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lie Global Newspaper 

Edited in Paris 
Printed Simuftaneoosl v . 
f in Paik, I^on, Zoridi, ■ 

I] Hong Kong, Sbmapore, J. 


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ENTERMAHONAL 


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V 31,985 



Published With Tlie New York Times and The Washington Post 


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PARIS, FRIDAY, DECEMBER 20, 1985 


ESTABLISHED 1887 



fugo Gutierrez of the PM- 
fHoe Supreme Court leav- 
tg the court Thusday af~ 
■r the court decided to 
phoMthe Feb. 7 ejections. 

J.K., Canada 
hdineRoh 
n Uganda 

By Blaine Harden . 

Washington Post Service 

NAIROBI — Britain ruled oat 
jrsday any partiripation of its 
. jps m a peacekeeping loot in 
Hida, and a Canadian official 
1 ii was unKkdy that Canadian 
ms would take part decile a 

— andan ceasefire agreement that 

b for the use of thar soldkrs. 

- ' i, ?he peace agreement, in winch 
government of Uganda farced 
:i-~“csday to share power with the 
d National Resistance Army, 
tided for soldiers from Kenya, 

rrst ilia, Rrjtam and 7**mvaHa to 

nvftcdinroUga&fc as a “moili- 
ng observer force." They are to. 
ervise the cease-fire and the (fil- 
ling of the country's various ar- 
„ s, according to the agreement 
rii4oth Kenya and Tanzania have 
-red to semi soldiers to Uganda 
a (he newly reconstituted gov- 
r. meat makes a formal requesL 
*■- lowever, a spokesman for the 
ish Embassy in Nairobi, Rich- 
", . Tauwhare, said, “There is no 
tr stion of Britisb involvement in 
"edee^ing, monitoring or ob- 
ring in Uganda regardless of 
*=.• it ihe peace agreement says,” 
Canada has not made a final 
• _ ; ision on whether it will partid- 
But a spokeswoman tor the 
.jadian Embassy in Nairobi, 
"\ Cronin Cosffte, said that 
\ : likelihood of '..ur taking part in 
forge scale peacekeeping force 
-■> idle low. Up to now our coro- 
7,.- nent to Uganda has been quite 
R" 

' ricish and Canarfian diplomats 
Urey were surprised and an- 
ed to discover that the agree- 
« it mentioned their countries by 
*' .« as contributing to the peace- 
•• ring force. 

Jfia thought we had made it 
r that we didn’t want to be 


By Seth Mydans 

New York Times Senior 

MANILA — The FhiHppme Su- 
preme Court ruled Thunsday that 
an early presidential election seifor 
Feb. 7 should proceed dsqrite 
doubts about its constitutionality. 

The derison, on a 7-5 vote, is 
widely bdieved to reflect the will of 
President Ferdinand E. Marcos 
and dears away a mqor obstacle 
that had raised doubts about the 
election from the start 

Opposition pefitidam, however, 
said they believed Mr. Marcos still 
bad several other options for stop- 
ping the election if be feared he 
might lose. 

The president said he welcomed 
tire opportunity to proceed with 
ejections. He said they would lay l© 
rest doubts raised by the “KbeJous 
propaganda” of Ins opponents 
about his own rnanrinte and the 
popularity of his government pro- 
grams. 

Salvador FL Laurel, who is the 
vice presidential naming mate of 
Mr. Marcos’s opponent, Corazon 
C Aquino, said as Ire campaigned, 
“Now the people can begin count- 
ing the last few days of the Marcos 
regime." 

The decision to go ahead with 
. the elections was bared as much on 
political as constitutional criteria, 
according to several of tire justices. 

“The court realized thar iisfaould 
not stand in the way of the people 
going to the polls,” said Justice 
Caiidio Teehankee. “The court lis- 
tened to the people and realized we 
are in a very critical period. I would 
say it is an act of judicial states- 
manship." 

He said the decision was reached 
although most of the justices be- 
lieved that Mr. Marcos should have 
stepped down from office to create 
a vacancy, as required by the con- 
stitution to have an election. 

In submitting a letter of resigna- 
tion Nov.l 1, Mr. Marcos stipulated 
that be would remain in office until 
tire winner of the election was 
sworn in. 

This would allow him to wield 
the powers of the presidency 
throughout the campaign. 

If he is the winner , he wiD resign 
his old office 15 months before the 
end of his tom, at the moment he 
takes office for a new six-year term. 

H Mrs. Aqumo vies, Mr., Mar- 
cos would by law remain in office 
for 10 days before the date of hex 
swearing-in. 

This 10-day period is seen by his 
opponents as a sensitive moment 
during which Mt. Marcos could de- 
rail the results of a vote that goes 
against him. One option might be 
to declare an emergency that would 
allow him to retain power. 

In 1972, be declared martial law 
one year before his second term as 
president expired. Under Phflip- 
jrines law he did not have the right 
to run for a third term. 

His critics also say that if the 
vote is going against mm, Mr. Mar- 
cos could resort to what one of 
them called “the normal cheating.” 

Another option that has been 
mentioned is a challenge to the 
constitutionality of Mrs. Aquino’s 
candidacy based on a 10-year resi- 
dency req ui rement prior to the 

election. 

Mrs. Aquino was in the United 
States from 1980 to 1983 during the 
period of sd/-ex3c of her husband, 
former Senator Benigno S. Aquino 
Jr. Mr. Aquino was assassinated in 
19S3 when he returned to Manila 



Gunman, Defendants Take Over French Court 

An tmkientifiedpMn hdd a pistol over the head ofahandcuffod magistrate, also unidentified, after 
an anned nan bant info a courtroom in Names. France, to liy to free four armed robbery suspects 
at their triaL A television team admitted at the request of the defendants filmed the scene. Page 2. 


Soviet Offers to Open 
Nuclear Testing Sites 

U.S. Rejects 
link to Ban 
On Explosions 


By Cdesribne Bohlen 

Washington Pott Service 

MOSCOW —The Soviet Union 
offered Thursday to open its nude- 


Size of Sudan Relief Program Hinders 
Self-Sufficiency , Some Officials Suggest 


batamed oo Page 4, Cot 5) (Conlamed on Page 7, CoL 1) 


■ By Jonathan Wright 

Reuters 

KHARTOUM, Sudan —A year 
after the world wake up to famine 
in Africa, Sedan’s capital remains a 
magnet for voluntary relief organi- 
zations with big budgets. 

But same .international and Su- 
danese' officials are beginning to 
ask if the. field is overcrowded. ' 
Some say that continuing tire huge 
aid 'effort of the past year might 
encourage too much dependence 
on outside help. 

No one doubts that nongovern- 
mental organizations have saved 
thousands from starvation or from 
cholera, malaria or other ill n esses 
— which the government of the 
former president. Major General 
Gaafar Nuneari, showed little incli- 
nanon to combat. 

“In fact,” a United Nations offi- 
cial said, “you could pot a volun- 
tary agency office in every village 
in the country and they’d have 
plenty to keep them busy for the 
nest decade.” 

Bui the official, Sam ir Basta, 
head of the UN Children's Fund 
office in Khartoum, said be 
thought many of the voluntary 
groups were under pressure to 
spend their money quickly. 

“There would be a hue and cry at 
home if they went bad: and said: 
‘Sorry, folks. It’s all over.’ Their 
image is at stake and they want to 
gain credibility," he said. 

Despite excellent grain harvests; 
he said, people in some parts of 
Sudan expect rood handouts to 
continue. This, he said, would de- 
press the price to farmers and un- 


African Experiment With Giant Fish 
Goes Awry, Poses Ecological Disaster 

The Associated Press 

GLAND, Switzerland — An experiment that once stirred hopes of 
a food bonanza in African lakes is out of control and threatens to turn 
into an ecological disaster, according to a report published Thursday. 
* The report, by the International union for Conservation of Nature 
. and Natural Resources, said introduction of the predattxy Nile perch, 
in Lake Victoria has vastly tfcduced other ^fish' populations and could 
be fatal tn the economy of hundreds of fishing communities in Kenya, 
Tanzania and Uganda, the three countries bordering the 

The fish, which can grow to six feet in length, was introduced to ihe 
region in (he late 1 950s under apilqt project backed, unong othere, by 
the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization. To support- 
ers, the project held the promise of a new, high-yielding protein 
source. 

Citing a study by Dutch scientists, the International Union said 
that since its introduction, fishermen’s catches were down by two- 
thirds. In addition, it smd, the program was wiping out the lake’s 
prawn population, “an essential fink m the food chain for many other 
creatures beside fish.” 

The report said it had become “dear that the entire introduction 
exercise was based on incomplete knowledge and faulty planning.” 
Despite the experience, it said, plans were under way to repeat the 
experiment soon in other large lakes of the region. 


damme die incentive to plant 
more in the future. 

Another UN official, who left 
Khartoum this month, said West- 
ern organizations; especially grain 
distributors, had grown accus- 
tomed “to pulling levers" and 
found it hard to adjust their strate- 
gies to improved conditions. 

He said the experience this year, 
when the people of Darfur prov- 
ince discredited predictions that 
they would die by the hundreds of 


thousands, proved that esrimatesof 
food needs for next year probably 
were exaggerated as wriL 

“You can’t even find 2.8 million 
people in Darfur,” he said, refer- 
ring to & government figure for the 
number of people who received re- 
lief grain in the province in 1985. 

Chris Edridge, operations direc- 
tor in Sudan for British charity. 
Save the Children Fund, admitted 
doubting tie extent of the fund's 

(Condoned on Page 7, CoL 2) 


don and renewed pressure on the 
United States to jom a four-month 
unilateral Soviet moratorium on 
nuclear testing. 

The offer was pubhsbed in the 
Soviet Communist Party daily, 
Pravda. 

[In Washington, the White 
House spokesman, Larry Speaker 
welcomed any move that would 
lead to reciprocal visits to nuclear 
testing rites, but rejected a connec- 
tion to a ban on testing, The Asso- 
ciated Press reported. 

[“They could come tomorrow if 
they, tike,” Mr. Speakes said. He 
noted that President Ronald Rea- 
gan had gutanriad an invitation to 
the Soviet Union to visit the U.S. 

test ate. “We will be glad to contin- 
ue to talk to them about on-site 
inspections, but as far as a morato- 
rium, we would not agree to h at 
this time.” 

[A U.S. official, meanwhile; said 
that the Soria leader, Mikhail S. 
Gorbachev, also the of- 

fer in a letter to Mr. Reagan. Mr. 
Gorbachev urged Mr. Reagan to 
approve a resumption of UJL-Sori- 
et negotiations next month to ban 
all such tests, the official said.] 

The Soviet offer, revealed m a 
Pravda editorial, addressed one of 
the key objections raised by Wash- 
ington to repeated calls from the 
K remlin to a joint halt to testing. 

On Aug 6, the 40th anniversary 
of the bombing of Hiro shima, the 
Soviet Union declared a unila teral 
moratorium on testing that was to 
last until Jan. 1 or longer, if the 
United States agreed to join. 

Washington rejected ihe propos- 
al, offering instead to exchange in- 
spection teams. The United States 
has held the position that without 
inspections, a total test ban would 
be difficult to verify. 

Thursday’s Pravda article said 
that the Soviet Unioo would accept 
an international verification sys- 
tem for checking unclear blasts that 
would involve special monitoring 
stations placed in third countries. 

It added: “The Soviet Union is 
prepared to go even further. It 
stands for coming to terms with the 
United States also on certain mea- 
sures of on-rite verification to re- 
move the possible doubts about 
compliance with such a moratori- 
um.” 

Weston diplomats in Moscow 
viewed the Soviet offer as the latest 
step in a campaign to pet a US. 
agreement to stop testing before 
the Jan. 1 deadline. 

‘‘This leaves the United States in 
a sticky wicket," said a Weston 
envoy. “Any counterargument is 
not going to sound as good." 

The Soviet move was also seen as 
a further sign that, one month after 
the Geneva summit meeting be- 
tween Mr. Reagan and Mr. Gorba- 
chev, the Kremlin was determined 

(Coathned on Page 7, CoL 4) 


ax Concessions May Backfire on Reagan 


By R_W. Apple Jr. 

New York Times Service 
ASHINGTON — Although 
on a big victory Tuesday in 
og passage at a tax-revision 
ure in the House erf Represen- 
s, President Ronald Reagan 
lave made it a great deal hard- 

NEWS ANALYSIS 

■ achieve a tax overhaul of the 

ic lias long sought. 

rite House officials expressed 
;.tt Wednesday that they bad 
’ - alive the issue that Mr. Rea- 
as repeatedly described as the 
- domestic goal of Us second 

. : w spoke of “Reagan hick” 
; ' .ing the president to refute 
7 wfao had seta the W1 as 
edia the House and seen him 
-nsnamre duck. 

. Reagan himyrff was trium- 
. ariong at a White House 
, ony. “what’s that 1 heard 
■ lame duckery?” and deder- 
‘Atnerica could /eel almost 
ue tax reform is in its grasp." 
. ^ the drive for tax revioco will 
u to imw wled political weath- 
1986. The Senate will act on 
bjea with the defirii-rcduc- 
. v about to take effect, and it 
iy to preempt a presidential 
between tax increases and 



NYT 


Bob Packwood 


Robert!. Dole 


Neither of the Republicans who will play a. 
key role in the Senate is known as an ardent 
supporter of Ronald Reagan’s tax ideas. 


debate wifi most likely take 
n the early stages of the 1986 
srioual election campaign. 
. .omrol of the Senate at stake, 
'm jousting will be Race, 
more candid of Mr. Rea- 
'■ aides said that the price paid 


for House approval of the measure, 
especially a letter he sent to Repub- 
lican members of the House, was 
probably higher than the president 
could afford. The letter set out -six 
minimum requirements for “a tax 
reform loll I am wiQi&g to sign." 

Among the criteria for signature 
were a top tax rate no higher than 
35 percent and a 52,000 personal 
exemption for all low- and middle' 
income taxpayers and thar depen- 
dents. The House bill calls for a top 
rate of 38 percent and a mi nim u m 


exemption of $1,500, nor does it 
meet the four other criteria. 

It will be difficult to push a mea- 
sure meeting those specifications 
through the Senate, even though 
Mr. Reagan’s party controls it . 

And it would be difficult to win 
approval to soch a Nil when it 
went to a conference committee 
whose House membership would 
be dominated by Democrats who. 
have gone as far as they care to in 
meeting presidential wishes. 

“The final boll will have to be an 


y' 


awful lot of things to an awful lot of 
people," said a White House offi- 
cial, “and I don’t sec how it can be 
written to please all of the people it 
wffl have to please:" 

Neither of the Republicans who 
will play key rotes in shaping the 
Senate version, Robert J. Dole of 
Kansas, the mqority leader, and 
Bob Packwood of Oregon, chair- 

- man of the Finance Committee, is 
known as an ardent supporter of 
Mr. Reagan’s tax reform ideas. 

Mr. Dole cautioned Mr. Reagan 
on Wednesday not to make his veto 
threats too sweating because that 
would commit the Senate to pro- 
ducing something that it could not 

- Confronted by a complicated 
partisan situation, the administra- 
tion derided to work with the Dem- 
ocratic chairman of the House 
Ways and Means Committee, Rep- 
resentative Dan Rostmkpwski of 

Illmois, toward a bill acceptable to 
moderates d both parties. 

Implicit was the notion that once 
the Senate got the measure, im- 
provements could be made with tbe 
help of the Repnhtioan majority. 

when rdxffious House ReptiWi- 
cans last week seemed to doom the 
bill, Mr. Reagan and his chief tax 
lieutenant. Treasury Secretary 
James A Baker 3d, were forced to 
take drastic measures. 

Mr. Reagan made the traditional 
appeal of presidents in such dr- 
aunstances, arguing that if he 

(Goatinned on Page 7, CoL 3) 

Reagan vowed to cut domestic 
spending, and Confess passed 
two landmark farm MOs. Page 3. 


.6 


live From the Vatican: 
A Plenary Indulgence 


By John Tagliabue 

New York Times Service 

ROME — The Vatican, in an 
unusual shift in Roman Catho- 
lic devotional practice, has said 
that Roman Catholics who fol- 
low the pope’s annual Christ- 
mas benediction cm television 
or radio will partake to the firat 
time of the plenary indulgence 
reserved until now to the faith- 
ful who are physically present 
al the service. 

In a single-page decree in 
Latin signed by the head of the 
Sacred Apostolic Penitentiary, 
Cardinal Luigi Dadaglio, the 
Vatican said Wednesday that 
improved electronic technology 

made possible the change. 

The ruling also applies to lo- 
cal bishops, who are permiued 
to impart the Apostolic Bless- 
ing to the faithful of their dio- 
ceses three times a year. 

The deration seemed to com- 
bine Pope John Paul ITs open- 
ness to modern technology with 
his deqp commitment to more 
traditional forms of Catholic 
devotion. 

The pontiff has overseen the 
expanded use of antfio-visual 
means by (be Vatican, includ- 
ing the sale of videotapes of key 
papal events. 

A plenary indulgence, ac- 
cording to Catholic teaching, 
represents a total release from 
the temporal punishment, on 


earth or in purgauxy, still due 
after a an has been forgiven in 
tire sacrament of penance. 

It is ordinarily conferred on 
tire faithful who are physically 
present at devotional practices 
with the proper intention and 
attitude. 

Tire practice of confening in- 
dulgences to devotional prac- 
tices was at the root of the Prot- 
estant Reformation and has 
been a centuries-old theological 
issue between Catholics and 
Protestants. 

The decree, dated Dec. 14 but 
released Wednesday, said the 
change was designed “to far- 
ther the regard for indulgences 


The decree said the decision 
was mattem response to numer- 
ous requests, “so that, just as 
the instruments of radio and 
television communication are 
employed ever more frequently 
and perfectly to diffuse the 
message of salvation ^ — by a gift 
of a providential God, who di- 
rects all things to salvation — 
so they may also serve to impart 
spiritual gifts, in as much as the 
nature rtf the gifts permits.” 

The decree said viewers and 
listeners hoping to partake of 
the indulgence would have to 
f ulfill the awe conditions as 
those physically present, in- 
cluding confession, communion 
and prayer. 



The AraracMd Ficu 

Bernard Lown, left, Hie U.S. co-winner of the Nobel Peace 
Prize, with Mikhail Gorbachev and a translator in Moscow. 


SDFs Military Impact: 
Defense or Provocation? 


By Charles Mohr 

New York Times Service 

WASHINGTON — The debate 
over the U.S. Strategic Defense Ini- 
tiative i$ increasingly shifting to 
aranmeots about the real military 
value of the missile-defense pro- 
gram, as opposed to its mere tech- 
nical feasibility. 

Would a space- and land-based 
shield against missiles offer mean- 
ingful protection to the United 

Weapons in Space 

Ibe Program, the Debate 

Lost of three articles 

States? Or, even if it were to be- 
come scientifically plausible, 
would it, instead, weaken U.S. mfli- 
taiy power? 

Most experts agree that present 
and prospective Soviet actions will 
bear heavily on the answers. 

But whatever those answers are 
they will be crucial to what Lieu- 
tenant General James A Abraham- 
son, director of the Strategic De- 
fense Initiative Organization -—the 
official name to the American mis- 
sile-defense research program — 
says wQl ultimately “be the most 
complex and complicated decision 
ever faced by an A me ri can govern- 
ment." 

And John E. Pike, a space ana- 
lyst for the Federation of American 
Scientists who is generally critical 
of the program, agrees. He adds, 
however, “It is roughly comparable 
to the Hayes administration's try- 
ing to decide if it wanted to buy an 
airforce.” 

In most cases, the exart nature of 
the Soviet response to SDI and 
when the response will materialize 
is still uncertain and under dispute. 

In Moscow on Monday, a Soviet 
military specialist outlined possible 
countersteps to turn US. space de- 
fense systems into “useless jnnk." 
The Pentagon had no immediate 
reply to Ins contention that Soviet 
countersteps, including dummy 
missiles and coaled rockets, could 
cost “1 or 2 percent" of the cost of 
an SDI system. 

In a recent interview. General 
Abrahamson said the “only re- 
sponsible” coarse, at least as the 
future looks now, is to the Krem- 
lin to seek countermeasures that 
might baffle, or at least degrade, a 
UJL defense. “They are certainly 
going to tiy," he said. 

One consequfflice of this, accord- 
ing to the general’s key deputies, is 
that an analysis is now bong done 
to ascertain how an SDI defense 
could be most threatened by Soviet 
countameasares and tactics. 

A new study of space weapon 
platforms is investigating whether 
their maneuverability can give 
more protection than hardening 
the weapons with protective armor. 
Another study seeks to find how a 
“shoot back" system meant to pro- 
tea itself from attack might work 
in combat. 

There is widespread agreement 
that the Soviet Umon has been con- 
ducting large-scale research on 
some advanced missile-defense 
technologies since the 1960s. Bat 
most experts in Soviet affairs and 
strategic issues say die greatest 
short-term danger is not Soviet em- 
ulation of the SDI program. 

They say a greater threat is that 
the Soria Union would elect to 
increase the numbers and striking 
power of its offensive missfle force, 
develop an array of countermea- 


sures and possibly create nation- 
wide, more traditional, land-based 
anti-ballistic missile systems, pro- 
hibited by the 1972 A&M treaty. 

At the summit meeting in Gene- 
va in November. Mikhail S. Gorba- 
chev, the Soviet leader, warned that 
if SDI is continued and deployed, 
the Soria Union would develop 
countermeasures that would be 
“effective, though less expensive, 
and quicker to produce.' 

Marshal Sergei F. Akhromeyev, 
chief of the Soria General Staff, 
said this fall that unless there was a 
ban on all SDI advanced research 
and testing, “there will be an un- 
controllable race in strategic offen- 
sive weapons.” 

He added, “If this process goes 
on we will have nothing to do but to 
take op retaliatory measures in the 
field of both offensive and defen- 
sive weapons.” 

Soon after President Ronald 
Reagan proposed the SDI concept 
in March 1983, saying his long- 
range intention was to make nucle- 
ar weapons “impotent and obso- 
lete," the administration 
recognized that a Soviet buildup of 
offensive arms in reaction would be 
a major problem. 

Senior officials have stressed 
that the administration's hope for a 
“highly effective" defense rests in 
considerable pan on a mutually 
agreed reduction in offensive weap- 
ons — a diminution of the nuclear 
threat with which future defenses 
would have to deal 

This does not. necessarily contra- 

(Continued on Page 5, CoL 1) 


INSIDE 

■ Hong Kong has regained its 
economic confidence, but 
doubts linger about the return 
to China in 1997. 


■ A forced Mack boycott of 

white-owned shops in South 
Africa has divided the black 
community. Page 4. 

WEEKEND 

■ Sydney Pollack, best known 
for big- name Hollywood ro- 
mances. has filmed Isak Dine- 
sen’s “Out of Africa." Page 9. 

BUSINESS/FINANCE 

■ U.S. businesses plan to re- 
duce their capital spending by 1 
percent next year, according to 
a government survey. Page 13. 


Kennedy Rejects 
Presidential Bid 

The Associated Press 

r BOSTON — Senator Edward M. 
Kennedy, who lost the Democratic 
nomination for president five years 
ago. said Thursday that be would 
not Seek the presidency in 1988. 

“I have derided that the best way 
to advance the values that you and 
I share— peace on earth, economic 
growth at home, compassion to all 
Americans — is to be a United 
States senator," be said. 

“1 know that this decision 
that I may never be president, but 
the pursuit of the presidency is not 
my life,” he said. “Public service 
k" Mr. Kennedy, 53, of Massachu- 
setts, said he would ran for re- 
election to the Senate in 1988. 


i i 


3 


r- 








** 


Page 2 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, FRIDAY, DECEMBER 20, 1985 


Cuban Defector Is Said 
To Have Had Access 
To Data on Arms Sales 


Soviet Censors a Poet’s Plea for literary Candor 


By Edward Schumacher 

New York Tunet Service 

MADRID— The Cuban defec- 
tor who was the subject of a foiled 
kidnapping attempt last week had 
inside knowledge about Cuban 
arms sales and purchases and 
about overseas military ventures in 
such countries as Angola, accord* 
ing to Spanish officials and to Cu- 
ban exiles here. 

Four employees of the Cuban 
Embassy tried to kidnap the defec- 
tor. Manuel Antonio S&nchez Pe- 
rez, in Madrid on Dec. 13. but they 
were foiled when bystanders inter- 
vened. Mr. Sanchez, formerly a se- 
nior economics official in the Cu- 
ban government, is being kept by 
Spanish agents in a safe house. 

The sources said that he held the 
rank of a deputy minister as a 
member of the State Planning 
Board and head of the state com- 
mittee overseeing the purchase of 
technical and material supplies in 
Cuba and abroad. 

They said Mr. S&achez had been 
a member of the planning board 
which oversees the economy, for 
nearly IS years. The position made 
him a man of confidence inside the 
government and gave him access to 
a variety of information, they said 
Officials said that Mr. Sfinchez 
first applied for asylum on Nov. 18 
in Zaragoza during a stopover en 
route to Eastern Europe on a pur- 
chasing trip. Some sources said he 
had applied for political asylum in 
the United States. The UJS. Embas- 
sy declined to comment. 

Nearly 70,000 Cubans have used 
Spain as a route to the United 
States since 1961, though most first 
moved to Spain with Cuban gov- 
ernment permission, according to 
refugee agencies. 

Mr. Sincbez’s decision to defect 
may be related to a recent upheaval 
inside the Cuban government, the 
sources said President Fidel Cas- 
tro switched planning ministers 
two months ago. It was not known, 
however, where Mr. S&nchez stood 
in the infighting. 

Anglican Envoy 
Said to Have Met 
With Kuwait Aide 

Rouen 

ABU DHABI — Terry Waite, 
the Church of England's special 
envoy seeking the release of four 
American hostages in Lebanon, 
had secret talks with a senior Ku- 
waiti official in Geneva, a United 
Arab Emirates newspaper reported 
Thursday. 

Jba a report from London, the 
Sharjah-based daily Al-Khaleej 
said the talks Wednesday dealt 
with Mr. Waite's efforts to free the 
hostages, whose captors are de- 
manding the release of 17 men 
jailed in Kuwait for bombings in 
1983. It did not name the Kuwaiti 
envoy. 

A spokeswoman for Mr. Waite 
said he was in London on Thursday 
and would be flying to Beirut on 
Friday, but sfie declined to give 
further details of his movements or 
his negotiations. 

Al-Khaleq said Mr. Waite, lay 
aide to Robert Runcie, the arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, met the Ku- 
waiti oil minister. Sheikh Ali al- 
Khalif a al- Sabah, on Dec. 3 in 
Geneva, where the minister was 
taking pan in a meeting of the 
Organization of Petroleum Export- 
ing Countries. 


In the kidnapping attempt Fri- 
day, four Cuban Embassy employ- 
ees seized the defector as he 
emerged from a bank here. Though 
two of the Toor bad drawn their 
pistols, a building guard intervened 
and asked for their identification as 
passersby gathered around the car 
into which a screaming Mr. SAn- 
chez had been pushed. 

The guard said in an interview 
over the weekend that a Cuban 
passport belonging to one of the 
assailants fell on the ground. The 
passers-by, along wills two taxis, 
blocked the car from pulling away 
from the curb. 

The incident has soured Cuban- 
Spanisb relations. 

■ Cuba Requests Extradition 

Cuba said it had asked Spain to 
extradite Mr. Sfinchez, Reuters re- 
ported from Havana. 

In a statement this week, the 
Foreign Ministry said, “The gov- 
ernment of Cuba has asked the 
Spanish government to extradite 
the criminal Manuel Antonio Sfin- 
chez Pfcrez so he can be tried under 
Cuban c riminal taw for stealing 
funds belonging to the Cuban 
state." 


By Philip Taubman 

New York Timet Service 

MOSCOW —The Soviet liter- 
ary weekly has published a heavi- 
ly censored version of a recent 
speech by the poet Yevgeni Yev- 
tushenko that called for candor 
and openness in Soviet literature. 

The version published 
Wednesday by the weekly Litera- 
tumaya Gazeta, a mam organ of 
the Soviet Writers’ Union, left 
out several major sections of Mr. 
Yevtushenko’s remarks, includ- 
ing all references to Stalin's 
purges, the evils of collectiviza- 
tion, the privileges of the elite and 
all but one comment appealing 
for an end to censorship. 

Although the editing did not 
completely obscure the bold tone 
of Mr. Yevtushenko's speech, it 
muted and blunted Ins com- 
ments. 

In an interview, Mr. Yevtu- 
shenko, an honored member of 
the Soviet literary esta b lis hm ent, 
declined to criticize the editing. 
He said the speeches of other au- 
thors at the congress of Russian 
writers also were published in ab- 
breviated form in the same issue. 

It was apparent even from the 
excerpts Mr. Yevtushenko's 
call for openness was echoed by 
other writers at the dosed meet- 
ing. 

Valentin Rasputin, a novelist 
focusing on rural themes, said, 



The editing left out 
all references to 
Stalin’s purges, the 
privileges of tiie 
• elite and the evils of 
collectivization. 


Yevgeny Yevtushenko 


“Our profession demands cour- 
age." He described every book as 
“the victory of a martyr who se- 
lects each word with great pains 
so that OHiscKQGe and truth 
should glow in it with a angle 
flick of pen and fate." 

A Western diplomat said, “It is 
dear Russian writers think a fa- 
vorable breeze is Mowing and 
they have raised their sails to see 
how far it will take them.” 

Mr. Yevtushenko said he had 
received many phone calls freon 
writers since his speech. 


“It has been a remarkable re- 
sponse,” he said. 

Literaturnaya Gazeta gave 10 


which took place Dec. 11-14. It 
excerpted speeches of SO writers 
and two muon officials- Most 
were the about the same length as 
Mr. Yevtushenko’s edited re- 
marks. 

The shortened version deleted 
Mr. Yevtushenko's comments an 
the privileges given leading Soviet 
citizens. Including the special 
coupons for souvenir kiosks that 
lie in the pocket of every delegate 


to this congress, myself includ- 
ed." 

Also cut were his references to 
collectivization, including the fol- 
lowing: “We do not have the right 
to nihilis tically forget the great 
firsts of industry. 

“But we also do not have the 
right to be silent about the fact 
that in those same years, contrary 
to Lenin’s legacy, the precious 
agricultural wisdom of many 
peasants, undeservedly branded 
foul nVs, was being crashed under- 
foot, and a merciless purge was 
.under way of the Bolshevik 
pmr tl, nf the best commanders of 
the Red Army the industrial 
cadres, of die leading representa- 
tives of Leninist thought.” 

Diplomats said the handling of 
1 Mr. Yevtushenko’s speech indi- 
cated that the Writers’ Union and 

other authorities were uncertain 
how to respond to the poet’s chal- 
lenge. 

Although writers and other in- 
tellectuals have expressed hope 

that Mikhail $. Gorbachev, the 

Soviet leader, would loosen ideo- 
logical controls an the arts, his 

views on the issue remain unclear. 

The party official responsible 
for ideology, Yegor K. Dgachev, 
has not offered much hope of 
liberalization in his speeches and 
writings. 


WORLD BRIEFS 


Woman in U.S. Given Artificial Heart. 

uMay Lund, 40. of Keusingloo. Mimesou, 



saaSsSBSgs 

use the new, smaller, mechanical pump as a “bndge, a spokesman sa*}, ^ 
pending replacement by a humaD heart. 

Sandinists Say Rebel Group Destroyed 

SS3SESSSSS3S 

with Costa Rica. — -native in Rio San Jan 


/ 


XU 


l!V 





Shultz Tells 
Of His Anger 
On Terror 


By Bernard Gwertzman 

New York Timet Service 

WASHINGTON —Secretary of 
State George P. Shultz has said that 
when he erupted in anger at re- 
marks by the Yugoslav foreign 
minis ter Tuesday, “I was very 
much really speaking for the Amer- 
ican people." 

At a news conference in Belgrade 
with Foreign Minister Raif Dtzdar- 
evic, Mr! Shultz, pounded his fist 
for emphasis and became red-faced 
after Mr. Dizdarevic seemed to 
suggest that the hijacking by Pales- 
tinians of the Achille Lauro cruise 
ship in October could be justified 
by the frustrations of the Palestin- 
ians. 

When asked to explain why he 
had been so emotional, Mr. Shultz 
said Wednesday on his air force 


mp? . 


U.S. Is Said to Be More Favorable 
To International Mideast Conference 


V- : 


George P. Shultz 


AP 


Shultz Rejects 
PotygraphTest 

Realm 

WASHINGTON — Secre- 
tary of Stale George P. Shultz 
raid Thursday that he would 
resign if ordered to take a lie- 
detector test under broad new 
security measures issued last 
month by President Ronald 
Reagan. 

Asked whether he would take 
such a test, he replied, “Once;” 
Asked whether be woald resign 
if ordered to take the test, he 
said, “The minute in this gov- 
ernment that I am told that I’m 
not trusted is the day that I 
leave." 

Mr. Reagan’s order of broad- 
er use of lie detector, or poly- 
graph, testing was disclosed last 
week, following a series of spy 
cases. 


plane returning to Washington: “I 
just want people to see that, in the 
United States, we fed very strongly 
about the subject, increasingly so. 

“So I felt that making an inter- 
jection at that point, I was very 
much really speaking for the Amer- 
ican people,” he said. 

Mr. Shultz said in Belgrade that 
“hijacking the Italian ship, murder- 
ing an Ameri can, torturing and 
holding a whole bund) of other 
Americans is not justified by any 
cause that I know of.” 

“There is no connection with any 
cause.” he said. “It’s wrong, and 
the international community must 
step up to this problem and deal 
with it unequivocally, firmly, defin- 
itively. Thou must be no place to 
hide for people who do that kind of 
thing ." 

Mr. Shultz has been a leading 
administration spokesman for firm 
responses to terrorism, and he said 
Wednesday that there was growing 
support in the United States far 
anti- terrorist actions. 

“I think we have done a lot about 
it, and 1 feel we wfil be able to do 
more." he said. 

The secretary said that there had 
been progress in intelligence-gath- 
ering on terrorists and on increas- 
ing security, but that it was still 
difficult to secure backing for “ac- 
tive defense," such as pre-emptive 
at radqf against terrorists. 


By Don Oberdorfer 

Washington Post Service 

WASHINGTON — A senior 
State Department official has indi- 
cated *h«t the United States has 
became more favorable to conven- 
ing an international conference on 
Middle East peace. 

The nffiwul, speaking on condi- 
tion that he not be named, said that 
earlier opposition had been tem- 
pered because of “a better under- 
standing today, in the region and 
hoe, about possible ways of put- 
ting” a conference “together so it 
would be a successful event” 

Giving a year-end assessment of 
peace prospects, he said the under- 
standing had arisen in part from 
U,S. soundings in the region, in- 
cluding the recent travels there of 
Assistant Secretary of State Rich- 
ard W. Morphy, the State Depart- 
ment’s senior Middle Eastern po- 
licy official. He is now back in 
Washington. 

Mr. Murphy and other adminis- 
tration policy-makers spent several 
months living to arrange a U.S. 
meeting wuh a joint Jordanian-Pal- 


estinian group as the first in a series 

of steps toward direct peace negoti- 
ations between Lsrael and a similar 
Jordanian-Palestmian delegation. 

Such a U.S. initiative was pro- 
posed by King Hussein of Jordan 
as the first move in a four-step 
peace process, but was never 
viewed with favor in Israel 
The official said the idea of a 
U . S.-Joidaman-Palesfinian meet- 
ing, w hich could have been a major 
move toward a more significant 
U-S.-Palestmian dialogue, has been 
“relegated to the sidelines,” 

He said drat is because it was 
“unnecessarily complicated” and 
because of U.S. concern that it 
would not necessarily lead to direct 
negotiations with Israel 
Neither the United States nor 
Israel accepted the Palestinians 
prop os ed by the Palestine Libera- 

tion Organization as participants in 

the U.S. dialogue. 

The State Department official 
said the broader problems of a 
U.S.~Jordaman-Palestiman meet- 
ing, rather than the difficulty in 
finding acceptable Palestinian par- 
ticipants, “riddined” the idea. ,■ 


Jordan, Egypt and several other 
Arab countries have been ca lling 
for an wmwmtfamd conference on 
Middle East peace as a central 
move toward begi nn i n g Arab-ls- 
radi negotiations. 

The United States and Israel 
have been reluctant because of 
probable Soviet involvement in 
such a conference, but Prime Min- 
ister Shimon Peres of Israel recent- 
ly accepted the idea erf an “intema- 
ti nnaT forum” as a step toward 
opening direct Arab-Isradi talks. 

The official's statement Wednes- 
day, while cautiously stated and 
carefully hedged, was the dearest 
public sign to date that Washing- 
ton was turning its attention to the 
idea of an international meeting, 
on condition that it lead to such 
direct negotiations. 

Although the peace process did 

not get off the ground as hoped this 

year, the official said, incremental 
p ro g re ss was made. He insisted 
that time has not nm oat on the 
possibility of starting Arab-Isradi 
peace talks. 


Hong Kong Perks Up 
A Year After China Pact 




Ce parfum qui fail rever 


■ • 

V-‘ - 


r: A ■' 









mm 







NINA RICCI 


By William Kazer 

Return 

HONG KONG — One year af- 
ter Britain signed an accord agree- 
ing to mum Hong Kang to China 
in 1997, the colony has regained 
confidence lost when u nce rt aint y 
over its future sent shock waves 
through its economy. 

But businessmen and political 
analysts said the gams could be 
ondammed by different views on 
Hong Kong’s future political sys- 
tem and the pace of refanns. 

They also said China's state- 
ments on the colony have threat- 
ened the tenitory’s political and 
cconounc health. 

There are still people with grave 
doubts that could continue until 
1997," said TX. Trim, lecturer in 
politics at Hong Kong’s Chinese 
University. “If China miscalcu- 
lates, people will leave and money 
will leave? 1 

In late 1983 and early 1984, the 
property market collapsed. Since 
then, prices have rebo und ed. 

The stock market has surged, 
with the Hang Seng index reaching 
1,76151 early last month, up from 
a low of 746 in July last year. 

More than six billion Hong 
Kong dollars ($769 million) has 
been committed this year to long- 
term investment projects. 

But concerns linger one year af- 
ter Prime Minister Margaret 
Thatcher of Britain and Prime 
Minis ter Zh an Ziyang of Chinn 
' ;ned the accord- that gives Hang 
,-jng 50 years of a high degree of 
autonomy after its room to Qrina. 

“We’re treading a road that is 
unknown to ns; Britain and China 
don't know,” said James McGre- 
gor, director of the Hong Kong 
General Chamber at Commerce. 

He said recent statem e nts by 


Bey ing have disturbed the business 
community. 

Those concerns were rela yed 
during a recent meeting with the 
head of China 's Hong Kong and 
Macao Affairs Office; Jx Peugfd, 
»ii» hig hest ranking Qnncsc official 
to visit Hong Kong since 1949. 

One statement mat aroused con- 
cern was a wanting last month on 
the pace of political reforms by Xu 
Baton, head of the Xinhua press 


Spanish Currency Arrests 

Ream 

MADRID — The Spanish police 
said Thursday they had broken up 
a ting of currency smugglers, led by 
a retired police officer and a busi- 
nessman, which had transferred 

700 million pesetas (about $45 mil- 
lion) out of the country. 


tarive in Hong Kong. 

He said there had been devi- 
ations from the Chineso-Rritirii ac- 
cord though he did not say 
what he meant, the rema rk s were 
widely seen as a reference to ejec- 
tions held for some seats an the 
Legislative Council in September. 

Tto elections were held indirect- 
ly, with only about 1 percent of the 
colony’s 5.4 ntilfioa residents al- 
lowed to vote. They were the first 
elections ever held for tbeiawmak- - 

“ti&A remarks sent the Hang 
Seng - index, the main measure of 
theHong Kong stock market, reel- 
ing for a 50-paint loss. 

It was an attempt to interfere,” 
yiid Martin Lee, one of the newly 

plprtfH i fw nhwt anA a VO- 

cal advocate of democratic re-, 
forms. . 

“Unless we have direct elections 
we wifi never have an effective and 
highly autonomous gove r n me n t to 
keep oar system separate from the 
rest of China,” be has told the 

wwirinl. - 

The latest concerns have 
emerged at a time when Hong 
Kong faces problems unrelated to 
its politics and beyond its control 

A sluggish world economy has 
hurt the export sector. Economic 
growth for 1985 is Ekdy to be a 
modest 4 5 percent, less than half 
of the 1984 level 

Manufacturers in developed na- 
tions have sought to restrict compe- 
tition from Hofag Kong and that 
has clouded the outlook for the 
economy.- 

Bui businessmen said these diffi- 
culties were not their mam cancem. 

Tm not worrying about these 
problems as we*ve seen them be- 
fore,” said a foreign businessman. 
“It's the fear of the unknown that I 

worry about.” 



UNIVERSITY 

DEGREE 


BKJfiOTS •MASTERS ■ DOCTORATE 

Far Wwfc, W mii am lr . Ufa Bq w ri nce 

Sand detailed mum# 
lor free evaluation. 

PAQRC WESTERN UMVBtSTTY 
MON. Sepulveda BiwL 
Lob Annetab CalHemtO . 
MM9. Devt. 23, U-SA. 


3 Gunmen 
Seize Court 
In France 

The Associated Press 

NANTES, France — Two rob- 
bery defendants and an armed ac- 
complice held a courtroom under 
siege here Thursday after chaining 
the judge to a chair, threatening to 
kill hostages and denounring the 
French justice system on televisioa. 

A high-ranking police offici a l 
from Paris and the local depart- 
ment’s prefect were negotiating 
with the gunmen, who were de- 
manding a bus to leave in. 

Tire takeover began when a man 

with a grenade and pistol disarmed 
a guard and burst mto the court- 
room during the trial of four defen- 
dants on trial for armed robbery. 

Two defendants, Georges Cour- 
tois, 34, and Patrick Thxolet, 24, 
jumped from tire dock and took 
357-caHber Magnums from police, 

. police sources raid. The two other 
defendants left the courtroom with 
hostages who were released, the 
sources said. Police identified the 
accomplice as a convicted armed 
robber, Abdel Karim Khalkl'30. 

The gunmen released six police- 
men just after taking over tire 
cou rt room. They later released two 
journalists and 11 law students who 
had been obseraing tire trial, ac- 
cording to accounts by police. 

- The number of people left in die 
courtroom Thursday was estimated 
at 16 to. 18. The hostages originally 
included Judge Dominique Bau- 
hache, lawyers, 11 jurors, court as- 
sistants and the students. 

Pohcermged the courtroom, and 
a police commando unit was dis- 
patched from Paris with Police Su- 
perintendent Robert Broussard. 

“If we have to kiH two, three, 
four or five people, or explode a 
grenade, be assured that it will be 
the police’s fault,” Mr. Courtcns 
warned on French television. An 
FR3 TV crew had entered tire court 
at the defen dant s’ request 

Mr. Khaflri raid he belonged to 
the AbuNidal extremist Palestin- 
ian. faction, but informed sources 
said Ire wax released in November 
from prison, where he served a sen- 
.teoce for armed robbery. 

“I wanttdgive the French spate a 
slap in the face,” a lawyer quoted 
him as saying. 


‘ h Tbe n £S£, forces haw been a rt fared °mofIW - 

.frritnrv " Mr Guevara said m a report to the govemmeuf m 

ir.^^^dcofMr.Pasreal^.Threh^bcar 

no reooris of fighting involving the Democratic Revolutionary Affiance 
for several momthsand no reports of Mr. Pastors, s whereabouts. - 

Officials in Papal Trial Go to Bnlgana- 

ROME (Reuters) — Three Italian court officials flew to Bulgaria on 
Thursday to interrogate two former diplomats accused of taking part m a 
olot to lrifl Pope John Paul IL .... , 

Chief Judge Severino Santiapichi, Fernando Attofico, the assistant 
judge, and Antonio Marini a public prosecutor, were «pected to spend 
three or four days in Bulgaria. They want to quration .Todor S. Aivazov 
and Lieutenant Colonel Zbdyo K. Vasilev, two Bulgarian diplomaiswho 

were posted in Rome at the time of the alleged plot and who have refused 

to return to Rome for txiaL . . __ . . ‘ 

Mr. Aivazov, Colonel Vasilev, Sergei I. Antonov, the forma-hcad of 
tire Rome office of the Bulgarian airline, and three Turkish defradratt 
are chanted with conspiring to help Mehmet AH Agca, the Turk who shot 
and seriously wounded tire pope in 1981. The Bulgarian government has 
denied any participation in the alleged plot 

B elfas t. Prisoner Starts Hunger Strike 

BELFAST (Reuters) — An Irish Republican convicted lof murder 
refused food Thursday, prison sources said. Others convicted with nun 
were expected to begin bunger strikes at weddy intervals. - 

Sources at the Maze prison said Robert Tohill, 26, had started whai he* 
said would be a fast to the death to protest his conviction Wednesday 
based tm the testimony of an admitted murderer. 

Mr. Tohill was one of 27 men convicted tm the testimony of a pdree 
informer, Harry Kirkpatrick. Mr. Kirkpatrick has admitted five mnram 
and of other crimes while a member of the outlawed Irish. 

N ational Liberation Army guerrilla group. Mr. Tohill was sentenced to 
life in prison for murdering a part-time soldier. 

Afghan Peace Talks Are Suspended 

GENEVA (AP) — United Na- 

tions-sponsored talks on apolitical 
settlement to end the war in Af- 
ghanistan were suspended Thurs- 
day after faffing to break a dead- 
lock over tire withdrawal of Soviet 
troops from the country. Soviet 
troops intervened six years ago. 

The UN mediator, Diego Cordo- 
wez, said four days of indirect talks 
between Pakistani and Afghan del- 
egations could not resolve an im- 
passe over the format of negotia- 
tions co the troop withdrawal He 
said be submitted new proposals 
for consideration by tire govern- 
ments before the talks resume in 
late February or eariy March. 

• The new round of talks had been 
closely watched for signs erf greater 
wifimgness on the Soviet ade to 
discuss the withdrawal foD owing 
last month's meeting between Pres- 
ident Rooakl Reagan of the United 
States and the Soviet leader, Mik- 
hail S. Gorbachev. Diego Cordovez 

U.K. Navy Is Said to Avoid New Zealand 

LONDON (AP) — Seven British Navy ships (hat are to embark on a! 
global exercise in 1986 will not visit New Zealand, which bans nuclear- ^ 
armed vessels from entering its ports, the Press Association reporta*-' 
Thursday. ... 

The domestic news agency, which did not identify its sources, said the 
navy was trying to arrange for one of the ships to visit a Chinese port 
during the eight-month tour, but had already ruled out ports of call in 
New Zealand. ‘ 

The British Navy never confirms or denies whether its vessels are 
carrying nuclear weapons. The United States follows the same poficy and 
the New Zealand ban has caused a dispute in the ANZUS alliance of 
Australia. New Zealand and the United States. 

For the Record 

A UJ5. Hack leader, Louis Farrakhan, who says he wants to bring hi* 
black separatist message to the world, has been banned from visiting 
Bermuda and addressing a rally two days after Christmas. (Reuters). 

The ZiuA a lww i police chief, Wiridzayi Ngrnne, has been jha fari 
along with two aides after an investigation erf alleged misconduct, Prime 
Minister Robert Mugabe said Thursday. fl/PF- 

A rebeBoa ended in a maxfaman secority prison at McAlester, Ofcfahc. . ■ ' 
ma, Wednesday when the inmates released seven hostages after airing 
their grievances on statewide radio. (APf 

The iamchnig of space shuttle CoJonbia was aborted 14 seconds before 
its first flight in two years Thursday because of trouble with a booster- 
rocket steering system. (APf 

An Ameri ca n cttfzen of Arab origin. Yen! Jasper Sayigh, was ordered- 
held in custody Thursday by a court in Lamaca, Cyprus, for suspected 
involvement in ah attempt to snuggle arms aboard a Swiss atrihrec 
Tuesday. ( Reuters ) 






TRAVELLERS REASSURED ' WATER 
IN BOMBAY SAFE TO DRINK'. 

— 4 

Based on his long and intimate acquaintance with 
Bombay our foreign correspondent writes : 

"Of all the things that people drink in Bombay, 
water has never figured prominently. 

- Most prefer Tonic in Bombay, Mar- 
tini in Bombay or Orange in Bombay. 

Indeed, anything that one would 
usually mix in Bombay. 

But, let me assure you, there 
is no need to stay clear, 
of the water. 

•• Those rumours 
which infer that 
water does not mix 
with this most 
distinctive of Im- 

g >rted London Dry 
ins. are well and 
truly ill-founded. ’’ " 


-f ’ 

jf •- 













ingress Passes Bills 
v ikely to Hasten Trend 
toward Bigger Farms 


_ i "V, • By Keith Schneider ■ 

' New York Times Service 

■ r , " /aSHINGTON — Congress 
' ' approved two treasures that 

r ; sther form thf: most sweeping 
• T".. ration in government fann po- 
. ■- since the Depression. 

* ! \^oogress also: passed a $370- 
on rate**!} appropriations bill, 
ring the way for it to adjourn 
rrjjj * the year, United Press Interna- 
r reported. ; The legislation 
. - r..''isday was needed to. provide 
... ling for majbr governmental 
' icies in the fiscal year that be- 
OcLl-i 

"**• - - he first of the two farm hills 
towed Wednesday would re- 
;,.e government income and price 
' peats to farnkss for the Erst 
- • ; since the progr am was estab* 

“ ' ed in 1933. The second would 
: c.. .-ganne the fajm credit system 
bolster it by allowing tbou- 
.-!|ds of fann foreclosures, 
ogether the measures provide a 
1 ji i f 1 . 11 Mworit f or agriculture, the laig- 
UJ «;UJSL industnfll sector, for toe 
.'of (he decade: 
lie farm bills would favor the 
v jsn producers: and are Hkdy to 
v. ten the trend' toward the pro- 
-rtiou of more of the nation’s 
' - d by fewer arid fewer farmers. 
: -<'wts agtee thai the trills are like- 
' ^. o result in a decrease of mare 
n 10 perceat in the number of 
.. tirican farms, to fewer than two 
t' : Bon farms. ! 

/he two measures are expected 
: ■ l-'iave profound political conse- 
nces, especially in the Middle 
« and Rocky Mountain states 
t„ I? « the fann crisis is most severe. 

~ 1 1 ^ .grtf-nttm e Secretary John R. 
,. ck said Thursday that Mr Rea- 
- would sign the farm legislation 
..'t week, thoi4h.it called for 
~ ‘ re spending than he wanted. 

_ -'lie architects bf the policy bill, 
.. . ‘ by administration officials, 
, .e insisted thatreducing govern* 
,'_H price and income supports 
rid bring farm support prices 
. • ier to world market prices. 

~ rackets of the [measure say this 
rid encourage sales of US. 
ducts on the world market. 

\ -v policy bill J also sets a more 
• 1# " a *res»ve course for developing 
c. w export maikbts for American 

in 

1 to $29 biUkm this year. 

Jm he bill, besides continuing $5 
on in miwbiIi loan guara n t e es 
S forei gn purchasers of U.S. agri- 
B jk. oral products, would, proride 
Wkf'Z.'-J) "»pHOp a year in subsidies to 
American grainexportersde- 
jkr ' -p newinteraaBoual maikets. 

.*s a rcsull,1)ackeis say, the cost 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, FRIDAY, DECEMBER 20, 1985 



of federal fann programs will be 
reduced and fanners win begin to 
regain export markets they - have 
lost in recent years.' 

‘the second bill- calls for reorga- 
nizing the Fann Credit System,- a 
nationwide network of 37 lending 

USL agnodtuzaPk^r, haTlttJ 
billion in outstanding loans to 
f annas, a third of the nation's $214 
trillion farm debt. ■ 

The Ml would authorize, but not 
require, the secretary of the Trea- 
sury to invest federal funds in a 
new unit created to take over bil- 
lions of dollars of delinquent loan s, 
seek to renegotiate with some bor- 
rowers and foreclose on mortgaged 
farms in cases where renegotiation 
is impossible. It is widely expected 
that teas of thousands of farms will 
be subject to foreclosure. 

The administration estimated 
Wednesday that the policy bill 
would cost $169 billion over the 
next five years. The commodity 
price and income support provi- 
soes were estimated to cost $52 hill 
over three years. 

■ Chemical Arms Funded 

In the negotiations between 
House and Senate conferees on the 
$370- billion appropriations btll. 
House conferees agreed Wednes- 
day to a Senate demand for $21.7 
mini on to begin limited production 
of chemical weapons after a 16- 
year ban, The New York Times 
said. 

Other remaining issues were set- 
tled when the Senate conferees 
agreed to cut the 1986 nriEiary bud- 
get by $13 billion, to $297.4 tril- 
lion, and the House accepted a 
$7,510 increase in the limits on 
honorariums senators can accept. 

The agreement restricts the use 
of $63 billion in unused military 
appropriations from past yean in 
an effort to counter arguments in 
the House thai the Pentagon has a 
“slush fund" to cushion the impact 
of cuts in the military budget. 

The House had rebuffed an earli- 
er version of the spending bin, 
which was needed to fund the de- 
partments of Defense, Agriculture, 
Transportation, Treasury and the 
Interior, the District of Columbia, 
and some agencies. 

Negotiators attempted Thursday 
to reach a compromise an 
key bin, the budget reconciliation 
measure, that would cut a wide 
array of spending programs enough 
to reduce deficits by $70 billion to 
$85 billion over three years. But 
Senate leaders feared the measure 
woald be lo6t in the rush toward 
adjournment. 





At 1 

v t 



-4- 

? , . 

m 







Mr. Reagan is applauded by Representatives Jack Kemp, Republican of New York, center, 
and Dan Rostenkowski, Democrat of Illinois, at a ceremony on the balanced-budget bflL 

Reagan Vows to Pursue Arms Buildup 

Domestic Programs F ace Big Cuts for a Balanced Budget 


• By Bernard Wdnjraub 

New York Tima Service 

WASHINGTON — President 
Ronald Reagan, pledging to main- 
tain his military buildup, h*« said 
that balancing the US. budget by 
1991 would require deep cutbacks 
of “wasteful and unnecessary" do- 
mestic programs. 

In his first detailed statement on 
the budget measure he signed last 
week, Mr. Reagan made it dear 
that be would seek to apply the 
brunt of the proposed restraints to 
domestic programs. His proposed 
budget for the 1987 fiscal year, 
which begins in October, will be 
sent to Congress in February. 

Aides said Mr. Reagan was espe- 
cially uneasy that the new law. de- 
manding five years of steady defidt 
reductions, was being viewed as 
ramprifing him to restrain military 
spending. 

His comments Wednesday, the 
aides said, were designed to affirm 
his commitment to a mflitary build- 
up as well as to lay the groundwork, 
for efforts to further reduce domes- 
tic programs. 

Mr. Reagan his comments 
Wednesday to more than 100 Dem- 
ocratic. and Republican legislators. 
They had supported the measure, 
which calls for lowering annual 
ceilings on the deficit, with auto- 
matic cuts in spading each ycar if_ 
those calingp are not achieved. 


In endorsing the measure, the 
Republicans and Democrats said 
they hoped the threat of automatic 
cats would spur Congress and the 
White House to compromise on 
their goals enough to reduce the 
deficit. The automatic cuts are to 
be divided equally, with half com- 
ing from militar y and half from 
nonmQilary programs. 

'White House officials said Mr. 
Reagan was not threatening to take 

more lhan half out of the nf mmili - 
tary or domestic side. 

“We’re still looking at how we 
arrange the cuts in defense and the 
cuts in domestic agencies," a White 
House official said. ‘'There's some 
flexibility.” 

A senior White House nffiriaJ, 
when asked to explain how Mr. 
Reagan could achieve the necessary 
spending oats, and still maintain a 
military btiDdnp, acknowledged: 
“It's going to be tough.” 

The official said part of Mr. Rea- 
gan’s strategy was to kero pressure 
on Congress to meet the defidt- 
rednetiou targets in the balanced- 
budget legislation and thus avoid 
invoking the proviaons that would 
trigger automatic cuts in the nrili- 
taiy budget. 

Mr. Reagan said the bill must 
not become “an excuse to avoid the 
rough decisions entailed in cutting, 
back on. runaway domestic spay}- 
mg. 


“We will not only be held re- 
sponsible for cutting the deficit,” 
he said. “Ultimately, we will be 
judged on how we reduce the defi- 
cit” 

He brushed aside any notion, 
voiced by critics in both parties, 
tha t the measure was all but certain 
to reduce military spending or raise 
taxes, or both. 

“If we try to accomplish deficit 
reduction by tax increases,” he 
said, “or through just cuts in de- 
fense that endanger our national 
security, we will have failed in our 
paramount duty to the American 
people, the duty of good and re- 
sponsible government” 

Mr. Reagan said that when the 
measure was passed, “We didn’t 
absolve ourselves of our first re- 
sponsibility as the elected represen- 
ta fives of this country to provide 
for the national defense.” 

“The last thing we want to do is 
return our country to the weak- 
ened, vulnerable state in which we 
found it in 1980.” he said. 

“1 feel confident that if Congress 
abides by its already established 
agreement for real growth in de- 
fense, we can meet our national 
security requirements.” 

He and he would meet tbe target 
in the budgets submitted to Con- 
gress, “and well do it the right way, 
by cutting and rfmm nfttrn g wasteful 
and' unnecessary programs.” 


Expert Says Rival Gangs 
Approved Mob Killing 

Indictments of Reputed Mafia Figure 
Were Factor, New York Official Asserts 

By Selwyn Raab indictments and had even all owe 

New York Tima Service his home in Staten Island to b 


By Seiwyn Raab 

New York Times Service 

NEW YORK — New York 
Stale’s top expert on organized 
crime says he believes that the slay- 
ing of Paul C. Castellano, the re- 
puted chief of tbe nation’s most 
powerful Mafia group, the Gam- 
bino family, was sanctioned by the 
heads of New York City’s four oth- 
er crime families. 

The expert. Ronald Goldstock, 
the director of the state's Orga- 
nized Qrime Task Force, said that 
leaden from the Genovese, Lu- 
cbese, Bonanno and Colombo rings 
apparently approved tbe slaying of 
Mr. Castellano because his legal 
and internal organizational prob- 
lems were endangering all of them. 

“Castellano was an important 
person, and I believe his assassina- 
tion had to be approved by the 
other leaders,” Mr. Goldstock said 
in an interview Tuesday. “There 
was a possibility he could take all 
of them down.” 

[Hundreds of mourners attended 
a wake for Mr. Castellano on 
Wednesday night. United Press In- 
ternational reported from New 
York. Limousines were parked out- 
ride a funeral home in Brooklyn 
while mourners filed through the 
home. Reporters were tumeaaway 
at the door by guards.] 

Mr. Goldstock, as a prosecutor, 
has monitored organized crime for 
almost 20 years. His office was in- 
strumental in obtaining evidence 
that led to federal racketeering in- 
dictments earlier tins year or most 
of the city’s reputed top Mafia 
leaders. 

The leaders. Including Mr. Cas- 
tellano, woe accused of being 
members of a “commission” that 
federal authorities said regulated 
organized-crime activities in the 
New York area and elsewhere. 

According to Mr. Goldstock and 
other law-roforcemeot officials, 
these were the key factors leading 
to the fatal shootings Monday of 
Mr. Castellano and a top aide, 
Thomas Bilotti, on a busy street on 
Manhattan’s East Side: 

• A dispute over control and di- 
rection of the Gambino family be- 
tween a faction headed by Mr. Cas- 
tellano and a rival faction led by 
John Gotti. 

• Mr. Castellano’s purported ne- 
glect of business activities within 
the Gambino family because of a 
current federal racketeering trial 
and five more federal and state 
indictments that he was facing. 

• Concern by mob bosses that 
Ml Castellano. 70, was getting 
careless, had been lax in avoiding 


Page 8 







indictments and had even allowed 
his home in Staten Island to be 
bugged by the FBI. Prosecutors 
said the tapes were to be used as 
evidence in a federal trial against 
the “commission” and in another 
pending racketeering indictment 
by federal authorities in Brooklyn. 

“Historically, the solution rate 
Tor organized-crime murders is not 
very high.” said Joseph A. Vali- 
quene, an FBI spokesman in New 
York City. 

The search for witnesses was 
concentrated on 46th Street be- 
tween Second Avenue and Third 
Avenue, where Mr. Castellano and 
Mr. Bdotli were shot. 

Mr. Castellano and Mr. Bilotti 

were emerging from Mr. Bilottfs 
limousine when they were each 
shot six times at close range with 
32-caliber and .380-caliber auto- 
matic handpmc, the police said. 
Two or three gunmen were in- 
volved, police said. 

Mr. Castellano, who was free on 
S2-nrillion bail while on trial in i 
federal court in Manhattan, and I 
Mr. Bilotti had met with Mr. Cas- 
tellano’s lawyer, James M. La 
Rossa, in tbe lawyer’s Manhattan 
office earlier Monday. 

Mr. CasteDaao emerged as the , 
boss of the Gambino family, which ' 
was described by Justice Depart- 1 
meat officials as the wealthiest and 
most powerful Mafia group in the 
United States, in 1976 alter the 
death of his brother-in-law. Carlo 
Gambino. 

However, according to law-en- 
forcement officials, there long bad 
been a rival faction in tbe Gambino 
family led by Aniello Dellacroce, 
the second highest-ranking leader. 

Mr. Dellacroce, who was bong 
treated for cancer, died Dec. 2. Of- 
ficials said his death apparently 
cleared tbe way for a power grab. 


Andropov’s Son Named 
Ambassador-at-Large 

The Associated Press 

MOSCOW — Igor Y. Andro- 
pov, tbe son of Yuri V. Andropov, 
the late Communist Party leader, 
has been named an ambassador-at- 
large to work with Foreign Minis- 
ter Eduard A. Shevardnadze, a 
ministry official said Thursday. 

The official said tbe appoint- 
ment was made several wedcs ago. 
There had bero no public an- 
nouncement of it. The Soviet 
Union also has not announced that 
Mr. Andropov no longer is ambas- 
sador to Greece. . He was named 
ambassador to Athens in July 1984. 


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Page 4 


International herald tribune, Friday, December 20 , *935 


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Forced Boycott Splits South African Blacks 

•A ■*■ 1 inrc inrtiuiino 9 vramt wni nm J 


~ - -^- tn Rni the Wiiwaiersrand region, tors, including a general economSt 

By Michael Parks wtdeh ibdudes Jofaannesbut&Pre- recession, black unemployment, b- 

LuAngriet Tunes Sente m ms P^* e Pretoria toria and the townsrast and west of nation and re duced year-end bo- 

SOWETO; South Africa - them, is fib Lore complex .political- nuses. abo arc responsible for the 

cWa “black Gmstmas” for the resi- for a consumer At individual stores thatcaieno 

blade famflies living in Soweto and arc fro- boycott, particularly one as contra- blacks, however, manage say that 

the other black townships around ^^Hblack Christmas, is far sales have dropped 80pcnwtto9Q 

Johannesburg. Sv st^ts in Lr tei more difficult. 

Local consumer boycott <xnn- “siories arc told or a week’s food Five blacks were killed last week 
mitteea have decrrclthat blacks beinglhKWn i Il to l hc d iri.of worn- imhc Johannesburg area as a result 
are IKHU) do then- Omstmas shop- made to drink cooJdng oil of efforts to enforce the boycott 

pmg m white-owned stares, are not bare of soap that they Xwn eho* and kflled in )ed a Sowetan newspape r edited by 

to hold the usual pop music coo- tmJn n f men hdns j.l vjhne thev were blacks to question die effectiveness 


b, w. s^riics: Jt asSjS 

«sskste. - |S"» “■* 

*»W Goads bought at white stores are ly, economically and sonafly. and 

dared a ^fladt Qmstmas for the to Soweto resi- getting a consensus for a consumer 

black families Uvina in Soweto and t . an> hnvmn narticulariv one as contro- 


Johannesbnrg. moredifficulL .. 

Local consumer boycott <xnn- “siories arc told or a week’s food Five blacks were kflled last week 
mitteea have decrwl that blacks beinglhKWn i Il to l hc d iri.of worn- imhc Johannesburg area as a result 
arexKHtodotharOinstinasshop- made to drink cooJdng oil of efforts to enforce the boycott 

ping in white-owned stares, are not bare of soap that they Xwn shol and kflled in )ed a Sowetan newspape r edited by 

to hold the usual pop music con- bQU g M a town? aj en being ^xh poKce while thev were b [ a J** 

aasg sisrs jsrfcsays SSSSsS 

" lhc ” ts " re " by £sSSS£SsSS 5 

One aim is to force white mer- Ganes of youths broke up a mu- JT*?IL tijLi v,v local black polili- Ngweaya, the spokesman 


mane w wppwi ^ sic festival earner uns motun, con- daM wfaose stores also are being 

munitys call for an end to tlm state ^ding Oat it violated the black boycotted, were found near Kru- 
of croei^cy d«rc^m J iJ' and Christmas campaign and then a tawa northwest of Jo- 

for the withdrawal of white combat forced the cancellabon of several h^nesbur*. 

jsffi jira«is«" 

PC (}wners of Soweto’s “silebcens,” 


More and more residents of the speakeasies that are the center 
Soweto, the sprawling black city of of much of the black city's social 


tne otatt t-nnsraias campw^u, nualMissfliatXSOumAlnca com- , ^«ln«da V n«ar Jo- 

SCSfiT' - “KsrsJ-S: 

fssraa-dSss SE ^ ^ 

nearly two million people outride life, have been told by other youths JO lf nn ,7 US ' J . . lhw 

Johannesburg, are asking who the to shut for the holiday season, but police and army, “3^6 *y 

campaign leaders are, what their some have arranged instead to arc attempting to protect tnosere- 
strategy is and why the blade com- make “donations to the struggle" turning from the aty. have o 
muidty seems to be suffering more C onsumer boycotts in other ar- ployed large numbers of security 

than the while targets of the con- eas, notably Port Elizabeth. East forces through the townships as 


for the SowetoOasuroaB^rott 
found ac* Kra- Comjmitt, and flj o^ritoufai 

& . . . MC cadres when monitoring the boy- 

[A young black man who was „ . r 


The police and army, saying they 
are attempting to protect those re- 
turning from the city, have de- 


COtt." ' 

■ Strike Into Angola 
The South African Press Associ- 
ated said Thursday that a *nwf] 
contingent of South African troops 
has struck deep into Angola, killing 
at least six guerrillas from the 
South-West Africa People’s Orga- 


“Win w«t. — V' 7 ~ , 7 . « — FW 

ployed large numbers of security nizanoo and capturing a large 

# i_ >L. lAmurkinr aC Mirim e%f uunnnM e 


sumer boycott “ London anil many of the small commuters return from working in 

Anger is also growing over the towns of eastern Cape Province, the alies. 
widespread use offorceandintimi- succeeded earlier tins year m win- Spokesmen for the white bua- 
dation by the youths who enforce ning business support for black de- ness community in Johannesburg 
the coosomer boycott by gathering mauds and even some action on acknowledge some impact from the 
at bus Stops, train stations and oth- them by ibe government. boycott bui contend that other fac- 


OVIUA, 

boycott but contend that other fac- 


cache of weapons, Agenoe Fnmce- 
Presse reported from Pretoria. 

The association said that the. 
South African strike force had been' 
in western Angola since last week- 
end and that the mission was still in 
progress. 



on Umoja W ana wake Tanzania 
Street here. 

Its shelves are crammed with En- 
glish tea biscuits and powdered 
milb from the Netherlands, Danish 
butter and American cooking ofl. 
The store’s aisles bustle with shop- 
pers pushing French-made grocery 
carts. 

But the Star Supermarket is a 
place where few Tanzanians can 
shop. A quart (nearly a liter) of 
Mazola corn oil costs 485 shillings, 
the equivalent of S29, and two 
pounds (nearly a kilogram) of sug- 
ar sells for more than S16. 

The Star Supermarket, and the 
four or five others to open here 
soon, together with the expensive 
clothing shops on Samora Avenue 
selling black loafers for SI 74, are 
the recent outgrowths of liberalized 
trade policies announced in the last 
year. 

But despite the sudden increase 
in consumer goods in some stores 
after years of shortages, most peo- 
ple can do little more than window 
shop. « 

■“It was easy to tell my daughter 
Koku that there were no shoes or 
dresses to buy her for her birth- 
day," said Dina Rubogo, a mother 
of six children. “Now she knows 
they are in shops aD over the coun- 
try. How can 1 look her in the face 
and tell her I can't afford them?" 

For Mrs. Rubogo and most peo- 
ple in Dar es Salaam, the Tanzani- 
an capital shopping means luck at 
a government store or haranguing 
merchants in the street markets. 

Elizabeth Mganga waved toward 
the vacant shelves behind her. 

“No, no oil," she said. “No 
beans." 

There was no sugar, rice or flour 
either. And there were no shoppers 
at the wooden counter where Miss 
Mganga waited in the late- after- 
noon heat. 



ThaNgwYoAlwai 

Elizabeth Mganga, a clerk at a government cooperative, with empty shelves behind her. 


At the Upanga-Coosumer’s Co- 
operative Society Ltd, there is of- 
ten nothing to buy. Miss Mganga 
said. 

“Maybe tomorrow.” die said 
gently, heaving her shoulders be- 
fore leaning over to straighten a 
pile of ration books Tanzanians 
need if they want to buy from the 
cooperative store- 

intended to supply staples at low 
prices, the Upanga Cooperative 
where Miss Mganga works is oneof 
five government food stores scat- 
tered across the city. When there is 
food at the cooperative store, in- 
variably it is cheaper than any- 
where elsejn -town. When there are 
shoes at the government-owned 
shoe store,, they sell for S18 to $42. 
- But the frequently empty shelves 
in government stores mean that 


Dares Salaam’s 12 mfllkm people 
must usually go elsewhere in search 
of corn flour and eggs, ladles and 
shirts. 

Despite nearly two decades of 
effort to create a self-reliant social- 
ist African state. Tanzania remains 
one of the 25 least developed coun- 
tries in the world. According to the 
World Bank, thepcr-capits income 
hovers around $270 a year. 

Not far from a business district 
dominated by gray concrete official 
buildings lies the Kariakoo street 
market. The food there, rather t han 
being sold to government markets 
or cooperative stores like Miss 
Mganga's. comes from small back- 
yard gardens and tiny farm plots 
outside Dar es Salaam. 

Beneath, a section or Kariakoo 
market, in a cavernous, dimly lit 


concrete chamber, the day’s fooil 
prices for the city are settled by the 
wholesalers and merchants from 
the siraeLs above. 

From the bunker like market, the 
street merchants haul baskets of 
goods into the sunshine. 

“Business is good," said a young 
man squatting before a basket of 
rice. 

Business is also good for the 27- 
y ear-old Indian owner of the Star 
Super Market With the govern- 
ment's derision to permit people 
with access to foreign exchange to 
buy consumer goods abroad and 
import them here for sale at market 
prices, some entrepreneurs have 
deckled to test the waters. And for 
the first time in years, there are 
stores jammed with goods. 


U.K., Canada Decline Peacekeeper Role in Uganda 


' (Continued frora Page 1) 

involved,” the British spokesman 
said. “But they seemed to have 
gone ahead and shoved our name 
in on the peacekeeping role.” 

The Canadian spokeswoman 
said, “I don’t know why they would 
put ns in the agreement without 

getting our approval.” - 

Uganda r emains “too danger- 
ous” for the British to commit any 
large contingent of soldiers, Mr. 
Tauwhare said. His government, he 
said, would provide a limited num- 
ber of officers to train a new Ugan- 
dan Army, if and when it is created. 

The agreement called for the for- 
mation of a new army, made up of 
3,700 - soktiers from the ousting 


army, 3,580 soldiers from the rebel 
force, and 300 soldiers from each of 
the four other guerrilla groups op- 
erating in the country. 

“The fact that they have signed 
the agreement doesn’t mean the 
cfyp war will end over night,” Mr. 
Tauwhare said. “Until it is dear 
that the war is over, we will leave 
the Ugandans to sort out their own 
problems.” 

Tuesday’s agreement, signed by 
General Ufo Okello, head of 
Uganda’s, military government, 
aim Yoweri Museveni, leader of the 
National Resistance Army, ended 
neatly four months of negotiations 
in Nairobi and is designed to end 
years of guerrilla warfare in the 
country. 


FINLANDIA 



[Britain announced Thursday an 
additional £5 million ($7.1 million) 
in assistance to Uganda, The Asso- 
ciated Press reported from Lon- 
don. British aid has been about £1 
milli on a year. 

[The foreign secretary, Sir Geof- 
frey Howe, said Britain wifl help 
resettle forma' soldiers and refu- 
gees, and will help with agriculture, 
education and health projects.] 

fl Amin Rebels, Troops Battle 

Uganda troops battled with sol- 
diers loyal to the exiled former dic- 
tator, Idi Amin, less than 48 hours 
after the cease-fire went into effect- 
diplomats and residents of Kampa- 
la said Thursday, according to 
United Press International. 

In his first public address since 
signing the agreement, General 
Okello pleaded with all fighters to 
observe the pact. 

“Don’t let me down, don't let 
Uganda down," he said. “You, sol- 
diers, are the first enemy of the 


FINLANDIA ON ICE 


“I am ashamed of seeing armed 
soldiers in Uganda all the time," be 
said. They fire their gtms all the 
time and this ends in bloodshed." 

Diplomats and residents., of 
Kampala said there was heavy 
shooting in and around the capital 
late Wednesday. Police sources 
said that as many as 15 people, 
including some soldiers, had been 
killed. 

Meanwhile; the Catholic ‘drily 
newspaper Munno said govern- 
ment soldiere shot and slabbed to 
death 30 villagers last week dicing 
a massacre near the town of Bo- 
tambala, 20 miles (about 32. kilo- 
meters) southwest of Kampala. It 
said the soldiers left the bodies to 
rot in the fields. 

A diplomat said the shooting 
Wednesday in Kampala appeared 
to involve army units and the for* 
mcr Ugandan National Army, a 
guerrilla group loyal to Mr. Aran- 

The group signed a separate 
peace agreement with Uganda’s 




^ V 5 * ' 


, '.74,? ' J ' i g 1 4 




















Page 5 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, FRIDAY, DECEMBER 20, 1985 


1 %>DI: Better Defense or Provocation? 
'Estimating Moscow’s Next Move 


(Confined from Page 1) 

■ ■ ict General Abrahamson's theory 

- .'■{ "responsible countermeasures.” 

V Soth could exist at the same time; 
<ae nation could reduce iteoffea- 

- .ve weapons, buildup its defensive 
■ucs, and, at the same time, devd- 
,p means of countering its enemy's 


*tal4S 





- Vkat Level of Defeme 

■ &i courages Stable Ties? 

General Abrahamson said such 

■ igh development of defease "must 
. e done in the context of dramati- 
llfy lowering offensive weapons; 
xis is something that must be ne- 
Dtiaied." He added that “even 
.artial defend is stabilizing” for 
avid- American relations. 

The administration theory is that 
. ^efense is inherently good and that, 

; -ven if a near-perfect defense is 
" ~ ever feasible, any level of defense 
nQ “enhance deterrence” of nude- 
' _ r war. 

John L Gardner, the defensive 
Systems director under General 
" vbrabamson, argues that even a 
. ’ar-from : perfect ballistic missile 
efense vwH be valuable because it 
.. rill “decrease the confidence of So- 
iet attack, planners that they can 
. chieve tbar attack goals,” thus 
“■ rasticafly decreasing the posribili- 
y of a nud ear exchange. 

For Mr. Gardner and for almost 
11 other administration strategic 
leers, it is an article of faith that 
I ihe Russians, planning their »nsgk, 
/ould focus on targeting U.S. stra- 
imrkwr forces; command, 

i trol l and rnmmiimrahnrK cen- 
'cthe national leadership and 
crnriStaiy targets." 

^Another problem, winch is both. ' 

aticand- technical,: Ees in 
ying to. ascertain at what point 
idly the Russians will respond 
. UJfc.defensiye systems. They 

f ;** v wave premised to answer U.S. de- 
71. . %loymentaf an SDI defense, and 
aye. also -demanded an end to all 
:jon strategic missOe-de- 
fense technologies, 
the thrited' States, argues that 
ni£ laboratory mwrnh canno t be 
rohibi^ because h is impossible 
> yerify such, an agreement. 

: 7 "y- fa. fa c t , late this year, the Rus- 
nr • J ^ians unbffidally acknowledged 
sSfaisL Vadim V. Zagladin, first depu- 
7 , . t.yldwf of the ImnrnMtinniiI D©- 
r '. ^/jartment of the Communist Party 
^ - i :MjentraI Committee, said the key 
r “how io draw the line between 
and applied research,” with 
: latter to be prohibited. 

A joint State Department-De- 
J - <nse Department report this fall 
>n Soviet strategic defense pro- 
rams says that the Rnssians 
could have” prototypes of 
round-based lasers to knock out 
allistic missiles as early as the end 
•f the 1980s. But the report added 
be more conservative note that an 
ctual, operational Soviet defease 
hidd “probably could not be de- 
■ioyed until the late 1990s. or after 
m year 2000." 

Measuring Soviet 

idamces in Defense 

Defense Department officials 
ty that the Russians are making a 
it of progress, sometimes citing 
xne form of laser research. But 
ie 1985 version of an annual Pen- 
igon report made public in March 
iid the Russians do not lead in a 
ogle area of military technology 
itica/ to defense. 

The Rand Cop, a research insti- 
ition that gives analytical advice 
the U.S. Air Force, has done a 
■imbcr of studies of Soviet re- 
j ' arch programs. One, published in 
I lay, stndied frce-electron lasers, 

' * huh Genera] Abrahamson has re- 
ady identified as perhaps (he 
osi promising laser for anti-mis- 
e defense. 

These lasers work by jiggling bO- 
his of electrons, free of their 
omic nuclei, in powerful magnet- 
fields to emit concentrated light 
ams. Such lasers, which are 
wind- based, would bounce (heir 
ams off space mirrors toward en- 
ly missiles. 

the May Rand report said that 
: Soviet effort was at least equal 
that of the U.S. one in this field, 
terms of manpower and the 
epth and bread ih" of research in 
electron lasers. But it said that 
S. scientists had done twice as 
my experiments, which is the key 
verifying a concept, and that 
y had “significantly" better re- 
ts. 

In contrast, there is little doubt 
U if the Russians' first response 
SDI is lo get more missiles to 
urate or overwhelm a U.S. space 
eld. they can do so, as they have 
tiring production lines. 

•everal experts have observed 
t from 1980 to 1984 the Soviet 
ion built more than 800 new 
'‘recmrinental ballistic missiles. 

If the United States has not 
duced any intercontinental bal- 
c missiles for years, 
lephen M. Meyer of the Massa- 
i** setts institute of Technology, 

■ » is an authority on Soviet raib- 

' policy and a consultant to the 
lagon, says that the Russians 
wbly have about 1,000 missile 
uers or rockets stored but not 
Joyed. 

the debate over likely Soviet 
ses has evolved, it has cast 
hi on Mr. Reagan's dedara- 
s that SDI technology could be 
l r®d with the Soviet Union. 

of the asymmetrical na- 
Of the basing of Soviet and 
Strategic forces, several Amer- 
:a2Sanaly5ts say exactly equal lev- 
fefense would put the United 
at a disadvantage- Echoing 
view. General Abrahamson 
tilis month that “it is impera- 
pbat we have a much more 
defense than they have." 


Experts Say Space Shkid 
Must Survive Attack 

If the elaborate space-shield sys- 
tem is to be pat into effect, afl agree 
that it oust be able to survive an 
attack, the quality U.S. strategists 
can survivability. The experts are 
also dying to make die system 
“hard," or resistant to attack. 

Critics say that the system must 
have what is called enduring sur- 
vivability, or the ability to with- 
stand not only a- large, quick 
“spasm attack” but also an attack 
of attrition. 

Attention, by oatriders and insid- 
ers has turned to the vexing prob- 
lem of whether components, if then- 
creation is scientifically possible, 
ran be integrated into an “opera- 
tionally feasible" system, is which 
many components can be tied to- 
gether in a whole that wiB not fail 
in a crisis. 

Since the spring, computer ex- 
perts have been debating whether 
reliable computer programs can 
ever be written that wQl insure that 
the SDI defense is trustworthy. 

Bringing Down the Cost 
Of Going Into Space 

The problem of space logistics, 
or “the cost of access to space," is 
also important. TTtis is particularly 
due if the final architecture of the 
system requires a constellation of 
thousands of satellites and many 
relay and fighting mirrors for lasers 
— the type of system that was 
called ideal in a study by the Strate- 
gic Defense Initiative Organization’ 
that was made public late this fan ■. 

After the Erst year of research on ■ 
this problem, those conducting the | 
study envisaged, a complex, seven- r 
layer system of weapon, platforms. 
Other arrays of four, five, and six' 
tiers of weapons were also consid- 1 
ered, as well as a system to which 
most continents' would be on, 
Fatih J rather than in spa ce . 

Colonel George Hess, the SDI; 
director for survrvahiKty, weapon 
lethality, space logistics and several ; 
other aspects of the program, said, 
that if tire cost of lifting a pound of 
material can be lowered from the 
present price of up to S3.000 ai 
pound to “$300 a pound or less, it; 
becomes within the bounds of the' 
reasonable" ! 

He added that, with all such 
questions, “the burden of proof is 
dearly on SDL’’ 

Those involved in the strategic 
debate are turning to other long- 
range effects of strategic defense. 
Skeptics say that wooing, or coerc- 
ing, the Soviet Union into adopting 
nnssle defenses may loll the policy 
caned “extended deterrence," the 
threat that the United States might 
first use nuclear weapons if the 
Soviet Union made a conventional 
attack on Western Europe. While 
critics suggest that extended deter- 
rence might disappear if the Soviet 
Union had defenses, SDI propo- 
nents think that the policy is more 
credible if the United States has 
protection against missile attack. 

It is also dear to most analysts 
that the now-vestigial US. air de- 
fense will need to be recreated, be- 
cause SDI will not be designed to 
meet threats from weapons like at- 
mospheric bombers and low-flying 
cruise misriks. And, it is being said 
that the anti-missile defense would 
be more effective with a serious 
civil defense program. 

Another turn the SDI debate has 
taken has been renewed concern 
with what constitutes a perfect 
shield against missiles, a near-per- 
fect one or, indeed, a leaky one. 

In 1984, Ashton Carter, a Har- 
vard University strategic and scien- 
tific expert, said in a report to Con- 
gress that a near-perfect defense 
was not possible. A year after Mr. 
Reagan announced the SDI idea, 
this conduson was controversial. 

“Nobody thinks it is controver- 
sial today," an analyst said. 

Instead of stressing the goal of a 
defense that is nearly perfect by the 
standard of bow many Soviet nu- 
clear warheads it could shoot 
down, administration figures now 
say that if SDI could deny the Rus- 
sians the ability to destroy key mili- 
tary targets, which the administra- 
tion perceives to be the only Soviet 
goal, it would be “good enough." 

George A. Keyworth 2d, the 
While House science adviser, has 
long been an adherent of Mr. Rea- 
gan's “vision" of a near-perfect de- 
fense of the American civilian pop- 
ulation. But he said recently that, if 
a Soviet planner “can no longer be 
confident" in his war plans because 
of a U.S. defense, then nudear 
weapons “have been made obsolete 
since they have lost their military 
potential." 


hi Congressional Study 

One of the most thought-provok- 
ing reports of the year on SDI was 
made public in September by the 
Office of Technology Assessment, 
an arm of Congress rather than the 
admrn/strauon. It raised some new 
questions about the rationale for 
SDI. Though the study was severe- 
ly critical of the proposal, an ad- 
ministration SDI official called the 
study “excellent” and said “the lev- 
el of the national debate is improv- 
ing." 

The Office of Technology As- 
sessment team, drawing in part on 
analysis by the Rand Corp-, former 
government officials and scholars, 
reached some disquieting conclu- 
sions. Here are some of the condu- 
sions of the report, which have 
brought rebuttals from many SDI 
supporters: 

• If both the Soviet Union and 
the United States have similar but 
limited defenses, the United Slates 
might protect more nudear war- 
heads in a Soviet first strike. But, if 


theTJmted States retaliated, fewer ' 
of its warheads would actually 
reach Soviet targets and explode 
there than under the current cir- 
cumstances, because of the Soviet 
defense system. The net cost of 
nuclear war to Soviet leaders would 
thus be reduced, and war would 
become more thinkab le. - 

• In almost any scenario die’ ex- 

istence of defenses makes striking 
Bm a more attractive option. If the 
Russians were to strike first, for 
example, even a limited Soviet de- 
fense would have to deal only with 
a “ragged response" from a d3 tried 
U.S. retaliatory arsenal. Again, it 
was suggested that this would pro- 
vide a theoretical incentive f at nu- 
clear coofEtt. ( . 

• One of the most dangerous 
possibilities of all is a situation zp 
which the defenses of each nation 
are to a significant extent vulnera- 
ble to pre-emptive attack by the 
other side. The argument here, too, 
is that this situation makes a first 
strike attractive, and makes waiting 
unattractive. 

• The technological uncertain- 
ties of missile defense may tead to 
strategic uncertainty: with defense 
there will be more possible out- 
comes, but fewer certain ones, for a 
nudear war. 

Such analysis could undermine 
political and public support for 
SDI. and the managers of the pro- 
gram have been eager to refute iL 

The Office of Technology As- 
sessment report aside, General 
Ab rahams on's organization was al- 
ready involved in strategic think- 
ing. A satisfactory strategy, the 
general said, wffl be a vital dement 
in the decision, which could come 
in six years, on whether to under- 
take full-scde engineering develop- 
ment, production and eventual de- 
ployment of an anti-missile 
defense. 

Strategic contingencies and pos- 
able Sonet responses are seen by 
the Defense Department analysts 
as indispensable tools in designing 
and integrating a workable defense. 

General Abrahamson and his as- 
sistants, such as -Mr. Gardner, say 
that they and 'their staffs have been 
involved in complex nudear war 


Pat simply, they argue that their 
strategic analysis tends to prove 
that at each level of defense^ tom 
modest to good, including defense 
by the Soviet Union, the “deterrent 
posture is improved." - . 

The Strategic Defense Organiza- 
tion analysts, and those elsewhere 
in the Fmtagon, say their studies 
are more sophisticated tiiat those of 

analytic ntitriri* ih* utminirtnUinn 

and are based on more complete, 
secret data on Soviet and U.S. miE- 
tary capabilities. 

But one nongovernmental Soviet 
affairs specialist, who was recently 
invited with several colleagues to 
participate in secret war games in- 
volving SDI defenses, said: “We 
found we were playing against de- 
fense contractor personnel and 
others who know nothing about 
Soviet doctrine. It took our whole 
team, the Red Team. less than 20 
minutes to agree that our first 
counter to ‘star wars’ wonld be to 
increase offensive missile numbers. 
Their team, the Bine Team, said, 
‘No, that is not how the Soviets 
think * Every step -we took sur- 
prised them. I 

The Office of Technology As- 
sessment researchers agree that ef- 
fective defenses on both sides 
would probably be stabilizing. But 
they underline that such effective- 
ness could probably only be 
achieved by a combination of de- 
fense and “negotiated deep reduc- 
tions of offenses.” And they con- 
clude that, while nuclear war seems 
nnHkdy with very high levels of 
mutual defense, it is possible that 
one nation might attack since it 
would have little to lose from retali- 
ation in those circumstances. 

Protectum for People 
Or Protection for S3os? 

As with other analysts, the Office 
of Technology Assessment re- 
searchers found confusion in . the 
government about (he real goals of 
SDI, saying that “the pursuit of 
defenses able to protect the U.S. 
population and that of its allies in 
the face of a determined Soviet ef- 
fort to overcome them does not 
appear to be a goal of the SD! 
program.” 

Such a conclusion might seem 
controversial to those who have not 
dosefy followed the SDI debate, 
because Mr. Reagan and other 
non technicians have often implied 
that active defense of people by a 
“shield" is a ma jor goal 

The Office of Technology As- 
sessment analysts supported their 
statement with remarks by senior 
government officials that seem to 

Airline Grounded 
By Greek Pilots 

Reuters 

ATHENS — Most nights or 
Greece’s Olympic Airways were 
canceled Thursday as pilots de- 
manding increased insurance bene- 
fits refused to eat or sleep Tor the 
second day and doctors pro- 
nounced them unfit to Qy. v . 

Hie pilots began (he action after 
the government sent their dispute 
to compulsory arbitration. Last 
month, hundreds of airport work- 
ers and air traffic controllers, 
banned by the government from 
striking, refused food and sleep for 
four days and dozens became HL 

The government has strongly 
criticized (he pilots, saying they 
cam an average of 450,000 drach- 
mas (S3,000 dollars) a month. The 
pilots, however, said they were ef- 
fectively without insurance rights. 



'If this process goes 
on, we will have 
nothing to do bat 
take op retaliatory 
measures in the 
field of both 
offensive and 
defensive weapons/ 

— Marshal Akhromeyev 
Soviet chief of staff 


U.S. Official Says NATO Has Begun 
To Cooperate on Arms Development 


confirm that conclusion that the 
immediate aim of the plan is to 
protect mbsfle silos, not people. 

The difficulty of defending civil- 
ians is illustrated m a scenario that 
has been postulated several rimes 

by nrmwilTTifni stratify anal ysts 

According to this scenario, a 
“99-percent effective" missile de- 
fense would not protect 99 percent 
Of the U.S. population: it would 
mdy shoot down 99 percent of So- 
viet missile re-entry vehicles or 
wairbeads. If such a defense existed, 
the Soviet Union could simply tar- 
get 100 warheads on each of the 90 
most populous caries in the United 
States; with such a defense, the 
Russians could be confident of de- 
stroying almost all of their targets. 

The Office of Technology As- 
sessment estimated that 10 million 
to 25 million could result 
from such a “leakage rate." The 
report sad deaths coold be kept to 
1 million or fewer only with defense 
that was 99.9-percent effective or 
better. 

Another rpnseq »r nce of the de- 
bate over the mQitaiy value of SDI 
is the renewed attention to what is 
called “rational” Soviet military 
doctrine. 

Assessing Soviet Strategy: 
Price of a Leaky Defense 

The administration position 
rests in part, for example, on an 
assumption that it would be lunacy 
for the Russians to choose cities 


rather than purely military sites as 
their targets. That assumption is 
essentially on the theory that 
attacking cities would bring horri- 
ble retaliation. 

Critics aigoe, however, that this 
assumption may not be valid. “It is 
conceivable that you could have a 
defense so good that the Soviets 
wonld have to aim 100, or 200, 
warheads at each of oar largest 
cities,” said Thomas H. Karas, a 
space policy analyst and the direc- 
tor of the Office of Technology 
Assessment team that prepared the 
report. 

in any case, when decisions 
about the effectiveness and actual 
working structure of a missile de- 
fense depend heavily on what is 
called rational Soviet military po- 
licy, the nature of the SDI debate 
changes. 

“You find that you are no longer 
signing about strategic defenses, 
but that you are arguing about con- 
cepts of nudear war fighting," said 
Peter Sharfman, manag er of the 
international security program in 
the Office of Technology Assess- 
ment. “It is a proper argument, but 
goes way beyond die technical 
analysis of what defense can or 
cannot do." 

Mr. Karas added, “An interest- 
ing question is: Did we fed secure 
in the early 1960s when the Soviets 
a small number of inaccurate 
warheads that could only be used 
against cities? And that is essential- 
ly what SDI is offering the prospect 
of retaining to.” 


Fitehett 

Iruemaaonai Herald Tribute 

BRUSSELS — The United 
Sutes and its European allies are 
starling to cooperate effectively in 
developing ana producing future 
weapons for wide use throughout 
the Western alliance, according to 
David ML Abshire, U.S. delegate to 
the North Atlantic Treaty Organi- 
zation. 

“The alliance has been been try- 
ing and failing to cooperate on this 
since it started more than 35 years 
ago, but now we finally have a 
coalition in Congress that is pro- 
NATO, pro-conventional defense 
and pro-armaments cooperation," 
he said in a recent interview. 

Mr. Abshire predicted that alli- 
ance-wide cooperation in arms de- 
velopment could relieve congres- 
sional pressure on European allies 
to spend more on defense or face 
US. troop cuts in Europe. 

Congress has passed an amend- 
ment by Senator Sam Nunn, Dem- 
ocrat of Georgia, allocating 5200 
miHioQ for NATO to launch joint- 
weapons research and develop- 
ment. 

In a surprise move, a prominent 
congressional critic of NATO, Sen- 
ator Ted Stevens, Republican of 
Alaska, strongly supported the 
Nunn fund. 

Nationalistic resistance to indus- 
trial cooperation is crumbling 
throughout the alliance, Mr. Ab- 
shire sad, because governments 
can no longer afford to develop 
sophisticated weapons alone. 

Most Western European govern- 
ments have been living for several 
years with static military budgets, a 
situation that now confronts the 
Reagan aHmiTTis H -arirwi 

“The days of the fat cows in our 
country are over," U.S. Secretaty 
of State George P. Shultz reported- 
ly told a meeting of NATO foreign 
ministers this month in Brussels. 

“When we cut the deficit," he 
added, “well cut defense.” 

At the meeting, foreign ministers 
instructed their national arma- 
ments directors — in practice, the 
No. 2 defense official in each coun- 
try — to find arms-devdopment 
programs salable for affiance co- 
operation. 

This fo rmal decision ramff from 


foreign ministers, not defense min- 
isters, because the program in- 
cludes France. France, while out- 
side the NATO military structure, 
attends NATO meetings nominally 
devoted to military issues. Last 
month, a crucial NATO session on 
the arms-cooperation program was 
attended by France’s armaments 
director, Georges Blanc, who is 
also deputy defense minister. 

In Mr. Abshire’s view, this new' 
impetus for joint production was 
the major accomplishment of the 
recent Brussels ministerial meeting. 

Nine weapons projects were se- 
lected as candidates for coopera- 
tion, and some are expected to be 
adopted at a special meeting of 
NATO’s armaments directors in 
February. Five were suggested by 
the Independent European Pro- 
gram Group, a recently revitalized 
NATO-related committee designed 
to coordinate defense industries in 
Europe, including in France. 

Most of the projects involve ad- 
vanced command systems. For ex- 
ample, BICES, an acronym for bat- 
tlefield intelligence-collection 
exploitation system, would link the 
dec ironic data gathered by sensors 
and radar throughout the Europe- 
an theater and redistribute it elec- 
tronically to NATO commanders. 

“Right now, we have at least sev- 
en different intdJigenoe-distribu- 
tion systems, so the allies have to 
disseminate their information by 
phone," Mr. Abshire said. For ex- 
ample, West German and U.S. 
units deployed side by ride must 
station liaison officers with each 
Other’s units to handle phone con- 
versations when the connections 
are poor. 

Similar wasteful duplication af- 
fects many weapons. For example, 
11 companies in seven alliance 
countries are building anti-tank 
weapons. 

In pressing for better coordina- 
tion, Mr. Abshire said that NATO 
is “not seeking to balance the 
books on trade." He was referring 
to NATO’s long debate about cre- 
ating a “two-way street" in which 
the United States tries to balance 
its aims sales and purchases with 
European allies. 

“We are looking for overall effi- 
ciencies, making sure we get weap- 


ons to plug gaps in our convemion- 
al defense and eventually to 
improve the alliance’s ability to 
fight longer on a smaller invest- 
ment." he said. 

Invariably, it is initially more 
complicated and costly to produce 
a weapon in a consortium rather 
than in a single country. But, as 
cooperation develops, economies 
of scale and advantages of stan- 
dardization emerge, he said. 

As part of this economy drive, 
the Pentagon recently bought a 
french-designed battlefield radio 
system, the Integrated Automatic 
Communications Network, known 
by its French acronym RITA, and 
now plans to buy French-made Ro- 
land ground-to-air missiles. 

The U.S. defense secretary. Ca- 
spar W. Weinberger, recently wrote 
to allied governments advocating 
the development of joint compo- 
nents to be used in three new' fight- 
er aircraft being developed by 
France, the United States and a 
European consortium. 

This stress on interchangeable 
weapons has a strategic back- 
ground: NATO intelligence ana- 
lysts say that the alliance can no 
longer credibly threaten nuclear re- 
taliation in a limited war in Europe, 
even one that left the Soviet Union 
in control of some NATO territory. 

The program's political dimen- 
sion, Mr. Abshire said, is that 
"even in a protectionist Congress, 
we’ve been able to mobilize U.S. 
support for a more competitive, al- 
liance-wide approach to weapons 
development." 

Pregnant Boa, Friends 
Stolen From French Zoo 

The AuoLiateJ Pnss 

NARBONNE. France — More 
than 20 exotic animals, including a 
pregnant boa. were stolen from a 
game park near this town in south- 
western France, the director of the 
establishment said Thursday. 

The thieves broke into the Sigean 
park during the night Wednesday, 
sawed through the chains on the 
gates of the cages and made off 
with 1 1 boas, three alligators, four 
mynah birds, six parrots and two 
parakeets. 



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Page 6 


FRIDAY, DECEMBER 20, 1985 


Ucralb 


INTERNATIONAL 


(tribune 


Published WaJj The Mew Y«i Tim and The Washington Pott 


West Must Improve Growth 


The staff that serves the OECD — the 
richest industrialized countries — sees no 
quickening of the world economy over the 
next 18 months. Growth in America, so 
strong through most of 1984. has tailed off 
and is expected to stay mediocre. Europe 
and Japan won't take over the running un- 
less major governments change their poli- 
cies, which they don't want to do. It will 
therefore be surprising if unemployment, 
still high m America and far too Ugh in 
Europe, takes a turn for the better. 

Growth is not the sole objective of eco- 
nomic policy, which has to help maintain 
acceptable relationships between nations 
and between different social groups. But it is 
hard to see how such relationships can be 
achieved in today’s context if the industrial- 
ized world is condemned to a further pro- 
tracted period of the low growth that has 
disfigured most of the past decade. 

Many observers of the present scene 
would simply point to the problems of job- 
lessness in Europe and America (they order 
these things better, for the moment, in 
Japan) as meriting a more determined attack 
against low-speed growth. When youth un- 
employment hits one in five in Britain, one 
in four in France and one in three in Italy, 
and when the average spell without a job is 
over a year (which means that for many the 
spell is much longer), one hardly needs to 
look further to see socially divisive economic 
conditions: the staff of the Organization 
for Economic Cooperation and Develop- 
ment underlines the damage to work moti- 
vation and human capitaL 

But there are other reasons for the indus- 
trialized world to be dissatisfied with its 
prospects. First, the problem of financing 
the developing world — and particularly ctf 
avoiding wholesale default by the large debt- 
ors — will not be solved in a climate of slow 
world growth, because the export possibili- 
ties these countries need just won’t be there. 
If the present low growth persists, these 
countries will have to large new debt 


just to avoid having to slash their imports 
and their development programs yet again. 
Second, the strait®' launched last Septem- 
ber to get the dollar down — essential for 
resistance to the clamor for protectionism in 
America — depends on the readiness of 
Japan and Europe to speed up demand at 
home: If they don’t do this, dollar devalua- 
tion will have little good effect 

Governments cannot work miracles- They 
have to concentrate on setting the broad 
conditions in which market economies can 
prosper. In recent years they concentrated 
on the supply side, restoring flexibility to 
their economies by anting bade regulations 
and improving incentives. As a result, in 
Europe as well as America there are now 
signs of more spirited behavior by Gnus and 
more constructive attitudes by labor. 

Bui governments should not, continuous- 
ly, neglect the demand side, the policies 
needed to ensure that demand for goods and 
services grows just fast enough to make the 
firms apply their higher spirits to the task of 
enlarging their capacity to produce. This 
sort of policy went out of fashion because 
some governments used it unwisely. If there 
is any sort of an international learning- 
process, it could be brought back cautiously. 
God gave us two eyes, said an economist: 
one for supply and one for demand. If gov- 
ernments use only one eye, however, astig- 
matism wil] impair hwlanre 

A slightly more positive response in Eu- 
rope and Japan to the prospans of weak 
demand seems called for. The dimate in 
which governments have to operate is now 
better in several respects. Inflation is pleas- 
antly low in many countries (almost negligi- 
ble in Germany and Japan, and France now 
has its rate below 4 percent for the first time 
in two decades). Prices of aH and most other 
commodities are falling. With profits better 
and wages more flexible, the countries in the 
OECD could now improve on the growth 
which is foreseen at present. 

INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE. 


Re-Engaging in Guatemala 


Guatemala defies (be common image of 
Central America as a place where nothing 
important happens without an American 
hand. On its own — true, with a viciousness 
that repelled the United States — Guatemala 
bear down a guerrilla challenge in the 1970s. 
Again on its own —and with a promise that is 
attracting the United States now — Guatema- 
la is putting an elected civilian government 
atop the county’s military-run power struc- 
ture. The question is bow the United States 
ought to re-engage in this land. 

The prime requirement is to keep full soli- 
darity with the democratic cause. President- 
elect Marco Vinido Cerezo, 42, a man of 
courage and vision, won a huge popular man- 
date, and his Christian Democratic Party con- 
trols the legislature. This gives him a founda- 
tion on which to assert the claims of 
democracy and law against a anhlary unaccus- 
tomed to acknowledging either. 

Some suggest the armed forces are ready to 
yield their traditional privileged but demean- 
ing role as the far right’s gendarme and to 
become a self-respecting professional army. 
But it’s a long way from happening. The Unit- 
ed States can help a bit by taking its cues in 
these matters directly from Mr. Cerezo, in 
particular, by deferring all talk of military and 
police aid until he indicates interest. In Wash- 
ington this week, he put thus matter off. The 
United Slates also needs to be responsive to 


Guatemala's economic needs. Brazil's 
drought, pushing up Guatemalan coffee 
prices, will not be enough. 

The second requirement for Washington is 
to subordinate its concern about Nicaragua to 
the American interest in a democratic Guate- 
mala. A country whose whole modem history 
was bent by the American-directed coup of 
1954. Guatemala has pursued neutrality in 
Central America' s raging conflicts. Mr. Cerezo 
visited Managua before going to Washington. 
He has said he is seeking a policy of “active 
neutrality," a vague concept but one that 
the apparent eclipse of the Contadora process 
may leave a little room for. 

Guatemala shares no border with Nicara- 
gua, feels beyond the reach of its guerrillas, 
and hopes to gain both in trade and in regional 
standing by keeping lines open to Managua. In 
any event, no direct support that Guatemala 
might conceivably lend to U.S. policy in Nica- 
ragua could serve Americans more than stabil- 
ity within Guatemala itself. 

Gu atem ala has been a metaphor for state 
violence. Four hundred members of Mr. Cere- 
zo’s party have been assassinated, and yet men 
and women like him are still willing to put 
their lives on the line. His election is a moment 
of rare potential to a country that desperately 
needs democracy and peace. The United 
States must help him, carefully, to use it weH 
— THE WASHINGTON POST. 


Other Opinion 


A Bald Betrayal in Nicaragua 

The ruling Sandinists are intensifying a 
campaign of intimidation and repression 
against opposition groups in Nicaragua. The 
evidence indicates a bald betrayal of the com- 
mitment to democracy made when the Sandin- 
ists took power in 1979. 

Nicaraguan leaders have sought to justify 
their actions as a response to the Unsupport- 
ed insurgency of the “contras." But they are 
exploiting the existence of the guerrilla war to 
impose a narrow, ideological interpretation of 
what had been a broad-basal revolution. 

The repression of critics within Nicaragua 
may at least help sober the nunc romantic 
foreign supporters of the Sandinists. But it 
may also serve to encourage the critics in the 


United States whose militancy already has 
served to help consolidate the very regime that 
they deplore. There has been a destructive 
polarization in America between sycophants 
who support whatever the Sandinists do, and 
extreme critics who see no good in the regime. 

Fortunately for Central America, there re- 
mains a positive alternative in the Contadora 
peacemaking process. A key element of the 
plan — tire termination of all intervention, 
including U.S. intervention — has been reaf- 
firmed by tire newly elected president of Gua- 
temala, Marco Vrnicdo Cerezo. But in Wash- 
ington the argument prevails that Uncle Sam 
knows best That arrogance ignores the evi- 
dence that the Latin Americans understand 
very well the perils of intervention. 

— Los Angeles Tunes. 


FROM OUR DEC 20 PAGES, 75 AND 50 YEARS AGO 


1910; Limits oflU.5. Immigration 
NEW YORK — The New York Sun says: 
“Many persons approve the recommendation 
of the Immigration Commission to limit immi- 
gration. It is notorious that the state of most 
aliens now here is a distinct improvement 
upon what it was in the lands from which they 
came. Hitherto the question has been consid- 
ered and treated in this country largely from a 
sentimental point of view. A welcome has been 
extended to tire politically and economically 
oppressed. Now an official body after a long 
and costly investigation submits a report that 
intimates that our generosity is already a bur- 
den to us and promises to become a menace to 
our welfare. We are told that we are making a 
large collection of socially indigestible groups 
tty which our social standards ore lowered 
and our public expenses increased.” 


1935: League Fails to Calm Europe 
PARIS — [The Herald’s editorial says:J “The 
League of Nations is giving further proof that 
it is certainly not a calming factor in tire affairs 
of this world. A British Cabinet already dis- 
rupted , as shown by the dramatic resignation 
of a British Foreign Minister, the French inte- 
rior situation gravely imperiled — these arc 
among the tragic results of tire attempt of 
diplomacy to base itself upon the League. This 
grave situation in Europe can be harmful to 
the United States only if it plainly taVeg sides 
in the matter. According to some [Dec. 19] 
newspapers, the resignation of Sir Samuel 
Hoare was in part due to the displeasure mani- 
fested by Washington over the Hoare-Laval 
Peace Plan [to partition Ethiopia]. We hope 
the? is no truth in this, for the reason that 
it should not be any of our business.” 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE 

JOHN HAY WHITNEY, Chairman I958-19S2 

KATHARINE GRAHAM, WILLIAM S. PALEY, ARTHUR OCHS SULZBERGER 

Co-Chairmen 


PHILIP M.FOBIE 
WALTER WELLS 
SAMUEL ABT 
ROBERT K. McCABE 
CARL GEWIRTZ 


LEE W. HUEBNER. PdAdur 

Ex mane Edam 
Editor 
Deputy Editor 
Deputy Ettur 
Assoeuue Editor 


Deputy Publisher 
Associate PdAiiker 
Asreaate Publisher 
Director of Operations 
Dmaer j Gradation 
rector of Advertising Saks 
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0 1985, International Herald Tribune. AH rights reserved HaSSSI 




p Au 

Smile 



oont rwaxw — 


Happy dissidents m a sa& mine picnic scene — a KGB Films release. 

The Cost of JaruzekkVs Empty Victory May Be High 

L OS ANGELES — Four years after General Bv Norman Davies to bead off their attempts to cause trouble. T 

t Woidech JanredskTs “coop” of Dec. 13, 3 pnest s murder was itself a agn of unrest amoi 


i-j Wqjdecb Janizdskfs “coop" of Dec. 13, 
1981, Poland has largely faded from the headlines. 

Periodically, as when Father Jerzy Popielnszko 
was murdered in 1984, or when a purge now under 
way has seen tire removal of 70 university profes- 
sors, the outcry reaches the level of international 
comment. But the tanks are off the streets. Martial 
law has ended. Most political prisoners have been 
released. The hounds of the Western press have 
few trails to pursue, and Poland's ills have largely 
been overtaken bv more acute crises elsewhere. 

The Polish crisis, however, is far from resolved. 
General Jaruzelsld, having crushed Solidarity with 
surprising ease, is discovering that his victory 
is more apparent than reaL 

Four years after the Hungarian revolution of 
1956, Janos Kadar was politically secure and pre- 
paring to launch a bold program of economic 
reforms. Four years after the Prague Spring, Gus- 
tav Husak held a battered Czechoslovakia safely 
under lock and key. Four years after Solidarity, 
General Jaruzelsld is nowhere. 

In Poland’s case, economic reform, the usual 
palliative for all politically immobile Communist 
regimes, has proved illusory. The threat of 
financial and industrial collapse was stemmed 
but not removed. An open declaration of bank- 
ruptcy was avoided. But the inexorable pressure of 
years of non -investment, reduced supplies and 
technological starvation is building op. The 
avalanche may yet happen in Poland. 

Meanwhile, General Jaruzdski has been dashing 
around the world in tire hope of raising a rescue: 
But his chances of success are slim. President 
Francois Mitterrand showed the general the back 
door when he visited Paris on Dec. 4, and Mr. 
Mitterrand's action was symptomatic. In all the 
countries that lent money to Poland lavishly in the 
1970s, General Jaruzelsld is an unwelcome visitor. 

In tire political sphere the general has few people 
to rdy oc and no toots to work with. The Polish 


By Norman Davies 

Communist Party, whose back was broken by the 
democratic (4miii»ng e of Solidarity, is still conva- 
lescing and its remaining members suffer from the 
ideological equivalent of a nervous breakdown. 
The “normal” civilian dictatorship of the party has 
not been properly revived. The machine is still 
working, but only through sheer inertia and the 
temporary exhaustion of its opponents. 

The general's political experiments have fallen 
QaL The new labor onions, which he ordered his 
mtninnx to organize, have naturally tamed out to 
contain a mass of ex-Solidarity supporters, and are 

Poland’s dissidents number 35- 
miUion. The crunch is coming 
and therisks are fearsome. 

proving hardly less criticaL The new PRON orga- 
nization, the Patriotic Movement of National Sat 
ration, that replaced the old Front of National 
Unity as a device for mobilizing “roontaneous” 
non-party support (orchestrated by the party) is a 
dead duck, stuffed with the part/s pork-barrel 
clients, pensioners and opportunists. 

Most ominously, the vast security services are 
feeling insecure. For ihem the Popkduszko trial 
was an unforgivable humiliation. In the Commu- 
nist world tire party is supposed to wash its linen in 
secret, and the prosecution of four officers who 
happened to have murdered a priest in tire pursuit 
erf their everyday duties was bound to be seen as a 
betray aL General Jaruzdski may not get their 
loyalty tire next time he needs iL 
Of course, tire explanation of (he Popielnszko 
trial lies in the fact the ge n eral had long 
offended the party dogmatists and was Hrtwminwi 


to tread off their attempts to cause trouble. The 
priest's murder was itself a sign of unrest among 
hard-line dements. They were sickened by the 
generaTs failure to eliminate the regime's 
opponents and try his continuing toleration of 
the Roman Caihotic Church. 

In tire West, where General Jaruzdski is often 
mistakenly portrayed as a monster, as a “Polish 
Pinochet," it is hard to believe that by the prevail- 
ing standards of his orthodox comrades he lacks 
rigor and ideological commitment In Moscow's 
eyes his promising start has been spoiled by indeci- 
sions. Having been deported to arctic Russia in 
1940, together with millions of other Poles. Gener- 
al JaruzdskTs feelings about tire Soviet Union are 
bound to be very ambiguous. 

Solidarity caxmot rise again — at least not in its 
old form. Bui its nonviolent ideals make it an easy 
victim for the police state. The danger is that in tire 
next round of the drama a frustrated opposition 
might abandon the path erf nonviolence. 

All of which poses a major problem for the 
Kremlin. In the past, detente has given Moscow 
the opening to deal with its dissidents at home. 
Now that East-West relations are improving, War- 
saw can expect the reins to be shortened. If Mik- 
hail S. Goroachev, tire Soviet leader, runs true to 
form, he will retire General Jaruzdski in disgrace, 
blame him for tire chaos and try to restore socialist 
discipline. If he does nothing, the crunch is coming 
anyhow. But Poland is a coup of dissidents 35 
unman strong, and is not to be trifled with. It is the 
key to Eastern Europe. The risks are fearsome. If 
Mr. Gorbachev is as enlightened as one prays, he 
will cut his losses in Poland, let the general retire 
with honor, grant the Poles what Solidarity de- 
manded and save tire world another headline 

The writer, a visiting professor of history at Stan- 
ford University, California, is the author of “Heart cf 
Europe: A Short History of Poland” He contributed 
this comment to the Las Angeles Times. 


A New South African Conflict; Black Versus Black 


L ONDON — South Africans live in 
j entirety different worlds in terms 
of their perceptions of what is actual- 
ly happening in tire country. White 
South Africans, especially Afrika- 
ners. have no doubt at all that apart- 
heid has already come to an end — at 
least .as the official ideology of the 
government — and that (hey are now 
caught up in the maelstrom of a disin- 
tegrating political system. 

A prominent South African writer 
said in a conversation I had with him 
in Grahamstown: “It’s as though the 
long winter of apartheid has ended; 
suddenly, the deadlock has broken; 
tire ice-ooond logs are beginning to 
surge forward in the soring aments. 

“The lumbermen, who had an easy 
time of it during the freeze-up, are 
now to be seen jumping hazardously 
from one dislodged log to another 
trying to restore control over their 
tuanutuous surge towards tire sea." 

Bui if this seems to be an accurate- 
ly graphic description of what is in- 
deed happening, it is by no meads the 
way blade Sooth Africans see their 
situation. Wherever one goes — in 
the urban ghettos, in smaller rural 
towns like Cradock and Oudtshoom, 
in tire colored townships — the mes- 
sage is the same: “For us, nothing has 
changed; only the rhetoric. 

“We listen to the speeches of tire 
President, but our lives remain con- 
fined by the pass laws; the urban 
influx control laws forbid us from 


By Colin Legnm 


moving around to find new jobs at a 
time when unemployment is grow- 
ing; the police still behave as badly 
towards us as they always have, per- 
haps even worse now; and even tire 
insults of so-called petty-apartheid 
are part of our daily experience.” 

Nor is this just the language of 
black miHtaitis; it is the <rf 

humble people in South Africa. 

These totally conflicting percep- 
tions about the current situation m . 


sence of meaningful d i alogpe con- 
ducted around a table between the 
acknowledged representatives of 
both societies. The president insists 
that he is anxious to begin negotia- 
tions with blade leaders — and they, 
fortunately, are still in a mood for 
peaceful reconciliation. 

Very few of die recognizable black 
leaders I talked to in a score of places 
around tire country expressed them- 
selves against negotiations; on the 


If theblockconununity becomes seriously divided, 
the hope of finding a negotiated settlement to 
South Africa’s many problems may be lost forever. 


South Africa reflect the wide gulf that 
still exists between tire two societies 
which rnnb« meaningful communi- 
cation so difficult The whites hear 
and understand the message of Presi- 
dent P.W. Botha that tire long era of 
their political domination is over. 
The blades, informed by their own. 
experience, listox to his words. but 
don't accept tire message. 

It is this absence of effective dia- 
logue that increases the dangers of 
the present situation. . .. 

Ail the fme,.andoftai brave, words 
of Mr. Botha count for nothing so far 
as blades are concerned in tire ab- 


contrary, they kept stressing the im- 
portance and urgency of ralW 
under way. The only dissenters I en- 
countered .were among some of the 
more militant blade youth leaders. At 
one meeting in Cape Town I listened 
to six young militants, ail of them in 
their late teens or early twenties. 
Their collective view was: 

“The only language the while man 
will understand in tins country is the 
language of violence. That is their 
method, and that must be ours as 
wdL Our . fathers and grandfathers 
tried, indeed begged, for a chance to 
negotiate, and where did that get 


them? It wasn't until blacks began to 
take up arms and resorted to throw- 
ing rocks and liquidating collabora- 
tors that our message began to get 
across. But our message is stfll not 
fully understood; and it won't be un- 
til we begin killing whites.” 

There is, then, a second gulf open- 
ing np — not just between the two 
societies, but also between the young 
militants and the older generation of 
black leaders — the spokesmen of the 
African National Congress and the 
Pan-Africanist Congress, of Chief 
Gaisha BothelezFs Tnkafoa move- 
ment, and Dr. Nthato Motiana's 
Soweto Gvic Association. 

The older generation appears to 
carry most weight in the black com- 
munity; but so long as they are si- 
lenced by being jailed or exiled, the 
field is left open to the younger gener- 
ation of understandably angry and 
desperate men and women. 

There is still time to prevent this 
second gulf widening to tire point 
that it divides tire black community. 
If that were to happen, the hope of 
finding a negotiated settlement to 
South Africa's complex problems 
would probably be lost forever. It is 
this message that needs to be got 
across, somehow, to the government 

The writer, a syndicated columnist 
and veteran commentator on African 
affairs, returned recently from a 
monthlong lour of South Africa. 


Lost: One Cigarette Case 9 
But Who’s Real Culprit? 

By Edwin M. Yoder Jr. 


W ASHINGTON — Dickens’s 
Mr. Beadle Bumble, who 
gagged at the idiotic idea that a man 
is legally responsible for the behav- 
ior of his wife, should be here to 
have his say about the latest wrinkle 
in common sense-defying legal doc- 
trines, “product liability." 

One example is — or was, until 
Judge Thomas Hull threw it out of 
federal court in Knoxville, Tennes- 
see, tire other day — a $5 5- million 
suit against RJ. Reynolds, maker of 
Camel and Winston cigarettes. 

Until Judge Hull disallowed tire 
case, Floyd Roysdon of Oneida, 
Tennessee, was contending that RJ. 
Reynolds should pay him the huge 
sum ip question because smoiring its 
cigarettes had cost him his leg. It 
had to be amputated because of 
circulation problems; and he 
blames his poor circulation on 
Camels and Winstons. 

For all 1 know Mr. Roysdon and 
his lawyers and expert witnesses 
made a plausible guess about the 
origin of the medial problem. 

But if evoy cigarette smoker is to 
collect for having willingly injured 
himself — smoking being, at last 
glance, a more or less voluntary 


activity -—cigarette making is going 
to be prohibitively expensive. Dair- 
ies (risk of butter fats) and distill- 
eries (also blamed for circulatory 
diseases) would soon be on the exe- 
cutioner's block as well 

Indeed, it is impossible to guess 
how far product liability will ulti- 
mately go. You used to have to 
prove negligence, prove; essentially, 
that a manufacturer had sdd you a 
defective product There is a differ- 
ence between a product whose hid- 
den defects jeopardize the consum- 
er and a product the known risk of 
which lies in the use. 

This obvious distinction seems, 
however, to be fading' in product- 
liability cases, f put the following 
hypotbeas to an eminent lawyer. 

£ If I grasp the doctrine of prod- 
uct liability, 1 may buy s well-made 
pair of skis, use them on a danger- 
ous slope, break my neck, and from 
my wheelchair sue the maker of the 
skis with good prospect of collect- 
ing compensation for my pains and 
disabilities, notwithstanding that 
tire recklessness was entirely .mine' 
and no fault of the ski maker." 

He said it was entirely possible.. 

Perhaps Mr- Roysdon did not 


S8i 


know of the risk of cigarette smok- 
ing? Indeed, without setting foot in 
die courtroom, 1 can hear bis law- 
yers Signing that by the time the 
. U.S. surgeon general began to warn 
us against cigarettes, the victim had 
already damaged his arteries. 

Possibly;bm it's an even bet that 
his mama warned him not to smoke 
long before the surgeon general. 
"And if she didn’t, tobacco has had 
an msavory reputation for nearly 
as long as it has been smoked. No 
less a personage than King James I 
. of England denounced it In a pam- 
pblet as a vQe and stinking weed; 
and that was in Shakespeare's timer 


question, in my mind at least, thai 
agarettes are medically dangerous. 

The point is that he stnofcwt vol- 
untarily, with every reason to know 
he was doing something risky. He 
had every right to do so. His right 
to smoke at the company’s risk rath- 
er than his own, a right that wnw 
to be implicit in the an w y ng 
doctrine of product liability, is 
questionable indeed. 

Judge Hull is, in nty view, ever- 
lastingly right “The question,” he 


not long after Walter Raleigh im- 
ported- il If that high and nudity 
prince did not warn of its medical 
dangers, be certainly - meant to. 
Furthermore, if Mr. Roysdon 
hadn’t beard the good old boys of 
Oneida, Te nne ssee, referring to cig- 
arettes as “coffin nails,” be has led 
a very sheltered life , . • 

FTpyd Roysdon is due every syn*- 
patby in his affliction. There is no 


what an ordinary consumer would 
be expected to know." The thresh- 
old or a just injury claim .is highur 
than wtihng self injury. * .< 

There are; no doubt, apostles of 
social uplift who wentid- welcome a 
court- or jury-made concept of 
product liability that would put cig- 
arette makers out of business: But. 
it’s an abuse of law (to say .nothing 
of personal liberty) to reach that 
end by making a weed of the an- 
cient and usefpl idea of negligence. 

Washington Past Writers Group. 


U.S. Faces 
Hard Choice , 
la Manila 

By Joseph Kraft 

W/ASHINGTON — The prcsk 
W dential campaign in the FhSip-. 
pines signals that neither candidate 
can effectively govern tire country. 
President Ferdinand E. Marcos arid 
Corazoo Aquino head rival dans that 
are too narrow to mobilize broad 
support for reviving tire economy and 
restoring tire national defense. 

So Washington's slightly bogus, ‘ J 
goody-goody stance on tire election, 
needs rethinking. Whoever wins, the 
United States now needs to develop a 
long-term strategy for dealing with a. 
good friend in bad trouble: 

Mr. Marcos, according to his. 
enemies, embodies most of lire cardi- 
nal sins. He runs (he armed forces as 
a private fief and shows little interest, 
in organizing defense against a grow- 
ing insurgency. Cronyism dominates 
the country's economy. 

The business community, far from 
rallying to support the regime, seerns 
mainly concerned to send dollars out 
of the country. It is said that Mr. 
Marcos suffers from an incurable ail- 
ment and could not long survive a 
win in tire elections anyway. , , 

Mrs. Aquino acquired a martyr's , * 
reputation when her husband Ben- 
igno was murdered cm returning 
home from exile in the United States ' 
two years ago. Nobody knew much 
about her views, or wanted to know. 
But since her nomination for the 
presidential race, the news has been ■ 
coming oat, and it is dismaL 

Mrs. Aquino has repeatedly d©-' 
dared that she favors action against 
Mr. Marcos as a war crinrinaLSbc 
admits that she knows nothing about , 
business or statecraft. Her running 
mate. Salvador Laurel, obviously 
does, but both have walked far out on ; 
a plank that tilts toward e&mmation ’ 
of the big UJ5. naval and air bases at 
Subic Bay and Gark Field. 

Up to now Washington has main- 
tained a fictional unity regarding the 
Philippine elections. The United-- 
States is supposedly unified around ; 
the proposition that Americ ans stand 
only for free institutions, fair elec- 
tions, a professional military and an 
economy free of corruption. 

Nobody with eyes to see and ears 
to listen, however, can take that Pol- 
lyannish position seriously.. 

In fact, the State Department and - 
the most vocal members of Congress . 
have wanted to push Mr. Marcos 
from power. President Reagan and 
bis close friend in (he Senate and 
occasional envoy to Manila, Paul 
Laxalt, a Republican of Nevada,', 
want to save Mr. Marcos. 

Thanks to their coaching, Mr, 
Marcos has recently, achieved some 
big wins. He managed to call snap 
elections for Feb. 7 that surprised tire 
opposition, but not Mr. Laxalt. His j 
chief military' ally. General Fabian- 
Ver, won court exoneration of strong 
charges implicating him in the mur- 
der of Mr. Aquino. 

Now General Ver is back on the 
job as chief of staff, fiddling tire dec-, 
tion for Mr. Marcos and his running 
mate. Arturo Tolentino. 

Mr. Laxalt has collaborated to tire 
extent of arranging that a team of 
congressional observers will be on tire 
spot to authenticate tire poll. 

With disaster in tire making no. 
matter who wans, tire United States, 
ought to back away from participa- 
tion in a charade. 

Long experience with managed 
elections in underdeveloped coun- 
tries teaches that American observers' 
are no match for tire locals. If Mr. 
Marcos wins, it will not help the 
United States to have legitimized his' * 
cause. If Mis. Aquino wins, the Unit- .* 
ed Stales ought not to be responsible 
for a regime it does not tnuL In any 
case it should not be playing shell 
games against itsdf. 

Vengeful liberals and crack-, 
brained conservatives wiU of course-- 
argue that the United States has a 
commitment to promote free political 
choice the world over. In fact, by. 1 
decolonizing and setting tire Philip- 
pines on the road to independence it 
met that obligation long ago. • ■ i 
Los Angeles Tunes Syrubctne. 


LETTER V 
SDL It Could Save Livesu . 

Hans Snider claims that-tire Strata^ 1 
gic Defense Initiative is “intended- to 
gam a first-strike advantage" and 
bringing us closer to midear .ho&-' 
cairn." (Letters, Dee. 14.) . . . 

These assertions could not be' 
further off tire marie. I think R ^ 
quite dear that the United State* 
has no need or desire to have aGist-' 
strike capability. ■- ‘ -' 

Mutual assured destruction, or titf' 
balance of tenor, will continue to 
deter the superpowers from using-, 
their arsenals against one another x 
The actual dangers under these-' 
conditions are two: an accident 
where missiles mistakenly •are'-i 
launched; or one of the "”mac .r, . 
tyrants or terrorists getting 
hands on a bomb. ««yl .bJackmaiHag!^ 
or actually attacking us. . Jr' 

These, two frightful posribfljtifcj'i 
point up the absolute necessity iff- 
build SDI as. soon -as possible. -'As" 
mudi as we try to stop nuclear prolif- j 
erauon, it is happening anyway. . : *•; . - 
I for oner would prefer to hasi? 
some defense against the accidental .: 
firing, and the madme n who areaq^- 
longer far from havii® bombsof thati 
own. SDI could be .the saviour . of . 
millions of lives. ..'i.Vi. 

MATTHEW D. GREEK: x.- : . 

: Sl Gafien. Switzerland. . v 


*~ aor and must contain theim 
signature, name and JW pi 
dress... Lcttcrs sktovld be brief a \ 
ere subject, a, editmg. We arm 
be responsible for xhe. return, ! 






.* 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, FRIDAY, DECEMBER 20, 1985 


Page 7 


t 7.S. Inspectors to Ride Arrow Air Flights 


j By James Gerstenzang 
and Mark A. Stein 

hj L&Axgela Times Servfey 

‘Washington— u^. impec- 

rs arc riding on nearly bH of Ar- 

,• w Ail's flints during the next 
-ree weds to make sure that cock- 
% t crews, flight attendants and 
amtcnanoe procedures meet gov- 
. ' mren t standards, a Federal Avia- 
■ m Administration spokesman 
! & atm/M*"** 

The airtotne infection, rare but 
. it unusual, was entered, after a. 
. Altered Arrow DC-8 crashed 
/ sc. 12 in Newfoundland, killing 
■8 (JiL soldiers and eight crew 
anbesrs. 

. A spokesman for the agency, 
.. hn Leyden, said Wednesday that 
e investigation stemmed not only 
m the crash, but also from 
uestions about safe operations” 
at have been raised about the 
Lum-based airline. 

“We want to assure ourselves 
■d the public” that Arrow Airis 
st rin g safety standards m all its 
nations, Mr. Leyden said. 

He said that the inspectors, who 
e pOols, would ride in cockpits 
.id monitor crew performance. 


check, mamtenmcc logs. for each, 
airplane and “observe the overall 
operations." 

Such inspections have been con- 
ducted “in special situations with 
other canters, but ifg not a com- 
mon thing,” he said. ‘ 

- The agency is also' stepping up its 
' inspections of other amines and 
has begun to investigate the main- 
tenance procedures of every major 
U.S. carrier. • j : 

The spokesman said that the in- 
spectors, who began flying an Ar- 
row trips Tuesday, would be an 
aboot 33 hips by Jan. 6. ■ 

He said that rf»e presence of the 
inspectors in the cockpit might en- 
courage the crc^ to operate more 
carefully than on other flights, but 
that the agency- believed that such 
monitoring provided a useful 
means of evaluating an- airline’s 

performance. 

Arrow Air flks a large number of 
charter fligh ts and has been given 
SI 3-8 mfl bo n in business by the 
Military Airiift Command for the 
current fiscal year. Pentagon offi- 
cials have said they have found no 
reason to stop using Arrow. 

In the days since the Newfound- 


land. crash, reports "have surfaced 
that have raised questions about 
the aix|me?s operations: ' 

Mechanics who have said they 
have worked an Arrow , planes re- 
ported finding such faults as a 
loose wheel and engine malfunc- 
tions. Shortly before the crash, the 
same airplane aborted a takeoff 
when hs tail hit a rimway. 

The airfm e mannamed that it 
has not flown unsafe airplanes. 

Investigators in Canada have re- 
ported Ending a detached thrust 
reverter from an engine, providing 
a possible due to die crash. The 
revaser is a deceleration device 
used an landing. 

The' fully loaded DC-8 crashed 
shortly after takeoff from a refuel- 
ing stop in Gander, Newfound- 
land. It was carrying sokfiers re- 
turning to Foil Campbell, 
Kentucky, after a ax-month tour ' 
with the 11-nation peacekeeping 
force in the Sinai Peninsula. 

■ Repair Inspections Ordered 

Earlier, Richard Witkm <4 The 
New York Times reported from New 
York: 

The agency has ordered an un- 
usually broad inspection of jetea-. 


gine repair facilities operated by 
major anlin« and fay independent 
overhaul 

The eight-week survey, which is 
to get undo- way next month, is a 
response to a run of accidents, in- 
cluding two fatal airline crashes, 
involving the Pratt & Whitney 
TT8D engine series powering ova 
half of all jet airliners made in non- 
C nmnumist countrie s. 

About 12,500 JT8Ds have .been 
delivered over the past 21 years for 
use on 4300 anhners. 

Agony offirjals aqhuized that 
the inspectors would also lock at 
the maintenance of Other en gines 
made by Pratt A Whitney and of 
those made by General Etotfri c 
and Rolls-Royce. The inspections 
are to cover 14 air l ine facilities and 
six independent operations. 

It should not be necessary to 
take any airiinos out of service to 


rals said. The order should have 
no effect an ihe traveling public, 
they said. 

Ihe broad inspection of engine 
fads ties is the firet such survey the 
agency has ever conducted. The do- 
risen to order it was made before 
the Arrow crash. 



PROTESTING PEACE TERMS — Policemen in New Delhi dashed Thursday with 
an estimated 70,000 demonstrators, many of them Hindu farmers from Haryana state, 
who marched on Partiament to protest terms of a proposed peace agreement for the 
adjacent state of Punjab, which is dominated by Sikhs. About 20,000 demonstrators 
were detained. The 20,000 poKcemen used dobs and tear gas to Asperse the crowd. 


Mvided Philippine Coart 
iays Election Can Proceed 


(Cautioned Iron Page X) 
th plans to challenge Mr. Marcos 
r the presidency. 

Residency is not dearly defined 
ider Pbflippme Law. 

Meanwhile, Mis. Aquino oontin- 
d her fast extended campaign 
ur, through the country’s sonth- 
a provinces, with a stop in the 
y of Cagayan de Ora. on the 
and of Mindanao. 

She told a crowd of about 8,000 
a* that she would offer Cotnmu- 
il insurgents fighting the govern- 
mt a six-month cease-fire during 
jeh both sides could seek an ac~ 

nmodatioa. 

rbe last-minute unification on a 
gle ticket of Mrs. Aquino and 
'■ Laurel a week ago forged the 
gmented opposition into a 
»g political force, 
fbe enthusiasm the opposition 
deis have generated in their first 
1 days of campaigning — coa- 
sted with Che smaller crowds Mr. 
iroos has drawn even in bis borne 
tvince — have led to a new sense 


that he is being seriously chal- 
lenged for the first time since be 
was elected 20 years ago. 

Because of this challenge, some 
of Mr. Marcos’s advisers had ex- 
that he would influence the 
Court to can off the elec- 
tion now, before the opposition 
builds further momentum. 

_ “The election goes on.” said Jus- 
tice Hermogenes Concqxaon after 
thejudges took their vote Thursday 

imuning 

Justice Teehankee said the elec- 
tion had “reached the- point of no 
return. You cannot step it any. 
more.” 

■ U.S. Aide Warns on Vote 

A Pentagon official warned 
Wednesday that a “blatantly un- 
fair" outcome in the presidential 
election would make it “almost im- 
possible'' for the Reagan adminis- 
tration to ask Congress for addi- 
tional aid to the Philippines, The 
Los Angdes Times reported Thurs- 
day. 


TaxBadsfire 

hPossEbde 


[ powerless to deliver on one 
of his main campaign promises, he 
would be finab le effectively to cam- 
paign for Republican House mem- 
bers next year. A very tew may 
have been swayed by that. 

Others were persuaded by presi- 
dential promises, or what they took 
to be presidential promises. 

On many past issues, the presi- 
dent has taken a hard line only to 
poll bade at the last narrate. He 
might do that on tax reform, as he 
did on sanctions for Sooth Africa. 
A retreat would cany a high pcliti- 
cal price. 

What is more, Mr. Reagan may 
find himself confronted with a Sen- 


Soviet Makes 
New Offer 
To Reagan 

(Continued from Page 1) 
to t f( ’**T* the initiativ e in the East- 
West dialogue, diplomats said. 

Pravda did not elaborate on 
whatjtmeanthy M certanunea5sres 
of on-site reification," and some 
diplomats cautioned that the term* 
and conditions of the inspection 
visits would be important to clari- 
fy- 

in a conversation with Dr. Ber- 
nard Lown and Dr. Yevgeni L (Zha- 
rov, the U.Sl and Soviet co-presi- 
dents of the Nobel Peace 
Prize-winning International Physi- 
cians for the Prevention of Nuclear 
War, Mr. Gorbachev raised the 
possibility Wednesday of on-site 
inspections in the care of “snspi- 
rions events.” 

Dr. Chazov and Dr. Lows bad 
sought a QwnwtniHit from Mr. 
Gorbachev to continue the morato- 
rium past the Jan. 1 deadline. But, 
according to Dr. Lown, Mr. Gorba- 
chev left the impression that nnV»gc 
the United States agreed to join the 
ban, die Soviet Union would re- 
sume testing. 

Pravda reinforced that impres- 
sion, raying that “for obvious rea- 
sons, in die face of military prepa- 
rations overseas, the U.S.SJEL 
cannot sacrifice the interests of its 
security and the security of its allies 
and friends.” 

It stressed the Soviet view that a 
halt to nudear testing would be a 
“major landmark rax the way to- 
wards eliminating the ondesT dan- 
ger." . 

“If there really is an intention to 
move toward an end to the nodear 
arms race, a mutual moratorium 
cannot draw any objections, while 
the benefit from it would be big," it 
said. 

■ U.S. Reaction 

The US. official who said that 
Mr. Gorbachev had written to Mr. 
about on-site 


| fjidak Say Relief Program 


1 Sudan May Hinder Recovery 

- •T shin trr tn tv 


tmdtumsecconixQnteawiinaaen- moors response would be to the 
ate biD that contains much of what Soviet leader, The Associated Press 
he warns on tax revision and some- r eported, 
thing that be has zealously op- Mr. Reagan offered earlier this 
posed: a tax increase. year to permit Soviet inspectors at 

By the time the measure is debat- US. test sites. It was not immedi- 
ed next summers fait, the new bill ately dear if Mr. Gorbachev’s letter 
mandating a balanced budget by meant that be had accepted the 
1991 will have taken effect, posing president's proposal 
the choice, many legislators be- In a statement, Mr. Speakes said 
Heve, between deep cuts in ntiKtaiy that the Sonet Union had contin- 
spending tax increases. ued through di plomati c, rham^u to 

With all of the House and a third press fra* a moratorium cm nuclear 
of the Senate op for re-election, explosions, 
there will be tremendous pressure .It was not the first time that the 
an Senate Republicans to produce Russians have ex pr e sse d readiness 
some sort of tax bilL But what for om-ate limited provi- 


may be unacceptable to sion for inspection was 


(Cautioned from Page 1) 

lievement in food distribution. 
yi r. Edridge said the fund, 
ch distributed 100,000 tons of 
pnun in Darfur this year and 
, is to do the same again by next 
■fl, was staying on “without en- 
sasm because we're not opti- 
tic about getting food down to 
ige level" 

i the administrative confusion 
'h that the overthrow erf Geoer- 
tmeiri in April government su- 
irion of tire aid workers has 
i minimal and the authorities 
: only just begun to deal with 
•sing and regulation, 
i private, Sudanese officials ex- 
5 concern over the influx of 
lg foreigners unfamiliar with 
rooms of the country, 
senior official with the Infor- 

5u Minis try said the mission- 
ed neocolonial overtones of 
volumaiy programs, as wefl 
ut he called the arrogance of 
relief workers toward their 
» had turned many Sudanese 
st them. 

trial of former Sudanese offi- 
who allegedly helped smuggle j 
6,000 or Ethiopian Jews from 
Q to Israel has added to the 
te of suspicion. A dozen vol- 
y relief organizations have 
implicated in the operations, 
iny officials with the private 
organizations are equally sus- 
js of Sudanese officials. They 
e them of bureaucratic iner- 
ck of imagination and insen- 
y to the needs of the rural 
uinities. 

■oop Reaffirms Criticism 
: head of a private French 
agency expelled from Etiuo- 
M Thursday his group would 
me denouncing a reseide- 
program in that country, The 


Assodated Press reported from 
Nairobi 

Dr. Rony Brauman, president of 
Doctors Without Borders, a group 
based in Paris, called the resettle- 
ment “a deadly operation which 
has to be stopped.” 

The group, which was ordered to 
leave Ethiopia cm Dec. 2, alleges 
that 100,000 or more people have 
died because of the resettlement 
program, in which more than a mil- 
lion people are to be moved from 
the north to more fertile areas in 
the southwest 

A coalition of relief agencies, 
however, cautioned that criticism 
of (he resettlement could jeopar- 
dize further aid donations. 

“As h umanitarian agencies, our 
first concern must be to assist the 
people of Ethiopia wherever they 
are,” the Christian Relief and De- 
velopment Association said in a 
statement 


or the House leader- 
ship or to both. 


by the two 
Nuclear 


in the 


of 1976. 


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Robert Capa, Libcalioa of Paris, 1944 (below) David Seymour, Arturo Tbscanmi. 1954 David Seymour. Disturbed orphan, 19 48 



Herni Cartier-Bresson, The Ascot Train. Walerioo Station. Loudon 1953 


Erich Lessing, Railroad workers. 1956 



Robert Capa. The New Look. Paris 1947 Werner Bischot In the mins of Warsaw, 1947 



Photographs by: 

Werner Bischof. Rene Bum, 
Robert Capa, Henn Cartier- 
Bresson. Elliot Erwin, Ernst Hass. 
Erich Lessing. Inge Morath, 

Marc Riboud. David Seymour, 
and other Magnum 
photographers 


From the archives of Magnum Photos, a photographic record of Europe in . 
the immedia te postwar years — striking images of a continent shaking off J; 

the debris of destruction and coming to life. t t 

Mary Blunae, the International Herald Tribune’s distinguished feature & 
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in her introduction. The I.H.T. is pleased to present this unique volume that 
captures a decisive epoch and commemorates the work of some erf the 
20th century’s masteyjhotojoumalists. 



Here you’ll find some of the most famous images and faces of our 
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Available from the International Herald Tribune. Order today. 

ItcralOc^enbunc. 


Hardcover, 
200 pages, 
168 duotone illustrations, 
32x26cm (12.5xl0_25in.) 


after the war was over 

International Herald Tribune. Bock Division. 

181 Ave. Oiaries-de-Gaulle. 92521 Neuilly Cedex, France 

Ptease check method of payment 

□ Enclosed is ray payment (in any convertible 
European currency at current exchange rates). 

Please charge 10 □ Access □ Visa • Qarkx 
my credit card. • .□Eurocard □ Diner* OfcLsiercaid 


Please send me copies of After The War Was Over 

at U.S. $3950 each, phis postage: $4.00 each in Europe; 
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fnorssa/y for credit card purchases) 


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20-12-85 






Page 8 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, FRIDAY, DECEMBER 20, 1985 



NYSE Index 


Compton* 

industrials 

Trams. 

Utilities 

Finance 


MMi Law cm* arm 

13076 12044 T2WS +007 
13034 IJfM 13832 +034 
11447 11X78 114.10 — 015 
6243 6269 078—017 
130.19 12744 130JB1 —047 


Odd-Lot Trading In N.Y 


Bay JOp ■MYt 

Dec. 18 212677 5844*5 MM 

MC. 17 390842 <510429 0484 

DOC. M 3 S 06 M 719*444 UN 

D*C 13 390332 879^91 4415 

Dce.12.. 224445 71X705 4822 

'•Included m ihe sales flsurm 


IhursdayS 


m a dm 


dosing 


VW. o*4 PAL 13UUM 

Pm.4PJH.VBL-. 137490*8 

Pnv nmofldated da» lAblM 


Tables include Hie nattonwld* prices 
up ta hm dosing on wwi street mm 
do NO* reflect lute trades MMwtwre. 

Via The Associated. Press 



AMEX Diaries 


NASDAQ Index 


|m.uu:4AM=iI^ 


vdl HM Lew Lest Cbs. 


279 264 

299 349 

273 244 

841 as 

29 * 

13 14 

541X940 
3436.150 


commit* 

Industrials 

Finance 

Ineurance 

Utilities 

Bank* 

Tramp. 


Ctort com 

32U7 +OW 

SSifS 

34X88 +l.« 
29X03 +207 


J3HS0 244*19 
32475 2S7J9 
m3S m* 
38044 381 JO 
29741 234.19 
34150 22843 
29230 23542 


BATIK 

DotneP 

VYonoB 

HffltCn 

GMGOB 

WWW 

LyrnhC 

Matrix 5 

CnStar* 

OataPB 

AExpwI 

EcMBB 

TIE 

MacScti 

KcvPn 


$ ? 

Bft 2«£ 
W4* Wt 
S 4* 

mi w 

31 Vr 

1Ai 14 
16* WA 
so** 

Oft I2fc 

m m 

ZKk 21W 
1086 Wt 


d\ .+ tfe 

30 — U, 

25% + * 
1*8 

a* — fa 

m* +m 

23% — % 
1426 + * 

uu vi 
90 -1% 

1346 

6 

31*6-18 
W46 + V» 


Standard & Poor's Index 


HM tow Clam WW 
XSSlte 30935 21002 + 021 


AMEX Sales 


4 PM. volume 
Prev. 4 PJ4. wuwne 
mv. cans, volume 


1249X000 

11490*000 

11494000 



New York Stocks Edge Higher 


53% 53 53% + Ml 

47Vk 46 4616— 46 

3 mm 

65 63% 6346—116 

1846 1846 1846— Ml 
146 144— Mi 
28 2816— % 
816 816— M 
■746 8746 
904* 9046 + 46 
80 80 
75 75 -1% 

1764 1716— 16 
2916 2916 + % 
32 + M 

2ft* 

g* 66 
3316— 46 

g _* 

1946 + 4* 
1546 + 16 
79 
3316 

23% — V* 
2146 +11* 
47 + % 

66 
16 


United Prm fiuenuukmal 

NEWYORK — Prices edged higher Thurs- 
day on the New York Stock Exchange in thin- 
ning volume. Traders said the market was paus- 
ing before Friday's government report at the 
strength of the U.S. economy and before the 
expiration, of December stock-mdex futures and 
options contracts. 

The Dow Jones industrial average finished 
with a gain of 1.49, to 1,543.92, after fluctuating 
in a narrow range through the session. 

Broader market indexes edge d higher. The 
NYSE composite index rose 0.07 to 120.75. 
Standard & Poor's 500-stock index added Oil 
to 210.02 and the price of an average share rose 
two cents. 

On the Big Board, 130.2 million shares 
changed hand*, down from 137.9 million 
Wednesday. Advances beat d e cli nin g issues 
848-811 

Alfred Harris of Josephihal & Co. in St. 
Louis said market sentiment varied from posi- 
tive to “uneasy.” 

Analysts said some investors were waiting for 
Friday’s scheduled report of estimated fourth- 
quarter gross national product 

Another factor contributing to caution was 
wariness that the expiration of December stock- 
index futures and options might whipsaw the 
market Friday. 

But Mr. Harris noted that some traders fed 
much of the volatility involved in the unwinding 
of these futures- and options-idated trading 
strategies may already have been worked out 
this week and that Friday's market could be 
relatively quiet. 

Mr. Harris said the market has also been 


M-l Falk $ 3.2 Bittum 


NEW YORK — M-l, the narrowest mea- 
sure of the U.S. money supply, fdl $3.2 
billion to a seasonally adjusted 5623 billion- 
in the week ended Dec. 9, the Federal Re- 
serve said Thursday. 

The previous week’s M-l level was revised 
to 5626.2 billion, from $626.1 bfl&an, and 
the four-week moving average of M-l rose 
to 5621. 7 billion from S619.4 trillion. 

M-l measures currency in circulation, 
traveler’s checks and checking deposits at 
financial institutions. 

marked by profit-taking, which he said was a 
limited and healthy phenomenon. 

“The market has had a tremendous runup,” 
he said. “We should have some profit-takmg 
here.’' 

But the overall trend toward dkmflatioii, 
reinforced recently by the derision of the Orga- 
nization of Petroleum Exporting Countries to 
abandon production restraints, means the mar- 
ket can move higher, Mr. Hams said. 

Federal National Mortgage Association was 
the most active NYSE-listed issue, falling l to 
26%. Baxter Travend followed, eaing K to 15. 

Texaco was third, adding V, to 29%. Two 
Texaoo shareholders filed suit contending that 
the directors of Texaco and their investment 
banker had engaged in a “brazen and arrogant” 
attempt to steal Getty 03 Co. away from Penn- 
zo3 Co. and should be held responsible for an 
SU.l-bQlkm judgment against the company. 
PennzoO gained 54 to 6154. 



Energy-Boom 
Implications of 
the GE/RCA Flay 

and Why indigo Clients 

are Already Ahead 

When various analysts were being quoted 
last Augustas expecting another^ crash in 
Ihe New York market, we asked tn a regular 
weekly report how anyone could expect a 
stock such as General Electric to crash front 
al 2 -times-eamingsappraisaLWeclassifled 
it. as a major factor in introducing new! 
energy-generation and utilization concepts 
ro the Industrial scene and recommended 
accumulating tor an initial rise from roughly 
$60 to $80. News of its RCA acqutetttei 
pushed it to $71 from $58 in earty November; 
but the newest indigo report explains why 
our nexttargetis now $94. RCAwimakeGE's 
energy activities to orbital space; and there 
are numbers of lower-priced buys of greater 
voiatiHty that you should know about as this 
progression gathers momentum. Complete 
and return the coupon for a series of com- 
plimantary studies covering everything in 
energy from oil futures to the thrust info 
fusion. 

Indigo 

bWKtmenl Cap BV 

Keizersgracht 534,1017 EK Amsterdam 


2416 2446 2846 + 1 * 

2446 2346 3416 + 46 

4116 41 411 * + 46 

2546 2446 2 SK> ♦ 4 * ' 

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(Confirmed cm Ftage 12 ) 











































































1132 


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December 20, 1985 


k 



WEEKEND 


Page 9 


Sydney Pollack’s African Adventure 


by Janet Masfin 

N EW YORK — “I had a fann in 
Africa, at the foot of the Ngong 
Hills” — that famous opening 
sentence of Isak Dinesen’s “Out 
of Africa" has some of the most 

enterprising modem filmmakers. Orson 
Welles, who made an hoar-long film of Di- 
nesen’s “lie Immortal Story, never real- 
ized his hopes of adapting her classic African 
memoir. Nor did David Lean’s thoughts of 
-filming the book ever materialize In the 
early 1970s, Nicolas Roeg thought of direct- 
ing a film with Julie Christie as the Danish' 
bom author and Ryan O'Neal as the Swed- 
ish baron whom die married. But if the book, 
which Dinesen’s biographer Judith Thurman 
("Isak Dinesen: The Life of a Storyteller”) 
has called “a landscape from the air," has a 
keen sense of character and place that has 
made it alhiring from the filmmaker's stand- 
point, it also has an uneventfulness that has 
it well out of reach. So it eluded them 


The man who finally filmed "Out of Afri- 
ca," as a S 30- million Christmas movie that 


just opened in the United States, is at first 
glance an unlikely aspirant. Sydney Pollack 
is best known for big-name Hollywood ro- 
mances (like “The Way We Were") and, 
most recently, for a comedy ("Tootsie”) 
about a man in a dress. Bom m Indiana, be 
had never been to Africa before filming on 
the Dinesen movie began in 1983. Though be 
has directed films based on novels, he had no 
major experience with literary adaptation. 
Nor had Pollack ever attempted anything 
this physically taxing or complicated. "Out 
of Africa,” which he also produced, is a 
1 costume drama with intricate sets, 
lions (flown in from California) 
i thousands <rf extras, some equipped with 
special 515-a-pair drooping latex ears. 

But Pollack may have been uniquely well- 
equipped to convey the material’s innate 
contradictions. The memoir’s rarefied, con- 
trolled tone masks exactly the kinds of am- 
bivalence, regret and longing to which Pol- 
lack has always been drawn. In the words of 
the director’s dose friend Robert Redford, 
whose appearance with Meryl Streep in “Out 
of Africa” is his sixth starring role in a 
Pollack film, “Sydney sees both sides of 
everything, be really does. If he’s committed 


Michaels and Granites in project's first video studio. 


t. Bertel 


, $ 

jnoige 


Aborigines’ 'Dreamtime’ 
On Desert Prime Time 


by Allen KurzweQ 


Y UENDUMU, Australia — The 
Waripiri aborigines of this Central 
Desert settlement in the Northern 
Territory stiD gather at night to 
narrate their ancestral myths — known as 
jukurrpa, or "dreamtime” — stories that 
commingle their heritage with the legends of 
eagle and emu, of goaxma and snake; But 
increasingly, the glow of the camp fire is 
bong replaced by another glow, this one 
emanating from a Sony Trinitron. Television 
has come to Yuendnmu. One of the world’s 
oldest and most remote cultures has plugged 
into the technology of the 20th century. 

The broadcasts are no mere past-meets- 
p resent tinkering®, for the programming is 
produced from start to finish by the aborigi- 
nes themselves. The systematic taping began 
in 1982, when an American anthropologist 
named Eric Michaels received a research 
grant from the Australian Institute of Ab- 
original' Studies. With a Toyota Landcruiser 
full of equipment, including a computer full 
of questions, he traveled to Yuendumn to 
assist the 1, 000-member community in video 
production. The project eventually grew to 
live broadcasting and may hook up with the 
Australian television satellite. 

Michaels took his cue from the strategies 
of Sol Worth and John Adair, who in the late 
1960s studied native film production among 
the Nava ha “2c was a nondirective training, 
whereby the filmmakers were shown the ru- 
diments of camera operation and no more. 
From then, all teaching (inducting editing 
procedure) was in response to direct ques- 
tions from the filmmakers themselves." 

While maintainin g what he calls a "fluid 
collaboration” with the Waripiri, Mi chads 
tried to separate himself from the process. "1 
was there as an analyst, not an advocate,” be 
said. He wanted to scrutinize the effect of 
new cnrnmnnir| i firms technology on remote, 
tradition-oriented aboriginal people. After 
three years of field research, Michaels is 
coming up with some startling data. 

The first observations emerged early in the 
taping. The anthropologist noted that in 
many of the shots a Landcruiser, a crucial 
desert commodity, figured prominently. 
Was this some toiemic image? A connection 
to the dream tracks that form the core of 
aboriginal identity? "Actually, I had forgot- 
ten to tell the cameraman how to use a 
battery pack, and he had been getting cur- 
rent from the vehicle’s cigarette lighter." 

Later discoveries proved more revealing, 
Francis Jupuxrula Kelly and Kiimansayi Ja- 
panangka Granites, two of the seven field 


producers at Yuendumn, used extended 
landscape shots to introduce and end even 
the most basic segments. Though Michaels 
initially considered the geographic position- 
ings inadvertent he eventually concluded 
that the panoramas "turn out to be highly 
intentional. They are referential to history 
and to Waripiri ’dreamtime.* ” The first of 
the desert tapes included messages to sepa- 
rated family members. The prairie personals 
proved so popular the producers, soon at- 
tempted more ambitious projects, such as 
the taping of ceremonial events and rites of 
passage rarely documented. 

This presented Michaels and the video- 
makers with numerous obstacles. For start- 
ers, many Waripiri refused to have direct eye 
contact with the camera. So Kelly and Gran- 
ites improvised, uring a wide-angle lens that 
offered a satisfactory compromise. Hun was 
easy enough. Preserving the rules governing 
the ceremonies demanded much more fi- 
nesse; 

■ Among the Waripiri, transmission of cere- 
monial knowledge carries with it lights and 
responsibilities for both the idler and listen- 
er. The paths of such knowledge, mapped 
out by complex tines of kinship, are restrict- 
ed even within the community. Women and 
young boys, for example, are prohibited 
from knowing much of what Michaels want- 
ed to tape. How then to proceed? In some 
cases the difficulty was circumvented by 
editing out unauthorized footage; elders 
privy to the information would screen the 
for acceptability. In other cases, the 
its and cameras were simply shut off. 

The aborigines place great stake in the 
tapes. Groups ctf 30 to 40 regularly duster 
under the fly netting of the Adult Education 
Center to watch tapes of sports day with 
expert commentary on football matches and 
spear throwing. The VCR has become an 
integral part of Yuendumn, and with their 
own films the Waripiri seemed pleased. 

More worrisome to the community are the 
American and European video cassettes 
dropped off by mail plane from Alice 
Springs. In an unpublished monograph Mi- 
chaels notes: "The comnumicalianal isola- 
tion which has protected Waripiri culture 
and lnngnag e from competition with ’A 
Team,’ ‘Sesame Street’ and Dame Joan 
[Sutherland] is ending.” 

While a few residents argue that the mix of 
aboriginal and Western tapes offers one of 
the most varied selections in Australia — 
“Where else can you gel ‘Death Wish' one 
week and the the aboriginal story of Eagle 
Dreaming the not," said (me of Yuendu- 
mu's hundred white residents — most Wari- 


piri elders fear that the violent films nm 
counter to and dilme traditional Waripiri 
values. 

By the beginning of 1985, the Y u endnmu 
videomakers had logged nearly 300 hours of 
Waripiri programming- That’s when they 
decided to make the jump to television trans- 
mission. Michaels served as a courier be- 
tween the Canberra officials who license 
television stations and Yuendumu. The 
broadcast tribunal, Michaels said, never re- 
sponded despite numerous requests. Finally, 
the Waripiri decided to go ahead with a 
publicly announced pirate station. “We set 
out a signal that still reverberates in Canber- 
ra,” said Michaels. 

Last April 3, just after 11 Alt, bush 
broadcasters stretched a signal more titan 
two miles into the surrounding spimfex de- 
sert With no logo, no jingle, no minority 
affaire director, and relying on the whimsy of 
a jerry-built antenna pieced together by an 
amateur ham operator, the producers never- 
theless captured an 80 percent til are of an 
admittedly sparse market. “Fd estimate four 
television sets tuned in,” said one of the 
viewers. 

Kelly and Granites introduced the station 
to outsiders by taping an English-language 
cassette of aboriginal and Western stories. 
“They did a nice job with Christ’s Passion,” 
Michaels said. Tbs most dramatic tale, how- 
ever, described the big star that would soon 
shoot over Yuendumu. 

The star mentioned was not, as many 
outsiders thought, Halley’s comet. It was the 
Australian communications satellite 


launched by the space shuttle. The Waripiri 
fear that the transmission will direct an un- 
controllable stream of alcohol advertise- 
ments and violent films at the already fragile 
world of the settlement. 

Though one Canberra official initially de- 
nounced the plans to transmit nonaboriginal 
television to the remote settlements as 
raw Sydney sewage down the 
its” of the aborigines, attitudes have 
since mellowed. The residents of Yuendumu 
are now trying to obtain control of the trans- 
mission through the Alice Springs-based 
Central Australian Aboriginal Media Asso- 
ciation. Michaels argues for pragmatism: 
“Whether they like it or not, the aboriginal 
community is going to have to confront the 
technology. They bad better be 


To that end, Michaels and the elders have 
traveled to the meetings of broadcasting au- 
thorities to gain some say in programming. 
Francis Jupnrrula Kelly states tbe aboriginal 
position simply: “We don’t want grog adver- 
tisements and blue movies coming onto our 
sacred lands.” 

As yet, the bush broadcasters don’t have 
the expertise to handle satellite dishes. That 
would require more training and better 
equipment. The Waripiri hope to establish 
toe modem facilities needed to preserve the 
world’s oldest culture. “The stuff we’re using 
now,” Kelly said, "is downright primitive.” 


AUen Kurzweii is a New York-based jour- 
nalist who specializes in cultural affairs. 


Stand Back Sex, Here Comes Music 


by Donal Henahan 


N EW YORK — It is difficult to 
keep up with science in our kalei- 
doscopic times, but we must not 
give up trying. With that thought 
in mind, I wish to direct your attention to a 
study published in tbe December issue of 
Psychology Today that should give heart to 
all hard-working musicians, many of whom 
may not fully realize the awesome power 
they hold over all of us. 

A Stanford University pharmacologist, we 
are told, analyzed responses of more than 
250 people and found that 96 percent experi- 
enced thrills in response to music “far ex- 
ceeding the rate for an expected thriller, 
sexual activity.” The respondents told Av- 
ram Goldstein, the inquiring pharmacolo- 
gist, that "musical passages” elicited greater 
thrills than the following, in descending or- 
der by percentage: 

Scene in a movie, play, ballet or book (92); 
great beauty in nature or art (87); physical 
contact with another person (78); climactic 
moment in opera (72); sexual activity (70); 
nostalgic moments (70); watching emotional 
interactions between people (67): viewing 
beautiful printing , photograph or sculpture 
(67) and moments of inspiration (65). 

As you see. “sexual activity” received the 
same percentage of votes as “nostalgic mo- 
ments,” according to the Stanford scientist's 
count, and apparently all precincts are in. If 
you yourself happen not to have been sur- 
rem ember that scientists can spend 


veyed, 
only so 


ly so modi time at the office, like every- 
body dse. Your demographic double, it is 
assumed, was included among the 250 per- 


sons who responded. In any event, it is 
“musical passages” by a landslide. And re- 
member, even President Ronald Reagan 
didn’t thrill 96 percent of the people last time 
a count was taken. 

How seriously should we take the Stan- 
ford study? Very seriously indeed. In fact, 
these findings correlate closely with a scien- 
tific survey that I myself made some time ago 

and did not find time to publish. I asked 10 
people in a high edocation/income bracket 
to tell me what sort of music they liked to 
listen to in their spare time. Ninety percent 
confessed that all they cared to hear were 
motets by Josquis des Prez, while 10 percent 
felt that nothing but Bach’s cantatas would 
do. Brahms, Beethoven, Tchaikovsky, 
Springsteen, sexual activity, finding money 
in the street and getting a raise at work were 
not even mentioned by my respondents. (As 
in any scientifically conducted survey, my 
margin of error was calculated at between 4 
and 96 percent.) 

I realize that my fin dings may come as a 
surprise to sectors of tbe scientific com in nni- 
ty, since the only polling previously done in 
this area, by the Literary Digest in 1936, 
indicated that 96 percent of the general pop- 
ulace would consent to bear nothing but the 
12-tone works of Schoenberg. 

T HE Stanford pharmacologist’s study 
further discloses, according to the 
Psychology Today article, that people 
describe a thrill as “feeling like a chill, shnd- 
der, tin gling or tickling, often accompanied 
bv goose bumps, a lump in the throat or 
weeping.” I do not hesitate to admit that 
Stanford has gone beyond my technological- 


ly primitive research, which did not include 
such refinements as a goose-bump gauge or a 
tear meter. However, 1 am not at all sure that 
chills and shudders, let alone weeping, are an 
appropriate response to a Josqum motet or 
that a tactful poll-taker ought to notice such 
rehouses. 

What is important to notice is that the 
Stanford researcher and I agree that when an 
overwhelming number of people tell you 
they are more thrilled by muse than by, say, 
"physical contact with another person,” it 
would be rude not to believe them. The only 
thing 1 find difficult to undemand is why 
Dr. Ruth Westheimer-does not call her tele- 
vision program "Good Music.” Perhaps rite 
will, now that tbe results are in. 

It is sot generally understood outside the 
scientific community how remarkably little 
sexual activity is actually going on in the 
world today and how dramatically sex has 
been outpaced by music listening in our 
society. The demographic studies are still 
being run, I presume, and a congressional 
co mmittee vvill eventually be obliged to ex- 
amine die matter in depth, with Joan Collins 
and Prince as key witnesses. However, one 
has only to see a young couple waflringraloog 
in the park, faces alight with bliss, their 
individual headphones in place, to under- 
stand that the human race may be on the 
road to extinction. Is that an alarmist view? 
It hardly seems so. 

As a professional listener, I would not 
want to be in the position of denigrating any 
form of music, but when 72 percent of the 
public admits to being more thrilled by a 
"climactic moment in opera” than by actual, 
hands-on romance, where are we headed? To 
a world, it seems dear, in which "musical 


passages” will be under strict gover nm ent 
control because of their potential for affect- 
ing the political and social structure. 

S HREWD old Plato foresaw the de- 
structive potential of music more than 
20 centuries ago and denounced it, 
though for reasons that we would now re- 
gard as partly flMormded. He believed music 
caused youth to cut up and defy society, 
which cannot be denied, but be also deplored 
it as an aphrodisiac that could set off bac- 
chanalian partying in the Athenian woods 
and lead to excessive sexual activity. We now 
know, thanks to the Stanford study, how 
wrong Plato was. Music, not sex, is the pre- 
eminent human thriller and therefore tbe 
dear and present danger to society. 

In the course of his research, the Stanford 
scientist discovered that the thrills experi- 
enced by a listener lend to follow a pattern, 
which you may be surprised to know gener- 
ally corresponds to dramatic peaks and val- 
leys in the music itself. 

However, he cautions, not all people who 
listen to a given piece respond with the same 
thrill pattern: "Evidently, the emotional 
content is perceived differently by different 
people,” he notes. "Often, subjects told me, 
what makes a certain musical passage able to 
elicit thrills is some association with an emo- 
tionally charged event or a particular person 
in the subject’s past, as though the music had 
become a conditioned stimulus for tbe emo- 
tional response” 

In other words, dear, they’re playing our 
song. But don’t scoff, please. It sometimes 
takes science to give a elichfc new life. ■ 

© 1985 Hu New York Times 



to anything, it’s lo a center line. He lives in 
the gray zone." 

Even physically, the 51 -year-old ftrilack 
combines seemingly incompatible qualities. 
If it is his Hollywood habit* to appear almost 
anywhere, even in the poshest Manhattan 
hotels, wearing blue jeans, then it is his polite 
Indiana instinct lo make sure tbe jeans are 
neatly pressed. He jogs and follows the Priti- 
kin diet while shooting his films, and the rest 
of the time has a hobby of cooking. (“But as 
you're eating, hell lift up the plate and dear 
off the crumbs.” Redford recalls.) He is tall, 
articulate and an enthusiastic talker. ("He’s 
a manager and a teacher, and when be talks, 
he likes to lecture," Redford says.) He is also 
an inveterate worrier. "But I had faith in 
him,” Streep says. “The director who tells 
you everything is fine is the one you're not 
happy bong in the hands of. Sydney worried 
so much that I knew he'd tie up the loose 
ends.” . 

Pollack's worrying is part of a larger at- 
traction to unresolvable problems, and to the 
sorts of stories that give his work its unobtru- 
sive consistency. Despite his broadly com- 
mercial instincts and penchant for all-star 
casts, he also has a constitutional inability to 
film happy endings. He favors intelligent, 
articulate characters who simply cannot get 
along. Even "Tootsie,” his biggest hit, ends 
on a note that, although optimistic, is also 
uncertain. “1 don’t know whether they get 
together, but at least I didn't leave them 
apart," he says, although in other films, like 
"Absence of Malice” and "Three Days of the 
Condor," he has done just that. 

“What happens with me is that I get inter- 
ested in a fiun as an argument between two 
points of view, so «H»i the picture becomes a 
way of giving both rides equal weight. And 
sometimes 1 wind up digging a ditch between 
the two people that’s so wide it seems false to 
try to reconcile them. Besides, 1 sense some- 
thing that’s true or satisfying in the separa- 
tion.” 

“There’s a melancholia that hang s heavy 
over his stuff, but there’s also an eye to the 
commercial,” says Redford. Thai places Pol- 
lack squarely between mainstream and art- 
house sensibilities. His visual style has 
grown less obtrusive over the years, and his 
favorite things in his own films — like the cut 
in "Tootsie” from Dustin Hoffman’s first 
having the thought of masquerading as a 
woman to the sight of him walking down the 
street in drag, a jump accomplished without 
explanation or transition — are often the 
things that aren't there. So his work has no 
obvious directorial signature, which Redford 
says is something of a sore point. Indeed, 
Pollack sometimes speaks wistfully of "the 
French,” who recognize him as a much more 
distinctive auteur . 

Pollack does see distinct patterns in his 
own work. He can muse convincingly about 
the similarities between his "Out erf Africa” 
heroine and Katie Morosky, the Depression- 
era character played by Barbra Streisand in 
"The Way We Were ” (“Now this is an 
elegant, aristocratic woman as opposed to 
Katie, who is kind of a mad, radical peasant 
in a way — but they’re both women who 
want something so much and have to deal 
with the quiet, sad fact that it won’t work 
and get on with their lives.”) Or he can see^ 
Denys finch Hatton, whom Redford plays 
in the new film, as sharing a certain key 
quality with both Hubbdl Gardiner of “The 
Way we Were” and the lone woodsman in 
"Jeremiah Johnson.” (“He’s a man who does 
not engage, but he doesn’t do it out of fear, 
be does it out of real choice.”) 

F OR Pollack, “Out of Africa” took 
shape as a film about love and posses- 
siveness, preservation and progress, 
tbe irreconcilability of differences between 
lovers and, typically and finally, about loss. 

Karen Blixen, who took Isak Dinesen as a 
pseudonym (Dinesen was her maiden name), 
lived in what is now Kenya from 1914 to 
1931, and during most of that time operated 
a huge coffee plantation with 1,200 workers, 
most of them Kikuyu tribesmen. She was 
married to Bror von Blixeu-Finecke, who 
was her cousin, though it was Bror’s twin 
brother Hans whom she loved more. Bror 
Blixen was a charming philanderer whose 
exploits let t his wife with syphilis, and who 
eventually drifted away from tbe marriage 



Streep in ‘ Out of Africa. ’ 


Imm 


altogether in tbe meantime, Blixen fell in 
love with Denys Finch Hatton, a tall, nitty 
aristocrat with a deep-seated resistance to 
commitment. Their affair, lasting from 191 8 
until his death in 1931, was a round of long 
absences and torrid reunions, but Finch 
Hatton’s detachment never melted. 

The 1982 publication of the Thurman bi- 
ography, which won the American Book 
Award, made matters easier for Pollack and 
his screenwriter Kurt Luedtke. Relatively 
little had been known about Dinesen’s life 
before then, but tbe use of Thurman’s mate- 
rial — and her assistance as an adviser — 
allowed the film to integrate biographical 
detail with episodes from her memoirs. 

T HE chief thing Pollack was after, as 
he worked with Luedtke, was a feeling 
similar to that created by Dinesen's 
prose. “When you finish reading the book, 
you have a sense of having been with some- 
body so special,” he says. “You have a sense, 
in the book and I hope in the film as well, of 
a life that went through a large arc — that 
huge high, the exhilaration of coming close 
to having everything, living in a paradise 
with that person who was most perfect for 
her in the world, and then losing it al L And 
being stronger and belter for it If there’s 
such a thing as good s adness, a sadness that 
isn't depressing but that's exhilarating, then 
that was the thing 1 wanted.” 

What he also saw in the outlines of Blix- 
en's story was a chance to explore the idea of 
ownership, in terms of both property and 
love. “Wc used to go back to the book and 
say, ‘I had a farm in Africa* — what does 
that mean?” Pollack says. “We knew it 
meant the past tense, but did it also mean 
that she had learned she never possessed the 
farm at all? I know this sounds like crazy, 
overcomplicated stuff, but that’s the way 
you work sometimes, looking for m e anin g in 
everything.” 

So be decided to show the young baroness 
chan g in g everything around her during her 
first days in Africa, making proprietary re- 
marks about “her” tribesmen and "her” Lj- 
moges, and ordering a lake to be buili where 
a river flows, even though her majordomo 
Farah warns her, “This water lives in Mom- 
basa.” “And in the end, of course, she lets it 
all go,” he says. Finally, the screenplay has 
lunch Hatton saying, "I was begi n n in g to 
like your things.” and Blixen saying, “I was 
beginning to like being without them.” 

Pollack and Redford spent much tune 
discussing the shadowy Finch Hatton and 
bow he should be presented — for example 

Continued on page 11 



si 




Sydney Pollack at work. 



itaid Graz and a Touch of the Avant-Garde 


by Paul Hofmann 


season. Above all whether prompted by the 
autumn festival or not. the authorities have 


G RAZ, Austria — “Beyond the 
. Sound of Music" was the motto of 
recent presentations in New York 
and Los Angeles by avant-garde 
actors, writers, musicians,, choreographers, 
filmmakers and other talent from Austria. 
They wanted to show that their country’s 
cultural reality today is not all Mozart and 
Mahler, waltzes and yodeling. 

The visitors came from Graz, capital of 


au tumn festival or not, the authorities have 
helped finance the more traditional art es- 
tablishment. A $ 15-million face-lift has just 
rejuvenated the 86-year-old Opera House. 
The building on Operaring, the southern 
boundary of the historic city core, is now 
resplendent in a creamy hue, linked by an 
airy overpass with a new annex. 

The new productions in the Opemhaus's 
1985-86 season include the rarely heard Jo- 


the green province of Styria and Austria's 
second city after Vienna. They belonged to a 
band of young artists and intellectuals with a 
yen for experimentation that since 1968 has 
astonished, dazzled and often shocked Graz- 
ers during the group's annual steirischer 
herbst, or styrian autumn, festival (The fes- 
tival's title is provocatively printed in lower 
case, despite the rule in German to capitalize 
all nouns.) The artists have put on spoofs of 
provincial folkways, far-out drama and mu- 
sic by Italians and Eastern Europeans, video 
workshops, nudity, minimalism and post- 
minimalism, and much more. 

Graz, an attractive city of 250,000 inhabit- 
ants near the Hungarian and Yugoslav bor- 
ders, has long been an Austrian byword for 
staidness. Under the Habsburgs, civil ser- 
vants would move to the placid city to enjoy 
their retirement years. The idyll was shat- 
tered in the 1 950s when the pensioners' para- 
dise. as it was known, supplied Hitler with 
some of his most rabid followers. The pre- 
sent modernist ferment, with its cosmopoli- 
tan and anti-bourgeois overtones, is proba- 
bly a reaction of the young to the city’s 
conservative and nationalistic past 

If you are not keen on the Graz avant- 
garde, a side trip to the city from, say, 
Vienna or Venice will nevertheless be enjoy- 
able because it offers much else in every 


h arm Strauss operetta “Tzigane,” Mozart's 
“Marriage of Figaro” (from Dec. 21); Le- 
hfer’s “Giuditu” (from Jan. 26), Wagner’s 
“Das Rhemgold” (from March 13), Tchai- 
kovsky’s ballet “Sleeping Beauty” (from 
April 19), and “D Campiello” by Ermanno 
Wolf-Ferrari (from June 7). 

The house's small studio stage is present- 
ing, among other works, the musical inter- 
mezzo “Pimpmone* by the Baroque com- 
poser Georg Philipp Telemann, and a tavern 
opera, entitled “Homeless.” composed for 
the autumn festival by Anton Pres tele. 

The Schauspielhaus, or city playhouse, in 
a neoclassical building in the inner city, is 
having fun with a German version of 
“Snoopy,” after Charles M- Schulz’s comic 
strip “Peanuts,” with music by Larry Gross- 
man. Shakespeare (“Romeo and Juliet”), 
Molifcre, Sartre, DQrrenmatt and Garcia 
Lorca too will have their say this season. 


G RAZ doesn't really need its theaters 
for spectacular effect- It stretches out 
in picturesque fashion on both sides 
of the Mur River at a point where the gray- 
green Alpine stream rushes out of a narrow 
defile to flow through fertile plains before 
joining the Drava in Yugoslavia. Wooded 
heights enclose Graz on three sides, and an 
isolated hill, the Schlossberg (Castle Hill), 
rises in the north of the city. 


The Uhrturm, a 400-year old square clock 
tower on the hill’s southern slope, with a 
crown of timber work and four giant dials, is 
the city's beloved landmark. Nearby is a 1 16- 
foot-high belfry with a four- ton bdl that 
Grazers affectionately call LiesL The two 
towers are remnants of extended fortifica- 
tions on the hill that over the centuries with- 
stood the onslau gh ts of the invading Turks, 
and in 1809 were demolished at Napoleon’s 
command The citizens of Graz paid a lot of 
ducats to save the dock tower and the Liesl 
belf ty; the site of the citadel is now taken up 
by a well-kept terraced park and a garden 
restaurant. 

The 360-degree panorama from the 
Schlossberg, 350 feet above the city, em- 
braces Graz and its suburbs, the verdant 
Mur Valley and Alpine ridges on the hori- 
zon. The top of the Schlossberg can be 
reached on foot along stairways and paths in 
20 to 30 minutes. Cable cars leave every 15 
minutes from a terminal at 38 Kaiser-Franz- 
Joseph Kai on the river embankment. 

The city's historic nucleus on the east 
bank of the Mur surrounds the Hauptplatz, 
the main square. It is lined with shops, c affis 
and restaurants, and faces the 100-year-old 
City Hall a revival-Renaissance building 
with gingerbread cupolas. For loden and 
Alpine fashions, many shoppers bead for the 
Schwarz or Brtlhl stores on the Hauptplatz, 
and for antiques and old tapestries, Rein- 
Lsch- Graz's leading department store, 
Kastner & Oehler, with a wide range of 
merchandise and Styrian souvenirs, is on the 
Mur embankment just off the main square. 
The restaurants and caffes on or near the 
Hauptplatz include RatskeUer, Lan dh aus- 
keller, and Caffe-Konditorei Sprang. 

From the main square, the busy Herren- 
gasse runs south past the Landhaus, a 16th- 
century budding with an arcaded courtyard 
that was once the seat of the assemblies of 


tbe Styrian Estates. It was built by Domen- 
ico deU’AIlio, one of several Italians who 
contributed much to the Renaissance and 
Baroque architecture that flavors Graz's in- 
ner city. 

A public notice dating to the 17th century 
at the entrance to tbe Landhaus warns that 
all ' those seeking admittance must refrain 
from quarreling or drawing their daggers or 
knives. In the courtyard a plaque commemo- 
rates tbe astronomer Johannes Kepler, who 
taught mathematics in Graz from 1594 to 
1600. The adjoining Landcszwghaus (Re- 
gional Arsenal), built in the 17th century, 
contains one of tbe largest existing collec- 
tions of armor and weapons used during the 
Thirty Years’ War. Visitors cannot roam 
about, but must take guided tours, which 
start every hour on the hour. 


T HE restored 15lh-centuiy Burg (Cas- 
tle) once the residence of Emperor 
Frederick in (1415-93) and now 
housing offices, is a large and uninspiring 
complex. Nearby are the late Gothic cathe- 
dral of Graz, and a rather emphatic Baroque 
edifice, the Mausoleum. Built from designs 
by Pietro de Pomis, it is a large chapel 
around the tombs of Emperor Ferdinand II 
(1578-1637) and his mother, Maria of Bavar- 
ia. The main altar is by Johann Bernhard 
Fischer von Erlach, born in Graz, who was 
to win enduring fame as the architect of 
great Baroque buildings in Vienna. 

Walking bade to the Hauptplatz through 
the Hofgasse (Court Lane), notice at No. 6 
the Court Bakery Eddegger-Tax, in business 
since 1569, and run by the same family for 
the last 200 years. Behind a quaint store- 
front with burnished woodwork many kinds 
of fresh bread and cake are on sale. 

The Hofgasse leads to the cobblestoned 
Sporgasse, a sloping, winding street with 



'■vlil 


Graz and the Schlossberg. 


boutiques and caffes, the hangout for “styri- 
an autumn” fans. For fashionable clothes: 
Monica, or Rock und Bluse. 

Around the comer, at 18 Sackstrasse, is 


the City Museum, with many items related 
to local History including old prints and 


history, including old prints and 
photos and craft-guild insignias. Anyone in- 
terested in tbe natural environment, folklore, 
arts »nrl crafts and contemporary art in this 
comer of Austria should visit the specialized 
collections of the Styrian Regional Museum 
Joanneum, whose main seat is at 10 Rauber- 
gasse in the old city. 

Paring places abound in the city, which 
also prides itself on its strong beer from local 
breweries. The cuisine is Austrian Alpine, 
with Hungarian and Slovenian influences 


noiicabie in the goulashes, seasonings and, 
desserts. 

A new shopping center with several res-' f 
taurants is bang built in front of the main.' 
railroad station on the right bank of tbe Mur! ! - 
The railroad station is linked with the • 
Hauptplatz by the No. 3 and No. 6 street-' ' 
cars. These are about the only public trans- 
po nation most visitors will need. Graz is a " 
dty for strolling and for relaxing in coffee-", 
houses, beer gardens and parks, with per- ' 
haps opera or operetta in the evening. 


Paul Hofmann. a former foreign correspon- ' 
dent for The New York Times, is completing a] 
book on smaller cities and towns in Italy. He f 
wrote this article for The Tunes. 




CONCERTS — Dec. 22: BBC Sym- 
phony Orchestra, Gennadi Rozhdest- 


INTERNATIONAL DATEBOOK 


•Peacock Theatre (td: 74.87.4n. 
EXHIBITION — To Jan. 10: Triona 


VIENNA, Koozerthaiis(tel: 72. 1 2.1 1). 
CONCERTS— Dec. 21 and 22: Vien- 
na Chamber Orchestra, Herbert Pri- 

Dec* 22: ORF Symphony Orchestra, 
Peter Gulke conductor. 

Dec 31: Vienna Hofbmg Orchestra, 
Got Hofbauer conductor (Lchar, 
Strauss). 

oMusOrvetcin (tek 65.8 1.90). 
CONCERTS— Dec. 20 and 21: Vien- 
na Symphony Orche str a, Horst Stein 
conductor (Corelli, Stravinsky). 

Dec. 21 and 22: Vienna Philharmonic 
Orchestra. Zubin Mehta conductor 
(Bach, Wagner). 

De. 31: Vienna Philharmonic Orches- 
tra. Lorin Maazel conductor. 
oSiaatsoper(td: 53240k 
BALLET — Dee. 23: “Vienna Waltz- 
es” (Balanchine, J. & R_ Strauss), “Die 


EXHIBITION — To Jan. 10; 
Ford. 


era, Norman Del Mar conductor, Ye- 
hudi Menuhin violin (Beethoven). 


Dec. 27: Royal Philhar monic Orches- 
tra. Barry Wordsworth conductor. 


bra. Bany Wordsworth conductor, 
Barry Douglas piano (Rossini, Tchai- 


kovsky). 

Dec. 2£k Camerata Lyay, Alberto Ly 


Pnppenf ee” (Hassreiter, Bayer). 
OPERA— Dec 20 and 28: “Die Zan- 
berfWte.” 

Dec. 25: “Don Giovanni” (Mozart). 


Dec. 29-. Camerata Lysy, Alberto Lysy 
conductor/violin, Yehudi Menuhin 
violin (Bach, Vivaldi). 

Dec. 31: London Symphony Orches- 
tra, John GeorgiatOs conductor/vio- 
Bn, (J. Strauss). 

EXHIBITIONS —To Dec. 23 “Mir- 
acles in Carved Ivory: KodoOkuda.” 
To Jan. 26: “Matthew Smith,” “Tokh 
Tradition in Japan Today” “Ni- 

MuSlCAL— Dec. 30: “The Pirates of 
Penzance” (Gilbert & Sullivan). 
THEATER— Dec 21, 23, 26-28: “As 
You Like It” (Shakespeare). 


Dec 30: “Mre. Warren’s Profession 
(Shaw). 

•Royal Opera House (tel: 240.10.66). 
BALLET — “The Nutcracker” Dec. 
23,26,27,30. (Ivanov/Tchaikovsky). 
Dec 28: “Gisdle" (Petipa/ Adam). 
OPERA— Dec 21, 28,33: “Lenozze 
di F5garo”(Mozait). 

•Tate Gallery (tel: 821.13.13). 
EXHIBITIONS —To Jan. 10: “Knit 
Schwitters.” 

•Victoria and Albert Museum (teL- 
589.63.71). 

EXHIBITIONS— To Fd>.2: “Beatrix 
Potter: The V&A Collection.” 

To Jan. 26 : “Hats from India.” 

To May 25: “British Watercolours." 


•Maison de Victor Hugo (lei: 
42.72.16.65). 

EXHIBITION —To Jan. 31 : “Victor 
Hugo's Drawings.” 

•Musfee d’Art Modern® (tel: 


•New Morning (tek 45J23.51.41). 
JAZZ — Dec 23-28: Pharoah Sanders. 


•Opera (tel: 47.4257.60). 
BALLET— Dec 21, 24, 26-31: “The 


47 .23.61.27). 

EXHIBITIONS —To Jan. (^“Mod- 
em Masters from tbe Thyssm-Borne- 
miszaCoDectioo.” 

To Jan. 5: “Vera Szekdy.” 
•MusteCamavalei(iek42.72J21.I3) 
EXHIBITION— To Jan. 12: “Eugfene 
BtjoL” 

•Music du Grand Palais (tel: 
42.6134.10) 

EXHEBITIONS — To Jan. 6: “La 
Gtoirede Victor Hugo." 

To Feb. 3: “Anrieos el Nouveaux.” 


Nutcracker” (Noreyev, T chaikovsky) 
OPERA — Dec 22: “Romeo and Juli- 


ette” (Gounod). 

•Opera Comtqne(teL42^6ri6.1J). 
OPERA — Dec 22, 23, 26, 30, 31: 
“Gianni Schicchi” (Puccini), 
“L'Heore Espagnol” (Ravel). 


•ThMrrede la Vffle (teL 42.7422.77). 
Ballet —To Dec 23: “Cinderella” 


Ballet — To Dec 
(Marin, Prokofiev). 


GERMANY 


•Waste du Louvre (tel: 42.602926). 
EXHIBITIONS — To Jan. 6: “Le 
Bren ft Versailles." 

• Mns£e du Petit Palais (tel: 
4235.12.73) 

EXHIBITION — To Jac5: “Sokal 
D’encre," Victor Hugo’s manuscripts 
and drawings. 

•Muste Nationale des Arts et Tradi- 
tions Populates (teL: 47.47.69.80). 
EXHIBITION — To April 21: “Lea 
Franpuset la Table.” ... 


•British Museum (tel 636.15.55). 
EXHIBITION —To Jan. 1986: “Bud- 
dhism: Art and Faith.” 

•Hayward Gallery (td: 928.57.08) 
EXHIBITIONS —To Feb. 16: “Tor- 
res-Garcia: Grid-Pattera-Sign,” 
“Homage to Barcelona" 

•National Theatre (td: 633.0820) 
THEATER — Dec 21, 23. 26-28: 
“Lovefor Love" (Congreve) 




LONDON, Barbican Centre (tel: 
638.41.41) 


MONTPELLIER, Opera (tel: 
66JI.11) 

OPERETTA — Dec 24-27, 29-31: 
“Cibonlctte”(de Flers, deCroisset) 
PARIS, Centre Georges Pompidou 


(td: 42.77.1233). 

EXHIBITIONS — To Jan. 1 : “Klee « 


EXHIBITIONS— To Jan. 1: • 
laMuuquc" 

To Feb. 10: “Valerio AdamL" 


BERLIN, Deutsche Oper (tel: 
341 jMu49) 

BALLET— Dec 22, 26,27: TbeNot- 
crackeT (Petipa, Tchaikovsky) 
OPERA — Dec 30: “Hansd and Gre- 
id” (Humperdinck) 

Dec 21 , 23, 25, 29: “Zar und Zimmer- 
man” (Lortzing) 

Dec. 31 : “Orpheus in tbe Undcrworid” 
(Offenbach) 


Menuhin conductor (Bach, Mozart) 
Dec. 30: Herber von Kenyan conduc- 
tor (Rave) Weber) 

Berlin Symphony Orchestra — Dec 
25: Thomas Christian David conduc- 
tor, P-irilM Knmagai Fnnrihiko 
(Mozart) 

Dec 26: Emmanuel Krivine conduc- 
tor, Michel Dalberto piano ( Beetho- 
ven, Schubert) 

Dec 27: Bo risla v Iwanov conductor 
(Beethoven). 

Dec 23: Beriin Concert Choir, Ritz 
Weisse conductor (Bach). 
RECITAL— Dec 20: Alfred Brendel 
piano (Haydn, Schubert) 
COLOGNE, Oper der Scadt (td: 
21 2531) 

OPERA— Dec21; “Hansd and Ore- 


ITALY 


FLORENCE, Team? Comunale (tel: 
2773236). 

BALLET— Dec 24: “Giselle” (Polya- 
kov, Adam) 

OPERA — Dec 21: “Samson” (Han- 
del, concert version). 

MILAN. PadigHone d’Arte Contexn- 
poranea(tek 78.4638 0. 
EXHIBITIONS — To Jan. 13: “Gina 
Pane: Partitions,” “Richard Long - 
Salvatore Scarpitta.” 

ROME, Academia Nazkmale di San- 
ta Cecilia (id: 679,0339) 
CONCERTS — Dec 21-23: National 


Bach Orchestra. WiQan Wiesehahn." 
conductor (Bach). 

Dec 26: Netherlands Philharmonic 
Orchestra, Anton Kersjes conductor, . 
Mari dec Blankenstjin violin (Bizet,.- 
Mo zart) 

RECITAL— Dec 27: Peter Lriitcon- 
trabus, Leo van Doesdaarpiano(Boir-' 
tesini, Hindemith) 

•National Ballet (id: 25 37 34) 
BALLET— Dec 2330.- “The Sleep- 
ing Beamy” (Petipa. Tchaikovsky) ■ 


* • 


•Kriksmuseumrid: 632121). 
EXHIBITIONS — To Jan. 26: “The 
Age of Velasquez.” ' > 

To Jan. 12: “Amsterdam Inside and 
Out.” 


SCOTLAND 


td” (Humperdinck) 

Dec 23, 25: “Zar Zunmennann” 

(Lortzing) 

Dec 22,26, 29: “A Masked Ball” (Ver- 


Academy Orchestra, Giuseppe Sno- 
poli oandnetor, Elizabeth Connell so- 
prano, Anne Evans soprano (Mahler) 
•Museodd Folklore (id: 58137.17) 
EXHIBITION —To Jan. 1 5: “Tcchni- 


FRANKFURT. Oper (td: 25621) 
OPERA— Dec 21:' “Da* Rhemgold" 


CONCERTS — Berlin Philharmonic 
Orchestra — Dec 21 and 22: Yehudi 


WEEKEND 


TRAVEL 


SHOPPING 


(Wagner) 

Dec 22: “Don Giovanni" (Mozart) 
Dec 23: “La Bohfeme” (Pnodni) 
Dec, 26: “Der RosenfcavaEer” (R. 
Strauss) '/ 

Dec 27: “Tosca” (PuoSni) 
MUNICH, National Theater (td: 
22.13.16) 

BALLET — Dec 25 and 27: “Romeo 
and Juliet” (ProfoJdev) 

OPERA — Dec21,26,29:“CavaHaia 
Rufiticana (Mascagni), “Pagliacd” 


press: photograph". 

•Palazzo Braschi (ret 6538.80) 
EXHIBITION —To Jan. 5: “ISber- 
Seine: two cities, two rivera.” 

•Teatro ddTOpoa (td: 45. 1735) 
OPERA — Dec 21, 27, 29: “L’EBsir 


EDINBURGH, National Gallery (id: . 
5563921) 

EXHIBITIONS— To Dec 24: “Neih : 
erlandish Drawings.” 

To Jan. 5: “Tbe Christmas Story” 
•National Gallery of Modem Art (edr 
556.8921) 

EXHIBITION — To Jan. 5; “BHa 
Uitz- Prints 1920-1923.” 


d'Amoie" (Donizetti) 

Dec 22: “AMasked BaT (Verdi) 


SPAIN 


TRu&ik^TeatroConmnal Giuseppe 
Verdi (tek 63.19A8) 

OPERA— Dec 22: “Rusalka” (Dvo- 
rak) 


MADRJD. Fundadrin -Joan March 


mON — Through Decern- 


ber: “20th Century Theater in Spain.” . 
■Museodd Prado (td: 468.0930). 
EXHIBITION — Through Decem- 
ber: “The Century of RembrandL” 
•TeatrodelaZaraiela ( td : 429.82. 16)^ 
BALLET — Spanish National BaHef: 
— Dec 21 and 22 : “Seis Sonatas para : 
la Rana de Espana” (Pericet, Escar- . 
latti)“Laberimo” (Antonio, Montsa)'-, 
vatge) 


MONAfO 


(Leoncavallo’ 

Dec22:“Die! 




Dec 28: “La Bobfeme” (Pucdni) 





'* . . • f.T.. 

* 'V.C r ' ' '’V:\%r : 

hrn-* . . - . : •-< > • 


v- . ‘ r ^ - 




DUBLIN, Gallery of RiofOgraphy 
(tek 71.4634) 

EXHIBITION — Through Decem- 
ber: “Fergus Broke.” 

•Gate Thea ter (tek 74.40.45) 
THEATER — Through December 
“Blithe Spirit" (Nod Coward). 
•Grafton Gallery (td: 79.1835) 
EXHIBITION — ToDec 31: “Christ- 
mas Show of Paintingi and Sculp- 


MONTE-CARLO, Opera de Monte- 
Cario(td: 50.7634) 

BALLET— Dec 21, 22,24: “Theme 
and Variations” (Balanchine. Tdn- 
kovsky) “L’Apprenti Soreier” (La- 
cotte, Dukas) “Te Deum” (Lacooe, 
Bizet) 

Dec 22 and 30: “Jours TranqnQks” 


Dec 25-Jan 1 0: “Swan Lake” (AIotso, 
Tchaikovsky) “Perc u stftn" (Nebrada, 
Gurst). 

•Teatro Real (tek 24838.75) 
CONCERTS— Dec 21 and 22: Span- 
ish National Orchestra and Choir, Vk> ! 
tor Pablo Pferez conductor (Haydn. . 
Mozart) 


(D’At. Canteloube) “Step* After 
Dawn” (Haigen. Meaddaaohn) “Life 
Circles” (Anunann, Adams), 

Dec 23, 25, 28: “24 Heures de la Vk 


Dec27,29,31:“PasdeSxdeIaVivan- 
diere” (St. Lton, Pugm) “Giselle" (La- 
cotte, Adam) 


UNITED STATES 


•National Concert Hall (tel: 


71.1533) 

CONCERTS — Dec 22: Metropoli- 
tan Choir, Dublin Concert Band. Pat 
Dunkavy conductor. 

Dec 31: RTE Symphanly Orchestra. 


LEISURE 


— NEW YORK. Metropolitan Museum 

IHEVOmiRLANM of Art (tek 535.77.10) 

EXHIBITION— To Jan. 5: “Ind£ar> 

SAN FRANCISCO, Museum of Mod-L 
AMSTERDAM, Concertgebouw(td: era (tek 863.88.00) 

7133.45). «. 


EXHIBITION — Dec 5-Fd>. 9: 


CONCERTS— Dec 21: Netherlands “Elmer Bisduff 1947-1985 ” 


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Page 11 





x 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, FRIDAY, DECEMBER 20, 1985 


TRAVEL 



FOR FUN AND PROFIT 


by Roger Coflis 


OMMUHNG: A word redolent of 
liaredom if not dread. And yet 
(there was a cane tong ago when it 
was the epitome of middle-class 
flnfity; even style. Tunbridge Wells 
in southeast England was a brave 
the 8:17 to Waterloo arrived with 
Victorian certainty. A forest of um- 
and bowlers. Tight gray: faces bur- 
Jinto The Times. Sibilant steam and 
touting doors. Every morning a general 
Mobilization for the great white-collar war. 
Tfgnwgi^ entraining at suburban stations 
1 around London. 

'And across the Atlantic, their distm- 
oished American counterparts would 
. merge in Brooks Brothers, suits and other 
' ahabte haberdashery. Stamping confideat 
set on the platform at Stamford, Connecti- 
uL Unfurling The New York Times and 
. he Wall Street Journal- Streaming out of 
hand Centra! Station at the appointed hoar 
''or brokerage houses and editorial chairs: a 
cott Fitzgerald scene by Norman Rockwell 
But something went wrong with the Great 
~ ’.pjTTnnitg Dream. The railroads fell into 
inns as hoi pofloi moved to the suburbs, 
now and ice were discovered by British Rad 
i the early 1960s. Sometimes these were 
ewspaper strikes, so commnters were 
^rced to look at each other and even strike 
p conversations- Trams were converted to 
' fectridty and diesel just in time for the oil 
rises. There were horror stories from far- 
away lands — of rush hour in the subway in 
<>kyo where pushers were employed to pack 
.1 the mobs Kke anchovies. Commuting 
noved up several notches from boredom to 


wris'a German who commuted weekly be- 
tween, a farm outride Melbourne and his 
office in Darmstadt. 

Companies and executives vied with each 
other in stretching the frontiers of cornmut- 
ingao new and exciting limits. This was 
xnide. possible with the Mach-25 scram-jets, 
Which (rime into service in the late 1990s. 
These could cross the United. States in 12 
minntes and cirde the globe in90. A team 
researchers at the National Aeronautics and 
Space A dministr ation c on ducted experi-' 
meats to beam in key executives by satellite. 

■ An interesting spin-off from this research 
was a techxuque, used by some companies, to 
tire executives by sticking them in orbit, 
literally. Even golden-parachute artists 
found it hard to escape. According to a 
NASA spokesman, there are hundreds of 
thousands of executives circumnavigating 
the globe every minute in redundant hard- 
ware. Management expressions, like “re-en- 
try problems” and “executive burnout” as- 
sumed more meaningful values. 

But the problem with daily wmmmrfng 
between Tokyo and London was the time 
difference (nine hours) rather than the jour- 
ney time (30 minutes). Crossing several time 
zones every morning made for some quaint 
business derisions. It is well established that 


c o mmuti ng reached a bigfi 
ide of nastiness around the end of the 1980s. 

. . ly then a few heroic sends were pioneering 
’ . *w ways to get to and from their places of 
Sank. By early 1990, “super commuting,” as 
t became known, was being widely debated 
a the media. Stanley Zilch, the noted man - 
igcment historian, raconteur and director of 
he Blue Sties Research Institute in Broken 
~ Springs, Colorado, saw, with characteristic 
nescience, a “new dimension tointesmation- 
■ ■1 business and soda! behavior” beginning 
o emerge. He called this phenomenon “do- 
r, - ~ nestic internationalism.” The new super 
K *^omnmten actually lived in one country and 
— worked in another. 

. By the end of 1990 executives were flying 
housands of miles to work every day. Com- 

- outer villages sprang up around major cities 
ike Paris, Rome, New York, Tokyo and San 

-* -rancisco — golden ghettos for part-time 
-xpatriates. One near Brussels, with a large 
tritish c onting ent, was nostalgically sited at 
Vaterioa The European Community for- 
mfeed such arrangements by introducing a 
“'commuter passport.” 

90 The advent of the short-haul supersonic 
— abuses meant th&i an executive might catch 
_ te7"30 from Paris and arrive at Heathrow a 
" ' rinute and a half later. Even if you allowed 
. or a 90-minute journey into the center erf 
. ^ondon, he would still be an hour ahead of a 
olleaguc slumming it in from Tunbridge 
’ Veils. In fact, the farther away you Kved, the 

- asier it became to get to work, although 
■ “ tost long-distance executives did avoid go- 
' ..ig home for lunch. For a while, time-worn 

' xcuses like, *Tm working late at the office 
.ear," or *Tve missed the last Concorde 
orae,” took on a thin veneer of credibility. 

• Flex time and the four-day week did much 
:> encourage super commoting. And of 
ourse, there have been some roectacular 
ommutes recorded. The “Mr. Commuter 
' . 995" award was won by an American who 
('Odked in the West End of London and lived 
t Geriatric Plains, Florida. He was such a 
_nuor executive that half an hour in the 
’ .Jfice was more than enough. The runner-up 
yiff'E'* 


From suburbia 
to the inner city 
by way of space 


tins seriously affects physical mental 
performance until the body's metabolism 
adjusts. In the land of the super commuter, 
the nnjet-lagged man was king A biological 
dock made in Switzerland was of only mar- 
ginal advantage compared to one node in 
Taiwan. Neither proved to be mnch use in 
coping with a three-martini lunch at 1 AJvL 

Jet lag, of course, is what happens when 
the biological clock gets out of synch with 
the chronological dock of a new time zone. 
This only happens when traveling east and 
west Flying north and south, where there is 
Sttle or no time change you get no mare than 
normal travel fatigue. This is why savvy 
super commuters made tbdr base in Green- 
land and tbe Antarctic. 

There are two baric approaches to jet lag. 
The first is to adapt to a trip as quickly as 
possible; difficult in the case of super com- 
muting. A number of chief executives did 
just this. To add veririmiBtude to their envi- 
ronment they transformed their offices into 
aircraft cabins- Some were extremely realis- 
tic, with engine noise and turbulence pro- 
duced on a random basis by the computer. 

On the social front, there was a great call 
for computer-matched “surrogate families” 
for weekly commuters. And family swapping 
clubs sprang up in the erstwhile suburbs. 

But inevitably the glamour began to fade 
from the commuter renaissance. The morn- 
ing Concorde from Bahrain was just as tadey 
as the 7:30 from Stamford and Surbiton and 
telecommuter* missed the social life around 
the water cooler. 

7hey reinvented the wheel around the year 
2000. Somebody discovered the joys of the 
inner city. Commuter due became walking 
to work from a bxownstone in Manhattan or 
a service flat in Pimlico. 

“Lode at it this way,” ZEch said, speaking 
ex cathedra. “Super commuting was reading 
tbe sodo-commercial fabric: After aU, who 
wants to super commute home after the 
office Christmas party?" ■ 


Pollack 


Continued from page 9 


ow long he should wait to connect roman ti- 
illy with Blixen (more than halfway into the 
(Vo-hoor, 35-minute movie). As Bedford 
oints out, the films be has made with Pd- 
usually involve a very long period of 
- ' imantic anticipation, the briefest and most 

R k ylized of connections, and then a mdan- 
§ f ^idy dissolution, “I always ask him,” Red- 
. “jrd jokes, “ ‘How long am I going to wait 

- — -store we get together this rime? And what 
I going to get — 10 seconds before things 
' \ ^ait falling apart?’ ” 

^ ' After considering a number of foreign 
. tresses for the role of Blixen, he realized Be 

. -f-z* Mte d Streep, “not because erf ‘Sophie’s 
* "V-i ytoice,’ but because of The Seduction of 
Tynan’ — because she was absolutely 
~ ■ '.trm and real and three-dimensional, bo- 

use she could give a complicated perfor- 
mance that becomes quite simple.* And 
■iaus Maria Brandauer, who plays Bror 
, ixen, was cast few “charm — honest-to- 
r od charm that made me believe he could 

• the horrendous thing s he does and still 

- ^ "<t be a villain.” Though Brandauer had 

^ . ide his strongest impression in “Me- 

• isto," Pollack cast him on the basis of his 
lb-spirited wickedness in a James Bond 

-■ m, “Never Say Never Again." 

... Pollack is cautious when talking about his 

- • .y of working with actors, “because if I talk 
V ‘ l out it, I won’t be able to do iL A lot of it 

i l j \ s to do with saying one thing and doing 
1 other." He wifi, for example, do any 
Kami of stalling or diverting to avoid over- 
KarsaL even with actors who absolutely 
1 isL T will not ever say that it’s good to 
i . tt with too tittle preparation, because 

x* patently not true," he says. “But I 
iT rehearse the way a lot of directors do, 
l stage a scene in terms of manners and 
nudes, and lock them in," Almost always, 
1 shot he eventually uses wQl be a first or 
ond take. 

- Vhen actors are over-prepared. Pollack 
. s, “you surprise 'em. You pul 'em soroe- 

ere different, or you change something in 
other actor, restage the scene quickly 
oehow. Or you say, ‘We’ve got that one, 

- v let’s uy something different-’ You need 

V tile bit of fear on film, or at least adrena- 
• n 

. "he screenplay of “Out of Africa” cen- 
ts a crystallizing line about the etuave- 
s of Finch Hatton: “He was not mine; he 
not ours." Thai became pan of his 



eulogy, as delivered by Blixen. and one of the 
film's central motifs. 

In the film. Pollack has embroidered a 
pattern of love and possessrveness with the 
kinds of minutiae to which he is always 
attentive. He has filled the film with refer- 
ences to possession and ownership, and with 
signs of now Blixen and Finch Hatton begin 
to meet each other halfway. And there are 
several distinct “looks" for Streep’s Blixen, 
small changes in coiffure and costume that 
reflect her growing accommodation to her 
new life. Streep even works her voice down 
to a lower register during the course of the 
story. 

The film is also full of background indica- 
tions of how Africa is changing: mare cars, 
more buildings, more Western clothes. And 
it is deliberately, if controversially, faithful 
to the racial attitudes of Blixen and her 
friends, a decision Pollack arrived at with 
typical care. 

“I think we walked through a minefield 
here,” Pollack says. “But if you look at it 
from todays standpoint and say. How can I 
present a picture in which the leading man 
and leading woman are essentially racist in 
one form or another?' yon have two choices: 
You can either falsify the pic tare by intrud- 
ing today's mentality into it, or you can find 
some way to tell the truth and still keep the 
dignity of the African characters. We chose 
to allow the African characters to defend 
themselves, through the way they behave 
and through the way riie begins to sense that 
this land is theirs, not hers. I don’t think 
anybody could see the film and see the three 
key African characters and think the film- 
makers were anything but respectful of 
them.” 

And have they also been respectful of their 
heroine? T think the portrait of Blixen is 
essentially sweeter on film," Thurman says, 
“but Fm also surprised that so much of tne 
toughness is also thane. There's a sense of 
gameness, of wryness in the character, and L 
think they’ve gotten that as wdL Dinesen 
says somewhere about the Africans that they 
were never reliable, but they ware in a grand 
sense sincere. I think that’s true of her ‘Out 
of Africa' — and in an odd way, it’s true of 
this one loo." ■ 


This war excerpted from an article in The 
New York Timer Magazine. 


Mixing Styles in Paris Restaurants 


P ARIS — StxoQmg past Gourmet's, a handkerchief-sized 
establishment on Place Pauphinc, one really has little 
idea of what treasnres can be found inside. Is it a 
carry oat? A wine bar? A restaurant? A salon de th£? 
The cool, contemporary shop, sprinkled with marble-top 


tables, blue, banquettes ana white folding chairs, is all of these 
rolled into one. with Jacques Blum '(a former financial adviser 


Patricia Wells 


with a fine palate) there to do a bit of cooking and act as head 
greeter, and Hervfc Bizenl (named best young sommelier in 
France zn'1981) there to pick the wines, you're in fine gastro- 
nomic hands. 3 

Dining at Gourmet's is a little like taking a trip around the 
world. There is such variety here that one ooofd easily lunch or 
dine for 50- francs, pairing a platter of country ham from the 
Auvergne with a glass of Saumrn-Qunpigny, Cuvfce Lena 
FDliatreau, at for 500 francs, blending Minis, Iranian caviar and 
vintage champagne. 

Which is exactly the point. Blum feds people should be able 
to eat what they want when they want, at whatever price they 
want Which means, if you're simply in the mood for a cup of 
fresh-brewed Moroccan mint tea (no tea bags here), a dish of 
BertinDon ice cream, or steaming slice of tarte Tatin, you’re in 
business. 

The cuisine wQl no doubt transport you to Scandinavia, with 
a litany that includes Norwegian salmon, herring marinated 
CopenbagLo-styk, and tiny Danish crevettes roses. France, of 
course, is not ignored, with ham from Vouvray smoked over 
sarmails de vignes (vine cuttings); platters of sliced pork sausage 

from the Beaujolais country, and a truly delicious marriage of 
fambon /f Auvergne and top quality foie gras foie. 


The combination, reports Blum, is called a panache, a dish 
that once was a standby at the city’s best bistro, L'Ami Louis. 

The wine list offers tastes from Hungary and Chile, Australia 
and Spain. Even the United States is represented, by Robert 
Mondavi. Fifteen wines are sold by the glass; there are no less 
than 13 chilled aquavits and vodkas, and even a plain glass of 
milk will come your way if you ask. 

Bizeul offers an astonishing selection of little-known French 
wines, including two very pleasant whites worth exploring: 
Command erie de Peyrassol's Cfltes-d e-Provence and Rabasse- 
Cbaravin’s C6les-du-RhAne Cairanne. One could spend hours 
sampling the selections, which also boast of the rich and elegant 
Dervienx-Chaize COte-ROtie 1978, and Hu gel's memorable 
1976 Gewurztraminer, Selection de grains nobles. 

Most of tbe specialties can be ordered to take out, and the 
restaurant-wine bar- lea salon-cate serves nonstop from noon 
Until midnigh t. 


T HE Paris telephone book fists no less than four restau- 
rants named Petit Marguery, leading one to conclude 
that lit lie Marguery must have been a wonderful soul 
In fact, these now totally unrelated establishments once made 
up what is probably Paris's original restaurant chain. The stay 
is that in I860 a young man named Jean-Nicolas Marguery 
created a fine restaurant on one of the Grand Boulevards. The 
restaurant changed hands, but not names, over the years. After 
World War L the Mnrguery’s owner inherited a good deal of 
money and decided to expand. 

He bad a fondness for classic, ornate bistros and bought up 
13 abandoned restaurants, naming them all Le Petit Marguery. 
Most of them changed owners or names, or disappeared entire- 
ly, but not Le Petit Marguery on Boulevard du Port Royal. 

The bright and lively family bistro — now owned by the 
Cousin brothers from the Poitou — is a delight. While musta- 


chioed Alain races about tbe briibnl blue-and-rose dining room 
chatting, taking orders, pouring tastes of Bourgueil, brothers 
Michel and Jacques tend to the stoves. 

It is a serious place that refuses to take itself loo seriously, and 
the result is some good food, along with good limes. 

The Cousins are wild about game (tears nearly come to their 
eyes as they relate memories of grandmother's civet de lievre 
cooking away slowly in the family fireplace), fresh wild cepes (at 
the age of 6, each child was initiated into the rite of hunting wild 
mushrooms) and Loire Valley wines (their Chinon is light and 
delicious). 

During the winter months, the best dish is the canard towage 
mi chon croqvont, perfectly roasted, carefully aged wild duck on 
a bed of hardy cooked cabbage blended with a touch of foie 
gras. Depending upon what is available at the market that day, 
there might also be a stunning rable de lievre, quickly cooked 
and sliced into delicate rounds: lender female pheasant, or poule 
faisanne; or a hearty civet de lievre. served with fresh pasta. 

Starters on the handwritten menu that changes each day 
might include saucisse seche. salade au mux (a generous green 
salad dressed with walnut oil and showered with thin slices of 
cured pork sausage marinated in oil and herbs), ora warm salad 
that blends petondes ( tiny scallops) and crayfish, dressed with a 
fine-flavored walnut oil. With it all, sample one of the pleasant, 

domaine-bottled Loire Valley reds, a satisfying Saumur-Cham- 
pigny, delicate Bourgueil or cool and fruity Chinon. 

Gourmet's, 26 Place Daupbine, Paris 1; tel: 43.26.72.92 . Open 
noon to midnight. Closed Monday. From 100 to 300 francs a 
person, including wine and service. Credit card: Visa. 

Le Petit Marguery, 9 Boulevard du Port Royal. Paris 13; tel: 
43.31.58.59. Closed Sunday. Monday and holidays, and Dec. 21 
through Jan. 3. From 200 to 300 francs a person, including wine 
and service. Credit cards: American Express, Diners Chib, Mas- 
tercard, Visa. ■ 


Napoleon’s Isolated Last Quarters 


by Robert Gordon 


S AINT HELENA — From October 
1815 to May 1821, the island of Saint 
Helena was world famous. On that 
isolated Sooth Atlantic rock the do- 
posed emperor Napotoou Bonaparte passed 
the dreary years of his exile. Watchful 
British troops camped there by the thou- 
sands, cannon bristled from every promon- 
tory, warships cruised offshore. When he 
died — of ulcers, cancer or arsenic poisoning 
— the Mend 's brief moment of glory faded. 

Difficult to get to then. Saint Helena is 
even harder to reach today. Becanse it lacks 
sufficient flat land, h has no airport. That 
atone sets it apart from almost every other 
populated place on earth. Cape Town lies 
1,700 miles southeast, Africa’s coast 1,200 
miles east, Brazil 1,800 miles west There is 
only one way to gp — by the freighter Saint 
Helena, a 70-passenger royal mafl ship usu- 
ally referred to simply as the RMS, which 
mures a round trip every two months from 
Avcmmouth, in the west of England, to Cape 
Town. The vessel brought only 374 viators 
on its six «H« in 1984. 

Discovered by the Portuguese in 1502, 
Saint Helena was taken for a while by the 
Dutch, then shrewdly swapped to the British . 
East India Company in exchange for Cape 
Town. After that the island became a nauti- 
cal pit stop. Sups an voyages to the Far East, 
sometimes as iqany as 300. a year, stopped to . 
stock water, fruit and vegetables. But then 
came 19th-century progress. Steel vessels 
powered by coal or dl didn't need to lay 
over, and the opening of the Suez Canal in 
1869 dealt the economic death blow. Its 
source of prosperity gone, the island slipped 
baric into obscurity. 

Today it is one of 16 remaining British 
dependencies — the last outposts of empire. 
Its 5,000 inhabitants are a mix of British, 
Portuguese, African, Chinese and Indian 
stock. On a homeland with no marketable 
mineral or agricultural products, no factories 
and few jobs, they are supported by Britain 
at a cost of about $7 nriffian a year. 

A big chunk erf that goes toward subsidiz- 
ing the Saint Helena, the last royal mail ship 
and the world’s last regularly scheduled car- 
go vessel espying more than 12 passengers 
and a full-time doctor. Outbound its first 
stop is Tenerife in the Canary Islands, then 
Ascension. There passengers can land for a 
bus tour rf the sun isn’t too dangerous. After 
another 700 nnks comes Sant Helena, 
where everybody disembarks for six to eight 
days before sailing cm to Cape Town. Total 
time: about three and a half weeks. 

There’s good reason for the stopover in 
Saint Helena. Hundreds erf Saints, as the 
inhabitants call themselves, work at Ascen- 
sion’s huge air base, and up to 120 travel 
between the two islands at a time, displacing 
the through passengers while the ship func- 
tions as a ferryboat 

The vessel is 329 feet long and weighs 
3,250 tons. Nobody would mistake it for the 
QE2, bat it’s seaworthy and surprisingly 
roomy, with air-conditioned cabins on two 
decks and each cabin with its own shower 
and toOeL The upper deck has a forward 
lounge with bar and slot machine. The stem 
lounge on the same deck has a library, TV set 
with cassette player and windows with views 
of 180 degrees. 

On the deck below is the dining room, 
with two sittings for every meal The ship’s 
officers are British, but the chefs, dining 
room staff — and all the rest of tbe crew : — 
are Saints. 

As the vessel approaches, the island ap- 
pears as a gray smudge on the horizon. As 
you draw closer you see what Napoleon saw: 
a 47 -square- mile extinct volcano — “not a 
pretty place to five in,” he said when he 
fgimpseditEromthcdeckoiamini-o’-wxr— 
with jagged cliffs, peaks op to 2,750 feet, 
some thin vegetation. 

1 ANDING can be tricky. The tiny, har- 
bor lies on the island’s lee side, but it 
J has Httle protection against an 
Atlantic. There’s no pier, only a sea-v 
with a flight of steps down to tbe water. Even 
Napoleon had to be helped ashore, and so do 
you. 

Once -on dry land, it's like crashing a 
party. Arrivals and departures are major 
social events with islanders gathered at the 
quay for greetings and goodbyes. . 

Jamestown, the capital, has one modest- 
size hotel, the Consulate. Its tree-shaded 
courtyard is everybody's gathering place. 
Dancers and drink ers steer for the basement 
discotheque. The bishop — head of the 
world’s smallest Anglican see — .arrives to 
welcome friends. Businessmen have an eve- 
ning nip. 

A dozen or so visitors can stay m the 
Consulate. The rest (15 on my visit) taxi up 
Side Road, a breathtaking efimb that carries 
VOn Six miles to Piccblo H31 and a set of 
famished prefabricated housekeeping cot- 
tages, thm-waDed but spacious. Local wom- 
en prepare and serve breakfast and act ns 
chambermaids. For lunch and dinner, taxis 



Launching ceremony for a fishing boat on Saint Helena. 


Bryn Conplnl, Mogmm 


take you to the Consulate, the dining room 
of which is decorated with a huge ship’s 
wheel, memento of an offshore sinking. 

From the hold’s upstairs balcony you can 
watch the town go by. Jamestown is a mfie 
long and one street wide, strung out along 
what the residents call a got — a narrow 
ravine between steep barren mountains — 
and soon you feel that you recognize almost 
everyone walking past 

Across the street is the post office; in its 
philatelic bureau collectors can catch up on 
multicolored stamps and covers not only 
from hoe but also from its dependencies of 
Ascension and Tristan de Cunba. (The latter 
island is so remote that the Saint Helena 
goes there only once a year.) The two li- 
censed pubs are a few hundred feet away. 
And by tbe fish market on Saturday evenings 
you can listen to tbe Salvation Army band. 
“They caroL" my taxi driver said, “for about 
half an hoar” 

Diagonally downhill from the Consulate 
is Wellington House, a small hotel painted 
bright blue; Here the historical society brings 
you for tea after a walk around town. Here, 
too, the young Sir Arthur WeDesley stayed in 
1789. Later, as the Duke of Wellington, he 
defeated Napoleon at Waterloo. 

lining Main Street are the crafts st 
(lacewoik is an island specialty, along 
woodworking and naive paintings), other 
small shops, warehouses, the library and 
museum mid the government offices. Near 
tbe bottom is St. James's, which one of its 
vicars called “the ugliest church in Christen- 
dom.” Not so. It’s a plain graystone struc- 
ture fancied up with 19th-century Gothic 
windows. Supposedly the oldest or next-to- 
ol dest Christian church in the Southern 
Hemisphere, it rests on the site of a Portu- 
guese chapel dating from 1502 — which 
would mean that the ground has been conse- 
crated since then. 

The island is ruled from London, 4,600 
miles away. With the advice of distant bu- 
reaucrats, die island's government tries to 
apply the safeguards erf the welfare state: 
child care, sickness benefits, widowers’ and 
retirement pensions. Unemployed men are 
guaranteed three days' work a week — but 
not the women. 

Tbe result might be widespread emigra- 
tion — colonies of Saints in Britain and 
South Africa are about as large as the is- 
land's population — except for London's 
recent Immigration Act, which holds that 
Saints don’t have full British citizenship, 


even though residents of Gibraltar and the 
Falkland Islands da It’s a source of consid- 
erable discontent. 

To explore tbe countryside you can hire a 
taxi — about S2S for a morning or an after- 
non. Fifty miles of twisting, sometimes hair- 
raising roads are paved. Plantation houses 
like Polly Mason’s — where Napoleon used 
to ride over for tea — perch on terraced 
hillsides, or in the depths of green valleys. 
Strangely shaped spikes or red-gray granite 
like Lot and Lot’s Wife fracture tbe horizon. 
No view is dull, and the residents you meet 
along the way are uniformly friendly. 


P RIMARILY, though, yon can visit 
Napoleon's houses. Both are muse- 
ums (admission is free), painstakingly 
restored. Tbe Briars, up-gut from James- 
town, was originally the guesthouse of a 
family called Bascombe. The emperor, after 
bis first unsatisfactory night in the capital — 
too many sightseers, too much noise — 
stopped by and invited himself in. The Bas- 
combes stayed in their main house (now 
destroyed), but their cottage became Napo- 
leon's temporary residence while his staff 
camped out in a tent on the lawn. 

Today four rooms are open. The walls and 
ceilings are painted green and white, while 
the fnmisbings are imperial sofas and tables. 
A bust of Napoleon occupies one corner, 
and political prints by English and French 
artists decorate the walls. 

Napoleon’s main residence, Longwood, is 
more than five miles from Jamestown. Once 
the summer home of the island's lieutenant 
governor, it is a one-story T-shaped building 
with two-story servants houses behind. A 
stone wall four miles around fences Long- 
wood in. On the grounds you can retrace 
Napoleon’s footsteps in his tidy formal gar- 
dens: swirls of flower beds (now replanted), 
shrubs, a fishpond, a trim sentry box. 

Twenty-three rooms are open. On the 
huge inlaid billiard table just inside the en- 
try, Napoleon spread out him maps of Eu- 
rope to refight old battles. In the rectangular 
dining room he sat, not at the end of the 
polished mahogany table bat in its center, 
with bis back to the fireplace. The camp bed 
that be preferred to any fourposter is in his 
bedroom and tbe adjacent room holds his 
iron bathtub. (Soaking frequently, apparent- 
ly to ease his abdominal pains, was one of his 
habits.) And in what must have once been a 


-J — CANARY ts 
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salon, a plinth bolds a replica of his death 
mask marking the place where he died. 

A mDe and a half away is Napoleon's 
burial site. An iron fence surrounds the grave 
where his triple coffin was laid. In 1840 
Queen Victoria permitted exhumation, and 
the remains went back to France. A few 
years later she designated the tomb and 
Longwood as French property. So today 
Longwood flies the tricolor, and the French 
consul lives in tbe quarters once occupied by 
Napoleon's staff. 

Geraniums and bougainvilleas bloom in 
the clearing. White faiiy terms soar among 
the cypresses, willows and Norfolk pines. 
The valley is peaceful — a silent memorial to 
an extraordinary life. 

“That frightful rock," one Frenchman 
called Saint Helena. But he was wrong. Go- 
ing there is truly rewarding, provided you 
have time and the willingness to dispense 
with jets and huge hotels. The island is 
austere, beautiful — and lonely. And you 
can wonder, as I did, how differently its 
history might have turned out had it been in 
the Mediterranean or the Caribbean. 

To book passage on tbe Saint Helena, 
write to Barry Twiddy, Passenger Manager, 
Saint Helena Shipping Co., Ltd., the Ship- 
yard, Porthleven, Hdston, Cornwall, En- 
gland TR139JA or contact a travel agency 
that specializes in freighter travel. ■ 

Robert Gordon is associate professor of En- 
glish as Montclair fNew Jersey) State College. 
He wrote this for The New York Times. 


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Prnv. Day Opm Int. 42942 up 291 
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SUGARWORLD 11 (RYCSCSI 
112X00 Dts^ cente perto. 

775 3X0 Jan . 4X0 470 

933 334 Mar 4X3 &S& 

215 358 May 4.19 472 

470 379 Jul *38 839 

6M 424 Sep 650 650 

770 402 Od 4X4 4X4 

775 673 Jan 

IM 4X1 Mar 775 775 

Est.Satai Prev. Sales 7X99 
Prev. Dav Open Int 108159 off 15*7 
COCOA OIYC5CE) 
w metric torw-Saer ten . 

2392 1955 IIW 2200 2219 

2422 I960 May 2241 2240 

3429 im M 2277 2284 

2430 2023 Sep 22H 2305 

2383 2029 Mar 2323 2325 

Est. Sales 1700 Prev.Sates IMS 
Prev- Day Open Int. 17X32 off iB 
ORANGE JUICE INYCE) 

18000 Ibs^ cents Par rb. 

180X0 11170 Jan 12300 12300 

17750 11250 Mar 12470 12450 

14150 11175 MOV 124X0 12450 



































































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Jicralb^^lSribunc. 


BUSINESS / FINANCE 


U.S. Slocks 
Report, M-l, 


0 >AT, DECEMBER 20, 1985 


** 


Page 13 


TECHNOLOGY 

ackagiag Microwave Food 
o Make a Crisper Pizza 

By ERIC SCHMFIT 

New York Tfma Service 

T EW YORK- — Producers of food for nricrowave ovens 
. V I have gone a long way in recent years- to satisfy' the 

• growing number of fast-paced and finicky eaters’ de- 
^ mantis for a quicker way id prepare irernfo at home. 

h diverse foods as pancakes, popcorn and casseroles have 
' i successfully marketed for the microwave. 

, 'ut stiB dudmg some nncrowave diets is the technology to 

• x pastry crisp or the crust on Southern friedchkkm some- 

g other than a moist mess of batter that slides off a to* 
Many foods turn out so temWy in the microwave,” 
iard K. Brown, a senior ; 

_ sarcber in paperboard 
kaging for James River 

" p„ a major manufacturer 
packaging for microwave 
“They turn out soft. 

. gy or tough.” 

2 the quest to perfect what 
ailed mkao-ensping, Pills- 
y Go^ a pioneer in micro- 
• : .*e foods, has turned to a 
peaixdd idea. To keep a pizza crust or any other dough 
_ dnet from sogging in the microwave, Pillsbury has incorporat- 
Jbe dynamics of a conventional oven into its packaging. 

. v conventional gas or electric oven winks by dehyd rating a 
d’s surface, cooking from the outside in. Microwaves, in 
~'-'aice, cook from the inside out, homing in cm a food's water 
"■Necules and converting them into steam. When the steam 
qxs to the food surface, however, instead of evapor ating on 
- tritativeSy warmer exterior, as happens in a conventional oven, 
moisture cools and condenses, causing crispy crusts to go 

p. 

o bring more surface heat to the crust, Pfllsbury uses what it 
s a susceptor. It is a' square layer of powdered altumnum 
mated under plastic and glned to the bottom of a disposable 
■er container. Pillsbuiy puts the pizza, wrapped in cellophane, 
he container. The dinar takes the pizza out of the cellophane 
, L toms over the container so that the ahiminnm coating on the 
lam is facing op. The pizza is then placed an the aluminum- 
led side. That places it about an inch (2^4 centimeters) above 
bottom of the oven — the hottest part. 


U.S. Firms 




incorporaledtbe 
dynamics of a 
conventional oven 
into its packaging. 


n: 

■i 


| HE METAL layer absorbs microwaves and dcctromag&et- 
-ically converts themjmo temperatures of up to 400 de- 
grees, thns browning and crisping tbe bottom of the crust 
Miw. rime that microwaves are melting chee s e and n mrming 
iato sauce on top. The pizza crusts are pre-baked and pre- 
wned, and use less water than normal recipes to prevent 

wng- 

aghteea months ago, Pillsbury sold retailers on the idea and 
year expects to seU 35 mSSbon to 40 mUbonmicrowavc pizzas, 
xding to Richard Nickel, a HDsbury vice president in charge 
nicrowave foods. 

illsbury and other companies, however, still face microwave 
blems. The ovens vary in powo- from 400 watts to 700 watts, 
ting standardized cooking instructions on packages all but 
os&ibfe. Microwaves also tend to cook in irregular patterns 
. leave hot and cold spots in foods that are too big. Most 
as, therefore, must be 7 inches (2.8 centimeters) in diameter 

mailer. 

jid finally there is timing Xn a conventional oven, S or 10 
utes one way or another usually has Httle effect on baking. In 
crowave oven, however, experts say that 10 to 15 seconds can 
. n the difference between adectible and disastrous. - 
Jean Packaged Foil and Containers LtcL, a Toronto-based 
ipany, has patents pending on what amounts to a high-tech^ 
ninuxn TV- dinn er tray with a plastic dome lid that contains 
allic components. Alcan (Petals are tight-Kpped about ex- 
y how the Ed works, but scientists and industry analysts 
. liter with the tedinology said the lid creates an envelope of 
t near the food’s snrf ace that crisis and browns all around the 
■i 

r Currency Rates 


IVcFoUCould 
Slow Economy 

\ By Martin Crutziogcr 

The Associated Presi 

WASHINGTON — In news 
that could foreshadow dower eco- 
nomic growth, U.S. business execo- 
tives plan to reduce spending for 
expansion and wfttupwwtiwi next 

year, the government reported 

Thursday. 

The Qxumene Department said 
that, based on a samy conducted 
injhte- October and November, 
businesses plan to cut spending by 
an average -1 percent in 1986, after 
taking out the effects of mflarion . 

That com p a re s to an expected 
increase tins year erf 5.6 percent 

The Wfta gan Mdwn i n k tT H tiftw htS 

Jreen counting an growth in busi- 
ness i n vestment to provide new life 
for the economy. 

However, if current business 
plans bold up, it would mean that 
the economy would not get any 
momentum from investment 
spending next year. With consumer 
1 to be weak, 
[increase tbe dangers of a 

recession. 

Tbe 1 -percent decline in spend- 
ing projected for next year would 
be the first drop since a 0.8-percent 
decline in 1983, winch had fol- 
lowed a 5 3- percent fall in 1982. 

In 1982, tbe country was mired 
in a steep recession, with wide- 
spread plant dosings and layoffs, 
while the current recovery was un- 
derway by 1983, U.S. factories were 

stm operating far bdow capacity, 
so there was little push by business- 
es to expand. 

But in 1984, business investment 
soared 153 percent, the biggest in- 
crease in two decades, as the econo- 
my was growing rapidly. 

The Hwipw administration has 
often dawmwt credit for this huge 
expansion, contending that it was 
due m huge part to fte effects of 
Reagan-sponsored business tax 
br eaks 

However, tbe bis surge in spend- 
ing tapered off this year, to the 
now-estimated 5-6-perceot growth. 

. A year ago, business-spending 
plans called for growth at astrahr' 
gar 6.7-peroent rate, bat those 
plans have been gradually cut bade 
over tbe year as the economy has 
shown sluggishness. 

Domestic manufacturers have 
been battered by foreign competi- 
tion, losing sales at home and 
abroad. 


Boom Time for U.S. Mutual Funds 


Hie little Gay 
Still Depends 
On Big Managers 

By Vartanig G. Vartan 

/Yew York Times Senior 

NEW YORK —WaJl Street’s 
little guy is coming back to the 
stock and bond, markets. But tins 
time he is asking otbezs to place 
his bets to him, 

Convinced that inflation has 
been, tamed, indxvidnal investors 
are spuming 


asi 

estate and antiques to pour bil- 
lions of doBars into equity and 

tmrtnnl funds. The 

result is the biggest boom ever 
for the food industry, whose 
' sales have doubled in the past 
year. 

New funds of all stripes are 
proliferating, the stocks. of man- 
agement co mpan ies that , control 
a bevy of funds are riding high, 
and some fimds are so popular 
they have afant their doors to new 
sales. 

The niHiw in the stock »"d 
bond markets are hiding the 
participation. But even though 
more mdividnal investees are 
now venturing back with their 
own purchases, many are still re- 
lying an the fimds as a prudent 
way to spread the risk. 

At Dreyfus Carp*, far exam- 
ple, a big manager of a number 
of funds, mine than $100 million 
a week of new money is flowing 
in these days. 

The chang e is so dramatic, 
said Albert R SmdEnger, the 


a 


The New Growth at Mutual Funds 


Aft mutual funds 
Met annual sales. 
In ballons of 
dollars. 



13 22 


Equity Funds 
Net annual sales 
of equity funds, isji 



022 


Source jMWjwgtfCawggyjMftMgfcj 


head of a consumer-opinion re- 
search fum bearing In* ynwwfc tn 
Media, fcnnayjvama, that cariter 
this year one of his studies 
showed tint 113 million people 
owned m ^«i funds bin no 
stocks. By c omp a ris on, a year 
earlier, there were were 53 mfl- 
Soo fond owners who bad no 
stocks. 

4 American households are no 
longer doing their own bating 
on the market,” Mr- Sndhnger 

said. 

Dzsroduwtmaat caused by 
losses in specific issues of stocks 
and bonds, the fear of being 
trampled by pension funds and 
other « m | , F«" || 'rt h institutions dm* 
now dominate trading, puzzle- 
ment ova the growing complex- 
ity of the investment world — all 
there factors have caused people 
to turn over die stewardship of 
their dollars to funds. 

Also feeding the industry's 
growth in recent years have been 


ItaNnrYrtTw 

Individual Retirement Accounts 
and Keogh plans, winch shelter 
investments from taxation. 

Industry sales, excluding 
short-term funds, soared to 5893 
bOEon in the Erst 10 months of 
this year, according to tbe In- 
vestment Company Institute, the 
trade gro up lor mnt,i!> i fimds. 
That is about twice tbe volume 
for all of 1984, the previous re- 
cord year. And fund buyers are 
l yMing an to their investments. 
Net sides — ar total sales nunns 
redemption* — total $623 bil- 
lion so far in 1985. 

■ Far the industry as a whole, 
excluding short-term money- 
market funds, net assets under 
management came to $2183 bfl- 
boo at the ad of October. This 
c omp are d with $422 billion in 
1975 and $58.4 bfflhm five years 
ago. 

The fund industry l»w had its 
buying spurts before, but never 
(Conttned on Page Ml CoL 5) 


U.K. Introduces 
Legislation on 
Market Reform 


By Bob Hagerty 

International Herald Tribune 

LONDON — Leon Brittan, the 

trade and industry secretary, intro- 
duced legislation Thursday that he 
said would ensure that Britain's fi- 
nancial markets are “a dean place 
to do business.” 

The long-awaited legislation is 
the “most comprehensive over- 
haul” of investor-protection law 
for 40 years, Mr. Brittan said. It 
affects drains in securities, com- 
modities, options and futures con- 
tracts as well as accountants, law- 
yers and others who provide 
financial advice. In addition, the 
bffl would increase regulation of 
the free-wheeling Eurobond mar- 
ket, whose main center is London. 

The legislation partly reflects the 
government’s desire to avoid fur- 
ther damag e to the reputation of 
the City, London's financial center, 
which has been hurt in recent years 
by a series of scandals at the 
Lloyd's insurance market and alle- 
gations of fraud arising from the 
near collapse last year of Johnson 
Matthey Bankers Ltd. 

Prevention of fraud in the City 
has become a major political issue. 
During a debate on hawking super- 
vision in Parliament earner this 
week, tempers became so inflamed 
that a member of the opposition 
Labor Party described the chancel- 


OECD Sees Recovery Continuing at Slowed Rate 


By Carl Gcwiitz 

International Herald Tribune 

PARIS — The economic recov- 
ery in the industrialized countries, 
now three yean old and reaching 
old age as measured by tbe recent 
history of business cycles, “could 
continue for some time to come,” 
the Organization for Economic Co- 
operation and Development re- 
ported Thursday in its semiannual 
Economic Outlook. 

But the economic-growth pace is 
much slowed, down to a projected 
23-percent rate next year, little 
changed from this year's estimated 
25 percent but sharply slowed 
bom the almost 5 percent in 1984. 
And the number of European 
workers without jobs wifi continue 
.to rise, as it has all through the 


the industrialized countries average 
not less thaw 3 percent a year to 
provide buoyant markets for Third 
World exports. The OECD noted 
that under present conditions, 
Third World debt would have to 
increase 3 to^ 4 percent a year, near- 
ly double what is currently contem- 
plated, jnst to stabilize those coun- 
tries’ per-eapita import levels. 

Thns, die OECD confines itself 
to simply projecting what will re- 
sult from the interaction of nation- 
al economi c policies. The aim, a 
senior economist, David Hender- 
son, said at a press conference, is to 
provide objective analysis of what 


is happening and why, rather than 
“putting forth ou con tro vers ia l is- 
sues.*’ 

There is little echo in tins report 
of the policy dispute fividing the 
United States and its major affies. 
W ashing ton is urging more stimu- 
lative policy measures, and both 
Wonn and Tokyo maintain that 
they are doing as modi as is possi- 
ble. 

The most daring statements that 
it makes on this issue are that 
“there is a sizable mar gin of spare 
labor and ... capital resources, 
mainly concentrated in Europe" 
and that “all in all, aggregate sup- 


ply conditions, inflation trends and 
real labor costs all suggest more 
room for continuing recovery." 

The overall forecast is not much 
chang ed from what the organiza- 
tion pictured in its June report. But 
tbe outlook, Mr. Henderson said, is 
modi improved by a greater sense 
of confidence that the advance can 
be sustained. 

This is thanks to the Sept. 22 
meeting of the Group of Five lead- 
ing industrialized countries — the 
United States, Japan, West Germa- 
ny, France and Britain — and the 
early October launch rtf the Baker 
(Continued on Page 16, CoL 5) 


lor of the exchequer, Nigd Lawson, 
as a "sniveling little giL" 

While tbe Conservative govern- 
ment wants to show resolve to 
crack down on fraud, it also wants 
to avoid smothering the City with 
too much regulation. 

Tbe City’s tradition of tight and 
flexible regulation is credited with 
helping to preserve London's role 
as one of the three most important 
financial centers, with Tokyo and 
New York, even though Britain's 
economy is far smaller than those 
of Japan and the United States. 
The financial-services business is 
one of the healthiest segments of 
the British economy, accounting 
for about £6 billion (S85 billion) of 
export revenue annually. 

Thus, the legislation represents 
an attempt to preserve tbe practice 
of letting the investment profes- 
sionals largely regulate themselves 
while increasing the government's 
ability to ensure that such regula- 
tion is adequate. 

“Whilst the bill builds on the 
tradition of self-regulation, it en- 
sures that self-regulation has the 
teeth and statutory backing it 
needs to be effective,” Mr. Brittan 
said at a press briefing. 

The legislation is expected to be 
enacted by next October, when the 
stock exchange is scheduled to 
loosen its membership and pricing 
rules to allow freer competition. 

Under the legislation, the gov- 
ernment plans to appoint an agen- 
cy to cany out most of the regula- 
tion. Thai agency is to be created 

through tbe merger of two bodies 
formed earlier this year, the Securi- 
ties and Investment Board and the 
Marketing of Investments Board 
Or ganising Committee. 

The agency is to regulate some 
operators directly but delegate 
most of the day-to-day regulation 
to approved “self-regulatory orga- 
nizations," such as the stock ex- 
change and a new group formed by 
Eurobond dealers, winch will be 
required to show that they can ade- 
quately police their members. 

Because it will delegate so much 
of its work to “practitioners" rather 
than relying on bureaucrats, the 
agency is expected to be small. Tbe 
(Confirmed on Plage 16, CoL 1) 


The OECD secreta ri a t , based in 
Paqs, purposely avoids any judg- 
ment on this outcome. 

The basic tenet of tbe strategy to 
deal with the Third World debt 
crisis, for example, is dial growth in 


Dee. 19 

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: tmyomunud; SUSJXSS 


Westland Has Big Loss; 
Reaffirms Rescue Plan 


Dollar Value* 

PM- IUS CHiweir 



per UJ 4 Cu rrency per II S 3 


15045 Norw. krone 74*2 

74075 PMLpeaa 1740 

n.mi PertBKMto isaso 

1,12540 Sawn rlyol 14303 

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: Bam au Sputa ISnnnW; Banco OemmereMe Itatiana (MBuOi Banmm Ha- 
le Potlt (Paris); Book of Tofvo Ctokeo>; IMF iSDK); BAll (tPoar, rival, titritam); 
tfndUtl Other data Oom Routers and AR. 


Routers 

LONDON — Britain’s only heli- 
copter maker, Westland PLC, an- 
nounced a massive 1984 loss on 
Thursday and restated its plans to 
prooeed with a U-S.-led rescue 
package despite the objections of 
Michael Heseltine, the defense 
minis ter. 

Westland said it had a pretax 
loss in the year ended SepL 30 erf 
£953 milli on (about $1353 mil- 
lion) versus a profit erf £2.8 million 
a year earlier. Revenue rose to 
£308.4 miltiosi from £2963 mihmn 
Westland said. 

Westland’s chairman. Sir John 
Cackney, told an interviewer on 
British radio that a rescue offer 
from United Technologies Carp- — 


parent of tbe U.S. hebcopter mak- 
er, Sikorsky — and Fiat of Italy 
would secure his company’s future. 

“What 1 want to see is the com- 
pany and its employees and its 
shareholders having a secure medi- 
um- and long-term future.” he said. 
“The United Technology es-Fiat 
deal- does that exceUentiy." 

Tbe company later unveiled de- 
tails of the uTC-FIat bid and reit- 
erated its rejection of an initial of- 


Interest Rates 


wty Peptrirt 


Dec. 19 


!Mn 
Pmc 
4Hr4ft> 
414-438 
4W-414 
4VV4V4 
4 tMH. 


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Aat— PoOnar Peyo altB 

Dec. 19 


fnonfta 
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6 
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Source: Reuters. 


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Dee. 19 

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Source: Morrill LmtA T M una ft. 


Gold 


Dec 19 

AM. PM. ana 
KtnKM 32339 UUB ' +14B 

LmMiMora oaue — +488 

Paris 014 Wla) 32438 32149 +845 

ZurltH 32135 33535 +645 

UMtaM 321* 32580 +S3S 

MwVMt — 33410 -0* 

Lmwnftcwito Pdfts and London official Rx- 
km: Hone Kong and Zurtefi opening and 
daekm prices. : Now York Comex current 
contract Ati prices M UJL Sper ounce. 


Source: Reuters. 


GE Says Unit 
Of RCA. Could 
Be Put in Trust 

The Associated Press 

NEW YORK — General 
Electric Co. and RCA Corp- 
have agreed to dispose of 
RCA's $2-biHion consumer- 


lo win U3. government ap- 
proval of the companies* 
planned $638-lriQion merger, a ; 
GE spokesman said Thursday. 

But that would not necessar- 
ily mean that GE would sell the 
RjCA operation to another com- 
pany, said Bruce Bunch, 
spokesman at GE headquarters 
in Fairfield, Connecticut. “It 
could still be something that 
was owned by GE but separate 
from the company, like hdd in. 
a trust or something" he said. 

Since the two companies an- 
nounced GEs acquisition of 
RCA last week, there has been 
speculation on Wall Street that 
they might face antitrust objee- . 
turns, especially in consumer 
electronics. 

The two companies would 
have a combined market share 
of 25 percent of the domestic 
television market. 

RCA's cansumeralectraaics 
andi services operations had 
prrtax profit of $203 million 
last year, down sharply from 
$86.9 mfiSon is 1983. Sales, 
came to $2.19 billion, up from . 
$1.8 billion the year before. 


— British Aerospace, Frances Aer- 
ospatiale, West Germany’s Messer- 
scrumtt-BOIkow-Blohm and Italy’s 
A grata. 

The two companies will inject 
£30 irriTTi nn into Westland in return 
for a 29.9-pereeui stake, Westland 
said. UTC has an option to invest 
an aHditkffl p l £19.1 milHfin. 

The Loudon Takeover Rand, 
which regulates merger activity, 
has waived its rule that would re- 
: than to bid to the remaining 


once their combined stake 
reached 30 percent, Westland said. 

The UTC-Rat offer is part of a 
£72J2-nriHion purfeag p in uhich 
shareholders will be arited to extra 
cash and bank debt wiD be convert- 
ed into shares. Westland share* 
holders are to vote on the package 
Jan. 14 

Critics of the padra ge say it will 
reduce Westland to tittle more than 
a production fadfity for U.S. hefi- 


r. Headline, arguing the merits 
erf inouased European coqpetati 
on arms, has fought a lone battle to 
for um rival plan with- 
gov enunen t, winch 
Ibe fin ill dadrion to 



. for Lloyds Mer- 
wtnch is putting to- 
gether tbe European package, said 
tbe font companies phis Britain’s 
General Electric Co., anew arrival 
on the scene, would meat Thursday 
in London to draw np a fmaf offer. 

A Westland sj 
Thursday that if the Europeans 
made an improved offer, the board 
would be bound to consider iL Bttt 
Sir John, stressing; that Westland 
had little time, remained deter- 
mined in his backing for the U-S.- 
led package. 

Mr. Headline won qualified sop- 


r _-„ /DefenseCom- 

nnrtee called for a roll examination 
of. tte implications of any owner- 
ship efamgp at Westland, . t 



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Our service in Switzerland, for example. 


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Moreover, now thar we are 
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folio of assets is also well-diversi- 
fied and it is a point of principle 
with us to keep a conservative ' 


; ratio of capital to deposits and a 
high degree of liquidity - sensible 
strategies in these uncertain times. 

If you would like more infor- 
mation about any of our services, 
stop in on your next trip to Switz- 
erland. Or telephone: in Geneva, 
022/37 21 11; in Chiasso, 091/44 19 9L 


TDB offices in Genera. London. Paris, 
Luxembourg, Chiasso. Monte Carlo, 
Nassau, Zurich, Buenos Aires, Sdo 
Paulo. 

TDB, the 6th largest commercial bank 
in Switzerland, is a member of the 
American Express Company, which 
has assets of US$ 69-3 oill'm and 
shareholders' equity of US$4.9 billion. 



Trade De\dopment Bank 


The Trade Develop 
at 96-98, rue du 


•/ Bank building ht Geneva , 


An American Express company 



t 




r. 




Page 14 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, FRIDAY, DECEMBER 



Thursday^ 

witx 


Closing 


Tables tachwe me natfaawtde prices 
up to the dosing on Wall Street 
and bo not reflect late trades elsewhere. 

Via The Associated Press 


n Marti 
hmlob Stack 


SO. 

Ota. m PE Ktt 


CkBC _ 

Loo QoOt.al'BO 



ink 54S 
16ft 44b 

is*b u3 
m rn 
17ft im 
3ft 1ft 

lft 7« 
M M 
3% VA 
17 9Ui 
4ft 10b 


HltflOl 

HlttlEx 

HalttiM X» 
HettiWr JSa 1? 
Hbftdcft .10 J 


•ft Mb 
WA 16ft 

6 A 
9 s* 

4 4 

lft 1ft 
i» raft 
2ft 2ft 
ink ink 
25ft 24ft 

lags 

t Tt 

Ha im 
Mb Mb 
Vk 3ft 
17 lift 
U ft 14 
2Mb 2Mb 
25ft 24ft 
22 71ft 

7 Mb 


Mb 

8ft + ft 
lift 

Mb— ft 
15ft + ft 
2ft 

\-«i 

4 

1ft 

IWi- ft 

2ft 

Bft-ft 

25ft— ft 

V* 

Mb- ft 
IT* + ft 

Uft + ft 

2Mb 

24ft— ft 

22 + ft 

Mb 


AM SfeNiwbE J9r AS B 
17ft 11 Howoor J2 V 
20 lift NowLsn ■ 14 

9ft Mb Nkmnn 23 

13ft 7 Nftfwu t 

5 1ft NMHnd 

Aft 7ft Note* 23 

111b Mb NttOgt 

37 29ft NIPS of 425 1U 


3 ft .3ft 
12 11 — M 1 

1Mb lift + ft 
Mb Mb— M 

9M 9ft— M 
Aft Aft— ft 
Aft Aft 
9ft 9ft 
34 34ft + ft 
3ft 3ft 
5ft 5ft— ft 
8ft 8ft— ft 



Aft 4 

raft m 

14ft 9ft 
4ft ft 
32ft 21ft 
lift I Oft 
lift 10 
am 21 ft 

344V VU. 
Ml 91b 
391b 14ft 
lft ft 
19ft II 
191b lift 
23 lift 


Aft 3U 
13ft Aft 


24 9ft 

« nt 

9ft 7ft 
14ft 9 
8ft Aft 
1Mb 10ft 

18ft lift 

17ft 13ft 
23ft lift 
551b 27ft 
13 Alb 
> lft 
Uft BK 
Uft Oft 
•ft 5 
lft 5ft 


23ft 16ft 
l*ft Aft 
Aft lft 
If 15ft 
10 3ft 
W„u 9ft 
Aft lft 
151b II 
lift 9ft 
Uft lift 
13 Aft 
30ft 23ft 
18ft Alb 
44 29ft 
30ft 21 
15ft Bft 
9ft 5ft 
1221b 89ft 
25ft 19ft 
2SW 19ft 
321b 13ft 
2 ft 
Oft 3Kb 
7ft Aft 
27 ISVb 
12ft 5 
24 ISlb 
lift Aft 


Foblnd J8 2.1 9 
FoIrFln 13 

FalrmC 

471 10 

FtAusf n 
rropnd 

FWymB JO SS 13 

Fnttn>I 10 

F toOiP J8t 47 22 
FltcGE 

FltGE Pf 400 111 
vl Flan is 

FhsRck JO 12 8 
Flat# USt SjO 15 
FotnJrm A 

FttUIIG 

ForUOlUAiKM 
F IXstC A JO 12 28 
F orstC B JO 12 28 
FaraatL 33 

Fotomt 

Frantz lJOa 24 12 
FrdHIy 

FreaEl 18 

Fries En 19 

Frisch* 22b .9 24 
Farvil JO IJ 28 


A 23ft 23ft 

4 lift 18ft 
33 Mb lft 
29 15ft Uft 
17 t M 

219 9ft 9ft 
120 Aft Aft 

A 13ft IJtb 
723 lift Ulb 
32 Uft 14ft 
U T2ft lift 

5 30ft 299k 
44 Alb Aft 
99 40ft 40ft 
77 28ft Z7ft 
13 14ft 14ft 
72 5ft 5ft 
HM22 122 

3 2S\b 25!b 

8 25 25 

1A8 29ft 29M 
2A lft IM 

U 38ft 3Mb 

9 A 5ft 
25 25ft 25ft 
71 lift lift 

5 2314 23ft 
134 IS 15 


lft 

1SK 

5V»— ft 
9ft 

AM- ft 
13ft— ft 
lift +lft 

14ft 

lift + ft 
3Sft + ft 
4ft- ft 
40ft + ft 
2794— ft 
14ft— 1b 
5ft— ft 
122 — ft 
25ft — ft 
25 

29ft + ft 

1ft 

38ft— ft 
A 

25ft— ft 

UK 

2gft-ft 


ttMcnfn m,. y n PE WOsW ALa* WOmi 

llliihln— *" 

— . 15 10 Aft Aft Aft t ft 

gft Aft Uni'S? M 4H13S 102 20’- 19 lb 5J| + ft 

&lgSS8 ’glQft *»»*» 



100 5W 5ft 5M— ft 

7 7ft 7 7 —ft 

1514 «b 5ft 5ft— ft 

A9 7Vb 716 7Vb + ft 

117 18ft IBM 18ft + M 
57 9M 91b 9ft + ft 

62 201b 19ft 20ft 

18 Zft 2U 2 M- ft 

97 2ft 2ft 2ft 

439 13 12M 13 + ft 
IS 23 27ft 22ft- ft 
134 SVb 5 5 — ft 

5 1AM 1414 MM — M 
42 lft IM lft + ft 

40K245ft24S 245 

53 lft lft lft 

29 39ft 39M 39ft + ft 
412 13ft 12ft 13ft + ft 
144 8ft HU 8ft + ft 

2U 3ft 3ft 3ft— ft 

45 5U 5ft 5ft + M 

21 lift 21ft 21ft— ft 
A 79 17ft 17 77 — M 

73 4ft Aft 4ft + ft 

19 17ft 17 17ft 


Aft WlkCon IJB 1«J 
15 wcnsB .16 * 

14ft wansC .>1 ■* 

5v WmCwt 
AW WshHS M _ 
7AM wsnPsr M 
15 WHITS U8 7J1 

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Vk Wablnwt 
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2ft w** 1 ™ .-S - , A 

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7ft WlIHltn 
17 WIRET 1J8 8J 
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3 widen 

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2Aft Wlekes PBJO 7.9 
30 Wicks DIALS) 5-4 
8ft Wiener n 40 42 
lb wHsnB 
lft WmE B 
3W WklEA 
17ft Wlrtin 124el2J 
37U WlsPPf 4J0 94 

2ft Wot lHfl 

8*4 Wastrm 40 44 
lift WkWear J2 24 
2ft WwdeE . , 
12ft WWdeol 1 JO HA 
9 Waiihn JSt . 

lift wrattir JB .1 


1A 158 4% 
«2x W4 
A49I 20W 
2 20 
IS*? M 
7 50 1AU 

14 70 123 

13 IM »M 

244 ft 
9 7ft 
99 7ft 

>S ft 

7 ft ft 

14 lift 
i 1 5H 

1 Mb 


4ft Aft 

,S£ 2$*: 

ir.M 
121 13 ■ 
18 Mft 


31 M 
20 BA m 
14 211 12ft 

27 5AI WM 

12 22 Uft 

13 _8 19V. 

19 3t7 1AW 

1A1 2M 
10 3484 5 

1AA Mb 
767 32W 
101 29M 
7 11 91* 


104 18ft 
340* 47 

s nt 

25 9 

75 21ft 
207 2ft 
17 14ft 
139 M 
58 f* 


n a ft 

91* 91* 
lift lift 
S*b «v 
9ft »b 
HW »> 
T3W lAVb 
W ib 

38ft 

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lift 12 

10 10M 

tin nft 
19 19 

'VI « 

s »■ 

31W 31ft 
29W 29ft 
9W 9» 

3ft 3ft 
3ft 31b 
17*b 1Mb 
45’b 47 

r* 9 ^ 

21W 21ft 
2ft 7ft 
141b 14M 
13 TK.h 
IV IV 


♦ Hi ,, 


11 b b 
IS 2Vb 21b 
231 22W 211b 
32 lift lift 
13 Mb Mft 
152 10ft 10W 
17 23ft 22ft 
3 23ft 23W 
109 lft lft 
22 1ft lft 
41 lift lift 
172 2DM 18ft 
27 Sft S*b 
222 12ft HU 


ft + ft 
2ft 

21ft + M 
im- ft 
Wft— lb 
WU— ft 
23V. + ft 
23ft + ft 
Vft 
IM 
lift 

mu +iu 
sw 

17ft + ft 


I0M 71b 
12ft 10ft 
21ft 12 

& ft 

lft 1 
10ft Aft 
29ft 21ft 
Bib 13ft 
2ft ft 
39ft 21ft 
43 264b 

41ft BM 
9ft Oft 
17ft 12ft 


II J3t 49 

20 

23 

Aft 

Aft 

68 El 


6 

Aft 

5 

toon .12 J 

85 

25 

21ft 

21ft 

113 ba 32 34 

33 

310 

21ft 

20ft 

8 Uft 


28 

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H 

ivcti 42 34 

f 

5 

lift 

lift 

IncT 

13 

10 

10ft 

10ft 

ISon 1 J2a 72 


IV 

17ft 

77 

ISowt 


6 

1U 

lft 

idlaw 


28 

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3 

salB 40b 18 

14 

14 

IM 

15ft 

■rl A 


400 

48ft 

86ft 

art B 


2001 SZ 

SDft 

IA3B 

10 

2 

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5ft 

attar .10e 24 

ID 

35 

4ft 

414 

MatP JS U 

16 

31 

lift 

lift 

1AI a ^8 34 


13 

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1A 

kwYS JB IJ 

21 

561 

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OV» .12 J 

2D 

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19ft 

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366 

1ft 

lft 

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24 

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7 

(tick 56a 23 

ID 

7 

25ft 

25ft 

W 

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14 

7ft 

7ft 

seed JO 14 

W 

89 

1914 

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toff JO 24 

T4 

87 

22ft 

22ft 


J0.5J12 

*8 M 19 
i« li 1 
JOr U 7 
.15 S 21 
9 
115 

SJO 104 

as 

J4 2J 92 
J4 14 X 
40 li 11 
440 11.0 

3 1.1 1A 
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HAL -W# 
HMG JO 
HUBC JSa 
Halifax J« 
Halml 
Hoimlwt 
Hamuli J3t 
Hndvmn JSe 
Hantrds JO 
Harvey 
Hasbro .15 
Haibrpf 2J0 
Homing 40a 
HIM 

HllhCrs JOI 


Bft BM + ft 
10ft 10ft — ft 
21ft 21ft + ft 
5ft 5U + ft 
2ft 2ft 
lft 1ft— ft 
9ft Vft 
2Aft 26ft + ft 
26ft 27 
lft lft— ft 
35ft 36 —ft 
*ft 40ft— fa 
32ft 32ft— Vb 
Bft Sft 
13ft 13ft— ft 


17 12 

MS, 1? 

9ft 3ft 
14ft 10ft 
21ft 12ft 
23ft 14ft 
17ft 13ft 
27V. 13 
I1M 71b 
50ft 33ft 


MRMn 249 21 2 402 

NRMpf 240 145 522 

Naitck 15 30 

NKSsO 40b 18 10 « 

NtPahlt -TO 4 1039 

NMxAT .79 4.9 17 10 

NPInRt IJB S3 14 40 

NPrac IJOe 44 13 61 

NWMP n 56 778 

HYThltM JO 1 J 18 A73 


u ra 

IBM 17ft 
9U 9U 
low low 
ISM 17VS 
lift 16 
Uft 15ft 
27 36ft 
lift TOft 
SOU 48ft 


Utt— M 
17ft 
9U 
10W 

ISM + ft 
16 — M 
Uft + ft 
27 + M 

lift +1 
SOU +lft 


ADVERTISEMENT 

INTERNATIONAL FUNDS (Quotations Supplied by Funds Listed) Dec 19, 

Net aaset value qwrtaNeas are mnelM by Hit Funds listed win Iba aacaptlaa of some moles booed on lint Price. 

Tin monUool symbols import* ftenuencr of sw Mk W onollnliMl -dotty; (w)-weeKty; (bl-bt-moonity; (r) -mgularly; CD -Irrevolarly. 


AL MAL MANAGEMENT 

- w) AFMd Trust. S 4 * 8 197 58 

BANK JUUUS BAER & CO. Ltd. 

- d > Bocrbonrt SF V 34 M 

- d I Canbar 5 F 1329 JW 

- d > EauJboer America s 124 QJ 00 

- d I Eaulboer Europe SF 1505 JH 0 

- d 1 Eaulboer Pacific. - SF 1222 JU 

• diGrabar SF 1093 J» 

- d ) Stockbar SF 175400 

BNP INTER FUNDS 

-lw> intertwnd Fund 5 1314 * 

-(**) infercurrency USS s 1039 

•(wi Intercurreney DM DM 3058 

-fy»l Intercurrencv SterllnB t 105 S 

-jw) mterequllY Pacific Otter — 5 1101 

-fwl IntereaiUty N.Amer. Offer t 1045 

BANOUE INDOSUeZ 

-I d 1 Asian Growth Fund 5 1201 

•Iwl Dlvertxma. — — 5 F HUB 

-tw> FIF-Amm-Ica J >841 

-Iwl FIF-Eutupe— S 1 AA 5 

•Id) FIF-Inlematlnnol ■ . S 1149 

-Iwl FIF-POdflC * 2094 

-Id I indOWezMultlDonds A S 10640 

-Id) indooMzMumbcmosB 5 18702 

•I djlndoaiMX USD (M 4 A.F) 5104600 

BRITAMNIA 4 H 2 B 27 L St. HeUer. Jersey 

-(»} BrtLDonar Income I 0 J 91 - 

-Hwl BHI 3 MonooCurr- * i 0 -« 

-Id) Brit. iniUMonoaoom s 1.187 

-Id 1 BrH. InILf Monag-Partf t 1224 

-IWl BrH.Am.lnc. 8 .FdLM 5 1.173 

-Iwl BrlLGaid Find 5 0 J 41 * 

-Iwl Br ItMcaiao-Cu rryncy £ 1509 " 

-I d | Brit, Jaw*i Olr Pert. Fd 5 1324 

Hwl Brit Jeravy Gilt Fund s 0018 

-id) Brit world Lets. Fund— 8 1355 

-id >Brtf. WArtd Ttdw. Fund — S 0 J 09 
CAPITAL INTERNATIONAL 

-Iwl 0 * 4 rm Inn Fund— S 47.12 

-Iwl Capital I talk] &A 8 19 J 6 

CITICOSP INVESTMENT BANK (LuU 

POB 1373 Linvmtnurg TM. 477 . 95 J 1 

(dl aWiweat Ecu ECU 1017 J 9 

Id) atlnmst LkwMitv a 10)758 

CREDIT SUISSE {ISSUE PRICES) 

-id I Actions Sutees.. SF £0425 

>(d I Band Volar Swf SF 104 J 3 

-Id) Bend Valor Ctmart. DM 10654 

-I d ) Bond VaJor US-DOLLAR 1 11051 

•I dl Bond Voter I Sterling cioojs 

-Id I Bona Volar Yon Yen 1038140 

Hd) Convert volarswf— — SF 125.15 

-I dil Convert Vdior us-DOLLAR- * 13034 
Ha) Comae SF 69700 


Hal Comae SF 69700 

SF 76 J 5 

-<d)C 5 FondS-infi SF 12435 

-I d i CS Money Market Fund S 11 D &00 

-Id C 5 Money Market Fund— DM 106500 

■la CS Mmev Market Fund CISS 209 

-Id CS Money Market Fd Yen- Y 100483 O 0 

-Id Enerrte-Volar SF 14900 

-td Unoe SF BS 9 O 0 

•Id EuroDO-vaior SF i* 4 JS 

-Id PodHc -Volar SF 16250 

DREXEL BURNHAM LAMBERT INC 
Winchester House. 77 London Wall 
LONDON EC2 (01 9109797) 

-( w I Finsbury Group Ltd 3 130.73 

-Im) winchester Divminw s Ji.w 

■(ml Winchester Flnanckrt LM. — $ 946 

-Im) WHKhaslar Frontier X 10 BJ 8 

Hw) Wtncnester ttaldlnm FF 10744 

— 8 1 X 56 

•Iwl worldwide Securliles ——— 3 5 X 87 

-|w) Worldwide Soccftl * 1890.11 

DIT INVESTMENT FPM 

•+I d I Can contra- - DM 3630 

-+td) Inn RcnlMMMd DM 9328 

Dunn A Haraltl 4 UoydGearoe. Bnmefs 

.(ml DiH Com mad I Iv Pool 5343 J 3 ■■■ 

-<m) Currency & Gold Peel S 16430 *’* 

-Im) Which. Lite Pul. Pool 156133 

■Im) Trans World Fut. Pool JH 7 WB 
BBC TRUST OO.(JERSSY) LTD. 

14 Seale SI-SI. Hef|er;D 5 M 6331 
TRADED CURRENCY FUND. 
aidlinciBM — J HUT" Otter — Si 1 . 163 * 
El d ) C«z: BM S 1 X 26 Offer ST 2448 

international income fund 
-I d) Short Term 'A* lAccunD— . } 1 J 11 I 
-i d 1 5 hort Term 'A‘ (Dtatri __ J lOTO 
.( d ) Short Term 'B‘ lAccgm) — J I J »9 
-Idl Short Term ■B’lOlitrl—— * W 686 



U.S. Moves to Ban 
State Unitary Tax 

United Bras International 

WASHINGTON — The Reagan administra- 
tion has proposed legislation to prohibit states 
from imposing unitary tax on multinational 
corporations. 

The legislation also would include a proposal 
that would restrict states from taxing dividends 
paid by foreign subsidiaries of American multi- 
nationals^ 

Under tbe unitary tax system, multinational 
corporations with subsidiaries in various states 
are taxed not on the revenue of the subsidiaries 
alone, but on the baas of their worldwide prof- 
it. The tax is strongly opposed by most rtf the 
multinational companies and many foreign 
governments. 

Tbe Multistate Tax Commission, which rep- 
resents 30 state governments, said the proposal 
would eliminate up to $1 biUkm in revenue for 
32 states. 

■ Treasury Secretary James A. Baker 3d, said 
Wednesday, “The continued impootion of state 
corporate income tax an a worldwide unitary 
baas has a serious adverse impact on the con- 
duct' of the foreign economic policy of the 
United States.” 

But James Rosapepc, the tax oom mission’s 
Washing ton representative, said the proposed 
bill will give “Japanese importers and big ofl 
companies a multijmlHon-dbUar tax break at 
the expense of small businesses and American 
workers-” 

“It's anti-federalism and antijobs,” he add- 
ed. At a time when America is running massive 
trade and budget deficits, why should wegive 
Japanese importers another big tax break?” 



Macy Executives Reduce 
Value of Buyout Offer 

^ 7Jw Associated Press . 

NEW YORK — The tap executives of RJH. 
Macy & Co, who were rumored to be having 
difficulty arranging financing for their pro- 
posed S3.6-bfllvon offer to buy the company, 
said Thursday that they have submitted to 
Many’s directors a new bid that has been re- 
duced by about S100 million- __ 

The executives, led by Edward Finkdstrin, 
chairman and chief executive officer, and the 
president, Mark Handler, are now offering $68 
a share instead of S70 a share for the company’s 
512 ntiOion shares outstanding. 

The company, the lOth-largest UJS. retailer, 
operates 100 sums and had sues of 54.4 billion 
in its just-ended fiscal year. 



©fc awn 

E ii 

O'" CMO 

8* not 

sm ms 

(ft 8904 

aw. awo 
8 ft Ml 
Aft BM 


Aft IMA 
I IHI 
Oft 09 M 
8ft UN 

aft 

8u raS 

8 ft 5941 
Bft IMS 
8ft . 

Sft IMS 


8 ft 3801 
Bft 0601 
a*, ran 


M 39-13 
Bft IMS 
Sft - 
Bft 8901 
Bft IMS 
Bft 2HTT 


Bft 3504 
lft 0804 

sft are 



1 TAIPH —Taiwan wll remove a 
5-peroent surcharge -isbet 

nxmth tn order to allow more nn- 
ports from the-United States, a Fi- 
nance Minisby mokeantui said 







































fSINESS ROUNDUP 


ony Reports 1.6% Rise 
i Pretax Profit lor Year 


v •' - Reuters 

' ■’iKYO— Sony Crap, report- 
. hursday that group net profit 
J -jc year ended Oct 31. rose 1.6 
* at to 73-02 billicm yea ($365 
jd) from 71.43 hiffion ihepre- 
: year. 

cs for the year amounted to 
* : . trillion yen, a 12.6-percent 
■ ase from 1262 trillion. Pretax 
'• t was 14191 billion yes, com- 
1 with 14038 billion. 

- iy predicted that itsneteam- 
n the 1985-86 year would fcS 
; rcentfrom 1984-85 because of 
ui's sharp rise against the dot- 

xxnpany spokesman said the 


yen’s strenglh would cot severely 
into the profit margins of its video- 
tape recorders, color televisions, 
cassette recorders -and other ex- 


Oil in Paris Basin 

Agence Fnmce-Presse 

. R1S — Elf, Total and British 
J ] mm have obtained pends- 
to look for 03 in the Paris 
- ' //firiak announced Thurs- 

T^will woriThTparis amTtbe 
'''tern and western suburbs; To- 
; ^ith 3 Spo«nt,wni look in the 
and eastern suburbs. BP 
rasped the remaining 15 pex- 
The three companies plan to 
4 ,t at least 70 million francs (S9 

lk|^_\ 5 — *La nrAiafil 


!ly 


*;m) in the projecL 


Neariy 75 percent of Sony’s 
group sales in 1984-85 came Iran 
exports, with U«S. sales accounting 
for about 33.6 percent of the lotaL 
Earnings for the year woe unaf- 
fected by exchange tales because 
the yen’s surge of nearly 20 percent, 
which began late in September, 
came too late in thefiscal year. 

Sony projected 1985-86 sales in- 
creases of 6 percent to 7 percent 
Sony will strip, fewer videotape 
recorders, color TVs and cassette 
recorders overseas next year. In- 
stead, it wil] make more goods in its 
overseas factories because the yen’s 
strength against the dollar has 
raised the cost of production for 
export in Japan by mote than 15 . 
percent, the spokesman said. 

Sony plans to step upprodnetian 
in the United States, Europe and 
Larin America, he raid. 

It also plans to raise retail prices 
abroad by np to 5 percent and 
reduce manufacturing costs to 
combat the effects of the strong 
yen, the spokesman said. 

But Sony still expects that its 
major products to continue selling 
welL The company has forecast 
that compact-disk sales will double 
in 1985-86 to 13 million units. 


_ ^ 
’w , 


MP ANY NOTES 


■" Bed-Lyons PLC said Vittle 
> the retail catering subsidiary 
British company’s Ind Coape 
... ». brewing division, will spend 

mBkm ($64 millianl on a pro- 
to buOd 24 more of its Calen- 
r cafc-bar-restaurants. 

Mrican Telephone A Tde- 
— Co. has asked (he Federal 
^ jLj mmucauons C ommissi on to 
**“*■.• it to reduce international 
! rates to 32 conn tries and 
■ Txms on Jan. 2, saving custotn- 
150 nSBon a year. 

‘ - dttd Croup Inc. said China 
Hem International Engmeer- 
xl, its joint venture company 
lina, spied a contract to brnld 

• rpoit at the port city of Wenzr 
. south of Shanghai The cost is 
".ated at S30 nuffion. 

eing Aerospace Operations, a 
on of Boeing Go, has won a 
- milKo n contract from die 
umi Aeronautics and Space 
'mstratim to service and re- 
ipsce suits and oommmuca- 
. equipment and prepare food 
. . e Johnson Space Center, 
loo. 

tsh Pletroiemn Development 
all receive 15 percent of any 
- —on oil found in eastenrEcna- 
" i return for an investment of 
,\ * Li J - “»! $28 million, under toms of 
a> ear exploration contract with 
j i j 'la's state oil company, Cepe. 
aman Kodak Co. has set a 
capital budget of $139 bil- 
ip 5 percent from 1 985’s bud- 
- kvd of $131 billion, 
an Afr lines Co. wiQ intro- 
Boeing Co.’s 747 SR-300, the 
’s largest aircraft, with a 591- 
tger capacity, on domestic 
; eariy next year. 

* T, the Yugoslav airline , has 
sd three Boring 737-300 air- 
fa $75 million, Boeing Co. 

....HI 01 AG, Mobil 03 Corp.’s 
. German subsidiary, said it 
ed to profit in the ad refining 


and marketing sector m the third 
quarter of this year. It was the first 
profit in that sector since the sec- 
ond 1980 quarter and was largely 
the result of the lower dollar and 
increased use of erode ofl bought 
on spot markets. 

Preessag AG of West Germany 
is raising its zinc producer price to 
$700 a ton from $670. It lowered 
the price to $670 from $730 at the 
beginning of last month. 

Tata Industries Ltd. of India and 
Forex Neptune International of 
France formed a joint company. 
Hi-Tech Drilling Services India 
Ltd., far offshore ofl exploration in 
India. A Tata spokesman said 
equity details are still being worked 
ouL 

Hang Seng Bank Lti, a 61-per- 
cent held subsidiary of Hankong & 
Shanghai Banking Corp-, is negoti- 
ating to acquire a majority state in 
Wing On Bank from its parent. 
Wing On (Holdings) Ltd. Wing On 
Holdings earlier requested suspen- 
sion of trading in hs shares in three 
Hang Kong stock exchanges. 


For the latest information on 
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arid City-Clock Internatio nal n v 
please can collect 31-20-627762. 


SEASONS GREATINGS AND 
A VERY PROSPEROUS J986. 

Please note: our sales office 
will be dosed from December 20 
to January 6. The accounts 
department i Mbu i open. 


First Commerce Securities bv 
World Trade Center 
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1077 XX Amsterdam. 

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Telex: 14507 Srco nJ 


UNITED STATES BANKRUPTCY COURT 

" DUTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK 

x 

• hue 

VK & CO- INC In Proceeding for a 

VK-PEHERA INTERNATIONAL BANKING CORP- RrtqputetiMi under 
'kA PDtERA BVTOWATICWAL BANKING Ch^wrlL 

OBP0RATI0N, COMMONLY KNOWN AS Owe Nos. 84 B 11680 

’EPEBANOO. Through 84 B 11682 

iK-PEKERA WALL STREET. INC. lndnww(BKL) 

fh/s OEAK-PERERA PUERTO RICO. 

'V/iTHE PERERA CORPORATION, 

VaPERERA COMPANY. INC, Ddnon. 

-X 

Nona: of last day for the fujnc of proofs of claim 

ALL CREDrrORS AND PARTIES IN INTEREST OF TBE ABOVE- 
CAPTIONED DEBTORS 

PLEASE TAKE NOTICE, dta the United Stales Banknote? Cowl for ibe 
'tea Dirtriet of fa York haa entered in order dated NwaaB. 19BS (the 
Order") requiring iB entities (except thoae enthte deacribed in p ara g raph "27 
e), ite-tnrSng iadhndneW, pmtnenhipt, corponaiow, — t ea , ousts, and 
tnaimal mbs. which hold a claim (aa otfised in paragraph "1" bdow) spins 
& Co, Inc. rDe*k"). DfakPcrora Inienmbowd Banking Cwp. niPBenco") or 
.■P— a Wall S dm, Inc. ("Wall Street"), each of which » a debtor in these 
mW (ndJeethdr, the TJehtora”). which date amee prior » December^ 

• to fife a proof claim i$ heraflbetow deKjibfd on or brfew ImBJut 31. 1 996 
ThrDmr"). 

L As used herein, "claim” mean (a) a right to payment, whether or not 
such right is reduced to iwkineni. liqtidaied, unhtpniied, fined, eoatmaem. 
matured, unmuured. disputed, nndreputed. le^L etpnaUe. aemred ire 
■meenred; or (b) a rich* to an equitable remedy for breach of petfonaaoeo d 
loch breach gins rise to a right to payment, w tehtr or not sudl rigm to an 
equitable remedy is reduced lo jod gmm t. fixed, owtidgent manned. 
muuatMi^ dapofted. BndufpuLcd. seenrod v nnsocared, 

ENTmis wmta fail to file a pr oof of cxaim in 


l M 


ACCORDANCE WITH PARAGRAPH "4" HERE OF ON OR BEgQ RE 
THE BAR DATE SHALL BE FOREVER BARREDJRQM A fifiERTTNC A 
CLAIM AGAINST ANY OF THE DEBTORS. AND SHALL NOT. WITH 
RESPECT TO ANY SUCH CLAIM OR CLAIMS - BE TOEATED AS A 

CREDITOR OF ANY ONE OF THE DEBTORS JQR g lffiffOSES OF 

von NT. ON na RECEIVING DISTRIBUTIONS UNDER A PLAN. OR 
PLANS OF REORGANIZATION, aerpt that an entity; 

(a) which lad already filed a proof of dean b accordance with 1 Ui« tt .a ph 
"4" hereof, or 

(b) whose claim hu been lined in the Debtors' chapter II Sehednl* and is 

DM bo lined as dammed, contirceiiL or tmlkptdHeid, — i 

MAY. BIT NEED NOT. FILE A PRO OF OFQAIM. ALL ENTITIES, 
OTHER THAN THOSE ENUMERATED IN SUBPARAGRAPHS 
M AND I hi ABOVE. MUST FILE A PROOF OF CLAM BY 
January ai . 10 B 6 If they WISH TO ASSERT A QAW 

AGAINST THE DEBTORS. 

Copies of die Schedules Clod by each of the Debtors an available for 
wwwwtwm A ,.i i n nenlar Imimimm houm al the dfin* of the Qerk of the 
Ba d m in t c r Court, United Sttte# Bsnkmnfty Court, RomnSSO. Foley 
Sqnaie?Ne« York. New York 10007. . _ . , 

Proofs of daiflk dhnld conform suhstutuDf to Form No- 19 a Uk Officrfi 
Bonkraptcy Forme and awl be Hied «t or before Jannarr31. 
19B6 with; 

Qoi of the Banlnupiey Conn, 

United States Bankruptcy Court 
For Tbe Southern District of New York 
Foley Square, Room 231k 

Ncw^^S' 10007 ' BY ORDER OF THE COURT 

Nowsnber 21, W85 UL BURTON R. UPLAND 

UNITED STATES BANKRUPTCY JUDGE 
LEVIN & WE1NTRAUB & CRAME5, 

Gounsd d Desk & Co- Inc- 
Deab-Peren LmeraaUow! 


• Qwv-, ud 
Cteak-Perera Wall Street, Inc., 
Debtors and Dehton In Pnaiennon. 
22S Broadway. 

New Ywk. New York 10007. 



INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, FRIDAY, DECEMBER 20, 1985 


Page 15 


Grand Met Says Pretax Profit 
Rose Only 4% in Latest Year 


MBBIs Wary 
AboutTaldng 
StakeinBMW ! 

Reuters 

MUNICH — Messersch- 
i mM-BOUcow-Blohm GinbH has 
1 reservations about taking a In- 
terest in Bayerischc Motoren 
Write AG because it could 
hamp er MBffs plans to in- 
riease sales of electrtmics to tbe i 
car indnary. - . 

■ Harms Amt Vogels, MBB’s 
jrianagy n g bfuird dMiim*n t 
at a news conference Tbursday, 
“T can’t, Gripes Tying able to ! 
sen car electronics to, tat exam- 
ple, Daimler-Benz or Volks- 
wagen when I'm bound to 
BMW ” 

• The Bavarian government j 
and MBB have discussed 
MBB’s taking a stake in BMW, 
bat MBB has said it would only 
be interested in having a major- 
ity holding. 

Daimler-Benz AG tins year 
bought a 653-percent interest 
in Dormer GmbH, the second- 
largest West German aerospace 
group after 'MBB. 

Mr. Vogels also -said that j 
MBB expected that group reve- 
nue would rise in 1985 to just 
under 6.2 billion Deutsche 
marks ($2.48 trillion) from 5.72 
trillion DM in 1984. He made 
no prefiction for net profit. 


Remen 

. LONDON —Grand Metropoli- 
tan PLC reported Thursday that 
pretax profit in the year ended 
SepL 30 rose only 4 percent from a 
year earlier, to £347.3 milli on 
(about $493 sriQiai at c urre nt 
rates) from £3343 million. 

Sales were virtually unchanged 
at £539 trillion versus £5.08^ bOBon, 
Grand Met said. 

The company also artnomiced a 
l-for-10 boras share isspe along 
with tbe results. 

The group said a 14.1-peroaat 
increase in trading profit from its 
British and international sectors 
more titan offset the adverse im- 

EC Fines Siemens, Fanuc 

For Antitrust Violations 

The AaodtaaJ Press 

BRUSSELS — The European 
Community commission said 
Thursday that it had fined Siemens 
AG, tbe West Gorman electronics 
pan t, and Japan’s Fanuc Ltd 1 

millimi fi ir rp w m oirr ayy imilc 

($870,000) each for violating EC 
antitrust rules. 

The companies awarded each 
other exclusive distribution rights 
for robot-operated tools, 

which led to higher prices fa the 
tools in tbe EC, the commission 
said. 


p act of stiff cigarette-price compe- 
tition on its U3. operations. 

Analysts had expected the com- 
pany to report levd a reduced 
profits, and its shares reacted by 
finning to 391 pence Thursday, up 
25 pence from Wednesday. 

The company said group trading 
profit rose to £4533 million from 
£4433 million a year earlier, even 
though U3. profits p hinged to 
£843 mil B ob from £122.3 nrilliozi. 

It said its lower U3. profits re- 
flected aggressive price competi- 
tion in the market for generic and 
private label cigarettes in that 
country. Lower demand fa fitness 
equipment was also a facta, it said. 

Grand Met said its other U3. 
businesses did well despite lower 
consumer spending there. 

VS. trading profits benefited 
from translation of the UJS dollar 
into stating at a weighted -average 
exchange rate of S 1 34 to the pound 

against $139 in tbe previous year, 
it said. 

Referring to other activities. 
Grand Met nid wines and spirits 
had another very good year and 
foods made a strong recovery from 
the low point of a year ago. 

Tbe company said that a realign- 
ment of its British foods business 
helped consumer-services profits 
rise to £753 ntiHioa, from £67.4 
million. 


Avon to Sell 
UnittoIMCFor 
$675 Million 

United Press International 

NEW YORK— Avon Prod- 
ucts Inc said Thursday that it is 
sefiiqg its MaHinckradt medical 
and sperialty-chemicai prod- 
ucts division to International 
Minerals & Chemical Cop. fa 
$675 mifiiOD in catii as its last 
substantial divestiture in an as- 
set-redeployment program. 

The New York-based beauty 
products company said the sale 
had been approved by both 
companies* boards and was ex- 
pected to be completed in 90 
days. Avon wifi use the pro- 
ceeds to buy back more of its 
common stock, reduce its debt 
and “make an acquisition 
health-care services industry.” 

Avon has sold Tiffany & Co. 
jewelers, acquired Foster Medi- 
cal, a hone-health-care service, 
and repurchased 63 million 
shares of hs c ommo n stock. 

Avon acquired Mallinckrodt, 
of SL Louis. Missouri, in 1982 
for $366.7 million in cash and 
13 miHion shares of Avon com- 
mon stock in a transaction val- 
ued at $7113 mill io n 

IMC is a major producer of 
crop and »mmai nutrients, in- 
dustrial minwaly an A rh^qninate 
with sales of $1.46 bfflion. 


Texaco Is Said to Hit Snags 
With Banks Over Financing 


By Richard W. Stevenson 

New York Tima Senate 

NEW YORK. — Texaco Inc's 
attempt to raise $1.7 billion in 
much-needed short-term financing 
hag nut mm gnage as the company 
and some of its banks cannot agree 
on tbe interest rates to be paid, 
according to banking sources. 

Texaco, under extreme financial 
pressure from its legal battle with 
Pamzoil Co n is proposing to sell a 
package of accounts receivable to a 
syndicate of banks. Tbe money 
would be used to replace short- 
term borrowings from the commer- 
cial paper market, from which Tex- 
aco has been laigdy shut out 
recently. 

While sane major banks had 
agreed by late Wednesday to go 
along with tbe plait, subject to ne- 
gotiation of a few outstanding is- 
sues, others said that they remained 
at odds with Texaco ova the terms. 

The 30-bank syndicate is headed 
Manufacturers Hanover Trust 




“The negotiations continue, but 
they are not going wdL” said one 
banter, who asked not to be identi- 
fied. There is a dear difference 
between the company and its lend- 
ers with regard to pricing.” 

Texaco said Wednesday that it 
had won a temporary order from a 
federal judge prohibiting Pennzoil 
from taking any action to cofleci 


damages of $1033 bzlfion, plus in- 
terest, awarded to it try a Texas 
court. That court ruled that Texaco 
wrongly interfered with a merger 
agreement between Pennzoil and 
Getty OS Co. before acquiring 
Getty. 

Sale of the receivables had been 
expected to be completed by 
Wednesday. Bankers involved in 
the talks said that other obstacles, 
apart from interest rates, remain, 
including alienation among some 
lenders who have been upset about 
Texaco’s past banking practices. 

The current situation is not 
helped by the way the company 
dealt with hs banks,” one banter 
said 'The company still thinks it 
can negotiate from a position of 
strength.” 


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BRITISH AIRWAYS HALF YEAR RESULTS 

The Board of British Airways Pic announces the results for the six months ended 

30th September 1985. 


Group Results 


TURNOVER: Airiine 

Other 

AIRLINE OPERATING SURPLUS (Note 1) 

Operating profit/(loss) on other activities 

Other income, including related companies 

Exceptional item - : 

PROFIT BEFORE INTEREST AND TAXATION 

Interest payable : 

Currency profits (losses) (Note 1) 

PROFIT BEFORE TAXATION 

Taxation (Note 2 ) ...: 

Profit for the period after taxation 

Extraordinary items : 

Profit for the period transferred to reserves 


6 months mdfd Year ended 


30 September unaudited 

31 March audited* 

1985 

1984 

1985 

£m 

£m 

£m 

1640 

1491 

2797 

103 

82 

145 

1743 

1573 

2942 

205 

236 

303 

1 

(2) 

(11) 

16 

26 

22 

- 

- 

(33) 

222 

260 

281 

(29) 

(48) 

(89) 

8 

J23) 

(24) 

201 

189 

168 

(1) 

_g> 

(2) 

200 

187 

166 

- 

- 

10 

200 

187 

176 


Notel 

During the 6 months the sterling US Dollar 
exchange rate moved from US$1,237 to 
US$1.4083. Despite this strengthening of 
sterling against the US$ and many other cur- 
rencies the effect on die overall financial position 
and in particular the revenue reserves is small. 
There are three constituent dements as 
follows: 

(i) The Airline Operating Surplus has been 
reduced by £24m due to normal credit 
periods allowed to agents resident out- 
side the UK in settling accounts partly 
of&et by similar payments to foreign 
suppliers. Both forms of settlement have 
ban affected by the erratic movements 
within the currency exchange markets. 

(n) The liability on US dollar general pur- 
pose loans has decreased by £8m which is 
credited to the Profit and Loss Account, 
(hi) The US dollar loans raised specifically 
for the purpose of financing aircraft and 
the corresponding dollar cost of these 
fixed assets has decreased by £40m as a 
result of the appreciation in the value of 
sterling during the period. Conversely, 
the reserves have been credited by an 
adjustment to past depredation on 
those fixed assets of £12m. The effect on 
the depredation charge in the period is 
nor material. 


The net effect of these is a £4m debit to 
reserves. 

Note 2 

No provision is required for UK Corporation 
Tax, because of the availability of Josses 
brought forward. On present estimates provi- 
sion for Deferred Taxation may be required 
during the financial year ending 31 March 1987. 
The Taxation charge of £lm is in respect of 
overseas taxes and tax attributable to related 
companies. 

Commentary 

The volume of scheduled airline traffic in this 
half year increased over the same period a year 
ago by 9.5% in terms of passengers and 10.4% 
in revenue passenger kilometres. 

This volume growth has arisen across all geo- 
graphical markets with particular strength 
shown in the USA. 

Airline turnover has increased from £1491 m to 
£1640m. While the Airline Operating Surplus 
has fallen from £236m to £205m - for which 
there are a number of quantified reasons set out 
in this statement - the pre-tax profits have 
increased from £1 89m to £201 m. 

The Airline Operating Surplus has, in addition 
to the £24m loss on currency, been affected by 
the following: 

(i) The loss of the profitable Saudi Arabian 
routes which in the same period last year 


contributed some £10m to half year 
profits. The new routes to South Amer- 
ica are performing well and prospects are 
encouraging, but they have yet to contri- 
bute profits. Due to conflicts in the Mid- 
dle East services to Iran have remained 
discontinued throughout the period. 

(ri) With a much smaller number of Trident 
aircraft in service in this half year operat- 
ing lease charges in respect of Boeing 757 
and 737 aircraft have amounted to some 
£20m, compared with a virtually nil cost 
a year ago. Depredation charged is little 
changed at £45m. 

(iii) The accident at Leeds in which a TriStar 
operated by British Airtours overran the 
runway, and the loss of the Boeing 737 
at Manchester (which led to tempor- 
ary grounding of aircraft for inspection), 
have adversely affected the result for the 
period by an identified £9m. It is believed 
that this amount may be increased by 
revenue reflecting some temporary loss 
of market share to points in Europe but 
this cannot yet be evaluated. 

The cost of aviation fuel although fairly static in 
the first half of the year has subsequendy 
increased. With lower oil prices on the world 
markets the oudook for fuel prices should 
improve. 

We are experiencing rejections and delays by 
the regulatory authorities in seeking approval 
of new fare proposals. 

During the half year net loan repayments 
amounted to £135m. With the strengthening of 
sterling the value of borrowings have fallen by 
£48m over the period, and these now stand at 
£464m against £647m at 32 March 1985. 

Net worth (share capital and reserves) is now 
£499m compared with £297m a year ago, and a 
similar amount at 31 March 1985. 

•Comparative figures for the year to 31 March 1985 have been extracted from 
the audited accounts of British Airways Pie and its subsidiaries upon which die 
audhors have issued an unqualified audit report. Copies of these accounts have 
been delivered to the Secretary 01 * 800 ? for Transpoa and tiled widi the Rqpstzar 
of Companies. 

I If you want to know mote about the Company send this ! 
coupon co Public Affairs, British Airways Pic, (S53), RO. 
Box 10, Heathrow Airport Hounslow, TW6 2JA, for a 
copy of the Interim Results for the first six months to 
30th September 1985 and 1984/85 Report and Accounts. 


Name. 


AddressL 


Lz 


British Airwa ys 

Britain’s highest flying company 


1 HT | 




INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, FRIDAY, DECEMBER 20, 1985 


** 


Page 16 


U.K. Introduces Market-Reform Bill 


(Contumed from Page 13) 

two boards that wiD merge to form 
the agency currently have a total of 
40 staff members and expect to 
have at least 100 once the bill be- 
comes law. By contrast, the U.S. 


Bank Savings in China 
At Record High Level 


Reuters 


BEIJING — Bank savings by 
individuals in China totaled a re- 
cord 150 billion yuan (S46.9 bil- 
lion) at the end of November, up 
from 1 13 5 1 billion at the end of 
1934, the Xinhua news agency said 
Thursday. 


Urban savings rose faster than 
rural savings, with the overall in- 
crease a result of interest-rate in- 
creases in April and August, the 
agency said. Time deposits rose 
32.6 percent and currcni deposits 
by 22.7 percent over the period, it 
said. 


Securities and Exchange Commis- 
sion has about 1,900 staff mem- 
bers. 

Many aides have said Britain's 
proposed regulatory system would 
not provide enough resources to 
monitor such a complex and fast- 
growing business and have called 
for a more-detailed, US. -style legal 
code. But Mr. Brittan said: The 
alternative of a wholly statutoiy 
regulation would be more bureau- 
cratic, legalistic and slower to re- 
spond.” 1 

Among other things, the legisla- 
tion would: 

• Require all those carrying out 
investment business in Britain to be 
authorized or, in certain circum- 
stances, receive an exemption. It 
would be a criminal offense to car- 
ry out such business without autho- 
rization. 

• Prohibit advertising of a secu- 
rities offer for which no prospectus 
has been produced. 

• Give the government power to 
prevent foreign financial compa- 


nies from doing business in Britain 
if their home governments do not 
gjve British companies equal ac- 
cess. This provision appears to be 
aimed partly at Japan. 

• Empower the trade secretary 
to appoint inspectors to investigate 
insider trading, which is trading on 
the basis of information not dis- 
closed to the public. 

The two new regulatory boards, 
to be merged soon, also announced 
proposed regulations of their own. 
For instance, they would put severe 
restrictions on “cold calling," or 
unsolicited rails by investment 
salesmen on nonprofessional inves- 
tors. They also would ban the use 
of "suspense accounts," by which a 
broker executes a transaction but 
decides later which client will re- 
ceive tiie benefu or loss, depending 
on which way the market moves in 
the meantime. 


In addition, publications could 
be prosecuted if they knowingly 
published advertisements for unau- 
thorized investment dealers. 


GermanBourses 
Approve Reform, 


Reuters 

FRANKFURT— Represen- 
tatives of West Germany's eight 
bourses agreed unanimously 
Thursday to reforms aimed at 
tightening the organization of 
the stock market a Frankfurt 
bourse spokesman said. 

Manfred Taw, manag ement 

board member of Deutsche 
Girozentrale-Deutsche Zentral- 
bank, one of four major banks 
that proposed the changes last 
■month, said the reforms proba- 
bly would be carried out early 
in 1986. 

The proposals include the es- 
tablishment of a single bourse 
directorate, based in Frankfurt, 
to work under a supervisory 
board. The board will consist of 
three members from Frankfurt, 
two from Dusseldorf and one 
from each of the six other 
bourses. Decisions will require 
a three-quarters majority. 


OECD Sees Recovery Continuing at Slowed Rate 




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(Continued from Page 13) 

plan, a more active strategy in man- 
aging tbe Third World debt crisis, 
put forth by the U.S. Treasury sec- 
retary, James A. Baker 3d. 

The essence of both initiatives is 
that the United States has re- 
nounced its view that if all coun- 
tries put their own houses in order, 
the international economic prob- 
lems will automatically be im- 
proved. 

Although there is now agreement 
that more attention needs to be 
paid to interactions between na- 
tional economies, particularly as 
measured by exchange rates, the 
imbalances that have marked tbe 
entire recovery period and that are 
largely the result of the overvalu- 
ation of the dollar will remain a 
problem. 

The study makes no comment on 
where exchange rates are likely to 
beheaded and assumes that the key 
economic parameters such as ex- 
change rates, oil prices and policy 
measures are unchanged from 
those prevailing Nov. 18, when the 
report was compiled. 

For the three larges! countries, 
the current-account positions, mea- 
suring both merchandise trade and 
services, will remain skewed. 

Despite the sharp drop in the 
value of the dollar this year follow- 
ing the decision of the Group of 
Five meeting in September to drive 
it down, the record U.S. current- 
account deficit is projected to wid- 
en to $146 billion next year from 
$128 billion this year and then to 
reach a plateau. 

Tbe Japanese surplus, estimated 
at $48 billion this year, is seen in- 


GATT Reduces Estimate of Growth 
In Trade in 1985 to Less Hum 3% 


The Associated 

GENEVA — The volume of world trade is expected to me k^ttian 
3 percent this year, compared to 9 percent last year, the Gowral 
** — — • **• J - —'-■ 3 Fridav, revising its estimate for 


Agreement on Tariffs and Trade said 
the second time. _ ■ 

Much of the latest revision is due to the V 5 
down more than expected, a senior official in the secretariat of GATT 

^Other factors are continued slow growth in the European eoono- 
mies and a steep drop in commodity prices, cutting developing 
countries’ export gg ptin gs and thus their ability to pay for imports. 
GATT’s deputy director general. Madan Mathur. said 
GATT originally estimated the nse in world trade volume this >ear 
at 5 to 53 percent, but scaled that estimate back to less than 4 percent 
last September, before the latest revision. 

GATT also bac frH calls for a new round of talks on hberauzmg 
world trade, warning that free trade was being “seriously strained by 
protectionist measures. 


they fuel protectionism, the report 
notedL 

A 1-percent drop in U.S. domes- 
tic demand and a 1-percent rise in 
all other countries might cut (he 
UA deficit by S35 billion after 
three years, the study said. 

“Changes in relative growth 
rates between the United States 
and its trading partners were im- 
portant in creating the problem 
and would seem essential to a satis- 
factory solution,” it said, but add- 
ed, “it is not dear, of course, how a 
sustained modification in growth 
differentials might actually come 
about." 

The other major unbalance is un- 
estimated 31.5 


employment. An 

^ milli on workers will be without 

creasing to S57 billion, while in jobs by the first half of 1987, up 
West Ger man y it is seen rising to from 30.75 million this year.JLising 


$20 billion from $13 billion. 

Deficits and surpluses of this 
magnitude, equal to about 3.75 per- 
cent of total national output, or 
gross national product, in the Unit- 
ed States and Japan and nearly 3 
percent for West Germany, are un- 
sustainable and dangerous because 


unemployment in Western Europe 
will account for most of this in- 
crease. 

The overall jobless rate for 
young people aged 15-24 will hold 
steady next year at 16.5 percent, 
but declines in West Germany, 
Britain, Canada and Australia will 


be offset by increases in France, 
Italy. Finland. Spain and Sweden. 
In Spain. 4S percent of the young 
labor force is forecast to be out of 
work next year, in Italy, 35.75 per- 
cent, and in France 26.25 percent. 

Even in countries where the fig- 
ure is expected to decline, the per- 
centages are still large: 20.75 per- 
cent in Britain. 1S.5 percent in 
Canada, 13_25 percent in Australia 
and 12J percent in the United 
States. 

The good news is that inflation 
has stabilized at a 16-year low of 
4.5 percent. It is lower than that for 
the seven largest countries, includ- 
ing a two-decade low of 3.25 per- 
cent for France, and much higher, 
at an average of 28-25 percent, for 
Greece. Iceland. Portugal and Tur- 
key. But even for these countries, 
the trend is down. 

The report on developments in 
the major countries shows that the 
secretariat disagrees with the fore- 
casts put out by the governments. 
Tbe OECD sees U.S. GNP expand- 
ing 2.75 percent, compared to U.5. 
government forecasts of 4 percent 


Similarly, it puts Japan’s growth*' 

3.5 percent compared to the 4pej : « 
cent projected by Tokyo. 

The OECD noted that thtmnse 
ratio of US. households is ‘’aba i*. 
raallv low" and that a severe, rapid 
readjustment although not expect- 
ed. could further waken the ptn. 
jected growth rare. 

The study also noted that KS. 
corporate financial positions have 
continued to deteriorate;' ‘The 
trend toward dependence on short- 
term debt has increased, tbe deb. 
t /equity ratio has worsened, aaf 
the ratio of liquid assets to sixx- 
term liabilities has f alien. 

-These have all made for a ear, .. 

porate financial structure winei ' 
may be more vulnerable both to 
short-term monetary conditions 
and fluctuations in economic activ- 
ity" 

It added: “The deteriorating 
composition of company liabStie. 
may hare caused bankruptcy risks 
to increase." 

While the decline of the doSar 
will help to lower the trade ddkii, 
the report noted that late in 1987, 
the currem-accoum deficit will 
subsequently expand due to the 
burden of interest-rate paymdits 
paid to overseas holders of U& 
debt. 

By the first half of 1987, the bob-. 
merchandise trade of the Uaitcpi 
States will be running a. deficit of 

56.5 billion a year, compared 
this year’s surplus of $500 millirm 
and a $28.4-bitUou surplus in 1981 
Rising interest payments a braid 
account for this turnaround. w 

As a result, Britain wiU become 
the No. I earner of So-called un&- 
bles, with a surplus of £9 billion 
next year, up from $6.75 billion this 
year, followed by France with 
$6.25 billion, up from S5.bilbao. 

Large capital outflows from 
West Germany and Japan contrib- 
ute to their deficits of $19.75 biBkm 
and 58 billion, respectively, pro- 
jected for next year. 




Boom Time for the U.S. Mutual-Fund Industry A 


j- 


(Continued from Page 13) 
like this. Tbe heady market envi- 
ronment of the 1960s for instance, 
fostered the rise of “go-go” mutual 
funds. Epitomized by Gerald Tsai* s 
Manhattan Fund, these funds in- 
dulged in fast in-and-out trading in 
an effort to adhere maximum capi- 
tal gflin* 

“But in the end too many funds 
were sold like hot stocks and too 
many shareholders got burned,” 
said one industry analyst. 
Throughout most of the 1970s the 
fund industry suffered net redemp- 
tions — holders sold more shares 
than they bought — and seemed in 
danger of extinction. 

In the late 1970s. however, the 
sudden popularity of money-mar- 
ket funds, followed by tax-exempt 
funds, saved the industry. Mean- 
while, professionals tike Peter 
Lynch, who manages the portfolio 
of the Fidelity Magellan Fund 
showed that long-term perfor- 
mance gains that outstripped brood 
market averages were possible in 
an equity mutual fund 

Even so, bond funds have 
scooped up most of the new invest- 
ments in recent years. “Double- 
digit yields are the real magnet 
pulling people away from money- 
market funds and bank certificates 
of deposits, where yields have 
dropped to 7 or 8 percent,” said 


BankOimrnum 9 
55 Others Jailed 
In Cathay Case 


Reuters 

TAIPEI — A bank chairman 
and 55 executives of the giant Car 
(hay industrial group wore convict- 
ed Thursday ou fraud and embez- 
zlement charges in connection with 
Taiwan's biggest bank scandal 

The Taipei district court sen- 
tenced Tsai Chen-chou, ohairman 
of a banking arm of Cathay, Tenth 
Credit Cooperative, to 12 years in 
jail for forgery and embezzHng the . 
equivalent of $325 snlliaa. Mr. 
Tsai had previously been sentenced 
by another oourt to rix 15-year pris- 
on terms for issuing bad checks. 

The 55 executives were sen- 
tenced .Thursday to jail terms of 
between seven months and ax 
years on forgery and embezzlement 


« Cathay scandal, which 
broke in February, forced the resig- 
nations of Economic Minister Hsu 
Li-teh and Finance Minister Lob 

Jen-kong. The court said that Ca- 
thay’s senior management 
breached tbe trust of depositors by! 
siphoning large sums from Tenth 
Credit and its sister bank. Cathay 
Investment Trust Co.; to Cathay’s 
affiliate companies. It said the cap- 
ital outflow triggered a. 5650-mil- 
lion run on the two banks. 


John E. Keefe, who tracks the fund 
industry for Drexel Burnham Lam- 
bert. 

The most powerful magnets are 
government income funds, which 
invest in Treasury and agency secu- 
rities, and Ginnie Mae funds, 
whose portfolios consist mainly of 
certificates of the Government Na- 
tional Mortgage Association. 
Backed by the U.S. government 
and issued in $25,000 denomina- 
tions, these certificates are repack- 
aged and sold for minimum invest- 
ments of as low as $750. 

In the first 10 months of this 
year, net sales of these two types of 
funds amounted to $33 J buHon, 
far outstripping other categories. 
Equity funds showed net sales of 
$7.8 billion. For tax-exempt bond 
funds, net sales totaled S12.1 bil- 
lion, while corporate bond funds 
accounted for net sales of $5.7 bil- 
lion. 

Besides the number of newfixed- 
income funds, there has been a pro- 
liferation of equity funds as welL 
These include sector funds that in- 
vest in specific industries like 
health-care or technology, social 
responsibility funds, international 
funds, option income funds and 
regional funds that concentrate 
their portfolios in geographical ar- 
eas. 

“Today there are dose to 900 
equity and taxable fixed-income 
hinds, compared with less than 500 
by the end of the 1970s,” said Mi- 
chael Upper, president of Upper 
Analytical Associates, which moni- 
tors the burgeoning industry. “In 
the same period, the number of tax- 
exempt funds alone grew to 294 
from 44.” 

The . mutual-fund business can 
become a cadi cow, as indicated by 
results for several mutual-fund 
management companies whose 
shares are publidy traded. 

“Once a fund company’s assets 
reach $1 billion to $2 billion, mar- 
gins begin to expand rapidly, as the 
incremental cost of adding assets is 
minuscule,'’ said Stephen P. Fisher, 
an analyst for Prodential-Bache Se- 
curities. “Thus, most fee revenue 
falls to tbe bottom line.” 

Franklin Resources Inc. of San 
Mateo, California, provides an in- 
sight into this profit potential. For 
its fiscal year ended Sept. 30, 
Franklin earned $1.92 a share, 
more than double its profits a year 
earlier. Assets under management 
jumped to S1Z5 billion from 56 
bfltian, and currently are nudging 
$15biffion. ■ ; 

“We woe a 'pioneer in Gixmie 
Mae funds, as well as in a tax-free 
income fund for California," said 
Charles B. Johnson, chief executive 
officer. He Ginnie Mae fund, 
which goes under its original name . 
of the Franklin U-S. Government 
Securities Fund; manages $8.1 bfl- 
Hon as tbe largest of ah non-mon- 
ey-market mutual funds. 

Dreyfus Coirp. ranks as the larg- 



* *M.t*«mI ftinifa ra pw imM 

duoge in the way people 
snot” 

Michael Upper, president of 
Upper Atigiytic&I Aseodatca. 


NYT 


funds. “Over tbe last five 
years, Dreyfus has achieved a com- 
pound annual growth rate in earn- 
ings of 46 percent," said Praden- 
tiaJ-Bacbe's Mr. Fisber. 

Dreyfus provides a variety of 
products and also is marketing mu- 
tual funds through banks. Its mutu- 
al-fund assets under management 
total $26.8 billion, up from $22 
billion at the start of 1985. 

“An average of $100 nriHioa 
weekly in new money comes into 
the various funds," said Howard 
Stein, chairman and chief execu- 
tive. At company headquarters in 
Manhattan’s General Motors 
Building, 150 employees answer 
telephone queries. The economies 
of scale possible in the fund man- 
agement business are indicated by 
tbe fact that employee rolls at 
Dreyfus have increased to only 681 
from 632 since the start of this year. 

Shares of Dreyfus Corp. itself, 


adjusted for stock splits, sold for as 
little as $3 in 1980 on theNewYwk 
Slock Exchange. This stock, which 
recently traded above $90, dosed 
Thursday at S89, up 25 cents. 

Other publidy owned manage- 
ment companies include Pioneer 
Group and Eaton Vance Crap. 

T. Rowe Price Associates, a pio- 
neer in merchandising growth 
slock funds, said it was considering 
a public offering “of a modest 
amount of stock” in 1986. 

The U.S. government has 
spurred mudr of the boom with its 
tax-incentive ret i rement pofkjte 
that encourage investments. As of 
July, conventional mutual fi 
accounted for 518.6 biDion in 
investments, up from $5.9 bfflii 
just two years earlier. 

“In recent months, we've found 
more people moving their IRA 
money into equity funds," said 
Jane Jamieson, a product manager 
for Fidelity Investments in Boston. 
As the largest privately held invest- 
ment management firm. Fidelity 
manages $35 billion in fund assets. 

Institutional investors are also 
increasing their stake in funds, said 
John C. Bogle, chairman of the 
Vanguard Group of Investment 
Companies in Valley Forge, Penn- 
sylvania. Vanguard markets and 
distributes 38 funds with assets to- 
taling $16 billion. 

“We make a particular effort to 
attract institutional shareow ne rs, 
who account for 40 percent of as- 



sets managed by our funds," Afc 
ypical fmU r 


Bogle added. “For a typical 
institutions might represent 25 per- 
cent" These institutions range 
from small company pension pirns 
to hospital and university endow- 
ments. 


India Announces Plans to Overhaul 
Tax System and Coordinate Policies 


Reuters 

NEW DELHI — Finance Minis- 
ter V.P. Singh announced Thurs- 
day a plan to overhaul India's tax 
system and help coordinate eco- 
nomic policies into the 1990s. 

Presorting the plan to -parlia- 
ment, Mr. Singh said it aimed to 
shift economic management from 
physical controls such as' manufac- 
turing licenses and import quotas 
to fiscal controls. 


Mr. Singh, who cut personal and 
company taxes in his March bud- 
get, said persona] income tax rales 
would be unchanged for at least 
five years. He ruled out farther cuts 
in corporate tax but said he sought 
to stimulate industrial investment 
by allowing companies to deduct a 
percent^e of profits from taxable 
income if the money is deposited 
with the Industrial Development 
Bank of India. 

Mr. Singh said India would 


move toward a modified version of 
value added tax and reduce tax- 
ation on raw materials, compo- 
nents and intermediates, which .ms- 
torts production structures. 

He also promised to increase tt 
counoys efforts to stop lax efr. 
sipn. f* 

. He said the policy would be car- 
ried out over several years. 

The plan also places greater reli- 
ance on customs tariffs to regulate 
unports than on present ' volume 
restrictions, proposes minor 
changes in capital gams tax assess- 
ment periods, leaves the share divi- 
dend tax unchanged and simplifie s 

the system of company lax depred- 
ation allowances and rules of asset 
valuation. 

. M 1 "-. Singh said the plan would 
give direction and coherence to an- 
nual budgets during the 1985*90 
economic plan, which calls florin 
outlay of the equivalent of $273- 
billion. 


--- .* 




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\m 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, FRIDAY , DECEMBER 20, 1985 


Page 17 



era 


% Brenda Erdmann 

fiaenuafaud Herald Tribune 

■ONDON — Du Font .Co. has 
‘oiated new heads for its units in 
.nnm and the Netherlands and 
its European engineering cea- 

-he US. maker of chemicals, 
..tics and synthetic fibers said 
n H. Egbers, who currently is 
lagjsg director of Du Pont de 
.oours (Nederland) BV and Du 
t de Nemours (Bdgum) and 
iagar, engineering center-Eu- 
;• is returning to the Wihnmg- 
, Delaware, headquarters, 

. re he wili join the engineering. 
irtmenL 

tap Koogerwill assume Mr. Eg- 
*s position as manag in g rtirrrv 
af Du Font (Belgium) in Brus- 
whfle continuing in Ms current 
. ctf European director, finishes, 
the Finishes and Fabricated 
iucts unit erf Do Pratt Co. 

It. Egbers will turn over bis 
es as managing director for Du 
,t (Nederland) to Maynard Ea- 
. who wQl continue as works 
dor at Du Pent’s plant in Dor- 

-hi the Netherlands. 

/2I Stcetimojcr, who is senior 
cess supervisor at the Dor- 
in plant, has been appran ted to 
reed Mr. Egbers as manager of 
engineering center- Europe, 
ch is bared near The Hague. 


All appointments are effective 
Jan. ]. 

. Standard Chartered Bank MX! 
said David GemnrilL managing di- 
rector of Lazard Brothers & Ca’s 
international division, will be join- 
. ing Standard Chartered Merchant 
Bank as manapng director of its 
advismy services divison in the 
new year. Mr. Gemmfllwas one of . 
four Lazard people leaving to join 
the merchant banking aim's advi- 
sory division. The other three are 
Pels’ Godwin, Mr. GemmiH’s dep- 
uty at Lazard, Dereham, an 
executive director erf Lazard, and 
Catherine Whitdey, a Lazard man- 
ager. * 

Coats Palms FLC, the British* 
based textile concern, has named 
Wiffiam Thomson and Sir Janies 
Qenrinsoa nonexecutive directors. 
Mr. Thomson is a group managing 
director erf the Royal Dutch/ Shell 
Group and Sir James is chairman 
of Reddtt & Colman PLC. 

TRW Inc, the U.S.-based maker 
of automotive, aerospace, industri- 
al and electronics products, has 
named to its board Robin W. 
Adam, retired deputy rfmiTrn»n of 
British Petroleum Co. 

Delta Air Lines, which will begin 
service to Munich and Stuttgart 
from its A tlanta head office in 
April, has appointed Rudolf E. 
F&rster and Roland Wolf to the 


new postsof manager, airport pas- 
senger services, at the Stuttgart and 
Munich airports; respectively. Mr! 
FOrster was with Delta in London; 
Mr. Wolf was the carrier’s custom- 
er service supervisor at tbe Frank- 
furt airport - ■ 

Meek Sharp & Dohme said Ber- 
nard J. Crowley has been named 
chairman of Merck Sharp & 
Dohme (Holdings), its British amt. 
He was senior vice president; of 
Merck Sharp & Dohme Interna- 
tional and president of Mode 



Company Results 

Revenue and profits or losses, fn millions, ant In local currencies 
unless otherwise Indicate tt 


tlah 

if-mxl Metropolitan 
r ires 19M 

•nut MSB. SMS. 

to M ProHt 347 J DU 
Stare— 0J5 0J24 


- , • . ADR - 

no bisss 


Sony 

r ires ires 

•r um 1/42 T 12* T 

K hT rum. 71AXL 

, ADR 316 30* 

Mk ADR: omertcan 
ssttory shorn. 

iked Slate* 
Amer. Greetings 


9 Months 1986 1985 

Rmnin 7718 7MJ 

KOtllK. 54JQ 5X4 

Pgr Shore— 14* 1 M 


Federal Express 
andOwr. IMS W 

Revenue OSS AM 

Mol Inc. 349 !U 

Per Short on 021 

1 st HoH 1*86 ires 

Revenue 1210 *243 

Nat Inc 664 184 

Per Stare 137 03* 

Quarter nets Include serine at 
12 A mUllan vs S300000 from 
tote. 


9 Months 1*84 19BS 

Revenue tun o *mil 

net Inc 6*4 TO4 

Per Stare 1J» M3 

lfS5 nets include trains of 
jar million in Quarter from 
sale of securities and of SUS 
million la 9 months tram net* 
sion surplus. Full name Is 
Great Alton ffc A PocMc Tea 
Company. 

Humana 

M Qoar. 1986 ms 

Revenue 80X7 66X4 

Not Inc 56.1 544 

Per Stare— 057 055 

ms net includes earn of a 
mutton from sale. 


AGP 


waiter (Jim) 


1986 

1985 

Manor. 

1986 

1985 

1st Qoar. 

1984 

on 

Ml 

Revenue — 

1.520. 

1J70. 

Revenue- 

542.1 

303 

31.9 

Net Inc. 

ms 

207 

Net Inc. 

1U 

095 

ijn 

Per stare 

054 

071 

Per Stare — 

IAS 


ms 


134 


& Dbhme-UK and vice president 
Of Mack Sharp & Dohme (Eu- 
rope). He was with Merck Sharp & 
Dohme Australia, becoming man- 
aging director in 1981 and regional 
director for Australia and New 
Zealand in 1985. Mr. Graham suc- 
ceeds John V. Burke, who was 

nartrai managing ritnvirw nF fflwn 
Pfrapnaemr li rmtc 

Biogen NV said James L. Vin- 
cent, its chief executive officer, has 
been elected chairman of its board . 
of supervisory directors. He joined 
Biogen as chief executive on Oct 
15. Before that, he was group vice 
president of Aflied-Signa] Inc. and 
president of its health and scientific 
products unit 

Morgan GrenfcB & Co^ the Lon- 
don-based merchant bank, said the 
following executives of the bank 
have beat appointed to its board, 
effective Jan. 1: A.G. Catto, P.W. 
Evans and J-N. Gazrow. Morgan 
Grenfell Holdings LtcL, the parent, 
said David Bendall will retire from 
its board on Dec. 31. The company 
said Mr. Bendall had played a lead- 
ing role in the development of Mor- 
gan Grenfell’s international busi- 
ness and would become a member 
of the group's international adviso- 
ry council Also; Philip Chappell 
will be retiring from tire boards of 
Morgan Grenfell Holdings and 
Morgan Grenfell & Co. at year- 
end. 

Scimitar Asset Management 
Ltd, a subsidiary of Standard 
Chartered Merchant Bank LtdL, 
has named J. Stuart Irvine as senior 
international consultant He was 
managing director of Noble 
Lownda International 


Bundesbank WiU Reduce 
Minimum Reserve Limits 


By Warren Geder 

International Herald Tribune 

FRANKFURT - The 
Bundesbank, in an effort to fur- 
ther enhance West Germany's 
competitiveness as a financial 
center, said Thursday that it in- 
tended to reduce mirimum re- 
serve requirements for resident 
banks and would allow banks 
to issue negotiable certificates 
of deposit. 

Karl Otto PQhl, the Bundes- 
bank president, said it a year- 
end news conference that the 
changes, which had been antid- 
paied by the market, would 
take effect in April or May. 

Tire Bundesbank had come 
under increasing pressure from 
the Association of German 
Banks, a powerful trade group 
that represents West Germa- 
ny's commercial banks, to dras- 
tically reduce minimu m reserve 
requirements. Some commer- 
cial bankers expressed 
rintmenl Thursday that 
ion did not go far enough. 

A Commerzbank official 
said “We are perfectly happy 
with the decision to reduce 
minimum reserves, but we 
would have liked the Bundes- 
bank to have done more to pave 
the way for the creation of an 
offshore market tor Germany.” 

The association' and the top 
executives at West Germany’s 
“Big Three" commercial banks, 
Deutsche Bank AG, Dresdner 
Bank AG and Commerzbank 
AG, have argued that the need 
to keep a significant sum of 
reserves interest free at the 
Bundesbank has led to an exo- 
dus of banking activity from 
West Germany into other cen- 
ters, such as Luxembourg, 
which have marginal minimum 
requirements or none at aR 

Mr. FOhl said the Bundes- 
bank refrained from too sweep- 
ing a chang e in the minimum 
reserve because the central 
bank views the reserve require- 
ment as a valuable tod in or- 
icy. 


;|Wf iiii %■■■ 

■ §^$ 0:'4 

llipf 


MMiri 


i • ...... .. 

?: wm 

flip' 


He acknowledged. 


Karl Otto PoH 

that the relative significance of 
the reserve requirements had 
diminished in light of the cen- 
tral bank's success in using 
open-market operations to 
check liquidity levels in the 
money market. 

In its first reform of mini- 
mum reserve ratios since au- 
tumn 1982, the Bundesbank 
said its reduction would release 
about 8 billion Deutsche marks 
($3.2 billion). Under the new 
rules, certificates of deposit and 
bank bearer bonds would fall 
under a new monthly minimum 
reserve aggregate, to total about 
48 billion DM, from which 8 
billion DM would be cut 

The derision to allow resi- 
dent banks to issue CDs follows 
a liberalization move by the 
Bundesbank last May that per- 
mitted the use of innovative fi- 
nancial instruments, including 
floating-rate notes, zero-cou- 
pon bonds and swaps. 

Mr. Pohl cautioned, however, 
that the failure to remove 
Boon's bourse tax would result 
in trading activity for Deutsche 
mark CDs moving, to London. 
F inan ce Minister Gerhard Stol- 
tenberg has indicated that he is 
reluctant to remove the tax un- 
til the 1987 legislative period. 


CURRENCY MARKETS 


Dollar Ends Lower in U.S., Europe 


Compiled by Our Staff Fran Dispatches 

NEW YORK — The dollar 
dosed slightly weaker Thursday in 
quiet U.S. and European trading 
marked by an absence of corporate 
and interbank activity. 

Dealers, noting that markets 
were effectively shut for the Christ- 
mas season, said that even the re- 
lease on Friday of U.S. fourth- 
quarter gross national product data 
was likely to have negligible impact 
on the dollar. 

“By the time the figure comes 
out, than won’t be many operators 
around still interested in taking po- 
sitions,” one bank dealer in Lon- 
don said. 

The report also will revise past 
GNP data, and some economists 
have predicted that economic 
growth in the first half of the year 
oould be revised a percentage point 
higher. That would still show an 
overall sluggish economy, however. 

The revisions should show bet- 
ter growth than previously report- 
ed, but we are not expecting any- 
thing dramatic,” a trader saw. 

In New York, the dollar eased to 
2.5140 Deutsche marks from' 
2.5215 at Wednesday’s close; to 
203.05 yen from 203.15, and to 
7.7100 French francs from 7.7265. 

The dollar continued to be sup- 
ported by light year-end commer- 


cial demand and by reports that the 
Bank of Japan was likely to lower 
its benchmark discount rate a half 
point, to 5 percent, next year, deal- 
era said. That would make dollar 
investments more attractive to Jap- 
anese investors. 

Dealers said the Swiss franc 
showed volatility in V£. trading, 
rising at one point to 2.1030 to the 
dollar before falling back to 11 100 
at Lhe close, up from 2.1215 
Wednesday. 

They noted that with Zurich a 
major cash market for gold, the 
Swiss currency usually strengthens 
along with the precious metal. In 
Zurich, gold rose $650 an ounce 
Thursday, to dose at 5326. 

The Canadian dollar was volatile 
in the opposite direction, dealers 
noted, failing to SI .4000 before re- 
covering to $1.3980, still down 
from its close of $1.3942 on 
Wednesday. One bank dealer said 
the weakness was due to some year- 
end corporate sell orders and that 
the Canadian currency “found 
good support at the $1.40 area.” 

The British pound, meanwhile, 
edged higher cat steady crude oil 
prices and on rumors that the Bonk 
of England had intervened to sup- 
port it against the mark. It rose in 
London to 51.4220 against the dol- 
lar from 51.4203 on Wednesday, 


but slipped against the mark to 
3J718 from 3.5740. 

!n later U.S. trading, the British 
currency ended in New York at 
$1.4245, up from $1.4150 there at 
Wednesday's close. 

In earlier trading in Europe, the 
dollar dosed in London at 23160 
DM, down from 2.5215 at the 
opeoing but unchanged from 
Wednesday's close. It also closed 
virtually unchanged against the 
yen. slipping to 203.00 from 203.02 
on Wednesday. 

Dealers there said the U.S. cur- 
rency traded within a very narrow 
band for most of the session, and 
noted that activity was confined 
almost entirely to small-scale cus- 
tomer and corporate orders. 

Although some operators were 
taking profits from Wednesday’s 
gains, dealers said, most were stay- 
ing on the sidelines pending release 
of Friday’s GNP data. 

In other European markets 
Thursday, the dollar was fixed at 
midafternooD in Frankfurt at 
23250 DM, up from 23103 at the 
Wednesday fixing; at 7.7290 
French francs in Paris, up from 
7.7120. 

In Zurich, the dollar closed at 
2.) 1)5 Swiss frazus, virtually un- 
changed from 2.1133 Wednesday. 

(Reuters, IHT) 


THE EUROMARKETS 


One New Issue Launched in Quiet Trading 


By Christopher Pizzey 

Reuters 

. LONDON — The secondary 
Eurobond market ended slightly 
easier Thursday as the U.S. credit 
markets continued to drift during 
the afternoon, dealas said. 

Trading was very quia through- 
out the day. Next week’s Christmas 
break was probably the major fac- 
tor influencing the market. 

The primary market was also 
very quiet with only one new issue 
bring launched in London — the 
expected 15- billion- yen straight for 
Credit Fonci&r de France. 

The Credit Fonrifcr bond was 
guaranteed by the Republic of 


France and pays 616 percent over 
10 years. Priced at 101 It, the non- 
cadable bond was quoted by the 
lead manager, Daiwa Europe LuL, 
within the 2-percent fees at a dis- 
count of 114 percent. 

Dealers noted that with many 
borrowers unwiHing to tap the doi- 
lar-straight Eurobond market be- 
cause of the current wide gap in 
yields between the UjS. market and 
Euromarket, it has been the yen 
sector that has provided the most 
interest in recent days. 

‘’Even when it’s approaching 
Christmas, if the swap works 
you’ve got to do your best to tie it 
up,” a syndicate manager said. 


The doUar-suaight sector ended 
the day with losses of Ys or !4 point, 
but traders said that the undertone 
remained relatively firm with many 
operators unwilling to go short 
over the holiday. 

“You must remember that trad- 
ing is going to be at almost a com- 
plete standstill next week. If you 
lose bonds now, it’s going to be 
very hard to get them bock later, ”a 
trader at a U.S. bouse said. 

The $100- million bond for the 
European Coal and Steel Commu- 
nity ended at a discount of 1H 
percent bid, just below Wednes- 
day’s finish of about lit percent. 


Thmsday-s 

ore 


Prices 


NASDAQ ericas as of 
3 pjn. Now York time. 

Via The Associated Press 


ON. m HKh High Low 3 PM. Qrte 



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26* 

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115 

■ft 


45ft 46 


lift 

6ft 

12ft 

to 

1296 

696 


796 


33ft 
. —16 
lift + ft 
15ft 

1816- ft 

isr* 

7 + ft 

1296— lft 
aw 

13ft 

694 

3394— ft 
31ft 
196 

2J94 + J6 


! ,12 Month 



SriMln 



fit ** 1 1 

-aw Stock 

Dhr. Yld 

UQs 

Hipn low 1 pjw. are* 


7 tt PSFS 

.15# 1A 

3444 

Tt 

10 * 

10 * 


14ft PhilGI 

JOe 72 

1527 

21 

20 * 

20 * + tt 


2 PhnxAir 



A3 

Sft 

3* 

3* 


lfltt PlcSav 



1171 

33 

31* 

32ft + ft 


Mtt PicCoie 

20 

8 

a 

24* 

26* 

34* + * 


»tt PlonHI 

1JM 

695 

38* 

38ft 



7 PlonSt 

.12 

12 

18 

9* 

914 






39 

11 * 

lift 

lift— * 


16* P Lev Mo 



238 

23 

2344 

23 


21 Porax 



132 

24ft 

74 

24 - * 





90 

lft 

1 * 

1 * 


9ft Powrtci 



21 

13* 

13 

13* + ft 





41 

13 


13, + * 



.12 



29* 

28 


13tt 




170 

11 * 


lift— ft 





1852 

Aft 

6 

Aft— * 





8 ft 

7* 

Bft + ft 


37* PtKzCo 



371 

70ft 

69* 

70ft + * 





64 

13ft 

11 

13 



. 1 * 



4* 

4 



21* ProoCS 

.12 

124 

47* 

47ft 

47ft — ft 


10* ProotTr 

120 10 J 

78 

11 * 


11 — * 






21 * 

21 * 

21 * + ft 

29 

13* PurtBn 

JO 

u 

47 

29* 

28ft 

29* +1* 

■ 




Q 



1 





443 

9* 

8 * 

9* + * 
JRA + * 





2*6 

Oft 

8 * 


9 QuakC 1 

-42 

n 

213 

12 * 

12 ft 

13* + * 





609 

27ft 

26ft 

27 + ft 


2 * QuesiM 



70 

4* 

4* 

4*— * 





30 

11 

1 /* 


16ft 

8 Quotrri 



4321 

n* 

lltt 

11 *— * 

c 




R 



1 



-Die 

3J 

134 

A* 

A* 

6 * — ft 



27 

20 * 

IB* 

m* 

18* + ta 






14* 




K p *. | , , *| J 



368 

lltt 

10 * 

10 *— ft 


|.n -rf-U.Mil 



83 

St 

/ft 

7ft— ft 


■ ■■ 



709 




23ft Rotors 

1JM 

29 

350 

34* 

34ft 

34* + ft 



24 

IJ 

5 

18* 

18ft 

Uft— * 





172 

1 * 

1 * 

1 *— * 





2 

21 * 

21 * 

21 *- * 





40 

10 tt 

10 * 

10 * 


25* RejTtnL 

M 

1.9 

14 

33* 

33 

33ft + * 






18* 




4* RocvEI 

20 

XI 

689 

Aft 

Aft 

.«•- * 



.12 

.7 

72 

17 

16* 

16ft — * 






4ft 

4* 

4*— ft 


7 ll| )-■ 

. 1 * 

U 

100 

9* 

8 * 

9* + * 


, Iiii 



1259 

10 * 

10 * 



n£H , . . • id.^ 



5 

20 


19*— * 


1 ' * 1 

-15e U 

18 

9ft 




’Tk 1 . . , 1 , n« I', 

J 61 

3 

93 

27* 

27* 

27* + ft 



l.« 

72 

52 

50* 

U 

55S + “• 


1 In? 1 . « • ' M 

J2 

U 

274 

20 

19 

19* + * 


3* Ribilm 6 



327 

7* 

A* 

7 



JO 

4 2 


17* 




24* RooOSv 

1.10 

32 

739 

35ft 

34* 

M* + * 



J6 

A 

Ji 

13* 

13* 












34 

11 

172 

25* 

25ft 

^5 + tt 





230 







40 

11* 


uft— * 

24ft 




Ml 

22ft 

21* 

21 * 





S 



_J 





136 

9* 


9 * + * 





425 

15 


14ft— * 


13 SEI 



176 

Bft 


23ft + * 



.10r LS 

220 

Aft 


Aft— ft 



JO 

43 

46 

17ft 


17 — ft 

25* 


24 

1J 

60 

25* 


24ft— ft 



140 

15 


46ft 


44* + ft 


9* SofHItS 


63 

11 

ii'jn 

10* 


7ft SUude 



168 

21 

1 pj 



47* SIPauf 

1D0 

17 

359 

82 

81* 

81*— » 


2* 5alCpt 



B 

5* 

5* 

5* + M 




5 

A* 

A* 



5* Satetov 

.14 

12 

2 

Aft 

Aft 

Aft — * 


ir’ .i Tm jn 

J8a 3J 



2V 

29* + ft 



41 

11 

29 


20* 

20ft- * 





194 


10* 

10* 





142 


14ft 


15* 

S* Scherer 

22 

11 

128 


lift 

15* + * 



Am U 






3ft SdMic 



25 

4 * 

4ft 

4ft + ft 


6ft SdSft 



314 

Alb 

Aft 

Aft 

2D* 

6 Stolen, 



108 

7Vt 




3* SeaGol 



69 

4* 

4ft 


8* 




5136 

A 

7 

7„ „ 


1* Sterna 



40 


19S— >k 


1* SEEQ 



779 

2 * 

2* 

2* + ft 


M 5«PkI 

J0 

<0 

112 

20 * 

20 

20 





29 

7 * 





J5 


1595 

* 

8* 

Ott— * 



JB 



13* 

13* 

13* 

25* 

17* Svmrit 

J4 

3J 

1B» 


21ft 

22 — * 


4 * SveFrct 



27 



Aft 


12 * SevOoic 

.1* 

J 

431 




37* 

24* S hr Med 

All 

1J 

1358 


M-lj 



29ft Shwmt 

IJ4 

44 

17 





12* Sbettnri 

.16 

J 

183 


w • L< 1 












.18 

2 

48V 


29 ft 

29* + * 





2S3 

12* 

12* 

12*— ft 





144 

41% 


4ft— * 


9* Silicons 



356 

14ft 



20tt 

11* SliScvai 



26 

16ft 

16 







22* 

Bft 

22* 


3* smec 



37 

5* 

5ft 

5* + ft 

17* 

12* Slmoln 

JO 

SO 

69 

16ft 

16 

1* - * 

15ft 

ID* Sloolns 



5U 

11 

10ft 

11 

18ft 

9* Slizlsrs 



38 

14 

lift 

15*— ft 


8* Skipper 

JM 



9tt 

9ft 

9* + ft 




544 

2* 

2* 

2* 



1JM 

14 


54 

53* 

53ft + ft 

26* 

11* SoctySv 



176 

25* 

25 

25* + * 

11 

6* Softedi 



94 

11 

10* 

10* 


11* SoftwA 



223 

17* 

17* 

17* + ft 


19* BonocPfi 

J80 22 

119 

31* 

31 

31 — * 

F71 


Me la 

216 

Id* 

Id 

14—14 





73 

5 

4* 

4ft— * 

33 

20 ft sttidFn 

37 

U 

25 

21* 

Zlft 

21* + V6 



JO 

33 

339 

19* 

19 

19 — * 



.10 

13 

307 

Aft 

4* 


32* 


4.0 


32* 

32 

32 - ft 





61 

2D* 20ft 

30*-* 

tni 

1 



125 

24 



8* 

5* SwaeCtt 

JJ7 

3 

IM 

B 

7* 

7ft— * 


13* Spirt 



58 

14ft 

15* 

14* + * 


Stt StnrSur 



255 

8* 

Rft 

8ft + * 

9ft 

5 stoffiid 

20 

13 

634 

9 

8* 

8*— * 

34* 

21 Streidy 
lift SMMiC 

UH 

32 

123 

569 

34ft 

1514 

At* 

14ft 

33*— * 
15ft + ft 


20* StonlMfR UO 

43 

54 

27ft 

7ft* 

24* 

41* 

21* StaSfB 8 

JO 

13 

304 

41* 

40* 

40* 

6* 

3* StateG 

J&J U 

/40 

4* 

4* 

4* + tt 





119 

Aft 

5* 

4ft + H 

IS* 

lltt Slews tv 



51 

15* 

15* 

15* 

25 

If* Stwlrrf 

33 

ai 

29 

23* 

23 

23 

ttt 

59k Stlfri 


35 

8* 

/* 

B 

25 

ffft stratus 



MR? 

23 

21* B + * 

42* 

29* StrwOs 

3i 

12 

25 

41 

41 

41 -tt 

24* 15* Strykrs 



20 

24 

Btt 

24 + ft 

171*11396 Sufiaiu 

138 

15 

47 

154*153* 153*- ft 

87 

42* Subrfl 

122 

22 

207 


BA 

86ft | 

4 * 

1* Summa 



601 

2* 

2*— * 

W 

7ft SumlHI 
* SunCst 

.10 

Ml 

295 

in 


ft ftrfc 

lift 

6* 5s«M8d 



5 

10* 

10 * 

10* 


7* SupSkV 



52 

0* 

Bft 

8* 

*496 

3 Supytox 



21 

3* 

3* 

3ft 

14 

14* 

rm 



104 

898 

10* 

Ttt 

10* 

4* 

10* 

7* + * 

5* 

2 * Syntrsx 



521 

4* 

4* 

4ft 

14ft 


20 

15 

10 

13* 

Utt 

13* 

26ft 




47 

9* 

9ft 


4 swim 



» 

7* 

7* 

zs 





137 

10ft 

9tt 

9* 

27ft 

15ft Sytlml 

JB 

J 

35 

25* 

25 

25 — * 

f 




1 



| 


8 TOC 



45 

72 

IT* 

12 + tt 


2 Tacvivi 



56 

3* 

3* 

.?»- tt 


12* Tandem 



4395 

21* 

a iK 

21* + * 





2396 

Mb 



5 * TcCom 



1 

Mtt 

Mtt 

14* 


9 Telco 



166 

13* 

13 

13 —tt 


22* TlemA 

I 


2737 

39 

38* 

39 . + * 

12* 

6* TetPkw 



404 

8* 

J* 

8ft + ft 


,12 Month 
pooh Law Stock 


Solas In 

DW. YU HOt HWi 


Nri 

1 PAL Ctrtw 



13* letter a 

J2 

1.1 

778 

22* 

10* Tried s 



2S1 

4* 

lft TrivW 



565 


8* Telabs 



556 


9ft Telxans 

jn 


190 


2* TermDf 

t 


f363 


5ft TherPr 



131 


Aft Thrmd 1 



41 

28ft 

16ft ThrdNs 

24 

12 

106 


14ft Sft Thortue 
20ft Sft TtauTr 
15 21b ThnoEn 

15ft 9ft TmoFIb 
2 ft Tlprary 
1716 10 TrokAu 
13M 6ft TrlodSy 


163 

1438 

578 

6 

622 

42 

105 


29ft 

23 

3ft 

10V» 

3094 

JU 

6ft 

lift 

25ft 

79b 

7ft 

214 

1314 

IBM 


28ft +2ft 
22 + ft 
2ft— ft 
B0 — ft 
30ft + ft 
314 + ft 
... 6ft + ft 
lift lift 
34ft 24ft— 1ft 
7ft 7ft— ft 
7ft 7ft 
2ft 214 

Tt ’S+* 
% ’gs=a 


2116 

216 

10 

20 

3 

Aft 


1 




U 



1 

27ft 

Uft 

11 

2Jtt 

14ft 

29* 

42ft 

76* 

11* 

30* 

11 

22ft 

14ft 

* 

32 

5* 

4 

22* 

5* 

22* 

4544 

25ft 

25ft 

48ft 

24* 

20* 

13 

6M 

18 USLICS 
13* UTL 

5 Ultrw 
10ft Unamn 
7* Unffl 

16 * UnPtntr 
74ft UnTBcs 
12* UACmi 
Oft UBATOk 

31* UBCot 

6 UFnGro 
11* UFrtFd 
A UGntn 
9ft UPresd 
7ft US Ant 

22* USBcp 
1 * us Cop 
2* US DMA 
8 USHCS 
3ft US Stall 
14* USSur 
2Sft USTrt 
17ft USfatn 
ISft UnTetev 
33* UVaBa 
14ft UnvFm 
10 UnvHII 
7* UFSBk 
Sft Uicaf 

JO 23 

26t 2 

im 3 3 

1J0 25 

.TO 2 
.1ST U 

MB X4 

-05e 3 
lj4tl9J 

1J» 3A 

JS J 
.12 3J 
JOe 22 
120 72 
3* IJ 

1J4 36 

J7e 2 
2S 56 

57 
d 

103 

908 

232 

13 

15 
767 

29 

62 

54 

208 

VS 

58 

36 

1006 

)K3 

44 

319 

148 

266 

147 

03 

16 
178 

42 

701 

24 

854 

27ft 

Uft 

8 

left 

14 

S* 

26* 

9ft 

29* 

6* 

19 

8* 

’MS 

29ft 

3tt 

3* 

19ft 

4ft 

18ft 

46 

24M 

74ft 

46* 

74 

15* 

12ft 

5* 

27 

M 

7* 

14* 

27* 

60* 

25* 

9* 

29ft 

dtt 

'St 

2Vtt 

3* 

2* 

19* 

r 

45ft 

24 

34ft 

23* 

14* 

12 

4* 

27* 

14ft 

796— * 
14ft + M 
13*-* 
27*— * 
61 

2616 + ft 
9ft 

29* + * 
6*— M 
IV + ft 
8*— ft 

VJf+Jf 
» + * 
3*—* 
2* + * 
19*— ft 
4ft + * 
18* + * 
45ft— ft 
24* + * 
74ft 

46*— ft 
74 

Mtt — * 
12* 

5 

| 




V 



1 





271 

6* 

5* 

6 





1074 

14ft 

14ft 

M* 

11* 




1A5 

5 

4* 


11* 

7ft VSE 

.17# U 

183 

lift 

10* 

lift + * 





501 

Bib 

ttt 

8* + * 





116 

22* 

21* 

22* + tt 


27* VolNtl 

122 

3J 

474 

40ft 

40* 

40*— * 







27* 





2J 

321 

19ft 

IV* 

19ft 





35 

6* 

Sft 

5ft— ft 





2268 


4* 




-12e 

2 

578 


Mtt 




22a 3J 

262 

Aft 

Att 














113 

Zlft 

21 

21* + ft 





436 

7* 

4* 

7* + * 

22 

14ft tfoltlnf 



85* 

21* 



| 



W 



1 


17* WD 40 

124 

4J 

71 

21ft 

B 

23ft 




IJ 

40 

17* 


17* 





103 

9* 


9 — * 


19 WMlE 

126 

7J 

457 

24* 

Uft 

24ft— ft 




2J 

223 

Xft 

TV* 




-llle 

6 

ion 

17* 

16* 






94 

7* 

7* 

7* 




32 

78 

12 







20 

IB 

18 

18 





1205 

17 

Mtt 

TAtt + * 


5ft WMIcTc 



67 

(ft 

0 

8ft — ft 





36 


Irtk 














233 

13* 

12 

12 - ft 





296 

37ft 

JAft 






2838 

4* 

4* 

4* 





458 

4 

3* 

3* + * 





525 


Sltt 



7* WIIIAL 



505 

15* 

lift 

15* . .. 







IBtt 






127 

5ft 

5* 

5tt— tt 



JQI 


268 

5ft 

5 

5* 




42 

211 

14* 


14* + * 




5J> 

161 

12 

11 * 

12 




20 

193 

22* 

22 

2216 + * 




34 

Btt 

Stt 


30* 

20ft Wyman 

JO 

36 

171 

22* 

22 






X 



1 





472 

lft 

1* 

1* 





197 

Btt 

Btt 

Btt 

17ft 

10 ft Xldex 



3092 

15ft 

14* 

15ft + * 





Y 



“I 

28* 

IS YIOwF 5 

J4 

IJ 

2241 

29* 

28* 

29* + tt 

| 




z 



1 





1406 

25 

W* 24* — ft 




4 

13ft 

13ft 

13ft 





16 

45ft 







33 

Stt 

5* 


15ft 

6* Zondvn 

JB) 

2 

128 

12* 

12* 



5a I m flowox an unofficial. Yearly blobs and laws round 
the previous S3 weeks him tb# current week, but nrt Hie latest 
trad liw dav. Wtw™ a spill or stock dMdond amount Ms to 25 

percent or more hen been oald. the rears hleb-taw ranee and 
dtvMand are shown lor the new stock only. Unless otherwise 

notea rotes of dMshnds are annual dNtarmtMfrfs based an 

me latest dedanman. 

a— dividend also ntralsl^I 

b — cnnuol rate af dlvlilanit Phis stock dvbleiML/1 

G — UOUMoths UMtanL/l 

dd — ceUod/l 

d— new yearly Ioml/I 

e— dlvtdond declared or paid In oread Ino 12 modfti/1 

0 — dividend In Canadian fund* euMod Id 1546 nwwwsldenea 

|||}(r 

1 — dtvtdtnd declared otter RXtt-uP or stock dividend. 

[ — dfvfdend paid IWs year, <uhH6h 6 detatwt or no aefton 
token at latori dtvtdaad meettnu. 
b— tflvldend declared or paid mb year, on accumulotWe 
Isue with dividends In arrears. 

n— now l ttu emtho past 52 weria. The bl BWprrranae begins 
wllti Hit itort o> tram ns. 
nd— nod day delivery. 
p/E — or Ice-cam h>93 ratio, 

r— dividend declared or oafcl Mi pmedlm 12 months, plus 
stock dividend. 

*— Btoefc split. Dividend begins wMh date af vIH. 

■to— soft*. 

t —dividend paid Instock In precsdlna 12 montfi s. uMmatod 
cash value on ex-dvktend or ax-dhPributlon dot*, 
u — new yearly hleh. 
v— trod too hatted. 

vl— to tx rtg v pfcy or retMtaymip or befno reoroontoed uri- 
ctorsecurltte 


derthe Bankruptcy Act or 
pan lea. 

wd — wtandMrtbutstL 
wl— when towed- 
ww — with warrants, 
x — ax-<9vldsnd or «MHpfrfs. 
nJb — ex -distribution, 
xw — without warrants, 
y — «<tvtdend and sates hi full 
yld— yield, 
z— sales hi lutt 


litas asBumed by such con* 


( 




9 





I 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, FRIDAY, DECEMBER 20, 1985 


■999 9999 9HHH 


PEANUTS 

UMfittytof m*- 'kited' 



WHAT WAS HANPEL'S 
FIRST. NAME, MARCIE? 


IM ASHAMED 7 laJOST 

TO ADMIT I HAVE- TO 
PONtKNOWiSDESS. 


&iva&onU&H- 
{JaC l&rtdsL-. q 


BLOND IE 

WHAT'S THE ^ 
SPECIAL TODAY ? 


U*« CHOPPB3 HAM T WHAT DO YOU MU- 
( WITH TURKEY HASH I CALL THAT?) 


'"K PRE-CHRISTMAS 

S ls=twb*s n 


999999H9999999 


W s' 





ACROSS 

1 Huron, e.g. 

5 Long-running 
sitcom 

9 Singer Vikki 

13 Shield border 

14 Title-search 
item 

15 Dieter's 
purchase 

16 Fielder’s 
ostentatious 
applause- 
getter 

19 Crafty 

20 Pointillist’s 
unit 

21 Shop tool 

23 Boot enhancer 

24 Villa d' , at 

Tivoli 

25 Cato's 151 

26 Choice word 

27 Nicholson or 
Streep 

28 Mammon trio 

29 A son of Jacob: 
Var. 

31 Box 

32 Snooze 

33 Economic 
bases 

37 Annamese 
measure 

38 Joker 

39 Enormous 


40 Mars or Venus 

41 Jargon 

42 Kind of shot for 
Bird 

43 se 

(intrinsically) 

44 Ray of films 

45 Hike 

48 Journal ending 

49 Tortoise's 
beak 

50 Spring time 

51 Leader 

55 Roman 
emperor 

56 Rope ring 

57 S.A. monkey 

58 Break 

59 Joint on a prie- 
dieu 

69 Dance unit 


1 Peat source 

2 Polonius's 
hiding place 

3 Reduce ' 
sharply 

4 Guard 

5 Get the hang of 

6 Commedia 

dell' 

7 Huge amount 

8 Balancing act 

9 Egg beater 
19 Every bit 


11 Conquers 
Everest afresh 

12 Topgallant's 
topper 

17 Gore , 

Parisian depot 

18 Foolish chap 

22 Fragment 

24 Spanish grass 

29 Bellicose one 

30 Theatrical flirt 

31 Act shy 

34 Like a fish or 
reptile 

35 Unwilling 

36 Drumbeats 

37 Slangy 
rejection 


Si! 


BEETLE BAILEY 

//[ WWVfSTHjr ] 
/A 0BNERAL J 
/7\ALOWe* < 


torn 



41 “He who , 

teaches** 
(Shavian put- 
down) 

42 Haybumer’s 
borne 

46 Have coming 

47 Ready, in 
Rouen 

50 Adams or 
Sedgwick 

52 Sounds of ioy 

53 Darting of the 
Mets 

54 Open a seam 


— ■ ANDY CAPP 



MV LAO 

Does- , 


J ALL HE WANTS IS \ ow.b»M««i 
LIFE, LIBERTY, ANb ) 
r MOST OF MV WAG ES < 

TO PURSUE HAPPINESS 1 


© New York Timet, edited by Eugme Malesha. 


DENNIS THE MENACE 


WIZARD of ID 


IS THKSFCP 
you OP TH£ 
f? TOE? . 







* I'VE BEEN 6000 ALL YEAR. NOW n& UPTD > |0U TO 
PROVE I WASN'T WASTING MY TIME.* 


REX MORGAN 

( l WAS AFRAID OF 

1 THAT. HARRY ^ DR. MORGAN DOESN'T 

UNDERSTAND THAT SOMETHING'S s 

WRONG WITH DAD— THAT HE'S \ 

ME^changep ij 

l WISH YOU'D 
STOP WORRYING 
ABOUT HIM' HE 
SEEMS HAPPIER 
AND ENJOYING 
LIFE FOR THE 
FIRST TIME SINCE 
MOTHER PASSED 
AWAY THREE 
YEARS AG Of 


l CANT HELP BUT WORRY ABOUT 
HIM' ITS POSSIBLE THAT HE'LL . 
REALLY GO OFF THE DEEP END < 
AND MARRY THAT 23-YEAR-OLD 
GIRL.' 


J YOU HAVE AN **^5 
APPOINTMENT WITH THE 
poCItJR TOMORROW' ^ 
PLEASE, DISCUSS tTJ^m 
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Wbrki Stock Markets 

Via Agenee France-Presse Dec. 19 

doting prica in local aurmdea unless otherwise indicated.- 


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books 


FROM THE RUINS OF THE 
REICH: Germany 1945-1949 

By Douglas Batting. 341 pages . Illustrated 
$ 17.95 . 

Cnrm Publishers Inc, I Park Avenue, New 
York. N. Y. 10016 

Reviewed by 

Christopher Lchmann-Haupt 

TT is not exactly as if the events described in 
JL Douglas Bolting’s "From the Ruins of the 
Reich: Germany 1945-1949” were obscure 
ones. The invasion of Nazi Germ an y by the 
Grand Alliance, the discovery of toe death 
camps, the Fall of Berlin and the end game 
played out in the Hitler bunker, the Occupa- 
tion and the four-power adminis tration of Ger- 
many’s remains and, finally, the American and 
British merger of their zones and the Soviet 
response of blockading Berlin — these are 
etched with pain and awful wonder in the 
memory of anyone over age 50. 

Why then do we need a book that recounts 
ibis mghtful period of 20th-century history? 
Because, as the preacher reminds ns in Joyce's 
“Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man," heii 
has little meaning until the details have been 
filled in. Botting — a British journalist and 
historian whose previous books include “The 
Aftermath: Europe" (the final volume of “The 
Tune-life History of World War IT) and, with 
Ian Sayer, “Nazi Gold” — is half abashed 
when hie writes in his introduction: “The read- 
er will not find much here about the new trade 
unions, or the rebirth, of the German church, or 
the reform of the German financial system, or 
other worthy but specialist aspects of the sub- 
ject" 

As he apologizes: “Indeed the canvas is so 
vast I doubt if there ever can be a definitive 
account of Germany under the Occupation 
within the comp ass of a angle volume." But 
the key word here is “canvas,” for what be has 
produced is a portrait of hell, complete with all 
the Bosdrian details, from an atrocity- by- 
atrocity account of the first discovery of Ber- 


gen-Bdsen to a cross-cut freeze-frame of Beam 
at one moment in its death-agony, complete 
with children burned by napalm, German sol- 
diers undergoing amputation without anes- 
thetic and the “non bedsteads in the burned- 
out nuns of the Elizabeth Hospital” on which 
“lay the charred bodies of Russian soldiers and 
the German nurses they were in the act of 


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raping when the building, went up in fbffiei." 

Botting blends the most memorable ic.- 
counts of the period with whatever Xjftttari 
interviews he was abie to ctmduct, Yet fl^ 
niehunare is not entirely of a Fannliar mmtu- 
sion. The Holocaust cries out for ilsdf, but 
there is outrage expressed here too for Ihe lsss 
familiar barbarities of the ume — theforeed 
repatriauon by the Allies of certain Ru^aa 
dissidents even though it was certmn that they 
would be executed the moment they feB m 
Stalin’s hands; the treatment of conquer 
Germans in the East which Boning rates** 
act of genocide: and the U. S. Oc cupation, j 
which one witness told Congress, “The Ctt- 
man troops occupying France had a better ; 
record in their personal contact with the po gg-: -. 
lation than the American troops otzatpya^ 
Germany." 

If any moral can be drawn from this huttcuy, 
it is that Nazi Germany was not aiooc a 
achieving new levels of human barbarity. Its 
behavior somehow txiggered in other peoples 
well a previously imimagmed capacity for sob- 
animal behavior. YeL unbelievably, the stay 
of “From the Ruins of the Reich" is noi entire- 
ly grim. There is a happy ending, if you regard 
as positive developments the defat or the 
Benin blockade and the economic miracle, that 
revived the Federal Republic of Germany. 
There are moments of humor, too, such as the 
Berliners' referring to the statue of the Rinuo 
soldier near the Brandenburg Gate as .“the 
Monument to the Unknown Looter" at the 
parody of Lhe denazification questionnaire that 
asked, “Did you play with toy soldim as &.$. 
child? If so. what regnnem?" .. . ¥ 

Finally, Bolting's history provided this re- 
viewer with a remedy for guilt. For decades I 
have felt bad about the way. as a 12-year-dd 
American dependent in Berlin in 1947 and 
» 1948. 1 used to manipulate my weddy allow- 
ance. Instead of taking SI in American Occu- 
pation scrip, worth 10 marks at the official 
exchange rate, 1 would insist on my PX aBot- 
ment of cigarettes, which was one canon per 
family member at the price of a dollar a'avton 
(believe it or notj. 

I would then sell my carton on the black 
market — - which you emild do through a class- 
mate or a next-door neighbor — and m vest the 
1,000 marks I got (equal to $100) in my rapidly . 
growing stamp collection. 

Now Botting informs me that, given the 
“strangling” monetarist policy that the Allies 
insisted on pursuing to avoid the runaway 
inflation that had mined Germany foOowmf* 
World War L, the black market saved die 
Gorman people from starvation. “Not to join 
because of some code of honor or other was not 
a good thing,” recalls au upper-class Bavarian 
of that time. “One has to be very careful about 
getting moral issues mixed op with something 
that was, at this time, a most honorable busi- 
ness." 

And of course, as Bolting reminds ns, the 
dinette ^ “had almost replaced the mark as the 
universal currency of toe people, and become 
the baric unit of exchange." With my shady 
little practice, I was merely helping to stir the 
postwar economy. 

For this relief, and for a vivid re-creation of 
a time in whose shadows many of us still dwell, 

I owe Douglas Botting much thanks. 

Christopher Lehmann-Haupt is on the staff of. 
The New York Times. 


























INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, FRIDAY, DECEMBER 20, 1985 


SPORTS 


Page 19 


Noise Pollution in the NFL Prompts 
The Coming of ' Star Wars 9 Football 


theNFLPrompts Be 31 * 8 * Rams, Patriots Dominate Pro Bowl Squads 

.A The Associated Press *«■ 1 '/VM .nlAaioJ rare ~ ... W /V. 


By Dave Anderson 

AT«w FortIimB5crTK« 


NEW YORK — Noise poBmion is the National 
football League’s loudest problem. Home-team 
■ sag, sometimes aroused by arm-waving players, 
XC disrupting games more than ever before. Their 
; «dbeb drown out a via ting-team quarterback’s 
. : oice when he's calling signals for a crucial [day, 
„ ■ hereby interfering with tut team's right to oper- 
ieits offehse. And thafs wrong. When fans boy a 
ickct, they purchase the right to cheer or to boo, 
-■■■ ut not a right to prevent a visiting team from 

- ^laying the game. 

As a result, next season or 1987 at the latest, 
' Star Waif 1 football will be npOD ns. A small xacBo 

- ransnriOer and microphones will be installed in a 
.; jmrierbaekfahehneu a smafl radio receiver wiD be 

.• ;.*a the helmets of pass receivers and running backs. 

- Somehow this noise pollution has not vrt de- 
fended upon Giants StOTum* where this weekend 

. he New York Giants and New York Jets will try 
o dtnefa wOd-card berths in the Soper Bowl XX 

- ilaypffe — the Giants against thePitt&nrgb Stcd- 
as bn Saturday, the Jets against the Cleveland 
Srowns on Sunday. 

In many other NFL stadiums, the decibels are 

- ncreaszng, week by week. Because this noise poDn- 
ion is contagions, it’s only a matter of time before 

- iome rancoui followers of the Giantg and the Jets 
ire contaminated too. 

In the Giants’ 28-21 loss to the Dallas Cowboys 

- it Texas Stadium last Sunday, crowd noise pre- 
•• /tatted Fb3 Simms from operating the shotgun 
' ■' j ffense property. Instead of standing several yards 
1 • xhiod & fine of scrimmage to await the snap, the 

{Hants’ quarterback had to take the snap from 
mAer the center, as he does in any other fonna- 
ioo. 

The idea of the shotgun is to allow the quarter- 

- sack an extra second or two to view Ins pass 


. -ather than having to search for his receivers wime 
. lurrying back than. 

: When the Giants attempted to use a hurry-up 
jffense in order to prevent the Cowboys from 
ns ff tm g defensive substitutes between piays, the 
Texas Stadium decibels forced Simms to walk 
'' away from die cooler. Suddenly, the Cowboys had 

- dme.to substitute. 

“Fans are becoming more and more orchestral* 
“sd,” says George Young, the Giants* general man- 
■ jger. “What ever happened to sportsmanship?” 

- Sadly, even same NFL players have come to 
"• xhew that crowd noise is part of their team's 

- «mn- phn. One member of the Miami Dolphins 
us mentioned how a distracted visiting quarter* 
back, Steve Fuller of the Chicago Bears, “let the 
fans fed like they (fid their jobs." But it’s not the 
ins' job to be disruptive. And if s not the players' 

■ ,;ob to mouse th ffui — at least not to the extent 
■ . where those fans disrupt a game's natural flow. 

- If s one thing for fans to yeU, “De-fense, de* 
.. ense,” then let ti i«r t«»™ play defense. It’s quite 

- soother to be a factor in that defense. Next thing 
/on know, the fans will ask to be paid for yelling. 

Most of the noise pdlntion has developed in 
iomed stadiums, sneh as those where the Seattle, 
'Detroit, Minnesota, Indianapolis and New Or* 

- «mn twitnK trim their home games; Texas Stadi- 
un, where the Cowboys play, has a partial roof. 


Anderson Domes retain the noueL But problems have devdr 

row .Service oped in opai stadiums, too, notably the Orange 

spoBution is the National Bowl in Miami, where Fuller, the' Beats' quarter- 
st problem. Homo-team back, stepped away from ihe line of scrimmage 
I by arm-waving players, about a dozen times in a 38-24 loss to the Del- 
re than ever before. Their pfaina. 

a ting-team quarterback’s “Fuller brought it .on himself that night, the ■ 
signals for a eracsal [day, . more he walked away, the more the aowdyefled," 
that team's right to oper- . says Don Shala, die Dolphins’ coachT “Bm die 
s wrong. When Tans buy a answer to this problem is- die radio-equipped bel-. 
t right to cheer or to boo, meis. Some people are worried that the quarter- 
ent a visiting feami from bade would be able to tefl his receivers whu& way 
.■ to go after the snap. But all you need is an official 
on or 1987 at the latest, - or someone on the addrne responsible for cotth^ 
be upon us. A small radio off the radio transmitter once the ball is snapped.” 
ones mD be installed in a In football, where, the other offensive players 

mall radio receiver will be must bear a quarterback as he barks signals, crowd 
givers and naming backs. - noise is ranch more of a factor than in other sports. 
JoBution has not yet do- in b asketball , player? usually are dose enough 
diom, where this weekend to their beach to hear a coach’s instructions or see 
id New York Jets will try his hand ri gnnic But in other sports, hearing is 
is in the Super Bowl XX seldom necessary. Iq a two-out, bases-Ioaded sttu- 
ainst the Pittsburgh Sled- atinn in haadfg ji, far example, pwiy v die batter 
ItS against the Cleveland nwlhe^AqjfBnnrwnMlrijl lwmiigii^ything • 

. - .. . . When the Patriots were in Miami last week, 

preparing for crowd noise in what would be a 30-, 

: Because tms mase poBn- uj &e Dolphins on Monday night, they 

lyamatter oftime before irmalled 20 loudspeakers at their practice site and 
)f the Giants and the Jets ^ cn^jSTtiw al HOdedM. during 
thor workouts. 

As it turned out, the Dolphin decibels appeared 
not to distract Tdny Eas(m, tte 

lofrt^iseveraJyS b^n^asmKhflSrth^bo&a^dFJtetwo 

srSSSS 

toiy. In the third quarto; Borne Kosar, the 
does any other forma- rookie quarterback, stepped away from 

mis to allow the quarter- the center and glanced toward the official, 
ar two to view his pass “Just then,” recalls Joe Gordon of the Stedess? 
nd the line of wnbmnage, front office, “the center snapped the ball, it hit 
rch for iris receivers while Kosar on the leg and we recovered the ftnnhle. 

Then we scored to go ahead, 7-d, and we eventually 
mpted to use a hurry-up won. 

vent the Cowboys from Whmltesoigect of radio-eqnipped helmets was 

itutes between piays, the proposed by the competition committee, of which 
i forced Simms to walk Shula is a member, and voted upon last May, a 
ddealy, the Cowboys had majority of the 28 teams voted in ravor, but not the 
required 21 teams that would represent a three- 
une and more orchestral* quarter vote. Approval was granted for an experi- 
, the Giants* general man- mait in preseason games, bat that experiment was 
ted to sportsmanship?” rncodchaive, primarily because of ianlty eqtnp- 
TL players have come to ment. 

e is part of their team's Since there is no NFL rule to cover the problem, 

r of the Miami Dolphins another exp e rim ent with improved equ i p m ent Is 
istracted visiting quarter* necessary. One estimate has it costing each NFL 
e Chicago Bears, “let the team about $25,000 to equip helmets that are 
irir jobs." But it’s not the already customized to fit each player. 
i. And it's not the players' Until then, the NFL must contend with noise 
it least not to the extent pollution within its rules. And here the NFL has a 
: a game's natural ilow. dil emma. It doesn’t want to do anything that 
is to yell, “De-fense, do- would detract from what Art McNally, its snpovi- 
m play defense. It’s quite sor of officials, calls “the enthusiasm* of the speo- 
i that defense. Next thing tators. 

ask to be paid for yelling. “We never,” McNally says, “want to penalize a 
fflutkm has developed in crowd.'’ 

s those where the Seattle, But enthusiasm is not to be confused with cn- 
fianapolu and New Or* dangezment of the essence of the game— peemit- 
ome games; Texas Stadi- ting the visiting team to operate its offense without 
t play, has a partial roof, unfair distractions. 



Boris Becker, left, and Michael W estphal practicing for the Daris Cup finaL 

r est Germans Counting on Becker 


uma Press InunwoKmai ond singles Friday. The defending Tennis is beginning to challenge 

INICH — Boris Becker, the champion Swedes will send Mats soccer as West Germany’s No 1 
tr-old Wimbledon champion, Wilander against Michael West- sport because of Becker. Even at 
aatcfccd against Stefan Ed- pbai in the opener. 550 per comrade seat thou were 

the 19-year-old Australian in Saturday’s doubles, Becker 1ft’!? 0 *5* 

Champion, in Thursday’s and Andreas Maurer take on Wi- 5*? 9 j 275 tidrets avaal^efor the 


or the Davis Cop tennis final lander and Joakim Nystrom, who is 


— — ” l w|# — — UUMJV* dUUJWWWHl w _ > ■ - 

ta«W«Gn ?r y»i sabstituting for an ailing Anlfers 


n beginning here Friday. 
ier, leading West Germany 
first Davis Cup final since 
viH play Edberg in the sec- 


Jarryd. On Sunday, the 
players reverse partners — 


kei for 10 times their face value. 
Sweden is looking for its thiid 


vs. Wilander and Westphal vs. Ed- victory in four finals; having lost, 3- 
bers> X in Australia in 1983/ 


W* AnociaKit Press 

• NEWYORK — Hghi membera. 

of the Chicago Bears, who have lost 

only one game and clinched a divi- 
aon title eariiex than any team in 
history, have been voted to the Na- 
tional PootbaB Conference team 
for dm Fro Bowl game. 

The Chicago contingent, five of 
them starters, was led by inside 
- linebacker Mike Singletary, one of 
two unanimous choices m. voting 
by conference players and coaches. 

Outride linebacker Lawrence 
Taylor of the New Yoric Giants, 
selected for the fifth time in five 
National Football League seasons, 
was the only other unanimous se- 
lection. 

There were seven Los Angeles 
Rams selected, two as startos, and 

five players from the Giants, three 
as starters. • 

fit the American Conference, 
seven New England Patriots, in- 
cluding finebacrer Andre Tippett 
and guard John Hannah, were 
named lo play m the Feb. 2 game in 
Honolulu. 

Joining Tippett and Hannah as 




selected as a nose tackle; iineback- tackle Anthony Munoz of Croon- 
ers Rickey Jackson of New Orleans nati; center Dwight Stephenson of 
and Harry Carson of the Giants; Miami ; wide receivers Louis Lipps 
comerbacks Eric Wright of San of Pittsburgh and Seattle's Steve 
Francisco and Everson Walls of Largent; q uar terback Dan Marino 
Dallas, and safeties Wes Hopkins of Miami, and running backs Free- 
of Philadelphia and Carlton Wil- man McNefl of New York and 
Iiamson of San Francisco. Marcus Allen of Los Angeles 

Other members of the NFC Defensive starters, in addition to 

squad are wide receivers James Tippett and Nelson, are fellow line- 
Lofton of Green Bay and Tony Hfll backers Karl Mecklenburg of Den- 


of Dallas; tackle Joe Jacoby of ver and Chip Banks of Cleveland; 
Washington; guard Dennis Harrah ends Howie Long of Los Angeles 
and center Dong Smith of the and Mark Gastmeau of New York; 
Rams; tight aid Jimmie Giles of nose Joe Kkcko of New 
Tampa Bay; quarterback Phil York; cctnerbacks Mike Haynes erf 

(Tiffin ib rS iKn hat* fanMn Y A T Xtr«L* 


Un am mou s: M3ce Singleritfy, left, nod Lawrence Taylor 

record last season but was slowed safety Dave Duerson were named 

by a contract holdout this year. The as reserves. 

running >»*** are starters Walter Other NFC starters are Mike 


■ x linebacker EJ. Jumor of SL Louis; Seattle and Deron Cherry of Kan* 
comab&ck LeRoy Inin, of the sasGry. 

\ Rams; placdricker Morten Ander- The punter is the Colts' Robn 
l sen of New (Means; punter Dale Stark and Gary Anderson of Ihe 
•> Hatcher and kick-returna Ron Steelers is the placdricker. Fredd 
^ Brown of the Rams, and special Young of Seattle was named the 
teams player Joey Browner of Min- special teamer. 
nesota. Offensive reserves are wideouts 


Every NFC team was represent- Mark Clayton of Miami -mJ Wes 
ed except Detroit. Chandler of San Diego; tackle 

In the AFC, the Miami Dol- Chris Hinton of Indianapolis; 
chins, Pittsburgh S t eel er s, New guard Roy Foster of Miami; center 
York Jets, Denver Broncos, Los Mike Webster of Pittsburgh; debt 

a i d.:j i /"-i— i i »*■ j . » .r « TT 


start ers are feQow Patriots Brian Payton of the Bears, who will be Quick of Philadelphia and Art Angeles Raiders and Cleveland end Todd Christensen of the Raid- 

Hcflowagr at tackle and mad e line- playing in his eighth Pro Bowl, and Monk of Washington at wide re- Browns all placed four players in ers; San Diego quarterback Dan 

backer Steve Nelson. The reserves Roger Craig of Francisco ceiver; tight end Doug Cosine of the game. Seattle has three, San Fouls, and Cleveland r unning back 

from New Eng l and arecotnoback 49m, plus reserves Gerald Riggs of Dallas; Jackie Slater of the Rams at Diego and Indianapolis two, Kan- Kevin Mack, the only rookie 

Ray Gaybonx and running bade Atlanta «nd Joe Morris of the Gi- t^ekle; Kent HXQ of the Rams and sas Gty, Cincinnati and Houston picked for the g-*wne. 

Cxrig James. The other Patriot is ants. Rnss Grimm of Washington at one each. The only AFC team with- On defense, the backups are end 

wide receiver Irving Fryar, who Others from the Hhw pi cked as guard; Joe Montana of the 49ers at out a Pro Bowl representative is Rulon Jones of Denver; nose tackle 

was chosen as a kick return special- starters were defensive end Richard quarterback, and Grig at running Buffalo. Bob Golic of Cleveland; outside 

i* 1 - Dent, offensive tackle Jimbo Co- back. Joining Hann a h and Holloway linebacker Mike Mem weather of 

Among the nmisanns in the vert an d center Jay HDgeoberg. Defairive startos include defeii- as offensive starters are tight end Pittsburgh; inside linebacker 

NFC was Eric Dickerson of the Outside KnpWtrw Otis Wilson, sive end Leonard Marshall of die Ozrie Newsome of Cleveland; ‘Lance Mehl of New York, and 

Rams, who set an NFL rushing defensive end Dan Hampton and Giants; Randy White of Dallas, guard Mike Munchak of Houston; safety D ennis Smith of Denver. 


wide receiver Irving Fryar, who Others from the ^ picked as 
to chosen as a kick return special- starts were drfenrirc end Richard 
i**- Dent, offensive tackle Jimbo Co- 

Among the omissions in the vert and center Jay Hfignberg. 


the game Seattle has three, San Fouls, and Geveland running back 


tffrio- Bob Golic of Cleveland; outride 

Joining Hannah and Holloway linebacker Mike Mem weather of 
offensive starters are tight end Pittsburgh; inside linebacker 


Canadiens Barkley Scores 31 Points 
Catch Up to As 76ers Defeat Rockets 

Nordwraes v*UtdPra*inumaia*ai ‘ was important for us to be aggres- 

1 P HILA DELPHIA — Charles rive on the boards,” said Man 

ihnttA Pmt Tmanaiianal B^kfcyscored 31 points and added Guokas, UiePhflad^jhia roach. “1 
7nr ™"“ 19rSounds and 5^ assists in leading thought the key for tonight’s game 

sjssrssss 'xS S&saasA- 

^ a .,?. atJTiS 

into &&st place tie with the Nordi- kSets’ 7-Sx5Vlph Sampson 

ques in the Adams Division. Both Rockets have not won since Jan. 2, ^ minnt« lata, hav^ 

teams have 36 prints- 1 . . , _ . ine scored 17 prints. 

“We didn’t feel too well when we 7 The two conbSed had 31 points 

were in last place,” Naslund said, as to why we lost, said Nffl. Fitch, — the onra as Baikiey. John Lucas 
_______ — led the Rockets with 18 points. 

NHL FOCUS NBA FOCUS -r know m the spwt fealph has 

m trim dated me, Barkley said. 

“But now we have the momentum, the Rockets' coach. “We would “Tomtit I said if I got anywhere in 
we have our confidence; and we are have lost tonight playing an ihe the viarnty of the basket Td try to 
cm a roH” moon. P lain and simple, Philly did dunk it.” 

Nashmd figures the victory is what it wanted to do tonight-” Baricdy suc c eeded six times, in- 

annflar to die Canadiens’ i*a*nt The 76ers scored the first six duding back-to-back dimks durin g 
“Look at how-many cfaances-we points -in the game and never a eight-print 76ers scoring streak 
had to score in the first two periods, trailed. Baikiey scored 13 in the that earned a standing ovation late 
but we knew the game was going first period and the 76ers led, 38- in the third period. 

our way and it would just be. a 25, when the period aided. Hous- — 

mittaoftimeun^todtorrer.” ton came within 9 prints once in ftnnifrn ttalrfiui WBCTMe. 
Montreal outshot Quebec, 32-14, m the second quarter but never any * ^ 

the first two periods. closer. iMurf fV*» tmanmkmot 

Guy Carbannean, who scored Philadelphia's biggest lead SACRAMENTO, California — 
Montreal’s first goal against Gint readied 25 in the final two minutes Hector (Macho) Camacho, the 
Mriardmk. agreed. of the game. World Boxing Council undefeated 

“You have to give their goalie at Moses Malone added 24 points lighweigtn champion, scored a 10- 

lot of credit,” Carbonnean said, and Manroce Cheeks scored 15 and round decision over Freddie Roach 
“We certainly had a lot of shots in had 12 assists. Wednesday night. Camacho bat- 

thc first period, but we kept firing “We knew that they were the tered Roach with a flurry of punch- 
at the raddle of the net and that’s league’s best rebounding team, so it es but could not knock him ouL 

wbere he was stan^ng.” ^ 

The Canadiens were leading, 2-1, 


National Basketball Association bigp eoptem foul trouble mrty. and 

victory over the Houston Rockets kqrt ccmi^” 

here Wednesday mahL Akeem Orguwon, the Rockets’ 


“I'don'.silKcrib.lomj-lkMy 

UlSSSSKSli 



— led the Rockets with 18 points. 

NBA FOCUS too* “ P? l j5 al P h ^ 

intimidated me. Barley said. 

the Rockets' coach. “We would “Tonight I said if I got anywhere in 
have lost tonight playing on the the vicinity of the basket Td try to 
moon. Plain and simple, Rrilly did dunk it.” 
what it wanted to do tonight/ 7 Baxkdy suc c eede d six times, in- 

The 76ers scored the first six duding back-to-back dunks during 
prints - in the game and never a eight-point 76ets scoring streak 
trailed. Baikiey scared 13 in the that earned a standing ovation late 
first period and the 76era Led, 38- in the thud period. 

25, when the period ended. Hons- 

ton came withm 9 points once in ftnwaAn Bmrfiui WBCTMp. 
the second quarter out never any 

doser. Uattai Press International 

Philadelphia's biggest lead SACRAMENTO, California — 
readied 25 in the final two minutes Hector (Macho) Camacho, the 


fjrmfhn Rrfnind tfUtf! TrA» 

Untied Press International 

SACRAMENTO, California — 


St 

V 

f 

e • 



of die game. 


Worid Boxing Council undefeated 


Moses Malone added 24 points bghtw®^ champion, scored a 10- 
and Manroce Cheeks scored 15 and round decision ova- Freddie Roach 


had 12 assists. 


Wednesday night. Camacho bat- 


“We knew that they were the tered Roach with a flurry of punch- 
league's best rebounding team, so it es but could not knock him ouL 


when Nashmd took advantage of a d j m i m.i i 
power-play opportunity at 11 '31 of JYGQS llTHClC ilDDS 
the final peood and drilled a bi^i „ ... _ a 

shot past Malarcfank. t OT ixULlllCkSOlI 111 

The Nonfiques narrowed the 

Deal With Expos 


shot past. 

The N( 
lead 47 * 


Transition 


s narrowed die 
lata to 3-2 with 


their seamri po^er-play goal as * bosto»*-^^ Ttw rw^ 

Michel Goublt scored ms 23d goal 7V Associate d Press of BrtniD at tbe e<n>«m lum. 

of the season- mUmCNATT n,* rmrm. MtLWAUKEE Trodad DOT FrOTM 

Tk- rww UMui B- CINCINNATI — The Canon- ondErfcPiftkioton.p»c»imtomoOTFrw 

lne Quebec coacn, Micnei na trying to beef up char dm Gknt> lor bm dot. omfMiir. 

gaon, was thankful the score to starting pitching staff to make a _ T ^ £ Z^‘°~ d B, '» y Tovter ‘ pm,w ‘ 10 

* n nm at the National League pen- toronto-aS^l^ -nmrton, oui- 


staning pitching staff to make a 

run at the Natkaal League pen- Toronto ahot lou tottot. out- 
nan r announced Thursday they n*w« r. mt mot lm. thorwoo. to sm- 
obtained Bm Gullicksoa from the 


sport because of Becker. Even at 
S50 pa courtside seat there were 
more than 134,000 applications for 
the 39,275 tickets available for die 
three days of the final. Tickets are 


nmmy higier. run at the National League pen- T toro* 

“Qm t kept u s m there, allthe .tnnomioed Thursday they « 
way,” Bergeronsaid. Tf he h^ obtained Bffi Gullickson frbm the SSv - ’ 

Montreal Expos in a six-player Southern 

would have beaten us by a tagger seat Jav Tibbs to the rasketbaio. 

margin The f- ffwdienK beat US to c™, J NbMotI Bastettoil Asmc htU m 

tha nrw-V -n niahr •» MOUSTON-Wolwd GrortvIU* Woithn, 

the puck an n ighL GulBdkron, 26, a six-year vela- ootw. 

TTte Canadiens broke a 1-1 dead- m wi th X/nntTfl«l, j mn« th^ Pjnem - N.V. KNICKS Ameuneacl «>• ratlmnaiu 
lock at 18:48 of the second period nati starting staff of Mario Soto, * 

whea Bobby Snuln scored on a Jbbn Denny and Tom Brow n ing. British boxing board of con- 
rebound. Along with GuIKckson, the Reds 

The Nrathques opened the soor- obtained catcher Sal Butera. They football 

mg at 2:16 of the firat period. Jean- sent Andy McGaffigan, John 


Back Wiffiams of the Nets, right, fonfing Adrian Dantley of 
the Jazz in NBA action. Tbe New Jersey Nets won, 113-98. 


Hockey 

NHL Standings 

WALES CONFERENCE 
Patrick DWHlaa 

W L T Ft* OF GA 
pnuodalptlia 23 * 0 44 1<7 too 

Washington I* 7 4 42 117 N 

NY Itkmdan 12 10 0 32 114 115 

Pitt sbu rgh 13 15 4 30 123 116 

NY Rangers 14 17 T W IIS 107 

New Jersey 13 14 1 27 113 124 


MgrThmattHr, linebacker, to a three year 

SAN FRANCISCO— Placed Randy Croes. 
offensive auani on Irdured reserve. Signed 
Vince S troth, offensive linemtst. 

HOCKEY 

NattoMi Hockey League 
DETROIT— Sent Ed Johnstone, right wins, 
to Adirondack at the Amerlaai Hockey 


PHILADELPHIA— Traded Joe Pvttrsofh 
left wins, to the Los Angelos Kings to e*- , ' j! 

mongo tar future constderattons. 

COLLEGE 

FERRIS STAT E ' N amed Keith Ottortaein Quebec 
head foottxdl coadi Montroc 

FLORIDA A I M Named Robert Lucas Boston 


fund bonMI cooefk Bi/tvoio 

FLORIDA STATE— Announced that Hoe- Hartford 


Adams Division 

17 12 2 

14 II 4 

14 ID 4 

15 15 2 

IS 13 1 


34 122 W 
34 137 115 
34 115 105 
32 118 111 
31 119 117 


son Joaas, wide reoBJver. is JnelipJM- tor the 
Gator Bawl due to NCAA rules vtotottons on 
comeUmantarv tickets. 


CAMPBELL CONFERENCE 
Norris Division 


Francois Sanve backhanded a re- 
bound past Patrick Roy cm the 
power pity. The Canadiens tied the 


ob tained catcher Sal Butera. They 
sent Andy McGaffigan, John 
Stuper and Dann BOardeDo to the 


had a 14-12 record 


HOUSTON Wai ved Mike Moradd, ouar- 
tgrbockL 

PITTSBURGH— Bigned Mike 


seme, 1-1, at 10:48 on Carbon- and a 3.52 earned nm average for 


uean’s goaL 

Montreal lost center Ryan Wat 


the Expos in 1985 and has averaged 
14 victories over the last four sea- 


Montrcal lost center Kyan wat- 14 victories over me last four sea- I 
ter in tbe firat period. Walter, was sons. Tibbs, 23, had a 10-16 record 1 
admitted to hospital after suffering with the Reds and was 1-2 with »ni c t o > . J;, . .. 
an iig'ary to his kft eye when he was Qnrinnatfs Denver farm team this oumumgs 

dipped with a stick. year. eastern conference 

Atlantic DMrin 


Basketball 


MISSISSIPPI STATE— Waned Chari H 51 . loui» 
Carr athUrth: (Eroctor. Chicago 

PITTSBURGH— Aimouncod the nalono- Mlnnasota 
Ken af Ray Chtomaa head basfcotbaii coach. Toronto 
■NecKvo the ond of mo 178544 eeaggn. Re- Detrott 
hind Ale* Kramer, administrative oalstont. 
and Sal Sanaeri, defensive line cooeh. Edmonton 

Calgary 

- ■ Vancouver 

_ __ | Winnipeg 


14 12 4 32 112 114 

11 15 4 26 125 143 

7 14 7 25 124 121 

S II 5 21 118 13V 

7 1* 4 II V8 156 

Smyth* Division 

23 6 4 50 T75 130 

17 II 3 37 136 UB 

10 IV 4 24 121 143 

10 20 4 24 11V 168 


ost, Now a Champion, Seeks the Ultimate in Formula One 


ifcs £, (XSiiscRfiS: 

■DON — An inveterate nail-biter. For tbe firat half of the season. Proa was 

rest promises to be more relaxed next challenged by Michele Alboretq erf Italy. But 
after finally securing the worid For- tbe Ferrari driver faded badly in the second 
ne driving championship at tbe third half because of a string of mech anic a l trou- 
asking. bles. 

Qm French world champion, and a Next season Frost will have a new team- 
rays with an eye on records, Prost mate at McLaren — goingfor a third straight 
t ins sights set on becoming tbe most triumph in the constructors' cham pion s hip 
‘riFonmila One driver ever Ity beat- —in Finlan d’s aggressive Keke Rosbcxg, the 
ie Stewart's record of 27 Grand Prix 1982 world champion and winner of ^the 1985 
i season's final Grand Prix at Ad e lai d e, Ans- 

^ victories this season brought Frost’s tralia. 
otal to 21 and put him on trade to Niki Lauda, the Austrian who has won the 
iff Stewart’s record. A string of other world championship three times andProsfs 
tee fifiishea enajrcd him the world wimmatg for the post two years, retired for 
i two years of having to settle for the the second time despite rumors that he 
jp spot. would return with a S5-miHion contact to 

ys the bridesmaid? Prost calmly and race for the Brabham team, 
y proved his critics wrong by equal- Lauda’s announced retirement sparked off 

record of 73 worid championship a series of musical chairs as driven sought 
rored in a season and sewing up the new teams for 1986. Rosberg replied Landa 
leal Brands Hatch in October, with at McLaren, Nelson Piquet moved from 
xs still to be nm. Brabham to fill Rodmg’s place at W3Bams» 

championship became too impor- and Elio de Angdis moved from Lotus to 
.. h for my career and for my life/ he Brabham where he will be joined by Ric- 
miiv. “Now I’ve got this first title; cardo Parrese. 

• to* change my life. Further driver changes were prompted by 


the decision of Renault — which pkmccred Fonnala One drivers scored one of their 
the now-standard turbocharged cars in For- biggest political successes when they forced 
mulaOne — to pull out of Grand Prixracitig the postponement of tire Belgian Grand Prix 
after a disastrous season. Alfa Romeo, which mi June 2 because the trade surface broke up 
failed to score even one point in 1985, also during practice. The race was reJidd in Sep- 


Tbe veteran French driver Rene Arnoux 


the Ferran dmer faded badly m uw second announced & one-vrar wzymrawaj to recoa- icmwa. 

half because of a string of mechanical trou- rider its future in F ormul a One. The veteran French driver Rene Arnoux 

bles. Patrick Tambay of France went from Re- was dismissed by Ferrari after only one race, 

Next season Frost will have a new team- nault to jam Lob, the Formula One new- despite cramng in fourth in Brazil in March, 
mate at McLaren —goingfor a third straight comer, while Derek Warwick, his British Andrea de of Italy was also dis- 

triumph in the constructors’ championship teammate, looked set to partner Ayton Sen- missed when he rolled iris car spectacularly 
— in Finlan d’s aggressive Keke Rosbexg, the na erf Brazil at Lotus. Senna confirmed his gr the Austrian Grand Prix He was given his 
1982 worid champion and winner of die 1985 prouriseas the most talented young driver to marching orders by Guy Ligier. 

season’s final Grand Prix at Adelaide, Ans- emerge for many years, winning two races 

f ralifl. and taking two second places, and was In 1986, a Grand Prix is scheduled to be 


triumph m the constructors cnampiongnip teammate, n 
— m Finlan d’s aggresrive Keke Rosbag. the na of Brad 
1982 worid champion and winner of die 1985 promise as t 
season's final Grand Prix at Adelaide, Ans- emerge for 
tralia. and taking 

Niki Lauda, the Austrian who has won the tipped as a 
worid championship three times and Prosfs near fotnra. 


In 1986, a Grand Prix is scheduled to be 


tipped as a snrefire worid champion in the held in Hungary for the first time, and Spain 
near future. returns to the world championship schedule. 




W ' 

L Pet. 

OB 

Boston 

21 

5 

joe 

— 

Not Jersey 

15 

12 

•554 

6ft 

pftllocietphla 

V4 

12 

-538 

7 

Washington 

a 

12 

500 

8 

New York 

7 

18 

-290 

13ft 

Central 

DtvtNoe 



MihveukM 

18 

11 

131 

TO 

Detroit 

14 

13 

119 

3 

Atlanta 

13 

13 

JOB 

3ft 

Cleveland 

n 

14 

140 

5 

Chicago 

ID 

IV 

145 

a 

Indiana 

7 

18 

J80 

V 

WESTERN CONFERENCE 


MMwtvt Divtsfeo 



Houston 

18 

V 

M7 

■ — 

Denver 

17 

f 

Ml 

ft 

Utdi 

14 

12 

-571 

2ft 

San Antooio 

15 

12 

-SS* 

3 

Daltas 

n 

12 

JOO 

4ft 

Sacramento 

V 

17 

M6 

Oft 

Pacific UNUae 



LA. Lak ere 

s 

3 

jm 

— 

Portland 

15 

13 

534 

8ft 

Seattle 

11 

16 

107 

12 

LA. CUppets 

V 

17 

144 

13ft 

Ptioenb 

8 

17 

129 

14 

Golden State 

18 

20 

M3 

Uft 


mums: Danas 47 (Parkins 9). Boston 53 
(MCH0to 16). Assists.- Da) Jos 26 l Horner 9). 
Boston 46 (Atoge 13). 

LJL LOT 31 21 27 B— IB 

Mltwaskoe 31 25 21 24—105 

AbduKtabbar 12-247431. Worthy M74421; 
Cummings 1B44 3-4 23, Msnalaf 5-15 6-6 17. 
MboaOT: Los Angelos 52 (RomMs 13J.Mil- 
woukee 53 (Cu mm [nra. Moncrtaf ID). Assists: 
Los Angolas 25 ( Jotmsorv Coooer II.MIIwou- 
kee 24 IMonotet m. 

COT Mato 24 IV 14 33- VV 

UL Ovpen 24 32 27 2t-KS3 

Johnson MV 64 22. BrWgsman 10-1704)20; 
Short 7-1B 7-V23, Muriln 7-13 64 20. Robounds; 
Col dsn Stats 43 (Bel tare »). lot Angolas 58 
(MaxwaU ID. Asstsn: OoSdcn Sluto 24 (Floyd 
W), Los Angelas 24 (Nlm lit. 


Selected College Results 

EAST 

Falrwoh DiefcinGon 74 Coooin st. 58 
Coorgstoum S3, Amorl o an 5V 
JkW CttY St. 92. Koan H 
N.Y. Tgdi 41, Pace 56 
NYU 84 Yeshlva 71 
Piuvkluu 107, Holy Cress n 
W. Virginia St w. W. Virginia Tecti V7 
SOUTH 


TMmimte far the past two years, retired for 
the second time despite tumois that he 
would return with a S5-miHton contract to 
race far the Brabham team. 


Nigd Mansell of Britain won two races as Fuel eoonraay wfll be even more critical next 
e season drew to a dose: He notched a year, with the fuel tank limit being reduced 
molar maiden victory at the Grand Prix of from 220 to 195 filers per car. 


WEDNESDAY’S ReSULTS Cten won 184 Georgia SL 48 

Houston B» 26 2^-wi Cumbgrtanfl, Ky. 114 TUWilom 75 

p^OTtoa 31 38 31 27-126 Duko 69. DavWscn 52 

Barfeiov 12-U 7-V 31. Mo lo ne 4-14 Q-15 24; Ptoftao Tock lJL Not 77 
Lucas 7-TV 3-4 14 VamvOT B-15 1-1 17. tie- BnagoOTtor, Vo. 57 

bo— 8 s ; Ho— fen 42 {Pstancn 7j. phuooh- Loufevflte 64Jnagno 43 
ptiki 52 (Barkley IV). Assists; Houston 38 (Lu- * UQ! ™’ „ 

cos 7L PWtadelghta 2f (ClMta 12). H ™ 

Utah II 27 31 ZV~ to N. Kontudcy 74 Tlwma Mora 5B 


ite rumors that he the season drew to a dose. He notched a 
5-million contract to popular maxdenvictoty at the Grand Prix of 
•am. Emope on bame ground at Brands Hatch, 


Lauda’s announced retirement sparked off England, and two weeks later took the South 
a series of musical chairs as drivers sought African Grand Prix. 


nope gp wane grounu « Formula One ddmtants in 1985 induded “ 

IvmC^Su at Italy md Chmbu Dumtf S. 7 
both West Ger <rf West Geimany, who also won the inaiign- "" 
.SSStSS: Europe FcnmJ. 3.000 cbampKm^ ^ 


at McLaren, Nelson PiqiKt moved from mans, died during tbe season, but while per- FonmilaTwtx 

Brabham to fill Roshal’s place at Williams; fomung eodurance event* Manfred Wmid- the category that replaced Formula Two. 
and Elio de Angdis moved from Lotus to hock was killed in Canada, and StefanBdW Danner, in the last race of the Formula 

Brabham where he will be joined by Ric- — one of Formula One’s brightest talents — 3,000 season, beat Mike 1 Thadcwdl erf New 
cardo Parrese. died in a crash the following month at Spa- Zealand and Emanuete Pirro of Italy for the 

Further driver changes were prompted by Francorchamps, Belgium. title. 


gate 12). Ma-SL Louis H Harrts-Shwr 41 

21 27 31 XT « N. Kontudcy 71 Tlwmos Mora SB 
V 27 33 25-413 & MlSSinloPl 101. Oregon Todl 72 
xovfean 10-17 1-1 SE Louisiana ». A rtcAltm Rode a 
rwrni 11.18 M M MIDWEST 


BKttoong IWJ >2 24 Rldxktlsor 10-17 1-1 w. w wm. kto « 

21; Oanffey 11-14 10-tS H Greon 1WT M 2t _ __ "• DWEST 

RoboOTs;UM«53(Dimttovvi.NgwJ«w52 Fta«gy ta, twmb 
(G tntosU 12). Assists; Utd> M (Stockton u. 54 ««»IW 41 

Not Jersey 23 (Rldmnfeon ». ^ * 

IMtas 25 33 34 35—417 Otterbeln 43. Oliio Northern Si 

Bnffiki 37 34 32 44-137 ° u,ocy V). Cent Missouri SL 78 

Bird l4-Z75-635>Mcrtato 13-173-2281 Blade- *■ •■J* 81 *■ » CMOTfttoUfe 45 
man MB M 21, Sdtrenwf MS M 20. Re- SW Missouri 81, Austin Poov fil 


WEDNESDAY'S RESULTS 
Qugboc i • v— a 

Montreal I I 1—3 

Carbomteau mi.Smfm HOi.Mosttmtf (24} ; 
Sauvs 15). Goulet (231. Shoti an god: Quebec 
(an Ravi 64-11—23; Montreal (an Malv- 
Cftufc) 22-10-10—42. 

Calgary 1 1 1—3 

Hartford 1 • 3—4 

Turgoon 3 (20). Crawford (8); Wilson (15). 

McDonald (12), Book |1X>. Shots an goal: 
Coloary (on Weeks) 8-12-10—30: H ar t fo rd (on 
Lemoiin) 10-15-13-37. 

Buffalo ■ 2 3-5 

VLY. Rangers 2 1 1—4 

Pan-gout (131. Andreychuk (12). Ramsey 
(4), Lever (3), McKemo (Sli S an ds! rum 2 
(13). Brooke (15). RMiev (V). Shots on goal: 
Buffalo (on Hanlon) 10-13-18-33; Not York 
(en Bemuse) 134-13— U. 
wasfeteatou g i ts 

EOmb bI o b 1 0 t— 2 

Muntoy (10). Hatcher (3). Futiereoon (6). 
Houtorth (is). Gartner (IB); Kurd (24). Bru- 
baker (1). Diets on goal: Washington (on 
Firfir) 12-11-14— 38; edmanton (an Jenson) 14- 
W-7— 40. 

Wbwtorg 2 2 8-4 

aucogo o 4 l— s 

S-Larmer (10). Secant (11), Paterson IS). 
Preaiev HLB-Witson (6)i Kawardiuka (21). 
NeuteKi (9), Am lei (U).Sbot4to goM; Winni- 
peg (on Bamorman) 12-10-14-36; Chioogo 
(an Bouchard) 1144-27. 

Tonmo 1 j i —3 

Los Aegei os 1 2 1—4 

Erickson (4), Dtonne2 (M), Nlchglte (15); 
Loemen it). Frycer (121, Stoatny (12). Sbofe 
on goto; Taranto (an Janecvk) 10-11-14— 85; 
Los Angeles (an wregget) s-lo-io— 14. 


SOUTHWEST 
Arkansas 87. Alabama St. 4* 

Houston vz BYu-Hawan a 
mi) American n. £W Texas st a 
PAR WEST 

CalHonug a. SL Mary* CoHL 42 
Cent. Washington 47. Calk at idoto 7B 
fieorgla n, umn sl n 
Los Angeles st. 71. Grand Canyon ev 
Laraia. Col If. 122. Cal-lrvlne no 
S. Mis sissi p pi IS), Orem Teai 72 




OBSERVER 


S. Claus, Lazy Chiseler 


Living With Uneasiness 


By Russell Baker 

N EW YORK — So there was a 
Santa Claus, after alL Too 
bad. Too many people had sworn 
there wasn't. Now they looked 
foolish. 

They wasted no tune getting 
knives into the old fellow once sci- 
entists had published the evidence. 
The Gutznuckker Ultra-Violet 
Computerized Myth Analyzer pro- 
duced fading 1937 snapshots of 
Santa Claus entering chimneys in 
the Philadelphia area and the ad- 
dress of his retirement home on the 
frozen tundra. 

Manually they hauled him down 


nmi rmri a-i nr-* «:-> 


pose the Russians got hold of him 
and made him tell them the secret 

of goring a reindeer airbome- 

“That’5 silly. ” he told Ted Kop- 
pel on ABCs Nightline. “1 never 
knew what made them fly. They 
were a strange breed that an old 
Indian gave me after I walked 25 
miles through a blizzard one night 
to put two navel oranges in a stock- 
ing his grandson hung by the Ore.” 

The Indian had said, “Thai'sa 
lot of walking just to make a kid 
happy at Christmas. To show my 
appreciation, Fm going to give you 
this whole herd of weird reindeer.” 
□ 

This story began the trouble. An 
important government figure who 
was furious about Santa Claus's 
-existence, because for years he had 
been idling paupers, “There is no 
free lunch and there is no Santa 
Claus.” spoke to the federal tax 
authorities. 

Auditors moved swiftly to deter- 
mine if the old man had paid taxon 
the gift of extremely rare and valu- 
able reindeer. With a simultaneous- 
ly arranged press l&k, various well- 
poisoners with media outlets began 
vilifying Santa dam as a “tax cbis- 

This went down well with the 
public, which was accustomed to 
routinely discovering that its he- 
roes were corrupt to the core. Oh, 
sure, Claus had his defenders. The 
col umnis ts who inveighed against 
sentimentalism and summoned the 
public to hard-hearted reality 
asked what was wrong with Santa 
Qaus doing a little tax finagling? 
Didn't everybody do it? 

□ 

Had Santa Claus looked more 
like the old drawings of himself by 
commercial artists, the public 


might not have tolerated such treat- 
ment. But he was not short and 
stout with spariding eyes, silvery 
cascades of hair, a ruddy complex- 
ion and a tendency to shake like a 
bowl foil of jelly. 

He was tall and cadaverous, had 
a sallow complexion and a melan- 
choly expression, and wore a black 
bom burg to conceal baldness. 

“I cannot help my somber ap- 
pearance,” he said when a woman 
on the Phil Donahue Show asked 
why be was “such a disappoint- 
ment to look at.” . ... 

“In spite of my somewhat fune- 
real look,” be went on, “I am quite 
a jolly fellow, c o nside r i n g my age.” 


rew pcupic ogiwM. 

had visualized Santa Claus as a 
bloated tot with plenty of baby fat 
under a bright red suit and billows 
of white bmr. It irked people that 
Santa Qaus didn't lock like Santa 
Qaus. 

□ 

A month after he was brought 
from the frozen tundra, his popu- 
larity poll had dropped to 27 per- 
cent Appearing on “Meet the In- 
quisition, 1 ’ be was asked, “What’s 
your reply to people who say it was 
better having no Santa Qaus at all 
than having a Santa Qaus who 
doesn't look Hke Santa Clans?” 

“To those people," said Santa 
riang, "I say jingle bells, jingle 
bells." 

“Answer the question, mush- 
mouth,” cried a panelist famous for 
his dynamic interview technique. 

Meanwhile, scientists, with the 
aid of the newly perfected Bald- 
beimer Time Scanner, produced ir- 
refutable data showing that Santa 
Qaus hadn’t worked at his job 
since 1946. Here was scandal 

By then, as the old gentleman's 
ghostwriter wrote in his S2-nriIlkm 
memoir, Santa Qaus had tired of 
“the bizarre culture of a nation of 
media hysterics,” and gpneback to 
his borne on the tundra. 

“Of course 1 didn't work after 
1946,” he told an interviewer on 
“Good Morning, Tundra." “After 
' 1946 nobody was grateful anymore 
to get two navel oranges for Christ- 
mas, and there is no way anybody 
can set cars and refrigerators down 
a chimne y. Nowadays, when every 
day is Christmas, it's not Santa 
. Qaus the world needs, but only a 
i credit card.” 

New York Tima Service 


By Cynthia Gomcy 

Washington Post Senice 
Q AN FRANCISCO — Seven 
O years ago, if you had wanted a 
glimpse of tire actor who is carry- 
ing nearly every rich dramatic 
lead Hollywood has to offer a 
black man these days, your best 
bet might have been nailing a taxi 

‘Thank God for Yellow Cab," 
Danny Glover says. 

He was 31, married, newly un- 
employed and trying to manage 
monthly bouse payments. He had 
spent more than half a decade 
evaluating social programs for the 
city and county oT San Francisco, 
then quit. “When I found out I 
could drive a cab and make S100 a 
day, 1 was in seventh heaven," 
Glover said, *T cduld do what I 
wanted to do." 

What he wanted to do was act. 
*Td get up at 4 in the morning, let 
the cab go at 10 or 11 — would 
have made my gate and maybe 
made about $50, which was 
enough at the time to get me 
down to L. A. for an audition Td 
have to be in at 3. Getaflight out 
at noon, be down in Los Angeles 
at 1:30, «*tch a bus to my inter- 
view." 

In “Places in the Heart” he was 
Moses, the country man whose 
knowledge of planting saves Sally 
Field's cotton farm. He was 
McFee, the murderous police 
lieutenant who hunts down Ham- 
son Ford and an Amish boy in 
“Witness." In “Silverado” he was 
Malachai, who joins three white 
cowboys to rout the town bad 
guys. In the much-publicized 
“The Color Purple," which just 
opened in the United States, be 
has what be calls “as expansive as 
any role any black actors had in a 
long while." 

With his voice gone deeply 
Southern and his hair shaved 
back to affect advancing bald- 
ness, Glover plays the abusive 
and suffering husband who is 
held in such distant distaste 
throughout much of Alice Walk- 
er’s 1983 PuEtzer Prize-winning 
book. 

“The role was challenging, 
more than anything else,” Glover 
said. “Who wants to lode good in 
all their films?” 

He is a big m|m i tall, and made 
bigger looking by a broad-shoul- 
dered l eather jacket and black 
cap. He is in his home town, 
which he has refused to abandon 



Glover, Whoopi Goldberg in “The Color Pto-ple.’ 


for the kinds of places where mov- 
ie stars are supposed to live. He 
lives with his wife and daughter in 
an unevenly genirifying neighbor- 
hood, where he supervises, and 
occasionally takes over, the reno- 
vation of their Victorian house. 
He is friendly, affable, embar- 
rassed about the trappings of ce- 
lebrity. Even the notion that his 
name appears in the same sen- 
tence as “star” seems to make him 
uneasy. 

“Am I supposed to feel any 
different because all this hap- 
pened?" he said. “I don’t know. 
Harrison Ford still builds furni- 
ture — he's still a carpenter. 
That’s one thing I like to do. I still 
like han ging Sheetrock and work- 
ing, sanding . I’m on expert at re- 
finishing hardwood Boors." 

If there is a particular caution 
about embracing celebrity ever 
after four high-visibility pictures 
in a row, some of it sturdy has to 
do with being black in the U. S. 
motion picture industry. Recall- 
ing the shooting of “ Silverado." 
Glover said evenly: “Scott Glenn 
doesn't have to worry about his 
next job. It’s going to be there. 
Kevin Kline doesn't have to wor- 


ry about his next job. Kevin 
Costner — bless him, he’s won- 
derful — Kevin Costner is not 
going to have to worry about his 
next job. But a lot of those black 
actors that I work with — yours 
truly, maybe — have to worry 
about what’s next.” 

Still, he said, “I found some 
things that may be gratifying ar- 
tistically and also have come 
about being successful in terms of 

my — finan cially. I mean, rela- 
tively.” He laughed. “I put that 
with a big underline. RELA- 
TIVELY. But I mean," and he 
sighed, “there’s just no work. 
We’re: always under the same ap- 
prehensions that I think black 
people in general are under in 
society. There's scripts. There's 
always scripts. But nobody wants 
to make them.” 

The fear is born of what pro- 
ducers imagine white audiences 
will and will not pay to see. “The 
Odor Purple.” with substantial 
black involvement at cast and 
production levels despite the con- 
troversial choice of Steven Spiel- 
berg for director, seems to Glover 
to be extraordinary in its possibil- 
ities. “People feel it's gong to be a 


crossover film. With Steven s 
name and the story — there s a 
universality to the story itself; it's 
not a just a black story —we may 
jump that bridge- We may cross 
over that river that we seemed to 
want to cross with ‘Roots’ and 
seemed to want to cross at certain 
other points but never did.” 

He said he had no reservations 
about the selection of a big-name 
white director for a picture so 
Immersed in black Southern life. 
“I may have to eat my words, 
because I don’t know what people 
will think about the film, but I 
thought Steven Spielberg was a 
wonderful choice to do this film. 

He really trusted us. He really 
went with us. We'd be going 
someplace and he’d have bis own 
idea. He’d say, ‘Show me where 
you're going. Let’s see where 
you’ re going. 1 think it’s going to 
be interesting.’ ” 

Glover grew up in San Francis- 
co, the child of two post office 
employees. As a youth, he wanted 
to be an economist. By the time he 
reached San Francisco State Col- 
lege in the late 1960s and joined 
the turbulent effort to install a 
black-studies program there, he 
bad begun to think he might work 
in the Third World. 

“Fm steeped in optimism and 
idealism, you know, at 20, 21 
years old. I had no intention of 
bong an actor." 

Improvisational community 
theater attracted him, though — 
“all agitprop theater, real basic 
stuff ” — and he began working 
with a director who specialized in 
improvisation. 

Was he good? “No,” he said, 
then corrected himself. “You 
don’t have a sense of that. You 
just don't. Even now, 1 don’t have 
a sense. Because the irony is, if 
you reach this person” — the 
character — “and say, * 011 , Tve 
reached this person,’ then you be- 
come self-indulgent. You want to 
feel that it’s spontaneous, and 
that it’s unconscious. You want to 
say, “This is the first and only take 
I've ever done of this.’ Or each 
time you do a performance of a 
play, “This is the first time Fve 
ever said these lines.* " His voice 
was passionate. “Because in es- 
sence if you’re not reac h i n g for 
that at all, it’s as dead the 10th 
performance as it’s going to be on 
the 300th." 

For four years, after San Fran- 


cisco hired him as a evaluator of 

social programs, he took no act- 
ing jobs. Then be saw a local the- 
ater's call for actors with amron- 
sational experience, and began 
seeking roles again. By the end ot 
1977 he had quit his job and was 
auditioning and acting full time. 

The plays that attracted him 
were serious, powerful, often po- 
litically inspired- He was particu- 
larly drawn to the South African 
playwright Athol Fugard; six 
years ago. while performing man 
off Broadway production of Fu- 
gard’S “Blood KnoL" he turned 
down a part in the popular televi- 
sion series “Hill Street Blues. 
(He is philosophical about this 
now: “A blessing." he said, al- 
though he allowed himself 3 cer- 
tain wistfulness about the mon- 
ey.) After Fugard's “Master 
Harold ... and the boys” took 
Glover to Broadway, the film di- 
rector Robert Benton asked Glov- 
er to read for his marie about a 
newly widowed country woman 
trying to keep her land in Texas. 

Glover read the script of 
“Places in the Heart” to himself 
first, and studied the carefully 
deferential Moses character, and 
thought about bis grandfather, 
who had lived in rural Georgia. “I 
remember silting on the floor, my 
agent's office in L. A. — it was 
carpeted, no furnishing in the 
room — and crying. It reminded 
tne of a lot of stuff — and part of 
it’s my imagination — so finding 
those qualities and allowing those 
qualities to be part or a Moses' 
sub textual being, if he's not able 
to express those things overtly — 
allowing those things to happen 
was wonderful, because I'd had it 
in my life. I saw it when Fd go to 
the farm, my grandparents' farm, 
and pick cotton in the summers.” 

The particular uneasiness of 
the black actor is something that 
simply lives with him, he said. 
“There's a great deal of frustra- 
tion among black people general- 
ly in this country. Why should ! 
be any different? The frustration 
that black actors speak of is the 
same frustration that black city 
employees speak of when they 
hear that affir mative action is en- 
dangered. 

“1 just think all the possibilities 
of change are present and avail- 
able. It’s the same optimism, the 
op timis m that my grandmother 
haH What keeps ns alive and 
keeps ns going is. definitely, dwell 
on the inequities but have some 
sense of optimism that we can 
change it.” 


Dolly Barton has been chared fry! 
a Los Angeles jury of pla^atisa 1 
allegations in a SI - milli on copy. 1 
right infringement suit involving I 
to 5.” the title song for the I9gj I 
film starring Parton, Jane Fenfa-.l 
and Lily Tom&n. Nefl and Jajij 
Goldberg claimed the country sag.-.’] 
er and songwriter stole the cno^H 
from their song “Money World." jj 

0 ;i 

A court in Grasse, France, ha; 
sentenced the Paris art dealer At. 
tbur Mdki to four years in prise 
for possession of paintings stefea 
from a mul limillion-doilar coUs.' 
lion of Impressionist works. Meik>, 
50. director of GaJerie Art MeL »i s 
also fined 2 million fraac s 
(S260.000). Another Paris gafler, 
director, Robert Schmh. »as ac- 
quitted. but nine other pertaa- 
were given sentences ranging 
eight months to six years and «*. 
dered to pay fines totaling 16 mj. 
lion francs. Thu court also said % 
unless 37 canvasses were returced, 
the defendants would have to 
on additional 16 million fnr^j 
The paintings, which inclujj, 
works by Gauguin, C&ebiuk, fe 
sarro, Renoir and Degas, were*, 

]en from the Cote d'Azur vi!h. J 
Nelly Dubem in 1 983. 

□ 

“Prizzi's Honor.” John 
comedy about the pitfalls of 
and organized crime, has « os f, ^ 
of the New York Film Cmiafjr. 
cle’s annual awards: best Film. ^ 
director for Huston. 79; best ;s p. 
porting actress for Huston's 
ter. Anjefica, and best actor fobs 
longtime companion. Jack NfcU- 
son. Sydney PoBack's "Out of .ifo. 
ca” won for best cinema tograpr.. 
by Darid Watkm, and best supp- 
ing actor, Klaus Maria Br&uhur. 
The best-screenplay prize weaiu 
Woody ABen's “Purple Rose 
Cairo”: the best foreign film &e 
A ldra Kimosawa’s “Ran": and At 
best documentary was Oak 
La nzm urn’s “Shoah.” Norm 
Atamdro was named best actas 
for the Argentine film “La Husna. 
OficiaT (The Official Stay), 
LuisPucnzo. 

□ 

Marti Phfflips. husband of Pria 
cess Ame of Britain, was kicked ia 
the face by his horse while abcat to 
join a bum near Derby and had to 
have right stitches — after riach- 
he returned to the hunt wri te 
horse that kicked him. 


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