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Mubarak Asks Reagan to Convene Talks 

Says lime h Sight to hwitehradj Jordan and PLO Envoys to Meet m U.SL - 



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By Judith Miller 

New York Tima Serna 
CAIRO — President Kasai Mu- 
barak of Egypt bas urged the Rea- 
gan administration to invite Tw »y| 

and members of a joint Jordanian- 
Palestinian delegation to the Unit- 
ed Stales to lay the groundwork for 
direct peace talks. 

Mr. Mubarak said Sunday that 
be would be willing to act as host 
for such a meeting in Cairo, or to 
attend oce anyplace agreeable to 
aQ pulies. 

“why not?" he said. “We are 
ready to help.” 

The president said in an inter- 
view that he was encouraged by 
Israel’s decision to withdraw from 
Lebanon but reiterated his position 
that more progress had to be made 
before Egypt would return its am- 
bassador to Israel. The ambassador 
was withdrawn after the Israeli in- 
vasion of Lebanon in 1982. 

Egypt recently sent an envoy to 
Bucharest to meet with Prime Min- 
ister Shimon Peres of Israel, who 
visited Romania last week, and wfll 
send another to meet with Mr. 
Peres soon, Mr. Mubarak said. 

(Developments created confu- 
sion over when an envoy might be 

U.S. Officials 
Say They Are 
Not Ready 
To Step In 

By Bernard Gwmzman 

New Turk Tima Service 

WASHINGTON — Reagan ad- 
ministration officials say they are 
encouraged by the revived interest 
in negotiations being expressed by 
Jordan, Egypt and Saudi Arabia. 

But the officials said Sunday 
there had not yet been sufficient 
movement for the United States to 
begin a new Middle East peace ini- 
tiative. 

“At this time, we think this is stQl 
a process going on in the Arab 
world of defining the terms for ne- 
gotiations, and it is not time yet f or _ 
the United Suites to be injecting 
itself into it,” a senior State De- 
partment official said. 

The official said that “we have 
many questions" about the situa- 
tion. He said the United States 
wanted to see Arab nations lining 
up behind King Hussein of Jordan 
an d giving their blessing to his ne- 
gotiating with IsraeL 
“We’d Hbe to see onr friends the 
Saudis say something positive 
about this.” he said. In ad di ti o n, he > 



Hosni Mubarak 

sent to IsraeL Mr. Mubarak an- 
nounced Monday that he would 
send Osama d-Baz, his chief for- 
eign policy adviser, to Israel as 
soon as Monday night. Later, how- 
ever, Mr. Baz said he was not going 
to Israel immediatel y 
[Mr. Baz said the president was 
“thinking” of ending him as an 
envoy but added that, “for the mo- 
ment, I*m not going anywhere.”] 


In his interview Sunday, Mr. 
Mubarak praised the statement on 
a joint Middle East peace frame- 
work signed Feb. 11 by Kins Hus- 
sein of Jordan and Yasser Arafat, 
chairman of the Palestine Libera- 
tion Organization, as a “very good 
achievement” and emphasized that 
the agreement wasAmly a first 

•t; stressed the need for direct 
talks between Israd and a Jordani- 
an-Plalestinian delegation, with or 
without Egypt. 

Israel has refused to negotiate 
with the PLO. Bat Mr. Mubarak 
said that a Jordanian-Palestinian 
delegation did not necessarily have 
to include official members of the 
PLO. 

“The PLO bas lots of people who 
are pro-PLO on the West Bank," he 
said. “Let us be practical 

The Jordanian-PLO accord calls 
for peace talks under auspices of an 
international conference that 
would include the Soviet Union. 
But Mr. Mubarak said be favored 
direct talks first between Israd and 
the Jordanian-Palestinian delega- 
tion, with an international confer- 
ence to come after an agreement 
hint been negotiated. 


Syria Vows to Block Mideast Accord 

The Associated Press 

DAMASCUS — The Syrian government vowed Monday to block an 
accord an Middle East talks reached by King Hussein of Jordan and 
Yasser Arafat, chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization. 

Abdo^jRaouf aT^!;v!f^dccidcd to “nufcefte fating of the Arafat- 
Hussein accord its official policy." 

Syria, which disagrees with both Hussein and Mr. Arafat, has repeated- 
ly said peace with Israel was impossible and has urged the Arabs to build 
up their armies and confront IsraeL 


said that, based on reports of dis- 
agreements among the leaders in 
thePalestine liberation Organiza- 
tion, “there is a good chance the 
PLO will back out" 

The official said that Syria 
seemed opposed to negotiations 
with Israel and could probably 
make it very difficult for any talks 
to succeed unless the Saudis strong- 
jy supported them. That was not 
likely, he said, riven the Saudis’ 
reluctance to confront the Syrians. 

“So let’s wait a bit," he said, 
“and see bow tins Works Itself out 
in the Arab world.” 

He said the Arab statements 
were not concrete enough to eo- . 
courage Prime Munster Shimon 
Peres to press the issie wi thin Isra- 
el when his government is already 
occupied with economic reform 
and the withdrawal of its forces 
from Lebanon. 

Meanwhile, several other offi- 
cials said Sunday that Washington 


was sensitive fo the momentum 
that seemed to be building among 
'Arab moderates to gain American 
hading for another effort at nego- 
tiations to bring about an end to 
Israeli occupation of the West 
Bank of the Jordan in return for 
peace. 

Secretary of State George P. 
Shultz indicated last week that the 
administration might soon be win- 
ing to do more negotiating. He has 
been a prime architect of the ad- 
nanistrarioas polity of avoiding a 
major American negotiating role in 
the Middle East before ihe Arabs 
are ready to at down with IsraeL 

Mr Shultz, testifying before the 

said a number of Arab countries 
were “tuning us to become involved 
with a high profile.” He said the 
administration was “saying to 
them, *WdL what are yon going to 
do if we doT and encouraging peo- 
ple ro look at Jhcncwn responsibil- 
ities for the peace process/ 


“An international conference 
could be the last stage,” be said, “as 
a blessing of the solution.'* 

Both Israel and the United 
States have consistently opposed 
Soviet participation in Middle East 

peace talks. 

Mr. Mubarak also maintained 
that the agreement between Jordan 
and the PLO nw-am the Palestinian 
group had accepted United Na- 
tions Resolution 242, which calls 
for the return of occupied territo- 
ries by Israel in exchange for peace. 

He urged the United States to 
disregard what appeared to be con- 
flicting sta tenra is by PIX) officials 
about the UN resolution. The 
United States has refused to recog- 
nize the PLO unless it accepts Res- 
olution 242 and IsraeTs right to 
exist. 

“The points on paper are a step 
forward/* Mr. Mubarak said, refer- 
ring to the Jordanian-PLO accord. 
“Let’s concentrate on the agree- 
ment and not what is mentioned by 
various factions.” 

He took a «mflar view toward 
statements critical of the Jordani- 
an-PLO accord by tlx Israeli for- 
eign minister, Yitzhak Shamir. 

Mr. Mubarak did not urge the 
United States to recognize the PLO 
or (o put pressure on Israd, as be 
and other semes- Egyptian officials 
have done previously. He repeated- 
ly spoke of the need to be “practi- 
cal" 

In general, Mr. Mubarak avoid- 
ed criticism of Mr. Petes. But he 
said that recent statements by Mr. 
Shamir and the minister of industry 
and commerce, Arid Sharon, were 
“not helpful at all” to the cause of 
peace. 

He com plaine d, in particular, 
about recent statements oy the two 
officials about the fate of Taba, a 
strip of land on the Gulf of Aqaba 
at the Sinai border that is claimed 
by both sides. He said it was “very 
important” to Egyptian national 
interests and to public opinion that 
Taba be given up by the Israelis. 

Mr. Mhbarak said he would 
press his views on these and other 
issues during a trip to Washington 
tentatively scheduled to begin 
March 8. 

He said he would also urge the 
Reagan administration to lovrer the 
interest rate that Egypt is paying on 
its military debt Toe rates that 
were negotiated several years ago 
are now “too high^given prevailing 
rates, he said. 



Millers 


Return 

3^807 Abandon 
Coal Strike, 

■ UJL Board Says 

By Bob Hagerty 

Tnunmiaaat HaaS Tmune 

LONDON — Coal miners, de- 
spairing of a resolution of their 50- 
week-old strike, returned to work 
in record numbers Monday, the 
National Coal Board said. ' 
The board said that 3JJ07 miners 
abandoned the strike, by far the 
largest daily return since the strike 
began in March J 984 in an attempt 


Explosion Kills 22 in Coal Mine in Eastern France 

Rescuers in France hdp a mmer to an ambulance outside the Simon coal mine near Forbach, in j 
Lorraine, after an explosion 3,445 feet underground killed 22 miners and injured 103 Monday. A | 
gas pocket was suspected of having exploded, which caused the evacuation of adjoining pits. 

Poland Orders Expulsion of U.S. Aide ; 
Plan to Raise Food Prit^sh Softened 


Retae n 

WARSAW — The Polish gov- 
ernment has ordered the expulsion 
of the US. military attach^ Colo- 
nel Frederick Myer, after priice 
found Him taking photographs in a 
restricted military zone, the gov- 
ernment spokesman said Monday. 

The Spokesman, Jerzy Urban, 
told Western reporters that Colo- 
nel Myer and his wife, Barbara, 
destroyed six roils of film afto - they 
were stopped Thursday at Makow 
Mazowiedti, 65 miles (104 kilome- 
ters) north of Warsaw. 

The announcement of the diplo- 
mat's expulsion came as the gov- 
ernment scr ap ped -plana for across- 
the-board food pace rises and said 
it would replace them with gradual 
increases cushioned by cash com- 
pensation for the poor and elderly. 

An official statement issued after 
a cabjfi-V session headed by the 
Puffl tester. General Wqjriech 


5JU0 million m interest payments 
on the debt. 

Mr. Mubarak said he would also 
ask for increased economic assis- 
tance but did not offer any figures. 

The Egyptian . president made 

(Continued on Page 2, CoL 5) 


would be published soon. The orig- 
inal plan bad drawn criticism from 
botii the banned Solidarity trade 
union movement and the official 
unio ns: 

Mr. Urban said of the expulsion 
of Colonel Myer. “The U.S. inter- 
im chargfa d’affaires was sum- 
moned to Lbe Foreign Ministry this 
afternoon and told Colonel Myer 


has been declared persona non 
grata. He still have to leave the 
country within 48 horns.” 

U.S. Embassy officials were not 
immediately available for com- 
ment. 

Mr. Urban said the colonel and 
his wife, who were driving in a 
Danish-registered Volvo car, did 
sot try to hide their activities and 
behaved provocatively after they 
were stopped. 

He accused the U.S. authorities 
of deliberately provoking an inci- 
dent to aggravate strains in UJL- 
Pofish relations. 

The Polish spokesman said the 
incident had been used asa pretext 
by the United States to call off 
talks on resuming scientific and 
technological cooperation. 

Mr. Urban said the United 
States alleged that Mrs. Myer was 
forced to strip naked and perform 
indecent exercise after. 'her deten- 
tion. 

“This is a libel,” Mr. Urban said. 
“She neither undressed nor was 
told to. Nor was she told to cany 
out physical exercises. What oc- 
curred is that female personnel 
went through her pockets and 
clothes to see if anything was hid-' 
den." 

The price increases were lo have 
been introduced next month, but 


Reagan Rejects Governors 9 Proposal, 
Says Slates Must Help Fight Deficit 


By Milton Coleman 

. Waakargttm Pest Service 

WASHINGTON — President 
Ronald Reagan met Monday with 
the nation’s governors, but rqected 
their suggestions that he curb mili- 
tary spending, freeze Social Securi- 
ty benefit payments or raise taxes 
to b dp lower the U.S. budget defi- 
cit. 

During a half-hour White House 
meeting with about 44 members of 
the bipartisan National Governors 
A ssociati o n, which is bolding its 
annual winter conference, Mr. Rea- 


<,*5? ing their states through the rcces- 
< sioiL 

But he repeated Ms contention 
that the state governments, which 
have cumulative budget surpluses 
- of about S6 billion, are capable of 
»/ absorbmg further cuts in U.S. gov- 
- e mnwit aid. 

r.->- Mr. Reagan said: “There’s am- 
ys ply no justification, for example, 
V fra- the federal government, winch 
-- is running a deficit, to be bocrow- 

ing money to be spent by stale and 
municipal governments, some of 
, 7,^ which are now running surpluses." 

“1 ask particularly for your hdp 
and understanding, not as a Re- 
publican or a Democrat,” he said, 
£ “hot in the spirit of partnership 
*• and as ooechkf executive to anoth- 
■ y' er. I hope you can understand that 


revenue was not an item to be dis- 
cussed, that Soda! Security adjust- 
ment was not an item to be dis- 
cussed, and rat the defense budget, 
they stood with their initial recom- 
mendation.” 

Governor Lamar Alexander of 
Tennessee, a Republican who is 
vice f-h mi-man of the association, 
called the meeting “good” and 
“bripfuL” 

He and mntli ff Republican gov- 
ernor, George Dcukmgian of Cali- 
fornia, suggested that the gover- 
nors were ant of line with their 
budget rec om mendation!. 

“The people in tins country just 
100 days ago voted for the candi- 
date who said he was going to cot 
the deficit by catting expenditures 
and not by increasing tans, and he 
also said that we were to have a 
defense capability that was second 


to none,” Mr. Deukmqian said. 
“And so he overwhcjmingly has the 
/support of the American people to 
lippmach t h i s task in that pHUip w." 

And Mr. Alexander said, “If I 
wanted to make up the federal bud- 
get, 1 would nm for the Senate.” 
Besides a freeze on defense 
spending and Social Security in- 
creases, the resolution passed Sun- 
day by the bipartisan executive' 
committee »!» urged chan g w; in 
major entitlement programs to 
noddle-income recipients such as 
Medicare, farm price supports and 
retirement benefits. 

It warned that even with such 
actions, “it may be necessary to 
increase revenues to reduce the 
structural defiriL” 

But three congressional leaders 
actively involved in developing leg- 
' (Continued on Page 2, CoL 6) 




ft 


■ ■ ■« -■ i lYm, « - - - -i 

mUBI-UBW TUN* ■"I**™ 

Representative WHfiam H. Gray 3d, chairman of the House Budget Committee, at d te 
National Governors Association meeting in Washington. Mr. Gray is flanked by Gover- 
nors James R. Thompson of Illinois, left, and Richard L» Thornburgh of Pfenm^tamia. 


the authorities backed down after 
they were rejected as inflationary 
during the weekend by officially 
recognized trade unions represent- 
ing five milli on workers. 

Lech Walesa, the leader of Soli- 
darity, said Ms movement would 
announce Tbesday whether it in- 
tended to continue with plans for a 
15-minute general strike Thursday 
against the increases. 

The government said nothing 
about the Solidarity threat but 
stressed that it had carefully con- 
sidered the attitude of t he offi cial 
union body, known as OPZZ. 

It conceded the union organiza- 
tion's demand for extra aid for the 
poor and the elderly and said the 
range of price increases would be 
limited- ihe increases and the lift- 
ing of food rationing would also be 
spread out to protect lower income 
groups, the statement said. 

'Earlier, Mr. Walesa had said the 
price rises would “marie yet another 
attempt to shift the burden of the 
government’s economic incompe- 
tence onto the shoulders of soci- 
ety." 

Mr. Walesa said: “Solidarity 
does not oppose mobile prices, we 
have a full awareness of the role of 
prices in an economy that is gmded 


pnees in an economy mat is gmoea 
by the laws of economics.'' Bat he 
said the poor must be protected. 

Army Assault 
Frees Bishop 
In Philippines 


‘ ZAMBOANGA, Philippines — 
An army assault team freed a Ro- 
man Cstthritr. hjjthn p and e ig ht oth- 
ers Monday after a battle with a 
band of Moslem rebels in the 
southern PMEppmes, a nrilitaiy 
spokesman said. 

He said Bishop Federico Escaler 
and bis group, which included two 
mms, were rescued after a 40-man 
commando squad raided a rebel 
ramp on Mindanao Island, where 
the nine hostages had been held 
since Friday. A rebel was wounded 
but than were no other casualties, 
the spokesman $pid 

Bishop Escaler and his party 


to block plans to dose unprofitable 
mines. 

The return increased the number 
of working miners to more than 
91,000, or 49 percent of the work 
force, according to the board, 
which timnagw: the state-owned in- 
dustry. But production, the board 
said, is still only about a third of the 
normal level 

“The miners are voting with their 
feet,” said a coal board spokesman 
in North Yorkshire. 

“The men returning now will, in 
fact, be saving their industry from 
disaster,” Peter Walker, the energy 
secretary, said of the board's re- 
port 

The National Union of 
Mmeworkera disputes the figures, 
asserting that only about 36 per- 
cent of its members are working. 
But union leaders have begun talk- 
ing about the need for a negotiated 
settlement rather than the prospect 
of victory. 

The growing return to work 
comes amid disappointment over 
the failure of another attempt to 
resume negotiations, which have 
been broken off since last autumn. 
The union’s leadership last week 
rejected a peace formula worked 
out between the government and 
leaders of the Trades Union Con- 
gress. The formula would have 
dearly staled the board’s ri g h t to 
make tbe final decision on whether 
to dose mines. 

The government has said that it 
will not offer any further conces- 
. sions and has seemed content to 
watch the strike crumble on its 
own. 

The union has failed to win 
strong support from most other 
unions. Nor have tbe miners man- 
aged to disrupt industry enough to 
create power shortages, as they did 
in the successful 1974 strike, which 
helped bring down the government 
of Prime Monster Edward Heath. 
The government had large stocks of 
coal when the strike began and has 
been able to switch many power 
stations to fuel oiL 

The union’s recent reverses have 
stirred speculation that it might be 
reduced to leading its men back to 
work without an agreement rather 
than ac ceptin g a humiliating for- 
mula. Jack Taylor, president of the 
union’s Yorkshire area, predicted 
Sunday that there would be “guer- 
rilla-style warfare" in the mines. 

. He and ocher union leaders re- 
mained defiant 

The union’s president, Arthur 

(Coutraned on Page 2, CoL 5) 


INSIDE 


Michelangelo Myths Die as Restorers Refurbish Sistine Chapel 


By Don A. Schanchc 

LnsAngtks Tima Service 

VATICAN CITY —The agony of Michel- 
angelo lying painfully on a rickety scaffold- 
ing 65 feet (M meins) above the marble floor 


V these tough calls have to be made 
now at tire federal levd.” 

Hue governors contend that state 
budget surpluses are modest and 
could do tittle to help erase the 
f federal budget deficit, projected to 
*?,. be about $200 billion a year for the 
rest of the decade if no action is 
- lakfin- 

- On Sunday, the association’s ex- 
-' a • ectttive.camnrittee passed a rcsota- 
’ tion mging Congress and the White 
X' House to malm deeper cuts in _nrifi- 
tary spending, freeze cost of fitting 
adjustments for Social Security re- 
cipients and consider revenue in- 
creases to hdp balance the budget- 
u Governor John W. Cartin of 
, Kansas, a Democrat who is chair- 
man of the association, said Moo- 
> day afternoon that the session with 
y", the president and Ms budget direc- 


Vtor, 

^idisa 


A- Stockman, was “very 




» “Collective^," Mr. Carlin, said, 
J "between [Mr. Reagan's] answers 
(to questions and-wnal Stockman 
Iraki it was absolutely dear that 


been celebrated for generations by poets, 
novelists and, more recently, by lbe actor 
Chariton Heston. 

And the murky gray of tbe great artist’s 
complex masterpiece led art scholars for at 
least two centimes to describe Michelangelo 
as a sculptor with a low regard for color. 

But cartful elaming of the Sistine Chapd 
walls and ceding, now about one-third com- 
plete after four years of labor, has put both 
myths to rest and turned up discoveries 
about Michelangelo's work that have startled 
art historians. 

First, it has discredited tbe romantic myth 
that put Mr. Heston in a painful position, on 
his haritr, playing Midtoangelo in the Rim 
version of Irving Stone's 1961 novel “The 
Agony and the Ecstasy.” 

“It simply isn’t true,” said Fahrizio Man- 
wnpJK, curator of the Vatican Museums’ 
Byzantine; medieval and modem art and 
director of the Sistine restoration project 

“Certainly Michelangelo was often in pain 
when be painted the Sstine eating,” Mr. 
MandneDi said. “He even wrote a poem 
describing bow excruciating it was. But tire 
agony probably name from standing on Ins 
tiptoes with Ms head craned back, which is 
how he depicted himself in a sketch that 
accompanied the poem.” 


Mr. Mancmdli said that conclusive proof 
of how Michelangelo arranged tbe scaffold- 
ing upon which he stood to paint the upper 
walls and ceding came whoa his restorers 
found bales in the chapd walls that were 
used to support his artfully conceived scaf- 
folding. Experts constructed a modern ver- 
sion of the artisfs apparatus. 

Mr. Mancmdli also discovered a sketch 
that Michelangelo drew to show the man 
who made his scaffolding how to build the 
stair-stepped platform, warning him not to 


ining wi — sometimes the hairs of the brush 
remain in the plaster — wmlcw tbs lunettes 
look like large colored sketches,” Mr. Man- 
rineili said. “Each was executed in three 
days, and to understand the speed with 
wmcb he painted, you must realize that each 
group measures about 7 feet at the base by 1 1 
feet high, and most of the human figures in 
the lunettes are 7 feet lafl.” 

The derision to proceed with tbe restora- 
tion was made four years ago. It has been 
hailed as one of the wisest and most oonra- 


The cleaning has revealed that he painted bo vividly the 
colors 'almost leap ont oi the walL’ 


for brief periods in tbe last four- years to 
permit scaffolding changes that allow the 
restorers to work out of right of the viators. 

From their laborious and technically inge- 
nious washing has etnerged a brilliantly col- 
ored ring of strong figures representing 
Christ’s ancestors as weE as the prophets, 
sibyls and decorative'branze male nudes In 
the chapels lunettes and spandrels, the areas 
between the ceOing and windows. 

The boldness of color revealed by tbe 
restoration suggests that the immensely more 
complex c aling fresco, which Mr. Colalucci 
and ms colleagues have just begun to wdc 
on, may stand out like a sunburst when it is 
completed in 1988. 

After that, the restorers will proceed to the 

great altar wall cl the sfetine, where Michel- 


put it so dose to tile ceiling that be would 
have to crouch or He down to paint. 

As for Michelangelo’s use of dull colors, 
the cleaning has revealed that he painted so 
vividly —with bright apple-greens, orange- 
reds, strilang yellows and subtie blues — that 
a critic said me colors “almost leap out of tbe 
walL" 

The cleaning is bring carried out by the 
chief Vatican art restorer, Gianhngi Cob- 
hied, and two assistants, Mamizio Rossi and 
Pia- Giorgio Bonetti. 

Thedeaners also found that Michelangelo 
worked at a rapid pace, at least around tbe 
lunettes, the 12 windows high on the walls 
where the ceffiag begins to arch. 

“The swift, almost furious execution of the 


geous in the history o£ art restoration. But it 
was made almost fay chance, according to 
Waiter Persegati, secretary arid treasurer of 
the Vatican Museums, who made the deri- 
sion with Cado Hetrangdi, the director gen- 
eral of pontifical monuments. 

“We were restoring the paintings of the 
popes that flank the windows beneath Mi- 
chelangelo's lunettes and derided to dean a 
very small side of one of them,” said Mr. 
Persegati. “When we saw that the result was 
quite remarkable, we derided to go ahead.” 

Tbe results have been a revelation for art 
scholars and for the hundreds of thousands 
of visitors who have continued to pass 
through tbe chapd. 

Tbe chapel has been closed to tourists only 


years after completing tbe ceding and the 
lunettes. 

The chaDenge for the restorers has boa to 
dissolve the layers of dust, dirt, glue and 

gmn kei Uiritig ^frnm flaming tnrriifis used to 

itinmrnate the chapd in tbe years before 
electricity — without touching tbe fresco 
surfaces and harming hfichdangritfs origi- 
nal colors. 

“Wedean until we can see how NBchdan- 
gdo painis, all the of color 

that he wanted become readable again," Mr. 
MwngmdB said. “But to remove all of the 
Rim that covers the fresco would me an 
touching the actual fresco, and we never do 
lhaL We clean it down to a minutely fine film 
and stop there.” 


war abducted by a group believed 
to be a breakaway faction of the 
secessionist Moro National Libera- 
tion Front Two women in the 
group kidnapped Friday were re- 
leased the same day. 

Officials said they did not know 
the motive for the abductions and 
it was not known if there was a 
ransom demand. 

■ General Accuses Board 

A Filipino general demanded 
Monday a confrontation in court 
with tbe fact-fxndmg board that 
finked him to the IdOing erf Benigno 
S. Aquino Jz, The Associated Press 
reported from Manfla. 

Major General Prospero A. Oli- 
vas accused the board of crucifying 
him in public. “I would Eke to 
know why the police investigator 
suddenly became the accused]” be 
said in court. General Ohvas im- 
tially investigated the assassina- 
tion. 

General Olivas sprite as the trial 
resumed for 25 military men and 
one tivifian on charges connected 
with tbe deaths of Mr. Aquino and 
RriandoGahnan,themfinfbegov- 
emment says shot Mr. Aquino and 

then was killed by soldiers. Testi- 
mony began Friday. 

General Ofivas, General Fabian 
G Ver, the armed forces chief, and 
six other nnHtary men are accused 
of a conspiracy in the August 1983 
assassination. They face up to 40 
years in prison if convicted. Seven- 
teen other soldiers are accused as 
principals and one ri viHan as an 
accomplice in murdering Mr. 
(Continued on Page 2, CoL 6) 



Commerce Secretary 
Malcolm Baldrige pro- 
posed repeating part of a 
U.S. antitrust law to 
make company mergers 
easier. Page 17. 

■ The Israel Army maintained 
its security net around Shiite 
Modem villages east of Tyre, 
Lebanon. Page 2. 


■ President Reagan’s tax sim- 

plification plans gain ed the co- 
operation of a key House De- 
mocrat. Page 31 

■ An accused Norw egian spy 

said in court that he was sexual- 
ly blackmailed by Russian 
agents. Page 5. 

BUSINESS/FINANCE 

■ The US, economy is likely to 
suffer a recession be ginning 
next year, a gram of U .sTecan- 
ourists predicted. Page 17. . 

SPECIAL REPORT 

■The problem of functional il- 
literacy in the West Interna- 
tional Education. P&tfe 9. 








J 


Page 2 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE. TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 26. 1985 


Israel Keeps Striet Controls on Lebanese Villages Mubarak 


Reuien 

SIDON, Lebanon — Israeli 
tight control Monday 
« m Suite Moslem districts 
east of the southern Lebanese town 
of Tyre on the sixth day of an ami- 
S^wnlla drive, security sources 
said. 

, Goksel, spokesman fa 
Joe Umted Nations peacekeeping 
loice in southern Lebanon, said Is- 
raeb faces did not cater any vil- 
lages and the area was vay quiet 
However, the Israelis, who have 
scaled off the area from the rest of 
LwaMn, kept strict control of 
roads and few people ventured 
from the tallages, the security 
sources said. 

Ghassan Haidar, the Lebanese 
commissioner for the Tyre district, 
told officials in Sidon: “The situa- 
tion has become tragic.” 

He added: "The villagers are liv- 


ing in a big prison. There is an 
acute shortage of food and fucL 
Israeli troops are directing sniper 
fire at the villages. The health situa- 
tion is deteriorating.” 

Lebanese security sources said 
Israeli troops besieged nine Shiite 
v illages on Sunday. Mr. Goksd 
said the Israelis destroyed one 
house and damaged one in ai-Ba- 
zouriye. 

The Israeli Army stepped up a 
campaign against the villages 
Wednesday in reprisal for a wave 
of attacks believed to have 
carried out by Shiites. 

[Israeli troops faced a British 
camera crew to stop film in g at a 
southern Lebanon checkpoint on 
Monday by firing shots in their 
direction. United Press Interna- 


tional reported. 

[Ken Jobson, a cameraman fa 
the British-owned UPITN net- 
work. said Israeli troops along the 


Zahrasi-Nabadyeb road in south- 
ern Lebanon opened fire -on him 
and his Lebanese soundman, Mo- 
hammed Haidar. Mr. Jobson said 
an Israeli soldier later “kicked Hai- 
dar several limes in the backside.”! 

In Beirut, security sources re- 
ported minor clashes between mili- 
tiamen Of the mainstream Shiite 
Amal movement and Shiite funda- 
mentalists of Hezballah, a Party of 
God. The fighting took place over- 
night in the southern suburbs and 
parts of West Beirut. 

The cause of the fighting, the 
first between the two groups fa 
months, was not known. Amal 
sharply criticized an armed Hez- 
ballah rally in Sidon last week at 
which liquor bottles were smashed 
in five stops and (he Lebanese flag 
was burned. 

■ Beirut Seeks UN Meeting 

The Lebanese government asked 



Urges U.S. 
To Convene 
Peace Talks 


Tura, Bwj RahaL Betfias 
and Yanuh are said to be 
under siege in Lebanon. 


In Bahrain 
you will find regency 
elegance and personal service 
in the heart of Manama. 


its envoy at the United Nations on 
Monday to ask fa a special meet- 
ing of the Security Council to dis- 
cuss Israeli attacks and (he siege of 
villages in southern Lebanon. Bei- 
rut radio said, according to a Unit- 
ed Press International report 


Iran Will Release 


THE REGENCY 
INTER • CONTINENTAL 
HOTEL BAHRAIN 


Iraqi Prisoners 
Injured in War 



THE ADVANTAGE IS INTER-CONTINENTAL 


0 INTER- CONTINENTAL HOTELS 


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Amman, Dubai. Muscat, Riyadh, Taif and over 80 cities around the world 


United Press International 
RANGOON, Burma — Presi- 
dent U Xiannian of China vrill pay 
a state visit to Burma early next 
month, the Foreign Office an- 
nounced Monday. . 


ADVERTISEMENT: 


Statement by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Defense 
of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. 


CYPRUS: A BRIDGE OF CO-OPERATION 


The summit meeting held in New York on January 17-20, 1985 between the leaders of the two Cypriot communities has once 
again brought the 21-year-old Cyprus question to the foreground of international politics. 

What are the problems confronting (his beautiful. Eastern Mediterranean island, which is situated at the cross-roads of old 
civilisations, at the center of the fertile crescent, and why have they defied a solution for so long? 

The island of Cyprus, the third largest in the Mediterranean, has been co-habited by Turkish and Creek Cypriot peoples for cen- 
turies who, together made up nearly the whole population of Cyprus. 

Under the Ottoman Turkish rule ; which had started in 1571 and lasted for more than three centuries, relations between the 
Muslim Turks and Orthodox-Christian Greeks were friendly and cordial, although each community preserved its own distinct national and 
cultural identity. 

When the administration of Cyprus was passed on to Britain in (be late 19th century, the Creek Cypriots, under the influence of 
the rise of Creek nationalism at the turn of that century, started a campaign of agitation for the annexation of the island to C reece — a move- 
ment known by the term "Enos is” (Union with Greece). No word can probably better sum up or symbolize the essence of the Cyprus prob- 
lem, than this term. 

To the Creek Cypriots, Enosis meant integration of Cyprus into a greater Greek state and the realization of the national dream 
(known as "Megali idea”). To the Turkish Cypriots, it meant their absorption into an alien culture and their ultimate elimination, 
justifying Turkish Cypriot fears in this respect, was the tragedy that bad previously befallen the Turks of Crete who had been massacred en 
masse or thrown out of the country, upon the island's annexation to Greece. 


Out of the conflicting demands and aspirations of tbe two Cypriot communities, was born the independent, bi-national republic 
in 1960, as a compromise solution. The independence of Cyprus was guaranteed by Turkey, Greece and the United Kingdom. 


of Cyprus in 1960, as a con 
the former colonial power. 


However, the solution found was short-lived, since it fell far short of satisfying the national goal of the Greek Cypriots, of union 
with Greece. Tbey staged a virtual coup against the independence of Cyprus and the 1960 settlement in December 1963. in order to de- 
stroy the bi-national republic, create a Greek Cypriot one in its place and unite it with Greece, over the dead bodies of the Turkish 
Cypriots. 

The years between 1963-1974 witnessed unprecedented violence and cruelty committed against the Turkish Cypriote by the 
numerically superior Greek Cypriot community, in a manner most unworthy of the culture which the Gredc Cypriots claim to have 
inherited. 


In a spirit of the Crusades of the Middle Ages, they attacked and destroyed 103 Turkish Cypriot villages all across the island. 
IHHing or uprooting their inhabitants, usurped all constitutional and fundamental human rights of tbe Turkish Cypriots, and forced them 


to live in scattered enclaves which corresponded to only about 3% of the island's territory. 

The object, as it had always been, was the removal of the Turkish Cypriot impediment to the union of Cyprus with Greece. The 
"Enosis" campaign of the Greek Cypriote culminated in the coup d'etat of July 15, 1974 ^organized by the junta in Greece, which had 
been virtually occupy ing Cyprus in violation of international agreements since 1963 at the "invitation” of Archbishop Makarius who was 
proclaiming that the island was now Greece herself. Tbe coup, which was aimed at achieving Enosis on an immediate basis, meant a 
l-hangA of leadership on tbe Creek Cypriot side for the worse, and brought the island only one stroke away from annexation to C reece. 

Had it not been for the timely intervention of Turkey, in accordance with the Treaty of Guarantee of 1960, the Turkish Cypriote 
would have been finall y and effectively suppressed, and tbe island would have long become a colony of Greece. The legitimate and 
justified Turkish intervention saved the independence of Cyprus and its Turkish Cypriot component from final destruction and bid tbe 
foundation for a solution of the Cyprus problem on a just, realistic and long-term basis. 

That such a solution can only be the re-establishment of the bi-national partnership republic on a bi-zonal federal basis. 


at top-level negotiations between the two Bides under the auspices ot tbe U.N. secretary General botn in ( and iy rd, to reconcile uieir 
differences within the framework of an independent, bi-oahonaL. bi-zooal federal republic. The Turkish Cypriot side certainly stands by 
these agreements and views with regret tile Creek Cypriot side’s refusal to honour and implement them- 


ing on, intermittaitly, since 1975. If it failed to open the way to bi-lateral negotiations which would lead to a final solution, it is because the 
Greek Cypriot side refused to honour the basic elements of the draft agreement presented to the high-level meeting by the Seeretery-Gener- 
aL for conclusion and signature, such as the bi-zonality of the Federation to be formed, the equal political status of the Turkish Cypriot 
community in the Federation to be established, and the effective guarantee of Turkey in order to protect the security of the Turkish Cypriot 
people. 

instead, the Creek Cypriot side attempted to re-negutiate every single fundamental element of the Secreiary-General s draff 
agreement, which had alreadv been negotiated between the two sides through contacts and three rounds of "proximity talks" over a period 


agreement, which nan aireauv umi ucguuoicu uic iwu sia« nuui«» «.uiuo».ia uutv iuuuw u* ^u.umui umu * piuu 

of 5 months, carried out by UN. officials. During these talks, the Turkish Cvpriot side had fully cooperated with the Seeretaiy-Ooeral 
and utmost sacrifices, in the interest of a solution, going as far as it could on the federal, constitutional, executive and territorial as- 


pects of tbe question. 

This constructive attitude of the Turkish Cypriot side, which was also reflected in its acceptance in toto of the draft agreement 
prepared by the Secretary-General, and presented to tbe parties as an "integrated whole", has drawn the high praise of the international 
news media, diplomatic circles and the Secretary-General himself. 

An historic opportunity has unfor tunat ely been lost due to the unsuccessful conclusion of the New York Summit, and it now re- 
mains for the Greek Cypriot side lo re-evaluate its unreasonable position of insisting on a Greek -dominated Cyprus, rather than a bi-nation- 
al one based on the peaceful co- existence of the Turkish Cypriot communities. Otherwise, we will never succeed in turning Cyprus into the 
bridge of co-operation between two peoples and two cultures, which it deserves to be. 


(Continued from Page 1) 
these other points during the inter- 
view: 

• He said he had urged President 
Ronald Reagan not to freeze aid to 
President Gaafar Nimeiri of the 
Sudan. He denied reports that 
Egypt had withdrawn an air de- 
fense unit from (he Sudan to try to 
persuade Nimeiri to alter his poli- 
cies. An Egyptian team oF 25 tech- 
nicians had been in the Sudan, be 
said, helping Khartoum modernize 
its air defenses and has returned to 
Egypt after its work was wmplet- 
ed. 

• He said the Libyan leader, 
Moamer Qadhafi, had offered him 
$5 billion if Egypt would abandon 
the 1978 Camp David peace ac- 
cords with Israel. ”1 told him that 
Egypt would never do this.” Mr. 
Mubarak said, pointing his finger 
at ins guests to emphasize his an- 
ger. “Egypt is not Libya.” he said. 

• He said he would encourage 
the United States to abandon its 
demand that Cuban troops be 
withdrawn from Angola as a condi- 
tion for a settlement on South- 
West Africa, also known as Namfb- 



WORLD BRIEFS 


6 Die in Pakistani Election Violence 


ISLAMABAD. Pakistan (Reuters)— Six persons were killed and more 
than 40 were injured Monday in clashes between rival groups in Paki- 
stan's first national elections since 19/7, police said , . 

Witnesses said that more than 30 persons opposed to the elections, 
which political parties were barred from contesting, were arrested in 
protests against fie government of General Zia ul-Haq. About 15 persons 
were arrested in Lahore, including Asif Farihuddin Vardag, secretary- 
general of the Tehrik-i-IstiqJal Party, or Solidarity Party, the witnesses 
said. . 

About 1,100 candidates running without party amfianons, are con- 
testing 217 seats in the National Assembly in the first elections since the 
armed faces toppled the country's elected prime minister, ZolSkar Ah 
Bhutto, eight years ago. 


EC Meets to Resolve Farm Surpluses 


BRUSSELS (Reuiere) —Agriculture ministers of the European Com- 
munity met Monday to try and resolve disputes over (dans to redu c e the. 
community’s wine and milk surpluses. 

Diplomats said proposals from tbe new executive commission fa price 
ems or freezes on most products have left the iO ministers mare deeply 
divided than ever and could lead to one of the fiercest a nnual reviews in 
EC history. “It is going to get very rough this year.*’ a diplomat said, 
adding that the final outcome mi gh t not be known until June. 

Community sources stud Agriculture Co mmi so oner Frans Andriessen 
c onsidere d Monday's meeting crucial since it would indicate the resolve 


r *>:■ 






Bishop Federico EscaJer 


Army Assault 
Frees Bishop 
In Philippines 


breached production targets was introduced last year after u 
dispute Bui only West Germany has complied with the plan. 


BAHRAIN — Iran and Iraq, 
criticized by a United Nations 
leam for their treatment of Gulf 
war prisoners, say they are ready to 
set some of them free. 

Prime Minister Mir Hussein 
Moussavi of Iran said Sunday that 
bran would release all crippled and 
sick Iraqi prisoners unilaterally, 
but he gave no date. He said he 
toped Iraq would reciprocate. 

Iran holds about 50.000 prison - 
ers-of-war and Iraq about 10,000, 
according to diplomats in the re- 
gion. 

In Baghdad, a Foreign Ministry 
spokesman said Sunday that Iraq 
was ready to implement an ex- 
change of prisoners and other rec- 
ommendations made by the UN 
team provided the Security Council 
agreed on a program binding both 
parties. 

Tbe three-member UN team 
which visited camps in Iran and 
Iraq last month, said in a report 
published Friday that both sides 
treated prisoners harshly. It recom- 
mended prisoner exchanges and 
adherence to humane standards. 


• He expressed doubt that Syria 
could be induced to play a con- 
structive role in tbe Middle East 
peace process. 

■ *Great Interest' in Proposal 


Prime Minister Peres expressed 
“great interest” Monday in Mr. 


Mubarak's proposals for restarting 
the peace process. The Associated 


the peace process. The Associated 
Press reported from Jerusalem. 

“I read President Mubarak’s 
statement with meat interest,” Mr. 
Peres said. “I think this statement 
deserves a careful and a positive 
study. On the Israeli side, he will 
find a willing and constructive par- 
ty.” 

However. Mr. Peres restated Is- 
rael's lon gstanding objections to 
sitting at the negotiating table with 
members of the PLO, which Israel 
contends is a terrorist group dedi- 
cated to the destruction of the Jew- 
ish state. 


Thousands 
Of Miners Go 
Back to Work 


(Continued from Page 1) 
Aquino and Mr. G al man, who the 
government daims was a Commu- 
nist agent. 

The three-judge court did not 
rule on General Olivas's demand 
that the four members of the board 
and its chief counsel be called as 
witnesses so they can be questioned 
about their finding that tbe assassi- 
nation was a military conspiracy. 
The board members' and lawyer 
had refused to testify, saying their 
testimony was not needed. 

General Olivas, a lawyer who is 
defending himself, said the board 
should be made to explain the basis 
of its report, “after they crucified 
me in public through the media, 
after they have caused anguish to 
my family and almost destroyed 
my career.” 

In another move, tbe court 
threatened to cite Mr. Galman’s 
mother, sister and two children for 
contempt for f ailing to answer a 
subpoena to testify in court. 

The lawyer fa the Galmaos said 
his clients would not appear until 
the court ordered the mflitaiy de- 
fendants locked up in a civilian jail. 


Qadhafi Urges Black Revolt in U.S. 

CHICAGO (AF) —Colonel Moamer Qadhafi, Libya’s leader, has tojd 
a Nation of Islam convention that to escape oppression, black citizens of 
the United Stales must form an army to destroy the country and create an 
independent state 

Colonel Qadhafi said Sunday in a 40-mraute speech broadcast via 
satellite from Libya to the Nation of Islam’s 1985 International Savior’s 
pay Convention, '“We are ready to give you anus because your cause is a 
jusi cause.” 

The Reverend Louis Farrakhan, whose 10,000 followers are one facqon 
of the Black Muslim movement in the United States, told those atte n di n g 
tbe convention, “It would bean act of mercy to end the Whiteman’s world 
because your world is killing you and us and all of humanity.” 


Khmer Rouge Report Raid on Towns 

BANGKOK ( AFP) —Khmer Rouge guerrillas said Monday that they 
had raided two towns in eastern Cambodia last week, killing 81 Vietnam- 
ese soldiers and wounding another 89. 

The Khmer Rouge radio, monitored in Bangkok, said the pro-Chinese 
guerrillas attacked Lomphat, provincial capital of Ratianakui, near tbe 
Border with Vietnam, on Feb. 19. It said they destroyed the provincial 
office hall, the Vietnamese command post, and a large mflitaiy supply 
depot, seizing many weapons. Forty Vietnamese soldiers woe killed and 
another 52 wounded in the fighting, the radio said. There was no 
independent confirmation of the report. 

On Feb. 18, the Khmer Rouge “liberated” a district town identified as 
Dambal in Kompong Cham province, cast of the Cambodian capital 
Phnom Penh, lullin g 41 and wounding 37 Vietnamese troops, the radio 
said. Tbe Khmer Rouge have recently lost their mam base near the Thai 
border and are said to have dispersed into Cambodia’s interior to attack 
Vietnamese supply lines and rear positions. 


They are now in military custody. 
Mr. Aquino was shot at tbe Ma- 


(CoutiBued from Page 1) 
Sc a r gjfl, declared Sunday: “This 
union will not be beaten into sub- 
mission,” after leading thousands 
of miners, labor leaders and other 
protesters on a march from Lon- 
don’s Hyde Park to Trafalgar 
Square. 


Mr. Aquino was shot at tbe Ma- 
nila airport as he arrived in the 
Philippines from three years of self- 
imposed exile in the United States. 


Union Carbide Vows to Fight Charges 


Governors, 
Reagan Meet 


CHARLESTON, West Virginia 
(AF) — Union Carbide Corp. w HI 
“fight right to the end” any legal 
attempts to prove the company 
negligent in tbe poison gas leak at a 
plant in Bhopal, India, that left 
more than 2,000 people dead, the 
company’s chairman says. 

Warren M. Anderson, the chair- 
man, said a negotiated settlement 
of claims agains t the company, 
rather than a prolonged court bal- 


The secretary of the union's 
Kent branch. Jack Collins, said 
Monday: “A very, very large num- 
ber of miners will not return to 
work unless there is a proper, cat- 
awe agreement assuring thdi fu- 
ture." 

However, Gavyn Davies, an 
economist at the London stockbro- 
kerage of Simon & Coates, said. 
“The government's objective has 
been achieved." 

He said the miners' union proba- 
bly will not be able to come any- 
where near to imposing another na- 
tional strike fa years. 

The government already has 
made significant concessions. For 
example, it agreed last autumn to 
accept an independent review pro- 
cedure, which would give outsiders 
a chance at least to slow down 
closures on tbe ground of social 
considerations. 


(Continued from Page 1) 


UJL Rules Out Sanctions 


Id Its South Africa Policy 


LONDON — Britain’s conser- 
vative government Monday ruled 
out economic sanctions to try to 
| force white-ruled South Africa to 
j change its apartheid policy. 

The commonwealth secretary- 
general, Shridath RampbaL last 
1 week called fa international sanc- 
I lions after South African police 
I rounded up nearly all the leaders of 
the an li -apartheid United Demo- 
I cratic Front The British Foreign 
Office minister. Malcolm Rifkind, 
, summoned South Africa's ambas- 
i sador in Loudon, Denis WorraU , to 
express concern over the arrests. 
Asked afterward about Mr. Ram- 
phal’s call for sanctions, Mr. Rif- 
! kind said: “We don't believe they 
would work." 


islation to reduce the deficit told 
the governors that revenue in- 
creases are out of the question. 

Robert J. Dole of Kansas, the 
leader of the majority Republicans 
in the Senate; Pete V. Domenici, a 
Republican of New Mexico who is 
chairman of the Senate Budget 
Committee, and Representative 
William H. Gray 3d of Pennsylva- 
nia, the chairman of the House 
Budget Committee, also empha- 
sized that spending cuts suggested 
by tbe governors would be politi- 
cally unpopular. 

The full association was sched- 
uled to vote on the resolution on 
Tuesday. On Sunday, many gover- 
nors expressed dismay that federal 
officials appeared unable to find 
budget savings that would not lead 
to pressure on state budgets. 

Governor Michael S. Dukakis of 
Massachusetts, a Democrat, noted 
that laws in 49 of tbe 50 states 
require balanced budgets at the be- 
ginning and end of each fiscal year. 

Mr. Dukakis asked his fellow 
governors whether the federal gov- 
ernment’s attempts to reduce the 
deficit were “tough compared to 
what some of you had to go 
through in the last two or three 
yearsT 

The federal government has 
“four years to do it,” Mr. Dukakis 
said. ‘TVe had to do it in one year. 
Most of us do it in four or five 
months.” 

He said that most governors bad 
imposed freezes, increased tax col- 
lections and even raised taxes to 
steer their states through recession 
and reductions in federal aid. 

“And these guys tefl us it's pain- 
ful and excruciating and, * 011 , it’s 
so difficult,’" Mr. Dukakis said, 
“h takes guts and it takes will.” 


liable, would be in the best interest 
of the victims. Attorneys have filed 
billions of dollars in lawsuits 
against Union Carbide, many 
claiming the company was negli- 
gent. 

“We've said right from the start 
that the proper answer fa the peo- 
ple if you have any compassion fa 
them at all is not to go through a 
litigation of liability. Mr. Ander- 
son said Sunday in a newspaper 
interview. “I don’t know of any 
kind of issue, class-action issue, 
that wasn’t solved by compensa- 
tion arrived at through a compro- 
mise, sooner or later. So why wait 
for later?” 



Warren M. Anderson 


Ulster Nationalist Politician Assailed 


BELFAST (UP!) —John Hume, the leader of the Social Democrat and 

nUn. Dam,. —mi. ,n U ^ I I .. > t J r L" 


Labor Party, was criticized on all political fronts Monday fa bis 
unsuccessful attempt to meet with IRA leaders during the weekend. 


— - — r — ■ * uuiui^ uu# 

Protesumt-Umonist politicians said he had closed the door on any future 
talks with them. 

James Motyneaux, leader of the Official Unionist Party, called Mr. 
Hume’s attempted meeting with the IRA a “ludicrous escapade." Ml 


he arranged the meeting to try to talk the IRA out of their violent 
campaign to drive the British from the province and reunite Ireland. 

Mr. Hume went to a meeting with IRA guerrillas Friday evening at a 
secret location that IRA sources said was in the Irish republic. Tbe 
meeting, which the IRA postponed fa 24 hours while bolding Mr. Hume 
in the interim, ended after three minutes when be refused to allow the 
meeting to be videotaped. 

Meanwhile, the Irish National Liberation Army, a leftist o ffsho ot of 
the IRA, claimed responsibility for Northern Ireland's latest inJlinp 
Sunday evening. The killing was the eighth in seven days. 


For the Record 


Saudi Ship Sinking Off Italy 


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Reuters 

BRJND1SL Italy — A crewman 
was lolled and two others were 
missing after a the cargo on a Saudi 
Arabian freighter, the Sbeikb All 
shifted in rough seas Monday and 

kil^Mtere)ofl^tbc southern Adri- 
atic coast, officials said. 



UNIVERSITY 


Four guerrillas of the b a nned Communist Party of Malaya were killed 
and tight Thai soldiers were wounded in a clash in southern Thailand 
Sunday, Thai Array officials said Monday in Bangkok. (AFP) 

Yugoslav prison authorities have held Vladimir Seks, an attorney who 
has defended dissidents, fa nine days without informin g his family or his 
lawyer, according to a statement from his wife received Monday in 
Belgrade. f AP) 

The evacuation of 500 Nigerian migrant workers from Equatorial 
Guinea who are said by the Lagos authorities to have been used as slaves 
on cocoa plantations has been delayed, sources said Monday. Tbe 
workers could not be found when four Nigerian planes and two ships 
arrived in Malabo to collect them last week. (Rollers) 

Ministers from the Organization of African Unity began nine days of 
talks Monday in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, as a prelude to a me eting of 
OAU leaders later this year. (AFP) 

Edwin Meese 3d was sworn in as US. attorney general at the White 
House on Monday. He succeeds William French Smith. (UPlj 

A permit doffing New York state to begin building Westway, the kag- 
ddayed highway project along the west side of Manhattan, was issued 
Monday by the Army Corps of Engineers. The project was first proposed 
11 years ago. (UPl) 


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Reagan Gets 
Democratic 
Aid in House 
On Tax Plan 

By Anne Swardson 

Washington Past Service 

WASHINGTON — Represen- 
tative Dan Rostenkowski. the 
chairman of the House Ways and 
Means Committee, says he wil] co- 
operate with the administration in 
moving a tax- simplification bill 
through his committee. 

Mr. Rosienkowski's decision, 
which he planned to announce in a 
speech Monday night to the New 
York Economics Gub, is a boost to 
President Ronald Reagan’s hopes 
for bipartisan cooperation on legis- 
lation to simplify the tax code. 

“I would like Very much to see a 
Ways and Means product in coop- 
eration with Treasury and the 
House Democratic and Republican 
leadership," Mr. Rosienkcwski, an 
Illinois Democrat, said Sunday. 

“I'd like to see us do a good job 
of tax reform or simplification, and 
I'd like ultimately to have my com- 
mittee considered the tax- writing 
committee rather than the revenue- 
raising committee." 

Mr. Rosienkowski's decision 
came as a surprise. Since be took 
over the House lax- writing com- 
mittee in I9S1. he has not been 
known as an activist chairman. 
There were suggestions that he was 
biding his time, waiting to try for a 
leadership post. 

When the Treasury Department 
proposed its tax-simplification 
plan last November, Mr. Rosten- 
kowski endorsed the general idea of 
revision but said presidential lead- 
ership was needed to pass it. 

Now. friends say. he has decided 
that (ax simplification should not 
be abandoned to the Republicans 
and might be a good issue to have 
associated with his name. 

The Treasury plan would reduce 
tax rates dramatically and do away 

U.S. High Court Rejects 
Appeal of Union Figure 

The Associated Press 

WASHINGTON — The Su- 
preme Court cleared the way Mon- 
day for the imprisonment of Roy L 
Williams, a former president of the 
Teamsters union, and two others 
for conspiring to bribe former Sen- 
ator Howard W. Cannon, Demo- 
crat of Nevada. 

The court, without comment, re- 
fused to bear arguments that feder- 
al prosecutors unlawfully used FBI 
wiretap evidence in the case. Mr. : 
Williams, who wfll be 70 on March 1 
22, was convicted in December ; 
1982 and sentenced to 55 years in 
prison. I 





Atomic Waste: U.S. Disposers Want to Share Burden 


Dan Rostcnkowski 

with a many deductions and credits 
for individuals and businesses, 
leaving a “reves uc-nai iraT bill, 
balanced between tax cuts and tax 
increases. 

It is opposed by many special 
interests that would lose prefer- 
ences that they consider crucial. 

Another reason for Mr. Rosten- 
kowski’s shift comes from his cor- 
dial relations with Treasury Secre- 
tary James A Baker 3d. associates 
say. 

It was after a meeting with Mr. 
Baker that Mr. Rostcnkowski an- 
nounced that the Ways and Means 
panel would hold hearings on tax 
simplification Feb. 27. with Mr. 
Baker as the sole witness. 

Mr. Rosienkowski's cordial rela- 
tionship with Mr. Baker, sources 
says, contrasts to his feelings about 
Donald T. Regan, who was Trea- 
sury secretary during the bitter bat- 
tle over the 1981 tax cut that the 
Democrats Iosl 

The panel chairman "thinks the 
1981 bill created an image problem 
that still hasn't been dispelled," 
said a Democratic member of the 
Ways and Means Committee. 

Mr. Rostenkowski said Sunday 
that he had good relations with Mr. 
Regun and did not want to criticize 
him. But. he said, “I never felt that 
Regan was much in charge, and 1 
guess that's because the office at 
1600 Pennsylvania Avenue was 
running aD the shows. And so you 
have Tim Baker, [with] a lot of the 
experience be grasped at 1600, over 
at Treasury." 

White House officials say they 
hope that Mr. Rostenkowski will 
be a ‘‘brakes’* as simplification 
moves through the legislative pro- 
cess, because be appears to have 
good working relations with aD 
parties and does not have a vested 
interest in any particular plan. 

He was expected to emphasize in 


By Matthew L. Wald 

Nr* York Timet Semce 

BARNWELL, South Carolina 
— -A fork-lift operator carefully un- 
loads barrels and crates from Lbe 
back of a truck, keeping his body 
away from the containers. 

He stacks them neatly on the 
bottom of a trench as technicians 
and inspectors from the stale, 
armed with radiation detectors, 
look on. 

A computer records the exact 
location of each container, and a 
S5- million laboratory nearby pro- 
cesses thousands of water, air and 
soil samples each year. The moni- 
toring will continue for two centu- 
ries. 

“It's high- tech disposal," said 
Dr. John J. S tucker, a special assis- 
tant to Governor Richard Riley. 
Dr. Stucker, like other state offi- 
cials, has nothing but praise for the 
way Chero- Nuclear Systems Inc 

runs the Barnwell facility. 

Nevertheless, the slate wants to 
dose it within a few years and 
sharply curtail its operations as 
soon as possible. 

The facility here, a similar opera- 
tion in Hanford, Washington, and 
a smaller site in Nevada are the 
focus of a national debate on the 
disposal of low-level radioactive 
waste. 

The material, which cannot be 
reprocessed, includes everything 
from gloves used by reactor work- 
ers to the waste by-products from 


the manufacture and use of radio- 
active substances in medicine. 

The site has had no major acci- 
dents since it opened, and ooJy one 
small leak, in which tritium, a ra- 
dioactive form of water produced 
in reactors, leaked from its packag- 
ing. 

The leak was quickly discovered 
and contained, and the state has 
since instituted a rule that oB liquid 
wastes must be solidified, usually 
be mixing with concrete, before 
shipment to Barnwell 

About a dozen trucks, carrying 
waste from much of the United 
States, arrive every day at the facili- 
ty, which opened m 1969 and which 
now contains about 16 milli on cu- 
bic feet (480,000 cubic meters) of 
waste. The site, which once han- 
dled 80 percent of American low- 
level waste, now accepts about 45 
percent Officials in South Carolina 
believe the state has carried too 
much responsibility for this waste 
for too long. 

At the urging of South Carolina, 


in 1980 passed the Low Level Ra- 
dioactive Waste Policy Act which 
gave the 50 slates the responsibility 
for establishing new disposal sites. 

The slates were told that if they 
made waste-handling compacts 
among themselves, they could ex- 
clude waste from non participating 
states from their sites, beginning 
next January. Congress envisioned 
the establishment of about a dozen 


sites like Barnwell around the 
country. 

Bat so far, no new sites are near 
establishment, and several of the 
biggest waste generators, including 
Massachusetts, New York and 
Pennsylvania, have not approved 
plans for compacts. Officials from 
those states are pressing Congress 
to withhold approval of the oghi- 
state Southeastern Compact, which 
would use Barnwell, and the 
Northwest Compact, formed 
around Hanford, so that dm rest of 
the country will not be excluded 
from these sites. 

In the South Carolina legislature 
in Columbia, this request has 
prompted rath for retaliation. 

"Enough is enough and fair is 
fair," said state Representative 
Harriet Keyserling. the co-sponsor 
of a bill that would shut Barnwell 
entirely if Congress does nor ap- 
prove the Southeastern Compact 

South Carolina is also borne to 
another facility at which nuclear 
wastes are stored. The US. Energy 
Department’s Savannah River 
Plant, where components for nucle- 
ar weapons are made, stores the 
high-level waste it has generated 
and continues to generate. 

Mrs. Keyserling said in an inter- 
view: "If there are risks, they ought 
to be shared." 

Dr. Stucker said the Barnwell 
site "cannot provide disposal for 
the whole country in perpetuity." 

The state's goal, he said, is "as- 
suming some control of our desti- 


ny, and assuring capacity for our- 
selves." South Carolina produces 
about 10 percent of the nation's 
low-level waste, most of it from five 
civilian nuclear reactors. 

That idea of dosing the site gets 
mixed reviews in the dty of Barn- 
well. 

"I really consider it the best in- 
dustry we have,” said Rodman 
Lemon, the mayor since 1970. The 
waste depository "provides jobs, 
and it's as dean as can be," he said. 
It employs 260, and has an annua] 
budget of SI3 million, much of it 
spent locally. 

Mr. Lemon said he would like to 
see it take in all the nation's low- 
level waste. 

Neither is the state complaining 
about the facility. 

"I think the company has in 
some instances done more than we 
have required," said Heyward G. 
Sheaiy, chief rtf the Bureau of Ra- 
diological Health. Mr. Sbealv* s de- 
partment licenses the site, limits the 
kinds of wastes that can be buried, 
inspects operations, and, along 
with Chem-Nudear, takes environ- 
mental samples. 

When the rite closes, control will 
pass to the state. 

A "perpetual care" trust fund of 
SIS million has been collected, and 
it is growing with contributions of 
S2A0 per cubic foot of waste. 

"If all the experts are right, it 
won't be a burden," said Dr. 
Stucker. 

The materials buried here lose 
their radioactivity over varying pe- 


riods, but nearly all will be inert in 
300 years and will have lost most of 
their activity long before ihaL 

Chcm- Nuclear is experimenting 
with growing shallow-rooted 
Christmas trees over filled -in 
trenches, as a cash crop for the 
state. 

Both the slate and the company 
agree that the Barnwell site is not a 
dump. 

"It's a controlled facility," said 
M.G. Garner, a spokesman in the 
Columbia headquarters of the com- 
pany. w hich is a subsidiary of 
Waste Management Inc. of Oak- 
brook, lUiruns. 

"1 defy you to find something 
‘dumped,’ " said John Zawadd, the 
general manager of the facility. 

He said the rite has become a 
model for repositories elsewhere. 
Recent viators include represenia- 
fives from Pennsylvania, Texas. 
California and South Dakota. 

The operation is carried out with 
considerable precision. The trench- 
es, in a clay that is largely imperme- 
able to water, are dug with sharp 
edges and are precisely graded at 
the bottom so that rainwater enter- 
ing while the trench is open, or 
penetrating the day cap alter it is 
finished, can be pumped oul Wells 
monitor the water in the sandy soil 
under the day. 

After a trench is covered, the 
radiation level at the surface is no 
higher than levels of radiation that 
occur naturally in the area. 

The shape of the trench and pre- 


NOfiTH CAROLINA 


SOUTH 

“ CohimW.- CAROLINA 


‘EBB 


Low-level radioactive waste 
is seat to Barnwell, South 
Carolina, for disposal. 

rise method of disposal depends on 
the material. In the trench desig- 
nated for the least-contaminated 
material, 1,000 feet long, 100 feet 
wide and 22 feet deep. (303 meters 
by 30.3 meters by 6.7 meters) work- 
ers position metal boxes that 
looked like small trash dumpsters, 
filled with 1,000 pounds (4S0 kilo- 
grams) of soil and, according to the 
labels, less that one-tenth of a gram 
of uranium. 

In a narrower, deeper trench 
nearby that will eventually be cov- 
ered with 6 inches (about 15 centi- 
meters) of concrete as a shield 
against inadvertent intrusion, tech- 
nicians often bury metal parts tak- 
en from the inride of reactors that, 
unshielded, could provide a lethal 
dose of radiation. Even in their 
shielded casks, they emit some 
gamma rays, and workers use a 
construction crane to avoid gening 
too dose. 


Monday night’s speech that tax 
simplification can only pass if Pres- 
ident Reagan pushes hard and that 


it must be considered as a package 
with no preferences excluded. He 
also was to argue that many current 
tax breaks were worthy in their 
time, but have gone too far. 


Letter*BombTest 
In US. Backfires 
On Israelis 

The Associated Press 

NEW YORK — A security 
test carried out by Israeli agents 
backfired when a fake Inter 
bomb being mailed to a diplo- 
mat was spotted by a hotel 
derfc, according to the New 
York Daily News. 

The newspaper said Sunday 
that a clerk at the San Carlos 
Hotel in Manhattan, found a 
large envelope Thursday ad- 
dressed to an Israeli diplomat 
who had checked out a few days 
before. The clerk peered 
through an open comer of the 
envelope, saw electrical wires 
and called police, the paper 
said. 

Israeli security officers told 
police that the fake bomb had 
been mailed in an internal secu- 
rity check to see if Israeli agents 
amid intercept iL They said 
that four other lake bombs had 
been mailed but did not say 
what had happened lo them, 
police sources told the newspa- 
per. 


NASA Assails Air F orce Plan to Use Missiles Instead of Shuttle 


By Thomas O’Toole 

Washington Past Service 

WASHINGTON —The head of 
NASA has criticized the air force 
and the National Oceanic and At- 
mospheric Administration for a 
plan to launch some satellites 
aboard surplus missiles rather than 
on the space shuttle. 

"1 don't want to suggest that 
anything dark is going on here, but 
some people think this whole affair 
may be a heavy-handed scheme by 
(he air force to give the shuttle a 
black eye," said James M. Beggs. 
the administrator of the National 
Aeronautics and Space Adminis- 
tration. Ton know, the old syn- 
drome that if it wasn't invented 
here, h can't be all that good.” 

“I don’t like it," Mr. Beggs said 
in an interview. "It is not good for 
our short-term future and makes it 
that much more difficult for' us to 
get on an even footing in the next 
five years.” 

Using missiles rather than the 
shuttle Tot those satellites will cost 
NASA more than $500 million in 
lost business, he said. 

At the heart of the dispute is an 
airforcederisfon to asererurbisbed 



James M. Beggs 

and redeveloped Titan-2 intercon- 
tinental ballistic missiles to launch 
up to 12 air force satellites and 
three National Oceanic and Atmo- 

S heric Administration satellites 
it NASA had assumed would be 
flying on its shuttle. 

Mr. Beggs said he had long as- 
sumed. that the oceamc and atmo- 
spberac administration and the air 


force were committed to using the 
shuttle, although no formal agree- 
ment had been signed. 

"I'm not worried about the long- 
term effects of this derision be- 
cause there's a limit on the number 
of Titan-2s they have to move in on 
our business,” Mr. Beggs said. 
“What bothers me is that they de- 
cided to move in on us in the first 
place. It doesn’t help NASA any.” 

Tbe air force last year derided to 
decommission its 51 remaining Ti- 
tan-25 after an accident in 1982 
destroyed one of them in its rilo in 
Arkansas. Tbe air force has re- 
moved 23 of the missiles from silos 
in Arkansas, Kansas and Arizona 
and sent them to Norton Air Force 
Base in San Bernardino. California, 
for storage. 

When oceanic and atmospheric 
heard about the air force move, its 
acting administrator, Anthony J. 
Calio, a former NASA official, 
contacted the air force about 
launching three advanced weather 
satellites called Metsai into polar 
orbit over the next seven years. 

“The air force has offered me a 
deal that’s going to save me S90 
million, and Tm going to take it," 


Mr. Coho said. "This agency has a 
budget of $1 billion a year, so we're 
talking about 10 percent of our 
annual budget. This is strictly a 
business deal and nothing more 

lhan that." 

Mr. Beggs said that he did not 
think that tbe agency would save 
that much. He also said that tbe air 
force was going to bear the refur- 
bishment cost to redevelop the Ti- 
tan-2, a cost that Mr. Beggs said 
could reach $100 million. 


Mr. Beggs said he believed there 
would be a savings for the n&xenr 
and atmospheric administration 
and "a net loss to the U.S. Trea- 
sury.” 

"I think this whole scheme 
should be looked at very carefully 
by the administration and by Con- 
gress," Mr. Beggs said. 

The NASA official said that he 
was concerned that the air force 
plan could set a dangerous prece- 
dent 


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Page 4 


U.S. Decides Aid for Contras 
In N icaragua to Remain Covert 



% Joel Brinkley 

York Times Service 

WASHINGTON —The Reagan 
administration renewed its push 
for covert aid to the Nicaraguan 
rebels after concluding that the 
proposed alternatives could cost 

the United Slates the support erf its 
most important allies in Central 
America, according to senior ad- 
ministration officials. 

After months of internal debate, 
the administration rejected propos- 
als to aid the rebels openly, in part 
because such a move would force 
the United States to break diplo- 
matic relations with Nicaragua. 
Open aid to the rebels, a State De- 
partment official said, would be 
“close to a declaration of war.” 
Few allies of the United States, 
perhaps not even all the nations of 
Centra] America, would be Ukdy to 
support the United States by 
breaking relations with Nicaragua, 
the officials said. And that, they 
added, would be a major political 
embarrassment for Washington. 

A particular concern is that Nic- 
aragua's neighbors, Honduras and 
Costa Rica, might refuse to cooper- 
ate with U.S. policy if aid to the 
rebels were overt, they said 
While the aid was covert, those 
two nations, although long used as 
bases by the rebels, could continue 
to maintain in public that they were 
not involved in the struggle. But 
they fear that an overt guerrilla war 
might lead them into direct military 

confrontation with the Sandinists, 
the officials said 
For the United States, ending 
diplomatic relations with Nicara- 
gua would also mean closing the 
embassy in Managua. This the ad- 

Mauritias Comoro Flan Ties 

Agencc Franee-Presxe 

MORONI Comoro — Mauriti- 
us and the Islamic republic of 
Comoro have agreed to establish 
diplomatic relations, it was an- 
nounced Monday. 


ministration does not want to do. 
partly because it “serves as an im- 
portant intelligence platform,” an- 
other official said 
The search for alternatives to co- 
ven aid began after members of 
Congress, while making it dear 
that they strongly opposed renew- 
ing covert aid through the Central 
Intelligence Agency, said they 
would be open to alternatives, 
“even if it is just a new wrinkle,” an 
administration official said 
But finding an acceptable alter- 
native “is hard. It’s very hard,” said 
a senior offidal directly involved in 
discussions about Nicaragua. 

Congress cut off aid to the rebels 
last raring but approved S14 mil- 
lion for rite covert program this 
year. At the same tune, however, 

couMnot be spent unless it voted 
to release iL 

Last week. President Ronald 
Reagan and Secretary erf Slate 
George P. Shultz began a campaign 
to convince Congress and the pub- 
lic that aid should be restored 
Meanwhile, members of Con- 
gress from both parties said last 
week that they remained implaca- 
bly opposed to the covert aid pro- 
gram. 

Senator David F. Durenberger, 
the Minnesota Republican who is 
chairman of the Senate Select 
Committee on Intelligence, said 
administration officials told him 
last week that they were still willing 
to consider alternatives to covert 
aid But the officials said all the 
alternatives discussed so far bad 
failed or been rejected. 

Early this year, the White House 
was urging the main Nicaraguan 
rebel and exile groups to form an 
umbrella organization that the 
United States could aid openly. 

But several of the rebel groups 
have been feuding among them- 
selves for years and they were un- 
able to unite, although they did 
hold meetings to discuss the idea. 


SC/ 


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For man y mnmha, the adminis- 
tration has also urged the rebels to 
seize a Nicaraguan rity, where they 
could set up a provisional govern- 
ment that me United States could 
then recognize. But the rebels have 
been unable to capture and hold 
any territory outside the remote 
jungles in eastern Nicaragua. And 
now. senior officials say, it is even 
less likely that they will be able to 
do so. 

The Sandinists are using heavy 
artfflery against the rebds and “it 
scares the hell out of them,'* a se- 
nior official said. The rebds have 
nothing but light mortars to fire 
back, so major offensives lo cap- 
ture territory are no longer likely, 
the officials said. 

The White House has not settled 
on an alternative if. in the end. 
Congress refuses to approve coven 
aid. But several ideas are being dis- 
cussed, the officials said. 

Continued private financing of 
the rebds is the most likely alterna- 
tive, the officials said, with more 
direct encouragement to wealthy 
conservative Americans. But that 
would not solve an important prob- 
lem, they added. 

The main rebel group, the Nica- 
raguan Democratic Force, receives 

P rivate funds, but the United 
tales has conduded that the rebels 
cannot be effective without logisti- 
cal help as well, the officials said. 

The rebel group “isn’t short on 
money now,” a senior official said, 
but “they are having serious quar- 
termaster problems” supplying 
their troops with weapons, ammu- 
nition. food and other items. 

When the CIA aided the rebels, 
U.S. officers arranged the delivery 
of supplies and handled most other 
logistical matters. Now the rebds 
are having trouble doing all that 
themselves, a senior offidal said. 

Feeding and supplying up to 
15,000 troops in the field is a major 
undertaking, he added. 

If aid is not restored, the admin- 
istration would also consider im- 
posing economic and trade sanc- 
tions against Nicaragua, several 
officials said. The United States is 
Nicaragua’s main trading partner, 
and Nora Astorga, a deputy foreign 
minis ter of Nicaragua, said in an 
interview, “We are expecting trade 
problems, but so far we haven’t had 
any.” 

But if the United Stales were to 
impose a trade embarap, similar to 
that in place against Cuba, officials 
fear that few other nations would 
follow suit, which also would be 
embarrassing to the United States. 

In addition, Nicaragua would 
“have to look for other markets," 
Miss Astorga said, and American 
officials fear that would force Nica- 
ragua into a closer relationship 
with the Soviet Union. 


Duarte’s Power May Be Checked by Salvadoran Conservatives 

i n —— partial devaluation would in- 


By James LeMoyne 

New York Tima Service 

SAN SALVADOR — Presi- 
dent Josh Napotebn Duarte of El 
Salvador is a liberal leader of a 
political system that is increasing- 
ly controlled by his conservative 
opponents, according to senior 
Salvadoran officials, members of 
conservative political parties and 
Weston diplomats, 

Mr. Duarte's hold on his office 
is not considered threatened, but 
the power be wields will be limit- 
ed, government and Western offi- 
cials said. He mil be forced to 
compromise continually with 
conservative political parties, 
they add, a difficult process given 
the deep differences between Mr. 
Duarte’s Christian Democratic 
Party and its political adversaries. 

Mr. Duarte's party is seen by 
political commentators as unlike , 
ly to win a majority of seats in the 
Legislative Assembly in elections 
March 31. If it does not, conserva- 
tive parties will control the legis- 
lature. the Supreme Court and the 
attorney general's office for most 
of Mr. Duarte’s remaining four 
years in office. 

Mr. Duarte's aides said they 
were uncertain whether compro- 
mises with conservative legisla- 
tors would allow the president to 
pursue a pro-am of social change 
as he originally promised. 

“It wifi be hard, maybe much 
harder,” a presidential adviser 
said. “We won’t have very much 
power.” 

At a news conference this 
month, Mr. Dnarte himself 
seemed somber about the road 
ahead. “It is certain it will be 
difficult,” he said. 

The Salvadoran president’s 
conservative opponents are less 
than sympathetic toward him, 
They accuse Mr. Duarte of in- 
competence, arrogance and an in- 
ability to c omp ro mi se, leading to 
doubts about their willingness to 
work with him. 



President Jos6 Napoledn Duarte of Q Salvador is 


Hugo Barrera, considered one 
of the most moderate members of 
the highly conservative National 
Republican Alliance, said that 
Mr. Duarte was neither “a Chris- 
tian nor a democrat.” 

“He is eminently socialist,” Mr. 
Barrera said. “Mr. Duarte will 
have to chang e his ways of politi- 
cal action or else he will create 
problems for hims elf” 

Western officials and indepen- 
dent Salvadoran political analysts 
said in interviews that Mr. Duarte 
was likely to become more depen- 
dent on the U.S. Embassy and on 
the army high command. 

U-S. officials here have said 
they support a victory for Mr. 
Duarte's opponents in the legisla- 


tive elections to keep them in- 
volved in the democratic process, 
according to both Salvadoran 
government offi cials and mem- 
bers of conservative political par- 
ties. 

A spokesman for the U.S. Em- 
bassy h«s denied that the enrf assy 
is supporting any particular result 
in elections. But Mr. Duane said 
last week that he would complain 
to the U.S. ambassador, Thomas 
R. Pickering, about reports that 
embassy officials had said they 
hoped Mr. Duarte's party would 
not win control of the assembly. 

“The assumption of democracy 
at the United States Embassy is 
that the right can never be a mi- 
nority,” said a leading Salvadoran 


political analyst in frequent con- 
tact with the embassy. “The em- 
bassy backs the right because it 
fears what it might do without 
power.” 

in addition, the embassy is seen 
as bolding effective veto power 
over the government's economic 
policies through its control of eco- 
nomic aid- 

When Mr. Duarte resisted a 
significan t partial devaluation of 
the nurimml currency in Novem- 
ber. the embassy reportedly re- 
fused to approve the release of 
S65 millio n to the Salvadoran 
government, according lo Salva- 
doran and Western officials. 

Mr. Duarte and other Salva- 
doran officials argued that the 


; for the Christian Democrats. 
_jt the embassy insisted, the offi- 
cials said, and Mr. Duarte gave in. 

“He was desperate," raid an 
official aware of the dilute. “The 
gove rnment had no foreign re- 
serves.” 

Mr. Duarte’s lack of power has 
heroine more evident as the - 
flwfawiisms of the enraging po- 7 
hticaJ system have been exercised 

in recent weeks. 

The 60 seats in the legislature 
are dominated by a conservative - 
majority. The Uiristian Demo- ;■ 
oats hold 24 seats. 

By continuing to control the 
legislature, conservative parties . 
mUhave the power to approve or 
reject Mr. Duarte’s budget, legis- 
lative and tax proposals, changes 
in the land redistribution pro-.- 
gram, an amnesty for leftist re* 
bds, or any negotiated se ttlem e n t "• 
of the five-year civil war. 

The assembly's conservatives 
also elected fellow rightists to 
control the Supreme Court and 
the attorney general's Office. The 
power of such combined mQtt- . 
f - n ce over the judiciary and the 
legislature was demonstrated 
when the assembly recently 
an electoral law tailored to 
give their fpwriiriMtes a significant 
advantage. 

The law allows the largest con- 
servative parties — the National.".'' 
Republ ican Affiance, led try Ro- 
berto d'Aubtnsson, and the Na- 
tional Conciliation Party — to 
form a coalition but not to an* - 
□ounce that fact on the baUoL ■ • 
They will be able to maintain . 
their separate symbols on the bal- 
lot, only rrmthtning their vote af- 
ter the election. 

When Mr. Duarte vetoed the 
provision, the Supreme Court de- 
clared his action imconstituticn- 
aL and the legislation became law. . 


U.S. Cigarette Tax: What Went Up May Not Come Down 


By TJL Rdd 

Washington Pat Soviet 

DENVER — Two years ago 
Congress promised that the tax on 
a pack of cigarettes would drop 
from 16 cents to eight cents on Oct. 
1 of this year. 

Now eh*™** are strong that 
Congress, undo 1 pressure to reduce 
the deficit, will renege on its pledge 
to reduce the federal cigarette tax. 

In the meantime, slate legisla- 
tures across the country are moving 
swiftly to add their own 8 -cent tax 
to a cigarette pack. And at least 
eight states are considering legisla- 


tion to raise the slate lax even if the 
federal levy is not cut. 

As a result, the cigarette tax has 
become the focus of a major na- 
tional lobbying campaign tins year. 
Tobacco interests are fighting to 
block any increase and a coalition 
of health groups is working to raise 
the tax. 

According to the Tobacco Insti- 
tute, an industry trade group in 
Washington, stale and federal tax- 
es today increase the retail price of 
a pack of cigarettes by about one- 
third. 

At the end of 1983, the group 
says, the average price for all types 


of cigarettes was 94.7 cents per 
pack. Of that, 16 cents was the 
federal excise tax and 14 J cents 
went to state taxes. 

The federal tax was raised from 
eight cents to 16 cents in 1982. 
Congress called it a u temporary’ 
increase, to be cut back to eight 
cents this Oct 1. That scheduled 
reduction would cost the Treasury 
about $ 2.6 billion next year. 

Senator Bob Packwood, Repub- 
lican of Oregon and chairman the 
Senate Finance Co mmi ttee, says he 
expects the federal levy to remain 
at 16 cents per pack. “It won’t be 
raised, it won't be lowered, but it 


will be extended.” be predicted last 
month. 

When state legislatures con- 
vened this year, they looked at the 
federal tax cut as an almost invisi- 
ble way to raise state taxes. If the 
slate taxes were raised by eight 
cents on Oct 1, smokers would 
notice no difference in retail price, 
and the states would get increased 
tax revenues. 

The Tobacco Institute says 19 
states have cigarette tax increases 
pending. Most bffis make the in- 
crease contingent on the promised 
cut in the federal tax. but the legis- 
lation in eight stales .would raise 


the tax even if the federal levy re- 
mains at 16 cents. 

The Coalition on Smoking and . 
Health, composed of such groups 
as the American Cancer Society 
and the Asthma and Allergy Foun- 
dation, has been lobbying for just 
that result _ 

1L8 Million UveinTobyo 

Reuters 

TOKYO — Tokyo’s population 
reached 1 1,833.478 on Jan. 1, 1985. 
That is 79.294 more than on the 
mme dale last year, the metropdi- 
tan government announced Mon- 
day. 


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AN INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE 

Organized By 

Plant Location International 
In Cooperation With 
The International Herald Tribune 

The Investment Climate 
and Incentives in Europe 

April 25-26, 1985, Brussels 

The conference mil provide senior executives with an in-depth analysis of the current 
and future investment climate and the incentives offered in sixteen 
European countries. Question and answer periods will follow each session. 


Thursday, 

Norway: Mr. V. Hveding, Chairman, Christiania Bank Oslo, 
former Minister of Energy. 

Deomafc: Mr. M. Ostergaard, Managing Director, Industrial 
Development Council of North Jutimid. 

BdgH>n: Baron A. Bekaert, President BekaertN.V. 

The Netherlands: Mir. AAAI van Agt, Commissioner 
erf the Queen, Governor of N. Brabant Province, forma- 
Prune Minister. 

Guest hodheon speaker: Prof. Dr. P. Mathysen, 

Director Gerreral of The EC Regional 


April 25, 1985 

Austria: Mr. G. L Germ, General Manager, ICD, framer General 
Manager, General Motors Vienna. 

Su taafand : Mr. Cari Meyer, Vice-President Finance, 

Swiss Asuag-SSIH. 

Sweden: Mr. Kl Lewenhanpt, The Wyatt 
Company AB. 

Luxembow g Mr. Z. Magnus, General Manager. 

Kredielbank, Luxembourg. 

Reception: 

Hosted by Minister of Brussels. Mr. P. Hatty. 


France: Mr. J. Raul Home, Senior Economist, Smith Barney, 
Harris Upham & Co. 

West Gennaoy: Mr. B. Layton, former President, Ford Europe. 
Portugal: Mr. E. Lopez, Minister of Finance. 

Spake Don Leon Bendhas, Geoeral Assistant Directs 
of Economic Planning, Ministry of Economics. 

Guest luncheon speaker. Mr. W. Martens* Prime Minister 
erf Belgium. 


Friday, April 26, 1985 

Italy: Dr. Gianni Vaiasl President of the Federation of 
the Chemical Industry, Italy. 

Greece: Mr. S. Papaefsiathiou, Deputy Governor, Heflemou e 
Industrial Dooopment Bank. 

Uiated Kkigrionr Sr Edwin Nixon, President, IBM (UJK.). 
Ireland: Mr. L. P. Doyle, General Mana^r, Allied Irish 
Banks Limited Europe. 




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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 26, 1985 


PageS 


Oslo Says Spy Suspect Told ol Being Blackmailed 


.>-0 




- V 
. ' 




******* „ 


- - 


■•• i - 


7&f Aw 

OSLO — The prosecutor in the 
espionages rial of Arne Treholt said 
Monday that the former diplomat 
told of being sexually blackmailed 
into providing nuclear and other 
military secrets from Norway and 
NATO to agents of the Soviet 
Union. 

Mr. Treboh. who bad been the 
spokesman in the Ministry for For- 
eign Affairs, told interrogators that 
he attended a private party in Mos- 
cow in 1975 that limned into an 
"orgy," according to the prosecu- 
tor, Lars Qvigstad. Mr. Trehdt 
aid that he was confronted later 
with photographs by a Soviet agent 
who demanded to know his a rm; 
to secret material, the prosecutor 
said. 

In his first presentation in the 
opening sessions of Mr. Trebolt's 
trial Monday, Mr. Qvigstad out- 
lined a long series of contacts after 
1975 between Mr. TrefaoU and So- 
viet agents. 

He said many ttetatk of Mr. Trc- 
holt’s work for the Soviet Union 
woe too sensitive to be disclosed in 
court. Mr. Treholt was ymKrd of 
providing the Soviet Union with 
secrets that included NATO nucle- 
ar strategies. 

Mr. Qvigstad described ex- 
changes of documents in Oslo and 
New York restaurants, in the dele- 




Ante Treholt, left, talking with one of bis lawyers, Andreas Arntzen, before his trial began. 


the West German chancellor, and 
other ranking Weston ofndais 
during a 10-year period. 


Norwegian newspapers have tioned military supplies for use by 
quoted him as saying m a letter NATO if they had to be called for 
smuggled out of prison that he was help in an international crisis. 


• Weston assessments of the 
Iran-Iraq war, of Israeli and Syrian 
militar y arrangements in Lebanon 
and of Soviet forces in Afghani- 
stan. 

• Confidential accounts of meet- 
mgs in 1976, 1979 and 1981 be- 
tweenNorwegjan officials and Mr. 
Kissinger; Mr. Schmidt; Fiore El- 
liott Trudeau, who was mime min- 
ister of Canada; Lord Carrington, 
who was prune minister of Britain, 
and others. 

•An account of a 1981 conver- 
sation between a Norwegi a n offi- 
cial and Lawrence S. Eagjebnrger, 
then assistant UJS. secretary of 
state, cm UJ5. negotiating positions 
on NATO *s tang-range nuclear 
forces. 

Police charged that Mr. Treholt 
had been in contact with Soviet 
intelligence officers since 1974 and 
had paffij fd secrets to them both in 
Europe and in the United States. 

In addition, officials said he had 
admitted taking S50.000 from Iraqi 
agents to whom he bad also sup- 
plied information. 

Mr. Treholt was ooce an aide in 
Norwegian-Soviet border area 
talks that involved sensitive areas 
of the Barents Sea. 

He served as a member of Nor- 
way’s mission to the United Na- 
tions from 1979 to 1982, a period 



% 





Lydia Gromyko received a bouquet from a boy after she and ber husband, Andrei A. 
Gromyko, second from right, arrived in Rome. At right is Gralio Andreotti, the Italian 
foreign minister, and in the crater Nikolai. Lunkov, the Soviet ambassador to Italy. 

Gromyko, in Rome for Talks, to Meet Pope 


gates’ lounge and library of the The charges, made public for the not a spy but an “unorthodox dip- • Details of the organization and a P~” 

United Nations and in a jogging first time Monday, were included lomat" trying to improve Soviet operation of Norwegian military L-n? ^ 


park near Oslo. 

In earlier testimony Monday, 
Mr. Treholt day denied that he had 
violated Norwegian security laws. 

Mr. Treholt was accused of giv- 
ing Soviet agents details of Norwe- 
gian and North Atlantic Treaty Or- 
ganization air defense and wanting 
systems, as well as reports on the 
defense of Norway’s remote border 
with the Soviet Union. 

He also was accused of revealing 
Weston intelligence on the Middle 
East and Af ghanistan to Iraq and 
the Russians and of disclosing con- 
tents of talks with Henry ATKjssin- 
gpr, who was the U.S. secretary of 
state; Helmut Schmidt, who was 


in a l S-page list read at the opening 
of Mr. Treholt ’s trial. 

Mr. Treholt, 42, once considered 
one of the country’s fastest tiring 
diplomats, said: “I never revealed 


understanding of Norwegian na- 
tional interests. 

Among the items that Mr. T re- 


intelligence and its targets. 

• Classified information on Nor- 
wegian and NATO theories about 


bolt was charged with passing to where and bow the Soviet Union 


anythin referring to the security of were: 


either the Soviet Union or Iraq 


the country in the points referred lo 
in the indictment." 


• NATO strategies regarding the 
use of nuclear weapons, including 


He has been in custody since his the point at which they might be 
arrest at Oslo's airport on Jan. 20, introduced into an East- West miK- 
1984. The police said he was pro- tary conflict, 
paring to leave Norway with 66 • Details of Norway’s land, sea 

NATO and other documents in- and air defenses in the Arctic Nor- 
tended for Soviet agents in Vienna. wegjan-Soviet border area, which 
Mr. Treholt was charged with constitutes NATO's northern 
violations of both ci vilian and mili- flank, 
tary security laws that could bring a •Secret information on Nor- 

prisen tenn of 20 years, way’s arrangements to prepcsi- 


would have to make its northern 
attacks in an East-West conflict, 
what responses amid be made and 
the weaknesses and problems fac- 
ing allied faces. 


under surveillance by the FBL 
From late 1982 to early 1983, he 
was chosen to attend Norway’s Na- 
tional Defense College, where he 
would have been briaed on secret 
military matters. When he was ar- 
rested, Mr. Treholt was the newly . 
nam ed head of the Ministry of For- 
eign Affairs press office. 


United Prtts International 

ROME — Andrei A Gromyko, the Soviet for- 
eign monster, arrived Monday for meetings with 
Italian leaders and Pope John Paul II on his first 
vise to ftaly since 1979, when Italy angered Mos- 
cow by agreeing to install 1 12 NATO cruise ms- 
riles in Sicily. 

The Vatican announced shortly after Mr. Gro- 
myko's arrival that the pontiff would interrupt his 
Lenten retreat to receive the Soviet diplomat 
Wednesday morning. A spokesman said that the 
audience would be a “titw-tftte." 

Mr. Gromyko, making his sixth visit to Rome in 
19 yean, was scheduled to begin talks Tuesday 


with Prime Minister Bettmo Craxi and the Italian 
foreign minister, Giulio Andreotti. The discussions 
are expected to center on East-West relations, 
especially on the reopening of UiL-Soviet midear 
aims talks in Geneva on March 12 and string 
Soviet opposition to President Ronald Reagan's 
space defense plans. 

Mr. Gromyko's last official visit to Italy was in 
January 1979, 1 1 months before NATO derided to 
deploy entire and Pershing-2 missil es in Western 
Europe to counter the threat of Soviet SS-20s. Italy 
is deploying 112 cruise misriks at Cotmso, SicQy. 

Mr. Gromyko is also scheduled to meet Presi- 
dent Sandro Pertini. 


Arizona Water Project Has (Mlifornia Scrambling for Sources 


By Iver Peterson chain erf events, but it has become a rado developed who approachwl has attracted diverse support. Coo- Group's proposal Galloway re- 

New York Timet Service symbol of the changes in the West's San Diego with a controversial servationists like the idea of land- cemly put the offer an hold while 

DENVER — Late tins year the approach to its most valuable re- proposition. The developers pro- owners selling their water to rides can^leting negotiations to deliver 

ie pumps of the Central Arizona source. pose to impound water behind downstream, because the higher 100 acre-feet of water to a small 

reject will start to spin, sending a “As soon as you get into a water dams in northern Colorado and costs might hinder development. In utility south of Phoenix, Arizona, 

tver of water over mountain and shortage, people start looking then “lease” it, at the rate of about this, they agree with some causer- San Diego County officials and wa- 


dutin of events, but it has become a 
symbol of the changes in the West's 


rado developers who approached has attracted diverse su 
San Diego with a controversial servationists like the k 


Efrem Zimbalist, 94, Violinist, Dies; 
Acclaimed for His 'Noble’ Technique 


big pumps of the Central Arizona source 
Project will start to spin, sending a “As 
river of water over mountain and shorts 
desert to Phoenix. With the fust aroun 


e, people start looking then “lease” it, at the rate of about this, they agree with so 
for new sources, and die 50,000 aare-feet a year, to San Die- votive economists who 


EU 


New York Tima Service 

NEW YORK — Efrem Zamba- 
list, 94, a violinist celebrated for his 
technique, mutidanship and patri- 
cian bearing in a career that 
spanned more than half a century, 
died Friday in Rena 

Mr. ZimbaSst, along with Jascha 
Heifetz, Mischa Elman and Na- 
than MDstein, was oue of the dis- 
tinguished alumni of Leopold 
Aliens legendary violin classes in 
Czarist .SL Petersburg. Erom his 
first American appearance in 2912 
— when he played the U.S.- pre- 
miere erf Alexander Glazunov’s 
Concerto in A minor with the Bos- 
ton Symphony Orchestra — until 
ids retirement from the concert 
stage more than 40 years later, Mr. 
Zimbalist was acclaimed by col- 
leagues, critics and the general pub- 
lic as one of the ‘most respected 
musical figures of his time. 

“Less emotional than Elman’s 
and less perfectionist than Hei- 
fetz’s, Zanbalist’5 interorctrations 
derived their strength from a 
searching penetration into the 
meaning of the muse," the late 
Boris Schwarz wrote in the . New 
Grove Dictionary of Music and 
Musicians. “His quiet tempera- 
ment led to unhurried tempos; his 
performances were noble, fine- 
1 grained, never extrovert. In general 
, he avoided virtuoso edribitiomsm, 
yet be could play Paganini with 

In 1928. Mr. Zimbalist joined the 
| violin faculty of the newly fanned 
Curtis Institute in Philadelphia, bc- 
> coming the bead of tbe department 
two years later. He was appointed 
the director of the institute m 1941, 
a portion he held until 1968. 

Mr. Zimbalist was bom in Ros- 
tov-on-Don. Russia. He began his 
violin studies with his father, Aar- 
on Zimbalist, who conducted the 
orchestra of the Rostov Opera. By 
the age of 9, he was a member of 
this orchestra. In 1901, he entered 
the Sl Petersburg Conservatory, 
where he began working with Auer, 

■ and also studied composition with 
Nicolai Rimsky-Korsakov. He re- 
ceived the conservatory's gold 
medal and the Anton Rubinstrin 
prize of 1,200 ruhles upon his grad- 
uation in 1907. 

Alexander Scoorby, 

Narrated ‘Victory at Sea* 

LOS ANGELES (LAT) — Alex- 
ander Scranrby, 71, the gen ial actor 
whose precise and resonant voice 


___ _ ___ , history of the Colorado River’s Lawrence R. Michaels, 

vwm Tlio r l nurturing of the dry Southwest will manager of the San Dkg< 

XXlo .LxOJjXC X ClXIIlll|IIv begin, and the stales in its basin are Water Authority. 

JL already scrambling to meet the Arizona will start by 

was heard narrating the “Victory * come an actor, returned to London, change ) a ^ X}U r. ^ ’^? 

The project »ai give Arizona the 


rash of wafer, a new age m the long CAP has certainly done that," said go for 20 years. The water, which water should be treated 


that ter exports see the Arizona venture 
any as a test case on the legality of tins 


would be released into the river other commodity and sold to the kind ol transfer of water nights. 


system, would be privately owned. 
The plan turns on a fine point erf 


bidder. 


“The idea is a lot huger than 


the region's water a gencies, some people realize,” Mb. Michaels 


Arizona will start by Rawing Western law, which holds that the which have delivered inexpensive, of San Diego said. “What’s really 
about 600,000 acre-feet of water a first person to pul a source of water subsidized water to Southern Cali- behind this is a whole new way of 


/ear from the Colorado. (An acre 

oot is the amount of water it takes 


about World War H, died Saturday duetkm of “Dracola" and. in 1932, water it has tong bem entitled to by . 15 ^ amount ot water u taxes 

in Boston after a short Alness. “Beau Geste.” Nod Coward cast h* but coSfnot use until the to ^ cr “f aCT !? °a 
B ora m Brooklyn, he was the son him in his 1934 revival of “Hay construction of the mnltibfflion- 
of Greek immigrants who expected Fever” and his “Conversation dollar networkof pumps, dams and ,WW8auonsor 1-4 

him to follow his father into the Piece.” He came to America in canals. In the meantime, Arizona’s mUfl0n 


1 use may continue to do so. 
Galloway Group’s proposal 


forma's farmers for decades, have looking at water and relations be- 
vowed to fight the Galltfway tween the states.” 


bakery business. But as a young 1935. 

man he became involved in the Ap- r M n<»m» 07 

prentice Theater, which presented ™ 

plays at the New School tor Social American Actr 

Research during the 1933-34 sea- NEW YORK 

son, and won his first major profes- Claire, 92. one of 1 

skmal role as 4he Player King in ed performers of 


share of the lower Colorado’s water 
has been t aken by Southern Cali- 
fornia farms and dries, and their 


““““ A ...inimin A , lOima IBTU1S SUMS UUQ, UUU WOT 

t impending loss of water .has 
(NYT) i Ina prompted a searchior new sources, 
ofes- Claire, 92, one of the mostedebrat- A • -■ 

, gi? ed perfonners of comedy on 

from the oppe 


The state is entitled to take 2.8 
minio n acre-feet, which is now go- 
ing to California under the “use it 


Stay at a Palace in Cairo. 


raassasa 


Leslie Howard’s production of the American stage, died Thursday 
“Hamlet” in 1936. in San Francisco. 

His stage career continued with Among her most memorable 


^^FrandsroT from the upper reaches oT the river i San Diegp County stands to lose 

. . , , to San Diego, California. Else- the most When the Central Arizona 

^ whcre ’ *** RTOrwin* shorty of Prqect gets started. It uses 300,000 

portrayals were the urbane charac- cheap water has set off similar bid- to 500,000 acre-feet of water a year, 
jers sheshaped, mixing delicate <fing among cities and utilities, an- while it is entitled to only 165,000. 

*62 gcring farmas who fear that lhc The county, whose water is sup- 
^ f^ iragation, ^kd by the Metropolitan Water 
°8 ra P°Y in 1932, . Ena erf Sim- force than out of business. DfctricL is notinimmafiate dancer 


^ tbe Western states, if the owners 

Bwsouicp. QgQQoiipse their rightful riuue,. the 
', for exam- water may be taken, by 

Img watd. r thoK.who can. 


appearances in Ma uri ce Evans’ portrayals were the urbane charac- 
“Hamlet,” and “Henry IV, Part F* rent she .dm prd , mi Ting delicate 
and in “Richard IL" banter, modceiy and irony, in three 

Meanwhile, he had begun a par- comedies by S.N. Behnnan — “Bi- 


aOd career in radio, playing run- ograpby” in 1932, “End of Sum- 


The county, whose water is sup- 
led by the Metropolitan Water 
istrict, is not in immediate danger 


ning puts in five srapoperas, nar- u^ it 1936 aid “Tbe TaDey ^ SSSSSfrSS 

Mctbod ” ,94L for wajSTSi water ^ ^uSSSSSiSk 

^ 111 po^yed Ethel into opportunities to restrain Jobas been plentiful in rec 

~r *T °* "TOaaway m 1930. urcla Uar- ^ Arizona ftqect, or with two or three dry years and 




. ess Swana, in “Ninotchka” in 1939 

brcad^fra^n^i^ m and Dorothy McGuire’s mother in 
^ “d Gl ^ i for ^ “Claudia" in 1943. But Miss Claire 

considered filmmaking as funda- 
T mentally a director’s art and chose 


with Glerm Ford m “Affair In 
Trinidad," and “The Big HeaL" 

In the early 1950s, be moved into 


to appear in only nine movies. 
Starting in vaudeville at 13, Miss 


television as both actor and naira- c V lirc specialized in imperson- 


for in dramatic productions. 


ations of leading performers, grad- 


Sakxidor Church 
SaysDeathToU 
Mounting Rapidfy 

Ihtiud Pros International 


But his work as the unseen narra- “ ted ^ musicals, revues and Unted Pros International traydiows 
tor for such, television documenta- farces and emerged as tbe premiere SAN SALVADOR — The Ro- afford to s; 
ries as “Victory At Sea,” “Three, hgbi-hearted sophisticate in come- man Catholic Church has noted a 
T»u One. Zero," “The Coming Of ®es of manners. marked increase iin the death toll in The GaE 

Christ" that made his reputation as ■ Other Deaths: El Salvador’s ciyfl war, with 157 consortium 


on time, the water district estimates I 
that its 1.5 nnllion-acFe-foot system 
would be short by a thud in, 1990 
and by a half in the year 2000. 

“If the Met is short, we really live 1 
a disaster," Mr. Michaels said, re- 
ferring to the water district “We 
have to look for other ways to get 
water, so when someone hike Gallo- 
way shows up at our doer we can’t 
afford to say, ‘Ah, we don't think 


T he heart of the Cairo Marriott Hold is a 
real Palace - splendidly restored And 
Merest of the hotel is palatial too. 

Enjoy gourmet restaurants, comfortable 
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your relaxation. 

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hand 

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There are superb Marriott Hotels at over 
140 locations world-wide. For reservations.- 
United States ® 800 228 9290; Amsterdam 


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2353474; Hong Kong 15) 262 251: Tokyo 
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CAIRO 

Harriott 

W W HOTEL 


Christ” that made his reputation as 
what a Variety writer once called, 
“the voice of the world." 1 


Tbe Galloway Group Ltd. is a 
consortium erf northwestern Colo- 


AMMAN ■ AMSTERDAM - ATHENS - CAIRO • JEDDAH • KUWAIT ■ LONDON • PARIS ■ RJVAPH ■ VIENNA 


Genoa! Jacques de G^HeboD, m a raant seven- 


75. former director of the Institute 


He al^_ recorded mare than 300 for Advanced Studies on National 


works of literature for the blind 

Louis Hayward, 75, 

Flayed Swashbucklers 


day period. 

An auxiliary bishop, Gregririo 


Defense a wartime c aide to Rosa Chavez, said in a sermon Snn- 


General Charles de Gaulle, Mon- 
day in Paris. 

Carol Sutton, 51, who became 


t the Catholic human rights 
recorded 157 lriffings of d- 
rebds and army troops be- 


MKEESZam 

1930s and 40s, died of hing cancer ville. Kentucky, Tuesday of cancer. ... . ,, . 

Friday in Palm Springs, California. Isaac Kashdan. 79, one of the The bt&nop OTtictzed lrftist guo- 

Mr. Hayward was best known foremost chess players in the Unit- riDas J or cnuA J and uapia 
for his roles in costume pictures ed Stales in the 1930s and 1940s of .several avihaiis; he 

such as “The Man in the Iron aud for many years the chess editor said paramilitary rightist death 

of The Los Angeles Times, squads were continuing to execute 
Wednesday in Los Angeles. Salvadoran refugees who returned 

Aichbisiiop Dennot J. Ryan, 60, l °^^ ry ' - J 

lit* fnnrun- )ipo>1 nf th* TTnMin anh. Tb® leftist IBbdS aTC fighting tO 


EXCLUSIVE PARIS/MIAMI 

NON-STOP 


Mask,” in which he played dual of The Los Angeles Times, squaos woe rommumg rc iraccu® 
roles, and “Son erf Monte Crista” Wednesday in Los Angel es. Salvadoran rdugees who returned 

The son of a gold-mining engi- Archbishop Dennot J. Ryan, 60, c . . ,^l 

neer, Mr. Hayward was bran in the former head of the Dublin arch- The ltftist rebels are fighting to 
Johannesburg m 1909 and, after his diocese who had been sorving in the overthrow the U.S.-backcd Salya- 
father’s death, was raised by his Vatican as the chief of the office for doran govenunenL and more man 
unde in England. He attended col- the Propagation erf the Faith, of a 40,000 people have died in the five- 
lege in France and, deciding to be- heart attack Thursday in Rome. year avu war. | 


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*-Kj 



PuMwfacri WWiThe Xew Yoifc Times and Post 


Sribunc 


Zia, for One, Is Smiling 


The headline said hundreds of Pakistanis 
Md been arrested on the eve of national elec- 
tions. Next to it was apicture of the president 
and martial law administrator, Mohammed 
Zia ul-Haq, smiling. ’Hie juxtaposition was no 
doubt accidental, but it says so mething sugges- 
tive about President Zia’s Pakistan. 

In his evident view, things go fairly wdL 
Economic gains have been steady, remittances 
hold rum, crops are good; the mass of people 
at the bottom are entitled to have some sense 
that conditions have improved under the mar- 
tial law regime proclaimed in 1977. Support of 
the Afghan resistance exposes Pakistan to cer- 
tain risks and costs, but com p ensation has 
come in closer ties with other Islamic countries 
and with the United States. Meanwhile, the 
political opposition is harmed and, partly as a 
result, dispirited. The single legal “party,” the 
military, salutes the commander in chief. 

President Zia, does not show much embar- 
rassment over a political order that looks sus- 
piciously like indefinite, arbitrary one-man 
rule. Last December he engineered a no-com- 
petition referendum meant to give him a per- 
sonal mandate, and now he is following up by 
staging empty elections to a new National 


Assembly; no parties are competing and the 
individuals permitted to campaign cannot use 
microphones. It was to ensure that opposition 
politicians did not use election day to make a 
show against the elections that he decided to 
lock than up for a while. After the elections be 
apparently intends to rewrite the now sus- 
pended constitution in order to set the presi- 
dent over the prime minis ter and an appointed 
“National Security CounriT over the elected 
National Assembly. In this way wffl be re- 
stored a tame form of civilian government that 
can be easily sidetracked in an ‘‘emergency.*’ 
The democratic train never got up much 
speed in independent Pakistan. The nation's 
security has never been ensured — not even its 
borders — and that failure has kept the mili- 
tary either in command of the political arena 
or loitering on the edges of it President Zia’s 
evident contempt for the civilian political side 
of Pakistan, however, is marked and disturb- 
ing. The coon try is too mature and loo natural- 
ly political a place to be treated indefinitely as 
a subordinate regiment. The United States 
hesitates to criticize, but President Zia should 
be criticized. He is die only one filing 

— THE WASHINGTON POST. 


Avenge the Bay of Pigs? 


What is behind the extraordinary effort that 
President Reagan and his chief aides are mak- 
ing to win congressional and public approval 
for their Nicaragua policy? It almost seems as 
if the administration had been seized by its 
own kind of “liberation theology,” a passion- 
ate but studied striving, both geopolitical and 
moralistic in content, to translate its deepest 
ideals into political reality. Prudence may limit 
a (tired application of this creed in places 
where communism, the enemy of freedom that 
the a dminis tration is readiest to attack, has 
been long ensconced. But in places where its 
presence is new or its roots are relatively shal- 
low, the a dminis tration is pressing with ex- 
traordinary vigor to prevent new growth and 
to reverse what growth has taken place so far. 

The working premise appears to be that it is 
worth the difficulty and criticism to move now 
in places such as Afghanistan and, above all, 
Nicaragua, rather than stand on diplomatic 
ceremony and watch the local regimes snuff 
out liberty at their convenience and become, 
by result if not design, pawns erf Soviet power. 
This is the view that sees the hinge event of the 
last generation as the Bay of Pigs operation, 
where, in this view, the chance existed to block 
the consolidation of Communist rule in Cuba, 
bui the chance disappeared when an American 
president lost his nerve; and for this lapse the 
United States has since paid many times over. 
There is reason to believe that such a Bay of 
Pigs syndrome explains the otherwise outland- 
ish emitting tone in which the Reagan adminis- 
tration congratulated itself for its intervention 
in Grenada — a battle of such unequal odds 
that a self-respecting great power would other- 
wise speak of it only in a very modest way. 

In respect to Nicaragua, however, the evi- 
dence is that the administration's “liberation 
theology" is not held with equal fervor, or 
interpreted with equal literalness, in all quar- 
ters. At least three tendencies are visible be- 
neath the facade of official consensus. 

One, evident in parts of the Pentagon, says 
go, go now, seize the moment of the fresh 
Reagan mandate to back the “contras*' to the 
hilt, apply pressure on Nicaragua’s borders by 
constant maneuvers, push U.S. military sup- 
port operations right to the verge of direct 
intervention and leave open and threatening 
the possibility of committing U.S. forces. 

A second tendency, apparent in the speech- 


es of Defense Secretary Caspar Weinberger 
and in hints from the Joint Chiefs of Staff, 
hesitates at the thought of committing U.S. 
forces but acoepts the full range of other pres- 
sures now bring mobilized. The hope is that 
these will either ignite farther popular resis- 
tance within Nicaragua or break the spirit of 
the Sandinists, in either event averting the sort 
of direct U.S. role that would be uncertain and 
protracted (Nicaragua is not Grenada) and 
controversial and ought tend to curdle some of 
the public's taste for this group's number-one 
priority, the U.S. military buildup. 

A third tendency, not strong at present bnt 
biding its time for better days, holds that the 
essential thing is to stay alert to possibilities 
for converting military pressures into political 
accommodation, possibly with the help of Lat- 
in mediators. Regrettably, the negotiation cir- 
cuit is down right now; the mediating efforts 
of several Latin American countries are in 
suspension and Washington has broken off its 
bilateral talks with Managua. The State De- 
partment is the natural home for this tenden- 
cy, although Secretary of State George Shultz 
does not seem very hospitable to it these days. 

Where does President Reagan stand? In 
public he seems all but ready to swing into the 
saddle and charge up the Nicaraguan equiva- 
lent of San Juan Hm. He puts aside all of the 
grays — the existence still of a limited legal 
opposition, a popular fighting church and a 
substantial private sector; the fact that some 
few but important elements of the “freedom 
fighters” he lavishly praises are ex-Somaza 
henchmen who still act the pail; the fact that, 
because of past U.S. interventions in Nicara- 
gua, his policy stirs the nationalistic opposi- 
tion of many patriotic Nicaraguans and sepa- 
rates the United States from most of its friends 
in the hemisphere — including friends who 
regard the Sandinists with a very beady eye. 

Mr. Reagan is talking very tough — to 
intimidate die Sandinists and perhaps also to 
appease those people in his administration and 
constituency who favor military action. There 
is a real risk, however, that his talk win some- 
how be taken as authorization for certain ad- 
venturous steps that in fact he has not specifi- 
cally derided on. Preadmits have got in 
trouble before for seeming to give a green light 
for drastic actions that they came to regret 
— THE WASHINGTON POST. 


Thatcher’s Irish Lapse 


When Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher is 
good she is very good, as in her speech to 
Congress last week. Sbe offered a rousing 
defense of Western freedoms and a skillful 
accounting erf her Conservative government's 
record, (hi sticky alliance matters, she relied 
on indirection to speak for Europe without 
unsettling her friend. President Reagan. 

The Strategic Defense Initiative? Of course 
she favors research on defensive systems, but 
deployment would be “a matter for negotia- 
tion under a new treaty,” ergo a bargai n ing 
chip. The American deficit? Since no country 
is immune from its effect, she strongly sup- 
ports “your efforts to reduce the budget defi- 
cit.” How can richer countries preach adjust- 
ment to poorer countries and refuse to practice 
it at home? Good advice, well expressed. 

Much less satisfactory was Mri Thatcher’s 
treatment of Northern Ireland. She property 
denounced the murderous IRA. praised the 
Dublin government for its courage in combat- 
ing terrorism and warned Americans that 


seemingly innocuous contributions pay for 
murder. What was misting was even a hint 
about the grievances of the oppressed in the 
British-ruled North. She dealt with effects 
without mentioning the historic failure of a 
milli on Protestants to acknowledge the rights 
and humanity of half a million Catholics. 

So long as that majority wishes to remain 
British, she said, its wishes will be rejected: 
“If ever there were to be a majority in favor of 
chang e, then I believe that our Parliament 
would respond accordingly. For that is the 
principle of consent enshrined in your Consti- 
tution and an essential part of ours.” 

Taken on its face, this gives the majority an 
indefinite veto over any new arrangements in a 
province whose borders were drawn in 1921 to 
protect Protestant dominance. It means that 
there is little hope for the ideas of joint author- 
ity advanced by Prime Minister Garret Fitz- 
Gerald in Dublin. To dose the door to peace- 
ful change is to open it to gunmen. 

— THE NEW YORK TIMES. 


FROM OUR FEB. 26 PAGES, 75 AND 50 YEARS AGO 


1910: Women Taxpayers Want Vote 
CHICAGO — “Taxation without representa- 
tion is tyranny." This slogan has been adopted 
by the leaders of a new movement to gain the 
right of women to the ballot. Mrs. Winona S.F. 
Jones, who is active in the work of organizing 
the Woman’s Nontaxpaying League; said its 
members are to be bound by a pledge that they 
wiQ refuse to pay taxes until representation in 
the Government is granted to them. “When 
the jails are filled with members of (he 
league, and when the men and the pohtitiaas 
begin to realize that the taxes paid by 
women are no inconsiderable portion of 
the total paid throughout the country, some- 
thing will be done,” said Mrs. .Jones. 


1935: Unemployed Agitate for Relief 
LONDON — A cascade of green pamphlets 
railing on the government to withdraw the 

unemployment relief act was showered from 
the public gallery to the floor of the House 
of Commons {on Feb. 25] as a group of un- 
employed attempted to demonstrate against 
the proposed reductions in relief. Walts El- 
liott, Minister of Agriculture, was speaking 
when cries of “Down with the unemployment 
act” accompanied the rain of leaflets. Earlier 
in the day a party of fifty jobless Communists, 
rieriaring that they represented working-class 
organizations from aS parts of the country, 
invaded Downing Street and attempted to see 
Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald. 


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C 1985. International Herald Tribune. AB rights referred 



The Moral Duty Is Rather to Obey the Law 


N EW YORK — It can no longer be doubted 
that Nicaragua is the bone in Ronald Rea- 
gan’s throat, or that he intends lo change its 
Marxist government So it is perhaps expectable 
rtiai his r emarks should indude so much exagger- 
ation, disinformation and demagoguery. 

Bui whai excuse is there for Gttjrge Shultz, the 
secretary of state? Mr. Shultz is the chief U.S. 
diploma t, supposedly the steady man of the Rea- 
gan administration, the official who ought to be 
most concerned that his boss’s worst nigh t mares 
do not direct U.S. foreign policy. 

It was Mr. Shultz, not some politician on the 
stump, who declared roundly that the people of 
Nicaragua are now “b ehin d the Iron Curtain” 
and that the United States has a “moral duty” to 
help those trying to “bring about the freedom" of 
that country. In congressional testimony on Feb. 
19 supporting aid to the U.S.-backed “contras” 
operating a gains t the Sandinist regime, he added 
that “the democracies amply cannot put op with 
a Brezhnev doctrine” in Central America. 


By Tom Wicker 


rove 
or to 


Maybe Mr. Shultz was only trying to 
the charges of the departing U.S. amba 
France that there is something about the diplo- 
matic service that "takes the guts out of people." 
But surely Americans have a right to expect 
something better from their secretary of state — 
if not from their president — than this kind of 
imprecise reference and inflammatoiy discourse. 

“The Iron Curtain" is a phrase that, since its 
renowned use by Winston Churchill in 1946, has 
referred to direct Soviet control of other coun- 
tries, such as those in Eastern Europe. China is 3 
Communist country but it is not considered to be 
“behind the Iron Curtain” because it is not 
dominated by the Soviet Union. Nor is there a 
shred of evidence that Nicaragua, however 
Marxist its government and pro-Soviet its lean- 
ings, is controlled from Moscow. 

The Brezhnev doctrine — holding, in effect. 



that once a country has gone Communist other 
Communist countries have a right to keep it that 
way — was put forward in 3968 after Warsaw 
Pact nations intervened in Czechoslovakia, 
where the doctrine could be enforced. But Mos- 
cow has never offered the slightest hint that it 
extends such protection to Nicaragua, or intends 
to; the Brezhnev doctrine probably does not even 
cover Cuba, once the Soviets know they could 
pot enforce it in the Western Hemisphere. 

And that “moral doty” Mr. Shultz gratuitously 
declared for the rest of us is .in sharp conflict with 
some clearer Americ an obligations — to observe 
international law, to oppose the kind of state- 

sponsored terrorism that some of the activities of 

the anti-San dinist “contras” too closely resemble 
and to respect the self-determination of peoples. 
(There is lutle to suggest that Nicaraguans, for all 
the authoritarianism of the Sandinists, are gener- 
ally eager for their removal.)* 

But at least President Reagan and Secretary 
Shultz are no longer trying to bide their purpose 
in Nicaragua: They now make it dear that they 

want a change La government in Managua. When 
Mr. Reagan, for instance, called in a radio speech 
for mngf^ctnnal approval of a new $14 million 
in military aid for the “contras," be called them 
“freedom fighters” and “our brothers.” 

Mr. Shultz, telling Congress that the Sandin- 
ists are a “bad news government,” put it frankly: 
“Now bow can that get changed? We’d like to see 
them change.” His talk about the iron Curtain 
and the Brezhnev doctrine were well calculated 
to milk anti -Sandinist sentiment from the anti- 
communist passions of Americans. 

AD ibis puts an end to the spedous claim that 
in aiding the “contras’* Washington sought only 
to stop an alleged — never proven — flow of 
arms from N icaragua to the Marxist guerrillas in 
El Salvador. And any further pretense about 
“covert action” would now be ludicrous. 

So if Congress approves the S14 million, Ron- 
ald Reagan will have persuaded it to declare war 
at second hand on a government he does not like 
— one which has many faults but which is legal 
and recognized throughout the hemisphere and 
the world. If that is a moral duty, a lot of 
Americans will not recognize it. 

The New York Times. 


Mubarak Seems to See Gleams of a Broader Peace 


C AIRO — President Hosni Mu- 
barak has prepared with extra 
care for his trip to Washington next 
month. The stakes are high for Egypt, 
but his mood is remarkably relaxed. 
He evidently feels that thin g; are 
moving a gain m the Middle East and 
there is a chance of another break in 
the long Arab-Isradi impasse. 

Mr. Mubarak speaks repeatedly 
about the need to be “realistic.’’ He 
has no illusions that peace mil burst 
out suddenly. “We can't reach a solu- 
tion in one bop. That’s impossible,” 
he said, noting Egypt’s experience of 
a long series of steps. 

But he wants aired negotiations 
between Israel and a Jordanian-Pal- 
estioian delegation to begin as soon 
as posable. If both rides were willing, 
he would be glad to see than invited 
to meet in the United States, 
American mnfnpnhun to get si 
Or in Egypt. Or “anywhere,” he said. 
An international conference need 
only crane toward the end of the 
process, to give a “blessing" when 
agreement is reached. 

What Mr. Mubarak did not say in 
an interview with New York Times 
Cairo correspondent Judith Miller 


By Flora Lewis 


and me may be just as important. He 


did not mouth the usual Middle East 
demand that America put pressure 
on Israel to extract concessions. He 
did not recite the usual litany of Arab 
grievances as if the only problem 
were the rest of the world’s failure to 
grant redress. He did not run down 
the Israeli government and Prime 
Minister Shimon Peres. 

He did refer critically to some 
tough statements by Foreign Minis- 
ter Yitzhak S hamir and Industry 
Minister Ariel Sharon as “not helpful 
at all.” But he wondered aloud 
whether they really represented offi- 
cial Israeli government policy. And 
he said, “I don’t think anybody in 
this area rejects peace.” He is paying 
special attention not to add, by emo- 
tional or impulsive words, to difficul- 
ties that be knows will be enormous. 

That is the encouraging side, be- 
cause Egypt had a crucial role to play 
in what Mr. Mubarak calls the ‘‘co- 
ordination" between King Hussein 
and Yasser Arafat on future negotia- 
tions. Despite lack of diplomatic rela- 
tions with other Arab slates except 
Jordan, he keeps in close touch with 
them and is well informed. His goal is 


perfectly dear: to broaden the peace 
that Egypt and Israel have achieved. 

The darker side is ail too evident. 
The fact that King Hussein published 
unilaterally the text of his agreement 
with Mr. Arafat, instead or jointly, 
reflects his impatience with contin- 
ued PLO dithering- The text itself is 
maximalis t. It does not even name 
Israel and relies on ambiguities to 
imply the key concession of recogni- 
tion. So Israel shows no interest. 

The accord merits at most one 
hand-dap. Yet Israel would be ill- 
advised to turn thumbs down. The 
“principles" that the ten sets forth as 
the “basis” for negotiations can be 
taken as an initial bargaining posi- 
tion. not conditions fra the start of 
talks. That is evidently Mr. Mubar- 
ak's view. Also, he points out that 
there are moderate West Bank Pales- 
tinians who might be the negotiators. 

He has his own internal reasons for 
being eager to get things moving. 
Egypt is running a race against time. 
Mr. Mubarak proudly ates the big 
development effort erf the last few 
Years, but there is a long way to go 
before it can brine a tangible return 


Chipping at Interest and Deficits 
Is No Cure for the Mighty Dollar 


By Bennett Harrison 


C AMBRIDGE, Massachusetts — The U.S. 

government is hell-bent to cut the defidt in 
pursuit of its unjust political counter-revolution. 
Current and anticipated future federal deficits, it 
is alleged, are soldy responsible for the dollar’s 
economically damaging overvaluation: Swing 
the axe and help the dollar. Nonsense. 

In fact the dollar is not likely to emerge in any 
better shape from Washington’s zeal to gut the 
welfare stale than will the hapless dtizens who 
will suffer further from the catastrophic loss of 
services that surely will result from the unfair 
cuts under consideration. 

An ironic, sad dimension is added to the loom- 
ing injustice that these Americans face by the 
willingness of the Democratic Party, including 
many members of its so-called liberal wing, to 
follow the Republicans’ lead. 

The rampant demand in Washington to slash 
the civilian budget has been endorsed by private 
exporters of manufactured goods whose business 
has been hurt Their problem, we are told, is the 
dollar's overvaluation in relation to foreign cur- 
rencies , caused by high interest rates that attract 
foreign investors — rates that, in turn, are trace- 
able to today’s enormous deficits and to the even 
larger ones expected in coming fiscal years. 

There is an alternative view to this convention- 
al “wisdom,” and a wise Congress would do well 
to give it attention. In a nutshell: Not all of the 
loss in exports is due to the overvalued dollar, 
□ot all of the’ dollar's overvalue is due to high 
interest rates; not all of the high rates are due to 
the budget defidt Thus, there is more latitude 
for constructive policy than meets the public eve. 

First austerity in Third World countries that 
has been sanctioned by the U.S. government if 


not directly imposed, has sharply reduced their 
ability to buy goods. and services — from Ameri- 
ca or anyone else. And Washington remains 
unwilling to face op to the new conditions of the 
global marketplace, failing to press foreign gov- 
ernments to make the concessions to American 
firms operating in their countries that those gov- 
ernments increasingly seek from Washington. 

Second, much of the foreign demand for dol- 
lars is a flight to security at least as much as to 
marginally higher profits. America now boasts 
perhaps the most conservative government in the 
industrialized world. This, together with the gov- 
ernment's active promotion of political instabil- 
ity abroad (as in Central America) and its inept- 
ness when it does try to promote stability (as in 
the Middle East), ody reinforces (he sense of the 
United Slates as a safe haven fra foreign capital 

Third, the upward pressure on interest rates, 
so commonly attributed to the Treasury crowd- 
ing a beleaguered private sector out of the credit 
markets, must also be traced to the deregulation 
of Jinan rial institutions that began in the late 
1970s. With every commercial bank, savings and 
loan institution, money market fund, insurance 
company and, it seems, corner grocery store 
being allowed to attract borrowers, it is little 
wonder that the long- terra normal rate of interest 
is now so much higher than before. 

So much for the simplistic connection between 
the deindustrialization of America's export sec- 
tor and the domestic budget deficit. 

The private sector must share the blame. Its 
unwillingness to undertake a sustained program 
of reinvestment in new domestic plant and 
equipment at a pace suited to sustain an ade- 
quate overall rate of real economic growth is 



forcing the government to ran larger and larger 
budget defiats to keep the economy going. 

Another danger of the deficit-cutting fever is 
that to (he extent that it “succeeds," it may do so 
just in time to push America into the third 
recession of the decade. That will make every- 
thing worse, especially the most politically vola- 
tile of social indicators: the unemployment rate. 

Ail this suggests that there be a renewal of 
debate over national industrial policy — specific 
programs to ease problems of particular indus- 
tries. In our complex world, fiddling only with 
interest rates and budget deficits will not work. 

The writer, professor qf political economy at the 
Massochusoa Institute of Tedinology and amttthar 
with Barry Bluestone of 'The Deindustrialization of 
America, contributed ads to The New York Tones. 


For Russia,; 
Too: Guns 
Or Butter 


By Stephen S. Rosenfdd 

W ashington — One of the* 

Rpagan administrations turfy 
underpraised feats of political leger- 
demain is its success in convincing^ 
Ote American people and Congress: 
that Soviet power is pot merely great 
and threatening but is constantly be- 
coming more so and at a mmaring 
rate. It is this impression at retentiess, ' . 
implacable growth in Soviet mffitaiy : 
programs that provides die aarfksud- 
fud fra the administration’s own tre- - 
meadous defease surge. 

■ From the best estimates available 
it is necessary to say that this impress 
sum is apparently groundless. - 
The best estimates available come 
from the CIA, and the CIA has made 
public a new estimate suggesting that ' 
although there has recently bepn 
“some acceleration in the rate of in-, 
crease” in Soviet mifitaiy spending,"”' 
the rate remains near the 2-percenl-a- 
ycar level that has been noted since 
1976. Earlier, estimated growth in to- 
tal Soviet military spending had aver- * 
aged 4 or 5 percent a year — to most 
people, a more a larmin g figure. 

The Pentagon puts out its own 
numbers. Last June its in-house De- 
fense Intelligence Agency reported 
- preliminary estimates moch higher 
than those of the ClA. 

But there are a couple of thingrto 
be said for the credibility of the C3A 
estimates. The CIA alone subjects its' 
methods as well as its results in this 
field to criticism from outride as well 
as inside the government. And the 





in living standards. High U.S. inter- 
est rates are hurling badly and he 
wants help, $865 million more this 
year and another S 1 bQlion next year. 

But population is still zooming — a 
milli on more in 276 days. These are 
the pressures, the president says, that 
feed the frustrations that drive people 
to f nndatni»nlali<fn and intolerance. 

He says he is not seriously “wor- 
ried” because there is progress and 
because allowing political and pub- 
lic-opinion steam valves should pre- 
vent buildup of explosive forces. He 
rejects firm repression because “vio- 
lence would create much more vio- 
lence.” He shows confidence. 

Still, it is obvious that even (be 
start of talks on the Palestinian issue 
would sparit hope and buy more time, 
strengthening moderates against ex- 
tremists who have never produced 
anything but corpses. The new open- 
ing is nothing like the exhilarating 
vista that the late President Sadat 
created with his trip to Jerusalem, bnt 
that can hardly be expected twice. 
Israel has nothing to lose in probing 
to see how much the vista can be 
widened. There is a faint gleam 
ahead, and urgent need to brighten it 
The New York Times. 


partisan bard-liner who is just , 
the last person you would suspect of 
coming in low on Soviet military 
spending. Maybe he is wincing, but 
he is entitled to wear the new figures 
as a badge of analytical courage. 

But, you ask, with lingering incre? 
dulity, are the CIA and the Reagan 
adminis tration as a whole not aware 
thm estimates of military spending 
althoug h offered in the context of 
anal ysis, immediately enter a context 
of politics? They will inevitably be 
uyH a gain ci the administration’s nut - 

with earher^CIA n is 

sure lo happen again now. 

Senator William Proxmire, the 
Wisconsin Democrat who chairs the 
congressional Joint Economic Com- 
mittee, releasing an unclassified ver- 
sion of the latest CIA testimony on 
the Soviet economy, declared that “it 
is tune fra Washington to take o£S- 
dal notice that Soviet military pro- 
curement has been stagnant for the 
past seven years and to stop acting 
iik« no thing has changed.” 

He is right. Let the debate rofl. 
The Kremlin spends heavily on de- 
fense and continues to stren gthen its 
m Hilar y napahili ries the CIA asserts. 
This was so even in the 1976-1983 
period, which its latest repeat mea- 
sures — the period when military 
increases fell into the 2-percem zone. 
As before, the agency suggests that 
“the main source of slower growth in 
defense spending was a stagnation in 
for military procurement 
1976 ” Less hardware. 

Try did procurement growth 
? ^Ve would note that the stag- 


spending 
after 1974 


nation in the level of procurement 
lasted for at least seven years— from 
1977 to 1983. This plateau arguably 
lasted too long to be the result exctn- 
rively of bottlenecks or technological 
problems. In a period so long, the 
leadership of the Soviet Union could 
have used its control erf industrial 
priorities to ensure a higher rate of 
growth of military procurement OM- 
er-geoeration weapons could have 
beat kept in production whOe prob- 
lems with new systems were ironed 
out; or, once the problems were over- 
come, the new systems could have 
been produced at catch-up rates. 

“We believe they chose to pursue 
□either alternative. 

“In deciding to hold procurement 
growth down, toe Soviet leadership in 
the mid-1970s may have viewed the 
ex tonal threat as manageable and 
the existing high level of procurement . 
as enough, possibly recognizing that 
toe U.SJS.R. was entering a period of 
generally slower economic growth 
and coup ting on a continuation erf the 
decline in U.S. military spending.” 

In 1983, a year of “marginal" over- 
all economic growth in toe Soviet 
Union, a “modest” increase in mili- 
tary spending was detected. The CIA 
says it needs another year to see what 
that means. “Certainly the pressure 
to step up defense procurement must 
be intense given toe state of Soviet- 
American relations and the recent 
increases in U.S. spending on mlli- 
tary hardware," toe agency relates. 

“But a decision on increasing the 
rate of growth of defense spending 
has to be a tough one,” Accelerating 
military spending to a growth rate of 
5 percent a year “would jeopardize 

Soviet prospects fra anything but 
minimal improvements in consump- 
tion levels. Guns vs. butter. 

That is toe question, isn’t it? 

The Washington Post 


LETTERS TO THE EDITOR 


Getting Facts Straight 

In response to the report “Reagan 
Calls Nicaraguan Rebels 'Brothers' 
and ‘ Freedom Figfiters' ” (FA. 18): 

The most frightening aspect of So- 
viet society is toe way it rewrites the 
past- So let’s take a look at the other 
side. The outburst from President 
Reagan concerning the aid given by 
foreigners to toe American Revolu- 
tion and U.S. aid to Sim6n Bolivar 
pd the cause of Spanish American 
independence is downright scary. 

The Bourbon kings of France and 
Spain never went anywhere to defend 
toe cause of freedom. Louis XVTs 
foreign minister. Vergennes. openly 
admi tted: “Our purpose was to weak- 
en our eternal enemy, and to take 
revenge for 1763." Another freedom- 
loving ally of America’s. Catherine of 


Russia, refused afterward to recog- 
nize the United States. 

As Tor Bolivar, toe Liberator said a 
few months before he died: ‘The 
United States a ppears to be destined 
by Providence to plague America 
with misery in toe name of liberty/* 
Freedom is the ultimate cause. It 
requires us to get our facts straight. 
DAVID WINGEATE PIKE 
Paris. 

UNESCO’s 510 Million 

» “UNESCO Begins Debate 
US PidbaTfFeb. 13): 

The 
gen 


; report alleges that the director- 
leraT of UNESCO made a “deci- 


sion " to withhold a surplus $10 mil- 
lion, and it implies that this is against 
UNESCO’s regulations. 

The $10 million represents the 


amount of amber states’ contribu- 
tions for the budgetary period 1981- 
1983 that has not yet been paid. 
UNESCO's financial regulations 
provide that only toe net cash surplus 
— namely, the budgetary surplus mi- 
nus the unpaid budget assessments — 
can be surrendered to member states, 
since toe organization cannot surren- 
der money it has not received. The 
$10 tnUhoa presently withheld will be 
surrendered as sooa as it is received 
from member states in arrears, and it 
cannot be used by the director-gener- 
al for any other purpose. 

It could not have been distributed 
to member states by the director- 
general even if he had so desired. The 
financial procedure is automatic and 
did not result front any action of his. 

Finally, 1 state most emphatically 
that no “big new surplus” is accumu- 


lating as a result of the dollar's con- 
tinual strength, as Mr. Lewis alleges, 
since toe 1984-1985 budget contained 
a negative provision of 546 milli on 
that was established to cover such 
gains from currency fluctuations. 

GILLES de LEIRIS, 
UNESCO Comptroller. 

Paris. 

Soccer and Ethiop ians 

Regarding u FIFA’s Helping Hand 
Is Empty” (Feb. 13) by Rat Hughes: 

Mr. Hughes lambastes soccer for 
not doing its share against hunger. 
But why should FIFA support the 
oppressive regime in Ethiopia? 

And what part of the money raised 
by American basketball all-stars will 
actually be used to feed the hungry? 
If things happen as in the past, not a 


bL Hunger will be beaten when the 
Ethiopian government stops g y bi g it 
as a political looL There is a lot to be 
done, but if the will exists only on one 
side we wifi have achieved nothing. 

Let those NBA all-stars sleep well 
in their mansions while their money 
buys guns to kill off “rebels” who 
actually want a change for the better- 
ROBERT FROST. • 
Paris. 

Taking FIFA to task for not jump- 
ing into toe international charily are- 
na is outrageous. The vohmtery sup- 
port of good causes ^ called charity- 
When such aid ceases to be voluntary 
it is called taxation. FIFA’s only 
function is stewardship over its mem- 
bers’ property and interests. 

W. ROBERT KEAGY. . 

Khsnachu Switzerland. 








INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 26, 1985 



FIY THE LEADER. 


NOVAmNG. 

Europe's ^(49-passenger jetliner is now ready for boarding. 


The new Boeing 737-300 is four years ahead 
of anything else in its class. Nothing else comes 
dose to matching its size and performance. 

In just one year the 737-300 has become the 
best-selling jetliner in the world. Even before _ 
its first commercial flight on December 7, 1984, \* 
13 customers had ordered 155 737-300s, with v 






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tfm 


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options on 70 others. Today 16 customers have ordered 163 aiiplanes. 
s The airline world knows a good thing when it sees it, and is mov- 

\ ing fast to put this new technology into service. 

It’s a perfect fit with the other members of the Boeing family 
- k — the 747, the 767 and the 757. 

* 4 It's also one more way Boeing is helping keep air travel our 

best transporation value. 




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’age 8 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE. TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 26. 1985 


ARTS /LEISURE 


The Berliner Ensemble: Alive, H Somewhat Unwell 


y M. Markham Coming home to Germany from 

B ' ™ Tuna Service the American phase of his exile, 

wr j — Humbled and half- Brecht in 1949 founded the fieriin- 
- tk imprisoned Galileo a Ensemble in the Soviet sector of 
garnet turns to his young disciple, Berlin as a conscious departure 




aentific treatise out of the Inquisi- 
jons dungeon, and warns him, 
« careful as you travel through 
*nnany, with the truth under 
’otir coat" 

The words had one ominous 
°«ning when Bertolt Brecht, an 
*uc from Nazi Germany, penned 
hem in Denmark in 1939; spoken 
dtnast five decades later by the 
ictor Ekkch a rd Schall from the 
utstere stage of the Berliner Ea- 


from the Weimar theater of Goethe 
and Schiller. He hoped the BE 
would become a magnet for talent 
across the German-speaking world, 
drawing playwrights and actors 
from Munich, Hamburg, Vienna 
and Zurich. His loyalty, though, to 
the young East German state was 
unequivocal: “I can only imagine 
my place as an artist in die pan of 
Germany where the foundations of 
socialism are being laid." 


k 


Brecht died in 1956 — three 


r - n v- . — . * P1CWU UKU ill 17JU — UUK 

*nibie in East Berlin, they are bur- years after justifying die suppres- 
sed with unhappy contemporary sionof a jworkere’ uprising in East 
raeues. In Cornminmt East Ger- Berlin by Soviet tanks - and con- 


nany, many carry their ideas of the 
ruth under their coats. 

Schall, who is in New York this 
vsefc putting on a one-man Brecht 
Jow, *s Perhaps the finest actor in 
he German Democratic Republic, 
t'et, in a country- that Brecht hoped 
vould be a bold experiment in hu- 
nan freedom, Schall is a pan-in- 


Berlin by Soviet tanks — and con- 
trol over the Berliner Ensemble 
came into the hands of his widow, 
Helene Weigel. At her death in 
1971, the company was effectively 
taken over by her daughter, Barba- 
ra Brecht, who for the past 23 years 
has been married to Ekkehard 
Schafl. 


leritor ofa dynasQr andT some of The Brecht family grip on the 
tis critics ciS an unwitting- Berliner Ensemble is a peculiar ar- 
nummifier of the dead pi*S rangemrat m a no^y egalitan- 
— i v 3 an soaalist state. But East Germa- 


wright's legacy. 



West Berlin daily TagespiegeL “In 
the theater, somebody’s there who 
puts them down all the time." 

Sybille Wirsing, a West Berlin- 
based critic for the Fraafafurter AU- 
gemeine Zedning, said that in the 
West theatergoers await a new di- 
rector’s interpretation of a play; by 
contrast in East Germany, she said, 
the expectation is to see a classic 


reels himself. “I saw Ekkehar d 
Schall 20 years ago.” recounted the 
producer, “and I thought he was 
one of the best actors in Germany, 
and would become one of the great- 
est-” But, he said, after an explosive 
success as Brecht's Hitieresque 

sea^ioSSost some of his Ere, 
Wirsing puis Schall in a sui ge- 


Roger Vivier \ Crafter of Footwear 
For the Famous 9 Making Comebaek 


International Herald Tribune 


N EW YORK — Roger Vivier. 
who designed Queen Eliza- 


beth's gilded, ruby-studded coro- 
nation shoes and whose footwear is 



rendering of a classic author. “One neris category in East Germany: 
cannot say that the theater is alive “He’s not just an actor. He is an 


on display in several museums, in- 
cluding the Metropolitan in New 


in East Bolin, but one cannot say it institution. One sees beyond him 
is dead either, since the theaters are and into the Brechtian past." 


Hebe Dorsey 


always full,” she observed, noting Both Schall and his wife zealous- 


that factory production brigades ly deny that they have turned the 


attend en masse. 


into the daily life of the state 
poof, suddenly the play is gone. 
As in other cultural dornai 


But when an Berliner Ensemble into a Brechtian 
ighz tries logo museum. (A museum, in the form 
f the state — of Brecht's last home preserved as 
lay is gone-” he left it, does in fact exist on 


As in other cultural domains, Chausseesuasse near Berlin's 
East Germany has suffered a hem- French cemetery,, a few blocks 


onhage of theater talent defecting from the theater.) “The model we 
to West Germany. But in recent have is not a corset,” insisted the 


years, rather than lose them by de- 
fection, the Communist authorities 


mght’s daughter, who went to 
school in California during 


have allowed a number of directors her father's exile. “It is a starting 
— such as Adolf Dresen and Ma- point. Nobody can watch over 


thias Laugh of — to work in West Brecht's soul; one can only watch 
Germany without losing their East over the words.” 


York and the Victoria and Albert 
in London, is staging a comeback 
this summer. He is 72. 

Best remembered today as the 
man who designed Christian Dior's 
custom-made shoes in 1953, Vivier 
was in New York recently on what 
looked like another successful ven- 
ture in a career fnH of famous land- 
marks. After several years living in 
semi-obscurity in a 14th-century 
castle in the Dordogne region of 
France, he was back at center stage 



much around. One is shaped like a 
sharp, gold-edged comma, another 
is stuck through with a diamond- 
studded bafl. All these shoes have 
extraordinary movement, a charac- 
teristic of vwier’s, who always 
wanted to be a sculptor. 

*T studied scnlptme at the Ecote 
des Beaux Arts/ he said, ‘'before . 
friends of my parents, who had a 
smafl shoe factory near Paris, adoed 
me to oreate some models for them. ; 

Today, I stiH fedlike a sculptor. 
Shoes are my sculptures.” 

After working for a number of 
international shoe companies, Vi- 
yjer opened a glamorous chapter erf 
his life when he went to work for 
-Christian Dior in 1953. For the 
next 10 years, Dior and Vivier en- 
joyed an association during a gold- , 
en age of evening shoes with Fans _ 


Roger Vivier 


as the creative center. With a fairy- 
tale touch. Vivier translated the 


tale touch, Vivier translated the 

look of 1 8th-ceottny boudoir mules 


German citizenship. Other play- Schall, who worked with Brecht 


ay’s cultural watchdogs consider 
the deathbed-loyal playwright such 


The home 
of B urb errys Paris, 
since 1909 

‘ (Near the Madeleine) 


the deathbed-loyal playwright such 
a god — and so important to the 
legitimacy of a fragile national 


Herbert Sehutzr 

Ekkehard Schall 


wrights languish at home, paid by closely as an actor, said that the 
the state to write plays that are not playwright's “suggestions" are not 


and displaying his first collection 6 w evening shoes ending up with 

for the Urn ted States in 1 2 yean. It cajjed -the most copied shoe in the frivolous fantasies of satin, lace 
5*1. *** on , sa * c m . a , n 5 w Roger worid.” Designed tor Yves Saint and namt; , fwinin^ beads and 


wm uc ou xuc m a u=w Rugpr world." Designed for Yves 3ami w . 

Vivier boutique on Madison Ave- the latter, also known as ocarls VWe r 

nnp in limp n« wpll ac m ennui „ ■. ■ » . .I-..--:- ■ * 


urns, beads ana 
K) also became an 


produced. 


frozen in time. “As a director," 


Since the Berliner Ensemble recalled SchaR “he was very genex- 
largdy puts on Brecht plays that ous. He allowed himself freedoms 


noe in Jime as well as in several “pilgrim pump," was a classic art coDedor ’and one the first in 
major U. S. department stores. black patent leather pump with a prance to collect Francis Bacon, 
“The response has been terrific, silver buckle. Vivier later made a drew inspiration from books and 
but after all, I did work 10 years for special version erf the same shoe painting s. “Vel&zxmez," made of 

C.l rrrr.f. l -1 c ! r J-.l _ f. fnr rka or*- “ - * t - J j 


itent leather pump with a prance to collect Francis Bacon, 


identity — that they are evidently bald bullet-head and a mesmeriz- 
frightened to do anythin* that “S gaze, tite 5 3- year-old Schall is 


A short, compact figure with a have very long runs — the “Life of that a professional would not have. Saks Fifth Avenue and!5 years for wilh a blade, pompom for the ac- white 


frightened to do anything that we 53-year-old Schall is 

might drive his daughter into eapi- forthright about his loyalty to the 
talist exile. And so she and her East German Communist party, “I 
husband and their two daughters 3111111 a comrade," he said, with just a 


Galileo Galilei" now cm was first He was always looking for dramai- 
produced eight years ago — the ic solutions.” 


„ _ . ^ . embroidered with 

Delman." said Vivier. whose first tress Catherine Deneuve. . blue and white beads, was inspired 

trip to New York goes bade to Dvrvernois persuaded Vivier to by the Vdfizquez painting, “Las 
1940. “1 know America well. Let get back’ into the fashion fray. It Meniflas." “Duchess de Gner- 
me tell you, my biggest success has took him a little under three mantes, " embroidered red satin 
always been over here. Americans months to design a collection of 80 ^th ruby rhinestones, was inspired 
understood me immediately. I shoes that will retail at between by the red shoes of the duchess in 
adore them.” SI 50 and $260. The Salon, as VI- Marcel Proust’s “Remembrance of 


pressure for innovation is not very 
intense. Some critics maintain that 
actors become stale in their roles. 


Cne posl-Brechtian dramatic 
“solution'' is the repertory of 
Brecht skits, songs and poems that 


lead a life of considerable luxury in twinkle of humor in his expression. 


the part of Germany where the 
foundations of socialism have been 
laid. 


“I feel at home here.” 

“But I am fust of afl an actor,” 
he continued, curling and uncurl- 


“The Berliner Ensemble is a little Schall brought to the United 
sad," contended Klaus VdDcer, an- States. The repertory brought the 


Al mg his fists on a large bleached- 

priviS af'trSSn^reg^y w "°°j dimra roo m t able where he 

What I can’t transport through act- 
ingl can’t tr^ZduoSSl 


thor of a Brecht biography and a 
producer at the Sdhiller Theater in 
West Berlin. “It has become some- 


■aphy and a actor accolades when he took it to 
r Theater in Australia, England and Canada, 
come some- Although he delivers the routine 


adore them.' 


This renewed love affair is the vieris boutique will be called, wDl T hings Past 


brainchild, nevertheless, of a also have a deluxe, custom-made jn \%3, Vivier opened his own. 


me wcai — “ jjiivucgc cujujcu s j onarv That wrH1 i rf u. aw f..| Detter u u. uia not nave 
only by the tiny East German nil- SSTcan’t tranmort through act- do with the family." 
ing elite. I go to New York about ■ l ca^^SroiSiroSffiwl- Vftlker argued that i 

t l^dS 3 t o^.TheidmS^to&bed- sdf ^ suffered as an 
SdbaB, chatting m her high-cefl- d |J m the repetitive and urn 

“I ^ F ." Tbeati. hemsisted, is “not di- “Posure to plays that 

Sr E^>b“ “rJu>ld viiMintotPod^ brKjineMtand 

kehard he has to see New York — 

it’s like looking at die last of tbe DOONESBURY 


thing of a museum whose malaise is in German, the audience is provid- 
called Brecht. It would be a lot ed with program notes and sunul la- 


better if it did not have so much to neous- translation headsets. Jack 


Frenchman, Christian Dtrverncns, 
who last December held a one-man $800 and $1,200. katy-corn« from Dior’s. It was 

show of Vivier shoes at his gallery. So what's Vivier up to now? His iite a salon. On any given 
“Faqade." Called “Architecture du new collection is a happy blend of day, one could meet tbe Duchess of 
Frivole," it covered three decades function and fantasy with colorful Windsor, Mar lene Dietrich, Maria, 
of V trier's designs, including paid- Roman-inspired sandals on the one rath^ , Elizabeth Taylor, Jacque- 


department with prices between on the rue Francois Premier, 

AAnn j n on/i . « «•* . 


Jcaty-corner from Dior’s. It was 


Garfein, the artistic director of the 


every year," said Mrs. Brecht- 
Sdhafl, chatting in her high-cetl- 
inged apartment on Friedrich- 
strasse a few blocks from the 
Berliner Ensemble, “fve told Ek- 


Volker argued that Schall him- Gurman Theater in New York, 
self has suffered as an actor from hopes that if the tour is a success a 


of V trier’s designs, including peari- 


the repetitive and unchallenging sequel could be an American visit 
exposure to plays that he half-di- by the entire Berliner Ensemble. 


and-jewel sparkled pumps made hand and classic pumps on the otb- line Kennedy, Sophia Loren or 


for Farah Diba when she was em- er. The whimsical, exquisitely bal- ^olf Nureyev. 
press erf Iran, as well as what Vivier anced Vivier heels are still very “Brimtte R 


dinosaurs." 


* i 

Cloakdt 

purbenys 


Burbenys 
t mhmeaA 
final 
1.73b FF 


The full fangeof 
! traditional Burbertys Mens, 
Ladies & Children clothing. 


Burberrys 


8, bd Malesherbes 
Paris 8' - 266.13.01 


Britain Pays £25 Million 
To Save 3 Stalely Homes 

Reuters 

LONDON — Tbe British gov- 
ernment has stroped in with a £25- 
Tmlliom grant (about $27 million) to 
save three stately homes for poster- 
ity: Kedlestan Hall, Weston Farit 
and Nostell Priory. 

The three homes will be taken 
over by the National Heritage Me- 
morial Fund, a public conservation 
authority . 


and England. It does not run along 
the boundaries of countries; it runs 
vertically through them.” Still he 
acknowledged that since the erec- 
tion of the Berlin Wall in 1961 tbe 
Brechtian i de al of an all -German 
stage has shrunken, and “the the- 
aters in east and west have grown 
autonomous.” 

East Germany’s cultural censors 
keep an especially wary eye on tbe 
theater — perhaps edgdy sharing 
Brecht's belief in its revolutionary 
potential — so that little that a 
innovative or daring makes it onto 
the stage here. “In all other disci- 
plines, in literature, in the film, 
they have liberalized a lot," -said 
Mtcbari Stone, theater critic for the 


MK&.HA Iff 
YOUlWtP 
ABOUT THE 
! tmOHJFB 
FARM BILL 2 


SUR3.M0M. 
TfS B 6 W 
ALLCm. 
-RENEWS. 


musetimi. 6 &.tam 
wooes Asm? know, mom. 

MTDCOHB mfOUSURB 
mm on ns anumnAt 


of cams rrvoes, mug?. 

>OtK UNCLE ANPI HAVENT 
HAB A PROFITABLE CROP TN 
YEARS. UEREF&mS FOR 
OURUVBS, 


poyou 
think r 

SHOW) WEAR 
WCAUCO 
■ DRE9S*^ 


OOULBNT 

HURT. 

J 


“Brigitte Bardot," Vivier said, 
“was avant-garde. She was the first 
to wear flat shoes. La Callas was 
one of my most important custom- 
ers. Elizabeth Taylor had pretty 
feet Marlene Dietrich had strange 
feet — quite plump, really, but she 
was able to squeeze them into any 
shoe I brought out I created a shoe 
for her called ‘Baghdad.’ ‘Roma- 
noff was die aame of a shoe I 
created for Jeanne Moreau for ha- 
role as Catherine the Great" 
Asked which shoe stood out 
most in his memory, Vivier an- 


swered, “The platform heel I de- 
signed in 1947. I showed them to 


Delman who sent me a telegram 
saying “Roger, are you crazy? I pm 
them in a lag envelope and I 
showed them to Schiaparelli who 
liked them and decided to show 
them with her collection." 



Dow Jones Averages I 

(fcaaMMi ia La*t ana 


NYSE Index 


Mw 13*9.99 imia racial 127 U 0 + m 
Trans tain *aui m&ss eui- U7 
Utfl 14&85 Mass 147 JB 1A75— MS 

coma 51U2 HUl 514LU 5BUA— 049 


Pmrtaw* TMar 
KM Law Clou J PJA 
CompmlM 10154 10X99 VHOl 10155 

ifHkafrtois W II9J4 lwjn WA 7 

Trmm ibij» unjx, iouo 

Utlntlm SUI 53X3 5143 

Finance WM0 mm Mill 1D7J7 


NYSE Diaries 


Monday! 

MSE 

Closing 


AMEX Diaries 


NASDAQ Index 



CIOM 9lW. 

AOranctd 

179 227 

DocBnod 

39J 343 

unrimood 

215 213 

Total loauoa 

789 783 

NM Mtah* 

29 26 

Maw Lows 

7 4 


Gonvmne 

IndmtriBli 

FInWK* 

iMuranai 
utiutm 
Banks 
T ran*. 


Week Year 

□on Naan Ana am 
mil 3*427 2*7.73 274 OS 
JSR59 3005 31053 2 K» 


AMEX Most Actives 

VM, HM Ue M dm* 


33079 — 33Z41 315.95 

32776 — 327 JU 30511 


267.52 — 24MS mffl 

349.17 — 25055 34529 

34551 — 36539 36073 


Odd-Lot Trading In N.Y. 


Total iwmm 
New Htehs 


*s 

6 6 


*1ndudad In llw Ms flaures 


Bay Sales nm 
I75M6 434405 5712 

1*1813 MgMH 29M7 
201432 509736 1J87 

301490 551347 1415 

1854*2 «U1B 2415 


VoLatlPJA Ttmm 

Pm.3PM.nL TIMM 

PmcouolMaMctes* 11U082* 


Standard & Poor's Index 


1 la bar 

N09I 

Mb 

1* 

HftmaB 

5*52 

25ft 

25U 

Domaf 

4624 

2ft 

2 

Amdahl 

2442 

16 

15% 

TI6 

231* 

■% 

8% 

BAT , 

2278 

*% 

m. 

Ruaaall 

2016 

16 

15ft 

Crysto 

1766 

3ft 

2 % 

laanv 

1639 

2% 

1 ■ 

TaxAIr 

1538 

lift 

m 

AMlnfl 

HO 

5% 

5ft 

Jtarabo 

1266 

Wb 

11 


3VS — Vi 

I — W 


5H — Ml 
WA — M 


Tables indude the nationwide prices 
up To tbe closing on Wall Street and 
do not reflect late trades elsewhere. 


Pmfoiis _ Today 
HM* Law CIOM 1F45 
Industrials 201 JO 200.13 20533 199.95 

Tran*. 140*7 15559 75979 1583® 

Utilities 7545 75M 7522 7BM 

Finance asm mss 202» mss 

Composite 1*041 17973 179J6 17592 


I Dow Jones Bond Averages] 


AMEX Stock Index 


Bonds 

Ulimtes 

industrials 


Pwrt wn Today 

High Law Ctoee 1PJL 

22517 22541 22510 2Z348 


OMsnHt 
HM Low Stack 


tie CkM 

Dta. YULPE MBs HIM Lew QwK-OiVe 


TfVl MW AAR 


23M Wk AGS 
MW 11W AMCA 
im im AMF 
40tk 24W AMR 


20U MW AMR nf 2.1* ULB 
ZHh22WANRnf 247 155 
1454 m APL 
sm 44W ASA 300 54 

37 1* AVX J2 14 

a XU, Atatuib 170 24 

25ft »» AOOOiVdl 44 20 

23V. 12V. AaneC MU 

aw Acmes Mb u 

15 AdoEx 211el24 
23 lift AdmMI M 17 


Wft Wn AtMys 
4|W 29ft AMD 


1ZW 6ft Advent .12 Li 
Mft SWAorffes 
CM 27ft AetflU 344 64 
58ft 52ft AtrH.pt 5470105 
22ft 15ft AlMYim 170 <J 
4ft 3ft AMeen „ 

51 38 Air Pljd 17J 24 

24ft U AMiFrt 40 It 
2 ft AIMous 
32 26ft AkJPplAiW 124 
7ft 6 AtaPdOf JB na 
73ft 61ft AtoPpT MB 124 
6* 56 AloPpf 528 112 

13ft lOft-Alonca M 74 
tfft 9ft juekAir .*4 J 
left 10Vl AIDrtol 70 25 
aift 22ft AAtrn .48 24 
Sft 33ft AlOTi 121 44 

36 27»AJCOSM 170 34 
39 17 AlexAU UP® 17 

28ft 20ft Atartr 


16 26 SSft 20ft 20ft— ft 

12 Z72 15ft IS 15ft + ft 

7* lift 11 11 — ft 

36 153 16ft Mft MU 

9 5771 W. 38ft 38ft— ft 

22 20ft 19ft 80ft + ft 

12 35V> 25ft 25ft 

3 5 !Oft IWfc 10ft— ft 

3458 47 4£k «S — 2Ui 

14 275 23ft ZJft 23ft— ft 

14 1683 47ft 46ft 47ft— ft 

M 91 23ft 22ft 22ft- ft 

104 17ft lift 17 — ft 

12 S3 7ft 9ft 9ft + ft 

no 16 ft 16 ft lift— W 

a at im m left— w 

30 222 12ft 12ft 12ft— ft 

13 4688 am 31ft 3lft— ft 

in wm nu 10 ft— ft 

13 50 13ft 13ft 13ft— ft 

» 1912 40ft 39ft 40ft— W 

3 55ft raft 55ft— ft 

16 1445 2Mfe 27Vi 27ft— ft 

31 6 3ft 3 3ft 

11 122 49ft 49ft 49ft + ft 

12 442 23ft 22ft 23 + W 

3S 63 Tft 1ft lft 


N.Y. Stocks Fight Profit-Takers 


17 Month 
Won Low Stack 


DU, YXU PE 
46 14 U 


WfcHWLgw Pue?.WM l H ran Low Stack 


5ls Otoe j 

MBS HW1 Low Qootawl 


!7Mam 
HWlLaw Stack 


United Press International 

NEW YORK — The stock market was strug- 
gling to reverse a prolonged decline late Mon- 
day but fighting profit-takers and new worries 
about interest rates. 

Gold slocks lost ground and some technology 
issues weakened on reports of falling orders m 
the semicoiHluctor industry. 

The Dow Jones industrial average was down 
2£5 to 1,273.19 about an hour before the dose. 
Tbe index had been down more than 6 points 
before making a partial recovery. 


49 31ft 31ft 31ft 


*9ft 63ft AHBCp 2J0M 57 
3ft 33 AJsCspf 246 114 


39ft IH AlOlW 1^ 52 
32ft lift Aloinrt 5» 114 


94ft « AtalMCll-S 114 
80ft 24ft ARoPw an 94 
15ft Alims 33 
_ 28ft AlkfCpS 148 67 
60ft 53ft AWCppf 574 104 

» 5* 

74* AStaCpf 

27 2* ALLTL 144 74 

35ft 2M4 AWlPr 409 14 
« SOW AlCtta 3^ 

15ft AntflK JB M 
22ft AmHu l.W 34 
_ . lft Amta 1 
19ft 15ft Agofcr 

OT8 §* ABrtS H IB-1 


51 7ft 7U 7ft 
lBCtt 72 72 72 

31Qz 68 a 68 +1 

* 58 129h 12ft 12ft— ft 

a 476 w» mt j* — ft 

19 IV 15ft ISft 

13 462 30 ft 30ft 30ft „ 
11 1827 37ft 27ft 27ft— ft 

11 322 S MV 34ft + ft 
109* 28 27tt 2754- ft 

26 57 24ft 23ft OTk— ft 

8 299 77ft 77ft 77ft + ft 

30 24ft 24ft 34ft 

327 27ft 37 27 — ft 

15 19ft 19ft 19ft + ft 

5 94ft 94 94ft + ft 

■ 155D 29ft 29ft 29ft + ft 

13 33K I9M 19ft W4 + ft 

■ 1*46 3Sft 37ft 38 — ft 

35 62ft 68ft 62ft— ft 
4 105ft lOSftlKft- ft 
60 MWr 7D2ft 1M4 + Mi 
7 22ft sm 22ft 

9 454 54 53ft 53ft— ft 
145 7ft 7ft 7ft— ft 

1 29ft 29ft »ft- ft 

■ 26 25ft 25ft m*— ft 

13 3 23ft 23 23ft + 14 

12 370* 37ft 37 37ft- ft 

922 lift M 18ft— ft 
M2W +» 

11 0 19ft 19 19ft + 3k 

9 361 65ft 65 65ft + ft 


Although prices in 'tables on these pages are. 
vm the 4 PM. dose in New York, Jor time 


from the 4 PM. dose in New York, for time 
reasons this article is based on the market at J 
PM. 


Declines led advances by an 1 1-4 ratio among 
the 1,987 issues crossing the New York Stock 
Exchange tape. 

The five-hour Big Board volume amounted to 
about 7220 million shares, compared with 
7923 million in tbe corresponding period Fri- 
day. 

Prices were lower in moderate trading of 
American Slock Exchange issues. 

The market looks toed right now," said 
Jerry Hinkle of Sanford G Bernstein Co. He 
said tbe weakness in technology issues was not 
broad-based and the general decline was occur- 
ring on reduced volume. 

Mr. Hinkle said some of the interest rate 


total value of a nation's goods and services, ' 
including income from foreign investments, j 

Mr. Hinkle said analysts at his firm look for ! 
2-percent GNP growth. 

He noted that declining gold prices could be I 
taken as another sign that inflati on is in check, ! 
which would be another positive for the stock 
market 

Charles Jensen of MKI Securities said the 
stock market has been in a range between 1265 
and 1,300 on the Dow Jones industrial average 
and is now “di gg in g in for another attack on 
1,300." 

Mr. Jensen said selling seemed to be easing 
last week, and he didn't think the stock market 
would penetrate the bottom of the ran g e 

Pan of the interest rate concerns are due to 
the outlook for an expansion of economic activ- 
ity. On the other hand, the improved economic 
tone may benefit technology issues. 

“Some are looking attractive because of good 
earnings projections this year and next” Mr. 
Jensen said. 

A trade group reported that orders for ma- 
chine tools totaled $21 1.9 million in January, up 
12 percent from the lib: month a year earlier. 
The January figure declined 17 percent from 
December. 

The group reported orders from the automo- 
tive and aerospace industries were strong. 

On the trading floor, Mobil was near the lop 
of the active list and unchanged at 29 at midday 

en ii ■ , l* i ■ ■ , „ J . 


18ft BolCtar 46 14 U 24 k 24ft 
ft wIBOblU 596 2U 

Bhft/Of 6 « 

Bunco US 27 12 238X «U 
BOIIY4M JS 11 BB5 14V4 

BOllvMc II 133 1*91 

BaifGE Ul U 7 US «H 
BaltPfB 4JB 107 1201 Oft 

BflcOm l.W 17 W 74 29ft 

BorVHtt 639 4ft 

Bandao 14 U II » SIM 

BkBo# 140 SJ 5 253 44 

BkMV 244 5.1 6 232 39ft 

BnkUQi 140 <0 8 42 25ft 


24ft 

2ft— ft 
* — ft 
48 — ft 
14ft 

Hlft— ft 
40ft + ft 
42ft— ft 
29ft 
4ft— ft 
61 — ft 
43ft— ft 


Sis. CJesa 

Pln.VW.PE lBtaHtatiLoa QuoLC 


27ft in* CSX 141 44 8 

39ft 22 erre 140 27 

12ft 7ft Cline 38 

3» 22ft Conor nun 

Uft 8ft Omar 14 

If lift Carped 42 24 6 

47ft 32ft ColPdpf *75 109 

24ft 13ft Cal Km 4Sr 17 S3 

1816 lift Camrnl .19 J 

30ft 15ft CRLko 48 


9ft 3ft CrnoRa -1« 
12 CpRpta 250 


14l 44 B 1*60 2SA 25ft 25* — ft 
140 27 147 37ft 36ft 36ft 

38 157 Uft II lift— ft 

92 29 TO 44 32 31ft 3Tft— ft 
14- 1325 ITft lift lift 
42 24 6 7B6 16ft 15ft 16ft— ft 
475 109 T7 44 Vi 43ft 43ft— 1ft 

4Sr 17 S3 *4 15ft 14% 14ft— ft 

.19 4 Bx 14 14 14 — ft 

M 1*4* 15ft 15ft 15ft— 1 

.161 1*1 4ft 4 4 —ft 

TX __ 1 19ft 12ft 12ft 


5 33ft 31ft 83ft +1 


51ft Cocoa 296 47 13 2246 63 62ft 62ft + ft 
“ _ 306 12ft 12ft 12ft— ft 


19ft Vft QUMO 

34 25ft Ctriamn L2Q 19 IS 


BnfcAm 1-52 8.1 11 2799 W 


5.1*120 


44 

41% 

BJSalXl 


22 

69% 

2jBB 



62 

14% 

24* 

75 

B 

15 

30ft 

2JB 

*4 

6 

sin 

61% 

2J0 

HU 


is 

24% 

JOB 

J 

18 

21 

11% 

44 

\J 

11 

179 

26 

50 

3J 

9 

4to 

23ft 

U6 

25 

9 

312 

4*% 

40 

24 

15 

232 

25% 

.12b 15 

12 

199 

12% 

JB 

XI 

IS 

1267 

2Sft 

57 

24 

68 

3093 

14% 

Jtto 

3 

21 

20 

Zlft 

2 M 

93 

* 

64 

28ft 

1MB 

2J 

12 

206 

348* 

UB 

54 

9 

2477 

sou 

13* 

6.1 


25 

54 

UO 

24 

IS 

6M 

47 




140 

4ft 

1.70 

164 


10 

10% 

56 

XO 

* 

352 

29% 

St 

2J 


64 

28% 

640 

TJ 

8 

531 

raw 

2JB 



777 

27ft 

52 

15 

12 

237 

26 

240 

74 

8 

3225 

3SW 

50 

U 

19 

52 

4*% 

150 

34 

11 

13 

29ft 

2AB 

S3 

9 

a*7x 

14ft 

UO 

X* 


7tal*3ft 


25 — ft 
Uft— ft 
43ft 

69V)— ft 
14% + ft 
3B% + ft 
68ft— ft 
34V. — ft 
11%+ ft 

26 

ZM + ft 
47ft— % 
25% + ft 
12ft— ft 
2S%— ft 
14ft— ft 
23 — ft 
2*ft— ft 
34ft— ft 
38ft — ft 
55ft— % 
47 + ft 
4 — % 
10ft 

Uft— 1ft 


72ft 54ft Carnap 290 19 IT 127 65ft 64ft 44ft— ft 


jjSUf aft CdPoco 140 319 42% 41% 42% — ft 

im Mft c/rntpea ea w ifft m i9%— % 

»ft M ConlR68C 1 13% 13% 13%— ft 

179ft l£ft GwCItS 7S .1 16 97 171% 1301* 171%— % 

W% Cop Mid IS* 13 11 B96x 46ft 46 46% — % 

17% 10U Corirao M 1 91 II 78% I Uft— ft 


34 25% Cotamn L20 19 IS 97 k 38% 38% 38% 

26ft 2D» Cotora 1JHB 54 27 2827 23ft Z3 23ft + ft 

«ft 27% CoOAIk 17* 30 7 142 43 42% 42ft 

TO ColFdss 16 J 15 132 30% 19ft %%- % 

31% 20% Col PW1 140 *.* IS 485 20% 20% 2B%— % 

«Jft 39% Colllnd 2J0 42 10 319 60 59% 59%+% 

S2F2? *■« M 32 % si% 32 %+% 

21ft CSC pi 3^5 69 26% 25% 25% — ft 

W* S CSC Pf 01575 14J 1001106ft 166ft KKft— lft 

1*5S CSOjtnlSJB U.1 15DzlB8ft 108 108ft 

Comtoln 2JB 41 9 1050 4M* 43 43 — 1 

37% MW CmbCn IM SO 12 931 37 36ft 36ft— % 

17ft 8 Cornells JB L3 12 402 16% 16 16 — ft 


OMlVMt J6 20 13 125 18ft Uft 18% — % 


Wft Corinoo M 191 11 WH 1 3ft— ft 

Si ^ £ on “* 102 16 II 275 39ft 39% 39ft + % 

26% 13% CoroFt 40 15 12 OT 26ft 26 26% — ft 

2SS 3325 S 0, p» J*® kls 7 m* 25 % 25 ft 25 %— % 

S S S^E* 1 &L ,} -i * 23% 2Jft Z3ft 

49ft 36ft Carroc 2.10 45 11 6* 47 46ft 46ft 

lift 7% Carrol 37 4 U IK Uft 11 11ft + % 

44 3ffft Confer 1J8 25 19 145 41ft 42ft 42ft- ft 

32ft ISft CariHW 1 J2 49 43 289 25% M% 25 — ft 

34% 1W* CariVfl ,-52 1J II 136 31ft 30% 21% 

!££ Vt SSSBS '*»*** ra 14% 13% 14% 4- ft 

18% 9% CoMICfc 4VS 12 11% lift— ft 

*» 1» Ctftept 117 ,in 20% 19ft IM*- ft 

S* S*> T 98 15 1787 32ft 31% 32 + % 

27ft 16 Coco 71 32 11 45 24ft 21 24 — ft 

MU 62 ft Catenae 440 47 9 2247x 93% 91 93% +1% 


Cates pf 450 115 


7% Conor n 5% .1 25 164 9% 9% 9%— ft ( Tift » 


Hinkie said some of the interest rale Dutch/Shell Group agreed to raise its offer 


Shell Oil was sharply higher at midday. Royal 
utch/Shell Group agreed to raise its offer for 


MoAH 51 IJU 52 48% 

Bwrts 1X0 14 11 13 2fft 

BMfCp 240 55 9 067X 16% 

Braotpf &50 34 XfcUlft 

Bravf pf za I2J 88*i 28% 

sraafs S3m 4S 19 561 4% 

BraoBn 13 B59 20ft 

B*rk*y 13 68 5% 

BratPd J4 15 13 18S7x 12% 

BOfflSN 48 2.1 2843 79% 

BafhSlDfSJM ULB 13 46% 

Baffin pf 250 114 *1 22 % 

BWOHy JJ 3 W 200 34% 

BloTJir JP 35 16 289 23ft 

BloCkD 44 2J 12 2471 22ft 

BlckNP 1.92 AS B 77 29ft 

Blair Jn J6 25 12 40 22ft 

ataWR 240 45 13 82 49 

BOOtno 14Q 22 * 1679 63% 


Boaino 14Q 22 


11 27% 27% 27% — % 
4 64 U « -W 


+ » I concerns came because of estimates that gross shares of the U.S. firm, ending a class-action 


25% 19% ABUM M 15 
M Wft A««Pr 44 17 

Sh gft M! A7 

lie W3 ACmpf lira 125 
1T% 6% AOenfC 


1* 832 64% 64% M%— ft 


Stu 43% AC ran _ __ 
4Jft 25 AmCxp 158 JI 


14 AFOffill Mb It 
19% AQnCP UP* M 

S 

43% AGn Ipf U) W 
40ft ACflPfO 244 45 

248 2Mft AHrnaPf 2*0 J 
3* 24ft AMMO, U| M 
62% AmriCh MS 73 
50% AlnGrP 44 4 


138 112% AIGppf US 47 
S% WMl AMI 52 21 


48% 27ft tSiSs 122 44 


« 3 26ft 24% 24%— % 

M 3Sk 50% B%- » 

11 310 55* 11% 51%— % 

2* 2Sft 2Sft 7Pk + ft 
HIM 45% 44% 4j%— -1U 
«XH6ft 106% 106 ft + % 

in it mm 

32 29% 29% S9%- ft 
JJ 2) 9ft 9ft Vft— % 

12 KSk 52% Sift Sift- % 

27 568 25% 34% WJ-O 

■ 1993 2B% 2BU M 
15 47*7 41ft 40U Aft +1% 

13 294 28ft »% MU- % 

9 2384 29% W% 29 — U 

54 11% 11U lift _ 

an s sift *»- % 

17 81 u 55% bb%— ft i 
11 64 6SVS 64 +1 

% jrr, 

12 i 

•9 325“ S 22 + ^ 

8 1587 82% 82% OH 
M 970 71ft 3* ,71ft 
» 124 124 12* 

14 4433 21% 22ft 9ft 
1739 3ft 3ft »t.ft 


natuml product in tbe first half of 1985 would 
grow at a 5-percent rate. GNP measures the 


lawsuit by a dissident group. Royal Dutch was 
off a fraction at midday. 


T2MonfO 
HtahLM Stack 


Sit Cine UAWi 

Mv.YM.PE 108* Utah Law DueLOi’gal HMiLoar Stack 


Sis. CKs* 

D1». YULPE MtofflrniLflw Bud, Chile 


43% 22% APraaM J* 14 

miS 8S* 

16 10 ASWp 40 SS 


9 3650 41% 4SU «%+!% 


tS ’S7 

»ft 30% AT&TPJ 154 IM 


30% ATSTPf 16* IM 

S 3i% Ajar of aw jj 

44ft 27% AWqir MO 45 

r Tssr/psK 


S 308 41% 41% 41ft— % 

B *4 12ft 12U 12ft— ft 1 

130 77ft J7H 17% — % 

16 SI IS 14% Uft— ft 

U S47 33% 32ft J8%— U 

11 44S 54% S2ft 53ft— lft 

Itt 68 44 4* —lft 

13 51% 53% 53% 

1712116 21% 20% 21% + % 

33 36% 36ft 36ft— % 

m 37% 37% 37%+ ft 

7 17 4» 49 43ft 

4 22 22 22 —ft 

Ite 11 11 11 

Ittr lift lift lift + ft 
11 82 26ft 24% 26ft- ft 


4* 53ft ATrPr SJSo 8.1 
lift 4ft ATrSc 
78% 91% ATrtJn USs 69 
32% 26% Atnoren 150 45 I 
34 17 AmalOl J2B 5 18 

« 40 Amos of SJ2 54 

29% 21% Amatak JO 25 14 
281A 18% AmtaC 
17ft 10% Amfea: 5 

am 26% AMP* It Vt If 
21 14% Amoco JO 14 9 

21% 12ft Amraps 7 

28% 19 AmSffi 150 5.1 8 
39 25% AmsfKf 150 42 13 

S* lft Anoono 
30ft 19ft Anotao* 20 

10ft T9U Anchor 158 6.1 
3M 24% AnOov M2 XS 20 
lift 9% MfQr SB U 16 
23% 16ft Angolle 56 17 12 
JW 53ft Anhom 2JJ6 17 10 
STU 44 AnhauPfMO *5 
29ft 13ft AnlKfr .28 15 22 
16ft 8% Anffiam M J 15 
ISft 10% Anffiny 54b u 7 
14% ru Apache JB 25 II 
3 % ApdiPwt 

Wft 13% ApdiPuranoaiti 
66 53% ApPw Of 8.12 124 

59 SO ApPwOf 740 12.9 
31% 27U ApPwpf 4.18 135 
Mi 26 AflPwof 340 U.1 
39% 17ft ApIDfO l,12t 25 23 
ZTft 8 AppUHO 1.M1 BASES 
21% Uft AichOn ,14b J 14 
22ft 14% ArixK UO 1X1 7 
91% 71 AriPpf UL51al24 
29% 23 AriPpf 358 12J 
97 79 AriPpf 1050 11.1 


5 66ft M% 
S3 ISft ISft 
17 77ft 77% 

14 33% 33% 
974 34 33% 

11 tS 94 
177 ft 27ft 
405 25ft 25% 
92 lift 11% 
280 34 33% 

197 14ft 14% 

8 14ft 14% 
27% 27U 
, 49 38U 38 
1517 4 9% 

837 2BU 27% 
301 24ft 24% 
19 37ft 37ft 
100 12% lift 
302 20ft 20 
1002 75ft 74% 
374 55% 54ft 
six in lsu 
951 ISft 14% 
5 13% 13ft 
417 11 10% 
2S7 1% lft 
175 lift 17ft 
UOz 45% 65% 
30 k 57% 57U 
4 31ft 31% 

I » » 

XU 3SU 37ft 
12S 13U 13 
MB 19ft 19ft 
1879 21ft 21ft 
2Bz 85 85 
32 28 27U 

BOx 94 96 


46%—% 
Wft- ft 
77% - ft 

r + U 
+ ft 
+ % 

37ft 

25%- % 
11%+ U 
33ft— ft 
16ft — Vk 
14% + % 




13% Arfcfet JO 1 J 
76 Artdfl LOS SJS 
U ArinRi 
9ft Armada 
9 Armeo 

18 Armcpf Ztit tJ 
15ft ArmaRs M U 
22ft ArmWln UO 34 
lift AroCa US 14 
I3U ArowC 3» U 
16 Arm 32 |.1 
14 Arvlns 


22ft 22 22 —ft 

22 2t% 21« 


BolmC ISO *5 19 044 41% 

Belaacpfuo 9J> 17 sn 

Boflfiar .10 4 31 105 28% 

Bardra 272 4.1 9 277 £7% 

Barawa -92 Al 10 1154 2 Zft 

Bormm 3V 4% 

25 Based 124 95 7 IW 35ft 

63 BosEpf BJ8 115 an 7« 7S% 74ft +IU 

9 BooEpt 1.17 114 3 10ft WU 10U— % 

U% BOE er 144 11 J 57 12ft 12% 12%— % 

Mft BcwTr/j 72 29 » 240 25 Mft 34ft— % 

25% BrioSf 140 S3 V 550x 30ft 30 30% + ft 

42ft BristM 140 3J W 18Z7 J3ft 53% 53ft- % 


83ft— % 
24ft— ft 
25% — % 
35ft + ft 
48% — % 
29% — % 
36%— ft 
I63W— Oft 
20% + % 
■TO— M 
20ft— % 
5% — % 
12ft— ft 
l*»— ft 
46ft— U 
22ft- % 
34% + ft 
23 — U 
33%— lft 
29%- ft 
22 — % 
49- +% 
63ft + % 

41ft 

saw — ft 
28U + U 
4i%— ft 
22U— ft 
6U 

asft-w 

74ft +1U 
10U— % 


41ft 30% Cental UO 5J 

26% IT Cratoxn 

23% 17 Cansow 202 8.9 

2S% 14% CortHud 244 114 

23ft lav* Con IlUt 222 93 

17ft 14 CnllPS 140 9J 

23ft 17ft CnLoEl l.M M 

35 29% CLOEI pt A 18 127 

14% 7ft CoMPw 148 117 
19ft 14 CnSwa 44 44 

10ft 10% CVTPS UO II J 

14% 7ft ComrOI 
10% 7ft Cntry T1 40 73 


BB 41ft 41 41% 

» SMft— ft 

22ft 22Vb 22!% 

W 2M » — ft 

2% 22ft 22% 22% — Vi 
834 17U 17 17ft + % 
565 22% 22% 22ft— % 
7 33 33 32 — ft 

238 10% Wft 10ft— ft 

S lfft 18% 19% — % 
17 16ft 16ft 
W 9ft 9 9%— % 

44* lejb 10 % m%— % 
Six 21 ft 21% 21%— ft 


39ft lift Camdra 4 1783 13% Wft 13% — ft 

»ft 21% OnwE 349 104 6 4S9V 25% 58% »ft- % 
Wft 13 CwE Pf 140 120 48 15ft 15ft 15ft + U 

17 13% CwE pf 340 11.9 1 Wft U% S5 

* SS Cwepf 8J0 124 Mb 66ft iSk- ft 

S* “I ^ IT 7 3 22% 22ft 21% 

25 20% CwE pf 247 11J 10 24% 2*ft 24% — % 

59 46 CwE Pf 77* 127 1 0ta 57% 57% 57% 

JSS 222 .? . 8 ”5 Mfc 23% 

M% 2OT* Cannot UC JJ 11 1438 22 31% HU— 1 

» 16% CPSYCI 44 J 26 803 31% 31 31ft 

3S59 34 Camper 40 1J 11 54 33% 33 MU— U 

Comp!* 8 278 16% 15ft U 

> *a r ^r-' h 

7*27 

hi as — ® ,, s?asata=s 

T i% ^ d . \& i? g ss SSiS 

44% 31 Cn&NG 241 S3 9 27? 43ft " 


34% 26 Compor 40 14 11 
2? 

psar 

S* « ass *s % i 


38% au CnPPfB 440 774 
CnPpfD 74S W4 
PfE 7J2 17J3 


43ft 43% 43ft— U 
_4U 6 6 — % 


10% 7ft QitnrTI MB 73 8 44k 10% 10% 10ft— % 

23% 18ft Conyfll 240 12.1 ■ 31k 21 ft 21 % 21 %— ft 

27% 15% erMaad JO 27 12 135 26% 25% 25ft- % 

255? J 7 SS**) 1- -fi *7 J2P MW 21% 21% — % 

26U 16% ampin 40 14 2004 22% 21% 2Z%— % 

54 43U aim I m <48 U 31 52 S1U52-M 

Jg* " awnta 40 17 11 m MM 8 % — U 

Nft 1 Vienne 307 2ft 2% 2ft + % 

“ viairwf im i » _ 

vlOirfPf 50 2% 2ft 2ft 

awe UO 7J 6 ra« 52U 51% 52% - U 

Ctaepf STS 1Z1 ss 44% 43% 43%— 1 

OKMPf 657aIU II 55% S5 SS — U 

gwnepf 940(174 42Q g% sift 5J% + % 

QTstaaa ,73 34 9 13 k 30% 20H 20% + % 

Chained 1 52 44 U in 32% 31% Sift + ft 

CUNY 3 241 «4 4 1472 38 16ft 37ft- ft 

OWYPI 1J7 EB 43 37ft 5ft Sft 

... Omsk 134 U II ] 30ft 38% MU— U 

39% 42% ChuPn 2 j 00 5J 10 5249 34% 34 34% t % 

40U 29tt Cfwvrn 249 47 S J4S4 3SV. 34ft 34U- % 

36% lift CNWlt 1 * 701 21 % Sm mi -1 

280 112 CMMIW 44 34 150% ISO 150U 

75 B%CIHMlPf 4 40 67 60 +1 

25U uv, ChtPnT .1*6 4 9 51 23% 22% 23 — % 

IS ,7ft a* Pull 33X 18144 n Oft 8 % tft -6 % 


46% 23U 
47 25U 

46% 2S 
26% 11% 
21% 9U 
23 IM 
46% 25% 

24% 11U 


pfG 774 1731 
prV 44a 17J 
prV 340 17 J 
PfT *78 174 
PPfH 748 IM 
— ^ ... — 4» PTR 4J0 13J 
24% io% CnPprP 258 175 
23% MU CnPprN 3JS 17J 
It 7U Cap prfH 250 MJ 

MS .1 £?£»i W-l 

24% 11 CnPnrS 4J2 17.1 
W% 7% CnPprK 243 174 
43 23% CMICn 240 *1 

92 . 59ft CtlCpfA 250 25 
10% 4% Corttlll 
4U . ft Conti I rt 
49ft 12 Cntlllpf 
4% ft CtllMdn 
M 4% Cnflnta 
M 10 COMTal 1J2 75 
Mft 24% CfOota 72 U 
TTQ 22ft CanMl 1X0 35 
3% 1 VtCooKU 
3flft 26ft COOPT 152 47 


s ; . „ 

1% 26ft 26% 24% 

ISta 44U 44V, 44% — 1 
20ta 44ft 44ft 44ft- ft 
24ta 45 45 45 —1 

27 2S 3i% 24%— % 

33 21 20% 20ft 

31 22 21ft »ft— % 
20ta 44% 44% 44%— IU 
M 23% 23% 21% + % 
61 2, 22ft 22ft- ft 
2 S 22 % 22 22 —U 

34 14% 14% 14% + U 
» W IM 13ft— ft 

34 23% 23% 23% 

M 14ft 14 14 —ft 

4S9K 41 40% 41 

IX *8% 08% 90% —SO 
744 Oft 9U OU-% 
3414 2ft 2ft 2ft— U 
3 42 42 42 —1 


S8=H 

» +% 

Mu 

MU + ft 

55%+ ft 
18% + U. 
Mft— ft 
13% 

11 

1U— % 
II — ft 

65% — % 
57U— ft 
31%-U 

19ft— % 
21 %+ % 
IS —3ft 
17%+ % 
9* 


lift — ft 

ion— % 

21ft- V, 
31%— U 
35ft — % 
WU— ft 
ISft-1% 
28ft 
Zlft— 1 
SOU + ft 
29U 

41ft— % 

57ft— U 
21 *-% 
24% — ft 
06 —I 
46ft + % 
86 — % 
109% 

Mft— ft 

27%— 1 

49%~ * 
23ft + U 
37»+ % . 
14ft I 
34 —ft 
22% 

2*%— % . 


3U MW 

3m Brim U6# 7 A t 
9% BrtTTpp 
■ 2 ft Brack 

Mft Brcfewv 153 *6 26 

2* BkyUG ID U 7 

29 BKUQSf 3.95 11* 

U B«n3t> 50 5 11 


6 4ft 4ft 4ft 
204 34 23% 23ft— ft 

79* 13 Uft 12ft— % 

204 3ft 3% 3% 

37 20 W% 20 

71 36ft 33ft 35ft— % 

22 30% 30% 30% 

25 25% 3SU 2SU— % 


41% Mft ChrisCr >«t U 
lift WU QlCflPf 150 9,1 


34 150% ISO 150U 
4 60 67 60 +1 

31 23% 22% S - % 

W Bft 8% *ft+ % 
37 40 29U 39U— % 
1 11 II 11 

W 11% 1IU It% + U 

lft 12 % lift 12 — % 


2”* 14? S-i S"? MV. 32U- % 


22U BriHiGo 156 4J 11 128 20% 20 28 — ft 
26% BnanF U* 26 15 232 42 41ft 41ft- U 


23ft Bmswfc US 26 9 519 38ft 31ft 37ft- % 
25% BnltWf 48 15 10 SH 39ft 39 39% + ft 


12 BucvCr M 2 3 
13% Bundy JO 44 
15% Btflknf 116 IM 
MU Burma 


44 27 37 125 15U 
50 44 7 36 17% 


39 39% + ft 
15 15% 

17% 17% — Ht 


n 17% 17% T7U + % 
13 in 1B% 17% 10 — U 


OKiOOa UB 17 U 
Church 50 13 16 

OnBali 3,12 69 8 .. 

Once 2.16 145 6 na 15% 14% i£% 
cmgpf 400 135 40r 30 29% 30 +% 

CteStsf 4Jf 145 SDy 34 34 34 — 1U 

anert 950 13J Iftv 67 67 67 +lft 

SfiSS 245 M4 SM S3%+lft 

ChiQpf 9ft 145 6BQy 64 64 64 —lft 

ailOpf 9 ft 14.1 40y 67% 67% 67% +1% 

emw& J2 X9 J2 294 2SU 25 2SU + U 
ardK J4 23 14 143 3714 Mft 3ft 
arerty m su a 
arcus M Ml 21% Zlft 21%- % 

SJJtonp U6 4J 7 3835 43% 41 U 43% + % 
C|to>pfA953all5 30 90% 9*% 9*% 
CBV'm ,, 9 1854 m 38% '30ft 
Ctyinpf U0 U 6 59ft 59ft SHa 

Ovin p» xn ii4 la Mmim 

Bs. ***$£**"“ 

cSSpi ?2 im 

MlftB 135 58 SB ft 

Etveipf1U6aM0 66 16 6* +2 

Pkwpfe. 44 *7 91 13% 12ft nu 


59 57ft 
35% 34% 


-1? 45%+% 

*3* 15% 14% 15% 


23 Buiilfld 144 65 W 730 27ft 27 Z7%— % 
» SrtMffi 1 50 25 ■ 1318 55U 54% 55% 


6 % BriNopf 55 0.1 4 6 ft 

19 BriNpf 2.12 95 1 21% 

44% BriNpf 5J001U 422 5BU 

cm earns* 54 49 16 St xm 

MU Burrah 260 43 11 2074 61U 

12 % 9uHnn 53 25617 90 10 % 

3% Butta* 53 4% 

MW Bufttpf 2-10 1*5 25 11% 


4 6 ft 6 % *ft + % 
1 21% 31% 21%— U 
422 5BU 49* 50 — U 
57 ITft rr 1714 + U 
“■ Wb 

TIP inm IBM toll— W 

53 4% 4ft 4% 

25 11% II 11%+ % 


33% 24% CBI In 


28% lflU BMC 58 45 U 131 IJU 11% 1)%— % 

K% 18% Bolmc b JO 15 n 510 3» 33% m— ft 

23% 15 Bkrlntt 52 54 M 1397 17U 17 17% 


CBI In 14*0 XI 13 69 27% 27% 37%— % 

CBS UO XB 12 408 7SU 77% 7IU + ft 

CCX 15 196 7% 7% Tft— U 

_ CIGNA 260 U« 468 48W 48V* «%+ ft 

30% 23ft CIGpf ITS 9.1 03 30ft 30 30ft + ft 

lft <ft CLC _ 7**6+% 

40% 21% CNAFn 15 27 37U 37 S7U + % 

'■ CNA1 15001 L7 13 10U 10% WU 

CPCint Z20 55 W 791 40ft 39ft 40% + U 

CP Wt 140 75 B 7* 20% 19% 19ft— % 


4% ft CtllHdn 732 lft 1W lft • 

0% 4% Cnflnta 7 3M 9% 8 % Mb- ft 

2L. ** ,- S 2- J! 2IH z»%+ ft 

Vft 2Mb CfOota 71 UO 2800 35% X 3S%— % 

7 T A !■*» M 12 175 31 30% SS— % 

' iJOWfcU 22 lft lft 1U + U 

^ »» COOPT 1^ JJ 15 768x 32% 32 32ft- % 

im* eESS ? “.L *■! « ,70x 34 3S *— w 

27 Im GocwLb M 3o J 3 n 15 U ku ia 

5 SSiS5Si+% 

a** Sm? 0 * ^ 5 31ft 21ft 21ft— U 

s«®gsr s “B ” asas^s 

%. ^ SSSt* 1-M 15 15 669 37U 3*U 36%— » 
u° 26 30 33 30% 38U 38ft + * 

m Im Jf ff Si 54% 54% —lft 

®i*gS£. s lasses 


S*b 12% Odtnats 40 766 29% 28ft 29%+% 

H% 61U CumEn 258 25 4 37B* HU 79% 

I04> 8U Currlac I.Hkdl.l 12 iq n o%— % 

49% »% r 1 !*?*.. 1^2 M ^2 ‘ W* 35% 35% — % 

49% 27% Cretans 1.10 25 M 198 49 48% 46ft— ft 


□vpkpl 223 tu 


sfi 1« 6 ^ ^ ^ 

1.M » 19 % M 2« a 8b“ “ 

150 45 1 S 

* ITOlflb 19 J9U+% 

*«? nl 22t S* SP* Seb ~ ) 1 

74* 1U 411& SB SB 5* 

3J6aHO 66 86 ft +2 

M JT ft 13% 13ft T3« 


CtabMn .Me 4 11 M 2 20 % » S%— ft 

nyoHP 150 3410 94 29 U 38 % 29 U 
aaotpf 159 54 1 18 % W% M% 


10* 1% CNAI 14001 L7 
41% 34% CPC Inf 220 54 


PWtPf 159 54 
^nchm 49 U 11 
CoobM 40a U 7 


7Bf» 13ft 

Jgft »u 
30% 21% 
.8% S% 
IS 8% 
91% 64U 
M 39% 
25% 13% 
12% Mb 
18ft EM 
39% 26% 
16% lift 
36% 45% 
99% 45 


St SPStzg 


D«M» 40 XI 16 
DMWjnc JO l j 99 

DanaCp UB 44 0 
Danahr a* 

D raW .Mb 14 
OortKr 444 47 10 
DataOn la 

DMsnt 18 

tooDn 40 16 u 
Qovoq, J4 L4 • 
DayfH* 44 25 14 
OavtPL 250 129 7 
DPLof 748 IU 

DPVpf 7 JO 1X1 


21 U 21 

7ft 7% 
13% 13 
90* 90 
57% 55ft 

15% 15% 

u r 


(Continued on page 19 ) 


21%- ft 
13 — % 
2*%— ft 
7ft + U 
Wft + ft 
»0ft + % 
SOft-1 
19ft— ft 

nft+% 

17U 

37 —ft 
15% 

54ft— ft 

JP +1 


hjj. :ez.ji7,c£. Mcsl 
C3H? hJi? l ! 

one ir. sc*-en M* 


10 niilicr. pe».ir.Se. 
Indian ar-d have z 
other than Spcnisf 
Indi^ L> net rarw 
Be; firs: r.e must !e 
talk tike j Eurs.'pea 

"if he Win is ;j I 
tisj. iijr Mr Cc 
Wesjernize " 

Mr vl'oheto is a 
--vizkr Spans, 
canon. wjs [iter; 
flirn. ;; se or hr.s c] 
Zarotecj. ftitisin he; 
er the;- v.:re beaisa 
m 2 fcrcec :.■» uke < 
teaihsr Ir.di 

•uiicc^T ho.'idays 

iw-ued r.\ the saver 
die r.ct Lnoft 
there r.c 1 walked i 
he si; : . 

Accorcin: tc M 
P^r>i;o s:h-?o! svj 
ir m * he rec« 
a chuc 'a no jusuiLns 
injur, from j 
teree ■■ ■■ ^ earing In 
Sj-DK':. i the oni 
ehilc owned. 
“There j.. no law » 
■:cijdrer_” siid 
“I'afortunaidy this 
U03 a setae 
b added. Sol 


Will 







°0 to 



ItcnUbSSribune 

----- - r - 


KHESi 


INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION 


V.7* 


A SPECIAL REPORT 


TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 26, 1985 


Page 9 






Mexico Using 
Indian Languages 
To Preserve Culture 



By Mark J. Kuriansky 

TLAXIACO, Mexico — Gonza- 
lo Garcia Jimenez. 57, a smqli man 
with the delicately constructed face 
of a Mixteco Indian, is an educated 
man. He is the bead of his local 
school system although be only 
learned to read and write in bis 
native language five years ago. He 
was one of the first. 

He was not educated in the Mix- 
leco school system he now beads in 
the rocky, yellow, dry mountains of 
Mexico's southern state of Oaxaca. 
Mr. Garcia was educated in the 
Mexican public school system, 
where be learned 10 read and write 
Spanish well but was forbidden to 
utter a word of his native Mixteco 
language or wear Indian clothes. 

Candida Coheto. director gener- 
al of indigenous education, calls it 
“internal colonialism'* and his 
agency under the Ministry of Pub- 
lic Education is trying to change it. 

The Spanish colonists stigma- 
tized the Indians and the stigma 
has remained. Most modern Mexi- 
cans have some Indian ancestry 
and one in seven Mexicans, at least 


Educated people such 
as Goozalo Garcia 
Jimenez must be found 
in each village and 
taught to read, write 
and then teach in their 
own language. 


10 million people, are full-blooded 
Indian and have a native language 
other than Spanish. In Mexico an 
Indian is not barred from success. 
But first he must learn to dress and 
talk like a European. 

“If he wants to have opportuni- 
ties,” says Mr. Coheto, he must 

Westernize.” 

Mr. Coheto is a pure Zapoteco 
who speaks Spanish with sophisti- 
cation. It was literally beaten into 
him. If be or his classmates spoke 
Zapoteco within hearing of a teach- 
er they were beaten. He recalls be- 
ing forced to take off his hamchis, 
woven leather Indian s a ndals , on 
national holidays and put on shoes 
issued by the govermnenL 

“I did not know bow to wear 
(hem and I walked like a chicken,’* 
he says. 

According to Mr. Coheto the 
public school system has not 
changed and he recently learned of 
a child who sustained a permanent 
neck injury from a blow adminis- 
tered for wearing Indian clothes to 
school. It was the only set of clothes 
the child owned. 

“There is no law to protect Indi- 
an children,’' said Mr. Coheto. 
“Unfortunately this type of educa- 
tion creates a sense of worthless- 
ness,” be added. So the government 


is now setting up schools for Indi- 
ans that try to foster their cultures 
and develop proud, educated, tra- 
ditional Indians. 

“We cannot think why an Indian 
child should be obligated to learn 
how to be pan of the dominant 
group,’’ explained Mr. Coheto. 
“We favor the development of the 
child within his culture.” 

The Indian is first taught about 
his culture, then his region, then his 
country. To do this die decision 
was made to teach the students 
bdingually in Spanish and their 
mother tongues. 

But teaching in Indian languages 
has been an enormous undertaking. 
The program must deal with at 
least 56 Indian languages in Mexi- 
co. They are all oral traditions and 
the program must create the writ- 
ten languages before they can be 
uughL 

The first experiments in this 
were in 1936 but books and curric- 
ula were not being developed on a 
wide scale until 1979. There are 
now primary education books 
teaching reading and writing in 35 
languages. Twelve more languages 
are brag worked on. 

The program must be groomed 
individually for almost every vil- 
lage. especially in southern regions 
such as Oaxaca. There a communi- 
ty on one side of a mountain may 
wear white clothing and speak Mix- 
leco and two miles away in another 
village the people wear brilliant red 
embroidered tonics and speak Tri- 
quL 

The schools are to be cultural 
institutions, not only iMrhing in 
the village language but trying to 
conserve traditional crafts and 
skills, perpetuating native dance, 
musk and customs. Educated peo- 
ple such as Gonzaio Garcia Jim 6 - 
nez must be found in each village 
and (might to read, write and tbm 
teach in their own language. 

At the moment there are slightly 
more than 5,000 kindergartens and 
about 5.500 grade schools in the 
bilingual program. Spanish is first 
introduced in kindergarten by 
miming familiar activities such as 
grinding com while explaining it in 
Spanish. 

Primary school lasts six years 
and by the fourth year is about half 
in Spanish and half in In dian As 
the education continues there is an 
undesired tendency far (he Spanish 
language to take over. 

This is partly because bilingual 
programs have not yet been devel- 
oped for the three years of second- 
ary education. There are wily 12 
bilingual secondary' schools in 
Mexico although the government 
hopes to have 300 by the aid of the 
year. But books have still to be 
written in the many languages on 
such subjects as the history of each 
tribe. 

Many of the languages are ex- 
tremely difficult In the Mixteco 
village of San Miguel del Progreso, 
for instance, all the students in the 
first year of secondary school 

{Continued oa Next Page) 



Debunking Myths About the Art of Thinking 


By Edward de Bono 

LONDON — The arguments fly back and 
forth and the meeting that has beat called to 
plan a medical clinic in Venezuela is getting 
nowhere. 

Suddenly a 10-year-old boy comes forward 
from (be back of the room and organizes the 
meeting to set objectives, list priorities, find 
alternatives and assess the needs of the various 
parties. The place is Maracaibo and the boy is 
present because his mother could not find a 
babysitter. 

The boy had received the routine “thinking 
skills” lessons that are now compulsory in Vene- 
zuelan schools. 

five years ago the Venezuelan government 
invited me to Caracas to train teachers and to 
s et uj> a project for direct leaching of thinking as 

Over the years, 106,000 teachers have been 
trained and, by law, all schoolchildren spend 
two hours a week on “thinking skills. " 

Two years ago the government of Bulgaria 
invited me to set up a pilot project in Sofia and 
Plovdiv. Recently reported results have shown 
statistically significant improvements in the 
standard tests for IQ and creativity — and also 
improvements in thinking behavior (such as 
independence). The government is committed 
to putting out one hour a week on the school 
curriculum for “thinking skills.” 

In Malaysia, based on the results of another 

Edward de Bono, a leading authority on the 
direct leaching of thinking, has written 25 books, 
translated into 19 languages, and made three 
television series on thinking. 


pilot project, the government is putting thinking 
00 the curriculum of the elite science schools. In 
Canada the method is widely used from the 
Yukon to Quebec and the leading school for the 
gifted has been using it for several years. There 
are projects in California and other parts of the 
United Stales and a growing use in Britain, 
Ireland, Australia, New Zealand and Malta and 
some use in Israel. The rhnusK, who had an 
observer team in Venezuela, have said they plan 
to use the approach with 25U million children a 
year. _ 

Last year the professional Association of Cur- 
riculum Designers in the United States voted 
the teaching of thinking to be the top priority in 
education. Three years ago a Gallup poD in the 
United States showed 60 percent of parents to 
be dissatisfied with the teaching of thinking in 
schools. 

- It has taken 15 years of pioneering efforts to 
overcome the senes of dangerous myths that 
have prevented the leaching of thinking in 
school Among the myths: 

• Intelligent people are automatically good 
thinkers. On the contrary, they are often poor 
thinkers because they get caugnt in the “intelli- 
gence trap,” which obliges them to use their 
thinking to support a particular argument in- 
stead of constructively exploring the matter. 

• Pupils develop their thinking as they use it 
in the various traditional subject areas. Busy 
journalists may remain “two-finger typists” 
through lack of focused attention cm typing 
skills. Skin development has to be deliberate. 

• The drills of infor matio n handling are suffi- 
cient. I coined the word “operacy” for those 
important skills of doing that go far beyond 
knowing and describing. 

• Thinking must mean “critical thinking.” 


This puts off many people and has often been 
the bane of Western thinking Critical thinking 
is only a small part of thinking. Thinking needs 
to be constructive and generative. 

• It is not possible to reach “ thinking* * direct- 
ly as a subject The Venezuelan and other pro- 
jects have proved beyond doubt that there is a 
practical way to teach thinking an a large scale 
to a wide mix of pupils (from jungle kids to 
Canadian elite) using ordinary teachers. The 
design of the methodology is crucial, otherwise a 
mess results. Test results are now beginning to 
come in from all over the world (V enezuel a, 
Canada, Australia, the United States and Bul- 
garia) for I insist that users do their own testing 
rather than rdy on tests done at source in an 
ideal school with special tea c h e r s. 

What of tbe future? Some countries will move 
fast once they realize that thinking — the ulti- 
mate human resource — is trainable as a skill, 
fa the United States progress will be much 
slower because of two factors: The first is the 
many vested interests in a highly fractionated 
education system; the second is the grave dan- 
ger of bandwagon enthusiasm that is already 
sucking in very old-fashioned and pooriy con- 
ceived materia] that will set the movement bade 
25 years. I worry about that. 

In tbe business world there is great interest in 
developing thinking skill, particularly lateral 
thinkin g, which is concemea with new concepts 
and perceptions. I have worked with such cor- 
porations as IBM, General Foods, Exxon and 
many others who know that proving yourself 
right in an argument is less important than the 
reaHty of the marketplace. 

If asked, I would define thinking as: tbe 
operating drill with which intelligence acts upon 
experience. 


Johnny Still 
Can’t Read Well 
Enough to Work 


By Daniel B. Moskowitz 

WASHINGTON — On March 
1 , thousands of mailings are set to 
go out to schools, libraries, and 
other educational outlets across the 
United Stales, the latest move in a 
drive to involve corporate America 
in tbe growing problem of illitera- 
cy. 

With money from such compa- 
nies as General Electric Co.. 
McGraw-Hill publishing, and the 
Dayton-Hudson retailing chain, 
the Coalition for literacy is using 
the mailing to urge the local institu- 
tions to encourage local newspa- 
pers and broadcast stations to run, 
without charge, advertisements 
calling attention to tbe social costs 
of a significant adult population 
that cannot read on the level de- 
manded by the modem world. 

The advertisements woe drawn 
up without charge by the Benton & 
Bowles advertising agency. Tbe 
ads, in turn, try to stimulate more 
corporate support for the cam- 
paign. Reads one ad headline: “27 
milli on Americans can't read, and 
guess who pays the price?” The 
answer a list of some of the largest 
U-S- companies. The tagline: “A 
literate America is a good invest- 
ment.” 

It is that pitch — the dollars and 
cents cost of functional illiteracy — 
that is getting U.S. business inter- 
ested in a problem that until re- 
cently was the exclusive concern of 
educators and isolated do-gooders 
who met in church basements in 
training sessions with b eginning 
readers. 

“The issue of functional illitera- 
cy lies coiled at the center of our 
unemployment problems,” said a 
Travelers Insurance Co. senior vice 
president, Robert W. Feagles. Tt 
threatens tins country’s ultimate 
ability to succeed in the world mar- 
ket." 

The United States reported to 
the United Nations that 99.5 per- 
cent of its adults are literate, giving 
it one of the highest literacy rates in 
the world. The discrepancy, of 
course, is between the bare ability 
to sign one’s name and read tbe 
word “STOP” on an octagonal sign 
and the ability to read — and com- 
pote — well enough to function in 
an increasingly complex society. 

“By any standard, there were 
more illiterate Americans 100 years 
ago," notes Jonathan Kozol in “Il- 
literate America,” a book sched- 
uled for publication March 15. “It 
is functional illiteracy that has in- 
creased; this is the case because this 
term is, in itself, a ‘function’ of the 
needs imposed upon a person by 
the economic and (he social order. 
The economy and tbe society have 
changed in every age. It is the rate 
of change, and the degree to which 
it may outpace the literacy level of 
tbe nation, that determines which 
part of that nation is unable to 
survive and prevail within the con- 
text of its times.” 


While the drag of a permanently . 
unemployed underclass does hold 
down the economy, individual 
business executives most often 
worry about those who are on their 
payrolls but unable 10 read well 
enough to do their jobs. 

These are employees who send 
out insurance payment checks for 
ten times the correct amount be- . 
cause they do not understand the . 
use of the decimal point, who min 
batches of chemicals because they 
cannot read the names of the ingre- 
dients they are supposed to add to 
the mix, who let minor mishaps 
escalate into major accidents be- 
cause they cannot read a red sign 
that says, “In an emergency, puQ . 
lever." 

No one knows how much such - 
tmderaducauoD is costing cotnpa- . 
tries, but it has to be in the hun- 
dreds of millions of dollars every 
year. When the Center for Public 
Resources ran a study of the prob- 
lem in 1982, it found only one com- 
pany willing to estimate the ontinal 
cost of work botches and materials 
wasted because of employee Dliter- • 
acy. That manufacturer’s guess was 
5250,000 — and it was only a medi- 
um-sized firm. Forty percent of the ; 
companies responding to (he Cen- 
ter for Public Resources rated em- 
ployee reading deficiencies as a se- • 
rious problem. 

The primary concern of business 
is the way a poor reader is a poor 
employee. But companies are wor- ; 
lied, too, about how deficient read- 
ers affect other aspects of business. 
Product liability suits frequently 
are centered on the adequacy of a 
warning label, and juries find that 
oomplex wording just doesn't give 
fair notice of dangers to a margin- 
ally flhterate consumer. 

Those who lose money in some 
chancy investment scheme similar- 
ly argue in court over whether or 
not they had been giving effective 
warnings of the risks involved. Glo- 
ria A Lanza, vice president of the 
American Association of Advertis- 
ing Agencies, explains, “If we are 
out there marketing, certainly it is 
in our interest to have more people 
who can read our ads.” 

This newly recognized self-inter- ' 
est is leading business into a deeper 
involvement with education than 
ever before. “We have to do work 
that I would consider the obliga- 
tion of the schools," notes Edward : 
Sutton, New York Telephone Co. 
assistant vice president in charge of 
human resources development For 
a variety of companies, that work 
now includes: 

• Getting more involved with . 
thequalityof teaching in their local 1 
public schools. Where once execu- 
rives took a hands-off attitude to- - - 
ward the contentious debate over 
school standards, now they are 
leading fights to toughen gradua- 
tion requirements and lending per- • 
(Continued on Page 16) 


William Bennett: Proponent of a Worldly View 


By Lawrence Feinberg 

WASHINGTON — At a time 

■ when conventional wisdom holds 
■ that education should promote 

technological change, the United 
States has a new secretary of educa- 
: tion who believes that what stu- 
; ■ dents need most is more writing, 
it literature, and history. 

The new secretary, Wniiam J. 

■ Bennett, does not oppose comput- 
ers or the other paraphernalia of 

! ; high technology. But he gives them 

£ httle respect Instead of pushing for 
a new computer literacy. Mr. Ben- 
nett is an ardent proponent of an 
older, more traditional literacy, 
achieved by reading great litera- 
■ . tnre, studying significant history, 
< . writing essays, and learning a for- 
i eign lan guag e and the methods of 
j ' science. 

According to Mr. Bennett, who 
1 holds advanced degrees in pMoso- 
phy and law, the prune task of U.S. 
educatio n should be to transnut the 
- culture and values of Western civi- 
5 lization. Yet, it often fails to do so. 
- 1 he charg es, even to the quarter of 
American young people who now 
graduate from college. 

“We are a part and a product of 
Western civilization,” Mr. Bennett 
. wrote last fall in a report decrying 
5 ; the decline of the humanities pro- 
: grams at American colleges. “The 

core of tbe American coDege auric- 

uhim — its heart and soul — 
should be the civilization of the 
West, source of the most powerful 
4 and pervarivr influences on Ameri- 
ca and all of its people. It is simply 
not possible for students to under- 
stand their society without study- 
ing its intellectual legacy" 
t ■ Mr. Bennett said that giving stu- 
dents such an education ultimately 
wiH mpbf them more employable, 

7 not less. Paradoxically, he suggests, 

• • it will make the U.S. economy more 





lh* Wntafpon Fob 


William J. Bennett 


T The core of the American college curriculum — 
Us heart and soul — should be the ddUsation of 
the West 


productive than the colleges do 
now try turning out legions of thin- 
ly tramed graduates in business, 
communications and other voca- 
tional fields. 

To support his polemics, Mr. 
Bennett has produced his studies. 
The most notable is a recent tabu- 
lation by the University of Texas, 
which shows its libera! arts majors 
10 be thriving in careers of all sorts 
five to 10 years after graduation. 


The study does note that they have 

more difficulty landing a first job 
than those with more specialized 


The liberal arts graduates “are 
likely to have developed certain 
skills tha t are indispensable to all 
areas of work, skills such as re- 
search, writing, speaking, and ana- 
lyzing,” Mr. Bennett said. “They 
can men easily develop more spe- 
cialized ‘saleable skills' in on-the- 


job training, internships or gradu- 
ate schools.” 

Of course, Mr. Bennett is a parti- 
san, but his voice is far from alone 
either in assessing what sort of 
education students need or in criti- 
cizing colleges for not giving it to 
them. 

The most comprehensive fore- 
casts of employment changes over 
the next decade, issued by the U.S. 
Labor Department, conclude that 
only 7 percent of new jobs in the 
United States will require ad- 
vanced technical training. 

“It’s true that a tot of people will 
be using computers on titeir jobs,” 
said Russell W. Rumbezger, an 
education professor at Stanford 
University, who has written exten- 
sively on technology and educa- 
tion. “But h is not true that they 
wd] need a high level of math and 
science to use them. 

“That’s not to say that the U.S. 
doesn’t need a good, well-trained 
technical work force; it does,” Mr. 
Rumberger added “But that’s not 
a very large part erf it” 

Despite some specific shortages, 
Mr. Rumberger said tbe demand 
for computer scientists and engi- 
neers appears well on the way to 
being met The most persistent 
problem in the US labor force, he 
said, is the poor level erf analytical 
and writing skills even among 
many who are recent college gradu- 
ates. 

This, in turn, has prompted a 
vast expand on in education by 
U.S. companies. As docummt ed by 
the Carnegie Foundation for the 
Advancement erf Teaching, courses 
for corporate employees now cost 
more than 540 billion a year and 
enroll nearly 8 million adults. 

“Beyond the basics, more and 
more companies are leaching ana- 
lytical skills and critical thinking,” 
(Continued on Page 14) 



liidtiaaVIlm Gtcfau 


What Computer literacy Can Do for the West 


By Edmund G. Brown Jr. 

LOS ANGELES— Europe and tbe United 
States are aging and shrinking compared with 
the rest of the world. In the next 20 yeats, 700 
million people will enter the international 
workforce. Of these, 90 percent will live out- 
side the United States aiul Europe and most 
will seek a wage that is a mere fraction of 
what is expected by those living in the most 
advanced countries. 

Edmund G. Brawn Jr„ farmer governor of 
California, is chairman of the National Com- 
mission on Industrial Innovation. 


It is impossible to prosper under these 
conditions without deep changes in national 
behavior. At a mmim imi, ibis means a funda- 
mental commitment to life-long learning and 
radically improved education. 

As citizens of advanced but vulnerable 
economies , we must either relentlessly in- 
crease the quality of our skills or see our 
standard of living erode. For the future, com- 
petition between nations will be increasingly 
based on technological skilL Oil and natural 
resources wili still be important, but they no 
longer will determine a nation's economic 
strength. This will now be a matter of the wav 


people organize themselves and the nature 
and quality of their work. Japan and die “new 
Japans" of East Asia are demonstrating this 
point in ways that are becoming painfully 
obvious to the older industrial countries. 

There is amply no way to rest on our past 
achievements. Today's competition renders 
obsolete huge chunks of what we know and 
forces us to innovate. For each individual, 
several careers will be customary, and con- 
tinuing education and retraining will he ines- 
capable. To attain this extraordinary level of 
education, government, business, schools and 

(Continued on Next Page) 





•Page 10 



UNIVERSITtK 
PARIS S0RB0NNE 


Dipaleiim,| Expt rim w rtd 
<f Etude d« la Chrifaatkwi Fran**M 


GRADUATE COURSES 



COURSDE 

CIVILISATION 

FRANCAISE 


UNDERGRADUATE COURSES 


• Uf^VSlSTTY COURSES: 

Beginn ing October to end of May. 

By Semester: Beginning October to end of Janu- 
ary or beginning February to end of May. 

• WAGg ltRE de Longue ef do Chrffisatton 
Franpnse*. Option in Pedagogy or Economics. AH 
“tionalitie*. Equivalent to M.A. credit U.5A, (un- 
der certain oondfrtions) beginning September to 
mid-August (1 year). 

• Sorfaonne Sumiar Session far Foreign Teachers 
and Students. Beginning July to mid-August. Spe- 
cial courses far Graduates. American College 
credits. 

• Courses for teoc he re of French Language and 
ChriGzatian (set up upon request), 

■ Spedafized training courses m ofl fields (set up 
upon request). 


F r en c h baccelaureat level required. 

French language and avifizatian courses. 
Practical courses: 12 or 25 hours per week. 
Eve n ing courses: 6 hours per week, limited num- 
ber of inscriptions. 

■ Win ter Semester . Beginning October to end of 
January; 

Spring Se m ester . Beg. February to end of May. 
e Summer Courses: 4, 6 and 8 weeks, JulrAugust- 


• Special Summer Session: Beginning July to begin- 
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• Int erim Session. Indepih cultural, linguistic and 
economic studies during the month of January. 


Student visa compulsory. Inquire at the Cultural taction of tho French Embassy. 

COURS DE CIVILISATION FRAN^AISE. 47 Rue dee tcoka, Pari*-5*. TeL: 329.12.13. ed. 3*58. 


UNIVERSITY DE PARIS SORBONNE- 

Deportment d'fetude de la Civilisation Fran^aise, 


in association with the Paris Chamber of Commerce and Industry organizes courses leading to: 

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Kor Information Contact: 

Admissions Qtlce. Bax H 
3i Avenue Bouquet, 75007 Raris. France 
Telephone 1 55591. 73/ Telex: ACRVttS 205926F 
US Advisory Board- PO Bax J15KDerrares4NJ 07B27 


Harvard 
this summer. 


H arvard Summer School, 
the nation's oldest summer 
session, offers open enrollment 
In nearly 250 day and evening 
courses and pre-professional 
programs in more than 40 liberal 
arts fields. The diverse curricu- 
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For further information return 
the coupon below or call: 

(617) 495-2921; (617) 495-2491 
(24-hour catalogue request line). 


Academic Calendar; 
June 24-August 16, 1985 


[Harvard University 
Summer School 


Please send a Harvard Summer School catalogue and application for. 

□ Ans and Sciences □ Secondary School Students Program 

O English as a Second Language □ Health Professions Program 

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Conference Bureau 15 
American Studies and Foundations of 
College Writing Summer Program 
Tufts University, Medford, Mass. 02155 (617) 3SI-356K 



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A SPECIAL REPORT ON INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION 


Learning-Disabled: 
Growing Awareness 


Of Effective Help 


By Edward B. Fiske 


NEW YORK — The first si gns 
that Jane might have a teaming 
disability appeared at the age of 
four, when her nursery school 
teacher observed that she found it 
difficult to count, make simple 
analogies and distinguish between 
different objects. 

Jane, who lives in one of the 
Connecticut suburbs of New York 
Gty. was given a series of tests. 
They revealed that while she had 
normal intelligence, she did indeed 
have a “language disability.*' She 
was put in a special individualized 
instruction program that over the 
ensuing decade involved intensive 
tutoring and the use of “concrete” 
rather than “abstract” teaching 
materials. 

These efforts have paid off. Jane, 
now 15, is the quintessential Amer- 
ican teen-ager — heavily involved 
in school activities and looking for- 
ward to a career as a veterinarian's 
assistant or as a hair stylist. 

“She has come a long way since 
her disability was discovered, and 
she has a bright future,” said Myra 
Bmstrin, a special education teach- 
er. 

Jane is fortunate. Only in recent 
years have educators begun to un- 
derstand the nature of “learning 
disabilities” and bow to help those 
who have them compensate and go 
on to productive lives. 

“Learning disabilities have come 
out of the doset, and people are 
beginning to understand what they 
are and how they link up with illit- 
eracy. juvenile delinquency and 
other soda! problems,” said Julie 
Gilligan, a spokesman for the 
Foundation tor Children with 
Learning Disabilities in New York 
Gty. 

Many, if not most, people identi- 
fy learning disabilities with dyslex- 
ia, an impairment in the ability to 
read that leads to seeing letters up- 


side down or reversed or having 
difficulty with spelling and other 
reading- related tasks. Actually, 
dyslexia is only one of dozens of 
specific problems related to educa- 
tion that over the last three decades 
have come to be described as learn- 
ing disabilities. 

So-called “LD” children can 
have trouble telling left from right, 
determining where they are in a 
room, writing legibly, organizing 
their work, following directions or 
remembering the sequence of 
things like the days of the week. 
They are often accompanied by 
emotional and social problems. 
Some of these problems grow out 
of the frustration that learning-dis- 
abled children encounter in school 
and some of them are closely tied to 


the learning problems themselves. 
Edwin w. Martin, a leading 


American expert on special educa- 
tion, notes that difficulty interpret- 


ing written or spoken signals can 
“carry over" into difficulty with 
social signals, such as “when some- 
one wants to end a conversation.'' 
Several studies have established 
links between learning disabilities 
and juvenile delinquency. 

Experts are quick to point out 
that learning disabilities nave noth- 
ing to do with overall intelligence. 
Many famous people, from Leo- 
nardo da Vinci to Albert Fin-slan. 
have had learning disabilities. A 
learning disability is a “specific” 
problem that has no intrinsic rela- 
tion to nhflii | ie& and skills in other 


areas. 

Over the years learning disabil- 
ities have been variously attributed 
to neurological, environmental or 
emotional factors. But there is now 
an emerging consensus that they 
constitute neurological problems, 

some of winch seem to have genetic 
bases. For reasons that remain ob- 
scure, the number of boys diag- 
nosed as learning-disabled out- 
numbers giris by a ratio of five to 


Mexico Uses Languages 


(Continued From Previous Page) 


agreed that they found it easier to 
express ihemsefvi 


Ives, ifldnding their 
emotions, in Spanish than in their 
first language 

“The Hide,” said their teacher. 



(Fall, Winter, Spring too) 


af 


Syracuse 

University’s 

English 

Language 

Institute 


For information: 



English Language institute 
Syracuse University 
129 College Place 
Syracuse, 13224' 

Phone: (315) 423-2390 
TELEX 937-430 


My Name 
Address 


□ I would like information on language study: 

□ Summer □ Fail □ Winter □ Spring 




Ross University 

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Master of Science In Management 


Boston 

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Boston University Metropolitan College 
755 Commonwealth Avenue 
Boston, MA 02215 
Tel (617) 353-2987 


Ben-Gurion 
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of the Negev 


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in brad 


Israel 


Trtridllk- 

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Jose Mdesio Chacon, “is to keep 
their Mix teco." 

The teachers in these schoolsare 
facing enormous socioeconomic 
obstacles. Poor rural mestizos, 
mixed-blood Mexicans, often re- 
sent India n schools fostering what 
they see as non-Mexican education. 
Heliodoro Gonzalez, an Indian 
leader in San Jicayan, Oaxaca, was 
Trilled four years ago, allegedly by 
mestizos, to step him from bringing 
in a bilingual schooL 

' The villages are remote and iso- 
lated and most of the parents are 
illiterate or have only marginal 
skill s 


The bilingual schools are popu- 
lar with the Indians but absentee- 
ism is high. Only 21 percent of the 
children who go to kindergarten 
finish secondary school. Many 
leave by the third year of primary 
school 


Bad harvests, such as those of the 
past three years in Oaxaca, force 
families into a migratory life. Large 
parts of the southern population 
have drifted north to work har- 
vests. Many wiD come bade, but if a 
child has lost one or two years of 
the bilingual program in his native 
village he will never catch up. 


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one. Whatever their cause, learning 
disabilities are beginning to be- 
come a focus of considerable atten- 
tion. The U.S. Department of Edu- 
cation estimates that five percent of 
the school-age population has 
learning disabilities and that 1.8 
milli on of the 40 million elemen- 
tary school students in the country 
are bring served in special pro- 
grams, more than double the num- 
ber in 1976. Under the principle 
that students with special problems 
should be “mainstreamed’' as 
much as possible, most learning- 
disabled pupils spend the bulk of 
their time in regular classes. They 
then receive individualized or small 
group tutoring on the side in their 
problem areas. 

Growing public awareness of the 
nature of learning disabilities, espe- 
cially the idea that learning-dis- 
abled students are neither stupid 
nor emotionally disturbed, has tak- 
en numerous forms. Toy manufac- 
turers are beginning to market 



Many such 
attend summer camps oriented 
around their educational and social 
needs. 


Several major organizations are 
also prospering. The 22- year-old 


Association for Children and 
Adults With Learning Disabilities, 
the main parental support group in 
the United States, now has 60,000 
members and 800 local chapters. 
The relatively new Foundation for 
Children With Learning Disabil- 
ities now spends more than SI mil- 
lion a year supporting research and 
teaching programs. 

Thus far virtually all such orga- 
nized activities are confined to me 
United States. There is, however, a 
British Dyslexia Society, ' which 
runs a school and has a summer 
camp program. The Association for 
Children and Adults with Learning 
Disabilities has a list of physicians 
and other individuals in European 
countries and elsewhere who are 
knowledgeable about teaming-dis- 
abled students and schools pre- 
pared to work with them. 

One relatively new development 
Is the proliferation of college pro- 
grams for learning-disabled stu- 
dents. One eapert estimated that 95 
percent of colleges and univasities 
offer some sort of formal assistance 
to learning-disabled high school 
graduates. Dozens more have spe- 
cial programs or centers to ndp 
such students, and a new institu- 
tion, Landmark College in Putney, 
Vermont, will open this fall to serve 


ISO students, all of whom have 
been diagnosed as “bring dyslexic 
or as having a specific learning dis- 
ability.” 

While the growing public aware- 
ness of learning disabilities has 
brought new hope to thousands of 
students, the surge of students thus 
classified has strained the resources 
of many school systems. As a re- 
sult, state and local education offi- 
cials have begun looking for ways 
to limit enrollments or make more 
efficient use of their teachers. 

Same schools have dpeloped 
“student-support" teams in which 
students with educational prob- 
tems are evaluated during then ear- 
ly school years and given extra 
help. “If we can give students the 
skins, we believe it will help many 
stay in the classroom rather than be 
amt to special education," said Lon 
Barber, director of special educa- 
tion, for the state of 1 


omias 


The principal dearintfmtse in the 
United States for information on die 
subject is the Association for Chil- 
dren and Adults With Learning Dis- 
abilities, 4156 Liberty Road, Pitts- 
burgh , Pennsylvania 15234. The 
British Dyslexia Association can be 
readied at Church Lane, Peppatd, 
Oxfordshire RG9 5JN, England. 


What Computer Literacy Cxm Do 


(Continued From Previous Page) 


even individuals will turn to tech- 
nology for the answer. 

in industry, processing the 'infor- 
mation and desig nin g the changes 
necessary to keep up with the mar- 
ket has meant the growing use of 
computers. The schools are now 
following close behind. Already 
some colleges in the United States 
are requiring a compute' for each 
suidenL It is estimated that 500,000 
computers are already in use in 
American high schools and elemen- 
tary schools. Although there is an 
abysmal lack of educational soft- 
ware, the number of computers in 
schools expands rapidly. 

The computer is the Proteus of 
machines, as it lakes on a thousand 
forms and serves a thousand func- 
tions. But its truly revolutionary 
character can be seen in its interac- 
tive potential With advanced com- 
puters, learning can be individual- 
ized and self-paced. Teachers can 
become more productive and the 
entire learning environment en- 
riched. 


It is striking bow much current 
teaching is a product of pencil and 
papa technology. With the com- 
puter’s capacity for simulation and 


diverse kinds of feedback, ah sorts 
of new possibilities open up for the 
redesign of curriculums. Seymour 
Paper!, the inventor of the comput- 
er language LOGO, believes that 
concepts in physics and advanced 
mathematic s can be taught in tbe 
early grades with the use of com- 
puters. He cites as an example the 
teaching of tbe laws of motion in 
physics, which he says are accessi- 
ble at an early age when a computer 
is used to assist in the instruction. 

On an everyday level, word-pro- 
cessing significantly improves tbe 
capacity for written expression. 
How? Simply by making it easier to 
revise and rewrite. In terms of drill 
and practice, self-paced computer- 

dent to advance rapidly — without 
bring limited by tbe conflicting 
needs of the entire dass. One 
handy example of how classroom 
practices can change is the replox- 
ment of tbe slide rule by the pocket 
calculator. 

Today, formal education primar- 
ily consists in memorizing data — 
data that is now easily retrievable 
by computer or accessible through 
data banks. The challenge for edu- 
cators is to restructure toe curricu- 
lum to make maximum use of the 


new technologies so that students 
can learn better and prepare them- 
selves for tbe information-rich 
world they now confront Once we 
learn to use this new brain outride 
the brain, education xriQ never be 
the same. 

Industry, faced with tbe pres- 
sures of a rapidly shifting market, is 
already designing new methods to 
retrain its workers. In the United 
States, a technological university 
has been established to teach engi-. 
neering courses by satellite. Soon 
the advances in tetecomnnnnca- 
tions and computational power will 
dramatically expand the opportu- 
nities for national and mteroation- 
al efforts in education and training. 

Without romanticizing tbe ma- 
chine, it is dear that computers 
uniquely change the potential for 


equipping today’s citizens for the 
unprecedented tasks of the future. 


Particularly in Europe and the 
United Stales, innovation will be 
the basis of continued prosperity. 
New competitors are emerging to 
chaflenge the old economic ar- 
rangements. How successfully we 
respond wQl depend on how much 
we invest in people and bow wisely 
we employ tbe learning tools of tat 
new technologies. 


MASTER LN BIMNESS AUMLNISTRATIOiV 
(MBA) PROGRAMME (BI-LI NGUAL) 



IESE 


Academic year 1985-1986 - 22nd year of our MBA Program 


Institute de Estudos 
St^jeriores de la Empresa 
University of Navarra 
Borcekma-Spain 


Tlw is a 21 - month fultiine Programme 
beaming «i the midde of September 
of each year. 

One of the principal prerequisites is a 
completed university study (in any field) 
or its equivalent Its aim is to prepare 
tomorrow's managers to lead business and 
other organizations successfully within an 

increaangty complex environment 
Applicants must speak Engish or Spanish 
sufficiently to be able to follow instruction 
in one of these languages to the first year, 
m toe second, students are expected to 
follow courses in both languages instruc- 
tion wi be given during tee first year in 
the language not spoken by the student). 


IESE's MBA Progmae was jbwsded in 1964 
axd is Ike oldest in Europe. 

at 


Programme since Os inception. 

Tile student body a mtatcally multinational in 
and immatmul w nOJooi. 
tertkipiats wiD become Jbost is ike Im 
ronowrcuBy most important Western lamps. 


omstnadatg American and European basuuss 
sdmofs. 



Jbaa on Europe, Spain and Lada America. 

Oar p * dug we wgk! by mwpjeim mmaS flw 
maW fat Ute rnrt asi Bw of fey here 

ta eu Hfiagut MBA Pragnooe. 

For farther inforraztkxi please write to: 

MBA AdmusHxu Office, IESE 
Aranda Pearson 21, Baicdooa J4. Spain, or send a 
Kkz (30924 IESB E), Cable us (IESE 
SARCEIXJNA) or cafl Nkota HipkniB (Bandana 
(3) 204 40 00) 



v£\V YORK- 
efte 

-/''edition 

SgsSffi 

AT 

fifes s 

Jt^ s - *v-t couU 

%C W?**® ! 

WHO l"3« I 

$<£<*!! Pr^jsc 1 P 

Huh school and wa 

ecocwwy j 
£> ie of ofuldre 
of ncaparti 
that 1 

fi bad fe*er ar* 

Jetertiorocrtecn-a 

Tst Hi jJ: Scope r 
ccned j 

two aii Moo I tod 
(£K $t it. we Lotted 
educjwt* pares L< a 
it. tic instruction of 
vejrs old. 

■ pise crates Bivens 

letpsi&uCC m a king ki 

indsr.ee cmuSia 
jpaonai. and at teas 
ers are considering d 
Uk? Mississippi nut i 
local «hivf disiric 

kindergarten prograi 


Bv Westerly A. 


STOCKHOLN 
which has. been in 
European Gountrie 
forms in higher edt 
a new look at th 
ployed in its pres 
system. 

Toe government 
several cc-tnmuniri 
has se: up a greuj 
School Ccmmitee, 
best to develop p: 
noa so that reading 
example, could be 
ready" at the presch 
extends up to the 
children begin thei 
education. 

The c cm mi lie 
Goran Persson. mu 
or for Xnninehob 
the findings of its 
19S5. "We arc iryiz 
school education sc 
some of the racthrx 
in forma: schooiii 
schcoi years." Mr. 

There have bee 
bates about too ji 
the preschools, whi 
knov*u as a Jcghem 
responds u> a dav- 
children through tfc 
Persson defends tht 
urines of the daehei 
the transition froc 
formal eduauUon. ,v 
oj leiTtirjc." he said 
tninl: tits; the learn 
sained ir, the pres< 
used advantageous 
school years. The c 
Preschoc i is cot mci 
day-care center but 
uren a more firm p 
lure." 

Ac mi ires at the i 

already being 
Q i recti on. Evervd 
children's games an 
WeiJ us contact with 

surroundings are us 
and dmeiopmenL 
‘Mnters are oi 
uasw tnat activities 
Planned ^ based 
children s lile situa 
previous e 
needs. The 
„ ler continuous^ 
program. 

Creative activity i 
P?n of ih e worf f , 
J“6uig and music, 
dramatic crearivSrv, 



Acaedi 


M^Degre 


-2ggre< 



Boommarl 
EA Lei 

Tti - 1 071) 14 









INTERNATIONAL 


A SPECIAL REPORT ON INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION 






'Changed Lives 9 Study Akers Views on Preschool Education 


NEW YORK — During the 
mid-1960s a group of early-child- 
hood specialists inYpsflanu, Mich- 
igan. began offering one to two 
years of education to a group of 
ihree-year-olds from impoverished 
backgrounds who had bdow-avcr- 
age IQs of 60 to 90. 

Over the years researchers from 
the High/Scope Educational Re- 
search Foundation have kept in 
touch with these children, monitor- 
ing their educational and vocation- 
al progress and keeping trade of 
bow often they became involved 
with the police or social agrnrirs 

Last year the foundation issued 
the latest in a series of reports, 
appropriately entitled “Changed 
Lives. ^ that could turn out to be 
among the most wifinwitiai docu- 
ments in the history of U.5L educa- 
tion. 

The researchers found that the 
children who had participated in 
what was known as the Perry Pre- 
School Project graduated from 
high school and went on to jobs or 
further education at neatly twice 
the rale of children in a control 
group of nonpartidpants. They 
also round that the preschool 
“graduates," who are now 20 years 
old, had fewer arrests, academic 
detentions or teen-age pregnancies. 

The High/ Scope research has re- 
ceived widespread national atten- 
tion and helped fuel a growing in- 
terest in the United States among 
educators, parents and politicians 
in the instruction of children 3 to 5 
years old. 

Five states have recently enac ted 
l egislati on making iHraforg aT*** 1 at- 
tendance compulsory rather than 
optional, and at least a dozen oth- 
ers are considering doing so. States 

loca^^raPdistricts to proride 
kindergarten programs have passed 


new laws requiring districts to offer 
preschool instruction. 

New York stale increased the 
amount of money it gives to local 
school districts for preschool pro- 
grams from $9 million to S 14 mil- 
lion this year. Gordon M. Ambach, 
New York's commissioner of edu- 
cation, has been presing the state 
legislature to lower the start of for- 
mal school from the age of six, the 
current practice, to four. 

Numerous other states are taking 


of Ui. primary and ekxoeataxy 
schools, legislatures in virtually ev- 
ery state love enacted educational 
reform measures ranging from 
stiff er high school curncumm re- 
quirements to various projects to 
increase the standards and pay 
scales of teachers. 

With reform plans for school-age 
children now on the books, many 
educators have begun to argue that 
it is time to focus attention on 
younger children. 


btihy to provide the informal intro- 
duction to reading and mathemat- 
ics that you find in other 
countries." 

Other factors are also involved in 
the surge of interest in early child- 
hood education, some of which 
have tittle to do with araderaks. 
With more women entering the 
work force in the United States, the 
number of children enrob ed in pro- 
school programs is growing. Ac- 
cording to the National Center for 


Five U.S. states have recently enacted legislation 
making kindergarten attendance compulsory rather 
than optional, and at least a dozen others are 
considering doing so. 


similar steps. In Connecticut, for 
example, a 30-member committee 
appointed by the commissioner of 
education recently recommended 
rhm early childhood programs be- 
come mandatory for handicapped 
children and others judged to be 
“at risk” with resp ect to future 
learning problems, 

“Research indicates that high 
quality early childhood interven- 
tion programs are an effective 
means of altering the lives of eco- 
nomically disadvantaged chil- 
dren," the committee declared. 
“Such programs diminish the risks 
of retardation and improve partici- 
pation in the general society." 

The growing interest in early 
childhood education in the United 
States reflects several forces, begin- 
ning with the general concern 
about educational quality that has 
become a major political issue over 
the last two yeare. Following a se- 
ries of reports criticizing the quality 


“Most of the focus thus far has 
been on high schools," said Mi- 
chael Kixst, a professor of educa- 
tion at Stanford University in Cali- 
fornia. “There’s a growing 
realization that you really have to 
start much earlier." 

Such arguments are bolstered by 
international studies showing that 
the academic performance of U.S. 
schoolchildren logs behind that of 
pupils in other countries. Last year 
a University of Michigan study, 
based on testing and observation of 
1,440 first and flflh graders in Ja- 
pan. Taiwan and the united Stales, 
reported that American pupils not 
only performed at a lower levd 
than those from other countries but 
did so from virtually the first day of 
acbooL 

Harold W. Stevenson, a profes- 
sor of psychology who directed the 
project, suggested that one factor 
was that “the average American 
family does not take the respond- 


Preschool Reform Studied in Sweden 


/' , Ik children through 
*V Vilft Fersson defends 1 


By Westerly A. Donohue 

STOCKHOLM — Sweden, 
which has been in the vanguard of 
European countries c o n c ernin g re- 
fonns in higher education, is taking 
a new look at the methods em- 
ployed in its preschool education 
system. 

The government, at the urging of 
several community organizations, 
has set up a group, the Preschool 
School Commhee, to study how 
best to develop preschool educa- 
tion so that reading and writing, for 
example, could be introduced al- 
ready at the preschool levd, winch 
extends to the age of 7, .when 
‘duMtian bt^in their forma] school 
education." . \ . .. . , . ■ . • ‘ 

The committee, headed by 
Gfirsn Persson,mimidpal counsel- 
or Tor Katriheholm, will publidi 
the findings of its study m May 
1985. “We are trying to reform the 
school education so that we can use 
some of the methods that are used 
in formal schooling in the pre- 
school years,” Mr. Fersson said. 

There have been ongoing de- 
bates about too much playing in 
the preschools, which in Sweden is 
known as a daghem and which cor- 
responds u> a day-care center for 
childr en through the age of 7. Mr. 
Fersson de fends the “informal" ac- 
tivities of the daghem as facilitating 
the transition from preschool to 
formal education. “Flaying is a sort 
of learning," he said, “and, thus, we 
think that the learning experiences 
gained in the preschool could be 
used advantageously in the later 
school years. The objective of the 
preschool is not merely to serve as a 
day-care center but to give . the chil- 
dren a more firm pedagogic struc- 
ture." 

Activities at the day-care center 
are already being steered in tins 
direction. Everyday situations, 
children's games and aduh work as 
well as contact with the immediate 
surroundings are used for learning 
and development 

The centers are organized on the 
basis that activities should be weO- 
planned and based largely on the 
chfldren’s life situations, their in- 
terests, previous experience and 
special needs. The staff of each 
center continuously updates its 


weQ as pictorial and plastic act us- 
ing different methods. 

Paints, day, wood and other ma- 
terials that encourage children to 
play together and that can be used 
m varied and ima ginativ e ways are 
part of the basic equipment. Un- 
structured play is part of the daily 
program. Although picture recog- 
nition and random drawing are 
common among the children's ac- 

taixght inauy^onnal mann er until 
after they begin regular primary 
school, at the age of 7. 

Interaction between adults and 
children is given priority in day- 
care activity. Another important 
area concerns- daily, chores related 
to wwtihgi dishwashing, cleaning. 


, have strictly divided work tasks but 
should work side by side and make 
derisions together on different ac- 
tivities. 

Staff members of day-care cen- 
ters mainly include preschool 
teachers and children's nurses. Pre- 
school teachers undergo a two-year 
training course after high school 
Children's-nurse training takes 
place within the high school's two- 
year nutting course, but it is also 
available in special courses lasting 
me term or one school year. 

Preschool programs, officials 
say, are not meant to be regarded as 
a substitute for the parents’ role in 
caring for children. . 

When a child is in a program for 
at least four hours a day it is ro 


Even political opponents agree that 
families should ham the right to 
decide how to arrange day-care and 
that the choice would not imply a 
worsening of their economic situation. 


" i"-, 

- ~ 

• B *s - , . 




eative activity is an important 
of the work of the centers. 


gmgmg and music, rhythmic and 
dramatic creativity are standard, as 


gardening, repairs and errands. 
The children can work together in 
these and take joint responsibil- 
ities. 

To avoid isolating the center 
from the rest of society, it is an 
important principle that the pre- 
school should operate in relatively 
small units in residential areas, 
making ii easier for parents to work 
together with the center. 

Children in day-care centers are 
usually divided into separate age 
rategaries or according to the prin- 
ciple of the sibling groups and in- 
fant groups. 

Age grouping used to be the rale, 
but today it is increasingly com- 
mon for groups to be based cm age 

witling . 

Centers are generally open dur- 
ing so-called normal working 
hours, 6:30-6:45 AM- to 6-6:30 
PAL In a few municipalities a 
stare-subsidized pilot project is 

^Cc^boratira witfrpaxents, sib- 
ling group activities and work 
teams are essential characteristics 
of Swedish preschool working 
methods. The work-team concept 
implies that personnel should not 


garded as a day nursery program. 
Part-time groups are mainly in- 
tended for somewhat older pre- 
school fl gfd childre n. 

There are also family day nurser- 
ies, where chfldminders are em- 
ployed by the municipality to take 
up to four childr en into their own 
homesjor day-care. 

That day-care in Sweden is free 
is a myth, bat it is low-cost The 
average a family pays for a place 
annually is 5,000 kronor (5543.50}. 
The overwhelming portion of the 
system is funded through taxation. 
Can the Swedish treasury afford 

the high C05t of mam raining day- 
care centers. Deputy Prime Mims-, 
ters Ingvar Carlsson believes it can. 
“The government has always said 
that there is room for a number of 
reforms," he said, however. “Child 
care for all is among them." 

But up to now the privilege of 
“child care for alT has not been 
funded, nor is it likely to be by 
1990. 

With the waiting time from one 
to three years, depending on the 


region and population density, I 
promises of public child care for all 
m Sweden remain empty. , 


TAKING THE 


WEBSTER UNIVERSITY 

IN EUROPE 


Accredited by Ibe North Central Association of Colleges and Schools. 
Evening and Daytime Classes. 

MA Degrees in Management, Marketing, International Relations, 
Human Resources Development, Economics and 
Finance. Computer Data Management, Energy 
Economics, and Business Administration. 

BA Degrees in International Studies, Management, and Com- 
puter Studies. 


Next 8- week term starts 

March U (Geneva) and March 18 (Leiden and Vienna) 


SATGRE 

GMAT? 

WE CAN HELP! 


Graduate Tutorial s in Lon don 
GTAC Associates, FREEPOST, 
London W5 4BR. Tel: 01-993 3983. 


SCHILLER TT^ ^ 

INTERNATIONAL -^T- ‘ i 
UNIVERSITY '-O 


NETHERLANDS I SWITZERLAND 


Boomraarkt 1 
2311 EA Leiden 

Tel. (071) 144341 


15, route de Collex 
1293 Bellevue, Geneva 

Tel. (022) 742452 


AUSTRIA 


Scbubertring 14 
1010 Vienna 

Tel. (0222) 521136 


BBA Bid MBA rmdiig dam* in 
luotltmaad Aril, 
nrwnum 

INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY 
Dm 4, SI Waterloo Road 
London SEI 8TX. Td. (01} 8484 

Tel**. 8812418 SCOL G 


University of London 

INSTITUTE OF UNTTH) 
STATE STUDIES 
MA In Area Studies 

The Imfilula often a I-yoor taught 
corns knifing to ftwdegra* el MA by 
axarainetSon and dissertation. 

Application forma and further 
information from: 

Institute of United Stoto Studies (TJ 
31 Tovirtoek Square, London WC1 


Education Statistics, the percent- 
age of 3- and 4-year-olds in formal 

between I ^TO^n^^Jroxo 21 to 
36 percent. EnroDmesit of 5-year- 
olds in such programs went from 69 
to 83 percent during the same peri- 
od. 

Twenty years ago, largely be- 
cause of widely publicized pro- 
grams such as Head Start, which 
has had demonstrable success in 
providing educational and social 
enrichment for disadvantaged 
youngsters, early childhood educa- 
tion was closely identified in the 
public mind inch social welfare; 
Now that families with middle and 
upper-middle incomes are rushing 
tnor children into such programs, 
the image has flip-flopped. 

Indeed, the National Center 
finds that participation in pre- 
school education is positively cor- 
related with family income. Among 
3-year-olds, for example, two out 


It is a highly frustrating situation 
for families in a country where 
more than 80 percent of the women , 
work (compared to 27 percent in ! 
1965) and where the steeply pro- j 
gressrve income tax rates force '■ 
(hoi out of the home. 

The Swedish Supreme Adminis- 
trative Court ruled last October 
that a municipality (the legislative 
unit charged with day-care admin- 
istration) has no obligation to pro- 
tide child-care services and that a 
day-care place for a child already 
provided for could be taken away. 

“It is dearly a municipal service 
without obligation to be given to 
everyone," said Gustaf Petrov of 
the Supreme Administrative Court,- 
commenting on the derision. “A, 
day-care place is not something 
you receive for fife,’! he said. 

The political parties opposing 
the ruling Social Democratic gov- 
ernment is gaining considerable 
ground on day-care issues. - 
“Freedom of choice" is a motto 
echoed by the Center (fanners') 
and Moderate (conservative) par- 
ties, although the two have strongly 
divergent ideas about day-care. 

One common point, however, is 
that families should have die right 
to deride bow to arrange day-care 
(Continued on Next Page) 


Rice University 
Summer Program 
of Hispanic Studies 

Senile, Spain 
■ June 2 - July 13. 1985 
Undergraduate 
and gradate course* 

Courses are open for credit to students 
Iroa recognised college* and universities 
and to senior fogfcchool students. For 
[onher information contact Dr. M. Leal 
Chairman, Department of Span ish, Rice 
Unwarily, Houston TO 77251. Dead- 
line for application: April 30. 1985. 


of five ehitriwff n from Families with 
incomes above S20j000 are in- 
volved in formal education pro- 
grams, whik for families with un- 
der $10,000 in income the number 
is only one in five. 

The fu r t that many children 
from families who can afford it 
already have their preschool chil- 
dren in Formal progriUBS has raised 
new questions of social justice. 

“It’s a question of equity," said 
David A. Hamburg, president of 
the Oroegre Corporation of New 
York, which has been a longtime 

dlociasspaiexus areal-ready siting 
their children these benefits, fiis in 
tire interests of society to find some 
way of ma kin g them universal/ 1 

In the early 1970s Congress en- 
acted legislation that would com- 
mit the country to a universial day- 
care system, nit it was vetoed by 
President Richard M. Nixon, who 
said that it would undennine fam- 
ily structures. The chances of some 
new federal initiative in this area 
under the Reagan administratio n 
arc regarded as dim. 

Nevertheless, pressure is mount- 
ing at the state levd far new pro- 
grams to serve preschool students. 
One positive sign came ax a recent 
conference convened by the Spring 
Hill Center, a foundation and con- 
ference center near Minneapolis, 
that brought together representa- 
tives of public schools systems and 
the day-care movement. 

Ten years ago the two constitu- 
encies were fighting eadi otha over 
who would controiany federal pre- 
school program, would it be 
viewed as a dow n w a rd extenaon of 
schooling, and thus under the con- 
tra] of public schools, or as an rail- 
ward extension of the family? In 
the end, of course, both sides lost 

The Spring HUl conference pro- 
duced something of a rapproche- 
ment between the two sides arid a 
recognition that there is plenty rtf 
room for both of them. James Kd- 


Cornell 

University 

Summer Programs 
for High School 
Juniors and Seniors 

■choice of more than 
100 college-level 
. courses 

• career explorations: 
architecture 
- engineering 
'law 

v workshops: 
shopping for colleges 
'applying to colleges 
•college study skills * 
program 


Write for more 
Information 

Cornell University 
Summer Coi toga 
Box 85 
B-12 Wb 3 Hall 
Ithaca. NY 14S53 
(007)25*0203 


ly, head of the center, announced 
that be plans to set up a “nerwork” 
of leaders from the fields of day 
care, health, education and social 
welfare to push for more early edu- 
cation pro-ams. 

Few proponents of early child- 
hood education bdieve that the so- 
dal-justice arguments that seem e d 
persuasive a decade ago will be 
effective at a time when the major 
domestic political issue is how to 
balance the federal budget. Some 
believe, however, that one of the 
findings of tire Ypslanti study may 
give thwn some ammunition. 

Using school police and welfare 

records, the researchers found that 
while the program cost 54,818 per 
chil d, the ciriTMw of Ypslanti 
saved an additional 53,100 for ev- 
ery child is the program because 
the .students they served required 
less remedial teaching and other 
social services when they were old- 
er. 

David P. Wrikart, the president 
of HigWScope, said that preschool 
education is no miracle cure for the 
ills that pla g u e children of poverty. 
But what the Ypsflanti data does 
offer, he said, is “proof that an 
early educational experience will 
alter the life of the child." 

— EDWARD R. FISKE 


• LAW SCHOOL • Quality tor CA Bar 
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International Information Una: 

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. TWTr^w iwm ii wn ii w i u — u- i m 

Forlnlormattofi regarding 
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non-immigrant afian students 
to the USA. please celt 

• 212 - 977-8200 

OrWHteOepLHT 
Stanley H. Kaplan 
Educational Comer Ltd. 
131 Was! 56 Street 
New \bric, N.Y 10019 
Permanent Canton in More 
Than T2S Major US Cities 

Puerto Rico antonto Canada 


3 AMERICAN M.B.A. 
Programs for 

Business Professionals Worldwide 


- International Business Management 
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Annual 3-week Summer Session 
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24-hour seminars - February - May 

Graduate School Catalogue available from: 
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KlingenstraBe 40/1 W Germany 

D-7022 LemfekJen-Echterd. <0)711-755683 


Gateway to American 
Higher ^Education 


I Mii lll 


ITHACA COLLEGE 

London / New York 

offers 

■ American University Program in 
London trading to degrees in tiuaness. 
Computer Studies, Humanities, ' 
Sciences, Engineering Pmgnm, Mafia 
and Miaac Safes. 

■ After successful 1st year, continue at 
Ithaca, New Yodc, or transfer to other 
American Unncnuics. 

For further infotmaaor pkasc corttct: 
Dr. Christie King 
Ithaca College 
35 Harrington Gardens 
London SW7 4JU 
TeL; (01) 370 1166/7 
them College it aarrdittd br ike 
Middle Stave Association of College* 
and Schools. 


BOSTON UNIVERSITY BRUSSELS 

a partnership of 
Boston University and 
Vrije Universiteit Brussels 


The newiy-radeveloped roaster of science In management 
(MSM). A master's degree in business administration program 
stresses, an international perspective, a managerial problem- 
solving emphasis, and on interdisciplinary approach. 

The newfy offered master of science in computer information 
systems (MSGS) program stresses the expertise to manage 
computer-based information systems INA complex business envi- 
ronment. 

Distinctive characteristics of Boston University Brussels programs 
indude: 

- Pragmatic application of management concepts through cases. 

- Flexible evening schedule. 

- Students enter in September, January, or May. 

- Classes held on VUB campus. 

- Instruction in English. 

For more information contact the Director ; 

Boston University Brussels, 

Avenue de la Toison cTOr 17 A, 

Box 69C, 1060 Brussels. TeU 322/511.18.06 


Your key to a career m imemmnaJ Buorwaj and Infonnation Sysams: 

European University 

Antwerp- Brussels and Switudand 
MamtMi □< the American Assembly ol Collegiate School* of Business 

□ Uwl w gr m rtue t. pnjgrami (full-iimaj m Business. Mariumng 
Management. Finance, Economic*. Information Systems. Accounting. 
The Umvareny's placement sennea channels graduates into utumshiiw. 
managerial positions, or graduate management programs around the 
world 

□ G raduate program* (pan or tuU-nma): Master's of Buuness 
Admni&uaiion. International Management or Information Systems. As 
above, the placement service faoutat as emptoymant. but also. untque*v 
offer* graduates the opportunity for obtain rig a second master's degree 
at a top US. university m as little as 6 months. 

Courses ere taught m English, French and Dutch: students choose the 
language of instruction. 

For iofanaedon contact: 
htUn man. OHcoi Cunpuk tocmara. 

EUROPEAN UadVBWtV Jacob' Jontaomaar 7S -79 
Amanteta 131-133 201 B Armmo / Batman 

2000 Antwerp / D ilg iu m _ , _ 

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Q3/21301 -82 KOOfrusMB/Betpum 

htwSwnoted campus to be raunccd 


NEW 

ENGLAND 

COLLEGE 


THE 

BRITISH 

CAMPUS 


A fully accredhed, independent college offering ibe following features: 

* Foot year proname in Bostnae Administration, Political Science, 
International Adminutratioa, end En^iA lmuting to the Bachelor of 
Anadenve. 

* A fnD Sommer Seaman. 

* Eaay tramfer to oar American campus io Ncw Hampshire, 

* Complete boarding fariHtiu available, 

* Advance credit given for the , TB" or "A" levels. . 

Far adrkt ional m/bnnadon contact The Office of Admimiom, Bax A, 
New England djflege, Anomie*, Weal Stwtsc BMISODA. Engh&i 
or calk 0903/88^59. 


Ns’ s "‘ 

kit 


Earn your 

Masters Degree in Europe. 


You can earn an M-A. while maintaining work and 
family responsibilities. Plan and implement a Masters 
study in a major area of concentration in conjunction 
with a Program professor. Complete your study at 
home in consultation with a local mentor. 

The Graduate 

Program Bo* 26, Vermont College oi 

NORWICH UNIVERSITY 

Montpelier, VT 05602, USA. 


THE FLETCHER SCHOOL 
SUMMER 1985 


GRADUATE 
COURSES IN 
INTERNATIONAL 
RELATIONS 


THE FLETCHER SCHOOL 
of Law and Diplomacy, 
the oldest graduate school 
of interna hnnal affairs in 
the United States, offers 
InDrcredit courses this 
summer from June 10 to 
August 9, 1985. Located 
fifteen minutes from 
Boston and Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, on tbc 
pleasant suburban 
campus of T'ufis University, 
The 'Fletcher Summer School 


qualified men and women who 
have earned an American 
bachelor’s degree or 
equivalent and who share 
an interest in joining with 
students from many countries 
for a summer of intensive work 
in international relations. 


EXPLORE such subjects as: 

• Economic Development of 
OS Producing Countries. 

• Foreign Relations of the U.S. 

• International Monetary Sys- 
tem. 

• Tntermtfttinai Business Rela- 
tions in the Western Hemi- 
sphere 

FOR MORE 
INFORMATION 
return the coupon below 
or write: 

Eogmia C Dyess, 

Director of the Sommer School 
The Fletcher School 
of Law and Diplomacy 
Tufts University 
Medford MA 02155 (USA) 
or telephone (617) 628-7010. 


Telex: 710 328-1128. 

TUFTS 

UNIVERSITY 


Return to: Director of the Summer School, 

The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, 
Tufts University, 

Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (USA). 

Please send a brochure on The Fletcher Summer School to: 


Name 


Address 


City Country 








Page 12 



INTERNATIONAL 
COLLEGE SPAIN 

La Moraleja, Madrid 


International student day and boarding community 
Secondary, junior and infant schools, ages 3-18 
Well qualified and experienced international staff 
Curriculum in English. Other languages taught using the language 
as the medium of instruction 

Courses lead to International Baccalaureate Diploma and Certifi- 
cates, recognized by Universities world-wide, for advanced 
placement; and I.C.S. Graduation Diploma 
Fine modern Facilities and campus, including NEW BOARDING 
FACILITY FOR BOYS AND GIRLS. AGED 13-18, OPENING IN 
SEPTEMBR 1985 

Address: Colle Vereda Norte 3, La Moraleja, Madrid. 
Telephone: (91) 6502398, 



King's College Madrid 

Briti.'h IVjv and Boartlirtc School 


Recognised British School with international 
student body of 800. 

Preparation for university entry 'in U.K., 
USA, etc. 

Examination curriculum includes sciences, 
computer studies, economics, modem 
languages and sports. 

Senior, junior .and infant departments taking 
pupils aged 3-18 years. 

Modem building in extensive grounds. 

New boarding accommodation opening 
September 1SK5. 


King’s CoBue, Pasco dc k» Andes, Soto de Vmuetas, B Gokwo. Madrid. 
TU. 845 28 44/5. Telex 47101 KCOM E. Cables KmgKO&ege Madrid. 


JOHN CABOT 
INTERNATIONAL COLLEGE 
Rome, Italy 


BACHELOR OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 

(B.B-A. DEGREE) 

UBBUU. ARTS (A>. DEGRS} 


AFFHIATtON: 

ACCBBXTATtON: 


MEMBER: 


Hiram College, Ohio USA. Founded 1850 

All courses fully transferable to Hiram College, an 

accredited college in U.SA 

American Assembly Collegiate Schools of Business, 

Association International Colleges and Universities, 

European Council of International Schools, Near East 

South Asia Council Overseas School. 

On campus computers. 


VIA MASSAUA 7, ROME. TEL: 8395519. 

Aidhod»Htttt*in Miniary Edac*** deoeeMy2Z I97A No. 31-32. 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 26, 1985 
A SPECIAL REPORT ON INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION 


* 





i dhrdhnfolrt 

.Tdhndtlrdh 


_aik£dbe 


fe- ~r 

— — — | 


- ■ ...... - - 

ybadOafib- 



TjftrJfirtfo 


■V 


,, 




In Europe, the Debate Widens on Public vs. Private Education 


By Michael Metcalfe 

PARIS — The argument about 
private versus public education has 
flared into a full-scale and often 
Eery row all across Europe. 

From countries as diverse as 
Denmark and S pain, Britain and 


Greece, the call for change in meth- 
ods and forms of schooling has 
grown shriller, often pitting church 
against stale, parent against teach- 
er, and pupil against pupil. 


public discontent with education in 
state schools were the demonstra- 
tions last year by millions of par- 
ents in France and Spain. 

In Paris last June, more than a 


Some of the most widely publi- 
cized and forceful illustrations of 


mil .i nn people marched to protest 
plans to 


CENTER FOR UNIVERSITY STUDIES 
AMERICAN UNIVERSITY OF ROME 



LICENSED DEGREES 

A.A. in Humanities, Social Sciences 

A. A.S, in International Business 

B. B.A. in International Business 
(three years in Rome, one year London or U.S.) 


High school graduates: Inquire Into our joint enrollment 
with American University (Washington D.C.) 


For detailed information write: Via Marche 54 
00187 Rome, Italy - Phone 493.528 - Telex 612510 



Edinburgh College 
Geneva 


HIGH SCHOOL & COLLEGE EDUCATION 


GCE "O" and "A" level 
High School Diploma 
NY State External Degrees 


Language Studies 
TOEFL SAT CLEP GRE GMAT 


27, ( Jj. < 

T. l. i<»22> <> I <K> .">5 


< I1-121U <il M A \ 

T.-u-v 12 :; 1 K-r.s 


AMERICAN COLLEGE OF SWITZERLAND 

□ Aoc mfcad by ftw Mkfch 

« i State aa odction of Gofleaet 

- gSdlCK*. 

□ A-A-, RA, B5. P i u q ra n a in 
Inti Bums, A cimr ttf r gf io fi. 
Eco notnio. Pofcriod Studax, 
Frondi, Modern Languogu 
and Inti Studies. 

□ Complete, (Xtradna reckfcrtid 
faeBiesan I ] -acre campus. 

□ Summer Session begins 
May 17. 1985. 

□ Fall Semester begins 
August 19. 1985 

Contact : Dkwdter of Adadsemta, Uyrin 1854 (R), S wOiwi te n d . 

— TeL 025/342226. Telex: 453-327 AMCO. m 



FranMin Collage 
via Tasserete 10 
6903 Lugano 
Svn&orleittl 

Talephona 091 72 B 59 S 


FRANKLIN COLLEGE SWITZERLAND 
Education for international Competence 
Accredited by Middle States Association 



Franklin Callage 

BEG United Nttiom Plica 

Nff» Vat* New York IOOI7 
Telephone 212-832-7775 




HET 


RLINLANDS LYCEUM 

OEG5TGEE5T 

SCHOLENGEMEENSCHAP VWO-HAVO 
INTSNATIONAAL BACCALAUREAAT 


The R^tlends Lyceum Osgtfge«l located near The Hague aid Leiden 
often: 


the bvibcmahonal baccalaureate programme 


7t* s «i Wemationaly recognised two year upper-waondary educational 
pro ja nme and exomrtaien 


taquries rancembg (he programme and regcstrrrfan ihoukJ be deeded ta 


THE RUNLANDS LYCEUM 

Apoldaan 1, 2341 BA Oeg stgeed. Thu Netheriaids. 1 eL (0171-15 56 4Q 



mencan 



O verseas School of R 


Ofl) 


THE AMERICAN OVERSEAS SCHOOL Of ROME IS A CO 
EDUCATIONAL NON-OENOaUNATKINAL SCHOOL USING 
AMERICAN CURRICULUM AND TEACHING METHODS AND 
IS ACCSeSfTED BY THE MIDDLE STATES ASSOCIA- 
TION OF n»llr f CT AND SCHOOLS. 


HIGH SCHOOL 
US. Cntlrgr Prcparaiory Oinimkai 


Advanced PUrrmcnt Com 
MIDDLE SCHOOL ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 
Fiatw for Apt 11-13 Dap— for Agee 5-10 
(Grades 68) 


(Cradaa K-5) 


ACTIVITIES INCLUDE: EmlhJr Uciuf* Sene*. 
ShatefkfKare FaUval InicncheleMic Alhlelta. Inlrarnurai 
Span. Drama Venal Enmaimcidax Piueram. Field Tnp* 
and Evuraton. Sprtnc Fair. 


FOfl INKMMATKM TELWHONE WM41 


VIA CASSl* 1 00 IS? ROM t ITALY 



The American Overseas School of Rome 


Is now accepting applications for boarding students for the 
1985- 


1986 academic year. 

For dotaBs writ* to headmaster. 

American ovsnsae school af flonw, via Gada 81 1,001 89 Rama My- 


St. Stephen’s School 

Italy 



4 Year, non-denommatkmaL Independent 
co-ed boarding and day school 
Grades 9-12, P.G. 

Advanced Placement and LB. available 
Accredited by NEASC and EOS 
For ostsloK pirate writes 
Aifmfaainna Dept- H. Sl Stephen’s School 
VZa inallu 3, Boms 0015S, Italy 
T*L 57SO-605 or 5144007 



Notre Base International School - Raise 

American coIlegr prcpanmry and ctrmraary school for boys. 


at 

Rod 


pceperaiion available to qualified ModenU. Vaimty and iittra- 
DvnlflUditpniius. Cbasroom Gdd (rip an and history 
ctaeen. Resident gaidaore eomnekr. Accrofited by Middle 

Srait Imunlinn 

34<h year of terries to iaieniaiional education. 


DepL 2L 796 Vb Annfia 00165 Rome, hah. 
Phones 621.6051. 621 j60.7I. 



THE INTERNATIONAL 
SCHOOL OF 

For thy students aged 3-18 


The school offers a British-based, English medium curriculum 
and extro-curriadar program me . It is a recognized G.CJL and 
CEL L testing center, and offers Hs own transportation and 
lunch services. The current enrollment b 600 with 37 n a tiond- 
ities represented. Boarding faculties we not avertable. 


For further details please apply la The H — An asfer, 
Via Bezzofo 6, Milano 20153 - TdU 4524749 


SCHOOL OF CERAMICS=^ 

FIRENZE 


Far u a otfusw and dEdh qply to: Prof. Msob ftMfOni, 

Via Mantarimddi 45, Brio gnetn Nuava, Hsranca. TsL: 055-400.233. 


the Socialist government’s pi 
merge private schools with the state 
system. The plans have since been 
shelved. In Madrid last autumn, 
another millio n demonstrated their 
concern over much the same Issue. 

At stake has been the quality of 
education. Over the last 20 years 


most European countries have 
made a major leap in education. 
Compulsory schooling has been ex- 
tended to more youth than ever 
before. 

Now die emphasis has shifted 
from bringing about greater equali- 
ty of educational opportunity to 
improving the quality of schooling. 
This fundamental change has 
largely been spurred by often vocif- 
erous dissatisfaction from parental 
and other pressure groups. 

A recent report on compulsory 



G^MHON SCHOOL 


ATHENS, GREECE 

NEW BOARDING HOUSE 


Campion is an international co -educational school with 900 
pupils aged 3-18, offering preparation for universities world- 
wide, but particularly those in Britain and the UJS. 

The school admits pupils of any race, colour, ethnic origin 
or nationality and is situated in one of the safest and 
educationally most interesting cities in the world. 

The new boarding house is in a green suburb conveniently 
dose to the school buildings. The resident house-mistress, 
her family and staff, together provide a home atmosphere in 
food and amenities, ranging from central heating to spacious 
common-rooms with colour TV and video. All boarders arc 
accommodated in single or double study-bedrooms with 
private bath-rooms. 

For further information please write to the Headmaster 

AF. EGGLESTON, OJJJL, MA (Oxoo) 

P.O. Bax 65009 
GR 154 10 Psydrico, Greece 
Telephone: 813 3883 


WOMEN’S. 
MEN'S and 
CHILDREN’S 
APPAREL 
DESIGN: 



Pattern Drafting & Grading 
Draping Costume Construction 
& Detail; Tailoring Millinery: 
Textiles; Sketching. Coed. 
Day. Eve.. Sum. classes. 
Dorms. High School Prep Program. 
Write or phone for catalog P- 2 


the school of fashion design 


136 Newbury SI ml, Boston, MA 02116 
Phone (617) 536-9343 


Lit hfCimin MA [>-|I Eal MD .Klmil- Muala-nls 
in .my rjir. inli». .if* I njlwnul air ■•ihnaa <iri|iin 


BALEARES INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL 



Fufm o do Matforca 

u CUrM maemariantd boorAng ond dor xji ad m Bcrin re Wcndi 

• 1-QCiagfona. ArranconK-ll orth l0poM-g>odx<«r Ofnamcnd 
B>*>h utaa Uppf W. 

• Picpnafeon m mcS dasMB tea urawwy ontfon c a m USA and 
Barton (<na SAT. ACT, Actarranwnt toil. AP end GCE O and A 


• Irc^eCMd by SrMh •nncto'i end aoaedrad b» Spnneft MaMtry at 
Eduaffion Aa n Ondw tea lenten IVmiw» GCE vorvioBora 
Tot.: 40 1 SI 7. T«U>: 69206 XPTS. Cobte: Cellmbo- PME 
Address: Cant Sort Toeth r Cade C abo MoNv Cock IF. San Ague* n 
07015 PdmaclaMdaorca, Spain - 


American School of Mallorca 


AN INTERNATIONAL ACADEMIC INSTITUTION 

• Aarmfited bjr Svb Mskfle Stota Assn. ■ Certified by 4* D.OD. System for US 
Grari. p e< i o ra »a l • Au i n rim J by Ihe Sponah Minblry of Ed u catio n . • floegxfinu 7 - 
12 A day K-12 ■ Tha only school offering a pro-englnwraig sequence dong wfth 
top oaifege prep. • Notable record of college odml«»iom oSpecffic fe w sing 
rfiubffiy and ESI program that yitdd axeelent resit. 

CALIC ORATORIO, 9 - PORTALS NOUS - MAJLLOOCA - SMM 
TB-ifi73B50/51 -THEX 69651 AMSCE 


SALZBURG INTERNATIONAL 
PREPARATORY SCHOOL 


A coeducational American biarding sdxxil in Europe's most 
beautiful dry. Grades 8 to 12 plus P G. Highest academic 
standards. College preparatory and advanced placement courses. 
Extensive travel, skiing md cultural programs. 

For catalog write: SIPS, Moasstr. [Ofa. A-5G20 Salzburg, AUSTRIA 
TeL ( 662 ) 44485 & -ViSlt ■ 




SEA PINES ABROAD 

A-5324 Fautenau ba Salzburg 
AUSTRIA 


An American preparatory school situated high in the Alps. 

Grades 9 thru 12. Coeducational. Boarding. 

. High academic standards. Skiing. Supervised travel. 

FOR C^TiAlOGaAeAMSAMAMrMvj 


schooling prepared by the Organi- 
zation for Economic Cooperation 
and Development in Paris drew at- 
tention to the “tremendous eco- 
nomic efforts during Che past 20 
years to invest in the material pro- 
vision of schools and to cany out 
sweeping structural, organizational 

and curricular reforms.” 

The OECD report noted that the 
efforts had brought considerable 
success, but that success had beat 
measured largely in maiwiai terms. 
"The next phase will call for em- 
phasis on I ess tangible improve- 
ments which will necessarily prove 
mare difficult to achieve than die 


ful fillment of quantitative targets. 


the report sail 
Economic recession and wide- 
spread unemployment in Europe 
have stimulated efforts to find new 
solutions to the old problem of pre- 
paring youth for adult life. 

Cutbacks in public spending by 
most European governments, de- 
mographic HigngjsK, including de- 

" r ulations as in West Ger- 

Denmark, the reduced 


many 


number of teachers and new ap- 
icula. 


to teachers and cunii 
Cave all left their marks on the 
educational landscape of many Eu- 
ropean countries. 

nTbere is a movement toward 
reinforcing the school as a teaching 


institution r ather than asodabzmg 


institution; this is partly to do wil 
dissatisfaction about more permis- 
sive pedagogy.” George Papado- 
poolos, deputy director for educa- 
tion at the OECD, said recently. 

Nowhere has this dissatisfaction 
been expressed more acrimonious- 
ly than in France. There, the con- 
troversy began over the reforms of 
Rene Haby, education minister un- 
der President Valfry Giscard d’Es- 
taing. These reforms, enacted in 
1975 in a spirit of egalitarianism, 
chiefly had to do with the abolition 
of different types of education for 
different pupus. As the OECD not- 
ed in its report: "The differentiated 
system focused attention on the cri- 
teria used far selection.” Abolish- 
ing selection raised the question of 
what the curriculum objectives 
common to aH pupils should be, the 
report added. 

The reform proposals caused 
broad protest, not the least among 
teachers. The debate also extended 
into the realm of parental choice 
and assumed political proportions 
as parliamentary opposition 
groups of the right and center took 
up the cause. 

The net result in France has been 
a swing away from socialization 
and a unified state school system 
toward efforts to improve educa- 
tional standards, the soealkd "re- 
turn to basics." As one French 
Education Ministry official noted: 
“If we hadn’t done it, the parents 
would have forced the issue any- 
way." 

Under the proposals recently en- 
dorsed by the French cabinet, Edu- 
cation Minister Jean-Pinre Cbe- 
v&nement has been given a 
mandate to reform the primary 
school curriculum. It restores the 


state school system and reforms in 
higher education, said recently: “A 
conservative wind is sweeping- 
much of the Western world ... but 
it is blowing with more force in 
France than in neighboring coun- 
tries.” 

In other European countries as 
well the public schools are often 
found wanting in the primary and 
lower secondary school areas, and 
the challenge to them is growing >n 
intensity. 

In Spain, for example, more than 
36 percent of schools are private 
and the number is cm the increase. 
According to OECD compQatkms, 
in nine of 14 European countries 
enrollment at noncompulsory or 
private schools is growing at the 
expense of primary and secondary 
compulsory education. 

The reasons for the challenge to 
stale schools vary from country to 
country. 

The OECD report notes that in 
Scandinavia, for example, not only 
do comprehensive schools for stu- 
dents of all abilities exist but so 
does the teaching of most subjects 
to students with mixed ability. 
There is only restricted scope for 
alternatives m the curriculum. 

In Norway, for example, there 
has been controversy about the de- 
cision to implement fnfly-mixed 
teaching in mathematics and for- 
eign languages. In other European 
countries, these key academic sub- 
jects still carry the vestiges of abih- 
ty. grouping based on self-selection. 

Furthermore, as theGECD add- 
ed, "what generates controversy in 
Scandinavia is not whether there 
should be & nnifisH examination 
system at the end of compulsory 
education but whether formal as- 
sessment by means of maHring 
should be totally abolished.” 

This issue has been the subject of 
much debate in Denmark. There 
private, or alternative, schools have 
become increasingly popular be- 
cause the state provides subsidies 
and grants to parents, pupils and 
teadiks wishing to opt oat of pub- 
lic schooling and set up or partici- 
pate in private schools. 

In Britain, by contrast, a central 
issue has become how to define a 
common care of curriculum re- 
quirements for all pupils and to 
what extent the examination sys- 
tem at the end of lower secondary 
education should be simplified. 

"The question of ability group- 
ing is also controversial in Britain, 
but the debate centers on merits of 
streaming practices more extreme 
even than those which were aban- 
doned already in the early ‘experi- 
mental’ stage of the Scandinavian 
comprehensive schools,” added the 
OECD. 

Because the reasons for the dis- 
satisfaction with public ednqitinn 
in Western Europe are so varied 
and the discontent so intense, the 
debate over public versus private 
schools will remain embroiled in 
controversy for years to come. 


e mph as i s on the acquisition of 
knowledge through baric facts, lit- 


eracy and arithmetic. 
The shift i 


in education policy will 
later be applied to France's com- 
prehensive schools and eventually 
the lyctes, but it has already stirred 
controversy in tbe French Left 
Former Education Minister 
Alain Savaty, target of criticism for 
his moves to push through a unified 


Reform Plan 
Studied in Sweden 


J 


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(Continued From Previous Page) 
and that the choice would not im- 
ply a worsening of their economic 
situation. Otherwise, “current pob- 
lic debate in Sweden U increasngty 
based on the assumption that day 
nurseries have come to stay. Dis- 
cussions are no longer so much 
concerned with the issue of whether 
day miseries are ‘good or bad,' 
but ... on the question of what 
constitutes a good day nursery" 
asserts a paper, “Chfldcare Pro- 
grams in Swedat,” published by 
tbe Swedish Institute. 

Projected day-care demand by 
1987 is 391^00 places, while supply 
is forecast by latest estimates to 
reach only 99,300, according to die 
paper. 


THE MUNICH 
INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL 


8130 Percha bet Stomberg 
Schioss Buddiof 

Tel.. 08151/3071 or 3072 


Private, full-day school 
Nursery through Grads 13 


Strang coBage preparatory program 
—American High School Diploma — 


bfenaBond Bacadaureaie 
G.C.E. “O'* A “A” levels 

tanguags of instruction: fngEdi 
German and french language program j 


•H 


W 


pesig 

Trans 


Furni 


Si* 

- “the neb: m 

*vht ?u« M $0UJ 
now that 

sat when 3 

^vrasdunartis 

sjKdccoa 

& 

1*374 ro<y cftf 1 
P'S: ihet ibt pa 
idiin Lwt 

Inw i=i 

Son W if 

prtscbOL’l children. 

But if the ground v 
it net 

Alttdc JIW A* 

zLAJeMaf* 

Ebc Girtgew- m 
-warii-winmng * :r ™ 

florthtTr. i&y s*xa 

from 6 me sate oU ft 

comcaay is now uc 
first orders from the 
■■The design of buili 
cishiccj for infants' 
schools in Ual> caa o 
{TadvaweJ ^ 

Mr- Giwnzr „ T 

doe to the sort of colw 
hi- bows tip betwe 
tethers ar:d local au 1 
fortunately the prctix 
ccs} the further up u 
sc*, and by the tune } 
iini'Sr5i‘>- it"> disasif 
ftnat probably s 
preschool education f 
crowding and pool 
found at many of the 
er learning is the f; 
schci?! education is n 
Toe idea that childre 
ble. for better or won 
infanev ard that pTes 
docs should be more 
Bounds for working 
emphatically express* 
firs'i half of the cent! 
Men lesson, w hose ! 
education has gone 
national boundaries. 

Bus u was only in 
Italian government « 
acting legisiaiion that 


Japan 


3y jack 

TOKYO — Ja 
acknowledged to 1 
the West when h t 
cation of phytic 
handicapped chile 

A survey aondu 
nese government 
national year of di 
I9S1 found that : 
pressed the highes 
* action cc.icerrunj 
ciiities for handi 
aaoeg five natio: 
United States. Fr 
many and Sweden 

The reason for \ 
partly financial. B 
poor couatrv conn 
until the !960s, J 
afford the high sp 
in establishing sp< 
the handicapped. 

In addition, Jap; 
tradition of bdie\ 
Ottered private 
^ith a low ratio c 
s P e nriitig. and it w 
the family wotdd 

r^ponsibilitvfort 
disadvantaged, 
handicap Dcd. 




Ji 'Z Lt 2 

> hr -f itnoof 


BEtVNlNGl 
„ JULY 
p ROGRA 







INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 26, 1985 



Designers’ Work 
Transforms School 
Furnishing in Italy 


A SPECIAL REPORT ON INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION 


I2n-$m 


By Kate Singleton 

MILAN — Like most good slo- 
gans. “the right material in the 
right place" sounds obvious 
enough now ihai it has been 
coined. But when a designer, an 
educator and an artisan established 
the Jolly Arredo company to mafcg 
furniture for nursery schools in 
1974 they were treading new 
ground. 

Until then, the purveyors of the 
Italian Look, whose elegant cre- 
ations had already turned Milan 
into the world's design capital had 
not felt there was much gratifica- 
tion to be found in designing for 
preschool children. 

Bui if the ground was untrodden 
it was not unwelcoming for Jolty 
Arredo and its founders. Carlo 
Guenzi, Alessandra Giorgeiti and 
Elio GiorgeuL In 10 years, the 
award-winning firm has' furnished 
more than 300 schools, mostly in 
northern Italy, catering to children 
from 6 months old to 6 years. The 
company is now d ealin g with its 
first orders from the Middle EasL 

‘The design of buildings and fur- 
nishings for infants' and p rimar y 
schools in Italy can now be said to 
be advanced by any standards," 
Mr. Guenzi said. "This is largely 
due to the sort of collaboration that 
has grown up between designers, 
teachers and local authorities. Un- 
fortunately the picture grows less 
rosy the further up the ladder you 
go, and by the time you reach the 
university, it's disastrous." 

What probably saved Italian 
preschool education from the over- 
crowding and poor equipment 
found at many of the seats of high- 
er learning is the fact that pre- 
school education is relatively new. 
The idea that children are educa- 
te, for better or worse, from their 
infancy and that preschool institu- 
tions should be more than parking 
grounds for working mothers was 
emphatically expressed during the 
first half of the century by Maria 
Montessori, whose influence on 
education has gone wen beyond 
national boundaries. 

But it was only in 1971 that the 
Italian government took, over, en- 
acting legislation that was to act as 


a guideline for regional authorities. 

Lombardy, the Emilia region, 
the Veneto and Tuscany, soon look 
the lead. The teacher-child ratio 
was fixed, with an ideal of six to 
one, and new staff qualifications 
were introduced. The governing 
body of each school had to com- 
prise at least a teacher, a parent, a 
municipal representative and a 
union representative. Standards 
and materials were defined for win- 
dows, walls, flooring, and working 
surfaces. General guidelines were 
established for buildings and furni- 
ture. 

The Lombardy region went a 
step further, and others have since 
followed. In 1978. it invited build- 
ing contractors to team with archi- 
tects and provide plans for cost- 
defined, prefabricated school 
buildings. The aim was to have a 
repertory of ready solutions from 
wniefa local authorities could 
choose and achieve the sort of 
school that best suited them in the 
shortest time. A considerable num- 
ber of these schools have been 
built, often in collaboration with 
firms like Jolly Arredo Tor all as- 
pects of furnishing. 

Jolly Arredo, which won the 
Compa&so d'Oro industrial design 
award in 1979, started with almost 
no financial backing and relied on 
a limited output of experimental 
objects. They were mostly made of 
components already available on 
the market. Other furniture films 
made substantial investments in 
one type of production and pro- 
moted products more on the basis 
of smart images than on practical 
qualities and versatility. Not sur- 
prisingly, such companies found 
they could not get their foot in the 
dassroom door. Infants' school 
furniture is selected by people who 
spend their whole day with toddlers 
and are not preoccupied with im- 
age. 

Jolly Arredo gels the component 
parts of its tine from firms in the 
triangular area between Milan. 
Como and Varese. The many 
small-to-medium size companies in 
the area can cope with difficult 
manufacturing tasks and make in- 
novative suggestions of their own. 





■irk* h 


UC Mb Accdo SMC 


These companies are the basis of 
Jolly Arredo’s flexibifiiy. They can 
meet new needs when feedback 
from the schools calls for small 
changes in products. 

It is a system that also cuts down 
on expensive storage space: assem- 
btyis simple and takes place when 
otders are made. 

The materials used in Mr. Guen- 
zi s designs are basic and straight- 


forward: iron, rubber, canvas or 
plastic laminate, but mainly wood 
varnished to look as natural as pos- 
sible. Wood suitably treated is hy- 
gienic, has a pleasant temperature 
to the touch, is stimulating to the 
eye and is sturdy, yet not too heavy. 

Jody Arredo’s wooden chairs 
have rounded comers. They can be 
stacked, made into little desks 
when turned upside down and 


moved around by small children. 
Stackable chairs with a metal struc- 
ture for a slightly older age group 
have plywood seats, special plastic 
backs and round plastic feet that 
deaden the noise when the chairs 
are dragged across the floor. 

There are wooden feeding tables 
with laminate tops and three in- 
dented sides where chairs can be 
attached so that a teacher can feed 


three charges at the same time. 
Alongside the rectangular tables 
there are trapezoidal ones that fit 
together is a variety of shapes. 
Then there are big boxes that fit 
together to make tunnels or houses, 
beds that can be stored in container 
trolleys when the afternoon nap is 
over, thick sturdy waterproof mats, 
cubes and semicircles for building 
little theaters. 


Japanese Grapple With Ways to Teach tlwjlandimpped 


By Jack Burton 

TOKYO — Japan is generally 
acknowledged to be lagging behind 
the West when it comes to the edu- 
cation of physically or mentally 
handicapped children. 

A survey conducted by ihe Japa- 
nese government during the inter- 
national year of disabM^ 

1981 found that the Japanese ex- 
pressed the highest rate of dissatis- 
faction concerning educational fa- 
cilities for handicapped children 

S five nations surveyed, the 
States, France, West Ger- 
many and Sweden. 

The reason for this negligence is 
partly financial . Bring a relatively 
poor country compared to the West 
until the 1960s, Japan could not 
afford the hig h spending involved 
in es tablishing special schools for 
the handicapped. 

In addition, Japan has had a long 
tradition of believing in a family' 
centered private welfare system 
with a low ratio of public welfare 

- . f J — - - 3 llint 


disadvantaged, including the 


But the handicapped have also 
faced discrimination in a society 
that places great stress on homoge- 
neity. “For many years, handi- 
capped persons in Japan were iso- 
lated and regarded as worthless 
until the day of high economic 
growth,” said Mainichi Shimbun in 
an editorial during tire internation- 
al year of disabled persons. 

“The main government polity 
was to isolate them in an apparent 
effort to protect them from un- 
friendly or curious eyes," he said. 
“We cannot erase a long unsympa- 
thetic historical background at a 
single stroke," it added. 

In recent years, the Japanese 
government has sought to redress 
that imbalance. In 1955, for exam- 
ple, there were only five schools for 
the handicapped with 3S8 students 
(excluding 176 schools for the blind 
and deaf, which have a longer his- 
tory in Japan due to the influence 
of American missionaries in ihe 
19th century). 

By 1983, there were 713 schools 
for the handicap ped with 76,771 
students up through the age of 15 
(excluding another 17,500 in 
schools for the blind and deaf). 
This growth, which made its great- 


est advance during the last decade, 
was fueled by a decision in 1979 to 
make education compulsory for 
handicapped children. 

Per-capita expenditure in public 
educational institutions for the 
handicapped is roughly three times 
that spent in stale universities, and 
the student-teacher ratio in schools 
for the handicapped is an impnes- 


capped in regular elementary and 
junior high schools has declined 
from 11,000 in 1980 due to the 
growth of special schools. 

Although the issue of integrated 
education for the handicapped is 
hotly debated, it is considered ben- 
eficial in at least some cases. And 
segregating the handicapped into 
special schools is of particular con- 


Japan has had a long tradition of 
believing in a family-centered 
private welfare system. 


sive three- to-one, according to the 
Ministry of Education. 

Despite these improvements, the 
government’s policy on the educa- 
tion of the handicapped is still sub- 
ject to criticism by some teachers 
and parents. The chief complaint is 
that placing handicapped children 
in the newly built special schools 
fosters their isolation from the rest 
of society. 

The number of children attend- 
ing special classes for the handi- 


cero in Jroan where one's educa- 
tional background plays a greater 
role in determining one’s future 
than in the West 

Parents of handicapped chil- 
dren, especially those with minor 
disabilities, fear that enrolling 
them in the special schools will stig- 
matize them for the rest of their 
lives. 

The determination of whether a 


child goes to a regular or special highly i 
school is made by the municipal sphere. 


education boards and there, have 
been^a- number of cases in recent 
years of parents challenging the 
boards' decisions. In one typical 
case, it took a 13-year-old boy 
stricken with polio six years to be 
finally accepted into a regular 
school. 

The trend of channeling the 
handicapped into special schools is 
likely to continue. Because of the 
1979 law requiring each prefecture 
to establish a set number of schools 
for the disabled, school boards 
have a vested interest in filling their 
quota of students. Moreover, regu- 
lar schools are ill-equipped to han- 
dle large number of handicapped 
students. 

Despite a decision in 1975 by the 
Tokyo Education Board to remodel 
its schools to accommodate handi- 
capped students, only a handful 
have installed the necessary facili- 
ties such as wheelchair ramps and 
special toilets. 

Public opinion Largely backs the 
segregation policy out of the belief 
that the presence of handicapped 
students in regular schools will 
slow the pace of learning in Japan’s 
highly competitive academic aimo* 


When questioned during the in- 
ternational year of disabled per- 
sons poll about what type of fanli- 
ty handicapped children should 
attend, 88 percent of Japanese re- 
plied that they should be placed, 
with some exceptions, in special 
schools. 

This contrasted with the reply of 
52 percent of the Swedes ques- 
tioned who believed that all handi- 
capped children should study in a 
regular school with other children. 

There have also been cases of 
local residents opposing the build- 
ing of schools for the handicapped 
in their neighborhoods, which con- 
tributes to the feeling that the 
handicapped should remain an un- 
seen minority. 

The prospect that most handi- 
capped students will have some 
form of higher education remains 
bleak as wefl. While 61.8 percent of 
handicapped students graduating 
from junior high schools went on to 
attend senior high, school, 12 per- 
cent of senior Ugh school gradu- 
ates entered university level 
schools. Comparable figures far 
blind high school graduates were 
50 percent and deaf graduates 27 
percent. 


DALCRCZE I 

SCHOOL OP MUSIC = 

Combining the best features ot s= 

European end American Music SS 

Education with a vital approach == 

for students of all ages, protas- = 

sionalt and amateurs. Outstand* — 

ing artist faculty. s= 


gHimmiiiiumiuuiuHiuuiunuiuiiiinniuiuiiiuuiuuinnimiiiuiuiiDiiHiiiiuiiiiu^ 

i T/-M TV T = 


JOHN 

WDLMAN 

vv SCHOOL 




= in the California Sierra Nevada welcomes International Students, s 

H CoHa fl e-Prepamt o iy Boarding and Day = 

I • INTERNATIONAL BACCALAUREATE DIPLOMA PROGRAM § 

-z • Small claaeea • Caring staff • Music, theater, art = 

5 • Work program, including farm • Social service- projects = 

S5 Writ* or coB: WKom L Moon, Jr.. Principal E5 

= The John Woobncn School E 

H 12585 Jaaas Bar BtL, Nevada City, CM^ 25959 U.S.A. TeL: 916-273-3183. = 
S A school of the R a flg ioua Society of Friends (Quaker) founded tn 1 965 . = 

= Acmxbed tyy WASC ■ Mmabr. M.KIS. CJLL5. =| 

MnniiiuuHUiUHiiiiuuiuummiuuniiiiiiiutnuiiHiuiiniiunmuniiiiiiiiminiiiniii 


EMMA WILLARD SCHOOL 
TROY, NEW YORK 


Emma Willard is the oldest 
States. It enrolls students in 
year is available. 


; school for girls in the United 
through 12 and a postgraduate 


Ttoy, a anger dry in insure New York, it 150 miles north of New York 
City. The school facility includes a 32.000 volume library, science 
laboratories, a gymnasium, and art center. The college preparatory 
curriculum includes English, history, science, mathematics, fine ana 
performing arts, and six foreign languages. A multi level course is 
available lor students whose second language is English. 

For further information: 

Margaret A. Gat, Director of Atfenjgsion*, 

Emma Willard School 

285 Pawfing Avenue, Troy, New York 12180, TeL: (518) 274-4440. 


Jl'WE J*JL'iy27 
The 6th Awtomi 

BENNINGTON 

JULY 

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LITERATURE 

JOURNALISM 

PSYCHOLOGY 

PHILOSOPHY 

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PHOTOGRAPHY 

STUDIES 

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Pre-College Courses 
for High School 
Sophomores & Juniors 

Dr. Philip Holland. Director 
Bennington Inly Program 
Bennington College 
Bennington. Vermont 0JB8J 

Phone aOZ-U2-$40t . 




ST. fRANCis 

pREp 

SPRING GROVE, PENNA 17562 
Buys Boarding/CoHcgv Prep/ Grads 0-12 & P-G. 
Conducted by the Franciscans - Summer Session. 

English as a Second Language. Computer 
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2 Hows North of Washington, D.C. 

For more information contact: 

Brother John Paul McMahon - Admissions Director 
717-225-5715 


PARENTS! 

Are YOU looking for the right 
school for YOUR child? 

For free i nf ormation, phase contort- 

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SCHOOL 
Of GENELfl 


World leader among international schools since 1924 
nun serving the Geneva area in three locations. 

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Primary and ‘-wondarv rbiirj. Secondary russcs only 

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Strong and flexible curricula. Highly selected sum. Well-equipped labe. 
A ere.il range of activities. Excellent results in 

» INTERNATIONAL BACCALAUREAT 

• American College Beard* 

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• SwiiA “Maturitc Federalc" 

Intensive Residential French Sue™* Course with Activities and 
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XoJormalAtfr INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL OF GENEVA. 

62 Route dr CWue. CH-1208 Geneva. TeL: 022/36 71 30. 



INSTITUT MONTANA ZUGERBERG 


International bar* boc/ ding ichod with rigorou* US. college 
P'eturatory program For Americans Grade* 5-12 [5epe*ate ~ 
terto re fa, French. German and Itahan-speoiung students). " 
Thorough practice ai modern languages. Highly qualified American ■ ••• . ,/ 
(acuity Affiliate member Nationd Association of Independent' S^, 
Schools. College Boards. Ideally located at 3.000 (eel above sea ' { ' 
iewaJ, «t central Switzerland. 45 minutes from Zurich and lucerne. Aft v - ( * 
sports, evcelent sla facilities Travel Workshop during spring 
vocation Language Program in July and August. 

Writs: Dean of Hte American School, Inttifuf Montane 
6316 Zugerberg, Switzerland 



^ ™ h BHmsH ,NTEH - N 'VnoN.-\i.saiooi. 


IN THE FREMTf-SWlSS ALPS 


• 250 boys and girls, 11-18 years of age 

• British G.C.E., American College Board 
P Excellent university preparation - USA, UK, 

Canada, Europe 

• Character building, good sports and skiing 
For further in for mat io n and intrant* r e q ui rements appty tor 

THE HEADMASTER, AKRON COLLEGE, IMS CHE5BSS-VUARS, 
SWITZERLAND. TEL: (025) 35 27 21. IBEX: 456211 ACOL CH. 



&taMn1(,1l12IJUUK 
(Ufci d Goto) Stitadsd 

he uiaoL til m / » n n . 

International Boarding School for Girls 

□ IJirfc 12 Jo 20 pars. Beautifully siswitaL Finest halhies for study and residence, 
tennis court, healed curimraing-paoL 

□ Comprehensive academic program in urull clauses- Official certificates and 
diploma. 


□ Full American Hkb School G 0^5-12. CUB (SAT. PSAT. ACH). 

TOEFL Advanced Placement. College guidance. RwUni university accep- 
tances. 

□ Secretarial and coannerckl counts in French or Word processing and 

comptUer science. 

□ Diveraified activities: art, music, balkl. cookery, sports. Educational trips. Winter 
vacations in Crans, Swiss Alps. Summer course. 



hytik /hfcriMN SeM. 


— focofedai the bnathfaUnafy buauHfof Aku of SWTTTBtlAND — offers 

C a Sommer of ACADEMICS md/tr WEAlKE— 

r CHOKE of one program or another or o combination of both— for 
enrichment or high school/coUegc aeefits. 

• COMPUTOS: Programming In BASIC & Application 
• ACADEMICS; English, French, Math, Lab Sciences 
• THEATRE* Learn Acting, Dance, Voice, Mime, Make-up, Fencing, 
Tech, Art/ Crafts. PERFORM ON STAGE in 
20 productions 

• PLAY: All Lend & Aquatic Sports ft Ice-Skating 


• PLAY: All Lend ft Aquatic Sports ft Ice-Skating 


• DATES/ RATES: 2, 3 vmek periah starting June 22 and July 14, 1985. 
SJFr. 2,420 per poriodi 2 periods, Sir. 4,620. ASK ABOUT OUR FAMILY PLAN. 


For Info/ brorhoree: US. Admission Office; leytir American School, Attn. Mr. Hons 
Spongier, 30 Bookman Place, New York, N.Y. 10022, M.i 212-3552219. 

Swiss Officei LAS, Summer Program, OH-1854 Leysin, Switzerland, Tei.i 
(41-25) 34 12 85-34 1361. Tlx., 456 312 LA5 OL 



Pqrcrils. ouf Ifcc 
visor y service 
hij'.ps you to Criooso I he 

RIGHT SCHOOL 

ir the 

RIGHT PLACE 



■ ntaro men SO privwe senoau and Inateius 

■ IMcranfl- was roomed to, its quuty ana Chewy 

■ Sumner end Wrur opens 

LAKE OF GENEVA REGION 

Canun ot VBud - SWtTZCDUUIQ 

■ favourable eiwranmenia tor mntying 

• nub ol a van network at Menunonal tnet ol eanvnunieatieni 

■ DeautSiS knuacape - neasny chnaiv 

PRIVATE SCHOOL ADVISORY BUREAU 

W. Ave oe is Gan - CH -1002 Lausanne 

TeL D2\,33 77 71 Tekw 24 390 

Unoer me pammei* ot me Aseooaton at pnwue aehoola 

IAUDEPI one me Teimai Qttca ol Lake ol Oeneva Beo cn tOTVI. 


Study m Switzerland 

• Intensive French Courses (Alliance franpaise) 

• Maturity suisse - Matriculation 

• Baccalaur£at f ran pals - Matriculation 

• Commercial and Secretary Studies 

• Summer Courses in August and Sept 


Int wnaH Ext em ait EcofeL&mania 
T6L 021/201501 3. cherrin de Pr&Oe 

T&ex 26600 CH-1001 Lausanne 


lemania 


French imenuve course. 

Scucianal subject* - 
Domes! ,>. Snencr • Languages ■ Art. 
’winter sporli. 

Summer HoBilay Course: 

French - hnyLufa - Cooking 

181$ CLARENS MONTREUX 
Phone 02 1 /M 24 7?. 

Telex 453 Ie2 iurv di - 
(453 162 »urv cM. 

Principals: 

Mr. and Mrv F. SJler-Andrcae. 


John F. Kennedy 
Intemationa) School 

Sacunen-Gstaad 

A unique in te motioncil school for chil- 
dren 6-13 years. Sound preparation 
for English-language secondary 
schools. Small dosses, family atmo- 
sphere, superb alpine location, 
frenc h , siding, spam, oxcuraom. 
Summer caqs JufriAu g uet 
tVWtor WKam lovaft. Dnctar 
CH-3792 Saanen, Switzerland. 
Tel.-. (030) 4 13 72. 


The TASIS Schools 


Portsmouth Abbey School === 

SUMMER SESSION 19S5 
500 acre campus on Narraunxtl Bay* Balanced program oT study and 
recreation o Small classes • Study skills • Sports • Weekend tups 
ENRICHMENT £ CREDIT COURSES: Medical Srirncr • Cotpp-jur 

n • - n-.!._L - J r re litiifi ffairiinn wnfirm 


Review, grades 6-10 •Phoicmphv* Drama •TypmE* Creaiiw ^ribiig 
Boys, boarding ( fl-lft years'): gjm. day 
For catalog. Portsffloulta Abbey School Punsmouth. R1 03B7I • 401-683-2000 


Private elementary school emphasizing a strong French program. Grade* Pre- 
Nuree/y - B (3 yean - 13). The school affords a structured ajmeukm in Eogfah, 
Sdenco, Mathematics, Computer Science, Art, Music and Phys'nd Edu ca ti on. 
Instruction in French b provided by noth* French teadsen. The school's god a to 
provide proficiency in the French language and la prepare for admission to 
American and European high schools. The school ‘a renowned for its by-eufhrfd 
(French/ A m eric a n] environment. The school « housed in two buildings an God 
62nd Street. Foci) Hies indude 2 libraries, 2 co mp uter confers, 3 gymnasiums, 2 vt 
rooms and spocksus classrooms. Extensive extra-curricular dubs ore offered after 
school. 

Quali hed European students may be accepted throughout the veat. 120 status offered- 

Direct enquiries to Mr. Ruy-EHc Correa, Headmaster. 

Phone 2T 2-752-3025. 35 East 62nd Street, New York, N.Y. 10021 USA. 


SWITZERLAND 

The oldest independent American 
boattting school in Europe, founded 
in 1&55. American College Prep 
General Sbxftaa end lnt'1 Section 
(ESU- Coed, boarding and day. 
grades 7-13 Activities. ' sports. 
St Moritz ski term, and extensive 
travel throughout Europe 


ENGLAND 

35-acre country campus only IB 
mdes ham central London and 
8 miles tram Heathrow airport 
Founded in 1978, ottering American 
Collage Prep curriculum and ESL 
Coed, grades K -72 day. grades 7-12 
boarelng Complete sports, acton- 
lies, and travel program 


CYPRUS 

The newest TASIS campus, situated 
in the hie district ol Nicosia, Cyprus, 
offers close proximity to me Middle 
East. American College Preparatory 
and General Studies curricula 
Coed, grades 7-12 day. grades 
9-12 boarding Diverse sports, ac- 
tonnes, and travel 


Ths American School In Switzerland, Ext. Si. CH-B026 Montagnola, Switzerland. Tel; Lugano I0tri| 54 64 71 Tl*. 79317 
TASIS England. Exi. 42, CoWtorbour Lone, Thorpe, Surrey, England nV308TE. TW: Owtsey (00329) 8525271*: 9291 72 
TASIS CypnJB. Ext. 53, 11 Ktwaa Street. P.O.Bo* 2329. Nicosia. Cyprus. Tel: rOco sla m2i 74371* Tl» «G0l 


»SIS HELLENIC IWIDay School. gracfesK- 73. flu » 51025. Ert.«. 74 51PWWMi3,CreMe.7W-Alhena SOS 14 26 T7« 210379 


American Ed peal ion in Europe with an International Dimension-; 














f 

L 



Page 14 


The CIE A.A.S. Degree 
In Electronics: 

A Logical Choice. 


Earning your Associate in Appfied Science Degree in Electronics Engineering 
Technology from CE doesn't require rigid schedules and long class hours. It doesn’t 
require going away to school, leaving your job or even leaving home. 

CUE’S A.A.S. Degree is an accredited, college-level program offering the 
student flexibility in study rime through independent study methods. You study 
in six month terms similar to semesters and earn as many credit hours as you 
can within each term. You can graduate in whatever term you acquire the 
required number of credit hours. 

You'll team microprocessor and digital theory with advanced training equip- 
ment — all designed to prepare you for an advanced career in electronics. 

Take a closer look at our degree program and you'll see why CIE is the logical 
choice in learning electronics. 

For more information write or use coupon: 

Dean of Registration 

Cleveland Institute of Electronics 

1776 East 17tb Street Cleveland. Ohio 44114 

Call (226) 781-9400 

FREE SCHOOL CATALOG 


tv nruN AT lOWAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 26, 1985 

A SPECIAL REPORT ON INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION 


Print Name. 


Address 




City 



Codp 

Age 

Pttone (area code) 


i 



World Headquarters 


Cleveland Institute of Electronics, Inc. 

1776 East 17th Street • Cleveland, Ohio 44114 


AHT-02 


^ — 



imm/m Gra» 



THUNDERBIRD 

American Graduate School of 
International Management 
Invites you to join the 18,000 graduates 
and 1,000 current students 
who will soon celebrate 
the 40th anniversary of the school 


Applications for admission to die For information write 
Master of Irnoiutioftil Management Admissions — 747 
degree program are now being Thunderblrd Campus 

accepted for 1986 ■ Glendale, Arizona 85306 

■telephone: (602) 978-7210 TELEX 18-7123 


RIVERVIEW SCHOOL 

A Raakf o ntkrf School 
For Teenagers With Learning Problems 

How you Marched for a school where Ihe staff cares abort your dliid 
owdemicofly, socially, emotionally, totally? The RnwvMw staff does. 
Now in its second quarter century, (Overview yearly serves 100 boys 
and girb diagnosed as perceptually or learning disabled. Goal orient- 
ed, personalized, comple te academic proyo ms complemented by 
imfividual language therapy, counseling, fife and vocational sloth aid 
afFcampus dalle training experiences augment the program. A high 
school diploma is avoiUbie. Each student upon having will be, witWn 
the range of his/her potential, a wholesome, realistic, mahee individ- 
ual. Overview, a part of Hopefields School, Inc, located in the quiet 
beauty of Cape Cod is private, non-profit and approved by education 
departments of several states. 



For information contact: 


RIVERVIEW 
SCHOOL 

^COlHAGt HtMflfl ft 

Overview admits students of any race, color, national or ethnic origin 


Dept. M 

East Sendwkh, MA 02537 
TeL: (617) 888*0489 



MAKE SUMMER 
COUNT! 


THE HOTCHKISS 

SCHOOL 


SUMMBt PROGRAM 

JUNE 27- AUF s 

Acodwwc e nrid wnt far post W2 gndw in Art, Thmear, Ardiceokyy, fiyeh WeOr 
Biology, Cbfisjuters, Bigfirfi Gnducflng Eng&fi as a Send Urtj/joge), Ata*v Sowicb; 
Economies, PMaraity, Psychology, ImgiqgBStjfisl ay, Hutp yphy. 

Supab education'll, Uwteory, md sports feSfas. Bwrfng and Day . 

Dttaih: 1985 HetchUs* Sunmr Program 
lteHvtBe,Camedkut 10639, UAA. -{203J43M4I0 


Home Study 


Kgbqualfy tare study causes dMtaped by »«ed teacta a cu«an*B irote 
school Hong ts your tfaswom. you are the teactar. Success is ea sy wftfi afcp-ar 
step instruct io n s No prior experience required. Start anytime. Transfer to other 
schools. Al maaials incWed. Pro-am prices from 515500-S445JK) complete. 
(Based on grade tewl and advisay teacher service usaga) 35CJ300 student users In 
owr BO years. Equal opportunity. Write or Gal far free catalog. 


CALVERT W SCHOOL 

Esiatttshed >B97 301-243-6030 

ter* . Tuscany Rd. BaRmw, MD 21250 


— SAINT MARTS ACADEMY — 

Be Someone Special! 

Al a '*isdenod school vhart paapfc case. faicn, oocea ad unden tm d. 

EmSanl Ftjakhm on tha Muaupp between Ovcoga and Si. Louis, ynlh pro ham naif sums 
wd far*gn eaunmas. Grata 9-ll CoBcge prepmory, ndupandont study, bingud, 
wa (tend, horw enwano. ptmett must lessons fofin&af gudoneo and aamdiie 
Morthh 3 dor wnslrniti Soaol adMtw*. competihva spans Corhokt raKSsaimnalory. 
Wme- 

Box 158 L Scant Mary's Aeodemy, Nauvoo, ft 623S4 or raft ( 217) 453-6619. 


FOUNDED 1928 IN ARIZONA 


Visitors welcome 
year round 



JUDSON 

SCHOOL 

COLLEGE PREPARATORY 
& GENERAL COURSES 
Internationally Known 

BOARDING GRADES 3-12 
— SMALL CLASSES — 
ExnBenT structure 
180 staff 
Extra Help Daily 
ESL 

COMPUTS STUDIES 
AMSccrh 
Tmel-Adwitm 
D a*el upu m r* a/ 

Rotx&ng A Math 
Art. Music. Drama. 
Conputsr Stucfias 


Sports incl. Riding. Riflery. Soccer. Skiing. Tennis. Golf 


Catalog: HENRY WICK 111. YALE B-A. Dir. Box 1569 
Scottsdale. AZ 85252 • 602-948-7731 • Telex 669440 


BUSY STUDENTS ARE GOOD STUDENTS' 


BROOKLYN 

FRIENDS 

SCHOOL 

Bte. 1887 

Kinbipu ten tbroogh 12th Grade 
m Feed Street 

Brooklyn, New York 112*1 (718)8S-»» 


NotrisM. Angel PtuD. 

f n - -f -J ■ ■ w - - - -8- , 4 

apwen wunma irrjuj orq 

rl|TI | f J e 9 w_. 

enua tWraopnwftT spocauMsr 
Tesfing-Tutaring- 
GjureoTmg-Referrafc 

11 14 Wertshir* PI., N.W. 
Atlanta, Georgia 30318. 
Res.: (404 1 874-3830, 

= Office (404) 977-2966. i 


ATLANTA 
INTERNATIONAL 
SCHOOL 
P.O. Box 550405 
Attain Go. 30355 
(404) 231-9153 


Opening Sapt^ 1 985 


= SHERIDAN HILLS = 
CHRISTIAN SCHOOL 

“Excellence in education 
retd envi r onment" 

Private school; grades 1-1 2. ExceL 
lence in education and environment 
since 1967. Certified teachers, com- 
puters, sports, musk, high academic 
ach iev eme n t and disdplrie. Ap- 
proximate cast is $2,000. Boarding 
can be ammged 3 necessary. 

Sberfcta HBs Orisficm School, 

_ 3751 Sherhta St Hoflywood, 
ts H. 33021(305)966-7995. =JI 



ARIZONA’S VftiA-OASB 
SCHOOL 

An auRfandtng Soaring 
School rffemg Cottage 
Prep and General 
Caunn. CchfcJ gads 7- 
12, My acaadied. Spe- 
cial program Far the Un- 
der moil voted, 
development rearing h> 
taring. Marine bofegy. Caa^uSfX Art. 
Photography- String, Ufe-tme Spam, Pool, 
Hones, weekend adivries, bitorartond 
Stvdsrt Body. 

Cterdaff John Stei nb ec k . PI»J>. 

Box 13IS-HT 
Caw Grcnde, AZ 8S223 
1402] 466-9226 



Are you 
thinking about 
studying in 
America? 




EDUCATIONAL FUTURES 


Uahcd Sutes OBkc 
l-ctprarinnai Fmuies 
42 Scxufawxd Drive 
New Canaan. CT 06840 
TeL: (203) 966-9713 


The leading international advisory 
service for students who 
wish to study in America 

• Private Secondary Schools 

• Colleges and Universities 

• Graduate Schools 

• College Tours 

• Summer Programs 

• English Language Pro g rams 

For farther adarusaoa nrtta n- 
Batpeaa OfBcs London Area Office 

1254 lossy (Sauna) cJo Books. 

Geneva. Swnzcdand Place. 

TeL (22) 591-869 Weybrid^, Surrey 


OREGON 

EXCELLENCE 

THE EELPHIAN SCHOOL 

College Prep • Individualized Curriculum • 
Proven Study Methods • K— 12 • Dedicated 
Faculty • Ages 8— 18 • Family Atmosphere 
•800 Acres • Residential Coed • Year-round 
Admissions • Summer Programs • Ideal En- 
vironment for Personal and Academic Ad- 
vancement • Non-sectarian • Non-discrim. 
Full English-as-a-Second- Language Program 

Wrire The Delphian School, Dept HT 

Sheridan, Oregon 97378 / (503) 843-3521 


William Bennett: Proponent of a Worldly View 


{Continued From Page 9) 
said NeH P. Enrich, author of the 
Carnegie report. 

‘The com panies are doing a 
good job," sue added, “but they 
shouldn’t have to be doing so 
much." 

Mr. Bennett’s criticism of the 
colleges has been echoed by impor- 
tant groups in higher education it- 
self. 

A report by the Association of 
American Colleges charged that 
curriculums have been plunged 
into "disarray'’ as most colleges 
have "abandoned" a coherent 
structure of education and replaced 
it with "a supermarket where stu- 
dents are shoppers and professors- 
are merchants of learning." 

Most professors, it said, have be- 
come more interested in their spe- 
cialties thm in their students. Ad- 
ministrators have become more 
concerned with boosting enroll- 
ments, it said, than with insuring 
quality. 

The problems stem from the late 
1960s, the report said, when many 
coDeges dropped traditional re- 
quirements in the face of student 
protests and demands for “rele- 
vance.” But the disintegration has 
continued for more than a decade, 
it said. Students have become more 
vocational and materialistic than 
ever, and they are often not re- 
quired to learn very much to obtain 
a “devalued” degree. 

According to UJS. government 
statistics: 

• Only 47 percent of U.S. col- 
leges require foreign-language 
study for the bachelor's degree, 
down from 89 percent in 1966 and 
S3 percent in 1975. 

• A student can get a bachelor’s 
degree from 72 percent of U.S. col- 
leges without having studied Amer- 


ber of U.S. college students gradu- 
ating with bachelor’s degrees in En- 
glish dropped by 57 percent; in 
history, by 62 percent; and in mod- 
ern languages, by 50 percent At the 
same >inv» the total number of 
bachelor’s degrees awarded rose by 
11 percent and those in business 
soared by 77 percent. 

The report of the Association of 
American Colleges noted that in a 
perverse twist, the new college 
graduates often find themselves 
poorly prepared for the work they 


in Washington, then went to Wil- 
liams College, a liberal arts school 
in Massachusetts. Later he received 
a doctorate in philosophy from the 
University of Texas, with a disser- 
tation on the idea of the social 
contract, and then a law degree 
from Harvard. 

In the late 1970s, he served as 
executive director of a study center 
in North Carolina for historians, 
literary scholars, philosophers and 
other humanists. In 1981 he be- 
came head of the National Endow- 


In the first weeks on his new job, 
Bennett has helped to shift the debate 
about U.S. education onto the 
shortcomings of its colleges rather 
than those of the high schools, which 
were emphasised by his predecessor, 
Terrel H. BeU, 


ican history or literature; from 75 
without studying European 
history, and from 86 percent witb- 


percent’ 


out studying about classical Greece 
or Rome. 

• From 1970 to 1982, the num- 


seek despite the practicality of their 
education. 

“The jobs are changing rapidly," 
Mr. Rumberger remarked. So 
what are needed are people with 
the basic skills — the communica- 
tions drills, the analytical s kills — 
so they can adapt. You can be 
trained to the specifics once you 
have the base skills but without the 
basics yon are losL 

“It's a traditional view of educa- 
tion that is consistent with a mod- 
em technical age,” Mr. Rumberger 
said. “The old kind of curriculum 
really works in the new kind of 
society." 

Mr. Bennett, 41, the new educa- 
tion secretary, is the product of 
such a traditional education. He 
graduated from a Jesuit high school 


ment for the Humanities, a federal 
agency that promotes there fields. 
Its budget is just $140 million, com- 
pared to the $18 Ullian that the 
U.S. Education Department is 
spending this year. But Mr. Ben- 
nett achieved a conspicuous public 
profile before President Ronald 
Reagan tapped him to be education 
secretary. 

In the first weeks mi his new job, 
Mr. Bennett has become even more 
visible. He has helped to shift the 
debate about U.S. education onto 
the shortcomings of its colk|es- 
rather than those of the ' ‘ 
schools, which were i 
his predecessor, Terrel H. Bell 

Mr. Bell’s charges about a 
tide of mediocrity” in U.S. 
spurred a major wave of reform in 
the 50 stales that control them. 



Control of the colleges is even 
more diffuse. The United States 
now has about 3.200 institutions of 
higher education. About 55 percent 
of them are private schools, bur 
about 78 permit of the lZ4millkn 
college students in the United 
States attend state-run institutions. 

As auoQments have soared over 
the last two decades so has the 
f unding they receive from the fed- 
eral govemmoiL Most institutions 
get these funds indirectly through a 
patchwork of grants and subsidized 
loans to students and contracts and 
fellowships for research. Overall, 
federal aid now goes to about half 
of all U.S. college students and ac- 
counts fix' about a quarter of all 
college revenues. 

Meanwhile, the cost of college 
has soared too, particularly at pri- 
vate schools whose charges nave 
risen .about twice .as . fast as jhe 
general rateof inflation since 1981. 
AMhetastprestigious private uni- 
versities, tmnon, rbbin and board 
come to almost $15,000 a'year. 

For the last four years the Rea- 
gan administration has .sought to 
cut federal aid, despite its large 
constituency, hot Congress has in- 
creased h instead. This year the 
administration has proposed a 25- 
percoit reduction, limiting any 
subsidies to students whose family 
income is below 532^00. The pro- 
posals have brought charges that 
the colleges and their middle-in- 
come students will be harmed. 

Bm Mr. Bennett has argued 
strongly for the cuts. He has ex- 
pressed considerable doubt that 
both the government and the stu- 
dents are getting their money’s 
worth- 

“Most colleges promise to make 
you better culturally and morally, 
but it is not evident that they do,” 
Mr. Bennett said in an interview 
with The New York Times. “They 
are not delivering on their prom- 
ises” and “some people are getting 
ripped off.” 


okdO; 


OXFORD* ronr.\r> 

CM STUlltfJt i>t IAAS1 LH IN tx H O.ASS 

Fc» ooyt o' Jwf'os? to us*-"* 

• *no n*we amuntwi 

• «tio tuv* losi CW tv mcne voor: 01 KfW 
■ wfo miii lo .»cc**waso v 

• hie*jv rninng 'a eow 

Aroncon 

Comi)iqio>v <r«frvuua< .nsiiuclan 

m 0 EffTtf.lli! C ucstoom 

Rtnitfie M'Tvritcrv- 

136-1- 1»S tyuiang ana hetan S II 100 
Summn- Tftm June 77- July JV SC B0C 

P0 D>0wei P MMVaak Cl 9^96 USA 
ATT t>.*» IM iMi S»o:a7 


■ SAINT JOHWS- 


POEPABATORr SCHOOL 

• Btnatoine cofcae prop ones 1857 
•Coed, grades 9-1/; boating ft* bovi 

• Advanced Oyki i. German end Mont 

• Svdy afcnxxfin Austria 

• Computer tatadian 

• Small dasa and tutoring help 

• Coflege credts offered 
Wrije n AStei 

363 3317. 


ST. LUKE'S EPISCOPAL 
SCHOOL, 1 1 Sl Luke’s Ln.. San 
Anionic, TX 78209. 5 1 2-826- 
0664 Wtifcly r«ottmrcd for su- 
perior education for 
trades 1-5 anJ pre-school. 

Jean A. Baysden, headmis- 
tress. 




N0RTHB0UWS 
PARK SCHOOL 
nr DEAL Kent CT140NW 

Notthboame Pari is a coeducational 
hronlua and day R e yma l u ty School 
rad gb£ lor afl Eng&h 


A FRENCH 5^ CXAS5 tmAara Fmnrfj 
Tocher eoMt within the firanransk of 
the school pring a unique 
(4 a Tear's c qjcneuw is an 
taboo) wkbool uderraptkn to die 
French canicuhna. 

for frfar ctab tf/ily to tm Htodmat*. 

BJ. Hare, al #w cfcove address 
or tefaphnnH Samhmdi (0304) 
61 1215. GREAT BRIEAVi 


( CUT THIS OUT \ 
! TO LEARN FRENCH | 

I Cfran. a chateau in the Belgian Ardennes where you team and live g. 
In French. Small groups and private lessons, with tailor -made ■ 
programmes for individual needs, ensure real progress. Good food. ■ 

I good company, good teachers. Come and team, and enjoy yourself. ■ 
We teach private people, comparaes, embassies. EEC, SHAPE etc g 

i 

) 


For complete documentation, send this coupon or phone : 

I am interested in courses for: O Adults □ Young People 

□ Private □ Business 

NAME 



COMPANY 


ADDRESS 


164. Avenue du Chateau. Nrvaze. B-4880 Spa, 


Belgium Tei 087/77 39 16 Tele* 49650 



ST MART’S GATE 

BOURNEMOUTH 

(Founded 1886) 

Independent Boarding and Day School (or Girk. 

8 -18 years. 

liilumalionul Summer School lor Ciris, 7 - 16, and Boys 7-10 years. 

The school is international in outlook, and there is specialised tuition in 


i wide range of subjects at both A 


Eriglub as a second language throughout the year. 

Tlte staff are highly qualified, and there is a wide ran 
and O Inch. 

Study bedrooms for Sbab Forms. 

Tbe school is situated near the beach, faui stands 100 feet above sea leveL 


Full detail s from the Headmistress. 


SuiHUiiiiiumiiuinuiiKuianiiuiniiiinf 
| WES HOME SCHOOL f 

=WES Home School courses enable = 

speddng famffios living any-E 
=whecv in the world to provide theirs 
with a British education. = 

3*b»nls teach their children thernsehm = 
|iaiog WES Home School courses, E 
=guided by a CproCfied and experv= 
cenced Personal Tutor. = 

sCoums are available far chfchmS 
=aged 3 So 13. = 

E For furlher i nfo i mu l ion contect = 

2 Mra Norma Taylor at S 

^WORLDWIDE BXJCATION SERVICES 
sSfrade KaaM. 44-M Osot^W Ste. = 
= U3MXM NW1 3NN, UK. ~ 
=. Tr4. 


ARNOLD SCHOOL 

BLACKPOOL - LANCASHIRE 
ENGLAND 

Exchange rate wiH help you to 
Experience first hand 
English Boarding School 
Education for your son ar daughter. 


Haw about a one year course 
before CoQegc? 


Prospectus: The H e a dm a st e r, 
ARNOLD SCHOOL, 
BLACKPOOL Lcreariwe. 
FY41JG. 


BUCKS WOOD GRANGE 

UCKFIELD * EAST SUSSEX 

THE BOARDING SCHOOL, A small international, 
co educational school for 10—16 year olds where emphasis 
is on the individual. 

BUQCSWOOD GRANGE SUMMER SCHOOL .s open to 
children of all nationalities aged 7-1bfor English language 
courses and a busy recreational programme. 


Tel 0825 ' oj 
3544 &M666 


iiiirks\\(i(H| 


Ti4e» 
941763 C 


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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 26, 1985 


A SPECIAL REPORT ON INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION 


Qatar: Modernizing the Gulf Arab Tradition 

By Sarah Scaright has designed the campus lo be used sunnlta- program of m ed i c al framing far tedu 



Debate in Britain 


By Ngaio Crequer 

LONDON — The British gov- 
ernment and the universities are 
preparing themselves for a long 
ana what may be a bloody fight 
over academe's most cherished 
principle, tenure for academic 
staff. 

The government has said it 
wants to limit the nature of tenure 
for future academic appointments 
in universities. It is now consulting 
interested parties and aims to in- 
troduce legislation in the House of 
Commons in November. 

The legislation would empower 
statutory commissioners to amend 
die statutes and charters of every 
university without consulting Par- 
liament Changes would be intro- 
duced to enable universities to dis- 


would leave the schools voluntarily 
after the huge 1981 cuts, the basic 
problem still remains. 

They are not prepared to contin- 
ue to offer large sums to make 
people leave. The universities must 
have and use the to do 

it themselves, they argue. 

Government aides have become 
increasingly impatient with the 
universities and their apparent re- 
luctance to use their own initiative. 

The government first Depressed 
its concern tw o years ago. The com- 
mittee of \ice chancellors and prin- 
cipals, which represents university 
heads, circulated guidelines that 
provided for dismissal because of 
overstaffing or financial necessity. 

The universities almost unani- 
mously ignored the hint. Now the 
committee has had reluctantly to 


The government is being opposed by 
the university community , which says 
that tenure is the only safeguard of 
academic freedom. The professors 
rule out any compromise. 


miss staff because of financial 
necessity, overstaffing or named 
misdemeanors. 

At present tenured lecturers can 
only be dismissed for "good 
cause,” such as grass misbehavior 
or bringing the university into dis- 
repute. 

The government's move is being 
opposed by university staff who 
say that tenure is the only safe- 
guard of academic freedom and 
most be protected at all costs. They 
fear government intervention in 
what subjects are taught and how, 
and suppression of “unpopular” 
research if lecturers are deprived of 
tenure and job security. 

The government says it wants to 
limit tenure in order to give univer- 
sities more flexibility to shed staff 
when financial circumstances 

chang e. 

Government officials feel frus- 
trated. Although they believe they 
provided generous financial com- 
pensation for professor* who 


admit to the government that the 
universities cannot or do not want 
to bring about the change that are 
wanted 

But framing legislation that en- 
sures that staff can be fired but 
academic freedom is protected is 
not proving to be easy. 

Last month the University 
Grants Committee, which acts as a 
buffer between the government 
and the universities and distributes 
government funds, urged the gov- 
ernment to be cautious. 

Nothing must be done to under- 
mine academic freedom, the grants 
committee said. Special protection 
for unpopular and controversial 
opinions was as necessary now as 
in the past 

The vigor with which the com- 
mittee championed the cause of ac- 
ademic freedom surprised every- 
one. The chairman of the 
committee. Sir Peter Swinnerton- 
Dyer, a Cambridge University 
mathematician, is a known hawk 


DOHA, Qatar — The Gulf stales have had 
a long heritage of Islamic education, the only 
form of teaching in the area before the dis- 
covery of oQ. Qatar, with Bahrain and Ku- 
wait. spearheaded the advance toward the 
modernization of education and teaching 
methods. In each case, the advent of modem 
education dates from the start-up of oil ex- 
ports. 

In Qatar's case this occurred in the 1950s 
and was guided by a group of dedicated 
Egyptians, who were also in other ports of the 
Gulf. The schools they set up, particularly in 
Qatar, attracted students from other parts of 
the Gulf that did not yet have funds for their 
own schools. 

The new Qatar University, a landmark in 
Gulf higher education, was dedicated on Feb. 
23 by the emir. Sheikh Khalifah bin Hamad 
al-Tnani. An essentially Islamic structure of 
octagons and shady courtyards, the campus 
stands in the harsh stony desert a few miles 
outside the capital of Doha, which is expect- 
ed to expand toward h in the next few years. 

It was concaved and built over the last 10 
years as a symbol of an Islamic, Gulf heritage 
in harmony with its environment — archi- 
tects’ terminology perhaps. But present and 
future have beat just as much in the minds of 
its planners. “Ours is a dynamic community” 
said the president, Mohammed al-Kazetn, 
“and we must live for the 21st as well as the 
20th century." 

Qataris are intensely concerned about the 
education of their children, if for no other 
reason than to replace with Qataris at least 
some of the expatriates cm whom they now 
depend for their country's development 

The new campus ultimately will accommo- 
date 6,000 students. It is designed by an 
Egyptian architect, Kamal al-Kafrawi In his 
design he has embodied Qatar’s enthusiasm 
for energy conservation, with double- skinned 
walls, wooden latticed mashrabiya screens on 
the windows and wind towers, once a distinc- 
tive feature of Gulf towns. Mr. Kafrawi also 


has designed the campus to be used simulta- 
neously by both sexes — separate in some 
areas, m different parts and at different 
in the same building in others. 

Mr. Kazan has high hopes as to its work- 
ability although he admits that some of his 
staff have reservations. A campus must be 
beautiful, he said, as wdl as provide a frame- 
work for dial “dynamic community." He sees 
no problem in the separation of the sexes; it is 
vital that the women go lo university, he said, 
and this is the only way to get them there, 
given Qatar's strict Modem heritage. The 
university actually has more women than 

The campus was designed to 
be used used simultaneously 
by both sexes — separate in 
some areas, in different parts 
and at different limps in die 
same building in others. 

men due to Qatari parents’ reluctance to send 
their daughters further away. 

Qatar's indigenous population is growing 
by at least 3 percent a year, and more than 
half the population is under 18 years of age. 
Educational facilities still have a problem 
keeping up with this growth — teachers, 
buildings, textbooks, curriculums and sports 
facilities have all been in short supply. But 
spending per pupil rose from about S700 in 


1973 to 55,700 in 1981 As many girls as boys 
attend school, and one- third of the leaching 
staff now is Qatari. There are also 80 adult 
literacy centers throughout tbe country. 

The new university began as a teachers’ 
training college in 1973. It now includes de- 
partments of education, science, arts, Islamic 
studies and engineering. Students are encour- 
aged to study the stimees with supplemen- 
tary grants, but the h umanities predominate. 

The university is experimenting with a new 


program of m e di c a l training far technicians 
and therapists, a category of medical staff 
that is notably lacking m tbe Gulf. It is 
designed to tie in with similar training avail- 
able elsewhere in the region. 

Vocational training has not been a great 
success so far in the Gulf; it has a stigma of 
manual labor attached that is only slowly 
being erased, perhaps most successfully in 
Saudi Arabia where the population is large 
enough to encompass a wider range of work- 
ers. Qatar will never shed its expatriate labor- 
ers. But technical courses within the universi- 
ty may give vocational studies the status to 
attract students. 

Education, accordingto Mr. Kazem, must 
have roots in the past The problem with the 
rush to development in the Gulf has often 
been a break with tbe past Qataris are lucky 
to have plenty of visible links. Many are the 
brainchild of Isa al-Kawari, the mini^ r of 
information. There is tbe museum, housed in 
a restored palace, whose designer. Michael 
Rice, won an Aga Khan award for it in 1980. 
There is tbe Gulf Heritage Center, which 
organizes seminars and conferences on tbe 
Gulf and presaves oral memories, docu- 
ments, poetry fits secretary-general, Ali Abd- 
ullah aJ- Khalif ah is a noted poet). It also 
bouses a fine private collection of local cos- 
tumes and jewelry. 

And there is the Qatar National Dance 
Troupe, which recently performed in Paris. 
On a recent afternoon, 40 track-suited danc- 
ers between the ages of 14 and 20 were being 
put through their paces for three boms, re- 
cruited for their enthusiasm rather than fi- 
nesse. Educators in Qatar speak grandly of 
the past, present and future, in terms these 
youths would have little time for. The way 
they threw themselves into the traditional 
steps of the laiwa, a Gulf dance with a lot of 
African influence, chided and chivied not 
only by their teacher, Sami Younis, but also 
by tbe old fisherman recruited to play the 
drum, gives as much assurance for Qatar’s 
future as the immaculate buildings of the new 
universtty. 


THE INTERNATIONAL SECTION 
OF SOPHIA ANTIPOLIS 

in the South of France - 

• 50 nafiomrfitiK on a modem, futfy-aquippad camptfi in ffto 
avcsif-gard* Sophia-Anfipalift TadwopoG); 

m Uw only int ernational ichoot with boanfing faeiUthw in lt» 
South of Franco: 

• Bub sacvic* ovoiktoi* fordoyduduh; 

• Grades 6 to 13, 1st to Mh Form, 6* a In Tnwrana in ; 

• Futty bSngud programs. Highly quaUfiad international 

• The BJTBtNATKJNAL BACCALAUREATE end French Curricula 
looting Id admission to afl Ameri c an aid Bupam usvorrMei; 

• Extanshm rnigt of axtro-cunicular activities and sports. 

Conor write: INTERNATIONAL SECTION, 
COMPLEXE SCOCAIRE, 

06565 VAIBONNE, FRANCE TaL: (93) 33.91.91. 


= THE AMERICAN SECTION = 
LYClE INTERNATIONAL 

SdnMSermaiKn-Laye, France 

Assoc iate d Schools.- Lycea Marcel Roby, St.-Garnain-ervtaya 
College Pierre & Marie Curie, Le Pecq 
Biingual American/ French Curriculum. Grades K-13. 

French Baccalaureate, Baccalaureate 6 Option Internationale, 
International Baccalaureate Certificates. 

Preparation for American Colleges and Universities. 

Special Adaptation Courses for non-Fre n ch Speakers. 

Varied Extra-Curricular Activities. 

Accessible through Public Transportation. 

;B.P. 23A 7810ft St.-Gennam-en-Layo. - ToL- (3) 451-94-11 


on tenure and was the man who 
giggled the government should 
proceed by way of statutory com- 
missioners. 

Kit be was held back by the 
academics on his committee who 
see their main rale as protecting 
universities from undue political 
intervention. 

Tbe committee’s most practical 
advice was that tbe government 
should gp and study practice in 
U2L universities before it finally 
makes up its mind. 

In the United States, academics 
with tenure can be dismissed for 
good cause or because of overstaff- 
ing in two cases: if a change in 
fin uncial Oicumstances makes it 
necessary for tbe university to get 
rid of staff faster than natural re- 
tirement and resignations will 
achieve; or if the university decides 


to drop completely a particular 
subject area. 

The problem with this approach, 
as Americans have discovered, is 
who decides that no more money 
can be found, and that the final 
situation is irretrievable? Further, 
what machinery should there be for 
selecting which staff should go. and 
what compensation should be pay- 
able? 

The University Grants Commit- 
tee advised that an independent 
body should decide if tbe need for 
compulsory layoffs has been estab- 
lished, and that there should be 
criteria approved by employers and 
unions over the other questions. 

But the University Grants Com- 
mittee was sfleot on the thorny is- 
sue of what exactly academic free- 
dom is and how it should be 
protected. 


Staff members at the universities 
are prepared to fight the battle on 
the camp us es and m the law courts, 
so the campaign will be a long one. 

As evidence of government inter- 
ference, staff members have cited a 
recent inquiry by the secretary of 
state for education and science into 
a course run by The Open Univer- 
sity, which is funded directly by the 
government, and the secretary’s in- 
terest in courses ran by a polytech- 
nic, a noochartered higher educa- 
tion institution. 


Staff and some vice chancellors 
think that any attempt to create a 
framework of legislation for the 
universities sets a troublesome pre- 
cedent for university autonomy. 


I Adventure trips: sating, Jm 

canoeing, biking, kayaking & — 4C- 
backpacking. SmaR groups, ages 10-18. 
explore wtidemess waterways & coastal 
l Bland b of Maine. 2-4 wfcs.. June 22- 

Aua.24. Swim. Ash* camp wdh expert 
guides. ACA. CapL C. L Salki, Box B2 
D—r Me. Maine 04627 (207)340-2339 


CEVENOL 

Altitude 3,200 ft, 80 miles f r om Lyon 
Open Summer aid Winter 

LEARN FRENCH 
IN A FRENCH SCHOOL 

Summer 1985: TWO summer school wu ion i for ages 10-18 

(Students may enroll for either or both sessions] 

JULY 10 - AUGUST 1 and AUGUST 4-24 

• Intensive French course, arts, sports, excursions 

• For French students {8th through Tenninale): Review courses (French, 
mathematics, languages). 

SCHOOL YEAR 1985/ 1986s 3 Timestan 

(Sept, Dec., Jan.-Mcrch. April- June). Registration open for 1. 2, or 3 irimasferv 

• French curriculum 4th though Terminate. Foreign wehome. Special dosses in 

French. U-S. high school credit obtainable. College Boards on request 

LEARN BY IMMERSION: All courses in French 
Dormitory life with French schoolmates 

_ 43400 LE CHAMBON-sur-UGNON. ToLt (71) 59J72J52 — 


= THE BILINGUAL SECTION OF L’ERMITAGE = 

Give your dtSdren a BHMGUAL education wh8e in France! 

* Day, and 5 or 7 day Boarding/ Co-ed/ Grades 7-10; 

* Located in wooded residential path 1 2 km west of Paris; 

* French curriadum taught in English and French; 

* Computer Science/ Engfah-American-French staff. 

Contact: Mr. CL Hunter, 46, avenue Eglh, 7B600 MAISONS-LAFRITE 
T -' (3) 962.04-02/79.80 -7 



rs from around the world at 


dll 


Baboon College LaSalle Academy 

Near Boston, Mass Long Island. NY 
Resident & day coed program, ages fi-17. 
Hands-on instruction with stimulating 
fitness end recreational activities. 2-8 wk 
sessions using a variety o I equipment 
taught by professionals. Placement by 
age. interests and computer experience. 

CflWOTB-ED, UK. 99 School Si.. R-12 
Weston . MA 02193. USA Call : (617) 647-0054 



CAMP SttOSHOfU 

NnM m Uw wmw (Monte Bodur. 
BnUrm Co-«rf ramp. MB yean. 

VW» mw M> * c>*n» Tftmk 


ACA Amelia*. 4«rHaSH4£ 
Jbn A Linds Rhomb (303) 409-8776 
P.O. Box 1518 G. Boutdor, CO B030B 


and 

FULL CAMP PROGRAM 

SUMMER SONATINA 
S Catamount Lana * 
Dipt. 44 

Old Bcnnangton. Vt 06201 


OldBennmgior.Vt 0 
(80340-9197 

AGnadanriUpigh 


BUCK'S ROCK M MEW MJLFOROLCX SWCE 1943 

A CREATIVE LEARNING EXPERIENCE FUR BtffS AND ORIS 12-16 


y 4 IE# 4 NERDI GIMP 

★ 


It's How You Play 
The Games 


- . -- . ; ; ->M f . C '.TC: • 

SC-YS S Gi?LS 3 ' - 'At-x.;, Cjtp -jMar* 

- towi* if.- : jilt i-.g 

•■•it-:-, srt.vj 

C J'r'tv; ri»if.. T i-. ilcoi ' 

c rc;jf ':!'e :j'j« Nonius. 
-C=> C-- ’ : • *•' .t«rr AcjdrfM 

cr;rj- •• , •♦tore i u It me vj j.* 'ib>f 

Oi-«-to' of Aq hi.jiii A. An«r,f, Cimp 
7 Cjr-p ji O' o- NY 12520. T# 9 ’.4-534 3710. 


I 

r*? 


COMPUTECAMP 

INTERNATIONAL 

International Specialists in Technology Training 
Intensive 3 week session for boys 14 to 17 
First Session Julyl5-Aug.2 Second Session Aug.3-Aug.24 

Combining personal computer skills, word processing 
and programming with outdoor sports and activities 

For intbmution CompuleCamp International 

& Applications % Institut Montana 

contact: 5315 Zugerberg, Zug, Switzerland 

phone: 41-42-2VI7-22 

Applications Due fry April 15, T985 




„EXPUJBE I hor talent, and interest in Itie tine arts, all era IK and all 
perfunmng art. wwfcing with recagncHl artists and craftsmen in prates- 
serially equipped studios and inftchopv 
..PURSUE prapams designed by experts m computer science, etedrames, 
technical theater, rado broadcasting, videotaping, science, and farming 
.DEVOUR in an unpressured almaspbere, skills in softball, wccct basket : 
toll, teems, tenting, horseback riding, gymnastics, wrmmmg. and atcheiy 
J -EMJOT rvejimgi d sports events, square dancing, roller stated, to* ang 1 
mg. campfires, mores, concerts, catrmfs. plays, and ovemghts 1 


SEARCHING FOR A CAMP 
FOR YOUR CHILD? 

Find it In the 
1985 Parents Guide 
Co Accredited Camps which 
includes tin International 
Supplement listing over 80 
camps that cater to international 
ctientete— S13.15 (Ak- Mafl). Send 
to: Box HIT 

American Camping Association 
Bradford Woods, 5000 SR 67 N. 

Martinsville, IN 46151 UJ5.A. 



Strathclyde 

Business 

School 


33 


U - 4 - ‘ -M H J 


\A O. 


Develop your knowledge of business management 
by taking trie Strathclyde Master of Business 
Administration Degree on a Full-time bads over 
12 months starting October 1985. 

The Strathclyde Business School Is one of Europe's 
largest business schools with over 200 teaching staff, 
and has an mba Programme with a strong international 
emphasis, participants being drawn from many 
nations. 

if you possess a degree or equivalent qualification 
together with at least two years business experience, 
you will find our MBA Programme to be an excellent 
preparation for a successful career In management 

For further details and an application form please 
contact: 

The MBA Administrator (Please quote Ref IHT/27/02) 
Strathclyde Business school, university of Strathclyde 
130 Rottenrow. Glasgow G4 OGE, Scotland 
Telephone: 041-552 7141 

A Division of tfie Scottish Busmess school 
THE UNIVERSITY OF STRATHCLYDE 



A private, nonprofit coed school 
in a furtrf area near Cannes 

GRADES 1 to 13. 

□ English curriculum leading to 
C5EA GCE*0* A ‘A’ break. 

□ American curriculum leading 
to CD SAT/ACH A AP. 

□ Small dosses, highly qual ified 
staff. 

□ French as a second language 
for all Grades. 

□ English as a Foreign Language 
for non-native speakers. 

□ Boarding possibilities with 


ANGLO-AMERICAN SCHOOL, 
MOL/GfNS, 

B.P. Or, 06250 MOUGfNS, FRANCE. 
T e i. [93 ; 90.15.47 c <93)75.52.78 



STUDY 
PROGRAMS 
IN PARIS 


l ’ . ||J* Vi 3 * 


GRADUATE 8 UMXBGRADUATE 




1 5 OCTOBB? to 20 MAY 


3 FEBRUARY fa 20 MAY 




JANUARY- JUNE 
JULY - SEPTEMBER 

HW ARTS -FASHION 
ART 

H5T0KY -MIBBOR 


Write or telephone-. 

MUU5 AMERICAN ACADEMY 

V. me d» l*-fr«*730as ftvi. h«a 
TaU DUSJO) « 3250491 


MiUfieki School 


I Iflflfl 


min 


infWiii Camp 


I 1 I ■ 

waia<s ^ 2,3, 4,6. or 8 weeks ■ 

Eachsesaton a complete program ■ 
_ Select activities to suit your needs ■ New York's lop 

resident co-ed camp ■ Located at Roscoe, NY (95 ml les northwest NYQ ■ 
ATHLETICS WORKSHOPS 

8 tennis (lighted). 3 basketball Computers, fine art. leather. 


(lighted). S softball. 2 hockey, 

2 soccer, gym. gott. archery, 
gymnastics, baton-twirling, 
track, obstacle course, body- 
building. inter -camp games 
WATERFRONT 

Lake. Olympic pool, waterwheel, 
fishing. 80 boat s (sail, kayak, 
canoe, row. waler-btke). wind- 
surfing. diving, life-saving 
WHEELS 

Driver-ed. go-carts, mim-bikes 
auto- mechanics, bicycles, 
roller-skaiing 
TRAVEL 

Overnights to Washington. 
Canada. Cape Cod. Niagara 
Falls. Delaware River canoe trip, 
music festivals, summerslock 
theatres, field irips 


sculpture, wood, ceramics, 
textiles, graphics, cooking, 
jewelry, phoio and 24 other craft 
and ail studios 
PERFORMING ARTS 
tndoorioutdooT theatres, drama, 
dance, musical theatre, stage- 
craft. music (rock, classical, jazz) 
instrumental instruction, video, 
puppelry 
PROJECTS 

Community service, forestry, 
construction, welding, farming, 
murals, hospllal volunteers, 
yearbook. Head Start 
SOCIAL 

Co-ed program, tilms. cookouis, 
guest performers, talent shows. 


music festivals, summerslock twilight swims, discos, intra- 
i heat res. held irips camp contests 

A fun-tilled, unforgettable summer ■ Ages 7-12 & 12-17 ■ Tell us 
your age and interests; we’ll send along a free folio of pholos, 
names of lots of local alumni and, of course, our camp catalog ■ 
Harold Loren. Box665H, Ardsley, NY 10502 . phone (91 4) 6934 222^ 



an international network 
London 

George Road. Kingston upon Thames, Surrey KT2 7 PE, England 

• Boarding and day school for girts 

• Age range 12 -18 years. Grades 7-12 

• American College Preparatory Curriculum 

• International Baccalaureate Programme 

TeL +44 1 9490571 

Paris 

72, Bouieverd de la Saussaye, 92200 Neuffiy, France 

• Day school for girts and boys aged 3 -14 yearn 

• Montessort approach In pre-Kgroups 

• American style curriculum In K- Grade 8 

• Strong emphasis on the teaching of French language 

TeL +33 1 624 10S1 

Rome 

Via di Vi BaLaucftS 180,00191 Rome, Italy 

• Day school for g) rls(K- Grade 12} and boys (K- Grades) 

• Boarding for girts aged 14- 18 yeara. Grades B-1 2 

• American College Preparatory Cunteulum 

• International Baccalaureate Programme 

TeL +39 8 378 0671 


Each school has its own prospectus, tee schedule and admission 
procedure. More information may be obtained by contacting the 
schools (ftrecity or through the Provincial Center, SO WSson Park Drive, 
Teurytown, tfY 10591 USA. 


^SWITZERLAND Jf 

INTERNATIONAL INTERNATIONAL 

teen camp junior camp 

OKrily/Lousonne Loks Geneve Gstaod Bernese Alps 

C*ed 13-19 Juiy-August C«d 6-14 July-August 

High standard, sports activities, language courses, excursions, 
mountain hikes, summer skiing. Folder and references: 

JTC, P.O. Box 122, CH-7012 Lausanne, 

Phone: 056/226778 - Tx: IGOR 453 182 CH. 



Institut Le Rosey 

1180 RoUe (on lake Geneva) 
Switzerland TeL: 021 75 15 37 
SUMMER CAMP in Switzerland" 

Far Bots and girk 9 - 16 yra. fium 7th July to 10(h August. 


Beautiful mediaeval chateau, parkland, lakeside facilities. 
French, English, Computer courses 
15 Sports to choose from. 

Leisure and excursion program. 

Optional Computer Camp of Tour of Fiance. 

For details rare ft* shore stUm* ■ or tel: 02) 75 15 3,. 



CALIFORNIA & HAWAII 

Lam Engllsb S400.Q0 LLS-pc monrb. Lhc 
wirli American family S2710D per month. 


2611 ft Frano Street Fresno. CA 93711 


Telephone 
209-226-8441 
Tete* 508088 
CALEDFSO 



The American School 
In London 


* + * 


A non-profit educational trust administered by a Board of Trustees. 

Acmdked by the Middle Slates Association off GoReges tad Sctoobk 

The American School in London is the oldest American school in the United Kingdom. Founded in 
1951, ASL is an independent, coeducational non-sectarian day school. 

The School is located in SL John’s Wood. The purpose-built campus is divided into 3 units: Lower, 
Middle and High School. The 1400 students in Kindergarten through grade 13 are offered a 
complete and demanding American curriculum which is complemented by excellent art, drama, 
music and sports programs. 

Tbe ASL High School is college preparatory. Graduates gain admission to top ranking colleges and 
universities in North America. 

2-S Loudoun Rood London .VIW ONP England 
TcA-pkvte: OF “22 0101 Cables: Amschnol London ,VH W WP 














i Index 


ALLIANCE FRANCHISE 

*«* I"*"** “■ «fa*n mi 

(nivrtB school for higher education) 

T . 75370 *** Cod,K °A ™*NCL 

T-L-SdOa^a Tate 2QI941. Cat*. obkee. AUERAN PAWS 

- __ of»oHyoix round txt^JCinra and 
*■ ©fHwFmnch language 

tr. Tr * a ? ni fc a y* fod °nd December). 12 sessions peryecr. Orientticnfcot prior 
» wtfrejptoanon. Extern or tenon muss. 

» -Bemantoy, i nta mmSute gnd adviced lewb 

■3gnxR 

- ftepio bon for fa elementary nrtificcto of pmdtri Frandi (end of wcond 
9 ra M 

- Pfai*»vWi for the French Longyoge D?faaia land of 3rd yod4 
2-H gher lavd 

far higher tipfama of Frendi modem Dufies. 

2 waens) Septotar/Joniory end Fobiwy/Jm 
J Suranr session My end Auguct 

B. Spaaci Cqi*56i. prfcrnwtm cwoBobfe vpon request) 

- fapentian fa- Diploma In higher French studs. 

■ Pmfiasncy Certficnte far Frandi oh o o d. 

- Kama French prayudiun far Cari$cato end High Diploma M by the tail 
Ovnnbsr of CommeroB end he Carttico* issued by fa Hm» Francoae. 

• Written Frmeh 

- Commotion doas 

- Correspondence courses 

■ PrrfoqojoJ murara far teodiw of French. 


- language ktardary (liT grade level) 

-LmsuBgg Medfafaque (2 end 3 lew*} Independent wot* 
■ Laboratory of phorelje correction. 


ft— Ax urnuda Bon andBable i fxm requmst 


CEUk 


C8TO 

D ETUDES UNGUSTIOUES 
DAMGNON 


Noo ^ eo fit orggni re tte 
(under the law of 1901) 

OPEN All YEAR 
M« tun; Fran jo h Mfflart 


Provence; a variety of sites and tanchcapw 

in the heart of Avignon, near the Pate, da Papes 

mfcmdve courses in general French 

spoatiaed French counts 

methodology far French teachers 

nwotnum at 12 persons per group 

teaching based an amfio- vtsutd and aalocrd methods adapted to each group 


courses: 4 hours per day (half day) from Monday to Friday 
systematic study of ouao and written documents, authentic and up to dale 


written wads oacordng to the needs of each student 
contacts with schoah and load assoriations 
organized cultural activities, included in lame courses 
inrarmawjn on accommodations Facififcei awafebfe 
language training +■ theatre from JiAy 5 As 31. 1985 


Brodjon ant information hem 03 A 
7 rue Carnot, 84000 AVIGNON. ToL: ( 90 / 86-04.33 


w *> ■■!■■■* i , 4X ■ > 

mSmBSmnm^Smrn 




in CHAMPAGNE, near Paris 
with the ROTHMANS INSTITUTE 

An intensive French course for executives aid students, 

English, German, Spanish, lldan. 

The method used is sponsored by the French Ministry of Industry and 
Research (A.N.VAJI), 

Recreational activities (sating, tennis, horse-riding, etc) 

1 ,500 executives and students have learned a language in our Institute. 

ROTHMANS INSTITUTE 

8 Avenue des Lombards, 10000 TROYES (Franca) 

— -- Tel.: (25) 82.37.66 & 82.48.45 — ■ 


LEJUHf AND UVE THE FRENCH LANGUAGE — 

© m cabn and k/yBc sunaumSngs near Manta Cana. 

Cap (fM a twWi nfcal oHm a w«4» nmge of houb mi permcra 

The CENTRE MfDfTSKANto DtiUDES RMNQUSES offers 33 
I«»s cf ra-pereax- Whatever jar levs!, you rrxjy cerprs o madny rf 
Frwxh to wit your professcnal ar aitixd needs. SmJ groups. A 8 or 
1 2 wo nfc auw sMhg uadi merth. Grenta tqpw and Bny 
ae CMxlabh to auderts ajpawnd by a p ote nt, 
tee 1952 Bred— widi wi d tent fees, done or wribomd aid fading 

CENTRE N&DTimRANtei DTTUDES FRANQAI5ES 

06320 Cop «TM (Finance). 

Id.: (93) 78.21.59 - Telex: CEMB) 461 792 F 


[Y r ~ UYFENSiVB JHRfuVUf 

jJU ANGUEUROP mniucb 

All levels. sB ages. Opes year round. 15. 22 or 30 bear courses weekly. Small 
pufc Bearding LaciEtics in boleL family. hoarding school and huiuuh raad ca c w . 
LANCITEUROP. 30. rac de France, 06000 Nice. TeL {93)88-51.17. 




FONDATION POSTUMVBISITAIWE 
INTERNATIONALE 


FRENCH LANGUAGE FOR FORBGfGRS 


Coctsm throughout the yvor with open enroUmenr 

The audio vis—i cento' offers dav and evenltia courses tor nil levels: beginners, 
la formed late, advanced, rvtredier courses, business French. S—Wsttcoted teaching 
ttctvikuies. Modem video enubmumt. Audio laboratorv. 

ANEW PEPAGOOY; 

Emphtists — ceoversotleij nunoBh dynamic pro— lecWAnm 
Uw of up l« date tafovWn program*. 

Centre AuJovkud. 30 tet Ctdxte - 75014 Fork. Tel- M9JOO - Metro OlodOm. _ 


— IF FRENCH IS E55ENTIA1 TO YOU — 

Enrol at I. F. G. LANGUES lor a tailor -mode course. 
Phone to make on appointment for a check up 
on your language needs. 

I. F. G. LANGUES 

37 Qua do GreneSe, 75015 Paris. Tdr. 578.67.52 (Ext. 551) 


FRENCH 

COURSES 

FOR 

EXECUTIVES 


FuN or part-time tuition, 
individual courses 
or small groups, 

in NICE or PARIS 


INTERLANGUES 

176, av. Ch. de Gaulle, 
92200 NEUILLY 

Tel.: 747.12.80 


FRENCH « 

IN FRANCE 


The Intensive way in one of 
the most picturesque regions 
of France. 3 to 12 week 
programs from March to 
December. Also vacation- 
learning plan and winter pro- 
gram on the Riviera. 

The French & America! 
Study Center 

fLP. 176, 14104 LfSEUX Cednc. 
TaL: (31)31.2201. 


STAGES DE 

FRANCAIS 


• 2, 3, 4 weeks couraes 

• Irrtenaive-hOfWaY courses 

• 3 or 8 houra p« day 

• Qualified aweftera 

• Boarding In family or hotel 


For color brochure ptawe write to- 

mum mm. 

2, rae /Uens-Msssa. 06000 NICE 

or call: (S3J9SJL84 


INTBMSIVE COURSES 

FOR COMPANIES 
FSSMCH, English, Italian, GOMAN 
Groups or inrfviduab 
Flexible hour*. T t arefaf i ons 

LANGUAGES: 

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TeL 265504U and la Ufemn. 


RDICH AS A KXBGH LANGUAGE 
Al faveb - Al y«ar round 
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UMVBSntPEDUON 
CamEMINNATlONAL 
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LEARN GERMAN 
IN HEIDELBERG 


Mux C n rt ifi cofe Pn 
aid Hotel 


Collegium PaksHnum 
HekMberg, 6900 W. G ermany, 
NoeUmg ft. TeLi (0) 6221-46289 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 26, 1985 


A SPECIAL REPORT ON INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION 


Functional Illiteracy 
Persists in Canada 
Despite Education 




By Ann Duncan 


MONTREAL — Canadians 
tend to think that they have a fairly 
good state-run school system. 

But the truth is that many Cana- 
dian schools have not been doing 
their fundamental job —providing 
students with the base skills of 
reading, writing and arithmetic. 

“Our percentage of illiterates 
and functional illiterates in Canada 
is among the highest percentage of 
Western industrialized countries," 
says James Draper, professor of 
adult education at the Ontario In- 
stitute for Studies in Education and 
a former president of World Litera- 
cy of Canada. 

“Canada has been complacent 
and has thought of itself as having 
a far better educational system 
than it has had,” says Ian Morri- 
son. executive director of the Cana- 
dian Association for Adult Educa- 
tion. “The persistence of illiteracy 
is evidence of that." 

As in most Western countries, 
Canada does not keep precise sta- 
tistics about how many oT its citi- 
zens cannot read and write. 

Instead, figures are kept about 
Che number of r*nadian< who 
reach certain levels in school 

It is widely accepted among edu- 


cators that an adult who has not 
successfully completed four years 
of school would not have enough 
basic skills to be considered literate 
and that a person with fewer than 
nine years of schooling is likely to 
be functionally illiterate. 

In other words, be or she would 
not have enough knowledge of 
reading, writing and arithmetic to 
function fully and easily in the 
modern industrialized world. 

Based on those criteria, the 1981 
Canadian census found that 21.9 
percent of Canadian adults could 
be considered functionally illiter- 
ate. This is slightly more than four 


/fas 

,-^*5 

^^Pj 5 V-, ''^535 

i ° I 


-.V. . -v. m .s s 


wr 


"4 


§ jf jjjjji 




mum SH 
im*i«uHe ii nianf 




=ii :::: 


mfllira people over the age of 15 
who no looser attended school fuli- 


lECOLE NICKERSON! 

! Longues Vhtaniet 1 

f Since 1962 I 

Frandi * I 

Cwwm. Italian, EngEsk, Arabic, 1 
Spa n ish, Portuguese, Russian 
Intensive, extensive course* 
Groups or private lemona. j 

Adults J 

1 ECOLE NICKERSON J 

| 3 Ave. du President Wilson | 
\ 75116 PARIS / 

\ 5th floor / 

\ TeL: (1) 723J6.03 / 


who no longer attended school full- 
time. About one-fifth of these peo- 
ple could be considered illiterate, 
the statistics showed. 

These figures indicate that there 
is a higher percentage of illiterates 
and functional illiterates in Canada 
than there is in the United States, 
Britain and most other northern 
European countries. 

“The myth of Canada being a 
highly educated country has 
burst,” Mr. Draper said in a tele- 
phone interview from Toronto. 

However, myths persist about 
who the functional illiterates are. 
Many people believe that illiteracy 
in Canada is more prevalent among 
immigrants and in rural areas. 

But statistics show that the vast 
majority of functional illiterates 
are native-born Canadians, living 
in cities. Montreal has the highest 
concentration of “undereducated” 
adults of any major Canadian city. 
According to the 1976 census, 32.1 
percent of Montreal adults who no 
longer attend school full-tune had 
successfully completed fewer than 
nine years of school. 

Why should Canada have such a 
poor literacy track record? None of 
the expert* interviewed could pro- 
vide a full explanation. 

However, mtgor reasons cited in- 
dud ed television (Canadians are 
among the heaviest viewers of tele- 
vision in the world}, a growing lack 
of concern about language and 
family background. Statistics show 
that flHteracy begets illiteracy': the 


0 

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TJCTinB} 
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In 

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A 






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99ITAL1AIDEAFF 


1£ARNING ITALIAN IN ROME 
LANGUAGE COURSES FOR FORBGNBIS L 

• tkdkm courses at d iff erent In *6 * Young and educated trained . . . . 
teachers 0 Optima/ courses {Preparation for Faculty of MerSdrie . 
e ntrance exams} 0 Glided Sightseeings 0 Parties , Mode* 0 Lectures 
0 buSddud courses in Italian Opera 0 Low prices 
Far furfhar in fo rma t ion 

VTALUUMA ASS. CULT, tan dado Concnllaria 85, 

00186 ROMA. T*U 06-6547620, Mon-frL, 9 ojil- 1 pan. 


handicap is passed on from one 
generation to the nexL 

But the experts agree that 
schools must shoulder a major por- 
tion of the responsibility for the 
state of literacy in Canada. 

Susan Craig, an a dminis trator of 
an adult literacy program for the 
Protestant School Board of Greater 
Montreal, leDs about a man who 
has a high-school diploma but who 
entered her program recently so 
that be could learn to write tetters. 
“If you can graduate from high 
school and can’t write your girl- 
friend then there is something very 
wrong,” Miss Craig says. 

“The problem now is that few 
people write, and very little writing 
is done in schools,” said Patrick 
Dias, director of McGill Universi- 


Students photocopy pages from 
textbooks rather than taking notes, 
Mr. Dias said, and multipl^chfkce 
examinations, which have been 
used heavily throughout the school 
system for years, do not teach stu- 
dents to express themselves on pa- 
per. _ 


In Quebec, at least, bOmgualism 
lav have exacerbated the unteraev 


ty's Center for the Study and 
Teaching of Writing. 


may have exacerbated the illiteracy 
problem. 

Miss Craig said that many of her 
program’s suidents are native-bran 
C anadians who spoke, for example, 
Italian at home, French on the 
streets and only learned English 
during the first few years at school. 

These are the cradal years in 
terms of learning to read and write, 
and many of these people amply 
got left behind, she says. 

Despite the enormity of the illit- 
eracy problem in Canada, the ex- 


perts say that (datively little has 
been done to eradicate illiteracy 
here 

Britain and the United States 
have both undertaken national 
anti-illiteracy campaigns. Bnt ac- 
tion in Canada has been, at best, 
piecemeal, poorly funded and er- 
ratic. Much of the work has beat 
left to local school boards and vol- 
untary groups. 

In addition, many Canadian pol- 
iticians and much of the general 
public still refuse to acknowledge 
that Canada has a serious illiteracy 
problem, the experts say. 

“It tends to be a closet issue,” 
says Gerald Bleser, president of 
Laibach literacy of Canada, one 
of the country’s main voluntary 
groups dedicated to teaching illiter- 
ate adults to read and write. 


Part of the difficulty in mounting 


a national anti-illiteracy camp aign 
in Canada stews from ibe country’s 
federal system. 

Constitutionally, education is a 
provincial matter. Ait the federal 
government plays a major role in 
education by giving grants and sub- 
sidies, and by organizing training 
programs far the unemployed, im- 
migrants and native peoples. 

The federal iavoivmeai in educa- 
tion amounts to from six to seven 
bUhoo Canadian dollars (abont 
$4.5 to $52 billion) a year, Mr. 
Morrison said. 

However; in the late 1970s, the 
federal government all but aban- 
doned any participation in provid- 
ing baric reading and writing pro- 
grams lot adults, preferring to 
sponsor job retraining programs. 


LANGUAGE STUDY IN SALZBURG 
Salzburg International Language Center 


An interna tian*l Ijncuage Institute 
^ locoted in Europe "* most beautiful 

city. Intensive German, Enrich and 
MlEisSHk Russian courses held at «U levels. 
I iNi-W! 31-800 VT| Special Bummer programs ottered 

'W atm fi*ta ; p 00 *?- c*"** 

1 B AAJU - 8 * 8 . by extensive travel program. Full 

1 'Vi mOm Witt 1 boarding faeditiea available on or 

1. . H B. 8 I ” . — jaoff campus. Far Information write: 


Johnny Still Can’t Read Well Enough to Work 


(Continued From Page 9) Washington, the manufacturer ufacturers Hanover bank teaches The assault on adult 


«u» i—i A.O. Smith , and Northwestern simple arithmetic, Chrysler Corp. 

25SJ“- HSiSJSLSrT™ Mutual Life Insurance have run* a program in reading skills, 


leadimg. Teas Instmromls Inc loca j ^ pr0 . 

tods staffers lo conch science and ^ Dow of aides aad 

math _ courses in Dallas jtobbe JSr. Hlld „... » 


S tix bxng Interactional Centre Mooaatn&e 106 A 

A-5020 SbUmte, Austria, Emope TeL 44 4 85 


^hrvnl s nri dth e tpl i-nhnnp materials: DavtOU-Hudson’s B. 

SEftfiltiaSSSSar Mum Boofa^r chair._p.ys Cor 


offers basic English 
United Technologies 


The assault on adult illiteracy is 
seen as an uphill battle in the Unit- 
ed States. Tbe number of new en- 
trants to the p ad of functionally 
illiterate adult Americans is esti- 


Corp. and Aetna Life & Casualty mated to grow by dose to 10 per- 
Ca are among the companies that cent a year — 13 million immi- 


ay in Atlanta has dmilxr programs. T - ^ ^ ‘T uu - 

Across the coun^r coi^ani« dynaanc speakers to travel to meet- use the Literacy Volunteers of grante with httle or no English and 


of teachen to inspire them to America program in-house for 1 million teen-agers leaving school- 
sucti Kiggs ationai Bank f performance in the their own employees. Gillette Co. withcnt the ability to read at the 


LEARN SPANISH IN MADRID 

— Open all year round — all levels 
— Small groups — max. 5 students 
— Open to pupils of ail races, 
religions and nationalities 

For detailed information apply lo- 


french 


classroom- 


offers basic programs at before- 6 lb-grade leveL And the definition 


0 Taking a more direct hand in work and after-work sessions; Na- of what litera 
teaching the illiterate to read. B. bisco Brands Inc. has spelling sure to rise in 
Dalton has promised Literacy Vol- classes at its Planters Peanut divi- fredicts Do 


C Pane Mi Zl ■ 2B0S8 dun ■ Tiwi «9M DAO E • Ttf «> ^ W 


in New York City 

•Smaft-dasses 

• Native French teachers 

• Library, films, lectures 

• Open year round 

French Institute / 
Alliance Francaise 

22 E. 60th St.. N.Y. 10022 


Dalton has promised Literacy vol- 
unteers of America that it wQI find 
50,000 volunteer tutors by the end 
of next year, by leaning on its own 


what literacy is “functional” is 
re to rise in the years ahead. 
Predicts Dorothy Sudds, educa- 


sion. The American Association for tion director of tire AFL-CIO, the 
Adult A Continuing Education union federation: “By the 1990s, 


found one big retail chain with anyone who doesn’t have at least a 
10,000 employees — five percent of I2tb-grade reading, writing, and 


to do tbe same, and publicizing the its total work force — in basic skills calculating level will be absolutely 


OOBHUrAHI rtNBEMNK* - SAUWWG SUMAHt SCHOOL • 

Sponsored by the University of Salzburg 


29th 
150 fufly a 

and «xc * 
Spod 


and *mw w H«ltonv ore osniod out ui 
Spatial Seminar? in German Style 


PIoom contoch AUSTKO-AMBUCAN SOCETY, 
A-1010 Vienna Aurirfa, SfaRwmaue 2. TaL: 0222/52 39 B2 ■ 


r A 


WAVOX MODERN DESTITUTE OF IANGUAGB 

P.O. Box 138, 1000 Lausonrw 9, Switzerland. 
TaL: (021)37 6815. 


- jmaH groups 

- qualified t e achers 

- Intensive and regular courses = 

- Accommodation with Spanish S 
families or Colleges 


need in its own stores and mail- class at any given time. 

order catalogues. The Chicago Tri- 

bune has just begun what it prom- s 

ises will be an annual program of _ 

grants to literacy programs in IBi- tnWABn nv urn 

nois. Gulf & Western Industries 

loc. J.C. Penney Co. and atK»rp 

are^^ the co^mms toat 

lend raeflmes for literacy courses. 6 

Motorola Inc. similarly gives room r DD( 

ndlto speak nor rad ihc to- ^ s ^£g P< * 0d ‘ 

• Adding more basic skills to JACK BURTON is 
their own training programs. Man- wr:AIrt ram nre 


CONTRIBUTORS 


EDWARD DE BONO was a Rhodes scholar at Oxford and has 
held appointments at tbe universities of Oxford, Cambridge, London 
and Harvard. He has written 25 books including Future Positive, 
Lateral Thinking for Management; and Tactics, to be published tins 
year. 

EDMUND G. BROWN JR., former governor of California, is 
chairman of the National Commission an Industrial Innovation, 
winch has proposed a national strategy for using computers in UiL 
public schools. 


i ; « 4 vU i q ; 7 / , rT7 1 aTTrt ■ h 


In te miva comet for odultt, 4 to 1 1 wtrio. 

Small groups. Private amtKourees. 

Obiecthre: Fluent ora) and written communication. 



= Td.: (343) 2187846 - 

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ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE 

A Superior Language Experience 

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Holiday Language Course 


in yhras**' • Jcc/WM • St.Gallen 

ENGLISH • GERMAN • FRENCH 
with Sports (Tennis, Ice Skating, Surfing, Hiking, etc.) 

For infcrm?iion: Mr. 0. Gademann/Mrs. Schmid, Hoeherweg 60, CH-9000 St Gallen 

Tel. 071-27 92 91 


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tic socaee. Swung and winter wore in 

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Schahak year wt smwner 
Unpup.. awn in Jntr. 

Sumy Date, 


pnxjr, orodr* 
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Tri 36/22 17 lft 
Tate 92 31 73 


JACK BURTON is a Tokyo-based journalist 

NGAIO CREQUER is news editor of The Tunes Higher Education 
Supplement in London. 

WESTERLY A. DONOHUE is a Stockholm-based journalist 
ANN DUNCAN is a Montreal-based journalist 

LAWRENCE FE3NBERG writs about education for The Wash- | 
ington Post 


EDWARD R FISKE is education editor of Tire New York Times. 
MARK J. KURLANSKY is a journalist based in Mexico Gty. 
MICHAEL METCALFE is a journalist based in Paris. 


DANIEL B. MOSKOWTTZ is a senior correspondent for 
McGraw-Hill World News in Washington. 


SARAH SEAIUGHT is a London-based journalist who specializes 
in Middle East affairs. 


ENGLISH 

IN LONDON 


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KATE SINGLETON is a Milan- based journalist, who si 
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SSDAV 


N: 


Lvi Trading Conn 
WT.at does botl 
3de;5 -s dre systea 

Soard of Trade peu 
broker” system, say 
,, f lril iir.g futures a 
I_jat week, after 
Amw plans, the Ch 

; is opposition, desp 
the board-J^rokffl 
-open ouico"" trad 
aad the specialist sy 
-\Ve can uudersu 
friends or. other con 
senior vice preside] 

American Comroodi 
"Under our svstei 
ftiil not be able to tn 
will be no ‘dual trai 
brokers ma> bai’e w 
Moreover, the .Am 
most sensitive subjs 

subject dial the fee 
scrutinizing. 


A v audit crail is 
[\ Because of th. 
XI. bus become a 
iers to record :he cn 
Last ifceek. in a s 
often prevails, a irac 
bond fuiunes pit bit 
causing a bloody wo: 
that while biting wa 
pits, pushing, kidrinj 
Such trading cond 
lawsuits by traders a 
because their orders 
the prices they wanu 
Despite all that, th 
exchanges, seem to tl 
I) oppcsec to seeing 
livelihood. 

And changes thot 
from capturing the 1 
\yyox<£ broker system 
weii as identify the fl 
trade can easily be k 
There are no bid z 
where trading is a cc 



■"teste: 

ftonlihirt 

tew (bi 

wiait 

■••Vsrtcicj 

T <*m 

imcn 

•ECU 

'5D« 















Statistics index 


AMEX prim P21 
AMEX IMM/KW«P-31 
NYSE prices P > 
NYSE htgta-lowa P.18 

CanodKMi sHCU Pa 

Cunincv rats P.17 
CsnwnOJMm P-71 
OWUMH pat 


EornincH rmrh P.1B 
FUna turn note* P-20 
GoM market* P if 
liMni rota P.17 
Market lummory P. I 
OMom P21 

ore «a p. 20 
Omar markats PJ29 


licralodl&enbunc 




BUSINESS / FINANCE 


U.S. Stocks 
Report. Page 8 


TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 26, 1985 


Page 17 





yr f 

•• ■v • t 

J i 


‘25 


FUTURES ANP OPTIONS 

New Option System Worries 
Some Commodities Traders 

By HJJMAIDENBERG 

New York Tima Service 

N EW YORK — Of all the innovative options, markets 
that have opened or have been proposed in recent 
years, none has so rattled the commodities industry as 
the cash-settled gold options that the American Stock 
Exchange plans to start trading in early April. 

The reason many in the industry are seething at the Amex is 
that the new options will be traded in a manner that could open a 
Pandora's box of problems for members of existing options and 
futures markets. 

Their quarrel is not with tr adin g in gold options that would be 
settled in cash at expiration time, rather than by the delivery of a 
corresponding futures con- — 

tract. Cash-settled stock-in- rn . ,, 

dex futures and options have 1 DC system would 
been traded for several years. | M1MI ftn *_>:] a 

Nor are they upset that the ie ^ ve 311 frail, a 

Amex ’s gold option is the first sensitive subject in 

on a physical commodity ap- J 

proved by the Commodity Fu- commo dity markets, 

lures Trading Commission. J 

What does bother many 

traders is the system the Amex plans to use. In fact, the Chicago 
Board of Trade petitioned the commission to outlaw the "board 
broker" system, saying it would undermine the existing method 
of trading futures and options based on futures. 

Last week, after the federal regulatory agency approved the 
Amex plans, the Chicago exchange said that it would not pursue 
its opposition, despite the many reservations it still has. 

The board-broker system is a cross between the traditional 
"open outcry" trading method used on commodity exchanges 
and the specialist system used in the securities markets. 

"We can understand why our board-broker system upsets our 
friends on other commodities markets," said Kenneth R. Leibler, 
senior vice president of the Amex and chairman of its new 
American Commodities Corp., which will trade the gold options. 

"Under our system, the market makers on the exchange floor 
will not be able to trade for their own account, and because there 
will be no 'dual trading.' any special knowledge that the beard 
brokers may have will be of no use to thfem," Mr. Leibler said. 

Moreover, the Amex system would leave a clear “audit trail" a 
most sensitive subject in-, the commodity markets. It also is a 
subject that the federal regulators of commodity trading are 
scrutinizing. 

AN audit trail is a system for recording the timing of trades. 
Because of the frenzied activity in some of the markets, it 
-L JL has become almost impossible for floor traders and bro- 
kers to record the times at which trades occur. 

Last week, in a striking example of the pandemonium that 
oftm prevails, a trader in the Chicago Board's volatile Treasury 
bond futures pit bit another trader who had taken her place, 
causing a bloody wound, according to several traders who noted 
that while biting was unusual in this most active of all futures 
pits, pushing, ki cking , and elbowing occur routinely. 

Such t rading conditions have led to an increasing number of 
lawsuits by traders and investors asserting that they lost money 
because their orders were not executed in a timely manner or at 
the prices they wanted. 

Despite all that, the floor traders, who control the commodity 
exchanges, seem to thrive on the bedlam and many are vehement- 
ly opposed to seeing any changes in the way they earn their 
livelihood. 

And changes there would be-under the Amex system. “Aside 
from capturing the time-order sequence, the audit trail of our 
board broker system would also capture bid and asked prices as 
well as identify the floor broker who executed the order so every 
trade can easily be reconstructed,” Mr. Leibler said. 

There are no bid and asked prices on commodity exchanges, 
where trading is a continuous auction. 




Currency Rates 


tote interbank rates art Feb. 25 , excluding fees. 

Official fixings for Amsterdam, Brussels, Frankfurt, Milan, Paris. New York rates at 


_ 1PM. 








-1 " 

% 

c 

DA 

F4=. IU_ 

BUr. 

BJ. SJ=. 

Yoa 

■ iBBterdom 

1908 

4.147 

11X36 • 

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— — 

54J2* 13443* 

14845 T 

MHQll|g) 

694035 

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2014 

6489 13178- 

17.773 

1 2392 

2699 • 


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3456 

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2X715* 14*9 * 

8821 

• 4967* 11883* 

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11.117 227S4B 

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ft. 165 

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34669 

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38541* mo 

— ^ — 

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25115 

34746 

84465 ■ 

27405* 01X52 

74425 

• 4.1945* 

1.107 • 

ECU 

04474 

04089 

22261 

&JD6I 149019 

24233 

I 444383 14777 170478 

SDR 

0940927 

089328 

126104 

104012 NjQ. 

37084 

644579 29471 

2*991 




Dollar Values 




1 r 

Pto 

* 

Carraaev f 

Hr 

_ * Carraaev 

Per 

- ■ ant*. 


U84 

E*whr. 

1144 

Bari*. 

UJLI 

'• U6 AMtraSaal 

14S77 

0918 Irtah C 14891 

04381 stauapanl 

X279 

MJ Aastrfew rebflHno 

2342 

08013 mart shekel 75495 

0486 B. AMCOR nnd 24576 

. BUi mmoaHfcbaae 

6845 

32331 Kvaaltl (Saar 03093 

04013 S. Korean aa 

1 4090 

7143 CcmUmS 

U« 

6JS77 Mater, riwett 

2579 

86*53 Span, paston 

18745 

; 0*11 DOM 

fame 

rzoi 

& 16 W Morw.toVM 

9412 

a. Mss sand, krona 

946 

1431 Float** 

mortkn 

499 

0460 PUL paw UQB 

DABS TWtaoaS 

3927 

-' 0073 Onrt Aadona 

13490 

MOM f 

teUaata 1 

i*4M 

■4154 TMMM 

28245 

. ;. 1281 How Kong S 

7486 

02792 Sort rival 

3482 

02733 UJLE.*rtam 36725 


StertlM:i.T7I7 Irtah S 

'll CamweU franc 161 Anuamn needea Id bar one nouna te) Amounts iMdecIM taw roitoUar |*J 
nits atlas (x) Units at Ijmtvl Units of 10*08 
a: nor quoted; NJl: net avatiabte. 

sne: Same do Smte (Brvsse&J; Banco Co m mer ck rio llaHana (Milan); Owmknl 
talk (New York}; Banoue NatNntOo He Paris (Parts); IMF (SOP); Banaua Arvbe tH 
demotionaled'IntmHssement (dinar, tiraldkltam). Other data (Tam Beiders andAP. 


Interest Rates 


j 


larocarrency Deposits 


Feb. 25 

twin _ Peends 

D-Mark Franc Stalina Franc ECU sou 

L 1K-Sh SOk-'s-W. S*k-S« MW-Ifl* 10W - U V. 9 - W fc 8V, ■ 9** 

l Ih.lSi SB - I 5te -5% MW- 14*. 1(M- TOW 10 h- 10* 81* - * 

K 9 w - 9 Ik 6 - 6Va 59k - 4 14 W- 14 W lOtfc. 11W 101* ■ 10U> W • VI* 

t. t*-l* IK.-ih n -i 13 W- 13 W I) K»- 11VT 10ft - 10W» 9!fc - 91* 

low- 10M.4V* -6*k 5 V. - S*w 13 - 131* 1194- II W TOW- 10 W 9H - 9ft 
das nnollcatle to Interbank deposits of SI minion minimum (or oquhtolant). 
ureas: Morgan Guaranty (dollar. DM. SF, Pound, FF); Uovds Bank (ECU): Citibank 
DR). 


isian Dollar Rales 


Mt -ffft 
urea; Reuters 


2 mas. 

IS -9 W 


3 mas. 
9 W -9* 


Snot 
aw -aw 


Feb. 25 


low -tow 


^ey Money Rates 

rited States 


Oh* Pr*v. ftfenB 


icaunt Rate 

tend Funds 

ime Rats 

alar Loan Rate 

mm. Paper, 30-129 dovs 

Mmtti Traasury Bills 

ninth Treasury Bills 

* 30-90 days 

"s 40-09 days 

est Genawy 

rttxmj Rata 
ornhMit Rate 
■ Month Interbank 


»nce 


[Umth interta nk 

- ■ S* 

*** 


mention Rate 
I Money 

Mnentti Interbank 
■and* I nt erbank 


Wa 8 7/16 
MW 10W 
VArVfl 9U.-9V* 
070 8J5 

136 836 

853 050 

830 806 

865 8 M 


600 600 
UB 665 
sac SAS 
615 615 

640 640 


lev* in* 
mw in* 
in* in* 

709* fMfc 
w 7/16 10 7/16 


Bank Base Rale 
Call Money 
91-day Treasury Bill 
3-mentti interbank 


Discount Rate 
Call Money 
tO-day Interbank 


14 M 
14W 13W 

131* 1» 

131* 14ft 


S 5 
6ft 6 3/16 
6W 41* 


Gold Prices 


] 


roes: Reuters. Commerzbank. Crtdd Ly- 
ut* uort Bank. Bonk id Tnfcya 


ajm. PM- arte 
Hone Kona 2M45 2H80 — 9.M 

Luxtmtxxirp 3*650 — —535 

Parts (05 kllel 2 bom bu« — iaee 

Zurich 29600 28625 - 162B 

London 29030 28625 — 14.15 

New York - 28X00 - 1230 

Official ftadnos for London. Pads and Uxem- 
beura. owning aid dnUno prices hr Ham Kara 
and Zurich. New York Camas current uxh t oH 
Ml Prices to U-S3 per ounce. 

Source: Routers 


Dollar Up, 
Gold Falls 
In Europe 

No Intervention 
Seen in Market 

The Auonaled Press 
LONDON — The dollar extend- 
ed its historic rally on European 
foreign-exchange markets Monday 
in a broad and powerful advance as 
central banks apparently refused to 
intervene against the currency’s 
surge. 

"Every morning when we come 
in. the previous day's closing price 
looks cheap," one trader in Frank- 
furt said of the dollar. 

As the dollar rose against Euro- 
pean currencies, gold prices tum- 
bled to levels last seen in 1979, 
dropping nearly SIS an ounce in 
Europe's major bullion centers af- 
ter edging higher as the day began 
in Hong Kong 

In London, Anthony G. Chap- 
pell, director of worldwide foreign- 
exchange trading for Irving Trust 
Co„ agreed with many traders who 
said President Ronald Reagan had 
given the dotlar the green light last 
Thursday when he said the United 
States should not attempt to hold 
the dollar down. 

"That eventually spelled out the 
suspicion of us all that central- 
bank intervention doesn't work. 1 
believe the central banks decided to 
lei the markets run free for a 
while," Mr. Chappell said. 

West German monetary offi- 
cials, while declining to comment 
for the record, said that European 
central-bank interventions would 
gain little without support from 
similar U.S. action. 

Traders said the markets were 
nervous, hectic and volatile but 
they could give no other reason for 
the dollar's rise other than Mr. 
Reagan’s comments and the Jack of 
evident central-bank intervention. 

High UJ5. interest rates, which 
have often boosted the dollar as an 
attractive investment to foreigners, 
were not a factor in Monday’s ad- 
vance, traders said. 

In Tokyo, the dollar began the 
world’s trading day by finishing at 
263.025 Japanese yen from 262.375 
yen Friday. 

In London, die British pound 
dropped to a new low S 1 .0558 from 
$1.0765 Friday. 

Other late dollar rates in Europe, 
compared with late rales Friday, 
included: 3.4375 DM, up from 
33800; 2.9115 Swiss francs, up 
from 2.8560; 10.5395 French 
francs, up from 103380; 3.908 
Dutch guilders, up from 3.832; 
2,151.50 Italian lire, up from 
2,106.30. 

Gold bullion plunged $14.15 in 
London and $1430 in Zurich to a 
late fix of $28435 a troy ounce in 
both cities. 

Zurich dealers said the soaring 
dollar put steady pressure on the 
metals markets and Zurich experi- 
enced its busiest trading session in 
weeks with numerous orders bom 
London to sell gold. 

The drop was the first substan- 
tial retreat from the S300-an-ounce 
level that had prevailed during 
most of the dollar's latest surge. 


Young Scientist Guides Fermenta 

El-Say ed Plans 
Expansion lor 
Penicillin Maker 

By Juris Kaza 

International Herald Tribune 

STOCKHOLM — Fermenta 
AB, the Swedish maker of bulk 
penicillin and other intermediate 
products for the antibiotics in- 
dustry, has been rocketing on the 
Stockholm Stock Exchange dur- 
ing a period when most other 
Swedish shares have stood still or 
drifted lower. 

Fermenta shares have risen 
from 85 kronor ($8.95) in the 
summer of 1984, when Fermenta 
first went public in Sweden, to as 
high as 248 kronor in recent trad- 
ing. 

The rise has been propelled by 
investor euphoria about the 
quick turnaround and rapid 
growth of Fermenta under the 
leadership of Refaat El-Sayed, 

39, an Egyptian-born scientist 
and entrepreneur. 

Mr. El-Sayed points out that 
Fermenta’s 1984 earnings have 
been forecast at 80 million kro- 
nor on sales of around 450 mil- 
lion kronor, up from a loss of 10 
million kronor on sales of 70 
milli on kronor in 1981, the year 
before he bought the company 
from Astra AB. Sweden's largest 
p harmaceu tical group. 

With Fermenta planning a 
share issue and listing on the 
London Stock Exchange later 
this spring, some analysts are 
urging caution. Sweden's latest 
"bourse comet,” they say, must 
be viewed with an awareness that 
the company carries consider- 
able risks as well as opportuni- 
ties. 

Moreover, the boom in Fer- 
raenta shares in Stockholm may 
make pricing the London issue a 
delicate mailer for man ager 
Svenska International, since 



4flw cv fiansAoit 


Refaat El-Sayed, the president of Fermenta AB, in his 
Stockholm office. He plays soccer in his spare time. 


considerable short- term gains 
have accumulated that could be 
realized if investors feared a di- 
luting effect from a large London 
placement 

Mr. El-Sayed, a microbidogisL 
trained in the United States and 
Sweden and president of Fer- 
menta since 1982, is already 
looking beyond Stockholm and 
London to Fennenta's possibili- 
ties on overseas slock exchanges. 

"We are going to be listed in 
London in May and perhaps we 
will go public in New York," Mr. 
El-Sayed said. Bui the enterprise 
be wifi present to London inves- 
tors won't be the same as the 
Fermenta of 1984. He said that 


he expects international acquisi- 
tions in 1985 to boost Fennen- 
ta's sales to 1.6 billion kronor. 

Mr. El-Sayed said that "acqui- 
sitions are the cheapest way to 
gain nu tr l ce t shares.” 

In 1983. Fermenta bought 
plants in the United States and 
France and formed subsidiaries 
to operate them, Fermenta Hold- 
ing Inc in the United States and 
Fermenta SA in France 
The most recent acquisition 
was in January when it bought 
Pierre! SpA, an Italian pharma- 
ceutical company, winch alone 
added around 760 million kronor 
in sales and 1300 employees to 
(Continued on Page 19, CoL I) 


Baldrige Urges 
U.S. to Repeal 
Antitrust Section 


Recession in U.S. Is Predicted lor '86 


The Associated Press 

WASHINGTON — The na- 
tion’s economy is likely to suffer a 
recession beginning sometime next 
year, brought on by soaring federal 
budget deficits, high interest rates 
and further deterioration in foreign 


Huge federal budget deficits are 
died most often by the economists 
as the main reason they believe the 
current recovery will be shorter 
than the average of 46 months. 

Other problems the economists 
believed would short-circuit the re- 


trade, an association comprising covery were high interest rates and 
economists for le a d ing U-S corpo- the country’s record trade deficits. 


rations predicted Monday. 

The National Association of 
Business Economists said a survey 
of its members found basic agree- 
ment that the economy will move 
ahead at a moderately good dip 
this year with inflation remaining 
undo- control 

But the economists predicted 
that the economy would turn sour 


"It is dear that the basic problem 
is the budget defies i,” said Ben , m(ll 
Laden, president of the association 
and chief economist at T. Rowe Iavorcd ““ 
Price Associates. “That is the thing 
we have to change in order to im- 
prove the outlook for interest rates 
and the trade defidt." 

The economists predicted that 


voiced support for a tax increase to 
help trim the defidt, something 
President Ronald Reagan has 
vowed to oppose. 

The business economists ex- 
pressed support for the Reagan ad- 
ministration's proposal to simplify 
the tax code by eliminating various 
deductions while lowering lax 
rates. 


57 percent, said they 
concept, but support 
dwindled when ute economists 
were asked to endorse separately 
the various business and individual 
tax deductions that would be af- 
fected by the plan. 


United Press huemauonal 

WASHINGTON — Commerce 
Secretary Malcolm Baldrige said 
Monday that he bad proposed the 
repeal of a major section of U.S. 
antitrust law to make it easier for 
American companies to merge and 
become more competitive in world 
trade. 

His written proposal was sent 
last Friday to the Office of Man- 
agement and Budget, where it was 
expected to be passed to the Rea- 
gan administration’s cabinet coun- 
cD cat legal affairs for study. 

The council, in turn, would for- 
mulate a recommendation for legis- 
lative action to be sent to President 
Ronald Reagan. Congress must ap- 
prove changes in antitrust law. 

Mr. Baldrige specifically pro- 
posed the repeal of Section 7 of the 
Clayton Act, which prohibits merg- 
ers where the effect "may be to 
substantially lessen competition or 
tend to create a monopoly." 

Any repeal of Section 7 still 
would leave in effect the Sherman 
Antitrust Act of 1890. which pro- 
hibits restraint of trade, price-fix- 
ing, dividing up of markets or mo- 
nopoly conditions. It also would 
leave standing Federal Trade Com- 
mission rules a gainst unfair compe- 
tition. 

The big difference, Mr. Baldrige 
said, is that without Section 7 of the 
Clayton Act, a merger would have 
to be proved to be in restraint of 
trade. Business would not be held 
hack from merging by language 
such as "may" and “tend to." 

Businesses contemplating merg- 
ers. he added, would face much less 
uncertainty as to whether the gov- 
ernment would approve. 

The secretary said that this 
would enable firms in troubled in- 
dustries such as steel to merge to 
phase out antiquated plants and 
consolidate production for greater 
effiriency. 

Mr. Baldrige said that conditions 
have changed dramatically since 
the Clayton Act was passed in 
1914. then updated in 1950. Uten, 
he said, the United States was the 
world’s strongest industrial power 
and considerations of the domestic 
market were paramount. 

Mr. Baldrige said that now the 
United States is faced with intense 
world competition in its home mar- 
kets and overseas. 

“If we do not allow our own 
companies to merge to get those 
efficiencies, what you’re going to 
see is an increase in protectionist 
sentiment," he said during a morn- 
ing press briefing at his office. 

[Paul McGrath, the chief anti- 


U.S.-Japan Talks 
On Trade Start Off 
On an Angry Note 

The Associated Press 

TOKYO — The United States 
and Japan hit several snags Mon- 
day in their efforts to resolve mqor 
trade issues; .American officials 
postponed telecommunications 
talks scheduled to begin this week 
and a “shouting match" was re- 
ported during the opening session 
of negotiations on wood products. 

Daniel G. Amstutz. undersecre- 
tary of agriculture for international 
affairs and commodity programs, 
said the two sides could not agree 
on an agenda Tor discussing the 
wood-products issue. 

Japan's Kyodo News Service 
quoted an unidentified Foreign 
Ministry source as saying “an ex- 
tremely tough shouting match en- 
sued" after the two sides stated 
their positions. 

Meanwhile, UJ3. Secretary of 
Commerce Malcolm Baldrige said 
in Washington that he had post- 
poned. until such time as Japanese 
officials are ready to talk specifics, 
a deputy's trip to Japan to discuss 
Japanese regulations on telecom- 
munications trade. 

The United States is urging Ja- 
pan to open its telecommunica- 
tions markets to American imports. 

Mr. Baldrige said Japanese com- 
munications companies have in- 
creased their business in ihe United 
States to $2 billion from $600 mil- 
lion since the breakup of the Amer- 
ican Telephone & Telegraph Co. 


trust attorney at the Justice De- 
partment , said that "the Commerce 
Department proposal isn’t really 
practical and it isn't a solution” to 
U.S. trade problems, Reuters re- 
ported from Washington. 

("I certainly agreed that we need 
to do everything we can to help our 

industries compete international- 
ly" said Mr. McGrath, the assis- 
tant U3. attorney general for anti- 
trust. But he said that antitrust laws 
do not stand in the way of increas- 
ing competitiveness.] 

In August, Mr. Baldrige said that 
Congress should liberalize antitrust 
laws to make U.S. company merg- 
ers earlier and that Section 7 should 
be reexamined. However, in those 
remarks for an American Bar Asso- 
ciation meeting, be did not specifi- 
cally propose repeal of the section. 


next year. A majority, 52 percent, ^e budget deficit this year will hit a 
a recession wU] begin record $210 bilhcm, dedMng only 


expect the next 
in 1986, with only 17 percem of 
those surveyed predicting that the 
current growth will last into 1987 
or beyond. 

These expectations were a good 
deal more pessimistic than Reagan 
administration estimates, which 
foresee steady growth through 
1990. 


slightly to $200 biffiem in the 1986 
fiscal year, which begins Oct. 1 

To fight the deficit, 63 percent 
of those polled support the concept 
of a freeze on government expendi- 
tures, but more than half doubt 
that it will be enacted," Mr. Laden 
said. 

A smaller majority, 54 percent. 


NYSE, Pacific Exchange Study Link 


By Fred R. BJeakley 

New York Times Service 

NEW YORK — The Pacific 
Stock Exchange would become a 
wholly owned subsidiary of the 
New York Stock Exchange under a 
proposal that members of both ex- 
changes are being asked to consid- 
er. The link could be the first step 
toward establishing the Big Board 
as the driving force behind eventu- 
al around-the-clock trading in the 
stocks of U.S. corporations. 

Talks between officials of both 
exchanges have been under way 
since hut fall, and an outline of the 
status of those discussions was ex- 
pected to be delivered to members 
this week. 

Although neither exchange is yet 
asking for a vote from its board or 
its members, the outline, entitled 
“Suggestions for Proposed NYSE- 
PSE Affiliation," shows dearly 
that the staffs of tire exchanges 
have worked out many key details. 
The merger is likely to be the main 
topic at the NYSE’s monthly mem- 
bership meeting on Wednesday. 

Discussions between the two ex- 
changes are “ongoing, serious and 
at the roost senior levels,” accord- 
ing to Richard Torrenzano, spokes- 
man for the Big Board. He empha- 
sized, however, that “these 
discussions do not co mmit the 
NYSE to any relationship with the 
Pacific Stock Exchange or to any of 
the specific points’’ outlined in the 
material sent to members. 

Mr. Tonenzano said that the 
chairman of the Big Board, John 
Phelan, was not available for com- 
ment. A phone call to Charles 
Rickershauser, chairman of the Pa- 
cific Slock Exchange, was not re- 
turned. 

One of the main reasons for a 
link with the Pacific exchange. Mr. 
Torrenzano said, would be the op- 
portunity to extend trading hours 
for stocks listed on the New York 
exchange. He- added that the affili- 
ation would "upgrade the PSE 
equity market to a high-quality 
auction market for NYSE-listed 
stocks on the West Coast” and 
“further develop the West Coast as 


an internationally prominent mar- 
ket and financial center. " 

Currently, the Pacific Exchange 
trades 670 of the 1350 common 
stocks listed on the New York ex- 
change. Under the proposed link, 
all current and future Big Board 
stocks would be listed on the Pacif- 
ic exchange. In addition, the New 
York exchange would invest more 
than $10 million over the first four 
years and up to $20 milli on in the 
first 10 years in PSE facilities, 
products, marketing, development 
and promotion. 

In addition to bolding discus- 
sions with the Pacific Stock Ex- 
change, the Big Board has also been 
talking to the London Stock Ex- 
change about a possible joint ven- 
ture. Both posable affiliations ap- 
parently stem from the Big Board's 
announcement last giwimw that it 
planned to look into the future of 


24-hour-a-day trading in issues list- 
ed on the New York exchange to 
accommodate the growing interna- 
tional interest in American stocks. 

At present, stocks of a number of 
major American corporations are 
traded internationally on the To- 
kyo and London Stock Exchanges 
If the New York exchange could 
promote a system in which its spe- 
cialists and the major Big Board 
block-trading firms could transfer 
their capital to other marketplaces 
when it is not in nse in New York, 
many trading experts said greater 
interest in U 5. stocks would devel- 
op on a worldwide basis. 

A merger with the Pacific Stock 
Exchange conld be the first step in 
that diranion. Executives of several 
Big Board-member firms reacted 
positively to the possible link. They 
see it enabling the Big Board to 
keep the market- 


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siocl prices fluctuated severely and were generally higher ar the end than at the heginmoj; 







































































































f 1 i I BUSINESS ROUNDUP 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 26, 1985 


m 




Page 19 


Royal Dutch/ Shell Lifts 
Bid for Shell Co. by $2 




: -i. Oil 

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NEW YORK — Royal Dutch- 
/SbdJ Group wiQ raise by S2 a 
share its offer for ibe slock of Shell 
Oil Co. it does noi yet own in a 
proposed settlement of a legal bat- 
tle that has delayed its acquisition 
of the seven th-Iargest U.S. oil com- 
pany- 

Under the improved terms. Roy- 
al Dutch/Shell would pay S60 a 
share in cash for Shell's remaining 
shares outstanding, incr easing the 
cost of its takeover by SI 89 million, 
to S5.67 billion. 

RoyalDidch/ Shell, with bead- 
quarters in Britain and the Nether- 
lands, is the world's second-largest 
oB company after Exxon Corn. 

In a statement Sunday, Royal 
Dmch said the settlement was 
reached after the company was ap- 
proached by lawyers for dissident 
shareholders, who had ghatWigwt 

Vickers Reports 
1984 Pretax Profit 
Of £30.8 Million 

. Reuters 

LONDON — Vickers PLC re- 
ported Monday that it made a pre- 
tax profit of £30.8 miffion (about 
532.64 million at current exchange 
rates) in 1984, a 57.9- percent in- 
crease from £I9_5 million the previ- 
ous year. Sales, however, declined 
19.3 percent, to £528.8 million 
from £655.2 nnBion in 1983. 

Rolls-Royce care showed the 
largest profit increase in 1984, 
Vickers said. The 1983 result had 
been depressed by a prolonged 
strike. 

The defense and aerospace, ma- 
rine engineering, health-care and 
instruments businesses all showed 
substantial profit increases, while 
the printing and packaging ma- 
chinery sector returned to profit- 
ability. 

Vickers said hthographic print- 
ing {dates and supplies -and busi- 
ness equipment showed slightly re- 
duced profit last year, as a result of 
rising costs and severe ooayetitkm. 

The Vickers daim for fair com- 
pensation for its former shipbuild- 
ing and aircraft interests, national- 
ized try the British government in 
1977, is to be heard by the Europe- 
an Court of Human Rights in 
Strasbourg. France, in Arne. 


the earlier S58-a-share offer as in- 
adequate. 

John F. Boakout, Shell's prea- 
dem and chief executive, said Mon- 
day that the of the 

Houston-based company had not 
been a party to the negotiations. 
But, he said, he was pleased with 
the prospect of an early settlement 
to the lawsuits “and that all our 
attention can again be fully devot- 
ed to our business." 

Before it began its bid for aH of 
Shell's stock in January 1984, 
Royal/ Dutch Shell already owned 
69.4 percent of the shares. It fust 
offered S5S a share for the remain- 
ing 94.5 million shares, but later 
increased Che bid to 558. 

Shell stock dosed Friday at 
555.625 a store on the New York 
Stock Exchange, unchanged. 

Royal Dutch/ Shell bad acquired 
enough stock in its offer last year to 
raise its stake in Shell to 94.6 per- 
cent, but had delayed completing 
the takeover pending the resolution 
of a shareholder lawsuit 

Shell’s board of directors said 
last year that the 558-a-share offer 
was inadequate and not in the best 
interests of shareholders. 


interests of shareholders. 

A Delaware Chancery Court was 
scheduled to begin a trial next 
month on the shareholders' law- 
suit. Royal Dulch/Shdl said it 
would submit the proposed settle- 
ment soon to the Delaware court 
and that it hopes a bearing would 
be scheduled at the end of March. 

Under Delaware law, a share- 
holder dissatisfied with the terms 
of a merger can ask a court to 
dete rmine the value of his shares. 
There is a risk, however, that the 
court will rule the shares are worth 
less limn what the company has 
offered. 

Under the proposed settlement. 
Shell shareholder s who had already 
sold their stock to Royal Dutch 
would also receive the additional 
52 a share. Other shareholders 
would receive 560 a share for their 
stock if they agreed not to exercise 
their right to have a court deter- 
mine the value of their stock. 

Those shareholders who decided 
not to waive appraisal rights would 
not get the additional $2 a share - 
and could, in lieu of the 558-a- 
share offer, still demand a court to 
determine the value of his or her 
shares at the date of the metger, 
Royal Dutch/Shcll said. 


Taiwan Group 9 
Cathay, Seeks to 
Reschedule Debt 

Reuters 

TAIPEI — Cathay Group, 
mie of Taiwan's largest con- 
glomerates, is seeking to re- 
schedule its debts, a group 
spokesman said Monday. 

He rier.Knrri to idattify the 
creditors, most of whom are in 
Taiwan, or say how much was 
involved. He said some of the 
group’s more than 80 affiliate 
companies are facing cash-flow 
problems, but declined to say 
which ones were -involved. 

Cathay runs businesses that 
include banks, shipping, insur- 
ance and plastics factories. 

The group's banking branch, 
ibe Tenth Credit Cooperative, 
faced a run on deposits this 
month and 5425 million was 
withdrawn in four days. Court 
officials said 10 senior execu- 
tives of the bank were arrested 
on suspicion of financial irregu- 
larities but no charges had been 
brought. 

The ran started after the Fi- 
nance Ministry suspended Feb. 
1 1 the lending business of the 
hank. The run later spread to a 
sister company, Cathay Invest- 
ment & Trust Co. 


VW Made Profit in 1984 Poo Bids Separately on Whedock Unit 


Alter 2 Years of Losses 


United Press Inumaaomd 

HAMBURG — Volkswajren- 
werk AG returned to profitability 
in 1 984 after two years of devastat- 
ing losses, the automobile manu- 
facturing company’s management 
said Monday m an interim report 
to stockholders. 

Although the preliminary report 
indicated that the company made a 
profit last year, it did not say how 
much that profit was. But losses 
already posted for the eaify part of 
1984 suggest that a year-end profit 
would be modest 

The preliminary year-end report 
to stockholders said that improving 
performances in the domestic 
Volkswagen operation, in Volks- 
wagen of America, its U.S. subsid- 
iary, and in its domestic Audi AG 
unit were responsible far the turn- 
about 

Volkswagen posted worldwide 
losses of 215 mfllinn Deutsche 
marks (563.6 million) in 1983 and 
300 million DM in 1982, the year 
the automating giant first plunged 
into the red. 

The Volkswagen report said that 
worldwide revenue was boosted 14 
percent last year to a new record 
high of 45.7 billion DM. Much of 
the increase was due to the U.S. 
dollar’s high exchange rate against 


the marie, which has made West 
German exports attractive in die 
United States, a major Volkswagen 
market 

Pennzoil Denies 
Interest in Phillipe 


NEW YORK — Pennzoil Co. 
denied Monday reports that it is 
considering making a tender offer 
for Phillips Petroleum Co. 

Pennzoil, which has kmg been 
rumored to be interested in Phil- 
lips, said neither its chairman, 
Hugh Liedtke, nor any of its repre- 
sentatives have had any discussions 
with Carl C Icafan, a New York 
financier who has offered to ac- 
quire Phillips if that company’s re- 
capitalization plan is turned down 
by shareholders. 

The New York Times, in an arti- 
cle carried by The International 
Herald Tribune, reported Monday 
that Pennzoil officials were consid- 
ering joining Mr. fcahn in his bid 
for the company. A company 
spokesman would not say whether 
Pennzoil was interested in a friend- 
ly acquisition of Phillips. 


By Dinah Lee 

Inrenummud Herald Tribune 

HONG KONG — In an unex- 
pected development in the I! -day 
battle for control of one of Hong 
Kong's oldest trading-and-ship- 

Tor control of Allied Investors 
Corpu, an associated investment 
conmanyof the Whedock group. 

Sc YJC Pao's unconditional bid 
through bis Hong Kong-based 
company, Hongkong & Kowloon 
Wharf & Godown Co, amounted 
to an offer of 322 nrillioD Hong 
Kong dollars (541.28 million,) or 
11 dollars a share. 26J percent 
above the last traded price of Allied 
on Feb. 19. 

Merchant bankers involved in 
the Whedock battle said h was 
unlikely that Sir Y.K. Pan, a ship- 
ping magnate, would ever have to 
pay this amount to Allied share- 
holders. 

instead, they called the Pao 
move a ta c ti c al maneuver under 
Hong Kong’s Takeover Code to 
“lock up" Allied's 11-percent 
equity bolding and 63-percent vot- 
ing rights in the Whedock group 
before the rival bidder for wbee- 
tackcan add Allied to his accumu- 
lated Fi/JHmg by nwMns o ther than 

a takeover bid. The rival is KJboo 
Teck Fuat, a Singapore hotd-and- 
property entrepreneur. 


COMP ANY NOTES 

Atari Carp, of Sunnyvale, Cali- 
fornia, has told software compa- 
nies that it is ready to supply its 
new ST computer to those interest- 
ed in writing programs for it, an 
indication that the machine may be 
on the market by late April as 
scheduled. But Atari said it will 
charge software companies $4,500 
for each machine, which will sell 
for less than 51,000 retail. 

Black A Decker Manufacturing 
Co. of Towson, Maryland, said that 
per-share earnings in the quarter 
ending March 31 could drop -as 
much as 40 percent to 35 cents 
from 49 cents earned in the like 
period last year. The electric-pow- 
er-tool company blamed the strong 
UiL dollar and abnormally slow 
restocking in the United States fol- 
lowing an uneven Christmas selling 
season. 

Castle A Cook Inc. of San Fran- 
cisco said that it has not paid prin- 
ripal or interest due on loans to 
certain private unsecured lenders 


and expects it will be unable to 
make interest payments due March 
1 on two public issues. The pro- 
cessed-food company said that it is 
seeking to restructure the 5250 mil- 
lion owed to private lenders and is 
requesting waivers to allow the. 
payment of interest on the public 
debt. 

Dow Chemical Co. of Midland, 
Michigan, said that it has devel- 
oped a new modular air-separation 
system that produces 95 percent to 
99 percent pure nitrogen tor a vari- 
ety of industrial and commercial 
uses. Dow said that the system, 
called generonb, also produces an 
oxygon-enriched stream. 

Eastman Technology Inc. of 
Rochester, New York, a unit of 
Eastman Kodak Co^ said that it 
has formed a new division. Beta 
Physics, which will manufacture 
and market electronic components. 

MIM Hokfings LtiL, a unit of 
Mount Isa Mines Ltd. of Sydney, 
said that it is negotiating with 1,500 


tradesmen who went on strike last 
week in support of power workers 
in Queensland. A Mount Isa 
spokesman said that the strike has 
halted operations at a zinc-lead- 
copper mine. 

Mobil 03 AG of Hamburg, a 
subsidiary of Mobil Coro., said 
that it plans to dose its Wtlhdms- 
haven refinery at the end of March. 
A company spokesman said that 
the plant has not operated profit- 
ably and output has been less than 
annual capacity of eight million 
tons (8.8 metric tons). 

Ofin Cora, of East Alton. Illi- 
nois, said that it has readied an 
agreement with Nippon Gakki Co. 
of Japan for the joint marketing of 
high-performance alloys in Japan 
and southeast Asia. 

R.P. Scherer Cqrp. of Troy, 
Michigan, said that it plans a 513- 

million expansions of its main 
manufacturing complex at Eber- 
bacb-Baden, West Germany, for 
the production of gelatin capsules 
for the pharmaceutical industry. 


S&u] Cos. of San Diego, said its 
Norplex division plans a 540-mil- 
lion expansion that will include 
construction of a highly automated 
plant in Sumter, Smith Carolina, 
tripling of production capacity at 
the plant m Wipperfurlh, West 
Germany, and a 30-percent in- 
crease in production capacity at its 
plant in Chandler, Arizona. Signal 
also said its Houston-based Kel- 
logg Rost Contractors unit has 
signed construction agreements 
with China National Chemical 
Construction Carp. 

TK-Cbem Inc. of Harrison, New 
Jersey, said that it has agreed to sdl 
. substantially all of its assets to a 
corporation newly organized by its 
officers. The arts-and-crafts com- 
pany wifi continne to operate under 
the name Tri-Chem. 

AMtibi-Price be, a Toronto- 
based forest-products company, 
said that it plans a takeover bid Tor 
Barbecon be, a paper-distribution 
and envelope manufacturer. 


r j Scientist Guides Swedm’s Fermenta,, Maker of Penicillin, Through Expansion 


(Continued from Page 17) 

I the Fermenta group, according to 
-. one London-based analyst. 

~ Tina Erajnuri, an analyst sperial- 
~ izing in Scandinavian medical com- 
pames at London’s EJJ. Savory 
; Milln, calls Fermenta “difficult to 
analyze." 

:■ “This company really doesn’t 
i. have any record," she said, expbrin- 
ing that the rapid rate of acquia- 
v tions made year-to-year compari- 
i sons difficult. But Ms. Erajunri 
;■ said that international investors 
would, hke Swedish investors, be 
i 'attracted by Mr. H-Sayed's mana- 
gerial and entrepreneurial skills. 

Mr. H-Sayed “is a genius,” one 
i analyst at a major Stockholm bro- 

■ i keragesakLBnt he added that Fer- 

menta “is too much of a one-man 
I show." While giving excellent 
! marks to Ml El-Say ed’s perfor- 
mance in personally running Fer- 
= menta, the analyst was skeptical 
: that the young statutist could over- 
' see alone all ihe operations of a L6- 
billion kronor multinational group. 

“The question is — and that abu- 
ily hasn’t been tested — is will he 
have the capacity to delegate and 
:i select competent managers,” said 
the analyst, who asked that his 
' name and the name of his bnokcr- 

■ age not be used. 


*• ' Swiss Group BBC 
*' - ’Reports Improved 
: 9 .Earnings in *84 

; r - •' Reuters 

’ ■ BADEN, Switzerland — BBC 

V. .< Brown Boveri* Co. reported Mon- 
' '* -day improved 1984 group earnings 
'? i but said the parent company’s net 
r- V- fell to 28.4 million Swiss francs 
’ (59.94 mfflion) from 295 million in 

r. ... /1983, a drop of 3.7 percent. 

* > A company statement said that, 
- ^ .according to provisional data, a 35- 
-- 'j ' percent rise in consolidated cash 

- - . haw can be expected in 1984 after 
-fit totaled 464 million francs in 
"^.'’^1983. BBC does not publish full 
group results. 

?-’■ p , Parent-company sales fell 18 
i * .percent in 1984, but BBC said par- 
• « * ail-company net was in line with 
I983’s level becanse of higher revo- 
sues and lower depredation re- 
■ v nuizements. The dividend was on- 
J^'^ianged at 30 Cranes per bearer 
share. 

* / BBC said the 18-percent decline 
mt 4 +'g In parent-company sales to 2.78 

T sHion francs was anticipated after 
*1983 orders fdl to 231 bOh’on 
'rancs from 2.98 bilKoo. The sales 
~ -< .Jedine had led to an unspecified 
’J- ' ‘all in operating profit, it said. 


' kostraBa Sets Bank Rule 

■J* " Reuters 

MELBOURNE — New banks in 
Australia wQl gain direct access to 
Ac domestic check-clearing CTstem 
* payment of a fee of SOtyiOO 
AwnaHan dollars ($566320), tiw 
omnmeni dearmhouse conrnl- 
. te said. They will have the option 


• presentation oy another banL 


Mr. El-Saycd, who calls himself 
a “sdentffic enfrq>reoeur." says he 
prefera “to be involved in the lorqt-r 
term, rnwhal Fermenta will be like 
in 1990.” 

Mr. El-Saycd owns 52 percent of 
stock and 86 percent of the votes in 
Fermenta, and, on paper, has be- 
come a multimillionaire since last 
scanner. Yet, he reportedly is one 
of the lowest-paid corporate execu- 
tives in Sweden, drawing a yearly 
salary of around 120,000 kronor, or 
what a Stockholm bus driver can 
cam with a Hole night work and 
overtime. 

“I am not driven by materialistic 
thinking,” Mr. El-Sayed said. He 
livta with his wife and two children 
in a modest Stockholm suburb and 
plays soccer as a hobby. 

Another possible hurdle in at- 
tracting international investors to 
Fermenta is that it is hard to ex- 
plain to Laymen exactly what the 
company produces. 

Fermenta's products are exotic- 
sounding biochemical substances 
that ream the consumer market af- 


ter further processing and packag- 
ing by the world's major pharma- 
ceutical companies. 

Many commonly-used antibiot- 
ics, such as ampicillin, are made 
from such intennediaie products as 
6-APA, one of Fermenta’s main 


products and a major ingredient in 
so-called semi-synthetic penicillins. 

Siffl. analysts say that the market 
for such substances is well-defined 
and Mr. El-Sayed has not given any 
indication that he wants to diversi- 
fy outside Fermenta's specially. 


even if 'he has spread the group 


Isuzu Reports Loss of $64.83 Million 


TOKYO — Isuzu Motors Ltd. 
posted a group loss of 17.01 billion 
yen (564.83 millioa) in the year 
ended Oct 31, 1984, more than 
triple the I ass of 5.13 billion yen the 
year before, it reported Monday. 

Sales grew to 871.66 billion yen, 
up 15.6 percent from 7 54.18 billion 
yen a year earlier. 

An Isuzu spokesman said nearly 
all of the group loss was incurred 
by the parent company, which last 
December reported a loss of 17.73 
billion yea due mainly to a 4.9- 
bfllion-yen year-on-year fall in se- 


curities sales, disposal of surplus 
inventories and financial injections 
into its retail networks. 

The parent company has now 
raised its vehicle output projection 
to around 570,000 m the year to 
Oct. 31 from an earlier 520,000 
estimate chiefly because of in- 
creased expons to China, he said. 

Isuzu, winch is 343 percent 
owned by General Motors Corp., 
now estimates parent sales at 
around 950 billion yen in the cur- 
rent year, compared with last De- 
cember’s estimate of 910 billion, 
and 769X37 billion in the year to last 
Oct. 31. 


v -Tne analysts point out that by 
mproving the efficiency of its pro- 
duction processes, Fermenta is able 
to produce higher yields and re- 
mam competitive with other Euro- 
pean producers, such as Gist Bro- 
cadis in the Netherlands and 
Antibioticus in Spain. . 

' Mr. El-Sayed said Fermenta's 
goal is to employ the latest biotech- 
nology techniques, such as recom- 
binant DNA, or splicing the genes 
of micro-organisms, to improve the 
production of Fermenta's tradi- 
tional products. 

Oversimplified publicity about 
recombinant-DNA techniques in 
the 1970s, he said, led investors to 
expect miracles and dramatic med- 
ical breakthroughs. As a result, 
there were sane investment disap- 


pointments with what is popularly 
called btotcchnolosy. - 

“Investors didn’t understand it 
was a long-term matter ” he said. . 
“The oil crisis came along and dri- 
ed up some sources of money, and 
the product profitability was never 
realized. 

“We are investing in recomhi- 
nam DNA that is related to our 
production,” Mr. El-Sayed said, 
adding that the company s 6-APA 
has been produced for several years 
using micro-onganisms that have 
been improved by gene-spiking 
techniques. 

“I believe in recombinant DNA, 
if you can apply it to Ihe produc- 
tion process," Mr. El-Sayed said. 
In five years, he predicted, “Fer- 
ment* will be using recombinant 
DNA methods to mate, more or 
less, all of its traditional products." 


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Under the code on takeovers, a 
company that is subject to a take- 
. over bid cannot sdl any assets until 
ibe bidding is resolved. Therefore; 
Whedock cannot now actually dis- 
pose of Allied, and Allied cannot 
dispose of its shares to anyone. 
Control of Allied will pass to the 
bidder who first successfully gains 
51 perce nt or more of Wheelock’s 
voting rights and control of the 
group. 

The Whedock battle began Feb. 
14 when Mr. Khoo offered 1.9 bD- 
fion dollars for the ailing hong. 
Hopg is the local term for the four 
or five lag colonial trading compa- 
nies with roots in 19th-cencmy 
trading and shipping companies of 

Shanghai and Hong Kcmg. 

Mr. KJhoo’s financial advisers, 
NAL Rothschild, said in the Feb. 
]4 announcement that Wheelock’s 
chairman. John L. Maiden, had 
sold 13 J percent of Wheelock’s 
voting rights to Mr. Khoo. 

Sir YJC Pao entered the fray the 
following Saturday with a counter- 
bid valuing the group at 2J3 billion 
dollars, or 10 percent more per 
share than Mr. Khoo’s original of- 
fer of 6 dollars for the ordinary A 
shares and 60 cents for the ordinary 
B shares, 

Wardley Ltd, merchant bankers 
for Hongkong & Kowloon Wharf 
& Godown, said that Sir Y.K. Pao 
had already acquired 34 percent of 
Whedock' s voung rights. Bankers 
involved in the bidding deduced 
that a director of two Whedock 
subsidiaries, John Chenng. might 
have sold a large r.htmV of that 
acquisition. 

Mr. Khoo responded Feb. 19 to 
the Poo challeng e with his second 
bid, raising the ante to 2.4 billion 


dollars, and asserting that he now 
controlled 24 percent of Whee- 
lock’s voting rights. 

Trading in Whedock was sus- 
pended for the third time in a week 
as the two rivals then faced a five- 
-day break in trading lev the Lunar 
New Year holiday which allowed 
ifram dme to woo more outside 
shareholders in Hong Kong and 
London. Trading in Wheel ock 
dosed Monday at 7.40 dollars a 
share, while trading in Allied was 


“Thi> is going very much as we 
anlicipaie&” said a source in 
Wheelock’s merchant bank. East 
Asia Warburg. 


Bechtel to Build 

Hotel in Beijing 

United Press International 

BEIJING — Bedrid Corp., 

the American construction gi- 
ant, has signed an agreement 
with a Chinese company to 
build a luxury hotel and office 
complex valued at $200 million 
in Beijing, company representa- 
tives said Monday. 

China- Ame rica International 
Engineering, a China-based 
contracting company set up by 
Bechtel and C hina National 
Coal Development Corp., 
signed the joint-venture agree- 
ment with China's Capital 
Overseas Chinese Sendees Cq. 

The project, in central Beij- 
ing, is to include an 800-room 
bold, 400 luxury apartments, 
office space and a supermarket 


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Feb. 25 


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772 10 Oft 9tt— ft 
24 2Bft 24ft 28ft— ft 
17940 39ft 39ft— ft 
7 V 9 9 

297 I9M 1 8ft 19 4ft 
243 7 Oft 7 
a 9ft 9ft 9ft— ft 
10 4 4 4 — ft 

47 3ft 3ft 3M 
219 594 5ft 5» 


32 

21ft 

3 > 

24ft aw 
Eft Bft 
12ft 12 
4ft 3ft 
22ft a 
29 22? 

BVk 7ft 

6 2ft ,2ft 

7 13ft 13 
81 9ft 9ft 

14413*1 13ft 
E7 Oft 7ft 
IH 44 (Mft 
89 41k 8. 
144 22Vk aft 
273 7ft 7ft 

8 lift 11% 
B7 9ft 9ft 
32 3ft 3ft 
31614ft 14 
70 16% 14ft 
47 22 21ft 
10214% 14 

s: 

10 4ft 8ft 
8420 19% 

232 7ft 4*k 
207 S 4ft 
46 5ft 5ft 
454 14 UW 

9<0H «ft 
1312ft 13ft 
184 7*k 7ft 
2 30% 20% 


Vk 

1 4 

v% 

JBRaai 

34 

IJ 

305 204* 

19ft 30 


jackpot 

t 


188 5% 

5% 51 

Ml 

JadcLfs 



143 37a* 37 37 

w 

jamWIr 



3719ft 

19ft IF 

% 

JeffBsh 

140 

44 

58 35% 

3SVk 25) 

4b 

JkHNLs 

44 

1.9 

23 23ft 

23% 23V 

3 

jkfsmn 
J of Mart 

40a 13 

75 23% 
* 3 5ft 

22% 23 
SW 01 


Jcrlcn 

.12 

4 

615 lift 

Uft 18] 


JHys 



2291 ft 

ft 1 

9k 

JhnsiE 



33 8 

7% 71 


Jonlctt 

1 


244 5ft 

5% 5> 


Jcrnol A 

1 


159 5% 

5% 5) 

Ik 

Josohsn 



17 ID 

9ft 10 


Jutra 



1228*4 

28% 281 

1% 

Vh 

Justins 

JO) 

14 

74 19 

18ft 189 


nvTERNATIONAL FUNDS 

Quotations supplied by Funds Listed 
25 February 1985 

me not asset ytfoewotanons shown below ore stum Bed bribe Rinds Hstadwtllilbp 
i n cep ti on of some funds whose quotes are based an Issue prices. Tbe tallowtoo 
maralaal symbols indicate frequency of aootattoia ssppUod for He IHT: 

MJ -do By; (w) - weekly; (b) -bMnaatMv; (r) -reoatorty; Cl) -trresokrty. 


AL MAL MANAGEMENT 

(«*> AMMal Trust. SA S 15040 

BANK JULIUS BAER A ca LM. 

— (d I Boerbooa SF 93105 

— |d)Canbar_ ■— - - SF 130580 

— (d I Eaulboer America $ 115480 

—Id 1 Eaulbaer Europe SF 11BUQ0 

Id ) Emrtbaar Podflc SF llHLae 

— <dl Grabar SF 113TJH 

—Id ) Stucfcbcr SF 173180* 

— <d ) C5F Field- SF 2531 

-(d) Crossbow Fund SF 1280 

-(d) ITF Fond N.V SK43 

BAMQUE INDOSUEZ 
— Id ) Asian Growth F 


ORANGE NASSAU GROUP 
PB 8SS7D. The Hoew (Uni 449670 

—Id > Sever Meoalioen 1 1 

PA RISBAS— GROUP 
— Id I Cortexo lidenwtlonal, 

— IWl TIBI l-QM , , . 

— (w) OBLIGE3TION 

— IW> OBLHX3LLAR 

— Cwl OBU-YEN 

— <w> OBLI-GULDEN— — 

—U ) PAR0IL-FUND 

— «J FARINTER FUND 


S908B 

DM1.15241 

- 5F91J5 
. *1.10173 
Y1U94O0D 

-"VW 

— S 101J7 


— Id ) PAR US Treasury Bond 5101.72 




1*7 


tr-5 








m 


F4 


RSSt 




4*^ 

13ft 18 

-Plg 

U9k 14ft 

3*2% 

22ft 22ft 




mm 


Far information c o n tact : 




FOREIGN & COLONIAL 
RESERVE ASSET FUND 

WC5ATX2K 

A. L5DCUA8CASH $1020 

Bi MutnaaB»crcAW s 943 

C- DOUA890MJS SI 046 

D: MULTtQ8BB4CT BOMS $ 987 

E SIHUftSASSElS 0032 

FORBGN & CCLCNAL 
WNMP gnjj BgEnUMnm 
14 MjLCASTS STfE7^T/fiJR^SEY,Ci 
10:0047351 TOBfc 4193)63 

FOR OTHER F & C FUNDS, SS 
INTERNATIONAL HINDS U 5 T 




fth 

MO- 

725 

025. 

125 

tw- 

aso 

001- 

053 

aoi. 

025 


GftS 3575-39625 

Vmkm WUte Weld SJL 

I. (N *» Mm mrne 
1211 Com I Sdanta d 
TcL 318251 - Telex 28305 


lehardson Savings & Lon 
Bank and TVust Company 

Cayman Islands. Wtest Indies 
enema 

10% 

180 Day 

Eurodepoott 

amounts over 

$100,000 U.S. 





ASK 

15* US$ 

DftVoe-Hbfiwn 
Im e rrtgacxa l bv 5 6 

Gty-Gock 

International nr 2% 

Quotes as cii Feb. 25, 1985 


Investors seeking above average 
capital gains in global stock 
markets can simply write us a 


INVESTORS ALERT newsletter 
will be sent free and without 
obligation. 


First Commerce Securities bv 
Hereugracht 483 
1017 BT Amsterdam 
The Netherlands 
Telephone; (0)3120 26090 L 
Telex: 14507 firco nl 


17910ft 
24815% 
.10 18 95 Oft 

72 «ft 
43 2ft 
258 54 
29 4 

.10* 4 423 

99 8% 
6 »ft 
2 3ft 


.We 14 72 4ft 

2B1 lift 
81 1.1 ft 7ft 
86 U 24182ft 
B0 19V, 
139011% 
8 17 UWk 


46315% 
1513% 
J6 43 ZI418W 
A* 33 294 13ft 

m 

40 9% 
5411ft 
834 Sft 
418% 
109 9ft 

880 28 178 18 
7139k 

80k 77 4 6ft 

73 20 
20 5ft 
HO 14ft 
18218% 
304714% 
85k 4 mix 


18 7X21 
8 211 % 
28 US 

15 5 
2M13ft 

li 121 

13517% 

sSSt 

<£& 
A 4315ft 
18 59 3» 

55 18539% 
U 2712% 
U 24 9% 
411 lift 
174 32 
SO 7 
198 3% 
J »3£ft 
A 15127% 
539 8% 

v nm 

U 444% 
104 5% 

18 4% 
U 1821% 

491294 
1020 49k 
U 923% 
*3 51 29% 

11 1494 
82711% 
48 99k 
117 22ft 

a %r 
18 21228 : 
3 5% 
244199k 
23 5ft 

a 223 37ft ! 

4411 
Li 21648 
10 4% 
5018% 

19 59k 

16 4ft 
22 8ft 


18ft 18ft— % 
Uft 14ft— 1ft 
9% 9ft 
7% 1% 

2ft 2ft— % 
53ft 52ft— ft 
5ft S%— ft 
22 22 —1 
8 8% 

10 18 
Jft w 
3% 9ft— ft 
794 0 
5ft 5% 

6% 49k 
lift !1%— ft 
7% 79k + ft 
12% 32% — ft 
19 19ft— ft 

Wft 10H— H 
179k 18% *■ % 
» 

"W-ft 

15% — % 
13%— ft 
15ft + ft 
13ft + % 
10% + ft 

aft— % 

119k 

5%— ft 
10% 

9ft + ft 
17ft— 9k 

13ft- % 
4% — ft 
189fc— 1 
Sft+ ft 
14ft— ft 
18ft— ft 
14% 
lift 


21 28 
4* 4ft 
21 % 21 % 
tt 12 

3»5 

3*3* 
21 28% 
15 Mb 
4ft 4ft 
Wtt 9ft 
4ft 5ft 


22%-% 

28% 

7ft— % 

TTft— M 
13— 1ft 
lift 

20% + ft 

57ft— |« 

Uft+S 

«%-* 

34 

U 

9ft- ft 
14%— ft 
18 —ft 
lift 

lift + ft 
■3ft 
25% + ft 

aft — h 

4ft- ft 
4ft— ft 
28 —ft 
4ft — H 

at%— w 

u— ft 

38 

24% 

W% + ft 
at 
20% 

14ft— % 
4ft 

9ft— ft 
4ft 

4. — % 
5 —ft 



7ft 8 

9 9ft— 1 

Uft 11 

10ft Uft + ft 
18ft 18ft— ft 
16ft Uft— 9k 

'a « 

34 34ft— % 

i 4ft 4ft— ft 
27 37ft— I 

a 13 
9% 9% — ft 
14% 14% — % 

"ft"*-* 

Uft Uft 
4ft 4ft— ft 
31 31 —ft 

5ft 3ft -f % 
259k 24ft + % 
3ft 4 +% 
12ft 12ft— % 
Uft Uft— ft 
17% Uft+ft 
1% lft+ft 
■ft 8ft- H 
20% 29% — % 
30 30ft — .% 
9% 9% 

7ft 71k— ft 




rA 


Floating Rate Notes 


Feb. 22 


SomfBk 36 
SonrtHI JNk 


1424 4ft 4ft 4ft + % 
49211% 18ft 10ft— 9k 
8347 IM Uft 14ft— ft 


ft 
ft 
ft 
ft 
ft 
% 
ft 

10ft— ft 
12ft- ft 

"at a sr* 

14% 14ft 14% + ft 
5% 5ft 5% 

17ft 17 17%— ft 

13ft 13ft 13ft 
4ft 4ft <ft— ft 
3ft 3ft 3% 
lift 11% !1%— ft 


YtowR LOO 33 43837% 36% 36% — ft 
ZODLbB 2929 27ft 27ft— Vh 

Zantac IS4 4% 4 4 — % 

ZMftr .480 19 149m 12% 129k— % 
DonUt 13* 34 1234% 34% 34% 

ZifBl 33 5ft 5ft 5ft 

Zh od 24 7% 7 7 — % 

Zondvn J4 32 B6 Uft W% 18% — % 
gtww 544 2% 2 2ft— 1h 

ZyfrkK 248 Hfc 2 2% 


Secnrity Pacific 
Offers Electronics 

United has International 

NEW YORK — Security Pacific 
Cotp. announced Monday a new 
electronic information service that 
will provide up-to-the-minute 
quotes and chart programs in five 
heavily traded finaacal markets. 

Security Pacific Market Infor- 
mation, die new company, offers 
five different levels of sendee^ each 
featuring “stops" which enable (he 
user to program a price at which he 
wishes to buy or sdl an instrument 
—gold, for example, at 5300. 

An audio alarm and flashing 
screen tells when the predeter- 
mined price has been hit and ad- 
vises whether the user programmed 
to buy or sdl 


Singapore Trade Deficit Up 

Remen 

SINGAPORE — Singapore’s 
trade deficit in January widened to 
a pr eliminar y 829.6 million Singa- 
pore dollars (5365.8 million) from 
490.6 million in December, the 
.government statistical department 
said Monday. The figure was down 
on the 90S.7-mnUonrdoQar deficit 
recorded in January last year. 


Dollar 


3ft 3ft 
24ft 21% 
24% 24ft 
■ft 8ft 
34ft 





ft a 

r » r 


l*— Jr 









12ft 
121b 

1848 

9*1 1*4 99J3 9Mi 
M 9941 99.94 
9ft 17-4 9271 9947 
nib 






m 


Non Dollar 


JT'-rr 1 ' 


lift ra 

Wb 94 
9ft IK 
Uft J M 
l» W 
Wft 1 M 
fft 25-2 
W. *4' 
Oft sw 
Wft 2M 


Sr « iej'C! 

% ^ l£? 

hi 4vj cZL* 
^ ri. =H*93 S 

^ «DiJ I!2«r 

2 ? fSS" 
'I k' gsr 
Si kpJ* 

























































































Mondays 

AMEX 

Closing 


Voild 1 PJ4.- S.mooo 

Pm. 3 PM. *ol, 576*000 

Prev. nntoUdaiiHS ctasa 7JZM0 


TatHn include ttw not kmwMe prices 
UP to the CHKUM2 og Wall Street 
and do not retied late trades elsewhere 


HHctiLe* suck 


Ow YU. PE UOi Mad Ltw, OuaLDi'M 


416 FooOrm 
7W FeoMM 
2S11 Foote ■* 

4.1 Finnic 22 

U ForaCn9*M% 

IS Formic A .IS JIM 
IS F (tritC D 09 ON 
VI- FWMlL 31 

V FMDflll 

» From IPO U 17 
4U FraMIr 44 

14 FrtnEJ M 

s FimE n 
**h Frtona 60 27 II 
13 Frtmcti j SB 1.1 17 
Bfa FmlHO 

lofa Furvnn ii 


144 12*» 

13 9to 
3 34 

i3a no 

sBier n 

IS 27fa 

9 23 
13S 171% 
ltf life 

14 431% 

10 4V. 
4* 23fa 

M m 
IM MU 
ID 19fa 
130 1310 
40S in* 


11*0 IHfc+l 

040 PM— *0 
34 M -U 
no »v.— 1 % 

Mto MU— 310 
311k 23 + *0 
33 22 + U 

171% 1710 
Ilk Ilk 
4210 4310— kk 

010 41% 

33 231k + 1% 

710 7V0 
MIA MU 
1*00 1*4%— 10 
1340 131k— 10 
Ml* MU— fa 



Saaion Seam 

Hhjh LAw 


Oma HIM Low CtoM 


O HANOI JUICE f NYU) 

ISAHKm-CMtlMfllV 

»8SJ0 11U0 Mor 16*70 16970 164LM 169 JO 

MU» 1SUB MOV 171.15 I71t 40 17050 171J5 

IMPS 15500 Jut 1 71 00 17! JO 17075 17170 

1KJ0 IS7J5 SOP hub ntua 1497 a itojo 

1*1 JO 157 Jo NOV 1UL75 14*75 16*19 14*45 

11*00 15600 JSA M74S 

17750 ISAM Mar 16745 

14350 14*00 May 16745 

Jut M74S 

Eat. Sotos P raw. Seles 6 IS 

Prev. Day Open InL 47M oHl** 


2l%> 

9*0 

w*% 

1*4% 
«0 
>5*4. 
IB 

:tu 

Jfa 

m 

I s 

1S*% 
610 
13U 
• 341% 
Mu 

lou 

1410 


VU HU BC 50a 41 
7V% HcuiwH m *4 
2S(t Hanfrd .90 24 
IM Harvey 
9M HosCr & 

Kfa HaBWPf 
2sto Manlne 40a 10 
Ufa HimCrs 2J3e 97 
ifa Mimot 

131% HUnEx 
10M HdttlM 54 35 
ifa HeinWr Ton 12 
77% Hoi nick .10 7 

IV% Melw ISJlc 
31k HcJlont 
10 HolmR 
4U McrinO 
31% H inart 
9V> Hlptrwi 
3V. net mon 
6Vj HollyCp ,13e 15 
2SU Hor ml 1JB 17 

B0% HmHor 711 *5 
2 Ik Hrnhwt 771 *3 
110% HatlPty 172 105 
11% Hoi IP wt 
4fa HouOT 176*373 
8 HovnE 

6U Howfln 70o 17 
2Sfa HubFtB 156 34 
\tM UudGn 40 27 
7V. Husky a -U 


Ufa Ufa 
m 99 % 

371% 3644 
IM 11% 
2*fa 371% 
340. 34 
48U. 40 
301% 309% 
Bfa no 
144% 144% 
141k 141k 
*fa 9 
ISM 141% 
Ilk 11% 
7 4*fc 
1 1 
410 44% 
3V. Sfa 
149% 149% 
31% 31% 
BVk 71% 
nts 331% 
wm in% 
3VS 31% 
16k% 1% 
39k M 
49% 4fa 
161% Ufa 
119% im 
40M 40M 
IB9% IBM 
71% 79% 


Ufa— VO 
99% 

371%+ 1% 
116— fa 
301k— fa 
34 —1 
40—1% 

sn%+ fa 
•5k— M 
141% — fa 
14V. 

9V0 + Vk 
ISM + V% 

19% 

7+1% 

1 

49k— M 

3fa 

149k— fa 
31% — Vk 
81% + fa 
331% — Vi 
1Hk — fa 
Ifa— fa 
14 — M 
Kk- M 
49% 

16fa— fa 
Ufa— 9% 
40V7+ fa 
lflfa— 9% 
71% 


MM ICH 
41% ICO 
2M I PM 
66% IRTCpn 
4fa ISS 
190 IribGb 
Ilk itnpind 
254* impouo 
AM IntWrt 
19% instSy 
Ok InfCtvo 
5 littrde 
11 Intmk 

39% intBknt 
I inrBkwl 
Mk IntHvd 
•1% UP 
3V% IntPwr 
1 ImDta 
161% lontes 
184% IroqBrd 
3 isalvn 


75 3 17 

13 

0Sr 15 

22 

.13 20 70 

-10o 40 B 

150 

11 

» 

7>t BO ID 
.13 7 23 


3* 

J 9#85 » 


12 

14 

■OB 25 23 


B7 M2 lOlfa 
91 61% 69% 

n » M 

167 1B9% IBM 
19 Sfa 5fa 
Ita 21 % 3 fc 
67 29k 

3*n 324% 3Zfa 
O M M 
1639 JM 3 
24 M 014 
B « W 
Bs 141% 14 
Id 3M 3fa 
9 Ifa IM 

7 9M no 

N> rw> IBM 
2 496 41% 

16 19% 19% 

31 27fa 369% 

8 301% 301% 
B 3fa 3M 


1811%— fa 
6* + fa 
3t%— fa 
Ufa 

» 
2M+ M 
3ZM— M 
* 1 % 

2 — M 
04k— M 
81% 

14 — fa 
3M 
IM 

no— 1% 
im 
«u 
19% 

27 

309k— M 
3M 



Industrials 


Sfa 
2216 
JM 
Ufa 
84k 
35 
ISfa 
S6U 
2 M IM 
ISfa I0M 
6fa 2fa 


171% Ufa Jadvn 50b 15 f 
99% SV% Jocota 
16 109% Jhmmi .7 

5% 31% JatAm 4 

290 9% JetAwt 

bm 3M Jotren 0*r *1 16 

6M 20% JotviPd 
10M 7fa JatinAm JD 27 17 
7V. 4k% JmoJkn 6 


16 14M Ufa Ufa— Vk 
16 69% 69% 19% 

2 15M ISfa ISM 

% Hi 3 * V+* 

49 BM fl • + M 
2* Sfa 51% SM— M 
437 I1M lWfc II + M 
14 Sfa 59% 59%+ M 


496 11% 
Ufa 10 
1616 91% 

SM 3 
ini Ufa 
u im 

9M Sfa 
17 fa B 
IS s 
416 Sfa 
5M JM 
69% 3 
51k 2 V% 
39% 3Vk 
15 BM 
15M BM 
27M 21 


KovCp 70 
KearNn 50 : 
Kentm 

Konrrln 50a ■ 
Ketctun _HK ; 
KeyCa TO 1 
KavPn TO 
Key Co 
Kumwt 
Kinark 

R 

Ktoarvo JUr 

Keewh 

Knoll 

KooarC 132 i 


55 3 

103s Ufa 
50 Ufa 
I* 4 fa 
9 191% 


362 U)M 

5 * 


329 3V% 

5 Sfa 


12 149% 
136 Kfa 


216 214— fa 
I2M 129% + W 
131% 131% + fa 
4M 4M 
«* 19 — M 
ISM 151% + fa 
BM IM 
Ufa Ufa 
7 7 — H 

4M 4M— 1% 
4M 496— M 
3fa 310— M 
Sfa Sfa 
31% 3fa 
12fa 1396— M 
Ufa 149% + fa 
26M MM— fa 


4M ZM 
716 21% 
9110 3396 
1716 11 
•17 9M 
13 Bfa 
*96 21% 
S4fa 3Sfa 
6M Jfa i 
*M S 
31% Ifa 
3S96 21 
Ufa BM 
Ufa 6M 
16 10% 

S fa V90 
1% 12M 
1096 Bfa 


8 ” 
-15a 64 

-Me 3 11 

51 29 

B 

17 a 

TOo 5 11 4 

20 43 

7 1 

6 

IV *85 
58 J 1* 60 
10 110 
AM 34 9 BS 
4 30 

-H T 33 134 
TO 11 * 3 


210 2fa 
Sfa Sfa 
38 26 

T7fa 171% 
1296 12M 
12M 12M 
7fa 7M 
SOfa SO 
6 M 616 
7U 7M 
2fa 296 
3696 36fa 
1516 15 
17 1196 

1296 12 
I4M Ufa 
34M 32fa 
*96 ffa 


2fa 

5fa— M 
26 — 2fa 
17V% + M 
1296— M 
12M 

7fa— M 
10 — M 
6M— M 
7M+ M 
216 

3696+ fa 
15—1% 
12 

12 -fa 

14M 

33V. —16% 

*1%— M 


r, g 

R 



I 

EE 

iff 

[>J. . 


8 

rtr*: 

Mr* t 

feel 



44+16 
1396 — M 


FEEDER CATTLE (CME) 

44J00 lb*.- CHIOS ear lb. 

7475 6575 Mar 7070 71.18 

74TB 6750 Apt 7150 72T0 

7275 64.95 Stay 7158 7157 

7170 6658 Aug 7250 725S 

7ua 67 jo Sop tito tzm 

7232 67.10 Oct TITS 71JK 

733 7850 Nov 72J0 7250 

Est. Seles 2.905 Prey. Soles U74 
Prov. Dev Oeen ini. 11534 ettl*1 
HOOS (CME) 

3*880 Un.. cents per lb. 

5455 45l 1D Apr 4650 4657 

5550 4858 JWI 5155 51.90 

5577 4875 Jul 32JS S2J5 

S4T7 4750 Aug 5175 5175 

5175 4SJ0 Oct 47 JQ 47S8 

SOBS 4638 Dec 48.18 48.it) 

4170 46TS Feb 4755 4750 

4775 4550 Apr 4675 4625 

Est. Soles 7,156 Prey. Sotos *202 
Prew. Dcnr Open Int. 2*701 ott* 
PORK BELLIES (CME) 

3BJD0 lbs.- cents per lb. 
filJD «LM Mar «&» 6935 

82J0 61.15 May 69.15 6*57 

8257 62.15 Jut 6955 6*75 

8*55 6*20 Aua 6775 6755 

75.15 6*15 Feb 6*50 6950 

TX-iB 64J0 Mar 6*00 6BJ0 

Est Sales M42 Prey. 5a tot 5587 
Prev. Day Open mt 15578 oft 177 


Ufa %% 
7V» IM 
Ufa IM 



COFFEE C(HYCSCH) 






37400 Ib6- cunts par lb. 






151381 

12X58 

Mar 

14425 

14425 

1417* 

14250 

-130 

1 15X00 

T2201 

Mav 

14X50 

14301 

14075 

141-91 

— JS 

149 T0 

12100 

Jul 

HITS 

14200 

14030 

14107 

— .SQ 

147 JS 

177 JO 

Sop 

14*05 

M0L95 

73MB 

MOJO 

Jd 

14275 

129-25 

Dae 

139.50 

13*00 

13*40 

13065 


14100 

12*50 

Mar 

13775 

13775 

13775 

13776 

— 

13900 

13100 

Mar 




13700 

+.12 

i U650 

13550 

JM 




13602 

+51 

Eat. 5am 


Prev.Sota! 1040 




1 Pmt. Day Open im. 12J97 off 57 




SUQARWORLD ll(MYCSCE) 





1 11208010*- canto par lb. 






1340 

676 

Mar 

102 

309 

3J4 

107 

+01 

1650 

603 

Mav 

198 

682 

JJPO 

198 

—0* 

9.95 

637 

JM 

631 

60S 

4.22 

633 

—05 

*75 

473 

Sop 

657 

663 

*55 

663 

—05 

90S 

603 

Oct 

677 

402 

470 

476 

-00 

775 

540 

Jan 

577 

577 

536 

5T6 

-06 

9T3 

504 

Mar 

575 

500 

570 

576 

—09 

7.15 

615 

May 

607 

609 

603 

689 

— J6 

66* 

644 

Jul 

627 

627 

627 

634 

—04 

Est- Sotos 10080 Prev. Sotos IU47 




•I Prev.DovOpW) lot 06090 up 1.156 




COCOA (NY CSCE) 






1 io rnatrlc torn- Spar ton 






2570 

W8B 

Mar 

2115 

7166 

2105 

2165 

+39 

257® 

2020 

May 

2150 

2200 

2116 

2195 

•440 

1 2400 

2M9 

Jut 

2130 

2172 

2126 

2167 

+25 

2415 

2953 

Sap 

2110 

2155 

2110 

2US 

+20 

2337 

1*** 

Doc 

2030 

2049 

2015 

2045 

. +** 

214S 

2015 

Mar 

2015 

2020 

2006 

3038 

40 

2130 

2020 

May 

2020 

2020 

20QS 

203B 

43 

2035 


Jul 

20* 

2030 

2015 

2038 

40 

Eat Sates 


Prev. Salas '540 




l Prav.DavOpon InL 23T63 up3S5 





US T. BILLS (UNM) 

*1 million- Pt9 of 100 pet. 

*221 8739 Mar *151 915S 

V1JB1 87.14 Jtm VU8 *1.12 

9133 86.94 3a*i 9054 9054 

9*90 85.77 Dec 9078 90TB 

9055 B66D MOT 9001 9000 

9*Z7 B7J1 Jim 8*76 BVT4 

9*00 BUB See 8757 8*57 

B953 89.19 Dec 8*57 89 JO 

Eat. Sales Prev. Sales 16856 

Prav.pavOeM Int. 46580 upM 

M YR. TREASURY ICBT) 

TUOJOO pr m- Pts * SlmtoM UO pet 
83 JO-25 Mar 79-13 79-18 

82-3 JM Jbb 7S-5B 78-23 

8V13 75-18 Sep 7MB 7701 

U®-32 VS-U Dec 

BOB 75-11 Mar 76-14 76-22 

TV-26 77-22 Jim 

Est. Sains Prev. Sotos 13561 

Prev. Dav Ophi int 4*^29 up no 

US TREASURY BONDS (C0T3 
(8 pcWnaUHIeta RTtadsaf 180 pci) 
77-15 57-27 Mar 69-23 69-30 

W-S5 S7-3J Jun 6MI 68-30 

762 57-10 S«> 6B-7 «4 

765 57-8 Dec 67-11 67-17 

M 57-2 Mar 66-73 66-28 

JQ-16 5639 Jun 66-15 66-15 

TO- 3 56-29 Sap 66 66-2 

69-26 56-25 Dec .65-23 65-94 

69-12 56-27 Mar 65-U 65-15 

69-2 663 Jim 64-30 65-7 

40-26 64-21 Sep 

Esl Sates Prev.Sates»SUm 

Prev. Dov Open lntTZ7J4B up 1567 

OMMA(CBT) 

SI 80500 prU-DtsBi 32nds of 100 pet 
JO-17 57-5 Mar 6+4 6+9 

89-27 57-17 Jim 68-15 68-17 

69-4 59-13 SiP 67-23 67-27 

I 68-13 SM D#C 67-4 67-f 

68 5828 Mor 6420 66-32 

67-i 58-25 Jun 66-4 66-S 

47-3 65-21 Sep 

Est. Sales Prey. Sales *00 

Prev. Day Open inL 5-484 off 102 

CERT. DEPOSIT (IMM) 

SI mUllon- pteof 100 pd 
*17B BMJ Mor 90J3 *087 

7170 B5J0 jun 9*11 9*11 

fS^S BSJU Stp BVJS 89T5 

9*17 8574 Dec 

8971 8*56 Mar 

89-46 BM3 Jun 

1*48 B7J6 Sep 8*79 BBT9 

E it. Sales Prev. Sales 1714 

Ptw. Dav Open Ini. 12757 dH9 

EURODOLLARS (IMM] 

SI mllllon-ptaoj iDOpct. 

9178 K.U Mar 9*45 9*50 

mss 8279 Jun B9.JTJ 8974 

9*33 B4T3 Sep 89.16 W.19 

mm 8480 Dec 8872 8*78 

B9J8 8610 Mar 8*41 8*4* 

89.15 8673 Jun B*14 U73 


jOO 



1 


Stock Indexes 


(Indexes compiled simrttv before market dose) 

SP COMP. INDEX (CME) 
polntsand cants 

18555 15370 Mar 17950 18*75 17BJS 18*30 +.15 

18873 156.10 Jtm 11005 18425 18275 18185 +75 

1*170 15*00 Sep 1G63I 18670 185T0 1B670 —JS 

19490, 17570 DOC 18975 18975 18975 18975 —75 

Est. Sotos Prev. Sotos 56159 

Prev. Day Open InL 56J15 

VALUE LUBE (KCBT) 
points and ewita 

20680 18*10 Mar 1NU0 19*75 1*780 19*25 —AO 

21*80 17200 Jun 20265 20205 30175 20250 —30 

Es t . Bales Prev. Sales 1492 

Prvv.DoyOpwi Int. 7JMB up 237 

NYSE COMP. INDEX (NYFE) 
polntsand cents 

U*00 BBTD Mar 10405 10455 10200 KRAS +70 

109.95 9*00 Jun 10615 W758 I05B5 10680 +75 

I1M0 9175 Sen 10*05 109.10 WEBS I0*M +45 

112*5 101 TO DSC 109*5 111 JO 109*5 11178 +85 

Est. Salem Prey. Sales u.101 

Prev. Day Open Int 1*50* up 46 


Commodity Indexes 


CIom Previous 

Moody's 94440 f 960.001 

Reuters .2JH2.10 £025. 10 

DJ. Futures NJL 12*76 

Com. Resaorch Bureau- N7X. 24000 ■ 

Moody's : Dose 100 : Dec. 31. 1931. 
p-Drellmlnary; f-flnol 
Reuters : base 100 : Sep. 18, 1931. 

Dow Jones ; base )00 ; Dec 3), 1974. 


Market Guide 


89.15 8673 Jun B*14 BX__ 

86*4 B7JB Sep 87.91 H7.91 

8977 B74S DSC 8773 i»77 

Est Sates Prev. Sotos areas 

Prev. Dov Open lnt.186125 O024BS 


fa 

21% — V% 
2W%+ fa 
t m 

91% — fa 
4fa— fa 
61% 

3M%— V% 

iiw + v% 


9M— fa 
I7V> — fa 
15M- fa 
7 

Sfa 

5M 

21 % 

Ufa— fa 
2M%— fa 
61% 


Asian Commodities 
Feb. 25 


4H 

2Vj UNA 


7 

6 

3 

3 

3 

244% 

Bfa Ultrnto 


10 

384 

124k 

12fa 

124% + fa 

fa 

1 % Unieonp 


15 

502 

fa 

fa 

fa 

ISfa 

111% Unkppf 

7S 11 


11 

144% 141% 

14fa 

Ufa 

Bfa UnJmrn 

-Sto ST 


394 

91% 

*fa 

*fa+ fa 

21 

Mu uAIrPd 

54b X9 

18 

32 

IF* 

1B4% 

184% — 4% 

31% 

11% UFoadA 

.10 50 25 

4 

2 

2 

2 

Sfa 

Ifa U FoodB 


22 

1 

Ifa 

Ifa 

Ifa 

15 

101% UtMod 

-651 6* 

IS 

T4 

Ufa 

Ufa 

1346+ fa 

22fa 

101% USAGkrf 



a 

2ito 

211% 

2I«— fa 

Bfa 

61 % UnJtetv 

.941165 

13 

34 

a% 

64% 

61% 

Ufa 

16fa unlhrB 1000c 


21 

21 fa 211% 

21fa— fa 

13*% 

Tfa UnvCffl 


IS 

4B 

ms 

llfa 

tlfa + 1% 

184% 

Sfa UnlvRl 


32 

09 

81% 

Bfa 

Bfa 

ISfa 

91% Unvpat 



20 

ISfa 

15 

15fa+ fa 


16 

44 

Bfa 

Bfa 

Bfa — fa 

1 .10 5 10 

341 

194% 

194% 

194% — fa 


30 

Ifa 

146 

14k— fa 

> B2 

442 

584% 53 

53 —3 

7*t 65 11 

204 

IB 

17fa 

174%— 46 

39 65 « 

633 

ISfa 

ISfa 

T516 — fa 

lJOa 63 10 

206 

19Vk 

181% 

l*fa 

B 02 10 IS 

*39 

3Bfa 

JTfa 

3816— fa 

-25k 5.1 4 

38 

5 

446 

4fa— fa 

' 22 U 1* 

29 

151% 

1546 

1546— fa 

100 1U 8 

38 

13V1 

Ufa 

1316— fa 


» 

Ifa 

Ifa 

Ifa 

8 

B4 

11 

Wk 

11 

1 

2 

2>4 

2fa 

2fa 

11 

51 

2fa 

24% 

2V% 

i 7 

43 

13 

Ufa 

12 

a 

38 

1446 

Ufa 

14VS— fa 

> 6 

27 

34% 

3fa 

3fa— fa 

t 

ID 

1 

1 

1 

9 

21 

101% 

Ufa 

104%— fa 


2B 

lDfa 

Ufa 

Ufa— 4% 


10V, 

94% VST n 




65 

ID 

94k 

IB + V% 

241% 

ISfa VOilvR 

172 

u 

8 

2 

24 

24 

24 

274% 

151% VolHTB 

M 

10 

14 

3* 

2716 

264% 271%— fa 

134% 

44k Vkrfctm 




317 

51% 

Sfa 

Sfa + fa 

Sfa 

24% Vertt 



15 

12 

Sfa 

3 

Sfa + fa 

231% 

144% VtAmC 

08b 17 

10 

30 

311% 

2116 

2146— 4% 

B 

34% VtRsh 




16 

Sfa 

Sfa 

Sfa— 4% 

Ifa 

4% Verm 




5 

46 

fa 

fa— 1% 

Ufa 

Ufa Vomtl 

TO 

10 

10 

42 

121% 

in* 

12*1— fa 

Bfa 

34% Vortpto 

.10 

IT 


66 

Sfa 

Sfa 

51%- fa 

104% 

44% Vhrttctl 




7 

9fa 

*4% 

9fa— fa 

9fa 

Sfa vkan 



13 

83 

Bfa 

8 

Bfa + fa 

7 

24k vrirtuk 




13 

446 

44% 

4fa— fa 

ISfa 

llfa Vhxx> 

04T 

T 

9 

9 

184% 

imi 

IBfa+ fa 

Ifa 

61 % vtoualC 

T8 

u 

12 

20 

74% 

.25 

74% 

!*fa 

124% VuicCp 

00 

4T 

IB 

4 

I*M 

IVto 

l*fa— »% 


Volume: 1 lots of 25 tons. 
Source- Reuter* 


Ufa OEA 
14V. Ookwd 
4 Odd A n 
4fa OdelBs 
* OhArt 
IM Oftaiod 
ISfa Olsten 
3t% DOfctoP 
51% OrWHA 
Sfa DHolH a 
1 Orm on d 
219% OSullvn 
61% OxfrdF 
JbkOarkH 


13 

JMb A 13 

65 

66 

74 IS 1* 
HO 28 15 
78 IT U 


72 21 13 
42f 4.9 » 
TO 21 V 


18 22V, 

15 20*% 
221 Bfa 

47 Bfa 
1 ISfa 
10 201% 
(0 2593 
9 6 

5 Tfa 
V Tfa 
29 tfa 

16 35 

22 «r 

136 9fa 


2lfa— fa 
20fa— fa 
Bfa +1 
Bfa +11% 
ISfa 

201%+ fa 
25 — fa 
Sfa— fa 
Tfa 

7fa— fa 
Ifa— fa 
34fa 

Bfa— lb 
9fa— fa 


i FPA 33 

i POftlnd 43 28 7 
I FtConn 100a M 7 
FWrmB JO U 11 
i R#®P 69 12 
i pitcGs a 

i FNGEi pi 600 154 
i Fla Ret J0 II W 
i Fluke Uet 48 !Z 


421 Ufa Ufa Ufa +1 
5 171% ITfa 17V% + fa 
3 161% Iff** Ufa 
2 Ufa 12fa Ufa— 1% 
4x Ufa Ufa Ufa + fa 
B 9 turn V 
14 26fa 25fa fa 
40 40 sm J*fa- fa 

W 3914 29 2* 



21 34 

40 14 U 31 
40 29 8 6 

.16 4 16 5652 

.11 4 M 10 

30 
7 26 

36 IT 15 133 
148 64 21 IS 
TO 20 S f 

UA 

2A2 14J 4 

J2. .1 14 iS 

.12 25 31 71 

14 35 

1 
II 

62 U I 1* 


Tfa— fa 
24fa— fa 
Ufa— fa 
25%%— fa 
25fa— Ifa 
Ifa 

•fa— fa 
93fa— Ifa 
25+1% 
9*fc 

Sfa— fa 
ISfa— fa 
2V. — fa 
4 

ISfa— fa 

41k 

12V.— fa 
Tfa— fa 
3 

24%%— fa 
11%— fa 
Ufa— fa 
Wto + 1% 
Ufa— fa 
15 - fa 
Ufa— fa 
271% — fa 
23fa+ fa 
3 + fa 
ISfa— fa 
Ifa 

22fa- fa 
31% 

Ufa + fa 
13*% 

4V%— fa 

15*%+ fa 

Ufa— fa 

201% + fa 

Ifa— Mi 


$fa Yank Co 10 49 7fa 7V» 


5*% Zlmer .10 IT 51 7fa 7fa 7fa + fa j 


Osram Planning 
Overseas Growth 

Rollers 

ALPHEN. The Netherlands — 
Osram GmbH, the Siemens AG 
unit that is a major lighi'bulb man- 
ufacturer, plans to increase its pro- 
duction and distribution outside 
Europe, especially in Japan and the 
United States, its managing direc- 
tor. Helmut Plainer, said Monday. 

Speaking to reporters visiting 
Osram’s Dutch plant, Mr. Plettner 
said Osram was interested in seek- 
ing partners in Japan tut that it 
would want at least a 51 -percent 
share in any joint venture. He gave 
no further details. 

Mr. Plettner sm'd Osram also saw 
opportunities Tor increased busi- 
ness in the United States. Last year, 
the company said it would spend S4 
million (about 51,05 million at cur- 
rent exchange rates) to build a U.S. 
plant for lamp production. 


London Commodities 
Feb. 25 

F Inures In sterling per metric Ion. 
Gasoil In U.S. dollar* per metric ton. 
Gold In U.S. dolton per ounce. 


Well Law CtoM previous 
SUGAR 

Mar 11*60 107 JO ID* J0 lion 111 JO 11140 
MOV 115JM 112*0 1I4J0 1T42D IliMJ 1I6J0 
Aua 12340 171 JO 122JD 12270 1ZLB0 124J0 
Oct 131.40 12*48 13*00 13*40 13140 13200 
D*c N.T. N-T. 13608 13740 138 JO IM 
Mar 152SS 151 TO 151 JW 152® 153JB 15440 
May 157 JO 157 JO 15*00 15940 16*00 16140 
2430 lots at 50 tons. 

COCOA 

Mar 2222 *181 2723 2724 2I« 2.1B4 
MOV 2736 2184 2723 2725 2178 2.17V 
Jly 2706 2M4 2205 2706 2161 1162 
BM 2118 2146 21B5 2188 2143 2144 
D«C 2JS7 2016 2057 2062 2511 1015 
Mar 2047 2005 20U 2018 2003 1GS8 
MOV 2035 2885 2030 1045 1,996 1005 
4457 lots of 10 tan* 

COFFEE 

Mar 2412 2380 2410 2415 2372 1373 
MOV 2468 2430 2453 2458 2416 1418 
Jly 2490 2465 2488 2489 2447 2450 
SCP 2520 2490 2JS6 2S20 24JS 2477 
Nav 7 , ‘■35 2500 9. 928 ? T VW 2485 24B8 
Jon 2513 2500 2515 253) 2475 24U 
KMT N.T. N.T. 24H 2520 2460 2480 
5787 tats at 5 Ions. 

OABOIL 

Feb 265J0 254J0 25250 25600 26075 26608 
Mar 23250 277.TS 228J0 22875 23275 23250 
API 71600 21340 21575 215J0 21625 21675 
Mov 21250 209 JO 211 M 211TS 21025 2)175 
Jun 211 JO 299J0 21075 21*50 211 JO 21 130 
Jly 211 JO 20608 2D9J0 211 J8 211 JO 21150 
Aua 211 JO 211 JO 209 JO 215108 Z1U00 21600 
Sap N-T. N.T. 209 JO 22*00 311 JO 22*00 
Oct N.T. N.T. 2D9J0 22500 211 JO 22200 
1508 lots 0(100 tom. 

Sources: RmOenmd London Petroleum Ex- 
chonsik (HQOfl). 


London Bletals Feb. 25 

Figures in sterling per metric ton, 
Silver In pence per trev ounce. 


Today Prevtout 

Hloti erode copper aatnodas; 
spot 176* JO 177*00 176*80 176900 

3 months 1791 JO 1791 JD 179000 179*50 
Cooper cathodes; 

soot 176600 176600 1764 JO 176600 

3 months 178SJ0 1JB7J0 1TB5J0 178700 
Tin: seat HLiaSJOWtl 45001 0055001*06*00 
3 months tali*001*l65J01IUH6J010JDOje 
Lsadisaat 33U0 33650 33SJ0 23650 

3 months 34600 347 JO 344JO 34650 

Zlncikpal 83*00 832J0 82500 B30JO 

3 months 81650 B16J0 BOV J0 81*00 

Binm-ispal 52100 52600 55750 55650 

3 months 54*08 54205 57600 S770O 


Paris Commodities 
Feb. 25 

5ugor in French Francs Per metric to* 
Otter Rowe* in Francs per 100 k* 


High Lew Close 

SUGAR 

May 1415 1481 1405 1405 

Aua 1-500 14S9 1489 1J00 

Oct 1J45 1J40 1J44 1JS4 

Dec tLT. N.T. 1A1D 1425 

Mar 1725 1715 1710 1725 

May N.T. N.T. 1765 I7» 

EM. wot: 1JJ00 lots Of 50 tons- Prev. < 
soles: 1064 lots. Open Interest: 18013 
COCOA 

Mar 2445 2790 2425 2434 

May 242S 2TB5 2480 240B 

Jly N.T. N.T. 2780 — 

Sea N.T. N.T. — STBS 

Dec N-T. H.T. — 2730 

MOT N.T. N.T. — 2720 

MBV N.T. N.T. — 2T20 

EM. val.: 130 tots at 10 tom. Prev. t 
sates: 89 kit* Open Interest: 1JM 
COFFEE 

Mar 2J90 2J7D 2770 2J90 

MOV 2460 2440 2440 2470 

Jly N.T. NLT. 2480 — 

50P 2738 2730 WOO — 

Nav N.T. N.T. W — 

Jan N.T. N.T. 2470 £720 

Mar N.T. K.T. 2460 2725 

Est voL: 19 lets Pi 5 tons. Prev. t 
sales: 12 lot* Open Interest: 174 
Source: Bourse du Commerce. 


DM Futures Options 
Feb. 25 

% Gem JttoW2MB ttt mort 


StHka Cato. Sktito PvtoSettte 

pries mv Jm Sept Mar Jw Sept 

28 L14 172 - 009 *46 — 

29 044 1.12 145 U 19 Ml 

38 *11 *71 1.16 1JS 1JB 1T1 

21 *03 843 OBI 1.95 206 2.12 

32 001 82S 859 VM 235 160 

33 100 *14 US 6« 174 640 

estboBtea tetol »Bi 7480 
Cam: FrL rtl. 69640PM tot 59797 
Puts : Fit voL 2J26 opoa lot 2102* 

Source: CME. 


Cash Prices Feb. 25 


CoamodH* and Unit 

Cotton 4 Santas, lb 

PrtotcJom 44730 38 Vj. yd . 
Steel billets (Pitt.i. ton_ 
iron 2 Fdrv. Phila. ton — 
5teel Serov Nol trwv Pitt. 
Load Spat, lb — ■ 

Capper alacL. lb _____ 

Tin I Straits), lb — — 

Zinc. E. St. L. Basis, lb _ 
Panodlatn. m ■■■ 

Silver M-Y_oz 

Source: AP. 



3 months 34600 347 JO 344 JO 34650 

ZUnc:spol 83*00 832 J 0 82500 03*00 
3 months B 1 SJ 0 B 16 J 0 BOV 00 B 16 J 0 
Sliver; soot 52200 52600 SS 7 J 0 55650 
3 months 54*08 5420 B 57600 S 770 O 

Aluminium: 

Spot UB3J0 1J24J0 1015JD 1J16J0 

2 month* I 05 S 0 O MS 8 J 0 MSO 00 MS 10 O 
Nktacspal 4 J 23 J 0 6835 J 0 4 J 3 DJ 0 476000 

3 months 404700 405*00 476500 476600 
Sourer: Reuters. 


Shipb uilding Restraints 
Are Extended in Japan 

Reuters 

TOKYO — Japan's Transport 
Minister said Monday that it has 
extended a two-year curb on ship- 
building for another two years, 
from April 1. 

Ministry officials said the exten- 
sion was approved by the Shipping 
and Shipbuilding Rationalization 
Council, an industry advisory 
group. 



United Press International 

TOKYO — Prices on the Tokyo 
Stock Exchange, buoyed by heavy 
buying, rase to yet another record 
Monday. The Nikltd-Dow Jones 
average of 225 selected issues 
gained 29.12 yen, to dose at a re- 
cord 12001.04, The TSE index of 
all listed stocks was up 4.1 7 points, 
to 961.02. 


VeKe Economy 

Reuters 

LONDON — British economic 
growth is quickening and the de- 
cline of the pound is boosting ex- 
ports, according to two studies 
published Monday. 

The reports, appearing three 
weeks before the annual budget, 
supported the Conservative gov- 
ernment's view that sustained re- 
covery was under way but brought 
little cheer to the unemployed. 

A report by the London Business 
School said economic growth 
would rise to 3 J parent this year 
from 15 percent in 1984, while in- 
flation would stay close to its pre- 
sent 5 percent. 

Unemployment, currently 3.2 
million or 13 percent of the work 
force, would remain at or above 3 
million until 1988, it forecast 

The Confederation of British In- 
dustry, meanwhile, said in a report 
that export order books were at 
their highest in seven years, largely 
thanks to the weaker pound, which 
was at S 1.0558 in late trading in 
London on Monday. 





































































Page 22 



ACROSS 


1 Opponent 
5 Object 


10 Strmble 

14 Kind of doth 
15MaJ$ethe 

Alpine echoes 
ring 

15 Home at the 
Baylor Bears 

17 Hebrew letter 

18 Homeland of 
Icarus 

19 Pizza-parlor 
necessity 

20 Rocket 
component 

22 Hash house 

24 Flat or pump 

25 Bouffant 
hairdo 

26 "Once . 

twice shy” 

29 Puritan 

33 Biblical 
prophet 

34 Mar 

36 Norse 
navigator 

37 Oahe is one 

38 Scandinavian 
coin 

39 Set 

40 Bavarian river 
42 Window 

adjunct _ 

44 Story of the 
Forsytes 

45 Small 
bouquets 

47 Curdling agent 
& New York 


49 John Irving 
protagonist 

50 Sino-Tibetan . 
language 

51 Consternation 
54 Having a snub 

snout 

58 American 
author: 1909-55 

59 Terry or 
Burs'tyn 

61 Tiny opening 

62 Rainbow 

63 Heckle 

64 Common Lat. 
catchall 

65 Glass 

66 Rendezvous 

67 Pretty girl 

DOWN 


1 Actor Arkin 

2 

contendere 

3 Connections 

4 Swarms over 

5 Magnates 

6 Lena or 
Marilyn 

7 fixe 

(obsession) 

8 Hockey item 

9 Jubilant 
10 Describing 

some cars 
Zl Talk 

unintelligibly 

12 Baker's aide 

13 Yankee 
Doodle's 
mount 

Tones, edited by Eugene Mahaka. 


Z 26-05 

21 Guevara 
■23 "Where the 

Boys 

1961 song 

25 E.T. or 
Starman 

26 Spa in Austria 

27 Insect stage 

28 Heavy 
literature? 

29 Godunov of 
opera 

38 Sing-along 
instrument 

31 Blockade 

32 Brilliance 
35 Hydra or sea 

anemone 

41 Go back 

42 Wimpole 
Street resident 

43 Police play 

44 Pried 
46 Federal 

watchdog 

for any 
earth rial point 
56 Surmise 

51 Greet 

52 Legendary 
monster 

53 Restrain 

54 Disport 

55 Explorer 

De 

56 Of an age 

57 Farmer’s 
locale, In a 
song 

60 Celtic sea god 


DENNIS THE MENACE 



'HowOLDlSjDEYk 
BABY SISTER 2* 


'She's still zero.* 


I THAT SCRAMBLED WORD GAME 
1 9 by Henri Arnold and Bob Lee 


Unscramble these tour Jumbles, 
one letter to each square, to lorm 
tour ordinary words. 



FUTOL 



o 

U 


SINVIO 



_U 



■craiiioan 



■1 


WHAT HE V/A‘S 
POING TIME FOR. 


Now arrange the circled letters lo 
form the surprise answer, as sug- 
gested by I he above cartoon. 


‘ TiniT rniiTi 


Yesterday’s 


(Answers tomorrow) 

Jumbles: COUC FIORD BROKEN HAMPER 
Answer What a man who can’t bear children 
undoubtedly Is— NORMAL 


WEATHER 


EUROPE 

HIGH 

' LOW 



C 

F 

C 

F 


Alparra 

15 

59 

13 

55 

sh 

AmUeiTinra 

10 

50 

- J 

2/ 

0 


6 

41 

0 

32 

d 


13 

55 


25 

d 

Betarode 

-3 

27 

-9 

7* 

Cl 


S 

41 


37 

a 


10 

so 

2 

36 

a 

Buchared 

>4 

25 

17 

1 

ir 


Budapest 
Copenhagen 
Costa Del Sot 
DafaRn 
Edhiborali 
Florence 
Frankfurt 
Caeevu 
Helsinki 
Istanbul 
Ln Polnn 
Lisbon 


mbUtm 

MRan 

Moscow 

MUPlCll 

Wee 

Oslo 

Pari* 


0 39 D 32 

15 SO 12 54 

9 48 - 4 25 

4 39 -4 25 

15 59 0 32 

■ 46 - 3 23 

4 39 *4 21 

• 6 21 -13 10 nr 

-3 27 - 3 27 sw 

2D 68 15 59 lr 

M 57 ID SO « 

9 48 4 39 U 

10 SB 5 41 a 

3 36 


I 46 


• 7 19 -IB 0 
2 36 -6 21 


M 57 6 43 

0 33 -8 18 


RevUavIfc 
Rome 
Stockholm 
5b tulwars 
Venice 
Vienna 
Warsaw 
Zurich 

MIDDLE EAST 


B 46 4 39 
4 39 3 36 


1 34 -1 30 nr 
fr 
lr 
a 
fr 


77 63 4 43 
-1 30 -12 10 
8 46 *1 30 
1 34 
1 34 
36 - 4 25 
45 -1 30 


9 48 
8 46 
2 
7 


Ankara 

Beirut 

Damascus 

Jarasaiem 

Tel AVW 

OCEANIA 

Auckland 
Sydney 


-5 23 -11 12 fr 

14 57 11 52 91 

— — — — na 

6 43 4 39 r 

12 St 9 48 r 


ASIA 

HIGH 

LOW 



C P 

c 

F 


Ban*u* 

32 90 

34 

75 

cl 

Belling 

2 36 

-a 

18 

Cl 

Hang Kon;) 

U 61 

13 

a 

r 

Manna 

29 64 

25 

77 

d 

New Dean 

26 79 

14 

57 

tr 

Seoul 

1 34 

-6 

21 

fr 

seamuMl 

3 37 

1 

34 

r 

Stonpore 

36 97 

26 

79 

a 

Taipei 

18 64 

14 

61 

r 

Tokyo 

9 48 

S 

41 

tr 

AFRICA 





AMlers 

17 63 

9 

48 

0 


3Q 86 

9 

48 

fr 

Cnee Towp 

23 73 

15 

64 

fr 

Casttmw 

» 55 

J) 

52 

0 


27 B1 

U 

61 

d 

Logos 

29 84 

25 

71 

d 

eSESrafei 

U 73 

U 

55 

lr 

TDIM6 

13 X 

4 

39 

a 

LATIN AMERICA 



BdHMiAlras 

2S 77 

20 

U 

ef 

Lima 

24 75 

21 

» 

a 

Mextooaty 

26 79 

6 

43 

fr 

Rio de JsiRiIro 

29 84 

34 

75 

a 

Son Paulo 

— — 

— 

— 

no 

NORTH AMERICA 



Anchorage 

4 25 

•9 

16 

Sw 

Atlanta 

18 6< 

IS 

59 

r 

Boston 

10 SO 

10 

» 

0 

Ottawa 

6 43 

•1 

30 

BC 

Denver 

10 50 

-7 

28 

PC 

Dotrett 

6 43 

0 

32 

BC 

Honoteto 

29 82 

20 

a 

fr 

HOMf» 

15 W 

9 

46 

cl 

LOSASSSIM 

2S 77 

9 

48 

fr 

Miami 

27 SI 

21 

70 

PC 

Mimeo^Ut 

6 43 

■2 

28 

PC 

MMlrenl 

•1 34 

0 

32 

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Noma u 

27 81 

20 

60 

fr 

MWYM 

U SS 

11 

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19 66 

9 

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Seattle 

9 48 

4 

39 

d 

Toronto 

9 48 

2 

36 

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Wostangtou 

19 66 

9 

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pc 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 26, 1985 


PEANUTS 


1 1 CANT BELIEVE LUCY 
ICEMENTEP MY BLANKET 
IlNTO THIS ROCK WALL! 

7 


youpontneep your 

BLANKET ANH’ MOKE ..YOU 
SAID 50 Y0UR5ELF...TM5 
ROCK Mil 15 Wl )R THERAPY. . 



II 1 1405 UIT8M Fi Sv'wLs.ilc | 


EVERY TIME Y 0U NAVE A 
LITTLE STRESS IN YOUR 
LIFE. YOU CAN COME OUT 
HERE ANP ADP A FEU 
K0CK5 TO YOUR WALL... 



THERE A RENT 
MANY ROcfeS 
THE LUORLPj 



BOOKS 


THE NIGHT OF THE OLD 
SOUTH BALL: 

And Other Essays and Fables 


By Edwin M. Yoder Jr. 24Spp. SI 3.95 
Yoknapaiawpha Press , P. 0. Box 248, 
Oxford, Miss. 38655. 


student life, coupled with the sheer exhilara- 
tion that comes from learning. At Chapel Hill, 
he feasted on banquets of Shakespeare, Dick- 
ons, and Faulkner (spaced with copious por- 
tions of Mencken), serroiujj by noi 


BLONDIE 



BEETLE BAILEY 


THAT'S THE TENTH 
©UY I'VE CALLEP 
TO PLAY ©OLF 
TOPAYANPTHEY 
ALL HAP SOME 
FLIMSY EXCUSE 



Reviewed by James H. Jones 

E DWIN Yoder fans, and adnrirere of good 
writing everywhere, will wdcorne the pub- 
li cation of “The Night of the Old South BalL” 
An altogether engaging book, it offers a 
deftly chosen selection of columns, essays, and 
book reviews published over the last 20 years 
by Edwin M. Yoder Jr., the Pulitzer Prize- 
winning journalist and former editorial page 
editor oi the Washington Star who is now 
syndicated by The Washington Post Company. 

Anyone who reads his column knows that 
Yoder is. to the marrow of his bones, a native 
of North Carolina. His affection for the stale 
forms a recurring theme in his work, ln fact, if 
journalism had not claimed him. one suspects 
Lhat he could make a living as a short-story 
writer of the local-color variety. Several of the 
most delightful pieces reprinted in this book 
are scenes from everyday life, handled uncom- 
monly wrfL 

For all but ihe gifted few, ii takes a lot of 
hard work to wri te this well. Good writing is an 
acquired skilL one which Yoder has spent a 
good deal of his life mastering. He began his 
-journalism career in the 1 950s at the Umversty 
of North Carolina, where he served as the 
editor of the Daily Tar Heel His love for the 
“Unquiet Olympus" of Chapel Hill was forged 
from a thousand memorable experiences of 


23 73 H 61 a 

25 77 17 63 lr 

cl-cioudv; fo-fowv: tr-Mr: it* tail; twmeast; iKOOrUr cloudy; r-raln; 
sh-showars: sw-snow; al -stormy. 


TUESDAY'S FORECAST — CHANNEL; Smooth. FRANKFURT: Cloudy. 


(■6 — 73i. Seoul: Fosav. Tama- 1 — • 9 (34 r- 14). SINGAPORE: Fair. Tama 
31 — ts in — 771. TOKYO: Fair. Tamp. 10 — 2 tso — Zai. 


ANDY CAPP 


Solution to Previous Puzzle 



BE3 EIO 

■ngi 

in 

IhH 


sots whose pedagogical skill and in 
vigor left him hopelessly smitten for life by 
good writing. Thus, it is not 'surprising that 
some of the best pieces in “The Night of the 
Old Sooth BalTare highly discriminating es- 
says on the relationship between literature and 
culture. And somewhere along the line (per- 
haps during his academic sojourn as a Rhodes 
Scholar at Oxford), Yoder became a fierce 
defender of the En glish language against cul- 
tural barbarians of vdtflte^SZpe/E^erially 
noteworthy in this regard is his essay “Rain 
English,” a rin g in g a ffirma tio n of firm stan- 
dards in the written and spokenword. 

Yet whatever hold literature has on Yoder, 
his heart belongs to history. With typical mod- 
esty, be admits to suffering from a ^masrie’s 
relish for facts," a statement that belies both 
the depth and the richness of his knowledge of 
the past Yoder is extremely weQ versed in 
American history, but like so' many southern 
intellectuals, he is preoccupied with his native 
South. And as befits a scholar-turned ^ oomal- 
ist, he is absolutely steeped in the best scholar- 
ship on the region. 

la addition to valuing history Tor its own 
sake, Yoder uses the past to ifliimmate the 
present His essays on contemporary politics 
are punctuated with historical references and 
analogies that add a special luster to his writing 
and richness to his analysis. Equally impor- 
tant he is a self-appointed watchdog on the 
misuse of insttxy in a society that is becoming 
depressingly ignorant of its past “The Night or 
the Old South Ball" abounds with examples of 
Yoder's spirited defease of the historical re- 
coni against politicians (and fellow journalists, 
as Tom Wicker can attest) who misread the 
past or attempt to bend it to partisan advan- 




03130001 
□HQ 
ana 
□na 
DCJQ 


HOB 

□na 

ana 

□□a 


in case any readers have acquired the 
impression that Yoder is a priggish don, let me 
hasten to add that he wears his learning lightly. 
His erudition is more than balanced by ms 
gentle sense of humor, not to mention his zest 
for life, ft i$ hard not to take a shine to a man 
who admits to gong "On a Gilbert and Sulli- 
van Toot” every now and then, or who can 
make us understand why we find ourselves 
captives erf “Scarlet With Toothpaste” every 
angle time “Gone With the Wind" appears on 
the late-night show. 


James H. Jones, author of “ Bad Blood: The 
Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment, " teaches Ameri- 
can history at the university of Houston. Be 
wrote this review for The Washington Past 


CHESS 


By Robert Byrne 


REX MORGAN 



GARFIELD 



fWHAT'5 THE ONLV SUBSTANCE ) 

on earth harper than 




I© 19S5 United Figure Syndicate. Inc 


H OW often does one hear 
after a game: “1 don't un- 
derstand bow I could have bun- 
gled the opening the way 1 did. 
I have played it dozens of times 
before and I know what's 
right" But it’s not what you 
know in the quiet of your study 
amid tomes, pamphlets and 
periodicals on the openings 
that counts, but wtmt you do 
under the pressure of play. 

The Swedish international 
master Lars Schneider was baf- 
fled by his tempo-squandering 
opening error after losing to his 
countryman, the international 
master Tom Wedbeig, in the 
second round of the Reylgavik 
international Tournament in 
1984. While Wedberg discount- 
ed his victoiy because of the 
error, his excellent attacking 
play belied his modesty. 

In the Velimirovic Attack 
against the Sicilian Defense, 
the correct way for Black to 
conduct the defease is 
9 ... B-K2; 10WMK0-0; 11 
P-N4, N-Q2; 12 P-N5, N-B4. 
This has been shown in a host 
of games, and Schneider knows 
than all. Instead, he could not 
explain why he lost a whole 
handful of tempos with his 
knight maneuvers between 
moves 9 and 14. 


Yet his situation was perhaps 
manageable, had he tried 
16 . . . (MM), concentrating 
on pure defense. In any case, to 
aim for counterattack with 
16 . . . P-N4? when be was 
behind in development was 
wrong. Wed berg brought this 
to his attention at once with the 
breakthrough, 17 P-N6! 

The simplification at moves 
18-20 did not suffice to limit 
White's attacking chances. Af- 
ter 21 P-R6!, the black kings de 
was cr umbling quickly. 


SGMDM/MJIPl 



.MBDBWl/WHfTC 

PMttfen oftor 34 ... PaP 


On 23 Q-N4, Schneider gave 
23 . . . K-I 


B2 a no-confidence 

vote because of 24 P-B51, 
KFxP; 25 PxP, PxP; 26 Q- 
R5ch, KxP (or 26 . . . K-K3; 
27 KR-Klch, K-Q2; 28 Q-B7); 
27 QR-Nlch, K-Bl; 28 RxRcfa. 
KxR; 29 Q-N6cfa, K-BL 30 R- 
R8 mate. The defense that 
would have held out longest 
would have been 23 ... K- 
Q2, but of course. Blade’s posi- 
tion was beyond saving. 

It was surety because 
Schneider knew this that he 
tried to stir up as much trouble 
as he could with 23 ... P- 
N6; 24 B-B3 , PxP, but it's just 
as certain that be had not fore- 
seen Wedberg’s annihilating 
rook sacrifice with 25 QxP! 

After 25 . . . PxR/Qch; 26 
KxQ, White's threat of picking 


up both rooks with 27 QxRcb 
was fended off by 26 ... Q- 
B3, but Wedberg’s 27 R-R8! 
(tins had been prepared as his 
ultimate weapon) defied any 
defease. 


As was his right, Schneider 
fof the 


availed himself of the proverbi- 
al spile check with 
27 . . . QxPfch; 28 P-N3 be- 
fore giving up. 


KCDLUN DEFENSE 




15 P-W 

16 GOO 
IT P-HB 

IMD5 If N-Ftt 
a B*N 
» PxB 

a P-R8 

8 PxP 


2 §£ 

B MS 
N-M N P-N3 


Wirld Stock Markets 


Via Agence France- Pr esse Feb. 25 

dosing prices in local currencies unless otherwise indicated. 


ABN 

ACF Hold MB 

Aegon 

AKZO 

Ahold 

AMEV 

A 'Dam Rub 

Amrabank 

SVG 

Buefirmtstn T 

CaknJHIdo 

Ebovier-NDU 

FOkkar 

Gist Brocades 

Hetneken 


KLM 
Naarden 

Nat Neodw 

NedNBVd 

Oca vendor G 

Pokltamd 

PMUBS 

RoMca 

Rodewsto 

Rollfi cp 

Rorenta 

Royal Dutch 

Unilever 

VanOauiwran 

vmf Stork 

VNU 


US 

man 

217 

21150 

7.70 

*» 

35JD 

11050 

9BL5D 

1B6 

15650 

60.70 

56.10 

5OJ0 

zn 
169.20 
303J0 
4* JO 
6036 
7640 
13060 
70 
400 
70S 
3393 
39 
usAa 
20450 


AMPjCES Geaarnl 
PratondM.il 


iad«x;261M 


ArtWd 

Bckoert 

Cackerjit 

EBES 

GB-Inrm-SM 

GBL 

Gcvaert 

Hoboken 

Kradiattwnk 

Patrol Ina 

SocCeneral* 

Soflna 
Soiwny 
Trod I » 


Trod I on Elec 
vieina Mantoana 


Currant Sfucic inddr ; U3UI 
Pravlotfs : 2^3115 


AEG 

Aiiiatavera. 

BASF 

Bover 

Boyar. HyPO 
Bayer.vsr- 
Banfc 
BMW 

CuiHiunbadi 

Canltoimwnl 

Daimler -beru 

Deaussa 

Dnrtsdie Sank 

Dmdner Bank 

Of. Babcock 

Dub. sctuintw 

GHH 

Hachlief 

Hoacfisi 

Hoesch 

Hatancmn 

Horten 

Kon u. soli 

Kantsdl 

Kouthpf 

KHO 


10940 110 

1(00 1025VS 
9120 197 JO 
201 BO 2012) 
30950 314 


31120 

381 

162.TO 

121 

65050 

355 

40150 

189 

1050 

220 

151 


196.10 

105 

320 

16620 

ai 

216 

M l 


32! 

384 

16X30 

ia 

656 

«3K 

mn 

16950 
21 9 JO 
16050 
MO 
19690 
108 
392 
168 
26650 

219 

216 

258 


1 

CIOH! 

Pr#¥ 

J Ktoedorter- 
vierke 


73.90 

■ Kru«*hueH* 



1 Untie 

43L20 


4 Lufthansa 

190 


2 MAN. 

157 JO 


Momtesmonn 

151 JO 

153 

D Metadata 
4 Muench. 

247 

248 

) Ruedt 

1205 

1205 

5 Preussou 
l Roefgera- 

257 JO 

3MOT 

1 werke 

337 JO 



15820 


Scherlno 

46150 

470 

B Stomens 

541 SO 

544 

S Tliyssen 

1MJ0 

0260 

Z vorto 

177 j0 

179 

Veto 

165.70 

6570 


123 


Volkswoaan 

191 JO 

196 


| Pravtaos: L176JH 



Bk East Asia 

3160 

24.70 

Cfwno Kang 
erring Liotit 

1X80 

W8 

Cross Harbor 


10.10 


46 

7M 

47 

7.90 

* HK Hotels 


3250 

HK Land 

AJOS 

£05 

n HK ShonB*x?l 

875 

9 

0 HKTolophoae 



^ HKWSsart 



| Hutch Whampoa 

21 

21 JO 

J JardtaeMalti 



JonflnaSoc 

9J0 

970 

New World 

£70 

6 

Shaw Bros 

NA 


SHK Progs 

9J0 

9 JO 

SJme Dttrtr 



Stdux 

NA 



Sudre PodflcA 

2470 

24JO 

Wheel Mar 

NA 


IMwdodc 

7^0 

7,10 

Winwr 

4J5 

470 

World Inn 

705 

268 

Hanb Sena Index 

: 1 J09.U 

| prevtam : 1A35.I7 


“Ij M*™***urG H 

AECI 

715 

715 

Barlows 

985 

1000 

Blwaor 

1S66 



4550 

i'll 

Etorrfi 

1235 

129 

GFSA 

Hormqny 

2530 

2575 

2650 

2*00 

&90t 

6975 

7000 


taO 

97S 


4900 

SOS 


1585 

1630 

SA Brews 

60S 

m 

StHeteffl 

3100 

O il 

Stem 

570 

S70 

J Ceauoelfe Shx* intax 1 

| Previous : MOJt 



II bpado* 1] 


510V 

nift 

AlHed-Lvav. 

176 

.177 

aneto Am Gold 

S73VJ 



140 

M7( 

Bo relays 

609 

I 1 


SOI 

1 3 

BAT. 

338 

355 

Beecham 

3S3 

r I 

BICC 

22B 

til 


38 

37 | 

BOCGroua 

290 

295 : 



Close 

Pr»» 

Boohs 

163 

165 

Bowaler into 

242 

241 






24] 

Brit T Scawn 



BTH 

630 

6£ 

Bsermtdl 

215 

220 

Cadbury Sdw 

167 

166 

Chart or Carts 

198 

201 

Coats Palons 

19 

IS! 

Cons Gold 

482 

SB 

Courfoulds 




503 


D« Boers c 

415 


Distillers 

201 

282 

DrlatanUHn 

522ft 

smh 

Dunk» 

42 

45 

Fhwns 

295 

293 


518ft 

5201* 

GEC 

1M 





Glaxo c 


GrandMet 

2S1 


Guinness 

239 

240 

GU5 

692 

697 

Hanson 

204 

206 

Hawker 

421 

429 

ICI 

877 

882 




Lloyds Bank 

554 

557 

Lanrho 

J&l 

171 


256 

256 

Marks and Sp 

in 

137 

Metal Bax 
Midland Ban*. 

410 

334 

413 

334 

Nat West Bank 

649 

6W 

Pftktnafon 


300 


106 

186 

Raeal Elect 

198 

10B 

Randfonleln 

*76 VS 

sinv* 

raprtk 

338 

348 

Heed Inti 

542 

544 

Reuters 

375 

373 

Royol Dutch I 

49V. 495/64 

RTZ 

637 

647 




5tC 

WO 

190 

Std Cturtarad 

489 

«M 

Tata and Lyle 

465 

46H 

Tesco 

225 

226 

Tlwrii EMI 

434 

43/ 

T,l. group 

238 

238 

Tralaloar Hse 

630 


THF 

147 

147 

Ultratnar 

200 

201 

Ji.i:ever 4 

1 19/3211 45/64 

l/n(M Biscuits 

m 

205 

Tickers 

225 

743 

MDeep 

533 

534ft 

fritoktlmo 

as 

C7ft 

frar Loan 3ft c 

34ft 

34V 

frooi worth 

556 

S5S 

ZCI 

Uft 

17 

F.T.30 Imtad : M0JM 
Prevten : 975JU 



Banco Comm 
Cent rata 


Farmltalla 

Flat 

FIiBlder 


IFI 

(toicementr 


Rlnatcanre 


193SB 19201 
3500 3390 
8055 B310 

ail aio 
12200 12280 
TUB 
53 a 
41210 40500 
7650 7605 
87790 OZ200 
07510 8*510 
15« 1540 
6980 6910 
229 »IS 
69900 68990 
662 65650 
2149 ?IJ1 


Standa 


MIB Index : IJBB 
Pitvlm : 7,734 


Perk 


Air Liquids 
Alsttiom AH. 
Av Dassault 
Bancalre 
BlC 

B5N-GO 
Carre tour 
ChAMad 
Caflmeu 
Owner 
EK-Aqultalne 
Europe 1 
Gen Eon* 

Moehatto 

linaloi 

Latarse Cop 

Leorana 

ITJreol 

AtofTO 

Ml chat In 

MM Pennar 

MoetHennassy 

Moulinex 

Noro-Eat 

Occklorilare 

Pe rnod Rlc. 

Petrol es I feel 

Peuaeat 

Podalii 

Piintamps 

Radlatedui 

Redout* 

Roussel UcSat 

SMsRowtanol 

5aurJ»0TTler 

TtKfflfan 

Thomson CSF 

Valeo 


240 249 

1015 1008 


84.10 83.90 
433 43X50 

2079 7125 

2435 2435 

17 *. J 7730 
842 854 

8050 7750 
1975 1975 
»> 10*40 

77.10 77 JO 

783 781 

730 733 

26450 264.70 
2BOJO 28S 
5a«J 

mm 196 




1282 
1515 1555 

2000 2005 

542 537 

2m 2368 
507 50* 

23850 232 


«*D Index : SKIM 
preview : 202X6 
CAC Index : mu 


DBS 
FmarNesv* 


Indicaoe 
Kernel 5hto 
Mai Banking 
ocbc 
oun 

Semfa Shipyard 
Slmfi Dertry 
SSfoarnsMa 

stTrudbifi 

UOB 


I JO U0 
2J0 268 
Sg US 
5J0 5.15 
240 227 

246 253 
1 M 169 
5.95 6 

9.15 9.15 
X94 390 

U8 1J8 
1.94 1J4 

1.18 1.16 
444 430 
448 444 


OVBMtx:41UI 
Preston : 409.13 


ll 

AGA 

370 

372 

Alla Laval 

193 

I9S 

Asm 

330 

345 

Astro 

400 

400 



no 

Bo* Wen 

200 

192 

E lectio k jr 


312 

Ericsson 

279 

283 

Esseite 

375 

NA 

Handelsbken 

167 

171 

PtMrmada 

196 

198 

Saob- Scania 

NA 



Sandvik 

388 

NA 



965 

SKF 


191 

Swedish Match 

235 

238 

Volvo 

263 

366 

1 Alton nil Hen Index : 39540 

| Previous ;39U0 


. 

ii ij 

ACL 


186 

ANI 


263 

ANZ 

4S5 

m 

BHP 

538 

534 

Bora! 

325 

327 

Sown in vlfie 

% 

195 

Brambles 

385 

Cotas 

392 

390 

Comalco 

260 

265 

CRA 

NA 

562 

CSR 

283 

281 

DunlOO 

223 

225 

Elders 

316 

312 

Hoo&ar 

205 

710 


m 

220 

MIM 

NA 

262 

Mver 

183 

185 

OaXhrHJoe 

66 

67 

Pdto 

NA 

46B 

Poseidon 

NA 

298 

RGC 

NA 

295 

Sanlos 

533 

536 

Staton 

178 

175 

Saulhland 

NA 

•n 

WoodsWe 

a 

85 

Wbrmaia 

315 

318 

1 All onSnartas index: 78740 

Prcvtoac: 7U28 




Altai 

461 

461 

AaahlChem 

689 

44! 

Asahl Glass 

874 

879 

I'm* of Tokyo 

700 

666 

BrkKmtm 

530 

saa 

Ganon 

1379 

1360 

C.itofr 

223 


Dai Nippon Prim 

1000 

1010 


551 

537 

Full Bank 

1600 

m 

Full Photo 

1850 

FuiUsu 

1350 

1.130 

Hitachi 

868 

862 

HanOa 

ICS 

1438 

IHI 

145 

144 


Japan Air Lines 
Kollma 
Kannal Power 
Kaa Soap 
Kawasaki Steal 
Kirin Brewery 
Komatsu lid 
kuOota 

Matsu Elec. 1 rats 
MaSu Elec. Works 
Mitsubishi Bank 
Mitsubishi them 
Mitsubishi Elec 
Mitsubishi Meow 
Mitsubishi Coin 
Mllwl and eo - 
Mitsukosnl 
Mitsumi 
NEC 

. Nlkko Sec 
Nippon Steel 
Nippon Yusen 
Nissan 
Nomura Sec 

t»Ympus 

Ricoh 

Sharp 

Sony 

Sumitorno Bank 
Sum Homo Chem 


274 

1310 1310 
825 823 

145 144 

570 565 

439 438 

3IS 320 
1590 1560 

690 679 

1550 1490 

425 428 

3W» 3S0 

246 242 

521 518 

337 326 

426 426 
1210 NA 
1200 1180 

632 630 

149 T46 

242 239 

609 
1050 
1330 I. 

V2D ' 

1050 1070 
4500 4440 

1790 1790 

210 289 

147 166 

199 198 

395 396 

883 825 

435 439 

?&2F. ta S Po, "* r ism 

Tokyo Marina 
Toroy lad 




j 1 Toronto 

Feb 32 |l 


Toluol Carp 
Taisha, Marine 
Tafceda Own 


760 766 
438 MS 
418 626 
1320 1330 
635 630 


DJ. Index ; 1UALM 

Pravtays : 12.14706 


Previous : 9S2J3 


Zaridi 


Bank Leu 


wiuv 

_ — Sutsse 
Electro wall 


3800 3825 
1590 1605 
28911 2850 
3435 2440 
2690 7720 
740 7*5 

6400 6*00 
I960 1970 
1650 1688 
6350 6415 
1440 1475 
8875 8875 
1050 8000 
3770 3770 
343 344 

368 370 

1160 1166 
1495 1500 
3670 3685 
4225 4290 
30*75 20500 


Bonn’s Growth Outlook Readjusted 


Reuters 

BONN — West Germany’s 
economy will grow by 2.7 percent 
in real term this year instead of by 
the 15 percent predicted by the 
government in its annual economic 
report issued last month, according 
to Finance Minister Gerhard Stoi- 
teqberg. 

In an Interview published Mon- 
day, Mr. Slolienberg was quoted as 
saying that the new figure will be 


the basis for the next official tax- 
revenue estimates in March. 

“Expectations point to growth 
more in the order of 3 percent,” he 
said. “This is highly possible." 

West Germany's gross national 
product grew 16 percent Iasi year 
after an increase of I J percent in 
1983. GNP measures the total val- 
ue of a nation's goods and services, 
including income from foreign in- 
vestments. 


too Abtl Prce 
204 Ackkmds 
5533 Asafco E 
500 Aura lod A 
9014 Alt Eneruy 
500 Alta Nat 
NBAIgomaSI 
2104 Andre WA f 
23ATOCH1 
1620 Alai If 
1263 BP Canada 
40884 Ban* BC 
200377 Bank NS 
39489 Barrlcko 
4850BananxaR 
TOT BroJorne 

3300 Bra mo! eo 
1808 Brenda M 
12535 BCFP 
31 895 BC Res 
10655 BC Phone 
12400 Brunswk 
3500 Budd Can 
79650 CAE 
400CCLA 
15300 CDlstb B f 
159650 Cod Frv 
9700C Nor West 
200 C Packra 
17624 can Trust 
6151 CGE 
79320 C I Bk Cam 
13600 Can Nat Rh 
536*51 CTIreAl 
2S23S0CUI1IB 
5600 Cara 
32620 Cetanese 
17D0C DlStb A 
15300 CDlstb Bf 
14700 CTL Bank 

39Q0 Convent 


1900 Con wen t r s 

2W earnest A 
SQHCoxfcaR 
250 Conran A 
*650 Crown* 
innsCtarRn 
101553 Doan Dev 
Doan A 

BOS Denison A 
J72B0 Denison Sf 
22800 Devaicon 
4077 Dlcknsn A f 
2677 Dlcknsn B 
Mm Damon A 
I44$0 Dofasee A 
1707H Du Port A 
6950 Dries A 
JP'-i 1 Elrlhom X 
iMEmea 
2800 Eauttv ftvr 
6743 C Falcon C 
31904 FtoHsrdoe 
517Fortfy Res 
450 Fed indA 
100 Fed Pton 
1500 FCJty Fin 
300 Fraser 
100 Fraahaut 

1534 Gendin A 
tSStOGeacComp 
79786 Geocrude 
*300 Gibraltar 
2*200 Gatdaorp f 
100 


Canadian stocks tea .iP 

H>«h Low Clou Qw 
54314 431*1 *3V7 — Va 
5I6M 16ft 16ft— H 
S13» Uft U96+M 
sift 61 b 610 — ft 

520ft 20ft MIft— ft 
S15=!v 1SV< 15ft 

522 21 21 —1ft 

8241* 24ft 241* 

518 18 18 - ft 

59 Oft 9 
526ft 26ft 261b— ft 
SSft si* fft— ft 
SUft 131* Uft + Vb 
135 130 135 +2 

415 <1® 410 

55 495 495 —JO 

517ft 17ft 17ft — ft 
511ft 11 1VA+ ft 
511ft II 11 
345 - 241 344 —4 

SZ2ft 22ft 22V» — u 

516 15ft 151*+ ft 

523 22ft 22ft 
S1*ft 16ft 16ft + ft 
S2*« 26ft 26'fc— ft 

56ft 6ft 6ft— ft 
515ft 14ft 15ft + ft 
504 Vi 24ft 24ft— ft 
529ft 29ft 29ft— ft 
S31ft 31ft 31ft— ft 
566 64 66 +3 

£30ft JOft 38V 
34 30 34 +4 

S9ft 81* 8ft— ft 

517 17 17 + ft 

Sllfe lift lift + ft 

56ft 6ft 6ft- ft 
56ft 6ft Aft 
54ft ,6ft 6ft— ft 
511ft lift lift— ft 
SSft 5ft 5ft 

51116 lift lift— ft 
517ft 17ft 17ft 
169 MS 169 +4 
345 330 335 

395 380 395 +15 

5)4 Uft Uft- ft 
JJ3tt 13ft 13 — ft 
510 9ft 10 + ft 
480 470 4?a —20 

IS S S — ft 
m %S5 as 
saM n am 
517ft 17 17 + ft 

539ft 38V 38V — ft 
56ft Aft Aft— ft 

518 18 18 — ft 


J7 6% 6ft- ft 
518ft 17ft 17ft- 1 


1 00 G raft G 
1 Grandma 


162001 _ 

smoGranduc 
250GLFOTM7 
in Gt Pacific 
440Grevtwid 
mo n Group A 

1 230 Hera* er 
2294 Hayes D 
4327 H BOV CO 
11264 Innate 
AlOOindal 
400 1 nulls 
1855 Inland Gas 
9700 inH Thom 
6854 inipr Pipe 
NMlvaeoB 
lSWJannock 


J97 94ft 94ft— ]ft 
370 270 270 +10 
521ft 31ft 21ft— ft 
smft 21ft 21ft 
SM lift lift + ft 
519 Uft 19 . + ft 
521 21 21 + ft 

MS 27ft 27ft- ft 
flaw lift lift— ft 
266 282 264 +1 

510V 181* 10ft— ft 
15ft Sft 5ft + ft 
5421* 42ft 42ft + 1 
531 31 31 

55 S3 SB + 2 
46 44 46 +1 

590 » » + ft 


sane we w, 

' 24ft— ft 


1800 Locona 
2M0LLLQC 
11073 Lobtow Co 
306 MOS H A 
750 Melon HX 
19737 Atar land E 
24003 MulsanAi 
14500 Motion B 
200 Murphy 
S600 NoMscoL 
64515 Noranda 
1455 NOrcen 
1916 Nva AHA f 
B00NOWSCDW 
16700 NUWst SPA 
55BOOak<M>od 
6823 Oshawa A I 
15833 Pothjut 
TSODP anCanP 
4tn Pembina 
400 Phanm Oil 
350 Pine Point 
iboo Place GO o 
22576 Placer 
m Proviso 
3200 Quo Sfurg q 
100800 RoyroCk I 

3634RedPOHl 
39365 Rdstanhs A 
2300 RetcMioid 
31365 Res Semf 
28054 Revn Prp A 
TOT Ropers A 
TOT Roman 
160 WWIu nu n 
19006 sanfre 
aoasoomf 
too Sears Can 
2T228 Shell Can 
56775 Sherri It 
600 Stoma 
SM'miteBf 
3420 Soulhm 
23732Slek»A 
9410Sulptro 
isz5 Sleep R 
5-ssunewpf 
4W®5YdH6VO 
SOOOTedcorp 
45 s " Taro 
WO Ted. Cor A 

57750 Tec*. B I 
SDDTMedyne 
56859 Tej, Can 
7745 Thom N A 

61234 Tor Dm Bk 
1677S Tanrtor B f 
2*553 Traders A f 
2310 T ms Ml 
100 Trinity Rm 
69844 TmAHaUA 
30788 Trcon PL 
44956 Tri mac 
_ SfiTrirecAf 
JlWJTgrtjof 
854 UMcorp A f 

840 Un Carbid 

199476 UEntarbe 
6200 U Keno 
1400U siscoe 
WSVersHAf 
llBOVestaran 
11200 Wektond 
4MQ Westfart a 
39150 WfStmbi 
7900 Weston 
2131 WonOntl A 
4650 Ylc Bear 


Hie* 

510ft 10ft 10ft 
529 h* 29ft 29ft— ft 
H«Vj 19ft 19ft— ft 
20ft 20ft 

526 25ft 26 

425 <25 425 + 5 

516ft Uft 161*— ft 
516ft 16ft Uft 
522 22 22 

526ft 26 26 — ft 

S18ft 1BH I Bib— ft 
SMft 14ft 14ft 
57 6% 6ft- Hi 

522 21 Vi 22 

65 62 62—3 

55 4*0 5 +10 

534ft 23V 23V— 11b 
55ft 490 5ft 
528 2tT 28 — ft 
Sin* 17ft 17ft 
57ft 7ft 71*— ft 

527 26ft 26V— ft 

ISO 1® 110 +5 
S23ft 23ft 23V— ft 
520 191k TTIfr-ft 

^ *78**8 "■* 

S35ft J4ft 35 + ft 
522ft 2 2* 22V— Hi 
514ft 14ft 14V 
19S 190 W0 —8 
11S IIS 115 -5 
sw m M*+ ft 

SUV lift lift— ft 
S42V1 42ft 42ft 
SSft SV SV~ Mi 
nov »ft OT6 + ft 

522V 22ft 22ft- ft 
57ft 7ft 7V— ft 
SSft Ift Bft— ft 
Slav Uft HB4— M 
55714 57 57ft + ft 
SOft 22ft 22ft + ft 
239 230 230 —5 

X25 315 3Uf —10 

126ft 24ft 2flfe- ft 
Wti J5h 26 fc+ft 
95 9S 9S 
EX im 20 +K 

sn n u + ft 

ST2 11V 11V— ft 
510V 10ft ?ffV + Y» ' 
S3 SV 33ft 333b - ft 
559V 53ft 53ft + Mr 
519ft 17ft 19ft— V* 
1191* 10 10 

S22fc 21ft 22ft , 
57V 7 ft 7V+ ft 

460 460 460 

534V 24ft 2434+ 1* 
■SW* 2216 22ft- ft 
445 440 445 ’+ S 

S2S 24V 25 
60 56 59 — J 

S8ft 8ft Ift- ft 
511ft lift lift it 
512ft 12ft 12ft— ft 

r 9?* 09“-! 
su* ivE iwt- ft 

516 U U + ft 
17 ”17 17 -3 

SUVa Uft ISft-.ft 
*77 76 76 —In 

510ft Uft MV — ft 
sin* lift nv+ft 


Total sales 11A>9^3S shores 

don nwrient 
1571 20 240570 


TSEMMOk 


S24ft 24ft _. . _ 

£& 2% 2&T ft 

053* 25V. 253* + ft 
817V nft 17ft— ft 
552ft 53ft 52ft- Vi 
514ft 14 14ft— ft 

S15Vi lSVli 15ft + V 
5U 15V 16 + V 
S9W 9 9 


a . 33V 34 + ft 

ft 71ft 21ft + V 


.600 Korn Kollo 


2500 Ketoe* 

an Kerr Add 
17415 Lutntt 
1H07 Lae Mnrls 
3400 LOnl Com 


12 12 
02 102 - I 

371* 37ft— ft 


g6ft 16ft 16ft + 1* 
S2S 24V 24V- I* 
STTft 27 27—1* 

sir* n n - ft 


Montreal Feb. 22 


35367 Brmk Mont 


IHOTCI. 

. 7831 ConBoth 
257T OomTxfA 
MMMrtTrst 
64360 NatBkCtto 
3290 Power Carp 
AHURaHandA 
. 4180 RmlandB 
130381 Royal Bank 
__ 200 RayTrstca 
Total Sain 2744,929 short*. 


wgn taw ax* awe 
S2SV 2|1* 2BW— ft 

518ft W»1B» ^ 
StIV Hi* IHb- V 
515ft Uft 15ft- ft 

C20V 29 2M+ V 

*21 » 21 ■ + * 
530V Aft 3BV+ V 

tiov ifB uv+* 


industrials Index; 


aw 

11848 


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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 26, 1985 


Page 23 


SPORTS 


The Persistent Marcel Dionne: 
Even Now f You Stitt Have to Score 


Flyers Down Flames for 7th Straight 


By Gerald Eskenazi 

iVfw York Tima Service 

TOTOWA, New Jersey — 
Marcel Dionne was at work. He 
skittered over the ice like a water 
bug while bigger men, looking 
like lumbering, first- time skaters, 
made unsuccessful dives and 
swipes at the puck that be plaved 
tricks with. A flick of the wrist, 
and the puck was home. 

It was only a practice at the Ice 
World rink here. But for the 33- 
year-old Dionne, this is what he 
is proud of. He works on off days. 

In the age of Wayne Gretzky, 
whose scoring exploits have over- 
shadowed all other players in re- 
cent years, there is a growing ap- 
preciation of the 5-foot-8 
1 1.72-meter) Dionne of the Los 
Angeles Kings, a player who per- 
haps was years ahead of bis time. 

it is Dionne who is the active 
career leader in the most signifi- 
cant offensive categories in the 
National Hockey League — goals 
(619). assists (8S7) and total 
points ( 1.476). He is on his way to 
his eighth 100-point season, hav- 
ing amassed 36 goals, 61 assists 
and 97 points. In NHL history, 
only Gordie Howe and Phil Espo- 
sito have scored more goals. And 
Dionne is the only player in die 
NHL who ever beat out Gretzky 
for a scoring title, in 1979-80, 
Gretzky’s first NHL season. 

And yet. the quick-talking, 
spirited tittle center acknowl- 
edged after practice that his repu- 
tation is clouded. 

“For years they said, ‘He's a 


loser, he's a one-way player,’ ” 
Dionne said. “But I'm a free- 
wheeling player. I fought for that 
sryle for years, iust me and Bobby 
Hull at first. Now there's more 
motion in hockey. We didn't be- 
lieve that just because you were 
called a left wing, you had to stay 
on that side of the ice. I’ve been 
through a lot. But the gam* hasn't 
changed in this respect: You stlD 
have to score." 

He has persevered, and the mo- 
tion style he speaks of is, for now, 
the NHL's game. It synthesized 
European hockey* with the Cana- 
dian style, and took something 
from the Americans at Lake Plac- 
id in 1980. 

Still, that cloud of being a loser 
bothers Dionne. In his 1 3 seasons, 
be has played on only four win- 
ning teams — once with Detroit 
in four campaigns, and three in 
his nine seasons with the Kings. 

Even his coach, the plain-spo- 
ken Pat Quinn, was a skeptic 
when be took over the club this 
season. Quinn had faced Dionne 
many times, first as a defenseman 
on the rowdy Fiver teams or the 
Broad Street Bullies era. and then 
as the Flyer coach. 

“Before I went out to LA," 
Quinn said, “I thought he was a 
one-way player with no ‘ D.’ But I 
find that, as players, we like to 
find chinks in other guys' armor, 
so we said those things. Yet he 
may be the leading scorer in the 
history of hockey by (he lime he's 
through." 

“I know what Pat Quinn heard 


about me when he was with Philly 
— that I was a one-way player, 
said Dionne. “They gave me 
cheap shots. But 1 came up with 
Guy Lafleur, and now he’s gone. 
All the small rays are gone — 
Henri Richard, Dave Keen, Yvan 
Co unioyer. Fm short, but Fm 190 
pounds" 

Quinn concedes that the Kings 
have been one of those f aceless 
teams that dot the sports land- 
scape: A team without character, 
without an identity. They are win- 
ning this season, following three 
straight losing years. 

“I approached everything hoe 
on a team basis because of my 
preconception that they were a 
bunch of individuals and we 
needed the collective goal to- 
wards a victory.'’ Quinn said. 

He says he has not asked 
Dionne to change his style. 

“We wanted to come up with a 
system of play that wouldn't stifle 
his immense offensive skills, and 
yet still get him in the defense," 
Quinn said. 

The result has been keeping 
Dionne “low" in the defensive 
zone, that is, near his goalie. His 
job is to help out —swat away the 
puck, or chase it behind the net. 
or get it out of trouble by starting 
an offensive thnisL 

To Dionne, the work ethic has 
kept him around, it allowed him 
to survive losing seasons that fol- 
lowed one after another, and the 
frustration of never really being 
acknowledged for his special 
skills. He also was a pioneer in 




■t m 



197S when be became one of the 
first hockey free agents after a 
contract dispute with the Red 
Wings. 

“Gordie Howe was once asked 
about someone." said Dionne, 
“and Howe said. ‘Let’s see what 
he does after five years. 1 Thai’s 
what I'm proudest of. Being con- 
sistent. Every game I come out, 
I'm prepared for. Even when I 
was losing for years, I was pre- 
pared." 

He wonders whether the cur- 
rent crop of Kings is prepared. 

“This is what we have to find 
out." be said. “They look at me 
working so hard, 1 wonder what 


17* Tratt 

they think. Do they think I'm just 
some crazy old guy?” 

The way Dionne looks at the 
game, he would be performing the 
same way even if this were anoth- 
er losing year. He would be smil- 
ing during practice. He would be 
playing on the power play and 
also killing penalties. He would 
be gelling ready for each game as 
if it mattered, just as he did 
through all those losing seasons. 

“Young players today give up 
quickly," he said. “You have to do 
it on your own. no matter what 
anyone else is doing. And if you 
lose, you have to bounce back the 
next nighL” 


SCOREBOARD 

Hockey Q 

NHL S tanding s Sel 


Basketball 


Selected U.S. College Conference Standings 


WALES CONFERENCE 
Patrick Division 

W L T Pis GF CA 


Washington 
Philadelphia 
N.Y. Islanders 
N.Y. Rangers 
Pittsburgh 

New Jeraer 


81 2SS IS1 
79 2S4 »l 
(8 280 340 
49 71* 244 
45 205 271 
44 209 344 


Adams Dtvtstoe 
' Montreal 31 21 10 72 238 206 

• Buffalo 20 19 12 60 216 173 

’ Quebec 30 24 8 *0 255 226 

ill Ba*un 26 26 B 60 21B 314 

“'Hartford 20 J3 7 47 205 260 

CAMPBELL CONFERENCE 
Norm Division 

St Loub 29 21 10 68 230 219 

Chicago 28 39 4 40 239 23B 

Detroit 18 33 11 <7 226 277 

Minnesota 17 33 11 45 206 344 

Toronto 15 39 7 37 191 267 

SiBftM Dhrtslon 

.-Edmonton 43 12 7 9] 310 212 

Gdaonr 30 25 7 67 280 747 

Winnipeg 30 26 7 47 266 276 


St Loub 
"Cttaagp 
Detroit 
Minnesota 
Toronto 


.-E dm ont on 
■ ' Crtoory 
• Winnipeg 
Los Angeles 
vmcouver 


2B 23 11 67 275 255 


vmouver 18 35 8 44 211 311 

In-cHnchmt pkrvuff spat; 

SUNDAY'S RESULTS 
BL Loots I ■ 3-3 

Hartford I ! 8-2 

- • WkHeidieHcr <181. Mullen (291. Paslawskl 

- '1181: Slltanen (101. Mnlone 09). Shots on 

M«rt: St. Loots (on Weeks) 8-6-13-37; Hart- 
lord (on Womsfev) 7-13-4— 2S. 

Detroit 1 1 0-2 

DMcega 1 1 1—3 

a Wilson (17), O'Coltahcn 151, Fraser 122},- 
SofcUrev (t9). Footer ill). Shots eaooat: De- 
. rolt lea Bcnnennonl 13-10-13 — 35; Chicago 
on Stafenl 0-1141—45. 

Satoorr 8 I 8—1 

HdMMNNo 3 l l-« 

- Prop* (33). Suffer (II). Paulin (17), Tocdwt 
12): McDonald (16). Shots do goal: Calgary 
an Undtoruhl 6-13-13—32; Philadelphia Ian 

- =d*rards) 1143-37. 

M Angeles 1 2 1—4 

j. Uffalo 8 8 3-2 

Shutt (M). Pax (36). Smith (18). Nkholls 
3*1; Andreychuk (27). Peterson (11). Shots 
n goal: Los Anoeles (on Barrasul 6-14-4— 
6; Buffalo Ian Jonacvkl 12-7-10—29. 

LY. I stouter. 8 13 8—8 

kwtreat 8 2 11—4 

Tremblay (23). Gabtev (14). Carbonnaau 
. 171, Caleey (15); BouHller 111). Gillies 02). 

a Fontaine (16). Shots on pool: N.Y. Islond- 
■- -i (on Soetuert) *-9-4-0— M; Montreal (on 
rwaev) 7-10-1 VI— 3*. 


St. John's 
Georgetown 
Syracuse 
VU Ionova 
Pittsburgh 
Boston Coil 
Connecticut 
Providence 
Salon Hall 


Michigan 
Ohio SI. 
Illinois 
Purdue 
Iowa 

Michigan St. 

Minnesota 

Indiana 

Wisconsin 

Northwestern 


*L Carolina 
N .Carolina 5L 
Georgia Tech 
Duke 
Morylana 
Clem ion 
Woke Fare* 
Virginia 


ArUana 
Southern Col 
Washington 
Oregon St. 
UCLA 
Arizona St. 
Oregon 
California 
Stanford 
Washington St. 


BIG EAST 

Con f erence All Games 
W L Pel. W L Pet 
14 0 1.000 24 I .960 

12 2 357 25 2 J26 

8 6 571 19 6 .740 

8 6 571 17 8 JM 

7 7 .500 16 9 440 

7 9 467 If 9 392 

5 9 .257 12 13 MB 

3 12 200 10 II 357 

0 14 400 9 16 260 

BIG TEN 

Conference All Games 
W L Pet. W L Pci. 
11 2 346 20 3 570 

9 5 40 17 7 JOB 

9 6 400 21 8 J24 

9 i MO la 7 720 

8 6 571 19 8 JIM 

7 6 538 16 7 396 

6 7 .442 13 10 565 

6 8 .429 14 IB 583 

3 II 214 12 12 500 

1 2 13 .133 6 19 240 

ATLANTIC COAST 

Con f erence All Gamas 
WL Pd W L Pet. 
a 4 567 31 6 .773 

L 7 4 J36 17 7 JOB 

It 8 5 415 19 6 J40 

7 5 583 20 5 500 

5 6 555 20 10 567 

5 9 385 15 10 500 

4 7 JM 14 10 583 

] 8 273 14 11 560 

PACIFIC IB 

Conference All Games 
W L Pel- W L Pet. 
II 4 J33 JO 7 J41 

n 4 J33 17 7 jaa 

10 5 567 19 8 JD4 

9 5 M3 19 6 J60 

9 S 543 12 11 522 

7 9 538 12 14 562 


S. Carolina 
Louisville 
Tulane 
S. Mississippi 
Florida St. 


Temple 

W. Virginia 
SL Joseph's 
Geo. Wasting tn 
Rvtoers 
Mmachusetts 
Dueuesne 
SL Pcnovs nw 
Penn St. 

Rhode Island 


Missouri 
lavra SI. 
Nebraska 
Colorado 
Kansas SI. 
Oklahoma St. 


6 5 565 IS 9 52S 

5 6 555 14 » 538 

4 8 233 13 12 520 

3 9 250 7 18 288 

2 18 .167 10 15 500 

ATLANTIC M 

Co nf erence An Games 
W L Pet. W L Pci. 


U 2 575 30 4 xn 

14 2 575 18 7 .720 

12 4 J50 16 9 540 

m B ■ 5N 13 12 520 

8 8 500 13 12 520 

6 8 8 500 17 13 580 

6 10 J7S 10 15 500 

if S 11 213 11 14 540 

4 12 250 8 16 233 

1 15 463 7 18 280 

BIG EIOHT 

Conference All Gamas 

w L pci. w l Pa. 
11 1 517 22 5 J15 

9 3 JSD 22 6 J86 

7 5 503 17 10 530 

6 6 500 It 10 543 

5 7 517 15 10 MB 

4 8 233 10 15 500 

3 9 29 12 13 580 

3 9 29 )2 13 580 

MID-AMERICAN 

Conference All Gamas 


0 529 13 14 581 , _ 

in w in m Tuan 


3 11 214 11 13 5S8 


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*»r OoeterhuK 38571 
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nrld Lundstrem. 51000 


71-70-71 -73 — 285 
7648-69-74 — 287 
71-74-7M0— 207 
70-74-72-72-281 
75-40-7272—288 

74- 73-69-72—288 
73-71-70-76—2*8 
70-73-69-76—2*6 
69-76-74-70—289 
71 -73-72-73-289 

75- 70-71-73—289 
73-69-73-74 — 289 
75-71-70-73-289 

69- 75-71-7* — 289 

70- 73-7! -76 — 299 

71- 73-73-73—290 
73-74-70-73—290 
71-74-71-74-270 
73-73-69-75 — 290 


Washington St. 3 12 200 11 14 540 

SOUTHEASTERN 

Conference All Games 
W L Pel. W L Pet 
Louisiana SI. 11 5 59 17 8 5*0 

Georgia IB 5 567 18 6 .750 

Kentucky 10 5 567 15 9 .625 

Alabama 9 7 563 17 8 500 

Mississippi SL 9 7 5*3 13 12 520 

Florida B 8 500 14 9 540 

Auburn 7 9 538 IS 10 500 

Tennessee 7 9 538 16 12 571 

Mississippi 5 11 213 11 13 558 

vanderbln . 3 13 .19 10 15 500 

SOUTHWEST 

Conference All Games 
W L Pcf. W L Pef. 
So. Methodist 10 4 J14 21 6 J78 

Texas Tech IB 4 JU 18 7 J20 

Arkansas 9 5 543 18 10 543 

Texas AXM 0 6 571 16 9 540 

Texas Oirtstn 7 7 500 IS 10 59 

Houston 7 7 500 IS 11 -577 

Texas 7 8 567 14 11 560 

BdV lor 3 11 214 10 15 5W 

RlC* 2 11 .154 10 14 517 

SUN BELT 

Con f erence All Games 
W L Pel. W L Pel. 
Va Common. 11 2 5*6 21 S m 

Ala- BIrm. 11 3 286 23 7 267 

Old Dominion 9 4 JO 17 * 5S4 

X Florida 6 8 529 16 10 515 

X Alabama 6 8 529 14 12 59 

Jacksonville 6 I 529 U 13 519 

W. Kentucky 5 9 557 14 13 519 

NX. Cttortatte 1 13 571 5 22 .185 

METRO ATHLETIC 

Con f erence All Games 
W L Pet. W L Pet. 
Memphis St. II 1 .917 22 2 .917 

VlreMia Tech 9 3 JSD 19 6 JUS 

Cincinnati 7 5 583 U II 560 



W L PCI. 

W 

L 

Pd. 

Ohio U. 

13 

3 

jn 

19 

6 

-740 

MtomLOMo 

n 

5 

488 

16 

9 

440 

Kent SL 

18 

6 

425 

15 

18 

400 

Totodo 

18 

* 

42S 

15 

10 

400 

E. MIchtoiBi 

8 

■ 

-500 

14 

11 

560 

W. Midi toon 

7 

9 

438 

19 

M 

480 

Boll ». 

7 

9 

438 

11 

14 

440 

N. Illinois 

4 

10 

J7S 

10 

IS 

400 

Bowl too Green 

5 

11 

-313 

11 

14 

440 

Cent Mlchion 

3 

13 

.188 

8 

17 

-320 

MISSOURI VALLEY 




Conference All Gomes 


W L Pd. 

W 

L 

Pet 

Tulsa 

il 

3 

.786 

20 

5 

480 

Wichita SI. 

11 

4 

-733 

15 

11 

srt 

Illinois Si. 

10 

4 

JM 

20 

s 

400 

Cretan tan 

* 

6 

408 

28 

9 

490 

Brad lev 

7 

7 

-500 

14 

11 

460 

Indiana St. 

6 

8 

429 

13 

11 

-SO 

5. Illinois 

S 

9 

J57 

13 

12 

520 

Drake 

3 

12 

-200 

11 

15 

423 

W. Texas SI. 

3 

)2 

-208 

10 

16 

585 


So. Methodist 
Texas Tech 
Arkansas 
Texas AXM 
Texas Oirtstn 
Houston 
Texas 
Bov lor 
Rice 


Va Common. 
Ala-BIrm. 

Old Dominion 
S. Florida 
X Alabama 
Jacksonville 
W. Kentucky 
NX Chortane 


PACIFIC COAST ATHLETIC 

Conference All Gomes 
W L Pet W L Pet. 
Nev-Lasveaas 16 1 .938 22 3 580 

Fresno SL 14 2 JDS IS 7 220 

Fullerton si. 9 7 563 13 12 52B 

Utah St. 8 8 500 15 !0 500 

San Jose SI. 8 8 500 13 12 520 

Cal- Irvine 7 0 567 12 14 562 

Cal -Santa Brt> 7 0 567 11 13 551 

Pacific < 11 513 9 16 560 

K. Mexico St 4 12 250 7 18 29 

Lana Bech SL 2 14 .125 4 21 .160 

WEST COAST ATHLETIC 

Conference All Games 
w L Pet. W l Pet. 
PcPaenflne 9 I .900 21 8 234 

Sonia Clara 6 3 567 17 a 59 

St. Mary'S 5 4 566 13 11 542 

San Diego 5 S 500 16 9 50 

Ganzoaa 4 S 544 15 10 500 

Portland 2 7 222 1] 13 520 

Love la Caul. 2 8 508 11 14 50 

WESTERN ATHLETIC 

Conference All Games 
W L PcL W L Pet 
Texas-EI Paso 12 3 500 20 7 241 

Son Diego SI. II 5 59 31 7 250 

Brianom Yona 9 5 543 15 11 577 

New Mexico 8 7 533 15 11 577 

Colorado SI. 7 7 59 IS 11 577 

Wyoming 6 8 529 14 12 538 

Utah 6 8 529 II 15 523 

Hawaii 5 11 513 9 IT 546 

Air Farce 2 12 .143 7 17 292 





. DARK DEBUT ~Doag Flulle of the New Jersey Generals looks to hand off in his first 
ro game, in Birmingham, Alabama. Fhitie completed 12 of 27 passes, throwing for 189 
wds, two touchdowns and three interceptions. The Generals lost to the Stallions, 38-28. 


Pennsvl vtmla 

Harvard 

Cornell 

Columbia 

Yale 

Prtncrton 

Brawn 

Dofmowth 


Notre Dome 

Dayton 

DrPoul 


IVy LEAGUE 

Conference All Games 
w L Pd. W L Pd. 

8 1 J» 11 10 534 

6 4 59 M 6 29 

6 4 59 12 10 545 

5 5 59 9 13 519 

5 6 555 12 II 522 

4 5 544 8 13 J81 

4 7 564 8 16 J33 

3 9 jsd s i* am 

INDEPENDENTS 

W L PcL 
17 7 J9 


Chicago st. 
Radford 

Texos-5an Antnlc 
Uttar 

SW Lou I ifcmo 
Brooklyn 
Poi American 
stetson 
Baptist 

E. Washington 
Cent. Florida 
New Orleans 
Tewneerae st. 
Florida AXM 
Auaueta 
Campbell 


17 | 59 
17 I 59 
16 8 567 

16 10 515 
16 10 515 

15 10 59 

16 n jn 

16 12 571 
13 13 59 

17 12 59 

12 14 562 

13 15 544 
II 1$ 523 
10 H J85 
ID 17 .37B 

9 16 560 
8 17 520 
8 10 59 
4 21 .160 


U.S. College Results 

EAST 

lano 6X St. Peterl 9 
Maine 73b Colgate 5* 

Maryland 69. Wake Forest 66 
SL John Fhher 71 Keene St. 62 
SOUTH 

Earihcm 64, Sewonee 59 
Georgia 79. Kentucky 77 
N. Carolina St. 57. Virginia 55 
MIDWEST 

SW Mi nn esota 87. Winona Si. 9 
Wisconsin 45. Minnesota 61 

SOUTHWEST 
Rice 71. Arkansas 9 

FAR WEST 
UCLA 75b Louisville 65 


College Top-20 Results 

how me top 9 teams to The Associated 
Press and United Press Igfenwftonai polls 


St. Jofei* (34-1) oaf. Boston College 71-49; 
deL Syracuse 88-81 

Oecrartaen <25-21 art. Pittsburgh 70-44; 
det Connecticut 6X47. 

Mktrtooo (710) def. Michigan SI. 75-71 

Memphis «. (23-2) det. South Carolina 99- 
75; def. Tulane 6049; del. Virginia Common- 
wealth 81-73. 

Ofetaboma (72-5) dot Colorado 1 10-9; last to 
Kansas 82-76. 

Duke (29-5) lost to North Carolina SL 7046; 
det. Georgia Tech 67-62. 

Syracuse (1951 tod to Connecticut 49-67; 
toet lo SL John's 88-83. 

Georgia Tech (194) def. Maryland 4843; 
lost to Duke 6742. 

Soother* Methodist 131-6) lad la Texas 
Christian 54-53; def. Texas 664X 

LMUlaea Tech (26-2) del. Lmnar 7345; def. 
Arkansas Si. 10047. 

Nevackt-Les vegas (22-31 deL Fullerton Si. 
7049; def. New Mexico St. 8047; def. Califor- 
nio- Santa Barbara 81-71. 

Taira (205) tod to Bradley 69-64; def. Drake 
7956. 

Norm CaroHaa (214) def. Wrote Forast 69- 
S»: deL Clemson 84-50. 

Iowa 1194) tost la Wisconsin 5443; tod to 

Kaesat (224) del Krmns SL 7S44; deL 
Oklahoma 83-74 

mieeis (214) def. Indiana 66 S O; lad to onto 
SL 72-66 

Virginia Com m en w ea lth (21-5) def. West- 
ern Kentucky BS42: lad to Memphis St. 81-73. 

Georgia (1941 del. Auburn 0644; def. Ken- 
tucky 79-77. 

Oregon SL (194) def. Arizona 51. 7544; lad 
to Arizona 67-52. 

Boma Callage (184) lad to SI. John's 7149; 
last to pmraurah 58- ss. 

Maryland (Zl-W>lod to Georgia Tech 4043; 
def. Towson St. 91-38; deL Wake Fared 6944 

Ata-Blrm leghorn 123-7) def. South Florida 
6341: del. North CaraUnB-ChartottB 60-55; 
last to South Alabama 8648. 

southern CM (17-7) kid to Stanford 8644; 

def. Cal Horn la 75-52. 


Football 

USFL Standings 


EASTERN CONFERENCE 



W 

L 

T 

Pc*. 

PF 

PA 

Birmingham 

1 

0 

0 

1JU0 

38 

28 

Jacksonville 

1 

0 

0 

1400 

22 

14 

Tampa Bay 

1 

0 

• 

1400 

35 

7 

Memphis 

0 

0 

0 

400 

0 

0 

Baltimore 

0 

1 

0 

400 

14 

23 

Km Jersey 

0 

1 

0 

400 

28 

38 

Orlande 

0 

1 

0 

400 

1 

35 

WESTERN CONFERENCE 


Arizona 

1 

0 

0 

1400 

9 

7 

Houston 

1 

0 

0 

UNO 

34 

33 

Oakland 

1 

8 

0 

1.008 

31 

10 

San Antonfe 

0 

8 

0 

400 

0 

0 

Denver 

0 

1 

0 

480 

18 

31 

Los Angelos 

0 

1 

0 

400 

33 

34 

Portland 

0 

1 

0 

400 

7 

9 

SATURDAY'S RESULT 




Tampa Bay 34 Orlando 7 

SUNDAYS RESULTS 
Jacksonville 22. Baltimore 1* 
Birmingham 38, New Jersey 28 
Arizona 9, Portland 7 
Oakland 31, Denver 10 
Houston 36 Lib Angrier, 33 


Denver 

34 

21 

432 

— 

Houston 

33 

23 

489 

2ta 

□alios 

32 

25 

-541 

4 

San Antonio 

20 

29 

491 

1 

Utah 

. 27 

38 

474 

* 

Kansas a tv 

18 38 

Pacific DM Nee 

-321 

17*> 

LA. Lakers 

41 

17 

JO? 

— 

Phoenix 

27 

31 

466 

14 

Portland 

26 

II 

456 

Uta 

Seal Mo 

25 

32 

439 

15W 

LA. a topers 

22 

35 

JB6 

!ft* 

Golden Stale 

13 

44 

-228 

27W 


Bobsled 


Lot Angela Tuna Service 

PHILADELPHIA — Shonlv 
before (he All-Star break ii was 
freely predicted that the Washing- 
ton Capitals would challenge the 
Edmonton Oilers in. the champion- 

NHL FOCUS 

ship round of the Stanley Cup coro- 

peouocL 

The Philadelphia Flyers were 
just about the jjnJy dissenters and 
eveathey were protesting in a bare- 
ly audible voice. But now. the Fly- 
ers are ready to shout from the 
rooftops that (hey are a solid con- 
tender in the National Hockey 
1 eaguc, 

Another splendid goal tending 
performance by Pcllc Lindbergh 
Sunday night enabled the Flyers to 
beat Calgary, 4-1 , for their seventh 

consecutive victory. 

Lindbergh, given a cushion with 


first-period goals by Brian Propp 
and Ron Sutter, tuned aside 31 
shots by the Flames. He lost a shut- 
out when Lanny McDonald scored 
near the middle of the second peri- 
od. 


In other NHL games Sunday, it 
was SL Louis 3, Hartford 2; Chica- 
go 3, Detroit 2; Los Angeles 4, 
Buffalo 2. and Montreal 4, the New 
York Islanders 3. 

Going into their game with the 


Capitals at Landover, Maryland, 
on Feb. 9. the Flyers were in second 
place in the tough Patrick Division, 
i 1 pom is behind the Capitals. 

In that game. Tim Kerr scored 
four times, the Ryers deed out a 5- 
4 victory and they were on a streak. 
They have won all four games since 
the All-Star game and have pulled 
within two points of the Capitals. 
Moreover, the Capitals have played 
two more games than the Flyers. 


“The victory tonight was just 
what we needed u> send us out on 
the road,” Coach Mike Keenan 
said. “We play our next five games 
on the road, then return home for 
the first of back-to-back games 
with the Capitals. By the night of 
March 8 we should know what our 
chances are of winning the divi- 
sion." 

“Winning the division isn't a 
must," be said, “but it would rave 
us an advantage in the playoffs. We 
are playing winning hockey and 
that's what's really important. FeUe 
just keeps playing better and bet- 
ter." 

Lindbergh has been in the nets 
for six of the seven victories in the 
streak. His 28 victories leads ah 
goalies in the league. With the Fly- 
ers' number two goalie. Bob 
Froese. recovered from injuries, the 
team appears set for the stretch 


AbduTJabbar Leads Lakers in Victory 


NBA S tandings 

EASTERN CONFERENCE 
All uric Otvfeton 

W L Pel. GB 

Boston 46 13 J91 — 

Philadelphia 45 12 J89 to 

Washington 9 38 JI7 14 

Now Jersey 28 29 ,*91 17V> 

Now York 19 38 xn 36 Vi 

Control Dhristae 

MJtwaufcM 39 18 484 — 

DafnXf 32 25 561 7 

Chicago 26 29 473 12 

Atlanta 24 32 429 14to 

Ctovatond 2B 37 J51 19 

Indiana 18 39 J14 21 

WESTERN CONFERENCE 
MMwwt Dfebloa 


SUNDAYS RESULTS 
LA. LMW6 33 29 » 28—119 

NM York 29 31 St 39—114 

AMut-Jabtar 161227-18 39. JalwriOn 6-127-10 
19; Kina 16-28 7-7 3«. Walker 11-22 >4 34. R*- 
boaacto: LA. Lakers 99 (RambiL Worthy 11). 
New York 88 (Walker 9). AllMi: LA. Lakers 
34 (Johnson 15). Mew York 27 (Walker 8). 
Utah 77 14 34 73— 188 

Phi lode Ipb la *1 35 27 2*— in 

Ervlna 13-19 64 31. Malone 8-1* l>U 28; 
Griffith 1931 99 34 Bailey 915 *4 2X Re- 
hooMfe: Utah 39 (Griffith 9), Phliadefetiki 56 
(Malone 17). AMfets: Utah 28 (Stockton 7). 
Philadelphia 36 (Toney 7). 
perttoed 16 36 33 »— 137 

Sea Aateota 25 36 31 29—771 

Draxtor 1924 74 37, Jim Paxson 1925 95 35; 
Mllrtirtl 13-26 97 32. GMmora 64 44 IX «9 
bounds; Portland 53 (Drexel 10), San Antonio 
53 (Gilmore 101. Assist*: ParUand36(Drexier 
9). San Antonio 30 (John Paxson 8). 

Borien U X IS a— 1U 

indtana 38 23 22 37— IN 

Bird 1931 9H 45. Parish 9-171419; Ffemlnd 
9139721. Kellogg 916 44 20. Reboeads: Bos- 
ton 57 (Parish IT). Indiana 57 (Kellogg IT). 
Assists: Boston 36 (Johnson )2>. Indiana 25 
(StohllfiO 71. 

LA Cl toners 79 36 N 77—182 

Baattie 36 29 19 34— IDS 

Henderson 918 90 IX Wood 916 97 IX 
SJkma 7-15 93 17, Chambers 7-15 96 17; Smith 
1920 7-7 35. Nixon 192295 31 RSbt w dt: LA. 
digger* 56 (Smith 9), Seattle 49 (Sikma 17). 
Assists: LA. a totwrs 20 (Johnson 6), Seattle 
14 (Henderson ill. 

Phoenix 31 35 19 29-482 

Doner 39 20 31 37—117 

English 13-25 64 32. Naff 916 34 21; Adams 
11-14 90 22. Nonce 913 7-10 19. Reboeads: 
Phoenix 55 (Nance 12), Denver Si (Naff 12). 
Assists: Phonn tx 22 (Nance 5), Denver 25 (En- 
eUsh. iseei 51. 


Transition 


PITTSBURGH — Announced toot Jock 
ScSrotn. vice oraslOeat o! public relations and 
markof Ing, fen resigned to take O POM with a 
Florida amusement park. 

FOOTBALL 

Nattaaal Football League 

n.y. giant s - N amed Tim Rooney direc- 
tor rt wo Personnel. 

HOCKEY 

National H ockey Lewie 

BUFFALO— Loaned Norm Locombe. right 
wing, to Rochester of the A me rica n Hockey 
League- Sent Adam Crelehtan.oenter. to Otta- 
wa of me Ontario Hockey League 

MONTREAL— Recalled Patrick Ray.goal- 
tender. (ram Granby of the Quebec Motor 
Junior Leoaue. Sent Kent Carlson, detanre- 
nran. to Sh e r br oufc e of toe America n Hockey 
League. 

5T. LOUIS— Traded Mike Lhifc oooNmfcr, 
lo H art ford far Mark Johnson, toff wingi and 
Grea Mil ton, goal tender, and hrtura consider^ 
at Ians. 

COLLEOB 

BAYLOR Anno u nced the rmignntlon of 
Jim Haiier.beskettiatl coadveDocftwe (March 
2 . 

COLORADO— Announced too resignat io n 
at Ron Dickeraon assistant football coac h, to 
take a similar posltton at Penn State. 

FLORIDA STATE Named Chuck Amato 
asafctanl foataeil coach. 

T E N N ESS E E— framed Ken Donahue assis- 
tant toelboil coach. 


The Associated Press 

NEW YORK — As far as Magic 
Johnson is concerned, Kareem 
Abdul-Jabhar is nowhere close to 
.being ready to retire. 

“He can play as long as be wants 
to and do what be wants to," John- 
son said Sunday after Abdul-Jab- 
bar scored 39 points, one short of 


NBA FOCUS 


his season high, to lead the Los 
Angeles Lakers to a 119-114 Na- 
tional Basketball Association vic- 
tory over the New York Knicks. 
“He's in great condition and has a 
super attitude." 

Abdul-Jabbar. the NBA’s oldest 
player at 37, was expected to retire 
after this season until be signed a 
one-year contract extension. On 
Sunday, be looked anything bul 
ready for a rocking chair as he 
poured in 29 points after halftime. 

“Obviously, we went to him in 
the second half," said Johnson, 
who had 19 points and 15 assists. 
“When the big man gets going, then 
everyone gets going. He makes ev- 
erybody play better. 

In other NBA games, it was Phil- 
adelphia 117, Utah 108: Boston 
113, Indiana 100: Portland 137, 
San Antonio 121; Denver 117, 
Phoenix 107, and Seattle 108, the 
Los Angeles Clippers 102. 

Despite Abdul-Jabbar’s heroics 
and New York’s 19-38 record, the 
Knicks kept the game close thanks 
to the efforts of Bernard King, 
Darrell Walker and their pressure 
defense. 

Their press gave us trouble until 
we slowed it down and went to 
Kareem," Coach Eat Riley -said. 
“That was the turning point.” 

“New York came at us with their 
defense and played a great game, 
but we were able to match their 
effort,” said Abdul-Jabbar. who hit 
16 of his 22 field-goal attempts and 
also had 10 rebounds. 

King, the NBA's scoring leader, 
matched Abdul-Jabbar with 39 
points, while Walker had 24 points, 
nine rebounds and eight assists. 

“King was unstoppable.” Riley 
said. “Before the game, we talked 
about how we could win the game if 
be scored 50 points." 

While four different Lakers tried 
to guard King, the 7-foot-2 (2.18- 
meter) Abdul-Jabbar humbled 
New York’s Ken Bannister and 
James Bailey, both 6-foot-9. 

“Give Kareem a lot of credit,” 
the Knicks’ coach, Hubie Brown, 
said. “When we got a four-point 
lead, be was the individual that gpt 
it done.” 




BOBSLED WORLD CUP 
(at Si. Moritz. Snltzeriaidl 

RcsalK of too Brst tourrean beMM worid 
Coo companion (tom races: DHertas 
loll. SL Morftx): 

i. United States (Jeffrey Jost.Tom Barnes, 
Joseph Bre«wi, George McNeil). 47 paints. 

X Britain (Nicholas Phloox Robert Thorne. 
Patrick Bragin, Alan Cearrul. 43 points. 

X Switzerland I (Si trio GlobeUlna, Hefan 
Slriffer, Urs Setzmann. R)co Frelenmutti). 40 
paints (au not uxup efe at I obi. 

4, Switzerland II ( Hons Hlltebrond. Motored 
Mueller. Rtopfi Off, Urs Leutooid), 37 points 
KUd net compete In iglsl. 

5, Austria II (Franz PouhMber, Moral 
Totter. Robert Herz. Guenfer Caspar). 35 
paints (did not compete at wmterberel. 





; efty ■■ ■•£% - . ■ 



bMnW 

The 76ers* Moses Malone (2) goes high to knock away a 
shot by Fred Robots of the Utah Jazz in NBA action in 
Philadelphia. The Sixers defeated the Jazz, 117-106. 


Pond Reduces Fine on Ichx 


Corquled by Our Staff From Dispatches 

PARIS — Auto racing's world 
governing body, FISA, on Monday 
reduced a fine imposed on Jacky 
Icier, the Monaco Grand Prix race 
director, for halting the Formula 
One race in heavy rain last June. 

FISA’s appeals committee re- 
duced the fine from $6,000 to 
52,000 but retained Ida's suspen- 
sion from acting as a Grand Prix 
race director, a FISA statement 
said. 

lekx. of Belgium, a former For- 
mula One driver who still competes 
in endurance races, ordered the 
Monaco Grand Prix stopped half- 
way through the race just as Alain 


Prost of France was about to lose 
the lead in torrential rain. 

FISA fined and suspended Ida 
last July for exceeding his authority 
as race director. 

The tribunal, which met on Feb. 
20-21, said Ickx was correct tq stop 
the race with a red flag, but should 
have asked the stewards about the 
checkered flag. They theoretically 
could have ordered the race restart- 
ed if conditions improved. 

The court judgment said Ickx 
admitted the fault, and they thus 
reduced his fine but maintained the 
suspension. FISA will have its own 
race directors for all Grand Prix 
events starting this season. 

(UPI, AP) 


SPORTS BRIEFS 

Mandlikova Defeats Evert, 6-2, 6-4 

OAKLAND, California — Hana Mandlikova upset Chris Evert Lloyd 
6-2, 6-4 Sunday to win a women's tennis tournament here. It was only the 
third time in 19 meetings between the two that Mandlikova has bra ten 
Evert. 

Mandlikova of Czechoslovakia was seeded sixth in the tournament and 
ranked seventh in the world by the Women’s Tennis Association. Leading 
3-2 in the first set, Mandhkova broke Evert cm three forced errors at 30-40 
to go up 4-2. After holding serve in the seventh game with a forehand 
volley at 40-30, Mandlikova broke Even again in the eighth game with 
two forehand valleys at deuce point to win the first set 

In the second set after Mandlikova served the first game to lead 1-0, 
both players lost their serves in the next four games. With Mandlikova 
leading 3-2, Evert then held in the sixth game, taking three deuce points. 


But she could not break Mandlikova, who got a third break in the final 
prme of the match with a down- the- line backhand winner at 15-40. 

Curren Victor Over Jarryd in Toronto 

TORONTO (Combined Dispatches) — Kevin Curren of South Africa 
st unned the top-seeded Anders Jarryd of Sweden, 7-6 (8-6), 6-3, Sunday 
to win the Molson Tennis Tournament. 

It was the first tournament victory in three years for Curren, who was 
smifyi third, and only the third of his seven-year professional career. 

In La Quinta, California, Larry StefankL whose biggest previous 
victory came in a tournament in Africa, downed David Pate, 6-1, 6-4, 3-6 f 
6-3, Sunday to win the tournament. 

Siefanki, 27, ranked 143d in the world, said, “It definitely hasn’t hit me. 
I've never experienced anything like this before. When people say that, 
now I know how they fed.” (AP, UPI) 


(AP, UPI) 


McCmnber Wins Doral Open Golf 

MIAMI (UPI) — Mark McCumber survived a lost-ball controversy cm 
the 18lh hole Sunday to finish with a 1-under-par 71 and win the Doral 
Open by one shot over Tom Kite. 

McCumber went into the 1 8th hole with a two-shm lead but pushed his 
drive to the rigbL PGA officials and the gallery insisted that his ball had 
lodged high in a palm tree, but McCumber argued it didn’t go near the 
tree, searched for it and found it in the rough, marked properly to show, 
that it was his. 

McCumber finished the 72 holes over the Blue Monster course at 4- 
under-par 284, the highest winning total in the Doral’s histcuy. Kite was 
second at 3-under 285 after shooting a 73 Sunday, and Jade Nicklaus 
finished in a tie for third with Roga - Maltbie at 287 after shooting a final- 
round 74. Maltbie shot 70 Sunday. 

For the Record 

Ibe world indoor best in the Ugh jimp was broken again Sunday, by 


Hana Mandlikova 
for joy after her t 











Page 24 


CVTERNATIOINAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 26, 1985 


art buchwald 


A Heavenly Funeral 



ones in ouicr space De^e Slayton, 
a lorrner astronaut, is working in 
tandem with a consortium of com* 
panies that will orbit the ashes of a 
deceased person 1,900 miles above 
the earth. Funeral services should 
oegin in late 1996. 

. The Department of Transporta- 
tion has enthusiastically approved 
the plan and 
said “it repre- 
sents a creative 
response to the 
president’s ini- 
en- 
ihe 


“Thank you. I would like to cre- 
mate my Uncle Sidney and put him 
in celestial orbit." 



BoMd 


liative to 
courage 
commerdai 
of space." 

As I under- 
stand it, the re- 
mains of your 
Uncle Sidney 
will be compressed by a secret pro- 
cess in a special two-inch tall, lip- 
stick-shaped titanium capsule, 
which will then be placed into a 
300-pound shiny sphere, along with 
the ashes of 10J30 other recently 
departed people. The sphere will be 
launched into the heavens where 
it's guaranteed to remain in orbit 
for at least 65 million years, or you 
get your money back. 

O 

While Slayton's consortium will 
provide the rocket and the capsule, 
they prefer to leave actual sales and 
arrangements to funeral directors 
and undertakers around the coun- 
try. 

This might lead to some prob- 
lems. 

“Please have a chair." 


Deux Magots Building 
Will Be Sold in Pairs 


“You’re in luck. We have a 
launch in one month, and we can 
reserve a place for him.” 

“Wonderful. I noticed in your 
advertisement that the price for the 
service was S3, 900.” 

“That’s the base cost just to get 
him up there. Did you love your 
Uncle Sidney?’ 

“Very much." 

“Then I wouldn’t advise you to 
put his ashes in the standard titani- 
um capsule." 

“Why not?" 

“I’m not supposed to tell you 
this, but although the containers 
are advertised to last for 65 million 
years, some of them fall apart after 
30 million. You wouldn't want 
your uncle's ashes all over the sky. 
would you?’ 

“I guess not" 

□ 

“Then Td recommend this up- 
graded ‘From Here to Eternity’ 
model. Notice the outside is twice 
as strong as titanium, and the in- 
side is lined with French satin.” 

“How much is it?” 

“It’s only $ 900 more, but if you 
insist on the cheap, tacky one. I'm 
sure your unde woufd under- 
stand.” 

“No, no. 1*11 take the 'From Here 
to Eternity’ capsule. WiD that do 
it?” 

“There is the placement of the 
ash container in the sphere. I as- 
sume you would want your Uncle 
Sidney as close to the skin as possi- 
ble. facing toward the earth.” 

“Certainly.” 

“Then there is a premium charge 
of $600, to guarantee his ashes 
won’t be thrown in the middle with 


all the economy class passengers. 

i fond adieu 


The Associated tress 
PARIS — The building housing 
the Caffe des Deux Magots, once 
one of the Left Bank’s most famous 
meeting places for writers and in- 
tellectuals, will go on the auction 
block today. 

Bidding for the property, which 
indudes tbc cafe, an adjoining 
bookstore and a jewelry shop, is 
expected to start at 13 millio n 
francs (around $1.3 million). The 
sale is not expected to affect the 
cafe. The nearby Caffe Flore was 
sold far 14.4 million bancs in 1983. 


Will you want to bid a 

to your loved one as he is launched 
into space?” 

“Of course.” 

“We can give you a package tour 


to Cape Canaveral with compli- 
' ff.al 


mentary breakfast before lifto 
a group rate of $1,500 per person. 
□ 


“Sending Uncle Sidney up into 
orbit is costing me more man I 


planned on.’ 

“But it's worth it Every time you 


look up to the heavens, you will see 
your Unde Sidney and know he is 


smiling down on you because you 
booked him first class.” 


The Controversial Company of Wolves 


By Iver Peterson 

New York Times Service 

Y ellowstone ational park, 

Wyoming — Before World War U, the 
mournful cry of the wolf rang in the vast 
wilderness of this park, and his shadowy 
figure stalked the elk, moose and deer at the 
edge of the wood. 

Now the gray wolf is virtually gone in this 
region, shot, poisoned and trapped by federal 
rangers and stockmen. And in trying to en- 
courage the return of wolves to the Yellow- 
stone area, tire government has run into many 
of the arguments that were made for killing 
the wolves half a century ago. 

Sheep and cattle ranchers who range their 
flocks and herds in these mountains, fearing 
the return of the wolf wiD add to the threat to 
their livestock already posed by coyotes and 
eagles, have managed to stall [be federal Wolf 
Recovery Project’s proposal to reintroduce 
the wolf into the S.GOO square miles of the the 
park and surrounding wilderness. 

But conservationists and officials of the 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, which is 
charged with managing the recovery effort, 
argue that the eradication of the wolf has 
allowed the park area’s herds of dk, moose 
and deer to grow too large, and that the herd’s 
natural predator should be returned to re- 
store the balance of nature. 

The argument over the wolfs place in the 
Yellowstone area does not only turn cm ques- 
tions of a stockman’s property rights and a 
biologist’s notions of ecological balance, but 
also indude evolving attitudes towards one of 
the most evocative of animals. 



Trrma Moorc/Tha Nt* York Im 

A gray wolf, focus of controversy between ranchers and biologists. 


On the one hand are generations-old im- 
ages of tire wolf as tire scourge of bedtime 
stories, as the very soul of stealth and cruelty. 
On the other lies an emerging admiration of 
the elusive wolf that experts trace to sources 
as various as the popular movie “Never Cry 
Wolf,” which portrayed wolves in the Yukon 
as crucial to the survival of the dk herd. 

“Wolves — what could be hotter?” said 
John Weaver, a biologist with the Fish and 
Midlife Service in Jackson, Wyoming. “The 
wolf is all caught up in the mythology of tire 
anim al. Bears kill people, but everybody 
loves bears, they want to come into the woods 
and hug bears because they’ve been hugging 


But Joe Hefle, a sheep rancher from Dillon, 
Montana, who heads the animal damage con- 
trol committee of the National Woo [grower's 
Association, thinks the wolf deserves his bad 
reputation. 

“We’re getting this comparison of the wolf 
irmiring like a little Bambi,” he declared. 
These pseudo-environmentalists think the 
wolf just sniffs the air and looks cute, that he 
doesn’t tear tire belly out ci a living horse or 
sheep, that be doesn't hamstring sheep and 
drag them down and choke the living breach 
from their throats.” 

In the West, tire conflict between federal 
wildlife laws and the traditions of settlers is 
never sharper than when predators are in- 
volved 


For example, stockmen are engaged in a 
r-oldftc 


them since they were in the cradle. But when 
res to wolv 


it comes to wolves, who don’t hurt anybody, 
they can’t stand it — it’s little Red Riding 
Hood and the big bad wolf all over again.” 
Hank Fischer, a field representative of De- 
fenders of wildlife, a conservation group. 


believes the image of wolves is cbangii^ 


“The hatred of wolves was more true in i 
past," he said. “In the past 20 years, the role 
of predators has become better understood in 
our country, and a lot of people now see the 
wolf as a symbol of wildenress that ought to 
be saved” 


10-year-old fight to restore the use of the anti- 
coyote poison known as Compound 1080. 
banned because it was suspected of killing 
eagles, which are protected 
Cattlemen, sheep ranchers and timber in- 
terests are particularly leery of reintroducing 
protected species into federal lands where 
they cut timber or graze their stock, because 
the presence of s uch animals can trigger re- 
strictions on the use of the land 
Before they were aO bat eradicated by 
settlers, wolves ranged through most of 
North America and Mexico. In the United 
Stares, remaining packs are confined to 
northern Minnesota, where 800 to 1,200 are 
believed to roam, and to Alaska. 


In recent years, however, there have been 
signs »ha; wolves were once again coming 
south from Canada into the northern Rockies 
and the area around Glacier National Park in 
Montana, and to the huge wilderness areas of 
central Idaho. 

Those two areas were selected as wolf re- 
covery areas by the Fish and Wildlife Service. 
A third area, here in the northwestern corner 
of Wyoming, is cut off from the two more 
northern areas, and there is little chance that 
wolves will migrate back to Yellowstone cm 
heir own. 

Hence the Recovery Team’s proposal to 
transplant captured wolves, probably from 
British Columbia, where the provincial gov- 
ernment is carrying out a vigorous campaign 
to reduce the wolf pack. The proposal has 
been under consideration by the Service’s 
Denver office since 1983- 

HeDe argues that the days of the wolf in 
Yellowstone arc over. 

Weaver of the Fish and Wildlife Service 
argues, however, that the park is just where 
the wolf belongs. 

“The thing about Yellowstone is that it’s 
got seven or eight thousand square miles with 
extremely few livestock, in it.” be said, “It has 

20.000 elk entirety within the park, it has 

2.000 bison, it has several thousand mole 
deer, and Joe Helle says the niche is gone? 
Where the wolfs niche is gone is in eastern 
Wyoming and eastern Montana where the 
bison were exterminated and where the cattle 
now are — not in Yellowstone.” 


PEOPLE 


Lyubimov: Stage Center 


When Yuri Lyubimov was direc- 
tor of Moscow’s renowned Ta- 
ganka Theater, a Soviet censor 
once told him, “fm wanting you. 
Your trees must look more like 
trees, or the play won’t gp on.” 
“Can I have a few ants climbing np 
it tod T answered Lyubimov with 
the attitude that eventually led to 
his exile in the West. Lyubimov, 67, 
tells this story and others in “Le 
Fen Sane” (The Sacred Fire), an 
account of his 20 years as head of 
the Soviet Union’s most famous 
experimental theater. The book 
was released in Paris to coincide 
with the premiere of ‘The Pos- 
sessed." Lyubimov's first produc- 
tion since he was fired from the 
Taganka Theater, thrown out of 
the Communist Party and finally 
stripped of his Soviet citizenship 
last July. The play, performed in 
English by London’s Almeida The- 
ater Company at the Hife&tre de 
rEurope, will run until Feb. 28 and 
then tour Italy before making its 
London debut on March 21. The 
Possessed,” originally intended for 
the Taganka Theater, is a 3tt-hour 
dramatic adaptation of Feodor 
Dostoyevsky’s complex and diffi- 
cult masterpiece which condemns 
the aliena ted radicalism that char- 
acterized Russia in the 1870s. 


own mortality" and ,is serious 
about becoming a priest 
□ 

Conductor Herbert too Karajan 
mS lead the Vienna Philharmonic 
and an Austrian chorus in Mozart's 
Coronation Mass (KL3I7) in June 
in St Peter’s Basfica. A Vatican: 
spokesman said the music wifl.be 


Thomas Bowes, 63. a millionaire 
nursing-borne owner, ended his 
marriag e of 18 years and is prepar- 
ing for a new life as a priest in the 
Roman Catholic Church. Bowes 


told a divorce court judge last 
month. “Your honor, I love my 


wife very much, but I'm entering 
the priesthood. 1 have to be di- 
vorced.” the Chicago Sun-Times 
reported Sunday. Bowes, who now 
lives in San Diego, gave his ex-wife, 
Joan, a $350,000 cash settlement, 
signal over the family’s $60 0,000 
condonrimum in La Jolla, Califor- 
nia, and gave her all the furniture. 
He kept his favorite statue of the- 
Madonna. According to Loyola 
University law professor James 


John Fad O. rat the feast- 
day of Saints Peter aid Paul Jose 
29. 

a . . _ 

A three-year-old boy whose 
mother was mistress of tas Fail of 
Owes has w on a legal battle to 
inherit the aristocrat's personal for- 
tune but cannot acqnire the tide 
because he was flkgramate. The 
infant. Tommy Nicholson, who 
lives on welfare wkhteooher in , 
a two-room apartment in Glasgow, 
will inherit the personal fortune of 
nearly £800,000 (about $864,000) 
left by the young earl when hecom- 
mitted suicide in 1983, according to 
a will published Saturday. But law- 
yers ruled that because the bey was 
bom out of wedlock he cannot in- 
herit the 322-year-old tide of the : 
Eari of Craven or the lull family . 
fortune of £4 million. The inheri- 
tance follows a legal wrangle be- 
tween the Craven family ana Tom- 
my's mother, Anne Nicholson, 
mistress of the seventh Eari. Tam- 
my fttwt his mother h«l lived with 
Craven on his family’s 10,000-acre 
(4, 170-hectare) estate in Berkshire, 
west of London, nntfl they -split up 
shortly before the eari shot himself 
to death. After blood tests demand- 
ed by the family indicated Tommy 
was the eari's sc®, it was agreed be 
should inherit bis father's personal 
estate. 



□ 


John Lennon's widow, Yoko 
Ono, and farmer Beatles George 
Harrison and Ringo Starr have 
filed an 58.6-miIlion lawsuit 
against Pad McCartney alleging 
breach of contract, the Sunday 


Fortins, an authority on family law 
Catholic Church, Bowes 


Minor of London reported. The 
tv York, saic 


and the 


got divorced “just to be sure,” but 
in the eyes of the church he had 


never been married because he 
didn’t have a church wedding. For- 
wes fulfills 


kins said that if Bowes fulfills the 
requirements for the priesthood the 

kn IT moIftAWUa llirrt B/ymOc’c 


church will welcome him. Bcrwes's 
son, Gerald, 37, said he believes his 
father has “come to grips with his 


suit, filed in New York, said 
McCartney earns more royalties 
from the Beaties' hits than the oth- 
er former Beaties, The Minor said. 
The paper quoted Bob (YNeffl, le- 
gal spokesman for Capitd-EMJ 
Records, as saying McCartney’s ex- 
tra money came from the record 
company's cut and did not affect 
the other Beaties' shares, the paper 
said. 


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ANNOUNCEMENTS 


TROnCAl HTATStHtONr pri«y « 

aAOM-iilBd pia*cdian horns on 
OueWd Bay, Jamaica's wpaiad 
KUhaact tssaa. Meat far sMdon' 
mete far 2 to 14 people. Friend 
fnn 5JJ295 par couple par Mdfe 
indudet fine food & dnnV, troicpcrt> 
lion, terns court. Boss & Mancure. 
1)6 N. Sdr* Asndv Abaondna, VA 
22314 TqL P03iS49-5276. 


ARTIST A FASHION D6JGNHS 
write or phone far ui fu rr uA on 
INTBMATiONAL ART & FASHION 
GCHBUOM Row Amenmn Acade- 
my, 9 rue des Unufines, 75005 Rons. 
TA 325 03 91 


A1COHOUCS ANONYMOUS in 
Enpfck Pent 634 5965. Geneva 
. Rorrw 67B 03 20. 


LQMXm. 0«aAIO. Dine privdety 
MoGrewv 
•480 7295. 


a boa r d hetoric safini 4ii to Gnev 
vrich. ReMrvatianL TA 0T- 48* 


MOVING 


INTERDEAN 


WHO BSE FOR YOUR 
NEXT MIBMAHONAL MOVE 


FOR A HSE BTUUIB GAU 


AMSTEBDAM: 

ATFfitiS: 

BARCSaNA: 

KKN 

071)89.93^4 

O! 1961. 72. 12 

0316523111 

02241166062 

0421)171891 

02)720.95.63 

9561863144 

0619012001 

022)4185 JO 

01)961-41.41 

EsduBve. 135 sqjn. qulnenf, 
86) floor, hah doa, inogriicgt mew 
Tefc7»2717-7Z7 64 07 

BRBIIBk 

vuissas 

CADIZ. 

RtANKRJET: 

GBCVA: 

LONDON: 



ps 

(oeor) VIC TOO HUGO 
Kvms, 2 beduonn, 2 beats, surary, 
torace, garoge. Tefc 267 4 \ 66 


16ft. LAST APASTMB4T. New, hgh 
daB. Personofized fmefengs. Large : 
rooms, terrace. IntanEhig price, let 


VAN UNES 1NTL 

OVBt 1000 AGSITS 
IN U^A. - CANADA 
350 WCMOD-VUDE 
fSS ESTIMATES 

PARIS Desbanfa* httonKAmal 

|0T1 343 23 64 


FSAhEOWT aXTES! 


Tamil i ei 

(069) 250066 

MUNICH l-M-S. 

(069) 142244 

LONDON t 

(Ol) 9S3 3636 
CAIRO ARM v«n Urws toll 
(20-2) 712901 

USA 6BM Van Ihmun Carp 

{01 OT] 312-681-6100 


DEMEXPORT 


PARIS • LYON • MAR5BUE 
UUE • MCE 

f? mowing b f spedrfrf.fiwn iweor 
MS in France to cD one* ei fae wond. 
4 free from Fraien 16 JOS 24 10 82 
FR& ESTIMATES 


MQnfcai 1881 Peris -C ot too 


REAL ESTATE 
FOR SALE 


FRHVCH provinces 


ftWTWS 0HVH 
, dub rcaoencB, 


VIEW CM 

■nnmrtg 58 kuil, lotohen, 
(vfng, + be&oom. Cmrort 
Hoe raDflX). Tefc 766 85 TO 


MOUGRMS, nap***, n«wift«jT 
wfc, 210 reeepnon. 5 bed 
mans, 4^00 rwfrarig 

pool pnoc to bis dsassed. I 1 

KomotionMcBflrtNkB|9^P. 


AHDeOt Owner house, netr 5». 
Afrique. F150reQ. M 239 0602 Fans 


PARIS & SUBURBS 


PASB7TH. 

Vine on HH Tow, 5tti floor, iff, 135 
K^m. “trie attfcr type*” wmB 55 
sqjiL. 3 bedooms, 2 


VAMAU: 555 46 63 


AGBfCE DE L’ETORE 

SEAL E5TAIE AC84T 

380 26 08 


REAL ESTATE 
FOR SALE 


PARIS & SUBURBS 


Embassy Service 


5 Aw*, de MmsM 
75006 Para 
Teton 231696 F 


YOUR REAL ESTATE 
AGM IN PARIS 


RATS FOR SA1E 

ntONE 562-1640 

RATS FOR RENT 

PHONE 562-7899 

OFFICES FOR RENT/SALE 

PHONE 563-6214 


50 AVE FOCH 

floor. 


125 sqjrv. umy, . 

splendid recupnon + 

2 boihs, pnrfaiaHKH PRICE 
Kai&VTTY: 
EMBASSY; 562 16 40 


AVE MONTAIGNE 


NEUJUY NEAR BO B. SedaOM 3 
IOOVM, KXM garqart- perkma. 

n^re^doreagy 624 93 31 


SWITZERLAND 


In 6 m de n ning m ou ntai n rewrt of 

LEYSIN: 


RStDOKE IES FRENES 


OwfaAng q spfcndid Atpme papp- 
mo. 30 min. fnern Monfreux and Leu 
Geneva by car. 

- you eon own qaaSTy readenasi 

with ntoor iwroing pooi and 
fitness fadStet m cn ided 
eMunmr far leisore and spoils 

- SF. rates 
up to 80% mortgages. 


Meriden re 1 — Frew s. 1854 leyria 
SWTJmAND 

Td: (025)34 11 SSlfcfeJUUa 26629 CH 


LAKE GENEVA 
MOUNTAIN RE50RTS 

Lovely eparfmants veto mognifioant 
views of Lake Genma and mourtoee. 


MontnKff, VBbri, Verfaiar. la Onblsr- 
eb, Oxsleao <TOsx near Gpnad, Loy- 
sin. b r orito rit O p port u nltftes For 


Prices from SF1 23.000. • 
Ifaend wortgqqB of 6HX irtwost. 
GU^TtAN&A. 

Av Mon Depot 24, 


Tefc 


OiJfldS Lausanne, Swtesrfcnt 
fc pit 22 2f 12 The 251 85 MB 

dfctfeM 5«e 1970 


DAVOSP1A1Z 
Our bad offer in EfawK flxdusive 
etment wito kage Sving room, fre- 
r _ ar & gdary. wood corned m 

on old . vila, now under rvcontruduk 
2 bedrooms, one botoreonv «e dnw- 
bed location, amfaaaflg mporv 
s 116 sq jL 4- 10 sun. anwed 
tonpesL Aiosr SWftOOU far sole 

to faraanen. 

Mortogw id law 5wm edertd rtfes. 

EMBIALD-HOME LTD 

Derfdr^ CH4872 WeeMi 
Tel: OW 6-43 1778. 

The 876062 HME Of 


GENEVA 


PRIVATE MXVDUAL 0HB5 
far sole in havt of Geneva, 


m kp> wwi w Ma ri e 

raMfarfial properly of about 23400 
**fe fwhidt axAd be eady tuixMed 

d^Man an raqurenreito) sitiuM n 

spacious wded gteden. This uriqic 


yt yinn W ,, WI) . ,. w . — , 

properly offers securrty/prnacjr/tosi- 
qtriny and is (too grto^ratofady et 
eerier a town, SuUadid pace r» 
in confi- 


quired. Prwptto ah reply in confi 
dma o, Bax 17V1 Ffcrrtof Tifam. 
92571 Nevfy Cede*, fw» 


INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFIED 


REAL ESTATE 
FOR SALE 


SWITZERLAND 


CHOOSE 

SWITZERLAND 


We hove far foreigner* A very big 
of beautiful APARTMENTS/ 


chair* , 

VU1AS / CHAIH5 m the whale 
■e^an of Lake Geneva, Montreal L 06 
tamgus mowitoei resorts. Very reasois* 
oMy priced Exit oho the best and tnasr 
wdwrvo. Price from about LBS40jX)0- 
Mortgoges ri 6fflt PteiM vist us or 
phone before you mttoe a decision. 

KsraotnsA. 

Tour Gro» 6. CH-1007 Louscnr* 
Tefc 21/25 26 11 Hi 24298 SSO CH 


MONACO 


MONIE CARLO 


P,-| . I,., i TTl.i f»f i . ■■ i . I... 

mnapmay or nnonoco 
For sofa in luHiriowt modem residence, 
flematl ream with kg^io,^ 


'.C, crikr, 
MBtMBRA 


BJ«. 54 
INC 98001 MONACO CEDEX 
Tefc (931 SO 66 84 
lli: 469477 


REAL ESTATE 
FOR SALE 

REAL ESTATE 
TO RENT/SHARE 

MONACO 

GREAT BRITAIN 

MONTE CARLO 
PrindjpaDty o f Monaco 

LONDON. For the best fumehad Raa 
end home*. Consult the Speoafcav 
PHSps. Kay and Lewis. Tefc Iordan 
3Sf6ni. fefoi 27846 RE5pE G/ 

PARIS AREA FURNISHED 

APARTAQIT, PAHO v 
700 eqjo. prorate garuea 
Kesdenfeti area. Carter of town, ccdn, 
300 si^ni raring space, targe Man, 
lergo reception, ftirory, dnma. JY 
room, 4 badtxjan 3 batfo, 1 ream for 
ikrff with both, spaaois modem fitly 
eguppe^btahety 1 kraespere racm, 
stnri office, ferga arassng room, 
garoge. High doa senriem 
Ar corritiowna. elector birds, etc. 
EXCLUSIVE AG9CE MIBMBXA 
BP. 54 

MC 98001 MONACO CEDEX 
Tefc 193) 50 66 84 
Tbs 469477 

PLACE VB4DOME 

Short term rental. 4 roone. 
&**ptiont4. F35fl00 a month 
A8P26S 11 99 

ITU NEAR RARC MONGEAU 
ISOsqjn. ipOTmert. hah, ictian, tiring 
room sri*h'. ? bedroane, both + 
shore. Boauiifofiy furnohed Fricc 
F17J50 net. tos Promo: 563 711 18 

74 CHAMPSAYS® 8th 

Stuia, 2 or 3room apertraert. 
One month or more. 

IE OARDGE 359 67 97. 

USA RESIDENTIAL 

GALVESTON TEXAS -hw new Iwwrv 
town houses on beachfront 1700 
sqft. with douHe gc rage. 3 beti- 
roono, 3 baths, porch & da ck Period 
far retirement or wil tutorial keg 
term lease. Tele* (UK) 739043 

ARTISTS HAT, hfcpcfcc* ana, am- 
Irol, nrniy, 70 aqja » * * * comfort, 
6th floor, equipped kitchen, bolh- 
room. Ideal far rowy prtopie. S300 
wim y/pertoe. Viot today nanimri- 
doy. 47 rue dAboubr. Metro Sertier. 


REAL ESTATE 
TO RENT/SHARE 


PARIS AREA FURNISHED 


IMGUE PARIS TO LET from March 


IS, US to Anri 30, "85, supwfa house- 
boat, ideal for 4 os * 


r4<xMfe. S.G.T, 15rw 

tougemort 75009 ftefo Tel 77D 2D32 


FOR SHORT TER M STAY PAMS: Sto 
tfes tnd 2 rooms, decor uteri. ContaU- 
Sofireae.6 ave Defecew, 75038 ftris 
Tefc nT S9 99 50 


RXAI FOR 5N03T TEEM STAY. Pass 
s»ucka & 2 room, decorrtecl Cortod 
SoreJm 80 me U nivei w te. Penis 7th. 
Tefc PI S44 39 <0, 


NEUILLY uppe r floor, v ery bsoutftrl 2 
rooms, on Qnfcony. Siort tinn 
544 39 40 


SHORT TBlM m L atm Ou atm. 
tb ogwm. Tefc 329 38 83. 


TR O CAPB O l Udqjhous & sumy 2 
647 52 82. 


rooms, lerrace, high dess. ( 


flrgden. 


Lrroe 2-room flat, quiet, mvcdu 
toe. 7 (Mis Tel. 6^ 88-V6. 


NOAGaiT 161st doss big Gvvn bed 
9(h garage 5276710 


room tofchen/bgh garoge i 


12TH, Cher mug 2-room, F5JQ0 / 
momh far 2 month. 72301 40 


14TH TROCAD8KX 2 roane, gerden. 
FWOUTris 720 9495 


17TH ETOIlt Lovely 5 rooms. FU,500 
Tel 720 9495 


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BUSINESS 

OPPORTUNITIES 


THIS WEEK 
March 4th 


in 


BUSINESS WEEK 

INTERNATIONAL 


• Use Raidn How Takeover Fea* 
Dfatcrt Corporate Be h c n rior. 


• Kriy: ATAT and OEvetth An Odd 
C o up le Itos'i Hou AH t hj . 


r.-M-. L m yv , . 

»• mitWTV DvurwK 

Stream Cfely A “Graido 
Button”? 


NOWON SAIF 
AT AIL 

INTERNATIONAL 

NEWSSTANDS. 


MAJOR US FNANQAL GROUP 
sedo nwfceting orgcncction to offer 


tor corporate note, guvafeed 
major European 


by mojorfcurapeanitBVtmcBOigon- 
ntooo. Note carries intomf aid profit 
pnrifo pri ion to be offered by pro- 
spedw to privcA mid ueiituti^id 


invedon. Top f Wt board with prov- 
■ Exafent bonk irforencns. 


on record. 

Corwneraai u ca^Bue Cbtp, ?.Q 


Sox 820, Geneve 1211 S w ri e rion d 
Tefc 41 J2 • 32 85 3R Tele* 22708 Ol 


SWISS FRANCS WANI8S 
to faige mnaure to be secured fera usP 
tog bmto n’crour y np re^ind Uj. gov- 
ntojnnctocn con- 
tact 
1181 


. [212) 4277176 Q4 hounl or Bor 
1 g ™_^9«V W'Y. N.Y. 10028. 

rtimsidb only. 


BUSINESS 

OPPORTUNITIES 


UQSJ IB GOLD 

JOJOBA 


Jojoba, toe owocto beai grown in it* 
UiA. has a raturol Me tpm< of 100 • 


200 years. Usee 


factoring. Or. D Yermonas, 

Uraversify. so tori. “No other plant 
product bi toe world is capable of re - 
placing petroleum based lubricants". 
C e hri n g fi el ds pt erride refum an to- 


v M tta en t in ml »*». Entire amount 
',eciions s 
of 33%. 


far c o rni A to dehsh eortact: AUOBA 
BBEABOi Bo. 1777. Heraid Triune. 
92521 Neuly Cede., France. 


MONEY TREES? 


TS Invest in one of Americo’s mast 
noting tCOVnOQKZjl UnAlliQDB 111 
a Wtoc dolta todusfry. 8,00D nut trees 
(iarledAai}(Biord2iy)Btobef4ont- 
ed srxite Mgh gnrwd ectotings anno 

for new. meny years. 

Baaops alranB® invited. 

Molend Bvoflite i" frendv 

German. Arabic. Box 1778, Henirf 
Trtouie. 92521 Nerrily Codex, Frmca. 


INVESTMENTS 
SSOUR AD ON 
PAGE 19 

TRANS G0NTA1FER 
MASKERNG AG 


TSAQB — COMMOOme 

raetSum siw EropcOn Trading Compa- 
ny requires op eriencod tractor, pt afe- 
Ottiy wito good conn edtons m fasten 
CourtoHB - mwXWffl* * if 
faaihSBiv attract i vogddtio ip- 
ttiirti oto, & warj pr&xE. To be 
M rtooned n Zuxh offiffl. Ffase send 
CV. so: PjO. 6ck S26, CK8039 Zuridt 


BWEST 3 WSB in Bettor Hedfa. 
Enter Cmfioc fck P reve ntion 6 
HeeAh B eua nH io n v j g Proy ^r ^now. 

VmnaaB.Meriai Cm- 


tor, Erton hot Goddming, Surrey 
GUS5AL .45 nan. Umdwv Keg 


{M2I879 2231 


HDUQARY BANXMG on large col- 
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iSrSssSriSTSHi 

Ltd, 28 Bind Prince Rd. Lortoon SEI. 
Tel 735 8171 


USA. PARTIS WANTH X fac 
ur«jyduiiufTft*flJ»0le*«iiBHr4 
awni fa in new woMaa m 
oBpl hotels & redourafa. 1AC. 2110 A 
g5ow* WJ ferna VA 22180. Tri 
1703) 7347M0 UAA. 


BUSINESS 

OPPORTUNITIES 


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212-765-7794 
330 W. 5<rh St, N.Y.C 10019 
Service Representatives 
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OFFSHORE 
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BANKS 

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Non 


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* J - J- „ C— I 

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ASTON COMPANY FORMATIONS 

O** HI. 8 VSdono 5r 


Ddurias. Ne of * tan 

TS 0624 


26591 

Tries 627691 SRVA.G 


FSB4CH HKH KASHK3N MODEL 
27, PS/PA eip ene m , Hstcry of Art 

g rad u ate, free to travel, 
took* far London hosed 
3 pjn,9 pm. 01-225 


HOW IO GET a Second ftwport, re- 
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tdtk WMA, 4$ lyrvtoura TCE, Be. 
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DIAMONDS 




Fine i fa n u » d s a any price range 
at lowest wtiofasde press 
dm3 from Anfuerp 
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fall 

for free price fip write 



— ~ J92B 

.^uu-uu , 62. 62018 Antwerp 
Befajiw -Trir g2 31 234 C7g , 
Hw 7t779 tyl b. AilfaWnond Oub. 
HeOT of Aitowrp Danend industry 


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returns. Paris barad US CPA 3596301 


OFFICE SERVICES 


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IN ZURICH 


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word ftoc 


I / Trondabon 

Camanr rvm c 

toUWHATIONAL I 


Tefc 


32 Rennweg. 0+B001 Zurich 
01 / 214 6H1. Tlx. 612066 INOF 


MEMBER WOS1I3-WDE 
■ BU5MESS C94TRE5 ■ 


PARIS 

CHAMPS B.YSEB 


REAL ESTATE 
TO RENT/SHARE 

PARIS AREA UNFURNISHED 

81 AVBWEFOCH 

eweptionci pied-a-terre, luxurious 2 
rooms, 60 sqm., 3rd hoar togwa- 
JucSed kry money. Free 1 st March ^5. 
At Ihe spot- Weci»sdqy from 10 am 
to 8 pm. Tat 538 52 S2 

T7TH ROME. By cwmer, double living 
+ befoony + bedroom on pnta 
equipped lotdien, brth, emry. AB 
comforK FSJOO/manthty. 294 26 44. 

REAL ESTATE 
WANTED/EXCHANGE 

WANTED PARE & AriJUVING March 
15. 2-3 beds for 1 year. >MI rent or 
earanfce you n, send detaik to V. 
MhHARAJ c/o ScHuraberger, SO rue 
da Marxxau 75008 Paris. 

UDY RfiOUntB RrtNS® Abed- 
roam uportmert. 200 sqm, for May 
& June, dose to Avenue Cfconps By 
ikes. Tefc flaris 519 94 25- 

EMPLOYMENT 

GENERAL POSITIONS 
AVAILABLE 

clow 

Earn hgh commsgon rt Europe's krg- 
ert ft No .1 sdKng time shoe resort 
Contact Mr. Doras Cti Apartado 4, 8201 
Afcufrira; Atocrve, fartugri or cot 
010 351 8953197 

MUL78JNGUAL femefe needed os 
peraand assstati, interpreter, etc. 
for aauple tnxcSng world. Apply in 
ovm hondwntma aidude photo if 
possble. Emily may lake 3-5 weata. 
60 * 40418, LH.T. U Long Acre. Uw 
don. WC2E9JH. 

GENERAL 

POSITIONS WANTED 

COMaBKE ORGAMZBt, French 
woman, taw ft econonvcs degrees, 
fluent Engfcsh, executive assstant, 
seeks Paris baaed posHmr it import/ 
expert Field or other. Free to hovel 
Write Bob IBM. ffercrid Tribune. 
9252] NeuHy Cade*. Tuna 

HIGUSH OYNAIMC BSngud ieo«- 
tory/ cnStSkuiL coraputv 
refiobifl, ttRcetef t oppeyoreg, leeb 
dultfigmg posihon. onvtng besree- 
free to trmeL Boo 1781, ffrrrtd Tri- 
bune, 92521 Ne^hr Cedes, Franca. 

FREXNTA 8 U DAM5H LADY muta- 
in^sd (Engfah, German, Sprmnh. 
FrwtcW safes experience seeks stimu- 
lating job wnh trawl Brae Europe / 
US. T«£UK 09326 5993. Bax 40454, 
LKT W 63 long Acre. London. WC2E 


Rarr 

YOUR OFFICE 


1559. 


YOUR FURMSHB1 OFFICE 
fN LONDON 
• 7 day 24 hour access & answerphone 


• Fu4 support servos nirkye 
' ' ’ W* 


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• Corporate Representation Senna 

• Short or tong Iona ttvodriity 

Worid- Wide Besfoees Centre* 
llOThe Shod LOTdon WC2KOAA 
Tefc Ol 8364918 Tbc 24973 


LONDON - eOCUMVE One office to 
Ihe BBtrihuuM of toe finest West End 
buwn g ovotarie far short or long 
term occupation, futy fomehed witfi 
dion & scctitorid 


of 


Use 


modem office foriEta. Use of 

lage coherence / dtWM room with 


adering. Tefc 01-499 
2616STANGLOG. 


Telex 


YOUB LONDON OfflCE 

0&SHAJM EXECUTIVE CaffiS 
Comprahenu v e rawe of services 
ISO Regent StrwrtTWxi Wl- 
Tel: (01) 439 6288 Tie: 261426 


KOUMAR-MeCABE ®JVJ05. Your 


leUde Sm bast dotmdte/trie- 
phone/teira.'rrxJTO. Bax 561, Am 


de to Gan, 1001 Lousam, Swttzer- 
lond. 021/348218, tin 25074 MQCOU 


TOW OWCT M HWSr m £X, 
ANSWB8NG SSVKX. seenkry, 
artank moflsot 6vo 24H/day. 
Tei PAT, 60? 95 94 


IMPETUS * ZURICH * 252 76 21. 
Phone t feta t mafem. 


YOUNG GOMAN ACTRESS, highly 

oriuentedOferd degree loala For 
7450000 


EMPLOYMENT 


liliWULU. POSI TIONS 
WANTED 


COMPANION / Sodd secretary, 31. 
weB educcried, wefl traveled. Experi- 
enced FR & protocol, p m eertobfe. 


fluert Frendv. seefct inter ed ina pod. 
" “ ‘ “1-785 6605 UK 


CV avcdable. Tefc Ol-i 


DOMESTIC 
POSmONS WANTED 


ALWAYS AVAIABLE - AU PAH & 
dddran s nemy. nwm s helpen & ol 
brandies of Id dots Ivefo domestic 


help worfcfaid e . Crd Skxjne Bureau, 
London 730 8122/5142 Q4 hourd U- 
CBMPAGY.Tbt 89SOfi7&.OAh4 G. 


ALWAYS A VAKA81E IONX3N only 
babyminden & la das dedy rautt 
Cdl Sham faeeoo. landort 730 
8122/5142. UCEMP. AGY. 


AUTOMOBILES 


iML RFC, IU81Z, jacl a 
fS 205 6996.^ Triae »55B6 Mq 

AUTO RENTALS 


KJL 


AUSTRIA A EAST QJROPE US$15.00 
per day. A utah oraa. Fraroriiniack- 


enflr. S. A-1020 W Tel: 241694. 


AUTO SHIPPING 


TRANSCAR 


nCCASSWPMG 
SPH3AUS1S 

~ 500 03 04 
39 43 44 


rAHS 
C6M«S^4CE 
FRAhMRJPT 
KX*4 / COLOGNE 
STUTTGART 
MUMOT 
BSEM8MAVBJ 
h*W YORK 
HOUSTON 
LOS ANGELES 



AGB4TS WORLD 

Leave il to us to bring if to you 


AUTOS TAX FREE 


TAKE THE PROFIT 

On your new European ausj purchase 


fairies 


you tefce toe profit 
s do the work 

Wo rldw id e dvpments to your 


MY CAE 
of Uxbridge 

(15 nwwtos from London Auport} 
5 Wintoor Sheet, Uxbridge, 
AAddiese* England UBBftfi. 

Tel: lk #5 721(0/4 
Tbo UK 88)3271 GECOIMS C 

MYCAR 


Place Your Classified Ad Qukkly and Easily 

tnUm 

tfUBHIATIONM. HERAID TRIBUNE 


By Phones CeJ your toed HT representative with yoor fad. You 
vrii be informed of Ihe cstf immedately, and once prapaynant h 
mode your ad wil appear within 48 horn. 

Cari: The baric rate is $98Qper fine per day + load taxes. Thera Ore 
25 tothrs, rigns and spaces in the first Sne inf 36 in Ihe faBowfag Snes. 
Minimuni space is 2 fines. No afabnevirriam accepted. 

Orwft Carrie: American Express, Dinars (X b. Eurocord, Master 
Card, Aeons and Visa 


HEAD OfflCE 


LATIN AMERICA 


Proie: (Far dassified oriy): 
747-4600. 


EUROPE 


: 26-36-15l 

1361-8397/360-2421. 
.343-1899. 

; (Dll 329440. 
(069) 7267-55. 

: 29-58-94. 

Utibaro 67-27-93/6625-44. 
London: (01)8364802. 
Madrid: 4S5-2B9 1/455-3306. 
;m 753)445. 
f. (03) 845545. 
Romte 6793437. 

Sw e d e n- OB 7569229. 

Tet Aviv. 034S5 559. 
Vienna: Contact Frankfurt. 


Bogota: 212-9600 
Boenoe Alrac 41 40 31 
Pept.3121 

Gonyaqui: 431 943/431 
Uroct 417852 
ftrarana: 6*4372 
San Jew 22-10S5 
Umlk^o, 6961 555 
Sob Paula: 852 1893 


MIDDLE EAST 


: 246300. 
-tardra* 25214. 
Kuwceto. 5614485. 

.340044. 

: 416535. 

Saadi AnAic 
Jeddah: 667-1500 
UAJ.t DM 224161. 


FA&EAST 


UNIfDSrAlB 


Bangkok 39D06-57. 
Hang Kong: 5420906 
Maiia 817 07 49. 
Seewk 725 B7 73. 
SfagB OT oro: 222-2725. 
Towm 752 44 25/9. 
Tokyo: 504-1925. 


How York: pi 2) 7523890. 
W*ri Cosed: (415) 362-8339. 




Sydney: 92956 39. 
Melbourne: 600 8233. 


VV' - . .-is anc 
l •' nptfur? r,ti jy 

la 

j£?cc:sf 

c T hc L'-rior 
Mr. :-.u-_r-x'« rrrp; 
fc'S'if. jt.-J r.‘ 




Si-kopT 
Mugabe I 


* ^ e: il 


AUTOS TAX FREE 


ROLLS-ROYCE 

BENTLEY 

BRITISH MOTORS 
IMIIGHT BROTHERS 


McrmcAno 
«eipe*y of Monaco 
Tel: (93J 50 64 M 
Telex: 469475 MC 
Official Direct factory Deed 
Can Sandy Worldwide 
1925 


EXPERIENCED CAR TRADERS for 
Mercedes, BMW, Porsche, offer foB 
jjririce import / export US DOT & 
S*A for tourist & dealer. Qraanrid* 
' ' EX*sd- 


Motors. Tewteegenstr. 8, 4 Duesse 
dorf. W. Geraxrry. Tri: W 211 
434646 Telex: 85^74. 


AUTOS TAX FREE 


KBKOB 300 D4UBO outooKfa; 

a*-gnol factory America) spea, fuBy 


TVAtCMUNDt BBGIUM, 21 Gedd- 
teboon. 8-2241 Zoersei, Anrwerp. Tefc 
03-3841D-54 Tto 323 d 2 Tmn & In 
stock: Mercedes, BMW, A5Q 


MSKHJSS ESC 1925. Tram, tefc 
__ - |1W5G 


01-206 0007, ibt 8956022 T2AS I 


PAGE 4 
FOR f&ORE 
CLASSIFIEDS. 


International Secretarial Positions 


SECRETARIAL 

POSITIONS AVAILABLE 


EXECUTIVE SECRETARY 

MUNGUAL ENQUSK 
FI 80,000/ yw 

The P rarident or an iw p aoori tnedkri 
researc h or gon ootion verts high ievri 
afadori oedw, about 30 yean rid, 
bawnq at atufuil presentation. The 
conddrie wi hove o brae awod & 
totorang capadty & wd «*se» rihoerily 
the fttedenr vm dplomocy, order & 
quid wiffedneB in the various tosfa n- 
hemd to her position. 5ha vm abo be 

3 - 1 - fa — 


rmd & (tlev+up d Set The postiorj 
demands heawnl traveb in France a 
wd d abroad far «Mt ih* anidote 

onri be qvaWrie, . . 

Neon send written letter, CY & |Aoto. 

wrier raf. 5025 to 

AIS’H CONS8L 
10, n» de Rodnritouan 
75009 Bans, Mho «*B farwanL 


MBJCPVC seas for AMBOCAN 
pWwSYb fcms » P«Bfe 
EngUv . BelpaiL .Ofddi or Gjteftn 
Of frWCn fo- 
ld. Bfing u oi 
teferisb. Write or phene: 138 Avenn 
Victar ttago, 75116 fans. Fraw- Tel: 
727 61 


DOfOBiS GBOAl de Station de 
sports rfHww> Nf»e Uathtm, ra- 
oicrcha pour In Stritite, a§ 

tfccri ion bfegt* fo*ipris«9W, 

Mac Mohon. 7»i7 *n. 


SECRETARIAL 
POSITIONS AVAILABLE 


far PAMS la DEFENSE 

we leek 


BIUNGUAL 
SECRETARY 

i IBM word: 
vwfedga at 

thexopoators 


equipment. Written 

Switchboard Operators 
Binguri fagfishAendi 
aperionce in mtemanonal donna 

PRODESTeft 

43. r. Wramesni l 265 16 62 
795 bd fenpol 335 14 30 


NORTH AMBKAN STOCK Brdw 
fans, vriaily Opera htt openen far 
1 “te*«nosd secretary end 1 Writ 
office cforfc/typal. Both mu* be fogy 
bi«*J Frendi/En^rii or Engfah 

faiH«^®tal3p ^3»Sw 


PART-TIME B9GUSH morher 
admieta n jiiv e sKrekey, 
•'WifahOns, needed by btl woya 
m todnori coordmohon. 
To begin Mcreh 18. 1985. Please send 
riewne to Maediri TwMcd Grout 
97 Aue. de St. Marie. 75012 PoST* 


WGUSH.WOnB TONGUE 


h»«-, .Mwry^ peraioneri jxwtions 
Dc wula. GR Interim 


owritabfe. Co0 i 
758 8? 30. 


SECRETARIAL I SECRETARIES AVAILABLE 
POSmONS AVAILABLE 


SMA11 

8tfo seriq port- time bSngiiri Me 
toy, weS orporesd, for intoesting 
end varied work. Sand written lafler, 
CV, photo and desired salary to: SO, 

39 rue de to 8 wnfai w ncB. 75008 fans 


IMMSMATE OPENWG5 FOR Engfah 

Mote tongue or ptffed b$ngual 
famdi secretaries. TTX 80 Or Into- 


fe^.,^»rfrwnd if pos Cofl PR: 
233 19 04 Pons. 


SECRETARIES AVAILABLE 


<»- ragtag pe LkOBtfiwiv 

porwv beta People rocrud Ungudo- 

seeratofeL 

fare 75882 31 


RANDSTAO 

BOMGUAL AGENCY . __ 

fare: 758 12 40 T *" P '”S«««ri 


RBfCH LADY. 39, seeh chcAm 
s ccrato i ol poriaon wlh U j. orlw 


Bn 1825. 

tferrid Triune. 92521 NeuByCMH. 
Frmca 


EXECUTIVE SEOETARY. Frandi/Ena- 
Ssh shorthand/typiil, frirw sesb po^ 
lime job/ r epfoo si Md. 651 95 >3 to* 


EWWENCBO ENGUSH Sepetoy 


A6R AFflB) DATA RESEARCH (DBITSQflAND} CtobH 

One exoattivfMlrxrman for Germany and Deector for 
Contra! Europe is looking for 0 


Chief Secretary/ Assistant 

*? qv ®k I P ro ^ H# *io*»! eaperionce in a smtar position 
P**™ **0' to erriie and spade German and 

English nuertty (French is desirable}, arc tdentsd in orgaris- 
mg, preparing and planning business trips and meetings, 
are used to work independently on a boss of confidence 
and rebdility please send yoor application with resume 
and supporting documents to Mr. Gunter F. Wtedmbefer 


APPUED DATA K5EAECH (OEUISCHUND) GM 

frodoar 2n& 6 - 40ffl New* W. Gmnay ■ Tri: fj) 2101 /12M 


Printed by gdz In Zurich Switzerland)