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i[ew British Budget 
Emphasizes Fight 
igainst Joblessness 


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By Bob Hagcny 

, : International Herald Tribune 

. ., X)NDON — The government 
- ' lounced Tuesday a cautious 
jget aimed at reducing unem- 
' ymeni in Britain while reassur- 
the Rnandfll markets that infla- 
. i mil not resurge. 

'Jigd Lawson, the chancellor of 
' exchequer, told Parliament of 
>t. - os to encourage companies to 
'.'t more young and unskilled 
. , . iers by reducing the compa- 
' contributions to National In- 

- nice, which provides for health 
~ ‘ 1 e and other government bene- 

• \ tat he rejected calls for substanr 
|y higher government spending 
'• ....create jobs and announced 
"■ . . ill er-than -expected tax reduc- 
IS. 

"c.- tleaffiiming that the govern- 
■v. nt’s purpose “is nothing less 
n the defeat of inflation,” he 
“We must also do what we 
~ to combat the scourge of imem- 

-'ymenL” 

-. “ (he budget for the fiscal year 
. foming April 1, assured of ap- 

- ival in Parliament bccanse of the 
aservative Party majority, calls 

- . ^pending (rf £159 J billion (SI 82 
-. ion), up from £149.5 billion in 

current fiscal year. 

- - - ;fbe Conservative government of 
k . _'jnc Minister Margaret Thatcher 
. ;i managed to reduce inflation to 
.'“tat 5 percent a year from more 
. h 20 percent five years ago. But 
'■ Ji as failed to stop the rise of 
rmqjloyment, currently about 13 
'.'cent of the work force, up from 
.^percent a year ago. 

■^vdl Kinnock, leader of the La- 
“■ Parw, conceded that much 
' *tk had gone into preparing the 
igeL “The problem.” he said, “is 
gi lt’s highly unhkdy that a lot of 


rk will come out 
M-iScono mia* at the stock broker- 
: j= s of James Capel & Co^ Hoare 
invert Ltd. and Capd-Cure Myers 
— said that they still expected 


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.‘Mr. Lawson forecast that the 

-- .^.jntxy’s public-sector borrowing 

" Tuiraneru, a measureofihebud- 
Tdefkat at both the national and 
• ta level, would total £7 ofllkm. ; 
/ at compares with the current 
Jr's £10^5 billioru which is £325 
■ ion above the initial forecast, 
jely because of costs arising 
m the 12-month coal strike that 
tjed earlier this month. 

>ju an apparent effort to give the 


new figures credibility, Mr. Law- 
son added substantially to contin- 
gency reserves for spending above 
budget. That reduced his scope for 
tax cots to £750 million from the 
£13 billion predicted last autumn. 

On National Insurance, Mr. 
Lawson announced what he de- 
scribed as “radical reform." 

The government plans to in- 
crease the amount companies con- 
tribute to cover workers earning 
more than £265 a week and reduce 
the amounts companies put in for 
those earning less than £130 a 
week. Lower-paid workers and self- 
employed people will be required 
to contribute less themselves. 

Mr. Lawson argued that the 
shift, reducing government revenue 
by £450 milhon a year, “wfll en- 
courage employers to take on the 
young and the unskilled.” For an 
employer, the overall cost of hiring 
a worker at £90 a week would fall 
by £3. 

To give employers more flexibili- 
ty in hiring and firing, the govern- 
ment intends to extend to two years 
from one the amount of time work- 
ers need to hold a job before gain- 
ing the right to complain to an 
industrial tribunal that they have 
been unfairly dismissed. 

Mr. Lawson said that the pity 
threshold at which workers must 
stan paying income tax would rise 
about twice as much as needed to 
reflect inflation. Thus, a angle per- 
son would not pay tax on the first 
£2205 of income. 

Mr. Lawson also modified other 
taxes, notably those on capital 
gains. He abolished a tax on land 
development and certain “stamp 
duties 4 on legal transactions and 
gifts. 

Overall Mr. Lawson was much 
less bold than a year ago, when be 
announced cuts in coiporate tax 
and reductions in tax reneftm capi- 
tal spending. Analysts ascribed his 
caution to fears that major changes 
would offend too many Conserva- 
tive Party badeere and threaten the 
pound. 

Faced with, a plunging pound 
last. January, the government was 
forced to push interest rates up 43 
percentage points, bringing the 
base rate for corporate borrowers . 
to 14 percent. The pound has re- 
covered strongly but the govern- 
ment appears eager to assure the 
financial markets that it will not 
push down interest rates so fast as 
to suggest a loose monetary policy. 


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Senate Votes 
To Free Funds 
For MX Missile 


Iraqi troops walk among Iranian dead in the marshy region of southeastern Iraq, near the Iranian border. 


Dutch, Reacting to U.S. Fears, 
Act Against Child Pornography 


By Joseph Ficchett 

International Herald Tribune 

AMSTERDAM — Responding 
to U.S. concern about child por- 
nography and related child abuse, 

craekdowifcrn traffickers whohave 
made Amsterdam the major source 
for in ternational supplies of such 
material 

The material indudes videotapes 
and illustrated books that show 
preteen children performing sexual 
acts, often involving sadism, with 
partners of both sexes, with adults 
and even with anhnaTa. 

“Amsterdam is sort of the 1984 
version of Sodom and Gomorrah,” 
the U.S. Customs Service commis- 
sioner, W itKam von Raab, told a 
Senate committee last fall In testi- 
mony about how to curtail imports 
of cmld pornography. ; 

After U3. legislation was passed 
last raring banning the sale and 
distribution of sudi material, a 
television documentary, “The Si- 
lent Shame,” alerted'' UJS. public 
opinion and Congress last fall to 
the flood of child pornography ar- 



Language Gap Grows 
For American Blacks 


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By William KL Stevens 

Ww York Times Strike 

■ PHILADELPHIA — Con- 
to expectations, the En- 
, -gfch spoken by many black 
'-Americans is becoming more 
•; different horn standard English 
v V‘ rather than more like it, a study 
by linguists at the University of 
Pennsylvania suggests. 

. ,'.y The “black English vemacu- 
bi'’ of urban America, say the 
jfagoists, is evolving in its own 
. direction despite earlier predic- 
,. v*'tK)ns that television, radio and 
: • 1 die movies would exert a ho- 
mogenizing influence on lan- 
_^-* 3 uage in the United States. 

■ The black vernacular, a re- 
, 1 :*nt study has concluded, ap- 

*ars to be steadfly diverging 
. pot only from standard Fw gHsh 
..o spofan, far example, by ra- 
ho and television announcers. 
>ut ako from local and regional 
' rtrite dialects. These dialects, 
^,-By the linguists, are themselves 
i; vC ^poring in a direction separate 
TOm both The Maelr vw Tiamlar 

• tad the American standard. 

y . The devekjpment reflects in- 
,rv "! - Waring racial sqgr^ati on and 
/station of urban blacks, ac- 
®«hng to Dr. William Labov, a 
^itiofeSsor of hnaristics at the 
■ ' ^varsity of Pennsylvania, 

®o directed the study. He said 
^.. he study suggested that ordi- 

communication between 

TUtes and was becom- 
% increasingly difficult and 
• ' the problems of many 

•" wk children in school might 
a worsening. 

“Thao is evidence that, far 

. - nm getting more similar, the 

* la* vernacular is going its 
«i way," Dr. Labov said. “It’s 

ay, Kving form of lan- 
But 


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J age. But separate develop- 

- if o« is only made possible by 

- v parate livmg." 

His assessment is based on a 
TO-year study, supported by 
e National Science Founda- 
ffl, in ubich hundreds of re- 
nted conversations erf several 
tadred Philadelphia blades 
d whites were analyzed in de- 

*The results of our analyws 
ow a blade Fnglich vernacu- 
■ that is more remote from 
oer dialects than has been re- 
before," the study said, 
people's raeech bdavior," 
- Labov said, “is not influ- 
^ by the remwe communi- 


cation of the mass media.” He 

influences are fiom^Ke^n^ 
of relationships that mnlrw a dif- 
ference in your life chances,” 
such as those involving an em- 
ployer, supervisor or co-worker. 

The researchers expected to 
find more contact between 
blacks and whites than they (fid. 
Dr. Labov said. Many blade 
children in Philadelphia almost 
never talk to a white person 
before the age of 6, when they 
enter school, he said. 

But here and in other cities. 
Dr. Labov, said, there are many 
exceptions to the pattern. Mil- 
lions of blacks speak standard 
En g lish , and many more speak 
standard En g lish, the black ver- 
nacular and white dialects, 
shifting from one to the other 
depending on the setting. 

As the black middle-class 
grows and expands. Dr. Labov 
said, a higher proportion of 
blacks speak standard E n gl i s h . 
But because the black popula- 
tion as a whole continues to 
grow at a high rare, he said, the 
absolute number of speakers of 
the black vernacular has also 
increased. 

Moreover, he said, most 
blade Philadelphians, like ur- 
ban blacks elsewhere, live in in- 
creasingly segregated neighbor- 
hoods, as numerous studies 
have shown. 

“The language is refi 
that picture" Dr. Labov 
“The blacks’ own 
which is very rich and i 
cared, is developing its own 
way. It locks as xf all kinds of 
new things are happening in 
black grammar.” 

He said the proof of this was 
not ironclad, but was neverthe- 
less strong and convincing. 

Many of the characteristics 
of the black vernacular have 
long been familiar. Among 
tHi»m are the substitution of “a 
for “an" before a vowel, as in “a 
apple;” the Southern pronunci- 
ation of Tine." as something 
doseto“fahn; w the dropping of 
certain end consonants, as in 
‘ Via 1 ” for “man” and “firs’ " 
for “first," the use of *1re wotk” 
for “he works,” “he here” for 
“he’s here” and “my brother 
bouse” for "my brother's 
house." 

Dr. Labov said that it ap- 
( Continued on Page 2, CoL 5) 


nvmg by mail from abroad. 
U.S. outciy, indi 


the 


The 

congressional hearings, raised con- 
cern about the problem in the 
Netherlands, the last country in 
Weston Europe to tolerate the sale 
of child pornography. After Swe- 
den outlawed it in 1980 and Den- 
mark, the other main European 
source; followed in 1982, the Neth- 
erlands became a haven for mail- 
order business in the material 

An estimated 85 percent of the 
child pornography imported into 
the United States comes from the 
Netherlands, which is “definitely 
the most difficult conntiy for us," a 
U.S. Customs agent said. He was 
part of a high-level interagency 
group that recently visited Den- 
mark, the Netherlands and Sweden 
to coordinate international police 
work on ihe problem. 

Alerted by the U.S. publicity, 
and a letter last November from a 
group of UB. senators asking 
Prime Minister Rund Lubbers for 
help, the lower house of the States- 
General, the Dutch parliament, 

prohibit 6 ^ productiOT anymore 
important, the circulation of child 
pornography. The bill is expected 
to pass the upper house this spring. 

This and other farms of pornog- 
raphy had benefited from liberal 
laws on pornography and on ob- 
scene materials in the mail. “In 


fact, our country was only a mail- 
box for this material we don’t have 
any evidence that much was pro- 
duced here," said Toos Faber-de 
Heer, a spokeswoman for the 
Dutch Justice Ministry. 

The new Dutch law would make 
it a crime even to mail drild por- 
nography. Offenders could be sen- 
tenced to three months’ imprison- 
ment, a fine of 10,000 guilders 
(about $2,500) and confiscation of 
any property associated with the 
operation. 

By comparison, the recent US. 
legislation made child pornography 
a felony carrying jail sentences of 
up to luyears. In pursuing possible 
cases, police may seek permission 
to use wire Lapping and other tech- 
niques used for investigations of 
such matters as drug trafficking 
and organized aime. 

Mrs. Faber said tbateven if -the 
Dutch penalties were light in rela- 
tion to those in the United States, 
they should dtaer the estimated two 
dozen major Dutch dealers. In an 
interview in Amsterdam, she said 
the law would make them hesitate 
to pursue this small specialized 


U.S. Ponders 
Joint Talks 
With Jordan, 

market at the risk of jeopardizing J 

phy business! which otherwise Palestinians 


INSIDE 

I A Dutchman has offered his 
farm to ihe Soviet Union as a 
missile sire Page 3. 

■RJ 7 . Botha dashed with Bish- 
op Tutu in a debate. Page 3. 

■ Paris isn't fanmntable after 
all, with glass pyramids and ex- 
panding Otinatowns. PageSL 

■ U3L senators are Geneva 
arms talks observers. Page 5- 

■ Mexican poSce served drug 

traffickers, according to court 
documents. Page 5. 

BUSINESS/FINANCE 

■ The dollar dove and gold 

jumped in Europe and the Unit- 
ed States. Page 17. 

■ New York stock prices 
soared. The Dow average 
gained 21.41 

SPECIAL REPORT 

■ Japan’s glittering prosperity 
masks a gap in the quality of fire 
compared to Western Europe. 
A special report. Page 9. 


would be essentially unaffected by 
the law. 

However, there was skeptirian 
about the effectiveness of the legis- 
lation among some law enforce- 
ment agents, both U5. and Dutch. 
They a ted the following concerns: 

■ Amsterdam’s vice squad, 
which has budgetary restraints like 
all Dutch public services, has 
voiced doubts that it will get 
enough funds to enforce the law. 
And an initial attenmt to intimi- 
date local dealers has been conspic- 
uously ineffective. 

• AH outgoing marl even bulk 
deliveries,' will remain immune 
from being opened for postal in- 
spection. In the United Sales bulk 
mail may be Inspected. 

• In the NethCTlands “and else- 
where in Europe* we will only ban 
pictures of children performing 
sexual acts,” Mis. Faxber said. The 
new U3. code outlaws even jnc- 
tures of nude children in still pares. 

• The age of consent for posing 
for such pictures is 18 in the United 
States, wnleit is 15 in most West 
European countries. ■ 

On a recent night, sex shops in 
Amsterdam’s red-light district 
readily produced for sale material 
of the sort banned in the United 
Slates; a browser was simply 
warned to hide the videotapes and 
illustrated booklets if other people 
approached. 

Scares of items were available. 
The titles included “Lolita," “Bed- 
teen Tales," “Nymph-lover," “Joy 
Boy,” or “Baby Love — Infants 
and Tots Exclusively." These 
names gave rally a slight hint of the 
sexual emotional and physical vio- 
lence depicted in them. 

A sales attendant in Erex, a typi- 
cal sex shop, said child pornogra- 
phy was often bought by relatively 
well-dressed customers. Only rare- 
ly, according to a U.S. postal in- 
spector, “does the child pomqgra- 
pher measure up to the stereotype 
image of the dirty old man.” 

“Our investi g ati on s have identi- 
fied, beades professional dealers, 
clergymen, teachers, psychologists, 
businessmen and journalists,” the 
inspector said. 

US. and E u ropean officials bo 
lieve that pnbfic o pinion has been 
generally unaware of (he extent 

(Continued on Page2, CoL 7) 


By John M. Goshko 

Washington Peat Service 

WASHINGTON — The United 
States has declared that it is consid- 
ering the possibility of talking to a 
joint Jordanian-Palestinian delega- 
tion, but U3. officials emphasized 
that members of the Palestine Lib- 
eration Organization could not be 
in the group because of the PIG'S 
refusal to recognize Israel's right to 
exist 

The idea of a joint delegation 
that might negotiate with Israd 
over the status of Israeli-occupied 
Arab territory stems from the Feb. 
1 1 agreement between King Hus- 
sein of Jordan and Yasser Arafat, 
chairman of the PLO. They want 
the United States to pressure land 
to deal with a joint group. 
'President Hosni Mubarak of 
Egypt, arguing that the Hussein- 
Arafaf accord implies PLO recog- 
nition of Israd, appealed to Presi- 
dent Ronald Reagan last week to 
give the plan U.S. backing. The 
administration has refused to make 
a commitment, however, and Sec- 
retary of State George P. Shultz 
said Friday that Richard W. Mur- 
phy, assistant secretary of state for 
Near Eastern and South Asian af- 
fairs, will visit the region soon to 
explore ideas for getting the peace 
process moving 

In a television interview Sunday. 
Mr. Shultz said that Mr. Murphy 
will investigate, among other op- 
tions. the possibility of construct- 
ing an acceptable delegation that 
would i n dude Palestinian repre- 
sentation. But he emphasized that 
it would have to be within the 
framework of existing policy that 
says the United States mil not deal 
with the PLO until it accepts Isra- 
el's right to exist 
That was reiterated Monday by 
Ed Djerejian, a State Department 
Spokesman, who said: “We are 
looking into the possibility of a 
joint Palestinianr Jordanian delega- 
tion to be involved in the peace 
process, in moving the peace pro- 
cess forward, which in our view at 
the end of the day means direct 
negotiations, direct talks, between 
the Arabs and (he Israelis.” 

Mr. Djerqian also repeated that 
FLO members could not be part of 
the delegation. During past at- 
tempts to get Jordan involved in 
(Continued on Page 2, CoL 7) 


Compiled tn- Our S'ojf From Dtspdh-ha 

WASHINGTON — The Senate 
approved continued spending for 
ihe MX missile system Tuesday. 

The 55-45 vole gave the Reagan 
ad m i n istration its first major vic- 
tory on Capitol Hill since President 
Ronald Reagan's landslide re-elec- 
tion victory last November. 

Under a compromise reached in 
last year's presidential election 
campaign. Congress agreed to allo- 
cate S13 billion to build 21 addi- 
tional missiles in the current fiscal 
year. But the money could not be 
spent until both houses of Congress 
approved two separate resolutions 
ibis year to authorize and appropri- 
ate ihe funds. 

The Senate is expected to vote 
Thursday on appropriation. An- 
other favorable vote would send 
the issue to (Ik House of Represen- 
tatives, where a difficult battle is 
expected. 

Tuesday’s vote in the Senate 
came just hours after Mr. Reagan 
warned that rqecting funds for the 
missile would signal a “collapse of 
American resolve” and endanger 
world peace. 

Mr. Reagan, in a rare lobbying 
trip to Capitol Hill argued that the 
Soviet Union bad engaged in “the 
biggest military buildup in the his- 
tory of mankind" and that deploy- 
ment of the MX “represents a sim- 
ple necessity." 

“The votes cast this week will 
bear directly on the outcome of the 
arms talks in Geneva, and hence, 
on the prospects for peace through- 
out the world,” Mr. Reagan said at 
a luncheon with Republican sena- 
tors. 

The president said that a ‘yes' 
vole “will show the Soviets that 
America today is united and reso- 
lute, and thereby advance the cause 
of peace for us and our children." 

But a “no" vote would be inter- 
preted by the Soviet Union as a 
“collapse of American resolve," he 
said. 

On Monday, Mr. Reagan and 
Defense Secretary Caspar W. 
Weinberger telephoned undecided 
senators m an attempt to win the 
final necessary votes. 

Some senators who had been un- 
decided on the issue until Tuesday 
said the Geneva negotiations 
played a large part in their derision 
to support the funding. . 

Typical of these was Senator 
John H. Chafee, Republican of 


Rhode Island. He said: “I'm saying 
to the president and his negotia- 
tors. T don’t want any excuses. I 
want to give you the tools to get (be 
job done. I expect you to come 
back with an agreement. 1 don't 
wont anybody saying you would 
have succeeded blit for the lack of 
the MX.'” 

Senator Bony’ Goldwater. Re- 
publican of Arizona, said that in 
supporting the funding: “My plea 
is not necessarily to build the mis- 
sile. It’s to uphold the commander 
in chief in a decision he's made.” 
The Armed Services Committee, of 
which Mr. Goldwater is chairman, 
voted 1 1-6 on Monday to recom- 
mend that the funding be ap- 
proved. 

The MX. for missile experimen- 
tal is a 96-ton (86-metric ton) in- 
tercontinental missile that can car- 
ry 1 0 highly accurate warheads on a 
6,000-xnUe (9, 700- kilo meter) path. 
It was originally designed with a 
mobile launching platform, but the 
plans now arc to deploy it in exist- 
ing Minuteman silos. 

Supporters contend the missile is 
needed to modernize the aging UJS. 
missile fleet and to ensure that the 
Russians could not plan on a suc- 
cessful first strike, as well as to 
show support for the U.S. negotia- 
tors in Geneva. 

Opponents argue that the missile 
is destabilizing because it repre- 
sents a potential first-strike weap- 
on. Delay, they say. would not 
harm the program but would allow 
time to see what the arms talks 
produce. 

Separate from Tuesday's vote, 
there remains before Congress an 
administration budget request for 
S4 billion to build 48 MX missiles 
in the 1986 fiscal year. 

Senator Sam Nunn. Democrat of 
Georgia, served notice Monday 
that he has run out of patience with 
the MX and would vote in the fu- 
ture to “dramatically scale down” 
Reagan administration requests for 
more weapons. 

Mr. Nunn is rate of the most 
influential voices in Congress on 
military policy. He said Monday 
that while he would vote to release 
funds for the 21 missiles on Tues- 
day, “I will be looking very, very 
skeptically at continuing down the 
path set by this administration” 
when the question of more weap- 
ons is debated later this spring. 

(AP, NTT) 


Foreigners Quit Tehran 
As Iraqi Deadline Nears 


Agence Franee-Presse 

TEHRAN — More than 1.000 
foreigners left Iran on Tuesday on 
the last flights before the expiration 
of an Iraqi deadline after which. 
Iraq warned, no airliner in I ranian 
airspace would be safe. 

Crowds packed into Tehran’s 
airport to try to get aboard one of 
the six flights organized by the 
West Goman airline Lufthansa. 
Air France, Austrian Airlines and 
the Soviet Aeroflot line. 


that hundreds of Iranian dead lit- 
tered the marshlands.] 

Among the exodus of foreign na- 
tionals in Tehran was a West Ger- 
man contingent of 357 technicians 
and business men who boarded a 
Lufthansa jet for Frankfurt. 

The oily West Germans remain- 
ing in Tehran were believed to be 
men who worked at the embassy 
and the husbands and wives of Ira- 
nians. 


unday that 
i would be i 


man airspace would be considered 
a war zone at 1700 GMT. 

[In Baghdad, a large explosion 
killed 11 persons in a residential 
area early Tuesday, Reuters report- 
ed, quoting diplomats. Iran 
claimed later to have fired its 
fourth missile in six days into 
Baghdad. 

[Separately, Reuters reported 
from the war front that Iranian 
forces bad been driven back almost 
to the border in southern Iraq, and 


Many people turned op at the 
of finding a 
place on the departing planes. Sev- 


airport in the hope 


eral Iranians who had bought tick- 
ets in advance were refused seats by- 
all companies except Air France. 

Soviet expatriates made their 
way to two Aeroflot jets, while 
about 60 Japanese found room 
aboard an Air France /light. Seats 
were reserved for Tuesday for an- 
other 170 Japanese on two Turkish 
Airlines planes, after negotiations 
between Japanese and Iranian offi- 
cials. Japan is still negotiating for 
(Continued on Page 2, CoL 1) 



Nicaragua Rebels Consider Future Without U.S. Aid 

Guerrillas in Mountain Camp Say They Need ’Guns, Boots, Everything’ 


By James LeMoyne 

New York Times Service 

TEGUCIGALPA, Honduras — 
At their sprawling mountain head- 

S Barters on the border between 
licaragua and Honduras, Nicara- 
guan gnenilla commanders soberly 


violations have become major is- 
sues in the debate between the Rea- 
gan administration and Congress 
on whether to renew aid to the 
guerrilks. 

President Ronald Reagan has 
called the rebels “freedom fighters" 


the support < 

UJS. Central Intelligence 


Tbt Nm Yerfc ha 

At a rebel camp are, front left, Adolfo CaleroPortocarrero, 
the chief political officer; Major General John K. Sing- 
Iaub, a retired U.S. Army officer sympathetic to the rebefe, 
and Colonel Enrique Bemnidez, their chief commander. 


assessed their chances of victory . who are the “moral equal of our 
last week and spoke anxiously of Founding Fathers.” 

Lhe debate on thor future in Wash- With the support of advisers 

ingtoiL 

The apparently impregnable mil- 
itary camp, shrouded by dense jun- 
gle and gray rain clouds, is far from 
Washington. But the rebels' keen 
awareness of the heated debate 
they have generated in Congress 
almost seems to narrow the dis- 
tance between their base and the 
American capital 

The bolder camp is the com- 
mand center for the Nt 
Democratic Force, by- far the 
est exile army. The grotto received 
most of the $80 million the Central 
Intelligence Agency reportedly 
spent on the war until financing 
was ended last June. 

The goals of the rebels, the num- 
ber of framer officers of the Nica- 
raguan National Guard is their 
ranks and reports of human rights 


With 
from the 

Agency, Argentina and Honduras 
and a handful of Cuban -Ameri- 

THr is the first of two articles on 
the Nicaraguan rebels and their ef- 
fect on the country. 

cans, rebel leaders said, the Nicara- 
guan Democratic Force has grown 
m four years from a marauding 
band numbering a few hundred 
men into a veteran army of 12,000 
to 1 4,000 men whose anujushes and 
sabotage have turned much of 
northern Nicaragua into a war 
zoae. 

But the loss of American aid has 
created serious supply problems 
for the guerrillas, according to their 
commanders and to Western offi- 
cials here, limi ting their military 
activity and raising strong doubts 
about their prospects. 


“Our situation isn’t good,” said a 
25-year-old commander who uses 
the name Mike lima, a four-year 
veteran who leads the 2, 700- man 
Diriangen regional guerrilla force. 
He added that his men needed 
“guns, boots, everything.” 

A three-day visit to the camp was 
arranged by rebel officials on the 
condition that its location not be 
revealed. 

Noother restrictions were placed 
rat several r e porters* freedom to 
carry out interviews or visit the 
camp's mstaTlariffflfi- which includ- 
ed a firing range, warehouses, an 
armory, a training school a long- 
range radio center, a map room and 
a hospital Some 4,000 rebels ap- 
peared to be in the camp and its 
environs. 

The chief guerrilla military com- 
mander, Colonel Enrique Bermti- 
dez, had just returned from a visit 
to Washington and shaken 
by the debate he had heard. 


Senior guerrilla leaders said their 
objective is now and always has 
been to overthrow the Sandinist 
government in Nicaragua. The col- 
loquial Spanish name by which the 
rebels are known, “contras," means 
counterrevolutionaries. 

“He who speaks of dialogue with 
the Communists speaks of wasting 
his time," said Captain Armando 
L6pez, Colonel Bermuda’s sec- 
ond-in-command. 

The influence of former Nation- 
al Guard officers in the rebel move- 
ment has become an important is- 
sue because thor presence appears 
to have limited the rebels' popular 
support inside Nicaragua ana ob- 
structed repeated efforts to form a 
united front with other rebel 
groups. 

A former Sandmist leader, Eden 
Pastora Gfimez, who leads an esti- 
mated 2,000 rebels on the Costa 
Rican border, has refused for two 
9 years to unite with the Nicaraguan 

iheiJ^he told a a rei2unit rtJShS Democratic F«ce because he says 
there, he told a rebd unit that had i t ^ dominated by former Nicara- 
just returned from a long combat - - J l lcara 


patrol “They say we are vitdatois 
of human rights, rapists, destroyers 
of farms who have hurt the civilian 
papulation.” 


guan National Guard officers. 

Interviews with more than 40 re- 
bels indicated that the majority 
(Continued oa Page 2, CoL 4) 






Page 2 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, MARCH 20, 1985 


Christian Threat to Moslems 
In Sidon Prompts Exodus 


XmihiC-A 



By William Claiborne 

Washington Pm Senice 


are located in the Awafi river ers have accused Mr. GemayeJ of 
r, just east of Sidon and adja- encou raging Syrian influence in 


^ A 


rfthitt — More than 20,000 cent a number of Christian. vfl- Lebanese political affairs. 


Moslem residents, about 90 percent ^ A photographer for the Reuters 

of the population, fled the eastern Fwlous Jezzme to news agency. Jack' Dabbaghian, 

suburbs of the southern Lebanese lll *L5 as ^_ said that only Moslem, gunmen, 

city of Sidon Tuesday as Moslem Gn n stian mihti a reinforce- from Amal, appeared to be 

gp nmg n and Christian mifitfam en meats came mostly J j om the Jez- fr aming fire 21 the tnnsfian mfli- 

fought battles in the first serious zme area, under faaeh tmnen, who were shooting at army 

outbreak of sectarian violence since control and Moslem leaden unme- po^ from suburban rooftops. 
Israeli troops withdrew from the branded their attacks as an 

Krion^.16. atlempt to split the leooo on *eo JtJaafi.iSSft,'!* 


cd to be 
an mili- 

atanny 


region on Feb.16. 

Units of the regular Lebanese turn, fMtcS^tecmter of Si- 

fts.'sSdLrss&s: K/issr* 

nrrre wounded, an anny commmn- Jtomood F«jh ai4 m ^ bS&rim and dSk d- 


ouisail sure this flare-up is deliberately wnen oom^nnsnanana urmca- 

^The rightist Christian militia, die bmrf and pmt of an Israeli plan to 


l Jssnssrsrs” ^sasTssrars 


belled against the Phalange Party '® in a buffer zoi 
leadership ^«~ wnfnateri hy P rr^fWt r along the border. 


'oim a buffer zone for the Tcraeiis tember 1983. 

dong the border." As the battles ontside Sidon con- 




Parliament 

InBelgium 

Expectedto 


WORLD BRIEFS 


Amin Gemayd, brought in ran- Spokesmen for the Lebanese 
forcemeats to the predominantly Forces in Bdret Tuesday night said 
Moslem suburbs ana gave the resi- the flare-up was strictly a local 
dents a two-hour ultimatum to matter and not connected with the 


Spokesmen for the Lebanese timicd, tbe Lcban«c“iiati 0 aal um- 
Forces in Beirut Tuesday night said ty" cabinet cancded a sdicdnkd 


r ~ j Jailed Solidarity Leader Stages Pro* 

Lxnecteato WARSAW (UP0— Jeny Urban, the ftjfishgwenunentspob 

A confirmed Tuesday that Bogdan Lis, a senior leader of die out 

BackMssiles 

n j ■ ^jb~. Family sources said that Mr. Lis, 32, was refusing food in a dea 

center in the port of Gdansk, where he was taken after his latest 
BRUSSELS —The. threat of a Feb. 13, to protest his detention without charge or triaL It was not 1 
parhamentaiyyoteagainttthcgpv- whether W&lawFrasyniuk and Adam M«hnik,tw)fdIowS6B 
emmmrsttosutt 1 to deploy cruise in the same center, had joined the protest, 

nussfles faded Tuesday as a key ^ Urban also said that police were investigating the abducuc 
°^ > 9 n > CIlt ^ the party of Pnme tortare March 14 of a French tourist, Frfxfoic Castamg. He said th 
M“ u *’“ r Castmng. 41, was arrested in Krakow an March 12 by poKccmc 

that he would support the Belgian they found Solidarity materials on him. He was rdease 

teaxta’, sources repeated. 4 . ordoed out of Poland two days later, but on. March 14 he report* 

Mr Martens aid on tdemaon kj^ow hospital for treatment of up to 11 second-degree fauns 
Tuesday ^nhere^ be a 

vote, and Fm certam it will be a yes 

decision last Friday to deploy die West German Ex-Minister to BeTri 

^Thefinal vote was not expected BONN (Renters) — A West German court said Tuealay h wool 
until early Wednesday. Twenty tanner cabinet ixmawter, Egon Frank* on drawstf breach of c 
pariiameuteriansweresdaduledto «mnecuon with the marks 

SoSonSeSestion. nStom) from pumstW funds fr om 1979 to 1982. 

The most ^tenoten oonooenL Themo^isal^toliaredisappe^taasecraft^n 


ybuSi^SSaSPhS. the* Inter-German Relations Ministry to buy the rdease of EasTo 

view iS/SEtS the narw" nrimsby for 13 yean under Chancellor Hdmnt SdmndL Mr. Fran 
rcesssSjustWoe^Se said that “evmrcent of the money"was span preoeriy for ham® 
L v- nurooses, but the process was highly sensitive aim receipts eoikt 


the flare-up was smctlya local ““‘“S ™ Borut in winch it had 
matter and not connected with the Phoned to disoss the weeklrag 
mifitia’s rebellion against Mr. Ge- nswdt by the Lebanese Forces led 


A Moslem 

Christian i 


en of the Sbnte Amal moyement fighti n g 
in Sidon took cover in a dash Tnesday. 


Ti t c Van Den Braude, lus aligns 
his view with dial of the party," 
sources said just before the debate 


The mostiy Sunni Moslem vO- mayd. fiie rebdlious mflitia lead- Samir Gea g e a . 

■ — Government ftffiriak said that 




Foreigners Leave Tehran 
As Iraqi Deadline Nears 


(Continued from Page 1) city of the 
transportation to evacuate other badly dai 
Japanese sedring to leave. Reuters rq 

Some Japanese were expected to Iraqi ofl 


Mr. Gemayel would travel to Da- 
' 1 masens soon to discuss the political 

RflfW Twi, crisis with the Syrian president, 

Hafez al-Assad, wbo has deployed 
vj troom near the northern edge of 

l^¥ZIY the Christian areas south of Tripoli 

V vAU o ip an apparent attempt to iutuni- 

date the Christian mili tia rebellion 
Ba’ath Party and leaders. 


Nicaragua Evacuating 
Strongholds of Rebels 


read a personal statement to ex- obtained. ..... - . 

plain UiSboZfacB. . was ordered by hu suc«»ot, Rama Bar 

P Sources iaMr. Martens»s F2em- Febnupr 1^3 ate 


several houses. 


■ Report on Missing Envoy 


By Edward Cody 

Washington Pat Serna 

SAN JUAN DE LIMAY, Nica- 
ragua — Nicaragua has heg rm to 
move thfwi«Tiri« of peasants out of 


Villagers fi r u n jagged hiHs sur- 


said “two i 
were left to 
reducing a 

Mr.Kte 


Christian Social Fj 
sadents at the m 


“gross budgetary violations.” The court said Mr. Franke would b 
with one of his former aides, Edgar Hirt, 47, who is alleged fa 
withdrawn the money. No date was set for the trial 


•rt film 


that the govera- 


beads a four 


rounding Juan de Limay, a coalition that includes 


a four-party 
Flemish and 


U.S. Doesn’t Fear China-Soviet Th 

BEIJING (Renters) — The United States does not fear China’s 


_-ajL)uAM» 
V:-- rtm 


„„ __ * ■ o j ujuvc uuiiivniua ui inuirnu om. 

nrim a lddiuQjped U5. diplomat is remote villages m the northern 

0310H- Last wee*.. , i — . _ -i . - . - n 


y>mf . of their houses or 

sticks through the fragile tile roofs mg Christian Soeial Party, the Lib- Mr. Arraacost, who hdd two days of foreign policy talks with f 

to guarantee that the owners would eral .Reform Party and the MinisrexWnXueqian of China, said he could not reveal details of C : - 
not be able to return. They com- Freedom and Progress Party, said latest policy toward Moscow. But he said that “in the light of tbec 
plained that the soldiers forced they will back tbc deployment of m tire Sovid leadership recently, I think it is quite naturalfor conn 
them to leave behind planted Adds the missiles. assess if it is possible to secure some i mprov e m ent m relations.” 

and most of their oasscssians to To bolster its moarity of sewn “We certainly do not fear an improvement in Smo-Sovx: rdi " 


rattle- tnwr^ sa id that troops h orned French-speaking factions. His co- to improve ties with Soviet Union, Michael H. Aimaoost, U-S-unT^, 

punched alition partners, the French-speak- retary of state for political affairs, said Tuesday. ? " - 

me roofs ing Christian Soeial Party, the Ub- Mr. Armacost who hdd two days of foreign policy talks with I . 

lalilfAP TUtf VitAMBM ‘ ‘ I . I* * 


Tckyom tbenextfrw d^s,aaord- Iraq said th^ twe^toaons had lagts in Lebanon and “publicly tor- guemllas have found recruits and 
mg to Japanree officials m Tehran, bomcamed ^ yboteun. Iran said ^ and hnmfliated," the Ltidon 
Iran Air has not announced a that it had laimched_rockets against n ^ a 'rl'T.nrf, 


of its international Baghdad at about the times of the -j-uesd 
flights, although some of its aircraft explosions. porta 

have been evacuated from the Teh- The latest blast, the second in 24 
ran area. hours, came hours after President . The 

Diplomats and expatriates who Hosui Mubarak of Egypt and King ideuti 
have remained in Tehran are at- Hussdn of Jordan. left Baghdad af- em L 


The Standard, said The authorities have explained and most of their possessions to 


; The Associated Press re- the evacuation as an effort to pre- come to a settlement of tents set up a»ts among the 212 in the Iowa Mr. Annacost said. “We are 


in theSoviet leadership recently, I think it is quite natural fa com 1 
assess if it is possible to secure some improvement m relations.” 
“We certainly do not fear an improvement in SinoScrvkt id*' 

11 . . - J unr.-_.__., .l._ :UV-. _r - . .. 


m 


London. 


>aper, which cited un- 
hte sources in south- 


vent peasant families from getting 
nan ghi up in the three-year guerril- 
la war and to provide them with a 


unpnm 


temptin g to ermtinne their work, ter talks with President Saddam was th 

* . - . • , Y ■ a ivili* 


although many now avoid sleeping Hussein. 


em Lebanon, said the American ^ “ agricultural coopera- 

was thought to be William Buckley, with Khools and dmics. 

« officer at the U.S. Em- Rchet officials and soldiers from 


near the town. house, the govemment called back own relations with the Soviet Union. Asked how Washington : 

T»,a ^ , - . i t,., j two ministers from abroad when China’s lack of intervention in Vietnam in support of Cain) 

half a dozen party dissidents ap- guerrillas, he said there had been considerable actiwty on theChin 

ftrtT, Tinlinr OaUaf rtFRrtalc onA year coaiinon. ______ _ ‘ 


fbi 

.. ■» Van 
f. 4 


IZ 1 * JJfonsm Begins State Vfei* to UA 

sasSsH gagas Jgga gaa a isaaaga 

fhZa Small conservative parties out- occasion to want that the Sandinist government in Nicaragua musk- 
mg evttuauon of villas there. ^de the cmMou, rqSeolij* a ^Sltomrae drmooratic gmTm tte honispbm. 


at their homes in the northern parts On the southern Iraq war front bassy in Beirut who was abducted 


of the cicy, which were the Monday, Baghdad-based cone- last year. 

- M. i i. J n /ja 


an dite unit of the Popular Sandin- 
ist Army said the program also is 


targets of Iraqi raids last week. spondents were driven 25 raiks (40 Mr. Buckley is one of five Ai 

^ kilometers) north and south cans who have been Itidna] 

■ Raid on Baghdad Threateaed through swamps cleared of Iranian over the past year in Beirut. 

The Iranian prime minister, Mir troops, and 12 trifles eastward, al- Islamic Jihad, a radical S 
Hussein Moussavi, warned Hues- most to the Iranian border. group loyal to Iran’s Sbnte le 


S2SMMES3S 

“ T*° be ”Sf P ¥^ attacks an Honduran-bascdrebels 


regions, have not reported similar 
destruction of peasant homes dur- 
ing evacuation of villages there. 


n- * . 

i*#m 


day that Baghdad’s airport could Ban i n d ica t e d Monday that it Ayat ollah Ruhollah Khomeini, 


group loyal to Iran’s Shute leader, 

Unhoiiav. VfiotriMYii purromg army. 


Sandinist officials have ex- handful of seats, were also expect- 
plamed that rdocated peasants will ed to back Mr. Martens. 


have access to schools and health 


i to Data. rar. xvumeus. course OI m«io 

Die fbrt 16 of the 48 missiles due Union from in 


it/VUAl IV IVVHMf WWUUUUIUW a nm m ymn a ^ . a 

In his response, Mr. Alfonrin urged tbc United States to cb I i L 19 I 
urse of dialogue and nonintervention, while also cautioning theft]/ 1 / ) I ( .1 

i. in ft. WwfMn Upmlcnlim »■*" 


come imriw miarilr attack as a re- bad halted its drive across the says it is h ol ding them. 


*There will be nobody left there 
but thgm and us,” said a snldiw 


care, often for the first time in their to be stationed at Floreunes air 
lives. Families will receive parcels base, about 40 nules (about 64 kflo- 


suk of the Iraqi threat to turn Irani- maidia ito the main highw^rlmk- in a report from Beirut, United from the SimonBoHvar Ughtln- of land or join cooperative farms meters) south of here, arrived hours 

Ml IINTIM* mtn 9 war Tnne Hnt- mil Hltabnan ana Basra, a DQrt m rr l. j JUI . * • .1* on Tan/t nnrrhatfH nr mm_ ,ri«r lt«c imMinmiMil FnHiv 


Union from intervening in the Western Hemisphere. 

In his remarks, Mr. Reagan also pledged to assist Argentina in 
its economic problems, but offered no specifics. 


Si‘^r° aWarZOn " RD> SffirSK NMiom offiorii ind diplomatic 


mreporWL sources said that Isradi-batiked mi- of heivy guerrflti activity. 

In an mtoview <m Tehran radio, square mfc (500 ^uaic i&me- lit i am e n f OT ced children to stand in “Whatthevaresoirnttol 


created an land purchased or con- after bis MnnimwinHii Friday, 
fiscated from luge owners, they On Sunday more than 100,000 
have said. opponents cs the missiles rallied in 

Nevertheless, some have ques- Brassds. 


■* litiamen forced children to stand m “What fliey are going to have is a 

: momtored by the Bntish Broad; toO of an important oil region had of their gun positions as a free^re wS" a feSn dirdomat 

rhmnrntirm Mr Mnn«B)vi OceU CaJCGIL .u.u *m. j„.f_n' J ... 7 ^ * 


casting Corporation, Mr. Moussavi been taken. 
cairi ‘‘Baghdad airport may come In Riyadl 
under repeated blows by our pow- of the Gulf 
erful nnssfles." comprising 


— ■«* & uaaraaa 

troops in a Shiite village in occu- 
compnsmg Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Tj-hannn 


■ Blast in Iratp Capital 

-The explosion in Bad; 
cured near the main omi 


Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab 
Kmiratfl ! and Oman, a two- 
uL ax- =day meeting with a pledge of sup- 
in the port for Iraq. 


shield Tuesday following a shoo- grid of the relocatio ns. 
tout with Irish United Nations The number of peasants fawn 
troops in a Shiite village in occu- moved is unclear. President Dani 
pied southern Lebanon. Ortega Saa vedra sa i d Sunday th: 


sd southern Lebanon. Ortega Saavedra mid Sunday that 

Timor GOksd, spotamm [or ff iS. 7 - 000 fa ” 3 ?”: 01 m ° ra . 1 V 11 
the UN In^^tFoiM in Lebanon, 33/100 people, bo moved this 

confirmed the nccounl -• jyc m th e northem wmanes. 

. Thousands already have been re- 

- ! settled. • 


turned whether conservative and 

Bdginin to K31 10,000 PigB 

their subsistence-level family The Associated Prea 


Dutch, Alter U.S. Protest? 
Act on Child Pornography 


•- -•* 
* •*. 


farm*. A similar evacuation of In- 


The Associated Press 

BRUSSELS — The Agriculture 


dans along the Coco River al the Ministry said Tuesday it has or- 
b^mnmg of 19Q led to wide- dered at least 10,000 pip to be 


(Condoned from Page 1) “Some of these guys at. . 

and viriousness of dnld pomogra- lodcers, but a surprising^ 
phy. number have records cf 

m addiriof^ many U^. experts ofienses," a U5. Cu s t ocs- 
assert that this kind of pornogra- said, 
phy has a cause-and-eff ect linkage . As cancem spreads in } 
to statutory rape of nndgrnge Ail - Europe, television progra 
dren and other kinriK of y^ial vio- starting to cover the issue o 
knee by pedophiles, or child mo- philia more grapbicalljpmpnf 
lesters. paigns are under yny m ro 1 11 

PtednohiksH«AilHranforrti«r European countries, indud 


spread dissatisfaction, helping turn 'destroyed to combat an outbreak 


many into armed rebels. 


of African swine pest in Belgium. 


In Jakarta 

there's a superb hotel 
that is more like a 
luxurious country dub. 


Rebels Consider Future Without Aid 


(Continued from Page J) ■ 
were peasants from northern Nica- 
ragua angered by severe rationing 
and the Sandnnsts’ socialist pro- 


wasjailed for organizing a stnke of has forced the rebels to begin kam- , , .TTT.m aLTZ? 


said. 

As concern spreads in 1_ 
Europe, television progra 


lesters. 

Pedophiles use children for their 


Netherlands, Sweden 


and theSandnrists’ socialist pro- ^ Ve ^ve been called Reagan's chief problem appears fa 
gram. Their morale seemed high a™*. lhe CIA’s army, every army duced flow of supplies n 
j and the depth of their opposition to ^ 001 own i° Mr. Calero said, a complete cutoff of aid. 


or tapes of their to get more aduhs and dffl'l* 
iDhStim Feder- s P eak . ab ? Dt » , 


HOTEL BOROBUDUR 
INTER* CONTINENTAL 


the Sandmists made it appear likely "The faa that w e contin ue to exist 
♦hai a bitter war will be waged, in operate successfully means 


study that was circulated to Euro- 
pean officials. Recent research, it 


cpvaa t/ui mivih jwmmu w;i ( _ . 

nunras, induding incest f V 
Even so, the Dutch Jusrir '' 1 l • 


Caribbean coast, and rebels in Mr. that drild abnse can include forced 


- ••• .* ~ I » - iWlUVU V* Wl I II I IIIM I l;WU 4?U~ DfllfCS 

northern Nicaragua for years to ^ slrito Indian rebels on Nicaragua’s drildrt 

cont -ffl- WemenommsoMtion. Caribbmn coast, mui mbds Smt. Sd 

But the founders of the Nicara- a Pastora’s Sandko Revolutionary incest 

guan Democratic Force and its . ,2 member ra the rebdy Na- front said that their forces also wv 

most senior commanders are al- J* 00 " Dtrecmrate until he was were critically short of supplies. .. ..~J 

most all former members of the fr*cedto resign five months ago, The foot soldiers of the Nicara- hnn . 


While dinical evidence is too 
limited to confirm or disprove as- 


istry acknowledges that 
dons for drild abuse rant 
In cases involving pornof-. __ 
pictures, couvictions arc difl. - “ 
get without a confession 
Faber smd. One recent cast, 
on videotape, was thrown^ *■ 
court when die Dutch juA". - • 
the boy on the screen seemc - ' 




• V U wp 



most afl former members of the “w.™™ *8°. The foot soldiers of the Nicara- the boy on the screen seemc" 

National Guard, which was known said that one <rf his disagreements guan Democratic Force arc volun- s f x ^ as ^ V* 1 ** eqqyinghhnsdf. 

far its contortion and unswerving the orgamration reb- ^ between the ages of 13 and 30 Moreover, Dutch laws C 

loyalty to the dictator Anastasio ance on National Guard officers, who fight without pay, belying San- f 00 * cases dramata£d “* P 10 ^ nography arc so liberal tiC 

Somoza, who was toppled in the ‘They lack social sensibility,” he dmist assertions that they are mer- 1CKL • malm it practically impost 


Somoza, who was toppled in the 
Sandinist-led revolution of 1979. 


On the other hand, the rebels’ geance and settle accounts. They 
chief political official Adolfo Ca- don’t realize things have changed 


kro Portocarrero, was an opponent in Nicaragua. 1 
of the Somoza regime Mr. Calero The loss o 


VT 5 J «- wawwu uicaiuaui 1J «uu JU -™v wwiwrna, l>uuj i law* . 

ce on National Guard officers, who fi^it without My, belying San- 9°°^ cases dmnata£d *“ P 10 ^ nography arc so liberal th: 

‘They lack social saisibility,” he dmist assertions thatthey are mer- la ?‘ ■ ■ , _ n TT _ make it practically impost 

said. “The guard wants to take ven- renaries. in a case tast fall, u^. prosecai- get convictions for obscenir 

ance and settle accounts. They -t-u. —^t tors said that more than 100 dril- for the grossest scenes in' 

>uT realize things have changed **»• aged between 2 and 10, at- chfldren, h^Faber said. • 

Nicaragua." ^ a fSS^uSSR,^ 

The loss of American support cent^sSliiv and 105 An ^ s, ^ CTC molcslc d for thedimateof opimonhad. 


WORLDWIDE 

ENTERTAINMENT 


12.qv ■jjcrgeV tol.72J T 2.32 

PfiRIS - FRANCE 


Black English 
Grows in U.S. 


population, raising questOTsahom ,*.i ? 

the breadth of popular support for ^ vms t m 

(he gueirfllas. Jhewidctm^dass -°°? ° Ut ffi5 ndhovcn 
youths or residents of the more °ruffi“ wrf cocaine 
populous southern half of Nicara- g* sexnrty assanta 
gua have joined the rebel ranks. 5”; ^ 


make it practically impost 
get convictions far obscemT; ' 
for the grossest scenes inr- 
children, Mrs. Faber said. " 
On duld pornography, lv c - • 
the dimate of opinion Ittsd 
“Petrie, normal people, c-" 


pornographic films. “People, nonnalpeopfc, c-" 

om In the Netherlands, a 6-year-old realize how nasty or ecteas> - 
f OT giri vns abandoned in a motel stuff is, and we want to st/ 
„„ room outride Eindhoven after be- said Klaus de Vries, a S' •; 


THE ADVANTAGE IS INTER-CONTINENTAL 


O JNTmCONTn>mNTAL HOTELS 


Jalan Lapangan Ban ten g Selatan, (P.Q Box 329), 370108, Telex: 44156 
For reservations <aD: Hong Kong: 5-8440311/3, 

Tokyo: 2150777, Singapore: 2202476, Osaka: 2640666, ’ 
or call your nearest InterContinental sales office. 




(Continued from Page 1) There n 

pears that in the black vernacular ^humau 


/ . , dose when pobce found her m the 

Therehaw been several raports mold. Last month the couple was 


ter be- said Klaus de Vries, a S'" *r: 
r a con- member of the States-Genci. 
her on Dutch parliament 
a over- The intentions of the estft-> . 
r in the two dozen Wgponu^r^hy ' " 
de was utors in the Netherlands - : - 


words are taking on new mwmingc reoo^ lp o u qn i g toe rating or on- 
and being combmed in new ways to nnned ervuiaas. Cokxiel Bornudez 
produoidioms not found in any d *?? s ” c d reports as “lots of 
* *■ * . ■» nnsmfamation." 


... , . i - -WWM. HW no, 111 UUP l- vnr- 1 

vitdatiras py the sentenced to 10 years’ imprison- undear. At the p re mis es ftr. 


white dialect or in standard Ea- _ 

gli-sh. With the loss of American fi- however, that the risks of abuse ‘ But U.S. and Dutch Vti. 

For example, the construction nandng, Mr. Calero said his main increase as more busy parents en- have noted with satufactfr > 
“nms and tell me” appears recently task now is raising money and buy- oust their preschool-age children new drild pornography n>- 
to have become the standard con- ing supplies. Private businessmen to day-care centers. appears to be inaeasmgly 1-ft 

stiuction for “he ran and told me." in the United States and “political Unscrupulous or ill- managed find in Europe. Mnrrynf the : - 


the killmg of on- ment, an unusually harsh sentence 

.otoael Bermtidez in the Netherlands. 

ports as Hots of It is unclear whether child abuse 


sentence such group, personnel refffi 

comment on the new law br -i,. 

did abuse ri tual defense of their rightK v.. 
rts agree, plore the limits cf sextuSty *•' 
of abuse But U.S. and Dutch cti- 


F 
in 
isi 
Pro 


to have become the standard con- 
struction for “he ran and told me." 
It is used only in the narrative past 
raise, and the first verb always 
ends in an “s" while the second 
does not. The invariability of the 
construction amounts to a gram- 
matical rule. 

Similarly, some idioms that arc 
nearly impossible to translate liter- 


in the United States and “political Unscrupulous or ill- managed find in Europe. ManvctuH 
sectors" in other countries have nursery schools were cited in con- in recent issue of “LobtaT 
given the rebels $5 million in the gresaonal hearings as terrain where prints of old pictures, or 
last nine months, he said. “child predators" seek victims. Asian driUren. 

He visited the headquarters Many riupmems of child pornogra- While U.S. officials » 


ramp last week with a retired Unit- 1*7 ^ javE keen traced to known have no illusions that tb. : 


ed States major general, 
Smglaub, who said he was 
funnel assistance to the ret 


jU pedophiles who had obtained jobs 
to' in nursery schools, chfld-rehabuita- 


tion centers or other places that 


stamp out sexual cxpkrtsK. 
children in the poorest Asiar ft 
tries, the flow to UJl-cof^;’ 


ijxil n 




far and away 
the best node revae 
in the universe ' 

... ic>j Ih? press 


ally appear to have developed. In capacity as president of the Worid brought them into contact with will be sharply cut if the Ea> 
an e x a mpl e given, by Dr. Labov, a Anti-Communist League and die cb ^ drcn - channel via the Nctfaeriands- 

man might say to a dog “Get out of United States CouncS for World : 

my way, or I be done go upside Freedom, based in Phoenix. 

SSjSSafiSS U.S. Considers Mideast Tal 


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my way, or I be done so upside 
your head." In this case, the phrase 
i “be done” has assumed a spcdal- 

, ized maanrng and em phaqn In 

| standard English, Dr. Labov said, 
| the sentence might read: “As sure 
! as there is a God in heaven, m 
I knock yon out of the way." 

“The more we study and aaa- 

T rr rw T .U«, J T. 


Room for private parties 
Easy parking Gated Sat. & Sw. ■ 


i lyze," Dr. Labov said, the more it 
. shows the signs of people devdoo- 


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shows the signs of people develop- W °* the ^ 
ing their own gr ammar ? cral other 

“We’re not ruling out the possi- coven 

bffity that it is contributing to fail- ^ 0116 035 

ure of black children to learn to Canada, 
read. How much a little child has to Tomorrow 
do to translate^" he added. ruo. 


Freedom, based in Phoenix. 

Mr. Calero said a shipment of 
40,000 hand grenades being un- 
loaded in the camp had been 
bought from a South American 
country that was told they were 
going to a country in Africa. 

Reporters saw one box of 40mm 
ammunition marked “Quartennas- 
ter of die Guatemalan Army." Sev- 
eral other boxes of ammunition 


i i'.thmtftt ap 

TT i.ftoiWv , 

» fultohgvnRfe 


(Con ti n u ed from Page 1) - “The si gnificance of the . 

> UJW. the United States has to it aw!' 

ruit tK« istM. PLO Dubhdv. for tbc first t- 


out the possibility of Palestin- p L° publkdy, fw the &st 
ians being r^resemed on the Jor- acceptance af thc pri* 


the acceptance of the print 


■urn fm 

1 ?* Him 


‘'•UI6KUWU VU U1G JOT- ». ■. ■ , , . tJL ■ 

daman negotiating team, and Israel ‘f cnw ? , y/ or \ 

also has indicated thai h would Scainre Council resohitics 

"not look too closely" into whether .‘“j? SPSE&i* 

such Palestinians had been ap- 
proved by the PLO. 


were covered with Arabic writing 
and one case was marked “Montre- 


been ap- 


_ Meanwhile, the Jordanian for- 


acceptance fay the PLO d I 
tion 242 as the basis for 
mem." \ 

Resolution 242 stipulates 


Tomorrow: The view from Mona- ^ Minister, Taher al-Masn, vriio states in the Middle East hi 

- ic in WacKinMim Fn. hlb. n.j ■ . . . ... J - - . vl ‘ 


is in Washu^ton lac talks, called right to exist in peace and s.‘ 
for a positive UA response to the within recognized boundary 


UNIVBISITY 




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itoanaMwat-MtaM 

■ MfeHnBM. 

^D^OwSD.awalyitoa. CAUSA 90712 


Feb. 11 agreemou between King amap tawy. hy tte PLO wo V 
Hussem and Mr. Arafat, In a talk tantamo unt to recognizing 
to tte American Enterprise Insti- Although die Feb. 1 1 aocor 


tute, Mr. Masn argued that the not specifically mention F .. 
agreement “strives important issues tion 242, Mr. Masri contend 


■i*wm ««A. 

R •' . XS'faJ 

‘ -V ■•aiirjwis 


aod removes hurdles the United if the United Stales region^ * 
Stales and others thought stand in itivety to the Arabs’ overtuft 
the way of the achievement of a PLQfc implhai recognition -ft 
peaceful settlement.** eventually would be made e , 


iy 




'waMMmj 






INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, MARCH 20, 1985 


Page 3 


AMERICAN TOPICS 


; T^httfcr p - . - ; . 

«« fcUfe 

il Civ#) musi-w- 
at-liWiteVAr- ji_- 

rf v 

% klf 

.*■ V - . u 

*r.<- - 

Ity \ . i .. 
fcsa f.t. Tf 

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_ ^ l in >nes and Banks: 

.S-lifdmes’ for Poor? 

^ Deregulation and changing 
schnotogy have brooght on spi- 
■j-: ‘?Hng rates for bank and tele- 
■ 'shone services. The cost of both 
' o consumers is expected to dou- 
>‘. s afc or triple by we end of the 
fccade, according to The Wash- 
...■jjgion Post 

-v' ; : This has kd consumer groups 
■' £* o urge that poor and eldeny 
‘Americans be given the same 
■ . "dnd of “lifeline" services for 
ha nks and phones that are now 
provided by public utilities, 
vUcb have taken steps to see 
lihat people with low incomes 
Continue to get heat and electric- 
: Vity in cold weather. 

Many banks and telephone 
'-companies have moved to ease 
; ihc burden, with an erye to beat- 
~ " ' ' .mg lawmakers to the punch. 

• -^Some critics, conceding that heat 

vs ‘^.ind light are necessities, argue 
i^that phones and bank accounts 
- . ~ ‘ .v are not, and are concerned Wat 
■■'' r ^declaring them necessities could 
''lead to such “lifelines" forever 
‘ multiplying. 

‘ “ ^ ' Consumer qjokesmen say that 

\ today’s society, banks and 

"• '' ''telephones are a necessity, not a 
' convenience. But Kirk G. WDli- 
IWtktiN I" V son (rf the American Bankers As- 

* I * t';H* ( |,; h % sedation says, “We hate the term 

J.%n;gcvv J 1 WTifclinc.’ Banking is 

*»****,-: i.. , ... Wdeathsmation 

i ««i. V, j,./ , • i ^ -service might be." 

, -: c . ^ 

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it ii 

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Vdfvi 

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fcr i.v.,- 
*ter. 


** m: 


not a life- 
as a utility 


rt 

1,- v. 


- :^Keeping the p Higher’ 
i j;; In Higher Education 

J 5 ; 7 ’ Jacques Barzun, author and 
. • ~ it-; critic, wrote a letter to The New 

; ' ^ York Hines deploring the belief 
, . _ -'hthat higher education is “to ev- 
:^.-erybodys taste and within every- 
hod/s aptitudes. It ^ in fact, 
cruel and unusual punishment to 
* t> those who lack the native bent, 

H»iH IW’J^ins yjA.. the prqrarationorboth.lt is also 

true that high intelligence, talent 
- and personal and social merit are 

- found in many forms other than 
-.-.^academic ability. They deserve 


U *,jf #<*».'- 

; to? wt; « • n 

W>. IfpHCZ-V 

! 

1 4mUgur i>.-. 

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Jacques Barzun 


training and recognition on their 
own ground. 

“If this were understood, we 
would be rid of both the self- 
serving pieties of educational 
leaders and of foolish clich&s 
about eli tism. It is not elitisL for a 
ballet school to weed out those 
with weak legs or a baseball 
training camp to send home 
those with weak arms, " he said. 


Short Takes 

Robert Sahneroo, who said the 
federal government hid his two 
teen-age children from Wm for 
almost two years while their 
mother was bong protected as a 
witness in a racketeering trial, 
has won a $100,000 settlement 
from the government. In San 
Francisco, Mr. Salmeron’s law- 
yer said this was the largest set- 
tlement in a number of amrlar 
suits against the Federal Witness 
Protection Program. 

The potato chip appears to 
have fought off challenges bom 
“natural' food snacks like bran 
and granola bars. In 1983 the 
salted snack food industry, 
whose mainstay is the potato 
chip, rang up record sales of $6.1 
billion, up more than 15 percent 
from Lhe previous year. “Let’s 


face it," says Isabel Wolf, a U.S. 
government nutritionist, “not 
many people are going to relax 
by eating celery and carrot 
sticks.” 

Shorter Takes: Problems and 
uncertainties r emain but New 
York Gty has bounced back 
from the fiscal crisis of the mid- 
1970s, according to the New 
York state comptroDer, Edward 
V. Regan. The city, is running a 
budget smplus and is supported 
by an economy that is in its best 
shape in 25 years More selec- 
tivity by Supreme Couitjustices, 
and not Chief Justice Warren E. 
Burger's proposed national ap- 
peals coart, would end tne 
court’s heavy case load, accord- 
ing to a study directed by two 
professors at New York Univer- 
sity law school, both former 
daks of the high court. 

Washington Dr inlcs; 

Peril for New Yorkers 

The cocktail hour can be 
treacherous for New Yorkers un- 
familiar with Washington, He 
New York Tunes repots. Work- 
ing on the mictaV^ assumption 
that a cocktail party is a soda] 
occasion. New Yorkers invari- 


eai too little, drink too 
and, with misplaced sophistica- 
tion. talk about all the wrong 
things: their therapists, the exot- 
ic currency market, the latest cult 
novel, off-Broadway play or all- 
night sushi bar. 

Robert Squier. a Democratic 
Party political consultant, told 
The Times. “If you don’t realize 
that Washington *yylftail parties 
are work, that you’re supposed to 
gp in frowning, ready to cut a 
deal trade information or get 
something done, you can quickly 
be labeled a frivolous person. 
Whereas in New York, if you go 
to a party and don’t know the 
latest k in’ restaurant, you're to- 
tally out of it" 

— Comp iled by 

ARTHUR fflGBEE 


R.F. Botha Clashes With Tutu in Televised Debate 


United Press Imenuuumtti 

WASHINGTON — The South 
African foreign minister, R.F. Bo- 
tha, dashed angrily in a televised 
debate with Bishop Desmond M. 
Tutu, who compared his govern- 
ment's apartheid policies with Na- 
zism. 

Mr. Botha, confronting Bishop 
Tutu on Monday on.U.S. televi- 


sion. said that blacks would eventu- 
ally be given a voice in all levels erf 
government but th&t progress 
would come more quickly if other 
nations stayed out of the dispute. 

Bishop Turn, the first blade An- 
glican bishop of Johannesburg and 
winner of the Nobel Peace 


black South Africans, the black 
majority had no alternative bur to 
seek international support. 

“When are you going to listen to 
the victims and stop listening to the 
perpetrators of something as evil as 
Nazism and communism?*' the 
bishop asked. 

last year, said that since peaceful He asked the world community 
political means had been denied to to help end “this vicious system." 



Mr. Botha spoke from Cape 
Town: Bishop Tutu was in Johan- 
nesburg. They were brought face- 
to-face by television monitors. 

"To compare us with the Nazis is 
an insult to the more than 100.000 
South Africans of Jewish origin 
who came to this country and to 
our forefathers who fought with the 
Allied powers against Nazi Germa- 
ny” Mr. Botha replied angrily. 

Bishop Tutu condemned South 
Africa's pass laws under which he 
said 160.000 blacks were arrested 
last year for seeking, work. 

He added that tie government, 
by uprooting 3 3 million blacks and 
requiring black workers to live 
away From their families 1 1 months 
a year, “destroys black family life 
deliberately." 

Mr. Botha said his government 
realizes the “national and political 
aspirations of the urban black peo- 
ple cannot all be satisfied" through 
a system of serai-aufonomous 
black nations within South Africa. 


world can stay out of it for a bit." 

He added: “If the impression U 
created that outsiders are making 
our derisions for us. then that kind 
of pressure tends to slow down the 
process (rf reform." 

■ 2 Die in Township Unrest 
Two blacks were killed Tuesday 

when police fired birdshot during 
renewed unrest around Port Eliza- 
beth. South Africa. Reuters quoted 
police as saying. This brought the 
death toll in five days of violence in 
South African black townships to 
nine. 

Most of the unrest has taken 
place in townships near Port Eliza- 
beth. where blacks held a three-day 
strike to protest rising prices. 

■ U.S. Companies in Appeal 
UJS. companies in South Africa 

publicly urged the government 
Tuesday to dismantle apartheid 
laws in order to head off calls in the 
United States for economic sanc- 


tions a gains t the country. Reuters 

~lt is particularly in respect of reported from Johannesburg, 
these that we have derided we will The American Chamber of Com- 

merce in South Africa released a 
document that it had presented to 
the authorities calling for the aban- 
donment of discriminatory laws. It 
said the document had been cor- 
dially received. 


structures which will allow them to 
participate in decision-making at 
all levels eventually," he said. 

Thai goal can best be achieved. 
Mr. Botha said, “if only the outside 


Leendert Plaisier oo his Dutch farm which he has proposed as a ate for Soviet missiles. 

Dutchman Offers Farm as SS-20 Site 


Ex-Head of EPA Demands Legal Fees 


• — By Dale Russakoff 

Washington Port Service 

»JL A _ I £ tj WASHINGTON — Anne M. 
ICO* - mitt I l rMurford has asked the White House 

> pay $211,000 of her Legal fees, 
£ *1 • I I ra ten ding that Attorney General 

OH vail 1(1 I ()I*H()^wuLMeese 3d promised her that 

*Te Reagan administration would 
_ike on dial expense if she resigned 
. "1 March 1983 as head of the Envi- 

' ' Tnmental Protection Agency. 

- “The agreement was oral and 

‘ ; -art of my resignation," Mrs. Bur- 
ird said ra an interview published 


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indictment 
^ fo Draft Case 
Upheld in U.S. 

1 United Press Tntematwnal 

WASHINGTON — The Su- 
. : reme Court on Tuesday upheld 
)e federal government’s policy of 
roseenting only those young men 
An have publicly disclosed their 
; .sfusal to register fm the military 

- - jafL 

“ The 7-2 ruling involved David A 

• -Yayte, of Pasadena, Catifornia, 
fho was indicted in July 1982 for 

future to tester after he mounted 

• campaign of active dissent, writ- 
3g letters to President fimmy Car- 
■ jt and the Selective Service Sys- 

■ ■' At the time, more than 500,000 
^ ' 'Egible men had failed to r^sl 

• - Wy 12 others besides Mr. Wayte, 

- ; fl vocal resisters, were selected for 
.■ ''n»eaiti<HL 

u ■ This policy was challenged in a 
fded by Mr. Wayte, who ar- 
_^ued it violated First Amendment 
. .‘•uaraniees of free speech. 

- ■ . ' Writing for the majority. Justice 

■ -ewis F. Powell upbdd a ruling 
: .“mutating Mr. Wayte’s indict- 

- 'leu, which had been overturned 
: :'y a lower court. This appears to 

.. How the prosecution of Mr. Wayte 
- . od otba dissenters to go forward. 

, ;. Mr. Powell, rqecting arguments 
i . uttiw passive registration policy 
-•tolated the First Amendment, 

... -.rote that by relying on reports of 
r . -har^istration, ■ the government 
.. as able to identity ana prosecute 
. -. olators quickly. 

. ; Mr. Powell said that prosecuting 
' . uhle nonregistrants “was thought 
/lhe an effective wity to promote 
deterrence, especially since 
.,- umg to proceed against publicly 
town offendacs would encourage 
J. : ™s to violate the law “ 

The limitations tins placed on 
Jy* speech were no more “than 
P necessary to ensure registra- 
l*olor the national defense," his 
" 1 opinion said. 

noted that this was 
interim enforcement strategy 
. (be Selective Service was try- 
T to develop an active policy. The 
non policy' is to match stale 
... ^ePs license records with Serial 
..■amty files. 


Monday in Times, a trade 
publication. “You’d think he’d 
honor his word, wouldn’t you?" 

Mr. Meese, who in 1983 was 
counselor to President Ronald 
Reagan, refused through a spokes- 
man to comment on Mis. Burf rad’s 
remarks. She resigned on March 9, 
1983, amid a furor about alleged 
improprieties at the EPA 

[At the White House. Larry 
Speakes, the presidential spokes- 
man, said, “The president’s feding 
bn it is that Mrs. Burford should be 
compensated if it is appropriate," ■ 
The Associated Press reported.] 

Mrs. Burford said she thinks 
that ha claim places Mr. Meese in 
a difficult position because he is 
seeking government reimburse- 
ment for legal fees of his own — 
$720,000 incurred during a special 
counseTs investigation of alleged 
financial improprieties. 

Mrs. Burford said that because 
the White House has not acted on 
ha request, she plans to file a law- 
suit ‘"very soon" to try to force the 
administration to pay the legal fees 
she incurred after her resignation. 



Anne M. Burford 

Mrs. Burford was cited when she 
refused, under orders from Mr. 
Reagan, to Dim ova hundreds of 
documents to Congress. 


The Associated Press 

DRONTEN, Netherlands — A 
Dutch farmer who wrote a political 
manifesto advocating nonviolence 
has offered the Soviet Union his 
land as a ate for their SS-20 mis- 
siles if the Netherlands deploys 
U-S.-buih NATO rockets. 

Leendert Plaisier said he does 
not belong to any peace movement, 
but made the offer because he be- 
lieves in balance. He said it would 
“even be safer if no missiles woe 
deployed at alL” 

He added, “If these 48 rockets 
are deployed, and Tm sure that will 
happen, why not counterbalance 
them with the same number of So- 
viet missiles? A nuclear equilibrium 
will make our country a safer place 
to live in." 

Mr. Plaisier, 44, said be went to 
the Soviet Embassy in The Hague 
recently to offer his 109-acre (44- 
hectare) plot in Dronten, a central 
Dutch farming community, as a 
deployment site. 

Mr. Plaisier said Soviet officials 
did not make any promises but 
“agreed they did not hke the nucle- 
ar buildup either." 

He said he would not mind giv- 
ing up die crops of beets, wheat and 
potatoes he now grows on the land. 

“Yes, it’s my bread and bur ter 
now," be said. “But I’m not con- 
cerned about myself. It’s future 
generations that count" 

Mr. Plaiser said he told Prime 
Minister Ruud Lubbers and the 
Dronten town council of his offer 
to the Russians by mail earlier this 
month. He said Mr. Lubbers sent 
him a “noncommittal response” 
and that the council had not re- 
plied. 

Mr. Plaisier wrote a 102-page 
personal and political manifesto. 


called “A Tes tamen t," last year af- 
ter the death of his wife, EQy. It was 
printed privately. In it, he wrote 

that mankin d’s most important 

problems were the threat of war, 
poverty and famine. 

NATO plans to put the new me- 
dium-range missiles on the Dutch 
Air Force base at Woensdrecht as 
pan of its deployment of 572 enrise 


and Pershing-2 missiles io counter 
the SS-20s the Soviet Union al- 
ready has in place. 

The Dutch government derided 
last June that it would take the 48 
cruise migalq, if (he Russians de- 
ployed any more SS-20s by next 
November, but would deplpy none 
if the number of Soviet missiles had 
not increased. 


SKZ 

ICH A N N . E L 


BROADCASTING TO CABt£ COMPANIES 
rN EUROPE & THE UK VIA SATELLITE 

"Europe* Best View" 


PROGRAM. WEDNESDAY 20lt> MARCH liK TIMES 


13.35 FAMILY 
1430 STAR FLEET 
15J» SKYTRAX1 
1545 SKYTRAX2 
1630 SKYTRAX 3 
1730 MR ED 


18.00 

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WEDNESDAY, MARCH 20, 1985 


Heralfc 


INTERNATIONAL 


PabBAed With IT* New Yack HmM «nd Tbe Wwlriagian Pok 


Gorbachev to the Rescue: Big Job , Big Opportunity 




<>vs: 


As industrial countries move into the 
northern spring, they touch up the arrange- 
ments for their economic summit. Proposals 
uncurl from the word processors of the seven 
governments primarily involved. Even the 
smaller countries have some say — in the 
OECD — before the big seven withdraw 
into the spotlit intimacy of the summiL 

Recent summits have produced little be- 
yond pageantry «nrf the drafting of commu- 
niques whose lead content endangers the 
brain. When the seven meet in Bonn in six 
weeks* time, they could change this record 
by mapping out selective action instead of 
contenting themselves with eternal verities. 

Each country wants something different 
from the summiL This is the only point in 
bolding iL Limiting their objectives this 
year, the seven governments could draw up a 
selective action program that history might 
cite as an example of how sovereign coun- 
tries can help each other to help themselves. 
There is room for a deal that would benefit 
the whole non-Commmhst world. 

America’s contribution would be to en- 
sure. through a change of course by Presi- 
dent Rea g an , that tbe budget deficit will be 
reduced, thus clearing the way for an orderly 
fall in interest rates and the dollar. 

Japan and West Germany, whose price 
performance is as good as America’s, would 
guarantee action to revive demand to re- 
place the stimulus provided by the overval- 
ued dollar, Bonn may already be thinking in 
this direction, but Tokyo seems reticent 
Britain's contribution might be a pledge to 
follow up the present budget chang es if 
recoway proves disappointing. In all three 
cases it has to be realized that if economic 
disfigurations — unemployment in Britain 


and West Germany and a huge trade surplus 
in Japan — are to be corrected, growth will 
temporarily need to be faster than the rate 
appropriate ever the longer run. 

For France and Italy the contribution 
should be very different ft would make no 
sense for either to stimulate demand, be- 
cause that would put at risk the progress — 
still insufficient, and particularly fragile in 
Ztaly — toward price stability. But both 
governments ought to came out of the cor- 
ner and show more positive support for a 
new GATT round of free trade negotiations. 

And all seven governments should com- 
mit themselves to early action — without 
waiting for the inevitably laborious GATT 
processes — to roll back tbe special barriers 
to trade that the United States and Europe 
have erected in recent years and that have 
long discolored the Japanese image. 

The keystone to a triumphal arch in Bonn 
mil be American action on the budget 
Without it, nothing W31 be builL But it wiD 
not be enough for Mr. Reagan simply to 
assert deter minati on to get his proposals 
through Congress. No one believes that he 
can persuade Congress to adopt his present 
request To convince his friends at the sum- 
mit, he will have to soften his uncompromis- 
ing stance on the pattern of spending cuts 
and, if necessary, on taxes. He cannot do this 
at the summit itself because the budget is 
primordially a domestic American affair. 
Unlike Henry IV, he cannot travel to Can- 
ossa, or Bonn, to surrender to the Church. 
So he should start compromising in Wash- 
ington now. He does not have much time to 
make a convincing gesture, but if he does 
not, we doubt if the sap will rise this spring. 

INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE 


Belgium Keeps a Promise 


The Belgians, NATO members, had pro- 
mised to do their alliance duty by starting to 
deploy their share of new missiles this month, 
and they have now delivered on their promise. 
It was not easy politically for Prime Minister 
Wilfried Martens but, facing elections at the 
end of the year, he derided to take tbe step well 
in advance and to take it in style. So he did His 
announcement came last Friday, and over the 
weekend the first batch of 16 cruise missil es 
were flown in. The 16, and the 32 doe to come 
later, will not make the difference between 
security and no security for Belgium and Eu- 
rope. But by deploying them Belgium gives 
West Germany crucial political company. 
That is what allian ce solidarity is about 
The Soviets, not by design, gave the Belgians 
some useful help at the end. At the Chernenko 
funeral the Belgian foreign minister asked his 
Soviet counterpart a question that, one can 
safely guess, he knew how the Soviet would 
answer. Will you unlink talks on offensive 
weapons from talks on defensive weapons? the 
Belgian asked. Linking them is, of course, the 
essence of the Soviet negotiating strategy. The 


Belgian government was then in a position to 
inform its closely divided electorate that, since 
Moscow had left so little room for negotiations 
on offensive arms, Belgium had no honorable 
or reasonable choice but to start deploying. 
Any other response would have given Moscow 
an unremuneraied political and psychological 
boost just as the Geneva talks were starting. 

Sixteen cruise missiles: That is not very 
many. The Soviet Union has deployed a larger 
number of SS-20s — 18 —just in the last two 
months. The total number of triple-warhead, 
first-strike SS-20s trained on Europe has now 
climbed to 414. For more than five years 
Moscow has been putting Western Europe 
under the gun, literally. NATO started answer- 
ing the Soviet deployments only last year. The 
governments of West Germany, Britain. Italy 
and Belgium have come forward, all of them at 
considerable political cost, but all of them 
finally convinced that deployment was essen- 
tial in order to maintain the essential alliance 
qualities of combined strength and mutual 
obligation. Only tbe Dutch still lag. 

— THE WASHINGTON POST. 


Millions of Hot Potatoes 


Earlier this month, while American physi- 
cians were performing three successive heart 
transplants — one of them using an unautho- 
rized man-made p um p — on a Tbcsan man 
who subsequently died. The Wall Street Jour- 
nal ran a report on the increasing number of 
hospitals that are “dumping seriously HI 
patients unable to pay their bills. Gan this be 
a sensible— and moral — way for America to 
distribute its health resources? 

Writing in the Princeton Alnmni Weekly, 
Professor Uwe Reinhardt observes that pa- 
tient dumping is a perhaps predictable pro- 
gression from the traditional American way of 
dealing (or not dealing) with people whose 
budgets do not meet their medical needs. Un- 
der the old system, the costs of caring for the 
uninsured were shifted from pocket to pocket 
— first to hospitals, then to insured patients' 
bills, th en to insurance companies and finally 
to employers, who pay for most insurance. 

Now two things have changed. A rise in the 
number of poor and long-term unemployed, 
along with the continuing cutbacks in Medic- 
aid programs that never covered most of the 
poor and near-poor anyway, has increased the 
number of uninsured patients. New pressure 
from the government and from employers to 
cut hospital costs has made hospitals and doc- 
tors less willing to run the risk of being stuck 
with uncoil ectable bills. So, Mr. Reinhardt 


notes, the type of shifting is changing. Now it 
is not simply costs that are passed along; 
instead, “the uninsured poor themselves be- 
came the hoc potatoes one hospital seeks to 
dump into the lap of another." 

The pressures producing this shift are not 
necessarily bad. In the pursuit of tbe best 
possible care with the least possible restraints 
on patients or doctors, the United States has 
let its health bill consume a larger share of 
GNP than have other countries with far more 
comprehensive health systems. The problem is 
that policymakers and the public have not 
faced up to the inevitable consequences of 
squeezing a system that, at its most expansive, 
never adequately served millions of people. 

And so, while media-consdous doctors race 
to produce still more exotic treatments, a des- 
perately in baby sometimes dies after waiting 
for hours in the emergency room of a regional 
medical center because a pediatrician will not 
admit an indigent patient A woman in labor is 
moved to a county hospital when doctors fi- 
nally decide she needs a Caesarian section and 
the hospital she is in will not accept her hus- 
band’s promise of installment payments. 

If stories like these keep getting reported. 
Mr. Reinhardt notes, the United States runs 
the risk of losing its membership in the “club 
of civilized nations.” 


— THE WASHINGTON POST. 


FROM OUR MARCH 20 PAGES, 75 AM) 50 YEARS AGO 


1910: America Weighs Conservation 
NEW YORK — On conserving America’s 
resources, the Washington Herald says: “Our 
use of our forest lands, of our coal deposits, of 
our natural gas and dl reservoirs is almost 
criminal in its wastefulness. With all our inge- 
nuity for harnessing nature we allow the water 
power of the land to fail unused. Only recently 
have attempts been made to harness Niagara. 
A national introspection and the taking of an 
accounting with ourselves might prove benefi- 
cial to the nation." The Indianapolis News 
adfls: “Out of the rascality of past years has 
grown the belief that something ought to be 


ddbe to protect our land, forests, water 
stes and mineral deposits. The mob 


atps and mineral deposits. The problem is 
comedy staled by President Taft w ben he says 
thjt it is ‘how to save and how to utilize, how 
to .conserve and still to develop.' ” 


1935: Soviets Arrest Czarist Figures 
MOSCOW — More than a thousand persons, 
including former princes, nobles, statesmen 
and generals undo: the Czarist regime, have 
been arrested in Leningrad during the last 
few days and have been deported to eastern 
regions of the Soviet Union. According to an 
official communique issued [on March 19] by 
the Commissariat for Internal Affairs, they 
will be handed over for trial, charged with 
being concerned in anti-Soviet activities in 
favor of foreign states. The list of those 
arrested includes 41 former prinoes, 33 former 
counts, 76 former barons, 35 former factory 
owners, 68 landlords and trad esm en in big 
business, 142 statesmen under the Czarist 
regime, 547 ex-generals and other high com- 
manding officers and 113 former police and 
secret service officials. 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE 

JOHN HAY WHITNEY, Outimua JW/off 


KATHARINE GRAHAM, WILLIAM S. PALEY, ARTHUR OCHS SULZBERGER 

Co-Guurmai 



LEE W. HUEBNER, Pvbhshtr 
Executive Editor 
Editor 
Datutv Editor 
Deploy Editor 
Associate Editor 




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W ASHINGTON — Despite the prodding 
of his more impatient allies, Mikhail 
Gorbachev’s baric tactic during Konstantin. 
Chernenko’s brief tenure was to capitalize mi 
his own youthful energetic image while work- 
ing to combine the support erf former Andro- 
pov appointees and followers with that of Mr. 
Chernenko and many of his loyalists. 

Mr. Gorbachev managed to stay in the 
public eye, as on his trip to Britam, whQe 
avoiding overexposure, which would have in- 
furiated the old guard. So he decided not to gp 
to the United States himself on the recent visit 
of Soviet parliamentarians, instead sending 
Vladimir Shcfaerbitsky, a Politburo member 
and the Ukrainian pasty boss. 

Last year, when Mr. Chernenko dropped 
out of most official activities, Mr. Gorbachev 
became in fact if nor in title, the second 
secretary of the Central Committee: He rou- 
tinely began to chair meetings of the secretari- 
at of the Central Committee, and he orga- 
nized the work of the other secretaries. 

Mr. Chernenko’s patronage proved deci- 
sive. He established important precedents in 
the early stages of his wness by opening the 
meetings of the Politburo and then turning 
over the chair to Mr. Gorbachev — against 
the wishes of old guard figures such as Andrei 
Gromyko. Nikola Tikhonov and the Moscow 
party boss, Viktor Grishin. There is evidence 
that in tbe last few months Mr. Gorbachev 
became, effectively, the official chairman 
of the Politburo. There are also reasons 
to believe that he chaired meetings of the 


By Seweryn B taler 

This is the second of two articles. 


militar y council, the hi ghest party-military 
body, which prepares decisions on security 
matters for Politburo app r o v al. 

Defense Minister Dmitri Ustinov would 
have been a crucial actor in the succession 
drama; little is known far certain about his 
view of Mr. Gorbachev. There were rumors in' 
Moscow after Mr. Ustinov’s death in Decem- 
ber that be had thrown his support behind 
Mr. Gorbachev, both because he was an An- 
dropov loyalist and because he became 
friendly with Mr. Gorbachev in the few 
months before his death from cancer, which 
Mr. Ustinov knew was coming. 

There are signs that after Mr. Ustinov's 
death it was not the party secretary in charge 
of military industry. Grigori Romanov, woo 
became responsible in die Politburo for mili- 
tary affairs, but Mr. Gorbachev himself, as de 
facto chairman of the mTTiiar y coundL 

Also working to Mr. Gorbachev's advan- 
tage were the changes that Yuri Andropov 
was able to make during his brief tenure. He 
brought in younger people who were natural 
Gorbachev allies, inducing the new premier 
of the Russian Republic, Vitaly Vorotnikov, 
promoted to the Politburo; die brad of the 
KGB. Viktor Chehrikov, an alternate mem- 
ber of the Politburo; the Central Ctamnmee 
secretary fra personnel Igor Ligachev. and 
the economic secretary, Nikolai Ryzhkov. 


When Mr. Chernenko died, the political 
momentum was strongly behind Mr. Gorba- 
chev — which explains the surprising speed 
with which Ik was elected general secretary. 

In my opinion he will now consolidate his 
power quickly, reflecting the wishes of the 
Soviet elite and of party activists. 

By the tradition established in the Brezh- 
nev period, he is entitled to the permanent 
chairmanship of the defense council and to 
the presidency of the presidium of the Su- 
preme Soviet which would give him the hon- 
orific of "president" as Soviet head of state. 

These positions are of strategic importance 
by themselves. Add Mr. Gorbachevs youth 
and tactical skill and the expectation that he 
will be in office for many years, and we can 
anticipate a virtual rush of other state and 
parry officials to proclaim ihdr loyalty to the 
new leader and the support of his plans. 

But the opportunistic new loyalists who 
will flock to his standard will give Mr. Gorba- 
chev only tbe appearance of dominance. To 
firmly establish ascendancy, he needs a solid 
political base built on personal loyalties. 

First of all, he has to deal with the old 
guard and put an end to the fragmentation of 
power at the top. This will mean easing out or 


neutralizing the most important representa- 
tives of the old guard — Mr. Gromyko, Mr. 
Tikhonov and Mr. Grishin. Dealing with the 


indestructible foreign minister will be Mr 
Gorbachev’s biggest challenge. 

There were credible reports just before Mr 
Chernenko's death that Mr. Gromyko had 
tried to engineer a "stop Gorbachev" scheme. 
Mr. Gorbachev cannot tolerate for long the 
survival of Mr. Gromyko's kingdom within a 
kingdom — the monopoly of policy that he 
has established in the Foreign Ministry. 

Perhaps the simplest way to ease Mr. Gn> 
mvVo out would be for Mr. Gorbachev to 
forgo for the time being his own election as 
president of the Supreme Soviet's presidium 
and saddle Mr. Gromyko with this largely 
symbolic position. That would allow the new 
general secretary to put the Foreign Ministry 
in its traditional place, subordinate to the 
central party apparatus and the secretariat. 

The u ming of Mr. Chernenko's death could 
not have been more propitious for Mr. Gor- 
bachev. It gives him multiple opportunities to 
build the personal political base he needs. 

One opportunity comes from the shrunken 
size of the Politburo; with Mr. Chernenko's 
death, it has fallen to 10 members. This gives 
Mr. Gorbachev an opportunity to add people 
loyal to him to this most important body. 

Second, he can now convene a meeting of 
the Central Committee of the Communist 
Party that has been delayed a number of 
times and is overdue. At a plenum he can 
present his initial policy ideas and can make 
the necessary personnel changes at the top. 

Third, the leadership decided some time 


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ago to draft a new patty program replacing 
the one adopted at the 1962 party congress 
under Nikita Khrushchev. Mr. Gorbachev 
inherits responsibility for the development of 
this plan and can introduce his own ideas. 

Fourth and most important, a new pony 
congress is due late this year or early next. His 
‘'own" congress gives Mr. Gorbachev the un- 
paralleled chance to proclaim his long-range 
plans for domestic reforms to the party and 
tbe nation, and allows him to “clean out the 
stables" by making major personnel changes 
throughout state and party bureaucracies. 

Even as he consolidates power, Mr. Gorba- 
chev will have to operate for a long while 
within tbe context of collective and oligarchic 
decision nuking established in the Brezhnev 
era. The extent of his freedom of action win 
depend on his ability to surround himself 
with leaders who will be responsive and loyal 

I expect Mr. Gorbachev to model his ap- 
proach on Mr. Andropov, the leader whose 
promise of change was cut short by death. An 
activist altitude to the ills of Russia will 
require willpower, political and manipulative 
talent, consistency and a broad vision. 



&’!>■ 


,1a!' 


The right leader at the right time can make 
a major difference. Mr. Gorbachev's acces- 
sion could represent the reassertion of Soviet 
power in the world, the determination to : 
attack domestic malaise and to deal more 
successfully with foreign and military prob- 
lems. The Soviet people mav now discover . 
their country's capacity for dealing with the 
many grave problems it faces. 


The writer is a professor of political science a t 
Columbia University and a frequent visitor to 
the Soviet Union. This comment is excerpted 
from an article in The If ashington Past. 


Israel in Lebanon: America’s Interests Were Beside the Point 


W ASHINGTON —Shiite terror- 
ists kill Israeli occupiers of 


tt ists kiii Israeli occupiers or 
southern Lebanon. Israel strikes back 


By Philip Geyelin 


with operation “Iron Fist" The Unit- 
ed States vetoes a United Nations 
resolution exclusively condemning 
Israel. The Shiites vow vengeance 
against America, whose diplomats 
hunker down behind barricades or 
retreat to safe havens. Anti-Ameri- 
canism is inflamed. US. influence in 
a strategic region is diminished. 

There are crazy and/or uncontrol- 
lable elements in aD this —the terror- 
ists, for one, and the viciously anti- 
Israeli UN majority, for another. But 





I am not talking about any strong- 
arm pressures or some UJS. right to 
dictate Israeli policy, bought and 
paid for by annual military and eco- 
nomic aid measured in tbe bfllkms- 1 
am talking about a partnership that is 
skewed in exactly the opposite way: 
an almost reflexive American sub- 
mission to Israeli policies. 

The aD-too-common consequence 
has been to compromise whatever 
useful role America can play in the 
Arab world in the interests of bring- 
ing stability and security to a viral 

Lebanese experience from the start 

In 1981, UJS. special envoys had 
removed the direct threat to Israel 
from tbe forces of the Palestine lib- 
eration Organization in southern 
Lebanon by negotiating a cease-fire 
across the Lebanese-Isradi northern 
frontier. For 1 1 mouths the cease-fire 


was a success on its own terms. No 
shells from Lebanon were falling on 
towns in Galilee when the Israelis 
seized on the pretext of an assassina- 
tion attempt on their ambassador in 
London (by an extremist group that 
had broken off in opposition to the 
PLO) to break the cease-fire. 

By its tacit approval of the inva- 
sion, tbe United States became an 
accomplice. Worse, the Reagan ad- 
ministration indulged the Israeli 
myth that the Lebanese humpty- 
dumpty of 1982. could be put back 


together just the way it was when the 
French decolonized Lebanon in 1943 


French decolonized Lebanon in 1943 
and arranged for a predominately 
Christian government friendly to Is- 
rael and to the West It was as if 
nobody had noticed a fundamental 
demographic shift in favor of the 
Lebanese Moslem elements in gener- 
al and the Shiites in particular. 


The folly was compounded when 
Secretary of State George Shultz 
helped forge the Israeli withdrawal, 
tied to simultaneous withdrawal of 
Syrian forces. The Israelis extracted a 
passage that gave it the look of a 
normalization of relations, if not a 
peace treaty. This was no part of 
Syria’s understanding. Neither were 
the concessions granting Israel a de- 
gree of influence over southern Leba- 
non; this mocked the full sovereignty 
for Lebanon that was supposed to be 
the larger purpose of U.S. policy. So 
the Syrians had no trouble getting the 
Lebanese to abrogate the agreement 

Meantime, having run most PLO 
fighting forces out of Lebanon, Israel 
created a whole new enemy in the 
Shiites, seething under Israeli occu- 
pation in southern Lebanon. 

Prime Minister Shimon Peres told 
last faff, while he was in Washington, 


of hisconcem that Israeli occupali 
of Shia territory was playing into r 
hands of radical dements maw 
that could only incite extremism a 
terrorism. So Israel has long 1mm.- 
the need to withdraw. The fourtt ~ 
Israeli soldiers killed by terrorists J 
March 10 were a harsh reminder. -. 

True, any way that Israel wi.‘ 
draws — swiftly or slowly — 
leave behind a bad scene. ButC. 


longer Israel tries to pacify south*! 
Lebanon with an “iron fist," f.' 


greater the odds of an even wo,; 
scene and even more damage to be 
American and Israeli interests. 

An administration with a prof: 
sense of US. superpower responsl 
ities in the Middle East would.' 
making that argument forcefully, - 
its Israeli partner. It would, that iff ’ 
this were a partnership in which N; ‘ 
parties had the habit of taking ed ~ 
other’s interests into account. 

Washington Post Writers Group: - 


And Israel’s Interest Has Been Clumsily Disserved 


B OSTON — When a counliy is 
misled by its government on fun- 
damental issues of war and peace, it 
may take years to learn the price of 


luntiy is 
tonran- 


By Anthony Lewis 


the Israeli policy to lash back and to 
drag out its withdrawal from Leba- 
non is controllable. And that policy's 
effect on the ability of the United 


effect on the ability of the United 
States to maintain an effective pres- 
ence and protect its wider interest in 
the Middle East is inescapable. 

The question comes down, then, to 
whether the Israelis would not be 
wiser to cut their losses and nm — in 
their interest as well as America’s. 

The Israeli decision to abandon a 
bankrupt mission has been made. But 
the Israelis insist that to accelerate 
withdrawal in the face of stepped up 
terrorist attacks would be to reward 
and encourage terrorism. 

The argument has a familiar, hol- 
low ring when you remember that it 
was made by the Reagan administra- 
tion just before it decided to cut its 
losses and remove the marines to 
ships offshore. What was prudent for 
tbe Americans a year ago would be 
no less prudent for the Israelis today. 
But if that is the counsel that the 


may take years to team me price oi 
folly. The decisions that took Ameri- 
ca step by step into Vietnam had their 
reckoning 10. 20, 30 years later. 

Israel has no such luxury in Leba- 
non. Less than three years have 
passed since Arid Sharon sent Israeli 
forces across the border in a grand 
strategic stroke. Today every Israeli 
faces the grim consequences of that 
act, menacing the present and dud- 
owing the future. The war in Leba- 
non can already be seen as one of the 
worst disasters in Israel’s brief mod- 


MosLem traditions. But the occupa- 
tion army displayed much insensitiv- 
ity. even disrupting Shiite religious 
institutions. And instead of making 
security arrangements with the Shi- 
ites, u ■ government relied on the 
largd; ristian South I -banese 
Army, . niefa is now disintegrating. 

How could - dees have 


Some of the responsibility for tbe 
disaster rests in the United States. 
The Reagan administration, through 
then Secretary of State Alexander 
Haig, winked at the Sharon invasion 
plans instead of seeing them as the 
roily they were and saying a firm no. 
American supporters of Israel, too 
many of them, defended the invasion 
heedless of the consequences — as if 


been made? They mve to be attribut- 
ed to hubris— the overreaching pride 


era history — a self-inflicted disaster. 

The Vietnam analogy, in its in- 
exactness, indicates the extent of tbe 
danger. However severe the trauma 
in Vietnam, the United States was 
10,000 mOes away when the war end- 
ed. Israel after withdrawing from 
Lebanon, will stiD have to live with 
the Lebanese as neighbors: neighbors 
transformed in large numbers from 
passivity to violent hostility. 

The greatest single consequence of 
the Israeli invasion and occupation 
has been the arousal of the Shiites, 
the dominant population group in 
the smith. In all the years after 1948 
the Shiites had no particular quarrel 
with Israel. By 1982 they had bkome 
resentful of the Palestinian guerrillas 
stationed in southern Lebanon, and 
many Shiite villages welcomed the 
Israeli invaders with flowers. 

Now the Israeli occupation forces 
and the Shiites are locked in a mur- 
derous cycle of violence, with guerril- 
la killing s followed by the smashing 
of Shiite villages. Religious funda- 
mentalism is flourishing. The radical 
Hezbollah, or Party of God, has signs 
right on the Isaeli border. Israel 
must fear that, after withdrawal is 
completed, its northern villages will 
face a far more serious "threat from 
Shiite guns and rockets than they 
ever did from the PLO. 

That Israel brought such a danger 
upon itself is hard to understand. 
There are many Israelis knowledges 
able about ana sensitive to Shiite 


Reagan administration is giving Isra- 
el now. there is little evidence that the 


el now, there is little evidence that the 
Israelis are listening. 

Thus do the recent events in Leba- 
non demonstrate in a small way what 
the whole fiasco of the Israeli , inva- 
sion. and Israel's whole post-Camp 
David performance in the Arab-Is- 
radi peace process demonstrate in a 
large way: There is a “special" U.S.- 
Lsraeli relationship deeply rooted in a 
moral UK commitment to the secu- 


rity of the Jewish state, but there is no 
US.-Israeli partnership in any true 


U-S.-Israeli partnership in any true 
sense of the word. With rare excep- 
tions over the years, there has been 
singular U.S. permissiveness. 

Alone among nations with which 
tbe United States claims “strategic 
relations," Israel is licensed to define 
its own interests without consider- 
ation for American interests. 


ed to hubris— the ovetreaching pride 
that affected the whole operation. 

The invasion's stated purpose was 
to remove PLO guerrillas from south- 
era Lebanon. But General Sharon, a 
man of great personal ambition, had 
a broader agenda. He engaged the 
Syrian army, intending to end Syrian 
influence in Lebanon. He planned to 
m stall in Beirut a fihristian Phalan- 
gist regime closely tied to IsraeL 

Those strategic aims were built on 
fantasy. And their pursuit proved di- 
sastrous. Ze’ev Schiff , the respected 
military correspondent of the Tel 
Aviv newspaper Ha’aretz, summed 
op the results of the war as follows: 
“Israel and the Lebanese Christians 
have been weakened. Syria has b cm 
strengthened, and Lebanon has be- 
come more Arab than it ever was.” 


it could help Israel to give knee-jerk 
support to the disastrous policies of 


a lethal guerrilla attack Then he ad-- - - 
ed: “You start hearing the baht"' 
about a ‘heinous deed* and the w'-\ 
against terrorism, and yon wondr-.- 
What are they tanring about? T ; . 
Shiites are fighting for their land fc 
only way they know how and acoor 
mg to the norms prevailing there. T 
one who should not be there, the a : 
who should not have been there ho : Z‘ 
the start, is my son." " . 

The New York Times. _ . 


support to the disastro 
one of its governments. 


Some American supporters are still 
ring to prove that the invasion was 


dying to prove that the invasion was 
wise. Charles Krauthammer, a senior 
editor of The New Republic, writing 
in January, said “Israel won the main 
event” in the war, the battle with the 
PLO. “As Israeli tanks head home," 
he concluded, “leaving Lebanon to 
the Lebanese and the Bckaa to Syria, 
they leave in victory.” 

Israelis are too sensible to believe 
fantasies. Their system has respond- 
ed to reality in Lebanon far sooner 
than America’s did in Vietnam. 

An editorial writer in Ha’aretz 
whose son is serving in Lebanon 
wrote recently of his relief on learn- 
ing that his son had not been hart in 




® \ 


/ '■ 


■Ji ^7 y 


m-Z B 


LETTERS TO THE EDITOR 


About the Palestinians 


Regarding “A Palestinian Answer to a 
Fundamental Question" (March 9): 

In condemning Israel, Mohammad 
Tarbush overlooks two points. 

Whatever the causes and future of 
the Arab refugee problem, is there 
any reason why those refugees should 
be kept in abject poverty among peo- 
ple claiming to be their brothers? 
Why can they not be given decent 
living standards pending a future set- 
tlement? The answer is simple: It is 
because their Arab hosts wish to keep 
the refugee problem as a hot political 
issue for their own ends. 

Second, the assertion that Israel 
has “rebaptized" Palestinian culture 


is nonsense. The Israelis, it seems, 
con do no right, if they eat gefilte 
fish, they are importing alien culture. 
If they’ eat falafel, Mr. Tarbush 


fished specifically to aid them, 
would this perhaps expose his 
mem that compensation is owed 
the Arab, and only the Arab, refus 
of this tragic conflict as not a 
impracticable but also one-sided? 

GIL ANAV 
Oxford, England 


claims, they are stealing local culture. 
Israelis on? part of the Middle East — 


Israelis are part of the Middle East — 
if only tite Arabs would allow them. 
Barry shenker. 
London. 


Mohammad Tarbush might have 
improved his column on the unfortu- 
nate Palestinian refugees by taking 
note of the roughly similar number oi 
Jewish refugees who fled the Arab 
countries between 1948 and the early 
1950s — without any compensation 
offered for their confiscated proper- 
ties or any special UN agency estab- 


Letters intended for pubbeado 
should be addressed* liners to th 
Editor* and must contain the w*i 
er’s signature, name and full cu 
dress. Letters should be brief & 
are subject to editing. We cannt 
be responsible far the return t 
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"'' Paris Changes: Chhmtownrsur-Seine and Zircons at the Louvre 


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By John Vinocur 

Vcw Korfc Times Service 


PARIS — If President Francois Mitterrand wants 
o put a glass pyramid in the middle of the Louvre’s 
. oortyard — Francois’s zircon, the opposition calls it 
conunities o| me Indignant form to fulminate and 
0 ay abomination- No one has the ri ght to char 
■aris, the protesters say.and argue that the city is 


But Paris changes anyway, too basically, too iatan- 
jyy for petitions or protest campaigns. Sol life in 
•ank the waiting-for-a-bus land of existence, moves 
4 i its own, without manifestoes or injunctions to stop 

The city's census is out, and it seems to show Paris 
hanging the way many cities in the United States did 
.0 and 30 years ago: fewer couples, fewer families, 
[jots rich people, more old people, more people, 
specially women, hying alone: The Paris region’s 
Kjpulatkm is 8.7 million, but the size of the city itself 
s dedining. The dty population is 2,176.652, accord- 
ag to the latest figures, a drop of 700,000 over 20 
ears. 

in the same two decades the number of workers 
ving in Paris declined by half, so that now there are 
oore executives bens than people malting a living with 
bar hands. The French are disappearing, too. The 


French have dwindled by 30 percent and the popula- 
tion of foreigners has increased by 62 percent 
In a way, the changing dry knows itself less weH 
The National Institute erf Statistics and Fcon o mir 
Studies hired students from the School of Oriental 
Lang u a ges to help conduct the census in areas where 

REPORTERS NOTEBOOK 

the Asian population is large. In one nrigh borimpd. 
the students came back with the figure of 9,000. The 
police, connoisseurs of the real dty, laughed The right 
number, they said, was 25,000. 

□ 

The headline writers call the place Paris-on-the- 
Mekong and Giinaiowit-sur-Sdne now, but tire truth 
looks plainer: a bunch of apartment hniidfa p and 
some signs in Chinese at a frayed edg e of the dty, 
postmark Paris 13. 

Picturesque it isn’t. Tot years of immigration have 
left thousands of refugees from Indochina living in the 
neighborhood's concrete mediocrity. Visually at least , 
the 13th arroorfissamit, short on romance or squalor, 
has less to do with Saigon than Mott Street in New 
York City has to do with Shanghai 
It is a part of Paris that has change radically in a 
decade without too many Parisians talrrng notice. 


Two weeks ago, someone killed Try Meng. Hurt, a 


But these days the neighborhood has a mystery, a 
quadruple slaying. 

agp.som 

Cambodian of Chinese origin, and three family mem- 
bers and friends in his 24th-floor apartment in a 
building called the Tokyo Tower. The police said that 
the killer or killers daubed a wall with the inscription, 
in French, “The survivors of Khmer genocide.’’ 

Mr. Try, according to a writer on the Khmer Rouge, 
was once an official of a Cambodian “re-education 
camp.” 

If the account is correct, Mr. Try, in time, fell into 
disfavor and eventually escaped to Thailand. With 
unexplained help from mends in France, where he bad 
studied, Mr. Try reached Paris. 

Then, the account goes, through the assistant gf a 
Socialist member of the National Assembly — and 
despite a reportedly unfavorable recommendation 
from the French counterespionage service — Mr. Try 
became a French citizen and moved into the Tokyo 
Tower. The killing followed. 

The police say that the political lead could be a false 
one and that the real explanation for the killings could 
be drug trafficking, a ring dealing in phony bills, or 
payoffs in the clandestine sweatshops behind the dull 
facades of the 13th: 

“The cops don’t have a due,” said Pierre, a barber 
who lives m the 13th. “Who’s dead, anyway? They 
don’t know. There are never any deaths declared in the 


local records office. They live forever in the 13th. 
Maybe they eat yogurt, like those Russians who are 
1 35. The truth is that somebody dies, and somebody’s 
there the next day with their papers. It’s Chinatown." 

The investigation is proceeding norauBv, a police 
inspector akL As for me way of death of the Asian 
population, the prosecuting attorney's office began an 
inquiry last year; the results arc still to come. 

D 

The changes that Mr. Mitterrand has in mind for 
the Louvre are on display in a scale model in a room in 
the Orangerie in the Toil cries Gardens. The mock-up's 
scale is such that the pyramid that I.M. Pei designed to 
bouse the entrance to the Louvre in the Cour Napo- 
leon looks like a small diamond, or a zircon. 

The forces against change, who say the Louvre 
needs to be renovated but not studded with a stone 
that looks like it comes from a Micro-station junk 
shop, got their troops together last week, with one 
group calling itself SOS Paris. 

Michel Guy, a former secretary of stare for culture, 
seems to be holding the marshal's baton and the 
tactics look like there of a harassment campaign. 
Although they don’t says so directly, the groups seem 
to think that if the left loses next year, in legislative 
elections, then the Lonvre project, which was started 
by presidential order, can be stopped, even though Mr. 
Mitterrand’s term runs till 1988. 





SUPERMAN' S! PARI 




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n« N*w York Timt 

A street crossing in the 13th arrondissement in Paris. 


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Mexico Police 
V.. Served Drug 
Traffickers, 
Records Say 

) By Juan M. Vasquez 

Los Angeles Times Service 

- ■ : MEXICO CITY — Members of 

. . he judicial police force in the state 
• -.{i Jalisco functioned as a private 

.;-jmy for narcotics traffickers in 
juadalajara, perfor min g personal 
• ~ nands and acting as bodyguards 
• : a return for money and cocaine, 
* -ocoiding to court documents. 

. v The signed declarations of seven 
. - uspects in the kidnapping and 
. uhsequent murder of a U-S. nar- 
. .--otics agent. Enrique C am ar ena 
.-'Salazar, were made pnbfic Mon- 
■ lay. They stated that Guadalaja- 
-Ys most notorious drug dealers 
.... -'./ere, in effect, the real bosses of 
- tie state police. 

■ One suspect, Gerardo Ramdn 
’ L '6rres Lepe, 23, told federal inves- 
. . . gators that he was one of five men 
/ho abductqd Mr. Camarena on 
: eb. 7, just outside the US. Con- 
nlate in Guadalajara. 

Mr. Tones Lepe is one of ax 
members of the state judicial police 
T /ho have been arrested in cotmec- 
. :on with Mr. Camarena's death. 

be other suspect is a former mexn- 

' er of the state police. 

All seven made what inyestiga- 
■ -n ors described as incriminating 
| jin KTtatemems during interrogations, 
I * I v I 4ui recanted when they appeared 
or arraignment Sunday bfifore a 
sderal magistrate; Gouzalo BaHes- 
tos Tena. They said they had 
'sen tortured. 

. Six other men were arrested orig- 



HaroW Pinter, left, and trie American play- 


en£ng the mifitary trial of members of the 
i pacifists are accused of mming to orertfarow 


ON TRIAL — The British 
wright, Arthur Miller, third 1 
Turkish Peace Association in IstanboL The [ 

the constitutional order and bring a Communist dictatorship to Turkey. The playwrights 
are on a fact-finding visit Between them is the U.S. political consol, James W. Swigert 

U.S. Senators Join Geneva Arms Talks 

The Aim: Bipartisan Support tor Any Accord with Soviet 


By William Drozdiak 

Washington Peat Service 

GENEVA — The team of U.S. 
negotiators had just put aside pa- 
pers, pencils and briefing books af- 
ter conducting their final brain- 
storming session on the eve of the 
first detailed uodear arms talks be- 
tween the superpowers in 15 
months. 

Max M. Kampdman. head of 
the US. delation to the Geneva 
arms control talks, turned to the 

„ . . .. , , . . U5. senators wbo had been watch- - -- 

ally, but one died of acute hemor- ^ gjence as the Americans re- Albert A. Gore Jr. of Tennessee, all 

taging of the pancreas, another haaxd ^ ^ Democrats. 


the negotiations and to offer advice 
to the Reagan administration. 
Co-chairmen are two Republi- 
cans, Richard G. ln wf Of Indiana 
and Ted Stevens nf Alaska, and 
two Democrats, Sam Nnnn of 
Georgia and Claiborne Pell erf 
Rhode Island. Other members in- 
clude Malcolm Wallop of Wyo- 
ming, John W. Warner of Virginia 
and Dan Nickles of Oklahoma, all 
Republicans, and Danid Patrick 
Moymban of New York, Edward 
M. Kennedy of Massachusetts and 


m tne p 

• is been turned over to the state 
olice in connection with another 
ime, and four were released for 

- ck of evidence. 

. . Judge Ballesteros said that the 
ven men being held were charged 
rith the “global crime” — that is, 
. tth the kidnapping and murder of 
j. Camarena and a Mexican pi- 
1 , Alfredo Zavala A velar, who 
me times worked with Mr. Ca- 
arena. Under Mexican law, the 
dge must decide by Tuesday 
. ght whether to hold the men for 
. tal or release them. 

• Only Mr. T6rres Lepe admitted 
participatimi in the actual ab- 

ictioa of Mr. Camarena. 

The stale judicial police sp- 
ared to be virtually at the beat 


initial meeting with the Russians. 

“Don’t forget,” he admonished 
them in a friendly way, “I need to 
have your views, to bear you guys 
speak out from time to time. Don’t 
be afraid to give your own opin- 
ions.” 

Mr. Kampdman's remarks ac- 
knowledged the importance of per- 
haps the most extraordinary partic- 
ipants in the embryonic dialogue 
with the Russians an space, strate- 
gic and in termediate nuriear arms! 
the Senate Arms Control Observers 
Group. 

Unlike in any previous negotia- 
tions with the Soviet Union, the 
Senate win be intimately involved 
in the current bargaining process 
from the start 


id call of the gangsters. Officers __ 

w, frequently summoned to ac- could ensure bipartisan sup- 
t* * 1.111 drag dealers on trips, to f OT ^ eventual agreement ob- 

II I I tas bodyguards or simply to wait servers say, or it could unleash 

***»*■*' . ound mease they were needed, conflicts that splinter U.S. poa- 

'! The statements of the suspects tions and possibly jeopardize the 
' : .U of frequent parties, sometimes taiw 

- . Jiing two days, in which they and “Our long-term objective,” the 
her policemen acted as body- senators said in a joint statement in 
*■ * t ■ 1 -ards and bouncers for the nor- Geneva, “is to avoid a recurrence 

tics figures. 

In some cases, they were paid up 
5400 for a night’s work. Several 
them said that the police con- 
sider who died while under in- 
stigation, Gabriel Gonzalez 
xizilez, was paid 1.5 million pe~ 

►.(about 56,250) by Mr. Caro 
nero and others each month. 

r 


AH except Mr. Moynihan and 
Mr. Wallop have visited the talks 
and already have returned to the 
United States. 

The Soviet Union, annoyed by 
the string of unratified treaties, has 
apparently welcomed a more 
prominent role by Congress. 

Fen the Reagan administration, 
the benefits of linking five Republi- 
can and five Democratic senators 
so closely with the destiny of the 
negotiations appear to outweigh 
potential rides. 

Politically, the administration 
expects to be spared modi of the 

agony incurred by its predecessors mgs from Mr. Kampdman and 
if an arms agreement comes up for perhaps join in negotiating sessions 
ratification. Senators from both as official U.S. observers. They 
parties presumably would be more have office space and* budget of 


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of the problems erf the 1970s. when 
three successive arms control trea- 
ties. signed by three presidents, 
were never approved for ratifica- 
tion by the Senate.” 

The 10-member group was es- 
tablished by a Senate resolution. 


cautious about challenging an 
agreement shaped along the way by 
respected peers. 

Moreover, the administration 
believes it wfl] gain more bipartisan 
support during the talks for such 
projects as the MX missile and the 
space-based anti-missile program 
known as the Strategic Defense Ini- 
tiative. 


E& Reporter Says 
He Was Ignorant 


5500,000. In Washington, the sena- 
tors will have access to all cable 
traffic to help them stay abreast of 
the talks. 

One fear among U.S. delegates is 
that sensitive position papers or 
accounts of the negotiations might 
be leaked because of the extensive 
sharing of information with the 
Senate. The United States and the 
Soviet Union have agreed to a strict 
confidentiality rule forbidding any 
public disclosure of the substance 
of the talks. 

The senators have praised the 
U.S. negotiating team and gone out 
of their way to insist they will not 



passed unanimously Jan. 3, to keep Tw» SeCUJTtiPS FtOUjI do anything to disrupt the work of 
the body informed of progress in the negotiators. 


-ADVERTISEMENT- 


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"POSH” VERSUS "GOSH” 



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TO THE EDITOR OF THE TRIBUNE. 

Sir, — The origin of the acronym POSH is widely known. 
■ Coined by the Victorians from the initials of tbe phrase 
"V *ort Out. Starboard Home' it got its present meaning from 
• ; jw fact that these were the cooler and more comfortable — 
v J ence more select — sides of the ship on which to travel 
► band from India. 

\ ' .^However I have long felt there was something amiss 
rth this sentiment. 

It seemed to me that no true Victorian gentleman or 
dy would ever feel entirely at home aboard a ship that 
tiy served pert as a refreshment. Especially when that 
ip was bound for the land of quinine and tonic water. 

So backing my hunch, I have spent many years researcb- 
g intensely into that era. 

I am now pleased to be able to publish the results of 
y enquiries. 

It is apparent that shortly after the discovery of Bombay, 
1SH was superseded by GOSH , as in ‘Gosh, I could do 
th a drink!' or 'Gosh I That’s smooth!* 

Perhaps I should make clear that the BOMBAY I am 
e rring to is, of course, the GIN . 

It is a particularly fine gin with a deli- 
* bouquet that is imparted by the 
•tanicaJs’ used in its manufacture. 

As it is claimed, it is indeed BOMBA Y 
ti‘s unique distillation that keeps one 
Med. 

And that may ex pfam the origin of 
.SH. It stands for "Ci* Out, Starry-eyed 
me." 

Dr. Hilary Snell au use.. 

Theodolite College, OxfonL 



The Associated Press 

NEW YORK — R. Foster Wom- 
ans, a former Wall Street Journal 
reporter charged with securities 
fraud, has testified that he did not 
know that it was wrong to use ad- 
vance knowledge of stories to make 

money. . . 

The Journal however, said that 
testimony by two of its editors 
“makes it dear” that Mr. W mans 
was aware of the polity, despite his 
comments Monday during, his first 
day on the stand. Mr. Wmans, 36. 
faces a 59-count U.S. indictment 
charging conspiracy, securities 
fraud and mail and wire fraud. 

He also accused the govern- 
ment’s mam witness, Peter N. 


they insist that they will 
not interfere with the negotiators, 
several senators said they would 
not hesitate to go the president 
with “new ideas” if a deadlock de- 
velops in Geneva. 

If anything, the Senate’s dose 
involvement in the current talks 
hag aided the artminig t ratinn in 
winning over supporters for the 
MX missile. Both Mr. Nunn and 
Mr. Gore said they now planned to-| 
vote for a limited number of MX 
missiles. 

Mr. Stevens, a staunch supporter 
of the MX, said be is much more 
optimistic about the emected vote 
on wbetho- to build 21 of the 10- 
warhead missQes because his cd- 


Brant, a stockbroker who worked leagues were more sensitive to the 
at Kidder, Peabody & Gx, of initi- notion about “sending the wrong 


ating tbe scheme in October 1983. 
Mr. Brant, who pleaded guilty to 
fraud and conspiracy last summer, 
has said that Mr. Wmans ap- 
proached him' with the plan. 

Mr. Winans was one of two writ- 
ers of the Journal's “Heard on the 
Street” column between 1982 and 
March 1984 when the Securities 
and Exchange Commission 
launched an investigation into his 
stock transactions. 

According to the government, 
Mr. Wmans and his co-defendants, 
his roommate, David Carpenter, 
and a former stockbroker, Kenneth 
P. Fdis, tried to make a profit by 
tradingin stocks that were to be the 
subject of forthcoming stories. 


signal” to the Russians if the mis- 
siles were canceled. 

Similarly, several senators said 
that Congress was becoming more 
favorably inclined toward the $26- 
billion sp ace research program over 
the next five yearn because of tbe 
strong recognition that the pros- 
pect of the Strategic Defease Initia- 
tive brought Moscow back to the 
negotiating table. 

But at some point in tbe talks, 
the senators said, die administra- 
tion would have to consider dis- 
pensing with a space-based defense 
p r o g ram if that would entice the 
Sonet Union to accept radical re- 
ductions in offensive nuclear weap- 
ons. 


U.S. and Soviet Hold 
3d Session in Geneva 


The senators, too, want to avoid 
floor fights over aims control po- 
licy ana to present a more united 
American front than was the case 
during earlier negotiations on stra- 
tegic and intermediate nuclear 

wopons. 

The Soviet Union broke off 
those talks in December 1983, 
when NATO began deploying UJS. 
Pershing-2 and cruise missiles in 
Western Europe to counter the So- 
viet buildup of triple- warhead SS- 
20 rockets. 

Despite the display of U.S. har- 
mony, there are apprehensions 
about potential problems arising 
from the unprecedented involve- 
ment of Congress in what are 
viewed as the most complex and 
delicate negotiations ever underta- 
ken with tire Soviet Union. 

The senators plan to keep one or 
two members in Geneva to follow 
the talks as closely as possible. In 
addition, they want to be kept in- 
formed of private contacts, which 
provide a chance to drop overtures 
beyond the formal realm of the 
bargaining table. 

In Geneva, the senators will at- 
tend staff meetings, receive brief- 
ings from Mr. Kampdman 


The Associated Press 

GENEVA — U.S. and Soviet 
arms control negotiators met Tues- 
day for more than two and a half 
hours, their longest meeting on 
substantive issues since the mike 
resumed a week ago. 

A U.S. spokesman described 
Tuesday’s meeting as a full-scale 
session involving 21 negotiators 
from each side. 

The spokesman said he could not 
comment on the meeting’s agenda 
because of a confidentiality rule 
agreed to by both sides. 

Max M. Kampdman, the chief 
UJS. negotiator, waved as he left 
the Soviet mission with his fellow 
U.S. negotiators, John G. Tower 
for long-range missiles and May- 
nard W. GHtman for medium- 
range weapons. 

The Soviet team is headed by 
j Viktor P. Karpov, who also is tbe 
chief negotiator for long-range 
weapons. It includes Yuli A. Kvit- 
sinsky for space weapons and 
Alexei A. Obukhov for medium- 
range missiles 

The negotiators decided to hold 
the next session at 1 1 A-M. Thurs- 
day at the offices of the U.S. Anns 
Control and Disarmament Agency, 
the UJS. spokesman said, lire two 
superpowers held their second ses- 
sion last Thursday, and laid down 
opening positions. Tbe first ses- 


sion, on March 12, was reportedly 
devoted to scheduling matters. 

Tbe UJ5. spokesman declined 
comment on assertions by Tass. the 
Soviet news agency, that tbe Unit- 
ed Slates “is deliberately heading 
for blocking” the Geneva talks so it 
can pursue plans for a space-based 
missile system. 

Pravda, the Soviet Communist 
Party newspaper, accused the Rea- 
gan administration of pursuing the 
MX missil e as a “trump card” 
aimed at pressuring the Soviet 
Union. 

“Congressmen are being subject- 
ed to an intensive manipulation,” 
Pravda said. “They are bring told 
that the allocation of funds will 
ostensibly give the US. delegation 
in Geneva a trump card for pres- 
sure on the Russians.” 


IMF Prods Israel 
On Budget Cuts 

Reuters 

JERUSALEM — The Interna- 
tional Monetary Fund has urged 
the Israeli government to double its 
budget cuts, allow unemployment 
to rise and make it illegal to print 
too much money. 

In a preliminary annual report 
given Monday to the Bank of Isra- 
el. the IMF spoke of some encour- 
aging trends in the past year, such 
as a decline in consumption, an 
unproved trade balance and higher 
exports. But it said that major 
problems remain. 

The study, issued by an IMF 
group that did a two-week study, 
expressed deep concern at Israel’s 
inflation rate, which now is around 
400 percent a year, and at recent 
large outflows of short-term capi- 
tal U also called for a budget cut of 
SI billion in addition to the govern- 
ment’s $l.l-biHion cut from its 
S23-billion budget for 1985-86. 


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Page 6 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, MARCH 20, 1985 


INSIGHTS 


( iold* 


Talents of Entrepreneurs Often Threaten the Businesses They Create y ( |a 


By Paul Richter 

Las Angeles Times Service 

N EW YORK —Hard-charging Charles L 
Peddle, who had the go-gei-’era to 
launch five businesses ana the vision to 
inspire hundreds of employees, loves the grand 
gesture. 

He once whisked senior staff and dealers of 
his Victor Technologies Inc. by chartered jet 
from a trade show in West Germany to Pans. 
Addressing them at a caffc near the Arc de 
Trio raphe, he declared with Napoleonic flourish 
that he would marahal the “troops” of his Strug- 
gling computer company to defeat the massed 
armies of the industry leader. International 


. -V-: ; 


Some believe such a misconceived serai 
brought about the decline of Storage Tech 


established business as a military contra 1 ' 
into commercial sales. When the conaunvi 


Business Ma chin es Corp. 

But the flamboyant Mr. Peddle has less pa- 
tience for the mundane details of management, 
say some former employees. He once told a 
young budget analyst that any financial plan- 
ning that could not be done an a calculator- 
watch was worthless. And on another occasion, 
to make a point, he ordered Victor’s main com- 
puter unplugged, losing vital company records 
in the process. 

Such gestures, some would say, are classic 
symptoms of “entrepreneur's disease.” charac- 
ter traits that make Mr. Peddle well-suited to 
launching companies but less equipped 10 run 
them as they grow into large organizations. 
.Those traits were a key reason that Victor, 
which was once fast growing, last year tumbled 

mer ^ctoi^officials coruenA™^ 




brought about the decline of Storage rectmoi- into commercial sales, when the company 1 
ogy Corp., of Louisville. Colorado, a former into financial trouble, the board fated ' 
high-flier that has been in bankrupt)? court Sanders to give up his 24-year presidency, 
reorganization since last November. Mr. Sanders said his co-founders “jusi a 

The company was founded by Jesse 1. mentally faster than I did. They warned to ; 
Aweida, a Palestinian-born engineer who left in the government business, while 1 saw i 


IBM with 11 other engineers in 1972. Storage 
Technology grew to peak sales of more than SI At his second company, Santee Corn, 

billion in 1982 as a maker of date-storage de- Amherst, New Hampshire, Mr. Sanders » 
vices. three years developing a computer primal 

. was one of the fust of its type. But the com™ 

B UT at Mr. Aweida s urging, Storage he acknowledges, did not nave enough ctot? 
Technology began frying ro develop marketing strength. In 1980, he led the 
products in several kinds of technology, rhmuch a hankrunicv-court irn mnii ariwi 


markets to conquer. 
At his second a 


. r- *i5 

> ?*** i fti 

i* 


incl uding large-scale computers, ana uk uma- Now Mr. Sanders has a company caiy^ ; 
storage devices called optical disks anddisk which designs computer peripherals. It hai 
drives. That spread its capital and adm i nis tra- technicians and engineers and he vows iota 


j 

. »i mI 

■i • 

.-v 

. v&m 




I F Mr. Peddle has the ailment, he is not 
alone. The problem is widespread and 
widely recognized. George Comstock, 
founder of Diablo Systems IncL, a Fremont, 

California, manufacturer of computer printers, 

defines an entrepreneur as “a guy who takes a Steven P. Jobs, left, co-founder and d 
company to 50 people, then screws it up." the new Macintosh persona] compute 
Treatment of the problem has become a mat- 
ter of growing concern, and not only because it 

frustrates the money-making ambitions of busi- work. In a single day, the head of a small 


tive resources too thin, say industry observers, tha t size. 

hurting its core business. Former managers at Victor Technok»i« 

“They were doing great, and then it was like ^ missionary zeal of its founder, Charie 
something happened to Jesse,” said an exccuuve peddle, was invaluable in laun ching the ^ 
familiar with the company. “It was like he got ny based south of San Frandsca&irhews 
carried away by the entrepreneurial impulse. preoccupied with making Victor a leading o 
Successful entrepreneurs frequently lose their putcr-makcr that he overlooked finandalae 
way directing companies through a layer of ^ S p eDt extravagantly, they say. 
managers. But what they often do best is guid- i nhn Cole, who was a budget analyst 
ing and motivating the small groups that join purchasing official at Victor, remembers 
them in founding their company. , Peddle as a blunt-spoken boss who a 

Former employees say such was the case with worked in jeans and a blue Ultrasuede jac 
Seymour L Rubinstein, who founded the soft- w h 0 “was always involved in three con 
ware company MicroPro International Ltd, of two of them arguments.'’ 

San Rafael, r-*i;fnrma, publisher of the top 


.•% -Sr 

t . ^ tartar 

■ * 

. wr S*B * 


L « * i*W 

- waft : 


•** 

-*i N? 

: -w.prf 
•***-«T H 

... >'■» ■ flf 


sdHng word-processing program WordStar. 

Mr. Rubinstein, the founder of six compa- 
nies, ‘is a street-smart guy in a world of 1 6-year- 


~\«wi l 


W: 


r HEN he founded Victor in 1980, 
Peddle had distinguished himself a 
engineer by designing the cmnp 


old wonders,” said anindustry consultant, Es- ^ 

rhn-TWiri » » r - , r T‘ _ ■ . 


ther Dyson. 


Macintosh lines of computers, and the 


■ ^ m 
«#» 
.4 a m 


Ih N«W York Tim 


Steven P. Jobs, left, co-founder and chairman of Apple Computer Inc^ and John Sculley, the company's president, with 
the new Macintosh personal computer. Mr. Sculley got a SL5-nuDkm bonus to impose discspUne on die company. 


mour was the bearer of light, an 
him anywhere;'’ said WID Laden, 
croFro marketing director. 


wca rouuw although industry wags tagw 

i forma Mr- ^ TripT 


• <5* m 

.*s otsm 


For his pari, Mr. Peddle contends that 


nessmen. The routine failure of eazly-stage cm- manufacturing company might be required to 


trepreneurial companies means a squandering 
of U.S. capital ana business talent as well as the 
regular loss of jobs. 

Now, as ever more Americans are bitten 1? 


“It’s almost like playing the violin and box- Bui 
ing,” said Mr. Mancuso. “If your hands can do neurs 


means a squandering modify a product’s design, order a shipment of one, they can’t do the other.” Fra 

less talent as well as the parts, arrange a bank loan and rewrite (he com- Tbe explanation offered by psychologists is was the world's most profitable manufacturing 
pony’s advertising slogan. that entrepreneurs are often poor manag ers be- company. Ford believed that companies do not 

mericans are bitten by As the company adds staff, however, tin cause they are loo involved with turning their need n 


From 1905 to 1920, Henry Ford built what 
is the world's most profitable manufacturing 


the urge to start their own companies, academi- entrepreneur is forced to act more and more as 
dans, management consultants and thecompa- an administrator, a “professional manager” 


dream into reality. 


at all, but only the 
t” or “courtiers,” a 


ny-buOders themselves are all seeking treat- who re 
meats for entrepreneur’s disease. They want to jointly 


s a group of mam 
decisions and act. 1 


i who must 

profession- 


o be sure, there are notable examples of Drunker, a 


ml built what neur made him a failure as a manager,” said Mr. « was< ^ a bad decision," be : 

manufacturing Luden. “But how could I have known sales woe g 

apanics do not The company continued to hire “inspired to collapse 7 ” 

e entrepreneur amateurs” as U grew he said, rather than the ^ Peddk ass ^ s ^ ^ - 

business speaahsts that it needed. Budgeting ^ ^IralBM suddedy^S V 

w m hicnmHr nmc majMnoi* wi that nihan th- mnmami w-UO — r 


m 


- 


know how entrepreneurs can develop manage- al manager, according to the experts' consensus, 
meat skills and guide their fledgling companies must have the patience to wait out such ded- 


through the difficult transition to maturity. sions, to attend to the organization's nuts- ah d- 


• “Next to sex and money, Fd say it’s what bolts details, including the myriad personnel 
entrepreneurs talk about most," said Joseph R. problems that arise. 


entrepreneurs who prove themselves skilled “Mi 
managers, or who are flexible enough to turn any 
over key administrative tasks to such a person, kepi 
For example, the co-foundere of Intel Corp. any 
— Gordon E. Moore, Andrew S. Grove and A 
Robert N. Noyce — remain at tbe helm of the busi 
Santa Clara, Calif ornia , computer-chip manu- in t 


management professor, in his work, was inadequate, so that when the company fnr 

SrM<&ssed or sidelined bJ2.«miii 1982, AUiZS 


ManagemenL roru mamssea or shkubcu o^an losmg moncym ornoais woe uul ^ have brought in J 

any helper who dared to act as a ramager and sure whether it was fromovmtaffmg or because ^ghhnsdf ^ and it wouldu’tSve ma, 
kept a corporate secret police chiefs to root out other costs woe too high, Mr. Laden said. S«ence,” he said. 

■ny stiniags rf Mr. Rubimtrm idmqoistad Ms rote in Mi- H 


Mancuso, whose Institute for Entrepreneurial 
Management holds seminars on how executives 
can cultivate their companies from small size to 
large. 

• The conflict is fundamental, the expats 


Now the head of a computer design fcp ’ * 


Those activities go against the grain of entre- facturer that they bu2 1 up to a oampany with year for 20 years, 
preceurs, say those who have studied the prob- S1.7 billion in revenues and made a model of Entrepreneurs’ 
fan. The very self-reliance that makes them good manag ement And, in a much-publicized treme, however. 


fern. The very self-reliance that makes ‘them good management And, in a moch-pufalidzed trem^Sweva. The company-builders more ™ ptoblems soon enough, 

good entrepreneurs makes it difficult for them success stray, Steven P. Jobs, 29, one of the commonly slip up because of overconfidence or SfJSSSrfimSnthr if hehad recognized that Those bills might force him into pen 


errors are usually not so ex- 


firm, Mr. Peddle says he fares / 

became chairam ementus. ^ 0 fjy Ht S 500,000 from shareholder 

Students of business say entrepreneurs often ^ c^^nd that he and other V 
err by spending too much tune on the Ktivities ofgdals failed to disclose the firm’s fma 
at which they are strongest. RoydenC Senders, problems soon enough- 

r«. ltA Laim Mm fliraa * ~ v 


conflict is fundamental, the oqjots to delicate; their derishreaess makes it difficult whiz-kid founders of Apple Computer Inc. in their preoccupation with ! 

for them to wait out committee decisions- And Cupertino, California, recruited a Pepsico exec- the managemen t e xp e r t s . 


pgree. tor tnem to wait out committee aeosions- Ana 

To succeed, they say, entrepreneurs must be because they are visionaries, they often do not 
self-confident, decisive and sumdently self-reli- have the patience to handle the personnel prob- 
ant to handle all facets of their companies’ lems. They get bored. 


in their 


businesses diffoently if he had recognized that . ou “ T, 1 ^ 

S ^^ and.^layST^c. aSSPaBaSSt 1 * ' **' " 


k^iiARUuu, v^tuiumiOY lOAuiuAi a rcwitu uic iiwiniiTOiiiciii uuau. muiuuoui m uivu j .! _ _ . . - j_ 

utive, John Sculley, 45, with a 52.5- miIH nn bo- dream of daw-Kng the world, entrepreneurs of- “ ev ^°P ment ffldc of business. 

nus to impose system and discipline on the ten try to do too much, spr eading their compa- At his first company, Sanders Associates Inc, 


growing company. 


nies' efforts across too many products. 


he led the company to branch out from its again,” he said. 


“If I could find backers, sure, Td love to 


faint Stirrings of Peace 
Thrust Israel’s Weizman 


Back into the Limelight 


By Edward Walsh 

Washington Past Service 


J ERUSALEM — “Wi thorn me,” said Ezer 
Weizman, "Shimon Peres would not be the 
prime minister." 

I ne setting hardly befitted a man who claims 
to be the kingmaker of Israel's national unity 
! government. Mr. Weizman's office, down the 
hall from where Mr. Poes presides over the 
[ government, is small and spartan, decorated 
with reminders of the occupant’s military and 
■ political past. 

For most of the first six months that' the 
' national unity government has been in office, 
: Mr. Weizman has labored in relative obscurity. 
■ But events of the last few weeks — the resump- 
non of a dialogue between Israel and Egypt, the 
faint stirrings in the moribund Middle East 
i peace process — have thrust him into the lime- 
light once again. 

• When Mr. Peres went to Europe late last 
month, be took Mr. Weizman with him. On the 
surface it was an odd choice, for Mr. Weizman is 


other Labor Party officials, among them Mr. 
Peres’s old party rival. Defense Minister Yitz- 
hak Rabin. 

The photographs in Mr. Wrizman's office 
recall his past, and some would say his transfor- 
mation from hawk to dove. On one wall, there is 
a picture of him in a British Spitfire during 
World War n, when he learned to fly, and cm 
another wall there is a photo of a U_S.-made F- 
15, the cutting edge of the modem Israeli Air 
Force. Mr. Weizman flew in that air force, lata 
commanded it and finally, as minister of de- 
fense, oversaw its development 

Other pictures in the room recall Mr. Wdz- 
man’s proudest political moment — the 1978 
Camp David peace conference. He is pictured 
there with Sadat and President Jimmy Carta. 
On tbe wall directly behind Mr. Weizman's 
small desk, there is a picture in which he takes 
special pride. It shows the young air force offi- 
cer seated at a table in the King David Hotd in 



Sense of Disfllusionment Grows in 




By Jim Hoagiand 

Washington Pest Service 






! j? 




Jerusalem, flanked by Israel's two most bitter 
political rivals — David Ben-Gurion, prime 
minister from the Labor Party, and Menachem 
Begin, founder of the Herat Party, the key 
element in today’s rightist Likud alignment 

Mr. Weizman used the photograph during 
last summer’s parliamentary election campaign 
to symbolize his stance somewhere between the 
country's two main political power centers. At 
the head of a new party he called Yahad (To- 
gether), he refused to say whether be preferred a 
Labor or Ukud-led government to emerge from 
the election. 

When the election produced a virtual dead- 
lock between Labor and Likud, Mr. Weizman’s 
party, which captured three seats in the Knesset, 
Israel's parliament, held the balance of power. 
His decision to join the Labor Party doomed 
any chance that Likud could assemble a parlia- 
mentary majority on its own, making a govern- 
ment of national unity the only realistic alterna- 
tive. Mr. Weizman's daim to have "made” Mr. 
Peres prime minister is no idle boast 

Now that the election is ova, Mr. Weizman 
can afford to be more candid. Mr. Weizman, 
who was forced out by Mr. Begin as defense 
minister in a Likud government because of 
differences ova putting the Camp David ac- 
cords into effect, said in a recent interview: “I 
did not want to see the Likud back in power. As 
Sadat used to say, *for sure.’ " 

So, at 60, Mr. Weizman has cast his lot with 


a minister without portfolio whose principal 
' mandate is to look after Israel's 700,000 Arab 
citizens. But Mr. Weizman also is known in 


Israel as “Mr. Egypt.” He was a great friend of 
' Anwar Sadat andMr. Peres knew that in Bucha- 
rest he would be meeting a secret envoy from 
Mr. Sadat’s successor, Hosni Mubarak. 

A few days later, when Mr. Mubarak dis- 
patched two more envoys to Jerusalem, Mr. 
Weizman was one of only a handful of Israeli 
government ministers who met with them in Mr. 
Peres's home and office. And in tbe days since 
then, be played a leading role in defending tbe 
• government’s initially favorable response to the 
Mubarak initiative against rightist criticism that 
it was all “a trap” or a “public relations ploy” 
before Mr. Mubarak’s trip to Washington. 

“I prefer in general to say yes more than no," 
Mr. Weizman said. “One can always say no." 

One senior official who is close to the prime 
minis ter said. “W eirman pushes Peres in direc- 
tions that Pens wants to be pushed.” 


I MPLICIT in this observation is the fact 
that the divisions in Israel’s government are 
not just between tbe Labor Party and the 
Likud bloc, but within the two main govern- 
ment partners. Mr. Peres and Mr. Weizman 
were more enthusiastic about the recent flurry 
of Egyptian-Israeli contacts than were some 


Ezer Weizman 


eminent breaks up he would not mind beii 
named foreign minister in a new Labor-1 
government under Mr. Peres. 


the Labor Party, and with its more dovish wing. 
He suggested that when the national unity gpv- 


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Reaching More Than 
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Israel's Arab minority, a subject he calls 
“fascinating” and “a hell of an Israeli problem.” 
He has dimmaced various special government 
offices dealing with Arabs, hoping thereby to 
force a small measure of integration in Israeli 
society, and he is seeking to encourage economic 
development in (he heavily Arab sections of the 
country. 

“The animosity between Arabs and Israelis is 
so great now, worse than before," he said. “I 
think it is due to the long years of war, and to a 
baric, latent fear and perhaps lack of confi- 
dence. There is a lack of confidence in Israel in 
the whole peace process.” 

Mr. Weizman clearly does not share that lack 
of confidence. Mr. Begin, he said, was a “hawk,” 
but he seized the opening for peace with EgypL 
Mr. Weizman would like to be known in the 
same way, as “a hawk fra peace." At the same 
time, be shares in the almost unanimous Israeli 
consensus on tbe limits of compromise. “I do 
hope King Hussein understands that he will 
never have Jerusalem back,” Mr. Weizman said. 

In a recent (devised debate with Moshe Arens 
of the Likud bloc, Mr. Weizman further solidi- 
fied his image as an exponent of negotiations 
with the Arabs by referring to Fahd Kawasmeh, 
the exiled mayor of Hebron in the Israeli-occu- 
pied West Bank, with the Hebrew phrase that 
means “of blessed memory” 

Mr. Weizman’s remark shocked soon Israelis 
because Mr. Kawasmeh, shortly before his as- 
sassination in Amman, Jordan, in December, 
had been elected to the executive committee of 
the Palestine Liberation Organization. Bnt Mr. 
Weizman brushed aside the criticism, recalling 
that in the various stages of his career — as 
fighter pilot, defense minister and now champi- 
on oE renewed contacts with Egypt — his rela- 
tionship with the Arabs has never been ample 
or one-dimenrionaL 

“I lacked him out of the country,” Mr. Weiz- 
man said, recalling one early morning in 1980 
when Mr. Kawasmeh was expeUedfrom the 
West Bank following the murder of six Jews in 
Hebron. As he pushed Mr. Kawasmeh into a 
helicopter that would take him to Lebanon, and 
from there to exile in Amman. Mr. Weizman 
said he apologized. 


1 ERUSALEM — After a six-month politi- 
cal truce enforced by a national unity gov- 
ernment that has joined the Likud and 
r parties in shared policies, Israel's politi- 
cal leaders are gingerly resuming their national 
debate ova the future of the country’s relations 
with its Arab neighbors. 

The coalition government has enabled Israel 
to impose austerity measures on a chaotic econ- 
omy and to begin the withdrawal of its anny 
from the quagmire of Lebanon. Now, divisions 
over broader Middle East strategy are surfa cin g 
again because of an ambiguous Egyptian pro- 
posal to get talks started on the West Bank 
territory of the Jordan River. 

Talk of new peace initiatives and the unlikely 
prospect of Kong Hussein of Jordan suddenly 
agreeing to territorial negotiations with Israel 
have sent fleeting shadows across tbe unity 
painstakingly developed by Prime Minister Shi- 
mon Peres and Foragn Minister Yitzhak Sha- 
mir on other matters. 

'“Lebanon was not an ideological problem,” 
Mr. Shamir observed during an interview in 
which be praised the responsibili ty -sharing as- 
pects of the coalition government “Judea and 
Samaria is an ideological problem” between 
Labor and t -Henri that could threaten the coali- 
tion, he added, using the biblical names pro- 
fared by Likud leaders for the West Bank. 

Likud "would never accept that we embark 
on a search for territorial compromise” with 
Hussein if Hussein were to put forward such a 
proposal, said David Levy, the Moroccan-born 
minister of housing who is seen by manyas Mr. 
Shamir's successor as head of Likud. *We are 
working together well now, but there are unreal- 
istic things that would cause the government to 
falL" 

Interviews with Mr. Levy, Mr. Shamir and 
other senior Israeli political leaders suggest that 
brad approaches the sixth anniversary of the 
Camp David peace accord, and the end of its 
military involvement in Lebanon, in a mood of 
disappointment and diriUusionment with the 
country’s ability to transform the attitudes of its 
Arab neighbors either through peice or war. 

That frustration in turn translates into declin- 
ing interest in exploring the prospects for agree- 
ments of any sort whh Arab countries involving 
new exchanges of territory for peace, tbe tnter- 


"Next year we will have been on tbe West 
Bank for 19 years," he said. “That is exactly the 
same time that Hussein was cm the West Bank” 
Jordan took control of tbe territory, which had 
been part of the mandated territory of Palestine, 
during the 1948 Arab-Isradi war. 

The growing sense of permanence that the 
Israeli presence on the West Bank inspires today 
and the pattern of settlement there during the 
past two years strongly suggest that the West 
Bank already may have slipped beyond Hus- 
sein's grasp. 

"Hussein likes to live,” Mr. Levy said in 
French, “and he knows he cannot afford to give 
up a half, or a fourth, of Judea and Samaria. 
And nei tiia will Israel share like that, not one 
half, not one fourth. We have to talk about 
political sharing, about autonomy for the people 
who live there, but not about territory.’’ 


T HE passage of time since Mr. Begin got 
Anwar Sadat and Jimmy Carter to agree 
to center the first phase of negotiations 
about the Palestinian-inhabited territories on 
self-rule rather than on territory has had anoth- 
er paradoxical effect Many members of Likud 
who initially woe opposed to or unenthusiastic 
about tbe Camp David accord have become its 
strongest advocates. 

“People who voted against Camp David are 
even more determined to make it work now than 
those who voted for it,” said Moshe Arens, a 
forma defense *»w»**w mid ambassador to 
Washington and now a minister without portfo- 
lio. As a Likud member of the Knesset, Mr. 
Arens voted to reject the peace agreement 
“We thought then that the price was too 
high,” he said. “We are in the position of having 
paid the full price for the ticket and we want to 
get to the destination we’re supposed to reach.” 

Mr. Arens, Mr. Levy and Mr. Shamir insisted 
in separate interviews that the Camp David 
arrangements for autonomy talks between Isra- 
el and Jordan, with Palestinian participation. 


al plan drawn up by Defense Minister Yrt 
Rabin. “I realized that any agreement, eve 
is die best agreement, would not be wort) 
papa it was written on. There is no respec 
anything in that country.” 

Mr. Arens said: “Israel is a strong coo 
but a small country. Israel can win wars, bn 
far more difficult to obtain political ain 
war, since we cannot impose total defeat 
larger Arab countries. As defense minister! 
last Likud government, Mr. Arens soug! 
reach security arrangements with Shiite vflh 
in southern Lebanon to enable Israeli troo 
withdraw peacefully. 

“The political change we sought in Leh 
did not work out," he said. “I still find it 
difficult to understand why our very set : 
efforts to come to terms with the Shiites dk 
succeed. We should be working together, bt 2 
can't.” 

The rising tide of assaults on the withdra^ 
Israeli troops and the harsh retaliatory : 0 

thar the Israelis are staging against Sbntc 
lages in the south has dampened much a 4 
debate about tbe consequences of Lebanon . 
provided a strong impetus for unity withb 3 
coalition government. 

“These tactics would have been impossil 
they had not 'been undertaken by a nab 
unity government.” Mr. Shamir said in ai: 
parent reference to the strong criticism b) 
bor of the Israeli siege of Beirut in the sun 
of 1982. “A government with a limited 
would have bran criticized in Israel” 


A IDES to Mr. Peres are quick to praise 
L\ Shamir's constructive role in noldin 
JL JL coalition together thus far. After t 
ing separately with their cabinet minister; 
two men confer in Mr. Peres’s office or a 
home on Friday afternoons to reach agreen 
that are ratified in the weekly cabinet mee 
on Sunday. i 

Under tbe agreement setting up the coal 


must form the next step in the peace process. 
Hussein has said that he will join peace talks 


Hussein has said that he will join peace talks 
only on the basis of the return of all of the 
territory occupied in 1967. 

“If Hussein steps forward and says he wants 
to make a deal on the basis of territorial corn- 


government after inconclusive elections . 
summer. Mr. Shamir is due to succeed Mr. 1 f 


promise, there will be serious problems” within 

rfiaa nAnlifiAn \ifr Anme |( 1 ilmJ milT 


the coalition, Mr. Arens predicted. “Likud will 
say we cannot do that,” while Labor is bound by 


news suggest 


C AMP David, in this view, produced only 
a “cold peace" with Egypt instead of die 
foil range of relations that Israel was 
promised in return for giving back all Egyptian 
territory conquered in the 1967 Arab-Isradi 
war. That frustration appears to extend into Mr. 
Peres's Labor Party, which is nominally com- 
mitted to negotiate with Hussein to relinquish 
part of the West Bank in return for peace. It is 
also producing new support within Labor for 
political arrangements with Hussein that ex- 
clude giving up territory. 

“It could be that we have to come to an 
understanding on sharing” jurisdiction on the 
West Bank and Gaza, said Ezer Weizman. Mr. 
Peres’s informal ad visa on Arab affairs and 
minister without portfolio in the coalition gov- 
ernment, “Today yon have to say that the auton- 
omy plan for the west Bank” designed by Prime 
Minister Menachem Begin in 1979 “was a good 
beginning,” Mr. Weizman said, adding that “the 
.final result may be something in between auton- 
omy and a territorial concept." 

For many Israelis, Mr. W eizman indicated, 
another approaching anniversary may be at 
least as important as the March 26, 1979, sign- 
ing of tbe Camp David accord on the White 
House lawn. 


say we cannot do that,” while Labor is bound by 
its previous position to explore such an offer. 

At that point, Mr. Levy predicted, there 
would be a rupture in the coalition and new 
elections in which he would challenge Mr. Sha- 
mir for the party leadership. If Mr. Shamir were 
to falter, Mr. Levy undoubtedly would face 
challenges from Mr. Arens and Arid Sharon, 
tbe minister of industry and commerce who, as 
defense minister, led the Israeli Army into Leba- 
non in 1982. 

It is the winding down of that war that has left 
Israelis perplexed about the utility of military 


power in trying to reshape Arab countries into 
more pliable partners. 


summer, Mr. Shamir is due to succeed Mr. 1; 
as prime minister after 24 months. This W 
give Likud a strong advantage in setting of 
elections that are scheduled to be held, a 
the agreement, two years after that. 

Mr. Shamir appears to be suggesting in I 
circles that he may agree to step down tba ; 
allow Mr. Arens, Mr. Levy and Mr. Shan ‘ 
contest the leadership oF the bloc in the 
election. 

Political analysis suggest that it would 
Mr. Peres's interest to engineer a breakup ( 
coalition and force new elections before h 
to yield power to Mr. Sh amir , Both leaden 
that they expect such a breakup, unless Hu 
were to toss the coalition the hot pota 1 
agreeing to direct negotiations. 

This does not apwar to be a serious prot 
ity at the moment. Beyond Hussein's reluct 
to start such negotiations without guarai 


Palestine Liberation Organization i 
force on Israel’s border. 


military 


N OW, both frankly admit to disillusion- 
ment about the final results of an opera- 
tion that failed to implant Lebanon’s 


-L 1 non that failed to implant Lebanon’s 
Christian minority in Ann control of the coun- 
try and will have kept Israeli troops there for 
three years by the time tbe withdrawal is com- 
pleted tins summer. 

“I came to recognize that tbe time had come 
to leave, that there is no viable partna there for 
Israel to work with," Mr. Levy said in explain- 
ing his decision in January to break ranks with 
his Likud colleagues and support the withdraw- 


lem back stands the hardening sense in I. 

that the yearly increased pace of Israeli ( •. ... .. 

mart dunng Likud’s seven years in p0Wft;; v ' • i ' 1 • . . «*. 

overtaken whatever chance for meaningful^ • 

tonal compromise may have existed. ->,r. 1 ' ‘ t . H !, ~f* 

The coalition has agreed to buDd 7 ■>: , y 

settlements under the tarns of the agrea , ' 

but has taken nostros to do so. Mr. Feres r-r-,., is thu I 

acknowledge that tins is due primarily to ’ i: , s , . . ■ ■ ■ 1 

of money, but they hint chat this shwft^ " f 
sored on by the Arabs as a sign ofMnJF * : i! y ^ 

willingness to seek peace through compK®-. 1 "ws 

But a study released this month by the ‘ ’ f ■ '• Miff VftrfH&re 

Bank Data Base Pngectsaid Likud built en^i > *•- . VC:;j • . 

housing before office to accommodate the I; ’’vlT.ri . .. v “ VCt an^ 
flw of new settlers on the West Bank thr 1 & fovtt ftyf} 


•» Hun 













BNTEinwyiOKAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY , MARCH 20, X98S 

AUTS / LEISURE 


Page 7 


Privacy Is Golden 
In Florida Enclave 


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; */' By Jon Nordbeimer 

■'■ Wov Tort; 7imm Sen-Ice 

JOBE SOUND, Florida — 
'• , 71 Two tndomiiable landmarks 
‘ -r ; : and guard ai either end or Jupiter 
■Aland, a narrow barrier island 
• :'xHU 25 miles (40 kilometers) 
: -xth of Palm Beach. 

■.'■ To the south there is the Jigbi- 
■■/■juse at Jupiter inlet, a beacon to 

■ .-.'am away the wayward coming in 
; >;;om the sea. 

■ To the north there is Fermelia 
' ixd, an upright and vigilant sep- 

' - -lagenarian who watches over 
. .lobe Sound, the exclusive enclave 
. . -vhere silence about the private 
. •*.; .ves of the residents is as golden as 

'• ; .V via credit ratings. 

. 1 ; for half a century Reed has been 

1 , 'eeper of the gates to what many 
' ■ \onsider the most exclusive winter 
‘ ' -rtreat in Florida. Here old-money 
.'antes — Doubledays, Paysons, 
V* l ords, Olios, Scran tons, Dukes, 
-c-Veyerhaeuseis. Mellons — own 
■ r ^- ouses that by Palm Beach stan- 
anls are cheap, even scruffy. 

. “All the people here want to 
I ‘ eep a low profile," Said G. Sealy 
. j : <Jeweli, whose family was one of 
; .v 'ie first to move to Hobe Sound in 
_ ie 1930s when Reed and her hus- 
' * T^ 'and bought most of Jupiter Island 
■J-.iid began selling parcels to friends 
'r.-.-'.’WD Greenwich, Connect! cul The 
tidow of Joseph Verner Reed, who 
xherited a mining fortune, has run 
: ^;he nine-mile-long island like apri- 
. 7 "‘ " ^ate club ever since. 

IT “The Greenwich mafia was com- 
. - . ' lletdy unlike the crowd in Palm 
• . : £ “teach,” said one resident, who. like 
‘ ’dost other property owners inter- 
iewed, did not want her name 
Published. “They’ve already 
’’ limbed the ladder and don’t need 
tell everyone what they’ve goL 
t “No one dresses up except for a 



' Other Places 9 Is Instant Guide to Pinter 9 s Career 


party. Frayed button-down shirts 
and chinos are the uniform, and a 
good Voodie,* an old Ford station 
wagpn with wood side panels, is 
preferred over a Rolls-Royce.” 

Now the number of homes has 
ballooned to 400. with houses go- 
ing up on the few empty parcels. 

“The old guard is changing and 
Permelia is losing control over who 
buys or builds on the island.* * the 
resident said. “But crossing her still 
means social suicide." 

From earliest days, membership 
in the Jupiter Island Club was the 
key to social acceptance. One did 
not get in unless sponsored by four 
members. 

Reed, approached by a recent , 

visitor after the annual garden f 6 ? 085 ‘ “ e COUDt >' hne in Jupiter property owners, members of the 
show at the Presbyterian Church. ““ftCdony, where Perry Como Jupiter Island Qub, and unpaid. 


By Sheridan Morley 

International Herald Tribune 

JONDON - “Other Places' 


(at 


Sum GfMMod/nia Nw Yort Tkr 

Members of the Jupiter Island Qob playing croquet. 


Celebrities are definitely not wel- 
come in Hobe Sound, as they are 


The town is run by a manager 
and town commission, all of thwn 


Presbyterian Church, 
was gracious but unbending. 

“You won’t get any help," she 
said. “We don’t want any publicity 
and no one wQl help you. You 
won’t get one word out of us.” 

Reed and her friends technically 
live in the Town of Jupiter Island in 
Martin County. It is an incorporat- 
ed community of 389 registered 
voters, occupying the one-half - 
mile-wide island bordered by the 
Atlantic Ocean and the Intracoas- 
tal Waterway. Before the town was 
incorpomed in 1953 it was known 
as Hobe Sound because that is the 
name of the hamlet on (be main- 
land where the nearest post office 
was. Mail still comes address ed to 
the Hobe Sound Post Office and 
insiders still call their part of the 
island Hobe Sound. 

The southern tip of Jupiter Is- 
land extends into Palm Beach 
County for about half a mile Con- 
sequently it cot tains elements that 
would be unacceptable an Reed’s 
■ride of the county line: ethnic di- 
versity, condominiums, even a ce- 
lebrity or two. 


and Tammy Wynette have homes. 

Thick clumps of vegetation shut 
off most of the homes from view on 
the two public roads on the island. 
A (own ordinance prohibits vehi- 
cles from stopping on the roadside. 

“Anyone who lodes slightly sus- 
picious and stops or parks on the 


u pi ter Island Qub, and unpaid. 
The mayor is John M nlliVen , for- 


the Duchess) brings together 
three one-act plays by Harold Pin- 
to 1 , two of which were seen a couple 
of years ago at the National The- 
atre and the last of which was done 
a year ago at the Lyric Hammer- 
smith by Alan Bates. They are 

THE LONDON STAGE 

therefore not exactly new, but have 
never been seen before in this ar- 
rangement except at the Manhat- 
tan Theatre Qub off-Broad way 
last autu mn 

This is very much the road-show 
version. Colin Blakely goes through 
all three dramas as the doctor in “A 
Kind of Alaska,” the mini-cab con- 
troller in “Victoria Station” and 
the sadistic interrogator in “One 
for the Road," while Dorothy Tu- 
rin plays (as she did recently on 


“A Kind of Alaska” is, unusually 
for him, derived from a book, and a 
book of medical fact. Oliver Sack’s 
“Awakenings’ was 3 1974 account 
of the arousal from decades of cata- 
tonic lethargy of sleeping-sickness 
patients brought back to life by the 
drug L-dopa. Pin ter has taken it as 
the starting point for the story of 
jusi one Englishwoman, who at 16 DOW - among: 
fell into a coma and is now being an ^ Hollywood musicals. 


silky evil that Bates brought to the 
role of the child killer in a police 
state. 

O - 

At the King’s Head. “Look to the 
Rainbow” is a celebration of Yip 
Harburg. the lyricist of “The Wiz- 
ard of Oz” and “Finian's Rain- 
bow." amonR 50 or so lesser Broad- 


broughi around by her sister and 
her brother-in-law" who is also her 
doctor. 

In the National production. Judi 
Dench gave a haunting portrayal of 
a woman whose body is being rap- 
idly unfrozen while' her mind re- 
fuses to thaw out quite so fast. 
“You've aged, substantially," she 
told her sister as if the unfortunate 
woman had put ou weight in all the 
wrong places. The new production 
is inclined to focus far more on the 


gh written and directed by 
Cushman, the evening real* 


Thou* 

Robert 

lv belongs to Jack Gilford, who in 
his London stage debut offers a 
likable impression of Harburg as 
an all-knowing gnome out of one of 
his own whimsical works. 

The problem with any show built 
around a lyricist rather than a com- 
poser is that it lacks musical or 
dramatic coherence. Harburg ap- 
pears to have been an amiable 
hack, available for anything from 
depression cynicism (“Brother Can 
You Spare a Dime?”) to over-ihe- 


mer deputy press secretary to Nel- television) the patient awaking 
son Rockefeller and a permanent from a 30-year sleep in “A Kind of 
resident. In some circles, he said, Alaska.” sic 


circles, he said, 
there was a sense of unease over 
changrs in the past decade or two 
as the Hobe Sound area came un- 
do- the pressures of increased de- 


island will have a policeman check- velopment “Most of the first gen- 
ing him out within minutes,” said eration of homeowners are 
Carole Jayne Watts, the leading retired," he said, “and more people 
real-estate agent on the island and are living hoe Year-round, which 
a resident. was unheard of m the old days.” 


Alaska.* 

What is useful about this coolly 
efficient production by Kenneth 
Ives is that it offers newcomers and 
old addicts alike a kind of instant 
guide to the Pinto career. Here we 
have him in one of the sketches 
(“Victoria Station") that made his 
name, then in two of his more re- 
cent departures. 


relationship of the doctor and his 
wife (Susan Engel), whose marriage . , . 
has been as permanently interrupt- ram bow schmal tz , and one of the 
ed as Turin's life by the sleeping weaknesses of Cushman’s brier 
sickness, and that shaft of balance hnlung script is that it never ex- 
plains bow he 


Viennese Recall 1945 Staatsoper Bombing 


I Grows ink 


Mil ih< ’ 



The Nrv York Trod 


By Join Zalud 

Reuters 

V 'lENNA — As political leaders 
get ready to mark the 40th an- 
niversary of the end of World War 
n, music-loving Viennese have an- 
other anniversary on their mrndc 
AU.S- bombing raid on March 
12, 1945, destroyed the 19th-centu- 
ry Staatsoper (State Opera), a mu- 
sical landmark. When the bombs 
hit the Renaissance-style edifice on 
the Ringstrasse, sets for 120 pro- 
ductions and about 160.000 cos- 
tumes were also lost 
“It seemed almost ominous the 
last opera performance before it 
was destroyed was Richard Wag- 
ner’s ‘Gfitterdammenmg.’ " re- 
called an opera fan who was on the 
spot after the raid. “What I saw 
made me cry, and though Tm no 
religious man.. 1 couldn’t help 
thinking the punishment of God 
had fallen upon us." 

Despite the hunger and misery 
afflicting postwar Vienna, the re- 
building of the Staatsoper was giv- 
en top priority. A replica of ihe old 
opera house opened in November 
1955 with Beethoven’s “Fldelio" 
under the baton of Karl Bohm. 


Tickets now cost up to 2,000 
schillings (almost $90), but the 
1.642 seats and 567 standing places 
are virtually always sold out Some 
subscriptions arc inherited. 

The old budding opened on May 
25, 1869, in the presence of Emper- 
or Franz JoseC with Mozart's “Don 
Giovanni” Gustav Mahler, Bohm, 
Oemens Kraus and Herbert von 
Karajan are among those who have 
held the post of opera director, 
considered one of the toughest in 
the world. 

“There are always problems with 
directors. The Viennese are so par- 
ticular,” an opera spokesman said. 

In 1964 von Kang an quit after a 
dispute with management and 
threatened never to return. His 
eight stormy years in the post saw 
two strikes by the staff, one in sup- 
port of him and one against- He 
was a favorite, though, and was 
hailed by enthusiastic fans when he 
relented and came back to conduct. 
Verdi's “Don Carlos" in May 1977. 

When Egon Hugo Seefehlner re- 
tired in 1982 the management de- 
cided to revert to the tradition of a 
famous conductor as head of the 
bouse. Lorin Maazel was chosen as 


the first foreign director. But the 
local music fraternity rqected the 
French-born conductor and be quit 
in March 1984, a year before his 
contract expired. 

Seefehlner is standing in until 
Helmut Drese, a West German, 
rakes over next year as general di- 
rector and the Italian conductor 
Claudio Abbado becomes music 
director. Maazel held both posts. 


leaves the patient oddly stranded in 
ber hospital bed. 

Turin is a memorably childlike 
Sleeping Beauty, but you never 
feel as you did with Dench, that 
she has even begun to come to 
terms with the fuQ horror of waking 
up again 

“Victoria Station" has also been 
fractionally altered for the worse. 
Paul Rogers originally played it as 
a restrained, chilly little piece 
about a mini-cab controller sud- 
denly discovering at the other end 
of his radio system a sinister driver 
who may or may not have a mur- 
dered body ou the back seat of his 
taxi 

Blakely goes for out-and-out 
farce and a lot of wrenching the 
microphone out of its socket, which 
is a pity given that this is something 
much more eerie than a knock- 
about sketch. 

Is the last play, too. Blakely is 
oddly ill at ease, lacking the fine. 


plains bow he managed to build an 
entire career out of no more than 
two major Broadway hits. 

He wrote some endearing and 
enduring songs, but when he at- 
tempted anything like a philosophy 
it was of the most sickeningly senti- 
mental kind, and even nis brush 
with the McCarthy committee 
seems to have given his writing only 
the very faintest edge of satire. For 
the rest, it was distinctly sub-Og- 
den-Nash, and wonderful though it 
is to see Gilford in ihe flesh, this 
“Rainbow" might have worked a 
lot better as a record or a radio 
show. 

□ 

No West End management in 
recent years has done more than 
that of Michael Codron to keep 
intelligence, dignity and integrity 
in the commercial theater, and it is 
not hard to see what attracted him 
to the new Stanley Price comedy at 
the Strand 


"Win- Me?” may be a little frag- 
ile and frayed around the edges, 
but for those who found “Benefac- 
tors” or “The Real Thing” too 
high-powered or intellectually in- 
accessible. here is the paperback 
version of the way we live now. * 

Richard Briers is a civil engineer 
suddenly forced by a company 
takeover to join the British army of 
three million unemployed Around 
him and his situation Price has 
neatly arranged some telecomic 
stereotypes (the amorous wife next 
door, the successful -executive wife 
at home, the all-knowing mother 
living “like a caged whippet" in a 
tiny apartment) and puts them in 
the soap opera of the recession. 

As Briers is rejected Tor job after 
job, his wife rises to dizzy heights of 
success as a pizza-and-instant- 
cheesecake vendor. As he falls into 
bed with the comely neighbor, his 
son turns out to be a transvestite 
and a failed rock singer to boot. 

Briers is far and away the best 
tragic-light comedian in' the com- 
mercial theater, and when his son 
tells him he is playing drag clubs in 
Kent. Lhe mixture of despair and 
amazement with which he replies 
“In Kent,” unerringly going for the 
one thing in (he equation that really 
doesn’t matter, is alone worth the 
price of admission. 

Diane Fletcher as the wife and 
Polly Hemingway as the neighbor 
do what they eon with sketchily 
written roles. lt is left to Liz Smith 
as the eccentric mother to bring the 
only genuinely new touch to Rob- 
ert Chetwyn's otherwise predict- 
able production. 

□ 

Ending Saturday at Greenwich is 
Nigel Williams’s “My Brother's 
Keeper." a brilliantly touching ac- 
count of two sons fighting over -a 
hospital bed to keep their old actor 
father from going gentle into that 
good night. If we get a better new 
play than this in the rest of 1985, we 
shall be more than lucky. 


DOO NESBURY 

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il ost people are aware that Nixdorf is 
» lone of the largest and fastest-growing 
>mputer companies in Europe. 

But what is more important is the fact that 
xdorf computers are operating in networks 
every international city in the world. 

; Which means that no matter where you sit at 
Nixdorf computer, you can be in any import- 
. t city in the world within a few hundreths of 
second. 

;And you can be there in a very sophisticated 
yty- Nixdorf computer systems are creating 


solutions for huge international companies 
with far-flung branches in places you might 
think of as remote. 

And we offer software designed to meet the 
requirements of managers at the local level, 
while providing head-office management with 
up-to-date data and information. Our systems 
are custom-designed to meet each company's 
needs, and the diverse needs of different local 
offices. 

The local offices get truly powerful stand- 
alone computer technology, and the vital com- 


munication with the head office is never broken. 

Nixdorf network systems have earned us 
a reputation all over the world for reliability, 
security, service, and the kind of support our 
customers demand, wherever they do busi- 
ness. So if your company could use a computer 
network that is local, international, decentra- 
lized, and instantaneous, give us a call. 

And the very next time you see a bank of 
clocks on the wall showing the time in major 
cities of the world, remember- Nixdorf is in all 
of those places. 


Nixdorf Computer AG 
Furstenallee 7, 4790 Paderbom 
West Germany, Tel. 5251/5061 30 


COMPUTER 





Page 8 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, MARCH 20, 1985 


NYSE MOSf Actives 


PtilPtwd 

ABdcst 

anew 

USFG 3 

RCA 

Unocal 

MecLvn 

NoStPw 

IBM 


VW. HW LOW 

iam iS* 

41fc 
3184 3086 

fift 40ft 
4986 4785 

3M- Xtt 
«Vi 4286 
131ft 12914 
72 UV9 
46 45 

4PM 43 li 
100 Mft 
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31ft + H 
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31% +114 

*3ft 

130* +2Vj 
70V5 +534 
4* +114 

4JW +30 
9714 +314 

30th +314 
1914 + Hi 


1 Dow Jones Averages I 

Opan HM Low Lad OlM 
Indus 124+01 1774.18 124SA9 1271 .09 + 31,42 

Tram 394.77 60640 MU$ «3J0 + »J3 , 

Util 147.06 1*9.21 J4W0 14BJ0 + 1 J4 

Comp 505.95 51546 50149 SIMS + 7.79 


NYSE Diaries 


NYSE Index 


MmncM 
Dad mad 
Unchonoad 
Total luua 
Now HWo 
New Lows 
Vohiina UP 
Volume down 


Clou Pnv. 

3U sa 

H0 333 

234 241 

7BB 786 

19 10 


Composite 

inOuelrials 

Tramp. 

Uiiimes 

F Inane* 


HhJh LOW Close 
103.01 102A1 103.91 
HUB JIMS I19J8 

7734 9596 9734 

54.19 5181 54.10 

107.27 105.92 10737 


Odd-Lot Trading In N.Y. 


March 10. 
March 15. 
March 14 . 
March 13. 
March 12. 


BUT Sates 
135643 403.909 
179.217 4S4898 
179405 491245 
204426 525843 
204319 556J32 


'Inciuaro In the soles Upures 


Tuesday^ 

NISE 

Cloning 

I v-l ma pm liQuana I 

Pre*.4PJ«.90L MJHMN 

Prev coMoildotsd dose I1M51A80 I 

Tables include ttw nationwide prices 
up to the dosing on Wall Street and 
do not reflect late trades elsewhere. 

Via The Associated Press 


AMEX Diaries 


NASDAQ Index 


Advanced 
Oodlncd 
UlKfKDTOSd 
Total Imuu 
N ow H toils 
New low* 
Volume up 
Volume dawn 


Composite 

industrials 

Finance 

Insurance 

Utllllhn 

Banks 

Tramp. 


Week 

Clou Ortrs am 
27BJS +171 B1<0 
79500 +251 mei 
32857 — 0.17 ST.1J 

mao +034 3213* 

36157 +444 26330 
25137 +057 249-15 
255.10 + 157 29932 


Standard & Poor's Index 


I Dow Jones Bond Averages I 


industrials 

Tramp. 

U Millies 
Finance 
CsmaosiM 


HhHi Law Close Ch'pe 
20050 19738 20055 +3.17 
ISX75 15056 1Q41 +235 
7957 7859 7951 + 042 
2050 2020 2050 + 03S 
1795* 17437 17954 +25* 


Bends 

utilities 

industrials 


AMEX MO^ Actives J 

VOL KHrti Low Last <3»w 

S?0 ® S ^ MS 5*S 
sis 85 e ss: 
a Baa a 

" p ES & h & +w 

SR B £ & £ 

Ufa 1289 1286 12V. 12W f 


AMEX Stock index 1 

MM Law CMM anm 

ZUTI 8W 22*55 + 131 


■fa 


NYSE Surges in Active Trading 


IA8 

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The Associated Pros 

NEW YORK — Prices cm the New York 
Stock Exchange surged Tuesday in late active 
trading. 

The Dow Jones industrial average jumped 
21.42 to 1271.09. Gainers outpaced losers by 2- 
to-1 on the New York Stock Exchange. 

Big Board volume totaled 119.17 million 
shares, against 94.02 minion in the previous 
session. The NYSE’s composite index rose 1.40 
to 103.91. 

The stock price increase was "a flipping up” 
in an oversold market, said Larry Wachtel of 
Prudential- Bache Securities Inc. Blue-chip 
stocks led the way as the falling dollar raised 
hopes that multinational companies would suf- 
fer fewer currency losses, he said. 

“The blue chips that got clobbered over the 
last few weeks are raising their heads here,” Mr. 
Wachtel said. 

In addition, strengthening in the bond mar- 
ket helped stock prices, he said. Investors saw 
the prospect of lower interest rates in a Com- 
merce Department report that housing con- 
struction fell 1 1 percent in February. 

That decline led investors to believe that the 
Federal Reserve Board would not tighten its 
grip on the money supply. Mr. Wachtel said. 

Broadcast issues were up for a second day on 
enthusiasm about the proposed merger between 
American Broadcasting Cos. and Capital Cities 
Communications, which was announced Mon- 
day. 

Gold prices, which soared more than S3S a 
ounce in New York trading on worries about 
the U.S. banking system and the effect on oil 
prices of the Gulf war, helped metals stocks. 


The dollar tumbled against most major cur- 
rencies for the second straight session. Dealers 
said markets were nervous because of the ex- 
tended closure of 69 privately-insured savings 
and loan associations in Ohio following a run 
on the institutions by depositors. 

Speculation that the dollar was about to re- 
treat after a record-breaking spree last month 
added to the currency’s decline. 

Robert Stovall of Dean Witter Reynolds Inc. 
said -The market was due for a rally." 

Mr. Stovall said losers outplaced gainers 
among Big Board issues in 17 out of the last 22 
business days, “meaning the market has been 
giving up a great deal of its gains." 

“And we had that sinking spell last Friday,” 
when the Dow Jones average lost almost 13 
points, he said. 

Blue chips led the way on Monday because 
the f alling dollar raised hopes that multination- 
al companies would suffer fewer currency 
losses, wachtel said. 

“The blue chips that got clobbered over the 
last few weeks are raising their heads here,” he 
said. 

The falling dollar sparked buying in com- 
modities, which helped gold — and metals 
stocks. Gold was also pushed up by concerns 
about the U.S. banking system, analysts said. 

IBM was up 21k at 1304; 3M rose 2H to 8444 
and Merck was up Ift at 101 to. 

Broadcast issues were up for a second dav on 
enthusiasm about the proposed S3J-biIlion 
merger between ABC ana Capital Cities Com- 
munications, which was announced Monday. 

ABC was one of the most actively traded 
issues on the Big Board, up Hi at 107%. 


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INTERNATIONAL 





‘W* ;i * 


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■ : 25i 




PabUrd WMi Ik Sn> Y«tTi» aad TV VaUvpo, FM 


JAPAN 


A SPECIAL ECONOMIC REPORT 

WEDNESDAY, MARCH 20, 1985 


Page 9 







Jw Economy: 
ffMutonomom 




) Under Way 


| •':* 




W MS i r , ? -escribe what is ha 

*?*?* * ' O-e / . t.msion." : 

f? j* f a > ' -■-» Ylj iVhai this means is 

% ^ V. A i' i jfltt f- »ns the govemmc 


By Richard C Hanson 

■ TOKYO — Japan’s highly regarded econom- 
%|u:ureaocrats can boast of having slage-man- 
vfo one of- the most successful economic “mir- 
U<' of the postwar era. Now, midway through 
jfl980s, the government's role in the economy 
■*)changpd dramatically. Senior officials like 
/ 7- -escribe what is happening as “autonomous 




Glittering Prosperity 
Masks the Quality Gap 


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'lyhai this means is that for a combination of 
v ]i ' ms the government’s ability (and in some 
I"- yijfes, wfflmgness) to influence the economy 
Y <§5jictly has mnrinished sharply. Hus partly re- 
* ^^ts a gjwraig sense that the government’s 
i policies of tight regulation ana intervention 
>VS anttstry and finance are no longer appropri- 
in a “mature” economy, let alone one that 
' r emerged over the past year as the industrial 
, ' id's single largest sauce of investment capi- 

rom the outside, Japan may be widely per- 
«d as dragging its feet on opening trade and 
■ nrial markets to competition. From the m- 
N '.\ changes set in motion for the deregulation 
financial markets appear revolutionary. 

; . aradoxicaBy, berth the undoing of fiscal po- 
and the opening up of financial mar kets 
-e the same parentage: namely, government 
L Steps to liberalize money markets in Japan 
mainly the result of pressure ou thegovem- 
tt to market its beads, which were first 
ed in huge amounts beginning in the mid- 
Js. Free-floating interest rates on manufao 
: -*-'rgg bonds means the breakdown of fixed 
t-term interest rates. 

he government's domestic budget-deficit 
is was the result of a round of heavy debt- 
need spending to stimulate the economy 
— r the first dl crisis a decade agp. For the past 
e years, the government has slashed back 
iieral expenditures. Public-works spending is 
' -pant. Servicing the government's debt alone 
• ■ edged up to 18.5 percent of the general- 
; Jjunt budgeL 

We’ve run into a wall as far as cutting 
entfitures is concerned,” a Finance Ministry 
; rial said. “We need to innovate on the reve- 
■••.side." 

' ' ‘otitkaans of the ruling liberal Democratic 
;ty are also feeling the Seat from their voters, 
■ (Continued on Next Page) 


% © 


*jum mm 

■v!% '• fP 


** 





jun^non CtWOneni Pirn 


Faces of Japan: A teen-ager and pictures of singers and film stars for sale at Tokyo’s Harajukn Park. Page 10. 


■ Hie yotmger generation shows a marked 
shift toward self-indulgence. Page 10. 


INSIDE 


■ Society is ratal tered by the communica- 
tions revolution. Page 15. 


■ The mukfle class; Do 90 percent of the ■ White-collar Jobs are being created by ■ Women at work: Despite progress, dis- 
Japanese belong? Pace 13. office automation. Page 14. crimination remains. Page 16. 


Page 13. office automation. 


Page 14. crimination remains. 


Page 16. 


■ A new entrepreneurial spirit challenges ibe II The automobfle has overtaken the train as a ■ A rapidly aging population will overload 
industrial pyramid. Page 12. means of moving masses. Page 14. social programs. Page 16. 


By Jack Burton 

TOKYO —The Japanese are new very much 
living the affluence of the industrialized world. 
In 40 years, they have become comfortably 
prosperous. 

Signs of the country's newly acquired wealth 
abound. Tokyo's population is as well-dressed 
as that of New York or London, and depart- 
ment stores are stocked with such luxury goods 
as Louis V union handbags, Herm&s scarves and 
Yves Saint Laurent suits. 

The city's shabby ferroconcrete buildings are 
being gradually replaced by gleaming interna- 
tional-style glass and steel towers. The Japanese 
now spend more per capita on overseas trips 
than any other nationality. 

And those impressions of an improved stan- 
dard of living are backed up -by such accepted 
statistical indicators as television ownership 
(second within the OECD after the United 
States): infant mortality (the second lowest after 
Finland): life span (the world's longest), and 
high-school enrollment (surpassed only by the 
United States). 

Acknowledged by the rest of the world as an 
economic superpower, with the third-highest 
gross national product, after the United Stales 
and the Soviet Ltaion. Japan is also starting to 
display a more assertive profile abroad that 
reflects pride in its achievement. 

But behind the impressive statistics, the Japa- 
nese standard of Living, or perhaps more accu- 
rately its quality of life, still lags behind that of 
the United States and most of Europe. 

On a private-consumption per-capita basis, 
Japan hovers around 15 th among (he 24 coun- 
tries in the Organization for Economic Cooper- 
ation and Development. 

The cost of basic necessities is high because 
most essential things, from food to raw materi- 
als. have to be imported- Food aione accounts 
for about a quarter of the average family budget. 

A further constraint on improving the quality 
of life is the absence of roace. A population of 
120 million, half that of the United States, must 
be squeezed into a smalt area. The result is that 
housing is extremely cramped, with the Japa- 
nese paying 1.5 to 2 times more per square meter 
of living space than Europeans and Americans. 

Although the Japanese over the last 40 years 
have moved out of homes buOt erf timber and 
mortarboard into ones of concrete, housing 
standards remain relatively poor. Only 30 per- 
cent of Japanese homes are linked to main 
sewage systems and only half have flush toilets. 
Central heating is frequently lacking in Japa- 


nese houses, which are designed more to stay 
cool iu summer than warm in winter. 

With 75 percent of the Japanese living in 
cities, urban areas have a claustrophobic feeling. 
Only about 10 pereent of Tokyo consists of 
open space, including parks anil roads, com- 
pared with 25 percent in London. 

With food and housing taking a sizable chunk 
of the household budget, the Japanese ore also 
forced to save about 20 percent of their income 
for medical emergencies and retirement due to 
the inadequacy or the social welfare system. 
These savings.' of course, have benefited (he 
Japanese economy by providing a huge reser- 
voir of capital available for investment, but it 
has limited the amount of discretionary income 
available to most Japanese. 

Leisure, according to opinion polls, has be- 
come the most important concern in the last 
several years, a sign of an increasingly affluent 
society, but the Japanese are hampered in enjoy- 
ing the fruits of their labor. They still work 150 
to 350 more hours per year than Americans and 
some Europeans, and the five-and-a-half-day 
work week is prevalent, although slowly dying 

OUL 

There are, nonetheless, important economic 
compensations. Tax rates are low; the typical 
Japanese worker brings home 84 J percent of his 
income after taxes. 

Inflation is low. with wholesale prices having 
barely moved during the last three years and the 


— 2.7 percent in 1984, although the figure is 
somewhat misleading for two reasons. One. the 
Japanese use a broad definition of what consti- 
tutes work, and, secondly, there are many fewer 
women holding full-time career jobs in Japan 
than in (he United States and Europe, which 
means that male workers seeking work can usu- 
ally find it 

More importantly, the national income has 
been distributed fairly equally in the postwar 
period, quite a radical departure for a country 
that was known for its distinct class divisions. 

Of the almost 34 million people working full 
time at private companies in 1982. 10.2 million 
made less than 2 million yen (about $8,000) per 
year. 19.2 million made between 2 million and 5 
million yen. and 4 5 million more than 5 million 
yen. 

Most of those earning l million yen or less 
were women, who on average are paid 50 per- 
cent less than men. In 1982. women received an 
(Continued on Page 11) 


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■Page 10 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, MARCH 20, 1985 


A SPECIAL REPORT ON JAPAN 



Autonomous Expansion: 
Economy Finds Own Level 


* (Continued From Page 9) 

who have been starved of pork-barrel public- 
works spending. However, although a general 
consumption tax has been discussed the LDP is 
unlikely to agree soon to tax reforms on a scale 
chat would raise enough revenue to ease the 
midget problem. 

» “There is agreement on broadening the tax 
base, but no consensus on concrete measures." 
tpe Finance Ministry official said Politically, 
Prime Minister Yasuniro Nakasone is still conv 
rpitted to fiscal reform without major tax in- 
creases. 

>■ Economic management through manipula- 
tion of monetary policy has been virtually ruled 
out by the prolonged volatility in foreign ex- 
change markets as a result of high U.S. interest 
rates. Fear of undermining an already weakened 
yen prevents the central bonk from lowering 
interest rates at home. 

. Fiscal and monetary policies played a key 
role in the Inst period of economic recovery. In 
1977 and 1978. public-works spending rose by 
more than 20 percent annuall y, while the official 
discount rate dropped to the lowest level in 
postwar history. 3.5 percent It has remained 
stuck at 5 percent this time. 

“It’s no joke that government is trying to find 
a new role in the economy." said Mlido Wakat- 
suki. Director of the Bank of Japan's research 
department. 

Meanwhile, the economy's “autonomous ex- 
pansion” has proved remarkably sound. 

Having outscored most of the industrialized 
world in nearly all the toughest economic tests 
of the past two decades, the consensus is that 
japan is settling into what promises lo be a 
sustained period of growth of 4 percent to 5 
percent a year. Sparked by a rapid surge of 
exports to a fast-growing American economy, 
japan is in its third straight year of exp ansi on. 
" i “The present recovery is now well within 
reach of becoming the third longest on record 
since the raid- 1950s." said David Gerstenhaber. 
a Tokyo-based economist for Jardine Fleming, 
rjhe stockbroker. Government economic plan- 
ners are encouraged by signs that the economy 
I has moved further away from a heavy depen- 
i dence on export growth, 
j “Our growth is now fairly independent of 
-external factors.” Mr. Wakatsuki said. “The 
{remarkable thing is that this is the third year of 
| expansion without much inflation.” 

I Nearly half of 1983’s 3.9-percent real growth 
Jin the gross national product was due (o rising 
exports (and sluggish imports). For the 1984 
{fiscal year, which ends March 31. domestic 
jdemand appears to have accounted for the lion's 
{share. The 1984 economy is estimated to have 
{grown about 5.5 percent, or slightly higher than 
ie official estimate. The government expects 
t fully 90 percent of the 4.6-percent growth 


nr- 

(the 

tha 


forecast for fiscal 1985 will be the result of 
domestic demand. 

Economic planners have been cheered by 
signs that capital spending by the nonmanufac- 
turing (and hence nonexporting) sector of the 
economy (hotels, shops, finance and such) will 
pick up. For the past two years, private capital 
spending has served as a wain engine for the 
economy, but mostly stimulated by industries 
exporting to the United Stales. 

The current economic recovery, which began 
in the spring of 1983. is strikingly different in 
content from the one that began in 1977 and 
petered out early in 1980. The big change has 
been a dominance by electronics- related indus- 
tries, while traditional basic industries faded in 
importance. 

From the last quarter of 1977 to 1980’s first 
quarter, 29 percent of the expansion in industri- 
al output was in base industries (steel chemi- 
cals. automobiles) against 25 percent in the 
electronics industry. Since the Erst quarter of 
1983. the basic industries' share of growth has 
fallen to 17 percent while electronics rose to 38 
percent. 

Economists are counting on sluggish private 
consumption to be boosted by more generous 
wage settlements in the annum round of labor 
negotiations this spring The government is hop- 
ing that its frugal citizens wall spend more, 
rather than save more. 

But at the same time, the government would 
have even more to worry about if the average 
Japanese were not such a prodigious saver of 
money. Among other things. Japan's high sav- 
ings rate has meant that its huge trade surplus 
(mainly with the United States) could be indi- 
rectly offset by an equally large outflow of 
investment capital to the United Stales. In 1984, 
Japan had a record current-account surplus of 
$44,351 v Jlioo, but there was a record $49- 
biHion outflow recorded In the country's long- 
term capital. 

Japan views its economic success with a com- 
bination of pride and caution. A recent govern- 
ment-sponsored study showed that over the past 
100 years, Japan's per capita income has risen 
21 times, its working hours have fallen by a third 
and housing space per person has increased by- 
two- thirds. A newly appointed Japanese ambas- 
sador boasted recently at a press conference that 
Western countries simply cannot compete with 
the efficiency of Japanese industry. 

Other officials are less sure that Japan's ad- 
vantages are permanent or that the factors 
which help produce its wealth will endure. One 
senior official said of Japan's world role: 

“Japan is just a small island of stability in the 
world — hot practically the only country where 
savings are being generated. We want to use our 
savings not only for ourselves but [as an invest- 
ment] in the dynamism of the U.S. and world 
economy” 


wm 

Work 
Ethic Give 
Way to 
National 
Ethic? 


i ) 


' k it 


A businessman prays at the Meiji Shinto center. 


By Gregory Clark 

TOKYO — As war memories fade and the 
economy points ever upward, many observers 
have predicted the development of a more 
nationalistic Japan. 

A major factor in the postwar economic 
miracle was the strong desire to rebuild Ja- 
pan. So today, when the rebuilding is almost 

and Japan is^often Held up as a modd for 
others lo follow, it is not surprising if pride 
and confidence gain ground. 

Also, this pride laps over into renewed 
emphasis on Japan's traditional values. This 
year. Tor example. Prime Minister Yasuhiro 
Nakasone made a point of being the first 
postwar leader to attend the traditional Feb. 
1 1 ceremony celebrating the mythical found- 
ing of Japan 2,600 years ago. 

In the past, the ritual served as the focus 
for militarist sentiment and for those favor- 
ing state Shin lo ism. Pacifist and leftist move- 
ments, together with religious groups op- 
posed to any suggestion that Shintoism be 
revived as the state religion, have opposed 
any official endorsement of the founding cer- 
emonies. 

But Mr. Nakasone went anyway. He has 
also encouraged his cabinet to make token 
visits of worship to the major Shinto shrine in 
central Tokyo. 

Underlying Mr. Nakasone’s approach is 
the idea that the postwar era is over and 
Japan should make a clear break with the 


Gregory Clark is professor of international 
business at Sophia University in Tokyo. 


policies and attitudes attached to that period. 

One of the first breaks is in the area of 
military spending; he has challenged (he 
promises made by forma' prime ministers to 
keep this spending down to within 1 percent 
of gross national product 

Although Mr. Nakasone can argue chat an 
increase is needed anyway to maintain good 
relations with the United States, the main 
factor is the intense feeling in conservative 
circles, both political and business, favoring a 
stronger military posture. 

No one suggests that Japan should return 
to its militarist ways or that, apart from sea- 
lane defense and perhaps some contribution 
to United Nations peacekeeping forces, Japa- 
nese troops should be sent abroad. 

But the conservatives who rule Japan share 
a deep feeling that a stronger Japan would be 
a better Japan. “At the very least, we should 
be able to defend our own nation,” they say. 

The progressives who used to dominate the 
foreign-policy debate are less vocal and the 
noisy ultranationalist minority is noisier than 
ever. Its main foreign target is the Soviet 
Union, for refusing to return the Kurile is- 
lands. seized from Japan after the war. The 
ultras also seek a revision of the constitution 
toward reinstating the emperor to his prewar 
status. 

Probably the only factor holding down tins 
groundswefl is Mr. Nakasone’s weakening 
political situation within the Liberal Demo- 
cratic Party and an instinctive dislike in the 
electorate for military-spending controver- 
sies. Under strong pressure from the opposi- 
tion parties, Mr. Nakasone has reluctantly 


agreed that he should cry to keep dose to the 
1-percent GNP limit But there is little doubt 
as to where his “true sentiments” lie, as the 
Japanese press puts it 

The education system introduced to Japan 
from the United States after the war is also 
under strong conservative challenge. Its 
faults are said to include an excessive empha- 
sis on individual rights and . freedoms, and 
little mention of obligations to state and 
society. 

The conservative forces call for more patri- 
otism and! national pride; They say the youn- 
ger generation needs more moral fiber. In the 
schools, they want respect for the flag and 
national anthem, and, in particular, they 
want to see a toning down of references in 
textbooks to Japan's past militaristic mis- 
deeds. In 1982. some textbook revisions 
brought protests from China and South Ko- 
rea, leading the Education Ministry to make 
some grudging retractions. 

Paradoxically, in the day-to-day handling 
of international affairs, the growing national- 


oess to listen and cooperate. When Japan was 
stxD struggling for progress, its instinctive 
reaction to foreign pressure was amply to 
hunker down ana try to ride out the storms 
imposed on it by outriders. 

Today, the slogan is for Japan to become 
more understanding of the outside world. 
Learning how to speak better English and to 


of this internationalism. Others include a 
relaxation of Japan’s restrictive nationality 
laws, some small increases in the numbers of 


Vietnamese refugees allowed to stay in the 
country and moves to increase the number of 
foreign students here. 

In trade matters, the current slogans also 
call for more international attitudes. The neg- 
ativism of earlier years is now seen as outdat- 
ed and the overall mood is to give ground. 
imiwM there are unusually strong domestic 
reasons to do otherwise. 

Thus, it is hard to argue that a more confi- 
dent Japan is necessarily a more obstruction- 
ist and pushy Japan. 

Perhaps the main area of push has been m 
the. concept of' a Pacific Basin C omm unity. 
Spawned by Kiyoshi Kqjima, an economist 
and strong Japan-firster. the idea used to call 
for a free trade area in which Japan inevitably 
would have had a do minan t role. Today, that 
idea has been modified greatly and calls for 
mainly cultural and information exchanges. 

In promoting the project, Japan is now 
bending over backward to avoid giving the 
impression that it seeks the dominant role. 
Even so, there is little doubt that the more 
nationalistic dements in Japan would like to 
see the concept in terms of an expanded 
Japanese presence in the Arian/Pacinc area. 
Support for the concept is strongest in right- 
ist and conservative circles. 

Some have called openly for the concept to 
be convened into a political organization 
with faudy undisguised anti-Soviet aims: In- 
deed, Moscow has charged' that the idea is a 
vehicle for Japanese military expansion. 

The overall picture is of a Japan that is 
resurgent but still farfrom dangerous, even if 
some insist otherwise. 


? . i 


3 l 


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. I 

i : 


Hard-Working Society Takes an Interest in Leisure 


| By Doune Porter 

TOKYO — Over the past 20 
[years the Japanese have established 
[an international reputation as 
{workaholics. Although many Japa- 
nese take pride in this reputation 
{for working, it is an image the lei- 
jsure industry in Japan is at pains to 
(dispel The "Japanese government, 
{beset by international trade fric- 
tion and beginning to find the rep- 
utation a little embarrassing, is also 
•trying to promote leisure in Japan. 

! On average, the Japanese work 
{between 150 and 350 hours a year 
: more than their counterparts in Eu- 
Irope and America, leaving them- 
[selves with less time for leisure- 
i oriented activities, 
i However, younger Japanese are 
{less interested than their parents in 
(devoting themselves to their work- 
place and more inclined toward re- 
(laxing and having fun. Gradually, 
ithe working week is being reduced 
(from five and a half days to five; 
The banks are now closed on the 
(second Saturday of each month 
{and ore planning to stop Saturday 
(opening altogether in the near fu- 


ture. Last year the Ministry of La- 
bor proposed a further reduction of 
working hours by cutting down 
overtime and promoting a system 
of paid holidays. 

In 1980 the average Japanese 
managed 4 hours and 17 minutes 
leisure time each weekday (includ- 
ing Saturdays), ah increase of 19 
minutes from 1970, and although 
many do not yet make full use of 
this time, the leisure industry has 
mushroomed. 

From 1980 to 1982 the value of 
the leisure market in Japan grew by 
9.3 percent to 393 trillion yen 
($1.81 billion), equivalent to 15 
percent of the gross national prod- 
uct 

Because of their long working 
hours, the majority of Japanese 
spend their free time relaxing, usu- 
ally in front of the television. There 
are almost 160 television sets for 
every 100 households, and the Jap- 
anese while away more time watch- 
ing television than doing anything 
else, except working and sleeping. 
Television has taken over from the 
movies, with die number of cine- 


mas falling from 7.437 in I960 to 
2.364 in 1980. 

In Japan, which boasts a 99-per- 
ceni literacy rate, at least one new* 

E aper is delivered lo almost every 
ousehold. and magazines are be- 
coming increasingly popular, espe- 
cially among the young. Reading 
materials account for the second 
largest leisure expenditure after 
travel, and the Japanese read for an 
average of about three quarters of 
an hour a day. As well as high 
circulation rates for newspapers 
and magazines Ithe Yomiuri Shim- 
bun has a circulation of dose to 
nine million — the largest in the 
world). Japanese bookstores flour- 
ish. In Tokyo, large-scale book- 
stores. some carrying up to a mil- 
lion books, have recently been 
opened, proving a major attraction 
for customers. 

Other relaxing recreational ac- 
tivities include the popular board- 
games of Go and Shogi. Go. a terri- 
torial boardgame. and Shogi. a 
parallel to chess, each have an esti- 
mated amateur following of 10 mil- 
lion. For both games, competitions 



Keeping Our Eyes and Ears Open 

The keen eyes and sensitive ears of an orchestra conductor 
help to make possible a glorious symphonic performance. 

Indeed, his awareness plays a critical roie in creating a delightful harmony. 
Keeping our eyes and ears open to the changing marketplace, 
we at Toyo Trust will maintain our own awareness to respond to your needs. 
Specifically, the harmony within our wide variety of financial services is 
sure to meet your sophisticated requirements. 

Please feel free to call on us and ask how. 


The Toyo Trust and Banking 
Company, Limited 

4-1 Manmoudi 1-ctMWHk, Oiywfe-fcu. Tokyo. Japan TEl 03 2B?-2?t I We* JKV3 TYIBKI 
; Offce/Londm. New Yort. Us Anjfcs. Hong K any. Sngaptn. Bataan, Sydnoy. Shangha 

Stfadanes/foro Bust Immune Imal ttiwfew. tore l*u® Asa Unwed IHong Kong} 


and major tournaments sponsored 
by national newspapers are held 
throughout the year. 

Pachinko, Japan’s answer to pin- 
ball, provided a mindless diversion 
for workers during the period of 
rapid economic growth and is still 
played regularly by almost 30 mil- 
lion Japanese. Gaudy, noisy pa- 
chinko parlors cluster in every Jap- 
anese town, their clients sitting in 
rows watching steel balls descend 
through a maze of puts, and trying 
to guide them into winning holes. 
Although occasionally an unlucky 
player can lose a day’s wages dur- 
ing a visit to the pachinko parlor, 
for most it is a relatively cheap 
form of amusement. 

Avid photographers and sightse- 
ers, the Japanese prefer taking 
more active holidays to lazing 
around on beaches. In 1983, 423 
million Japanese traveled abroad 
— a record number, with about 80 
percent on sightseeing tours. For 
families. Hawaii and Guam are the 
favorite destinations, but single 
women are more attracted to Eu-. 
rope, other Asian countries and, 
during the recent koala craze, Aus- 
tralia. Young bachelors, on the oth- 
er hand, tend to prefer the United 
States, especially the West Coast. 

Domestically, the Japanese, 
most of whom have moved into the 


cities, often visit their hometowns 
for holidays. Increasing numbers of 
families travel to hot spring resorts, 
and older couples take leisure trips. 
The most popular winter trips 
among young people are ski tours 
in northern Japan. 

Although the Japanese are be- 
coming more inclined toward par- 
ticipation sports, spectator sports 
such as sumo and baseball are still 
extremely popular. 

Sumo, traditional Japanese wres- 
tling, draws annual crowds of 
around 750,000, and is covered ex- 
tensively on television. Japan has 
two professional baseball leagues, 
and the season runs from Apnl to 
October, with spectators totaling 
about 16 million in 1980. 

There are nearly 60 million golf- 
ers in Japan. The sport is expensive, 
and is most popular among white- 
collar worms, who also use it as 
means of entertaining business cli- 
ents. Because of the limited land 
available, the Japanese have made 
the best use of what little space they 
have, with many buildings in the 
city sporting rooftop golf ranges. 
The Japanese like to participate not 
only in sports but also in music. 
They sing to the accompaniment of 
taped instrumental music in kar- 



; 

i ’ 


» • 
\ i 

t ; 


Jivgkwm Oi/Canm 1V«K 

The crowds at Tokyo’s Harajuku Park on Sunday: Teea-aged ghis during to Weston 
music, above; briow, a group of yoangnjen in feadier ootfits and X950s-inspired hairstyles. 

aoke (literally “empty orchestra”) 
bars equipped with flattering 
sound systems and built-in echos 
that give even the worst singer that 
professional touch. Home karaoke 
sets are also becoming popular; in 
1982 an estimated 8 percent of Jap- 
anese households owned them, 
with 20 percent ownership forecast 
in the near future. Karaoke can 
even be found in such unlikely 
places as boats and taxis. > 


/{ 

i * ■ 

I I 

f 

. i 

< i 


f Beansprout Generation 9 Shifts 
From Traditions of Its Elders 


By Jill Hendrickson 

TOKYO — While their parents 
energetically rebuilt the country 
from a war-ravaged nation to a 
gleaming economic superpower, 
today's Japanese youth display lit- 
tle interest in committing them- 
selves to causes — either their 
country’s or their companies’. 

The degree to which they rqect 
traditional work ethics has left the 
Japanese establishment anxious 
about the future impact of the 
“beansprout generation," a term 
suggesting that although these 
meat- and milk-fed youngsters 
tower over their parents, they are 
not as strong mentally, physically 
and spiritually. 

Surveys of this part of the popu- 
lation usually show they possess a 
greater proclivity for self-indul- 
gence than for hard work. 

A recent government poll of Jap- 
anese between the ages of 16 and23 
revealed that only 27 percent of 
respondents believed their work 
made their lives worth living, a sig- 
nificantly lower number man in 
recent years. And only 3.7 percent 
indicated they warned to devote 
themselves to the betterment of so- 
ciety. By contrast, the number was 
nearly 10 times higher among 
young people in the Philippines. 

A study of 1,600 Japanese from 
18 to 24 conducted by Hakuhodo, a 
major Japanese advertising firm, 
painted a picture of a generation 
unabashedly devoted to pleasure- 

seeking, with no feelings oF guilt 

Nearly 69 percent of those ser- 
veyed said they live Tor pleasure, 
and 53.8 percent said they hurry to 


put their work and stories behind 
them so they can return to their 
chief task — having fun. 

Money sits high on their list of 
job criteria- “But even if it’s a solid 
job and a career with a great future, 
if it’s something (hat restricts their 
time and it's not an ‘in' sort of job, 
they’d rather not take it," said Mar- 
fleo Fupwara, from the Hakuhodo 
Institute of Life and Living. 

In the past, bright students 
aimed for jobs in trading compa- 
nies and banks. But as a sign of the 
times, Suntory Ltd, an alcoholic- 
beverage manufacturer with a 
knack for projecting a slick, fash- 
ionable image, now snares the larg- 
est number of job applicants. 

Young Japanese are basically 
passive, and instead of relying on 
diligence to cany them ahead, they 
look for clever shortcuts to success, 
Mariko Fujiwara said. 

A number of popular how-to 
magazines cater to their needs, with 
tips on where to rub elbows with 
big- name company executives and 
how to butter up the boss or turn 
interpersonal office relations to a 
career advantage. 

Yasuyoshi Fuse, senior research 
director with Hakuhodo's Institute 
of Life and Leisure, said young 
workers are quick to grab at oppor- 
tunities, but once they have caught 
one, they do not quite know what 
to do with it. 

“The chance itself is everything,’’ 
he said. “But they don't follow 
through with it. They expect things 
to just work out" 

Mr. Fuse cited arismrtnng trend 
in the number of graduates who 
enter big companies or prestige 


government agencies, only to drop 
out after a few years. He attributed 
their behavior to an inability to 
cope with the tough, real-life sana- 
tions that their how-to manuals do 
not address. 

While previous gsteratkms held 
close to dreams of working their 
way to the top, this generation opts 
for immediate gratification. “Gen- 
erally, these people have access to 
an enormous amount of informa- 
tion,” said Akio Saito of the mar- 
keting division of Dentsu, Japan's 
largest advertising agency. “They 
know what they can anticipate in. 
the next 10 or 20 years, and they' 
never expect lo became the compa- 
ny president Maybe they think ifs 
impossible nowadays.” 

Mr. Saito noted that young Japa- 
nese are not big drinkers, and an 
increasing number' of young work- 
ers seem reluctant to jean in the 
after-hours drinking se$$ j rm< where 
much important Japanese business 
takes place. 

• “Young Japanese males are be- 
coming weaken” he said. They’re 
very fashion and leisure oriented T 

Unlike tiuar predecessors, they 
use ail their allotted vacation time. 
They indulge in a wider variety of 
sprats and consider right clothing 
and accessories as important as 
activity itself. 

Older Japanese may have con- 
tented themselves with an outing 
once a wed; or once a month: “But 
contemporary youngesters want to - 
experience a mint-leisure event ev- 
ety day — a film, the theater or . 
diimer in a restaurant,” Mr. Saito 
said. 

Whereas thdr parents made pur- . 



£ \ _ 


.. W««tN/CtoiniR*B 

diases :based on ihri popularity <rf - central tothrix lives: and 72 percent 
fee manufacturer, trendy young ; rated ririr home ltfc inrae mnra- 
Japanese covet exclusive items ap- tant than their job- 

^^PWifthecon^yhi,, 
.“ThwdreK from bead ip toe tbs ' crisis, the employee fdtit was his 
way the fashion magazines tdl dutytowoffisSLtotobSSj ’• 
them to, and yet they don’t want to company out” said 

x a ** «- 

plained. lei's research dqpSrSaait. ^ 

_ “^ter ^sranethmg catches cm, -“Recently, die attitudevofW- 
th^ontwantrtanymrae.’- - mhasohaW 

Then rebetaaoe to;.stfck to rare pany -faces a inigor crisis, workers " 
style seam .to mirror a reluctance /wdLstmtookmg-a rry r ^ f OT anritf. - . - 
rocoaumt tbansdvesto ajoix ' “*er job." • 

"AccobJmg to -a survey by the- Mr. Kaioihd' said thestate ofth^ 

Nippon, faenut Center, only 48J economy was in part 
percent & .new job- innate said - for tbeOWea m wrakSSS^- 
thty--planaifeto tbeii ' ’ _Wi ' 

oranpartieg mrtil n a rip anaar. - . ~ fc 

Another 12.8 ‘ percent axihowf--" mobility is ' 

would stay ' 

Onl^l33 pana . , 

v 






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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, MARCH 20, 1985 


Page 11 


A SPECIAL REPORT ON JAPAN 


A Glittering Prosperity 
Masks the Gap in Quality 


'82 '83 ’84 '85* 

Projection W Japan v m Jo urnal ej Tnda A Imbue? 

CnfteboWCwMtaiMiWT 

i^ider Demand Base 
s Creating New Needs 
Ind Diversified Tastes 


(Continued From Page 9) 
average salary of 1.92 milli on yen 
per year, compared with 3.86 mil- 
lion yen for men. But since women 
mostly work to supplement the 
family budget, there is no wide dis- 
parity in income on a household 
basis. 

Rural areas have not been ne- 
glected at the expense of cities in 
receiving economic benefits. Due 

politics, dominated by rm^based 
politicians, the countryside has re- 
ceived a rich harvest of public- 
works projects, from bullet-train 
lines to extensive hospital fadUties. 
Farmers are heavily subsidized by 
the government there are plans to 
spread the benefits of technology 
into the countryside by building a 
dozen or so “technopolis” regions 
that will house high-tech industries. 

But Japanese perceptions of 
their living standards, have not 
changed much since the late 1950s 
although the population is better 
led, better housed and better 
clothed than 25 years ago. 

Despite Japan's rapid economic 
growth during most of this period, 
public -opinion polls have revealed 
that aboiut 65 percent of Japanese 
believe that their standard of living 


standard of living had deteriorated 
from the previous year and 38.6 
percent replied that it was harder to 
make a living than before. More- 
over, the number or those who con- 
rider themselves lower middl e class 
(27.1 percent) rather than middle 


Another disturbing sign of an 
emerging wage gap is the appear- 
ance for the first ume in the post- 
war period of what .is termed ihc 
□ew consumption class. Although 
extravagant spending is still gener- 
ally considered social!) 


i*/.* pereemj lamer man miatue any considered socially u naccc pt- 
middle class (54.6 percent) has in- able, this class of wealiny urbanites 
i *--• ■* — * has provided a ready market for 

$4,000 ocean cruises, 5400,000 con- 


creased slightly by 4 to 5 percent 
since the mid-1970s. There is a 


Hie debt situation is not as serious as that 
faced by the U. S. and some European 
countries due to the high sa vings rate. 


growing nostalgia within Japan for 
the 1950s, when economic pros- 
pects seemed unlimited and the na- 
tion was united behind the one goal 
of rebuilding the country. 

That has given rise to talk that 
the country's middle-class con- 
sciousness is slowly breaking down, 
caused by widening income gaps. 
One example of growing wage dif- 
ferences is that between those 
working in large firms with 500 or 
more employees and those working 
in small enterprises with fewer than 
30 employees. While in 1972 work- 



ft* io ti : •< 


By George Fields 

.TOKYO — The Japanese oon- 
.■ me to increase their consumption 
Western-style foods, but at the 
■ - 'me time they continue to inno- 
■- ’-je on their own cuisine — one 
r.^jes not destroy the other. One of 
c key issues for the marketer is 
." 'aether Japanese consumers are 
ridding their homogeneous na- 
. 're. 

•1 ' The apparent fragmentation of 
c Japanese consumer is occurring 
j cause of the greatly expanded 
’ -anand base, winch in turn creates 
-w needs and has nothing to do 
* ith the breakdown of thehomoge- 
'.aty of society. 

•-i Admittedly within the very small 
■ iport segment — 2 percent erf 
j. immobile registrations — BMW 
as been successful by recognizing 
needs of a minority, as had 
.-..-(ercedes earlier. BMW, the new 
’ toy, started to take off when a 
jrtain group dynamism became 
idem. 

The Japanese educational sys- 
an is a powerful contributor to the 
T pupation of the group. Despite the 
* ^nmng debate on educational 
fundamental changes will 
to crane, given the en- 
_ bureaucratic infrastruc- 
■Azu with more and more stu- 
ig to . the universities 
only to the United Stares), 
increased affluence, 
this newly affluent youth, 
come closest to the global mar- 
' |i Youthful consumers in many 
ijtures lack individual confidence 
thus, as a group, create fads, 
very fluidity of their tastes 
to create the illurion of “indi- 
£ duatization” of the Japanese mar- 
Jbut is still more a function of 
i increase in the riTP of their 

new products that stay the 
stance are mostly those that are 
ile to plug into a group dynamism 
- some sort and, to be really suc- 


cessful, they have to be transferable 
to another group, as the original 
group’s character changes with 
newly acquired social responsibil- 
ities. 

For impact in the marketplace, 
the rapidly changing position of 
women is the most important fac- 
tor. Many of the features are recog- 
nizable in the West but the f emale 
consumer who evolves will still be 
uniquely Japanese in many re- 
spects for some time to come. More 
important to the marketer is the 
fact that they are moving from one 
set of consumer needs to another 
by virtue of greater affluence, inde- 
pendence. social recognition and 
free time. The results are evident in 
booming markets for certain 
sport5-raatcd goods, culture cen- 
ters, fashion items, travel, family 
restaurants. 

The growth in the dissemination 
and manipulation of information 
related to services has had its im- 
pact The home-deHveiy firm of 
Footwork discovered that it could 
deliver a special type of melon from 

the northernmost islan d to any 

home in Japan before the product 
perished, a feat beyond the capabil- 
ities of the existing distribution sys- 
tem. The concept of “direct deliv- 
ery from the source” was 
successfully launched, tapping la- 
tent consumer needs, that were per- 
fectly consistent with traditional 
values. 

The diversification of the Japa- 
nese consumers’ tastes is the net 
result of moving from a produc- 
tion-based to a marketing-oriented 
culture. Demand exceeded supply 
in the halcyon days of growth, 
turning tbe Japanese marketing es- 
tablishment into solid supply-rid- 
ers. There is now a scramble to 
provide a raison d’etre for a prod- 
uct' other than functional excel- 
lence and price. 

George Fields is president of ASI 
Market Research (Japan) Inc. 



middle class, compared with 72 
percent in the late 1950s. 

Recently, the polls have noted a 
growing p fiarimiigm anvwg a sizable 
minority of Japanese about their 
economic future. For example, 22.7 
percent said last year that their 


employees,- the ratio had dropped 
to S6.6 percent by 1983. The dis- 
parity is even greater when it is 
considered that large companies 
offer more generous benefits, from 
housing assistance to retirement al- 
lowances, than smaller ones. 


dominiums and $12,000 jewelry for 
pets. 

. With a gross national product 
growth rate of 6 5 percent during 
the first half of fiscal 1984 (the 
highest among the major non- 
Comro unisi industrialized powers) 
and wiLh industrial production 
climbing to 9.2 percent at the end 
of last year, Japan’s economic 
health is not in doubL 
However, some segments of Jap- 
anese society could face a bleaker 
future, particularly the aged. With- 
in the next 15 years, one out of 
esc will be 60 years 
pensions 

inadequate, most workers who re- 
tire from their career jobs are 
forced to take another job to make 
ends meet. But the number of posi- 
tions available for elderly workers 
is rapidly filling up and the govern- 
ment may have to shoulder a great- 


A NATION AT WOKE 

Of Japan s 120 million people, almost half — 56 million 
have jobs, while 1.52 million continue to seek work. 


Not seeking work 



Employed 


Unemployed 


Sourer: Management and Coordination Agent v, January 1935 


Grophao. boM Cur^MotHM/HT 



’78 "79 ’80 ’81 ’82 ’83 '84 

Source Japa n *** Journal of Trade £ Industry 


er share of supporting the aged in 
the future. 

That comes at a time when the 
government is trying to contain 
huge budget deficits, amounting to 
a total of about 120 trillion yen, the 


result of pump-priming measures 
that started in the mid-1970s to 
counter the effects of the oil-price 
rise. 

To finance its fiscal 1985 budget 
of 515 trillion yen, the Japanese 


government will have to borrow 
around 20 percent of that amount 
and 20 percent of the budget will go 
for debt service on past borrow- 
ings. Social spending has already 
been frozen Tor three years and the 
government is now considering an 
increase in taxes. 

The government's debt situation 
is not as serious as that faced by the 
United Suites and some European 
countries due to Japan's high sav- 
ings rate, which is likely to remain 
high so long as Japan does not 
provide comprehensive welfare 
benefits, thus providing an incen- 
tive for continued savings. 

But the aged may have to pay for 
that state of affairs, especially 
when they will have to depend on a 
smaller working population, which 
may be less committed to the work 
ethic than previous generations. 


*S iV/S? 




' ■ j.’K-i 


It takes a special kind of knowhow 
to cultivate the perfect pearl. 


Great ideas are like pearls. In the beginning, 
they’re hardly more than a seed. However, given 
the right kind of environment, a good idea can 
mature into a radiant reality. Much like a grain 
of sand can become the perfect pearl. 

At Epson, we know how to cultivate the 
kind of ideas that will produce products 
people can trust. We approach every idea 
from the very beginning. Wa carefully evaluate 
its worth, and before proceeding any further, 
we examine its applicability. If we find any 
flaws, any imperfections, we stop. 

Most corporations can dream up ingenious 
product concepts. But what makes Epson 


different from everyone else is that we create 
products for people. Almost every single 
feature on an Epson product is designed to 
make your life easier. You'll never spend 
weeks trying to figure out how an Epson 
product works. And you’ll never find un- 
necessary gimmicks either. 

Epson’s commitment to fulfill human needs 
is apparent in such outstanding products as our 
liquid crystal display, and the world's best- 
selling printers for personal computers and 
totally portable cordless personal computers. 

Epson. We know the difference between 
great ideas, and great ideas that work. 



Portable Computer PX-8 


EPSON 


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fcvswrt v .uis»nti > 121 


Page X2 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, MARCH 20, 1985 


FOUR REASONS WHY 
SORD IS THE FASTEST GROWING 
COMPUTER COMPANY 
INJAPAN. 


A SPECIAL REPORT ON JAPAN 


1 M343SX. 16-bft muftf-usar system. 

Features mutopfe operating systems finduding multi -user 
Concurrent DOS 3.1 and MS-DOS™ version 2.0), IBM 


terminal emulation and fuD language support (FORTRAN, 
LEVEL-II COBOL™. MBASIC, PASCAL, C. and 
Assembler)- Also features PIPS, SORD's unique Pan 
Information Processing System, which integrates 
spreadsheet, data base, graphics, text processing and 
programming functions into one system. 





M68. 8-bft/1B-toit desktop system. 


Offers multiple operating systems, just as the M343SX. 
and a 16-biVB-bit CPU design which enables it to run 
both 16-bit and 6-bit software, inducting PIPS, BASIC, 
and afl CP/M -based programs. 





3 1S-11C. Portable Business Computer. 

Lightweight, book-size system featuring 80 char x 25 line 
flip-up LCD screen, bit-mapped multi-window graphics, 
built-in high-speed microcassette drive, full-function word 
processor, built-in modem with automatic dialling. 
Supports PIPS. 


* ; 


“CAD-BRAIN M . Turnkey CAD Package. 

Low-cost/ high-powered hardware/software package that 
brings computer aided design within the finandaJ reach of 
the independent designer. Also suitable, of course, for 
large firms. Features Ngh-resoiutian 1024x780 dot color 
monitor, a complete range of built-in design elements 
("primitives”), and full graphics features. 



Japan’s fastest growing computer company. 


SORDCOMPUTB) CORPORATION Kyotmhi K-l Bldg., 7-12 Yam 2-dxxnc. Cfauo+u. Tokyo 104. Japan. Phone (05) 281-8130 Tde* 222422$ SORDfN j 
SOBD COMPUTER (DJQ LTD. House 6 Sl Alban’s Sc. Hay Market London SWIY4SQ Telephone (01) 930-4214 Telex.- 296885 SOU> UK G FAX: 930-6483 

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To handle a broad range of cargo 
in the most cost-efficient way. 


4I> i 


Stopping consignments come in ail 
shapes and sizes, from massive plant 
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NYK maintain a whole fleet of vessels , 
capable of handing these diverse 
needs safely and efficiently. NYK’s fleet 
currently numbers 284 vessels 
including heavy Fitters, container Vj 

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coal, ore and grain ships and 
90 on. Fleet diversity is only 
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our customers NYK’s infer- §iW£ 
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3fe , And helping keep shipments moving 

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vve can offer customers to 
our 100th year of operation 

Charting a course fir tamonw 


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Secondary Suppliers 
Keep Engine Running 
In Good Times and Bad 


'p 


By Darryl Gibson 
TOKYO — The names of Ja- 
pan's industrial giants. Matsushita. 
Hitachi, Nippon Kokan. Honda. 
Toyota and others, have become 
synonymous with industrial power 
of this decade, tat this success does 
not spring from technological and 
manager ial advances alOQCL 

In the rigidly hieraxdiial struc- 
ture of Japanese manufacturing, 
the famous rest comfortably atop a 
pyramid of secondary and tertiary 
suppliers, which not only keep the 
economic engine firing smoothly in 
good times, wit also act as buffers 
to soften the Mow of economic 
turndowns for their main patrons. 

For despite the fame ana size of 
the giants, Japan's economy rests 
mostly on small and roedidm-sizs 
businesses that supply the parts 
and labor for the companies at the 
top. 

In 1981, the last year for which 
complete figures are available, 
there were 713,000 Japanese manu- 
facturers employing 10.6 million 
people. Compared with the United 
States, where 312,000 co rporations 
employed 21.9 million, the pre- 
dominance of small and medium 
firms in Japan is clear. 

On average. Japanese manufac- 
turing firms employ' only L5 people, 
while in the Untied States the com- 
parable figure is 60. And when 
companies employing fewer than 


Philippines, where low-paid work- 
ers fUl Japanese orders. 


as fill Japanese orders. 

But even at home the company 
must save. 

F-ach spring, throngs of female 
high school graduates arc recruited 
to fill the ranks on hand assembly 
lines. Few last more than a few 
years, so tlx: predominately female 
labor force is at the low end of the 
wage structure and the male man- 
agers, most of whom can expect 
lifetime employment, spend much 
of their lime training new workers. 

At the next level down, the com- 
pany’s own suppliers often work at 
home or at other small premises to 
manufacture plastic finmgs of sim- 
ilar small articles on a piecework 
baa's. 

In boom times, the company’s 
assembly lines are full and the ter- 
tiary suppliers work hard to meet 
demand fear the assembler. But 
when the economy slows, the sec- 
ondary work force is trimmed b/ 
quick attrition and no hiring of new 
graduates, while workers on the ter- 
tiary level either must look for new 
jobs or return to their rice fields. 

At the top, belts are tightened, 
but layoffs are rare. The lower- 
ranked firms squeeze their work 
force and, in turn, squeeze chose 
below them. 


\ 'T- E 



Office workers in Tokyo's business district. 


Venture Boom Spawns 
An Innovative Breed 


100 people arc included, fully 58 
nercent of Japan's labor force 


percent or Japan's labor force 
worked for small companies com- 


pared with 25 percent in the United 
States. 


At firms in Japan with fewer 
than 300 workers, 65.5 percent 
were subcontractors. What this 
means for the Japanese employee's 


On the positive ride, however, 
the dose relationship means that 
technology is often shared with af- 
filiates and independent suppliers 
more quickly than might happen 
otherwise and efficiency is in- 
creased markedly. 

' 'With so many firms dependent 
on the corporation at the top, adap- 
tation to change is faster than m 
systems where suppliers are at 
aim's length from their customers. 


Of Young Entrepreneurs 


Special to the IHT 

TOKYO — It is fashionable to 
talk of a new “venture boom" in 


Now there is money, Yen tun ; 
capital firms still do not fold it ear 
to invest. About a third of all & 
funds available remains uninvest 


Japan. Americm-style venture cap- 

*£• According to the newsletter h 

new class of Japanese entrepre- no „ r; r ,3?,i a. 


“ aapauc* p(m Financ fal Report, foe biggs/ . 

and oldest venture capital Finn, Ja ' 
After 1945 new entrepreneurs pan Associated Finance Co. .. 
launched firms like Sony and known as Jafco, an affiliate of th" . 
Honda in a marked departure from country’s biggest securities fira, - .' 
the old prewar dominance by big Nomura, has made big loans i\ 
industrial groups called zeribatsu. consumer finance companies calle ' 


In the rigidly hierarchial structure of 
Japanese manufacturing, the famous rest 
comfortably atop a pyramid of secondary 
and tertiary suppliers, which ... soften the 
blow of economic turndowns. 


But since that, big firms have dom- sarokin, or loan sharks. 


inated Japan’s economy. In con- 
trast to American experience, most 
technological innovation in Japan 


Hardly venture businesses, thes ' . 
do offer high interest returns. Sim; 
larly, Nikko Venture Capital ar;7 


has come from big companies. If other brokerage affiliate, has rt.7 
venture capital could now alter portediy invested half its capital r / 
this, it would be a profound social a property subsidiary of the giar* 


amd economic change. 


However, talk of a rebirth of en- 


Matsushita electronics group. 

So where are all the entrepr*-" 


tnmSeSffinJaMnKwpaS- ifns? TIk Tr^hfiniitiy rrepor-y 
•tkntc* Mark Ttanin miu>hnilDW!r. fo** aroun d 2,000 films have U - 


position within the hierarchy is all 
important 

At the industrial giant employ- 
ees can expect relatively high 
wages, substantial company bene- 
fits, often including housing or help 
in purchasing a home, and a virtual 


1 guarantee of lifetime employment 
At the secondary leva, the sala- 
ries and benefits .sup considerably. 
For those relegated -to. the' third 
level the wages, benefits and guar- 
antee of a job are all subject to the 
whim of the employer. 

Within the auto industry toe ex- 
ample, a recent study showed that 
an unnamed giant had direct rela- 
tions with 168 primaiy suppliers, 
5,437 secondary subcontractors 
and 41,703 tertiary subcontractors, 
all producing parts and services. 

The pressure to supply with 
economy and reliability increases 


While there is mounting union 
pressure for greater integration of 
the manufacturing economy, the 
picture is unlikely to alter soon. 
Unions are generally one-company 
affairs and have little say beyond 
day-to-day operations and annual 
wage negotiations with their own 
firms. .. . 


; . ; The one- factor that may precipi- 
tate a. change. in dterpyramid-is’ 
technology. For despite! the overall 
welcoming of innovation and the 
rapid sharing of new manufactur- 
ing discoveries, the fragmentation 
of the industrial structure makes 
sweeping technological change 
hard to implement 


ated. There has been a big mvca * 
improvement in the availability of 1***^ ■ 1 f 
venture capital — loosely defmed 
as funds invested as shareholdings 
in risky, start-up companies — m " nanaal 
Japan. But it is from a very small , 

base. And even more scarce than Japar l 
the cash are the budding entrepre- paper, M 
neurs waiting to use iL recently 


caved venture capital in rear 
years. The biggest share has goner 
predictably, to electronics firm , 
followed by telecommunication, 
financial finns and computer sof~ 
ware. 

Japan’s biggest financial newT .. 
paper, the Nihon Kdzai Shimbu.' . 
recently took an opinion poll . 


, _ • . . ... new entrepreneurs m order to tra 

A recent survey by the Ministry theyaie and where they itf 

of International Trade andlndus- from. Of 1,697 people polled da 


u. from. UI l.wi people pouoa <ra , 

try found that at the end of 1984 answered tne questionnaire - " 
the amount of venture capital m- Nevertheless, the responses we' ' 


vestment outstanding in Japan was ^ ^,1^ 

85 billion yen ($325 million), about /Soot 80 percent of the comp 


125 p^oent higher than a year ear- ny pre adents that responded hf • 
her. There are now more tom 50 pJefiously been employed at b:. 


At tiny subcontracting firms 
where only the boss and a handful 
of workers turn out a single compo- 
nent, the capital to institute robot- 
ics, computers or simply new me- 
chanical devices is lacking. The top 
manufacturers, when trying to 
automate beyond simple assembly 
operations, increasingly are finding 
that the lower echelon is where the 
change is needed. 


with each step down the pyramid 
At the secondary level where the 


At the secondary level where the 
companies are large and often di- 
rectly affiliated with the giants, the 
demands are already great 
A manufacturer outside Tokyo, 
for example, supplies cables and 
wires to most of the majors, but in 
each case delivery must he made in 
a truck built by the buyer. A load of 
finished parts for Toyota requires a 
Toyota delivery truck, just as a load 
for Nissan requires a Nissan. 

■ The expense in simply meeting 
the logistical demands of delivery 
puts extraordinary pressure on the 
company. To cope, the firm has 
gone offshore, mostly to cheap-la- ■ 
bor countries Eke Thailand ana the 


firms set up to provide venture cap- 
ital many of mem affiliates of se- 
curity companies, banks and trad- 
ing houses. 

But, although foe rate of growth 
is impressive, foe funds remain tiny 
compared to those in America. 
Definitional problems make com- 
parison difficult, but one estimate 
says that the sums invested in Ja- 


deventurecap- Japanese companies, but mostly 
lowly positions. They have left yc\ ; 
lanks and trad- untidy. Roughly 45 percent of r._ 
spandents had come from foe & - 
rate of growth search and development or desig; 
ids remain tiny departments of lag firms. Rapoi^ - 
: in America, doits reported that only a third i . 
ms make com- the employees of foeir compani.r 7 
it one estimate have previous working experienc--' 
invested in Ja- Two-mods are new graduates 


pan total wen under 10 percent of school leavers. 


The growing recognition of the 
need for systemic, rather than am- 
ple corporate, change may lead to 
greater capital tieups and more 
benefits at the subcontracting level 
in the long run, but the job of 
coordinating operations at thou- 
sands of firms is dearly going to be 


long and complicated. 
In such an event, tl 


such an event, the social on- 
in Japan is likdy to be as great 


those in foe United States. 

In the early 1970s, venture capi- 
tal hardly emsted in Japan. Sord 
Computer, a personal computer 
firm set up in 1971 by an entrepre- 
neur in ms 20s, Takayoshi Shnna , 
round it very hard to raise money. 
“No banks would lend to us” Mr. 
Shfinja said. In February Sord's me- 
teoric growth fell bade to earth 
when, mter a disastrous year, it was 
taken over by Toshiba, one of Ja- 
pan’s biggest electronics firms. 


Most important of aft, foe NOv- •“ 
Kcizai survey stressed that many - - 
the so-called “venture businesse;'-- 
woe actuaftyfinns spun off by t- - - 
companies. Electronics firms sor .* 
as Toshiba, Fujitsu and NEC a- . 
fond of sptrmmg off divisions -\t _ 
form new software and compute 1 ■ 
graphics linns, especially. Thr-r _ 
spin-offs then operate in a mc^r . 
independent, entrepreneurial W£ ; ; 
than the parent but have the p;- .. 
ent’s backing. -i-r 


Industry Associations Protect Old, Nurture New 


By Susan Moffat 


TOKYO — Trade associations 
in Japan act as both nurturing 
mother hens and as fiercely protec- 
tive mother bears. 

In the 1950s and 1960s (he asso- 
ciations. known as feyokai, mid- 
wifed Japan’s emergence as a world 
leader in heavy industry. Now they 
are trying to discipline Japan's 
fiercely competitive high-technol- 
ogy industries into joint research 
and development projects and 
standardization efforts. 

- But as Japan's enterprises ma- 
ture along info its economy, some 
major corporations, including 
those in newer industries, seem 
ready to come out from under the 
tutelage of trade associations — 
and their headmasters in govern- 
ment bureaucraci e s such as the 
Ministry of International Trade 
and Industry. 

But foe heads of foe top five sled 
companies still meet each week in 
the Getsuyokai (Monday Cub) 
along with mmiitry officials to 
forecast demand ana discuss pro- 
duction levels. They get together at 
foe headquarters of Kddanren, the 
federation of economic organiza- 
tions, the mentor of Japan's 23.573 
trade associations ana one of foe 
greatest concentrations of power in 
Japan. 

On the other hand, foe president 
of foe computer industry associa- 
tion recently complained to foe 
US. trade representative, William 
E. Brock, that the Japanese com- 
puter industry was suffering from 
excessive competition because the 
association amid not control the 
| unruly members of its robust sec- 
tor. 

Associations of growing high- 
tech industries are not generally 


able, nor even desirous, of carrying 
out protectionist aims through car- 


tds, as do associations in declining 
industries such as textiles, steel 


industries such as textiles, steel 
petrochemicals and paper. 

What they will do is monopolize 
standards and certification proce- 
dures, an action that often effec- 
tively blocks foreign products, UJS. 
trade negotiators say. 

The United States finds the pro- 
posed inspections institute for tde-- 
communications products, whose 
directors consist or major Japanese 
manufacturers, a particularly glar- 
ing example of the power of gov- 
ernment-sanctioned Industry 
groups over international trade. 

However, foe . main telecom- 
munications association has more 
than 200 members, the electronic 
associations over 600 members, 
and observers say they are far less 
unified than associations of old- 
line industries. But associations of 
industries both booming and foun- 
dering share common patterns of 
patriarchal influence over foeir 
trade. . 

The small businessman has little 
say as to the direction the industry 
will take, but he can rest assured 
that foe big companies will stick to 
foe principle of protecting the weak 
for the good of all; industry leaders 
may be all-powerful but they are 
not ruthless. , ( 

The. view that a balance of com- 
petition and cooperation among 
enterprises is essential to foe health 
of an industry is a tenet shared by 
most trade associations ami foe 
Ministry of International Trade 
and Industry. . 

The associations of MITT work 
out common goals through a com- 
plex network of personal connec- 
tions based on old-school and for* 
'mer-job ties that make the process 


of mdustry-govemment coopera- 
tion invisible to the consumer and 
difficult to prosecute for the Fair 
Trade Commission. 

Often, as in foe Monday Qub of 
foe Steel Association, the presence 
of Mi l l officials legitimizes what 
many would call cartel-like behav- 
ior under the guise of “administra- 
tive guidance, foe moral posua- 
sion regulariy dispensed by MTU 
that is practically, though not legal- 
ly, binding. 

“Administrative guidance” is the 
bogeyman of the Fair Trade Com- 
mission. “Cartels,” its official posi- 
tion reads, “are more. Hkely to be 
brought about through administra- 
tive guidance toward trade associa- 
tions.'’ 

Individual monopolizers are rare 


The case was finally conduc 
in 1984, when the executives W 
fined and received suspended i 
sentences. 


c Class 


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sentences. [Q #i 

But in the intervening 10 ye ^ 
foe Fair Trade Commission i, 
dipped bade into its earlier tin. ;- 7 '- 
ity. Recessions had help ' - 
strengthen the cartelizing na turf 
the assoriaticffls and foe nnnfofik, 
trade assodation-rdaxed dedsb-i. 
by the commission declined ft\ -".7 
33 in 1973 to two in 1983. * ■- 


$(>nive Sbc 


in Japan. As in everything rise, it is 
a matter of group rule. Of the 765 
cases decided by foe FTC since the 
establishment of the Anti-Monop- 
oly Act in 1949, the majority in- 
volved trade associations. 

And the most celebrated viola- 
tion of the act by a trade associa- 
tion pointed even industry fingers 
at administrative piwfari« 

Af ter foe first oil shock, in 1974, 
foe Petroleum Association and 17 
oil company officials were crimi- 
nally charged with price fixing. The 
defense they pleaded blamed ad- 
ministrative guidance for leading 
them astray from paths of free 
trade. 

The Tokyo High Court did not 
accept the argument, or at least it 
did not dare prosecute MITT offi- 
cials. It vitas the industry associa- 
tion that got hurt Bui a leading 
newspape r pri nted foe names of a) 
former MlTl officials, including 
five former deputy ministers, who 
had retired info executive positions 
within the oil industry. 


In fact, last December, wber. . 
small gasoline retailer tried to br ...- 
the Mm-Petroleum Assotiat 
system by imparting cheap ga s ‘ 
line against adminis trative gt- 
ance, it was thwarted when 
banks suddenly pulled out ti 
credit But the commission did - . 
come to foe consumers’ rescue a, 
had in 1974. ' 

Even under present favors • 
economic conditions, there are ;■ . 
legal cartels in Japan that are : ; 
empted from the Anti-Monof - 
Act, some for reasons of struct] 
adjustment (that is, reduction 1 . ^ 
ovoeapadty), others to aid re ,. ' 


,v m 


nalizanon (for exaxrpk, pnx ' 
specialization by enterprise). 

The number of exempted car ' 
is decreeing, commission offic , . - 
say. But observers agree that ti - . 
are many cartels in Japan opera’ v 
without foe benefit of 1^1 s' 


It is hard to trade down ^ 
acts of restriction of conqperitio ; 
government complicity in 
cases, but it is easy to trace.,- . 
-caim&of MITI and other bur. • .J . 
crats who after forced retirema ; 
as eaiN. au age as 50 easfty 
powerful and - lucrative man. ; 

(Coothmed ob Page 15) 


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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, MARCH 20, 198S 


A SPECIAL REPORT ON JAPAN 


Page 13 





Madfeci Fujfrrara. 

0~~A survey last 
wmductcd- by- tbe Prime 
ywiederV Office shows that 
fibre than 9Q percent of the 
apancse view, themselves as 
hiddle dacL The further stabi- 
of consumer prices and 
tinned increase in income, 
small in both nominal 
terms, have helped the 
fed relatively secure 
ir middle-class standard 
kg in a time of slow eco- 
crnric growth. 

Omwina prices rose only 
.4 percent in fiscal 1982 and 
.9 percent in fiscal 1983, mark- 
ka record lew for two consec- 
irive years out of the last 25. 
{he average monthly income of 
he wage-earning household in 
983-1984 was 409,000 yen 
$1*573% a 15-peroait increase 
a real terms from the year be- 


made services and personal ser- 
vices given in the home. 

The increase in leisure time 
also means greater possibilities 
in improving the quality of life 
in general workers work fewer 
hoars and take longer holidays. 
Housewives, with more home 
appliances and more conve- 
nience goods and services of- 
fered to them, spend less 
doing housework. Mothers with 
fewer children spend fewer 
hours caring for them. 

The average number of work 
boors pa- month decreased to 
174.6 in 1982, 14 hours less than 
in 1970. The average gnrmiii in- 
crease rate of- sport-related ex- 
penditure in 2975-1982 was 8.7 
'percent, significantly higher 
than the 12-percent increase 
for the entire consumption ex- 
penditure. 


The greater emphasi* mi lei- 
sure as shown in tLi Hakuhodo 
survey on Japanese young 
adults, indicates that the con- 
sumption connected with lei- 
sure win continue to grow. The 
new generation of Japanese is 
committed to work and leisure 
almost equally. 

Education and education-re- 
lated expenditure has also 
shown rapid growth in recent 
years. It grew 5-2 percent and 
4 2 percent in 1982 and 1983, 
respectively, considerably high- 
er than the growth in total 
household expenditnre. 

In the hope of giving than a 
wdl-rounded education, many 
parents give their young chil- 
dren such fe s spo s as piano, 
swimming and abacus. As the 
children grow older, parents 
spend a lot to send them to 


cramming schools. The major- 
ity of pupils in junior high 
school have special tutoring ses- 
sions two to three days a week, 
which costs an average of 
13,800 yen a month, according 
to a 1984 Sarrwa Bank survey. 
Today, the costs of extracurric- 
ular class and tutoring make op 
1 1 percent of the entire expen- 
diture on education. 

With the new leisure-oriented 


older and joining the main- 
stream of society, the use of 
credit is becoming more popu- 
lar. In 1982, 57 billion credit 
cards were issued; the number 
doubledin three years. 

Marika Ftijnoara Is director of 
English publications and over- 
seas research at the Hakuhodo 
Institute of Life and Living. 




mure Boom Spg^ 
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Japanese homes are 
better equipped with 
appliances Loan most 
Imerican and European 
The Japanese are con- 
to know that their standard 
if thing has reached that of 
extern industrialized narirwi<i ( 
sept perhaps in the sizes of 
at homes. 

There is a growing tendency 
the Japanese in recent 
seek greater personal 
olfillment beyond material 
Vealth. Since 1978, surveys 
-fco w that those who seek this 
■«flth have outnumbered those 
^vtoo wish to improve their Hf e 
v. _ „ a terms of possessions. In a 

- V '. : 983 snrvey, 46 percent viewed 
r,^ " : «50na] f ulfillm ent as the most 

.*■ -^mortant thing in their lives 
, . g’-'-we only 37 percent wanted 

.. ‘ mfttwiflf w wllh 

\y ■ Four basic changes in the 

- consumption patterns of Japa- 
r . e’ese families reflect this shift in 

' -be value system: an increase in 
; 'c ^endimre on services, a trend 
‘ - : - ward quality buying of dnra- 
' a -4e goods and services, a rise in 
' r - pending on leisure and educar 
‘ '-^wn, and an increase in the nse 
-~.f consumer credit. 

; In 1982. 43.4 percent of 

V ousebold expenditure was for 
' -enices, 56.6 percent for gjods. 

lie ratio of service expenditure 

- -rew almost 11 penxnt since 
* ’^ 965, 15 percent since 1980. 

. The ratio fffl- sdecrive expen- 
„ fiture has been higher in service 
consumption than in goods 
._xmsnn^>tion. For goods, 76.4 
pet ted is indiqiensable expen- 

V fiuue and 23.6 pacent is saec- 
^tive, while for services, 54 2 per- 

-oent is, indispensable and 45,7 
'•Percent sdective. Demand for 
' erviccs is expected to increase 
teadily with the growth at in- 
ome. 

Japanese families today 

• pend more on both sdective 
■ !rvices such as laundry and dty 

^.leaning, remodeling of homes 
•-.ad automobile maintenance, 
noring and dining out, and 
■ - idispmsable services sue* as 
• - at, lighting and fud, trans- 
- - jrtarion and communications. 

With the shift toward greater 
7 r.srsonal fulfillment in the value 
xtem, the quality orientation- 
. evident in consumption of 
xh roods and services. A sur- 
.•y of family income and ex- 
' - ’ aditure showed that there has 
‘ * . sen a trend toward hi^ba: 

• Ijality durable goods pur- 
ased at higher cost. The 1983 
port by the Hakuhodo Insti- 

- - ‘ te of life and Living also in- 

• - cated that such quahty goods 

. multiplex television, central 

' ating, solar-water heating 
'■ /stems and custom-made 
: tdums rank very high in the 
. - > items the Japanese want to 

• • mhase in the near future. 

- -""in services, the stronger qual- 

v orientation is evident in 
^ jyj'^’eftsrcnces for more tailor- 


WHERE THE PAYCHECK GOES 

A-v*r»ge Monthly Earnings 
(In yea) 


% of Income 

405,517 

344,113 



Net income — 

84.8 


Partial breakdown of dbponble income 

% of net income 

272,199 

72,099 

living Expenditure 

79.1 

20.9 

28,703 ■ 


8.3 

18,910 

6.436 


5.5 


1.9 

10.414 


3.0 

23,462 

Rendinp and recreation ~. 

6.8 

71,914 

Propensity to save 

20.9 

Note; For salaried worker honsebolds, 1983. Average number of people per household: 3.79. 

Source: Japan Institute tor Social and Economic Affairs 


Defining the Upper-Class Strata : 
No Single Group Pulls the Strings 

By Barbara Casassus 


TOKYO — Only a handful of Japanese consider 
themselves tipper dass, not (hat the term has 
anything to do with the dearly defined, conflict- 
ridden stratification familiar to the West Europe- 
an. 

No tingle elite group pulls the strings in Japan. 
It is full of what sociologists call “status inconsis- 
tencies,” where position in one sphere has no 
automatic ripple effect And since World War II, 
there has bem a considerable difference in upward 
mobility between generations. 

Professor Sdsaburo Sato of Tokyo University, 
the breeding. ground of top dvil .servants and 
industrialist^" places the' Japanese e&te in four 
categories: leaders of the ruling liberal Democrat- 
ic Party, ranking bureaucrats, top corporate man- 
ager and the less influential intdlectuak, who are 
mainly scholars in top universities. 

Academics are divided over many aspects of 
who takes precedence over whom in the nation’s 
life. But they concur in the view that once the 
economic boom of the 1960s, politicians and in- 
dustry have strengthened their grip at the expense 
of the bureaucracy, once heralded as the driving 
force behind Japan Inc. Nonetheless, dvil ser- 
vants' power is considerable— on ajpar with their 
counterparts in France — and then prestige re- 
mains high. 

According to Professor Sboidn Watanabe of 
Sophia University, the Liberal Democratic Party 
has been in power so long that veteran parliamen- 
tarians know the laws of the land better than some 
dvil servants, and industry can operate more freely 
now that certain government controls have been 
lifted. “At retirement, senior dvil servants are 
starting to have difficulty in securing second jobs 
in the private sector,” he says. 

The pecking order within industry has become 
.blurred. Traditional smokestack manufacturers 
are lotting status as the industrial structure shifts to 
high technology and services. But this phenome- 
non “has yet to be reflected in the leadership of the 
influential business organizations, such as the Kei- 
danren [the federation of economic organiza- 
tions!,” Professor Yasusuke Murakami of Tokyo 
University said. 

Sociologists disagree over whether such postwar 
conglomerates as Matsushita, Sony and Honda 
belong to the establishment. Some still regard 


them as entrepreneurs, along with such companies 
as Seibu. Kyocera and Daia. while others point to 
the eminence of personalities tike the Sony chair- 
man, Akio Morita, whose influence extends be- 
yond the boundaries of the business in which he is 
directly engaged. 

Another issue where consensus is lacking is 
whether rfa« distinctions are hardening and a 
nouveau riche emerging. Statistics show that wage 
and personal-asset gaps are widening. Many own- 
ers of small and medium-sized enterprises are 
significantly wealthier than major corporations' 
salaried presidents, who have risen through the 
ranks. These owners arc spending their disposable 
incomes with increasing ffamboyancy — on lavish 
marriages for their daughters, expensive clothes 
for then wives and jewelry for thcar degs. 

Inheritance tax is draconian, but smaller compa- 
nies can drenmveat the problem by nominating 
family members as directors and managers. 

Money alone does not transform a Japanese into 
a perceived member of the elite. Former Prime 
Minister Kaknei Tanaka is an example. He has 
wealth. and, despite indictment in the Lockheed 
bribery case, retains political power. But he does 
not have the “right” educational background. 

The “examination hell” illustrates the impor- 
tance of academic credentials. The principle of 
equal oppo r t un ity for all which allowed the off- 
spring « the poor to reach Tokyo University, no 
longer applies. The costs of education, including 
preparation for exams, permit only the better off to 
finance their children through the fierce competi- 
tion. 

Perhaps surprisingly, the institution’s suprema- 
cy among bureaucrats and corporate executives 
docs not extend to the present generation of politi- 
cal leaders. No more than a substantial minority of 
the heads of the five factions of the liberal Demo- 
cratic Party and their heirs apparent are alumni of 
Tokyo University. 

Politics is one area where the de facto hereditary 
rights can prevail Constituencies are handed down 
from father to son, although power within the 
party is not guaranteed to follow. 

with the postwar land reforms, the breakup of 
the zoihaUtf corporate empires and abolition of the 


great deal of tbeir assets and influence. Some have 
faded into the haze of the middle dass and it is 
(Continued on Next Page) 




lift to a Service Society Is Hurting the Unions 


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EYO — As Japanese unions 
fear enter the 30th annual 
of shunto, or spring struggle, 
ge negotiations, they are also 
tgto revwse, or at least halt, a 
t m their influence, 
be early years of (he postwar 
l labor unions were one of 
st powerful organized forces 
' an, with 56 percent of work- 
donized in 1949. Last year, 
rcentage of unionized worfc- 
l to a record postwar low of 
■ tenl, the mnih consecutive 
fdedine, 

growth of the labor market 
•tpaced the growth of union 
srship. While the number of 
ue workers in Japan in- 
1 from 317 milli on in 1970 
mfllion in 1984, the number 


Automation and the 
unwillingness of Japanese, lo 
in factories means that the industri- 
al labor force will continue ro 
chrhilf The union federations, such 
as the General Council of Trade 
Unions of Japan (SOHYO), are 
trying to meet this shift in the labor 
market by turning their attention 
from large manufacturing compa- 
nies, where most union workers 
are, to smaller, more labor-inten- 
sive enterprises. But the unique 
s tructu re of the union system in 
Japan hinders such a strategy. 

Japanese unions, unlike those in 
the Wbst, are organized around 
companies, not crafts, and the 
stress is on company loyalty rather 
than kinship with fellow workers 
outside the firm, although t** com ’ 


meat system, which applies to 
about the top third of all Japanese 
firms. They nave no need to hire 
extra workers during a boom peri- 
od and then lay (hem off during a 
recession. 

Workers at the smaller compa- 
nies also realize there is a disadvan- 
tage in starting up a union since 
higher union wages would force the 
bigger companies to look for an- 
other subcontractor or else do (he 
work themselves. While the union- 
ized share of the labor market is 
eroding, the source of the unions’ 
political strength, (he public-sector 
companies, is also u n der attack. 
Unions in state-run enterprises are 
more militant than company 
unions and are major supporters of 





-af ;-<*■- 


4 * 

m ■ 

m ir: 


y losing 56,000 members last 


changing structure of the 
se economy largely explains 
mailer share of the working 
‘ tion is joimng the unions. 
, 4 those entering the labor 
. ver the last 15 years have 
• ito the service sector, the 
y least suitable for union 
. due to the 
itapriscs involved, and it is 
d to 


federations such as SOHYO. 

With unionized workers sharing 
in a company's increased prosperi- 
ty through higher bonuses and bet- 
ter fringe benefits, th^y are ixkdy to 
oppose any action that would cut 
into the company^ profits, includ- 
ing the unionization of small ami 
m edium companies, which are pn- 


ty. 

Union relations are worse in the 
public sector because workers and 
the conseiyative liberal Democrat- 
ic Party government are usnafly on 
the opposite sides of the poltical 
fence and the government docs not 
extend (he same kind of paterti a Rs - 
tic treatment offered by private 
management to company onions. 

Prime Minister Yasumro Naka- 
soneis living to defuse the power 
of the public-sector unions by de- 


ior union ^ suboontractiiig « “« punuo-s«= 

warkfor major corporations 


have given up their refle in leading 
general strikes, such as the one in 
1974 after tire oil crisis caused a 
downturn in the economy. 

Japanese unions, in some ways, 
are the victims of their own success. 
Members have grown complacent 
since the unions nave won for them 
many of the benefits stm sought by 
some unions in the West, including 
job security, a share in corporate 
derision-making and job retraining 
programs. Pay increases, moreover, 
have matched or exceeded the con- 
sumer price index. 

Union allegiance was never 
strong in any case since Japanese 
management-labor relations do not 
have the same legacy of dass con- 
frontation as in the West Unions, 
for example, represent both wfaito- 
and blue-collar workers in a com- 
pany, winch reinforces the belief 
among most Japanese that they are 
truly a middle-class nation. The 
union . federations, such as SO- 
HYO. have tried to reawaken inter- 
est among the rank and file try 
emphasizing more such quality-o- 
f-life issues as shorter work weeks 
during the recent shumo negotia- 
tions. 

But the caaly factor that is likely 
to produce a major revival of union 
activity isif the economy turns sour 

Janas Salt ft *^“»asomeof the workforce, 
japan _ Unions, for example, gpt a sport in 


;of Company mtiims atmag to ^Tobacco Monopoly on AprilL 

iTS prediroaiis thatgrowing 




it*! 


r Jpy 60 percent 

^ donis the Nttoml fofl- i, lapm ibd, m 

rows. the appearance of a “new poor 

The threat oE denationalization: could give Unions a renewed role to 
has already curbed somewhat the play. . 
imlitancy of railroad weetes, who. —JACK BURTON 




•the union power base, cm- to make subcontracting more ex- 
1 percent of the work force pensive. Tb« ? iar8 ^S« 

«me percentage it had in labor for ^bcontra^galsogra 
and its share will fall to 32 the major corporations the flexibU- 
By 199Q. ity to maintain the lif crime employ- 



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Page 14 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, MARCH 20 , 1985 


A SPEOAL REPORT ON JAPAN 


Trains Take Back Seat to Cars 
As a Means of Moving People 



By Marc Beauchamp 

TOKYO — In Japan, a nation 
that boasts one of the world’s bat 
mass-transit networks, the automo- 
bile has managed over the past 25 
years to derail the train as the No. I 
way to move people. 

Ln 1960, according to the Minis- 
try of Transport, cars carried just 
4.7 percent of passengers (on a pas- 
senger-kilometer basis). Today, 
they carry 43 percent, a ninefold 
increase. Meanwhile, the share car- 
ried by trains dropped from 75 per- 
cent to less than 40 percent. 

This turnabout has occurred de- 
spite the disadv antages of owning a 
car in Japan — steep taxes, road 
tolls, S2-a-gaHon gasoline, traffic 
jams, parking shortages — and de- 
spite Japan's dean, efficient and 
safe trains, subways and buses: 

Indeed, Japan is a country that is 
well suited for ma« transit Of its 
119 million people, 75 percent live 
in cities served by extensive, if 
crowded, public transportation. 

With so many reasons not to own 


a car, why are the Japanese forsak- 


ingthe railroad for the highway? 
The major reasons are bvora 


The major reasons axe byprod- 
ucts of Japan’s prosperity. Rising 
living standards have simply made 
cars more affordable. Inthe 1960s, 
when Japan’s gross national prod- 
uct was growing at double-digit 
rates, car ownership climbed an av- 
erage of 35 percent a year. 

Status is another factor Today, 
many people buy cars not so much 
out of need as to keep up with their 
neighbors. Japanese car commer- 
cials are dick and sexy, often shot 
in the American Southwest or other 
wide-open spaces. Never mind that 
for most motorists in Japan the 
reality is traffic jams and danger- 
ously narrow streets. 

There are more than 43 milli on 
automobiles on the roads of Japan 
today, up from only 1.4 motion in 
1 960. Hus is good news for the auto 
industry, of course. 

In just 25 years, Japan's auto 
industry went from building 
300,000 vehicles a year to more 
than 1 1 million, about half destined 


for the domestic market In a land 
famous for big business, autos are 
today one of the biggest: The in- 
dustry accounts, directly or indi- 
rectly, for 10 percent of total em- 
ployment, 10 percent of total 
manufacturing output and 15 per- 
cent of industrial research-and-de- 

Meanwhfle^pubUc transport has 
fallen behind the demand caused 
by population growth and the mi- 
gration of tnimnns of Japanese 
from the countryside into major 
industrial centers. 

The growth in the use of autos, 
trucks and airlines in the postwar 
era 1ms been especially bad news 
for the Japanese National Rail- 
roads, the government-run organi- 
zation that owns 80 percent of the 
country’s rail network. 

The JNR, saddled with money- 
losing rural lines, high construction 
costs of its three high-speed “bul- 
let” train lines and a bloated pay- 
roll. is forecast to lose S6.8 billion 
in the year ending March 31. In the 
red every year since 1964, When it 






■> s Remain 

. _ . ii 


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T . I * *** 


.. 1 

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4 ♦» ' 

. V * *tf <*t 


From left: Automobiles jam die Ginza, the high-speed bullet train, and a packed Tokyo subway. 


m 


opened its Gist and only money- 
making bullet line, the JNR has run 


up deficits of more than 584 bQhon, 
equivalent to the outstanding for- 
eign debt of Mexico. The govern- 
ment is now studying a plan to 
break up JNR and sell it to private 
interests. 

Besides losing passengers, the 
JNR has lost out to trades and 
ships in the freight market. iVre uw 
of their advantage over the short 
haul, tracks now cany about 45 
percent of freight, a threefold in- 
crease over 1960. Ships, too, have 
modestly increased their share 


Foreign Cars Lend an Air of Snobbery — and Defiance 


TOKYO — Considering the cost and prob- 
lems involved in owning a foreign car here 
and the dubious image imports have in con- 


ana the dubious image imports have in con- 
formist Japan, it is hardly surprising that 
ownership of one implies an element or snob- 


ownership of one implies an element or snob- 
bery — and, at times, defiance. 

Shipping costs and hefty dealer markups 
put foreign cars out of reach of the vast 
majority of Japanese. Even a stripped-down 
Volkswagen Golf costs roughly twice as 
much as a comparable Japanese car. A mid- 
dle-of-the-Iine BMW or Mercedes-Benz costs 
as much as most Japanese earn in a year. 

Last year. 3,097,554 passenger cars were 
sold in Japan; of that total only 41.982, or 1.4 
percent were foreign made. 

In Japan, all cars, domestic and imported. 


rideline, so owners may experience trouble 
with service. 

Imports, especially American cars, tend to 
consume a lot of gasoline, and that is a 
consideration in Japan, where gasoline costs 
about $2 a gallon (7.6 liters). 

Imports are also inconvenient. Most are 
left-hand drive while Japanese models are 
right-hand drive. This presents problems 
when passing another car, parking and pay- 
ing tolls. Moreover, big American and Euro- 
pean cars are harder to maneuver and park in 
Japan, where streets are narrow and congest- 


foreign cars. If yon drive a Volkswagen “Bee- 
tle" or a Mint you may be seen as trendy and 
internationally minded, but a big flashy auto- 
mobile might associate you with the yakuzo, 
or Japanese organized crime. 

But despite all the reasons not to own a 
foreign car, the market for imports is recover- 
ing from a four-year decline, with the West 
Germans squarely in the driver’s seat 


Foreign-car sales peaked in 1979, the year 
before the second “oil shock,” at 60,161 units. 


are heavily taxed, with buyers paying more 
than 52,500 per vehicle, about nine times 


than 52,500 per vehicle, about nine times 
what Americans pay. Imports face even suff- 
er taxes because they are usually bigger. Cars 
with engine displacements of less than 2 Q 00 cc 
face an 18.5-percent commodity tax and 
those above that capacity are charged a 23- 
percent tax. Last year, only 80,000. cars with 
engines larger than 2000cc were sold in Ja- 
pan. but 20 percent were foreign made. Auto- 
makers like BMW Japan say they face dis- 
crimination. 

Imports also cost more to maintain and 
repair. Owners often have to wait for parts to 
be shipped from overseas, and when they 
arrive, they cost more. There are fewer than 
1,000 outlets for foreign automobiles, com- 
pared with more than 12,000 for domestic 
cars. Many dealers only handle imports as a 


Besides the cost and inconvenience, there 
are other, less tangible, problems with own- 
ing a foreign car. Because foreign cars are 
expensive, many Japanese assume the people 
driving them are rich. 

While they may turn heads on the street, 
flashy foreign cars raise questions at the tax 
office. Last year, tax authorities, under pres- 
sure to crack down on cheaters, announced a 
new policy to go over the returns of self- 
employed people who own foreign cars. 

With their obvious snob appeal imported 
cars can evoke feelings of jealousy, some- 
times resulting in vandalism. Officials at 
BMW Japan report that owners complain of 
mysterious scratches and dents. 

As a rule, the Japanese frown on conspicu- 
ous consumption. 

Top executives of leading Japanese compa- 
nies choose domestic over imports. 

There is also an image problem with some 


before the second “oil shock,” at 60,161 units. 
West German automakers — led by Volks- 
wagen, Audi Mercedes-Benz and BMW — 
bad 55 percent of the market, while Detroit 
held around 28 percent. Sales of imports 
slumped as the Japanese economy contract- 
ed. 


But last year, reflecting the business recov- 
ery, sales of imported cars increased 19 per- 
cent, to 41,982 units, with West German 
makers increasing their share to 77 percent 
Detroit however, continued to slip, with sales 


of U.S. cars falling 10 percent to 2J382 units, 
just 5 percent of the market 


A decade ago, American cars were popular 
with some self-made businessmen ana show- 
business people but U.S.-made cars share 
since developed a reputation among sane 
Japanese for shoddy workmanship and poor 
quality. West German cars, on the other 
hand, are perceived as better engineered, bet- 
ter made and classier. 


— MARC BEAUCHAMP 


F REE! An important reference book 
on Japan or its industries afe* 


with this questionnaire. 


Take a second to complete this simple vjgj 
questionnaire and receive either of these books ^ 
with our thanks — "Nippon: The Land and Its 
People" (a 350-page comprehensive survey) or 
"Japan Company Handbook" (1 ( 100-plus pages of 
facts and figures on Japanese firms). 

But do it now, since our supply is limited to 
the first 200 replies received. 



■ + 

■ . *2 





Q. 1 Please check in the Q1 box and company of which yon know something. 

Q. 2 Of the companies checked, please indicate if yon know their product names or business line. 

Q. 3 Please check two companies which interest you most and list the reasons why in the space provided. Thank you. 


Ql I Q2 I 03 


Q1 02 03 


Asahi Optical Co. 

8 rot her Industrial, Ltd. 

Canon, Inc. 

Casio Computer Co. 
Citizen Watch Co. 

C. Itoh & Co. 

EPSON Core- 

Fujitsu, Ltd. 

Hattorl Seiko Co. 

Hitachi, Ltd. 

Hitachi Zosen Co. 


Honda Motor Co. 


JVC 

"K” Lina 

Kawasaki Steel Corp. 

Komatsu, Ltd. 

Kubota, Ltd. 

Marubeni Corp, 

Matsushrta Electric Industrial Co. 
Mazda Motor Corp. 

Minolta Camera Co. 

Mitsubishi Corp. 

Mitsubishi Electric Corp. 

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. 
Mitsubishi Motors Corp. 


Mitsui & Co. 

Mitsui O.S.K. Lines, Ltd. 

Nichlmen Corp. 

NEC Corp- 

Nippon Kokan K.K. (NKK) 

Nippon Start Corp, 

NYK Line 

Nissan Motor Co. 

Nissho Iwai Corp. 

Oki Electric Industry Co. 

Olympus Optical Co, 

Pioneer Electronic Corp- 
Ricoh Co. 

Sanyo Electric Co. 

Sharp Corp. 

Shiseido Co. 

Silver Seiko, Ltd. 

Sony Corp. 

Sord Computer Corp. 
Su mitomo Corp. 

TDK Corp. 

: Tokyo Juki Industrial Co. 

; Toshiba Corp. 

Toyota Motor Corp. 

Y.S. Une 


Reasons why I am interested in those companies: 


Name: 

Position: 

Company name:. 
Address: 


(please print) 


Other remarks:. 


— 5 Country. 

Check one: 

.. . □ Nippon: The Land and Its People 

- D Japan Company Handbook 


• Please mail this questionnaire to: 

Ms. Mandy Lawther, international Herald Tribune, 181 avenue Chartes-de-Gaulle, 92521 Neuiliy Cad ex, France. 


Cy 


since 1960. As a result, rail today 
moves only 7.4 percent of Japan's 
freight, down front 39 percent 25 
years ago. 

Yet trains remain indispensable, 
especially in major cities tike To- 
kyo and Osaka, where they carry 
millions of commuters. In 1983, 
private railroads carried IL5 bil- 
lion passengers, and even with its 
troubles, the JNR carried 6.74 bil- 
lion. 


ra.’, lines. Japan’s 14 major private 
railroads specialize in passenger 
service but avoid competing direct- 


ly with the JNR by radiating out 
from urban areas. Yet the nrosper- 


The JNR’s system consists most- 
ly of intercity trunk fines and large 
numbers of secondary, largely ru- 


from urban areas. Yet the prosper- 
ous private railroads are, in fact, 
more business conglomerates than 
simply rail companies — most of 
tbeir profits come from interests in 
real estate, department stores, 
amusement parks, even baseball 
teams. 

The major problem facing Ja- 
pan’s transport system is crowding. 
Inadequate government invest- 
ment, coupled with the rapid 


growth of major urban areas in the 
past 25 years, has strained the ca- 
pacity of transport facilities. 

Yet despite this, stations are vir- 
tually spotless, trains frequent and 
on lime, van dalism and crime al- 
most unknown. Fares are relatively 
modest and maps, schedules and 
color-ended transfer instructions 
are easy to follow. In major cities, 
station names and other informa- 
tion are also given in English. 

Japan’s transport system is likely 
to remain overloaded for years to 
come. The government is not in a 


financial position to take the fe 
in building more railroads, hk 
ways or subway lines. 

Meanwhile, Japan’s autonak . 
continue to build cars for die t 
mcstic market. In 1984, they sol 
record 5.44 million vehicles 
home. But the road system cam - 
handle many more cars and 
are signs the market may be ne 
mg saturation. The growth m.< 
mcstic auto sales has slowed stea 
ly in recent years and sales were . 
only 1 percent in 1984 over they 
before. 


. * ***» *M> : V 

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s ■ ^ ^ 

y* m 


New Automated Office 
Needs More Employees 
To Push the Buttons 


By Ton Woronoff duced have been exported, espe- 
' „ , . , „ dally to the United States and Eu- 


TQKYO — Production of office 
automation equipment is booming 
in Ja pan, but rather than diminat- 
ing jobs in the office, it seems to be 
creating them. The reasons for this 
apparent contradiction are to be 
found in the country’s economic 
system and corporate culture. 

The output of computers, word 
processors, facsimil e machines, 
photocopiers and dozens of other 
such iti»nTK is growing at double- 
digit rates. Bat the need continues 
for salaried employees and office 
women who combine the functions 
of secretary and housemaid- 

in fact, major companies have 
been hiring slightly more personnel 
and they show a special interest in 
those who can work the new ma- 
chinery. 

Part of the reason for this lies in 
bow the Japanese economy func- 
tions. To begin with, much of the 
increased production has not been 
for Japanese consumption. At least 
half of the office nwHiinr* pro- 


The Upper Class: 
Hard to Define 




(Continued From Prerioos Page) 
debatable whether their ancestry 
gives them more than a hint of 
prestige. 

Others have rebuilt their for- 
tunes on an unprecedented scale 
and enjoy an added gloss because 
of their distinguished origins. 
These indude the Mhsuis and Mit- 
subishis, who were barons. 

One thing is sure: the status of 
forbears matters to the individuals 
concerned. 

In his book “Japanese Business 
Leaders,” Mannan Hiroshi stares 
that as recently as 1970, about a 
third of respondents in a survey 
claimed to be descendants of samu- 
rai who kxt their privileges in the 
Mem Restoration of 1868. 

The imperial family and their 
rctativesTbowever remote, are im- 
pervious to swings in the social 
structure. 

“Even ;the prime minister's 
standing is negligible in compari- 
son. 

The emperor means about the 
same to the average Japanese as the 
pope does to Roman Catholics,” 
Professor Watanabe said. 

Royalty, with parliamentarians 
I as runners-up, appear to be the 
: only exceptions to what has been 
I described as the most changea b le 
society in the world. 


rope. The actual penetration of 
such equipment in the Japanese 
market has therefore been much 
slower than would appear from 
production figures. 

But the more significant factors 
arise out of Japan's corporate cul- 
ture, which has proved to be reti- 
cent to inte grating the machinery. 
Although companies want the lat- 
est gadgets, m many cases the 
equipment is not really used. It is 
parked on a table or desk, in plain 
view of viators, but merely gathers 
dust because no one knows exactly 
what to do with iL 

While the equipment is user 
friendly, this does not take into 
account the quirks of the Japanese 
management system. Decision- 
making is a group affair, based on 
long and dose personal contacts. 
The computer is too cold a tool for 
individual managers: they cannot 
really use it and it cannot really 
replace them. 

Moreover, a Japanese executive 
may feel that using a machine, any 
machine, is beneath him Thus, 
technicians or female office work- 
ers are hired to work the equip- 
ment. - 

The result has been not a com- 
puter on each desk but a bunch of 
machines off in the corner in the 
form of a computer pool just like 
the typing pool with other new 
equipment gathered around. The 
operators are mostly women, some 
of them freshly hired for the pur- 
pose, others having undergone 
some additional training. Any loss 
of personnel is minor. Such pools 
can be seen not only in ordinary 
companies but even in the offices 
of securities firms or computer 
manufacturers. 

Another reason for the anomaly 
of growing services employment 
despite automation is that the au- 
thorities are seriously worried 
about a decrease in jobs in tins 
sector at the very time that automa- 
tion is really creating unemploy- 
ment in manufacturing. There, the 
process of automation, which has 
advanced to robotization and has 
gone as far as “unmanned fac- 
tories,” is destroying jobs at a fast 
pace. The unemployed must go 
somewhere and the services have 
always been the employer of last 
resort 

So, while the Ministry of Inter- 
national Trade and Industry 
been pushing automation for man- 
ufacturing, funding some of the re- 
search and offering cheap loans to 



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JHngbRnOt/CanniNn. 

Lunchtime at a Tokyo snack shop. 




purchase robots, it has not made 
similar efforts for the services. 

It is not that possibilities do not 
exist There are already prototypes 
of robots to clean floors or win- 
dows, to serve drinks and the like. 
But the last thing the mmistiy 
wants is to throw cleaning women, 
waitresses or maintenance men out 
of work. 

The Ministry of Labor is even 
more committed to making the ser- 
vices sector an abundant source of 
jobs. According to its projections, 
the share of workers in the agricul- 
tural sector will decrease to 7.7 per- 


jobs either. The ondaugfat of of V ' 
automation has been undercut 
nearly turned back by what 
appear to be mens foibles of cor - • 
rate culture. Some people do ~ - 
like to do certain jobs throw i -r 
and prefer to have them done- “ - 
others. That is the very ra- 
d’fiue of service industries. --- • 


• • -' r ?i 

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percent. 


602 percent of the total labor force 
in 1990, almost 5 percent more 


in 1990, almost 5 percent more 
than in 1980. 

Since it has to secure work for 
about 3 million more people, the 
Ministry of Labor does not want to 
see a reduction in traditional ser- 
vice jobs. 

Japanese society does not seem 
ready to tolerate the loss of service 


More generally, the Japai^ •' 
like to have people to serve th ..“r - 
They enjoy going to bars, its - 
rants, game centers, golf ecu . 
and so on. Those they prefer c 
the best service, which iwk:>. 
means more people in nicer >£»•■■ 
forms to look after them and C£j r " 
them like the distinguished 1( , 

they are (or want to be). The ; ... 
thur this lavish use of persons- 
costly does not bother them. -l'- 
are willin g to pay the bHL •*.' , 


Jon Woronoff is the author : 
era} books an Japan induing " 
pan’s Wasted Workers” (u Vl 
Press, 1981) and, more rece" •" 

MTt. r o. j 


The Japan Syndrome ** (L-~- . 
'ress.m 5). 


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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, MARCH 20, 1985 


Page lS 

A SPECIAL REPORT ON JAPAN 


Mg. 

\9x — 


Society Remains Unchanged 
Despite ’’New-Media’ Boom 


By Martin Roth 

TOKYO — Tbe Japanese call 
them "New Media," those commu- 
nications systems seen as the wave 
Of the Future, such as videotex, ca- 
* Te and satellite television and vari- 
ous forms of computer infor matio n 
networks. And for the past few 
years the country has been in the 
grip of a New Media boom, with 
well over 100 books published on 
the subject and a flurry of govern- 
ment and private surveys and re- 
ports. 

Yet. despite this interest, Japa- 
nese society has so far remained 
remarkably unaltered by the tele- 
communications revolution. 

“There are no electronic cot- 
tages," said Richard Greer, senior 
representative of Baring Far East 
Securities, which for several years 
has been carrying out a series of 
surveys of the Japanese electronics 
and telecommunications indus- 
tries. "People still want to get out 
of their houses to work. And the 
housewives go out shopping every- 
day. Tele-shopping from home 
i hasn't caught on yet.” 


In fact, some people see the New 
Media as a tool working against 
change in Japanese society. In “In- 
teractive Home Systems,” one of 
Baring's latest reports on Japan, a 
market analyst, Alex Stewart, 
wrote: “Japanese society is also 
concerned to empower the individ- 
ual — not, as we may understand 
that in tbe West, to make him more 
individual, but to make him more 
useful and dependable. Informa- 
tion technology is seen 3S comple- 
mentary to this endeavor." 

Many observers believe gradual 
changes are now under way, with 
younger people increasingly con- 
cerned about individual happiness 
and less interested in their careers. 
But these trends are probably pre- 
cipitated more by factors such as 
the booming economy and an in- 
crease in personal wealth than by 
the communications revolution, 
which has hit tbe country rather 
late. 

Although Japan is a leading de- 
veloper and manufacturer of elec- 
tronic equipment, most of its New 
Media progress has trailed devel- 


opments in other countries. (This 
has not always been such a bad 
thipg . as Japan has had the chance 
to learn from the mistakes of others 
and has generally been able to de- 
velop a more integrated approach.) 

For instance, cable television ex- 
ists in Limited form only. On-line 
data bases are still very underdevel- 
oped. A videotex service called 
CAPTAIN, for Character and Pat- 
tern Telephone Access Information 
Network, was introduced last year 
after several years of trials. It al- 
lows users to communicate through 
their television sets with a central 
computer, but has yet to attract a 
big following. 

Despite a seeming lack of enthu- 
siasm among many Japanese, some 
companies continue their New Me- 
dia expe rim ents, although it is still 
too early to predict tbe remits. 

For instance, Hitachi Software 
Engineering of Yokohama has be- 
gun a program of installing person- 
al computers in the homes of its 
programmers to allow them to 
work at home. The employees are 
expected to report to the office only 



\ I - 

t k 


A worker monitors bottfing at a soy sauce factory. 


Jung/noa QHCaatro 


once or twice each month for in- 
structions. 

An experiment in “tele-commut- 
ing" by NEC Corp. is probably 
more in tune with the Japanese 
character. Instead of having em- 


Ministries Vie for Telecommunications Control 


TOKYO — When the Japanese govern- 
ment called on two minis tries to hdp draft 
new legislation last year to liberalize the 
country’s Value Added Network (VAN) 
rules, the result was unexpected. 

Fora month tbe two sides, the Ministry of 
Posts and Telecommnnications and the Min- 
istry of International Trade and Industry, 
were deadlocked over the question of how far 
to go in allowing foreign firms to enter the 
market for VAN, a system of electronic mail 
that is especially used among companies that 
do not have computer compatibility. 

Tbe Ministry of Posts wanted severe re- 
strictions on foreign participation in Japa- 
nese VANs, while the Trade Ministry insisted 
that there should be no limits on overseas 
capital. 


The issue was resolved when senior politi- 
cians of tbe ruling Liberal Democratic Party 
mediated, and ruled laigdy in the Trade 
Ministry's favor, although allowing the Posts 
Ministry to retain significant controls. 

But in fact, the squabble had been about 
far more than the entry of foreign capitaL 
According to observers, the Trade Ministry 
argued for a deregulated system mainly be- 
cause of its strong desire to deny more power 
to the Posts Ministry. 

And behind this loomed an even larger 
isue: which ministry wfll gam long-term con- 
trol of the crucial electronics ami telecom- 
munications industries in Japan. 

Further controversy has arisen over the 
planned privatization this year of the Nippon 
Telegrapn and Telephone Public Corp., oper- 


ator of Japan's domestic telephone services. 
Details are still not final, but the Posts Minis- 
try will exercise authority over the issuance ol 
shares. It has proposed the establishment of a 
special corporation that would receive one- 
third of tire Nippon Telegraph shares and 
would use the dividends to support the devel- 
opment of basic telecommunications technol- 
ogy. 

Which of the two ministries will predomi- 
nate is still far from clear. Will the Ministry 
of Posts and Telecommunications become 
the new Ministry of International Trade and 
Industry, protectionist and powerful? Many 
people believe that the Trade Mims Cry could 
aid up taking over some of the functions of 
the Posts Ministry. 

— MARTIN ROTH 


ployees work in their homes, the 
company has established a satellite 
office in a large residential area, 
connected by computer communi- 
cations to the head office. Groups 
of employees living in that area 
work together on data processing. 

One of the most innovative retail 
firms in Japan is the Sdbu group of 
department stores. It has just 
opened a new store in Tsnkuba 
Science City that features a video- 
tex network that will allow local 
used-car dealers to feed in informa- 
tion about automobiles for sale. 
Shoppers will be able to consult a 
monitor in the store, amply punch- 
ing in details of the car they are 
looking for to learn what is avail- 
able. 

The store also features its own 
studio with a direct link to a local 
cable television station. 

But it is in the coating two de- 
cades, rather than in the next cou- 
ple of years, that Japan is most 
likely to undergo a transformation, 
as integrated New Media programs 
now being implemented take ef- 
fect. 

In 1981, the Nippon Telegraph 


d£S7S£ r , 22?i?ffi Industry Associations 

iiatal toflconnnmiicu- %r 


launched a 20-year plan to estab- 
lish a new digital telecommunica- 
tions infrastructure, built around 
optical-fiber tines and satellite 
communications. A common set of 
protocols win ensure that voice, 
picture and data signals can be in- 
tegrated into a common system. 

Total integration of the infra- 
structure wiD begin in 1995, and 
many analysts believe major 
changes may occur then in Japa- 
nese society. 

Tbe Economic Planning Agency, 
in a report prepared last year, said 
that hone electronic shopping via 
two-way ^able television win be 
slow in criming, but once it arrives, 
it could mean a crisis for the na- 
tion’s retailers, with a major reor- 

S ’on of retail, wholesale and 
tion businesses. 

The Ministry Of Internatinnal 
Trade and Industry has also pre- 
pared several reports on the New 
Media. In one. issued in December 
1983. it foresaw major advances in 
education and medical care as a 
result of new telecommunications 
systems. 


■’? r -a. 

•*;/ i" 

. { 

"f. t 


.V -• 3 

-‘ll >• ■ .4 


(Continued From Page 12) 
ment roles in the very industries 
they used to supervise. 

This tradition of tnmkudnri, or 
"descent from heaven,” is blamed 
by some for creating undue cozi- 
ness between the bureaucracy and 
industry, especially in the years di- 
rectly preceding retirement of an 
official, when he does not want to 
anger his future boss: 

Others praise the institution as 

f aefli taring smooth government- 

business c ommuni cations, and 
note that it allows .the bureaucracy 
to delegate a good deal of regula- 
tory power to the industry associa- 
tions themselves: a in the 
glove is better than a slap on the 
wrist - , 

But tbe spirit erf free competition 
is starting to catdi an in some in- 
dustries as sophisticated manage- 
ment becomes less reliant on gov- 
ernment guidance and as the 
government’s fiscal crisis and Ja- 
pan’s surplus of capital makes en- 


terprises, in cluding high-tech ones, 
less on government fi- 

ramdaf assis t ance. 

The swelling power of big busi- 
ness lies in well-managed individ- 
ual enterprises and not in the con- 
sensual organization of industry 
associations, analysts say. 

The ministry, they say, may end 
up being the defender of the weaker 
ends of as** industry that nsed to 
be protected by the group rule of 
the stronger. 

The days when the ministry con- 
trolled the import of all raw materi- 
als and capital and could thereby 
control the industries — 

petrochemicals and metals — 
are gone with the prime of those 
industries themselves. 

And a few observers say that the 
attitnde of some high-tech manage- 
ment toward control of individual 
corporate rights is different that 
there is something of a new breed 
emerging. • 


A Nation’s Minorities: A 'Nonexistent’ Social Problem That Refuses to Go Away 


By Peter McGill 

TOKYO — Japanese pride 
themselves on having a "homoge- 
neous" race, culture and society. 
“We’re fortunate in not sharing 
your country's social and racial 
problems,” visitors wtB often be 
told. Should the visitor insist that 
Japan surelyhas its own minorities, 
tbe reply wul usually be, “Yes, but 
they’re very small in number.” 

Since Japan’s three mam minor- 
ity groups account for only 2 per- 
cent of the 120 million population, 
such complacency may not be sur- 
prising. 

Yet this year alone, the central 
government intends to spend al- 
most 220 billion yen (S 846 million) 
in aid to just two of these groups 
and local governments have also set 
aside billions of yen for this pur- 
pose. 

r * The burakumin, Japan's largest 
minority group and the biggest re- 
cipients of government aid, offi- 
cially ceased to exist more than a 
hundred years ago, when the Mqji 
government abolished the rem- 
nants of the feudal system. At the 
bottom of tins pyramid had been 
the eta (“full of filth") and hmin 
(“nonhuman"), the untouchable 
classes. 

' Tbe eta worked in “undean" oc- 
cupations connected with death, as 
undertakers, gravediggers, animal 
slaughterers or leather workers who 
tanned hides. Hinin were largely 
entertainers, also considered “im- 
pure." Marriage by other Japanese 
with members of these casus was 
forbidden and they were forced to 
live in segregated areas, the buraku 
(villages or hamlets), from which 
the modern name burakumin de- 
rives. An edict in 1871 officially 
Jbolisfaed their inferior status but 
discriminatio n, fed by their still ta- 
boo status, persists into the 1980s. 


Raaally identical and physically 
indistinguishable from other Japa- 
nese, the early means for an outad- 
er to determine who is burakumin is 
from his home or birthplace. Ja- 
pan's system of family registration 
at local government offices has 
made it relatively simple for crooks 
to print lists of buraku ghetto areas. 
Peddled at 30,000 yen a copy, such 
lists were snapped up in the late 
1970s by at least 140 Japanese com- 
panies, many of them world-fa- 
mous names, in order to weed out 
the burakumin from prospective 
employees. (Big Japanese compa- 
nies normally investigate the per- 
sonal background of possible re- 
cruits to the lifetime employment 
they offer, often hiring detective 
agencies to do the work). 

The buyers of the lists were re- 
vealed by the militant Buraku Lib- 
eration League, and humiliated 
company presidents were pres- 
sured by tbe league to make big 
donations to tbe burakumin or, in 
the case of one major bank, to hold 
compulsory “human rights" classes 
after work for the staff. Tbe league 
since then repons h is continuing 
to turn up lists and that prejudice 
against luring burakumin in good 
jobs is unabated. 

Today, the government recog- 
nizes 1,162^83 burakumin in Ja- 
pan, but even officials concerned 
with the problem admit there may 
be at least 3 million, as many have 
left the ghettos in an attempt to 
“pass” as ordinary Japanese and 
avoid prejudice in marriage and 
employment. Most of tbe ghettos 
are concentrated in tbe dis- 
trict of Kyoto-Kobe, in the north- 
ern part of Kyushu Island and in 
parts of Shikoku Island. There are, 
however, many buraku around To- 
kyo in Nagano, Saitama and Gum- 
ma prefectures. Within metropoli- 
tan Tokyo, an estimated 400,000 


burakumin live in 220 ghettos, clus- 
tered around the Sumida river in 
the north of the city. 

Once tbe site of a crematorium 
and slaughter houses, Arakawa 
ward by tbe Sumida is now the 
center of Japan’s billion-doDar-a- 
year leather industry, thanks to the 
burakumin retaining their monopo- 
ly in this formerly “polluting 
trade." 

Like the burakumin families who 
control much of Japan’s beef in- 
dustry, this domination of animal 
trades has international repercus- 
sions. While Japanese pay high 
prices for shoes, leather goods and 
beef because of such inefficient 
monopolies and government pro- 
tection of than. Japan is unwilling 
(or unable) to agree to open the 
market to cheaper foreign beef and 
leather. As Tokyo negotiators ex- 
plain to irate officials from the 
United States and Australia, to do 
so would risk creating unemploy- 
ment among the burakumin, risking 
a political uphcavaL 

Government aid for the group 
this year totals more than 2183 
billion yen. At the Ashihara buraku 
in Osaka where I visited, apartment 
blocks have replaced the sh acks 
that used to stand on the banks of 
the river and the buraku now has its 
own clinic, supermarket and social 
center. What is lacking is tbe same 
employment level as the rest of 
Osaka and (be removal of the in- 
visible soda) barriers that prevent 
burakumin being accepted by the 
rest of society. 

Unemployment in many buraku 
such as Astubara is up to 20 times 
the national average and more than 
twice as many burakumin work as 
day laborers than other Japanese. 

The Ainu, Japan's other “indige- 
nous” minority, have fared even 
worse. A separate aboriginal race 


that came from Western Asia more 
than 7,000 years ago, the recogniz- 
ably hairy Ainu were the original 
inhabitants of Japan but were 
pushed by successive waves of 
“Japanese" settlers into the north- 
ern island of Hokkaido. The Ainu 
continued their iradi tonal way of 
life on Hokkaido until the 19th 
century, when Tokyo embarked on 
forced settlement of the island by 
Japanese to ease population pres- , 
sures on the chief island of Honshu. I 

Most of the Ainu were driven 
from their lands, many “assimilat- 
ed" with Japanese by intermarriage 
or taking inferior work such as 
joining labor gangs. Looked down 
on by most Japanese as “primi- 
tives," there are now only 24.000 
Ainu left on Hokkaido. About 40 
percent still cling to forestry, fish- 
ing and fanning and another 30 
percent are engaged in construc- 
tion or mining. Many of the rest arc 
on welfare or make a living from 
dressing up in traditional costumes 
and making wood carvings for 
tourists. 

This year, the Ainu will receive 
more than 124 billion yen in cen- 
tral government subsidies and an- 
other 2.9 billion yen from local gov- 
ernments in Hokkaido. 

Koreans are another minority is- 
sue for the Tokyo government. An- 
nexed in 1910, Korea was part of 
the Japanese Empire until defeat in 
1945. During World War U, mil- 
lions of Koreans were brought to 
Japan as forced labor and today’s 
660.000 Korean residents (by far 
the biggest group of noncitizens) 
are those who remained or their 
offspring. 

Japanese and Koreans have a 
long and bitter history of distrust 
and racial enmity, with Koreans 
particularly mindful of past Japa- 
nese persecution and exploitation. 


Korean residents, many of whom 
can only speak Japanese, continue 
to face discrimination in Japan in 
employment, housing, education 
and social contacts. 

The nationality issue, and in par- 
ticular (he process of registration 
for “alien registration cards.” has 
come to be the focus and symbol of 
what this minority regards as Japa- 
nese persecution. 


In 1952, Koreans were deprived 
of their Japanese citizenship and 
became classed as “alien residents'’ 
if they remained in Japan. Until 
recently, as aliens, they were ex- 
cluded from many government 
welfare and assistance plans and 
st&l have no dvfl or voting tights. 
Tbe alien identity card was espe- 
cially reseated for its requirement 
that the bearer should be finger- 


printed, which otherwise applies 
only to criminals. In recent years, a 
number of Korean residents have 
refused to be fingerprinted and 
some other foreign residents have 
joined their ranks in a campaign of 
dvfl disobedience. 

Koreans in Japan do have the 
option of seeking “naturalization” 
as - Japanese otiremt ,- but the gov- 
ernment requirements for this are 


seen as equally humiliating. Appli- 
cants most not only offer proof of 
** ««? inflation” into Japanese cul- 
ture (p ri n c ipa lly, this means an 
ability to speak Japanese) bat must 
also adopt a Japanese name for 
nFRrial registration. All Koreans 
wereforced byalawm 1940 to use 
& Japanese name and the practice 
has racist overtones for -Koreans 
today. . 




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Page 16 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, MARCH 20, 1985 


A SPECIAL REPORT ON JAPAN 


v '' r t|rt ‘ 


More Women Working, but Inequality Remains 

By Nobuko Hashimoco full- time job quickly teams how dosed the market is. Many p ercent of what fulltime working women make. 

TOKYO — Japan signed a pledge to end discrimination large corporations shut put women graduates from job half that of men, a Japanese economic newspape 


By Nobuko Hashimoco 

TOKYO — Japan signed a pledge to end discrimination 
against women during the UnitedNation decade for women, 
which ends this year, but actual changes seem slow in 
coming. 

There are some signs of movement: Last November, the 
cabinet got its fust woman minister in 22 years; an etnxal- 
opportunity bill has been the focus of attention in the Diet 
and the media, and waits to be ratified this year, and women 
workers, who now account for nearly 40 percent of the work 
force, are an increasingly important part of the economy. 

Many women, too, seem to feel that they are better off 
now. In a government opinion poll last year, 73 percent of 
the women surveyed said the position of women had im- 
proved in the last lOyearc. A greater number of women, 41 
percent this year against 34 percent in 1979, disagreed with 
the concept that “a man's duty is to work, and that a woman 
should stay at home." The number of women who agreed 
remaned about 36 percent, the same as in 1979. 

But even with more wo men joining the work force, studies 
show that two out of every five women are unhappy with 
existing work conditions. Their choices are limited, wo dang 
conditions are poor and there are too few child-care centers. 

Society as a whole has ambiguous attitudes to women who 
have careers outride their homes. Many families and compa- 
nies expect women to give up their jobs after they get 
married or when they have their first child, said Kazuko 
Ka wakami a woman who recently shifted to a temporary 
job after she got married. 

“I got tired of bong criticized by my relatives and col- 
leagues that I was a bad wife just because I wasn't always 
ready with a cooked meal when my husband came home 
from work," she said. 

Many other women are taking part-time jobs because they 
are the only ones easily available. A woman looking for a 


interviews because they claim that women have tittle Staying 
power and quit after a few years to get married. 


But women point out that many leave their jobs after a few 
years because they are frustrated with the Mile challenge 

leave^to get married after they rea^^f^^by which 
many still believe women should many. As one 32-year-old 
woman analyst in a market research firm said, “Until a few 
years ago, my male colleagues kept pushing me to get 

married. Now they’ve given up, hut they also tail me an old 
** 


Those companies that hire women tend to look for beauty 
rather than brains, a personnel manager of a tradi n g compa- 
ny admitted recently. Expressions such as “office flower" are 
still commonly u sed to describe working women. 

Once in their jobs, these fulltime working women find that 
they earn much l«s than their male counterparts. Their 
starting salaries are almost equal, but the gap widens from 
there. Women earning their peak salaries (in their middle to 
late 50s) get about half what men make during their peak 
salary years (in their middle to late 40s), according to the 
Labor Ministry. 

But the official figures suggest that a growing number of 
working women are getting even less. About half of the 
working women, or 12 percent of the labor force, are part- 
time employees earning low wages with no fringe benefits. 
Most of thwn are married women, between the ages of 35 
and 49, who are returning to work. after their chOdioi are old 
enough to look after themselves, according to a report by the 


p ercent of what fulltime working women make, and about 
half that of men, a Japanese economic newspaper reported. 
Since they do not belong to a labor union, the companies do 
not have to give them the protection or the benefits that 
fulltime workers get Thai means no paid holidays, no 
overtime pay. no welfare benefits, nor even written con- 
tracts, meaning that they can be dismisse d at short notice 

Companies are turning to these women as a “convenient 
and inexpensive source of labor,” according to a Japanese 
economic daily report. “In fact, these women arc supporting 

the industries, a labor analyst said. 

The outlook is that the number of part-time women 
workers is likely to increase even more with the rapid spread 
of computerization, and there is some fear the women will 
put unskilled male workers out of their jobs. 

“Since a computer operator’s job doesn't re q ui re any 
special skills and can therefore be done by anybody, a 
company might as well give the job to a part-time w oman 
worker,” a social analyst said. 

The Hakuhodo report cited two themes that often crop up 
in conversations among Japanese women, particularly 
housewives: iiritsu, or independence, and Hagai, purpose in 
life. Kei Sanachi founder of Idea Bank, an aQ- women 
research company, said that with more and more women 
venturing out of their homes this way, the Japanese words. 


Millions 
of people 


WOMEN IN THE WORK FORCE — ****** 



Female Employees As Percentage 

Of Total Employees . . 

5>r : 


iBSh 


okusan, for wife (literally, “a person of the interior”) is 
becoming anachronistic. Instead, she suggested, they should 
be called soto-san, or “a person who is outride." 

But not all women want to be soto-san. yet Last year’s 
government survey found that many women are still indif- 
ferent to the feminist cause. More ihan half the women 
questioned had not heard of the “UN women’s decade,” 
while nearly two-thirds did not know that an equatoppoitu- 
niry bill had been proposed in the Diet. 


Hakuhodo Institute of Life and Living. 

They usually work about six hours a day. five days a week; 
their average hourly pay is about 561 yen ($2.16), about 76 




r‘- < j 

. 

- I.*-**** i 

■'+n ***»■ 




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1$»M 


60 ’65 


'75 '80 83 



Sootck Japaa^e Journal of Trade & industry 


*riwi 


-Afyrl’ 


Gwyhfc taUI Cirt IWWH 


Social Benefits Leading to a Costly Welfare State 


Japan’s Welfare System Needs 
Rebirth for Its Aging Society 


»• ■■■W . 

Wim t a 




By Nancy Ukai 


By Barbara Slavin 


can largely be attributed to peo- cent of the population will be 65 


•mwn aia L T pie’s lack of trust in the govern- years or older, the highest proper- ent plans, 90 percent of all Japa- 

nVr~r Japan is a meat’s welfare programs.) non for any nation. “Medical cost nese are covered by two funds: the 


which iso 
ent plans. 


irised of seven difler- 
percent of all Japa- 


Mr. Xnmjrn» yaidt “The hfllanr* 


TOKYO — In the next 35 years, rV n ™' u *r r 
roan will eo from having the die Ministry of 


the fund,” said Takefaiko Yamagu- be taken care of by their childre - 
chi, director of the pension section While nearly 70 percent of Jap 


long way from becoming a welfare — . . .. . . f 0r ihea 

haven along the lines of me “Swed- ^The low proportion of elderty in 
ish model" where 69 percent of ** population has also kept down 
national income goes to taxes and ^ overaiI «« of welfare pro- ° 

social programs, economists are 8**“^ M a Japanese still 
worried that the country may be on P*y far 1«® for social insurance Accoi 


programs, economists are 
I that the country may be on 


the way to becoming a costly wel- programs than their European 


fare state. 

Many of Japan’s welfare pro- 
grams are based on Western mod- 
els. The 50-year-old health insur- 
ance system was modeled after 
German laws, and Japan's supple- 
mental mrarw program was in 
large part designed by U.S. Occu- 
pation authorities. 

But due to a long tradition of 
family support for the aged, infirm 
and disabled, most Japanese are 
still apt to mm to relatives rather 
than to the state in times of need. 
(The high rate of personal savings 
in Japan —20 percent of income- 


counterparts. According to the 
Economic Planning Agency, 10.4 
percent of national income in 1982 
went to pension and medical ex- 
penses, which account for more 
than 80 percent of all welfare 
spending in Japan. This compares 
with 20 percent in Sweden, 28 per- 
cent in France and 23 percent in 
West Germany. Japan’s low wel- 
fare spending is often cited as one 
reason for the health and vitality of 
its economy. 

But the Japanese population is 


for the aged and pension payments Kosd Nenlrin (employees’ pen- 
will mushroom," said Yoshiaki Ta- rion) and Kokurcdn N enlrin (na- 
giwhf of the Eo flrtomfc planning tianal pension). 

' A ^ enc ^- Under the former plan, which 

According to the Health and. covers company employees, male 
Welfare Ministry, if the present contributors who pay into the sys- 


tandWd- nese over 65 now live with the 


Ie will resent the heavy 
aving to support them.* 


children, that percentage is expec 

^Legislation pending in the upper *»*•» *P“C=n. tylbejie 

t£s aging of society wffl test the house of the £>iet would unify the ^ ^ turn of the century »■ * 
country’s capacity to ad apt to new administration and finanoug of ^ ^ed j 748 more UaSEnt 
circumstances to ston economic major pennon programs, extend . ’ - d Tim<tlfa . 


• -•i MM 
5 : I'. M* H 
■i . 

# aimmi 

.*■ » 

'■THWf 


die aged," said Sqji Tanaka, i ; 


pension system is continued, higher t«n for 32 years receive monthly 


social security payments to the top- 
heavy population of retirees will 
take up 20 percent of national in- 
1 2025, alm< 


benefits equal to 68 percent of tlieir 
average monthly income, excluding 
the semiannual bonuses, an ample 


yen per month to each retiree, with the byprodnet of Japan’s success in 
supplemental income added on ac- transforming itself from a largely 


cording to the amount of past con- rural nation of extended f: 


tribntions deducted from monthly into an urban industrial society of percent 


will need 4 496 iiorc. It is impost, 
ble to meet these goals." 

solution, he said, isfor localiti 
pension payroll tax, currently 10.6 , m 


M .■ — , . .. i * . * ujuuuuiu iium umuimy miu au uiuau uiuiuuh 

almost five times the figure by mtemational standards. p#y. Under the new system, pay- small nuclear families. 


present figure. In the latter system, which covets 

Critics wain that similar prob- fanners, the self-employed and 
lems will confront (he economy if housewives, the monthly benefit is 
belt-tightening steps are not taken 84,000 yen (S324) for a married 


ployee). 


(rolit by ei 
from risi 


employer and em- 


rmv . . rising beyond 

molts would stay at the present ^ transformation was so swift P®*® 1 “ ** P?" 


'SSCSt SK’ff’feafe 


despite the contributor's longer IO a( } vaa ce ( i Weston narimK were “That is about the «nne levd of 


now to refonn ambitious welfare couple in which both members had 
programs that were created in the been contributing for 25 years. 


years of partidpatiaxL 


in place only a decade ago. Yet contribution as West Germany at 


late 1960s and early 1970s, when 
the economy was booming. 


Yet most social programs only 


aging at the fastest rate in the provide the bare nmrimum of rid 
world; 40 years from now, 22 per- and cannot be trimmed any for- 


CONTRIBUTOBS 


ther, said Yuidri Nakamura, a pro- 
fessor at the Japan School of Social 


Work. He pointed out that only 1.2 
percent of Japanese receive supple- 


MARC BEAUCHAMP is a business reporter for Kyodo News 
Service. 


mental income, compared with 
more than 8 percent in the United 


Even now, the system is already 
doling out funds at a faster rate 

than it is taking them in, and it 

could go bankrupt in 15 years if 
changes are not made soon. 

However, by 2020, when the 
number of retirees will have grown 
to six times the present figure, pre- 
miums will have to quadruple in 


“It ioi’r nrrfnri hnt h wnitlrf he. Japan is already having to alter present,’* said Mr. Yamaguchi. 

without the rrfonn. hestrio, the 


States and the Britain. young workers supporting pension- percent and hope that extra income lookahead. 

For a Tokyo family of four, the have shrunk from the pro- for the pensioners win be provided “We are 


order to support pension pay- itself. They aim to keep the com- 
ments. Moreover, the ratio of bined welfare and tax burden to 45 


GREGORY CLARK is professor of international business at So- 
phia University in Tokyo. 


2020, when nearly one out of evoy 
the poor and the disabled receive four Japanese will be over 65 

minimal benefits. Mr. Nakamura , ** mdustmhnng phase, and the system would coB^sc. 

Japan is learning from Western ex- The central government subri- 
perience in organizing its new wel- dizes between 20 and 30 percent of 
Government economists say that fare state. Where the United States, pension benefits. It picks up 30 
the revised system is vital to the for example, allowed its Social Se- percent of overall medical costs 
health of the Japanese economy curity pension system to become and 80 percent of the bill f wearing 
itself. They aim to keep the com- virtually bankrupt before taking for the aged. Health and Welfare 
bined welfare and tax burden to 45 action, the Japanese are trying to Ministry officials say that facilities 


GEORGE FIELDS, president of ASI Market Research (Japan) 
Inc, is the author of “From Bonsai to LeviY 1 (Macmillan, New York. 
1984). 


MARKO FUJIWARA is director of English publications and 
overseas research for the Hakuhodo Institute of Life and Living. She 
was a member of the Economic Planning Agency's Study Group on 
Changing Consumption Patterns in 1983-84. 


poverty line is roughly IBS million 
yen ($7J00) a year, and a bread- 
winner whose income is below this 
figure can apply for financial rid to 
make up the difference. *The stan- 
dard of compensation is compara- 
ble to the United States,” Mr. Na- 
kamura said. “It’s just that it’s hard 
to get." He does not think this 
budget can be pared. 

Mr. Nakamura foresees rising 


for the elderly are already insuffi- 
ref fir min g our pension cient and will be more strained in 


sent7-to-l ratio to 3-to-l; a govern- by savings, families and part-time system now while It still has mare the future, when there wDl be more 


meat official said. 


jobs taken on by retirees. 


than 40 trillion yen [$173 billion] in old people and fewer of them wfll 


After Retirement: 'Lucky Ones’ Find Jobs 


7“**^ TOKYO — “l am one of the lucky ones, so please Tokyo has fifty-four centers, with 34,000 “mem- 

hud?ei can be namd ^ don ’ t 056 “7 said the distinguished-loriring bers,” or 23 percent of the population over 60, accond- 

Tf vT ntr]in P~ ^ rr . . ■ elderly man m the blue pinstriped suit. mg to Saburo Morita, director of the Tokyo F(xmda- 

cosismo^SS.DuetoalS * “P al a Tokyo bus company, he tion for the Promotion of Corporations tbe.AgecL 
fr.^ n f nmn Jr„ said got his new job as a translator with a government The centers, which are nonprofit, provide a variety 
through a friend of his former W ‘The of part-time work, much of it menial and some of it 
wo cad nouseno os is m- 0 f £ebiis company himself was retired from beyond the physical abilities of most elderly people. 

a government agency where he had bees a kind of big There is a surfeit of jobs for janitors and night watdi- 


DARRYL GIBSON is a Tokyo-based correspondent for C anadi a n 
Press. 


RICHARD C HANSON is editor and publisher of Japan Finan- 
cial Report. 


NOBUKO HASHJMOTO is a Tokyo-based journalist who con- 
tributes to The Christian Science Monitor. 


JILL HENDRICKSON is a feature writer for Kyodo News Service. 


PETER McGILL is the Tokyo correspondent for the London 
Observer. 


SUSAN MOFFAT is a Tokyo-based reporter for Kyodo News 
Service. 


MARTIN ROTH is a Tokyo-based journalist who contributes to 
Asian Business. 


JON WORONOFF has written books on Japan that include: 
“Japan: The Coming Economic Crisis'' (1979); “Japan: The Coming 
Social Crisis" (1980); “Japan’s Wasted Workers" (1981); “Inside 
Japan. Inc.” (3982); “Japan’s Commercial Empire (1984), and “The 
Japan Syndrome" (1985), all published by Lotus Press. 


women wno Head nousenoids is in- 
creasing rapidly. As women enter 
the work force in greater numbers, 
more day-care faculties will need to 
be built, while roending in other 
areas, such as tor the disabled. 
must maintain its levd, he said. 

But the most contro v ersial issue 
is the refonn of the nation’s costly 
pension and health plans. 

Aware of forecasts that spending 
for medical care could triple or 
quadruple by 2025, legislators have 
passed politically unpopular bCDs 
that fence patients to pay higher 
shares of medical costs. Last au- 
tumn, a law went into effect under 
which salaried workers must pay 10 
percent of medical fees, with the 



office through 
president of flic 


shot," die retiree said- 


men, for example. The centers provide 


Becanse there is a gap between retirement and the crafts sudi as house printing and gardening. Mr. 
pensionable age of as much as 10 years, 70 percent of Montasaid, ana ai» try to convince older people to 


Japanese retirees find new jobs for financial reasons, grange Adr attitiides to become mree roeptive to 
according to the Association for the Development of dang work that may be “baieath” what they did m 


the Aged, a government and business-supported professional careers. Members earn on average 
omm S200 a month. 


Piohtv imrrnt of « Torero Nakamura, 73, one of the 600 members of 

stiH nr ^ ^fl vcr Center in Tokyo’s Mmato Ward, began 

and 60 getaseoond^job.ohen at tly smecaagaiy or working when he was 11. It was difficult to giveuphis 


a subsidiary, with the assistance of their first 
er, the association says. Another 10 percent I 


through other means. The remaining 10 percent arc «ralt”liesaid. 
unemployed. After age 60, according to the assoda- p ^ 


working when he was 11. It was difficult to give up his 
job as a master tailor six years ago, because of declin- 
ing business, but “I realized I shouldn't stick to mv 


non. only 60 pocent erf the labor force is working. His firatjob was at a company that deans and repairs 

Labor Ministry offiaals say the unemployment rate mninmces for forciziiresidenis. Then he learnedtrai^ 


A fanner patron told him about the Silver Center. 



solution, he said, is. far localiti-- . 

and individuals to make a bigg 

contribution. - * . ' | 

Society’s investment in wdfu u **' 1 

therefore, must rise, wheth . 1 ' • ' 

through higher fees or increas - *• ' " JV « 1 

government subsidies funded 1 

taxes. Naohiro Yashiro, of the I- . »w 

emment’s Economic Planmi . . 

Agency, argues that Japan’s col . £ ^ 

paratively high savings rate of dc T 
to 20 percent must be brout: . ' r 

down. The high savings that foci; . ... 

Japan’s economic growth in t ' 
past, he writes, was not so mud- 
function of Japanese frugality as - ; 
the low tax burden. 1 n 

A positive effea of scarcer se J - 1 ” ’*♦* 

ings would be a further libaab ’ ’’ * 

tion of Japan’s stodgy financial ^ 
tem, as banks and broken ■ 1 

scrambled to devise more inve-.. *»• - 

ment opportunities at higher i&kx ~ •. 
est rates. Forrign finanaal instfc ? . . . ^ . 

dons are hoping that such a chat - ■ .• 

would increase thrir Japanese bih. 
ness and give them a crack at hi ~ 

dling burgeoning pension funds.- ... ^ ^ ^ 

The most profound .. “ 

change a ttending the a ging soo> % " ' u v <*.••44)' - -i ji: 

goes to the soul of Japan's econo 

ic success: the work ethic and co „ ^ — . 

pany toyalty resulting from “ii (,u rrt >, u ^ Ka|**|l 
time employment. The ra r “ 

increase in life expectancy has 
ready made that term a nrisnom 
Under government and lal ■ 

union pressure, most compan 
are raising the retirement age to i , , 

Buitheyaredringsoaltheeaqia **# 


t ' »44*i*!m 

‘ V 

u « . • 

- 

■ Ml 4 

M M 




-i «'«R 

r m«««N 
~***m M 


- m* 




of the seniorily system, whidi l 
gone hand-in-hand with lifdh ■ 


amcmg the ddedy is only 17 percent Agencies pro- 


pnxmsion that this figure eventually moting employment of the aged say the figure does not center, such as gluing together 


appliances far foreign residents. Then he leamari gar- 
center, such as gluing togetha booklets for a watch 


JACK BURTON, BARBARA CASASSUS, DOUNE PORTER, 
BARBARA SLAVES and NANCY UKAI are Tokyo-based journal- 
ists. 


Mr. Morita estimates that the potential pool for 
Silver Center workers is al least three times bigger 
than the membership. He concedes the centers have 
shortcomings but calls them, “a land of experiment for 
the future. We have to prepare a whole mai n for die 


rise to 20 percent take into account many senior citizens who would like company. 

Japan's pension system is the to work but have given up because they can find no MrMorita estimates that the potential pool for 
biggest target lor reform. “T be pro- ratable jobs. Silver Center workers is al least three times bigger 

gram is almost too generous,” said The only organizations providingjobs for the elder- than the membership. He concedes the centers have 
Takao Komine, an analyst at the ly among the generalpubtic are the so-called Gapora- shor fomniiiw hnr r»ik rh>»ni “a Vinrf nf r^p ^jrru^t fr>r 
Economic Planning Agency. “It tions for the Agea. Founded in Tokyo 10 years ago, the future. Ve have to prepare a whole menu for the 
must be changed but there's no there are now mpre than 200 of these organizations, aged to play some role in society, so they can fed life is 
ample way to do it” nicknamed “Silver Talent Centers,” employing worth living." 

Under the complicated system, 100,000 people nationwide. —BARBARA SLAV2N 


100,000 people nationwide. 


—BARBARA SLA VZN 


Jongkwan 0 */Cotwto Press 

Ad elderly woman selling, 
newspapers in Tokyo. 


gone hand-in-hand with lifefh ^ - 
cmpkiymenti Many are freezing . 
catting the wages of thrir over- •- 
employees, making them take le ^ 
er jobs and redudng or riimiiiati ! ' J 
lump-sum retirement benefits. - " | 
“We Japanese have come to < < ; 

pect oar companies to take care . 

. us," said Mariko Bando, a noiv 
sociologist and director dt inten c lt 
tional affairs for Che Science Cm, :• 

dl of Japan. “If lifetime empk ^ 
ment and promotion are no Ion; - 
ours by r^ht, then our loyalty < ; « 

morale wfll also erode." • ‘‘i - 

Miss Bando foresees dedim c 
productivity due to the increas 
affluence of society as weD 
avandng age Young people ras '* * 
without any memory of econor^-^. 
hardship, she says, are not as w? ■ ? , 
■ mg to devote thcmsdvesUjworfv ^ - 
their parents and grandparc 
were. ^ — 





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p20 Eornlnn nrais P.it- 
uhamMII FNw nk notes PJl 
f<Mt p. a Cold raortate P.17 
BM/ian P.U Interest mils P.17 
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7iaM p. 17 OpSm P.l« 

ni P.18 OTCsfcdc pjo 
k* p.w OBwrnGrtots P32 



•ij i k * 

x 


SPAY, MARCH 20, 1985 

rnmumoNAi manager 


llcralbS^ribunc 

BUSINESS /FINANCE 


NYSE Prices Jump 
In Late Surge, Page 8 


** 


Page 17 




^ Malf> s 


! IHJL 


ire System } 

' Aging Sod, 


insultants Soften Shock 
Dismissed Executives 

By SHERRY BUCHANAN 

Intcnumanal Herald Tribune 

) ARIS — It is increasingly fashionable for guilt-ridden 
companies to provide dismissed or I aid-off senior execu- 
tives with an alternative to legal action. Many companies 
in Great Britain are paying “outplacement” consultants 
locate senior executives whom they have to get rid of. 
itplacement services are a bit like halfway houses. They are 
v to help often tra um a tired senior executives readapt to the 
vodd of job-hunting. They can act as psychiatrists as well as 
oonselors. 

'tom a company’s point of view, if you’re talking to ah 
lacement firm you are not talking to your lawyer,” says 

ine Hyde, group manag- • 

Erector cf Pauline Hyde ^ 

' seriates Ltd, a London- "We are right there to 
d outplacement Dim. . _ ° tl 

ost of the outplacement prevent the blood 

from spiUingon the 

who may consider suing carnet.” 

'firmer emolover for un- i u 


U.S. Aid 


MN&lafccfai. *. 

i* «?f itbf jfcMi.- V, * 

■* !hv ■■‘r -.1 ... 

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bt (W; X-. ’ . • 

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itstm iteii-rs- * : 

ft* to ihr • 

Afef four ri -. -j.-. 

I M fte*»rr: 

a*r.fWi''V,,: •. * •x;ii 

hum wi i . .• 

Ill# t#«. 

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fetter i-v: 

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SSI 

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•Nftfe h r - t 
mtnft r--.-- . 

Mi *«**■!*• 

to tot &*■*-■ 

tfwtr * 


literector cf Paufine Hyde 

s Nsoriates LtcL, a London- fr We are right there to 
1 t outplacement Dim. . _ ® _ 

. ost of the outplacement prevent the blood 
L^aanies said that they act r w *■.. ^ .« 

odfiers, giving the execo- irom spiuing OIl the 

who may consider suing carnet.” 
v .'ormer employer for un- 

|Vulismissa] some time to re- “ 

' ttt Senior-level dismissals usually are due to either cutbacks, 
ges in top management, personality clashes or the never- 
itted fedmg that an executive is just too old. 
ptacording to a recent survey done by Market Opinion Re- 
tt |± International, a leading British pollster, 55 percent of the 
i s of London’s top 500 British companies used outp lacemen t 
: i ultancy. Companies include Dalgety PLC, the agribusiness 
. ‘ jern; Metal Box PLC, the packaging company; Imperial 
: - . irical Industries Ltd.; Britis h. Air ways, and European subsid- 
: ;-,s of Procter & Gamble Co„ ITT Corp. and Johnson Wax Co. 
■Companies often wouldn’t admit it but it’s a sop to our 
deuce,” says Michael Donne, personnel-services adviser 
■r the Dalgety group. “We don’t have the time or energy to do 
•■t'his stops us worrying." 

v . 

: - OME companies offer the service to all executives above a 
L j certain salary level, others reserve the prerogative to choose 
executives worthy of the extra cost after the disiwi«ml In 
m other cases, the executive n^ottates the illusion of an 
lacement service as part of the severance pay. 

^ . orporatc generosity, however, doesn’t come easily. Outplace- 
t companies charge a fixed 15 percent of the executive's base 
: sj£y, regardless of now long it takes to relocate an executive.* 

■ don’t think the money is wdl spent,” Mr. Donne says.' “It's 
ir c- to justify that .cost if the outplacement service is able to 
:gt the executives in 5 months. Yet I can’t thinV erf a better way 
- 'jdping an individual at a lower cost.’ 

:.'-«ne outplacement services provide c^icc space and secretari- 
-icknp services for writing rtsumfcs and letters, 
ir.tinppart services are very important,” says one executive who 


For Ohio 

69 Thrift Units 
Remain Closed 

United Press IniematUmal 

COLUMBUS, Ohio — Gover- 
nor Richard F. Celeste went to 
Washington Tuesday to seek help 
in solving his states savings and 
loan crisis. He said he was confi- 
dent that the Ohio legislature 
would resolve its differences and 
approve a recovery measure. 

The savings institutions were 



: id ms company to pay for an outplacement sendee after he 
_ .-laid off when his division was dosed. “From one mfnntii to 
riext, a senior man with an office, telephones and secretaries 
i ..none of that.” 

zijnsultaiiis teach executives used to interviewing others how 
- e interviewed themselves. They help work out the direction 
-J: an executive wants to take, then follow up until the executive 
r.7? another full-time or part-time job or becomes sdf-em- 
-1«L 

. l Lwanled to take a look at myself and sort out my objectives,” 
—another executive who was dismissed. 

;^nthej^st meetings outplacement consultants often have to- 
.'.-sc the executive’s anger and autiety. One company suggests 
■ .j consultant be present in an adjoining room so that the 
:z adate can be ushered in for a soothing session after hearing 
:r»d news. 

- the company anticipates fireworks, we are right than to 
(Confessed on Page 21, CoL 4) 


Currency Rates 


closed for a fifth day Tuesday after 
the Geooal Assembly had become 
bogged down in partisan politics 
and was unable to come up with a 
bill to save the 69 dosed stale- 
chartered savings and loan associa- 
tions. 

An aide to Mr. Celeste said that 
' the governor was to meet in Wash- 
ington with Ohio’s congressional 
delegation and with officials of the 
Federal Home Loan Bank Board is 
an effort to expedite the applica- 
tions for federal insurance for 
Ohio’s beleaguered savings and 
loans. 

Two different relief plans, one of 
them endorsed by the governor and 
cleared by the House, were rqected 
by the state Senate early Tuesday. 
Republicans said one plan would 
put 30 of the dosed savings and ■ 
loans out of business. 

One of the plans called for all 
dosed institutions now privately 
insured to apply for coverage by 
the Federal Savings and Loan In- 
surance Corp. before bring allowed 
to reopen. 

Mr. Celeste dosed the 70 state- 
chartered but privately insured sav- 
ings and loans Friday and extended 
the order indefinitely Monday after 
a “run” by customers drained 
about $60 million from the Ohio 
Deposit Guarantee Fond, a private 
insurance fund supporting the in- 
stitutions. 

It was the largest closing of sav- 
ings institutions since President 
Franklin D. Roosevelt closed 
banks in 1933 in the depths of the 
Great Depression. 

The “mn” was caused by the 
dosing 10 days ago of Home Slate 
Savings Bank of findnnari after it 
was (tisdosedthat it may have lost 
$100 million in the collapse of ESM ^ 
. GovemmentSamuies Inc. of Fort 
• Lauderdale, Florida. 

- About 125 federally insured in- 
stitutions ianrin open. And one of 
the 70 closed institutions, Colum- 
bia Savings & Loan Co. of Cincin- 
nati, opened Monday as a member 
of the Federal Savings and Loan 
Insurance Corp. 



s 

■« 

DAL 

FP. 

ILL. 

QUr. 

*F. 

if. Yee 

-'lore 

1718 

422» 

11340* 

36J7* 

0.1785 

~ 

5625* 

132J7 -14342 y 

•.4tB) 

66. WJ 

75uM5 

20.105 

4574 

3.174 • 

177945 

— 

2164 25528* 

■1 

1273 

13305 

— 

32595* 

15805 X 

8050* 

45475* 

11748* 17*7 * 

CM 

1.1365 

— 

3726 

11272 

236050 

4203 

74725 

1163 2*1.10 

A 

zotuo 

13 12M 

63350 

WAS 

— 

561.16 

31552 

745*5 842* 

.. •;.«« 

— . 

U63S 

1235 

ia 

244540 

3446 

6524 

223 35150 


loan 

1M71 

3J0575 

_ 

402 X 

2J0A 

15209- 

1604 3477* 

v - " • 

2S950 

289.73 

7S.T7 

2541 

12J8* 

69.17 

38593* 

91-84 


Utl5 

3.1512 

MJ45* 

27.77 • 

0.1343 

75315* 

423* 

147*1* 


asm 

0597 

22301 

651*7 

141240 

25196 

448257 

1JM 171590 


0J6S7O1 

OJMBZt 

ICO. 

9.713*0 

241147 

35905 

658763 

22006 2SO503 




Dollar Values 






yfi""" uss 
'wroflui - uot 

“-■IriMICWBM 2U3 
; mm ita. franc an 
wDaal . 1J757 

K krOM 1L7225 

markka 6505 
U2J0 

" MKmiS 7J82S 


_ , Cumftcr 

0.935 irtefec 
&am KrMlitMkal 
m KMMtH4fMr 
OJta Maiav.rlMotl 
area Nan*.kreM 
OOS46 nuptic 

Man Port Marfa 
1377 SoMHrfrol 


5 tef 

art. c,nw ' uas 

0X07 SaNWlI 12693 
0513 (.Africa* rand 15498 
05013 S. Kama *mw 85350 
00054 IWLOOrt 18*70 
0.1067 SwmL kroao 577 
OJ02S3 Taiwan S 3977 
05356 TtalBaM 28 575 
07723 UJUUMrtam 35725 


^KUWiftec 

MreteUrtnc <01 Amount* needed fa buy one pound (cj MMMonaoMfObMr on* Orf W I*) 
WWOrtfi of 1000 (yj Untts of IHOM 
NwrtO; fLfL; not ovoltaMe. 

;C Sartaot au Benelux (Brussels}: Banal Ctanmarate* ifa/fam OHltan}; Betwe 
, “art Paris f Paris); IMF (SDR): Banana Area* at Infemattanale trmvesttssoment 
Ttwt dbOamX Outer data tram Reuters and AP. 


pNrte in 


Interest Rates 


r 

ocurrency Deposits 


March 19 


Japan 


«VtH RlDdl 

outer Drftont rm SterllM F*c ecu SDR 
** - 9 515-6 5K-5W T3fk - 17M 109W- Mte. TOte - lOW 0M 

* ' *W 6 - 69k » -59k ttte - 131* 10H - 1«* 10Hi - HH4 8 

-9te 6D..69W 5H - J«. 13 - 13V. 109W- 1055 WH.- W9W Wk 

- W -6 ft 50k - 6 72*5 ■ 12*. IWk - 11 WU - KM 0* 

aw -11 SK - &H 5V. - 5* 12 - 12V% 11 - 11* I89W- 10» 9V. 

to Marbcm* awwiftesf 51 molten mftrfmwn for vMftetiMT. 

Maroon Guaranty atoHar, DM, SF, Pound, PF); Uoyt/s Bank (BCUl: Reuters 


n Dollar Rates 


March 19 


**j»l . u- 


2 mot 
9 W -9*5 


J moo. 

9n> -9H, 


(moo. 

V 90 - ID Ml 


Honey Rates 


ass n» M*. Britain 

fete 8 8 BanK Bom Rote 

y** 8 11/16 3 9/14 Coll Money 

fe VWj VWi 91-rtJV Trooaory BDI 

oon Rote 9Vi 94640 3riT*ntft Intertwofc 

Z**’ »■»* rtJY* 877 9 JO J«an 

rmwmnr Blib 153 gjr - =t — 

[teowry suit SS7 «* Dtecount Rot# 

;*>« 072 875 Can Manor 

«« >54 153 4Mor Interbank 


14 14 

1414 HA- 

12 13/14 - 

ITU — 


5 -5 

4 7/16 fh 

6Vk Vh 


tcwniES 


■Qamiv 

Rote 

Rote 

11 Interbank 
Wertwnk 

nteromik 


i Kitertank 

XtraMc 

lterbonl( 


480 400 

sao uo 

42S 42S 

445 445 

645 465 


ton wn 
Wte 1016 
1011/MU 11/M 

inU IMl 

10 9/16 U 9/16 


Gold Prices 


. Commerzbank. CrOdm.* 

Rwfc Bank of Tokva. 


4M. M* are* 
HomKbro 38X25 30280 + 4*0 

LRMtffiMWP 311175 — *870 

Po-te (US kite) *477 30970 + 1443 

Zurid, 38270 31870 + 20J» 

lmdan 30775 31473 +1770 

NnrVork - 3»» + 3*70 

Official llaOm for London. Paris md Liunrt 
Darn, npenliw aiid dastaB prices tar Kara Kara 
enA lorid*. Ki« Yart Come* owiehf cnfitroct. 
AH prfen m U SS o*r nonce. 

Source: Reuters. 



Dollar Plunges 
And Gold Soars 
In Europe, U.S. 


_ Th» Now York Tmcs 

Beijing residents carry newly purchased television sets made by Japanese companies. 

Japanese Traders Flocking to China 

By Susan Chira Between 1983 and 1984, trade between the two 

New York Times Service countries increased 32 percent, to a total of $13 

TOKYO — For centuries, China 's size and biffion. Japan now is China’s largest t radin g pan- 
population have beckoned to traders.- Textile mak- ner, according to the Chinese Embassy in Tokyo, 

ers in I9lh-centnry En gland dreamed of mating The number of joint ventures also increased, from 

their fortunes by supplying every Chinese with just 12 in 1983 to nearly 50 last year, 

one shin , and American merchants day»lM by Japanese exports to China soared 47 percent, 
similar visions helped force China’s door open. with individual companies’ exports increasing dra- 

Now Japan has heeded the call in the 20th matically. 
century, the dreams are of color televisions and And while this year's increases may not be as 
refrigerators, bnt the basic idea has <-hang ^H very large, trade continues apace,.with new agreements 
little. If there are 230 million households in China, announced almost every day. The Mmisoy of 

calculates Yasushi Sayama of Hitachi Ltd, and if International Trade and Industry is projecting at 
6.5 imllion color-television sets are sold by the end least a 10-percent growth in overall exports and 
of this year, that still leaves 95 percent of the imports from 1984 to 1985. 
market unsupphed. “China’s leaders ace always talking about their 

Encouraged by the rhin^y government's new 0116 billion population," said Knichi Ya maura , 
trade polities and blocked by protectionist polities who oversees China trade as the head of Ml it's 
in Europe anrf threats of protectionism in the North Asia bureau. “Now these one bilhon people 
United States, Japanese companies are flocking to ^ iavc the money to buy products." 

China in pursuit or its hn y and historically elu- Market researchers at Hitachi, one of the largest 

sive, market. (Continued on Page 19, CoL 3) 


Compiled by Our Staff From Dispatches 

NEW YORK — The dollar 
plunged and gold soared in Europe 
and New York Tuesday, in what 
dealers called an “over-reaction" 
on foreign-exchange and bullion 
markets to the savings and loan 
crisis in Ohio. The intensified Iran- 
Iraq war was also cited. 

In New York, the dollar plunged 
to 3.235 Deutsche marks, from 
3.314 Monday; weakened to 
$1.1635 to the pound from SI. 1 175, 
and to 9.S8 French francs from 
10.1275. 

The New York Commodity Ex- 
change settled the March contract 
of gold at 5339, up from S 303 JO 
Monday. The Comex said it was 
the heaviest trading day of the year. 
Earlier in Zurich, gold had finishe d 
' at S3 1 8.50, a $20 gain on Monday's 
S298.50. In London, gold closed at 
$316.75, up 517.90. 

"Traders used the bank prob- 
lems in Ohio as an excuse, but the 
spark was sbon-covering by specu- 
lators who follow computer pro- 
grams," said Frederic Bogart, se- 
nior vice president at Republic 
National Bank of New York, of the 
dollar's drop. 

“Everybody was short (had tak- 
en sell positions), there was very 
little for sale and that pushed it up 
'a dollar evetytime somebody cov- 
ered." 

But Martin McNeill, vice presi- 
dent at Dominick & Dominick, 
said the cash market had new buy- 
ers “who saw gold go up and were 
afraid they were missing the bot- 
tom. The Ohio thrift problems also 
brought in some hedge buying." 


Housing Staits Skidded 11% last Month in U.S. 


By Martin Crutsinger 
The Associated Press 

WASHINGTON — U.S. hous- 
ing starts, hurt by a steep drop in 
apartment buOding, fell 11 percent 
in February, the sharpest decline in 
almost a year, the government re- 
ported Tuesday. 

Analysts, however, discounted 
the downturn, saying that the big 
drop in apartment budding foih 
Iowedanyveq sharper increase, ihe 
month brforc. They said this cate^ 
gory was often volatile and predict- 
ed that the housing industry would 
have another good year. 

The Commerce Department said 
construction of new homes 
dropped to a seasonally adjusted 
annual rate of 1.64 million units 


last month, down from a rate of 
1.84 million units in January. 

The decline is the sharpest tinrp 
housing starts fell 23 percent last 
March. However, construction of 
single-family homes rose 53 per- 
cent during the month. 

That gain was offset by a 36.7- 
percent drop in construction of 
apartment developments with five 
or more units. Construction of 
. apartment prqjects with two tofour 
. uniisXell 12.4-peroenC 

Large apartment units had 
shown an increase of 68 perce n t in 
January and analysts said the Feb- 
ruary decline was to be expected. 

Michael Sumidnast, chief econ- 
omist for the National Association 
of Home Builders, said that mort- 
gage rates, which have increased 


slightly in the last four weeks, are 
dampening construction activity. 

He said his survey of builders’ 
expectations of future sales turned 
down riiaiply in March. But he said 
he was expecting housing starts to 
reach 1.6 million units this year, 
down from last year’s 1.75 million, 
but stiB a healthy level 
. Commerce Secretary Malcolm 
Baldrige was more optimistic, pre- 
dicting that housing construtiton 
would -climb to 1.8 unHioa units 
.this year. Mr. Baldrige said that 
housing activity had picked up in 
the last two months, at an annual 
rate 8.9 percent above the level in 
the last quarter of 1984. 

Analysts have noted modest in- 
creases in mortgage rates in recent 
weeks following an announcement 


by the Federal Reserve Board that 
it had halted its efforts to push 
interest rates lower in an effort to 
rekindle economic activity. 

•' Mortgage rates had been declin- 
ing for seven consecutive months, 
hitting a low of 13.47 percent, on 
average, for 30-year, fixed-rate 
loans, in early February before 
they began beading abit higher. 

Tuesday’s report said the biggest 
drop in activity occurred in the. 
Midwest, where housing starts fell 
36.1 percent to an annual rate of 

177.000 units. This was the lowest 
annual rate ance December 1982. 

Housing activity was down 11.1 
percent in the South to a rate of 

740.000 units and off 9 percent in 
the West, to a rate of 456,000 units. 


“h is the first time the dollar has 
■ shown real vulnerability and the 
combination of factors caused gold 
and silver to go crazy,*' Mr. 
McNeill said. 

One economist called die erosion 
of confidence a “misunderstand- 
ing” of the closure of savings and 
loan institutions in Ohio. 

“There is no real problem, the 
Ohio situation is due to a 5 14- mil- 
lion shortage in ihe insurance fund 
to meet the Home State failure and 
we spend that much on one air- 
plane,” said Philip Brave nn an, 
economist at Briggs Scbaedie & Co. 
Nevertheless, people "now feel the 
Federal Reserve is in a box and 
can't tighten even if the economy 
shows strength.” said James 
McGroarty, vice president at Dis- 
count Corp. of New York. 

“The Ohio situation, the trade 
and current account deficits, fail- 
ure to resolve the budget problems 
and weak housing starts taken to- 
gether moke people nervous,” Mr. 
McGroarty said. 

But dealers are not willing to 
predict a continuing dollar decline. 

“We’ve been here before," Mr. 
McGroarty said. If the “flash" esti- 
mate erf the U.S. gross national 
product comes in strong Thursday, 
foreigners could say the dollar is at 
an attractive level to buy, he said. 
The gross national product is a 
measure of the total value of a 
nation's goods and services. 

A currency trader in Frankfurt 
said traders realized that the Ohio 
involved relatively small institu- 
tions, “but the market is more bear- 
ish now and it did remind people 
that the U.S. banking system has 
some weaknesses. It shows that the 
market is finally taking some facts 
from tire negative tide." 

In Tokyo, the dollar fell to 
25930 Japanese yen from 260J5 
yen Monday. In London, the 
pound jumped to $1.1365 from 
$1.1065 Monday. 

The pound's rise came as the 
chancellor of the exchequer, Nigel 
Lawson, announced his conserva- 
tive budget for next year to Parlia- 
ment. But dealers said this did not 
have as much impact on the 
pound’s performance as the Ohio 
S&L crisis, the huge U.S. trade def- 
icit for 1984, reported Monday, 
and the possible effect of the Gulf 
war on oil prices. 

“The pound was strong, but real- 
ly the budget has made little im- 
pact," said a dealer for Chase Man- 
hattan Bank. 

(AP, UPI) 


Lots interbank rates on March 19, excluding feel 
dal feangi for Amsterdam, Brusseh; Frankhfft, Milan, Paris. New York rales at 


Capital Cities Joins U.S. Media Elite 




By Pamela G. Holiic 

New York Times Service 

NEW YORK — Capital Gties 
Communications Inc„ long one erf 
publishing and broadcasting's 
more aggressive acquirers, is mut- 
ing a notable addition to its collec- 
tion of media properties. With its 
proposed takeover of ABC — four 
times its size and many times its 
renown — Capital Gties is joining 
the major leagues. 

It is also a coup for Thomas S. 
Murphy, Capital Gties* unortho- 
dox chairman and for 20 years its 
architect. As the head of a national 
television network, Mr. Murphy 
becomes part of a media elite that 
has numbered such giants as Wil- 
liam S. Paley of CB§, David Sar- 
noff of NBC and ABCs own Leon- 
ard H. Goldenson. ' 

The announcement of the friend- 
ly takeover was not entirely a sur- 
prise. Capital Gties, ever-watchful 
-for opportunities to expand its 
growing empire, was rumored to 
have held talks with American 
Broad casting Cos. last summer. 

“It was no surprise, but it was 
little bit prider than I expected," 
said Fran due Blum, an analyst for 
Wenherin & Co. Capital Gties will 
pay more than S3 J biffion. 

Although analysts say that Capi- 
tal Gties has no formal lines of. 
credit at tire ready, it is believed to 
have an unde manding with lenders 
that wooid enable it to borrow 
about J£L5 billion to acquire ABC 

The acquisition can only be de- 
scribed as a triumph for Capital 
Gties. Despite vast holdings that 
include Fairchild Publications 
(publisher of Women’s Wear Daily 
and other trade papers) and The 
Kansas City Star and The Fort 
Wrath Star-Telegram among other 
newspapers. Capital Gties is large- 
ly unknown to the general public. 

Yet, since its founding in Alba- 
ny, New York, two decades ago, it 
bas become a sprawling publishing 
and broadcast empire. It numbers 
among its holdings seven television 
’Stations, U radio stations, 54 ca- 
ble-television systems, 10 daily 
newspapers, 35 specialty newspa- 
pers and magazines, 25 wedtiy 
newspapers and 10 . shopping 
guides. 

Acquiring ABC would add more 
than 200 amhaied television sta- 
tions and a radio division with al- 
most 1,600 affiliates. ABC owns 
five of its own TV affiliates and 12 
radio stations. 

The nerve center of tins sprawl- 
ing empire is a small corporate of- 
fice in tire landmark VBlmti Houses , 
across from Sl Patrick’s CathedraL 


Divestiture Seen 
After Merger 

Washington Post Service 

WASHINGTON — Federal 
roles that limit media owner- 
ship will require Capital Cities 
Communications Inc. and 
American Broadcasting Cos. to 
divest hundreds of mininns of 
dollars worth of radio, televi- 
sion, cable- television and per- 
haps newspaper properties if 
their merger plan goes through, 
according to communications 
attorneys and industry sources. 

The media holdings of the 
two companies would put the 
merged company, in conflict 
with numerous Federal Com- 
munications Commission 
“multiple ownership" regula- 
tions designed to restrict the 
concentration of media owner- 
ship. 

Mr. Murphy, who likes to contrast 
the Jean style of his company to tire 
bureaucracy of other corporations, 
runs the office with about 30 peo- 
ple. He has no legal department or 
personnel office. 

He said recently in an interview 
that he did not need a huge staff in 
his New York office, adding: “The 
New York office doesn’t make 
money, we just spend money." 

Mr. Muiphy rose quickly at Cap- 1 
its! Gties, a company so named 
because its first two tdevision sta- 
tions were in Albany and in Ra- 
leigh, North Carolina. He joined 
the company in 1954. 

Mr. Morphy, who come from Le- 
ver Brothers, managed Capital Gt- 
ies’ first television station. Ten 



KteifMAVMU* 

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New 'fork 10021 

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totemnticnl Wx 620692 
teM w te 2t2-M4-1COO 

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years later, he became the compa- 
ny’s president He was made chair- 
man m 1966. 

Mr. Murphy’s corporate philoso- 
phy is simple: He believes in decen- 
tralized management and a rigor- 
ous budgeting process. Ana it 
works. Tne company squeezes 
higher profits from its operations 
thin the industry average. 

Last year, the company earned 
$1417 million, or $10.40 a share, 
on revenues of $939.7 million. 
Standard & Poor’s had estimated 
1985 earnings, before the ABC ac- 
quisition, at about $11.90 a share. 
The company depends on its 
broadcasting for more than half its 
income and about 29 percent of 
revenues. Publishing accounts for 
45 percent of income and 63 per- 
cent of sales. Cable television 
makes up the rest. 

The company pays a very low 
dividend, 20 cents a share annually. 
But. its consistently high earnings 
have kept its stock price high. Stoat 
purchased in 1974 at about $18 a 
share, after adjusting for a stock 
split, finished Tuesday at $202.75 
on the New York Stoat Exchange, 
op $1925 from Monday. 

- ABC stock rose $1,125 to $107. 

A key role in the ABC deal was 
(Continued on Page 19, CoL 3) 


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PERFORMANCE 
RESULTS FOR 
COMPTRENDU 

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OF $100,000 
ON JANUARY 1 • 

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yielded tt>e following 
after ail charges: 

N 1980*. 4-165% 

IN 1981: +137% 

IN 1982: +32% 

IN 1983.-24% 

IN 1984: -34% 

a d 

MARCH. 14 1985 
EQUITY 
STOOD AT 
U-S. $106X173.10 
More than 550,000000.00 
currently under mana g ement 

Cafl or write RQualtFraztor at 
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OPPENHEIMER 
OFFERS YOUR IRA AN 
ALTERNATIVE 
TO GUARANTEED 
LOW RATES. 


F or IRA investors seeking the 
assurance of a fixed rate, we 
suggest a bank?. 

For those investors more 
concerned with how high the 
rate of return is, than with how 
fixed, we suggest another route. 
TheOppenheimer Special Fund. 

Because over its life, the 
Special Fund has the best perfor- 
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return of 940%** 


So if you had been able to 
put $2,000a year into a Special 
Fund IRA since the Fund’s 
inception, your IRA would have 
been worth $104,570*** as of 
December 31, 1984: That’s an 
average annual return of 21.5%. 

The Special Fund provides 
an IRA investment based on the 
philosophy that the 
opportunity for a 
higher return is pref- 
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ty of a lower one. 


{~To M.Tuckev Smith 30/3/85 

I Oppenheimer & Cu 62-64 Canm m St. Li indi in EC4N 6 A£ England I 

I Telephone 01-2366578 | 

I Plcaie send me an IRA application and a Special Fund prosp^crus u’ith more complete informs- j 

I aoa, including all charges and expenses, nirtid it aretullv before I Invest or send money i 

j DIU like to open an IRA. □ I'd like toiwicchniy IRA. J 


| THE OPPENHEIMER SPECIAL FUND 


© 1985 OppeabelBKr lavenur Services, Inc . ‘Rank IR As are insured and generally have lived interest 
rates, whereas the Funds net asset value fluctuates and may be subieci to low. ••March 15. 1973-Dccemher 
31, 198ilipper Analytical Services, Inc. ***Assunfcnji a SZiXX) investment on March 15. 1*573 (meepri on 
of fund) and 5L00O annual investments on first business day of each year thereafter with ail dividends and 
distributions rein vested. PsH performance is nor an indication of future results. In the period shown. 

, suck prices fluctuated sewerdv and were generally higher at rhe end than ai the beginning 


««*• **• • .w* 

9 -mm rfP » - , 










INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, MARCH 


Closing 


Tables include the nation wide prices 
up to me dosing on wall Street 
ond do not reflect late trades elsawtwre. 


IJtMpnth SH- atm 

HJeft low stack Dw.yu.pe wotHi&um stoat 



5*0 10.9 
*4 U 
230 1*3 
PNIEpf 130 12.9 
PMIEpf *30 TV 
7JJ0 U7 
075 1*3 
Ml 11 * 
*33 1*0 
1J3 13* 
735 1*3 
178 *X5 
7.12 MS 
930 143 
7 JO U9 
132 73 
430 43 
A 23 
IM 20 
230 53 


430 

30 U 12 397 

» U 1 3 

31# 27 Id 15 
3 US IS 
U» IB 22 1331 
3 J I 173 
JO 43 » 

*0 13 45 
M2 105 6 
Pi 1150 IV 
iol 2*0 123 
Ipf 4J0 135 
Spf *32 IV 
di 150 4* 12 
lEI 214 U 8 
3 Pf 4*1 113 

M 13 li 
200 5*^ 

22 

240 ** 12 
32 25 23 

1*0 u » 

152 U B 
lJSO IV 7 
pi 1J4 144 
Pi 150 144 
Pt 052 1*3 
Pf B3B 14u4 
IH 1 

IP! 

SSc 

M* 238 113 B 
w 272 104 7 
Pf 1*0 11* 
pf 45B 12* 

Pt 430 123 
Pf 217 125 
Pt 2*3 123 
pf 7JV VJ 
of 7 JO 12* 

P f 752 125 
Pf 9*2 124 


438% 28% QuakOS 134 28 13 019x 44 42 ObilB 

9o nmauaopf 954 ioj noyti 91 91 

tF& 15 QuakSO JO V 27 1133 Zllh 21 2184 + % 

11% 6% Quws IS M H IM M 

3«4 23 Ouotar 1*0 43 9 414 32% 32% 32V— 14 

2SW M Ok Rail 34a 15 19 234 23% 221% 23% + % 


Season Season 
High Law 


Futures Man* 19 


Upon High Law Ckae Cha. 


Open Klah Law Ohm Om. 


Sum Season 
High Low 




2337 1945 Dec 2BB 2125 

2145 1955 Mar 2075 2123 

Z130 1940 May 

2035 1960 Jul 

EsL Sates Prev. Sates 41B2 

Prev. Day Open InL 24594 up 246 
ORANGE JUICE fHYCE) 

15500 lbs.- cent s perlh. 

15500 15150 May 16530 JA570 

18455 15550 Jul 14*35 14435 

1(250 15733 Sap 14450 14430 

UTLSQ 15750 NOW 

1ZSUM 15450 Jon 14230 14330 

14250 14000 MOV 

Jill 

EsL Sates 400 Prav.Sates 444 

Prav. Oav Open InL 4377 up si 


COPPER (COMEXI 
25500 Bx^cants par Hl 
9330 5530 Mor 4030 4250 

42*0 4235 Apr 

M S47© May 4150 4273 

3855 5750 Jul ffiUffi 433S 

02.10 57 JO Sap 4265 4330 

8*23 5BJ0 Dac 4230 44*0 

59*0 Jan 

80*0 5950 Mar 4*30 4550 

7*00 41.10 May &S.9S 4*95 

7441 l 61 JO Jul 4550 6250 

7090 82J0 SOP 

7030 6*00 Dec 4430 4470 

6550 45J6 Jan 

Est.salas U300 Prev. Sates 7324 
Prov. Day Opan Hit 81732 upsiB 


2072 2121 
2095 2123 

ZT23 
2123 


16*30 14*30 
16550 145J5 
16550 16535 
143.30 
14235 14235 
14435 
14*35 


4130 +135 
4215 +130 
4250 +130 
4220 +I3f 
4350 +170 
4*25 +L70 
4*55 +155 
4550 +135 
4530 +1*5 
4450 +1*0 
4435 +1*0 
6735 +1*0 
4755 +1*0 


BRITISH POUND (IMM) 

Spar pound- 1 point aquots 505801 
1J3S0 1JQ35 Jun 1.1305 1.1490 1.1210 1.1470 

1*450 15200 Sap L1315 VMM V11S5 1.1475 

HE™ 15200 Dac L1280 1.1445 1.1210 1.1445 

1*875 1*68® Mar 1.1470 

Est. Sates 20339 Prav. Sates 1*514 
Prsv.Day Ooan InL 28J14 up1*45 


CANADIAN DOLLAR (I MM) 

Spar dir- 1 pobilaouala 105001 
535E Jim Mar 

7835 7054 Jun 7226 7255 

7585 .7025 San 7200 7252 

JS&i. 7006 Dac 7205 7252 

7504 5981 Mar 728® 7233 

Est. sates *301 Pr#y. Sates 2776 
Prav. Dor Opan inf. 12514 up 110 
FRENCH FRANC (IMM) 

Spar franc- 1 paint aqua Is S030001 . 
.11020 59410 Jun 59850 5(990 

.10430 -09610 Sep 59900 59900 

4®<D0 -0967?! Dac 

EsL Sates 134 Prav.Sataa 41 
Prav. Day Opan InL 2472 w>1 
GERMAN MARK (IMM) 
s nor mark- laatntaauotsSUMOl 
J733 iflos jun J073 JltS 

J545 7930 Sep 5090 JWl 

J610 7971 Dec J135 7170 

7251 JJM* Mar 

Est. Salas 39577 Prev. Sates 32509 
Prav. Day Open I nt. 53564 up22S9 





Industrials 






PALLADIUM (NY MR) 

100 troy as- dollars pot ai 
14330 10550 Mar 11330 11350 

Apr 

159 50 106J0 Jun 11*50 11870 

14930 10425 San 11275 117J35 

141 JO 10550 Dac 11230 11670 

12730 10450 Mar 11250 11430 

EsL Sates 1701 Prav. Sates 588 

Prav. Day Opan I nt. 6*78 up 22 


11330 11&J0 -9450 
11475 

11250 11170 4*30 
11250 11755 -M50 
11205 11470 -HUB 
112-50 11550 +450 


Livestock 


CATTLE (CME1 
4H0O0 ItfiL- cents par Bj. 

69JW 4L5S Apr 4170 4272 

4950 4*40 Jun 64J0 4537 

4757 4215 Aug 4*30 65*7 

45.90 4150 Oct 4275 41*5 

4735 4350 Dac 6*10 64JD 

47*5 4475 Fat. 6*52 4475 

47J7 66-00 Apr 

Est. Solas 1*784 Prav. Sates 18*14 
Prav. Day Opan Ini. 42742 upfM 

FEEDER CATTLE CCME) 

8*000 lbs.- cants par in. 

7*75 4575 Mar 47*5 4750 

7*20 6675 Aar 4470 67JB 

7275 4*95 May 6750 48*7 

7370 4*40 Aug 4970 IB M 

,7230 4730 5ap 4850 6955 

7272 67.10 OCt 48*0 6975 

73JM 4935 Nov 4975 4970 

Est. Solos 1*25 Prav. Sales 1321 
Prav. Day Open lot 10744 oft 247 
HOGS (CMC) 

30300 R»^ cants PM- lb. 

5*45 4*35 APT 4575 4575 

55*0 48*0 Jun 5070 5035 

5577 48.95 Jul 51J5 5275 

5*37 4750 Aug 5175 5152 

51.75 45*0 OCt 4770 47J5 

SUES 4*3) CMC 4035 4SJ5 

4970 4475 Fab 4B75 40*5 

4775 4550 Apr 4475 4625 

4830 *730 Jun 47-80 4737 

Est- Sales 7,18* Prev. Sates 4740 
Prav. Dav Often ML 2433 * 00747 

PORK BELLIES ICME) 

3*000 Lbs.- cents oer [fa. 

81-20 60.10 Mr 7235 7330 

0230 61.15 May 7330 7430 

02*7 42.15 Jul 7250 7350 

8065 6070 Aug 70*0 7170 

75.15 4115 Feb TUB 7170 

73*0 6*00 MOT 

70-40 70*0 May 

7090 7090 Jul 

€$t. Sates 5338 Prav. Salas *422 
Prav. Dav Doan tnt. 12340 up SI 




COTTON 2 (NYCE3 
50*00 lbs.- cents per lb. 

7970 6126 May 4425 6756 46J0 

7935 6235 Jul 4630 4475 4535 

77-50 4*42 OCt 65*8 4530 65J0 

7330 4*41 Dec 45 l59 453* 4SJ5 

7475 4590 Mar 4430 6*40 64*0 

HUB 44*1 May 

7035 6450 Jul 4775 4775 4750 

Ess. Sales 7500 Prav. Sates 3312 
Prav. Day Open Hit. u*42 up 252 



18M 

614 RBInd 

.16 U 


43 

81% 

88% 

■%+ V, 

1 31 ' 

411% 

2914 RCA 

1*4 2* 

13 12611 

421% 

40)% 

42 +18% 

22 

35 

29 RCApf 

330 104 


MS* 33 

33 

31 —1 

3S 

94to 

71 RCApf 

4*0 42 


5 

951% 

M 

95% +3% 


3184 

35* 

2484 RCApf 
2984 RCApf 

X12 43 
3*5 1Q7 


757 

2058 

301% 

3484 

30U 

33% 

3884+ % 
34% — % 


9* 

484 

*16 RLC 

3 RPCn 

70 24 

9 

289 

249 

78% 

414 

7V% 

4% 

78%+ (4 
4%+ % 

18 

11V, 

12W RTE 

4* Rmflca 

34 X4 

10 

8 

34 

44 

168% 

10* 

16% J484 — )% 
10% 1014 + % 


421% 

25 RalsPur 

LOO 24 

U 

3930 

4184 408% 4184+ * 



Open High Law Oasa Chg. 


47*4 +1JB 
44*5 +1*1 
6SJ5 +*5 
6555 +77 

4653 +25 

44.93 +22 

47 JO +33 


8 494 3314 
827 9 Hi 

33 ^5 

4 33 3 £S 

101 7V. 

12 1744 33 
U 49 111b 

13 74 2(F6 

IS 10% 

19 1745 4284 
1100* 72% 
73% 


32+1% 
91* + % 

’a;* 

7te 

33 +11% 
1184 — V% 
sjm+ h 
10 % 

42 +1 

71 —11% 

731%— 1% 


1984 1913 

6193 5643 


Tear HM 1912 

Revenue 73a 43 70. 

Profit 1470 1110 

Par Share 1325 L9S 

Company is charwing Its 
noma to Naha/ Industries ef- 
fective Anarch IP. 

UnitodStates 
Ccator Hawiey 

4th Dear. 1915 1984 

Revenue 1J50. 1 JpCL 

Net Inc. 32J7 50-95 

Par Share 133 1*4 


2nd Quar. 

Revenue — *013 .-7, . 

Oner Not — 57-,.-. 

OporShora_ 0*1 ■> 

t*» NMf ms.-r 

Ravenua 831.1 

Oner Net — »» -• 

Opar Share— 872 

INI nets exclude cn 
S22 million In wortar 
XL! million In halt In . 
continued agandiom. 

FmL DuptSttr 

«h Door. 1985 /- 

Revenue UA 

Nat Inc 201 J • 

Par Share— *1* 

Tear if**:' 

Revenue 9*70. 

Nat Inc 329 J 7Ll- 

Per Shore — 477.1- 

Nets tndoda gain c„- 
airman Hum safe of as-. ■ 
toss at 512 mttltan mn'-~ 
datton at dMston. 

Uvi-Sfraut'- 

lit Quar. HBI 

Revenue 5U7 — 

Net inc 1158 

Par Share— 077 
Net includes charts '. , 4 
million. 

SuparmarkC + 
flkQuar. ltd • 
Revenue — L UR . ‘ 

Net Inc 

Par Shore— IJ* 


London Commodities 

March 19 


Asian Commodities 

March 19 


Financial 



Bii 


Stock Indexes 


Mar 2340 ZJ30 234* 2360 +38 

May 2355 2315 2335 2337 +4* 

Jly N.T. N.T. 2775 — +25 

Sen 2795 2785 2780 sjkk +» 

DOC 2715 2215 2,181 2700 + 21 

Mar N.T. NT. iTTO — +30 

Mav N.T. N.T. 2,145 — + 35 

Eft wL: 3*0 tots of TO ions. Prow, actual 
sales: 87 tots. Opan Interest: 973 

COFFEE 

French times per 180 kg 




COFFEE C(NYCaCE) 

VdOOIbk- cents pot ib. 

15370 12150 Mor 1<L50 143JQ 

15230 12231 MOV 145.18 1*5*S 

1*970 12130 Jul 144JD 1*575 

1*7 JO 12730 SOP 14*00 M*JM 

1*125 12975 Dec M3JD WL10 

1*230 12850 Mor 14270 14270 

1*030 13130 May 

13975 13550 Jul 

Est. Sates 2*00 Prav.Sates 1734 
Prev. Dav Open Inf. 11*74 off 2 
SUOARWORLD 11 (NYCSCR) 

112300 lbs.* cants Perth. 

1050 332 May *00 *10 

935 *01 JUl *22 *79 

975 *32 5ap *39 **3 

935 **0 Oet *55 *40 

• 775 *87 Jen 534 537 

933 532 Mar SJ0 55* 

7.15 558 MOV STS SJ« 

*69 533 Jul 597 433 

Est.Sates 9775 Prav.Sates **27 
Prev. DovOoen InL 78,170 off«H 
COCOA (NYCSCEl 
10 metric Ians- soar tan 

2570 T995 May 2298 2398 

2400 1998 Jul 2150 2209 

2*15 1987 Sep 2122 2183 


14200 14235 
1*3.15 1*371 
1*335 14375 
14275 142*4 
141*0 1*130 
1*270 140J8 
19974 
13878 


195 *07 

*14 *24 

*3* *43 

*51 *57 

534 US 
5*4 558 

547 572 

MO SJ4 


2290 . 2394 
2148 2209 

2122 2182 


ESL Sates 

Prev. Day Opan Int721 
GNMA (CRT) 

8180300 prln- pta &XMsof 100 pet 

70-17 575 MOT 4M 4*17 

69-27 57-17 Jun 6M 48-15 

49-4 59-13 SOP 47-16 47-18 

48-13 59+ DOC 

48 59-20 . Mar 

47-8 S8-2S Jun 

47-3 65-11 SOD 650 454 

Est. Sates Prev.tates 14* 

Prav. Doy Opan int. *89* airs 

CERT. DEPOSIT (MtM) 

SI million- pH d 100 pc* 

9170 85*1 Mar 9U9 9090 

9130 8530 Jun - 8973 0975 

90*0 8530 Sap 89.12 89.12 

9017 853* Dec 88*4 88*8 

0978 I45i MF BE U 

89*4 84*3 Jun 8015 1015 

H*B 8736 SOP ,8775 B7.95 
Est.Sates 453 Prtv^alas 942 
Prav. Dav Open ML 7344 OH 437 

EURODOLLARS (IMM) 

si miiltonmtsatlOOpct. 

9088 12*9 Jun HUB 8935 

9033 8*51 SOP 8044 8870 

nr 8*80 Dec 8027 8030 

89*8 86,10 MV 8832 8832 

S9.15 8473 Jun 8775 8779 

8834 8738 Sop 8732 8739 

8937 8738 Dae 87*0 87*2 

Est. Sales Prev. 3a Ira 42357 

Prev. Day 0P0fllM.il 8,148 up 821 


78-13 7843 +7 

77-11 77-04 +8 

76-28 76-31 +8 

7+9 +0 

7522 +8 

75 +2 


483 48-27 

67-9 47-29 

44-16 67-3 
6527 4512 
6513 6524 
4528 457 
44-13 6525 
451 6513 

64-2 
63-34 
43-4 6514 


SP COMP. INDEX (CM8) 
points and cents 

189.10 -156.10 Jun 18070 18435 

19270 14000 Sep 18X90 18730 

194*0 17370 Dec 10738 19080 

10135 190.10 Mar 

Eat. Sates 7l.i» prev. So tee 58342 
Prav. Dcrv Open ML 52339 Off 26.126 
VALUE LINE (KCRTI 
Mnts and cents 

20*30 14010 Mar 19130 195.10 

*19*® «53U» Jun 19040 20130 

2T2J0 1*573 San 200*0 20*30 

S1D30 20930 Dec 

Est. Salts Prav.Sates 5366 

Prav. Day Open ML 7*34 off 10 

HYM COMP. INDEX (HYPE) 
points and cents 

110.00 9030 Jun 10430 107.10 

nuo 71 J5 Sen 1D6J0 109.15 

11175 10130 Dae 10930 11030 

Est Sales I9J8S Prav.Sates 14.198 
Prev. Dav Opoh Int. 933* off 44* 


18110 18330 
18140 187 JO 
107JD 190*5 
19435 


WU0 19930 
19570 20030 
200*0 20*40 
20070 


10*55 W63S 
10470 108-95 
10075 11135 



49* 40*9 

48* 6510 

47-11 47-14 
6526 


9034 9035 
nM 
■933 89.11 
80*4 80*9 
8830 88*0 
8*15 1*17 
1739 07 39 


1935 89J4 
88*1 0*70 
■023 1*30 

8735 8*01 
8775 8779 
0732 8739 
8730 87*1 


Commodity indexes 


Close 

Moody's 95100 f 

Rout era na 

DJ. Futures — 12*05 

Com- Rnteorch Bureau- 24520 

Moody's : base 100 : Dec. 31,193). 
p - preliminary; f - final 
Reuters : base 100 : Sep. 10, 1931. 
Dow Jones : base 100 : Dec 31, 1974. 


Market Guide 


Previous 
947 JO f 
2J13J00 
121.18 
240*0 


EBi g a E i 




London Metals 

March 19 


pose . _ previous 

Bid Ask BU asR 

ALUMINUM 
Werilno par matrle ton 
soot 944® W30 98130 98230 

forward 99430 99730 1*1430 131659 

COPPER CATHODES (HM Srade) 

Start Mg pot mtgjefon 

■tel 172*50 l^flJQ 173) JO 173*50 

fonrard 134950 175030 173930 175930 

COPPER CATHODES (SfaManO 

Starting per matrtc tM 

snot 1735JM 17273Q 174230 174230 

forward 175330 175530 172*30 174*00 

LEAD 

5ierHng per metric fod 
spat 30130 3U3Q 30530 30530 

torwerd 312-50 31330 31500 31400 

NICKEL 

Slaffiog nor metrietan 

attef *59000 *48530 *49530 

forward *59530 43973Q *20030 *70530 
SILVER 

Peace per fray ounce 

spot 54730 54830 8600 53730 

forward 54530 54630 54*00 54530 

TIN (S tan da r d) 

Sterling par metric toa 

SPOt 9390 9391 10340 1*018 

forward KLQOQ HUBS 1*070 10375 

ZINC 

SterHag par metric tow 
SPOt 79935 79130 81230 81530 

forward 74830 74930 78530 78600 

Soares: Ap. 


_.Oo*e . Previous 

sugar"** *■» W® ** »to ASH 
Start tea par metric tan 
May 11430 11230 115*0 115*0 11230 11270 
Aua . J20JW 11*00 12040 12030 117J0 11740 
Oct 12430 mao 12570 125*0 122*0 12230 
dec 13238 13030 131 A0 13230 12*80 12930 
Mar 14030 W140 U5A0 145*0 14030 14320 
May 150*0 148*0 150*0 150*0 1*830 148*0 
AOO 15730 15430 155*0 15630 15430 15530 
Volume: 2742 kds of 50 taro. 

COCOA 

Sterling per metric tan 

My JJSS JS51 2396 ziaa lobs 239a 

May Z)|p 2077 2U7 ZUS ZOOO 7J3KL 

Jly 2384 2347 2384 2385 2355 ZS5& 

Sap 2358 23» 2352 2335 2339 2340 

DOC LOT 1 ,9» 1,951 1352 1370 1.973 

Mar 1J« Lfo3 1343 1346 1360 1363 

May 1.950 1335 1335 13*0 1342 1363 

Volume: 7*26 lots of 10 taro 
COFFEE 

Start lag par metric ton 
Mor 2345 2295 2 390 2295 2X0 »t*» 

May 2395 JB* 2733 2J34 W 2400 

Jly zm Wl 2753 2756 2*33 2*34 

5re 2*61 JW 2790 2795 2*70 2*72 

Nov 2795 2*70 2*00 3*02 2*48 2*73 

Jan 2*21 27U 2740 2745 2*23 *425 

Mur 27 9 2750 2725 2740 2790 2*00 

Votuma: 5384-lots of 5 tons. 

GASOIL 

UJL dollars pwr metric tan 
Mar 23730 US 23530 23430 23t» 23*75 
API 2»J5 mm ZttSM 21675 22753 32775 1 
MOT 2277$ 22475 224J0 22475 224M 'M 
JOS 22SJN HITS 32225 22230 22-UJO 22475 
Jly 22530 22275 22275 272 NO 22100 22730 
An 32C/5 22X00 22030 22*00 224*0 227*0 
Son 22575 225*0 224*0 227*0 22100 230*0 ; 
OCt N.T. ILT. 221*0 230*0 225*0 234*0 


u 




Commodity and UbK 
OXtoat Santos, lb 

Iran 2 Fdry. puna, ton _ 

sa^3 a ^ >ihvypm - 

COppar efecLib 

TM (Strolls), Ifa 

sr. l. Bosia, m _ 

Panodlum.tt 

SI tear (4Y. oz 

Source: AP. 


Mar £7/ -Mj 23530 234*0 73450 23*75 

API 22975 D5L9 g*(» 21*25 227^ 77775 
MOT .7775 22475 22450 22475 226*31 'M 
JOS 225*0 HITS 22X25 22230 22100 22475 
Jly 225*0 22725 222TS Ynn 224*0 227*0 
Aug 22475 223*0 22030 228*0 224*0 227*0 
San 225-25 225*0 22400 227*0 22100 230*0 
OCt N.T. N.T. 221*0 210*0 225 no 234*0 

Nov N.T. N.T. 221*0 238*0 W*iw 237*0 

Volume: 1367 fois of 100 tons. 

■duress: Routers and Lawton Petmoum Ex- 
change toasoH). 




volume: 9f tots of 100 oz. 
KUALA LUMPUR RUBBER 
Motanloa cents par kilo 

dose 

■Id Ask 

API 189 JO 190*0 

May 19330 194*0 

Jun 19525 19625 

JFV 197 JO 19830 

Aug . . ...... 30130 2823® 

SOP- 7G4JM JOSJOO 

Voluma: i9lafs. 
SINGAPORE RUBBER 
SlnpBaare eoafs per Mia 
Close 

Bid Ask 
RSS1AM-. 14425 14475 

RSSlMOVw 16875 14875 

R$$ 2 ApJ_ 14325 14475 
RSS3API— 16175 14275 

RSS4 Apl_ 15S75 15775 

RSS5 Apl— 15075 15375 
KUALA LUMPUR PALM OIL 

MotavstaB ringgits par 21 tons 


Pray fees 

Bid Ask 

1*775 IB775 

191*0 191JD 
19X00 19400 

19530 19650 

195*0 mss 
20230 2033Q 


BIO Ask 

NA NA 




S&P 100 Index Options 

March 19 


I 


1360 1*10 - - 

1-250 ITOO - - 


StrBn Cafl+UE 
Price Ml Mnr Jsm Jtr 
IB---- 

155 — — — — 

ut 11 nw - 21 

145 Wh UK li IM 
110 N IN IH U 

17J 5 6H « 9ft 

v » n » K 

ib a m » « 

n u> % n w 

IN 1/14 Ik 1 - 


POb-Lmi 

AN Hoy Jam Jly 

1/14 — — _ 

1/14 mi - - 

1/11 Vi 14 H 

1/1» * 11/14 15/16 

ta U* 4 j 
1* » 2* M 
M A R H 
H H ItVi - 
— MH 15U — 
■“-*»- 


Vglu me: 0 tats of 25 taro 

Source: Reuters. 


Dividends March 


Company Par And Par. 

INCREASED 

Bell Atlantic ‘ Q *1J» K 

chicotp a J6Vi v 

First Voitov Carp a 25 t-th 

STOCK 

Arnwl Inc . SO* 4-X! 

STOCK SPLIT 

FHth Third Bancorp Holders Xfor-3 ■, 
USUAL - i 

S *s +rc 

.15 +1- 

a 77 Vi rt 

Q M +1 
O 75 +1 

Q 771% * 

0 43 

Q *4 5-V 
O 78 S- 

a *4 s* 
a at 4J 
Q ■« % 

Q 70 47 

a os +r 1 

A-Anaual; M Mo n t hl y, Q-QaartertVS S ' 
AOfHteL 


U.S* Treawnry Bui Bal 

March 19 





Tout tot laktete l»*u 
Tew not am NL271267 
Il lrffT* 

HfoSITUO IWT7U7 OKalHJQ+Ui 

Source: CaOC. 


PKSONAUTleS PIUS 
MARY BUIME 

IN THE WfflKBND SECTION 
OF FRIDAYS IHT 


DM Futures Options 

March 19 

K Gannan Mat-Bin naria. mdt per mart 


anwe am-sette Putt-Settle 

S’" is is tr is Ss 5 

B tTO XM — ass 8*2 - 

31 1.10 149 200 UE 1*0 — 

8 2-2 I" LS4 175 - 

B 045 1*7 MO JJ) JM — 

31 074 aU — IS - - 

EsHmoted total raL 148a 
es«*r Man. WL5«4p4a for. 42(5 
Pats: Mon. yoLDgpaa tel. 1U3 
Source: CME. 




SYDNEY — Watpac My 
Carp, said Tuesday it would V ‘ 
Australian prime len^ng ratf J- 
percent, from I5i percent, ■ 
rive March 25. 


iy 
















































































































lENfe-ve*. !s*v -, i 

Tf 

a? w* . 


fSINESS ROUNDUP 


CVTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, MARCH 20, 1985 


COMPANY NOTES 


Page 19 


»•***• *v 

& 

r* 15 s ■**. * . 


a; frl? • 

Si v *?; 

I-. te ft' 

A 3»-v w 

%» if*- -. -„ 

fe -h S , .7 

f* s- * 
.n, ; 

j;,; 

k **n ■-•*. - - 

X ts -r - - : 
IVv; ■: 


% ^ “2 * •' 

S r-. : -; 


flfc "*** *•- 
p 52 j? ■ -* 

I* fete 

!f te“» W*| , 

t *' • ’4 - -»4 

pS-s 

t ’=?:■= 

n t** «« . 2 

pSSj-, 

If jj* Ip :-4 

i?!R 

NF:: 


Wc Stake in SHK Bank 


, • . jj Reuters refugee after the Communist take- 

•' ' •< 'jiRAIN — Arab Banking over of China in 1949, built a huge 
,J v wbidv already has extensive empire in the colony s boom of the 
• \ > 1 - hsts ip Europe, said [Tuesday it 1960s and 1970s, but ran into prob- 
t ■ ! •. [acquire a controlling 75-per- lems as property values there 
iv ; interest in Hong Kong's Sun slumped in recent years. 


*!» Kai Bank in a transaction 
c id at 360 million Hong Kong 
; ,’tf ($46 million.) 

1 j-ab Banking’s president and 
iJ: executive, Abdulla Saudi, said 
■ ; :cqundtion was part of ABCs 
Vi to diversify its assets and E- 
; les into areas of the world 
,■ • it did not already have a 

presence. 

• st year, ABC acquired a 70- 
‘ ; 4 it stake in Spam's Banco At- 
;f»; it also holds 93.5-percesU 
i s in subsidiaries based in 
e vkfuxt and Monaco. Arab 
- ■ iing is jointly owned by the 
i inmeais of Kuwait, Libya and 
! ‘Dhabi. 

;i n Hung Kai Bank is part of the 
1 r . !dal and property.enqnre built 
. i \ scratch by a Hong Kong ea- 
; tneor, Fung King Hey. Mr. 
, who came to Hong Kong as a 


lems as property values there 
slumped in recent years. 

William Arthur, Sun Hung's 
chief executive, said the sale to 
ABC is part of the company’s over- 
all plan to reorganize and concen- 
trate in merchant banking, securi- 
ties brokerage, China trade and 
financial services. SHK sold its 20- 
percent stake in HK-TVB Ltd. for 
some 480 million dollars earlier this 
month. 

SHK will suffer an extraordinary 
loss of 186 nrilti nn dollar s from the 

.bank sale, but it mil be offset by an 
extraordinary gain of 230 zmuion 
dollars from the HK-TVB deal, 
Mr. Arthur said. 

Analysts said SHK’s cash flow 
stands to improve substantially as a 
result of the net gain 


IBMin Accord • 
On Rolm Unit 

The Associated Pros 

NEW YORK — Internation- 
al Business Machines Corp. 
said it has a conditional agree- 
ment to sell the military -com- 
puter business of its Rolm 
Corp. unit to a group of the 
unit's employees. The Justice 
Department cleared IBM’s 
SI-26-biHion takeover of Rolm 
on the condition that it divest 
the unit, called Mil-Spec. 

“We have a conditional 
agreement that says if we don't 
receive a bid for Mil-Spec in 
excess of $97 million that our 
preference is to sell to the em- 
ployees.” an IBM spokesman, 
Peter Kuhn, said. 

The spokesman said Data 
Genera] Corp. and other un- 
identified parties also have ex- 
pressed interest in Mil-Spec. 
Die government gave IBM until 
May 19 to divest itself of the 
subsidiary. 


Arco Moves to Construct \BL Reports Loss 
Anti-Takeover Defense Inl984 Swelled 


By Nancy Yoshihara 

Los Angeles Times Service 

LOS ANGELES — Atlantic 
Richfield Co. is asking sharehold- 
ers to approve proposals to block 
unwelcome takeover attempts and 
to change the company's state of 
incorporation to Delaware from 
Pennsylvania. 


statement mailed mierested in 


In a proxy statement mailed 
Monday notifying shareholders of 
an annua] meeting scheduled for 
May 7, Arco said its board has 
unanimously recommended that 
the proposals be approved. 

One measure is designed to pro- 

a “ — 11 A 


years. Such approvaL however, 
would not be required if Arco 
bought such stock at or below fair 
market value or as part or a compa- 
ny tender offer or exchange offer. 

Generally, the change is de- 
signed to deter a proxy contest or 
removal of the incumbent board 
and is intended to encourage those 


interested tn acquiring the compa- 
ny to negotiate with the company. 

The ran corporation to Delaware 
would: 

• Eliminate cumulative voting 
for holders of common stock in the 
election of directors. Cumulative 


tect Arco from “green mailers — voting, under which a shareholder’s 
individnhls who quietly accumulate votes are multiplied by the number 
a substantial stock in teres L as a of directors to be elected, male** it 
prelude to a takeover, restructuring easier to secure a board seal. 


or sale of all or part of a company. 

Typically, the stock buyer is not 
interested m actually acquiring the 


• Eliminate the right of share- 
holders to call a special stockhold- 
ers meeting and propose amend- 


German firms’ Return Abroad Is 2% 


The Associated Pros 

FRANKFURT — West Ger- 


may oblige companies to do this 
The Bundesbank said West Ger- 


SFSL to *» ? ' » ments to the ceTriTfcare of 
force management to repurchase incorporate 
the stock at a substantial premium £T . 
over tnaiV^ value. * Euxmnate action by sharebold- 

The proposal would require the without a meeting. 


To $80.6 Million 

Reiners 

LONDON — BL PLC Brit- 
ain’s state-controlled automak- 
er, said Tuesday that its pretax 
lass for 1984 widened to £73.3 
million (about 580.6 million) 
from £67.1 million in 1983. The 
company said the worsening re- 
sults reflected highly competi- 
tive conditions in virtually all 
its markets and labor disputes 
at the Austin Rover car divi- 
sion. 

The company said It had a 
1984 group operating loss of 
£1 1.7 million, compared with a 
£4. 1 -million operating profit in 
1983. 

Excluding the contribution 
from Jaguar PLC. the former 
luxury-car unit that was recent- 
ly sold, the 1984 operating Joss 
would have been £64 motion. 
That is compared with an oper- 
ating loss of £51 million in 
1983, excluding Jaguar opera- 
tions, BLsaid. 


BarraM Developments PLC said nousced venture with Canon Inc., 
first-half pretax profit plunged to mil be commercially available in 
£4,07 million (about $4.47 million) the second quarter, 
from £19.06 million a year earlier Read-Van Cup* which has a 
despite a 5 percent rise In sales to merger agreement pending with 
£27180 million from £25937 mil- Castle & Cooke Inc. said it has 
lion. The company said a decline in secured a $260-xmllioa loon com- 
British bousing 'activity, which raitment to pay off the agricultural 


started last July, appears to have company's debts. The .company 


been arrested. 

Beatrice Cos. said it has formed 
a joint venture with a Chinese cor- 

¥ oration, China International 
rust & Investment Corp* to de- 
velop consumer goods for domestic 
use in China and to find export 
markets for Chinese products. 

S&W Berisford PLC said pretax 
profit in the fiscal year ended Sept. 
30 rose about 42 percent to £803 
million, from £55.6 million the pre- 
vious year, as volume increased 32 
percent to £5.7 billion, from £43 
billion. The company said it ex- 
pects lower earnings in fiscal 1985. 

Boeing Co. told shareholders 
that pressure to reduce the U-S. 


said the commitment, from First 
National Bank of Boston and Mor- 
gan Guaranty Trust Co„ is condi- 
tional on completion of the merger. 

Marathon Oil UK. Ltd. said a 
lest of an appraisal well in the East 
Brae area w the North Sea pro- 
duced a cumulative flow rate of 
12,800 barrels a day of liquid hy- 
drocarbons. 

National Can Corp. was notified 
that Carl C. Icahn, the New York 
financier, has acquired a 9, l -per- 
cent stake in the company. In a 
filing with the Securities and Ex- 
change Commission, Mr. Icahn 
said he holds 870,600 National Can 


budget d^di in IKS corid affect 
some of its miliiajy programs but ofTer for more, 

that overall government business Norsk Hyiio AS said it discov- 
cominues to grow. Boeing said it' ere d oil in the Tromsoflaket region 
expects to deliver 204 jetliners this off Northern Norway, the second 
■“ ~~ * ■’ e company 


year, up from 146 last year. 


oil find in the area. 


imd in Cathay Books 


man companies’ return on direct man companies tended to value 
investment abroad in 1984 was their foreign assets carefully, “and. 


Raa about 1.8 billion Deutsche marks especially m years of good profits, — — ~j - , ... 

r ( Rm aers (£529 million), a modest 2 percent, don’t pass than on but place them mg more than 3 percent of a class which permits removal by an abso- I ipan component subsidiary 

* - • . MrEI — Governmaii mvesti- the Bundesbank said in its March into reserves." of voting stock for less than two lute majority of votes. j also was profitable. 

5 ■: -5 s looking into the finances of report Tuesday — I 

t ;iihay Group, one of Taiwan’s ~ . 

£SSE5S Japanese Target China’s One Billion Consumers 

~ T~Sal said Tuesday. inflows in the previous year, were -*• CP 

: i preliminary check on the included, possibly depressing (Continued from Page 17) begun to make large-scale and creasing its annual production stock analysis, and several other 
ti , eis and financial reports of ^ figures. Japanese investors in China, have long-term investments in the Chi- c&pantv from 300,000 units to areas. 

— > Cathay subsidiaries shows “Shifting regular profit payouts compiled lists of enticing statistics, nese market. 700,000 units by June 1986. its persistence has paid off. Last 

— -l^epandes and large expense ac~ into receipts for deliveries can also They expect that the Chinese win Hitachi, which began its trade Among the developments in the year, Nomura acted as lead manag- 
2 S ' > _ts involving millions of dol- occur,” the report said, “as a result buy 8 million washing marhmes with China in 1965 with the sale of last two weeks: Victor Co. of Japan er for China’s first puWidy offered 

** ’ ' ?:the official said. A number of of price agreements in goods and this year, a number (hat accounts electric power-generation equip- announced that it would provide y en-d enomina t ed bond, offered by 

• -■ rumen t offi cials have been service, business between the do- for less than 10 percent of the po ment, announced last week that it technological assistance and parts the Bank of China. Nomura itseu 

~ '* ' -d to be involved in a bank mestic and the foreign branches of tential market would build a second color- tel evi- to several Chinese col or- television has invested $57 minio n in a hotel 


the Bundesbank said in its March into reserves. 1 
report Tuesday. 

Such remittances as payments T 
for patents and licenses, which 
brought about 13 billion DM of 
inflows in the previous year, were -*■ 


approval of two-thirds of Aroo’s 
shareholders if the company 
planned to purchase directly or in- 
directly any of its voting stock 
owned by a person or group hold- 
ing more than 3 percent of a class 
of voting stock for less than two 


• Continue to classify directors 
into three classes. However, the 
change to Delaware would require 
a two-thirds vote to remove direc- 
tors, unlike Pennsylvania law 
which permits removal by an abso- 
lute majority of votes. 


contribution, BL said, its car 
division made an operating 
profit of £40 million, down 
sharply from £73 million in 
1983. The company' said its Un- 
ipan component snbsidiary 
also was profitable. 


British Telecom PLC is being said it is too early to give details on 
considered for listing on the Tokyo tb* rizc of the discovery. 

Stock Exchange, the exchange's Volkswagen said its popular Beo- 
p readmit said. He did not elabo- tie model will no longer be sold in 


Japanese Target China’s One BUUon Consumers 


-“S* *N 


e.f .ev ■ 

tifcsfe.-,- 

4V *** ■ » 

a* rf~ w- * 


Stock Exchange, the exchange's Vol 
president said. He did not elabo- de mi 
rate. West 

Eastman Kodak Co. introduced year, 
two mid-volume, plain-paper copi~ to be 
ers based on new imaging technol- and b 
ogy. The copiers, which Kodak said West 
are the result of a previously an- 1978. 


de model will no longer be sold m 
West Germany after die end of the 
year. The car, which will continue 
to be produced in Mexico. Brazil 
and Nigeria, has not been made in 
West Germany since January, 


(Continued from Page 17) begun to make large-scale and creasing its annual prod 
Japanese investors in China t have long-term investments in the Chi- canaciw from 300.000 ui 
compiled lists of enticing statistics, nese market. 700,000 units by June 1986. 


reduction stock analysis, and several other 
units to areas. 

186. Its persistence has paid off. Last 




" '* ' ‘‘‘d to be involved in a bank mestic and the foreign branches of 
-sdal associated with Cathay, he one group of companies.” It noted. 


would build a second color- tel evi- to 


however, that currency regulations 


ii> ^ 

8! ‘ “ 


£ ; - 


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. . , . . ..a 

■ - "Til 


A DVERTISEMENT 

;r £ INTERNATIONAL FUNDS 

n 's Quotations Supplied by Funds Listed 

:V. 19 March 1985 

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* - (d)»daHy; (wl-wecMy; (b)»bMnoaflihr; trt-rtguliirtr; O)— IrroaulartY. 

'n. 

•’ •• r» MAL MANAGEMENT 

■- -j >LUri Tn»t < a iiiiti ORANGE NASSAU GROUP 

... ., f»«arniir ( M PB SSS7& The Hague (0301 40670 

,f?HK JULI US BAER A CO. Lid. B^g gl noi Bi t I 131 SO 

... . SIXSS?"* q S /i5?H2 UJOYDS BANK INTL. II 

' ^ dlSXssssissrzi- iiM — s |J??a 

.... d | Equlban- Europe SF 121 &S0 — tW j™ 1 . — -Sr-HMS 

, ’ -2fl> Eaulbatr Pacific SF 12(000 K S225— 

1 - ^ • rf I funlwr cc linonn — +iw) LlovctS lilrl Iftcontf SF 31 &XK) 

■ •'••dilhSS r SF17 UJo 2 — H**I LlOVtl* Inf! Pacific — SF14&D0- 

<mcc.nl men PARISBAS— GROUP 

— <dl Cortexo lnm m atlonol IBUI 

*««S — lw)OBLWJM_ DM 1.14198 

3 1 ITT HWN.V 5,156 — IW) OBLIGESTION 5F92JS 

rNQUEINDOSUEZ — (Wj OBU-DOLLAR SJJ&23 

un Awn Growth Fund- S 1H6 — <W) OBU-YEN— Y 1QU4SOO 

*-wl Oharbond- — — . SF82B5 — (w> OBLI-GULDEN. n_ 1039.9/ 

wi FiF — Amorim $ l»JD — td ) pa roii -fund s 102.17 

. .. wl FIF — Euroo S10JH — <d> PARI NTER FUND __ S99M 

.. J.^wiFlF— Pacific S1SLC1 — (dJPARUSTruwury Bond— SM024 

• ■ .dlfnMuKMalfftandtA S8S73 

— d* Indomz Muttftmnds B S141.15 


d HTF Fund M.V — 

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U ) Aston Growth Fund — - 

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So it is that after several years of sion assembly plant with its CU- assembly plants; a Canon Inc. 
wariness, Japanese companies have nese joint-venture partner, thus in- joint-venture copier assembly plant 

began production: Toshiba Corp. 

won a contract to equip a fl orescent 

-i^-r , T "ii« lam P P lanl ' ^ Kawasaki Steel 

INewcomer to the Media Elite SSKX.zfe 

Beijing. 

(Continued Bum Page 17) an analyst at Morgan Stanley. “I in addition to direct invest- 
played by Warren E. Buffett, the think ABC was in a position that ments, Japanese trading and secu- 
unassuming chairman of Berkshire they had to deal with the rumors in ritiga enmpani M a if an ting as mid - 
Hathaway Intx, an Omaha-based some fashion.” She added, “It deals dlemen in vigorously promoting 
holding company, who has devet- with tte question of management trade with China. Mitsubishi 
oped a reputation as a shrewd in- succession at ABC. Tom Muiphy Corp.. a leading trading company, 
■ vestor in a wide range of compa- wfl] run the network.” Mr. Golden- estimates thatu has a lfi-percent 
mes. He sat in on the critical son is 79 years old, and Mr. Mur- share of all trading iransadions be- 
bargaining sesaons, as a financial phy is 59. tween the two countries, 

adviser to Mr. Murphy. He also Miss Watson expects Mr. Mur- Nomura Securities Co. has been 
agreed to buy an 18-percent stake phy to bring his style of manage- conducting a series of seminar s 
in Capital Cities, once the merger ment to ABC. “CCB runs a very around the world to encourage in- 
takes place, for about $517 million, lean operation,” she said. “If they vestments in China. Two seminars 
money that win help Capital Cities bring some of that corporate cul- held in Japan last year drew more 
buy ABC tare to ABC, ABC could be very than 2,000 Japanese businessmen. 


I that it would provide yen-denominated bond, ofiered by 
cal assistance arid parts the Bank of China Nomura itseu 
Chinese color-tdevirion has invested $57 milli on in a hold 


in Shang hai. 

China's recent aggressive promo- 
tion of foreign trade has prompted 
the surge in Japanese investment, 
said Mr. Yamaxxra of MITL Many 
Japanese companies grew disen- 
chanted after the Chinese canceled 
production contracts in 1980 and 
1981. 

But in the past two years, in 
addition to establishing special 
trade zones throughout the coun- 
try, the Chinese government has 
taken steps to increase legal protec- 
tions for foreign companies 
abroad. 


I Gold Options (prices In Vos.). 


IP Ft'. 


! in fa. -i 


V.-'l; IPs 


(TTANHIAPOB 271, St. Hdier, Jersey 

WJ BrItDolk>r Income — _ (0844* 

wl BrttSMonaoXurr — *038- 

: J1 Brtt.lirtUMcmgjMrtt 10979 

i Sri*. (ntlXMamoPurtf C122& 



buy ABC time to AB 

Mr. Buffett, over the years, has profitable." _ _ 

made investments in fabrics, doth- . ABC Capital Cities fulfills active suitor of China business. It 
ing stores, advertising agencies, it* original plan. The company was has sent many of its top managers 
publishing and higirane^ . . , • - founded as,a .broadcasting compa- to China, and. has en terrain ed-Chi- 
stane analvst* beean voeculatine 5^’ ^ ut s 9 0n . rea< $ c ^ Fedoal nese officials lavishly here. It has 
abSSffiSS Commumcations Omuni^on Em* accepted more than 50 Chinese as 

SS il of ldcvision *« d ***** “ toKurtioad finance, 

began branching out into newspa- _L 

that the two craroames had talked, ^ magazines. Receni- 

but were surprised by the speed of ^ ^ gompany aexjuired several 

the deal announced Monday. cable- tdeviaon franchises and di- 

“I believe that Leonard Golden- reel mail operations. Last August, 
son, ABCs chief executive, ap- Capital, which is known by its newime 
preached Tom Murphy beta use stock exchange symbol CCB, ac- 
there was takeover talk that quired Institutional Investor maga- 
wonldn’t die." said Susan Watson, zinc. 


Nomura has been an extremely 


BrtUerwv GUI Fund, 

- I j Brit World LA. Fund — 
■* 1) BrtLWortd Tochn. Fund- 
O,-.. - t’lTAL INTERNATIONAL 

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a: v -»> Capital I tafia SA — 


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To our Readers 
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•aiMK 

7 3 A% Bearer Bonds of 1985 (1993) 

Kreditanstalt fur Wiederaufbau 

Offer for Sale 

Kreditanstalt fur Wiederaufbau, Frankfurt am Main, issues 73/,% Bearer Bonds of 1985 (7993) in a total amount of 

DM 500,000,000.— 

The net proceeds of this issue will be used for long-term investment loans. DM 450,000,000.- of this amount are offered 
for sale by the syndicate of banks listed below. 


Issue Price: 

Interest: 

Denomination: 

Lifetime/Redemption: 

Ranking as Trust Investments/ 
Eligibifity for Investments by 
Insurance Companies: 

Listing: 


99 3 A% plus Stock Exchange Turnover Tax with adjustment of interest 

73 / 4 % p.a-, payable annually in arrears on March 1 of each year. The first interest 
coupon wifi be due on March 1, 1986. 

DM TOO.- or a multiple thereof. * 

8 years. The Bonds wifi be redeemed on March 1, 1993 at par. Redemption prior 
to maturity is excluded. 

The Bonds rank as trust investments and are eligible for investments by insurance 
companies, according to the German laws. 


Listing: The Bonds will be admitted for trading and official quotation on all stock exchanges 

of the Federal Republic of Germany, including Berlin. 

EUgBrifity as Collateral for The Bonds are eligible as collateral for loans by Deutsche Bundesbank riombardfahig") 

Loans by Deutsche Bundesbank upon admittance for trading and official quotation. 

("torabardfShig"): 

Delivery: The Bondholder receives a Central Deposit Advice from the bank appointed by him. 

Definitive Bonds will not be available. The Bond issue will be evidenced by one Global 
Certificate. 

Sale: The Bonds will be offered for sale by the undersigned banks as from today. 


Stock Index Number: 


The Bonds will be offered for sale by the undersigned banks as from today. 
276029. 


IMPORT AND 

SAVE! A iftom 

.Britain 







INTERNATIONAL 

oamouNVCAL 

INSTITUTE 

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PAPER CUP PLANT 
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140 53 Street 
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The detailed Offer for Sale to be published in the Bundesanzeiger (German Federal Gazette) is available from the banks. 
Allotments of Bonds will be at the discretion of the selling banks. 



HVTERNAHONAL 

BUSINESS 


JJ UI J 14 klKT H if f Wo 


Appears every 

WEDNESDAY 


Frankfurt am Main, March 1985 


ADCA-Bank Aldiengesellschaft 
Allunutine Deutsche Cxedii-Anstalt 
Arab Banking Corporation - 
OauiA Co. GmbH 
Bankhaus H. Aufhauser 
Baden-Wurttembefflisdie Bank 

Akriengesel Kchaft 
Badlsche Komm unate Landesbank 
- GirozenuaJe - 

Bankenynion Frankfurt am Mam 
AWtenfiasellschaft 
Bankers Trust GmbH 
Batik fflr Cemtinwhtschaft 
Akiiengcsedsdhaft 
Bank^QrHanbel^imd Industrie 

Wechsri-Bank AklienMsellsrtBft 
Bay^rtsche Landesbank Clrozentrale 
Bayerisdw Wereinsbank Aktiengesdlsdiaft 
loh. Berenberg, Coaiter & Co. 

BeHiner Bank AktlengHellsdtaA 
Berliner Commerzbank AtoJengesdlichaft 
Berliner Handete- und Frankfurter Bonk 
Bankhaus Gebruder Beftwann 
Bremer Landesbank 
KredHansdt OMenbuig 
-Giratwurale- 
Commerzbank Aktiengeseilschaft 
Commerz-Cradii-BankAC Europartner 


Kiwtitanstalt 

WVmWW fur Wiederaufbau 


Deft) ruck & Co. 

Deutsche Bank Aktfengesellschjft 
Deutsche Bank Berlin Aktiengeseflschaft 
Deutsche Bank Saar Aktiengesellschaft 
Deutsche Genossenschaftsbank 
und die genossenschaftlfchen 
Centra foanken 
Deutsche Cirozentrale 

- Deutsche Kommunalbank - • 
Deutsche Linderfeank AkticngesdUschait 
Deutsche Westminster Bank 

Aktiengesellschaft 
Dresdner Bank AktiengewUscfuft 
Effecien ban k*Warburg Aktiengesellschaft 
Bankhaus Max Flessa & Co. 

FGrst Fugger-Babenhausen Bank KG 
FOrst Thurn und Taxis Bank 
Albeit Furst von Thum und Taxis 
Geestemundar Bank Aktien^seilschaft 
Hairdnjrgfeche Landesbank 

- Cirozentrale - 
Handels- und Privatbank 

Aktiengesellschaft 
Georg Hauck & Sohn Bankiers 
KommanditgeseHschaft auf Aktien 
Hessische Landesbank 
-GireaenbaJe- 
Vorv der Heydt-Kenten & Sfthne 
Bankhaus Hermann Ljmpe 
Kommaixhigesellsdurt 


Landesbank Rheinland- Pfalz 
-Crrowntrale— 

Landesbank Saar - Cirozentrale— 
Landesbank Schleswig-Holstein 
Girozentrale 
Merck. Finck & Co. 

B. MetzJer seeL Sohn & Co. 

National-Bank Alaiengesellschaft 
Bankhaus Neeimeyer 
Akdengesdlschaft 
Norddeutsche Landesbank 
Cirozentrale 

OWetiburgische Landesbank AG 
Sal. Oppenheim jr. & Cie. 

Reuscnel&Ca 
Karl Schmidt BankgesehjW 
Schtflder, Munchmeyer, Hengst & Co. 
Sehurabbche Bank AJniengeselbdiah 
Simonbank Atafenwsellschaft 
J.H. Stein 

Hinkaus & Burkhardt 
Veteins- undWestbank 
Akliengesdkchafr 
M. M. WarburR-Brinckmann. 

WlitzACa 

Westdeutsche landesbank 
Girozentrale 

Westfalenbai*A5tiierigesellschaft 
Wurttember£ische KommunaJe Landesbank 
Ghtnesiirale 













INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, MARCH 20, 1985 


Tuesdays 

MFX 


Dosing 


VftLflM PM. 

IS.M&S00 

PlW.4PJi.T0l 

7J1BJ08 


Tobies Include Ww nationwide prices 
up to the closing on wall street 
and do not reflect kite trades elsewhere. 
Via The Associated Press 


12 Month 
High Low Modi 


Dlv. Yhl PB TflSHtfi 


HWUXf Muck 


PE KDf HWi Low QuOL OTDe 


12 Month 
High Low Stock 


otv. na PE lOOsHish LowOwtOrtt 



24* FtaRek JO lJ TO 
2M Fluke IJP Si W 
ift Poedm 
7ft FOOMM 

Aft pmJIIG 32 

U FordCodAJBe 

.13 ForttCA J3 -7U? 

is Fames at jw 

lift Forwrt. 32 

X Fatomr 

» Frsnti 1JM0 £5 H 
4V, FrtJHIy 43 

14 FraoEl 21 

» Friedm JSO 3J II 
5 FrtetEn 
9ft Frkxxt JO U It 
12 Frisch 4 31 U 17 
Bft FmtHd 

1A Furvttn 15 


JO U It 
32 U 17 


X 40ft 
210 

100 10ft 
10 Ift 
B37 9ft 
53CB 9Sft 
30 21ft 
» 21 * 
537 18ft 

at i« 

2 40ft 

30 0 
290 23ft 

14 Oft 

31 8 
U2 Hft 
22 2DVi 

338 13ft 

15 17ft 


39ft 40ft +)V» 
ft X%— ft 
vm raft— ft 
ift + ft 
8ft 9ft + ft 
93 95ft + ft 
21ft 21ft— ft 
314k 21ft— U 
17ft lift- ft 
1ft 1ft- ft 
40ft 40ft— ft 
5* * 

24ft 25ft +1 
Oft Oft— ft 
7ft I 
Uft ISft 
20ft 20ft 
Uft Uft 
17ft 17*— ft 


Uft lift 1 
i 7 *s n i 
14ft 9ft I 
13 8ft I 
9ft 2ft i 
ft 3ft I 
9ft S 
3ft Ift I 
39ft 23 I 
Uft fft I 
Uft Oft I 
10 Wft ! 
14ft 10 ! 

J» 13ft I 


St 19 9 91 14 13ft 

J4e IA iff ITH 17ft 

S3 35 Uft 12ft 

* lift uft 
14 227 4 5ft 

2D 20 Oft Oft 

9 21 7ft 9ft 

S » » 

20 371 38ft 37ft 

M J 25 Si 15ft Uft 

19 21 12ft Uft 

Jit £4 f 40 12ft lift 

O 4 13* t3ft 

JO MM 25? 30ft X 


U 

17ft— ft 
Uft + ft 
lift— ft 
0 

0% 

7ft 

2ft + ft 
*%+% 
lift + ft 
Uft + ft 
12ft + ft 
13ft— ft 
30ft- ft 


m 


2ft 2ft 3ft 
24ft 24ft 24ft 
4ft 4ft 4ft 


23ft 23ft 22ft 
23ft 23ft 22ft 
14ft 13ft 14ft 
Oft 5ft Oft 


0 0 0 

14ft Uft 14 

3ft 3ft 3ft 

«* 8 $ 
14ft 14ft 
ift Oft 
Oft 0ft 
12ft 12ft 
2ft 2ft 
ft ft 
54ft Mft 


7ft 7ft 

2* k 

27ft 28 
lift lift 
1ft 1ft 
12ft 13ft 


Hiqn 

22* 

UM Si 

a p« 

24ft 

in* Pa 

lift 

A Pi 

A 

3.. P* 

1ft 

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T 

M Ft 

in 

12* Pi 

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1* Ph 

10% 

3U PH 

6 

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M * 

5 P8 

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13* 

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38ft 

13% Ph 

li 

7% Pi 1 

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7ft 

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17% 

7ft Pa 

% 

12 Pa 
Sft Ph 

20* 

lift Pn 

8* 

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1* 

% Pn 


3* Pr 

2T 

1SH Pfi 

36* 

30% PS 

19 

u* PB 

a 

25% P» 

X* 

Uft Pa 

9% 

4ft Pu 


2 
10 

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3* 29 

n't 

42 10 a 

79 390 
15 3 


17ft lift Jodyn 
9ft 5ft Jacobs 
5ft 2ft JetAm 
8ft oft jetran 
Oft 2ft John Pd 


« 

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lift 7ft JohnAm JO u 14 101 10ft 10ft 10ft 
7ft Oft JmpJkn 5 29 Oft Oft Oft— ft 


19 

lift 

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9 

13 

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% 

14* 


CUB 

JOb 1J134 

107 

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CMXCP 


40 

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JO 1J 18 

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17ft 

l /ft 

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16 

85 

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13 

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12% 

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74 

28 

11% 

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2296 

Ifift Fobind 

JO 

2J 

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4 

17ft 

17* 

17* 

lift 

5% FI date 


318 

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OVb— ft 

11 

9% FtCoan 

UMM 

7 

6 

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lav. — % 

» 

18ft FIF5LD 

006 20 

7 

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29ft 29ft 29ft + % 

1» 

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JO 

62 

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13 

13 

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12V. FlSdlP 

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18 

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4 

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27* 

22* FWGEpt 4JJ0 1t3 


8 

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24% 

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lift 

89k FkmEn 




35 

8% 

8% 

■%- Vk 


4 1ft 
14ft 10 
16ft 9ft 
20ft 14ft 
17ft 10ft 
9ft 5ft 
17ft 8 
15 5 

09k 2ft 

St F 

3ft 2ft 
15 Ilk 
Uft 8ft 
27ft 21 


KomkC 
KnvCp JO 
Keortin M 
Kanwin JOa 
Ketdim j» 
Key Co 30 
KeyPti 30 
KeyCo 
Kktdewt 
Ktnark 
KlrtXY 

KleerV » JOr 


Knoll 

KomrC. 2J2 


2 2ft 
0 14ft 
4 12ft 

2 ISft 

3 15ft 

w e 

440 9ft 
303 7ft 
103 3ft 
16 oft 

174 3ft 
14 3 

111 13ft 
10 13 
03 27 


2 ft 2ft 
MVfc 14ft 
12ft 12ft 4- V. 
Uft ISft— ft 
15ft Uft— ft 
79k 7ft— ft 
9ft 9ft + ft 
7 7 —ft 

3ft 3ft + ft 
Oft 4ft 
3 3 

2ft 3 + ft 
Uft Uft 
U U 
24ft 36ft — ft 


HI 


2ft 114 LS8 
Oft 2ft La Bars M 22 
7ft 2ft LaPnt 
40ft 23ft Lakes O .15# 


2 Ift 1ft 1ft 

26 2ft 2ft 2ft— ft 

3 514 5ft 5ft— ft 

206 33ft 30ft 32ft +4* 


20 344 37 

22 39 7ft 

I 10 9M 

9 3 21ft 

21 no uft 

35 44 5 

U 10 7ft 

32 65QI lift 
16 2 10ft 

10 6 19 

8 49 1ft 

10 2 36U 

10 61 13ft 


36ft 36ft 
Oft 7ft 
9ft 9ft 
21ft 31ft 
109k lift 
Oft Oft 
7ft 7ft 
uft uft 
10ft 10ft 
lift 19 
1ft 1ft 
36ft 



3ft 3ft m 

"i "irj 

}jj* U* U£ 

is is® 

gfi# 

10% 16% 

™ m 3S 

12ft Uft Uft 
i7ft 17ft 

w% 12ft n% 


109 Wft 
13 21 24ft 

160i 7ft 
M 11 3 

is 3 raft 

0 09k 

8 56 lift 

10 5ft 

12 25 7ft 

8 1 10 

1 61ft 

13 44 Mb 

13 8 10ft 

10 9 lift . 




27* 

27 

27 

25ft 

2ft 

2% 

M% 

10* 

77 

71* 

40 

« 

3* 

Sft 


10ft Sft YnnkCo 8 SO Oft 6 i 

59k 4 Yentny sm 16 13 1 Sft Sft » 


. 1 — ■— — ^ 

1 lift Sft Timer 

.10 U 

10 7* 7 


AMEX Highs-Lows 


Uft 0ft T Bar 
2 Oft Sft TIE 
14ft 69k Tit 
nr* 13 TabPds 
TO* 6ft TandBr 
13 »* Tasty 

Oft 296 Team 


Sit 40 19 40 7ft 7 

15 1878. 7ft 0 

49 10 lift 11 

JO 1.1 12 39 17ft T7 

JO XI 12 17 13* 12 

23 3ft 3 


7ft 7ft 796 + ft 
7ft Oft 7ft + ft 
lift 11 lift + ft 
17ft T79k 17ft— ft 
7ft 7ft 7ft— ft 
13 1294 13 + ft 

3ft 3H 3ft 



NSW HIGHS 19 


AmpaiAl 
Echo Bay 
MortlnProc 
RiMkflckpf 
VainH 

Cornea 

FreaEict 

MM Mi Gent 

SeobrdCp 

VftuolCr 

CHyGasFia 
Gtaner 
Parana R E 
SCEOSOpf 
wescoFIn 

Owl 

HUBC 

PeSP 

umra 


NEW LOWS 11 


Astratech 

OlftOMC 

Ve ml Iron 

AHroldiPl 
DomanO wtO 
wansLObS 

Audio iron 
HeuCHITr 
WbnaLiobC 

Cblet 

Swan 


Over-the-Counter 


March 19 


NASDAQ National Market Prices 


solatia Net 

in hm> iw 3Pjn.aroe 




3ft >H 
109k 10ft 


2ft 2ft Zft— ft 

Sft Sft Sft 

14 10 U + ft 

3ft 3ft 3ft— ft 

4ft Oft Oft 

Oft Oft 695+ ft 

7 J 726 25ft 26 + ft 

B 10ft 10ft 10ft 
3J 451 2B>6 27ft 2Bft + ft 
93 7104 ft 14 14 

LI 59109k 10ft 10ft 


2ft 12ft 12ft 
Oft Oft Oft 
•ft 9H 91k 
8ft 7ft 7ft 
09b 6H 69k 
5 Oft 4ft 
7ft 7ft 7ft 
18ft lift 
19ft 19ft 
99k 9ft 
9ft 9ft 
2ft 2ft 
8ft 8ft 
1194 119b 


CanSt 288 03 

Conan 


696 
7ft 

1796 17ft 
Oft Oft 
Uft ISft 
21ft 21ft 

7ft 

<796 

3ft 


54 14ft M 14ft 
463ft «ft 03ft +1 
95 9ft 9 9%i 

9401296 129k 129% 

25 6 6 6 

210 10 10 
269230ft 29ft 30ft + ft 
1228ft 28ft 28ft— ft 
42 S* Sft 5ft 


616 6ft— ft 
591 59k + ft 
1314 Uft— 16 
614 6ft 
ft ft- ft 
Oft 41k + ft 
SOU 26ft— ft 
20ft 20ft- ft 
4% Oft— 14 
55ft S61k + ft 
II 11 

1114 1114+ ft 
30 30 

5ft Sft— ft 
M9b 17 
48ft 4814— ft 
64ft 6Cft+ U 

XV. 31 +96 

1614 lift + ft 
1594 15ft— ft 
7ft Sft— 9k 
Sft 8ft 
6% *W— 96 


29ft + ft 
17 + ft 


i 88 U 

Ji L2 



10 16 

00V U* 

7215ft 
65X0 
11 «ft 
IB 214 
361 47 
9 Oft 
7 20 

125 7ft 
15Wft 
30 149k 
15 314 

78 3 
683 7 

1 «% 
276 596 
5 Oft 

0 Sft 
1351396 

5 7ft 
13738ft 

376 20 
1028 
1733 9ft 
35 17 
S3 1116 
40 lift 
99 ft 
2201 ISft 
Si u 
1631096 
17212 
7 9ft 
135 99k 
1411ft 
2655 Sft 
93 *ft 

79 9U 
5218% 

21015ft 

1 61k 
7419% 
13T 5% 

4011 
32 5ft 
S7T3U 
73 ift 
501394 
2517% 
19 Sft 
3723 Uft 
60 Sft 
SB lift 


M 16 — % 
lift 7796 + Ik 
15 15%+ % 

996 1 0 
6ft 8U> 

2M 2U— % 
46 07 +1 

6% Oft 
20 70 +2 

7 7%+% 

10ft 10ft + 96 
MU MU 
314 314— ft 
296 3 

0% Oft— M 
40% 40% 

Sft 5ft + ft 
Sft Oft + ft 
5U 5%— ft 
12% 1296 
7ft 714 
30% 3F* 

Itft 1FW 


9U 9ft + % 
1046 17 + % 
10ft 71 


X2 

297 9% 

A 

A— ft 


48517% 

14* 

17%+ Vk 


5921% 

20% 

21% 


IX A 

S 

SU+ % 


531 Sft 

3% 

A 

J 

424 

23* 24 + ft 

J 

157 24% 

24 

2416 


332 A 

5% 

Sft— % 


O 34 

33* 

34 — % 

2J 

122 37% 

X% 

37ft + % 

IS 

a 3 45* 45ft 45ft 


4 6 

4 

6 + % 

4 J 

3521% 

21 

2H6+ % 


31 12 

11% 

12 + % 


664 A 

5% 

A 

25 

25 29 

28% 

29 


271 10ft 

10 

10 —ft 


139 14% 

15% 

15%— ft 


1877 1196 

lift 

I«k+ ft 


243 9 

8% 

9 +U 


1X22% 

22 

22%+ % 

XI 

9018% 

17* 

1lft + ft 

2J 

UM 

X 

X 

AS 

407 27* 

26* 

269b— ft 


220 A 

A 

A— ft 


43 4 

0 

4 — % 


47320* 

20* 

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w r . 

4 

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J 

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26%— ft 


k 

10* 10*— % 

40 

P>j '4 /' 

37ft 

37ft— ft 


r fu 

4* 

41k— Ik 



17* 

18ft + ft 


09 5% 

4% 

5%— ft 


X A 

6% 

6U + ft 


■Ik 

11 +96 

1X6+96 
19%+ ft 
1196 

0114+ ft 
19W+ ft 
16H + ft 
14—94 
10ft 

149k + 9k 
1514 + ft 
M — % 
8ft— 9k 
50ft 
7 

35 + ft 
29ft + ft 
5U— % 
U 

9U + 9k 
XU + Vi 
2ft— M 
1814 + ft 
16%+ Vx 


20 

43%' — U 

0 

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1496 + % 
2696+1 

■a** 

Sft— ft 
42.-3 


J*n 4.1 
•84 3S 
t 

280 5.1 424 
A 10 U 
280 52 
JO 1J 
M AS 


«»+»* 
22ft — Ik 
2796— 96 
2196 

20% — % 


13028 9% 
17 ? 
10 6% 
I _ A 18% 
74121% 
«1 13% 

147 7% 
1084 13% 
1 7022ft 

73 7 

wra* 

4414% 


231496 
52 30% 
11 16ft 
12 Ift 
1180 1194 
701296 
2330% 
11741ft 
25 3*96 
239 t 
3W 1496 
122 26% 
21X26% 
00 lift 
019 5% 
218% 
12 396 

”?» 
7013% 
M *% 
196 79k 
ltlbft 

1S2& 


V"* 


U96 1516 + % 
129k 1296 
lift lift— ft 
lift 12 + ft 
996 994— 14 
i% «4 + % 
119k 11% — Ik 
59b 596 
9 9 

9ft 9ft— ft 
W 18 ft 

U lift + 16 


6% 4%— % 


19 19ft + ft 
.<% Sft + ft 
10 % 11 
Sft Sft 
13% 1314— Ik 
ift 0% + 14 
T2U 13 +14 
lift 17W+ ft 
796 814 + ft 

Uft 14ft 
2% 2% + % 
raft 11 —u 


JBReSt JO « 
JUG 

Jodceot t 

JockLJe 

Joctan JO 28 
JomWtr 

Jetraah !00 4J 

JtffNLs JO Tjf 
JefSmrl -«a 1J 
JetMart 

Jericn .12 J 

Jlfyi 
JhnsnE 
Jcnictt t 

Janel A 1 

Jasxan 

JuSns JOe 2J 


U T94k 1996 
3 8% 696 
263 5ft 6ft 
2*6 37ft 3696 
720 ms 
821914 1896 
2 379k 3796 
223% 23% 
0602114 20% 
75 8% 79k 
4691* 1896 

97 % % 

25 ift 5ft 
151 Oft Sft 
03 i 596 
22 6% Ift 
02914 9 
121896 M% 


199k 

ift 

Oft + ft 
36ft— % 

20 + ft 
J9 + ft 

779c 

23%+ 9k 

21 + ft 
B% + ft 

19 + 9k 

ft 

g-% 

8ft * 
2916+ ft 
1896+ 14 


Ift 9 + ft 
6% Oft— ft 
0% 6ft 
TSU 18% — ft 
20ft 21ft— % 

n% 13ft— % 

696 5ft— % 

13 139k 
219k 22 
Oft -7 

1796 lift— ft 

14 M — % 
lift 12 

99k 9ft+ % 
109k 109k + ft 
UVk 1216+ Vk 
2214 22ft— ft 
1496 1496 
50 50% + % 

10ft 10ft + ft 
8% Hft— 9k 
1096 11% + 96 
1214 1214—% 
57ft JBft+ % 
47ft 47ft— ft 
39 39%+ ft 

5ft 0 — % 
13* 13*— 9k 
M6 26%+l 
25ft 26*+ % 
IOU 11 +14 

5% 5% 

16% 16% — % 
» 3* 

33 33%+ % 

lift lift 
Uft 121k— ft 
9% 9% 

7 7ft- % 
18% 18% 

5ft 5%+ ft 
22 22% + % 
6 6 

1796 7796— ft 
34* 2094 + * 
34% 3494—% 
46% 46% 

» TO — % 
M M 
47 47 —1 

21* 2194—96 
43* 00 + 14 
Uft 15ft + ft 
13 13 — % 

13 13 

1096 10*— ft 

» Vi- Mi 


10% 10%+ ft 
Sft 20ft— ft 
13 13 

38% »ft+ % 
» 4 +ft 


» 19% 

6* Oft 
7394 IJV6 


3114 2TH 

18% Uft 


■Sft 15ft 
35* 35* 
33 29* 


a 

614 

1394+ Ik 
21ft— 1ft 
lift— % 
5 + ft 
2* 

6% 

15% + Ip 


29% 28* 

01 39 

14% Uft 
20% X 


3516 * 

31*— ft 
B%— % 

2 ±’% 


Ji U 032? 

10017ft 


JOr AS 35 U 
M2 996 


_ 218 1% 
M IJ 67 X 


lj» 20 mws 

.. . 26 4* 


JO 22 1700% 

3?" £ 


17* 18% + ft 
13*4 13ft 
0* 5 + ft 
5 S — ft 
26K 2696 
16% 17ft + % 
12* 13 + % 

9% 9% 

1 1 — % 
30% 35 — ft 
59ft 59ft 
4% 49k + 14 
39% 39% 
ift Mb 
9 9ft 
32% 33 
A A— ft 

lift lift + ft 
1% lft+% 
7ft 7ft 
814 S*+ V. 
159k 15*+ n 
19% 19ft + ft 
A 4% + ft 


302113* 
lil 7ft 
277 2* 
13 i 
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SOS 1 
224 34% 
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SR 4 
maw 

9215* 

mu 

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S3 ift 
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B 3314 
99 48% 
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317* 
2188 10% 
157 30% 
4619* 
412* 
79 2014 


5 5ft + % 
12% 129k— * 
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S 

18ft IK 
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2D* 21ft 
29% 2JU— ft 
Oft <ft 
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33ft 34ft + ft 
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38ft 38%+ ft 

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22* 23ft + ft 
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48ft 08ft + % 
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]\geriaCuts 
■ yvM’Crude 
. j iceby$l 

, ■' /tattnt 

~ : ?'ME — Algeria has decided to 
"■■ : e pike of its Saharan blend 
mde oil by SI a barrel, from 
ft to S29 JO. effective Wednes- 
. : . spokesman for Agip SpA, 
i ,iban state oQ company, said 
1 ‘*y- 

. cut foDows a declaration by 

■ t a after the last conference of 

- : I -ganization of Petroleum Ex- 

' ;.g Countries in January thalit 
1 not adhere to the decision to 
."v; crude differentials by cut- 
ght-crude prices, but would 
Jo gauge market conditions. 
■«:. ; and Iran also dissociated 
1 *lves from trie conference de- 
. . J is. 

■ r opean traders said the Alge- 
C, ;; . . nt brought Algeria into line 

he price agreement reached 
u ■: OPEC majority at ibe Janu- 

*• ; misters’ conference in Gene- 

~ >s«few York, Algeria's decision 
„ xen likely to have only a limi t- 

: -3act on world crude -oil mar- 
4 . . .Vofl industry sources said. 

; were unable to sell at 530J0 
1 ihey most certainly are not 
* at S29.50," one ofl company 
' g mana g er said. In the spot 
- ~ oil traders said Saharan 
* 1 jsold for delivery in the Medi- 
can at S2&30 a barrel Tues- 


businesspeople „ ^ 

Managers Try 

BNP International Division Consultants 

Is Divided Into Six Sections 

By Lynne Curry gium, where he is ctnrcntly the 2“^ up ^V?! 3 '* T ®d ^mpson of 
t fferaU T ™ w,e company's president and chief ex- Sa “ de ” ^ ftrdney Personnel Ltd, 

LONDON— BanqueNationale ecutive. He begins his new fob in a London '° asc<J outplacement 
de Pans has restructured its inter- May. when he succeeds Baron An- co ?P aa y- 
national diwaon into six sections, toine Bekacrt, who wiE become v. fcve “ whcQ *“ parting is amica- 
Emnanuel Phllippon, senior vice honorary chairman and who win H e u 811 ea ecutive doesn’t fed 
mesident, will head the division in remain a member of the board. ““ wm tmfair, the 

MhCTappomtments in- Kand Vmck will repjabe Mr. Vdge 5SS: 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, MARCH 20. 1985 

— Ma ™g ™’ r '7 l _ INTERNATl 


young are ant lady 

*Wtffl"0»al PA. Pork: 525 SI 01 


*^ns. the other appointments in- Karel Vmck will replace Mr Vetee difficult 

wrivedm thereorgmizau'on are: as Bekaafs chief executive." liwasashock, says one senior 

Guy Hamon. executive vice pres- Lftm Bank PLC the London- Amoved from his own 

ulrat, to beresponsible fw Europe, based merchant bank, has appoint- SKS2t*.% |B fc Cfll,p ! lw “ d 
Asia, the Umted States and me cd Peter BehnonrSiaging^ Sreo- ^ a few 

PHafic Basin. tor. Mr. Belmont ^SjSain in ^ ^ expected 

Jean-LomsHamcoenr, executive London, where he was previously ,0 “ “9 career move, 
wee president, to be responsible for the bank’s general manager. He an outplacement service 

Central and North Africa, Middle succeeds Thomas Gaffney, who is , , . . 

East mid French overseas terriio- returning to Chase Manhattan in __. U ~T e JpB* 1 “*«» that can be 

nes. Mr Hautcoeur is also in London after 13 yeara’ secondment { OrJhe executive, outpla- 

diaige of the BNFs commodity- to Libra Bank. Libra Bank has also Ce ^ en ^ s P^^pr by the company, 
fiuance operations. appointed Frederic Z. Haller exec- I * wycrs 6011 * 

Gerard Prache^ executive vice utive director in London. jjwkoithebasisofaperccntageof 

president, to be responsible form- Honeywell Europe SA has ap- Ba ? ttes J d ^ exy 

tcmauonal finance operations, in- pointed Patrick Driebeek diraS ExecalIW f-td, a 

vestment advisory sendee and in- oi legal services. He wiD remain in **“* 

relational corporate finanw- and Bruods, where he succe ed s Rich- f“f te “ aft ®belostmsjobatage54 
st^ervision of foreign subsidiaries ard Boncy, who is moving to Hon- ^ 

speaalizmg m these activities. eyweD’s headquarters in Minne- ^ 0cc ? n 

Jean-Rene Maillard, executive apdis as assistant general counsel ^ 

vice prerident, to be responsible for British Petmic.m w ^ ternatioofl] shipping finn. If you 
external trade and croon finance. ^ "“““alawyer here yoo pay them." 


museu mercaam oank, has appoint- Jr ZTm af0 iT mi T v * 

cd Peter BehnontnSiiaging So- wasbld of ^51 after only a few 
tor. Mr. Belmont^SSk 1 “ “P^ 

London, where he was previously HS*?. 1 * ** S® mo y e - 
the bank’s general manager. He “ outplacement service 


helped.” 

Unlike legal action that can be 


MANE PARIS 260 87 43 
Men & women guids, security A rent- 
me WWWM. 8 em ■ 12 pm. 


ition in 1974 of 



educational 

POSITIONS AVAILABLE 


mwhde in Geneva, Indone- 
' “J ■ jnergy mimstex, Subroto, said 
• rjay that Britain's decision to 
. * ! its state-owned ofl-trading 
< .' Aiury would have no short-teon 
' 1 ' ‘ on the international oil mar- 


Alii aSSTSSStive vice r Not <**!*■ 

ESSilLr*? 31 ™ 

SnSrSS 

- N.V. Bekaert FjU the Belrian KS, to Ja- lieve that the executive is better off 

wire-andltSMrdn^h^ “mducting his own job campaign 

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AITOBL Ladv comcxHWM mid rmwim. I PARIS YOUNG LADY 341 21 71 
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CradR Cmfe: American Exprea, Dmer"* Ch*, Eurocard, MoOar Cad, Access and Van 


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Page 22 


Pi 

i 


l y 


INTERNATIONAL WF.KAI.n TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, MARCH 20, 1985 


** 



PEANUTS 


-^a&rrwisjuut 
a JutvAa, amtL 

Ur^JlAdL JjMm,. 


BJjrteLtfuL J&VYU 
JvhdL* 
oJjvaoto^. 


Wl HOPE HE LET 
f[ HIM IN WHEN 
\IT RAlNEP 



I SH0UL17N l T EXPLAIN if 
MY JOKES.. 


BOOKS 


BLONDIE 


ACROSS 

1 Style 
G Latin lass: 
Abbr. 

10 Complete 
failure 

U Where Vulcan 
forged 

LS Supporting 
column 

16 U.S.S.R.'s 

Sea 

17 Pack of 
mackerel 

18 Meet for 
McEnroe 

19 Treatment 

20 Arena 

22 Kind of cap or 
pad 

23 Strawberry's 
bunch 

24 Lost intensity 

26 Offset, with 

"out” 

30 Fiona of opera 

32 Words of 
concern 

33" a man 


49 “Peace and 
Plenty" painter 

51 “■ cut bait” 

54 A contempo- 
rary of Haydn 

56 Prefix with 
• meter 

57 Decisive battle 

63 Collected 

■64 Truck type 

65 Herd on the 
move 

66 Organic 
compound 

67 Nights before 

68 Girdle 
material 

69 Cry from the 

. crib 

70 Strike out 

71 Movie critic 
Siskel’sTV 
partner 

DOWN 


1 Lawful lucre 

2 City south of 
Salt Lake City 

3 At the summit 

4 Break 

5 Biblical 
dancer 

6 Good fellow 

7 Sharp response 

8 Abound 

9 He played 
Marshal Dillon 

10 Game for 'wo 

11 Chimp’s cousin 

12 Runner Sidney 
of the Olympics 

<9 New York Times, edited by Eugene Moksha. 


35 Glowing coal 

39 Fur-trimmed 
cloak 

41 Auxin, e.g. 

43 Yemeni’s 
neighbor 

44 Culinary 
melange 

46 Church calendar 

47 Obvious 


3/20/Sfl 

13 What wet 
madras cloth 
may do 
21 Homes for 
heros 

25 Maple genus 

26 Snowflake, to 
Santas 

27 Attention- 
getter 

28 Popular piano 
piece 

29 Prized rodent 

31 "Top 

morain'!" 

34 Southwestern 

flattop 

36 Carried 

37 Stops 

38 Cars of 
yesteryear 

40 Com holder of 
a kind 

42 to 

(because of) 

45 Fishing net 
48 Scraped out 

50 Provoke 

51 Confronted 

52 A Massey 

53 Endured 
55 Gift to Bob 

Cratchit 

58 Dream, to 
Debussy 

59 Monotonous 
06 Be foolishly 

fond 

61 Ham's word 

62 Call to a queue 


DENNIS THE MENACE 



‘Just tell him 1 mi naughty boy and 

X CANT PLAY WITH AKtXME TDtWY/ 

I THAT SCRAMBLED WORD GAME 
_ by Henri Arnold and Bob Lee 

Unscramble these four Jumbles, 
one letter to each square; to form 
lour ordinary words 


TURBS 





PEINT 





MOODDEj 



■»: 




Now arrange the dieted letters to 
form the surprise answer, as sug- 
gested by the above cartoon. 




Yesterday's 


(Answers tomorrow) 

Jumbles. THYME CABLE POETRY VACANT 
Answer. What flatfootedness Is for a traffic 
cop— THE ARCHENEMY 


WEATHER 


EUROPE 


Algarve 

Amsterdam 

Attain 


Be (erode 

Berlin 

Brunei* 

Bu char est 

Budapest 


Costa 0*1 Sol 

Dublin 

E dinb urgh 

Florence 

Frankfurt 


Helsinki 
Istanbul 
Lh Palmas 


London 

Madrid 

Milan 

Moscow 

Mantel 

Nice 

Oslo 

Parts 

Prague 

RvyUavOt 

Ram* 

Stockholm 


Venice 

Vienna 

Warsaw 

Zarlcti 


HIGH LOW 
C F C F 

17 S3 M 57 o 

1 34 -S 23 W 

il a IS 9 m 

B 46 I 34 r 

V 48 8 46 r 

2 36 0 32 0 

0 32 -4 25 o 

3 37 1 34 r 

10 SO 4 39 d 

t 34 -1 30 sw 

18 64 13 55 d 

S 41 2 36 r 

5 41 -2 28 fr 

10 SO 3 37 a 

1 34 -2 28 Q 

I 34 - 4 25 tr 

-2 28 -8 18 tr 

18 64 9 4 fr 

19 66 15 S9 0 

13 55 12 54 ih 

3 37 - 2 28 a 

11 52 10 50 r 

10 50 -I 30 tr 

1 34 0 32 sw 

0 32 - 4 25 o 

12 54 4 39 fr 

2 36 - 9 16 fr 

S 41 -I X Ir 

1 34 -1 30 sw 

4 39 1 34 r 

11 52 - 2 28 fr 

2 36 - 7 19 tr 

I 34 - 3 27 o 

9 48 3 37 o 

3 37 1 34 0 

4 39 1 34 a 

Q 32 - 4 20 d 


ASIA 


Bangkok 
Botllna 
Hong Kong 
Manna 
New Delhi 
Seoul 


HIGH LOW 
C F C F 
— — — — no 


12 54 0 32 

20 68 IS 59 
31 88 2S 77 

28 82 14 57 


MIDDLE EAST 


Ankara 
Beirut 
DO mu sens 
Jerusalem 
Tei Aviv 

OCEANIA 

Auckland 
Svdnav 


14 57 0 32 

21 70 IS 5» 

17 63 9 48 

18 64 8 46 

21 70 16 61 


20 68 IS W 

25 77 21 70 


Shanghai 

11 52 

5 

41 

D 

Stnaromra 



— 

— 

na 

Tolpcl 

17 63 

16 

61 

•o 

Tokyo 

9 40 

7 

45 

r 

AFRICA 

Algiers 

21 70 

10 

58 

cl 

Calm 

27 81 

12 

54 

fr 

Cape Town 

17 63 

10 

50 

d 

f Blfitdmlfn 

18 64 

7 

45 

d 

Harare 

2S 77 

17 

63 

D 


31 88 

26 

79 

D 

Nairobi 

26 79 

17 

63 

d 

Tunis 

16 61 

3 

37 

d 

LATIN AMERICA 



Boenas Aires 

24 75 

7 

45 

fr 

Lima 





no 

Mexico City 

28 82 

6 

43 

K 

Rla do Janeiro 

28 82 

21 

70 

r 

Sag Paolo 



— 

— 

no 

NORTH AMERICA 



Aadiaragg 

3 37 

-4 

25 

d 

Atlanta 

16 41 

-2 

28 

fr 

BmW 

4 43 

-6 

21 

fr 

Cktassss 

15 59 

1 

34 



10 SO 

-1 

30 

PC 

On; “Bit 

11 52 

-5 

23 

ft- 

Hanewis 

26 79 

20 

68 

fr 


22 72 

10 

50 

d 

Las Angelei 

19 66 

9 

48 

fr 

Miami 

19 66 

10 

50 

fr 

Mlmaapens 

9 48 

■2 

28 


Montreal 

-3 27 

14 

7 


r'csscv 

25 77 

18 

64 

PC 

New York 

n 52 

1 

34 

PC 

Son Francises 

61 61 

9 

48 

fr 

Seattle 

11 52 

5 

41 

r 

Toronto 


12 

10 


WashtogtoH 

15 59 

1 

34 

fr 


am ? 


t available; o-ovarcan; Pbpartlv 


rm 34). PARIS: Partly cloudy. Temp. 8 — 0 146 — 32). BOMB: Pornr 

> TotnoTl3--3(55 — 34). TGL AVIV: Overcast, Temp. M— 14 [68 —571. 
mh.Jh- Fair TempTs — 5 (36 — 23). BANGKOK: Faggv. Temp. 34—2* 
(93 _ 751 HONG XONG: Fair. Tome. 2D— tA (68—61). MANILA: CtouW- 
Temjj. 33 — 24 (91 — 75). SEOUL; Fair. Tamp. 17— 6 163— 43). SINGAPORE: 
Thun de r s t ums . Toma. 32 — B (90 — 77). TOKYO: Rain. Temp. ?— a (48—461. 


cloudy. 

ZURICH 



NO MAGIC BLTJLET: 

A Social History of Venereal Disease 
in the United States Since 1880 

By Allan M. BrandL 245 pp. S19.95. 
Oxford, 200 Madison Avenue, 

New York, N. Y. 10016. 

Reviewed by James T. Yenckel 

M EDICAL and social values, writes author 
Allan M. Brandt at the gloomy conclu- 
sion of this thoughtful, provocative book, 
“continue to define venereal disease as a 
uniquely sinf ul disease, indeed to transform 
the disease into an indication of moral decay.** 
This attitude, he says, has had a detrimental 
im pac t on efforts to control venereal diseases 
— in the past and right up to today. 

Modem medicine has successfully curbed 
the ravages of such infectious diseases as diph- 
theria, tuberculosis, typhoid and dysentery. 
“Yet, strikingly,” says BrandL who is an assis- 
tant professor of the history of medicine and 
science at Harvard Medical School, “venereal 
diseases are inadequately controlled, if con- 
trolled at alL** 

Gonorrhea currently “constitutes the na- 
tion's most common and costly comraunicabie 
disease** and syphilis is not far behind. What 
accounts for this? 

In fhiu study, he traces “the shifting attitudes 
and perceptions** of both the public and physi- 
cians toward vetlereal diseases. “A society's 
response to those who are ill, its employment 
of medical discoveries and resources/* he says, 
“is closely related to its mast base assump- 
tions. ..." At the mm of the century, for 
example, syphilis and gonorrhea were forbid- 
den topics of polite conversation. When the 
I Home Journal printed a series of arti- 
cles in 1906 on the diseases (even well-bred 
women could acquire syphilis from their hus- 
bands and pass it on to new-born offspring), 
the maggrine lost 75,000 subscriptions. 

During World War I, a strong effort was 
made to bring American troops back from 
naughty Europe physically ™an Initially, 
much of the emphasis was placed on individual 
self-control; physical fitness programs were 
introduced into the U. S. Army to keep the 
soldiers' minds off sex. 

But when the Army found this really wasn’t 
working, h opened readily accessible prophy- 
laxis dmicR This, however, outraged a part of 
the public who felt that providing preventive 
measures against venereal riicwicps encourged 
the troops to engage in illicit sex. After the war. 


Solution to Previous Puzzle 


vmm al (tease control efforts bnsuish«.A.v 
a 1950s. the development * 

sssf-ssfiSEiMew' 

3 A portion of te public to* ly sees' taps 
and AIDS and other 'Cnereai diOTS^ as o 
revenge against the sexual revolution or tne 
'60s ind TOs: sex education m schools * a 
volatile issue: and few politicians are willing to 
figlu for increased public health funds to fight 

V ^Stotg i 5^SreaJ diseasesremam 

with an. Be concludes, there will be difficuwes 
in eradicating them. 

James T. Yenckel is on the staff of The Wash- 
ington Post. 


BESTSELLERS 

Tkt New York Time* 

This fiu is based on reports firm am duo 2JJ00 bw*sw» 
throughout the Uniied Suas. Week on tel are not neresurif? 

consecutive 


FicnoN 


THs 

Wed 


IF TOMORROW COMES, by Sdney 

FAMILY ALBUM, by Dawdle Steel — 

GLITZ, by Eliwwe Leonard 

THINNER, bv Richard Bachman 

THE FINISHING SCHOOL, by Gail 

Godwin .... 

SEE YOU LATER ALLIGATOR, by Wfl- 

liam F. Buckley Jr. 

THE SICILIAN, by Mario Puzo 

MEXICO SET. by Leo Drigbtoa 

MIND BEND, by Robin Cook — 

.UdESw 


10 MOSCOW R 

n 


Robert Mews 


THE TALISMAN, by Stephen King and 
Frier Straub 

12 THEUFE AND HARD TIMES OF HEI- 
' DI ABROMOWITZ. by Joan Riven 

13 VIRGIN AND MARTYR, by Andrew M. 

Gredey ~ ^ — - 

14 HOTEL DU LAC by Anita Brodnw 

15 SO LONG AND THANKS FOR ALL 

THE FISH, by Doagtas Adams 

NONFICTION 

1ACOCCA: An Aoubragrapby. by Lee L+ 
ttiam Novak 


6 21 


2 3 


EIB0Q E9 

a 

□ 

□ 

□ 

□□□□ □ 

a 

a 

m 

□ 

□EDO □ 

E9 

□ 

□ 

□ 

EEEE00 

a 

a 

3 

□ 

DOB 

□ 

□ 


□ 

□ 

□ 

a 


□ 

3 

□ 

□ 

3 

□ 

□ 

!□ 

3 

3 



10 


cooca with Wjffi aml 
BREAKING WITH MOSCOW, by Ar- 
kady N. Shevchenko , . 

LOVING EACH OTHER, by Leo Busca*- 

•lh 

CITIZEN HUGHES, by Mkhael Dforau 
SON OF THE MORNING STAR, by 

Evan & Connell — 

THE BRIDGE ACROSS FOREVER, by 

Richard Bad) 

THE LIVING PLANET, by David Aden- 

yoltre Ioking: 

FEYNMaNN.” by Richard P. Fcvnmaan 
THE SEVEN MOUNTAINS OF THOM- 
AS MERTON, Jg Michael Mon — - 

nts Whotey _ 

OSES THE KITTEN. Ire 
A LIGHT IN THE ATTIC, 


THE COURAGE TO CHANGE, by Do* 

MOSES THE KITTEN, by James Herriot 
by SbdSBver- 


eIaTrIs 


ELET 


LAME 


TFOL 


D U 
A R 
c aJr 

E LlEl PlHl 


□na □□□ 

□□□□ 


NERO 


13 CRY OF THE KALAHARI by Mart and 

Delia Owen , : 

14 THE ABANDONMENT OF THE JEWS, 

by David S. Wyman 

ELVIS IS DEAD AND I DON’T FEEL 


10 


— I 

— 1 


□ □□□ 


ISjTjAlRj 


□ 

□ 

□ 

□3 

□ 

0 

□ 

03 

3 

z a 

□ 

3D 


ASST 


3/20/85 


13 


SO GOOD MYSELF, by Leons Grizzard — 14 
ADVICE, HOW-TO AND MISCELLANEOUS 


PROGRAM -COO! 


aERSQUia 
KBOOK. by 


John Ni- 


NOTHING DOWN, by Robert G. Allen 
WHAT THEY DONT TEACH YOU AT 
HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL, by 
Muk H. McCaanack 


WOMEN COMING OF AGE by Jane 

Fonda with Mknon McCarthy. 

THE ONE MINUTE SALS PERSON. 
byS^caoer Johngan-aad Laity WBion .... 


BRIDGE 


GARFIELD 


GARFlELP,Tl4£ VET SAVS THE 
HAWAIIAN CAT FU) WILL GIVE 
WO A VORACIOUS APPETITE 
ANP MAKE VOU LISTLESS 


I GUESS WE'LL NEVER KNOW 
IF VOU'RE SICK OR NOT/ 



By Alan Truscott 

T HE defender went astray 
in the diagramed deal. 
South became declarer in four 
hearts after the auction shown. 
West led the spade seven, and 
East took the jack followed by 
the king. 

East now made the fatal er- 
ror of playing the spade ace. 
South gratefully ruffed and, 
since the diamond jack was. in- 
adequacy guarded, two clubs 
were discarded on diamonds 
after drawing trumps. 

East should have found the 
drift to dubs — superficially 
risky — for two reasons. He 
had to assume that his partner 
held a high honor in one of the 


minor suits, so West’s play of 
the spade eight on the second 
trick had to be a suit-prefer- 
ence signal far dubs. With 
nothing in dubs and a high 
honor m diamonds he would 
have played the spade ten. 

But even if West’s signaling 
could not be relied on, and it 
certainly should be in an ex- 
pert partnership, the dub drift 
was indicated. 

If South held die dub ace, 1 
the contract was sure to suc- 
ceed. Even if South began with 
a dotibleton ace of dubs and 
A-x-x-x of diamonds, Ik would 
misguess diamonds after pas- 
sive defense. East's failure to 
dubs would marie him 
the king, so West would 


surely have the diamond Icing 
to justify his two-spade bid. 


NtWXUCD) 


WEST 

*10*7 

♦A2887J 


*Q*S 

9A 

ts 


Q« 

1078 

4 


EAST 

♦AKJ64 

9JS 

ojm jr 


SOUTH 

*tl 

VKH97I2 

OAK 



Wanted tbrnapatei 


W>Hd Stock Markers 

Via Agence France-Presse March 19 

doling prices in local currencies unless otherwise indicated. 




CJoee 


ABN 

397 JO 

399 

ACF Holding 


200 

Aegon 


186 

AK20 

111J0 

11130 

Ahold 


226 

AMEV 



A Dam Rubber 

7M 

740 

Amro Bank 

7440 

7450 


224 


Buehrmann T 

8820 

rrl 

Co land Hlda 



Ebovler-NOU 

1M 

115 

Fofcker 

10380 

102 

Gtst Brocades 

183 


Heine ken 


15820 

Hooaovera 

61.90 

62.10 

KLM 

6030 

4150 




Nat Redder 

6930 

6950 


17430 

17530 




Pakhoed 

68 

67 




Robeco 


I7T1 




Rolinca 



Rsrentu 



Royal Dutch 

iTTTf 

'.’Tl 

Unilever 

1 


Van Ommeren 

30 

30.10 




VNU 

21250 

313 

ANPXBS General index 

205A8 

Previous : 207 JB 



1 III IIIIBluIll | 

Arbed 


mn 

Befcaorl 

592C 

9 / 




Cobeaa 


r ~ ' 

EBES 


r'i»< 

GB-Inna-BM 

3360 

'.'-I 



x 

Gevoert 


r 






7 VT 



: r.v'i 

Pefrofind 


V." 

Soceenerole 


. 




Sahrav 

HTTi 


Traction Elec 


T*‘. 







V faille Montoone 

6240 


Current Slade limes : 230U2 




Raiihlurt 1 


AEG-Tatotunkef) 

Allianz van 

Ban 

Barer 

Bayer.Hvaa 

Beyer. Ver. Ben k 
BMW 

Cununar z bank 

Cantfaumml 

DaJmler-Banz 


Dauticta Babcock 

DauWbaBank 


□JB-SdMirt 

OHH 

Hoanw 

HooeM 

Haaen 

Habmarw 

Horten 

(Call + San 


HUG 1031 
1027 1811 
211 JO 211 JO 
224 22X30 

330 33LSG 

320 326 

395 384.50 
14UO167J0 
141 JO 142 
697 691 

355 353 

165 167 JO 
431 457 

1SSJ0 1B7 
215 218 

157 JO 1S8J0 
475 471 

21680 216 
11X50 115J0 
3« 399 

178 176 

26050 261 JO 


j Close Prev 




Kairihot 

22050 22050 

Ktaeckner H-O 

264 26650 

Kloeckner Werke 

7750 

7970 

i L£im 


91 

Unde 

418 

417 

Lufthcrao 

2005019950 

MAN 

15650 

156 


16316050 

Metal Igesanschof 

262 27250 

MuendLRueck 

1150 

1195 

Preussog 

283 28480 

Rue<aers-Warka 

347 

350 

RWE 

150.70 

ISO 

Sdwlnfi 

45650 

454 


553 

558 


10450 i«8o 

Varto 

185 

183 

Veba 

18450 18650 | 



Votkswagcnwerk 

20450 

200 

Ceeimei rbuu* Ind 






Bk East Asia 

2150 


Cheung Kang 

1250 


China Light 

1350 

1X60 

Cross Harbor 

9J0 


Nona Seng Bank 


4675 

HK Electric 

735 

7.10 

HK Hotels 

32 

32 

HK Land 

4575 

465 

HK Shanghet 

LIS 

820 

HK Telephone 

65 

6650 

HK Wharf 

LIS 

550 

Hutdi Whomoao 

1870 

1880 

Jar dine Math 

840 

850 

Jardlne Sec 

930 

9.15 


535 

STD 

Shaw Brothers 

no 

110 


850 

855 

Slme Darby 

6 

630 

Stelux 



Swire Pacific A 



WheekK* A 



Wheelock Mar 

Susp. 


Winter 



world inri 

155 

1.75 

Kano Sana Index 



threaten: IBM 




AECI 



Anglo American 



Anglo Am Gold 



Oar lows 



Blyvoor 






DeBeeri 



Driefonteln 




1460 





Harmony 



Hlveid Steel 



Kloof 

7225 


Nedbank 



Pres Stevn 



Rusotot 

1540 


5A Brows 



5t Helena 






West Holdlna 

5 WO 

NA. 

Cam pajjt* stodt index : 97359 




S lAWldOM j 


Alllea-Lywts 



Anolo Ain Goto HTVs 


Babcock 

145 

147 


Barclays 

Boss 

BAT. 

Baecharn 

BICC 

BL 

Blue arc)* 

BOC Group 

Booft 

Bonder Indus 
BP 

Brit Home SI 
Brit Telecom 

Brit 
BTR 
Burma* 

Cable Wireless 
Codbury Sdhw 
Charter Cons 
Coats Potans 
Commercial U 
Cora Gold 

Courtaulds 

Dataetv 

De Beers e 

Distillers 

P iiel onteln 

Flsona 

Free Steed 

OEC 

GKN 

Glaxo 1 

Grand Met 

Guinness 

GUS 

Hanson 

Hawker 

ICI 

Imps 

Jaguar 

Uo>ds Bank 

Umrtia 

Urera 

Marks and So 
Midland Bank 

Nat West Bank 

Pond □ 
PlUUngtOfi 


Close Free 
572 574 

539 
ua 
363 
zn 


515 

302 

176 

262 

536 

270 


262 
533 
262 
IJ4V5 IBVj 
390 390 


724 

210 

545 

164 

200 

HO 

198 

509 

154 

500 


315 


Racol Elect 

Rundfantein 

Rank 

Reed mil 

Reuters 

Roval Dutch C 

RTZ 

SoatcW 

SalnsCunr 

Stall 

STC 

Sid Chartered 
Tate and Lrle 
Tesca 
Thorn EMI 
T.i. group 
Trafalgar Hse 
THF 

Ultramar 

Unilever c 
United Bleajlts 
Vickers 


313 

124^3 

198 196 

244 239 

11 29/6411 47/64 

290 291 

251 
805 
723 
427 
781 
181 
342 
SCI 
17D 
284 
149 
332 
614 
158 
305 
194 

314 


753 

763 

223 

411 

803 

185 

357 

547 

169 

2S3 

144 

332 

609 


S97V- »1W 


5«4 

375 

47*. 

657 

930 

302 

738 

202 

462 

438 

237 

412 

246 

349 

154 

218 


590 

380 

48». 

642 

935 

302 

755 

2D7 

464 

438 

238 

409 

244 

350 

154 

218 


12’«* 12 11/32 
180 184 

265 265 

S39U» 07 

S3 1 OBta 

35 341k 

487 675 



CION 

Nee. 

Generali 

40380 4O10S 

IFI 

791 C 

8770] 

Itoieementt 

83980 

84300 

Italmobilkxl 

72850 72400 

MetSobanco 

B2S00 83050 

Montedison 

1432 

1485 


6820 

6849 


2177 

2228 

RAS 

64Q50 

64900 

Rlncscenle 

66&2S 

651 

SIP 

2820 

2820 

Sola 

2880 

2880 

Standa 

11800 


Stet 

2440 

2456 

MIB Carnot Index : 1196 


| Previous : 1207 



If Pate 1 1 

Air Ltauide 

614 

619 

AWhom Alt 

360 260.10 

Av Dassault 

1165 

1195 

Banco Ire 

582 

589 

BIC 

545 

550 

Bauvoues 

611 

<19 

BSN-GD 

2398 

|3 

Cui i b!uw 

1926 

I;f 1 


1200 

1211 1 

CnfTmeo 

274 

■ II 

Durnez 

589 

590 

Elf-Aauttalne 

23630 



970 


Gen Eaui 

885 

■ 11 

Hochette 

1860 


imetal 

9630 


Lafarge Cop 

425. TO 42360 

Leorand 

2155 

Y t J 1 

I'Oraai 

2330 

y - [ , M ■ 

Metro 


| T ^'. J B 

MteteHn 

914 

BfTj ■ 

MM Permar 

10080 


Meet Hermessy 


B77 1 - ■ I 


R i 


7963 

KLio 

Ocddentale 

731 

k. i r 

1 1 , j - • I 

697 

701 


26650 

■ ir 

Peugeot 

290.10 29250 

Podaln 

4950 

J ii 


220 22650 


268 26950 1 

Redout* 

1275 

L-.1P 

Roussel Udaf 

1700 

in. 1 C 

II ^ ™ 


1970 

Ir f 1 . JiM 

■f 

* IB 

fTetamecan 

24S5 

24S 1 

III- Li J 

502 


[Valeo 

227 22660 

Agefl index : 3S3J9 





1 CAC Index ; 30LM 






(1 TIiiiTbpiw > II 


172 



N.T. 

265 

DBS 

630 

815 

FraserNeova 

SA0 

530 

Haw Pta 

141 

238 



252 

Kexael Ship 

175 

173 

Mai 8ankina 


670 

□CSC 

9.45 

95* 

OUB 

360 

176 


ITS 

175 

Slme Darby 

265 

155 

SSfeomshlP 

170 

1.16 

51 Trading 

446 

444 




OUB Index : 42364 



Prev leas : 42179 





MBan 


Banco Comm 
Centrale 
Ogahatets 
Cred ital 
Farm ltd la 
Flat 

f Insider 


17610 17730 
3593 3493 
7750 7175 
2120 2140 
11800 11810 
2920 3000 . 
5225 55 


Ctese Prey. 

S kanaka 94 NA 

SKF 214 214 

SwecOshAtatch 230 227 

Volvo 257 354 

Index :3?7.T8 


T wfc j w 


Asreuchem 
AsoW Glass 
Bank of Tokyo 


Canon 
Clfoh 
Dd Ntooan Print 
Dahva House 
Full Bata 
Full Photo 
Fujitsu 
HKochl 
Honda 

Joean Air Lines 
Kajima 


Kirk 

Komatsu ltd 
Kubota 
Matsu Elec Inds 
Matw Elec Works 
Mitsubishi Bonk 
Mitsubishi Chem 
Mitsubishi Elec 
Mitsubishi Heavy 
Mitsubishi Core 
Mitsui and co 
Mltsukasbl 
Mitsumi 
NBC 

NCK insulators 
NlkkoSec 
Nippon Steel 
Ntopoo Yusen 
Nissan 
Nomura Sec 

Olympus 

Pioneer 

Ricoh 


877 

511 

1460 

334 

1040 

560 

1610 

1830 

1330 


5900 

276 

1350 

M 6 

565 

441 

324 

1600 

800 

1570 

438 

396 

270 

517 

327 

419 

ItCL 

1150 

1020 

BIO 

153 

241 

640 

1270 

ss 

920 

W60 


513 

830 

891 

510 

1460 

336 

1040 

558 

1630 

1830 

1320 

860 

W7B 

6000 

277 

1350 

146 

563 

449 

324 

1630 


443 

396 

V» 

ss 

xn 

421 

1150 

HW 

785 

151 

242 

641 

1270 

1250 

2838 

909 

1068 


fcny 4700 

SumltomaBank J800 1008 

Sumitomo Chem 215 215 

Sumitomo Metal 753 153 

T nisei Carp 205 204 

Tateio Marita 474 

TafcodoChem 821 834 

Tdk 6130 4200 

Tallin 433 433 

Tokyo Elec. Power 1570 1540 

Tokyo Marine 901 897 

Tor oy tnd 449 449 

Toshiba 410 411 

Toyota mi aw 

Yantated Sec 816 ; 

Mtadraj. Index : tsars* 


Adta 
Bata Law 
Brawn Bavsrt 
Oba Getgy 
Credit Suisse 
Qectrowatt 
Georg Fischer 
Intord Uuw wt 
Jacob Suction) 


Landis Gyr 
Nestle 
OerBton-B 
Radio Baby 


2740 2700 
3575 3525 
1680 1695 
3000 3050 
2435 3400 

3818 2790 

77b 765 

1940 1900 
6475 6475 
M80 1955 
1720 1700 
6520 657B 
1505 1495 
9000 8775 
USD 7930 


300 390 

369 364 

— 1137 1130 

Swiss Reinsurance 9675 9650 
Swta» Vo Hcsbar* 14U U70 

20750 20600 

SBC i ndex ; BUi 
Pnrvloos : <3736 
«LQ.: not auo tad; NJL: net 
available; xd: ex-dividend. 


Schindler 


Sc" 

Swissair 


AGA 

N.T. 

385 

Alta Laval 

191 

190 

Asia 

360 

365 

Astra 

370 

390 

Atlas Conco 

107 

106 

Balkfan 

205 

190 

Elecli uitnc 

324 

322 

Ertresan 

279 

TBS 

ESHlte 

365 

365 

Hondo) sbonkon 

148 

167 

PHqrmodB 

712 

213 

Soab-Somla 
Sandvik . 

430 

NA 

4K) 

430 


French Output Down 


Reuters 


Nltpat, : 

ally adjosted, fdl a provisional 1.6 pereem in 
January, after a 23 percent fall in December, 
the National Statistics Institute, Insee, said 


Tuesday. 

Insee': 


roduc- 


s seasonally a^'asted 
tion index, exduding constmctkm 
works, fdl to a provisional 127 from 129 in 
December and 133 in Jammy last year. The 
base of the index is 100 in 19/0. 

Year to year, the January index fdl a provi- 
sional A3 percent, compared with a 1-5 percent 
year-to-year fall in December. 

Electricity generation and gas distribution 
were exceptionally high, but at the same time, 
many factories were forced to slow production 
because of transport difficulties affecting both 
raw-material supplies and finished-product dis- 
tribution. 

To Onr Readers 

Because of transmission problems, Sydney 
dosing stock prices were not avaflabfeTuesday. 


Cancu&nn. stocks via AP 


March 19~\ 


TOO Alta Not 
300 AHw Cwif 
1736A|gotno St 
WO Andre WAf 

I30ATBCM 

WODOAtCOll 
2400 BP Canada 
17035 Bank BC 
31881 Bank N 5 
81290 Bqrrtcko 
300 Baton At 
57296 Boaarua R 
4400 Bralanw 
KS30O BramoJca 
530 Brando M 
3906 BCFP 
40272 BC R«s 
9210 BC Phone 
T700 Brunswfc 

5450 BuddCaa 

52O0OCAE 
4CCLA 
4100 CDtsta B f 
6800 Cad Fry 

Z800C Nor Was) 
50C Pockrs 
4002 Con Trust 
SOOCTwig 
100CGE 
MQ06CI BkCom 
5200 Cdn Not Rra 
53094 CTlreAf 
>292 C Uhl B . 
WOO Cara 
1651 Cetanes* 

300 Calnn 175p 
3400CDIstbA 
4100 ODMb B f 
3050 CTL Bank 
3700 Canvorrfrs 
2500 Conwesi A 
JWOCosakoR 
400 Conran A 
7306 Crawnx 

11400 Czar Res 
56261 Daon Dev 
600 Doan A 
8444 Denison A p 
36364 Denim Sf 
9300 Deveicoa 
40000Dlckn8n a f 
5490 Dicknsn B 
1 19 39 Daman A 
B29246 DofasCDA 
300 Du Pont A 
1266 Dylan A 
MOElcthomX 
, _300 gmco 
127000 Equity Svr 
4KTC Falcon C 
9506 Fknbrdge 
2700 Pad Ind A 
1100 Fed Plan 
Woo F City Fin 
750 Fraser 
2634 GendlsA 

,2350 Geoc Comp 
[7 005 4 Saocruda 
23K0 Gtorattar 

46975 GoMeorpt - 
.mogoodyar 
8500 Grandma 
MOOL Forest 
700 Gt Pacific 
300Gravtwd . 
300 H Group A 
3961 Hiding A f . 
2159 Hawker 
1704 Haves D 
2920 H Bay Co 
33U6lmaseo 
650 Indal 
735 inland Gas 

TOO ivacaB 
2800 Janneta 
21520 Ka>n Kotta 
388 Kataev H 
1242 Karr Add 


HWi LowCteeChge 
STSVi I5W I5tb— « 
^ 21Vi 22 +1 

5216b 21 7114+ 1A 

8241b 24^ 248h+te 

*19 19 19 — Vb 

avi va sn +14 

8131k 12* 13 

150 146 154 +13 

*15)4 1514 15Vb 
410 405 405 + S 

W 490 495 +5 

VWA 17% 1716+ li 
59 9 9 — M 

1W 916 10 .+ 16 

249 246 348 +3 
S21W 2116 2Hk 
M514 1516 15M+M 
825 241b 25 

S3? wvi+w 

82716 27» 2716+ 14 

«k .616+ fi 

_*16H 16 1616+ 16 

SS S? SJ 

82916 3U, 2716- 

833 33 33 + 16 

*]«6 1416 1416+16 
*66 66 66 +2 
82991 2916 291k 
29 26 36 —3 

BW «1 816— lh 

*17 16* 761b— Ik 

*12 1116 11%— lb 

8716 Mb 716 + 16 
*T7V4 1714 1714— 16 

6V6 6^X 

"SSS.'S v-* 

88 I .. 

Z79 276 279 +a 

8WF6 l«h 1IP6 ' 

*10 18 18 

160 152 

420 405 

420 420 420 

SUM 13 1316+ H 

HM 1214 ”*+]£ 

• 0b 


66080 MdonHX 
HBMmdmi 
6194Motaon At 
450MotalB 
100 Morphy 
38170 Nabisco L 
97781 Nanmda 
11786 Horcen 
95709 Nvo AKA f 
7800 Nowsco W 
2KXZ NuWW ta A 
58749 Oakweod 
3300 Oshawa A ( 
37450 Pa mo w 
19700 PanCan P 
7701 Pembina 
-40S0 Phoolx Oil 
.200 Pine Paint 
, 4450 place co 0 
I6IB00 Plocar 
..^fFTnvtao _ 

"SsssKr 

“Rovrackt 




*714 


^ 0b 


a" i si 

225 220 220 —5 

S27Vh WH 27 — )h 
81616 169k 161b— 1b 
*25S 3W 3916+ IS 

M *.!»** 

81716 17 17te+Vh 
*96 9416 96 +116 

22H 22% + 14 

822 2116 22 + i 

S3B £55 »*+ » 

81716 17% 171b 
*27% TTV* 27%+ % 
HJ 11 f.Vk 

22,, 2» 270 +12 

- 9% 10%+ 1 
6% -7%+ « 

W, fi. — 0b 

»” W4-1 

m ¥ 2 

8716 7% 716— Vi 

128 ra a tf 
MM6 2M 2016+% 
824 % 23% 24 — % 
*1716 17 1716 + & 


a 




93209 Lae Marts' 
4525 LOrtf Caro 
1BMQ Loeono 
1971 LL Lae ■- 
4160 LabknrCa 
10Q0MOSHA 


1M 1< 

m BVJ L 

B.-s.axtt. 

»»b nih/nM+i* 

833 -» V32VJ+-2 ■ 

W 8 Vi MW+'W 

1 T 8 V+ an thi 4— j4 


772D6Rd Stands A 
. 1000 RakhhoM 

,169000 Res Servf 
153SB Revn Pro A 
JWRtaereA 
SUB Roman 


inooscShTT 

®««shwTm 
190 Kama 

loo stator B I 
laaasautton 
aoost&odcst 

59*30 Stetaj A 

looosmptra 

3610 Steep R 
, lOfimcorar- 
ItaOT Sydney o 
T2050 Tgiccrp 
275 Tara - 

MglSmHk 

■^Bsawa 


825% 2616 26K 
425 410 42S +1fr 

*16% 15% 150k 

*20% 20% 20% 
82646 2616 26%—% 
*« « 18%+ l 

S1«% 14 14%+ % 

6% 

*n 22% Z3 + % 
57 54 55 J* 

£ $ 

^ l a: a 
*2* - 2* 28 + 16 
T 18 no no 

« S6« 

Ik b 4 ”*'™ 

rak 11% 1Ub +ift 

yjsjrpa 

^ S a =5 

W% 9% 9% * 

*i2 nvb u + « 

«% * ^ 
*W% 2Ub 2Mb+V6 

f | fn 

*0 .8% 9 . +1V 


“ ^ saS 


812% 
* 21 % _ 
305 305 


SHiiir™”' 
^ 2 TrConPL 
4728 — Trkn oc . 
WTrtascA, 

nUMccapAf 

aSSuSSa 

S00 U SlMcam 

5T00V«^a* 


it a 

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Page 23 




SPORTS 


?r< ;-• 


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*i s. - 

tv _. . ... 

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iomu Looks to Rush Through a Loophole 

r .«l uu f I7WJ T-L, n -I- 


hitenuulmil Hereto Tribune 
LONDON — “At Rome all 
. inp can be had at a price." 

■. Did Juvenal writing a hundred 
* are after the birth of Qrisv have 
■: ' 'risioa of bow devious, how irre- 
. oEsiblc, 20ih-cenuuy Romans 
: ..ght become in pursnit of thdr 
ds? 

. A-S- Ronuu fallen from a one- 
jsoo championship stand a nd 
'x. affected by the brittleness of its 
cabled Brazilians, Roberto Fal- 
o god Toninho Cerczo, is report- 
looking abroad for new blood. 


But there are ways of circum- 
venting rules. 

The federation recently reas- 
sessed the situation of dubs antici- 
pating promotion from the second 

Rob Hughes 


division this summer, ft agreed — 

“to be fair” — to la promoted 
teams buy and bring in two foreig- 
ners. . - . And although one would 

never believe it of Roma President u MnB in^ k- -j,, - _ ^ 
Dino Viola (a man already sitting ■ na &\ JUS ? •*¥ 

<.Hnn.Uiri.S 2 a' e ? ed . b y Liverpool, wtoch 


week in the English FA Cup) a 
sublime bat trick and then praise 
his teammates. He still se ems in 
awe of his more experienced Scot- 
tish partner, Kenny Dalglish. And 
adoration by the muling throng, be 
it Liverpudlian or Roman, moves 
him to no considerable oratory. But 
in soccer terms he scores more of- 
ten than any contemporary at has 
leveL And that is, wdl — if not 
priceless, likely to break the Basca 
di Roma. 


Ut j . 

*»« •* >' X - 
lul'J. c, *. 
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14.* * Vv - : 
Mt ft - 

- 

W**e 


V x goal-poaching in bis clean, seoond-divisj 
"* ■vjrp, incessant fashion following pool striker. 

jous knee surgery last fall Presto, he would then be legally 

But surely nothing can come of transferred to Roma, allowing Fal- 
> - , Does memory deceive us, or did cao, the faded idol of 1983-84 to 
' < the Italian federation rule a return whence he tramp in Brazil, 
ar ago that imports would cease Ironically, Rush is something of 
til 1986? an anti -hero. He can score fas last 




IT* Aoooioiad Aw 

an Rash, storming past Tottenham goalie Ray Qeraence. 

x V ordiques Tie Canadiens 
For Top Spot in Division 


blanked during the first leg bui, 
typically Liverpool, his ride coolly 
drew. 

Along with Liverpool, Juvcntus 
(three goals op on Sparta Prague), 
Dnepropetrovsk (level after the 
away leg in Bordeaux) and Panatb- 
inaikos (after controversially win- 
ning by a penalty in Gflwborg) are 
favorites to make the semifinals. 

In the Cup Winners’ Cup, Roma 
may fill its house but not sufficient- 
ly fill Bayern Munich’s goal to off- 
set the west Germans two-goal 
advantage. Despite injuries, Ever- 
ton should qualify comfortably 
against the Dutchmen from Fomi- 
na Sittard. Moscow Dynamo is a 
red-hot certainty to elmrinate La- 
rissa of Greece, and although Rap- 
id Vienna found ways of conning 
its way pastCd tic in the last round, 
I doubt it can pull back three goals 
against Dynamo Dresden. 

The UEFA Cup. as ever, is more 
open. Manchester United over ra n 
Video ton in the home 1% but 
squeezed only a solitary goal — not 
enoug h if the Hungarians show ap- 
petite enough to become the first 
Magyar sine in the semis in six 
years. They did so spectacularly in 
an esiiier round, Josef Szabo net- 
ting four rimM in a 5-0 second-leg 
bombardment that erased Partizan 
Belgrade’s 2-0 advantage. 

Dynamo Minsk has a tall order 
in trying to reverse a 2-0 deficit 
against Zdjezmcar of Yugoslavia. 
And Real Madrid, still wobbling 
despite deservedly outwitting Tot- 
tenham to finish a goal up in Lon- 
don, has two more doses. of bad 
news. First the absence (hepititis) 
of defensive anchor Uli Stidicke, 
and second the resBiem away form 
of Spurs, who last Saturday (thanks 
to a phenomenal goal-keeping dis- 


play by Ray Clemen ce) won in Liv- 
erpool for die first time in 73 years. 

Tottenham's previous victory in 
that stadium had been in the year 
i fie Titanic went down. Compari- 
sons are being made to the once- 
. glorious Real Madrid but, on the 
evidence of the Spaniards’ mastery 
in London, I suspect its troubled 
slop will floai a while longer. 

. From ship’s company to super- 
stars — or back to soccer gods and 
huge fortunes. West Germany is 
of sdf-ap- 


onetime midfield creator, 

Boohof, has commented, “people 
real i z e d they all had to work hard 
together, and this mentality 
re a ched, soccer, where too mum 
e mp h asi s is put on teamwork and 
too little on individual talent.” 

A week asp, Pierre liitbazsld, 
one of the few who might have 
opposed that trend, was banned for 
four weeks for persistent fouling. 
And national boss Franz Becken- 
bauer, once the epitome of ele- 
gance, admitted: “I may be partly 
to blame — I urged Littbarski to be 
more aggressive.” 

For “aggressive" in soccer par- 
lance, read duty, industrious, nig- 
gling or just athletic. Anyway. Litt- 
barska’s team, Cologne, will pky to 
a packed stadium Wednesday 
when it attempts to overcame In- 
ter-Milan’s slender one-goal lead. 

Packed for one reason: The re- 


great individuals, Karl-Hemz 
Rummemgge. Long before he 
scored a scintillating goal for Inter 
against AC Milan lak Sunday, Co- 
logne's house was fully booked for 
the superstar’s appearance. 

It is his second homecoming in 
the UEFA competition. Hamburg 
also sold out when Rummemgge 
visited with Inter in the previous 
round, and now 61,188 Cologne 
fans are paying £400,000 (and tele- 
vision is chipping in £65,000), 
mainly in anticipation of one man’s 
flair. 

All eyes win be on him, and one 
more stroke of Rummemgge genius 
— one more memory from tmsfbr- 
mer bank clerk — will remind his 
kinfolk of die precious talent whose 
price all Italians, not just Romans, 
are prepared to pay. 


VANTAGE POINT/ Dove Anderson 

Baseball Commissioner Starts a Tightrope Act 


York Tima Service 

NEW YORK— Into the glit- 
ter of the Aster Salon at the Wal- 
dorf-Astoria Hotel came Peter 
Ueberroth, followed by Mickey 
Mantle and Willie Mays: a war- 
den leading two pardoned con- 
victs out of jail and onto the 
streets. The baseball Hall of 
Famers didn't need to be handed 
a few dollars (they had their cor- 
porate credit cards), but each 
wore a new-enough suit — gray 
with a red tie for Mantle, tan with 
a brown lie for Mays. 

“I'm pleased," the commis- 
sioner began, “to welcome back 
to baseball Willie Mays and 
Mickey Mantle, effective imme- 
diately. Each is free to be em- 
ployed by baseball without re- 
strictions.” 

In his remarks Monday, Ue- 
berroth carefully avoided criticiz- 
ing the lifetime sentence that 
Bowie Kuhn had imposed on 
Mays in 1979 for signing a 10- 
year contract as an “assistant to 
the president" of BaDy’s Park 
Place, an Atlantic City, New Jer- 
sey, hotel and casino. When Man- 
tle was hired by die Claridge Ho- 


tel in 1983 to direct its sports pro- 
grams, he knew he'd get life too. 

In the world according to 
Kuhn, anyone employed by a ca- 
sino could not be employed by a 
ba sfha fl team. 

“1 find no fault with the prior 
commissioner's ruling," Ueber- 
roth Said. “We’re just making two 
exceptions. These two men are 
more a part of this game than any 
two living ballplayers. And new 
guidelines are needed to keep 
gambling and baseball apart; the 
whole world of gaming is chang- 
ing." 

The first guideline has been set 
— doing what Mantle and Mays 
do has Ueberroth's blessing. But 
the new commissioner has set a 
potentially dangerous precedent. 

What the two Hall of Famers 
do, they say, is mostly play golf 
with “customers," a casino eu- 
phemism for high rollers. Each 
contends he does not even know 
who the clients are, but the casi- 
nos presumably do not waste the 
marquee value of Mantle and 
Mays by pairing them with peo- 
ple who play 25-cent slots. Cli- 
ents are paired with Mantle and 


Mays to lure other high rollers 
into the rgri q p s . 

But the commissioner didn't 
appear alarmed. "1 don’t think." 
he said, “we can sun dictating 
who you can play golf with." 

As licensed New Jersey casino 
employees, the two are hot per- 
mitted to gamble in casinos. But 
that doesn't prevent them from 
developing relationships with 
high rollers that someday may 
embarrass baseball. 

That, of course, could happen 
to any former or current baseball 
player without a casino connec- 
tion. Denny McLain, for exam- 
ple, faces a 75-year sentence fol- 
lowing his recent conviction for 
racketeering, extortion and co- 
caine possession. 

Asked if McLain's problems 
related to the Mantle-Mays case, 
the commissioner said, “It 
doesn't." Asked if the two cases 
should relate to each other, be 
said, “1 don't think so." 

The difference is that McLain 
broke the law. 

Mantle and Mays don't break 
the law by playing golf with casi- 
no customers. But in declaring 



RmXwvUrxtad Fran Imw aj innd 

Willie Mays, left, and Mickey Mantle, flanking Peter Ueberroth Monday in New York. 


that baseball needs stronger gam- 
bling guidelines. Ueberroth will 
be walking a tightrope — not 
only for players and former play- 
ers with casino employment, but 
also for such club owners as 
George Steinbrenner of the New 
York Yankees and John Gal- 
breath of the Pittsburgh Pirates, 
who are involved in the thorough- 
bred-racing industry. 

Granted, casino gambling de- 
serves to be set apart from horse- 
race gambling, os hard porn 
should be set apart from soft 
porn. But walking the tightrope 
will be tricky. While investigating 
Mantle's case, Ueberroth learned 
that the Claridge was planning j 
billboard ad featuring a photo of 
tbe former slugger. That bill- 
board. according to the commis- 
sioner. will not be displayed. 

Is there really a difference be- 
tween Mantle's face being on a 
billboard and Mantle himself rid- 
ing in a golf cart with a high 
roller? 

But in the commissioner’s new- 
gambling guidelines, which he ex- 
pects to announce in the next few 
weeks, playing golf with custom- 
ers will apparently be allowed. 
Billboard shilling won't. 

In reinstating Mantle jnd 
Mays, botit 53. the commissioner 
surely pleased the baseball pub- 
lic, although neither of the two L> 
likely to return to baseball now. 

**I wasn't known for my 
brains" Mantle said Monday. “1 
doubt if anybody will call me up 
and say. ‘Come be mv manag- 
er.’ ” Bui the Yankee who hit 536 
home runs (one of the last came 
off McLain, who threw a fat pitch 
on purpose) seemed delighted at 
being pardoned. “You don't want 
to get thrown out of your favorite 
bar." he said, “much less banned 
from baseball." 

As Ueberroth was about to 
leave, he walked over to say good- 
bye to the two pardonees. who 
asked if he needed them for any- 
thing else. “No," the commission- 
er said, “you guys can do any- 
thing you want." 

Just don't pose for a casino 
billboard ad. And don't ignore 
the commissioner’s eventual 
tightrope act on gambling and 
baseball 


SCOREBOARD 


Basketball 



National Basketball Association Leaders 


Portland 

Cleveland 


7554 

t an 


111.1 Moncrief. MU. 

. 1115 Vcmdewegbe. Pit. 


60 «U JW 13*2 97 
a »5 wnttiu 


BHIIM.i 


jmpUedby Our Stoff From Dispaiches 

BOSTON — The torrid race in 


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! National Hockey League’s Atf- 
s Division has grown even hot- 
with a Gist-plaoe French Con- 
ation. 

rhe trio of Peter and Anton 
-stay and hfichd Goulet com- 
ied for five goals and 12 of (^ne- 
^’s 24 Mints here Monday night 
itbe Nordiqnes leapfrogged over 
ffalo mid into a first-place Ad- 
t i s Division tie with an 8-4 


pounding of Boston. Gonlet scored 
_ three grab far the winners, and 
W3f Paianrafadded a pair. 

“It was a very important game,” 
said Peter Stastny, who had a goal 
and four assists (three at them on 
the goals by Goulet). “If we had 
lost Boston could have been dose 


NHL FOCUS 


m: 


«»T?B r 


Uppers Jolt 
Astons With 
jhiick Attack 






r « 


' The Astodaied Press 

LOS ANGELES — After notch- 
L £*4 their second victory in nine 
mes under Coach Don Chaney. 
^ Los Angeles Clippers may have 
and. their style — the running 
me. 

Rookie forward Michael Cage 
tad a season-high 22 points and 
arm Nixon added 20 points and 
Aed out a career-high 21 assists 

NBA FOCUS 

to 


*-.r < 

P* * 


136-116 victory over the 
sums in a National Basketball 
; soaa tion game here Monday 
*hL 

- We got. into an open-court 
; me and it definitely helped my 

me,” said Nixon, whose 21 as- 
. ts surpassed his former career 

- & of 19, set with the Los Angeles 
k«s on Nov. 3, 1978, against the 

‘ wYodtKiAis. 

; These guys realty responded to- 
jpit and played well,” said 
. who toot over from for- 
. kCcach JimLynamonMarchd. 

■ he defense was great," be contm- 
. »• “’We worked tbe rotation well 
' l tr ^P| B d great.” 

P>e Clippers broke the contest 

- m in the third quarter after tak- 
*a 62-53 halftime lead. Using the 
* break to perfection, they ont- 
Md the playoff-bound Pistons 

' 23*12 to lead, 85-65, after 5:30 
«* period. After that, Detroit 
“dgetno closer than 18 points, 
asewfaere Monday, it was Den- 
.. 113, Dallas U1 and Utah 136, 
nen State 125. 

i, ^SO-point victory margin was 
' season. 

Smith and Junior Bridge- 
i scored 20 points each as Los 
' lues ended a two-game losing 
• .'®k and improved to 24-46. 
a». who hit I0o£ 13shot5fnan 
Boor and pulled down eight 
‘ ,«nds, ended a string of 13 
in wlndj Smith was the lead- 

• icorer for the Clippers. 

Tripocka led Detroit with 

- tarns tod Isiah Thomas and 1 
1 «unbeer each added 14. Tbe 
; have lost three straight 

JUUtey finally got to this t eam. 
mew they would Start running 
Mti ton’^ht they started,” 
v* Detraii cotofa, Chuck 


to us, and with 10 games left any- 
thing could happen.” Tbe North- 
ques and Montreal are one point 
ahead of Buffalo, with Boston sev- 
fcn in back of the leaders. 

Elsewhere it was Toronto 4, Sl 
L ouis 3, while Calgary and Minne- 
sota tied, 4-4. 

Quebec led, 3-Z after one period 
and by 6-3 after two. Goulet scored 
twice with a manpower advantage 
and raised his total for the season 
to 48 goals, mchiding 14 on power 
plays. 

Pajement and Anton Stastny 
scored before Steve Kasper's fifth 
short-handed goal of tbe season cut 
Quebec’s lead to 2-1 at 8:30 of the 
opening period. Goulet and Bos- 
ton’s Charlie Simmer, who scored 
twice, traded power-play goals be- 
fore Goulet connected on another 
power play to make it 4-2 at 3:30 of 
the second period. 

Paiement tallied on a 20-foot 
backhander midway through the 
period before tbe Brains* Ray 
Bourque retaliated with a power- 
play goal, but Gonlet got it bade 

when he completed his bat nick on 

a 25-foot wrist shot from the sJol 
“W e were hungry. We played a 
real good disdphned game,” said 
Nonhque Grach Michel Bergeron. 
“We’re playing in a tough division, 
and we're hoping to finish first.” 

’ “I knew if we were going to win, 
we’d have to score at least five 
gods," said Peter Stastny. “First 
place is what’s most important to 
us now. We’ve never won the divi- 
sion before and that’s what we’re 
playing for. It is a big advantage to 
fixtish first for the playoffs and 
that's what we want. 

“Thai’s what you play hockey 
for,” he continued. “If you win a 
game, it makes you fed great If 
you win a division, better. And if 
you wm the Stanley Cup, that’s the ' 
best.” 

“They’re an impressive team 
with Stastny and Goulet operating 

Like that," said Boston coach Harry 

Sindrn. “Peter is really a strong 
player. You have trouble with a 
team like Quebec when he plays 
like he did tonight. He was im- 
mense." 

There’s plenty Of time left — 
Montreal and Quebec each have 10 
regular-season games remaining — 
for the Adams picture to be jum- 
bled even further. “Three weeks 
from now, I'll be three weeks old- 
er” said SSnden. “We all wish we 
could forecast what wall happen 
then, but we can’t** 

A sound forecast for Monday’s 
game would have been that Boston 
goalie Doug Keans would allow 
fewer than eight goals. In Us previ- 
ous five games — all victories —he 
had given up just nine. “He wasn’t 
weak in the goal," said Bergeron. 
‘’But we had too many 2-on-I s and 
3-on-2’s." (AP. UPf) 


NBA lenders duuueb gomes of Rndor. 

Atlanta 

M 

7251 

10*8 

Detroll 

63 

7461 1133 

Sampson, Hou. 

<7 

621 244 148* 222 

March 17; 




New Vartc 

re 

7304 

18*9 

Indiana 

63 

7772 1133 

AhduHJehtar, LAL 

*7 

*11 259 1481 22.1 


TEAM OFFENSE 


' Washington. 

67 

7077 

1058 

San Antonio 

65 

7901 . 1145 

Free. Oev. 

5* 

4*5 2M-U27 7L9. 


0“ 

“to. 

Avg 

■ljlciw% r 

* ef- 



' Golden State 

— *»-- -7773 

Tbjamas. (Set. - 

■—*5 -52V 332-7408 21^ 

Denver 

57 . 

8066 

1208 

Seattle 

ts 

AStU 

1013 

Kansas City 

t 

8 

7967 1173 

Gervia S3. 

re 

55 6 30 1415 218 

Us. Lakers 

67 

7765 

11*9 

. TEAM DEFENSE 


Denver 

44 

7886 1177 

smith, LAC 

M 

544 322 1457 2L8 

Detroit 

66 

76«t 

VISA 


G 

PI. 

Avg 



_ 


FIELD GOAL PERCENTAGE 

San Antonia 

69 

79*4 

1158 

MIhMDiAee 

63 

4917 

1013 


SCORING 




Ft FW Pd 

Boston 

68 

7843 

1153 

Seattle 

64 

7107 

1045 


G 

Fg 

Ft Pts Avg 

Donaldson. LAC - 


307 449 3S 

Kansas City 

re 

7755 

1140 

Washington 

64 

7081 

1057 

Klnn. N.Y. 

52 

647 

399 1693 323 

Gilmore. SJL 


■47 716 824 

Pomand 

re 

7742 

mi 

Boston 

64 

7341 

leu 

Bint, Bos. 

60 

794 

338 1971 293 

AbduKlaMor, LAL 


611 1029 594 

Philadelphia 

67 

7599 

1138 

Philadelphia 

. 64 

7241 

108.1 

Short. GJ. 

65 

682 

435 1827 28.1 

Nance. Pha*. 


515 868 593 

Dallas 

re 

7527 

1107 

Dallas 

64 

73*6 

1003 

English, Den. 

67 

774 

310 1859 277 

Thorpe. K X. 


309 527 5U 

Houston 

*7 

7381 

1102 

Houston 

64 

72*7 

1083 

Jordan, ChL 

re 

486 

501 1879 273 

Worthy, LAL 


504 876 578 

Milwaukee 

67 

7381 

1102 

New Jersey 

64 

7391 

1087 

WltUtoL Aft 

67 

702 

801 1826 273 

Checks, PhU. 


330 573 57* 

Chicago 

re 

7408 

108.9 

Atlanta 

.63 

7397 

UtA 

Aguirre. DaL 

67 

664 

365 1716 256 

McHate, Bos. 


488 854 571 

Nsw Jersey 

68 

74M 

1009 

Chicago 

63 

7439 

1098 

Malone, pul 

66 

515 

*20 1650 258 

Rulaod, Wash. 


29D 439 569 

Utah 

re 

73M 

1088 

Phoenix 

64 

7440 

1098 

Cummings. MIL 

66 

646 

297 1589 24.1 

Johnson. LAL 


425 756 5*2 

Golden State 

67 

7257 

1083 

LA. Lakers 

63 

7338 

1093 

Nan, Den. 

65 

579 

3*1 1519 238 

RBBOUNDING 

Phoenix 

re 

7347 

TDSJ3 

New York 

64 

7465 

109A 

WogUidna. ChL 

a 

564 

344 1472 238 


G Off Del Tot Avg 

Cleveland 

• 67 

7219 

1073 

Utah 

64 

7481 

1103 

Johnson. ICC 

re 

644 

273 1572 ZL1 

Malone, PhIL 

** 

317 513 *50 1Z9 

Indiana 

re 

7313 

1d»3 

LA. CUwers 

64 

7*30 

1103 

Griffith, Utah 

re 

643 

W 1555 2Z9 

WUHana, HJL 

re 

27S 568 MJ 123 


Olaiuwwb Hoh. 
IdohntMMT. 0*1. 
Eaton, Utah 
Gilmore, S A. 
SJkmct Sea. 
Thompson, ICC. 
Smith, GJ5- 
Purtoh, Bos. 
Bird, bos. 


«7 w 43 * are in 

M 3» 574 TO 110 

« HI SH 773 114 

M 2M 5B 723 114 

re IM 59 723 MU 

U 223 500- 723 MU 

45 334 344 

44 227 473 7W MU 

•• 135 5B5 720 1U 


Sampson, Hou. 67 188 

ASSISTS 

521 

G 

709 105 

No. Avg. 

Thomas, Ore. 

65 

87* 

135 

Johnson. LAL 

64 

803 

125 

Moore, SJL 

69 

612 

95 

Bagiev. Clev. 

67 

562 

08 

Nixon, LAC 

68 

557 

S3 

Thews, ICC 

U 

544 

8.0 

Richardson. ILL 

re 

539 

7J 

Green. Utah 

63 

484 

73 

Gs. Williams, wash. 

64 

491 

73 

Valentine. Port. 

6] 

4*0 

75 



National Hockey League Leaders 


khl tootfsn ihroosh gomes of Stmdar, 
March 17: 

OFFENSE 

Overall 


. 

G 

A 

P Pirn 

Gretzky, Edmonton 

65 

121 

186 

40 

KunrL Edmonton 

67 

81 

128 

24 

Uowerahufc. Winnipeg 

46 

70 

116 

74 

Ptomta, Los Angeles 

43 

73 

106 

40 

Bossy. N.YJ. 

54 

56 

110 

32 

B. Sutter, K.YJ. 

42 

59 

101 

SI 

Savand. Chicago 

36 

*0 

96 

40 

Owodnk*. Detroit 

51 

44 

95 

30 

Coffey, Edmonton 

27 

re 

W 

w 

TorwIU. N.YA. 

38 

56 

94 

i» 

Federka 5f Louts 

28 

66 

96 

23 

NkJxjllg, Los Angeles 

44 

49 

93 

64 

MacLean. Winnipeg 

37 

55 

92 

99 

P. Stastny, Quebec 

30 

61 

91 

87 

Karr, Philadelphia 

51 

38 

89 

38 

Gartner, Washington 

43 

46 

89 

61 

Nilsson, Catoary 

32 

57 

89 

14 

Carpenter, Washington 

4a 

38 

86 

78 


Short-Handed Goals 
GP 

Gnrtzkv. Edmonton 71 

Pram Phltodehtota 66 

Mauler. Edmonton 46 

Tranter. N.Y.I. 9 

Gane-Whalna Goals 
GP 


5HG 

10 

6 

S 

S 

GWG 


(minimum re shots) 

GP G 5 Pcl 
Y cuna Plttshurah 69 34 115 A* 

Korn, Edmonton 68 67 245 27J 

Simmer, UA^Bostwi 51 31 115 77 St 

D, Sutter, CMeaao 41 « 71 M 

A. Stastny, Quebec M 37 149 24J 

p ut P tav Goals 

GP PPG 

Kerr, Philadelphia 64 19 

Gartner. Washington 70 16 

HOMTChufc, Winnipeg 73 U 


Kurd, Edmonton 

re 

12 

P- Stastny, Quebec 

66 

9 

Gartner. Washington 

10 

8 

Karr, Philadelphia 

64 

8 

Shots 

GP 

S 

Bouraue, Boston 

66 

311 

Gretzky, Edmonton 

71 

309 

DJanna, Los Angelas 

71 

286 

Gartner, Waxhtnpton 

70 

284 

BOALT ENDING 


(Empty-net goals *a parentheses) 


MP ' GA SO Ava 

Barren* 

2547 133 

5231 

Sauve 

130* 64 

03J9 

Chwtler 

65 4 

0389 

BoftoM IS) 

4316 28* 

S 293 

Jensen ■ 

443 30 

1331 

Mason. 

651 31 

TZ81 

Rtooln 

Xl« 158 

2301 

Wauriggloa (3) 

4252 214 

4 182 

Fraase 

803 36 

0289 

Undborsft 

3378 174 

1109 

Jenson 

60 7 

0750 

PMtoaeMla O) 

AMI 228 

1 111 

Ray 

20 0 

OGLOO 

Penney 

2367 17 

IZ19 


Saetaert 
Montreal (*) 

Keans 

Posters 
Syfvestrl 
Dasfccdakta 
Boston (|) 
GasseOn 
Bouchard 
Sevlprtv 
Quebec n> 
Mae* 

Baron 
Fuhr 
2am er 
Rsauoh 


1^86 84 0 339 
407323! 1 130 

1,256 65 1111 
1670 153 1344 
US 6 8353 
164 14 85.12 
4,93 341 3 3A5 
1JB0 98 1 146 
T.738 101 0X49 
7M 45 1353 
UH its 2358 
1550 IDS 1123 
73 2 0X64 

2JJ7I 127 1357 
185 12 03J9 
60 5 0540 


Sands 

MkmootD m 

JmecYtc 

E1W 

LSI AoaeiOl (4) 
Hayward 
Ho Men 


(Fuhr and Mam shand shutout Jan. 81 


EdwHtPhMi (U 
Heinz 
Wnmslev 

Milton 

Uut 

St. Loot! (4) 
aiffard 
SkaradoraU 
Ban n wman 
Pang 

Chiaaaa (51 
Lemallp 
Edwards 
cregoor O) 
Hrudov 
Smith 


N.Y. 

Beaupra 


Matamon 


CO 


4M2M 3 354 

70 3 0257 

1017 108 0321 
240 15 0 325 
1569 119 1383 
4.196 Mf 1 356 
20 0 0(100 
1,013 54 1320 
3264 212 0350 
60 4 0 4J3Q 

4557 275 1 UV 
2J01 161 1 145 
1446 106 0440 
450 378 1 181 

ins 127 lire 

1565 m 0384 
42S 35 0454 
4505277 3 386 

1506 93 1 387 
1857 104 0 177 
1822 61 0359 


Winnipeg «J 
StonhMMkl 
Uut 
Weeks 
Milton 
Hartford m 
Law 
Resell 
KammpwT 
Haw Jersey (5) 
Hanlon 

Vanblesbrnuck 
M.Y. reanaers (4) 
Ber nh ardt 


. J." 14 Slchttnp, ind. 

un an i in 

2837 161 3386 
1502 124 0 437 
431*289 3 451 

3546 197 0 388 

213 15 0*23 Bird, BeeT 

1.173 87 1445 Ewqns , Djfl. 

1 0380 Ellis. DaL 
4881 28 0 190 
1.157 79 24.10 
2859 187 1422 
4867 296 3 4.16 

14006 64 1 3J4 H , 

2879 177 04.12 RW ” n *" V MJ - 


FBEB THROWS 

Ftm FtO Pet 

Bird. Bos. 338 375 501 

Davis. DaL 140 156 597 

Trtpucka. Oal. 189 212 592 

Jatoson. ICC 273 207 589 

VOffihnmalw. Pori. 299 337 587 

Adams, PMC. 197 223 582 

106 120 583 

Cheeks. PWL 143 1S2 583 

THU E-POINT FIELD GOALS 

Fom Fsa Pet 


Davis, DaL 


Buie, icc 


40 90 444 

22 50 448 
45 IN 417 
51 122 415 

23 57 .04 
36 90 MO 
99 149 J96 
» 73 JB7 


STEALS 


665 54 0 552 
1 454 


Wreooret 
SL CralK 
Toronto {■) 
Mia 
Stefan 
Mattel 
Detroit (42 
Romano ■ 
Dion 


Ptttsberah (3) 
Bradaur 
Coptic* 

Garrett 

(A 


1 458 
1515 Til 0387 
647 45 1417 
1518 94 0463 
SU 48 04JS 
4551 381 1 458 

376 27 0431 
2473 167 0441 
1871 128 0480 
4334 336 8 453 

1829 120 1442 
553 43 0467 
1713139 1 473 
277 30 0680 
4,173 331 2 474 

2830 203 0485 
1528 110 05.16 
407 44 0449 
4315 364 0 556 


G Stl A vo 
M 191 251 
69 199 250 
a 161 380 
65 152 2J5 
64 148 231 
68 157 231 
55 121 220 
63 135 2.14 


Maart, S4L 
Lever, Den. 

1T5D 146 0407 

Rhnrs, AH. 

Oweks. PML 

BLOCKED SHOTS 

•, G Blk Avg 

Eaton, Utah 68 383 583 

Bawrle, Port 64 173 270 

ftolHn*. AIL 57 152 288 

cooper. Den. 65 153 255 

Olaluwon, Hou. 67 156 232 

Hinson, Qe. 61 148 230 

Gilmore. SJL U 147 2.16 

Abduklabbar. LAL 47 143 2.13 


Siattfttcal leaden ea the Professional Gott- 
en Association Tow thrown the USFAG 
Clastoc: 

EARNINGS 

1. Lamv WodklrwS197330L 2.MorK CTMrara 
SI 94625. 4 Curtis Strange *161344. «. CrolB 
siadlor 5134826. S. Calvin Peeee 5107885. 6. 
Fuzrr Zoelier S96384 7, Peter Jacobsen 
S8930a 8. CoTer Povln 588865. 9. Mark 
McCwmbar 582533. la. Larry Mize S79.17B. 

SCORING 

I. Craig Stadtor. 69.14 2. lony Wodklns, 
6921.3, Lorry M(z*.MJ44 6d Ftort. W79. 5, 
Don Pooler. 6954 4 Corey Panin. 4957. 7. Scott 
Simpson, 69.91 8. Dan PoM,69.949.Gary Koch, 
7422, 18. Ttom walsoa 7438- 

AVERAGE DRIVING DISTANCE 
l. Andy Bean, 27X42. Fred CoutHes and Bill 
Glasean. 271 3 . 4 Jim Dent, 2718. 5. Dan Pehl. 
2749. 4 Mac O-Grodv. 2695. 7, Greg Twiggs, 
2 »A 8. Clarence Rase. 2474 9, Bernhard 
Longer, 2673. 10, Tom Purtzar. 367.1. 
DRIVING PERCENTAGE IN FAIRWAY 
I. Gene Lllttor. 504 Z Col vln Peeie and Tom 
K He. -782. 4 Tim Norris, 778- 5. Mike Reid, J7X 
4 Jack Renner. 357. 7, DovW Edwards. 354 4 
Doug TewHL 344 9. Nick Price. 74Z 14 Hole 
Irvrin. .740. 

GREEKS IN REGULATION 
l.Dan PW1L.764ZA1 GelberMr. J6XX Jack 
Nick l dus. J62. 4 Corev Povln. 854 5, Bruce 
Uet2ice. .747. b, John MohaHev. 344 7. Doug 
TewelL 741.4 Scalt Slmpion, 329. ?, Mike Rela 
327. la Jock Renner. 331 

AVERAGE PUTTS PER ROUND 
1* Fuzzv Zoelier, 27.17. Z Morris Katabkv. 
2750. X KDum Aral. 2734 4 Lonny Wodklns. 
2404 5. Craig Slotfler. 242a 4 Rex Ca towel L 
24247. Save Ballesteros. 2434 4 Robert Lonr, 
24419, Ran SlreduZBA 10. Don Pooiev,2858. 

PERCENTAGE OF SUB-PAR HOLES 
l.Crolg StacHor.37XZ Laiinv WOdklns. 364 
X Tara Wateoa.JU9.4GII Morgan. 334 5. Don 
PohL 331 .4 Ed Ftort,329. 7, Lorry MIZ0.32& 4 
O'Meara and Andtfv Bean, 327. 142 Had with 
324 

BIRDIES 

1. Fred Couplas. 131 1 Lorry R Inker. 131. z 
Curtts Stranoeand Bradd Faxon, 1245. Willie 
WBod and Loren Roberts. 12Z 7, Craig Stadler. 
l».4 Lorry Mize. 117.9, Loony Wodktrn. ill 
14 Scott Slmnson. 109. 


Transition 



ML Standings 

WALES CONFERENCE 
Patrick DMsioe 

W L TPB GF GA 
x-PhiUdelBMa 44 19 7 95 307 220 

x -Washington 40 71 9 M 285 214 

x-u.Y. 1 dander* 37 29 5 79 317 277 

N.Y. Rangers 23 37 10 56 265 30 

Pittsburgh 23 41 5 51 213 331 

Hew Jarevy 20 <1 9 49 336 3SD 

eitpun Dtvtsloe 

x-QueMc 35 26 9 79 293 219 

x -Montreal 34 25 11 79 265 235 

X -Buffalo 32 » 14 78 2SS 286 

Boston 32 38 8 72 266 249 

Hartford 23 38 9 53 240 296 

CAMPBELL CONFERENCE 


NBA Standings 

EASTERN CONFERENCE 
Attain c: Division 

w L Pet. GB 

x-BOfton 54 14 794 — 

x-Pti nod dpWa 51 14 761 2M 

Washington 34 32 807 19W 

New Jersey 34 34 800 2D 

New York 23 45 738 31 

Central Dtvtstaa 

xhMnwaukee 47 30 701 — 

Detroit 34 31 837 11 

Chicago 33 35 885 14U 

Cleveland 27 40 803 20 

Atlanta 26 42 582 21W 

Indiana 20 48 2M 27ta 


BASEBALL 
National League 

MONTREAL— Designated Mickey Mahler. 
Greg Baroar and John Damon, pitchers; ai 
N ewman end Luis Rivera, W fielders; Mike 
Fuentes and Wallace Johnson. outttoMan. 
and George Blark man. Jim Ceccttlnl and Nel- 
son Santovenio. eolchers, tor reosslonmeni. 

FOOTBALL 

Untied States Foofboil League 

ARIZONA— Signed Jim Portese. center, to 
a one-year contract. Waived Mike Williams, 
defensive Pack. 

COLLEGE 

CALIFORNIA— Announced tool Dick Ku-' 
chen, man's basketball coach, has resigned. 


Exhibition Baseball 


WESTERN CONFERENCE 
MM w eto Mvtslan 


Denver 

Houston 

Dalle* 

Son Antonio 
Utah 

City 



43 25 
39 28 

31 31 
34 35 
33 34 
25 43 

Pacific Mvutaa 
49 U 

32 34 
31 37 
29 39 
2d 46 
19 49 


832 — 
882 3Vk 
851 SVi 
893 9W 
871 ]0Vj 
8U 18 

731 — 
871 17VS 
856 IBM 
826 20VS 
J43 24M 
779 XV) 


IhiA ta d tad ftew 


99 352 254 
85 323 385 
n XU 274 
77 311 289 
52 2S 364 

(x-dlnched ptgvgff bertn) 

MONDAY’S RESULTS 
Dm Hoc 13 3-4 

Bastoa 1 T 1—4 

Patement 2 (18). A. Sfashtv (38), Goulet 3 
148), P.siredny CU). Astiton Of)! Kaseer (U), 
simmer 2 OJ). Bourque (M). Shett on aool: 
Quebec (on Keons) 13-8-14—35; Baton (on 
Sevigny) 18-12-11-41. 

St Lae Ift 8 3 8 8-3 

Toronto 8 2 11-4 

Andcnoa 2 (20), Vdfve (31). Daoust Pt)j 
fhnlowiU (20). Mutton (34), Gilmore- (18). 
Shots op goal: St. Louis (an Bernhardt) 12-11- 
747-30; Taranto (on Womstov) 9-12-7-4 — SJ. 
Cal ga ry 6 8 0 0-4 

MlMHsefg IMM 

Laofaj raU.Covalllnl U), Been (241; GUes 


y-LA. Lakers 
Portland 
Phoenix 
Seattle 
LA. dippers 
Golden State 
bt-d Inched nlavoB berth! 

(rdlacM dWtolon tltto) 

MONDAYS RESULTS 
Dallas 25 31 20 25— in 

Denver U 37 35 25-111 

Natl 10-19 M0 29, EltOlfsh 11-26 6-7 28; 
Aoulrra 11-21 7* X, Blodunan 8-14 7-7 21 
Rebounds: Dallas (BManon 8); Denver 51 


MONDAY'S RESULTS 
Chicago Withe Sox 6. n.Y. Mcts 2 
Cincinnati 7. Houston 4 
San Franettco 4, Sen Diego 1 
Oitcooo Cuts (ssi 6. Milwaukee (u) 3 
Chicago Cubs (sal L Cleveland 2 
Texas 4. Atlanta 3 
Kansas City B. Baltimore 6 
Milwaukee (ss) 4, Seattle 3 
N.Y. Yankees Z Boston 1 
los Angeles Z Montreal 0 
Minnesota 5, Pittsburgh I 
California 14, Oakland 5 
SL Louts \ Toronto t 
Detroit L PftllCKtoiphia 6 



USFL Standings 


EASTERN CONFERENCE 


Richard Sevigny made (his save Monday despite being fallen on from behind by Boston’s moo* rm. Graham m, Roberts cs>. 
Dave Refd; its 8-4 victocy lifted Quebec into ft first-place tie in the NHL’s Adams Dm^on. iol» 


(Natt, Issal f). AsdBts: Daltai25 (Davlsll): 


w 

L 

T 

Pet. 

PF 

PA 

Denver 25 (Lner 9). 

Birmingham 

3 

1 

0 

.750 

129 

♦7 

Gatded State 24 29 27 35-125 

Memphis 

3 

1 

0 

.750 

84 

70 

UtaR 33 27 <2 34—04 

Tampa Bay 

3 

1 

fl 

m 

117 

88 

Donltev 12-17 11-13 35. Griffith 13-26 44 31; 

Now Jersey 

3 

2 

0 

JM 

100 

Nil 

Short 11-2* 46 27, Plummer 64 44 16. Re- 

Balt) mere 

1 

2 

1 

J75 

79 

69 

beendst Golden Stole 46 (Smith 14); Utah 65 

Jacksonville 

1 

3 

0 

350 

93 

171 

(Eaton 13), Assists; Gotten stale 19 1 Floyd. 

Ortonan 

O 

4 

0 

JUS 

46 

120 

Conner <)> Utah 28 (Green 9). 

WESTERN CONFERENCE 


Detroit 25 28 28 35-116 

Houston 

4 

0 

0 

UXM 

163 

85 

1— A. Olmers M 28 4] 31—154 

Oakland 

2 

1 

1 

425 

97 

185 

Cage 10-a 2-3 J2, Nixon 7-12 W 20, Smith P-M 

Arizona 

2 

J 

0 

JW 

77 

67 

M 2G Bridgeman 9-14 Z220i Trtoucko 8-17 4-6 

Denver 

3 

2 

0 

JM 

96 

107 

20L Lalmbeer 7-15 M U Thomas MS 04 14. 

Portland 

2 

2 

0 

SOD 

61 

65 

totoeretts; oreraM 48 ( Roretofle W. Ladnbeer, 

Las Angetos 

1 

3 

0 

-250 

105 

90 

Thomas 7); LA. dipper* 52 (Coae. Walton 8). 
Assists: Detroit ( Thatnos 13); la. atogera)9 
(Nixon 21). 

San Antonia 1 3 0 350 

Monday’s Resalt 
Houston 36, Denver 17 

44 

103 









itttti's « sa is am i* 


El 


All 

Air 

Alt' 


C:s 

Ml 
• BE 


Page 24 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, MARCH 20, 1985 


OBSERVER 


Of Time and the Telling 


By Russell Baker 



very young. Only 
54. And passed that birthday less 
than two weeks ago. All the ana- 
lysts have noted Gorbachev's 
youth, and the only point of dis- 
agreement they have about it is, 
what does it mean? 


that, while Californians are capable 
of being only as old as they fed, 
Russians are always at least 40 
years older than they fed. 

Those who press this analysis of 
the Gorbachev youth mystery as- 
sert that the generation gap strong- 


ly favors the American position 
Califor 


In these hair-splitting disputes I 
have little patience with my col- 
Soviet analysis. Wht 
St 


forma 


in soviet analysis. When 
had his mustache restyled, 
their first question was; What does 
it mean? “Whai does it mean?" 
they asked when it was discovered 
not only that Andrei A. Gromyko 
was married, but also that be had 
been married: almost forever. 

I stud it First at the time of the 
Stalin mustache restyling: “What it 
means only time wfll lefi," I said. 

I said it again when the great 
controversy arose about whether 
Gromyko's longtime marriage 
might lead to a change in Soviet 
policy toward Politburo members' 
taking winter vacations in the Ca- 
ribbean. “Only time will tell," I 
said. 

Now while they are at each oth- 
er’s throats about the meaning of 
Gorbachev’s youth, some loudly 
crying that it is fraught with si{ 


cance, others baldly asserting that 
lglessTT 


it is utterly meaningless , 1 say, 
"Gentlemen, only time will tdl" 
□ 

The more trenchant question, 
which is being raised by the few of 
us shrewd enough to understand 
the Byzantine labyrinth that is 

S 3 st- Stalin, post-Malenkov, post- 
ulganin, posi-Khrushcbev, post- 
Brezhnev, post-Andropov, post- 
Chernenko Russia is this , and I 
state it with the brutal frankness 
the question deserves: 

When you get right down to it, 
what is so young about 54? 

Is it true, as some of my col- 
leagues insist, that you are only as 
old as you feel? Those arguing this 
view believe that perhaps an in- 
nately boyish disposition may pre- 
vent Gorbachev from feeling tired, 
run-down and testy, like so many 
54-year-olds, thus reducing sharply 
the displays of ill win that so de- 
form Soviet-American relations. 

The answer, which would be per- 
fectly obvious if they thought 
about the question, is that only 
time win telL This bring the case. I 
have little patience for speculation 


since the president’s 
background means that on his good 
days he might be as young as 22. 
whereas Gorbachev will never 
again be an hour younger than 94. 

I think the answer to this dispute 
so obvious that grown Kremlin olo- 
gisis ought to be above arguing it: 
Only time wfll tell. 

□ 

Once this is understood, we must 
proceed to more troubling ques- 
tions raised by the succession in 
Moscow. Most of us who think 
incessantly and profoundly about 
foreign affairs know what these 
questions are. 

The first — let us be candid — is 
about Gorbachev’s longevity in his 
new job. In short, is Gorbachev the 
real thing? Or is he just another 
Georgi Malenkov? 

The second question: Who is 
Georgi Malenkov? Or, more inter- 
estingly, should the question be, 
Who was Geoigi Malenkov? Only 
time will tell, but one thing can be 
said with reasonably absolute au- 
thority. Georgi Malenkov was at 
one time in the same position now 
held by Mikhail Gorbachev; that 
is, he was the object of every cam- 
era lens in Moscow. 

Afterwards Malenkov was sent 
to manage the Soviet equivalent of 
a small-loan office somewhere just 
west of the Asian frontier. What 
does it mean, everyone asked at the 
time, and a long time ago it was, 
but 1 was already giving the dearest 
answers of any operative in the 
Kremlinological world, and I said. 
“Only time will triL" 

And sure enough, time did triL 
What it meant was that Malenkov 
did not have the marie to hold 
down a job desired by a person 
with the moxie of Nikita Khru- 
shchev. 

And Malenkov — should we 
speak of him in the present tense or 
past? It is a question of no impor- 
tance. The importtau.: question is 
whether Gorbachev might be an- 
other Malenkov. 


Only tiiw- will tel). 

Nem York luma Service 


Botho Strauss: Brooding About the New Germany 


By Geraldine Pluenneke 

{nunuaioiud Herald Tribune 

B ONN — Botho Strauss’ sub- 
ject is the new Germany, sev- 
ered from its past. 

Strauss was 5 months old, liv- 
ing a short bomber rim down the 
River Saak from Leipzig, when 
Germany surrendered on May 8, 
1945. Some call Strauss the most 
influential and exciting writer in 
West Germany today, the leader 
of a post-1968 wave of literature. 

Critics have showered the play- 
wright-novelist with extra vagant 
comparisons, likening him to 
Goethe, Kafka, Thomas Manm. 
the Austrian writer Peter Handke, 
even Cervantes or Shakespeare. 

Strauss is a recorder of nis age, 
a chameleon with a blotting-pa- 


per mind, brooding _his way 
irds 


around West Berlin. His wo 
are caustic, outrageous, fresh, 
comic, gentle. “Strauss is the rep- 
resentative person from 1968," 
said Rainer Driven thal, director 
of the Bonn production of 
Strauss' play “Der Park." “All of 
his plays come from exact obser- 
vation of German reality, Ger- 
man experience today, German 
social contact” 

Some swear Strauss is apoliti- 
cal. Others find him. a savage crit- 
ic of a society with collective am- 
nesia over the Nazi years. “Here 
in this sealed-up house you will 
find a quite ordinary concentra- 
tion camp, one among millions. A 
man is mistreating ms wife. . . . 
The amp is in everyone,” he 
wrote in ms third book, “Rumor" 
(1980; published in English as 

‘‘Tumult"). 

He obscures meanings. “In 
‘Der Park' there are many things 
that are mysterious. Strauss 
doesn’t want to explain them," 
said the Austrian actor Walter 
Schzmdinger, who played the lead 
in Peter Stem's five-hour Berlin 
production of the play. 

But nothing Strauss writes is as 
enigmatic as the man himsrif An 
invisible spectator, mysteiy man 
of the avant-garde, be has given 
no interviews since a rare meeting 
with a free-lance journalist ac- 
quaintance in 1981 for the news- 
paper West falischen -R undscha u^ 
and then only on the condition 
that no notes be taken. Then he 
expressed dread at the idea of 
bring recognized on the street like 
Gtmter Grass or Heinrich BOIL 
Once upon receiving a literary 



In 1970 Strauss began a five- 
year stint as a Dromaturg at West 
Berlin’s Schaubuhnc Theater un- 
der Stein. By 197! he had pub- 
lished his first play, “Die Hypo- 
chonder" (“The Hypochondriac,” 
which the Observer in London 
later praised as “highly assured 
comedy"), and had won the Han- 
nover ’Dramaturgic award. The 
Dramaturg, a sort of production 
adviser, is a post that does not 
exist in Pn g liA-l angnay theater. 
Berad Rather, a Bonn Drama - 
iurg, said of the position: “He 
advises, interprets. There is 00 
translation into English." Theater 
heme hastily began publishing 
Strauss’ reviews, which became 
an insiders’ sensation in West 
Berlin. “He viewed all theater for 
iis social significance,” Rather re- 
called. 


“world without real connections 
between people,’* said Del- 
vcnthal. “It is extremely co-ool” 
— he drew out the word. "It is 
about men with cut roots, without 
knowledge of any historical 
things, of people who meet for a 
moment then move on un- 
changed." He writes of violence 
springing from insignificant, im- 
personal happenings: of a society 


engulfed In’ the media and con- 
rism. livin'? 




Botho Strauss: A writer coping with time. 


Stein commissioned plays from 
Strauss. Strauss responded with 
an outpouring from his battered 
Olivetti — since 1971, more than 
a dozen plays, comedies, novels 
and short st dries. When he adapt- 
ed Gorki’s “Sommerg&ste," some 
critics said it approached Che- 
khov. 


sumerism. living only in the pre- 
sent. substituting information re- 
trieval for history. 

“When I first read ‘Der Park,' I 
couldn’t understand the meaning 
of more than a third of it." said 
Schmidinger, who was lauded tea 1 
his SchaubOhne portrayal of the 
complex character Cyprian. “But 
Stein would rehearse the actors 
during the day. then go to Srauss 
and talk over the interpretation. It 
made the play very, very dear for 
the actors." 

“Strauss is self-effacing.” said 
Schmidt. 


PEOPLE 


.tr 


‘V .* 

t- 


award, be docked the awards cer- 
emony and gave the money to 
charity. 

“He does not give interviews; 
he does not want to talk about 
writing. He says his time is so 
small that he needs every minute 
to write," said Schmidinger. 

lust when people in west Ger- 
man publishing circles frit that 
(hey had Strauss pegged as an 
intellectual writing for Berlin in- 
tellectuals, his fourth boric, “Der 
Junge Mann" (The Young Man), 
vaulted the artistic divide last Oc- 
tober and hit best-seller charts. 
This season 22 German theaters 
asked to produce “Der Park." 
Other productions are set for Par- 
is, Brussels, Amsterdam, Stock- 
holm. GOteborg and Lisbon, and 
there are negotiations for a Na- 
tional Theatre production in Lon- 
don. Strauss has been translated 
into right lan guages and pub- 
lished in countries as diverse as 
Poland, Yugoslavia and IsraeL 
His plays, including German trie- 
vision versions (and two have 


been published in East Germany), 

: of the 


have helped make him one i 
country’s highest-paid writers. 

The New York publisher Al- 
fred Knopf Inc. has acquired 
rights to “Der Junge Mann** and 


Strauss’ 1981 book, “Paare, Pas- 
sanlen” (“Couples and Passers- 
by”), according to his publisher. 
Chnstoph Schlotterer of Hauser 
Veriag m Munich. In December, 
Harper & Row began U. S. distri- 
bution of “Rumor," which was 
published in Britain last August 
by Careanet Publishing Co. of 
Manchester. In 1979, Farrar, 
Straus and Giroux Inc. published 
Strauss’s “Die Widmung" (“De- 
votion"), a diary of a couple’s 
separation (published in London 
a year later by Chatto & Windus). 

Strauss's family went to the 
west, and he grew up in Rem- 
sefarid, in the Ruhr region, at the 
time that Bril and, later. Grass 
were winning international ac- 
claim for what is known in West 
Germany as “a literature of the 
ashes." Berlin, a magnet for youth 
and the creative, a hot spot m the 
1968 student revolts, tore Strauss 
from his Germanic literature 
studies. He cadged a job there on 
Theater heute, West Germany’s 
leading theater magazine. He told 
the Westfalischen-Rundschau. 
“For a long time I was only emp- 
tying wastepaper baskets," which 
was where the editor suggested 
that Strauss deposit his theater 
reviews. 


His theatrical breakthrough 
came with Sirin's 1978 Schau- 
bQhne productions of “Trilogie 
des Wiedersehens" (“Trilogy of 
Reunion”) and “Gross und 
Klein" (“Big and Little"). The 
plays later drew mixed reviews in 
San Francisco and New York; in 
the latter, the critic John Simon 
yawned them away as bores and 
fled each at intermission. As 
“Grand et Petit," “Gross und 
Klein" ran in Paris with BuHe 
Ogier. It played in 1983 in Lon- 
don starring Glenda Jackson. 

“His is an impassioned writing 
down," said Michael Schmidt of 
Careanet “Strauss arouses either 
intense hostility or ecstatic ela- 
tion.” 

H is storks and plays are a ka- 
leidoscope of fragmented scenes 
that create a powerful mood. 
Quicksilver sketches flash by, 
then linger in the mind for weeks: 
a retarded child discovering a pi- 
geon, a sudden hailstorm in Ber- 
lin. “His lan g ua g e has a certain 
pureness and impressive honesty 
that is without compare in Ger- 
man contemporary literature," 
wrote the critic of the Frankfurter 
Allgemeine Zritung. 

, He writes of relationships, a 


“He is shy," said Schlotterer. 
who chuckled when his choke of 
adjectives was questioned. 

“I think the differences be- 
tween Botho Strauss in private 
life and what Botho Strauss writes 
are not important, and chat critics 
who try to describe the private life 
of great writers may write fanta- 
sy, said S di mi din ger. “Botho 
Strauss is a poet” The actor put 
his hand on his heart. In German, 
“poet" can encompass any writer 
who strives for great style and art. 

Strauss is obsessed , by time. 
“The Young Man" weaves be- 
tween narrative and fantasy, in 
and out of time planes. “Tune is 
the thing that man cannot cope 
with, he has conquered space," 
Strauss has written. 


Some critics call “Der Park’s" 
Cyprian an autobiographical fig- 
ure. “The critics are fools," 
snapped an acquaintance of 
Strauss, though he conceded that 
one element of Cyprian might 
mirror the playwright: The char- 


acter is a famed sculptor who 
t-liveo. 


finds success short-! 


Strauss once wrote that the 
writer who is popular today is 
forgotten in 20 years. His ac- 
quaintance said: “Strauss is al- 
ways frightened that he writes the 
last word, that suddenly he will 
have nothing to say." 


Priest Wing $L7^Ria\ 
WiUGke Most to Parish 

A Roman Catholic priest uf 
earns 5300 a mouth has won Sl’ ; 
million in the New York state t 
toy. The Reverend Joseph P 
Mae. 37, who has been a priest f i 1 
13 years, win receive the first of U I 
installments of SS5.766 in aMjll 
two weeks. About 20 percent | 
be deducted for taxes, raraonej * 
sodare pastor of Su Patrick’s 8 1 }#' f 
mao Catholic church in Yorktotl" 
Heights, said he planned to ti* 

halfofevoychecktotheparisK \\ 

Patrick’s opened last fafl and s * If 
owes money for its 5Z2- imllfjt 
construction. Faraone said the p 
of the money, except for a m 

amount as a pension, would bee ' 

rutted to the parish youth gro- 
and its Ethiopian hunger drive. 

□ 

The playwright Tom Scmm . 

47, was fined £60 (about 5661 V 
court in Taunton, England. j- 
banned from driving for a rrxn 
after he admitted driving 104 cm ’ 

(165 kilometers) an hour, 

□ 


YU 


n:'t> 

flop Jo 

III'- 1*0 


,-ra i i 


.. V»- F»* 


***** 


S'* 


.* 4 

■1 *»*¥> 

■Y«r . 


“Those hired by us should foft ■ 

our traditions," said Shahbfo S 
hidi Moadab, commissioner 
Iran’s exhibition at the internatii : 
al science and technology fair t' 
opened Sunday is Japan. Ai 
lengthy negotiations, fair offfo- 




exhibit wear Islamic- style pa - 
and scarves instead of miniskirt .. 


i 

: *= 

~:«= tM 
... m 

oW 
L: *w€f M 


The Marquess of Btaodforri, 
son of the Duke of Maribora. 
and bar to a£40^mHion(S44-r 
lion) fortune, pleaded guilty . 
breaking into a pharmacy in L - 
don to steal drugs. Blanalord *- . 
said to have told police that he > 
a registered herow addict who ' 
been using the drug on and off ' 
three and a half years. He was ” 
leased on bail untQ April 15, pe 
mg medical and. social rape ■■ 
Blandford will inherit Blah- 
Palace in Oxfordshire, the la ~ 
place of Winston CharcfaBL „ — 

□ 

Orchestra members of La S n] «« I 
opera house in Milan raythey-iU 1 ' 

totiteWuer wd^h ordff tog} . 

charity performance of “The 1 

Flute” on Wednesday. WoHj* 1 
Sawaffisch wiO fly from Monk 
conduct the single performs, i 
the first of the Mozart work a 
Seals in 30 years. J - 


' r"t 6*1 

* 

•: - M 

**•«■)** 


■r m> 

-*■•**<$* 

. ,-jnn «w 


jiaost*}* 

liV\ 




if La! 


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PAMS • LYON • MARSEILLE 
HUE • NICE 


Im'l rnovinfl by spaoo&st from ^rwjor 


ate in Fiona to dl ones in the 
Toll free from France 16 (05) 24 10 82 

rmesnMA ~ 


CQNTINEX Codbuten ta 3D0 ate 
worldwide - Air/ Sea. Call Chcrta 
281 1881PintnearOpera]C<ntao 


REAL ESTATE 
FOR SALE 


GREECE 


VOUUAGMENI 25 KM ATKNS, 4. 
staray detached house consiinng of 
13 npomnems. each with private en- 
trance. AS flats 665 sqjn . verandas 
76 sqjn- garden 173 sqjn, lo ailio r t 


10 ApaUanos Si, tan the coastal road 
to Hotel Astir], 15 . 


, m. from beach. 
Breathtaking vmw. 5erious offers an- 
uderad. TVB2816 CNCR G8. 


ITALY 


SARDMA: To rerf nwy^w v«s by 


the sea 10 bn south of Ofeia 9e«s 

iTWjJ 


18 all c c n tfa K. Available June, 
Serfemb*". Pace » be dbeusied. Cof 
Mian Q2/BQ51 109 early monwig or 
evening. 


REAL ESTATE 
FOR SALE 


FRENCH PROVINCES 


CAP PANTRIES - 50 m. to the sea. 
Hgh dw property 3OT jqjn, racep- 
ban 80 iojil, 4 bedrooms. Great 
solarium, swimming pool, staff quor 

reflO^^To'heGonAm 3 ssub 
La OoisettB. 06400 CANNSTm 
W 38 19 19 


core D’AZUR. Theoule-*ur.Mer, view 
sea A ConitB. tab fer vBas for sede. 
330-900 styn. USSlSO/sqjn. Envis- 
qged common swiauiMg pact, tennis, 
Write: Dr. S. Nielsen, Tuehofcfcystr. 
77AOOO Frarkfurt/Man .70. Cal 
. (0)69-683180 from 7pm 


SPAIN 


MAliGRCA’S NEW 
SUPK PORT 


In the bay of Pdma, 5 mbs. Pdma, IS 
nens. tarpon, 664 bams 8 to 38 meters. 
2 for up to 60 meters each. Individual 
TV/maus/ water/phone comodwra. 
Prafesdond part ma i toge m ete ca FuS 
marine Servian: tower, rtrfo, jip, rrov- 
aWift, repair, fuel station, in & outdoor 
winter hcedslands, U-ffOvnd oar- paric 
Locfasrs. Complementary service A lei. 
sure fbdities: me&d, hankma ihop- 
png, aiming, entw tuivnent. Golf & 
tennis neerby. Commerdd area com. 
85 unis 


pnsei 03 isus on 13,171 iqjn. in ol. 
Hus 21 super apartmanB above &7Bb 


se parateKoy condo- <dl in froNftte 
dang mob piers. Top mvastr 
soWTHurry now before next 
Contact drecSy develop ers 


PUHDO HJNTA PORTALS, SJL 
Director Comerod 
C/ Merino 10I.J POrtah Nous 
Mdsrca, Spain or Tlx 66686 CAUUE- 


SW1TZERLAND 


G S T A A D 

A onoo m o Hctonc oppoitUnffy 

SCHONRJED 


«4y a few minutes from lovely Gstaod. 
Apartments or pricos 
— “ lower than Gstaod. 
70%-flffBIEST SM% 


AVAILABLE FOR FOREIGNERS. 
GLOBE PLAN SA. 

Ave Mon Repos 24 
0+1 D05 Lausanne, Switzerland. 

Teh p1|22 35 12. Tbo 25185 MBJS CH. 


SWITZERLAND 


n bay □ STUDIO 
CHALET on LAKE 


Ferelgvwfs 

APARTfevIT 
GENEVA - MONTREUX or in these 
world famous resortt CSANS- 
MONTANA, 1ES OtAHiaBS, 
atBCL VI LIARS, JURA, eta From 
SFIlOJjOO. Mortgogei 60% at 
6K% inter es. 
REVACSJL 

52 roe da Montbrfirt, CH-12D2 
GH4EVA. Teh 41-22/34 15 40. 
Telex: 22030 


LAKE GENEVA AREA iMorereux, Lau- 

sanne) + afl famous mounxxn re- 
sorts. Foreigners can buys APART- 
MeJTS/CfiXLEiVVmAl Prws 
from about IKWOJQOO. Moopona te 
616% interest. Contoo K OTOLD 
SA.,Tour Grisa 6J CH-1007 Lousotm. 
Tel 21 725 26 fl . fbr 24298 5®0 CH. 


PARIS ft SUBURBS 


GOOD INVESTMENTS 

VBlih AfiEA near 

CHAMPS 

• Stuck), 24 tqjo. F380JM0 

• StucSo. 36 sqjn. F475J000 

FRANKUN ROOSEVET 

• Snxfo, 37 sqjn. (790,000 


D. HEAD 294 20 00 
m Bd Haueawm 75008 Pvk 


HBUU MARTIN 


Freestone buMng, 320 1 . 

AjKJkcji, OcfTuo 

3 mod's rooms, 2 cdkn. 


NEVEJ: 743 96 96 


INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFIED 


REAL ESTATE 
FOR SALE 


PARIS & SUBURBS 


Embassy Service 


7500« Paris 

Tdex 231696 F 

YOUR REAL ESTATE 
AGENT IN PARIS 

PHOT* 562-1640 


AVE FOCH 


Madam. Very high dan 
RODIM. STOW 


UVINGlDMNQ 


3 beds, 3 bdhs, mod's roam, parting. 

BCB 727 89 39 


1 TOUR WEST PASS. Swig spaces to 
be fitted b 19th century chateau. 


inagn i ft c e nl tagj.3ha port, pcnrifein. 
fireploces. FiKP/am 326 98 66 


OWCR SHIS tost floor, 3 rooms + 
ferract New, high doss, never lived 


in. Exce^onai Ipnee. 14 rin Jaovmt, 
75016 from LOO pjn - T~~ 


I pjm - 7.00 pjil 


REAL ESTATE 

FOR SALE 

REAL ESTATE 

TO RENT/SHARE 

REAL ESTATE 

TO RENT/SHARE 

REAL ESTATE 

TO RENT/SHARE 

PABIS ft SUBURBS 

GREAT BRITAIN 

PARIS AREA FURNISHED 

PARIS AHEA FURNISHED 

FOCH - MALAKOfF 

High doss axxtnwnt. decorated, 250 
sqm, trble bring, 3 bedrooms. 3 brthi. 
HO, 763 53 70 

LUXURY EXECUTIVE APARTMBflS. 
JUghtsbxJge/CheWa Over 100 
ruOy serviced stadias, 1 ft 2 bedroom 
opu» Units. Al modem conveiiences. 
Minimum stay 22 days. Prices bam 
£145 per week. Ptecse contact Lor- 
raine Youngt NGH Apartment, Nel 
Gwyrm House, Sloans Ave, London 
SWi Tek 01-W9 1105. Tlx 395817 G. 

Embassy Service 

• Ave & rMsriae ■ . 

. 75008 Park 

YOUR REAL STATE 

AGENT IN PARIS 

fMONE 562 78 99 

FOR SHORT IBM STAY PARIS: Ste- 
dkttmdl roamtdacoroted. Contact: 
Sofiregie. 6 one Defccose, 75008 ftds 
Tel: {1)359 99 SO 

IDEAL FOR SHORT TBM STAY. Pais 
riuifias & 2 roo«ta decorated. Gonlod 
Sonafint 80 rue Univenite,lbris 7*. 
Tet {11544 39 40. 

16th: PLACE ETAS UNIS 

Beartifol difftex b renovated, "hotel 
pa*ci4ier ukxd far entertabing, high 
price. Stone Wl 766 33 00 

LONDON. Fa the best furnished fiois 
aid houses. Consult the Spsddbts: 
mftor, Kay and Lewis. Tint London 
352 8111. Telex 27B46 RESIDE G. 

60 KM PAR1S> IBftt ejartury house, dl 
comforts, 6 bedrooms, 4 baths, 6 ha 
garden. Ji4y/Au«t. Tek 296 33 85, 
Paris, 10 am / 630 pm. 

AGB4CE DE L'ETOILE 

REAL STATE AGENT 

764 03 1 7 

MAYFAIR ft KEN5HX5TON 2 supsrb 
2-bedroom flats, £25Q/weel Tel: 01- 
589 8223 

VICTOR HUGO 

m townnouse, dtamu^ duptex, recep- 
tion. 2 bedrooms, larga ft w« layod 
out. n/oapea. bnmocom 727 84 76 

MONTPARNASSE. Fufly equipped 
luxurious double Eying, bedroom, 
telephone. a*r TV, For 3 weeks. 
F90007T3.57414QQ 

HOLLAND 

Renthouse International 
020448751 (4 lines] 

Nederhowan 19-21, Amstetdan 

74 CHAMPS-ELYSEB 8fh 

Shrfo, 2 a 3-room oportment. 

One month or more. 

U CLAJODGE 359 67 97. 

SHORT 1SUW in Latin Quarter. 
No agerts. Tek 329 38 83. 

REAL ESTATE 

TO RENT/SHARE 

PARIS AREA UNFURNISHED 

MOZART 

New, double ivfan + 2 bedrooms, 

2 baths, parking. F900Q.TN 563 6838 

GREAT BRITAIN 

LA MUETTE JULY-AUG. luxury, 200 

7 faedrooms, ixivulu poritirx^ 
pnvrte gaden. references, depart. 
Privrttt to nivote, f%000 per month, 
a equivalent. Cal 878 27 28 

ANSCCMUE ft RMGLAND with of- 
fices b St Johns Wood ft Kenrington 
offer the best service fa resktentid 
letting. Tek 722 7101 (01). UK, 

PARTS AREA FURNISHED 

CHAMPS B.YSEES. High dan studo, 
view, TV. Shon/long tarn. 562 93 32. 


REAL ESTATE 
TO RENT/SHARE 


SPAIN 


POltNCA, MALLORCA. Charming 
hncuryvfe/ * 


. Jfa, lovely 

& sea beautiful - uwv-., 

pool, 15 mbL sea Um-Ewng + 
dming, large modern kirauHv 4 dov 


vww on rnountm 
terrace & gonten, 


ble bedrooms, btehs, help owilable. 
“ " Juna/hfyi 


To new 
TeL R»a 


60 Ik 


y /August 


USA 


UIXURY APARTMH4TS New York 
Cty, 24 hour doorrnan, 1 bedroom 


h«e now, 51 050/ month, 2 beAromy 


2 badts, terrace from Apr. 15, 
month. No fee. Col fate Pbrn 57 7 
8126 or Ben 1929. Herald Tribune, 
92521 NeuRy Cedes; Fnmee 


REAL ESTATE 
WANTED/EXCHANGE 


SEEK FOB MIT PROFESSOR with wile 
and one bds, tar month af Ante, o 
Paris apartment, three bedrooms and 
Swig, around 7th dstrid. Flees® ml 
Mmede Brvyne -IFOP-5B4 14 44 


EMPLOYMENT 


EXECUTIVES AVAILABLE 


YOUNG DYNAMIC POISON, multi- 
lingual in her 30‘s, is looking for an 
interesting job. Unveraity degree in 
kill Retaken (l.LLMEJ. Geneva) 4 
years comnwad barking experience 
ndudng management Iiuimiu pro- 
grqm. Write 8m 1940. Hen* Tri- 
bune, 92521 NeuAy Codex. Francs. 


GENERAL POSITIONS 
AVAILABLE 


MODEL SCALE 22+, CLEAN OIL 
height 1 JO in, targe glows A 

boat size. Fh m d s ome memorable 
strong features, military posture. W> 
model ran oar & matarayda leather 
outfits for planter based in US & 
Europe: Long term a r organtnt.pro- 
wde opu rtirate in Paris + Nr + 
travel expenses. Salary based on 
lade. Submit fu| + head photo + 


perfomonee record to: ?fT4 AVJ*, 
46 AveCha 


. Charles Fbquet 75007 Poos 


MARXETMG Bepesemoiiw London 
based for major US offshore cortradt 
chtfer. Mm be axperivwad & be 
biowfledgec^fa & famSar with Euro- 
pean ad operators. Sox 40565, LHI. 
63 Long Acre, London, WC2E 9JH. 


GENERAL 

POSITIONS WANTED 


GBCROUS EMFLOYR WANTS 


EMPLOYMENT: 


GENERAL POSITION 
WANTED ._ 


32 YEAR OLD GENTLEMAN. i:“ 

Middb Eos) ft Arabian Guf - ■ 


eneriem, neks position m- 
s dm manger - Middle Eat. ~ 


AralK.En(£b&FrencKNdv-' 
Hoi 4W Pak West Plan: 1 
WlTefc 01 258 3834. ■ - 


TRENCH LADY, 4a AmadrvM 
eiPubk® 


ic with experience L _ . 

Ftute Enatsh. German & Dole 

to travel loon far chaknnnf-; , 

inn b Landon/Rmi/ffci . 

3/7 pm London 732 0272. 


YOUNG AMBHCAN MAN 2ft 
b Franco 10 yeors expenne 
fluent b Ifcfan seeks mtaresto 
ringing emphwmert mor near ■ 
vairrae to IravaL Teh (79) 32 . ' 
France. 


FRB4CH HKSH FASWON » - 


27, P8/PA experSw*, tfefcg. . 


fra* to travel, 
ifor London bond 

3 p.m, 9 pm. 01-225 



PAG£ 21 ■: 
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HKH MCOME PLAN 
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contact: CONTAN5WORU) 
SHTVtCE LID 
25 QUEEN'S TBRACE, 
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Persons interested m becoming an bter- 
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OFFSHORE ft UK 
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EXCLI.SR E JEW ELS d WATCHES 


LONDON 

153 NEW BOND STREET. 

TEL.: 01-191 1-103 TELEX; 266265 


blonds, Panama 

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mipand growing iwjrtmt in UK. Dolor 
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BUSINESS 

OPPORTUNITIES 


CONSULTANT 
FRENCH BAKERIES 

If interested in opening a Frendi Bakery 
or Creiasartcrie m the USA, seek the 
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FRS4CH BAKStY I PASTKY 
CONSULTANTS 
1211 D Kentwood Ave 
San Jose, Col 95129 USA 
[408) 996-2507 


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brochure write: David tfinon, 1201 
Dwe 5t- Ste 600, Newport Beach, CA 
92660 USA. pity 752 0966. 


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BUSINESS 

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SIUCON VALLEY USA 
BUSINESS CONNECTIONS 


Want to sail your products b LLS-A.T 
• - ,J for a icense or jainl venture 


Loahinn 

partner? 


Need awouter tefeoomwn*- 
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630 Princeton Drive 
Swmymri, Ccfifaraia 94087 USA 
(408) 739-8572 


CAR15BERG 

One of Cafifornia s motd sucxesful Red 
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tend parcel* avttitabta for RUemotiond 
"vejtors. The properties, boated 
n»oughom the *khu range in price 
frem J10JXM to S60QK. dl ow&fe 
wm terms. For jnfonnrttcn rtxwl the 
cowpcwy, t heir ea ch record and the 
properties, contort: 


CARLSBERG LAND COBP. 

PO Box 412 
London NWS 4PP 

Teh 936 9119. Teknc 268048 a«3013 


NORTH AMERICA INVE5TMBIT5. 
iiitegrated medun-siza engineering, 
pracurament, construction company 
operating m the oi ond gas industry n 
Cmada and the 1)5^ wishes a part- 
ner to offer *-■ — A ^ 


— financial eeway strangih 
and additional dverrified iwaVeb-ln- 


tarosted 


waiting more infar- 

.epty in confidence to 

Bo* 1933. .Hwrtd Tribune, 92521 
Neuily Cedmc France 


SfflC PARTNER 


far aadotatian Frcnce & abroad, 
EXCLUSIVE PRODUCT 


HIGH PRORT MABGM 
. pa tert n d m 7 muntries. 

W: fraiee (6) 430 8? 08 or JX » 38 
from 9 am to 9 pm. 

Hx 2503C3 Pubic Pens (430 0497). 


M ULS. - FOR MUL71NA770NALS 
CPA FIRM 

IrtT & Ui tan planning, am ou n ting, 
financial & busmen services - real c* 


225 W. 34 Sf, New Y oA, NY 10122. 

21259*^/1. 


Teh: 


LAW OFFICE M ZURICH, Switaariaid 
handu international com*, contacts 
Of all types, Kansas, knaw-hmr & 
tudisrvo sate* oyaumefi^, joint verv 
tares & fbnpqjion of companw. cat 
bdion orders & entdnsetneat or for- 
eign judgement dents, Swiss 
irtieritance maners. eta Mease write 


SULPWR (PtfliH)/ LUMPS) 
nmh' - VYjSX msamum. Shipment 
ISJWrnetaCtanseodt, montHy over ; 


year. Prinapal Im^s adg. Phee'$J43 


per metre Ion FOB USA. Tbr 21792 
MONK? G. Onto item Ref. 1068. 


BUSINESS 

OPPORTUNITIES 


ATreNJION TOW BROKERS— A 500 
room hotel adjacent to the FounfaMv 
riau in Miami Beach looking for Tour 
Brabam who are intere sted . m moiling 
a great oed of mono/ This nmnw. 
Contact Froth Knu, Barcelona Re- 


sort Hotel, <JC Cc4jra^«^Miamr 


Beach. Florida 33140. USA. TehJ3Q^ 
532-3311, mu 832-8332. Telex' 
286301 BARC. 


PANAMA COMPANOSwiffi nominee 
ctrector* and corifideiWia/5wiH/ Fan- 
caea bank account formed in 48 hours 
or readymadcL Offshore bob 
farmed for POOP. Currencies or fund s 
moved irto Eurocutrency tune deposit 
accounts with tax fiee interest and 


W_PaA Ftace, _5t. Jamg^, 


London SW1A TLT. Teh 01-408 


AD1Y1AH FORKUO MIL INC This 
young campmiy is Joohing far mextu- 
fociureri & producers at a9 items to 
do bushwss with. We are e xp o tars 6 
importers. These i n teie sled should 
write to Joseph Kwobem* Arfyiah, 
President. 17« M Terrell MH Rd., 
Marietta, GA 30067 USA. 


I Monte Carlo, 


YOUNG MAN, 
speaking French, 

Dutch seeks job in iportnerstip in irt 
vnwod, fatfifton. hotel or 
„ WSing ra travel, awd- 

iite now. Please write to Yuan Pastel, 
Casa Sen Juan, 15 Bd du Lavatta, 
98000 Monaco or tek (93) 25 33 28. 


VDEO RCC0RDSt5/TELEV15ONS 
Vanaui systems + 

far 

ecupment. For duty-tree prices 
Contact: Tradec. HanwRL 
Tek ft 4037 J7 68. Tbs 2lS\93 


DUKT FACTORY DtsJnbutars for 
high qwAy spnaolry sScankss cook 
wore. Soverrt fines avolobie with 
5, or 7 -fiy construction. Ca 
sonic or visual caver knob _ 

Bo* 1646, Herald Trfeune, 

Neufly Ctdex. France. 


AFRAID OF COMPUTERS? let us 
show you how fnendly they can be. 
For busmen or personal use. Artha- 
rized dealers far BM. Apple, athen. 
Huge tfiscountv We can help deter- 


your needs. CaB Mr. Lowrance, 
An 5632989 


or 348 3000, 

YOUR U J. COWtfCTlON- Coafidav 
ha|y meerporute b Delaware, under 
5300. No persand presence or oept- 
tal needed TcL, raci. contacts, tmo- 
latioraL HJl Resources lrtt,<W4C5e- 
ndseBd. Wtoingtofl, M 19802 Tek 
302/762-6919, tea 757674. 


ITALIAN KNITWEAR, new brand- 
name, rtgh quaGty iSt, mcher, 
agora, wool, artton, faten. We look 
tor ewlusMB importers worldwide. 
Bonfin CMcushi, P.OlBok 1414, D- 
8SOO Nyrabern T. West Gwinany. 
Tbc. 622846 HWALT fur Bonfin. 


FRENCH WEST INDIES, pumice stone 


jpwirajW^fajK^cJuorry; optK» 


— — mtetesfed b Hus 

iMteriaL For bfcrirchon tel 
83 83 la RocheDe. France or 
'59086^0X17 March 28/Apr-ll 


FOR SALE, Hcnae vrth bar -kerne in 
Aaaten, 10 roams far S3t 
wrtteto8«r2?23,Uir 
IS. 6000 Frankhn/Mam 


Imprimepar Offprint, 73 rue de FEvangile, 75018 Paris. 


BUSINESS 

OPPORTUNITIES 


modem braise- 
rie restaurant far sohb Houston, essteL 
lent location m heavy traffic area. 
Ccd Andrews & Brawn, AHys, Hous- 
ton, TX US 713-227-8686. 


MTERNATIONAL VENIWE capital 
group requires finanad represenlo- 
uwes to faeow loads with growth ram- 
ponies. Nominrt ooritaT bvestmsrt 
required. Tek London 351 4518. 


US$100,000 BUSMESS FOR SA1£. 
Bedash* saunodub, daw to c uu t d 
city in W. Germany, new holder 
wanted Detoik Box 21^4, LH.T, frie- 
15, D-6000 Frannurt/Mrin. ' 


TEXAS OR COMPANY - Seeks bves- 
toa far mfield driteng vartures m 
Texas, ttigh return. Write tai Rannar, 
6113 (Hasten Low, Ff. Worth. Texas 
76114 USA. Tak 214-438-2486. 


PANAMA LIBERIA- CORPORATIONS 
from US$400 awdaUfl now. Tel 
0624) 2024a Tri®c 628352 ELAND 
Gl IwqUK). 


BUSINESS SERVICES 


OFF5HORE 
LIMITS) COMPANIES 
BANKS 

INSURANCE COMPANIES 


Worldwide 
From £75 

Meting - TolafAone - Telex 
Secretarial 

UJC,bla of Mai, Jersey, Gwnieiy.Gi- 
brobor, Ponona Ltaena, Luwrtteurfk 
Arafles^ Ready made or spedaL Free 
ex pbnrtory ' 


Aston 


ton Caapany Fomtorions 
0^4 Ti, 8 victoria St 


Douglas. Ida of Man. 

T&0624 : 


26591 

Telex 627691 SUVA G 


WTL 

BEAUTIFUL PEOPLE 


IMJMITB) INC. 
USA. A WCHODWIDE 


A complete soad & businen wvice 
prewatfeg a unique caibction of 
talented, versatile & imAEngual 
mefividuab fan 


Mtion^onxiwaoMVintfranatioRs , 
Convention-Trade Shows-Pre# Parties 
Specbl Ewrts-ln»ge MotorsflCs 
Soda HosttNoctttees^ntertamen 
Soad Caepoaam-Tar glides, eta 


212-765-7793 
2 T 2-765-7794 
330 W. 56th St, N.Y.C 10019 

Soviet fSeanatentotiwK 
Neected Worldwide. 


TOUR MAN IN EUROPE - American 
senior condrumn manager bated in 
Pais Ovofcfcfe part or M time to 


reaesertyaa busmen b Europe. 18 

iBUJft OjfinOTB i 


. . . experience with offia, 

Sckiitjnc & computer Focffitw*. Write 
m confidence to MCL, Apt.C-O, Let 
H™t ds Same, 4 Squari Alanda, 
94600 Chccy le Roi, France. 


BUSINESS SERVICES 


B4TBMAT10NAL COMPANY 
FORMATION 

UK companies from £75 1.OlM Ptetama 
& cd naja df-chore ce nt er s . Full ad- 
naniteiuiion, noranee services, powers 
af attonwy, rewsterad offices, accoun- 
tancy. confidertid bonk accounts 
opened, confidsntiaf telephone, telex, 
fax & mofag sarviee. 

Eas. Limited 


43 Ccnibg Strert, Liverpool, L8 7NN. 
TeL- 051 7W 1480. Tb«62B6!3' 


BUSSBL. 

Fax: 051 709 5757 
Associated Offices Worldwide. 


ASSIGNMENTS OR BKAMK in NY 

or within US. Abltias to cont ort 8. 
•Xpcdito corps, [prodixfl, retail 

ihers/cfistribuion, survey fa export 
to US ftradohowi], RLWNttiG^- 
RANOSk Offer free report to Occam- 
p™ goab or wfl MtM ctrectiva* 
as desrad. GETTING THINGS DONE 
IN THE US FOR YOU. Contact Brit- 


an) Faster, Product Pubkc Reunions, 
— . ... York _ ^ 


359 West 20th St, New York, 
10011. Teh 213-74U590. 


EVSTV YEAR A MASTERPIECE. On 
icte now 35 years of stackmarket 
in fo rmation from 1950 to 1905. to- 
^dm weekly stadonorkei. monthly 

Cosj lW0tol%8 LOTOwch, 1W8 
to 1980 STS each. 1980 to 1985 



LAccess. Write NcB^Atan 

- --- — , -jervras, lm wbgert 22, 

B049 Zurich. Switeeriand. W 


OFBHORE SERVICES 


UX non resident companies with 
neramee ftreaon, bearer dwres and 
oonfidenW bonk accounts. M backnip 
ft support services. Panama ft libarian 
dOmpatieL far rate conMtrtt al 
prafessand services. 


E17W?T»kai y7L^?Tte^939?fG 


COMTOfitilVE SHVHK, bete- 
address, telex, occouitancy. 
compaafrxrttes.traralation.ierim- 
cm and tmongd gui dortM , inwronce 
oxi re-trauranea, GETKO Genova, 
72 r, de Lwuonne, CP-288), 1211 
Genova 2, Swits e riand 


PWVATE OETKnVESCANDMAVlA 
v hwr * 02 ‘ 
« 72 14. lb 18949 AginL Manager 
G. fleUev, former pofia/army om- 
oer, cantoris vwfafiwde. Pori to Jtrn- 
banetorpet4.N0154Odel Nfawiay 


BXTOR/ WRITBL Successful b mag- 
atines, textbooks, adw a ring , mor- 
totma Ful foafews ea. worapxxas- 
w KeasonoUa rant. H. Haris, 
KronbemrarJ. 6232 Bod Sodn. 
Tek |Qj ol96-22g4, W. Germany 


FM AU YQUE NSS of tradodan. 
mterpretaion, and secretarial ser- 
vos. French, Arabic, EngkA. Gdiv 
todjMBH Services, 60 raeltatacUd, 
CM 202 GenevaTek 31 58 12. Tbc 
27449 MSHCHL 


GQMFurot vroeo hxicadon, 
bam haw to use Lotus 1, 2, 3 or 
Muttimete a PCOOS on Vnbo tapes, 
5200/tope. Write fa m f o motion or 
ortfor &k IWft Harold Tribune, 
92521 Neuly Codex, Fiance. 


BUSINESS SERVICES 


TRANSLATION AU LANGUAGES 
Commerad, 

Tri: 0)337 89 89 


[ 75013 Paris. 


MONEY AVAILABLE far viable busi- 
nesses a now projeds. Comha Inter- 
naional hnaftj CoiHujfanS, 2017 E 
Ocfcimd Pork Blvri, Fort ' 

FL 33308 USA. Hk: 


YOUR omCE M few YORK, fifth 
Ave. odekea and / ot phones as yow 
USA office. Ma i, phone a* reanved 
ft forwortkd. New York Med Savioa, 
210 fif* Aw. NYC 1X10. 


SWISS BUSINESS _ WOMAN, tr*v 
gud, with own office/ telex, wi rep- 
rteert your interests b SvntTertanrf- 
/Goneva. Write Box 1921, Hentid 
Tribune . 92521 NeuBly Codex. France 


■AH. UStBS NEWS. Fodud Oto 
teoive fortnightty newriatler. Send SI 
iw vample, copy to K Jacobson Ud 
91 Mar^tebone High Street, London 


UK TAX OR BUSINESS 

CaRMb AM. Mehra & Co. 

Ac co untants. Capitol House Make! 
Pfooe, London Wrek (01) $92 0305 

TAX. SERVICES 


NBI HELP WITH TAXES? Cortoct 

Dafol P. McGuire CPA, 3780 


FINANCIAL 

INVESTMENTS 


JMSCOIMT COMMISSIONS ON 
STOCK ft COMMODITY TRADES 


We or® geared to handle individ ual & 
eorporrta foreign dfarti and at* 
equ^ped to hedge your panfoKo with 
currency futures, fast response to your 

rmiage- 

“«t by outside pro ta wnob a avqi)- 
«««■ Krea inquiries to 
YMtf ft Qmpojw, Inc. 

6320 Augusta Drive 
„ SpraxjfieOA 22150 USA 
TeL mSM300 Tlx. 7108320996 


OFFICE SERVICES 


c , UKANG8CS 
™s*m offices b Beverly Hib-Con- 
venient, pitatiQriMii address. Tb, nxd, 
Menetanol ft bad services. 

fetearthra Mpsiitese Swkvs 
S2 7 ^ 609. Beverly 

Ms, CA 9021iT«li pa 8*1-1678. 


Telex, 


GENEVA KAKS S5Sg MSs 

My equbped offices to rent. DomidB- 
chan Jnioj, tebx & p to^LT rode,' sales 


odmetistnabon ft tias-.^. 

>®S, 5fte de Oiene. T Z07 Ge neva 
Tek (22) 86 17 33. Ac 428386 KSS 


YOUR LONDON OIFKX 

CHCSHAM GOQJTTVE CMVE 
Co mprehen si ve ranee of services 
ISO toe* SfreeLuxtdon Wl. 
Tel: (OTT439 62U TTk 261426 


OFFICE SERVICE, 

-~*kl Li ; 


n/jk- 


WOM0.WB **(4!^ 

BUSINESS CBTO .. 


F u r n is h ed Enoothra Offiii - 
Conpiele wfili SecretariaL . 

AdmHrirrtive, Corpo n» : r s 
IteiMetalM ft Otiter For . 


AMSTBtDAM Euro Busmess C;v - 
Keixersflr- 99, 1015 ,CH Atete-. * 
TeUD20F ZWOS. Toko.- 1*78: >C . 
ATHENS Executive Sen** A- . - 
Tower B. Suite 306, Aftw ft " 
Tek poll 7796 232. Telex, 21. 

■ : Bdnta Chambers.. . 


Nariman Poirt. Bauftxiy 400 
T*4 244949. Tetoa 011-4 


■6897. 

I pyujjr 

Tek 217 83 60... 


DSUSSaS: A, be de tajW >. 

1000 Van*. 


Telex.- 2S327 
DUBAI: P.O. Box 1515, DNAT. 


Artne Centre OubajJAE ■' 
~ '4565 TJw. 48911 *~ 


Tek 214565 

LONDON: 1 10 The Strand, 
London WOR OAA. 


ftffd mm 

■ V-.utr TtiVNi In 

! -' •Is' . i. 

IV itiR hf'l 

Siivt U»6* 
i ti» 


>--J£ 

M 


270 66 04. Telex, 4660 
MILAN: VJa Boccncaa 2, 

20123 Mia*. Tel 86 75 89/80 
Telesc 320343 
NEW YORK 575 Mod*** 

New York. NY 10022. 

0200. Tetot 125864 / 

PARIS: I BOS, 15 Avemtettric. 
75116 Pas. Tek 502 IB 00 -. 
Tele* 62W93F. 

ROME: Via Savofo 78. 00198 
Tek 85 32 41 - 844 80 70 . . 
Tetoc 613458 , ^ . . 

SffWAPOS: 111 North Bnd|-, 
4F11-04/05 Penraub Ftaw; 
0617. Teh 3366577. TtejWa 
ZUMCH: Reraiweo 32. 8001 
Tek 017214 61 T\ 

Telex: 812656/812981. 


£oj 


%'<>*< Tunnel 


Hllir IVaiIsC 




JOUR INSTANT ANTWERP. 
(Belgium) near hatoar and 

wool arport Ful senttaw 


pier, 

enKrtive and tdes support e 
f onwotien end ulu a wnul iwv 
tax matters, eft kinds of o.. 
services, ward proceoing eta 
tab wnto to Maisgemert to 
Group W LBfanMfingrira - 
Berdwai, Bskium a (A 323 
44 or tebx73«4 


• Sui 


*W \li. 


PARS AODRE 55 , Owfl' 
Snrt 1957 Uy.prowdtettia- 
neetiKi room. 5 rue 
Tek 3» 47 04. 


RCUSSHS ADDRESS. Mol 


phones, teta; tecrelaid 


Aten Butinas* Cef'S. 

517 92 11 112 Ibesl Thu 613 . 


YOUR ORUE M MNGWv 
ped/aaRod offiei 

M 2 S 1-4187 Tbi 1 


OFFICES FOR Rl 


YOUR MAO OFWIWfl. 

WUHS161H »■ 
• Daijy offiee rereris -- 
Remriration with trade an 
Danrafialicn - Tnfinguat seer* 
29 77. telex 612 



Tek 651 


J .J 


' ' *' ft'-dnA-: 


.4S» 

H 




* JSt