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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) 
International Open Access Journal I www.ijtsrd.com 

.-.-.-.-.-.-.-. -er 

* ISSN No: 2456 - 6470 | Volume - 2 | Issue - 6 | Sep - Oct 2018 ' 


Green and Light Weight Vehicles 
Power Transmission System Design and Development 

Rajesh CVS 1 ,? Janardhana Kiran 2 

1 2 

’ Assistant Professor in Department of Mechanical Engineering 
1 Vizag Institute of Technology, 2 Sanketika Vidya Parishad Engineering College, 
Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India 


ABSTRACT 

The learning on green vehicle was introduced and 
promoted to reduce the difficulty of air toxic waste 
caused by emissions of conventional vehicle. The 
Green mobility are vehicles with low fuel/energy 
consumption and low/zero exhaust gas emission, 
these vehicles are like hybrid, battery powered, and 
fuel cell electric vehicle that can be enhanced to be 
more efficient than the conventional vehicles through 
a new design and development of power transmission 
system. Power transmission system for green and 
lightweight vehicles consists of different components 
like gear box, propeller shaft, differential and final 
drive. In this review more emphasis is given to gear 
box due to some reasons: firstly, it is one of the 
heaviest component of the power train system and as 
a result weight reduction is critically needed to 
increase the efficiency of the vehicle. Secondly, 
gearshift takes place therefore, torque interruption 
needs to minimize. The outcome from the simulation 
software will be validated by investigational tests on 
test rigs. One way of minimizing fuel consumption is 
to reduce the weight of the gearbox by 10% reduction 
in vehicle mass can enhanced fuel economy by about 
to 7%. The dissimilar researchers confirm that to have 
high vehicle efficiency the type of the transmission 
they used matters. A vehicle using automated manual 
transmission (AMT) and dual clutch transmission is 
more efficient in terms of less energy loss and 
gearshift comfort. 

Keywords: Green vehicle, Light weight, Gearshift, 
Fuel consumption, Power transmission, Clutch. 

INTRODUCTION 

Global, regional and local governments are investing 
heavily in the development of green vehicles like 


clean electric, hybrid vehicle. Private and government 
sectors all over the world are searching for 
technological innovations that reduce costs and 
increase environment-friendly and low fuel utilization 
vehicles. Planning on typical weather change have 
been posing automotive industry challenges, as 
carmakers have to meet tight emission standards from 
different countries. Adapting green technologies will 
have the potential of reducing C02 emissions by 35 
million to 44 million tons from vehicles with IC 
engine. The cost and green benefit is an optimal 
solution for technology to improve the fuel efficiency 
of power transmission by lowering efficiency loss and 
decreasing drag torque losses in the transmission. 
Automobile technology has brought advancement and 
convenience to modem lives, but at the same time 
lead to serious environmental issues. A 
countermeasure has evolved to address against such 
problems, an automotive technology such as high- 
efficiency engine, hybridization, or weight reduction 
has emerged. In automotive technology, the term 
power transmission refers to the group of components 
that uses to transfer power from the engine and 
deliver it to the road surface, water, or air. The 
amount of torque energy wasted on an automatic 
transmission (AT) is due to its slipping nature of the 
torque converter applied in the widely-used planetary 
gear-type or continuously variable automatic 
transmissions. This disadvantage no longer exists 
when it comes to the manual transmission (MT), in 
which the engine and the wheels can be mechanically 
linked by the clutch. To date, electric vehicles (EVs) 
have employed single speed reduction gears for 
transmission [21, 22], However, to meet the required 
vehicle performance, such as the acceleration 
performance, the climbing performance and the 


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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470 


maximum speed, with a single-speed reduction gear, a 
traction motor with a high power and a high torque 
capacity is needed, as well as a high-capacity inverter 
to drive the motor. Expecting to improve the EV 
performance, researchers and designers are investing 
much of their resources to the application of multiple 
speed transmissions instead of traditional single speed 
transmissions. The detail advantages of two-speed 
transmission over single speed are demonstrated and 
reported work. The comparison between IC engine 


and EV in terms of torque and speed, IC engine is not 
capable of propelling a vehicle from rest on its own 
on account of generating low torques at low rpm, a 
torque amplifying transmission system is very much 
required, For such vehicles, transmission is also 
required to allow a vehicle to stop by disconnecting 
the drive and change the speed ratio between engine 
and wheels whenever required. 



Speed [rpm] 


Materials and Methods used: 

The recent methodology used for Developing of 
power transmission system for green vehicles in 
comparison with conventional vehicle. These days the 
design and methodology of power transmission 
system can enhance both in terms of efficiency 
increment and weight reduction. In order to get the 
target, showing the methods, how to develop the 
power transmission system for green and lightweight 
vehicle, is very crucial. 


This Research paper of discuss about numerical and 
experimental investigation of drag torque in a 
twospeed dual clutch transmission testing performed 
using a green vehicle powertrain with a two-speed 
DCT uses a methodology of Measured input and 
output parameters like speed and torque and oil 
temperature of DCT case and test rig operated at 
stable conditions (gear, speed, motor torque, and oil 
temp) for at least two minutes. 


Conventional Manual Design Process 


New Automated Design Process 



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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470 


Material Used for Green vehicle Transmission: 

The type of materials used has a significant effect on 
fuel consumption and weight of vehicles as a result 
many researchers agree that in every 10% 
minimization in vehicle weight can reduce fuel 
consumption by about 7% so designer and 
manufacturers spent more time on searching for 
materials that have lightweight and can withstand the 
required load. Power transmission system components 
comprise the heaviest system on the vehicle; 
therefore, weight reduction is more feasible in terms 
of fuel consumption [39]. 


To date due to environmental issues researchers are 
giving focus in composite materials due to good 
mechanical property. Vehicle power transmission 
components are manufactured from metal matrix 
composites (MMCs) that use filaments, whiskers or 
particles of high strength materials to enhance the 
properties of the base matrix in critical areas. A more 
ambitious solution is possible in the medium term, 
using polymer matrix composites (PMCs). 


Conceptual Design Steps of an 
Electric Vehicle 


“ Vehicle Parameters 
* Estimated Drive Cycles 


Modeling and 
Simulation 


■ Vehicle Perform arvee Criteria 


Traction Power 


* Modeling and 

* EuUIL.il > 

simulation 

Lf*0l 

" Supplier analysts 


GeDiriQtTical 

Constrains 


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Mod III cabana 
VfcTiid^ Body 
Design 



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" hii^yruiUuii ul R^-nerallve Bi-^K 1«n 

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Estimated Let pc-nrnu 


Estimated r^ngi? 



“ Fu rth-er Opbm iiadons 


COST, MARKET SEGMENT, PRODUCTION VOLUME 


Weight 


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p Light Weigh! Vehbde Body Design 

^ ^ * H^i rfr-MMii Liut 


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Elfictne Vehicle Conversion 


New Design Electric Vehicle 


The needs for high output, long life, and minimizing 
the weight of automobiles drive train and machinery 
are constantly increasing, necessitating further 
increases in loads to gear and drive system parts like 
shafts. To meet this demand, further enhancement of 
the strengths of the individual parts of the vehicle like 


gears, shafts are required. In response to these 
demands, a variety of attempts have been made in two 
aspects such as new material development and 
process improvement. 


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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470 


Li et al. [43] used pin-on-disc experiments to show 
that regular steel (16MnCr5) disks on powder 
metallurgy (PM) material pins, and PM material disks 
on PM material pins, had lower friction coefficients 
than regular steel disks on regular steel pins. On the 
basis of these results [44], investigated the gear mesh 
torque loss of regular steel gears and PM material 
gears. They found that running a standard material 
gear against a PM gear can improve the efficiency of 
transmission gears. Li et al. also investigated that the 
gear mesh torque loss of regular steel and PM 
material ground gears but the efficiency of super 
finished PM gear are unknown. The current 
technology shows little potential of gear weight 
reduction due to the trade-off between mass 
optimization and the manufacturing process. 

ZHANG et al. [45] Discuss about demand for cleaner 
steels increases every year. In addition to lowering 
non-metallic oxide inclusions and controlling their 
morphology, composition and size distribution, clean 
steel requires lowering other residual impurity 
elements such as sulfur, phosphorus, hydrogen, 
nitrogen and even carbon, and trace elements such as 
As, Sn, Sb, Se, Cu, Pb, and Bi. 

Qi Zhang, et al [48] evaluates contact fatigue strength 
of the gear; for that motor speed of 1440 RPM was 
maintained at 1000 Nm. Load clutch is carried by 


front shaft which is used to apply the load. The 
flanges of the load clutch are twisted relative to each 
other and bolted together for applying load and torque 
was applied by weights and load lever. 

Results and Discussion: 

The results and discussion of this review papers will 
discuss in this chapter. Their results are different as 
they apply different methods and for different 
applications. Bernd Matthes [20] discuss the fuel 
efficiency of various power transmission types in 
terms of fuel saving and comfort rating. As it depicted 
in Fig. (5) Below, the best fuel economy transmission 
is AMT which is even better than manual 
transmission. In addition to the AMT, the wet DCTs 
and dry DCTs have the highest efficiency as well as 
good comfort. However, if passengers’ comfort and 
driver’s preference are considered, AMT is not the 
first option for conventional vehicles which only 
contain one power source. Based on the combined 
factors, the DCTs are the best choice for conventional 
vehicles. 

Below figure shows the efficiency analysis and a 
comparison between different transmissions types. 
From the graph as clearly shown that the highest 
efficiency belongs to DCTs, especially the dry clutch 
DCT as stated in [49]. 



DCT tan get the 
iome shifting 
cojtj/ort of AT 

Total 

Efficiency{% 


19 % 


2Wt 21% 22% m 24*. 

Engine Efficiencyf%f 


25% 


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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470 


100 


£ 

B 


1 

1 

i 

i 


§0 

BO 

70 

€0 


50 





Below figure shows DCT Efficiency b/n Simulation and Test results with Input Torque 60 N*m 


m 

99 
58 
g 57 
S’ 55 

h 

m =u 


1000 


150G 


2DDD 


2500 


3000 


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Angular Spead in rpm 

Comparison of Working is b/n Single Speed & 2- Speed Transmission 


(a) I * 1 gear 


€ 

& 

r 

V 

m 


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single speed 

2500- t 


2500 


Twinspeed 

-r 


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2 

V 

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CT 

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1D0 


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TSB' 


Vehicle speed [kmlh] Vehicle speed [km/h] 

Upshift and Downshift of 2 Speed Transmissions 


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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470 


UPSHIFT DOWNSHIFT 



hlerlnc .SltfiiK liiruuL 1 

— TniE»n:nu'bli! Frktiusi Clutch 
Turquc 

' Sprac CluiLh Tuque 


l.lcvlra Mulur Speed 
— 1 n ilcar S pf'jd 
2 nd Gear Speed 


Comparison of d/t Gearbox for EV 


Type/ 

layout 

Ejiiil kopth 

1 speed 
Feasibility 

LfTirienry 

Cost 

Transverse 

Asia! 

Planetary 

coaxial 

o 

(J 

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o 

© 

Spur gearbox 
coaxial. 

o 

o 

© 

o 

© 

Planetary 

parallel 

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b 

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coaxial 

0 

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Schematic Transmission Operation in first gear (left) and second gear (right) 



Conclusion: 

The continuing demand for fuel economy 
improvements is forcing the automotive industry to 
reduce weight. The current trend towards lightweight 
design in automotive industry, also the weight of the 
transmissions has to be reduced. An optimization of 
the production process is necessary as well as the 


reduction of input material. Furthermore, reducing the 
weight and loss of transmission components can 
increase fuel efficiency and enhance greenness of 
vehicle. To minimize the drag torque the shifting time 
should minimize. Therefore, decreasing the gearshift 
time can enhance vehicle comfort this can be done 
with the help of actuators. 


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