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INTERNATIONAL 




‘‘ s\. WEATHB DATA APPEAR ON PAGE 22 


{So. 31,741 


Published With He New York Tunes and Ike Washington Post 

e * PARIS, SATURDAY-SUNDAY, MARCH 9-10, 1985 


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Shultz Intervened 
To Halt $58-Million 
Loan to Nicaragua 


"'■vii By Karen DeYoung would “undercut” efforts to ex- 
. " • •V..7 Washington Pan Service 0 pand the institution’s resource 

' : r:? -: s WASHINGTON— Secretary of ^ ^ „ 

• . . dilate (jeorge P. Shultz intexvtaied Shulu letter follows mrae 
:v Personally with the president of the *“ twoyears of dilute over the 
i . ‘’■"E n ter- American Development loan to Nicaragua. The $58 million 
. . ^itslank to blod a vote on a S58- » mieoded to provide fimmaal 
‘ : ; : <V nillion loan to Nicaragua, in wimt credits for small- and mechum- 
* • 1 i.i - ank offidals and Latin American sized farms and allow fanners to 
, !. . ,f ' «.^plomats have described as an un- purchase supplies needed for the 
^-.ireQjdemed Reagan, admmistra- production of basic foods. 

-. '^ion effon to pressure the institu- More indirect U5. efforts to de- 
■ J'Vftcm- .... lay processing of the loan to Nxca- 

.. . • J,:i *i: In a Jan. 30 letter t o the banids ragua led to concern early this year 
,l " ; *-• r -fresident Antonio Ortiz Mena, among Latin Americans that the 
■ ; <r Li^dr. Shultz expressed the adminis- bank’s repulsion for impartiaHty 
. ration’s “strong” opposition to the was being undermined. At 
- ran, and the “hope that the banks time, several Laxzu American diplo 
• :i> joanagement will be able to defer mats said there was concern that 
\ l '"~ t he release of the docinnawatioQ" the precedent could be appL’ed to 



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" the release of the documattahon" the precedent could be mplied to 
• “fiu t onnnled by the bank's tech n ical their own countries, ^hfiniH they 
^ ■ •• r|, .v. c, ; t ;ia£f in support erf the joan. ^ become involved in a dispute with 
Detailing the a dm i ni stration’s the United States. 

; / •• .cv.,:jeM that^karagua is “not at- . The situation became more un- 
- -.rnr.u; htworthy, Mr . Shultz abo noted ^ 0 ^ bank directors 

concern abom the possible nnsuse ^ the manber countries realized 

»r Nicaragua of the proceeds from that, despite technical approval of 
” ri • U a *9“: . , ' the loan, the tedmical documents 

*** I’jrU.' He said the money would reheve nevB rhSd been drculated to the 
' - ■ ! .v.r 0i . financial pressures on Nicaragua hoard and thus 

• : 1 ,"l-- ,^Hnd free up other moac/s tin 1 ^ Ioan %dne^r been placed on 
■ ,m* f»uld be used to he^> consoEdate the aamda fora final vote, 

vhe Marxist regime and finance “** 

Nicaragua's aggression against its ^ ^sa. 17, all 25 Latm Amen- 
. . tdtthbors, who are mectoers in caa n2C ®^ ers of ihc bank, repre- 
: 'iood standing of the bank.” seating a voting majority, took the 
• ~' : ‘ l The letter said that bank approv- unprecedented step of jointly re- 
■ “^1 of the loan would make Reagan questing that the Nicaraguan loan 
- '-dmmistnition efforts to provide ** P 1 ^ on the boards agenda. 


the administration’s the United States. 

icaragua is “not ere- . -pjjc situation became more un- 


V "•N'V - 


62 Are Killed, 
200 Injured in 
Beirut Bombing 


Complied by Our Suff From Dispatches According tO 3 photographer 

BEIRUT — A car packed with who reached Bir al Abed. Keafaal- 
explosives was blown up Friday lah gunmen closed off the scene of 
outside a mosque in a Smite Mos- the explosion as rescue teams 
lem neighborhood in Beirut's heaped the dead and the injured on 
southern suburbs, killing 62 pa- stretchers, 
sons and injuring 200. police said. Militiamen fired between the 

-ol? J!i Pl0S !? D ffe 1 !®?* *5 feet of reporters and photographers 
eight-story apartment budding and ^ ^ a ^, F =f J WJ s 

c^ma^d a roosqi^m which wpr- confiscated from some pboio«ra- 
shipers had gathered for Friday phefS v 

xrnirwfoH t Lebanese television showed 


prayerc. 


The car exploded 150 feet (45 L , nt : s 5 
meters) from the home of a promi- snK ^ £C ant * ^ ire billowin, 


: out of two 


Rescuers searching through the nibble following the car-bomb explosion Friday. 

Legislators Tie MX Support to Arms Talks 


nem Shiite religious leader. Sheikh buildings, and twisted and ove- 
Mohammed Hussein Fadlallab, turned vehicles m the middle of the 
who is believed to head the funds- strecL 

m dualist HezbaDah, or Pony of Police quoted a wi mess as saying 
God. the car had been parked in front of 

Sheikh Fadlallah’s office an- 3 tire shop, by a man who said he 
iiounced that he had not been in- would return for it shortly, 
jured, but security sources said that The explosion come four day's 
members of the sheikh's family and after a bomb explosion killed 15 
six of his bodyguards bad been persons in the Shiite village of Mar- 
among the casualties. The explo- akah. in Israeli-occupied territory' 
si on, in the Biral Abed section, was in southern Lebanon, 
followed by a series of smaller ex- cto Feb. 18. a car bombing in Bir 
plosions, said to be from bottles of qJ Abed killed five persons and in- 
gas stored in an apartment near the jured 44. 


By Bill Keller 

New York Tones Service 


would constitute “good faith” at 
the arms miles but as official ob- 


scuring a voting majority, took the rial group of senators and rcpresen- 
uoprecedented step of jointly re- tatives has agreed on a broad strai- 
questing that the Nicaraguan loan e gy linking the future of President 


WASHINGTON— An infiuen- servos they would be able to judge. 


lators and represen- The lawmaker said that one mea- 
nt on abroad strat- sure would be willingness to give 
future of President some ground on the adnnnistra- 


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dministration efforts to provide be ; placed cm tne board s agenda, Ronald Reagan’s nuclear weapons tion's space-based strategic defense 

tew financial arntribotions to the indicating they would approve it program to signs of American p lan known as the Strategic Do- rnultiwaifaead missiles, 
i&nk “even more difficult” and (Continued on Page 2, CoL 4) “good faith” at the arms control tense Initiative, which the Russians He also said that he and 
■ talks in Geneva. have oooosed members “have talked m g< 


stop the devdopment” of the Stra- servers at the arms talks, which will 
tegic Defense Initiative. give them access to top^evel brief- 

Mr. Nunn confirmed Thursday ings on the Geneva developments, 
his intention to vote for the 21 Despite the evident tide m favor 
missiles, “to put both rides in a of approving Mr. Reagan’s MX re- 
mood” to negotiate seriously about quest, the speaker of the House, 
reducing their arsenals of such Thomas P. CN rill Jr. Democrat of 


T§ere was no immediate claim of ^ re P u,e ^ w ^ a 

responsibility for the bomb. “ otcr more extremist 

Wilkin ctwHutc nt ik» wninnnn fringes of Lebanese Shiites, who 
Withm seconds of the explosion, u v ,u„ 


(Continued on Page 2, CoL 4) 


Abductions of 56 Backers 


program w signs oi American plan, Known as tne strategic l^c- 
“good faith” at the arms control tense Initiative, which the Russians 
talks in Geneva. have opposed. 

The agreement by the five law- -j per^y believe that if the 
rakos, mdadmg the chairman of i» wiBh* 10 m*e 

the House Aimed Services Com- • 


during their arsenals of such ThcMnas P. O’NeiU Jr„ Democrat of iot dmouianccs ana cars 

Massachusetts, said 'Hiursday dial ntstang tacutus to hospttaK Radio 

^ also said he »ad uto bf ^ “P - aPPea,al ^ ^ d0 “' 

^sdUWd.yhopiugtha, 


, are inspired by the fundamentalist 

ETEIISS Shiit^rcvolutiun inlran 
Moslem, firing in the air to clear * " “• * *’ ^ 

traffic for ambulances and cars a (J3. Carrier Movement 

U.S. officials said Friday that the 
U.S. aircraft carrier Eisenhower 


members “have talked in general 
terms” about Knifing the missile to 


arms andtii^ hewoold HI be able to chang Les’s mind,” 

probably support cuts m subse- 1*3 l* 


mi J *- 

^ By Alan Cowell to™ 1- by a®* >’*“8 party loyaJ- 

I’tSi'i .Vrn York Times Service i^ts, depicted the kidnappings as 

. r Dll , m/ivo r-v. 1 ,.^ a. acts of unauthorized vengeance for 
£> BULAWAYO, Zimbabwe —-At ^ ^ ^ ^fojj^ 

.^ast 56 . supporters of Joshua ers in Matabeleland. 


Wiscoosin^arid Seuator. S™ po^ibf in Ac gcul of daploymg ^ suicide mu*, ataob oo f 

Nunn, a Democrat of Geoipa and ^ offered radical re- . . “the Whife House is using tnanen- 311(1 U . S ' ^ mne bca ^ uar ^ 

AesmiOT Democrat on the Senate dua ^ ons ^ ^ hcavy mi^e ° the { participants in the dons pressure” to assured favor- pnm Israeli roramand post u 
Armed Services Conmuttee, m- f ^ ^Uing to Wednesday meeting described the ab!c fJx vote. tn the fall of 1983. 


Civil defense workers removed left the Mediterranean island of 
heavy slabs of concrete and debris Majorca hurriedly Thursday night, 
to dig out victims under the rubble, apparently to be in position if a 
The explosion was the largest derision is made to evacuate Amer- 


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- i on leader, have been abducted In a speech on Feb. 16. Mr. Mu- 
*' nd probabIy_killed_ bs squads op- gabe said: “There appear to be 
"f ms ".“rating at night . an d^ui.upmarked some groups of youths who. con- 
.j' ^rs in the troubled province of tirary to party-discipline, 3ie going 
Matabeleland. church offidals and about harassing innocent people. 1 
■ pporition figures said this week, would rather have no membos in 

The offidals and others who the party than members who are 

poke here in the provincial capital coerced.” 

it was possible that scores of The < y>n<gnfi u p among church of- 
cople in audition to the 56 had facials and diplomats who were in- 
een kidnapped and killed since terviewed in Bulawayo and in Har- 


the senior Democrat on the Senate 
Aimed Services Committee, in- 
cludes support of 2 1 MX missiles in 
a series of votes this month. 

Critics and supporters have said 
that the support of Mr. Nunn and 
Mr. Aspin would virtually assure 
pac^agi* of the MX measure, which 
the president has deemed critical to 
success in Geneva. Mr. Reagan has 
asked Congress to release $15 bil- 
lion to prodiice'21 MXTmissiles. 

But the lawmakers also agreed, 
at a meeting Wednesday, to press 
later this year for slowing the pro- 
duction rale of the MX and possi- 
bly cutting back the ultimate 
planned deployment of 100 MX 
missiles. The exact numbers would 


House” against the missile, but that nuade trock atradu on French 
“the WhireHouse is using tnanen- and U.S. manne headquarters and 


and deadliest car bombing ■anra* icons from Lebanon, Reuters re- 
suicide truck attacks on French ported from Washington, 
and U.S. marine headquarters and a State Department spokesman, 
on an Israeli command post in Tyre Edward Djengian, said that embas- 


Weapons in Space 

The r Slar Wars’ \mc 

Controversy JErtSL 


outline of their strategy linking Mr O'l 
arms control, and missues on the -tun/ am, 
condition that they not be named, ^ 

In addition to Mr. Aspin and The Hi 


Mr. O’Neill said he would not 
turn anybody’s wrist" to vote a 
arty line on the MX. 


in the fall of 1983. sy personnel were not being evacu- 

i-ould not The attacks on the U.S. and ated. But. he added: “We continue 
to vote a French forces, on Ocl 23. 1983. to be concerned about the security 
killed 241 U5. servicemen and 58 of U5. government personnel in 


In addition to Mr. Aspin and The House Democratic leader. French soldiers. The attack on the Lebanon and have their safety and 
Mr. Nunn, the group includes Sen- Jim Wright. Democrat of Texas, Israeli post at Tyre, on Nov. 4, their ^status continually under re- 
ator Albert Gore Jr., Democrat of said Thursday that he would be lulled more than 40 people. view." 

TennMsee, Representative Nor- part of a delegation of six to eight U.S. intelligence sources in A U5. official, who asked not to 

be identified by name, said that 


-lid- January. are, the capital seemed to be that 

•. . One diplomat compared the the abducuons were not ordered by ... _ -r- , „ 

' tyle of th£ disappearances to the Mr. Mugabe himself, but were in- Mr 

•._ctiviti.es of “Latin American hit stigated by unidentified officials in SS5,-™ t «m‘ 

. -quads working from hit lists of his party, the Zimbabwe African 
raims.- Naliaoa] Union-Patriotic Front S J ^ 

However, dipton^s noted that Those interviewed gave no jndi- ^ Capitol Hffl, especially on the 

“to? of who^redsely. has been ccnt^Sue of spS^ns. 
umedhllmgs appeared to be low- ordering the abductions. One of the partSpantsin the 

r than in previous years. In 1983 a church of final with wide nSjpsridihat it did 

fld 1984, unofficial es tima tes of „ , _ _ , 'y ^ *“ » , . 

- \~n f Continued on Pace 2. CoL 3) not have an exact measure of what 


StaeSaLMTE teSrt ^cmttelawanatos’nadmg 
tka olirliiAiinnp araMi rtAV nrrii*i'A , l Kit of the situation in Geneva. Those 


tctims. 

However, diplomats noted that 


he number of abductions and pre- cation of who, precisely, has been 
umed killings appeared to be low- ordering the abductions. 


r than in previous years. In 1983 
; 'nd 1984, unofficial estimates of 
se death loll among civilians ran 
’-' s high as 2,000 after the Zimbab- 
■ean Army conducted sweeps 
. brough the province, supposedly 
^-jaqueD an insurgency. 

The highest estimate of the num- 
' ’<r of pec^le abducted in January 
. nd February is made by Mr. 
■ fkomo, who said that almost 500 
, -eqple have disappeared in Mata- 
■eleland, his longtime political 
troughold. His party, the Zimba- 
bwe African People’s Union, has 
oade a Iowa estimate. 


A church official with wide 
(Cmtimned on Page 2, CoL 3) 


President Ronald Reagan’s 
vision of defensive systems to 
render nuclear weapons “impo- 
tent and obsolete" has done 
nothing less than assault the 
core of nuclear philosophy: de- 
terrence based on the threat of 
retaliation. 

On Monday and Tuesday, as 
the Americans and Russians re- 
sume arms talks in Geneva, the 
Herald Tribune will examine 
thoroughly the “star wars” pro- 
posal, including its background 
and both U.S. and Soviet ad- 
vanced technology. European 
concerns ova the defensive sys- 
tem will also be reviewed. 


Tenn«see. Representative Nor- part of a delegation of six to eight U.S. intelligence sources in A U5. official, who asked not to 
man D, Drcks, Democrat of Wash- House observers, joining a 12- Washington have been quoted as be identified by name, said that 
mgton, and Senator William S: Co- member Senate gjoupf or the open- ..saying that Sheikh FadlaHah had Mr. Djeraian was not ruling out n 
ben * Republican of Maine. ing of talks in Geneva. blessed the drivers who blew up the derision lata to evacuate I Cs. ex- 

The four Democrats belong to a According to several members of U.S. and French headquarters. He bassy personnel and other Ameri- 
group of official congressional ob- (Continued on Page 2, CoL 5) denied the reports. cans from Lebanon. 


Reagan and Russian Are Unyielding 
In a 'lively Give-and-Take’ on Arms 


Patient Who Got Artificial Heart Dies 


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•eleland. his longtime potitical The Associated Press Dr. Bdgri said the main problem to breathe on his own, bnt that he 

tronghdcL His party, the Zimba- TUCSON Arizona — A 33- w «s fluid in Mr. Creighton’s lungs remained on a respirator. He said 

•we African People’s Union, has w j, 0 was alive that placed more pressure on the there had been no change in Mr. 

oade a Iowa estimate. for 11 hours with an artificial heart heart, which was transplanted early Creighton's “reduced state of con- 

- n , Western nations, including the died Friday after his second trans- Thursday after the artificial heart sriousness.” 

^•L'Jnited States, have expressed con- planted human heart failed, offi- was. removed. Mr. Creighton had Dr. Beigd said there were no 
Von about the increase in political Sals at the University of Arizona received his first human heart signs of brain da m age, which doc- 
iolence that has developed before Medical Center announced. transplant Tuesday, a day briore tors feared could have resulted 

jeoeral elections that are expected Dr. Allan BeigeL a university gelling tbe artificial bean. from the 10 hours that Mr. 

n June. They will be the first gena- vice president, said that Thomas The spokesman said Thursday Creighton spent on a heart-lung 
pjft elections in Zimbabwe since it Creighton, an auto mechani c, died that doctors were not considering m a chine before the decision was 


teoeral elections that are expected Dr. Allan BeigeL a university 
n June. They will be tbe first gener- vice president, said that Thomas 
pW elections in Zimbabwe since it Creighton, an auto mechanic, died 
.-p^ecame independent from Britain in the afternoon. 

' t n 19S0. He had said earlier that Mr. 

Cl* Government officials, noting Creighton’s condition had “deteri- 
_^bat Prime Minister Robert Mu- orated rapidly” in the previous 
zabe has acknowledged unruly be- three hours. 


from the 10 hours that Mr. 
Creighton spent on a bean-lung 
machine before the decision was 


„ _ , • t 1 • . i . - ..I • UJ LUC TTiUtt liuua^ OWA/UUM mm. 

use of another mechanical device to Mde to nse^the experimental tenned ^ mini)?* “destabflizing. 


By Don Oberdorfer 

Washwgic*) Post Sense/ 

WASHINGTON — A senior 
member of the Soviet Politburo, 

Vladimir V. Sbcheibitsky, has told 
President Ronald Reagan that 
Moscow would respond with “both 
offensive and defensive" military 
measures if the United Stales goes 
ahead with its space-based strategic 
defense plan. 

President Reagan, in what the 
White House described as “a lively 
give-and-take,” told the visiting of- 
ficial Thursday that if research 
proved the Strategic Defense Ini- 
tiative to be valid, the United 
States would discuss with the Sovi- 
et government “ways to deploy it in 
a stabilizing manna.” 

In what may be a preview of _ 

arms limitation talks to begin in , M > 

Geneva on Tuesday, Jhe president Vladimir V. Shcberbitsky 
urged Mr. Shcberbitsky to agree to • 

cuts in Moscow’s powerful land- and unnecessary. Tbe president has 
based nuclear missiles, according asked Congress to release $1.5 bil- 
lo the White House account, which lion to produce 21 MX missiles. 



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Guerrillas Are Linked to Salvadoran’s Slaying 

The body of the Salvadoran aimed forces’ chief spokesman. Ueutamt Cofond Ricardo 
Genfuegos, after he was shot Thursday, apparently by leftist gueni^ai a uams dub m San 
Sdvudo^A banner with the initials, FPL, the Spani* initials of tte Poputor UJautoa^s, 
was draped over him. The group is a faction of the leftist Farabundo Mam National liberation 
Front A ballboy said he saw three persons dressed in teams antre nmnnigJrom the court. 


keep Mr. Creighton alive should “Phoenix heart” in a human for the 
the second transplanted heart faff, first time. 

On Friday morning, Dr. Beigd Officials of the U.S. Food and 
said dial Mr. Creighton was trying Drug Administration expressed 
concern that regulations on artifi- 
cial heart implants were not fol- 
lowed in using the heart to tempo- 
rarily sustain Mr. Creighton after 
his first human heart transplant 
was unsuccessful 
Wtffiam Grigg, a spokesman for 
the agency, said in Washington on 
Friday. “We don’t contemplate any 

drastic penalty, assuming this was a 

legitimate emergency in which the 
patient’s rights were protected.” 

He left opai the possibility of 
some penalty, such as a reprimand, 
but said, “We don’t aim to bulldoze 
the hospitaL” Mr. Grigg added: 
“Our interest is protecting the pa- 
tient from unwarrantea experi- 
ments — in other words, bong 
guinea pigs: it’s not to second- 
guess the doctor.” 

Dr. Jack Copeland, who headed 
the surgical >«tm in Tucson, and 
Dr. Ceal Vaughn, who did research 
on the Phoenix heart with calves at 
Sl Luke’s Hospital in Phoenix, de- 
fended their decision as the only 
way to keep Mr. Creighton alive. 

Of the three men who have been 
given permanent artificial hearts, 
C l Dr. Barney B. dark died after 112 

ft Ma ying days on the heart implanted in Salt 


meats and groups that might use 
terrorism as a political weapon. 

“People don’t start wars, govern- 
ments do,” Mr. Reagan told Mr. 
Shcberbitsky, according to the 
While House account. He report- 
edly added: “Unfortunately, peo- 
ple in the Soviet Union don’t nave 
much to say about what their gov- 
ernment does.” 

There were dear signs after the 
48-minute meeting that the two na- 
tions would enter the new arms 
negotiations deeply divided on the 
central issues, 

Mr. Shcberbitsky is only the sec- 
ond full member of the ruling Sovi- 
et Politburo to visit the United 
States since 1973; Foreign Minista 
Andrei A. Gromyko visited Wash- 
ington Iasi fall. Mr. Shetaabitsky’s - 
presence in Washington as head of 
a ddegation of Soviet parliamen- 
tarians visiting Congress provided 
an unusual chance for a high-level, 
preview of arms control positions. 

[Mr. Reagan, sending the U.S. - 
negotiators to Geneva on Friday, 
cautioned that the talks would be 


cans from Lebanon. 


INSIDE 

■ A protesta in New Caledo- 
nia lolled a French policeman 
with a machete. . Page 2. 

■ The Senate Budget Commit- 

tee was deadlocked over Social 
Security benefits. Page 3. 

■ Some Philippine politicians 

declined to join a group to pick 
a common candidate to oppose 
President Marcos. Page 3. 

SPECIAL REPORT 


termed the missiles “destabilizing.” Mr. Reagan was quoted as tell- negotiators io ueneva on rnaay, 

Mr. Shcberbitsky said he re- ing Mr. Shcberbitsky that the mis- cauuoned that the talks would be 
sponded by urging Mr. Reagan to ale defense plan also could be help- long and difficult but he instructing 
the MX mtercontinmial ful in dealing with “the madmen of “ em 10 ex P* orc evay promising 
ballistic missile, calling it expensive the furore," a reference to govern- (Continued on Page 2, CoL 6) 


■ Despite its large foreign debL 
Ivoiy Coast is achieving pro- 
gress in development Page 7. 

BUSINESS/FINANCE 

■ The U.S. jobless rale fell to 

7 J percent. Page 17. 

■ A poQ cast doubt on West 

Germany's ability to slash un- 
employment. Page 17. 

PERSONAL INVESTING 

Each day. professional securi- 
ties analysts generate a sea of 
investment advice for corpora- 
tions, institutions and investors. 
Fortunes and reputations can 
be made, and lost on their rec- 
ommendations. Now their 
methods are coming under in- 
creasing scrutiny. In Personal 
Investing in Monday's Interna- 
tional Herald Tribune. 


Kremlin Wives Make a Debut, of Sorts 


By Seth Mydans 

New York Times Service 


Many remained standing, helping themselves Gorbachov has gained added prominence. He 
to food as Mrs. Chernenko, the wife of the ailing had a centra] seat at a women’s day gala on 
leader, Konstantin U. Chernenko, 73, toasted Friday night at the Bolshoi Theata that was 


MOSCO W — A nna Chernenko vm graaons klanational Women’s Day, which was cele- attei 
and Lydia Gromyko garrulous, and as the after- fraied on Friday. Che 

own wore on, both daaced > bit. She spoke of her nation's accomplUhmms G 

Sam rtArh9(4inv ttw» ivtfP. nf fh<* VTHmo Rnm- . . \ - . _1 


Viktoria Breztaev.^^owofaforaia^d- 

a, was the object of solid loos attention from “ . 

those around ha. M 15 - Chernenko, who is in her 60s, is the 

At their annual reception for tire women of ^ “f* “ 

Moscow's tJiplomadeMmmtmity on. Thumdny, 


attended by members of the Politburo. Mr. 
Chernenko did not attend the Bolshoi gala. 

Guests at the reception said that Mrs. Gorba- 
chov seemed careful not to upstage the Krem- 
lin’s more senior women. 


children, according to the guests. Mrs. Gorbachov is a philosophy graduate 

Mm. Chernenko, who is in her 60s, is tbe M «°y U °™n »y and is sa«l to lead, 
mother of several children and is said to be a “SJf' 


g-g * ^ 

a j.. ana m control. 


seemed relaxed, convivial and ready for a bit of . . , 

Tna 19S2 after 18 yeare as the Soviet leader. His 

As recounted by several of the guests, the bajjn^ w^ an orchestra played a mrfleytrf reputation has been shadowed by corruption 
recqition at the Krendm guest house on Lenin ^ the yonnga women headed dnrges brought against figures dose to him and 

Hills was a peek behind the lace cu rtain that ^ or dance floor. his f amil y. 

hides the private lives of the Soviet Union’s At first, Mrs. Chernenko declined to join in, lie presence of Mrs. Brezhnev, the long-time 
rulers. But tile obscurity of their lives is such remaining al one side with the other older worn- doyenne of Kremlin society, seemed to indicate 
that, even for these guests, the occupations, ages cn. But then she and Mis. Gromyko, the wife of that though a Soviet leader may leave the scene, 
and even the first names of some of their host- Foreign Minister Andrei A. Gromyko, joined his widow does not necessarily become a non- 
esses remained a mvsterv. the dancers. person. 


Some guests were struck by the solicitude of 
the Politburo wives toward Mrs. Brezhnev, ail- 
ing and confined to a chair. 

Ha husband, Leonid L Brezhnev, died in 
1982 after 18 years as the Soviet leader. His 


charges brought against figures dose to him and 
bis family. 

The presence of Mrs. Brezhnev, the long-time 

J j , . ■ 


esses remained a mystery. 

Some guests, expecting a sedate tea, were 


Mrs. Gromyko, who has had the most public 


person. 

In a society obsessed with secrecy, the person- 


days on the heart implanted in Salt surprised to find pink-draped tables laden with exposure of any of the Kremlin wives and is said al life of Soviet leaders are strictly private, and 
Lake Gty, Utah in 1981 In Louis- crab and lobster, Mini and caviar, fruit, wines, to take a lively interest in ha husband’s work, the identities — or even the existences — of 


ville. Kentucky, William J.Bchroe- 
der and Murray P. Haydon are liv- 
ing with Janrik-7 hearts. Mr. 
Schroeder received his last Nov. 25, 
and Mr. Haydon bad an implant 
Feb. 17. 


cognac and vodka. moved among tbe dr 

Among the guests woe some of the leading easily, the guests said, 
women in Soviet society, including Galina Ula- But Mrs. Gorbachc 


nova, a retired ballerina, and the country’s two hail S. Gorbachov, who at 54 is the Politburo’s 
female cosmonauts, Valentina Tereshkova and youngest member, remained on the sid elines 


moved among tbe diplomatic wives, chatting their wives are sometimes in doubt, 
easily, the guests said. Until the death last year of Yuri V. Andro- 

Bm Mrs. Gorbachov, whose husband, Mik- pov. the successor to Mi. Brezhnev, outsiders 
hail S. Gorbachov, who at 54 is the Politburo’s were not even certain that his wife was alive. It 


Svetlana Savitskaya. 


ungest member, remained on the sidelines. was only ha presence at his funeral that con- 
sume Mr. Chernenko's health has failed, Mr. firmed ha existence. 







Page 2 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, SATURDAY-SUNDAY, MARCH 9 - 10, 1985 




Austria Tries to Come to Terms With a Half-Buried Nazi Past 


WORLD BRIEFS 




■ **.<**&+ 

. f : 


By James M. Markham 

New York Tima Senior 
VIENNA — For decades, Aus- 
tria has lived with a half-troth that 


accessary since Mr. Reder was sim- 


ply “a soldier who had done his 
dutv." 


has enabled it to skirt the part it 
n laved in the crimes of the Nazis. 


4 "lf you are going to speak about 


organization is under pressure to 
move to the far right, where a re- 
cent poll found a reservoir of per- 
haps IS percent of the popular 


played in the crimes of the Nazis. 

It goes like this: As the first vic- 
tim of Hitler's aggression, in 1938, 
Austria was not responsible for. 
what happened afterward. 

-Bui in recent weeks a controver- 
sy over a seemingly isolated epi- 
sode — a cabinet minister's deci- 
sion to welcome a freed Nazi war 
criminal on his return home — has 
rippled outward into the country’s 
political establishment, revealing 
widespread and compromising 
links to the Nazi past. 

The controversy was set off by 
Defense Minister Friedhelm Fris- 
chenschlager. who flew to Graz in 
January to receive Walter Reder, 
on Austrian- bom former major in 
the Nazi SS. He had been freed 
from a life sentence he was serving 
irr Italy for his role in the mass 
killing of Italian civilians in 1944. 

‘like a substantial number of se- 
nior politicians in the small Free- 
dom Party, die junior partner in 
Austria's Socialist-led coalition, 
Mr. Frisch ensdilager is the son of a 
Nazi party member. 

.When the defense minister elab- 
orated his apology for an Israeli 
newspaper, rightists in his own par- 
ty revolted. JOrg Haider, 35, the 
organization's leader in southern 
Carinthia, said that no apology was 


war crimes," w said, “you should vote. 

admit such crimes were committed But the Reder furor has a deeper 


by all rides and not pick on a few 
German soldiers.” 


historical background. At the end 
of the war. about £60,000 former 


Carinthia is a traditionally right- Austrian Nazi party members reg- 
ist corner of Austria, and Mr. i$tered and were temporarily de- 


Haider has helped a successful po- 
litical career there by campaigning 


against the rights of its Slovenian 
to have theu 


minority 


their children 


prived of the right to vote. 

In a small country, politicians 
found this a temptingly large pool, 
and the Socialist Party, bereft of 


taught w ^rirOTra language. IBs » 

important to it before the war, took 


1929 and the Brownshirts the fol- 
lowing year. 


in a considerable number of former 
Nazi professional people, giving 


In ^oitiug the Reder dispute. 

Mr. Haider was pursuing a long- ^ SS industries. 

C&’T .O ttmrft^ N ^todedinu, 
al reader, whom the Carffithian pot- ^ .Assocano n of tedepmdmts. 
itidaa regards as too liberal. foirmimilof theFresdom far- 

Whenf* Haider briefly threat- ,VS m “ ““ “ «“<► 
ened to break off and start hU own Jsb lUdf as the counttfs thud 

force. 



In an interview, Mr. Sinowatz tac 
said there was no ground for a JjIU 
revival of Nazism in Austria bo- 
cause of the country’s successful 
economic and sodaf policies. He f m 

treated his defense minister’s re- ^ — 
ception of Mr. Reder as an unhap- 
py episode, "a big political mis- 
take,” and said that it was better to wants 


Mubarak Asks Paris to Back His Plan !' 

PARIS (Reuters) — President Hosni Mubarak of Egypt said Fiut*. 


f vssasxss- 

rec_ and sooaf poliaes. Ho j* plan for^Middle East WTate. “"W* 1 ! 


.. Iiktr* 


Mr. Mubarak, visiting Paris on his way to meet with President Rcmskr 
Reagan in Washington, said be had asked President Francois MjttenanH 
“to support our diplomatic moves toward the United States.^™* 
wants the United Stares to start talks with a Falestiman-JonhSS 


delegation d m might load .0 direct talks among laael. Joidanatifa! 


• ; 1‘T 

. v wWf 


have them agitating on its fringes. Mr. Mitterrand’s adviser on foreign affairs. Hubert Vedrine, said late 
Some Austrians, noting that a that France was planning contacts with the United Sates on the jUn. 

ajority of the country was out- barak initiative. Mr. Vednne declined to elaborate, but expressed reserva" 
ged by Mr. Frischenschlager'sric- tions about the plan, saying it “amplifies the process and cam* m 


majority of tne country was out- barak initial 
raged by Mr. Frischensailager’sac- tions about 
tion, say that the affair may lead to acceleration 
a salutary public discussion about a 
half-boned past ¥ . 


toe plan, saying it 
which contains the risk 


lines tne process and am ^ m 
being harmful to peace moves.- 


.. • ;:j*| * 

•• 

: -- 


t{=. *<**' 


■ Kreisky on Anti-Semitism 


Other former Nazis flooded into 
the Association of Independents, Walter R fdg 

the forerunner of the Freedom Far- 

Infantry Brigade behind Russian 


party, he was dressed down by the 
Freedom Party’s national execu- 
tive. He flippantly denied compari- 
sons between the Freedom Party 
and the Nazis, saying that if the 
comparison were exact, the Free- 
dom Party would have a majority 
following in Austria. 


lines in the occupied Ukraine. 

__ , . , , This disclosure was extremely 

Tire country’s half-hearted do- unsettling since Mr. Kreisky had 
Naafication generated a clash be- cultivated the Fteedom Party as the 


. .. „ Mr. Kreisky, responding to a 

Friedhebn Friscbenschiager ffKSiMBK 

the Feb. 8 edition of Le Nouvd 
interview that there were only eight Observaieur, a French ma gazin e. 


tween Austria s two most promi- 
nent Jews: Chancellor Bruno 
Kreisky and Simon Wiesenthal, the 
Vienna-based Nazi hunter. 


unsettling since Mr. Kreisky had the last trials were held in 1975. 
cultivated the Fteedom Party as the “The acquittals include those 
Socialists’ eventual coalition part- who repaired the gas ovens at 


trials of Nads during the Kreisky said: “There is no more anu-Semi- 
era — and six acquittals. He said tism in Austria »ban there is in 


Iraqis Bomb 5 Iranian Border Towns 

NICOSIA (AP) — Iraqi planes bombed five bolder towns Friday in 
southern and western Iran, killing or wounding hundreds of pcopj/tj* 
Iranian news agency reported. 

The agency, monitored here, quoted Ali Rea Attar, governor of West 
Azerbaijan province, as saying that 400 people were killed or wounded m 
Pirranbahr, a small town just east of the border in Iranian Kurdistan. 


' %*rrm0 

-- tM 


France/ 


Mr. Attar, the agency reported, said that the Iraqi jets struck a? 
populated areas of the town, the staging pent of Iran’s assault into Irani 
Kurdistan last year. Five minutes later, eight Iraqi jets bombed section 
of Susangard, 50 kilometers (30 miles) northwest of Ahwaz, capital of 
Khuzistan province, killing at least 40 persons and wounding scons of 
residents, the agency said. 

Six Iraqi planes bombed the oil-refining city of Abadan, on the Shatt- 
al-Arab waterway in the south, tilling six persons and destroying SO 
houses and stores, it said Khonamshahr, upstream from Abadan, and 
Bostan, to the north, were also attacked, the agency n ddert . 


“In fact,” Mr. Kreisky said, “cer- 
tain excesses committed in France 


Auschwitz” he said uuu c * wa:,ca wmuui,w m rmui* 

comparison were exact, the Free- Mosicy ana sraan wiesentnai, me The Socialist-Freedom coalition Mr. Wiesenthal made an unfa- ?** aa £ of tarorthat would be 
dom Party would have a majority Vienna-based Nazi hunter. was finally formed under Fred vorable comparison of Austria’s ““P 0 *®*? 1 ® hei J“ J 1 ® react ’ on 

following in Austria. In 1970, Mr. Wiesenthal de- Sinowatz, who succeeded Mr. de-Nazifi cation with the same pro- “= public would be tremendous. 

The struggle within the Freedom nounced the chancellor for indud- Kreisky as chancellor in 1983. Mr. cess in West Germany. He said the Reder affair “had 

Party is not accidental or gram- ing four former Nazis in his cabi- Peter, who quietly dropped a law- “The Germans," he said “under- nothing to do with anti-Semitism.” 
iious. With the emergent Greens net. Five years later, Mr. suit against Mr. Wiesenthal, re- stood that restitution through mon- Rather, he said, it involved an Aus- 

environmentalist coalition endan- Wiesenthal revealed that Friedrich mains the Freedom Party’s Boor ey and trials was the ticket back man citizen who had “served his 

gering the Freedom Party's hold on Peter, the Freedom Party's leader, leader. into the civilized world. Austria got sentence” and who “should, then, 

Austria's protest vote, Mr. Sieger’s had been a lieutenant in the 1st SS Mr. Wiesenthal, 76, said in an a tiAit for nothing.” be able to return home." 


cess in West Germany. 


He said the Reder affair “had 


“The Germans," he said “under- nothing to do with anti-Semitism." 
stood that restitution through mon- Rather, he said, it involved an Aus- 


> m 
<&* 


tt 

•- ■# 

'*» *3 


gering the Freedom Party's hold on Peter, the Freedom Party's leader, 
Austria's protest vote, Mr. Sieger’s had been a lieutenant in the 1st SS 


into the civilized world. Austria got sentence” and who “should, then, 
a ticket for nothing.” be able to return home." 


Dutch Group Leaks 'Classified’ Data ^ 


***** 









. v 
,.:‘£0 ZZSJrr \ 
•y. : 



West German Bombings Raise Fears 
Of Terror Campaign Against Civilians 


By William Drozdiak Klar" 

Washington Post Service that I 

BONN — A new spate of bomb- place, 
ings in West Germany on Friday, Chr 


Klar" was responable and warned Wighard Haerdtl, a m okesman 
that further atta^kg would take for Bonn’s Interior Minis try, said 


AMSTERDAM (AP) — A Du tch anti-military group published Friday r 

what it said was classified information stolen from the Dumb Annftji^-' 

counterintelligence service, including names, addresses and telephone j 
i « TJ 1 numbers of staff members. 

ftJfRf* rfitftJTS The list, as wdl as a table of organization of the counterintdORoce 

17 service, appeared in a pan^iblet, “bossier 002," published by Onkmk 1 . . 
9 -m • the natkm’s most active anti-military group. Onkruit said earlier that the - 

iof / stolen documents showed the counterintelligence group had been spying 

“Dossier 002" said its information came from documents stria by} 
Wighard Haerdtl, a spokesman members of the underground group from a counterintelligence services 
. n — »_ t_.~: — — __.-j facility in Utrecht last November. *■ 


Christian Klar, the 


’** . 


the second in two days, has aroused of the leftist Red Army Faction, is 
government fears that leftist terror- awaiting trial in a Stuttgart prison 



ists are escalating their cam 
strike dvfliaiis and not just 
and arms industry targets. 


to for murder. He and 30 other jailed 
iiy terrorist suspects staged a hunger 
strike for nearly two months to 


called the Revolution- press their demands to be incaroer- 


ary Cells claimed reroonsibility for ated together, 
three bomb blasts Friday against Thor fast. 


three bomb blasts Friday against 
mining and shipping offices. 


Their fast, which instigated a 
wave of bombings and arson at- 


Friday that a “new form of terror- 
ism could be developing" through 
episodic attacks cm civilian areas. 

He said that if the perpetrators 

of the latest bombings^prove to ^ the capital and theport does of Valparaiso and San Antonio ohfridw 
havc conncctMms to the Red Army to halt looting in areas hit by last Sunday’s earthquake. The quake killed 
Faction, itwould indicate they had 151 pgopleand left more than 200,000 homeless: 
given up their previous “idcolt^ica] international relief for the homeless continued to arrive in Sarium* 
justification of stMng only at Finance Ministry offirials estimated damage at $500 milli on. The o- 
such as the North At- that only 40 percent of the homeless bad been giva 

LanticTreaty^^ainzation or arms acconnnodiuions. The government canceled dasses to otKmonthso that 
maostry targets. homeless people could be sheltered in schools. 

No more than 2° to 30 leftists are Chile has asked for aid from the World Bank and the Inter-American 


Chil ean Troops Move to Halt Looting 


SANTIAGO (UPI) —The Chilean government increased army pair 
i the capital aria the port cities of Valparaiso and San Antonio on frid 




In a letter to a West German tacks by supporters, was aban- 
ews agency, the ktoud said It doned Feb. 1 after guemflas killed 


T>»Ncw YorVTra 


news agency, the group said It doned Feb. 1 after gnemQas killed 
planted the bombs against “grave- Ernst Zmmermann, a l«irimg arms 


No more man 20 to 30 leftists are 


r Women and children fleeing the Tokyo fires in March 1945, after the U.S- firebombing, 
‘ The concrete bttihfii^s in the backgrotmd already were either gutted or burning. 


diggers" who collaborated wuh the industrialist, at his home near Mo- 


“British coal-mining capitalists." 
The attacks damaged a miners’ 


nich. 

Since the shooting, the police 


aud tw the poBceto be activein 

West Geonany, but thor isolation from the International Monetary Fund. The European Comnn 


Tokyo Recalls U.S . Firebombing 


onion building in Bo chum, a coal have intensified security measures 
mining company’s office in Essen for leading politicians and business 


15 ~t . from tne International Monetary Fund. The European Community said 
LjSc Thursday it was sending $240,000 in aid to be channeled through Centos, 
oeasmgly desperate ads, officials a Roman Catho^Aantable institution. 


and the office of Hamburg ship- figures, and deployed paramilitary 
ping company that exported coal to forces from the 20.0(X>-5trong bor- 


The Associated Press 

TOKYO — Forty years ago, cm Friday, March 
9, 1945, air raid sirens blared and Radio Tokyo 
broke into regular broadcasting to report that 

E lanes were approaching the city. A few minutes 
iter, the great firebombing of Tokyo began. 

By the time it was over at least 120.000 people— 
• and by one postwar Japanese gove rnmen t estimate 
as many as 190,000 — were dead or missing. More 
than 13 square miles (about 34 square kilometers), 
about a rath of the city’s area and a fourth of hs 
* : buildings, were in ashes, 
v ' In immediate casualties and damage, the March 
*' prebomb attack was World War ITs most devas- 


tr outstripped the Allied “fire-storm” raids on Ham- 
► Tnirgia 1943 (50,000 kOded in a week) and Dresden 
^ <90,000 to 150,000 estimated killed) just weeks 
t before the Tokyo raid. 

• , 1 Last month, a department store in the Nihon ba- 
„ shi district, where thousands of people died on 
MarcK 9-10, presented a 40th anniversary war 

- exhibit, that included photographs and scotched 
souvenirs from the night of terror. 

i » i An estimated 45,000 people, old and young, 

- mtany weeping, filed past stark black-and-white 
. pictures of burned bodies and vast stretches of 
. rubble. 

Michiko Ohno, 67. remembered the firebombs. 


saying she was at first reluctant to see the exhibit. 
“It is too miserable," she said. 

Katsuo Yamashita, 37. who took her children, 
aged 8 and 11, to the exhibit, said that her father 
had told ho 1 of attack. But it was not until she saw 
the pictures, Mrs. Yamashita said, that she realized 
how terrible it had been. 

“Then T burst mto tears," she said. 

When the sirens sounded 40 years ago, Tokyo 
citizens, inured to three months of visits of U.S. B~ 
29 bombers, sought shelter. 

But there was no thunder of bombs. Instead a 
rain of dark, cylindrical canisters fell, splattering 
jellied gasoline and magnesium across the rooftops 
and narrow streets of northeast Tokyo’s working- 
dass neighborhoods. 

In the neighborhoods lived hundreds of thou- 
sands of people, some employed in small plants 
that usually had fewer than 30 workers, others in 
socalkd “home factories" where entire fasrifies 
made aircraft parts, rifle bullets, uniforms and 


Britain daring the yearlong miners’ der security patrol to protect po- 
strike there. No one was injured in tentiai targets. 


the explosions. 


The bombings on Thursday and 


In recent weeks, European gov- T 

aments have stepped up cot^jerar Shuttle Mission Delayed by Accident 

non among their law enforcement M J J j 

agencies to thwart cross-border CAPE CANAVERAL, Florida (AP) — A falling bucket iqjmed'ir 
connections between such groups, workman and imbedded itsdf in the cargo bay door of the space sbBHk|. 
as the Red Army Faction, Direct Discovery on Friday, the National Aeronautics and Space Adnrimjto-|. 


)n Thursday, a bomb exploded Friday, the first serioos guerrilla Actum in Fiance and the Fi ghting tion reported, it said tl 
a department store in Dort- attacks since the Zimmermann Communist Cells in Belgium. scheduled for March 28. 


rted. It said the damage would force the delay of a ffigm 


mund, wounding nine people, two slaying, have evoked anxiety here 
seriously. An anonymous caller because the police fear that radicals 


telephoned the newspaper BOd to may set off random explosions 
say that the “Action Christian without concern for bystanders. 


Shultz Intervened to Block 
Managua's $5H-MiUion Loan 


The three groups have declared **“ **** d“ > not knowhow long ^hw would postpoi 

that they were joining forces in an ws t0 cany Senator Jake Gam of Utah and sot othe 

“anti-iiimertaltst” allmnce. crew membeis into space. They said the metal bucket, large enough^ 

In Greece, the police are taking' h°ld two persons, penetrated the shuttle and probably caused extensv 
seriously a statement purportedly damage to heat-protection tiles. A boaid of ^onahsts began an mvestiga 

issued by local terrorists vrtio tried . , . . , , ,, . ... 

to bomb the West German Embas- The wrakman was bemg treated at a hospital for two fractures of h 
sy in Athens last week that they, ,rft leg- He is an employee of Lockheed Space Operations Co, whial 
too, were linking up with the other handles shuttle servicing under a contract with NASA. 

European leftist extremists. 


(Continued from Page l) loan based on new adjustments in 
Under the bank’s rules, Mr. Ortiz the Nicaraguan economy. 

Mena th™ was required to take There were si mil a r indications 
action on the matter. that the Latin American bank 

A copy of the letter was obtained members, despite^ then earlier 


On March 2, the Greek 
found and defused a time 
outride the embassy. A grou 
ing itself the Revolutiooaiy < 


UNESCO Employees Criticize BFBow^lokl f* Kol)(Tt 


There were surdlar indications of International Solidarity Christos 
that the Latin American bank Kassimis claimed responsibility. 


The family industry, a Japanese tradition, was 
made to order for the war and, with many of the 
country's major industries already crippled, it had 
become a prime target for U.S. bombas. 

Flames jumped firebreaks and generated a fire- 
storm effect that sucks up oxygen, suffocating 
people and causing the flimsy bnfldings to literally 


A letter from the group ex- 

by The Washington Post, and its stn>n ^ support of bringing the loan pressed full support for the de- 
conieuts were verified both by 10 a vote - “ad decided to acquiesce mauds of the jailed suspects in 
bank officials and by the UJS. State h> its deferral after coming under West Germany and insisted that 
Department w * ul o ne dipl omat called “very dass hatred “cannot be manifested 

A department statement Thure- stron S pressure.” in law-abiding ways.” 

day said that the letter was a “rat- — — 

eratknrof long-standing UJS. po- 
licy to weigh heavily whei T 1 • TTOT»l 

Lawmakers m U.S. Link 

macroeconomic policies pursued H*"V C *_ - A rn tm 

by the benefiting countries." JHA SUDDOlt tO Anils I fllKS 
“Our oressure cm Nicaragua, of JL J. 


Policeman Killed in New Caledonia 


PARIS (AP) — One of two employee associations at UNESCO Ins' .. 
called mime agenc/s director-general, Amadou MahtarMTkw, to cease £ ~ 
all practices that limit freedom of expression of int ernational - - 
servants at the organization. - i -- 

The resolutions were passed unanimously at a meeting of the assoaa-v 
tion on Wednesday. The association represents about 1,200 <rf UNES^ -a 
CD’s 3,000 employees. - 

The resolution on freedom of expression stems from a decision by 
administration of the HN ErfnrairiAnni Scifnrifir, a n d G ut t ural Org*™*- 
tion, headed by Mr. M’Bow, to block distributiem of a letter firan-tte:’': 
preadent of the staff association, Bruno de Padriac, of France. Thelentx^' 
addressed to Mr. M3ow, pouted out that he had n o t consulted . 
association on possible reforms at UNESCO as the fall session of tir-.'.' ■ 
organization’s executive board had instructed him to da - 


by the benefiting countries." 


“Our pressure on Nicaragua, of 
course, is multifaceted,” said a 


For die Record 


limted Pros International while a team of military pnKr* who 

' NOUMEA, New Caledonia — A were being pelted with stones ’ 
separatist Melanesian protester protesters, cleared away a ro 
killed a French policeman with a block near the town of Pouebo.’ 


machete Friday during a day of 
anti-French protests, officials said. 

i Roland Lecomte was the 20th 
person and the first policeman 
killed since November in violence 
between European settlers who 
Warn the Pacific island territory to 
remain French and indigenous 


block near the town of Pouebo. The 
attacker reportedly escaped into 
the forest. 


me was the 20th The killing was one of several 
: first policeman violent incidents during a “Day of 
ember in violence Kanak Mobilization" that included 
ran settlers who a seven-hour demonstration in 
island territory to Noumea by more than 2JOO sepa- 
and indigenous ratist Melanesians, known as Kan- 


in a televised address several 
hours after the tailing of the police- “It is 
man, Mir. Ukeiwi said Edgard Pi- ana. 
sani, France’s special envoy to New n 
Caledonia, had “friled totally into Thur 
mission" to initiate a dialogue be- that i 
tween the feuding factions. 

installing. 

He said that French leaders have governing 
“rendered ridiculous the security the li 
forces, disgraced the state, out- tiz. t 
raged democracy." conn 


(Continued from Page 1) would cut Mr. Reagan's 




support a 
program as 


•art of tin defense bill 
fiscal year, which will 


Committees in April or May. subcommittee that the cuts would 

» • TTlp afftninit tra linn hoc nvnvct. iwnifn* thp i-lncma nf inml. 


administration has request- 
s consderabon of ed M billion for 48 misses m that 


Melanesians who want indepen- aks, and smaller demonstrations 
(fence. throughout the island group. 

‘Police said Mr. Lecomte, 48, was The demonstrations were called 
sjriick in the back by a machete 


: CHURCH SERVICES 


At least 56 JSkomo Backers 
SfVSSSEt Reported Abducted, Killed 

eluding 93_ prisoners who began a (Contiimed from Page I) hrf™ , 


1 PARIS 

AMHBCAN CATHB3RAL IN PAMS, 23 Ava. 

75008 Pom. The Very Rev. 


hunger strike Monday. 

■ Ukdw£ Assails Fnaich 


the loan. Sources said that Mr. Or- budget Ultimately, tbeadmmistra- navy’s aircraft program and three- 
tiz Mena had ordered technical tkm wants to bund 223 missiles, quartets of its shipbuil ding pro- 
committee reconsideration of the with 100 deployed in Mumteman gram. 

— — missile sOos in the West and the 

rest for testing and spares. 

‘omo Backer* Reagan, Ru 

icted. Killed SfsssSR&sat 

j. will be crippled, the MS. position avenue for progress," The Assoti- 


Governor Edwin W. Edwards of Louisans, his brother, Marion, 
would cut Mr. Reagan's proposed five other men pleaded not guilty Thursday to federal racketeering . 
military outlays of neariy $1 trillion charges that accused them of illegally making $10 million in a hospitajj''^- • 
over the next three years by $793 construction scheme. Each was placed under $100,000 bafl. (Affc-- ■ ■ 
bilHon. Starting with $11 billion in Flight I i mitmumf Jury Ra mllnga " 

. VT release of 202 political prisoners, including two former govenunaw^t ' : 

Also Thursday, Navy Secretary ministers, to mark Independence Day, the Ghana News Agency said:' *::• 
John F. Lehman Jr. told a Senate Friday. (Rattenfc 

subcommitta that the cuts would Arid Sharon's second Bbd suit a g ainst Time Magazine, for 5250,000^ - «- r 
require the closing of naval instal- will be heard in Tel Aviv cm May 7, it was reported Friday. He lost Ws 
lanons and cancellation of the first suit, for J50 miffioru in a New Yack court. . 

navy’s aircraft program and three- Egyptian authorities have ordered the evacuation of an area m J‘ 
quartets of its dnpbuflding pro- Mediterranean town of Matruh after 300 Hve mines from World War Iff 1 -* I' ' 
gram. were found near a sdiool, the Middle East News Agency reported. (Affi- ' 


b‘-4wrt W 1 


* XI 

Reagan^ Russian Debate Arms Race 


i'F'WWA 1 

snw»l h 

Oaftvu 

■ LfcW. 


: of events in Matabele- 
hc believed that the dis- 


! temtmial president, Dick appearances were carried out by 


1». Dean. Metro, George- v or Ukeiwfe, a Melanesian who opposes government soldiers from the 5th 
Aimo^tocea,. Sunday. « ej>u li ojjl mdependence, appealed to the Brigade, which was trained by 


Church tdiooi raid nunftfv l i n!m WmL. ro tne ungaae, wmen was irarnea oy 

4»vs: 12 noon. Tei.^rwIiV.vz. ' ?°'? nlIllcnt 10 help New North Korea, and by membeis of 


before indqxmdence and who do 
not now accept Mr. Mugabe’s rule. 

Reports of the disappearances 
emerged this week, five years after 
Mr. Mugabe won the pre-indepen- 
dence elections and, afterward. 


nSRSi (Continued from Page 1) 
position “venue for progress," The Assoti- 


in the Geneva arms talk* weakened Press reported from Washing- 


and the Pentagon forced to scrap t . 

plans for t hmua nds of weanons. P 11 a fonnal sen doff at the White 


v. ^ plans f OT thousands of weanons. a ronnai sendoff at the White 

^ Hou*. Mr. Rrsgaj aid: “Like 

from Washington. Amencana everywhere, I want' 


the "70s," especially the 1972 Anti- 
Ballistic Missile Treaty. 

“Neither tide can or should 
strive to achieve military superior- 
ity no matter what name it is given, 


“We're not going to allow oiffVv. : 
selves to drift into mferiaity" ^.^;- 
the weapons field, Mr. Reagstt. ■ 
added. 


* sejw 

o'.IWklpjl 


21 - n 

-4 KmH ! 


ricuui gorernmcni io Help New North Korea, ana by members of 
Caledonia get out of the night- Mr. Mugabe’s Youth Brigade dis- 
mare it has been thrown into," The guised as what are called "dissi- 


promised a policy of national rec- 
onciliation that now seems to be an 


onciliation that now seems to be an 
elusive goaL The gulf between him 


cfeNTKAt BAPTIST church n “s wen ihrown into,” The guised as what are called “dissi- 1 w r ™ ™ 

z^ed Press rsponed fa„n tots.' Those arsformsrgdemllas 


In t ih> tiiese negotiations to succeed and 

everything I can to insure 
tfuu tins happens. I pray that the 


grr said spading targets that the is^p^d m ®^fifflurions."hesmd,and^ wi, 

Ritrlopt P nmmirtcA * a *** ClfinikPlv ffitn Oft’ivtc Kothiupa ■» 


uy no matter what name u is given, Mr. Reagan was quoted as iriKW. 
an ann-missae or strictly defensive ino Mr. Shcherbitsky that if the,C ! - 

^ ^ sucoessfuL 

SKbeibitsky sard. would at down to discuss ways to 4^ 

“Such an aspiration is simpW deploy it in a stabilizing manner v 1 » ! . . 
c h a s i ng iDusicms," he said, and “is with the Soviet Union. 


Sylpin. Sunday wenhjp in EngHsh 9-45 Noum&. 

A. SommmviBo. Td. : 607.67X52. 


who once fought for Mr. Nkomo 


EUROPE 

U^A«AN4MVERSAUST. wonhip and 
eetiviiiai n Eufspo. Contact SJU, Stew 
Dids. Scringstroal 20, 1271 NCHUzn^The 
Norttefl an di. Tal.i {+31 ) (0) 21 52 55073. 






MONTE CARLO 

MONTE CARLO, htl. Feflawihip, 9 rua L 
Neiari. Sunday Kbl« hf. (aD ages) 9-.45a.in. 
WenNp 11 & 6 p.m. Tel: 255151. 




Nlc 4 '! 


, STOCKHOLM 

IMMANUa Ott«CH near dfy center. 
Faendy chrbtian fcRawsNp. Sunday 1100. 
TeL: (08) 316051. 151225. 








“ake the same cbmnntnwiL”l 

early 1 960s and has been deepened .prayed Tuesday would mean dinn- * - 

by personal animosities b^van of 5,000 missOes. 175 air- a SEE 

the two men, by tribal differences Planes, 240 Ml tanks and two 

between ihdr Mow® and bv a n? ^ 

history of su^idons and hostilities The Senate committee’s ded- itS 

betronu^wo pomes. sion. if approved by Congress, 


extremely dangerous because it 
leads to a stepping up of the arms 


Mr- H-lpA-A-d scarcity fKT 

affairs adviser, Robert G McFar- tire international situation." 


Mr. Reagan and other U-S.offi~tv.~- ~ 

rials have said at various times thtf;;. . •_ 

the United States would “discuss"? ; 


essinSrSl; 


history of su^irions and hostilities 
between their two parties. 

During the seven-year bush war 
that preceded independence, the 
two men led rival armies fighting 
white rule. Mr. Nkomo was 






SSSrj&'a^SSlE On Chemical Weapons 

Mugabe. At the same time, Mr. The Assaaated Pna 


TV..*! « . AW Tl, msiory may ieao some io 

Dli uim to Utter full doubt that WE w£n malre headway" 


lane, one of the architects of the 
U.S. positions, on Thursday 
blamed the Russians for thwarting 
previous arms control efforts and 
agreements. 

“History may lead some to 
doubt that we wul make headway" 


The Soviei official, talking to re- 
porters after his meetingmth Mr. 
Reagan, also spoke of the possibili- 
ty of compromises between the two 
nuclear superpowers. 

“In all the previous agreements 


date” with (he Russians before , 
ploymem of a space-based : ' 


V i 

*-mt im 

* %*.¥. 

5 

.iff 

;- v - ? rv(jfH 


by the Anti-Ballistic Missik Tret-, 


******** 


h'j place an advertisement 
In this section 


-sue^ 


jpps® 5 


i ptaas* contact: 

f Mi Elizabeth HERWOOD 
. . 181 Ave. Qi. -de-Gaulle, 
92521 NeuUly Cedex, France. 
Tel.: 747.12.65. 


•oeauitf* 




1"^ 1^“' 




«“ 93 ' 8 


Nkomo n^otiated separably with 
Ian Smith, the white who was then 
prime minister, earning Mr. Mu- 
gabe’s profound suspicion. 

In Bulawayo, a spokesman for 
the Zimbabwe African People's. 
Union produced a list of 56 people, 
including a 2-year-dd child, who 
were said to have been abducted. 

“This is not a definitive list," he 
said. “We have heard of more, bat 
these are the ones we have been 
able to confirm." 


in Geneva, Mr. McFariane told the there woe some compromises and 
Overseas Writers, a journalists' ^ to agree to a number 
The Associated Press dub. “We’re not captive by history. °f compromises,’’ Mr. Shcher- 

LONDON — Britain will pro- w e're trying to make a little/ 1 tatak y ^ 
pose a ban on the use of industrial Mr. Shcherbitsky, in a long state- Hesaidthat“if the United States 

chemicals in chemical weapons, ac- meat on UJS.-Soviet r elations and government would go alon g that 

mriiinn m « .-Tb. J. L.. .l. line then •> jZ- ■ 


■ Brief Account by Tass 


lists «»s»wiuaiLunioa In Moscow, Tass carried only 

ate- Hesaid that “if the United States ated reported. ^ UfSTffi ' 

and government would go along that The account did not appear ~ 

hue, then a compromise decision day in newspapers, which were 2 ^ &£% 

that oomdbeaduevedandpeqplecould published becaureit was anatiooaj^V ; ..; '-f f -«2g 

ace. breathe freely. holiday marking toeraation*P*V 


brief rmort Friday on the Reagan*. 1 
Shcherbitsky meeting, The Assoa-i , 
ated Press reported. /' 


cording to a Foreign Office minis- 
ter, Richard Luce. 


the arms talks made public by the line, then a compromise tfcgrifln 
Soviet news agency, Tass, said that could be achieved and people could 


The proposal, to be made in Get- even preparations fw the space- breathe freely” holiday maHriwg interaationaiy’*.^'- - - 

neva on Tuesday to the United Na- defense plan would bring about Mr. Reagan, speakin* of reduc Women's Day. . . r*V 

“j 013 ™™™- “aaundenniBingof ihewholepiD- tioos md the evramil dimiMuon Tass uid the incaing “covered!:'' r ' • ' 
^ I™ 1 W 11 ? 1 aarfTOKBmilanoaandred^ of nodear anna as U.S. objectives, cmJtoSrtahSgS&opcoo-k- 1 ' ' 

no industrial chemicals are used m non. was quoted as savini: -H«cM talks 


weapons, including “comprehen- 
sive on-site inspection." Mr. Luce 


siye on-sue inspection.” 
said Thursday. 


Carrying out the plan, Mr. get reduct 
Shcherbitsky said, “would nullify tinuemod 
aH the positive things achieved in prog ram*; ' 


other questions of Soviet-Ameni 
relations." It did not elaborate. 


■ W T' ***** 

feet* 















INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, SATURDAY-SUNDAY, MARCH 9-10, 1985 


Page 3 


AMERICAN TOPICS 




Agent Orange Flan 
Scales Settlement 


see make The Mistake— as weD 

as guest speakers before they 
have the opportunity.” 


■ It* ifjr; ..ii , r *auJ? ipillinn- 

P *f*l li‘ du%i , i5Sv veteran 

' j, J\h£ aflge would pay only t 

****?>■;: f»i;, -i .. ‘■'Wo- were most neavOy a 

i> * ill HuS-n v ^ 


l VMhfir »!ft I.- 


A plan to distribute a $190- 
settlement to Vietnam 
veterans affected by Agent Or- 
ly those who 
oqtosed to 
who exhibit 


m. 


nc » ,"." r 1 nu,i }% the most severe medical prob- 


estimated S percent 
,000 who have filed 

T ha^ daims - 

Most of the veterans who 
* worked with Lawyers on the 


lin Jrnw , , . Mire c. r ~ 

WBi >i ,,!|v -h 3 lems — an estt 

** w »* r 55S is; 

*ib 5 Iranian a plan nave gi 

w plants K.p.w. , 1 UerT. P 1 ™* 1 A^ 

** ton. Mliuiv *! coart dedst 
A.wfrfw * ‘^*!u2NApriLTtai 

u,i,n w v .. 

*T- M Mtltt* sfe.ii ii,. V-M 


hearings, a final 
decision is expected in 
April, TTw Washington Post »- 
' U V ports. 

The families of about 3,000 
veterans who have died since 
the war and about 7,000 with 
total disabilities will benefit im- 
mediately. Other veterans can 


to 


; tiwifriiiiVr* if: ■ •' mediawty- uu«r veterans can 
tkvtuMM-. . ‘ J ' cr F . ,! aa apply later ff they develop dis- 

■JSCTiV m: ”" Kes btforX progS. «- 

* «** *■ pires in 10 years. 

> *5“-, -XV -rtn. Plan does not re 
f hc iHl-rcfu*;]!.- vl , A *■ proof that a death ordisa; 

7 v\ was caused by eseposm 

' Mhirraiusli.il!; u ' y*> £ Agent Orange. JudM Jade B. 

t* ww aifc> att.nkoi* rfit-' ho®? Weinstein, who worked an the 

-rCl'.i'v vtrlmnpnT mr 

up Leaks 'Class 

API— A Dutth an;*- 


"V"**" etfwmatia* > «-• '•vpiuft _ — 

«n^t. indndine names.’ Brewing Goes Plat 

I a table of %w|ani/. l i,, T . lf .L In Milwaukee 

■ pttiphkt. “IVsM-; nv - Beer made Milwaukee fam- 

ine tfro-tuiliun f.r.ijr uninut j0ns * hut before long the only 
the s'i'ui».ieni\u;iiorn. Brewers left in town may be the 

hdfe major league baseball clnh. The 
1 its tnfoniuthm o::ic r r , “ty* 0““ home to dozens of 
tWraJftd tr»>up fro-i* , , dlXu nt3. breweries, is down to its last 
si rUivetnhcf, • ^ untcrautBf^ twa Miller and PabsL 

.. . The state of Wisconsin, 

blessed with water from the 

oop Move to Haltln.^c^gS^ffi 

) — The Chilean rr , n .,.. breweries but is down to seven, 

port ana af Vnlpurjs^ mS??** Brewere, once concerned about 

« hit ^ last SenSas > : being near their raw m aterials. 

siOW than ;a> ant b ,« .• N JU - '*5 now attach more mqxtrtance to 
«w the horned ' tv ' *-•—»— 

IcmU 


US 

mi't'.tn 




settlement, concluded that 
there is a “near impossibility of 
proving scientifically which ad- 
verse health effects are oampeo- 
sable and which are noL” 


Short Takes 

Joseph (Pops) POnczkn, 66, 
was arrested by Chicago polio: 
last month on a burglary charge: 
and freed on 525,000 bafl. Po-, 
lice say it was at least his 150th 
arrest in a record ihat goes back 
five decades — “armed rob- 
bery, bank robberies, burglar- 
ies, you name it,” said Sergeant 
PfaUWatzke. Mr. Panczko, vdio 
once told arresting officers, “I 
don't know nothing and I can 
prove it,” says that, because of 
his reputation as a lawbreaker, 
“I buy watches legitimately for 
SI l each and sell them for S20 
after telling people they're 
l hoC n 

George A. Keyworth 2d, 45, 
President Ronald Reagan’s sci- 
ence adviser, said in a recent 
interview, “We’re trying to 
build tip America, and the press 
is trying to tear down Ameri- 
ca.” Mr. Keyworth, a nuclear 
physicist, went on to say, 
“Much of the press seems to be 
drawn from a relatively narrow 
fringe dement on the far left of 
oar society.” In addition, he 
said, “There's an arrogance that 
has to do with the power of the 
press.” 


bong closer to their markets, 


u -oj-,..)*' “ ,R,sr 'Wd i-’anntiujj and this has made for coast-to- 

« pmJ .r.g'/^y; ;%"■**■**■■ 

sraaiirs :^ a st^ir 

lilSS?, Important Plural 

I Ftnd hi/ I 0 *™ 5 Hopkins inherited his 

<|S24AniO in ,u» i *„• in ,‘ ^ncicaiS great-grandmother's last name 
afttaHe ■ as his given name. Grown rich 

with banking and railroading, 
he bequeathed $7 million m 

StOtt Delayed by Ani gJUS 

At* *, Ar*. — A ■j.jrx Sar- Johns Hopkins Hospital in Bal- 

M tnelf >n she . 1 .s , J .^- y, fimore. 
tW Nalunui jk S«a* Tired people using dae an- 

; tht gular “John” in referring to the 

" institutions, the public affairs 

i te *d tfa l kr,.** • vu vs V®** *>“ P™^ 

■>»-> , -..y. Stridght; t f ; ■ -- 

» 4 *V. 1 ' ..J • ...... I-H.- Sibmi Haro, a spokeswom- 

* s ' s ■ ‘ • an, said the leaflets “will be 

. mailed -to whomever we hear or 

■ ■v’.-. , .'T!».'!rS7 



dntflfa 


>j|£|B|| HtuLl- A - L 

vni| itrairn .n 

\ tX-Whcr,' 
nii-iiodc* I V. *?»!! •« 


George A. Keyworth 2d 


Shorter Takes: The U.S. di- 
vorce rate dropped from 5J per 

1.000 people m 1981 to 5 per 

1.000 in 1982, the sharpest de- 
cline -since 1948. Larry Bum- 
pass, a Umvenily of Wiseman 
demographer, noted that yoong 
people are increasingly delay- 
ing mamagfi, and that later 
marriages are less likely to end 
in divorce. . . . Alaska has the 
fastest-growing population in 
the United States, a 19.2 per- 
cent spurt between 1980 and 
>1983, but continues to have the 
smallest population, 479,000. 

— Compiled by 

ARTHUR HIGBEE 


ut * nvrui.i'- 

. • \ \N4 


Senate Budget Panel 
Deadlocked on Plan to 
Freeze Social Security 


By Helen Dewar 

Waikinpon Peru Soria 

WASHINGTON — Hie Saiate 
Budget Committee has become 
deadlocked over Social Security, 
rejecting a proposal to freeze bene- 
fits next year but leaving open the 
possibility of reopening the issue 
and tying a benefit freeze to a tax 
increase or further cuts in mili tary 
spending. 

The stalemate over the program 
of disability paymsits and retire- 
ment benefits ramp after the Re- 
publican-controlled committee 
voted Thnrsday along bipartisan 
lines to reject several of Presidau 
Ronald Reagan's proposals. 

They include his plans to end 
federal subsidies far Amtralc, the 
government-backed rail passenger 
service, to sharply restrict student 
loans and to end or sharply reduce 
some programs, including the Job 
Corps and Urban Development 
Action Grants. 

The committee also rejected Mr. 
Reagan's proposal to raise bills for 
benearianes of the Medicare pro- 
gram of health insurance for the 
ddedy. dropped his proposed work 
requirements for food stamps, re- 
jected proposed cutbacks in chfld- 
nutrition programs and voted not 
. to disband the Legal Services Corp- 
Technically, the committee was 
working on a budget resolution far 
next year that would set targets for 
taxes and spending. But, with the 
failure of the White House and of 
Senate Republicans to come up 
with a. deficit-reduction parfrage 
that would halve antmwi deficits of 
S200 bflfion or more over three 
years, the committee is attempting 
to do the job itself. 

It was making some progress un- 
til it hit the issue erf Social Security. 

Voting 12-9. it rejected a propos- 
al from the committee's Aairman 
Pete V. Domenki Republican of 
New Mexico, to etimfnate cOSt-of- 
living increases for retirement 
benefits for one year and a 
al from Senator Ernest F. 

Democrat of South Carolina, to 
give the inflation adju stm ent next 
year only to low-income retirees. 

But the panel also voted twice, 
first 13-8 and then 12-9. against 
leaving Social Security mnatinn 
adjustments alone, thereby indicat- 
ing h wanted some change. 

The Social Security issue is ex- 
pected to be reconsidered later. 

Neither Ml Reagan nor Demo- 
cratic leaders have encouraged the 
idea of cutting Social Security, and 
members of Congress are skittish 
abouL tamp ering with the huge and 
popular program. 

After two days of work on the 
domestic side of the budget but 
before the committee took up So- 
cial Securipr. it had appipyed J9.1 
billion in domes tic- spending cuts 
for programs considered so far. 
That is wefl short of Mr. Domem- 
cfs target of 550 trillion to $60 


trillion in deficit reductions in the 
1986 fiscal year, which begins Oct 
1. 

The committee had begun its de- 
liberations by voting a S20-b31ioa 
reduction in mili tary spending 
Tuesday, allowing the Pentagon a 
spending increase sufficient only to 
cover the cost of inflation. But Law- 
makers bogged down in trying to 
cat popular domestic programs. 

Except for about S2J billion in 
cuts from rural housing, small bnsi- 
ness loans and postal subsidies, the 
committee generally stuck to a 
freeze of spending at current levels 
or, in some cases, at levels that 
would cover the cost of inflation 
next year. 

Medicare savings were limited 
largely to a freeze on payments to 
hospitals and doctors. Mr. Rea- 
gan’s proposals to increase out-of- 
pocket costs to Medicare beneficia- 
ries were rejected by a rare 
unanimous vote. 

Similarly, Mr. Reagan’s propos- 
als to shift Medicaid costs to states 
were shelved. 

■ Farm-Bfll Hearings Begin 



WOMEN RALLY IN MANILA — About 3,000 PiriKpptne women marched on the palace 
of President Ferdinand E. Marcos in Manila on FYiday to demand equal rights and to 
protest his nrie. TBey were stopped by about 1^00 police about 500 yards from the palace. 

Jakarta Cites Progress in East Timor 


ward Sinclair of The Washington Living Standards Are Better Despite Strife, Officials Say 

Post reported from Waihinr , '‘— ° 1 ' J 


ion: 

Senate hearings an a 1085 farm 
bill began Thursday with nearly 
every witness and senator H«ioimi> 
mg the Reagan administration's 
proposals for a return to “market- 
oriented” agriculture 
Agriculture Secretary John R. 
Block conceded that he could not 
name a farm group or fanner in fuD 
agreement with the White House 
proposal to dismantle the system of 
price supports and income subsi- 
dies that he said cost $63 billion 
over the last four years. 

Mr. Block agreed that the ad- 
ministration’s proposals would re- 
duce farm income over the next 
several years and drive down prices 
of basic cftmmnditigs But he said 
that farmers would prosper by the 
end of the decade as they became 
more co mp e titi ve in export mar- 
kets. 


Drug Agent 
Was Beaten, 
Asphyxiated 


• By Peter Miller ship 

Reuters 

DELL East Timor — Almost a 
decade after Indonesian troops 
parachuted into East Timor, the 
Jakarta government is still fighting 
guenfllas seeking independence for 
the former Portuguese colony. 

But Jakarta appears to be win- 
ning another war, against hungw 
and poverty, in an effort to im- 
prove living standards on the island 
and to tempt the guerrillas down 
from their mountain hideonts. 


stationed in East Timor to combat 
about 600 guerrillas of the Revolu- 
tionary Front for an Independent 
East Timor, or Fretilin. 

Aid workers said that conditions 
on the island deteriorated rapidly 
during the civil war after Portugal 
pulled out. Mr. Carrascalao has 
said that dose to 100,000 people, 
about a seventh of the population, 
died following the conflict, most 
from hunger and disease. 

Officials said there has been pro- 
gress in rebuilding the farming in- 


But in western areas, where there 
is little guerrilla activity, the vil- 
lages are relatively affluent, with 
huh rice fields and vegetable gar- 
dens. Many homes now are built of 
cement, wood and zinc instead of 
such traditional materials as bam- 
boo and dried reeds. 

At Mali ana in the west, 50 fam- 
ilies of model farmers from neigh- 
boring Bali were settled am wig lo- 
cal farmers to teach them growing 
t«rhniqng< 

The governor said that most Ti- 


Offidals said that Jakarta has duscy. Hunger no longer appears morese have accepted integration 
spent S258 milli on buflding hosoi- 10 °° a .*® 10US problem m the into Indonesia. He said support for 

• • - - , '“ m * nf , h „ g, IWT flla< hm% falW ntf 


mplnywst'.ritiritfl 1 

i of |*o niipli-i.-; . • ‘ 


Cloca-Cola’s Robert Woodruff Dies 


krat'tiKJpriiLiai v . 

H fwtd/vn 8-4 r-; • 

*uw 

« piMnl unar-im*'! • 

## iM'KMh**: tfj-i 
s**3m«4r*pn-?M- 

tN CnItMtlKtna'- - 1 
fM. fete. «i 
Hr-i: 

ow. fMMiti »■;*• - 

f nrfivmt .it i M * 

9 Hu*rti hjul 


>V ( 


ird 


S K*';:' 1 n; "■ r. - ' "ff ' » United States. The’drink qwead 


Ume*>atl *nm:a!ui. 

i 

m 

*4v pi V 

I ’*■" ’• 

: '' 

-■ *■ 

4 mi Ma? " ■: " - 

MW :*'• 

MMmhattri ■ 
i ««r MfcU-r r : s 


New York Tima Service 

VjVi-W* NEW YORK — Robert W. 
:' , -' = ?oodinff, 95, under whose direo- 
on the Coca-Cola Co. grew from a 
.• ::j.’r:^;;^gionaI soft-drink syrup fiim in 
.: ,.vc South to a woriawidc institn- 
oo, tfied Thursday in Atlanta. 

for almost half a cornin' until 
jjg jjjjd- 1970 s Robert VAnship 
' : . : r '.Voodruff, a multimillionaire 
rr -'arceiy known to the public, di- 
r ^‘ ^seted Coca-Ccrfa. 

. " Mr. Woodruff was 33 when he 
1 ~ *y«TTM» president of Coca-Cola in 

923. It was then a company whose 
oda syrup was sold chiefly to bot- 
tlers and drugstores in the South. 

v He transformed the company 
; ^Ato one of the most profitable in 


AMi 

ii u given. 

x. M« 

* P’v 
I WfT'i 1 
sw»tifci‘ *: 

tfer »»i* 

rri 

I' 1 

s« ft' «* 
*itfc Mr 

I thi 

^wari-'b 
fflsra MTsl 
ftuitibr- 4 


round the wodd. The journalist 
^ ViIHam Allen White aocc de- 
scribed it as the “subfimaied es- 
. v^'-eoce of all that America stands 
on” 

: The company’s net income fa 

r.v - r ' 984 was $628.8 mflHoo on reve- 
_ ^nes of $736 bflKon. The co*xq»ny 
. ' ■' '.Jegan to diversify under Mr. 

- 1 -:- - Voodntff in the 1950s. But soft 
... vr*. n - (rinks in 1983 still accounted fa 
__ — -^0 pe rce n t of company profits. 

No matter what Mr. Woodruffs 
s— r he was at one time or anoihr 
Coca-Cola Gx, 
chairman of 
he fman^ r. committee — be mda&- 
■ ■ > >UaNy ran the comjmy. Never- 
r:'-;,hetess, he seldom issued a direct 
; wfcr. He dmmnated the company 



llijiiie— hewasat one tii 
1 Wftl W Alw president of the Coe 
iCl* $ m ward chairman and c 






xmetRDs Intoorist Post 


V; 


- The Associated Press 

■ MOSCOW — Vladimir Y. Pav- 

• ■ “ . >: / T wha$ been appointed head of the 
: ■„ ; fate tourism committee Intourist, 

said Thursday. "Dk previous 
> ' “ l.vtttd of Intourist, Pyotr A Abrasi- 

‘ IT • : • 'l v.poy, is replacing Mr. Pavlov as the 
, . ; -.Awiet Umon's ambassador to Ja- 

. , -ian_ . 


RobotW. Woodruff 

byface of personality, by unremit- 
ting energy and attention to detail, 
and Vy dele gating ftmctinm to men 
of spatial talent. 

Mr. Woodruff was a confidant of 
preadents, especially Eisenhower 
and Jimmy Carter, a fellow Geor- 
gian. He was active behind the 
scores in Georgia politics, and was 
a benefactor of Georgia and Atlan- 
ta chic institutions. 

Eric Sloane, 75, 

Artist of Early America 

NEW YORK (UPI) — Eric 
Soane, 75, artist and author known 
fa his paintings of barns and cov- 
ered bridges and his oaOecrion of 
early American tools, died 
Wednesday in Manhattan. ■ 

Mr. Some was the author of 
“Diary of An Early American 
Boy,” “I Remember America," “A 
Reverence fa Wood,” and more 
than 20 other books. He was known 
fa his paintings of bams and cov- 
ered bridges. . „ 

He led a crusade with Ms wife, 
Mtmi, to revive bdl ringing on In: 


dependence Day. This had been the 
method of observing July 4 in the 
19th centmy. It was revived in 
1963. 

Gianni Granzotto, Headed 
ANSA News Agency 

ROME (Renters) — Gianni 
Granzotto, 71, the president of the 
Italian news agency ANSA, died 
Friday in Rome. 

• Mr. Granzotto journalist, author 
and broadcaster, ne had bear presi- 
dent of ANSA since 1 976. He was a 
co-founder of tbe Milan-based II 
Giomale in 1974 and became its 
president in 1976. 

Bob E ast, 64, 

Miami Photographer 

MIAMI (UPI) —Bob East, 64. a 
Miami Herald photographer, died 
Wednesday after an operating 
room mistake caused irreversible 

Mr. East was a staff photogra- 
pher for the Miami Herald from 
1951 until his retirement earlier this 
year. He had done free-lance work 
for magazines such as Life, Time, 
Ne wsw ee k and Spots Illustrated. 
■ Other Deaths: 

Seay Ernest, 96. a chef at many 
pr ominent American hotels and a 
founder of the Culinary Institute of 
America, Saturday in New York 
CSty. 

Noel Pored, 84, a veteran . Irish 
fta gp jvntt film char acter art nr. Smw 

day in Dublin. He appeared in Hol- 
lywood mows induding “Odd 
Man Out,” "The Bine Lagoon, 
“Mutiny On The Bounty, and 
“Lord Jun.” 

Sarah Gihsoii Btantfing, 86, the 
first women president of Vassar 
College, Sunday in Newtown, 
Pennsylvania. 

RabN Sandor Scheiber, 71, a 
scholar of Hebrew and director d 
the Rabbinical Sennnaiy in Buda- 
pest, the Soviet bloc's only rabbini- 
cal seminary, Sunday of cancer in 
Budapest. 


New York Tuna Soria 

MEXICO CITY — “Beating and 
asphyxiation” caused the deaths of 
a U.S. drug agent and a Mexican 
pilot whose bodies were discovered 
on Wednesday, according to the 
U.S. ambassador to Mexico. 

. Ambassador John Gavin said 
Thursday tfaf . faitial examinations 
showed that Enrique Camarena Sa- 
lazar, an agent of the Drug En- 
forcement Administration, and 
Adolfo Zavala Avdar, a Mexican 
government pilot, “were brutally 
beaten before they died.” 

He added: “We are in a war and 
we cannot accept that Enrique Ca- 
imrfua died in vain.” 

Mr. Gavin said there was “great 
hope" of capturing the people in- 
volved in the kidnappings and kill- 
ings, whan UJS. officials believe to 
be Mexican drug traffickers. 

The two mm had been missing 
since bring abducted in Guadalaja- 
ra on Feb. 7. Thor bodies were 
found on a ranch southeast of Gua- 
dalajara. Tbe ambassador said 
there were signs that tbe bodies had 
been brought from somewhere rise. 

Although there has been no offi- 
cial confirmation, the Mexican au- 
thorities have been quoted as say- 
ing that tbe two men might have 
been buried alive. 

The bodies were found early 
Wednesday morning at the edge of 
a ranch that the Mexican Federal 
Judicial Police had raided Saturday 
morning, acting on a tip that they 
might find the men there. 

The raid resulted in a gun battle 
in which five residents of the ranch 
and one agent of tbe Federal Judi- 
cial Police were lolled. 

The ambassador said that pre- 
Hmmaxy studies showed thai the 
men had died 15 to 20 days ago. 

• Asked whether be believed that 
some Mexican authorities had been 
irresponsible in the investigation — 
a charge leveled publicly by some 
US. officials — Mr. Gavin said he 
bad the “highest reg a rd and great- 
est respect" fa die Mexican gov- 
ernment, but he made no comment 
on the performance of the Mexican 
police. 


tals, schools, roads and farms and 
has set aside another $60 million 
fa East Tima this year, 20 percent 
more than in 1984. 

East nmol’s governor, MArio 
Viegas Carrascalao, told the Gist 
foreign journalists allowed onto the 
island fa 1 8 months that one of his 
priorities was to ensure that the 
benefits reached remote villages 

The governor faces a huge task in 
rebuilding the territory. wnicii was 
annexed by Jakarta in 1976. It was 
badly neglected under tbe Portu- 
guese and ravaged by strife after 
decolonization in 1975. 

Aid workers here and diplomats 
in Jakarta say that living standards 
have improved as Indonesian con- 
trol over East Timor has strength- 
ened. 

There are no signs of conflict in 
tbe provincial capital of Dili and in 
other areas where foreign visitors 
are permitted. But tbe muitaxy says 
that more than 7,000. troops are 


towns of Baucau, Viqueque and 
Lospalos where matfrwe are busy, 
with rice, fruit and vegetables on 
sale. 

Statistics indicate a sound recov- 
ery in crop production with rice 
output more than 33,000 tons last 
year, almost triple what it was in 
1976 after tbe civil war although 
still only about half of tbe island’s 
consumption. Com production al- 
most quadrupled to about 45,000 

tons 

The increases were stimulated by 
agricultural credit pr og rams , guar- 
anteed prices and advice from aid 
agencies. 

But the progress is not evenly 
divided. The threat of food short- 
ages and malnutrition remains in 
remote villages in the high- 

lands, where the Fretilin operates. 

Settlements of thatched huts 
perched on rugged hillsid es are 
barely self-sufficient in rice a com 
and in some cases depend on food 
from other districts. 


ically. despite assertions to the con- 
trary by Fretilin exiles in Lisbon. 

“The East Timorese are facing 
the future like they’ve never faced it 
before,” Mr. Carrascalao said. 
“They’ve changed their perceptions 
of Indonesia.” 

■ UN to Drop Inqpiiy 

The UN Human Rights Com- 
mission has derided to cance l a 
review of alleged human rights 
abuses in East Tima, delegate 
sources told Reuters on Friday in 
Geneva. 

The commission action came de- 
spite a report by tbe rights group 
Amnesty International last month 
that it was still receiving accounts 
of torture and trifling* by Indone- 
sian armed forces. 

About 1,500 East Timorese were 


Aquino Group 
Rejects Plan 
To Field Rival 
To Marcos 


Reuters 

MANILA — A group of protnir 
neat politicians led by the widow of 
the assassinated dissident Bcnigno 
S. Aquino Jr. has declined to join in 
opposition efforts to pick a com- 
mon candidate in presidential elec- 
tions. 

The group, led by Corazbu 
Aquino, decided Thursday not join 
a unification campaign begun by 
the United Nationalist Democratic 
Organization, the largest opposi- 
tion party in the National Assem- 
bly. 

_ A spokesman said the potiti- . 
cians' group would not join Sun- 
day’s multiparty conference, span? 
sored by the organization’s 
National Unification Committee; 
because it did not know enough 
about the committee 

The organization’s president, ' 
Salvador H. Laurel, has openly 
stated his interest in running 
against President Ferdinand £. ' 
Marcos, while Mrs. Aquino's group 
has drawn up a list of 1 1 potential 
candidates. 

Tbe elections axe due in 1987 but 
the opposition believes Mr. Marcos 
may call a surprise election. Mr. 
Marcos, who has has been in power 
fa nearly 20 yean, has said he will 
seek re-election but has discounted 
the possibility of a poll before 1 987. 

“In the interest of genuine unifi- 
cation efforts, the group thought it 
best not to be involved in the con- 
ference," said Emmanuel Soriano, 
a spokesman fa the Aquino group. 

■ Cad for Press Freedom 

A former publisher urged West- 
ern newspaper editors Friday to 
help Philippine journalists achieve 
press freedom, Ageoce France- 
Presse reported from Manila. 

In a letter accqiting the 1985 
Golden Pen of Freedom award 
from the Paris-based International 
Federation of Newspaper Editors, 
Joaquin P. Roces said local ’ jour- 
nalists were struggling in "the long, 
dark tunnel of authori tarian re- 
pression." 

Mr. Roces was publisher of the 
Manila Times, Asia's largest Eng- 
lish-language daily, until Mr. Mar- 
cos began more than eight years of 
martial law in September 1972, 
dosed down the newspaper and 
imprisoned Mr. Roces and thou- 
sand 5 of others. 

Freed two months later, Mr. 
Roces was jailed briefly in 1982 on 
charges of backing an opposition 


on suspicion of being that Mr. Marcos also closed, 
ic to anti-Indonesian re- Mr. Roces is now a leading figure 


still held 

sympathetic i _ 

bris, it said. °f the militant opposition. 


DEATH NOTICE 


GURNEY CAMPBELL 
PLAYWRIGHT and PERSONALITY, 
for 30 yew part of tbe American Com- 
in unity in Pan&, n<iwlni‘«, du rhitm 

du litn i PimDv-sur-CJaiK,died ax die 

Royal Manden Hospital, London. A fu- 
neral service fa GURNET CAMP- 
BELL win be fadd on Wednesday. 
March Dlh, 1 985. al THE AMERICAN 
CHURCH. VTSTonenham Court Rd_ 
(Gpodge St, Tube Station) London. 
Friends ot Gurney Campbell arc invited 

to attend. Further infaitDatioq u* — * 

London, (01) 567 5763 a 839 


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tribune 


Don’t Blame Only Japan 


Japan sells far more in America iban it buys, 
and the long quarrel over the trade imbalance 
continues, with tempers rising. Americans 
nave trouble selling in Japan for reasons that 
sometimes are as simple as quotas and tariffs: 
but much more commonly the resistance is 
deeper — an ingrained Japanese attitude that 
it is not quite right to buy foreign goods. A few 
American companies have managed iq over- 
come that nativist resistance and establish 
themselves in the Japanese landscape, but not 
very many. Should the Japanese buy more 
American products? Yes, certainly — for the 
sake of their own standard of living. Their 
government has a responsibility to lead them 
more forcefully toward open trade. 

But there is more to the subject than that. 
Beneath all the American irritation with Japan 
— and it is real — is a bit of guilty uneasiness. 
In matters of money and economics, the Japa- 
nese are behaving in the way Americans keep 
saying they themselves should be behaving. 
The Japanese save heavily, as Americans know 
they should but do not. The Japanese invest 
heavily, as Americans also know they should. 
The Japanese export their surplus savings 
abroad, as Americans used to do before the 
administration changed the rules and runted 
the United States into the world’s biggest bor- 
rower. Most Americans know perfectly well 
that they should not live so heavily on credit. It 


does not help their relations with Japan to be 
reminded that the Japanese are currently the 
world's great example of the Puritan ethic. 

Japanese send their savings in very large 
amounts to America, where they help finance 
the Reagan administration's budget deficits. 
As the money moves from one side of the 
Pacific to the other, from yen into dollars, it 
pushes the exchange rate of the yen down and 
the dollar up. Because of those enormous fi- 
nancial flows, the dollar's rate against the yen 
is about JO percent higher than its worth in 
American goods. So for the Japanese exporter 
every sale for dollars brings a 30-percent re- 
bate, and for Americans trying to sell in Japan, 
the exchange rate is like a 30-percent tax. Is it 
surprising that most of the trade is eastbeund? 

Even with this huge disadvantage. American 
exporters manage to sell quite a lot in Japan — 
some $22 billion worth last year, more than to 
any other country but Canada, ft is unlikely 
that sales will stay that high, let alone rise, if 
the exchange rate stays at the present level. 

Up to a point, it is not unfair to chide Japan 
for its far from open market. But Americans 
might usefully keep in mind that the greatest 
barrier to a better trade balance is not in Japan 
but in America, where a reckless economic 
policy and excessive borrowing are putting an 
impossible burden on export industries. 

— THE WASHINGTON POST. 


Charms of Protectionism 


President Reagan’s decision to let lapse the 
import quota on Japanese cars is completely 
welcome. By any reasonable calculation, the 
cost of the restraints has outweighed the value 
of the jobs saved. Yet the decision produces its 
own irony. The problem now may be to per- 
suade Japan to expand its exports. For now 
that Japanese automakers and bureaucrats 
have experienced the comfort of an American- 
sanctioned cartel, they are not eager to return 
to the chilly world of competition. 

Four years ago the Reagan administration 
made Japan an offer it could not refuse: Limit 
auto exports voluntarily to about a fifth of the 
American market or face much tougher restric- 
tions imposed by Congress. Now, happily, that 
pressure is off. American automakers earned 
record profits last year. Senior managers 
helped themselves to multimiHioE-dollar bo- 
nuses. And while employment remains far be- 
low the peak of the mid-1970s, the auto- 
workers’ union has consistently refused to 
bargain away high wages for job security. 

The Reagan administration, meanwhile, has 
become convinced that the cost of auto protec- 
tionism has been too high. According to a 
study by the U.S. International Trade Com- 
mission , an independent agency that holds no 
special brief for free trade, the quota has saved 
44,000 jobs. But the cost in higher auto prices 
has been about 590.000 a year per job. A study 
by the Federal Trade Commission puts the 
figure at a yet more amazing 5240,000. 

In return for an end to the auto restraints, 
the administration is pressing Japan to open 
its markets for telecommunications equipment 


and wood products. But the Japanese have not 
conceded on inch, and for an understandable 
reason: The auto quota was great for business. 

Thanks to the quota, Japanese automakers 
have not had to compete among themselves for 
a share of the American market. That let them 
charge fat markups on exports, raising their 
profits by about & billion a year. 

The quota has also benefited the Japanese 
government. It enhances the power of the 
Ministry of International Trade and Industry 
to decide how to divide the quota pie among 
Japanese companies. It also holds down Ja- 
pan’s trade surplus with America, reducing the 
pressure to open Japan to more American 
products. That is why Japan may weQ try to 
continue limiting auto exports, through infor- 
mal arrangements even after the quota expires. 

The best hope for American consumers is 
that the Japanese auto cartel will succumb to 
competitive pressures from wi thin. Toyota, 
Nissan and Honda seem satisfied with the 
current arrangement, but latecomers to the 
American market notably Mitsubishi. Suzuki 
and Isuzu, may insist on much larger shares. 

The sobering lesson is that protectionism is 
a game that its intended victims can also enjoy. 
It has long been understood that “managed 
trade" helps inefficient producers and their 
unions. What is often ignored is that it can also 
benefit efficient exporters, who exploit the 
restrictions to form marketing cartels and po- 
lice compliance. There is, however, one group 
of players that can only lose, the players who 
should count most: consumers. 

— THE NEW YORK TIMES. 


Reagan vs. Birth Control 


Because of strong congressional and inter- 
national reaction, the Reagan administration 
last summer appeared to relax its efforts to 
weaken population-control aid for developing 
countries. In recent months, however, the U.S. 
Agency for International Development has 
begun applying rules that could seriously dis- 
rupt the network of family planning programs 
that has been carefully built up in Third World 
countries during the last 20 years. 

The new rules, being put into effect without 
congressional approval, go far beyond the law 
governing AID programs; they could not be 
constitutionally applied to organizations with- 
in the United States. They would stop U.S. aid 
from flowing to private foreign organizations 
— such as hospitals, clinics or medical schools 
— if. using money from private sources or 
(heir own governments, those institutions pro- 
vided information on abortions or performed 
abortion except to save a woman’s life. 

Under a longstanding UJS. policy favoring 
private; voluntary family planning programs 
over possibly coercive government- run pro- 
grams, these private institutions are the major 
source of family planning assistance in most of 
the developing world. Since 70 percent of the 
population eligible to receive US. aid lives in 
countries in which abortion is legal on a wider 
basis, the rule would have far-reaching impli- 
cations. Already AID has terminated a long- 
term grant to the International Planned Par- 


enthood Federation, the major operator of 
family planning programs in many countries, 
and has frozen a still lajger grant to the LIN 
Fund for Population Activities. 

AID insists that the rules are not meant to 
impede family-planning programs abroad, 
only to discourage abortions. But U.S. law has 
long forbidden the use of U.S. foreign aid for 
abortion or abortion-related activities. Inter- 
national family-planning agencies have insti- 
tuted strict and often costly administrative 
procedures to see that the law is not violated. 

Although AID was wise enough not to apply 
Lhe new rule directly to foreign governments, 
many countries are likely to be offended by 
this attempt to dictate their internal policies. 
Even if they are not. many will find it bard to 
retain U.S. aid. These are countries in which 
even rudimentary health services are in short 
supply and the demand for birth control assis- 
tance was far from being met. Trying to create 
a separate network of family planning provid- 
ers — which, under the strict AID rules, must 
be totally independent of any hospital, univer- 
sity or clinic where abortion-related services 
or training are provided — would be a slow if 
not impossible job. Whatever the Reagan ad- 
ministration's motives in applying this policy, 
it must accept responsibility for added suffer- 
ing in countries where suffering is already an 
all too familiar condition. 

— THE WASHINGTON POST. 


FROM OUR MARCH 9 PAGES, 75 AND 50 YEARS AGO 


1910: Caruso Defies the f Black Hand' 
NEW YORK — Signor Enrioo Caruso, who is 
being persecuted by the “Black Hand," sang at 
the Brookyln Academy of music last night 
[March 7) guarded by forty-three policemen. 
The famous singer received several threatening 
letters from the “Black Hand" {terrorist soci- 
ety] recently demanding the payment of sums 
ranging from 55,000 to $25,000 in order to 
avoid attack by members of that organization. 
Signor Caruso placed the letters in the hands 
of the police and declared that he wound not 
pay a penny to the blackmailers. He drove to 
the Academy of Music in an automobile 
guarded by detectives. All the doors or the 
Academy were closely watched, and the mem- 
bers of the audience were scrutinized as they 
passed to their seats. Two alleged suspicious 
persons were arrested, but afterwards released. 


1935: Mexican Archbishop Vanishes 
MEXICO CITY — Archbishop Pascual Diaz 
of Mexico City, who was expected back here 
last evening [March 7] from a tour of the 
country districts of his archdiocese, has disap- 
peared. His ecclesiastical friends expressed (be 
opinion that the prelate is in the bands of 
extremists and that his life is in danger. The 
Minister of the Interior was unable to throw 
any light on the mysterious disappearance of 
the archbishop. One opinion current is that 
Mgr. Diaz has been deported by order oF the 
government. It was learned that the archbish- 
op's automobile was held outside the capital 
about 5 pm yesterday. The men who held up 
the car are said to have been either police or 
disguised as police. They ordered the occu- 
pants to leave Lhe car. but after that all trace of 
the prelate and three priests with him was lost. 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE 
JOHN HA Y WHITNEY. Chauna n 1958-1 9|g? 

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Co-Chairmen 


IUPM.FOISIE 
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RLGEWIRTZ 


LEE W. HUEBNER, Publisher 

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Editor ALAIN LECOUR Asscattie PuNaher 

Deputy Editor RIC HARD H. MORGAN Axuxttve Publisher 

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Mubarak Builds on a 'Good Beginning 9 


W ASHINGTON — President Hosni Mu- 
barak of Egypt flies into Washington from 
Paris this weekend Those who seem to like 
things the way they are in the Middle East — 
mostly hard-line Israelis and their American 
camp followers — are casting a jaundiced eye. 

Mr. Mubarak is no Anwar Sadat, those cmics 
say. perhaps forgetting that the Sadat policies 
that made him a folk hero on Western television 
were his undoing at home. Mr, Mubarak’s effort 
to promote a revival of the Middle East peace 
process is self-serving, the critics also say; he 
wants only to reassert Arab leadership and win a 
good opinion of Egypt as peacemaker. 

A similarly suspicious eye, the cynics say, 
should be cast upon the recent efforts of King 
Hussein of Jordan to organize some kind of 
Palestinian representation for new negotiations 
for an Arab- Israeli settlement 
The bottom line of these put-downs is that the 
Arab states are deeply divided between obstruc- 
tionists {Syria being the worst of the lot) and 
moderates (Egypt Jordan and Saudi Arabia 
among others). The latter are too weak to get 


By Philip Geyelin 

psychiatrists would call a “cry for help." That it 
may be self-serving makes It no less genuine or 
deserving of a serious and sustained response: 

To say that nothing in the way of progress has 
so far materialized is to fonret the extraordinary 
record of Jimmy Carter’s efforts in the first year 
of his presidency to work both sides of the Arab- 
Israeli dispute. Brushing off the negative re- 
sponses. he tested the alternatives and, by a 
process of e limina tion, helped promote the 
breakthrough of the Sadat visit to Jerusalem that 
led ultimately to Camp David. It is to forget, too, 


There is a lot of truth in all of this. The Middle 
East is one big economic crisis. Even the “oil- 
rich*' Gulf states are suffering from an ofi glut. 
Moslem fundamentalism is not limited in its 
extremism to the Shiite terrorism against the 
Israelis in Lebanon or to the messianic designs of 
Iran's Ayatollah RuhoDah Khomeini. It preys on 
poverty, an the Palestinian issue, oa Egypt’s 
separate peace treaty with Israel, on Jordan’s 
peace gestures — on any issue that serves the 
purpose of overthrowing moderate regimes. 

So, yes. the so-called moderates do want more 
economic and/or arms aid from the United 
States. It has not escaped their notice that Israel 
is bidding for by far the largest slice of the new 
SI 4- billion total US. foreign aid bill — perhaps 
as much as S3.8 billion. But the poini is that 
absolutely none of this is inconsistent with what 



how badly the stage was set for progress in early 
1977 by comparison with the way it is set today. 

Israel and Egypt are at peace, however ragged 
thor relations; m protest at Israel's pressure in 
Lebanon, Egypt has withdrawn its ambassador. 
But they talk, as witness the recent visit to 
Jerusalem by Osama el-Baz, Mr. Mubarak’s for- 
eign affairs adviser. And Mr. Mubarak could 
have had no more eloquent advance man in 
America than the Israeli munster without portfo- 

infinenti 


lin, Ezer Weizntsn, an increasingly 


itial 


adviser ro Prime Minister Shimon Peres, who was 
in America on television by satellite recently. 

A questioner wanted to know if King Hussein 
and Mr. Mubarak were merely making “gestures 
of progress ... so they can come and make a 
raid oa the American Treasury.” Leaving aside 
the fact that King Hnssein baspretty much given 
up on the U.S. Treasury, Mr. Weizman went out 
of his way to say that “knowing President Mu- 
barak personally, i thinle that his initiative is far 
more fundamental than some people would Eke 
to show; I think thar be sticks to the Camp David 
[accords] ... What has happened in the last 
week or two is a good b eg i nnin g/’ 

That is not the way high-ranking Israeli offi- 
cials were talking in early 1977. In fact, Israel 
rhang erf prime ministers, from Labor’s Yitzhak 
Rabin to the JJknd's Menachem Begin, m the 
course of Mr. Carter’s peace efforts, and it is a 
close question which ma n Mr. Carter found the 
more difficult to deal with. 

The Camp David accords are in place as a 
point of departure. The national coalUk 
eminent under Labor Prime Minister Feres 
accepted Mr. Mubarak’s offer to meet with the 
Egyptians, Jordan and whatever Palestinian rep- 
resentation can be worked out. 

Mr. Mubarak has his own incentive far early 
action. As the only Arab leader at peace with 
Israel, he is vulnerable to extremist forces. His 
nr fln^ r** will wane and his domestic problems 
grow if he has nothing to show for (us latest 
initiative, the more so smee power will shift next 
year from Mr. Peres to Likud's Yitzhak S hamir 
as prime minister in the “unity” government 
Mr. Mubarak will be asking President Reagan 
not for a headlong plunge but far probes of both 
sides, first with some sort of Egyptian, Jor d a n i a n 
and Palestinian dele gatio n and the n with the 
Israelis, before any serious mediation is begun. 

Taking it step by step has its risks. But the 
history of four wars tells us that the risks are as 
nothing compared to the risk of inattention to 
Middle East 1 * cries for help.” 

Washington Past Writers Group. 


A Palestinian Answer to a Fundamental Question 


P ARIS — A question often put 
to Palestinians is. Why not do 
as other refugees have done and 
adopt the countries you now Eve in? 

Even if one ignores the weakness 
of comparisons in a fair analysis 
(they tend to oversimplify issues'), 
not to mention the moral points 
that might be brought to bear, there 
are aspects of the Palestinianprob- 
lem that make it altogether different 
from others involving refugees. 

Jo other instances m which war or 
upheaval has displaced masses of 
people, it has usually been possible 
for the displaced to regain their 
homes — or at least the right to re- 
establish them in the same city, the 
same country. The social and politi- 
cal climate might have changed. 
Perhaps even the geographical envi- 
ronment might be different. But, 
historically, the victims of war and 
famine could go back to their sofl. 

Masses of Sicilians might emi- 
grate to America, impelled by eco- 
nomic considerations; Poles might 
defect; Ethiopians might cross into 
Sudan in search of food; Cambodi- 
ans might lake to rafts to escape 
torture and starvation. 

The immigrants might choose to 
stay, and the children and grand- 
children of those storied huddled, 
masses are probably materially 
richer for their ancestors' decision 
to remain in America, not to men- 
tion the dynamism they gave that 
country. Or the displaced might not 


By Mohammad Tarbush 


choose to stay and they might face 
political reprisals for returning 
home. But Sicily is still Sicily ana 
Poland is still Poland. It is even a 
reasonable expectation that some- 
day the millions who have fled 
Cambodia's sad and torturous sys- 
tem will be able to return in peace. 

Not so with Palestinians. A con- 
scious. systematic effort is not just 
keeping us off our lands; it is trying 
to erase our identity and our coun- 
try’s identity from human memory. 

The land is officially called Judea 
and Samaria by the occupying Is- 
raelis. Even the words “Palestine" 
and “Palestinian" do not exist in 
Israeli school textbooks. 

Palestinian traditions have been 
rebaptized. FalafeL, a popular Pales- 
tinian dish, is now’ presented to the 
world as an Israeli delicacy. Pales- 
tinian embroidered dresses are 
worn by El Ai hostesses as symbols 
of Israeli craft. It is just so much 
Dead Sea salt in festering sores. 

The first wave of refugees left 
Palestine during the 1948 war. An- 
other exodus, also driven by fear, 
followed the 1967 war. Almost three 
miltion of the total Palestinian pop- 
ulation of four million are now refu- 
gees or exiles. When hostilities died 
down afrer both wars, the refugees 
were kept from returning. Even the 
annual United Nations rail for their 
repatriation goes unheeded. 


All this is familiar, of course. The 
situation has been discussed and 
described in the media for decades. 
But because it is still unresolved, 
because the issue is so crucial to 
peace in the Middle East and be- 
cause the human dimensions gel 
lost in the rhetoric and the statistics, 
let me cite an example, the case of 
my own family. I come from a land- 
owning family that lived in Beit 
Natif, a biblical village 16 kilome- 
ters (10 miles) west of Bethlehem. 

To my forebears, not only was 
land the main source of livelihood, 
but the agricultural seasons were 
the pivot of the family’s traditions 
and customs. Their deep attach- 
ment to the land and its produce is 
reflected in the touching gesture of 
christening old fig, almond and ol- 
ive trees as if they were brandies of 
the family. Quite naturally these 
people resisted all pressures to sell 
their land to anyone. 

When the fear and panic that 
prevailed in Palestine in 1948 sent 
them running east, their mam con- 
cern in their new abodesrwas to find 
ways to return to their land. Thai 
was not to be, and even their hum- 
ble new home in Jericho had to be 
abandoned during the 1967 war. 

It was from Jencbo that I came to 
Europe in 1964 as a student. When 
the war erupted in June 1967, Jeri- 
cho fell under occupation and mv 


family again bad to flee. As soon as 
the war stopped I made every effort 
to secure my right to return to Jeri- 
cho, which had been my family’s 
refuge of nearly 20 years, or to Beit 
Natif, our personal homeland. 

In the process, I corresponded for 
several months with the Israeli Em- 
bassy in London, and through them 
with the immigration authorities in 
Jerusalem. When that failed, I wrote 
aboat our case in The Times of 
London in February 1972. Two 
years later an eminent Jewish pro- 
fessor of jurisprudence at Oxford 
University took the matter up with 
Shmuel Toledano. then Prime Min- 
ister Gokia Maris adviser on Arab 
affairs. AD was to no avafi. 

My father's most cherished wish 
before he died in 1982 was to be 
buried in Bdt Natif where be was 
bora and our ancestors are buried. 

Before 1947, shifts in power in 
Palestine had tittle bearing on my 
family- When the Ottoman empire 
crumbled and Palestine dipped tin- 
der British rule after World War L 
my family switched to paying their 
land levies to the British authorities. 
Ottoman land deeds and British tax 
receipts now decorate the walls of 
my study. They are still documents 
proving our ownership of a land 
that vvnndtber sold nor wish to selL . 


Mr. Tarbush, an investment banka- 
aid Miter on Arab qffcm, contributed 
this to dw brnnaaond Hmdd Tribune. 


Union Skippers Tack Into a Middle-Class Future 


W ASHINGTON — The head- 
lines speak of a miners' strike 
broken in Britain, and the U.S. Bu- 
reau of Labor Statistics puts out a 
report saying that union membership 
dropped below 20 percent of the la- 
bor force (to 18.8 percent) in 1984. 
continuing a steady downward trend. 

It is an odd lime to talk about a 
“new day” for the American union 
movement. Yet historians may see 
the winter of 1985 as a turning point. 

At the meeting of the AFL-CIO 
executive council in Bar Harbor, 
Maine, at the end of February, the 
labor leaders approved and issued a 
report entitled “The Changing Situa- 
tion of Workers and Their Unions” 
that clearly suggests a shift of direc- 
tion — and almost of fundamental 
attitude — for the labor movement. 
The report has significance not 


By David 

only for workers and employers but 
for anyone interested in the politics. 

For Americans my age, at least, it 
is impossible to imagine a strong cur- 
rent of liberal politics without a 
strong labor movement. As unions 
have declined in membership and po- 
litical clout, so has the Democratic 
Party. If you believe labor is doomed 
to inevitable decline as the American 
economy shifts from heavily union- 
ized manufacturing industries into 
the much less unionized service and 
communications and high-tech jobs, 
then you almost have to conclude 
that liberal politics and the Demo- 
cratic Party are on a downward path. 

For reasons clearly argued m an 
important article by James Fallows in 
the current issue of The Atlantic 


S. Broder 


mp of American his- 
tory, to say nothing of common 
sense, dictates that economic 
changes, no matter how disruptive to 
individuals and communities, should 
be accepted and welcomed as the real 
engines of opportunity and progress. 

The union movement has been 
scat by many, including some of its 
allies m the Democratic Party and 
liberal politics, as fighting a rear- 
guard action against economic and 
social change — as being more wor- 
ried about protecting past gains than 
helping its people prepare for the 
future. But the AFL-CIO report is a 
declaration by labor’s leaders that 
they are ready to tackle that future. It 
is a remarkable document. 

Slurring with a blunt statement on 


Out for ' Anything , 9 Good for Nolhing 


L OS .ANGELES — They come. 

t more or less hopefuL like pup- 
pies half expecting to be beaten. 
Maybe this will be die place, the time. 
Maybe, at last, someone will have 
“maintenance'' work for them. 

They have stopped a hundred 
rimes at employment offices, person- 
nel departments and job- training 
agencies. They hare, heard the me- 
chanical promises of call-backs, seen 
the shrugs and closed faces. But the 
whole world is saturated with un- 
skilled labor. So the dropouts and the 
unskilled struggle through another 
application, leaving blank spaces and 
apologetically, tentatively offering 
the paper to rhe interviewer. 

The interviewer glances at the in- 
complete application, hoping, for a 
change, to see a stable work history’ 
and some specific skilL Even in de- 
pressed limes it is not too hard to 
place a rool-and-die-maker or a long- 
haul trucker or even a recent high 
school graduate with enthusiasm and 
a good record. Bur under “work expe- 
rience'' the form says only “mainte- 
nance." and there are lots of dates. 

“Anything." the applicant says. 
“I'll do anything!" Anything that re- 
quires no particular skill or training. 
Anything that does not require much 
reading or writing or calculation. 
That does not require a diploma, or a 
surety bond, or a union card. Any- 
thing at all. “Maintenance ..." 

The interviewer scrawls "no skills” 
in the appropriate space. Puts the Ole 
in the stack or * a few - hundred others 
who will “do anvthing." Promises to 
call when something opens up. 

One day there is an op enin g for 


By Philip Foltz 

a custodian. Three hundred people 
who will “do anything’’ show up to 
compete for the position. And they 
all leave feeling that something is 
wrong with the American Dream. 

But what has gone wrong started 
turning wrong long ago. 

In school cbev were passed from 
grade to grade, their parents demand- 
ing little more from teachers than 
baby-sitting. Barely literate, they 
grew to despise the classroom where 
they were unable to fathom fractions, 
br the Constitution, or anything be- 
yond Dick and Jane. Then somebody 
changed the rules. A high school 
graduate would actually have, to be 
able to read and write and'calculate. 

In anger they left that place rif 
embarrassment and pain. They left 
for “maintenance.'’ ft would take 
them out or their parents' home, give 
them independence, their own homes 
and families. But nobody taught 
them how to plan further ahead than 
a week. Or to postpone “I want" for a 
while. Or that motivation, appear- 
ance and ability (even latent) count 
for more than “I need a job bad." 

What of “maintenance"? Is it a 
refuge for the unmotivated and un- 
skilled? Hardly. Nowadays mainte- 
nance workers have to know about 
insulation R factors and oil- burner 
efficiency. The framing square and 
the micrometer and reams Of govern- 
ment regulations can have no myster- 
ies for them. They are technicians. 

More, be has become a generalist 
technician. Where once it was enough 


to have some ability to team and" a 
willingness to work hard, now litera- 
cy ana study skills arc necessary, per- 
haps some farther schooling as well. 
Maintenance will never again be a 
field for the unskilled. And, as in 
every other technical field, the best- 
prepared get preference. 

What is to happen to the untrained 
and unemployed and incre asi n g ly an- 
gry prospective “maintenance" work- 
ers? Of course, they need to be taught 
the basic skills : reading, writing and 
calculating. And they need to be 
taught some iw*hmcal skills that will 
let them get started in. the job market. 
Those have been the aims of many 
past job programs in America. 

But, more than mere skill training 
these people need to learn that (hear 
.weakness must be recognized even 
'while their strengths are brought to 
optimum. Most particularly, they 
need to learn that every action, even 
every decision not to act, has its con- 
sequence. Those consequences are in- 
evitable. They must be planned for. 

Finally, and not so obviously, they 
need to be taught how to apply for a 
job. They need to know that tee job 
application form is a screening device 
that discriminates against incomplete 
or disorganized infonration. 

There is nothing for people who 
will “do anything.” TO pretend other- 
wise is a and deception an action, or 
inaction, wffL prove costly to os 
all unless we do something. 

The writer is aj 
a government < 

County in Southern GoBfanda. He can 
tributed this to the Los Angela Times. 


An Election 
Can’t Erase d 
The Issues ^ 

By Flora Lewis > 

P AWS —The American presto-; 
tial election is indeed over. Btn_ 
of calming the atmosphere to- 
pay attention to substance, the after*: 
ma th seems to be drawing the ideo- 
logical line ever tighter. 


, have run into a number of cases - ; 
lately. The foUowng letter from Evan. « 
G. Galbraith, the uS. ambassador to- 
France, is a prime example. It is his- 
answer to a column (IoT, Feb, 16 j. 
that criticized bis performance as a 
diplomat and his attack on the For- , 
dgn Service for lacking “guts." Mr- 
Galbtaith had said that the State Der> 
partment “has too big a role to play 
in foreign policy," s ugg es tin g that po-„ 
(ideal ambassadors dp better. 

He wrote: C 

“Dear Flora, 

“ Ah, come on. Don't be such a sore - 

loser. It’s all over. Yon and the other/ 
liberal spokesmen are no longer the., 
mainstream. In other words, you-’ 
have had it- I know you. don’t 
Ronald Reagan, low taxes, spent 
cuts. Large defense budgets, redi 
government, being beastly to Cbm-,, 
munis ts, and defending ourselves • 
against Soviet missiles, and it’s no^ 



;\ 


the first page that “unions find them- 
selves behind the pace of change,” it 
documents tire growing gap between 
the perceived positions of union lead- 
ers and the desires of the rapidly 
changing workforce. Itsays thatpco- 
ple “are less likely to see work as a 
straight economic transaction pro- 
viding a means of survival and more 
Kkely to see it as a means of sdf- 
expressfcm and sdf-devdopment” 

Candidly citing survey finding . 
that most non-union workers think 
that union leaders force members to 
acttpt decisions they do not like, and 
that unions stifle mdividnal initia- 
tive, fight change and increase the 
risk of companies going oat of busi- 
ness, the report says: 

“The labor movement must dem- 
onstrate that union representation is 
lhe best available means for working 
people to eaqjress their individuaHty 
on the job and their detire to control 
their own working lives, and that 
unions are dernoctotic institutions 
controlled by thor members ... 

“We have not been sufficiently 
successful rat either score.” 

There are several dozen specific 
recommendations for experiments in 
organizing and representation tech- 
niques that unions have begun to 
discuss or pot into place. The report 
is optimistic about the ability of 
unions to adapt The reasons may 
surprise youas much as they did me. 

The most important is that anions 
are middle-class institutions and are 
still a ticket to enter the middle class. 
Union workers earn a third more 
than noo-muon counterparts. They 
recruit best among the dements that 
are growing fastest in the work force, 
esp&safiy the beaer-edneated. 

Only 26 percent of union members 
(compared to 28 percentof the gener- 
al population) lack a high schoOIdi- 
ptoma. Some 21 percent (compared 
to 16 percent) have college degrees. If 
the future of work is in white-collar 
jobs, rations are weg positioned- They, 
already represent mare white-collar 
than bhie-cofiar workers. 

As Thomas R. Donahue. AFL- 
CIO secretary-treasurer and bead of 
the committee that prepared the " re- 
port, pointed out in an interview, how 
successful the unions will be in orga- 
nizing the new work force depends 
critically cm tbe-Iabor laws. Canada 
and the United States:, have smiiUr 
economies but very different labor . 
laws. In Canada, where the laws favor 
organizing the percentage of the la- 
bor force in unions has grown frran- 
30 to 40 in the last 20 years; in the 
United States it has gene the other 
way. That is . one reason why. the 
unions will stay-in politics. 

. The Wash i ngton Pan. 


yon put up another one in 1988, be, . 
too, win be wiped oul I kind of think-’ 
it trill take another massive defeat in-j 
1988 before you see the light, but., 

when you do, just remember. We will- ■ 

always have room for another repoa?* 
rant sinn er, especially one who earn.-, 
write. There wul still be lots to do. 
“Fdstfly yours, 

“[signed/ Van 

“P.S. Your ethics are showing a 
b«_ Putting quotes around thing I . 
did not say is just not done. You. 
might put that, too, on your lis* 
of things to repent” 

Tire postscript presumably refers 
to two quotes in the column that the 
ambassador ordered the embassy 
press attach^ to ask me about Out. 
was a remark he made on French 
radio. The other was an answer he; 
gave me when 1 had asked him a 
question. Apparently, to use his term, 
he prefers forgetting to repenting. 

The Ilip rozKbardy veils a reimrk-.- 
able attitude to political debate, and ; 
to the American process. Mr. Gal- 
braith seems to be arguing that the its-, 
election of President Reagan settled' 
the issue* and there is nothing more . 
to discuss about American poBcy. 

Worse, he presumes that by past* • 
ing on the label of liberal, he can: 
deduce peopled approach to all kinds, 
of complex issues. The content of the 
grab bag matters less than a litmus, 
test of pmk and bine. Polarizing the' 
debate on technical and difficnlt mat-^ - 
ters of foreign policy and defense in 
this way leaves no room for analysis^ 
although that should be part of an^ 
ambassador's job - A view of disag ree-/ 

' meat as sinful is not a helpful way tq 
promote U-S. interests abroad. 

But Mr. Galbraith has said that .' 
diplomacy should consist of “really 
pushing tire president's policies" in_ 
public. That is where he claims pro- 
fessional diplomats are short on gitiSL ' 

He complained that his remark^ 
which brought him a public rebuke i 
from Secretary of State George* 
Shultz, was taken out of context to, 
imply a lack of physical courage. ,» 
What he meant, he said, referred to* 
what former Undersecretary of State, \ 
Lawrence Eaglcbuiger described as a« 
tendency to repress imagination in* 
the Foreign Service. Mr. Galbraith, 
enlisted columnist William F. Buck-- 
ley Jr„ his mentor, to write an article* 
in his defense (IHT, Feb. 23) citing'* 

Mr. Eagleburger co the virtue of talk- - 
ing bade and ruffling feathers. ‘ 
There is something perverse in tak:-. 
ing cover behind Mr. fcagteburger on- 
this. He offered his reflections in an, 
interview with the Foreign Service* 
Journal when he had resigned after a- 
dist m gnushed 27-year cares. He said; 
explicitly that by “guts" in the For- 
eign Service he meant “the 
ness to ten yoor betters that you 
they’re wrong — and why . . _ w « 

The pranl was to encourage career ' 
officers to contradia their superiors , 
if they bad a good case, and men tq> 
accept the official decision. That i$! 
quite different from Mr. Galbraith , 
ricking off his staff for not edr‘ 
their ambassador^ views abroad 
sufficient verve and reson a nce. 

Having failed to obtain a senior 
in waritmgton, Mr. Galbraith 
announced -.plans to return -to 
private life and pofitied activity this 
summer. So his undiplomatic, con* ' 
duct will not matter modi longer. But 
it does matter that the official dis- 
course on foreign policy be rescued 
from an _ ideological shouting match. 

The United .States has- too much at 
stake to rednee the issues to labels. 

The New York Times. 


'll. 




nu/iWMi ■; 

echoing* 1 NT - 
adwitfr \ 



LETTER 


, John Vinocart re» 
Derides U.SJ Career 
j as Timur (Feb, 14 ), l was 

ramatded of a note I had wraten to 

mystdf on U.S. election night. I have 
found it, ami it mads: 

“As I watch the U& election cov- 
orageian French tdevirion, it con- 
nraasmy recumng sentiment that so 
many cl <m Foreign Service people : 
are too Tnrapeamzed.’ Reqancdto 
Traction pearafufly* in a foreign en- - 

; 

crane yLwj^-comh mmwanp Tt.j* • 
noonal that they besen^ivetoEuri 1 
pean views. However, being profes- 

and peemte; ■ 
to wpresatSd ‘ 

: / ; 

rJUF* * 3 * 0 ? ^ Umted States ' f 

Sgsasasasgffi'- : 

jtraia tiica- personal views ci sot. 

„ . * : & T*EFHNGfiR_ r 
./.*• MhntrCado. ' !■ 






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tet Utah 
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to f«* cvvlt 
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f Bmhkiift 

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Al Reagan 
twrfhrth 
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ft with the 
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.JNTERWATIOWAL herald U tlBUNE. saturday-sunday 

v arts /leisure 


march 9-1 Q, 1985 


Page 5 



5 ^!^? ® ' Mother Courage of Modernism’ 


.9 

iZn*n»rt ftertdTrthL ; 5^ was never re- isttookoma bank Iiantor 

Ds;s?'i."™:s:s k ' 5 ttr s - i «.s ssassitat *»S 3 sj;s af'^s=ss;«» 


charms, while painters Hrii^hty^ xn 
portraying her as a Spanish dancer 

or an agjng odaEsque. In the turbu- 
lent years following the Treaty of 
Versailles, she became the Mother 
Courage of Modernism — muse 
and patron fora new generation to 
artist-survivors who believed in a 
rebirth to talent and freedom out of 
the ruins of war. 

Unlike Gertrude Stan, who^jro- 




^^tstsss 

tomers went^- -y t0 ggi^SS arO? e , upfaona waned, splinter 
Then, in desperation, sht 


fflwement, manifestos provoked 
wunteraamfesios and ^ssion- 


^BectaK s^op pastpinned beneaih hw 

rest m to friends. *Tlev mi^t ^ A?S? ,CU0U i U ' iD8 

seen.^ she insisted. „ at ase - she CTen became 

riiik . 513,1 at, rection of a vaudeville 

*}J*t *** ®ore remark- ^vue. While the orchestra blared 
ifLPv-i! 11 ^ «toies that “Hie March of the Gladiators." 


vided a similar foens to the 
si an' avant-garde, Johanna 
seemed triumphantly 
for her - f — * 


Dhanna Ey 
iB-eqnipped 


“T“ ““ ‘U.uicaica memo- * nearer, to laundering aoDl 
mnrridiw ."5SP ciddil0C)d ^ she reclined at stage cenrer^ and 

p tr‘!L h r ,oy f oUo "' m - 

la _fnr adjusting to a difficult new 


was 


were stod, she prudently raised mascot and ample 

prices on the remaining stock. *' injgigi 

The end of the war .found ^ a returning ari^ff a visil la for adjnningX'rdSt S u N ?i, s . urprisin ^ '** apple- 

baker-gaHenst mstaDed m spacious Panktoc, andMsW atu *n». Otto wmk wi alwlw S chceked ima & of Johan na Ev ap - 

^oregulariy henn. The works tiPS" 1 ?? u - hung it over her bed ami So , Jin F** L at „ r fS ular intervals m t£ 

'V. bowed her slept on the sofa until she felt rcadv pj? 51 } 131 }®* uprise of M The Young S J ,e 

to confront the experience. Once SS ““fNfc dancing. oI d town might someday cam- her 

was'iou^ie'^™ 1 ^ ™&*SSSS«df3a nan " 

ssawaf sSL. 



in a limitless future, that marked, 
as welL the younger generation in 
which she beltoed. 

She also shared their fate. Re- 
tunung from Mallorca in 1933. she 
found obscenities smeared across 
her shop window. Nazi officials, 
confiscated her stock and esicied 
her from the building that had been 
consigned to her “in perpetuity" 
three years before. She survived a 
second world war but did not live 
to sample Konrad Adenauer's 
ft irtschafmundiV. The final re- 
quest she made of her adopted city 
was read at her graveside in 1947: 
She hoped a street in DOsseldorfs 


brewer, beat her regularly, like her 

drunken father before hini- 
The battered wife nmdi- her bid 
for freedom in 1910, when she 
opened a bakery in DOsseldorfs 
old town. Local merchants wagered 
she would not survive a *■ ’•* 


stereotypes to painting and sculp- 
ture." 


Portrait of Johanna Ely by Otto Dix (detail), 1924. 


Such vague utopianism allowed 
nts wagered for the widest range of styles, as 
month with their first exhibition in 1919 ma<te 
her peasant-style cakes, sand- confusingly apparent through the 
wiches. pickled herrings and sau- contributions cf 1 13 artists. But the 
sages. Polite housewives, scandal- 
ized that the pl ump proprietress 
did her own serving, gave the shop 
a wide berth. 

That left the path open to the 
nearby art academy. Qmdt to sniff 
out edible bargains, students and 
their professors became regular cli- 
ents. Frau Ey added hearty lunches 
and suppers to her repertoire, 
served her favorites generous 
bracers of schnapps, and was 
known to save credit Her i 


Young R hine land,” Ey had; found her calling. She or- 
mey issued a call to artists who dered a sign that ran across the 
«ragm a reform of the “antiquated shopfront: “New Ait Frau Ey .” 

" - ^ W nTOwani 

showed their gallerist the drawings 
of a friend from Dresden, she invit- 
ed Otto Dix to DOsseldorf. Within 
hours of his arrival with a battered 
portfolio under his arm. she had 
stuffed him full of sweets a nd was 
darning a hole in the seat to his 
trousers. She presented the shy 
guest to collectors, arranged com- 
missions and bought several paint- 
ings for her collection. 

In the same year, 1921, she ar- 
ranged the first German exhibition 
for Max Ernst Unfazed by the 


P^Mm, ‘EEtISh „_r\P r “- uarvete and hone and sufforino 


earned 


and hope and suffering and 
zest the blighted past and the faith 


Matisse Dr, 


It runs behind the Kunsthalle. 
where her “boys” and their 
achievements are being honored. 

“Am Anfang : Das Junt>c Rhein- 
land. Dusseldorf KunsthaUe, 
through April S. 


guests 


inconsistency was a mea- 
sure of the creative ferment that 
marked the W eimar Republic. The 
Dfis sririn rf K unsthaBe fa** n ‘ -rof do- 
cumented that era. in an exhibition 
entitled “In the Beginning: The 
Young Rhineland." 

Many to the experi m ents pre- ^ 

senled have a mi stily provincial show’s hostile reception, she tuck 
air; the real Modernist victories to her unadorned faith that “the 
were b^g recorded in Munich and pictures are good!" When Ernst 
Berim. But despite the local patrio- and his friend Paul Eluard spoke 
usm of its bann ahead, the Young about an Asian journey, the gaUer- 


17 . ia*' v *" awings Illustrates 
M ^r Draftsman's Other Side 

TSJ EW YORK -TblJ mIL SSSi^fM?HLr B 3k °. raade ««« that 1 

IM most seductive draftsmen who estns one of the cStirated “ ,n hls *^ry not as a lord of 

~ .approve A. A< kind of W, tahoA, PhiffipTL^, $ ^StSt 

After de Heem" in the Modern. 


we 


_ 1 ^ — — “““ uuu vi liiAU 

turns up for sale here, there and everywhere. 


\r. 


ShaL Ifli . 

‘•’■reem- 

•'K'npi pep 
'■in tfcjjf 


Jnusual Sale of Ancient Glass Draws High Interest, Prices 


, , : pretty young women, dressed or 

undressed, the Mediterranean fruit fresh from the tree, 
the flowers we never get to buy in the stores — all these 


on an 
Center in 

form of 1 . 


International Herald Tribune 


, r , — — decades to collecting, he started 

»rcv. L \ . n “ LONDON — The sale of ancient parting with his possessions. Some 

glass at Christie’s Tuesday and to his finest Persian miniatures are 
^sdriesday was one to the .most now the pride of the Edmund de 





S market scene in the past 20 


lection in Kuwait. Glass was the 
last to ^ 0 . As late as 1981, virtually 
his entire collection of tH»« was 


up this appreciation: Sheikh Nas- 
ser Sabah al-Ahmad al-Sabah, of 
the ruling family to Kuwait 
On seeing the superb ninth-cen- 
tury glass from Iran and the enam- 
eled vessels from 13th-centay Syr- 
ia, the Arab connoisseur was 
enthus i astic. So was Kofier-Tnm- 
Jger, at the idea to his Mamie col- 

lection pnfnp ac a whrtU m a mn». 



C onna issanccs des Arts, marveling 
at the extraordinary prices >hat 
might be fetched by the exquisite 
little things. While buyers who go 
after excavated glass tend to be 
more sophisticated than most, such 
publicity creates a chmale that will 
influence even the most 
old-timer. Jerome Eisenberg of 
New York, who bought a' lot and 
— 1 TJ ' tid on aver- 

more than 


ground. Experts, including Insley, 
who spent years in Cairo and is 
well-acquainted with the Cairo 
Museum collections, said the piece anthology of 152 
was unmatched anywhere in collec- 
tions of Egyptian art. 

It was more surprising to see 
pieces not quite so unobtainable 


owers we never get to buy in the stores— all these ,onn 01 (he echoes here nt . , . 

were rendered by Matisse with a sovereign dexterity J^vdrauings, someSS ^ 

that makes them among the most immediately covet- Jf vo “ e ^ M cIimes “o wme m 

able of European drawings. B razilia n whom 

even after she 


■eLaStjW 

ian»homR,£ r cf insla ? cc ’u r,ve draMn & f of . 

There is,theref are, no doab. tu - The Drawing, of 

SSrJSPSi'iSf Zr gSsi «SWSS 3 W *•, rotfStt! 

k nn?fh Ju2L!“ ^ Sl PauI-de-Vence chapfipL?^* 1 ^ Monnier. 
ot the Matisse most progressive wiihdrawalfroi 6 ^“^bmem" in the 


the four studies' 
il-de-Vence c 

often seen in the market, fie - is a toUsome"MatiMTa 

rummaiory Matisse, a monumental Matisse, and one S ^ e d . e r ?f ra _ dr fnmk -Vimage of all circum- 
who made mistakes and began over again. Nor are the circum- 

dra wings — with one or two exceptions— the byprod- ® tter rcflcctcd 


f’t 

can only marvel at the 


uct of a sunny afternoon beride Vaiouthem sn when 


« ■■■;■ r ^ ^^ >5 Sydn ey M. Two years later, Ktoler-Tnmiger 

c- f • - Hi. - _•* .r ri dst ®“: as so taate dnertor to the decided to part with the riaasT He 
. - : Louis Art Museum wrote apref- approached a Middle Eastemdeal- 


soar to unprecedented levels. A . . . . - 

sa!R"-sa i sass: MM'Xias: 

nean and probably Syrian," went OTe of the most demanding human activities. ^ b f^^^ 8 wSr^?J° nS l0 u PUl ‘lasL There 

for £102,600 to the Mansur Gallery The drawings were chosen by the English art histori- studies that seem rSockcts. ’ 

attendance was impressive. 0 f London, which outbid a Japa- an John Gdding and catakxud bv Jolm EldaS for ™*2S 

Almost every museum of oonse- nese dea£. This at tartctuTbe director to the dt^artmratS^w 

starting characterized as a oerfect sneri- of Modem ArtSSLasomSnr ^ops that marked _Ma Use s^early years_ as a pu^, 


VI WVUI 

: a k° al - t * lc ■ angle deal^ which meant a huge 

. .... v .•.. r .‘.\rtCofler-Triiniger is one of the investment. The dealer agreed, and 
1; disceming ocflectos to this decided to tackle the two problems 

Tm ygy* PM gncqmmon abifr separately, lie market for Islamic 

4 _ .^toiJn^theffiiesf inPfeiaanmm- ^^i&narrow.TTiedealetwenito 

, ' ' >res, in Syrian pottery, in Gothic the most and perhaps only plansi- 
j . 1 ■, ~,: :«nplev£ enamds and ivories, in ble buyer, one who could appreri- 

^ aent Egyptian glass. ate the artistic value of the collec- 

. ■ ' , ;; ; ^ .In the early 1970s. after three lion and had the resources to back 


DONESBURY 

~.V 



-ADVERTISEMENT- 


‘POSH" VERSUS "GOSH" 


TO THE EDITOR OF THE TRIBUNE. 

Sir, — The origin of the acronym POSH is widely known. 
Corned by the Victorians from the initials of the phrase 

'Port Out. Starboard Home ’ it got its present meaning from 

fact that these were the cooler and more comfortable — 


TJ*< 


r;-‘ 


Vniiri'^ 


lence more select — sides of the ship on which to travel 
arid from Jndia. 


4 tV* 

.-“a- 

Alt 

» ■? 
fr 

ft. Hi'* 

?* i'|^ 

||h. if 

rftp t< * 

% f ••SU= 
iV 
■.{hr* 
It ilW 




However I have long felt there was something amiss 
■rith this Sentiinerit. 

It seemed to me that no true Victorian gentleman or 
; . .-ady would ever feel entirely at home aboard a ship that’ 
r ; inly’ served port as - a refreshment. EspedaXLy when that 
• .-:’bip was bound for the land of quinine and tonic water. 

So backing my- hunch, I have spent many years researefc- 
;; ■' * . -tn g intensely into that era. 

1 ton now pleased to be able to publish the results of 
■ymy enquiries. 

H is apparent that shortly after the discovery of Bombay, 
"POSH was superseded by GOSH, as in 'Gosh, I could do 
'■ i ••• kuth a drink !• or 'Gosh ! That's smooth l f 

Perhaps I should make clear that the BOMBAY 1 am 
' ■ i nferring to is, of course, the GJN. 

. It is a particularly fine gin with a deti- 
bouquet that is imparted by the 
, - ■'botanicals' used in its manufacture. 

*■ • As it is claimed, it is indeed BOMBA Y 
.fGIN*g unique distillation that keeps one 
- tonused.. 

1. - And that may .explain the origin of 
. gOSff. It stands for “Gin Out, Starry-eyed 
. - Home." 

Dr. Hihrv- Snell u xsc~ 

ite Collie, ■Oxford. 



items never seen in the market, an 
auction seemed indicated. 

For this, the dealer needed rim y . 
Sheikh Nasser helped him get 
ba ck i ng from a Middle Eastern 
bank. The collection was bought 
and the-' Islander art channeled -to 
KuwaitiThen it was decided to sell 
the ancient glass through Christie's. 

The auction house’s first asset 
was its expert in charge of antiqui- 
ties, Christine Insley. An Egyptolo- 
gist holding a bachelor to arts de- 
gree with honors from Cambridge 
Umyereity, she worked in the Htz- 
william Museum before joining 
Christie’s. She enjoys a reputation 
for straightforwardness — useful in 
the suspicions world to the auction 
trade. 

One condition for the undertak- 
ing was that the dealer’s identity 
not be disclosed Another condi- 
tion for success, the most impor- 
tant, was a good marketing cam- 
paign. Here Christie's outdid itself. 
The catalog was brilliantly pro- 
duced, with photographs that made 
countless pieces look big and bright 
when many were tiny and had lost 
their original 6daL In an art-mar- 
ket first, videotapes were sent to 
foreign countries. Viewings were 
or gan ized from Los Angeles to To- 
kyo. 

If very smal l pieces, such as a 
bottle with white low-relief figures 
on a deep blue ground, only 7.6 
ce ntim eters (3 indies) hi g h , had not 
been shown in such admirable de- 
tail, they might never have readied 
the phenomenal level they did: the 
£324,000 (5345,000) paid for the 
bottle, a record for cameo glass, is 
extravagant even for an object that I 
is veiy fine and full to mystoy (it I. 
appears to illustrate some Egyptian 
cult in Roman times, about 25 B. G 
to A. D. 25. and bears some iu deci- 
pherable hieroglyphs) but imper- 
fectly preserved • 

The presale publicity was su- 
perbly orchestrated. The London 
news media responded to Christie’s 
press releases like tap dancers to 
music. A long illustrated piece 
came out in the French monthly 


The problem of the ancient glass 

was different. The market is wider 

mfl.Kvcralioaio.S^S JSSSSS-S?? 8 »•»“**«• petai^ of Modem An, irt hi, cuSto. 

culty of estimating pnees on some „ SfeStf sSESESS ' 

ieSeS““ 

fh™ 01 SS Dld , be , harid to End eloquent to the sheer labor of drawing than of conju- 

thanBow 1 of Grapes" (1915), “Head of Antoinette” gal fulfiDmenL J 

MragihoUhe present show tm 


m antiquities was there, whether 
from Loudon — Robin Symes, tod- 
ding in person, bagged the record 
cameo piece — Pans or Frankfurt 
As a result, Christie’s managed to 
sell most to the rareties at thump, 
ing prices while also working won- 
ders with the mare commonplace 
objects. 

Egyptian glass of the ISth dynas- 
ty from Amarna made the highest 
prices, except for the cameo flask, 
which belongs to the Raman peri- 
od. A vase nine centimeters hi gh 
with yellow and white festoons on 
greyish-bine ground went for 
£91,000. Symes paid £86,400 for a 
tiny turquoise-colored head origi- 
nally used as furniture inlay. An 
Arab bank paid £237,600 the rarest 
piece, an Amarna kohl flask shaped 
as a palm column, intact with jd- 
low and white marvered, or rolfcd- 
glass, trails on the turquoise 


ter a heated contest involving the 
Safani Gallery of New York, a Jap- 
anese dealer and the Hqi Baba 
Gall ay of London, which captured 
the piece. 

Some categories can be consid- 
ered to have been lifted to new 


■levels — bowls in the so-called mo- 
saic technique, to which one made 
£42^00 and another £41,040. Hith- 
erto neglected types went through 
the roof; a translucent bowl from 
France, of the 1st century B. C„ 
with very little iridescence left, sold 
for £45360 — “six times the New 
York resale price.” Eisenberg said. 

Overall, the sale netted £23 raO- 
lioo, making it a good day for the 
Middle Eastern dealer; Iris sup- 
porter, Sheikh Nasser, and Chris- 
tie’s, of which one to S heikh Nas- 
ser’s companies holds 10 percent to 
the shares. 


and the synoptic “Model in the Studio” (1948). to 
evoy one Matisse was pushing himsdf a little farther, 
and in quite a different way, than he had before: 

It was a good idea to indude portraits of sane of the 
P* 0 ? 1 ® .— “tong than the Russian collector Sergei 
Shchukin; Sarah Stein, the sister-in-law of Gertrude 
Stein; and Dr. Garibel Cone from Baltimore — who 
were important to Matisse as foreign patrons and 


we can watch Matisse as he gradually annexes one 
territory after another. Once out to the classroom (in 
which that archetypal mediocrity. Adolphe W illiam 
Bouguerean, had said to him, "Matisse, you will never 
learo to draw”), he roved as a free man. There was 
hardly a way of drawing or an effective instrument 
that he did not put to use. 

The show, seen earlier in London, can be viewed in 
New York through May 14. 


OTTERA ATIOIVAL ART EXHIBITIONS 


PARIS 


WANTED 

RAOUL DUFY 

FIRST SUPPLEMENT OF THE CATALOGUE RAISONNE 
OF THE PAINTED WORK BY MAURICE LAFFAILLE 
The Louis Carrfi Editions and Co. are looking for any 
information concerning the works of Raoul Dufy, in view of 
publishing the first supplement of the catalogue rajsonnft of 
the painted work. 

EdHions Louis Canrfi and Co. 

Service documentation 
10 Avenue de Massine 

— 75008 PARIS (7) 562 57 07= 


DENISE RENE 


196 Bfvd. St.-Germain, 7th. 222.77.57 

NARAHA 

Sculptures 

First Exhibition in France 

Vernissage Thursday March 14 at 7 p.m. i 


AUCTION SALES 


-GALERIE MERMOZ 


PRE-COLUMBIAN ART 


.6, Rue Jean-Menmoz, 75008 PARIS. Tel.: 359.82.44 


r 


PARIS 

ip 5 WALLY FINDLAY ==a 

II Galleries International 

new y«fc - Chicago - pdm beach 
bevetiy hib - pans 

EXHIBITION 

F. GALL 

GANTNER - BOURRIE 
HAMBOURG - BOUDET 
MICHEL-HENRY - SEBIRE 


The Associated Press 

LIVERPOOL — A modem-art 
museum will be opened by the 
spring to 1988 in the renovated 
Albert Dock b uilding on liver- 
pooTs waterfront, officials said Fri- 
day. Part to the works of London's 
Tate Gallery, which has. space to 
show only one-tenth of its collec- 
tion, are to be transferred to the 
new gallery. 


IMPORTANT 
MODERN PAINTINGS 

main works by 

ANGRAND - COROT - COURBET 
VIEIRA DA SILVA - VUUXARD 

PICASSO: Voflanfs complete set to prints. 

Bloch, T.l, N* 134 to 233 

SALE BY AUCTION 
FRIDAY 22nd MARCH, 1985 at 9 pjn. 

H6T£l DROUOT - Rooms 5 and 6 
9, Rne Drouot - 75009 Paris - TeL 0) 246.17.11 

MaItre Guy LOUDMER 

Associated Auctioneer 

18 Rue de Provence - 75009 Paris - Td; (1) 523.15.25 - Tda 641958 F 


itafegoe: RF. SO aiazZatite at the office in Puns • 


GALERIE 1SYBRACHOT! 


35, rue Guenegoud, PARIS 6" - Tel.: 354.22.40 

ROLAND CAT 

March 6 1985 - April 20 1985 


Impressionists and 
post impressionists 

2 Ave. Matignon - Paris 8th 

T 4 : 223 . 7074 . monday 4 ro. fridav 
10 am. is 1 pa. ■ 130 ta 7 p , a 


Hofei George V- 723.54.00 
31 Ave. George-V - Paris 8th 

,n * L K fiOJO _aA-T U..2JO to Vfua 

JiRlilbf § PJI&. -9pjB, 


PARIS 


SALLE POLYVAUNTE DE LA BOQUETTE 

15,n»Me*fci (XH Nt VWftire 

HISTORICAL WAUONG TOURS 
M US XRh dbftrkt 
fcwn ftg. SL-AbMm te Rib. 4a Ttrapii 
OoBy ttoft Monday lliX anv&OO pun. 

w“M»ifcrtneB ««y ThundoyotSflUpm. 
UNTO. -MARCH 31 


PAUS/NW YORK 


ANTIQUES 


THE CHELSEA 

ANTIQUES FAIR 

Chdsea Old Town Ball 
King’s Rd, Loudon SW3 
12-23 March 

11 ajm. - 730 pjn. (not Sunday) 
Enquiries: 01^351 7187. 


M* DELORME 

Auctioneer 

14, Avenue de Messine, 75008 PARIS - Tel„- 562.37.19 



HOTEL DROUOT PARIS 

Thursday, March 28 . 1985 at 2 pm. — Room 12 

JEWELLS 
SILVERWARE 

Pus h viewing ; Wednesday, March 27 , 1985 from IT a. m, to 6 p. m . 
SqNrtfc Massn. de Fbmmwvuult, Serret, Moma», porter. 


ZABRISKIE 

TIMOTHY 

WOODMAN 

724 Fifth Ave, New York 

PETER BRIGGS 

37 rue Quincampoix, Paris 


ArtExUUdau 
4k AnedftB SWkw 

*<ppeare eveiy Saturday 


PARIS 

— SKVICBCULTURaS 

DU QUEBEC 
T 17, re* du Roc (7e) - 122.50.60 

Louis-Pierre 

BOUGIE 

“I* Mb jobs d» h ri*“ 
Drawing*, montoflw, eny o winy 

— MARCH 5 -APRIL 5 


STOCKHOLM 


STOCKHOLM 

ftniiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiuiiitiiiiiiiiiuu 


I ANDRE MASSON! 

works on paper 

2-27 March 

I Galerie Bel Art | 

B. Jarisgatan 2 = 

1434 Stockholm 1 

Tel.: 8-11 6052 | 

Tues.-Sat. 11-17 | 

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__ rally in the credu n 

NFW YORK-— The New York Stock Ex- [©an sector, HJ. 
change dosed out its worst week so far m 1985 aai,Gri 

with another decline in slackened trading Fn- 

Except for a few fin-nidal issues, stock prices 
showed no response to a sharp drop m open- 
market interest rates. 


••• '" T \ ■ 

, a the' &&& and 

was vgl&at 29ft; 

. j -Great Ameri- 
and -Great Western 


issues finished mixed. 

Machines dropped ft 

Inters, acjjye trading, after falling 2V^ points 
to ^oay. The company said sales and demand 


aiaa mreioi i«w- _ . . , —c,, ■> , 1 , , 

The Dow Jones average of 30 industrials i^its pehional computer are strong across the 
shaped 1.87 to 1.269.66. extending its loss for entire fine." 

■ — Amon$ other computer and technology is- 


184 


the week to 29.70 points. 

That was the average’s biggest 
since it tumbled 31J6 poinitelasi^Nov. 
the Treasury was showing .ft* ' " 
reform proposaL '■ . ".cnange 

Volume on the New Y ork S^y; jai 112.10 

tailed off to 96^ ndWn sKsr . 

million Tbunda? I * rates have been 

Analysts said rising i&ocfc prices lower in 
the numw laafr’puAy. however, rates turned 
repeal £bond and short-term mon- 

■Ajfi^erm Treasury bills feQ about 
' its, dr hundredths of a percentage 
of long-term government bonds, 
ozft no* «£> low uiun. in the opposite direction from in- 
_ Sv. Sft S44 ' Merest rates, rose more than $10 for every J 1.000 

5w ™ 7ft + H jn face value. 

in Brokers also said some traders were shopping 

for “bargains'’ in the stock market, with the 
Dow Jones industrial average having closed 
Thursday at a six-week low. But their buying 
did not stir up much other activity. 

Some financial issues rose, responding to the 


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52 511* 51ft— ft 

25ft 25ft 23ft 

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63ft 6319 63ft— ft 
59*9 59ft 59ft— ft 
3244 32ft 331*+ U 
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sues, Digital Equipment lost ltf to 104%; Hew- 
lett-Packard H to 35ft; Data General 1ft to 
50ft, and Compuiervision 1 to 33ft. 

Smithldine-Beckman fell 2ft to 58ft. The 
drop was attributed to an article in a Japanese 
newspaper about a study of ulcer drugs, includ- 
ing Tagamet, which is produced by Snrithkline. 

In the daily tally on the Big Board, about four 
stocks fell in price for every three that ad- 
vanced. 

Nationwide turnover in NYSE-listed issues, 
including trades in those stocks on regional 
exchanges and in the over-the-counter market, 
totaled 122JL4 million shares. 

In the economic news, the Labor Department 
reported that the civilian unemployment rate 
declined 0.1 percent in February, to 7 3 percent 
A drop had been widely expected on Wall 
Street 

The VaJueline index fell 0.49 to 195.65 and 
futures contracts were down 0 JO to up 0.10. 

The S & P 500 index was off 0.41 to 179.10. 

The NYSE financial index feQ 0.08 to 107.62. 


HMonlti 
HU* Low Stock 


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35 17 AmnOl 70 8 

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29ft 21ft Anwlrt 80 25 14 


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72ft 71H 71ft— 1ft 
23*9 23V* 2344 + ft 
3*9 3ft 3*4+ ft 
6249 60*9 62ft— ft 
39ft 39 V* 3919 — 19 
644 6*4 6*4— 14 
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14 13*9 43ft— ft 

334* 33 33ft— ft 

250 54ft 53*9 54 + ft 

12 65ft 6414 65 — ft 

13 54 5314 54 + ft 

21ft 21*4 21ft 

^ 36ft 3514 36 —ft 

1 37 37 37 + 14 

156 24 SI* 2314— ft 

11*4 lift lift 

1149 11 'A 1149 

2849 2771 28—49 

66 66 46 

10*4 10*4 10*4— ft 

77ft 77 7749 + 49 

32*4 3219 32ft— ft 

34*4 3419 3449— ft 

92ft 92 92 


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17*% 1049 Amtac 
38ft 26ft AMP a 
24 14ft Amoco 
21ft 12ft AmnOl 
20ft 19 AmSIh 
39ft 25ft Amstod 
5ft 1*4 AnacmP 
SOU 19ft Anokwi 
30ft 19U Anchor 
30ft 24ft AnCtoy 
12U 9ft AndrGr 
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70*4 53*9 AKhtoi 
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19*9 814 Antnam 84 7 14 

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29*9 26 ABPwof 380 137 

19ft 17ft APlDtO 1.121 37 21 
21ft 0 ApplMs 258 

51*4 15*4 ArcADn 

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294% 23 ArlPpf 

97 79 ATtPol 

23*4 13ft Ark Bat 

24*9 16 Arfcta 

S 49 ArlnRI 
21ft 9 Armco 

30U II AmKOt Z1D 108 

241% 15*4 ArmaRb 88 28 9 

38 22ft ArmWIn 18 14 I 

3414 18ft AnoCo 170 37 8 

26V* 1349 ArowE 70 U 0 

22ft 16 AJ+ra 72 1.1 

23ft 14 Arvlna 80 38 * 

34ft 17*4 Aaorco . 

30'% 30ft AinlOII 180 57 

394% 314* ASMOiM 356 107 

611* 4544 AMDC 280 48 9 

90 73 AMD ri 475 57 

25ft 18*4 Altitana 180 75 10 

25ft 19ft Ate V El 14B 108 8 

524* Wft All Rich 380 67 23 2739 

X 324* All Pc ri £75 107 

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Mft lift Auoot 72 

46ft 39ft AutoOf 82 

271* 15ft AVEMC 80 

39*4 23 A vary 80 

15ft 10 Avloll n 

41 27 Avnct 80 

25*4 l»ft Avon 250 

39ft 18 Avdhl 


28 44 27*4 27*9— ft 


29ft 25ft 26ft 
lift 11 11 

32 30ft 3114 
16ft 15*4 15*9— U 
16ft 16 16 — ft 

264% 26*4 26*4+44 
39ft 38*4 3044— ft 
4ft 314 414 
25*9 25*4 25*9 + 4% 
23ft 23ft 23ft— ft 
38 37*4 37*4+ ft 

12 lift lift— ft 

30 19ft 19ft— ft 

77ft 76ft 76*6— ft 
56ft 5644 56V*— ft 
16ft 16*9 16*9— ft 
13ft 13ft 13*4— 14 

13 13 13 

lift 11 lift 

1ft 1ft 1ft 
11 17*4 10 + ft 

500z 66 46 66 — 1 

4 29 28*9 28*9— ft 

79 344* 34 34 

202 13 12ft 12ft 
.14b 7 14 2556 23*4 20V4 20*4 + ft 
£60 127 7 1821 21*4 2144 21ft— ft 
3 j 53 138 62 27ft 27 Z7ft 

1070 118 24ttr 97 96 97 +4 

80 18 0 145 20ft 19*9 20*4 — 44 

180 53 19 1255 20ft 20*4 20V*— ft 
ft — 

9ft Oft 9*4 
19*9 19ft 19ft— ft 
34 21ft 23ft— ft 
35ft 354% 35ft— ft 
32*4 32 3314 + 14 

16ft 16ft 1614— *4 
2tR4 211ft 20*4 
22*% 22*4 22*4— *4 
29 254% 26 + ft 

30ft 29*4 3044 + ft 
381% 38ft 38*9— ft 
57ft 56*4 57 + ft 
911* 91 9144 + ft 

2119 2149 3119 + ft 
34*4 24ft 24*4 
48*9 48ft 4814— ft 
4201 39ft 36ft 39U 
12 14 14 14 

111 26*4 25*% 2619— *4 
413 42*4 42ft 42*% 

5 26ft 26 26 — U 

151 35*% 35 35 — 44 

12 14ft 14*4 14*%— ft 

31ft 31 31*4— ft 

22ft 22 ft 22*4 
24*4 24U 24 Uk— ft 


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331* 15 Bkrlntl 82 58 16 2120 160% 16*% 1439 

24%. 18*% Bollfor 76 18 15 33 Z319 22*% 2214— ft 

3*4 ft vIBqHSU 464 1*% 1ft 194 

SC 281* Ba'ICo 178 Z7 12 76 41 47ft 47ft— *4 

2314 lift BallyMI 79 M 610 144* 14ft 14ft— ft 

15** 7ft BallvPk 12 68 lift 11 lift + ft 

41*4 3019 BallCE 12907 7 115 39 38*4 381% + ft 

30% Wft Bncom 1.18 17 10 170 29*9 29*4 29*4— ft 
5ft 3ft Don Tex 323 4*4 4 ft 4*4 

62 3V.* Borntab 170 Z0 12 19 59*4 50*9 58ft— *4 

47ft 29 BkBos 2.40 58 S 411 43ft 42ft 43ft + 14 

53ft 43 BkBos of 5.13el 07 70 49ft 4Vft 49ft 

41 29ft BhNY 2JB4 5 7 6 139 39*4 39 3944 

76ft 15*4 BnkVa I ID U 9 43 26 25*9 26 +16 

21ft 14V* BnkAm 183 78 11 3530 1949 19 19ft 

SI* M> BKAmaf 5.199128 3S3 44 43 43*4 

86 66 BkArn pi AJSalZO 201 70 69*9 70 

Hft lift BkAmri 3M to 15ft 15ft 15V,— ft 

32": 22ft BkARfy 240 88 11 59 30*4 3044 3014— *% 

66. 37ft BankTr 270 47 7 
83a 7 19 
84 18 12 
80 38 » 

176 28 9 
80 25 14 
,12b 18 12 
.78 29 16 
77 £8 71 
70e 3 20 
280 98 8 
1.00 29 11 
180 58 
138 68 
170 27 14 


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31*4 19 Bard 
IB BamGp 
50 32ft Bar (Ml 
3Jft 19ft BarvWr 
lift Bft BA5IX 
20ft IT 1 * Bousch 
18*4 lift BewtTr 
HI* 17*4 BavFIn 
* ISf 5«sto 

38ft 29ft Dear I no 
34ft 24*% BeotCo 
64ft 46'-* Beotpf 
48 38ft BeanD 
7 4ft Bekar 
10ft 9r% Bekar pf 1.70 1&4 

10*% 111* BeMnH AO 38 7 

soft 19*4 BOUftKt 89 1.9 18 

W* 66 Bel, An 480 7J 1 

78ft 72*4 BCE 0 278 

27ft m% Beuind 72 18 12 

17|A »ft Be, ISO 1 200 78 0 

SOU 35ft BeloAH 80 18 20 

•91% Bemli 180 3A 12 

TO 73 Bmfxrt 474 48 

371* 23 BanrCp 280 58 9 

20*% 17 Benvf of £50 1i5 

0ft 3'% BanaiB 73» 4j a 
72^ r.\ OcmEn 
6*4 3T4 Berkpv 
17ft 10*4 BesIPd 
26'* 14ft Bamstl _ 

S3 ft 37ft BetnSlDlS.00 127 
78ft ISVk Betns, Of 250 124 
M"« 19ft BCvorlv 73 .9 1* 

14-1 19*% BtoTtu- 
36 T% 17ft BtockO 
33ft 30 BtokHP 
40 14ft Blair Jn 
S>ft 17 BIchHR 240 
W* HU Baetne 180 
«»% 3?v* Bel see 1.90 
57 46 BDlMCpf&OO 

H'i 15ft BoltBar .10 
J3ft S3 Borden 172 
24’% M>4 Borftwa .92 
8*% «*« Bormns 
361* 35 Bos Ed 124 
75 63 BoiE ol 888 118 

I0U 9 BdsE or 1.17 11.7 
13ft Krt BosE pr 186 117 
Hi* 14f% Bowlrn Ti 18 
31U 251* BrleSt 
Sift 43 BrHfM 
33 2l*% Brltpi 

15*4 94* BrlfTM 
6*4 29% Brock 
20ft 14*4 Brctwv 
34'i 28 BkvUC .... 

Mft 19 1 * BkUCof 287 lfl.9 
37** 2V HkUCnf 3.95 123 
Hft 13 DrmSn 70 8 


503 

21 

95 

73 

129 

211 

2770 


62*4 62 6244 — 4% 

12 11*9 11*4— ft 

27ft 26*4 26*4+ *9 
22*4 224% 2244+ ft 
48*4 40*9 489% 

24 23*% 33*4- U 

12ft 12 12U 

27ft 26*% 27ft + 14 
15ft M94 15 +44 


Ml 

62 

2555 

410 

19 

65 

13W 


14 

15 
18 13 
25 


80 


1.92 

86 


9.1 


37 22ft 22 22 — U 

26 2H4 28*9 28*9 + ft 
323 35 34*4 344*— ft 

9 7335 30*9 30ft 30*4— 4% 
10 56V. 56 56ft- ft 

417 45*4 44*4 44*4 — 44 

156 5*% 5ft 5ft 

4 10*% VB% 10*9 

93 13*4 13*4 13W— ft 

174 29 2BW 29 — ft 

154 B2*% 82 B2ft — ft 

' san* 28 2819 + 44 

22*4 224* 224* — 44 
36*4 35ft 36 +14 
49*4 47ft 4W4 +2*4 
29*4 29*4 29*4— ft 
Wft 00 80Vt+ ft 

36 351% 3S*%+ *4 

»z 20 20 20 

100 4*4 4*9 4% + 1% 

232 22ft 22ft 22ft 

237 5ft 5*4 5*4 + ft 

12ft 12*4 12*4— 4% 
1644 15*4 1614 + *4 
41 <0ft 40*%— 44 
20*4 20V4 204%—*% 
34 33*4 33*4 — 44 

23V% 22*4 23 
25 241* 25 + ft 

» am 2sft 
OT* 21ft 2219 + ft 
« «*4 49 +14 

644* 63*4 63*k + *% 
414* 40 U. 4149+1 
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Wft 271* 20V4— 44 
Uft 88 681* + ft 

22ft 21*% 22 + ft 
6U 4ft 6ft- ft 
35ft 3S4* 35ft 

B 75 + 49 


241 
4426 
256 
188 

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26 13 732 
6.7 8 9 

25 17 85 

49 13 239 
22 8 2102 
48 10 4406 
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A 31 101 
40 10 386 
47 10 1512 
5 

7 73 „ 

200Z 75 


180 

180 


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1.76e 77 6 


1J2 6.9 
212 &7 


37 


II 


7 10 9*4 10 + 44 

12 12V* 124* 12V%— 44 

0 51 29*% 28*9 3S*% — ft 

65*9 55 55 — *4 

24ft 26 2*14 + I* 

1414 13*9 1414 + *% 

3*4 2*% 3 - ft 
19*% 1949 19ft— *4 

364% 35*4 35*%— *4 
22ft 22*9 22*9 — 44 
gughgft+u 

28U 27 27*4- ft 


22ft BrrniCp 1J4 4.9 10 ... 

26' 3 BrnmF UH 25 16 1399 4314 42*% 49ft + » 


403 

926 

1488 

46 

195 

3 

6 

273 

308 


40ft zm Bmawk 
40*4 25V* BrshWs 
1749 12 BwcvCr 
1714 154* BunkrH 
2114 1449 Burma 
30 23 Burllnd 

58*9 35 BriNth 
7*4 6Hr BriNapf 
SOft 444* BliNpf 
111* 12*9 Bwndy 
654* 44*% Buirph 
20*4 1244 Butlrln 


15 10V4 Bata pf 210 18J 


617 39 38U 39 +49 

615 3944 39U 394*— 1% 
301 15ft 15 1544+ 44 

7 17*6 174b 17V*— ft 
57 18*4 18*4 1014 + ft 
841 2714 26*9 27 + ft 
28 7 1442 5419 53 53H — *4 

.55 0.1 5 6*6 64% 6*9 + 44 

5A0e117 60 50 49*4 49ft— V4 

84 57 75 66 16 15*4 16 + 44 

280 47 11 1505 6119 601* 6149 + ft 

JS2 £6650 29 19*6 19*4 19ft + 44 


180 26 9 
80 17 10 
84 £9 37 
216 127 

13 

184 4.1 20 
180 


lift 11*4 1144 11*4 + ft 


Xlft 244% CBI In 
90V* 63*4 CBS 
04* 449 CCX 
5014 27 CIGNA 
31 23*4 CIGpf 

40ft 21*9 CMA Pa 
10*4 8ft CNA1 
424* 34U CPC Inf 220 
71 14*4 CP NH 180 

Z7*4 18*4 CSX 
4044 22 CTS 




13*4 8ft Caasar 
19 1144 Cal Fed 


. _ _ 6 1671 

4744 32*9 CalPdpf 475 117 201 

24 134* Cat Bui 75b 18394 45 

US 11*4 Camrni .12 8 68 

smh 15ft CRLkfl 80 382 

9ft 3*4 CmoRS .161 126 

14V* 11*9 CnRpf p 25D 2 

7246 54ft ComSU £50 38 12 W74 

43*% 2844 CdPoca ’urn 

2144 1449 CanPEs JW 

nta 70 .1 17 

IM 154 37 11 


108*4 1004* CopH Pf UL69P10.1 


. . .. 1049 

2644 191* 

114* 744 Carrol 
444* 30*4 CarsPir 
32ft 18*9 CarfHw 


140 26 
80 18 

isn 

210 4J 11 
-07 7 IS 

170 20 IV 

172 48 51 

1914 CartWT 53 18 12 
IG 170 08 7 


1800 5713120 27*4 274* 27ft + ft 
100 35 13 1011 06 S3 85*9 — 4* 

16 244 Oft 0 0U 

260 58 49 3360 4fft 41 48V9— 14 

£75 95 53 2V 2014 0 

15 124 37ft 379% 37*4— 49 
1700117 IB 10ft 10U 1049 

57 11 698 424* 41ft 421* + 4* 

7.1 8 32 20 1944 19*9— 49 

1JM 4.1 0 4137 25ft 25*4 25*4 - 44 

170 2 5 43 39*9 3944 3944— 14 

0 143 11*9 lift HU— V* 

32 II f 687 30ft V 30 +49 

14 447 lift HI* lift— I* 

lift 164* 16*4 + U 
4349 424* 4244- ft 
15*9 154* 15ft + ft 
14ft 1444 1444— ft 
17ft 17*4 17ft— 4* 
41* 4 44* + ft 

11*9 11*9 lift— 44 
71ft 69ft 70 +lft 

Aft 43*4 -Oft— ft 

30*9 20f* _ ft 

177*417? 17. — V* 

46ft A; 1 * « ft 

,06' i *os;> '.—>■+ u 

Wft iOft 1044— ft 
39V- 3944 3949 — 49 


72 £0 


12 Man Hi 
H tail Low Stock 


Div. TkL PE 


51%. 

IBB HIM Low 


CUM 
Quat.OlUe 


48 7 


4649 2544 CnPpfH 788 167 
24ft HU CnPprR AM 173 
244* 105% CAP prP MB 177 
23*9 1049 CnP prN 185 177 
154% 7ft CnP prM £50 163 
MU 7 CnP art. 273 161 
244* 11 CnP prS 472 195 
15V* 7ft CnPprK 283 162 
43 234* CntICp 280 

IS* 4ft Conti II 
4U ft Contll rf 
4944 12 CnHIlpf 
41* ft ailHdn 
9ft 44* Cntlnto 
24 18 COfftTM 

39*4 24ft Cf Data 
33ft 23*4 Corned 
3V* 1 vlCookU 
3<vs 26ft Coopt ... _ 
37*4 M Coool Pf 250 67 
27 10ft COOPUI JJ3e 7 3 
204% 12ft CaarTr 80 21 B 
24*4 lift CoopvIs 80 IJ 16 
214* 11*4 Copwtd 84 37 
27ft 19U CpwMPf 288 115 
27ft 16*6 Cardura 8* 37 17 
15ft 10ft Care In 56 
40 29*9 ComGi 178 

45 22*4 CarBJk 170 

60ft 394* Can Cm 
94* 4ft Onto 
3914 31*9 Crane 
7044 384* CroyRs 
20 '6ft Crock H 


1000s. 454* 451* 454* 


33 23*9 2144 234*- ft 


45 2344 23 234% 


172 

.72 

1.10 


60 

57 

649 

192 

478 

200 

4M 

33 


17 11 


152 67 15 


74 


18* 


A!» 


22ft I5U CrckN- L f 116 


.— *9 



sir 


84 5 24 

i7- “ 53 

23ft 17 CtnSoW 202 97 
25ft 1644 CanhUd 284 127 
23ft 184* CanlILt 222 » 

43 36 CnILtP* 450 108 

17ft 14 CnllPS 180 98 
23*4 17*9 QlLaEI 1.96 87 
35 01* CLoEl Pf 618 127 

1444 7ft CaMPw 180 148 
49*9 M Ca5aya 84 65 

10*9 10ft CVIP5 

14ft 7ft Control 
101* 7ft entry TI 
231* lOHCmvfJJ 
27V. 15*9 Crt-tood 
24*4 17 CejsAir A0 
26U 16ft Chmnln 80 
27ft 19 Oimlpf 170 
54 ~ ■ 


150 118 



27.- 19ft Cram. 

51 34*9 CnMtt k 

36X. 27*9 Cra-rm 170 
51 J 43 Crzmpf 663 
97 i S3 CrZm pfC650 
lift 10ft Cufcrn 80 
33*4 1244 Gunnels 
88V* 61U CumEn 270 
43 30ft CurtW 170 
S2U 27ft Cyctom 


.J- 55 


22*9 22*4 22*4—14 
15ft 14ft 1544 + ft 
MV* 13ft 13ft 
23ft 231* 23*9 + 4% 
15 MM 15 + U 
41ft 401* 40ft + 4* 
04* Bft •*% 

344 3 344 + 44 

404* 404* 404* + ft 
1ft 11* 144 
3*4 Oft 8*4 
77 V 1029 23ft 23ft 234* + 14 

20 43 2000 354* 35 35ft— ft 

70 30 294* 29ft— ft 

1*4 1ft lft— ft 
32ft 32U 324* 

OSft 35 354* +*4 

15 14*9 149% + 14 

199% 1919 19*4— *4 

23*% 22 2219— ft 

Uft 134* 13*4+ 44 

211* 21*4 21V* 

26*4 26ft 2614 + ft 
14 M 14 
38U 37U 374* + 4* 
43ft 42ft 42ft— ft 
57< sP* 5619— 9k 
F- Bft 894+U 
:«Vj MU 34ft— ft 
>7"s ;.U 72ft + 1* 
r:» 25*4 254* 

Uft 18*9 10*9 + I* 
21*9 21U 21*9— ft 
50 49*9 50 + ft 

38 36ft 36*9— 1ft 
49*9 484* 4M*— 14* 
6049 59ft 5944—1 
24ft 24*9 24*6— ft 
28*4 28ft 284*— ft 
77*9 7644 7644—1*9 

t* <14 14 

49ft 484* 48ft— *4 


60 U 
38 16 
23 
8 U 


21 

10J 

<3 

IS 

148 

971 

13 

7 

175 

13 

219 

327 


cl 11 

t- 

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1 2 
10 113 

27 14 1771 
95 37 

78 19 

33 6 6 

38 723 
25 4 723 

33 10 20 

1.10 23 10 


008 


311* + 44 

SS+SS 

911% — ft 
89%— ft 
40*9— ft 
2349 — *9 
22-44 


1+ U 
424* 424* +11* 
17*1 171% + ft 
22ft 22ft + *4 
33ft 33 33 + 44 

19ft iSS T89%— *k 
17*4 17ft 17ft— ft 
0 7*4 7*4— *4 

10*% 104% 10ft 
21ft 21U 21*4+1* 
3414 244* 24*4— ft 
31 21*4+ ft 


250 
75 

30 
82 

1963 22ft 21V* 22 +ft 
12 231* 23ft 23ft— ft 


* 


80 75 
260 122 
70 28 11 
80 15 37 

18 

54 4349 aim I Pf 480 8J 31 52ft Sift Sft + ft 

10ft 0 QwmSo 80 47 12 300 Oft Oft 04* 

loft 1 Vl CtU-fC 443 — 

4*9 U triad wt 59 

11 IV* vIChrtpf 31 

55ft 35ft Chase 380 78 6 3509 

63 52V* Chase pf 675 117 63 

45 36ft Chase pf 575 12.1 3 

38 48 CtlOMPt 65)0118 248 

5714 51 Chase of 970*175 46 

21ft 14 Chotaao 72 38 9 ID 

3444 24ft Clwntd 152 68 14 134 

43 23ft CUNY* 288 68 6 1231 

4ZU 2344 OiNYpf 187 65 16 

»ft 41 OiNYpf 653ell7 45 

394* 31ft Chesak 174 38 II 47 

Mft 3244 ChesPn £00 98 10 ISS 

40ft 2949 ClMvm £40 95 8 11 


36*4 10*9 CNWat 
200 112 CMMiw 
75 534* ChtMIpt 

25ft 16V* ChJPnT 
15 7ft ChkPull 
43ft 24ft ChrbCr 
12ft 5 Oirlstn 
139% 9ft Chroma 
3944 209% Chryilr 


.10e 8 0 
7» 48138 
80r l.i 


ioa uo 


0ft 34?% Chubb* £20 37 M 


244 2ft 
9% ft— 
294 2ft 2*4 

521% 514% 51ft— ft 
57*9 57ft 57*9+ ft 
434% 431* 43ft— 49 
35ft 53 55ft + ft 
534* 53 53U + 14 

20 30 20 — 44 

32 314* 31ft— ft 

394* 38*9 0 
39U 30V* 38V* + 44 
55ft 55ft 55ft— 44 
37ft 364% 34ft — ft 
33ft 33*4 33*%— ft 

349% 34ft 34*9— ft 
199% 19ft 19ft + U 
11 1601*158*91604* +1*9 
16 71»% 71 49 71ft +1 

94 36 25ft 25ft + ft 

» 8ft 144 849 

40 4249 42 4249 + ft 

39 11*4 11*4 lift— U 
49 11*9 lift lift— ft 
311032 33ft 32ft 33 + U 


442 


£2 U 
£12 77 7 
216 148 6 
475 MO 
970 165 
784 162 
978 167 
952 164 
72 £0 31 
74 27 M 
88 7 ” 


21*4 Church 
354% Cln Bell 
15ft 0*4 ClhGE 
37 24ft ClnGPf 

68ft SO OnGpf 

54 39 ClnGpf 

68 48 OnOri 

« 50 ClnGpf 

2819 » ClnMU 

36 11*4 ClrdK 

31 16*9 CTraty 

2349 131* arcus 

474% 27*4 Cittern 

99ft 754* Cites ptA 974*407 
444* 32ft Clfylnv 
H.. 30VS Cry In pi £00 37 
25V* 21* Ctylnpf £87 118 
lift 6ft ClaWr 72 98 
34ft ZW4 Clark E 1.10 37 19 
M 6ft CiayHm 
2249 17 CIvCH 170 5.1 

2W% 13*9 CtovEI £52 111 

SOI* 461* avElpf 780 137 

59 47 ChrEl pf 736 133 

97 779% CtvElPf 12760137 


516 

633 

50 


£06 57 


SOft 58* 58*9 
34 35 3S*k + 9% 

43 42*s 43 + ft 

MS IS 1494 15 
SOz 34 34 34 —1 

140z 4444 444% 4444 
60* 524* 52V* S2ft +2 
1DZ 43 63 43 

l«ta 44 44 66 +1<9 

241 25ft 25 25 — U 

154 319% 31ft 31*4— ft 
17 1407 2V*% 289% 289% — ft 
14 137 22U 21*9 22ft + ft 

4 5917 41*% 41 U, 41*4+ ft 

190 PI* 90*4 91*4+ U 
9 6014 39U 384* 39 + ft 
10 Mft 59V. Mft + ft 
96 2SU 29ft 2549 + ft 
SI 7ft 719 7ft + ft 
279 29ft 294* 2*4*— 4k 
14 74 134* 12* 13 —ft 

I 1044 19* 19ft 19ft— *4 

5 5341 19* IBft 19*— ft 

611b 57 56ft 57 —1 
110Z 57 56 56 


240 08 879% 08 + ft 


169% 10 Ctavpfc 80 47 
20 14*9 CtVrtpf 134 107 


3449 221* Clornx 
HU MftCtabMn 
Uft 23 ChiettP 
1W 15 auetpf 
22* 12* CwSai 
SOU 23ft Coastal 
66ft 51* Cocoa 
W* 9* Coleco 
34 25* Coteirm 


13* 12* 12* + U 

17ft 17 1714 + ft 

32ft 32 32*4— V* 

20ft 20* SB*4 

2944 28* 29 

104* 18* Wft 

1844 17* 18 + ft 

354% 339% 3394—1 
65 M 0312 64ft 45* 6644 + ft 
643 13ft 13* 13ft— U 
xszzr-. 170 38 13 81 32 31*4 sift— ft 

26ft 2m* Cola Pal 178b 55 27 ZM9 23* 23V. 23U— ft 

52? S 0 !** 11 * - M 20 7 J79 2141 21 2149 + 44 

S? -fS -M 7 15 113 20 W* 19*4— ft 

Sift 20ft Cot Pen 180 5.1 9 94 

Oft 39ft Caltlnd 550 47 10 3521 


170 37 II 1510 
.109 S 10 41 

170 2A 10 414 
170 58 12 

80 27 II 229 
80a 17 8 1082 
£96 


70 

74 


18 11 
27 13 


100 107 
1.90 122 
200 120 


37*! 27 Col Go* Hi iu 
O «* Colds Pf 588 117 
55 48 CMG)pf 558*117 

20 1544 CSOpf 2A2 I2A 

1084* 97 CSOpf n1575 163 
45* 27W Combln £08 67 9 
371* 23* CmbEn 174 S7 12 

17U 0 Cacndb “ 

20 15ft Com Mil 
39*4 lift Comdre 
2944 21V* CmwE 
16ft 13 CwEpf 
17 13U CWB pf 

102%* 80 CwC Pi 11 JO 123 
40 sm CwE pf 836 127 
23* 18*4 CwEPf _ — 

2SU 2094 CwEpf 
67 54V* CwEpf 

59 46 CwEpf 

254* 14U ComES 
32ft 20* Comaai 
34 1694 CPSVC1 

364* 26 eomppr 
17U 11 CampSc 
46U at Cphrsn 
309% 19ft GonAjS 
23V* 13U Conalr 
IBft 13* CotmEs 180 
26 194* CmNG 240 


71S 

3 

20 

2 


27ft 274* 27V* 

60*4 59ft 39ft- ft 
30 29ft 2944 — ft 
49 49 49 —1 

50* 50* 50*+ V* 
IVU 19U 19V.— u 


10*1064* 106%* 106V* 


199 

163 

677 

16 

ioa 

3109 

9 

13 


227 105 
387 115 
880 127 
774 125 
232 *0.1 5 
170 48 11 
74 8 26 

80 18 12 

a 

26 2A3I 
87 £1 M IOA 
74 b 18 12 
98 8 
98 9 


17*4 10*4 Conroe 80 38 _ 
3146 22ft ConaEd 280 78 7 
44* 38 ConEpf 580 118 
369% 261* CansFd 184 60 ID 
36 2044 CnsFrts 180 3.1 12 

444* 31 CnsNG £32 25 
U* 44* ConsPw 
® CnP riA 616 168 

CnP BIB 650 168 
S' 6 CnP BID 785 168 
ISS 774 177 

OlPprtf 480 173 
S 14 ,S1“ C"E orU >80 173 
23 tou CnP prT 37 b 173 


44 W 43* 43ft— 44 
15* 35* 35*4— ft 
1SU MU Mft— ft 
17ft 17ft 17ft 
129% 12* 12* 

20ft 2044 28ft 
15ft 154* 15*4 + 44 
_ 16* 16ft 16ft— ft 
500i 95 9S 95 —1ft 
20* 66 46 66 

7 22V% 224* 22ft 

4 254% 25 25 — 4% 

200* 66U 66U 6646 — * 
lOQr a 58 a 

45 23ft 23 23 — * 

636 31 39*4 30*- *4 

420 xrv* 32 32 — ft 

31 34U 33* 34 — ft 
364 15* 15*4 15V* + ft 
34* 30ft 33ft— 1 
28*4 28 28 — V. 

10 23 22ft 23 
49 16* 16 1644— ft 

20* 25 24ft 24ft 
160 1JU 13 I3U + ft 
1037 30* SOft 30*+ U 

5 44 43ft 44 — U 
450 36 35ft 35*— 44 
102 32* 32* 32ft + ft 

8 416 42* 42ft 42ft 
5 1099 6U 4*4 6ft— V% 
300z 36 249. 26 +lft 

1100k 27ft 36* 27ft +14* 
2001 44* 44* 44* +1*6 
790Z 4<ft 45 45 

33 25* 25*4 25*4 — U 
36 2114 20ft 20ft— U 
85 2744 21ft 22 


22ft 13* Dallas 80 27 11 
10* 9U DamanC 70 17 55 
30*4 214% DtmaCP 170 47 9 


Oft 5*4 Danahr 
15 Oft Daniel 
93 48* DarlKr 

76 3944 DatOGfl 

2Sft 13ft DolPUt 
12U Oft DtoDso 
18ft 1ZM Doyen 
39* 2644 DayfHd 


46 

.18b 18 404 

474 48 10 368 
M^ 

S U ’« ’S 

74 £0 14 1824 


1644 lift DavtPL £00 111 7 651 


57* 45 DPLri 
33ft 21ft DeanFs 
3494 24ft Deers 
22* 17ft DelmP 
47* 27 DettoAr 
0*4 4U Del Iona 
67* 351* DlxChk 
2044 17* DenMts 170 48 12 
374* 364* DeSato 180 37 10 


777 138 
88 15 16 
180 37 29 II 
182 B8 I 257 
80 17 7 1243 
6 

176 28 17 239 
123 
116 


16M lift DetBd 188 408 7 3793 
72V* 59 DefE pf 972 137 
61* 47ft DefE pf 78S 128 
59U 46 DatE Pf 785 1£9 
25 IVMDEpfF £75 147 
2644 20 DEPTH £24 138 

25ft 19* DC ptQ £13 127 

35 19 DEpfP £12 138 

24*4 19U DE pfB 275 116 

2744 1914 DE PtO 380 138 

27V. 19ft DEpfM 382 127 

3M% 24U DEprt. 480 111 

31U 2444 DEPfK 4.12 11 2 

106ft 86 DE Pfl 1280 128 

184* 13V. DetE pr £28 127 

24 17ft Dexter 80 38 12 

15ft 9*4 DIGtar 84 47 

21ft 21ft DKMOPI 275 87 

SS K3 6 S! 0 !^ .176 98 10 4821 Wft lOft'IOM 
3814 Mft OlaShpf 480 105 44 37 MVS Mft— U 

99 Oft DkMdl 180 £0 II 1215 50* 4V* 49* 

125M 77V. Dial la I 13 8290 106*10444 104*— 1U 

81ft 45V. Dtoney 170 16 39 832 75 74 74M— I* 

42 30_ OEI £40 63 6 35 42 411* 41* + M 

4 702 5ft 5ft 59% + ft 

.73 ... 417 7V4 7*4 744+ 44 

272 108 1 210 27* 2744 27U + 44 

.86 £6 I 71 1814 ISM 18ft— U 

]J6£1 15 441 54tbS4 54— U 

170 45 13 23 

82 £2 13 24S 
180 68 10 3235 
78 18 21 646 

JO 48 10 

£8 16 1831 


37 22ft 22U 22* 

314 12*4 111% 12 — U 
925 30 29%% 29*4— U 

38 7ft 7ft 7ft + 14 
T2U 114* 111*— * 
92ft 92U 924* + * 

3X3 33" 1 * 

HU 111* HU + 44 
17*4 17* 17*- U 
37ft 37 37 — U 

15* 15U 1SU 
20Qz 54 94 54 

54 32U Uft 31ft— U 
31* 31U 31ft + * 
21*% 21ft Zl* 

464* 46U 46U 
6 3ft 5ft— 4* 
67 66* 66ft +1 

3ft£»£S+ft 

is* 15ft 15ft—* 
400* 70ft « 70 — ft 

330® 60 60 • 69 

100* 57* 57* 57ft 
1 24ft Mft Ml* 

25 34* 25 — U 

24U 239% MU + 44 
M M M — U 
23* 23* 23*— ft 
26)4 26ft 26ft 
27 26U 27 + * 

31 30* *5.— U 

31 30*4 30* + 44. 

50 107 107 10 + ft 

4 18 IB 18—44 
35 22* 224% 22U— 4% 
» 14*4 14* 14ft 
1 2744 27%% 2744— * 


£00 117 
50a 1.1 
£00 57 


6* 3* Dtvrtln 
16*% 6* Domes 

30* 21 DamRs 
21U 16 Donald 
S 34ft Donley 
Mft 23U Dorsey 
42ft 29* Dover 
3314 25ft DowCh 
51* 35* DowJn 
Mft 10* Drava 
23ft 15V4 Drear 
W Mft DraxB 
49* 23ft Dreyfus 
54* 43U duPOnt ... __ 
34U 30* do Put pf 380 108 
44U 39 duPnfpf 450 107 
30* 22V. DUtceP 2A0 87 I 
77 64 Duke of 870 118 

72ft 59ft Dukept aao 117 
69 57 Dukept 780 118 

34 28 Dukept 385 117 

73 51U DtmBrd 188 £7 21 

16* HI* Duo LI 286 116 7 
1 7ft 14 DUQPfA £10 12A 
15ft 12U DUO Of 280 133 
MU 12 Dun pf £05 14.1 
16* 12* DuoprK £10 4X1 
17* 13* Dun PT £31 114 
58 V. 43ft Duc.pt 770 137 
184* 84* DycoPt 80 48 10 
2546 174% OvnAm 70 8 12 


23 

333 


I 

23 

1941 


26ft 26ft 264*— U 
38* 3714 31 — * 
30 2»ft 39*4+ U 
43* 42* ,42ft— * 
129% 12* 12*— ft 
21* 21 21 
IS 17* 1794— ft 
47*4 47 47* + M 

SM 52* 53*— * 
33ft 33ft 33%%— * 
42ft 42 42 — ft 

Mft 29* 30 
470z 74ft 74 74 —1 

7J«z 70 69 20 

70x 47ft 67V* 674* +1U 
7 32ft 32ft 3246 
844 494% 48* 68ft— 9% 
551 Uft 1516 15*— ft 
71S0i 17 16ft 17+4% 
40* 15 15 15 

20Z 144% Mft 14ft— * 
A 16 16 16 

tOQl 1744 1716 T7U 
20a 541* Ml* 54%% 

72 1316 13 13 

51 2SU 24* 25 — U 


JO 

184 


AS 1J 20 240 
82 

18 M 991 
48 9 50 

23 106 

2004 

in 

61 

28 

48 

a 

170 55 32 196 

184 11.1 6 44 

120a 46 12 6477 
170 21 7 841 

76 28 12 179 
-484 35 13 1174 
180 44 10 63 

M 18 12 
80 25 21 


40 264% EGG 

17ft 17* EOKn 
31* 21*6 ESyuf 
28U 21* EaptoP 
19* 12 Eases* 

61* 34* EastAlr 

3* 1* EALW4D 

1* ft EALWtA 
13* 4* EsAb-pf 

15* 6ft EAlrpfB 
1846 9ft EAlrpfC 
28* 20* EastGF 
18 124* EastUtl 

7B «0U E steed 
60V, 37ft Eaton 
30* 204% EcJUto 
32* 2044 Eckerd 
39ft 324% EtflsBr 
18* 13 EDO 
36U 19 Edward _ 

23%* 1916 EPGdpf 2J5 106 
284* 23* EPGpr 

m* 9v* errors 

'' JJ4 Elcor 76 37 
2* EieeAs 

4* EMM 22 

» EMMpf 180 108 

g* 15 ElCtSPS 88 3 30 

18 lift Elgin 80 58 14 
17ft S* E befall 
70U 584* EmraEJ 260 £4 14 
M* 5* ErnRod .94t 7.1 16 

204* lift EmryA 

3IU Ml* Emhart 
SOU Mft EmpOs 
5 3* Emppf 

5 4 Emppf 

. * ft EnExc 
354* 22* EnatCn 
3816 10ft EntsSu 


38 374* 37ft— ft 

174* 17V* 17ft + 4* 
n 27 27ft-* 
26U 26 26U + ft 

19 18ft IBft— ft 
6* 5ft 5*— 44 
2 * 


52 


MU 

7ft 

Oft 

10ft 


15 35 


59 
311 
2 
417 
27 
160 
751 

50 28 10 2762 
180b 4J 9 100 
1.76 9.J 7 42 

67 IOA 130c 
50 118 2DQz 

72 28 17 541 
56 U 14 64 


0* 174* Enm-eft 180 68 16 1059 


58 

107 

3U 

21 * 

30 


.12 18 
720 18 17 
84 £2 12 
80 b 13 13 
72 £1 11 
1.12 38 II 


76 

8 

773 


514% EnsOl Pf 6730118 
91* Enoch pfl 1730117 16 

1* Enarce 25 497 

9M Eimra 204 

16* EnfxEn 175c 47 45 

21ft 16 Entaxin 130 U 9 1474 

38M 23U Enuttax 170 45 M 25 

6ft 3 Enulmfc 
16ft 111* EnrtlKPf £31 148 
41* 201* EnfRes 172 48 6 
14* 9\* Entitle n 
W% Bft Erbnant 
22U 12* Ess Ban 
249% is* EssexC 
31ft 20* Estrkie 
38ft 20 Ethyl 
7* 2ft EvonP 
94* 21% Evonpf 
14 4%s EvnpfB 

41* 30 ExCelo 
Mft 1344 E* oe tor 
49* 36ft Exxon 


160 4.1 10 
1860118 


5 

12* Uft U* 

14* MU 14ft 
17 16* 17 +M 

239h 234* 23 V%— ft 
17* 171* 17M 
70 69M 694% 

Sift 54ft £54%— ft 
27* 26* 26* 

30* 3044 3044— * 
3346 33* 33* 

16ft 16* 16* 

475 31* 3114 31* 

7 2246 2214 2244 
303 27* 27* 27* 

“ 14* M MU 
1146 lift lift— * 
5* 5ft 5ft 
7ft 74% 7M- M 
9* 9* 9*- ft 
26* 26V* 264* 

15?% IS* 15ft 
7* 7V* 74%— ft 

76U 75V* 75* + V* 
13* 13* 13ft— 4* 
18U 17* 17*- 44 
3044 29* 30 —ft 
194* 19* 19*— ft 
44* 44* 4V*— 44 

4ft 4* 4*— 4% 
46 U 

»* 294* 29*+ V* 
374* 37ft 37ft— ft 
37 26M 26*— U 

SDIIl 53 S3 53 — 1M 
99* 99* 99*+ 4% 
2ft 2* 2U + 44 
Uft 10* 10ft— 44 
IS* 18ft IBft + U 
19ft 10* 19 —44 
31 37* 37ft— ft 

644 5ft 5ft 
1644 161* 164% + ft 
» 37* 38*— ft 

38k 12* 12 12 + V% 

430 12* 12ft 124% + ft 
204* 19* Mft— * 
24* 23ft M* + ft 
2344 22* 23ft— ft 
371% 37* 37ft— * 
2* 24* 2* + ft 

3ft 3 3ft + ft 
5ft 5ft 5ft + ft 
«6x 38* 3BU 38ft + ft 
2 1446 1646 MU + U 


380 78 78492 40ft 48* 48U — ft 


of 


Tf 6U FHfnd 
.67* 41* FMC 220 
22* 17* FPL Gp 180 
Mft 9W Focef 
20ft 1544 Frirchd 80 
39ft 3314 FolIXPf 360 
M* 9* Fdrfd .18 
MU 10* RxnDls 


19* 14* Fonstel 60 £8 U 

33ft 26 FrWafF 4 

28U Mft Farab 85 4.1 9 

13 8ft Fcycmo 79 18 17 

7 4U Fedors 8 

37* 29* FsdtCa 164 66 7 

45ft 27* Fed Exp 21 

484% 34 FdHmpf 

39 29ft PdMas 152 4.1 TO 


2 51 94* 9ft 7M 

38 53 261 65 64U 64U— ft 

M 9 1176 21 20* 21 

13 12* 124* T2M— 46 

43 4to 18* 11 10ft 

95 10 384* 37* 37ft— ft 

12 10 96 1SU Uft ins— M 

21 1140 22* 22ft 33ft— 4* 


n Mft M 16 
7 26* 26 36 — M 

135 21ft ZIft ZUA— U 
19Z HU 11 11—14 

176 4 5ft 6 + ft 

25 3S1* 3SU 3EKc 
tOM 34 33ft 33ft + ft 
106 364* M MU— I* 
71 37 36* 36ft— 14 


19ft 10ft FMNM .16 18 2918 T6W MU Mft + * 

27 Uft FedPBs JO 16 7 155 19U19M1M4+V4 

23 U Fed tut 184 64 M 156 21* ZIV* 21* 

T9* 13ft FdSanl 80 48 U 65 Uft 17ft II 

57* 43ft PadDSt £40 48 9 7D7 S* 55 KM— U 

31* 2246 Pena 170 4A 11 209 Z7M27 37 — ft 

37 2546 Eldest £00 58 U T15 34* 34 34U— M 

18* 4 FlnCpA 70 38 27708 7 1* 6ft + * 

5* 3M FtnCppf 60 117 17 544 5 544— 44 

47M 14V. FlnCppf A74e2£3 1216 3146 3t 30*— 1 

Oft 21* FnSBar 25 3ft 3* 3ft+M 

19ft is* Flrnstn JO U f W UU 17ft 1144 

2B4% 19 FtATtln 18? +0 1 437 25ft 25 2334— M 

35 Z1U FBfcSya 160 AS 8 187 32ft 33ft 32ft— M 

33 24* FBkFta 170 £9 18 15 30U30M30M+U 

714* 34* FBOBt 170 18 U 150 454* 65 65U+U 

27 18* FatCMc 172 56 20 1351 M 23ft 33*— 4* 

57 44V, FChJ a pf 5779117 370 49M 49M 494% 

20 1346 FtflTex 18 U I 113 MU 16 1644— ft 

21 11 FiatY 8 111 1144 11 lift 

20ft 10* FFedAZ .15% S 6 177 18 17* 17* — ft 

48* 30* Flats* £34 £1 8 3103 47 46* 46*— ft 

30* 21 FlnMpf 237 87 39 ■ 2Sft » 39 — * 

12ft 7* FHWta 74 22 10 332 11 1B94 Uft— U 

50ft 31* FNSHS £18 68 7 Z7 40ft 47ft «* 

7ft 4V* FstPB 9 Z79 7M 744 74*+* 

30* 20* Pst Pa pf 262 92 220 20* 28 28ft 

314% 314% PtUnRl 182 67 15 4* 30ft 30ft 30* + W 

22ft 14* FtVoBk 84 38 9 240 22ft 22 22ft + V4 

28* 16 F IWltc 178 AM 8 99 26* 2644 26* + ft 

52 459k FWbepf A2S 1£S 800c 504% 50 50 — 4* 

54* 30* Fbchb 180 15 36 32 40 39 39M 

UVh 8* FlstiFd 85c J M 10ft 10ft Uft + * 

34* 20* FltFhG S 172 4J 8 135 32ft 32 32*— M 

28* U4* Fleet En M 16 9 1255 23 224* 23 +M 

88 £3 14 91 37)4 37H 37ft— ft 

80 26 M 
161 126 
70 6 10 

15 

.160 8 12 
£16 9.1 9 
80 23 M 


38M 22* Flemrtn 
33* 23* FlexlV 
12* 10* Flexl pf 
379% 19M FllotSf 
31* 12M Float Pt 
40 29* Fla EC 

254% 18* FtaPrs 

20 lift FtaStl 

0 3* FtwGca 

21 11M Ftowrs 

23ft MM Fluor 
S3 43ft FooteC 
51ft 33 FotdM 
12ft 10* PtDear 
67ft 48 

15’* SO 

11* 6ft PaxSIP 
3SM 25* Faxbro 
lift 5V. FMOC 
25* 13ft FrptMc 
34ft 209% Frtofrn 
28* 19 Frustifi 
334* 25 Fruhfpl 280 
36ft 20 Fuqua 60 


277 31 30* 3014 + U 

10 12* 12* 12* +44 

403 34M 32M 32*— lft 

215 27* 27 27M— * 

20 38ft 30ft 384% — I* 

873 239% 23ft 33ft— * 

36 17* 174* 17M— U 

138 5* S%4 544 — 44 

80 £1 19 219 1944 19 19 — M 

80 £2838 MSI lift 18* IBft— U 
£30 48 12 M 54ft 54* 5494 + M 

£00 45 3 7015 44M 44 44* + 44 

U6 117 23 lift HM lift +U 

FtHOWd 164 28 16 240 67ft 66ft 67 + ft 

FaSfWh 84 38 U 342 14* MM Mft— Vk 

~ ’ 60 78 H 63 10 9* 9*- H 

18* 19 75 321 26ft 36 36ft 
232C235 237 9ft 9* 94% 

60 £1 15 1143 19* 19ft 19ft— 44 

60 27 15 207 26* 25M 36* +1 

60 26 5 402 23ft 22ft 22*— * 

77 21 204* 27* 27*— * 

17 9 111 33ft 32* 33 — * 


180 


380 

£50 ... 
200 1 J 
280 115 


30* 15* GAF .15# 5 11 
38 20ft GAF pf 170 £3 
37M 25* GATX 170 £5 14 
47* 33* GATX pf 250 58 
34ft 19ft GCA 
71ft 48ft GET CO 
104% 4 GEO 
44M 35ft GTE 
394* 31* GTE Pf 
26ft TIM GTE Of 
23* 19ft GTE Pf 

10 4ft GalHou 
58 33ft Ganett 
2Sft 17M GaoStr 
304% I DM Gearht 
19* 13ft Goto 
70M 53ft GemCa 
10* 9ft Gem 1 1C 

11 io Gemll I 

40ft 30* GnCorp 
17M 14ft GAInv 
46* 29* GnBcsh 
34* 16* GCinm a 
33M 16* GCnpfs 
21 121* On Dots 

84 42 GnDvn 

65* 48* Gen El 
614* 454* GnFds 

7 5* GGfftn 

14ft 8* GHoats 
10* Oft GnHoos 
27* 154* Gainst 


347 

29 

a 

i 


29* 29U 29* + Hi 

369% 36ft 36ft + * 

341* 341* 34* + 4* 

43 43 43 — * 

13 1349 28* 274* 38 + U 

18 11 Itt » 70* + * 

567 5* SM 5ft—* 

77 0 2467 434% 42* 43 + * 

AM 2 38 37* 38 + 44 

25ft 2X14 25ft— 44 
21* 21ft 21ft— * 
6* 6M 6* 

57ft 56M 56M— 1 
24ft M M — 44 

lift lift Hft— 44 
1S4* IBM UU— U 
69* 69ft 69ft — ft 
10ta 10 W — 44 

11 10* Wft 

150b £7122 147 40* A0 4044— ft 

163e 95 39 16ft 16ft Mft— U 

180 £5 0 108 40* 39* 39*— 1* 

80 17 11 105 33 3244 II 

86 18 6 3ZM 33M 32ft— ft 

18 448 16 ISM 15* 

180 17 U 19Z7 77* 75* 7694+1* 

£20 35 12 0718 63* 62M 62ft— U 

61 10* 60M— M 

6* 6ft 6* 

12M 12U 13* 

Oft 1244 12ft— U 
10ft 18* Mft— * 


180 26 20 
50 £1 13 
80 15 13 
56 £1 15 
137 


1 

13 

9. 

695 

BO 

145 

54 

5 

453 

239 


£50 &1 10 
60a &9 

74 18 38 
0 27 IS 


543 

204 

67 

31 

637 


60 45M GnMUls £24 4.1 13 1097 55V, 55 55 — M 

85 41 GMot SOOr 47 6 4456 70* 7094 78%+ ft 

72 33 CM Ell .lie 7 68S 66* 65M 66* +114 

39ft 33* GMot pf £75 9 5 5 38* 30* 30*— * 

5194 44M GMot pf 580 98 6 51ft 51 51 — U 


.16 


156 22 21 


180 


9M Jft GNC 

13* 7* GPU 

75* 46* Gen Re 

12?% 5 GnRetr 

5314 3994 GnStanl 

12ft 10 GTFlof 170 1U 
Oft 5* Genaco 13 

30* 139% Go Rod .10 6 35 

23ft 15 Genstg 180 

22ft 141* Gsf Pf 168 78 

36 M Gen PI a 1,18 38 16 

27ft 18 GoPne 88 

34ft 30M GaPcpfCZM 68 
OPwpf 384 128 

aPwpf £76 125 

aPwpf 256 123 

aPwpf £73 117 

aPwpf 772 127 

erbPa 1J« 4.1 il 

crbSs .12 6 15 

JontP 

IbrFn 5 

,m 52 28 20 
260 45 II 


744 6ft 694— U 


20* 22ft 
30 2SM 
21 17* 

2544 21* 

63 51* 

2994 204* 

23ft 12 
124* 84* 

11 S* 

27 16ft 
58ft 4294 Gillette 
17* lift Gto o i C 
9* 4M doblM 76 5.1 
26 17* GtobMpf£50 158 

124% lft GtaNua 
494 lft GfdN wt 
274* II 
36U 2494 
29ft 23 


27 M 37 ... . . ... 

6 T7B1 12* 12 12* 

727 72 71ft 7194+44 
28 1094 UM 1094— 44 
651 40 47ft <794— ft 
1003 11* 11* 11*— ft 
90 5M Sft 5ft 
271 17ft 17ft 17ft— ft 
375 22 21ft 22 
5 214* 21M 21M— ft 
.. 199 35 34* 35 

37M 5446 23* 2294 2344 + 44 
10 32ft 3Z?% 329%— ft 
40 27* 27* 27*+ * 
20 30 29M 3} + * 

■ 21 209% 20ft 

2 M4% Mft 244* 

aoox 62 61 61 —1 

344 2S?% 25 20ft + ft 

209% 20 30ft— ft 

lift 11* lift 
TO 9* 9ft+ * 
2594 254* 25ft— ft 
50ft 50 9 + ft 

13* 134* 134*— ft 
<94 4ft 696 
23* 22* 22* + ft 
10* 10ft 1094 + 44 
2^ 

70 8 7 1203 26* 24M 26* +2 

156 57 11 1101 2794 2744 27*— * 
27* 27ft Z794 




584 
144 
375 
31 
508 
MB 
46 2436 
256 


160 55 7 2292 


£80 65 10 IBS 
174 28 13 1M 
80 £8 9 1336 
9 692 
180 28 10 
185610.1 7 
152 48 8 316 
88 


19 is* GordoJ 
32* 19 Gould 
444% 364% Grace 
0 47 GrohOT 

159% Hft GtAFst 
10 lift GfAfPe 
45* 271% GILkln 
21ft 15ft GNIra 
43* 31 GtNNk 
284* 164* GtWFtn 
19* 9ft GWHsp 
Mft 11* GMP 
294* 109* Grevh 
6* 2* Graltor 
13ft 84% GrawGa 
11* 6* GrubEI 
30 21* Gnimn __ 

Mft MM Gram pf £80 106 
Bft 4ft Grantol .16 £4 
27ft 30 GuIHrd 
35 254% GHWst 

M* lift GutfRs 
1444 10 GlStUt _ 

Hft 30M GHSU Pf 480 1U 
30 M GlfSU pr 385 135 
S3* 27 GtfSU pr 480 138 
204* 12ft GAere 598 48 9 
1994 14 Gotten 60 £6 13 


52 £1 9 66 17* M94 17 — U 


60 £8 60 1686 24ft 23* 24 + ft 


68 25 
50 


41 40* 40*— * 

63* 62* 63 — * 
14ft 13ft Mft + 14 
1694 16* 16ft 
132 41ft 40ft 41ft + ft 

9 1*ft 1094 10ft— 44 

_ Mft 34ft mt%_ a% 

£3 10 170 26* 254% 26* +194 

44 37 M 15% Uft 

16)4 15% lift + * 
20 27* 20 

494 4ft 44* 

12* 12ft 1294 
lift lift 1194 + 94 
28U 27ft HU + * 
2694 264% 2694 + 94 
M W ft 
27* 37 27 — ft 

28 11. SOS 33ft 3194 3244 
25 13 396 14% 14ft Mft+ ft 

13* 13 1344 

ISO? 33* 33 33 

29 28ft 28 20* + 94 

TO 32 31ft 31% + ft 

187 16* IS* 15*— U 

990 16M 16 Uft— ft 


172 107 8 
170 43 11 
10 

70 28 16 
80 7 14 

180 £5 0 


10 

843 

365 

m 


7 

M3 


164 125 6 409 


H 


180 

56 


U 


61 


18 39 

19 U 396 

28 19 67 

22 198 
£6 14 ao 
38 13 1819 

a in 

46 12 
48 10 
180 117 11 
9 
T 

36 18 U 
72 £9 18 
70 23 30 
70 17 34 
81b 26 10 
76 15 14 


171 

1- ‘ 


1 

10 

179 

98 

4M 

251 

321 

961 

145 


7 4* HRTn 

27% 19ft HollFB 
44 26* Halbtn 

14% * Halhml 88 U 

10ft 5ft Holwdpf 56 67 
36?% 25* HamPl ■ 

1394 HM HOnJS 1 8701 17 
19% 15* KanJI 184a 97 
55 2344 Hondlm 1.12 20 T7 

20 15V, HondH 66 £5 18 

231% 16* Hanna 
53* 23% HttrtSrJ 
30VB 16* Hartnds 
12* 794 Harnbh 

331% I4M HrpRw 
H 22* Harrta 
IB* 1094 HorGrn 
2H* 19 How 
33U 23ft Hartmx 

16* 1394 HOttSe 

23* 15ft HawGI 1 184 AJ 
139% 0 hoybbA 70s U 

3494 20* Hazletn 

Uft 9 HazLab 

13* 9% Hwetot 

23ft 13* HedaM 
27 14* Hetlmn 

25 1994 H ellla 

484% 32 HChH 
30 12* HetneC 

25ft 18 HelmP 
6* 394 HemOo 

1294 lift Hem Inc 
37* 27* Heraris 
Mft M* HerftC 
28ft 19* HorlfCpflTD 
41* 2BH Hershy 180 
Mft 5* Heestan 

16 9 Hcstnpf 

44* 31ft HewIPk 
30 17M Hex ad 

19* 12 HI Shear 
13 0* HIV0H 

26ft 17M Hlinbrd 
63ft 45% Hilton 
4444 31 Hitachi 
52% 35* Hot Way 
81ft 494% HoUvS 
27ft 12 HOmeO 
» 11* HltlFSD 

9ft 8 HmaG pf 1.10 128 
36* 20ft HOtStiW 70 .9 30 

17* 0* HfintFn 80 28 5 

<0* 43ft Hereto 78% 7 10 377 
66ft 4694 Harwell 190 10 12 1336 
3SV% 20 HOOVTU 184 £1 12 4137 


36* 10ft Han Bn 1.12 46 . 
26 20 HfzBn 0 258*118 

ID 3% Hertzan 
48* 35* HpanCB M U 14 
30M 32 H<»W In £60 98 13 
37ft 20* HeuBhM M U 15 
1994 1394 HeuFeb 80 27 11 
37M M HOUSlnt 175 48 9 
S4U 36 Hemtpf 250 46 
76 61 Hdlntpf 675 83 

2314 17* Heutnd 248 118 6 

54M 39ft HOUNG 

3 9* HouOR 

23* Uft HewICb 
26M 20M Hubbrd 
13% 9% Huffy 
2194 12M HuohTl 
25 17* Hu0h5c 

S 214% Human 
27M 174% HunfMf 
4194 23% HUtlEF 
Sft 18* Hydra I 


67 5ft SM 9ft 

180 17 3*3 27 £6* 26* 

180 98 11 3404 31ft am 31ft + 9k 

368 lft lft lft 

31 9% 9 9 

8*3 29* 2B* 29% +1* 

22 IM U 13ft 

17 19 18* 19 +* 

329 0* 54* 54* + ft 

0 1894 10ft 18% + 94 

31 20% 20ft— ft 

53ft 52* 52* + ft 

27* 27* 27* + * 

lift 11 11U— * 

JIM 30* 30*— * 

30 29ft 29ft— * 

16* 16* lift — * 

28 27* 28 + U 

32ft 32* 32*— * 

15* 15* 15% + 44 

It* 49ft 19*— ft 

1294 1214 12* 

2S* 25 S —lft 

11* 1144 lift— * 

U* 12 1244 

16 15ft 15ft— * 

18* 17* 1844 + ft 

24* 2444 24* + ft 

160 38 13 1170 40ft 47ft 47ft— ft 

IS 17 15* 15* 15*— * 

34 17 24 768 0* 19* 20 — * 

M 6 6 6 

80e 76 1 11% 11% 11% 

1 50 47 ID 937 34* 34 34 — ft 

854 7 37 146 24ft 23ft 23ft— * 

58 15 28 27* 27ft— * 

38 12 227 41* 40ft 41* + 9k 
8 71% 7V, 7M— Vk 
' 11* 11* 11* + ft 
36* 35* 0ft— M 
2BM 28* 28M + 44 
17ft 16% 16% — * 
11% II* 11% 

2544 24ft Mft— * 
. „ „ Sf 50* 0ft + M 
9 11 229 32* 32M 32ft— U 
28 M 1602 5094 50* SOM + U 
79U 79 79* 

1944 11% 18% — * 
21% 21ft 21* + * 
Bft Bft 8ft— 44 
23* 22* 22ft— ft 
14ft 13* Mft + ft 
54ft 54M 54ft— ft 
63ft 02ft 62*— ft 
3*4 33Y4 3314—94 
24ft U Mft— ft 
55* 25 25*— ft 

5ft 5 5 —ft 

46* 46 46ft— ft 

29* 28% 0 — * 
37* 36* 37 
17ft 17* 17ft 
36* 36* 36* + ft 
54* 54* 54* 

76 75% 7* + ft 

- 2294 22ft 22ft— ft 

909 46ft 46 46* + ft 

U 12ft 12* 12* 

19 10ft 18% + % 
2644 26 26 

1 3ft 1344 1394+ ft 
15ft 19ft 1544— U 
2044 2DU 20*—* 
29ft 29 2944— ft 

25* 254% 254%— U 
37* 364% 3694— ft 
23ft 23* 23*— ft 


72 M 16 8016 
60 £1 17 23 

JO 38 M 110 
.15 13 9 10 
22 13 32 

21 14 638 


54 

180 


180 

180 


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M 
7 


121 

773 

894 

40 

801 


a 

u 

9 

924 

26 

in 

170 

1713 

1 

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CM 


212 46 H 
20*187 
60 II 25 
85 12 
38 9 
37 

16 10 

21 M 1230 
28 16 a 

22 10 1754 

04 8 9 


£20 

80 

80 

-32 

60 

50 

80 

152 


31 

40 

106 

6623 

19 


35* 21ft ICinds 170 47 

19* IT* lOUn 

lift 5ft ICN 

27% 224% I CM Pf 278 108 


956 

ST 


31M 30* 31* 

18J4 18ft 1894 + 44 
1044 9% W 
26% 36* Mft 


17* U IrtAIn 152 1 17 
23* 33 IPTImn 
20 M* IRTPrj 160 87 
42* 2094 ITT CO 180 £1 
73ft 46 ITTpfH 480 67 
6694 40 . ITTpfK 480 67 
65 444% ITT PfO 580 18 

51ft 20 ITTpfH £25 5.1 
71 4244 ITT 01 450 78 

SU 15* lUlltf 1J UO 
40ft 30* IdoboP £20 07 0 
23ft 1344 I (toOtB 
2394 1794 IllPowr £64 1U 6 

19 14ft IlPpwWf £13 127 

32M 29 HPowpf £78 1£1 

334% 25M llPswpf 480 128 

36* »* ITWa 64 18 M 

37* 27* ImpOim Mm £5 

9M 9* ImptQp 

14* 04 INCO 70 U 

9694 49 IndlM pf 780 13.1 
61% 49 IndlM pf 774 138 
0M 544% IndlM pt 160 T£2 
17* 14 IndlM pf £15 126 
10* Mft IndlM pf £25 137 

394 17* IndKSas 180 77 6 

15 5ft inexco .14 1.9 

M* 13* Infmtc 21 

SUM 35M ingerR 260 57 10 

37M 27* IngRpf £35 &9 

39 19ft InkUn 50 £1 

48M 3894 InldMPf 475 188 

21* 14 Malles 180b 58 10 
12 3ft InapRs 

26* Hft IntoRac 6 

30% 19 InfBRpf 389 127 

374% 25* IntoRpf 425 135 

14* 7* IntRPn IM 

19 15% ItcpSe 2300117 

65* 55 lofereo 388 58 12 

1994 9M. Intrtaf 
93% 41 intrtk 
16ft 8* J Rimed 
Mft 14* IntAlu 

in* 99 IBM 

Mft 15* InfCtrt 

29ft 22% lirtFTov 

11* 544 IntHOTY 
7M 2ft InfHrwt 
50 23M HdHpfC 

42 20* InlHpfA 

34* 17* IniHpfD 
44 32% I Of Min 


Mft 16* 1694 + ft 

23ft M* 21% + * 

1194 TOW Wft 

a a* *»— % 

64 64 64 —1 

4QM 99% 5994— ft 

0* 0* 0*+V4 
43% 43% 43% + ft 

61 <1 61 — * 

10 ft 10 10 ft — U 

39% 39ft 7994 + 44 

14 12* 13%— 44 

693 23ft S 2394+ * 
Mx 17ft T7ft 17ft— 44 

MOt a* a* ai* 

4 32* M 32* ■ 

40 a 34 M — 1 

8 1531 39* 35 35 — 14 

13 110 9 8ft 9 + ft 

110 13* 13 1344—* 

300 54 32ft 54 +% 

5S0Y 0 57% 57%— 194 

50 46 46 66 

12K 17 1694 17 

3x 17 17 T7 + ft 

6 0 am 26 26*+ * 

245 7ft 7ft 7*— ft 
294 17 Mft 16% 

389 <9* 48* 48% — 44 

12 34* 33* 34* 

2353 24% Zl* 23% — ft 

330 44 44 44 — 94 

141 2044 19% 1914— ft 
161 9 8ft 5 

43 17 169k Mft— ft 

18® 23% 23% .2394 + ft 
6 30% 3094 30ft+ ft 
175 T2* T7U T24% + * 
M IBft IS 18 
MS 62* 62 6214+ 14 

693 13* 11% 12+44 
22 52 51% 52 

10 11 10 * 11 

217 19* 19ft 19ft— 94 

460 38 1217231 ^ £ 

JO U 10 43 22% 22% 22% + 44 

173 48 15 206 304 2H& 28* 

IMS 10H 10U 10ft- ft 
226 6% «* 6*— Vk 

13 49* 48% 0* 

. 2 38ft 30ft 38ft— U 
34 a a a — ft 
260 67 12 843 42ft 41* 42* + ft 


40 57 7 
240 58 • 
35 

72 37 9 


2994 23 IntMutt 174 67 9 43 2» 0ft ». . ... 

5794 AM -IrrfPnpr 280 480 1070 5094 4W6 »* + 94 

17% 9* IntRcs 17 324 14* 14 Mft— ft 

44% 32* InfNrtta 288 54 0 1001 44ft 44* 44* + * 

73 67ft IntNI of 684 98 18* 76 76 76 +3 

10 126 InttttPtJlOJO 67 30 10 156 10 +6 

30% 25ft IntpbGP 180 38 12 232 MJ 36 36ft— ft 

17* 10 lnttSokr 161 M% l«k 1M4 + * 

20 15% rnfstPw 180 10.1 B M WftlK Uft— ft 

19ft 14* IWMEI 1.90 108 a 364 Uft mv w 

29* 21ft lowllG £74 10.1 7 380 JS 2S j. ax 

340U 2044 19% 20ft + * 


20* 17 lowtllrt £31 II J 
31* 25 lowaRs 38t 107 
33* 26 I pa lea 384 95 
1394 9* IPCOCP 34 ' 
35 2344 trvBks 186 


27 11 
58 7 


30ft 30* 30*— * 
32* 31% 32 - * 
12ft 12* 12ft— ft 
33% 33*4 33*+ * 


30* 20 JWTl 
34ft 2344 J River 
24% 1344 Ja t n a wy 
14* KM JapnF 
43 25* JeffPla 

SO 4644 JerCpt 
lift 12* JerC 0 
9* 5% Jew ter 

40* 20 JobnJn 
46* 37ft JohnCh 
29% 21% Jarpen 
26* 19* J oaten 3 
2044 21* JayMfe 


52 


1.12 £7 13 
36 27 8 
.18 6 11 
184*110 
18 U t 
£12 M7 
210 137 

20 57 

170 £1 14 340 
186a 45 9 51B 
UM 48 17 13 

80 12 M *7 
186 57 15 4*6 


30* 30 30 — % 

26% 25* M — ft 

94 23% 23ft 23*— * 

MO 17ft T3 12 — ft 

67 40* 40* 40V4+ % 

2*K 57 56ft 57 

12 Mft 16 16 

044 0 Oft 

39% 38* 3894—* 
40* 40% 40*+% 
25 3494 24% — 44 

24% 2494 24*— 44 
Z7* 26* 2S% + % 


70 £4 


U% 7ft KDI 
1644 9% KLMb 
39* 33 KMIpf 
41ft 26* Kmart 
39% 27ft KM Eng 
3D* 12* KatarAl ... 

6044 a Kal99pf 475 
2344 1494 KatsCe 70 
16ft 8% Koneb 80 48 
21% 14* KCtyPL £36 11J 
18* 14* KCPLpf £20 126 


IM 


50 


43 

87 

17 


54% Mft KCSou 180 £0 10 419 
18% 12ft KanGE 236 129 4 9549 
3S% 2894 KanPLt £96 98 7 167 
31 17* KaPLPt 273 11J II 


45 IB Katyln 
115 49 KatVPf 

30 ID* KaufBr 
10ft 12% Kaufpt 
0 27% Keltoee 

34* 2X KeihMt 
4ft 1 Kenai 
29* 19% Kenml 
2644 20% KyUtH 
16* H KerrGJ 


Sft 8* 8*— Vk 

IS* 15* 15*+ * 

450 120 14 37* 37% 3794 

174 38 83553 3S4434*34%+Vk 
10 254 40 38* 40 +1% 

14ft M 14 
57 0 57 +1 

17 16% 17 

10ft «% 10 —ft 
20ft 20* 20ft 
17% 17* 17ft + ft 
50* 49ft 0 — * 
1BU 17% 10* + ft 
32* 32% 32% + % 
19% 19* 19% + * 
.. 42ft 40ft 40ft— ft 
1 100 10 10 +2* 
6 1637 17% 17% 17% — ft 


434 
1 
144 
542 
5 100 
0 


186 


10 

1J6 

170 


681 


08 
£7 M 
37 J 


80 £3 II 
284 97 8 
84 37 


TM 

232 

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26ft 10% KerG pf 170 £5 
34* 26* KerrMC 1.10 35 26 1119 
27% 16ft KevBfc 170 5.1 8 0 


6* 2ft KeyCan 
19% M Kevslnt 
36* 36* Kldde 

84 62 KtdpfC 

5114 39% KhnbCs £32 
3S 21ft KnahtRd 76 


88b 25 19 
170 35 9 
480 £0 

47 10 
£3 IS 


18 

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20% 17% Kaper 230 08172 
29% 16* Kalmar 72 18 18 
a* 17ft ICoper? 80 47 M 
35ft 0ft Koprpf 400 115 
104 96% KopprefllUO 107 

16 tz* Korea n 
4094 2994 Kroner 280 £0 11 
23% 11 Kubtma 80 28 13 
67ft 44% Kyocera .Mi J 27 
23* 13 Kyaor 80 38 7 


a 17% 17 17%+* 

60 47% 46ft 47ft + ft 
157 33% 32ft 32% — ft 
290 1* 1ft 1*+* 

Mft M Mft + ft 
25% 25U 25* + ft 
12 11 % 11 *— * 
30 30 3S 

3i% aft aft 
26* 25% 2S%— % 
3* 2ft 2% 

19ft 18ft Uft— % 
126 3414 34 3644— ft 

2 79ft 79ft 79ft— * 
IM 49ft 48% 49* + ft 
935 33 32 32ft— ft 

0 27ft 27% 27ft + 44 
72 19% 19% 19% + ft 
729 T9ft 19* 19* 

390Z 34% 34% 34% 

62 99 97ft M 
192 Uft 13* 13ft + ft 
674 40* 39% 39*— W 
110 23 22* 22*— ft 

44 48* 47* 48 

6 1 aft am a 


284e107 10 


28* 22% LNHO 
15% 7% LFE 
17ft 17% U-E Ry 272e1£0 
4% 2 U-CCP 
17% 0% LTV 
a 10* LTV pf 386 138 
IS* 13 LTV pt ITS £1 


17 10ft LQrint 
29% 15* LocfGS 170 
1234 B Lofdroe 70 
a* 23* Lnfrvpf 284 
IM? 12% Lamoor 24 
4 1* LomSea 

14ft 10% Lowtlna 36 
2S* 13ft LeorPt 70 


15 
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10 
13 
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28% 20ft LearPpf 287 118 214 

52% 37ft LearSa 180 £6 10 1030 

30* 14 LeaRntS 80 £1 15 15 

35* 24ft LswyTr 150 45 1J 98 

33* 2044 LeeEiit 72 £9 16 0 

15* 9 LepMas 20 T.4 24 32 

21 15ft LegPlal 88 £3 V 311 

4U 2ft LthVDI 7 

14* 13% Lehran M8ell8 30 

15ft 9% Lamar 0 18 0 99 

24* 1044 LrucNt* 7 Ml 

36% 23 LevBI ITS 58 31 10 
38% 25* LevTtz 
50% 3944 LOF 
79ft 64 LOF pf 
a* 21* LHttyCp 
79 53 Lilly 

40* 15* Limited 

45ft 26* UncNtl 

2Z» Uft UncPI 

n 57% Litton 

25ft M* Litton pf £80 87 2 

Bft 30ft LackM 80e 17 9 3614 

42* 30% Lactlte 80 28 13 63 

46 23ft Loewaa UM 5 970 

34% 10 Loo lean 70 8 10 127 

3314 19 Lam Fin 1,16 4.1 11 537 

34ft 16* LomMIs 10 Ml 

2% 2* LamMwt 407 

0* 17% UlStar 170 88 
53 44 LonnSpf 537 107 

J* 3* ULCo 2 412 

Mft 16 LILPfB 
Sft Mft LILpfE 


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1J2 £7 I SI 
475 67 4 

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9ft LILDfV 
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16% 16ft Mft— * 
3% 3* 3% — ft 
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15* 15% 15% 

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MU M MU + U 
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12% 12% 12% — U 
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19% 19ft 19ft— * 
33ft 0* 33% 

32 0 32 

M 14 M — ft 
20% Mft 20ft 

3% 344 314— ft 
14% 14% M%— ft 
13* 13ft Uft— % 
24 23% 23*— ft 

33 33% 32% 

38% 30% 38% 

48ft 0ft «*— ft 
7644 76 76 — * 

aft son: a — ft 

7*% 77% 70 — % 
38% 37ft 37ft— % 
2M 41% 40% 40*— lft 

2 aft aw aft 

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22ft 22ft 22ft+ ft 
50% 49* 49ft — % 

a* ao* a* 

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— 2% 2* 3* 

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a 49ft 49ft 49ft 

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33* IBft Land 80 IT 18 

13 1094 LaGcnl 55 48 9 

38 3Z* La Land 180 29 11 

£% 17 LcPoc 88b £6 IS 
lift 2894 LaPLpt 488 lil 
23* 16% LaPLpf £16 148 
28* 2244 LauvGs 284 98 7 

0% 34 Lowsts 280 47 6 

30 M* Lowes 32 1.1 17 

Wlk 18* Lubrxl 1.16 58 13 

0 Z3% Lubys* 54 18 20 

0* W4 LucfayS 1.16 57 11 

M 1044 LJUfcens 88 3JU1 


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5 Mft 14* Mft 

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98 22* 22* 22*— ft 

9 a* 31* a* + * 

50 22 aft 22 + 9k 
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31 0 29% 29% — * 

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6 Mft 14* 14ft + ft 


M 


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23ft 4344 MACOM 
a 34% MCA 88 
2694 16% MCOrp 180 
42 34 MCorpf £50 

14% 7% MDC 33 
42 34 MEI 30 

Mft 9U MGMGr 84 
12* 9 MGMGr p(44 _ 
Mft 10 MGMUO J0e IT 26 
5* 2ft MGMawt 

17ft MGMHo 80a £6 15 
Mft 26% MaanU 180 1* 16 
5394 38ft MoCY 
42 36 Maevpf 

19% 11% Mad Res 


17 0 3408 
15 M 110 

6.1 7 560 


3m 24 MeoKf 180 28 
Sft 3ft MatAst 1880c 
2344 T2ft Manilla Job £1 

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24% 10% MonrCa .16 J 33 

a% 22ft MfrHon uo m s 
50% 41 MfrHDf 650127 
5? .40, MfrHpf 552«J 125 
TI* Sft vIMonvt 3 

28* IS* vIMnvIpf 
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4% 3 Manrtz 
2% % Morale 

39* 19% MarMid 180 58 B 
SB* 27% Marlon 52 5 0 

1294 9% MarkC J2 38 

19 14% Markpf 17D 78 

86% soft Marrlat 54 j u 

67* 35% MrshM 280 38 0 

54% 30* MOrtM 1 J4 £7 

83 55 MTfMpf 487 68 

13% 0% MaryK .1Z 18 * 
33ft 22ft Moses - - - 
13* 7* ManMr 
2t 15% MaaM 
3% 2* MoaevF 
27% 2D% MasCP 
lift 9ft MaslM 
soft a* MatsuE 
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Uft 4* Motet wt 
32* UftMatttPf 250 8J 
15ft 9* Maxom 7 

49ft 30* MoyOs 172 £7 10 
49% 0* Mavra 280a 38 io 
32ft 2Sft McDrpf 270 78 
23 0ft McDrpf Z60 HJ 
31% Mft McOen 180 65 10 
13 6* MCDrl wt 

10ft 6ft McOM 30 11 0 
62% 4ffU McOnls “ 

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44% 31% McGEd 
48% M McCrH 


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0 0 0 
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27* 27ft 27* + ft 
11* 11 1IU + ft 
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00 78% 79* + % 

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34ft Mft Metorn X U I 
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lift 4 Mltet 241 6% 6% (* 

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49ft 28* Morons £0 <9 8 2*76 
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60% 39% NBO 280 4J 7 

24 14* NBI 

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39% 33 NCMB 

30% 20% NCR S 
22ft 13 Nl Ind 

17 to* NLind 
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46* 31ft NWA 
5514 0ft NotaacB 260 

28% 21 Moira 10 

29* 0 Nashua 

38ft 30% NatCan 180 

67ft 94 NCanef 10 

10ft lift NtGnvB J6 

28% 22% NatDM £0 ... 

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16% 9ft NtSeml 
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13% lft NevSvL 50 45 7 
39ft 204 NElWEI 140 f J 4 
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0* M% NYSEG 284 118 0 
25ft 19% NYSpfA 38M128 
0 24 NYSpfD £75 1Z9 

10% 13* Newell 50 26 12 
47 29% Newttol 

Uft 11% NewMI 
Uft 7* NwMRs 
54% a Newrot 
5% 1% Nwpark 
17* 12 NIOMP 
27ft 32 NJoMpf 
32ft 24* NtoMpf „ . . 

34 26 NtoMpf 4.10 128 

34ft 19ft NlaMpt 274*118 
Wft 73 NIMpf 1060 118 
ltft 15% NlasSh 
1094 1*94 Nkntet 
30% 24% NICOR 
19 12ft NoblAI 
61 48ft NortkSa 380 
32* 16 Norlln 
41% 29% Nondr 280 62. 

50 43 Nandrpf 453*10.1 

19 12 Nortek 80 5 

56% 42 HA Coed 180 ‘ 15 
45* 20ft NAPtils 180 38 
au 13% Neuro 164e 95 
15ft 10% Noestut 150 106 
15% 11 NlndPS 156 125 
44* 0% No»Pw £M 7T 
36 31 NSPwpf 4,11 118 

59% 0 NSPwpf 650 11J 
US Mft NSP pf 1036 105 
42* 29% NorTet JO 
Sft 2% Nthoate 


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5144 4S* OcelP of 425 119 52 

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14* 04 Ohio Ed 10 138 6 3SZ7 14ft 13* 14 
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17* 12* OhMatr A0 £5 18 
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23ft 19ft OklaGE 280 XT 9 90 0 21% 21%j 

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36ft 15 PSA TO 26 

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18% 10* Pordyn 
23ft Wft PorkE) 

12% 5% PorUVI 
39ft 25* PorkH 
13% 12ft PorkPn 
5* lft PutPtrl 
2744 Mft PayiNW 
17ft lift PavNP 

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Mft 30ft PaPLpf 440 1ZJ 

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36% 21% PaPLdpfOTS 128 
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INTERNATIONAL 




FUribM 1W. TW .Vc- lorii Vma mi Hr fathyM IW 


IVORY COAST 




A SPECIAL REPORT 


SATXIRDAY-S UNDAY, MARCH 9-10, 1985 


Page 1 ' 


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Dominates Politics 
in an Election Year 


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h ABIDJAN — With .national 
lions scheduled for sometime 
/is year. Ivory Coast is gearing np 
v what promises to be a year of 
inge. In 1980, Fdlix HouphouSt- 
^5gny was re-elected president for 
? i fourth time, with 99.99 percent 
w the vote. Following his victory 
promised that he would run for 
-‘‘election in 19&5 along with a vice 
■xidential candidate who would, 
k virtue of his election, become 
r,5 president's constitutional suc- 
/ssor. 


as “a political mind of the Hist 
order." 



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; : r -Before the 1980 elections, the 
; ; l itional Assembly president, Phil- 
■ . iiYace, had long enjoyed the role 
1 . VNo. 2 potiticaf leader. Then the 
; : ■* I'ssident sidelined Mr. Yace amid 
V . imars of bitter political fi ghting 
! 1 ,r £thin his entourage, and arranged 
; :!.£ modification of the country’s 

- -ostitution, stipulating that an as- 
% — j-uu identified vice president 
7~^juld assume power in the presi- 
i ;:afs absence. 

. i .-Mr. Houphou&t-Boigny further 
| M r.'osolidated his hold on national 
a "a -;litics by taking Aver from Mr. 

ice the leadership of die cotm- 
1 ^’s sole political party, the Demo- 

■ =«■ : itic Party of ivory Coast, or 
* > )CL 

. ; ’For the last five years Ivory 
' ■' "ast has been in what many have 
‘ -.scribed as a political vacuum. 
,“;ith the 79-year-old president re- 


i; an^to name his successor before 


|i H -* 


-h* - — - 


, . . elections, pcfitical observ- 

- : can only speculate. As the eko- 
r ’ ’. ns draw nearer there have been 
; ’‘Tearing signs of political ten- 
^ : in. Senior members of tlm PDCI 
Z ■ jularly vie for prominence in the 
/ ite-owned national press in seem- 
•' i attempts to outdo one another, 
t ; airing the “Father of theNation” 
. 'tile attempting to strengthen 
; l tir own pohticaf foUowings. 

" Meanwhile, the prerident has 
'■ ' refully avoided giving any hint ot 
^ . .oring any of the handful of .min- 
• : srs who are viewed as serious. 
: , tential candidates. Conventional ; 
*7 sdom. would support the sdec- 
1 • n of one of the government’s five 
- lior ministers. Known as minis- 
“ ‘ s of stale, they have no specific 
^ ^itfolios. They are said to have 

• ■'jaA supervisory powers over the 
. .t of the government. 

Of these five men. Maihieu Ekra, 

* , -ntille Afliali and Maurice Seri 
j - toleba are most frequently meo- 
7 ned in Abidjan's livdy political- 
\ ,nor mill (t« other two are Au- 
^ ste Denise and Emile Kil 
- . guinard). But sraoe observers 
... id to think the prerident will se- 
, : t one of the younger ministers, 

. to would not run the risk of bring 

a as a transition figure. Given 
r. Hotrohouft-Boiniv’s reonia- 


fn 1944, Mr. Houphoufit-Bmgny 
helped create the Syndical Agricole 
Afncain, a precursor of the PDCI 
which was created two years later. 
His prestige was greatly mhanrat 
in 1945, when he was elected to the 
French Constituent Assembly, 
where he was to rapidly consolidate 
ties between his newly formed par- 
ty and the opposition’ French Com- 
munist Party. 

Despite his early allium s, with 
the French Communists, Mr. Hou- 
phouei-Boign/s domestic support 
came from large Ivorian landown- 
ers. This partly explains why agri- 
culture has always played such an 
important role in the country's de- 
velopment. In 1950, Mr. Hou- 
phouet-Boigny broke with the 
French Communists, rebuilding his 
reputation as a solid conservative 
and staunch ally of the West, a 
reputation supported by the record 
of his participation in successive 
French governments and by 25 
years as prerident of Ivory CoasL 

Since the mid-1960s. Ivory Coast 
has often been called Africa's eco- 
nomic miracle. Daring its first two 
^decades of independence, the coun- 
try’s gross domestic product grew 
more than 6 percent a year, giving 
Ivorians one of the highest per- 
capita incomes in Africa. Ivory 
Coast’s growth and political stabil- 
ity have been inextricably linked. 
The country’s economic successes, 
long based on a seemingly infinite 
capacity for increasing agricultural 


production, have allowed the gov- 
ribute 


distrit 


eminent to „ 

financial rewards 

helping create a middle class that is 
large by African standards. 

Another key element in the 
country’s rapid growth has been 
the unmhibned use of French tech- 
nical assistance. By 1980, the 
French community had grown to 



Despite Debt, 
Progress Solid 
In Development 


nearfy tiO.OOO (inva country of nine 
French people held 


millioh), and 
posts in every conceivable area, 
from primary school teachers to 
ministerial advisers. This large 
French presence has had an unden- 
iable role in making Ivoiy Coast’s 
reputation as a country where 
things work. 

Since the beginning of the 1980s, 
however, things haw not gone well 
for Ivoiy Coast Hopes that the 
country would soon- become an oil 
exporter were dashed; prices for 


Offshore Natural Gas Reserves Offer 
Hope for Next Decade ’s Energy Supp 


By Howard French 

ABIDJAN — Ivory Coast has 
gained a brief breathing space on 
foreign debt, having recently re- 
scheduled more than SI billion due 
to be paid in 1984 and 1985. The 
country's separate negotiations 
with the Paris and London clubs, 
which include Ivory Coast’s public 
and private creditors, respectively, 
have attracted increased scrutiny, 
at home and abroad, of the defects 
in the economic model that led to a 
debt burden of more than S7 billion 
for an underdeveloped country of 
nine million inhabitants. 

Any objective analysis of Ivory 
Coast's debt problems should be- 
gin with a review of what has gone 
right in the country. One Western 
banker said: “I am continually 
amazed by the achievements here. 
With nothing but cash-crop agri- 
culture and a hint of oO, this coun- 
try has developed an infrastructure 
that can, in some respects, be com- 
pared to developed countries.” In 
addition to its air, road and tele- 
communications networks, unpar- 
alleled in black Africa, major gains 
have been made in education, 
bousing and. to a lesser degree, 
health. 

Despite its reputation as a bas- 
tion of free-maricet capitalism. Ivo- 
ry Coast’s indigenous private sec- 
tor has not been a major factor in 
the country’s development As an 
economist familiar with the coun- 
try put it “Tie stale has been the 
basic instrument of capital accu- 
mulation and investment" Hie 
government has historically used 
its virtual monopoly of the export 
economy — which now consists 
primarily of cash crops — to fi- 
nance the country's devel 


By Howard Schissd 

PARIS — Having virtually 
achieved self-sufficiency in crude 
oil production. Ivory Coast is now 
seeking to tap offshore natural gas 
reserves in a drive to assure its 


the country’s principal’ cash crops, 
and coffee, collapsed; the 


energy supplies into the 1990s. 
Severe droi 


r& 




_n for confounding political ana- 
*s, he could conceivably choose a 
- it horse from outside the gov- 
,:iment 

■ With an important party con- 
I :-ss and national council meetings 
i peered in coming weeks, recent 
' . satiation has been that the presi- 
T ‘ nt, despite his age and frail 
.* alih will refuse to name a succes- 
; publicly; it is said that a chief 
h >m the president’s Baoule tribe 
, r. ver does so. 

, : Mr. Houphoutt-Boigny has 
- minated politics in Ivory Coast 
■■ r almost 40 years with, a style 
' >01 authoritarian and paiernalis- 
' ...He has shown a talent for co- 
sting potential rivals and impos- 
3 his will on the nation. His skill 
aved De Gaulle to describe him 


cocoa , r , 

U.S. dollar, in which about half the 
country's debt is denominated, has 
more than doubled in value against 
the Ivorian franc; and two years of 
insufficient rain hurt agriculture 
and hydroelectric energy. 

These factors have led the gov- 
ernment to reduce reliance on cost- 
ly French assistance, to save on 


salaries and employ more of the 
s of i 


growing numbers of restless young 
Ivorians recently graduated from 
the country’s schools. It remains to 
i what 


be seen what effect the sudden de- 
parture of hundreds of French 
technical assistants will have on the 
running of the economy. 

The reduction of the French 
presence in Ivoiy Coast is part of a 
larger program of economic re- 
forms, which aims at curtailing 
growth in government spending 
and improving management of the 
(Continued on Next Page) 


ught last year resulted 

in the temporary closure of most of 
the country's hydroelectric plants, 
as well as power cuts, rationing and 
a general slowdown in the pace of 
economic activities. 

This led to a reappraisal of Ivory 
Coast’s energy strategy and a call 
for diversification away from al- 
most exclusive dependence on hy- 
drogenera ted power, which ac- 
counts Far about 90 percent of the 
country’s capacity for electricity 
production. 

Flans for a $600- million hydro- 
electric station at SoubrA, in the 
west-central part of the country, 
were postponed and could be per- 
manently shelved if an agreement 
can be worked out to use nonasso- 
daied natural gas for electricity 
generation. 

In the search for crude oil, the 


Jacqueville, has estimated reserves 
of 90 billion cubic meters (3.15 tril- 
lion cubic feet). 

Ivory Coast’s total gas potential 
has been estimated at 150 billion 
cubic meters. Talk of b uilding .in 
export-oriented liquefied natural 
gas plant was abandoned after dif- 
ficulties were encountered by Nige- 
ria and Cameroon in getting LNG 
projects off the drawing boards. 

Instead, attention was focused 
on domestic outlets for gas. As 
things now stand, demand for gas 
— about 600 million cubic meters a 
year — is judged insufficient to 
warrant such an expensive gas de- 
velopment program. 

In an effort to substantially 
boost Ivory Coast’s gas consump- 
tion. economic p lan hot: in Abidjan 


energy. Although exact figures are 
hard to obtain, it has been reported 
that Phillips is asking about five 
times as much as the government 
wants to pay. 

Amid the difficult negotiations 
between Phillips and the govern- 
ment, the International F inancial 
Corp., a World Bank affiliate, has 
been approached to provide finan- 
cial assistance for the gas develop- 
ment program. The IFC has adopt- 
ed a cautious approach, stressing 
that project assessment is still pre- 
liminary and that it is too early to 
make a financial decision. 


Ivorian state oil company, Soriet£ 
NationaJe d’Operations rarolieres 
de la Cdte-dT voire, or Petroci, in- 


vested S35 million in a gas-ini ec- 
" field. 


Ivorian officials are pushing for 
o. In the tug- 


a decision by early 1 985. In the tug 
of-war with Phillips they have an 
ace up their sleeve: The exploration 
permit covering the gas resources 
want to build a* 300-megawait gas- e *P* res hi mid- 1985, putting pres- 
fired power station at Jacquewfle. 3,16 on ^ U5. company to come 
* ' to an acceptable compromise. 


An ammonia plant using gas as a 
raw material has also been envis- 


U.S, company Phillips Petroleum 
uncovered important gas resources 
with its three offshore exploration 


permits. The 
the Foxtrot fi 


ipal 

off the town of 


A major hitch is the price to be 
paid by Ivorian authorities for the 
gas. Phillips has made it dear that 
tire price must provide an incentive 
to offset the high investment outlay 
needed. The Ivorians are seeking a 
low price so that tire cost of gas- 
generated electric power could be 
competitive with other sources of 


Hopes for a rapid rise in offshore 
oil production, initiated during the 
summer of 1980 when Esso brought 
on stream its Belier field, have been 
abandoned. Nonetheless, Ivory 
Coast was practically covering its 
domestic consumption require- 
ments of 1J milli on tons a year by 
the end of 1984. 

Esso, operator in association 
with Royal/ Dutch Shell and the 


lion project on its small 

which is producing at the rate of 
350.000 tons a year/ Drilling 
around the 'Belier structure has 
failed to yield Additional reserves. 

Esso has abandoned two of its 
three ocploration permits. An ex- 
ploration drilling campaign is 
scheduled next year on its remain- 
ing block, close to the maritime 
frontier with G hana. 

It was Phillips' discovery of the 
appropriately named Espoir 
(“hope”) field that touched off ru- 
mors that Ivory Coast would be- 
come the hottest new exploration 
prospect in West and Central Afri- 
ca and perhaps even had the poten- 
tial of being a second Nigeria. 

This optimism was short-lived, 
as the technical difficulties of the 
fragmented Espoir field, coupled 
with the high cost and problems 
associated with working in relative- 
ly deep water, came to light. 

Phillips — operator on three per- 
mits in association with Italy's 
Agip, Sedco of the United States, 
and Petroci — has recently com- 
pleted its sixth production well on 

(Conlmtied on Next Page) 


ince the country s development. 
Cash crops have always been the 
mainstay of the Ivorian economy, 
(he country is among the world’s 
largest cocoa and coffee producers. 
Under the stewardship of President 
Fdlix HouphouSt-Boigny, Ivory 
Coast’s steadily growing agricul- 
tural exports fueled a tenfold rise in 
the gross domestic product be- 
tween 1960 and 1977. This record 
far outstripped achievements in 
neighboring states and attracted a 
steady influx of people in search of 
work from throughout the region. 

In 1977, when cocoa prices 
peaked, the government began a 
broad array of development pro- 
jects aimed at cashing in on the 
strong commodities market. Given 
the country’s economic record, 
commercial banks were perhaps 
overly eager to grant financing. 
Contributing to the general eupho- 
ria was the president's announce- 
ment in October 1977 that Ivoiy 
Coast had sizable oil reserves and 
would soon become an exporter. 

Between 1976 and 1978 Ivoiy 
Coast’s investment budget quadru- 
pled. During those beady days of 
the Ivorian “miracle.’’ modem of- 
fice buildings sprang up at a dizzy- 
ing pace, filling in the already im- 
pressive skyline of Abidjan. 
Though the newfound prosperity 
touched most of the population, 
particularly through increased gov- 
ernment investments in infrastruc- 
ture, education and public services, 
the boom's effects were strongest in 
the capital. 

Then cocoa and other commod- 
ity prices fell sharply. Oil produc- 
tion,, furthermore, never ap- 


proached the levels hoped for. By 
the end of the 1970s the country’s 
financial commitments sudde n ly 
revealed themselves as overambi- 
tious. Expensive short-term loans 
began to mature in steadily increas- 
ing numbers. 

The fall of commodity prices, 
and huge development projects 
such as the construction of a new 
capital at the president's birth- 
place, Yamoussoukro, exacted a 
steep cost that was aggravated by 
the global recession and high inter- 
est rates. Moreover, with nearly 
half the country's debt denominat- 
ed in dollars, the rise of the VS. 
currency’s value against the French 
franc — to which the Ivorian franc 
is linked — has exacerbated the 
debt problem. 

The rescheduling agreements, 
signed earlier this year, were made 
possible by the country’s adherence 
to tire economic prescriptions of 
the World Bank and the Interna- 
tional Monetary Fund, which have 
become major creditors themselves 
while seeing through economic re- 
forms that focus on redudngpublic 
spending, strengthening the role of 
the private sector, boosting food 
production and encouraging indus- 
trial exports. 

One central change has been the 
raising of producer prices for crops. 
After several years of little or no 
producer price increases for most 
crops, at a time when consumer 
prices were steadily rising, the gov- 
ernment has in erased prices two 
years in a row. This is necessary to 
encourage production and improve 
rural living standards so as to halt 
the wholesale depopulation of the 
countryside. 

Critics of Ivorian economic po- 
licy point out that while the govern- 
ment castigates “speculators” for 
their influence on commodity 
prices, the Ivorian government has 
remained the principal peculator 
with the country’s agricultural rev- 
enues. During the cocoa boom of 
the late 1970s, world cocoa prices 
rose more than 740 percent while 
local producer prices increased 
about 20 percent. The govern- 
ment's custodianship of this wind- 
fall led to an accentuation of the 
imbalance between the rural and 
urban economies as the public sec- 
tor rapidly grew and the cities ab- 
sorbed an inordinate share of the 
country’s budgets. 

Along with other austerity mea- 
sures, which include freezes on sal- 
aries and nonproductive invest- 
ments, the government is having to 
reign in the unwieldy civil service, 
winch, as in most African coun- 
tries, is the country’s largest em- 
ployer. This is being done by freez- 
ing hiring, repatriating a large 
number of French leehiycal assis- 
tants and weeding out defrauders 
and incompetent bureaucrats. 

So far, though there has been an 
increase in social tension, the aus- 
terity measures have failed to pro- 
duce any strong popular reaction. 

A reduction in housing subsidies 
for teachers last year, however, 
caused a strike that disturbed the 
placid veneer of national politics, 
making many observers wonder 
how much further the government 
can pursue its budget cuts. 

A new investment code, replac- 
ing the original 1959 version, aims 


(Continued on Next Page) 


Goyerament Policy on Immigrants Increases 
Ethnic Diversity as Well as Social Tensions 


ABIDJAN — Lilte almost all Af rican 
countries, Ivory Coast inherited arbitrary 
boundaries that throw together a large num- 
ber of disparate ethnic groups. 


«■» 

Jr'* 


As many as 60 distinct ethnic groups' co- 
exist in this 


l 




— country of nine nullum, and 
sorting out the Ivorian tribal puzzle is ren- 
dered more complicated by the fact that all of 
the major jgroujps originated in neighboring 
countries. The historical migrations tiiat have 
•. gradually peopled this once sparsely populat- 
ed country have been greatly stepped np, as 
- group* from the entire region have taken 
advantage of modem transport to partake in 
the relative wealth of Ivoiy Coast. 


it dements in the 




- ■ Among the most important 

long political career of President Ffilix Hou- 

* phond-Boigny have beat his handling of 

* jpwrtribal relations and his “open door" po- 
•• bey toward foreigners. Mr. HouphouCt- 

Bdgny is largely responsible for the presence 
;; °» an estimated two million recent inmn- 
■grants from Bouritinx Fasso, formerly Upper 
■* ■ *dta, and Mali, Guinea and Ghana. 


grant workers in the mid -1940s. Since that 
’ time he has played a central role in shielding 
the large immigrant population from the xe- 
nophobia of xne Ivorians, many of whom 
resent the large numbers of foreign job-seek- 
era, and tend to blame the rising crime rate on 
foreigners. 

A recent resurgence of anti-foreign senti- 
ment has led many immig rants to tear that 
they will be forced out of the country under 
whatever government follows Mr. Hou- 
phouet-Boigny’s. 

Mr. HouphouSt-Bcagny was boro into a 
family of minor nobility of the Baoule tribe, 
which is prevalent in south-central Ivory 
Coast. The Baoule are believed to be the 


largest single ethnic group in the country, 
‘ ’ " of (he 


makin g up an estimated 15 percent 
population. 

While the president has skillfully catered to 
the sensitivities of the major ethnic groups, 
ensuring that each region is represented in his 


cabinet, many feel that the Baoule group has 

his po? 




i- - 


, In 1932 Ivory Coast's dependence on for- 

• ogn labor was made more concrete when 
.France fused onto the colony part of the 

• M^bboringiwrthtta territory of Upper Vol- 
- Sl 80 ^ “nboptirs could more easily be 
. -brought in for forced labor on the vast plan- 
tations of the south. 

As head of an association of African plani- 
ere; the Syndical Agricole Afncain. Mr. Hou- 
phouat-Boigny bqpn efforts to recruit mi- 


benefited disproportionately from his power. 
This has caused resentment among certain 
groups, which has led some observers to pre- 
dict that Mr. Houphoub-Boigny will not se- 
lect a Baoule as vice presidential candidate 
(and his presumed successor) for the 1985 
national elections. 

Each of (be country’s four largest “ethnic 
dusters" — the Atan, the Manae, the Krou 
and the Senoufo — have migrated or spilled 
over into the country from neighboring areas 
over a period of several hundred years. The 


few ethnic groups known to have inhabits 
Ivory Coast long before these migrations, 
such as the Gagpa. re p resent a small portion 
of the total population. 

The Baoule, members erf the Akan duster, 
arrived in Ivory Coast in the early 18th centu- 
ry from Ghana. Legend has it that the found- 
ing queen of the Baoule tribe, Ablan-Pokoo, 
fled the royal Ashanti court of Ghana follow- 
ing an outbreak of violence in the area. The 
name Baoule means “the child is dead" and 
supposedly dates from the queen’s saoifice 
of her son, which enabled her family and 
servants to flee the Ashantis. 

Some estimates put the population of the 
entire Akan group as high as 40 percent of the 
total population, whicE would make it the 
largest of the country's ethnic dusters. The 
Akan group has been far from cohesive in 
political matters, however, greatly reducing 
its importance as a coalition and obli ging the 
powerful Baoule lobby in the government to 
carefully court the country’s other ethnic 
groujK. The second-largest Abut tribe, the 
Agnu has had particularly strained relations 
with die Baoule, dating from an Agni attempt 
at secession from Ivoiy Coast in the eariy 
1960s. 

The ethnic makeup of Ivory Coast's north- 
ern savanna has been somewhat obscured by 
the fact that, despite the ethnic dxversty of 
the region, most of its inhabitants have came 
to be known as Dioola. Dioula is a Bambara 
word from Mafi meaning “trader," but it is 
(Continued on Next Page) 





TTie annual cultural festival of the JSPZima people of southeast Ivory Coast 


Howd Frwdi 









1 


Page 8 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, SATURDAY -SUNDAY, MARCH 9-10, 1985 


A SPECIAL REPORT ON IVORY COAST 



Ivory Coast Foreign Relations Dominated 
By President and the Ties to France 



By Ri chard Everett 

ABIDJAN — Ivorian foreign re- 
lations, like other aspects of gov- 
ernment policy, are dominated by 
two factors — the personality of 
President F&ix HonphouSt-Baigny 
and the influence of France. 


and a 500-man French battalion is 
stationed near the airport in Abi- 


airport 

Freud: 


countries are content to maint ai n tary regime* in G hana md 
the status quo and let Fiance con- kma Fasso (fonn eny upparv<»“i 


UK UUU OllU. IM x law* " . ■>. A - f_- 

tinue to be Ivory Coast's main ben- have been stramed m toe last 
diciaiy^ln ! d<:pitna;.»ifliall 


Despite a recent reduction in 
technical a^sis**"**^ political and 
economic ties between the two 


the responsibility the position en- 
tails. 


tenan t Jmy Rawlings, and Bout- > 
Irina Fasso’s head of state. Captain /. 


The Ivorian president is seen by countries remain close and are ex- 
Westem leaders as a man of dia- peered to erwirrnnc so. A senior 


A Belgian diplomat said his Thomas Sankar^ have at timesac- 
coontry, like other EC members, cused Abidjan of harbo r m g ^d^- 


Tribal costumes appear at the annual Independence Day celebrations. 

Immigrant Policy Increases Ethnic Diversity, Tension 


(Continued From Previous Page) 

commonly applied to Ivory Coast’s Moslem 
peoples and others who speak the regional lin- 
gua franca known by the same name. The two 
largest northern groups are the Mande and the 
Senoufo, who have strong cross-border ties with 
Mali and Bourkina Fasso, respectively. Though 
each of these groups is represented m govern- 
ment, the Mande people are better known for 
their commercial prowess, while the Senoufo 
have remained highly attached to the land 

The fourth major ethnic cluster is the Krou, 
which includes the Bete, variously described as 
the second- or third-largest tribe m the country. 
The Bete, like the Agni, have had periodically 
strained relations with the Baoule leadership. 


A reconciliation between the Bete population 
of Gagnoa and the president was recently an- 
nounced, when representatives of Gagnoa’s 
Bete community was received by Mr. Hou- 
phouet-Bcigny in Yamoussoukro. The Bete 
spokesmen reaffirmed their support for the 
president, alluding to a prominent Bete exile as 
an “errant son." Uneasy ties between the Bete of 
Gagnoa and the president date to the 1973 
arrest of Gnagbe Kragbe, who was accused of 
engineering the cessation of much of the western 
region from Ivory Coast The security sweep in 
which he and his supporters were arrested led to 
many deaths and the destruction of Bete proper- 
ty. Since then many Gagnoa residents have 
complained that 111631 region has been deliber- 
ately neglected. 


Efforts to ensure Bete support for the govern- 
ment have been stepped up in recent years with 
the promotion of a number of Betes to impor- 
tant political and military posts. 

Speculation on the identity of the future vice 
presidential candidate has recently focused on a 
handful of prominent Bete politicians. 

The drought that has afflicted the Agni and 
Baoule lands of the once-productive “cocoa 
belt" of southeastern Ivory Coast has caused 
large movements or people to the rich, moist 
and underexploited areas of the west, such as 
Man and Soubre. 


logue and moderation. IBs foreign 
policy is pro-Western and he ac- 
tively encourages foreign invest- 
ment. Ivory Coast's well-developed 
economy and political stability 
have led many countries to make 
the country the focal point of their 
regional diplomacy. 

All bilateral political relations, 
however, are overshadowed by Ivo- 
ry Coast's relationship with 
France. Many countries are also 
concerned about who is to succeed 
Mr. Houphouftt-Boigny. 

France's presence in the country 
has increased since independence, 
with nearly 60,000 French citizens 
residing there by 1980. The French 
became integrally involved in the 


economic ues Dctweea me i»v wuuuj, _ --“v ~ 

countries remain dose and are ex- “tend to interact with Ivory Coast dents” p l ann i n g to overthrow tnar , 
peered to continue so. A senior on a political level primarily at the gowo-nments. ; 

French official said the two coun- United Nations, where the Ivonans The Ivonan Icaderhascnno^ , 
tries would remain “partners,” support oorpositians on most is- f 

adding that, “as Ivory Coast oon- sues.” to LOrya. which ite rees as a subver-_ 

throes to develop, Franco-1 vcaian Japan’s ties with Ivoiy Coast are sveforce in black Africa. 
relations will also grow.” mcrcasmg steadily, despite the eco- The twonrihtary leaders pro^j 

France has a vested interest in a nomic recession. Japanese officials fessed desire for rcvomtionaiy- 
stable Ivory Coast, given its lewd of say they see AK^an as a key center c hang e and regular denouncements 

Fiance’s presence in the country has increased since 
independence, with nearly 60,000 French r r 

citizens residing there by 1980. . !:• 


French official said the two coun- 
tries would remain “partners,” 
adding that, “as Ivoiy Coast con- 
tinues to develop, Franco-Ivorian 
relations will also grow.” 

France has a vested interest in a 


idly exp and i n g m a rk et. France’s continued s up p ort for 

Ivory Coast is pan of the Com- Ivoiy Coast has had its effect on 
□rename Financi&re Africaine, Western countries. Most foreign 
with currency linke d to the French diplomats say their countries’ re£a- 
franc, and it has access to the Euro- tions with Abidjan are good. They 
pean Community through France, note, however, that there is little 
The French government is the pri- interest in increasing activities in 
maxy supplier of aid to Ivoiy Coast the country. The current economic 
and the French private sector con- dimate and the uncertainly of the 
trols the majority of foreign busi- succession issue have pot the 


e in the country involvement in the country, and the for francophone West Africa. A of imperiahan'and neocolon ialism , i 
5 independe n ce, presence of French troops acts as Japanese businessman said: “Ivory are at odds with the prO-capitalist 
French citizens ^ assurance of stability to other Coast has the potential to be the policies of tbe lvorian government. ^ 
380. The French governments as wdL French offi- region's Singapore by early next Relations with Ghana unproved 
involved in the rink say the recent joint military century.” somewhat after a visit to Yamotur,.’ 

new nation, as technical assistants maneuvers demonstrate France’s fjmad» and. the United States soukxo, the new Ivorian capital, by, 1 ; 
and as businessmen enjoying a rap- commitment to Ivoiy Coast improved their relations with Ain- Lieutenant Rawlings in ; 1983. and_ : 


■ 


France’s continued 


nesses in the country. 

In addition. Ivory Coast has a 


Ivoiy Coast improved their relations with AM- lieutenant Rawlings in _ 1983. and_-, 

tinnwt s up p or t for djan following President Hou- Ghana recently opened its borders.? - 
s had its effect on phonSt-Boigny’s visit to North following an 18- month hiatus, 
ties. Most foreign America in .1983. The Canadian Captain S ankara was to visit Ivory 
heir countries’ rda- ambassad or; John Bell, said Cana- Coast earlier this year trot the tnp 
jan are good. They da’s involvement was shifting was suddenly canceled. j 

that there is hule “from development aid to industn- president Houp houSt-Ba foray ’S j -- 4 
easing activities in al cooperation between the two rri a ti ore wfth li frwian and Mahan 1 1. 
e current economic countries' private sectors.” He not- leaders are said to be improving, ‘ * 
uncertainly of the ed that a key aspect of their rdar although their philosophies vmy^ 
lie have put the tions was “Canada’s ability to pro- greatly from his. Mali’s relation- 3 


brakes on plans to substantially in- 
crease investments in Ivory Coast 


relations with Liberian and Malian" - -. 
leaders are said to be improving,:^ 
although their philosophies vary 
greatly from his. Mails rdatioa-3 


vide North American technology in sfcjp with Ivory Coast is primarily, i 
the Frmdi language.” an economic one as Abidjan is Man.- 


— HOWARD FRENCH military agreement with France, Political observers note that many The UiL ambassador. Robot ITs main access to the sea. 



OFFICE IVOIRIEN 
DES CHARGEURS 


M31ex, said the Ivorian leader's vis- 
it with President Ronald Reagan 
“strengthened an already excellent 
state of relations.” He added: “Our 
countries share many values, in- 
cluding those of elected govern- 
ments and market-oriented econo- 


PORT AUT0N0ME DE 
SAN-PEDRO 



Abidjan's relations with its 
neighbors have been mare turbu- 
lent than those with the West As 

one diplomat said: “Ivory Coast to MrT Houpftoutt-Botgny as the’-f! 
has one of die few rivffian govern- diW statesman of the region, how- u l 
menls left in the re^jan — all its ever, m os t nf h« nwghlws am pm-i 11 u 
neighbors have experienced revoln- suing very different political agen- J j! 
tiou, coops and mffllary govern- das, and much or the pubUiT' 
marts.” deference accorded to Aibitf an 


Ivory Coast exerts an influence 11 
in the region, with its economic^ 
weight and stability. Mr. Hou-^ 
phoufit-Boreny was a founder and - 
generally acknowledged sage of tire, 
Conammantfe Economxjue d*Afri- 11 
que Ooodemale and the Entente . 
Council (Ivory Coast, Togo. B6mn- 
Bomkina -Fasso and Niger! which 
he created in 1959. ’ ** 


Political observers said the Ivor- could dissipate once the president^ 
ian president was surprised by the himself is gone. A lot depends oh!'; 
sudaen death of the Guinean lead- what bccomes of the two mflliou J 
er, Ahmed S£kou-Tour4, and die people from Ghana, Bouridna^' 
ensuing mflitaiy coop last siring. Fasso and other: West African*"* 

TL _ . «c U T. - c 1. L. T V.O 



Photo: Photivoire 


B. P.340 

Telephone: 71-1 4-79 & 71-20-80 
Telex 9910 COMPORCI 
RSpublique deCPte d'Ivoire 
Minister© de la Marine 


Most important centre for maritime 
research and development in Africa 


ADDRESS: 

TEL: 32-33-36 
01 BP 3809 

TELEX.: OIC: 3430-2347 ABIDJAN 

DELEGATIONS 

San Pedro 

Tel: 71-24-64 Telex: 2495 
Paris 

Tel: 776-41-11 Telex: SIMOC 612-992 


er. Ahmed SBcou-Touri, and die 
wiaimg militar y coop last spring. 
The two “founding fathers” were 
allies in the pre-independence era. 
They later became bitter oppo- 


athers” were countries who Eve and work in Ivo<. 
tendence era. ry Coast Many of die country’s' 1 " 
bitter bppo- neighbors’ edcaioinies rdy .m part 


IDREM 


Le Port 

Autonome d’Abidjan 


Address: BP: V 85 
Telephone: 32 01 66 
Telex: DIRPORT 22778 

CAPAA 23674 ABIDJAN 


Institut de documentation de recherches^et 
d' etudes 


neats, divided over which pHkeo- on remittaiicra sent heme by expa^* - . [ 

phy was best for African develops triate vftSrlMisJ- - - > >■ : ■ ■ r . ■ ; 


{dry washes! for African develop^' - triafeWridf&si: o.'C- >:-• ■ ■ ,r . *- u 
meat; in the late 1970^, however. Tie Ivorian president advocana 1 " 
they became fiiends again. “dialogue” whh South Africa and / ' 

After eologiring Mr. Sfikon- in 1974 the South African prime r 
Tourt, whose 26-year regime was minister at the time, John Vorster^ . 
swept away less than a wed: after visited Yamoussoukro. Abidjan, “ 
he was buried. Mir. Houphou&t- has no formal relations with ther*j 
Boigny moved quickiy to ratablish Soviet Union. Unconfirmed ze- |"' : 
rdations with die new regime, ports say Ivory Coast is preparing 
Guinea’s military leaden have fre- to estab&di relations with East, 
queutly consulted the lvorian pres- Germany. Last year. Abidjan reo- J “ 
ident on devdopmeat matters. ognizedQrina, and already had M 

RjJdtiAne untn flua untmn tniK- latlruno untfi V/mviniu miiT 4 


ident on devdo 
Relations wii 


.t matters. 


the young Huh- latiohs with Romania and Poland., 


Offehore Gas Reserves 


"tin |f 


Industrial and Commercial Public 
Establishment 

Given legal status by Law No. 75.942 of 26 
December 1975 


. . "is”: ■ * 










(Cunttaoed From Previous Page) 
Espom but it has f ort hc moment 

raiy production s^cm with amorc 

permanent, expensive facility. 

At the begmning of die year, 
Phillips A- 10 well struck an inter- 
esting oQ. deposit on the Rumba 
structure, located only three kilo- 
metera (1.8 miles) from Espoor 
ThuUaest discovery provides 

ly producing around 17,000 barrels 
a day, could be upgraded in the 
near future. 

Other exploration drilling has so 
far proved inconclusive. The 
French statcKxrotroDed Compag- 
nie Frangaise des Pfetroles, or To- 
tal, pulled out earner in (he year 
after a few dry wells. Agip dnDed 
two dry holes on its ofi&ore permit ■ 
during the first months of 1984. 

Attention is now focused on the 
exploration campaign being car- 
ried out on block Kl, off the town 
of Fresco, by the Houston-based 
Term eco group. Tire first well 
drilled, the westernmost one ever 
attempted, was found to be dry late 


in 1984. Tenneco now is analyzing - 
the results, before detenuiirmg th& 
future of its exploration program*. 
Success would open up a whole 
new area of the country’s continen- 
tal plateau for exploration efforts. 

FoUowing President F&ix Ho«r 
p houftt -Boigny’s directives, thq^ 
government has adepted aknv-prov^ 
file approach toward tire oil mdusrir; 
try. The Ivorian leader is waiy of “ 
tire effects of a sudden inflow o L 
petroleum wealth, preferring 
'more balanced devdcymcatstraio-'* 1-1 
gy_ focused on agnculture, thef 1 
mainspring of the country’s growi&P^ al 
since ind ependen c e * 

It is panted oat in official cudei- '' 
that Ivory <i>ast must lcam frora* 1 - 
the errors of states such as NigeriaT^ 
which s a c ri fi c ed its rural economy 
and thus made itself overly dqxaw v j 
dent on the . fluctuations, of them 
wodd oil market - . ; !■;. 

Moreover, Ivorian authoriti^ 
{day down the eventual impact of/J 
the ofl mdnstiy on the economy, m 
imderiming that it will iakc han^.a 
effort by tee Ivorians themsdves taiti 
assure ecotuamc recovery. .-.»: r u 








*. f . ' . 

sSs- " - 


.\ .. .. 

• •; • • ‘ '' 

7 > . tymt + r • • > . 

w* - .•*««< 

:.a* t »>' vvy-AWiig., 


Development Continues Despite Debt 


jjLfr ' ^ v 

n..r: ■: }T\^C \ jdr 

■ar 




(Cootkoed From Prerioos Page) 
at providing incentives far busi- 
nesses to install themselves outride 
of the congested Abidjan area. It is 
hoped that getting businesses into 
the smaller cities and rural areas, 
will oamrter the tna gnafir. p mll that 

Abitgan exercises on the rest of tire 
country. It is eatimatad that Abi-. 
djan, a dty of two tirinimi^ is ex- 
panding by more than 10 pacent a 
year as rural Ivorians and foreign-* 
ere poor m, most of them SISng the 
city’s slams. 

Having endured a reversal, of the 


hig^ growth levds of tire firsttwo”^ 
decades of mdependehce — indudr' 1 
ing a negative ^percent grow^? 
rate dunng/tbe last two years — the'.' 4 
bu sines s co mmun i ty in Ivory Coasf ,c 


SITRAM 

SOCIETE IVOIRIENIME DE TRANSPORT 
MARITIME 

Soci6t6 d'Etat au capital de S 240m FCFA 
Address: Rue des Petroliers Vridi 01 BP: 1546 Abidjan 
Tel: 36 92 0085 03 12 Telex: 42254 SITRAMS 


. ,*■> 


1 V.*, .* A 

T It J 


' <4- ^ ^ 


GROUPE SITRAM 

SISA SIETRANS SIVOM 


<rf 1980s. will see at feast k»wl '3 : 
level eponounc growth. Per- cmitn- 1 
ihcome has fafiav drainaticany < .' d 

jglSSO hi^L of SU70 te c ‘ £# 
about ^800 this yean andeccmomic <■ 
grontltwiBhave tocjicebdifeati!-^ ,y 
nnal pq pulation'growth rate of 3^'L 1 . 
.peroeut in order to reverse ; 

trend. ‘ 

— — • Mir 


Capital: 200m FCFA 
Address: 01 BP 21110 
Abidjan 
Tel: 32 05 57 
Telex: 23775/23596/23351 


Capital: 53m FCFA 
Address: 01 BP 2036 
Abidjan 

Tel: 33 14 61/22 76 78 
Telex: 23539 


Capital: 1200m FCFA 
Address: 01 BP: 1569 
Abidjan 

Tel: 32 23 14/13 22 31 
Telex: 3365 


(Costimed From PrerfousPage) Prime topic -erf ** 

counties large external debt. These. ”rt**est|fce.- : 

measures have exacted consider- ' “J— an^G .*; 

able sacrifices in general &dng 
standards, contributing to a* 

marked rise in social Miami. : A A- 

foreiga buriness executive whose- P ie ^dcncy haveth&j,-f^ 

coaqsany has major interests 

Ivory Coastsaid tixai,“BntthTee^ etiwkf 
economic setbacks, it is pmhuHy k. 

good, thing that die soccesaca . . 

not taker place earirer." - • 

De^itfi statements to the.^cofr ' pwreacute as efectionsm^^S^ 
traiy m local ^ press editoriafa^tireL<lwl^ f ' 

succcsrion issue continues tobe'S’.;.^ " HOWAfiti> FRENCH 












INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, SATURDAY-SUNDAY, MARCH 9-10, 1985 


Page 9 


A SPECIAL REPORT ON IVORY COAST 


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Storage depot outside Abidjan. 


Ag«B Jarrican 


*»n «» . 

WX» Firtuh f 


dealing With the Foreign Debt Burden 


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RttIVl! 

WH =•-• 


By Peter Blackburn 

iBIDJAN — In recent mnnrtw bankers’ 
ids have been concentrated on the reschedal- 
of Ivory Coast’s external debt. Not so long 
— - — , such action by a country regarded by the 
- .-Trld Bank as a model for economic devdop- 
_ •" .--it in sub-Saharan Africa would have been 
. >. med unthinkable. 

„ . -ie country’s worst drought for 25 years, 

. • _ '■ <.dng severe power shortages and drastically 
. J : ' - cting industrial and agricultural production, 
; “ " VJly obliged President Fdix HouphouEt- 
jny to agree to a rescheduling. A steady 
adoration in the export earnings of cocoa 
j ■■■ coSee, combined wnh a sharp rise in dcflar 
*■■ interest rates, had seventy weakened the 
- n try’s finances. 

'-- the government, encouraged by the World 
: • k, borrowed heavily to uy to bridge the gap 

’* .-'rhre an expected increase in offshore cal pro- 
; . 'non brought renewed wealth. But prospects 
' .*■ ji oil booin look increasingly remote, while 
.. ‘/anal debt doubled to an estimated $6.4 bS- 
• - T between 1980 and 19^3. At the same time, 

. - _>":.t service rose to more llum 40 percent erf 
"~/ual export eaimngs. 
legotiauons to reschedule the commercial 
' r - 1 were complicated by the government’s de- 
: -id for new money — the fira. such request in 
.. ~ African debt rescheduling. Some smaller 
• . banks, which had already lent heavily to 
. " : -/in America, were extremely reluctant to raise 
- ' r African exposure^ 

- ; ui as one Ivorian official pointed out: “By 

- in American, standards, the amount of xnon- 
- v v s marginal — especially when shared be- 
en 350 banks." 

3 greement was eventually reached between a 
_ ■ s-bank steering committee, beaded by Ban- 
_ . . Nationalede Paris, and the government last 
rj\ It took a further four months to ascertain 
much was owed to each bank and to gain 
approval of all the banks involved. 

.. inally, two agreements were signed in Paris 
. : eb. 27 to reschedule principal of about 224 
on francs of the Communautf Finanri&re 
caine. or CFA francs, equivalent to $481.7 
ion, due between Dec. 1, 1983, and Dec, 31, 

- , 5. The dollar recently broke the 500-CFA 
. ier and has increased in value 2!4-fokl over 

last five years. 

- be debt is being rescheduled over five years 

■ two and a half years’ grace at 1% percent- 
joints over London interbaak-offered rates, 

..Ji points above the U.S., prime rate. The. 
ad agreement is for the provision of about 
Oboe francs in new money. 

' _ -ench bankers tend to express more relief at 
"■ rescheduling than their American col- 

- ies. “After au, we arc more heavily commit- 
■ both morally and fmanriafly” a French 

xr said. 

merican bankers recognize that the resched- 

■ has helped “dear the air” concerning the 
itiy's finances. 

xal bankers hope the rescheduling will en- 

- the government to reduce the high level of 
nal debt and payment arrears, now estimat- 

1 70 billion francs. 


The government's inability to pay public oo- 
terprises, contractors and other companies has 
been sorely felt by the four main Ivorian com- 
mercial banks: Basque Internationale pour l‘A- 
frique Occidentals, Society lvcrfrietme de Bas- 
ques, SodEte General e de Banques en C6te 
d’Ivoire and Banque Intematicmale pour le 
Commerce et l’lndustrie de la Cdte dlvdre. 
They have been burdened with a large volume of 
bad debts resulting from bankruptcies and from 
trading and.other losses. 

Lack of liquidity, due partly to the priority 
given to servicing external debt, meant that 
companies bad to borrow more. Lending by the 
four main commercial banks rose 17 percent to 
749 billion francs in the year that ended Sept. 
30, 1983. 

Customer deposits stagnated, however, and 
the barks had to increase their borrowing from 
foreign partners — almost doubling their debt 
toward them to 131 5 billion francs. 

At the same rime other foreign banks, con- 
cerned by the country’s spiraling debt and de- 
clining exports, were cutting credit lines, thus 
aggravating the liquidity shortage. 

Competition for customers' deposits — the 
cheapest source of resources — was intense. 
“Too many banks were chasing too Hole credit," 
one banker said. 

With 37 banks and financial institutions for a 
country with a population of nine million, some 
analyses fed Ivory Coast is overbooked, espe- 
cially as gross domestic product continues to fall 
in real terms. 

A request from the local banking association 
for government relief regarding interest rates 
and taxation aroused little sympathy. 

The economy and finance minister, Abdou- 
layc Kone, has said that the banks' difficulties 
can only partly be Mamed on the recession. He 
criticized careless lending by the banks during 
the cocoa boon of the 1970s as wdl as poor 
management reflected by overstaffing and in- 
flated salaries. 

Criticism that foreign banks have creamed off 
the market rather than helping to bring in fresh 
capital has been rejected by a prominent local 
banker. “Their presence shows confidence in 
Ivory Coast's furore," said Rent Anrichia, direc- 
tor-general of the state-controlled Crtdit de la 
Ctoe d’Ivoire. 

Foreign banks have brought banking know- 
how, improved the quality of local banking 
services and established closer links with the 
world .banking network, Mr. Amichia added 
They have specialized in corporate hnnirfng 
financing the oD industry ana funding small- 
scale enterprises and housing. 

With small, streamlined operations, the for- 
eign banks carry far lighter overheads than their 
top-heavy local counterparts. For instance. So-, 
d Hi G£n£xale de Basques en C6te d’Ivoire, the 
country’s largest commercial bank, opened a 
vast, space-age branch office in Abi<£an’s Yridi 
industrial zone last year. 

To dat fi six international hanks, inducing 
Citibank and Chase Manhattan of the Uniter! 
States, have expanded rnreseniative offices in 
Abidjan into fully fledged commercial 
brandies. 


. Four other U.S. institutions — Chemical 
Bank, American Express, Bankers Trust and 
Manufacturers Hanover Trust ' — have West 
African regional offices in Abidjan. 

Paribas earlier this year became the first 
French bank to open a commercial branch of- 
fice in Abidjan. Other French banks such as 
BNP. Credit Lyonnais and Sotifte G6n£rale 
have important minority stakes In Ivorian com- 
mercial banks. 

“The arrival of foreign banks caused a mqjor 
shaking-up of the lethargic local banking sector, 
while the recession has forced a major restruc- 
turing to try and restore profitability," an ana- 
lyst said. 

- The Banque Internationale pour l'Afrique 
Ocddentale, for instance, has dosed 25 percent 
of its branches and ait staff to 800 from 950 
since September 1983. 

Sod£t6 Ivoirienne de Banque recently re- 
ceived an important injection of fresh capital 
from one of its main shareholders. Credit Lyon- 
nais. A new French deputy director-general was 
appointed to supervise a straightening out trf the 
bank's finances. 

Only the Sodeti Generate de Banques en 
C6te d’Ivoire managed to earn enough profit to 
distribute a dividend in fiscal 1983. And last 
month it announced a net profit of $12 milli on 
for the financial year ending September 1984, a 
26-percent increase on the previous year. 

One of the more interesting banking reorgani- 
zations taking place is that of Banque Nationale 
pour PJEpargne et le Credit, which was priva- 
tized three years ago and which recently drew up 
a fresh set of statutes and appointed a new 
board of directors. 

It is one of two wholly Ivorian and privately 
owned banks in operation. The other is Banque 
Ivoirienne de Construction et de Travaox Pub- 
lics, which is majority shareholder in 1’Epargne 
et Cr6diL The other shareholders are TAW 
International I .easing. LTJnion Africaine mid 
various private Ivorian interests. 

The 1’Epargne et Credit, a home loan and 
savings bank, had to undergo restructuring after 
the withdrawal of government support. It has 
about 70,000 small savers, representing an im- 
portant section of the Ivorian community. 

“We hope to shortly dear BNECs overdraft 
at the Central 'Bank so that it mil again be 
profitable," said the chairman, Patrice Yao 
Kcman. 

Mr. Konan, who is also chairman of Banque 
Ivoirienne de Construction et de Travaox Pub- 
lics, added: “BN EC plans to diversify its activi- 
ties away from housing to offer a full range of 
commercial services." 

The Banque deTEpargneet Credit hopes that 
the confidence of the local banking community 
wiD soon be restored, he said, and that the bank 
can develop correspondent relationships so that 
it is able to serve the international community. 

“We hope to have restored commercial assets 
and become a fully effective commercial bank 
within three years,” Mr. Konan said. 


(Ja* Hoxorvfj 


**41* 

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WiS* >-• 


Encouraging Investment From Abroad 


By Lyse Doucet 


advantage of higher revenue from coffee and 
cocoa experts as wdl as increased access to 
BID1AN — While some West African commercial capital to embark on an ambitious 
ttries have had harsh words and restrictions expansion of its role in the economy. Its share of 
foreign capital. Ivory Coast has made con- total investment capital had risen to 64 percent 

..6“.rr ' by 1982. 

Seventy percent of industrial capital comes 
>m the state and has been channeled into the 


! «.>- ■ 
In -a- 
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smp* r ■ ■ 
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rable efforts to encourage its presence. 

7th its political stability as wdl as a devd- 
i system of services and basic infrastructure, 
country is usually regarded as one of the 
e attractive investment environments in the 
XL 

his year's long-awaited revision of the pre- 
pend ence investment code brought no 
- iges in regulations that allow almost unre- 
ted repatriation of profit and capitaL 
ut while this open-door policy has scored 
a pomes in investors’ books, its cost appears 
naticaOy in a consistently negative balance 
ayments. 

i 1983, more than $1.5 MUion left Ivory 
si through “invisibles” outflows: rep&triat- 
jrofii. repatriated salaries of thousands of 
itriates and hefty interest payments mr loans 
the government used to finance its own 
or rcde in investment. 

lie bulk of this capital is turned back to 


from the 

country’s electricity corporation, oD refining 
and output of local products such as pahn ofl 
and sugar. 

The government has also intervened heavily 
in establishing basic infrastructure, such as 
roads, ports, buildings and telecommunications, 
which nave in turn encouraged private inves- 
tors. 

But revenue shortfalls, heavy debt payments 
and the demanding presence of the Wodd Bank 
and the IMF in the country’s economic recovery 
program have forced a formerly interventionist 
state to review its balance sheet: a mixed record 
of some wise investment bat also poor judg- 
ments on ill-advised projects such as sugar com- 
plexes and a wide array of inefficient Tarasta- 
tal" companies. 

The director of public investments, Dosso 
i uncina. said state financing would now be 


-nee, which, despite Ivorian government pedi- limited to involvement in the agricultural, ener- 

. - a* _e * - ‘ * r t 1 run Diene fftr tt 


timtiw' 


m 

• ¥> ^ 311 '.. 

< P* 
m*'. • 

P" '*■ 




H 


rill* 11 


io attract diverse sources of m vestment, 
■, ains the country’s principal economic part- 
/ if -spy French companies, which haws profited 
u the colonial connection and the strength- 
ig of political and economic ties since inde- 
^ dence in 1960, have been strategically 

■ xd. 

. . he presence of French advisers in key poa- 
s throughout the administration has meant 
ich influence on investment decisions, often 

■ ag French companies privileged access to 

■ amadou. 

rcfich government credit assistance to com- 
ics ddng business outside France, as wd] as 
advantages of the CommunautC FinandCre 
■caine, which pegs the currency to the 

■ och franc, have also been key factors helping 
French set up shop. 

ranee provides about half of total invest- 
u capital in commerce, construction and 
lie works, modern agricultural plantations 
forestry. 

‘ ■arge French trading houses, such as Cbm* 
me Fnmqaise poor l’Afrique Occidemale, 
rORG, SCOA and Score, which between 




and social sectors. Plans for a S750-Tnfllion 

» prcgect, a subway syston and extenaons to 

the international airport and Abidjan part have 
been delayed. 

While the state begins to withdraw, other 
sources of investment, inside and outside the 
country, are being actively sought. 

President Ffiix Houpbotfii-Boigny’s official 
visits to Canada, the united States and Britain 
last year provided him with good opportunities 
to publicize the fact that Ivory Coast welcomed 
investors. Diplomats from these countries ray 
the president and ministers accompanying him 
conveyed strong interest in attracting new 
sources of capital. 

For the most part, though, involvement in 
Ivory Coast by Western nations has been con- 
fined to trade, aid or representation. 

The United States is officially the country’s 
fourth- laigest source of capitaL but it amounts 
to no man than 3 percent of total investment. 
The bulk of UJS. interests are in ail exploration 
and production by such companies as Phillips 
and Esso. Texaco, Mobil ana Gulf have con- 
fined their activities to marketing. 

British participation, which ranks seventh, is 




control more than 100 other companies, — . . . . . , - . 

wp olize import-export trade. Nunes such as largely represented by Unilever, which recently 
igeroltes, LcFcbvre, Bouygues and Colas assumed control of Blqhom, a formerly hren<±- 
3 up on construction sites throughout the controlled vegetable-oil company.^and thereby 
utxy. 

“the last decade, however, France's leading 
has been gradually eclipsed by the Ivorian 
^Snment's increased involvement. While 
?« accounted for 39 percent of investment 
rial m 1974, that figure had dropped to 21 
‘tot in 1982. 

a the 1970s the Ivorian government took 


Triroraf, a similar company that Blobom had 
acquired from the Ivorian state. Umtevcr-Blo- 
horn is now one of the countiy’s major industri- 
al groups and has a monopoly on local produc- 
tion of soaps and detergents. Unilever also has 
controlling interests in the formerly French 
trading house CFCI as well as the textile compa- 
ny Umwax. 


Most non-French countries that have de- 
clined to do business in Ivory Coast cite the 
timimtions inherent in the country’s market of 
about nine million people, as wdl as their rela- 
tive unfa mill ari ry with the country. This last 
factor, however, is changing with an increase in 
visits and trade missions. 

Investment attitude in Ivoiy Coast has also 
been a stumbling block. Ivorians have sizable 
investments in agriculture and forestry and in- 
terests in a wide range of industrial sectors, 
including processing of coffee and vegetable 
products, textiles, cement and chemical prod- 
ucts. The average Ivorian investor, however, 
tends to be a government official or a civil 
servant rather than a businessman whose princi- 
pal interest is the health of his enterprise. 

Industrial experts say the country’s new in- 
dustrial policy, which arms at making email and 
medium-sized companies more competitive as 
well as export-oriented, is a demanding man- 
date in a country that lacks a dynamic middle 
class. Most Ivorian private money has beat 
transferred outside the country or put in non- 
productive investment. 

Official statistics rank the Ivorian private 
sector as the third- largest investor in the nation- 
al economy, with 9 percent of total capitaL but 
the figure hides the fact ihai many Ivorians are 
Lebanese or erf Lebanese background In con- 
trast to the businessman who jets in and ran or 
the French expert on a Hmi ted contract, many of 
the 60,000 Lebanese consider Ivory Coast their 
home. In addition to a virtual Lebanese monop- 
oly rat small retail shops, more than 160 Leba- 
nese companies are involved in areas such as 
construction, food processing and small -scale 
manufacturing erf plastics, chemical products 
and dothing. 

Lebanese businessmen haw often been criri- 
dzed by other Ivorians and the French, who say 
they confine the bulk of their involvement to 
commercial activities and invest little capital in 
the couxnry. But Salim Farhat. president of the 
Lebanese Industrial Union, said official figures 
that put total Lebanese investment at about 2 
percent are far too low. 

Lebanese business practices are not the rally 
ones to have come muter scrutiny. President 
HouphouEt-Bragny said at a National Council 
session in November 1983 that in fafiuns such 
as the country’s expensive sugar-complex in- 
vestment, overinvoicing by foreign companies 
was a contributing factor. 

Investors are also taking a closer look. Ivwy 
Coast's present financial difficulties mean many 
companies have had to reduce their operations. 
There appears to be a general optimism, though, 
that the country will weather its economic 
storms. Politically there is hope that eventually 
under whoever succeeds Mr. HoupbouSt- 
Boigny the country wiO continue to offer the 
same stability fra investors. 


r 




COMMERCE IN THE IVORY COAST 

u 

T he economic policy of the Ivory Coast since gaining independance has been [| 
based on liberalism which has recently been reaffirmed by the suppression of a [I 
large number of State companies. \ 

It encourages private initiatives with the role of the State being restricted to [ 
establishing the general directions to be pursued within the framework of the Pro- \ 
gramme, directing, encouraging and chanelling energies towards priority sectors 
and setting up, out of public funds, the basic infrastructures necessary for the 
economic and social progress to be made. U 

This liberalism has meant that the Ivory Coast has had to look outside to a great 
extent in order to find the capital necessary for its development and in this respect 
commerce contributes substantially to the national development through the gains 


I- 


The commercial policy of the Ivory Coast as a result 
of this basic economic policy is aimed at ensuring: 

- on the one hand, the promotion of exports by 
creating the most favourable conditions possible; 

- on the other hand, that the needs of the Ivory 
Coast are met at the lowest cost and also the 
distribution of essential foodstuffs; 
and finally, the involvement of the native inhabi- 
tants in commercial spheres from which they are 
excluded, such as reforming and raising the 
moral standard of commercial professions. 




Promotion of Exports 

The economy of the Ivory Coast which is essentially 
based on agriculture, has experienced over the 24 
years since gaining independance, a spectacular 
development which ensures that it has a wide range 
of exportable products, such as raw materials, pro- 
cessed products or semi-processed products. 



Photo:! 

Af. Nicolas Kouandi Angba 
Minister of Commerce 

In order to reply better to the commercial ambi- 
tions of the Ivory Coast a World Trade Centre has 
been created which, by virtue of the services and 
facilities which it will offer, in particular as regards 
trade information, should allow foreign trade to 
continue to play a motivating role in the develop- 
ment of the Ivory Coast economy. 

Meeting the demand within 
The Ivory Coast at the lowest Cost 

Meeting the internal demand of the Ivory Coast at 
the lowest cost leads the government not only to 
vary its suppliers but also to favour straightforward 
changes and to establish provisional monopolies for 
the import of products of prime necessity like rice 
for example. 

is obvious that as soon as the problem of meet- 
ing the national demand for rice has been solved, 
with a project fot rice production having just been 
relaunched within the framework of the programme 
to achieve self-sufficiency in foodstuffs, the import 
of this product will disappear together with the 
monopoly responsible for its import 

Distribution of Essential Foodstuffs 
As the improvement of the trade system must pre- 
cede the development of production, the govern- 
ment is currently giving particular importance to a 
programme of action attempting to improve the 
trade in essential foodstuffs. 

It is in fact absolutely necessary that the promo- 
tion of the production of essential foodstuffs lays 


! 

] utau 

fi toe* 

for es 

11 j» 


Centre de Commerce International d 9 Abidjan 



The World Trade Centre In Abidjan is a 31 floor 
complex built on the Plateau, close to the future 
Triumphal Way, which offers an exceptional 
number of services. 

Apart from luxury office accommodation, with all 
modem amenities, facilities exist for meetings, semi- 
nars, congresses and symposia with the flexibility to 
cater for numbers from 50 to 320 persons. Offices are 
available on both a permanent and temporary basis. 

Communications are excellent with 900 direct tele- 
phone, telex and telegram tines. 

Among other services offered are reception assis- 
tance, an information and documentation service, da- 
ta bank* and library as well as secretariaL translation 
and interpreting bureaux. 

There is a 700m 2 Exhibition Hall which can be 
rented as a whole or in part according to requirements. 
There is parking space for 670 cars in the basement 

The building also incorportes a Training Institute * 
Business Man’s Club and the normal facilities such as a 
Post Office * Bank, restaurants, shops and travel 
agencies. 

All Departments of the Ministry of Commerce are 
located in the Centre. 

*These services will be operational In the near future. 

For further information please contact: 

Centre de Commerce International 
d’ Abidjan, 

Avenue Jean-Paul D, BP V 143, Abidjan, 

Cote d’Ivoire 

Telephone: 32 30 92/32 43 78. Telex: 23460 


emphasis on the subsequent trade system in order 
to ensure that the producers have sufficient profit- 
able outlets to encourage production and guarantee 
a regular and reasonably priced supply to the 
consumers. 

Taking into consideration the decision taken by 
the State, in the light of past experience, to 
withdraw from its role as commercial operator, a 
public establishment dependent on the Ministry for 
Commerce has been set up called the Office d’Aide 
a la Commercialisation des Prod u its Vivriers 
(O.CP.V.) (Office for Assistance in the Commer- 
cialisation of Essential Food Products), which is 
responsible for formulating and putting into opera- 
tion the government action programme to improve 
the trade system in essential foodstuffs. 

The Involvement of Native Inhabitants 
in Commercial Affairs 

It is no secret today that large modem trading and 
small trade also, are in the hands of operators not 
native to the Ivory Coast 

It is therefore a question of encouraging the 
native inhabitants of the Ivory Coast to take an 
interest in commercial affairs using suitable means 
for this purpose. 

Hence, steps are being taken to train native Ivory 
Coast commercial operators in particular by means 
of a school for Commerce and Management and 
through the enriching experience gained from the 
installation of retail commercial operators which, 
with the competition of the private sector, can 
dearly be seen. 

Reforming and raising the Moral Standards 
in die Commercial Profession 

The emphasis has been placed on the repression of 
fraud, the most notable form of which is over- 
invoidng; in order to prevent practices which may 
be prejuicial to the Ivory Coast, a preliminary quan- 
tity and quality Control for 'imported goods has 
been set up since 1975 which is handled by the 
Soctete Grinerale de Surveillance in Geneva. 

The Commercial Policy of the Ivory Coast 
is producing extremely positive results 
As regards trade, the overall transactions of the 
Ivory Coast abroad have increased from 71,172 
thousand million F. CFA in 1960 to 238 thousand 
million in 1970, 1296 thousand million in 1980, 
1342 thousand million in 1981 and 1466 thousand 
million in 1982, of which exports represent 38.8 
thousand million (1960), 130 thousand million 
(1970), 663 thousand million (1980), 689 thou- 
sand million (1981) and 747 thousand million in 
1982 respectively, producing a trade balance which 
remains traditionally positive. 

Despite the leading role still played by products 
such as cocoa (largest producer in the world with 
445,000 ton in 1981-82), coffee (third largest pro- 
ducer in the world and the largest in Africa with 
over 360,000 tons), wood, palm oiL natural rubber, 
pineapples, bananas, etc., the Ivory Coast today 
exports more and more products of considerable 
added value, (textiles and off-the-peg clothes, food 
preserves, construction materials, petrochemical 
products, etc). 

As regards meeting the internal demand, running 
out of stock and the periodic shortages remain only 
as sad memories. 

The Ivory Coast thus reveals itself, although the 
attitude of its President is still cautious, a real oasis 
among otherwise deprived States which are to say 
the least, much less developed in comparison. 


3MC 


JI 


:Ar 

: 





Government Increases Control 


Of Its Spending on Education 


ABIDJAN — Eveiy October in Ivory Coast, the 
inch publicized raaree or return to school absorbs 


touch publicized raaree or return to school absorbs 
Ivorian students, teachers, parents and government, 
officials. This year, the anxiety and complaints were in 
many ways greater. 

More than 3,000 university students, expecting 
more education at state expense, were informed that 
only a third of their number would receive state 
scholarships. Parents of 200,000 secondary-school stu- 
dents scrambled to find places for their children in a 
limited number of free state schools. 

Secondary-school teachers were told that 20 of their 
number, including four main members of their union 
executive, had been reassigned away from Abidjan, 
the seat of union activities that in 1983 included a 


strike in protest against tbe government 
The minister of national education and scientific 


research, Rnlla Krita, said the Ivorian school system is 
having to adapt to the means and priorities of the 
state. Government economic austerity demands that 
financial commitments have to be reduced. 

With 43 percent of the state's operational expenses 
going into the education budget, the Ivorian govern- 
ment believes it has ample reason to decide where the 
money goes and what Ivorians can study. 

After years of paying the full cost of university 
education for thousands of students, the Ministry of 
Education repotted this year that the country now had 
a large surplus of social sciences and languages gradu- 
ates who were joining the ranks of the “intellectual 
unemployed." Ivorian science and math teachers fill 
less than 10 percent of Ivory Coast’s needs, so the 

government has to hire other African or French teach- 
ers at op to four times the cost. 

Employment opportunities for sodal-srieace grad- 
uates are becoming scarce as the government freezes 
hiring. Tbe need for scientists and tarlmiraaiis is in- 
creasing' meanwhile, as the country focuses on its 
agricultural and financial problems. 

Education officials point out that the Ivorian school 
system was modeled on the French system and thus 
lias produced too many graduates whose degrees an 
not directly relevant to the economic and social situa- 
tion of a developing African country. State orientation 
of students’ programs, which b egins in secondary 
school is becoming increasingly slanted toward scien- 
tific disciplines. 

About 1 ,000 new students enrolled in Abidjan Uni- 
versity this year and 300 others lode up teaching 
programs at the country’s Ecole Nonnale Supdrieure. 
A majority of all these students entered science or 
math programs. In addition, hundreds of Ivorians 
signed upfor training at the Institut National Sopdr- 
ieur de nEnsejgnement Technique. 

Mr. Keita, the education minister, sees revamping 
the school system as more than just instituting a 
practical curriculum. One of his major innovations 
since he assumed responsibility for the nation’s educa- 
tion two yearc ago htt been the introduction of “moral 
and civic education” programs in which students are 
taught issues such as the importance of honesty and 
discipline, the dangers of alcohol and drugs, and the 
role of the individual in the neighborhood, city and 
society. 

Moral and dvic education involves learning about 
the country’s single political party and its achieve- 
ments, memorizing the national anthe m and calling 
Ivory Coast's president, Fdlix-Houphoufit Boigny, the 
“father of the nation.” 

While some teachers complain that presenting this 
material implies a political commitment that they 


lade, Mr. Kata calls the program an “absolute priori- 
ty," in order to equip Ivorians to resist what he sees as 
subversive foreign ideologies that run counter to the 
country’s one-party system and fine-enterprise ethos. 

The teachers’ unions — the only unions outside the 

country's essentially go vemmem-con trolled union 
federation — have been riiem< ^voc al if not the only, 

Universt^^^Secondaiy School Teache^ Union 
have ended with long lists of grievances concerning 
what the teachers regard as poor material, prof esaonrn 
standards and moral conditions at work. 

The minister has responded to their charges of an 
undemocratic decision-making structure by suggest- 
ing that they are trying to act as a political party and 
not a union. He said, however, that he was willing to 
discuss the charges if they came up with realistic 


Concerning their economic complaints, tie said the 
state no hart the means to expand the school 
system. 

As a result, Ivorian schools are now under consider- 
able strain. Hundreds of thousands of Ivorian parents, 
from poor fanners to the w djkedu cated and 

But this year the state was able to offe^ only about 
35,000 places in 30-seat classrooms in the public and 
partly subsidized private schools for about 200^000 
primary-school graduates. Enrollments have swelled 
to as high as 80 students to a classroom in some 
schools. 

At the primary-school level some towns and vil- 
lages have constructed their own schools as well as 
lodging for teachers. 

Some directors of public schools as weD as seme 
teachers have tried to offer classroom places for a 
price, so this year Mr. Keita moved student recruit- 
ment away from individual institutions and central- 
ized it in his mimstxy. 

He is being criticized for his own recruitment meth- 
ods, thoug h The minister has begun what he e»n« 
“complementary recruitment” to allow about 12,000 
less successful students from poorer backgrounds into 
schools after normal orientation procedures have been 
completed. Sane teachers and school officials call tbe 
process a “parallel recruitment” that ignores their 
recommendations concerning suitable students and 
allows individuals to continue in the system, for politi- 
cal reasons. 

Directors of public schools were informed this year 
that they could no longer charge what have often been 
inflated fees to cover costs or insurance, bodes and 
such items as identity cards. 

. The government is substantially reducing the num- 
ber of non-Ivorian teachers, particularly the French, 

whn in addition tn bein g a Consider able fiinmrial QQgt 

have aroused resentment among unemployed Ivor- 
ians. The numbers of French teachers, or cooperants, 
who were hired through the French Minis try of Aid 
and Cooperation, have been cut back by about a third. 
In better times, the government paid 80 percent of 
their salaries, which included free lodging and annual 
trips to France, making their nammp four timw» 
greater than those of their Ivesian counterparts. 

Even the education minister recognizes that the 
Ivorian school system is in some disarray. He has 
announced that a general meeting will be held to 
examine Ivorian education, and has promised that 
everyone from disgruntled teachers to fretting parents 
will be asked to attend. 

-LYSEDOUCET 



I 1 


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i .,h* a 

„ . .ti 


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* •’*';* 

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Pineapple-canning plant at Bonofia. 


Aganca Jarriecn 


A fish- canning plant 


Industrial Development: New Hopes for Growth 



ABIDJAN — Long the poor cousin of agriculture, Ivorian 
industry is being called upon to {day an increasingly impor- 
tant rede in sustaining economic growth, as production of the 
historic pillars of Ivory Coast’s agricultural economy — 
cocoa, coffee and hardwoods — approaches practical limits. 

At independence in 1960, Ivorian industry was practically 
nonexistent. The 150 industrial concerns active locally were 
almost entirely French-owned and controlled, often subrid- 

out France’s^mer colonies jn^Wcst and^entral Africa^ 

The Ivorian government began efforts to create import- 
substitution industries in the early 1960s, primarily in the 
manufacturing sector, in order to reduce dependence on 
imports from France and Senegal the latter having been the 
chief manufacturing center as writ as administrative capital 
of French West Africa. 

By 1970, 68 percent of all industrial production was being 
sold locally, where high import taxes and quotas for compet- 
ing foreign imports assured a market. The most successful 
exports were those that required relatively little transforma- 
tion of local products, such as coffee and cocoa, to which 
little value is added in tbe processing. 

While it was heavily dependent upon domestic sales. 
Ivorian industry accounted for only 18 percent of the local 
market for industrial goods. Analysts worried that, given the 
limited variety of goods produced, Ivorian industry could 
not greatly increase its share of the national market. Local 
industry bad to export or perish. 

Policy-makers responded to the challenge with an ambi- 
tious investment program, winch moused total Ivorian 
participation in domestic industrial capital from less than 30 
percent at the beginning of the 1970s to 65 percent in 1982. 
Private Ivorian participation, however, r emained very small. 
Tbe declared objective of the state’s large-scale involvement 
was to accelerate local ownership, management and employ- 
ment in the industrial sector, while aggressively targeting 
new markets so as to increase exports. 

While Ivorian participation in local industries was in- 
creased at almost every level efforts to raise exports were 
much less successful Throughout the 1970s, Ivorian indus- 
trial exports remained at about 32 percent of total industrial 
production. 


Critics argue that government intervention in the industri- 
al seam* dnrmg tbe 1 970s was motivated as much by political 
criteria as by well-reasoned economic considerations. Sensi- 


tive to the frustrations of a. growing class of young techni- 
cians, educated locally and in the best schools abroad, 
President F&ix HouphouCt-Boigny sanctioned the creation 
and expansion of a number of “parastataT* companies whose 
capital was raised through government-guaranteed Icons. 
These companies were run as autonomous corporations 
largely, by this emergent class of young technocrats. 

Most of the large new parastatal entities were agro- 
industrial concerns, which were to rationalize production of 
a number of cash crops, with the intention being to broaden 
the country’s economic base beyond cocoa, coffee and tropi- 
cal hardwoods. The principal crops involved in the strategy 
were sugar, palm oil cotton and rubber. 

Mr. HoupbooBt-Boigny's gesture of entrusting the man- 
agement of the paraslaM companies to a new generation of 
technocrats turned out to be extremely costly. The agro- 
industrial companies ran up huge debts through expensive 
short-term borrowing, and were registering major losses. 

Most of tbe loans undertaken by the parastatals were 
contracted in the late 1970s, when prices for cocoa and 
cofree were at record levels and when it was widely expected 
that Ivory Goast would soon join the ranks of Africa’s 
medium-rize oil producers. Economic projections based on 
hiah commodity prices and oil exports encouraged a lapse on 


crunch, and apparently chastened by the bitter lessons t - • ’ 
huge public investment blunders made during the 197ft 1 
World Bank began a program of “structural adjostmec : 
1981. The bank's structural adjustment aid was rent 
and considerably increased, in July 1983, when an ambi - 
and politically delicate $250-nhllion program for 1 _ 
Coast was approved. 

The World Bank having succeeded, in large measn ' 




prompting the state to limit its industrial ventures durin ' 
first phase of this assistance, the new program is priir., - '■ 
aimed at major private industries, such as textiles, chen. - 


and assemblage industries. 

The new reforms, introduced after several months of ^ : .l 
efforts to explain them to all parties concerned, invoiv "" 
gradual removal of tariffs ana import quotas, long us . 


■ ■ ■ ■ -*“4^1. 


the part ol Ivorian planners and foreign bankers ; 
which the country is still paying dearly. 


A major component is the 40-percent import tariff t . 
imposed on raw materials and parts used in tbe prodiv j 
of a variety of goods, from doth to automobiles. !-*’ 
tariffs will be rebated on goods that are exported, eantin •- 
country badly needed foreign reserves. 

A World Bank official explained the reforms. “Their^^— — 
factoring industry that grew up here has always aim 
providing for die local market, but has passed on its e 
rive costs to the rest of the economy because the govern 
has allowed it to hide behind protectionist barriers," be 
“Our . . . program will allow the government to ide 
those industries which are truly viable, so that incentive 
be focused mi them." 


t- «=*4 



on ice 

TM.I.C 


Government industrial reform, recently stepped up with 
taior World Bank participation, began with the decision in 


major World Bank participation, began with the decision in 
1977 to trim plans for sugar production. With state revenues 
dramatically decreased following the collapse of commodity 
prices, the government derided to reduce its involvement in 
industry by selling off the assets of the troubled parastatals. 

Little progress has been realized on this front One govern- 
ment official said difficulties in liquidating the state's indus- 
trial holdings —such as two recently closed sugar complexes 
— were “largely due to difficulties in agreeing on the value of 
the capital equipment" 

With the Ivorian government caught in a serious liquidity 


In an emotional rebuttal, however, an Ivorian man 
turer complained that “a 40-percenl tax on parts will pi 
out of business in a matter of months.’’ 

Some observers have criticized the World Bank pro 
for the abruptness of its reforms, especially since they ' 
on tbe heels of a number of major austerity men 
undertaken by the government One economist said: **) 
is just not much of an industrial fabric here, and thorn 
[World Bank] program aims at encouraging exports, fi 
the existing industries can be expected to learn to swin 
enough." 

— HOWARD FHE 




. H4 

**ir 


PALMINDU STRIE 




The largest Exporter of Palm Oil in Africa and third largest in the World. 


*• ” knar 


In 1968 the Ivory Coast still imported 2,000 tonnes of palm 
oil and at that time the production of coprah in terms of oil 
was not more than 5,000 tonnes per year. Moreover, at the 
present time, had no development programme been 
realised and successfully followed through for the 
cultivation of oil-producing plantations, it would be 
necessary to spend an annual sum of between 60 and 70 
million US Dollars in order to meet the internal demand, 
without talcing into account the sum recuperated on the 
foreign exchange by virtue of the fraction which is exported 
and the indirect effects on the national economy, duty, 
indirect taxes, jobs created, road construction and 
residential building, dispensaries and schools, installations 
and maintenance posts in respect of the operations related 
to the “Palm” and “Coco-Palm” projects. 

All these production activities and the operation of these 
projects is ensured by the Ivory Coast company, 
PALMINDUSTRIE, which has established agreements of 
cooperation with a group of three European companies 
specialising in the agro-industry of plantations. 

These agreements, which were sought and decided by the 
Head of State, have as their aim : 

— to enable PALMINDUSTRIE to market its products 
under favourable conditions 

— to facilitate the exchange of specialised skills 

— to ensure a strict and efficient management which only 
the private sector can achieve when confronted with 
competition 

— to make preparation for the privatisation of the sector 
by bringing national and foreign private partners into 
contact, while the State remains in the majority. 


iLXSod 



12,000 hectares 


43,000 hectares 


M. Dossongui Kune 
Director General of Pabnmdustrie 


Photo: Fathl Mahouachi 


commenced in 1983. This project covering the period 
1983/1990 includes in particular: 

— replanting of the oldest 18,000 hectares 

plantations: 

— the creation of new industrial 12,000 hectares 
plantations: 

— a programme for village 43,000 hectares 

plantations: 

which is to say a total of 73,000 hectares over an 8 year 
period. ' 

All these programmes are realised and their progress 
followed by PALMINDUSTRIE. 

The EDF is at present financing a part of the 1983/1985 
programme while “the evaluation of the 1986/1990 
programme is being carried out. 




Office des 




Tel: 34 


PROSPECTS 


It has been shown above that the annual capacity for the 
production of palm oil, taking one year with another, is 


between 140,000 and 160,000 tonnes. By virtue of its use in 
foodstuffs, palm oil is mainly consumed on the internal 
market, while the lauric oils (cabbage-palm and coprah) are 
more especially intended for export. 

At present, therefore, it is possible to ensure that the 
internal demand, estimated at 125,000 tonnes will be met, 
but that will no longer be the norm from the year 1990 
onwards. 

Indeed, because of the hig her standard of living and the 
accompanying growth in the population on the one hand, 
and urbanisation on the other hand, the internal demand is 
increasing as shown by the figures below: 

— 1985: 125,000 tonnes 

— 1990: 158,000 tonnes 

— 1995: 217,000 tonnes 

Thus during this time, the plantations established between 
1962 and 1978 will age; as such it is necessary to replant 
after a 25 year period, which consequently results in a 
temporary decrease in the production capacity as the palm 
tree only begins producing in the fourth year after planting. 
Thus, from 1981, a second Palm Project was studied and 


THE CLIENTELE 


As in previous years, the sales remain orientated towards 
the EJiC countries, on the one hand because of the freight 
facilities, and particularly taking into account the tariff 
preference scheme for oils (4% for palm . oil and 7% for 
lauric oils). 

The United States maintains its place in the Ivory Coast 
market for lauric oils, but tends more in favour of coprah 
oil instead of cabbage-palm oil. 

After a lapse of one year, Senegal reappeared on. the. Ivory 
Coast palm oil market while the quantities of this product 
purchased by Bourkina Fasso increased considerably. Mali 
entered the market in very modest proportions. 

As far as cabbage-palm and cbprah pellets are concerned, 
the Federal Republic of Germany and the Netherlands 
remain the only purchasers abroad. 

PALMINDUSTRIE - the outcome of a farsighted political 
willingness and a real international North-South 
cooperation. 


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Directenr Genera! M. Dossongui KONE 

Directeur General Adjoint M. Christian RRUNIN 

Secretaire General M. Ferdinand SANGARET 




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Siege Social: Abidjan - Cote dTvoire 01 - BP: V239 - Tel: 36 93 88 




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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, SATURDAY-SUNDAY, MARCH 9-10, 1985 


Page 11 


ADVERTISEMENT 


ADVERTISEMENT 



25 Years of Independence 

A Proud Record of Achievement 




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The twenty-fifth aimimsary of Indepeodance to be 
.celebrated by the Ivory Coast this year is an 
appropriate time for looking back over die past and 
reviewing the economic and social achievements 
(..particularly in the field of facilities and 
communications. 

In this respect, the Ivory Coast can, with reason, be 
jnbnd of the results obtained thanks to the substantial 
«fforts inad(! to acquire the modem facilities required 
to' achieve the level of development aimed at under the 
guidance of our farsighted President, Mr Ftlix 
Houpbouet-Boigny- 

In this country, which in 1960 only had limited m«»nc of 
communication , an capon trade of agricultural products, and 
where almost the entire population lived in a rural milieu, the 
public authorities, immediately after Isdependance, devoted 
themselves to setting up the necessary substructures and 
services which would become the means and support of 
national development while at the same time establishing a new 
life style for its residents, an urban lifestyle. 

The freedom of movement as regards persons and goods 
encouraged by a liberal social and economic organization has, 
among other things, given rise to the development of post and 
telecommunications operations through (he ~m<?rallarmn of 
modem techniques similar to those of the industrial nations. 

A quick glance at the different sectors of activity covered within 
a single ministerial department for public works, construction, 
post and telecommunications makes it possible to point out the 
most si gnifican t achievements which have supported and 
accompanied the development of the Ivory Coast over the last 
25 years. 

Public Works and Transport 

Since 1960, the aim of this sector has been to install a reliable 
and inexpensive rapid communication network which would 
serve the remote rural areas, facilitate trade and cooperation 
while at the same time reduce regional imbalances and help 
strengthen national unity. 

■ ■ Over the twenty-five years, during which the number of motor 


vehicles has increased tenfold, the road netway has been 
increased by 25,000 km and its quality improved considerably, 
in particular as regards the 3,600 km asphalted highway 
compared to 680 km in 1960. 

Those who have particularly benefited from the State’s efforts 
in this field are, the South West by virtue of the installations 
around the Fort of San P£dro in this region and the North with 
the two important North-South routes which have been 
constructed. 



A. Bary-Baaesd, Minister of Public Works, Construction, 
Posts and Telecommunications 

~ Photo: Fatal Matouachi 

The national and international railway network 
(Abidjan-Ouagadougou) has been modernized and the traffic 
has increased by 2.4 tonAflometre and by 3.8 
passenger/kilometre. 

The equipping of the Port of Abidjan and the creation of San 


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OFFICE DES POSTES ET 
TELECOMMUNICATIONS 

The development of postal operations is basically illustrated by a more efficient 
service throughout die territory and by a considerable effort to adapt to consumer 
requirements. 

The national sorting office, recently constructed in Abidjan, will facilitate both an 
increase in the handling capacity of mail and packages and accelerate distribution. 
3,700 telephone subscriber lines in I960, 48,000 at present plus 2,400 telex tines; 
these figures alone show the progress made. 

An ambitious investment programme, carried out through the five-year 
programmes, supported by the confidence of the bilateral and international 
organisms, has made it possible to develop a wide-ranging substructure towards the 
centre of the country: within a Tew months time, the potential capacity of the 
automatic exchanges wifi reach 80,000 subscribers. 

The most advanced techniques have been put into operation: limited duration 
electronic exchange (fifty percent of the 35,000 subscribers take advantage of this 
facility), pocket radio-telephones, electronic messages, transmission of data, 
however, the most important development has been at international level The 
Ivory Coast has had a share in the submarine cable networks to Europe and South 
America, and has' always been in favour of the Intelsat organization for satellite 
telecommunication. Its 600 international tines which share these two techniques, 
ensure the Ivory Coast of excellent direct lines with around forty other countries. 
For the moment, the international economic situation and the need to strengthen a 
few weak points within this extensive network, as soon as possible, have resulted in 
a certain caution as regards investment, but the schedule for 1995-2005 which is 
currently being drawn up, provides the opportunity for a fresh increase using the 
most recent developments in technology to their best advantage. 

For further information please contact 

Office des Postes et Telecommunications 

BP: V 153 

Abidjan, Ivory Coast 
Tel: 34 68 68 Telex: 23790 


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SOTRA 

Societe des Transports Abidjanais 
Abidjan Transport Company 

1,100 vehicles - 6,000 employees — 240 million passeng e r operation 
37 billion FCFA operating budget 42.5 trillion FCFA accrued investments to 30.9.84 

A muted investment company with a capital of 3, billion FCFA- 
Ivory Coast Government, 60%— Renault Group, 40% 

SOTRA is a concessionary company dealing exclusively with general 
public transport in the city of Abidjan. This transport consists of several services. 


88 


The Urban Service 

The urban network consists of SI lines operating 610 
modem buses, 100 seat Renault S 105’s. 

Route length 742 km; 800,000 passengers carried per day m 
(he course of 9,000 journeys representing 131,000 km. 

Taxi-Luggage Service 

With 45 17-seater Renault SG2 minibuses and 2 specially 
equipped S 105’s, this service ensures that trips between 
Abidjan ami the suburbs are well provided for. 

Lagoonal or Boat-Bus Service 
With 14 boats in operation served by 2 shuttle lines between 
the town centre and the Plateau du Banco, 25,000 
passengers are transported per day in the course of 450 
crossings. 

School and University Service 
With 107 50-scater Renault SM8 buses and 35 Renault S105 
standard buses, service ensures the transport of students 

(between campus and university balls) and also serves 8 
secondary schools. 

Special Tourist Services 

Outside the concession, SOTRA provides a certain number 
of personnel services; employees of air companies, private 
educational establishments, etc. 

Likewise, it furnishes almost all the tourist transporrwnn 14 
specialized coaches, 5 of which are air-conditioned, as well 
as a specially • equipped boat bus. It offers excursions, 
organized crips or, on request, conference transport, etc 


Substructure and Equipment 
SOTRA has 7 depots at its disposal each catering for 
between 180 and 200 vehicles, one of which is stSl undo: 
construction. These are distributed throughout the city and 
deal with all the various activities of the company in a 
decentralized manner (maintenance, running, accounts, 
personnel, social and medical affairs). It also has central 
mechanical and coach building workshops. 

SOTRA has 3 lagoonal stations available for development as 
well as control stations, one of which was completely 
refurbished in 1984 with another underway for 1985. 14 
terminals are to be fined with bays, offices and signposts. 
The fleet will increase to 1,088 vehicles and 19 boats in 1985 
which will indude 
880 Renault S 105 100- seaicr buses 
124 Renault 5M8 50-seaier buses 
63 Renault SG2 17-scatcr minibuses 
21 Renault coaches with various capacities 
Investment at 30 September 1984 amounted to 42 billion 
FCFA of which 28.5 bfitioo is accounted for by vehicles on 
the road. 

The Future 

In the years ahead SOTRA. wfll be paying particular 
attention to the growth of Abidjan. (2.5 million in 1990 to 10 
million in the year 2000) which trill make it necessary to 
formulate plans for a new type of heavy transport, such as an 
urban rail service, which is currently being studied. 


P£dro have meant a very significant growth on goods trade (x 
5.5 from I960 to 1983). 

Air traffic has likewise multiplied (x 12.6 for passenger traffic) 
which required the extension of the airports in Abidjan and 
Bouake, the creation of an airport in Yamoussoukro as well as 
several other regional airports. 

The installation of all these substructures closely linked to the 
growth in trade has not only made it possible to satisfy 
immediate demand, but also, in many cases, anticipate the 
future by providing the country with a well proportioned and 
functional system of communication and transport. 

Construction and Town Planning 

One of the most predominant features in the recent history of 
the Ivory Coast is the development of urban centres. Compared 
to certain other countries in Black Africa, the Ivory Coast 
possessed no real urban centres prior to the 1900’s and the 
colonial authorities only set up a few administrative centres in 
the first half of the century. 

The rapid progress of economic activities and the installation of 
important facilities such as the railway and the construction of a 
deep water port, encouraged the growth of commercial urban 
areas Hke Abidjan, orientated towards trade. 

While the urban population in 1960 amounted to only 600,000 
inhabitants, in 1985 almost 4 million out of a population of 9 
million live in towns. 

The development of the national territory must therefore 
necessarily involve the creation of a graded urban network, 
harmoniously distributed and perfectly controlled. 

Thus, the main agglomerations were provided with town 
p lanning projects, 100,000 urban and rural dwellings were 
constructed with State aid, 137 agglomerations were supplied 
with drinking water, and the total number of village wells and 
drilling programmes has increased from 500 to 7,800. 

In addition to the particular effort which has been made in 
respect of Abidjan in order to provide it with the substructures 
necessary for a town of more than 2 million inhabitan ts (for 
example the transport network which caters for 240 million 
passengers per annum), two towns have experienced 
exceptional progress: San P&dro in the South West and, in 


particular, Yamoussoukro in the centre which has been 
provided with the facilities necessary for fulfilling its role as a 
political and administrative capital. In the same way, the urban 
policy followed has been resolutely orientated towards the 
future in order to prepare for the Ivory Coast 25 years hence 
with a population of 30 million of whom 20 milli on will be dry 

dwellers. Personnel Training 

Whatever the range of material facilities in operation, any 
establishment which does not provide for the training of its 
personnel is. doomed to failure. In this respect, the Ivory Coast 
has made considerable efforts. 

Two large schools handle the Draining of engineers and 
technicians for equipment and communications: the Higher 
National School of Post and Telecommunications (L’Ecolc 
Suptfrieure des Postes et Telecommunications) and the Higher 
National School of Public Works (L’Ecole Sup&rieurc des 
Travaux Publics). The latter, in particular, which has .been 
recently established and is provided with the most sophisticated 
installations, is one of the finest examples of training 
establishments in the country. 

These two schools are one of the most important resources in 
the policy to train Ivory Coast personnel and make it possible to 
meet the basic needs of public and private business. 

The world economic crisis which has had a serious effect on the 
developing countries and which the Ivory Coast could not avoid 
totally, may be seen, in some respects, to have had a positive 
side. 

The pause in expansion meant that it became necessary to 
investigate a more efficient method of operating the existing 
installations, to conserve and ensure the maintenance of the 
substructures and to re-organize and improve the public and 
semi-public sectors with a view to obtaining the very best 
return possible; an attitude which was often lacking. 

In taking this approach, the Ivory Coast is effectively preparing 
itself for the economic revival by establishing conditions which 
will favour national investment and encourage the finanre from 
abroad which is, and which will continue to be, absolutely 
necessary for a developing country resolutely looking towards 
the future. 



SONITRA 

Societe Nationale Ivoirienne 
de Travaux 



Fernand Kouadio Konun 
Chairman 


Lazar Orensiein 
Director General 


SONITRA is a mixed investment company in which the Ivoty Coast State holds a majority of 
shares. Us initial capital of 100 million CFA Francs in 1963 has seen successive increases taking it 
up to 2,272 million CFA Francs in 1979. 

in 1979 the annual turnover was 37 billion CFA Francs of which 26 billion was attributed to the 
building sector and SONITRA became the leading building^and public construction firm in the 
Ivory Coast. 

During its twenty-one years of operation, SONITRA has contributed to the training of 
specialized Ivory Coast executives and employees, and especially to the training of thousands of 
staff in various sectors of our sphere of activity, some of whom have been with our company from 
the time it was established until the present. 

Apart from large-scale and sometimes monumental projects SONITRA has always been capable 
of executing multiple work programmes throughout the country, often within very short periods 
of time. 

Even today, despite the current economic conditions, SONITRA has managed to concentrate its 
efforts and resources to secure Invitations to Tender for, among others; The cathedral in 
Abidjan, the Notre-Dame D’Afrique Sanctuary, the Fratemite-Matin extension and the 
Yamoussoukro-JBouake, Bouake-Botro and Adzope-Bdtie roads. 

It can be taken that SONITRA has overcome the crisis which the Ivory Coast experienced over 
recent years and is ready and dedicated to the continued use of all its resources in order to 
contribute to the development of the country. 

“ Once again we shall reach the crest of the hill . " 

Mixed Investment Company 
Ivory Coast Government: 55 % Solel Boneh: 45 % 

Capital: 2,272,000,000 FCFA 

Address: 01 BP: 2609 - Abidjan 01 - Route d’Abobo 
Telephone: 39 05 00/37 13 68/37 18 00 Telex: 24105/30100 


It was on 28 March 1961 in Yaounde that eleven Heads of 
Sbne and Government (the Caxnarocns, Central Africa, -the 
Congo, the Ivory Coast, Gabon, Dahomey (now Benin), 
Upper Volta (now Bouridna Fasso), Mauritania, Niger, 
Senegal and Chad) signed the treaty on “African Air 
Transport" creating a joint, multinational air' transport 
company. In Abidjan cm 16 June 1961, the joint company 
legally came into being and was named: 

Air Afrique was bom. 

The main reason behind the creation of Air Afrique was 
the combination of resources by these young independent 
States, foregoing the expensive prestige of a national flag 
carrier, in order to set up a reliable means of air transport 
as regards inter-African pnti intercontinental fining and, at 
die same time, taking a step towards regio n al integration 
and African unity. 

Togo signed the Treaty in March 1968. The Camezoons 
and Gabon polled out of Air Afrique to create their own 
national companies in 1971 and 1977 respectively. 




Unenouvehepuissanca 


Aonssou KotS, President and Director General 

of Air Afri(jue Photo: Fathi Mahouachi 

Resources 

Air Afrique could not exist without the air traffic rights 
which constitute freedom of movement in the air. As a 
result of the member States placing their air traffic rights at 
the disposal of Air Afrique, the company possesses 
exceptional resources from this point of view ensuring its 
future expansion. 

Its network, the most extensive among the African airline 
companies, covers 119,450 km and consists o£ 
a transatlantic network of 6,260 km; 
an inter-state network of 27,700 km; 
an intercontinental network (Eurcpe-Afdca) 
of 85,500 km. 

The network covers 19 African countries providing a 
regular service and also links the continent to France, 
Italy, Switzerland, the Federal Republic of Germany and 
the United States. 

Flight schedules play a most important role as they 
constitute the main sales point They are fixed annually 
with a view to achieving better network operation and 
capacity. By adopting the ALPHA HI system, Air Afrique 
has chosen to rely on electronic methods and automation 
which axe more efficient, reliable and rapid Than a 
dependence on human capabilities. 

Despite occasional setbacks, Air Afrique has been very 
successful and is a fine example of African cooperation 
and solidarity. 





















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At left, a merchant’s 
house in Grand 
Bassam; above, an . 
open-air gatfaeimg in 
Abidjan; right, an 
Ivory Coast fresco. 




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Government Hopes to Increase Tourism by Putting Quality Before Quantity 




ABIDJAN — The Belgian woman and I 
sat in the bottom of the pirogue, a long, low 
canoe hewn from an enormous log. We glided 
up the river as two smiling Attifc youths poled 
ns through swirling rapids ana still, deep 
pools cm our way to the sacred falls of Agbos- 
soko. 

Along the way we passed women -washing 
clothes, small boys fishing , footpaths leading 
into the dense underbrush. Overhead, bam- 
boo trees and other jungle foliage partly ob- 
scured the sunlight and made the trip a cod 
one despite the heat of die day. Birds 
screeched and hummed in the humid air. We 
felt far away from the urban rumble of Abi- 
djan. 

Later, after a delicious meal of kedjenou 
(chicken steamed with vegetables and spices), 


attieke (a couscous-like dish made from cas- 
sava) and pounded yams, we sat on bamboo 


benches and watched Gve women perform a 
dance to protect and purify the children of 


dance to protect and purify the children of 
the village. Despite their gap-toothed smiles, 
the dancers lowed ghostly in their white 
robes and face paint. Five burly drummers 
provided the percussion while the women 
sang and knocked sticks together in a spell- 
binding rhythm. Hie dancers pounded forest 
leaves mto a bright green paste, then smeared 
it on several surprised and teaiy babies. This, 
we were told, would cure the ills of the village 

children 

The pirogue ride and other activities were 
part of a one-day tour offered by CATH 
Tours, one of a half-dozen private tour 
groups in Ivory Coast Their one- to five-day 


trips take tourists to every comer of the 
country. A tourism carter run under (be aus- 
pices of the Ministry of Tourism offers simi- 
lar trips. 

“Tourism in the Ivory Coast is more than 
just a beach,” said the center's interim direc- 
tor, Michel Akonn. “We believe in offering 
tourism with a human face. Our main re- 
source is our people and their cultures.'* With 
about 60 different ethnic groups, the country 
has a diverse range of music, dress, architec- 
ture and traditions to be discovered by the 
tourist 

Ivory Coast has more than 80 two- and 
three-star holds throughout the country; all 
are easily accessible by one of the best-devel-. 


oped road systems in West Africa. If you 
dislike tour groups you can rent a car, take a 


bus or, if yon are feeling adventurous, pile 
into a taxi brousse — a station-wagon bush 
tan, the mam component of West Africa's 
rural mass t ransi t system. 

There is rail service from Abidjan to Bour- 
kina Fasso. Air I voire flies to eight regional 
towns from Abidjan. There are many tilings 
to see in the countiyside, such as stilt dancers 
in the Zala, the masks of Man, the enormous 
traditional market in Bouake and the Combe 
'National Park, where elephants, monkeys, 
birds and antelope are plentiful 

There are golf courses, tennis courts and 
swimming pods galore in Ivory Coast, and, 
not far from Abidjan, the beaches rival those 
of the Caribbean. Chib Meditenanfie and 
Valtour have vacation centers near Assime. 

Abidjan is a thoroughly modem city that 


has not forgotten its African roots. Shopping 
in the m«nn»t of TreidrviHe, which was the 
first large African settlement in Abidjan, is 
an experience not to be missed. Restaurants 
in the capital offer everything from European 
and Middle Eastern food to Caribbean and 
Oriental dishes. Or you can try one of the 
colorful maquis, where Abidjanais eat spicy 
African dishes washed down with cold local 
beer. At night, Trdchville jumps to the music 
of New York, Paris, Kinshasa and Lagos. 

It may seem surprising that a country with 
so much to offer attracted only 200,000 tour- 
ists last year, including business visitors. But 
Africa has yet to see the fare wars that made 
the trans-Atlantic travel boom; travel to, 
from and around Africa is not cheap. Private 
tourist agencies say that until airlines such as 


Air Afrique offer discount fares (an unlikely • ", 
prospect), tourism will be slow to rise: 

The Ivorian government’s philosophy is 
that “quality” (read high-spending) viators - - 
are preferable to the “quantify” of mass tour-., 
ism. The government hopes to increase tour- : 
ism S percent next year, in part by offering 
prepaid package tours. Officials are also wor- ; . 
ried that catering to large numbers of foreign-' 
ers might disrupt traditional ways of Me 

Private agencies such as CATH say the; 
volume of tourism could be higher if cheaper ' - 
packages could be offered. They are trying to" _• 
organize charter flights with groups in En- - 
rope, noting that, once you arrive, Ivory : 
Coast is not very expensive to visit, and there ; . 
is plenty to see and do 

— RICHARD EVERETT" 


•«* * . 




v nan* 



Lower Coffee and Cocoa Prices Underline Pressing Need for Crop Diversification 


*- 1 

- ** 


ABIDJAN — The days when Ivory Coast 
could rely on coffee and cocoa to finance eco- 
nomic growth are over, and Ivorian officials 
acknowledge that agricultural diversification is 
long overdue. 

The two crops provided up to SO percent of 
the country's export earnings in past years.. 
Prices have been softening since the peak year of 
1977-1978, though, and extensive replanting 
needs to be danejust to maintain current yields. 
Efforts to diversify the cash-crop economy have 
met with varying degrees of success. High hopes 
for sugar were dashed by falling worid prices, 
but rubber, cotton and other crops have proved 
successful small-scale cash earners. 


Declining world prices have eroded the gov- 
ernment’s income from the two crops and have 


severely diminished planters' real purchasing 
power. Migration of laborers to the city, 
drought, bush fires and aging plantations have 
contributed to the drops in production of coffee 
and cocoa. Cocoa production, fell to 355,000 
tons from a high of 470,000 tons in the 1981- 
1982 season (October to September). Coffee 
production in 1983-1984 was 270,000 tons, 
down from 365.000 tons in 1980-1981. 


The government is stepping up its campaign 
> revitalize the two industries. A total of 15 


to revitalize the two industries. A total of 15 
billion Ivorian francs was earmarked last year as 
cash bemuses for fanners who replanted older 


Established during the colonial era, the coffee 
and cocoa industries are composed mostly of 
small-scale Ivorian planters in the center and 
sooth of the country. The planters sell their 
harvest at a fixed price to the state-run market- 
ing board. Caistab (for Caisse de Stabilisation), 
which in turn sells them on the world market. 


plots. After holding producer prices at 300 
francs a kilogram for four years, the government 


francs a kilogram for four years, the government 
raised prices twice in the last year, they are now 


390 francs for coffee and 370 francs a kilogram 
for cocoa. 

A senior agricultural official said the long- 
term goal was to maintain present acreage and 
yields (this year’s targets are 450,000 tons for 


cocoa and 300,000 tons for coffee) while im- 
proving the qualify of harvests with more strin- 
gent sorting procedures. The official acknowl- 
edged, however, that long-term economic 
growth could not rely solely on cocoa and oof- 
fee. 

Negotiations are under way for a new Inter- 
national Cocoa Agreement The previous agree- 
ment was rendered ineffective when the world’s 
largest producer. Ivory Coast, and the world’s 
largest consumer, the United States, both re- 
fused to sign the agreement Ivory Coast has 
maintained that consumer prices must be high 
enough to allow the recouping of production 
costs, while the United States has advocated a 
free-market approach. 

In order to reduce dependence on cocoa and 
coffee, the World Bank has encouraged Ivory 
Coast to diversify its cash-crop production. One 
expen noted that the Ivorians were making 
headway, although there have been sane set- 
backs. Gambling on high sugar prices in the 
early 1970s, the country invested heavily in 


sugar production. The government hoped to 
make sugar a major cash earner, with annual 
yields of up to 600,000 tons projected for the 
mid-1980s. 

Then sugar prices fell, and the project was 
further hampered by inexperienced manage- 
ment. There were also allegations of corruption 
in the awarding of construction and supply 
contracts. The state-owned Sodesucre company 
closed two of the country’s six refineries after 
producing only 180,000 tons in 1983. Officials 


culture, extensive cutting for firewood and in- 
sufficient reforestation have contributed to the 
rapid rate of deforestation. Furthermore, 


French researchers point to a direct parallel 
between the feUing or Ivory Coast’s once exten- 


say that, once reorganized, the industry would 
provide for Ivorian sugar demand and that only, 
a small amount of export income from sugar' 
was to be expected. 

The country’s No. 3 export industry, lumber, 
has also been in trouble. The world recession 
has reduced demand and prices for Ivorian 
wood, and the country’s exploitable timber has 
been disappearing at an alarming rate, from an 
estimated 16 million hectares (39.3 million 
acres) at independence in 1960 to barely 4 
milli on hectares today. Encroachment of agri- 


betweeo the Felling of Ivory Coast’s once exten- 
sive forests and the dramatic decline in rainfall 
in the last 20 years. 

With the help of Canada and the World Bank, 
the government has increased tree replanting. 
Government officials say they hope to main tain 
lumber production levels of about two million 
tons annually while improving lumber qualify 
through closer monitoring of cutting and dry- 
ing. 


rubber trees reach maturity. Most of the $ 
try’s crude rubber is exported, although a 
amount is retained for local production of t- 
tresses and tires. 

The palm industry is also doing wdL Sa 
holder planters are gradually increasing aof 
while the state-run Palmindustric is bead 
to replant its older plantations. Officials t 
that most Ivorian palm oil is used locally. 


cooking, or as soap produced by U: 
horn, a subsidiary of Unilever. 

Cotton output is also on the rise, due inj 
to increased prices paid to growers. Gan 
ment officials say the growth m cotton proc 
tion will provide a good source of income 
inhabitants of the and northern savanna. 

Pineapple production soared last year; 
cord 120,000 tons are to be exported, op 
80,000 tons in 1983. Ivory Coast has alto; 
success with a variety of smaller export a 
including bananas, avocados, citrus fruits;, 
nuts and tropical flowers. 

RICHARD 


The Ivorians have had success with their 
young rubber industry. The World Bank has 
helped the country’s two parastatal rubber com- 


panies to increase acreage and yield on their 
plantations in southwest Ivory Coast. Output 
for 1984 is expected to be 34,000 tons, roughly 
double 1978 production, and yields are expected 
to increase in coining years as recently planted 




k 1 *- 



It 


, ' W" , 


Banana plantation and workers at Agbovflle. 


bmDauGM 


Rice fanner and harvest 


A Shift in Agricultural Planning Toward Self-Sufficiency in Food Production 


• - wm 




ABIDJAN — Agricultural experts say that, 
while Ivory Coast had a ratio of two rural 
inhabitants to one city dweller in 1975, by 1990 
that ratio will be 0.8 to one. But decisions bring 
made by a new generation of Ivorians are not 
the only factors creating difficulties for Ivorian 
government efforts to achieve food self-suffi- 
ciency. 

An Ivorian fanner producing coffee or cocoa 
earns the equivalent of S 6 to 58 a day, A rice 
grower, however, will bring in about $2 and is 
not guaranteed the buyers and marketing sys- 
tem provided for export-crop producers. 


Rice imports alone have nearly tripled in the 
last decade and in 1983 they cost the govern- 
ment about 595 million. 


The decision this year to reduce rice imports 
by about 100,000 tons to 280,000 tons got front- 
page coverage locally. It is part of the Ministry 
of Rural Development's program to increase 
domestic rice production. 

The very creation of the Ministry of Rural 
Development in 1983 reflected the govern- 
ment's recognition that the camp aig n to grow 
more food mould be under direction separate 
from the Ministry of Agriculture, whose main 
efforts are concentrated on export crops. 

The government’s "Emergency Rice Pro- 
gram” involves large-scale clearing and prepara- 
tion of land for irrigated rice production. This 
provides yields about four times greater than 
those of rain-fed rice, which now accounts for 
about 60 percent of the country’s domestic rice 
production. 

Introducing irrigated rice production also im- 
plies tne introduction or new technology and 


Choices made by individual farmers reflect the 
orientation of their government. Even before 


orientation of their government. Even before 
independence in I960, the Ivorian leadership 
was pursuing a strategy of export-led growth 
based on coffee, cocoa and, later, rubber, palm 
oil, sugar and tropical fruits. Expat revenue 
provided the capital to partly finance an ambi- 
tious investment program, but in 1983 close to 
20 percent of the country’s import bill was still 
absorbed by food and animal products. 


more demanding cultivation techniques. Gov- 
ernment rural development ag^ndgs will have 
an increased role to play in providing extension 
services. 

Plans are unda way to divide the country into 
four regional zones to permit better-coordinated 
control of decentralized activities. 

Innovations such as the opening 19 of new 
fields and the use of heavy equipment and dams 
wiU mean that farmers who are accustomed to 
tilling their own plots win have to form groups 
to take advantage of state assistance. 

Larger units will also ensure the availability 
of large quantities of rice in collection areas. The 


ares-of land and grow only enough food for their 
family’s, consumption. Larger fanners have 
lacked incentive to produce more rice since 
there has been no guarantee that they will be 
able to sell it Whoa buyers do appear, they 
often pay less than the government’s fixed rate. 


government is trying to encourage the private 
sector to take over the marketing of food crops, 
but the prospect of having to take a truck 
through hundreds of kilometers of bush to pick 
up an odd sack or two from an individual 
producer is seen as a major obstacle to improved 
marketing. 

Eighty percent of Ivorian farmers are small 
producers who cultivate no more than two heel- 


ers growing greater amounts of food also im- 
plies policies to attract new, younger producers 
to the land. 

But agricultural officials admit that they are 
not in a financial position to fulfill the demands 
of young farmers who usually wont quick re- 
turns, good land, extensive government assis- 
tance and a decent social Hfe in the virimty. 

With diminishing manpower in general, the 
government has seen a need to modernize the 
agricultural system. Less than 10 percent of 
fanners use tractors. A further 10 percent em- 
ploy animal power. Clement Assem, director of 
the government's Agricultural Mechanization 
Agency, said limited financial resources meant 
that the government would have to devote most 


of its efforts to improving basic farming tech- 
niques, such as better use of the soil and fertiliz- 
ers, while it helps larger farms to better utilize 
animal power and obtain access to equipment. 

Substantial investments have also been made 
to develop better varieties of rice, com and other 
food crops. But while rice consumption has 
risen because of demands of urban dwellers who 
peed an easily prepared food —as well as by an 
influx of immigrants who are traditionally rice 
eaters — consumption of food crops such as 
plantains, yams and manioc is still strong 

The seasonal nature of these crops, as well as 
the lack of economical conservation methods, 
means that at some times of year food lies 
rotting while at others there are shortages. With- 
out fixed producer prices for these crops, farm- 
ers’ earnings also fluctuate accordingly. The 
government’s rural development agency, SO- 
DEFEL, which is responsible for vegetable 
products, is experimenting with dryers poten- 
tially capable of conserving traditional food 
crops at a reasonable cost. 


The minister of rural development, Gifek 
uibhout Vallv. announced recently that Iwi 


Laubhout Vally. announced recently that I' 
Coast would be able to satisfy its own f 
needs by the end of this year — a highly optb 
tic assessment implying a costly and well 
chestrated program to achieve changes at 
points of the food system. 

Technical advisers in the Ministry of Ago 
turepoini out that the cost of promoting iro 
ed nee production mean that the country 
produce rice at twioeibe cost of imported vai 
ies. But achieving food self-sufficiency is ap 
ical goal aimed at lessening dependence 
external sources and providing programs 
stem the drift of people to the ttties. 

For much oE the country’s history, gow 
ment extension agencies have brought messr 
of assured prices, marketing and assistance 
export crops. These agmeies arc being asko 
give equal emphasis, U not more, to food < 
which, as in the case of rice, demand more 
and tune than perennial coffee and 0000 a ert 
. — LYSE-DOUC 


v./f 


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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, SATURDAY-SUNDAY, MARCH 9-10, 1985 


Page 13 




ADVERTISEMENT 


ADVERTISEMENT 



Tourist Industry 
regarded 
as priority sector 


e Quantity 


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S ince 1970, the tourist 
industry has been 
classified as a prior- 
ity sector in the Ivory 
Coast economy after agri- 
culture 'and industry. The 
Ivory Coast has therefore 
made considerable invest- 
ments. As regards holiday 
villages: there are two, 
(Assinfc and Assoninde) 
which are equal to any to 
be found, in othier count- 
ries and which are operat- 
ed by. two companies, one 
of which is French and 
the other Italian. . 

Among hotels of high 
standing there is the 
H6tel : Ivoire, the 
Sebroko, the President (in 
Yamoussoukro), the Golf 
and recently die Hilton 
International in Abidjan. 
As regards hotels of inter- 
national class, the Ivory 
Coast is well provided 
for. 

As for as hotels in the middle 
range are concerned, the last 
few yean have seen the addi- 
tion of Has I and II, the Hotel 
Hamanieh, the Hama, etc... a 
series of . most attractive 
hotels. Hotels in the lower 
range are at present the prior- 
ity concern of those respons- 
ible in the Tourist Sector who 
are making an effort to divers- 
ify and supply tourist facilities 
at prices to suit all pockets: 
village guest houses as well as 
one and two star holds. 

The highway infrastructure 
has been developed through- 
out the country facilitating 
access to every area. The Gov- 
ernment of the Ivory Coast is 
one of the few among African 
countries who have made a 
major effort, and the Minister 
for Tourism in die Ivory 
Coast has stated that the rime 
has come to look towards pri- 
vate initiative. Moreover, this 
is what the Government of the 


Ivory Coast has been doing 
for some years now - its role 
being currently played in the 
Organization of activities in 
the professional spheres and 
the encouragement of promo- ‘ 
tion for the country. 

It should be noted r frar the 
tourist industry is one of the 
sectors which is most rep- 
resentative of the Ivory Coast. 
More than 90% of the facili- 
ties may be attributed to the 
Ivory Coast itself. The same 
applies to the employees. 

The only concern for the sec- 
tor at present fa the lack of 
tourists. The reason for this, 
according to professional opi- 
nion, is first of all because the 
Ivory Coast is quite an expen- 
sive destination and secondly 
because of the lack of certain 
air routes. (For example: to 
go to Kenya firpm the Ivory 
Coast it is sometimes neces- 
sary co travel via Europe.) 
These two major problems 
were discussed at the 30th 
S.N.A.V. Conference (Syn- 
dics National des Agents du 
Voyage Frangsis - National 
Union of French Travel 
Agents), which was held dur- 
ing the month of October in 
Abidjan, attended by the 
Ministers for Tourism of the 
participating States in “Air 
Afrique”. 

As for as ground facilities are 
concerned, the Ivory Coast is 
relatively inexpensive. In res- 
ponse to criticism of high 
prices, those in charge of 
tourism in the Ivory Coast 
point out that the cost of one 
night in die Hfitel Ivoire is 
clearly less than in similar 
hotels in Gabon, the Camer- 
oons, Morocco or Tunisia, 
which nevertheless continue 
to attract large numbers of 
tourists. They stress, how- 
ever, that the standard of ser- 
vice provided by each categ- 
ory erf hotel has to be taken 
into account. Those responsi- 
ble are of the opinion that the 


problem is one of organiza- 
tion. 

In the Ivory Coast, span from 
the State related companies 
there are no private agencies; 
companies who handle busi- 
ness and commercial transac- 
tions freely in the tourist sec- 
tor. Travel agencies appear to 
be just offices for the sale of 
rickets. Changes need to be 
made in this respect. By en- 
couraging more and more 
conferences, which are fi- 
nanced by those who are in 
the profession themselves, the 
influx of tourists will give rise 
to the creation of such com- 
panies and thus allow the pro- 
blem to be overcome. 


important contribution to International 

Maritime Affairs 


The Ivory Coast has been 
elected several rimes in the 
person of hs Minister for 
S hi pping, Ship's Captain, 
Lamine Fadika, as spokes- 
man for the 125 member 
countries of C.N.U.CJB.D. 
and for 77 of them on ques- 
tions concerning maritime 
affairs. 

This was another token of ad- 
miration from the internation- 
al community for President 
Felix Houphouet-Boigny and 
his government for the effort 


put into achieving more effic- 
ient control of die -national 
maritime service and accelera- 
ting, on international, nation- 
al and regional levels, the ad- 
vent of a new worldwide 
shipping system. 

The Ivory Coast Minister for 
Shipping is deeply concerned 
about the serious imbalance 
which exists, first of all, in the 
sector of bulk solid and liquid 
cargoes which represents 
more than two thirds of the 
internatio nal maritime traffic 


tonnage; secondly, in the field 
of naval construction which 
currently shows a surplus cap- 
acity with the growth in the 
number of vessels during this 
period of stagnation and 
crisis; thirdly, in the sector of 
the open registration of ves- # 
sels which currently concerns , 
almost one third of ships 
worldwide. 

As an expert in maritime 
affairs and a top-rate technic- 
ian, the Minister, Mr. 
Fadika, has always been in 


favour of significant participa- 
tion by the developing count- 
ries in the transport of bulk 
cargoes. He reaffirmed the 
adherence of the 77 members 
of the group to the principle 
of an authentic economic 
bond between the vessels and 
the Flag States and the 
collective, corresponding 
gradual conversion from open 
registers to normal registers. 
He also again underlined the 
determination of the develop- 
ing countries to encourage the 



M . Lamine Fadika 
progress of their general and 
bulk fleets with a view to 
achieving their goal of a 20% 
participation in worldwide 
shipping by the year 1990. 


^fvoire 

INTERCONTINENTAL 

BOULEVARD DE LA CORNICHE 
08 P.O BOX 1 - ABIDJAN 08 - IVORY COAST 
TEL 1225J 44.10.45 - TELEX 23555/23493 




a 



CD 


' '% 


HDTSX. 

AN INTERCONTINENTAL HOTEL 

LA RIVERIA. 08 P.O. BOX 18 ABIDJAN 08 
IVORY COAST 

TEL 1225) 43.10.44 TELEX 26112 





■QQ 








£&--■- 


* I D 1 * 




L £F* 


750 rooms with coiourT.V. and video French/ English, 
with 24 hours Reuters World News and stock excha nge. 

^ 5 restaurants, & 4 bars, caf6,^* casino, 2 pools, 

7 tennis courts, flfflfeaO bowling, golf courses, 
ice skating,o3£5 x i) > gardens and lake, shopping arcade. 




hacj Cinema, Night club, heliport. 

Business center with Telefax Houphouet-Boigny Congress Center 
14 conference rooms tor up to 2000 persons 

(siflMjtmnaotu translation) 

Welcome desk at airport, airport-hotel shuttle service- 
Reservations 

can be made at any Intercontinental Hotel 
or Pan American office worldwide 
Hotel Ivoire Paris sales office 
m : 268.12.13 or 265.67.10 Telex 670738 


18 Hole championship Golf course 
PAR 73 - 6645 metres 

9 Hole public Golf course 
PAR 36 -2845 metres 

Club House : supper-club, grill room. Brasserie, billard, 
bridge and video rooms, 2 swimming pools plus a children 
pool, health club, sauna. 2 squash courts, jaccuzi bath, nur- 
sery and junior club. 

OB P.O BOX 01 ABIDJAN 08 
TEL (225) 43.08.44 - TELEX 23555 


> ii*** 


On the shores of the Ebrie lagoon, i n the Riviera residential 
area, superbly sited among landscaped gardens. 

306 air-conditioned rooms with balcony, radio and color 
television with closed circuit movies. 

2 Restaurants. 2 Bars, 1 Tea Room, Conference Rooms. 

Free bus shuttle to city center, welcome service at the air- 
port with free transient to the hotel. 

Swimmingpool disneyland style, marina with white sand, 
windsurfing, waterskiing, tennis, ping-pong, volley-ball, 
boat excursions, shopping arcade. 


IN ABIDJAN THE ADVANTAGE IS INTER-CONTINENTAL 


/ 


_X0 *TUu 




4«ID1V* 


^ 4 



“Tourism is the best means of expressing our authentic and rare culture. Our ancestral traditions shall 
never be treated as objects of scorn in the Ivory Coast, neither shall our sensitivity be dealt any blow.” 


THE IVORY COAST 


FELIX HOUPHOUET-BOIGNY 
President of the Republic 


TOURISM 




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■d&Sftoig$ 

mm 




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The Ivory Coast, situated in the West of Africa, 
covers an area of 322,000 km 2 , and is bordered on 
the northern side by Bourkina Fasso and Mali, on the 
western side by Guinea and Liberia, on the eastern 
side by Ghana and on the southern side by the Atlan- 
tic Ocean. It has a population of approximately 
8,000,000 which is made up of more than 60 ethnic 
groups. 

The economic capital is Abidjan while 
Yamoussoukro is, and has been, since 1983, the 
political and administrative capital. 

As regards the tourist industry the Ivory Coast is 
developing thanks to the native inhabitants and their 
local crafts. The variety in the population and the 
richness of their craftsmanship and folklore explains 
this effort to develop the tourist industry. In spite of 
20 years exposure to the “Outside World”, tradition is 
still very much a way of life and has been preserved in 
great measure. 

There are 8 main areas regarded as tourist 
attractions. 

ZONE I: THE GRAND NORD (main northern 
sector): 

This area is situated around Korhogo, Boundiali and 
Odiennti. The richness of the folklore and craftsman- 
ship in this area is legendary. The traditional and 
initiation dances such as the M’BOLOHE (Dance of 
the Panther) and the N'GORON, taken from the Poro 
ritual, are part of the cultural and national heritage 
and attract particular attention. The Fakaha canvases, 
commonly known as the Korhogo canvas, the woven 
Waranj6n6 loin-cloths, the authentic village of 
Blessdguti, the Kawara Mosque and the Mosque of 
Kassoum barge are all sights of international renown. 

ZONE II: THE COMOE NATIONAL PARK: 

Hunting is not encouraged as part of the tourist 
industry and the “Bouna Reserve", so called because 
of its proximity to the town of Bouna, is an animal 
paradise. Every weekend Safari lovers descend on 
the Gansti Hotels and the Comoti Safari Lodge by the 
hundred. An escape which is weii worth the trouble 
after a week's work in the big centres. 

ZONE III: THE WEST OR YACOUBA 
COUNTRY: 

This is the mountainous region of the Ivory Coast 
with a strong, varied and deeply appreciated folklore 
tradition. The masques, the jugglers and the stilt- 
dancers of this region all bring to mind visions of 
deepest Africa. Man, Gouessesso, Danan£, Guiglo, 
Bdhoua, are synonymous with the bridges of Lianes, 
Cascades and Tematd. 

ZONE IV: THE CENTRE: 

Zone IV is the centre of the Ivory Coast. Here you 


can visit the Marahouti Park (lions, elephants, buffalo, 
hippopotami, etc), the artificial Kossou Lake and the 
impressive hydro-electro dam of the same name; 
Bouakti, the second town of this country, is a commer- 
cial and cosmopolitan city; Yamoussoukro, Bouaffa, 
Daloa and the region of the Baoufa Gouro and Bdtti 
ethnic groups have a rich artistic heritage. 

ZONE V: THE SOUTH WEST: 

The Atlantic coastline and the South Western 
region offer marvellous beaches plus the enormous 
Tai-Nzo Park, a unique combination in Africa since it 
is rich in various animal species and the vegetation 
peculiar to this area. It is, therefore, of the greatest 
interest not only from a scientific but also a touristic 
point of view. 

ZONE VI: 

This region is situated not far from Abidjan and 
includes the regions of Grand-Lahou (a small histori- 
cal village on the coast), Divo, Lakota and Gagnoa. 
There are many discoveries to be made here by the 
visiting tourist. 

ZONE VII: 

Abidjan, the capital, is a modem and expanding city 
bordered by the Ebriti lagoon and has its local 
markets, a museum, a zoo, a casino, a bowling alley 
and an ice rink. Abidjan, which has excellent accom- 
modation facilities, is the departure point for excur- 
sions to the villages bordering the lagoon and other 
areas of tourist interest in the interior. On the 
outskirts of Abidjan the Banco Park, which covers 
3,000 hectares, offers a rare opportunity for rest and 
relaxation. A little further on is the Azagny Reserve 
which can be reached easily by a short flight. 

ZONE VIII: 

Not far from Abidjan is Assinie, where one can find 
the best {seaside accommodation in the country. 

The holiday villages of Assinie Pub Mtiditerrange) 
and Assouindg situated between the sea and the 
lagoon offer the facilities of canoeing, water skiing, 
horse-riding and underwater fishing and, of course, 
there are always the beautiful sun-drenched beaches. 

But the riches of a country, be they natural or 
cultural, by themselves cannot make that country a 
first class tourist attraction if the basic hospitality 
which matches up to the standards of international 
tourism, does not exist. 

This is why the government has, over the past ten 
years, worked to ensure that the country has a basic 
structure of international standing. All the inter- 
national hotel chains are represented and Novote!, 
Hilton, Sofitel, PLM, Forum Hotels, Intercontinental 
Hotels and IBIS together offer more than 10,000 
rooms. 





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Page 14 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, SATURDAY-SUNDAY, MARCH 9-10, 1985 



agr 


A SPECIAL REPORT ON IVORY COAST 




iding 



J 



A painting commemorating Ivory Coast independence, above, and a rural market, below. 


Agra J*mc« 




lyscDouotf 


Lyta Dam 


Old and new architecture in Abidjan. 


Ivory Coast’s Communications Center Is Becoming a Hub for West Africa 


■r% 


Special (o (he IHT 

ABIDJAN — Ivory Coast marked a centenni- 
al last year, but the event passed virtually unno- 
ticed. This was an indication of the degree to 
which the science of telecommunications is tak- 
en for granted in a nation that has one of the 
most advanced telecommunications systems in 
Africa. 

In 1884, France completed the first telegraph 
line from Grand Bassom, then capital of Ivory 
Coast to Jacqueville and Grand Lahoue, two 
coastal economic centers to the west. Three 
years later, international communications were 
launched with the opening of a bureau of the 
West African Telegraph Company that was con- 
nected by underwater cable to Accra, in what is 
now Ghana. 

Over the next 20 years. Ivory Coast was 
gradually linked to the rest of West Africa. 
Telephone service was inaugurated between 
Grand Bassam and Accra in 1909. Direct tele- 
graph service with Monrovia, Conakry and Da- 
kar began in 1912. The first external radio link 
was completed in 1921. 

Development of the Ivorian system lagged 
behind that of more prosperous French colonies 
such as Senegal and Guinea. Direct radio links 


with Paris were established in 1943. The first 
automatic dialing system, equipped with 2,000 
tin?*, was installed in 1955. Only in 1959, the 
year before independence, was a national tele- 
communications office created as part of an 

: Cables. 


agreement with Compagoie France 1 


Since independence, however, Ivory Coast 
has not only developed i 


loped an internal communica- 
tions network that is the envy of its neighbors, 
but it has also become a major regional commu- 
nications center. The achievement is due in large 
part to what Ange-Fran$ois Bany-Battesd, 
minis ter of posts and telecommunications, de- 
scribed as a policy of considering telecommuni- 
cations to be a “privileged tool of economic 
development in a liberal- type economy.” 

That policy and considerable capital invest- 
ment have helped establish a national network 
of 45,000 telephone subscribers in a nation of 
nine milli on people. An dries and most major 
towns in Ivory Coast have telephone and tdex 
service, 90 percent of which is automated. The 
regional centers are linked fra - the most part by 
microwave. In Abidjan, 50 percent of the system 
is digitaL 

The national network is linked to the rest of 
the world by 500 international cable and satel- 
lite circuits, according to ministry technicians. 


Mora than half the established drants are with 
France, winch prorides many connections with 
the rest of the world. Ivory Coast has what 
iftffhniViarK call “direct relations” with 28 other 
nations. These indude 18 circuits with the Unit- 
ed States, 11 with Britain and direct links with 
12 African nations. 

In the late 1970s Ivory Coast inaugurated a 
data t ransmissi on service, SYTRAN (Syst&me 
T ransac tion el de Transmission de Donnfc), that 
is capable of linking the nation’s 1,000 comput- 
ers with tbe rest of the world. 

As Ivorian telecommunications enter its sec- 
ond century, Mr.Bany-Battesti said, the goal of 
the Ivorian government is to “strengthen and 
build upon the country’s telecommunications 
potential, so that it might benefit tbe entire 
nation." 

“The government is also preparing a new 
launching so that Ivory Coast and its African 
brothers can retain their place in the world of 
communications,” he said. This statement refers 
to renewed efforts to build an intra-African 
network, Panaftd, aimed at improving telecom- 
munications among African nations via satel- 
lite, microwave and cable links. International 
experts say Ivory Coast is “wdl on its way 


toward fulfilling its assigned tasks” under Pan- 
aftd. 

On the national level, tbe government is en- 
gaged in an extensive modernization and expan- 
sion program. Demand considerably exceeds 
supply. For example, the government believes 
the number of telephone subscribers will triple 
by 1990. It is working with a team from die 
In ternational Telecommunications Union to in- 
crease the capacity of the national network. A 
imm from British Tdconsull is advising on a 
modernization program for the system in Abi- 
djan, which serves 35,000 of the country’s' 
45,000 telephone customers. 

With financing from the African Develop- 
ment Tt«nk the government plans to install a 
digital central mtrhange system in downtown 
Abidjan and add 10,000 telephone outlets by 
1986. The system is designed to replace the 
electr omechanical “Pentaconta" exchange that 
has been in operation for the last 15 years. 

The foremost obstacle to the ambitious 
growth plan is Ivory Coast’s financial difficul- 
ties. Sewn austerity measures have forced the 
government to reduce capital investments. The 
government recently announced a large reduc- 
tion in its expatriate “ technical adviser” staff. 
Experts say there are a number of Ivorian tech- 


nicians qualified to carry out the development 
program, but many of them may be called to fill 
vacated positions in senior management. An- 
other criticism is the high cost of services to 
subscribers, in part *.c "~mvy capital invest- 
ment in recent years but also to overstaffing. 

Nevertheless, despite the economic problems, 
the political desire for an efficient and modem 
telecommunications system prevails in Ivory 
Coast And an interest in new and appropriate 
technology persists. 


For example, the government is considering in Africa. 


an experiment using optical fiber cables insu - - 
ed with rubber. Such cables would be less s . ,• 
ceptible to disruption caused by lightning; 
rust two major handicaps for lelecommun? 
tions in a tropical climate. 

The proposal illustrates the type of think 

auev 
.oas 

envy of the region and external links that m 
it one of the major telecommunications cent ' 





mi 


•« 


CONTRIBUTORS 




PETER BLACKBURN is an 
based journalist who contributes 
Africa Economic Digest 


Abidian- 


[yto 


based radio and print journalist who coven" 
West Africa. 




LYSE DOUCET is a journalist based in 


Abidjan who conmbutes frequently to West 
■"oronto GU 


Africa magazine, the Toronto 
Mail, the Toronto Financial 
Macleans magazine. 


obe and 
Post and 


HOWARD FRENCH is an Abidjan-based ■ 
journalist who contributes regularly to Tbt 
Washington Post The Economist and otha 
publications. 


RICHARD EVERETT is an Abidjan- 


HOWARD SCHISSEL is a Paris-basw " 
journalist who specializes in French-speaking ; 
Africa and the Maghreb. •;*’ : 


’ V -It m 


ADVERTISEMENT 


ADVERTISEMENT 


Caisse de Stabilisation 


Fund for the Stabilisation and Maintenance of Prices 

for Agricultural Products 


A state company with a capital of 4 
thousand million CFA Francs, the 
Caisse de Stabilisation (Fund for the 
Stabilization and Maintenance of Prices for 
Agricultural Products) was placed under the 
technical guidance of the Ministry for 
Agriculture and the financial guidance of the 
Ministry for Economy and Finance. Given its 
important role in the future of the country, its 
activities are closely watched by the President of 
the Republic himself. 

The fund fulfils a multiple role. In the first 
place, it keeps the prices of products purchased, 
and for which it is responsible, regular and thus 
ensures a guaranteed return to the planters. 
This is no longer its only raison d'etre. In the 
second place, just as the agriculture of the Ivory 
Coast becomes more diversified, in the same way 
the fund has broadened the scope if its activity 
and operates on a wider scale than that for 
which it was originally conceived. 

Apart from its function vis-a-vis the planter, it is 
becoming more and more directly involved at 
production level and, indirectly involved in the 
State budget. Over the years, the scope of its 
function has developed, which means that its 
role has become more general and less specific. 
The system of stabilization established by the 
fund is summed up in the following few lines: 


According to the scale or “differential” it 
then notes all the expenditures occasioned 
between the collection depot and the loading 
point and thus determines a theoretical FOB 
cost price from which a CAF cost price can 
be obtained (CAF guaranteed). 

The fund guarantees this value to the 
exporter, regardless of the effective CAF 
sale price (realised value). 

If the realised value is greater than the 
guaranteed CAF price, the exporter pays 
the difference into the fund. In professional 
jargon this is known as a “reversement” 
(“repayment” or “transfer”). 

If the realised value is less than the 
guaranteed CAF price, It Is then the fund 
which pays the difference to the exporter. In 
the same jargon tins operation is known as 
“soutien” (“support”). 

The fund also acts as a sales monitor. This 
sector is obviously within the domain of the 
promotion and public relations division 
which performs its task with great vitality. 


First of all the principle, which is as valid for 
coffee and cocoa as it Is for cotton and coprah 
(for palm oil several variations had to be 
introduced): 


The fund bases itself on a minimum 
purchase price guaranteed to the producer, 
which is established annually. 


If the now well known slogan applied to Robusta 
from the Ivory Coast, “De la force derriere 
1’arome” (’’the strength behind the aroma” 
could be adapted in scale to the management of 
this division, it would undoubtably read “De la 
poigne derriere !e sourire” (“the punch behind 
the smile”). For years the Caisse de Stabilisation 
has been participating in the European fairs 
specialising in foodstuffs and its brand 
distributing samples has acquired a certain 
reputation. 


The main outlets for the Ivory Coast are 
France, the United States, the Netherlands, 


the Federal Republic of Germany and 
Japan. 

# Largest producer of coffee per head of the 
population, first. exporter of Robusta, the 
Ivory Coast still has a small home 
consumption, although it is constantly 
growing. 

9 The Genetic Division of the Research Centre 
of the I.F.C.C. in BingerviDe has succeeded 
in producing a hybrid which has been 
named Arabusta, which is the resnlt of a 
cross between the Arabica species and the 
Robusta species, which was no mean feat as 
the two species are separated by a genetic 
barrier: the natural Arabica Tetraploid has 
44 chromosomes while the diploid Robusta 
has only 22. The I.F.C.C. of the Ivory Coast 
therefore undertook to create a tetraploid 
Robusta by doubling the- number of 
chromosomes. Several attempts were made 
but with unsatisfactory results either from 
tiie point of view of flavour or from the point 
of view of yield. The basis of the selection 
process henceforth is to raise the 
productivity level of this produce to that of 
the selected Robustas without causing it to 
lose any of the additional qualities which is 
possesses. The I.F.C.C. is establishing truly 
impressive cultivation methods. An 
experimental plantation of 500 hectares has 
been created in the Soubre region. 

The Ivory Coast has in fact an important role to 
play, because tbe new hybrid (which can realise 
during its period of growth the blends which are 
at present realised by the roasters) may partially 
substitute Brazilian coffee or Central American 
coffee. 



m 


CAISSE DE STABILISATION 


ET DE SOUTIEN DES PRIX DES PRODUCTIONS AGRICOLES 


CAISTAB 


SOClETE D’ETAT AU CAPITAL DE 4.000 000.000 FfiS C. F. A. 
OBESE EN APPLICATION DE LA LOI 22-3-62 
R. C. 4370 ABIDJAN 


TELEPHONE 32-06-33 
TELEX : CAISTA A - 711 
TELEGR CAISTA ABIDJAN 


BOITE POSTALE V. 132 
ABIDJAN (COTE DIVOIHEJ 


• -4 

>w». 


Strong Growth in 
Maritime Services 




Given the considerable dev- 
elopment of agriculture and 
industry in the Ivory Coast, 
the authorities were quick to 
realize that particular atten- 
tion had to be given to mari- 
time transport which plays 
such an essential role in in- 
ternational trade. 

The main exports such as 
coffee, cocoa and palm oil, 
pineapples, cotton, bananas 
and rubber are exported by 
sea routes to Wes earn 
Europe. In feet 94% of Ivory 
Coast trade is dependant on 
maritime transport. In order 
to cater for this amount of 
traffic the Ivory Coast set up 
a series of important instal- 
lations which include: — 


r.« y ■ i 

are currently being realize* ” 
in the South West of tbt 
country. " --- 

The Ivory Coast '■■■ 
Shipping Office 


•• i .. urn In 

M; -V 




The Autonomous Port 
of Abidjan 


It incorporates a large com- 
mercial port with a water 
area of 1,000 hectares with 
28 cargo ship berths and 
three specialized terminals 
for containers and handles 
eight million tons per an- 
num. It is the leading con- 
tainer port of Central and 
West Africa. 

Abidjan is also a transit port 
for countries not on the 
coast and almost 500,000 
tons of goods p.a. are 
recorded whose origin or 
destination is Mali, Bour- 
kina Fasso and Niger. The 
extensions which are cur- 
rently underway will soon 
double the present capacity 
of the port. 


The Port of San Pedro 


“San Pedro is our hope and 
the stakes are reasonable, zoe 
haoe enthusiasm and faith in 
the future and the desire to 
provide out country with an 
infrastructure which uriZZ meet 
its needs ” said the President, 
Mr. Houphouet-Boigny. 
The deep water port of San 
Pedro was established be- 
tween 1968 and 1971, 
around which a town has 
now grown up and a net- 
work of roads constructed. 
The traffic at this port will 
continue to increase and di- 
versify noticeably over the 
next years thank to the new 
projects which have been 
completed and chose which 


The Ivory Coast Shipping _ 
Office is under the guidance - - 
of the Ministry for Shipp**-, , . 
ing. Its activities concern'. r L 
the rationalization of all as~- .' 
peers of the maritime service^ " 
in the Ivory Coast and itfc,7 r ., 
basic aims are the stabilizst--.." 
non of freight charges 
the development of . - ’ 
Ivory Coast navy. 

Cargo reservations made « 
the Ivory Coast ShippiiiK^___ 
Office have allowed djiN-_ 
national shipping industry 
to play an effective role m 
the transport of goods or-, / 
i ginaring from and destined." " ' 
f or th e Ivory Coast. Hencej " 
SITJRAM has been able a..; ; 
refurbish and increase itt. ■' 
fleet thanks to the regular " 
tions on traffic. - ■ 

A private shipping company 
with the State holding the 
majority of che shares* 
STVOMAR (Socidte Ivoir- 
ienne de Navigation) Mari- 
time contributes to die 
national effort which aims rfl 
ocver more than. 20% of the 
external trade in the very 
nor future. 

SKA, (Sitrazn International 
ing Agencies) is an in 
tional mixed invest 
meat company which 
vid*s the framework for a 
concentrated effort to £ 
rati onalize the port traffic in. ' 

Ivorr Coast. ‘ : '' 

Finajy, there is St£T-. fc 
RANS which constitutes a. 
major step forward for the. 
publi companies In the 
Ivory Coast because it gives-; 
them tecess to precise, com- , 
piete information as regards, 
all thederails of costs for the . 
intemfconal transport of 
goods.' V 


R- MR 


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IDREM 


^ siinj 

•• rtoife 

v •• 


LTnsnn't de Doamcaa- .. 
tion, fc RScherches « 
d'Etudq Marizimes (The 
Institute- for Maritime In- ' 
formitio). Research and... 
Study) ispn organization for L 
discussion analysis and% 
liaison. 





" T * : ' *■■■* MWfcav 








INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, SATURDAY-SUNDAY, MARCH 9-10, 1985 


Page 15 


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ADVERTISEMENT 


ADVERTISEMENT 


AGRICULTURE 

An outstanding example of the “Green Revolution 

in progress 


13 



President F&ix Houphouet-Boigny 
Father of the Nation 
Also the leading planter and largest 
producer of coffee in the Ivory Coast 


President Felix Houphouet-Boigny was 
bom in 1905 in the Ivory Coast and 
graduated as a doctor from medical school 
in Dakar. 

He was a country doctor and then he was 
summoned by his family to succeed as 
Chief of his village. 

Having now become a planter, he 
organised a Trade Union and succeeded in 
winning the abolition of forced labour. 

He then sat as a Depute in Paris from 1 946. 

He was Minister of Health in the French 
Government of 1 956, then Minister of State 
under G6n6ral de Gaulle and one of the 
founder signatories of the Constitution, of 
the Fifth Republic. 

He became President of the Ivory Coast in 
1960 and has been re-elected regularly 
since that date. 


It is our agriculture which alone is the solid and natural basis of our 
industrialization President FSlix Houphouet-Boigny 7 December 1966 


In 1960 at the time of its independence, the economy of the 
Ivory Coast was based essentially on agriculture and 90% of 
commerce was dependent on three products: coffee, cocoa 
and wood. These products were moreover generally 
exported in their raw form without local processing. The 
problem with which those in authority were faced therefore 
was twofold: 

— To diversify agriculture both in an effort to lessen the 
predominant role of coffee and cocoa and to produce 
certain food products locally which up to then had been 

. imported at great expense (oil based products, rice, 
. sugar, meat) and to reduce the regional differences as 
much as possible. 

— to substitute the export of .raw products with that of 
finished or semi-finished products and to produce locally 
a certain number of manufactured goods such as textiles 
or fats for foodstuffs. 

This double concern was behind the launching of three 
large-scale agricultural development operations based on 
the rice and cotton cultivation in the North and the cultivation 
of palm and cooo-paim oil in toe South. 

Industrial Plantations 

Thus in 1962 the palm programme was commenced and in 
1967 the coconut palm programme started. The strategy 
adopted was established on toe following bases: 

— a central factory to deal with production 

— an industrial plantation realised and operated to best 
advantage byPalmind us trie inan -effort to ensure a 
minimum supply to the oil store and also to demonstrate 
the efficactty of modem cultivation techniques to the 
planters 

— individual plantations realized by fanners within the 
economically developed area in the vicinity of the 
factory. 

The Small and Medium Agricultural Enterprises 
(PMEA) 

These enterprises may be defined as medium sized 
plantations (50 to 300 hectares) in between the industrial 
plantations and the village plantations (5 to 10 hectares). At 
present, five engineers who have completed their agricultural 
training programme are already going ahead with 
installations on the land. 

It is therefore hoped that by promoting small and medium 
agricultural enterprises it will be possible to create a 
generation of independent modem agricultural operators 
entirely capable of managing their future in the Ivory Coast 
Throe new agricultural operators wiM.be toe models for toe 
improvement and rationalisation of toe agricultural sector. 
Thus, between the years 1986 and 1990 an initial 
programme of 7,000 hectares of palm plantation will be 
realised according to this scheme. 


Agricultural and Industrial projects realised 

— Industrial palm plantations 52,000 hectares 

— Village palm plantations 38,000 hectares 

— Industrial coco-palm plantations 19,000 hectares 

— Village coco-palm plantations 10,000 hectares 

Total plantations 119,000 hectares 

— Twelve palm oil works of a total capacity of 420 ton 
pressure per hour 

— 1 oil works for grinding cabbage-palm and coprah 
kernels of a capacity of 350 ton/day' for coprah and 280 
ton/day for cabbage-palm. 

— one coprah factory almost completed 

— two storage depots in Abidjan and San Pedro 

— 8,000 head of cattle, N’Dama and Baoule breeds 

— 6,000 kms of highway 

— 55 villages fully supplied (water - electricity) 

— 32,000 jobs created 

— 200,000 persons involved 

— 11 thousand million CFA francs income distributed in 

1984 (Palmindustrie planters and personnel). 

Investment 

83.4 thousand million CFA francs distributed as follows: 

— agricultural infrastructure 45.0 

— industrial infrastructure 24.2 

— public and civil infrastructure 14.2 

Over the period 1983/1990, the total sum of investments is 
estimated at 160 million US dollars of which 40% would be 
found in own resources.- - - •— 


covering of vegetation which could be compared to that 
of forest formations which is a factor in favour of the 
natural equilibrium. 

2. From an economic point of view it should be noted that 
14,000 jobs were created and all the industrial and 
agricultural infrastructures constructed should also be 
taken into consideration. Likewise, the processing of raw 
materials subsequently permitted the creation of a 
flourishing processing industry. All these products 
enable considerable savings to be made on the foreign 
exchange; the portion of goods exported makes it easier 
to maintain toe stability of toe trade balance. 

3. The results obtained likewise prove toe sound basis of 
the strategy adopted from' toe beginning, that Is, toe 
re-anangement within agro-industrial groups co-existing 
in harmony; village plantations, industrial plantations 
and an oil works plant 

4. The structure responsible for the running of the whole 
programme has resources at its disposal from marketing 
its products, it is therefore under tight control restricted 
on the one hand by marketing laws and by international 
competition on the other. Moreover, the strict control of 
the operation is guaranteed by virtue of the association 
of private international partners. 

Production of Coffee has tripled 
in 25 years 

Over toe last 25 years since the fund began operating, the 
coffee crops in the Ivory Coast have substantially increased 
in volume, although at an irregular rate. Several bad harvests 
were registered because of particularly unfavourable 
weather conditions. 

The adherence of toe Ivory Coast to the long term 
international agreements and the scantiness of the quota 
granted to trie Republic by virtue of this in 1 963 and 1968 has 
meant that for several years the country has taken a cautious 
view as regards extending the cultivation of coffee. It turned 
its attention, before all else, to compensating for certain 
coffee plantations which were ageing and deteriorating - 
considered alarming by toe official departments - by new 
plantations and .progressively the traditionally extensive 
agricultures with a more intensive cultivation. 

Cocoa 

Cocoa is toe most important export from the Ivory Coast, 
ahead of coffee, wood... With an average production of 
400,000 T, the Ivory Coast is the biggest producer of cocoa in 
the world. 

Five countries, of which four are African, ensure % of this 
production estimated at approximately 1 ,670,000 tons. The 
distribution is approximately, the Ivory Coast 25%, Brazil 
20%, Ghana 12%, Nigeria 10% and toe Cameroons 7%. 
However, over toe last ten years the African portion has 
decreased from 73% to 60%. The slump in production in 
Ghana and toe large decrease recorded in Nigeria have not 
been entirely counterbalanced by toe explosion in production 
in the ivory Coast As things stand at toe moment however, 
the Ivory Coast is toe only sure supply source, and this 
explains why all the large importers prefer to establish 
relations with toe Ivory Coast which will enable them to 
ensure that their factories are never without supplies. 

The President Felix Houphouet-Boigny declared to American 
chocolate manufacturers who had oome to explore the 
potential of the Ivory Coast in toe month of December, 1984: 
"The Ivory Coast is not about to lose its high standing 
position as the largest producer of cocoa in the world. It is 
prepared to maintain the production in quantity and quality. 
For this it needs the confidence and the assistance of the 


chocolate manufacturers, those true professionals down the 
line in the cocoa industry. 

We as producers and you as consumers have the same 
interests to defend ” 

Cocoa is marketed in toe same way as coffee, (internal 
purchases by toe processors on behalf of approved 
exporters at prices which are guaranteed by the fund) which 
poses toe same finance problems which are resolved using 
the same banking technique. Obviously there are differences 
as regards the prices guaranteed and the percentages of toe 
purchase quotas attributed to toe exporters. The supervisory 
division for marketing fulfills the same role for cocoa as it 
does for coffee (supervising purchases at collection centres, 
regulating operations from these centres, delivery of 
consignment notes, spot road checks, fixed checking points 
at “Dabou" and “Azaguie"). As regards cocoa, the internal 
concern the humidity rates which are calculated with a 
hydro-meter and checks for mould (not more than 6%). 

Rubber Plantations 

The production of rubber, which increases in relation to the 
scheduled tapping of the trees and will evolve accordingly as 
the trees grow older, will gradually increase from 294 ton a 
year in 79/80 to almost 30,000 ton in 1990. This level should 
subequentiy be maintained over a period of twenty years 
before beginning to decrease up to the year 2018 when it is 
possible that the plantation might be completely replanted. 
Over the entire duration of its life span, the plantation should 
thus produce 866,000 ton of dry rubbber which, calculated at 
toe present rate of 495,000 FCFA a ton gives a turnover of 
428 thousand million FCFA 

Market Prospects 

The cultivation of rubber is at present one of toe most 
promising sectors in agriculture in the Ivory Coast- The 
medium and long term prospects on the world market are 
good, given that an increase in toe demand for natural rubber 
is expected and that the high demand is expected to continue 
once the present world recession reaches an end. On a 
national level, apart from the advantage as regards the 
diversification in agriculture, toe cultivation of rubber would 
seem to be a suitable alternative and one which is acceptable 
from an ecological point of view, which would prevent over 
working the forests and/or which would yield satisfactory 
returns on investment in capital and labour. Moreover, the 
national production, whatever its expected volume, would not 
have any significant effect on world supply. 

All the economists are of like opinion, deeming that natural 
whose market price is partially effected by the cost price of 
synthetic rubber from the petrochemical industry, and whose 
utilisation is a direct result of transport operations in world 
economy, represents one of toe most promising agricultural 
products of the future. 

The World Bank is of the opinion that toe market price of 
rubber between the years 1985 and 1995 should progress by 
2% per year in relation to the steady dollar, which in francs 
CFA* would mean an increase well above the rate of 
inflation. (*1 FCFA = Dollar US ) 

The results presented above are in fact toe outcome of an 
understanding based on toe close cooperation, regrouping 
the research organisation, those responsible for the 
programmes and finance establishments under the care and 
guardianship of the competent authorities (The Ministry for 
Agriculture. Waters and Forests), in a stable political 
atmosphere which has reighed in toe ivory Coast since 
gaining independence, already over 25 years ago. 


Financing 


(distributed in million CFA francs) 


Company capital 

3,360 

Republic of the Ivory Coast 

19,203 

Banque Mondiale 

10,658 

European Development Fund 

8,207 

European Investment Bank 

5,486 

Caisse Central de 


Cooperation Economique 

4,195 

Other (BICICI. SGBCI, BNDA) 

4,477 

Self-financing by Palmindustrie 

27,814 

TOTAL: 

83,400 


Conclusions 

The results obtained from establishing the palm project 
makes it possible to draw up quite a positive balance sheet 
1. The oil-producing perennials are the best sources of oil 
• for humid tropical Africa. Indeed, by virtue of their high 
productivity they use relatively limited surface area 
compared to that used by other types of cultivation. 
Moreover as permanent tree plantations they ensure a 


A MESSAGE FROM THE MINISTER FOR AGRICULTURE, WATER AND FORESTS 

Our development must begin with home processing 
of our products in order to sharethe added value, in 
order to achieve this it is necessary first of all to 
resolve the problem of unsuitable training methods 
whereby the transfer of technology becomes a 
simple technical veneer. Training should be brought 
back home. Why should* Ivory Coast nationals go 
abroad to leam how to process cocoa or palm oil? 

Financing is also not adapted and sometimes 
results in absolute financial disasters. There are 
therefore two important courses which should be 
pursued by developing countries: 

Suitable training - in the Ivory Coast we are thus 
going to repatriate training procedures which we 
were researching abroad, although it may mean 
supplementing these with new formulas - and 
suitably adapted financing thus allowing us to play a 
competitive role. 

Finally, in the recovery stage, it will be necessary to 
monitor the markets in order to have the possibility 
of investing in developed countries. We ourselves 
have experimented with the company "Cacao 
Barry" ("Barry Cocoa"). 



Photo: Fathi Mahouachi 

Denis Bra Kanon 

Minister of Agriculture. Water and Forests 
Businesses from cocoa producing countries must 
be able to invest at subsequent stages; they could 
therefore profit from toe business spread and even 
bring the profits back home. 


The mixed economy company SO.G-B., which has a 
capital' of 21,601,840,000 FCFA operates one of the 
biggest rubber plantations in the world in Grand-Ber&by 
which directly supports a population of 20,000 people. 

It is a profitable and flourishing concern with an 
important role in the Ivory Coast economy on a national 
as well as a regional scale. 


Societe des Caoutchoux de Grand-Bereby 

One of the largest rubber plantations in the world 



Photo: Fathi Mahouachi 
M. Dogoni Bema. Director General of SO.G.B. 

Investment of more than 30 billion FCFA 

Investments prior to 30/9/82 concern the actual creation 
of the plantation icultivation of the land, planting, 
maintenance, basic infrastructures and factory). The sum 
was obtained by the SO.G.B. from the shareholders and 
was estimated at 24.601,840,000 FCFA in 1982. Financing 
the project had been assured by the World Bank, the 
Caisse Centraie de Cooperation Economique. the 
European Development Fund and the General Company 
of Michelin Enterprises. , „ . 

Investments from 1/10/82 to 30/9/85 coveT following up 
maintenance programmes, immature crops, setting up 
tapping operations and the necessary infrastructures and 
expansion of the factory. This is financed on the one 
hand for the sum of 7,5 billion FCFA by the World Bank 
and the Caisse Centraie. the 50.G.B. assuming 
responsibility for repayment of these loans, and on the 
other hand by a grant of 1,130 billion FCFA from the 
BSIE. 

Investments after 30/9/85 will be for the last tapping 
operations to be set up. Renewal of material must be 
financed by local loans negotiated and managed by the 


SO.G.B. itself as the company wilt then be financially 
capable of this. 

The Opinion of the World Bank 

In its Report of June 83, which served as a basis for 
granting the loan for the IVth Rubber Cultivation Project, 
the World Bank made the following observation 
regarding the overall period 1973-1982: — 

“While the first Grand-Bdr&by Project (1973-82) was 
confounded by multiple technical and administrative 
problems (as well as the unforeseen inflation rate), the 
second Grand-Bereby Project (1978-82) was successfully 
realised, in October 1981, 13,500 hectares were already 
planted, one year ahead of the work schedule. 

Thanks to the excellent quality of the plantation, the time 
necessary for the trees, which are now being tapped, to 
mature is on average 5.5 years instead of the 7 year 
period on which the evaluation was calculated. Present 
production is approximately 14% greater than forecast in 


the evaluation. Grand-B4r6by now has an adequate work 
force at its disposal and the excellent training 
programme for those who tap the trees could serve as an 
example for other industrial plantations in the Ivory 
Coast and West Africa. “ 

Comments 

Taking the business years 81/82 and 82/83 together, the 
SO.G.B. results were better than expected by the World 
Bank. 

From 88/89, the accrued profits having made up the 
accrued losses, the net accrued result becomes positive 
and.it is possible to think in terms of the first dividend of 
1 billion FCFA after payment of the BIC taxes for the 
amount of 2,715 million FCFA 

The year 94/95 represents a typical year in the period of 
growth: annual dividends of 3 billion FCFA, BIC taxes of 
4 billion FCFA 

For an Initial investment estimated at 24.6 biiiion FCFA in 
1982, the SO.G.B. shareholders should, between 1988 


and the year 2015, receive dividends amounting to 90.5 
biiiion, not to mention the 103 billion which the Ivory 
Coast State will gain in the form of BIC taxes. 

In order for the net profit to be nil it would be necessary 
either for sales to be reduced by 50% or for costs to rise 
by 78%: the conclusion to be drawn from this estimation 
is that the company has quite a substantial profit margin. 



Profitability of the SO.G.B. 

The forecasts below are in current FCFA up to the year 1990 and in fixed FCFA for 
the following years; the course of rubber follows the highest forecast up tothe year 
1990 and remains at the 1990 level for the following years. 

The table is established on the basis of data extracted from the study of financial 
profitability carried out by the World Bank (June 1983) in conjunction with the 
SO.G.B. for the basic factors involved. The possibility of replanting the plantation 
from the year 2010 is not taken into account 


From the 
Creation 


Annual 


in millions 

81/82 

Forecast 

Realised 

82/83 

Forecast 

Realised 

88/89 

Forecast 

84/99 

Forecast 

to 2015 
Forecast 

Average 

Forecast 

Gross margin for self 
financing 

165 

78 

(90) 

117 

7.970 

11.570 

302.785 

7,042 

Net annual result 

15661 

1524) 

(1.058) 

1598) 

6,061 

9,078 

- 

- 

Net accrued result 

(862) 

(820) 

(1,920) 

(1,4181 

7,287 

46,274 

229334 

5,333 

BIC Taxes 

• 

- 

- 

- 

2,715 

4.083 

103.029 

2,396 

Dividends. 

- 

- 

- 

- 

1,000 

3,000 

90,500 

2,104 


Cultivating rubber in a village plantation 

especially in the knowledge moreover that the SO.G.B. is 
at present operating with tapping costs (which will be 
basic costs when the plantation is being tapped) which 
are much less than the expected costs. ’ 

Conclusion 

While building up a recognised technical achievement, 
contributing to the variation of the economy of the ivory 
Coast on structural and regional levels and ensuring 
social and economic promotion programme involving 
thousands of workers, the SO.G.B. represents an 
enterprise capable of ensuring a proper return on the 
capital Invested and likewise capable of contributing, to a 
very considerable extent, to the national wealth of the 
Republic of the Ivory Coast, 

Registered Office: 

Immeuble Alliance, Third Boor, 

12 B.P. 478 Abidjan 12. 

Tel: 32 99 47/32 94 31 
Telex: 23888 Abidjan 










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ENTpRNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, SATURDAY-SUNPAY, MARCH 9-10, 1985 






Invest in 




Welcome to the Ivory Coast 


The Ivory Coast has doubled its population in one 
generation. This is due as much to an exceptionally 
high birth-rate as to a continual stream of 
immi grants coming into the country. 

Our brothers from Burkina Faso make up the 
greatest number of immig rants while our neighbours 
from Mali, Guinea and Ghana have come to try their 
hick and a great number of them have stayed. 

The Ivory Coast needs a good number of technically 
qualified people to ensure its development, that 
explains why the European population is five times 
larger than it was in 1960. 

Finally, the size of the Lebanese community has 
increased considerably in recent years as the 
President, moved by the plight of the refugees from 
the dislocation and upheaval of the Civil war in the 
Lebanon, opened the frontiers of the Ivory Coast to 
many of them. 


Investment in the Ivory Coast 

Full facilities for transferring capital out of the country. 
An extremely flexible taxation system. 

Tax free entry for machinery and raw materials used 
for production. 

Investment rules that are the most liberal in 
French-speaking Africa. 


Useful Addresses 

ABIDJAN 

Ministere de I 'Economic, des Finances et du Flan 
Direction Generali de Dovanes BP: V 163 Direction Genirals de Imp&u BP: V 103 
Direction Generate de la Planficaxian BP: V 6S Direction de la Prevision 04 BP: 6S0 
Direction de la Statisaque BP: V 55 Direction Cenaale da Marches BP: 169 
Service Auumome de la Documentation , des Arckwes et des Publication BP: V 125 
Caisse Autonome <f Amordssement BP: 670 Mmisidre de Flnfamumon BP: V 138 

Ministere des Travails Publics, des Transports, de la Construction et 
de LTIrbanisme BP: V6 

Ministfcre du Commerce BP: V 142 Minist&re de 1’ Agriculture BP: V 82 

PARIS: Bureau Economique de la Cdte d’Ivoire 
24 Boulevard Suchet, 

75116 Paris. 

Tel: 524.43.28 


LONDON: Ivory Coast Embassy, 
2 Upper Belgrave Sl, 
London, S.W.l. 

Tel: 235 6991 


NEW YORK: Economic Bureau of the Ivory Coast 
117 East 55th Street, 

New York, N.Y. 10022 


The Liberal Economic Climate 
of the Ivory Coast 

The liberal economic policies of the Ivory Coast 

have been even more developed. 

On the economic level by the dissolution of a 

great number of the parastatal companies and 
the sales of their shares to the private sector an 
effort has been made to make them more 
efficient by letting them work freely and be 
subject to market forces. 

On the political level, by allowing a free choice 

of candidates to all levels of party and 
administrative posts, younger blood is therefore 
brought into the responsibilities of government. 


From now on, die President can count on a solid 
f»a«n of technocrats who enjoy die confidence of the 
people and who will be able to m ai n tain the main 
tenets of his policies. 


THE INVESTMENT CODE 

LAW NO. 84 - 1230 of 8 November 1984 Establishing the Investment Code. 


THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY has adopted. 
The PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC 
decrees as law the following. 


SECTION - 1 
SCOPE 


ARTICLE 9 

Persons or corporate bodies who are oon-reskicat in terms of the exchan g e 
regulations and who investments in the Ivory Coast in ooovextibk foreign 
currency, have die right of transfer 10 the State is which they are resident of the 
returns of any nature as a result of the capital which they have invested as wefl as 
the ^ * 1 *^ '* fi i.w winding up the investment. 


•ARTICLE 1 

Persons or corporate bodies from the Ivory Coast or abroad who carry on any 
activity specified in Article 2 bdon, in tbe Ivory Coast, within the framework of 
an enterprise constituted in accordance with tbe legislation of the Ivory Gout are 
assured of general guarantees which derive in parrim/ar from Section C of this 
Code and may, in addition, benefit from the particular advantages defined in 
SectionUI below. 


ARTICLE W 

Any dispute between a person or corporate body from abroad and the Republic of 
tbe lvoty Coast relating to implementation of tbe pres ent Code shall be settled in 
accordance with an arbitration conciliation procedures resulting: 


ARTICLE 15 

Tbe Minister for Industry shall ensure that the businesses which are granted 
pi i oihy status shall observe tbe obligations to which they are committed. 

Failure to observe these obtigarions shall result in cbe partial or total forfeiture of 
tbe benefits granted under pti o r hy status, by Decree issued by the- Council of 
Ministers, to be reckoned from a date specified in the said Decree. This penalty 
may only be effected further to notification followed by a grace period, in order to 
allow the failures or A-fanhv which have been noted to be remedied within a 
reasonable space of time. 


A/07CLE2 

This Code shall apply to all enterprises, includin g small and medium concents 
which carry on their business in one of the following sectors: 

a) Cultivation, fishing and farming industries, related activities such as 
processing of products of animal or vegetable oijgm; 

Manufacturing production or processing activities; 

Research, extraction or proces si n g of mineral substances; 

Energy production; 

Rralkatinn nf affflmmnriarinn programme* of a wnl and economic namiy- 

Siorage and market preparation of foodstuffs and agricultural products. 
.Small and "*■*>""" sized e meipiiscs may, in addition, benefit from the provision 
of this Code if they cany on activities which provide s e t vi c es in one of the 
(following sectors: 

-j— i maintenance or assembly of industrial equipment; 

— market preparation of unprocessed products; 

— laboratory tests or analysis of raw materials, finished products or 
semi- finished products used or produced in industry. 


either from treaties and agreements relating to the protection of investments 
concluded between the Republic of the Ivory Coast and the state from which 
die person or corporate body concerned originates; - 
or from a contiBatioo and arbitration agreed between the parties; 
or from the Agreeme n t of 18 March 1965 for the Settlement of Disputes 
concerning i nv estments benv eea States and those from other States, drawn 
up under the care of the Braque Internationale for Restructuring and 
Development and ratified by the Republic of the Ivoty Coast by virtue of the 
Decree No. 65/238 of 26 June 1965; 

or, if the body concerned does not fulfill the conditions concerning 
nationality as stipulated in Article 25 of the a f o rem entioned Agreement, in 
accordance with the provisions of tbe regulations Mdcansime Suppkmentaire 
(Supplementary Facility), approved by the governing board of the Centre 
International poor (e Rjgkmcnt des Diff fiends rdatif aux Invcstissements 
(CURD I) ((ICSID), International Centre for die Settlement of Investment 
Disputes). The assent of the parties to submit to (he authority of the ICSID 
or the Supplementary Facility, as the case may be, r equ i red by the laws 
governing these latter shall, in the case of the Ivory Coast be established by 
this Article and, in the case of the body concern ed, be ex p res se d specifically 
in the request for consent. 


ARTICLE 16 

Priority status shall be granted for a period of time which shall vary as a function 
of the zone where the investment is to be realised vts-k-vis tbe regions. For this 
purpose, the territory of the Ivory Coast shall be divided into three zones which 
shall be known as A, B and C defined by Decree. 

The duration of (he priority suras is: - 

— 7 years for investm e nts made in zone A 

— 9 years far investments made in zone B 

— 11 years for investments made in zone C. 

Tbe provisions of the present Anide may be amended by virtue of an agreement 
concl uded between tbe Sate and tbe concern to which priority status has been 
granted, although tbe duration of (be period for which priority natus may have 
effect may not be mare than fifteen years. 

This period shall be by the realization periods of the i nv estme n t 

programmes as indicated in the Dec ree granting priority suras or the 
aforementioned 


ARTICLE 21 

Businesses which are gr a n ted priority status by virtue of the creation of 
production or processing activities shall benefit from a ss ista nce related to the 
value added in tbe Ivoty Coast. 

The sum of this aid shall vary depending on whether it concerns a small or 
rnwriwini business and as a function of the location of the in v estment . 

The aforemennonoi relief relating to the value added m the Ivoty Coast shall be 
graduated dining the fitst five yean of operation. 

It shall be calculated by applying a percentage fixed by Decree on tbe total znnuri 
wages paid to permanent Ivory Cosh personnel. 

This assistance, determined an a monthly bass by application of tbe percentages 
in (he Decree, shall be c onsidered as a ox credit deductable from tbe 
mnVr awiftfin io be paid by the employers, due for tbe same period. If the case 
arises, the excess tax credit may be recuperated on a budget line entered in the 
fiscal Appendix of tbe Loi de Finance (Financial Law). 






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; Agreements 


Chapter m -Bu 

ARTICLE 22 

Busmescs realizing a protect which is of exceptional social and economic inicren 
as "fwh the development of the country requiring «* certain investment sum 
fixed by Decree may be permitted to conclude a business ag re ement with the 
State. 


SECTION m 
PRIORITY BUSINESSES 


Ch a p t er D — B ene fi t s Granted 
ARTICLE n 

Priority status bus in e s ses shall benefit from exemption from customs duties and 
entry taxes, by virtue of tbe realization of their ap proved investment programme, 
on: 


Chapter I - Common P r ov isio ns 


ARTICLE 3 

For the purposes of implementation of ibis Code, those businesses which 
cumulatively fulfill (be five following conditions shall be considered as small and 
medium enterprises: 

— to present an investment programme for an amount fixed by decree; 

— to employ, os much for current activities as for (he investment to be realised, 
a number of permanent wage-earning employees fixed by decree; 

— to be duly constituted as an individual business concern, as a commercial 
company or a cooperative and to satisfy the legal obligations as such; 

— 10 keep regular accounts regard lew of (he turnover realised; 

— to satisfy the general obligations listed under Article 13 of the present Code. 


ARTICLE II 

Tbe businesses referred to in Articles 2, 3 and 4 above may request to be granted 
priority status with a view to benefiting from the advantages defined in this 
Section. 


ARTICLE 4 

Small and medium businesses, whose investments are entered as part of the Plans 
d'Aetkms Priori taires (Priority Action Plans), as defined in the Decree from the 
Council of Ministers, may benefit from the provisions of this Code even when 
their activities do oot fall within tbe sectors specified in Anide 2 or when they do 
not fulfill one of the condiikns relating to the minimum number of jobs or the 
minimum investment sum as stipulated in Article 3 above. 


ARTICLE 5 

Tbe pre sen t Code shall apply to persons or corporate bodies from the Ivory Coast 
1 as well as persons or corporate bodies from abroad, by virtue of their activities in 
the Ivory Coast or their shares in the capital of Ivory Coast companies. 


ARTICLE 6 

Tbe provtsiaiB of this Code shall not interfere with more general guarantee* and 
benefits provided for by treaties or agreements entered into, or winch may be 
entered into, between the Ivory Oust and other Sates. 


ARTICLE 12 

The b usin esses may be granted priority status by virtue of in vestments made on 
tbe occasion of: 

— establishment of an operation, the ea t p a wrion and development of an existing 
activity; 

— or a res tr uct u ring programme, as soon as these investments coincide with the 
d e v el opment of the sectors specified in Ankle 2 above sad offer fi na nci a l and 
te ch n i cal guarantees and a satisfactory econ o m i c profitability. 

ARTICLE 13 

The request foe status as a priority business shall be supported by a Sk containing 
all the useful information for a legal, t echn i c a l and cconom k analysis of the 
project. 

The request for priority scams sbafi likewise involve die obfigatioo of the business 
in respect of the foDowing general ronditinn s : 

— to give priority eo the use of materials, raw materials, products rad services 
from the Ivory Coast, insofar as these are available and are equal, as regards 
price, quality and other details, to goods of foreign origin; 

— to use and ensure the training of qwrialrirH executives and employees from 
the Ivory Coast; 

— to irapea the nationd and hnenunosal standards of quality applicable to tbe 
goods and the ser vice s which form the subject of Us activity; 

— not so alter die ecological conditions, m part icul a r , the environment; 


— materials, apparatus and equipment nece s sa ry for tbe realization of the 
investment, 

— specific spare para lor the impaired eq uipment which shill be limited lo an 
amount equal io 10% of the CAF value of the equipment in question for 
operations located in zone A, 20% for a zone B location and 30% fora zone C 
location. 

The following nans may oot qualify for exemptions provided for under tbe 

present Article: 

— materials, ap p ar atus and equipment, whose equivalent may be found in tbe 
Ivory Coast and which is as readily available, from the point of view of 
quality, pike (rod. of tax) and time, as those of foreign origin; 

— vehicles used for the transport of personnel and those intended for the 
transport of goods; 

— movable goods. 


ARTICLE 18 

Priority sams businesses in the agro-indnstrial sector which are not subject to 
value added tax may reject this a rrangem e nt and choose instead to be rabjecc to 
V.A.T., richer at the oonnil rate or at a reduced rate on implementation of the 
cut-off regulations. 


ARTICLE 23 

Tbe business agrecmoit shall define, in particular: 

■ — (fae purpose, co nten ts , location and period of realization of the investment 
programe; 

— the benefits and other benefits of a different nature and scope granted 

by the. Sate to the business as well as the duration of ihdr application; 

— die obligations which tbe business benefiting from the said benefits shall 
undertake to fulfill in return; 

— the surveillance and the terms of this surveillance which the authorities may 
cany out in respect of the business which is the beneficiary; 

— the conditions in which the agreement may be revised at the request of the 
parties; 

— the arbitration procedure which shall be put into effect in (be event of any 
dispute between tbe parries. 

ARTICLE 24 

Concerning customs duties and taxes and turnover tax, the business agreement 
may not include any benefits which differ from those d efined under Articles 17, 
18, 19 and 20.2. 

Funhermore, the business agreement may not include any obligation on behalf of 
the Sate which undertakes to make good losses, charges of loss of earnings to the 
business which may arise through t erhnir a l evolution or the eflen of cconomk 
cyde an any factors which are natural or inherent in the nature of the business. 
Any dauae contrary to the provision* of this Article shall be considered as null 
and void. 


AR 77 CLE 25 

Business agreements may be signed by p er s ons or corporate bodies from abroad 
with shares in the capital of Ivory Coast businesses realizing an a p proved 
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ARTICLE 19 

Ute registration charges appficabk in accordance with Artkk 588 of the General 
Code an axes an capital gained by the creation or increase of the capital of a 
company which has been granted priority stanxt, by virtue of tbe real ration of its 
investment programme, shall be reduced by fifty pet cent for tbe period of 
J mii o a of iu priority status 


They shall only take effect after the Decree which concerns them has been 
adopted, by the Council of Minister* upon notification from the Interminiaerial 
Commission far on priority Status. 


SECTION IV 


SECTION n 

GENERAL GUARANTEES 


ARTICLE 7 

Private in vexatious shall be freely effected in the Ivory Coast, subject to (be 
specific conditions aiming, in particular, to ensure the protection of public health 
and sanitation, the protection of trade or the public economic policy. 


ARTICLE 8 

Tbe persons or corporate bodies specified in Section I of this Code shall receive, 
subject to the conditions of Section III, equal treatment as regards tbe right ami 
obligations resulting from the legislation of the Ivory Coast and concerning the 
activities as defined in Article 2 above. 

By virtue of this, persons or corporate bodies from abroad shall receive identical 
treatment to pci so ns or corporate bodies from the Ivory Coast, subject to the 
me asure s relating to all foreign nationals and implementation of the same equal 
treatment by the State from which the foreign person or corporate body in 
question originates. 

The persons or corporate bodies from abroad shall receive equal treatment subject 
to the provisions of Treaties and Agreements concluded between the Ivory Coast 
and the other states. 


— to have a body of ac c ountan ts available to ensure, thereby, respect of the 
laws, regulations and provisions and their correct applications in the matter 
concerned and, when necessary to iso l at e those operations relating to the 
activities b mr f i rin g from priority status from the other a c tiv iti es of tbe 
business; 

— to observe the p rovision s laid down by law relating to the deposit of the 
a gre ement* and contracts concerning the rights of industrial owner sh ip or 
the acquis don of technology; 

— to submit die information required to verify observance of die ooodioons 
required for priority status to be granted. 

ARTICLE 14 

Tbe status of priority business is granted by Decree imued by tbe Council of 

Ministers upon notification from the Inrpfm min ftsrii* de* 

Agrdmeacs Priori taires (Interministerial Commission on pr i o rit y Sams), dm 

composition and methods of the business in question bring defined by Decree. 

Tbe Decree of priority sons defines, in particular: 

— tbe purpose, contents, location and period of realization of the inve s t m ent, 

— the particular obligations of the business to which priority status has been 
granted, 

— the nature and duration of the benefits granted, 

— when necessary (he arbitration procedure which shall be applicable. 


ARTICLE 20 

1. — Priority statin businesses are exempt d urin g the period of their priority 

status, from the following charges, duties and taxes; 

— taxation on industrial and commercial profits; 

— trade and licence contributions; 

— ImvI «nd tmilifing iivh nn prapwrin maLjadml Uiwan property 


In any event the dnnrwm of the acanprion period may not be less than that 
provided for under c o mmo n bw in force at tbe time of g r a nting priority 


FINAL PROVISIONS 

ARTICLE 26 

B w i nmrs which benefit from the advantages provided for by Law No. 59.134 of 
3 September 1959 and subsequent texts shall remain subject to the said taw until 
the expiry of the effect of the said benefits. 

Businesses which have not, at the time of publication of the present law in (he 
Official Journal of the Republic of the Ivoxy Coast, been granted priority status by 
virtue of the p rovisioos of the aforementio n ed Law No. 59. 154 of 3 September 
1959, may take advantage of the benefits provided for in the present bw if they 
fulfill the co ndi tio ns which are prescribed in thre Law. 


For cases ocher than those specified in Artide 18 above, priority status 
b usinrssrs winch are not subject to value added tax may reject this 
anan gment and choose instead to be subject to VAT., either at the normal 
rate or at a reduced rate on iuzpkzDemation of the cur-off regulations. 

The exrmpfim from charges, duties and taxation r e f erred to above shall be 
total up to the cod of the third yes* prior to tbe last year of the period of 
ex emp ti o n. Further to this the e x em ption shall be reduced: 


ARTICLE 27 

AO framer provisions contrary to (he present bw, and in particular the provisoes 
of Law No. 59. 1 34 of 3 September 1959 laying down the arrangements for priraw 
investment in the Republic of tbe Ivory Coast, are repealed, with die exception of 
ibeir temporary application as provided for in Artide 26 above. 


to 75% of (he taxes normally due far the second year prior to the last 
year of the period of priority statos; 

to 50% of the raxes noanafly due for the pemi tamaie year of the period 
of priority status; 

to 25% of tbe taxes normally due during the last year of the period of 
priority suras. 


ARTICLE 28 

Tbe procedure for implementation of the pr e sen t bw which shall be published fa 
tbe O fficial Journal of the Republic, shall be specified as required by Decree. 


ARTICLE 29 


The present law shall be effected as State Law and *hall be published fa the 
Official Journal of tbe Republic of the Ivory Coast. 


Abidjan, 8 November 1984 


AMENDMENT OF THE INVESTMENT CODE 


1. AMENDMENT OF THE INVESTMENT 
CODE 

THIS AMENDMENT HAS BEEN RATIFIED BY A LAW OF 30 
OCTOBER 1984, WHICH HAS NOT YET BEEN PUBLISHED IN 
THE OFFICIAL JOURNAL, AN APPLIC ATION ORDER 
DATED 8 NOVEMBER 1984 LIKEWISE SPECIFIES CERTAIN 
PROVISIONS OF THE NEW INVESTMENT CODE. 


medium businesses?)) carrying on operations in the key sectors of the economy, 
such as: 


f -I Mam amendments : 


Compared to the provisions of the Law of 3 September 1959 covering the 
investment code, the bask amendments are as follows: 


— in d ustrial cultivation, and farming, processing oper a tions relating to 

agricultural products, 

— manufacturing operations, 

— prospecting and mining of mineral substances, 

— energy production, 

— construction of accommodation of an economic and «rtai nature (uniquely'), 

— storing and market preparation of foodstuffs and agricultural products. 


V A.T. which may be recovered) is between 40 and 200 milliaBS CFA 
Francs, and whose number of permanent wage-earning employees 
may vary between 5 and 50. 


The fiscal benefits shall be regulated according to the geographical region 
where the investments are located, 

•nuance shall be granted as a function of tbe total salary paid to 

wage -earning employee from the Ivory Coast, 

certain exemptions, (BIC taxes) shall, henceforth, be degressive. 


Funhermore, small and medium businesses and they alone, may take advantage 
of tbe tax benefits when they cany out operations in tbe following sectors: 


1.4 Bvsbus a&teman: 

Busin e sses whose fovegmem pro gr a mme in ooe of tbe sector* of activity specified 
by the Code is greater than 5 thousand mil l in n CFA Francs, may enter a business 
agreement with the State which will allow them io nb* advantage of tax bene fi t s 
of a more substantial nature than those provided fra in the preceding para g ra p h 
and in particular achieve a "sable" tax system. 

The b n s iiy.M agreement is granted by a Decree from tbe Council of Ministers. 


outside the Abidjan region (which is to say, ramade the regions of Abidjan, 
Aboisso, Adzopf and AgboviUe). 

The sectors referred to are the following: 

— flour — rice 

— cotton seed oH — nee 

— palm ail — sugar 

— natural bier — industrial processing of meats. 


automatic exemption from entry duties on taw materials shall not be 
provided for. 


the P.M.E. (Pctite&et Mqycnnes En [reprises? small and medium businesses) 
shall, henceforth, have access to certain benefits provided for by (be Code. 


1.2 Scope of appheodon: 

The new provisions shall apply to businesses (including the PJU.E. (small and 


However, exemption is reduced to 75%, 50% and 25% over the bat three 
years prior to die end of the period of priority starts, 

aid in respect of the value added in the Ivory Coast according to a 
graduated percentage on five (SI years (which shall vary according u> 
the zone) applied on the sum tool paid to wage-eanring Ivory Coast 
employees (but on the basis of assessment which shall be limited to 3 
times the annual S.M.I.G. (guaranteed minimum wage)). 

Assistance is increased by 50% for tbe small and medium businesses. 

1.3.4. Definition of the P-M.E. (Small and medntm businesses) 

This c o n certo businesses whose investment progra mm e (exclusive of 


AMENDMENTS OF TAX INCENTIVES FOR 
INVESTMENTS AS PROVIDED FOR IN THE 
GENERAL TAX CODE - VARIOUS 
MEASURES 


2.7 Fea paid to anhaeca or ceravhaxy bureaux - TPS 

TPS is not, in principle deductable from VA.T., except in dun .cases 
verified by current legislation. A fourth exception shall be add ed to these 
under Article 231-2 CGI (and, consequently in Appendix HI), which shall 
enab le businesses which have been granted priority status to recuperate the 
TPS doe on the foes to architects and consultancy bureaux at the time of 
making the investments necessary for their installation. 


3. 


At the same time as the amendment to 

fra investments have abo been modified. 


2.1 Anide 4-6 (armgtnent referred a at "de Farme kouoW (“new foamy”)): 
The five year exemption from BIC taxes shall be iaoased to 7 years in 
respea of profits resulting from the operation of a new factory installed 


AMENDMENTS RELATING TO THE FNI 

The reduction of 80,000 F applicable to the FNI levy shall be increased to 
150,000 F for tbe P-M-E. (small and nwdinm businesses). 

The minimum investment to be realized in category 1 in order to qualify for die 
rrimburement of the certificates shall be reduced from 15 to 10 nnUsoo (Abidjan 
conurbation) and from 10 io 5 milh nn (for the rest -of the conn try), when 
investments are made by the P.MJL (small and medium businesses). 


For the full text of Article 4, 1985 Financial Law - Fiscal Appendix , etc., please write to: 
Ministere de I’Economie, des Finances et du Plan, B.P.V. 163, Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire 


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Beralbc^tSribune 


BUSINESS /FINANCE 


U.S. Stocks 
Report, Page 6 


** 


Page 17 



ECONOMIC SCENE 


icornm ic ci 1 *3* Polity and the Dollar: 
hory Cans i ^ a Decline in the Offing? 


iV 


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By LEONARD SILK 

New Yprii Times Serrfrr 

£W YORK — The soaring dollar was jolted again this 
week by the warning of the Federal Reserve Board’s 
chairman, Paul A. Volcker, that there could be a 'Very 
sharp decline" in the dollar’s value because market 


art* by Allman 
l iwcU 


pn> >t . iychology cobid change rapidly. 

1 ’sychology obviously has a lot to do with the day-to-day 
L ■ lie iij ' 'tree of the dollar, whose drops send interest rates up and the 
liwi. Purities markets down. On Thursday, the dollar jumped on 
■ •l&j vs that the money supply had grown more rapidly than 
«cted. 

Jut the big question is whether the markets arc starting to see a 
i •> tree d- °f die dollar resulting — 

‘vrm ptumOK TTI 


u i *vhn fundamental chang es in 
n-mt •, economic and political cli- 


Aw vviimgt-f M i * “J > economic and political cu- 
yw»nfci.r **«*»• *J i S tJj., Se and from the actions erf 
ttyfKHlfcthtitUcs tif iw , Fed. the Reagan adminis- 

11 •.‘riltoi.Mnn anrl C rmarr« ns well 


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iwjoy the 

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s u ^ Cation and Congress, as well 
' those of foreign central 
ufl a i-:iks and governments. 
*-' 4 »iiltd CI . e .^vfr. Votekex, whether he 
Lt -tJ intended to or not. 


1‘oimi 


Are markets seeing 
. a peaking of the 
dollar because of 
of changes in climate? 


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fejdkcd the bond market down and interest rates up with his 
imony Wednesday in Congress that the Fed had ended its 
fgressivdy easier monetary policy of the last four months but 
1 not yet decided to tighten. 

«ater, Mr. Volcker suggested that the markets had misin ter- 
ted his statement He caricatured the markets’ reaction by 
mg they had taken “about one nanosecond” to react, implying 
y had misr ead him. 

n a prepared statement Mr. Volcker said Wednesday that “we 
1 want to provide enough money this year to sustain orderly 
wth in demand and output" Pressed to say what the Fed 
old do next Mr. Volcker said, “I don’t know what the next 
ve is." 

n confusion, the dollar fell in response to Mr. Vdcker’s latest 
imony, and so, a nanosecond bemud, did the stock and bond 
jkets. Confusion, which the markets abhor, was intensified by 
-.’peech given at the Brookings Institution the same day by 
ston Martin, the wee chairman of the Fed and a Reagan 

- rointee. 

- At. Martin said that “somewhat faster" growth of the money 
..ply might be needed this year because of a slowdown in 

jdty, the rate at which the money supply turns over. 

AS Mr. Volcker actually trying to stow the growth of the 


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■7» interview Thu 


money supply and Mr. Martin trying to speed it op? In an 
interview Thursday, Mr. Martin sought to dispel the 

> lfusionby saying that Brookings had asked him to look ahead 

■ ough 1985 and 1986, while Mr. Volcker was looking backward 
ough the latter part of 1984. 

‘While we eased back in August and September, we are no 
ger easing," Mr. Martin said. The present status, he said, was 
. t “we are neither tightening nor loosening.” 

' 'Essentially, he insisted, monetary policy had not changed. “We 
re permitting the narrowly defined monetary aggregates to 
<w above then cones or their targeted range,” and that is still 
case, he added. 

vlr. Martin said M-], consisting of currency in circulation, 

. nand deposits, traveler's checks and other checkable deposits, 
stdl increasing at an annual rate of 10 percent or 10 percent 
-s.” 

-How could' the markets interpret this as tightening?** hfisked * 
'torically. In raising interest rates in response to its expecta- 
is erf future monetary policy, he said, the market was making a 
/-fulfilling prophecy." 

or thewholeof 1985, he said, the Fed would be at or above its 
jets for M-I, depending on what happened to velocity. If 
jd ty sagged again, as it tod in 1982, “we will bear or above 10 
rent” in monetary growth. 

oxd what did the Fed mean to do about the dollar? he was 
(Cotdxnxied on Page 19, CoL 1) 


Currency Rates 


3 


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Jobs Poll 
Gloomy in 
Germany 

Workweek Cut 
Is Being Cited 

By Warren Gcrlcr 

International Herat# Tribune 

FRANKFURT — Hares for a 
significant reduction in west Ger- 
man unemployment this year have 
been soared by a newly released 
report by Gesamunetall, the metal 
industry association. 

The survey said that 76 percent 
of the companies polled had no 
plans to hire or fire in 1985; 14 
percent planned to hire, and 10 
percent to lire A similar survey last 
fall indicated that 74 percent 
planned no changes; 18 percent 
planned to hire, and 8 percent to 
make cuts. 

The repot, based on a January 
survey by the Munich-based IFu 
economic institute of 2JS00 compa- 
nies in the steel, sbopboildizig, auto- 
mobile and electronic industries, 
provided an early indication of the 
short-term effects that a 38^-bour 
workweek — effective April 1 — 
may have on employment. The 
workweek is being cut from 40 
hours. 

In a seven-week strike last sum- 
mer that cost the economy billions 
of Deutsche marks, the metalwork- 
ers’ union, IG MctalL campaigned 
for a shorter workweek, but with no 
pay cuts, as a way to create jobs. 

IG Melall had sought a 35-hour 
workweek, but ultimately agreed 
with GesamtmetaQ on a “flexible” 
38.5-hour-a-wcek arrangement 
varying from company to compa- 
ny. 

Dieter Kirdmer, president of 
GesamtmetalL said in an interview 
Friday that the chief reason for 
widespread reluctance to hire new 
workers was so effective 5.9 per- 
cent rise in total wage costs because 
of last summer’s agreement ending 
the strike. 

“In addition to the 2 percent 
wage increase incorporated in the 
agreement, companies face a 3.9 
percent rise in effective wage 
payouts as a result of workers 
spending less time on the job with 
no loss in pay” Mr. Kirdmer said. 
This is because con^anies will have 
to pay overtime to cover produc- 
tion needs. 

Mr. Kirchner stressed that a ma- 
jor reduction in West Germany’s 
current unemployment rate, at a 
postwar record ot 1QJ percent, de- 
pends on companies posting strong 
profits and having sufficient liquid 
funds to invest t2 Wiih exports ac- 
counting for over 50 percent of 
sales in the metal industry, a sharp 
drey in the dollar and a weakening 
of overseas demand could throw us 
into very serious difficulty — do- 
mestic demand is too soft to main- 
tain a positive business climate,” he 
said. 

Mr. Kirchner said he was confi- 
dent that the flexibility granted to 
companies in establishing a 383- 
hour workweek eventually would 
encourage manu facturers to ex- 
pand their labor force. 

The Boon government could 
markedly improve employment, 
Mr. Kirdmer said, by allowing em- 
ployers to hire new workers for an 
18-month period with the option to 
fire. Carrent regulations allow 
short-term work of up to a year. 


Major Airlines and Their Commuter Affiliates 


ahum 


r of AffHl»tiOn 


Cemmottor Affiliation 


United Alrtlnea 

1962 Nona Airlines. Aspen Airways. 

Horizon Air. 
Imperial Airlines. 
Mississippi Valley Airlines 
1988 Rocky Mountain Airways 

1984 Air Virginia, Air Wisconsin. Westair 

1 985 San Juan Airlines 

American AMineo 

1984 

Chaparral Airlines. Metro Airlines 

Pan American World 

1983 

Empire 

Airways 

1984 

Air Atlanta 

Eastern Air Linos 

1981 

1984 

Bar Harbor Airlines 
Metro Express 

Delta Alrfmea 

1984 

Atiamic Southeast Airlines. 
Comair. Ransoms Airlines. 

Rio Airways 

Northwest Airlines 

1984 

Mesaba 

Continental Airlines 

1983 

Royals Pioneer 

Republic Airlines 

1985 

Simmons 

U.S. Ah' 

1967* 

AAegheny Commuter 

Piedmont 

1983 

Henson 



- todudM 8 camoiutar ttotoies, bagm 1 06 T 


Luggage is transferred from an Empire 
Airlines aircraft to a Pan Am plane at the 
Pan Am Terminal at Kennedy Airport. 


The New Ytxi roan 


Big U.S. Airlines Find Advantages 
In Linking With Commuter Lines 

By Agis Salpukas 

New York Times Service 


NEW YORK — When James McManus flew 
from Syracuse, New York, to London recently, he 
took an Empire Airlines flight directly to one of 
Pan American World Airways’ gates at Kennedy 
Internationa] Airport outside New York Gty, then 
boarded a Pan Am trans-Atlantic jet just a few 
hundred yards away. 

The trip, said Mr. McManus, an employee of 
Carrier Crap., was better in several ways than 
before Empire had become affiliated with ran Am 
two years ago. It not oily was cheaper bat the dash 
from one turnmal to another was eliminated. Fur- 
thermore, both he and his luggage were ticketed 
straight through to London, and be earned extra 
miles on Pan Ain’s frequent-flier program. 

Passengers, however, are not the (mb' ones gain- 
ing from linkups like the one between Pan Am and 
Empire. Affiliations between major carriers and 
smaller commuter lines have been proliferating in 
recent years because the airlines also are benefit- 
ing. 

For major earners like Pan Am, such links feed 
additional passengers into their flights without the 
need of servicing many smaller markets them- 
selves. And, in an era of fierce fare competition, 
the passengers are less likely to look at competitive 
flights. 

The smaller commuter carriers, Bke Empire, 
gain not only the prestige of having the bigger 
airlines on their flight listings, but also receive 
gates and-ticket sales space provided by the major 
carriers. The links mean extra traffic for the small- 
er lines, as wefl. 

Paul Quackenbush, the president of Empire, 
estimates, for example, that of the million passen- 
gers his airline carried last year, the second of its 


association with Pan Am. about 80.000 connected 
with the larger earner's flights. In the first year, the 
figure was 10.000. 

Delta, American, Northwest Orient, Republic 
and Continental all have lined up multiple alli- 
ances with commuter lines in the last several years. 
Others, such as Eastern, United and USAir, tod 
set up such systems years earlier. And the pressure 
is growing for other airlines to join in. 

“More and more commuter carriers are realizing 
that they must do it." Mr. Quackenbush said. “So 
(here is more pressure to join up." 

Delta Air Lines, for example, concluded , 
meats with four commuter carriers 1 
some Airlines of Philadelphia, to serve the North- 
east; Rio Airways Inc. of Killeen, Texas, to serve 
the Southeast; Comair Inc. of Cinriimati, for the 
Middle West, and Atlantic Southeast Airlines in 
Atlanta, to serve the Southeast. These camera are 
known as the Delta connection. 

According to Russell Gariota, the manager of 
interline sales. Delta made the move to counter 
Eastern's system, which feeds its hub at Atlanta. 

Eastern began to build its system earlier, joining 
with Bar Harbor Airlines four years ago, then 
adding Metro Airlines in Houston and the Eastern 
Metro Express in Atlanta three years ago. 

American Airlines last year made an agreement 
with Metro Airlines of Houston, as well as Chapar- 
ral Airlines of Abilene, Texas. Both commuter 
lines have adopted American's red, white and blue 
colors and new emblems for their flights, and are 
redesigning uniforms for employees and their tick- 
et counters. They also are rescheduling flights to 
proride better connections to American's nub at 
the DaHas-Forth Worth International Airport. 

Arrangements between carriers vary. The eight 

(Continued on Page 19, CoL 1) 


Unemployment 
In U.S. Edges 
Lower to 7.3% 


The Axuxiarcd Press 

WASHINGTON — Civilian un- 
employment in the United States 
edged down 0.1 percentage point, 
to 13 percent, in February as con- 
tinuing economic strength created 
nearly 300,000 new jobs, the Labor 
Department reported Friday. 

The number of unemployed 
Americans, however, remained 
about the same, with 8.4 million 
pie out of woik, down just 
from January. The unem- 
ployment rale in January was 7.4 
percent. 

Moreover, the unemployment 
rate for black workers rose by 1.4 
percentage pants, to 16 J percent, 
largely as a result of increased job- 
lessness among adult black men. 
The rate for whites dropped to 62 
percent from 6.4 percent 

The number of Americans hold- 
ing jobs rose to a record 106.7 mil- 
lion, the Labor Department report- 
ed. The bulk of the employment 
gnm rtmv m industries providing 
services rather than in those mano^ 
facturing products. 

Testifying before the congressio- 
nal Joint Economic Committee, Ja- 
net L. Norwood, the commissioner 
of labor statistics, said, “Large 
over-the-month gams in the ser- 
vice-producing sector — 255,000 — 
were partly offset by declines in the 
goods-produting sector, particular- 
ly in manufacturing." Goods-pro- 
duemg jobs fell 137,000. 

In an earlier report, a business 
research group said consumer con- 
fidence in the U.S. economy 
slipped in February bat remained 
at a “relatively high leveL” 

The Conference Board said its 
February survey of consumer con- 
fidence showed a slight decline 
from January’s level, when it rose 
sharply after sliding in December. 

Fabian linden, executive direc- 
ta of the board's consumer-re- 
search center, said: “The continu- 
ing high level of consumer 
confidence throughout the country, 
following the sharp decline in De- 
cember, is reassuring." 

But he noted mat the survey 
found some “growing signs of un- 
certainty, especially about future 
employment opportunities.” 


The board also asked consumers 
about their buying plans, and 
found that 8.8 percent of those sur- 
veyed said they planned to buy a 
car within the next six months, vir- 
tually unchanged from January. 

At the White House, Larry 
Spokes, the presidential spokes- 
man. said more than 60 percent of 
the adult population held jobs last 
month, a figure he said was “canal 
to the highest employment peak in 
our history. 

“We have seat a number of posi- 
tive economic indicators in recent 
weeks, but none is more reassuring 
than a drop in unemployment," 
Mr. Speakes said. “The economy is 
creating Jobs in record numbers.” 

But Representative David K. 
Obey, Democrat of Wisconsin, the 
chairman of the Joint Economic 
Committee, noted that the uuerfr 
ployment rate had remained in the 
range of 7.1 percent to 13 percent 
since May and said the economy 
was “making no new progress for 
the 8.4 tnlm nn people woo want 
work but cannot find it” 

Analysts predict civilian jobless- 
ness will drop to 7 percent or even 
lower this summer, but then edge 
upward later in the year. 

The rate, which readied a post- 
Depression peak of 10.7 percent in 
November 1982, dropped to 12 
percent last June, then headed up 
again before f ailing to 7.1 percent 
in November, the lowest rate since 
the 1981-82 recession. 

The current economic expansion 
is somewhat narrowly based, said 
Joe Cason, an economist at Mer- 
rill Lyndi & Co. There is strong 
activity in the auto and defense- 
related industries, he said. 


Peugeot Says 1984 Sales Rose and Loss Shrank 


By Axel Krause 

International Herald Tribune 

PARIS — Peugeot SA’s consoli- 
dated sales rose l^t year to about 5 
percent to a record 90 bQBon to 95 
billion francs (S8.6 bQHoa to S9.1 
billion), and its 1984 net loss was 
reduced “considerably” from the 
2J59 billion francs of 1983, Jacques 
Calvet, the com p any’s rimjniian, 
said Friday. 

Mr. Calvet, speaking in an inter- 
view, declined to give the amount 
erf the 1984 loss. He said that and 
other financial results would be re- 
leased in June. 

Some industry and financial ana- 
lysts have estimated Peugeot’s 1984 
toss at IS billion to 2bafion francs. 
They have said that the group, the 
second largest automaker in 
France, after stato-owned Renault, 
will report a smaller toss in 1985 
before returning to profitability in 
1986. 

Mr. Calvet, however, said the 


group is expecting a profit for 1985. 
He cited substantial reductions in 
the company’s wok face and oth- 
er cQst-cattmg moves, such as in- 
creased automation of company 
plants. But he declined to estimate 
how much Pengpt might cam this 
year. 

"Ihere is nothing preventing us 
from estimating that we will be in 
the blank in 1985,'’ he said. 

Following negotiations with la- 
bor uniats and the government, the 
group dimmated 18,000 jobs in 
France during 1984, leaving a woii 
force of about 110,000 at its Peu- 
geot, QtroSn and Talbot divisions. 
Mr. Calvet said he wants to reduce 
worker levels by 3 percent a year. 

The company estimates that job 
cots win save the company abort 
840 million francs this year, and 
will play a major role in generating 
earnings, Mr. Calvet said. 

However, despite the improve- 
ments, Data Resources Interna- 


tional, a U-Su forecasting firm, has 
predicted that Peugeot wul report a 
loss in 1985, primarily because of 
stagnating car sales and high oper- 
ating costs. “They win lose money 
again in 1985, but less than in 1984, 
before breaking even and moving 
into profits in 1986,” said Sanjay 
Dabysmg, a Data Resources ana- 
lyst 

But Peugeot executives chal- 
lenged this view, saying that several 
outside analysis had told the com- 
pany recently that they thought 
that the company could return to 
profitability this year. 

Despite its cost-cutting efforts, 
Peugeot plans a 25-pcrcent increase 
in capital investment for this year, 
to 5 billion francs, from 4 billion 
francs in 1984. Next year, capital 
spending wQl increase 20 percent, 
to 6 bHhon francs. 

The funds are earmarked for 
plant modernization and develop- 
ment of new models, and include 2 


billion francs in low-interest loans 
that the company is seeking from a 
government fond fa industrial 
modernization. 

Mr. Calvet said that he has not 
had a response to the loan request 

The loans would be used to de- 
velop a small Gtrofcn economy car 
that would be bufli at the compa- 
ny’s Aulnay-sous-Bois plant near 
Paris. 

Co mmenting on the outlook fa 
the European auto industry, Mr. 
Calvet said that he expected virtu- 
ally no growth in sales during 1985, 
with volume remaining at about 
10.2 million cars. In 1986, he said, 
volume could rise to 10.6 million 
cars. 

Car sales in France this year will 
rise only slightly to about 1.8 mil- 
lion, Iron 1.7 million in 1984, Mr. 
Calvet said. Peugeot generates 
about 50 percent of its sales in 
France. 


Dottar Finishes 
The Day With 
Broad Decline 

Compiled by Our Staff From Dispatches 

NEW YORK— After being 
mixed earlier in the day, the 
dollar staged a broad dechite in 
volatile trading Friday in Lon- 
don and New York as U.S. in- 
terest rates fdl and wanes con- 
tinued about future assaults on 
the currency by central banks. 
There was no sign of central 
bank intervention. 

Dealers said traders no long- 
er seemed certain that the dollar 
was generally on a climb. 

The currency ended the day 
in New York with sharp drops. 
The pound rose to $1.0680 from 
$1.0645 Thursday. The Deut- 
sche mark strengthened to 
3.3960 to the dollar from 
3.4205, and the French franc to 
103750 from 10.4500. Gold 
prices rose. 

In Paris, the dollar rose 
against the franc, to 10.441 
from Thursday’s 10.411. The 
dollar also gained in Frankfurt, 
trading at 3.42 against Thurs- 
day’s 3.4087. But in London, 
the dollar declined against the 
pound, to end at $1.0663 from 
Thursdays SI. 0673. 

(AP, UPI, Reutm) 


Japan Asks U,S. Patience on Trade 


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By Stuart Auerbach 

Washington Post Service 

WASHINGTON — A leading 
Japanese industrialist and a former 
foreign minister have made a plea 
fa patience ban Americans who 
are frustrated by the allegedly one- 
way nature of 'trade between (he 
countries. 

Saburo Okita, the former foreign 
minister, said Japan- was in the 
midst of a “histone change" from 
being dominated by a need to ex- 
port. 

“Looking from our ride, we are 
malting very serious efforts to 
change long-cherished, long-estab- 
lished rules* that have been used to 
restrict imports into Japan, he said 
Thursday at a meeting with report- 
ers from The Washington Post 

He and AJrio Morita, chairman 
of Sony Gup., are in Washington 
as special emissaries of Prime Min- 
ister Yasuhiro Nakasone to try to 
ease growing trade frictions be- 
tween the two countries. The fric- 
tion is fueled in part by Japan's 
S36.8-bDlion trade surplus last year 
and the growing feding in the Unit- 
ed States that competitive products 
are kept out of Japanese markets. 
Mr. Okita is tto chairman and Mr. 
Morita is a member of an advisory 
committee named by Mr. Naka- 
sone to study the market-access is- 
sue. 

Shortly after the two men tod 
called for more time to make the 


transition to more 
cuds of the American 


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__ w - 287 JO -2JQ 

odtetai HxintB lor London. Port* owl tnwnh 
tM^aMrtMOrtdMlnPPr^ 
and Xurfcb. to** 1 vwn COM** crtwtfeMtnieL 
All l»1«* «• uil iwr mmos. 

> Keutert- 



ToOurBeoders 

Beginning in this weekend’s 
editions, the bid, offered and 
yield rates fa the three-month, 
six-month and one-year US. 
Treasury bOls win be published 
daily, except fa Monday edi- 
tions. Today, these figures are 
os Page 18. 


was 

growing thin. 

The AEA representatives, at a 
press briefing, said they feared that 
regulations mat Japan is expected 
to issue on May 1 will further re- 
strict competitive U.S. companies 
from the iriwwmmiHiittiiTflng mar- 
ket instead erf opening it wider, as 
Mr. Nakasone and other Japanese 
officials have promised. 

“There really is no more pa- 
tience,” said William KL Krist di- 
rector of international trade affairs 
fa AEA. “Now is the time to gel 
access in Japan. If we don't get it, 
we're going to have to rethink our 
whole free-trade approach. 

“If I were Japan and didn't really 
move to assure an open market 
system, I wouldn’t be teal san- 
guine" about future relations with 
meUniied States. 

The AEA representatives said 
they had not seen the Japanese reg- 
ulations, but had heard reports that 
they contain complex certificati o n 
procedures that have been used in 
the past to keep U.S. products odl 
. Mr. Motto sad, however, “We 
are trying to make our market open 
in tdecommumcations. We are try- 
ing to get it open as soon as posa- 
ble." 

Mr. Okita and Mr. Morita said 
they recognized the new, charged 
atmosphere in Washington over 
trade. 

“I fed this time it is very seri- 
ous,” said Mr. Okita. 


■ Trade Talks in Tokyo 

The United States and Japan will 
bold three days of tulks on trade 
and other issues to Tokyo next 
week, Reuters reported at Friday 
from Tokyo. 

The. Japanese Foreign Ministry 
said the eighth meeting of the Ja- 
pan-U-S. Trade Committee will be 
on Monday. It will be followed by 
talks at the sub-cabinet level on 
Thursday and Friday. 


if— CHARTER — 

M/Y “AEGEAN CHAIIENGT 

l» Ft 12 penoosgo aajrwhcxe. 
We arc the best in Greek Islands. 

Mediterranean Cruises Ltd. 

3 SuuSou St, Athens. 

Td_- 3236494. Ttc: 222288. 


%[\ RESERVE 

V INSURED DEPOSITS TRUST 


RES IN DEP 

An Account for the Caytious Investor 
to Protect and Inerflase Capital 


Ui Dollar Denominated 

(mured by Ui Govt. Entities 
Important T®c Advantages 
Competitive 
Money Market Yrtds 
No Market Ride 
Immediate Liquidity 
Absolute Cori fi da i ticfty 


CHEMICAL BANK, New York 
Custodian 

CAYMAN NATIONAL BANK 
AND TRUST 
Registrar 


RES IN DEP 

Cate Pastde 93 

1211 Geneva Switzerland 

Please send prospectus aid 
account appBcation ta 


Name. 


Address. 


i As USA 


OPPENHEIMER 
OFFERS YOUR IRA AN 
ALTERNATIVE 
TO GUARANTEED 
LOW RATES. 


F or IRA investors seeking the 
assurance of a fixed rate, we 
suggest a bank? 1 

Bor those investors more 
concerned with how high the ■ 
rate of return is, than with how 
fixed, we suggest another route. 
The Oppenheimer Special Fund. 

Because over its life, the 
■Special Fund has the best perfor- 
mance 'record of all 361 mutual 
funds that have been inexistence 
that long-an astonishing total 
return of 940%.** 


So if you 
put $2,000 a year into a Special 
Fund IRA since the Fund's 
inception, your IRA would have 
been worth $104,570*** as of 
December 31, 1984. That’s an 
average annual return of 21.5% 
The Special Fund provides 
an IRA investment based on the 
philosophy that the 
opportunity for a 
higher return is pref- 
erable to the certain- 
ty of a lower one. 



9/3/85 


P* To M.Tucker Smith 

Oppenheimer &Ov 62-64 Cannon St. London EC4N 6 AE England 
Telephone 01-236 6578 

Please send pte aq IRA applicarior. and a Special Fund prospectus with more complete informs- 

‘ it carefully before I invest or send money 


n 


a on. Including all charges and expenses, fil nadir card 
□W like to Open an IRA, Old ilEe to switch my IRA- 


Name 


Address 


Dry 


State 


L_Z£ 


Phone 


THE OPEENH ELMER SPECIAL FUND. 


© 1985 Oppenheimer Investor Services. Inc. 'Bank IRAS are insured arid generally have lined interest 
rates, whereas the Fund's no assn value fluctuates and may be subject to loss. “March 15, 1975-Dccetober 
31. 19H Upper Analytical Services, Inc •"■Aseuminga SZbOO investment on March 15, 1973 (inception 
of fund] and S2^XX) annual investments on firsr business day of each year thereafter with all dividends and 
diRrt buttons reinvested. Past performance Is not an Indies non of future results. In the period shown, 
stock prices fluctuated severely and were generally higher ar the end than at the beginning. 






Page 18 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, SATURDAY-SUNPAY, MARCH 9-10, 1985 


El 

Alt 

Mi 

AHi 

■m 

D«r 

Bt T 

era 

mm 

AM 

CM 

Cm 

Dm 

■«i 

Fin 

Fra 

On 

MW 

IMA 

Lttt 

LUI 

Lm 


MIC 

Oik 

Fat 

Pn 

Rcr 

Bin 

iMx 

Sire 

Vf« 

V«l 

Not 

tlT 

Ml 

AMf 

A«li 

Oar 

Jen 

T*! 

oc 

*uc 

STB 


FBI 

F*f 

I5»- 

C'b 
see | 
<«a- 



SwW Season 
Htah Law 


Open Hitt Law Close dig. 


S I 


Grains 


WHEAT (CBT) „ 

iooobu minimwiMteJIon i»rb»»l»l 
jju Utk Mar 347* 147ft 

X0S W MWUMUM 

mo xm* Jui rj* ua 

3 J6* Mi S«a 127ft MM 

MJK 3® Dec 309* WO* 

174* 140* AMT 1+** W4* 

Est. Soles Pfw.SaleB.JWl 

Prev.Doy Open int 3UM oHSM 

CORN (CBT) ' ' „ 

UOObu Rilnimuin-tiaii^s per tRMM 

53“ Uffi K£l£»SL 

Jul “ ‘ 


345* 345*-®* 

137* W7% -02* 

127 3J» —itJ 

are ire —in vi 
MM MOW -in 

144ft 144ft -®* 


2J4 US 
Sap 147 160* 

Dec 14114 24336 

MOT 169* £»* 

May 223V 204 
Prev.Soles 3L610 


131 

301* 144ft 

295 140* 

110 uou 

MTU 174V 

Eat.Selcs • — 

Prev.Doy Open I ntlVWTT uuii4 
SOYBEANS (CBT) , , , 

SWObu minimum- Ool lore per buOTjel 
7.90* ISO Mar 573ft 578 

7.97 SJOV MOV iOJ 509 

7Jf MOV Jui Mift waft 

7JS4 SI2 Aug 593 W»ft 

471 U1 Sep M7 523 

441 5JQV, Nov 590ft W7ft 

479 594ft Jon 4JB 607 

7*3 404 ft Mar 172 AM* 

779 4.15 MOV 471 

Est. Soles Prev.Sales.E73 

Pm, Day Open inL 45.124 iH<7 

SOYBEAN MEAL (CBT) 
irlon 


245 154 

270ft 271ft +®V 
173ft 174V +01 

244V 244ft +01* 
240V 242V +01* 

» ««* +jn 

275V 275 +31 


572V 

541ft 

590V 

5.92ft 

547 

541 

542 
All* 
421 


100 tons- aaiiors per — __ 

20940 12140 MOT 129 JO 

20540 12940 

19440 13470 

1B0JU 13740 
17940 14040 

18050 14240 

18440 1 47 JO 

14100 14940 

2D440 15440 

Est. Sales 


May 13450 13440 
Jul 14040 14040 
Aua 14240 14240 
Sap 14150 14150 
Oct 14470 14470 
Dec W£(V 1X220 
Jan moo 15X50 
Mar 

P rev. Sales 14440 


12740 

13230 

13840 

14040 

14370 

14570 

15000 

moo 


57SU +42ft 
545V -MR* 
194V +0*V 
sm +im 

590ft +44 

592ft +43* 
544 +0J* 

AM +44 
543 +43 


12740 —140 
13240 —190 
13540 —170 
14140 -440 
14340 — L50 


14540 

15050 

15X00 

15540 


Prev. Day Open inL 41313 off 1. 198 





2902 

+MS 




2805 

29® 

2X51 




27® 

2103 

27® 






26® 

27® 

26® 






26.15 

27® 

3X13 






26® 

re® 

2500 


+08 




2505 

25® 

3S0S 


+03 

2400 

2200 

Dec 

3405 

25.10 

34® 

24® 

+® 

2X7D 

23® 

Jon 

2400 

2X90 

34® 


+® 

Ext. Soles 


Prev.Soles 15048 





OATS (CAT) 

5400 Du minimum- dollars per bushel 
196ft 170V Mar 174 174 

191 147ft May 149V 170 

178ft 143 Jul 144ft 145 

179 140 SOP 141V 141V 

142ft 144 Dec 144 145 

Est. Sales Prow. Sales 510 

Prev. Dav Open int. 3476 up W 


174* 174V -in ft 
149 149V — JH 

143ft 144* —4014 
141ft 141V 
144 145 +41 


Livestock 


CATTLE (CMS) 

40000 Hkl- cents per ft. 

5940 5X40 APT 040 45.15 

6940 5100 Jim 6570 677S 

6747 6115 Aug 6540 5547 

<590 <140 Oct 4340 <445 

5745 <340 Dec 5500 5575 

4745 4545 Feb 5540 5573 

47J7 64.10 Apt 

Est. Sales 2133B PnvTsatos 13410 
Prev. Day Oeen Int. 59435 up 429 
FEEDER CATTLE (CME) 

44000 U>x- cents per lb. 

7475 <575 Mar 5745 5873 

7420 6740 Apr 6905 7045 

7275 4493 May 6970 7075 

7370 6S.a» AUO 7102 7190 

rajo 67.® Sep 78M 7170 

7242 67.10 Oct 7050 71.17 

7340 7040 NOV 7145 7193 

Eat Sales 2407 Prav.Soles 1470 
Prev. Dor Open int 10JM0 up 125 


6345 5407 +L17 

5505 6743 +98 

65.15 6442 +47 

6345 4447 +47 

5575 5573 +70 

6520 6573 +40 

6593 +OS 


67® 

6705 

+53 

6X75 

7X00 

. +» 

49JB2 

7005 

+105 

70® 

71® 

+62 

7X80 

71® 

+50 

7X40 

7L1J 

+S5 

7105 

71® 

+05 


30000 UM^-CMltl DOT*. 
5X45 45.10 APT 

46® 

4705 

4675 

47® 

+35 




5110 

52® 

51® 

52® 

+43 




53® 

5X20 

5115 

5X15 

+33 

5X37 



52® 

5307 

5205 

5222 

+® 




48® 

48® 

48® 

4X67 

+07 




4X73 

4915 

4005 

48® 

■ — 02 


4605 

Fab 

4805 

49® 

4805 

4X75 

+25 

4705 


An- 

46® 

46® 

46® 

45® 

3-15 

47® 47® Jun 

Est So In* 7003 Prow. Soles 6079 
Prev.Doy Open int. 2X653 off 46 


47® 

+® 


PORK BELLIES (OWE) 


3X000 ton ants PO- re. 




75® 

+1® 

81® 

3X10 

Mar 

72® 

75.10 

7205 

BIN 

6U5 


73® 

73.10 

7190 

7400 

+05 

8207 

6115 

Jul 

73® 

75® 

72.92 

7X80 

+00 

0005 

AIM 


7105 

7335 

71® 

7265 

+2® 


6115 


7025 

7250 

70® 

7147 

+102 



Mar 

71® 

7103 

7000 

71® 

+1® 

7X40 

70® 

May 




71® 

+2® 

7000 

7000 

Jul 




71® 

+2® 

Est Sales 

6055 Prev.Soles 6042 





Prev. Day Open Ini. M4S4 off 500 


Food 


COFPEE C(NYCSCE) 
37400 lbs.- cents per lb. 


153® 

123® 

Mar 

143® 

14X90 

14175 

143® 

+1® 

152® 

moi 

MOV 14X50 

14500 

M3® 

MAM 

+1® 

M7® 

121® 

Jul 

144® 

U5.15 

14300 

145® 

+102 

147® 

127® 

See 

142® 

14300 

14165 

14169 

+1® 

14205 

129® 

Dec 

142® 

M2® 

142® 

M2® 

+1® 

141® 

12X50 


13901 

14820 

13901 

140® 

+.77 

139® 

131® 

MOV 




139® 

+30 

13600 

MS® 

Jut 




137® 

—as 


Est. Sales 2400 Prev.Sales 1545 
Prev. Day Open Int. 1X505 upS* 
SUOARWORLD 11 (NYCSCE) 

1 nun Rkl- cents per lb. 


10® 

300 

Mm 

4® 

X10 

302 

3® 

—31 

7® 

402 

Jul 

a 

436 

AOI 

4® 

—39 

7® 

A55 

Sep 

4 00 

422 

422 

—03 

9® 

430 

ore 

4® 

X75 

462 

402 

+.11 

705 

506 


£3 

5® 

5.15 

403 

—00 

9® 

500 

Mar 

500 

5® 

500 

-07 


6JH 

MOV 

504 

506 

562 

562 

^39 

627 

Jui 

620 

620 

592 

5® 

—08 

Eli Sales 
Prev.Doy 

2X545 Prev.Soles U®4 
Open no. 8X329 UP 104) 





COCOA (NYCSCE) 

10 metric tons- s per km 


2570 

1985 

Mar 

2030 

2039 

2030 

2075 

455 

2570 

1990 

May 

2060 

2110 

2060 

2105 

+51 

2400 

1998 

Jul 

2052 

2074 

2038 

2071 

+34 

2415 

IfW 

Sep 

2037 

3052 

2030 

3046 

+21 

2337 

1945 

Dec 

1905 

2004 

1779 

1797 

+20 


Season Season 
Hitt Low 

3M5 I?55 Mor 1990 2005 

2130 1960 MOV 1983 2010 

2035 iMd Jul 

Est. Sales . Prev. Sales 4413 

prev.Day Ooen im. 26463 up 709 
ORANGE JUICE (NYCE) 

15000 Ibtr cents per a>. 

10540 118JQ Mar 16X20 15320 


Open HWi Low Ouse Cto- 


1900 

1983 


1994 

1991 

1998 


U5JM 

18443 

18200 

18140 

10040 

17740 

15250 


15140 

15100 

15775 

15740 

is5in 

15640 

16040 


May 167 JB 16840 
Jul 160.15 169.10 
Sep 16040 16840 
Nov 16345 15540 
Jon 15520 15&60 
MOT 16525 16525 


144.90 

16573 

16840 

15840 

mw 

IBP 

16523 


JUI _ 

Est. Sales 230 PTwv.SolM 2S1 
Prw. oar OP® Inf. 4J38 att72 


16575 

16745 

15945 

M83S 

15540 

16540 

15560 

15560 

15540 


+14 

+14 

+14 


+20 

+40 

+J5 

+40 

+45 

+40 

+40 

+J0 

+40 


Metals 


COPPER (CO MEX) 
25jwnbx- cents per lb, 
9320 355 0 Mar 


4X40 

9250 

HE 

8X10 

8425 

8440 

8040 

7440 

7440 

7090 

7040 

5540 


9960 Jan 
5960 Mar 


6140 Jul 
5X30 Sep 
5440 Dec 

_ ixnf jan 

E«. Sales 7400 Prev.Soles 10427 
Prev. Day Open mt 8242S up625 
SILVER (COMEX) 


5933 

59® 

59® 


+® 

+-05 


6000 

60® 




6t® 

6060 




61® 

61® 

61.15 


62® 

62.15 

6U0 

61® 

+.10 




+.10 






6320 

A-19Q 

65.90 



6300 

6300 

6300 






+-10 


6443 

55.13 


5000 Tray ex- cents per trav os. 

57X5 

55X0 

MM -110 

162X0 

5490 

ft&nr 

5730 

5810 

gj 

Apt 

5760 

5760 

57X0 

S6Z1 — rijr 

151X0 

May 

5780 

mil 

5630 

5660 —120 

14610 

5670 

Jul 

5890 

5925 

5740 

575.1 —122 

11830 

5780 

Sop 

5 990 

6006 

5830 

954 —124 

1SO0 
121 SA 

5930 

6180 

DM 

Jan 

61X0 

6172 

6050 

6013 —117 
60X1 —120 

119X0 

104X0 

6100 

63X0 

Mar 

May 

63X5 

63X5 

6100 

6190 —1X0 
631.1 —1X2 

9450 

64X0 

Jul 

6620 

Juan 

6460 

6434 —LU 

9400 

6500 

Sira 

6710 

6710 

6710 

6564 -134 

7660 

6670 

Dec 

Jan 

6910 

6910 

6910 

<744 —130 
68X5 — 1 140 


Est. Soles 14080 Prav.Soles 10,100 
Prev. Day Open int 7X449 off 441 
PLATINUM (NYME) 

SO tray az.-ttolls5rs per hroyaz. 

Winn 21940 MOT 23540 —1340 

447 40 244J0 Apr 255® 2040 23540 23740 —1340 

44940 34940 Jul 25540 257 JO 341® 34140 —1110 

39340 25640 Od 26140 26110 25040 34840 —1110 

37150 26190 Jon 25840 26040 25240 2S540 -1110 

Est. Sales 1205 Prev. Sale? 400 

prev. DOV Open I re. lim off49 
PALLADIUM (NYME) 

MOfrov as- dollars per ac 

15130 10540 Mar 10740 1U40 10740 10770 +40 

15940 10640 Jun 11025 11143 10X75 11025 +-S5 

14949 10640 Sep 11 940 11040 19940 10925 +40 

14! JO 10X75 Dec 109 JO 109 JO 10875 10X75 +30 

127 JO 13325 Mar 10X75 10875 10875 MO05 +40 

EstSalM 873 Prav. Sates 4ZT 

Prev. Day Openint. 5404 up 31 

Est Salas 871 Prav.Soles 429 

Prev.Doy Open int 5404 up 31 
BOLD (CO MUX) 

100 fray ax- dollars per troy ox 

" " " — — 240 

— 240 
—270 
—870 
—240 
-4N 

inn 

—3.10 


211® 

2B1® 


2B940 

289 M 

209® 


514® 

28160 


271® 

29130 

28X00 

.HL-i 

29X00 

292® 

MOV 





51X00 

287® 


29500 

29X00 

292® 


485® 

271® 

Aug 

inflM 

301® 

296® 

~7T- 

49X00 

277® 

ore 

30X80 

307® 

303® 

i rX, i 

487® 

301® 


311® 

31110 

307® 

m jo 


306® 





31120 

496® 

31X70 

Apt 




318® 

435® 

iM_4n 

Jun 

328® 

32800 

328® 

324® 








395® 

33500 

Oct 




337® 

347® 

342® 

Dec 

347,10 

347.10 347,10 

34300 


EM. Sates Prev.Soles 24451 
Prev, Dav Open int.147267 up 1496 


Finana'al 


US T. BILLS (IMM) 


million- pis at 1 00 pet. 
9121 87® Mar 

9107 

91® 

7107 

91® 

+06 

9101 

87.U 

Jun 

7045 

90® 

9045 

9X71 

+05 

9103 

8604 

Sep 

90® 

9X35 

90® 

9X31 

+30 

9000 

8537 

Dec 

8901 

mo 

8907 

90® 

+30 

9X55 

8X60 

Mar 

8941 

89 30 

8941 

89.73 

+01 

9X27 

8701 

Jim 

89® 

89® 

8943 

BU5 

+39 

9X00 

mm 

Sep 

0907 

89X7 

8904 

89® 

+08 

89® 

mm 

Dm 




B90S 

+39 


Est. Sales 20495 Prev.Soles 16764 
Prev. Day Open Int 43430 off 941 
10 YR. TREASURY (CBT) 
SlOOOOOprln- ph &32ndsaf UOnet 
ID 70-25 Mar 79-3 79-23 

B2-3 70-9 Jun 78-4 78-25 

01-13 73-18 Sep 77-19 7S-1 

m-n 75-13 Dec 

BO* 75-18 Mar 

79-26 7742 Jun 

EM. Sales Prev.Soles 17706 

Prev. Day Open inL 52442 up 2474 
US TREASURY BONDS (CBT) 


793 7930 

78-5 78-22 

77-19 77-31 
77-11 
76-24 
75-11 


+13 

+13 

+1 

+1 

+1 

+1 



&32ndsafl00pct> 
Mar <0-7 69-27 

666 

60-26 

+16 

77-15 

57-20 


60-7 

68-2B 

687 

6626 

+15 

76-2 

57-10 

Sep 

67-15 

462 

67-14 

661 

+15 

765 

57-8 


6626 

67-13 

6626 

67-12 

+14 

7200 

57-2 


<615 

<627 

<613 

6627 

+M 

70-16 

56-29 

Jun 

66-6 

<613 

663 

6613 

+14 

70-3 

56-29 


65-23 

661 

6523 

661 

+M 

69-26 

5625 

Dec 

65-13 

65-23 

6513 

6523 

+14 

69-12 

5627 

Mar 

64-4 

65-14 

64-4 

65M 

+14 

670 

662 


64-a 

657 

6628 

657 

+15 

68-26 

6X22 


64-22 

651 

6622 

651 

+15 

Est. Sales 


Prow. Salesl<5085 





Prw. Day Open Int027459 up 559 
GNMA (CBT) 

SiaU)00piin-pta&32ndsofl00pci 
70-17 57-5 Mor 59-15 69-20 

69-17 57-17 Jun 48-17 49-7 

<94 59-13 Sea 67-24 603 

68-13 59-4 Dec 

68 58-20 Mar 

<73 58-25 Jun 

673 53-11 Sep 

EM-Salet Prav.Soles 520 
Prw. Day Openint 5210 oill 
CERT. DEPOSIT (IMM) 

M million- Ptaonoonct 
91.HI 8543 Mar 9022 9049 

9140 8540 Jim B®JH) 8944 

9040 8500 Sep 09.17 89.10 

90.17 8544 Dec 8X70 8X84 

8948 8X56 Mar 8X59 8859 

8946 8543 Jun 

8X48 8706 Sep _ 

EM. Sales 1471 Prw.Saies 881 

Prev. Dav Open ire. 1X997 off 174 
EURODOLLARS (IMM) 


49-15 59-27 
68-17 69 
0-24 58-0 

67-70 

0-2 

66-17 

5+3 


9020 9047 
0959 8943 


8X39 

8X18 


+9! 

+21 

431 

431 

431 

431 

431 


+27 

+44 

+29 

+25 

+25 

+25 

+23 


Similiter 

71® 

1-PtSMia 

■&U 

ft) pet. 
Mar 

9028 

904S 

9027 

9X45 

+07 

CBT: 

90® 

8249 


B9.M 


87.14 

8943 

+05 


9X33 

04® 


0X64 

8856 

0843 

oa 06 

+00 

IMM: 

09M7 

84® 

Dec 

8X33 

8847 

0X33 

8848 

+08 


8948 

86.10 

Mar 

0803 

8X24 

0003 

8801 

+01 

NYCSCE 

89.15 

8603 


87® 

B8® 

87® 

80® 

+08 

NYCE: 

8BJU 

87® 


8723 

87® 

003 

■708 

+07 

COMKX 

0907 

87® 

Dec 

87® 

87® 

87® 

87® 

+37 

NYME: 

Est. Sales SS4S9 Prev. Salon 44037 




KCBT: 


Prw. Day Open Int.llUlS up 1467 


Season Season 
HlOtl LOW 


Open Hloti Low Close CM. 


BRITISH POUND (IMM) 

5 Per pound- 1 point treuals 30-0001 

L5170 UB4S MOT 12545 12715 Ijm 1-04S0 

14350 12235 Jun 12525 l26S U» 1-KfJ 

14450 1 2200 Sep 12490 1W8S 124M 1^ 

12710 12200 Dec 1200 12590 12540 12525 

EM. Safes 7,938 Prw.Saies 9426 
Prev.Doy Open int. 35202 upM34 

CANADIAN DOLLAR (IMM) 

Sperdlr-1 pomteremis 302001 __ __ 

2050 4100 Mar JV45 JIM JW 4Jf7 

4835 4034 Jun 4100 4H8 4095 4111 

45S JB25 Sen 4075 ^90 4060 » 

4566 4005 Dec 403 4075 4074 4074 

4504 49*1 Mar 4040 4040 4040 4040 

Est. Sales 2419 Prw.Saies 4279 
Prev. Day Open Int 14290 uPZIl 

FRENCH FRANC (IMM) 

spar franc-1 poire equals SUMOul — -~- 

,11903 29403 Mar 29645 29543 29570 296M 

.11020 29410 Jun 29600 29600 29560 296® 

.10420 29680 Sep . 

Est Sales 102 Pfev. Sales 442 

prw. Day Open int. X499 olta 

GERMAN MARK (IMM) 

s per mart- 1 outfit 4W d* SC-0001 «- 

<4110 ^ -2S S mu 

J733 J90J J«1 -2736 -2984 4953 

jsM, jtno Se<> jo g aw 

2610 . 2971 Dec 2020 SXU J019 JTO 

J251 2040 Mar - 3045 

Est. Sales 21.115 Prw.Saies MATO 
Prw. Day Open Int 0,115 off 550 

JAPANESE YEN (IMM) 

s cer very- 1 Point equate 1268001 lw __ 

004615 20379 4 Mar 203124 20840 2 0 3 821 203Eg 

004450 203826 Jun 203855 203 870 JBB 

004150 2 0300 Sen 2OWS2W»0e2raW52OTO4 

smm 203905 Dec 203944 2OTW203M4 203934 
Est- Sales XOB Prev. Sales 5299 
Prev. Dav Open Inf. 16-582 up403 

SWI SS FR ANC.(I.MM) 

SPOT franc- 1 point aauati 302001 

Jim J3400 iftir J442 2479 J442 2455 

J4» j5T JK75 ^12 JOT J40 

>830 J400 Sep 2542 3544 JS22 JSJZ 

IW JSS31 Dec J560 

Est. Sales 19294 Prev. Sales 1 14M9 
Prw. Dav Open Int. 0210 off LSD 


+15 

+15 

+23 

+25 


+1 

+13 

+2 


+00 

+30 


29570 -HO 


+3 

+1 


+1 

-5 


+11 

+10 

+15 


industrials 


LUMBER (CM El 

13L50 12820 12X40 
22320 13220 MOV 13XM 13850 134>0 13520 

230 JO 14120 Jul 14620 14+40 142® 14150 

117 JO 144® Sep 151® 1S1JU 147 JO MS® 

186.10 149® Nov 15X50 15120 10® ISO® 

187® 15170 Jan 15X40 15X40 15620 15450 

195® Mt® Mar 14120 141® 141® I6LH 

Est. Sales 1046 Prw. Sales 1273 
Prw. Dav Open Int X2S2 off 416 


COTTON 2(NYCE) 

500)0 ibsr cents per Ibk 
7M0 6326 May 6450 Mi 

79® 6323 Jul 44® 45.1 

77 JO 6452 Oct 45® 654 

73® 4421 Dec 6477 45.1 

7673 6592 Mar 66® 66J 

70® 66-50 Atar 

70® 6675 Jul 0.10 0.1 

Est. Sal ex 7JOO Prw.Saies 1729 
prw. Day Open Int 18291 up 174 


+70 
—70 
—TO 
— 1® 

— 1® 
— 1® 


64® 

6X87 

+49 

64® 

6500 

+45 

6500 

6505 

+43 

6427 

65.10 

+47 

6X05 

6X10 

+47 


6645 

+05 

67.10 

6705 

+.15 


42000 oaf- cents per gal 

79® 

7C95 

74® 

74® 

87® 

64® 

May 

71® 

7X10 

71® 

71® 


63® 


71® 

7155 

70® 

70® 


6535 


71® 

71® 

7X60 

7X90 

72® 

<805 


7110 

7200 

71® 

71® 

EeT. Satan 


Prw. Sates ASB9 




CRUDE OIL (NYME) 

12® bbL- donors ner bbL 


3145 

2447 


27® 

27® 

2677 





May 

2742 

2752 

27.13 



29® ’ 

2400 

Jun 

Z70O 

2705 

2655 

2605 

—48 

29® 

2X10 

Jui 

2656 

27.11 

26® 



29® 

2X25 

Aug 

26® 

Z7® 

26® 



29® 

24® 

Sep 

at® 

26® 

26® 

at® 

-ilt 



Oct 

2652 

26® 

26® 



29® 

2X40 


2X71 

2651 

2605 

2655 

-.18 

Esl Sales 


Prev.Soles 16027 


Stock Indexes 


SP COMP. INDEX (CME) 
points and cents 

18555 153® Mar 18X40 18070 17975 179® — .35 

IB9.ro 156.10 Jun 18445 184® 18X35 18X45 -® 

19X70 160® Sep 10® 18870 186® 10® —JO 

19620 T7SJ0 Dec 191® I9L20 19070 19X70 -00 

Est Sales 49,313 Prw.SabM 70283 
Prw. Day Open Int. 69774 upX516 

VALUE LINE (KCOTT) 
points and ceres 

206® 16X10 Mar 19X10 19X10 19425 1965S —50 

219® 17100 Jun 20320 204® 201® 20Z20 +.M 

2T2J0 18575 Sep 306® 207® 204® 204® 

209® Dec 210® 

Est Sales Prw. Sales 5225 

Prw. DavOnen Int X600 up304 

NYSE COMP. INDflDCWYPE) 
pohrts and cents 

108® 88® Mar 104® KM® KU9S 10415 —.10 

110® 9X00 Jun KT725 1060 10460 10675 — tlQ 

111® 9175 Sen 10975 10925 108® 10X75 -.10 

11375 Ml® Dec 111® 111® 111® 110® —via 

Est Sales 14210 Prw.Saies 14244 
Prw. Day Open int. 12J38 


Commodity Indexes 


Moady^. 
Reuters. 

DJ. Futures. 


□an Previous 

NJLF 9S430f 

Z038J» Z041.10 

12CL50 - 12IU4 

Cam. Researdi Bureau. 2 3830 . 23970 

Moody's : base 700 : Dec 31 1937. 
p - preliminary ; f - final 
Reuters : base 100 : Sep. 78, 1831. 

Daw Jones : base TOO : Dec 37, 7974. 


Market Guide 


CMcapa Board of Trade 
Chicago Mercantile Esdmgi 
lirfera gM imol Monetary Market 
Of CMcobo Meroantfle Exchange 
New York Cocoa, Sugar, CeHae Exchange 
New York Cotton Exchange 
Commodity Exchange, New York 
Now York Mercantile Exchange 
Kansas atv Board of Trade 
Now York Futures E x ch an ge 


Asian Commodities 

March 8 


HONG-KONG GOLD FUTURES 

U-SJ per ounce 

HWl LOW BM Ask Bid "Ask 
MOT _ NX N.T. 2BXW3fO® 2»9®2»l® 
AM — M.T. N.T, 289® 291® 291® 293® 

May. N.T. N.T.291® 

Jun _ M.T. N.T. OT.00 
Aug _ N.T. N.T. 29X00 
Oct _ 304® 30400 303® — 

Dec - 310® 310® 309® 31 
Feb- N.T. N.T. 314® 31 
Volume: Slots of 100 oz. 

SINGAPORE GOLD FUTURES 
ILLS per 

mrm "' Settle S#mo 
- moo 

291® 
295® 




KUALA LUMPUR RUBBER 
Malaysian cent* per kilo 


WOJO wi® 
193® l«4® 

19X00 19X50 

199® 200® 


Vahimt: 3S lots. 
SINGAPORE RUBBER 
Slngowre cents pot kRo 


Prevtooi 
Bid Ask 
190® 19873 

193® 193® 

10® 198® 

10® 199® 


ik Bid Ask 
RSS 1 Mar- 166® 10® 1640Q 164® 

RSS1AM— 17023 17075 1*075 17075 

RSS 2 Mar— 16125 14475 162® 163® 

RSS 3 Mar— 16175 1*775 160® 1*1® 

RSS 4 Mar- 155® 10® 154® 156® 

RSS 5 Mar- 150® 152® 10® U1® 

KUALA LUMPUR PALM OIL 
Mafarskm ring«Hs per ® toes 



BM 

Ask 

Mor 

1010 

1010 

AM 

1060 

IJ00 

MOV 

1030 

10® 

Jun 

1010 

1060 

JIv 

1.1 VO 

1040 



1030 

Sep. 

1,170 

10*0 


1.160 



1.M0 

1010 


Volume: o lots* S tons. 
Source: Reuters. 


BM 

L260 

1®0 

1725 

1705 

1.155 
1.173 
1,165 

1.155 
1.1S 


1700 

17*5 

l®5 

1753 

1735 

L22S 

1715 

1705 

1705 


Gold Options (prices b Sfaz-L 


II- 

May 

Au0. 

Not. 

II So 

13001450 

21752125 



II 300 

m 925 

(606(750 

325X75 

» I 310 

450- 600 

1105-1275 

lflgyjnm 

II 323 

100- 3JD 

805-975 

UZ4575 

II 330 

100.100 

575- 705 

11054275 

llJS. 

— — 

ITS- MS 

650.1000 


Gott 28030-289® 

VUcms WUteWcM SLA. 

1. Quel do MoM-BUnc 
1212 Geaere I. Sw i Cet Na d 
TcL 31025! • Tela 28305 


Paris Commodities 

March 8 

Sogor In Fundi Francs PBf metric Ion. 
Other ngures in Francs per 100 kx 


Him 

SUGAR 

Lm* 

Ck» 

MOV 

1410 

U50 

1055 

Aug 

L486 

1435 

1427 

Oct 

1-540 

1495 

1491 

Dec 

N.T. 

N.T. 

um 

Mor 

1015 

1AM 

1055 

MOV 

1020 

1.720 

1005 


Eal. voL: 1700 lots of 50 tons. Prev. 
soles: 712 Ms. Open Interest: 22718 
COCOA 

MOT N.T. N.T. 2710 2736 

MOV 2702 2790 3^30 2788 

JIV N.T. N.T. 2730 — 

Sep N.T. N.T. 2740 2760 

Dee N.T. ALT. 2145 21® 

Mor N.T. N.T. 2735 — 

May NX N.T. 2130 — 

eaL voL: 25 Ms of ID tons. Prw. 
sales: 165 lots. Open Iniafest: i®4 
COFFEE 


Mor 

2453 

2445 

1425 

May 

1670 

2455 

2450 

JIv 

N.T. 

N.T. 

2480 

Sop 

2020 

2015 

1700 

Nov 

N.T. 

N.T. 

2000 

Jon 

N.T. 

N.T. 

1683 

Mar 

N.T. 

N.T. 

1640 


Si 


Est. vofj 38 lels of 5 fans. Prw. 
soles: li lots, open Interest: 170 
Source: Bourse du Commerce. 


CD Dc 

— 50 
-0 

— » 
-0 
— 6) 
— 63 

actual 


—11 
— 3 
— 10 
+ 5 
+2 
+ 13 
+ 15 
actual 


—5 

Undi 

— 5 
— 10 

— 10 
+ 12 
— 3 

actual 


London Metals 

March 8 


dose Previo us 

BM Ask BM Ask 

ALUMINUM 
Sterling per metric too 
soot 1739® 1740® U030® L031M 

forward 1774® 1775® 1766® UK6® 

COPPER CATHODES (High Grade) 

Sferfins per metric ten 
■pat 1789® 17*000 1702® 1J03® 

forward 1705® 1706® 1716® 1717® 

COPPER CATHODES ISfaaOarin 
Storting per metric tea 
root 1778JM 1781® 1792® 1793® 

forward 1798® 1701® 1708® 1709® 

LEAD 

Sterling per metric loo 

wot 326® 327® 328® 329® 

forward 33475 335® 336® 336® 

NICKEL 

Sterling per metric tan 
spot 4800® 4710® 4725® 4715® 

forward 4755® 480® 4780® 4785® 

SILVER 

hp trnv n— n 

531® 532® 
550® 552® 


SMI 531® 533® 

forward 549® 551® 

TIN (Standard) 

Slerilna pnr metric too 

spot 10710 10715 

forward 10710 HL215 

ZINC 

Sterling per metric ten 

sM (ago mmn 

forward 122® 823.06 

Source: AP. 


10215 10720 

10200 10210 


144® B4U0 
*16® 814® 


Please note that the 

INTERNATIONAL 
EDUCATION DIRECTORY 

will exceptionally appear on 

MONDAY, MARCH 11 

instead of today . 


London Commodities 

MarcfaS 


COCOA 

Starting per metric tan 
Mar 2,139 2110 2112 21U 2107 2708 

210* 2782 2791 2792 2772 2773 

JOB 2073 2079 2780 2062 2763 

2075 2760 27 0 2770 2750 2752 

!£2 T-WJ 1-965 1.970 

L982 1774 1,980 1782 1,965 170 

iwur N.T. NX 1.960 17® 1760 1745 

Volume: 3718 tots of 10 tons. 

COFFEE 

Starting per metric ton 
Mar 2425 2790 2403 2410 2407 2408 
209 2443 2455 2456 2456 2758 
2518 2484 2471 2472 2470 2491 

2540 2519 2519 2520 2520 2521 

2541 2518 2SHJ 2521 252S 25Z7 
zm Z4X 208 2480 2474 2497 
N.T. N.T. 24® 2460 2465 2480 

Volume: 2789 lots of 5 terns. 

GASOIL 

UA. dollars per metric tea 
MO r 238® 236® 20® 23775 235L75 236® 
227 SO 22525 22550 22575 22S® IKK 
22375 221® 22125 221® 221® 22175 
219JB 21975 219® 219® 21975 
221® 220® 219® 219® 219® 21975 
N.T. N.T. 217® 223® 220® 225® 
N.T. N.T. 224® 


Mar 

Jhr 


Dec 


Jhr 

Sap 


Mar 


May 


JIV 

Aug 


J 227® 330® 330® 

OC> ALT. ALT. SUMS 23F® 27T® 235® 
NOV N.T. NX 224® 235® 220® 240® 

Volume: 2735 lots of 100 hms. 

Sour cm: Reuters and London Petroleum Ex- 
change faasallX 


UjS. Treasury Bin Rates 
March 8 


Prw 

■id Offer Yield YWd 
3-monlh 859 80 879 9® 

6-month , Ilf US Ul Ik 
One vw 876 Ul 171 IIUI 

Seurat: Solomon Br ot hers 


S&P 100 Index Options 

March & 


JM8 a*H0ft 
Prim Mor AN Met June 

155 — — - - 

160 W - 2Nt — 

US It* B — — 

170 U R IMffli 
ns 2* 6 7* 9b 

H w u a n 

ID 1/M IN lb 4lh 

»0 1116 R IX 2b 

19S llUlfU k Ilk 

ram a* wienie HIJ77 
TmdcaBaeai lid-iliUN 
TIM pat wioree V7AU 
TaM pm eMott-CUU 

HMU70 LMT7LS* 
Source: CBOE. 


PBtJ-LBlf 

Mor M May Jem 

- - in* - 

vm is sn* ins 
1/U 7/16 UfU iu 
II It N N 
MANS 

n n k m 

k in in - 


CkxelMJI— 048 


DM Futures Options 

March 8 

W. German Mark-1 25®0 marts, cam per tnarlc 


Strike 


Price Mar 

Jm 

S*pt 

Mot 

M 

MR 

28 

1J» 

l® 

Nk 

l® 

M2 

as 

29 

001 

133 

109 

l® 

U3 

071 

30 

1® 

005 

1® 

041 

1.10 

1J7 

31 

urn 

046 

872 

141 

1® 

LM 

s 

UO 

ore 

045 

241 

2® 

244 

31 

L00 

XII 

049 

241 

345 

347 


Estimated Mat voL L8U 


l; ThucV*uL5 
Source: CME. 


IW.6M51 
I kd. 22560 


Cash Prices March 8 


Commodity mm UbH 

Coffee 4 Santos, ta — _ — 
Prlntdoth 64/30 38 ft, yd _ 

steel billets (PiltJ. tan 

Iran 2 Fdnr. Philo, tan , — 
5fHf *ar ap No 7 hvrPltt~ 

Lead Soot, Q> 

Copper elect, lb 

Tin l Straits I. lb 

Zinc E. Si. l_ Basis, lb 

Palladium, « _ 

Sliver n.Y.oi 

Source: AP. 


Frt 

Year 

Am 

142 

1® 

0® 

004 

473® 

453® 

210-00 

213® 

l+m 

103-104 

17-21 

2S-2B 

6+67 

70V-73 

1XA. 

mm 

045 

851 

115-118 

150 

NA 

— 


Pact With VW 
L $ Said to Still 
Interest Soviets 

Agatce France-Presse 

HAMBURG — The Soviet 
Union is still very interested in col- 
laboration with Volkswagen in the 
manufacture of en gm«»s 1 a spokes- 
man for Volkswagen, West Germa- 
ny’s biggest auto maker, said Fri- 
day. 

The two sides have had contacts 
a long time, but no concrete 
cooperation agreement has been 
signed. 

The spokesman said that Volks- 
wagen had the im p re s sion that the 
Soviet Union was thinking serious- 
ly of choosing Volkswagen as a 
partner for the manufacture of en- 
gines. 

The French auto manufacturer 
Renault this week broke off negoti- 
ations with the Soviet Union on the 
construction in the Soviet Union of 
a factory to build car engines. 


Sanyo Says Net 
Rose 30% in Year 

The .isndated Pms 

TOKYO — Sanyo Electric Co. 
said Friday its profit for the year 
ended Nov. 30, 1984, rose 30 per- 
cent from a year earlier, amid a 
sharp increase in exports of video- 
tape recorders, stereo sets, office 
equipment and other electronic 
equipment 

‘Sanyo said its profit rose to 43.91 
billion yen (5168 million) in the 
latest fiscal year, from 33.89 billion 
yen a year earlier. 

Revenue rose about 26 percent, 
to 1.421 UtHion yen, or $5.4 billion, 
from 1,13 trillion yen a year earlier. 


Fridays 


MSE 


Closing; 


Tobies include the nationwide prices 
up to the ctodwi on won Street 
and do not reflect late trades elsewhere. 


D Month 
HWl Low 51001 


SE. 

WDl High LOW 


Ow^ 

QvdtOi® 


(Continued from Page 6) 


ai* 

5* 

48ft 

34 

Z74h 

43ft 

15ft 

15ft 

18ft 

WX 

8* 

227k 

22* 

19V 


9 mwaei 120 VU 4 
22 PMiepf 3® 127 
25ft PbllEpf 4® UD 
50V PtlllE pf 87S 142 
7ft PtlllE pf L41 135 
6ft PitflEof L33 13* 

43 FMIEPf 7® 143 
Aft PtlllE pt 1® 7X3 

51 PbtlE pf 9® 14-4 

44 PMiepf 7® 1X7 
40ft PhUE Pf 775 1X4 
15V PMISub 1-32 74 11 
62ft PflTLMr 4® A3 13 
10ft PtlUpIn AMU 
33V Phil Pet 240 XI 9: 
16V PhnVM “ ■ 

22ft PledAs 
23V PMUG 

14 Pleri 
33 Pllsbry 
21V Ptorwer 
17 PtanrEI 
27V PttnyB 

9ft Pmsto 
Oft PtanRs 
12V Pkmtrn 
7ft PkzvtMY 
Uft PoaoPd 
24V Patarid 
lift Pondrs 

15 PopTai 
13V Portec 
13 PortGE .... .... 

T7VJ Pare Pi 240 12J0 
28V PorGpf X40 1X2 
2BV Port* pf X33 134 
35* Potttch 1® X4 13 
19ft PotmEl LH 84 
36 POt El Pf X50 105 
31 PotElpf X04 114 
16V Premi * J* 14 17 
24ft Prtmrk 
liv Prime C 
16V PrloiM 
45ft ProcJG 

7* prdRtti 
31 Prater 
16V PSvOtl . .. 

51V PSOolPf 7.15 114 
16V PSCDipf 2.10 114 
6ft PSInd 1® 124 



2® 54 7 
14 

.12 4 23 

2® 44 12 
JS 2J 25 
140 3J 9 
L92 1CLD 8 


19V PSIn pf 3J0 152 
4 PSInpf 1® 1X1 
Aft PSIn pf 1® 1X6 
49ft PS Id re 944 147 
66ft PSIn of 842 167 
3ft PSyNH 2 

6 PSNH Pf 
6ft PNHPfB 
Bft PNHPfC 

7 PNHpfD 

7 PNHpfE 
5V PNHpfF 
7ft PNHpfG 

19ft PSvNM 2® 11 J 8 
20ft PSvEG 272 1X6 7 
10ft PSEGpf 140 11J 
29V PSEGpf 430 123 
33ft PSEGpf SOS 11! 
35ft PSEGpf 5® 120 
16ft PSEGpf 243 125 
96 PSEGPfUXS 123 
53 PSEGpf 770 127 
55 PSSGPf 8® 124 
51ft PSEGpf 7® 125 
2ft PuMdc 

8 PtrahSo .16 U 8 

6ft PR Com 5 

TV PugetP 176 124 7 

in* Pirffetfm .13 7 25 

23ft Purataf 178 XI 13 
5ft Pyre 0 


1993 15V Uft 15ft— ft 
70* 29ft 29ft 29ft + ft 
40* 33ft 33ft 33ft— 1 . 
130* 61ft 60* 61ft + V 

S 10ft 10V 10ft 

m 7ft TV TV 

170* 55 £5 55 

39 7ft 9* 9ft + ft 

200* 66 AS U +lft 
390* 54 SB S6 
Me 54 54 54 — V 

47 17ft 17* 17V— ft 
4300 92ft 92 92ft— V 

593 21ft 20ft 20V + ft 
36532 49ft 49V 49ft— ft 
38 26* 26ft 264k— ft 
893 30V 29V 29V— ft 
14 31V 31 31 

68) 1«* 19V 19V— ft 
701 48ft 47V 47ft— ft 
864 30 29ft 30 + V 

1 22V 22ft 22ft— V 
m 39ft 39 39 — V 

422 10ft 10* lOft + ft. 
49 12ft 12ft 12ft 
265 ISft 15* 15ft 
143 12ft 12 V 12ft + ft 
33 17V 17V 17V— V 
1658 25ft » 25 — ft 

458 13V 1Z* 13 
129 18ft U 18* + ft 
7 17V 17V 17V 
942 17ft 17ft 17ft + ft 
5 Z1V 21ft 21* + ft 

11 33ft 33V 33V + V 
16 12V 32V 32V— ft 

_ 48 36U 35* 35V— V 

8 1081 25ft 24V 25V + ft 
270* 41ft 41ft 
200* 35ft 35ft 35ft— ft 

110 25 24ft 24ft— V 

111 Vft 35V 35ft + ft 

vxa 18 1716 17V— ft 

94 3TV 30* 31V 
2656 56ft 55V 56ft + Ik 
32 Uft 13V 19V 

14 4ZK 41V 42 

309 19V 19 19ft — V 
24401 60ft 5Sft 60ft +4V 

15 18V 18ft 18ft 

385 7V 7ft 7*+ ft 

100* 23 23 23 

TOO* 7* 7ft 7V+ ft 

260* 7V 7* TV— ft 
30* 58V 58V 58V 
50* 51 51 51 + K 

447 4* 4* 4V + ft 

200* 11V Wft 10 Vi— V 
23 10ft 10W. Uft— V 
10 15V 15 15V + ft 

9 Uft 13ft Uft 
7 14 13V 14 

15 12 12 U + V 

® 12V 12 12V— V 

320 24V 26ft 24V + ft 
U97 26V 25* 23* + ft 
1 12ft IZft 12ft— V 
life 36 35 3S +Itt 

15Dr 41 40ft 40ft— ft 
100* 44 44 44 +1 

1 19V 19V 19V— ft 

40 *ioo i® no + ft 

20fe <0* 60V 40V— V 
20* 65 • 45 65 

250* 51 59ft 60 — ft 
43 N » » 

12 11V 11* lift + ft 

U 7* 7V 7V+ V 

651 14 T3V 14 
536 M* 16V 16ft— ft 

55 26H 26V 26V + V 

125 9ft 9V 9V— ft 


40ft 2B QuakOs Ul U K 
ft 90ft QuaO pf 956 1X1 
22 13 QuaKSO ® A0 24 

lift 6* Quanex 36 

34* 33 Guestar 110 U I 
25V 14 Ok Roll -24a 10 20 


223 37ft 39 39 — ft 

100* 75 95 95 +1 

271 20ft 19* 19ft— V 

20 TV 9 7 —ft 

IK 34 33V 33V— V 

85 24V 24V 24V + V 


18* 6V 
41ft 28V 
35 29 

31* 24fk 
35* 29* 
9* 6* 
4* 3 
18 12V 

lift 6* 
39V 23 
8* 5ft 
21V 16ft 
9V 4ft 
66 47ft 
17ft Bft 
48* 34* 
13V 7* 
23ft 15V 

25 20 
16* 9ft 
17* 9 
13V B 
10ft 7ft 

2 V 
37ft 23 
6* 3* 
2 1ft 
25V 9* 
45V 31ft 
26V 20* 

34M 21ft 

20ft 14V 

3SV 22ft 

14ft 9* 
40ft 27ft 

24V 17* 

20 11 * 
85ft 52ft 
49ft 46 
110W 100ft 
41V 26 
30ft 24V 

34ft 18* 

33ft 17» 
7ft 5ft 
36V 25V 
40ft 35* 
26ft 12 
20* 12V 
35 27ft 
39ft 23 
71ft Oft 
55ft 27V 
Zlft 10V 
21 6V 
Uft «ft 
4ft 2ft 
17 12V 

34ft 24 
14V Bft 

55ft 41V 

50 32V 

26 13 

30 15V 

28ft 17V 
57 38ft 
26* 12ft 
17ft BM 


RBind 

RCA 

RCA pf 

RCA Pf 

RCA pf 

RLC 

RPCn 

RTS 

Radio 

RoJsPnr 


.16 15 
104 24 12 
X® 103 
2.12 7.1 
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187 30V ms 3® 

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547 7ft TV 7* 

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13 12* 12V 12V + ft 

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28 27* 29ft 27*+ ft 
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30* 30V 20V— V 
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39ft 39 39ft + ft 
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19V 19ft 19ft 
33V 33V 33*— ft 
36V 36V 36V— V 
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1640 9ft TV 9V— ft 

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17* 17V 17V— ft 
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33V 33ft 33*— ft 
30V 30 30V— V 

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27ft 27 27 — ft 

53ft 53 53. - V 

23V 23ft 23V 
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24ft 24V 24ft 
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30ft 30ft 30ft 
18* Uft 18ft— ft 

11 to* n +* 
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12* 12V 12V — ft 
22V 22ft 22V 

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39V 39ft 39ft— V 
12V 12ft 12ft — ft 
28ft 27* 28ft +1 
60ft 60ft 40ft— ft 
37V 37 37 — V 

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15ft ISft 15ft 
15ft IS* 15V 
25ft 25ft 25V + ft 
5* 5 5V+ ft 

42V 41V 4tV— ft 
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25* 25V 25ft 
28* 28V 2BV+ ft 
57ft 56V 57W+ ft 
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33V 33ft 33*— V 
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32 31* 71* + * 

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15 14* IS + ft 

15V 15* IS*— ft 
33V 3Zft 33ft +1 
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66 66 64 +lft 

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27* 2716 27V— V 
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38* 38ft OBV + ft 
36* 38V 36* + ft 
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35* 35* 35V— V 
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28* 28* 2S* — ft 
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27* 27ft 27*+ V 
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17 IP 17 —V 
11* 11 II* + V 
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17V 17ft 17ft 
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31ft 31ft 31ft— ft 
33ft 33ft Oft— ft 
9* 7ft *V— * 
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4 106 103ft 106 
509 45ft 64* 45ft +1 
430 B* Bft IV 
145 31* 31* 31* „ 

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39ft 25ft 

44* 32* 

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Tolicv JtSo 0 13 
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260 79V 70V ,79 + V 

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164 40ft 59V 60 + ft 

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492 5* 4ft 4* + ft 

248 265*257* 299V— 2* 
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1124 35* 34* JJ 
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527 25 24V 24V + ft 

2981 IS 13* 13V + ft 
126 27ft 25V 27 +1* 
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110 30* 30V 30V— ft 
650 109*108*108* + * 
255 2* 2ft 2*+ ft 

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26* 26* 26V— ft 
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41* 41* 41V— * 
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24V 24ft 24* — ft 
39 38ft 39 + ft 
18V 16ft 16V— 1* 
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15V 15ft 15ft— V 
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30V 29V SOU— ft 
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24* 2JV 23V— ft 
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61ft 60* 61ft + ft 
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379 35* 35* 35ft 

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24* 24* 24* 

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77ft 67* 
83* 68ft 
61ft 49ft 
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Company Earnings 

Revenue and profits, in millions, are In local 
currencies unless otherwise indicated 


Britain 
Uoyds Bank 

Year 1984 

Pretax Nei_ 46X0 
Per Share X98 

Canada 

Hqwfcer Siddefey 

Year 1984 1M3 

Revenue 4110 iuj 

Oper Net — 190 15.1 

Oner Share . 129 10S 

Kong Kong 

HatgSangBk 

Year 19*4 1983 

Profits— ■ nu TIM 

Italy 

La Kbrnomte 

r 

Japan 
hGppon Demo 


Year 

Revenue- 


,f *.7u2g 


030 0110 

mm +t r »gi 

Persi>are__ . 5808. 5X96 


Netherlands 

Heinakan 

Year MB4 1983 

Reven ue xux 4011 

Prom 2290 19X4 

Per Share ll.H 1X30 

United Stales 

Marca n t fl e Stores 

401 Onto. 1984 1983 

Revalue 5760 S6X1 

Net Inc. — 360 3X5 

Per Share 207 202 

Year ,1904 1983 

Revenue 10®. i®n. 

Net Inc.— BAB 830 
Per Share. — jj5 # 5® 

Amer. Inti Group 

4ta(ftar. 1984 1983 

°«>r Net — 3701 10X11 

Oner Share— 001 105 

* . 1784 no 

Oder Not 31704 42707 

Oper Share.. 107 507 

NMS exclude aafn at US 
million w toss 51 fj million fh 
Tuortar* M Uw re 3700 
million ve 5700 minion in 
mart, 

Huor 

let Qirar. 1985 19M 

Revenue — 9900 l.MOa 

Net Inc. —— <a)320 160 

Per Share — 001 

a: last 


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| NYSE Higb^-Lows March 


new HIGHS 31 


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Sugar Firm Files 
For Protection, in 
Hunts 9 Latest Blor 

United Pros International 

DALLAS — Great Western Sugar Co. ( 
two of its subsidiaries, part of the troulj.«j\ 
finandal eiroire of Nelson Bunker Hunt -daU 1 
W. Herbert Hunt, filed Thursday for proteo. 
from creditors under Chapter II of the I. j 
Bankruptcy Code. ; » 

Officials of the Denver company, one of- , 
largest sugar producers in the United Sts 
said the request was made because some . 
Great Western's lenders refused to conti 
financing its operations. Under Chapter 1 .1 
company tries to continue operating whfl j 
seeks to find ways of paying its crediton. ' 

The bankruptcy declaration, filed in l 
Bankruptcy Court in Dallas, also inefat v - 
Northern Ohio Sugar Co. of Fremont, O. 
and Godch Aux- Henderson Sugar of Rfise 
Louisiana, the subsidiaries of Great Wester . 

A statement issued by Hunt Inlematic-j. 
Resources of Dallas said Great Weston “fi r 
to continue to operate as a going bo: ' ' 
proceed with ongoing shipping and 
operations” if the court approves the 
"The company intends to honor its 
means to deliver sugar and encoup 
tenners to continue to purchase it 
Western Sugar under these pr 
statement added. 

Hunt International Resources Inc, 
owns Great Western, is owned by the trust.. 

W. Herbert Hunt and Nelson Bunker - 
Thursday’s announcement was the latest 
to the Hunt family finandal empire, w&V 
economists say, has fallen in value by $4 bin 
to S1.6 billion, in the last four years. 

Great Western’s operations were shut - 
Friday and employees were furloughed. 

Dallas Tunes Herald reported that the do 
of Great Western left Hunt Interna tion al - 
sources with only two ofl&ore oil-drilling ■■ 
as its operating assets. . • " 

Glen Adams, vice chairman, said G.. 
Western and its subsidiaries employ ben/'-. 
L.000 and 3,000 people in Colorado , Kar_ ... 
Nebraska, Wyoming, Montana and Ohio. . . 

week’s furlough idled 125 employees in Dft 
80 in Denver and 120 elsewhere. 

Mr. Adams said Great Western, the 1st 
operating subsidiary of Hunt International 
sources, has beet for sale for several mot 
The company solicited sealed bids far its 
Dec. 26, and several prospects are under iny 
gatiou, he added. __ ih 

The Hunts told the federal Securities! 
Exchange Commission last week that the N 
ing company bad defaulted on S3 89 nriffid/ 
its S450rianllion debt. The company owes S 
million to the Commodities Credit Cog 
federal farm-credit agency, and, analysts#, 
believed lo owe most of the rest to Manofi* 
ers Hanover Trust of New York and T 
National Bank of Chicago. 

Analysts also said Hunt International an 
affiliates face potential liabilities of $200 
Hon in dozens of lawsuits. 

During the fiscal years 1983 and 1984, 1 
International Resources disposed of most c 
assets, including a corn-syrup producer, a 
and a development company in California 
the Shakey'slnc, pizza restaurant chain. 

Herbert and Bunker Hunt were among, 
people charged last week by the Commoc 
Futures Trading Commission with manip 
ing the silver market in 1979 and 1980. 


WHAT WOULD LIFE BE LI 
WITHOUT rT? 

WEEKEND 

EACH FRIDAY IN THE IHs 







INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, SATUKPAY-SUNPAY, MARCH 9-10, 1985 


Page 19 


IINESS ROUNDUP 


COMPANY NOTES 




»■* -I, 


loyds Bank Profit Rose 12% in ’84 


* 

* s* * ■« 


1 „ 


Reuters 

; '»ND0N —Uqyds Bank PLC 
.. •' a 12-pocent gain in pretax 
j last year because of improve- 
in domestic operations, and 
v:ie a 23-p«ccnt increase in 
f ’lebt provisions. Lloyds said 

, " -J’’ 

< . wds reported a 1984 pretax 
‘ 1 : of £468 million {$498 mil- 
, . . up from £419 million, and 
, unced a one-for-two capital- 
_ n issue. 

i iyds dosed at 537 Friday, up 
;mce, although analysts said 
esults -bad been within the 
* . of market expectations. 

• Jyds reported a particularly 
" ' j second half, with prom 
ig 23 percent, to £258 mOliotL 
‘ yds attributed the profit in- 
, -> : largely to better interest 

• ns from domestic banking. 

' ^national operations, howev- 
■ ire off 5 percent, to £180 mO- 
. ■ before taxes last year, from 
/ million in 1983. Lloyds said 

* sector had been hurt by low 
) te growth and strong compe- 

for quality business. 

5 s bank said that international 


loans exceeding I percent of the 
group’s 1984 year-end total assets 
were outstanding to Japan, Brazil, 
the United States. Mexico. France, 
Italy, Canada. Argentina and Ven- 
ezuela. 

Loans to Japan amounted £1.83 
billion; to Brazil, £139 billion; to 
the United States, £138 billion, 
and to Mexico, £1.1 8 billion. Loans 
to the other countries listed ranged 
from about £550 nriKioo to a little 
more than £700 miflirwi. 

The bank listed an additional 
£472 minion in U.S. dollar lending 
to support local-currency trading 
by brandies in Brazil. 

The strength of the U.S. dollar 
during 1984 inflated the pound val- 
ue of its U.S. doDar-d do min ated 
loans by about 25 percent. 

The Lloyds chairman. Jeremy 
Morse, said the profit increase in 
1984 came despite a 23-percent in- 
crease in provisions for bad or 
doubtful loans, to £269 million 
from £219 million. 

Mr. Morse said the bank has had 
to maintain bad-debt provisions at 
itionally high levels for the 
consecutive year, largely be- 


cause the recovery in the major 
economies has done more to help 
the prosperous sectors than those 

in difficulties. 

In 1984, after-tax profit at 
Lloyds was down 17 patent be- 
cause of a steep increase in the tax 
charge. Mr. Morse said the 1984 
British national budget’s chang es 
in capital allowances had had a 
direct impact on the bank’s leasing 
business, which accounted for the 
large deterioration in the after-tax 
result 

The British budget also required 
Lloyds to provide £465 million 
from reserves for deferred tax relat- 
ing to leasing business undertaken 
in previous years. As a result, the 
ratio of the bank’s shareholder 
funds to total assets fell to 4.7 per- 
cent at the end of 1984. from 6 
percent before the budget- “It will 
take tune to restore this ratio to a 
higher levd, and with this in mind 
our prime objective must be to im- 
prove our return on equity,” Mr. 
Morse said. 

He added that competition is in- 
creasing. 


-- -% '• • 

•* . * • 


BA Chief Sees 
Ijjker Settlement 

bum 

HONG KONG — British 
Airways PLCs chairman. Lord 
King, said Friday that he ex- 
pects a legal battle related to the 
1982 collapse of Laker Airways 
to be resolved soon, clearing tne 
way for a BA shares offer. 

“One or two points” should 
be resolved with creditors and 
the receiver of Laker Airways, 
Lord King said, adding that the 
BA offering should take place 
shortly afterward. Laker’s liqui- 
dators have sued 12 airlines, in- 
cluding BA, for $1.7 billion in 
damages. 

The legal action, brought in 
the United States, seeks to show 
that the 12 airlines had con- 
spired to drive Laker out of 
business. Lord King declined to 
give further dwtaik on the dis- 
cussions about Laker. A British 
newspaper has reported that 
BA had offered $85 million to 
Sir Freddie Laker, the former 
Laker chief executive, to settle 
ihe case. 


Inkups Benefit AU but Small Airlines Left Out 


k Continued from JP&ge 17) 

■ liner lines affiliated with 
' for example, cany a special 
; m and colors on their planes 
: .-jet discount fares, interline 
^ng and participation in the 
. camel's frequent-flier pro- 
, c The entire system is called 
'Iegbeny Commuter. 


infusion 
;ii the Dollar 

Continued from Page 17) 
“We can't have an overt no- 
th respect 10 the dollar, ” Mr. 
r said, supporting the admm- 
btfs position. 

Volcker, however, seems less 
? by the administration's po- 
' 'In recent weeks, be has given 
'v-agement to foreign central 
„ intervention, which he sug- 
had not been on a large 
h scale to move the dollar 
The Fed itself has inter- 
only lightly. 

ler Mr. Volcket’s leadership, 
- « - , d does appear to be set on a 

** course aimed at gradual- 

■ it lb icing the exchange rate of the 
which is inflicting heavy 


vw i 






« . — 




■* ' 


;* For Pi 

Illlflt" 


. <» U-S. exports, agricnl- 

Uinind industries that compete 
mports. 

Lltn — 


The schedules of the eight lines 
also are put into USAir’s reserva- 
tions system and common codes 
are used for both USAir and Alle- 
gheny commuter flights. But USAir 
restricts the routes on which the 
commuter lines can serve under the 
Allegheny name, to prevent direct 
competition with them. The alli- 
ance with the commuter lines, es- 
tablished in 1967, is the oldest in 
the industry. 

Although the relationship be- 
tween Pan Am and Empire is less 
extensive, the two fines share some 
marketing and advertising costs. 
For example, they jointly have put 
up billboards in Utka, New York, 
promoting flights to Rome and 
London. 

They also conduct joint meetings 
with travel agents to promote new 
markets, giving Pan Am a presence 
in upper New York State that it 
could not afford on its own. And 
Pan Am rives Empire a reduced 
rate for & two gates it uses at 
Worldport at Kennedy. 

But other than the marketing 
agreement, Mr. Quackenbosh said, 
“Pan Am has no control over me.” 
He added, “We cap fly in competi- 
tion with Pan Am.” In fact. Empire 
has made another arrangement 
frith British Airways to feed flights 
to London from Boston. 

Although most recent agree- 
ments with commuters and targe 
airlines follow roughly the same 


patterns, there is one practice that 
is provoking debate: the willing- 
ness of some major airlines to let 
regional affiliates use their two-let- 
ter computer designator codes, giv- 
ing the smaller ca n tos more prom- 
inent display in the reservations 
systems. It is a practice followed by 
both Delta and Eastern, as well as 
Pan Am, among otters. 

A 
ron. 

mair and then to Atlanta on Delta, 
would be designated a Delta flight 
originating in Akron. If listed sepa- 
rately. it would be more difficult 
for travel agents to call op the two 
flights <m thrir reservation systems. 


flight, for example, from Ak- 
Obio, to Cincinnati on Co- 





Leaders Vow to Push 

an Economic Recovery | 



l PORI 


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1,610 

890 


art 

7.300 

3.65 0 

2.000 

Denmark 

D Kr. 

1.500 

750 

420 

Finland 

F.M. 

1.120 

560 

308 


FF. 

1.000 

500 

280 

Germany 

DM 

412 

206 

115 


L 

82 

41 

23 


Dr 

12.4001 6.2001 3,4301 

Ireland 

£. ItL 

104 

52 

28 


Lae 



59.000 


LF*. 

7.300 

3.650 

2.000 


Fl 

450 

225 

124 


NKr. 

1.160 

580 

320 

Ponucral - 

Esc 


5.600 

3,090 


Ptas 

17.400 

&700 

4.800 

Sweden 

SKi 

USO 

560 

330 


S Ft 

372 

186 

102 

The tea ot Eutope. Nona A&sa. tanner Rench 

Africa USA, fteneft Polynesia. MddleEaa 


s. 

284 

142 

— mi 

Jfca ol Aftra. Canada. Latin America. Guff Soles 

I Asu 

s 

396 

1 T 

198 

t ; 

1081 

r i n 



expc) diii' 1 

Signature 


KIK* 







Century 



ivies 


9-3-85 


-ADVERTISEMENT- 


INTERNATIONAL FUNDS 

Quotations Supplied by Funds Listed 
8 March 1985 

TbcnrtmMl value quotations iliown below ora supplied by the Funds I uteri vrltb the 
exception of wm fends whose qootes ore based oa Issue prices. Tbe following 
marginal symbols kx&cate frequency of quotations sue pi led lor feo IHT: 

(d) -dotty; (w) - weakly; (ft) -bLmontaty; t r) - regatarty; (t) -irregtrfarty. 


S1SIA3 ORANGE NASSAU GROUP 
S15DA3 pb I557S. The Bogus (H70) 449671) 


AL MAL MANAGEMENT 
(w)M-Mol Trust. 1 

BANK JULIUS BAER 8. CO. LM. — «f 1 Bevtr Btkaalnucr H I S 33.70 

-(d) Baerbond sVinTDO LLOYDS BANK I NTL FOB 43& Geneva 1) 

stuino -ftwiuoyds inn Dollar S10L40 

"sf ijEm — +lw) Lloyds I nr I Europe SF 110.90 

+IW) Uovds inn Growttl SF 110A00 


— id I Conaar ^ 

—Id ) Eduibaer America . 


— fd ) Eouiboei" EuTODf 

=12 1 Paci1>c - — U i?SS =«"! S5S iSJ SSSSzl 3 sVSS 

lid } iF rnSr -«*» Ltoyttr mu Pod He SF isaw 

-Id » C5F Fund SF 2S54 40nAi 

-Id 1 Crossbow Fund SF IMS CarTL-XQ^'tta.-nal.cnol __ S 90A4 

-id I ITF Fund N.V. S 1193 82, L 


BANQUE INDOSUEZ 
—id ) Aslan Gruwlfi Fund. 

— (w> Dfwertaand 

— iwj FiF Am erko 


— <**) OBUGESTION_ 
— (w) OB LI -DOLLAR. 
SlfliJ — (w) OBLI-YEN. 


SF92.7S 

SUS«A0 


-lw) FIF— Euros* . 

^w}r - ^ _ 


— <w) FIF— PocKkL- 


— Id ) Indosuez Mu It (bonds A. 

—Id ) Indowoz MuHIbands B. 
BRITAN NLAJ'OB 271. SL Holler. Ji 
— fwl BrKJXilkir Income 
— =lwi BrltSM wjuJini : 


Y 1Q5J1Q.O0 
FL VSXTM 
— S1ITLD1 

S976 —Id I PARI NT ER fund SfOJO 

S 1L97 — (d ) PAR US Treasury Bond— S10034 


SF 53X5 — <w| OBLI-GULDEN 
. S 19.84 — Id) PAROIL-FUND 


*Un5i ROYAL »,OFCANAOAJK>«39iGUERNSEY 


-Hwl «BC 
-Hw) BBC Far 


—Id > Brit intlS Manoqjtfrtl- 
— IdlBrlL l«dlt«an*B.Portt_ 
— Iw) Brlt-UirivomN Growtn — 

— iw) BritJJoJd Fund 

— Iwl BrlTJWonoo.Currono' 

■ — (d j Brit. Jaoan Dir Port. Fd . 
— iw) BrlUenov Gilt Fund — 
—Id ) Bril, world Lei*: Funa_ 
—Id > Bril, world Tecta. Fund. 


iffsev -«w) rbc Far t 
S 0 BC -Hw) RBC mne 
i S BJ 1 - -+Iw 1 RBCIrvIl I 



CAPITAL INTERNATIONAL 
— Iwl Caottal Inti Fund 
— (w) Capital Italia 


SL 949 -+ld ) RBC Man-Currency Fa 
(1225 -Hwl RBC Mann Asner.Fd 
S Btaff SKANDI FOND INTL FUND 14 +B- 236 Z 7 D) 

cii£ —wine.: Bid SUQ Otter S 5.10 

saw _ ,w,Acc - : SLB0 Offer 55.10 

MW SVENSKA international ltd. 
SI-225 T7 Devonsblr* Sq-LockUB^O 1077^040 

SSJ 33 -rib) SHB Bond Fund S 71 .tf 

— iw) SHB Inti Growth Fund S 1 V .96 


SKS 7 SWISS BANK CORP. 

S 11 JB —<d I America Valor SF 44 L 25 

CREDIT SUISSE (ISSUE PRICES) =!2 { D S*l 3 Q^r 

-id I Actions Sutsses SF 36 E 2 S* 3}5 '. sSSST Cl 

Id] Bond Valor 5 wt cr lm w Id ) Florin Bond 5e*Ctan_ rLi'v!! 


— Hf > Bond Valor Dmorfc. 


SF 10135 
DM 1009 


— Id ) Intervalor. 




SF9A50 
SF 999 JO 


—id) Convert Valor Swf 

1 Convert Valor US-OOLLAR 


Yen 1037ij)0 




d ) Conasec. 


SF 109 as ~ w 1 S*f&vclor N«w ser 

t _(d > unlv - Bond i swoct 

<F«iS -«n Ufeverjol Fund 


SF 777.31 
SFIOJS 
SF125J6 


SF91A00 

SF 77XC UNION BANK OF SWITZERLAND 

... SFlliSO -rid ) Am co Ui. Sb. SF 4S25 

—idles Money MorM»Rmd__ . SIOJLUO —id) Bond-lnvoct 5F4025 

-rid i cs Money Morkel Fund DM itQioo —id ) Fonsa Swiss Sh. SFnoO 

—id ) Enerofe-Votar SF17&.7S -rid I japon*lnvesf SF lim JB 

s f 1057-22 —it* I Safi' SouttiAtr.su. SF SOaOO 

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-rid ) CS Fands — 8onds_ 
— idles Foodo-ittn. 


-in ) Us_ 

—Id ) Ewodo— V otor_ 
— id) Podflc— Valor. 


DIT INVESTMENT FFM 

— Hd 1 Concentro— 

—fid ) Inti Rentenfond — 


UNION INVESTMENT FronWurt 

— (dlUntrcnta DM41. 

-<d) Uni fata* DM 

OMB7.1) — (d) UnTmh_ DM 


Dum& Harottt 4 Uoyd George, Brunets 
— (m) D&H Comaiocetv Pool. 53105S — 

— Iml Currency L Goltt Root % 19U6 — - , 

— fm) Winch. Life Fid. Pod— S6UXO — 

—in) Trim World Put PooC *«*»— !«) AflWdUd 


Other Foods 

lw) Actibond* investments Fund. 


S20AV 
S 107* 

(n» AovUdlnternalional Fund= S I0L27 


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sism« 


F&CMGMT. LTD. INV. ADVISERS 
1. Louronco Fourty HIU. EG*, m-izirioao , w . ^ 

—(wj FAC Atlantic S1Z2S [w| TruHcor Ion Fd. [AE1FI S1O30 

— lw) F&C EunuJton S9A7 (w) BNP Intertoond Fund SIOIjM. 

—iw) FAC Oriental S2SJ3 (wl BondMlex-ISSue Pr.— _ 5P 139.40 

lm) Canada Ght-MortgoCM Fd SL90 

nui 

*1.82 

. , -r— . S9A* 

—id ) FMeiitv Austro Ud Fund JJN ^ 

-id >Fk)el)tv Discovery Fund — S11U0 5 Si££^«2!!S82. F 

—id) Fidelity Dir. Svos.Tr S121J1 fbi rnMFYF 

-rid ) FtariWY Far East Fond 52008 1 ^MET ^ _ 

-rid I FWettty InlT. Fund. SS3A3- SSS, S’ 22 5 

— id i Floettty Qri*rt Fund 57 LB S’S’?"- ^ ,nn 8 

ilfd ! FtaeUN pSflcFarS^IZr $mi4 « 1 CLWitter WM Wide ivt TiL 

-Id ) FhMUty PocWc Fund-—, imu n> ) DroUcor inutttFund N.V_ 


lr ) Arab Flnpnce LF_ 

lt» > ArlOTrt— 


FIDELITY FOB wU. Hamilton BrtlWta IJ , I[.J p—mf.. EwTnfV 
— irn) American values Common. S.|*so 1 fSEIS ^ 

— im) Amer Values CumJYoi *Wl.li ? riBA SSS i fa c T Sl 

—Id I FldsFItv Amtr. Assets HU5- W>Cj^.AustnHjaF.und 


) FWsUty Pocfflc Fl _ 

— IdlFWelHvSpctGrowItiRL S14X 

— id ) Fidelity World Fund S 30.17 


Id ) Dreyfus Fimd Inn. 


FORBES PO BM7GRAND CAYMAN 
London AsentOldlMOU 


,wl Dreyta tataroortlnent 53938 

lw) The Establlitimtnt Trust S 1 JU 

d ) Europe ObUoattans LF ilM 

w) First Eagle Fund S U3I8J0 

b l Fifty Stars Ltd.—, — 587*8? 

Iw) Finsbury Group Ltd__Z 5115 a? 

K l Faoselex Issue Pr SF 229.15 

I Forrwfund S7.l« 

_ ---- - _ . yai < w > Formula S election Fd. SF SZ81 

-l*> Bund SK08I (a j Fond Italia S71J9 

(dlGowerrim. Sec. Fund- SS 7 J 2 


— Iw) Gold income. 

— lw] Gold Anoreckrttan 
— <w) Doll or Income—. 
— fmj strategic Trading. 
GEFINOR FUNDS. 


S7JD* 
*4135 
5 873 
Sl.ll 




ScottWi world Fwi. 
Slate 5t American. 


CoatLGukLLtiLLonAaenL0V49t42X 


S 151.87 


GLOBAL ASSET MANAGEMENT CORP. = , 

PB 119, St Peter Port. Guerotv. IXT -2*715 

im) FuturGAMSA *12*48 ° > LA Irtt Gota Ban< 

(mIGAM Altattroge Inc 112040 {“J 

(wl GAMerlco Inc S 13125- (w) Infer moritM Fgtd 

iw) GAM Boston Ine 

(wl GAM EmtHooe 

(w) GAM Froic-vn* — — 
id ) GAM lafernottotal lr 


(Wl GAM North America Inc 

iw) GAM N. America VW1 Trull, 
(wl GAM Podflc Inc 



Id ) Frantcf-Trnst i n t e r iins , 
w) Haussmaim Hide*. M.V. 
(w) Hutto Fund* 


*ML33 (W) Inn Currency Fund 
51X08 (r ) IntTSecuriMe* Fond 

SF 95.94 jd I Invwta OWS 

S 101 JS t r • invest AilanMoues. _ 
1 10UI0 IT * ItoHorhme Inti Fund 


lw) GAMSterLA infl Unit Trust. 

Im) GAM Systems Me. 

(wl GAM wortowtdo Inc 

Cm) GAM roche SA Class A 

G.T. MANAGEMENT (UK) Ltd. 
-iwJ Berrv Poc Fd. Ltd.. 


[wl Jaoan Selection Fund 
(w) Jaoan Podflc Fuad 



—Id ) G.T. Aortled Sctano— . 
—id ) G.T. AMan HJC GwttLFd 

— iw) G.T. Asia Fund- 

—(d) G.T. Australia Fund 

—id ) G.T. Euraoo Fund 


—iwl G.T. Eure. Small Cs*. Fund 

— Id I G.T. Dollar Fund 

—id ) G.T. Bond Fa 


lt&SCD 

TOMo (w) Jetfer Ptn*. (oil. Ltd __ S 1025 X 00 

S 10734 Id ) Kiotawort Benson mn Fd 0 232 

ST 27 . 90 * iw) Kletaiwon BiflS. Jam Fd *7136 

*17932 (d j Letcnm Fund *1,13X71 

iwl Uwaroao Coo Hold 517201 

id 1 1 l^fWw. f V 27 L 00 

- 39 * iw) Uovdt tntL Smaller Cos luS 

51L77* (w) Luxfuod— S7L59 

■ (ml Maonafund N.V.—— S 19734 

■ . 5 X 90 " id ) Modloianum SeL Fd S 1 X 33 

feJMofeore Y 12 U 34 

- (w)NAAT S 1X46 

— M) HIW» Growth PoetoaeFd SlW»t 39 

■ (W) Mm* Fund 529 J 3 - 


— *949 (w) Novoiec Investment Fund— f 10244 

—id I G.T. Global TKhnlOy Ffl 51X5* (w) NAJW.F 514X99 

‘ (m)NSPF.I.T 115538 

tw) PANCURRI InC *1473 


—Id 1 G.T. Honrtiu Puthflndar 
—id ) G.T. Investment 


—Id ) G.T. Jaoan SmaU I CaFuOd_ S 4248 * (r ) Parfoo Sw. R Est Genova SF 1397 JD 

— id I G.T. Todmetoov Fund S 3 LT 9 (r ) Pormul Value Fund N.V * 1 . 77 ft US 

-rid ) G.T. South CMna Fund 5 7435- (b > PteiodH stssjoo 

lw) PECO Fund H.V SIMM 

- - - 55*34 

*91550 


EBC TRUST CO.I JERSEY I LTD. 
IO Seale SUirBsil*r:CSJM 433 l 
TRADED CURRENCY FUND- 

S tdHncj Bid W -44 otter — 

Id) Coa.-. BW Slow Oita 


Id) Putnam Inn Fund- 

ram w) Quantum Fund N.V„ 
7510341 Id » Renta Fond. 


*324279 
LF 247630 


WIOJ^UU.-. BW— « Ml DinlLuid LCliKN 

INTERNATIONAL INCOME FUND «« j ^Sm^ rimured Deroitl *- * l'w^ 

—id ) Short Terra "A" ( AccumJ S 1450 )“ ' HcVS— cfnSt elm 

-rid 1 Short Term ‘A’ (DIMrl 51.0062 « e 

-id) Short Term •B'lACCumi — Sl«S !?< 

-«}? 5 or.Isir' B ' IDWr> — K °£2 iv 5 J 2 

—iw) Lons Term — * 2 W < w ) stroteav InvMlmanl Fend S 19 JS 


JARDINE FLEMING. POB 70 GPO Ha KB Id ) Syntax UflOCBS A) 

—40 1 j,p Japan Trull——— Y 4974 lw) Tectwo Growth Fund — 

^riOlJ.FsSta East Asia 53033 (w) Tokyo Pta Hold. (Sea) 

— (b » J.P Japan Tedwomay Y23W? (w) Tokyo Poc.Hdld. N.V. 


—lb I J.F Pacific SecSJAccI 553J |w) TransoacHlc Fund. 

—ib ) XF Australia - *4J» id) TureuoN* Fund— , 


-ill 

NIMARBEN 

—id) Class A 

-tw) Class B-U3. 

— iw l Class C- Japan. 
OBL’ B LEX LIMITED 
— iw) Multicurrency. 


_se<u» 
J 1DDJ8 
JT4» 


_ * 7.75 
SF 101.98 
S 10136 
513939* 
S873S 

S9549 


— Iwl Dollar Medium Term. 

— iw) Donor Lana Term 

— Iw) Japanese Y| " — - - 
—iwl Pound Storima. 


!w) T w»edy Browne n.w.OoS5A 52MX34 
iw) TwesdyAawneavXiossB S 147169 

(d ) UNtCO Fund— DM7440 

id) UNI Bond Food 500440 

lb) UNI CuPtal Fund *105135 

S ) Ualtad Cool invf. Fund LML — , 5130 
) Wedge Europe N.V *4X72 

*£L 84 

5S740 
*5242 


_*933 lw) Wedge Europe N.V, 
*104)0 iwl Wedge Japan N.V. _ 
ire lw| wedge Pacific N.V. . 


_*9.93 «w) Wodg* U3. N.V. . 

19.94 lm) wmawsier Ffeuckii Ud— 3 1047 


— Iwl Deutsche Mark . 
— iw) Dutch Florin _ 
— (n) Swiss Franc— 


DM9.93 (m) WtadtatarDiwenlflOdM-. *5339* 

Cl »J> id > World Fund SA 51044 

CF097 tW) Worldwide S«cbfme»S7S3V^ SOTS 
■ lw) worlawioo Saedol S/S3W. *134149 

DM — Deutsche Marx) BF — Belgium Francs: FL — Dutch Florin; lF — 
LuscndHura Franc*; SF — Swig* Fmtc*; a— asked: + — Offer Priaa:b — aid 
change P.v *10 toil per uni ].- SLA. — NM AvailaBM; NX.— NdtC omBK iotaafoda— 
New; 5 — suspended; S/S — Stock 5oHt; - — Ex -Dividend,- - — Ex-Rts; — — 
GraiA P9* larmance index Fobri - — RsCotnoi- Price- Ex-Coupon: -• — Formerly 
worldwide Fund lm; ® — OHer Price ted. 1% prafen. choree i++ — dally stock 
erica a* on Amsterdam Slack Exdianop 


BTR Agrees to Buy Dunlop 
In $ 108-Million Stock Swap 


By Bob 

International HetvB Tribune 

LONDON I- BTR PLC an- 
nounced late Friday a surprise 
agreement to acquire Dunlop 
Holdings PLC in a share errhnngp 
valuing the debt-ridden rubber and 
sporting goods company at £101 
nuflion (5108 milli on) 

1116 offer, accepted by Dunlop 
directors, replaces an earlier bid 
valuing Dunlro at £44 rmflion. 
Dunlop's board had strongly resist- 
ed the earlier bid. 

For a relatively small outlay, the 

acquisition would add more than 
£1 billion to BTR’s annual sales of 
about £35 btflion. The industrial 
conglomerate also would gain tax 
credits arising from Dunlop’s 
losses of more foan £300 unman 
the last five years. 

But BTR would be taking on 
Dunlop’s borrowings, totaling 
nearly £400 million. That would 
raise BTR’s debt-equity ratio about 
lOOpercenL 

The new terms of acquisition 
consist of two new BTR ordinary 
shares for every 21 Dunlop ordi- 
nary shares, or (53 pence in cas h per 
Dunlop share. Previously, BTR 
offering two of its shares for 


was 


Also, many travelers feel more at 
ease taking what they believe to be 
a Delta connection, than taking an 
airline, like Comair, with which 
they may not be familiar . 

While such dual designations 
benefit airlines hke Comair, they 
can hurt competitors. For example, 
Kingsley G. Morse, the president 
of Command Airways, a regional 
commuter airline near Poughkeep- 
sie, New York, said that Delta’s 
connection with Ransome, which 
flies out of Philadelphia, has re- 
duced passengers on his company’s 
flights between Albany and La 
Guardia Airport outside New York 
City by about 25 percent. 


every 59 of Dunlop’s, or 20 pence a 
sh are. 

BTR retained its old offer of sev- 


en of its or dinar y shares for every 
55 of Dunlop’s, or 75 pence per 
preference share. 

Pegi Malaysia Bhd, a Malaysian 
company that owns about 26 per- 
cent of Dunlop, said h would ac- 
cept the BTR bid. 

Most of the rest of the shares are 
hdd by small investors in Britain 
and the United States. Not all of 
them were delighted. 

“I am sorry this management is 
selling out for such a tow price,” 
said Ronald Haave, a New York 
investment adviser whose clients 
own about 7 percent of Dunlop. 
But, Mr. Haave said, be saw no 
prospect of a higher bid and would 
recommend that his clients accept 
cash rather than BTR shares. “I 
never want to be a shar e holder in 
another UX company again,” he 
said. 

Earlier this week Dunlop said it 
was holding talks aimed at selling 
its profitable U.S. tire unit to a 
group of 115. investors. The group 
was expected to pay about $120 
million and to aremng $60 nriffion 
of debt. 

But Reuters quoted Sir Owen 
Green. BTR chai rman, as saying 
his company would want to review 
whether to sell the unit, a specialist 
tire maker with annual sales of 
about $300 minion. 


Apple Computer Inc, will dose its 
four factories for a week, other this 
month of next, because of an over- 
supply of computers that had both 
up because of sluggish sales. Some 
analysts said Apple appeared to be 
affected worse than some of its 
competitors. It is the first time the 
company has had to shut down 
production. 

Bond Carp. Holdings Ltd. has 
been asked by Australia’s securities 
commission for further details on 
first-half results reported March 6; 
the commission said a net operat- 
ing profit of 5933 million appears 
to indude money attributable to 
capital profits. 

Financial Carp, of America will 
report a loss of between $500 mil- 
lion and $700 million for 1984, a' 
bigger deficit than expected. Spe- 
cific figures are expected to be re- 
leased later tins month, following 
completion of a special review by a 
task force examining $13 billion in 
problem real estate loans of the 
subsidiary of American Savings & 
Loan Association. 

Mob3 OQ AG, the West German 
subsidiary of Mobil Carp., proba- 
bly will omit 1984 dividends de- 
spite increasing net profit 42 per- 
cent to a provisional 120 mQlioa 
Deutsche marks ($353 million) 
from 843 million DM in 1983. 

National Intergroup Ido, the 
Pittsburgh conglomerate, said 
stockholders apparently had ap- 
proved a merger with Bergen 
Brunswig Corp., the health-care 


products distributor. The merger 
had been opposed by Leucadia Na- 
tional Corp.. which owns 73 per- 
cent of National Iniergroup's 
shares. 

Porsche AG said it has devel- 
oped a new engine for light aircraft 
from the motor of a top-selling car. 
The six-cylinder air-coded PFM 
3200 engine, based on the 32-liter 
motor of Porsche’s “911” sports 
car, reaches 212 horsepower. 


siaj BHD will reduce its interest in 
a wboDy owned subsidiary, Sharp 
Roxy Appliances Corp. SDN 
BHD,-by having the subsidiary is- 
sue more than 13 million shares. 

Sun Co. of Radnor, Pennsylva- 
nia, plans to continue repurchasing 
stock, allocating $500 million for a 
multiyear program. 

Thy ssen-Bornemisza NY, the 
Dutch industrial holding company, 
said it bad changed its name to 
TBG Holdings NV and its finan- 
cial year-end to Nov. 30 from Dec 
31. It said net income for the 12 
months to Iasi Nov. 30 was 127.9 
million guilders ($332 million), 
compared with 125.4 million for 
the year to Dec 31, 1983. 

Wartfley Holdings LbL, the whol- 
ly owned merchant banking arm of 
Hong Kong & Shanghai Banking 
Corp., reported lower than expect- 
ed net 1984 profit of 83 million 
Hong Kong dollars ($10.6 million) 
up 1 1 percent from 75 million dol- 
lars the year before 


INTERNATIONAL POSITIONS 


European 

Marketing Manager 


KMG Klynveld Main Goerdeler, the international 
accounting organization requires a young 
energetic European national to assist its inter- 
national Executive Office in coordinating 
the marketing activities of its European member 
firms. 


The right person will ideally have five to seven 
years experience in marketing, sales or 
public relations in a professional or financial 
sen/ices organization. He or she will be willing 
to travel extensively in Europe, will be competent 
in English, French and German, and willing to 
relocate in Amsterdam. This is a career position 
with attractive remuneration, benefits and 
excellent potential for advancement. 


Please respond with a r£sum& 
including previous experience 
and compensation require- 
ments to James!. Johnston 
by April 9.1985. 

KMG Klynveld Main Goerdeler. 
Executive Office 
P.O.Box 7 259 1007 JG 
Amsterdam The Netherlands 
Telephone 31(20)42 42 45. ■ 


/dWb^Klynveld Main Goerdeler 


Are you a self-starter 
with drive and managerial talent? 

Internationally known Swiss Engineering Company, sub- 
sidiary of a large Swiss corporation, has immediate 
opening for qualified 

SALES - MANAGER 

to take charge of its world-wide sales activities report- 
ing directly to the Chief Executive Officer. 

We are a totally integrated engineering company, 
covering all disciplines from process engineering, basic 
and detail engineering through project and construc- 
tion management . Our activities cover the non-ferrous 
and chemical process industry as well as specialized 
material handling. 

The position offered requires an engineering or busi- 
ness degree and thorough knowledge of the engineering 
contracting field, a minimum of 5 years in an executive 
position in engineering sales, including turnkey pro- 
jects. 

Candidates must be fluent in German and English. 
Remuneration commensurate with qualification 
and experience. 

Write to: 

Cipher 44-62,871, Publicitas, P.O. Box, 

CH-8021 Zurich, 
giving background summary'. 


Sales Representative Wanted 

Uattar Date Canter. Ins. an Htebttmhad anti reopacteti supplier oft 

- IBM PC and mainfraiiie patent and tntiomafK record man og ament 
system*. 

- Worldwide patent and trademark tax pay want tenrice*. 

Opseruautyle raptaurthi* MwetrumrtprtamanairaamaniiKert nuugemonltyrtsm 
piu* ptyipani Mmcas in WMwn Europe Sell W corpora* puanlAradamarii dapsnmMtt 
sMiawiems 

Products and aerate* m mu pro*«*>*ia dociiiMn»e;cf»BpefcimtrprtcMt*e*riain3tBl 
6nd leant 

Eapenvwe In lege) markets, aotaarv and lemce mm ana IBM PC lam 4 y u ngtpful 

• CsMWinM software and lervics Mia 

• Comp* e?e software product ami temse hno (or pawn ana iraoomark support 

• Apgienwo load gmeratien program. 

SrJiedudng European Interviews fer April 1883 . 

Conuct Pater J MeAieer. PraMent 
—■■ter Data Cente r, Inc. 

m00 NOrthweslorn Hrgttway. Suite 300 * SoumtiMd. Ml 48034 
Ptione 313-3&2.SS1D • TLX 53-5670 - Culn MASTERD AT A 


concxio 


engineers 

TOP FRENCH GROUP, technologic world leaders in 
the field of high-performance subsea flexible pipe 
manufacture for the offshore oil and gas industry, seeks 
dynamic “SALES ENGINEERS" totally versed in 
contract ans sales negotiations. 

Fluent in both French and English, you have at least 
five years experience in one of the following fields 

- Drilling 

- Production or Refining 

- An oil service industry 

Based in PARIS 

FREQUENT TRAVEL but only for short periods 
initially. 

EXPATRIATION probable in one of our overseas 
subsidiaries. 

Write 10 : J. WATTEAU COFLEXIP SA 
23 av. de Neuilly 75116 PARIS (FRANCE) 


OVERSEAS ASSIGNMENTS 


Contract positions are available for qualified professio nals and 
technicians in Asia, the. Pacific Basin and the Middle East. 
C an di d at es must have a nrinimiim of 5+ years ex perience and 
appropriate training or educational background in Construction, 
Petrochemical. Communications, Logistics and most Medical and 
Engineering disciplines. Housing, Travel, Medical Insurance and 
excellent salaries are available. Some positions are lax exempt 

For consideration forward resnme/GV. to; 


TANTALUS INTERNATIONAL 

THE TANTALUS GROUP 


13 Root OT3 Tower, 

8 Queens Road. Conlral 
Horg Kong 
S-214446 


"INTERNATIONAL 

POSITIONS” 

appears erery Thursday & Saturday 

TO PLACE AN ADVSlTISEMENT contact your nearest 
Intenutionai Herald Tribune representative or Max Farmo: 

1B1 A vo. Qtarte-de-Goufe. 92521 Neuilly Cedgx, France. 

TeL= 747-12-65. Telex: 613595. 





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55ft 56 
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up ft 80% mortgages. 

noon seated: 

Ri dd en ee hhm 1854 bjnfe. 

swirbund ■ 

T* (025) 34 1 1 55 Tte Mete 25629 CM 


154 

138 

57 

173 

m 

-rfr 

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VtowFt 1J00 24 81034ft 34 Ii — ft 
YcrkPd M 36 3 13ft Uft Uft + ft 

ZanLbB 147 30ft 27ft 30 

Xertec 20 (V> 4ft 4ft— ft 

2"IW 4*0 IS 32 OH Oft 12ft 
ZlonUI 124 3 jt 51 3716 34ft 37 + ft 
JW 4 4ft 4ft 4ft 

ZJyod 8 TV. 6ft 6ft 

SET * “ SS ’Ik-w 

Zytrex 182 m 1ft 1ft— ft 


European Workers 
Of Fond Set Talks 

The Associated Press 

GENEVA — Representatives of 
Ford Motor Ox's European work- 
ers plan to meet Tuesday in Geneva 
to strengthen unity as a means of 
countering any plant closure in Eu- 
rope, the International Metalwork- 
ers’ Federation said Friday. 

The meeting is to include iminn 

officials from Britain, West Ger- 
i many, Spam, B elgium, France and 
Portugal, the federation, whose 
membership mchid^ s officials of 
national labor groups, said. 

The discussions woe scheduled 
IS iSft ioft ioft + ft after “hints earlier this year that 
. 15 * m a 5H“ \U ii“+ft Ford might shut down one of its 
^it* i*ft 17 * - * European plants,” the federation 
4M i4ft uft mi* + ft said. 



INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFIED 


(Continued From Back Page) 


AUTOS TAX FREE 


EMPLOYMENT 


GENE&AL POSITIONS 
WANTED 


US 8USNBS LADY 6 VEAKS firav 

tM tdfeScBtpMte boring esmeti- 
bbm, ivy League MBA io*ia d^ng- 
ing omr n Evroot- WorUng 
bowidg* of Fmeh. ATJolwort 52 
EdpK omb e Aw, NY NY w Tat {212] 


ATTRACTIVE. CAPABLE educated, 
i roek d Ameriaan bdy wans dob- 

don in Paris at ottstart 9 Gil Friday 
far Maailiw mat/ woman. Curry, I 500 $L ' 
4847 W. Sunt SvcL Tampa, R. equipped, 
33629. Tri: 813/837.^6- 


EMPLOYMENT 


DOMESTIC 
POSITIONS WANTED 


YOUNG WOMAN series hit or pad- 
Som CDobna & housekeeping job. r«f- 
HNA bras 267 86 06 


AUTOMOBILES 


NB« CARS, DOT CONVERTS) 
Far export to the US. now awAable: 
500 aTBuetftek. Palomino leather. 
My my t n ped. LES37j00Q. 

500 OnM.U leader, fully 



CAR TRACKS: New A Seem) Hold 

All liv and nm 
Fufl servm shppwa. inaronee 
IBMS De Goudi^Za! SeMde. Aie- 
werp, BelHum 323/658 12 60. it* 33127 



500 SEC. Brick, raL ledfwr, 
kwdedTuSS 39,000. 

500 SB, Namcilue. may leader. 
My equipped, USEftXv 
Ret Auto Cowenion. Export. Sfcmng 
7 Stutioart 70. P.O. Bo* 70 Eft 
Tri 071 1/760966/767815. Tic 7255960. 



TAX Free can, el maltet & models. 
ATX. NVArimrrui 22. 2000 Antwerp, 
‘ 1 16 53 T* 31535 




AUTO RENTALS 



EXCAUBUR. 5ee ear ad in Monday 
otkSon. 


CADILLAC SH1AN 1982 USS12AXL 
Teh Gemny 069 / 565110 


TRUCKS 


WANTED— American made heavy 
duty trucks, 1972 & newer, lacabon 
not im portant; OR wil consider seif 
motivated buying agem. Cal US. 
|219 343S250 MorvfS 


BOATS & 
RECREATIONAL 


AUTO SHIPPING 


HOW TO IMPORT A EUROPEAN 
CM MID THE USA. 

TWs document exptorrs My v rhetf one 
RMt do to bring o car into the ULS. 
safely and tegovy. h mduries new & 
used Europeon auto prices, buying Ims, 
DOT & EPAcorweruon addresses, cut* 
tom dear era ft shipping procedure! 
as well as logd pom, Baause of the 

I s h anp doBar, you can save up to 
US$la£DD when buying a Mercedes, or 
BMW *i Europe & reporting it 10 the 
States. To receive the menial, send 
USS13S0 {odd USD 50 for postape) to: 



LEGAL SERVICES 




Pi - idreirf, Portfoch 3131 
7000 Shdtgert 1, West Germany 





CM SMPPMG ft SERVKS 

NeuSy Cedn, Fierce [As sprriolized German oar forwarder 
| we ore jour best connection for Euro- 


LOW COST FUGHTS 




If needed we cfco help in purchaang. 
Free extensive mfoisrodxre. 



Renthouse International 
020448751 (4 lines) 

Amterdam, Bohsteei 43. 


DUTCH HOUSING CENTRE AV. 
Debase rentals. Vdrnadr. 174. • 
Amsterdam. Q2G621ZH or 623222. 


Free e xtensive intobrodxxe. 
SECRETARIES AVAILABLE I , .P*™ 0 * * V. KQS 5 OMG, 



EDUCATIONAL 
POSITIONS AVAILABLE 


3 Hmemuer lluriialen, W. Germ. 
(0(511 - 7305651, Tlx 9230963 


SMFPMO CARS WOMDWIDE 
We Shipp e d 29,750 Teens! Cam 
WBfa bem Veaeh to 1983 

CALL MAT1NA AT 

ANIWBP2D Ine* (3) 234 36 68 


TO USA ROM £119 one way. 
NATC London 01-734 8100. 


HOLIDAYS 4 TRAVEL 


WBC TOURS fTtmce/Kussa Travel 
Around Ltd 61 Netting FSB Gate, 
London W11. let 01-73' 1471. 


HBIAS YAOfTMG. Yadtf Cbcxten. 
Aeedemias 2B; ABwns 10671, Greece 


HOTELS 


RESTAURANTS 

NIGHTCLUBS 


TRANSCM 20 roe Le Suew. 75116 
Pats-Tek 500 0304. Nk»: 69531 
Antwerp, 233 9985. Gxinei 39 43 44 


Dbllar 


Tel: 020768022. 


. . . When in Romei . . 

PALAZZO AL VHABKJ 
bwwy IWM House wifc fanxshed 
fl*, everictble far 1 weekend ■one'. 

PSomt 6794325 6793450. 

Wirte Vio cUVriobro 16, 

00186 Rome. 



ASTORIA THEATRE 01-734 4287 

THEH«H)MAN 

AUTO CONVERSION ^ %32T** 

“flest mused of the yeor" 
toremahonal Horrid Tnbune. 


FOR SALE & WANTED 


CT.TiW:i ni. 



cook - chamber mad ft chauffer ■ 
■ nolle d'hote) with references. 


Seed CV photo ft 


. __ . 8104 to 

MedtoSyitem 104 nm Reaumur 
75061 PARS CH3BC 02 


required to 
toe 


74 CHAMP»YSS 8tk 


Swfe 2 or Jnoom cy ortniwi L 
morth or more. 

IE CLARSXZ 359 67 97. 


YOUNG WOMAN bfegud 


NEW MERCEDES 

PORSO*, BMW. EXOTIC CARS 

FROM STOCK 

far XMMBWEdeivery 
BBT SERVICE 

far to wxro bend, 

ww euei in USX 

RUTEINC 

Towtamh-. 52, 6000 Frankfurt, 

W GeniL, tri D) 69-232351, rfcr 41^559 
Inforitxaion cidy by phene or triex. 



ANTIQUES 


COLLECTORS 


Non Dollar 



sqjn.*unny,cdm.Atrf1a.633 


17TH ROME 90 iqjn. dl comfom, 
moovatei rejDO/marth. 294 2644. 


SAN FRANCSCO Mato County. So- 


•CORTS 4b GUIDES I ESCORTS 4b GUIDES i ESCORTS & 


ESCORTS 4b GUIDES 


JtRNATIONAL 

ESCORT 



CHB5EA BCORT SCRVKE. 

ZURICH 

CA80UNE ESCORT SERVICE. Tefe 01 5B4 6513^749 (4-12 pm) 
Teh 01/252 61 74 

GBCVA ESCORT 

SMVICE Teh 46 11 58 ' 

ZURICH 

Sien entheT* Ewart A Ooide Semite 
Mde ft Feende. Teh 01/56 96 92 


SAftTRANSWORlD 

-AMERICAN 

Y^TOYCWaSoR GOL. 

M13-92I-7946 

he from U&t 1-SXU37DB92 
ft bom Honda 1-800.292-0892. 
> fatorn wrioonm you fcodd 


> LONDON 

JEST ESCORT SRVfCE 
- 10:200 8585 



APPLE 


TBU 2503496. CHBXT CARDS. 


TASTE BC08TSBKVKE 
Tefc 411 72*7 


ZURICH-GENEVA 


TEL: 01/363 08 64-022/34 41 86 


IBs 022/29 13 74 


QBdfA * BEAUTY* 


Moca Your OascHM M Mddy and Emily 
MTBNATfONM MBUlD TWWW 

By P h e n e - Cat your toed tf n kji yd i i jf w with your text. You 
vA be informed of the east ■ n W dM ii j . end once prepoywwnt is 
made your ad Ml i^jpear witthf 4V khan. 

Ceet: The basic rate is S980 per Rettperdoy + load tcecea. Thera are 
25 letten; dgni and ^aee* in dm ftiHtoi end 36 in the foOowine Enei. 
Mtoimum spoae » 2 Bm*. No dtiifdeRgiii accepted. 

CftdH Cards: American D|vam,fitft’f Oeb, Earocnrd, Morter 
Cord, Acxzss and Vita 



^ . . OLDTlMHt - top ran 

;4m wtvnds experience, Dcdveop 
?.4dkftr for large firms, scilbg posh 
: « ce wHfe red estate firm v4*> would 
-A* to-do buttons in Germany & is 
: TwjBng to provide office etc. Ttt 



PENPALS 


GBB AND GUYS al aafrwft wad 
pat Details Fr» Hermes 


SERVICES 


YOUNG LADY 

PA/Interpreter ft Teurimn Guide 

PARIS 562 0587 


**** PARS 553 62 62 *»•* 
K» A REAL VAP. YOUNG LADY 

“was" 


YOUNG HEGANT LADY 

MefStoged PA. Par* 525 81 Dl 


JASMINE 


■forms {For d o sri fied onW 
747-4600. 


ARISTOCATS 

i-j- bait Sendee 
128 WffmwSf. London WJ. 
AB mrivCmfit Cmdi Aeceptod 
IS 437 47 4W 4742 

12 noon ■ mdntftf 


LA VENTURA 


ZURICH 


HL 01/ 47 55 82 or 68 55 04 | Q711/468S31 


* AMSTERDAM* 

ShFEmort Sendee, 227837 



212.Sn.l948, 


AVARS. K USA 

EXCLUSIVE BD3ET SSMCT 
Box 520554 Momi, FL 33152 


BBJSBS. CHANTAL ESCCVT 5W- 

vm Tefc 02/520 23 65. 



A wwft r d w w 2636-15. 
Aftanei 361-8397/360-2421. 
■ml*; 343-1899. 

Cepenbevere (01) 329440. 

fiftddwrte (069) 72-67-55. 
Lawaiie: 296B-94. 

Uritert: 67-27^3/665544. 
Laadecc jOlJ 836-4802. 
Mehto 455J891 /455330i 
AVkn (00) 753144$. 
Neaayt (03)845545,. 
Rama 6793437. 

Sweden: 08 7569229. 

Tel A*h* 03455 S9. 
Vienna Gontocf RnddurL 

UHTBSTATB 

New Yoric P12) 7520890. 
Wee* Ceftto [415)3624039. 


UIINAMBUCA 


•fta 2129606 

mfteAlNa414031 

Pbpl.312) 

a y ^e R. 431 943/431 

■W417SS 

MW 64-4372 
e Aew: 23-1055 
ift ege - 6961 558 
ePaeie: 852 1893 



* PARIS 527 01 93 * 

YOUNG LADY T1UUNGUAL V1P-PA 


DAWAJI TRADE 

INTLDBJVBY 

We keep a large stock of 
mas mr brands 
Tel: 02/648 55 13 
Trim. 65658 
42 rue Lem. 

1050 Brunch. 


-911 CARRERA Coups *84, red/bladt 
turbo took, DM64 .OT0- 

- ROUS Rcra Shadow 1 74 DM65000 

- 280 TE ® DM21JOO 



SINGAPORE INTI GUIDES. Crib Sto- 
amare 734 96 28. 


TOKYO 645 .2741. Tourtog & shop. 
■ “ wterpretem, etc 


HONG KONG (K-3) 723 12 37 


BMPPUSEAST 

etoe 246303. 
he 25214, 
*5614481 
mk 34 00 44. 


■Oftft: 416531 
SneAAi*lft 
Jerid* 6(7-1 500. 
UAA: Dehai 22416). 

PA* EAST 

fcmftnlr 39MM7. 


POSmONS WANTED 


count AVAAAXLE, age 45. Hio- 
qoo6 driver, etperience work 
ei the haunt ft garden, V^b: chU 
an, cook ft S^tf dea li ng, fetor, 
era*. Write Mwaon Coda, via G* 
■a 557. 00189 Rome. Wy. 


Yjgggaaaa 

fapenenori. &arfait refcmnea. 
tee now. Collh, Eaton Bureoulcn- 

SW.u8.B^^ *"* =*-■ 


D-4330 Atoeheim AD JL W. Genaany 
let (0) 208-434099, ttc 8561188. 


HOW TO GET A BRA»D NEW 
GHMAN CM IN SHpRIE5t TIME. 
Contact our office m Munich: 
Peter Ltofaufcer Tax bee Cm 

The 5214751 Tri 89-8578021 

We sal new M BCS3E5, BMW, 
Pondie. Ferrari and other makes. 


TOKYO: 442 39 79 European young 


YOUNG LADY COMPANION. Lorv 
don/Heaihrew. Tet 244 7671 


HONO KONG 3-697006. Oaimg 


.RmKh 5420906. 
M^ftecil 7 07 49, 

■ feedfc 725 07 73. 

- ff m tie . 222^721 
t^efon: 752 44 25/9. 
Yehfw 504-T9SSL 

auwkaua 

'vbsxL 




bd^ampaion. 


747 59 58 TOURIST GOT*. Pent, 
arporls. 7 am/iwtieht totUmvei. 


HONGJttMG 3-671 2S7 young tody 


YOUNG OQEAMC LADY 01-245 
9002 London/ Akports/Tinmri 


RG TEAM 

Offers tux free can at tow prices. Al 
Sari, fat defe 
«y. PO fc* 2050, 4800 CB, BRH3A / 
Hafend. Tel R 76851550: fa 74282. 


Sbc Star escort & travel 
233667 


MUNICH - OSMAN UDY ewnporv 
ion end atmuide. Tot 311 11 06 


HBSSBS. YOUNG UDY VXP. 
Gomponton Tet 34735849 










































































































































El 


Al* 
A m 


B*f 

■nr 


Cm 

On 


Hi 

fin 

Fro 

On 

M«l 

nia 

un 

lill 

Lon 


mu 


NKi 

OIM 


Pro 

Rn 

Sir 

Mm 

5*re 

Vtn 

vwi 

Wsi 

Sjjt 


mi 


Ann 

Mil 

DCT 

Jen 

Tel 


oc 


Auc 

Sta 


wa 

PA* 

;;g 


Ctai 

ICC 

.At 


ACROSS 


ACROSS 


ACROSS 


lDonnybrook 
5 Wampum 
9 Top 

Damascene 
14 Kind of ofl or 
sand 


45 Penitent 

46 Georgia, e.g. 

49" what 

your country 


17 Masterpiece at 
St. Peter's 

18 Father of Ahab 
18 Kind of jacket 

20 Zeus’s 
unpleasant 
daughter 

21 Betty and 
Nancy-* — ► 

polite phrase 
23 Dance in 
Dundee**— *► 
street game 
25 Like the king of 
diamonds 


51 Ball or head 
leader 

52 Subcontinental 
lute 

53 Boff finish 

54 Steamed up 

58" be in 

’England...” 
58 Felony -*-*- 
champion 
60 Enlighten 
63 Propitiate 
66 Armbones 
r Sandy i 
theU.K. 


93 Paderewski, 
forone-*-»- 
guilding 
principle 
M By means of 
96 Rescue site in 
1976 

68 Strauss's 
Vienna 

99 Gilet or jerkin 

100 Bill Klem’s 
colleagues 

103 O'Neal of 

104 Le dernier 

105 Cash 
companion 


Playbacks bybektrqsenfeid 


PEANUTS 




106 Mahdi, e.g. 
ollisof the 


26 Not at all 
28 Small aperture 
28 "Where be 

your 

now?": 

Hamlet 

30 Yard of 

(pub glass) 

32 Settle down 

34 Wall Street 
word 

35 Stimulus 
30 Zola's 

de mlmo ndaint 
38 Serranoid 
market fish 

41 "Murder, 

Turkus- 

Feder book 

42 Furniture item 

* t» law 
student’s tome 


68 Parliament 

* » contortion 

71 Hawk 

72 Miller or Mae 

74 Combs' 
partners 

75 Piaddo at the 
Met 

77 Foot part 
-*-*»apparel 
part 

78 Former 
Congolese 
prime minister 

80 Mauritian 
has-beens 

81 Wine combiner 

82 Bouquet 

84Q-VHnk 

87 Ancient 

vestments 

91 Vistula feeder 

02 Guns 


109 Hi 

L.P.GA. 


112 He has a lotto 
offer 

114 Repast*— ► 
basketball 
maneuver 

116 Pam**- 
Nicklaus's 
caddie's 
burden 

118 Elected, in 
Epinal 

119 Banks or 
Kovacs 

120 Friend ina 
fracas 

121 "Hey, 

1954 song 

122 Glowing 

123 One-time 
nickel treats 

124 College in Ore. 

125 Spotted 


DOWN 


1 Hearth plate 
* » g o awry 

2 Make a new 
planting 

3 A.B.A. men 

4 Mythical beast 

5 Jet-engine 
compartment 

6 Honorific for a 
cardinal 

7 Martian: 
Prefix 

8 Early cinema 
name 

9 Soft 

(wrath 

averter) 

10 Sweeter than 
brut 


in 


DOWN 

11 Earp affair 
**»win& 
showdown 

12 Some are 
lively 

13 Gas 

14 Lari 
the Sierra 
Nevada 

15 Unit of Kiribati 

16 Spurn 

17 Shackles 

21 Apulian wool 
market city 

22 Major 
Joppolo'spost 

24 Critical 
comment, of a 
sort 


DOWN 


27 Ever 

31 Favorite Lily 
Pons role 
33 Grave, to 
Giordano 
37 Motorists' org. 
39 Laban’s elder 



(falthM 



DOWN 


46 Trial's 
companion 
42 Frigid Adriatic 

wind 


43 Basket-weav- 


44 Brake sharply 
*-«-Bowaor 
Yount 
46 Torpid 


47Inaskid 
48 Italian river of 
1944 strife 
50 Most precise 
52 Emulates 
Casca 
55 Shoe size 
57 Feeble chuckle 
59 Unstinted 
68 Swirls 

61 Durbin from 
Winnipeg 

62 Concord 

63 Thumbllke 
wing part 

64 Clayey 
building 
material 


65 Taro root 
68 Borough near 
the Humber 


70 Perform at 
Titff f jataw 

73 Have a 
hankering 

78 Repine 

78 Ready, in 
Rennes 

80 Miami pass- 
catcher 

83 Tennis stroke 
**»- transfer 

85 Fish or fly 

88 Tot’s vehicle 


I, in a way 

90 Bearers of 
thyrsi 

93 Mailed 

94 Dreamy 
combiner 

86 Tiros’s fellow 
tr a v e ler 

87 Tends the 
rotisserie 

89 Yaliewitha 


DOWN 

182 Fake combiner 
105 Teach’s reposi- 
tory 

107 Alibi and 
Ukelele 


M' 

H4« 


168 Coiffure 

style 

110 Not in 

bannany 


WEVEGOnO H^EASERIOUS 
I TALK, MATE/ MXJ GET 'TOUR J 

v pdckefacneyever/ - dn 

WBeB^BUTBV/WOrCtfy^U 
yOLfRE W3KE AGAJN AND^ 

SCB3UN3tN3 FCR MOREd 


100 A 


of earth 


101 Singer 
Haggard 


111 Race driver 
Yarborough 

113 Tritons 
115 Pueblo dweller 
117 His plots were 
borrowed by 
W.S. 


• SOV^tWNffSGOr TO 
BE DONEjHASNT 


THE TENTH MAN 

By Graham Greene. 157 pp. SI4.95. 
Simon & Schuster ; 

1230 A venue of the Americas. 

New York. N. Y. 10020. 


BOOKS 


Reviewed by 

Christopher Lehmann-Haupt 

T HE "dark cave" strikes amin. What Graham 
Greene several times has referred lo as "the dark 
cave of the unconscious" once again has played a 
trick that could only happen to Graham Greene. As 
be explains in the introduction to his 23d novel and 
45th published work, "In 1983 a stranger wrote to 
me from the United Slates telling me that a story of 
mine called ‘The Tenth Man' was being offered for 
sale by MGM to an American publisher. I didn't 
take the matter seriously. I thought that I remem- 
bered — incorrectly, as it proved — an outline 
which I had written toward the end of the war under 
a contract with my friend Ben Goetz, the represen- 
tative of MGM in London. Perhaps the outline had 
covered two pages of typescript — there seemed. 


therefore, no danger ofpublicanoa, especially as the 
story had never been fumed." 

But then, to his astonishment and disquietude. 

Than bought 


came the news that an En glish publisher 1 
the book. "He courteously sent me the typescriptlor 
any revision I might wish to make and it proved to 
be not two pages of outline but a complete short 
novel of about 30,000 words. What surprised and 
aggravated me most of all was that I found this 
forgotten story very readable — indeed I prefer it in 
many ways to ‘The Third Man,' so that I had no 
longer any personal excuse for opposing publication 
even if I had the legal power, which was highly 
doubtfuL" 

Thus, with a mixture of pride and helplessness — 
and accompanied by two film outlines that he did 
write at the time (as if to reassure us that the tricks 
his mind plays are at least fairly plausible ones) — 
Greene lifts the curtain from in front of the dark 
cave of his unconscious. 

And what has come forth? A very readable novd- 


DENNIS THE MENACE 


Solution to Last Week's Puzzle 



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□CJU □□□□□ □□□□□□BQCIHO 

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□□□□□□ aonpa uqljQbbu 
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□□□□ □□□ □□□□ uoaaau 


la indeed. Jean-Louis Chavel. a wealthy Parisian 
lawyer, is among 30 prisoners being held in a Gesta- 
po prison in occupied France. Their German cap- 
tors announce that three of them must be executed; 
it doesn’t matter who. The prisoners draw lots. 

Chavel is one of the losers. In a panic, he offers to 
give his fortune to anyone who will take his place. 

Another prisoner named Janvier Mangeot steps 
forward, ready to die for his family’s security. The 
trade is made. 

After the war, Chavel. conscience-stricken, poor 
and unable to find work, shows up at his family’s 
old provincial estate; now occupied by Janvier Man- 
geot’s mother and sister. Introducing himself as 
Jean-Louis Chariot, a prison-mate of Janvier and a REX MORGAN 
witness to the death-exchange, he is hired as a 
handyman with the special task of looking out for 
the hated Jean-Louis ChaveL Soon, Chariot has 
fallen in love with the sister. Then, one night, a man 
appears at the door announcing himself os Jean- 
Louis Chavel 

On its face. "The Tenth Man" is about the prob- 
lem of atoning for an act or instinctive cowardice, a. 
not unfamiliar theme in English literature, especial- 
ly given its prominence in Joseph Conrad’s “Lord 
Tun." Yet Greene does not really explore the prob- 
lem. There is no discussion of the meaning or cause 
of ChaveJ’s instinctive acL There are no characters 
who might act out subtle variations of Chavd’s 
behavior. His path to his ultimate destiny is an 
avenue without side streets or detours, along which 
he gallops like a beast with blinders on. 

Moreover, the surreal atmosphere of the prose, 
combined with its highly contrived plotting, serve 
to lend "The Tenth Man" a dreamlike quality. It i 



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GARFIELD 


as if the ending inspired the story rather than the 
other way around, as if the narrator had fantasized 
the action just so as to arrive at the self -annihilating 
conclusion. Once again, as so often happens with a 
Graham Greene story, it is not so much the narra- 
tive that arrests us as the nature of the emotions that 
inspired such a narrative. Given the guilt and self- 
loathing that seems to underlie the story, it’s no 
wonder the author left it buried in the dark cave of 
his unconscious. 


New 


Christopher Lehmann -Haupt is on the staff of The 
r* York Times. 


IN CASE VOO'RE THINKIN& ABOUT] 
ASKVtG ME OUZPOC, FORGET IT. 

I HAVE PLANS 



I'M SEEING THIS GIRL WHO IS 
REAL COTE ANP REAL CLEVER 
•\ANP WE LAUGH A LOT 


MV, MV, MVf PO I PET6CT A 
NOTE OF JEALOOSV IN VOOR — 
VOICE? 


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YOU'LL WAKE UP THE SITTER / 


WEATHER 


EUROPE 


Mfforve 

Anutonfam 

AmcRs 

Borartaao 

Mhndi 

Berlin 

Snmrit 

Bedwrest 


Coeentween 
Coito Dd Sol 
MM in 
Ellin burab 
Ronmce 

FiunKhirt 

Senna 

Hehlakl 

litanbai 

LaiPafaiai 

Usbon 


Madrid 

Moan 


MMldl 

Wen 

Olio 

PsrU 

preme 

Rnvfclavlk 

Rom* 

Stockholm 

Sll'UlI k iilhW 

ViMce 

V>nna 

Wttdnw 

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57 


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MIDDLE EAST 


Ankara 
Beirut 
Damaiein 
Jeracsleni 
Tel Aviv 


a 3« -i« 
17 W 6 
» M -S 

U 41 I 
23 73 4 


OCEANIA 


AKttond 

Sydney 


21 70 14 57 

a 72 IB 44 


ASIA 









C F 

C 

P 


Bangkok 

36 77 

33 

73 

d 

Befliae 

2 3* 

•4 

35 


Hone Kong 

23 73 

17 

63 


Manila 

39 84 

24 

75 

fr 

Maw DaMI 

29 84 

14 



Seaol 

7 45 

1 

34 

O 

Shanghai 

a 4* 

4 

39 

r 

Singapore 

29 84 

24 

75 

St 

Tatoel 

a 79 

1* 

*1 

d 

Tokyo 

AFRICA 

14 ST 

4 

43 

0 

Algiers 

10 50 

* 

43 

r 

Cairo 

20 *8 

ID 

SO 

fr 

Cane Town 

23 73 

15 

59 

fr 

CuoBkuea 

17 *3 

4 

43 


Harare 

27 81 

17 

*3 

tr 

LJM* 

31 M 

27 

81 

ef 

Nairobi 

25 77 

12 

54 


Taels 

15 59 

4 

43 

a 

LATIN AMERICA 



Buenos Aires 

U 79 

17 

S3 

d 

Lima 

— — 

— 

— 

no 

Mexico aty 

2* 79 

5 

41 

tr 

Rio tie Janeiro 

29 84 

20 

68 

d 

San Poeto 




no 

NORTH AMERICA 



Anchorage 

0 32 

. 1 

21 

sw 

Atlanta 

22 72 

« 

4* 


Boston 

8 4 * 

0 

32 

r 


TO SO 

1 

34 


Denver 

M 57 

-4 

25 

tr 

D* trait 

8 44 

1 

34 

r 

Honolulu 

2* 79 

20 

48 

r 

Has ston 

25 77 

17 

*3 

oc 

Los Angeles 

18 64 

7 

45 

PC 

Miami 

24 79 

21 

78 

d 

Minmegelt* 

4 43 


30 

d 

Montreal 

a 32 

-14 

7 

d 

Nassau 

2t 79 

20 

*8 

tr 

New York 

11 52 

2 

3* 

r 

5on Francisco 

15 59 

9 

48 

r 

Seattle 

11 52 

1 

34 

oc 

Taroaro 

2 3* 

-8 

18 

d 

WasMnetaa 

19 66 

7 

45 

d 


2SAT ,; dead r; /-ram; 


W!S!SlffaB^Lr. fmmkpurt: 


Fooov early, fair Inter. Tenw. S 2 144—78) 

SSK; jiSHS-WsFR. 



W>rld Stock Markets 


Via Agence France-Presse March 8 

dosing prices in local currencies unless otherwise indicated 


ABN 

ACF H« la fag 

Aevon 

AKZO 

Ainu 

AMEV 

A “Dom Rubber 
Am re Bonk 
BVG 

BuehrmonnT 

Cakmd mao 

EUovler-NOU 

Fekker 

6W U recode* 

Hefneken 

Hoonovera 

KLM 

Naarden 

Net Header 

Nedllgyjj 

Oovmigre 

PaWwed 

Philloi 

Rabeco 

Radamca 

Rallnca 

Karen fo 

Kovel Dutch 

Unilever 

von omme rati 

VMF Stork 

VNU 


3M 37150 
1V7 197 JO 
178J0 in JO 

111.10 11070 
Z24J0 225 JO 
214J0 213JD 

7JT3 7J0 
7430 74 

226 224 

90l50 9050 

3440 36 

114J0 114 

100 W 
186J0 1B6 

T5BJD UBJO 
61J0 61 JO 

S9JBS 60JS 
45J0 48 

272 Z73JD 
I75L7D 176J0 
31U0 318 

6470 6470 
6140 6180 
7490 7490 
139 JO 13933 

70.10 70 

44J0 4420 

20420 203 

M450 34400 

28 a 

143 142 

210 207 


ANP.cas General Index : JBtso 
Previous : 20U9 


Arbed 
Bekoerr 
Cock Will 
Codooa 
EBES 

GB-Inno-BM 

CBL 

Gevaert 

Hoboken 


Kredlettxmk 
Petra Un a 
Soc G eneral# 
Safina 
Sohroy 

Traction Elec 

UC8 

Uneru 

Vkrilte Mo n t uaw e 


iTso mo 

5760 5730 
2*2 271 

3573 2355 
3020 3020 
3300 3210 
2150 2175 
4120 4200 
MOO MED 
2260 2290 
8180 8140 
7100 7140 
2015 2030 
7910 7930 
Cm 4345 
4 t*K 4280 
53*0 53*0 
1705 1740 
6030 8100 


Current stack Index : 2,189X1 
Previous : %2BQA1 


J iVmihfati 


AEC-TetafyAken 
Aiiiaru Vers 
Bat 
Baver 

BaverJima 

Bayer.Ver^ank 

BMW 

Commerzbank 

COflNfUmmi 

□aloiler«enz 

Deauna 

Deutsche Subcode 


11211220 
1012 1013 
21230 21150 
226 221 JO 

317 311 JO 

323 327 JO 
388 38850 
I4U0 163JB 
13520 13480 
*91 (00 

355 35? 

169 169. 



f .,1-1 

rvT 


1 '1 






H t-' rt 1 


: . - , 1 , , 

W ' -:l 1 


■ • - - 1 - • 


■ ?S &L 












Clese Prev 

KarjtoOt za m 

KOuthof 213J0 21520 

KJoe<*nerH^> 263J0 266 

lOoecknerWerk* 79 7U0 

Krupa StatU 69 V 

Unde 418 422 

Lutttvmsa 197 JO 195J0 

MAN 76450 160 

Mannesman,! 15440 15640 

MetellaeseUsctKifl 2*450 24450 

Muencnjiueck 1190 1200 




Werfce 


Sdurtny 

Stamen* 


VWtB 

Veba 

vew 


265 260 

34450 33820 
152 152J0 
471 472J0 
551 549J0 
101 JO 101 JO 
1S2J0 183 

169 JO 169 JO 
722 77220 


Vadawoaenwerfe 1995030220 


Commerzbank Index : 1J83JB 
Pravleus : 1,19664 


1**0***"& 1 


Bk East Asia 
Cheung Kong 
CMna UoW 
Cra» Harbor 
Hong Sttu Bonk 
HK Electric 
HK Hotels 
HK Land 
HK Shanghai 
HK Telephone 
HK Wharf 
Hutm Whomooa 
Jardine Math 

Jardlne Sec 

New World 
Shaw Brothers 
SHK Props 
ShnaDortJy 
Stahls 

Swire Pacific A 
Wheel Mar 
Wheelock 
WJrtSOr 
World inn 


2250 35 

1170 1170 
1410 14 

10 10 
47 4*75 
7 JO 765 
32 32 

5.10 SMS 
RJO 

72 72 

555 155 
2DJ0 20JD 
9J0 960 

9.90 965 

SMS 5JS 
320 117S 
9X5 9 

665 665 

160 1J0 

22.10 Z150 
Susa. — 
720 Sum. 
4.15 4.15 
152 15$ 


Haw. «eeg Index : U9527 
Prev loo s : U89.14 


AECI 

Anglo Americon 
Anoto Am Gold 
Barlows 
Biwoer 
Butte 1 1 
Oe Beers 
Driefontaln 
E tones 
GFSA 
Harmony 
Hhnld Steel 
Khsot 
NedBank 
Pres Stem 
Rwstplat 
SA Brews 

stHeieno 

Sasal 

West Hewing 


*S9 455 

22*5 2275 


^ ,4 SS 


MOO 1600 
*875 6800 
9115 912 

4875 4825 
1330 1340 
2925 2950 

•Men -kct 

390 375 

7050 7050 
890 900 

4850 49M 
1535 1515 
599 595 

32M 3200 
587 90 

5600 5500 


Composite Sta<* Unfa* : M2J8 
Previous : 9UU0 


AA Carp 

AH[ - 
ilaAm 


SIT 

178 

*78*2 

14$ 


Burden 


Clove Prev 
584 


BA.T. 


BICC 
BL 
B hie Circle 
BQC Group 
Boot* 

Bwater Indus 

Bril Home St 
Brti Telecom 
Brit i 
BTR 

Burmati 
CatrteWli 
Cadbury S<*w 
Charter Cora 
Coots Porora 
Commerctal U 
Cans Cola 
Courtoulds 
Daloety 
Oe Beers* 

D 1st filers 

Driefontaln 

Rsons 

Free SIGed 

GEC 

GKN 

Glaxo ( 

Grand Met 

Gokmees 

GUS 

Hanson 

Hawker 

ICI 

turn 

Jaguar 
Liovds Bank 


514 

363 

36* 


51? 

365 

365 


42 

513 


1*8 


5*1 

242 

130Vi 

373 

659 


518 

165 

203 

1*4 

185 


158 

500 

442 


1*7 

203 

1 *« 

189 

489 

157 

501 


S2OT. 

295 

SJDV. 

198 

219 


239 

SZPta 

295 

OQVj 

198 

21 * 


11 29/3211 29/32 

2*6 % 


2*7 

714 

Z13 


843 

188 


Marks and Sp 
Midland Bank 
not west Bank 

P and O 
PlUdngtan 
Ptassav 
Rocal Elect 

Rond tan tain 

Rank 

ReedlnH 

Rwjlecs 


137 

349 

622 

360 

303 

IBS 

218 


7 

714 

210 

441 

8*0 

164 

357 

527 

141 

2*5 

138 

344 

*24 

3*5 

301 

178 

218 


«4ta S4K 
356 


SSB 

3*0 


Royal Dutch ( 4937/64 


RTZ 
Scotch) 

Salnsoury 
Shell 
STC 

Std Chartered 
Tale ad Lvle 
Tesra 
Them EMI 
T.1. group 
Trafalgar Hse 

Ultramar 
Unilever t 12 13/3213 79/64 
United Biscuits 201 200 

V takers 
w.Deeo 
W.Hdtamgs 
war Loan 3ta I 
dnxtlnarrn 


644 

095 

298 

771 

206 

477 

450 

227 
444 

228 
*59 
158 
2m 


558 

3S9 

49hh 

*42 

910 

29* 

783 

204 

477 

4*3 

228 

447 

230 

357 

159 

201 



Cto*c 

Prev. 

IFI 

7650 

7820 

Ikdcementi 

849*0 84998 

itotmomitari 




MorlMteon 



Olivetti 

*820 

6820 


2250 


RAS 


Rtaoscento 

*7950*7959 


2135 

2100 


2925 

2943 

Sfanda 



Star 

3S80 

2S72 

M/B Cerreaf fades ; IJT7 

| Previous mi 



11 11 

Airuquldo 


630 

Abthom All. 


264.10 


1100 

1095 

Bancal re 


580 

BIC 

5*1 

558 

Bouvnues 

*39 

*« 

B5N-GD 

2400 

239* 

Carrefour 

1955 

1938 

Club Med 

1220 

1207 

Csflmea 

2*540 

26SJ0 

Dumez 


405 

El+Aautfalne 

242 

241 

Europe 1 

Gan Emix 

983 

JSJ 

995 

5*1 

Hodtette 

1835 

1818 

Imatoi 


8920 

La tame Cop 

43940 

C$90 

Leg rend 

2135 

2073 

rored 

2400 

2387 

Matra 

1*50 

1*9* 

Mkhelln 


925 

AM* Pgwiar 

93 

87 

Moot Hermeanv 

1919 

2005 

Moulinex 

11150 

11170 



79 

Occidental 


76* 

Pernod Ric 

720 

720 

PetrateB itoel 

27&J0 

271 JO 

Peugeot 

279 

278 

Poclaln 

50 

5030 

Printomus 

204.90 

20358 

Radlatechn 

24920 

2*9 

RtOoute 

1280 

7273 



W5S 

Skb Roxsionol 

2900 

1»SD 

Sour .Perrier 

537 

537 


2400 

2400 


495 

49B 

Valeo 

mio 

TU O' 

Ageft Index : nut 


prevtoes : 202*1 



CAC Index: 20*31 


Prevtan : 285JS 





1 

1 ) 

_J 

Boustead 



Cold Storage 

273 

270 

DBS 

*25 

*20 

FroserNeore 

SA5 

S55 

Haw Par 

251 

252 


2*8 

US 

2*8 

1X3 

Mai Banking 

*20 

*35 

OCBC 



OUB 



Semb Shipyard 

12* 

135 

SI me Darby 

204 

204 

5 Steamship 

us 

U4 


252 

S39V> 

S27V, 

34A 

*03 


254 


S27VZ 

34ta 

598 


F.T.JO Index : 988.16 
Previnas : 98768 


MfllB 


Banco Ceram 
Centrata 
cigaheteis 
cred itoi 
Farm Italia 
Flat 
F Insider 
General) 


18500 18700 
run tw o 
7480 7900 

2199 2220 
12000 17150 

3£ ^ 

40850 40995 


st Trading 
UOB 


OUB Index : 43161 
Prevlees : 0163 


AGA 

388 

385 

Alla Laval 

185 

190 

Aseo 

340 

335 


3*0 

350 

Atlas Copes 

W5 

10* 

BoHckm 

195 

NA 

Electrolux 

317 

31* 

Ericsson 

272 

277 

Eesefte 

370 

385 


1*5 

1« 


213 

213 

tss5r ta 

as 

428 

409 

Sknraka 

9SJD 

9* 

SKF 

2D3 

201 

SwedlshMotch 

228 

228 

Volvo 

360 

360 


odex: 3ISJ8 

1 

1 



l 1 

ACI 

1*1 

193 

ANI 

252 

248 


ANZ 

8HP 

Banal 

Bougainville 

Brambles 

Cotas 

Comal co 

CRA 

CSR 

Dun-toe 

Elders hd 

Hcaher 

Maeedan 

MIM 

Myer 

Oakbrttlgt 


in 

>*a 

370 

2*0 

570 

275 

215 

315 


562 

330 


235 

260 

173 

73 


PMaMan 

RGC 

SdlllM 

Sfefah 

South I and 

Woadshta 

Wormaw 


29D 

415 

528 

173 

25 

77 

31S 


M 

415 


177 

» 

77 

98 


All Ordkwrtes fadex JM.H 
Prevlea* =79766 

Source: neuters. 


Ttfcy 


Akal 

AsehlChem 
Asahi Gfdi 
Bartcot Tekye 
Bridgestone 
Canon 
Cltoh 

Dal Nlppeo Print 
OoIwb House 
Full Bonk 
Fu I Photo 
Fulllsu 
Hltoriil 
Hando 


538 

811 

$78 

779 

520 


UM 1478 
330 336 

1040 1050 
SS0 545 
1*30 1620 
1880 WTO 
1338 USD 
8S5 .8*6 
1420 1440 


Japan Air Lines 
Kolhna 
Konsal Power 
Kawasaki Steel 
Kirin Brewery 
Komatsu ltd 

Kubota 

Matsu Elec inds 
Matau Elec Works 
Mitsubishi Bank 
Mitsubishi Chem 
MHsubtsW Elec 
Mitsubishi Heavy 
Mitsubishi Cora 
Mftau/ondeo 
Mitsukosw 
Mitsumi 
NEC 

NGK insulators 
Nlkko Sec 
Nfapan Steel 

Nippon Yusen 

Nissan 

Nom w aSec 

Olympus 


1340 1370 
14* 149 
5*9 57* 


32 D 320 

1630 1640 
734 740 

T5B0 lL 
457 441 


520 520 

337 345 

440 440 

1170 1170 
11*8 1170 
1010 998 

710 730 

151 IS 
240 245 

*15 *11 

1170 1110 
1290 1320 
2950 2940 
900 912 

1050 1070 


1790 1800 


Ricoh 
Sharp 
Sony 

Sumitomo Bank 
Sumitomo Cham 
Surnftana Metal 
ToiselCerp 
raw» Marine 
TaksdoChem 
Tdk 

Team _ 

Tokyo Elec. Power 15*0 ISO 

Tokyo Morine 814 820 

Toravlnd 4*6 *50 

Toshiba 415 41* 

Tovotn 1370 13*0 

Yamotahi sec 690 710 


148 150 

295 203 

400 4D7 

8*2 
4180 *340 
435 439 


Mkfcet/nj. index 1 1X347 J3 
Pretrtraa : iuiue 
Bew index : 98191 


Ad la 
Bank Leu 
Brawn Baveri 
CIba Gefav 

Creairsutiae 

EHhJiuwuII 


Georg Fischer 
Intanflecount 


Landis Gyr 
Nestle 
Oerflkorv-8 
Roche Baby 
imdoz 
SdUnffler 
Sutzer 
SBC 
Swtaaab- 


2705 mo 
3715 3715 
1740 7735 
3065 3040 
3420 2420 
2713 2710 
7*8 7AS 
1070 1840 
*27$ 4250 
1930 1975 
1705 1710 
6580 *400 
1*70 14J0 
8925 8875 
8100 8050 
3925 3975 
359 358 

3*7 3*8 

11*0 1175 


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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, SATURDAY-SUNDAY, MARCH 9-10, 1985 

SPORTS 


Page 23 



I 


picky Bell — Death in the Style of Lou Gehrig 



band s bean would not hold up for more than 
six months. 


and talked of getting into the pest-con tro! 
business. 

Ricky would never allow Natalia to talk 
about death. 

The disease that Bell had, cardiomyopathy. 


By Chris Dufecsnc 

' . La Angeles 7 ones Service 

'"“'v/bS ANGELES — Loo Gehrig would But Ricky never knew. He wasn’t sitting 
>t Bked Ricky BdL He would have ad- around waning to (fie. The night before he 
- * r^d his style. He would have appreciated died, he was planning not dwelling on the 
-•-"‘'.•are gifts of grace and strength and dura- past He had obtained his real-estate license 
Y He woold have respected his humility 
‘ ‘ ictory and defeat 

aey were iron men c£ different genera- 
5 , Gehrig and Bdl yet they seemed 
id by a coannoa thread. Gehrig, the 
kee first baseman, played 2,130 consecu- 
. games. Bdl the tireless USC tailback, 

•carried the ball 51 times in a angle game 
.’■“■‘in another game la gained 347 yards. Bdl 
bed second to Tony Doreen in the 1976 
'■ - anas Trophy balloting send was the first 
ice in the 1977 NFL draft. 

, oth Gehrig and Bdl were strode down in 
X prime, victims of rare mnsde diseases 

could barely pronounce, let alone undcr- 
vd. Both lived their final days robbed of 
.strength and stamina that was the very 
-’see of their legends. 

’acky BeO, like Gehrig, sever sought the 
pathy erf others. 

N*dl died Nov. 28, 1984, at Damd Freeman 
(pital in Inglewood, Calif. He was 29. He 
of a heart attack triggered by an uncom- 
nrnscalar disease of the heart flM 
1 liomyopathy. It’s a form of dermatoamyo- 
.1 an inflammation of the skin andnms- 
Z Fewer than S percent of people with 
natomyositis ever contract the farm <rf 
'.disease as serioos as cardiomyopathy, 
ky Bdl got a bad break. 



. • 



jod Martin of the Los Angeles Raidas, 
*s teammate at USC, said after the fnneral 
"v he and his friends never realized Ricky 


Ricky Befl holds 


his new Tampa 
made number 
NFL draft 


m* >0irdsj 

FijSiM 



People would call the house and ask how 
TYfky was doing and he'd say Tm great Just 
‘iHV ’’ said his wife, Natalia. “It made me so 
i Td say, *Why are you saying that?" And 
T don’t want anybody reding sorry 
ITn going to get better.’ " 

* TV dl lived as hejriayed. He was tough and 
'Ipibom, never an inch. To the 

jgg j end, he swore that hie would beat this 

'iase. To admi t to anything dse was tm- 

'ikaWe. He suffered immensely, but it was 
tike him to bare his emotions. 

0 no one read of the nights he wonkl wake 

i 'w wwi M t ig wi pm Wn IW knew that near 

.okI he couldn’t even hdp bis wife carry in 

groceries or get a glass of water by bim- 
. No one knew about Ate oxygen machine 

1 tiMiw lw« bfdsidf-cnmpftmnn nr ahntrt 

pain idiom he never took. No one knew 
he pain he suffered when be tried to reach 
to bis 4-year-old daughter, NoeUe, know- 
full well he couldn’t lift ha. 

Vo weeks before Befl died, Natalia had a 

rate meeting with Ricky’s physician. Dr. 

an Metzger, and was told tint ha hns- 


affects about five in every million people. 
Doctors do not know die cause of dennalo- 
myositis. 

“It’s a disease where the mnsdes and arter- 
ies are attacked and may be started or trig- 
gered by a virus,” said Metzger, who treated 
Ben during the last year of Ins fife. “The 
muscles get inflamed, ranging profound 
weakness. The blood vessels within the skin 
become severely inflamed to the point where 
you’re unable to use your muscles. The 
weight toss comes from the body trying to 
fight off the disease.” 

In most cases, Metzga said, the disease can 
be controlled with cortisone and immuno- 
suppressives, drugs that reduce in- 

flammation. But in extreme cases, such as 
Bdl’s; the disease spreads to the lungs and 
heart, forming the wors t VmH of dennato- 
myoatis. 

"It's ironic that someone with such a big 
heart would succumb to something associat- 
ed with the heart,” said Melvin Jackson, a 
forma USC lineman who was Bell’s best 
friend. 1 thought he was rare, and Fm not 


just saying that because he was my friend or 
because he died. What 1 loved about him was 

that be was sincere. 

“I spent five years in die NFL and saw a lot 
of athletes get a lot of press for doing co mmu- 

nity things that woe really staged. He didn’t 
do that. A lot of things he did woe neva 
pu bli ci z e d . He spent a lot of time with kids in 
South Los Angeles. And he did it for free.” 

Bell had his biggest season in 1979, when 
he gained 1,262 yards in leading Tampa Bay 
to the NFC Central Diviaon title. But the 
following years were marred by injury. Bdl 
didn’t recover from injuries as quickly as 
other running ha dry Then he thought, 

other backs didn’t have to run behind Tampa 
Bay’s weak offensive tine. Maybe be was just 
getting old. 

Bell was traded to the San Diego Chargers 
in March of 1982. He dreamed of a new 
bcginnmgi but the dull ache m his legs woul d 
not subside. 

Natalia remembos him coming home from 
workouts and collapsing on the couch, where 
he would sleep the night away. He developed 
lesions on Ins hands 

Orcrga physician, Dr. Lee Rice, referred 
Bdl to arthritis-specialist Dr. Michael Wds- 
man at the University of San Diego. 

"‘Right off the bat 1 knew there was a 
serious problem,” Weisman arid- “He had 
swollen nandg arid feet, and open sores on his 
fingers and toes.” 

When the disease was first diagnosed in 
January of 1983, Bdl refused to accept it 
He was constantly testing his endurance. 
In early 1983, he drove by hnnsdf across the 
country. He stopped in various cities along 
the way topbone progress reports to his wife 
and fir. weisman. 

Befl made it to Tampa but was so exhaust- 
ed that he needed a friend to drive him back. 

. “The lowest point I rememba, is when he 
came into my office one day,” Weisman said. 
“He said how ranch he loved his dangbta but 
that he couldn’t even pick ha 19 and swing 
her overhis bead. He said he’d try to chase his 
daughter around the house but couldn’t do it 
When he told me that, I almost cried.” 

Befl coaldn’t sleep the night before he died, 
but that wasn’t ntmsnah Becanse of the pan 
and his difficulty in breathing Bdl often h«*i 
to sleep sitting in a chair. 

Natalia was typing a term papa the night 
before Rkky died. He stayed up with ha. 

Natalia awoke at 6 JO am. to get NoeUe 
off to school and then was off to school 
bexsdf. 

Natalia was in ha second when a 
security guard altered the class . 

“I knew he was far me,” she said. 

Ricky had been taken to the hospital 
They didn’t tell me he had a heart attack, 
but I knew.” 

Ricky Bell had died at 11:06. 



Soviet Ice Skaters Take 
Top Places in Dancing 


Natalia Besetmianova and Andrei B utin of die Soviet 
Union dance to victory in the world skating championships. 


Compiled ty Our Staff From Dispatches 

TOKYO — The Soviet Union 
swept the top two spots in ice danc- 
ing Friday at the 1 985 world figure 
skating championships with the 
team of Natalia Besetmianova and 
Andrei Bukin winning the gold 
medal 

Marina Klimova and Seigd Pon- 
omarenko lode the silver while 
Americans Judy Blumberg and Mi- 
chad Seibert were third. 

Soviet skaters have already won 
the men’s and the pairs titles and a 
Soviet woman, Kira Ivanova, leads 
in the last event, the women’s figure 
skating to be decided Saturday. 

Besetmianova and B ukin, who 
came in second in the 1984 Winter 
Olympic Games in Sarajevo, pa- 
formed a breathtaking rendition of 
the ballet, “Carmen Suite.” Beset- 
mianova even looks like fiery Bol- 
shoi ballet star Maya Plisetskaya, 
the originator of the role. 

“AD our lives and training were 
devoted to coming in first “ Beset- 
mianova said through an interpret- 
er. She then added m English, “We 
are very happy now.” 

Their compatriots, Klimova and 
Ponomarenko, who are husband 
and wife, did a shumba and cha- 
cha in impeccable form. They came 
in third in Sarajevo. 

Blumberg. 28, of Taizana, Cali- 


In the NBA , They Keep Getting Bigger 


fomia. and 25-ycar-dd Seibert of 
Washington, Pennsylvania, came 
to the competition with a catchy 
original score and years of experi- 
ence. The team came in seventh at 
the 1980 Olympics in Lake Placid, 
fourth in Sarajevo. They also fin- 
ished third in the 1984 uxnid figure 
skating championships. 

Tbe standings as the last pair of 
finalists left the ioe were LO for 
Bestendanova and B ulan, who are 
also this year's European champi- 
ons, and 4.0 for Klimova, and Pono- 
marenko. Blumberg and Seibert 
got 6 . 0 . 

In skating, the pair or individual 
skaters with the lowest score is the 
leader. 

Ivanova holds a narrow lead ova 
Tiffany Q»n of the United States 
and Katarina Witt of East Germa- 
ry in the women's figure skating. 

The three women are so tightly 
bunched in scoring after complet- 
ing the short program and compul- 
sory figures segments that the over- 
all winner is likely to be the one 
who captures the free skating — an 
event regarded as the American’s 
strong suit. 

“It could go any way,” said Chm, 
a 17-year-old Californian who won 
the American title two months ago. 
Another strong performer here, al- 
though an improbable medal win- 
ner, was 1 7-y ear-old Debi Thomas 
of California, who finished second 
to Clhio in the United States cham- 
pionships in January and is fifth 
here so far. 


net*, 

new fc Jr 
if «*«>• : 
* ** 



racles End Flutie Far Ahead of49ers > Montana, in Pay 
r Nuggets 


By William R. Barnard 

The Associated Press 

NEW YORK — Picture a Na- 
tional Basketball Association line- 
19 in the year 2000. Centers 7-foot- 
6 (2.29 meters) or taller are 
commonplace; some guards are 7- 
0. It may not be as far-fetched as it 
seems. 

Already, 6-9 guards and 7-4 for- 
wards roam the NBA courts. At the 
All-Star Game last mouth. Western 
Conference Coach Pat Riley toyed 
with the idea of playing a lineup 
with three 7-footers and do one 
sm&Ila than 6-9. 

With the anqg cacc of young 
towers such as Ralph Sampson and 
Akeem OUguwon, and die long- 
awaited pro debut next season of 
college star Patrick Ewing, the 
trend toward big men who can run 
and pass as well as shoot, rebound 
and block shots is expected to con- 
tinue. 

“There are just much better ath- 
letes now than we used to have,” 
New Jersey Nets Coach Stan Al- 


“I really would like to play some 
at guard,” Sampson says, “I want 
no boundaries or restrictions on 
what I can or can’t da I want to be 
a versatile, all-around player.” 

“Some day FA let him play 
guard, but first PH make him run a 
killer guard drill and see if he still 


Perhaps inevitably, she attracted 
as much attention for the fact that 
she is the first black woman to 
reach this level of competition as 
for ha performance: 

“I think Tm probably more of a 
standout here than even at home,’’ 
she said. U I don’t know. I don’t 


of the three-second lane from six 
feet to 12 , then 16 feet. 

“In the George Mflran days, 
there was no way he could be 
moved away from the basket,” Al- 
beck says of the six-foot lane in use 
when the 6-10 Milnm became the 

a first of the “big men” with Minne- A . . . . . . _ , 

wants to "Rich says. “But people apolis in the late 1940s. “Now, big about it that much. Jm just a 
laugh and joke about a 7-footer guys can’t do that. It has had an s ^ ate r ' ***“ dse. 

even bigger effect defensively be- 
cause the big men have more area 
to cover.” 

, _ “Changing the lane helped ray . 

playing guard, and look at Maj^c career because I could play defense Chin. *Tm not expected to do any- 
Johnson.” _ . against the Kareems and the other thing,” she said “Fm the second- 

Johnson would have beat die 7-footers,” Reed says, 
point guard on Riley’s iflrtafl team, 
had he decided to use iL Tbe other 
members would have been Samp- 
son and Olajuwoo 
Kareem AbduKFabbar (7-4) 
ter and Lany Nance (6-10) at the 
other gnard. 


playing guard. Ten years ago, you 
would laugh at tbe idea of a 7-4 
man playing forward, and Ralph is 
doing it, or laugh at a 6-9 guy 


Thomas, too, said she was 
pleased with ha performance, and 
noted wryly that there was far less 
pressure on her than there was on 


place girl’ 


(AP,NYT) 


S3 Japanese Pitcher Seeking 
To Make Milwaukee Team 


i 


r t* 
X' 


* 


’ -Jailed Press International. - . 

_ISAS CITY, Missouri — 
racks finally ran out for the 
1 Nuggets. 

t^Jng by 22 points with 12 
- left Thursday night, the 
jffs fought back only to drop a 
" ' "r-C-140' thriller to the Kansas 

NBA FOCUS 

: ■ • ngs that snapped Denver’s 
:* 'tumping six-game winning 

■ >g their streak, the Nuggets 
V. anywhere from 9 to 23 
two 19-point defi- 
two 14-point spans. 
ret just missed winning its 
.'1 straight when Mike Evans’ 
,-shot from 3-point range 
the basket at the buzzer. 
~J 3 s, the hero of several last- 
victories, also failed in a 
to tie the scare, missing the 
— ' of two free throws with II 
— <is left before Joe 
"alba hit l-of -2 foul shots 
ven seconds to go. 
s was just a carbon copy of 
t six games,” said Denver 
Doug Moe. ’This has been 
: the most amazing stretches 
s’ been associated with. Fve 
seen anything tike it" 

y Drew finished with 30 
to lead the King while Cal- 
■ tt paced Denver with 36. 
where in the NBA R was 
x 119, San Antonio 117, and 
22, Detroit 114 


The elder Kosar said the policy is beck says, 
effective through July 1986, when The average height of an NBA 
his son’s class is due to graduate, playa this season is 6-7%. and as of 


- By Gerald Bslretwri that league’s top salary of $900,000 
Ne»7eric Tima Service this year. 

. NEW YORK — - New infonna- According to die sauces. Flu- 

tian about Doug ■Rritie's contract salary wfll increase in-550.000 . He added the insurance company Jan. L- 23 players — almost 10 
reveals that the rookie quarterback increments, giving him an average involved only insures “exceptional percent of the league’s rosters — 
is t h e high e st salaried player in pro- ova the six years of almost $1.4 a thl e te s." measured 7 foot or better, 

fessianal football He will earn nrilfian a season. All erf it is payable 
$1250,000 this season— $350,000 in the year of the contract, with 
more than Joe Montana will earn nothing deferred. Flutie is also the 


John Burgess 

Washington Past Service 

TOKYO — It is strange food 
and the English languag e, says Yu- 
taka Enatsu. that will most threat- 
en the goal he has set for himself — 
topi 


more than Joe Montana will earn nothing deferred. Flutters also the TT C T-J,’ lf A „. 
next season afta having led the San highest-salaried rodrie in dielnsto- HW I Ifl^ lVUred 

Francisco 49ers to victory in the *y of sports. T j n • ^ 

~ ~ * The contract is unusual in that JLJcEVIS LUD 

unit half is guaranteed if the * 


Super BowL 

In addition, the length of Fhr tie’s 
contract is six years — not five, as 
previously reported — and has a 
total value in salary of almost $83 
million, according to several 
sources who have examined his 
contract with the New Jersey Gen- 
erals. It had been previously repor- 
ted that Flutie would earn from $5 
million to S7 milli on over five 
years. 

Donald Trump, the Generals’ 
owner, confirmed on Thursday the 
length of the contract for the Bos- 
nian Trophy winner and potential 
savior erf the strumming league in 
the eyesof many USFl executives. 

Trump would not comment on 
other terms in the contract Fhrtie’s 
attorney. Bob Woolf of Boston, re- 
fused to discuss the terms of the 
pact. 

Even before he threw a pass in 
the U5. Football League, Flutie 
was guaranteed to earn more mon- 
ey than his teammate Herschel 
Walker, whose Sl.l million a year 
is believed to make him the second- 
highest salaried playa in footbafl. 

Tbe two are paid more than any 
player in the National Footbafl 
f-ea gy ifl, where Montana will earn 


about half is guaranteed if the 
league folds. And if the Generals 
fold bat the USFL continues to 
operate, Flutie will earn his entire 
salary every year for the length of 
the contract. 

Although Trump would not 
comment on the precise amount of 
FIntie’s contract, he said that if the 
Generals sold 9,000 additional 
tickets per home game because of 
Flutie, “you’re talking about tbe 
contract." 

The Generals charge $ 1 1 and $14 
for. tickets. Thus, at an average tick- 
et priite of $ 12 , that would be more 
than $ 100,000 a game, or about $1 
minion for the rune home games. 

a And Ffa^e’s Successor? 

University of Miami quarter- 
back Benue Kosar has taken out a 
$2 nriUkui insurance policy to pro- 
tect his potential future eannngs, 
his father said Thursday, United 
Ress International reported from 
Youngstown, Ohio. 

Bernie Kosar Sr. told the 
Youngstown Vindicator Us son 
took out the poficy with American 
Sports Underwriters, Inc, adding 
the younger Kotar obtained a hmlr 
loan to pay the premium. 


The Associated Press 

KYOTO, Japan — The United 
States Davis Cup tennis team, play- 
ing without top stars John McEn- 
roe and Jimmy Connors, easily 
won the first two singles matches 
against Japan to take a decisive. 
Lead Friday in Davis Cup tennis 
ctimmatioas. 

Eliot Tdtscha demolished his 
Japan ese opponent Kaoro Mar- 
uyama 6-1 6-1, 6-1 and Aaron 
Kridcstan defeated Japan’s veter- 
an Sfauzo ShmrisM 64, 6-1, 3-6, 6- 


And not only have the sizes 
c han ge d . In the 1950s and ’60s, 
centers rarely ventured away from 
the basket, or “paint,” as die foul 
lane is called. Today, they negt 
can be found doing things 
guards would try less than a 1 ' 

“Big men today are prettier” 
Houston Coach Bin Fitch says. “By 
that I mean, in the old days, they 
didn’t do pretty things. Some rays, 
like Dave Cowens and Willis Reed, 
would step outside and shoot. But 
most of than wouldn't. Now you 
have 7-footas doing that” 

One 7-footer, 7-4 to be exact is 
Fitch’s own Sampson, who moved 
to forward this season when the 
Rodents drafted the 7-0 Olajuwan. 
Sampson shoots from outside and 
fills a wing on the fast break more 


Wfll Chamberlain, one erf foe 
NBA’s first 7'footen who often 
dominated games in the 1960s, 
speaks with sane disdain of to- 
day’s breed of big men, saying the 
centers of Ms day would never al- 
low all tbe fancy moves and dunk- 
ing that fans see now. 

Nate Thurmond. WflUs Reed - can handle the 

th^r were centers. They were American game’s different rales, 
.:y, - t , Add size and playing style. “As 
long as the problem involves base- 
with Omnia-- tall," said fiatsu, 36, a ltft-taid- 

^.hink^ war betted*. ^P-tcber.-Iamrerdy tochaHmgr 
fensivdy in my era; we had the 

attitude that foe paint was our Those wads might come Iran 
area,” says Reed, a 6-10 star for the any pro in Japan, where fans expect 
New Yosk Knicks a decade ago. almost mystical devotion to the 
“Players are getting bigger and game: But Ena tsu. who now is be- 
stronga at every positron. The “8 evaluated at foe Milwaukee 
«n«n centos now are 6-11. The Brewers’ spring Training camp in 
game has changed. So many teams Fhooux, is anything but a typical 
are running foe transition game.” T * tv " v *°‘ r,,QWr 
But, Reed adds, “I think foe 


Japanese playa. 

Since entering foe game 18 years 
he has made strong words, 
_its with managers and steamy 
romances a trademark. Many peo- 


4 In Calcutta, India, Ramesh to a ^ 

Krishnan won a marathon 3tt-hocr gamemsiae - 


game is still the same in that if you 
are starting a team from scratch, 
you still want the biggest, most 
physical playa you can find.” 

Albeck says a development that 

led to the dunging rote of the big from playing again in Japan, 
man in the NBA was the widening If he succeeds with the Brewers, 


he will be foe first Japanese on a 
U.S. major-league team since 
pitcher Masanori Murakami spent 
the 1964-65 seasons with foe San 
Francisco Giants, mostly unused in 
the bullpen. Two other Japanese 
since have tried but reached only 
the minor leagues. 

“The purpose of my life is strike- 
outs,” Enat s u once tdd a Japanese 
interviewer. He holds foe profes- 
sional record for strikeouts in a 
season, 401 in 1968. 

Managers put up with him be- 
cause he could pitch like no one 
dse. In a game in 1968, he equated 
Japan’s single-season strikeout re- 
cad of 353 by turning bade ho me 
ran legend Sadaharo Oh. Then, 
with a flair fa drama, he waited 
until Oh was up again before re- 
cording No. 354. 

In an interview in Tokyo before 
his departure for Phoenix, Enatsu 
said he has no desire to play in 
Japan a g ain . Making the Major 
I /’a gu es now is his rfiaiiwig* be 
said, and it wiD be tough. *7 r ealize 
from foe bottom of my heart that 
the world is not such an easy place 
that I can play right away in the 
U.S. majors.” 


Hockey 


dud with Francesco Cancdkmi 6 - 
3, 11-9, 4-6, 3-6, 64 to give India a 
1-0 lead ova Italy. In the second 
singles, play was halted with In- 
dia’s Vxjay Amritraj and Claudio 
Panaxta of Italy tied at two sets 

ap foRawaJpindl Pakistan, South NHL Standings 

Korea won both singles matrh« 
against Pakistan. Korea’s Young 
De Jam easily defeated Hameedu 
Haq 6-2, 6-2, 64, wink Kim Bong 
So beat Pakistan’s Ishmml Haq 64, 

6-2, 6-3. 


SCOREBOARD 


Basketball 


WALES CONFERENCE 


x-PMlocMpNa 
N.Y. I 
N.Y. 

PtttsburaH 


€ 

2 . 

5£ 

• * 

£ 


rers Edge Caps, Close Gap 


h * 


■ ltd by Our Sutf From Dispatches 

-LADELPHIA — Flyers 
Mflre Keenan viewed his 

■ wad9-6winoveribe 1 Wash- 
. Capitate as a good rehearsal 

: playoffs, bat some of the 
ttm’t think foe reviews will be 
-o favorable when the Flyers 
>tir act <m the road, 
victory Thursday night 

; ~NHL FOCUS 

•d Philadelphia to within two 
of first-place Washington in 
hide Division. 

e Poulin and Tim Kerr each 
three gpds fa the Flyers, 
after trailing 4-2 midway 
/- 'Juhe second period, scored 
•answered goals to take con- 
roulm, foe Flyer ca ptain, 
foe tying and go-ahead goals 
onds apart to pot Philadd- 

m 

t tempo and momentum of 
me changed so many times,” 
“You have to look for 
/ *fco will change it back fa 
fcff bates, ana Poutin and 
,tfid that tonight. They did 
^ expat them to da 
is had afl-foe makings- of a 
f series," Keenan sa«l“!t's 

* * rehearsal of what we can 
and it’s good to have a game 

‘is. 

trying to win first place 
- - iheyre trying to win first 


place," said Kerr. “There’s been so 
much media hype about this series, 
but we still have 15 a 16 games left 
so you don’t know whafs going to 

happen. ” 

The difference between finishing 
first and second is foe difference in 
opening-round playoff opponents. 
Ine winner draws the survivor of 
foe battle between Pittsburgh, the 
Rangers and New Jersey for fourth 
No. 2 wfll play last year's 
Cap finalists, the New 
York Islander 

The two teams meet again Fri- 
day night in Landover, Maryland, 
anti Podia feds Thursday’s game 
held no special agnificancc. *T 
don’t thrnl: there wfll be any carry- 
over from the season into the play- 
offs at all” Poulin said. 

Down tbe hall from the Flyers 
locker roan, Washington’s Scott 
Stevens, who scored two power- 
play goals, was looking forward to 
the rematch. 

“Tomorrow we have foe home 
ioe and we’ll see how toy do,” said 

Stevens. “We did wefl. hit hard, but 
we made too many mistakes.” 

“It’s only one of 80 and they’re 
still chasing,” said Washington’s 
all-star defenseman Ron Langway- 

Ebe whoc in the NHL, it was 
Boston 4. Hanford 0: New Josey 
4, tbe New York Islanders 4; St. 
Louis 5. Pittsburgh 1, and Calgary 
U, the New Yak Rangers 5. 

(AP, UP1) 



Buffalo 

Quebec 


W L T Pts SF SA 
39 IB 9 K7 273 201 

39 IV 7 M 274 208 

33 28 5 71 2M 2S8 

22 34 9 S3 249 383 

21 38 5 47 222 304 

If 37 f 47 217 268 

Adam DlMdon 

32 23 10 76 253 219 

31 21 12 74 233 185 

33 24 8 74 27D 234 

29 27 8 66 237 221 

21 37 7 49 220 281 

CAMPBELL CONFERENCE 


Selected College Results 

MIDWEST 

Baaltsf BIWa. Pa 7X Baptist Bible, Ms. 58 

Central Bible, Ma 74, Johnson Blbta.Teun.68 

andnnoil Bible 9i Multnomah Bible. Ore. 67 

Drury 59. Rockhurst 57 

Golf Coast Bible 71. NW Bible 81 

Illinois 59. Iowa 5X OT 

Marian, ind. 81, Grace 72 

MkMoon SL 68. Indiana 58 

Purdue 79, Minnesota 67 

NBA Standings 


■ASTERN CONFERENCE 
AHoitfc DMsioo 

W L Pd. 


GB 



Merits DMiiM 




x-Bastan 

49 14 

J78 


«'5L Loots 

32 22 11 

75 

251 

232 

x-PhUodriPhlo 

47 15 

J58 

lib 

CMcom 

32 2b S 

69 

262 

354 

New Jersey 

32 30 

.516 

life 

Detroit 

21 34 11 

53 

250 

292 

Wadihwrton 

32 31 

SB 8 

17 

Minnesota 

20 36 11 

51 

227 

270 

New York 

20 43 

-317 

29 

Toronto 

17 42 7 

41 

209 

286 

Central DMskn 




Smylhe Divided 




Milwaukee 

42 19 

jaa 

— 

vEdmenton 

44 15 7 

9$ 

330 

229 

Detroit 

34 28 

548 

5VS 

x-Cotoary 

34 26 7 

75 

310 

262 

Chicago 

29 33 

.475 

13 

Winn tone 

33 27 7 

73 

292 

292 

Atlanta 

25 37 

A03 

171b 

los Angela 

30 25 11 

71 

388 

271 

awetand 

25 37 

503 

17Y1 

Vancouver 

19 39 8 

46 

2! 

342 

Indiana 

19 42 

511 

23 

Ix-dlnched okiyett berth) 




WESTERN CONFERENCE 



THURSDAY'S RESULTS 


The stick of Washington's Scott Stevens bits Flyers’ goalie 
Bob Froese on the.. dun (taring. PhHaddphia's victory. 


8 8 0-8 
2 2 0-4 

S*nvn*f ran. Goring Oil, Croutior Ql). 

Middleton (22). Shots oo oool: Hartford (on 
KoontJ 6>1(K5— 71 ; Boston (an WMfcs) TM-S- 
23. 

Pittsburgh A I m 

SLLMrts 2 2 I-* 

HWtoV (I), Andorian (7). Mullen (32). Fe- 

derieo OSI.Suttor OS)j Babven (MJ.Shotson 
•oof: Pttteurah (an WaratevI 7 -W— st. 
Loub (on Herron) *174-34. 

N.Y. Wanders M I M 

N*» terser M 1 M 

Bossv (52), Konw (U, Jonsaon (13). Tonsil! 
t*J; Cogne (30). Vertwofc 2 (12). Pichatfo 
CM). State oo goat: U.Y. I Danders (on RoscN 
P-9-7-1 — Hi New Jersey (on Smim) 14-10-14- 
1 — 39, 

9LY. Rangers 4 1 

enteonr 3 S 3-11 

Lnob 2 (29], QuUm 2 (17), Beers 3 04), ono 
(ZLRMraiflb DLEkranhi (2),Baz»k (K»; 

(9)^unditruin (17), Ruoaolalnon (24) 
iN®era (is), FoKo (4). stats oo goal: N.V. 
Rongn (on g dem te . Lamofla) 12-94—29; 
Cohort (on VMSotbrouEfc) IHM-Jt. 
****** • 2 2 3—6 

PUtadttoua 2 1 4—9 

Korr 3 (51). Poulin 3 (2j), gnhoto 2 (27). 
smim (14); Slews 2 OBJ, OlrtsHan (26). 
Canmder (46). HoMelh (l*). Ewsb £37- 
3“8d*ttoMs Washington (on Froese) 1M- 
7-«j PMiodelpMo (on RMn. J msbo) W-\> 


Denver 

Houston 

□alias 
San Anfonlo 
Utah 

Kansas aiY 


MMwttt Division 
41 22 
36 26 
34 28 
32 32 
30 33 
22 40 
POCHIC DhrtHon 
44 18 
30 33 
29 34 
26 36 
22 40 
16 46 


A51 — 
381 416 

348 4W 
JO 0 9*4 
374 11 
JS 18)2 


.710.— 
376 Ws 
M0 lSKi 
319 18 
JSS 22 
.258 28 


LA Lakers 
PDoente 
Portland 

Seattle 
LA dieters 
Colder State 
(x-d Inched nlcvoft berth) 

THURSDAY'S RESULTS 
U» 37 II 25 31—122 

Detroit M 35 28 27-114 

Griffith 15-30 M 31, Batlsy 10-172-222; Tr|. 
pucka 11.19 M 21 LMmbeer 8-T7 6-6 2L Re- 
bemHts: Utah 46 (Eo ton 15) .-Detroit 6UUHm- 
baer 18). AMUtt: Uhtfi 35 (Stockton 9); 
D^rott 28 (Themai 15). 

29 H 31 M-148 
KmaoCBr » « 31 25-142 

Drew 1VU 8-9 30. EJOhBM 12-23 M 29; 
Natt 14-20 8-11 3L EnoHSh 14-27 1-3 29. Ro* 
baante: Denver 48 (Coopsr 8): Kansas CKV6I 
(Thompson 12). AtsWs; Denver 29 (LOvur 
»); Kants City 34 (Draw 8). 

Saa AatanfO 37 24 28 38-117 

28 n 27 31—119 
Adams 9-124-4 22. Dovts9>)6 2-2 21 ;Mltcnol I 
16-29 4-5 36, Moore 5-10 84 IS. Robeaadc: Son 
Antento 46 (Ollmoro, Bonks 7); Phoenix 61 

(Lucas HLAmists: Son AntonSa32iMoert8): 

Ptiowite 36 (Davis 7). 


Quincy 72, St. Xavier 6) 

Taylor 8L Codon'll le. OWo 69 
FAR WCST 

Loyola. CaAiL 66. Son Dtogo 64 
Portlsd 56, Gansapa 54 
Santa Clara a, 51 Mary*, emu 63 
Southern Col 65. Oregon <2 
UCLA 59. Oregon State 51 
WasMmlon 41, CfllPfomta 38 
WaShlnatan «. 78. Stanford 48 
TOURNAMENTS 
AWoattc to Coefern ce 
Quarterfinals 

St Joseph* 32. George Washington 49 
Temple 67, St. Bonaventure 56 
Rutgers 49, Massachusetts <7 
Duauesne To. west vtrglnlo 66 
Big East C onf erence 
Second Round 
Georgetown 9X Connecticut 62 
SL John’s 9R Providence 62 
Syracuse 7a Boston ColL 69 
yn Kmova 49. Pittsburgh 41 

Mg Sky Centime 
First Round 

Boise 5L 47, Montana 54 
N. Arizona 49, Montana St. 42 
Idaho SL K. Weber SL 78 
Nev^Reno BX Idaho 80 

RCAC Morin reference 
Semifinals 

Boston U. 64, ConWus 56 
Warthenotaiii 73, Siena 69 

BCAC South Cenlereace 
First Round 
Navy 94, E. Carolina 73 
Richmond 74, American u. <8 
William & tftary it. James Modlsoa 6) 
Ceoree Mason 7a N.C.- Wilmington 67 
M e tr o Caafereace 
First Round 

Florida SL 97. VIraMo Tech 93 
Louisville 74, S. Carolina 6) 

ClndiWBlI 5a Tutane 44 
Memphis St 68, S. MKSlSSipol 58 

9acMc Coast MUettc AstndattOB 
First Round 

Fresno SL Si, Santa Barbara 50 
Fullerton 5L 79. CoJ-Irvlne 68 
Nov.-Los Vesas 89, Podflc 58 
San Jose St. 92, Utah SL 56 


112 

Championship 

Rocky Mountain 76, Sioux Falls ColL 71 
NAIA District 13 
aumptonghto 

Minn. -Duluth 71, Bemldtl St. 54 
NAIA District 84 
Champtamhtp 

David Lbiscomb ». Lincoln Memortel 60 
NAIA DtotrKt 26 
Cnamptorahta 

Pfeiffer 7a Pembroke St. 59 

NAIA District 31 
ChamptonsMP 

William Corev 69. Xavier, NjO. 65 

NCAA D to. 11 Reotonta Ptavotts 
South 

Tampa 79, Fla Southern 65 
Jodsanville SL 12a Albany SL, Ga 86 
Midwest 

SE Missouri 85. Alabmna A8JM 74 


Transition 


BASEBALL 
American Leasee 

CLEVELAND— -Sianed Don sctwta, pttdv- 
er, to a on e year contrnd. 

SEATTL E Agreed to tenm wnti Jim 
Preslay, third baseman, and Ivoi Calderon 
ond Al awmeera. outfielders, on ww-vear 
contracts. 

Wnlkmul 1 enerv 

NEW YORK— SJonod Tom Gorman, ptfctf 
or. told Roon Reynolds catcher, to 1 


Second Round 
Alabama 42. Mtatosioei St. 31 
Florida 5a Kentucky 55 
Georgia <7, Tennessee 61 
Auburn 5a Louisiana St. 55 

Midw es tern aty Goafenaco 
First Round 
Evansville 71 Butler 72. OT 
Loyola 1 IL 10a Oklahoma atv 8$ 
Oral Roberts SL St. Louis 53 
Xavier 77. <Mre» W 

Missouri valley Conference 
Sem Klnols 
Tulsa 81 Bradley 77 
Wkhlta 5t. 92. Indiana St. 65 
NAIA District 9 
OKSitotemMp 

SC OHdono 74, E. CentroL QUO. 68 


BASKETBALL 

hallof fame— A nnounced IhatLKWTV 

Hams, executive director, win retire July 2 
end that Joseph M. O’Brien wm succeed him. 
football 

Welted States Football League 
ARIZONA— Waived WIHord Morgan. 
receiver. 

COLLEGE 

DARTMOUTH— Named Glen Pints defen- 
sive line coach. 

Florida— A nnounced the resianatlan at 
■to**! RondoWv track coach, effeeftvect me 
end of the season. 

KANSAS STATE— Named John Falman of- 
fensive line eeacte 


Tennis 


WOMEN* INDOOR CHAMPIONSHIPS 
Qu art er H eals 

(At Prineetaa. New Jersey) 
ealerina Undavu) l*), Sweden, del Wendy 
Turnbull (2). Ui. 6-1 M. 

Catherine TaAvfer, France, det Pam snrt- 
ver (3), (LS. Td. (7-3), 6-3. 

Mona Mandllkova (4), Caeriiosiovokla, det. 
tyMa HanBca, West Germany, 6-L 63. 
Marilna Navratilova (1). US^toL Glgl Far. 

nands, Puerto Rlaj, 62. 2-4. 6-1 






Page 24 


ART BUCHWALD 


Arms Control Dreams 


W ashington —T he arms 

control talks will come to or- 


W control talks will come to or- 
der. Did the gentleman from the 
Soviet Union wish to speak?” 

'‘My government most protest 
President Reagan's request for 
funding of new MX missiles at a 
time when we are in Geneva to 
begin arms negotiations. How are 


we to seriously discuss reducing 
weapons at the 
very moment 
your American 
leaders are ask- 
ing Congress for 
authority to 
build more of 
them?” 

“It is very 
simple, Mr. Fe- 
derenko. The 
only reason the 
president wants Bucnwakl 
the MX missile at this tune is so 
you Soviets will know my country 
Is serious about getting a fair and 
verifiable treaty.” 


4m. 



“Why should we give up our 
:BMs if the United States keeps 


ICBMs if the United States keeps 
building the MX?” 

“Because, Mr. Federenko, you 
knew as well as I do that the MX 
has no strategic value. The original 
idea was to move it underground so 
we could retaliate if you launched a 
first strike attack. When that idea 
proved too costly we decided to put 
the MX in hardened Mmuteman 
silos. The instant we did that its 
value as an offensive weapon was 
lost.” 


ing chip, why are you telling me 
this?" 

“Because, Mr. Federenko, we be- 
lieve if we tell you what we are 
wQling to give up, then you mil 
offer us a bargaining chip of yotzr 
own — something that has no real 
value in your arsenal.” 

“We have plenty of those. But if 
you eliminate a weapon you really 
couldn't care about, and we elimi- 
nate one that we don't want, bow 
does that reduce the risk of a nucle- 
ar war?” 

“If we both give up obsolete 
weapons it's easier to arrive at an 
agreement. The difficult part is to 
give up something the president in- 
sists we need.” 

“Such as ‘Star Wars’?” 

“Exactly. ‘Star Wars’ will never 
be used as a bargaining chip be- 
cause, once we develop it, we don't 
care if the Kremlin signs an arms 
treaty with ns or not. If we can 
knock all your weapons out of the 
sky, why should we talk to you?" 

By die rime you develop a fool- 
proof ‘Star Wars’ defensive system, 
we will develop a foolproof offen- 
sive system to penetrate it” 

□ , 


It’s Just Another Volume 
For Historian Nearing 90 


'1 Dfa) ; 


New York 


N EW YORK —As he nears 
his 90th birthday in May, 


IN his 90th birthday in May, 
Salo Wittmayer Baron is not yet 
finished with his life’s work. 

This indefatigable Polish-bom 
historian has begun writing the 
19th volume of his history of the 
Jews, and he has firm plans for 
Volumes 20 and 21. A stranger 

has the vigor to complete the 
work and is satisfied to leave im- 
ponderables to others. 

T am ready,” he said. “Wheth- 
er God will be ready, I don’t 
know” 

Salo (rhymes with follow) Bar- 
on (chymes with alone) is perhaps 
the foremost U. S. scholar of Jew- 


ish history. Taking up the first 
chair established in the subject at 
an American university, he was a 

professor at Columbia University 
from 1930 until his nominal re- 
tirement in 1963. Many, if not 
most, of the leading scholars in 
Jewish history studied with him. 

While teadoing and as a profes- 
sor emeritus, he wrote 13 books 
on Jewish history, edited four 
others, and contributed almost 
500 articles and addresses, an 
output regarded by scholars as 
extraordinary. 

His magnum opus, whose 19th 
volume he is writing, is “A Social 
and Religious History of the 
Jews'* (Columbia University 
Press). It began in a sores of 
lectures at Columbia and was 
published in a fhroo-vo hnne edi- 
tion in 1937. It began coming out 
in the current, revised version In 
1952, when the first two volumes 
appeared. 

Volumes 3, 4 and 5 were pub- 
lished in 1957, 6. 7 and 8 in 1958. 
and 9 and 10 in 1965. Others 
followed with similar dispatch. 
Volumes 19 through 21 are ex- 
pected to concern communal life 
between 1200 and 1650, a distinc- 
tive self-government that includ- 
ed Jewish courts, schools, police 
and welfare systems. 



daughters, seven granddiildrra 
and three great-grandchildren. 

Baron was born on May 26, 
1895 inTamow, Poland. His par- 
ents, Orthodox but enlightened 
Jews, were part of the Jewish aris- 
tocracy of Gafina His father, a 
banker, was president of the Jew- 
ish community of 16,000. 

At 3. he received a chess set for 
Hanukkah; by 6, he says, he 
could beat everyone he knew. At 
12, he was writing Hebrew poet- 
ry. Until 15, he was a convinced 
Polish nationalist, then swung to 
rigorous Orthodoxy, then became 
an anient Zionist 

By 18 , he was certain he would 

. if l:— 




TTratiVft/r 


S9R9BK1E53 


liiaw 






■BHI 


mm 


specialize in history. The family 
had moved to Vienna when 
World War I broke out and at 
the University of Vienna he re- 
ceived three doctoral degrees that 
he felt would arm him for the 


S|Eg3p— 1 

*1 r - --id 




i‘7»Vi - ■ « Vm'-- ik Hi j » iT 


study of history — philosophy in 
1917, political science in 1922 
and law in 1923. He was ordained 
a rabbi at a Vienna seminary in 
1920. 

In 1926, Rabbi Stephen S. 
Wise mvited Baron to teach at the 
Jewish Institute of Religion in 
New York, where he remained 
until Columbia beckoned with 
the Jewish history chair. 

In 1961 he was called as a wit- 
ness in the trial of Adolf Eidr- 
mann to testify how the Nazis 
had destroyed tire Jewish com- 
munities, of Europe. His parents 
and a sister woe killed m Tar- 
now. 

He recalls that Ekhmann's 
lawyer asked him why anti-Semi- 
tism had been so persistent. “I 
told brm that nme of the best ex- 
planations- is the disHlre of the 
unlike," he said. “People dislike 
people who are not quite Hke they 
are." 

To the frequent distress of the 
Jews, he said, they have been dif- 
ferent for 3,000 years. What ac- 
counts for their survival, he said, 
is their sense of being a “histori- 
cal religion,” grounded in events 
like the Exodus or the giving of 
tiie Torah, in contrast to a “natu- 
ral religion,” based on the sea- 
sons or the stars. 

Baron is cautious in assessing 
the prospects for Jewry, despite 
its relative security today. He re- 
called that in Spain in the 13th 


3G2SC 


i ii iv-n . »>■■«; 


“If it has no value as an offensive 
weapon why does your president 
keep asking for money to produce 
so many of them?” 

“Because (he MX is the secret 
bargaining chip we intend to use in 
these negotiations. We're reluctant- 
ly wilting to give it up at some time 
ii you are reluctantly willing to eve 
up one of your missile systems. 

“Forgive me for asking this, but 
if the MX is really a secret baigain- 


“You're just saying that, Mr. Fe- 
derenko, because you want us to 
put “Star Wars’ on the table.” 

“How can you put it on the table 
when you don’t know what it is?” 

“How do you know we don’t 
know what it is?” 

“Because if you really had a *Star 
Wars’ system we would have stolen 
it from you by now. You should 
know there are no secrets from the 
KGB.” 

“ ‘Star Wars' is dear to Mr. Rear 
gan’s heart, and whether it exists or 
not is immat erial The fact that the 
president dreams about it makes 
the system □on-negotiable.” 

Then we will not agree to any 
unclear arms reductions until tire 


president stops dreaming about 
‘Star Wars.' " 


Santa Anna Relics at Alamo 

The Associated Pros 

SAN ANTONIO, Texas — Ar- 
chaeologists have discovered the 
first reties of General Antonio L6- 
pez de Santa Anna’s Mexican 
troops at the Alamo, almost exactly 
149 years after the fort felL The 
artifacts include a bayonet, a how- 
itzer shell and parts of muskets. 


The Soviet Union cannot tell 
the president of the United States 
what he can or cannot dream 
abouL” 

“We can if his dreams are desta- 
bilizing the balance of power in the 
world. We have an answer to every 
space weapon he dreams of putting 
in the sky, and we intend to start 
building them right now.” 

“Is that your final word, Mr. 
Federenko?” 

“No. it’s my opening statement 
Now let’s stan the tails.” 


Jack Mang/Th* Nr* M Tia 

Salo Wittmayer Baron and Iris wife, Jeannette. 


offers a dmire rs is that many of 
his single-volume works deal with 
Jewish history since 1650. 

Wbat distinguishes Baron's 
work is that he does not view the 
history of the Jews in isolation, 
bat studies them as part of the 
societies in which they have lived. 
Thus Ire has had to grapple with 
the histories of numerous cultures 
and become comfortable in He- 
brew, Russian, - Serbo-Croatian, 
Arabic, Aramaic and about 15 
other languages — tasks that 
have Haunted historians before 

him 

What has emerged, scholars 
say, is a commanding sweep and 
a sense of the social tapestry of 
Jewish life. 

“He did not accept the view 
that Jewish history was solely a 


history of suffering and scholar- 
ship” said Jane derber, profes- 
sor of Jewish history at the City 


To his chagrin, Baron doubts 
he will f ulfill Tits vision of carry- 
ing the work into the modem pe- 
riod. 

Tm sorry, but I can't live until 
120,” he said. The consolation he 


University erf New York. “He 
tried to give a balance that would 
overcome the tendency to see the 
past of Jews as very somber — 
what he calls lachrymose — and 
looked at other tilings besides po- 
groms.” 

Baron is short and stocky, with 
a fringe of frost-white hair. He 
still has tire formalities of a Euro- 
pean-trained professor, dressing, 
for two interviews in his home, m 
a jacket and tie, with black slip- 


pers the only surrender to kisare. 

His vigor was apparent in the 
ease with winch he repeatedly 
rose from a plump blue stria to 
show a visitor a bode, an honor 
he won from the Italian govern- 
ment, a recent article indicating 
that Sartre was impressed try the 
French edition of Baron’s history. 

“I fed quite young even now ” 
he yaiH. “People of 90 are usually 
sitting in a rocking chair. I have 
never sat in a rocking chair. I 
walk and I work.” 

He worked 70 to 80 hours a 
week until be was 75. Now he has 
shaved a few hours from that reg- 
imen. He begins his day at 6 
AAL, works at home until 8:30, 
walks for two or three miles along 
Riverside Drive, then retnms to 
work, most often at Columbia’s 
Butler Library. He gpes home for 
lunch and works there through 
the afternoon, stopping at 9 PM. 

Home, a seven-room apart- 
ment behind B arnar d College, is 
a library many schools would 
envy. In every room and hallway, 
bodes and bound periodicals — 
three deep on some shelves — line 
the walls and spQl over onto ta- 
bles and chairs. 

Baron lives there with his wife, 
Jeannette Meisel Baron, whom he 
met in 1933 when she was at Co- 
lumbia working on a doctorate on 
Jewish banking. They have two 









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century Jews were diplomats and 
government leaders. Vet by 1391 


pogroms bad begun and by 1492 
they were expelled. They thrived 


they were expelled. Urey thrived 
in England m the 11th century, 
yet by 1290 were expelled. 

“We can’t be too sure that 
things will last,” be said. 




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MTONATIONAL GUIDI 


DIAMONDS 


i of Science, King Sand University has openings, on contract basis, for faculty members — Males and 
OFESSORS, ASSOCIATE PROFESSORS, ASSISTANT PROFESSORS) who bold Ph.D. and/or 


academic titles from accredited universities and also for graduate technicians, as of the commencement of the 1 "■ 
academic year 1405/1406H (1985-1986) which starts on 10.1 L1405h (July 27, 1985). 


There are the following departments in the College of Science: Chemistry, Biochemistry, Phyaies, Astronomy, 
Botany, Zoology, Geology, Mathemat ics, Stasdcs. 


-"Htaniiar t* 


Interested candidates are kindly requested to send non-returnable copies of their academic diplomas ami 
specialized experience certificates together with their resumes (including lists of their publications and references)"- 
and written applications indicating the position applied for and the subjects the applicant is qualified to teach... 
His/ Her address and phone number, if any, should also be indicated so that he/she could be contacted if selected foie • 


interview. 


Applications should be sent to the Doan, College of Science, 
King Swd University, P.O. Box 2,455, Riyadh 1 1451, Saudi Arabia. 


i -ii-wi * 

- 4 


■-4 - ■**!. 


» *- Mm 


Noteworthy Benefits: 

L Annual prepaid leave of 45 days for technicians and 60 days for faculty members. 


2. End of service graduity at the rate of half one month’s salary for each year on completion of two years’ service 
and at the rate of one month’s salary for each year upon completion of five years’ service. v 


' I--1H ■%!«*» 

•T.Wfcfa 


3. The Universty provides the contractee and his/her family at the end of each year with return airticketsj ^ ^ 
(maximum of four full tickets) to his/her country of nationality or the country where he/she had been 
permanent resident for the last two years imm &Katly preceding University employment 1 




A Unless accommodation is provided, the applicable housing allowance (according to salary scales schedules) fc 
paid by the University. 


5. Unless furnished accommodation is provided by the University, a new contractee receives an amount equivi 
to 50% of the applicable housing allowance as a furnishing allowance, payable once only throughout his/her I 
of employment on the condition that he/she has not been previously employed in Saudi Arabia. 


6. A freight allowance equivalent to 50% of one month’s salary is paid to the new contractee, who has not been pre 
viously employed in Saudi Arabia, upon appointment (once only). 

7. Persons who were previously employed in Saudi Arabia are considered as new contractees in the' sense usedfc 
items (5) and (6) above if a period of not less than one year has elapsed since they last left the Kingdom, providec 
that they had not been paid the allowance indicated in these two items during their former employment 

8. The University may pay the actual educational costs of up to four of the contractee’s non-Arabic-speakin|^ 
children of ages between six and eighteen within the limits of SR 10,000 for the first child, SR 7,500 for the second ^ 
SR 5,000 for the third and SR 2^00 for the fourth child. 


9. Medical care is provided free of charge at University hospitals for the .contractee ancj 
his/her family. k