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No. 31,789 


ZURICH, MONDAY MAY 6, 1985 


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Bonn Economic Summit Ends 


Without Pact on Trade Talks 


Chancellor .Helmut Kohl, left; accompanied by retired General Johaimer Stexnboff, and President Ronald R 
accompanied by retired General Matthew Ridgway, walked throogh the militar y cemetery in Bitbarg on Si 



onors Nazi Victims, War Dead 


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, By Cliff Haas 

- The Associated Press 

'■ . BITBURG, West Germany — 
In solemn gestures of reconcilia- 
tion,- President Ronald Reagan 

S laced .wreaths at .the graves of 
f ari death camp vicrims and Ger- 
man, wardead on Sunday and, with 
Chancellor Helmet K~nM sL his 
side, declared that “the horror can-, 
not outlast the hope;" -. 

The president’s heavily guarded 
visit to theKtbuig cemetery lasted 
eight minutes, following a helicop- 
ter flight of 250 miles (404 kflome- 
ters) from the site of the former 
Bergen-Belseo concentration 


to mark U.S.-West German rela- 
tions. 

' The Bitburg military cemetery 
contams the graves of 2,000 Ger- 
man war dead, including 49 Waf- 
fea SS ^ troopers. Neither Mr. Rea- 
gan nor Mr. Kohl made speeches 


rniH-h t w-anw this ha p rinv» 

of healing,'’ Mr. Reagan said. 

Speaking directly to World War 
II veterans and families here and in 
his television audience in the Unit- 
ed States, Mr. Reagan said: “Our 
of reconciliation with the 


By Axel Krause 

haenuaioaai Herald Tribune 
BONN — The seven major in- 
dustrial democracies ended their 
annual economic summit confer- 
ence in Bonn on Saturday unable, 
because of French objections, to 
agree on a dale to start negotiations 
to eliminate barriers to nee trade. 

President Ronald Reagan bad 
appealed for tbe talks to begin next 
year to help him halt pressure in 
Congress for new barriers against 
imports. He had the support of 
most participants, but France was 
able to block adoption of the 1986 
target for the ial« because of the 
rule that unanimity is required in 
the final communique. 

After President ^ran^ois Mitter- 
rand refused to accept the a 
senior UJL official described the 
conference as a “qualified fall ore, 
on that issue.” 

The United States has been seek- 
ing the start of such gincc 
1982. 

President Reagan was “disap- 
. pointed,” Treasury Secretary 
. James A. Baker 3d said after the 
right-page communique was is- 
.. sued. 

But Mr. Baker and other partiri- 
totalitarianism,” the president sajd, ' pants wn phasir*^ thm some agrec- 
At the air base, Mr. Kohl ex-, merits had been reached and i hat 
pressed gratitude to Mr. Reagan, the summit had provided momen- 
“I thank you, Mr. President, for’ turn for the trade talks, 
the whole German people, and V. 


On Page 2: 


• Reagan cane off better -on political issues than on economic 
problems. 

• US. sanctions against Nicaragua were opposed by other partici- 
pants in the summit meeting. 

• Thousands marched in Spain to protest the visit of President Reagan 
this week. 

• In a soprise move, participants in the economic summit announced 
plans to explore methods for combating hunger in Africa. 

• The Soviet press takes comfort in the West's “contradictions.” 

• Backstage at a summit: a time for snoozing. 


ticipate. West Germany and Brit- 
ain were far more encouraging, 
while other leaders remained Jukes 
warm. 

• The leaders agreed on a plan 
submitted by France to combat 
famine and drought in Africa and 
also called cm the Soviet Union and 
other Co mmunis t countries to “as- 


sume their responsibUiiies in tins 
regard” 

• There was considerable discus- 
sion about combatting illegal drug 
trafficking, which President Rea- 
gan described as “one unexpected 
but encouraging development” and 
which be said led to “real interest 
expressed by all the leaders 


cracking down on international 
drug trafficking” 

• Unexpectedly, Japan did not 
come under pressure to increase 
imports and ease access to its mar- 
kets. “Mr. Nakasone and his coun- 
try’s notorious restrictions on trade 
and import markets simply got 
away again.” a European Commu- 
nity official said. 

Before the summit opened ad- 
ministration officials said that the)’ 
would seek a pledge from Western 
Europe and Japan to stimulate 
their economies to offset the slow- 
down in growth in the United 
States. 

But in the end the summit lead- 
ers simply agreed to continue pur- 
suing current anti-inflationary pol- 
icies “conducive to sustained 
growth and higher employment.” 

*s policies 


in 


and each country’s policies were 
(Continued on Page 2, CoL 3) 


Mitterrand’s Solo Performance 


Tough Stand Seen as Play for Political Power at Home 


Four German mteBectuals re- 
flect on the war. Page 7. 




Reagan, who had, initially 


during the ceremony. Both silently 
laid a wreath at a memorial to slam 
German sokfiers and left quickly. 

About 20 minutes before Mr. 
Reagan passed through the cento- 
of the town of Bitbarg 25 West 
Ge rman policemen equipped with 
riot gear briefly charged into about 
200 Jewish students and their sup- 


. . More could not. have been 

thank you personally as a friend,^ achieved,” said Chancellor Helmut 

for taking a walk with me. You are Kohl, who was the host of the 

m people today in no way welcome as friend, ally and guaran- ; three-day tnwting Mr. Kohl, who 
minimize our love and honor for tor of oar security.” - appeared grim and tired, told the 

those who fought and died for onr To underscore his message of . participants and reporters that the 

US. and West German recondKa- - • -» •--- 

don. Mr. Reagan and Mr. Kohl 
were acco mpanied to Bitburg. near 
the Luxembourg bottler, by two 


ftiMArffeikkhrme 

IMMAiHMUmiM 


refused to visit a concentration porters: Thie scuffle broke up after 




camp site, spent an hour at Bergen- 
Belsen. . 

He also made an unannounced 
vi»t to thfc grave of Konrad Ade- 
nauer. the chancellor who led West 


about five minutes and no arrests 
werei 
The 


and their supporters 


country. 

■ To survivors of the Holocaust, 
Mr. Reagan said: “Your terrible 
suffering has made you ever vigi- 
lant against evfl. Many of you are 
worried that reconciliation means 
forgetting. J promise you, we wO) 
never forget/ 

Mr. Reagan invoked the memory 
of President Kennedy, who 22 
years ago went to the Berlin wall 
»nd declared, “I am a Berimex.” 

“Today,” Mr. Reagan said. 


World War II adversaries. They- surfaced during' the summit 


were a retired West German Air' 
Force general, Johaimer Stemhoff, 
71, ana retired U.S. Army General 
Matthew B. Ridgway, 90. who led 
the 82nd Airborne Divisiop- 
through the victorious Normandy 
campaign. 


*. I* | a I II II mm 

Mfrwnfcplkap* NT 

M» •«**«* end J6 •"* v* r 


Germany .after the Nazi caprtcia-, 
“ftrlland- 


wore .yellow stars in imitation of “freedom-loving people around the 
.the identifying badges they were world must say. ‘I am a Berliner. I 


discussions and conclusions were 
conducted in a spirit of “coopera- 
tion and f riendship .* 

These other developments and 
seed during tl 

talks that involved the leaders of 
the United States. West Germany, 
Japan, Bri tain, France; Italy, Cana- 
da and the European Commission: 
• Most summit participants crit- 
^ idled the US. trade embargo ca 
fwrtluM nU Nicaragua and said that they would 

J rm nf * 


By Michael Dobbs 

tt'asfahgto/t Pau Service 

BONN — The intransigence of 
President Francois Mitterrand of 
France at the Western economic 
summit is likely to win him politi- 
cal points at home doting cam- 
paigning for legislative elections 
next year. 

The Socialist president flew back 
to Paris on Saturday night at odds 


NEWS ANALYSIS 


participate cm the ground that 


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aV7 : • 



tion surrender in Worid War! 
helped forge the reconciliation that 
Mr. Reagan and Mr. Kohl marked. 

The theme of reconciliation was 
largely overshadowed by the anger 
from veterans and Holocaust survi- 
vors who said that Mr. R eagan 
should have found another location 


forepd to^vear ^laring the . Nazi per- 
secution. •• > • ' " • 

Mr. Reagan declared later at the 
U5. air base at Bitburg that “we 
■who were enemies are now 
friends,” and he noted the furor 
over the German cemetery visit 
“Some old wounds hove been 
reopened, and tins I rqjret very 


am a Jew in a «pdd stilltfaeateood 
by anti-Semitism. I am an' Afghan 
and 1 am a prisoner of the gulag. 1 
am a refugee in a crowded boat 
foundering off the coast of Viet- 
nam. I am a Laotian, a Cambodian, 
a Cuban and a Middle Indian in 
Ni c a r a g ua. 

”L too, am a potential victim of 


Nazi atrocities that resulted in-' 
deaths of ax million Jews. _j 
■ Lamenting “tire m on s trous) 
comprehensible horror” of Berges- 
Bdseu, the president declared’ that 
“even from the worst of aQ things, 
the best may come forth." 


it would prove counterproductive 
throughout Central America. Ad- 


were resgned to the prospect that 
some U.S. allies might decide to 
trade despite the embargo. 

• There was no mention of the 


“We are here because immunity Strategic Defense Initiative in 
refuses to accept that freedom or commimiq u &, disappointing 
i some U.S. officials. President Mit- 

(Coutinoed on PageZ CoL 3) remind said France would not par- 



/ 


with all other Western leaders, in- 
cluding his principal European 
partners, on a calendar for global 
trade negotiations and participa- 
tion in the research phase of Presi- 
dent Ronald Reagan's Strategic 
Defense Initiative. His refusal to 
agree to a precise date for the open- 
ing of tire talks blocked one of the 
Reagan administralum’s key goals 
at the s ummi t meeting. 

Mr. Mitterrand’s lough stand on 
the trade jtalks irritated other sum- 
mit participants anxious’ to find 
ways of countering protectionist 
pressures in the United States and 
elsewhere. But it was described by 
French journalists covering the sev- 
en-nation conference as a political 
coup in tire tradition of de Gaulle. 

“Isolation doesn’t matter to a 



Francois Mitterrand 


French president as long as he is 
isolated in his grandeur,” said a 
French commentator, predicting 
that it would be difficult for the 
rightist ojmostion- to criticize Mr. 
Mitterrand for his performance in 
Bonn. 

By vetoing a date for the new 
trade talks, according to tins analy- 
sis. Mr. Mitterrand was projecting 
himself as the defender of the inter- 
ests of French fanners who derive 
enormous benefit from the Europe- 


an Community's costly svsrem of 
agricultural pnee fixing. 

At a press conference after the 
summit. Mr. Mitterrand gave the 
impression of being pleased with 
himself for managing to make 
France the pivot around which the 
meeting revolved. Shrugging aside 
suggestions that France was isolat- 
ed from its major allies, he said: 
"To be somewhat alone in Bonn 
doesn't mean 10 be alone in the 
world.” 

Mr. Mitterrand’s evident desire 
to win approval from tire French 
and world public opinion reflected 
the sharp (mange in the character of 
summit meetings since tire leaders 
held their first such meeting near 
Paris in 1975. Originally conceived 
as an informal exchange of views 
on economic problems, the confer- 
ences have developed into annual 
political spectacles attracting in- 
tensive media coverage. 

While Mr. Mitterrand insisted 
that he was defending deeply held 
principles in refusing to agree to 
new trade negotiations, other sum- 
mit participants were virtually 
unanimous in attributing his stub- 
bornness at least in pan to domes- 
tic political considerations. They 
pointed out that Mr. Mitterrand's 
(Continued mi Page 2, CoL 1) 


Legionnaires 9 Disease Tied to Hospital 


British Scientists Say Thousands May Have Been Exposed 


Rearm 


Hosni Mubarak 


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Egypt Rejects 
Imposition of 
Islamic Law 


STAFFORD, England — Scien- 
tists bdieve a hospital is the source 
of an outbreak of Legionnaires’ 
disease that has killed 29 people in 
central England and that thou- 
sands of other people may have 
been exposed, Britain’s leading dis- 
ease expert said Sunday. 

Spence Galbraith, director of the 
government’s Communicable Dis- 
eases Center, said that tire bacteria 
apparently were spread by the cool- 
ing towers of anew hospital in tins 
Midlands industrial town. 

Local health officials said that 
the pulmonary infection might 
have IriBed many more people than 
had been realized. 

The outbreak is believed to be 
the worst since the disease first oc- 
curred at an American Legion con- 
vention in Philadelphia in 1976, 
where it killed 29 war veterans. 

“There is evidence that the 


tol He said thousands of people 
who had visited the hospital since it 
opened 11 months ago might have 
been exposed. 

The head of the local health au- 
thority, Dr. James Bartlett, sod: 
“We are devastated that our hospi- 
tal does appear to be implicaied in 
this matter.” 

The disease is contracted by 
breathing contaminated water va- 
por. Old or infirm people are par- 
ticularly susceptible, and the dis- 
ease is fatal in about one case in 
five; • 


of 


Dr. Galbraith and a team 
medical investigators initially were 


puzzled by the fact that the 
had ‘ ‘ 



broken out in four separate 


Man Jailed in Montreal Blast 


Reuters 

MONTREAL — Thomas 
Brigham, 65, an American who has 
described himself as an “advance 
man for cosmic forces,” was found 
smur- 


v * \ 


MMtyV i ►v«» ; • r jjL' e l*t" 

j rw»T« -• 1 c ’ 7* CAIRO —The Egyptian path' 
meat has rejected calls for tne in 
rt£*r * <•! tli.' position of Islamic law in this pr 




■ • ' fMC r# ' ■* 



L,! 


ft 8 /* ; im *»«** 



ith Miller 

He*r~York Times Service 
CAIRO —The Egyptian parna- 
ment has rejected cans for the im- 
position of Islamic law in this pre- 
dominantly Moslem country. 

Instead, lhe 448-seai People’s 
Assonbly voted to review Egypt's 
legal coot “gradually and sdeatifi- 
” to revise provisions that coo- 
Islamiclaw. : 

The vote on Saturday was a de- 
feat for Egyptians who have cham- 
pioned the immediate imposition 
o t Islamic law,' or sharia . . 

Tire Islamic legal code prescribes 
behavior for tready ; twry human 
activity. In its harslrest form, k pro- 
vides arapuratioo of hands for 
theft, stoning for adultery and llog- 
for other social crimes. It also 


rer in a bombing in September at 
source of the infection is here in. Montreal’s mam railroad station, 
this braiding,” Dr. Galbraith said He was to life in prison. 

aL a news conference at the hospi- Three persons died in the bombing. 


However, he said, it was discov- 
ered that all bat two of the victims 
examined so far had visited the 
out-patient department at the hos- 
pital in the weeks before the out- 
break . 

As soon as the link was estab- 
lished Saturday night, the five cool- 
ing towers and tire hospital's water 
supply were chlorinated and tests 
were begun. 

Doctors were treating 68 victims 
of the disease Sunday, 33 of tWi 
in the district hospital Three were 
critically HL 

A consultant. John Francis, and 
a district m edical officer, John 
Scully, said there was “a si gnifican t 
possibility” that many more out- 
patients had died in tire outbreak 
but their deaths had been recorded 
as pneumonia. 


INSIDE 


■A new US study of infant 
mortality says there is “cause 
for concern" about babies bora 
in the nation. Page 3. 




■ Ethiopia has cded reports of 
tire bunting of a famme ( rdief 
camp a “big lie.” Page 4. 


■ Libyan officials say they have 
raged guerrillas in southern Su- 
dan to stop Gghting. Page 4. 


■ India and the United Stales 
neared agreement on sales of 
mflitaiy technology. Page 5. 


BUSINESS/FINANCE . 

■ The U-S. economy showed 
mixed signals for April, but 
some indicators were up strong- 
ly, a survey showed. Page 9. 


SPORTS 


■ Spend A Buck won the 1 1 1th 
Kentucky Derby by five and a 
half lengths. Page 15. 



Spend A Buck, In die third- fastest race in die history of 
die Kentucky Deity, heading toward victory. Page 15. 


Mitterrand 


RefusesRole 
In U.S . Space 
Arms Project 


By William Drozdiak 

Washington Post Service 

BONN — President Framjois 
Mitterrand has said that France 
cannot participate in the Reagan 
administration’s Strategic Defense 
Initiative “in its present form," be- 
coming the first major U.S. ally to 
reject a role in the project. 

Mr. Mitterrand said at a news 
conference at the dose of the sum- 
mit meeting of the seven major 
Western industrialized countries 
Saturday that he had told President 
Ronald Reagan of his decision dur- 
ing a private meeting Thursday. 

More than any other allied lead- 
er, Mr. Mitterrand has expressed 
skepticism that lhe United Suites 
would ever share all research find- 
ings with its allies. He has also 
voiced deep concern that the U.S. 


research program into space-based 
defense could ieo 


In Los Angeles, Halls of Justice Echo With 80 Different Tongues 


By Paul Feldman. 

L as Angela Tima Service 

U)5 ANGELES — Taking tire witness stand in a 
Chinatown shoot-out case, a Los Angeles police offi- 
cer confidently testified how he administered the Mir- 


anda rights wanting in Chinese to tire 'fief aidant, 
gHuyn' 


| bans alcohol, interest on bank 

Wri :Ck * V* ■ T ^ oan »- most modem forms of 


Thong Hoynh. 

The defease attorney, Michael Yamaki countered 
by calling Mr. Huynh’s court-appointed interpreter to 
the stand. Tire interpreter, Keang Wong, testified that 
the warning on self-incrimination had been rooted in 
tire Tdshan dialect Yet Mr. Huynh had responded in 
Cantonese, which is essentially a different language. 

As a remit, tire Los Angetes Municipal Court judge, 


— 80 languages in afl.^ This, apparently, is more than in 
any other coohrir amt system in tire nation, according 
to Burdette L. Hams, director oT court staff services. 

“Interpreicis arc critical," said a Los Angeles Supe- 
rior Court judge, Michael Tynan. “We have so many 
languages coming before ns m court that, without the 
interpreters, we simply couldn’t do any business." He 
estimates that almost half tire esses in his courtroom 
involve interpretere. 

Ten yeas ago, county officials maintained 100 
courtroom interpreters, SO of them Spanish-speaking. 


U WV W HM.J 

or d edjne assignments depending on their outsit 
schedules, which can inclnde privately paid civil court 
work. While many of the Spanish interpreters are 
assigned full- tunc m crimmal courthouses, most exotic 
linguists are needed only part time. 

Adding to tire workload arc court rulings stemming 
from a 1974 state constitutional amendment guaran- 
teeing defendants the right to an interpreter. In the last 
year alone, California’s higher courts have held that 
defendants and witnesses do not have to share inter- 


!*#• 

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Srvt-- 1 ' “ 





taxation. 

In Egypt, the Modem Brother- 
hood and other Islamic fundamen- 
talists have pressed President 
Hosni Mubarak's government to 
make tire Islamic rode the law. of 
the land. 

But Islamic law is anathema to 
Egypt’s Coptic Christians, who are 
estimated 10 total five million to six 
million of Egypt’s 48 million peo- 
ple. , . 


Samuel Mayerson, ruled that Mr. Huynh’s confession- 

i evidence 



3? 


ommendauon of parliament’s 
Committee oaRehgkHi and Islam- 
ic Message and 'Sgainst proposals 


al statement was inadmissible as evidence during last 
month's prefimmaiy hairing s temming from the kill- 
ing of a police officer, Duane Johnson. 

Although Judge Mayason ordered Mr. Huynh to 
stand trial based on other evidence, his ruling spot- 
lighted the expanding role of foreign languages in Los 
Angdes-aiea courts and the increaangrdiance placed 
upon courtroom interpreters. 

As Los Angeles County becomes ever more mnlti- 
lingual — He Spanish-speaking population doubled 
and the Asian population nearly tripled from 1970 to 
1980 — its courts have become a veritable United 
Nations of crimmal defendants. 

. Todealwkhthe. influx, and with a series cfindieial 
interpretations guarantccmt defendants and witnesses 
the nght to oourt-appohitedand paid-for interpreters, 
tire ranks of courtroom linguists, and their impor- 
tance^ has swelled. 


Court-appointed interpreters now are available in Afghan, 
Albanian, Arabic, Tagalog and Turkish — 80 languages in all. This 
is apparently more than in any other U.S. county court system. 


more than an oral interview and a background check. 
That occasionally has allowed problems to arise. 

A current case that illustrates the range of problems 
faced in the profession is that of Japanese- bora Fu- 
miko Kimura, from Los Angeles, who was charged 
with murder after having waded into Santa Monica 
Bay clutching her young son and infant daughter in an 
apparent suicide attempt. 

At Mrs. Kimnra’s pr eliminar y hearing, testimony 
was postponed for six hours because of difficulties 
finding a second linguist. As it turned out, both 
interpreters assigned to the case were Japanese of 
Korean heritage, and relatives and a Santa Monica 
police officer of Japanese heritage questioned the 
accuracy of their translations. 

Later, tire interpreters themselves differed over the 
Japanese word for sanity. Eventually, one interpreter 
suggested that the judge find an interpreter of Japa- 
nese ancestry. 


Now, the raster is 425 strong, mdnding 200 for 


Among their ranks are actresses, interior decora- 
tors, chemis ts, law students and housewives. The job. 
interpreters say, is rewarding and weighty, one thqr in 
some cases can mean the difference between convic- 
tion and acquittal 

But the increasing role of interpreters has been 


(Continued oar Rage 4, CoL 7) 


. Court-appointed interpreters now are available in 
Afghan; Albanian. Arabic, T&galog, Tongan, Turkish 


dry and quality of their work. 

For example. Me. Haais said, officials have difficul- 
ty locating enough tnxapreters on short notice in cases 
involving “crone” languages — court slang for any 
foreign language other than Spanwh 
The problem exists in part because the county’s 


praters and that. each defendant in. a case has the right 
to Ids own interpreter. 

If defendants must share thdr interpreters with 
witnesses, an appellate court reasoned, the defendants 
could not communicate with their attorneys, a consti- 
tutional right, without interrupting the proceeding. 

Consequently, courtrooms are sometimes packed 
with interpreters. In one recent case involving Filipi- 
nos in the Superior Court in suburban Torrance, Mr. 
Harris said, six Tagalog interpreters were needed at 
ooccl “Thai pretty much exhausted our list,” he sakL 
• For 15 years, a written test for Spamsitspeaking 
Superior Court interpreters has been administered by 
Mr. Harris’s department Bat for interpreters in those 
exotic languages, the approval process has been little 


At a later session with new interpreters, further 
irhen the officer was 


problems arose. Particularly w] 
questioned about the manner in which he adminis- 
tered a Miranda rights wanting to Mrs. Kimura. The ' 
issue became douded when courtroom observers ques- , 
tioned whether the interpreter was translating the 
officer's testimony word for word. 1 


_ . . jeopardize the con- 
cept of nuclear deterrence. 

Mr. Mitterrand said Mr. Reagan 
used the term “subcontractors” in 
referring to Europe’s role in the 
U.S. project, confirming misgi ving s 
that European countries would not 
be treated as equal partners with 
the United States. 

“Subconiraoors,” Mr. Mitter- 
rand said. “That’s the word 1 heard. 
The word was said in English. It 
confirmed my intuitions.” 

“The technology interests me, 
but the strategic project is interest- 
ing only for the future when man 
becomes master of space,” he said 
“I told Ragan France would not 
participate." 

France has proposed a European 
research program, called Eureka, 
that would explore civilian uses of 
outer space and advanced technol- 
ogy in fields such as lasers and high 
speed computers. 

Mr. Mitterrand urged the other 
European countries to rally behind 
Eureka because of the “need to 
preserve their fund of intelligence, 
technology and brains." 

“All this has to be mobilized in a 
great project that is European," he 
said. 


Finally, Mrs. Kimuxa’s attorney called two inter- 
re ters, whom be discovered in the 


praters, whom be discovered in tne audience, to the 
witness stand. Both testified that the court interpreter 
had cleaned up the officer’s language. 

Judge Rex Min ter ruled that the officer’s choppy 
Japanese appeared to have been insufficient, although 
he stiD allowed the Miranda warning to stand because 
of Mrs. Kimora’s understanding of English. 


Mr. Mitterrand’s announcement 
is expected to intensify the problem 
of west Germany and other allies, 
who may be forced to choose be- 
tween accepting a subservient role 
in the U.S .-funded space project or 
sharing the costs with France in 
( Continued on Page 2, CoL 7) 


1 







Nicaragua Sanctions 
Opposed at Summit 


By Lou Cannon 

Washington Post Service 

BONN — U.5. economic sanc- 
tions against Nicaragua were greet- 
ed by widespread disapproval from 
other participants in the Bonn sum- 
mit. They warned that the sanc- 
tions are likely to drive the leftist 
Sandimst government even closer 
to the Soviet Union and Cuba. 

The United States avoided for- 
mal protests against the sanctions 


Mitterrand’s 
Tough Stand 

(Continued from Page I) 
Socialist Party faced a strong chal- 
lenge from the right in parliamen- 
tary elections a year from now. 

The U.S. secretary of state. 
George P. Shultz, specifically died 
the “French political scene" as an 
explanation for Mr. Mitterrand's 
intransigence. Another U.S. offi- 
cial speculated that global talks 
about agricultural subsidies in ear- 
ly 1986 could have provided am- 
munition ui the French opposition 
in the middle of an election cam- 
paign. 

French officials were caught off 
guard by the swiftness with which 
Chancellor Helmut Kohl of West 
Germany agreed to support the 
U.S. position on starting negotia- 
tions early next year under the aus- 
pices of the General Agreement on 
Tariffs and Trade, or GATT. The 
German decision effectively de- 
stroyed French hopes of maintain- 
ing a united European front at 
Bonn. 

By the end of the meeting, 
France was even abandoned by Ita- 
ly, which previously had voiced 
mild opposition to a new GATT 
round. 


imposed Wednesday by not asking 
for any endorsements. Secretary of 
State George P. Shultz and Donald 
T. Regan, the White House chief of 
staff, acknowledged, however, that 
the sanctions are not popular with 
European nations or Canada. 

Mr. Regan said. “They were not 
satisfied with our course of con- 
duct. but it was something we fell 
we had to do.” 

Mr. Shultz did not respond di- 
rectly to a question about whether 
be had argued against opposing the 
samTtinn* . but another administra- 
tion official said that “the secre- 
tary's reservations about sanctions 
are wdJ known." 

The sanctions impose a total em- 
bargo on trade, suspend U.S. land- 
ing rights far Nicaraguan planes 
and snips and terminate a U-S. 
treaty of friendship, commerce and 
navigation with Nicaragua. 

The West German foreign minis- 
ter. Hans- Dietrich Genscher, said 
that the four European participants 
in the seven-nation economic con- 
ference do not believe that trade 
sanctions are effective. The four are 
West Germany, Britain, France 
and Italy. 

“It is well known that European 
slates do not tend toward embargo 
measures in any form,” Mr. 
Genscher said. 

Some of the sharpest criticism 
came from Joe Clark, the Canadian 
foreign minister, who received as- 
surances from Mr. Shultz that the 
United States would not interfere 
with U.S.-Canadian trade. But Mr. 
Clark said that Canada would 
monitor this trade anyway to make 
certain that Canadian subsidiaries 
of U.S. companies were not affect- 
ed by the embargo decision. 

The protest against the sanctions 
arose at Friday's meeting of foreign 
ministers. 



WORLD BRIEFS 


President Reagan and bis wife approaching a Jewish manorial at the site of the Bergeo- 
Belsen camp. They were accompanied by Chancellor Kohl and his wife. 

Reagan Places Wreath at Bitburg 


(Continued from Page 1) 

ihe spirit of man can ever be extin- 
guished," he said. “We are here to 
co mmemo rate that life triumphed 
over the tragedy and the death of 
the Holocaust." 

As Mr. Reagan arrived at the 
camp site, he was greeted by dem- 
onstrators who apparently were 
protesting his visit to Bitburg. 

Asked by reporters about the 
demonstrators, Mr. Reagan re- 


plied, pursing his lips: “It's a free 
country.” 

After Mr. Reagan and Mr. Kohl 
left Betgen-Beisen, about 50 peo- 
ple, most of them American Jews 
who are children of Holocaust sur- 
vivors, were allowed onto the 
grounds to conduct tfaor own me- 
morial service. 

“Bergen-Belsen has today been 
exploited for the political interests 


Reagan Avoids Political Controversy 


By Hedrick Smith 

New York Times Service 

BONN — By scaling down his 
political goals and anticipating 
worries among the allies over the 
space- based defense program. 
President Ronald Reagan avoided 
a political clash at the seven-nation 
conference and came off better on 
political than on economic issues. 

Overall, his leadership was dealt 
a setback by French opposition to 
on international trade conference 
and by the broad criticism of his 
trade embargo against Nicaragua. 

But on the issues of arms control. 
Mr. Reagan leaves the conference 
with a show of Western unity, how- 
ever vaguely formulated; and, on 
the missile defense program, he has 
obtained an indirect expression of 
confidence, based on his pledge to 
move slowly, in close consultation, 
and on the lure of U.S. defense 
contracts. 

The president did not seek and 
did not get endorsement of his mis- 
sile defense program, but, based on 
his assurances to the allies, it won a 
generally positive reception, except 
from France. 

The conference ended with a 
fairly typical pattern of patchwork 
compromises. When Secretary of 
State George P. Shultz was asked if 
Mr. Reagan had been the dominant 
figure, he shied away. 

“You get a bunch of heads of 
state here and nobody is going to 
dominate," he said. “The president 
has been a strong figure and so 
have the others." 

Another official said President 
Francois Mitterrand of France had 
been the “dominating figure." One 
non-LLS. participant said Mr. Rea- 
gan and his delegation bad not 
shown strong leadership. 

“They lost their nerve," he said, 
alluding to the furor over (he visit 


Sunday to 
cemetery. 


the Bitburg military 


Altogether, the Bonn conference 
had a mixed outcome. Its pluses 
and minuses add up to much las 
than Mr. Reagan's successful man- 

NEWS ANALYSIS 

agement of the 1983 conference in 
Williamsburg, Vir ginia. They par- 
allel the president's record in Con- 
gress this spring, winning on the 
MX missile, but losing on aid to 
Nicaraguan rebels and some of the 
critical Senate budget votes. 

The United States took comfort 
that it had obtained an approving 
statement for its negotiating posi- 
tion in arms talks with the Soviet 
Union in Geneva and a call for 
Moscow to be more flexible. 

But Western European spokes- 
men said that the political declara- 
tion contained a fairly vague and 
lukewarm wording at best, and not 
the kind of ringing endorsement 
that the United States wanted and 
said it goL By allied accounts. Italy. 
France and West Germany would 
go no further than to say that they 
“appreciate” the “positive" U.S. 
proposals in the talks. 


The dispute over Nicaragua 
arose because the president chose 
to declare the embargo on the eve 
of the conference, when his delega- 
tion was already in Bonn. France. 
West Germany, Italy and Canada 
all took issue with the U.S. timing . 

It is on the issue of the space- 
based defense program that the 
United Stats skillfully avoided a 
noisy confrontation. A month ago. 
U.S. officials favored seeking a 
firm endorsement But when Brit- 
ain and France raised questions 
about the program, Mr. Shultz and 
Robert C. McFarlane, the national 
security adviser, urged a dower ap- 
proach. 

As a result U.S. and Western 
European officials said, Mr. Rea- 
gan concentrated on giving assur- 
ances that he would consult with 
the allies, that he would not deploy 
a space-based defease system with- 
out trying to negotiating an agree- 
ment about it with the Soviet 
Union, and that he would balance 
development of both offensive and 
defense forces. 

By giving these assurances, Mr. 
Reagan avoided a clash over his 
program- 


West’s f Acute Contradictions’ 
Comfort Soviet Commentators 

By Dusko Doder 

Washington Past Service 

MOSCOW — The Bonn summit conference of the seven Western 
leaders has ended with the Russians finding comfort in what they 
describe as “acute contradictions" among the. participants in trade, 
economic and monetary matters. 

A commentary Saturday by the Soviet press agency Tass suggested 
that these “contradictions” were likely to become more acute if and 
when the U.S. economic recovery died oul 

President Ronald Reagan's position in Bonn, Tass said, under- 
scored that his administration’s Bolides “only exacerbate economic 
contradictions in the West” p 

Another Soviet commentary noted with satisfaction that Washing- 
ton's allies refused to join an /jonomic embargo of Nicaragua 
imposed by Mr. Reagan on the ere of his departure for Europe. 

The conference's failure to set a date for unde talks Qlummated, 
according to Tass. resistance by Western Europe to Mr. Reagan’s 
policy of “financial aggression.” 

By keeping artificially high interest rata in the United States and 
thus high dollar-cxchange rates. Tass said, the United States had 
managed to “pump from Western Europe, according to very modest 
estimates, more than 5300 billion over the past five years." 

These sums. Tass continued, permitted the administration to fi- 
nance budget deficits “caused by the arms race." But at the same time, 
the flow of funds to the United States “impeded economic growth of 


its principal competitors. 
ThcEuroi 


Europeans and the Japanese, the commentary said, had sought 
reforms of the monetary system that would end tbe dominant status 
of the dollar. This notion was first advanced at the 1 983 Williamsburg 
summit meeting of the seven leaders. But, Tass said, the Reagan 
administration had “sabotaged" such efforts. 


Backstage at a Summit: Snoozing and Small Talk 



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By David Hoffman 

Washington Past Service 

BONN — It was the climactic 
finish of the Western economic 
summit meeting as Chancellor Hel- 
mut Kohl took tbe podium at the 
Bundestag to read the final com- 
munique. 

But some of the world’s leaders 
seemed ready to fall asleep Satur- 
day while listening to their handi- 
work. 

As Mr. Kohl read passages about 
“the establishment of a research 
network on dry zone grains." and 
“pressing environmental problems 
such as acid deposition,” usually 
known as arid rain, the leaders, 
with their foreign and economic 
ministers, fidgeted and looked out 
at the audience as if in a daze. 

President Ronald Reagan pen- 
sively grasped the earphone 
through which he listened to an 
interpreter. A Canadian official 
put his bead into his hands in a sign 
of weariness. 


Secretary of Slate George P. 
Shultz admitted later be had a “lit- 
tle trouble" staying awake himself. 

“The time zone is hard, and you 
gpt up very early in the morning, 
and you work hard all day, and 
you’re up at night for the very won- 

REPORTER’S NOTEBOOK 

derful dinners,” he said. “But, any- 
way, you don’t get an awful lot of 
sleep. I just speak for myself." 

A reporter asked: “It was a kind 
of boring communique, thoug h , 
don’t you think ?" 

“Weil, as a matter of fact, I 
thought it was fantastic," Mr. 
Shultz responded, laughing. 

Prime Minister Bettino Craxi of 
Italy seemed to be the summit par- 
ticipant who had the hardest time 


getting an audience with Mr. Rea- 
gan. 

Perhaps it was because be came 
to Bonn bearing a critical letter 
from tbe Soviet leader, Mikhail S. 
Gorbachev. The letter talked of 
Mr. Gorbachev's missile moratori- 
um and reiterated his criticism of 
Mr. Reagan's Strategic Defense 
Initiative. 

White House officials twice post- 
poned scheduled meetings with Mr. 
Craxi. Other leaders — Britain’s 
Margaret Thatcher, Japan's Yasu- 
hiro Nakasone, Mr. Kohl and Pres- 
ident Francois Mitterrand of 
France —were each afforded hour- 
long sessions with Mr. Reagan be- 
fore the conference began. 

Mr. Craxi finally got his meeting. 
He and Mr. Reagan sat in a comer 
and chatted after a luncheon of the 
world leaders. Mr. Shultz said it 


was a “little longer" than five min- 
utes. 

Unlike tbe other national lead- 
era, Mr. Reagan did not bold a 
news conference after the summit 
meeting. But a group of West Ger- 
man newspaper reporters got a rare 
opportunity to chat with him at a 
reception Friday night at tbe 18th- 
century Augustusburg Castle. 

Reporters at the event dialed a 
host of old and new Reaganisms, 
some of which were quoted in tins 
German press. When a reporter 
commented that Mr. Reagan 
looked pale next to the tanned Mr. 
Shultz, the president laughed. 

“George always picks the sunny 
countries for his travels," Mr. Rca- 

wherc and I am^sti^uTwfshmg- 
tocL Sometimes I don’t even know 
where he is." 


Gorbachev, Honecker Caution Boi 4 

MOSCOW (AP) — The Soviet leader, Mikhail S. Gorbache>V- 
President Erich Honecker of East Germany warned West Genoa v , 
Sunday against participating in the U.S. space-based missile d* - 
program or seeking to reclaim Goman territory lost in World War ;* 
official Tass news agency said. ... „ v . , ' 

Tass said the meeting between Mr. Gorbachev and Mr. Honed* . 
arrived in the Soviet Union on Saturday for a visit to marie fo 


Thousands 
Of Spaniards 
Protest Visit 
By Reagan 

By Edward Schumacher 

New York Tunes Service 

MADRID 
onds of Spaniards 
day in largely peaceful protests 
around Spain against the visit here 
Monday of President Ronald Rea- 
gan. 

Few incidents were recorded as a 
loose coalition of pacifists, neutral- 
ists, Communists and far-left mem- 
bers of Prime Minister Felipe Gon- 
zalez's Socialist Party brandished 
effigies of Mr. Reagan and burned 
American fla gi 

“NATO no, bases out" protest- 
era chanted, linking his visit to their 
opposition to Spanish membership 
in the Noth Atlantic Treaty Orga- 
nization and to XJJS. military per- 
sonnel stationed in Spain. 

Mr. Reagan is scheduled to leave 
Wednesday. 

In Madrid’s Colon Plaza, an esti- 
mated 75.000 protesters cheered as 
a Nicaraguan flag was tied to a 
pedestal, which was topped by a 
statue of Christopher Columbus. 

Speakers condemned the trade esa- charges for more tfmn nine years escaped from his guards Sunday 






aymg at 

Diplomatic sources in East Berlin said Saturday that Ml 
would retum to Moscow later this week for the Kremlin’s official \ 
day events. But East German sources in Moscow suggested 
Honecker would stay home for the May 9 holiday, celebrated as £ 
liberation in East Germany and other Soviet bloc countries. -/■ 

20,000 Jobs Cut, Coal Board Says | 

HARROGATE, England (AP) — The National CoilBqavf 
achieved its goals of cutting production and el im i na ting 20,000 10? 
objectives that initiated the miners’ strike, acc o rdin g to a board a 
Michael Eaton, director of personnel, said that since a 51-week 
by the National Union of Mmeworkers’ ended in March, there had 
rush of miners (Peking early retirement- “Far more than 20,00 
expressed a wish to go,” Mr. Eaton said Saturday. He also said tfc 
coal board had cut production by four million to five milli on tons 
The National Union of Mmeworkers called a nationwide strike 
12, 1984. after the government's coal board announced plans to d ^ 
money-losing mines, cut 20.000 jobs from the 186 .000- strong wori . -.j 
and reduce production. 

Philippine Journalist Flees Detent! 

MANILA (UFI) — A Philippine journalist imprisoned on subvc 


of these two men, and tbe sanctity 
of this place has been violated,” 
said Menachem RosensafL “Never 
until today has anyone dared to use 
these graves as part' of an attempt 
to rehabilitate the SS.” 

Before they left Bonn. Mr. Rea- 
gan and Mr. Kohl made a surprise 
visit to Adenauer’s grave in the 
village of Rhoendorf. 


bargo imposed by Ml Reagan on 
Nicaragua. 

In Barcelona. Spain’s second 
Largest dty, the Spanish news agen- 
cy EFE quoted police as saying that 
225,000 protesters turned out there. 

[Protesters broke down tbe door 
of the U.S. Consulate in Barcelona 
and sprayed tbe bonding with slo- 
gans, Renters reported.} 

Organizers said that more than 
one million persons joined in tbe 
dozens of protests held in dries and 
towns around the country. 

Mr. Gonzdlezsaid last week that, 
despite policy differences with Mr. 
Reagan over Nicaragua, he and al- 
most every ooKtical party in Spain 
visit 


Western Allies 
Witt Explore 
African Aid 

By John Tagliabue 

New York Times Service 


being granted a onc-day release, officials said. 

Satur Ocampo, 46, the longest-held political prisoner ar the lime c^_ 
escape, slipped out the emergency exit of the National Press Unb sh&y 
after casting a ba llo t in the organization’s elections, Antonio Nieva** _ 
dub’s president, said. Mr. Ocampo is a farmer press club president 
business editor of the Manila Times newspaper. Tbe paper was orde 
closed after President Fe rdinan d E Marcos imposed martial rule in 19 

Mr. Ocampo has been in prison since Jan. 14, 1976, on subverss . 
charges stemming from an arms smuggling case. A statement by the du 
said Defense Minister Joan Ponce Entile bad approved Mr. Ocampo 
release to permit him to attend the elections for new officers oat 
ceremonies ™«rkfng the end of National Press Week. Mr. Ocampo's 
detention had drawn numerous protests from abroad. 

Cereal Prices Block EC Farm Talks 

LUXEMBOURG (AP) — Agriculture minis ters of the European 
Community remained deadlocked Sunday after four days of talks on a 
1985-86 farm price package 35 West Germany continued to oppose 
lowering cereal prices, officials said. 

Frans Andriessen, the ECs agriculture commissioner, criticized Bonn 
for being “intransigent.” 

The “negative position" of Agriculture Minister Ignaz Kiechle of West 
Germany “is unaccqrtable." Mr. Andriessen said. He accused Mr. 
Kiechle of hurting EC efforts to bring grain prices closer 10 the lower 
world prices and thus respond to long-standing U.S. criticism of EC 
export subsidies. 

FortheRecord 

Iran has contacted Gan asking to buy surface-to-air missiles, Warsaw 
Pact countries seeking Soviet-made arms, and several West European 
nations searching for means to better defend itself against Iraqi air 


BONN - Participants in the at^ks. The O ^gyer reponed Suntky in London. . (AFP) 

ven-nation econotmcconference L Foot Bntab dfldren were lriUed when asug»cted mme blew up while 
ve imexoectediv announced (heir picnidnng on a beach just south of the Suez Canal, a British 


seven -nation 
have unexpectedly announced their 
intention to explore ways to com- 
bat hunger in Africa. 

But their communique Saturday 
contained a dear warning to Afri- 
can nations that “political obsta- 
cles" must not be allowed to block 
food deliveries, and it appealed to 


i picnicking 1 

source said Sunday in Cairo. Tbe mines are believed to be left over from 


four Arab-lsradi wars since 1948. (Reuters) 

Loras FanaUum, a U.S. Black Muslim leader who sots he has received 
a 55- million, interest-free business loan from Colonel Moamer Qadhafi, 
has arrived in Tripoli, the official Libyan news agency JANA reported 
Sunday. (AP) 

i ( Israefi and Egyptian delegations plan to meet this week in Cairo to 
the Soviet Union and other 'Sow P«pare for a summit meeting between Prime Minister Shimon Peres of 

^ “ d Resident Hosni Mubarak of Egypt, officials said Sunrky in 
Jerusalem. (UP!) 

Tbe United Nations has permitted more than a dozen Americans to 
return to their posts in southern Lebanon after a precautionary transfer 
to Israel, a UN spokesman said Sunday in Td Aviv. (AP) 


responsibilities in this regard.” 

Chancellor Helmut Kohl of 
West Germany said the loss and 
spoilage of food cargoes intended 
for Africans had caused “consider- 
able concern. 


Without naming governments, FrCHWS RplSCtS PcUllffllMltWll 

r. Kohl criticized African policies J £ 

In U.S. Space Arms Project 


Mr. 

on food distribution. He said it was 
“unacceptable that Western indus- 
try is attacked” for failing to take 
into account the needs of nonin- 
dustrialized countries, “but when 
some contribution is made, the 
help doesn’t arrive." 

“The public must know about 
it,” be continued, “when squab- 
bling or politics block food deliver- 
ies." 

Western governments have been 
particularly embittered by Ethio- 
pia’s Marxist government, which 
they accuse of blocking food deliv- 
eries to pans of the population to 
force acceptance of government 
policy. 

Tbe communique the lead- 
ers agreed to have a study group 
make proposals by September on 
ways to help tbe Africans. 

It added that the leaders empha- 
sized their readiness to help “pro- 
mote Increases in food production" 
and to afford technical aid to Afri- 
can governments. 

Mr. Kohl said one of the group's 
major t ask s would be to report on 
lost or spoiled cargoes and seek 
wots ways to avoid them. 


Bonn Summit Ends Without Agreement on Trade 


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(Continued from Page 1) 

summarized in the final communi- 
que. 

President Reagan agreed to con- 
tinue pursuing a reduction in the 
federal budget deficit. 

Overshadowing all tbe discus- 
sions was the deadlock over trade 
and monetary issues. 

President Mitterrand had let it 
be known before the conference 
that he was firmly opposed to tbe 
U.S. administration's strong desire 
to begin the trade talks in 1986. He 
had sought linked or parallel pro- 
gress on reforming the world mone- 
tary system, a suggestion that the 
United States, Prime Minister 
Margaret Thatcher of Britain and 
West Germany's finance minister. 


exposition 


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IRAN 

orient 

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Gerhard Std ten berg, had previ- 
ously rejected. 

Amid intense efforts to find a 
compromise, the talk about mone- 
tary reform was dropped, and Mr. 
Mitterrand began criticizing the 
U.S. trade initiative on the ground 
that it threatened the ECs common 
agricultural policy and French 
farm interests. 

Nevertheless, Mr. Reagan. Mrs. 
Thatcher and particularly Mr. 
Kohl tried to persuade Mr. Mitter- 
rand to compromise. 

Senior EC and French officials 
said Sunday that if there had been 
any flexibility in Mr. Mitterrand’s 
approach to the 1986 date, it was 
doomed by the surprise announce- 
ment by Mr. Kohl on Thursday 
that he was supporting the U.S. call 
for talks in 1986. 

When Mr. Mitterrand learned of 
the announcement, he was "furi- 
ous." a French official said, and 
immediately challenged the legality 
of the West German move on the 
ground that the EC Council of 
Ministers, in a legally binding deri- 
sion, had agreed March 19 to sup- 
port preparations for the trade 
round, but declined to set a date for 
the beginning of negotiations. 

“All the uproar over Bitburg pri- 
or to the summit simply destabi- 
lized Kohl" said an EC Commis- 
sion source in Brussels. “He clearly 
was trying 10 accommodate, to 


please President Reagan but forgot 
about his other great ally and in the 
end. he did not score with either 
one of them." 

None of the participants gave 
any outward sign of irritation with 
Mr. Mitterrand. 

“If there was some irritation, 
people kept it to themselves." a 
senior British official said. 

Mr. Mitterrand, appearing re- 
laxed. brushed off suggestions that 
he had been isolated. He noted that 
at various points in the discussions 
he had been supported by Prime 
Minister Bettino Craxi of Italy, 
Jacques Ddors, his former finance 
minister and president of tbe Euro- 
pean Commission, and Canadian 
officials. 

Mr. Mitterrand and his aides em- 
phasized that France fully support- 
ed the communique's statement 
that “a preparatory meeting of se- 
nior officials should take place in 
the GATT before tbe end of the 
summer to reach a broad consensus 
on subject matter and modalities 
for such negotiations." GATT is 
the General Agreement on Tariffs 
and Trade, a 90-nation, Geneva- 
based agency. 

French officials said that con- 
sensus must indude developing 
countries, one of the main reasons 


France blocked establishing a date 
at tbe summit meeting. 

In two statements distributed to 
reporters at Mr. Mitterrand's news 
conference, France made two prop- 
ositions that were not induded m 
tbe summit communiqufc. 

The first series to rgect in ad- 
vance any effort to challenge the 
EC farm policy in the trade negoti- 
ations. 

The second calls for a special 
conference of the Interim Commit- 
tee of tbe International Monetary 
Fund, the policymaking body of 
tbe IMF, comprising about two 
dozen members, to examine the 
possibilities of undertaking re- 
forms in the world monetary sys- 
tem. 

Mr. Mitterrand said that the 
conference France proposes could 
evolve into the one suggested by 
Mr. Baker last month at a ministe- 
rial meeting of tbe Organization for 
Economic Cooperation and Devel- 
opment. But U.S. officials noted 
that the suggestion was not repeat- 
ed by Mr. Baker during the summit 
meeting. 

Sweeping reform, or a “new 
Bretton Woods conference." the 
French leader told a re 
still “a long way" from 
reality. 


(Continued from Page 1) 
developing an alternative Europe- 
an research program. 

Chancellor Helmut Kohl has 
said the U.S. project is justified 
because the Soviet Union has been 
conducting its own space defense 
research. Bonn has ind i cated that it 
may participate in the UR. pro- 
gram if it aripqnptr assur- 
ances that t&e United States will 
share all research findings and the 
benefits of related technology. 

Mr. Kohl also has kept open the 
possibility of participating in the 
French initiative either as an alter- 
native or as an adjunct to a role in 
tbe U.S. program. Mr. Mitterrand 
said Saturday that “West Germany 
has given me full agreement for 
Eureka." 

Prime Minister Margaret 
Thatcher has chosen to join the 
U.S. research program ana voiced 
same disdain tor the French pro- 
ject. 

Mrs. Thatcher said she would be 
“quite happy” to be directly in- 
volved with the Americans. 

Mrs. Thatcher’s spokesman said 
Saturday that Britain had asked 
Washington for a chance to join the 
US. program even before receiving 
a formal invitation. 

Italy and the Netherlands have 
shown some interest in Eureka as a 
way to strengthen European unity 
and enhance tbe European Com- 
munity’s ability to compete -with 
the United States and Japan in new 

t£ *But > ^^ka’s high cost has 
frightened away most European 
governments, who have been 
pushed by private industry not to 
miss out on the chance for 
contracts funded by W; 

Japan and Canada have 
a more cautions stance, 
they wish to learn more 
exact nature of the five-year, 526- 
bfllion research project. 

UR. officials said that Mr. Rea- 
gan received a variety of responses 
when he conducted trilateral >«nrc 
with other leaders at -the summit 
meeting about possible contribu- 
tions to space defense research. 

*TTte offer to take part in the 
research program has been greeted 
in different ways by different coun- 
tries," Secretary of State George P. 
Shultz said Saturday. 

"The history of these things is 
that they are generally spin-offs of 
one kind or another," Mr. Shultz 
said. “Take the space program. It 
has spun a whole industry almost 
that comes out of miniaturization." 

In injecting a role m the U5. 
scheme, Mr. Mitterrand suggested 
that the U.S. and French projects 
“could be bridged" once the specif- 


ic outlines of the two research pro- 
grams were known. 

“They are certainly not incom- 
patible, Mr. Mitterrand said. “We 
can have exchanges with the Unit- 
ed States." 

The French-backed project 
could eventually serve military pur- 
poses but its primary pnrpose 
would be “to explore space through 
advanced research in order to mas- 
ter new technologies," he raid. 

Mr. Mitterrand reportedly told 


uy tow 

Mr. Reagan that France was highly 
interested in the technology but not 
the strategic aspect of (he u.S. pro- 
gram because it coaid alter the con- 
cept of mutual assured destruction 
that has maintained peace in Eu- 
rope for 40 years. 

The French revelation came as a 
startling development in an eco- 
nomic conference that earlier had 
avoided discussion of the space- 
defense research plan. Before the 
leaders gathered m Bonn, differ- 
ences of opinion over the project 
loomed as a vexing conflict dirid- 
ing the United States and its Euro- 
pean allies that threatened to domi- 
nate the summit meeting. -J 

The UJS. and West German gov- 
ernments, seeking to avoid a poten- 
tial political confrontation, aban- 
doned the idea before the 
conference of making a joint decla- 
ration on space defense when it 
became apparent that no consensus 
could be achieved among the seven 
participating leaders. 

In the end, there was no mention 
of the project in either the confer- 
ence’s political declaration or its 
final communique. 

French Firms Join 
SDI, Report Says ■ 

Rettierx 

PARIS — Two staie-oontrolled 
French companies haw agreed to 
cooperate in research into Presi- 
dent Ronald Reagan's Strategic 
Defense Initiative, the newspaper 
Le Monde said in its weekend edi- 
tion. 

President Franqois Mitterrand 
said in Bonn on Saturday that 
France would play no part in the 
program. Le Monde reported that 
the electronics group Thom- 
son-CSF and a subsidiary the . 
tajj n pagnie Generate d’Bectricile ■ 

had been approached bccaustTol^ 
their expertise in optics and laser 
technology and were among com- 
panies in five allied countries to •, 
have accepted a rote in the research 
project Neither of the companies 
made any comment 


ted 
that 
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Page 3 


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most colleges today they arc 
printed, onheavy. paper. Gam- 
ine sheepskin diplomas cost $25 
arid up, srehren to engrave and 
won’t take erasure or moisture 
without showing them. Even so. 
The New York Times repons, 
several dog™ American col- 
leges, including Virginia Mili- 
tary Institute and Virginia's 
Washington, and Lee Universi- 
ty, stiD use sheepskin. 


Pentagon 
Said to Be 


Prepared for 
Pay Reforms 


By Richard Halloran 

New York Timet Service 

WASHINGTON - Die De- 
fense Department, in a surprising 
reversal, is prepared to accept re- 


Notes Abbot People 


Paul Laxalt 


SmaU-Bosmessmeo 


With the -.possible presiden- 
tial candidacy of Robert J. 
Dole, the Kansas Republican 
andSaiateinajority leader, cnr- 


WearBjfif Shoes * rratly- overshadowed by Vfce 
a. ' Viea&ut ‘ George Bnh and 


At a Snail Business United 
hinch recently in .Washington 
thegnest of honor, Senaiorfe- i 
Laxalt, a Nevada Republican, 
was asked, “What percentage of 
yaw colleagues in the Senate 
and Hourepndeistaiid-capita]- 
ism, free enterprise, profit and 
loss, small business — yon 
know, what the world's all 
about?” 

“A vn y low percentage,” 
maybe “15 percent,” replied 
Mr. Laxalt; a sometime lawyer 
and casino owner. “I'm not crit- 
icizing anybody,” he added. 
Tm a smalt-businessman my- 


Represeatative. Jack F. Kemp of 
New York, the Washington ru- 
mor mill -basil that Mr. Bush is 
increasingly weighing the quali- 
fications of Mr. Erne's wife, 


betfc Hanford Dole, as his nm- 


lican, a Southerner (from North 
Cwniinn), and a tested adminis- 
trator. 


Tm a smau-busmessman my- 
self. Unless you’ve really 

Lt Aa jAam wm). 


walked in the awes yoti domt 
know what you’re talking 
abouL If s theory instead of ex- 
perience. And we don’t have 
enough people in the Congress, 
I'm convinced, who have suf- 
fered those tough years in the 
woiidof business to really real- 
istically know." 

Mr. Laxalt added, to pro- 
longed applause, “With all due 
deference to my former prof es- 
aon dnaw, we could stand a 
few le»' lawyers in Congress 
and far more business people.” 


A bronze statue of Jeannette 
Robin, who in 1916 became 
the first woman to be elected to 
Congress, was unveiled . last 
week in the Capitol rotrmda. 
Miss Rankin, a Montana Re- 
publican who stood for pacifi- 
cism and women's suffrage, was 
the only member of Congress to 
vote » gains* . - UjS. entry into 
both world wars. 


dais in the Pentagon. 

Few issues are more sensitive or 
emotional in the armed forces than 
proposals that pensions for retired 

officers and zxmcominissioaed of- 
ficers be reduced. The chiefs of Ihc 
army, navy, air force and marines 
adamantly opposed such cuts in 
testimony before Congress last 
month. They remain opposed. 

But senior Pentagon policy-mak- 
ers said that pressure for change 
h«t been building in Congress and 
that it would be better to accept 
smaller reductions now rather than 
larger ones later. 

In addition, the officials said the 
Pentagon would have a large mea- 
sure of control over the changes 
under current proposals for redac- 
tions. If those proposals were re- 
jected, the officials said. Congress 
might not only reduce retirement 
pay anyway, but also might alter 
the system m such a way as to make 
it less attractive to those consider- 
ingthe armed forces as a career. 

The shift in policy became 
known after the House Armed Ser- 
vices Subcommittee on Military 
Manpower and Compensation vnt- 



Rain Fails to Slake Regions 
Parched by Spring Drought 


By Irvin Molorsky 

New York Tima Service 

WASHINGTON — Rain fell in 
much of the northeastern United 
States last week, but it had little 
impact on the lingering drought 
there and in the Middle Atlantic 
states, and officials expressed con- 
cern that there were problems 
ahead for agriculture, tourism, 
b usiness and everyday activities. 

Kenneth H. Bergman, a meteo- 
rologist with the National Weather 
Service’s climate analysis center 
here, said that the dry area extend- 
ed from Maine to Florida, but 
hardest hit was the region from 
southern New England to Virginia. 

P reliminar y data showed that 

April was the driest on record in at 
least 10 cities — New York City; 
Bridgeport, Connecticut: Bing- 
hamton, New York; Syracuse, New 
York; Concord, New Hampshire; 
Allentown, Pennsylvania: Phila- 
delphia; Baltimore; Washington; 
and Norfolk, Virginia. Mr. Berg- 


man said that he expected the num- 
ber of cities on the list to rise sub- 
stantially as new reports arrived. 

“The drought has been a long- 
term thing that developed gradual- 
ly,” be said. “It started back in the 
late summer or early fall of 1984 
after a wet spring and early sum- 
mer. it started showing up in Octo- 
ber in most places.'* 

Mr. Bergman said that the 
drought had been caused by a shift 
in the upper atmosphere’s "circula- 
tion system that swept storms 
north of their normal track, depriv- 
ing the East of its usual supply of 
rain and snow. 

He noted that precipitation in 
New York City has been just 5S 
percent of norma] since the end of 
last July. 

Precipitation has been off so 
much, he said, that even normal 
rainfall in the next few months 
would not be able to make up the 
deficit that now is seen in low reser- 


Tha tanbetad fast 


4 %SSs&: 


Testing Droplets in Space 

Taylor G. Wang, a physicist aboard the American space shuttle Challenger, holds the syringe he 
uses in tests designed to show how drops of a special fluid behave in a weightless atmosphere. 
Don L. T.inri, a physicist working cm an experiment involving crystals, is at right. The weeklong 
flight was scheduled to end Monday with a landing at Edwards Air Force Base in California. 


A better way 
to invest in LLS. 
Tteasury bills. 


F rankly ^ A tlantans 

DoGtveaDanm 


Study Finds More U.S. Infants Dying 


Short Takes 


Driven halting at stoplights 
in New York’s Bowery used to 
risk having a derelict smear 
their windshields with a greasy 

rag in hope of a tip. This is now 

supposed to be 3fcgaL In Balti- 
more, teen-agos, usually black, 
wash the windshields at inter- 
sections. The Gty Council ten- 
tatively outlawed die “squeegee 
kids” as a safety measure. Amid 
charges of radsm. Mayor Wil- 
liam D. Schaefer has suggested 
substituting regulations to 
make the practice safer for out- 
right prambitian. 


Sh eep skins have been, used 
for college diplomas at least 
since the 16th century, but at . 


- Coca-Cola was invented by 
an Atlanta pharmacist 99 yeas 
ago. Now mat Coke is switch- 
ing to what the makers call a 
“smoother, rounder, yet bolder, 
more harnmmons taste,” home- 
towners are unhappy. Report- 
ers for The Atlanta Constitu- 
tion offered 72 local, longtime 
drinkers of “Co’Cola,” as At- 
lantans caH it, a taste test of the 
new Coke recently; 45 of them 
preferred the old. 

“How do they have the 
nerve?” asked Nancy Sms, co- 
owner of the Varsity Drive-In, 
winch calls itself the world's 
biggest purveyor of Coke. 

Lewis Grizzard, a cofomnist, 
said, “The only way that I could 
figure they could improve upon 
Coca-Cola, one of life's most 
delightful elixirs, which studies 
prove win heal the tide and oc- 
casionally raise the dead, is to 
put nun or bourbon in it” 

• — Comp iled by 
ARTHUR HfGBEE 


ed Thursday to reduce the Reagan 
administration’s request for mili- 
tary retirement pay to S14.2 hiTtinn, 
from $18.2 biEron. 

That reduction, congressional 
officials said, came an a voice vote 
approving a measure offered by 

/^w^ Wigmngfn an^hfffmuni nf 

the Aimed Services Committee. A 
spokesman said Mr. Aspin fell cer- 
tain that his measure would be 
adopted by the Aimed Services 
Committee when it met Tuesday. 

Under Mr. Aspin’s proposal, 
Congress would not dictate the 
method by which the $4 ta&ion 
would be cul That would be left to 
the Defense Department, with the 
condition that pensions of all pre- 
sent and former members of the 
armed forces remain intact 

The changes that the Pentagon 
chiefs fear most and that have con- 
tributed to the sudden reversal on 
modifying pensions are contained 
in a measure sponsored by Senator 
Paul Simon, a Democrat of Illinois. 
A spokesman for Mr. Simon said 
the bill would impose s new retire- 
ment system on the armed forces 
and would reduce pensions and 
cost-of-living adjustments. 


By Robert Pear 

New York Tima Service 

WASHINGTON — The U.S. 
Public Health Service, in a new 
study of infant mortality, says that 
nine states have partiemariy seri- 
ous problems and *ha* the Hat^ for 
the nation as a whole are “cause for 
concern.” 


Statistics have shown that the 
rate of decline in the infant mortal- 
ity rate nationwide has slowed. But 
the new study showed an increase 
in the mortality rate of babies after 
the newborn stage. 

Furthermore, the report said that 
if current trends continued, the na- 
tion would not reach its 1990 goals 
for reducing the mortality rate of 
black babies, increasing prmatal 
care and reducing the proportion, of 
babies with low weight at birth. 


sued by tire administration. It iden- 
tified those stales with “adverse 
trends” that could not be explained 
by “random Fluctuations.” 

The states are Florida, Georgia, 
ifiinnw, Kentucky, Michigan, Mis- 
souri, Ohio, South Carolina and 
Wisconsin. 

“The infant mortality rate is still 
declining but the rate of the de- 
cline has slowed down,” the report 
said. The 1984 rate, based on provi- 
sional data reported by the states, 
was 10.6 d«>«« for each 1,000 live 
■births, down from 10.9 in 1983. 
That tterihip- was less than the drop 


m previous years. 

In Western Europe, Finland had 
the lowest infant mortality rate in 
1984, 65 deaths per 1,000 live 
births. Portugal had the greatest 
number, 26. The lowest in Eastern 
Europe was East Germany at 123 
deaths per 1,000 live births. 

“The slower rate of decline of 
infant mortality evident from tire 
provisional data is cause for con- 
cern,” the report said. It was sub- 
mitted to Congress by Dr. James O. 
Mason, acting assistant secretary 
of health and human services, wire 
supervises the Public Health Ser- 


The Reagan administration re- 
cently rejected a proposal to study 
whether federal spending cutbacks 
have had any effect on infant mas- 
tality. f 

The new report, compiled in ref. 
spouse to a request from the House^ 
Committee on Energy and Com-/' 


roerce, was the first state-by-stafoL 
study of infant .mortality rates is->. 


The study looked at deaths of 
babies under one year of age. For 
babies younger than 28 days, tire 
mortality rate declined to 6.8 lor 
each l.OOOlivebinhsin 1984, from 
7 2 in 1983. But for infants from 28 
days to a year old, tire rate in- 
creased last year to 3.8 from 3.6 in 
1983. 

The report estimated that if cur- 
rent trends continued, 21 percent 
of the women pregnant in 1990 
would not receive prenatal care in 
the first three months of pregnan- 
cy. The goal is to reduce tire pro- 
portion, now about 24 percent, to 
10 percent by 1990. 

Some Democrats have signed 
that reductions in federal spending 
have contributed to an increase in 
infant mortality or low birth 
weight Doctors say an infant’s 
weight at birth is the most impor- 
tant factor in whether tire baby 
survives. Birth weight is said to be 
low if it is less than 5 pounds, 8 
ounces (149 kilograms). 

Administration officials have 
said that there was no evidence to 
link cutbacks in Medicaid, nutri- 
tion and maternal and child health 
programs with changes in the in- 
fant mortality statistics. 


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Page 4 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, MONDAY MAY 6, 1985 


Ethiopia Denies Camp Burning 

Calls Reports of Razing of Ibnet Relief Station r aBigUe ’ 


By Blaine Harden 

Washington Pott Service 

ADDIS ABABA Ethiopia — 
The Ethiopian government has for- 
mally denied what it called “the 
shockingly teg lie about the alleged 
burning” of Ibnet, which until a 
week ago was the country’s largest 
famine relief camp. 

fa a statement released Satur- 
day. the Ministry of Foreign Af- 
fairs condemned the Reagan ad- 
ministration for using die incident 
as a pretext “to go berserk once 

again on this n mally familiar anti- 

Ethiopian campaign or denigra- 
tion, disinformation and falsifica- 
tion.” 


The Ethiopian statement is con- 
tradicted by taped accounts from 
relief workers who said they wit- 
nessed the burning and evacuation 
of the camp. The three-day evacua- 
tion began last Sunday. 

• Last week, M- Peter McPherson, 
director of the U.S. Agency for In- 
ternational Development, criti- 
cized the events at Ibnet as “bar- 
baric" and called for discipline of 
those responsible. 

The Ethiopian statement, re- 
leased Friday night to the East 
German news agency ADN and to 
the British Broadcasting Corp. in 
London, was not available here un- 
til Saturday night. 


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It said that only 30,000 of the 
camp's residents bad left and that 
they left “of their free wdL" 

The government had put the to- 
tal camp population before the 
evacuation at 50,000, but relief offi- 
cials said it was 60,000. 

“Before their departure they 
were furnished with sufficient food 
to eat, seeds to plant and farm 
implements,” the statement added. 
“Assistance continued to be pro- 
vided for 25,000 drought-affected 
compatriots.” 

Relief workers for World Vision 
and Concern, two agencies operat- 
ingat Ibnet, said that all but about 
3,000 camp residents bad been 
forced out by soldiers who burned 
their grass huts. 

Many of those forced to leave, 
relief workers said, were weak from 
illness and lack of food. They add- 
ed that, while some food was given 
to the evacuees, World Vision per- 
sonnel were prevented from giving 
them clothing or seeds. 

Relief workers also said that they 
saw soldiers beat two camp resi- 
dents to death, that two pregnant 
women miscarried while being 
chased by soldiers, that grass huts 
were set afire while people were 
intide them and that 17 bodies 
were counted on a road outside the 
camp on Monday. 

The Ethiopian statement said 
that the “allegation that the feeding 
station was razed to the ground was 
the most incredible aspect of the 
fabulous story.” 

“Leaving aside the utterly 
groundless insinuation," it contin- 
ued, “there has been no burning of 
dwellings, although what has taken 
place was the clearance of accumu- 
lated dirt for hygienic purposes.” 

Ethiopian officials and two re- 
porters who visited Ibnet on Thurs- 
day found piles of ashes where the 
huts had been. 

The statement on Saturday de- 
scribed the evacuation as “a well 
thought-out measure undertaken 
on the decision of the Ethiopian 
government” 

Kurt Janssoo. the UN assistant 
secretary-general for emergency 
operations in Ethiopia and the 
leader of the delegation that visited 
Ibnet on Thursday, said Friday 
that be was satisfied that the deci- 
sion to evacuate the camp was 
made not by central government 
officials but by local leaders of the 
Workers’ Party of Ethiopia in Gon- 
dar province, where Lhe camp is 
located 

■ Thousands Return to r»mp 

Thousands of sick or starving 
people who were evicted from Ib- 
net have drifted bade in search of 
food and medical care, workers for 
international relief agencies said 
Saturday, Hie Associated Press re- 
ported from Addis Ababa. 



Opponents of Apartheid Freed 

The Reverend Frank Grikane, left, a leader of the United 
Democratic Front, is reunited with his son in Johannesburg 
after Mr. ChEkane was freed on bafl. He and 15 other South 
African dissi dents awaitin g; trial on treason charges were freed 
from a Natal prison after a court overturned the government 


ban on baiL Mr. Oiikane said that tough bail conditions 
amounted to imprisonment at home. Meanwhile, in eastern 
Cape Province, police and troops cm Sunday sealed off the 
black township of Kwanobuhle near the city of Uiienhage 
after three people were trillwt there in overnight violence. 


Libya Says It Opposes Sudan Rebels 58 Are Killed 

During Battle 


Compiled by Our Staff From Dispatches 

KHARTOUM, Sudan — - Lib- 
ya's foreign minis ter says his coun- 
try has urged the leader of the re- 
bels in southern Sudan, John 
Parang, to abandon his two-year 
fight against the Khartoum govern- 
ment. 

Foreign Minister Ali Abdel- Sa- 
lem Treud arrived in the Sudanese 
capital Saturday with a 40-member 
Libyan delegation, including Ma- 
jor Abdel Saiam Jalloud, second in 
command to Colonel Moamer Qa- 
dhafi. 

The state-run radio said that dis- 
cussions during the weekioog visit 
would focus on last month's agree- 
ment between Sudan and Libya to 
resume diplomatic relations. Con- 

Seoul Officials Seize 
Pro-Communist Rooks 


Reuters 

SEOUL — South Korea sa 
has seized about 4.500 p: 
munist books and other publica- 
tions from bookstores. 

Officials at the Culture and In- 
formation Ministry said the move 
was aimed at preventing militant 
anti-government students and po- 
litical dissidents from being at- 
tracted to communism. 


tact bad been severed four years 
ago by Gaafar NImriri, who was 
removed as president in an April 6 
coup. 

General Nimeiri had frequently 
accused Libya and Ethiopia of sup- 
porting the rebels. 

The Libyan delegation was re- 
portedly scheduled to meet with 
members of the 15-man Military 
Council, headed by General Abdul 
Rahman Swareddahab. 

The southern rebels, mostly 
Christians and anlmists, are fight- 
ing for independence from the 
Moslem north. 

Mr. Treiki said that Libya 
stopped supporting Sudanese op- 
position groups following the coup 
and had urged Mr. Garang to give 
up his struggle. 

Libyans were pledged to help the 
Sudanese achieve national unity so 
(hat they could “discharge their 
role among the Arabs,” he said. 

“The obstacle the Sudanese peo- 
ple and their aimed forces nave 
removed has opened the way for 
cooperation between Sudan and 
the other Arab countries which op- 
pose imperialism and Zionism,” ne 
said, referring to the April 6 coup. 

Libya, Sudan and Egypt make 
up “the heart of the Arab nation,” 
she said 


\"W 



General Swareddahab. 


Major Jalloud said Saturday that 
Egypt had abandoned its Arab re- 
sponsibilities since si gning the 1 978 
Camp David accords with Israel 
“We are struggling to make Egypt 
pull out of Camp David in order to 
assume its leading Arab rote.” he 
said. 

Witnesses said that thousands of 
people lined the streets leading to 
the Khartoum airport to greet the 
Libyan delegation. (AP, AFP, Reu- 
ters ) 


Li Sri Lanka 


United Prat /memattonaJ 

COLOMBO, Sri T-anka — Gun- 
men have attacked Sri Lanka's 
main naval base in a battle that left 
30 guerrillas and three sailors dead 
along with 25 civilians who were 
caught in the cross fire, sources 
said. 

Eight sailors were reported 
wounded, four of them critically. 

Hie guerrillas, who want a sepa- 
rate state Far the minority Tamil 
sect in northeastern Sri Lanka, 
struck the naval base Friday with 
rocket-propelled grenades and 
mortars. 

Helicopter gunsfhps and artillery 
were used to repulse the attack, the 
sources said. 

According to witnesses from 
Karainagar, where the base is lo- 
cated, at least 25 ci vilians were 
killed in the fighting. There was no 
official comment on the civ ilian ca- 
sualties. 

A navy spokesman in Colombo 
said 30 gueniflas died in the coun- 
terattack. 


U.s. Army 

Studies Use 
Of Troops in 
Latin America 

By Richard Halloran 

Sett >i<H> Turn's S lenne 

WASHINGTON — The U.S. 
Army has begun a study w deter- 
mine the miiiury and civic actions 
that would be necessary if Ameri- 
can troops were ordered mto a hos- 
tile situation in Central America, 
according to officers. 

President Ronald Reagan and 
senior administration officials have 
said that they have no intention of 
deploying combat forces to Central 
America except for periodic ma- 
neuvers, such as those coming to a 
dose in Honduras. 

But administration officials also 
have said that the United States 
must be prepared, under the 1947 
Treaty of Rio. or the Inter-Ameri- 
can Treaty of Reciprocal Assis- 
tance, to dispatch military forces to 
the region u the security of the 
Western Hemisphere is threatened 
and if members of the pact agree to 
collective action. 

Among the kinds of questions 
the study would seek to answer, 
officers said, would be these; 

• What kind of artilleiy training 
will be necessary to prevent gun- 
ners from causing what the array 
calls “collateral” damage, which 
means killing dvilians? 

• What kinds of small-unit tac- 
tics are best suited to anti-guerrilla 
operations? 

• How do Americans build intel- 
ligence networks so that immediate 
tactical information can be gath- 
ered? In US. operations in Leba- 
non and Grenada, the lack of good 
intelligence has been singled out as 
a critical failure. 

• In civic action, bow do Ameri- 
can soldiers help the citizens of the 
nation being assisted in a way that 
die United States does not take 
over tasks that the government of 
that nation should be doing for 
itself? 

The officers said that, in addi- 
tion, the results of the study could 
be used to train younger officers 
who have been commissioned since 
the end of the Vietnam War. Most 
majors and all captains and lieu- 
tenants came into the army after 
Vietnam. 

The army officers acknowledged 
the administration's policy on the 
use of combat forces in Central 
America but said they must be pre- 
pared in the event that policy was 
changed. 

“We have to be able to answer 
the question ‘What ifT ” one offi- 
cer said. 

“We didn’t adapt too well to 
Vietnam.” be added, “and we've 
got to do better next time.” 


lH 1 

4' ||I* 


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6-5-85 


Exiles Reported Caught 
Between Nigeria, Benin 


United Press International 

LAGOS — Hundreds of illegal 
aliens, among 700,000 ordered to 
leave Nigeria by the end of this 
week, have been stranded at the 
country's western border after Be- 
nin refused to allow them across its 
frontier, according to news reports. 

The action by Benin stranded 
Togolese and Ghanaians in the cor- 
ridor between Nigeria and B enin. 
Togo is west of Benin, and Ghana 
is west of Togo. 

The Nigerian government last 
week announced that the 700,000 
illegal aliens in Nigeria most leave 


2 Climbers Are Killed 
In Himalayan Acddents 

Reuters 

KATMANDU, Nepal — Two 
climbers were killed in separate ac- 
cidents after conquering peaks in 
the Himalayas, Nepal's Tourism 
Ministry said Sunday. 

The ministry said that Sfaoichi 
Kobayashi, 44, leader of a Japanese 
expedition to Mount Gmja Him.il, 
died April 29 after reaching the 
summit with three teammates and 
two Nepalese Sberpas. It said earli- 
er that Borut Bergant, 30, of Yugo- 
slavia, lost his footing on April 22 
and fell to his death as he and 
another Yugoslav were descending 
Yalungkang. 


Burmese Leader in Beijing 

Reuters 

BEIJING — Burma's leader, Ne 
Win, is in Beijing for his 1 2th good- 
will visit to China, the Xinhua news 
j,ency said. The agency said that 
le Win, 74, was the fust foreign 
dignitary to be invited by the Chi- 
nese leader, Deng Xiaoping. For- 
eign leaders usually are invited by 
President Li Xiannian, Prime Min- 
ister Zhao Ziyang or other minis- 
ters. 


the country by next Friday. It was 
the second mass expulsion of 
aliens. Most are migrant workers 
drawn by the oil boom in Nigeria 
or refugees fleeing drought. 

News reports reaching Lagos on 
Saturday said that Benin opened its 
border only to its own citizens Fri- 
day, afta Nigeria's border there 
was opened for the exodus. 

Benin diplomats from Lagos 
traveled to the border Friday to 
investigate the reports. 

Nigeria Last month demanded 
that all aliens living and working in 
the country to update their immi- 
gration papers before May 10 or 
leave. 

Nigeria's interior minister, Brig- 
adier Genera] Mohammed Ma- 
goro, said Nigeria’s land borders, 
shut since a change of currency 
notes in AprO 1984, would be re- 
opened temporarily be ginning Fri- 
day. 

Nigeria’s economy has suffered 
because of falling oil prices. For- 
eigners are accused of depriving 
citizens of jobs. 

Reports from the B enin bonder 
said that departing aliens were in- 
formed that they could only carry 
small sums of money. They were 
not allowed to take such items as 
milk, sugar, cooking oil and Hour 
because of lhe scarcity of those 
goods in Nigeria. 

The departing aliens, lu gging 
their baggage, trekked across the 
border along the road leading to 
Cotonou, the Benin capital. 

The deposed NIgenan govern- 
ment of President Shehu Shagari 
ordered about two millio n Illegal 
immigrants to leave Nigeria within 
two weeks in January 1983. 

Most of the aliens leaving this 
year are Ghanaians, as in 1983. It is 
estimated that there are about 
300,000 Ghanaians in Nigeria. 

Besides Togolese, others are 
from the neighboring West African 
countries of Chad and Niger. 



Corprta 


Egypt Rejects 
Islamic Law 


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(Continued from Page I) 

fawning immediate adoption of the 
code. 

Mr. Mubarak has often said that 
most of Egypt’s laws are based on 
the Islamic code and therefore do 
not require extensive revision. But 
be ana other prominent Egyptian 
officials have been reluctant to op- 
pose the adoption of Islamic law 
openly. 

Ahmed Heskal, a member or the 
ruling party, raid everyone agreed 
that Islamic law was, os the 1980 
Constitution provides, “the major 
source of law.” Hie only issue, be 
said, was how laws inconsistent 
with it should be changp ri 

He said he favored revision of 
the laws “scientifically and gradu- 
ally” the formulation adopted by 
the assembly. 

Moslem fundamentalism has 
been growing in Egypt and else- 
where in the Middle East. Iran. 
Pakistan and Sudan have adopted 
Islamic law. 

Moslem fundamentalists were 
by President G ama I 
Nasser, but his successor, 
Anwar Sadat, generally permitted 

them to flourish. 


Sergei Yutkevich, 
Soviet Filmmaker, 
Is Dead at 80 

New York Tima Service 

NEW YORK — Sergei Yutke- 
vich, 80, a leading Soviet filmmak- 
er, died April 23 in Moscow, ac- 
cording to Soviet newspapers. 

An obituary, signed by members 
of the ruling Politburo and leaders 
of the motion-picture industry, 
called his death a “grievous loss for 
Soviet culture.” 

Mr. Yutkevich has been ranked 
by some critics with the giants of 
the Soviet dnerna — Sergei Eiseu- 
stdn, A kksander Dovzhenko, Vse- 
volod Pudovkm and Friedrich Er- 
rmer. He won the best-director 
award at Cannes in 1956 for the 
film “Othello.” 

His work covered a broad range 
of themes, both historical and con- 
temporary. His “Skanderbeg,” a 
film about an Albanian folk hero, 
produced in 1954 before the Soviet- 
Albanian break, won a special prize 
at the Cannes Film Festival. Other 
biographical productions dealt 
with Yakov Svenllov, the first pres- 
ident of the Soviet Union, mid with 
Nikolai Pizhevalsky, a 19th-centu- 
ry Russian explorer of Central 
Asia. 

In the Soviet Union, Mr. Yutke- 
vich was known for a reties erf films 
about Lenin, from “A Man With a 
Gun” (1938) to “L enin in Poland” 
(1966). He won two Stalin Prizes in 
the 1940s and was honored on his 'i 
70th birthday, in 1974. with the ' 
title of Hero of Socialist Labor, the 
Soviet Union's highest civilian 
award. 


.ji 


lift 


2 Women Found 
At London Palace 
Of Prince Charles 

The Associated Press 
LONDON — Two apparently 
drunken young women were found 
in a residence for employees at 
Kensington Palace, the London 
home of Prince Charles and Diana, 
Princess of Wales, according to the 
police. 

" “ The prince and princess, who are 

r r * t» • vacationing in Venice, were not in 

r ranee mpels Jrrisoner ™ palace. The Italian news agency 

ANSA reported that it had received 
a telephoned threat against them 
from someone claiming to repre- 
sent the Irish Republican Army. 

Janies Peacock, a spokesman for 
Scotland Yard, said that the two 
women, both in their 20s. were dis- 
cover^ carfy Wednesday. He said 
that the women, whom he (fid not 
tdenafy, woe questioned at length 
oy the police but no charges were 
filed. 

Mr. Peacock said that the women 
apparently wandered into the pal- 
ace grounds after a night or heavy 
drinking. The residence is one of 
sever.] I used h\ the roval household 
'taff. 


At West German Border 

The Associated Pros 
PARIS — A West German wom- 
an sentenced to four years in prison 
in 1982 for possession of arms and 
explosives, has been expelled from 
France to West Germany, the Inte- 
rior Ministry said. 

Magdalena Kopp had served 
three years and two months of her 
term, accenting to her lawyer, Jac- 
ques Verges. The ministry said she 
was expelled Saturday because she 
had been barred from entering 
France before she was arrested in 
Fcbruarv 1982. 













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I NTKR NATIONAL HKRALD TRIBl'NE, MONDAY MAY 6, 1985 


Page 5 


U;Ssj India Are Called By Henry A. Kissinger 

Near Accord on Sales Reagan Must Speak Plainly When He Meets With Gorbachev 



By Steven R. Weisman 

JVcw York Tunes Service 

NEW DELHI — The .United 
States and India are said to be dose 
to an accord that would permit 
India to acquire highly advanced 
UR technology capable of sharply 
improving its military ability. 

In addition, a senior UR policy* 
maker said Friday after discussions 
with Indian officials that die Rea- 
gan administration had begun 
thinking about how India couIdW. 
come “a power we could work to- 
gether with u in 10 Or 20 years. 

The official, Fred C. Due, under- 
secretary of defense for policy, said 
his meetings with top leaders here 
convinced mm that India could be- 
come “a power that Ora tributes to 
world stability the way the United 
States will Scotland want to shape' 
it in 1995 or 2005,” ' 

“That, I think,’ is an exciting pos- 
sibility of pethrms a new chapter in 
UR-tafian relations, ” Mr. Ikfc 
said in an interview. But he can- 
tiooed that the situation in the sub- 
continent was “delicate” and that 
the United States had no desire to 
support “Indian hegemony” over 
Pakistan or any other neighbors. - 

Mr. Dele’s comments, coupled 
with the reports of progress on a 
high- technology agreement, consti- 
tuted one of the strongest signals, 
yet of what is apparently a gradual 
wararijig of the long-frosty rela- 
tions between Washington and 
New Delhi 

There has been little militar y co- 
operation between the United 
States and India for more than two 
decades. India has angrily de- 
nounced U.S. aid to Pakistan, its 
principal rivaL 

A senior Indian official said Mr. 
fide had been told bluntly last week 
that India was adamant m its oppo- 
sition to aid for Pakistan. India also 
opposes covert UR assistance to 
the rebels who are fighting Soviet 
troops in Afghanistan as an intru- 
sion into the region. 



N OW that a “get acquainted summit” between 
President Ronald Reagan and Mikhail S. Gor- 
bachev, the Soviet UmaiVparty general sec- 
retary, appeals probable during toe UN’s Genera] 
Assembly in the fall, it is not too early to ask what 
message and impression one hopes Mr. Gorbachev 
will take home to his colleagues. 

So far there is no great cause for optimism. The 

* the st 


Western democracies have repeated the stereotype 
practiced during three Soviet successions in (tee 


This is the last in a series of 10 articles by the former 
. ‘ U.S- secretary of state. 


Fred C. fleie 


China Changes 
MedicalPoUcy 


The Associated Press 

BEUING — China said Sun- 
day it hps adopted a policy of 
encouraging doctors to engage 
in private practice, once banned 
as an obstruction to so cialized 
medicine. 

A report by the Public Health 
Ministry said that “indmdoal 
practitioners, indudmg retired 
medical workers ana. herbal 
doctors who have passed gov-- 
enunent examinations, will be 
encouraged." 

A summary of the report in 
Xinhua, the official news agen- 
cy, reflected concent over the 
quality of health care under the 
socialized system, long-her- 
alded by the Communist Party 
as one aits major triumphs. 


But both Indian - and American 
of ficials said that India alao -was 
eager to lessen its long dependence 
on the Soviet Union for weapons. 
In particular, India is said to want 
to acquire or be able to produce 
computers, lasers, sensors and oth- 
er technology in which the United 
States excels. 

An easing ' of Indian-UR ten- 
sions began m 1982 with the visit 6? 

Prime Minister Indira Gandhi to 
the United States. Mrs. Gandhi's 
son, Rajiv, took power following 
his mother’s assassination last Oc- 
tober and the easing trend has con- 
tinued. 

U.S. officials said Friday that 
they hoped the agreement on high- 
technology transfers could be com- 
pleted before a planned visit to the 
United States by Mr. Gandhi in 
Jime. A “memorandum rtf under- 
standing” establishing the accord 
in principle was readied last year, 
but the two sides have had difficul- 
ty arriving at language t o put it into 
effect. 

The difficulties arose because of 
American inastence that India take 


yearn. When the succession went to two dd men it was 
claimed that advanced age means caution. Now that a 
younger man has taken over, his commitment to 
progressive and condKalory ideas is takcai for granted. 

As for the Soviet leadership, its response has been 
equally stereotyped, if less prahiatrically radioed. It 
has put forward essentially the same ctichfcs and the 
same old threats since the funeral of Brezhnev. 

Nevertheless, common sense would suggest that the 
Soviet leadership must sooner or later undertake a 
reappraisal of its ossified foreign policy, not because 
its leadezs have become particularly more peaceful but 
because circumstances weald seem to require it. But 
how far that reappraisal will be carried depends im- 
portantly on Western attitudes. 

Among the most worrisome of those is the Western 
obsession with basing hopes [or peace on the personal- 
ity of the Soviet leader or on a personal relationship 
established at the summit These hopes correspond to 
no Soviet reality. No general secretary. Stalin includ- 
ed, achieved unchallenged control in less than four 
years. Nor can a Soviet under base a change cf policy 
on so un-Marxist a consideration as hts personal 
relationship with an American president without dis- 
crediting mmvJf with his colleagues. The Soviet lead- 
is much more likely to consider (he Western 
is on the demeanor and -dress of the Soviet 
as a weakness that constitu tes a strategic 
opportunity. 

T HE best prospect far easing East-West tensions 
resides not in the 1 


nent, and 2) that arms control must be something 
other than an attempt to deprive the West of its most 

advanced weapons. 

For too long the Western democracies have flinched 
from facing toe fundamental cause of tensions: the 
ground rules the Soviets have socceeded in imposing 
on the international system. Everything that has be- 
come Communist remains forever inviolate. Every- 
thing that is norhCommunist is open to change, by 
pressure, by subversion, by guerrilla action, if neces- 
sary by tenor. These ground roles, if not resisted, will 
inexorably shift the balance of power against the 
democracies. 

The democracies have been reluctant to link politi- 
cal conduct and the control of arms because they are 
afraid to jeopardize their paramount objective of con- 
trolling the aims race. Thoeby, in fact, they endanger 
both. The use of Cuban proxy forces is Angola and 
Ethiopia, the occupation of Afghanistan by Soviet 
troops »nd of Cambodia by Soviet-armed Vietnamese 
forces, the accumulation of Soviet military equipment 


Only two alternative conceptions are available: am- 
fining missiles to tingle warheads — de-MIRVmg 
them — and strategic defense, the so-called “star 
wars” concept. The first idea is not on the agenda of 
Geneva. The latter idea is under systematic attack: by 
traditional theorists of arms control theory committed 
to assured civilian destruction, by allies eager to re- 
move anything that the Soviets have declared an 
obstacle to aims control, and by Soviet propaganda 
whose strategy of intimidation is served by a military 
policy basea on apocalyptic civilian damage. The 
convergence of these forces has managed to stigmatize 
strategic defense as “destabilizing* 4 and as an obstacle 
to aims control before negotiations even have started. 

The Reagan administration has retreated before this 
onslaught. It has put forward at least four versions of 
strategic defense; it has justified strategic defense by 
invoking, in the language of the peace movement, its 
horror of nuclear war — on which, after all deterrence 
theory will have to be based for the next decade 
whatever the fate of star wars. The administration has 


would split the United States from its allies; excessive 
enthusiasm for concflialion would contribute to West- 
ern escapism and remove Soviet incentives for a seri- 
ous dialogue. 

Though I would have favored a less impetuous 
approach to the summit, a Reagan-Gorbachev meet- 
ing could enable the United States to convey the scope 
and requirements of a genuine easing of tensions 
provided the president is prepared to tie precise. 

The principal message from Mr. Reagan to Mr. 
Gorbachev should go something Hke this: 

“Present political trends sooner or later risk a con- 
frontation perhaps not sought by either tide: through 
eruptions neither can control Existing ground rules 
are both unacceptable and dangerous. The avoidance 


unacceptable and dangerous, 
of a political dialogue risks reproducing the conditions 
that led to World war 1: an accumulation of political 
tensions, one of which gets out of hand because no one 


has thought of how to contain it No one would benefit 
such a 


Westers statesmanship should seek to turn Soviet temptations for 
an atmospheric interlude into a durable change of relations 
between the two blocs. It would be a great pity if history were to 
record the present period as a major lost opportunity. 


in rogue states Hke Libya, the Soviet military presence 
in f'nha ) South Yemen »nd Vietnam, the inteDigeoce 
support for guerrilla movements, all produce interna- 
tional tensions — and dangers of miscalculation — 
greater than the arms race as such. 


steps to prevent any of the technol- 
ogy from finding its way into Rus- 
sian hands. Also, the United Stales- 
has sought assurances that none of 
the technology would be used to 
make nudear weapons or be given 
to any other nation that could use it 
for that purpose. 

. Mr. Dde arrived in New Delhi on 
Wednesday from Islamabad, where 
he spent a day with Pakistani offi- 
cials. He met in New Delhi with 
senior policy-makers, including 
P.V. Naratimha Rao, the defense 
minister; Romesh Bhandari, the 
foreign secretary, and G. Partha- 
sarathy, chairman rtf the Policy 
P lanning (Y wimritree. 

Earlier last wedc. UR and Indi- 
an officials said that Mr. fide 
would discuss a list of other nrili- 
taiy items that India has been seek- 
ing. These were said to include 
anti-tank nnsstle^ artillery, C-130 
transport aircraft and small arms. 


resides not in the unknown attitudes of Mr. Gor- 
bachevbot in the crisis of the Soviet governmental and 
ccQoonoc structure. 

But these very domestic preoccupations will make 
the Soviet leadership as eager for a respite as it will be 
reluctant to add major foreign policy rfmngf* Their 
temptation irmst be to purchase tn»i respite by a 
chang e of. tone without real substance, a tendency to 
doubt reinforced by the sudden obsession with sum- 
mit meetings by a conservative American 

adminis t rati on 

In short, wise Western statesmanship should seek to 
turn Soviet temptations for an atmospheric interlude 
into a durab le rnangp 

It is essential 10 convey two major themes: 1) that a 
relaxatio n of tentions nnugf jncl ntie a political compo- 


A RMS control, however important, is not a substi- 
tute for foreign policy. Moreover, it would be 
nearly impossible to find a subject less suitable for a 
meeting of miiK^ between heads of adversary govern- 
ments after an interruption of the dialogue for more 
than six years. The subject has become so esoteric that 
it fits the description a British prime minister, Lord 
Palmerston, gave of the Schleswig-Holstein question 
of the 19th century: Only three penile had ever 
understood it, he sard. One was dead. The second was 
in a lunatic asylum- He was the third, and he had 
forgotten it Anns control positions do not reflect an 
overall concept because they emerge from bureaucrat- 
ic con t roversies and because there is no longer any 
intellectual theory outride of government to sustain 
them. Heads of state cannot cut through this fog in a 
single meeting: Their lack of sophistication on the 
subject may make matters worse. 

So kmg as arsenals are based on multiple warheads, 
or MIRVs, and defense isproscribed, no foreseeable 
scheme of arms control will reduce either side’s capac- 
ity to inflict apocalyptic levels of civilian damage. 


argued that star wars amounts to no more than re- 
search, leaving judgments as to feasibility and deploy- 
ment for a period long after President Reagan’s terms 
end. 

J N this manne r the Reagan administration may have 

always *been permitted and hasbeen carried out for a 
decade by both rides; indeed, the Reagan administra- 
tion's budget is only about $8 billion more than that 
proposed by President Jimmy Carter. The emphasis 
00 research has fostered the illusion that the European 
allies support strategic defense. In fact they “support” 
research partly as a platform from which to oppose 
deployment. Obviously, the Western tendency is, for 
domestic political reasons, to settle for whatever the 
Soviet Umon has defined as attainable. 

It is therefore possible to foresee an outcome at 
Geneva that will reduce offensive weapons without 
impairing the capacity for civilian devastation, while 
the deployment of defensive weapons Ls deferred to an 
administration that is bound to face much greater 
p ol itical pressures than the incumbent. And there is 
always the risk that the Congress, in the name of arms 
control, will emasculate strategic defense as it has the 
MX missfle and thus saddle the United States with the 
worst aspect of every course of action. 

The United States thus must chart a delicate coarse 
with a precipice on each side: Excessive truculence 


from such a war except the regions spared its cataclys- 
mic devastation. 

“There must be specific agreements that define the 
true vital interests of each side and the permissible 
challenges to them. In the past such agreements have 
been confined to generalities that created an illusion 
of progress. Let os now work on a concrete and 
definite program." 

And: 

“As for arms control the current tendency is either 
to confirm existing weapons programs or reduce them 
cosmetically. You have also used the talks 10 seek to 
deny us the use of technologies in which we are ahead 
and which reduce your ability lor nuclear blackmail 
You must know uiat we will not be driven off a 
defensive deployment designed to reduce civilian ca- 
sualties. But we are prepared to keep our deployment 
to the minimum compatible with Healing with the 
offensive threat. Thus you have it in your power to 
reduce the level of defensive forces by drastic mutual 
ems in offensive forces. In order to take account of 
your expressed concern that strategic defense might 
lead to a surprise attack, we are proposing that both 
rides abolish multiple warheads over a period of 10 
years while we are p hasing in strategic defense. 

“Let us set up a private channel out of the glare of 
publicity to define what kind of world we want 10 to 
15 years from now, both in the political and 
field. As we make progress in this channel and 
our foreign secretaries, we can meet periodically !o 
review their work and issue instructions on the baas of 
it" 

Such a message would confront the Politburo with 
its real choice, if the approach is rejected we will know 
that any relaxation is certain to be temporary. If it is 
accepted it may lead to a breakthrough. 

In either case, tensions will ease for a while. But we 
should not settle for an interlude. It would be a great 
pity if history were to record the present period as a 
major lost opportunity. 

€>1985, Los Angeles Times Syndicate 


Hiais Launch Drive 
To Rent Vietnamese 


The Associated Press 
BANGKOK — Thai Marines 
backed by air strikes have launched 


a drive to flush out 'an unknown 
number of Vietnamese who entered 
Thailand in pursuit of Cambodian 
guerrillas, a Thai officer said Sun- 
day. 


“We, are using everything we 
have" against the intruders, the of- 
ficer said. The operation is in 
Chanthaburi province, along the 
southern stretch of the border with 
Cambodia. The officer said the 
Vietnamese, pursuing Khmer 
Rouge guerrillas, had crossed the 
border into Chamrak, a village 
about 200 miles (320 fcOometers) 
east of Bangkok. 


Gvil Servants’ Strike Pressures Palme 


• Reuters 

STOCKHOLM — Sweden ap- 
peared set for an extended and un- 
usually bitter tabor conflict Sun- 
day, as Prime Minister Olof 
Palme’s government came under 
strong pressure to intervene. . 

Criticism of the official handling 
of the dispute grew over the week- 
1 end with the conservative opposi- 
tion saying that the government 
was to blame for the work stop- 
page 

“We are ready for a long and 
hard battle,” sard Rime Larsson, 
chief negotiator for the 
265.000-strong civil- servants' 
union, which on Thursday dosed 
Sweden's commercial airports ami 
froze foreign trade, to back do-', 
mantis ' for a 3.1 -percent pay in- 
crease: 

The Civil Service Employers 
Board offered only 2 percent start- 
ing in January. The board also has 
promised to lock out another 
100,000 employees beginning Fri- 
day, including most of the ccsm- 
• ^ uy’s teachers. 

Meanwhile, long lines of trucks 
have formed at the Norwegian bor- 


der, the only route left open for 
Sweden's exports and imports, 
while wholesalers warned that veg- 


On the other hand, the govern- 
ment says it cannot give in to the 


etable and fruit prices would dou- 
ble this wedc because or the strike. 
Postal police and other vital ser- 
vices also have been impeded. 

Travelers from Sweden faced 
long bus or train journeys to Nor- 
way and Denmark to catch interna- 
tional flights. 

Scandinavian Airlines Systems 
whose flights have been almost 
halved since the dispate began, 
stands to lose more than Si million 
a day from the walkout of Swedish 
air traffic controllers. 

Government actio? seemed des- 
tined to backfire in an election 
year. 

Ordering the strikers, back to 
work would' deprive the governing 
Social Democrats of one of their 
baric election arguments: That the 
party is the only one that can guar- 
antee industrial peace. 

The government's Communist 
atlies in the Riksdag, or parliament, 
arc in principle opposetf lo compnl- 
sory legislation while rightists have 
made dear they are not willing to 
help Mr. Pahne. 


strikers’ demands because this 
would jeopardize its efforts to cot 
inflation to 3 percent from K2 per- 
cent in 1984. 

Mr. Palme is heavily banking on 
the success of his economic pohdes 
to win the Sept 15 general elec- 
tions. The latest opinion polls, pub- 
lished. Sunday, showed Mr. Pidme 
gradually retching up with the op- 
position. 

One course open to the govern- 
ment is to try to put moral pressure 
on the strikers to go bade to work 
sector by sector. This policy was 
pat to the test Sunday as talks be- 
gan on ending a selective walkout 
by postal staff. 

■ Danes Stage Protest 
Demonstrators threw eggs and 
fruit at Prime Minister Ponl 


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ated Press reported in Copenhagen. 

Mr. Schiuter spoke from behind 
plastic riudds held by policemen. 

Thousands of torch-bearing 
demonstrators assembled in Co- 
penhagen’s central square lo pro- 
test both a recent govenuneiU-leg- 
islaied settlement of a labor dispute 
and tire conservative government’s 
support for defense polities of the 
North Atlantic Treaty Organiza- 
tion. 

Mr. Schluler’s minority govern- 
ment cm March 30 managed to as- 
semble a dim parliamentary major- 
ity for a fenced settlement to 
week-old strikes and lockouts 
caused by a deadlock in 
tions between private 
and trade unions. 


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. 3 Grieg Are in Running 
For Repeat Qiess Match 

The Associated Press 

TUNIS — The executive council 
of tire International Qress Federa- 
tion will meet is Tunis on May 13 
to designate the site for the world 
Hwre championship match in Sep- 
tember between Anatoli Karpov 
and Gary Kasparov, according to 
an informed source. 


Tunis is playing best to a 17- 
ronnd international chess tourna- 
ment tiiat began April 27. Hie Kar- 
poY- Kasparov match was 
suspendedin Moscow in February. 
Moscow, London and Marseille are 
seeking the championship match, 
the source said. ' 



A Falcon 900 demonstration flight. January 15 .1985. 


The Falcon 900 demonstrates leadership qua- 

;offei 


titles In every Important respect. First, it offers an 
extraordinary level of passenger comfort. All 
iwh< 


payload. Thanks to Its latest-generation Garrett 
engines, its excellent aerodynamics and lighter 
’ ■' "‘Ts fuel 


passengers who flew In it are unanimous to praise 
the quietness and comfort amenities of a very 
large cabin (2.34 m wide over 10 m long ana 
1 .87 m headroom) . 

The Falcon 900 is a Leader in performance, 
too. With an effective range of 7,000 km (carr- 
ying 8 passengers and NBAA IFR reserves), it can 
easily fly from Paris to New York, from London 
to Abu Dhabi, from Tokyo to Jakarta. And the 
Falcon 900 can climb directly to 39,000 ft which 
"“its It above international commercial air traffic 
te Falcon 900 can cruise at up to Mach .85 
(904 km/h) and has been flown at 94% of the 
speed of sound in test flights. 

The Falcon 900 is also the Leader in effi- 
ciency. For long rangeoperation, take-off weight 
Is 20 tons, 10 tons less than its closest competitor 
under the same conditions and with the same 


weight, the Falcon 900*s fuel consumption is 


npt 

record-breakingly low: some 1/3 less tnan the 


Falcon 900, please contact us forfuli information. 
It will be our pleasure to introduce you to the 
new Leader In the world of business aviation - the 
Falcon 900. 


above competitor, whose engine consumes 
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These figures highlight the sophisticated 
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i 




INTERNATIONAL 





Sribunc. 


PiiiilUwd UUh Thr Vi York Ttzaef aad The Tijii n paii Pm 


A Gamble at the Summit 


The revelry now is ended. But it is worth 
inspecting the economic thought underlying 
the summit at Bonn. For behind the photog- 
raphy and the diplomatic chess, important 
decisions were made. 

They were highly conservative decisions, 
because the participants were conservative: 
Even Francois Mitterrand of France and 
Italy’s Benina Craxi are currently to the 
right on economics. More surprising may be 
the fact that the seven economic conserva- 
tives in search of a recovery took a big 
gamble on bow the global economy works. 

The problem was to find a strategy to 
reduce unemployment and ease tensions on 
trade and currency at a time when the Amer- 
ican boom seems to be weakening but when 
it is uncertain dial the other rich countries 
are going to take up the reins. In the end. the 
summit members called on Europe to fulfill 
its expansionary task by making its labor 
and capital markets more flexible — remov- 
ing the rigidities that discourage initiative 
and foster inflation. And they encouraged 
Japan to validate Vasuhiro Nakasone’s 
promises to open up its markets to imports. 

What is uncertain is whether this exem- 
plary. but hardly original, wisdom will prove 
sufficient, however vigorously it is pursued. 

Can simple deregulation of the European 
economy, and general lubrication of its 
joints, produce an upturn without some 
modest dosage of old-fashioned expansion- 
ary' fiscal and monetary policy? The sum- 
mit's theory is that it will, because it will 
favor potential business profits and thus 
encourage capital spending. Skeptics dis- 
miss this as belief in the powers of self- 
levitation: First, they say. you must raise 
actual profits, and that requires direct stimu- 


lus to demand. Such a stimulus, in turn, is 
dismissed by the opposing skeptics as pump- 
priming — inflationary by definition. 

Evidence that greater flexflriHty can yield 
early growth even in the absence of accom- 
panying action to strengthen demand 
either on the budgetary or monetary side — 
is rather scant- The United States would 
probably not have achieved its own recent 
recovery if its steps to free up the economy 
bad not been accompanied by a boost from 
the budget. Can Europe do it differently? 

For Japan, the question is similar. In a 
slow-growing world; can trade liberalization 
make a real dent in the Japanese trade sur- 
plus without some flanking measures to 
raise demand that country? Or will 
less strong demand for Japanese goods 
abroad and more competition at home sim- 
ply make Japan's producers switch their 
sales efforts to their own domestic market? 
Again, the evidence of history is not all on 
the side of the optimists. 

The roots of modem economic conserva- 
tism — virtually refusing to grant budgetary 
and monetary authorities the discretion to 
at^ust t he ir policies in response to inflation, 
employment and investment rates — are 
well-known and understandable. Discretion 
has been abused in the past, and fine-tuning 
(a foolish concept) has produced hideous 
discords. But can one, confidently, throw 
out all such discretionary power? 

The coming year will show whether the 
conservatism, and optimism, of Bonn were 
justified. If the gamble does not work, the 
seven governments will lose votes, because 
their electorates will have lost even more 
jobs than they have lost up to now. 

INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE. 


An Alternative to Sanctions 


In South Africa the confrontation over 
apartheid sharpens, and in the United States a 
feeling grows that Americans are doing too 
little for justice in South Africa and may even 
be comforting injustice: This is what is behind 
the rising impatience with the Reagan admin- 
istration's policy of “constructive engage- 
ment" and, specifically, the countering cam- 
paign to legislate economic sanctions against 
South Africa. What is the right thing to do? 

Above all else, the United States must speak 
in its true voice. Too often constructive en- 
gagement has amounted to a formula for pull- 
ing punches and making excuses for apartheid. 
While paying lip service to black dignity, U.S. 
policy has conveyed a sense that blacks are too 
impalienL and that whites are right to resist 
the black majority’s demands. 

The burden should not be on blacks to show 
they deserve the rights they claim, but on 
whites to stop denying equal rights to aO South 
Africans. Strong governments like the one in 
Pretoria bend chiefly to inexorable internal 
demands, which are mounting. 

In current circumstances, blades are setting 
the pace of protest, and foreigners can do little 
to spare them the harsh, immediate conse- 
quences — death, arrest, or firing. But outsid- 
ers can assert, constantly and sharply, the 
standards South Africa ought to meet in re- 
sponse. Apartheid is an outrage, and neither 
whites nor blacks should be allowed to think 
the United States believes otherwise. Sanc- 
tions express outrage, but that is at once their 
principal value and their principal deficiency. 

Easy slogans to the effect that Western in- 


vestment and trade “finance apartheid" con- 
ceal the hard truth that sanctions would likely 
slow the engine of chang e that is the Smith 
African economy for put companies in the 
bands of foreigners untroubled by apartheid), 
expose black jobholders to direct loss, push 
white South Africa further toward an embat- 
tled self-reliance and punish South Africa’s 
dependent black neighbors. 

The fallback argument, that sanctions, 
though of dubious economic effect, would 
have a considerable political shock value, 
stops working once the sanctions move from 
the threatened to the reaL 

Americans should not let themselves be dis- 
tracted by a debate on this second-order issue. 
Tbe first order needs an unbhirred focus: the 
steps whites should p romptly under take to end 
apartheid. The recourse to violence must go. 
The indecencies of disermrinutinn must go. 
Tbe pass laws and the group areas act, instru- 
ments for white control of black labor, must 
go. Tbe homelands structure, robbing blacks 
of their South African nationality, must go. 
The denial of black political rights must go. 

In short, the alternative to sanctions need 
not be “constructive engagement," or doing 
nothing. It is targeting apartheid. 

Let the administration become as practiced 
in promoting tbe tasks of dismantling this 
odious system as it is in arguing against sanc- 
tions, and two things will happen: South Afri- 
cans, who care deeply For foreign approval, 
will pay more attention, and the challenge to 
American policy at home will recede. 

— THE WASHINGTON POST. 


Other Opinion 

The Embargo on Nicaragua 


The rejection of direct militaiy aid to the 
Nicaraguan rebels has had the immediate salu- 
tary effect or forcing choices on tbe adminis- 
tration which have been available all along. 
We just stop buying their coffee and bananas. 

Washington is now moving decisively to 
isolate Nicaragua economically, which makes 
a lot more sense than trying to overthrow the 
Sand inis ( regime through indirect and covert 
military action. At least this approach elimi- 
nates [he contradiction of making war with a 
country with which we maintain diplomatic 
and trade relations. So it is not surprising that 
this straightforward approach has west a good 
deal of swift support in a Congress which has 
been reluctant to start down the military road. 

Tbe approach is, of course, not without its 
problems for the administration, which has 
steadfastly resisted the use of embargoes. Yes, 
there is an inconsistency in the fact that we sell 


wheat to the Soviets, who in torn may now 
supply the sustenance for Nicaragua to make 
up for our deprivation. 

But Managua is a king way from Moscow, 
and moving tons of cargo is a lot more difficult 
than malting a state visit, as the head of Nica- 
ragua. did in gaudy fashion this week. 

We are confident that the new measures wflJ 
be. in the long run. more effective than those of 
the past, not only in Nicaragua but in all of 
Central America as well 

— The Baltimore Evening Sun. 

It is difficult to see President Reagan’s move 
as anything other than an Ql-ooucecved move 
taken out of pique following the failure of his 
attempt to persuade Congress to vote $14 
million in “humanitarian'* as sis t a n c e to the 
[Nicaraguan] rebel forces.. This is flailing , 
foaming stuff, and illogical to boot 

— The Guardian {London). 


FROM OUR MAY 6 PAGES, 75 AND 50 YEARS AGO 

1935: TTk Herald Marks 100 Yeare 


1910: Roosevelt Accepts Nobel Prize 
CHRISTIANA (now Oslo] — Accompanied 
by the King and Queen, Mr. Theodore Roose- 
velt drove [May 5] to the National Theatre to 
defiier his address as recipient of the Nobel 
Peace Prize. Mr. Roosevelt began his speech 
by an eloquent eulogy of the great Norwegian 
who has just been conveyed to his last Testing 
place. He continued: “In our time, peace in tbe 
industrial world is quite as important as peace 
among the nations. It is quite as necessary to 
hold in check the greed of the capitalists as to 
suppress the covetousness and the tendency to 
violence on the part of the workers. It is 
equally important to hold in check a hurtful 
militarism. . . . The Great Powers must form a 
League of Peace. At the same time every State 
must be in a position to defend itself until an 
international authority has been created.” 


PARIS — Today marks the 100th anniversary 
of the founding in New York of The New York 
Herald, which in 1924 was merged with the 
New York Tribune, to be published under the 
title of tbe New York Herald Tribune. On May 
6, 1835, James Gordon Bennett, a Scotsman 
who emigrated to the United States, published 
the first issue from a cellar under the title of 
The New York Herald and sold it for one cent 
Bennett was proprietor, editor, reporter and 
salesman of us own production. He was des- 
tined to build one of the greatest newspapers 
of all times, which set a pace that was to shape 
the coarse of journalism. Bennett and his 
equally famous son, who followed in the man- 
agement and editorship of the paper and who 
founded the Paris Herald in 1887, gave to the 
world the modern method of gatWin £ news. 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE 

JOHN HA Y WHITNEY, Chwmm 1958-1982 

KATHARINE GRAHAM. WILLIAM S. PALEY. ARTHUR OCHS SULZBERGER 

Co-Chairmen 


PHILIP M. FOISIE 
WALTER WELLS 
SVMUEL ABT 
ROBERT K. McCABE 
CAJRL GEWiRTZ 


Deputy Pubiaker 

Atwrintt Pubtijfirr 

Associate Pub&sker 
Director ef Operations 
. . Director of Qrailaticn 
Dirraar ef Advertising Seta 


LEE w. HUEBNER, Publisher 
Executive EcSior RENE BONDY 

EJsnr ALAIN LECOUR 

Deputy Editor RICH ARD H. MORGAN 

Deputy Editor STEPHAN W. CONAWAY 

Associate Editor FRANCOIS DESMAISONS Ddtttar ^ Osxtdadan 

ROLF D. KRANEPUHL Ddraar of Ad 
lm-mjiion.il Herald Tribune. ISI Avenue Chartes-de-GaulIe, 92200 NauDv-sor-Sdne, 

France Tel.- (IW4M26S. Tetev 6127 IS iHeraldl Cables Herald Paris. ISSN: 0294-8052. 

Duvcteur de la publication: Walter N. Thaver. 

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lutfxnpnon. 5322 yearly. Setxtml-class postage paid at Lang Island City, N.Y. 11101. 

4? / W. International Herald Tribune. AH rights reserved 




Cuba’s New Influence in Latin America 


H AVANA — Tbe big news from Havana this 
spring is Cuba's rapid emergence from a 
quarter of a century of political and diplomatic 
isolation in Latin America. 

The United States, which had worked for years 
to keep the Cubans isolated, now finds itsdf 
increasingly alienated in the hemisphere because 
Latin Americans are convinced that the Reagan 
White House does not care about their awesome 
economic crisis and that Fidel Castro does. 

In historical terms, the shift is t aiin American 
attitudes toward President Castro is vastly more 
important than, say, the Reagan administration's 
defeat in Congress over funding of tbe Nicara- 
guan “contras.” One has the impression that the 
administration does not even remotely under- 
stand the dangerous long-range threat to U.S. 
influence in the region. 

Considerthe following events, occurring in tbe 
month of April alone: 

• Ecuador’s right-of -center president, Le6n 
Febres Cordero RiVadenrira. became the first 
elected Latin American chief of state to visit 
Cuba since Mr. Castro assumed power more than 
26 years ago (Mexican presidents have paid vis- 
its, but the Mexican political system is not an 
example of representative democracy). The cru- 
cial result was a public agreement Inal ideologi- 
cal differences must not stand in the way of a 
new Latin American unity. 

• Colombia's foreign minister, Auguste Ra- 
mirez Ocampo, flew to Havana to deliver a letter 
from President Bdisario Betancur, a conserva- 
tive, and to discuss the Nicaraguan situation with 
him. Tbe Nicaraguan president, Daniel Onega 
Saavedra, was here secretly at the time. Colom- 
bia, still fighting leftist guerrillas at home, main- 
tains no active diplomatic relations with Cuba, 
but Mr. Castro and Mr. Betancur frequently 
consult by telephone. Mr. Betancur is known to 
believe that Cuba must become directly involved 
in the diplomatic process involving the Coata- 
dora countries — Colombia. Mexico, Panama, 
Venezuela — seeking 8 Central American accom- 
modation. Mr. Castro has publicly stated his 
willingness to do so, but the United States 
opposes it on the debatable grounds that the 
Cubans are to blame for all of the explosive ills 
of Central America. 

• Within a week of the inauguration of Julio 
Maria Sangumetti as Uruguay’s first elected 
president after two decades of dictaterial mili- 
tary rule, the new government canceled its ban 
on trade relations with Cuba. Uruguay plans to 
restore diplomatic ties as well, and a Cuban trade 
mission already is in Montevideo. 

• Since Raul Alfonsin was elected Argentina’s 
first democratic president in eight years, Cuban- 
Argentine relations have been greatly strengtfa- 
ened: Trade is very active, and Argentina is 


By Tad Saule 

providing Cuba with export credits. Recently, 
Cuba's most popular singer. Silvio Rodriguez, 
took Buenos Aires by storm — a visit with 
political overtones. 

Elsewhere as well, the diinate of acceptance of 
Cuba is growing, not as a function of pro-social- 
ist sympathies but of the spreading sense that 
Latin America most look after its own fate 
To be sure. Mr. Castro has most artfully en- 
couraged this se n time nt, and bis stance in his 
frequent pronouncements cm the great economic 



■ O ni Min g by S ri a hn a m i. 

crisis is that of the Latin elder statesman. But 
there is no question that when Mr. Castro speaks, 
Latin Americans listen. His declaration in an 
interview with the Mexican newspaper Exodsior 
in March that the Latin American foreign debt 
(it now stands at about $360 billion) amply 
cannot be paid and most be canceled by die 
banks, most of them in the United States, created 
wide comment throughout the region — com- 
ment that the Cubans kepr alive by adroit public 
relations. Mr. Castro's argument that the debts 
most be settled through govemment-to-govem- 
mem negotiations, and that in effect Latin Amer- 
ican debtors ought to unite in something of a 
“ddn caneT found a sympathetic audience. 

Naturally, the Castro ideas are repugnant to 
the Reagan administration (and presumably to 
the banks), but the rub is that U.S. policy-makers 
have not comprehended the evolution of the debt 


issue from a financial into an emotional and 
political one in Latin America. 

With an exquisite sense of tinting. Mr. Castro 
seized the Latin American debt issue to lay chum 
to “fraternal" political leadership in the region, 
where many governments remain reluctant to 
speak out too harshly against the International 
Monetary Fund, the private banks and the Rea- 
gan administration. And the Reagan administra- 
tion further helped the Castro crusade when the 
Treasury secretary, James A. Baker 3d, failed to 
mention the question, except in passing, at a 
recent meeting of tbe IMF's governing interim 
committee. Tms omission was instantly noticed 
throughout Latin America. 

Cuba’s hemispheric twnrfing is improving 
steadily because of the worsening social and 
ec on omic situation in most of the countries and 
the perception that tbe United States is select- 
ing them — and not even benignly. Bolivia al- 
ready is working closely with Cuba. Peru has 
indicated a desire to do sa In Brazil, with the 
largest debt m the world (nearly $ 1 10 btHion). the 
Chamber of Deputies Foreign Affairs Commit- 
tee has voted for resumption of diplomatic rela- 
tions with Cuba, and both sides are interested 
in the potential for trade. 

Qearty, economics are not the only reason for 
Larin American resentment a gainst the United 
States under the Reagan administration and the 
Cubans’ success in Dinting the trend to their 
advantage. The United States’s “secret war” 
against Nicaragua has antagonized much of Lat- 
in American public opinion, which fears a U.S. 
military intervention. 

Cuba’s new influence in Latin America should 
not, of course, be exaggerated, and Mr. Castro 
himsdf is extremely careful not to pish too hard. 
He prefers to have tbe Latin Americans them- 
selves deride that they wish to accept him among 
their political brethren, rather than embarrass 
there by urging contacts. Nonetheless, there is a 
dear consensus among foreign diplomats in Ha- 
vana, including tbe l-ntin Americans, that a sig- 
nificant change already has occurred in Curas 
relations with the rest of the hemisphere. 

The extraordinary fact is that the US. govern- 
ment is blissfully unaware of what is happening. 
Presumably, the Reaganites* ideological obses- 
sion with Cuba and Nicaragua has minded the 
administration to other dimensions of the Latin 
American reality. The absurd fear of Cuba 
(something that, for example, Henry A. Kissin- 
ger did not experience, seeking instead an accom- 
modation) has paralyzed whatever creative in- 
stinct s existed in the U.S. bureaucracy. 

The writer, who is based in Washington, is 
working on a biography of Fidel Castro, lie con- 
tributed this comment to The New York Times. 


China and Japan: How They Buried Centuries of Hate 

B EUING — Four decades ago, 

China and Japan were condud- 


Bv Jim Mann 


ing the most brutal war in the history 
of their rivalry, a conflict in which 
Mao Zedong exhorted his troops to 
“fight the enemy to the last drop 
of oor blood.” 

But last month, a ranking Chinese 
official on a trip to Japan spoke casu- 
ally erf this war and Japan s 1937-45 
occupation of China as *just a mo- 
ment" in tbe history of relations be- 
tween the two countries. 

The official, Peng Zhen, a member 
of the Politburo of the Co mmunis t 
Party of China and chairman of the 
National People's Congress, said 
China and Japan now have the “best 
relations in more than 100 years." 

That is no exaggeration. The two 
old rivals have become the best of 
friends. As a Western diplomat put it, 
“China has the best relations with 
Japan of any major nation, and Ja- 
pan has the greatest access of any 
foreign country to China.” 

Consider the following: 

• In political terms,. no other coun- 
tiy enjoys tbe sort of entree the Japa- 
nese nave to high-ranking Chinese 
officials. Diplomats from other coun- 
tries speak with open en vy of the ease 
with which Japanese diplomats and 
via ting officials gel in to see China’s 
top leaders, including Deng Xiaoping 
and the Communist Party secretary, 
Hu Yaobang. 

• Economically, Japan is China’s 
main trading partner. Japanese com- 
panies are selling so many television 
sets and other consumer goods in 
China that the old mercantile dream 
of reaping the wealth of the China 
market no longer seems fantastic 

• Culturally, tbe two countries are 
drawing closer. Last year. 350,000 
Japanese tourists visited China, far 
more than from any other country 
and about a third of tbe total 

_ • Over the last year, China and 

S have even taken steps toward 
ry cooperation. High-r anking 
defense officials of the two countries 
have begun to visit each other and to 
make “inspection tours" of each oth- 
er's troops. Haruo Naisume, a Japa- 
nese vice minister of defense, will 
visit China this month to talk with 
Chinese military leaders about “strat- 
egy, the military situation in Asia and 
the Soviet military build-up in tbe 
Far East," a Japanese statement said. 

All this is little short of amazing in 
tbe light of history. Over the last 400 
years, China and Japan have gone to 
war three times. In the war of 1894- 
1895, China lost control of Taiwan, 
and in the war of 1937-1945 its casu- 
alties were estimated at 1.3 million 
dead and 1.8 million wounded. 

Hostility toward Japan provided 
the chief impetus for China's May 4 
Movement, the demonstrations in 
1919 that galvanized Chinese stu- 
dents and intellectuals. And anti-Jap- 
anese sentiment was an important 
dement in helping Mao and his Com- 
munist Party win popular support 
away from Chiang Kai-shek’s Na- 
tionalists in the 1930s and 1940s. 

The events of the first half of this 
century have not been entirely for- 
gotten here. UntO recently, it was 
commonplace for Chinese officials to 
warn about the dangers of a passible 
revival of Japanese militarism. 

Three years ago. Japanese educa- 
tion officials and publishers revised 
some textbooks in a way that virtual- 
ly exonerated Japan of responsibility 
for starting World War II and seemed 
to gloss over atrocities by Japanese 
troops in China. That touched off a 
furor in China, but it finally blew 
over after Japanese officials prom- 
ised to correct the textbooks. 

“I don’t think there's the residue of 
hatred toward the Japanese here that 
you can see in the Soviet treatment of 
Germany,” a Beijing-based diplomat 


•said. “There seems to be a conscious 
effort by officials on both sides not 
to fan the n ames " 

The only discernible source of fric- 
tion now Is a low-key Chinese com- 
plaint that Japan is not investing 
enough money or transferring 
enn tigh technology to China 
Some analysis believe tbe two 
countries could become rivals again 
in tbe 2 1st century if China succeeds 


Japan and China restored diplo- 
matic relations in 1972, less than a 
year after China was admitted to tbe 
United Nations and President Rich- 
ard Nixon visited China. 

The current close relationship be- 
tween the two dates back to Novem- 
ber 1983 — after the textbook contro- 
versy had cooled down — when Mr. 
Hu, Mr. Deng’s protege and China’s 
second most important political lead- 


Qimavieux Japan as abridge to the WesL Japan 
covets China's inari^irith its (mebtUkmamsumers. 


in developing its economy to the ex- 
tent that it threatens Japan. 

“There seems to be a school of 
thought in Japan which says you 
should not give the Chinese too 
much, that you may create a mon- 
ster," an Asian diplomat said. 

But far now, the Chinese govern- 
ment looks on Japan as a bridge to 
the West and a model for China’s 
ambitious modernization effort. 

Chinese leaden sometimes conn 
pare what they are attempting today 
with the Meg i Restoration, when Ja- 
pan ended its self-imposed isolation 
in the late 19th century and opened 
its doors to the WesL 
Chinese leaders also express admi- 
ration for Japan’s ability to turn itself 
into an economic superpower after 
the devastation of World War IL 


er, visited Japan. Japanese officials 
lavished attention on him. 


Mr. Deng has also shown favorit- 
ism toward the Japanese. In Decem- 
ber. after Prime Minister Margaret 
Thatcher of Britain signed an agree- 
ment transferring the crown colony 
of Hong Kong to Chinese sovereignty 
in 1997, she announced proudly that 
Chinese officials had agreed to re- 
ceive a British trade delegation. 

But when the mission of 10 top 
British industrialists arrived in Feb- 
ruary, they found that their trip coin- 
cided with a visit by 100 members of 
the Japanese Chamber of Commerce. 
The Japanese bad an audience with 
Mr. Deng: the British did not 

In economic terms, Japan’s high- 
level contacts are paying off. Last 
year China’s trade with Japan in- 
creased by more than 30 percent, to 
about S 13 billion. Japan has now cor- 


“It was Hu’s first exposure to a nered more than a miarter of China’s 
Westernized, developed country." a world trade. Chinas trade with the 


diplomat said, “and he was dazzled. 

Japan has been rewarded for its 
hospitality. A few months ago, Mr. 
Hu dined with Ambassador Yosuke 
Nakae of Japan three times in a week. 
By contrast, American sources say. 
Ambassador Arthur W. Hummel Jr. 
has had a single, rather stiff meeting 
with Mr. Hu in four years. “Both they 
and we have a problem because of 
Hu’s position" as Communist Party 
leader, one American source said. 

Other Chinese political leaders 
since have opened their doors to Jap- 
anese officials and businessmen. No 
other country can compete with Ja- 
pan for access in China 


United States was about $6 hilliofl- 

Economic competitors in the Unit- 
ed States and Western Europe are at 
a disadvantage became of Japan’s 
proximity to China. And Japan's 
emerging economic rivals in East 
Asia. South Korea and Taiwan, have 
no diplomatic relations with China. 

And that leaves Japan in an almost 
una ssai l able position in the China 
market, at a time when a growing 
number of people in this country of a 
billion people are beginning to spend 
money on consumer goods. 

The writer is a Los Angeles Tones 
reporter based in Beijing, 


Revisionist Remembrances: Enough! 


W ASHINGTON — What with 
one thing (the 10th anniver- 
sary of the fall of Saigon) and an- 
other (the 40th anniversary of V-E 
Day), you probably did not even 
raise a glass cm April 19, the day in 
, 1775 that the American Revolution 
began, or heave a sigh on April 24, 
the day in 1945 Mien the first Unit- 
ed Nations conference opened 
in San Frandsco. 

Thanks to a calendar published 
by Foreign Policy magazine, I can 
teO you of other memories buried 
under the avalanche of preaching 
and pronouncements on what was 
morally wrong, pragmatically right 
or strategically inevitable aboil 
Vietnam and World War IL 
Lyndon Johnson landed marines 
in the Dominican Republic on 
April 28, 20 years ago. A German 
U-boat sank the Lusitania on May 
7, 70 years ago. On May 10, 1775, 
Ethan Allen's Green Mountain 
Boys captured Fort Ticonderoga. 

Why am I telling you this? Be- 
cause enough is enough. The point 
is not that we shouldn’t stop, look, 
listen and I earn from World War n 
and Vietnam. The point is that you 
can overdose on revisionist remem- 
brance, aimless remorse and politi- 
cal game-playing with imagery and 
symbolism. Better simply to com- 
memorate without claiming a cor- 
ner on morality than piously to ren- 
der categorical judgment or exploit 
an anniyersaty to further policy. 

Consider the overwhelming votes 
by the U.S. House and Senate regis- 
tering disapproval of President 
Reagan’s visit to tbe Bilburg ceme- 
tery. Congress made no effort to 
state just how America should com- 
memorate the end of Worid War II 
in Europe. It simply bowed to a 
public outcry against tbe way the 
president was going to do it Ironi- 
cally, W est Germany's chancellor, 
Helmut Kohl, who had a lot to do 
with getting Mr. Reagan into the 


By Philip Geyelin 

Bitbirrg bind, has talked more sense 
about the miming of V-E Day and 
the way it ought to be commemo- 
rated than either tbe president 
or tbe Congress. 

Mr. Kohl wan ted a celebration of 
reconciliation between West Ger- 
many and its Worid War U ene- 
mies. But be also spoke of tbe need 
for “reconciliation with the survi- 
vors and descendants of the vic- 
tims" erf the Holocaust This “is 
only possible if we accept our histo- 
ry as it really was [and] if we Ger- 
mans acknowledge our shame and 
our historical responsibility," be 
said. Tbe occasion was a memorial 
service by the Central Council of 
Jews in Germany at the site of the 
same former concentration camp, 
Bergen-Bdsen, dial Mr. Reagan be- 
latedly added to his schedule. 

The Nazis were not “an accident 
of history,” tbe chancellor declared. 
The question is “why so many peo- 

tbeir eyes to die realities wlen tbe 
despots- to-be solicited support for 
their inhuman prog ram " 

When the leader of West Germa- 
ny is prepared to address the matter 
in that fashion, the choice of Bit- 
buig can be seen as an accident that 
should not have happened — the 
more so since it raised an issue that 
did not need to be raised. 

For another example of remem- 
brance turned rancid. consider the 
Reagan administration’s idea of 
how to commemorate the 10th an- 
niversary. April 30, of the North 
Vietnamese conquest of South Viet- 
nam. The recent impassioned 
speech by Secretary of State George 
Shultz on "The Meaning of Viet- 
nam" was apparently no accident; 
its tone and can tent were known in 
advance to the president. But it, 
too, needlessly raised issues. 


“Whatever mistakes in bow the 
war was fought whatever one’s 
view of the strategic rationale for 
ocr Intervention,” Mr. Shultz said, 
“tbe morality or our effort must 
now be dear." Morality being very 
much in the eye of the beholder, 
that is a Vietnam issue that wfli 
probably never be resolved. 

Still less is any useful purpose 
served by questioning not only the 
intelligence of tbe war’s aides but 
their patriotism. Mr. Shultz spoke 
of people making “apologies for 
communism, atguing that “a com- 
munist victory would not have 
harmful consequences." 

The opponents 1 remember were 
arguing that a continuing, ineffec- 
tual US. effort carried with it unac- 
ceptable costs of another sort 

'‘Finally, erf course, the critics 
turned their attack on America,” 
Mr. Shultz said. The serious criti- 
cism 1 remember was aimed at po- 
litical leaders and their policies. 

Then came the analogy that up to 
now we had bees told in no way fits 

— tbe one between Central Ameri- 
ca and Vietnam. It fits now, Mr. 
Shultz argued, in the way the Cen- 
tral American struggle will turn out 

— bloodily, just asYietnam did — 
if the administration is not given a 
free hand. Well, he may be right 
But when even prominent Republi- 
cans in Congress are questioning 
the means the United States is em- 
ploying in Central America and 
crying out for a clearer definition of 
the ends, tbe administration would 
be well advised not to open up an 
analogy to Vietnam. 

As with the commemoration of 
V-E Day, so it is with the commem- 
oration at the fail of Saigon — and 
so it will be later this year with V-J 
Day, Hiroshima and Nagasaki 

Remembrance of scaring events 
is strong; medicine, [t ought to be 
handled with care. 

Washington Past Writers Group. 


Projecting 
U.S. Force in 
The Mideast 

By John C. Aiuland 

O SLO— Driving south of Tampa. 

Florida, you may chance upon 
Mae Dill Air Force Base. Not far in- 
side the entrance is a large concrete 
building that looks like a warehouse. 
In it are 800 people preparing for 
what could be America 5 next war. 

These men and women weak for 
the U.S. Central Command, estab- 
lished is 1983 to replace the Rapid 
Deployment Force. The command's 
uninformative name is symptomatic 
of the ambiguities it faces. Although 
General Robert C. Kingston, the 
commander, is responsible for the 
conduct of any Ua militaiy opera- 
tion in the area from Egypt to Paki- 
stan, no government in mat region is 
prepared to provide him a home. 

The formation of the Central Com- 
mand is an important symbol of tin: 
change that has taken place in the 
US. attitude toward the Middle East, 
and particularly toward the use of 
force in the Gulf area. 

This is illustmted by a policy 
guideline statement that tbe State 
Department sent to tbe Pentagon in 
1969. At that time, the British were 
withdrawing from the Gulf region 
and looking to the United States to 
play a larger role. 

Since the United States was en- 
gaged in a war in Vietnam, it had 
little militaiy power to devote to a 
Gulf contingency. Therefore, said the 
State Department directive “The 
U.S. will meet the threat of expanded 
Soviet influence by various means, 
but primarily by helping to encour- 
age the forces of independence and 
modernization in the countries of tbe 
region itself." This meant, above afl. 
Saudi Arabia and Iran. 

All ibis changed after the revolu- 
tion in Iran and the Soviet invasion of 
Afghanistan. Alarmed at die threat to 
oil fields around the Gulf, President 
Jimmy Carter in 1980 made his now 
famous commitment to use force if 
necessary to defend U.S. interests in 
that region. Tbe problem was that the 
Pentagon had little capability to de- 
ploy ground forces and land-based 
air forces to the Gulf area. 

In developing such forces, the first 
question that had to be answered was 
what contingencies U.S. forces must 
be able to meet In public, emphasis 
was placed on an alleged Soviet 
threat to the Gulf; the public empha- 
sis now is on a possible Soviet-sup- 
ported takeover oy Iranian commu- 
nists when the Ayatollah Ruhollah 
Khomeini dies. Bui a more tikdy use 
of U.S. farces is thought to be the 
defense of me of the many fragile 
regimes in the Gulf area. 

The Central Command has at its 
disposal nearly six array and marine 
divisions, more than i00 air force 
fighters and bombers, three navy car- 
rier battle groups, and one surface 
action group (based cm a battleship). 

The difficult question is how these 
forces would get to their destination 
and how they would be sustained. 
The challenges include these: 

• Getting the forces to the Gulf 
area. Although the Pentagon is in- 
creasing its sea and airlift capabili- 
ties, it would take weeks, even 
months, u> get substantial ground 
forces to the Gulf. The Pentagon's 
answer is to preposition equipment 
and supplies m the area; this ambi- 
tious program is far from complete. 

• Obtaining the use of bares for 
aircraft en route to the Gulf. The 
Pentagon experience in gaining the 
use ofNortb Atlantic Treaty Organi- 
zation bases in connection with air- 
lifts to Israel is not encouraging; it 
reflects a general reluctance by other 
NATO members to grant the use of 
facilities in connection with problems 
in non-NATO countries. Thus, the 
use of facilities on the Azores could 
be crucial in a Gulf crisis, but it is 
uncertain that Portugal, a NATO 
member, would cooperate. The Pen- 
tagon is dying to develop alternate 
bases in Africa, including Morocco. 

• Obtaining the use of oases in the 
Gulf area. The Pentagon is spending 
large sums to develop bases in tbe 
Indian Ocean area. Key Is the base on 
tbe island of Diego Garda. But while 
it is useful as a logistical base, it is 
thousands of mites from the Gulf. 
More useful as an operational base 
would be the Omani island of Ma- 
rirah, on which a huge amount of 
U.S. -financed construction activity is 
under way. Other bases are being 
developed in Kenya, Somalia and. ^ 
Egypt, as wdl as in eastern Turkey. W 
• Training and equipping Ameri- 
can forces to fight in the Gulf area. 
The combination of mrmntr>im anr| 
desert poses serious operational 
problems. The Central Command is 
trying to provide suitable equipment 
for its forces, but this takes tiny- It is 
also conducting exercises in its area 
of responsibility and in the United 
States, in alternate years. Another 
“Bright Star" exercise, like tire one in 
1983 involving Egypt. Sudan, Soma- 
lia&nd Oman, is out this fall 

ticism in^opgress about the^Gulf 
commitment now that some of tbe 
larger bills are starting to come in. It 
may be a bit late to think about this 
International Herald Tribune. 




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LETTER 
^ Olher Singapor eans 

Regartting "Singapore Adjusts to 
Multiparty Rule" (April 13): 

As a Singaporean, an Indian and a 
Moslem, I am outraged by Prime 
Minister Lee Kuan Yew's statement 
tbat the success o! Singapore's politi- 
cal system is due to the ethnic Chi- 
nese majority. 

Does Mr. Lee forget how rough 
and unruly Singapore was during 
first 10 years as prime minister? ♦- 

Does he forget that Indians —■ 
Hindu, Modem and Christian — 
have joined Malays to bufid trade 
union tranquillity and to plan Singa- 
pore’s economic success? 

MOHAMAD KHAN. 

Singapore. 


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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, MONDAY MAY 6, 1985 


Page 7 



1945: Four Reflections on German History 


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The war in Europe ended 40 years 
ago this week with the capitulation 
of Nazi Germany. 

, In West Geamany the anniversary 
has been preceded by one, of the 
longest and most intensive public 
debates ever conducted in the 
country about the nature of German 
history, what if means and how 
contemporary Germans should 
remember it and cope with it. 


The International Herald Tribune 
asked four distinguished Germans 

— two politicians and two historians 

— to state their views on these 


issues. 

All four are intellectuals who have 
published widely on scholarly and 
political subjects. Two of them are 
associated with the government of 
Chancellor Helmut Kohl and two 
are opposed to it. 


Alois Mertes, 63, is minister of 
state in the Foreign Minis try and a 
longtime diplomat. A Christian 
Democrat, he represents the district 
that includes Bitburg in West 
Germany's Bundestag. 

Peter Glotz, 46, is secretary- 
general of the Social Democratic 
party and one of the most prominent 
spokesmen for the opposition. 

Hans Mommsen, 54, also a Social 


Democrat, is professor of modem 
European history at Ruhr University 
in Bochum. 

Michael Stunner, 46, is professor 
of modem history at the University 
of Erlangen and a frequent adviser 
to Mr. Kohl. He also writes a 
column of political comment for the 
conservative Frankfurter Allgemeine 
Zeitung, one of West Germany 9 s 
leading daily newspapers. 


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i Muroedd^e, then, a 
member of British mtdhgcnce, re- 
membered! 945. He continued: “Was all this, 
I asked myself, the realization of our war 
aims? . . . Had Berlin, in being reduced lo 
rubble,. become a citadel of democracy?-Or 
were there, as before, just victors and van- 
quished, with some uncertainty as to winch 

When Hitler killed himself cm April !30, 
1945, one of the great tyrannies of work! 
history came to its end. May 8 was the logical 
conclusion of total war. Resigning in 1938, 
Generalobenst Bede, the German chief of 
staff, predicted what woold happen. Subse- 
quently, he tried to rescue the country by 
overthrowing Hitler on July 20, 1944. Beck’s 
noble endeavor ended in his execution. With 
him many.' hundred officers, diplomats, 
priests and trade union leaders paid the ulti- 
mate price. They had risen against tyranny 
but also against' total defeat and utter de- 
struction. - 

Any German who lived through May 8, 
1 945, surely remembers the day. I was 6 years 
old. ray Hide rucksack packed for fleeing 
westward if the Russians came. Rather 
be liberated by the Russians, my mother 


wanted to be conquered by the Americans. 

e UA troops had arrived, was 




Her hope, once U 
that they were there to stay. The worst was 
over, I was told: the firebombing, the fear, the 
nightmare of war. 1 remember the sunshine at 
May 8, almost too hriffiapt to serve as a 
symboL 

I also remember the first black American, 
irrespective of his “no fraternization” order, 
tossing a chocolate bar over to a Bttie boy. He 
was followed by American Quakers who, af- 
ter two years, rnled my empty belly and gave 
me, for the .first time in my life, the feding of 
plenty. The war generation has in its guts the 
lessons of history. 

While uncQnmtiona] surrender had re- 
duced the Germans lo a mere object role and 
Germany to a geographic concept, the peren- 
nial question had already begun to divide 
Statin, Tnnban and Roosevelt. Who woold 
control Germany? IF Stalin gave the answer, 
V-E Day would lead to Bolshevik triumph. 


And where would 80 million Germans find 
their identity? If communism was the sole 
answer, the West would be lost The key rple 
of Central Europe for the weald balance 

an rhanrft ^i-t llw» fw- rmarot 

Those oho happened lo be in the West picked, 
it \q> under the cartful gnidance of Adenauer. 


In 1945 the grand old man of liberal Ger- 
man history, Friedrich Meinecke, wrote a 
book, “The German Catastrophe,” weighing 
all of German history against the Nazi past, 
unable to decide which side the scales eame 
down on, “A break with all previous history,” 
his anthropologist colleague Alfred Weber 
called his own book of 1948. He was referring 
to the cofiapse of tradition and tbe need for a 
new moral frame. This uncertainty still is 
visked upon children and gr andchil dren, and 
today, *it seems, mere so than in the postwar 
decades. 


. Why is there to much soul-searching to- 
day? The Russians, through a new revanchist 
- campaign, aim at blackmailing the Gomans, 
creating distrust in the West and making 
Westpontikmore difficult for East Germany. 
But mat is not all, nor is it tl^ nneariaea of 
many neighbors watching th? imter-German 
dialogue. A change of generation has taken 
places the unspoken assumptions of the post- 
war years are under debate, the small prim is 
bemgstudied, and there also is a deep contro- 
versy about the meaning of history and its 
message for the future. 


The majority of today’s Germans were 
1945. Innocent, m 


bom after 1945. Innocent, in marry parts of 
Germany, of any coherent and detailed 
knowledge of history and its meaning far 
past, present and futrne, many take freedom, 
security and p rosperity for granted without 
asking the once. Rebefling against reality is a 
privilege of any young generation. Explain- 
ing, with patience and firmness, why the 
world is as it is, is the responsibility of any 
older generation. 


- History does not grant leave of absence to 
. any nation for any length of time, least of all 
to thosewho have the fortune and the misfor- 
tune to dwefl in the heart of continental 
Europe. Withm the European dynamism that 
set the stage for the Thirty Years’ War of ocri 
century, Germany and the Ge rmans have — 
to make the understatement of the century — 


mare than a proportional share of responsi- 

“St 


: present state of divided Europe, with 
the East Europeans hdd captive by the Soviet 
empire and the West Europeans largely de- 
pendent on the United Slates’ continued de- 
fense effort and enlightened sdf-inicrcst, 
owes much to the rebellions against histor y 
and geography emanating from Germany. 
We owe it to our neighbors to define arm 
continue our role in the Alliance and to come 
to grips with our past. Otherwise this country 
may well become unpredictable. 


FiUmg money bags and looking for ever 
newdfr 


more welfare will not suffice in the long run. 
The outride world poses the perennial Ger- 
man question: Who controls Germany? And, 
where do the Germans find their identity? If 
one day the answer were not given in terms of 
Western political culture and a firm commit- 
ment to miman di gnity and liberal democra- 
cy, the lessons of history would be lost — and 
tbe money bags and the welfare checks would 
follow suit 


T HE 8th of May recalls a day of reckon- 
ing and a day of immense relief. Obti- 
vio perpetm a amnestia was what tbe 
peacemakers of 1648 conceded each other 


when they dosed the horrors of tbe Thirty 

>f mod- 


Years* War, that catastrophe of i 

era Germany. In 1945, Germans in tbe West 
were fortunate to find victors whose generos- 
ity and enli ghtwiffd egotism led them to allow 
the survivors of the Third Reich and the 
vanquished of the war to become the citizens 
of the Federal Republic of Germany. Ger- 
mans in tbe east were less privileged. To this 
day they have not ceased lo lore the war. 
Victor's justice is still dispensed to them. 

Altogether, the 8th of May is not oily a 
date for Ger mans to reflect upon past, pre- 
sent and future. It also offers an opportunity 
for tire West to ask who really won the Sec- 
ond World War. There isa variety of answers. 
One would be that the two tyrants who bad 
unleashed the fury of warm 1939 triumphed 
in 1945, each in his own way: Hitler in 
methodology, Stalin in power and territory. 
The West, having won the Western part of 
war, lost the Eastern half of peace. Why - 
should the Germans deny themselves mixed' 
feelings? And why, by the way, should our 
Allies? ■ . 


A distant event, unforgettable consequences 


By Hans Mommsen 

T [E majority of Germans today are 
too young to remember the events 
of Wodd War IL Most of tbe traces 
erf Allied bombings have disap- 
peared from the tides, ami m the comtryri&. 
too, tbe physical scars left by the battles of 
that spring 40 years ago have vanished. Some 
of the bunkers and artillery positions from 
that time of disaster have been painted in 
bright colors or are being used as furniture 
stores. They are silent witnesses erf an almost 
forgotten past 

Few Ger man* today go to milit ary ceme- 
teries. Most of the German soldiers lolled in 
tbe war are buried outside Germany. Since 
there are no special war monuments for the 
Second World War. the names erf the casual- 
ties have often been added to the memorials 
of the Fust World War, and when one looks 
at there one suddenly realizes how many 
Germans were killed in Hitler’s war of anni- 
hilation against the Slavs and the Jews. 

Most of tbe members of the older genera- 
tion do not like to talk about their experi- 
ences in the war, and those who do talk reveal 
only selected facets erf the truth. Even that 
part of the horror that cuts into their ordinary 
lives is being repressed l »y them. 

Hie Germany of today is a product of the 
longest period of peace — or of absence of 
war — since the 18th century. 

The average German remains aware of the 
consequences of the war — of what happened 
after the defeat of 1945. But the war itself has 
become a distant, atmnsi mythical event 
Almost no one in Germany regarded May 
8. 1945. as an appropriate day for collective 
recollection until the D-Day celebrations in 
Normandy and other ceremonies by Francois 
Mitterrand, Ronald Reagan and Margaret 
Thatcher made it imperative that tire Ger- 
mans, too, mark the occasion. 

May 8, 1945, marked the start of a new 
epoch that enahled the Germans, at least in 
the Western part of their country, to emerge 
as a normal democratic society. 

Only for afew did it really mean liberation. 
Hose who had been active in the pre-Nazi 
(political left tried to set up anti-fascist com- 
mittees that were promptly dissolved by tbe 
occupation powers. 

What emerged was a general feeling of 


empom 

: iwfiflnal CThaiisrinn, which in tum 
led most Gomans to refuse political commit- 
ments. There was simply no prospect for 
future achievements. The need for simple 
survival predominated in a situation in 
which, for the first time, the Germans were 
confronted with hunger and poverty, while 
their state had disappeared and all forms of 
pnblic authority were gone. 

For these reasons, tbe Germans readily 


accepted the rule of the occupation powers 
' -Nazification by 


and they did not oppose de-1 
the Allies — a process that was not carried 
out thoroughly because of tbe impact of the 
Cold War. 

The Hitler myth had provided the Ger- 
mans with a father figure that replaced all 
other forms of national identification. With 
the death of Hitler, the German sense of 
national loyally faded, and for a couple of 
years, particularistic tendencies replaced the 
nation-state tradition. There was nothing but 
a vague assumption thm some time in the 
distant future it might become posable to 
undo the division of Germany, which cast its 
first shadow in 1946 when tbe Allied Control 
Council closed tbe border for refugees from 
the Soviet zone. 


N ational indifference thus became the 
mood in the early postwar Germany. 

Today, the government of Helmut Kohl 
and Hans-Dietrich Genscher tries to recreate 
a sense of national consciousness in West 
Germany. But these attempts are led mainly 
by a generation of politicians who have been 
out of power since the late ’60s. 

Reminiscences of the Bismardrian nation- 
state that are propagated by forma German 
nationalists and oy a recently re-emerging 
group of neo-conservative intellectuals and 
politicians dose to Mr. Kohl, such as Alfred 
Dregger, the head of the Christian Democrats 
in the Bundestag, do not coincide with the 
self-perception erf tire majority of the West 
German people, especially tbe younger gen- 
eration for wham the traditional nation-state 
and tire boundaries of 1937 have Install their 


meaning. 

Reunification is an abstract and almost 
empty formula because the overwhelming 
majority of Germans are wefl aware that the 
Goman question is not “open” and that tbe 


Eastern borders win never be changed with- 
out war. And war is rejected by aH 
The celebrations of the 40th anniversary of 
the end of the war wfll show that tire majority 
of West Germans are ready to accept the 
biller implications of tire loss of the Eastern 
regions to Poland and the creation of two 
separate German states. 


T HERE exists a strong feding of cul- 
tural solidarity between both Germa- 
nys, as distinct from political solidari- 
ty within a dear-cut German nationalism. A 
certain binationalization is emerging more 
on the Western than on the Eastern side of 
the Iron Curtain, even though official termin- 
ology prevents West German speakers from 
calling the Federal Republic, which defines 
its idouity along Western models, a nation of 
its own. 

To this extent, the lesson of the Second 
World War has been understood and the 
anniversary will corroborate this, in spite of 
some national or even natio nalistic under - 
tones by political groups who cannot desist 
from uring nationalist consciousness for do- 
mestic political purposes. 

The recent efforts by the government of 
Mr. Kohl to restore the national tradition by 
establishing the Museum for German History 
in Berlin and the House of History in Bonn 
appear to be nothing but futile attempts to 
reactivate the German nation-state tradition, 
which the over whelming majority of German 
youth believe was finally destroyed on tire 
battlefields of the Second World War. 

Young Germans in their overwhelming 
majority also support the i m pro v ement of 
relations between the two Germauys, but 
they do so not to return to the nationalistic 
tradition of the 19th century, but to achieve 
political normalcy and overcome tbe burden 
left behind by die prejudices and errors of 

They mq^^r^ert^e periodically re- 
emerging notion of Germany’s mission as a 
bridge between East and West Instead, hav- 
ing lost their illusions, they realize that any 
attempt to restore this tradition would turn 
Germany into the central battlefield of a 
third world war. Preventing such a war is 
among tire highest objectives of any responsi- 
ble political commitment in Germany today. 






all of them 


By Peter Glotz 

’E Germans must not grant our- 
r sehics a dispensation an May 8 to 
at bade and simply say a little 
prayer. On a day when a great 
deal will be spoken on this subject every- 
where in tire world we Germans must not 
remain silent Nor must we remain silent 
about our own guilt 



Above all, we must tdl no ties on that day. 
For example, it is a palliative and a lie to refer 
to May 8, 1945, as the day of our “collapse.” 
We must bear in mind that this was the day 
when the remnants of the fonna Wehnnacht 


surrendered unconditionally to the Allies. In 

rouniquei 


his final army communique of- May 9, 2945, 
Hitler's successor, DSmtz, spoke of tbe 


Wehnmachi haying “honorably succumbed 
ooiorlt 


to a huge superior force.’* This was probably 
the feeling among most of the German survi- 
vors, but it was a fake impression. The Ger- 
mans had decided despite the resistance of a 
small and terribly decimated minority of Hit- 
la opponents, on a course erf action that 
finally aroused the “huge superior force” 
against Germany. 


Hencejvfav 8 does not mark tire defeat of 
all Germans: it was not a defeat far those who 
t pugh t in or outside Germany against Hitler 
and who suffered or died in his prisons and 
concentration ramps . But for us others. May 
8 is a day of defeat Audit would be cowardly 
and undignified to shrug it off. 


But May 8, 1945, also is the day when we 


c day 

were liberated from, the yoke of Nazi dicta- 
torship.' I know how duficult.it is for the 
German conservatives to accept this word 
“liberation.” They prefer to speak in roman- 
tic circumlocution of “Germany’s darkest 
hour ” and also take offense at the use of the 
term “liberation” by ^ tbe Communists, too, 
However, this linguistic strategy is doomed to 
failure. .... 






AY 8 is hardly a suitable “festive 
day” for Germans, because it 
evokes memories of so many people 
who lost their lives. But we must admi t: We 
Gomans were not strong enough to free 
ourselves, without the help of omen, from 
Hitler and his supporters. Others had xo open 
the gates of the concentration camps for us. 
There seems no point in suppressing tins 

Bui it would be equaBy wrong for the 
Germans to remain silent on May 8 about the 
fact that most of them believe that the air raid 
on Dresden, crowded with refugee women - 
and children, at a late stage of the war wbor it 
could no longer derisively influence the Al- 
lies’ victory, was a horrible act of r etaliation. 

By the same token, the expulsion of tire 
Gomans from East Prussia ana Bohemia was 
marked by terrible atrocities. Egon Komi, 
an uncompromising opponent of Hitler who 
spent many years in the Buchenwald concen- 
tration camp, wrote tire following words in 


• “A nation which has -seen the thaned re- 
mains of its women and children everywhere 
in tire bombed cities could not be shaken fay 
tire {tiles of naked bodies put tm display 
during the final dgys of tire concentration 
camps." 


Perhaps we must try to make up for tins at 
this late stage; however, we must not avoid 
any topic — including tire mention of Dres- 
den or tire reminders of the expulsion. 


The nxst important thing in coining to 
terms with this dark da 


day of commemoration 
is to turn our gaze into tire future. For tire 
overwhelming majority of Germans, it is an 
irrefutable fact that Germany’s eastern terri- 
mries woe lost forever is those May days of 
1945. Hitler bad gambled them away. 

Moreover, tbe division of Germany was 
cemented for an unforeseeable time to come: 
This became dear at tire latest by March 10, 
1952, when Stalin’s note was rejected. Hardly 
any German mtin lys in illusions about this 
reality. 


Y ET our friends mast grasp tbe foDow- 
ag: Asa divided nation, we Gomans 
infer most of all from the heightened 
tension between East and West and from tire 
sometimes almost tangible atmosphere of 
Hanger lurking along our frontier. 

For tins reason, the citizens of tire Federal 
Republic and those of the German Demo- 
cratic Repnblic do not see their task — 40 
years after Hitler's downfall — in bold 


dreams about a reshaping erf Europe in tire 
w are fore 


near future. They are forced to pursue Uto- 
pias of a toast practical nature. Can ore 
Iowa tire agp Emit fra pensioners allowed to 
travel to the West? Is there any way of mak- 
ing it less expensive to visit relatives in the 
East? Cam one mitigate the fears that tire 
nuclear warheads in me Eastern and Western 
frontier areas may rare day be fired? 

- In our opinion, only an unconditional rec- 
ognition of tire status quo creates the prereq- 
uisite fra a gradual change in the status qua 
Anyone who wishes to end tire division of 
Europe in the course erf a long historic pro- 
cess must recognize the division of Europe — 
however brutal this may sound. To bepiedse, 
be must make tins decision of Europe tolera- 
ble for tire people who live hoe. These are our 
banal European views that have beat drilled 
into us fra 40 years. 


I EX me TcspedfuSy point out: We Ger- 
mans have personal experience of tbe 
i impact of a “pdicy of strength.” Kon- 
rad Adenauer and John Foster Dulles were 
great men, yet their pledge erf bang able to 
achieve tbe renmlTcation of Germany by 
means' of such a policy proved to be a flop. 
And what grounds arc there for hoping that a 
•policy of strength” that dearly miscarried in 
. the ’50s can bnng success in the ’80s? 

Fra this reason, Europeans are skeptical 
when President Ronald Reagan invokes tire 
cancellation of tire provisoes of Yalta and 
tire liberation of the peoples of Eastern Eu- 





ft Germans have seen how our Allies 
ily watched with folded arms during a 
xa' uprising in East Berlin on June 17, 
1959, and during tire construction of tbe 
Berlin Wall in 1961. No doubt, they had to 
refra i n from action because anything else 
might have brought on a world war aim thus 
caused tbe irrevocable destruction of the dd 
Continent. But we are all convinced that tins 
would have boa no different in 1985 than in 
1961 or 1953; and that is why we distrust 


hj g b-gouadnig lang u ag e. fajaeatt rtf nufnlgnig 
in rhetoric, we are struggling to make pro- 
gress in a series of small steps— small steps 
toward disarmament, fra example. 

Bearing all this in mind, we Social Demo- 
crats will avafl onrsdves of May 8, 1985, as 
tire op po rt amy to press once more for con- 
crete disa r mamen t initiatives. We do not 


need a second Odd war; what we need is a 
second Ostpofifik. 

Our message for May 8, 1985, isasfoDaws: 
the Federal Republic must stay firmly an- 
chored in tire Western affiance, but as mi 
insistent and sometimes difficult partner who 
repeatedly points out that the European truce 
must expand into a sound peace order. 


Seizing a historical opportunity 


By Alois Mertes 

W 'HEN Hitler came to power in 
1933 , 1 was 1 1 years old. In 1945 1 
was 23, and today I am 63. The 
experience of those 52 years has 
to be regarded as a whole. To this very day it 
has molded tire political judgment of my 
generation. We can only speak a dequatel y 
about May 8, 1945, and the German question 
if we bear in mind the origins and the course 
of tbe 12 years under {Ado's dictatorship, 
but also the consequences that the German 
people and its wartime enemies have since 
drawn. 

A nation is a community of shared : 
ability rare should not try to escape 
However, tire post-1945 allegation that the 
Germans bear a collective blame fra what 


happened in the period of history is incom- 
patible with Judeo-Christian morality and 
with the historical troth. 

It is true that in 1933 some 80 percent of 
tbe German student c ommunit y favored a 
totalitarian solution to the political and eco- 
nomic crisis besetting tire country, which had 
never experienced a dictatorship. They want- 
ed Hitler’s National So cialis m or Stalin’s 
Communism, but they wanted neither war 
nor Auschwitz, nor tire Gulag Archipelago. 
They no longer believed in the ability of 
democrat to master the problems of tbe time 
and of their future. Hitler came to power by 
lawful mean s. Many believed bis scapegoat 
agitation, especially the outrageous slogan: 
“It’s all the fault of tire Jews.” 

We should not forget, however, that in 
1932-33 only a minority in many parts of the ■ 
country followed Hitler’s ideology and his 
party. In the electoral district of Bitbuzg, fra 
instance, which I have represented in tire 
German Bundestag since 1972, the National 
Socialists gained only 17.6 percent of the 
votes in the last free dections fra the Reich- 
stag hdd on Nov. 6, 1932, and the Commu- 
nists only 5.7 percent, while the democratic 


parties together polled 763 percent. 
~ 1 1933 on ’ “ 


From 1933 an, the Germans experienced 
an economic upswin g that stabilized Hitler's 
position at home abroad. Out of desperation, 
opportunism and blindness, the Germans 
lost democracy and the rule of law. And from 
1939 onward, by invading their neighbors, 
they lost peace as wdl Hitler wanted war. 
S talin encouraged him — until Germany's 
nefarious attack on the Soviet Union on June 
22, 1941. 

To us Germans, tire May 8 meant not only 
the end of a bloody war and a totalitarian 
regime that had brought death, suffering and 
destruction to the whole of Europe and had 
snllied the name of Germany through system- 
atic genocide. It meant not only tire expulsion 
of millions of G e ntians from their homeland, 
not only the beginning of the stigugation of a 
part of Germany and Easton Europe to to- 


talitarian d ominatio n 

To my generation. May 8, 1945, meant, in 
retrospect, first ami foremost the beginning 
erf a great historical opportunity that we have 
been using these past 40 years, an opportuni- 
ty to builda future of freedom and justice, of 
rermni-nialirm and peace. H uman righ ts an d 
the remindation of force were to become the 
factors governing German policy. 

Kurt Schumacher, a Social Democrat who 
spent 12 years in a concentration cairn, ex- 
pressed our vow with the words: “Never 


again dictatorship in Germany, never again 
war emanatin g from German sod.” 

■ The fact that at least we Germans in the 
free part of our country have been able to 
keep both parts of this vow is the great 
achievement we have been able to accomplish 
in the community of free nations and tmmlnt 
to their solidarity. 


N this May 8th, Gomans of my gco- 
reflect with gratitude and 


O N tins May 
eratian will 
pride on these 40 years of peace and 
democracy. We want our children and our 
grandchildren to identify with their nation 
and defend the precious gifts of peace and 
freedom, winch are inseparable. 

We are not at all forgetting tire crimes of 
the National Socialist dictatorship — includ- 
ing those against our own people. This ap- 
plies above all to the genocide against the 
Jews. But we Germans do not have to forget 
the good things that our people have given to 
mankind. 

Where they have been able to participate in 
free elections, the Germans have opted fra 
Western democracy because there is no long- 
er a national O cnnan interest that can be 
detached from law and liberty. Thus we have 
accepted tbe moral obligation to defend, also 
in our international relations, our whole na- 
tion’s damn to individual human rights and to 
national self-determination. This calls for po- 
litical endurance and historical determina- 
tion on the part of the Federal Republic of 
Germany, but also on the part of its principal 
allies. But Hitler’s 1939 “recipe” — tire threat 
and use of force, coHusan with the Soviet 
Union at the expense of Poland and the West 
— has been banished completely and for all 
time from German foreign policy. 

However, anyone who expects tire free 
Germans to accept forever the present divi- 
sion of Germany into a zone of self-detomi- 
naiion and a zone of foreign domination is 
taking an unrealistic view. He is discrediting 
Western democracy, which rests on the prece- 
dence of human rights. Tins kind of afaistori- 
cal “realism” would cast doubt upon the 
moral reliability of the West in Europe. 

Thai is why I mention in conclusion one of 
tire most significant facts of the past 40 years. 
The three western powers have nnequivocal- 
ly abided by their rights and responsibilities 
that they — together with the Soviet Union 
— assumed for Berlin and Germany as a 
whole until such time as a peace treaty is 
concluded with Germany. Until dim jfrey 
wiQ stay with us: legally as tire victors of 
1945, politically as guarantors of peace and of 
our freedom since 1945. 

But they are at tbe same time trustees of the 
claim of all Germans to sdf-detennmalion 
within tbe scope of a peaceful order in Eu- 
rope that at toe same time allows fra the. 
legitimate interests of our neighbors. Speak- 
ing in Berlin on November 27/1984, Arthur 
F. Bums, the U.S. ambassador, said: “We 
regard our function hoe as being, in effect, 
trustees of the German nation. We do not 
consider present diviaoas erf this city as per- 
manent. until the day when both parts of 
Berlin and Germany are reunited in freedom, 
the presence of the Allies in Berlin provides 
the irreplaceable foundation for the well- 
being ra this city.” 

This is the German and Berlin question in 
a nutshell. 


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MONDAY MAY 6, 1985 


EUROBONDS 


Eurobond Yields 

For Wiik Ended April 30 ■ 

U.SJS Ig term. Inn Inst — 11.80 % 

USX tons term, inL 1124 % 

USA medium term, ind. _ 1173 % 

CrinS mod lu in term -■ 11.97 * 

French Fr. medium term 12.11 % 

Sterling medium term lljw % 

Yen medium term. Inti test. 776 % 
Yen Is term, tort Inst __ 777 * 

ECU short term 820 % 

ECU medium term 970 % 

ECU Iona term 970 % 

EUA long term 9M % 

FLx Is term. Inf I Inst. 972 % 

FLx medium term- - 979 * 

iotcokxted by m Luxembourg Stock Ex- 
change. 

Market Turnover 

Foe Week Ended May 3 

fMHJort* of U.S. DoUon) 7 lUmMkm- 


Ccdel 1376470 976040 
Eurodecr 20670022,94170 


By BOB HAGER1Y 

International Herald Tribune . 

I ONDON — As the doQar soared anew last week, the 
Eurobond market offered plenty of paper for those who 
j think the U.S. currency is due for a fall. “The recent 

“* drop in the dollar frightened people." said Willy Dunn, 
a director of Soca6t£ G6o£rale Stnuiss Turnbull Ltd., a London 
bond dealer. Despite the dollar’s rebound, he said, “they're 
looking to put ever-inertasmg amounts in other currencies.*' 

Fixed-income issues dgnrwiinaieH in Aust ralian rinHan i Euro- 
pean currency units, French francs and Deutsche marks attracted 
investors last week, while the lone straight dollar bond floun- 
dered. 

Among t h e a lt e rn atives to the D.S. currency, the most devas- 
tated so far this year has been the Australian dollar. In recent 
weeks, that market has begun to attract scavengers, though some 
investors are still shell- ■ t • 
shocked from the currency’s Eurobond Yields 
- recent plunge to a low of 62 per Weak EmM April 30 • 

U.S.- cents from 83 cents at uss is term, inn Inst _ iijbo % 

the beguuring of ibis vear. U-Sa * onB * Bfm ' ind. 1274 % 

my t_ _____ t i__. USS medium term, Ind. _ 1173 * 

“Up to now, the Anstra- cans amtihim term 11.97 % 

ban ma rk ets were only good French Fr. madlum term i2.n % 

for losing money,** said a Sterling medium term lira % 

a real beating. ecu short term sra % 

For a time, there was plen- ecu medium term 970 % 

ty to beat the currency down. IF,^ 5!!? 52! 

In January, the government FLx term, inf 1 inst. 972 % 

abandoned a target for mon- flx medium term 979 * 

ey-supply growth that it iota* ** tv me Luxembourg stac* ex- 
could not manage to achieve. 

The idea may well have bad Market Turnover 
itements; but it was not the . {j&BMPfeLS? - S «,«««. 
sort of move to soothe for- tmoi doubt emmiS 

eign investors. Then, in Feb- Ccdei 1376470 976040 370470 
1 ruary. Prime Minister Bob - Eurodew 257747022.94170 273240 
1 Hawke decided to withdraw : ' 

from MX missfle tests with the United States, raising fears that he 
could not face down the left wing of his own Labor Party. 

But recent news has been more positive. Inflation, at about 5 
percent, has not resurged as some feared, and the government last 
month promised to reduce spending, albeit without filling in 
many details about how it would do so. 

Such reassuring news has helped the Australian dollar steady 
at about 65 cents. On the view mat the currency probably is near 
the bottom of its current trading range, some analysts say that 
Australian dollar bonds, taken in small doses, appear attractive 
as a hedge against the U.S. dollar. 

Yields on Australian-dollar bonds generally are two or three 
percentage points above those on U.S.-doUar issues: (pie New 
Zealand dollar offers even giddier yields, but many investors 
consider that market too thin and speculative.) 

T HE latest Eurobond issue denominated in Anstrafian dol- 
lars is last week’s five-year, 1 3 -25-percent issue from Com- 
monwealth Bank of Australia, which carries a government 
guarantee. On Friday, the bonds were trading at about 98.5 bid, 
toe a yield of 13:68 percent. 

Other recent Australian-dollar Eurobonds were offering even 
higher yields, such as 14.15 percent for Eve-year Woolworths Ltd- 
bonds and 14.73 percent for a three-year Citicorp Australia issue. 

But there are drawbacks .The market remains small and thinly 
traded, appealing mpstiy to indiyxdual investors. Gnly-a few 
banks:— notably Orion Ildyri Bank, Hambros Bank and Kie- 
dietbarik — mate markets in seasoned issues. 

Moreover, analysts are cautious abdut prospects for (he Aus- 
tralian economy. Inflation is expected to rise to 7 or 8 percent 
later thisyear, and sizable trade deficits are in prospect. 

Mark wood, an Australia watcher at the London stockbroker 
age of Qrieveson, Grant A Co., said the currency appears 
unlikely to fall below 60 cents. Bat hue added: “I don’t see great 
imsidefrom that.” David Sheridan of James Capd & Co. expects 
ihc Australian dollar to gain against the U.S. dollar this year but 
f all against the mark and yen. 

While John Kerr, an associate director at Orion Royal, called 
the market attractive at present levels, he cautioned, “I wouldn’t 
say you’d put widows' and orphans’ last pennies into it” 
Another currency enticing some bargain chasers is the French 
franc. Last week’s five-year, 113-peroent issue for Automobiles 
Peugeot was quoted Friday at about 98.75 bid, to yield 11.85 
percent 

New Zealand’s twin ECU issues also found support The 
(CoMfamed ob Fhge 11, GoL 4) 


Last Week’s Markets 

Al figures we as of dose of fraefiog Friday 


Stock Indexes 


United States 

Locum. PtwrJML arte 
DJ Indus — BW 4 1375.18 -172* 

DJURL 154.95 15475 +064* 

tjj Trans.— 5MAB S8M5 —M3* 

S8.P100 17MB ■ 17656 —071 % 

s&psoo warn mis — ui* 

NYSECP— W4.T7 1B5L52 —134* 

SHVrPMWkMMStartte 

BritMB 

FT5E 100 U1170 12H30 +133* 

FT 30 I91.U 97030 +J.14 * " 

Hong Seng. 15030 15060 +274* 


Money Rates 

United States unm. piwjir, 

Discount rate ; — 8 8 

Federal funds rate— Wi Ste 

Prlinern te 10 V*i TOb 


5 5 

6 6 

6* AUt 


630 600 

375 5te 

580 575 


12 Vi 121 h 

Hite 1234 

12% 12* 


Coll money — — 

60-day I otertaank 

West Germany 

r*uem l ntit _ 

1-month Interbank— 

v* »*-■— 
duIm 

Barrie base rate 

Coll money. , 
Unonlh Intel bunk — 


Hrmlb^gribunc. 

BUSINESS / FINANCE 


Page 9 


Market Offers Opportanily 
For Those Bearish on Dollar 


55? ■ ' . 


Currency Rates 


Indonesia Daimler-Benz Is Gearing Up for US. 
Economy German Goal: 

Is Praised 

In Truck Maritet 

But World Bank By Warren Brown 

Washington hat Service 

Criticizes Policies hampton, virgmia — west 

\ja wtuco X UUUCO Germany's Daimler-Benz AG is 
By Peter MUlership 

. JAKARTA^ Worid Bant 

m a confidential rqwt, has praised d calMiver-engke, diesd- 

iiSSSSS^SSZ powered! thatdrives with 
ic improvements but entiozed tte {te ease of a manual mmams- 
government for inward-onented Ui “ 

SQmtin8 Daimjer-Beoz, better known 

ife annnni t*. m the United States for its Mez- 

The bank said m ils annual re- cedes-Benz passenger cars, wants 
wew ot Indonesiathat die econo- u, its 

SL5f SJSt ^I*cms£re of the 

domestic mediiim- truck market 

"ZSfESSlESlSLm, «“ Tir,** 

S p J n S t SS!)r 1 c^£ 

/UA companies that control 

grew, A£TS s 

-^SSSsSS 

mal nam e is the International Bank by _^ons Daimler’s first U^L-buOt track rolled off assembly fine 

for Reconstruction and Develop- JfJS®?. nLirdSBentffih^ m D^Pton, Vireima, in 1980. Company now seeks to 

meat, strongly criticized trade and y « assembly bases. S 8 *** 7 percent of lLS. market by end erf Ms decade, 

jcdustjypolicies. “We get paranoid about 

whai the 10 percent is doing, or since 1980. Both companies are Success in that endeavor 
we can go afto the larger ^oup,” owned by Daimler-Benz, the would put the West German 

exc ™ gp ’ said Peter R Rupp. “We have to world’s hugest producer of big company on solid ground in an 

th. eat into the local manufacturers’ commercial tracks used in the increasingly important segment 

wodiTs fifth martet" Mr. Rupp is president aJnstnictk^ nian^ and of the U.S. track industry and 

^ ml. dtief exautive 0 ^ of . would emsure the long-lei fu- 

tionisl barriers. These conld^mt m h a ° < TVn^ ture of the Mercedes-Benz Track 

away ssssa^sss sfexs gsissssSf ffiB 
hard to swift* the economy aim Benz Track Ca share each tram GM, FoSd, and ^ Etemtiw-Benz and the U3. 

Freighlliner assembles heavy- Harvester. “It doesn’t really mal- tn ^ k . m f ns y‘ , . 

duty tracks; Mercedes-Benz ter where it comes from as long Daimler-Benz s unntmml tn 

Trade has been assembling me- as it comes out of that 90-percent Hampton is about S10 million, 

SMiSS^’S dium-^uly trades in Hanqjtol group.-I.esdd. (Co-inued on Pege U. Col 1) 

demand. - — 

The bank said ml was a narrow 

exchange earnings. Indonesia^ Hears! Set to Buy Boston TV Station 

whk± belongs to the Organization J 

of Petroleum Exporting Countries, 

produces aboci i.4 miiBon b arrel $450-Million Sale a Part of Murdodi-Melromedia Accord 

fied natural gas exporter in the Compiled in- Oar sufiFrom Dispatches eluding Boston, is contemplated to alien for more than 10 years uni 
world. NEW YORK — Hearst Corp. be slightly in excess of 12 billion.” a green immigration card, and 



U.S. Economy 
Mixed in April, 
Purchasers Say 


The Associated Pros Thirty percent of the members 

NEW YORK — After slowing indicated production was higher in 
for two months, the U.S. economy April, up from 27 percent in March 
turned mixed in April, the National and the nigbest since June, when 35 


turned mixed in April, the National and the highest since June, when 35 
Association of Purchasing Man- percent did. 
ag ement said Sunday. The seasonally adjusted compos- 

But despite signs of a stowing he index fell to 473 percent in 


economy, UiJ. business leaders ex- 
pressed renewed confidence in the 


idex feu to 473 percent in 
: from 47.7 percent in March, 
was the lowest level since Jan- 


economic outlook, the Conference uar y 1983 when the index fell to 
Board said in another report. 46.9 percent. A reading below SO 
In their latest monthly survey, percent indicates that the economy 
the purchasing managers' group {Tin a declining phase. 

said new orders — which are an ' However, ihc increase was offset 
indicator of future production — ’ 


STM g^ aaiir gssgft 
f* W- mdjSSS^ " p ,nm 14 

In addition, production main- 


tained the healthy pace of March, 
the group said. 


at which vendors de- 
products improved in 


In contrast, inventory and cm- April, with more than twice as 


‘ 


Ha AuxAd 6 cb 

Daimler’s first U^L-bnOt track rolled off assembly fine 
in Hampton. Virginia, in 1980. Company now seeks to 
gain 7 percent of U.S. market by end of this dwad e. 


since 1980. Both companies are 
owned by Daimler-Benz, the 
world’s laracst producer of big 
commercial tracks used in the 
construction, manufacturing and 
retail industries. 

Mr. Rupp said he “would be 
happy” if Mercedes-Benz Track 
could lake at least a 1-percent 
share each from GM, Fora, and 
Harvester. “It doesn't really mat- 
ter where it comes from as long 
as it comes out of that 90-percent 
group,” he said. 


Success in thaL endeavor 
would put the West German 
company on solid ground in an 
increasingly .important segment 
of the UJL truck industry and 
would ensure the long-term fu- 
ture of the Mercedes-Benz Trade 
plant here, according to analysis 
for Daimler-Benz and the U3. 
truck industry. 

Daimler-Benz's investment in 
Hampton is about SiO million, 
(Continued on Page 11, Col 1) 


plpyment levels s ho wed no dimw many purchasers — 13 percent — 
from their low levels in March, tHe reporting faster than slower detiv- 
group said. ray. That indicates vendors have 

A lingering negative sign is that plenty of excess production capaci- 

ite u£h?£i 1 Api7to thf^Eird Also, twice the number of pur- 
consecutive month, it said. chasing managers. 14 percent, re- 

Also confirming the economy’s ported paying lower prices in April 
lack of strength were an improve- than those who reported paying 
meat in vendor deliveries, no items higher prices. That made April the 
being in short supply and the ap- firth consecutive month that more 
parent inability of companies to purchasers reported lower prices 


increase prices, it added. 

“The April improvement in new 
orders is noteworthy but it is over- 
shadowed by a major concern. 


than higher pricesL 
Numerous members reported 
the inability of their own company 
to raise prices, suggesting a squeeze 


namely, the continued decline in on corporate profits in the months 
the purchasing managers’ compos- ahead, the group said, 
ite index,” said Robert J. Bretz. The group’s report is based on 
director of corporate purchasing data compiled from surveys of pur- 
for Pitney Bowes Inc. and chair- chasing managers at 250 industrial 
man of the group’s business survey 

committee. Separately, the Conference 

Thirty- two percent of the a business-sponsored re- 

gronp s members reported thatnew search group, said ite measure of 
orders were better in April, up from business confidence advanced to 61 
26 percent the previous month. 5 _ the *=_. mfflTter ns this vear. im 


Hearst Set to Buy Boston TV Station 


fied natural gas exporter in the 
world. 


Boston, is contemplated to alien for more than 10 years under 
tly in excess of $2 billion.” a green immigration card, and is 


The bank told Jakarta that a has said it has reached agreement He said he would buy the Boston eligible to become an American rit- 
strang industrial base was vital to in principle to buy Metromedia station, but that it would be sold izea, Howard J. Rubenstrin,apub- 
ensnre growth and absorb the 17 Ina s Boston televiaon station for immedia tely to Hearst as part of lie relations counsel for the Anstra- 


rnUlion people who arc expected to S450 miflion, whirfi officials called the overall transaction. 


join the current wodc force of 65 'the largest angle broadcast-station 
miflioo Airing the next decade. transaction inUJS. history. 

“Meeting the employment dud- Frank A Bennack Jr_, president 
lenge depends crucially on the of Hearst Qap n and John W. 


the largest single broadcast-station *V Hearst's purchase of WCVB, 
transaction in U5. history. Channe l 5, in Boston would be the 

Frank A Bennack Jr„ presidmt latest in a series of more than a 


lian publisher, said 


■_ Hearst’s purchase of WCVB, He said Australian law appeared 
Channel 5, in Boston would be tire undear on whether Mr. Murdoch 
latest in a series of more »h»n a could hold dual citize n s h ip. Mr. 


winch Indonesia “man- Kluge, chairman of Metromedia, 


ages the transition from dl i 
deucy to a more diversifii 


m- made a joint announcement Satur- 
se- day of the agreement, winch is sub- 


nti-industrialized economy,” it ject to approval by the Federal 


said. 

Recent moves to streamline cus- 


CommumcatiOTS Commission, 

Mr. Kluge said the sale of station 


toms, cut port costs and lower WCVB would be pan of another 
no minal tariffs improved the cco- major transaction involving Metro- 


dozen acquisitions by the publica- Rubenstein declined to comment 
turns company sinew 1979. When how American cit iz e nsh ip and 
the Boston purchase is completed, purchase of the television proper- 
11 earst will have spent nearly SI ties might affect Mr. Murdoch's 
billion on the properties and in holdings in Australia, 
development of new ones. He said he was not selling the 

William Russell, spokesman for New York Post but was consider- 
the FCC in Washington, said, “I mg the sale of the weekly Village 


nomic clima te for growth but more media and the Australian public- 
should be done, the bank said. er, Rupert Murdoch, details of 
It said some industries were stiD which axe to be announced Mon- 
protected by import bans that shel- day. 

tered them from outside oompett- Mr. Kluge and other Metromo- 
don but node them inefficient and dia officials met Saturday with Mr. 


jajor transaction involving Mcuo- don’t know of any other broadcast Voice, the other newspaper 
ledia and the Australian publish- station that has been sold for that owns in New York City, 
r, Rupert Murdoch, details of amount of money." (UPI, Return, NYT) 

rftich are to be announced Mon- Hearst publishes more than 20 

by- , , magazines, including Good House- 

Mh Kluge and other Metrame- keeping. Cosmopolitan and XT* P 

la officials met Saturday with Mr. Harper’s Bazaar, and 16 daily | lfTlTIOTl I 1)1 
Murdoch, who said he expected to newspapers, including the San ^ 1 E 
ompl^e details to buy Metrome- Francisco Examiner, Tlie Albany. „ . , . 



Rupert Murdoch 


data compiled from surveys of pur- 
chasing managers at 250 industrial 
companies. 

Separately, the Conference 
Board, a business-sponsored re- 
search group, said ite measure of 
business confidence advanced to 61 
in the first quarter of this year, up 
from 57 in the fourth quarter of 
1984. The measure had declined 
consistently through 1984 after 
peaking at 76 in the second quarter 

The measure is based on survey 
responses from 1,500 chief execu- 
tive officers. 

Despite the upturn in overall 
confidence, only a third of the sur- 
veyed executives said they expected 
their own industry’s employment 
totals to rise this year. A year ago, 
50 ‘ percent had projected job 
growth in their industries. 

“The latest survey results suggest 
a mixed UJL business climate,” 
said Kenneth Goldstein, an econo- 
mist for the board. 

“The rise in overall confidence, 
coupled with a decline in labor- 
market expectations, indicates that 
business leaders are reasonably 
confident they can meet c urren t 
production and sales targets but 
are concerned about the pace of 
economic activity ahead.” 


Boston where Metrome 
three of its stations. Co-on 
of a television station and 


lion but made them inefficient and dia officials met Saturday with Mr. Harper's Bazaar, and 16^ daily 
their products expensive. Murdoch, who said he expected to newspapers, including the San 

“Continuation of these trade complete details to tay Metrome- Francisco Examiner, Tlie Albany, 
■ barriers would adversely affect In- dia’s sik other television stations by New York, Times-Union, the Seat- 
donesia’s export performance, Sunday. tk Post-lntdligencer and the San 

growth and external payments,” it Mr^Murdodi said in a television Antonio Light, 
said. interview that “the whole deal, in- Mr. Murdoch owns newspapers 

' in New York Gty, Chicago and 

Boston where Metromedia dras 

U.S. Domestic Auto Sales 
In April Were Best Since ’78 

A tore. 

The Associated Press However, General Motors Corp. On Friday, Mr. Murdoch con- 

DETROIT — U.S. domestic and Chrysler Corp. extended their .firmed that be was applying Tor 
auto sales cars edged up 13 parent 8.8- percent financing on a limited U.S. citizenship to clear the way for 
in late April compared with a year number of cars and Ford Motor the purchase of Metromedia’s oth- 
ago but rose 5.1 percent in the full Co. joined them Friday. American er six stations. Regulati ons by the 

month compared with a strong Motors Corp. is offering 8.5-per- U.S. Federal Communications 

showing a year earlier, for the best cent financing. Commission prevent aliens from 

April since 1978, the major auto- The seasonally adjusted annual owning more than 25 percent of a 
makers have reported. rate of sates for April was very broadcast company. 


Nippon Cargo: Its Long Wait Is Over 


By Agis Salpukas 

New York Times Sen rite 

NEW YORK — For Yoshiyuki 


that it was ready to operate, al- 
though it was not doing business. 
Those earlier preparations, bow- 


crate, al- began with the 1978 filing of an 
msiness. application at the Japanese Minis- 
ons, bow- try of Transport to operate an all- 


Mr. Murdoch owns newspapers Sbibuya, the director and vice pres- 
to New York Gty, Chicago and idem in North America of Nippon 


Cargo Airlines, the Reagan admin- 
istration's recent decision to allow 
his company to begin flying be- 


ef a television station and newspa- tus company to oegm t lying ne- 
per in the same market is prohibit- tween the United States and Japan 
ed, but Mr. Murdoch said he had ended years of agonizing, and cost- 
two years to decide about divesti- ty, waiting. 


ire. In just the last 14 months, after international Airport ana New 

On Friday, Mr. Murdoch con- the company had won Japanese ap- York’s Kennedy International, 
nned that be was applying -for proval but still was awaiting the About 280 workers, in c lud in g 35 


ever, should allow the carrier to cargo service. Opposition came 
make a rapid start Wednesday, mamtyfrcmitltesiatoownedJ^san 
when it is to begin service. It al- Air Lines, which has a major cargo 
ready has two Boeing 747 freight- operation between Japan and toe 
ers, with a third to be delivered this United States. Japanese permission 
falL In the last year, its crews have finally was granted in Angnst 1983. 
made numerous trat flights be- ^ Nip- 

tween Tokyo and San Franmco ^ compete against not only 
International Airport and New 7 ™ “ 'T u jrr 
York’s Kennedy International. JAL bul ^ UA-taaed Hying T5- 


Co. joined them Friday. American 
Motors Corp. is offering 83-per- 
cent 

The seasonally adjusted annual 
rate of sates for April was very 


the purchase of Metromedia’ 


er six stations. Regulatio ns by the And the company was concerned handle other tasks. Nippon has 
U3. Federal Communications about the prospect of bankruptcy, contracted with American Airlines 
Commission prevent a Ums from To win Japanese approval, which to handle its ground service at both 


Commissi on prevent aliens from To win Japanese a] 
owning more than 25 percent of a it first sought in 197! 


broadcast company. 


About 210 workm, mdndjn. 35 

Americans, have been hired 10 nm tha mn&SofZl rSiS 

States andjlmaii, running about 55 


been required to 


Japanese automa k ers, reflecting strong at 83 trillion for the domes- Mr. Murdoch has been a resident hire workers and 


to handle its ground service at both 
UJL airports. 

For Mr. Shibuya and his staff it 
is toe culmination of an effort that 


. *32. . Dolar LadWk. PrMM. ■ CYM 

7 ^ “» *«*"+«** 149* 14278 +476* 

WcstGem—y GoU 

Comnwrnsfc 12224a 129578 —UK* L0ndenvum.ax.l 313.10 32158 —321 * 

5am:Jmusanelia,La*tiL WMte»liWtei8(fC8ta6J6*3tiBiaO*iX 


a relaxation of import quotas, reg- 
istered a 35-percent increase over 
the previous April. 

U JS. autemakers, which have 
been r^Tering customer incentives 
such as cut-rate financing, finished 
the month with the sales gain of 13 
percent in the final 10-day selling 


tic makes and 23 millww for toe 
importers. 

In April, Chrysler sales were up 
24.6 percent and Ford sales rose 
12.1 percent GM, still suffering 
Oat sales, reported a 0.6-petcent 
decline. 

The No. 4 U.S. automaker. 


This advertisement appears as a matter of record only 


New Issue 


flights a week. 

Nippon plans to have 12 flights a 
(Continued oa Page 11, CoL 1) 


March 1985 


according to the figures re- American Honda Motor Gx, ra- 


ised Friday. 

For the April 21-30 selling peri- 


ported an 113-percent gain. AMC 
sales for the month fdl 233 percent 

A r a =-N_ i 


Late in tert xw k rates an May 3 , exdudtng fees. 

Offidal fbongi for Amsterdam, Brussels, FronUurt, Milan, Paris. New York rotes at 





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od, the seven U3. manufacturers and Volkswagen of America’s sales 
sold 282,654 eats compared unto dropped 113 percent. 

278340 a year earlier. Stares of toe domestic market 

Japanese imports took 14.8 par- for April showed GM continuing 
cent of the strong U3. market in to suffer a rate bdow its traditional 
April while the Europeans grabbed 59 percent to 60 percent share, with 
53 percent lor a combined 20.1- Fora and Chrysler taking several 
percent foreign share. Importers re- extra poinis each- 
port only monthly. GM had a 573-perceni share of 

The total market for foreign and toe US. market. Ford sold 243 < 
domestic cars was up 6 percent percent; Chrysler, 143 percent; ' 
from April 1984. Honda, 1.8 percent AMC, 13 per- 1 




NORGES KOMMUNALBANK 
Oslo (Norway) 

Swiss Francs 45 000 000.- 


Dollar Value* 


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dl 1984. Honda, 1.8 percent; AMC, 13 per- 

1 Healy, an automotive in- cent; VW, 0.8 percent and Nissan, 
nalyst at Drexd Burnham 02 percent, 
ilnc. in New York, said the In April, 788^82 U-S.-made cars 


sales may have been propped a bit were s<ad in 26 official selling days, 
by consumer fears that April’s cot- for a daily rale of 30319. toe best 
rate financing deals would not be since 33332 a day were sold in the 
available in May. boom year of 1978. 


rate rinana 
available in 


were sold in the 


43/4% Notes due 1987 
unconditionally guaranteed by the 
KINGDOM OF NORWAY 

The undersigned arranged the private placement of the above notes 

BANQUE GUTZWILLER, KURZ, BUNGENER SA 


cnMlM.'tMlIIrWic 

Urt CammtRM trene lb) AmumuwMtobwmDOutf t«3 AimbnltaMtid toUuv on# donor t*j 
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MaiketsQosed 

Fmanaal markets and banks will be dosed Monday m &itain because 
of the May-btak-botiday. 


VOtlng Rhoutcm 

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Gold Options FtactaSteJ. 

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318 mULS} 

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BA FINANCE (SUISSE) SA 
BANKDtS TRUST AG 
BANK OF TOKYO (SWITZERLAND) LTD 
BANQUE DE DEPOTS ET DE GESTTON 
BANQUE NATIONALE DE PARIS (SUISSE) SJL 
BANQUE SCANEHNAVE EN SUISSE 
CHASE MANHATTAN BANK (SWITZERLAND) 
CHEMICAL BANK (SUISSE) 

CmCORP BANK (SWITZERLAND) 


UECHTENSTSNISCHE LANDESBANK 
NEW JAPAN SECURITIES (SCHWBZ) AG 
MPPON KANGYO KAKUMARU (SUISSE) S JL 
NOMURA (SWTTZBtLAND) LTD 
PRIVAT KREDfT BANK 
SAMUEL MONTAGU (SUISSE) SJL 
SANWA RNANZ (SCHWEIZ) AG 
SODmCSJL 
SWISS VOLKSBANK 


1211 Com 1 . SrlMM 
TcL 3192S1 - Ttkx 3S3S5 






INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, MONDAY MAY 6. 1985 


International Bond Prices - Week of May 2 

Provided by Credit Suisse First Boston Securities, London, Tel.: 01-623-1277 

Price* uuj vary accor di ng to market conditions axi other factors. 



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v Feb 

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667 


677 

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451 


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699 

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720 


727 






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9.73 

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692 

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711 

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612 

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799 


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674 

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432 dm MB 
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59- 225 
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521- 543 

57 UB 
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PtAFed A 14 14 14 

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713 17% 14% 
71 84 84 

971 4 286 

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741 
14 
346 
314 


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348 308* 3046 2B84 
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1B8% IS 1884 + 8% 

44684 46 46 

1733*1% 3*14 3*8% 

63149% 1414 1414— 84 

2 314 314 314 
292 38* 3 31* + 8* 


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FhrTlBr 111! 11 11 

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FmfcJd a 2J00 47 4421% «Vi 4JV% 

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FullPh JMe 2 5432141% 1384 1284 
FeSnet 536 4V% 4)4 4V% + 8* 


HIGHEST CURRENT YIELDS 

On convertibles having a conversion premium 
of less than 10%. 



Wf»V* »l 
I7V3 77AU9 
r*vs«*ar 
71*9* Mar 
B Vi Jiil 
68k 92 AW 
7 92 Od 
7 VBJid 
fit 95 MOV 
9% 97 May 

* VODec. 
W -00 Sen 
58k 93 Am 
71k V9 May 

* -03 Mar 
7 VI Mar 
71] VS Aar 


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SB 

BBS -0531473 
P1U-PI5UU 
P3M-BH7211 • 
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S207M 

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Id 

YOUJ- C19S7 
lfer159-lkr2274X 
SSI 

Y4S7J0- 5U7M 

Stfl/i 


Explanation of Symbols 


C2K Canadian Dollar 
ECU European CarrvxY Ualt 

EUA European unit at Account 
L PwMSterfim 
DM Deutsche Mart 
HMD Hormion Kroner • DM 


SDH Special DrawM (Hants 
V Yen 

LFft Irnntan Rone 
SFS Seta Frwc 
FF Frvnoi Fro« 


119 B8A 

78% 

88ft +1IA 

133 28* 

38* 

» 

7B S8% 

61% 

61% 

1011 SYJ 

6 

BT% 

197111% 

11 

11—1% 

58% 

486 

5 +8% 

511 

128* 

IM— 8ft 

242 6 

58% 

»— Vt 

4 *%» 

6V% 

6*% 

189108% 

KPm 

108ft— (ft 

408 49% 

41% 

41% 

229 4>A 

4 

41ft + 8ft 

22 28% 
22132 S 

P% 

St- 

14* 28% 

TA 

286 

6138* 

IM 

1» 

17210 

98% 

10 +8% 

111 98% 

9 

9i% + v% 

61314 

138* 

TM 

1*66 61% 

81ft 

81ft— Sk 

273 59% 

416 


1« 48* 

48% 

10 48ft 

48% 

48*— 8% 

M 121ft 

U8ft 

131ft 

45 19% 

H6 

186 

11 28% 

2 

21ft + lb 

73 41% 

41% 

48% 

11 » 

58ft 

58ft 

230 (2 

12 

12 

494128* 

128% 

728% — U. 

4 48% 
1963 m 

* 

U 88ft 

IBft 

18ft 

tJYl 


*58%— 1 

1*1727 

3*16 -gift 

356 51% 

586 

58%— 8% 

506 48% 

M 

41% + 86 

46 38* 

386 

386— 86 

535121b 

118* 

13 + 8ft 

164 7Vfa 

68ft 

61ft— 8ft 


a? ^ 

» »% 3V. 

W I 224 
2984 
41* 
221 * 
91* 
14 
11 
1186 
78% 
148% 
I 

51% 




































































INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, MONDAY MAY 6, 1985 


Page 11 




New Eurobond Issues 




Ihr 


■‘'iiiuKjp f * ^ 




• l s >W\v; 
r , :: rUt.r 

V ,!d lit; 


' w 

i# ='t 

•; c * ‘■“Hit-. 

'* Bn,> h 
hc < 'all t- . 


Nijlc* •**. 

* -‘‘tr. jn» n . .• 
Jcv,* j)» 
«efoir. ^ 

dircuivt ■» 
‘■jI i-fa^; 

‘jriiiii« -o'" 


P'";l u> S-- 
}t'J v *TUnU: ; 

‘■•’iiripsi-' 
K .m jKij,' 

v.\ 

.? Itv ;hr--,- 
■*'•11 'lll-r 
•• •:! ^ 
hio 

' TuJtir:- 
‘‘ iis: :.ri 


bluer . 

Amount 

(mfflions) 

Mat. 

Price 

Price 

ebd 

week 

Terms 

FLOATING RATENOIB 

' 




Lloyds Bank / 

$750 

perpt ,14 

100 

100.06 Over frmwith LB»r. Critabfa at par in 1990. R»es 09SK. 
Dananmgdoni HOXOQ. 

Sori6t£ CervtraJe de 
Baiiqua - 

$50- 

1995 K r 

100 

99j6S 

Over 6-fflonth Libor. Ksduefiviiie at par m 1997 end octiabfe 
at ptr in 1987, fitoWL 

Standard Chartered 
Bank 

$400 

perpt ft 

100 

99.80 

Over frmonlfi Libor, sol monthly, or, 5 yield airvo inverts, 
1/14 aw Libor for the number of morths remeaninQ in the 
fatered period. Cribble M par in 199U Feu 0 l 7D%. Denomi- 
nations J10.CD0. 

Dresdner finance 

DM500 

1WQ A 

in 

99.98 

Owr 34ngi8h Ubiwl NanodMile. Fees OJQXk, 

Sweden 

DM1,500 

1997 ; 

100 

10007 Over 6obwdiUfaor.CcBcWn at par on any irttrut payment 
bate after 1990. Fee* 0.18%. 

HXED-COUPON 

Xerox Credit 

$150 

-1989 1QH 

10014 

98 JO 

Mi.w.nJI.al 1 

WWW. 

Austria 

DM 100 

1995 zero 

in 

9925 

Radoamblo at 200 ct maturity far a ybfcl of 7-18%. Privctfe 
pbcamem. 

Austria 

DM102 

2000 zero . 

100 

99.13 

facfaaiTiaUe gl 300 a# maturity far o yield of 7A6)L Prtvote 
pfaCBflWt 

Ktaas Finance 

DM 40 

1992 754 

100 

— 

Private placement. 

Spain 

DM200 

1995 : 744 

in 

9350 

Golatie at 101 fa 1990. 

Daw Chemical 

£300 

1997 zero 

29 

28 

YSsU 1U9X. Proceed i £100 rdn. 

Mitsubishi finance 

£50 

1990 11 

in 

9775 

Noncdfafate. 

New Zealand 

ECU 100 

1990 ; 914 

100 

98j63 

Nonedfabla. 

New Zealand 

ECU 100 

1992 9% 

100 

9850 

CcfcU* at 10014 In 1991. 

Primary Industry Bank 
of Australia 

ecu 40. 

1993 . 9% 

100 

9875 

NancoSobie. 

Ryobi 

ECU 20 

1990 open 

in 

98-88 

Coupon indented ot 9M*. Nona**fa.Tenn» to be set Mo/ 

a 

Goodyear Tire & 
Rubber 

Y25JXX) 

1995 714 

in 

9750 

Catable at 1D1 in 199a 

Automobiles Peugeot 

FF500 

1990 1114 

in 

9853 

Noncnflotite. 

Commonwealth JBank 
of Austrofia. 

Aas$40 

1990 1314 . 

in 

9825 

NonoaBafah. 

EQUITY-INCH) 

Lonrhb finance 

$40 

2000 614 

in 

— 

Rsdecmobto at 110 fa 1989 and caBoble at 104 fa 1987. 
GxivarAie at 185 pence per An 

Restaurant Seibu . . 

- $25 

2000 314 

in 

— 

Seoecmnljr. Calfafale <* 103 ei 198a Convertible ttSJOS 
yen par thare aid at 25130 yon par dofar. 


Rates Down 
Sharply on 
Labor Report 


EUROPEAN COMMUNITY 


EC Set to Standardize Requirements for Products 


By Michael Quine 

New York Timet Service 

NEW YORK — ILS. interest 
rates fell sharply last week after the 
Labor Department announced em - 
ploymmt data for April that sug- 
gested the economy was not re- 
bounding quickly from the weak 
13-percent growth rate reported 
for the first quarter. 

Although the employment statis- 
tics do not suggest an imminent 
recession, they were weak enough 
to prompt a fresh round of predic- 
tions that the Federal Reserve 
would ease monetary policy to pro- 
vide extra assurance that growth 
continues. 

Anticipation of an easier mone- 
tary policy, perhaps including a cut 
in the discount rate the Fed coaim 


U& CREDIT MARKET 


Oil Irani; to fin an rial institutions, 
was widespread enough that prices 
of debt securities rose, and rates 
fell, for the fourth consecutive day. 

“It now seems more probable 
that the Federal Reserve will re- 
duce the discount rale in the near 
future," said Henry Kaufman, the 
respected chief economist of Salo- 
mon Brothers. The discount rate 
has been at 8 percent since Dec. 21 , 
when weakness in the economy 
prompted a half-point reduction. 

Traders seemed to agree with 
Mr. Kaufman's conclusion, as 
short- and long-term interest rates 
fell sharply amen trading began, 
and ended the day with sizable de- 
clines. 

The rate for three-month Trea- 
sury bills, for example, ended the 
day at 7.70 percent, down from 
7.76 percent and wdl below die 


By Steven J. Dryden 

inumationaj Herald Tribune 

BRUSSELS — Officials of the 
commission of the European Com- 
munity believe that they have se-. up, he added, 
cured agreement from member 
states on a key proposal to help 
standardize tecfmlrai requirements 
for community products, a move 
that is expected to strengthen the 
economies of EC countries. 

EC ministers are scheduled to 
meet Tuesday to give final approv- 
al to the plan. The only major ob- 
stacle to approval, commission of- 
ficials said, is apossible reservation 
by Greece until after next month's 
national elections. 

The new approach calls for the 
community to adopt basic require- 
ments to meet health, safety and 
environmental standards. Products 
meeting these standards would, un- 
der the proposal, be allowed to be 
sold in any member state. 

At present, the member stales 
must negotiate standards for each 


scientific and technological coonU- studying pos 
nation, an aide to Mr. Cbeysson against the EC < 
said. EC assistance for Libya’s no- trade i 
dear-power program did not cone tic is from Mediterranean countries. 


over its preferential 


Under strong pressure from the 
United States, Belgium last year 
shelved a request by Libya for aid 
in building nuclear-power plants. 


Spam, Portugal 
Discuss Commissions 


Although the appointments are 
several months off. speculation has 
already began in Brussels about 
who will represent Spain and Por- 
tugal in the enlarg ed co mmissi on. 

Under the terms of entry, Spain 
wfll name two additional members 


U.S. officials said. 

The officials accused the EC of 
ignoring the conclusions of a panel 
of the General Agreement on 
Trade and Tariffs last December 
that said American dims fruit 
growers bad been damaged by the 
community's preferential agree- 
ments. 

The community believes the ar- 
rangements are not covered by 
GATT agree 


agreements. 


George P. Shultz. U.S. secretary 
lividual EC 


to the 14-person commission and 
l win ram 


individual product, a lengthy pn> 
s completed 


cess that is sometimes comp 
after the product is outmoded. 


Libya, EC Talk 
About Cooperation 

Libya's interest in the communi- 
ty appears to have revived, EC offi- 
cials said. 

Mohammed Abu Ghossa, the 
Libyan ambassador in Brussels, 


Portugal will name one. 

On the Spanish ride, the leading 
contenders are Manuel Marin, the 
secretary of state for EC relations, 
and Fernando Morin, the foreign 
minister, diplomats said. Also men- 
tioned is a member of the political 
opposition, Eduardo Punset, who 
served as secretary of state for EC 
afTairs in the previous 
government. 

F mflni Lopes, the Portuguese fi- 
nance minister, who represented 
Lisbon in the final stretch of the 
enlargement negotiations, and 
Jaime Gama, the foreign minister, 
are seen as strong candidates for 
the post of Portugese commission- 
er.’ 


of State, wrote to individual 
nations last month asking for com- 
pensation for the damage, a move 
that irritated the commission's sen- 
sitivity over being bypassed. 

Willy de Clerq, EC commission- 
er for ‘external relations, wrote to 
Mr. Shultz r eminding him that the 
commission represents the member 
states on such matters. 


week with Claude Cbeysson, the 
EC commissioner for Mediterra- 
nean policy. Libya currently has no 
cooperation agreements with the 
EC. 

Among the topics discussed were 


US. Threatens 
Retaliation on Fruit 

After more than a decade of 
bickering, the United States is now 


Canada Pressured 
Over Beef Imports 

The Canadian government is un- 
der pressure from the community 
to agree thus week on increased 
quotas for imports of EC beef. 

The EC said Last week that it 
would apply retaliatory measures 
against Canadian exports if an 
agreement was not reached “in the 
next few days." 

Canadian officials in Brussels 
said they could not recall the EC 
ever having taken retaliatory moves 
against Canada. 


EC Agrees to Cut 
Exports of Shoes, 
Boots to Canada 


:e France- P rear 

— The Europe- 
an Community has agreed to 
curb its shipments of footwear 
to Canada, according to the Eu- 
ropean Commission. 

In return for restraint by die 
community, Canada is granting 
tariff concessions on IS product 
categories, the commission an- 
nounced Friday. The conces- 
sions affect a trade volume of 

ISO million Panadian dollar s 
($109 milli on) and are valued at 
seven million Canadian dollars. 

The EC restraints will come 
about because Canada said it 
would reduce the maximum 
price fa footwear and boots 
under quota respectively from 
40 to 35 Canadian dollars and 
from 65 to 60 Canadian dollars. 

The Canadian concessions 
relate to ski boots and equip- 
ment, sewing-machine needles, 
jewelry, certain textile fibers, 
spectacle frames, antibiotics, 
several types of chemicals and 
other items. 


Canada applied a 2,700-ton cjuo- 


ta on imports of EC beef for 
.which has already been filled- Ca- 
nadian and EC negotiators have 
reportedly agreed on a compromise 
quota for 1985 of 10,600 tons for 
low-grade beef. 


N pi-nr 


U.S. Suspects More Overdraft Abuse 


‘7.87-percent average at Monday’s 
issue de- 




:* 




-irr.r 




f 


j" 


New York Times Service 

WASHINGTON — A senior of- 
ficial at the Justice Dcfuutment has 
said the department would seek to 
determine whether other compa- 
nies, including thrae. in die finan- 
cial sector, might be engaged in 
giant chad: overdraft schemes sim- 
ilar to the one to which E-F.Huttra 
& Ca has pleaded guilty. 

Stephen S. Trott, the assistant 

attorney general in charge of crimi- 
nal matters, said in. an interview 
Friday that the Hutton fraud could 
have caused, the collapse of scores 
of sm all banks throughout the 
country if Hutton had suffered any 
substantial losses in its business op- 
erations daring the time 

“We have suspicions that we 
may have other cash conrrnfra- 
tions and abusive cash-manage- 
ment systems out there," Mr. Trott 
said “And we are going to go look- 
ing for those and are hoping that 
anyone being victimized by these 
schemes win oome fcaward and tdl 
us.” 

He declined to specify -whether 
the department had identified 
dfic companies or whether 
investigations had been started. 

On Thursday, the Justice Do- 


The Justice Department said 
that about 25 individuals in the 
firm had devised a highly complex 
system of overdrawing bank ac- 
counts and transferring funds be- 
tween mnan and larger banks and 
taking advantage of float, the time 
it takes for a check to dear, to use 
as much as $250 million in bank 
funds daily oo an interest-free basis 
for at least 20 months. 

Hutton agreed to pay a Si-mil- 
lion fine and $750,000 in legal costs 
to the Justice Department and to 
set up an Kkmltion restitution 
fund for the banks that had lost 
money from the scheme. 

In addition to the guilty pleas, 
the Justice Department secured a 
permanent injunction against both 
EF. . Hatton Group Loo, parent 
company of the brokerage firm, 
and die brokerage firm itself. 

According to Mr. Trott, the in- 
junction, which stops Hutton from 
engaging in a variety of question- 
able money-management practices, 
wiD have a more far-reaching im- 
pact than the guilty p leas because it 


The scheme was condemned by 
Edward L Koch, mayor of New 
York City, and City Comptroller 
Harrison J. Goldin, who described 
it in a statement as an intentional 
effort to defraud smaller financial 
institutions of mflKnng of dollars. 


They said they were disappoint- 
ed that the Justice Department had 


auction. The rix-momh 
dined by a one- tenth of a percent- 
age point, to 7.91 percent 

Among longer-term issues, the 
three-year Treasury notes to be 
auctioned next Tuesday were of- 
fered on a when-issued basis at 
10.12 percent, down from 1024 
percent, and the 10-year notes lobe 
auctioned Wednesday were offered 
at 1120 percent, down from 1128 
percent. 

The 30-year bonds scheduled for 
sale next Thursday were traded 


notsoughl indmdral odmmal in- lUfipSSJ 

djctroats and added that toe aty m dosed at j U3 patent, down 
would not do business with Hutton from njg patent. The outstand- 
on New York’s next financing. ing 11%-percent bond issue due in 
Perrin H. Long, an analyst at 2015 was offered at 99-18/32, up VS 
Upper Analytical Services, which point, to yield 1130 percent 
specializes in brokerage stocks, B Shrarisfa U.S. Growth Seen 

said other brokerages might have ,, , v - 

inrimDaTJraSwito- 

Cron of a probable cut m the dis- 


out 


knowledge of management 
A lading executive of one bro- 


kerage; who spoke on condition 
that ms i 


. name not be used, said: “I 
think there is more of it People in 
to« business were aware of the pos- 
sibility of this." 


Moody’s Renewing Debt 


coun t rate on toe fact that the mod- 
est rise in UJS. non-farm payroll 
employment reported by the gov- 
ernment Friday was aH in sectors 
sheltered from foreign competi- 
tion, Reuterc reported 
The Salomon Brothers econo- 
mist, writing in the widely foDowed 
“Comments on Credit," noted that 
employment in the manufacturing 


r r * ■■ . I «• f . i n r rm ‘ WUiUll/TIUWn Ul UAb UUUUUOVItUUIg 

is a “signal to toe entire business . Moodysmvwtoisbervicesaioxt sector fell for the third consecutive 
is revwwmg $230 nnto of Hutton suggesting that other eco- 


coxnnnmity tha t we now consider is reviewing *4JU nniuon oi nuuon 
suchpractioes fdemy crimes and we securities for possible downgrading 
will go after them/ in toe wake of its guilty plea last to 

,, ' Major brokerage houses in New fraud Reuters reported from New 

partment secured a gpBty plea from York, however, denied that they York. 

EJF. Hutton, one of the nation’s had ever illegally managed toeur A lower classification would 
largest brokerage firms, in which it funds so as to overdraw frank ac- tower the value of the securities, as 
admitted to 2,000 counts ctf felony counts. But some industry analysts well as make it more costly for 
wire and trail fraud against 400 said toe practice might not have 
banks. ... . been confined to Hutton. 


Hutton to raise money in the fu- 
ture. 


noirac data for April wiD confirm 
toe picture of sluggish domestic 

OUtpUL 

He said industrial production 
may show no change at all and 
personal income may be up only 
modestly. 


Japanese Airline Set to Join 
^ Rapidly Growing U.S. Route 


(Cantoned from Page 9) 
week, and expects to cany 11 per- 
cent of the airfreight shipped over 
this route. 

Mr. Shibuya predicted that his 
line, which is owned by 74 Jap anese 
companies, would pick up custom- 
ers quickly. He noted that the cargo 
market between the United Stales 
and Japan had grown rapidly, in- 
creasing by 333 percent in 1983 
and 20.1 percent in 1984. He did 
say, however, that he expected toe 
rate erf growth to slow to 10 percent 


a year. 

There is also a 


^ity on the flights from Japan to the 
^United States, the direction in 


which most of the cargo flows. In 
1983, fa example, 103,000 tons of 
cargo were shipped from Japan to 
the United States, while only 
52,000 tom went the other way. . 

Tbe Japanese Ministry of Tram- 
port reported that, in 1W3, toe lat- 
est year for which figures axe avail- 
able, the load -factor, which 


measures how full a plane is, was 
993 percent for Flying Tiger from 
Japan to toe United States. 

“Of course it fluctuates by sea- 
son," Mr. Shibuya said. “Butin the 
rush times of September, October 
and November there is a lack of 
space." 

Nippon also hopes eventually to 
extend its routes in the United 
Stales. To Chicago, for example. At 
toe same time, the airiine will try to 
expand in the Far Ease 

Loais A. Marckesano, an analyst 
with Janney Montgomery, predict- 
ed that Nippon “wul take the over- 
flow from Japan Air lines that 
might have gone to Flying Tiger in 
thepasL" 

When the Japanese government 
gave Nippon a permit, it asked that 
Nippon harmonize its operations 
with JAL Some U3. experts inter- 
preted that as a warning to Nippon 
not cut too deeply into JAL’s cargo 
business. " 


New Evidence 
biTahcanPmbe 


Reuters 

TAIPEI — Investigators 
probing Taiwan’s biggest bank 
scandal say they have found 
new evidence that executives ctf 
Cathay Industrial Group 
bribed senior officials of several 
government banks. 

Court officials on Saturday 
quoted the investigators as say- 
ing that a Senior Cathay execu- 
tive admitted to bribing heads 
of the banks on orders ctf Tsai 
Cben-Chon, chairman of Ca- 
thay Plastics Corp_ a major Ca- 
toay subsidiary. Mr. Tsai was 
sentenced to two 15-year jail 
terms last month on charges ctf 
fraud for issuing bad checks. 

They said the Cathay execu- 
tive. Huang Chien-Ying, told 
the Investigators that some se- 
nior bankers had accepted the 
money and some had rejected 
it He was quoted as saying that 
die money was used to win 
loans for his superior, Mr. Tsai, 
from toe government banks. He 
did not give figures. 


Opportunities 
Due for Bears 


(Confirmed from Page 9) 


five-year, 925-percent issue was 
trading Friday at a yield of 9.61 
percent and the seven-year, 
93-percent issue at 9.81 percent 
An ECU israe by Primar y Indus- 
try Bank of Australia was aimed 
mainly at Japanese wnrf Southeast 
Asian investors. The right-year, 
9%-percent bonds were quoted Fri- 
day ai a price to yidd 9.95 percent. 

The recent four-year, 9%-nercent 
issue from Italy was yielding a 
jus 10.09 percent, even 
toe maturity is only half as 


Daimler TcuMes ike U,S. Truck Market 


' (Continued from IVge 9) 
which seems paltry in comparison 
with the $300 mDHon and $600 mil- 


ovdty helped lure investors to 
zero-coupon mod floating-rate note 
issues denominated in marks, the 
first such issues allowed by toe 
Bundesbank. 

The 10-year tranche of Austria’s 
mark-denorrrinnted zero-coupon is- 
sue traded at a yield of 7 23 per- 
cent, roughly in Ime with that avail- 
able on 10-year West German 
government bands. 

The floating-rate notes sold by 
Dresdner Bank and Sweden ap- 
peared to be sellin g mostly outride 
of West Germany, German bank- 
ers reported. Tito development of 
this new market gives banks, cor- 
porate treasurers and institutional 
investors a handy new way to earn 
relatively high rates on short-term 


five years ago- Most pans came Nissan Diesel Motor Co. Ltd. are 

from Daimler-Benz’s Brazilian op- selling medium-duty trucks in toe hfjdingy frf mflrW 
- United Slates. Hino is assembling 


lira plants found in toe automobile 








But the medium, to heavy-truck 
industry is different. It is a low- 
vohune industry that relies more on 
labor than automation. It essential- 
ly is an assembly industry that tuns 
on parts made by other companies. 
Both characteristics mean tooting 
and plant costs that are small in 
comparison with those found in toe 
auto indusoy. . 

Medium crocks are used mostly 
for urban and short-haul deliveries. 
Heavy trucks are long-distance 
runners, often carrying caigo from 
. it tothewest Coast at 

fueling, sustained, highway 
speeds. Trucks in. both categories 
cany about 75 percent of the na- 
tion's animal freight shipments. 

The Mercedes-Benz plant m 
Hampton, which employs about 
170 people, has assembled 13.000 
medium-sized Bucks since opening 


eraoons. 

Mercedes-Benz. Truck sales last 
year were $98.1 xmQion, a 243- 
percent increase over its 1983 sales 
of $741 nuffion. The company last 
year assembled 3,459 medium 
tracks, compared with 41303 as- 
sembled by GM, 4^931 by Har- 
vester, 40,915 by Feud and- 5,084 
assembled by Mack Trucks Ino, a 
U.S. company 45-percent owned 
by French automaker Renault 

Some UB. competitors pointed 
to Mercedes-Benz Truck’s small 
production numbers with derision 
when told of Rupp's grand plans, 
^toumtok-indiirtry anafystsjaid 

fire on U3. truck assemblers, just 
as it did ra UJS. automakers who 
once dismissed the Japanese as in- 
agnificaat competitors. 

The Japanese,' in fact, are enter- 
ing the medium-truck market. 
Hino Motors Ltd, Irazu Motors 
Lid, Mitsubishi Motors Carp, and 


trucks in Deerfield, Florida, and 
marketing them in five southern 
states. 

Daimler-Benz, the Japanese and 
other foreign manufacturers mov- 


“It appearseuerybody got his toy 
be was waiting for so long," ob- 
served Dieter wennuto, an econo- 
mist at Citibank in Frankfurt. 

Xerox Credit Coip.’s four-year, 
10.75-percent Eurodollar brads, is- 


ing into the UJL truck market are sued at 10025, slumped to 983 bid, 
betting that the zrigD of toe heavy- for a yield of 1134 percent, about 


duty trucks is nearing an end. The 
big trucks, rolling ra 18 wheels and 
often weighing more than 70,000 
pounds (5 1,750 kilograms) fully 
loaded, consume too much fuel and 
cost too much money, toe foreign- 
ers say. 


The foreign strategy in the UJ5. 
market is to off ex medium-duty 
trades "as more effirieqt . alterna- 
tives” to the heavier models, partic- 
ularly for short-distance hauling, 
according to Geny Donohue, who 
has prepared a report on toe truck 
industry for toe National Automo- 
bile Dealers Association. 


0.75 percentage point higher ihnn 
the yield available from four-year 
U3L government brads. 

By contrast, doUar-deootnmated 
floating-rate notes from Lloyds 
Bank and Standard Chartered 
Bank met rousing demand. To 
meet Bank ctf En gland capita] re- 
quirements, toe issues have some 
characteristics' of equity. Tor in- 
stance; interest payments may be 
suspended if no dividend is paid on 
com mon stock, and holders of the 
notes would rank with preference 
sharebokkrc in the event of liqui- 
dation. But investors appeared sat- 
isfied that toe generous iwnn out- 


Over-the-Counter 


Sates in Net 

* VMs Hlsti Low Last Chtte 


(Continued from Page 10) 

MJctiNtf uuavi m* st + » 

Mkrbh> 43 t St* 6 

menu 123 3 2% »- Hi 

MlcrRt H«k n MS— K 

MdsxWs LSI &5 2523 22% 23 + % 

Mdhica 32im 15% U%— 1 

MU tape MUM 14,. 14 — It 

Mlndan 38B 

MliwSof M U 26 M 

MnrRs JBm IS 4C71 Bfk 


MUVIA 

ModMr 

MnAvf 

Monttt-b 


.11 44 


Mortal 

MuttnA 

MultnB 

Musto 

MuHFS 

MutREI 

MuKMI 


M teW 
40a U 


an A* 

1583 M 
M M 

53? 3% 
22 7 
Z W 
*77 3% 
15 6% 
W 9% 
2214 3 


% 

*9* *■ - 

CM CM 

m cm 

JK 3U 

nt*t 

2M 3M + M 

3M + M 
C C 

*M *M + M 
2M 3 +M 


.13 T 4 


NEC 
Nanoiiit 
MwrwC 1380 74 
NatttFm t 
NB Alls JOf u 
NMhnSy 
fit HMD 


mZTM 21ft 
mm 7M 
43-6 43ft 

urn » 

3037% 37% 
23515% 13% 
281 1, M 


21ft— M 
7% 

43ft— lft 
3ft 
37% 

13%— T% 


40a J 


Nttofy 
NfSfaoo 
NmAFs 
N wFrPt 
NY Mar 
NYricr 
NwMBw 
Nwpkwt 
NowpEl 
Mco 

Ninon Mr J 
NarUO 

NMtflc 248 *2 
NthOtO 

NaTmxt 272 4J 
KwNGpf 237 83 
Novell 
Novo ui 

Monaco j» 28 
NuVtjn 


W lit lit 




WJ „ 

84 DM 12M 12ft + ft 
3S38 38 

H» ft 
■ 1825ft 3CM 

imunfa 


12*71^1^ 


n 

3C 3ft 3ft 
3U1» 13ft 
331 4ft 4ft 
321 3ft 2ft 
2954ft SOS 
2 9ft 9% 
*73*3 *2% 

*3 29ft 28% 
MS 7ft 7ft 
*4 3 > 

791Cft 15M 
33514 13ft 


ft + ft 

W/ft + M 
l,J-ft 

3ft 

2ft— ft 
56ft 
9ft 

*3 +ft 
29ft— ft 
7ft— M 
3 

15M— 1ft 
13ft— M 


In Nil 

UOs High Low Lost Clftte 


Ovrsloo 

OMocopf 380 *32 


34 2M 
389 5M 


2ft 

4ft— M 


PCAInt 

PDA 

PMCpf 140 

PNC DID UO 

PrCom 

PaclMd 

Padnwt 

Pannes 

PondEit 

Patrkon 

Pawt9v 30 

PwtoSv 

PeekPk 


7.1 


U 


5.1 


•98 Cft Cft *ft— ft 

«38 8 ~Fk • + M 

2323ft 33ft 23ft 
11735ft 25% 25ft— ft 
183811ft KM TOM— ft 
It 18 M 
» M MM 

23 21 2] 

425 3ft 3 3M — ft 

■ft Bft Bft + ft 

104 3D m 38 
1271 US 7% 8% + ft 
73 5ft 4 4 — M 

Tim 19U 19ft 
31 9 9 9 

nan » n 

PeoEpf 184 15.1 144517ft 1C 17ft +lft 

PaoEptB3J0 AS 148729ft 27ft 29ft « 

491 3ft 3ft 3ft + ft 

5* 7ft 7ft 7% 

400 7ft 7 7 —ft 

272 2ft 2ft 2ft — ft 
5132 31 31 —1 

71 8 8 • 

ZI* 

21 3ft 
3061* 

CM 


ESS? 

PET CO 

TOP 

r Biiuon 

Phrmun 
PbnxMd 
PtmAC 
Ptiotren 
PhylnMi 
PtiysTc 
PtedMs 
Pterot 
Pino 

TO 1 

PUmR 


J3 


36 24 


Posts ■ 

ProbRM 

PfcJFnd 

PWHIts 

PfdSov 

PrsCM 

PraiStv 


UMo 7J 

235a U 


43 


OKCuo 
OMI Cp 
O ccuMd 
Oca-NY 
OcattBo 
OfLODfA 
OtfUOO Dt 
ObBjoV 216 74 
Ofloaor USD 43 
OUCntPf 182 43 
Old NIB 
OMRppf 

OneLW UOall.l 


lift— ft 


OpMO> 

OptlcSp 

Opttm 


3111ft lift 
2786 4 3ft 3ft 
1497 6M 5 - CM +1M 

4318% 18 18 —ft 

31 4M 3ft \4M + ft 
25 3 3 3 

36 4 4 4 

3629ft 29M 2»ft— M 
38% 28% 28% 
9138% 28Vf 2B% 
4716ft 15% 15%—% 
32*40% TO 38. -*ft 
2*815% 15% 15% 

411 C% i Cft— ft 
37 37 37 

U7 6U 5ft 5ft— % 
ft ft ft 



1 

O 



j 

Qantc 

QwebcSt 

Quesicb 

81 2% 
1250 3 

27 Bft 

2ft 

2% 

8ft 

1 1 

m 

M 

ft 

1 

R 



3 



j Treasury Bills 



BM 

AA 

YM 

5r9 

... . 7.74 

7.54 

767 

5-16 

7J7 

731 

763 

5-23 . 

7JS 

7J1 

764 

530 

725 

7.1V 

7J2 

tr 6 

7M 

7.16 

7 JO 

6-13 . .. . 

738 

732 

768 

MO 

. .. 7 JO 

726 

763 

M7 

737 

735 

767 

7-5 

768 

736 

726 

7-11 

7-65 

761 

763 

M8 

767 

761 

76* 

7-25 

768 

764 

768 

8-1 

737 

7J0 

7M 

8-8 

. ... 732 

768 

794 

8-15 . . . . 

7.74 

720 

798 

8-22 

734 

770 

79V 

M9 

734 

770 

860 


TM 

720 

861 

9-12 

.. . 7J6 

722 

865 

we 

7J7 

721 

865 

ero 

7JS 

721 

866 

TO-3 

730 

766 

824 

lo-w . . . 

7.98 

764 

825 

10-17 

8JM 

7.98 

860 

10-34 

7.90 

768 

830 

10-31 ... 

790 

768 

831 

H-29 . . .. 

7.97 

7.93 

838 

12-24 . ... 

79S 

791 

om 

J-23-1W6- 

8J0S 

861 

851 

2-20 . 

6.10 

866 

860 

3-20 

.... A 10 

866 

854 

407 .. . 

8JJ9 

865 



Source: Faderol Reserve Bonk 


Consolidated Trading 
Of NYSE Listing 

Week ended Moy 3 


Atl Rich 

MBtMl 

TWA 

HeuNG 

Unocal 

PMIMr 

ATAT 

OMot 

CJfylrrv 

IBM 

FonlM 

Texaoo 

Ramin 

Amoco 

MldSUt 

AIWCP 

FadNM 

SouthCo 

PtillPat 

HewiPh 


Low LMt Ofjjo 


wx _ 

23343900 64% 56ft 62ft- . 
12440200 33ft 30 31ft +3ft 
1491060 16 ISft 16 +3M 

6399300 48ft 45ft 67% +52% 
&787^ni46% 45ft 45% — M 

K72JDD92ft BZVt aft-lift 

20ft ZlftUnctL 
5A54.W ffilft 6M» 67ft -1 
531ti700 Kft 33% 36ft -3 
5J5740Q 127 124 135 —1 

5.1mm 42ft 40ft 41 -1M 
4^11270 40% 38ft aSMUiKh. 
4,307600 83% 72ft 74ft -fPk 
i-isim 69 64ft 46% +3% 
1734500 13ft 12ft 13ft +ft 
3,ms«a46ft 43U 45% 
1*77500 lift 15ft 16ft 
3Mzm 2tm ifft im 
3430000 39U 3IM SW. 
1338600 33 31% 32% 

Issues Traded fa: USB 
Advonces: 700 : declines: 1 J46 
unchanged: 2D 
New Metis: 209 ; new lows: 51 


+ft 

+ft 


— 1 


This i 
Lost i 


1984 some wee«. 

iwiamira 


1904 to date. 


1IO te date. 


VO fame 

504830000 shares 

4834SM00 shares 

477440000 Shores 

9 J0M42330 shores 

U358iDjKn shores 

76B4420l000 shares 


f 


ConsoHdaied Trading 
OI AMEX Listing 
Week ended May 3 



Hfgb uw i«t an* 
4ft 3% 3ft —ft 
17ft Wft 17ft UndL 
2ft 2 ft — 1/16 
lift —1ft 
1% 1% -% 
13ft 12% Uft -ft 

14ft 11% M +2 
14ft 14% 14% —ft 
6% 5ft CM +ft 
14 13ft Bft +ft 




shore* 

tewes traded in: 901 . 

Advnncas: 254 : aedines: TO3 
IlndMnoad: 1*4 _ 

n«w HfaM: s : new lows: 39 


PrpMed 

PraeFd 

PtpIdv 

PrnvBc 

vtPrvBea 

PrudFn 

PuMEq 

Puhn wt 

PutnTr 

PyrmO 


42aM5 

t 


U> 34 


5ft 5ft— ft 
3% 3%— M 
ft ft 
3ft 3ft— M 
14ft 15ft + % 
38 38 

ft + 

5ft 5ft 
14ft 15 — % 
lft 1% 

•ft Bft 

2ft 2ft 

HIM TOM lift +1 
‘ Cft Cft 
Cft 6% Cft— ft 
10314% 44 MW 
519 8ft 7ft 7ft— 1ft 
*5528% 25% 25ft— 3ft 
4TO30ft 27ft 27ft— 3ft 
209 2ft 2% 2ft 
250 4 4 4 

412ft Hft 1216 
158 3% 3ft 3ft + Mi 
2542 41ft 41ft— ft 
481 2% 2M 2ft 4 ft 
13113ft UM 13ft— ft 
235 2ft 2ft 2ft— ft 
462 4% 4 4ft— ft 
2132 32 32 

71 5ft 5 5 


RIHT 2M 49 »51 , »» TOft— ft 

RSI CO 31 2ft 2ft 2ft— ft 

Rodion 14* 3 2% 2ft— ft 

RoInrR 220710ft TO 18 — ft 

RomRn 185 43 1325ft 24ft 25ft + ft 

RonoolT TO 37 12*4 4% 6ft 4U— ft 

RanfcO J40 3* 1172 4ft 
RavrkO 75 6ft 5% Cft + ft 

RBITCO T5B 8.1 883» 3KJ 3W + ft 

RoalAin 8 3ft 3ft 3ft 

Raftdn t 7834 22% TO — 1 

RalbUa U0n47 248ft 38ft 38ft 

RSCPBI 2530 9.9 98 25ft 34% 25ft +* 

SSS + * 

MS — 4 1ft ’SUB 

S 7A srjM^^m 

ira St m 7M— ft 

38 5 Cft 4K— M 

63 8k » SS— % 

^ 2 D^2ft29 t - % 


RorCbB 


Ind 


RovGrp 


69 Bft 7% 7ft— ft 


Sales In Net 

100s High Low Last Ctfte 


SPIPtlS JM 


SIHIGd L48» 85 


SelmNt 

SaNck 

5andRao 

StMonB 


SavrPCt 


64b 26 
Me 28 
.Me 47 
Jem 2.1 
SO 13 


27313 11 11% + % 

33 18% 78% 18% 

32 4 3% 4 + M 

83919% 17% 17ft— 2ft 
54 19% 19% 19% 

471 14ft 18% 17% +1 
45415ft 15% 15% + ft 
TO 10% 10% 1D% 
TOTOft 23ft 21ft _ 
454 Cft 3ft 3ft— ft 
66 3 3 3 — ft 

53021% 20% 21% + % 


Stadnln 

ScalOwl 

SamOun 


-M U ft “ft W ft 


SrtOom 

ScatCb 

SeaBnk 56 25 
Smdrmk I 
SeatleT -15r 5 
Sefamcun 
Shanlev 

ShtaeM .15e 6 
ShapGs 20 tl 
ShaWld 

ShoraSv 52 33 
60 5 


14 1% 
90 Cft 
TO 

269 3ft 
29 7% 
31 8ft 


Hk 7% 

4M «ft 
22 22ft + ft 
3% 3%— ft 
7% 7% 

Bft 8ft 


SfamaA 

HfvUs 

SJvKlno 



20 r 12 


Me 46 


SoraPrt 

SCarNfs 

BnHrfr 

SaMfars 

""I 


23112% 12ft 12ft— M 
58 214 2M 2M 
9228ft 27ft 27ft— 1 

23% 23% 23% + ft 
ZTOISM 17% 17% — % 
15 2ft 3ft 2» 
31214 17ft 13ft +1 
4243% 62% 63M + ft 
931 3ft 3% 3% — Mi 
514 4 3ft 3ft— ft 
DOB Til 
3716ft 16ft 16ft 
19*5% 15ft 15% 

2 ■% 0% 8% 
144415% Oft 14 


M U 
Mb 45 


SwtBOJ 


SwEISv 
Squarel 
stanWtt 
StnrGto 
Store 
rawB 


M33% 33 

18128ft 19% 19%- 
6 6 6 
22 32 247*3% 20% 23% 
1918 ft 
1010ft Wft Wft 
44 2ft 2ft 2ft 
7ft 7ft 7ft 
7613 12ft 13 


132 102 
1M 7.1 
I 


.Ufa 22 


StwB wt 
StwBpf 


120 53 


220 


BJ 

StwB un 220 72 
StearMf 20e 23 
Stereov 
Store wt 
Strata 
SlrtkPt 

StrmRo 3Me 65 

Sutotro 

SunEcd 

Sanllta 

SHSAI 

- - 126 35 

SvanCM 21a 26 
Swadtw 28 12 
SvmTk 
Syniblle 

Syntcpt 225 95 
SyrSups 28 22 
Svatnat 


15 4% 6% 

139 3ft 3ft ]ft 
ii 4ft cft m 
1019 5ft 5 5ft— M 
*74 2ft lft 1ft— M 
8422ft 22 22ft 

3ft 3% 3% 

4427 24% 27 +ft 

438 29ft 38 + ft 

31 7% 7ft 7ft 
23B13 17% 12% — % 

250 4% 3ft 3%— % 
41 2ft 2ft 2ft— ft 
2350 M M — 
4329 27 2* +2„ 

2 m ift— ft 

2ft 2ft 2ft 
97 4 3ft 3ft— ft 
55 9ft 9ft 9% 
4046% 46% 4*W 
5 13M 13 13 — M 

7630 19 Tf —1 

5516% 16 16 

1800 9ft 8% 8ft — lft 
174 29 27ft 28 —M 
3712% T2Vi 12% 

15 3 2 2 



USvAdsX 

839 4 

3% 

3ft 


USM*d 

72 Bft 

6% 

S% 


USMuM JOrlAO 

89 2 

lft 

lft 


US Ploy 

34714 

13 

14 + ft 

+ s 

US PI wt 

5% 

b 

5% 

US Sw 

1 55 

SB 

55 


US Vac 

16 3% 

3% 

3% 


UVaBk pf22S 62 

41 

41 

41 


UMonny 

231 lft 

1% 

lft— ft 


UttvSac 

832 3 

2ft 

2ft + ft 


UiwBTT .10* 3 

3715 

U 

15 


US Be Pa 160 49 

3532ft 

32ft 

32ft 

— M 

1 

V 


1 


TEL Off 3J0B316 
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40018ft TOM MM + ft 
463 2% 2 2 — ft 

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We are pleased to announce 
the formation of a 

Corporate Finance Department 

and the appointment of 


Edward A. Pollitz, Jr. 

Senior Vice President 

Managing Director-Corporate Finance 


James I. Griffin IV 

Vice President-Corporate Finance 


Ronald J. Kramer 

Vice President-Corporate Finance 


Josephtha! & Co. Inc. 


FOUNDED 1910 

Members New York Stock Exchange, Inc. and Other Leading Exchanges 


120 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10271 
Telephone: (212) 577-3000 


I 




































































































INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, MONDAY MAY 6, 1985 


Page 13 


Wfr '5,.. 
sr; ' 

SRy 


:: v: 


\ of Hughes Aircraft Pits 
iants Against Each Other 


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By Mark Poets 

W'djtojjfon I'M SerWc* 

WASHINGTON — A multi- 
biUion-doUar bidding contest for 
Hughes Aircraft Co. is moving lo- 
ward the wire, and out of the par- 
ticipants says the competition for 
the huge aerospace company 
founded by the late Howard 
Hughes is '“most severe.” 

“There are sane big, big boys 
playing in thatpartkular playpen,” 
said Forrest N. Sbumway, chair- 
man of Signal Cos., speaking to his 
company’s annual meeting recent- 
ly. 

The other rumored bidders 
against Signal for Hughes are Gen- 
eral Motors Corp., Allied Corp., 
Ford Motor Crop., General Elec- 
tric Co. and Boeing; Co, and at 
least one bid may involve a joint 
effort fy two companies. 

The olds are due by the middle of 
this month to investment banker 
Moreau Stanley & Co, which is 
handling the auction for the com- 
pany’s present owner, the Howard 
Hughes Medical Institute. Sources 
say the institute expects to receive 
five bids for the company, which is 
based in E3 Segundo, Califo rnia- A 
possible buyout by the company’s 
68.000 employees has fallen by the 
wayside as the bidding' hag in- 
creased. 

Analysts have estimated that 
Hughes Aircraft could fetch be- 
tween $4 billion and £6 billion, 
which would make it one of the 


heftiest corporate acquisitions ever. 
Whoever gets it will gain control of 
one of the nation ’s top mili tary 
contractors. Despite its name, (he 
company has never manufactured a 
single airplane, concentrating in- 
stead on sophisticated electronics, 

mt jsj fc s anH satel- 

lites. 

Last year, the company had S4.9 
billion in sales —it does not report 
income — $6 billion in new orders, 
and aS12 billion year-end backlog. 
Its remarkably low $78 million in 
long-tecm debt makes it additional- 
ly attractive, because it would allow 
an acquirer to borrow heavily 
against the company’s assets to pay 
for the acquisition. 


bidder with a steady cash flow and 
income stream from die relatively 
stable Pentagon contracts it holds. 

For Signal and Allied, Hashes 
would represent a chance to diver- 
sify into areas that complement 
their existing high-tech businesses. 
General Electric is known to have 
had a 55-billion acquisition war 
chest for some time. Ford and 
Boeing could use the company to 
bolster their already bureconing 
aerospace businesses. And General 
Mouses has been known for years 
to be interested in moving strongly 
into defense work; in addition, its 
chairman. Roger Smith, for months 
has been mysteriously pro mising a 
“hilu” of an announcement 

Irving S. Shapiro, the former 


chair man of EX du Pant de Ne- 
mours & Co. Inc. and a member of 
the Hughes Medical Institute 
board, said the winning bid will 
likely be announced shortly after 
all the offers are in, “If you've got 
cash bids, the answer could be the 
same day, almost'* Mr. Shapiro 
said. 

However, he said be expects the 
offers to be somewhat more com- 
plicated, which would lengthen the 
analysis and delay an announce- 
ment for days or weeks. “We’ve got 
to be sure we can understand each 
bid and be able to evaluate it” Mr. 
Shapiro said. 

Howard Hughes set up the medi- 
cal institute in 1953 to shelter the 
company’s profits from taxes. In- 
come from the company goes to 
fund the institute’s research into 
endocrinology, immunology and 
genetics. 

After Hughes' death in 1976, 
Hughes Aircraft became embroiled 
in a variety of legal disputes over its 
ownership. The key challenge came 
from Delaware officials, who 
charged that the institute was not 
receiving enough income from the 
company. In 1983, for instance, the 
company reportedly only turned a 
SSI nnlllon profit for the institute, 
on revenues of $4.9 billion. And 
that was one of the better years. 

Last year, a Delaware judge set- 
tled many of the legal questions by 
ordering the appointment of a new 
board of trustees for the institute. 



Madagascar Tones Down Revolutionary Politics 

Rasas He Quoted the French phfloso- fear the Revolution, an advisory trap of extreme radicalism like 


American Exchange Options 

For the Week Ending May 3, 1985 


Option & pries Colls 


M F 

25 

mk 

M 

m. 

22% 

mt 

25 

M R 

» 

fan 

35 

«fa 

40 

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4S 

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40 

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SOM 

Si 

39% 

55 

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39 

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15 

Zifa 

301 

Zifa 

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25 

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39 

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10 

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31 

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1* 2* 
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1% r 


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57% 35 

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32% X 
32% 31 

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M% N 
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44% • 45 
44% 43 

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30% X 
3M 40 
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30% 35 


r % 
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Chicago Exchange Options 

For die WeekEmfing May 3, 1985 


The death of Howard 
Hughes, shown in 1951 file 
photo, left legal disputes 
over Hughes Aircraft. 

wading Mr. Shapiro and several 
otter prominent businessmen. Tbe 
new board reevaluated the insti- 
tute’s holdings in Hnghes Aircraft; 
and early this year announced 
plans to seC the company and in- 
vest the proceeds elsewhere. The 
institute, the board frit, could vast- 
ly increase its incrane with a $4 
billion to $6 billion windfall from 
the sale of the company. 

Indeed, Mr. Shapiro said tbe 
medical institute is becoming quite 
anxious to complete the rale of 
Hughes Aircraft. “Every day that 
we wait to get our money is costing 
us a huge amount of interest,” he 
said. 


Puts Option & price Cans Puts 

Pu Pat n 4 4% % % 

34 35 2% 3% 1% 27-34 

54 *0 *14 15-14 5% r 

Good*- 25 1 % 1 % % r 

25% 35 VU % 4% r 

Goou 25 1% 2% r 1% 

29% > 2 % % r r r 

29% 25 5-14 % r r 

Gravnd 23 3% r S-14 r 

29% 29 % 1 % r r 

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Hunan 25 7% 7% 944 1 

31% 30 3% 4% I* 2% 

31% 35 1144 2% 4% 5% 

31% 41 VU 1 3-U W KM 

31% 45 % VU r r 

LB hr 45 17% r r r 

77% 10 r lfa r . r 

77% 75 4 4% 1% r 

77% ■ lfa r 4% r 

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37% 40 VU 1144 r r 

Merrfl " 25 514 4 % VU 

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McmPt 15 3 r 5-14 *44 

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17% 20 7-U 1 3 3% 

Motrto 25 r r VU % 

39% 25 2 3-14 3% 1 7-U 2VU 

39% 35 M4 1% 4% 5M 


Rasas 

Tananarive. Madagascar — 

Madagascar is toning down the 
revolutionary politics it has par- 
sued for 13 years. 

The change, Western diplomats 
say, could profoundly affect this 
nation of 10 milli on people whose 
purchasing power has fallen by as 
much as 50 percent under a Soviet- 
-style economy. 

Ultimately it could open up the 
world’s fourth-impest island to for- 
eign investment and drag Mada- 
gascar from near the bottom of the 
world's per-capita-income table to 
a position that its rich agricultural 
and mineral potential merits, they 
say. 

Given Madagascar’s position on 
the Mozambique tTmnrwj north- 
east of South Africa, it also could 
have strategic implications, they 
add. 

The roots of the change are em- 
bedded in a major econ omi c grigs 
around 1981 that left Madagascar 
seeking help from Western finan- 
cial institutions, nffidak 

say. 

A 1972 economic blueprint 
promised fnll employment, 
pledged to double tbe national in- 
come in inflation-adjusted tezms 
and promised to meet all the popu- 
lation's basic needs by the year 
2000. Malagasy officials now say 
that was just a dream. 

President Didier Ratsiraka deliv- 
ered news of the changp in a New 
Year’s speech to the diplomatic 
corps. 

Mr. Ratsiraka used a blackboard 
to flhatrate the theory of numerical 
progr essio n and the mnrirail tonal- 
ity of the planets. 


He quoted the French philoso- 
pher Rene D&cartes, drew on the 
work of the Greek mathematician, 
Pythagoras, and such thinkers as 
Canfudus, Bergson and Rousseau 
also got a mention. 

Buried deep in the speech were 
three paragraphs now seen by 
Western diplomats as among the 
most important thin gs that Mr. 
Ratsiraka has said in 10 years as 

president: 

“Obviously for a country like 
Madagascar, which has chosen so- 
cialism, it is normal, almost obliga- 
tory to be wefl acquainted with the 
philosophical foundations of scien- 
tific socialism, the thoughts of 
Marx, Engda. Lenin, Mao. 

“But to stick to these authors 
alone seems to me to be not only 
inadequate bnt particularly clum- 
sy, even dangerous. 

“If we want to convince our pu- 
pils or students of the sound foun- 
dation of Marxist analysis of eco- 
nomics and society, they must also 
know the riwmg hts of other think- 
ers.” 

Before the speech, the works of 
Communist think ers formed the 
major part of any Malagasy stu- 
dent’s philosophical diet 

According to one local university 
teacher, a clamor for other philoso- 
phers started the following day. 

Tbe speech marked a watershed 
in Madagascar’s political develop- 
ment. But, although dramatic, the 
tDt toward the West has been a 
gradual process over several years, 
according to Western diplomats 
and Malagas y government offi- 
cials. 

Manandafy Rakotonirma is a 
member of the &tpreme Council 


for the Revdmion, an advisory 
body set up to oversee Madagas- 
car’s development as a socialist 
state shortly after a 1972 coup 
launche d the island into the Sonet 
orbiL 

“‘You may call it pragmatism, 
but I would call it political maturi- 
ty” said Mr. Rakotoniiina, who 
also is head of the government’s 
economic commission. 

“When we came to power 13 

years asp it was because we had no 

controfover the economy, 7 ' he said, 
in reference to the French colonial- 
ists who dung to Madagascar's 
wealth years after they gave the 
island independence in 1960. 

In a country of 18 tribes, the 
French woe known as the 19th 
tribe. They largely controlled the 
mining of such minerals as graphite 
and chromite under the first inde- 
pendent government of Philibert 
Tsinimnia- 

Mr. Tsir anana resigned in 1972 
after a popular revolt and Mr. Rat- 
siraka emerged as president three 
years later. 

France was thrown out of the 
Diego Soares naval base. A $300- 
nriUiou arms agreement was signed 
with the Soviet Union and Soviet 
advisers came re Madagascar. 

French companies were nation- 
alized. State investment was so big 
that the counties foreign debt 
soared to 51.5 billion. 

“It was a dream of our youth,” 
Mr. Rakotonirina said. “We 
thought we would attain real inde- 
pendence by taking over the econo- 
my for our own people. When we 
saw that it wasn’t working, we 
changed, and we never fell into the 


trap oi extreme ra 
Ethiopia Or Angola.” 


Poverty and malnutrition are 
widespread, according to church 
leaders. But government officials 
ray the economy hit the bottom of a 
five-year trough around 1982 and 
now is recovering with hdp from 
Western financial bodies and aus- 
terity measures. “We’re going back 
up that slope,” Mr. Rakotonirina 
said. 

The Reverend Remi Ralibera, a 
Jesuit responsible for a Roman 
Catholic weekly newspaper, Lak- 
roa, said he still was worried de- 
spite the change. 

“Because if this doesn’t work, if 
this doesn’t improve onr lives,” he 
said, “then in 10 or so years time 
there will be a revolution by the 
youth, a real Marxist revolution 
this time." 


Montreal Exchange Gets 
Equal U.S. Tax Status 

Rearm 

MONTREAL — Officials of the 
Montreal Stock Exchange ray the 
U.S. Treasury Department has 
ruled that futures contracts traded 
toe should be given the same tax 
treatment for U.S. taxpayers as 
contracts traded in the United 
States. 

The officials said the ruling 
makes Montreal tbe first exchange 
in Canada and Europe to be given 
tax status equal with U.S. futures 
markets, ana should increase busi- 
ness from U.S. commodity futures 
investors. 


AUTOS TAX FREE 


35% « fa % 

PMn is r 5% 

W4 25 1 r 

1944 25 5-14 r 

Pttoev 41 1344 2 

Ptdc O 55 3% r 


r 1144 r 

r r Sfa 

2 r r 

r % r 


sz% a % 1% 2% 3% 

9% 40 % fa r r 

Shklcc is % r r r 

TRW 70 Sfa r 244 r 

70% 73 I no 4 t 

70% 30 3-U r r t 

To ad* 25 4% 7fa 3-U r 

3)14 302)1-1* 3* 1% 

mvi K 11-U Hfc *4% 

31% « fa fa r r 

Ttxnco 39 r 9% r r 

3Bfa 35 *% 4% % % 

» « I lfa 1% 2fa 

3M M 544 9-14 r -r 

Hut* 25 1-14 r r r 

U Carb 35 r i l-U . - * 

37% 35 3% * 7-U • fa. 

27% 4fr % 11-U r 3% 

37V. 45 fa 3-U r - r 

3714 S r « 13 * 

It 5 9 25 3% Sfa fa VU 

29 30 7-U 1% Sfa r 

wrnuo 35 3fa T T T 

35 45 11-U 1 7-U Sfa r 

99MB5 35 514 r 144 r 

Tffa 31 10-14 214 . 114 144 

29* 35 fa 11-U . r r 

r I Total valomo I5U51 

5% I Opaa Moral 2411331 

r I r— Mott»wlod. » H one nffrod-O-OW. 



INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFIED 


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Option & price Colli Puls 


Stan SB 4% 4fa fa 4k 

Ufa 35 944 Mk 1% 

M% 49 1-W 3-U r 

SwAir 25 fa lfa r 

Syntax 50 T r r 

57% 45 Jfa 4% I 

57% 44 fa lfa r 

twin 3D r r r IS 

57 W 4k r 3fa 

57 45 r r 744 

57 79 K r r 

Toys 30 344 4% fa 

Sfa 35 44 21-16 2fa 

Viacom 39 s r r 

4244 49 r r 44 

42% 45 1% 3% r 

walMrl 41 7 r >14 

4444 45 3 444 fa 1 

44% 59 fa lfa r 

■M Od Jol Oct 
Alooo 39 144 344 fa lb 

30% 35 % fa 4% 

30% 49 1-16 r r 

ATM IS 414 r r 

31% ® l H-U 2 5-U 

21% 22% 5-U 44 r 

21V. 25 fa b r 

UR « r 27% r 

42% 45 17* 17% r H 

42% 50 1314 12% fa 

43% 55 7% 1% 7-1* 

Q% 40 3% 4% lfa 2% 

42% 45 lfa 2% r 

Avon 15 5% r r 

2014 20 144 1% fa lfa 

29*4 21% b r r 

M 9 l-U 4 t 

BORkAm 15 544 r M6 

20*4 20 1 1 i 

2014 17% r r fa 

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A Conference on Trade and Investment Opportunities 

Budapest, June 13-m, 1985. 

Tlie International Herald Tribune con- business leaders, bankers and economists. 




The International Herald Tribune con- 
ference on ‘Trade and Investment Opportunities 
in Hungay” will be of keen interest to any execu- 
tive concerned about future economic relations be- 
tween Bast and West. 

Speakers at this landmark conference 
will indude Hungarian government minsters. 


For further information, please contact 
the International Herald Tribune conference 
office. 181, avenue Charles de Gaulle, 92521 
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-?vr>iuan»' i - 




Pa 


[ 


Page 14 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, MONDAY MAY 6, 1983 


P. 


PEANUTS 



BOOKS 


WAITINGS 

Tie Whites of Sooth Africa 


By Vincent Crapanzano. 358pp. SI 9.95. 
Random House. 201 East SQth Street. 
New York. N. Y. 10022. 


FREEDOM RISING 


By James North 336 pp. SI 9.95. 
Macmillan, 866 Third Avenue. 
New York, N. Y. 10022 . 


Reviewed by James McClure 


W HAT A STUNNING image from con- 
temporary South Africa: “Thee 


TV temporary south Africa: mere a re, m 
Johannesburg,*' the journalist James North 
writes in “Freedom Rising.” “a couple of curi- 
ous cases of genuine multiracialism. Both are 
giant-scale public chess garaes~ . . At each 
place, blacks and whites regularly play each 


other, trundling the enormous pieces around 
ra of onlookers 


the board, while a mixed crow 
eagerly discusses the progress of the game. 
Nowhere else in the diy can you see sights like 
a middle-aged white man nodding thoughtfully 
as a young black man in jeans expounds on tire 
pitfalls ota certain defensive strategy.” 

Vincent Crapanzano’s “Waiting^ hasn’t a 
scene to match this, but it is without doubt the 
finest and most valuable work on the Southern 
African predicament yet written. 

How these books offer, when superficially 
they appear to have a good deal in common, 
has its awn significance. The writers are both 
American, bom have a passionate abhorrence 
of apartheid, and both elected to spend a 
considerable time on research that encom- 
passed not only the immediate but much his- 
torical and other background material. 

In “Waiting," Crapanzano, an anthi 
gist, set himself to studying the effects of d 
nation on those who dominate by tiring in a 
small village near Cape Town and overtly col- 


“had I spent too much time with notftthites, I 
could have endangered their lives." 

North made a ^daadestme" journey lasting 
over four years, udd whites be was a geogra- 
pher. associated with blacks and took to risk- 
ing life, as Studs Terfcd puts it in a jacket 
blurb, hv carrying out errands for political 
activists.' Not that be himself seems to have 
ever been in any mortal d ang e r , given the 
evidence plus the degree of immunity affraded 
a U.S. arizen. 

Then each man sat down and wrote: (me m 
grave, measured times, the other with unbri- 
dled indig nation. 

“This book is fact,*' Noth asserts in Ms 
preface. But before long, the emotionally load- 
ed adjectives — “weasel agents** and so on — 
seem as manipulative as they are unnecessary. 
Inconsistencies, misspelled Afrikaans, patently 
specious reasoning and wholly alien American- 
isms in reported speech don’t botsta* confi- 
dence: neither do punches pulled doling inter- 
views characterized by ingratiating behavior, 
Above all, a suspicion begins to grow that the 
writer is prone to believe anything he bean, 
provided it fits his thesis. “Another outstand- 
ing PAC leader." North writes, "Zephania 
Mothopeng, was at one stage tortured so badly 
with eteanc shocks that when he readied for a 
metal cup m Ms cell afterwards sparks leapt 
from Ms fingers." 

Finn editing would have made an enormous 
difference, for "Freedom Rising" contains 
many passages worth raiding. The section an 
domestic servants, fen- example, is superbly 
done, and North has a fine reporter's eye for 
the telling picture. But even at its best, this 
book can rally fuel the outrage frit by those 
opposed to apartheid: it takes a very different 
son of book to deepen our understanding of 
Southern Africa. 

And a very different son of writer, too, rate 
like Vincent Crapanzano, who can say, "I 
learned that it is possible to have a certain 
pa thy even for people whose values rare 
Is reprehensible/ 

This r& undoubtedly part of what makes 


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.4.: 




leering material from Ms subjects, the white 
he says, he 


population. Ideally, he says, he should have 
worked with both the dominating and the 
dominated, but ibis was legally precluded and 


‘Waiting" such a singular book. Gone are the 
predictable 


Solution to Friday's Puzzle 


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stereotypes, the stale generaliza- 
tions that can deny a people their humanity. 
Instead, come these voces: 

“What tempers the idea of black violence,” 
says the wife of an Afrikaner minister, "is the 
guilt I think one feds. One almost feds it 
would be just retribution.” 

“What angers me," says another Afrikaner, 
"is that you see in me your own underbelly.” 
And Crapanzano admits this could be partially 
true of that “happily distant land/ which 
“Waiting” often brings too dose for comfort 

In the next breath be provides a sharp re- 
minder that here is a society so alien nothing 
should be presumed on the basis of life else- 
where. 

Gradually, as the whites erf the village Wyn- 
dal emerge as vividly as characters in a well* 
crafted novel, statements like that gain painful 
daritv. 


5.4 9S 


James McClure, author of two award-winning 
navels about South Africa, finer in Oxford, En- 
gland He wrote this review for The Washington 
Fast 


BRIDGE 


By Alan Tnucorc 


the diagramed deal 
landed in 


GAADE 



JJ 


«Baa— -- 


SOUMY 


_L_ 



O N 

South landed in four 
hearts after using a transfer 
sequence as shown, and knew 
he was running into a bad 
trump split when East dou- 
bled. 

The contract failed, and in 
the post-mortem South discov- 
ered that he could have sur- 
vived by taking every available 
ruff. He could count on four 
top tricks in the black suits, 
and therefore needed six 
trump tricks. 

It was not necessary to try 
for an extra black-suit trick. 
Instead. South must win the 
club ace and the dub king. 
Then he should ruff a dia- 
mond, cross to the spade king 
and ruff another diamond. 
Then would follow the spade 
ace. a spade ruff and a third 
diamond ruff. Finally the last 
spade is raffed with the trump 
ace, and another diamond lead 


allows the heart jack in the 
closed hand to score cn pas- 
sant to make the doubled 
game. 

South also realized that he 
might well haw collected a top 
score by passing his partner's 
redouble. It hardly seemed 
likely that two diamonds 
would be satisfactory, but it 
would have been a dose prop- 
osition. 

After a spade lead. South 
would prevail by taking the 
spade ten. the spade king, the 
dub king, the club ace and the 
spade ace. A spade would be 
raffed high, aid two more 
tramp tricks would score even- 
tually. 

The crucial variation arises 
after a dub lead. South cannot 
maneuver three spade tricks, 
so the best he can do is to take 
his black-suit winners and two 
spade raffs, one with a low 
tramp and one with a high 
tramp. 

Eventually he exits with a 


dub from (he dummy but the 
defense can then prevail. East 
can niff, give h& partner a 
hean niff, and raft the next 
dub lead to provide another 
heart niff. Then a low trump 
from West will endplay the 
dummy. 


vest 

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The bidding: 

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NESTOL 


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WHAT HE &AI& 
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SENTENCE? HIM 
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Now arrange the circled lettera to 
form the surprise answer, as sug- 
gested by the above canoon. . 


** THATsnmxxixir 

Friday's 


(Answers tomorrow) 

Juattas: GIVEN* AFOOT KITTEN EASILY 
What 


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WEATHER 


EUROPE 


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Jazz Win; 76ers and Lakers Widen to 34) 


Portland's Clyde Drexler and a diving Bob McAdoo vied for the ball 
during Friday's NBA playoff contest, won by Los Angeles, 130-126. 


Compiled by Our Staff From Dispatches 

SALT LAKE CITY — The Utah Jazz were 
supposed to be weak in the noddle after a 
season-ending injury to Marie Eaton, but Jeff 
W flkins is filling the gap. With the 7-foot-4 
(Z23-meter) Eaton sidelined by a knee injury, 
WELIdns sewed 12 of his 18 points in Saturday’s 
final period to spark the Jazz to a 131-123 
National Basketball Association triumph over 
the Denver Nuggets in Game 3 of their Western 
Conference semifinal series. 

Moving to within 2-1 in the best-of- seven 
matchup, the Jazz were looking to even things 
here Sunday night Meanwhile, Philadelphia 
and the Los Angeles Lakers were poised to 
deliver knockout blows; with victories Friday 
night the Lakers and 76ers won for the third 
straight time in (hear respective series. No team 
in NBA history has ever ralBed from a 3-0 
deficit to win a best-of-seven series. 

Wilkins, a 6-10 frontline player in his fifth 
season, hit a baseline hook with 5:44 left to give 


NBA PLAYOFFS 


Utah the lead for good at 1 12-1 10. He followed 
with a hook from the post 
Trailing by 121-1 14 with three minutes to gp, 
the Nuggets scored the next 6 points. But Utah 
turned things around with a 10-3 tear and inter- 
cepted three passes in the final minute. 

Tfers 109, Bocks 104 


mings and passed to Erving for a lay-up that put 
the 76ers ahea d to stay at 106-104 with 38 
seconds r em ai ni n g . Milwaukee had two more 
chances to tie the score 
Lister and Ricky Pierce failed to dick. 


In Philadelphia, a pair of field goals by Julius 
rving in the final 56 seconds — after ms team 


bad blown an 18-point lead — gave the 76ers 
their 3-0 lead over Mflwaukee. 

The Bucks led by 104-102 with 1:20 to play 
after Alton Lister’s basket broke the seventh tie 
of the final period. But, with the 24-second shot 
dock about to expire, Erring hit a jump shot 
from just inside the three-point line to tie the 
score with 56 seconds left 

As the Bucks then came downcourt, guard 
Maurice Cheeks stole the ball from Terry Cum- 


Lakers 130, Trail Blazers 126 
In Portland, Oregon, Earvin Johnson had 23 
assists and Kareem Abdul- Jabbar scored 1 1 of 
his 26 points during Friday's fourth quarter to 
spark Los Angeles. A seventh straight post- 
■“"* Sunday wo 1 * 
rail Blazets. 


season victory Sunday would complete a 4-0 A 
of theTr" ni w 


AFRICA 


sweep of 

Los Angeles opened an 18-point lead late in 
the second quarter. The Blazers rallied to within 
94-88 on Clyde Drexler’s lay-up with 2:08 left in 
the third period, but 4 consecutive points by 
James Worthy put the Lakers back in control 
Portland narrowed the gap to four points four 
times in the final minutes, but Abduklabbar 
dmebed ftinK wth four straight free throws to 
make it 128-122 with 28 seconds left. (AT, UP1) 


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SPORTS BRIEFS 


LATIN AMERICA 


Piggott Rides Shadeed to Guineas Triumph 


Padre Homers Win First 1 985 Meeting With Cubs 


m o n o s Um 22 73 15 59 fr 

Lima 25 77 19 M Cl 

Mexico City 21 70 11 52 fr 

Rio do Janeiro 26 79 2D 69 0 

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NEWMARKET, England (AP) — Veteran jockey Lester Piggott rode Shadeed, 
the 4-to-5 favorite, to victory Saturday in the English 2,000 Guineas. Bairn, ridden 
by Willie Carson, was a head bade with Supreme Leader, Philip Robinson aboard, 
lfe lengths back in third. Lanfranco, ridden by American Steve Can then — last 
season's champion jockey in England — was never in contention. 

Piggott. who is 49 and has hinted at retirement, was expected to ride the unbeaten 
Bairn, but took Shadeed after regular jockey Walter Swinburn was suspended. 


The Associated Press 

CHICAGO — In tbe first meet- 
ing this season between last year’s 
National Lcagpc divisional cham- 
pions, Steve Garvey tripled borne 


FRIDAY BASEBALL 


Kite Retains Lead Against Golf Champions 


CARLSBAD. California (AP) — Tom Kite rallied from a double bogey, shot 70 
and held a three-stroke lead Saturday after three rounds of the Tournament of 
Champions. Having led all the way in ibis event for winners of PGA tour titles from 
the last 12 months. Kite was at 206. 

Scott Simpson shot a 67. Saturday’s best round, and was second at 209. Lannv 
Wadkins (a 73) was at 210. as was U.S. Open champion Fuzzy ZoeQer (70k despite 
recurring back problems. 


MONDAY'S FORECAST — CHANNEL: V«nr cfWPPV. FRANKFURT; Stwwora. 
J*™*! w— J 155 — 45). LONDON: Clcvdr with rcla Tempi 13—4 (SS— 43). 
{£*OftlD: Stowj. Tamo. 31 — 15 (70 — 591. NEW YORK: Fair. Tema. 17—8 
is — g gyK-yw wa Tamp. M — 9 (57 — 48). ROME: Fcrfr. Tamp. 21 — 13 
170— 551 TELAVIV: Partly douav. Temp. 22— 16 (72 — 611. ZURICH: Showers 
s^ ,v ; temp. 12—6 154 — 431. BANGKOK: Partly cloudy. Temp, 

, £ s -“ S7 L H0H ®i C0NG: Cloudy. Tama. 24—24 (79 - 75) MANILA: 
9SB?FoIS2? iP _M t? 1 -Ml. SEOUL: Rainy. Temo. 18-14 (64 - 571. 
SINGAPORE: Siarmv. Temp 31—77 (88-811 TOKYO: Shower 5 Tamo. 

•9 ■— * J I ~ 551. 


Pepftone, Two Others Indicted in Brooklyn 


NEW YORK (AP) — Former New York Yankee first baseman Joe Pepitone. 44. 
was indicted late Friday in Brooklyn along with Thomas Carbone. 51. and Robert 
Oates. 46. on seven charges of drug and weapon* possession 'lemming from an 
arrest March IS. The three are scheduled k> he arraigned on the indict mem Mai it 


two runs and Graig Nellies and 
Garry Templeton bit eighth-inning 
home runs to give the San Diego 
Padres a 6-5 victory over the Cubs 
here Friday. 

Templeton’s two-run homer in 
the eighth appeared to be nothing 
more than icing on the cake. The 
Padres were leading. 4-2. following 
Nettles's leadoff borne run. and re- 
lief ace Rich Gossage seemed to be 
in command. But Templeton’s first 
home run of the year saved the 
Padres, because Leon Durham hit a 
three-run homer for the Cubs in the 
bottom of the eighth. 

Pirates 16, I>td™cr» 2 

In I'm-hurah. Tuin Pena. Sou- 


Lezcano and Bill Aim on each Mt a 
two-run single during a nine-run 
fourth that launched the Pirates’ 
rout. The rally began with two outs 
and nobody on base, and was 
helped by Los Angeles shortstop 
Bill Russell's third error of the 
game. 

Mets 9, Reds 4 


In Cincinnati, Danny Heep 
* ’ Yori 


drove in five runs for New 

while veteran Keith Hernandez hit 
his first home run this season and 
Leo Dykstra, playing his first ma- 
jor-league game, also horaered. 

Expos 9. Braves 2 
In Atlanta. Mike Fitzgerald. Hu- 
bie Brooks and Herm Winningham 
— three of the players Montreal 
acquired from the Mets for Gary 
Carter — helped Montreal to vic- 
tory. Fiirgerald went 3-for-t, in- 
cluding a TttiWun sinelc during a 
eunic-hrcukine t<uir-run fifth 
br.H'U Jrmc in iu<< rues mill .i 


borne run and a single and Win- 
ningham had two key singles. 

PhflSes 3, Astros 2 
In Philadelphia, Glenn Wilson's 
two-run homer in the eighth beat 
Houston for the Phillies. 

Canfinais 8, Giants 1 
In St. Louis, the Cardinals 
breezed past San Francisco behind 
three-run homers by Darrell Porter 
and Jack Clark and John Tudor's 
five-Mt pitching. 

Orioles 8, Twins 7 
In the American League, in Min- 
neapolis. Cal Ripken's two-run 
home run in tbe eighth gave Balti- 
more its victory. 

IntBaos 4, Rangers 0 
In Cleveland. Bert Blylcven 
pitched a four-hitler and Tony Ber- 
nazurd doubled and hit a sacrifice 
fly i»» help heal Te\.\s. 

White Sn\ 7. 1 iaeis 1 
In Detroit. Tom Heaver pitched a 


seven-hitter for his 29 1st career vie- 
toty and Carlton Fisk bit a two-run 
homer as Chicago woe. 

Yankees 7, Royals 1 
In New York, Dermis Rasmus- 
sen pitched a five-hitter against 
Kansas City for his second com- 
plete game in 29 major-league 
starts. 

Brewers 7, Angels 0 
In Anaheim. California. Ted Hi- 
guera pitched a four-hitter for his 
first major-league victory in his 
Fourth career start. 

White Sox 10. A*s 0 
In Oakland. Califnmia. Dennis 
Boyd pitched an eight-hitter for* 
Bostons first shutout this season? 

Blue Jays 5. Mariners 4 1 

In Seattle. Jesse Barfield went 4- 
fi»r-4 and scored a run to help put 
Toronto past the Manners. Dtnlc 

. V" -“ r ,!w tonh time 
ill lour !9Ss decisions. 


7 

i 


1 






INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, MONDAY MAY 6, 1985 


Page 15 


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Spend A Buck Wins Derby' 

5%-Lenglh Victor’s Time Is Third-Best Ever 



p.>- 



Three-time Derby winner Angel Cordero, atop Spend A Buck. 




Baseball 


Compiled by Our Staff From Dispatches 

LOUISVILLE, Kentucky - 
Spend A Buck was greeted by some 
skmticism when he came to Chin- 
chin Downs, because it seemed im- 
possible that he could really be as 
fast -and as brillian t as he had 
looked in his most recent race. 

Now the world knows: He is. 
The colt ran the third-fastest race 
in the history of the Kentucky Der- 
by on Saturday and demolished 
what was supposed ro be one of the 
most competitive fields in years. 

Leading all the way under Angel 
Cordero, Spend A Buck scored a 
5 V5 -length triumph over Stephan’s 
Odyssey. It was the biggest margin 
of victory in the Derby since As- 
sault won by eight lengths in 1946. 
Chiefs Crown, the champion of 
tins generation last season, was 
third. 

Spend A Buck had narrowly 
missed Secretariat’s world record 
for 1 to miles when he won the Gar- 
den Stale Stakes in similar ly stun- 
ning fashion. But he didn't have 
any competition for the early lead 
that night; in the 111th Derby he 
would be an equally fast 


Basketball 


Friday’s and Saturday’s Major League Lme Scores NBA Playofffs 


FRIDAY'S RESULTS inn; Your* 

AMIRI CAM LBAOUE Lcdti U I 

Tims MB BN BO B B 4 0 Owno (11. 

CkWHM Ml JW BOM-4 t 0 

Mason, Hooter (S> and SlouoM; Btytown 
and Bands, w— Mrlwaft 14. L— Mason,M- 
Orient . on im sn— 7 s • coicinMati 

Detroit BIO OM 000—1 1 l ' MCDowo 

S«aw«randFlsk;Potrv.Seterror(8),Lopaz l*> and u 


n«u Young and Koamov. W— ' Young. M L— 
Loot M HRs^-Toronta. GAMI (4>. SaottW. 


MATH) HAL LEAGUE 
Now York mm on on— z « i 

Cincinnati OM 02fM] Mid— 14 M 0 

' McDowell, Sisk [6>. Sambtto (61. Sdrirokfl 
l«) and Cartor, Hurd la (i); THris and Van 


(Blend ParrULW— 5oawor.34.Lr— Fetrv.4.2. Canter. -W— Tabs. 1-4. L— McOowalL 2-1. 
HR-Ortatea Fisk [SI. HRs— Naw York. Carter (41. OndmwH. 

km ibu CRv MB MO BOB— I S 1 Esatfcy (41. 

now Yam w an mid-7 1* ■ 500 “**" m in no— s u i 

Jockaon. LoCogs (S), Cura 18) and Sund- “J®* „•“**“ ■““}*. * J 

borg; RasmucMnandWYnogar.w — Rasmus- nSmi rm^ 

ia\ 1-1. L-Jacksan. l-l. fert» (6)r3toaaartf (8). DeLeon (B) ana Kenna- 

Batthnoro B4S BN BM-« Tl 1 dvi SandarMDn. Sarmon (4). Fontenot (7), 

Min n-.n tn m ]§) i;| j h | Smith (I) and Dwh. W— Samson, W L — 


McGregor, Stewart (4). TMarttnaz (71. Book" - . M- Su-Smto C«. HRi--Scn Dtew, 
Aose (71 and Demwtv: SmHhson. Wardte (4), Garv *j; Ml.Tunnl oten (a .Na t«lMa(4) .Chl- 
ROovix (9) and Laudner, Salas (91. W— Aose, caBa 9*T. Scndb * rs ,3> - D"** 0 " 

S4L L— Wanfle W. HRs— Bolt. Dwyor (1), 251222^52 2 

CalHOnria BM BM BBB-t 4 ■ tS- Cand«larki(1fl)0ndPana.W-ValBn- 

HkMro and Sctroader; John, Cortett (7), tv^^^L-Omdatorta, ' a HR« -Lo«A ng»- 
Ctenwnts (7>.CIRwm (7).Laao (9) and Baaae.' >«*-MoninoU (53. Guerrero (3J. Pittsburgh, 


W-Hteuara. 1-1. L— John. 1-1 

dottoa BM m DM— IB IS t 

Oakland BOB BM MO- I I • 

Boyd and Gedman: Warren. Katsar (51, 


MaMocfe 11). 

Moatraal BIB MB 0B3— 9 t 1 

Atlanta BB1 Ml Ml— 3 t3 1 

Smith. Reardon (B> and Fitzgerald; poroz. 


Tollman (5L Blrha (II and Haath, Totttaton MeMurtrv (41. Garter Ml, Forster (U and 
ill.W— Bovd.3-1. L— Wormv i-IHRx— Bos- Caron*, w Smith, 4-0. L P«r«r, 0-4. Su— 


ton. Buckner O). Rice IS). Easter 3 Ml. 
Toronto m UR Mt-S IS • 

Saattte BIB IM 1M-« 9 1 

Alexander. LaveUe 17). Acker (8), CaadW 


Roorden (7). HR— Mo n treal ortassen 13). 
San Frandsco B2B 881 IM— « 8 3 

SL Laois 4M am Msh-S 13 3 

Horn maker, Minton ML MJkNb (7) and 


(9) and Whitt? Baroias. feetert (4). VOAde I** wl ” w IUwsW ^.5 an ^ l ? H Lohtl 01 
Berg (51. Steitai (9) and Scott. W Atexon- and Nteto. W— Kenehlre. 3-3. L— Hammaker. 
~ dor. 4-0. L— Baroias. ML Sv— Goudlll IB. LaWt ft). 


HRs — Seattle, Henderson (3). Thomas (71. 

. '■ NATIONAL LEAGUE 
son Dtaao .. . .;.SM MB Mt-4 U »• 


Houston . . BW IM BM MB t-S M 1 

PMlwteMte . ' BM 4M MB MO S-7 U 1 
-faqtfi ASathlS 17), Smith (V). Dawter (13) 


CMcaM - BMMB33B— 5 8 t “id Ashby; Denny, Carman [93. Andersen 

Hawkins! Gossaoe (7) and Kennedy; Sul- I M ».Pudcw (W) and VlrU. W -RucbM, 1-fl. 
ditto, Fontenot (9). Brusstor (91 and Davt*. I1, ‘ 

w— Hawkins. 5-0. L— Sutcliffe, 3-3. Sv— Got- FhOadoWHa. Virgil (4), Aguayo 3 (3). 
saw. (7). HR»-5an Dlcao, Metttes 11), Tam- 
Ptelon ID- CMcaao. Davt* 131. Durham (3). 

•taatraal BM Ml 13B-B 18 3 __ 

Alton to BM B» MB— 3 < 1. HfU*lrPV 

Heskethand Fitzgerald; Barfcer.McMortnr UULEGT 

151. Coma (41. Z. Smith (81 and qerana. W— 1 ■ - r 

HnUirth. 3-1. L— Barker, 0-2. HRs — Montreal, mrriT TH tt 

Brooks (31. Atianla, Hubbard (13. ilUL< riayOHS 

Mew York IM 138 MB— f SB ' 

anctemm BB3 Ml I1B-4 18 3 SATURDAY’S RESULT 

Lvncn and Carter; 8ata,PrfoetN.WIIll»(7), driasgo 1 1 D-3 

Pasters (81, Fewer (9) end Van Gariter.w— ERo i e rt o n 3 4 4— II 

Lvnctw l-l. L— Sola. 4-3. HRs — Now York. Her- Anderson 3 15), Huddy 2 (2), Cotter [71. 


[en to 


IfcAL.- : 


LocAnaotes WMM— 3 I 4 t. M urray HL.SHts « goal: oui 

PtttsOonSO IM 938 Mx— M 15 1 Fuhr) 13-10-4—78; Edmonton (on 

Honeycutt. Brennan (4], CastUlo (4). Haw* man. SkoraRraU) 19-9-14-42. 

(8). Diaz (9) and Yeooer; McWllltoms and 

lr -H“»ya»tt V8. COMF1 RR MCI FINALS 

HR— Piftsburotv Thompson (4). WALES 

iSSSnnm 22 22 Sis < 2 5: Phaxtetehhi ot Quebec 

nNNBKVM im m kw • ■ ^oy j- ptuiodalpliia at Quetec 

Rvon. DIPkio C7I and BcRIey; Carltoa K. Sov 9 : Q 

W-D tPI no. l-L L— Tefculv*. &C. HR-Fhlto- K ^ foy M . p^hawlphta at Ouabsc 
?! tp< y x w ? Mn aL M M _ _ *-Mav 14: Quebec at PhlteMphla 

KS"^ 2222 m t 2 •***•. rmmm***K 

Krakow, WWoms (7). BUM (8) and Bnenty; CAS4PBELL 

.. T utter and Porter. W— Tudor, 1-3. Li— Krukow. 4 . Etenanlon 11 Chicago 2 

% 11. HRs St. Louis. Porter II), Oort (4L ^ 7 . d El ^^n 

1 SATURDAY'S RESULTS ^ aSon at CMcago 

AMERICAM LEAQ UP^ _ MOV 12: Edmonton at Chicago 

222222i3 2 2 *-mb» m : ewcooo a t Edmanh» 
"r* Y#rtt If* HB 3S»-8 9 8 n^nv 14; Edmonton at Chicago 

Leteron( «. MJon«s (81 aid Sundtarg; x^viv 18; CMcooo at Edmonton 
Guidry and Wvneaar.W— GuMrv.3-3.L- L*l- nr II nsrersnnl 
brnndi. 3-1. HRs— Kansas City. Money (31. 

Brett (3). New York, Baylor (3). 

Texas TBO IBS Ote— 1 < a 

Tonona. Razema (8) and Maupht; Heaton, Tournament Tei 

Thomason (81. easterly (B). Wadded (91 and . -. i.. . '. 

Benton. W— Heated 9-1. L— Toncmo. 0-L Sv— 

Wadded Ml. V nw. nt Ihmtl 

Milwaukee BN 1ST Ml— 3 9 7 tW “* C * n g™r^* , *r Hs8lU 

CnMorata 112 IM Bte-4 7 B .a,,.-, irmnnilm- nT.alr^l Bullh 

Vuckovlcti, Gibson UlamJMooro; Roman- 
id. Clements |l), Moore (9) and Boone. W— *,1 m 

, __ w 4 Mlloelav Medr. CzechostewokJo. i 

! klmNw»rem.Swed«i.S-2.M. 

Crawford, Stentev (71. Otedo (91 and SuJU- d,f ' J 

«m. Gedman Ml; Krueaer. Atherton (II. norsson, swoden. 6 -am. _ 


mi. mw nn_i , . x -“°v 14: Q**hK at Phnadelptua 
" ” "I - ' ' l X-Mov 19: PhUodelpMa at Quebec 
us SOS MX— S I B ___ 

.Blue (8) and Bnenty; caiapbell 

*■ Eibnontei 11 CMcago 2 
l L Mav 7: Chicago d Edmonton 
? . May 9: Edmonton at CMcago 

‘■■fT ll - , , May 12: Etemuilon at Chicago 
fl !Tr2 . . *-**09 M; Chicago at Edmonton 
—.f"*. 1 ■ x-Moy 14: Edmonton at Chicago 


Tournament Tennis! 


dYowell <91 and Tettteton. W— Crowtont 32. 
K-Krueoer.2-3.Sy— Otedo (1). HRs— Boston. 
Buckner (41. Oakland. Baker (31. 

CMcooo BM BM 81B— 1 3 I 

Detroit MB 131 JO*— 7 t B 

Loflnr, Netean (6), Agasto (81 and Ftak; 
TerrelL Hernandez (91 and Parrtah. W— Ter- 
nHL 3-0. L— Latter. 1-2. HRs— Detroit Hone 
aoa 13), Garbev (1). Simmons (13. 
BattlRMR BM Ml 08-4 5 I 

nrimioln ssq ub irm i u i 

DMartlmx. SneM (2), ODaris (4), TJWar- 
ttnez (8) and Dempeav; Sdnn, Lvsander 
(8), Fihon (I). R. Davis W and Solos. W- 
Schrom, 3-2. U— DJWarlfnaa. 2-Z Sv — RDavts 
(4). HRs— Balt (more. Gross (31. Rtpfcen (5J; 
Minnesota, Slennouse (3). 


MEN 

(West Genmm Own, at Hamburg) 
Quarterfinals 

Mats yvnander. Sweden, dot. Guillermo Vi- 
las, Argentina. 4-3. 44L 

Henr Ik Sundstrom. Sweden, del Andres Go- 
mez. E coodor, 4-3. 44L 

Mlloslav Medr. CzechoslavakJa. d*L Jao- 
klm Nvttram. Sweden. M. 4-2. 

jssRiifs Clerc. Argentina, dtf. Jan Gun- 
norsson, Swepen. 6*4, 6-2. 

SemtfiaUs 

Sundstrom del Clerc B(L 6-4. 

Medr def. witander, 4-1, 6-2. 

Final 

Medr deL Sandstram. 6-4. 6-1, 6-4. 

(At Las Vegas) 

Sam meals 

Johan Krtek. UJL,<teLTamas Smld, Czecba- 
stevakte. 64. A-2. 

Jimmy Artec UJfi- del Km Ftoeft, UA. M 
(10-8). 7-5, 


WOMEN 
(At Houston) 

Qu arter fi na ls 

JUartlna Navrattiowa, U&dBt. Roglna Mar- 


retDNto meWBK-l J 8 dkava. CzeChBNBWklo, 641 62. 

leattkt 411 IM Kbc— 8.T0 g Helena &iko«j, Czedtoskwokla det. Mary 

leal Lamp 111, Mussefanan (7) and Martf- Lou Piatefc, UJL 64, 4-x. 

EllwButvii), U£. del. Zhw Garrison. ILS. 7- 

flajor League Standings ( Manue(a Maleeva. Bulgaria. deL Sabrina 


W - fill# Major League Standings ‘ 

Jilt " ' . AMERICAN LEAGUE 

Edit Wynton 


NavratBava def. Eukova 6-3. to. 
Buraia deL Mateeva. 6-4, 7-4. 


BaWmoni 

14 1 

.636 


.■Voronin 

Wroli 

U 9 
ra 9 

.625 

JS7I 

m 

Boom 

13 12 

jm 

2 

Ctevokma 

10 13 

A3S 

4ft 

- MlhmukM 

. 10 '13 

JOS 

4ft 

' New Yarn 

9 12 

JOB 

4ft 

- 

ten DMNoa 



Contango 

1* 9 

A* 


Mlrumotg 

13 10 

JUS 

2 

Chicago 

18 10 

M 

3ft 

MteoiCllv 

11 11 

500 

3ft 

Seattle 

11 14 

JUO 

5 

Oakland 

• • 70 75 

M 

6 

Tons 

t IS 

J71 

7ft 


Football 


_ USFL Standings 


NATIONAL LEAGUE ' 
lost Dlvtstan 

WL Pd. GB 

CW <W»0 14 . 7 JUT — 

Montreal 15 > .653 — 

13 8 419 7 

f^teddrtria M (7 4E «Mi 

St-VLoab » H ASS 4W 

Plitsburah — . • • -7 J4 - jbi j 


TOmpo Bat 

New Jersey 

Bmatagnam 

MmwMs 

Jacksonville 

BaHknare 

Drtondo 


EASTERN CORFEREKCC 

W L T PcL PF PA 
MV ~8 3 B 327 218 228 
MV 7 3 8 JOB 2S1 ZU 


J27 2H 228 
JOB 257 213 
436 3M 718 
JUS 242 229 
JOS 2(8 352 
.450 774 754 
M 167 349 


5“i Dleao 

La* A ngel es 

CbKtanotl 

Houston 

Atlanta 

5an Frandsco 


- ■ -7 M J333 7 

waft DMsteb 

■ 13 M NT- 
: 73 77 -Js2 — 

17 tt • .478 11 

•••••• n 72 A?» 11 

. . . w ft .A« • 7 

7 IS : JUI S 


Arizona 
San Antonia 


js3 — L» Angete* 


WESTERN CONFERENCE 

r 3 0 -JOB 310 227 

I •• 6 3-1 j45B 244 311 

4 4 0 400 3U 199 

• .4 '* I 400 189 2» 

ante 3 7. 0 JDO 160 226 

S - 3 ‘ 7 0 JOO 747 219 

Mtot 3 8 0 J73 179 268 


Soccer 


SATURDAY'S RESULT 

Iricooa 1 1 B— 3 

3 4 4—11 

Anderson 2 IS), Huddy 2 (21, Coffey (7). 


nonaez (1). Dykstra (1). Clndnnatt, Parker 2 K“ri 7 «». N«rier (5), LJndstrom (11 
(3), Grefcdtv (77. Hughes (1); Yaremchuk (4). 

Los Anodes 882 HR BIB— 3 8 4 T. Murray (31. Shots on goal: Chicago (on 

ptticbHnm 102 936 Rx-U 15 1 Fuhr) 12-704—28; Edmonton (an Banner- 


WORLD CUP QUALIFYING 
ASIAN GROUP 44 
Hang Kano Z Macao 0 
Paints standings: Hong Kona 9. China 7. 
Macao 4, Brunei 0. 

Remaining matches: May 12. China vs.Mo- 
eoa; May 19, China vs. Hong Kang. 

ENGLISH FIRST DIVISION 
Liverpool A Chelsea 3 
Luton 3. Arsenal I 
Norwich a Manchester United 1 
Nottingham Forest l Watford 1 
Queen's Park Rangers 4. Leicester 3 
5neffMd WscbHSdav a Everton 1 
Southampton X Ipawk* 0 
Slake 0. Newcastle 1 
Sunderland a Aston villa 4 
Tottenham 4, Coventry 2 
West Bromwich Albion 5. West Ham 1 
Potols standlm: Everton 81; Mandiesier 
United ID; Tottenham 68; Liverpool South- 
ampton M; ShefflaM Wednesday. Arsenal 60; 
Nottingham Forest 61: Chetaea 57; Aston VII- 
ta 56: west Bromwich. Newcastle 51 ; Queens 
Park Rangers 50; Watford 49; Leicester Lu- 
ton. Norwich 45; Ipswich 43; west Ham 42; 
Coventry, Sunderland 4B; Stoke 17. 

WEST GERMAN FIRST DIVISION 
Eintradit Brunswick Z Kaiserslautern 1 
Bayer Uerdbigen X Bochum 1 
Coloom 2- Hombuni 1 
Waldhaf Mannheim X Elnlnodit Frankfurt 1 
Barussk) Dortmund 1. Fortuna DftsseMorf 2 
Armlnlo BMrfdd 4, Karlsruhe 1 
Warder Bremen Z flavor Leverkusen 2 
Bavern Munich 4. Barussla Mteladboch o 
Stuttgart 1. Sdnlke B 
Paints fhmdteas: Bavern Munich 41; 
warder Bremen 39; Cologne 35; Boru&sJa 
MOnctwnalacaxxti 34; Waldhaf Mannheim 
33;. Hamburg 32; Baver Uenflngen 31; Stutt- 
gart X; Bochum 29; Bayer Leverkusen, 
Schott*. Etnlradri Frankfurt 27; Kaiserslau- 
tern X; Fortuna DusseWort. Bonnsla Dort- 
mund 24; Arm hi la BMateld 22; Kartsnihe. 
Eintradit Brunswick 18. 

ITALIAN FIRST DIVISION 
Cremonese X Roma 5 
Florentlna X Udtnese 1 
Lazkr X Avelllna 1 
AC Mllon X AscaJi 1 
Napad 0. Juvenhu 0 
Samwknia L Irrter-Milon 2 
Torino X Ahdonto 6 
Verona X Coma 0 

Palate stendtegs: Verona 40; Torino, Inter. 
36; JuvMitus. Samndorta 34; A C Milan X; 
nemo 32; NopoII 30; Fiarenllno »; Atalonta 
27; Udlnese. Avail too 24; Como 23; ascoux; . 
Lazio 74; Cremonese 13. 


Auto Racii 


FHOeris Reset) 
Memphis 3X BlnnlnutNni 26 
MtenuTs Result 
Tampa Bov 24, lids AnoeteSi 14 


SAN MARINO GRAND PRIX 
(At I mote. Italy] 

(68 Lots; 382A Kilo meters/ 187-72 MfleB) 
1. Elk) De Angdls. Italy. Lotus. 1 haw, 36 
mtns. 35.995 sarnmte. 

X Thierry (tauten, Batotum, Attdus. 1 tap 
behind. 

3 Patrick Tambov. Franca, Renault 1 Ktt. 
A Nik) Lauda. Austria, McLaren, 1 1m. 

3 Nigel MaraelL Brit&da WIIBcras. 2 tans. 
X Stefan Johansson, Sweden. Ferrari. 3 tans. 
7. Ayrton Senna, Brazil. Lotus. 3 laps. 

X Nctson Pteuet. Brazil, Brabham. 3 kmc. 
9. Martin Brand It, Britaix Tyrreit 4 hen. 
ia Derek Warwick. Britain. Renault, 4 taps. 

DRIVER STANDINGS 
1. De Angel I*. 16 points. 

X Michele Attwefo. Italy, 12. 

X TambOV, 7X 

4. Senna and Ataln-Prost, France, 9. 

A Bautsen, X 
7. ManuriL 4. 

X Lauda and tame Arnoux, France. X 
IX JacmiM Laffltx Franc*, nnd Stefan Behol 
West Germany, L 


Transition 


PHILADELPHIA — Placed Jerry Kaos- 

max Pitcher, on the ’ 5-dor ouabled Ort. 
Caued up Dave Rucker, pttdwr. from Port- 
tend oi the PteJflc Coast League. 


FRIDAY'S RESULTS 

Milwaukee 23 X 34 27— IM 

PUlodetoMa 34 n n 34-1B9 

Toney 6-72 7-9 20, Erring 7-13*6 19. BarkJev 
7-125-7 79; Cummings W-16V1 7L Prosser 7-16 
6-6 20. Rebeaetfs: Mihvaukee 40 (Cumminas. 
Llxtor 81; Philadelphia 46 (Malone 13). As- 
sists: Milwaukee X (Prossev 7); Philadel- 
phia 2D iCbaekx Toney 71. 

LA. Ldwi 35 37 31 26—138 

Portland 32 » 36 36-726 

Worthy 71-18 68 2X Abdul- Jobber B-17 1X12 
26; VaiNfHMflhe 11-1666 27, M. Thompson 6 
15X11 2X Rebounds: Los Angeles 56 (AbduL 
Jabbar.McAduDf); Portland 44 (Draxlerll). 
Assists; Los Angeles 33 (Johnson 23); Port- 
land 32 (Draxler 14}. 

SATURDAY'S RESULT 
Denver 27 M 38 34-123 

Utah 37 38 32 13-131 

DantteV 1X15 12-1632, Gnwn X14 84124. GrIF 
UttiX15X424; Matt 13-174-63X English 1X226- 
6 26. Rriiannds: Denver 50 (English, Cooper 
7); Utah 63 (Bnllev 14). Anitfs: Denver 36 
{English, Lever 5); Utah 27 (Green 7). 

CONFERENCE SEMIFINALS 
■ASTERN 

(Batten Mads series, XI) 

May 5; Batten of Detroit 
May 8: Detroit ot Boston 
x-May 10: Boston at Datrnit 
x-Mav 12: Detroit at Boston 

(Philadelphia leads surtax. XI) 

Mav S: Milwaukee at PhitaddPhla 
x-May 8: PhUaddahla at Milwaukee 
x-May 10: Milwaukee at Philadelphia 
x-May 12: Philadelphia at Milwaukee 

WESTERN 

(Los Ang el a s tends series, M) 

May S: Las Motto at Portland 
x-May T. Portland at Los Angelas 
x-Mov 9: Las Angeles at Portland 
x-Mav 11: Porfkmd at Los Anodes 
(Denver leads tertos. XI) 

May 5: Denver at Utah 4 

May . 7: Utah at Denver 
x-May f. Denver at Utah 
x-Mav 11: Utah al Denver 
(s-tf aecooOT) 


rival in Eternal Prince, and there 
was a widespread expectation that 
ihe two might engage in a destruc- 
tive fight for the early lead. 

But it never materialized What 
happened in die fust sixteenth of a 
mue determined the nature of this 
entire Derby. 

When the gate opened, said Eter- 
nal Prince's jockey, Richard Mig- 
liore: “He just didn't break. He was 
kind of npset by the crowd all yell- 
ing and screaming.*' 

Migliore never pushed his colt 
aggressively to try to get him to the 
front, and Eternal Mace quickly 
found himself engulfed by other 
horses. “By the time we were at the 
Cist turn,* Migliore lamented, hie 
was trying to ran up on horses* 
heels. He had no clear running 
space.** 

Cordero, 42, is the oldest jockey 
ever to win the run for the roses (he 
is four years older than Jean Cru- 
guei was when he scored on Seattle 
Slew in 1977), and he couldn’t be- 
lieve what was happening. “I didn't 
expect Eternal Prince lobe that far 
back,” he said. “I didn't want to 
fight with anybody.” It was Cor- 
dero's third Derby triumph (he 
wan aboard Cannonade in 1974 
and Bold Forbes in 1976). 

Bui when he saw no competition 
for the lead, he angled Spend A 
Buck to the rail and was clearly in 
front after a quarter mile in a slow 
23 seconds. The 111th Kentucky 
Derby was essentially over. 

Don MacBeth, on the 6-to-5 fa- 
vorite Chiefs Crown, had envi- 
sioned sitting comfortably behind a 
duel of the two speed horses, but 
now he knew he had to chase the 
front-runner. 

But Chiefs Crown doesn't have 
that kind of raw speed. Not many 
horses do. Spend A Buck ran away 
fipm hitn^ reaching the half-mile 
mark in 45-4/5 seconds and with a 
six-length advantage. All MacBeth 
could do was sit m second place 
and hope the leader would collapse. 

Spend A Buck con tin tied to ac- 
celerate, hitting the three-quarter 
mark in a blazing 1:09-3/5 and the 
mile in 1:34-4/5, the fastest frac- 
tions in Derby histoiy. He covered 
the 1W miles in 2:00-1/5. faster 
than every Derby winner but Secre- 
tariat (1:59-2/5 in 1973) and 
Northern Dancer (2:00 in 1964). 

Chiefs Crown weakened near 
the end. and Stephan’s Odyssey ral- 
lied along the inside to take second 
by half a length. Fast Account was 
another neck back in fourth. 


Of the other horses considered 
major contenders, Proud Truth fin- 
ished fifth. Tank’s Prospect sev- 
enth, Rhoman Rule nin th and Eter- 
nal Prince 12th in the 13-horse 
field. 

Spend A Buck paid $10.20, 55.40 
and $3.40. Stephan's Odyssey re- 
turned $10.20 and S5. Chiefs 
Crown paid $2.80 to show. The 
winner earned $406,800, lifting his 
career earnings to $1,398,509. 

Probably no horse came into this 
Derby with such modest aighu &s 
Spend A Buck. Dennis Diaz, who 
had recently retired from the insur- 
ance business at the age of 38, 
bought the son of Budcaroo and 
the Speak John mare Belle de Jour 
for $12^00 and turned him over to 
a young, little-known Florida train- 
er, Cam GambolatL 

With a third and three victories 
in 1985 (and a lifetime record of 
eight triumphs, two seconds and 
two thirds m 12 starts), Spend A 
Buck started his career in the hum- 
ble environs of Miami's Caldcr 
Race Course. But he kepi on win- 
ning, earning more than S600.000 
as a 2-year-old and finishing third 
behind Chiefs Crown and Tank's 
Prospect in the Breeden' Dip. 
(Three months after that race, 
Spend A Bock underwent arthros- 
copic knee surgery for the removal 
of a bone chip.) 

Through it all, even Gambolati 
thought nis colt was basically a 
railer. Even after Spend A Buck 
won the Cherry Hill Mile at Gar- 
den State, neither the trainer nor 
the owner was dunking seriously 
about the Kentucky Derby. But af- 
ter his smashing 9^-lenglh romp in 
the Garden State Stakes, Gambo- 
lati knew he had no choice. 

Now he does have a choice. 
Spend A Buck is eligible for a $2 
million bonus if he wins the May27 
Jersey Derby at Garden State. The 
bonus was offered by the New Jer- 
sey track to any horse that won the 
Cherry H31, Garden Stale. Ken- 
tucky and Jersey derbies. But the 
Jersey Derby is nine days after the 
Preakness Stakes, and Gambolati 
said immediately after Saturday’s 
victory that <4 tbere's no way we can 
run in them both." He and Diaz 
said they would make their deri- 
sion early this week. 

Should they take an easy $2 mil- 
lion al Garden State or pursue a 
Triple Crown sweep that might 
make the colt worth 10 times that at 
stud? It’s a dile mma that anybody 
who’s ever bought a cheap horse 
would love to have. (WP.LAT) 







<3.*, ; • \?r 


As Chicago's Beta WBson was reminded od Sariml^y r»gh*, eves 
a Wayne Gretzky wfll throw an elbow to gam control of me puck. 



fe- i H 

• -T.v v 

’*■ * ■ A - 





TIm MuooMd Pna 


• . ^ ■- ' 
• .. ■* . • . -y*‘ 

^ -:V - 


The field comfortably astern, Spend A Buck cruised to victory in tbe 111th Kentucky Derby. 

De Angelis Grand Prix Victor 
After Disqualification of Prost 


Compiled by Our Staff From Dispatches 

IMOLA, Italy — Alain Prost of 
France won on the track here Sun- 
day afternoon but later lost on tbe 
scales as his McLaren was disquali- 
fied for being two kHograms (4.4 
pounds) imderweight after an ap- 
parent dramatic victory in the San 
Marino Formula 1 grand prix auto 
race. 

The race jury awarded victory to 
Elio de Angelis of Italy; de Angelis, 
driving a Lotus, crossed the line in 
second place, 37 seconds behind 
Prost, in a clocking of 1 hour, 34 
minutes, 35.955 seconds and with 
an average speed of 191.8 kHome- 
ters an hour (119. 18 miles an hour). 

Prost had taken the lead less 
than two laps from the end of the 
60-lap race after the Lotus of Bra- 
zilian Ayrton Senna — who led 
from the start — and the Ferrari of 
Swede Stefan Johansson both ran 
ont of fueL 

Senna conceded the lead to Jo- 
hansson as be rolled to a stop on 


ihe 58th lap. But Prost moved 
ahead on the 59th lap as Johans- 
son's fuel supply also began to run 
out, depriving him of a victory in 
front of more than 100.000 cheer- 
ing Ferrari fans. 

Two hours after Prost crossed 
the finish line, officials of the Inter- 
national Auto Sport Federation 
(FISA) declared de Angelis the 
winner after a jury meeting that ran 
for nearly an hour. 

FISA spokesman GiUes Gaig- 
naul i said Profit's car was weighed 
after the apparent victory, his sec- 
ond of the Formula 1 season, and 
came in at 538 kilograms, two few- 
er than the minim um permitted 
weight. 

A statement by race stewards 
said Prost's red-and-white 
McLaren was under the minimum 
limit in the original w eig hing and at 
two subsequent re-weighs with Ron 
Denns. the team manager, present. 

De Angelis's victory — only his 
second in 91 grands prix — put him 


into into the lead of the world driv- 
ers’ championship with 16 points 
after three races. Ferrari driver Mi- 
chele A! hereto of Italy, second in 
the season's first two races, is sec- 
ond with IX 

Senna began the race from pole 
position. The winner of the Portu- 
guese Grand Prix two weeks ago in 
a torrential downpour, he set his 
top qualifying time of 1:27.327 in 
dry weather Saturday uring slide 
tires. 


Oilers Bomb Hawks 


United Press international 

EDMONTON, Alberta — Even 
by their own standards, the Ed- 
monton Oilers’ offense was as- 
tounding Saturday nighL With a 
record-tying performance, Edmon- 
ton stunned the Chicago Blade 

STANLEY CUP PLAYOFFS 

Hawks, 1 1-2, in the opener of their 
National Hockey League s emifinal 
playoff series. Game 2 of the besl- 
of-seven Campbell Conference fi- 
nal is slated far Tuesday night in 
Edmonton. 

The Oilers equaled (be NHL 
playoff mark for most goals (set 
when Montreal routed Toronto, 
11-0, in 1944), and defenseman 
Randy Gregg tied a playoff record 
for assists in a period with three in 
the third. Jari Kurri, Charlie 
Huddy and Glenn Anderson 
scored twice and Wayne Gretzky 
scored a goal and collected three 
assists. 

The Hawks had only a four-day 
rest after a tough series against 
Minnesota, and Huddy said his 
team wore down the visitors. “We 
were fresh and kept coming at 
them," he said. “They had io get 
tired." The Black Hawks were also 
short two defensemen — Doug 


Wilson, out with a groin puQ, and 
Keith Brown, who didn’t return af- 
ter suffering a hip pointer in the 
first period. 

Leading by 3-1 after 20 minutes. 
Edmonton broke the game open in 
the second period with four unan- 
swered goals and added four more 
in the third. Kurri put to rest any 
doubts about tbe full recuperation 
of his broken hand with a pair of 
second-period tallies. 

Quebec was to host Philadelphia 
in Game 1 of the Wales Conference 
finals Sun da)'. Philadelphia is far 
better rested, having dispatched the 
New York Islanders in five games, 
while Quebec went the full seven- 
game route in its quarterfinal series 
against Montreal But in three reg- 
ular-season games against the Fly- 
ers, the Nordiques went an unbeat- 
en 2-0-1. 

Flyer goaltender Pelle Lrnd- 
bergh, whose 40 regular-season vic- 
tories led the league, has been out- 
standing in the postseason. His 
Quebec counterpart, rookie Mario 
Gosselin, showed poise beyond his 
years in the Nordiques’ three over- 
time victories against Montreal. 

Quebec has Ihe home-ice advan- 
tage — and may need it. The Flyers 
have won 19 straight at the Phila- 
delphia Spectrum. 


lures far below the springlike Imola 
norms gave slower cars on Sun- 
day’s grid a chance. 

Drivers went through Sunday 
morning warm-up laps on treaded 
tires under cloudy skies. Prost, the 
winner here a year ago, set the 
fastest unofficial “wer time of 1 
minute, 50.018 seconds Sunday. 

Keke Rosbcrg of Finland, in a 
Williams, shared the first row with 
Senna. De Angelis and Alboreto 
lined up in the second row. Thierry 
Boutsen of Belgium, in an Arrows, 
and Prost were in the third row ot 
the staggered grid, with the Wil- 
liams of Britain's Nigel Mansell 
and world champion Niki Lauda of 
Austria, in the second McLaren, 
behind them in the fourth row. 

Senna gained an immediate lead, 
followed by de Angelis, on the dry 
track. Alboreto and Prost were 
close behind, and tbe race quickly 
became a four-way struggle. The 
two Lotuses slowly widened tbeir 
lead, with Alboreto and Prost stay- 
ing within a few hundred meters. 

Prost tried and failed to pass 
Alboreto on the seventh lap, but 
tbe Italian made a move of his own 
on tbe 10th to move into second 
behind Senna and ahead of de An- 
gelis's Lotus. 

Prost also passed de Angelis, as 
did Lauda, who began the long 
chase after the bunched leading 
trio. 

Senna comfortably held the lead, 
with the main battle behind him 
between Alboreto and Prut for 
second. The Italian held off Prost’s 
determined challenges several 
times but then suddenly dropped 
back and pulled into the pits on the 
24th lap, apparently with engine 
problems. 

At the halfway point. Senna led 
by three-tenths of a second over 
Prost. Lauda was third after 30 
laps, 1103 seconds behind the 
leader. ( UPI.AP ) 


Red Sox Beat A’s for Starters and at the Finish, 5-4 


The Associated Press 

OAKLAND, California — 
Right-hander Steve Crawford had 
just finished pitching one of the 
best games of 1985 by a Boston 
Red Sox starter, but he had no 
immediate thoughts of changing 
his role in the team’s pitching rota- 
tion. 

“I look at myself as a long relieve 
er because thars what I am,” said 


Crawford, who allowed only four 
hits in &h innin gs Saturday as (he 
Red Sox held on for a 5-4 victory 
over the A’s. Pressed into action as 
the fifth man in the rotation, he 
made his first start since 1981 and 
picked up his first victory as a start- 
er since 1980. 

Crawford was helped by Bill 
Buckner's three hits, induding a 
two-run home run that broke a 1-1 


SATURDAY BASES AIX 

tie in tbe fourth. It was Buckner’s 
second homer in as many games, 
and fourth this season. 

Crawford had retired 16 of 17 
batters before leaving the game for 
Bob Stanley, who gave op a three- 
run homer to Dusty Baker with (me 
out in the ninth inning. 


ifciS? 





aPHPmi 




tautnUdM hen Iftotnotand 

Although he seemed to come out on top in a second-inning collision with Gary Rajsich on 
Saturday, St Louis catcher Tom Nieto had already dropped the ball, allowing the San 
Frandsco runner to score. But the Ordinals won their second straight ova* the Grants, 6-4. 


Yankees 5, Royals 2 
In New York. Don Baylor bo- 
mered and drove in Tour runs to 
support Ron Guidry’s f our- hi iter 
against Kansas City. 

lariiare 3, Rangers 1 
In Cleveland, Neal Heaton and 
three relief pitchers held Texas to 
six hits. 

Angels 4, Brewers 3 
In Anaheim, Calif ornia, Bob 
Boone's bases-loaded single drove 
in two runs in the third to put the 
lid on Calif ornia’s victory. The An- 
gels got four runs off Milwaukee 
starter Pete Vuckovich in the first 
2 % innings. 

Tigers 7, White Sox 1 
In Detroit. Walt Terrell pitched 
a two-hitter over right innings and 
received home run support from 
Larry Herndon, Barbara Garbey 
and Nelson Simmons to halt the 
Tigers' losing streak at three games. 
Twins 8, Grides 6 
In Minneapolis, Mike Stenhouse 
hit a two-run homer and Mark Sa- 
las a two-run triple to pace Minne- 
sota to its 1 1th victory in its last 12 
games. Oriole shortstop Cal Rip- 
ken played in his 464th consecutive 
game, breaking Brooks Robinson’s 
team record. 

Marinas 8, Bhe Jays 1 
In Seattle, Matt Young scattered 
five hits and Al Cowens* two-run 
double capped a four-run first that 
started tbe Mariners’ rout 
Dodgers 6, Pirates 5 
In the National League, in Pitts- 


burgh, Pedro Guerrero tripled 
home Bill Russell from first base in 
the 10th and Fernando Valenzuela 
pitched his fifth complete game this 
year to spark Los Angeles to vic- 
tory. 

Reds 14, Meta 2 
In Cincinnati, Nick Esasky hit 
his third grand-slam home run in 
the majors during a 1 0-run sixth as 
the Reas blew past New York. 

Cnbs 12, Padres 8 
In Chicago, rookie Shawon Dtm- 
ston first major-league homer, dur- 
ing a four-nm fourth, helped the 
Cubs past San Diego. 

Expos 9, Braves 3 
In Atlanta, U.L. Washington 
drove in three runs and Mike Fitz- 
gerald and Andre Dawson each 
contributed two RBIs in Montre- 
al’s romp over the Braves. 

PMEes 7, Astros 5 
In Philadelphia, Luis Aguayo, 
replacing injured third baseman 
Mike Schmidt, hit his second home 
iim of (he game in (he 13th to beat 
Houston for the Phillies. Tbe As- 
tros tied the game, 5-5, on pinch 
hitter Harry SpUinan’s three -run 
homer in the ninth. 

Cin&nals6^ Giants4 
In St Louis, rookie Vince Cole- 
man had two hits, stole three bases 

and scored twice against to lead the 

Cardinals past San Francisco. 
Coleman increased his major 
league-leading total to 17 steals. 
Since bring recalled from the nd-‘ 
nors April 17, he has been thrown 
out only three rinru*} 









• 1.* jN it ■ - L 7y 

-• ■ '’iWiiHliiift? •■rSa 


Page 16 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, MONDAY MAY 6- 1985 


LANGUAGE 


A Funeral With HumoK Japanese Director Breaks Taboos ComemYouAm 


By Christine Chapman 


T OKYO — "I look at a funeral with 
humor. That was rav first intention." 


m 1* 
mt 


ss 21 


AO 

AC 23 

AE 2S 

AF 

AF 

is 2S 

SS 28 

An 

i\[ 30 


X humor. That was my first intention," 
said Juzo Itami, director of the 1985 
Japan Academy Award-winning film 
"Osas/tiki” {The Funeral). 

“Japan has left behind old values to 
accomplish economic success. We live in 
a consumer-oriented society, but some 
things don’t change," I tami said: “At 
death the old values grab you.” 

“Ososhiki,” a witty realistic comedy, 

reveals a modern middle-dass family as it 

copes with a traditional funeral for an 
unpleasant old relative who dies sudden- 
ly after defying doctor’s orders and in- 
dulging in rich foods; he drank too much 
sake, taunted his wife about wanting a 
young woman and. in comic justice, died 
on the very day of a successful medical 
checkup. 

Itami. SI, is an established actor and 
writer, but “Ososhiki” is his first direct- 
ing venture. The movie, with its blunt 
title, considered taboo in the Japanese 
film business, has won several prizes. 
Even the government has approved it, 
with the Minis try of Education’s award 
for a movie by a new director. At the 
Academy Awards ceremony in February 
it won the five top prizes: for best picture, 
director, screenplay (by Itami), leading 
actor and supporting actress. 

Although not entered in competition, 
“Ososhiki will be shown during Direc- 
tors' Week at the Cannes Film Festival, 
which starts this week. 

An independent production, the movie 
was distributed by the Arts Theater 


ah r* 
An 31 


Guild to only a few theaters in Novem- 


m 32 

S » 

AC 

AS 

as 39 

AS 

AV 

*5 40 


£ 41 

fill 42 

An 

An 

An 43 
An 

An 45 
48 



ber. Since its opening. "Ososhiki” has 
become a social phenomenon. Aimed at 
adult audiences, it is popular with all age 
groups. It has sparked offshoots includ- 
ing a how-to book on funerals, a funeral 
etiquette video recording, skits and paro- 
dies on television, and a book by Itami, 
•The Making of ‘Ososhiki,' " which has 
sold 60,000 copies. Video sales of the film 
exceed 20.000 copies. 

The film is unusual for several reasons. 
First, it makes fun of a sacred rite in a 
country that rarely laughs at its tradi- 
tions. The funeral of the film is a three- 
day affair of hijinks and pseudo-solemni- 
ty, drunks and tearful women, bored 
children, banal conversation, some quick 
sex in the woods, much genuine emotion. 

The film satirizes the national tenden- 
cy to respect customs .and conventions 
without understanding them or examin- 
ing their pretentiousness. In one scene, a 
man and ms wife, the dead man's daugh- 
ter. sit rapt in front of a videotape on how 
to conduct a funeral, learning to repeat 
the standard phrases. The Japanese de- 
sire for correctness is a source of humor 
throughout. 

Itami skewers pretension wherever he 
finds it: in an actors self-conscious ner- 
vousness about pm Hng a speech at ihe 
funeral, at the hospital where four nurses 
bow to the widow and say, “Sorry, we, 
really didn’t help you”: in the white shoes' 
and dark glasses of a showbiz-type un- 
dertaker, at the priest's white Rolls- 
Royce. He also ribs the hypocrisy of 
Japanese respect for the aged in several 
scenes where the old folks are ignored or 
forgotten by their middle-aged children. 

“Ososhiki” confronts Japanese soci- 
ety’s emphasis on money matter-of-factly 
through the greed of the funeral business, 
and socially as the family tries to show a 
polite disregard for costs. They willingly 
pay the officiating priest 200,000 yea 
(about $800) instead of 100,000 yen be- 
cause he flatters them about their status. 
(Husband and wife are television and 
film actors.) They casually withdraw 
2 million yen from the bank to pay ex- 
penses and then, as custom requires, col- 
lect donations from the guests. But, in a 
brilliant scene, the wind blows the donat- 
ed money away and everyone rushes to 
catch it 

The camera also points out such be- 
guiling status symbols as the lovely coun- 
try house where the funeral is held, fancy 
foreign cars, extravagant floral displays 
and rich black funeral costumes. 



By William Safirc 
a “reminder that you areocpcct- 
ixed” card came in the other 






day, which struck me as a more 
sensible memory-jogger than a re- 
peat of the original engraved invi- 
tation with a To Remind” written 
in the comer. The time, date and 


place were briskly and neatly laid 
out. and then, in tire comer, a mys- 



A some from the funeral in Juzo Itaxnfs film “Ososhiki.” 


the Japanese. But the film itself is a senes 
of surprises,” he added. 

“I made it from a real-life experience 
that took me by surprise and broke the 
image I had Twisting the old used im- 
ages that people have acquired is a pro- 
cess of tire imagination.” 

Two years ago, after Itami had decided 
to make a film, his father-in-law died He 
and his wife, the actress Nobuko Miya- 
moto (who plays the daughter of the dead 
man), became responsible for the funeral 
arrangements. The documentary quality 
of the movie reflects ItamTs keen obser- 
vation of the events that followed 

“I was thrown into the film,” he said 
The feeling of using a funeral as the 
subject came to me at the garden of the 
crematorium as I was looking up at tire 
smoke. It's a Him sent from haven to 


more closely on ItamTs in-Laws. Not only 
does his wile plays the dead man's elder 


does bis wife plays the dead man's elder 
daughter, but their young son plays a 
grandchild. The widow is portrayed sym- 
pathetically as a loyal wife whose funeral 
speech is a moving moment (Kin Sugai 
won the Academy Award for best sup- 
porting actress in the role) Itami said his 
mother-in-law remains dose to him and 
his wife, but he noted that his father-in- 


law's elder brother, played as a self-ab- 
sorbed rich man. no longer sends them a 


sorbed rich man, no longer sends them a 
New Year’s card. 

One Glm critic, Nick Bornoff in the 
Japan Times newspaper, wrote: “Itami 
fakes "Ososhiki' beyond the idiosyncra- 
ties of his own society to pinpoint the 
quirks and foibles of humanity at large.” 


dream to make people laugh by bang 
serious." 

Besides Ozu, who was famous for fam- 
ily drama, Itami cites among directors 
whose work he admires Lms Bunnd, 
Karl Dreyer, Alfred Hitchcock and Jean 
Renoir. Another is his father, Mansaku 
Itami. who was regarded as an important 
director during the atent-Elm era. 

Itami has seen few surviving films out 
of the 36 his father made. “Based on the 
realism of daily life, be used a mixture of 
genre as I do in ‘Ososhiki,’ ” be said. 

In its cinematography, “OsoshikT ex- 
cells in making vivid such details as the 
eating* of a ripe avocado, the sensuous 


out, and then, in tire corner, a mys- 
terious instruction about dress.’ 
“Not Black Tie." 

What is that supposed to mean? 
Perhaps it is a way of saying, “I 
know that you, a traditionalist, al- 
ways wear black tie to the opera, 
but just this once the rest of us are 
dressing like slobs and I'm telling 
you this so you won't fed out of 

place.” 

Profound motives aside, does not 
block tie mean business suit, which 
is what it says on the Turkish Em- 
bassy’s invitation to a reception? 
Taking it a step further, does that 
mean today’s American Uniform 
(blue blazer, beige pants) is out? 
Does not Mack tie mean “any old 
tie," or even “no tie at alT? 

Indeed, does formal mean black 
tie or white tidl Does infomaloa an 
invitation mean that no ties are 
permitted? Does cosua/ mean shoe- 
less, bare midriff and gold chants? 
The lan g ua g e of engraved invita- 
tions. race a bastion of tradition, 
seems to be dipping its moorings, 
and the yacht is drifting out to sea. 
□ 


mol I've heard recently came from 
Meg Greenfield, the editorialist, 
when I asked about on ‘informal 1 
party she was giving. She told me, 
‘Wear something that no one will 
remember the next day/ " 

What is farmaP. Miss Manners 
explains: “At one time, formal 
meant ‘white tie*; a gentleman wore 
a tailcoat, a stiff shirt, a white 
waistcoat, and literally a withe tie 
for a Formal eveamg. At that time, 
informal meant ‘black tie’ — but 
nowadays, Mack tie is used to de- 
note formal, but not white tie.’ " 

Turning to the dictionaries, I 
find that formal meant white tie 
until the 1930s. In the ’30s, black tie 
. becanre dominant in area’s evening 
fashion, and in the early 1950s, 


white tie was craned to mean “espe- 
cially formal specifically, tads.” 


pouring of sake, or falling rain. It shifts 
point of view from one person to another, 


Itami credited good casting and his 
tins experience for the actors' seeming- 


acting experience for the actors' seeming- 
ly natural reactions. He has played a 


It ami's attitude toward Japan’s 
“change of life in a consumer-oriented 
society,'’ as he called it during an inter- 
view in his office, is realistic. “I rather 
eqjoy it This feeling is common among 


Itami died a conversation from a Wil- 
liam Saroyan story that he is translating. 
“Art is something you look at closely, 
even a cup, a penal, a bowl,” he recalled. 
“ ‘Everybody sees those things,* says the 
son in tire story. The father replies, “Yes, 
but nobody looks at them carefully.' 
What I have done in making the film is 
watch attentively 

In the movie, the character Wabisuke 
fills the Itami role as son-in-law, bat he is 
not like hint, said the director. The con- 
fused Wabisuke must serve as chief 
mourner. Tsutomu Yamazaid plays him 
as a silent, serious man who does what he 
thinks neces sary at the moment. 

Other characters may be modeled 


variety of character parts since 1961. 
when he left the Da id Production Com- 
pany to free-lance. For his work in films 
be has won several awards — including 
last year’s best supporting actor — for 
dramas such as The Makioka Sisters” 
and the comedy “Family Game.” 

But be said that now be preferred di- 
recting to acting. As a director, be strives 
for low-key performances, or “under- 
statement acting.” as he described it 

Tm an actor, basically," he said. “! 
also learned technique from watching the 
films of Yasujiro Ozu. In his films, actors 
don't overacL if the script is good, you 
can produce a funny ftim by making 
actors play seriously. It’s an actor’s 


point of view from one person to another, 
including the corpse as the family peers 
at it, and mixes cinematic forms such as a 
60mm “home” movie, a videotape, a car- 
chase scene, a television commercial. The 
dose attention to mood and detail gives 
“Ososhiki” an emotional subs tance that 
satire often lacks. 

“I was very hreky in choosing an inter- 
esting subject for my first film,” Itami 
said. “My films will always be humorous. 
In the next one I want to depict town 
scenes, which I couldn't show in ‘Oso- 
shiki, 1 and food can be fun to watch. It 
can be exotic. My next film may be a 
rumen western.” he added seriously. (Ru- 
men is the Japanese equivalent of spa- 
ghetti.! 


For guidance, I have turned to 
Judith Martin, foremost living ex- 
pert on etiquette, author of “Miss 
Manners’ Guide to Excrudatingly 
Correct Behavior” and “Miss Man- 
ners* Guide to Rearing Perfect 
Children.” I knew Miss Manners 
back when she was a feature writer 
named Judy. These days, Miss 
Manners ana I have a lock on both 
ends of the correctness dodge; 
thanks to a tradition known as 
“columnists' courtesy,” I can call 
an her to find an alibi for my gaffes 
and blunders on the cocktail circuit 
and she can get me to justify her 

errors in Enehsh. 


"The term Informal changes its 
m eaning ," says Miss Manners, “de- 
pending on the particular age, geo- 
graphical location and set of people 
using the word. We now live in a 
time of duos.” (Oman, Judy, help 
the people.) “Guests who really 
care to know what the invitation 
means have teamed to question 
closely. The best definition of infor- 


Chrutine Chapman is a Tokyo-based 
writer who specializes in the arts and edu- 
cation 


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Tuxedo, a dark suit with satin 
lapels rad matching trousers, worn 
with a black tie and fancy shin, was 
named after a country dub near 
Tuxedo Lake, New York. (Tuxedo 
was a Leuape Indian word that has 
been translated as “He has a round 
foot,” denoting & wolf; etymology 
goes deeper than etiquette.) The 
term is rarely used these days; din- 
ner jacket is preferred, which can be 
white in summer or some other 
color worn with a black tic or a bow 
tie of a different color. An alterna- 
tive to a waistcoat is a cummerbund, 
from the Hindi kamarband, a “loin 
band” that became a sasb worn 
round the waist. 


In my set, formal means black tie, 
and white tie must be specified if a 
tailcoat is desired. Business attire 
means any kind of suit and tie. 
Informal means “not black tie,” 
which in turn means “dark suit in 
the evening,” and is the way most 
people now think is proper to goto 
the opera. Watch out for informal, 
though — it slops over in meaning 
to casual which means “no tie 
needed.” I think very casual, in my 
peer group, is the equivalent of 
semiformal in a younger set, but 
suspect that semiformal may mean 
“jacket and shoes, no tie but no T- 
shirt” to most teen-agers. 

“The only term l really despise is 
semiformal T says Miss Mannm. 
“It is a despicable term (bat de- 
serves to be eliminated Sounds Like 
the pants are not to match the jack- 
et”