820-21; Rufus Nutting, 1821-1828; 
entLong, 1828-1831; John Fairchild, 1831-32; T. G. Brainard.j 
1836; Samuel A. Benton, 1836-1838; Azariah Hvde, 1838-1811; 
Clev eland, 1811. Thompson also accords to the academy, in 
ord, a literary society with a library of 300 volumes. Cara 
AA^eymouth, corresponding secretarv of the Randolph Normal ! 
alumni, in her history of that school for 1885, writes: 

Of this school { the academy) we can judge only by its alumni. Its value is 1 
by such sons as Hon. Jacob Collamer, Rev. Azariah Hyde, Rev. Constantii 
gett, for fifty years pastor of the First Congregational Church of Pawtucke! 
Amos Dean, esq., a celebrated attorney and dean of the Albany Law School, 6 
Converse, Judge Barrett, of the Vermont supreme court, Hon”. Justin S. llor 
a score of lesser lights, whose names will occur to our older readers. 

It appears to be impossible to obtain complete records of thisj 
emy. There were other principals, of course, besides those menf 
above. Miss AA'et’mouth writes: 

In the last decade came R. M. Manley, Andrew Freeman, George Dutt 
illard, and doubtless others. Next preceding i\lr. Conant was Mr. Fisher. 



SECOIfDAKY EDUCATION. 



91 



L-- llv the crrauimar school and academy, after a long discussion. 
It'rnundi the thoughtful and persistent advocacy of Mr. Edward 
l!" It* now called “'the father of Vermont normal schools,” passed 
"ir" State patronage and control February 26, 1867, with the full cou- 
nt of its trustees, ’idward Conant is perhaps the best known, as he 
one of the most beloved teachers in V ermont. He was born in Pom- 
*,.t Vt. He studied at Thetford, did college work at Dartmouth, and 
rv earlv miined practical knowledge of his art in various district 
«»#hcK)ls. From 1861 to 1867 he served as principal of the Orange 
aiiitv Grammar School. He was its last principal. During this period 
■ directed attention to the idea that the academy should give place to 
teachers' training school. He succeeded in obtaining affinnative 
'tion upon this idea, and became in 1867 the head of the first normal 
hool in Vermont. 

LuuoiUe Academy {November 8, 1833), Lamoille County Orammar 
hool {Xovemher 15, 1836), JoJimon Normal School {December, 
•>G6). — The report is that some time about the year 1828 there was 
limed in the town of Johnson an academy; that this academy com- 
rised sixteen pupils, instructed b}" a Dr. Carpenter. The tradition 
rther is that this school was first held in what is now the town clerk’s 
lice, and that this office had originally been a shoe shop. Dr. Car- 
mter succeeded in erecting the first academic building where the 
n> orinal school now .stands. He was followed in 1830 by Mr. Perry 
a.'kell. a graduate of the University of Vermont. During Mr. Has- 
ell s admini.stration the academy was incorporated, but was rechar- 
red November 15, 1836, as the Lamoille Countv Grammar School in 
'rder to acquu-e rights in public lands. 

1. Pearl. A. M., principal from 1863 to 1871, writes as follows 
0 mne II. page 674, of the Hemenway Gazetteer; 

incorporation, so far as can be ascertained from the records, 
ter r Toof; C. Adams; B. J. Tenny; Rev. William T. Herrick, 

j eton; Lyman T. Flint; Simon N. Stevens, who died in the midst of a 
'Uri^hl?^ Rev. Ja.son F. Walker, under whom the school was in a 

larvin ", L. O. Stevens, who solicited subscriptions for repairing and 

’tn und 11,200 being expended as the result of this effort; Z. K. Pang- 

‘lelied •" school numbered at one time 225 pupils, the highest number 

|,lridgp‘“""S its history; X. M. Wallace, R. C. Benton, M. P. Parmelee, L. D. 
■cess- T v* prominent lawi-er in iliddlebury — each having a good degree of 
“'i charge^f Varsh, a son of President Marsh, of the University of Vermont, who 
‘i in 1860 whool but a short time; Samuel H. Shonyo, who became princi- 

ith the several years; George W. Squier, who also had been coimected 

wring the M ^ previous date; Miss Myra Benton, who had charge of the school 
he fall tenn^ 1863; and S. H. Pearl, who became principal at the close of 

Was origin continued to act in that capacity to June, 1869. The build- 

Pfiaratuu },y erected and supplied with a good chemical and philosophical 
" hii; the subscription. It was thoroughly repaired in a similar man- 

he huilhiug chaige of L. O. Stevens, and in the summer of 1866 

’r-e, finished''^^a^^™°**’ ^“R^'eiy rebuilt and enlarged to more than double its former 
nnd furnished in a most substantial manner, to meet the increasing 



92 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION IX VERMONT. 




^vants of the school, the means being mainly furnished, as before, bv thei 
tions of an enterprising and generous community. 

The school has struggled along with the varying fortimes of kindred 
in this State, sometimes flourishing vigorously and then declining until gn 
impulse should again give it life. It accomplished a good work in the cob 
It has fitted many for the responsible positions of teachers, as well as pn 
large number of young men for a collegiate course. It has numbered i 
teachers many graduates from the various colleges, some of whom have ran 
as teachers, and some have attained to honorable positions in other callingBj i>' 
fessions. The reputation of the school has generally been such that it hi ir 
extensively patronized by students from neighboring States and from the ., 

S. H. Pearl, M. A., the writer of the above account, was a giiP 
of the Craftsbury Academy and of the University of Vermont, ck >1' 
1859. He entered upon hi.s duties in the Lamoille County Gm 
School in the fall of 1863, and at once succeeded in bringing || 
degree of prosperity’ to the school. Its further history is to be i 
in the account of the normal school into w’hich it was merged.] 

Rutland County Grammar School {Castleton, October 15, M 
In the year 1786 the people of Castleton raised money by sub.scri{l 
erected a building, and established a school upon ground giffl 
Samuel Moulton. The school was known as the Gambrel-roof sdl; 
house until the loth of October, 1787, when the legislature autha 
the opening of a countv grammar school in this building. Under 
act no provision was made for a corporation. Therefore, as a gr» 
school, it continued to operate under a board of managers until' 
when the building was destroj’ed by tire. October 29, 1805, the 
lature passed a second act, confirming a grammar school in the co 
of Rutland, and designated a board of trustees. A full list of tr# 
from 1805 to 1870 is given in the Hemenway’ Gazetteer, VoluiK 
page 519. The act also proydded in its third section — 

That the house in Castleton lately erected on the spot where stood the school 
for said county, which was lately destroyed by fire, be, and is hereby, e.stablid 
a county grammar school for said county so long as the inhabitants of said Cs^ 
shall keep the same, or any other house at the same place, in good repaif(l> 
purpose aforesaid, to the acceptance of the county court of said county. 

A large sum of money expended on this school was furnished t? 
people of Castleton. There yvere besides a feyv limited subscri^ 
and the well nigh inconsequential income from the rents of : 
lands. October 29, 1828, the name of the school was changed to * 
mont Classical Institute,” but by an act of Noy’ember 1, 1S3Q|, 
former title was restored. The original board of trustees org 
as folloyvs: President, the Rev. Elihu Smith; secretary, A. W. ■ 
treasurer, Enos iSlerrill. The first preceptor, a title yet in use i 
the older citizens, was the Rev. Oliver Hulbert. Mr. Hulbert < 
with success in the Gambrel-roof schoolhouse and probably bel^ 
position until the year of its de.struction by fire. He after" 
located in Ohio as a minister of the gospel. The new buildin 



SECONDARY EDUCATION. 



93 



lie 



^„ed under the supervision of Mr. K C. Moulton. His successors 
the vear 1820 were William Dickinson, Eleazar Barrows, John 
Cazier 'Horace Belknap, and the Rev. John Claney. Thus far the 
’•iracter of the work done by the school was largely influenced by 
frequency with which changes occurred in its management, but in 
S-O Mr. Henry Howe accepted the charge with a view to permanency, 
id his administration, covering a period of six years, brought to the 
i>titution increased numbers of pupils and prosperity. He was a 
iird worker, a good organizer, and subsequently became a teacher 
f wide reputation in the State of New York. About 1826 and for 
vear thereafter the school passed under the direction of the Rev. 
dwin Hall. D. D., afterwards president of the Auburn Theological 
(‘ininarv. New York. He was succeeded by Solomon Foote, who 
iter si'i’vcd Vermont in the United States Senate. His varied learii- 
ig. natural powers, and easy adaptability to conditions, all devoted 
the interests of the school, brought it popularity and prosperity, 
lit in a short time Mr. Foote, finding the accommodations two nar- 
)w, conceived the plan of a high school for boys and, assisted by 
essrs. Fordice Warner and A. W. Hyde, actually erected and dedicated 
large building at a cost of §16,000. iMr. Foote’s “ school for lads,” 
irhe had resigned his trust as grammar-school preceptor, did not meet 
ith the expected patronage and he soon turned over his interests to 
r. A. A . Hyde. Meanwhile the grammar school languished, strug- 
ing along under frequent changes of principals and unable apparently 
remove the obstacles to its prosperity. It had, however, able men 
its head, such, for example, as the Rev. Truman M. Post, D. D., 
of St. Louis, and Mr. John iMeachaui, afterwards a Representative 
Congress. But Mr. Foote’s scheme of a high school for lads was 
sstnied after all to be of service to the county academy. Its build- 
time, had meanwhile been turned into a tavern and 
len into a medical college. Later it was ofi'ered to the Episcopalians 
>d next to the Baptists, for denominational purposes. The gramniar- 
ool corporation needed the building but had no money with which 
• They tinallj' obtained a lease of it for four years, at an annual 
aital of §i00, and in 1838 effected a contract for its purchase in full. 

^'liarles Walker, D. D., of Rutland, and the Rev. Lucius F. 
'D ivere made associate principals. The school was at once made 
school, and soon had an enrollment of 200 
retired after one j’ear, but Mr. Clark remained 
(c until 1837, when he accepted a call to the chair of chemistry 
history in the L^niversity of Tennessee. Associated for a 
PM .i'*^ ^hirk and for one year sole principal was the Rev. Mr. 

J 

in ' 1838, having bought the academic building and being 

” ebt, the corporation elected to the preceptorship the Rev. 



94 



HISTOEY OF EDUCATION IN VEKMONT. 



E. J. Hallock. His services proved eminently useful, tirs^ 
activity and ability displayed in raising funds for the payment 
mortgage indebtedness upon the building; and second, in thejcha 
of his work as a teacher and director for eighteen years. He ly. *' 
in 1856, and died of cholera soon after in St. Louis, Mo. H 
succeeded by the Rev. Azariah Hyde, and he in turn by Eer 
Knowlton in 1858. A new departure was effected in 1862, whet 
Harriet K. Haskel, as lessee and principal, became the headt 
school. Miss Haskel remained five years, conducting the schooi 
much success, and resigned in 1867 to accept a call from Moi’ 
Seminary, Godfrey, 111. Her departure was followed bj^ two je. 
great depression and a marked reduction in the number of pupik 
1869 the Rev. R. G. Williams was called to the princijiaLship,! 
tleman of large attainments and experience as a teacher. I 
efforts there was held, on the 29th of January, 1870, a reuni 
the former pupils of the institution, who came from all parfa of 
mont, to the number of about five hundred. Besides these there 
representatives from nearly eveiy State and Territory in the U 
This fact substantially testifies, in the absence of other records, f 
wide influence exerted by this institution, which represents but' 

V ermont’s early academies and grammar schools. 

For its further history see the “Castleton Normal School.”' 

New Haven Academy {begun November, 1855), Beeman A 
{November 15, 1869 ). — The facts here given are directly taken fro 
State school report for 1874. This academy, prior to the pass 
the act of 1869, was known as the New Haven Academv. 

Pursuant to public notice a meeting was held at the schoolhot 
take into consideration the subject of building an academy. U 
lowing resolutions were presented to the meeting, discussed, andp " 



Resolved, That the interests of education in this community demand the: 
of a building suitable for au academy, and therefore we will at once take the 
sary steps to build one. 

Resolved, That the academy shall be under the control of a board of trustee 



D1 

n 

j' 



A committee of five gentlemen tvas appointed to carry out the 
of the above resolutions by drawing up and circulating a subscji 
paper to raise a sum to defray the expenses. 

An amount that was deemed sufficient was raised in sums fro®' 
1100, and a meeting was called by the committee to be held on 
ary 6, 1855. The subscribers met and organized by the appoi®' 
of Rev. Samuel Hurlbut, chaii-man, and E. S. Bottum, secreta^ 
corporation was formed under and by virtue of chapter 85 of th® 
piled statutes of the State of Vermont, and articles of associati^ 
adopted. A board of eleven trustees were elected bv ballot on f | 
ary 13, 1855, to hold their offices during good behavioi’, withf 
to fill vacancies occasioned by death or otherwise and to increi 
number to seventeen. 



SECONDART EDUCATION. 



95 



The -<ubscTiption was; placed in the hands of the board of trustees, 
lich wii-s at once organized. A code of by-laws was adopted and 
leasures were taken to secure a site and plans for a building. March 
^ a site was chosen, and during the following summer a building was 
, i ted. November 17, 1855, the Rev. Otto S. Hoyt was elected prin- 
i,al. lie resigned August 25, 1858. John P. Torry was elected to 

I eeed him September 3, 1858, and he was followed by Milton J. 
vde, Ahiion Clark, George AV. Squire, and H. H. Shaw. September 
186.5. Rev. C. B. Hulbert was elected president of the board, and 

18 >7, the trustees took steps to create a permanent endowment 
r the academy. Several articles were pidnted by the papers of Addi- 

II and Chittenden counties, soliciting linancial aid, and individual 
izens pledged themselves to make good any deficiencies arising from 
sufficient tuition, but a satisfactory teacher was not secured. The 
ort was renewed in 1868, and on the 27th of July the trustees con- 

d icted with Capt. A. E. Leavenworth, insuring him a stated salary 
(1 assuming, on their part, all expense of conducting the school, 
•pairs were now made upon the building and suitable apparatus was 
light for the proper work of the school. From August, 1868, to 
igust, 1870, there was raised by subscription the sum of $1,030; there 
IS collected from tuitions $1,695, while there was expended for 
pairs, apparatus, current expenses, and instruction, $2,735.33. 

Alwut this time the academy received a bequest of $6,000 from the 
ate of Anson P. Beeraan, who had been a member of the association 
s* nned in 1855, and had since become interested, though living in 
nlington, creating a more permanent basis than could be secured on 
‘tion alone. Mr. Beeman died in June, 1869, and bequeathed the 
iistoc.s $i),000 on the conditions that said sum be made a permanent 
ni . t e net profits therefrom to apply on instruction; that an act of 
^orjwi-ation be secured for the academy; that its name be changed 
^w H ^ Haven to the Beeman Academy, and that the citizens of 
«e®ie 't raise and invest as a permanent fund for the 

rab ** named a sum of not less than $1,000. The act of incor- 
the^f u*''' fPPnoved by the governor November 15, 1869. In July 
the s-° ^ ®nm of $5,121 was raised, and on the 28th 

'oceed ^W niontli the trustees accepted the act of incorporation and 
nith ar ®*^*^nize under the same by the election of Hon. Oliver 
‘thorn Leavenworth, secretary, and George P. 

■“deniv t**' history of the change from the New Haven 

‘1 had sev ^ ^ beeman Academy. The former from 1855 to 1870 
I'hree coim- and twenty-eight different trustees. 

Pc, and clas^^^ study were pi’escribed: English or normal, scien- 
I h(3 AY|-4 * 

ain $i2(j tuition for the school j’ear of 39 weeks is 



96 



HISTORY OF EDIjCATION IK VERMOKT. 



)bt 



Bil 

>n( 



The first principal under the new order of things was Jlr 
Edgar Leavenworth, who did nuieh during the course of the 
years of his principalship toward establishing the widespread r 
tion of Beeman Academy. 

The academy has continued to flourish under the direction * 
ceeding principals, and it is believed that it has never given 
promise of prosperity than at the present time. The present 
pal (1892) is Henry Field Ellinwood, who kindly contributed t 
sketch. 

It is located 8 miles from IMiddleburv, on the Rutland dr 
the Central Vermont Railroad. The situation is remarkably 
brious, being absolutelv free from malaria, and affords a char^*^ 
view of both the Green Mountains and the Adirondacks. Alf 
sufficienth' retired to secure eveiy needed facility for the qiiil 
suit of learning, its social and religious privileges are of a high 
The institution is not under ecclesiastical control, yet the exerd 
each day will begin with religious services, and every effort | 
made to inculcate sound principles and correct morals. 

Derhy Academy {1839, Derby, Tf.). — The following account t 
lished in the State Report for 1874: 



41 



Derby Academy was founded by the Baptists in 1840. It has had a 
changeable historj", but is now again under Baptist control. The proper^ 
of about 2 acres of land, a boarding house, two old school buildings, and a ue» 
ing erected in 1868. The new building is two stories in height, having on I 
floor 4 recitation rooms; on the second, 2 recitation rooms and a chapel, ao 
dating 300 persons. This building is substantially built and cost about J )n 
The location of the academy is a favorable one. It is only 4 miles distant ftt* 
port, from which place there are railroad communications north, west, and 
As the region round about is mainly devoted to agriculture, it is likely to futo 
best class of students for an academy. Three courses of study are arrang^f 
An English course of four j-ears, a ladies’ collegiate course of four years, and at ^ 
course of three vears. 



Green ^fountain Perkins Academy {ISJ/S, Soidh Woodstoa 
State Report, 1874, page 307: 

It was incorporated in 1848 and has since been in successful operation. 
mine was changed to the Green Mountain Perkins Academy, in honor of 
Gains Perkins, an eminent benefactor of the school. Lately (1874) having 
an endowment of 112,000, it stands on a permanent ba.sis and is in good coni 
continue its work of usefulness in the future as it has in the past. 



Oak Grove Seminary {1853, Pownal, Vt.). — State Report, 



i07: 



The first principal was M. K. Horton, A. B., a graduate of the class f'i 
Williams College. He had 57 scholars the first term. In 1856 A. G. Pattee 
Pattee were principals and had about 100 students. In 1872 the old 1 toard of* 
resigned and a new board was elected. It was principally through the enteMh 
Thomas H. Hall, president of the board, that the seminary was thoroughly 



1 ; 

;xil 

nil 



H; 



4j‘< 



SECONDARY EDUCATION. 



97 



Chd«ea Academy {1851, Chelsea,, Vt .). — The following facts were 
btained from John M. Comstock, the present principal of Chelsea 
cademA’ and the statistical secretary for Dartmouth College: 

Chelsea Academy, chartered in 1851, began its work in 1852 under the principal- 
lip of Jonathan Ross, now the chief justice of the supreme court of Vermont. He 
as principal for three years, 1852-1856. There is no record of anj' formally gradu- 
fa. ed classes, although a few students here prepared for college. The school ne\’er 
111 an endowment. Its chief constituency was of the neighboring towns and in 
neral the pupils passed but few terms of school life at the academy. Mr. O. D. 
Ills succeeded Judge Ross and during the fall and winter of 1856-57 the charge fell 
III Chester C. Conant. Azro A. Smith (H. V. M., 1856) was principal during the 
iiimer of 1857. Horace B. Woodworth (D. C., 1854) followed for the year 1857-58, 
d John Paul (D. 0., 1847) was also here for a time; but the academy was rapidly 
nning out. David F. Cole ( D. C. , 1861 ) was here in the spring of 1862, and perhaps 
short time before, and went from Chelsea as the captain of the local company in 
e Twelfth Vermont. The school at this time became practically a select school, 
ilding two terms each year, and was usually taught by women. In 1870 the 
m ilding was destroyed by fire, and not until 1884 was the academy organization 
^A'ived and an arrangement made with the school district by which the district 
•nislies the building and the academy maintains the school. 

Hannon J. Locke (D. C., 1881) was principal from the fall of 1884 to the spring of 
Ph, in which year he was sncceeded by the incumbent, Mr. J. M. Comstock, 
irmg the year 1890 the academy' employed 2 teachers, had a general enrollment of 
pupils, and the largest attendance for one term was 56. Of these pupils 1 studied 
■cek, 4 Latin, 2 French or German. The school y'ear is thirty-tw o weeks in length. 
If academy has a small library. 

Peacham Academy. — This institution, Avhich Avas long knoAvn as one 
the test academies of the State, bears noAv the name of the “ Cale- 
inia County Grammar School.” It is located in the quiet village of 
et am Corner, in the midst of an industrious and intelligent people 
a deep interest in the school. 

de the cost of tuition is onh' nominal, its course of study, extend- 
5 lough four years, is excellent, enabling a A’oung person to secure 
P^’^pai’ation for the ordinary' business of life, for teaching, 
w college, without incurring heavy expen.se. 
ip oma is given upon the completion of the entire course. 

— Glenwood Ladies’ Seminary, at West Brat- 
P" was e.stablished as such in 1860. Prof. Hiram Orcutt, 
E*n principal of the Thetford (Vt.) Academy for some thir- 

• aars, and of North Granville (N. Y.) Ladies’ Seminary for five 
school buildings of Brattleboro Acadeinj', erected a 
1 :,. • ^ ' (at the expense of S6,000), and opened the school as a 



[n 
)f 
: r 



lie.' 



■'’CDiiuary, and as a private enterprise, 
ptembe opened for the reception of pupils on the 26th of 



school 



lUfiool 
«i'"" 



Every room for boarding pupils was engaged before the 
^,*^'^*®^aaced, and 12 of the 100 boarders occupied rooms in the 
attend' their meals at the seminary tables. Of the 128 pupils 
auce the first term, 25 Avere in the senior class and graduated 



G7- 



98 



HISTOEY OF EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 



at the close of that year. The class in instrumental music 
80. The school in its v^arious departments was under the 
of 17 teachers and assistants. The school was now comple 
ized and equipped for its eight years’ work, under the same 
During all these years the attendance was lai-ge and unifon 
pupils came from many States. The whole number of diffei 
was more than 1,000, and the number of graduates 153. In;® 
principal opened Tilden Ladies’ Seminary at West Lebanon| 
and conducted both schools, 70 miles apart, for three years.) 
closed his connection with Glenwood and devoted all his tii 
den. Glenwood soon ceased to be conducted as a ladies’ 



sen 



BOOKS EEFERRED TO IN THE PREPARATION OF THIS ARTICLE. 



History of Vermont, Samuel Williams, LL. D., Burlington, 1809. i 
Natural and Civil History of Vermont, Samuel Williams, Walpole, N. 
Historj^ of Vermont, Ira Allen, London, 1798. 

History of Vermont, Rev. Hosea Beckley, A. M., Brattleboro, 1846. 
History of Vermont, A\ . H. Carpenter and T. S. Arthur, Philadelphia, 
History of Vermont, Zadok Thompson, Burlington, 1842. 

HLstory of Eastern Vermont, Benjamin H. Hall, New York, 1858. 
Vermont State Papers, William Slade, jr., Middlebury, 1823. 

A^ermont Gazetteer, John Hayward, Boston, 1849. 



A'ermont Historical Gazetteer, A. M. Hemenway, Burlington, etc., 1867.1 
Officers of Vermont, L. Doming, Aliddlebury, 1851. t 

New Hampshire Documents, etc., N. Bouton, D- D. (A"ol. X), Concord,® 
A'ermont School Journal, State Teachers’ Association, Aloutpelier, 1859^ 
Letters to the Duke of Alontrose, Dr. John Andrew Graham, London, lA 
Original Petitions, Green Alountain Boys, State Library, 1767. 

History of AA'ells, H. Pauls and Robert Parks, Rutland, 1869. 

History of Salisbury, J. Al. AA^eeks, Salisbury, 1860. 

History of Danby, J. C. AATlliams, Rutland, 1869. 

History of Alanchester, Loveland Alunson, Alanchester, 1876. 

History of Pawlet, Hollister, Albany, N. Y., 1867. 

History of Newfane, Brattleboro, 1877. 

Walton’s Vermont Register, Vols. I-LXXIA'^. 

Reports of Horace Eaton, Superintendent of Education, 1846-1850. 

Reports of Charles G. Burnham, Superintendent of Education, 1851. 
Reports of J. S. Adams, Secretary, 1857-1867. 

Reports of A. E. Rankin, Secretary, 1868-69. 

Reports of John H. French, Secretary, 1870, 1872, 1874. 

Reports of Edward Conant, Superintendent of Education, 1876, 1878, 188(| 
Reports of Justus Dartt, Superintendent of Education, 1882, 1884, 1886, 1** 
Report of Edwiu F. Palmer, Superintendent of Education, 1890. 

Various newspapers, catalogues, and pamphlets. 






Chapter III. 

SECONDARY EDUCATION— CONTINUED. 

BAEEE ACADEMY, BAEEE, VT. 



By J. Henky Jacksox, A. M., M. D. 



A sketch of Barre Academy can not easily be written which does not 
contain frequent reference to Dr. Spaulding, for, as Rugby and 
Thomas Arnold are constantly associated in the minds of English 
students, so will the name of Jacob Shedd Spaulding be lovingly 
recalled to memory when mention is made of the old academy. No 
pardon, therefore, need be sought for the commingling of the two 
names when it is remembered that during the thirty -three years of its 
existence Dr. Spaulding was its loved and honored principal for 
twenty-eight years. The writer would also make early mention of 
Mrs. ]\lary 'W . Spaulding, his cultured and efficient wife, to whom he 
was largely indebted both in his preparation for his life work and in 
the success he afterwards achieved. So these parents (for they had no 
other children) of a characteristic New England institution have lived 
and do live in the hearts and lives of ten thousand sons and daughters 

o the academy who have found homes in every State and Territorv of 
the Union. 



> an act of the Vermont legislature, approved November 13, 1849, 
^ Is school w’as incorporated under the name and title of Barre Acad- 
. The first annual meeting was held May 13, 1851, at which time 
ho organization made complete. Four 

Pt'ocured by subscription, a site selected and 
sch' ’ huildings erected and furnished, and the first ;erm of 
ddrv September 1, 1852. At the dedicatory exercises the 

ersit'^^ ‘ ^^^orthington Smith, president of the Uni- 

Sn‘iniV° ermont. In it he alludes to its first principal, J. S. 

opaulding, as follows; 



auspice,; of on Wends and patrons of this institution that it opens under the 

‘■lice liave been" we who have iong resided within the sphere of his influ- 

‘^1 years ha,s regard as an omen of success; an indi\ldual who for the fast 

“r a.“ any man with the educational movement in the State, and as 

q,| succeeded in impressing the character of his own mind upon it. 

’’•*'iite to ^^essenge9', in August of the same j’ear, pays this 

with H„i.„ , P^^'^*^ing ^'hen he severed a twelve-vear connection 

Durin --^(“ademical Institution: 

Merits and will^'"*°^ labored arduously, zeafously, and successfully-. He 

*' years of gratitude of a large community that has been benefited 

'*11 do them-^ch* teaching. The people of Barre and of Washington County 

■- lujustice if tliey do not give to him a generous support. 



99 



100 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN VERMOFTT. 



T 



At the close of this term the first catalogue was issued, in 
the names of 78 male and 94 female students, and the following’ 
of instructors: 

J. S. Spaulding, A.M., principal; Mrs. J. S. Spaulding, pre«^ 
teacher of drawing, crayoning, and monochipmatic; Mr. 0. D.i 
i\lr. W. B. Parsons, and Miss L. A. Allen, assistant teachers; H 
Letestu, teacher of French; Prof. U. L. Phillips, teacher ofm 
Miss E. M. B. Felt, teacher of painting; Mr. J. IV. Swasey, ta 
of penmanship. 

The same pamphlet thus announces the objects w'hich the trt 
and teachers had in view: 



First, to furnish the youth of this vicinity the means of securing a souni 
tical education for the business of life. Second, to afford to young men dera 
fit themselves for college the opportunity for so doing on terms as reasoaj 
any other institution. Third, to secure to young ladies the means of acqr 
liberal education. Fourth, to qualify and prepare those who wish to enter ups 
work of instruction for the discharge of their arduous and responsible duties, f 
to promote virtue, morality, and piety in the young by inculcating those greiti 
principles on the observance of which depend the freedom of our institute 
the highest well being of man. 



With these objects in view, Barre Academy entered upon an 
prosperity as a training school for young people which resulte 
developing strong and useful characters, and gave to the country 
and women of integrity and worth. 

J. S. Spaulding, A. M., LL. D., was born in Chelmsford, H 
August 24, 1811, and graduated at Dartmouth College in 1841. 
taught school every wdnter during his college course, and also 
in Bakersfield Academy during the fall and winter preceding his! 
nation. His marriage to Mary W. Taylor, of Temple, N. H.^ 
place August 24, 1841, and during the next eleven years ther 
interested in school work in Franklin County, Vt. It was afk' 
experience that Barre Academy secured his services and found » 
a man well fitted for the work to be done. 

The corporation consisted at first of 15 trustees, which was inff 
to 25 by an act of the legislature in 1853. These were insU'U®' 
in buUding the academy and in securing stockholders for the ef* 
of a boarding house at a cost of nearly S4,000. During 



year an apparatus for use in philosophy and chemistiy was p' 



iukI 

at a cost of $1,000, and a legacy of $500 was made by Calvin 
to establish a library for the benefit of the school. Up to this 
therefore, $9,000 had been paid into the treasury for the use.‘ 
school. 

In the announcement for 1853 we find board is mentioned 
to $1.75 per week; tuition, per teiin, English, $3.50; 
Latin, $4.50; pianoforte, $8; vocal music, $1; penmanshi^^ 
painting, $6. 



SECONDARY EDUCATION. 



101 



1 S .54 we are informed that ‘‘the government of the school is 
HP iVmVl to be parental, and an attempt will be made to excite in the 
hohir a love of right doing, and to awaken within him a sense of his 
oblTmtions to himself, to his parents, and to his Creator.” 

In 1855 we first learn of “two literary societies connected with the 
a.-ademv to fm-nish an opportunity for the members of the school to 
improve in composition and extemporaneous debate.” About this 
time, also Mr. and Mrs. Marcus Carleton, missionaries to India, and 
natives of IVashington County, furnish the institution a cabinet of 
curiosities, shells, and minerals, “which will increase the facilities 
for acquiring a knowledge of natural history.” There were at this 
time four temis of 11 weeks each. 

A teacher's class is announced in 1858, and it is stated that “1,000 
geological specimens have been recently purchased for the cabinet.” 
At this time and during the more than a quarter of a century that he 
lived in Barre as principal of this school, ^Ir. Spaulding labored with- 
out a salary. Some of the time he lAed in the boarding house and 
always carried its cares, and his support was derived from the tuitions 
which came freely in response to his excellent work and strong per- 
sonal character. As business manager of the school he collected all 
dues, paid all expenses, and taught its students. During the time he 
was its principal he employed 26 different gentlemen and 31 lady 
a.ssistants. 

Twenty thousand dollars were contributed in the same period to 
provide buildings, pay for scholarships, and make up deficiencies. On 
^e twenty -fifth anniversary of the opening of the school in 1877, 
ev. C. B. Hulbert, D. D., president of Aliddlebury College, spoke as 
o lows concerning Mr. Spaulding and his ivork: 

honor all, the Nestor of Vermont teachers, stands the man whom we 

of reunion. Let not our academies count upon the frequent appearance 

•UK in th the stage of action; they are rare like stars, when only one is shin- 

can "k ^ present principal, backed up by his long success and reputation, 

itu , ^P/b® institution going while he lives. He himself is fund and endowment, 
‘W trj-stal vault. 

dii^" h^^^ ^iiddlebury College did honor to herself and to Air. Spaul- 
a.s & ' conferring on him the title of LL. D. In 1870 he was elected 
State of Vermont constitutional convention, and in 
®-"’ te^\^ ^opfosentative to the Vermont legislature. Besides his work 
bPdheld^^' was railroad commissioner, superintendent of schools, 
chur positions of trust. He was an active member of 

Wh Sunday school, and for more than twenty years was 

April Sunday-school superintendent. He died suddenly 

tniversff' At his funeral M. H. Buckham, president of the 

dies' ^ ^Pi’iiiont, pronounced these words: 

and faithf^f ends a blameless, useful, noble life. So goes to God a 

'sried leami ®®cvant. There may he those who have had greater gifts and more 
a more tf' there will not be found one who brought to his work a warmer 
orough, earnest, self-sacrificing devotion than Jacob Spaulding. 



X 



102 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 



After the death of Dr. Spaulding Barre Academy was for twn- 






under the management of Arthur A. Wheelock, A. M., 
resigned to accept a place in the Institute of Technology in Bo. 
His successor was J. P. Slocum, A. B. , who remained one yeat 
was followed by Edward H. Dutcher, A. B. , who worked faitt- 
for two years, with a competent coips of assistants. With the ; 
nation of the class in June, 1885, Barre Academy closed its doora' 
a third of a centuiy it had done admirable work for the cause of 
cation. Nearly 10,000 students had been welcomed and bene 
Between 300 and 100 had completed the course of study prescribe 
it to prepare them as teachers, or lit them to enter college. Itsk 
attendance in one year was in 1859, when 326 students were ent(' 
Its average annual attendance for thirty -three years had been 23t: 
had given a thorough and complete discipline to an annual svt 
of ten graduates. The honorable career of these students, anc 
alumnse, give to the world the strongest possible testimony of 
high character of the school. They^ caught something of their ti- 
er’s earnestness of spirit and devotion to truth, and like himT 
name they revere have determined “to make the world bette; 
having lived in it.” And wherever found in all this great rep: 
they largely exemplify among their fellow men the nobilitr 
grandeur of a devoted instructor. 

In 1887 the buildings and grounds of Barre Academy were conT* 
by deed to the school district in which they were situated. Tk 
sideration of the transfer is that the district shall maintain a f- 
school which shall prepare its pupils for entrance to college. 

Near the site of the old academy there has been erected a fine a 
building costing fI0,000. Engraven upon Barre granite and p* 
above the broad arch of its entrance may be seen the words “ Sp 
ing Graded School.” 

In Barre cemetery is a monument which is visited by many a stitf 
It consists of a granite pedestal 8 feet high, upon which is a lie** it 
figure of Carrara marble, cut in Italy, representing Reuie®l» „ 
scattering flowers on the graves below. Upon one face of the “ p 
this inscription: n 



J. S. Spaulding, A. Jil., LL.D., 
Principal of 

Bakersfield Academy, 1841-1852. 
Barre Academy, 1852-1880. 



n 



August 24th, 1811. April 29th, 1880. 

“ Make the world better by living in it.” 



The reverse represents the rising sun, with an open booH’' >o 
center, on which are the words “Sit lux.” 



SECOXDAEY EDUCATION. 



103 



On the southern face of the die is this inscription; 

Maey ay. Taylor, 

AYife of J. S. Spaulding. 

Bom in Harvard, Mass., January 20th, 1809. 
Married August 24th, 1841. 

Died September 22nd, 1881. 

“ Not to be ministered imto but to minister.” 



On the north tablet: 



Erected by 
Grateful Students 
In tender remembrance of 
Dr. and Mrs. Spaulding 
For their enduring 
AVork of faith 
and 

Labor of Love. 
AIDCCCLXXXVII. 

GODDARD SEMINARAL 



By Prof. D. L. Maulsby, of Tufts College. 

Goddard Seminary was in point of time the third educational insti- 
"■ition in \ erinont under the direction of the Universalist denomina- 
bn of Christian.^. The impetus that led to its establishment was a 

:e- 
At the 



itii 

P 



* a f ine impetus that led to its establishment was 

art o the general awakening to educational responsibilities that pre 
® in the denomination about the middle of this century. 

of the Vemiont convention of Universalists, held 
is ex ® resolution was unanimously adopted “that 

ic a 1 1 denomination to establish and endow a scien- 

sonie ^ institution of the grade of an academy, to be located 
'Point State.” At the same meeting a committee was 

•’d anoth ^ charter from the general assembly of V ermont, 

i'"ite.st locate the school the place where the 

1 186.3 "-ere to be secured. The charter was duly granted 

’<^orpoi-at,i 1 ^ session of the State legislature, the school being 
name of the Green Mountain Central Institute, 
active a.s^' T location had a more difficult result to compass, since 

>wns .• l^lnd and generous emulation was manifested by 6 

^^1 Montpel’ Woodstock, Bethel, Northfield, Barre, and 

ontributiQ striving, bj’ offer of building site and special 

o secure the location of the school within its 
6 town of Barre was finally selected as off ering greater 



104 



HISTOET OF EDUCATIOK IN VEKMONT. 






aggregate advantages than any other, and the wisdom of thin 
has been approved both by the local hospitality since accorded b 
school and by the remarkable growth of the town itself, fiev. 
Ballou was the first president of the board of trustees; Hon. Ht 
Tilden, secretary and treasurer, and W. R. Shipman, subsequent 
professor in Tufts College, financial agent. Mr. Shipman, takiiif 
field to solicit contributions, soon secured about $10,000, his inte 
and active aid being destined to continue from that day to this, ft 
in the spring of 1 867, funds meanwhile having been obtained to 
amount of nearly $50,000, the building was begun under the oveiE 
of a committee consisting of L. F. Aldrich and Charles Templeta 
Bari-e, and Hon. Heman Carpenter, of Northfield. The work 
completed in 1870, after generous effort on the part of the comm 
and the treasurer of the trustees. To Mr. Aldrich in particular, 
gave, unpaid, his careful supervision for three years, is due the 
stantial character of the structure. The school opened Februar 
with 88 students. 

It is impossible to portray adequately the financial struggle, fi 
at times seemed about to result in utter defeat, but which always « 
found some new volunteer to give aid absolutely needed or welca 
the return of some veteran donor to repeat his generosity 
those that shared in the recurring seasons of hope and despair 
truly appreciate the story. At a meeting of the State conventw 
Universalists in August, 1865, the final $6,000 was pledged, complri 
the $30,000 that had been fixed upon as the amount to be se« 
before locating the school. Of this amount $5,000 had been gh^ 
Thomas A. Goddard, of Boston, whose interest in denomina^ 
enterprises was always more than generous. In 1867 the specw 
tribution of Barre, together with other donations, had increaseii 
fund to $50,000, which was believed to be sufficient to cover thf 
of the building. But during the next year, in the absence of an 
to solicit subscriptions, it was feared that the work of erectin; 
building would stop. At this point Mrs. Maiy T. Goddard,: 
husband, the early benefactor of the school, had died in 1868, o 
$5,000 more, on condition that others should contribute 
amount. The acceptance and realization of this condition, togf' 
with the receipt of other gifts, relieved the immediate strain, 
rise in prices, occasioned by^ the war, increasing the cost of th® 
ing to $75,000, left a burden of debt, and, despite the large mi® 
of students in attendance, the trustees were unable, even with 1^®^ 
risk, to meet the necessary calls for money. In the midst ® 



despondency Mrs. Goddard again made a genei’ous contn 



which, with the sum secured by^ Dr. A. A. Miner, of Boston 
obligations of the time. A “bell festival,” in charge of 
the village, furnished the school with a bell and a balance in 



Did 



f 









SECONDARY EDUCATION. 



105 



besides many jx’rsons uiid cliureh societies made contributions of Sot) 
each to furnish one of the students’ rooms. 

Ill the wake of the business crisis of 1873 Sll.OOO was raised — more 
than half of this sum from Massachusetts and vicinity — by the efforts 
of Prof. W. R. Shipman, of Tufts College. But the greatest shock 
occurred at the regular meeting of the trustees in 1875, when, besides 
a small remainder of the old debt, a deficiency of about $1,000 was 
discovered in the running expenses of the school, the greater part of 
which had arisen during the current year. After serious debate, 
eleven members of the board assumed the entire debt, taking the notes 
of the school as security. Seven years later the debt no longer 
remained, partly through the generosity of some holders of the notes, 
who abandoned them without recompense. At the meeting when the 
great deficiency was discovered Professor Shipman was elected presi- 
dent of the Ixiard of trustees. Since then the financial history of the 
school ha.s been more encouraging. The raising of an endowment 
fund of $10,000 was prosecuted betw'een 1876 and 1880, the sum being 
enthusiastically completed by the assembly gathered to witness the 
graduating exercises in June of the latter year. At present the endow- 
ment reaches $21,000. The amount is securely invested and will be in 
time increased by certain property bequeathed subject to life interests, 
t is believed that the institution, after many struggles, is at last on a 
«)hd basis of commercial prosperity. 

But no institution of learning can be financialty successful without 
e constant aid of sympathizing and untiring friends. Goddard 
^ minary has had its share of benefactors, some that have given from 
stored treasury, others that have paid for their generosity with 
Gio^"*i The remarkable generosity of Mr. and Mrs. 

1870 t/ so emphasized the obligation to their bounty that in 
their I'h school was altered to perpetuate the memory of 

■n bidd’^^V^' is woi-th noting that the five towns unsuccessful 
dnce location of the seminary within their limits have 

the ^ substantial interest in its welfare. At 

istering to it'”^^ Ihere are still faithful friends about the school, min- 
that they ar gaining their only reward in seeing the good 

and\^^ teachers the seminary is fortunate in having had devoted 
line figure service has not been reckoned at their hire, 

hy eigljtgpj^ conspicuous among these, known to every graduate 
sick bed'^^T^ helpfulness, in the class room, in the church, by 
the conung death of Miss Persis A. Thompson, occurring at 

^’ho.se whole^ljf season of 1890, left the seminary deprived of one 

identical with fif intimately given to its service that she seemed 

herheriQgg^ ^®®hool itself. To the former students that had known 
®nnie as a personal bereavement. Following is the list 



106 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 



U 



of principals, Trith the term of service of each: L. L. 

A. M., 1870—1873; F. M. Hawes, A. B., 1873—71:; Henry Priest^ 
1871-1883; Alston W. Dana, Ph. B., 1883-1887; D. L. Maulsby l 
1887-1891; A. AV. Peirce, 1891. 

P'roin the beginning the aim of the seminary has been, while* 
ing the field both of the common school and the college, to hi 
foundation of a liberal education. The work has been made intri) 
tory to a course in college, when such was practicable; but when 
the aim has been to give the elements of general culture with 
thoroughness as to aid in the actual duties of life, and to make ha 
men and women. The record of the alumni shows that more than U 
the young men have entered college. Tufts has generally been cha 
but graduates have entered also Boston Universitv, Cornell, A 
mouth, Harvard, the University of Vermont, and other represei^ 
colleges. 

A few words need to be said concerning the present facilities di 
seminary. In location it is fortunate, since its elevated site comni 
a fine view of the surrounding Vermont hills and is in turn conspin 
from all neighboring points. The building, five stories in height,! 
brick, with granite trimmings — the brick being made on the spoti 
clay discovered during the digging of the foundation. In length 
structure is 160 feet. Two wings, 53i feet long by 43 feet 
extend from a central part 53 feet square. Shapelv towers lisef- 
the front corners of the central part, affording means of enta 
through the doorways at their base. AATthin is accommodatiw 
seventy-five boarding students, besides recitation rooms on the 
floor, and in the basement a kitchen, a dining room, and a lau^ 
Steam heat is supplied. The woodwork is of black ash and butten 
oiled and polished. The whole structure bears evidence of 
workmanship. The architect was T. AA^. Silloway, of Boston. 

In 1884 the grounds were enlarged by the purchase of an adj* 
tract of land, the encroaching village being thus kept at a pi'Op*'^' 
tance, and at the same time a suitable campus for field sports k 
furnished. During the school year 1888-89 the grounds weregr* 
and beautified at considerable expense, and at cominencemeD’ 
alumni presented a rustic fountain of granite. The latest ad(liti<» 
material facilities is a gymnasium building, 72 by 30 feet, which-' 
supplied with suitable apparatus, will furnish an adequate 
physical culture. 

Four courses of study are offered: An English course, embi* 
mathematics, English, natural and mental science; another, , 

fnA CQlVtA Vyvo At? fVn-v o i-1 4- ^ nr 



, - 

the .same branches, with the addition of two years of ancient oi 
language study; a course in preparation for college; and a coui^ 
bracing the more advanced portions of all the others, intend 
those persons that are prevented by circumstances from entefi®? 



SECONDARY EDUCATION. 



107 



"e IW Instruction bj* special teachers is given in piano, vocal music, 
4 Xaiid penmanship. The board of ten teachers, besides a matron, 
i thorough work while maintaining among the students a 

liirh standard of behavior. 

The attendance of the past five years has averaged 108, about half 
ihis number residing in the school building, the remainder coming as 
lav scholars. The school has been favored in the character of its 
“ mpils. the instances of vicious conduct being very rare, and the gen- 
'ml trend of conduct being toward sterling qualities of manhood. It 
nav be that the system of government is in part the cause of this. 
The constant endeavor has been to make the school homelike and to 
urnish a variety of legitimate and profitable means of employing time, 
h IVhile cases of misconduct receive due attention and certain necessary 
itt findations' exist, effort is made to teach the students self-government 
ather than reduce their conduct to obedience to a complicated set of 
ides. 

The present organization of the board of trustees is as follows: 
io Rev. W. E. Shipman, D. D., president; Hon. A. T. Foster, vice- 
(.*■ )resident; Charles Templeton, treasurer; George W. Tilden, secretary, 
ti '..xecutive committee: Rev. W. R. Shipman, Ira C. Calef, Charles 
tk I'empleton, B. W. Braley, M. D., Hon. Clark King. 



VERMONT ACADEMY, SAXTONS RIVER, VT. 



By Rev. W. H. Rugg. 

The first public movement toward the establishment of Vermont 
^cacenu was made at the annual meeting of the Vermont Baptist 
ate convention, held at AVindsor November 10, 1869, when the 
Olio wing resolution was adopted: 

time has come when the Baptists of Vermont should awake to 
h#itere!it bv subject of general education, and should express that 

* iient of a fi steps to secure the establishment and adequate endow- 

^ >jth sexes literary and scientific institute for the education of our youth of 

A coininittee of 



e 

IIK 

CT 

lie 



IBnarv niea.' seven was appointed to take the necessary prelim- 

he Revs carrying the resolutions into effect, consisting of 

y. Bro ’ G. S. Chase, AY. L. Palmer, M. A. AVillcox, 

At the n**' Hons. R. J. Jones and AA^illiam M. Pingry. 

convention at Hydeville, October 5 and 6, 
"^hich Blade, at considerable length, a report of progress, 

'‘=^t pAstors^in ^tid addressed a circular to all the Bap- 

iBtion anion ” th^ inquiring: First. Do you judge such an insti- 

®n<l advancement State necessary to their prosperity 

^Btindino-^qV Vre you ready to cooperate in maintaining 

^xceptioQ ^ answers to both had been, with very 

unexpectedly hearty and emphatic the affirmative. 



T 



108 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 

At the meeting Hon. Lawi’ence Barnes and Rev. Charles Hf. 
were added to the committee. At a convention held at Burl ' 
October i and 5, 1871, a board of trustees was appointed, consist '* 
11 persons, among whose duties, as prescribed by the convention, 
those of establishing and locating the new institution, of lai^ 
endowment of $100,000 exclusive of grounds, buildings, andappm 
and of securing from the general assembly of the State an act of i 
poration. Judge William M. Pingry, of Perkinsville, was th 
president of the board, and continued in office until his death in 
1885. His successor was Hon. Levi K. Fuller, of Brattleboro, 
still coutinues in office. 

The persons so elected subscribed articles of association at Bn; 
ton June 17, 1872, and assumed the powers of a corporation! 
known and called by the name of “The trustees of the Ver. 
Academy.” At the meeting of the convention at Brattleboro Os 
3, 1872, the board of trustees was increased to 15, and an actofii 
poration was shortly after passed by the general assemblv of the; 
which was approved Nov'ember 26, 1872, and accepted by a vote (■ 
board of trustees June 2-t, 1873. By the act of incorporation! 
provided that five of the fifteen trustees should be elected eact 
four by the board itself and one by the Vermont Baptist State 
vention, and that three-fourths of the members not elected | 
convention should be members of Baptist churches. ^ 

Soon after the appointment of the board in 1871, overture' ! 
several villages in widely separated parts of the State were: 
requesting the locating of the academy in said villages, with, in- 
cases, liberal offers of money and property. At the meeting 
board June 17, 1872, when it eff ected a legal incorporation, inteF 
facts and proposals were laid before it bv Rev. William 
which eventually decided the question of location. 

It was stated that Mr. Charles L. Jones, of Cambridge, 
native of Saxtons River, had for some years proposed giving 8f I' 
ous smii of money for the establishment of an academy in his n ^ 
place; that he had invited citizens of the place to join him in thf* 
prise; that his invitation had been cordially accepted and a c®*’’ 
able sum of money had alread}' been pledged. 

It was further stated that the attention of Mr. Jones and hh^ 
had been called to the project of the Vermont Baptists, and tbs' 
had offered to transfer to the board appointed by the Bapti^* 
convention the direction and control of the movement proj®®*^ 
themselves, provided the board would accept the timst and lo^*' 
proposed academy at Saxtons River. 

On the 28th of August following the board decided to aco^' 
offer. In a circular issued September 11, 1872, the board, thf 
committee, announced that Mr. Jones had pledged $20,000; 
Saxtons River $30,000, and Baptists in other parts of the Stated* 



SEOONDAKY EDUCATION. 



109 



sHiJ 
tioft, 



A wnbeirof Saxtons River, who had already been set at work by the 
* ■ toard. was appointed agent to prosecute the work of raising 
Within one year of the time of his appointment he was able 
to rcFrt that the subscriptions to the 8100,000 endowment fund had 

Ikh'ii completed. 

Vfter this he turned his attention to the raising of money for the 
•ha<e of land and erection of buildings. In 1876 the trustees made 
[their first announcement, stating that the Vennont Academy would be 
pen to students of both sexes on the 6th day of September. As no 
me of the school buildings was completed at that time, the school was 
poned in a private house, with Horace Mann Willard, A. M. , for 
rincipal. 

Principal IMllard was a graduate of Brown University, and had been 
[huperintendent of Schools in Gloucester and Xewton, Mass. Under 
is administration the school grew rapidly in the number of pupils, 
nd in the popularity and efficiency of its work. Mr. Willard con- 
tinued as principal for thirteen years, when in 1889 he was succeeded 
y the present principal, George Abner Williams, A. M., Ph. D., a 
'aduate of Colgate University. 

During the first fourteen years of the academy’s history, ending 
dune, 1890, the number of students in attendance for each year was as 
follows: 



of the convention board October 2, 1872, Rev. William 



Year. 



iRist .. 

[Third . 
Toimh 
ruti. 
Si«h 
^Temh 

Eighth. 



Attend- 

ance. 


Year. 


Attend- 

ance. 


56 

109 

126 

131 

139 




195 




184 




1% 




194 


Thirteenth 


193 


155 

175 


Fourteenth 


197 


192 


.\ggregate 


2,242 



Tl 

I ^ number of difl'erent pupils in attendance these ymars was 1,151. 
pmH puduating class was sent out in 1879. The number of 
I Uii ,s years has been as follows: 



Class of— 

l»C. 






Yumber ' 
of grad- 1 
nates. | 


Class of — 


Number 
of grad- 
uates. 


Class of — 


Number 
of grad- 
uates. 


2 ' 


1883 


14 


1887 




11 


1884 




1888 




16 


1885 


18 


1889 


15 




12 


1886 


19 


1890 


23 













88 



bole 



.'■uung graduates in twelve years, 89 young men 

Vale Vermont Academy have studied or are now studying 

""’nt. ^urvard, Amherst, Middlebuiy, University^ of Ver- 

Boston University, IVesleyan, Wellesley, Smith. Vas- 



Uehicrfi 

"“•'Oherlif 



U 



uiversity of Michigan, Williams, State University of 



110 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 

Colorado, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dartmouth X 
Theological Seminary, law schools of Harvard, Boston fniv." 
Michigan State University, medical schools of Vermont Univc 
College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

The students of Vermont Academy have come from even 
England State, also from New York, New Jersey, Pennsvii 
Virginia, 1\ isconsin, Ohio, Colorado, Michigan, ^Montana, III 
Wyoming, Alabama, Missouri; from eighteen States and Terrii 
and also from Ontario, Quebec, and Nova Scotia. 

During the year ending June, 1890, of the total of 197 studen' 
came from other States, or 38 per cent of the whole. 

The original purchase of land contained 36 acres, embm 
plateau about 30 feet above the idllage, in a beautifid maple f 
Eecently Col. L. K. Fuller, president of the board of trustee 
purchased and presented to the academy a lot of land lying i: 
diately north of the original purchase and consisting of 30 acre 
about 5 acres more in a separate lot. This last purchase willk 
as a farm for the production of supplies for the table of the hot' 
hall, and opportunities will be given boys to help themselves bv' 
thereon. 

A set of farm buildings, unique in design and excellently suit 
their purpose, has been built; fine stock, consisting of Holsteinr 
Shropshire sheep, Plymouth Rock fowls, has been purchased 
most approved tools and farm machinery have been secured, 
these things look toward the practical side, and the school w- 
physiolog 3 ^, botanj-, and chemistry will be made to connect in a 
tical way with the farm. 

Vermont Academv" aims to be a school where the bovs and gt 
Vermont and other States maj’ be trained for their life work, at 
many of the students are the sons and daughters of farmers, thf' 
here receive many valuable and suggestive object lessons in 
the theory and practice of successful agriculture. 

The buildings already' erected are the girls’ dormitory, JonPa 
named for Mr. Charles S. Jones, already mentioned: the bovs 
tory, Farnsworth Hall, named for Hon. John A. Farnsvror 
wealthy donor, resident of Saxtons River; Fuller Hall, nauif 
Col. L. K. Fuller, containing the chapel, recitation and society 
laboratories, and all other public rooms; Proctor Hall, named 
Proctor, of Bolton, Mass., the dining hall; Armoiy HaU, wbifl' 
tains the gy^mnasium and furnishes a place for militarv driU D'” 
ent weather; the Sturtevant House, built by the late B. F. StuT** 
of Jamaica Plains, Mass., the principal’s house. This is built of’ 
the others are substantial brick buildings. 

Besides these are the storehouse and other buildings e.sseflt^ 
the equipment of the school. 



SECONDARY EDCCATION. 



Ill 



The dormitories accommodate 50 pupils each, and the rooms are so 

an<red that the sun shines into every room during some portion of 
the dav These buildings, as well as the public rooms, are heated by 
.tram.' and they are also supplied with pure spring water brought 
from the hills in pipes. 

The location of the school is excellent. Saxtons River is miles 
west from Bellows Falls, an important railroad junction, yet closely 
connected therewith by telephone, telegraph, and stage. 

The landscape about Saxtons River is agreeably diversified with hill 
and dale, field and forest, and is restful to the eye and brain, when 
wearied from study. 

Two regular courses of study are provided, covering four years 
rach: First, the college preparatory or classical course, which prepares 
students to enter any of our colleges; second, the academic course, de- 
signed for those who do not contemplate a subsequent course of study 
and which embraces a broader range of subjects than the classical 
course. All colleges which admit students on certificate admit appli- 
cants in this manner from Vermont Academy. Students who are 
unable to pursue either of these courses may take selected studies, and 
a preparatory course is provided for those who choose to enter the 
school before they are sufficient!}^ advanced to enter either of the reg- 
ular courses. French, drawing, painting, vocal and instrumental 
mu.sic. and elocution, receive special attention, each of these depart- 
ments being under charge of specialists. 

Once a week the whole school meets for discussion of “current 
topics.” 



Among the aids to the instruction of the class room are the following; 
A well-selected and constant!}^ increasing apparatus for the illustration 
“*^^^ral sciences, history, and geography; a library consisting of 
® ot 1,500 volumes; a reading room containing about 50 papers and 

periodicals; occa,sional lectures and concerts bv first-class speakers and 
singers. 

p Three literary societies are sustained by the students — the Pi Beta 
1 an Athenseum by the boys and the Kappa Pi by the girls. A 
‘‘Y* published by the Pi Beta Phi twice a term, entitled the 

ermont Academy Life,” which compares favorably with other 

^^p^^lP^bficadonsofitskind. 

s^ve^n furnished deserving students from the income of 

of the***^ ^ jii’^liips of ^1,000 each and from private benevolence. Some 
* ^^*’u a part of their expenses by work, 
tors of V* children of all pastors and of all deceased pas- 

Put i(- of whatever denomination, 

tunities ^iui of Vermont Academy to furnish oppor- 
soul *^®^tal culture. There is a trinity in man — body, mind, 
^®titution*^^*^ recognized in i.he instruction given at this 



112 



HISTORY OR EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 



For the sake of health and physical development the boys qi 
drill in military tactics and the girls in light gymnastics three 
week. The military department is now under the charge of h 
George "W. Gatchell, Fourth Artillery, U. S. A., a graduate of I 
Point in the class of 1887. He is detailed to Vermont Acadc* 
the United States Government. The new tactics are already ina 

Special regard is had for the Christian culture of the pupik 
school was founded as a Christian school. The avowed aim^ 
leaders in its management and its hoard of instructioir is to mab 
school a center of Christian culture and influence. The Y. M.C 
and the Y. W. C. A. have flourishing hr-anches, and the giik 
sustain an organization of the King’s Daughters. 

The motto of the academy seal is “Discere verba et opera Da' 
learn the words and the works of God). The traditions of the si 
and the spirit of its management have been in harmony with thisa 
and while the academy^ is not sectarian in spirit or in teaching,! 
maintained that in every true, well-rounded education the rdig 
element is essential. 

The present board of teachers consists of the principal, Geo^ 
"Williams, A. M., Ph. D., who has clas.ses in Greek, and the ladjf 
cipal, Miss Frances L. Davis, who has the department of psycl» 
and literature, assisted by 11 teachers in the different departm»t 

THE VERMONT EPISCOPAL INSTITUTE. 



The V ermont Episcopal Institute was founded by the Right. Ret.J 
Heniy Hopkins, D. D., LL. D., fir.st bishop of Vermont, andi 
porated by the legislature November 11, 1851. John H. Hf? 
Charles B. Marvin, Thomas H. Canfield, Edward J. Phell*i 
Albert L. Catlin constituted the first board of trustees. The pi^ 
held by the corporation consists of a tract of land 100 acres in < 
on Rock Point, distant about 2 miles from the Burlington post" 
directly across the bay and within view of the city% possessing 
tages of extraordinary' attraction in point of healthfulness, 
and beautiful scenery. In point of scenery, especially', the lo<*** 
unexcelled. Rock Point itself is well known for its wild, pictn^ 
aspect; but the loveH view it affords of the lake, the city, the 



and Adirondack mountains, surpa.sses its own picturesqueness," 



IV 



uated also, as it is, in the midst of an historical region, the sit* 



of le«" 



peculiarly' advantageous one for a school and seminary' ‘-v 
T he institute is a large stone building, erected from varieties e 
ble found upon the place, 125 feet long, 57 feet wide at the no** 
and 66 feet wide at the southern end, in which is a beautiful 
complete, for the accommodation of 150 persons, and equipP®* 
all appurtenances for a flrst-clas.^ boarding school, which ihIv 
modate 75 pupils, with the principal and his family. The 9* 



SECONDARY EDUCATION. 



113 



■hitecture is the collegiate Gothic, of the same general character as 

vails in the English universities of Oxford and Cambridge. The 

Clding itself, with its deeply recessed windows and doors, tall, pro- 
octing tower, and walls flanked with buttresses, presents an appear- 
ance which is universally considered grand and impressive. The 
hool has been in operation twentv-four years, the first twenty years 
charge of Rev. Theodore A. Hopkins, a son of the late bishop. 
Mr. Hopkins was succeeded by Henry H. Ross, A. M.,an experienced 
teacher, well fitted for maintaining and increasing the high standard 
of instruction established by his predecessor. The school year at the 
institute is forty weeks, generally beginning about September 1, and 
closing on the first Wednesday in June. The best of opportunities 
f.tist for outdoor exercise. The varied grounds form a pleasant place 
for boys to ramble in the woods, and a well-prepared playground 
Ifords opportunity for football and baseball. During the past few 
tears extensive improvements have been made in the buildings and a 
lif lew gymnasium has been built. Boys are trained for any American 
»Uege or scientific schools or prepared at once for business. 



BISHOP HOPKINS HALL. 

(The diocesan school for young ladies at Rock Point.) 



On the 5th of August, 1886, the late John P. Howard bequeathed 
'^t,000 a.s an endowment for the young ladies’ school at Rock Point, 
>rorided suitable buildings should be erected therefor bj^ the trustees 
' t^be \ eniiont Episcopal Institute, or the sum of ^0,000 be raised 
V after his death for such buildings. Mr. Howard died 

before October 10, 1886, the trustees had raised 
rap 1 )^ as required. In 1887 the executive committee, after a full 

eS )lan> architect, agreed upon all the details of the 

(.(< o a site, and authorized Mr. Canfield to proceed forthwith 

ThelT buildings, 

tt iniith ^ standard, preparing for entrance to W ellesley, 

it? arrv ®^®ar colleges by those who desire to enter them, or to 
jt« those who do not to a more advanced and finished 

* built educational edifice is 124 feet long and 62 feet wide, 

teries in h^ ' quarried in the immediate neighborhood and is 4 

af gothic u stjde of architecture is a collegiate or academ- 

)f i he stair pr ’ * • I’oofs, gables, a cupola, and central tower over 

’^"eipal st ^ ^*®^ted in forms of massive basement stone walls, 

liir lx)n/^ ’with corners laid in a whitish stone in 

*“dful pro tower is arranged so that a very extensive and 

^k(‘(l m j ' P®'^t can be viewed from it for miles in every direction, 
hi ever l>p t°^' either .side, the drive or lawn or lake, the building 
just what it is, a church educational edifice. 




114 



HISTOEY OF EDUCATION IN VEEMONT. 



LYNDON INSTITUTE. ^ 

By Walter Eugene Ranger, A. M.. Principal. { 

The story of Lyndon Institute is that of most academies. A ^ 
schools, established by some princely gift, hare begun life likeja 
born to luxury, but most have been founded in the toil and self.^ ^ 
fice, in the prayers and faith of many benefactors. This instiii 
was chartered in 1867 and founded in 1869. Its beginnings, 
were of an earlier date. The imagination may readily supply thei ^ 
of raising funds, of contributions Idrge and small, of labor eontriln ^ 
by those having no money to offer, of hope alternating with i 
pointment. of progress and delay, and of the ultimate complet* j. 
the building. The founders of the institution were mostly of the! 
Baptist faith; it was fostered by the denomination, and its pastuif 
ness and honor, and also whatever seiwice it shall render in thefuf. 
will give honor to this body of Christians. 

The institute building is a fine structure of brick and granite W 
70 feet, having a basement, two stories, and a French roof. Thes 
tion of the building exhausted all available funds, and the M 
opened in great want of furniture and apparatus. 

In the autumn of 1870 the school opened with George W. Wott 
as principal. J. C. Hopkins, A. M., was principal in the y^ear 1811 
and John Sewall Brown. A. M., in the years 1872-1881. Theavd 
attendance of pupils during these eleven years was 67. During 
period praiseworthy work was done under adv^erse circum.sW 
Nearly thirty students were graduated and several hundred' 
instructed. Among these are many men and women who to-d»J 
positions of service and honor. But the attempt to maintain a 
of high standard without endowment failed, and the school was 
in 1881. 

Soon the friends of the school by active measures I'aised an e'*' 
ment of $25,000 and improved the school property to the 
$8,000. These repairs consisted chieflv' in finishing and furnish”^ 
basement and third floor. 

In the autumn of 1883 the school was reopened with Walter • 
Ranger. A. M., as principal, and with three associate teache*^ 
Ranger has been at the head of the school for several years. 1 
now 10 teachers. During these eight y*ears the board of instruc 
been eminent for its sound scholarship and professional sKi 
teachers have all been graduates of colleges and higher 
learning. Some have had the advantages of foreign and postg ^ 
study. The school began in 1883 with 53 pupils and for 
grew slowly. Its numbers have doubled in the past four 
the last fall term 160 were registered. The average attendance ^ 
current year is 140, and 225 different pupils are enrolled for h* ' 



SECONDAEY EDUCATION. 



115 



the eight rears 775 different students hare been in attendance, 
^Tifthe past six years 73 hare been graduated from the four-rear 
^urs^ and 87 from the commercial department. 

The institute offers four courses of study— four years’ college pre- 
paratory^ four years’ ladies’ classical, four years’ scientific, and one year 
wmnieicial. There are also departments of music, art, elocution, pho- 

nogniphr. and typewriting. 

Durinir the eight years about 13, 500 has been raised and expended in 
furniture and school supplies. The institute has a chemical laboratory, 
a larw and very valuable cabinet of minerals, fossils, etc., a well-fur- 
nished art studio, a fine reading room, a library of 800 volumes, elegant 
parlors and other rooms, philosophical apparatus, etc. It has also 
steam heat, spring water, a boarding department, and large grounds. 

In 1883 the cabinet was greatly enhanced by the acquisition of a 
fine collection of minerals, fossils, woods, birds, shells, etc., at an 
expense of several hundred dollars. Other valuable additions have 
been made. It occupies a large room, fitted up for the purpose, with 
ses of glass and cherry. It now contains over 3,000 specimens, is 
nstantly increased by additions, and in extent, variety, and quality 
f its specimens is equaled by few school cabinets. 

The chemical laboratory is arranged for individual experimenting, 
nd i.s supplied with sufficient apparatus. In the past it has been of 
nestimable service to classes in chemistry. 

The philosophical and other apparatus, though somewhat limited, 

‘ of very considerable value. It is expected that additions will soon 
made. 

The I oung Gentlemen’s Philadelphian and the Young Ladies’ Lit- 
•^ry societies have been organized for several years for intellectual 
•mpro\enient and drill in parliamentary usage. These societies are 
on er the management of students and" their activitv depends upon 
'•'^mtemstof their members. 

® ^'nl'oral History Society was organized for the study of natural 
icie i^ork is under the supeiwision of the teacher of natural 

The*^Ch^'**'^ of the regular work in natural history, 
ad Association of Lyndon Institute was organized for 

nf its oause of Christ and for the Christian culture 

Condition organization it has been in a most vigorous 

Th 

P''omote'^fi'^° Athletic Association was organized a few years ago 
P^vsicai cult ^ sports and enlarge opportunities of students for 

’'ttcctcd °^'?^ioization of the graduates of Lyndon Institute was 

‘"'81‘ded eacli th® chapel June 12, 1889. Prizes are 

S^iieval in public declamation, as also honors 




116 



HISTOEY OF EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 



During 1891 a new boarding hall was erected, called the 
Students’ Home.” It is named in honor of Mr. I. W. Sanbom,i, 
tary and treasurer of the institute, and one of its constant beneffc 
since its organization. 

Among the many benefactors of the institute are Hon. S. S.Tl* 
son, D. P. Hall, T. N. Vail, and L. B. Harris, who have giventhei 
est sums. The aggregate gifts of the first two amount to mom 
^35,000. Very many others have rendered as worthy service be 
and labor. 

GREEN MOUNTAIN SEMINARY. 

The Green Mountain Seminary was founded about twenty yeais ' 
by the Free Baptist denomination of Vermont, and is open to i * 
sexes. Besides the English, classical, and college preparatory coo,’' | 
much attention is given to music, ait, and elocution. But one of j 
chief features of the seminary is the Minard Commercial School, w; j 
affords excellent advantages for acquiring a thorough business eJ; j 
tion. It has a large corps of teachers, commodious building, as. ( 
located at Waterbury Center in the midst of some of the gitt j 
scenery of Vermont. ( 

TROY CONFERENCE ACADEMY. * 

I 

The history of the academy dates from the organization of thel 1 
Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, which in 1833 f 
fonned from the northern part of the New York Conference, !• 
bounded on the north by Canada, on the east by the Green Mouit 1 
of Vermont and Massachusetts, reaching about 15 miles soutt le 
Albany and extending west to Fort Plain, thence north to Canada 

In the new conference thus formed were men of deep piety, c®-' * 
ability, and sincere earnestness, who clearly saw and deeply fdi ^ 
need of a school for the young of their communities. In * 
charter was obtained from the legislature of Vermont. The in-'' 
tion was located at Poultney, then as now a typical New England 
lage. Sixty years ago the Methodist Church had little money f ^ 
command, but when called upon to contribute for an academy 
ference responded liberally. There is no more pathetic pag^i^ ^ 
church’s histoiy than that which records its generosity to her*^ j 
tional enterprises. Some of the preachers literally divided theil.l’ ^ 
with the schools. j 

Forty thousand dollars was needed, and in the Christian Ad*' i 
and Journal of September, 1836, we find an appeal by S. D. F®’?' j 
and Cyrus Prindle, as agents, calling for funds. In it they s&f- j 

The board of trustees have purchased a farm of 100 acres for $6,000 and tb®,* 
ings for the school are going up. The main building is 112 feet long by 36^ j . 
be four stories above the basement, and the rear building 90 feet longi«“‘ 



SECONDAKY EDUCATION. 



117 



4 

.ft 

k 

ni 

in 



ho •.• the basement. The buildings will be very substantial and well adapted 
rtonesa ^ designed; the site is a lovely one. The school is to 

* ' die'lst 'of September' It is a part of the plan of the school to connect wdth it 
T"uamial-labor system. This is required, first, for the preservation of the health 
'f student- and sMond, to bring education within the reach of those who are not 
able to lay'the full amount of tuition and board in ordinary academies. This class 
1 verv numerous, and they are looking anxiously to the complete establishment of 
»ur arademy in Poultney, with high hopes of obtaining a good education. 

The building was ready for the fall term of 1837. However, the 
trustees opened a school a year earlier in a house standing on the farm, 
with S. S. Stocking as principal, who gave place at the end of the jmar 
to Daniel Curry, later the di.stinguished journalist and author. Stu- 
dents came in large numbers, and the school took high rank. But some 
part of the cost of the property remained unpaid. This debt soon 
benune a source of embarrassment, and to be free from it the trustees 
in 1855 gave a perpetual lease to Rev. Joshua Poor. From 1855 to 
18t>3 ilr. Poor conducted the school as a private enterprise, retaining 
it- name and nominal relations to the conference. In 1863 the prop- 
erty pa.ssed into the hands of Rev. John Newman, D. D., who changed 
the school into one for ladies only, under the name of Ripley Female 
College. In 1871 the conference repurchased the property and restored 
to the school its original character and name. Rev. M. E. Cady, D. D. , 
was the first principal. Upon his resignation in 1877 Charles H. 
Dunton, D. D., who had been a teacher in the institution since its 
rcsu.scitation, was elected to the position, which he continues to fill. 

During recent years aline building for chapel, recitation, and society 
purjWses has been erected, at a cost of $11,000. The property is now 
fstunated at $70,000, upon which there is no debt. 

’s preparation is made a specialty, though generous provision 

o^iu.i e foi those who will complete their school daj’s in the academy 
go lom it directly to professional schools. Graduate courses in the 
b |c, ait, and commercial departments are also maintained, 
cent dilferent students have been enrolled. Forty -three per 

^'or fom* niale graduates have entered the Christian ministrj^. 
tho . the number of applicants for admission has exceeded 
“’‘'‘bpacty of the buildings. 



ng the principals who have left their individual impress upon 



.. i-lLt.' » Kj XV./XU XXIVXX V XVXU.CXX XXXJ J^XX LX^VXX 

ttalza ll^M^ mentioned Jesse T. Peck, Orin Faville, and 

to 1818 . ^ Peck was at the head of the school from 1810 

tie Was' t'esigned to take the presidency of Dickenson College, 
^tr ^ bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church in 1872. 

^"PeriutenH’ Poultney, was lieutenant-governor and 

Icy is no^*' public instruction of the State of Iowa. Mr. Man- 

-■^on" ^ Pt^^fessor in Wellesley College. 

•laiups ^ subordinate teachers were Erastus Wentworth, D. D.; 

obg, S. T. D., professor of exegetical theology in Drew 



118 



HISTOKY OF EDUCATION IN VEKMONT. 



Theological Seminary; Henry E. Pearson, late chancellor of tbf 
versity of the State of New York; W. P. Coddington, proffc, 
Greek in Syracuse University; Rev. R. H. Howard. 

Among those who received their academic training in the aw- 
are the late Judge W. C. Dunton, of Vermont; EzekCowen.o- 
court of appeals of New York; Professor Petty, of Burlington;! 
P. K. Gleed, of Morristown; Hon. R. A. Parmeter and F.J. Pi- 
ter of Troy; Gen. George S. Batcheller, minister to Portugal:! 
Julia C. R. Dorr; Gens. W. Y. and Edward Ripley; Rev. Dr.lt 
Hulhurd; Prof. L. A. Austin, and Rev. Dr. Joseph E. King. 



VERMONT METHODIST SEMINARY. 



Angust 13, 1832, Capt. Alden Partridge and Hon. D. A A. I 
addressed the New Hampshire conference at Lyndon, Vt, on Ik 
ject of founding and maintaining a literary institution within it 
ders. The conference appointed a committee, of which Solomot 
was chairman, to consider the subject referred to. This conm 
reported that “‘in their opinion the time had come for the coafe' 
to extend its patronage to a literary institution within its borf- 
and recommended that “a committee of seven be appointed tot. 
tain propositions for locating this literary and scientific instiK 
■with power to make contracts and enter into any arrangements i 
sary to cany the contemplated object into effect.” The repor 
adopted and seven leading members of the conference appointei 
three towns desiring the school, Newburv was selected because 
central and very desirable location, and because the town offee 
contribute 86,000, which was half the estimated cost of the bu® 
The .seminaiy was chartered in' November, 1833, and opened ic 
tember, 1834. Funds wei'e solicited by the first treasurer, Tir 
Morse, and the building erected under his direct supervision- 
plans furnished by lYilbur Fisk of sainted memory. Rov 
Adams, D. D., whose very useful and distinguished life eiiaeJin 
ington, D. C., in 1890, was the first principal, with Rev. 0. C- 
afterwards a bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church, as 
and Miss Elsie French (later Mrs. Joel Cooper) pi-eceptn 
was founded what is to-day the Vermont Methodist Semina: 

Dr. Adams remained in charge of the school for five yearSj ‘ 
which time the attendance increased from 122 to 326, and the m 
tion came into very general favor throughout the conferea^ 
was succeeded by Professor Baker, who likewise held the o ^ 
half a decade. Under his wise and popular management the - 
and prosperity of the past were not only continued but 
mented. It is not too much to say that very few men ever 
strong an influence over their pupils as did Principal Baker ^ 
young men and women of Newbury during his ten years o 



1 



I 



1 



SECONDARY EDUCATION. 



119 



teacher aiicl principal. In addition to the duties incident to 
he organized and taught a class in systematic theology. 
STto developed ii.to the Sewbyj Biblic.l lostitute. m 

IS was moved to Concord, N. H., and is now the School of Theology 

of Boston University. . , j . a 

In 1 31 1 Dr. Baker resigned to enter the pastorate, and was succeeded 
bv Clark T Hinman, D. D., afterwards founder and first president 
of the Northwestern University. From 1848 to 1854 the seminar^v was 
under the management of Joseph E. King, D. D., for the past thirtj- 
geven years president of Fort Edward (K. \ .) Collegiate Institute. His 
administration may be styled among the most brilliant and successful 
in the entire history of the school. One very important measure of 
that period was the establishing of the Eeniale Collegiate Institute, 
chartered in November, 1849, and ‘‘designed to afford young ladies a 
thorough, systematic, and liberal course of study.” The institute has 
gathered to its fostering care many of the brightest and best young 
ladies of the Green Mountain and Granite States, and numbers among 
its hundreds of graduates some of the strongest and noblest women 
of the land. 



The principals for the remaining fourteen years at Newbury were: 
Prof. Henry S. Noyes, Dr. C. IV. Cushing, Rev. F. E. King, Rev. 
George C. Smith, Rev. S. E. Quimby, and Rev. S. F. Chester. 

For the first ten years Newbury Seminary was peculiarly fortunate 
in its location, being central to the conference and in one of the quiet- 
®8t and mo.st charming of New England towns. But in 1844 the gen- 
^1 conference designated the eastern portion of this State as the 
Vermont conference, and in I860 joined to it the Burlington and St. 
bans districts. Soon after the division of her territoiw, the New 
mpshire conference established a seminary under her own control 
at These changes in conference boundaries left Newbury 

* i ® ®-'^4reme eastern side of its patronizing territor3^ 

^pnngfield Seminary, which was established about 1845, and for a 
seem'^^ 9mte a rival of Newbury, was not more central; nor did it 
wise to longer divide the patronage between the two schools, 
^unds were needed to repair the old buildings at Newbury 
h> ones. To several members of the conference and 

and re both institutions this seemed the time for a union 

^ more central location. Accordingly, after much dis- 
^ewbur^” \v canvass of the advantages ofi'ered respectively by 

^njoval"' Randolph, Northfield, Waterbury, and Montpelier, a 
enterpri upon, and the last-named place selected. To the 

Raited ^ ^ town contributed the grounds formerly used for the 

**Uiinar\’ ^®*pital, and valued at $20,000. November 6, 1865, the 
®®Oiiaa^^^''®^^^’’tered under the name of the Vermont Conference 
Female College, and in the autumn of 1868 was moved 



120 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 



to it.s present location. The boarding-house furni.shings and ^ 
apparatus were brought from Newbury, while Springfield conlri’ 
the entire proceeds from the sale of that property. Thus, by n 
consent the two seminaries were merged into one, having a loa 
central to the conference and State. 

Prof. S. F. Chester continued at the head of the school fe 
years after its removal to Montpelier. Though there was great! 
of funds in order that the school might be properly equipped, 
doubtful if in any period of its history the seminary has tabnkj 
rank both as regards the number and character of the student 
the quality and thoroughness of the instruction received. Their 
number of students in attendance during any term was 221. 

During the administrations of the two following principals, Revl 
Wilder and Rev. J. C. W. Coxe, D. D., under the superintenden 
Rev. S. Holman and Rev. A. G. Button, a large, beautiful, and' 
arranged academic building was erected and opened for use ii 
autumn of 1872, the grounds were improved, and the high chan 
of the seminary maintained, so that it ranked as one of the 
secondary" schools in the State. It graduated a large n umber of j 
men and women who took leading positions in colleges in New Enj 
and in some of the Central and W ester n States. The value of the s. 
property was then fixed at $82,000. For a number of years folk' 
1871: the school, first under the pirincipalship of Rev. L. IThit 
later under that of Rev. J. B. Southworth, enjoyed a less degf' 
prosperity. 



In 1877 the trustees es.sayed an experiment destined to be c 
cessful. They entered into an agreement with the Rev. J- F!' 
worth by which Mr. Southworth assumed the management o! 
institution for a period of five years and with full financial rc-T 
bility. At first success attended this arrangement, but befon 
lease expired financial embarrassment caused Mr. Southworth ton 
In scarcely any case has it been found to be a good thing ^or thf 
tees of V ermont schools to even temporarilv resign their control 
the other hand, the assumption of financial responsibility by thn 
cipals of schools has as a rule resulted in failure. 



In constructing the new building the seminary became 



biit^ 



with debt, so that later its usefulness, if not its existence, was 
imperiled. The most important and successful effort for the 



•scr* 



of this incubus was made in 1882, when Rev. J. D. Beeman wa^ 
president. In five years he increased the attendance by 



per cent, and raised over $30,000 in form of annuities and a p«^ 

, -1 y * - all 



scholarship fund of about $15,000. During the ten years sj 
election President Beeman has devoted his time exclusively W ' 



sin'* 



ing the seminary’s finances. 



ei 

ra 

11 

ol 

ar 

lo 

G 

m 



1C 

di 

sh 

Ir 

w 

tb 

fu 

ai 

tr 

in 

tl 

bi 

i.s 

T 

bi 

tl 

e 

8 

b 

Cl 

w 

h 

P 

I 

f 

a 



SECO^fDARY EDUCATION. 



1-21 



• .t f rtv years of its history the seminary was without 
During the - Granger began the task of 

a nf°SoO 000, nearly all of which has now been secured 
*^”^t/7'inieldtg, and heroic efforts claim from every friend 
1 nronipt and grateful recognition, 
renf raluation of the property (July 1, 1891) shows the total 
'*^^^•n"academic building, boarding houses, cottages, and building 
rilt 15 .r„i.,,re.nd lixtnre,, W2.M0.09; total. S106.990.0i.. 

iatereat beafiag. »12,n7.61t real-eatate endow- 
koOO; scholarship endowment. ^6,500; total endowment, 

$34,21T-61- 

THE SEMINAKY AS IT IS TO-DAY. 



The location is most healthful and delightful. The grounds are 
lOO feet above the town and fully 600 feet above sea level. They are 
distant from the principal streets about a half mile, so that the school 
shares all the advantages of a large town, but escapes the disadvantages. 

In every direction may be seen hills and valleys of surpassing beauty , 
while 20 miles to the west, in full view', is one of the highest peaks in 
the Green Mountain system. The class of 1890 secured a handsome 
fund to be expended upon the campus. Among the improvements 
are nicely plotted base and foot ball grounds, tennis courts, ornamental 
trees, line walks, and a fountain, which was dedicated in 1891, costing 
in the vicinity of §1,000. With these improvements it is believed that 
they are among the most attractive school grounds in New England. 

The .seminary edifice, completed in 1872, is a substantial 1-story 
brick building, 115 feet long and 65 feet wide. The boarding house 
is a frame structure, containing accommodations for 150 persons. 
The three subboarding houses offer rooms for about 1 0 students. The 
buildings are all lighted bv electricity, and plans are making whereby 
the brick structure may soon be heated by steam. 

The seminary has alwavs been favored in the class of students 
fathered in her balls. From the days of Judge D. N. Cooley, the 
^inted Professor Harrington, Hon. Alden Speare, Dr. George M. 
teele, Mrs. C. S. Harrington, and Mrs. C. P. Taplin, until now, her 
.'s and girls have come with less money than character, with less 
<^areit than downright ability and stalw'art purposes, 
bounded through the self-denial and self-sacritice of godly men and 
oinen, the subject of their devout and earnest prayers, this always 
a-'^ been a Christian school. Rarely does a student complete his 
ourse without coming to feel and confess his need of the Divine 
ac er. Although the seminarv is under control of trustees and 
a< u ty belonging to the Methodist Episcopal Church, still its doors 
open to all. 




122 



HISTORY OK EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 



Since 1882 the number of students in attendance has ino« 
doubled and is now believed to be as large as at any fonner » 
This remarkable growth may be attributed in part to a higher, 
of instruction. The teachers have been instructed with moiii 
and sometimes at much greater expense. The departments ur 
ing to have more than a local reputation. While others 
mentioned, we refer to the music only. Here are found a fulU 
good musical instruments, including a 2-manual pipe orgsai 
registers, a director who is a recognized master in his professia, 
an arrangement whereby our graduates may, without examk 
enter the last grade of the New England Conservatory. 

The seminary has seven appointed courses of study, namely: Fi 
modern, four years; second, music, four years; third, art, threeii 
fourth, college preparatory, four years; fifth, Latin college pnj 
toiw, four years; sixth, Latin scientific, four years; seventli,c 
giate, four years. 

A department in typewriting has also been established. 

Provision is made for normal instruction. 

The regular courses give thorough instruction in common andbi 
English, as well as in other branches included in the mostadn 
normal courses; and bj’ electing from these, students desiringto* 
may acquire the best preparation for their work. The numb' 
teachers employed is believed to be sufficiently large, so thatthd 
ful student may become well acquainted with the best 
instruction and government. 

Main" other advantages for intellectual culture are also affit 
Among these may be named: 

(1) Literary societies . — The Hlsthetic, the Ladi -s’ Literari' 
Band, and the Adelphi societies, all of which are in a prospero* 
dition. The societies have neatly furnished rooms and <**• 
selected libraries. 

(2) Reading room . — The seminary reading room is well si^ 
with the leading papers and magazines. 

(3) Lectures . — Lectures upon scientific and other topics at®? 
from time to time for the benefit of the school. A good 
lectures and concerts is maintained in town by the Ladies’ ^ 
Guild. 

(4) Library . — The alumni library contains about 1,000 volu®*^ 

is open to the students, both for reference and circulation. . 
“ ■' 

'Number of graduates for 1891, 17; number in collegiate course, b ® 
Latin scientific course, 9; number in college preparat ry course, 55; nu® 
college preparatory course, 18; number in modern course, 99; number of 
61; number in music or art only, 48; number of students in art, 
piano, 57; number in organ, 2; number in harmony, 7; total in instruniB® 
66; number in vocal music, 50; total in music department, 116, atten^ 
term, 240; attendance, winter term, 212; attendance, spring term, 168; 
ance by terms, 620; total number registered, 308. 



SECONDARY EDUCATION. 



123 



fizJwwif.— The cabinet has recently been enlarged by the Frederic 
rl- et the gift of Prof. Solomon Sias, and now contains about 2,000 
SnS^ical specimens. It has received some very valuable addi- 

tioDS in r6C6Dt vG&rs. ^ 

The trustees, by authority of the State of Vermont, “ are authorized 

,nd empowered to establish and confer on female pupils whom they 
shall deem worthy thereof, and who shall have completed the regular 
course of study prescribed in said college, all such literary honors 
and degrees as are usually conferred by the best academies, seminaries, 
or female colleges.” 

Lady students who satisfactorily complete the collegiate course 
receive the degree of Mistress of Liberal A.rts and those who satisfac- 
torily complete the Latin-scientific course the degree of Mistress of 



English Literature. 

An average standing of 96 for all the terms a student has been 
connected with the institution, provided it be two or more, will entitle 
that student to a first honor at graduation. An average standing of 
91 will entitle a student to a second honor at graduation. 

Kecently a plan has been adopted by which a few scholarships have 
been secured, the income from which is to be applied for the benefit of 
indigent students. 



Prizes are awarded at the close of the year to those students who 
Ittve excelled in general scholarship, Latin, mathematics, English 
eomposition, declamation, and recitations. Nine prizes were so 
•warded in 1891. 



^e necessary expenditures of a student for the school year are very 
Prate, the entire cost of room, board, and tuition in common Eng- 
ush being less than §150. 

th^.' ^ho was called to the seminary in 1881, is still 

popular principal. Mr. Bishop is a native of 
tstown, N. J., where he was born August 21, 1852. He was 
in 1878*^'^'^^^^' college, graduated from the IVesleyan University 
nipal of Pordentown Female College one year, and was prin- 

nf the ' h ^ Purham (Conn.) Academy two y^ears. His administration 
The^-^^ eminently^ satisfactory’ and successful, 

nnly h>-day is in a most flourishing condition. It is not 

i*doinff ^ inrgest and best-known seminaries in Vermont, but it 
®nn and*' of great importance through the hundreds of young 
®**n of aHl ^hom it annually’ educates. Its principals have been 
and 1 ’ P^^^CYerance, and energy’, excelling in works of devo- 

Oiost succ ' ^®^^'*^crifice. Its teachers ' have taken rank among the 

most earnest, most conscientious educators in the 






>8 found the name of the author of this monograph, who served the 
’"'•Prof Latin anc 

at llontpelier, to 1874. 



ag tearh ’iauie oi me autnor oi tnis monograpn, woo serveu luc 

®*8t openo(j at ^t and Greek for the six years from 1868, when the school 



124 



HISTOKY OF EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 



ST. JOHNSBURY ACADEMY. 

By C. E. Putney, Ph. D., Principal. 

The St. Johnsbury Academy i.s situated at St. Johnsbury Vi 
location could have been selected better adapted to the pu’r^ 
such a school — more beautiful in natural scenery, more healtii 
freer from temptations. 

The late Messrs. Erastus, Thaddeus, and Joseph P. Fairbajj 
whom St. J ohnsbury is largely indebted for its prosperity, wee 
of large intelligence, broad views, and generous sympathies. AM 
their own opportunities for education were limited, they plact 
estimate upon sound and thorough instruction and culture, so 
and pursued as to produce strong, symmetrical, manly and w« 
character. Thus wisely discerning the demands that were to be 
upon the young men and women of their day, they were mow 
benevolent desire to place within the reach of the voting 
their community the advantages of a good school. This desire rip 
into a purpose, the nature and drift of which will appear fiti 
following quotation from a letter addressed by Mr. Joseph PJ 
banks to Mr. James K. Colby, whom they most fortunately seem' 
inaugurate the work of the academy. Mr. Fairbanks says: 

I address you in regard to the establishment of an academy in this place,i|- 
we wish to procure yoiu- services as instructor. The design of this institni 
been formed by my brothers and myself, and, if carried out, will be done prf 
at our expense. There are some points in regard to the character of thf 
which we wish to secure, and which it will be M'ell to name to you. 

In the first place, we wish the school to have a decidedly religious characB 
deem it very important that moral and religious instruction should accomp®T 
lectual and be interwoven with it. By rehgious instruction we do not o* 
teaching of party or sectarian views, hut a constant and efficient religions a* 
aiming at conversion of the heart and the implanting of sound religious prin^ 
the character. 

In the next place, we wish to aim at the cultivation and improvement of ^ 
tal faculties rather than mere acquisition. We believe that pupils ore 
dri\ en through various branches of study, acquiring only a superficial noj' 
with them, and deriving little advantage from mental traming, whereas W 
object of education, in our view, is discipline of the mental faculties, thus 1«“ 
foundations of future acquisition. 

Again, T\e wish the course of instruction to be thorough as far as it 
deem it of great importance that the habit should be early formed of 
whatever is undertaken; and we would have our pupils learn perfectly^ 
rudiments of literature and science rather than bestow superficial atteo^ 
larger range of study. 



In short, we wish to establish an academy on such grounds as will insure a 
and systematic education and lay the foundation for a consistent, sound*, 
character, not aiming at popularity so much as real usefulness. 

This letter was written February 26, 1842. In the fall of ^ 
year the academy was launched upon its noble mission in unpi^* 



SECONDAEY EDUCATION. 



125 



, room.s of a private house, but, like many another useful enter- 
of hiunble beginning, it was destined to broaden the limits of its 
'XeLe and field of service. Facilities for this enlarged usefulness 
!vere furnished in the same generous and energetic manner in which 



m the enterprise was started. In 1843 a building 61 by 42 feet, amply 
,i;tiicient for the needs of the school at that time, was erected, within 
whose walls most excellent work of the character indicated in the letter 
aliove quoted was done for a period of thirty years. In this building 
.lames K. Colby presided over the school for a period of twenty -three 
years. Rev. E. T. Fairbanks, one of the earliest pupils, says of Mr. 
Colby: 

HL» commanding form moved about as inseparable from that place, the very soul of 
il. His conscientious care, his firmness of discipline, his dignified, elevating influence 
gave at once a character to the school, which realized the high hopes of its founders 
and left its mark on all that generation of students. 

The patronage from the first gave ample proof that the founders 
rij had correctly discerned and protdded for an existing need. 

The first catalogue, that of 1843, registers 101 names; only four 
years later 2.51 names are catalogued. The average attendance by 
terms during Mr. Colby’s administration was never less than 50, often 
hl0andl25. During this period nearly 2,000 different pupils came 
under the instruction and salutary influence of the academy, thus 
liet-oming equipped, many of them, for lives which have proven both 
brilliant and useful. 

The scope and character of the work done are thus set forth in the 
t^rly catalogues: 

Th }i 

Enelhh' peculiar advantages for instruction in the classical and higher 

■nwis ( intended to make the covirse of study pursued in the school a 
ties of th ' intellectual discipline, such discipline as will develop the capaci- 

e student and make him acquainted with himself. 

nf ftiithful, watchful supervision and thorough instruction 

|l*^"'H-iatod above set forth was realized. There were 

I from ^ the principal during these years, for periods varving 
:sjnie of^ term to five y^ears, more than seventy assistant teacher, s, 
^^tgland^ since ranked among the leading educators of New 

Colby died August 13, 1866, “greatly beloved and 



5*1 lain 



Fortw, 



A'hool Was 1 i „ .... — .. — 

^rtmouth charge of Henry C. Ide, A. B., a graduate of 

»bility rr ^ ^ iiia-n of scholarly attainments and superior 

*****1', who ^ succeeded by Elijah Phillips, a graduate of Middle- 
I ‘’’^'nion January, 1869; Homer T. Fuller, then a .student 

.I’ear. ogical Seminary^, with two assistants, finished the school 

Hincipai January, 1871, Charles H. Chandler, A. B., was 



o V 



years succeeding Principal Colby’s death the 



‘bistepsi 



to 



^In the spring of 1870 it was definitely' determined by the 
II .ucrp tjjp sehool. South Hall, a brick struc- 



126 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 



ture to contain 60 rooms and to be used for the residence 
and students, was erected and ready for occupancy August, |j 

In February, 1871, Homer T. Fuller entered upon hig^ 
principal. With his appointment the academy entered up 
remarkable prosperity. During the civil war and for sev 
subsequent to its close the attendance was much reduced, i 
ence common at that time to many schools and colleges. 
Fuller, a man of great energy and executive ability and an ( 
instructor, proved the right man for the school in the ( 
which he found it. In one year the attendance increased ; 
to 160. 

The old academy building was now evidently too small to i 
date the growing constituency. It was determined to buildn 
edifice, and in the autumn of 1873 the present building was I 
and dedicated, and has proved convenient for the general nsesd 
school. The -ample basement. 18 feet high, contains coal aali 



rooms, janitor’s room, wash and water closets, and heating ap 



The first floor has, besides entrances and stairway halls, the pri 
office, four recitation rooms, chemical laboratory, philo 
apparatus room, and wardrobes. On the second floor are tmdl 
rooms, a chapel (also used for a general study and class rooi^i 
two smaller rooms. The third floor has a hall easily seatiag 1 
persons, and two music rooms. The whole building is heated by* 
lighted by gas, and well supplied with water. 

With enlarged facilities for growth and work, the school 
increased in nmnbers until in 1881-82 the aggregate number 
ent pupils for the year was 3-33 and the average attendance 34i 
new impetus to the institution was made possible only by theg®> 
gifts of Mr. Thaddeus Fairbanks, who for fifteen ymars paid 
rent expenses of the school, erected and furnished the new I 
and contributed toward a permanent fund, his total gifts amon» 
f200,000. From the estate of his brother. Governor Ei’astusF^^ 
came fo0,000. Thus in ten years the school had been pi***J. 
solid foundation, with well-equipped buildings and a fund of 
with a large corps of teachers and an average attendance of 
Principal Fuller resigned in 1882 to take charge of the 
Polj’technic Institute, IVorcester, Mass. It was with great re 
that the trustees accepted the resignation of the man to w^l 
ciency, wisdom, and energy this almost phenomenal prosperity 
no small degree due. His departure was an occasion of no le^ ; 
to the teachers, some of whom had been associated with 
seven to eleven j-ears. _ 

Mr. Fuller was succeeded bj' the present principal, Charles 1^ 
who had been for nine ymars an assistant teacher in the acade^ 
uninterrupted prosperity of the school during the last ten ye 
from the fact that the average attendance has not been less 



iiis 









SECOND AKY EDUCATION. 



127 



The present attendance is 330, 
The average number of 



fo,. one rear, when it was 254. 

.-t in the historv of the school, 
the lai^e* 1 ^ for the kst ten years has been 55. The aim of the 

*;neP ite enlaro-ed equipment has been to give the best possible 
I^Intion for college, and for scientific schools, or for the practical 
^ rk of life The generally high rank its graduates yearly take in 
nwrlr all the New England colleges and the leading scientific schools 
Lv'how well this purpose has been accomplished. 

The following courses of study are fully provided for. (1) 1 he 
clasdcal. in which young ladies and gentlemen receive a thorough 
drill in the classics (German and French if required), mathematics, and 
such English branches as are required for admission to college; (2) the 
English "and scientific; (3) the Latin and English; (4) the five years’ 
■omplete course; or (5) a mixed course of from three to six years. 
Corresponding diplomas are given to those who finish any of these 
courses.' 



' The following is the curriculum of study: 



(to 

iBK 

I? 

r- 

5t« 
iij 
I 
WiS 
tk 
0 

k 

ed 
1®' 
ipi? 
ore* 
W 
os' 

A 

iff 

piji 

4' 



CLASSICAL COURSE. 
SUBJTJKIOR YEAR. 



Fint term . — Latin grammar and lessons, arithmetic or physiology, English gram- 
“*ror United States history, free-hand drawing or penmanship. 

'’"'“I term . — Latin grammar and lessons, arithmetic or algebra, English grammar, 
fiw-hanil drawing or penmanship. 

Third term. ^Latin lessons, arithmetic completed or algebra, English history. 



JUNIOR YEAR. 



Firttierm. Caesar, hook I; Latin composition based on the text, physiology, 
physics, algebra. 

Pfench*^ books II-IV ; Latin composition, algebra, civil government, 

Latin composition, algebra com- 

t Tench, botany, or physical geography. 



MIDDLE YEAR. 



■wGermo T, ^neid, book I ; Latin composition, Greek grammar and lessons, 

history. 

'"“A 1- ^'cid, liooks II-IV; Latin composition, sight reading, Anabasis, 

Aird grammar and pr 

grammar and prose, or German, botany. 



^mmar and prose, or German, rhetoric. 

books V and VI; Latin composition, sight reading, Anabasis, 

A* reek f — 



SENIOR YEAR. 



plane geometry. 



ancient geography. Anabasis, books III and IV; Greek prose or 



hooks a Catiline, Cicero, first two Orations against Catihne; Homer, 

Greek history, or German, geometry completed, review 



n-u 



and ^^hd and fourth Orations against Catiline; Orations for Poet 
■ '""Phon, or r > Homer, Iliad, book III, with review of portions of 

algebra reviewed. 



128 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 



In the conduct of class exercises the most approved inethoi; 
adopted, and ample time is allowed for every recitation, lai^ 
Greek are taught not merely for the sake of translation, but 
intent of a critical analysis of the authors read, to unfold the «■ 
and idioms of the language, and to investigate every incident^, 
tion suggested by the subject. French is taught for conversak 
well as for reading. The two years’ course in French and fe 
fully prepares students in these languages for any college. Ik 
tion in the English branches is given by graduates of colleges and; 
mal schools of high grade, and in every department there is comli 
with great thoroughness such adaptation to the mental peculiaritif! 
each student as tends to secure the utmost attainment and cnk 
Superior advantages are offered in the department of drawing, h 
instruction is given, without extra charge, to all who desire it. Sp- 
attention is given to industrial drawing and to original designings 
a view to the most iiractical results. A three years’ course ini 
instruction in geometrical forms, historic ornament, instrumi 

ENGLISH AND SCIENTIFIC COUESE. 

JUNIOR YEAR. 

First term. — ^Algebra; English analysis; physiology or United States histow' 
hand drawing or penmanship. 

Second term. — Algebra; English analysis or bookkeeping; civil governm®' 
hand drawing or penmanship. 

Third term. — Algebra completed; English history; botany or free-hand to 

MIDDLE YEAR. 

First term. — Review of arithmetic; plane geometry; physics; ancient and 
history. 

Second term. — Plane geometry completed, solid geometry; physics; rhetom 
em history. 

Third term. — Political economy; geology; physical geography. 

SENIOR YEAR. 

First term. — Chemistry; astronomy: evidences of Christianity or moral 

Second term.- — Chemistry; trigonometry and surveying or modem historji 
literature. ; 

Third term. — Trigonometry and surveying; English literature; practical p . 
reviews. 

LATIN AND ENGLISH COURSE. 

First two years the same as in the classical department, omitting French- 



MIDDLE Y*EAE. 



■ anci*^’ 



Frst term . — Latin as in the classical course; physics; plane geometry 
medieval history. 

Second term . — Latin as in the classical course; plane geometry coinp 
geometry; physics; modern history. 

Third term . — Latin as in the classical course; political economy; geologf 
cal geography. 



SECONDABY EDUCATION. 



lit: 

iti 



Iti,. 

nt 

a<r 

DQ'. 

mi). 

itir 

mk 

It 

Spe, 

g.s 

nci 



129 

work perspective, architectural, and object drawing, and drawing from 

t< This department is abundantly supplied with all needed models. 

Indruction is also given in the history of art. A course of penman- 
ship. consisting of 20 lessons, is given during the fall and winter terms, 
»nd a course in elocution of at least 12 lessons each term is given to 
pupib. all under the direction of experienced and competent teachers 
ami without extra charge. 

Six members each from the middle and junior classes are chosen by 
competition for the prize speaking, which occurs during graduation 
week. Moreover, since good manners and good morals are quite as 
important as intellectual acquisition, ever}^ possible endeavor is made 
to give these the prominence which they ought to have in educational 
training. 

The academy offers, unusual facilities for the profitable study of 
natural science, since it has extensive philosophical and astronomical 
appiiratus and a chemical laboratoiy furnished for both illustrative and 
practical work, instruments for surveying, a good cabinet of minerals, 
a largo herbarium, and the beginning of a collection in natural history. 
To all these means of illustration additions are made yearly. 






SENIOR YEAR. 



tern. Latin as in the classical course; chemistry; astronomy; evidences of 
Uin.«tianity or moral philosophy. 

Latin as in the classical course; English literature; trigonometry. 

nrtJ' as in the classical course; English literature; trigonometry; 

practical physics or re\iews. 



Latin-, french, and English complete course. 
0 years the same as in Latin and English course. 



MIDDLE Y'EAR. 

. T oi' . 

^ the classical course; French grammar or German; physics. 
phv«ic« ^ classical course; French grammar and reader or Ger- 



__Latin 






'*phy. 



in the classical course; French or German; physical geog- 



SENIOR YEAR. 



Pint Ifrm.—laf 

and mpfU classical course; French or German; plane geometry; 

f '^pletodj the classical course; French or German; plane geometry 

* ferm > modern history. 

ui, French or German: nei 



■ German; geology. 

SENIOR ADVANCED YEAR. 



'^•'Uhemis 

*®'k-nt and ’ ^mnomy; evidences of Christianity, moral philosophy, 

Wstory. 

Phy '*^ trigonometry; English literature; modem history. 

Or peyj^^ ^ or political economy; English literature; practical 



130 



HISTOKY OF EDUCATIOI^ m VEEMOYT, 



The St. Johnsbuiy Athenaeum, a fine library donated h 
Horace Fairbanks, of over 12,000 volumes— a library unusnxlf ''' 
mshed in the departments of history, natural science and S' 
erence—m open to students on compliance vith the ekbliE!; 

1st connected with it is abundantly supdi 

the best English and American periodicals, and rare op'nortifnif 
thus afforded to both teachers and scholars. The acadmr b ' 
library of about 500 volumes. 



The Fairbanks Museum of Natural Histoiy and Science an. 
building, the gift of Franklin Fairbanks, adds another attnw 
St. Johnsbury and will be helpful in many ways to the student 
1 wo literary societies, the Adelphian and the Athenian, afford ■ 
opportunities for improvement in composition and debate. 

A course of entertainments of a high order, consisting ofb 
readings, and music, is sustained every season, of which stud.-: 
usually advised to avail themselves. 



The founders liimd to witness the first fruits of their geneiwf 
faithful stewardship in the lives and conspicuous success of.-.' 
protes-sional and business men, but while they took glad note o! 
who came to the front they placed even greater value uiwn tk 
ence of the many whose consistent, sound, and useful character 
potent factors for good among the masses in humliler conditi 
Me. Mr. Joseph P. Fairbanks died May 15, 1855. Mr. F.r 
rail-banks died Novembor 20, 1861. 

Mr. Thaddeus Fairbanks lived to see the academy outgrow ii- 
accomniodations, and, as above stated, lived to o-ive it its preser.: 
erous equiinnent. He died April 12, 1886. 

These three brothers gave to their own and have also Icftt 
ceeding generations an example worthy of universal emulation 
of ajopropriating during their lifetime a portion of their wealth' 
advancement of intellectual and Christian culture By so doioL 
enshrined themselves in the affections and esteem of ' more th 
generation of men and women, who will ever value the stimul' 
poivei derived from a personal knowledge of their individual' 
teis moie highly ei en than the educational advantao-es made f" 
by^ their benefactions. 



MES. ElIMA WILLARD’S LIFE AXD WORK IX WIDDLEBI'F' 

Prepared originallj- for the Eimna Willard Society of New York by Eza.t Braixeed, LL P- ' 
. of Middlebury CoUege. 

^Hs. Emma Willard is known as the pioneer in the oreat u'O' 
+ 1 , 1 ® ^^I'lsteenth century for the higher education of woman- ‘ 
that she had a genius for teaching, that she devised improved 
that she wrote admirable text-books, and that she impress4l'‘’' 
high ideals upon the characters of her pupils is indeed grestf 



SECONDAET EDtrCATION. 



131 



• " a still greater glory to have started a movement wMch has 
^"')|ut'i'''niz'’(l the ideas of the civilized world on the subject of 
.,n'< education, a movement which has culminated in the founding 
*f i-rand colleges exclusively for women and in the admission of 
,nien to older colleges on equal terms with men. For it is not too 
■ luch to say that W ellesley and Vassar and their sister institutions 
n either side the Atlantic are the fair fruitage, in time, of those 
Hiiiinal ideas so ably set forth in Mrs. AYillard’s Plan of Female 
Education. 



It is interesting to study the origin of such a great movement; it is 
like tracim'' some noble river upward to its sources in the distant 
mountains. Let it be our pleasant task to search out, as far as pos- 
sible. the influence.s that shaped Mrs. AVillard’s career as an educator. 
In so doing we shall find that the formative period of her life was the 
twelve years spent in Middlebuiw — a period passed over too cursorily 
in Dr. Lord’s biography. The fresh interest in this truly great 
woman, awakened by the Emma AYillard associations of the country, 
i' an additional reason for considering more in detail the incidents of 
thb jwrtion of her life and for inquiring into the moral forces which 
i-alled forth her grand ideas regarding the scope of woman’s education. 

1' '• should, as a preliminary, call to mind briefly the circumstances 
[of her early life in Connecticut, her excellent parentage, the beautiful 
OHIO life of her childhood, her two years of earnest studj' under Dr. 
e her brilliant success as a teacher at the early age of IT. These 
to picture the bright, noble-hearted woman who, at 
■Mhldfd 1807 to take charge of the female academy at 



fro V* that shaped her character in her new home were 

tJj sources. Let us speak first of her social sm-roundings. 

^nd i*^Mr ' ''^^*'^*t^ints of Aliddlebuiy were noted for their enterprise 
plain V ^ P t<5 the close of the Revolutionary war the Cham- 

*■' soon - centuries the arena of savage warfare. But 

Were ri ^ ^'^'’’'’’^tion of hostilities would permit these fertile lands 
“"‘iiiinl ' hy a vigorous and high-minded class of young 

Middlebu'-””*^” ^®*t families of Connecticut. There was in 

^'dt“ atul '^■'Usually large number of educated men, graduates of 
ill Brown. Of their interest in religion and 

*^'**'■6 that have left a striking monument in the church 

^‘‘eeful gf standing, with its beautifid groined arches and its 

I'ause f Christopher M" ren style. Their devotion to 
*‘*'"innin ^ t is evinced bv^ their establishment, before the 

pi'esent century, of three distinct institutions of 
'i’iic olipj. grammar school, the female acadeny, and the college, 
prior Dwight, of Yale, who made three visits to the 

* to 1810, has recorded in his books of travels his high 



132 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 



appreciation of the character of the people and of their edu<*t> 
work. Mrs. Willard herself, then Miss Emma Hart, has f 
emphatic testimony to the same effect. In a letter to her par. 
written during the first year of her residence, she says: 

I find society in a high state of cultivation, much more than any other plj«' 
ever in. The beaux here are, the greater part of them, men of collegiate edin 
* * * Among the older ladies there are some whose manners and conra* 
would dignify duchesses. 



If our limits would permit, we might speak in particular of s<® 
these excellent men and women whose society liliss Hart thus cnjo- 
It was her privdlege to know the Hon. Horatio Seymour, aftem 
for twelve years United States Senator, a man who was earnest 
the first in the cause of woman’s education, and who gave 
which was erected in 1802 the “Female Academj-,” one of the 
first school edifices in the country built especially for women, 
knew also the Eev. Dr. Merrill, who, on graduating from Dartm 
in 1801, had won the valedictory over his illustrious classmate ft 
M'ebster, and who for thirty-seven 3 ’ears was pastor of the Conp' 
tional church and a recognized leader throughout the State in mt 
of education and religion. She knew also Dr. Henry Davis, p»i 
of the college, who was eminent for his talents and eloquenrt 
personal address, who was in 1817, on the death of Dr. Dwight. fh' 
president of Yale College, and who reflected no small honor on 
dlebuiw' b\" declining the appointment. With these men and 
of scarceh’ less character, not yet famous, but in the vigor 
manhood. Miss Hart, the imung preceptress of the Female Ac«d 
was called to associate. Her letters and journal show hoff 
interested she was in her new life. She has an intense relfi^ 
agreeable socieW; she attends parties and balls during the 
four meetings on Sunday'. She drinks deep draughts of the 
cup of youth and health. But her strong brain never become* 
there is too much of the Puritan seriousness in her veins. 
up her studies in history; she writes poetry'; she paints; 
sermons; and withal conducts a school for young ladies " 
stantly' increasing reputation. 

The building where this school was held is still standing- 



■of 



been unused for y'ears, but is guarded with religious care 



bvit* 



of'l' 



ent owner, a son-in-law of Horatio Seymour. The whole ^ ^ 
ond story' was one large room, warmed only* by' an open h**!' 
the north end. For in those days, as Lowell tells us: 

There wam’t no stoves (tell comfort died) 

To bake ye to a puddin’. 

But a fireplace' did not always bring comfort to the s choolP>jj 
ing the severe cold of that Vermont winter. The north 



SECONDABY EDUCATIOlSr. 



133 



would 'vliistle around the building and penetrate the schoolroom until 
thi'V could endure the cold no longer. The tact of the schoolmistress 
wa.< equal to the emergency. She would then (so she writes in a letter 
to .Iud<re Swift) call her girls to the floor and arrange them two and 
two in a long row for a contradance; and while those who could sing 
woidd strike up some stirring tune she, with one of the girls for a 
partner, would lead down the dance and soon have them all in rapid 
motion. Afterwards thej^ would return to their school exercises. 

Hut in two years she closed her connection with the female academy. 
On the loth day of August, 1809, she was married to Dr. John Wil- 
lard. And this brings us to the second phase of her Middlebury life, 
and to consider the influences of this marriage upon her after career. 

Dr. Willard was twenty-eight years the senior of his wife, but 
nowhere in the annals of biography can we find a married life more 
happy than theirs was from first to last. From several letters we are 
pennitted to see how intimate was the union of heart and soul between 
the two. As we read them there arises before us the fair picture of 
the enthusiastic young wife, studying to make herself less unworthy 
of the good and wise man who had enthroned her in his heart. In 
i- absence she delves into the dry books of his medical librar}’, to 
prepare herself to sympathize with him in his passionate attachment 
or t ese old authors. He is delighted to find her kindled into his 
ol f discuss with him intelligent!}" questions of p)hy si- 

pwnie'tr Then at another time she takes up the study of 

hb na^m'"'- Dhird has a nephew in college who lives with them — 

'0 New V* T’ for many years judge of the supreme court 

Proposit’ *** t ^'acation she takes upo his Euclid and reads on, 
>he und^°"f-**^ proposition, fascinated with the study. She thinks 
foniale mind'" general belief in the incapacity of “ the 

I'or.'ielf to'h mathematics causes misgivings, until she submits 
■og correct examination, and he pji’onounces her learn- 

***''' ><p m t 1 ^ same thirst for knowledge afterwards leads her to 
**"1 I.iockeVE to study Paley’s Aloral Philosophy 

'koseclavst^ ^®“oerning Human F^ndeistanding. Alost men in 
•o -^uch anibip* some in our day) would have discouraged a wife 
gfneroas unfeminine studies. Not so Dr. Willard. His 

wasprlrr pleased with her efforts after intellectual culture, 
aiind new^^-'^ achievements. There began to dawn upon 

her pa,.{' Y-oman’s mental capacity, and a disposition to 

'"uld bg ^ against man’s lordly assumption of superiority. It 
^•afried Ijfg to imagine that during the early y-ears of her 

'vere ^^ .i'tard was engrossed in intellectual imrsuits. 

of ligA- '^tiversions; domestic duties occupied the greater 
troip boi born in 1810. Dr. Willard was 

le much of the time, and the charge of the household 



134 



HISTORr OF EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 

and the farm devolved upon the young wife, who performed 
duties with care and prudence. An interesting letter, quoted V 
Lord, informs her husband that “the winter apples are gathered 
cider is made (23 barrels) ; the potatoes are nearly all in; the 
wheat is gathered,” and so on through a long list of homely ,i ' 
Surely here was 

A creature not too bright or good 

For human nature’s daily food. 

^ So passed another period in the life of this great woman, a ^ 
filled with the happy experiences of wifehood and motherhood, 
clouds after a while appeared in their bright sky; God was k; 
them on to a higher stage in their life work. 

Dr. Willard was a man of property and of high social posita 
the time of his marriage to Miss Hart. He ow’ned several .<mall it 
in the vicinity of Middlebury; he had just built an elegant brick! 
on Main street, now occupied by Mrs. Charles Linsley. He had. 
a successful politician; he was chairman of the central cominitir 
the Republican party, was appointed marshal of the District of ' 
mont bv Jefl'erson in 1801, and was one of the directors of thelen: 
State Bank. His financial embarrassment largely grew out . ' 
connection with this bank through a romantic incident that is not; 
erallj’ known. In the summer of 1812 an adroit burglary wa.' 
mitted on the banking house in Middlebury. It was eutered 
false key, and a large sum of money was taken without leavio? 
signs of .violence or disorder. Of course the directors very so® 
covered the fact of the burglary^; but it was not so obvious to th, 
lie, and the directors were called upon to account for the nir 
funds. The legislature was led to adopt harsh measures fof 
prosecution, and after a trial before the supreme court judgn>pr. 
rendered against the supposed delinquents for over $ 28 . 00 tt 
greater part of this claim, it is true, was remitted by a sulr*'. 
legislature; and in after years the discovery of the false key " ; 

attic of a certain house fully vindicated the innocence of the die' 
But the records of the town show that the liens of the Veruioo'' 
Bank on the real estate of John 1\ illard were removed onh 
many years. 

But the heroism of the devoted wife was equal to the 
She would return to the work in which she had achieved such hi’- 
success before her happy marriage. She would open a boardii'r 
for girls in her own house. The project must have been huiuil^'^ 
the mind of Dr. M illard. Only a loving confidence in his 
huve secured his consent; but when he gave it he set himself 
with her, heart and soul, to the end. , 

It should be remembered that when Mrs. M' illard first op«^^ 
school in 1814 her “plan” was altogether undeveloped, 



SECONDARY EDUCATION. 



135 



, ,mbitious projects for the higher education of woman which 
iininiated her. Her sole object, as she distinctly says, was 



• t luT husband in his pecuniary affairs. It was while walking 
' rr'i'v in the patliway of domestic duty that the Lord led her into 
■v'ider lield of her life’s mission. It remains for us then to coii- 
-'thi> third stage in her novitiate, the light that came to her 
■ '..liidi her new experiences in teaching. 

MiC Willard's home in Middlebury was almost under the shadow 
■ Mi idlehurv College. The college campus was just across the street 
•r -ii her house. She heard from hour to hour through the day the call 
■f i!i. IkH to chapel or to recitation. For four years she listened to 
• . of college life and work from the nephew, who sat at her table 
v i:. a >Uident. When she opened her new school she taught at first 
: ' usual round of light and superficial studies that the age had pre- 
-: "«-d for "females.” But ‘Huy neighborhood to Middlebury Col- 
she writes, "made me bitterlj’ feel the disparity in educational 
i ilitii s L'tween the sexes.” She had already made private excur- 
•ii> into the realms of solid learning, forbidden to her sex, and she 
■' i> profoundly conscious of woman's capacity to understand all that 
liiglnst and best in the reaches of human thought. Why should 
' -ister he deprived of the intellectual culture that is offered to the 
hii'i-; 1\ hy will not the companionship of weddgd life be purer 
( stronger if the mental training of the wife is comparable with 
>f the husbands Whi" will not the mother give to the world 
■"uis and daughers if her own character be strengthened and 
'infi by the highest education? These are hackneyed questions 
-•a.' , hut they were new to the world when in 1815 thev first 
in the brain of Mrs. WiUard. 

^ the further question came: Could she herself effect this great 
- nr woman; She heard the divine call; should she be disobe- 
-ihl^ ^ ^®*D'enly vision? The cause was so just, so humane, so 
■* ’ e. that surely if she could advocate it before governor’s and 
^ le might effect the desired reform. Still the project 



ih'i 



Ti. 






..'■'lators 
■ ni; (1 



ff hesitated to entertain it; she con- 

'nipathiz'V' from her husband, though knowing that he 

^ 'vith her in her desires for the better education of 



’ m. 

the a 
•P fri 



-‘'til 



’’bun 



’ 'tom the unborn purpose of her soul she could not long 

'■ 'he husband. How he received her confi- 

'‘Spirit her own fervid words: “He entered into 

1 , as he' Yiews with a disinterested zeal for that sex, 

' leied, his own had injui’iously neglected. With an 

generous and disinterested than ever man before felt. 



niore 



“"’'’iMnlife 






whole 



Sought mv elevation, indifferent to his own. Pos- 



nn opinion of me more favorable than any other 



136 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION IH VEKMOHT. 



human being ever will have, and, thus encouraging me to dare- 
he yet knew my weaknesses, and fortified me against them." 

Mrs. AVillard now addresses herself to the task of elaboratiij 
plan for improving female education.” It was the slow work of 
or three years. It was written and rewritten seven times; fuUvt- 
fourths of the original matter was finally rejected. She was nn 
while testing some of her theories experiments, so far ti 
limited resources would permit. She formed a class in moral phi 
phy, and another in the philosophy of the mind, taking Locke’s «r 
work as a text-book. The professors of the college were fearit- 
invited to attend her examinations, and to witness the prooh; 
“the female mind” could appreciate and apprehend the solid sta; 
of the college course. She desired, in turn, to attend the exm 
tions of the jmung men, to learn how they were conducted, and to 
what attainments in scholarship were made in college. It is ki 
ating to think that this privilege was refused. President Dans consi; 
ing that it would not be a safe precedent, and that it would ben; 
coming in her to attend. But let us not blame too severely 
stanch defender of the proprieties; he was simply guarding well- 
society from a terrible nervous shock. 



These were the rough ways of the world — till now. 

Mrs. AVillard was for some time perplexed to find a suitable 
for her ideal institution. It would never do to call it a “coUt; 



for the proposal to send young ladies to college would strike every 
as an absurdity. She has told us how she finally hit upon a 
name. “I heard Dr. Merrill pray for ‘our seminaries of k*® 
I said, I have it — I will call it a female seminary. That word, ‘ 
it is high as the highest, is also low as the lowest, and will not i- 
a jealousy that we mean to intrude upon the province of tke H' 
And so the word came afterwards into general use to desigt>*‘ 



higher grade of schools for girls. 

AA"e can not enter into any detailed discussion of the “pk”; 
was finally published in 1818 . In many respects it is open to eriO 
if vre judge it by the higher standards of the present. Tk® ^ 
five years since passed have seen wonderful changes in 
regarding woman’s education and woman’s work — thanks to ^ 
lication of this same treatise. It is of the nature of a plea? ® 
evidently cautious about asking too much, for fear she niaf 
Still we must regard it as a wonderful document — the Alagn* 
of the rights of woman in matters of education. , ^ 

It was addressed to a State legislature, for Airs. AViUai ■ 
judged that the equipment of her ideal institution could no 
nished by private means, and that it could be properly niai ^ 
perpetuated only bj- a legal board of trustees. Those wTi"® 



da; 

in? 

fel 

W!l 

hei 

po 

SUl 

F 

an 

eai 

ha 

Wl 

an 

col 

an 

th, 






SECONDARY EDUCATION. 



137 



of private fortunes and still less of princely donations to 
initltutions'of public charity or of general education. Mrs. Willard 
felt that her only recourse was to secure the State patronage which 
wa.' at the disposal of patriotic lawmakers. Of the reasons that led 
her to apply to the legislature of New York, of her grievous disap- 
pointment after years of patient effort and waiting, of the brilliant 
.«m-ces.< which she finally achieved, principally through her own great 
personality, it is foreign to present purpose to speak. These things 
ire more clearly matters of history^ than the obscure events of her 
early life in Middlebury. 

Let me simply add in closing that to-day^ the spirit of her teachings 
ha.' thoroughly permeated the institutions of the town where her great 
work originated. The ladies’ academy and the boys’ grammar school 
ire now things of the past. But in the public high school and in the 
college the advantages of a liberal education are offered to ymung men 
ind to young women on equal terms. Thus in God’s providence do 
the wise and good build for those who come after them. 



Chapter IV. 

HIGHER EDUCATION. 

THE XJXIVEKSITY OF YEEMOYT. 



The charter of the University of Vermont was granted by the h; 
lature of the State on the 3d of November, 1791. The act of Coi^ 
declaring that the State of Vermont should be “admitted into 
Union as a new and entire member of the United States of Ameri' 
had been signed by the President, George Washington, on theM 
February, nearly nine months before. In October, 1790, the Ic 
pending controversy between Vermont and New York 
amicably settled bj' an agreement, under which, in consideratioi 
$30,000, \ ermont obtained a cession of all the rights which Fewl 
had claimed within the limits of Vermont. 

V ith her outside difficulties thus happily removed and with 
vital relation between herself and the rest of the United States h 
established by her admission into the Union, Vermont was at lih 
to give her full attention to her internal affairs and to pronde 
ures for the prosperity and welfare of her people. They were » 
numerous people. The census of the State taken in that year. 1 
showed a total population of 85,539, of which 61,260 were in thf '' 
southern counties. Chittenden County had a population of only 
Burlington had a population of 332. less than Shelburne, wKifi 
389, or Williston, which had 471. But it was a growing Stete- 
the twenty y^ears previous its population had increased more th»i> 
fold, and in the twentv A’ears followino- it nearly trebled. B 
a wealthy' population, of course. There was not a bank in t" j 
or, so far as I can learn, any moneyed or business corporation 
kind. ^ jj. 

That a people so recently' freed from the double burden of _ 
lutionarv war with England and the long contest for 
against the grasping power of New York, a people so ^si® 
numbers and resources, should lay' the foundation of a 
the higher education of their children showed that they' 
out the spiilt of the Puritan settlers who established Ilarvai ^ 
The people of Vermont had not, however, waited till 
peace before taking measures to advance and perpetuate 
138 




I 



OLD COLLEGE BUILDING BEFORE REMODELING. 



THE UNIVERSITY OF VERMONT. 



139 



» 

i 

Jt 

I 



<titution which they had adojited in 1777, fourteen years before, 
hilt' the question whether there should ever be a State of Vermont 
still au open one, having little ground of assurance excejjt the 
imiiuilile determination of her people, a clause providing for paiblic 
education, including a State university, had been inserted. 

Hut the council of censors issued an address in February, 1786. to 
the freemen of the State of Vermont in which two things are now to 
be noted: First, that in the new constitution which they recommended 
to the people they had stricken out the clause that “one university in 
this Sate ought to be established by direction of the general assem- 
bly" and. second, that in the address to the freemen of the State not 
the slightest allusion was made to this important change. 

Dr. Williams, the historian of Vermont, in 1791 says: 



from the first afi.«iimption of the powers of government, the assembly had in 
mmi-mplatiiiii the establishment of a imiversity in the State, and with this view 
resemd one right of land, about 320 acres, in all the townships which they had 
pim«l for the use of such a seminary. 

•Ind yet the fact remains that that clause of the constitution recom- 
mending one university was stricken out in 1786, and the act incor- 
porating the university in 1791 was not passed by reason of any 
ton.ditiitional requirement. 

Tliore does not seem to be in any narrative of the founding of the 
nmvprsity, of which several have been written, any exqolanation of 
^*'1 or. indeed, any mention of the fact itself. 

If we had the detailed report of the proceedings of that council of 
and of the convention w'hich acted on their recommendations, 
^ niight be able to find what were the exact reasons which induced 
* out of that clause from the constitution. Perhaps no 

detailed records were kept. In their absence we are left to con- 
fliis point, and it has occurred to me that this change might 
neen due to influences from the direction of Dartmouth College, 
torj."''* remembered by those who are familiar with the early" his- 
*od that in the course of the long contest between Vermont 

there was not onlv a strong sympathy" among the 



I-Iie east side of the Connecticut River with their brethren of 
Niti' • grants on the w"est side of the river, but a strong 

^wong them to cast their own lot in with the new State 
thev j. there set up. Furthermore, that, as a matter of fact. 



form , separate occasions, in June, 1778, and in April, 1781, 



tioi) i; 



** with the new State of Vermont, only" to have this rela- 




hj^ of*^" dis.solved. 

• t'our.se, easy" to .see that the occurrences connected with these 
^ made close relations between the men of Vermont and those 
'Oil the east side of the river. Hanover had, on both 
been one of the towns united with Vermont; and John 



140 



HISTOEY OF EDUCATIOK IN VEEMONT. 



IVheelock, who became president of Dartmouth College in lT?,i J 
the reputation of having been the tirst one to propose the uni* j ^ 
western New Hampshire with Vermont; and that Dartmouth CclJ 
as a body, took a very active part in those transactions is provw I 
a petition, which is extant, from certain citizens of the neighbo"! 
township of Liandaii to the governor of New Hampshire in Octotl 
1781. praying “for aid and protection against the insults andakJ 
of Vermont, and especially the emeserries of the Coledg.” I 

AVhile these unions lasted, i. e., for eighteen months in all, DartmJ 
College was within the boundaries of Vermont. It was quite nati j , 1 . 
and proper that she should look out for her own interests in hen I 
relations, and natural that she should receive friendly considem I 
from the men to whom she had given such assistance. And sort i- 1 
matter of surprise that four days after the adoption of theunio[| jj 
1778 the general assembly of Vermont should have passed a votl 
take “the incorporated University of Dartmouth undei the patroM 
of Vermont;” or that in June, 1785, on the personal presen«4 0 
request of President Wheelock, it should have granted 23,000 aj I 
of land for the benefit of Dartmouth College and Moor’s charitj at I }j 

in Hanover.’ . -I 

In return for these unexpected concessions the college promi ■ t 
educate students from Vermont without charge for tuition, no^' I t 
in the college, but in the academies which it was proposed to : I ' 
and maintain in the several counties in the State. A hmt ‘I 1 
given of a “branch college” in Vermont, “if the leg^sHhu'e I ^ 
ever think it necessary.” It was suggested, further, that it J 
should establish a college it should be “joined in one bond oi ■ ■ 

with Dartmouth. ,, 

But the union between Vermont and the towns on the eas 1 
the river had been finally dissolved. If the proposal to c a ^ | 
constitution had been due to influences favorable to 
influences were fading before the rising feelings of I 

for their own State in the hearts of Vermonters. 

Dartmouth was not granted; the vote taking Dartmouth ^^1 
patronage of the State was allowed to lapse into obhi 
attention of the men of V ermont was turned toward the es I 
of their own university. A proposition which had j|,„l 

Elijah Paine in 1785 to give £2,000 toward the 
college, provided it was settled in Williamstown, was ot'l 

and in 1789 came the offer of Ira Allen to give £4,000 tor ‘ j^| 
provided the college was located “within 2 miles of 
which offer was supplemented by o ther subscriptions for 

iFor further reference to this subject see “Centennial Voi*-l 

Burlington at Commencement of 1891, by Hon. E. D. Benedict, o - I 

whose paper this introductory is mostly taken. ■ 



the uhiveesity of vekmoht. 



141 



■ to the amount of £1,643 12s., £300 of which was the suhscrip- 
^ f the governor, Thomas Chittenden, the founder of the town of 

Williston. 

Of the £4,000, £1,000 was to be paid partly “in a proper square of 
lands sufficient to erect all the public buildings on, to form a handsome 
irrwn and convenient gardens for the officers of the college,” and 
jarth ”in provisions, materials, and labor in erecting the public 
buildings.” The remaining £3,000 was to be paid “in new lands that 
will rent in produce — that is, wheat, beef, pork, butter, or cheese — for 
the annual interest at 6 per cent of £3,000.” In consequence of this 
memorial a committee was appointed “to draft a fdan for a constitu- 
tion and government of a college to be established in this State.” 

.\nd two years later, in November, 1791, the act was passed which 
incorporated the university and placed it on this spot. 

The legislature in granting the charter gave it the lands which had 
been reserved in the various township grants for the use and benefit 
of a college, which amounted to a little more than had been granted to 
Dartmouth. But these grants were of little avail for the expenses of 
beginning. The trustees determined to lease them rather than to sell 
them, the wisdom of which action is much commended bj^Ira Allen in 
hi> History of \ ermont. It is much to be regretted that the necessi- 
ties of early times compelled the sale of a part of the 50 acres which 
*ere originally set off for the site of the college as lands which formed 
of Ira Allen's subscription. By reason of that unfortunate neces- 
nere." has been much cramped for the room made 

Ns.u\ hy its growth. It is a source of congratulation that by rea- 
purchase of 72 acres east of the college buildings it 

0 orward to the requirements of the coming century with less 
““'"i-smebs. 

The 

ind'*''"l' therefore put in motion with funds contributed 
consi/'.* citizens, and the subscription of Ira Allen may well be 
401^''^ hs corner stone. 

"®ie not as numerous then as now. 



but I 



There are now about 



®ii<l of time onlj'^ 12 had been chartered in all America, 

'*ffihadho^ ^ the bounds of New England. Har- 

had 1 hi 1636, one hundred and fifty -fi\ 'e 3’ ears before; 

''■I had bee^” ^^hieti- v^ears before; Brown Univer- 

•nomi, founded in 1764, twenty-seven 3’ears before, and Dart- 
twenty 3’ears before. The will of General Williams 
illiams free school si 



six years before, and the thought 

'ts friend there was probably alread3’ working in the minds 

^'^0 yoara lat * charter of Williams College was obtained onty 

the eve of ^ Dartmouth in full existence, and Williams 

coming into life, what region was there left so favorable 



142 



HISTORY OF EDHCATIOlsr IN VERMONT. 



for the “one university in this State,” which had been reoMmiu., 
by the first constitution, as the valley of Lake Champlain? 

The act of incorporation of the university, passed in 1791 ludic 
drawn up in 1789 by a committee of o members of the hn* 
Nathaniel Chipman, Israel Smith, Elijah Paine, Samuel Hito^ 
and Stephen Jacob, to which the council added Isaac Tichenor. 

Elijah Paine, one of this number, is authority for the statementj 
“in 1784 there were' not more than 9 persons in the State, exopa 
clergymen, who had received a college education.” Thememlien 
this committee were 6 out of those 9. They were graduates, 3 of T» 
3 of Harvard, and 1 of the College of Xew Jersey, atPrincetoa H 
were men, therefore, who mai* be supposed to have known aboQt(6 
college charters, and if in their work they varied from other chm 
such variance may be supposed to be due to a desire to improTeini 
them. 

Ihere are four points in the act of incorporation which they dr- 
to wdiich I wish to call attention. 

I irst. Harvard, in addition to a board of trustees, had also a b« 
of overseers, by whom the orders and rules of the trustees cotii 
overruled or altered. 



Brown University also had two governing boards. 

\ ale had only one board of trustees. There had been a strong^ 
in 1763 to have a board of overseers added by law, but it had faiW 
Princeton had but one board of trustees. Dartmouth had buti* 
The framers of our charter made the university^ agree withb 
Princeton, and Dartmouth rather than with Harvard and Browi> 



gave its government to a single board of 17 trustees. 

Second. The charter of Harvard established a relation betweei 
college and the government of Mas.sachusetts by providing at 
the 13 overseers should be chosen by the general court, 
magistrates and 6 of the ministers."’ But it must be remember^' 
at that time no one could vote in ^lassachusetts to elect a inagi^ 
or a member of the general court unless he was a member of the 
so that the diflercnce of cla.ss between “ mag-istrates” and“iDhi*^ 
was not as wide as it would otherwise have been. By the constibit 
of the State, adopted in 1780, the g'overnor and lieutenant-goVf^ 
the council, and the senate were added to the board of oversee^’ 

By the charter of Dartmouth the trustees were to bo the 
of the province, the speaker of the house of representatives 
time being, and the president of the university, with ten 
This board wms empowered to fill all vacancies, ex officio 
excepted, to take charge of all the lands given by “ the authority®'^" 
State for the use and benefit of a college,” to hold not 
70,000 acres of land in this State, and to have freedom of 
all property below £100,000. But there wms no such even fon®**. 







OLD COLLEGE BUILDING, AS REMODELED IN 1883. 




THE HSTVEESITY OF VEBMOHT. 



143 



the State in the charters of Yale and Brown. In the charter 
({Princeton the proposal to make a more positive connection with the 
mment than that was rejected, and although the governor was 
^ed as one of the trustees, it appears by a letter to Jonathan 
liJj^rd.s that even this was looked upon with uneasiness by the pro- 
poters and friends of the charter. 

The framers of our charter took Haiward and Dartmouth as their 
■odel on this point instead of Yale and Brown, and provided that 
the governor of the State and the speaker of the house of representa- 
tires for the time being should he ex officio members of the board of 
tnistees of the university. 

Third. The charters of the other colleges made them distinctively 
denominational, and not onty that, but distinctively clerical in their gov- 
ernment. In thus providing for no denominational control in the 
university, the committee were in harmony with the public sentiment 
of the people of Vermont. Three of the first trustees named were 
ninisters of the gospel, one being a Baptist, another an Episcopalian, 
ind another a Congregationalist. But the framers of the charter did 
wt intend that the university should be under exclustyely clerical 
tontrol, or under the control of any denomination. And to make this 
P<irpose entirely clear they provided by a special clause that the by- 
'•’fs of the university should “ not tend to give preference to any 
Itligiou.s sect or denomination whatsoev'er. ” 

Fourth. There was one provision which the framers of our charter 
°°"d in all the other charters, viz, that the trustees should have the 
^’fer to elect their own successors. This was an essential provision 
inrtitutions which were intended to be and remain under denomi- 
Sich-'' ^'i^rical control, as those were, for in no other way could 
^ '^I^cial control be a,ssured. That reason for adopting such a pro- 



Esion 



»> our charter did not exist. 



dj^^***^ ®^^i^ontion is called to these four j)oints, because it was al)out 
tie great controversy raged in New Hampshire in 

tioutlin eentury, which gave rise to the famous Dart- 

*^tth ca.se, in which the United States Supreme Court decided 
Co( . »*'"ititure of New Hamp-shire had not the power under the 
' 'thon of the United States to take awav" the rights which had 
them bv" the original charter without their consent. 

Everett says; 

the lav of the land in reference to college charters was finally 
to our colleges and univereities and their trustees, unless 

contrary is made in their charters of incorporation, stand upon the 
common right and justice, holding in like manner as individuals their 
Ijy a firm legal tenure, and not subject to control or inter- 
^®^attk local legislatures, on the vague ground that public institu- 

6 mercy of the government. 



144 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION- IN VERMONT. 



THE OPENDS-G OF THE THflVERSITY AKD ITS FUTURE HISTORY ' 



The first meeting of the corporation was held at Windsor 
same day on which the charter was granted. A conimitt*'’* 
appointed to solicit subscriptions and to secure the donations^ 
had previously been offered. The next meeting was held at Burik 
ton in June, 1792.^ The present site was chosen for the loeatioT 
the university buildings, and a plot of 50 acres, then covered r 
stately pines, was set off from lands belonging to Gen. Ira 
The president’s house was begun in 1794, but” not completed „ 
1799.’’ 

The Rev . Daniel C. Sanders, who the next year became the pss 
dent of the college, was invited from Vergennes to Burlington, to 
up his residence in the new building, and received pupils in sti 
pieparatory to a college course. The tuition charged for thisseni 
was $12 a year, his salary as minister of the town being but $100. 

The college officers were not appointed, nor was a college edii 
begun until the year 1800. On the 17th of October Mr. Sanders « 
chosen president and authorized to empiloy a tutor to aid him in D 
woik of instruction. The colleg’e proper began its operations in li’ 
with a class of 4, who were graduated three vears after. Withe 
exception of a single term in 1804, in which he had the assistances 
tutoi , President Sanders constituted the entire working faculty cs 
1807, giving six and sometimes eight or more hours a day to the hh 
of personal instruction. In addition he was charged with the or. 
nary duties of a college presidency, having oversight of the buil<k 
donations, lands, and other outdoor interests of the institution. 
we remember that he wms at the same time minister of the pari>h 
Burlington, we can easily believe him to have been a rather busyW 
In 1807 the corporation took careful note of what had been ae'< 
plished, and laid their plans for enlargement and jirogress. TheF^ 
Samuel Williams, LL. D., author of a well-known history of Ven»» 



'For much of the account which follows I am indebted to Prof. X 1" 
of the chair of Latin, and historian of the university. His paper, 
history of Chittenden County, Vt., is embodied here, with hut few omissio«i^' 
through his kindness many valuable pamphlets having reference to the 
the university have been received and extracts taken therefrom. A 
of the Agricultural Department, which was prepared at his request, has ato’ ‘ 
inserted. — G. G. B. ^ 

^In 1795 Ira Allen made a new proposition to the legislature, viz, a 
tion of £1,000 in land and £1,000 more in books and apparatus, if they "a" 
sent to christen the rising institution “Allen’s University.” This offer seet^ ^ 
have met with any favor. Allen’s departure for Europe in the fall of this . 
subsequent detention there, and the serious financial loss sustained by hia^ . 
sequence of an unfortunate enterprise in which he embarked at this time 
inent among the causes of the seemingly needless delays in getting the uni'®^ 
operation. 



THE rNIVERSITY OF VERMONT. 



145 



goon appointed lecturer on astronomv and natural philosophy, the 
instruction of the kind, as is supposed, ever given in New Eng- 
’ jjj ]^go 7 James Dean, a graduate of Dartmouth College, became 
(Btor in mathematics and natural philosophy, and John Pomeroy, 
M D , gave lectures in anatomy and surgery. Both these gentlemen 
tere elected to professorships in 1809. The apparatus in astronomy 
and physics is said to have been more complete than in any other New 
England college, save the two old foundations of Harvard and Yale. 
He college library contained 100 volumes. There was also a society 
Kbrary of 100 volumes, and a “Burlington Library” estimated at a 
nine of $500. The course of study’ was modeled in the main after 
that of Harvard. Dr. Sanders being a graduate of that institution. 
Thition was fixed at ^12 a year, and there seem to have been no charges 
for incidentals. The expenses of living were so low that the presi- 
dent estimated that a student, hv teaching four months each winter at 
H6 a month, could pay’ his board and all college bills, and leave with at 
least$32 in his pocket! The pre.sident had a salary of ^600; the profes- 
»r of mathematics had exactly 8348. 71, and the tutor 8300. The total 
income from lands was 81.048. 71. The corpoi’ation appropriated 8150 
to purchase books for the library, and 8100 to be added to the philo- 
•ophical apparatus; and appointed David Russell, esq., as general 
•gent to rent the public lands, sell lands not public, and look after the 
••nous outdoor interests of the university. There were 47 students 
* lltc ground, and larger numbers were confidently expected. The 
*ork done and the growth attained in seven years justified large hopes 
of the institution. Ira Allen’s constructive ability. Dr. 
s scholarship, the trained sagacity of Samuel Hitchcock, the 
, .^^vetary of the corporation, also a graduate of Haiward, the zeal 
^ to efatig^ble industry of President Sanders, and the vigorous and 
u spirit of David Russell, the new financial agent — these were 
The • and prosperity. But trouble soon came. 

Bonim ere long involved in a political war by’ reason of the 

Thjrg ^ct of 1807, the first forerunner of the war of 1 812. 

to tbe '’.^°*^®Dse and systematic opposition in this section of the State 
region Enited States authorities; the pro,sperity of this 

®*fcial • of this, the leading town, depended on free com- 

Canada. There was no outlet of any sort, 
resist*^ ’ surplus products of the country. So violent was 

**s at 0 measures of the Federal authorities that Vermont 

^®'tod Stef- *ieclared by’ proclamation of the President of the 
denffi* ^ state of rebellion. Dr. Sanders had been so 

both town and college that he could not well 
**'^ositv ' '^^*-®toug his convictions with boldne.ss and energy. The 



3177 



oterest.'j of the university in many ways. Suffice it to 



-10 



say 



146 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 



w 



that whatever errors had been made in the obtaining of tiiecolUii. 
or the use of subscriptions were only too easily brought intofc 
troversy by jiersons who had been irritated or disappointed. |L 
there was the competition between this and the Middlebury Co|L 
which had been founded in 1800. The rival institution lay W 
Burlington and a large number of the earlier settled towns of theSl* 
it narrowed the held from which patronage was to be expected 
deprived the university in no slight degree of the sympathy wdih,- 
support of the clergy and other educated citizens of the CoaM 
wealth. It seems to have been the hope of those who seemed i 
charter for Middlebiiry College that the establishment of a murai 
here at Burlington might be forestalled by getting their own i 
tion into active and successful operation. This was located ii , 
midst of the wealthiest and most populous section of the Stiie: 
the midst, also, of the most active religious influence. Itwua 
natural that appeals should be made in its behalf to the nl^ 
prejudices of the good people of the State, and not without efc 
Students were drawn away from the university and the sympatUe 
the clergy and of religious people generally’ gathered about 
college. 

About this time — 1809-10 — certain frie?ids of the university thoB 
that its interests might be furthered bv ellecting a closer unioiu^ 
the State, An act passed on the 10th of Xovember, 1810, compl* 
changed the constitution of the board of control. The legislatnn« 
thereafter to elect o trustees every three years, and 10 
majority of the whole board, were at once cnosen. In 1823 the>* 
ber of trustees was increased to 28. an arrangement which lasted# 
five years, all parties being ready in 1828 to return to theOflP 
charter. This scheme of close aifiliation between the legislat®** 
the university failed to secure the advantages which had beeneip#* 
from it. The new corporation began, however, with vigor 
tern. The finances w’ere examined and a better agency org*®^ 
manage the funds and lands of the university. Tour new 
ships W’ere established, and the outlook was full of hope. 
as Samuel Hitchcock. Dudley Chase, Titus Hutchinson, 
and William C. Bradley — a group of names combining scho 
knowledge of affairs, and a disposition to scrutinize and keep 
over the details of administration — such men, had they not ^ 
sorbed in politics, might have given to the nascent universe 
enlarged scope and an increase of stability and usefidness. 

But at this time politics took precedence of all other 
restrictions laid upon trade had all but ruined northerti »e ^ 
Smuggling was rife on the frontier. The whole border 
with customs officers. War was declared against Great Bd 



the 18th of J une, 1812, and troops were ordered to Burlingfi^ 




WILLIAMS SCIENCE HALL. 




THE HNIVEKSITY OP VERMONT. 



147 



■ the headquarters of military operations. The college edifice 
; seized for an arsenal and soon after was demanded for barracks. 

‘ vthecorprration, makinga virtue of necessity, on the 24th of March, 
hit. leased the building to the United States Government for ^5,000 
irear. and resolved ‘‘that the regidar course of instruction be and 
lierdiy is suspended, and that those officers of the college to whose 
oliiifs salaries are annexed be dismissed from their offices respect- 
irelv." The members of the senior class received their degrees, and 
the younger students were recommended to complete their studies 
ekwhere. 

The university was reorganized in the summer of 181.5 with a new 
kulty. of which the Rev. Samuel Austin, of IVorcester, Mass., was 
llie head. The college building was repaired by’ the United States 
Goremment. and instruction began again in September. But the 
'fnanrial affairs of the institution were not vet on a sound footing’, 
rent paid by the United States was applied to the canceling of 
debts supposed to be outlawed. After six years (in March, 1821) 
President Austin resigned and was succeeded bv the Rev. Daniel 
then pastor of the First Church, Burlington, as president pro 
■taipore. But so great were the difficulties and so few the encourage- 
»nt< of the situation that announcement was actually- made that 
Kruetion would cease to be given in the college at the end of the fall 
A few of the graduates, however, were not so utterly dis- 
A literary society in the university held a meeting, along 
^ the alumni in the town, to consider a proposition to divide the 
ran of the society. The discussion developed many and conflicting 
ions and continued for several evenings. A young professor, 
^ ui L. Porter, protested against the scattering of the library as 
^ ‘on in the republic of letters. He insisted that the college might 
ed. and outlined the course to be adopted to that end. The 
fcot* iippeal was the restoration of harmony and the appoint- 
0 a committee to do what might be possible to turn the tide and 
^'oitate the institution. By the end of the term Air. Haskel had 
appointed president, and James Dean professor of 
uatics. The efforts of the .young men w-ere rewarded with a 
®gree of success. In about two years the number of students 
^isi-secl from 22 to 70. 

!f sudden disaster and darkness. On the 27th of Alay, 

^ e noble college edifice,” as Thompson calls it, was reduced 
0}' an accidental fire, along with portions of the library and 
.j And to add to the calamity, President Haskel, the high 
temple of science, overburdened with trials and calami- 
with insanity-. The destruction of the building seems 
of h ^’eceived as a challenge by- the generosity of the good peo- 
mlington. Before the commencement in August they had 



148 



HISTOEY OF EDCrCATIO:y Iisr VEEMONT. 



I'ullied again to the help of the college and subscribed more thn 
8b, 300 for a new edifice. This resulted maiid}" from the efforts of \ 
same young men who two years before had prevented the closL ; 
the college doors and apparently started the university on a 
of prosperity. Let us set down here the names of Charles Adia. 
Imman Foote, ,lohn AI. Pomeroy, and Gamaliel Sawyer, all 
graduates of the college and worthy to be remembered with thosv.' 
Professor Porter and Nathan B. Haskell, as the names of the took 
men whose energy and hopeful enthusiasm secured the ewth 
of a building to take the place of the one destroyed. AVithin iIbk 
months plans were adopted and the construction of the buildings, 
tracted for. A ijresident and new professoi-s were obtained ui 
instruction was continued while the ilew buildings were in process'- 
erection. Praj^ers and recitations were attended in a large and uiw 
cupied dry goods store at the north end of the college park, o- 
“square. ’ as it was then called. The corner of the north collegen 
laid by Governor A an Ness April 26, 1825, Charles Adams, of ik 
class of 1804, delivering the address. The laying of the corner stc* 
of the south college by Lafayette on the 29th of June of thesamevft- 
is commemorated b\' a stone with an approjjriate inscription, wbi; 
has been moved from its original position and now rests in the sonif 
west corner of the central projection of the main college building. 

The Rev. James Marsh was elected to the presidency in Octobf- 
1825. his immediate predecessor, Dr. AAJllard Preston, having b"- 



office but a single year. George AA^. Benedict was then in eliaig’' 
the department of mathematics and natural philosophv, and the 
Joseph Torrey was called in 1827 to the chair of Greek and D® 
Mr. Marsh was more variouslj" and more profoundly leaimed thaim 
one who had preceded him in the office. He had had experiem'^' 
the work of college instruction and had well-considered viewe ofb 
own as to the scope and method of college discipline, and his coUf^ 
wmre not unworthy coadjutors of their chief. The course of s*®-' 
was at once broug'ht under review and some modifications ms 
182 ( . In 1829 was published an " Exposition of the system of 
tion and discipline pursued in the Universitv of A erniont. 
in 1831 b\' an enlarged edition of the same. It is the tradition 
this document was written in the main bj- Prof. George AA . 

There is not space here to outline the contents of this paiupb'®*' ^ 
was received with marked favor and is believed to have had 
taut influence in shaping the higher education of the oountrv. 
still referred to as a landmark in the development of th® P 
sj’stem of college studies. 



In 1832 Dr. Alarsh resigned the presidency to give himsolf ^ 

Mr' 



duties of the chair of moral and intellectual philosophv 
Rev. John \A heeler, of AA indsor, Vt., succeeded him. 



THE XJJSriVEESITy OF VERMONT 



149 



'ftl 






Ml 



V Benotlict at the same time liecame professor of mathematics. A 
silis'riptioii of ^'45,000, tiegim before Dr. Marsh’s resignation, was 
not onlv completed in 1834 but so increased that about $30,000 was 
rolizcd from it. This increase of funds enabled the college to 
increase its teaching force, to purchase philosophical apparatus and a 
nluable library of 7,000 volumes, to repair the buildings and pay 
-onie pressing debts, and the efforts made in raising the subscription 
niade the in.stitution more wideh’ known and increased its inffuence 
ind the number of its friends. Indeed, a new interest was awakened 
in the subject of collegiate education throughout the State. 

.1 word .should be said of the library then procured. The greatest 
are was used and the best advice taken in the selection of the books. 
The agent sent abroad to purchase them was Prof. Joseph Torrey, 
than whom a more competent person could not have been found, 
tyveii thou.sand volumes were bought, at an average price of about 
il.i'5 a volume, and the collection was one which, for the uses of a 
(ollegiate institution, was excelled by no library in the United States 
«cept. perhaps, that of Harvard. How incomplete it was none knew 
hotter than the men who spent so inuch time and thought in selecting it. 

At this time the tinancial affairs of the institution were carefully 
o.xainined, lands looked up, college propertj^ inventoried, and a proper 
V>tein of bookkeeping instituted. It was found that of Gen. Ira 
l^on s original liberal grant of 50 acres for the college site had all 
n alienated to pay agents and others until onH one acre and a half 
tfniained. The sagacious and far-reaching plans of Allen were balked 

defeated. The prospects of the uni- 
gaLwi hopeful. To secure what had been 

and to insure further progress and growth another subscription 
Ono ^'"ith promise of succe.ss, but disaster came instead, 

'''aid norh^ ^amkruptcj^ involved the whole country in 1837. Debts 
ff .1 ’ " r'ollected. The banks suspended specie payments. Many 



horn repudiated their obligations. Money vanished 



raise money for a college in the face of general 



Profe., 



Was 



5. of course, impos.sible. The wonder is that the 



" alike 'lesert their posts. Rents, tuitions, and subscrip 



‘ai- of it,.< 



a debt of about $25,000, but without the sacrifice of 



or dishonor to its commercial credit; but with 



'"'Purtunatr^*'*^ unpaid. The library was attached by an 

•Slid ’ ^^**aiself hard pressed by others, and advertised 

1 '’^ ioo7, ^ ® *^heriff'. The college emerged from the fearfid crisis 

»H.iw ^'vithf ' 



fan . “'tion and self denial to the instructors themselves and 
’ will never be known. 



p|, 

and ^''®re laid and measui-es taken with a view to enlarge- 
to S™wth. Twenty-one acres of land were added Iw 
® acre and a half, and the trustees were recommended 



150 



HISTORY OF EHUCATIOK IN VERMONT. 



bj’ the board of instruction to acquire the whole plat of land 1 ’ 
within the public roads which surround the university. This^ 
year the lion. Azariah Williams, of Concord, Vt., made overtoil, 
college his larg-e landed estate valued at §25,000. This year, too tk. 
college received its first legacy, §500, from the Hon. Elijah Paino 
AVilliamstown, Yt., and others made promises to remember the uni- 
versity in their wills. 



In 1842 occurred the death of Dr. James Alarsh. Prof essor Term 
was transferred to the chair of philosophy and Calvin Pease succeed: 
him in that of Latin and Greek. In 1845 the Rev. AY. G. T. Shei; 
was elected professor of English literature, and a new subscripti:! 
was begun with the intention of raising §100,000. Fifty thorn 
dollars was subscribed and secured. In 1847 Prof. G. AT. Bemdi: 
resigned, after twentj’-two years of devoted and most effective serrh. 
In 1848 President AA'heeler resigned, and the next year the Bet 
AV orthington Smith, D. D., of St. Albans, Yt., was chosen tofillth 
office. A new subscription was opened with a view to raise 130,0'. 
and the university entered upon a career of moderate prosperilr 
The 6 classes which entered during Dr. Smith's administration gradts 
ted a total of 135, the largest numbering 27. President Smith’s 
failing in 1855, he was succeeded in the presidency by Profess’ 
Pease, who retained the office until February, 1862, when he » 
called to the pastorate of a church in Rochester, X. Y. In the foUc’ 
ing September Prof. Torrey was made president and filled the oSe 
until 1866. 



The operations of the university were once more sadhr interrupts 
by the civil war. In 1861 a large proportion of the undergradust'" 
moved by their love of the fatherland, exchanged “the still 
delightful studies ” for the commotion and dangers of the tented W 
They rushed to the defense of the country with an alacrity^"' 
threatened to leave the donnitories and lecture rooms empty- 
catalogue of 1862-63 shows that of a total enrollment of 64, 2f, 
per cent of the whole number were in actual service in the field- 
it appears that college boys made good soldiers, as even at that 
period of the war 1 is- set down as captain of cavalry, 6 as lieute 
and others as filling various subaltern offices. Some of theiUK* 
higher posts subsequently, and others of them — are not the na®^ 
these young patriots inscribed on the memorial tablet in the chap* 
the universitvi 

.direct*^ 



And again it took a long time to recover from the effects, 
indirect, of the war. Some, as was natural, never returnea 
plete their course at the university. Others who were in 
a college training also joined the army, and came out of the ^ 
old, as they^ thought, to enter college, or with complete cr 
plans and aims. The universal rule, “to him that hath 



ibail 



given,” operated here as well as elsewhere. The classes 



i 




CONVERSE DORMITORY. 



THE HNIVEKSITY OF VEEMONT. 



151 



time >0 sniiill as to cease to be attractive to young men, and not a few 
»,.nt outside the State to pursue their college course, 
liv act of the genei'al assembly, Xovember 9, 1865, the Vermont 
\.rri(ultural College, which had been chartered the year before, was 
ino)r]x>rated with the University of Vermont. One of the conditions 
of the original charter was that $100,000 should be raised by voluntary 
sulis'ription for its endowment or other uses. This not having been 
•umidied with, the charter of the college would, by one of its provis- 
iois. have lost its validity by November 15, 1865, had not the union 
i»in coiisunimated. The expenses of this college or department are 
iMraved by the agricultural college fund, provided by the act of 
Omgress of July 2. 1862, the income of which is $8,130 annually. 
The act unde]’ which the college is organized prescribes that its 
"leading object shall be, without excluding classical and other studies 



of a scientific nature, and including military tactics, to teach such 
branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic 
•It'. In accordance with this act the university has established 
'Durses in civil engineering, mining engineering, chemistry, and 



^riculture. A literarv -scientific course has also been added for the 



^ncht of such as desire the advantages of the regular academic 
'urs hut are unable to pursue Greek. The instruction in botany, 
fiiiosophy, zoology, and geology comes naturally, also, within the 
of the ordinance just cited. 

e student there is not required to take the “ regular course.” If 
f'pn-ddection 
four VC; 



is for mathematics he may’ pursue engineei'ing for the 
•’uildin^"'^' himself for railroad construction and bridge 

J®' prefer chemistry', a large and well-equipped labor 

** Is service, in which he may' experiment and study' for the 



ra- 



’^hted t * ■ would inform himself on the sciences 



same opportunity' is given- for four y'ears’ 
’'^'oik. Provision is made also for mining engineering and 



■'«<aUurgv. 
•^nd thes, 



thr studies, one or more, iliay be pursued, in part or in 
offered V' ^ degree. An excellent opportunity- is 



til,. 



^ifanclie,.^° desire special instruction and aid in any' of 

*'''ild-be d '' tii6 several courses. For example, the 



^gglst 



*''' I'l^'oratory 



or phy'sician or photographer has a chance to 



y just that special knowledge and skill which 
So the teacher who finds or 



liiiuseff'^ pi'ofession demands. 

in some branch in w'hich he expects to give 
P'Jtai.;! . ****iy ■ ’ • 

•iich 

•<v, 

V»d, 



"^'fructi!*'^'^ ^^^ficient 
may 

\*’’oud j, ersity aims to meet the needs of those who desire 



^ joiud' studies or pursue new branches by tem- 

tK uiore of the college classes. In these and 

Mvar- Unn-o„„:4.-_ ■ . “ . . . . ^ . 



'^^'otu more subjects and y'et can not afford 



i t-ars to continuous studv'. 



152 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION! IH VERMONT. 

ith the consent of the corporation certain changes were oadf 
the legislature in i-espect to the number and the mode of electi 
the trustees of the university by acts passed November 2 *l8ir 
October 31, 1823, but these were, with like consent, repealed bn 
act of October 30, 1838, which revived and confirmed the provhio^ 
the original charter, which charter remains in full force at thepres^ 
time, with such modifications as the corporation of the univP 5 ir 
accepted m 1865, in accordance with the provisions of the charter- 
the University of Vermont and State Agricultural College. 

Since the union of the university and State Agricultural Colleje: 
186-1, two systems have been combined in this institution— the tniV 
on the part of the university electing their own successors, while t 
tiustees on the part of the Agricultural College have been elected; 
the legislature. 

Very soon after the union of the university with the Agricultr. 
College was efiected, the corporation invited Prof. James B. An^. 
LL. D. , of Providence, R. I. , to the presidency. He was inauguni' 
1st of August, 1866, and entered with sagacity and vigor upoa i; 
difficult duties of the position. Money was to be raised, friends 
and enemies to be conciliated; facilities and men provided for their’ 
courses of instruction; repairs to be made, students to be gather?: 
and hope and courage to be infused into the whole constituency of h 
college. There were conflicting views and interests also to be h 
monized. Not a few of the alumni looked with a feeling of jealoi^' 
and distrust on the “agricultural” member of the firm; and the"pn 
tical’ friends of the new college deemed the successful raising of s’’ 
of beets to be of more profit to the State, and more in the line of ^ 
leal intent of Congress, than all the “dead” languages and fine-??' 
metaphj'sics in the old-fashioned curriculum. Mr. Angell soon f 
proof of his rare qualities, in the quiet yet masterly skill that char> 
terized his administration. He had a large business capacity, 
the development of his plans, and a quick insight into the chars*'' 
and motives of men. His cdrdial manners and power of per^’’^, 
speech drew students and others into terms of liking and fricr’'^'_ 
and disarmed the almost hostility' with which some of his 
regarded by some of the older graduates of the institution. S® 
duced, also, into the college, and into the relations of the collc^ ^ 
the city', a new and exceedingly' pleasant social element — one j., 

not y'et ceased to characterize the intercourse of citizens 
Under Mr. AngelPs leadership the university made a steady * 
both as to facilities and as to the number of undergraduates. _ 
the alumni had subscribed ^25,000 to endow a professorship 
of Dr. James Alarsh, and about as much more had been 
other objects. In 1869 Mr. Angell reported that there 
upon the books about §75,000 of the §80,000 which it was pr^P'^i 
obtain immediately'. This subscription was commenced in 



the university of VERMONT. 



153 



udtil 

ctitil 

ilO.« 

pra» 

ireri 

U^i 

iriElii 

liklk 

ct«dh 

mha 

kagi 

![nnl 

wdA 

bfi 

k* 

theni 

■of* 

aka! 

••pit 

f.k 

of» 

a ?• 

■lait 

tJfO 

»«! 

u»f 

i# 

ii"* 

**► 

11^ 

im 



•par The money was used in part for the renovation and remod- 
'i*?of the college building, the equipment of the new laboratory, and 
^"^rection of the president’s house. The catalogue of 1866 shows a 
wul of 31 students; that of 1870, of 67. 

At the close of the year 1870-71 Mr. Angell resigned to accept the 
pjfsidency of the University of Michigan, and Prof. Matthew H. 
Buckham! who was graduated from the universitj^ in 1851, and who 
bl served the institution in the chairs of Greek and of English for 
Sfteen years, was elected to the vacant office.^ At the same meeting 
of the trustees a vote was passed to admit young women to the aca- 
liemic and scientific departments of the university under such regula- 
tions as the faculty should prescribe. Curiously enough, on the very 
day on which this vote was passed the associate alumni, after a spir- 
ited debate, also passed a resolution requesting the corporation “to 
(onsider whether it should not now offer its privileges to all persons, 
male and female alike,” and expressing the conviction that “right and 
jastice, a wise philosophy, and a sagacious policy invite to this new 
laorse.” One young woman entered the classical department in the 
spring and 6 more in the fall of 1872. The university sought in this 
*»y to meet one of the growing needs of the time, and contribute 
smiething to the raising of the standard, though without the expecta- 
'lODien would come in large numbers to avail themselves of 
lienefits offered. At that date few schools in the country offered 
y the opportunity for a sound and well-balanced training, 

assar College was then the only institution east of the Hudson w'hich 
ed to give the equivalent of a collegiate course, 
meof the recent gains and changes must be very hastily sketched, 
todo***'^' T*- Howard, of Burlington, gave $50,000 for the 

- ^ent of the chair of natural history. The surplus income after 



Presidents.^ 





Austin D 'n ■ (* 82). 

1- D.TVwiYliams 1S07 (Hsso' 'At. TO)".' 

T ■'■M- 

01857 .Et.71). 

i«g!"d ‘ tV n' -T" *“"■ 

Vt.l845 

W 1856'('*'i 863 At! 50)! 

^ A. Jx • n" ri ' 

hSm Tx president of the University of 



_ • ■ M. , D. D. Dart, and Ham. 1877. 




Elected. Retired. 



1800 

1815 

1821 

1825 

1826 
1833 
1849 
1855 
1862 
1866 

1871 



1814 

1821 

1824 

1826 

1833 

1849 

1855 

1861 

1866 

1871 



Still i n 
office. 



154 



HISTOEY OF EDUCATION IE VEEMOET. 



the professor's salary is paid is to he applied to the increase of- 
museum and library. John N. Pomeroy, LL. D., of Burlingto" 
graduate of the class of 1809, and for several years the oldest liv^' 
alumnus, left $20,000 hy will toward the endowment of the chair ■ 
chemistry, a department in which Mr. Pomeroy had long years befo-, 
given the tirst course of lectures ever offered in the university, 

J line 26, 1883, was dedicated the bronze statue of Lafayette, |Im 
now graces the center of the park, and is said to be the mok stw 
work of America’s foremost living sculptor, Mr. J. Q. Aj 
T his was also Mr. Howard’s gift. And it is not without re* 

Mr. Howard’s name is inscribed at one angle and Lafay( 
another angle of the foundation walls of the principal 
building. 

In 1883 the Hon. Prederick Billings, of Woodstock, pru, 
the universiH, first, the famous libraiy of the Hon. George P 
a collection of 12,000 volumes of rare value and interest; and ( 
the munificent sum of $100,000 for the erection of a library uvi^ 
suitable to enshrine such treasures as the Marsh collection and iSjld: 
college library. The Billings Library was completed in July, 
a total cost of $150,000, with a shelving capacity of 100,000 
such a repository for literary treasures as no other college in Abbk 
possessed at the time of its completion. 

The gift of $10,000 which Mr. Billings made for the increaseofl^ 
library is now being expended, and several thousand volumes hf' 
already been added. The income from the bequest of Miss Ifc** 
Loomis, of Burlington, of the sum of $10,000, has become 
for the purchase of books. The library is open seven hours c 
week days for consulting and drawing books, and for two h< 



' ^ xv/x clliLl LllctAVllig UUUK.&, tllJi-l J-wx 

Sunday afternoons. The reading room of the library is suppli' , 
all the leading scientific and literary periodicals. Persons notcoDl^ 



CT 

with the university have the free use of the libraiy for con 
and on special permission from the president or librarian are 
to draw books, students, as residents of the citv, have also 
of the Fletcher Free Library, a collection of over 20,000 vol 
loan and reference, which is open daily. 

IVe can only name the Park Gallery of Art, founded in ISA 
Hon. Trenor IV. Park, of Bennington, which contains a choice 
tion of casts, paintings, engravings, etc.; the enlarged W 
with its ample facilities for chemical manipulation and expend 
commons hall, built in 1885; the engineering course, 
duced so manj^ young men into lucrative and honorable posih® 
improvements in park and grounds; the cons iderable 
number of scholarships and other proofs of the public con 
and a steady and substantial progress. igi,e- 

The catalogue of 1891-92 presents an enrollment of 18^ 
arts and science, besides 55 in special courses and 209 iu t®® 




ELECTRICAL LABORATOf?Y. 




, 



CHEMICAL LABORATORY. 




thb univeesitt of vekmont. 



155 



Xhe graduating- class in 1891 numbered 29. The total imm- 
f wiiduiitcs in arts was 1,157, of whom 50 are women. The whole 
her graduated from the medical school was 1,186.* 
following table shows the attendance of students in the various 

tinenhu 



srieDtilif. 



- ■ class . 



71 

23 

23 

9 

9 

6 

145 



1890. 



66 

22 

26 

12 

12 

7 

145 



The effect of the provision for State scholarships on the freshman 
iss of 1889-90 was verj- marked and suggestive. The class was 
' largest in numbers and one of the best in equality that ever 
utered the university. It has thus become apparent, as the friends 
i education have always anticipated, that an appropriation bj' the 
kgidature in aid of university education naturally awakens a new 
Werest in the institution throughout the State, encourages students 
teking a collegiate education to resort to the college of their own 
>tate. and enables young persons of limited means to acquire an edu- 
ntion which would not otherwise be within their reach. Apart from 
ike benefit of the very moderate sum appropriated by the legislature, 
ike recognition of the claim of the university upon State patronage 
the expression of interest and confidence in its university by the 
^te have given a decided impetus to the progress which the institu- 
ben has been making in recent x'ears. It is an unfortunate circum- 
^"ee that appointments to State scholarships, affording free tuition 
incidental exjoenses to 30 students upon the nomination of senators, 
■nine available onlv once in four years, unless in case of vacancies, 
n necessary expenses are as follows: 





Econom- 

ical. 


Liberal. 


" 


$60.00 

9.00 

11.50 

9.00 

2.00 


$60.00 

9.00 

30.00 

9.00 

2.00 




rooms, suites accommodating 2, 3 , or 4, for each student.. 
rare.Sis to 823. 

printing, services, repairs, etc 


ro'lege bills 


91.50 

92.50 
20.00 


113.00 

129.50 

30.00 




‘"rana-washim.r ’ ’ 




204.00 


272.50 



the nunil3(.r graduates in arts from 1804 to 1889, 1,101. 

°ip- E-: 1, it. E.; 41, Ph. B., and 3, B. S. Total of degrees other than 



Of these, 56 received 

j ofC.E.; 1, il.E.; 41, Ph.B., and3, B.S. Total ( 

■ Of the alx)ve, 381 became lawyers, 217 clergc-men, 76 physicians; 41 
! ^ici " ere women. Names of graduates in arts not living, 404; graduates in 

“^'1836, graduates in medicine, 1854-1889, 1,252; whole number 
nredicine, 1,368; whole number graduates in course, 2,469; honorary 



•niiiiai 



,368 



graduates in arts who became professors in colleges and theological 
> other college instructors, 16; college presidents, 11. 



156 



HISTOEY OF EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 



1 



The students’ rooms are furnished at tlio expense of the 



The finances of “The University of Vennonl ami Site 
College” at that time are set forth in the following exhibh?'®^ 



reports of the treasurer: 



FroS Agricultural College fund . 

From funds 

From students’ bills. 

'' Cnivereity century ” assessments . 
rrom other sources 

From State appropriation 



Total 



EXPENSES. 

Salaries and wages 

Current expenses ! ! ] [ 

Apparatm? and department sunnlipV 

Uibrary and reading room 

Repairs and furniture 

Other expenses 



Total 



1888-89. 



§8,130.00 
6,057.38 
7,140.21 
5, 981.12 
3,762.50 
918.16 



31,989.37 






iMlf 

iSLC 
• Sll 

i%l 

ftl 

i.eu 

6.«l 

"iii 



018.85 
480.39 
976. W 
976.94 
435.11 
927.89 



32,796.13 



25.1113 

5.IU 

i.cr 

l.MU 

su 

al 

3i,mi 



^ statement does not intdude the receipts and expenditure : 
o e medical department or of the experiment station. ' 

n 1886 the total value of properU, exclusive of Congressional fiul ' 
was^estimated at $520,000; value of lands, $130,000; value of buildii?^ 
^1.00 000; value of collections, $60,000; trust funds, $120,000. 

above, the' only item which includes any gift or grant fi« 
the htace to the university is “value of lands.” "^.The reservation c>: ] 
lots tor the benefit of the university in the later grants to town# 
resulted in securing to the university about 29,000 acres of land sst 
tered thougbout the State,^ mostly wild mountain land of little val» 
brom the “public lands” included in the above item, an annual rentt 
of about $2,700 is received, making the gift to the univer sityfroni*! ' 
btate to be of the v^alue of about $15,000. 



MILITARY IXSTRUCTIOX. 

In accordance with an act of Congress, an officer of the United StaK’ 
Army IS stationed at the university as professor of military sciei*' 
and tactics, and all male students, except those in the medical depart- 
ment, are required to take part in military drill and instruction t< 
hours each week. The military exercises are so ordered as not 
interfere materially with other college duties, and are sufficif"'- 
attractiv-e to inspire interest and enthusiasm in a body of young'”'' 
I be Lmted States Government furnishes breech-loading rifles,# 
ammunition, for infantry drill, and two 3-inch guns, with auun””' 
tion and equipments, for artillery practice; so that the student, 






THE UNIVERSITY OF VERMONT. 



157 



• the college curriculura. has an opportunity to become 
practical details of organizing and drilling troops 
^nwnipuli‘ii“" firearms. A simple uniform, costing about ^15, is 

lom <lu™g drill. .^ . u i j j- •<- 

What <ort of discipline the university gives, what kind ot men it 

od-out. may be seen by scanning the roll of its alumni: Dr. Shedd, 
*« of I'nion Theological Seminary; Dr. N. G. Clark, of the A. R C. 

F .'I.;Dr. George B. Spalding, of Syracuse, N. Y.: Dr. Ebenezer 
Cotier. of Worcester, Mass; Dr. 1. E. Dwinell, of Oakland, Cal.; Dr. 
J.H. Hopkins, of Wilkesbarre, Pa.; Bishops Bissel, of Vermont, and 
Howe (since deceased), of South Carolina, are living specimens from 
(klong list of preachers and theologians whom it has helped to equip. 
What it ha.s done for law and statesmanship may be suggested liy the 
iMiesofCollamer. Culver, Aldis, Kasson, Eaton, Gilbert. Hale, Bene- 
fit. Bennett. Jameson, Palmer, Powers, Smith — a list that might be 
'{iHitlv extended. Among the graduates who have been presidents or 
professors in other colleges may be mentioned Marsh, Herrick, and 
Ferrin. of Pacific University; ^Villiams, AYeed, Kent. ells, Denni- 
*«. and Dewey, of Michigan University; Peabody, of Illinois Indus- 
in»l University; Allen, of the University of Pennsylvania; Tuttle, of 
Coniell: AVoodrufl:. of Bowdoin; AYorcester, of Union Theological 
Saninarv; but we will not complete the roll. As to those who have 
*««Teoman’s service in other departments of educational work, they 
too many for separate mention. 

And the university has done something for journalism. In the 
i*^onof Henry J. Raymond it founded the New York Times; in that 
^ -James R. Spalding, of the same class (1840), it created the New 
wkllorld. It was Alexander Mann, of the cla.ss of 1838, who 
the Rochester American a power outside the State of New 
wk is well as within it. Dr. Simeon Gilbert, in his conduct of the 

on and morals 



Ckii 



'ra?o Advance, has both done good battle for religii 
«on himself a good report. 

• Jtst of the men of business who have received the diploma of the 
"’ould include railroad kings, manufacturers wTose wares 
»hfr continents, and publishers whose imprint is familiar 

English books are read. And we have given these few 
to show by living examples that the institution at least 
• *^**J'*u to such earnest and capable x’oung men as seek from it 



P'^ctical 



the record 



- training for their life work. And .some, as 

Me are glad to add, go back again from the college to 
tirp ®st and most honorable of all professions — agriculture — and so 
^ demonstration that Greek and science and philosophy 

'Qualification or damage even to the farmer. 



158 



HISTOEY OF EDUCATION IN VEEMONT. 



UNIVERSITY BUILDINGS. 



In October, 1793, the corporation voted “that early in the nfji 
summer a house shall be built on the college square for thenaeofihl 
university-.'’ This building ivas intended for the resideuce of m 
president. It ivas begun in 1791 and nearly completed in 
was not tinished so as to be occupied until 1799. It was 
the east side of the college park, a little to the south and wfl 
present museum building. It was of wood, 48 by 32 feet, i 
high, with hipped roof. After serving its original purpoge^ 
years, in process of time this building became uniit for the^ 
of the president and degenerated into a tenement houso;l 
commonly known, forty years ago, as the “Old Yellow Hoil 
among the students, owing to the number and variety of its oci 
as the “House of the Seven Xations.” One stiU cold 
winter of 1844 it was burned to the ground — by a stroke of 1 
as was said by the students. The faculty, however, had a 
theory of the matter. 

The original college edifice proper was erected in 1801. 
ber, 1799, the citizens of Burlington offered to the cor 
special subscription of 82,300 to aid in the erection of this | 
and in the jjrocuring of books and apparatus, and contra 
building were made the next year. The structure occupied # 
site as the present editice. and was of brick, 160 feet long, 751 
in the center and 45 in the wings, and four stories in height 1 
a hall in each story running the entire length of the building,* 
tained a chapel, 7 public rooms, and 45 rooms for studenfl 
building was destroyed on the 24th of iMay, 1824, by an accide 
said to have been caused by sparks falling upon the roof fr 
the chimneys. The sparks were afterwards ascertained to 1 
from some shavings which a student had set on fire in his sto^ 
ground floor. The “different college buildings” ivere stated,j 
Vermont Sentinel, in July, 1805, to have cost thus far 
this must be too low a figure, as Thompson gives the cost of i 
nal main building alone at about 835,000, “ the greater part< 
was contributed in Burlington and vicinity.” It appears also| 
funds for building the original president’s house came 
Burlington. 

The new jilan embraced 3 buildings, the north and soutn 
three stories high and 75 feet long by 36 feet wide, while 
one was 86 feet long, with a projection in front and rear, 
designed for administrative purposes. It contained the chapeh 
museum, and lecture rooms, besides two rooms which wer® 
to the two rival debating societies, the “Phi Sigma 
versity Institute,” each with its separate room for a 
north and south college buildings were tinished in the 



library- 

cotu^l 





BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY. 




THE rifiVEESITY OF VERMONT. 



159 



• ofi. and cost about 810,000, 



■ nearly all subscribed by inhabitants 
erected and 



- 

^Burlington and vicinity.” The middle college was 
rlv completed in 1829, and cost about 89,000. The dome bj- which 
i was sunuounted, and which for more than tif tj" years served as a 
beacon for the wide region of country between the Green Mountains 
0(1 the Adirondacks, was designed, and the working plans therefor 
aeciited. by the late Prof. George lY. Benedict. 

The north and south college buildings were fitted for dormitories. 
Eich was built in two divisions, separated by partition walls. There 
ftre no halls lengthwise of any of the buildings, and it was impossible 
Id pass from one division to anotJier or to the center building without 
*omg out of doors. All the buildings were of brick and covered 
originally with tin, which was subsequently^, about thirty’ y’ears ago, 
irplaced with Welsh slate. At this time the buildings, which were 
originally separated bv spaces of some 7 feet, were connected so as to 
form a continuous wall, and the small rooms thus gained were used 
io various ways. The total length of the old building amounted, 
xrording to these tigui’es, to 250 feet. 

In the olden time there were recitation rooms on the lower floor of 
•*outh college. Soon after Mr. Angell assumed the presidency (in 1866) 
tiic lower story of the north college was taken for the general labora- 
'“H, lecture, assaying rooms, and other uses of the chemical depart- 
The chapel was refitted and refurnished somewhere about 1860. 
“ Bdl. or the earlier part of 1862, the south college was thoroughly’ 
•'Psircd. and the interior changed so as to furnish convenient suites of 
for the use of students. The students’ rooms in the north col- 
1‘eiiiodeled after a similar plan two or three y’ears later. In 
^ - also, the present museum building, TO by’ 60 feet, was erected. 
'Was originally but two stories high, and owed its existence mainly’ 
V efforts of President Pease and Professor Clark. The third storv 
*'l‘ied in 1861 at the expense of Hon. Trenor W. Park, of Ben- 
for tJrg accomodation of the art gallery. lYhat has been 
l^ter generations of students as the' '‘old president's house,” 
Pi’ofessor Petty, is believed on good authority to have 
1808. By whom or w’hen it was built we have not 
(’ p ascertain. It did not belong originally’ to the university’. 

is said to have lived in it in 1809, and for many’ y’ears 
to have owned and occupied it; but President Haskel 
P^'to have made it his residence after his resignation of the 

di,q the First Church (in 1822), and President Marsh lived and 
^^^~t>-1812). It was familiarly known in distinction from 
Vse" ^^5'^i^tent’s mansion — "the old y’ellow house” — as the '‘white 
^fdi after the death of Dr. Marsh it became a college 

V)iig tiouse. and for some y’ears gathered more students about its 
than any’ other 3 or 1 houses in the village. 



160 



history op education in VERMONT. 




President Marsh’s otEce, a one-storv wooden hniM’ 
near the street line to the southwest the house 

Sir'""'’ “ * 

The pr^ident’s mansion, now occupied bv President R.. vu 
bmit tor President Angell in 1869. It was^rected durin/ttl’** 
inflated currency when it took a good deal of money to wt"'' 
little ot any other commodity, and cost some $11 i: ‘ 
subscription in Burlington. - ^ 

In 188^-83 by the liberality of Mr. John P. Howard, whatisk,«« 
to the present generation as the old colleo-e buildiuo- was th 
remodeled and reoonslmoted at an expensed nearly «0,000*'’S 
he,ght ™ given each atory. and the enda Ld 

thHnS S' lo'E'™"’- 

The center of the building rises a story higher than the rest atdi 
suimounted by a belfry and spire, the gilded flnial of which h li 
eet from the ground. The tip of the center gable is 93 feet fromlk 
g ound. Between the large projections and gables are two smalk 
ones, in which are the two front entrances. 

As to interior arrangement, the chapel occupies the same po^itki 
f ^ .t building. It is 65 feet long, 33 feet wide, aodi 

ee ig . nder the chapel is the drill room, over it 2 commodio* 
lecture rooms. To the south and north of the central portion 
ecture rooms, each 33 by 25 feet, with large lobbies attached, ami : 
smaller recitation rooms, besides rooms for apparatus, chemical dorh 
waiting room, 1 . M. C. A. room, etc. At the north end is the ch«- 
leaf laboratory; over that, the rest of this end and the whole of t> 
oted to dormitories. The fourth story affonh*^ 
additional number of dormitories. 

The flrst lectures in the medical department were to mixed clas.-^ 
of ladies and gentlemen at the old ‘-Pearl Street House,” not 
structure at present occupied by the “St. Joseph’s College,” buto:* 
which was burned on the saniG site. 

The old medical-college building at the south end of the park** 
elected in 1829, and was originally a plain brick structure of t*' 
i 1 uimg the suspension of the medical department from P 

o 18o3 the laboratory and lecture room in this building were ust** ■ 
the protessor of chemistry and natural philosoiihy for the lecture^"’ 
chemistry and physiology in the academical Tn 1859.*'*' 



chemistry and physiology in the academical course. In 1859, 

expense ot some $1,000, the medical building was thoroughly 
hnn pd nnd 1 r . ^ 



, ..XXV. iiLiTKxn.cn uuiiuinff was tnorougi^v 

aided, and greatly enlarged by an extension to the rear and 
addition ot another story to afford room for an enlarged amphitbr**' 



etc. Li 1880 the lecture rooms were again enlarged, this time 
utmost extent the building would admit of, and a new- chemical 



to I 



THE VNIVEKSITY OF VERMONT. 



161 






niton- and dissecting rooms were provided in a two-story addition in 
tJie rear of the main stiTxcture. But these accommodations soon came 
to be too narrow and in ISSl were abandoned for the new quarters at 
the north end of the park. This building, formerly the residence of 
Governor Underwood, was purchased, refitted, ancl presented to the 
university for the use of the medical college by the same generous 
friend who had previously rebuilt the main college edifice. 

The Billings Library was completed and dedicated in the suauuerof 
ISto, the building having been begun in the fall of 1883. It is of 
and^toue from Longmeadow, Mass., 190 feet in length and 67 feet in 
depth at the center. The poh^gonal apse is 52 feet high and 17 feet 
in diameter. From the ground to the apex of the central gable is 62 
feet, the width of the main front being o8i feet. The central tower 
h fo feet high, constructed entirely of stone. The main library build- 
iag is S5 feet long by 11 feet broad, with a room beneath of the same 
dimensions intended for duplicates. Congressional documents, and 
other volumes not likely to be often consulted, as well as for work 
tables at which volumes may be prepared for the bindery or for shelv- 
tfff- The library is heated by steam. The central hall is used as a 
trading room; the apse contains bound periodical literature and special 
ra ections for class use, and there are four special rooms besides the 
'rarians, in any one of which a student or writer who has need of 
•»^» ute solitude may be entirely by himself. Behind the central hall 
loonu-onstructed expressly to contain the library of the Hon. 

by 32 in breadth, richly furnished 
ancl constituting, -with the treasures it contains, an ideal work- 
for the scholar. 

pinr fbe main library building is richly finished in Georgia 

exception of the birch floors and the furniture of the 
*“<i <how f'* of oak. The massive mantelpieces, too, are of oak, 
“ithe h" carving. Excellent carving is exhibited also 

stonework about and above 
angle of the gable, upon a huge, round stone, 
t rehu,, 1 university with its venerable motto, Studiis 

The Billings library is built according to what is 
•‘■tweeimb ^ ®^ow-burning construction.” There are no spaces 

''B'ornej.,. ^ fbe beams are all solid and exposed; no interstices 

filled where fire may lurk. All the partitions and spaces 

ffi’opi’oof material, leaving no possibility for fire to 
fbere is not space here for a full and detailed 
^lUe ordej it to say that the architecture is of the Roman- 
ia *'^^tecl bv^A edifice is one among the most successful of those 

!*^I*lyd'r^‘ Kichardson, a man whose death has been so 

<ji-b by all intelligent lovers of architectural art. Over 



162 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 



the generous mantel may be seen the face of the princelv don 
erick Billings, an alumnus of 18B1 and a fellow-tovnsma!^' ! 
Marshes. ^ 

Mr. Billings has recently crowned his various gifts to the libmt 
which bears his name by an endowment of $50,000, which is ‘t |» 
invested and the income exclusively used for the care of the BillL 
hbrap' and the payment of its current expenses.” He has alsoi^ 
provision for the publication of a catalogue of the books intheMui 
library, whidi were given by iMr. Billings to the university in 
The sum of all of Mr. Billings\s gifts to the libraiy approach 
$250,000. M hile a few gifts of larger amount have been bestoweda 
Ameiican educational institutions, none have surpassed, if anyhin 
equaled. Mr. Billings’s bounty to the univez-sity of his native St* 
and his own alma mater in the spirit in which it has been given, in th 
laige appreciation of the claims of learning, and in the thoughtfnln« 
and wisdom with which this noble benefaction has been wroz^jlitoi 
even in the minutest details. 

THE MEDICAL DEPARTMENT. 

The medical department of the University of Vei’mont 
organized in 1821. The gentlemen who composed the facuWy 
time were: John Pomeroy, pi'ofessor of sui'gerv; James K. 
professor of midw’iferv; Arthur L. Portei’, professor of chi 
Nathan R. Smith, pi'ofessor of anatomy; and William 
professor of practice and matei’ia medica. Instruction was gi' 
these gentlemen and their successors for thirteen years, during 
time 111 students were graduated from the institution. The result 
the enterprise was not successful, for after 1825 the numb«^ 
stiidents steadily diminished; and in 1836 the department ceased* 
exist. 

A medical college was established in Woodstock, and incoipor**' 
October 26, 1835. In 1813 there was a faculty of 8 professors, si®)*? 
whom was the Hon. Jacob Collamer, professor of medical jurisp^ 
deuce, who afterwards became United States Senator. The college'* 
then in a flourishing condition, and had a large number of studen'-’ 
enrolled. 

In the same year, 1813, there was a medical college in Castlet»»^ 
2 courses of lectures were annually delivered, each course covef 
a peiiod of fourteen weeks. The fee for matriculation was^S; ^ ^ 
the lectures, $50; the cost of graduation, $16. There were 8 p^^ 
ors in the faculty, and in the year named 105 students enrolled*^ 
spring term and 109 at the fall term. 

Two unsuccessful attempts to revive it were made by 
Thayer, the first in 1810, the second in 1812: but it was not unti 
that Dr. Thayer, with the aid of President Smith, Kev. John 




BILLINGS LIBRARY. 



the university of VERMONT. 



163 



ppjfeiwor Benedict, Hon. John X. Pomeroy, and other public-sipirited 
citizens of Burlington, succeeded in reorganizing the medical college. 
He new medical faculty consisted of Horatio Xelsoii, professor of 
qnwerv; S. IV- Thayer, professor of anatomy; Orrin Smith, pro- 
ffssorof obstetrics; Henry Erni, profes.sor of chemistry, and IValter 
Cirpenter, professor of materia medica. Since this time the growth 
ind prosperitv of the institution have been uninterrupted. During 
Professor Thayer's long connection with the medical department he 
jpared neither time nor labor in its promotion. Professor Car- 
penter filled the chair of materia medica from the organization of 
the college in 1853 until 1857, when he was made professor of theory 
ind practice, a position which he held until his resignation in 1881. 
Professor Thayer lectured on anatomy and surgeiy, besides discharg- 
ing the duties of dean and secretary, from 1855 until 1872, vzhen he 
left Burlington to reside for some years in the West. At this time he 
wa.< made an emeritus professor of anatomy. On his return to active 
practice in Burlington, in 1881, he was reappointed dean of the med- 
ical faculty, and took the chair of hygiene. 

-Imong the distinguished medical teachers who in former years 
hive occupied chairs in the medical faculty may be mentioned the late 
Prof. Xathan K. Smith, VI. D., of Baltimore; Alonzo Clark; the late 
hra. John Pomeroy, Xathan Smith, William Paddock, S. W. Thayer, 
Blks, Edward E. Phelps, Benjamin Lincoln, Horatio Xelson, Pro- 
c\<or Perkins, and Orrin Smith; the late Prof. William Darling, 
j] (ER»Hnd); the late Prof. J. L. Little, 

■ 11. of Xew York; others of professional eminence still living, 
* owere fonnerly associated with the medical faculty, are as follows: 
naux. Hammond, Koosa. Duuster, Yale, Thomas Antisell, of 
'^Hngton, D. C., and Hon. Edward J. Phelps. 

/. been the custom of the medical faculty to select from other 
-titutions, and from all parts of the country, the best teachers that 



-5 iiuiij iUL puit.'s ui tiitJ euuiitr\ , tue ut's 

lie obtained, a custom which has been facilitated bv the circum- 
I me regular lecture se.ssiohs being held from March till July, 



'tane 

r‘''‘'Hhelectur; 



Ifcti 



ure j 



irers from the large colleges of other cities, holding their 
10 . ®f*’''^ons only during the winter months, could thus be enabled 

their services to the Eniversity of Vermont. And the 
4 ii *tory of the college and its present prospierity sufficiently 
. ^tc that this idan has been eminently successful. 

®>odi ^*-'t of any individual has conferred more benefit upon the 
ing College than the generous act of Miss Mary Fletcher in found- 
p ^^'"’Pital which bears her name. Since the opening of the 
had ‘•oher Hospital the students of the medical department have 
*®jov wards and amphitheater. They are thus enabled to 

Pk-j. advantages such as are afforded by few, if anv. other 

the size ot Burlington. 



164 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 



Since the establishment of the ^lary Fletcher Hospital the attend- 
ance of students has greatly increased and the number of those gnd 



uating more than doubled. 



To accommodate the students the old college buildings had been 
from year to j’ear enlarged, until in 18S4 it became evident that an 
entirely new structure would be required. At this juncture the 
medical faculty were agreeably surprised to receive from Mr. JohnP. 
Howard the munilicent gift of a new and commodious college hnild- 
ing. This new structure, which had been so far completed as to 
accommodate the class that year, was elaborated and entirely finUed 
in readiness for the session of 188.5. The new structure is a suhstu- 
tial brick building, situated on Pearl street, on the north side of:nd 
immediately overlooking the college park. It is provided vitku 
amphitheater capable of comfortably seating 350 students. Th^.Uio- 
ratories for practical chemistry and physiology and the disMOj 
room for practical anatonn" are ample in size and supplied with-CTOy 
modern convenience that may contribute to the comfort of the stodot 
and facilitate his work. 

The college museum is spacious, well lighted, and contains a large 
collection of carefully prepared specimens, many of them rare, illus- 
trating alike normal and pathological structures. The entire edifice ® 
heated by steam, thoroughly ventilated, and in all its appointnienb 
completely adapted to medical teaching. 

Among the many magnificent and liberal gifts, amounting in fi* 
aggregate to nearly half a million dollars, which IMr. Howard h*« * 
generously bestowed upon the city of Burlington none will 
more lasting praise or elicit more grateful acknowledgment than fi* 
much-needed and elaborate college building, erected for the pron»^ 
of medical education and dedicated to the advancement of meo** 



science. 

In order to render several courses of instruction as thorough asp* 
sible, the faculty have selected a number of medical gentlen*" 

reeular course as*" 



lecture upon special subjects. Such parts of the r 
not taught in detail by the regular professors will thus receive 
attention from gentlemen who are acknowledged authorities in 
respective specialties, each one giving a short and practical con**® 
lectures. 

The plan of instruction adopted by this institution comprises a 
plete course of lectures upon the seven liranches of medical 
viz, anatomy, physiology, chemistiy, materia medica and therep® 
surgery, obstetrics, and the theory and practice of medicine. 



REQUIREMENTS FOR GRADUATION. 

Students who have matriculated in this college prior to July ^ 
will be subject to the regulations and requirements for greduaw 
printed in the announcement for 1890. 



1 



THE UNIVERSITY OF VERMONT. 



iri5 



Three full cour.se.s of lectures, of at least twenty weeks each, ivill be 
absolutely required of students who do not come under the above 
i^ation, and no period of practice will be taken as an equivalent of 
one course. 

Xo candidate shall be admitted to an examination until all fees due 
the college from such candidate shall have been paid. 

Candidates for the degree of Doctor of ^ledicine, before presenting 
thcm-selres for examination, must have attended at least .3 full courses 
of lectures of twenty weeks duration each, the last at this college. 
The candidate must have studied medicine three years, must have 
ittained the age of 21 years, and must present full certiticates of 
the time of his stud^v of age, and of moral character. Each candi- 
date is required to deposit his examination fee with the secretary of 
the medical faculty one month before the close of the session, and to 
furnish evidence of having pursued the study of practical anatomy 
under the direction of a demonstrator. He must also pass a satisfac- 
tory written or oral examination before the medical faculty and board 
of medical examiners appointed by the State Medical Society'. No 
thesis i.s required. . 



Junculation fee, payable each term $.5. 00 

ots tor tlie full course of lectures by all the profes.?or.s; 

Firet and second year, each 7.5. (X) 

Third year and subsequent years, each 60. 00 



AGEICULTCEAL DEPARTMENT. 



the" through the exertions of Hon. J ustin S. Morrill, 

" Ttepre.sentative and since Senator from Vermont, Congress passed 
*hi"l! public lands to the several States and Territories 

me'.], provide colleges for the benetit of agriculture and the 
the provisions of this act the legislature of 
Inilin in 1862, the Vermont Agricultural College, which, 

by receive the support necessary' to put it into operation, was, 
jj'ly 'approved November 6, 1865, incorporated with the Univer 
(ij'y rrtuont into one institution by the name of “The University 
N State Agricultural College.” It is the Agricultural 
College of Vermont. 



the"*' agricultural college have each a board of 9 trus- 

**id, latter being chosen by' the State legislature; 

»ith act of legislature, “all the trustees shall, together 

*^11 be the governor of the State and the president, ivho 

^ member, constitute an entire board of trustees of 
hereby created, who .shall have the entire management 
property' and affairs, and in all things relating thereto, 
eijjjj. ® elections to fill vacancies, shall act together jointly as 
*Ppointj, of trustees; provided that all future elections or 

board of trustees shall be made M'ith special ref- 
Preventing anv religious denominational pi-eponderance in 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 



16 (^ 



said board." The institution h:is, therefore, one board of trustees one 
treasury and tinaneial management, and one set of officers.* 

At the time of the opening of this department it was found that there 
was a call from students for instruction in those sciences relating to 
the mechanical arts, and that there was no desire on the part of the 
3 mung men of the State to receive instruction in agriculture pure and 
simple. As was natural, the university directed these forces toward 
the satisfying of the present demand, and the iirincipal part of the 
instruction given under the head of agriculture and mechanical arts 
was for some years given in the course of engineering and of chem- 
istrv. The work in chemistry was broadened to include agricultural 
chemistiy, with special reference to the problem of fertilization. In 
1877 the universit}’ began its tirst piirel v agricultural work by a course 
of 50 lectures on veterinar}' medicine bj’ Prof. Noah Cressj’, one half 
delivered in Burlington and the other half at various places around 
the State in connection with the meeting of the Boai’d of Agriculture 
and Dairymen’s Association. About the ' same time Prof. W. 0. 
Atwater, of Weslevan University, conducted at the expense of the 
universify an extended series of experiments throughout the State on 

fertilizers. From that time until the present, representatives of the 

universify have attended the various meetings of the Board of Agri- 
culture and Daiiymen’s Association, and the various fanners’ clufc 



throughout the State. 

In 1879 and 1880 the work throughout the State on fertilizers it* 
continued and prizes were offered for the largest crops of com ano 
potatoes raised bj’ farmers’ boj’s. In 1881 an analysis of conunerc 
fertilizers sold in the State was made a part of the work of the 
fessor of chemistry, and in 1885 the first purefy agricultural instmcti* 
at the universify was given bj' the professor of chemistry on the 
ject of ‘‘ fertilization of crops,” there being 18 students in atte n^*^ 

* It should be understood that the legislature has no power over the charter of 
institution. A clause in a proposed charter making it amendable and 
the legislature caused the rejection of that charter by the university, and 
of the present charter. The legislature can not revoke or alter the grante 
the charter to the institution without its consent. In case the corporation 
fail substantially to carry out the provisions and requirements ” of the cn ^ 
supreme court of this State may, by a legal process which has been set W 
act of the legislature, annul and vacate the charter and separate the msti 
the two parts of which it was originally- composed. But the legislature 
control over the institution through the power it has of electing one- halt 
of trustees and of appointing a board of Bsitors who may “ examine 
said corporation.” This last-mentioned power the legislature has never 
It is worth considering whether the appointment of such a Ixiard of ' 
of men representing “the several pursuits and professions of life,” 'vh° ^ i* 



odically- Bsit the institution and make careful and intelligent exam 
affairs and report thereon to the legislature, would not prove helpful to the 
and to all the interests concerned. 



oinatio®. 




THE UNIVEBSITY OF VERMONT. 



167 



next vear, 1886, a professor of ag-riculture was appointed, the 
• ter farmers’ class continued, being attended by 30 students. The 
legislature in the fall of 1886 appropriated $3,500 annually for 
ihe establishment of an experiment station. 

In accordance with the provisions of the State Experiment Station 
bffthetrastees of the University of Vermont and State Agricultural 
College proceeded to appoint a board of control for the station. The 
board at once took possession of the old medical college building, 
which was placed at their disposal for t’ffe use of the station by the 
nniTersity, and proceeded to make such repairs and alterations as were 
seeded, and to construct and equip the laboratory and other rooms 
required for exerimental wmrk. The director and his assistants, as 
soon as the fixtures and apparatus were in readiness, began the investi- 
gations and researches specified in the organic act, specially the analysis 
and testing of fertilizers, natural and commercial, licensed and 
unlicensed, and the study of nexv fodders with inference to their adap- 
tation to our soil and climate, their chemical compositions and feeding 
values. The results of these researches have been published and dis- 
tributed from time to time in bulletins and are incorporated in the 
annual report of the station. 

The appropriation was continued by the State for three and a half 
years and was withdrawn on account of the passage by Congress of the 
*Halled Hatch Act, which gives $15,000' annually to the univer.sity 
icr conducting the work of the experiment station. But as the money 
the national appropriation could not be used for building, a 
*®ited exten-sion of the State appropriation was granted by the legis- 
hture of 1888. amounting to $5,250. In 1888 a farm of lUl acres was 
purchased in South Burlington and a full line of experimental work 
j^'^tituted. During the winter of 1887-88 a regular course of farmers’ 
tures Was conducted with an attendance of from 60 to 130 at each 



^'iofi, and also a short course in agriculture was offered, attended by 

^J^tudents. This short course has been gradually lengthened until now 

'‘'■® is a four years’ agricultural course leading to a degree, as also a 

u .veai's course, which is so arranged as to enable the student to 

^i~‘ whole time to the study of the principles and processes of 

'Tl^ ^ ^ 

which Senator iMorrill has for many years patiently urged upon 

“the more complete endowment and support of the colleges,” which 
, existence to his wisdom and energy, became a law, August 30, 1890. This 
tor paying to the colleges established under the act of 1862 81.5 000 
■^Iru •’ "',‘”'®^“ii'g'by yearly additions of 81,000 to 825,000 “to be applied only to 
*‘'>nch ''gviculture, the mechanic arts, the English language, and the various 
vnathematical, physical, natural, and economic science, with special 
application in the industries of life, and to the facilities for such 
” further limitation that “ no portion of said moneys shall be 

indirectly, under any pretense whatever, to the purchase, erec- 
’’'■ation, or repair of any building or buildings.” 



168 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 



farming and to those liranehes of science most closel 3 ' related tn 
culture. The catalogues of 1891-92 embraced 26 agricultural st, 
distributed among all of the 4 classes. The winter course of lectT*** 
was continued each winter up to 1891, inclusive. During the wi^^ 
1891-92 its place was taken by a dairy school lasting four weeks 
attended by 50 pupils. The farm in South Burlington was so fer dis- 
tant from the university as to render it of little value for the buido» 
of instruction and to make it difficult to carry on successful experi- 
mentation. In 1891 a second farm was purchased adjoining the univer- 
sity property' and a full set of buildings erected, the farm and 
buildings together costing about $35,000. The university is thus at 
present one of the best-equipped agricultural colleges for the purpose 
of expel iment and instruction. The faculty' of the agricultural depart- 
ment has grown correspondingly, until at the present it comprises 16 
men, 5 of whom give their entire time to the agricultural department 
and the rest give instruction in this and in other departments. 

Applicants for admission to the agricultural course must be at least 
15 i^eais of age, must bring satisfactoiy testimonials of good charac- 
ter , and be jirepared to pass a satisfactoiy examination in the branches 
of a common school education, particularly in English grammar, 
geography, and arithmetic. 

Agiicultural students "who are residents of Vermont are not required 
to paj' tuition; no laboratory fee is charged, and no charges made for 
use of chemicals and apparatus. The actual cost of apparatus brokea 
is charged to the student to insure carefulness in its handling. Thereh 
a Commons Hall on the university grounds, at which good table board 
is f ui nished to students at cost. The I'ate of board at present is froiD 
$2.50 to $2.75 per week. Good board, with room, maj' be obtained in 
private families at $3.50 to $4.50 a week. 

The agricultural students have all the priv'ileges of the libratj) 
reading room, museum, etc., the same as the other students. They 
also have the advantages of the presence of the State Agricultural 
Experiment Station, where the newest theories are being tested and 
the most approved methods used. 

IXSTRUCTIOX IX THE MECIIAXIC ARTS. 

The act of Congress establishing the national colleges places “thr 
mechanic arts ’ side b\' side with agriculture in its provisions for edu- 
cation. The term “ mechanic arts ” was evidently intended to be inter- 
preted largely as equivalent to “the other industrial arts.” Under 
this head this institution has provided for instruction in the depart- 
ments known as the civil engineering and the chemical. These terffl-S 
it should be understood, include a variety of subjects besides chefflistr? 
and engineering proper, and in fact embrace a large part of thefi®*® 
of science as applied to the industrial arts. 




PHYSICAL LABORATORY. 







TESTING LABORATORY OF ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT. 




MII>DLEBURY COLLEC4E. 



1R9 



The stuclieis pursued comprise meclianics. drawing (t(j which a large 
mount of time is devoted), civil engineering, electrical engineering, 
Hireving, both theory and practice, and sanitary engineering. Atten- 
tioii is also given to the preparation of specifications and conti-acts. 

The new building for the mechanical and electrical engineering 
departments at the U niversity of Vermont is practically finished. The 
equipment, including boiler, engine, machinery, and tools isfii-st class 
diroughout, and compares favorably with that of any similar institu- 
tion in the country. 



A BRIEF HISTORY OF MIDDLF.BURY COLLEGE. 

By Charles B. Wright, of the Department of Knglish. 

CHARACTER (IP THE EARLY SETTLERS. 

.is Vermont was settled bv emigrants from the older New England 
States, especially Connecticut and Massachusetts, it is natural that her 
oril, religious, and educational institutions should in manv’ ways be 
fcplicates of theirs. The settlers brought with them and retained in 
liieir new surroundings a strong belief in the church, the schoolhouse, 
the college as essential elements of healthy, permanent growth. 
Mirations only strengthened this belief and stimulated their deterini- 
■•tion to establish among themselves at the earliest possilde day the 
®stitutions whose models had been so integral a part of their pjrevious 
®perieuce. It needed only a sufficient number of families in any 
wighborhood, therefore, to secure the organization of a school dis- 
’"d without delay. As soon as a village became populous, a gram- 
School or an academy was prrojected. The poolitical situation, how- 
dd, Was for many years extremely unfavorable for educational devel- 
*?o>t‘nt. Besides tlie obstacles obtaining in all new settlements, there 
many special hindrances. The controversies in which the inhab- 
Were so long involved for autonomy and the Revolutionary war 
T^We fair to annihilate Vermont as an indepDendent State and turned 
thought.s toward pjreservation rather than toward culture. Pre- 
to ber admission to the Federal Union almost the entire energy 
^nnont had been absorbed in what may be called without exagger- 
J) a figPjp Under all the circumstances, then, it is a very 

^j^ble showing that pjrevious to the close of 1T91 four grammar 
had been incorporated; Clio Hall, at Bennington; M indsor 
,"t.v Grammar School, at Norwich; Rutland County Grammar 
^t Gastleton, and Athens Grammar School, at Athens. Nor is 
that during the next ten years, the adverse pressure hav- 
ip. been removed, eight similar institutions were added to the 
^'Ondish Academy, Caledonia County Grammar School. Addi- 
Grammar School. Franklin County Grammar School, 



170 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 



0)1110 

ITYIiIa. 



Montp('li('r Ai-adeiiiy, IViiidhiuii lltill, C'liittendeii Cbunty Gramnuj 
School, and Brattleboro Academy. The diiv when institutions similar 
to Yale and Harvard should crown Vermont’s educational system had 
doubtless been looked forward to for many years as a consummation 
possible when peace should come, but it was not till November^ 1791 
that the legislature passed an act establishing a home college, the 
University of Vermont at Burlington. Previously, however, in 1785 
while the controversy ivas yet unsettled between Yew Hampshire and 
Vermont, the latter had granted to Dartmouth College and Moort 
Charity School 23,000 acre's of land. 

For various reasons, after the act of incorporation had been obtained 
in 1791, nothing was done at Burlington for a number of years towaid 
putting a college into operation. In the meantime inhabitants of 
Middlebury and vicinity were moving for a college there. Young 
men desirous of a college education had to leave the State to obtain it, 
and great inconvenience resulted in consequence. It is related that 
the father of Jeremiah Evarts, when on his way to Yew Haven to 
place his son in Y^ale College, visited friends in Middlebuiy and 
expressed his regret at being forced to send his son so far because there 
was no college in Vermont. The University of Vermont seemed an- 
able to furnish immediate relief. ■' The town contained but few inhab- 
itants, and it was not in their power to erect the necessary buildinga 
procure a suitable library, philosophical apparatus, or the proper 
accommodations for professors and students. The trustees were em- 
barrassed, seldom met, and a president was not appointed for the 
seminai’v.”' 



SECCRING THE CHARTER. 



The Addison County Grammar School had been given its charter m 
1797, and its prospects were exceptionally bright. The act of wco^' 
poration had required §1,000 for building purposes, but more 
§1,000 had been raised, the inhabitants of IMiddlebury being the pr®' 
cipal donors. In 1798, while the building w’as being erected, 
Timothy Dwight, then president of Yale College, visited Middlebur,'’ 
and encouraged the plan of establishing a college there. Everyth*®?’ 
indeed, conspired to make such a plan feasible. The building 
vided for the grammar school was amply large for both school * 
college purposes. It was of wood, 80 feet bi^ 10, and three stoU^ 



high; it contained convenient rooms for students and a chapeD® 



tbf 



upper story. The founders of the school had “'procured 



pointed an instructor, and collected a number of students. 



Their 



exertions had produced more of a literary appearance than was 
seen at Burlington. In this state of things they asked the 



I be 



* Williams’s History of Vermont. 



MIDDLEBUKY COLLEGE. 



171 



1 ft them go on hikI iiuikc :i college t)ut of the selu)ol they Imd already 
ed The matter h<id been .suggested to the a.ssembly at A\ indsor 
llif rear before. It was now urged 'wdth more waimth, and the legisla- 
jirewas invited to view and examine what they had already done, 
iftermuch debate and reasoning upon the .subject a majority of the 
^onsewere of opinion that the exertions of Middlehury ought to be 
"•nraged; that the most probable way to encourage the introduction 
ind cultivation of science in the State would be to favor those who 
tere willing to he at the expense of it. and to make it the interest of 
ach societies to endeavor to excel and improve upon each other.’” 

Two cau.ses ojrerated, it would appear, to delay the granting of the 
teired charter: The direct efforts of the opponents of such incorpora- 
tion, and. to a less extent, the political agitations of the time in con- 
Kction with the administrative policy of President Adams, which 
ippear from the records to have been of ab.sorbing intei'est to the suc- 
iKsive legislatures. That of 1800, however, was more deeply con- 
(emed in the advancement of the interests of the State through the 
curagement of education and literature, and the efforts of those 
thohad been so repeatedly advocating a Middlehury charter were in 
ikat year rewarded with success. The following summary from the 
journals of the general assembly of the State of Vermont will show in 
detail the legislative action; 

'tednealay, October 31, 1798: A petition of Gamaliel Painter, and others, trustees 
the Addison County Grammar School, stating that the petitioners and others, 
^bitants of Middlehury, induced by an ardent desire to promote and encourage 
tlte education of youth by establishing and carrying into immediate operation a col- 
or university within the State, have erected large and convenient buildings 
•eted to the purposes of a college, and praying the legislature to establish a college in 
*Wdlebury and to grant a charter of incorporation to such trustees as shall loe 
, 'pointed, vesting in such trustees such rights and privileges as are enjoyed and 
by such bodies— was referred to a committee consisting of one member from 
•^^b county^ to be nominated by the clerk of the house. Referred, ilonday, Yovem- 
to the next session of the legislature. 

^turday, October 12, 1799: Petition received from last session of the legislature 
- to a committee to join arcommittee from the council, and on Alonday , Yovem- 






1799, referred again to the next session of the legislature. 



.®«urdav 



October 11, 1800 (two days after the opening of the session at Middlehury) : 



^tbtiou referred from the last session of the general assembly referred to a committee 

thth one appomted on the part of the council. 

“fslay, October 28, 1800: Committee reported a bill entitled “An act incorpo- 
Utuit - - - . 

V 



and establishing a college at Aliddlebury, in the county of Addison;” the 
^Jmtion being declared expedient by the house in committee of the whole. 



^‘^loher 29, 1800. 

^nOay, October 31, 1800: Bill read a second time, and ordered engrossed and sent 
governor and council for revision and concurrence or proposal of amendment; 
h", nays 51. The governor and council concurred, without amendment, in a 
0 to the house, Saturday, Xovember 1, 1800. 



' IVilliams’s History of Vermont. 



172 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 



The ehiirter bear^ the date of November 1, 1800. It is signed b 
I.saae Tichenor, g-overnor, and Kosivell Hopkins, secretary of state 
In it Messrs. Jeremiah Atwater, Nathaniel Chipman, Heman Ball 
Elijah Payne, Gamaliel Painter, Israel Smith, Stephen K. Bradley 
Seth Storrs, Stephen Jacob, Daniel Chipman, Lot Hall, Aaron 
land, Gershom C. Lvman, Samuel Miller, Jedediah P. Buckingham, 
and Darius Matthews are constituted “an incorporate society, or body 
corporate and politic,” to be “called and known by the name of the 
pre.sident and fellows of Middlebury College.” Of this number, 5- 
Gamaliel Painter, Seth Stores, Samuel Miller, Daniel Chipman, and 
Darius Matthews — had been appointed trustees of the Addison County 
Grammar School on its incorporation in 1797. Until 1805 the work 
of both the college and the grammar school was carried on in tile 
same building. President Atwater continued to be the nominal prin- 
cipal of the academy, though he no longer gave instruction. He had 
been recommended to the principalship by^ Dr. Dwight, with a view 
to the presidency when a college charter should be secured. In 1805 
the preparatory school was removed to a building erected in 1803 for 
the female seminary, and vacant because of the death of the principal, 
Miss Strong. 

THE FIRST FIFTY YEARS. 



Two things are noticeable in connection with the foregoing account 
The college was a natural development from the grammar school, with 
which at the outset it sustained peculiarly intimate relations. It ***> 
in its inception, under the stimulus of Yale College, in the person of 
its generous-minded president. Dr. Dwight traveled much in New 
England and Neyv York and visited Nliddlebury three times— in 
1806, and 1810. It was on the occasion of his first ydsit that he urg^ 

the establishment of a college, “The local situation, the sober and 

religious character of the inhabitants, their manners and various 
other circumstances ” rendered the village, in his judgment, “avert 
desirable seat for such a seminary.” Nor did he subsequently i®*® 
his interest in the enterprise. In 1811, after his later visits, he 
what is perhaps (after the petition to the legislature of 1810) the 
attractive picture that remains to us of the institution as it app®*’^ 
in its early days: ^ 

“The academy began to prosper from the time when it was 
and was in the year 1800 raised by an act of incorporation into a 
From that time to the present it has continued to prosper, althoug 
funds have been derived from private donation, and chieflyi . 
wholly, from the inhabitants of this town. The number of 
now’ 110, probably as virtuous a collection of youths as can 
in any seminary in the world. *• * * The inhabitants ^ 

bury have lately subscribed $8,000 for the purpose of erecting 




THE OLD COLLEGE ROW, FROM THE WEST. 



5IIDDLEBUBY COLLEGE. 



173 



Ais, 



ate building. When it is remembered that twenty-tive years 
this spot wa.s a wilderness, it must be admitted that these efforts 
fedone the authors of them the highest honor.” 

The first meeting of the corporation was held Xoyember 1, 1800. 
jrthStorrs was appointed secretary and Joel Doolittle tutor. Seyeu 
ente were admitted to the college on the day following. The first 
nus of the college was Aaron Petty, who was graduated iu 1802. 
»lter Chapin, Henry Chipman, and Edward S. Stewart, who had 
red a.s sophomores, were graduated iu 1803. The graduating 
s continued to grow from this time. The class of 1805 had 16 
mbers; that of 1808, 23 ; that of 1811, 19, and that of 1812, 26. These 
nre the largest classes during that period. 

"As in other infant institutions,” says a chronicler of the college 
of that day. "so in this, the adyantages enjoyed were yery 
ited; but there was, on the part of the students, a literary enter- 
se, a readiness to engage and persevere in literary labor, that 
BmpeiLsated in some degree for the deficiencies in the means of 
ruction. The privileges were not numerous, and, as an offset to 
they were not neglected. The strong feeling of individual 
isponsibffity produced vigorous intellectual effort. Alany of the 
dents were in moderate circumstances and of mature age, and hence 
rewa.san economy in their expenses and a sobriety' in their manners 
twere favorable to the reputation of the college." 

The young institution led a precarious life financially for many 
In speaking of its founders in his salutatoiw address at the 
*®>wntenuial of 1850, President Labaree declai-ed that if there is any 
"fience of want of wisdom on their part it is found in the attempt 
incorporators to estalffish an institution of a high order ^yithout 
puate endowments. He had been assured, however, by one of 
’>■ number. Daniel Chipman, that the attempt never would have 
“ fflade had there not been at the time a confident expectation of 
•ring the income from the public lands of the State. That hope 
not realized, and no recourse was left but to throw the institution 
,.,1 benevolence of a people so capable of appreciating its value 
‘®portance. Up to 1888 the only' funds ever received from the 
^ 'vere |l,40u. The University of Vermont had received a loan 
^ hie State school fund. This loan had been on interest for sev- 
On the application of the university' to be released from 
l^lfislature directed in 1852 that the amount be divided 
^Mhat corporation, Middlebury College, and Norwdch Univer- 
nn share of Middlebury was the amount above indicated. The 
the petition of 1810 is the history of all the various applica- 



oiade 



Ived 



in 



at 



early' y'ears for aid from the legislature. It had been 
a uieeting of the corporation in October of that y'ear to erect 



174 



HISTORY OF EHUOATIOH IN VERMONT. 



a new college ljuilding. It was also resolved to petition the legislatm. 
for assistance, Gamaliel Painter representing the town of Middleb 



in that session. The resulting memoi-ial is of interest from 
it gives of the inside workings of the institution: 



To the honorable the general assembly of the State of Vermont, to be convened at Montwr 
on the second Tint rsdai/ of October, A. 1 ). 1810 : 

In ot^edience t<j your resolution of the 7th 



Xovemljer last, the president and fel- 
• lows of 3lKldlel)ury College respectfully make known to your honorable body the 
situation and circumstances of the seminary which has been committed to their 
direction. Previous to the establishment of the institution, a building had bea 
erected containing a chai>el and 20 rooms for students, and a small library had been 
procured. The legislature in their wisdom saw tit to grant a charter of incorporatioii 
without funds and without governmental patronage, in order that a fair experimenl 
might be made whether an institution of learning could suiiport itself, orwhetheril 
could be endowed and supported by the liberality of the friends of science and by 
an ordinary tax for tuition. 



Various were the opinions of individuals 
results, and some ventured to call in question the wisdom of the legislature eveo hr 
permitting the experiment to be tried; but the result, it is confidently believed, wiD, 
from the following statement, appear highly honorable to the legislature, whoitae 
the founders of the college, and afforil no inconsiderable satisfaction to the friendsrf 
literature and sciences. Since the institution was established 93 young gentlaDei 
have gone through the regular course of studies and received the degree of bacheto 
of arts, most of whom are now engaged in useful occupations in society and aw* 

hold important offices under the government of this State. * * * TheoflSc^d 

the college consist of a president, a professor of law, a professor of mathemabcs wi 
natural philosophy, a jirofessor of languages, a tutor and librarian, a treagnrer, lee 
retary, and inspector of college 1 mildings. The professor of mathematics and natartl 
philosophy began to discharge the duties of his office in 1809. The profesBOr of 1»» 
has this year commenced a course of legal instructions. The professor -of langiaf* 
officiates at present only as senior tutor, but is to enter on the duties of his office* 
professor at the commencement of next college year. From the above catalog* of 
officers, the corporation flatter theuLselves, it will appear that the students in Middle 
bury College have all the advantages which can be derived from a sufficient nofflb* 
of instructors, and they feel peculiar pleasure in being able to state that the 
tion of the officers of the college to the instruction and government of the atnd 
can not be easily .surpassed. It is chiefly owing to this circumstance that an 
mon degree of industry and good order is visible among the present membeie'’ 
institution. The students of the 2 junior classes are charged each |4 a 
tion; those of the 2 senior cla.s.ses $.5 each, $1 f>f which being added for the 
attending the philosophical lectures. That part of the salaries of the officers 
the sum raised for tuition is paid by individuals. The liltrary, which has ^ 
gradually augmented by private liberality, now contains nearly 1,000 
philo.sophical apparatus, which owes its existence to the bounty of 
tlemen, consists of an air pump, an electrical machine, 2 artificial globes, 
small telescope, <piadrant, a theo<lolite, a camera lucidee, 2 thermometeis, » 
pile, a hydrostatic apparatus, a 2 )rism and mirrors of different kinds, with * ^ i 
of smaller instruments. It will easily Ite perceived that the increased 
students renders it necessary to erect a new college edifice for their acconUO®*^ 
The corporation have it in contemplation to commence the building of 
opening of the next spring, and are now ]>rei)aring materials. A considW*^^ 
scription has already been raised for the purjmse. An eligible site for the 
tice, with a sufficiency of land, has been presented to the corporation sod 







MIDDLEBVRY COLLEGE. 



17.5 



ijgjpQration find that a chemical apparatus ought soon to be procured, for which 
D provision has yet been made. It is it resumed that it will be highly gratifying to 
,jor honorable body, as guardians of the people, to learn that in consequence of 
juating the charter of ^liddlebury College the good citizens of the State have been 
iliieved from the necessity of sending their sons abroad for that education which 
(OoH not, previous to the feimding of this seminary, be obtained in their native 
Sac; and that also large numbers of youths have re.sorted to this college for instmc- 
iKii from the neighboring States, as will appear from the catalogue of students here- 
lith transmitted. * * * 

The report of the committee to which the petition wa.s referred states 
that— 



The report of the president and fellows of Middlebury College is true; and that the 
■d institution deserves the attention and consideration of the legislature of the State. 
Without funds or pubiic patronage it has hitherto flourished in an unparalleled 
igree; and your committee verily believe that the corporation and officers of said 
oDege, and those private individuals who have made donations to the same, for 
lhar meritorious exertions in the promotion of science and the arts, are highly 
faerving the applause of this legislature. But at this time your committee can 
Revise no means by which the legislature can expediently afford relief. 



Gratifying- but not substantial. Again, however, private liberality 
«meto the a.ssistance of the institution. Money was subscribed for 
tie erection of a new college building, and it was completed in 1815, on 
4e ground deeded to the corporation by Col. Seth Storrs. This land, 
WBiprislng more than 30 acres and beautifully situated in an elevated 
psrtof the village, still continues to form the college campus. 

It is de.sirable that a more detailed statement be given of the private 
®®efactions which enabled the young college to weather its financial 
Sonns. The openhandedness of the citizens of INIiddleburv calls first 
r notice. For a number of years the tutors were wholly supported 
. tneir contributions. Samuel Miller sustained in part tor a time the 
Nfesorship of mathematics and natural philosophy. Salaries were 
ni time to time increased by amounts subscribed and guaranteed by 
^people of the town. The gifts of Painter and Storrs and Chipman 
^oven into the very history of the college. The community, 
Ik. ®^h*iusted its liberality on the college to such an extent that 
. ison County Grammar School was not adequately endowed, 
‘Citizens regarding the college as the more important object for 
*1' funds. This intei'est, so con.spicuously manifested, is to be 
■'ip Py fact: The college early iiecame in one sense 

center of the community; the younger citizens were trained 
*diit ' in the college; and all were early taught to consider it 

that the institution should lie sustained. 

to a more minute account of the earlier college history, 
of p). Atwater resigned his otfice in 1809 to assume the presidency 
- iiisoii College, Carlisle, Pa. He wa.s succeeded hv Rev. Henrv 
i^Uesl 10 was called to the piosition from the chair of Greek in Union 
He was a man of commanding pierson and of great address 



th, 




176 



HISTORY OF EDUOATIOH IN VERMONT. 



and eloquence and as president was very popular. On the death of 
Dr. Dwight he was chosen president of Yale College, but declined the 
office. The financial history of President Davis’s administration is 
important. The dormitory known as Painter Hall, the building of 
which has already been recorded, was a necessity for the accommoda- 
tion of the increasing number of students. A little before its comple- 
tion, in 1815, Dr. Davis made the first considerable effort to raise. a 
fund for the institution. The amount aimed at was $50,000, and the 
story of the attempt, which involved the college in much subsequent 
trouble, is indicative of his attractive personality. The unpleasant 
features were not developed, however, till the next administration, 
The facts have been given as follows: 

President Davis invited a meeting at the hotel in Middlebury, and after the citizens 
had assembled he addressed them in a most eloquent and persuasive speech. Before 
the meeting had dispersed they had subscribed |20,000 in good faith, although some 
of the subscribers were scarcely worth the amount of their subscriptions. He met 
with such success in other towns that by the following spring the whole amount had 
been subscribed, and he was encoin-aged to expect that it would be raised to $100,000. 
Accordingly, in April, 181.5, the corporation authorized him to proceed, on the 
condition that the addition should decrease the previous subscriptions proportionally, 
so that all the subscribers should l.)e held to pay only $50,000. No great additions, 
however, were afterwards made, and many who had subscribed began to feel that 
they had promised more than it wms convenient for them to pay. Dr. Davia had 
such strong confidence himself and gave such strong assurances respecting the result, 
that on the prosecution of some of the subscriptions resistance was made to the col- 
lection on the ground of fraudulent representations. And it was afterwards decided 
that the subscriptions were invalid on that ground. This placed the corporation in 
an embarrassed condition. 

But the storm passed. How heavy a storm it was and wbat the 
events were that contributed most largely to its clearing may be seen 
best in extracts from the address delivered in 1850 by ex-President 
Bates : 

When I entered on the duties of the office assigned me in this institution in 1818, 
or rather soon after, I discovered to my great disappointment (not to say fearful 
apprehension) that with a debt of nearly $20,000 hanging over her head, she had no j 
available funds to enable her to meet her liabilities, nor any resources on which her 
officers could rely for support but public charity aud a meager income derived from 
the tuition fees of a small and an apparently diminishing number of students. This 
disappointment arose princiyoally from the failure of the payment of a large, and as 
I had supposed, bona fide subscription which had just been made for the benefit of 
the funds of the college. This failure, with a long and tedious process of law in 
establishing the title of the institution and vindicating its claim to the lands given 
by General Hunt, was enough to produce a feeling of discouragement; and it would 
probably have led to despair had not the noble bequest of Judge Painter furnished 
timely aid and given efficient support.* I 

’ The lands here referred to were deeded to the corporation in 1813 by Gen. .Itad I 
Hunt, of Hinsdale, N. H. ; they^ were situated in Albany, Orleans County, and were I 
estimated at more than 5,000 acres. m 



MIDDI.EBURY COLLEGE. 



177 



The outlook was indeed gloomy at the beginning of the new admin- 
istration. Dr. Bates continues: 

It was a dark hour for the college; at least so it seemed to me. For, in connection 
with the discouragement arising from deficiency of funds, the institution was suffer- 
ing a loss of the confidence and attachment of the public, by a sudden and unexpected 
change of some of its officers of instruction and government— the removal of those 
who had been tried and approved, and the introduction of those who were compara- 
tively unknown and yet to be proved. * * * Another experienced officer 
[Dr. Davis], who, at the head of the institution, had enjoyed the highest confidenceof 
the community, and been able to exert an influence which rarely falls to the lot of 
any man, had been unexpectedly called to take charge of another institution [Hamil- 
ton College], These changes, with other causes, operated to produce a general feel- 
ing of discouragement in the community, which nothing but time and patience and 
jpersevering effort on the part of the officers and attached friends of the institution 
could overcome. But by these, under the smiles of Providence, it was overcome, 
and the college was restored to its former high standing among the best literary 
institutions of our country. 



The funds that came to the college in so timely a way at this ebb of 
its fortunes should be specially referred to. Judge Painter died in 
1819, and as a last act of kindness to the institution of which, as the 
previous pages show', he had been from its establishment one of the 
foremost benefactors made it his residuary legatee. His monument 
ill the village cemetery was erected by the corporation; the inscrip- 
tion describes him as a patriot of the Revolution, faithful in civil 
office, amiable in private life, distinguished for enterprise and public 
spirit. About |13,000 was realized from his estate. Nine years later 
a legacy of between $12,000 and $13,000 was left the college by Joseph 
Burr, of Manchester, as the foundation of a professorship. By vote 
of the corporation the professorship of chemistry and natural history 
was placed on this foundation, and has since borne the name of the 
donor. In 1818 several thousand dollars were subscribed for the 
benefit of the chemical department. It should also be noted that 
previous to the decision above mentioned adverse to the validity of 
the subscriptions about $14,000 of the amount had been paid in— a 
little more than $11,000 in money and nearly $3,000 in land. In jus- 
tice to many of the subscribers it is but fair to state that about then 
an era of bad times” was entered upon, with a consequent scarcitjr 
of funds. As regards the loss of faith on the part of the public, 
mentioned by Dr. Bates as so marked a feature at the beginning of 
bis administration, confidence was rapidly regained as the evidences of 
biN sagacity multiplied. 

In 1820 a conventional connection was formed between Castleton 
Medical Academy (altered by act of November 7, 1822, to Vermont 
Academy of Medicine) and Middlebury College. This connection 
Iceased in 1827. A similar arrangement was in force, 1833-1837, with 
the medical school at Woodstock. 

3177 12 



178 



HISTOEY OF EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 



The last ten years of President Bates’s management of the institu- 
tion were marked by signs of increasing prosperity . It was a time 
of renewed financial activiti^. In the year 1833 an eflort was again 
put forth to raise |50,000. The sum was to be used for erecting new 
college buildings, establishing a manual labor department, sustaining 
an additional professor, creating a tuition fund, and increasing the 
library, apparatus, and mineral cabinet. The conditions made the 
subscriptions binding if f30,000 should be pledged before the 1st of 
October, 1835. This was accomplished through great effort. Of the 
money thus secured $15,000 was spent in building a chapel, $2,000 
went to the altering and repairing of East College, and the remainder 
was applied to current expenses. The manual labor department here 
mentioned draws attention to an experiment tried for a short while in 
Middlebury, as it was at about that time in various other similar insti- 
tutions. A mechanical association was formed in 1829 for the purpose, 
of engaging in manual labor. A shop was built and supplied with 
tools, but the association’s few years of existence do not appear to 
have been marked by enthusiasm or flattering results. Speaking with 
reference to it in 1837 Professor Fowler, with something very likes 
yawn, I'emarks that “ the experiment thus far has been very much like 
those tried in other places; a few students have derived some advantage 
to their health from the exercise.” The organization was evidently 
dying; the date of its death is not recorded. 

The years 1838 and 1839 saw many changes, the faculty being largely 
reorganized because of death and resignation. In the latter year 1 lesi- 
dent Bates resigned and was succeeded in 1840 by Rev. Benjamin 
Labaree, Professor Stoddard acting as president during the interven- 
ing time. President Labaree arrived in October, 1840, to enter upon 
his duties, the students indulging in a general illumination of the col- 
lege buildings in honor of the event. His administration covered a 
period of twenty-six years and included, consequently, the semi- 
centennial celebration of 1860. This anniversary is notable in the 
history of the college, and furnishes a convenient point for retrospect 

During the first fifty years of her existence Middlebury had 1 
presidents and 15 different professors. Of the 5 real founders already 
mentioned all were dead in 1850, Daniel Chipman being the last sur- 
vivor. Her graduates at the time of the celebration numbered 8n; 
concerning them President Labaree said in his address of vvelcoino; 

The college has followed them as they have from time to time bidden heriulieo, -I 
and have gone forth to take their places among the actors in the great drama of life ■ 

She has traced them round the globe; has seen them laboring assiduously for the ■ 
highest good of their race in many lands, among the aborigines of our \ve^ ■ 
wilderness, on the densely peopled plains of India, and on the far-distant islaade ■ 
the ocean. At home they have been called to fill the most honorable and importul ■ 
offices in civil, political, and ecclesiastical life. She has seen them omipyingconhM 
inanding and influential positions in the iialls of onr National Legislatuic, on 




THE JOSEPH WARNER MEMORIAL HALL OF SCIENCE. 



MIDDLEBUEY COLLEGE. 



1Y9 



1 bench of justice, and in the gubernatorial chair. She has heard their eloquence in 
j the forum. In the higher departments of education they have stood in the foremost 
rank. She can number among them nine presidents of colleges and higher semina- 
ries, and at least 40 professors in such institutions, besides a very large number of 
I devoted and efficient instructors of high schools and academies. Four hundred of 
them have chosen the clerical profession, and in at least 6 Christian denominations 
they have held no second rank; 24 of the number have consecrated themselves to 
the work of foreign missions. In all the learned professions and in various depart- 
ments of education they have made valuable contributions to the literature of the 
nation. Their alma mater is happy to know that nearly 700 of her sons have sur- 
vived the first half century of her life. ^ 

An examination of the records of the general catalogue will show that 
the rhetoric of the passage quoted has a complete underpinning of fact. 

I To speak with more detail concerning the alumni who up to 1850 had 
j served their country in civil office, there are included 11 members of 
i Congress, 1 governors of States, and 6 judges of superior courts. 
These records amply justified semicentennial festivities, and the success 
of the anniversary was marked. Among the orators were ex-President 
Bates, the “ glorious” Hough, from 1812 to 1839 a power among the 
faculty, and Dr. Truman M. Post, of St. Louis, Mo. The after- 
dinner poein was delivered by John Godfrey Saxe, of the class of 
1839, and is included in his published works under the title “ Carmen 
Laetum.” 

THE YEARS SINCE 1850. 

President Labaree remained at the head of the institution till 1866. 
His administration was energetic and able throughout. Many scholar- 
ships and an addition of |50,000 to the general fund of the college 
ivere among the financial fruits of his labor. The last incident of note 
kfore his retirement was the 'burning of Starr Hall on Christmas 
night of 1864. The rebuilding was completed before the opening of 
the next fall term. The record of these last years is an honorable 
one for Middlebury as regards her contribution of students to the 
•nnies in the field. The instance of a graduate of the class of 1862, 
tho on commencement morning rode in from a neighboring recruit- 
ag camp and in soldier’s uniform delivered his oration, is typical of 
he college spirit during those exciting years. Some who enlisted 
rere able to return at the close of the war and complete their inter- 
nptecl studies. As was natural, the number of students was mate- 
ially lessened and the effects in this direction were noticeable for 
lany years. 

'The ever-widening influence of the college is indicated by the following statistics 
implied to September, 1900; Of the l,528graduates, 538 have been clergymen, and of 
clatter, 70 havechosen the missionary field. Of those who haveentered on the work 
I teaching, 100 have been professors in colleges and theological seminaries, and 32 
«ve become presidents of such institutions. There are 366 lawyers, including over 
» judges of courts. The physicians number 93. Fifteen graduates have become 
lembers of Congress and 9 have been governors of States or Territories. 



180 



HISTOBY OF EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 



Oti the resignation of President Labaree, in 1866, Rev. Harvey Deni- 
son Kitchel, D. D., was called to the presidency from Plymouth 
Church, Chicago. He administered the affairs of the college for nine 
years with judgment and efficiency, resigning in 1875. In the sum- 
mer of 1867, about fl0,000 was expended in rearranging the interior 
of the chapel building, the changes having to do with the chapel, 
library, laboratories, and recitation rooms. 

In July, 1875, Rev. Calvin Butler Hulbert, D. D., entered on the 
duties of the presidency, and was succeeded in 1880 by Rev. Cyrus i 
Hamlin, D. D., LL. D., who was called from the chair of theology in 
Bangor Theological Seminary. Dr. Hamlin’s administration of five 
years was an energetic one. With money contributed at his solicita- 
tion the library was furnished with more commodious quarters (men- 
tioned elsewhere) and enlarged by the addition of many books; cabinefe 
were given new and spacious arrangement; the physical apparatusj 
was added to, and a boarding hall for the use of students built. In 
1883 young women were admitted to the educational privileges of the 
institution, with a resulting success which from the outset carried the 
innovation beyond the experimental stage. 

Dr. Hamlin resigned the presidency in 1885, and in 1886 Professor 
Ezra Brainerd was formally installed, having served as acting presi- 
dent during the intervening year. Since that date an additional 
endowment of about 1300,000 has been secured, chief among the bene- 
factors being Messrs. Charles and Egbert Starr, of New York City, 
and Mr. James B. Jermain, of AlbanJ^ The most notable feature of 
the administration thus far is the adoption in 1890 of a system of 
elective studies as a substitute for the time-honored and iron))oiiiid 
course. The change was a conservative one. According to the sclieiiie 
as at present constituted there is no elective work in the freshman and 
sophomore years. In the junior year six hours a week are elected 
and nine hours a week in the senior year. Electives are offered in 
Latin, Greek, Old English, French, German, English literature, clii<- 
sical archeology, mathematics, the natural sciences, political sciencf. 
history, and psychology. The change in curriculum has proven itself ] 
an eminently practical one. I 

At the biennial session of 1888 the legislature of Vermont voted the j 
college an annual appropiriation of $2,400 a year for four years, for 
the purpose of “paying the tuition and incidental college charges of ] 
30 students therein, one of whom shall be designated and appointed by 
each senator in the general assembly, such appointment to be made by p 
such senator from his respective county, provided any suitable candi- 
date shall apply therefor, otherwise from any county in the Shite. I | 
The appropiriation has been continued to the piresent time. With th'- I 
exception of the $1,400 previously mentioned, this is the only Stab' I 
aid ever received by Middlebury College. I H 



MIDDLEBUEY COLLEGE. 



181 



A few unclassified facts remain to be presented. There are at 
,! present 9 departments of instruction in Middlebury: Mental and moral 
I science, chemistry, natural history, physics and mathematics, Greek, 
:l Latin, modern languages, history and political science, English lit- 
eiature and rhetoric. There are two courses of study, the classical 
and the Latin-scientific. The management of the institution is in the 
: hands of a self-perpetuating board of trustees, the details of their 
work being for the most part directed by a prudential committee and 
a committee of finance. The cost of tuition to students is $60 a year, 
and it IS the aim of the institution to furnish a first-class education at 
a low cost. While unsectarian by charter and choice, the college from 
its founding has been under the auspices of the Congregational Church. 
It has had, in its life of nearly one hundred years, 8 presidents and 49 
full professors. Of the former the following biographical details 
as to their academic careers are of interest in connection with the 
; college history: 

. Jeremiah Atwater. Appointed 1800; resigned 1809; died 1858; 
bom 1774. A. B., Yale, 1^93. Tutor at Yale. Chosen principal 
Addison County grammar school 1799. President of Dickinson 
College, 1809 to 1816. D. D., University of Pennsylvania. 

Henry Davis. Appointed 1809; resigned 1817; died 1862; born 
1771. A. B., Yale, 1796. Tutor at Williams and Yale. Professor of 
Greek in Union College, 1806 to 1809. President of Hamilton College, 
1817 to 1833. D.D., Union College. 

Joshua Bates. Appointed 1818; resigned 1839; died 1854; born in 
1776. A. B., Harvard, 1800. Teacher in Phillips Andover. S. T. D. 
Yale. ’ 

Benjamin Labaree. Appointed 1840; resigned 1866; died 1883; 
born 1801. A. B., Dartmouth, 1828. Graduate of Andover Theo- 
logical Seminary, 1831. Head teacher in a manual labor school, 
bpring Hill, Tenn., 1831. Professor of ancient languages in Jackson 
College, Columbia, Tenn., 1832 to 1834, and president 1834 to 1836. 
iecturer on moral philosophy and international law, Dartmouth Col- 
lege, 1871 to 1876. Lecturer on moral philosophy and international 
lew, Middlebury College, 1874. D. D., University of Vermont. 
LL. D. , Dartmouth. 

Harvey Denison Kitchel. Appointed 1866; resigned 1875; died 
1895; born 1812. A. B., Middlebury, 1836. Teacher in Castleton 
beminary, 1835. Graduate Yale Theological Seminary, 1838. D. D. 
Middlebury. ' ’ 

Calvin Butler Hulbert. Appointed 1875; resigned 1880; born in 
1827. A. B., Dartmouth, 1853. Graduate of Andover Theological 
Seminary, 1869. D. D., Dartmouth College. 

Cyrus Hamlin. Appointed 1880; resigned 1885; born 1811. A. B., 
Bowdoin College, 1834. Graduate of Bangor Theological Seminary, 



182 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 



1837. Principal of Bebek Seminary, Constantinople, 1840 to 1860. 
Fir.st president of Robert College, Constantinople, resigning in 1877. 
Professor of theology, Bangor Theological Seminary, 1877 to 1880. 
D. D., Bowdoin and Harvard. LL. D., University of New York and 
Bowdoin. 

Ezra Brainerd. Appointed pro tempore 1885; elected 1886; horn 
1844. A. B., Middlebury, 1864. Tutor in Middlebury College, 
1864 to 1866. Graduate of Andover Theological Seminary, 1868. 
Professor of rhetoric and English literature, Middlebury College, 
1868 to 1880. Professor of physics and applied mathematics, Middle- 
buiy College, 1880 to 1891. Chair of mental and moral science, 
1891 — . LL. D., Ripon College and University of Vermont; D. D., 
Howard University. 

BUILDINGS. 

The original college building, that of the Addison County Grammar! 
School, has been described already. After the completion of Painter 
Hall, in 1815, it was known as East College and some fifteen years 
later was thoroughly repaired, its public rooms being converted into 
a dormitory for students. The present public school building stands 
upon its site. 

Painter ‘Hall, 106 feet long, 40 feet wide, and 4 stories high, is built 
of light-colored limestone. It was originally devoted to dormitory 
uses, but the north division is now occupied by the library and the 
south division by the gymnasium and reading room. 

The chapel stands south of Painter Hall and was completed in 1836. 
It is a 4-story limestone building, 75 feet long and 55 feet wide, and 
contains besides the chapel (refitted in 1891) a museum and the various 
recitation rooms, lecture rooms, and laboratories. 

Starr Hall, the present dormitory, stands farthest south of the 
buildings in the college row. It is • also of stone and 4 stories high, 
its ground dimensions being nearly those of Painter Hall. It was 
built in 1861 and promptly rebuilt after having been burned in 1864 

Battell Hall stands opposite the site of East College. It was built 
by Dr. Kitchel during his presidency for a residence, and purchased 
by the college on his retirement with funds furnished by Mr. Joseph 
Battell, of the class of 1823. It has been thoroughly refitted and is 
now used as a boarding hall for the young women of the college. 

The Starr boarding hall stands upon Storrs avenue, opposite the 
campus. It was built in President Hamlin’s administration, and has 
ample table accommodations. 

THE LIHRARV. I 

The library began with the college itself. About fl,000 was sub- I 
scribed for the purchase of books, the whole amount being divided I 
into shares of |25 each, the payment of which entitled the subscrilier I 




THE CHAPEL AND PAINTER HALL. 



MIDDLEBURY COLLEGE. 



183 



to certain piivileges. The shares were eventually purchased in by 
the college for the most part or given to it. The number of books 
grew slowly, amounting in 1840 to about 3,000 volumes. On the 
abandonment of the Philadelphian and Philomathesian societies, their 
respective libraries were merged into the common stock. The library 
room was for many years the rear half of the second floor of the 
chapel, now occupied by the museum. During the presidency of Dr. 
Hamlin it was removed to its present quarters, in the north division of 
Painter Hall, where four floors are available. There are at present 
about 18,000 books, exclusive of Government publications, of which 
the library is a depositary. All the volumes are directly accessible to 
students and the library has come to be one of the most valuable 
adjuncts to the college life. Its greatest need is a permanent fund, 
that its growth may be commensurate with its importance. 

It is expected that the libraiy will have been transferred to a new 
building before the centennial commencement. A bequest of |50,000 
from Mr. Egbert Starr, of New York City, was designated for such a 
building and its erection will shortly be begun. The architecture of 
the new library will be classical. The capacity of the stock will be 
90,000 volumes and ample space has been provided for reading rooms 
and administrative work.^ 

LABOKATOBIBS.* 

A science building is at present one of the most pressing needs of 
the institution. The laboratories are now located in the chapel build- 
ing. The physical laboratory is on the third floor. It is equipped 
with apparatus for use in experimental lectures, and there is also 
apparatus for the determination of the physical units and constants. 
A heliostat by Brashear gives facilities for the use of the solar lantern, 
microscope, and all experimental work in light. 

The chemical laboratory occupies four rooms on the first floor. The 
largest room is used for lectures and recitations and contains 15 dou- 
ble desks, each thoroughly furnished with running water, pneumatic 
h-ough, chemicals, and chemical apparatus for the performance of all 
important experiments and analyses; several Sprengel-Bunsen pumps 
are provided for rapid filtrations and for producing air blasts in blow- 
pipe analysis. Connected with the main room is the combustion room, 
furnished with “draught hoods,” drying ovens, and hydrogen-sulphide 
apparatus. The laboratory for quantitative analysis contains 20 desks 
and all necessary apparatus for doing thorough work in both gravi- 
metric and volumetric quantitative analysis; adjoining this room is 
the bala nce room, equipped with Becker chemical balances so mounted 

^ The Egbert Starr Library was dedicated July 3, 1900, with appropriate ceremonies. 

A gift of p0,000 has been received from Mr. Ezra J. Warner, 1861, of Chicago, 
for the erection of the Joseph Warner Memorial Hall of Science. The building will 
be completed in 1901. 



184 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 



as to be free from all outside vibrations. The chemical laboratory has 
a departmental library, where all the important books of reference 
are to be found and the leading chemical journals are kept on file. 
The laboratory throughout is lighted with electricity. All work is 
conducted under the direct supervision of the professor of chemistry. 

The biological laboratory occupies three rooms on the ground floor. 
The rear room, conveniently connected by special stairway with the 
valuable collections in the museum above, is used as the lecture room; 
the middle room is assigned to the professor in charge as a private 
laboratory; the front room has been fitted up as a practical wor k i n g 
laboratory for students’ use in the various courses of the department. 
This laboratory is provided with suitable tables, lockers, and cases. 
Its equipment includes IT compound microscopes — 1 Wales, 8 Zeiss, 
4 Bausch and Lomb, and 4 Keichert — 16 of which are of the approved 
continental model for laboratory use; also dissecting microscopes, dis- 
secting pans, injecting and embedding apparatus, dry and steam ster- 
ilizers, culture apparatus for work with bacteria and fungi, reagents, 
and alcoholic material for study. 



THE MUSEUM. 



The museum occupies the greater part of the second floor of the 
chapel building and is well lighted from three sides. Its varied col- 
lections include Assyrian tablets and casts and other objects of interest 
in Semitic history, a set of the costumes and implements of the natives 
of the Yukon Valley, and relics of local and general historic interest. 

The natural-history collections are here displayed. In Botany there 
is a complete series of the flowering plants and ferns of the Champlain 
Valley, collected by President Brainerd. In zoology the native birds 
are represented, and also sponges, corals, and other marine forms con- 
tributed in part from the collections of the United States Fish Com- 
mission. 

A collection, representing the rocks of the State, was made during a 
geological survey conducted by Professor Adams, then occupying the 
chair of natural history. He also arranged a series of fossils repre- 
senting the different geological formations, and this collection has since 
been enriched by notable additions from many sources. Besides this 
general series, a special collection of the fossils of the Champlain Val- 
ley has been made, largely by Professor Seely. 

For instruction in mineralogy a complete working set of minerals is 
to be found upon the shelves, and material for the stud}' of general 
petrology is also abundant. 

A valuable collection of shells for instruction in conchology is con- 
tained in the museum; also a full series, collected and arranged by Pro- 
fessor Adams, of the land and water shells of Vermont. 



MIDDLEBTJEY COLLE&E. 



185 



ORGANIZATIONS. 



Two student organizations were early formed. The Philomathesian 
Society was established soon after the opening’ of the college, though 
it was not incorporated till 1822. It was for many years a notable fac- 
tor in the literary training atforded by the institution, and it gathered 
together a library of more than 2,000 volumes. The Philadelphian 
Society was a religious organization of salutary influence, with a library 
which, with that of the Philomathesian, was ultimately merged, as 
alread}! stated, into the general library of the college. Neither of these 
societies is now in operation, but the place of the Philadelphian is 
supplied by two religious organizations, the Young Men’s and the 
Young Women’s Christian Associations. 

^ The Middlebury College Charitable Society, established in 1813, fur- 
nished money to students in need of help, generally as a loan, some- 
times as a gift. Up to 1820 between $3,000 and $4,000 had been given 
to the society. The northwestern branch of the American Education 
Society was formed in that year and the Charitable Societ}i ceased to 
collect funds, though its aid was extended for many years afterwards. 

A chapter of the Phi Beta Kappa Society, the Beta of Vermont, was 
established at Middlebury in 1868. The original anniversary pro- 
grammes included a public address, but the latter has been abandoned 
because of the great number of other public exercises that are crowded 
into commencement week. 

The Associated Alumni of Middlebury College held their first meet- 
ing in August, 1824. Of late years the body has been granted the 
privilege by the board of trustees of nominating from its membership 
candidates for a certain proportion of the vacancies occurring in that 
board. Its anniversary day is the Tuesday before commencement, the 
exercises consisting of an address, a poem, and a dinner with literary 
accompaniments, in addition to business meetings. It has published 
many valuable orations. 

CONCLUSION. 



In this brief history it has been possible to present only the more 
salient points of interest. Nor has it been thought best to make any 
individual mention of distinguished alumni or of professors who have 
rendered long and valued service in the various chairs. Yet the col- 
lege has had through all the years a right to be proud of her output — 
the Middlebury man: Not once or twice has he stood at his post of 
duty and acted an important part in the conserving of vital interests. 
Circumstances, in many ways, have not been favorable to the institu- 
tion’s growth. In the past she has never been adequatelj^ endowed; 
her present income is not sufficient for her needs; yet it is the belief 
of those who know her best, her record and her present work, that 
no American college can show a more zealous regard for the standards 
of highest scholarship, or better returns in proportion to the capital 
employed. 

Middlebury, Ajyt'il, 1899 . 



186 



HISTOKY OF EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 



HISTORY OF NORWICH UNIVERSITY, NORTHFIELD, VT 
By Rev. Homee White. 

Norwich University was chartered by the legislature of Vermont 
November 6, 1834. It then had its seat at Norwich, on the west bank 
of the Connecticut Kiver, and nearly opposite to Dartmouth College, 
Hanover, N. H. Its founder was Capt. Alden Partridge, at one time 
superintendent of the United States Military Academy at West Pomt. 

In its military and scientific features it was modeled after West Point, 
and has always stood second in rank only to the National Academy as 
a military school. The university grew out of and succeeded the 
American Literary, Scientific, and Military Academy which Captain 
Partridge established at Norwich in 1819, and which he taught ^with 
success until 1825, when he removed the school to Middletown, Conn. 
There it remained until 1832, when he returned to Norwich and 
reopened the school in the buildings formerly used for it. In 1834 it 
was determined to transform the academy into a college. The academy 
buildings were used, and, a charter having been obtained, the military 
academy became a military college under the title of “Norwich Uni- 
versity,” with Captain Partridge as its first president. 

The universit}^ was completely nonsectarian by its charter. It was 
first opened for the reception of students on the first Monday in May, 
1835, and met with encouraging patronage from different parts of the 
country. The old academy had attracted many Southern students. , 
Not so many of their names appear in the catalogues of the university, j 
but a considerable number still came from the Southern States, and 
of these many learned at Norwich the military science which they 
afterwards employed in the Confederate service. 

The following extracts from the act of incorporation exhibit some 
of the distinctive features of the university; 

Sec. 5. That the trustees aforesaid shall have and exercise the government of said 
institution, together with the care and management of all matters and affairs belong- 
ing thereto, and shall have power to make and e,stablish all such reasonable and 
proper laws, rules, and regulations as may be necessary for the governing, instruct- 
ing, and education of the students and the managing of said institution, and the 
sarne may repeal and alter from time to time, as they may see fit: Provided the same 
be not contrary to the Constitution and laws of this State or of the United States, 

And provided also, That no rules, laws, or regulations of a sectarian character, either 
in religion or politics, shall be adopted or imposed; nor shall any student ever be 
questioned or controlled on account of his religious or political belief by said board 
or the faculty of said institution, or any of them, either directly or indirectly, an 
said laws, rules, and regulations shall be laid before the legislature of this Sta e, 
whenever required by that body, and may by them be disallowed, altered, or 

repealed. ■ j , t • v, 

Sec. 6. It is hereby further enacted that the said board shall be required to furnish 

at said institution constantly a course of military instruction, both theoretical and 
practical, and also in civil engineering and the practical sciences generally; and the 



NORWICH UNIVERSITY. 



187 



president of said institution with the consent of the trustees, shall have power to 
give and confer all such diplomas, degrees, honors, or licenses as are usually given 
or conferred in colleges or universities, at their discretion: Provided, however, That in 
so doing they shall have respect to the morals and merits of the candidate alone. 

I 

TRUSTEES. 

The first board of trustees constituted a body corporate by this act 
consisted of Josiah Dana, Jedediah H. Harris, Silas H. Jennison, 
Caleb Keith, William Noble, David P. Noyes, Samuel C. Allen, John 
Wright, Joshua Stowe, Isaac N. Cushman, Jonathan P. Miller, William 
Sweatt, Hubbard H. Winchester, Elijah Miller, and 11 others to be 
by them elected at their first meeting. This first meeting was held 
December 2, 1834, and adjourned to thesecond Wednesday in January, 
1835. At this adjourned meeting the following 11 were elected: 
D. A. A. Buck, Ira H. Allen, Daniel Cobb, John Moore, Benjamin F. 
Kendall, Daniel Kellogg, Alexander S. Campbell, Stephen Johnson, 
J. AI. Austin, John S. Robinson, and Milo H. Bennett. Also John 
Wright was elected secretary and Dr. William Sweatt treasurer. 

By action of the trustees in 1889 the alumni and past cadets are 
permitted to nominate one of the board of trustees each year and the 
person is afterwards elected for a term of five years. 

During the fifty -five years which have elapsed since then, a large 
number of prominent men have served on the board. I find the names 
of Hons. Henry C. Denison, Franklin Pierce, Levi B. Vilas, Timothy 
P. Redfield, Dudley C. Denison, Kittridge Haskins, and Wheelock G. 
Veazey, Rt. Rev. W. H. A. Bissell, D. D.; Rev. George B. Mauser, 
D. D. ; Julius Y. Dewey, M. D. 

The present officers of the corporation are: President, Col. Charles 
H. Lewis, LL. D.; acting president, Hon. George Nichols, M. D., 
LL. D. ; secretary, Joseph K. Egerton; treasurer, J. C. B. Thayer, 
esq. 

Trustees: Col. Henry O. Kent, Lanca.ster, N. H.; Hon. George 
Nichols, M. D., LL. D., Northfield; Hon. P. D. Bradford, M. D., 
Northfield; Hiram Atkins, esq., Montpelier; Col. F. E. Smith, Mont- 
pelier; Col. George N. Carpenter, Boston, Mass.; Joseph Stedman, 
M. D., Boston, Alass. ; Col. Charles H. Lewis, LL. D., Boston, Mass.; 
John J. Dewey, Quechee, Vt. ; Edwin Porter, M. D., Northfield; John 
P. Davis, esq., Northfield; Gen. Granville M. Dodge, New York City; 
Col. George W. Hooker, Brattleboro; J. C. B. Thayer, Noi'thfield; 
Waldo P. Clement, New York City; Capt. George W. Hobbs, Uxbridge, 
Mass.; William B. Mayo, M. D., Northfield; Chauncey Denny, 
Northfield; Hon. Frank Plumley, Northfield; Joseph K. Egerton, 
Northfield; N. Louis Sheldon, elected by alumni 1890, Norwood, 
Mass. ; George D. Thomas, elected by alumni 1891, Waltham, Mass. ; 
B. F. Spaulding, elected by alumni 1892, Fargo, N. Dak.; John R. 
Moore, elected by alumni 1893, Elizabeth, N. J. ; Charles Dole, elected 
hy alumni 1894, Northfield. 



188 



HISTORY OP EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 



COUESES OF STUDY. 

The courses of study in the university have varied from time to 
time, but have remained true to the original design, and it has always 
been possible to truthfully describe the institution as literary, scientific, 
and military. A classical course has been maintained, but quite as 
much attention has been given to the modern as to the ancient lan- 
guages. The strongest and most marked features of the university 
have been and are still its civil engineering course and its military 
instruction. Norwich University was the first college in this country 
to make the study of ancient languages optional, to establish a purely 
scientific course, and to confer the degree of bachelor of science. 

Her example has since been generally followed by other colleges. 
Military drill and discipline have always been kept up, and the gradu- 
ates of the institution have shown themselves qualified to command 
troops in time of war. So great was the demand for them during the 
civil war as officers that no one of them was permitted to carry a 
musket. 

There are at present five courses of study, viz, classical, civil engi- 
neering, architecture, chemistry, science and literature, and arts. 
Military instruction is given to students in all courses by a graduate 
of West Point, an officer of the United States Army, detailed for that 
purpose. A United States Signal Service observer and instructor in 
military signaling is also stationed at the university by the Government. 

COTJESE IN MILITARY INSTRUOTION. 

For all students throughout the four years, exercises, drills, or lec- 
tures every day at i o’clock p. m. 

J^all term . — Settings up, calls, manual of arms, school of the com- 
pany, and skirmish drill; bayonet exercises indoors in bad weather. 

Walter term . — Broadsword and saber drill, manual of the sword and 
fencing. Juniors and seniors, lectures on military engineering or 
military science and art of war. 

Spring term . — Artillery drill and school of the battery, battalion 
drill, ceremonies and dress parade, review of all drills, signaling, lec- 
tures on customs of the service, camping and modern warfare, rifle 
practice. 

The lectures in military science and modern warfare embody ancient 
warfare and tactics, field fortification, field engineering, military 
tactics, artillery duty, principles of gunnery; the attack and defense of 
fortified places, operations of the siege; attack and defense of a prov- 
ince, and principles of base line of operations, torpedo service, and 
other modern means of warfare. These lectures are illustrated by 
maps and charts of modern sieges and battles. The lectures in mili- 
tary science alternate every other year with those in modern warfare, 
which requires the junior and senior classes to attend them. 

Military discipline is maintained throughout, and the strictest 
observance of military customs is required of cadets. 



NORWICH UNIVERSITY. 



189 



DAILY ROUTINE OP DUTY. 

Foreruxm. — Reveille, first call, 6.05; reveille, 6.15; inspection of 
rooms by officer of day, 6.40; breakfast call, 6.45; prayers, first call, 
8.30; prayers, 8.45; recitation and study hours, 9 to 12; dinner call, 12. 

Afternoon . — Roll call, first call, 1.30; roll call, 1.35; recitation and 
study hours, 1.45 to 3.45; fatigue call, 3.45; drill, first call, 3.65; 
inspection of rooms by adjutant; drill, 4 to 5; recall, 5.10; recreation 
from recall until retreat; retreat at sunset, except when sun sets 
before 7, then at 7; call to quarters fifteen minutes after retreat, 
except when retreat is at sunset, then immediately after retreat; study 
hours from call to quarters until tattoo; tattoo, 9.30 in spring and fall, 
at 9 in winter; taps, thirty minutes after tattoo. Taps are followed 
by an inspection by the officer of day, who will see that cadets are in 
quarters, lights are out, and fires are secured. 

On Fridays, retreat is five minutes after drill, and permits will be 
granted to leave quarters during early evening. Saturdays and Sun- 
days there is no 1.35 roll call nor recitations. 

REQUIREMENTS OP ADMISSION. 

All candidates for admission to the college must be at least 15 
years of age, and must present satisfactory evidence of good moral 
character. 

To the courses in civil engineering, architecture, chemistry, and 
science and literature, candidates will be examined in the following 
studies: Mathematics — arithmetic, algebra to quadratics, plane geom- 
etry; English language — grammar, composition, with special attention 
to punctuation and the use of capitals; geography — physical and 
political geography; history — history of the United States. 

To the course in arts, in addition to the examinations in mathematics, 
English language, geography, and histoiy laid down for the course in 
science, examinations will be as follows: Latin — Cffisar’s “ Commen- 
taries,” 4 books, or Sallust’s “Catiline;” Virgil’s “^neid,” 6 books; 
Cicero, 4 orations. Greek — Xenophon’s “Anabasis,” 4 books, or 100 
pages of Goodwin’s Greek reader; Homer’s “Iliad,” 2 books. 

Graduates from approved high schools will be admitted upon cer- 
tificates. Candidates not fully prepared in all the requirements will 
be conditioned for a limited time or placed in a preparatory class. 
Candidates for advanced standing will be examined in all the previous 
studies of the course; and if they come from another institution will 
present certificates of honorable dismission. 

UNIFORM. 

In 1841 the uniform required to be worn by cadets is described as 
follows: A coat of dark-blue cloth with 3 rows of white bullet buttons 
in front, the 2 outside rows terminating a little past the top of the 



190 



HISTORY OP EDUCATION IH VERMONT. 



shoulder; the intervals between the buttons of each row to be three- 
fourths of an inch; standing collar, to rise as high as the tip of the 
ear, with a button on each side; cuffs indented on the outer side, with 
4: buttons extending longitudinally, set at the same distance apart; the 
skirts to have 2 buttons behind at the bottom of the waist and 2 at 
their lower extremity; then 4 set on the center, extending up and 
down; also, at the half distance between the buttons at the bottom of 
the waist and the buttons of the skirt, to be 2 buttons placed close 
together near the edge of each fold. Pantaloons, dark blue for winter, 
white for summer. Vests, dark for winter, white for summer. Caps 
and trimmings can be obtained at the university. 

In 1890 the uniform is thus described: A single-breasted dress coat 
of dark blue cloth, university buttons; trousers, dark blue, with red 
stripe; black cravat; United States regulation helmet with usual gilt 
ornaments; foragecap; boots or high shoes of black, unglazed leather. 

The State of Vermont has made the corps of cadets a part of the 
State militia, and they are organized as a company of heavy artillery. 
They were first received into the militia on the application of General 
Ransom and others in July, 1845, and made a company of the Twenty- 
third regiment under Col. William E. Lewis. 



COLLEGE EXPENSES. 

In the years from 1838 to 1841 the expense, per quarter of twelve 
weeks, for tuition, room rent, board, and incidentals, was $31.83. 

In the year 1845-46 the expenses at the university were — 

Tuition per quarter |6. 00 

Room rent per quarter 

Incidental expenses per quarter !■ 00 

Board and washing per week 1- 26-1. 50 

The entire expense for three terms of eleven weeks each was thus 
$75 at the most. But this annual cost could be greatly reduced by 
boarding in clubs where board could be had for 50 cents per week. 
“ In no case need they exceed $1,” the catalogue of that year tells us. 
In the year 1891 the expense is as follows: 

Tuition for college year $46. 00 

Room rent for college year - lO’ 00 

Library and contingent expenses 5’ 00 

Board and washing, $3 per week 108.00 

The cost of living is greater than it was forty -five years ago, but 
when a cadet enjoys a State scholarship his expenses are thereby 
lessened $50 per year, bringing them down to the very moderate sum 
of $123 per year. 

ATTENDANCE. 

The first person to receive the diploma of the university was Alonzo 
Jackman, who graduated in 1836. In 1837 it graduated a class of 10; 
in 1838 a class of 6; in 1839 a class of 11; in 1840 a class of 9; 1841 a 



NORWICH UNIVERSITY. 



191 



class of 17. All these received the degree of A. B., showing that in 
the early years of the university the classics were not neglected. The 
catalogue of 1811 gives the names of 119 cadets in attendance; in 1811 
there were 101; in 1850, 59; in 1857-1860, 57. This was just befoi’e 
the breaking out of the civil war, and among these 57 jmuths there 
were in the Union armyl general, C. B. Stoughton; 1 colonel, Thomas 
O. Seaver; 1 colonel in the Confederate army, William J. Clarke; 1 
lieutenant-colonel in the Union army, Edmund Rice; 1 major, Henry 
E. Alvord; and two captains, S. W. Shattuck, afterwards vice-presi- 
dent, and Charles A. Curtis, afterwards president of the university. 
Many others of this number may have held commissions in the Union 
army, and doubtless did do so. But it is known that in 1861 the under- 
graduates so promptlj^ responded to the call of their country that for 
two years there was no commencement. All of the senior class and 
manj^ from the other classes went into the army. 

PKESIDENTS. 

Capt. Alden Partridge, a native of Norwich, Vt. , was born January 12, 
1785, and died in Norwich, January 17, 1854. He graduated from West 
Point in 1806 and received an honorary degree from Dartmouth College 
in 1812. Flora the rank of first lieutenant of engineers he was pro- 
moted to the rank of captain in 1810. In 1813 he was appointed profes- 
sor of mathematics at W est Point, having been assistant professor for a 
year previous, and in September following became professor of engi- 
neering. He was afterwards superintendent of West Point Academy 
(the third who held that office) till 1818, when he resigned and established 
the American Literary Scientific and Military Academy, afterwards 
chartered as Norwich University. In 1819 Captain Partridge also 
went out as leader of the surveying party sent to the northwest frontier 
of the United States to determine the boundary line. In 1822 he was 
appointed surveyor-general of Yermont, and was several times a mem- 
ber of the legislature. At different times he gave lectures on military 
topics in the leading cities of the country, and established schools for 
military instruction in Portsmouth, Ya., in 1840; in Reading, Pa., in 
1860; at Brandywine Springs, Del., in 1853. His published works 
were, “An excursion,” “Letters on education,” “National defence,” 
“Journal of a tour of cadets,” etc. The school which he established 
at Norwich in 1819 was very successful. An old catalogue of 1824 
gives the number of cadets as 160. When this school was discontinued, 
Norwich University took its place, and was the first military college 
established in the United States after the founding of West Point. 
Captain Partridge was elected president of the institution at the first 
meeting of the trustees, December 2, 1834. He held this position till 
1843, when he resigned. 

Captain Partridge was succeeded in the presidency by Gen. Truman 
B. Ransom (the former vice-president), who continued in office four 



192 HISTORY OR EBUOATION IK VEEMOKT. 

years when he resigned to take command of the ninth New England 
regiment, for the Mexican war. He fell, gallantly leading his men, at 
the storming of Chapultepec, September 13, 1847. His name is 
written high upon the roll of Vermont’s heroes. 

General liansoiii was born in Woodstock, Vt. , in 1802. He was 
educated in Captain Partridge’s militarj^ school at Norwich and taught 
in several of the schools subsequently established by Captain Partridge. 
On the incorporation of the university he became vice-president and 
professor of natural philosophy and engineering. He was also, at one 
time, instructor in mathematics in the United States Navy. He did 
much to reorganize the Vermont militia, in which he was major- 
general from 1837 to 1844. He was candidate for Congress in 1840 
and for lieutenant-g’overnor in 1846, but in each case failed of election. 
His political hopes shared the same fate with those of his predecessor, 
who was also an unsuccessful candidate for Cong’ress. 

General Ransom resigned May 7, 1847, and Rev. Prof. James D. 
Butler was appointed to act as president until the next annual meet- 
ing. At the annual meeting, August 18, 1847, he was elected presi- 
dent of the university. He was a graduate of Middlebury College 
and held the office of president for about two years. 

Henry S. Wheaton, A. M., who succeeded, was president for only 
a few months, and resigned August 16, 1849. 

Rev. Edward Bourns, LL. D., was made president January 8, 
1851. He was born in Dublin, Ireland, October 29, 1801. He was 
graduated from Trinity College, Dublin, July 9, 1833. He passed the 
theological examination June, 1834. He landed in this country in 
August, 1837, and soon after opened an English and classical school 
in Philadelphia, but in 1838 removed to Geneva, N. Y. In 1839 he 
received the degree of M. A. from Geneva College (known as Hobart 
College since 1852); in the same year was made adjunct professor of 
Latin and Greek. In 1841 he received the degree of LL. D. from 
the same college, and on the 7th of March, the same year, was ordained 
deacon in the Protestant Episcopal Church. In 1845 he resigned the 
professorship and went to Brooklyn, Long Island, where he taught 
the languages until he was called to the presidency of Norwich Uni- 
versity. He held this office till 1865, about fifteen years. He was 
also professor of Latin and Greek during this time and up to the time 
of his death, which was caused b}^ paralysis, at Northfield, Vt., July 
14, 1871. He was a line classical scholar, a good theologian, and an 
excellent preacher. He was distinguished by a ready and keen wit, 
which those who knew him will well remember. He was nearly 6 feet 
3 inches in height, with a breadth of frame in proportion, and mentally 
and physically he was a strong man. He won the esteem and con- 
fidence of those who knew him, and by the genial kindness of his 
nature greatly endeared himself to many. The trials of Norwich 



NORWICH UNIVERSITY. 



193 



University in his time arose chiefly from the lack of endowment — a 
lack which still holds her back from the highest usefulness — but for 
twenty years he stood perseveringly and stanchly by her and gave 
hei’ his loyal but poorly requited service. 

In March, 1866, the building known as the “South Barracks ” burned 
down. In this crisis the institution received an invitation to remove 
to Northfield. The invitation was accepted and the university met 
with a warm and generous welcome by the citizens of Northfield. 
Fine grounds were obtained just south of the village, and on a hand- 
some eminence overlooking the village and affording a magnificent 
view of country both north and south 2 beautiful brick buildings, cost- 
ing about $30,000, have been erected to be used one as barracks and 
the other as class rooms, office quarters, and other college purposes. 
The faculty which came to Northfield consisted of Dr. Bourns, Gen. 
Alonzo Jackman, Prof. Henri Louis Delescluze, with Capt. S. W. 
Shattuck as president pro tempore. Additions were made to the 
faculty the following year, viz, Philander D. Bradford, M. D., and 
Maj. Thomas W. Walker, U. S. A. 

November 10, 1866, the act of incorporation was so amended bj^ the 
legislature, in section 5 of that act, that it became possible to make 
the university a church college and it consequently came under the 
control of the Protestant Episcopal Church, the bishop of the diocese 
being made a member of the board of trustees. It retained this char- 
acter until 1880, when it again became nonsectariau. 

Maj. Thomas W. Walker, U. S. A., became president in 1867 and 
continued in office two years. He was a graduate of West Point. 

In 1869 the Rev. Roger S. Howard, D. D., became president. He 
was a graduate of Dartmouth and was admirably fitted for the position 
he assumed, being of commanding presence and a scholarly man. He 
held the office three 3^ears. 

The Rev. Malcolm Douglass, D. D., was chosen president in 1872. 
He was born at West Point, N. Y., July 19, 1825, graduated from 
Tiinity College in 1846, and from the General Theological Seminary in 
ffil9. He was ordained by Bishop De Lancey, of New York, deacon 
in 1849 and priest in 1850. He remained president three years 
resigning in 1875. He died in the Church of the Good Shepherd, at 
Wareham, Mass., Sunday, September 25, 1887. His ability won him 
respect, and his many charms of character made him beloved by all. 
His name is an honored one in the history of the university. 

The Rev. Josiah Swett, D. D., was elected president August 12, 
1875, and resigned in February, 1877. He was not resident in North- 
|| field any of the time and was only nominally president. The active 
duties of the office were performed by Charles Dole, A. M., who had 
been assistant commandant and professor since 1869. Dr. Swett was 
agiaduate of Norwich University in 1837 and was professor of ancient 
3177 13 



194 



HISTORY OP EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 



languages in the university 1840-1844. He was for many j^ears one 
of the hoard of trustees and always felt a strong interest in the wel- 
fare of his alma mater. He was the author of several educational 
works and died in Highgate, Vt., January 4, 1890. 

Capt. Charles A. Curtis succeeded Dr. Swett as president in 1877 i 
and remained such until 1880. He is a graduate of Norwich Uni- 
versity and of Bowdoin College and a gentleman of considerable liter- 
ary ability, being the author of several works of merit. Since his 
resignation of the presidency he has been engaged in teaching in the 
South and West. 

In 1880 Col. Charles H. Lewis, a graduate of 1856, who had distin- 
guished himself in the civil war, came forward and offered to endow 
his alma mater. The gratitude of the trustees was great and sincere 
and, wisely or unwisely, they determined to change the name of the 
university in honor of him whom they regarded as its second founder. 
An act of the legislature was obtained December 10, 1880, changing 
the title to “Lewis College,” and at a meeting of the trustees Decem- 
ber 31, 1880, Colonel Lewis was elected president. At the request of 
the trustees he was persuaded to take upon himself the executive 
management and to see personally to the carrying of his designs into 
effect. He became president of the college. But business misfortunes 
overtook the generous Lewis and he has never been able to perform 
the noble things he proposed. He has not lost, however, the respect 
and confidence of the trustees and other friends of the institution and 
has been continued in the presidency up to the present year, 1890. 

The change of name, however, was distasteful to the alumni. In 
1884 the name was changed back to Norwich University. The same 
year, November 26, the legislature passed the following act, providing 
for 30 free scholarships, which has been of great benefit to the 
university : 

SOHOLAKSHIPS. 

AN ACT relating to the appointment of cadeta to Norwich University. 

Sec. 1. There shall be admitted, free of charge for tuition and room rent, to the 
Norwich University, at Northfield, as many students from each county in the State 
as there are senators from such county in the general assembly, who shall be 
instructed in all departments of learning taught in said university, and be subject to 
all the rules and regulations of said school. 

Sec. 2. The senators in each county shall designate and appoint the cadet or cadets 
from such county to the said university, and whenever a vacancy occurs from such 
county for any cause, fill the same; said appointments to be made by competitive 
examinations in the month of June in each year and whenever a vacancy .shall exi.st. 

Sec. 3. Whenever the senators from any county shall fail to fill any vacancy from 
such county for one month after being notified of the same by the trustees of said 
university, the trustees may fill the same by appointing from the county, if there are 
any applicants who pass the examination required by the rules of said miiversity, 
and if not, then from any county in the State. 

Sec. 4. The auditor of accounts shall draw' his order on the treasurer of the State, I 
payable to the trustees of said university or the treasurer thereof, for the sum of $o0 ■ 

for each cadet so attending said university appointed as above, which shall be iu full ■ 



NORWICH UNIVERSITY. 



195 



payment for tuition and room rent for such cadets, said tuitions to be payable in 
conformity with the rules of said university now existing as to the payment of tui- 
tions, on the sworn statement of account of the president or vice-president of said 
universit}', and to be paid by the first day of June in each year. 

Sec. 5. This act shall take effect from its passage. 

Approved November 25, 1884. 

j In addition to the above there have been created 12 half scholarship.s 
by benevolent friend.s of the university. 

PROFESSORS. 

Of the distinguished professors who have not been elsewhere spoken 
■ of in this history and who served the universit 3 ^ ^bly and faithfullv I 
will mention the following: 

Zerah Colburn, of world- wide fame for his natural gifts in mathe- 
matics, was born in Vermont in 1804 and died in 1840. At 6 years of 
i age he was brought before the public, and his wonderful performances 
j excited great interest. He answered almost on the instant such ques- 
I tions as: How many seconds in eleven years? What is the square of 
I 999,999? and many more difficult. He was taken to England for ex- 
hibition and was left at W estminster school, where he remained until 
1819. His father then desired him to become an actor, and he took 
lessons from Chailes Kemble. Failing in this, he taught school. On 
j his father’s -death he returned home and taught in various places. 
In 1825 he joined the Methodist Church and became an itinerant 
preacher. In 1836 he was appointed professor of ancient and modern 
languages in Norwich University. His remarkable talent for mathe- 
matical work left him about the time he became of age. 

First in length of service and perhaps in ability also stands Alonzo 
Jackman, the first graduate of the university. He was born in Thet- 
ford, Vt., March 20, 1809. Graduating alone in 1836, he was elected 
professor of mathematics in 1837. From this time (with the excep- 
tion of five or six years) he remained a professor in the university till 
the time of his death, forty-two years later. In 1841 Professor Jack- 
man in connection with his friend, Professor Swett (afterwards presi- 
dent), established the New England Seminary at Windsor and conducted 
it successfully for about three years. In 1846 he published in a Wood- 
stock paper the plan of an oceanic magnetic telegraph remarkably like 
that which in 1858 was first laid across the Atlantic Ocean. It Is be- 
lieved by many that Cyrus W. Field received his first idea of an 
Atlantic cable from this publication. In 1859 he was commissioned 
colonel of the Second Regiment of Vermont Militia, and later in the 
same year was made brigadier-general. In 1861 he entered on the 
duty of inspecting, drilling, and organizing troops for the service of 
the Union. He prepared both officers and men for duty in the field. 

He would willingly have gone into active service himself, but the 
governor felt the need of him in the State. In 1876 he published a 
small pamphlet entitled “The circle squared.” In this he demon- 



196 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 



strated by geometric figures and reasonings that a square can be con- 
structed equal in area to any given circle, or a circle constructed equal 
to any given square. Gleneral Jackman died lebruary 24 :, 18 <9. 

Among other professors who have faithfully served the university | 
are William M. Rumbaugh, a graduate of 1876; John B. Johnson, 
professor of mathematics since 1881; Charles Dole, A. M. , professoi 
of English literature and history from 1869 to 1880; Charles E. H 
Gestrin, Ph. D., professor of ancient and modern languages, 1876- 
1880; Fred. Wm. Grube, A. M., professor of modern languages; 
Rev. I. P. Booth, professor of Greek and Latin; and Louis Habel, 
Ph. D. , professor of chemistry and modern languages for three or four 
years. ’ Charles C. Brice, A. M., a graduate of Johns Hopkins Uni- J 
versify, was in 1886 elected professor of chemistry and physics, and in 
1887 was made superintendent. 

FACULTY (1891-92). 

Hon. George Nichols, M. D., LL. D., acting president; Charles C. 
Brice, A. M., superintendent; John B. Johnson, A. M., professor of 
civil engineering and mathematics; Charles C. Brice, A. M., piofessoi j 
of chemistry, physics, and natural science; J. B. Mowry, professor of 
English and Latin; G. F. Cole, professor of French and German ; F. C. 
Kimball, second lieutenant. Fifth Infantry, U. S. A., professor of mil- 
itary science; Asa Howe, A. M., C. E., professor of engineering field 
work; Philander D. Bradford, A. M., Ph. D., professor of anatomy 
and physiology; George Nathaniel Carpenter, A. M., lecturer on com- 
mercial ethics; Frank Plumley, LL. B., lecturer on constitutional law 
and social science; William Line, United States Signal Corps, instructoi 
in meteorology; H. N. IHattison, assistant in chemical laboratoiy , L. C. 
Hulburd, instructor in drawing. Military staff: F. C. Kimhall, sec- 
ond lieutenant. Fifth Infantry, U. S. A., commandant; J. B. Johnson, 
captain, N. G. V., quartermaster; J. B. Mowry, first lieutenant, 

N. G. V.; G. F. Cole, second lieutenant, N. G. V.; Philander D. 
Bradford, surgeon; Rev. Homer White, chaplain; James Evans, 
armorer. 

COMMANDANTS. 

Those who have acted as teachers of military science and tactics 
have been Capt. A. Partridge, Gen. T. B. Ransom, Hiram P. Wood- 
worth, A. M., Gen. Alonzo Jackman, LL. D., Simon M. Preston, A. M., 
Clinton S. Averill, A. M., Capt. S. W. Shattuck, Charles N. Kent, 
Maj. T. W. Walker, U. S. A., Capt. C. A. Curtis, U. S. A., Charles 
Dole, A. M., James E. Batchelder (graduate of West Point), Capt. 
WillHm M. Rumbaugh, A. M., First Lieut. E. H. Catlin, U. S. A., 
and Second Lieut. Jesse McI. Carter, U. S. A., Lieut. F. E. Kimball, 

U. S. A. 

DISTINGUISHED OFFICERS. 

Norwich University has given to the State and nation many of her 
sons who have won glory for themselves and their country on the 
field of battle. She contributed to the Union Army during the civil 



NORWICH UNIVERSITY. 



197 



war 12 general officers, 40 colonels, 55 captains, 143 lieutenants, and 
many noncommissioned officers, a large number of whom laid down 
their lives for their country. She sent also her Ransom to the Mexi- 
can war. It is impossible to give a full list, but the names of the fol- 
lowing are familiar, not only outside of the university walls but 
outside of Vermont: 

Generals . — Granville M. Dodge, Robert H. Milroy, Warren Shedd, 
T. E. G. Ransom, Truman Sej^mour, Geoi’ge P. Buell, Newell Gleason, 
George E. Bryant. 

Colonels . — Truman B. Ransom, Thomas J. Whipple, Edward B. 
Williston, Charles H. Lewis, Henry O. Kent, O. E. Leonard, Thomas 
O. Seaver, Levi G. Kingsley, Charles B. Stoughton, Edmund Rice. 

Majors. — O. S. Tenney, E. B. Bean, Henry E. Alvord. 

Captains . — Dunbar Ransom, Henry S. Slayton, Charles E. Denison, 
Dwight H. Kelton, George A. Converse, U. S. N. , Charles C. Carpen- 
ter, U. S. N. 

ENDOWMENT. 

All endowment is a need which has long been felt; several attempts 
have been made, but unsuccessfully, to obtain such an endowment as 
would make the future of the university secure. With the names of 
over 1,500 alumni and past cadets on the roster, it would seem as 
though the hope of such an endowment could be realized. Subscrip- 
tions to the amount of about $3,000 have been secured. A reasonable 
endowment, with the aid now given by the State, would place the 
university on a good basis. Norwich University deserves the foster- 
ing care not only of the alumni but of the State of Vermont. She 
has for over fifty years been the nursery of the men who on many a 
battlefield have carried the flag of their country to victory and won 
honor for themselves, their State, and the universitjr which trained 
them. They have helped to keep the name “Green Mountain Boy” 
a synonym for martial courage. In every emergency they have 
responded to the call of the State. Some of the Vermont regiments 
in the late civil war were chiefly officered by Norwich men; others 
were plentifully sprinkled with them and their efficiency was thereby 
increased. At the time of the St. Albans raid, made from Canada by 
Lieut. Bennett H. Young, October 19, 1864, the cadets were called 
out and went to St. Albans. Afterwards General J ackman led them 
to Derby Line to repel expected invasion. 

LOCATION. 

Northfield is in the central part of Vermont, 10 miles from Mont- 
pelier, the State capital. It is on the Central V ermont Railroad and 
is easy of access from all directions. It is a quiet but beautiful village 
of some 2,000 inhabitants, is a model college town, and is noted for its 
healthfulness. The university and the village are well supplied with 
pure spring water, and no air is more invigorating than that which 



198 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 



blows from the hills and mountains which beautify the view in every 
direction. A moral, refined, and intelligent people, interested in the 
university, afford the advantages of good society to the young men 
educated here, and there are no temptations to dissipation. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

The university has a considerable library containing some valuable 
books, and a reading room for the use of cadets where the current 
literature is to be found. The Reveille, a handsome magazine, is 
edited and published monthly by the cadets. There are two Greek- 
letter societies, the Alpha Sigma Pi and the Theta Chi, to one or the 
other of which most of the cadets belong. They are of a literary and 
social character, approved of bji the faculty and of value to their 
members. The cadets also maintain a military band of 16 pieces of a 
high order of merit. 

On every Friday there are ‘ ‘ rhetoricals ” in which every student is 
trained in composition and extemporaneous speaking. Two prizes of 
$15 and |10 are offered by N. Louis Sheldon, esq., class of 1881, to 
those members of the sophomore and freshman classes who show the 
greatest merit in declamation in a contest held during commencement 
week. The member of the senior class who graduates with the high- 
est general study average receives the faculty gold medal. Upon 
graduation, cadet officers receive commissions signed by the president 
of the university and by the adjutant and inspector-general of the State. 
At the close of the spring term, during the week immediately preced- 
ing commencement, the entire corps goes into camp on the parade 
ground and receives instruction in all the details of camp life. The 
cadets room in the barracks and board together at the mess hall. 

An inspection of the military department of Norwich University 
was made June 9, 1890, by Col. R. P. Hughes, U. S. A., inspector- 
general of the Atlantic Division. In his report to the War Depart- 
ment Colonel Hughes says of the university; 

It has always been managed on a strictly military basis, and the discipline and 
method are excellent. * * * The students are organized into one company, the 
officers of which are taken from the senior class. * * * The present occupant of 
the chair of military science and tactics is Second Lieut. ,T. McI. Carter, Third Cav- 
alry, who assumed the duties in March last. Lieutenant Carter seems to be entirely 
capable, zealous, and interested in his work, and gives entire satisfaction to the 
authorities and to his fellow-professors. * * * In conclusion, I wish to say that 
for its numbers there is no other school in my inspection where the military depart- 
ment presents a better condition than that at Norwich University, Vermont. 

Owing to the practical military and scientific education received, 
the present graduates find no difficulty in stepping from the university 
into lucrative and honorable positions in the business and professional 
world. The strict discipline which holds every cadet responsible for 
his deeds and punishes him for his offenses prepares them for the 
battle of life in which vte victis is the rule. 



APPENDIX. 



THE SCHOOL LAW OE 1782. 

The law of 1782 is believed to be the first school law of Vermont. 
A copy is here presented: 

AN ACT FOR APPOINTING AND SUPPORTING SCHOOLS, PASSED OCTOBER 22, 1782, FOR THE 
DUE ENCOURAGEMENT OF LEARNING AND THE BETTER REGULATION AND ORDERING 
OP SCHOOLS. 

I. Be it enacted, and it is hereby enacted by the representatives of ttie freemen of the 
State of Vermont in general assembly met, and by the authority of the same. That each 
town in thi,s State which can not conveniently be accommodated by one school shall 
have power, and they are hereby empowered in any legal town meeting by such ways 
and means as they shall devise, to divide into so many districts as they shall find con- 
venient, and the same to alter from time to time. 

And each town shall appoint one or more meet person, within each district, to con- 
tinue until others shall be chosen, who together with the selectmen of the town shall 
be trustees of schools in such town. And such trustees, or the major part of them 
and their successors, shall have power, and they are hereby authorized and empow- 
ered, to lease such lauds and real estates, and loan such moneys as do or shall apper- 
tain to such schools, or are or shall be given for the use aforesaid, and to commence 
any suit or suits that may be necessary for the recovery and obtaining of such lands, 
moneys, and other estates, and to take leases, bonds, and other securities to themselves 
and their successors for the use of such schools, and to sue and recover thereon. 

And the trustees shall annually pay over the money arising from the lease of such 
lands and other real estate, and the loan of such moneys, to a committee of each 
district respectively, in proportion to the number or lists; and all such bonds, leases, 
and other securities shall, by said trustees, be lodged with the town clerk of the 
town, who is directed and required to keep an account thereof and hold the same 
under the direction of said trustees for the purposes aforesaid. 

And such trustees shall render an account of their doings in respect to their trust 
to the town by whom they were appointed when thereunto required. And the 
inhabitants within the several districts are empowered from time to time to meet to 
transact the business of their respective districts, to choose a moderator, district 
clerk, collector of rates, and a committee of one or more persons to take care of the 
prudential affairs of the district for which they are chosen. And the committee 
shall have power, and they are hereby empowered, in their several districts to raise 
one-half of the money that shall be necessary for building and repairing a school- 
house and supporting a school in their respective districts by a rate on the list of the 
polls and rateable estate of the inhabitants of such districts. And the several dis- 
tricts are further empowered, at any meeting warned for that purpose, to raise the 
other half of the money for the p>urposes aforesaid, either by a tax on the list of the 

199 



200 



HISTOBY OF EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 



polls and rateable estate of the inhabitants of such district or by subscription in 
proportion to the number of children any person shall send or subscribe to send to 
such district school. 

And in every of the above cases the committee shall make the whole into a rate 
bill by a just estimation in money, according to the true intent and meaning of such 
rate or subscription as aforesaid, and if the same shall not be .paid by the time 
appointed they shall deliver such bill to their respective collectors, with a warrant 
to collect the same, signed by some councilor or justice of the peace. And such 
collector shall have the same power in collecting district taxes as the collectors of 
town rates, and shall be accountable to their respective committees for the sum due 
on such bill. 

And the district committees shall severally have the same power with respect to 
lands or any other interest or estate, given, granted, or in anywise set apart for the 
use of schools in their respective districts, as are in this act given to trustees of town 
schools, and shall be in like manner accountable to their respective districts. 

And the judges of the county courts in their respective counties shall have power 
to appoint trustees of county schools, who shall have the same powers in all matters 
relating to their trust as trustees of town schools; and shall in like manner be 
accountable to the judges by whom they were respectively appointed. And said 
judges, calling to their assistance the justices of the peace in their several counties, 
shall have the power to lay a tax on the same for the purpose of building a county 
schoolhouse in such county, to be collected by a warrant from the county treasurer 
in the same manner that State taxes are. 

II. And he it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That all trustees and com- 
mittees of schools shall have full power to purchase any lands or other estate, and 
to sell and alienate such lands and estate so by them purchased for the use of their 
several schools, under the direction of the judges, town, or district by whom they 
were appointed. And if any trustee or committee shall embezzle, misapply, or con- 
ceal any money or estate belonging to any town, county, or district, for the use of 
schools as aforesaid, he shall be liable to be removed and to be sued in an action of 
account by an agent or agents for that purpose appointed by the town, judges of the 
county court, or district by whom such trustee or committeeman was appointed. 

And if it shall be found on trial that such trustee or committeeman has embezzled, 
misapplied, or concealed any money or estate, as aforesaid, judgment shall be ren- 
dered against him, or them, for double the sum so embezzled, misapplied, or con- 
cealed; and such action prosecuted by order of the judges of the county court shall 
be prosecuted and determined before the superior court in their proper counties. 

Provided always, That this act shall not extend to any estate formerly granted by 
any person for the benefit of any particular school or schools; nor to grants of any 
interests formerly made hy any person or particular town, for the use of schools, or 
for the use of any particular school wherein the grantor hath committed the trust 
thereof to any particular person or persons with particular directions for a continued 
succession in such lands, anything contained in this act to the contrary notwith- 
standing. 

In the statute of 1782 nothing was absolutely required. The towns 
were empowered to divide into districts and to control the boundaries 
of them. The districts were empowered to organize and to act when 
organized, and the district committees were empowered to raise money. 
The town having divdded into districts was required to appoint a com- 
mittee, but this the only Command laid upon the town was conditioned 
upon a previous voluntary act of the town. 



EAELY ACTION AS TO SCHOOLS. 



201 



The following important link in Vermont school legislation is not 
found in volumes of collected laws: 

AN ACT IN ADDITION TO AN ACT ENTITLED “AN ACT FOR APPOINTING AND SUPPORT- 
ING SCHOOLS.” 

Whereas disputes have arisen respecting the mode of raising money for building 
schoolhouses and supporting schools in several towns in this State: Which to prevent, 

I. It is hereby enacted by tJie general assembly of the State of Vermont, That at any 
legal meeting of a district, warned for the purpose of raising money to build a school- 
house or support a school, it shall and may be raised in whole or in part, by a tax 
on the polls and rateable estate of the inhabitants of such district, as they may vote 
to raise the same. And, 

II. It is hereby further enacted, That the clerk of any school district, which is or 
may be hereafter organized, shall have the same power to warn a meeting of said 
district, in the same manner which the selectmen now have in warning the first 
meeting; and that the committee of any school district shall have power and are 
hereby empowered to appoint and remove schoolmasters from their district; any 
law, usage, or custom to the contrary notwithstanding. And, 

III. It is hereby further enacted, That all school districts which are organized accord- 
ing to law, shall draw an equal part of all public moneys arising to schools, in pro- 
portion to the number of children living in such districts, reckoning the number 
from the age of 4 to 20 years. 

Passed October 20, 1795. 

EARLY ACTION OF SEVERAL TOWNS RELATIVE TO SCHOOLS. 

Guilpobd — Proprietors. . 

December ^3, 1761. — Voted; That house lot No. 63 be sequestered for a school in 
said town, and there be one full share of land not yet drawn for left for said use, viz, 
three hundred-acre lots. 

Bennington. 

January 19, 1763. — Voted: To send a petition to the general court of the province 
of New Hampshire to raise a tax on all the lands in Bennington, resident and non- 
resident, to build a meetinghouse and a schoolhouse and mills, and for highways 
and a bridge. 

May 9, 1763. — Voted: To raise $6 on each right of land in said Bennington for 
building a meetinghouse and a schoolhouse. Quoted in Memorials of a Century, by 
Jennings. 

October B, 1763. — Voted: That the 12 pounds that was raised for the schools is to 
be divided into three parts equally, viz, 4 pounds apiece. 

Voted: That each district was to build their schoolhouses on their own qost. 

Chester. 

February 15, 1773. — Voted: To build a schoolhouse for the use of the town 22 by 
18 feet, and that 13 pounds York currency be raised on the inhabitants of said town 
for that purpose. 

Hartford. 

May IS, 1775. — Chose Amos Robinson, Stephen Tilden, and Benijah Strong a com- 
mittee to take care of the school lands and rent them out. 

Guilford — Town. 

April 7, 1777. — Voted: To sell the school right, the money to be applied to main- 
taining a school. 



202 



HISTOBY OF EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 



POMFRET. 

September 1, 1778. — Thirdly. Put to vote, whether the town as a town would raise 
money for schooling. Passed in the affirmative. 

Fourthly. Put to vote, whether the town would raise 8 pounds the old way, stated 
on grain, wheat, 6 shillings per bushel; rye, 4 shillings; indian corn, 3 shillings. 
Passed in the affirmative. 

Fifthly. Whether the selectmen make the rate. Passed in the affirmative. 

Sixthly. Whether they would build schoolhouses. Past in the negative. 

Seventhly. Made choice of Nathan Throop, collector of the south district. 

Eighthly. Made choice of Henry Ainsworth, collector of the north district. 

Ninthly. Made choice of John Winchester Dana, John Throop, Timothy Harding, 
school committee. 

November 22, 1781. — All the money or wheat that is granted by said town, which 
is 100 bushels of wheat, said town has sequestered 21 pounds out of the 100 bushels 
of wheat for schooling, to be equally divided among each district. 

Made choice of John Throop, committeeman for the south district, John W. Dan% 
esq., for the north district, and Timothy Harding for the west district. 

December 7, 1781. — V oted : To raise 4 pence on the pound for the use of schooling and 
other contingent charges, 21 pounds to be sequestrated for the use of schooling out of 
the 4 pence on the pound. 

November 20, 1783. — Voted : To raise 3 pence on the pound to be laid out for school- 
ing. 

Voted; That each district shall have his own money for that purpose. 

Claeendox. 

June 1, 1779. — Voted: That the town be laid out into [school] districts. 

Wells. 

In 1779 the inhabitants voted “ to divide the town into two districts, as natur has 
divided it, for schooling.” (History of Wells, Paul & Parks.) 

Windsor. 

March 7, 1786 . — To raise 80 pounds for the purpose of school in said town (agree- 
able to the sixth article in the warning) , said 80 pounds to be paid in cash or good 
wheat, at 5 shillings per bushel, to be collected and paid into the town treasury by 
the first day of December next; and that the money be divided into as many equal 
parts as there are districts, to be drawn by the committee of districts and appropriated 
to the sole purpose of hiring an instructor; and if any district neglect to maintain a 
school the term of 3 months in one year, from the time of the payment of the 
tax, that such delinquent district’s proportion be kept in the treasury and added to 
the future dividend that may be made for schooling; and that the selectmen, for the 
time being, be a committee to ascertain the number and limits of the several school 
districts in the said town; and see that the votes concerning raising and appropriat- 
ing money for schooling be carried into effect. 

March 13, 1787. — Voted: A tax of 3 pence on the pound for schooling. 

Shaptsbury. 

February 5, 1787. — Voted: To accept and adopt the plan and method for distribu- 
ting the school money belonging to this town as presented by the committee appointed 
for that purpose, which is as follows: 

Article I. That none of the public money be applied to the maintenance or sup- 
port of any school within the town taught by a woman. 

Art. II. That no scholar be entitled to draw any of said money under the age of 4 
years nor over lawful age. 



STATE NOEMAL SCHOOLS. 



203 



Akt. III. That no scholar be entitled to any of said money to defray the expenses 
of his or her schooling except the parent or master of such scholar be a lawful inhab- 
itant of said town. 

Art. IV. That the several schoolmasters in said town shall keep an exact list of 
his scholars, severally, viz, their names, ages, together with the length of time to a 
day that each one is taught, and exhibit the same to some proper person or persons 
appointed by .said town to receive the same, and make solemn oath before proper 
authority of the truth and validity of his said list, and present the same on or before 
the first day of April, annually. 

Art. V. That as soon as maybe, after the first of April, animalh", the person or 
persons appointed to receive the aforesaid list, shall proceed to make an equal divi- 
dend of the money in bank among the several scholars taught, as above, in the then 
foregoing year, in the following manner, viz, reckoning or allowing 4 pence per 
week of each scholar that shall be included within the above description, and that 
has been actually schooled the full term of 3 mouths in the preceding year, but no 
scholar shall be entitled to more than 4 pence per week for the time that he or she 
has been actually schooled. 

Art. VI. That it be recommended to the several districts in said town, that each 
one appoint some proper person to appear in their behalf and draw the money that 
shall fall to the share of his district, annually, and receipt the same. 

Art. VII. That no district be entitled to draw any of the public money, on 
account of schooling, except the teacher of the school has been actually examined 
and approbated by a committee appointed by the town for that purpose. 

THE STATE NORMAL SCHOOLS.^ 

A proper guardianship of the schools implies provision for the 
proper education of teachers not less than the superintendence of their 
work. The measures lately adopted by the State for the establish- 
ment and maintenance of normal schools are her answer to a popular 
demand for better teachers. That demand was not in consequence of 
a sudden or a late perception, nor is the answer given a quite recent 
discovery. 

Jacob Eddy, the Quaker town clerk of Danby, “taught a select 
school” during the years 1785 to 1788 “ expressly for the purpose of 
training young men for the vocation of teaching.” ® 

In 1814 Mrs. Emma Willard began her school for ladies in Middle- 
bury, where it was continued five years. Mrs. Willard afterwards 
characterized this as the period “when I began specially to prepare 
pupils for teachers. ” 

Yet we are accustomed to refer to the Concord Academy, an enter- 
prise begun by Rev. S. R. Hall, LL. D., as the first school for teach- 
ers established in Vermont. In March, 1823, Mr. Hall, having just 
been settled as pastor of the Congregational Church in Concord, began 
in his own house a school for teachers. A commodious building was 
soon erected, and November 5, 1823, Concord Academy was incorpo- 
rated, with Rev. S. R. Hall and seven others, inhabitants of Concord, 

' In the preparation of the paper on normal schools assistance has been rendered 
by Mr. Joseph A. DeBoer. 

“ History of Danby, pp. 70 and 138; Vt. Hist. Mag., vol. 3, p. 621. 

® History of Middlebury, p. 395. 



204 



HISTORY OP EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 



as a board of trustees. November 17, 1825, Concord Academy was, 
by an amendatory act of the legislature, declared to be a county gram- 
mar school. In this school so originated and so incorporated “ a 
course of study was arranged and teachers’ classes formed during the 
first year,” but during the second a regular normal school course was 
instituted. Here “he admitted a class of young pupils, as well as of 
those more advanced; the former rather as a model school, in the 
instruction of which he intended to illustrate to those intending to 
become teachers both how children should he governed and instructed.” 
After seven years’ service Mr. Hall left the Concord Academy, of 
which we hear no more as a school for teachers.^ 

In 1840 we find a teacher department with a three years’ course of 
study in Craftsbury Academy.’* This also was organized by Mr. Hall, 
who in that year returned to V ermont from labors in Massachusetts 
and in New Hampshire. Mr. Hall was principal of this academy for 
six years, and afterwards, for several years, gave lectures to the 
students on the art of teaching. 

In 1847 a normal school and teachers’ institute was begun at Brat- 
tleboro by Rev. Addison Brown, then county superintendent of com- 
mon schools for Windham County. After about two years the school 
was closed. 

At this time the formation of teachers’ classes in the academies had 
become very general and has been continued in the best of them to 
the present time, with good results. In the St. Johnsbury Academy, 
then in charge of Mr. James K. Colby, more attention was bestowed 
upon the preparation of teachers than was common in other schools, 
and for several years the organization of a teachers’ department as a 
permanent and prominent branch of the institution was a favorite 
object with Mr. Colby. His death, in 1866, prevented the accomplish- 
ment of the purpose. 

In the fall of 1856 an attempt was begun in Royalton to establish a 
school for teachers, but after a few years the effort at that place was 
relinquished, to be renewed in 1861 in the Orange County Grammar 
School at Randolph. 

RANDOLPH NORMAL SCHOOL. 

Principal Edward Conant can truly be called the father of Vermont 
normal schools. He was the last principal of the Orange County 
Grammar School and as such exerted his influence to establish a nor- 
mal school in its place. In this he was successful, the trustees voting 
in 1866 to make it a training school for teachers. The same fall the 
legislature passed an ordinance placing it under State patronage and 
control. 

^Vt. Hist. Gazetteer, Vol. I; Barnard’s Am. Jour, of Ed., Vols. V, XV, and XVI. 
^Thomson’s Vermont, Barnard’s Am. Jour. Ed., Vol. V. 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOLS. 



205 



Several of the leading educators had been agitating the question for 
several years, but had met with small encouragement from the people 
and the trustees of the county schools. Normal schools had been in 
successful operation in other States for some years, but notwithstanding 
that fact they were looked upon with distrust. There was a pressing 
need, howevei', of a school in which teachers could be trained better 
than in the academy and county schools. Something was needed which 
should give teachers a strictly professional training, teach them meth- 
ods and educate them in the principles which underlie successful teach- 
ing. To meet this demand the Randolph Normal was founded. 

A history of the school is, strictly speaking, a biograph}^ of Professor 
Conant. The catalogues and normal register give that as well as the 
lives of Mr. Leavenworth and Mr. Edson. I will not concern myself 
with them, but go on to speak more particularly of methods and results. 

Normal schools naturally divide themselves into three groups: Those 
whose work is chiefly academic, i. e. , aim to secure scholarship in the 
branches taught; those whose main effort may be styled apprentice 
work, for they undertake to give their graduates the largest possible 
amount of actual teaching; and finally those which seek to give their 
graduates a scientific basis of practical pedagogical knowledge, not 
neglecting the other things just mentioned. This school belongs to 
the last class. 

The first course of study is of two years’ duration, and includes 
school discipline, education, psychology, and pedagogics. The study 
of methods is introduced at the beginning of the course to help the 
student recognize and arrange such knowledge of the subject as he has 
gained by observation and experience as pupil and teacher, to interest 
him in pedagogic literature and in the methods actually used in this 
school. Teaching exercises are used through the course, and for a 
portion of the last term classes of children are taught by the pupils 
under the direction of the teacher of methods. The foundation of 
pedagogics is sought in psychology, which, with review and applica- 
tion, extends through three-fourths of the second year. 

Graduates from the first course who have in addition one term of 
the second course are fitted for the scientific courses in all our colleges. 
For six years students have gone to colleges each year. The corps of 
instructors consists of principal and 4 assistants. Two of the assist- 
ants have taught four years in the school, one six, and one eight. 
Mr. Conant was state superintendent of schools from 1874 to 1880, 
and principal of the Johnson (Vt.) Normal School for the four 
years following. When he returned to the school in 1884, he found 
it somewhat diminished in numbers. The first year he devoted chiefly 
to a study of the situation which resulted in a detei-mination to raise 
the standard of the school and make it more distinctly professional in 
its work. In the fall of 1885 this was vigorously begun. One result 



206 



HI8TOBY OF EDFCATlOlSr IN VEKMONT. 



was that, for the fall term of 1886, the entire enrollment of students 
was only 33. This, however, neither defeated nor hindered the main 
purpose. Steadily the number of students has increased, though the 
standard has been maintained to the full. 

The following table shows clearly the relative increase: 





1886. 


1887. 


1888. 


1889. 


1890. 


Springr 




67 

42 


73 

49 


68 

69 


96 

87 


Fall 


33 


— ■ . 



Following are some summaries which are instructive as showing the 
number of graduates and measuring the influence of the school: 

During the years from 1867 to 1874, 253 students ivere graduated 
from the first course and 36 from the second. During Mr. Leaven- 
worth’s adminisD-ation, 1874-1879, there were 202 graduates in the first 
course and 35 in the second, and during Mr. Edson’s 180 and 32, 
respectively. Up to 1884 there had been 738 graduates in both 
courses. In 1885 these graduates are reported to have given a total 
service as teachers of 4,672 terms. 

The catalogue for 1891 summarizes the attendance as follows: 
Number of students, fall term of 1890, 87; spring term, 1891, 103; first- 
course graduates, 25; second-course graduates, 6. From February, 
1867, to July, 1891, the number of admitted students was 1,926; the 
number of first-course graduates, 839; second-course graduates, 128; 
total, 967. Since 1884, therefore, Mr. Conant’s second administration 
represents a total of 229 graduates, 204 and 25, respectively, in the 
first and second course. 

Each town is entitled to one scholarship, and may have more, not 
exceeding ten. A scholarship pays the tuition of one student. Can- I 
didates for scholarships must be at least 15 years of age, of good 
moial character, residents of the State, must declare their intention 
to complete a course of study in the normal school and to teach in the 
State two years after graduation, must be recommended by the county 
supervisor of the county in which they reside, on entering the school 
must pass the required examination, and must attend the school with- 
out interruption for a full term of twenty weeks. 

For admission to the first course candidates must pass satisfactory 
examinations in reading, spelling, penmanship, arithmetic, geography, 
grammar, physiology, and history of the United States. 

Holders of State or county teachers’ certificates or diplomas showing 
graduation from high school or academies may be admitted to the 
fiist course without examination. To enter upon the first course suc- 
cessfully , young men should not be less than 17 and young ladies not 
less than 16 years of age. 



STATE WOEMAL SCHOOLS. 



207 



The examination for admission shall he under the control of the trustees of such 
school and the State superintendent. The examination for graduation shall be con- 
ducted by a board, consisting of the State superintendent, the principal of the normal 
school, and a practical teacher, who shall be annually appointed by the governor 
from the Congressional district in which such school is located. 

Such board is empowered to grant certificates of graduation to all 
who pass the required examination in the first course or in both courses, 
but they also have power to “ revoke said certificates upon cause 
shown.” 

The courses of stud}^ consist, for tne first course, of geometry, school 
discipline, English, botany, physiology, algebra, drawing, education, 
arithmetic, psychology, geography, pedagogics, history of United States 
and civics, mental arithmetic twice a week through the first year, pen- 
manship and phj^sics, each once a week, gymnastics, and vocal music. 
This course extends through two years of two terms each. 

The second course, of one and one-half 3 ^ears, includes algebra, geome- 
tiy, rhetoric, Thomson’s Seasons, phy.sics, general history, history of 
education, Bacon’s Essaj^s or Milton’s Paradise Lost, English litera- 
ture, astronomy^ and moral philosophy. 

The terms are 20 weeks each. 

The second course follows the first, and its methods are adapted to 
the larger knowledge and higher culture of the students. 

Candidates for graduation must have been pupils in a Vermont State 
normal for one full school year. 

They must be recommended as being prepared for graduation, to 
the examining committee, by the principal of the school at which they 
complete the course of study. 

Their moral character must be approved by the principal and bj^ the 
president of the board of trustees of the school. 

Candidates for graduation from the second course must have passed 
a satisfactorj' examination in the first course. 

The tuition fee is $12 per term; reading room 25 cents, and the fee 
for text-books $1 per term. The entire cost of board, books, and 
stationery for twenty weeks is usually less than $80. 

In July and August, 1875, the trustees enlarged the building to 
double its previous capacity by an expenditure the basis of which 
was a subscription raised among the friends of the school. 

The school has a philosophical apparatus sufficient for illustration of 
the fundamental principles in natural philosophy and to some extent 
in chemistry. It has a well selected and finely arranged cabinet of 
minerals and rocks, and a choice botanical collection, together with 
some natural-history specimens. These are all of a character to be 
used in the dailj- recitations in the subjects to which they relate, and 
have been proved to be very valuable helps. 

There are two libraries proper, one belonging to the town of Ran- 
dolph, held in trust for manj^ years by the Orange County Grammar 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOLS. 



209 



Mr. Edson remained from 1879 to 1884, and made the school more 
than ever before a training school for teachers. He is now one of the 
agents of the State board of education in Massachusetts. 

Hon. Edward Conant, the first and present principal, is thus pleas- 
antly remembered by one of his former pupils: What seems to have 
been the essence of his mental teaching Avas “a reverence for exact 
truth exactly stated, and few who have seen it will ever forget his per- 
sistence as he insisted upon accurate answers. Few minds that touched 
his did not take upon themselves habits of looking sharply at every 
statement, and weighing well every word. This was our most valua- 
ble acquisition from the class room— a method of doing rather than an 
overtaxed memory. * » * For the positive, aggressive influence, 

Mr. Conant generated in his study and in his rambles across the fields 
and up the rugged hillsides a spiritual and mental power that gave an 
impetus to the heaviest mind, a motion of accuracy to the most vague, 
a determination to the most vacillating, an ideal so noble and so pure 
that it made itself seen and felt by the blindest and grossest in the 
circle of its influence. How many who read these words will feel that 
they but half express what the man was to them, as he lived before 
them ‘ each day as if it contained all the days that had been and all 
that were to be.’ Of the strength of his presence in the community 
as well as in the school much might be written. The record is kept in 
the hearts of the people.” 

Hm instructions to large bodies of teachers in county and State con- 
ventions, his advice and recommendations printed in public reports, 
have probably exercised a more direct influence for good than those of 
any other man in the State, unless it was J. S. Adams, of Burlington. 

THE NORMAI. SCHOOL AT JOHNSON. 

Mr. S. H. Pearl, the last principal of the academy, and the first of 
the normal school, was a “man of mark.” He came in the fall of 1863, 
bringing into the school a fund of enthusiasm, of new methods and 
ideas, which did not fail to impress themselves upon the public in gen- 
eral, as well as upon his own special pupils. It was largely through 
his influence that the normal school was located at Johnson, and the 
building fitted to receive it, which was done in three and a half years 
after his coming. He graduated nine classes from the normal school, 
and it is safe to say that never will one of his graduates forget him or 
cease to bless his memory. He so impressed his personality upon his 
pupils, and made them feel the greatness of their responsibility in the 
vocation for which they were fitting, that life assumed a new meaning 
and depth to many a young mind and heart. 

Mr. Pearl worked well, but not wisely for himself, perhaps exem- 
plifying his favorite maxim, “It is better to wear out than to rust 
out;” but those who wished for him a long career of usefulness 
3177 14 



210 



HISTORY OF EHUCATIOX IN VERMONT. 



%Yould rather he had been content to have rusted a little, if need be, 
than to have worn out so prematurely. In 1871 he went to the normal 
school in Plymouth. X. H., where he was as deservedly popular; but 
his work was short, closing in death August 1, 1873. 

The second normal school principal was Mr. C. D. Mead. He was 
born at Essex, A. Y.. graduated at Middlebuiy College, began his work 
as an educator in AYestport, N. Y., and came to Johnson in 1871. Prior 
to this engagement Mr. Mead had also taught in Middlebury, in 
Malden, Mass. , and for live years in an academy at Maquoketa, Iowa. 
Returning East, he taught for nine years in Swanton, then one j’ear 
in the normal school, and thereafter became principal of the Middlebury 
High School. Mr. Mead enrolled 11 first-course graduates and 3 from 
the second course. He was assisted at Johnson by Miss Anna L. Oakes, 
a graduate of the institution. Miss Oakes was also elected for- eleven 
successive years as a teacher of the Aliddlebury Grammar School and 
returned to Johnson in 1881 as a teacher of mathematics. 

From 1872 to 1875 Harlan S. Perrigo, A. M., acted as principal of 
the school. During this period the school improved in its methods 
and results and gained in public favor. The number of graduates from 
the first and second course was, respectively, 32 and 5. During 1875- 
1881 the principal was AVilliam. C. Crippen, a native of AYest Rutland. 
He graduated from the second course of the Randolph Xormal School 
in January, 1875, and at once went, as principal, to Johnson. Air. 
Crippen’s native talent manifested itself in a variety of activities 
introduced into school work, which resulted in a consequent increase 
in attendance of 300 per cent. The death of his wife in 1880 led to 
his resignation. The assistant teachers during Air. Crippen’s admin- 
istration were all graduates of either the Randolph or Johnson normal 
schools. There were 113 graduates from the first course and 19 from 
the second. 

The fifth principal was Edward Conant. A. AI., 1881-1884, an 
extended notice of whom has already been given. He succeeded, with 
the aid of Rev. A. A. Smith, president of the board of trustees, in 
not only regrading the village schools, but in so arranging the studies 
in them as to make them fitting schools for the normal. Air. Conant 
also took the primary department of the district school for a model 
school in connection with the normal. It hardh' needs to be added 
that his work in this school was of a high order and went straight to 
accomplishing the objects he thought were needed. The standard of 
the school was advanced. Alore was required of the pupil to enter 
the school and more to graduate. The increased requirements for 
admission and the lengthened course occasioned the loss of some stu- 
dents, but he considered the benefits to be derived from the change 
would more than compensate for the loss. It gave a better class of 
students to work upon, and the increased i-equirements for graduation 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOLS. 



211 



guaranteed to the piddie that the graduates were more thoroughly 
fitted for their work. 

The graduates of this ijeriod were 11 from the former fii-st course, 
2 from the former second course, and 30 from the revised first 
course. Ikir. Conant, in his I’eport for the three years ended June 30, 
1881, gave as the number of difierent pupils 233; average age of 
students, 18.8 years; number of Vei-mont counties represented. 10; 
number of Vermont towns represented, 58. He also reported progress 
in these directions: The attendance had become more regular, the prac- 
tice of entering for partial terms having nearly ceased; the work had 
become more strictly professional, and hence the school was more 
sought by teachers; the means of the school to help teachers had been 
increased. 

The sixth and present principal of the school is A. H. Campbell, 
Ph. D. Dr. Campbell was born in New Hampshire, attended the 
Nashua High School and New London Academy, graduated from the 
Bridgewater, Mass., Normal School in 1870, from Mount Vernon 
Academy in 1872, and from Dartmouth College in 1877. After grad- 
uation he was principal of the Kingston, N. H., Academy for three 
years, was associate principal of Cushing Academy, Ashburnham, 
ilass., for five years, and in 1881 took charge of the normal school at 
Johnson. Dr. Campbell’s administration has been characterized bv a 
steady increase in the requirements for admission bj^ an advancement in 
the standard of scholarship and by an increase in the amount of strictly 
professional work demanded. The model school, consisting of the vil- 
lage primary school, has been maintained in successful operation, all 
students being required to spend several weeks in teaching and gov- 
erning the school. “Classes are received from the uppei- grade of 
the A'illage school and taught by members of the graduating class under 
the supervision of the normal teachera, so that the minimum practice 
of each graduate in teaching during the last two terms is one hour per 
day for twenty weeks.” By vote of the district in 1889, all of the vil- 
lage schools were placed in charge of the normal school principal to 
be used as training schools. 

In his report to the State superintendent of schools for the two years 
ending June 30, 1886, Mr. Campbell writes: 

Tile whole aim of the school has been to prepare teachers for this work, and no 
lalxir or pains have been spared to accomplish this end. The reading room contains 
all the best journals on popular education, besides daily and weekly papers and 
scientific and popular magazines. In the library is a complete pedagogical outfit, 
more than 300 volumes having been added in the last two years. 

In addition to the full complement of assistant teachers during Mr. 
Campbell’s administration, Joel Allen, M. D., has for several j-ears 
lectured to the schools on jDhysiology, hygiene, and anatomy, and 
T. J. Boynton, now of Montpelier, on civil government. The total 



212 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 



number graduated since the school was established in 1867, and up to 
June 30, 1890, was, in the first course, 112; second course, 31. Of 
this number 117 and 2, respectively, were graduated during the present 
administration. The general financial summaiy, made by Mr. Joel 
Allen, secretary of the board of trustees, for the two years ending June 
30, 1890, is as follows: Value of the school property, §6,000; income 
from county lands, §161.90; State appropriations, §5,928. Of this 
amount there was applied on scholarships §2,928, and on teachers’ 
salary §3,000. 

The library contains about 100 volumes, mainly books of reference 
and works of standard authors. 

The apparatus for the purpose of illustrating the subjects of 
astronomy, natural philosophy, and chemistry, though not so complete 
as could be wished, is now in good condition, and it is expected will be 
increased the coming j’ear. An excellent cabinet of minerals furnishes 
means for illustrating the subject of geology. 

There is a literaiy society called the Union Debating Club, which 
was organized in 1871. Since that time weekl}' lyceums have been 
held during the more largely attended terms of school. 

THE CASTLETOX NORMAL SCHOOL. 

This normal school is situated in a beautiful park of several acres in 
extent in the center of the village, and within convenient reach of the 
post-ofSce, depot, and churches. The grounds are justly celebrated 
for their beauty and the buildings are large and conveniently arranged. 
The normal hall contains a large chapel, recitation rooms, and cabinet. 
The boarding house is a brick building 3 stories in height, exclusive of 
the basement, and contains 52 rooms for students. The rooms are 
large, well-lighted, and in comfortable repair. All things considered, 
it must be admitted that no normal school in the State has better facil- 
ities for a successful work than this. The buildings were formerly 
the old Castleton Seminary propert}-, left in the hands of a board of 
trustees in trust for certain delined and specified purposes. Naturally 
the trustees hesitated to transfer the property held by them to the nor- 
mal school. Naturally the graduates, scattered the length and breadth 
of the land, some of them influential and prominent men — all of them 
clinging lovingly to the old seminary — bemoaned the decline and 
decadence of their alma mater. This sentiment on the part of the 
trustees, this feeling of the friends of the seminary, has caused the 
unusual spectacle to be presented of two distinct schools (from 1867 to 
1876) running under one I’oof and conducted by one head. Necessa- 
rily, inevitably, this condition of things has produced confusion, jeal- 
ousy, and friction. It became at last evident to the trustees that there 
must be a change — a revolution. It was a cpiestion of “the survival 
of the fittest” — and the seminarj" is no more. Though this action has 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOLS. 



213 



been reluctantly taken; though it may have been a grief to the friends 
of the seminar}^ at the time, yet now it is evident that the right thing 
has been done at last, and that never before had the normal school 
such hopeful prospects. 

Mr. Edward Conant, in his History of Vermont, page 186, writes: 

The Rutland County Grammar School still exists [though now as a normal school] , 
and is the oldest chartered educational institution in the State. At a special meet- 
ing of the board of education, held at Castleton, August 22 and 23, 1867, a proposi- 
tion made by the trustees of the institution to the board to make it a normal school 
was accepted, and the State normal school at Castleton was established. The whole 
number of first-course graduates from this school since 1867 is 348. 

The standard for admission, conditions of graduation, course of 
studies, etc. , are in this school very similar to those described under 
the title of Eandolph Normal School. The attendance during recent 
years has been as follows: 1886-87, 213; 1887—88, 185; 1888—89, 223; 
1889-90, 230. During the two years last named there were 52 gradu- 
ates from the first course and 12 from the second. Of the pupils 
enrolled during 1888-90, 297 represented 53 towns in Vermont, while 
18 came from New Hampshire, Massachusetts, New York, Michigan, 
and iVIissouri. The present principal of the Castleton Normal School 
is A. E. Leavenworth, A. 'SL, who has taken a prominent part in the 
history of Vermont education. He was born at Charlotte, I t., 
studied in the district schools, prepared for college at Hinesburg 
Academy, and graduated from the L niversity of V ermont in August, 
1866. Mr. Leavenworth had already had experience as a teacher 
before he graduated from the university. He had taught several 
terms of district school; he had acted as principal of the academy at 
Bolivar, Mo., and also for one year in the academy at Hinesburg, Vt. 
In 1862 he and one of his students were among the first V ermonters 
to respond to President Lincoln’s call for troops, and he remained 
in the service until June, 1865. He was acting assistant inspector- 
general of difi'erent troops at various times during the war, and held, 
at the time of his discharge, June 13, 1865, the position of acting 
assistant adjutant-general of the Department of the Appomattox. 
After the war he resumed the principalship of Hinesburg Academy'. 
Erom 1868 to 1875 he was in charge of the New Haven Academy, then 
well endowed, and afterwards rechartered under the title of Beeman 
Academy. From 1871 to 18(9 Mr. Leavenworth, as already stated, 
was principal of the Randolph Normal School, but in July of this year 
ill health caused him to resign this position. In August, 1881, he 
entered upon his present office as principal of the Castleton Normal 
School. 

The principals of the Castleton Normal School have been the follow- 
ing in the order’ of service: Rev. R. G. M illiams, Edwin J. Hyde, 
George A. Barrett, AValter E. Howard, Judah Dana, A. M., and 
A. E. Leavenworth. 



214 



HISTOET OF EDUCATIOX IN VEKMONT. 



The report of the trustees for the year ending July 31, 1890, reveals 
the following facts: For nine years the management of the school has 
remained unchanged; the number of graduates has steadily increased- 
it was 11 in 1881-82 and 34 in 1889-90, with an enrollment of 230 stu- 
dents.^ The receipts for 1889-1890 were as follows: State scholarships, 
Si, 026; private tuition, $2,899; State appropriation, $3,000; received 
through the h-ustees, $1,000; total, $10,925. Expenses: Salaries, board, 
and instruction, $8,200; advertising and insurance, $550; repairs, fuel^ 
and janitor, $1,220; incidentals, $662; total, $10,632. 

There is philosophical and chemical apparatus, sufficient for all 
necessary school purposes, in good condition. The library contains 
several works of reference, including an entire set of the ?^ew 
American Encyclojiedia. 

The Atvood cabinet contains several hundred geological and zoolog- 
ical specimens contributed by the late Dr. Atwood. 

BIBLIOGEAPHY OF EDUCATION IN VEKMONT. 

Bibliography of “V ermout, by Benjamin H. Hall, in Norton’s Literary Letter of 1860. 
Bibliography of Vermont, by M. D. Gilman. Published in Argus and Patriot, Mont- 
pelier, Vt., in 1879 and 1880. 

Education, in'Amer. Quar. Register, yol. 5, p. 283. 

Uni%-ersity of Vermont, by George IV. Benedict. Amer. Quar. Register, 1841, yol. 13. 
Origin of Teachers’ Association in Vermont. Barnard’s Amer. Jour, of Education 
yol. 1.5. 

Descriptiye Sketch of Vermont, 1797, by John A. Graham. 

The History of Vermont, by Rey. Hosea Becklev, 1846, pp. 207-208 and Chap XIX 
p. 269, et seq. 

The Early History of Burr Seminary, 1840. Amer. Quar. Register, yol. 13 pp 34-37 
Histoiy of Vermont, Philadelphia, 1850, by W. H. Carpenter and T. S. Arthur. 
History and Description of New England, General and Local, by A. J. Coolidge and 
J. B. Mansfield, pp. 727-728. 

Trayels in New England, yols. 2 and 4, by President Timothy Dwi<^ht of Yale 
College. 

History of Vermont, by F. S. Eastman, 1828. 

History of Vermont, by Zadock Thompson, 1833. 

History of Vermont, by Zadock Thompson, 1842 and 1853. 

A History of the State of Vermont from its Discoyery to 1831, by Nathan Haskins. 

A History of Eastern Vermont, by Benjamin H. Hall, 1858. 

The Natural and Ciyil History of Vermont, 1794. Published in 1809, by Samuel 
Williams, LL. D. 

School Journal and Vermont Agriculturist; first educational journal in the State. 
Hayward’s Vermont Gazetteer, 1849. 

AddresAs at the semicentennial celebration of :Middlebury College, August, 1850, 
by President Labaree, Rey. Joshua Baker, and Justus Cobb. 

For bibliography of the Uniyersity of Vermont, Middlebury College, Norwich 
University, and many of the seminaries and academies of Vermont, see M. D. 
Gilman’s Bibliography of Vermont, in Argus and Patriot, 1879 and 1880. 

\ ermont Historical Gazetteer, a local history of all the towns in the State, by Abby 
3Iaria Hemenway, 1882. 

Geography, History, and Civil Government of Vermont, by Edward Conant, 1890. 



bibliogkaphy of education in vekmont. 



215 



General Statutes, article “Education.” 

Annual Reports of the State Board of Education and of the State Superintendent of 
Public Instruction: 

1828. First Report of the Board of Commissioners. 

1846-1851. Annual Reports by the State Superintendent. 

1857-1874. Annual Reports by the Secretary of the Board of Education. 

1876-1890. Biennial Reports by the State Superintendent of Public Instruction. 
1875. Compiled School Laws of Vermont. 

1875. Report to United States Commissioner of Education, pp. 414-415. 

1876. Report to United States Commissioner of Education, pp. 391 et seq. 

Kiddle & Schem’s Cyclopfedia, p. 839. 

Barnard’s Common Schools and Public Instruction. 

Laws of Vermont from 1782. 

William’s Compiled Statutes of Vermont, pp. 140-158. 



APPENDIX II. 

Geokge Gary Bush, Ph. D. 

IX MEMORIAM. 

George Gary Bush, Ph. D., was born in the town of Turin, northern 
New York, March 19, 1843. As a boy he was noted among his mates 
for his quiet ways and studious habit.s. At the age of 16 he com- 
menced preparations for college, and in 1862 entered the \\ eslet’an 
University at Middletown, Conn., from which he was graduated in 
1866. In the autumn of the same year he was chosen principal of the 
academy at Attica, N. I . , and two years later he received a call to the 
Vermont Methodist Seminary and Female College at Montpelier, Vt. 
Here he filled for six 3 ^ears the professorship of Latin and Greek, and 
won for himself an enviable reputation as one of the best classical 
teachers in the State. During this period he was twice offered the 
presidency of the institution, but declined the honor. Eesigning his 
chair in the summer of 1874, he spent the next four 3 'ears in Europe — 
three in Germau 3 ’ in the stud 3 ' of languages, history, and archseology 
at the universities of Heidelberg, Leipzig, and Tubingen, and one in 
visiting the famous seats of learning and places of historic interest in 
the Old World, extending his travels to Egypt, Palestine, the Bos- 
phorus, and Greece. In the latter countiw, in compan 3 :' with Prof. 
S. S. Orris, of Princeton College (afterwards a director of the American 
School of Classical Studies at Athens) Professor Bush made extended 
foot tours in northern and southern Greece, visiting the ancient battle- 
fields, the sites of ancient cities, and other historic spots. Italy had for 
Mr. Bush a special charm, and months were spent in the stud 3 ' of its 
works of art and antiquities, and in visiting the ruins of the old cities 
and the localities that have been made famous in histoiw, legend, and 
song. 



216 



HISTOEY OF EDUCATION IN VERMONT. 



The editor of the present series met Professor Bush in his student 
days at Heidelberg in 1875, and was then deeph’ impressed with his 
sterling character and devotion to historical study under circumstances 
of ill health which would have deterred most men from continued 
study. Though manifestly suffering, he gave himself to academic 
work and scholastic duty as though he were a young man in vigorous 
health, with a long life and an active career still before him. In 
1878 Professor Bush received from Syracuse University the degree 
of Doctor of Philosophy. 

After his return to America in 1878 two universities invited Pro- 
fessor Bush to a place in their faculties, but his health had become so 
seriouslj^ impaired that he was obliged to decline. In 1880 he filled 
for a time a vacancy in the Latin chair at Middlebury College, but 
with this exception he devoted himself largely to authorship and to 
the preparation of articles for newspapers and magazines. Among 
his historical writings are: The First German Universities; the First 
Common Schools of New England; Harvai’d, the First American Uni- 
versity; the History of Education in Florida; History of Higher Edu- 
cation in Massachusetts; Histoiy of Education in New Hampshire; and 
the present monograph. History of Education in Vermont. 

In 1885 he was elected a member of the American Historical Asso- 
ciation. He was much benefited in health by his change of academic 
climate from America to Germany, and also by his life in Florida in 
winter time after he returned to America. For many j^ears he made 
Quincy, Mass. , his summer home, and devoted himself earnestly to the 
studj' of American educational history, making several valuable con- 
tributions to this series. He died October 15, 1898. The Commis- 
sioner of Education regards this place as fitting for a brief memoi’ial 
of Professor Bush’s useful and public-spirited life. 

O 



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