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Paris, Satnrday-Snnday, April 2-3, 1994 

No. 34,552 

Job Growth 
In U.S. Raises 
New Fears 
Of Inflation 

'Good News for Worker’ 

■ : ;.*< Translates to Worries 

■■ For Financial Markets 

-V, By Lawrence Mai Inn 

' International Herald Tribune 

1 ^ — The government reported 

' ' W, l*& y *S? *? y- S - e«»omy created almost 

.. hall a nmhon jobs last month. It was the best 
■ ; such figure in almost seven years, and it sent a 

‘ * ^ wave of fear through finang fal markets that 
higha 1 interest rates would be soon be coming 
. . " ::: it to prevent the economy from overhea ting 

~ i ‘What’s good news for the American worker 

•- s is bad news for Wall Street,” said Allen Si™.i 
•v^v chief economist for L ehman Brothers Global 
- U*;, Economics. 

The figure was almost doable Wall Street’s 
■■•s' expectations, and that sent interest rates on 30- 

• r.;;. | year U.S. Treasury bonds leering in the thin 

Good Friday holiday market Because these 
rates pulled down U.S. and other stock markets 
~ all last month, expectations were for further 
(teclines when the stock markets, which were 
. . .7 _ ■ v dosed Friday, reopen Monday. 

New hiring at the end erf the winter freeze 
; - v that had gripped much of the United States, as 

wdl as rebuilding efforts after the Los Angeles 
earthquake in January, led to the creation of 
456,000 jobs in March. That was the largest 
' - *' number since 556,000 in October 1987, which 
was the peak of the last financial boom and the 
month in which the Dow Jones industrial aver- 
-• 111 . — . age lost 22.6 percent in a single day. 

The unemployment rate hdd steady at 6.5 
. t , kwinr percent in March as formerly discouraged job- 

‘ ■ 4 It! seekers retnmed and swelled the labor force, 

many of them to take up part-time or tempo- 
' — raw jobs. 

Even taking the first quarter as a whole, to try 

r " r " to iron out monthly aberrations, the UiL econ- 

omy has created an average of 208,000 jobs a 
month this year, a distinct improvement from 
the average of 170,000 a month in what was 
_ _ being called a “jobless recovery” in the first 

quarter of 1993. 

r ‘ “This is an extreme^ strong number,” said 

David Wyss of DRI/McGraw Hill, who 
- promptly raised his forecast of first-quarter 

■ ‘ "~ T U.S. economic growth to an annual rate of 45 

percent . . .' 

Although this .might be considered by some 

- . to be a wricotne slowdown frrant£el993 fourth 
,_f quarter’s superheated growth rate of 7 percent, 

- it still is almost 2 full percentage points above 
what the Federal Reserve Board says the econo- 

- my can normally handle without inflationary 
pressure on the labor supply and industrial 

’ . ■ capacity. 

The reverberations in lhe few financial mar- 
kets that were open Friday were exaggerated 
because of the dun holiday activity. The dollar 
jumped against the Deutsche mark on antiripa- 

• £. tion of higher U.S. interest rates, and inflation 

fears drove down the price of the 30-year Trea- 
sury bond down sharply. (Page 9) 

Asked what this portended for the- stock 
market on Monday. Mr. Wyss said: “Down.” 

The chain of events is complex, but Wall 
Street figures it works tike tins: 

First, sirice the Fed first raised interest rales 
two months ago, the market price of bonds has 

• ‘ gore down as the interest rates they pay have 

gone up. Wealthy investors and funds that had 

■ |1 ‘ borrowed money to buy bonds in the expecta- 

tion that the opposite would happen — that 

See JOBS, Page 4 

MoBhca Kjhum/Agencr Frar-Rmi* 

GOOD FRIDAY PROCESSION — Christian Palestinians carrying a cross on Friday in Jerusalem along tire Via Dolorosa, where 
according to tradition Jesus carried Us cross. Meanwhile, ph™ to send a foreign force to patrol Hebron were criticized. Page 4. 

Japan Fires Back at U.S. Over Trade 

Tokyo’s Salvo Cites a Broad Range of Restrictive Barriers 

By Steven BruU 

International Herald Tribune 

TOKYO-— The government, striking back at 
Washington for a report that singled out Japan 
for its trade barriers, leaked to the press Friday 
its own study castigating U.S. trade practices. 

But Japanese officials appeared at pains to 
respond coolly and calmly to the UJ>. report 
itself in an effort to play down a confrontation 
with Washington that has pushed the value of 
the yen to pamfuBy high levels. 

“We do not need to swing from joy to sorrow 
on each item listed as a trade barrier,” said the 
chief cabinet secretary. Masayoshi Takemnra. 
“As a whole, the report contained tough criti- 
cism of Japan, but that win not lead directly to 
nnOaieral action.” ' 

A draft of Japan’s own trade analysis, leaked 
to the financial daily Nihon Keizai^Umbun. 
said Washington was guilty of applying umlal- 
end measures, excessive use of anti-dumping 
charges, quantitative restrictions and govern- 
ment procurement that favors U.S. goods. 

The Annual Report on Unfair Trade Policies 
by Major Trading Partners charged the United 
Stales with violations in 9 of 13 categories, 
unchanged from last year, while the European 
Union had violated 4 categories, down from 6. 
For the first time, the report, which will be 
released in final form next month, included 
Pima and Taiwan, which are bidding to be- 
come members of the General Agreement on 
Tariffs and Trade. 

“Our principle is to judge other countries 
based mi objective rules,” said a Trade Ministry 
official. “It’s the antithesis of the UJL ap- 

Nevertheless, the government’s measured re- 
sponse followed reports from Washington that 
offi cials were not planning any new sanctions 
against Tokyo for now. Concerned more imme- 
diately aboiinife stability bT the worid’s finan- 
cial markets and about Tokyo's cooperation in 
dealing with North Korea, the United Slates 
has derided to give Tokyo more time to flesh 
out sketchy proposals issued earlier this week to 

Ally of Berlusconi 
Praises Mussolini as 
’Greatest Statesman’ 

s timula te the economy and expand market ac- 

This restrained response is in striking con- 
trast to some of the Clinton administration’s 
tough lan g ua g e toward Japan in recent months. 

Tokyo's tone also highlights what appears to 
be a conscious strategy to react passively in 
order to avoid exacerbating tensions and inflat- 
ing the yen, which would inflict further pain on 
the Japanese economy. 

Washington’s sharp dismissal of Tokyo trade 
proposals earlier this week pushed the yen 
sharply higher, threatening to smother faint 
embers of growth that could mark the end of 
Japan's longest postwar recession. A strong yen 
makes Japanese products less competitive over- 
seas and slows the overall economy. 

Still, > Hiroshi -Kumagair the Japanese trade 
minister, fretted openly that the American re- 
port would set the stage for sanctions. 

“Now that Super 301 has been revived, 1 am 

See JAPAN, Page 4 

By Alan Cowell 

.V«i York Tima Service 

ROME — Four days after a watershed elec- 
tion brought his party into the political main- 
stream for the first time , the neofasrist leader, 
Gianfranco Fmi, a member of the triumphant 
rightist affiance that stands to form Italy’s next 
government, feted Benito Mussolini as “the 
greatest statesman of the century.” 

The remark in a published interview seemed 
certain to deepen fears among Italy’s small 
Jewish minority, which still recalls Mussolini's 
race laws and the deportation of thousands of 
Italian Jews to Nazi death camps in Woild War 

Not only that, the comment seemed likely to 
add to apprehensions elsewhere in Europe, par- 
ticularly Germany, already troubled that Italy’s 
rightist surge will embolden German neo-Naris 
and strengthen their showing in a string of 
elections this year. 

Mr. Fhn. head of the National Alliance, 
which took 105 of the 366 seats that now form 
the rightist majority in the 650-seat lower 
house, was speaking as Silvio Berlusconi faced 
new troubles with his efforts to bring his rightist 
partners into line in a dispute over the forma- 
tion of a new government. 

Apart from the potential embarrassment 
from Mr. Fun’s comments, Mr. Berlusconi, a 
mfllionaire media magnate who entered politics 
only three months ago, faced continued squab- 
bles with the third member of his alliance, 
Umberto Boss! the head of the separatist 
Northern League. 

Thursday night, Mr. Bosst seemed to reverse 
a commitment to support Mr. Beriuscani in his 
bid to be Italy’s next prime minister after the 
new Parliament meets for the first time in two 
weeks' time. 

In a statement after Mr. Bossi met some of 
the Northern League’s 106 deputies, a doubling 
of its lower bouse representation since the last 
elections in 1992, the party said it wanted its 
own parliamentary floor leader, Roberto Maro- 
m, to be named prime minister. 

Mr. Maroni met Friday with Mr. Berlusconi 
for further discussions on the shape of a new 

Mr. Fini, too, has raised the odds in recent 
days, saying his party, the linear descendant of 
Mussolini's Fascists, would join a new govern- 
ment “on my own terms,” in part a reference to 
his demand for direct presidential elections. 
Undo: the present constitutional arrangement. 
Italy’s president is chosen by Parliament. 

Moreover, in an interview with the Turin 
newspaper La Stamps published Friday, Mr. 

See ITALY, Page 4 

Bribery Trial 
Sought for Fiat 

ROME — Investigating magistrates re- 
quested Friday that two of the top three 
executives at Italy’s biggest private com- 
pany, Fiat, be sent for trial for alleged 
corruption, judicial sources said. 

Fiat’s manag in g director, Cesare Ro- 
miti, and its finance director, Francesco 
Mattidi, were among 61 people recom- 
mended for trial in connection with al- 
leged naft in the building of Rome’s sub- 
way, the sources said. 

u the magistrates' request is accepted. 
Mr. Romiti and Mr. Maitioli would be- 
come the most senior business figures to 
stand trial for corruption in Italy's Tan- 
gentopoli political kickbacks scandal 
Others recommended for trial included 
the disgraced former Socialist prime min- 
ister, Bettino Craxi, and the former head 
of Italy’s giant state industrial holding 
company. Istituto per la Ricostrurione In- 
dustriale, or LRI, Franco NobflL 
The magistrates suspect that bribes to- 
taling more than 100 billion lire (S62 rrril- 
Kon) had been paid by businessmen to 
political parties in return for contracts, the 
sources said. 

A judge must now rule whether a trial 
should proceed. 

Mr. Romiti’s lawyers said the allega- 
tions a gains t their client were devoid of all 

Mr. Romiti, 70, and Mr. Mattidi, 53, 
are the most senior executives at Fiat after 
die chairman. G ianni Agnelli. The compa- 
ny had no immediate co mmen t 
The Rome subway inquiry began in Oc- 
tober 1992, when magistrates in Milan 
ordered a search of the offices of Interme- 
tro, the consortium that is building the 
subway and in which Fiat is a partner. 

Mr. Romiti was questioned in the case 
in January. 

"The sources said charges in the magis- 
trates’ request ranged from corruption to 
the illegal financing of political parties 
and falsifying balance sheets. 

China Seizes Leading Dissident, Setting Stage for New Rights Friction 

By Patrick E. Tyler 

New York Tuna Service 

BEIJING — Seven carloads of Chinese secu- 
rity agents arrested Wei Jingsheng, China’s 
most prominent dissident, as he was trying to 
return to Bepog by car on Friday after a month 
of self-imposed exile from the capital. 

The decision to move aggressively against 
Mr. Wei, who was returning to Beijing to renew 
Ms pro-democracy and human-rqpits cam- 
paign, is expected to further complicate rela- 
tions between China and the United States over 

Beijing’s rights record. 
China has two n>on 

China has two months remaining to show 
“overall significant progress” on a seven-point 

human rights agenda that Resident Bill Clin- 
ton set out in a May 1993 executive order. 

Without such progress at the end of 12 
months, Mr. Clinton has warned that he will 
cancel China’s favorable tariff privileges in the 
UJ5. market Such a move would risk retaliation 
against U JS. corporations operating in China or 
compe tin g for huge contracts here. 

Mr. Wei was taken under a warrant for arrest 
and interrogation, said his secretary, Tong YL 
who was traveling with him and witnessed the 
arrest. The secretary notified news organiza- 
tions in Beijing by telephone. She said about 20 
agents were involved in the arrest on the eastern 
outskirts of the city. 

It was the second time Mr. Wei has been 
taken into custody in a month. 

On March 4, be was held for about 30 hours 
after he had met secretly five days earlier with 
the U.S. Slate Department's senior human 
rights official, John Shattuck. In the meeting. 
Mr. Wei passed along a message to Mr. Clinton 
asking him to remain firm in demanding that 
Beijing release its political prisoners. 

The arrest on Friday under a special warrant 
by a large force of agents appeared to be a more 
premeditated police action to put Mr. Wei 
under control but the pretext was unknown. 
Police officials and the foreign Ministry had no 
immediate comment. 

Mr. Wei’s departure from Beijing on March 6 
at first appeared to be part of a prearranged 
plan to meet the U.S. secretary of state. Warren 
M. Christopher, wbo held four days of rights 
talks in Beijing from March 1 1 to 14. 

Bui after Mr. Christopher, under pressure 
from tire Chinese leadership, announced that he 
had decided not to meet with Chinese dissi- 
dents, Mr. Wei stayed away from the capital 
and seemed to be awaiting the expiration of Ms 
six-month parole period, which aided March 

The Communist Party leadership has super- 
vised the handling of Mr. Wei at high levels and 
is now apparently seeking to bring to an end the 

free speech movement Mr. Wei has energized 
among the dissident community. 

Officials lodged a vigorous protest with the 
U.S. State Department after Mr. Shattuck’s 
meeting with Mr. Wei. They accused the h uman 
rights official of disregarding Chinese law and 
interfering in tire country’s internal affairs by 
meeting with a “convicted criminal” 

On Thursday, officials sou a warning shot 
through the foreign journalist community here 
by notifying one Hong Kong-based newspaper 
that Mr. Wei would not be able to meet with 
foreign journalists or diplomats for three years. 

See CHIN A Page 4 

ie i 

le of 

In First, Gene Therapy Partly Cures Inherited Disease 

By Rick Weiss 

Washington Past Service 

PHILADELPHIA — Marking a landmark achievement in 
tire nascent field of genetic medicine, scientists have reported 
„ the first successful use of gene therapy tobnng about lasang 
I improvement in a patient with a fife-threatening inherited 

d ^?oroerimental technique, which invdved rgdacmg de- 
fective genes with normal ones, appear* to have faBm short of 
a completecure in lire patient — a 30-year-old Quebec seam- 
SSnd part-time bank teller who is now healthy bat remains 

“JSSSSSSSiSi *. _ -its - 

^liis is tirefust published account (/stable, Mrtial correo- 

the National Center for Human Genome Research at the 
National Institutes of Health. “This is proof that this ap- 

ng a landmark achievement in R^w^hasbeoi^^romitthand lias sthreefa 
TP-”, " hjnn! nnarted °* controversy, can do what it’s supposed to do. 

Sjry to *“*«! 

nfife-threateiing inherited rare hereditary syndrome that causwcholestool 

to nse to eight to 10 times normal levels, dogging Hood vessels 
and precipitating heart disease. 

Many victims of the admen t, called familial hypercholester- 
olemia, need bypass surgery while still in their teens. The 
Quebec w oman had suffered a heart attack at 16 and under- 
went bypass surgery at 24. Most victims of the condition die 
from heart attacks in tbeir 20s or 30s. The patient said that two 
of her brothers had died of sudden heart failure, and a aster 
was now 31 with the disease. 

The w oman -spoke with reporters this past week, almost two 
years after becoming the first person to receive tire experirom- 
tal therapy. She was. flanked by her doctors, including James 

M. Wilson, the University of Pennsylvania researcher who 
pioneered the radical therapy, and expressed relief that recent 
tests had indicated the procedure was largely a success. 

“1 had nothing to lose but to go ahead,* she said. “And it’s 
paying off.” 

_ The experiment was not the first gene therapy procedure 
performed in the United States: in 1990. National Institutes of 
Health researchers, after a prolonged debate ova tire scientific 
and ethical issues relating to goietic manipulation in humans, 
provided new genes to a child with an inherited immune system 

“Gene therapy is still very modi in its early stages,” Mr. 
f!nllms said. “But a few decades from now, when people look 
back, tbeyTl see this as a significant milestone.” 

While impressed with the work, other scientists said that the 
technique is cumbersome compared to other gene therapy 
approaches under investigation, some of which avoid surgery 
by injecting gene-bearing viruses directly into the body. 

American Students Get an Uncommon Lesson in Japan 

By T. R- Reid 

Wasfringtort Post Service 



Newsstand Pric^ 

Andorra ...AM H j£Sg urS “jDh 
Antilles 1U0 FF Rlab 

Comere»nJ>*»CFA p2J,i on FF 

Egypt ££***>•**& 

France 9-°°^ Senegal... FA 

Gabon 960 CFA Spain.— 

Greece JtOOr- Tu l£S t lSB 

Ivory Const .1.120 CFA TWgf-Tjygjg 

~--Ti«Yi itf&TBtrJqLl 

for anybody in tire school to steal iL But no- 
body did. 

“Certainly we can team something, we can 
learn a lot, from this society where crime is not 
common,” said Clarence Joses, who introduced 
himself as principal and “scarcity officer” of 
McKinley High School in Baton Rouge. 

Mr. Janes led a group of McKinley students 
and teachers on a visit to fins school They 
hoped to “learn so me t hin g” about how Japan 
has buflt a free and p rospero u s society that is 
largely unscaixed by the delinquency, dings 
and violence so faimHar in urban U.S. streets 
and schools. 

“We need help with oar violence problem," 
Webb Haymaker, a McKinley senior, told die 
Japanese students. “It is the number one issue 
for Americans, and we hope we can get seme 

help from you.” 

It was not just chance that brought Baton 
Rouge to Nagoya, an auto-making center 360 
■kilometers (225 miles) south of Tokyo. The 
students from McKinley came because of a 
specific — and trage — event. 

In the fall of 1992, an Asahi-ga-oka student. 

V nehihim Hatton, arrived at McKinley as an 
exchange student One month later, tire 16- 
year-ola youth was dead — shot at point-blank 
when he knocked on a stranger's front door 
while searching for a Halloween party. 

The JtiffingDecame an international cause 
cfclibre. In Japan, it sparked fury against tire 
United Stye* , particularly after the killer was 
acquitted by a jury. , , 

A grotto of six students and three faculty 
members from McKinley traveled to Japan tins 
past week to visit the slain student's mgn 

"We wanted to bring a message of friendship 

and healing, and take home a message about 
c o m bating violence,” Mr. Janes said. 

But no sooner had tire Americans landed 
here than violence struck again- A Lor- Angeles 
ffju jarlring last Friday in which two college 
students from Japan were slam rekindled tire 
familiar fear and anger among Japanese. 

Los Angeles police reported that they had 
arrested two men, aged 18 and 20, for the 
killings. Hut, too, became major news bos. 

“Everywhere we’ve been in Japan, we’ve 

mainly had to answer questions about the Los 
Angeles murdere,” Webb Haymaker said. “All 
yon can do is apologize.” 

“Why do we have problems in our schools?” 
asked Mr. Jones, the principal “Drugs. Gangs. 
Broken homes. The economy, unemployment. 
Eleven-year-olds selling drugs on tire comer.” 

To the Japanese, this description sounds like 
a different planet Japan has virtually no drugs, 
no guns, no single parents. The sick economy is 
a major problem, but unemployment is not. 
Companies fed a civic obligation to keep every- 
one on the payroll even during the current long 

At one point, David Biamon, a McKinley 
teacher, declared that^ “the U.S. made a very big 
mistake 30 years ago, taking prayer out of the 

While tire Asahi-ga-Oka lads were digesting 
that,^ Webb Haymaker provided a farther shock 
by disagreeing publidy with his teacher: “I just 
want to say,” he observed poKtdy, “that I 
believe in tire separation of church and state.” 


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ON CAMBODIA’S BORDER— Altai soldier 
rnents on Riday from a Buddhist shrine In a long* 


Rouge move- 

No Decision Set on U.S.-Seoul Games 

Up and 

An occasional series about V 
the leaders cf tomorrow. 

Krista Sager, the head of the Greens party in 

WASHINGTON (AP) — The United 
States and South Korea deferred a decision 

the Bui 

itidan to win a direct mandate to 
tag m October. In Monday's Trib. 

The stay of a headless Cambodian statue 
and how it went home. Page 7. 

Book Review 

Page 5. 

dispute with North Korea over inspection* of 
its niidear sites. 

After meeting with Defense Secretary Wil- 
liam J. Perry, Foreign Minister Han Sung Joo 
of South Korea saia Seoul was “continuing to 
discuss" with the United States a decision on 
joint military maneuvers later this year. “We 
have not reached a decision," he said. 

Mr. Han said “we are leaving the door 
open for a dialogue and a negotiated settle- 
ment” following the United Nations Security 
Council’s statement Thursday urging North 
Korea to readmit International Atomic Ener- 
gy Agency inspectors. 

Earlier article. Page 5. 


Page 2 

Merchants Protest 
Paris Riot Damage 

Police Restraint Questioned 


Eric Fctctbcj/Agmcc Fancr-Pres* 

Some of tiie cars damaged in Paris streets by violent dements among the student demonstrators. More than 200 vehicles were wrecked. 

Compiled by Our Sufi' From Dup&ches 

PARIS — Shopkeepers threat- 
ened Friday to form their own self- 
defense force to combat rampagin g 
youths and denounced die poiicc 
for failing to prevent widespread 
vandalism during the student pro- 

Interior Minister Charles Pasqna 
said the government would not tol- 
erate a “shambles” in the city, but 
he said that if the police had inter- 
vened more forcefully “we_ would 
not be deploring broken windows 
but possibly deaths.” 

Looting and street battles oc- 
curred in several cities Thursday as 
renegade youths rampaged during 
generally peaceful marches by stu- 
dents celebrating the withdrawal of 
a law that would have cut the jmm- 

TTmm wage for young people enter- 
ing the labor market. 

The worst violence occurred in 
Paris , Police headquarters said 120 
poficemen were injured and 335 
people arrested. 

Touvier and the Church: How Did He Get a Haven? 

By Barry James 

Inientationo/ Herald Tribune 

PARIS — One question so far unas- 
wered in the trial of Paul Touvier, the first 
Frenchman since World War U to stand 
trial for crimes against humanity, is how 
he managed to get uncritical support from 
many in the Roman Catholic Qiurch for 
several decades. 

Touvier, 78, relied on friends in the 
church to conceal him, help feed his family 
and defend him for decades after be went 
into hiding at the end of the war. 

The prosecution stiH is presenting evi- 
dence against Touvier in the trial at Ver- 
sailles, which concluded a second week of 
hearings on Friday and winch has three 
weeks to run when ii resumes after the 
Easter break. The evidence depicts Tou- 
vier as a lifelong anti-Semite who rose to a 
powerful position in the wartime “MHice" 
— the French counterpart of the Nazi 
Gestapo — where he was allegedly respon- 
sible for executing seven Jewish prisoners. 
Twice sentenced to death in his absence 
after the war, he turned to the church to 
save his skin. 

Had Touvier been backed only by the 

ultraconservative wing of the church, die 
case would have been more readily under- 
standable, since many in the church wel- 
comed France's wartime government as an 
ally a gains t secularism and communism. 

But his clerical supporters included 
many of solid democratic principles — 
including even some who had fought in the 
anti-Nazi Resistance — and senior 
churchmen up to the rank of Cardinal 
Jean Viflot, who became the Vatican No. 2 
under Pope Paul VL 

Coming from a strict. Catholic family of 
1 1 children with many contacts among the 
clergy, Touvier apparently knew how to 
manipulate the priests and monks from 
whom he sought help. 

After the war, when thousands were 
killed is a settling of accounts with the 
losers, many priests revived the ancient 
notion of the church as a place of sanctu- 
ary. They took in anyone who asked for 
bdp without asking questions. 

When the heat had died down, Touvier 
sought refuge in the most obvious place, 
his family home at Chambfery in the south 
of France. Living behind closed shutters 
under his wife's name for a quarter of a 
century, he managed to acquire an ex- 

traordinarily diverse and powerful group 
of supporters among the dergy. 

He got one priest to perform his mar- 
riage ceremony clandestinely, without go- 
ing through the required avil ceremony 
that would have revealed his identity. An- 
other arranged payments for him from the 
church charity, Secours Cathohque. He 
earned money by typing out beatification 
procedures for the church. He even regis- 
tered his address at the archdiocese of 

With the expiry of the 20-year statute of 
limitations on the war crimes for which he 
had been sentenced to death, Touvier was 
no longer in risk of his life. His clerical 
friends were then able to mount a cam- 
paign to get President Georges Pompidou 
to remove a legal restiction preventing him 
from inheriting the family home. 

An influential priest, the Reverend 
Charles Duquaire, threw himself behind 
Touvier’s cause with an enthusiasm that 
remains a mystery. Father Duquaire, who 
was as first the private secretary to the 
archtrishop of Lyon, and then Cardinal 
Villot’s bead of household in the Vatican, 
had connections throughout the church. 

He organized the campaign for clemen- 
cy, accumulating petitions from 1 8 mem- 
bens of the clergy, many of than in hi g h 

Gabriel Marcd, the Catholic existen- 
tialist, also was persuaded to sign a peti- 
tion. But he did what none of the eminent 
churchme n had thought to do: he investi- 
gated Touviers background. As a result, 
accusing Touvier of being a killer and a 
liar, he withdrew his letter. 

Mr. Marcel’s action delayed bat did not 
stop the campaign on Touvier’s behalf, 
and President Georges Pompidou signed 
an act of clemency in November 1971. 

This, however, only added to Touvier’s 
problems by reminding the French that 
one of their most important wartime col- 
laborators was still alive. Relatives of 
those whom Touvier allegedly had sent to 
their deaths accused Him of committing 
crimes against humanity, for which no 
statute of limitations exists. 

But it look more than 20 years to bring 
Touvier to trial because he went back into 
hiding in 1972. He eventually was found in 
1989,hiding at a priory in Nice belonging 
to a dissident conservative bishop, Marcel 

After 50 Years, an Archive of ‘Ghosts’ for Germans 

By Stephen Kinzer 

New York Times Service 

BERLIN — When the U.S. Army com- 
pletes its pullout from Germany this year, it 
will turn over to the German authorities an 
archive of 25 million Nazi Party documents 
that Germany has for years been reluctant to 

The archive, officially known as the Berlin 
Document Center, is an invaluable source of 
information for scholars and Nazi-hunters. 
It also includes chillmg evidence of how Nazi 
leaders sought to develop scientific princi- 
ples to bdp them breed a “master race.” 

“There are a lot of ghosts walking around 
here,” said David Marwdl, the historian who 
has directed the archive since 1988. *Tm 
always struck by the reaction of groups of 
Germans who come to visit here. They've 
heard the hackneyed chchfes about Nazism, 
but it’s different when they actually see the 

Before turning the archive over to German 
control on July I, Mr. Marwdl hopes to 
complete microfilming every item. Oaks are 
nncrofilrrdng more than 40,000 pages a day, 
making two .copies of every document, one 
for use here and another for a ILS. archive. 

In other offices, archivists are cross-index- 

ing files to ease access for researchers. Spe- 
cial computer programs wfll allow them to 
find files of Nazis even if they have an 
incorrect spelling. 

“The Berlin Document Center is regarded 
as a very important resource,” said Efraim 
Zuroff, Jerusalem director of the Simon Wie- 
senthal Center. “We get allegations all the 
time from people who suspect that a particu- 
lar individual may have had a Nazi past. The 
first place we go to check is Berlin. It’s a 
requisite starting point” 

American soldiers control access to the 
sprawling center, which is housed in a former 
Gestapo complex in western Bohn. Ameri- 
cans run the center under an informal post- 
war agreement with the other Weston occo- 

K powers, Britain and France, largely 
e it is in what was once the American 
sector of occupied Berlin. 

The largest collection in the archive con- 
sists of the entire Nazi Party membership 
flips, more than 1 1 miTlinn rawfa. In the final 

days of World War II, Nazi bureaucrats 
bound these cards into tight bundles and 
shipped them from party headquarters in 
Munich to a paper mm where they were to be 
destroyed. American soldiers, graded to the 
trove by farmers, found the files shortly 

before they were to be converted into pulp. 

Also in the archive are records of Nazi 
agencies that controlled culture and educa- 

“For me, the culture archive is one of the 
real jewels here,” Mr. Marwdl said. “It gives 
a real sense of how systematically the Nazis 
tried to control what people were allowed to 
read, see and hear.” 

Perhaps the most chilling collection in the 
document center is that of the SS, a political 
and military vanguard of Nazism All SS 
members who sought to many were required 
to submit their families’ genealogical back- 
grounds, and those of their prospective 
wives, dating to 1800, or 1750 if they were 

Ethnic Germans bam outside of Germany 
who sought to join the SS, along with those 
who applied for German citizenship, were 
required to appear before trained specialists 
whose job was to provide detailed analysis of 
the applicant’s facial structure. The farms, 
240,000 of which are in the document center 
archive, include 21 categories and an intri- 
cate grading scale to assure that applicants 
did not have excessively large noses or ears, 
irregularly spaced eyes, swarthy complex- 
ions, or other physical features deemed un- 

Tbe vaults in which the archive is housed 
contain mares of narrow corridors nearly 13 
kilometers (8 miles) long. Most of the 50 
permanent employees, nearly all of whom 
are German, are computer specialists whose 
goal is to complete a complex series of cross- 
referencing projects before July. 

On walls above their desks, some employ- 
ees have posted photocopies of nuggets they 
have encountered in tbe files, among them 
Adolf Echmann’s party membership card 
and Josef Mengde’s certificate of member- 
ship in the Medical Chamber. 

In the years after the document center was 
opened in 1946, some hoped that it would 
become the instrument by which former Na- 
zis could be identified so they could be kept 
out of influential positions. But that was not 
to be. 

“De-NaziGcation was something that nev- 
er really materialized,” Mr. Marwdl said. “It 
was an idea that was overtaken by events in a 
lot of ways. The outbreak of the Cold War 
changed everything. The Western powers be- 
came more interested in assuring that Ger- 
many was a bulwark of anti-communism, 
and tbe goal of keeping every Nazi out of 
evoy important job sort of fell by the way- 

Scores of vehicles' were damaged 
and windows were smashed in 
more than 100 stores, hotels and 

Tbe national shopkeepers orga- 
nization said it was “scandalized by 
the lax and irresponsible attitude of 
security forces” dining the distur- 

The group’s spokesman said 
shopkeepers were prepared to form 
then- own “intervention groups” to 

C**m'h aT wnitiiH. 

“Given the disastrous social and 
economic climate, protests can 
only multiply in the coming 
months,” the organization said. 
“French shopkeepers are fed up 
with becoming the scapegoats of 
each demonstration.” 

Mr. Pasqua said deaths might 
have resulted if commanders ted 
ordered the riot police to charge 
into the throng erf demonstrators in 
an effort to catch the minority of 

“We had a crowd of peaceful 
demonstrators who were marching 
in calm.” he said. 

“The wreckers infiltrated into 
the midst of them.” 

He said that authorities would 
have to consider the possibility of 
harming girh mass mar ches in city 
centers because of the risk of trou- 

A spokesman far the riot police 
trade ration ^"4 commanders bad 
been slow to order their befaneted 
units, aimed with dubs and tear 
g j m , into action. 

“What went wrong was perhaps 

era wereleft'tofet an with it,” he 

Paris police headquarters said 
about 70 of tbe youths arrested 
would be prosecuted, most of them 
for attacking police officers, de- 
stroying property or carrying ille- 
gal weapons. 

Jean-Marie Le Pen, leader of the 
far-right National Front, charged 
that the wreckers rampaged un- 
checked, “comforted by the inertia 
of security faces who were para- 
lyzed by the raders of the interior 

Clashes also broke out Thursday 
in tbe western dry of Nantes be- 
tween riot police and about 1,000 
youths who smashed down the 
doors of the regional government 
braiding with battering ram. 

The riots in Paris were the worst 
in the monthlong, nationwide stri- 
dent protests against a law that 
would have allowed employers to 
pay entry-level graduates 80 per- 
cent of tbe m i ni mum wage of 5,800 
francs (51,000) a month. 

Prime Minis ter Edouard BaHa- 
dur — his credibifity on the fine 
after conceding to protests by Air 
Fiance workers, fishermen and 
iblic school proponents — Was 
1 to retreat one more tone and 
the law this week, 
violence was a reminder of 
deep-seated problems plaguing 
modi of French youth, one-quarter 
of whom are unemployed — a rate 
four times as high as Germany’s. 

Urban blight in high-rise sub- 
urbs , tension with tbe police and 
fear of an uncertain economic fu- 
ture have created the conditions fa 
periodic explosions. (AP, Reuters) 

Rebels Kidnap American in Colombia 

BOGOTA (AP) — Leftist rebels kidnapped an Ammon in central 
Colombia and hours laier the police shot dead a motorcydiK during their 

search for the victim, authorities said Friday. 

Rebels of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia abducted 
Raymond Rising on Thursday as he rode bis motorcyde !to the Summer 
Institute of Linguistics school in Loma Linda, southeast of Bogota, the 
Mike said. Rebels earlier this year threatened tofadnap Americans and 
hold them for ransom as “prisoners of war. The rebels have a strong 
presence in Meta state, where the kidnapping occurred. 

At one police roadblock set op m an attempt to findMr. Rising, 
officers opened fire on two men riding a motorcyde, kiltin g one and 9 
wounding the other, the radio reported. 

U.S. Warns Sudan on Aid for Terror 

ADDIS ABABA Ethiopia (AP) —The U.S. ambassador to the United 
Nations said Friday she had warned Sudan’s Islamic government it 
would face increasing international isolation u nless it ended its support 
fa terrorism, improved its human rights record and ended its aril war. 

AmbassadorMadeleine K. Albright told a news conference here that 
she delivered the message a droeaifier to President Omar Hassan Ahmad 
RacTrir H ming a private. hourtong meeting in Khartoum. 

A U.S. official traveling with Mrs. Albright described the ambassador’s 

-JiL iL. nr» Cirian t ae Cfnnnv fWli4tnA vwi « 

Hostage Ordeal Ends at Japan Paper 

TOKYO (Reuters) — Two rightist extremists surrendered to the police 
cm Friday, almost six hours after invading the headquarters or a leading 
Tokyo newspaper, Asahi Shimbun, and threatening nostages with dyna- 
mite, a pistol and a ceremonial sword. 

The rightists, who were protesting Asahi Shbribun's stance on Japan’s 
World War II role, seized about 10 people in an executive reception room, 
but released all but two hostages in ntidaftemoon. The remaining pair 
emerged unbanned later as their captors gave in to police persuasion and 
sur r e n dered. 

The gctremisis were roemboi of a group calling itself Taflrikai, or Party 
of Great Sadness. They threw leaflets out of the window reading: “The 
mad" are tbe real Class A war criminals." They said they particularly 
objected to coverage of war-related issues by the paper and its related 
p ublication, TV Asahi 

Moldova Suspends Language Law 

KISHINEV, Moldova (Reuters) — Moldova's new parHament on 
suspended on Friday a language jaw that has stirred tensions between 0 
ethnic Romanians and Russians and that led to violent conflict in 1991 
Tbe vote was 80 to 15. 

A language law adopted in 1989 made Romanian the official language 
of Moldova, where etb^ Romanians make up 65 percent of tbe popula- 
tion. Formerly, Russian had been tbe offirial language, as it was in all 
parts of the Soviet Union. The law stipulated that all non-native Roma- 
nian speakers who bad to work in positions of leadership with dhnk 
Romanians had to mice a compulsory language test from 1994. 

The law got a hostile reception from the 1.5-millioa Slav minority, 
which viewed it as an attempt to reduce than to second-rate citizens. 


Due to an editing error, an article in ’ 
described the television market into which Wharf Cable has invited BI 
Wold Service Television. Wharfs network is restricted to Hong Kong 
and does not jnchtrie China. 

A book review in Tbesday’s editions incorrectly stated the price of a 
hook published by Bloomsbury in London. “The Rise, Corruption and 
Craning Fall of the House of Sand” is priced at £20. 


! J ~i i / ' 

forced 1 
scrag t! 

French Leader loVkft China 

Agenee Frtmce-Prene 

PARIS — Prime Minister 
Edouard BaDador wfll make an of- 
ficial visit to China from April 7 to 
10, aimed at consolidating the re- 
cent reconciliation of the two coun- 
tries, Mr. Bahadur’s office an- 
nounced. He wfll be the first 
French prime minister to visit Qu- 
14 years. 

nam 14 years. 

China to Take Sting Out of Air Delays 

BELTING (Renters) — China has adopted a new tactic in its losing war 
on airport delays, mandating that idled passengers be placated with food, 
drink, sightseemg and hotel rooms. 

Free telephone and facsimile use would also be available during 
mechanical delays under new roles issued by Air China and disclosed on 
Friday by the official Xinhua press agency. If bad weather is to Name, 
however, telephone and fax privileges would apply only to fiitt-das 
travelers and others deemed “important,” the roles say. 

Two-hour delays would merit free drinks and food. If delays extend w 
four hours, “passengers should be sent to hotels or sightseeing and other 
entertainment activities.” Overnight delays merit board and lodging in a 
four-star hotel a better fa first-class passengers. Economy-class travel- 
ers must accept two-star accommodation. 

Amfrak wffl ban smoking on all its short- and medium-distance trains as 
of May 1. The smoke-free policy includes all daytime trains operating 
between Washington and Boston and all trains operating to and from 
Canada. (API 

Employees at top-rated re stau rants, bars and hotels m Florence, Venice 
and Trenta.Italy, plan to strike Saturday and Sunday over an impasse in 
contract talks. Workers at the casino in Venice also called a strike for 
Saturday. In tbe Rome area, sane caffes and tom agencies were dosed 
Friday. Snack bars and self-service restaurants on the highways dosed for 
24 hours beginning early Friday. (AP) 

Gas station owners across Portugal joined a grass-roots fight against a 1 
percent fee on credit card purchases that went into effect Friday, refusing 
to accept bank cards from travelers who crowded the roads fa the Easter 
holiday. (AP) 


Russia’s Latest Signal on NATO Program Is f Go ’ 


MOSCOW — Foreign Minister 
Andrei V. Kozyrev actea Friday to 
reassure NATO on Russian partici- 
pation in its Partnership for Peace 
program, saying that Moscow 
would sign up fa it later this 

An aide to President Boris N. 
Yeltsin surprised the Western mfli- 


ffrW*KU*mdAcadui* B t*ilan * 
(310) 471-0306 ext 23 
Roe C31C047V6456 


Fan or nnd detaiad reaum tar 

Pacific Western University^ 

600 N. Sapulwda Blvri, Dept 23 1 

Los Angates, CA 80049 

tary alliance on Thursday by saying 
that Russia might take six or seven 
more months to makw a final deci- 
sion on joining the East-West mili- 
tary cooperation plan. 

But Mr. Kozyrev said the re- 
mark, made by the chief presiden- 
tial spokesman, Vyacheslav Kosti- 
kov, may have been misinterpreted 
“or maybe not accurately formulat- 

“The agreement with NATO will 
be signed in the second half of 
April as was provided by our time- 
table and then afterwards there wfll 
be tbe process of filling in” the 
details, he said. 

“Maybe Kostikov was speaking 
of this process which may take a 
half year or even more,” said Mr. 
Kozyrev, who was speaking at 
Moscow’s international airport be- 
fore welcoming the UN secretary- 

general, Burros Butros Ghali, to 

Mr. Kostikov’s comments, sug- 
gesting a change in position by Mr. 
Yeltsin under pressure from na- 
tionalist critics in parliament nnd 
the armed forces, alarmed the 
North Atlantic Treaty Organiza- 
tion. NATO considers the partiri- 
pation of its former Cold war ene- 
my as the program’s biggest prize. 

A spokesman at NATO head- 
quarters in Brussels said Thursday 
that the alliance was ready to ex- 
plain tbe rationale and merhanigm 
of tbe program to clear up “consd- 
erable mtsundetstandiiig.” 

Thirteen countries of the former 
Soviet bloc have signed tbe Part- 
nership fa Peace program. The 
program calls fa joint exercises 
and military cooperation between 
the Atlantic alliance and tbe former 
Soviet bloc. 

Russian critics say the NATO 
program could inhibit future Rus- 
sian trouble-shooting activities in 
hot spots of the former Soviet 

Russian military offi cials have 
privately expressed irritation to 
Western diplomats about NATO’s 
handling of the Partnership pro- 
gram, suggesting that Moscow 
should have been granted some 
kind of special status. 

In another devdopment, Prime 
Minister Viktor S. Chernomyrdin 
said Friday that Russia may apply 
this year for membership of the 
European Union. 

“We hope in this year this ques- 
tion will be solved, in Russia’s case 
in tbe political sense and then also 
in tbe area of economic relations,” 
he said. 

Full Chuunel Service Set for September 

By Richard W. Stevenson 

New York Tunes Service 

LONDON — The operator of the Channel 
Tunnel said Friday that fufl passenger service 
would not begin until September, four 
months after the formal opening May 6 of the 
undersea rail link between Britain and 
France and 15 months lata than originally 

Officials warned earlier this year that there 
would be an unspecified delay in the begin- 
ning of passenger service immediately after 
Queen Elizabeth and Preadent Franqras Mit- 
terrand inaugurate the tunnel next month. 
The opening coranony will go ahead as 

In an interview Friday with the British 
Broadcasting Corp- Alastair Mortem, the 
chairman of die operating company, Euro- 
tunnel, said limited passenger runs through 
the 31-mile (50-kilometer) tunnel would be- 

gin in Jane. Service will gradually build up 
over the summer, he said. 

In September, die company expects to be- 
gin running a full schedule in which travelers 
can simply arrive at either end of the tunnel 
and leave within 15 minutes on one of the rail 
shuttles that win haul passengers and their 
care under tbe English Channel, Mr. Mortem 

Tbe S15 billion project has been plagued 
by technical and financial problems since 
construction began hi J 987. 

Tbe latest dday was caused largely by late 
deliveries of rail cars and locomotives and the 

skrwra-than-expected pace of safety testing 

fa a variety of equipment 

Eurotunnel is p re pari ng for the begin- 

ning of freight service over the next several 
months. It had been sdiednled to start last 

Mr. Morton did not specify the level of 
passenger service that will be available over 

the summer, other than to compare the build- 
up to a car accelerating through first, second, 
third and fourth gears. But he suggested that 
in its early stages there would be little avail- 
ability and that most cross-channel travelers 
this summer would have to continue to use 

Tbe delay will certainly do nothing to help 
the tunnel’s image, especially in Britain, 
where many people seem to view it less as a 
triumph of engineering and a historic link to 
tbe Continent than as a white elephant, 

“While other countries rehsh grand pro- 
jects, the British suspect them,” said an edito- 
rial Friday in The Independent, a Loudon 
newspaper. “If the tunnel had opened on 
schedule and at the forecast price, the nation- 
al psyche would have been disturbed almost 
as mu ch as by ceasing to be an i«i«nri. So a 
vote of thanks is due to Eurotunnel: We do 
not have to rethink ourselves just yet." 

J-i?~ ? T 


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Senators at pu| n Dakota, Louisiana, Kentucky, Utah, Oklahoma 

WASHINr-mu — ^ _ and an unknown number of other states were not 

tn _ p-JrS * UN — The two Democratic sena- covering abortions forrape orincest. Mr. Hanley is 

c lin.on »■*■> the Medicld director of Arkansas. (NYT) 

C oi,or ptl ° to lrlc * Whlto Hou ** 

senator LTaJe Bumpers who once called Mr pboto of a grim-faced President Bill Clinton and a 

Jiwt I supporter" seat a letter dated May sct ^° I adviser, Georae Slephanopoulos, saying it 

ri’ t 111 Mr> Ward’s treatment by the Wa $ a five-montfrold White House picture thatlhe 

KesolutionTnisi Corp. to the White House coun- magazine had agreed to return in January. 

Ml, Bernard W. Nussbaum, and Deputy Treasury “1 was irate," said Bob McNeely, director of the 
secretary Roger C. Altman, a political appointee White House photo office. So irate, in fact, that the 

semng as interim chief of Resolution Trust White House nas cut off the magazine's access to 

Mr. Bumpers also sent copies of the letter to su^ official photos. _ 
three Arkansans working in the White House- the The says “Deep Water: How the Presi- 
chief of staff, Thomas F. ( Mack ) McLanv Jr and dent’s Men Tried 10 Hinder the Whitewater Inves- 

William Kennedy 3d and the late Vincent W dgation." But the caption inside fails to note that 

Foster Jr. of the counsel's office. the picture is of a routine scheduling meeting on 

. Senator David H. Pryor lodged his own com- Nov - 9 - w*** W«e Whitewater had become a 

plaint in July with Mr. Allman and a senior Trea- ma j® r,ssu \ . 
sury aide, Joshua Steiner, about the “annaUiM” To put ■*“ photo 00 lhe COVCT ' out ° r 0011 
waste of money and “abuse of power” bv govern M d not note in the caption when it was taken, is 

ment attorneys in their attemptto recow Madi- outrageous, " said the White House press secretary, 

son funds from Mr. Ward, a wealthy Arkansas 060 066 My*™- She complained in a letter to 

business executive. Like Mr. Bumpera. Mr Prvor rxme ’ s editor « Jim Gaines, that the mag- 

asked Mr. Airman io review the aamcv's’setde- mne 001 our pennission" to use a 
mem with Mr. Ward, which required ton to return P ic * u ^_ thal “«? nfclrad your nadm.” 
S340.000 in Madison funds to the aeenev A Time sp okesman, Robert Pondisao, said 

The letters from Mr. Bumpers and Mr Prvor are thCTe was 110 intent 10 dcceive - retrospect it 

the first indications that members of’ Congress ^ been a good idea to date that phota" 

contacted political appointees in behalf of a prom- 5 e a CT ’^£ nL " But he a ? dcd - 

inent constituent who has come under federal don 1 1hmk readers ^ Time ^ ewer 

scrutinv in the Madison affair (Wp\ P hoto 15 going to be a representation of that 

' ' ’ J evenu" (WP) 

6 States Defy Abortion Order Quote/ Unquote 

WASHINGTON — At least a half-dozen states 
say they that they are flouting a new federal order 
to pay for abortions for low-income women in 
cases of rape or incest. The Clinton administration 
said there would be no immediate penalty for 
violating the law, which went into effect this week. 

Ray Hanley, the chairman of the State Medicaid 
Directors’ Association, said that Arkansas, South 

Kevin Parriott, executive director of the San 
Diego County Republican Party in California, 
where President Clinton was vacationing this past 
week and where voters in the moneyed city of San 
Diego preferred George Bush or Ross Perot by a 
nearly >to-l margin: “Bill din ion coming to San 
Diego is like Ronald Reagan going to Detroit or 
Madison, Wisconsin.” (APj 

Addiction Finding Was Stifled 

Tobacco Company Forced Researcher to Drop Report 


ul of Air Delay* 

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By Philip J. Hilts 

iVex- York Times Service 

WASHINGTON — In 1983, 
five years before the surgeon gener- 
al declared that nicotine was an 
addictive substance, researchers for 
a tobacco company drew the same 
conclusion. Their paper was ac- 
cepted for publication in a scientif- 
ic journal, but the company forced 
the author to withdraw it, the jour- 
nal’s editor says. 

Hie study, which tested addic- 
tion in rats, was done by Dr. Victor. 
J. DeNobie, who was working at 
the Philip Morris Companies, and 
his colleagues, and was to be pub- 
lished in, the jotmialPsychophar- 
macdogy. Experts on nicotine and 
addiction said the -paper , would 
have been the first and best of its - 
land at the time, an important ad- 
dition to the research on the addic- 
tive properties of nicotine. 

Dr. Jack E. Hcnuingfidd, chief 
of clinic al pharmacology research 
at the National Institute on Drug 
Addiction, a federal agency, said 
the withdrawal of the paper from 
publication “set the field back six 
years at least before work like it 
could be accomplished by Canadi- 
an researchers." 

The research paper was made 
public Thursday at a hearing of the 

House subcommittee on health and 
the environment by its chairman. 
Representative Henry A. Waxman, 
Democrat erf California. It resulted 
from research at the Philip Morris 
Research Center in Richmond, Vir- 
ginia. Not long after Mr. DeNobie 
wrote the paper, and the company 
forced him to withdraw it, he left 
the company and, Mr. Waxman 
said, the research group that pro- 
duced it was dosed. 

Philip Morris executives issued a 
written statement saying that Mr. 
DcNoble’s research in general had 
not been censored, and some stud- 
ies of nicotine by him were pub- 
lished, but they would not com- 
ment on the spaafiepaper released 
by Mr.. Waxman. Efforts, to reach 
Mr. DeNobie were unsuccessful 
“M*. Waxman said that because 
Philip Moms owned tire laboratory 
and the researchers were its em- 
ployees, aO the research was owned 
by the company. He said there was 
probably no legal requirement that 
the company publish the study, but 
there was a moral requirement to 
do so. 

The editor of the journal at die 
time, Dr. Herbert Barry of the Uni- 
versity of Pittsburgh, said it was 
highly unusual for a purer to be 
accepted and then withdrawn. He 
said oe had not come forward be- 

fore now because be considered it a 
confidential matter, but he agreed 
to confirm the facts once ap- 
proached by the Food and Drug 
Administration and Mr. Wa xman. 

Tobacco companies maintain 
that nicotine is not addictive, al- 
though leading groups, including 
the surgeon gcncraTs office, the 
American Psychiatric Association 
and the American Psychological 
Association, have said that it meets 
all the scientific tests for an addict- 
ing substance. Other substances 
that meet the tests include heroin, 
cocaine and alcohol 

“There is frankly no scientific 
basis for saying nicotine is not ad- 
dictive,” Mr. Henmngfield said. 
“In fact, in three studies of people 
addicted to other drugs, such as 
heroin, the addicts were equally 
motivated to get nicotine as to get 
heroin. Their ability to quit, the 
strength of the habit and their own 
rating of their need fere nicotine 
were as strong as for their addicting 

Nicotine's addictiveness, and 
charges that cigarette companies 
manipulate the amount of nicotine 
in cigarettes to create and maintain 
addiction, are tire bases for recent 
statements by the Food and Drug 
Administration that it is consider- 
ing classifying cigarettes as a drug. 

' - ' ‘ 

'. - • .... i 

Safer Banking? See Chicago Police 


By Don Terry 

.Vo*- York Tima Service 

CHICAGO — Inside tire 7th District police station, 
just down tire hall from tire handcuffed gang member 
and the battered wife with nowhere else to hide, 
Shawna Jackson came to do her banking. 

A few months ago, in an experiment to bring Jinan - 
’ rial services to the poor and to cut down on tire 
muggings that make the South Side police district one 
; of Chicago’s toughest, tire city and a bank installed an 

• automatic teller machine in the lobby of the police 

■ station. 

' But as it spits out $10 and 520 bills oyer the crackle 

• of police radios, the money machine is much more 

■ than a routine convenience. It is a symbol of hope in a 
’ struggling neighborhood and a sign of how desperate 
- and dangerous modem times have become. 

, Muggers are robbing people at money machines 
• T with increasing frequency, prompting banks and some 

• cities to take unusual protective measures. 

In Oakland, California, five Wells Fargo Bank 
' branches have red emergency buttons that link us«s 

• of the machines to tire police. And m Los Angeles, the 

City Council has approved the installation of 30 auto- 
matic tellers in police station lobbies. 

But even in the station, surrounded by armed offi- 
cers, Ms. Jackson clutched her purse as she scanned 
the lobby for potential attackers. 

“No matter where you are nowadays," she said, 
“you got to be on your guard every minute." 

These days, even if some people arc brave enough or 
foolish enough to use an automatic teller in the 7th 
■District, they might have a hard time finding one. 
Only a few are left in the neighborhood. But then, few 
residents have needed one. Nearly half the people live 
below tire federal poverty level and the unemploy- 
ment rare is 33 percent. 

So far the Marquette National Bank automatic 
idler has handled about 4S0 transactions a month, 
well below the bank's target of 1,000. Part of tire 
problem is that not many people know the station has 
a money machine. District Commander Ronnie Wat- 
son hopes to replace tire banner soon with a sign that 
lights up at dusk. 

“This is what community policing is all about,” he 

Gunmen in Washing!® 
Open Fire on Market 


By Linda Wheeler 
and Wendy Melillo 

Washington Post Service 

WASHINGTON — One person 
was killed and at least eight were 
wounded in a burst of gunfire m 
the historic O Street Mwket m 
Washington, the police said. 

Shoppers ran from drehnUbJl 
while others, along «lh wndwj 

that face onto a central cover^ 
walkway, said three of 

tomers were among Jh«c shot m 

the incident, which happened 
shortly before 7 P.M. 

The notice said two men wearing 
ski masks got out of a 

well as inside the doorway. 

S-S^SS 1 !^ 

Scripture Cathedral- 

Mayor Sharon Pratt Kdly; the 
city administrator, Robert L Mal- 
lei!, and the police chief, Fred 
Thomas, visited the cbaotic scene. 
Mr. Thomas said the victims 
ranged in age from an infant to a 
person over 60. One 15-year-old 
boy, identified as Duwan A’Vant, 
was pronounced dead at a hospital 
but none of the other injuries ap^ 
peared to be life- threatening, police 
and hospital officials said. 

In a aty where homicides are an 
almost daily occurrence, tire inci- 
dent stood out as unusual 

“1 don’t know of anytime when 
we have had so many people shot in 
one incident,” Mr. Thomas said. 

The police chief, who toured the 
scene of the shooting hours later, 
said at least two gunmen stood just 
inside the O Street entrance to tire 
market and fired on a group stand- 
ing just inride the door. 

The police said they believed two 
security officers from an FBI build- 
ing were among those shot. 

The market, one of only two re- 
maining city markets that served 
Washington at the turn of the cen- 
tury, is known for its inexpensive 
fried dinners as well as reasonably 
priced jeweliy and clothing. 



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Kept Secret 
A List of 

Big Donors 

By Richard L. Berke 

fJgw York Tima Sentce 

WASHINGTON— A nonprofit 
offshoot of the Republican Party 
that was formed last year to seek 
the ideas of ordinary Americans is 
being financed by big corporations 
and millionaires whose donations 
are not subject to federal restric- 
tions that apply to most political 

Since its creation last June, the 
organization, the National Policy 
Forum, has been criticized by 
groups that monitor campaign fi- 
nances because it has refused 10 
disclose tire identities of its donors. 

But the forum’s own documents, 
and those of the Republican Na- 
tional Committee, show that in 
hunting for money they derided 
against mass mailings and instead 
sought and received “hand commit- 
men is" from giant corporations 
like Philip Morris Companies Inc., 
Coca-Cola Co., United Parcel Ser- 
vice, Edison Electric, the Pruden- 
tial Insurance Company of Ameri- 
ca, AT&T and American Standard. 

Several associations were also 
listed in the documents as having 
made such commitments, including 
the National Rifle Association, Na- 
tional Association of Home- 
builders, National American 
Wholesale Grocers' Association 
and National Cattlemen’s Associa- 

While forum officials refused to 
discuss these donors, officials at 
some of the companies that had 
been soh'rired confirmed that they 
had contributed. 

Although the Republican Party 
chairman, Haley Barbour, billed 
the forum as “a very participatory 
program” when he announced its 
formation, the documents, sup- 
plied by a forma 1 party employee, 
show that small donations were not 
solicited by mail 
Forum officials have said the 
budget for their first year was 
roughly 54 million. A budget docu- 
ment mows the fund-raising plan 
as follows: 5100,000 each from 15 
individual or corporate 
“founders”; 510,000 each from 100 
major donors; 550,000 each from 
20 corporate sponsors, and $15,000 

from 20 association sponsors. 
Republican Party officials say 
tire money collected by tire organi- 
zation is being used to attract new i 
people into the party by holding 1 
meetings around the nation. 

... William E. Brock, a forma party 
chairman who heads the policy fo- 
rum's coordinating committee, said 
officials feared that naming the do- 
nors would arouse undue suspi- 

Many people who were solicited 
for the policy forum had already 
oven large sums of money to tire 
Republican Party, dotations that 
are not subject to federal limits. 

But because such political “soft 
money" must be publicly reported, 
some critics of the forum have con- 
tended that it was set up as a non- 
profit group so it could collect do- 
nations that would not have to be 
made public. 

Mr. Barbour and Michael E 
Baroody, tire forum's president, 
played an important role in solicit- 
ing tire wealthiest donors, accord- 
ing to the documents. 

Fred Wertheimer, president of 
Common Cause, said such min- 
gling of policy and politics was im- 

^ 7 

Lawmakers Lead a School- Prayer Drive _ - 

By William Booth 

Washington Pal Senict 

WASHINGTON — Saying America’s youth 
need to be guided by a higher purpose, hun- 
dreds of legislators around the nation, from 
black urban liberals in Washington to white 
rural conservative in Mississippi, are seeking 
to return prayer to public schools. 

■Die movement has generated school prayer 
legislation in the District of Columbia ana at 
least six Southern states, including Vi rgin^ 
Georgia and Florida. Virginia has passed a bill 
encouraging voluntary prayer and the others 
are (Hi the verge of either mandating daily 
moments of “quiet reflection" or allowing stu- 
dents to lead prayers at pep rallies, sports 
events and graduation ceremonies as well as 
before and after class. 

“It has nothing to do with being a liberal or 
conservative, a Democrat or Republican, black 
or white," said a Tennessee state senator, Don 

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want the right to praya. They want that right 
back again.” 

In almost all cases, state chapters of the 
American Gvil Liberties Union and affiliated 
groups threaten to challenge the constitutional- 
ity or the new laws, citing decades of Supreme 
Court precedenL 

But the lawmakers, asserting that UJS. public 

education has lost its moral bearings, insist that 
in a country where metal detectors are ubiqui- 
tous in schools, students deserve the right to 
hear the word “God” again. 

Indeed, tire resurgence of school praya 
seems to be one of a handful of “values issues” 
being given renewed life by Republicans and 
Democrats alike, including President Bill Gin- 

The pending legislation not only ohatlenges 
the separation of church and state but is bang 
pushed by big-city liberal politicians as well as 
by traditional members of the religious right. 
The liberals include a Georgia state senator, 
David Scott, a Democrat from Atlanta whose 
other big issue this year is stricter gun control. 

“There is now inis extraordinary need to 
provide our young people with a way to look 
mto themselves for strength and meaning," said 
Mr. Scott, whose legislation calls for a manda- 
tory minute erf “quiet reflection” al the begin- 
ning of the school day. Critics say tire praya 
bills are inspired more by election-year grand- 
standing than real concern for America’s trou- 
bled schools. 

“There will be lawsuits," said James Tucker, 
special project counsel for the ACLU of Ala- 
bama, where a school praya bill was passed 
unanimously last year. “We're jost looting for 
the best case." 

Tennessee also overwhelmingly passed legis- 
lation last year to let students initiate and lead 

prayers at school events. Mississippi Georgia 
and Florida are on tire verge of securing similar 
measures, while Virginia already has done so. 

In the District of Columbia, a majority of 
D.C. council members have said they support 
legislation that would allow students to pray in 
the classroom. 

“With all this violence and other problems,” 
said council member Marion S. Barry, “we need 
to get back to hying to allow those who want to 
pray to do it ft may set a moral tone at the 

Proponents of allowing praya in schools say 
that they are acting less from political expedi- 
ency than from deep concern that society is out 
of whack. 

“We're bringing bade to our children the 
recognition that there is a place for spiritual 
and moral enlightenment," said a Florida state 
representative. Beryl Burke, a Democrat who 
represents a mostly black Miami neighbor- 

The school prayer movement has been re- 
newed by a recent federal appeals court deri- 
sion and protests by principals and students 
across the region. 

There are' about 12,000 Bible clubs now 
meeting in public schools. Last year, about 1 J 
million students partiripaied at praya rallies at 
public schools, according to Christian legal 
action groups. 

Cicocjr Wdfy/Tbe Aiaducd his 

HIGHWAY HOLE — A rescuer descending into a sinkhole on a Maryland road Dear New Windsor to reach Robert Wayne 
Knight, a motorist who was trapped in Us car when he drove into the hide. He was hospitalized in Baltimore and treated for shock. 

Away From Politics 

•The United States switches to daylight sav- 
ings time Sunday when clocks are turned 
ahead one hour at 2 A.M. in each time zone. 
There will be no time change in Arizona, 
Hawaii and parts of In diana, which remain 
on standard time an year. 

• A defendant charged in the conspiracy to 
blow up New York City landmarks pleaded 

guilty to the charges against. The defendant, 
Earl Gant, a Philadelphia street vendor, was 
accused of agreeing to help get explosives in 
the foiled plot to blow up the United Nations 
buildings, two highway tunnels and other 
public buildings last year. 

• Tbe United States win soon begin accepting 
applications for an ammal lottery of 55,000 of 
its coveted green card work pennies. Applica- 
tions can be made throughout June. Tbe 
results will be given lata in tire year. The 

annual lottery will distribute nearly 25,000 
green cards to i mm i gran ts from Europe and 
the forma Soviet Unicoi, 20,200 to Africans, 
6,837 to Asians and 817 for immigrants from 
Australia and the South Sea islands. 

• Three months after Anne Scripps Dourias, 
an heiress to a newspapa fortune, was blud- 
geoned to death, a decomposed body found 
on the Bronx bank of the Hudson River was 
identified as that of ha husband and accused 
murderer, Scott Douglas, nyt. Reuters, AFP 



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Page 4 



Botb Sides Denounce Force for Hebron 

; By Clyde Haberman 

i Aliw York Times Soviet 

' JERUSALEM — A planned 
farce of lightly armed foreign ob- 
servers to patrol Hebron was criti- 
cized Friday by many Israelis as 
going too far and by Palestinians as 
not going far enough. 

I Palestinians across the political 
spectrum dismissed the agreement 
on a temporary force of 160 Nor- 
wegians, Danes and Italians as a 
palliative that will not provide real 

K ction for residents of the West 

! What is required following the 
Feb. 25 massacre by an Israeli set- 
tler, they said, is the evacuation of 
the 450 Jewish settlers living there 
among more than 80,000 Palestin- 
ians. As for the observers, many 
Palestinians waved off their pres- 
ence as pointless, especially after 
learning from officials here that 
only 60 will actually go on patrol 
while the 100 others will be admin- 
istrators and office workers. 

“They don’t have any weapons 
except writing reports,” Sheikh 
Mohammed Kafrawi told Muslim 

tional forces sent to Bosnia, he 

said: '‘Did they prevent crimes 
against Muslims? No, they didn’t.” 



Similarly unhappy were many Is- 
raelis, especially on the political 

right They denounced the 


s Jafee Center Tor Stra- ate us on this one da)' in the year,” 
said a Christian woman as soldiers 

Maslim-Christian Tezraon ggSLTSSi“JE 

Israeli troops barred Muslims Muslim holy month. 

worshipers at midday prayers on 

Friday at the A1 Aqsa Mosque in 
Jerusalem. Referring to intema- 

ment reached Thursday by Israel 
and the Palestine Liberation Orga- 
nization as a capitulation on a mat- 
ter that bad been almost an article 
of faith here since the West Bank 
and Gaza Strip were captured in 
the 1967 Middle East war. 

Until now, Israel had never per- 
mitted an armed international 
presence in the territories. The ac- 
cord, rightist leaders warned, sets a 
precedent that will undermine Is- 
raeli sovereignty and pave the way 
for more foreign forces elsewhere 
in the West Bank and Gaza, and 
ultimately Jerusalem. 

Some Israeli critics also can- 
tioned that unpredictable events — 
the shooting or kidnapping of an 
observer, for example — could cre- 
ate hard feelings that damage Isra- 
el's relations with the countries 
f o rm in g the force. 

“You start processes that can 
spin out of control, especially on 
the ground,” said Do re Gold, a 
defense specialist with Tel Aviv 

from Jerusalem's Via Dolorosa cm 
Good Friday amid modi tension, 
but Christians retracing the tradi- 
tional last steps of Jesus said their 
joy at bang in the Holy Land over- 
rode fear, Reuters reported. 

faaeii security forces were out in 
force in the Old City to prevent 
clashes between Christians. Mus- 
lims and Jews following five weeks 
of Arab- Israeli violence triggered 
by the Hebron massacre of Muslim 

Soldiers used clubs to beat back 
Muslims gong to noon prayers at 
AI Aqsa Mosque while Jews gath- 
ered at the Wailing Wall below for 
the end of their Passover holiday. 

“We cannot wait any longer, we 
will miss our midday prayers, let us 
pass,'* shouted an old Arab man, 
echoing cries from a group of Mus- 
lims who use the Via Dolorosa 
route to reach the mosque. The 
soldiers ignored their pleas. 

'‘During Ramadan these streets 
were jammed with Muslims, we 
couldn't walk, why can’t they toler- 


Christian pilgrims carried wood- 
i crosses and sang hymns while 

walking in the rain to the tradition- 
al site of Jesos’s tomb in the 
Church of the Holy Sepulchre. 

Some wore black armbands to 
mourn victims of the Hebron mas- 
sacre. The Assembly of the Catho- 
lic Ordinaries of the Holy Land 
called Friday for the removal of 
Jewish settlers from the territories 
to achieve a lasting peace. 

In an Easter message, it said: 
“The settlers have condemned 
themselves. They have shown that 
they cannot co-exist with others. 
Therefore, they must go else- 

Violence over the Hebron kill- 
ings did not dissuade many tourists 
from around the world from visit- 
ing boly sites. 

Catholics and Protestants from 
Egypt joined in the Good Friday 
procession for the first time since 
the 1978 Camp David peace treaty 
between Egypt and Israel was 

Troops Go 
Into Natal 
To Enforce 
A Decree 

Serbs Slay 19 in Bosnia Town 

Revenge Killings May Spur Mass Evacuation 

By David B. Otcaway 

Washington Past Serrice 

bodies that set off the attacks on the non-Serbian 


DURBAN, South Africa — 
South African troop reinforce- 
ments moved into die Zulu heart- 
land of Natal on Friday to enforce 
a state of emer g ency declared by 
President Fredenk w. de Klerk. 

Chief Mangosuthu Butheleri, 
whose power base is in the prov- 
ince, which includes the KwaZulu 
black homeland, renewed his criti- 
cism of the measures but said he 
was willing to go ahead with 

planned peace talks next week. 
KwaZulu i 

In the , 

lilal, Uhmdi, 

a capital. 

Chief Butheleri said (hat if the dis- 

JAPAN: Tokyo Counters U.S. Report With a Trade Broadside of Its Own 

Korean Carmakers Lash Out at U.S. 

Continued from Page 1 

worried that the report would lead to its use,” 
he said. 

In fact, the annual report to Congress starts a 
1 80-day countdown for Tokyo to remove barri- 
ers or face punitive tariffs an exports to the 
United States in line with the Super 301 trade 

Washington's ninth annual National Trade 
Estimate, noting that Tokyo's surplus with the 
United States had grown bySlO billion to $60.4 
billion in 1993, said: “The barrier* in Japan to 
imports of manufactured goods and services far 
exceed the barriers of other Group of Seven 
nations and place an unacceptable burden on 
the global trading system.” 

Japanese officials said the American report 
was politically motivated and appeared to have 

been written prior to Japan’s latest 
concerning government procurement of tele- 
communications and medical equipment 

“Any approach using (he 'Japan is unique’ 
theory is fundamentally unfounded and is a 
major problem in terms of the important rela- 
tions of trust between Japan and the United 
States.” said Kishichiro Amea, deputy spokes- 
man for the Foreign Ministry. 

“They’re basing their behavior on obsolete 
information at best,” said Noboru Hata- 
keyama, an adviser to the Long-Tom Credit 
Bank of Japan who was the Trade Ministry's 
top negotiator until last year. “If the U.S. keeps 
doing this, Japan will become fed up and not 

move, and the deterioration of relations might 
spin over into nontrade areas.” 

South Korean carmakers criticized Frida)* as 
“incomprehensible” a U.S. report that accused 
South Korea of setting up barriers against pur- 
chases of foreign autos. The Associated Press 
reported from Seoul. 

Smith Korea was one of 35 countries listed in 
the 281-page report released by the U.S. gov- 
ernment tins week. 

The report said that the 10 percent import 
duty imposed on foreign cars by Seoul was 
restrictive compared with the 25 percent duty 
in the United States. Seoul said it should not be 
singled out because the 10 percent import duty 
was on a par with that levied by European 

cussions next week “do not come 
up with something that win make it 
possible for us to participate in the 
elections, even at this late stage, 
then of course we will continue to 
play the role of bang opposed to 
the status quo as set out after the 

His rejection of the election, 
which be says will not deliver the 
autonomous' Zulu state he see k s, 
has fed tension in the region. About 
300 people were lolled there last 

Chief Butheiezl the leader of the 
Zulu-based inkatba Freedom Par- 
ty. has previously said that he does 
not rule out participation in the 
elections on the condition that they 
are postponed “a month or two.” 
an option ruled out by Mr. de 
Klerk and Chief Buthekzfs main 
black rival. Nelson Mandela, the 
leader of the African National 
Congress. The elections are to be 
held April 26 to 28. 

The meeting next week on vio- 
lence and constitutional disputes is 
due to bring Chief Buthdezi, Mr. 
Mandela, Mr. de Klerk and Zulu 
Kin g Goodwill Zwdithini together 
for the first time. It was originally 
set for Iasi Wednesday, but was 
postponed after violence erupted 
during an Tnknrha march through 

ay period, killing 

and 1 Croats in revenge for the death of six Serbian 
police officers in fighting elsewhere, according to 
United Nations officials here. 

Some dderlv people were burned alive in then- 
homes and others were killed by hand grenades 
thrown at them as Serbs tor* out their rage on 
Muslims and Croats, said Kris Janowski, a spokesman 
for the UN High Commissioner for Refugees in 

The faitrngs may have finally convinced internation- 
al relief agencies working in Bosma-Herzegovina that 
10.000 non-Serbs living in and around Prijedor may all 
have to be evacuated in what would be the largest 
single such operation of the war. 

“These people obviously have to be tak e n out,” said 
Mr. Janowski 

He said a protection officer of the UN refugee 

H ed from some neighborhoods to avoid tbe rampaging 

“Tbe situation is very tense and extremely alarm- 
ing,” Mr. Janowski said. “We certainty don’t role out 
more violence in the coming days.” 

The bodies of the six Serbian police officers, killed 
in fighting against the Muslim-led Bosnian Army in 
central Bosnia, were returned to Prijedor early tins 
week. UN offiriak believe it was the right of the 

ITALY: Rightist Praises Mussolini CHINA: 

Dissident Held 

JOBS: Good News for Worker Translates to Fears for Financial Markets Jobarmesburg on Monday 

J A company of about 15 

Continued from Page 1 

rates would decline and price would rise — 
were caught short and dumped tbe bonds on 
the market. This further depressed prices and 
increased interest rates, or yields. 

Second, small investors who had bought 
bonds because they yielded far more than their 
bank certificates of deposit got out of the mar- 
ket or sat on the sidelines with their cash, 
waiting for interest rates to get even better. 

But that meant less money was going into tbe 
market to support stock prices, which even 
brokers admitted were getting too high for the 
dividends the stocks were paying. A strong 
economy, like the cate evidenced by Friday’s 
figures, will mean even higher interest rates "as 
the bond market anticipates the Fed’s neat 
move — which means stocks become still less 

attractive, resulting in still less money for the 
stock market 

So the question for the financial markets now 
is not whether but when the Fed will move next 
to raise its federal funds rate, the rate on over- 
night loans of reserves among American banks. 
The rate now stands at 3.50 percent and is 

expected to go to at least 4 percent by year-end. 
Michael Stra 

Strauss, chief economist at Yamai- 
chi International said, “If they were smart 
lay.” then added. “If 

they’d go up 50 points today,' 
they were really smart, they would have started 
tightening in November.” 

But others say it’s not as simple as that, as tbe 
Fed is tr ending a fine line in trying to slow 
inflation before it speeds up, but without tip- 
ping the economy back into a recession. 

“The Fed is looking at the right balance 
between demand in the economy and the sup- 

ply of labor and industrial capacity.” Mr. Sinai 
said. “By acting ahead of the game before 
inflation takes hold, it is taking a new approach 
with a risk of errors, miscalculations and a lack 
of understanding of its policies.” 

Mr. Wyss added: “To avoid the classic 
boom-and-bust scenario, the Fed has to contin- 
ue to make its small steps in tightening and not 
make a mistake. As long as they don't panic, I 
think it will work.” 

He said he expected the Fed. in effect, to 
follow the market and decide to raise rates 
a gain only after it was sure that the latest 
employment data were not a fluke. For that it 
will have to wait at least for next week's first 
reports of Easier retail sales and reports from 
purchasing manager s nf large industrial compa- 
nies about the state of the economy. 

^ — 


.A* ■ jfe 

company of about 150 troops 
had reached Natal from Bloemfon- 
tein in tbe Orange Free State by 
Friday morning and two more 
companies were due to arrive by 
Sunday, said a military spokes- 
woman, Captain Kim van Niekerk. 

Mr. de Klerk declared the state 
of emergency on Thursday, saying 
that regular police powers were not 
enough to ensure the country’s first 
all-race elections went ahead in 

The police said fire people were 
killed in overnight violence in the 
Natal- KwaZulu region. 

Emergency regulations pub- 
lished Friday gave security forces 
the power to detain people without 
charge for up to 30 days, use “nec- 
essary force” to maintain order, 
and search people and premises 
without a warrant. 

The rules bar unauthorized mili- 
tary t rainin g- prohibit the display 
of weapons or potentially danger- 
ous objects, including traditional 
Zulu spears and fighting sticks, and 
set strict conditions for marches 
and rallies. 

Continu ed from Page 1 

Fini seemed to abandon the cau- 
tious appr oach to Mussolini that 
characterized his election cam- 

While he ag ain stressed that “we 
have consigned to history a judg- 
ment of Fascism and anti-Fas- 
rism.” be was also asked to evalu- 
ate Mussolini, who ruled Italv from 
1923 to 1943. 

“1 would still say that he is the 
greatest statesman of the century,” 
Mr. Fini said, adding that Mr. Ber- 
lusconi “will have to pedal if he 
wants to show that be belongs to 
history Hkc Mussolini." 

“Two identical men are not born 
in a year, not even in a century.” 
said Mr. Fini. who is 41 

Mussolini turned Italy into a dic- 
tatorship , embarked on disastrous 
colonial adventures in Africa and 
allied himself with Hitler. But, fol- 
lowing the collapse of Fascism and 
the end of the World War H, a 
group of his followers banded to- 
gether in Italy, where Fascism is 
ill egal to found the Italian Social 
Movement, to keep Mussolini’s 
memory and ideology alive. 

Mr. Fmi and his supporters 
chang ed the name of the Italian 
Social Movement to the National 
Alliance earlier tins year. One of its 
successful candidates in the ejec- 
tion was Mussolini’s granddaugh- 
ter, Alcssandra Mussolini who 
won a parliamentary seat in Naples 
on the neofascist ticket. 

“The fact that he chose to say 
this today shows be still regards 
Mussolini as a model for the fu- 
ture,” said Claudio Petrucrioll a 
spok esman for the Democratic Par- 

ty of the Left, the forma* Commu- 
nists, which lost this week’s elec- 
tion. “We all know what the state 
of freedom was in this country 
when the ‘greatest statesman of the 
century was in power." 

Mr. Berlusconi made no immedi- 
ate co mment on his ally’s remark. 
The magnate sought to distance 
himself from the neofascists earli er 
this week when, on Monday night, 
he cast his vote in Rome's old Jew- 
ish ghetto. However, the gesture 
met only with skepticism and pro- 

The presence of neofascists in 
tbe new Italian lineup has caused 
worries both in Italy and elsewhere. 

“For a half-ceuttuy, the West 
has been govern ed by principles 
that arose from the end of World 
War IL” a column by Bernardo 
Vaili said in Friday’s La Repubb- 
lica. “Our country will be the first 
since then to have a government 
including neofasdsts or postfas- 
cists in this privileged part of the 

I talian newspapers reported For- 
eign Minister Klaus Kinkd of Ger- 
many as saying Friday that Bonn 
found the riseof Italy’s right “mild- 
ly alarming ,” reflecting concern 
that German extreme rightists led 
by a former Nazi SS officer, Franz 
SchSnhufaer, would draw encour- 
agement from developments in Ita- 
ly. Greece's minis ter for European 
affairs, Theodoras Pangalos, was 
quoted as saying it was “worrying.” 

In the La Stampa interview, 
however, Mr. Fini denied that his 
party had links with European 
rightists. “Nothing links tbe Italian 
right to those in Germany or 
France,” be said. 



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CH Iroerdenorrtnafcnal 8 Evangeficai Sm- 
day Serves 1030 am. & 1130 am/ Kids 
Welcome. De Cusersttaal X S. Amster dam 
Mo. 02940-15316 or 0250341389. 



( E pi sco pa y Ar^caniSt«tHclyC u it» m ' fc in9a 

1 1 am. Sunday School and ttos&y 1045 am 
Sebastian Rnz St 22. 60323 ftarjA* ( 

. Germa- 
ny. U1. 2, 3 MqueWfee. TeL 4aB855 01 84 



difrw restoration*# mat. 

Mano in Vie Chapel of the Otacine I 
Holy Communion Sundays at 1030 and 
Wettaesday at 1930. Smc% School. Yalh 
Fefcwsta, Creche, CoBee, stay gtxjje. and 
comniunjy activities. AI are wefccmeJ Cafi 

BMANUa CHURCH, 1*3*8 5* Sui 10 
am. Eucharist & 2nd & 4th Sun. Morning 
Payer. 3 we tie Morthoux. 1201 Genoa. Safr 
Zetland. TeL* 41/22 73E 80 76 


a p fct Fetow hto. I Btoto u 98 
(rah entrance Tapotoryi u 7, knraddriy 
behind fcort entrance). 1030 BUe study. &00 
pm Raster Bab Zbhden TeL 1156116. 
Reached by bus 11. 



International Baptist Chun*. Engfish. Ger- 
man, Fasten. Worehto 1030 am, Seterefr. 
21, WixipertBi - Bbwft*l All denomnaUons 
welcome. Hans-Dietar Freund, pastor. 
TeL* 02034898384. 


Soto. Grand Nanxteo Sobnxse Sc^sra Wor- 
ship 11:00. Jamas Duke. Pastor. 
TeL 704367. 


WSdansM fZ&fch). Sutoertate, Rosentap- 
strasso 4 . Worship Services Sunday 
mootings IIDOlTbL 1-7002812 


Evangeficai, BBe Betievteg. services h Enc*- 
tft 4:15pm. Suxtevsat Bteuber Str. 10 (Bz 
Theratanstr.) (069)93 46 74 


1 145 am Holy Euchartst and Sunday School. 
Nursery Care prowded. Seybothstrasse 4. 
B1545 Mirich (Hariadting), Germany. TeL 
43395481 85. 




WWmuten Sttasae 4S, Cette 1300 Wbnftfa. 

- - ----- rtwpfi; 

1400 Bbte Study, Pastor Wart Gampbel, I 
(05141) 4641R 



MTL FELLOWSHIP. 9 Rue Louis-Notarf. 
Sunday Worship 11:00 & 6 p.m. 
TsL*9Z 165500. 


gsfcal). a*i 950 am. Hotel Orioa Mefto 1 : 
Espterafe de La Defense. TeL 47 735354 

am Holy Euchanst Rto h 1030 am Choral 
Eucharist Rto U; 1030 am Ouch Schod tor 
chtten & Nusay care ptwtted; ? pm Spani- 
sh Eucharist Via Napofi 58. 00164 Rome. 
TeL* 39fi 4883339 a 3&B474 3589. 

SION. BUe study & Worship Sinday 1030 
am SladW sd o u De- B xse te d t, Buesdtetofc 
22, Bbte study 930, wordtip 10:45. Pastor 
Jm Vltabb. TeL 061556009216 



Catholic). Masses Saturday Evensn 630 
p.m.. Sunday, 9:45, 11:00, 12:15 and 
6:30 p.m. 50. avenue Hoche, Paris 8th. 
TeL 42272856 Meta Charles de Ga«e - 

ALL SAINTS CHURCH 1st Sun. 9 & 11:15 
am Holy Eucharist veto CNdton’s Chapel at 
11:16 AS other Stfxteys 11ri5 am Hdy Eu- 
(fans and Sunday School 563 Cheusma do 
Louvan. Chain, Bte^um. Tel 322384-3556 

gfcsh. ss. 1030, worship 1136 CMdrarfs 
SdKxti, IjBUcftortjumer Kkchwes 2J5-Kal- 
serswettL Friendy fGfcjwshp. AI denomina- 
tions welcome. Dr. W.J. Delay. Pastor. 
TeL 0211 WO0 157. 

oortiacs in Eunpe IncfcJdac 
BARCELONA: (03) 3149154. 

BRUSSCUfe TeL (J32) 6800226 
nUMronWESSADBIr (06128) 72108. 
GBEVAIBERM: (022) 7741596 
HEWBJBBKs (06221) 7&-2001 or (0621) 
58 1716 

LONDOK ( 081 ) 891 - 0719 . 

MinCtfc (0821) 47-0486 
NB1HBUIM (071) 14-0986 

46 7307. 

WWKfe (1)42-77-96-77. 
ZUraC WOTH TOUH UR: (062)213 7333 
WrmiMMMlpg) (621)56-1716 

This practice, which dates from the start of the Bosni- 
an conflict two years ago this month, has come to be 
known as “ethnic cleansing.” 

The kfflings have brought interoauonal rebel agen- 
cies to the point where they are reluctantly coming to 
the conclusion that a mass evacuation of the non- 
Serbian population around Prijedor may be warrant- 
ed, even if they are accused by the Bosnian govern- 
ment rind b irrann rights groups of abe t t ing the Serbs in 
the ahnttM j eansing campaign in northern Bosnia. 

There are about 6,000 Muslims and 3,000 Croats 
still living in and around Prijedor, as well as several 
hundred Gypsies. Three villages housing 1,000 people 
outside Prijedor, and tbe entire Muslim community 
there, had already asked the UN refugee agency for 

“We are dose to it. but that would be the last 
resort,” said Robert Monin, head of the Geneva-based 
International Red Cross mission in Sarajevo. 

Mr. Janowski sad the Croats also had appealed to 
Pope Paul n to be evacuated. The UJS. ambassador to 
tbe Vatican, Raymond Flynn, visited Sarajevo on 
Friday and was told by President Aina Izetbegovic of 
the deteriorating situation for Musfims in northern 
Bosnia, Sarajevo radio reported. 

The Red Cross bad been urgently presang leaders 
of tbe Bosnian Serbs to assure protection of the 
minorities in their areas and had been given assur- 
ances that tins would be done, Mr. Monin said. 

Contmned from Page 1 

the period in which bis political 
rights remain suspended after the 
completion of his prison sentence. 

Mr. Wei, who has received such 
warnin gs in the past, has said he 
would defy “unreasonable” restric- 
tions on Ins freedom and contacts 
with foreigners. 

■ Warning on Trade Status 

A World Bank study warned Fri- 
day that any U.S. move to strip 
China of its most-favored-nation 
trading status could have “disas- 
trous” consequences for both na- 
tions, Reuters reported from Wasb- 

The report said that Chinese ex- 
ports to the United States could be 
cat by 42 percent to 96 percent if 
Mr. Clinton derided not to renew 
the preferential status. 

U-S, consumers could pay S14 
billion a year more for costlier sub- 
stitutes for Chinese products or to 
cover the higher tariffs that would 
be imposed on Chinese goods. 

“In actuality, the impact of 
MFN loss is likely to be closer to 
the lower boundary, but even that 
is a substantial dislocation of 
trade,” said Rajiv LaH senior econ- 
omist at tbe bank's China depart- 
ment and the report’s main author. 

The document warned that the 
impact of any loss in the trading 
status could Tange “from the dra- 
matic to the disastrous,” such as 
halving or eliminating Chinese 
clothing exports to tbe United 
States. It also called on China to 
liberalize trade policies by catting 
tariffs or removing export controls. 

tying F 


i mtm 



ST MCHAE US OR JBCH (Ang&can) 6 iue 
JAguesririBU. 75000 Paris. M 9 ; ConcordaMa- 
f teletoe. TeL We tevite you to 
our Easter Services: 10:15 &m. Holy Cttmmu- 
rtion. 11:45 am. Forty Communion Ssrvioa 
630 pm HctyComnution. A ertoha is aval- 
ta&to tor youig dtittwi AleUte Chrfct to risen 

TERBURY. Sun. 10 am Family Eucharist 
Frankfurter S&nsse X Wiesbacten. Germany. 
TeL 4961 1206674. 

SMP BmakcMMUeMcta Gemenfe, 

Sobenerstr. 11-16 6380 Bad Hombug. pho 
n the Frartdurt 



nalFaJc 06173-62728 serving the l 

and Tauws areas, Germtaiy. Suriay wor- 
ship 09:46 nursery + Swdaiy«choo< 10X10, 
women's bbte sfadtes. Housegoups - Sun- 
day + Watoesday 193d Pastor M. Levey, 
m ember European Baptot Ccnvenflon. "De- 
dtere Fto gtocy amongst ttte nations." 

ST, ALBAN (Andean) al resedas OomW- 
ctos. Eucharist 1030 < 

_ ajn.oomarBted.dBta 

Vtetoirs & rue de rUnteereM, Strasbourg 


BLY. Mwh n ontote tonat & Evangeficai Ser- 
vices: Sun 1030 ajiL SCO pm. Wad. 530 
pm Rm ga My slym Shyri. TefiFax 355-42- 
42972 or 23262 


speaking Conoegations in 17 European 
Countries. MentoarEfeidst WWd ABance and 

CHURCH Am Oachsteg SB, FranMiat aJA. 
Sunday worsHp 1 1 30 am and 61)0 pin. Dr. 
TtanasW. H* pastor. TeL 06964S659. 

Euopaan Baptot Fadaaton. fiy Intawiaton 
contact European Baptist Convention, 
Some? L ta um str . 60, D-65183 Wiesbaden. 


CHURCH near BdabasN Stn. Telj 3261- 
3740. Woi^tip Service: 930 am. Sundays. 

meets at 1600. Bona Nova Baptist Church 
Caner de la Ctotat de Bafiaguer 40 F>astor 
Lanca Barden, F*i. 410-16B1 . 


SAAL, AM JSFBJ3 19. HamburgOstdorf. 
KtoStoeteto11 30&W Pr5Npan2a0each 
Sifiday. TeL 04QB20616. 


Clay Alee & Potsdamar Str, S5. 930 am. 
Wbottip 11 am. TeL 030B132021. 

930 am aid Ouch 1Cb4S am Katonboa 
19 (at the Ini. School). Tel.: 673.05.81. 
6a» Ttam94» 


27 Farveraade. Vartov, near I 
16154 Worefto H3tt TflL 31 6247B6 

Alee 54 (Across torn Birger Hoeptefl. Sita- 
day S diotti 930 . wsttip 11 am TBL (069) 



TOKYO UMON CHURCH near Omotasan- 
do subway Sta. TeL 340G0047, Wcrsftip aar- 
vfces Smday B30 6 11«3 am, SS at 9:45 


BBUN. Rottentaug Ste. 16 (StedtA BUe 
stady 10.46 wonhte at 1230 sacfi Smday. 
Charles A. Warford, Pastor. TeL 030-774. 

TRJWTY BAPTIST SJS. 930. Worship 1030, 
nursery, warm fellowship- Meets at 
Bloemcampiaan 54 In Wassanaer. 
TeL 01751-78024. 

Language * Trans-denontinallonefc meets at 
Hateasse 17. 1070 Vtema. 600 pm Ewry 
more M onmafion cal: 43-l-3l&-74ia 




M oo ti ng 11006 Ktoo Center BtJttog 15 Diuz- 
DuhtentotrsfayaULSR Roar, Hal & Meta 
Statio n S entad rarye Pastor Brad StemeyPh. 




. , Hhtenau Sfrasae 0. Kfito. 
»m. Calvin Hogue. Pastor. 


OF EUROPE (Anglican) 

Sto Study hEnglsh 

Pafis&dy Baptist Ctwch Zrinskeho 2 18.30- 


MUNICH Hofaatr. 9 Btfsh Lnguags Ser- 
vices. Btele study 1630TWorsi» Service 
ITOOl Pastors phone: 8908534. 



LY TRt^TY. Stto. 9 & 11 am. 10 am Suv 
day School for chfldren and Nursery care. 

TT« Sunday 5 pm aawnue 

George V, ftirts 75006 TdL 33ft 47 20 17 92. 
Metrw George V or Afina Maroeau. 


gfirfi tenguage) marts at EvangrtsfrFrBter- 
chficft Kreuzgemelnde. Hohentohesbasse 
Hermam-Bose-Str. (aromd fin comer tom 

the Bahrrfot) sinday worrtilp MOO Ernest 

D. Water, pastor. Tel 04791-12877. 


des Bons-Raisins. Rued-Maimatson. An 
Evangeficai dhudi far the En^sh speaiteg 
community located In the western 

9*6 Wodta 10*6 CMdran’e 
y. Youth ntirtisbias Dr. BjC. 

Qufii and Nusory. 1 
Thomas, pastor. Call or forHormeBoa 



ST. JAMES CHURCH Sul 9 am. Rte 1 8 
11 a.m. Rite II. Vta Bernardo Rucetlai 9. 

50123, Horenca, IMy. TeL 3955 29 44 17. 


Stiada Pcpe Rusu 22. aoo pm Conbct 9 

Hto ha rao n . Trt 01091-61. 

to te ma fi u r uti Stpfet Rafiowtfte meets a fiie 

Czech Baptist Chun* Ymohrariska * 88. 

Prague X At metre stop JWx» Podehrad 

Sunday a.m. 11:00 Pastor Bob Ford 



,ue Sundays worship 930. In Ger- 

man 1 1SM in Errfsh. Tet (022) 3105089. 


LUTFERAN CHURCH o( the Redeemer. Od 
aty. Muiteten Rd. Encash worship Sun. 9 
am AI are wtame. TeL (02) 281-046 


AWEFBCan CHURCH in Londoi rt 79 Tot- 
tenjtem Cl Rd. m Worship at 8.00. SS et 
1 ’ ^ ^ 

o qo 

American Lutheran Church, FritznersgL 15 
Worship & Sunday School 10 a.m- 
TeL (Q2)4435£4. 


66 Qua tfOreay. Paris 7. Bus 63 
el door. Metro AtoteMaroeau or tovtidB& 
IMMANUEL CHURCH. Worship Christ in 
Swedish, English, or Korean. HOT am- 
Sunday^ Birger jartsg. al Kuogstensg. 
17. 4 6/06/ 15 12 25 x 727 tor more 
ink* 1 nation. 


VEW4A CCafiMUNTTV OftiRCH. Sunday 
wt ? re h | P In English HOT AM.. Sunday 
ynool. ntgaary. totemafionat. afi dgnotnna- 

“WwefconaDcxoOieergasse^Va 1 ™ 1 * 


Enj^ah tanouaoe wcaWatos. Sun- 


b.-V '** 


Midt-tu Held 

i-C.» =«.-* p 

14 Ji »•:: Tr^ 

North Korea Defies 
UN on Its Call for 
Nuclear Inspections 


Page 5 

Compiled by o„. Staff Frm Dupatchet 

v ^ NIT] Sr NAT10 NS, New 
v?i,'^ Dc0ant **« of China, 
North Korea says the Security 
Council s statement on its nuclear 
dispute will make no difference in 
m its refusal to allow more inspec- 
tions of its atomic plants 

“We have fulfilled our obliga- 
tions on the agreement between the 
Internationa] Atomic Energy 
Agenw and the Democratic Peo- 
ple s Republic of Korea," said 
North Korea's chief UN delegate. 
Pak Gil Yon, “The issuance of even 
a statement will not help at all in 
the solution of the nuclear issues. 
We have nothing more to show to 
the IAEA inspectors at this stage." 

In response to this reaction. 
South Korea s foreign minister 
Han Sung Joo, said: “North Korea 
will have to respond because the 
Seomty Council will be watching 
and there will be further consider- 
ation if there is no progress." 

On Friday, speaking on the NBC 
News program “Today," Mr. Han 

. '."W® are not disappointed. 
This is a very good move." 

“We have the Chinese on 
board," he said. “‘Wbat the UN 
statement does is to open doors to 
create new opportunities to bring 
the negotiations on track." 

The Security Council > g y v ed a 
mild call to North Korea on Thurs- 
day night to allow the nuclear agen- 
cy to complete inspections of a sus- 
pect nuclear plant, after the United 
States yielded to China's rqection 
of any tougher measure. 

The council issued a nonbinding 

r ial to North Korea to permit 
International Atomic Energy 
Agency to finish inspecting a nucle- 
ar laboratory near Pyongyang. The 
agency reported two weeks ago that 

North Korea had blocked its in- 
spectors from making key tests 
there, so they could not determine 
whether plutonium had been se- 
cretly divened from the plant. 

The United States, with the sup- 
port of Russia, France and Britain, 
had pushed the council to put the 
admonition in a UN resolution, 
which has the weight of interna- 
tional law. China, the only major 
ally of the Communist regime in 
Pyongyang, strongly opposed it 

But a senior U.S. official said 
Washington “is pleased in form 
and substance" with the action be- 
cause it represented the unanimous 
opinion or the 15-nation council, 
including China. The Security 
Council cannot issue a formal 
statement unless it is unanimous. 

The United States also persuad- 
ed China to accept stronger lan- 
guage than Beijing wanted. The 
statement sets a deadline of about 

Mother Sets 
Crusade to 
Halt Caning 
In Singapore 

Co/HpUedfy Ota Staff From Dispatches 

NEW YORK — The mother of 
an American says she will begin a 
last-ditch crusade, including seek- 
ing a meeting with President Bill 
Clm ton, to save her son from a 
caning for vandalism in Singapore. 

But theyouth’s father said he fell 
the chances of success were virtual- 
ly zero, that the case had become a 
political issue to send a signal to 
Singaporeans about “decadent 
Western ways” and that the out- 
come was preordained. 

The teenager. Michael Peter Fay, 
IS, faces six lashes on his bare but- 
tocks with a rauan, a 4-foot-long 
(1.2-meter) bamboo rod wielded by 
a martial arts expert, after a Singa- 
pore court on Thursday rejected his 
appeal against the sentence for at 
least 16 acts of van dalism , includ- 
ing spraying paint on cars. 

Singapore denies that the youth 

•_ . - , _ hiuiuuiuib uwuu uuu uiu yuuui 

axweeks for the nuclear agency to has been singled out because he is 
report back on whether the rnspeo an American or that the case is 
Pons are completed and whethw political, saying 12 Singaporeans 
North Korea ism compliance with have been caned ^vandalism 

international safeguards. 

It calls on North Korea to re- 
sume talks with the United States 

since 1989. 

Mr. Fay has confessed to spray- 
painting cars and throwing eggs at 

and with South Korea, which were 55F3BE He v£s soared to 
broken off after the inspections four months hi prison and six 
fatted. The council committed itself lashes with a rattan cane, a punish- 
J® further consideration” of the menl that results in permanent 
issue if necessary “to achieve full scars and usually sends prisoners 
implementation" of international into shock. 

nuclear agreements. 

American officials rejected sug- 

Mr. Clinton, calling the punish- 
ment extreme, has asked Singapore 

ges lions that they had caved in to to reconsider. 

China, calling Thursday’s move a a State Department spokesman, 
building block toward further ac- Mike McCuny, said Washington 


Defense Secretary William J. 
Perry said Friday that the UN 

regretted the appeal court's deci- 

“We continue to believe the can- 



N.Y.Taxi Owners 
Are Told to Shape Up 

The New York City Taxi and 

I imnnsine. Commissi on has reject- 
ed a request by the owners of taxi- 
cab fleas for their Bret fare in- 
crease in four years. The 
commission says the owners of the 
Q'ty's 11,787 ydiow cabs are pro- 
viding poor service and depriving 
drivers of a fair share of the profits. 

Before any increase is approved, 
the commission says, taxi owners 
will have to agree to. a sweeping set 
of improvements, such as giving 

drivers raises and better English 
classes and allowing only new cars 
to be bought for taxis. 

' “The answer is no to a fare in- 
crease," said Fidel F. Del Valle, the 
commission's chairman, “because 
we have poorer drivers, worse 
cabs, and even worse service." 

The current fare is an initial 
meter rate of $1.50 and then 25 
cents for each one-fifth of a mile 
(about one-third of a kilometer). 

Before 1979, drivers and own- 
ers checked the meter at the end 
of the shift and split the proceeds 
approximately in half. Now, own- i 
ers lease taxis to drivers for the 
day, charging from $85 to $ 100. If 
the weather is bad or traffic un- 
usually congested, the driver risks 
losing' money, while the owner is 
guaranteed his lease income. 

“What we are trying to do 
now,” Mr. Del Valle said, “is cor- 
rect a 15-year imbalance that has 
favored toe owners.” 

This, he said, had led to a 40 
percent annual turnover in driv- 
ers and an influx of immigrants 
who usually cannot drive well, do 
not know the city and have trou- 
ble speaking English. 




A HIGH-TECH INFANTRYMAN — A sokfier demonstrating the prototype gear of the 21st century’s foot soldier during a recent 
tfispby of tiie UJ5. Army’s digital technology at Fort Irwin, Cafifornia. The forward infantry soldier win be equipped with backpack 
computer, heat-sensing sights and a minicamera on Us helmet to give rear commanders a view of the battlefield. 

Beijing Places Stability 
Ahead of Nuclear Issue 

By Patrick E. Tyler 

New York Times Service 

BEIJING — China's policy to- 
ward North Korea’s nuclear pro- 
gram reflects concern that econom- 
ic sanctions on the North, and a 
possible military conflict that they 
could provoke, would threaten Chi- 
na's economic and political stabil- 
ity, Chinese and Western analysts 

China does not want North Ko- 
rea to become a nuclear power, but 
the risk of even a conventional war 
over the issue is of much graver 
concern to Beijing, these analysts 

“We in the West focus on the 
nuclear issue,” said a Western ana- 
lyst, “but the Chinese, because they 
are residents in the neighborhood, 
not only are genuinely concerned 
that North Korea not acquire a 
nuclear weapons capability, but 
also are extremely interested in 
avoiding a breakdown in the re- 
gime or in provoking the regime to 
the point that it lashes out militari- 

The contradiction between Chi- 
na's desire to keep the Korean Pen- 
insula free of nuclear weapons and 
its unwillingness to confront its 
longtime ally is frustrating China's 
friends and irritating its critics. 

Some analysts in Beijing say that 
China sees North Korea's defiance 
over the inspection of its nuclear 
sites as a way for President Kim II 

statement showed diplomacy was ing ^ excessive penalty for a 
working, but that a final resolution youthful, nonviolent offender who 1 ' ■ ■ 
was far away. (Reuters, WP) pleaded guilty to reparable crimes 

„ _ Tf, CafSa’fiTS, Hungary Appl 

es Stability To Join the EU, 

* his court appeals His final hope for r» .. 

clear Issue Singapore's president Ong Tong SoCUttty 

Cheona. who has demenev Dowers. 

c t ^ Mr. Fay’s motheTffiyauin, ATHOJS— Hungary on! 

Sung to shore up his power. They said she and her former husband, became the first former Sow 
say it allows the 81-year-old leader George Fay. would ask Mr Ong for comriiy to apply for member 
to justify mobilization at home that clemency. She said she wanted to the European Union, sayin 
diverts attention from a collapsing mBel ^ Clinton to ask him to was the only way to ensure it 
economy and a crisis in confidence “look toward the Singaporeans rity and integrity, 
in his ruling circle over the succcs- asking for compassion.” “The most important 

sion battle that is looming. George Fay of Dayton, Ohio, about this accession is that 

Short Takes 

Genetic profiling, formerly 
called genetic fingerprinting, is 
spreading through the U^. justice 
system, the syndicated columnist 
Michael Schrage reports. With 
only a single hair, a flake of dan- 
druff, a drop of saliva or a bead of 
sweat to go on, investigators can 
positively identify, or completely 
exonerate, a suspect based on the 
idiosyncrasies of the person's 
DNA — deoxyribonucleic add, 
the molecular basis of heredity 
omnipresent throughout the 
body. Violent felons, Mr. Schrage 
suggests, should be required to 
submit to DNA sampling — a 

drop of blood or a saliva swab will 
suffice — which would go on file 
along with their fingerprints and 
mug shots. 

Do opera singers have to be fat? 
No, but some of them need to be 
of generous proportions. “It de- 
pends on the type of repertoire 
they sing.” Natalie Limonick, a 
Los Angeles voice coach, told The 
Washington Post. A Wagnerian 
soprano cannot be svelte — “It’s 
not that she needs to be fat. but 
she needs some body capacity, 
some muscles in order to get past 
that huge orchestra." She needs a 
large rib cage and a strong dia- 
phragm and back muscles. “It's 

really not the size of the body so 
much as the size of the vocal 
mechanism, the throat particular- 
ly." Miss Limonick said. 

Wmhun Gladstone, the 19th- 
century British prime minister, 
said that the first requisite of the 
job is to be a good butcher. “Like 
British leaden,” Maureen Dowd 
notes in The New York Times. 
“American presidents must know 
when they have reached the limits 
of loyalty, and be prepared to cut 
off troublesome friends and ad- 
visers, or persuade them to fall on 
the knife so obligingly held out.” 
Ms. Dowd notes that “President 
Clinton has been sacrificing 

friends and advisers at a rather 
brisk pace since he came to 
town.” By comparison, George 
Bush usually “timed out all criti- 
tistrt” of subordinates, and “it 
could be argued that this very 
quality led to his down/ all" Ms. 
Dowd recalls that when an aide 
told Governor Earl Long of Loui- 
siana, Tm with you when you're 
right. Governor, but not when 
you're wrong,” Mr. Long retort- 
ed, approximately, “You stupid 
so-and-so, I don't need you when 
I'm right.” 

Arthur Higbee 

To’jbintfwEij 68 Doisneau, Paris’s Photographer, Dies 

/>« . i r» • . The Associated Press 

Citing oecurity PARIS _ Roberl Doisneau, 81, 

Raaen whose intimate, often poignam pic- 

ATHENS — Hungary on Friday became some of 

became the first formerSoviet-bloc 

country to apply Tor membership in <n.r 

the Einopean Union, saying this Hc ^^rwent beart bypass sur- 
.< 'TTlV" . L__, gery a few months ago and died of 

was the only way to ensure its seal- b j , _ 4 „ 

wsL. ra“£r rtB,,B 

abouuhis accession is lhal UwiU 

oar course toward Europe .SfifJ 

a young couple stealing a kiss out- he had captured. He courteously was naturalized in 1954. his 
ride the Paris Gty Hall as people wrote back each one, telling them ish citizenship effectively nil 
around them swirl by indifferently, that they were right. extradition to Belgium. 

side the Pans Uty Hail as people 
around them swirl by indifferently. 

The spontaneous nature of that _ _ 

photograph — reproduced in post- Leon Degrelle^ 87, Belgian Bffl Travers, 72, F ilm Actor 

ers, postcards, coffee mugs and on Who Sided With Germany Who Starred in ‘Born Free’ 

T-shirts — was stripped away dur- BRUSSELS (AP) — Leon De- _ _ XTri „ . 

mg a legal dispute last year when a greUe. 87. Belgium's foremost cd- LONDON (NYT) — Bill Tra- 

re tired couple claimed that they laborator with the German occupy- vers ' 'A who played the tallest, 
were the young lovers. ing forces and an unrepentant strongest man m the Scottish Higb- 

To defend himself in a court case admirer of Adolf Hitler, died landsm the 1956 film “Wee Geor- 
that followed — the couple claimed Thursday in Spain, almost 40 yean « c and became star 10 yean 
to seek recognition, not money — after his native country had sen- Pterin Bora Free, died Tuesday 
Mr. Doisneau was forced to admit tenced him to death. at “f home m Dorking, England, 

that he used mrxlels for the photo. Mr. Degrelle, who founded a fas- soulh of London. 

The court rebuffed the lawsuit, cast party and rode it to electoral He died in his sleep, according to 

Bill Travers, 72, Film Actor 
Who Starred in ‘Bom Free’ 

Raising the level of confront*- said: “I don’t fed any real hope, make our course toward Europe cMdrenTworten and 

tion will only spur Mr. Kim to new It's got into the political arena. Ev- final and assure the^secunty and ■ TWonners 
heights of defiance, these analysts erything we did up to now, like GmajSsSf Evenwhen posed, his black-and- 

say- gp“S through the appeals process. Master whitfi phoUMseemcd w freeze a 

“Are the Chinese right in saying almost swots Idee its a farce. the Greek foreitm minister for Eu- natural poignant instant of anony- 

that we cannot push North Korea He added, “I have evoy reason mous real Ufe. “I am photograph- 

loo far, too fastr asked an analyst to beheve at this point that it was ^^^a^ Th^lonM Panga ^escr™ 

*Tm not sure we know the answer." utody prconkunecL” JS My 

For now, the- Chinese arc likely Smpmiatomr m Wash- „ ouId _ 

to stick to a path that sees' inaction mgton, has received “any letters ^ app ii cat j 0n on to his EU col- h 

as a useful tool many analysts be- JSLaKEJ 1 * snpportlIlg *** leagues in Luxembourg on April 

that he used models for the photo. 
The court rebuffed the lawsuit 


At the same time, China is quiet- 
ly stepping up its diplomatic cam- 
paign to persuade North Korea 
that its best future lies in economic 
reform, political opening and a nu- 
clear-free military strategy. West- 
ern and Chinese officials said the 
number of high-level North Kore- 
an delegations traveling to Beijing 
had increased in recent months. 

The Chinese mili tary has also 

caning decision. . y 

. .... . . . 18. He has overseen accords to en- 

Amenca should be taking les- large the Union to 16 stales in Jan- 
sons from Singapore on how to ygjy 1995, with Austria, Sweden, 
prevent crime had the line Norway and Finland joining, 
don t give in, said a letter from . , . . 


Chin Hock Seng, first secretary 

at the embassy, said that more ihan 

mglittle»c T ofame,"be l oldlbe 

presidency until Juiy. 

Mr. Pan gal os said he would pass f - 

Ie^S ,I b l tS^baira i on U Amfl “ The M Gvf H a u -'’ P,cau 8 ht 
nS^USSHSJkS^ that spiriL Taken in 1950, it shows 

An appellate hearing is set fa June success in the 1930s, headed the 
14. The couple. Jean-Louis and Walloon Legion, a Belgian unit in 

Denise Lavergne, said Friday that 
they would carry on with their law- 

Before the lawsuit, Mr. Doisneau 
regularly received mail from people 
claiming that they were the lovers 

at his home in Dorking, En gland, 
south of London. 

He died in his sleep, according to 
the Born Free Foundation, the ani- 
mal chanty with which he was asso- 
ciated. He married his 00-star in 

the German Army during the war. dated. He married his 00-star in 
Condemned to death fa col- “Bom Free,” Virginia McKenna, 
laboration on Dec. 29, 1944, he in 1957. The couple increasingly 
escaped to Spain and the protec- devoted their lives to animal wel- 
tion of a rightist leader, Generalis- fare and in particular campaigned 
simo Francisco Franco. After he against keeping animals in zoos. 



“In the past fquryean our ecqn- A Surreal Hiato^ °i 
been received from Americans in omy has changed a lot, but m order Mnzak, Easy-Listening and 

By the 1930s, the North American ac concept remains the same — meats connoting inherited concepts 
subsidiary Wired Radio Inc. was music as a kind of aural wallpaper, of how heaven sounds.” 
transmitting to homes, first over there but not there. Suffice it to say, he fails to con- 

electrical wires and them, because \xm surveys the entire field of vince. And in the end, despite the 
the signal was deaner, over tde- what he calls “moodsong” — the breadth of its survey, “Elevator Mu- 
phone Hues. The company aban- “beautiful music" of FM radio, sic" falls short It would have made 
dooed attempts to rign up home movie soundtracks, the music of 2 great magazine article — cue of 
customers — why would people pay such schlodoneisters as Ray Coo- those long New Yorker pieces con- 

men ts connoting inherited concepts 
of how heaven sounds.” 

Suffice it to say, he fails to con- 

JZLt ZZi, to completely change we need to be 

rC -Tb^vasf majority express ray hB members," Mr. Jeaenseby 
long support fa Singapore,” he ““r . 

Other Moodsong 

By Joseph Lanza. 280 pages. 

ice wunoe nnuuuy ua* ^ strong support fa Singapore," he “ . . . By Joseph Lanza. 

been taking North Korean generals said, but be did not give the per- Hungary hopes 10 begin mem- „ Martin's Press. 
on tours of China s boom towns to wntangg b ers hip negotiations after the otm maru * 

impress on them the benefits of 
economic reform. 

“But the Chinese are not sure the 
message is getting through and 
there is a lot of frustration m deal- 
ing with North Korea in general” 
an analyst said. 

A Chicago Tribune columnist, Unitm’s mtexgoveramental confa- „ , 

Mike Royko, said that after he encem 1996, which is to review EU ir JY. 

wrote about the Fay case recently, institutional structures. David NlQDOlSOn 

he received a stack of letters “sever- Poland plans to apply later this __ nr™ p ■ .i v 

alinch« high" in response^* 99 month. Tk Czech Republic has T!SLnabouS3Lk.£SSe 
percent supportog the ^* ^d it ^ to jom much sooner tobebeaKlaildnotl i s tened t0i it> s 
(Reuters, NYT, AP) than Its neighbors. , n n»-l narvr and Iran- 

like scented toflel paper and tran- From early on Muzak strove 10 
quilizers — one of those products create programming that would fos- 
desigued to smooth the rough edges ier different moods at different 
we once took for granted as part of times of the day. Progr ams designed 

dooed attempts to sign up home 
customers — why would people pay 
fa what they were already receiving 
free via radio? — and begin to con- 
centrate on “ small businesses — 
mostly restaurants and hold dining 
rooms.” Squierdied in 1934, but not 
before coining the term Muzak, a 
combination of music and Kodak, 
to replace Wired Radio. 

From early on Muzak strove 10 

those long 

tone article — one of 
ew Yorker pieces con- 

MYSTERY THEME By Ernie Furtado 

ACROSS 58 Say it again? 

I “My Life as " 60 Transcript fig- 

(1985 film) ures, for short 

5 Mandela’s org. 6 t Kinfolk 

112 Co-star for 

113 Van — r 

114 Baddy, in 

O New York Times Edited fry Will Shortz. 

* * 

8 B6bt S Acm-ss Sally of 115 See Suctions 

old Hollywood 118 See msmicuons 
U 121 Anklebone , 

17 Louise of 122 Plenty, to a bard 

TSSft*'* 65 Follows Miniature ' 

Island _ store by kangaroo of 

18 50*s war zone iq rtwes excessive Australia 

J, 1977 Scan 69 2^“““' 124 T«nbOgl*»r 

Turow book , - i 125 Classj’ horses 

S sSScoom 75 From airing J“ BriSo H val 

27 Steve McQueen s a syhimng 

•>0 u 0r !L sound - DOWN 

28 Rights org. 79 Battery size 

JO Hot due Reagan Secretary J Arcade name 

31 L ike the White Q f State 2 Sian -of- meal 

122 Plenty, to a bard 
125 Miniature 
kangaroo of 

124 Teen bugbear 

125 Classy horses 

126 Cooked 

127 Brillo rival 

TV horse 
28 Rights org. 

50 Hot due 

31 Like the White 

32 See instructions 

37 ‘ evil...’ 

38 Sight from 

39 Puccini’s Fiona 
42 Spitfire fliers: 


45 Sought by 


47 “Give rest! 

49 Pertaining to 

51 Some «st eggs 
53 See instructions 
57 Pop music’s 



Solution lo Puzzle of March 26-27 

ann ogana ggyy a ban „ 
ninnan n nnR 

aann naan nnnuu gg 

nnnrincj n n nnR n nnSnnnnnD 

ofSme 2 Start -of-meal 

85 Tou rnal 's end comment 

84 Printer’s eras 5 Upnght 

85 4 Allahabad s nver 


M f sS 8 TeIIer of P 1 ** 

92 9 Invigorating 

93 upsmddowp 10 P** ouc 


^£83. gffiF— ■ 

5 14 It's a long story 

98 Cheers. <e chow bias 

101 Seemstrucnons J 8 — 

109 Professional JJ inference 

or B- work: Abbr. 

— jo Gudrundidhim 

, ,, j.^.97 24 Volume 

. of March 26-2 ^ First ones ^ 


29 Merkel of the 
33 Jitters 
J4 Where bombs 

fa restaurants, for example, indud- 
And yet, Muzak and other forms P^^y morning music during 
of background music are, like Elvis, breakfast hours, livelier tunes during 
everywhere— in malls, in stores, in the cocktail hour, “discreet and qtn- 
restaurams and airports, in offices etiy classical" muac during dinner, 
and factories. It has also been used and danceaMe music after 9 P. M. 
in brothels and fast-food restau- These innovations were the basis 
rants to increase customer turn- f a M uzak s Stimulus Progre ssion , 
over, in stockyards to calm cattle writes, “a method of orga- 

before the slaughter, and in conve- nmne muac according to an ‘As- 
nience stores to keep out unruly cending Curve that worked 
teenagers. In fact, writes Joseph coun*f to . . . the average wak- 
Lanza in “Elevator Music,” offi- Tadgue curve. Muac was 
dais at New York's Port Authority prograrmned ml 5-mmute blocks. 
Te rminal haw started to play Mu- Tajlcired to workers moodswings 

niff, Andre Koslelanetz and Percy taining everything you never 
Faith. Fa Mm ) Muzak and other thought you wanted to know about 
forms of background music are “an the subject As a bode, however, h 
artfully contrived regimen of uoob- feels inflat ed and padded out. 

irusive harmonies and pilches ... — 

a concatenation of hypnotic violins, David Nicholson’s reviews appear 
harps, celestes, and other instru- regularly in The Washington Post. 


Terminal have started to play Mu- 
zak's classical channel in the hopes 
of keeping drug dealers and va- 
grants away. 

Unfortunately, these kinds of 
tidbits are few and far between in 
Lanza’s history of Muzak and its 
competitors, derivatives and sib- 
lings. In fact, “Elevator Music” is a 
little like Muzak itself. 

Muzak, I-inzfl writes, was the 
creation of one Brigadier General 
George Owen Squier, inventor of 
multiplexing, which allowed tele- 
phone tines to cany more than one 
conversation. In 1922, following 
his retirement from the army, 
Squier went to North American 
Co. with his idea for transmitting 
music to homes and stores. 

and peak periods as measured on a 
Mnzak mood-rating scale ranging 
from ‘Gloomy — minus three’ to 
‘Ecstatic — plus eight.’ " 

Over the years, Muzak program- 
mers have refined the concept, add- 
ed channels featuring different 
kinds of music and introduced' 
once-forbidden instruments (such 
as the electric guitar). Still the ba- 


Authors Wforid-wlda Invited 
WrBe or send your manusatpt to 












its nniuuH«** . 

special 46 Skatmg 

29 Merkel of ihe maneuver 

movies 48 Fist 

33 Jitters 50. Holding back. 

34 Where bombs • “ awa J[ 
burst, so we sing 52 Person in a pool 

35 Sixth-century 54 Unrolled 


36 Bring- end 

4a See instructions 

41 Temptations’ 

— Too 
proud to Beg" 

42 Escalates 

43 Auerbach of 
•The Jack 
Benny Show" 

44 See instructions 

55 Good 


56 Johns, in the * 

59 1982 Jeff 
Bridges film 

64 “ . . .but we 
know what 

66 Military squad 

67 — — the ground 

69 W.W. II miss 

70 Chicanery 

71 Goggles 

74 Detroit's Corsair 
or Citation 

76 Site of a Marx 
Brothers movie 

78 F.BXceAier 

79 Denver’s Lowry, 
e.gj Abbr. 

80 Ei 

82 Arctic bird of 

84 -French wine 

86 Offspring; 


87 Classic play 
based on a 
Maugham tale 

88 Galleys 

91 Circus young 

97 Heart printout, 
for short 

99 Body shops? 

1* West coast 

102 Called the game 

103 One grand 

104 Eddie— —.The 
Walking Man of 

105 Old Russian 



-106 Part of a family 

107 " , 


(Namath nun) 

108 Couples 

109 Movie pooch 

110 Argue 

111 Hacienda 

116 Phiralizer 

117 Shropshire she 

1J9 ‘GHe it ’ 

120 flattens 

Now Printed in 
For Same Day 
Delivery in Key Cities 


1 - 800-882 2884 

(IN NEW YORK, CALL 212-7525890) 








[>80637 MUNCHEN 

TEL: 089- 1 5Q 2 1 -200/206 
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Back on Track to Peace 

Thursday's agreement in Cairo between Isra- 
el and the Palestine liberation Organization 
promises to recapture the lost momentum to- 
ward peace. The two sides agreed to resume 
peace talks, deploy international monitors in 
troubled Hebron and speed the Israeli troop 
withdrawals from Gaza and Jericho as provid- 
ed in the September framework peace accords. 

Extremists on both sdes protested. Mili- 
tant Palestinians object that some 450 Jewish 
settlers are still permitted to live amid the 
80,000 Arabs of the Hebron area. Hard-line 
Israelis worry about the precedent set by ad- 
mitting outside observers to territory where 
Israel claims authority. Months of delay and 
violence have clearly swelled the ranks of 
skeptics on both sides. Yet if violence and 
delay have become the main threats to peace, 
the security measures and accelerated tuneta- 
fale worked outin Cairo are the right response. 

Most of the substantive concessions were 
made by IsraeL For the first rime ever, Israel 
will accept an armed international presence in 
the occupied territories — a uniformed force 
of 160 Norwegians, Danes and Italians whose 
mission is to provide a feeling of security to 
Pales tinian residents of Hebron and monitor 
events there. These observers, who will have 
no military or police powers, will report to a 
joint Israeti-Palestinian committee. Their ini- 
tial mandate is for three months but can be 
extended with the agreement of both sides. 

Israel has also agreed to permit the deploy- 
ment of a Palestinian police force in Gaza and 

Jericho, even before formal agreement is 
reached on the details of autonomy. Thai isan 
effective way to increase Palestinian civilian 
security, discourage further settler violence 
anri avoid mistaken- identity killings by Israeli 
soldiers, as occurred Monday in Gaza. 

In addition, in a gesture of immense psy- 
chological importance, Israel will speed up its 
troop withdrawals in an effort to complete 
♦him by the original target date of April 13. 

In return for these concessions, the FLO 

has now returned to the autonomy talks that it 

broke off after the Hebron mosque massacre 
in February. It has dropped demands, like its 
falls for removing or disarming Jewish set- 
tlers, that threatened to unravel the Septem- 
ber peace formula. The essence of that formu- 
la, is to give Palestinians authority over their 
own lives now, and leave issues like territory 
and settlers for later. 

From the day Prime Minister Yitzhak Ra- 
bin and the PLO chairman, Yasser Arafat, 
initialed the framework peace agreement on 
the White House lawn, both understood that 
their resolve would be tested again and again 
by violent enemies of peace on both sides. 
Their fears have been amply fulfilled, not 
just by Baruch Goldstein but by Palestinian 
terrorists who see Mr. Arafat as a traitor. 
The encouraging news is that Israeli and 
Palestinian leaders have now made dear 
their determination not to be deflected from 
the path of peace. 


Move Gingerly on Trade 

Angry sparring over trade between Japan 
and the United States is inevitable. Japan is 
r unning a huge trade surplus, the United 
States is running a huge trade deficit, and the 
products of both countries comp ete fiercely 
in each other’s markets. But to say that 
trouble is inevitable is not to suggest that it is 
harmless. It needs to be handled carefully — 
more carefully than either government is 
currently handling it. 

In the last installment in this continuing 
d rama. Prime Minis ter Morihiro Hosokawa 
of Japan came to Washington in February for 
talks with President B01 Canton. The visit was 
notable chiefly for tire collapse of the trade 
talks then under way. Now the Japanese have 
made another offer, but it is a halfhearted 
proposition, and the Clinton administration 
has briskly rejected it The United States 
wants more American products sold in Japan 
and a smaller trade deficit, in the background 
the threat of sanctions is visible 

But neither the American trade deficit nor 
the Japanese surplus is much affected by trade 
rules or the practices that the negotiators are 
quarreling about When a country like Japan 
exports capital and invests it abroad, it win 
automatically have a trade surplus that bal- 
ances the outflow of money. Similarly, the 
United States has been importing capital in a 
big way ever since the policy mistakes of the 

early Reagan years, and its trade deficit is the 
result These big surpluses and deficits in- 
flame the trade relationship and make it hard- 
er to deal with the agenda of specific indus- 
tries' complaints and grievances, which are 
often substantial and require attention. 

The prospect for any real improvement in 
trade relations between the two countries is 
smaller now than it seemed last s ummer . The 
American trade deficit wiD increase sharply 
over the coming year, largely because the UJS. 
economy is growing faster than is Japan's or 
Europe’s. In Japan, the election of Mr. Ho- 
sokawa, c ommit ted to political reform, of- 
fered at least the possibility that the old alli- 
ances between politicians and commercial 
interests might be weakened and produce 
more open markets. But Mr. Hosokawa, dis- 
tracted by the struggles over reform legisla- 
tion and hampered by a recession, appears to 
have no more interest than Ins predecessors 
did in a major effort to change Japanese 
attitudes toward imports. 

The Hosokawa government now has to ask 
itself bow long an economy as big as Japan's 
can prosper by running up vast, unstable 
surpluses. And the Clinton administration 
needs to consider how to prevent a swelling 
trade deficit next year from setting off a flood 
of protectionist legislation in Congress. 


Standing Up to a Future of Nuclear Showdowns 

W ASHINGTON — The United States went 
to war with Iraq in part because, once in 
control of the Gulf and its oil, Iraq would soon 
become a nuclear power. The United States may 
yet have go to wax, if that is what Kim H Sung 
decides, to prevent North Korea from becoming 
a midear power. And there win be future nudear 
showdowns. We may be entering the era of wars 
of nonproliferation. 

If this is our fate, it is worth asking why. Why 
fight nudear proliferation? Is it not inevitable? 
One day everyone win have the bomb. Don’t India 
and Israel and Pakistan already have it? 

To winch the answer is: They do, and it does not 
matter to America greatly that they da Israel and 
Iiriia and Pakistan are not outlaw states ideologi- 
cally committed to overthrow the world order by 
whatever means they can get their hands on. 

The key confusion about nonproliferation is the 
un dcratandabte but migaken hdirf that it must he 
'universal to make sense. Nonproliferation has 
never been a universal goaL The five great powers 
have long had the bomb but recognized that the 
world would be infinitely more dangerous if every- 
body else had h, too. They are not about to give up 
theirs. That is the first breach of universality. 

A second equally important breach distin- 

By Charles Kr«TT T>igmTn <>r 

fatter are not difficult to define. For conve- 
nience, use the State Department's list of terror- 
ist states that includes North Korea, Iran, Iraq 
and Libya . ) To be sure, it is not a good thing for 
many normal states to get the bomb. Prolifera- 
tion has its own logic and can get out of control 
Yet, while it is a cause of some worry that the 
Indias of the world have the bomb, they are not 

a mortal threat to the world community. 

Consider an American domestic analogy. It is 
not good for too many ordinary people to have 
gram. They might — they do — end up uang 
them in domestic disputes. But it is catastrophic 
for society when the criminal classes are heavily 
armed. For them, a gun is not a sometimes thing 
that goes off in a moment of pasaan or by 
accident, but a yieans of doing business. 

It is armed criminals who mm dries into free- 
fire zones. Ima gin e what the world wiD look like 
when outlaw states get their hands on nudear- 
tipped missiles. Which is why they most not be 
allowed to. But is this not a hopdess task? Is It 
not inevitable that they w23 get the bomb in the 
long run? To which there are three answers: 

1. Life happens in the short nm. One does not 
even get to the long nm if one has not survived 
the short. Perhaps our grandchildren will have to 
deal with a world in w&ch every crazy slate has 
gone nuclear. But they will not even be around to 
deal with the problem if we have not shown 
ourselves capable of dealing with the early stages 
of the promem today. 

2. Nudear proliferation might be inevitable, 
but perhaps outlaw states are not With the 
passage of time, it ispossible that the community 
of outlaw slates win dwindle, perhaps even dis- 
appear. By analogy, we have not strived the 
problem of terrorism, but there has been a steep 
decline worldwide in terrorist attacks ever since 
the stales of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Noe 
that aided and abetted terrorists changed regimes 

or, as in the case of East Gennany, 

It is quite possible that if potential nudear 
outlaws can be hdd at bay for long enough, their 
regimes will change. In the long run. North 
Korea win surely disappear. Saddam Hussein 
wfll one day die. The Islamic extremism that 

fads other outlaw states might bum itself out, 


> in less time than the75 years it took the 
; wtfhnaasm to burn Out. 

3. Even if nudear proliferation is inevitable, 
present vulnerability to nuclear attack is noL 
This is the most important reason to buy time. 
Today the United Sates is entirely defenseless. 
With painful slowness and over the objection of 
cmite irrational opposition, it is just beginning to 
develop defenses against misale attack. 

The Korean crisis presents President Bill Clin- 
ton with the opportunity to offer a virion of the 
world and a program of national security as 
coherent and compelling as that offered by Resi- 
dent Harry Truman in 1947. like Truman, he 
should speak plainly. Explain that the Korean 
crisis is only the first of many. That we are 
entering an age of proliferation. That Americans 
must begin a serious, accelerated effort to protect 
future generations with missil e defenses. 

We are not talking about “star wars." This is 
not some impossible scheme to shoot down 
10,000 weapons raining down from the Soviet 
Union. We are talking about defense against the 
small arsenal of an outlaw state that could one 
day hold hostage San Francisco or New York 
A Democrat saying that? Why not? Harry 
Tr uman invented containment. Richard Nixon 
went to China Vision does not follow a script 
Washington Post Writers Group. 

Playing It Much Too Safe In a Society Adrift, Room for Extremists to flourish 

Why wait to send peacekeepers to Bosnia 
until — this is American policy — a compre- 
hensive peace agreement is signed? So asks 
Yasushi Akashl the United Nations' man in 
the former Yugoslavia. “Agreements are be- 
ing reached toward that peace cow, and now 
is the time we need troops." 

He's got a point Hie no-troops- tiC-it’s- 
finished-and-safe policy was formed in the 
aftershock of American peacekeeping losses 
in Somalia and at a moment when the Ameri- 
can government was in a deliberately low 
profile in Bosnia. But the memory of Somalia 
is cot and should not be controlling in all 
circumstances. Anyway, President Bffl Clin- 
ton has been having some success in the old 
Yugoslavia with a surge of American initia- 
tive. It is time to rethink peacekeeping and see 
whether and how Washington could make an 
appropriate contribution. 

What Mr. Akashi calls a “piecemeal peace" 
is emerging. Sarajevo and other besieged cities 
are openin g: It takes more peacekeepers. 
Washington and Moscow delivered Bosnia’s 
Muslims and Croats to a cease-fire and a feder- 
al constitution: a big new piece of peace to 
police. Now the two great powers have drawn 

Croatia and the breakaway Serbian region of 
Rrajina into a cease-fire: an additional 1,600 
kilometer { 1 ,000-nrik) confrontation line topa- 
troL These increments overwhelm resources 
already in place. The idea that the new gains 
might be lost for want of adequate peacekeep- 
ing should be regarded as criminal. 

Flay band to get, demurs the Pentagon: 
Sticking to the old U.S. terms on peacekeeping 
applies powerful leverage on others to fill the 
gap. Here is a case erf success gone unrecog- 
nized Other countries in Europe and elsewhere 
have filled the gap — the old gap. Now, with 
the new requirements, there is an expanding 
newgap. Already the United States has seen fit 
to send 350 troops to monitor events in Mac- 
edonia. In that instance it didn’t amply do 
nothing and call it leverage: 

Is it risky? It is risky. The French, who have 
led the way, the British and others represented 
on the ground have taken casualties — and 
stayed on the mission. It is bizarre that the 
United States, which keeps insisting that it 
^eventually dispatch peacekeepers only^f 

its NATO comrades awisits on the'Jddines. 


Other Comment 

So Much Meal for the Rears 

If there is one thing Wall Street can't stand 
it is good news. Conference Board reports that 
consumer confidence has surged to a four- 
year high helped send stock and braid prices 
tumbling this week to lows 8 percent under 
their Jan. 31 peak. The reason; Fears of infia-’ 
tion and a consensus that the Federal Reserve 
Board will keep increasing short-term interest 
rates to stop it at the pass. 

That, at least, is one explanation for the 
market's jit toy performance. It makes more 
sense to us than the more common assertion 
that the Fed's quarter-point boosts in short- 
term rates in February and March, with 
promise of more to come, set off the tailspin. 

Consider all the red meat on which Wall 

Street bears can chew: Japan and the United 
States at loggerheads on trade: a deadline 
approaching for the imposition of Hi-con- 
ceived trade sanctions on China; North Korea 
rattling its inripient nuclear arsenal; Russia’s 
economy in a swamp and Ukraine even 
worse; Mexico in turmoil; Whitewater cor- 
roding the White House; shrinking defense 
budgets imploding the weapons industry. 

This would be a witch's brew for any gam- 
ble on the future, which is what financial 
markets are all about. 

Meanwhile, the Fed chairman, Alan Green- 
span, figures it is Ms responsibility to stifle 
inflati on before it happens and thus give the 
economy a firm imderpinnmg for long-term 
steady growth. We agree 

— The Bokmore Sun. 

P ARIS— During the days leading 
up to this Easter weekend — rdi- 
gkws season for a society that largely 
has lost its religious convictions, even 
if new forms of religious sentiment 
abound — the Islamic world has pro- 
vided a demonstration of just bow 
serious reh^on can be. 

Algeria is on the brink of some- 
thing dose to civil war. Islamic fun- 
damentalists and terrorists have risen 
up against the repressive nrihtaiy 
government, which is the legatee of 
the freedom movement of the 1950s. 
the FLN, or National Liberation 
Front Afghanistan continues to be 
ravaged by civil war between rdi- 
gjoos factions and secular forces. 

Local elections in Turkey have giv- 
en unexpected success to an Islamic 
fundamentalist party there, which 
last Sunday gained the most impor- 
tant office up for election, that of lord 
mayor of Istanbul with 25 percent of 
the vote. Although the national aver- 
age of electoral support for the Islam- 
ic f undamentalist s remains below 20 
percent, this result was significant. 

Turkey, after Wodd War l was the 
initial Islamic conchy to break away 
from the theocratic political tradition 
that in the past deprived Islamic gov- 
ernments (/secular political legitimacy. 

By William Pfaff 

In Christian Europe, the Christian em- 
peror had a divine right to “the things 
that are Caesar’s,” sanctioned by 
Christ’s words in the New Testament. 
Religion functioned in its own sphere. 

In Islam, as the eminent American 
scholar Bernard Lewis has said, “The 
principal function of government is to 
gnabl e the individual Muslim to live a 
good Muslim life. This is, in the last 
analysis, the purpose of the stale.” 
This is the regime the Islamic funda- 
mentalists want to reestablish. 

The Turkish military revolutionary 
Kexnal Alatuxk was from the start an 
aggressive seculizer, banning polyga- 
my, emancipating women arid rocking 
dial marnagc. the Western alphabet 
and Western-style education compul- 
sory. To the extent that last week’s 
vote represents a repudiation of Ata- 
turk’s reforms, it was a challenge of 
great moment to modem Turkey's 
leaders and to its ^cwernmeni, under a 
female prime minister, Tansu GDer. 

People in the Islamic world are 
turning to the fundamentalists be- 
cause of the faDures of the secular 
model of modernization. There is a 
serious loss of morale among the 
modernizers themselves. In part this 

failure is economic, generating un- 
balanced growth and the breakdown 
of traditional institutions, but at a 
deeper level it is moraL The modem 
wond — the Western world, as it is 
presented to the Islamic peoples — 
seems morally anarchical or actively 
immo ral. The Islamic fundamental- 
ists promise to re-establish the values 
of Islam’s own past. 

They are most unlikely to be able 
to do that. The forces of seculariza- 
tion and internationalization are in 

the long term fikdy to prevail 

" But the form 


any effort to turn back, 
society win assnme in many non- 
Westem countries may prove to be 
very distant from the liberal West 
And the liberal West — modern 
seedy and scientific society — is not 

The anarchy^* 

the mere aimlessness, of much in con- 
temporary American society is pain- 
fully apparent, to Americans most of 
aQ. A part of the American intellectual 
class is even searching for a new na- 
tional political-moral orientation in 
some kind of amalgam of cultural in- 
fluences, to substitute for those of the 
American and Western past, naively 

Veiled and Fearful in Besieged Algeria 

This letter was sent by a young Algerian woman to friends in Paris; she asked 
than to share it i with others, ft was written before Wednesday’s murder in Algiers 
of two unveiled schoolgirls. The writer’s name is withheld at her friends' request. 

International Herald Tribune 



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LI. an eapihil de j.jMM.flWM F. RCS Naaterre 8 7321121 12h. Cummission Parilaire No. 61337 
i- IW4. /Mmuririkif timid Trihme. Ad ri*htinsenvL ISSN: t&MtSl 

My Dear Friends: 

On March 10, the most radical fac- 
tion of the Islamic fundamentalist 
movement, which has been 
war against the Algerian state' 
people since January 1992, an- 
nounced that any woman seen in 
public after March 17 without the 
nijab (veil) prescribed by Muslim or- 
thodoxy would be a legitimate target 
With blades or bullets, she could and 
should be killed. 

This was no empty threat It was 
carried out on March 18 when a 16- 
year-old high school girl was mur- 
dered on her way to class. 

Since then, all the young women in 
the factory where I work as a junior 
manager are wearing the veil. I doubt 
that even three of them have the re- 
motest interest in following the pre- 
ray is of Islam in a strict sense, u at 
alL We respect the religion of our 
parents. But we were taught that reli- 
gion is a private matter that cannot 
be imposed by decree. 

Now, practicing what we were 
taught, what we grew up with, what 

we believe, can get us killed. None of 
us wants to wear the veil. Fear, I 
admit, is stronger than oar convic- 
tions, OT our will to be free. Fear is all 
around us. Our parents, our brothers, 
are unanimous: Wear die veil and 
alive. This will pass, 
am no intellectual but I believe 
that other $iis and boys, other people, 
elsewhere in other times, were told 
that the evil and the fear around them 


would pass. As far as I know, it did 
not. It got worse. I believe it wflj get 
worse here, unless someone bears us. 

Today the Islamists, as the Islamic 
fun dam entalists are called, want to 
the veil on us. Tomorrow they 
keep us from working, or even 
to school They say that we 
should not vote or take part in public 
affairs. The veil is to be total. And we 
all can guess that the slightest visit 
with a boyfriend can get us killed 

I understand that women in Amer- 
ica and France have problems that 
are real and serious. But 1 ask them to 
compare their problems to those of 
the women in my country, who are 
being asked to choose between our 
individuality and death. 

The best of Islam is founded in 
h uman dignity and tolerance and re- 
spect for others, both men and wom- 
en. But it is not the best of Islam .that is 
co ming to the fore now in Algeria. The 
war against women taking place now 
in Algeria is not founded in Islamic 
precepts, but in the terrorist mentality 
that took over Iran years ago. 

On March 8, International wom- 
en’s Day, thousan ds of women an- 
swered the call of the Association of 
Algerian Women and marched in the 
streets of Algiers and otter cities 
to make known their Opposition to 
the program of the fanatics. They 
caiiivt jfff an end to the violence that 
the Islamist terrorists are waging 
against our people. 

Scarcely a day goes by when a 

leacher, a journalist, a labor leader, 
a lawyer is not murdered, not to 
mention ordinary working people 
who show signs of free thinking. 
They are considered Westernized, 
corrupt beyond salvation, good only 
for extermination. 

Yet, when the women marched, the 
secular democratic parties did not 
come oul The women marched alone. 
And it looks like we wflj stay alone: 

The government of France — the 
country most closely involved in our 
country’s destiny — has waited ner- 
vously, hesitating between a serious 
policy of helping the Algerian state 
repress the terrorists and one of seek- 
ing a deal with the eventual winner in 
what will soon be a full-scale Leba- 
nese- style civil war. 

Our neighbors, Morocco and Tuni- 
sia, have done nothing, terrified by 
the prospect of the most powerful 
country in the region turning into 
another Iran and exporting its terror- 
ist Jihad — and millions of refugees. 

And the United States has done 
nothing. I have to believe Americans 
do not understand us, or the full 
importance of our problem. We want 
to live in a country where we can be 
like Americans if that is what we 
please, or be ourselves, or even wear a 
veil if we really want to wear a veil 
But the I slamis t terrorists, after they 
have turned Algeria into another 
Iran, will not give us any choices. 

Probably 1 have made many mis- 
takes in this letter. But I know about 
the Islamic terrorists and I know 
what they want to da I hope you will 
hear my voice and raise yours for us. 

International Herald Tribune. 

nearly always 
some kind of collective enterprise 
with a moral quality: to make a better 
life for one’s children, if only that 
The Islamic fundamentalists say 
they off a* a society of moral integrity 
and purpose. Western demagogues 
offer that, and jobs as wdL All re- 
spond to a popular sense that the 
moral gravity of society has been 
lost; and that is an ethical issue. 

International Herald Tribune. 

© Los Angeles Times Syndicate. 

He Builds 
An Edifice 
Against Hate 

By A. M. Rosenthal 

N EW YORK — The American 

entrepreneur, bora in Hungary, 
bad just returned from one of hts 
many visits to Budapest He spoke 
with rnignkh of the upsurge of anti- 
Semitism he found there. “Wdl any- 
way," he said, “at least it is not as bad 
as m Romania and Poland." 

I thought of the story in the paper 
that mor n in g — fascists gain impor- 
tant political strength in Italy. The 
papers call item “sea” Bui about 
fascists and Nazis I make no such 
distinctions, know no neos. 

And then I did have one happy 

JbS 8 feul'n would read fromhis 
balcony on Easter Sunday and other 
Sundays what he had mid to Tad 
Synle, the American author and jour- 
nalist, about Jews and Christians. 

“The attitude of the Chtuch toward 
the people of God's Old Testament — 
the Jews — can only be that they are 
our elder brothers m the faith," the 
pope said. “I have been convinced of 
that from my youngest years in my 
native town of Wadowice." 

The pope's comments became 
more intimate and personal — how 
he had seen Jews rounded up by the 
Nazis in Poland when he was in his 
fata teens, how he always regretted he 
could do nothing, but at least could 
keep talking of what he had seen, and 
how be had forever remembered (he 
words of the 1 47 th Psahn he had 
heard as a child: 

“O Jerusalem, glorify the Lord; 
Praise thy God, O Zion." 

The pope spoke too of the “right" 
of the Jews to return to Israel, *the 
land of their ancestors," 

The comments to Mr. Szulc were 
made drning an interview in the pa- 
pal quarters. Mr. Szulc, Polish-bom, 
is writing the pope's biography. But 
he is a great scoop artist —a former. 
New York Times reporter who broke 
the stray about the pending Bay of 

Pigs invasion of Cuba. 
He is 

considered discredited by the evds 
with which they have been associated. 

Societies dominated until World 
War I by an official Christianity, and 
divided in their xrdd-20th century alle- 
giances by the rivalry between En- 
lightenment liberalism and apocalyp- 
tic communism, nowiadc a nurfrffiznig 
vision of the future. The recent Italian 
pariiamentaiy election resuh, in which 
the Ross Perut-lib: television magnate 
SBvio Berlusconi enwged as die coun- 
try's principal political figure, with a 
program of demagogic promises, was 
produced by decades of eruption in 
both Christian Democratic and So- 
cialist parties, and by the loss of the 
Communists’ vision of a supposedly 
progressive alternative. 

France has just endured nearly two 
weeks of often violent protest against 
government measures intended to pro- 
mote youth employment. The emo- 
tional reality of the protests was de- 
nunciation of a future in winch it 
seems that vast numbcre may be de- 
prived of meaningful wade by capital- 
iso's implacable redistribution of the 
economic cards in favor of devek^ang 
countries with low- wage, low-benefit, 
low-protection labor forces. 

without work, people are literally 
demoralized, but so are entire societ- 
ies. Freud once remarked that work is 

not the man to let a papal 
exclusive tie around until it appears 
in hard covers. The interview will be 
printed Sunday in Parade magazine. 

His name, incidentally, is pro- 
nounced Shulls. Shults, not Slut or 
Ttilk or Skullr, as various nincom- 
poop Tunes editors used to call trim. 

When I first read the interview, 1 
thought — nice, but no lag deal; small 
maaes. I remembered the day in 1987 
when the Pope shocked Jews by re- 
ceiving Kurt Waldheim, then presi- 
ded of Austria, after it became known 
that he had beta on a “wanted" list of 
Nazi war criminals. 

I talked with specialists in par 
parsing, inducting Rabbi A. 
Fames Rndin, director of interreti- 
Kjous affairs for the American Jewish 
Committee. He thinks the interview 
broke important ground. 

The Pope, he says, is dome his part 
to build up bride by bride a new 
theological Caihotio-Jewish “edifice" 
that will replace the old structure, 
erected by centuries of rdigion- 
spawned hatred toward Jews. 

Constantly over the centuries, 
Christian thedogvhas been a weap- 
on against Jews. Tbdr continued ex- 
istence was seen as an assault against 
Christianity, which had its roots in 
Judaism but was supposed to have 
replaced it 

The Second Vatican Council of 
1962 and 1965 ruled out the continu- 
ous theological teaching of Jews as 
Christ-Jrillers — so far the most im- 
portant brick. If the Pope-watchers 
are right and Pope John Paul D 
meant the interview to be another 
brick, that is important good newi 
In all the wood, no stronger influ- 
ence for good ot evil exists than theol- 
ogy. What theologians think » what 
«m i n n r i an s are taught, j»nd what they 
then pass on to thdr congregations. As 
an editor I thought theology rate of the 
most important and least covered of 
subjects, and still da 
If the Pope and aD his 
the struggle against anti- 
not an occasional thing but a 
their priestly mission, would that end 
Europe’s anti-Semitism? No: Anti- 
Semitism is far too valuable a tod for 
fascist-minded politicians and their 
thugs to surrender, Pope or not. 

But to any Catholic who did be- 
lieve in following the t«n-hing s of the 
papacy yet might be leaning toward 
anti-Semitism. John Paul II would be 
crying halt: Anti-Semitism is a tin 
a gain st your own religion, its origins 

and wiaanmp 

Would that diminish anti-Semi- 
tism amonjr Catholics and non-Gath- 
oik Chris tians who do care about 
religion? 1 think it certainly would, 
not completely but to some impor- 
tant measure, yes. And that itself 
would be a great achievement for any 
one person, in one lifetime. 

The New York Times. 



1894: MonarchsMeet 

ABBAZLA — The excitement attend- 
ing the meeting of the two Monarch* 
of Austria and Germany, in whose 
hands lies for the most i 

of Europe, has partly subsided to-day 
[March 30], as cveryaiKis desirous erf 

enjoying a day of rest The visit of the 
two Manarchs u> the German training 
ship, the Moltkc, now lying off the 

mense social effect” of the proposed 
crusade against disease. The co-ordi- 
nation and extension of the efforts of 
Red Cross organizations would, he 
said, be a means of preventing dis- 
tress among the peoples, HmrnnA 
suffering and lighten the burden of 
humanity. The conference wiD con- 
tinue several weeks. 

took place at 4 pan. yesterday and was 
a very grand affair in every respect. 
Uw ship was decorated with flags, and 
under a tent the most magnificent Per- 
sian and Oriental carpets were spread. 

1944: Romania Invaded 

LONDON — [From our New York 
edition:] The Red Army has driven 

armco Him P n: ■ " 

1919: Red Gross Talks 

CANNES — The Congress of the 
Red Cross of France. United States. 
Great Britain, Italy and Japan was 
opened today [April I] by Mr. 
H. P. Davison, president of the 
American Red Cross. Mr. Davison, 
in his opening address, explained the 

purpose of the congress and the im- 

across the Prut River into Rumania 
at several points; in the first Russian 
invasion of Axis territory, and also is 
within nineteen miles of Odessa, 
where thousands of Germans and Ru- 
manians are being pinned against the 
Black Sea, Moscow announced last 
rogh L The historic crossing into Ru- 
mania, whose finest troops already Be 

in graves extending dear to Stalingrad 
or are bottled up in the Crime a- came a 
full week after Russia gave that shaken 
Axis s atellite a chance to q 1 " 1 its part* 
ocrtiup with Ge rmany . 


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international herald tribune 



Saturday-Sunday : 

April 2-3, 1994 
Page 7 

Tracking a Treasure 
Back Home: Cambodia 

Iniemanonal Herald Tribune 

P ARIS — Statues mutilat- 
m or smashed to remove 
toe head, shrines blown 

M . “ P ^“ USCUXD collections 

plundered. This is the broad pic- 
Ganbodia, Tibet, BoStia 
and otiier places. Who cares any- 
way? Fewer people than you might 
in the so-called art world. 
Ana those who do have a hard 

The story of the headless statue 
shwn here begins in December 
1980. That month Jean-Michel 
**raeley, a Paris dealer in Far 
Eastern art whose wife is Thai, was 
m Bangkok, a city he knows well, 
doing the rounds of the galleries 
selling early sculpture and pottery. 
The gray sandstone figure of a wom- 
an admirably proportioned despite 
the loss of the bead, arms and feet 
caught his eye. Smallish — 52 centi- 
meters (203 indies) — it had the 
monumental dignity tempered by a 
rare feel for the human body of 
Khmer art at the height of its classi- 
cal period, around A.D. 1200. It 
could have come from a great many 
sites in Cambodia proper or in the 
Cambodian areas seized by Thai- 
land in the last two centuries. 

A deal was concluded. The head- 
less statue was shipped off to 
France and eventually included in 
a selling show m the Beurdeley gal- 
lery late in 1981. A German collec- 
tor whom Beurdeley had never seen 
before walked in, liked it very much 
as the dealer Had done, and said he 
wanted it The price was 100,000 
francs. Beurdeley then applied for 
an export license. 

As French procedure requires, 
the statue was submitted for cus- 
toms clearance to a museum cura- 
tor whose task was to determine 
whether the work of art could be 
allowed out of France without the 
French heritage incurring a loss. 
The specialist called in on this oc- 
casion was Albert Le Bonheur, a 
renowned scholar in Southeast 
Asian art then in charge of toe 
Music Guimet pending the ap- 
pointment of a new director. At 
that time, Le Bonheur, concerned 
by the bail of devastation and 
plunder in Cambodia, routinely 
checked out any material coming 
out of the country that came to his 
attention. Bade in his office, he 
started driving into the photo- 
graphic archive built up over de- 
cades by the Ecole Fran^aise <TEx- 
tr&me-Orient, which had been in 
charge of the Angkor temples.' 

Within a week* Le Bonheur and-, 
rwotrf ihis coBeagpesrfounda black- 
and-white print that matched .the 
statue in the customs warehouse. It 
indicated that the statue had been 

kept in storage at toe Depot de la 
Conservation <f Angkor until toe 
French left in 1972. It came from the 
Ta Pronto temple at Angkor. In 
short, it had been stolen at some 
point. Le Bonheur rang Beuiddey to 
mform him of the problem. The 

dealer said be would see to it that the 
sculpture went back to Cambodia. 

That was more easily said than 
done. The country, which had first 


undergone the genoddal tyranny 
of toe Khmer Rouge, was now run 
by the Vietnamese mOitaiy. .Re- 
turning toe statue to Cambodik un- 
der the circumstances was point- 

Beurdeley and Le Bonheur 
agreed to let the matter rest until 
new conditions prevailed m Cam- 
bodia. Le Bonheur, who had marfe 
a full report to Hubert Landais, 
director of French museums, bad 
received his blessing. Beurdeley did 
not move to get his statue bade as 
he was entitled to in law, since no 
authority had ever laid claims to its 
ownership. It remained at toe Gui- 
met, gathering dust. Beordriey, on 
toe other hand, had to notify the 
German collector. The collector 
agreed to accept a refund, but, 
Beurdeley says with a rueful laugh, 
“I never saw him again.* 4 

Years went by. At last, the Cam- 
bodian stale was bran again. In 
August 1993, Beurdeley met toe 
French ambassador to Phnom 
Penh, Philippe Coste, told him 
about his desire to send bade the 
statue, and through the ambassa- 
dor's good offices, was received by 
the Cambodian minister of culture, 
Nouto Narang. He repeated bis 
story and explained that he was 
eager to see the statue back where it 
belonged The minister expressed 
dehghL But, Beurdeley says, when 
be rang toe new director of French 
museums in September and wrote 
formally to apply for an exit per- 
mit no answer came forth. He rang 
again to hear from a civil servant 
that the problem was delicate, no 
permit could be issued concerning 
a piece that had been stolen. He 
should tryto see whether toe em- 
bassy could help with transporting 
the item. 

Beurdeley, without modi 
put the problem to the ami 
who explained that the diplomatic 
bag could not be used for carrying 
private property — technically, 
Beurdeley remained the owner of 
the statue until be returned it phys- 
ically. By then, the situation bad a 
distinctly -Kafkaesqne touch. The 
ambassador had an inspiration. He 
alerted Prince Norodom Ranar- 

iddh, first president of toe Royal 
Government of Cambodia and 
new the prime minister. The first 
president had .a suggestion for 
Beurdeley: He was to contact 
Prince Norodom Sihamoni, toe son 
of King Norodom Sihanouk and 
head of the Cambodian delegation 
to Uncsco. 

Beurdeley wrote a letter on Nov. 
S and suddenly things were speed- 
ed up. By Nov. 22, he received 
word from the head of the delega- 
tion that the cumbersome piece 
could be delivered to the Cambodi- 
an delegation. A ceremony would 
be organized on Dec. 4. Beurdeley 
arrived at the appointed time, car- 
rying, he says, toe headless lady 
wrapped in a pared. 

By all amnnnte, the Cam b odians 
were truly surprised. There appears 
to have been no precedent to such a 
happy ending nor is it likely to be 
followed soon by many more. 

Jd 1993, Uncsco published via its 
International Council of Museums 
a bilingual booklet entitled “Cent 
Objets Disparus/One Hundred 
Missing Objects” in cooperation 
with the Ecole Fran^aise d’Ex- 
ir dm e-Orient, whose documents 
were used. Why on earth this did 
not come out earlier — most of toe 
objects vanished in the 1970s or the 
early 1980s — has yel to be ex- 
plained. Ironically, the only sculp- 
ture known to have been relumed 
is the Beurdeley statue. 

H AD it been published, 
say. two years earlier, 
all east two more pieces 
might be on their way 
back. On June 2, 1992, a “Khmer 
Gray Torso of a goddess, Baphuon 
style; 1 1 to century” was included in 
a sale at Sotheby's, New York. It 
looks exactly the same as the item 
numbered DCA 7081 in toe Unes- 
co publication, which dates it to toe 
late 10th century, gives Prasal Tra- 
peang Khna in toe Angkor area as 
its provenance and states the height 
to be 56 centimeters. Hie differ- 
ence in size given in Sotheby’s cata- 
logue — 22* inches (57.8 centime- 
ters) — means nothing. The 
apparent identify would sorely 
warrant an investigation. 

So would toe stunning similarity 
between a four-faced sandstone 
head reproduced as DCA 3489 in 
the Unesco publication and lot 555 
in Sotheby’s catalogue of Himala- 
yan, Indian and Southeast Asian 
works of ait sold in London on Oct. 
2f, 1993. The similarity extends to 
toe merest detail of iconography as 
well as to some of toe more unusual 
dents such as a deep gash in the 
headdress on one of the faces. The 
head illustrated by Unesco belongs 

Sculpture of female deity , c. 1200 1 returned to Cambodia. 

to a statue of Brahma from Tra- 
peang Phong and dates from the 
1 1th century. It was ripped off the 
body, to which it had been previ- 
ously reattached. In the process, 
the body was broken into bits. This 
might explain why the fourth face 
is **now missing,” as stated by 

Asked whether the auction bouse 
has a policy of systematic investiga- 
tion of mon umen tal sculpture and 
archaeological objects submitted for 
consignment, Marjorie Stone, gener- 
al counsel of Sotheby’s, said, “We 
try to get pieces before they get 
included in the catalogue. We look 
up whatever publications are avail- 

Publishing is toe first protective 
step. It is enough to deter auction 
booses and toe more scrupulous 
dealers, if not hosts of other buyers 

who do not have such a highly 
visible profile. 

Regarding these, the most urgent 
step would be an international ban 
on museum acquisition, whether bv 
purchase or by donation, of all cul- 
tural material from areas under de 
facto foreign occupation or in war 
zones. It would deal a heavy blow 
to speculation. But it simply won’t 
happen. Rich institutions are busy 
building up their important collec- 
tions. Who wants to hear that Ti- 
betan temples have been plundered 
before these lovely textiles were al- 
lowed to wander away? 

The North Star 

And French Sun 

By Michael Gibson 

huenumonal Herald Tnbme 

P ARIS — if Lotus XIV was the Sun King, 
toe king of Sweden conceived of himself as 
toe North Star — the “star that never sets.” 
The choice of symbol is significant. The 
kings of Sweden, in their large and underpopulated 
country, were determined to emulate the briBiam 
monarchy to the south and the two states main- 
tained dose political, scientific and cultural ties 
throughout toe 18 th century. Hus much is abun- 
dantly demonstrated by “Le Soldi a l*Eto0e du 
Nani” the big exhibition at the Grand Palais 
through June 13. 

Although the show is largely composed of works 
of art, fine pieces of furniture and tableware, it is a 
good idea to approach it as a historical rather than 
an artistic exhibition. There are two good reasons 
for this. The first is that most of the objects assem- 
bled are of historical significance. Tne second is 
somewhat subtler and is only apparent when one 
readies the slide show an the'end of the exhibition. 

The viator walking in from toe street cannot 
hrip being struck by the heavy luxury of many of 
toe items (toe big, ugly silver baptismal font by 
Jean-Fran^ois Cousin et, the bloated gilt throne 
built for Adolf Frederick and Louise Ulrike in 
1751), or by toe super-abundant French-inspired 
ornateness that characterizes much of toe interior 
decoration of toe period, because the stuff was 
either made in France or copied from French 
models by Swedish craftsmen. 

This impression is only corrected at toe end and 
toe slide show makes it quite dear that the rich 
taste of the French court was tempered in Sweden, 
not only by an ingrained Lutheran reserve, but 
even more so by a native aesthetic of elegant 
simplicity that is apparent in toe architecture, the 
landscaping, and in the way the French material 
was mixed with plainer and more rustic dements, 
heightening the charm of both. 

S WEDEN made a spectacular entry into 
the 18th century with toe extraordinary 
career of Charles XII, who. in 1700 when 
he was only 18, inarched out of his country 
at the head of a tiny army to defeat a Russian force 
10 limes as numerous commanded by Peter the 
Great. Charles rearranged the map of Europe for a 
while but was badly beaten by Peter a few years 
later and died in battle at toe age of 36, leaving a 
weakened and impoverished nation behind him. 

The exhibition also evokes the major aspects of 
toe Swedish economy during toe 1 8th century 
(shipbuilding, minin g and metallurgy) and traces 
the influence of Swedish scientific research. Hie 
do minan t scientific figure was the naturalist Caro- 
lus Linnae us whose classification of living species 
is still in use (be gave us Homo sapiens) and whose 
witty, avuncular features fairly glow at one out of 
yet another portrait by Roslin (who painted it free 
of charge). 

Other important figures include Anders Celsius 

Prince Gustav (1 753) by Bouchardon. 

who, together with Piene-Louis Moreau de Mau- 
pertuis, rode narrow and uncomfortable, one-man 
sleds drawn by reindeer into the Polar Circle in 
1736 and established that the globe was slightly 
flattened at the pole. The cold was so intense their 
brandy froze but they brought experimental con- 
firmation to Newron's theoretical assertion, 
against Descartes who had held that the Earth was 
flattened, not at the pole but at toe equator. 

The exhibition opens with the completion in the 
French style of toe new royal castle in Stockholm. 
The old one had burned down in 1697 while 
Charles XI was lying in state. It presents toe reg&lia 
of the coronation of Adolf Frederick ana his 
queen, evokes Louise Ulrike’s castle at Drott- 
ningholm and aspects of daily life in Swedish 
manors, provides an overview of toe reign of Gus- 
tav m, and assembles a twofold collection of 
Swedish artists residing in France, and French 
works in Swedish collections. The latter includes 
some noteworthy paintings, including a delicious, 
muted Chardin of a nurse adjusting a little girl’s 
bonnet before they go out 

The extraordinary prestige that France enjoyed 
throughout Europe in the 18th century is also 
apparent in hs relations with the kings of Sweden, 
but Sweden’s dose ties with toe French court were 
also dictated by a need to strike a balance with 
threatening neighbors. 

It was paradoxically a Frenchman. Napoleon’s 
former marahal Jean Baptiste Jules Bemadotte 
(founder of the current dynasty), who. upon becom- 
ing king of Sweden, broke the old alliance with 
France, sided with Russia against the French emper- 
or and established toe basis of a neutrality that has 
since proven so profitable to his adopted country. 

Strong Demand at Singapore Auction 

By Michael Richardson 

International Herald Tribtme 


INGAPORE— Strong demand and high prices at a recent sale in 
Singapore by Christie's has confirmed the potential of the bur- 
geoning art market in the region. At the auction, held March 26 
and 27, 75 percent of toe 92 Southeast Asian paintings, 94 
percent of the 64 lots of Straits Chinese gold and silver jewelry, and all 91 
sets of Nonya ceramics were sold. 

Together with an associated auction of stamps and covers of toe Straits 
Settlements and Southeast Asia, Christie’s Spring Auction m Singapore 
achieved sales of 5.7 million Singapore dollars ($3.6 mfllion). 

As a result, Christie’s, which has just established its Asia headquarters 
in Singapore, hopes to hold a series of auctions in the idand-statft 
Executives of toe company said that the next is likely to be in March 1995 
and will include an expanded offering of Southeast Asian paintings. 

Future sales will be affected by a 3 percent tax on goods and services 
levied by the Singapore government from ApnJ I. But Chnsues appears 
confident that the new tax will not significantly dampen demand lor 
Kmal .works of art 

pore to the sale in Hong Kong. Bidders in Singapore can see color slide 
projections of them and bid 

Sotheby’s will introduce s 
for its next Hong Kong sale, 
presale exhibition in Singapore, April 16 and 17. 

Meanwhile, in a move to expand further into the Asian market, 
Christie’s International has appointed Philip Ng, a former chairman of 
IBM Singapore and general manager of IBM’s regional services in South 
and Southeast Asia, as managing director of Chnstie’s Asia. 

l De recent saic iquucu ww m uiuv**w-~, - — o-r 

sian painters, as wefl as by Dutch, German and other European artists 
who spent time in toe region. The next sale is likely to include pamtmgs 

^TVxal 5kL KEi^Swiredto 12 million Smgapore dollar, for 
stampT almost 2 , S5f dollars, for ceramics 636,000 doflare and for 

jewetoy 470,000 dollars. Among mS 

SmeaDore dollars. ^Hiding commission, of “The Eruption erf Menpt 
i«vn at Nieht.” nain <ff d in 1866 by Raden Saleh- An 1857 letter 
& a Jnama bisect sold ta 152J50 

Singapore dollars. 

C HRISTIE’S first stamp auction in Singapore m May 1993 
Souiht in 4 2 million Singapore dollar! and helped convince 
UvTcompany dun tbenelS sufficient demand to support 

While ChS/to derided that the Eaa Asian «t market is rtrong 
wnue umsuea u«. auctions in Singapore as well as Hong Kong, 
enough to siqjport regular Hong Kong and perhaps Taiwan. 

jadrite jewelry io a ^ m 

Sotheby’s As&m feeling is that toe strongest market 

m toe near future. , umni in snlit the market 

aoroeoy s ah * ■ feeling ^ that toe strongest market 

for toe sake J .JKnual Hong Kong sales to 

Sotheby's had. “^^ApJ^Mpresale exhibitions in toe island-state. 

• ' -v-"\ ,;'f , 

' - i“: 

Renseignemcjts^ port v au mn 

Ouvwi Bins v " v _ 




MAY 13 
MAY 17 

Fri.-Mon.: ! 1.00 .im-S.OO pm; Tues.: 1 1 .00 am-7.00 pm 


7«h (London; 071 734 5491 Fa.*: 071 494 4SW Tel: (NY; 212 3B2 0960 

deal in 

English Paintings and Wfo taro! ours 
Oriental Asian and Islamic Art 
Jewellery ■ Textiles ■ Medals 
Coins * Bullion * Banknotes 


SIWR k SON LTD, 5. 6 4 7 KING ST. 
FAX: *71-094853. TELEX: 9M71! 




appear on Saturday 

For more information, 
please contact 
your nearest 

I.H.T. office, representative 
or Brooke Pllley 

181 Ave. Charles-de-GaulJe. 
92521 Neuilly Cedex, France. 
Tel: (33-1 ) 46.37,93.83. 
Fax: (33-1) 46J7.93.70. 



25 th 

Auction Sale 

June 17 & 18 

Rare old books on medicine, 
herbs, botany, and pharmacy 

Illustrated catalogue with detailed descriptions (in German) 
on request, price: DM 25, please send Eurocheque to 

Antiquariat Klittich-Pfankuch 

Postfach 1133, 38001 Braunschweig, Germany 
Fax (+ 49 531) 13 50 5 • Telephone (+ 49 531 ) 24 28 80 

Champ tie Mars 

0 ; Ecoii: Lhiiltirer 

auction sales 




9, Rue Drouot, 75009 Paris -TeL: (1)48002020. 

Monday, April 11, 1994 

Room 5 & 6 at 2 30 p m. - ABSTRACT AND CONTEMPORARY 
ART. Expens: Mis Prat, MM Padtti and de Louvencouit. ADER 
TAJAN, 12. rue Fa van, 75002 PARIS. TeL: (1) 42 6l 80 07 - Fax: 
(1) 42 61 39 57. In NEW YORK please contact Ketty 
Maisonrouge & Co Inc. 16 East 65to Street, fifth flow, N.Y. 
10021. Phone; (21 2) 737 35 97/757 38 13 - Fax: (212) 86l 14 34. 

Wednesday, April 13, 1994 

Room 4 at 2.15 p.m. - FURNITURE AND OBJETS D'ART. 
ADER TAJAN, 12, rue Favart. 75002 PARIS. Tel.: (1) 42 6l 80 07 
- Fax: flj 42 til 39 57. In NEW YORK please contact Ketty 
Maisonrouge Sc Co Inc. 16 East 65lh Street, fifth floor, N.Y. 
10021. Phone: f2I2 ) 737 35 97/757 38 13 - Fiax: (212) 86l 14 34. 

Room 1 & 7 at 2.30 p.m. - IMPORTANT MODERN PAINTINGS 
die auctioneer's office: March 29, 30 and 31, 10 a_m.-I p_m_ - 2 
p.nL-ti p.m., April 5. 6, 7 and 8, 10 a.m-1 p.m -2 pm-6 p.m, 
April 9, 1 1 aJti - ti p.m. On view at die Hotel DmuoL April 12, 
11 a.m. - (» p.m., April 13, 11 a.m. - 12 am Catalogue on 
request at the auctioneer’s office: FF 120. LOUDMER, 7. rue 
Rossini, 75009 Paris Tel: (1) 44 79 50 50 - Fax: (» 44 79 50 51. 

-Thursday, April 14, 1994 

Room 9 at 2.15 p m. - FURNITURE AND OHJEIS D’AKT. ADER 
TAJAN, 12. roe Favart, 75002 PARLS. Td.: fl) 42 til HO 07 - Fax: 
11) 42 61 39 57. In NEW YORK please contact Ketty 
MaLsonrnugc & Co Inc. 16 East 65th Street, fifth floor, N.Y. 
10021. Phone: (212) 737 35 97/757 38 13 - Fax: (212) 861 14 34. 




PiMo Picasso ( 1881- 1973), FT ohm, boutedle et ivrre 
signed on the reverse Picasso, oil, colltige and charcoal on 
canvas, 25!$ x 19 3 -‘4 in. (65 x 50 an.) 

Painted in Paris, spring, 1913 
Estimate: $4,000, Q00-S6.000JM0 
Property from a European Estate 

Impressionist and Modem 
Paintings and Sculpture (Part I) 

Auction: New York, 10 May 1994 at 7.00 pjn. 

Viewing: Paris, 6-7 April 

New York, 5-10 May 

Enquiries: New York, Nancy Whyte on (212) 546 1170 
London, James Roundell on (4471) 389 2431 
Zurich, Maria Reinshagm on (411) 262 0505 
Paris, Guy Jennings on (311) 42 56 17 66 

Catalogue New York, (718) 784 1480 
Sales: London, (447!) 389 2820 

502 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10022 
Tel: (212) 546 1000 Fax: (212) 980 8163 

6 rue Paul Baudry, 75008 Paris 

Tel: (331) 42 56 17 66 Fax: (331) 42 56 26 01 



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20*2431 . 
132132 ■ 
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15S22 , 
1JS1JJ5 I 
1154*1 * 
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For information on how to list your fund, fax Simon OSBORN at (33-1) 46 37 21 33. 

The conference program 
will highlight the investment 
opportunities in 
Latin America following the 
region ’s economic revival . 

Latin America 

A. New Investment Partner 

LONDON - JUNE 9 - 10 ■ 1994 



for further 

Brenda Hagerty 
International Herald Tribune 
63 Long Acre. London WC2E 9JH, England 

Tel: (44 71) 836 4802 
Fax: (44 71)836 0717 



TWTRIB INDEX: 109 . 82 A 

280 international S?®* SM° 0Tnpose< f 01 

byBloombeig conr, P Ued 



Approx, wrighfing: 32% 
•4P.M.: 126.51 Piw: 12122 


Apprise. MErighOng: 37% 
•4PikmB8Plw.; 11084 





1 North America 

Latin America 

Appmx. weighing: 28% 
04PJJU 91.47 Piwj 91.47 


Approx, weighting: 5% 
04PAL: 123A5 Prevj 1Z|J 






1904 1893 


International Herald Tribune, Saturday-Sundry, April 2-3, 1994 


it Warid Index 

The Max tracks U.S. rioter ratios at stocks tv Tokyo, Non York. London, and 
Argentina, Australia. Austria, Belgium, BrazB, Canada, Chfin, Danmark, RnJend, 
Franca, Gannany, Hong Kong, Italy, Mexico. Hatha rtanda , Now Znatand, Noraay, 
Singapore, Spain. Smtdan, SwK mlan d and VanKnaia. For Tokyo, Now York and 
London. thaMaxk oompoead of the 20 top toBuea In farms at maricN cap I Ma W m 
otherwise the ton tap stocks are tracked. 

1 Industrial Sectors | 

HL Pita K 

• 4PJL don chang* 


• 4PJL 






105.48 10&06 -055 

CapM Goods 





12125 121.44 - 0.16 

Raw Estate 



- 0.70 


11558 11254 +226 

Consunar Goods 





116.47 118.73 -022 




- 0.45 

For mote MbtmaUon about fho Index, a boaidat Is avakable free of charge. 

Witts to Ttfb Index, 1B1 Avenue Charies do GauBe,925Z1 Notify Cedex. Franca. 

Marks & Spencer Lets Money Talk 

Chairman Tells Critics to Look at Retailer’s Results 

By Erik Ipsen 

International Herald Tribune 

LONDON — Britain’s largest retailer, 
Marks & Spencer PLC, looks set to keep its 
crown as one of the world's most profitable 
store groups. It is expected soon to announce 
1993 profit that may be as high as £870 
million ($13 billion), compared with £736 
million in 1992, which would give it an oper- 
ating margin approaching 14 percent. 

Curiously, however, those results will 
probably go down poorly in the City of Lon- 
don financial district, where many analysts 
say Marks & Spencer just doesn’t try hard 

“Toe consensus view is that this company 
is not exciting enough," said Nicholas Bubo, 
an analyst with Morgan Stanley ft Co. 

He and others wag accusing fingers at the 
company's low financial leverage, meaning 

ared with 

its low degree of indebtedness compared ' 
its equity base; its overwhelming reliance on 
the slow-growing and overcrowded British 
retail market, and its innate conserva tism. 
For gpod measure, many also throw in gripes 
about its secretive ways and about its deep 
pool of managers that some insist are not 
nurtured as much as cloned. 

As befits a man who insists he has learned 
more about management from reading eight 
biographies of Harry S. Tr uman than he has 
from any management guru, Marks & Spen- 
cer’s chairman, Sir Richard Gteenbury, re- 
plies by going on the offensive. 

“Fran 1983 to now, the earnings per share 
of this not very dynamic company have gone 

from 43 pence to nearly 20 pence,” he said in 
au interview. “I don’t think that is so bad.” 

In response to critirism that Marks ft 
Spencer has been slow to expand its highly 
profitable operations in Continental Europe 
— where, nearly two decades after it arrived, 
Marks ft Spencer has just 23 stores with 
combined revenue that Sir Richard put at “a 
few hundred million" pounds — the chair- 
man said he had identified 50 European cities 

’From 1983 to now, the 
earnings per share of this 
not very dynamic 
company have gone from 
4.3 pence to nearly 20 
pence. 1 don’t thinlr that is 
so bad. 9 

Sir Richard Greenbnry 

where be would like to plant the M&S flag. 

But he said he refused to act hastily and 
was bolding out for the right sites at the right 

Maries & Spencer, founded in 189S by 
Michael Marks, a Russian Jewish fanigre, has 
seldom strayed from its meticulous, detail- 
oriented approach. Its stores, ubiquitous in 
Britain’s shopping districts, supply a broad 

range of clothing and household goods at low 
to moderate prices, and the company goes so 
far as to enlist its board members in the battle 
to keep costs down. 

An orange sign by the light switch in the 
toilet across from the board room reads: 
“Lights Please — Why Don’t You Switch It 

Marks ft Spencer’s surprise purchase of 
America’s prestigious but struggling clothier 
Brooks Brothers for £500 million in 1988 was 
the exception. Today, Sir Richard admits that 
it was bought atthe wrong time for the wrong 
price. He also throws in the observation that 
trying to grow through acquisitions in retail- 
ing "doesn’t work.” Sir Richard became 
chairman after Brooks was acquired. 

Jeremy Alim- Jones, an analyst for Lehman 
Brothers in London, was equally blunL “Ac- 
cording to any jury. Brooks Brothers was a 
very high-cost bet which they have lost," he 
said. Although Brooks is profitable now, Mr. 
A1 un-Jones estimates that its returns remain 
well below the cost of financing the acquisi- 

It is Britain, though, that is both the bane 
and boon of Marks & Spencer. To ihe compa- 
ny’s critics it is a market with too much 
competition and too little growth. To Sir 
Richard it remains a honeypot, one where 
against all odds Marks ft Spencer has contin- 
ued to increase its market share while doing 
no harm to its plump profit maigin*. 

To some extent the big retailer’s success is 

See MARES, Page 11 

China’s Growth Slowed in 1st Quarter 

O IntemBtJonrt Herald Trfcuno 

Bloomberg Business Hews 

BEIJING — The growth in Chi- 
na’s industrial economy is forecast 
to have slowed in the first quarter 
of 1994 because of a fall in state 
sector output, major newspapers 
reported Friday. 

A forecast by the State Informa- 
tion Center said that industrial out- 
put grew 17 percent in the first 
quarter erf this year compared with 
the Hkeperiod a year ago, accord- 
ing to China Securities, an official 
newspaper. This is down from a 
21.1 percent growth rate in 1993. 

The report said that state sector 
output inched only 0.4 percent 
during the first quarter and actual- 
ly feQ by 13 percent in March, the 
paper said. 

This contrasted starkly with col- 

lectively owned companies, which 
recorded output growth of 29.6 per- 
cent in the first quarter, and private 
companies, which posted growth of 
70.4 percenL Growth in those two 
categories had been fueled by a 24 
percent rise in retail sales. 

China’s state companies, which 
account for just under a half of 
industrial output, are always the 
first Mt when the government tight- 
ens credit to slow the economy. 

While the collective and private 
sectors fuel their expansion with 
profits and loans from unofficial 
channels, more than a third of state 
enterprises post losses despite be- 
ing financed mainly by low-interest 
loans from state banks. 

A central bank official said 
Thursday that credit from state 

banks would a g ain be eased slightly 
in response to “very loud calls" 
from even the healthiest state en- 
terprises, the Financial News re- 
ported Friday. 

“The central bank must support 
efficient enterprises with working 
capital loans and appropriately in- 
crease the scale of loans where they 
are suffering fund shortages, 
Zhou Zhengqing, deputy governor 
of the People's Bank of China, was 
quoted as saying. 

Weston economists have said that 
an injection of credit to ease short- 
ages of funds in state companies last 
October was parity to Marne for a 
resurgence in inflation, Much hit an 
animal rate of 20 percent in January 
and February this year. 

The State Information Center 

did not give a forecast for infla tion 
in the first quarter. It said if indus- 
trial growth stays at about 15 per- 
cent, China can meet its target of 
bringing inflation down. 

■ China Targets Forgers 

China’s tax reforms are experi- 
encing serious teething problems, 
with the authorities forced to 
launch a crackdown on people 
forging invoices to evade or cheat 
on taxes, the China Duly said Fri- 
day, according to a dispatch from 
Agence France-Presse in Beijing. 

Since the launch on Jan. 1 of the 
most dramatic tax reforms since 
1 949, the practice of forging, selling 
and stealing invoices has increased 
dramatically, the newspaper 
quoted an official as saying. 

Dollar Surges 
By 2 Pfennig 
On Jobs Report 

Bloomberg Business News 

NEW YORK — The dollar 
soared against major currencies 
Friday as U.S. interest rates 
dim bod after a government report 
showed the biggest monthly jobs 
gain since 1987. 

Traders started buying dollars 
after the Labor Department said 
the economy added 456,000 jobs in 
March, double what some analysts 
had predicted. The unemployment 
rate remained at 63 percenL 

In late trading on Friday, the 
U.S. unit had risen to 1.6972 Deut- 
sche marks from a dosing on 
Thursday ar 1.6740 DM and had 
climbed to 103.65 yen from 102.70 

The dollar rose to 5.7940 French 
francs, from 5.7200 francs Thurs- 
day, and to 1.4267 Swiss francs, 
from 1.4137 francs. 

The pound was quoted in late 
trading at SI. 4735, down from 
S1.4835 on Thursday. 

“This was an earth-shattering 
employment number, "said Alfonso 
AJejo, a trader at Sakura Bank Ltd. 
“The economy has gathered a lot of 
momentum, which could mean a 
turning point for the dollar.” 

The Commerce Department also 
reported that personal income rose 
13 percent and spending grew 1 
percent in February, tire largest 
gains for both figures since last 

Investors often buy dollars after 
reports showing economic 
strength, betting that robust 
growth will prompt the Federal Re- 
serve to raise interest rates to con- 
. trol inflation. 

The Friday reports sent the U3. 
30-year bond yield to 725 percenL 
the highest yidd recorded since 
January of last year. Theyield rose 
16 basis points from Thursday’s 
dose, the largest jump since Aug 6, 
1990, after Iraq invaded Kuwait 
Such rate increases make doDar- 
deno mina ted deposits in general 
more attractive. 

The market was both thin and 
short, however. Currency trading 
finished at midday as most traders 
left early for the (Stood Friday holi- 
day. London, the world's biggest 

foreign-exchange center, wa 
dosed for the day. 

Before the rally on Friday, tb 
dollar had fallen almost 4 percen 
against the mark since Jan. 1, htn 
by sinking U.S. stock and bom 
prices, and by concern about Fresi 
dent Bill Clinton's involvement ii 
the Whitewater affair. Stubborn! 
high German interest rates hav- 
also weighed on the U3. currency 

“The market will have a differen 
view on the dollar on Monday,' 
said Steve Flanagan, a trader a 
Paine Webber. “IPs much easier t< 
make the case for a stronger dofla 

The monthly employment rcpor 
is considered one erf the broades 
assessments of the economy’ 
strength. With employment on th 
rise, the Fed is considered mor 
willing to raise U.S. interest rates. 

The Fed has raised rates twio 
this year, pushing the federal ftmd 
rate up to 33 percent from 3 per 
cent. The funds rate is the rati 
charged by banks to one anothe 
for overnight loans. 

Interest rates remain higher ii 
Germany than in the United States 
Germany’s securities repurchin 
rate, a key money market rate 
stands at 5.76 percenL Traders wQ 
be more willing to own dollars a: 
the gap between U.S. and Germai 
rates narrows. 

The dollar rose against the yen ix 
Tokyo trading, mamtuna. after the 
Rimfc of Japan bought the U.S. cur- 
rency, traders stud. The centra 
bank bought dollars throoghon 
March in an effort to keep the yei 
from risin g A strong yen hurts Ja- 
pan's manufacturers by matrin^ 
their products more expensivi 

The dollar has fallen almost f 
percent against the yen since U.S.- 
Japanese trade talks collapsed or 
F 6b. 11. Without progress at tin 
bargaining table, the CHntoo ad- 
ministration is considered man 
likely to call for a strong yen tc 
curb Japan’s $60 billion trade sur- 
plus with the United States. 

Elsewhere the Canadian doDai 
tumbled to a seven-year low ol 
71.97 U3. cents. 
























Zedillo Needs to Learn Fast 

By Anthony DePalma 

New York Tone s Some 

M EXICO CITY — Foreign investors 
got what they wanted when a classi- 
cally trained economist was selected 
to replace the governing party’s slain 
presidential candidate in Mexico, but now th ey are 
concerned that the candidate’s great strengths in 
handling the economy may turn out to be a weak- 
ness in handling the country. 

Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de Lc6n has a doctorate 
in economics from Yale and such extensive experi- 
ence in Mexico’s central bank and its budget 
ministry that, if he is elected prescient on Aug. 21, 
as expected, he would become one of the most 
economically skilled heads of state in the world. 

So why should financiers worry? Because Mr. 
Zedillo has never before run for office, and be- 
cause he has a wooden style of speech and an aloof 
manner that will not bdp much in calming a nation 
distraught by three months of violence and de- 
mands for social justice. 

Many investors are now concerned more about 
political instability than about inflation. 

“What’s not dear is the sort erf pol itical skills he 
might bring to the job," said Lawrence D^Krcta, 
chief Latin American economist at Lehman Brothers. 

“To what extent be might command the support 
of the majority of poorandlawjd^MOTMis 
another area of concern, Mr. Krohn said. Hes 
reputed not to have the common touch, tojtthen 
neither did Salinas. Hes young enough, though. 
He could learn." 

Mr Zedfflo, 42, is widely known asafree- 
maAet wnoiisi who cut lus teeth withm tte 
polished walls of the Bank of Moocatte 
bank. He has been a key memberof wesutot 

Carios Salinas de Gortaifs team, serving almost 

four years as minister of planning and budget and 
two years as education secretary. 

He is expected to continue most of Mr. Salinas’s 
economic programs, having had a strong hand in 
carrying them out, and is known to support the 
North American Free Trade Agreement Mexican 
business was pleased with his selection. 

. Litis Gexmdn Carcoba Garda, president of the 
Business Coordinating Council, said the choice of 
Mr. Zedillo was a dear signal that current econom- 
ic programs would continue. 

Mr. Zedillo grew up on the poor streets of the 
border city of Mexicali in the Baja peninsula. 

He attended Yak University on a scholarship 
from the Mexican government A thesis adviser, 
Gustav Ranis, remembers Mr. Zedillo as “always a 
moderate in his view, not a rabid free- m arketeer 
nor an interventionist — a very mature person 
even at a young age.” 

“He is someone who believes in the irate of gov- 
ernment very much,” Mr. Ranis, an inte rn ational 
economist said, “but be wants the government to 
work with the market not obstruct it” 

While at the Bank of Mexico in Ihe years after 
the Mexican debt crisis of 1982, Mr. Zolillo over- 
saw a mnl rihnKrm-drinar trust set up to bdp pri- 
vate businesses that could not pay their interna- 
tional debts because the peso had been devalued 
and dollars were hard to come by. 

The trust made sure that dollars were available, 
and also protected the businesses from further 
peso fluctuation. 

In 1988, Mr. Zedillo joined Mr. Salinas’s cabinet 
He took control of the Office of Budget and Plan- 
ning ihe office once held by Mr. Salmas and 
by the president before him, Miguel de la Madrid. 

Mr. Zedillo played a key role in drawing up a 
national development plan and the programs that 
have helped lowo - Mexico’s inflation rale to tingle 

Market Takes Its Revenge on 3 Hedge Funds 

By Saul Hansell 

New York Times Service 

NEW YORK — Three private 
investment funds that had assets of 
$2 billion two months ago have 
been liquidated in a series of fire 
sales on Wall Street, virtually wip- 
ing out the holdings of a group of 
wealthy individuals and big corpo- 

The funds, managed by Askin 
Capital Management used sophisti- 
cated strategies to invest in complex 
securities based on packa g es of 
home mortgages. Like many such 
aggressive investment pods, known 
as hedge funds, Askm borrowed 
$230 for every dollar invested. 

While that sort of leverage am- 
plifies the potential gains in the 
fund, it also magnifies the losses. 

Tbuis, as prices on its holdings 
declined along with other bonds m 
recent months, Askin had to sell 
some of its holdings at a loss to 
provide the collateral demanded by 
the brokerage firms that had lent it 
money. Those demands are known 
as margin calls. 

These sales accelerated the mar- 
ket slide in Askin's holdings, gener- 
ally thinly traded securities. 

Wednesday and Thursday, big 
brokerage firms auctioned much or 
the remainder of Askin's holdings. 

recover the full value of their loans 
and may take a loss. 

“It’s embarrassing, but I don’t 
know where we stand,” he said. 
“We’ll be in on Monday to see what 
we have. If there is anything left 
well rebalance the portfolio and go 
on. If there’s nothing left I guess 
that’s iL” 

On Wednesday, Capital Holding 
Corp., an insurance company in 
Louisville, Kentucky, that had in- 
vested $52 milli on in an Askin fund 
known as Granite Farmers, said it 
would take a first-quarter charge of 
20 cents to 36 cents a share because 
of the losses. 

In theory, Askin used an invest- 
ing approuft known as market 
neutral meaning that the funds 
were not supposed to be affected 
by changes in interest rates. If (he 
fund bought a mortgage-backed 
bond that would Tall m value as 
interest rates rose, it would hedge 
that risk with an offsetting transac- 

For example, the fund could bor- 
row and sdl short a Treasury bond 
— a position that would gain mon- 
ey as interest rates rose. Or the fund 
would use other instruments tike 
futures, options and swaps related 
to Treasury bonds. 

Market-neutral investing, both 


David Askin, the firm’s prinri- in the stock market and the bond 
said that he had not received a market has been one of the hottest 

trends among hedge fund investors, 
including wealthy individuals, nan- 

full accounting from these broker- 
age firms, bat that it was likely that 
nearly all of the $600 million in 
equity capital provided by inves- 
tors has been wiped out 
In fact, it is possible that some 
brokerage firms were not able to 


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France Delays 
The Sale of 


Bloomberg Business News 

PARIS — Die government 
said Friday that it would post- 
pone the rale of Bauque Hex- 
vet and make a 750 million 
French franc ($125 million) 
capital injection to bring the 
troubled state-controlled bank 
bade to financial health. 

The Economy Ministry said 
that Hervet’s 1993 accounts 
showed a 12 billion franc net 
loss because of provisions for 
bad loans to companies and 
the real estate sector. This was 
despite an operating profit of 
327 milli on francs. 

The 750 million francs comes 
after a 150 tnfllion franc injec- 
tion made in late 1993. 

Basque Hervet was in the 
first batch of state-owned 
companies scheduled to be 
sold to the private sector. Un- 
like the others, however, it was 
never meant to be sold in a 
public offering but in a private 
transaction. Initially, Crfidit 
Commercial de . France was 
said to be interested 

U.S. banks and some aggressive 
corporations. Increasingly, pension 
funds have also bom investing in 
the funds. 

The funds make money by bet- 
ting cm the spread, or price differ- 
ence, between securities. They 
would buy what they considered 
undervalued mortgage-backed se- 
curities and bet on a rise in price 
relative to Treasury bonds. 

The mortgage- backed securities 
market is a fertile ground for such a 

strategy because many of its instru- 
ments are very complex. Brokerage 
firms take a pool of mortgages and 
divide them into dozens of differ- 
ent securities with various terms. 

Some securities only receive the 
payments from the home 
s others only receive the inter- 
est These are known as POs and 
IOs respectively. Others are even 
more arcane. 

The prices of these complex se- 
curities have fallen sharply as inter- 

est rates have risen over the last two 
months. The losses were so sharp, 
Mr. Askin said, that the funds were 
not able to main tain their its 
hedges. Thus, the losses increased. 

By (he time the portfolio and its 
losses were disclosed to investas 
earlier this week, the hedges woe 
small, making the funds highly vul- 
nerable to further declines in the 
bond market according to inves- 
tors in the funds. 

Mutual Fund Holders Hunker Down 

By Leslie Wayne 

New York Tima Service 

NEW YORK — Mutual funds, which hold more 
than $2 trillion in stocks and bonds, have remained 
relatively calm despite the nail-biting performance of 
the stock and bond markets. 

As the markets gyrated in price, raising concerns of 
an impending bear market for all kinds of securities, 
mutual fund investors appeared to take Thursday’s 
events in stride. The stock market was dosed Friday. 

On Thursday, for the first time in months, sales 
exceeded purchases of stares in stock and bond funds, 
but only by a modest amounL Telephone calls were 
up, many mutual fund companies reported, as inves- 
tors peppered fund companies with questions. 

Many investors switched their money into short- 
term money-market funds, to protect against potential 
further losses. But in general, most rand companies 
said that small investors appeared to be sitting tighL 

“We see concern, but not panic,” said John Bren- 

nan, president of Vanguard Group, the third-largest 
mutual fund group. 

The calm behavior of mutual fund in restore, who 
are smaller retail customers, is consistent with how 
they reacted over similar market breaks in October 
1987 and in August 1990, just before the Gulf War. 

Even in 1987, when the Dow Jones industrials fell 
by more than 500 points in one day, mutual fund 
investors redeemed less than 2 potent of their assets. 

Since then, individual investors have become far 
more sophisticated about market movements, remain- 
ing steady when markets fail And many have invested 
in mutual funds for the long haul — for instance, to 
pay for retirement — and are being advised to ignore 
short-term fluctuations. 

“Our phone volume really picked up quite a bit” 
Jane P. Jamieson, a spokesman for Fidelity Invest- 
ments, said. “A lot erf our investors have been through 
market corrections before and know it doesn’t pay to 
react to short-term situations.” 

“Quadratics’*. A solid gold watch 
with the dial engraved in 
the “Clou de Paris” pattern. 


Mcdtres Artisans d'Horlogene 

Automatic mechanical movement with date and second hands. Water-resistant. Also 
in white gold. For a brochure, write to: Corum, 2301 La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland. 

g'S* £ ,p s 8.?B §5? S’SSreiiS BrPftiS'ft 9Q8-&S8 

Page 10 


Italy’s Treasury 
Says the Deficit 
Is Still Growing 

Are Foreign Firms Fleeing Spain? 

70,000 Jobs at Risk as More Companies Cut Back 

Complied by Our Staff From Dispauha 

ROME — The rightist parties 
that are expected to form Italy’s 
next government will inherit a 
more sluggish economy than was 
previously expected and a widen- 
ing budget deficit, the country's 
Treasury warned Friday. 

The publishing, retailing and 
real-estate executive Silvio Berlus- 
coni, whose rightist Freedom Alli- 
ance finished first in the elections a 
week ago, was meeting leaders of 
other parties Friday to try to form a 
government His alliance pledged 
during the campaign to cut taxes 
and boost employment 

The Treasury’s quarterly budget 
report said Italy’s economy would 
grow 13 percent in 1994, rather 
than the 1.6 percent growth in gross 
domestic product that the depart- 
ing prime minister, Carlo Azegtio 
Ciarapi, had set as a target. 

The sharp Tall in Italian interest 
rates over the past year should help 
economic recovery by making it 
easier for businesses to borrow for 
investment. Bui the Treasury cau- 
tioned that recovery in Italy de- 
pended on the health of other Eu- 
ropean economies, which are also 
battling to emerge from recession. 

Its report said that Europe's re- 
covery “will take some time” and 
added that the recession in Italy 
had been “accentuated” in the final 
quarter of 1993. 

Euro Disney 
Sees Flat Sales 

The Associated Press 

PARIS — The unprofitable 
Euro Disney SCA will post no 
significant growth in revenue 
before 1996, its c hairman. Phi- 
lippe Bourguignon, said in an 
interview published Friday. 

For the first quarter of its 
business year, ended Dec. 31, 
Euro Disney reported sales of 
828 million francs (SI45 mil- 
lion), down 12 percent from a 
year earlier. 

For the year ended SepL 30. 
the park operator had a loss of 
534 billion francs. It expects to 
report a loss for the current year. 

In addition, although Mr. Ciampi 
hyt aimed to hold this year’s budget 
deficit to 1443 trillion lire ($90 b0- 
lion). the Treasury said it would 
come to 159 trillion lire, largely be- 
cause of a deeper-than-expected re- 
cession last year, when the economy 
shrank 0.7 percent. 

But the Treasury cautioned 
against rushing into a new austerity 
package, saying that would risk de- 
laying recovery from Italy's worst 
recession in its postwar history. 

The report, which cautioned that 
its findings were preliminary and 
subject to revision, attributed 10 
trillion lire of the deficit's widening 
to lower tax receipts caused by the 

The outgoing government also 
had set a target of 31 trillion lire for 
Italy's so-called primary surplus — 
or revenue minus spending before 
interest payments on the national 
debL The Treasury report said the 
primary surplus was more likely to 
be around 10 trillion lire instead.. 

Receipts from the government’s 
program of selling state assets are 
not included in the provisions be- 
cause they are going into a special 
fund to reduce the government 
debL The government in the past 
four months has raised 7 trillion 
lire by selling stakes in three state 
banks, and it is due to sell an insur- 
ance company. 

(Reuters, Bloomberg) 


MADRID — Suzuki Motor Corp.% Nissan 
Motor Co u Gillette Co., Kubota Corp.: All of 
these multinationals have annmmrwri over 
the past few weeks plans to shut down or 
drastically reduce their operations in Spain. 

The string of bad news has come on the 
heeds of earlier cutbacks, including those 
made by Volkswagen AC, Iveco Fiat SpA 
and Mercedes-Benz AG. The dram of events 
has sparked alarm in Spanish business circles 
and the local press over whether the compa- 
nies that poured their capital and know-how 
into Spain in the exuberant late 1980s will 
now withdraw en masse. 

The press has given especially dose cover- 
age to the latest reductions, since the Suzuki 
plant — Santana Motor, which manufactures 
four-wheel drive vehicles in the southern 
town of Linares — plans to lay off nearly 60 
percent of its work force. 

Four-fifths of the population of Linares 
earns a living either directly or indirectly 
from the Santana plant, and workers have 
reacted violently to Suzuki's layoff an- 

Nissan plans to cut 1300 jobs over the next 
two years, while Gillette and Kubota plan to 
shut down altogether. In total the most re- 
cent announcements mean the loss of about 
3300 direct jobs, but when added to earlier 
cases such as Volkswagen, which is closing a 
SEAT assembly line in Barcelona, well over 
70,000 jobs could be affected both directly 
and indirectly, in a country where official 
unemployment is now nearly 24 percent. 

Some analysis say the exodus is not sur- 
prising. The fast rise in Spain's labor costs 
since it joined the European Union and the 
deficiencies in infrastructure may have disil- 
lusioned foreign investors who came to Spain 
seeking low-cost labor and easy access to the 
European market 

Some executives say the most important 
factor is the condition of infrastructure. “Pro- 
duction costs today are very similar in all of 
Europe,'' says Josep FemAndez Royo of the 
toymaker Mattel Inc. “What companies give 
the highest priority to are factors such as 
infrastructure, property costs and availability 
of telecommunications." 

Others say that the Spanish work force has 
turned out to be less productive than hoped. 
Suzuki said its Linares factory has nearly 

Suzuki said its Spanish 
factory has three times as 
many workers as its 
fljiTifldifln and Japanese 
plants, which make 
more vehicles. 

three times as many workers as ns Canadian 
and Japanese plants, which manufacture 
more vehicles. 

Another problem dampening multination- 
als' fervor is the rigidity of the Spanish labor 
market. Most layoffs need official approval 
required severance payments are high and 
workers cm the job tor more than three con- 
secutive years must be either dismissed or 
given a permanent Contract- 

Labor issues were died as the main prob- 
lem encountered by 236 Japanese companies 
in Spain last year, according to a survey 
conducted by the Japan External Trade Or- 
ganization in Madrid. 

Many observers say foreign companies 
have turned sour cm Spain as pan of a broad- 
er disillusionment with its economic policies. 

“The problem is the difference between the 
measures are ann ounced and those that are 
finally im p lemented." said the chief executive of 
nm» multinatio nal consulting firm. He was refer- 
ring to long-promised labor market reforms, a 
much-discussed Kbcrafizaticn of lo cal markets 
for services, and the failure to bring government 
spending under control The government’s defi- 
cit was estimated at a whopping 73 perosm of 
gross domestic product in 1993. 

But other analysts said that what was really 
important about the multinationals 1 deci- 
sions to abandon Spain was what it revealed 
about Spanish business altitudes and Spain's 
prospects of ever “catching up" with the rest 
of Europe in income levels. 

Mauro Guillen, assistant professor of in- 
ternational manag ement at Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology and a specialist in 
foreign investment in Spain, said that the 
recent string of bad news gave little real cause 
for concern in itself. 

“This affects a very' small percentage of the 
stock of foreign direct investment in Spain, 
maybe only 2 to 3 percent,” be said. “It also 
appears that these cases are relatively isolat- 
ed, and I don’t believe that they mark the 
beginning of a new trend.” 

Mr. Guillen said that in nearly all cases, the 
companies in question were suffering from 
overcapacity because of the economic down- 
turn and needed to reduce output some- 
where. “The basic variables have not 
changed, and it is unlikely that multination- 
als would have miscalculated so seriously 
over what would happen to Spanish labor 
costs in the future." he said. 

Mr. Guillen said that he was more con- 
cerned about a related problem: Not that 
foreigners may no longer invest in Spain, but 
that a Spain heavily dependent on foreign 
investment is vulnerable because it is not 
making its own investments abroad. 

Investor’s Europe 


DAX ; ”‘4** 

Iv ■} 


Sources: Reuters. AFP 

iwwu mwmI Herald Tribune 

Very briefly: 

East European Bankers Are Accused of Profiteering 

former Soviet Union to Hungary by supplying arms to Hungary and/ 
jetting Hungarian companies buy stakes in Russian companies; a tranche . 
equivalent to S713 million was repaid to Hungary last year with 2$: 
Russian fighter aircraft 

• The Paris Gob of government creditors delayed a derision cm whether 
to approve the second half of a deal signed in 1991 to cut Poland’s debt in- 
half; officials said that the new writeoff, worth about $8 billion, would 
probably go through but that they wanted more time to study it and this. 
might take several weeks. 

• Smmm, the aircraft engine maker, said its loss widened to 804 million-' 
French francs (5140.8 million) in 1993, from 794 million francs in 1992. a 

• Tnritey’s lira fell 4.4 percent after the central bank cut its overnight^ 

borrowing rate by 50 percentage points to 200 percent. ~ 

• Suzuki Motor Corp. agreed to purchase Heron Suzuki PLC, which has 
been marketing Suzuki vehicles in Britain for 19 years. 

Reuters. AFP. Bloomberg 


PRAGUE — High lending mar- 
gins and strict loan requirements of 
East European banks threaten to 
suffocate the region’s economic re- 
vival, government officials and 
banking analysts say. 

Criticism of the banks rumbled 
through the halls of a European 
banking forum held in the Czech 
capital last week. 

At the conference, aimed at im- 
proving the h anks ’ role in the trans- 
formation of the region, the Czech 
trade minis ter, Vl adimir Dlouhy, 
was one of many to chide banks for 
maintaining lending margins as 
high as 7 percent above interbank 

“We desperately need growth to 
continue the transformation pro- 
cess and I see this very much inter- 
connected with the more flexible 
behavior of the banking sector, like 
it or not.” Mr. Dlouhy said. 

Critics complained that bankers 
in post-Communisl Eastern Europe 
were applying stringent Western 
lending requirements, such as high 
collateral levels or two- and three- 
year cash-flow forecasts, to compa- 
nies that had little or no capital. 

“The point obvious to all of us is 
that the banking sector does not 
seem to be as forthcoming in its 
loan polities in general as it might 
be." said Russ Trowbridge, eco- 

nomic counselor at the U.S. Em- 
bassy in Prague. 

“Tins is a critical issue for the 
next step in the transformation of 
those countries that need to move 
their economies along." 

While Western banks usually 
have leading margins — the differ- 
ence between what they pay for 
funds and the rate customers pay to 
borrow — of less than a percentage 
point. Eastern banks tend to have 
margins of 5 percent or more. 

“Czech banks still enjoy lending 
margins of about 7 percent, while 
banks in the West still measure 
lending margins in basis prints,” 
said Jiri Huebner. Czech and Slo- 
vak team leader at the European 

Bank for Reconstruction and De- 

One percentage print equals 100 
baas points. 

Companies in the Czech Repub- 
lic. for example, are dunged 15 to 
18 percent on l oans. The Czech 
discount rate is 8 percent. 

In their defense, many bankers 
said they were being singled out for 
making money and reminded gov- 
ernment officials that they were not 
benevolent institutions. 

“Look, we are a private bank." 
said Andrzq Wojcik, executive vice 
president of the Export Develop- 
ment Bank of Warsaw. “We cannot 
perform any social mission in this 
society. We are given money by one 

to waste this money. 

VW Dismisses Lopez Report 

markets needs to be X X 

diem and we lend ii to another. We 
are not going to waste this money.” 

Bankers say the high risk of tend- 
ing money to” 
in uncertain markets n ee ds to be 
taken into consideration, although 
often it is not. 

“The? percent lending margin is 
an arithmetic average. If you 
weighted the margin In' risk, you 
would find they are much less than 
that.” said Stanislav Rudcenko. 
vice president of global research for 
Bankers Trusu 

“The government cannot have it 
both ways.” be said. “It cannot ask 
h anks here to lend as much as they 
can without allowing them to cal- 
culate the risk in there somehow." 


BONN — Volkswagen AG on Fri- 
day dismissed as “hi g hly speculative" 
a report thM said prosecutors would 
charge the company's production 
chief with industrial espionage. 

A German weekly, Focus, said 
the charges would be laid against 
Jose Ignacio Ldpez de Aniortua. 

VW, and Mr. Ldpez in particu- 
lar, have been dogged by the allega- 
tions of industrial espionage and 
poaching executives since Mr. Ld- 
pez switched from General Motors 

Corp. last year, taking several GMj 
managers with him. . 

Focus said lawyers at GM be- / 
hcved German and U.S. authorities j- 
planned charges because of detailed^ 

its found in the possession, 
of some of the executives who went 1 
to VW with Mr. Ldpez. 

VW said that Focus's allegations^ 
were “based on comments by Gen- "! 
eral Motors lawyers — to our', 
knowledge the authorities have not-; 
stated anything of the sort” 



: be adored, glorified, loved and pre- 
; served !h ro u ghen* die world, now and 
; fwevw. Sacred Heart of Jews, pay 
, for us. Sant Jude, worker cf mrades, 
pray for us. 5art Jude, help of the 
nepeta*. pray for ul Amen. Say ties 
' prayer nine trees a day, by die until 
day your prayer wfl be answered. It 
has never been known la fat. Putf- 
ca&an mat be promised. HJH. 


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FBEUNG bw? — having 
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address to: Edward P. Gdbgher, 
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Center {Suite 7501. BethesdtL Maryland 
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Canada) Imrigrafon lawyer w 4 
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inrt or long term contracts. 

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far summer residence on French' 

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23W3I hi. UK license SE 1 6itt> 


raamtine n t oh Buden, 

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far UK 71 5B9 4966. be UK SaSIO 


NANNY AGENCY has espeneroed 
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t tramao & wpsncncsd 
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penereed n atlat tee & VJ.P, teOor. 

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driver's &cense seeks ou par p o si tion 
with French fm*y Mpy 15 ■ end 
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aether or umrdaly. French/! 

same English Tel Pam 1-4353 ~ 



Head Office World Trade Center 
Rotterdam. Tel: 31 00) 405 2090 

Desbordes ■ PAHS |33l 1-43.432364 
Demexpart- MCE 052*1 082 


Plus- ■” 

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Geneva Haradi (41} 22- 3004300 


•at senna - inti movbs 

25 man d experience, speaaSd in 
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100% Logoi Goveniiw u l Notro nofaoti on 
tfau Econainc biwstmenf. 60 to 90 
Days start to (fash. Dud Nafanaity. 
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and EC Global du- 

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free iravd. From 529,500 to $250X00. 
Money in Escrow. No payment unless 
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far Ue. Go with profe gi onah you con 
trust. Offices world-wide. Not amiable 
to UJC. residents. 

Faxon kttenwfkxid law 

No. 1 NorihiafalmdAve. 

London. WC2N5BW.UX 
Fax London fur deleft; 

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early. Too mofcvUe d to stay in re- 
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available ihrougb 100% legal 
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ond . fetemw, tarrimn* 



OF»a«RE COMP AMS. For fre. 

brochiire or odvrae Tel: London 

44 81 74! 1224 Fax. 44 81 748 6558 


Location of internnfton d funds. Fau 
44 603762239. 


$0.29/ USD/per nwx 



SO why par 
Lowest rates to and from the USA: 
Agenfm $074 Hong Kang: 50 J I 

Australia: 5034 
Brazil: $068 
Germany: S046 
‘ ' $069 


hxkt 51.06 
Japcn 50.45 
France: $0.40 
Tanzania: 5160 
Yugoslavia! 51JJ1 

CeA now far Free adhrallan 
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USA t-305-386 5343 
Fax 1-305-386 6352 
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SOUTH OF FRANCE Vitae house 

1 hr arport, coal, slang. Seeps 10. 
Large garden, aool. court. 
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sensahand 400 sqjn. via set in a 5 
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deeps 6, swteming pool Please fax 
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ITT US (R3J> YOU Steteet a toveiy 
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Condos. $20JD0-f dawn/ Full price 
SW1O80 + . khhcxse finand 

gwAfying. GnD 24 haus. Teh 
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• Luxury formhed 
■ Fuly eqispped 
• Mod 6 men service 

• dose to dm EMU Tamr 
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FOR 1 Vfffit OR MORE hgh dass 
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tracing Consumer Bectronics Company 
twang bfagud Frendi/Ei^* 
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TEACH05 n CokxnbeL Sant Ouen 
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Fax: 01/202 76 30 

- 1 i •. rjc a i M.V « i ;y:\i.v; fte 


letter Bax 1880.1901. good <*v nd 
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as presently exhibited in the 
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1 4548 1 

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FOR LOVERS OF PAMS: an authentic 

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Tdffl 66 89 60 M 
Fate ® 66 89 45 04 



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offers a wide wtecucri rf Bntoh/Am- 
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wok. Be & ocnd enne ex perience. For 
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fa our rea ders in Ho Bewo 

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Fax: +49 - 89 - 6423455 - TeL- +48 - 88 - 6423451 


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over 25 yean; of experience and know-how 

Please call dairy train 3 to 7 p.m. 
also sat. + sun. (except Wednesdays) 


Head Office Genn<ayFffinkfnt. Mis. Senior; T. (0049) 69 - 239306, FAX (0049) 69 - 239846 
‘ Wa are proad to tntroctac®: - a roatg lafy from blgb-dass dates 

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Call ae every day (alsoSat/Sw) 

D-603 1 6 FRANKFURT AM MAIN, 3-7 PM. 

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PLEASE CALL.- 0>CERMANY(m l61/26J49«o«f0J6!WS 1979 ^ 

Wanted: Dreamgirl 
For A Dreamboy 

HI! My name is Dreamboy | Actually, it's only a pseudonym), and 
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femate (Dreamgirts usually are): in the 20-25 age bracket (Give 
or take a couple of years): not been divorced, nor comes from a 
woken home (Not that there’s anything inherently wrong with 
either of the above)-, has a good, sound family upbringing and a 
solid sense of moral values, and Is therefore sensible and 
sensitive enough as to cherish, appreciate and reciprocate love, 

S Ity, faithfulness, confidence and integrity: perfectly 
gual. English-French (Other languages an asset): has a 
university or college education: non-smoker or pet-keepen easj- 
piirrg & mild-tempeied. with a loleranr. open-minded attitude, 
a broad outlook, a universal perspective & a diversified. 
International sockxullural background, having been exposed 
t o a va riety of cultures. Dreamgirl. where aiS you? Your 
Dreamboy is |ust dtiug to meet you! ifc is a young, handsome. 

M| ridle Eastern descent: rather westernized, 
more like the cosmopolitan, “yuppie- type He lives & works in an 
international setting; speaks lour languages; Is single & has 
always been so. He is waiting lor you, andr looking forward^ 
wefaoming you Into his life, and Into his home 
brarid-new, rragnOtent lakefroot apartment in the de»mt resort, 
sltuated w the s}lores o* Late Wman In the- 
PS™ 1 * ^?J 5p l? era - P 1 ®* drop me a line at the following 
^dress_db CP. 372. 1290 Versoix. Swttieriaad. Ybu never. 

Jf !f, tef change your life - and mine - Tor 
Betteror for Worse". HI be delighted to hear from you: and look 
rorwardlo meeting you. DREAMBOY 

res P° nded to this ad but.haveirt heard 
l fe 11 1 received your letter. Please write ■ 

to me again at the new address above. 



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h, ; 3 :r^:.H A 



' '.-•- n'. r^f ^ ij 


Japan Chipmakers 
To Collaborate in 
Research Forum 

Page II 7 


Doors Closing in Japan 

Recession Blocks the Way lor Women 

r-V7 - 

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.: , . c r- *-ai3 b 

-A ;r? l !««5« 


j .j • b! [j 

:$£*&* * 

^ . 7 ?: '■■■'■■ Hi r 

-"• :. V- 

' n: - r; 

1f»v V* »• ■- DJ... ■ 

.\ . • - — -'^e. 
* .... r *. - r ' r.-T-riph-. t 

By Andrew Pollack 

^ New York Tima Srrvia 

■ TOKYO — Japan’s major sotri- 
oonduetor companies, worried that 
they are now falling behind their 
/ynencan competitors, are plan- 
ning a collaborative research insti- 
tute aimed at improving their tech- 
nology and competitiveness, 
industr y offic ials said Friday. 

Ten companies are expected lo 
join the Semiconductor Industry 
Research Institute Japan when it is 
established in early May, said Hisa- 
shi Saito, a spokesman for NEC 
Corp., Japan’s largest chipraaker 
and one d the main backers of the 

it appears that the effort will 

it appears that the effon will be 
considerably less ambitious than 
Sematech, the American semicon- 
ductor industry consortium, which 
has its own dup factory. Basal in 
Austin, Texas, Sematech has a bud- 
get of about $200 million a year, 
half from the federal government 
and half from industry. 

Mr. Saito said the budget and 
exact plans for the institute are siiU 

under discussion. It is not ^W-i ried 
yet, for instance, whether the new 
or g a nizatio n will have its own lab- 
oratories or production facilities. 

Another person familiar with the 
plan said the organization will be 
merely a “think tank” that wiB pro- 
vide advice on long-term directions 
and strategies for the industry but 
k not e ngage in its own research. 

An official of the Ministry of 
International Trade and Industry 
said the Japanese effort will not be 
funded by the government. 

Japanese companies swept to 
control of the computer monoiy 

dup business in the mid-1980s 
thanks w large measure to a gov- 
“nmem-industry technology de- 
velopment program in the 1970s 
““ l has long been cited as one of 
?* Breat successes of Japan’s in- 
dustrial policy. 

But in more recent years, Japan’s 
semiconductor companies have 
shied away bom industrywide col- 
laborations partly out of fear that 
America companies would criticize 
such efforts as unfair. 

Now, however, Japanese semi- 
conductor companies are under 
pressure from -a revived American 
industry and from South Korean 
companies, which are making ma- 
jor gains in the memory chip busi- 

“if the Japanese industry does 
nothing more the situation win be 
very bad,” Mr. Saito said. “Now is 
the time to take some action.” 

Hajime Sasaki, the executive in 
charge of semiconductors at NEC, 
is expected to be the dm reman of 
the new institute; Other companies 
involved are said to be Fujitsu Ja4 . 
Hitachi Ltd_ Mitsubishi Electric 
Corp., Oki Electric Industry Co n 
Sanyo Electric Co„ Sharp Corp., 
Sony Corp., Toshiba Corp., and a 
unit of Matsushita Electric Indus- 
trial Co. 

In recent semiconductor trade 
talks, Japan has sounded out the 
United States about letting Japa- 
nese and other foreign companies 
join Sematech, a Japanese official 

But, he said, the answer so far 
has been “no.” 


TOKYO — Corporate Japan welcomed a fresh 
intake of graduates Friday, the first day of its new 
financial year. But with its recession dra gging on. 

ihdr numbers were smaller than in previous years, 
and women were scarcer than ever. 

Toyo Keizai Tnr , a finflTv^ ai-infnrtnmion com- 
pany, said a survey it had mad* showed that one in 
every three companies had offered no jobs at all to 
women university graduates. 

The survey, covering 1,965 puMdy traded com- 
panies and insurers, showed that 1,01 1 had cut their 
number erf women recruits and 680 had ratrwi none. 

As a result, the number of women graduates 
entering the work force plunged 29 percent from 
last year, to 15,600, barely half the peak level of 
1992, Toyo Keizai said. 

The total number of graduates hired fell 26 
percent, to 85,075. 

The bad news for young, well-educated women 
was found across the board; even at companies, 
such as Sumitomo Bank LuL, that previously ac- 
tively sought women recruits, the survey showed. 

“It is a hopeless situation for female graduates,” 
Toyo Keizai commented. “And in 1995 the situa- 
tion will be even worse.” 

With this brick wall standing between them and 
s business career, young women have been casting 
around for other ways to find work. 

Some have derided to go on to graduate school 
or take specialized training, whereas others are 
accepting part-time jobs, said Masaya Kinoshita, 
genual manager at Recruit Co n Japan's biggest 
publisher of employment news. 

One television report said some were looking for 
work elsewhere, such as in Hong Kong. Some of 
those who had come from small towns in Japan 
were returning to their hometowns, where they 
could live more cheaply. 

“It is strange to say that only women have been 
hit tty the recession,” Mr. Kinoshita said. “But 
companies axe cutting down on office workers, and 
many women work in this sector." 

He also said fewer vacancies were turning up in 
such jobs, because the women who have them were 
staying longer. 

“Previously, women workers quit when they got 
married, but nowadays, with household revenue 
declining , they don’t quit until they have babies,” 
Mr. Kinoshita said. 

Bank Chief 
Resigns in 

Compiled by Our Staff From Dapmdies 


Investor’s Asia 

ffpRS Kong 

China Says Bonds Selling Well 

Compiled by Our Staff From Ddpoteka 

BEUING — A steady stream of 
residents of China’s large cities sub- 
scribed during the first day erf the 
1994 treasury bond issue Friday, 
many for want of a better way to 
protect their savings from inflation. 

The 77 billion yuan ($8.85 bD- 
lkm) in two-year and three-year 
bonds bear annual interest of Just 
13 percent and 13J6 percent That 
is well under nationwide inflation , 
which ran at a 20 percent rate in 
January and February ibis year. 

But the finance Ministry has 
pledged that interest rates on the 

bonds will stay about 1 percent 
higher than on hank deposits and 
the bonds can be cashed before 
expiry and still earn more interest 
than they would in a hank. 

Friday evening, C hina Central 
Television reported that sales of 
treasury braids hit 440 million yuan 
in Beijing, 400 millio n yuan in 
Shanghai, 100 million yuan in Da- 
lian and 50 min i nn yuan in Shen- 
yang, Jinan and Changsha. 

Ik issuing period is to las until 
June 30, but the state television 
quoted the central bank deputy gpv- 
oncr, Dai Xungloog as saying the 

sales were going so briskly that the 
issue “can be completed in advance." 

The bond issue is the cornerstone 
of Beijing's battle against inflation. 
Starting this year, the central gov- 
ernment won't print money to fi- 
nance its deficit. Instead, it will 
issue bonds to cover increased 
spending on energy, transportation 
and agriculture. 

Overseas econormsts say the 1994 
baud issue is based on the gamble 
that economic growth wfll be fast and 
stable enough to bring in sufficient 
tax revenue lo pay investors back. 

(Bloomberg, Reuters) 

political opposition called for the 
finance minister to follow him. 

The governor, Jaffar Hussein, re- 
signed one day after he announced 
that the bank had lost 5.7 billion 
ringgit ($2.1 billion) in trading last 
year, said “errors were made" and 
took personal responsibility. 

The finance minister, Anwar 
Ibrahim, who is also dq>u<y prime 
minster, said Friday that the gov- 
ernment bad accepted Mr. Jaffar’s 
application for early retirement, ef- 
fective May 1. 

The bank, long known as one of 
the most swashbudding players on 
the currency markets, had lost 93 
billion ringgit in 1992, largely as a 
result of the collapse of the pound 
when Britain withdrew from Eu- 
rope’s exchange-rate mechanism. A 
central bank report released on 
Thursday attributed the losses in 
1993 to unwinding forward posi- 
tions taken the year before. 

The opposition leader in Malay- 
sia’s parliament, Lim Kit Swmg, sad 
the losses “must rank as the greatest 
firumrial sranrial in Malayrian hie . 

tray” and called for Mr. Anwar to 
resign. Mr. Lim asked for the cre- 
ation of a commisson of inquiry. 

Syed Husin Ali, president of the 
opposition Malaysian Peoples Par- 
ty, said that Mr. Anwar had to act 
honorably by resigning. 

Economists say the foreign ex- 
change losses would make the cen- 
tral bank technically insolvent 
without the government’s backing. 
The losses exceed its paid-up capi- 
tal and its general reserves. 

(Reuters. Bloomberg, AFP) 

Sources: Reuters. AFP 

LucmanomJ HeroM Trit'unc 

Very briefly: 

• Occidental Petroleum Corp. agreed to take an interest in an oil and gas 
exploration block off Vietnam, the head of the state oil company. 
Peiro Vietnam, said; separately, Hanoi announced a 20 percent cut m 
profit taxes on businesses owned by overseas Vietnamese. 

• Sooth Korea's central bank designated 76 subsidiaries of the country's 
30 largest conglomerates as special companies not subject to credit 
controls, bank officials said, in a move to help the companies obtain 
f inancing so they can better compete globally. 

• India's first private bank is opening in Ahmedabad; UT1 Bank LuL, a 
venture of Unit Trust of India, the country’s largest mutual fund, plans to 
open brandies in six other dries within a year. 

• Malaysia has licensed a local consortium to run the country’s second 
national carrier, which is expected to call itself Air Asia Sdn. and to start 
by operating charter flights lo tourist destinations in Asia. 

• Sanyo Electric Co. plans to make about 120,000 color television sets for 
the Polish market at its factory in Warsaw this year. 

AFP, Reuters. Bloomberg 

MARKS: British Retailer’s Chairman Tells Critics: Look at the Results 



Continued hum Page 9 
due to fashion swinging around to 
its tastes. Its long, unswerving em- 
phasis on value for money has won 
it customers in a new age of tight 
family budgets. 

On the cost side, it benefits from 
a uniquely dose relationship with 
its myriad suppliers. John Rich- 
ards, an analyst with NatWest Se- 
curities, calk that relationship the 
cornerstone of Marks A Spencer’s 

Fully 80 percent of everything 
Maries A Spencer sells is made in 
Britain, much of it by companies 
that have been dunning out goods 
for the company ever since Simon 
Marks, then the comp any 's chair- 
man, traveled to America in 1932 
=and- came away impressed by 
Montgomery Ward and Sears Roe- 
buck, both of which had succeeded 

Markets Qosed 
Most finandal markets in Asia, 
Europe and North America were 
dosed Friday for the Easter holi- 
day. Most European markets will 
again be dosed Monday. 

in dealing directly with suppliers 
and cutting out the middlemen. 

“We help them with the design 
and even with technology,” Sir 
Richard said of his suppliers. That 
assistance plus the volume of goods 
Marks & Spencer buys helps re- 
duce costs. But it is the constant 
product innovation that, as one an- 
alyst puts it, “keeps the excitement 
level up” and the cash registers 

Five stories above Sir Richard’s 
office on Baker Street, men and 
women in long white coats and 
hairnets studiously rate new food 
dishes destined for Marks & Spen- 
cer stores in the harshly tit, antisep- - 
tic surroundings of the company’s 
test kitchens. One floor bdow, 
fashion experts ponder materials 
and styles destined for the racks in 

Their labors have helped to es- 
tablish a solid reputation for the 
company’s Saint Michael brand, a 
name that came from Simon 
Marks's unilatera l beatification of 
his father in 1928. 

a bran^nametiut^^rans different 

things to different people,” Mr. 
A1 un-Jones of Lehman said, saying 
that in Barcelona, the Marks & 
Spencer store is located next to 
Cartier and has an u p scale image to 


Ever cautious about overextend- 
ing the company. Sir Richard ac- 
knowledges his happiness with its 
progress internationally but es- 
chews haste. Even in East Aria, a 
market he singles out as the most 
promising around, he continues to 
weigh his options. The company 
has six small stores in Hong Kong 
and has been asked by Beijing to 
open stores across the border, but 

“it has got to be carefully re- 
searched,” Sir Richard said. 

Easier to entertain is the notion 
of granting franchises, of letting 
others pay to take the risk erf setting 
up Marks & Spencer stores. There 
are 74 such outlets in 19 countries, 
and applications are pending for 
100 more. 

Marks & Spencer also recently 
announced plans to expand its fi- 
nancial services operation in Brit- 
ain. which last year earned it £26 
milli nn. It began with a company 
charge card in 1985. and mown! on 
to personal loans and mutual funds 
three years later. 


(CPBi) (CPRa) 

The undersigned announces that 
the Semiannual Report for the six 
months ended September 30, 1993 

of Cnaio Compnter Co^ Ltd. will 
be available in Amsterdam at: 



The undersigned announces that 
(he Annual Report 1993 of Xerox 
Corporation will be available in 
Amsterdam aU 




Amsterdam, March 30, 1994. 

Amsterdam, March 30, 1994. 



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April 2-3, 1994 
Page 12 


! JW f " 

v :'■«!/ 'if ? V :i "■ 

,i k V^= << t i. *T 


Didn’t Know? 
Can Be Messy 

I S it a cabbage or a king? Analysts 
looking al today’s corporate environ- 
ment would undoubtedly have a prob- 
lem answering even that kind erf ele- 
mentary question as the traditional 
definitions of corporate business activity be- 
come increasinglY inadequate. 

Most banks have long since ceased to 
make money out of lending — foreign ex- 
change and the swaps market make a large 
(but still largely undisclosed) contribution to 
profits. Similarly, major industrial concerns 
will often own a large share of the banks they 
use to help them analyze their markets. 

And insurance companies have immense 
difficulty in making money from writing 
policies, Many of them are veiy good at asset 
management. But isn't that what specialist 
fond and pension man ngmeni firms are sup- 
posed to be good at? 

Maybe. But the large stakes some of the 
fund groups hold in industrial concerns have 
made them enticing targets for corporate 
predators. The thinking is that if you acquire 
the fund manag ement group, you automati- 
cally acquire influence over the corporations 
in which it has holdings. Given the spreading 
influence of “due diligence" and notions of 
shareholder conscience and responsibility, 
acquiring a fund manager is also an excellent 
way of exerting an influence on corporate 
management which is “ethical." This process 
is translated by some as forcing the favorite 
liberal prejudice of the shareholder down the 
throats of company management. 

All this might seem rather messy. It is. The 
important question is whether it is a good 
thing. And die answer is yes, for two reasons. 
First, it encourages pluralism and interna- 
tionalism (the latter being a sadly unpopular 
concept nowadays) among managers. It is 
difficult to toss a problem to the bankers to 
sort out when the bank and its corporate 
client have large cross-shareholdings in one 
another. Second, it provides a rare example 
of the body following the spirit of the com- 
mercial world. Industry is messy, as well as 
being almost incestuously interconnected. 
That fact has ail kinds of implications for 
fashionable “ethical screening" of invest- 
ment. Il also means that managers who wish 

Bridging Europe’s Insular Insurers 

Careful Cross-Border Shopping Can Pay 

‘Ifevm insurance Rates in £t*o***.' 

Armasd. cost for terra fite tn8tu&ic& riflW 

The p&mtom & paid-for tea years $rm. 




By Barbara Wall 


to manage effectively should be aware of the 
need to be i 

: polymaths. 


OST of us wouldn't think twice 
about buying a foreign car if 
the price and model were right. 
Yet, when it comes to buying 
insurance products, the likelihood is that 
most consumers will plump for a local prod- 
uct, regardless of whether a better deal is 
available across international borders. 

Europe offers an excellent example of this 
kind of consumer conservatism. In theory, 
the European C ommissi on's so-called third 
life directive will create a single marketplace 
in life insurance and enable every European 
citizen to buy the same insurance product by 
mid- 1994. But in practice it seems that a 
number of hurdles have to be surmounted 
before this becomes a realistic option. 

Until insurance companies can offer pro- 
posal forms and policy documents in several 
different languages, many consumers will be 
understandably reluctant to shop outside 
their own countries. Insurance contracts are 
difficult enough for mother tongue speakers 
to understand, let alone foreigners. And, if a 
dispute should arise, it may be difficult for 
the insured to plead his case without spend- 
ing vast sums on legal assistance. Even if the 
insured has a minor query or problem with 
the contract, the language barrier could 
prove (insurmountable. 

“As the market for cross border insurance 
sales is relatively small and unlikely to in- 
crease dramatically in the next few years," 
said an industry analyst, “it is doubtful that 
the major insurers will invest much money in 
cross border sales and marketing — especial- 
ly if they have foreign subsidiaries which 
could lose business as a result of such a 

Nonetheless, even if the insurers seem 
unwilling to actively market their products 
to nonresidents, there is nothing to stop 
individuals approaching the companies di- 
rectly — or is there? Confusion surrounding 
the tax treatment of cross-border insurance 
products may pose a problem for some indi- 
viduals. According to Ed Nadnovich, assis- 
tant manager for the Belgian subsidiary of 
Italian insurer, Generali, it is not altogether 
clear how these products will be taxed in the 

“In most states, the law provides for tax 

deductability of premiums provided the pol- 
icy is bought from a national insurer. For 
example, a Belgian, buying a British insur- 
ance policy, would not be able to take advan- 
tage of these deductions. Until the matter is 
resolved, the single market in insurance will 
r emain an interesting theory, rather than a 
practical goal." 

Despite the tax handicap, a case can still 
be made for cross-border insurance shop- 
ping. As the graphic illustrates, the disparity 
between average premium levels for term 
insurance throughout Europe is striking 
While a French national would probably not 
benefit from buying a British policy, a young 
Austrian would pay nearly double the premi- 
um of a young British or Irish policyholder. 
Even if tax relief is not available on the 
policy, the Austrian would still make a sig- 
nificant savings buying a policy abroad. 

The widely varying costs are the direct 
result of the “tariff" versus “free market" 
countries in Europe, more than the result of 
different mortality trends in today’s Europe. 
In the “tariff" countries, which include Ger- 
many. Austria, Switzerland, Italy and, to a 
lesser extent, Spain, premium levels have to 
approved by the local authorities. This has 
resulted in a cartel-type situation, where in- 
dividual insurers charge more or less the 
camp premiums as their national competi- 
tors. Generally, these premiums tend to be 
pitched on the high side compared with 
average premium levels in the “free market” 
countries of France, Ireland and Britain. 

Before approaching a foreign insurer, con- 
sumers will need to be sure they understand 
bow its contract works. For example, Ger- 
man insurance contracts are written mi a 
with-profits basis. The initial premiums, 
therefore, are not guaranteed. 

British and Irish insurance companies are 
unusual in that most offer discounts for 
nonsmokers. Amongst the younger genera- 
tion, a difference of about £10 (SI 5) a year is 
not going to be significant, but once you pass 
the age of SO, the difference between smoker 
and nonsmoker rales is marked. The average 
rate for smokers in Ireland is £1,006, com- 
pared with £748 for nonsmokers. Insurers 
from other European countries rarely make 
a distinction between the two classes. 

The attitude towards the AIDS threat 
among young males has also had an effect on 
premium levels — particularly in Britain, 

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Page 13 

Insuring unusual risks 
Executives in danger 
Card cover 

Immobile automobile market 
How insurers make money 


where rates for this group increased sharply 
in the late 1980s. 

“Insurance companies are now taking a 
more optomistic view of the situation and 
reducing rates accordingly," said a spokes- 
man Tor Commercial Union. But large dif- 
ferences in premium levels do still exist in 
Britain as a result of the AIDS question, so if 
you are thinking about buying a British 
insurance policy it is worth approaching 
more than one company to compare prices. 

As well as boning up on the different 
markets and contracts, insurance shoppers 
will have to pay special attention to the 
c u rr en cy risk inh erent in products of this 
type. Most insurers will expect clients to pay 
premiums in the currency of the country 
where the contract is written. If the exchange 
rate moves against the insured, he could end 
up paying higher and higher premiums to 
mitigate die effects of currency fluctuations. 
Conversely, the insured may find that the 

. Belgium . _ 








]. is 




. 1.320 

Germany? n 


. 758. 

- t.404 

: Spain 



• 1349 

T ftsty 


.657- • • 



‘ ■••• > 

i Austria 


' .: 1.039'. 

". 2353 


Ireland (tf noa-sroofcar) 




(ft smoker) 

255 . ‘ 

574 . 

; .1,509 


(ff non-smoker) 
(B smefcar) 

■ 345 



1.002 , 

■1.594, . ■ 


Rates front Indfyf&ial 

Rates for a 3S-ye&c-&d man 


exchange rate has moved in his favor. 

Because of the long-term nature of these 
contracts, it is impossible to predict what 
may happen with exchange rates in the fu- 


•• Affianz (Germany) 

. Annual 

$474$790N ; 

. available ■ 

Proposal forms , . 

„ fa several '• ^ 

f7ini!tlKKII4L' .4 

languages * 

_ : J# 

Corrnnerciaf Union (U.fC) 

• \ :* H 

(tf notvamokgt} 

$382/$244(2} . 

. - . 



. $558/$375W 


. _ r ' £■ 

; Genersfi (Guernsey) 

*• ... 

•' (£,.$, DM, 

1 " 9 

■ •••• 

(B non-smoker} 

:S386 ' • 



(ft smoker) 


■* Ecu, Sw Fr-V 

... - .. Jj 

The Money Report is edited by 
Martin Baker 

I paMwn-aaatcrgdBad. 
! dfwtontf ferft 



Source: Company reports 

[uiematicxu] Herald Triwc 

Putting a Price on the Art Collectors 

By Judith Rehak 


HE maid knocks over the 
Tiffany lamp. A child 
armed with color crayons 
indulges in a bit of graffi- 
ti — on a valuable Greek sculpture. 
An elderly woman with failing eye- 
sight is unaware that her Magritte 
painting has been replaced by a 

Such tales are all in a day's work 
in fine-art insurance, one of the 
most specialized segments of the 
property-casualty insurance indus- 

Fine art brokers and underwrit- 
ers are fond of printing out that 
their business is not like insuring 
autos. “It's not based on a manual, 
where you just go down until you 
find the right slot," said Hunting- 
ton Block, president of a fine-art 
insurance agency in Washington 
that bears his name. 

One thing docs seem to be uni- 
versal. however. The current cost of 
fine-art insurance in Europe and in 
the United States falls imo a range 
of 10 to 30 cents per $100 of valua- 

Beyond that, a host of variables 
governs the cost of an insurance 

policy. First, the value of the art, 

whether it is pre-Columbian arti- 
facts or a Picasso, must be deter- 
mined, something that may be 
done by an invoice from an auction 
boose, or by a qualified appraiser, 
or both. Then there are such con- 
cerns as how the object is being 
cared for and displayed, frequency 
of transportation — among resi- 
dences or in [ending to museums 
(more common in the United 
States) — the location of the an 
work (a problem if it is in earth- 
quake-prone California or hurri- 
cane-prone Florida), and, of 
course, protection from theft and 

As an example of the details that 
set fine-art insurance apart, the 
cost can be affected by the types of 
paint and materials used by an art- 
ist “You can have a Roy .Lichten- 
stein with a matte acrylic finish. 
You just touch it with your finger 
and it can be damaged, and it's 
almost impossible to touch up." 
observed Nigel Prescot of Hiscox 
Syndicates Ltd-, a Loudon under- 
writer active in fine-arts insurance. 

Then there are nonartistic con- 
siderations like “adverse risk." If 
your art ownership consists of one 
painting hanging in solitary splen- 
dor on your wall, you may have to 
pay up to 50 percent more than if 
the nsk of loss or damage were 
spread among a collection. 

The principle also applies, some- 
what differently, to big-time collec- 
tors. “If you have a total collection 
valued at $5 million, you ought 
keep S2 million of it at your New 
York apartment, another S2 mil- 
lion at a second home, and SI mil- 
lion lent out So you might just 
cany a $2 million policy because 
it’s scattered and one loss won't 
wipe out the entire collection,” said 
Mr. Block. 

The size of an object of art can 

have an impact as well. Silver can 
be more higi risk than a painting or 
piece of furniture. The reason: It's 
easierfora thief fo carry off a piece 
of antique stiver than a Louis XVI 

One of the most obvious consid- 
erations in art insurance is the bur- 
glar alarm, where culture and tech- 
nology both come into play. “The 
level and standard of securities sys- 
tems in the United States is much 
more advanced (ban in Europe." 
said Dietrich von Frank, President 
of Nordstera Insurance Co. of 
America, fine-arts underwriters. 
< -y^ g^ *The response times of security 
and direct wire companies is more 
advanced as well" 

There is one hitch to burglar 
alarms, however. Some collectors 
simply neglect to turn them on. In 
Britain, where alarms that ring in 
the central police station have only 
come into wide use in the past five 
years, “people just go around the 
comer and don't turn it on. and art 
is stolen,” said Mr. PrescoL “Or 
they’ll be sitting watching televi- 
sion in a big house with the alarm 
turned off. and a robbery will occur 
somewhere else in the house and 
they won't realize it By far the 
most common theft in the U.K. is 

during the day.” 

thefts make the head- 

But while 
lines, sheer carelessness is the bane 
of art insurers. A surprising num- 
ber of claims result from ait work 
falling off the wall because nails 
come loose or cords fray. Other 
follies committed by art owners in- 
clude sending valuable drawings 
via commercial couriers; in another 
episode, a silver Etruscan urn val- 
ued in six figures was hauled 
around in a shopping bag until it 
broke into pieces. Nor are muse- 
ums immune; Alexandra Schilling 
of Alexander & Alexander, the 
U.S. insurance brokerage, recalled 
an incident where a contemporary 

lent to an exhibition was 
tom when an overzealous mainte- 
nance person hit it with a vacuum 

To head off such disasters, bnF 
'kers and underwriters in fine-art 
insurance are competing to offer 
their clients services ranging from 
such ample advice as not hanging 
artwork over a working fireplace to 
supervising packing and transpor- 
tation of artwork. Many of these 
brokers, particularly in the United 
States, sport degrees in art history 
and have backgrounds in museum 


Art insurers and brokers have 
also become amateur psychologists 
who pay close attention to. as onp 
diplomatically put it, “the charac- 
ter" of the art owners they insure.' 

“Yes, we insure the object, ha 
mainly we insure human beings," 
said Mr. von Frank. “It soands a 
bit snobbish, but is the art being 
bought for investment, or is the 
person a true collector?" 

Mr. Prescot is more blunt. “Tbe 
real collectors really look after their 
art The worst clients are the get- 
rich-quick kind who’ve decided to 
put together a collection in two 
years and show it off to a lot qf 

But in the United States, even 
serious collectors are seen as bong 
proud of their collections and more 
ready to lend to museums and ex- 
hibits. By contrast Europeans are 
more discreet, often because wealth 
taxes make them reluctant to reved 
the value of their an works and 
discourage them from i 
one broker said he had seen 
arts polides in Europe carrying no 
names. But there are also sharply 
different attitudes. “In Europe, a 
piece of fine an may have been in 
the family forever, and outfit sever 
have been appraised. It's simply 
viewed as a family possesaon," 
said Ms. Schilling. 


/ "k 


Cash Put Into Mutual Funds 
Plunges 47% In February 

Net cash flow into American stock and 
bond mutual funds plummeted 47 percent in 
February, to $15.5 billion from $29 3 billion 
in January, according to recent figures from 
the Investment Company Institute. Re- 
demptions held fairly steady, meaning the 
fall was due mainly to a lack of new money 
being invested, rather than money being 
yanked oat of funds. 

Bond funds suffered an especially acute 
decline, with 'just $1.1 billion trickling in 

during February, compared with $11.] bti- 
Hon the month before, tbe ii 

industry group 
said. Slock funds also saw a decrease of 
incoming cash, down 21 percent to $14.4 
billion from $18.3 billion. 

Such declines are alarming because the 
American markets have become increasingly 
dependent on a continuous stream of money 
from funds to prop them up in what many 
observers say is an absence of fundamental 
reasons to move them higher. Since January. 
stocks and bonds have fallen sharply. 

Those declines sent the total value of fund 
assets a bit lower during the month, to $2.14 
trillion from $2.16 trillion. A year ago they 
stood at $1.75 trillion. One bright spot in the 
figures is a rise in the liquid assets ratio to 8.9 
from 8 J. Tbe ratio, which is the percentage 
of fund assets held as cash, is seen as a 
contrary market indicator. The markets tend 
to move higher when fund managers have 
less of their clients’ assets invest 

the rampant bull runs of many major and 
emerging markets, is now beginning to cover 
itself against a potential fall with a series of 
launches of funds investing in gold. Gold is a 
classic hedge against falling shares — al- 
though it failed to react significantly to the 
crash of 1987 and subsequent lean periods in 
stock markets. 

Tbe latest fund, styled as being “for the 
commodity-oriented investor’ comes from 
DB Investment Management, the Luxem- 
bourg mutual fund arm of Deutsche Bank. 

“Based on investments in bonds which 
account for a good half of its assets, the fund 
wffl invest on the precious metal markets," 
said the bank, “purchasing gold on precious 
metal accounts. Investments in silver, plati- 
num and paiadium round off the portfolio." 
The fund will use futures and options con- 
tracts, which will enable it “to fully follow 
the fluctuations of the gold price, despite its 
investment in bonds." The managers say 
they expect the gold price to improve to $400 
an ounce within a year. 

Initial charges are 3 percent, and all in- 
come is reinvested. 

For more information, call DB Invest- 
ment Management in Luxembourg at (352) 
42101 835. 

chines (ATMs) has become available in Rus- 

“First there was Prague in February '92( 
then Budapest in *93, and now Europay 
International, working with local banks, b 
providing a common ATM network in EasY 
em Europe — this time in Moscow,” said 
Ron H. Williams, chief executive officer of 
Europay International. . . 

Let’s just hope that the rates cardholders 
get from ATMs in Moscow compete with 
what is available on the street. 

If You’ve Got $300,000, 
Smith Bamey Wants to Talk 

If you have $300,000 to invest, and the 
concept of a multiadviser-managed furores 
hedge fund appeals. Smith Barney Shears®! 
may have the product for you. The firm has 

just launched the SBS Overview Fund, wfaicb 
offers investors access to global markets,' 
some of them highly specialist or “noncott* 
ventionaL” Tbe firm sayis that investors with 
existing stock and bond portfolios nnr Kt 
consider the fund as a way of ootentis 
increasing portfolio returns wI' J 
the level of risk. 

As Hedge, Funds Turning 
Their Attention to Geld 

Bearish about stock markets? The mutual 
fund industry, which has made a kilting from 

Money Machines In Moscow: 
But at What Exchange Rate? 

After the Berlin Wall, the bole in the wall. 
Great capitalist triumphs of the late 20th 
century now include the extension of West- 
era-style cash delivery. According to Euro- 
pay International, the organization that rep- 
resents the linking of the Eurocheque, 
Eurocard-MasterCard and Cirrus card- 
holders. a new line of automated teller ma- 

The trading manager of the fund is Snutfl 
Barney Shearson Futures Manag ement Infc* 
which has more than S60G million und*^ 
m a na g em ent. The money will be spre*« - 

across five traders and three hedge funds- 

k lnsh sttf# 

The fund will be listed on the lnsh . 
exchange and is not open to Irish or 

Readers are advised that the fund is 

X rienced investors only, and professional 
se should be taken before investing. 
For more information, call Smith Barney 
Shearson in London at (44) 71-54^-5567. * 



Page 13 ^ 


,v ~*<l 

Risk Filled Times for Battered In 

By Conrad deA enBe 

HERE is no safe placed |'R a W;> 
be an insurance company 
^day- The investment 
markets, which insurers 280 1 — 
Acoant on to turn losses into profits. ' •= 1 
have toned treacherous. At the ■ ' - 

spe time, the premiums they 

charge have peaked in many mar- ■ ■ 
krts, something that is likely to be i • - 
^od for polkyholders but not for - =-V 
shareholders. 2&Q , 

“ The/v e just re-emerged back r 
into profit after two or three years 

of ksses,” Kevin Ryan, an insur- -#$50 ; ■ 

moe analyst at the brokerage of v r“ , , i 
Pammure Gordon, observed of die ■ a ifl J 
British market. “There was too OJjf! 

much capacity and competition. -T . 

They’ve been slashing their mar- zMEgj 

gins, and whfle they’ve done that 
they’ve lost money. In the last 18 '-230,' wSSjaii 

months, seeing the size of the *>'*' !S3kSr 
losses, they’ve hiked rates up. Now V» ' 
they’re going to compete again.” 

British insurers are ah^d of < »&}..■• . 

their Continental counterparts in 

the cyde of rises and falls in premi- Scurce - Bloomberg 
tun rates, said Andrew Goodwin, 


' urp. . . . mance m many 

• The underwriting cycle in the most companies - 
XJJC. is at a peak; the question is show ch,m 

j Hard Hit in the ML& 



Imenumaal lkraU TrUnnK 

□ies have had only fair perfor- stock prices, but they’ve been 
mance in many cases. Chans of slammed in the Iasi six months.” 

"UJC is at a peak; the question is 
bow far it deteriorates over coming 
years.” he said. “We’ve also seen 
quite a recovery in the I talian mar . 
keL We fed underwriting results 
are getting close to a peak. Rates, if 
anything, are still moving up, but 
only marginally. Then you go to 
cither European markets and you’re 
at much earlier stages of recovery.” 
$ In Germany, for instance, rates 
' have been moving up the last cou- 
ple of years and are nicely to contin- 
ue to do so. Mr. Goodwin said he 
expected Ge rman insurers to have 
earned about the same last year as 
in 1992, which was a profitable 
year, and to earn still more this year 
and next. 

Even further behind in the cycle 
is France, where, he said, “we’ve 
seen a better trend in the commer- 
cial property market, although rate 
rises haven't been quite as sharp as 
in Germany. France is actually 
probably the lagging one in the 
major European insurance mar- 

Shares of leading insurers like 
Affiant of Germany »nrf Generali 
of Italy have done well in the last 

most companies, wherever they are, 
show sharp declines in the last 
three to six months, especially com- 
pared with the broad equity mar- 


“where they've ever wnuen at 100 

‘The whole reason you write in- 
surance is to bring funds in to in- 
vest," he added. “Depending on 
how long you can bold onto those 
funds before you pay cut J rases, 
you can make a lot of money.” 

As important as investment 
warnings are, an insurance compa- 
ny “doesn’t make widgets.” Mr. 
Ryan said. “It's got to insure some- 

It is this fact that explains the 
underwriting cycle. With competi- 
tion stiff in many major markets, 
policyholders are likely to get a 
break on prices. An exception is in 
Continental Europe, where, Mr. 
Goodwin said, “policyholders wfl) 
be paying more for their insurance 
because rates are tending to rise 
faster than inflation.'’ 

In Britain, by contrast, “we're 
seeing price rises flatten out and in 
some cases fall.” said Mr. Ryan, 
adding that rates are likely to stay 
low for some time. 

In the United Stales, Mr. DineUi 
said, “the small rate-payer has 
probably already seen some in- 
creases, [but] some dumb capital is 
moving in, with price cutting going 
on. You might say the curve has 
turned down.” 

War Zones: When You Really Want Out 

By Michael D. McNickle 

K EN RUTHERFORD hit a land- 
mine. The U.S. expatriate was on 
his way to a business meeting in 
So mali a when his Land Rover 
triggered an armor-piercing bomb — blowing 
bis vehicle into the air. When it landed, Mr. 
Rutherford said, it looked as if h had been 
“dipped in a blender.” 

The expatriate was medically evacuated to 
Geneva, and then repatriated’ to his home- 
town in Denver. Mr. Rutherford, who is an 
employee of the International Rescue Com- 
mittee, said that medical expenses have ex- 
ceeded £250,000. 

Most international executives steer dear of 
war zones. Bui what happens when one is 
caught unexpectedly in midst of turmoil? 
Experts say that what expatriates may not 
realize is that almost all medical, death and 
disability insurance policies do not cover any 
injuries sustained through any kind of politi- 
cal conflict. The list of situations in which 
insurance is void is long and indudes war. 

civil unrest corns and attempted coups, in- 
surrection. revolution and terrorism. 

Andrew Thacker. Director of Fenchurch 
International LuL. an insurance brokerage in 
London, said that international employers 
are increasingly checking and buttressing 
policies for expats whose territory extends 
beyond the beaten path. Such incidents as the 
siege of the Russian parliament building last 
October tend to make benefit managers ner- 

Mr. Thacker said bis firm has recently 
“had a number of inquiries, for example oil 
company executives going to Siberia. 

“And we normally suggest that they do 
take out some sort of war cover because 
[while] there's no problem at the moment, 
you really don’t know what’s going to hap- 

The rates for this son of cover vary a lot 
and depend specifically on where the expat is 
going and any particular risks that might be 
connected with his occupation. In general, 
however, Mr. Thacker said £100,000 in acci- 
dental death and disability would run about 
$300 for a middle-aged executive. A medical 

policy that would take effect in the event of 
trouble costs about 51,000 and would only 
cover the expat outside the United States. 
The policies are Dot for someone who plans to 
via I a war zone. They only cover people who 
unexpectedly wind up in one. 

Evacuation can also be a major expense. 
Mr. Rutherford notes that his medical extri- 
cation from So malia, which required three 
pilots, a doctor, nurse and stewardess, cost 
about 5100,000. This was covered by his 
employer’s contract with S.O.S. Internation- 
al He also credits them with saving his life. 

Michael Kelly, president of S.O.S. in Phila- 
delphia, said the company recently had be- 
gun offering security evacuation services in 
addition to their traditional medical assis- 
tance service: Mr. Kelly said that “in the 
event that there's a political uprising or tur- 
moil we provide a service where we send a 

He said (hat the company just evacuated 
200 people ■ from Algeria. The cost for the 
security insurance is 5100, and is available to 
people who sign up for their medical evacua- 
tion policy, which is 5340 a year. 

“What has been dominating 
share prices is interest rate trends," 
Mr. Goodwin said. “Prices are fall- 
ing because of bond prices," which 
have beat dropping sharply in 
most markets for several months. 

The decline in insurance shares 
has been particularly acute in the 
United States, where yields on 
long-term Treasury bonds have ris- 
en past 7 percent from about 5.75 
percent. Since September, Stan- 
dard & Poor’s insurance composite 
index has declined nearly 20 per- 
cent, to 227 from 275. Some of the 
worst performers among American 
insurers are health and life compa- 
nies, which are more sensitive to 
interest rates than property and ca- 
sualty insurers. 

“The life and health sector has 
been the hardest hit in the insur- 
ance industry spectrum due to in- 
terest rate expectations,” said 
Adam Klanber, an analyst at Duff 
& Phelps. “The fundamentals 

Before that, "they had been do- on. You might say the curve has 
mg relatively wefl. Lower rates had turned down!” 

teWwtafMiaJs: s= mTOu,ddKaite 

insurance policy bmare like mum- up^^y - ^ cKneflj said. “aD 
al funds m many respects. . 7^^ ,Cr 

Offbeat: Singers’ Voices, Runners’ Legs 

al funds m many respects. 

Interest rates are critical for in- 
surers because they determine in 
large measure the investment gains 
they earn on customers’ premiums 
between the time they are paid and 

in all no insurers have done well in 
the last couple of years,” 

The battering has been so thor- 

By Philip Crawford 

I MAGINE the folio wing sce- 
nario: Your employer has 
temporarily assigned you to 
an area of the globe where 
social unrest and violence are prev- 
alent If you decline the posting. 

UailGiWg Ud5 IvCll >U U1U1“ I f- . 

ough, however, lhai some adven- ^ irecL 

turous buyers are stepping in. You have an adequate package 

between tee time they are paid and ^ ^ ^ h ing now of health and life insurance bene- 
the dme they are paid out m claims. ^ p^lc gfcreaEring a totof good fit* to protect you and your family. 
Without those gams, there is sel- companies got hit as much as bad but moving into an area where the 

companies.” he observed. “The probabmty ofphyricalmjuryisrel- 
iiMS^™ sentiment is turning to the fact that atively high prompts you to seek 

you need exposure to the financial some adtetioSal coverage. There’s 
siting business alone, Mr. Ryan ^ Y ou*ju* ^ „ dedde a sma n problem, howe£: None of 

which are the good ones that you the mains t ream insurance compa- 
A key number for the industry is want to own.” nies will touch your situation be- 

in some cases, though, investors cause it’s too risky. Where do yon 
e in no hurry. “In general of the turn? 

the combined ratio, which is based 

on the sum of an insurer’s expenses are in no hurry. “In general of the 
and losses resulting from claims, life insurance companies I follow," 

minus premiums. A figure under Mr. Klanber said, Tm not really - £“**. °(. spe “ a J“ d 

100 represents a profiL Will Dinelli looking for stocks to rebound that msurance,or v ^ facre 

of Aigus Research said that Ameri- much m 1994. *Why should I buy pro* 4 * 00 ? against anything from 
can companies have been running an insurance stock if 1 expect inter- 811 ® MCuUve kidnapping, the giving 
ratios of 106 to 110. right around cst rates to keep going upT Thai’s of bad financial advice, the spilling 
the historical average. “There are the psychology m the market right of nuclear waste to the deadening 

year, while those of British compa- probably won’t be hit as hard as 

can companies have been running 
ratios of 106 to 110, right around 
the historical average. “There are 
very few times in history,” he said, 

Don’t Overlook Protecting Your Plastic 

By Barbara Wall 

bank in writing immediately, tee lowing the loss or theft of a card, 
chances are that he wiQstiH be held but once the loss is reported the 

C REDIT cards are a flexi- 
ble and convenient alter- 
native to cadi, but if 
they fall into the wrong 
hands the cost to the cardholder 
can be crippling. A spokesman for 
the European Bureau of Consum- 
ers’ Unions, or BEUG said that a 
“significant” number of banks in 
the European Union hold the card- 
holder fully responsible for losses 

liable until the following Tuesday. 
“Even in. Belgium and, France, 

cover is unlimited. 

francs of coverage prior to notifica- 
tion of the loss or theft of a credit 
card The scheme will also reun- 

of nuclear waste to the deadening 
of a wine expert's taste bods can be 
bought if one is willing to pay the 
premium. The explosion of high 
technology, an increasingly liti- 
gious global society, and the high 
profits to be made from nonregu- 
lated contract insurance have made 
specialty underwriting a growth in- 
dustry, valued at about $7 billion 

tants, stockbrokers and investment 
advisers to insure themselves for 

And those planning to take an 
exotic trip, such as an African safa- 
ri, now often deem it prudent to 
buy ancillary medical coverage to 
provide for the financial conse- 
quences of being mauled by an ani- 
mal or contracting a rare tropical 
fever. The possibilities are virtually 

“You can insure anything.” said 
Nick Doafc, a spokesman for the 
venerable insurer Lloyd's of Lon- 
don which, despite its recent well- 
publicized financial difficulties, is 
still acknowledged as the weald 
leader in writing insurance for spe- 
cialized risks. "Provided you can 
show an insurable interest" 

And what is an “insurable inter- 
est”? In the world of specialty un- 
derwriting, a rough definition 
might be anything deemed by an 
insurer to be a bona fide liability, of 
virtually any form, which through 
the course of possible events could 
cause someone financial damage. 
The key to executing a specialty 

1 percent of the amount of cover- 
age bought- With specialty insur- 
ance, premiums can reach 10 per- 

might indeed be able to show that um rates and contract forms, and 
his potential loss of income would therefore often more profitable, 
be huge if he were permanently According to the Insurance Infor- 
di sab led-” matron Institute, a U.S. trade 

In such a scenario, however, the group, the premiums for standard 
star athlete's lifestyle would still be hfe, homeowner, and auto insur- 
thoroughly e xamin ed before the ance policies are often a fraction of 
policy could be written. “The tin- 1 percent of the amount of cover- 
derwriter might say. ‘What's this age bought- With specialty insur- 
fcllow do in his spare time? " Mr. ance, premiums can reach 10 per- 
Doak said. "If the answer is ‘He cent of the coverage ceiling and 
skis,’ the underwriter might say, even higher in some cases. 

‘Either be stops skiing or the premi- “It’s much more profitable to in- 

um doubles.' A person thus insured sure Pb3 Collins’s voice linn it is to 
could not expose himself to undue insure Phil Collins's house,” said 
risk.” Steve Goldstein, an institute 

The rise in while-collar crime has spokesman, referring to the rock 
led financial institutions to start anger. 

protecting themselves against what A trend, say U.S. industry 
is referred to as “balance sheet sources, is for targe, mainstream 
risk,” or anything that can cata- U.S. insurance concerns to form 
strophically damage financial subsidiaries to tap into specialty 
health. Such possibilities include markets. Among those to have 
invasion of computer systems, done so are American Interoation- 
which can result in fraudulent al Group, Nationwide Mutual In- 
transfer or theft of funds, sabotage surance COt and General Re Corp. 
of financial records, and the hold- State regulatory dima tes on stan- 

could not expose himself to undue insure PhD Collins's house,” said 
risk.” Steve Goldstein, an institute 

The rise in white-collar crime has spokesman, referring to the rock 
led finandal institutions to start singer. 

protecting themselves against what A trend, say U.S. industry 
is referred to as “balance sheet sources, is for large, mainstream 
risk,” or anything that can cata- U.S. insurance concerns to form 
strophically damage financial subsidiaries to tap into specialty 
health. Such possibilities indude markets. Among those to have 
invasion of computer systems, done so are American Internation- 
which can result in fraudulent al Group, Nationwide Mutual In- 
transfer or theft of funds, sabotage surance Co n and General Re CoTp. 
of financial records, and the hold- State regulatory dimates on stall- 
ing for ransom of a very valuable dard markets, moreover, appear to 

asset: the chief executive. 

“In analyzing such situations, 
one has to identify exactly what the 

contract, moreover, is the ability of risks are, how much they should be 
a broker, acting on behalf the per- insured for and, of course, what is 

son seeking insurance, to come to 
an agreement with the insurer on 
the limi ts of a possible c laim. The 
value of the asset being insured, be 
it a prize diamond, a rock star’s 
timely appearance on stage, or 
one’s ability to dunk a basketball 

Card Protection Flan costs £7 a cheats .a token amount for 

too many banks pay Hp service to year and policyholders are covered jke inconvenience caused by the 

the Commissions recommenda- 
tion," said Ms. Mosca. The con- 
tract holder's liability will often de- 
pend on whether a personal 
identification number, or PIN, has 
been used in the transaction. 
French banking giants. Credit 
Agricole, Credit Lyonnais and 
Cnfidit du Nord expect clients to 

for up to £1,000 provided they re- 
port the loss or theft within 24 

“If the policyholder fads to re- 
port within this lime, we may still 

loss of personal effects such as 

passport, driving license and resi- constantly, say experts. For exam- 
dence papers. pic, how many individuals or com- 

You may have to shop around to P™s 25 years ^ would have 
find an insurance scheme which is peedod to uuuro the cnrtirag or 

prior to umification of the loss or cover their losses ipiorro nonfi ca- 
theft of a card, even in cues where non if money has beeo withdrawn 
no gross negligence is involved. from m eutomated teDer machmt 
^praSleroos contrary to Howeve r, once the bmla hove bear 
rherenraof a European Commie- ootrfied of raid tteh or te. the 
aon recommendarioiupirblished in OBorrrerii freed from responal*. 
1 988, that puts a maximum thresh- 

oidof 150 Ecus (about 5173) on the “If the PIN falls into the wrong 
customer’s liability prior to notifi- hands, the banks automatically as- 
cation of card loss or theft. “Until sume that the cardholder is guilty 

port within this lime, we may still But if you are in any burning of a computer data base? 

provide cover, depending on the doubt about the terms of your card Now, it’s a niche market. Profcs- 
merils of the case,” said a company contract, or if the issuer is known to aonal investment advice and finan- 
spokesman. Both plans offer addi- a hard line in cases of card cial audits are more often charged 
tional benefits including emergen- misuse and cardholder liability, the with negligence amid today's legal 
cy cash advances, a cad-loss re- effort wffl be worth it. climate, prompting some accoun- 

annually in the United States fonns the basis for policy limits. 
a * one ’ - “Take the case of a professional 

New things to insure crop up athlete wanting to insure his body," 
constantly, say experts. For exam- sa ^d Mr. Doak. “A marginal player 
pie, how many Lodividaals or com- wbo sitsonthe be^ jrouldkvea 
panics 25 years ago would have probkm i msunng his legs for, say, 
needed to insure Te crashing or 510 a b - ro * CT 

humtnp nf , dal* W? «myincmg 

an insurer that the legs could ever 
be worth that much. But a star 
player who makes millions a year 
and has endorsement contracts 

insurable,” said Francis deZulueta, 
a director of Special Risk Services 
Ltd., a London insurance broker- 
age specializing in balance-sheet 

Mr. deZulueta said that a large 
European financial institution in- 
volved in banking, slockbrokmg, 
and fund management might take 
out a blanket poOcy to provide, say, 
£100 million in protection against a 
range of such risks. Such a policy, 
he added, would carry a premium 
of £23 million to £5 million. 

In the United States, one reason 
for the growth in the specialty in- 
surance industry is that, unlike in 
Britain, it is less regulated than 
traditional lines regarding premi- 

be ever- ti ghtening 

“In the UiL, insurance can't be 
placed in the surplus market unless 
it is not available in the licensed 
market,” said Richard Bouhan, ex- 
ecutive director of the National As- 
sociation of Professional Surplus 
Lines Offices, known as NAPSLO, 
in Kansas Gty, Missouri, a trade 
group for specialty brokers and in- 
surers. “And since regulation on 
standard markets is becoming 
more difficult, there are more op- 
portunities for specialty lines.” 

Mr. Bouhan said that liability 
insurance far day-care centers, 
amusement parks, and companies 
dealing with hazardous waste were 
other examples of specialty mar- 
kets. “Take the example of nuclear 
waste,” be said. “The people who 
generate the waste, haul h, and 
that store it aD have to have cover- 

old ofl 50 Ecus (about 5173) on the “If the PIN falls into the wrong 
customer’s liability prior to notifi- hands, the banks automatically as- 
cation of card loss or theft. “Until sume that the cardholder is guilty 
binding measures are introduced, it of negligence,” said Jean Allix, a 
is unlike ly that the rccommenda- member of the Commission's Con- 

ey cash advances, a card-loss re- effort will be worth it. 
porting service and key retrieval 

service. The card-loss reporting ser- T /T 

vice can be invaluable for dieuts I T*B fi'l'l \ JIT 

with more than one or two credit 
cards. On the loss or theft of a 

wallet or handbag, customers can PFORTUNITIES for 

call and the staff at either of the ■ ■ cross-border car insur- 

firms will cancel the cards on their W W ance sales are virtually 

behalf and Older new ones. ^ nonexistent and are 

“Without the service, card- My to remain so for many yeais 

Insure Cars at Home 

O PPORTUNITIES for “Unless the market is sufficient- 
cross-border car insur- ly large, cross-border car insurance 
ance sales are virtually sales would make little commercial 
nonexistent and are sense,” said Mr. Anderson. 

binding measures are introduced, it of negligence,” said Jean Allix, a “Without the service, card- jutety to remain so lor many years From the consumer’s point of 
is unlikely that the rccommenda- member of the Commission's Con- holders would have to phone u, 5J I ^i lTatAC/wwtiw>v>fn - th . view, car insurance is not really a 
Hon will have much effect in the sumer Policy Service. “Yet, it is not around the various issuers — a "J" r*® major financial concern, according 

of such a powerful European diffierd. to imagme »mari« in suri*,” raid Boh !2?SE!S& 

banking lobby,” warns Laura where this can occur witt 
Mosca, consumer affairs spokes- negligence bring involved.' 
man for the consumers group. Horror stories abound of card- 

Visa and MasterCard, the two holders being forced to reveal their 
largest card groups in Europe, can PIN as they are about to withdraw 
do little to improve the situation, money from an ATM, and reports 
\‘lt is up to individual card issuers of dever card frauds, where no vio- 

•* _ _ . . f Imm «e nMWmirtA in. 

sumer Policy Service. “Yet, it is not around the various issuers — a f a ^ e , s< 2 ne tl ? n ^ major financial concern, according 

loo difficult to imagine scenarios time-consuming and extremely t0 311 industry analyst. “Even if the 

where this can occur without any frustrating process if they do not Tl foreign policy worked out cheaper, 

negligence being involved.” have theSrSdetaHs to band,” said most , consumers wouU prefer to 

H^ror 6 stories abound of card- Hamrsh Ogston, chairman of Card ofIhcconw - 

holders being forced to reveal their ProtecutmPlan. deteSed from offering products on 

— The card issuer may ako offer a a pan-European basis because of 

card indemnity scheme, though this Qj C a dminis trative costs involved." 

The 25 key world markets 
reported in a single index 
— daily in the IHT. 

is unusual in countries where im- 

aT v"the*banks— - as to how lence is involved, are becoming in- plementation of the Commission’s departments and sales teams in tee 
theydeid with the question of card- creasingly common. recommendation is poor. target markets, ipurers will have to 

holder liabflitv,” said a spokesman In Paris, for example, local po- Crtdit Lyonnais is among a pay does to the host cwnttyspob- 
for Visa. “Our advice to consumers lice have had to deal with com- handful erf banks m France that cyholder protection fimd. These 
istosturo mound to find the con- plaints from the victims of profes- offer customers a card numrance funds are setup to protect thecon- 

- The problem being that it is not the fraud occurs at the weekend or — 

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terms of tbe contract after the con- hoars, and two men are invariably 

tract has been signed. This is cer- involved The trick is simple as u is ■[ ^ U tiff g 

tainly the case with issuers in effective: After tapping m the PIN, | T | l a l I B I I I 1 

France, Spain and Belgium, while the victim's attention is roomen- 

German rardappUcation forms in- tartly diverted by one fraudster, 

dicate that the client will get the who claims be dotsnt know how to , Tgl 1 I 

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pliritly asks for them to be for- his confederate waits for the card 

warded before tee conclusion of Save on international phone calls compared to 

baveaworaera- £££? it *2 ? ^ local phone companies and calling card plans. Call 

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Spain, Greece, Italy ^ losses prior to notification provid- ylQTSK 

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In addition to setting up claims 

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that an Italian national say, who 
subscribed to a British insurance 


packpgfi An outlay of 12 French 
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pay dues to the host country’s poli- 
cyholder protection fund. These 
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the insurer defaults. 

. v 

departments and sales teams in the contract would pay the same pre- 
tareet markets, insurers wffl have to mum as his British counterpart. 

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. Page 14 



A (Blue) Devil-May-Care Big Man 

The Offbeat Cherokee Parks Has Helped Inspire Duke 

By Barry Jacobs 

Aw York Tuna Service 

DURHAM, North Carolina — The banter 
was vintage Cherokee Parks. 

Like the rest of bis Duke teammates. Paries 
was playing tenacious defense against Purdue 
in the National Collegiate Athletic Association 
Southeast Regional final March 26. The 6-foot- 
1 1-inch (2.11 meter) center, who set a school 
record with 10 blocked shots in a game earlier 
in March, had immediately established a com- 
manding presence in the lane, blocking the first 
shot attempt by Glenn Robinson, Purdue’s all- 
America forward. 

Yet, busy as he was. Parks still found ample 
opportunity to indulge in his idiosyncratic 
brand of on-court patter, using Robinson's 
nickname to get himself and his teammates 

Paries played a key reserve role on Duke’s 
1992 championship squad, but often ran afoul 
of Laettner, who questioned the Californian’s 
competitiveness and tried to provoke him ver- 
bally and physically. Last year, inconsistent 
play by Parks and Lang often irritated the 
team's seniors. 

This season, though. Parks has emerged as a 
dependable player. And his personal style has fit 

He wears his hair long, 
still listens to message- 
laden heavy-metal music, 
and has added a personally 
designed tattoo of an 

8 °^ e whole game. Cherokee’s calling us ‘Big Aztec SUU god to hlS ankle 

Dog,’ ” Tony Lang, a Duke senior, said. 

“ ‘Lei’s go. Big Dog. Yeah. Big Dog.’ So I 

think Glenn was getting mad, because Cherokee we n with the easvsoine. personable tone 

think Glenn was getting mad, because Cherokee 
was calling everybody out there ‘Big Dog.’ ” 

The talk wasn't directed at the struggling 
Robinson, though. Rather, it was Parks’s way 
of having fun and maintaining concentration, 
part of being what Lang fondly calls “a charac- 
ter.” And part of wbal put the Blue Devils in 
the Final Four for the seventh time in nine 
seasons — they were to face Florida in the 
second game Saturday. 

“I’m more fired up these last couple of 
games, down the stretch,*' Parks said. 

“I’m just trying to be as intense as I can. On 
the floor. In the locker room. Before the game. 
After the game. Just trying to get everybody on 
the team fired up. It's helped me out a lot. really 
kept me more focused." 

Parks also loudly tallies his rebounds as he 
runs up court — “You can’t catch me!" he 
shouts at teammates — and strives to come up 
with odd comments at tense moments to help 
others relax. 

That lightheartedness wasn't appreciated in 
previous seasons by older teammates like Chris- 
tian Laettner, Thomas Hill and Bobby Hurley. 

well with the easygoing, personable tone set by 
seniors Lang and Grant HflL 

“I think Cherokee, his personality, has really 
helped us a lot, the fact that we fed more loose 
when we’re out there playing." Lang said. 

“We're not uptight, because you just look at 
Cherokee and you get a laugh." 

Parks arrived in Durham three autumns ago 
with hair dyed burgundy, a reputation as one of 
the best big men in his class, and an attitude 
ihat placed a higher priority on being a college 
student than on advancing his professional bas- 
ketball prospects. 

Unlike most Duke players. Parks had a mod- 
est background in the game. He began playing 
basketball in the eighth grade, and grew up 
primarily with his mother, whose interests ran 
more toward alternative lifestyles than to sports. 

The first thing that Parks changed at Duke 
was the color of his hair, which is naturally light 
brown. But he remains unconventional He 
wears his hair long, still listens to message-laden 
heavy-metal music, and has added a personally 

designed tattoo of an Aztec sun sod to his ankle. 

Parks is proud, too, that his perspective 
hasn't changed. 

“I'm still a college student first, definitely,” 
said the history major, fresh from pulling an all- 
nighter to prepare for an exam in Roman histo- 
ry. But, he conceded, “Basketball probably 
consumes most of my time.” 

That devotion to the game, however grudg- 
ingly given, has paid increasing dividends. 
“Cherokee has really kind of developed in a 
nice pro gression.” said Mike Kjzyzewski, the 
Duke coach. 

Last year. Parks led Duke in rebounding and 
blocked shots, and paced the Atlantic Coast 
Conference in field-goal accuracy (652 per- 
cent). This season he again leads the Blue Dev- 
ils in rebounds (8J per game) and blocks (71). 

Parks also has improved his seating average, 
from 12 pants per game last season to 14.5, 
second only to HQ1 on the team. Like Laettner, 
and big men before him, Danny Ferry and Mark 
Alarie, the fleet junior has made himself more 
difficult to defend by extending his effective 
shooting range to just inside the 3-ptint are. 

Still Parks continued to disappear on occa- 
sion this season, and slumped noticeably 
through February. Fortunately for Duke, 
though, his level of play has peaked just as the 
season reached its crescendo. 

“Cherokee in the last month has been so 
much more outspoken and so much more ma- 
ture." Krzyzewski said. 

“You know where he's at He’s shared that 
with his teammates. He's emotional on the 
court. He shares that emotion. Talks in huddles. 
So it’s like, he's an addition and that makes us 

Just bow much better has been manifest 
during the tournament. 

“I think if we win this thing.” Krzyzewski 
added, “a lot of it wfl] have to do with how weD 
Cherokee plays. Because he now has an impact 
on both ends of the court Big, big impact.” 

Rrbcrw Boica/Tbe Axociacd 

Milwaukee's Todd Day blocked a last-minute shot by Portland’s Teny Porta* that would have lied 
the game. Day came down wife the rebound, then Mt a 3-pointer to seone the Bocks’ victory at home. 

New English Fears 
For Berlin Game 

Compiled by Our Staff From Dispatches 

LONDON — A representative of England's soccer players on 
Friday again questioned the wisdom of playing an international 
exhibition match in Berlin on Adolf Hitler’s birthday. 

“We are concerned about the safety of players gang into such a 
volatile situation,” said Gordon Taylor, chairman of the Profession- 
al Footballers Association. “We sympathize with the view that it 
would be belter if this game didn't take place on April 20.” 

But the English Football Association insisted that the match 
would go ahead despite fears that players may face danger from 
political extremists. The FA admitted, however, that it was keeping a 
close watch on the situation in Germany, where there is a threat of 
violence at the match. 

Extremists from both ends of the political spectrum have threat- 
ened to demonstrate at the game, which was moved to Berlin after 
Hamburg withdrew as host because of concerns over potential 

“We are monitoring the situation closely and keeping in touch 
with our German counterparts,” said an FA spokesman, David 
Bloomfield. “But as far as we are concerned, the match goes ahead.” 

Said Taylor, who is seeking talks with the FA about the situation: 
“It is an insensitive day to play. I imagine dub chairmen will be 
worried when they realize what might happen.” 

Last month, the headquarters of the Berlin soccer headquarters 

ton was attacked, and the police suspect leftist protesters. German 
££ security officials have indicated that Dutch, English and French 
jug hooligans are planning to meet in Berlin to battle German rightists. 

E The game is seen as an important warm-up for Germany as it 
prepares to defend its World Cup title this summer in the United 
rea States. It will be the second game for England under its new 

sp manager, Terry Venables, who is rebuilding after the team failed to 

‘ make the World Cup finals. (AP, Reuters) 

The President as Top Hog: Good News or Bad? 

By Thomas Boswell 

Washington Post Service 

W ASHINGTON — George Washington supposedly 
threw coins across rivers. Abe Lincoln was a log 
splitter and wrestler. Teddy Roosevelt hunted big game. 
Dwight Eisenhower was always on the golf course. Jack 
Kennedy, who hurt his back being a World War II hero, 
refused to stop playing touch football, even against doctors' 
advice. Jerry Ford was a football all-American. George Bush 
would play five sports in a day and captained a college 
baseball team that twice reached the national championship. 

For a couple of centuries, it was axiomatic that the leader 
of a vigorous, young na- — 

lion would grab life by _ «!* 

lion would grab life by Vantaae .V 

the scruff of the neck wantage kTV- 

and challenge it person- Point ^ 9 

ally. The idea that the — — - I 

most important man in the world would get passionately 
excited about rooting for somebody else was the exception. 
The only commander in chief whose voluminous knowledge 
of sports trivia exceeded his own athletic exploits was also 
the only president who stepped down after bang threatened 
with impeachment. 

Now, we have President Bill Clinton — a totally new 
breed of cat Or, rather. Hog. He likes to study basketball 
box scores and root for the Arkansas Razorbacks. We’ve 
reached the point where one of our youngest presidents is a 
participant, but connects with the world or sports most 
passionately as a spectator. Yes, it’s different Possibly a 
trend. Maybe even a symbol 

When it cones to games, our president is typical of iris 
generation. (Maybe it takes a Baby Boomer to know one.) 
Clinton illustrates a contemporary paradox: the intense and 
■ successful person who can also be a couch potato. 

Tim president jogs to stay in shape, but he has also paused 
when a McDonalds looms in sight. He enjoys the outdoors 
and plays golf, but in a cart with a cigar in hand. He can't get 
enough of those sports stats. His specialty is basketball, but 

when he called Jerry Jones and Jimmy Johnson after the 
Super Bowl he immediat ely started talking about interior 
line play. 

All in all he’s one of us gemaL ref-hooting modems who 
passionately loves his teams but never played the tough 
very much himself. 

It's fun to see a chief executive who's self-deprecating 
enough to wear a fire- engine-red Razorback hat and memo- 
rize every detail of Arkansas games. The school routinely 
faxes its postgame press notes to the White House. 

Presumably it would take quite a crisis to keep Clinton 
away from Charlotte when Arkansas faces Arizona in the 
Final Four on Saturday. This is a man who mentioned in 
passing to Sports Illustrated that Corliss Williamson aver- 
ages 27 minutes a game- Not 28 or 26. mind you. We’re 
talking about a radio-call-m-sbow level of absorption. 

Clinton doesn't just greet US. Olympic champions. He goes 
on the court and exchan^s affectionate, undignified bear hugs 
with the Razorbacks 1 coach, Nolan Richardson. The president 
doesn’t even pretend that aO teams are equal in his eyes. He 
wants his Hogs to stampede the Final Foot. Electoral votes? 
Who needs ’em. Give him credit. He’s no phony. 

Clinton's love of the Razorbacks is so legit, so dose to the 
bone, that you both admire its honesty and wonder about its 
origins. Isn't it a bit unsettling to see a president who 
identifies so strongly with a game whose roots are almost the 
antithesis of his own experience? Clinton’s basketball career 
peaked as a reserve on the Oxford University B Team. Yet he 
rhapsodizes about falling in love with The City Game. 

My generation loves to identify with what it is not. Ip our 

of those baggy basketball shorts that are the most’ comically 
hideous fa^hinn misialcf since tire Mohawk haircut. 

Does all of this concern for appropriating coolness merely 
reflect an eclectic breadth of view? Or does it inq>ly a bit of 
an identity vacuum? 

(Sorely' it must indicate the former. Otherwise, I might 
have to take off my rugby shirt since I never played rugby* 
Or my Braves bastftall cap.) 

Win the day come when watching, rather than doing, is the 
hallmar k American trait? What is Vice President A1 Gore's 
beloved information superhighway but the ultimate oppor- 
tunity to be a spectator? Sure, sore, there arc tons of s<xnally 
useful and job-related applications for this technology. But 
talk to some of the people who are bitiJdinathe cutting-edge 
stuff. They’re searching for what they call The Killer Appli- 
cation — the gimmick that makes everybody boy the gadget 
— and that application is always assumed to be entertain- 
ment. •.•••••*• *. 

By the end of the century, well be able to watch any 
movie, any TV show or any sports event any time we wish. 
We can structure our whole life around a custom-designed 
viewing schedule. What is “interactivity" but a new form of 
spectating with icing on top? 

W E HAVE seen presidents before who root for their 
local teams. George Bush, who adopted Texas as his 
home, got in trouble in Washington once for saying he hoped 
his Houston Oilers would beat the Redskins. Still Gin ton’s 
a new phenomenon. Have we ever seen a president who 
critiques the coach’s substitution pattern arid knows how 
many 3-point shots some substitute guard once made in a 

nature. But we deeply wish to be those th in gs, even at the risk 
erf looking pretty silly. Often, that connection with hipness is 
made through rock music or sports. 

Now, we have a president who wears shades and plays the 
sax at bis Inaugural BalL The Razorbacks sent Clinton some 

Have we ever had a president who might be invited to help 
cut down the net? 

Few people watch more games than 1 or enjoy it more — 
both for a living and for fun. But then I don't think I should 
be president Should I be flattered or worried when the guy 
in charge acts so much like me? 

Sonies Beat 
Lakers by 3 
On Kemp’s 
Late Surge 

The Associated Pros . 

Magjc Johnson brought the Los 
Angdes Lakes’ showtime to Seat- 
tle, and Shawn Kemp turned it into 
a showcase. 

Kemp scored six of the Super- 
Saties’ last seven points and fin- 


ished with 28 points and 12 re- 
bounds in Seattle’s 95-92 victory. It 
was Johnson’s first loss in three 
games as the Lakers coach. 

“Shawn was fantastic,” said the 
Sonies coach, George Karl “He 
made some big plays.” 

Two of the biggest Thursday 
night were his three-point play that 
gave the Soaks a 93-88 lead with 
2:23 left and bis rebound of Tony 
Smith's intentionally missed free 
throw with 13 seconds left, assur- 
ing Seattle's 10th straight home vic- 
tory over the Lakers. 

“When he’s on his game, no one 
in the league can stop him,” Sam 
Perkins said of Kemp. 

Johnson was upbeat after the loss, 
saying his team's effort on Seattle's 
hone court would help in upcoming I 
home games against the Houston 
Rockets and Atlanta Hawks. A 
Hawks 106, Kin g s 102: Atlanta ■ 
handed Sacramento its sixth 
straight loss as Kevin Willis scored 
16 cl his 29 points in the fourth 
quarter and grabbed 21 rebounds. 

Mitch Richmond, who scored 26 
points for the Kings, missed a 3> 
point attempt with 14 seconds left 
and Sacramento trailing 103-100. 
Willis then hit two free throws and 
Mookie Blaylock one in the final ■ 
seconds, sealing the victory that - 
gave the Hawks their first 50- vic- 
tory season since 1988-89. 

Sus 117, dippers 102: Cedric 
Ceballos scored 32 points and 
Charles Barkley led a 55-31 re- - 
bounding advantage by Phoenix - 
with 17 rebounds at Los Angeles. = 
Dominique W ilkins scored 28 
pants and Ron Harper 19 for die : : 
Clippers, who have lost four -* 
straight games and are 04 against 
the Suns this season. - 

Bucks 111, Trail Blazers 109: 

Ken Norman scored a season-high :: 
37 points and had 13 rebounds as - . 
Milwaukee defeated Portland, only ~ 
its 10th victory in 36 home games ~ 
this season. - 

The Trail Blazers lost their third c 
straight game despite a season-high - 
36 points from Terry Porter and 33 > 
by Gyde Drexler. ’ 

Portland led 5947 at halftime 
but Norman personally outscored -l 
the Blazers 16-13 in first nine min- -■ 
utes of the third quarter. 

Portland got within 2 points four 
times in the fourth quarter, the last 
time on Porter’s 3-poinier at the 

Spurs 101, Cavaliers 85: San An- : ~ 
tonio won its fifth consecutive 
game as David Robinson scored i l > 
of his 26 points in the fourth quar J 
ter against Cleveland. - ■ 

The visiting Cavaliers, who were ■ 
led by John Williams with 21 
points, drew no closer than nine in 
the final period as Robinson kept 
them at bay. ^ 



t T 



Page 15 7 

1 ^ r 

*■■ i v 

The Crack of a Bat 

By Dick Roraback 

on this side of the ocean 
"Of* the chestnuts are hinting of green 
And the first of the cafe commandos 
Are moving outside for a fine 
A nd the sound of spring beats a bolero 
As Pane sheds her coat and her hat 
Thesound that is missed more than anv 

Is the sound of the crack of aba. 


an animal kind of a feeling 
then's a stirring dawn at Vincennes Zoo 
And the kid down the halTs getting restless 
Taking stars like a young kangaroo 
Now the dandy “ talking his poodle 
And the concierge sunning her cat 
But the heart’s with the Cubs and the Tigers 
And the sound of the crack of a bat. 


In the park on the comer run schoolboys 
With a couple of cartons for props 
Kicking goals d la Fontaine or Kopa 
While a little guy duckies for cops 
“Goal for us.” "No it’s not,” “ You're a liar.” 
Then the classical shrieks of a spat 
But it’s not tike a rhubarb at home plate 
Or the sound of the crack of a bat 

Hen the stadia thrill to the saumdowns 
And the soccer fans flock to the gpmes 
And the due punt the nags out at LongAamp 
Where the women are dunes and not dames 
But it’s different at Forbes and at Griffith 
The homes of the Buc and the Nat 

the hotdog and peanut s/uuv laurels 
With the sound of the crack of a bat 


No, a Yank can’t describe to a Frenchman 
The rasp of an umpire’s call 
The continuing charms of statistics 
Changing hist’ry with each strike and bad 
Nor the self-conscious jog of the slugger 
Rounding third with the lip of his hat 
Nor the half-smothered grace of a hook slide 
Nor the sound of the crack of a bat 


Now. the gplfer is biffing his niblick 
And the tennis buff’s tightening his string? 

Arid the fisherman’s flexing his flyrvd 
Like a thousand and one other springs 
Oh, the sports on both silks of the ocean 
Have a great deal in common, at that 
But die thing that’s not HERE 
At this time of the year 
Is the sound of the crack of a bat. 

Dick Rorebscfc is a former Sports Editor of die Herald Tribune 
Ki springtime degy has appeared io this space glace the !96 Ql 

A Few Changes, but 2 Old Words: Play Ball! 

The Associated Press 

John Olerud of the Blue Jays 
scrunches up bis face, trying to 
imaging Row this season’s stand- 
ings will look in his morning paper. 

“It will be different,” the Ameri- 
can League batting champion said. 
“It might take a link white to fig- 
ure ouL” 

But even before the first pitch is 
thrown, at a rare Sunday night 
opener in Cincinnati, baseball fans 
already know how they fed. 

To purists, realignment and 
wild-cani playoffs are absolutely 
the worst thing that has happened 
to baseball since the designated- 
hitter debate began in 1973 — far 
worse, even, than Michael Jordan 
trying io mak e the majors. They say 
it represents yet another step to- 
ward makum baseball resemble the 
National Hockey League, where 
the regular season rawnns little, and 
ritirnnatfs any hope of a pennant 
race like the one waged by Atlanta 
and San Francisco last faJL 

To proponents, splitting each 

league into three divisions is a big 
change for the better. They say that 
teams such as Texas and SL l/mfc, 

which under the new format would 

have made the playoffs last season, 
now have an increased chance of 
taking on the two-time World Se- 
ries champion Blue Jays in Octo- 
ber. They contend that this wili 
generate more interest for a sport 
whose appeal has bem H runnin g 

To Jim Fregosi, it’s all a lot of 
hot air. 

“It doesn’t have B damn thing to 
do with anything.*' the Philadel- 
phia Phillies manager »»M 

“You still have to win the 

r es," be said, “You have to win 
games to make the playoffs. 
You re all playing the same sched- 
ule. What’s the big deair 

The big deal is that for the first 
time in 125 years, a team will not 
have to finish in first place to reach 
the postseason. 

That means that for the first time 
teams will have to win a best-cf- 
five-game first round then a 

best-of-seven-game round before 
reaching the World Series. And, 
because of a new television pack- 
age, all of the opening-round games 

won’t be shown to all areas. 

Talk of these changes is topic 
No. 1 as baseball prepares for a 
season that will feature the Bhie 
Jays trying to become the first 
three-time World Series winners 
since Oakland in 1972, 73 and 74. 
Barry Bonds chasing his third 
straight Most Valuable Player 
award. Cal Ripken positing toward 
Lou Gehrig’s “iron -man " streak, 
new ballparks in Cleveland and 
Texas, and no more Nolan Ryan, 
George Brett or Robin Yount. 

On the field, the game will re- 
main the same as in 1994: no dis- 
putes about whether to use to des- 
ignated hitter in interleague games 
— which is stiO a few years away, 
maybe — and no extra lively balls, 
though there was a rash of high 
scores in recent exhibition 
There is a chance, however, (hat 
players may strike in late August, 

and almost no chance that there 
will be a commissioner by the end 
of the season. 

How the game looks, or at least 
how it is perceived, will be much 
different from the start. 

It mil require more than skim- 
ming the top of the standings to see 
who is playoff-bound. Instead, it 
wiU take scanning the records of aB 
the second-place dubs to figure out 
which is ahead for a wild-card spot 

Last year, that would have been 
simple in the National League: The 
Braves and Giants, who began the 
final day tied with 103 victories, 
would have both been in. Instead, 
the last-day drama, which wound 
up with A tlanta w inning and San 

Francisco losing, would have been 
merely for playoff positioning. 

But a team like Seattle, which 
has never made the playoffs, could 
get in this year with a second-place 
finish in the weak, four-team AL 
West. Or the Gevdand Indians 
could qualify by finishing behind 

Where’s Faldo? Who Cares? 

Absence of Stars Gives Lesser Golfers a Chance to Shine 


By Ian Thomsen 

International Herald Tribune 
LYON — Steven Bottomley 
■ knew the big time was near because 
| be was deciding to get rid ofhis 
- mobile home: He had lived in it for 
most of the last two years, cooking 
in it, doing die dishes in it and 
waking op m it, driving it from one 
minor European golf tournament 
to the next, and when it broke 
down it was his job to fix it. 

No sooner had it grown depend- 
able from steady repairs than he 
found himself trying to seO iL 
Then he used the savings to hire 
himself a caddy. 

“A caddy these days costs a mini - 
mntn £300 a week,” he said. “Hav- 
ing a caddy relaxes you, it makes 
you fed like you belong a httte bit It 
makes you led good. Gordon Brand 
Jr. has a caddy. So now be has 
nothing over me at the moment. 
He’s gpt more money, sure: But on 
the course we're equals. He has a 
caddy, I have a caddy ” 

At 29, Bottomley. an En glishman , 
understands how dose he is to mak- 
ing up the difference between him- 
self and one of the best players in 
this PGA European to u rn a ment, the 
Open V33, winch began Friday. In 
almost any other field, Gordon 
Brand Jr. of Scotland would be a 
secondary favorite: a Ryder Cup 
player in 1987 and 1989 whohas 
wan cmly one tournament since. Bui 
in the Open V33 — with all of the 
celebrities preparing abroad for the 
UJx Masters Dext week — Gordon 
Brand Jr. walks into the daylight of 
Nick Faldo’s absence and casts a 
shadow of his own. 

Brand, shooting a first-round 73 
in a storm Friday morning, is tak- 
ing the place of Faldo: Does it 
mean that Steven Bottomley — 
with his 2-over-par 74 ■ — can as- 
sume Brand’s station this week? 

Bottomley qualified for the PGA 
Tour this year. His goal is to earn at 
least £50,000 ($74,000), placing 
him among the Top 120 players 
and assuring Mm of 8 place on the 


tour next season, which might then 
allow him to find a sponsor. With a 
sponsor and a caddy, who blows 
what he might do? He has earned 
more than £16,000 so far this year, 
with prize money in coming tour- 
naments exceeding this week’s 
purse of £250,000 — and, of course, 
the stars returning at the aid of the 
month to start claiming iL 

’The bigger tournaments have 
more fading to them,” Bottomley 
said. “This one feds more like the 
Qmllengp Tour where I was playing 
last year. Yoc see a lot of gays here 
tins week carrying their own bags.” 

Actually, most of them pull their 
bags on trolleys. What distin- 
guishes Brian Nelson as an Ameri- 
can is that be carried his bag over 
his shoulder Friday. After spending 
a week at home in Tyler, Texas, be 
returned this week to play in Lyon 
— a long trip for one week, but he 
cannot ignore an opportunity to 
break through at an event like this. 

“The thing you hope to do is to 
win a tournament in Europe, which 
gives you a two-year exemption 
over here,” he said. “Then you can 
go back to the States and try to win 
your card on the big tour there, and 
you still have this as your back-up.” 

Since leaving the University of 
Texas in 1989, he said, be has been 
trying to find a way onto tiie U.S. 
PGA Tour. He earned the right to 

play in Europe three years ago, but 
that was a Ryder Cup year — the 
stars were playing often in order to 
qualify — and a few tournaments 
were canceled because of the Gulf 
War. He was damp and odd, pack- 
ing his golf bag for the day, when a 
fehow player approached him. 

“Hey, California!” said the play- 
er, Antonio Sobrinho, before cor- 
recting hnnselL “Texas, I mean." 

Hehad met Nelson only recent- 
ly. Sobrinho was bom in Angola, 
and his unde had moved him and 
bis younger brother to Portugal 
when Antonio was 3. He does not 
remember his father, and be knows 
nothing of his mother. 

He took up golf in Portugal when 
he was 14, only after an ankle inju- 
ry cut short any soccer dreams he 
might have had. He is 23 now, and 
his golf dub at Vila Moure in the 
Algarve was ready to sponsor his 
professional career, except that he 
could not leave the country. For six 
years he had been trying to get a 
Portuguese passport It was deliv- 
ered to hfm lute last m ont h Be- 
cause aB of tire best players are 
elsewhere, Sobrinho was invited to 
. malm his first airplane ride out of 
Portugal to play m the Open V33. 

“So what did you have?" So- 
brinho said. 

Replied Nelson: “77, not so 
good. Yon?" 

Sobrinho looked at him far a 
mflmmr with something betweoi 
satisfaction and guilt, for laving 
felt good about something that 
wasn't so good now after alL 

“Seventy-six,” he said. 

It was hard to tell, as he held his 
breath, whether he felt better or 
worse about it 

“But tomorrow is another day.” 
he finally said. 

Sobrinho and Nelson, Brand and 
Bottomley, would begin that day at 
least six shots arrears. The storm 
had cleared by the afternoon. The 
early leader with an • 

67 was a champion, Philip Price of 
Wales, who had won his first torn- 
□ament just two weeks ago, also in 
the absmceof grander reputations. 

■ OJazabal Leads In U.S. 

Despite gusts of more than 20 
ntiks (30 kflmneters) an hour, Jos6- 
Maria Ofaztinl shot a course-record 
9-under-par 63 Thursday to take a 
four-stroke lead after the first round 
of the Freeport-McMoRan Golf 
Classic in New Orleans, The Associ- 
ated Press reported 

Olazabal, starting on the back 
nine, had birdies on his second, 
fourth, sixth and seventh holes. He 
had five more birdies an the front 
nine to break the course record of 64 
set by Jod Edwards in 1991. Sam 
Torrance was second with a 67. 

a*- m 

<■* . fnr 

, v 

* ■'■■*'*."*: *» •••' fjff’ 1 *"''' ~~ 1 ~ "i ’frriTyrf’^'T "'ll* 'Vfii 

Vd Cans/Tkc AaociMd Pro, 

Colorado shortstop Walt Weiss waited in vain for the throw as Tuner Ward stole second base in Milwaukee’s 10-2 exhibition rout. 

Chicago in the new AL Central and 
winning the wDd-card berth. 

“I think the fact that more teams 
will be involved in races might be a 
good thing for baseball,” Olerud 
said. “You might see teams in it 
that have not made it for awhile.” 

That's what happened in 1969, 
when the leagues were split into 

Coming off a 1968 season in 
which Detroit and St. Louis were 
runaway pennant winners, seven 
teams were given permission to 

print playoff tickets when tire 1969 
races entered the stretch. One of 
those chibs was tire New York 
Mets. which then capped one of 
baseball's most incredible stores 
by winning the World Series. 

This year, tire Blue Jays will try 
to make more history. Joe Carta’s 
three-run homer off Philadelphia's 
Mitch W illiams in the ninth inning 

of Game 6 last year made Toronto 
the first repeal champions snee the 
1977-78 New York Yankees. Now. 
tire Blue Jays are aiming for a third 
straight tide. 

Toronto is mostly in tacL But the 
Phillies will begin without John 
Kruk, who underwent surgery for 
testicular cancer. Tire White Sen, 
winners of the AL West last year 
and now in the Central, will be 
without Scott Radinsky, who has 
Hodgkin's disease. The Braves are 
minus Ron Gant, who was hurt in a 
dirt-bike accident and was cut. 

The realigned Braves, with their 
rotation of the two-time Cy Young 
winner Greg Maddux, the one-time 
winner Tom Glflvme and the NL 
playoff MVPs Steve Avery and 
John Smoltz, are expected to win a 
tough NL East that includes Phila- 
delphia and Montreal. 

Bonds and Frank Thomas will bry 
to win another MVP award, white 
Juan Gonzalez, Ken Griffey Jr. and 
tire new crop of AL stars dud for the 
home-run title. Danyl Strawberry, 
Mark McGwire and Jose Canseco 
are back from injuries dial cost them 
most of last year. 

Gevdand, with Dennis Marti- 
nez, Jade Morris and Eddie Mur- 
ray, and Texas, with WiU Clark, 
will try to reach the playoffs for the 
first time since the leagues split into 
divisions. Both teams have new 

Then there is Ripken, the Balti- 
more shortstop, who extended his 
streak of consecutive games to 1,897 
last season. If he continues to play 
every game, he would break Geh- 
rig’s record of 2,130 in June- 1995. 

Another Out: Swapping Series Start 

The Associated Pros 

NEW YORK — Another baseball tradition — 
alternating the starting city in tire World Series 
between the leagues —has bitten the dusL 
The World Series will start in the city of the 
American League champion this year for the sec- 
ond straight season because of baseball's desire to 
avoid conflict with the National Football League. 

The Series start had alternated between the 
leagues since 1935, when the Chicago Cubs gave up 
home-field advantage to the Detrat Tigers because 
they said Wrigtey Field wouldn’t be ready in time. 

"fire National League wiU be home for the start 
of the World Series in 1995 and 1996, according to 
Thursday’s announcement. Baseball officials said 
the change was necessary because of tire expanded 

ffs, which extend baseball through almost 
1 of the NFL season. 

“There was a possibility in some of the sires 
there would be five consecutive weekends their 
teams couldn’t be home,” said an NL spokeswom- 
an, Katy Feeney, who was in charge of coordinat- 
ing sch e dule s with the NFL. 

Edit NL stadiums are shared with NFL teams: 
Gponnafi, Colorado, Florida. Houston, Philadel- 
phia, Pittsburgh, San Diego and San Francisco. 
Baseball has the right to first use erf all the parks 
except Jack Murphy Stadium in San Diego. 

Game 7 of the World Series is scheduled for 
Sunday, Oct 30, two days later than any other Series 
gtme has been played. Based on the current ar- 
rangement, Game 7 in 1996 would be on Nov. 3. 




Major League Scores 


■nunaarv Rotate 
Montreal 2, New York Yankaa 1 
Pittsburgh & Toronto 0 
Detroit 7, OndnnaM 4 1 

Chicago White Sax A Baltimore 6> II Innings 
Cleveland 7. Kansas atv 3 
Florida i Houston 4 
Philadelphia 8 SL Loub 3 
Attcnta 4. New York Mets 0 
Milwaukee 10. Colorado 2 
Seattle 5, San Diego I . 

California 11. Chicago Cubs 7 
Minnesota 3. Boston 0 


an ss st at— ur 

M 34 V 27—162 

P: OtxOIos 12-21 6-1032. BarkJer M4 *4 14; 
LA: Wttklns 1V23 5-8 21 Harper 8-14 84 19. 
Rabouads— Ptwcnfac 46 (Brektovl7).Las Ange- 
les 44 (Windra 8). AMlste- fhoerix 34 ( KJctm- 
son 14). Los Angelos 22 Uaoksen. Harper «). 
Atlanta » 31 21 31— Mf 

Sacramento 19 2S 2t 39 Ml 

A: Willis 9-20 11-14 29. Ehlo W 54 1#; S: 
Richmond lb-24 6-7 26, Williams 13-22 44 32; 
i m tm u nrti in ttnntn lilt P*" 111 * »» I. * " "«»««■ 
to 51 (Slirrmana*). Assists — AtKmto24 (Btov- 
locfc li), Sacramento 25 (Simmons 7). 


NHL Standings 

NBA Standings 

Atfoottc Dtvbtea 

- J 

' * -Houston 


' x-San Antonio 


• x-utab 



* Minnesota 


* Daflae 

•* ;y 

' x-5eaHte 

i ■ s ; .- 

' X -Phoertix 

’ Golden State 

' 'll 

' Portland 

v . r 

' LA. La* ere 

• . > t 

■ LAOtofsors 

x-Nmr York 

W L 
50 19 


41 28 

Mew Jersey 

37 32 


37 33 


25 43 



21 49 


19 50 

x -Atlanta 

Central Dtvtsl 
50 20 

x -Chicago 

46 24 


40 31 


37 32 


31 37 


20 49 


19 51 





















W L 

50 19 

51 2D 
44 27 

35 33 
19 50 
B 61 


53 17 
46 23 

40 29 5B0 

41 30 577 

30 W 

25 45 & 

23 47 5» 










12 W 


7 101 

ii in 

10 M 
13 77 
7 73 

33 38 
31 35 10 72 

J2S — 
718 - 

Atlantic DfvWoH 
W L T Pts 
xrN.Y. Rangers 47 
x-Mew Jer sey 45 

Wash motor 35 

Honda 32 


N.Y. Islanders 
Tampa Bay 26 40 11 63 

Northeast DMsMw 
x-Pttfsburgti « 25 13 91 

x- Boston » 25 W n 

x-Montfeal 39 25 13 91 

Bufiofo 39 » 9 87 

Quebec 31 39 7 W 

Hartford 25 45 • 58 

Ottawa U 56 8 34 

Control DMsMa 
x-OetroK 44 27 6 W 

x-Toronto 40 26 12 92 

X-DaHas » 26 12 W 

x-SL Louis 37 30 9 w 

x-enksgo * jj ! 2 

Winnipeg 23 46 8 54 

2 U 

W (Peake, Starry ! Cpp). Second Period: C- 
Ruutfu 9 (Chenas) CPP): W-KoMier 14. W- 
JaneslsCBarrldga, Ridley). IBM Period: w- 
Konowalchuk 10 (Berube. Stater); C- 
Rooitiefc 44 (Wilkinson OuMnskv); C- 
Romkfc 45 lAmonhs Oubiraky) Ipp). Shots 
an goal: W (on Hackett. Soocv. Hockett] Ml- 
4—36. C (on Dafoe) 5-7-7—19. 

ToreatQ 2 1 0-3 

Saojose 1 1 3-« 

First Period: T-Androvcnuk S3 (GIB. OH- 

mour) (dp); T-CuMonll (Larkmoy.McRao); 
&JrFalloon22 (Gaudroau. Dahlan) (PP).Soc- 
and Period: T-Gartnor 31 (Gill); S_MJafctr » 
(Whitney. Falloanl.Tbim Period: IMB 23 
(Krona. Dwchosne); SJ.-OaMan 21 (EDM; 
5J. -Whitney 12 (Cronin). Shots ea goal: T (on 
irbo) 114 9 a *. S-L (on Potvln) S-3-5— 16. 

• l l l— a 

• l i g-a 

Peri od: E-Amott 30 (Mctttoy, 
McAmmond) A-Lebeau u (Dodos. 
MCSween). Third Period: A-Sacco 17 
(Sweeney. Van Allen); E-Rlee 16 (Wetaht, 
Pearson). Orerttae: E-Arndt 31 I McAm- 
mond}. shots oa goal: E (an Hebort) P-144- 
2—31. A (on BndhwoHe. Rentard. Broth- 
Matte) 13-8-12-0—33. 

ratals. Sant Adam Hyzdu. outfieMer, to 

°FLOR?DA---Pat Dave Maoodra tofhrtder, 
on lSday ttstaad list, retrooenvota MarchW. 
RoJeasad Morto Din. MMdsr. Optioned Bob 
NataL catcher, to Edmonton. PCI- Sent Brian 
Bra hm an, pitcher, outright to Edmonton. 

MONTREAL— Sold the contracts of John 
Vandar WOL outfielder, and player named 
later to Colorado tor undbetosed amount ol 
cash. Released Tim Leanr, Pitcher. 

N.Y. mets— T raded Alan ZJntor, 1st baso- 
maa to Detroit tor Rico Bragna, 1st baseman, 
and assigned Brogno to NortoJk, ii_ Sent Rick 
Parker, outfielder, to mtoorJeague camp tor 

SAN FRANCISCO— Claimed Brad Brink, 
pttchor, off wofvers from Philadelphia 

CINCINNATI — Mamed Gerald OWi ath- 
letic director. 

the contract of John KrcBso. mom ba sk etball 
coach, for io years. 

CREIGHTON— Named Dona Altman 
men* kofcd faat coach. 

PAYTO N An noun c e d the reshmatten ot 
Sue Ramsey, women's basketball coach. 

amed Matt Paten women’s soccer coach. 

EDINBORO— Ed Stall, offensive line 
coach, and Gone Smith, defensive line coach, 
res i gned. Stults was named football coach of 
Defiance College. Named Tony Elliott assis- 
taif football coach. 

basts womens assistant basketball coodbre- 

INDIANAPOLIS— Released Scott Rodedc 



PHILADELPHIA— Signed William FuHer, 
d e fen siv e end. to 3-veor contract. 

NEW ENGLAND— Signed Blair Thomas, 
running back. 

SAN DIEGO— Withdrew tender offer to 
Erie Blenlemy, running back. Stoned Dante 
Gto son. H n eb oriwr.toJ re ar co ntrac t Named 
Kevin O’Dea reaching re s ist ant. 




Pete Sampras, U5. (11. doL Gal Hawns 
Raaux. France, ea 4-3; Lionel Roux. France 
del Aaron KrtdaMn, UA. <61.7-5, *4 (7-2); 
Henrik Holm. S wede n det Michael dm 
UJ. (2), 2a 7-5. 6-3. 

Match between Andre Agassi, US. 15), and 
Darid Wheaton. U A. was p ostponed due to 
ram after Agasi led 7-6 (7-1). 3-1. 



x-clmchev pm"" 1 
IS 29 W 





6 W 
12 V*r 


24 2S-1« 


f (Price 5), San Antonio 1 „ «_W9 
Portland * " * jt-tii 

Milwaukee _ „ , i_j «- 

P: Drexler 13-W \-1 X. P£*r S-Z3 M 

M: Mormon to-29 ^iiSnSra ioi mif 
‘ Rebouod*— Portland 51 
raukeeST Mormon 13). 

(Strickland 13). MUwou ke e 27 

LA. Lakers *7 34 21 33—95 

"tTcampbeU S-l» ^ 

■ BsaasiSasssa* 


x-Caloarv JB 27 12 88 271 239 

X-Vtmcouvor 38 36 3 79 260 2S1 

30 33 15 75 234 299 
MBtol * 43 S “W2J9 

f^X»Mes 25 40 11 61 270 296 

22 « 12 56 2422B3 

x-dlndwd okiyalf berth 
BjIM 111 W 

BM 1 0 1 B-i 

m period: B-Heime 9 (Morals); D- 
Oooner 26 (P- Broton, lidor); Mtodono 41 
SSdPoriod: BMurrav W (MM. OWe«. 
State a* goal: D (on Casey) M8-7-2— 28. B (an 
Moog) M-n-i-w- 

CMaarr * ■ ” 

nMunrahto • * B-l 

Rta tartod: C-Nvfander 13 (Rotarto): C- 
Fleury 34 (RMchei, ZataMkl) (pp). Second 
iSoJ- p.Renbenj37(Radne.Undros) (op). 

2JJv 36 ten). State oa goal: C (on Sods* 

SS) 7+13-2S- P l« VtaWO) 

Qoe# “ | | M 

Period: O- Sutter 13 (Fraser); teOil- 
J^no^rtrar 15 (SakJO ; (Kundfn X. 

SVlccareinn ( Coffev, Chkaaon);^^ak(c 25 
TauKhor. Lotantel (an).SMts«»gcta: Q (on 

SS 0 C * 0Utt ^ 

IS— 41. _ _ - . 

******* l ; „ 

a S2p fl rtod: ««o» 14 (Ptvankn.Juiwau); 
vy-juneoulBIPed^e-P''^** 01 Wi W-Jones 

OuWwrg 2. Bonwsla M utnctano tadbac h 0 
Stuttgart L Katserslautam 1 
WottonscheM X Hamburg 1 
Dynamo Dresden l. Nuremberg 1 
FC Twente Enschede 4. WHIeri B Tllbm ■ 



BALTIMORE— Rich Gedman. ratetar, re- 
tired. Optioned Stork Smith outfielder, to 

CAU FORNIA— Sinned Ken Patterson, 
oHdtor. to rnkwr- league antrad. 

CLEVELAND— Agreed to tame with 
Sandy Alomar Jr^catawr. on contract 

extension through 1997. Seat Tim Jones. In- 
Retdar, and David Lynta, p H c ner. to minor- 
ham camp far reamtenman). Opt toned AJ- 
We Lopez. Pitcher, to Chertotte, U_ 

DETROIT— Assigned Alan 2Mer, 1st base- 
man, to Taledn IL. Optioned Baddy Groom. 
Pitcher, to Totoda 

tk rtfc xta League 

0(1 CAGO CUBS— Bought antrod of Mark 
Parent catcher, from luwa.AA.OpttancdKe- 
«in Roberson and Scott BultaLoutfleMofs. to 
lawn. Sent Mike MaksutSon. catcher, to mi- 
n or -tong u t eem n for l eusslgn mont. 

CitiOHNATi— Bought centres of Jerome 
WOtton.outfleWer.fram lndtooapalis.AA.QP 
honed JerTY Snnxffia pttSier, to i ndia ncw o - 

11 s. Assigned R)di Sawvaur.plMier, to (ndto- 

ANAHE1M — Signe d Maxim Bets, i efl wtoto 
to iifulttysur (nitrsd. 

CALGARY— Sent Andrei Trefilov,goaile,lo 
Saint Jgha AH L 

HARTFORD — Recalled J*n Stevww. Or- 
to ns omoa from Sprtngftew. AM|_ 
MONTREAL— Sent Brian Savage, renter, 
to Fredericton. AHL. 

N.Y. ISLAM DERS— Recalled Daw Ctff- 
zowdd and Ztoav Potffv. to« wlnos. from Srit 

Lake Oty, IHL 

N.Y. RANGERS- R e called Mottles Nor- 
Strom, de f uu smon. from Blnwtwwfon. ahl 
ST. LOUIS— Sard Terry Hoi Unger, defense- 

man; Tony Hrtsoc center; and Vltalt Korenv 

mv. toft wina to Peorto, IHL. Extended aw 
tract of Madde SbUstonn rendWtoning 

amsultoBt, tor 3 wars. Sent Demiv Felsner, 

rtohl winato Peoria Recalled Porris Dvhw, 
goalie, from Peoria. 

5ANJOSE— Traded Doug Zmoiekond Ml k* 

Uflor.d efen semeis to Polios tor UH Dtatoa. 
right wtno, end future coneldeRdtom. 

TAMPA BAY— Recalled Jim Cuntmtaw left 
wbw, and Eric Owrron. defe ns eman, from 
Atlanta IHL 

TORONTO— Called up Frank BkJ Ureas, cto- 
tonseman tram SI. JatoTs. AHL 

WASHINGTON— 5 tardStefonDsforf. coo- 

WINNIPEG-Traded Paul Ysetaert, ren- 
ter. to Odcaga far 3rd-reund pick in 1998 

Peterson men's basketball raoch. 

ARKANSAS ST— Named Tom Jordan tight 
ends caodi and aotistanr reauMni caontealor. 

BALL ST— Named Ren Ktotonssa ana L^ 
wm BeUn a s si st ant football coaches. 

BAYLOR— Fired Pom Bawcra womens 
txsfcefball reach. 

BOSTON COLLEGE— Slew Cedorrfwk. 
hockey ceodv resigned. 

burv hockev cotxJi 

CALIFORNIA— Jason KUL suord. wfH 
forego Ms final two yoarsoleftgtWIIty to enter 
NBA draft. 

CARN EGI E-MEU-OH— Named Jb nMareiB 
and Paf Johnston eestotort tootadl caacnw 

FINDLAY— Rred Sheryl Neff, women* 
basketball and softball coocti. 

FLORIDA ST. — Suspended Derrick Car- 
roll, f or ward. IndeflnWefy for foUIng to follow 
prescribed academic guidelines 

INDIANA ST.— Named Sherman Dillard 
men's baskettxiH reach. 

KUT2TOWN — N amed Vicki MUlor assis- 
tant women's bate e tb o ll and assistant field 
hockey reach. 

LA SALLE— Extended contract of John 
Miller, women’s basketball reach, through 

LEHIGH— Named Kevin Higgins football 

LSU— Jamte Brandon, guard, will forego 
final year ol el totounv to make MmseH avali- 
abie tor NBA draft 

MARIST— Fired Tom ChJcvriU, woman's 

NAVY— Debra Schlegel, womens basket- 
ball reach, resigned. 

NEVADA— Roger Bowea mens and wom- 
en's track and field and erase country coach, 
re s igned effective June 3a 

NEWBERRY— Mike Vito, a ssis tant toot- 
ball coach, resigned 

S.E. LOUISIANA— Normon Pleou, mens 
basketball reach, resigned to take asstotart 
reach i n g position at So u ther n University. 

Nlland men's basketball coach. 

RICHMON D N om ad Ken FloM*e detersive 
coonflnafor; Frank Leonard offensive fine 
cooen; and Mott Griffin wide receivers cooch. 

SOUTH ALABAMA— Named Jim Smoot 
womens volleyball coach. 

SPRINGFIELD— Named Squire Bressor 
men’s tennis coach. 

TENNESSEE— Named Kevin O’Neill 
mens ba tee tb o ll co och . 

XAVIER. OHIO— Pe te Gniea mens bas- 
kefball cooch. resigned to take head coaching 
position at Prev W wco. 

morv mens txidcetball coach, resigned. 

WAYNE STATE, NEB. — Named Greg 
McDermott mans basketball reach. 

WEST TEXAS A&M— Ran Steele, football 
cooch. resigned. Named Morris S l one i nterim 
football coac h . 

YALE— Named Bob SHoop Interim defen- 
sive coordinator. 

YESHIVA— Fired Mike Cohen, womens 
basketball coach. 

A Nashville Bid for Tlmberwolves 

NASHVILLE, Tennessee (AP) — Gaylord Entertainment Co. and city 
officials announced Friday a $100 million offer to buy the Minnesota 
Tanberwolves and relocate the National Basketball Association team. 

Gaylord officials said they would put up $80 million, with the city 
providing an additional $20 million. The offer depends on amBring 
several conditions, including the filing of a letter-of-intent to move by 
team officials. NBA owners set Friday as a deadline for Tlmberwolves* 
officials to announce whether they would stay in Minneapolis or move. 

Marvin Wolfenson and Harvey fcatner, who own the Target Center and 
the Tlmberwolves, are seeking to seD the arena and have talked about 
moving the team. Despite drawing near-capacity crowds to Wolves games, 
they sty they arc losing money on the mortgage to the $105 million arena. 
Minnesota is Hying to keep the Tanberwolves in Minneapolis. A state 
Senate committee approved a bill Thursday that would contribute $22i 
million in public money toward baying the Target Center. 

ENZA Sets Round-tihie- World Record 

BREST, France (AP) —The catamaran ENZA New Zealand complet- 
ed a round-the-world sail on Friday in 74 days, 22 hours, 17 minutes, 
breaking the year-old record of a French boat by more than four days. 

The ENZA was skippered by Peter Blake of New Zealand and Robin 
Knox-Johnston of Britain, with a crew of three other Britons and three 
other New Zealanders. They broke the record of 79 days, 6 hours. 15 
minutes, 56 s eco nd s, set in April 1993 by Bruno Peyron of France. 

Tbe ENZA left Brest on Jan. 16 in a dud for a record with the French 
trimaran Lyonnatse, skippered by Olivier Keraauron. which is expected 
to arrive here Sunday or Monday. 

U.K. Rejects Boxer, Citing Health 

LONDON (AP) — James (Bonecrusher) Smith, who turns 41 on 
Sunday, was denied a license to box in Britain on medical grounds 
Friday, forcing the former world heavyweight champion to poll out of 
next week’s bout with the European champion Henry Akinwande. 

Tbe British Boxing Board of Control said it was not satisfied with the 
results from an MRI scan and other tests conducted on Smith, an 
American who held the WBA title briefly in the mid-1980s. The board did 
not reveal the specific medical reason that led to the license being denied. 

“The Board has ruled that Smith cannot be licensed in this country 
after detailed consideration of medical reports from tests carried out on 
Smith after the past few days,” said a British boxing official, John Morris. 

For the Record 

Fred Coqptes, 34, has a herniated disc and wiD miss next week’s 
Masters golf tournament, which he won in 1992. (AP) 

Daa Marino, the Miami Dolphins quarterback, underwent successful 
surgay Thursday to remove bone spurs from his right ankle. fAP) 






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Pe Plage 16 



Parental Dork Duty 

All Togetha Now, Let’s Hear It for Atlanta 


M IAMI — “Rob," I said to ray 
I3-year-oId son, who was — 
this being a school rooming — 
sleeping face down in hb breakfast 
“How would you like it if I picked 
you up at school in the Oscar 
Mayer Wienermobile?” 

“DAD!" he said, coming vio- 
lently to life, horrified. “NO!" 

So right away I knew it was a 
good idea. Your most important 
responsibility, as the parent of an 
adolescent, is to be a hideous em- 
barrassment to your child. Fortu- 
nately, most of us parents have a 
natural flair for this. 

For example: 1*11 be driving Rob 
and some mends somewhere, and 
theyTl be in the back seat, talking 
the way young people do, in a series 
of statements that sound like ques- 
tions. (“So Mr. Neeble? He had this 
gross thing? In his nose? Like the 
size of a GRAPE? And so Wesley 
Plunkington7 He put an eraser? In 
HIS nose? Then he raised his hand? 
And then . . .") While the young 
people discuss academic matters, 
Hi tune the radio to a station that 
plays Old People's Rock, and 
sometimes a good song will come 
on, such as “Brown-Eyed Girl," 
and IH hum softly along but when 
Van Morrison gets to the part that 
goes, “Do you remember when we 
used to sing" I’ll forget myself and, 
right along with Van, belt but: “Sha 
la la la la la la la la la la te DAHL" 
Then I'll realize that the young 
people have stopped talking ana 
are staring at me, and my son's 
expression clearly indicates that he 
wishes an alien spaceship would 
kidnap him right then and take him 
to a distant galaxy where nobody 
would know that his father is a 
dork. And at that moment, I know 
I have done my parental duty. 


So that's why I picked Rob up in 
the Oscar Mayer WlenennobQe. It’s 
a legal motor vehicle shaped like a 
23-foot-long three-ton hot dog with 
wheels in the buns. There are actual- 
ly six Wienermo biles, which are 
driven around the United States by 
peppy and perky recent college 
graduates. Recently Oscar Mayer 
offered me the opportunity to drive 
a Wienermobile, no doubt hoping 
this would result in favorable pub- 
licity, although of course I'm far too 
ethical to promote Oscar Mayer 
meat products, which are known to 
cure heart disease. 

Mv Wienermobile was under the 

command of Tina Miller and Shan- 
non Valrie, who have managed to 
remain both peppy and petty de- 
spite having spent nine months 
haring thehilariously dever sug- 
gestive remarks that men every- 
where fed compelled to yep at 
young women who are driving 
around in a giant wiener. (NOTE 
TO THESE MEN: If you think 
YOU'RE dever, you should bear 
what gets said about YOU, inside 
the Wienermobile.) After a tbor- 

Intemational Herald Tribune 

P ARIS — Some months bade, IHT reader Lionel Salem 
saw a front page story by Peter Appkbome titled, “In 
Its Olympian Quest for a Slogan, Atlanta Is at a Loss for 

Its Olympian Quest for a Slogan, Atlanta is at a loss lor 
Words." Salem, a disting uished French research chemist 
with a 37-Jine entry in Who's Who, had what he calls a 
flash Eureka! 

“You know how these things happen, you have an 
empty moment in your head and it came as a flash," Salem 
said, recalling the suddm inspiration that led him to create 

Upsets LeUermanShoK 


ough training lecture (“Here’s the 
Wienermobile’’), Tina and Shan- 

Wi en ermobile”), Tina and Shan- 
non let me take the wheel 
My first destination was a trendy 
glamour hot spot where beautiful 
people sit at sidewalk caffe dis- 
creetly admiring their own pectoral 
muscles, and where you often see 
fabulous seven-foot-tall Euro-babe 
supermodels swooping past on 
Roilerblades. 1 wanted to find out 

a slogan which he promptly shared with this t 
letter column. The slogan is Atlanta All T< 

“Note the briefness, the alliteration, the quasi-rhyme (if 
Together* is pronounced with a light Southern accent as 
Togetha’), the symbol of Olympic fraternity and the un- 
dertone of a united city,” Salem added in his letter, ending 
with the hopeful question, “What do I win?" 

Neither a gold nor a bronze so far. Salem sent in his 
slogan abetted by the commercial attach^ of the Trench 
Consulate in bringing it to the attention of the city’s 
deciders. Six months later, not only is Atlanta not all 
togetha but it hasn’t even got its act together although the 
Olympics, at which the city’s slogan would presumably 
feature, is only two years off. Salem hoped for news at the 
closing of the Winter Games and was disappointed. 

“I said to myself the guy from Atlanta goes to LiQeham- 
mer dosing day and says, smiling in the snow and saying, 
‘See you in Nagano, Japan.’ " Atlanta wasn’t even men- 
tioned, Salem said. 

At this point, Salem, who not only saw himself as 
sloganeer to the New South but had also reserved the 
commercial rights to his slogan, would like to know the 
exact state of play. “Are they going to come out with then- 
choice in six months? News at the end of last week was 
that a large cardboard box of slogan submissions had been 
sent over to the city's Convention and Visitors’ Bureau, 
which seems to be in cfaaige of the campaign and which, to 
its possible regret, initiated the contest. The plan was for 
the bureau to choose for itself a slogan that would suit the 
city’s major players, with the hope that the Chamber of 
Commerce, the dty government and presumably the 
Olympics would use it as well 

The final choice from about 5,000 entries will be made 
by the McCann Erickson advertising agency. “We may or 
may not use any of them," a Chamber of Commerce 
spokesman said, and added, “We may have been naive.” 

The naivety alludes to the hope of getting all the local 
interests to agree on something that w&l change Atlanta's 
“Gone With the Wind” image to something more dynamic, 
in keeping with the home ctf CocarCola, CNN and the 1996 
Olympics. The search has gone on for well over a year. 

T still believe you can market a city and the concept of 
being preemptive in the way you market it is a logical 
philosophical direction," Alf Nudfora said by telephone 
from Atlanta. A specialist in strategic marketing, he has 

as a journalist, whether a super- 
model would be overcome by the 
charisma of the WienermobOe and 
want to go for a ride in it. 

SUPERMODELS!" I announced. 

A few people glanced up from 
their pectorals, but (hat was it 

The Highlight of the day was 
picking up Rob at school He was 
out front, with all his friends, when 
I polled up. broadcasting on the PA 


To his credit, he did. I could teQ 
that, deep inside, be was proud of 
his old man, although he did not 
endititly say so. “I can't believe you 
did this,” were his actual words. 

Of course I did not expect 
thanks. My reward is the know- 
ledge that some day, somehow, 
Rob will be a hideous embarrass- 
ment to HIS son. That's what 
makes tins country great: an older 
generation passing along a cher- 
ished tradition, in very much the 
same way that a row of people at a 
baseball game win pass along those 
tasty Oscar Mayer wieners, which 
by the way also have been shown in 
laboratory tests to prevent bald- 


Niadae Afau/IUT 

which elicited the following comment from a British 
journalist in 1981: “ The City Too Busy to Hate’ — a 
slogan coined, or at least repeated today, by a people too 
shortsighted to notice.” 

Back in November, the Atlanta Journal and Constitu- 
tion said that the local marketing company charged with 
the task of coming op with an acceptable slogan had had 
“an excruciating year.” What they seem to have done was 
not only to separate the chaff from the chaff but to inspect 
unsolicited drawings of possible mascots and listen to 
theme songs to provide a local alternative to T Left My 
Heart in San Francisco” or “New York; New York." 

Braves beaded south after a stay in Milwaukee he natural- 
ly transferred his allegiance. lie has been in Atlanta only 
o nc e , overnight four or five years ago, when he lectured on 
quantum chemistry at the University of Georgia. “I have 
som e friends who live in Highlands, North Carolina, 
which is not far from Atlanta but it’s not really in Atlanta. 
I have the iznpresson that it’s 8 very beautifulcity, at least 
what I saw of it” 

Most of the slogans that have been submitted take the 
city’s dream as their theme although cloudy on what the 
dream is. Salem's own smaller dream was to win a couple 
of tickets to the Games and to earn a royalty on products 
featuring Ms slogan. He wonders now if Ms retaining the 
commercial rights hasn’t jeopardized Ms slogan’s chances, 
and a Washington-based observer confirms that one 
shouldn't enter a contest and retain commercial rights: 

“This is not how America works, alas. It is akm to 
entering a contest on a bottle cap from Coca-Cola to name 
a soft drink while demanding that, if you win, you become 
president of the bottling company." 

Salem of coarse has no such ambitions although, on the 
advice of his son who has an MBA, he trademarked his 
slogan for apparel. He would just like to see Ms flash of 
inspiration take life: as he pointed out in a Federal 
Express letter to Alf Nuciforato, “Atlanta All Together" 
carries an implicit purpose for the dty. 

Perhaps that’s the problem, with too many groups 
trying to find a single purpose and some of them now sorry 
they even tried. Atlanta All Together? Maybe one day, but 
in the meantime how about a line from the Scarlett 
O’Hara era: “After all, tomorrow is another day." 

“The great consistency in all the entrants is that they 
were largely pretty bad,” an arinum told the newspaper. 
Rqectfidi slogans included “An Island Floating in a Sea of 
Rednecks" and “Atlanta: At Least It’s Not Birmin gham. " 

Professor Salem thinks, not unreasonably, that “Atlan- 
ta AD Together" should be a contender even if no locals 
seem to have run it up the flagpole yeL “I submitted it to 

played a leading rede in the slogan search. 
‘The bright cities of the future are getting c 

hardnosed people Eke one of your deputy editors and my 
brother, and they loved it," he said. 

Knight-Ridder Newspapers 

“The bright cities of the future are getting oat in front 
and learning to market themselves as distinct from allow- 
ing themselves to be marketed. And I do think that’s one 
of Atlanta's problems right now — defining the agenda f at 
the city." 

Formerly, Atlanta had tried out such slogans as Gate- 
way to the Sooth, Capital of the New South, and one 

He is, it should be added, not just a dreamy research 
chemist but has devoted modi of Ms career to popularizing 
science, directing a new center for that purpose at tbe 
University of Paris XL He regards writing the slogan as part 
of popularizing ideas. Also, he is a fan of the Atlanta Braves. 

Sakm grew up in Brookline, Massachusetts, having left 
France with Ms family in 1941, and when the Boston 

Madonna aired her dirty linen cm 
Darid Letterman's show, but you'd 
have to be a lip reader to catch 
everything die said. The singer 
used obscenities 13 times during a 
taping of “The Late Show With 
David Letterman" and also threw 
in a couple of other expressions 
forbidden on television. CBS de- 
leted the offending phrases before 
the show rated. Madonna was dif- 
ficult from the outset, refusing to 
participate in the typical happy- 
fiilk star chatter about what's hap- 
pening in her career. “Why are you 
so obsessed with my sex life?" she 
demanded. Then she handed Let- 
terman a pair of what she said were 
her panties. He stuffed than in a 
desk drawer and tried, unsuccess- 
fully, to turn the talk to other 
things. “It turned kind of ugly, 
didn’t it?" Letterman, looking 
somewhat shaken, said after the 
superstar had departed. 


Burt Reynolds was released from 
a Los Angeles hospital after an 
overnight stay for observation fol- 
lowing chest pains brought on by 
stress. His manager said be was 
exhausted from work and making 
appearances and was under stress 
from personal problems. 


Prince Edward, tbe youngest son 
of Queen Elizabeth D, has invited 
Sophie Rhys-Jooes, a commoner, to 
celebrate Easter with the royal fam- 
ily at Windsor Castle, according to a 
source. No comment from Bucking- 
ham Palace. . . . Prince Chaites 
and his son Prince Harry ground to 
a halt in central London outside the 
Three Kings pub when Charles’s As- 
ton Martin Volante broke down 
only a day after detiva y, the Tele- 
graph reperts. The two princes were i 
unamused by the irony of tbe loca- 
tion. “Tempos are very frayed," a 
policeman observed. 




. *1i . .- 

t :U: ' 

Actors and the French literary 
world turned out in Paris on Friday 
for the funeral of the Romanian- 
born playwright Eugene Ionesco, 
as did the exiled king of Romania, 
King Michael and his family. Io- 
nesco died Monday at age 84. 



Appears on Pages 7 & 10 





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Forecast for Sunday through Tuesday, as provided by Accu-Weather. 


tto" .y 

Today Tomorrow 

Mgh Low « High In) V 

Vivid Bloomsbury Designs Make a Colorful Comeback 

3*isa « m pc 34 /n stun pc 
22m looo • tun noa pc 
24/73 20/66 pc 29/77 21/70 pc 
33/91 24/79 pc 32/89 23/73 pc 
34/93 19/88 B 30/97 1908 pc 
17«a 7/44 s 1908 B/48 ah 
21/70 12/53 i 22/71 1309 pc 
32/89 23/73 pc 3209 23/73 pc 
25/77 1702 pc 2700 1908 pc 
1702 307 pc 1801 4/38 pc 


1 Unseasonably 
l Odd 



North America 

The northeastern United 
States wH have mU weather 
Sunday. Sh ow er s and coder 
weather wtt arrive Baity next 
week. Cold air building 
across central Canada wIB 
Invade the northern Plains 
by Tuesday. Dates to Hous- 
ton will bo qulra warm wtdl 
thunderstorms arrive Tues- 


Parte through London wm 
have seasonable tampera- 
twas aaily nua week w»i a 
(aw showers on occasion. 
Ireland lo southwest England 
wffl be windy wflh periods of 
rain. Madrid lo Roma will 
have sunny, pleasant weath- 
er. Haki war be confined to 
the south central Mediter- 
ranean Seo. 


Very warm, spring weather 
wW prevail throughout east- 
ern China. Korea and Japan 
Sunday kno early next week. 

Cap* Town 

Bangkok to Saigon wRI also 
have sunny and very waim 

19*8 11/52 pc 19*6 10/50 pc 
29779 ia/53 I 28/82 17/82 pc 
22/71 9*48 ■ 21/70 13/33 pc 

28779 8/48 c 28/79 10*0 pc 
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24/75 11*2 I 34/75 14*7 pc 
22/71 7/44 pc 20*8 3/37 pc 

hove sunny and very waim 
weather. A tropical stone wH 
bring heavy rains to the 
Mania area tale In the week- 
end or early nest week. 

North America 

Middle East 

Latin America 

Mgh lam W rtgh Low W 

20*8 13*5 
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17*2 S/41 

18*8 9/4 a 

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31/88 11/52 • 

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Urn 24775 19*4 a 24/75 19*8 pc 

ll aiJc o CSy 25/77 12*3 a 28778 12*3 pc 

RtofMcmira 24/79 21/70 *1 26779 2177Q po 

Savage 29777 11*2 a 24/75 4738 pc 



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■n-anow.Uca. W-Wtthar. M mops, telecasts and data provided by Accu-Wamfter, he. Cl 994 

By Susan Goodman 

,V«c York Timer Service 

L EWES, England — Nestled in a fold of 
gently curving Sussex Hills about SS miles 
(90 kflomkeis) sotith of London is a rambling 
old dwelling typical of the area, made of flint 
and rendered brickwork, with parts dating from 
the 16th century. 

Tbe timeless peace of its setting, however, 
and its serene facade behe the riotous interior. 
For more than 60 years, until the late 1970s, this 
was the home of Clive and Vanessa Bell and 
Duncan Grant, a haven where their passions 
for painting, writing and the decorative arts 
could be indulged, undisturbed. 

They were among the leaders of the Blooms- 
bury group, a loosely knit circle of family and 
friends whose tangled emotional lives and fits 
of genius still enthrall, inspiring a new genera- 
tion of artists decades later. And the remote 
Charleston Farmhouse became its focal point. 

The group’s colorful, irrepressible style 
— what one critic has called A a happy colli- 
sion between junk, and genius" epitomized 
by such things as Charleston's freestyle 
frescoed walls, hand-printed fabric, bold 
nudes and vivid tile — is making a comeback. 

both in En gland and the United States. 

And the house that inspired it has been 
sympathetically restored, its intimate and 
uniquely decorated rooms painstakingly 
brought back to life. 

At the Victoria and Albert Museum, a dis- 
play of furniture made by members of the 
Omega Workshop, an artists’ cooperative in 
London whose bright colors and individual 
expression greatly influenced the Bloomsbury 
group, is a “big attraction for visitors,” said 
Gareth Williams, a curator in the museum's 
Furniture and Woodwork Collection. “Increas- 
ingly, people seem to like interiors that look 
hand-applied, the sense that a room is a highly 
individual expression of taste," Williams said. 

Christopher Naylor, the director of tbe 
Charleston Trust, a charitable group that has 
renovated the farmhouse and opened it to tbe 
public, agreed. “Today, there is certainly a 
reaction against the uniformity offered by mini- 
malism. What people see here is infections, full 
of energy, empowering. You don't have to plan 
this kind of home decoration. Just do it — and 
if it works, keep it" 

The style apparently works for three young 
artists whose work is being recognized in- 

creasingly by tbe English and Americans: 
Cressida BelL a decorator and textiles design- 
er and a granddaughter of the Bells whose new 
shop in London opened last week and who 
also has redecorated the interiors of homes in 
Virginia and Florida; Sophie MacCarthy, a 
potter wbose grandfather, tbe writer Desmond 
MacCarthy, and his wife, Molly, were dose 
friends of the Bells and frequent visitors to 
Charleston, and Robert Campling, an artist 
and a designer whose intricately painted 
wooden trays and boxes are immersed in the 
Bloomsbury style. 

Small in scale, the three-story bouse immedi- 
atdy enchants. Dominating the first-floor din- 
ing room is a large round table decorated by 
Vanessa Bell in abstract motifs of pink and 
green in scalloping curves. 

In the spare bedroom on the second floor, her 
trompe roeal stylized flowers creep up interior 
wooden shutters. Tbe oblong side table on 
which Grant painted a golden-haired youth 
astride a frolicking dolphin is still by the win- 
dow in what was once his second-floor dressing 

Charleston is open to the public from April 2 to 
Ocl 30. TeL: (44-323) 811-265. 

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gag a? m™*# w»u 

MBte fa ** O 6403*111 StatoLT 

-Oggjl Noewwr 800-190-11 jqSSSSo 

Poland*#- 0*0104800111 — 

0004)011 FoKtssal* 03017-1-288 

000911 Romania 01-8004288! — 

— ■ Suriname 

— MM* ^to^osoorw) 153-5042 ■ 

235-2872 : SkwaM* 0942040101 

— ' ' YcnczuchT 

mill-m Spain 900-99-00-11 : 

430430 Swe den * 020-795-611 - C 

>10288-0 Su lim lan d* 155-00-11 ■ 

^991-1111 OX OSOO0»4gir ‘ - B ??P < ? fta * 


8*14111 Bahrain 800401 

Colombia 98911 4010 ‘ 

iCoeaBkafn 114. 

Ecoador* 119 1 

H Salvador* WO ' 

Guatemala* 190 

Gofmar* 165 

Hondma8*ta 123 

iMrxtm*** 95400-462-4240 

NIcaaag B BOffteM Wi ! ) 17* . 

' Panama 109 

Peru* 191' 

Suriname 156 

Uruguay 004410 

^ Venezuela** 80411-120 

■ r/umwiAH 

B a hama s 1-800072-2881 . 

■BermudaT 1-800472-2881 

■BdflahVl 1-800872-2881 

Cayman Maoris 1-800872-2881 

r%. • 

5 'ceoawio, - Grenada* 1-800472-2881 

177-1002727' 001400972-2863 

800288. 0800072-2881 

426001 WeflLAnta 00X00^872-2881 

1-800100 ■StKfta/Nevte 1000872-2881 

00122771 AFRICA ; 

Egypt* CCafaoj 51*4200 

1-2001111 Gabon* QtutoOl 1 

555 Gambia* OOllT 

400*1111- Kenya* 080010 

0000010 Xlberia 797-797* 

00*4312' Malawi** ' 101-1992 

• .. ’ " *" 



001-8002001111 Gabon* 

555 Gambia 

08001111 . Kecya- 

0008010 xlberia 

0080912* : Ma taro t— 


■mff GUDnp Cud AH' WMUCenma*!fc»lttr ’MayashvanUilt 

PBHBtewKimytouaiKrycriliatoiwBniiwilBnTOtoi uMtt tXlM Laminae ,.— u 

tec* .<qvfeu gfe- iwr»=;-pi;- ire tartpn sM l m i Mi mgr HO tanmawa. — phewra iw. 

Co ll ect- Scrrtur b «wiU»alc Rum and in die counpfcn In lahUmvc 
unr WteMC qwi wrtm te : prim apply i ♦*•!** wuwtahl 

XQffUMMKnfSctvlRbtrattitalhfflafl die mania llmd dun. AAwrtimnn/iftili 

TW^phraiowyiiciJcT^Dro^afpiMiccjrdfnr Jbltunc. AAFmnnibHcnta 

‘May out txrmrmXWc fhm nuy phtmc 
MGilkxt laUny uidr . 

••• Nta yaawfchtfieqiqlana*. 

& Aw3* ttnmiiU tore. 

aTt- . i:- 

1994 AEET