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HcraliC 




• VpjJ 1 


INTERNATIONAL 




tribune 


PUBLISHED WITH THE NEW YORK TIMES AND THE WASHINGTON POST 








Paris, Wednesday, April 20, 1994 


No. 34,567 


«; i : 7 


. . j 



IfiL-sdlflUCagifr- f*,jS3gte* 


Alcmula Jac/Agtu F react. Praar 

Two ANC fighters, one carrying an AX-47 assault weapon, sprinting for cover on Tuesday daring fighting with Infcatha members outside Johannesburg in which np to a dozen died. 

Clinton Pushes for More Air Strikes Against Serbs 


Compiled by Our Staff From Dispatcher 

WASHINGTON — President BiD Clinton 
on Tuesday backed a major extension of 
NATO air power to counter Bosnian Serbian 
aggression, and U.S. officials plan todiscuss it 
with NATO allies, a senior White House offi- 
cial said. 

Mr. Clinton called two White House meet- 
ings Tuesday with his senior foreign policy 
advisers and promised an announcement 

Between sessions, the official said the presi- 
dent favored “a more muscular approach" but 


needed the allies' endorsement to go ahead. 

The official, who briefed reporters on condi- 
tion of anonymity, said Mr. Clinton and his 
top foreign policy advisers had come up with a 
mixture of military and diplomatic initiatives 
aimed at bringing the Bosnian Serbs back to 
the negotiating table: . 

He said Mr. Clinton was generally support- 
ive of a proposal from UN Secretary General 
Butros Butros Gfaali to expand the threat of 
NATO air strikes to help protect civ ilian in all 
sue UN-declared “safe areas" in Bosnia. With 


out giving details, the official said: “We are not 
rejecting (be concept.” 

The United Stales will be discussing its pro- 
posals with allies, the official said. He said they 
would be taken to the North Atlantic Council, 
NATO's decision-making organization, for 
consideration “in the next few days.” 

Although Mr. Clinton has spoken in recefit 
days of his desire to continue pursninga diplo- 
matic solution in Bosnia, his national security 
team has recommended that he seek approval 
for broader use of air power to blunt&rbian 


advances and pressure the Serbs to negotiate in 
good faith, according to news accounts here. 

This would amount to an endorsement by 
Mr. Clinton of a letter sent Monday by the UN 
secretary-general, Butros Butros Ghali. calling 
on NATOio authorize air strikes to protect the 
. ^six.jyN-desigDated “safe areas'* in Bosnia — 
Gorazder Sarajevo, Tuzla, Srebrenica. Zepa 
and Bihac. Toe letter was sent to Manfred 
Warner, secretary-general of die North Allan 

See CLINTON, Page 4 


Bosnian Serbs Are Testing the West, an 



By Daniel Williams 

Washington Past Service 

WASHINGTON — A year ago, Bosnian Serbian troops 
were poised to conquer the eastern Bosnian town of Srebren- 
ica and drive out its Muslim population. Their campaign was 
stymied by the intervention of General Philippe Morillon, the 
French United Nations commander at the tune, who went to 
Srebrenica with a handful of peacekeepers and all but dared 
the Serbs to proceed. 

The Serbs backed off, and Srebrenica's fall was averted. 

In February, the Serbs silenced or withdrew their artillery 
from around Sarajevo in the face of NATO threats to bomb. 


Washington and the West hailed the result as a victory of 
resolve. 

Now, the Serbs have all but overrun Gorazde. another 
Muslim town in the east, and neither bombs nor warnings nor 

NEWS ANALYSIS 

pleas tram the West have deterred them. Suddenly, the fear 
shown by the Serbs in Srebrenica and Sarajevo has evaporat- 
ed, and a year’s worth of threats and pledges by the Clinton 
administration, the United Nations and the North Atlantic 
Treaty Organization have come undone. 


~ With Gorazde the-Serbsseem to have understood the limits 
of Western action. Their unpunished attack of a UN-declared 
“safe haven” has revealed the basic imbalance in purpose and 
resolve between the Serbs and all the outside powers involved 
in Bosnia — particularly Washington. 

From the day the war began two years ago, the Serbs have 
not wavered from their strategic goals: to conquer as much 
land in Bosnia as possible, expel the Muslims and at some 
point join their tcm'toiy to Serbia. Disruptions in that drive, 

• See BLUFF, Page 4 


Serbs Retake 18 Anti-Aircraft Guns Near Sarajevo 


- w * 

SARAJEVO, Bosnia-Heizegovina — The 
Bosnian Serbs stepped up tbeir confrontation 
with the United Nations on Tuesday, seizing 
18 anti-aircraft guns from UN control near 
Sarajevo and she Sing UN i n s talla tions in Gor- 
azde. . . 

“They have removed 18 anti-aircraft weap- 
ons,” a UN spokesman. Major Dacre 
Holioway, told Reuters. . 

The weapons were seized from a collection 
point at the Bosnian Serbs* barracks at Luka- 
vicajust outside Sarajevo, the spokesman raid. 

It was unclear where the weapons had been 
taken. But the UN commander said late Tues- 
day that the Serbs had returned four guns and 
promised to return the others overnight on 
orders from Radovan Karadzic, the Bosnian 
Sorb leader. 

“We have confirmed that they are now mov- 
ing back to under our control" said the com- 
mander of UN forces in Bosnia, Sir Michael 
Rose. “They have been ordered back by Kar- 

^Atthe same time. 21 UN personnel detained 
by Bosnian Serbian forces were released Tues- 
' day, a UN spokesman said. 

Five were UN military observers and the 


other 36 were peacekeeping froc^ from Cana- 
da, said the spokesman, Eric Chaperon. 

Earlier Tuesday, Mr. Karadzic said there 
would be a “terrible war” if NATO launched 
fresh air stakes against Serbian positions in 
Bosnia- Herzegovina. 

“It would be a terrible escalation, a terrible 
wax,” Mr. Karadzic told reporters when asked 
what would happen if NATO launched air 
strikes to stop the Serbian assault on the east- 
ern Bosnian town of Gorazde. 

“If there are going to be any air strikes there 
is going to be & war,” he said. 

NATO jets bombed Serbian forces attacking 
Gorazde m two raids on April 10 and 11. On 
Saturday, tlx: Scabs shot down a British Sea 
Harrier fighter jet over Gorazde as it was 
attempting to attack a Serbian tank. 

Commenting on the talcing of the anti-air- 
craft weapons on Tuesday, a UN Protection 
Force spokesman, Major Rob Amrink, raid: 
“They are very much afraid of further air 
strikes.” 

He said aimed Sorbs had “showed up in 
force” to take the weapons at Lukavica, and 

See BOSNIA, Page 4 





"" ***&&&&*** 




Amiw Ba/Agcauc Fnim-Pro* 

Seiko Omerbasic, a Muslim leader, at a Zagreb protest Tuesday over Gorazde’sfate. 


South Africa’s Hopes 
For a Calm Election 
Rise as Zulus Agree 
To Call Off Boycott 


By Paul Taylor 
and William Claiborne 

Woshingttm Port Service 

PRETORIA — In a dramatic development 
just a week before South Africa's first demo- 
cratic election. Chief Mangosulhu Buthelezi, 
president of the Zulu-based Inkalha Freedom 
Party, called off his election boycott Tuesday, 
raising hopes that election-related violence can 
be reduced. 

Chief Buthelezi signed an election participa- 
tion agreement with President Fredenk W. de 
Klerk and the African National Congress presi- 
dent, Nelson Mandela. The agreement was en- 
dorsed by ICing Goodwill Zwefithini of tbe 
Zulus, who until now had been instructing his 8 
million subjects not to vote. 

The accord, brokered over tbe past four days 
with the help of a visiting mediator from Ke- 
nya, provides for a constitutional guarantee of 
the continuation of the Zulu monarchy in the 
post-apartheid South Africa, and for postelec- 
tion international mediation on outstanding 
differences over the powers of regions. 

The lams are not substantially different 
from those that have been available to Chief 
Buthelezi for months, leading many analysts to 
conclude that he finally realized his spoiling 
tactics were not going to force tbe postpone- 
ment he had been seeking in the election date. 

The breakthrough — after months of failed 
talks and spiraling political violence — was 
greeted with jubilation by a nation that has a 
bad case of pre-election jitters. People hugged 
each other m the corridors of the legislative 
building of tbe Buthelezi-led black homeland of 
KwaZnfu, and stocks rose up by 2.6 percent on 
the stock exchange in Johannesburg. 

“1 think Mr. Buthelezi looked over the brink 
and blinked,” said Robot Schrire, a leading 
political scientist. 

Inkatha is the 19th party on the national 
ballot, and its participation leaves only one 
major political organization, the Conservative 
Party, outride the fim election in South Afri- 
ca's history in which blacks as well as whites 
will be able to vote. 

“South Africa, may well have-been saved 
from disastrous consequences of unimaginable 
proportions." Chief Buthelezi said. 

Mr. Mandela added: “Nothing is more pre- 
cious than saving fives.” 


Both leaders acknowledged that the political 
killings would not end Overnight. Tbeir sup- 
porters have been engaged in a low-intensity 
civil war for the past decade. It began over 
differences in tactics on bow to oppose apart- 
heid, and has reached deadlier levels in recent 
years as a political turf war over the spoils of 
the first black-led government expected to' 
come to power after next week’s vote. 

Chief Buthelezi, who until a decade ago was 
frequently touted as South Africa’s first black 
president, has been on the losing end of this 
battle. He has been no match for Mr. Mandela’s 
popularity, or tbe martyrdom (hat came from 
serving 27 years in prisons. Many independent 
analysts say he is on sound intellectual footing 
with his argument for a federal state with more 
devolved powers, but his own intransigent bar- 
gaining style has his chief obstacle diming two 
years of constitutional negotiations. 

Polls suggest that his Inkalha party is unlike- 
ly to break out of single digits m the national 
balloting, and may not even be able to cany its 
regional base KwaZulu-Natal 
Chief Buthdezfs negotiating allian ce with 
white rightist groups has further eroded an 
already weakening political base. Two months 
ago, he played the ethnic caret, allowing his 
nominally apolitical nephew. King Zwebthim, 
to add his voice to the call for a boycott 
King Zwclilhini said be would settle for 
nothing less than a sovereign Zulu nation. In 
fact, be has settled for the same ceremonial 
trappings of royalty that be already enjoys 
wiuun KwaZulu — expanded slightly to cover a 
new region of KwaZulu/Natal. 

By getting in at the 11th hour. Chief Buthe- 
lezi has confounded critics who said he would 
never participate because he feared electoral 


humiliation. One contrarian view holds that his 
boycott has kept him in the news mud) more 
than any campaign would have. 

Even better, this view bolds, the long boycott 
has given Chief Buthelezi an “out”; if he does 
badly next week, he can always say his late 
entry was the reason. 

Section monitors hope Inkatha's participa- 
tion will remove the greatest potential trigger 
for violence on the days of voting. Had the 
boycott persisted, in villages where Inkalha is 
strong, the act of voting would have been a seen 
as a declaration of support for the opposition. 


Trying to Reassure Public, 
Israel Seizes 300 Militants 


By David Hoffman 

Washington Part Service 

JERUSALEM — Israeli security forces have 
detained more than 300 activists in the militant 
Islamic movements Hamas and Islamic Jihad in 
recent days, reacting to a siring of violent 
attacks against teach targets. 

l! was the largest dragnet against the Islamic 
groups since the 1992 deportation of 400 activ- 
ists to southern Lebanon, when more than 
1,000 were detained and arrested. 

The arrests, carried out by the army and the 
Israeli internal security service, were made 
across the West Bank and Gaza Strip, but 
appeared to be centered in Gaza, where the 
Islamic movements are strongest. 

Palestinian and Israeli sources said tbe ar- 
rests were directed at younger activists — many 
in thdr late teens and early 20s — rather than 
the crider leaders of Hamas who were deported 
in 1991 

The army has not said whether it captured 
any of the members of the armed wing of 
Hamas, small cells of fugitives who in recent 
leaflets have taken responsibility for the attacks 
on Israelis. 

Palestinian sources said 65 Islamic activists 
were arrested in their homes in tbe early hours 
of Tuesday in the Gaza Strip, bringing the total 
number of Gazans detained in recent days to 
more than 200. 


In Hebron, Palestinians said 25 were arrest- 
ed, and the remainder were taken from other 
locations in the West Bank. Among those ar- 
rested in Hebron were several prominent Islam- 
ic personalities, including Taysir Tamimi, pray- 
er leader at the mosque. 

Mahmoud Zohar, a physician who has been a 
spokesman for Hamas, denied that those arrest- 
ed had been Hamas activists and said that 
Palestinians would not respond to pressure tac- 
tics by Israel 

The army said weaponry was also confiscat- 
ed in the house-to-house searches but it did not 
provide details. 

The detentions came after two suicide car- 
bomb attacks in Afula and Had era for which 
Hamas, the larger of the two groups, took 
responsibility. There was also a shooting attack 
at a bus stop in Ashdod and a hatchet assault 
this week on bus passengers in Jerusalem, Ha- 
mas has said the violence against civilians is 
revenge for the Hebron mosque massacre in 
which 29 Muslim worshipers woe killed by a 
militant Jewish settler. 

The Israeli crackdown appeared to be part of 
an effort by Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin to 
reassure a jittery public. 

“We will fight those who continue terror with 
all the means that are available to us,” Mr. 
Rabin said. “Tbe only limitation is the limita- 
tion of the law." 


Kiosk 


Nixon Partly Paralyzed and Unable to Speak After Suffering Stroke 


p Springtim 


HANNOVER, Germany (Reutiw) ■— 
Chancellor Helmut Kohl raid Tuesdaythat 
“springtime” had come for the German 
economy after its worst postwar recession. 

But another leading busmess g««y - ^ 
Federation of German Whd«ate wd Fcr- 
dgn Trade, struck a more caunous ;note 

hi an election-year speech aidieope^g 

of the Hannover Trade Fair, Mr. Kohl said 


rising industrial production, increased or- 
ders from abroad and a turn for the better in 
domestic business showed recovery had be- 
gun. “It is undeniable that springtime has 
come for tbe economy” he said. 


Compiled by Our Staff From Dispatcher 

NEW YORK — Former President Richard 
Nixon was partly paralyzed and unabJe to 
speak Tuesday after suffering a stroke. 

Mr. Nixon, 81. was stricken Monday evening 
at his borne in Park Ridge. New Jersey, and was 
taken by ambulance to the New York Hospital- 
CaroeD Medical Center. 

Tbe paralysis affected his right side. “He has 


just a little movement in his foot, on the right 
side,” said Elizabeth Johnston, a press aide. 
"There is no speech as of yeL” 

Mr. Nixon’s physician. Dr. Michael Gior- 
dano, said, “It is hoped, but uncertain, that he 
will have improvement in his neurologic condi- 
tion. No dramatic changes are anticipated in his 
condition over the next several days.” 

Mr. Nixon's daughters, Tricia Cox and Julie 


Eisenhower, and the Reverend BiHy G raham, a 
longtime friend, went to his bedade. Mr. Nix- 
on’s wife; Pal, died last year. 

Hundreds of people railed the hospital and 
the Nixon home to offer good wishes, an aide, 
Kim Taylor, said. “There has been an incredi- 
ble outpouring of support from senators, world 
leaders and just ordinary people,” she said. 

Mr. Nixon was the nation's 37lh president. 


serving from Jan. 20, 1969 to Aug. 9, 1974. To 
avoid impeachment, be resigned in the middle 
of his second term amid the Watergate scandal 
beooming the only president to ever resign from 
office. 

He came to the presidency after nearly a 
quarter-century as a Republican office-holder 
— congressman, senator and vice president 
under Dwight D. Eisenhower. (AP, Reuters) 


tic economy would take time even though 
exports and imports should rebound- 


Rodney King Awarded $3.8 Million 

® i Ttw> o u/m i'H oise hdnw thft SI'S n 


At Citibank, a Story of Good Friends and a Great Deal 


LOS ANGELES (Combing 
— A juiy on Tuesday awarded l $3.8 milhon 
in damages to Rodney King, die biack mo- 
toiSwSSe beating by white pdiCBOffim 
ultimately led to the 1 992 Los Angeles riots. 


News stood P rices ~ 

Andorra .....9.00 FF 

Antilles 1V20FF 

Lameroon^l^OOCFA gJJjJ^jijoFF 
Egypt E. P-5000 

France 9.00 FF CPA 

Gabon 960 CFA Sr..-.^) 0 PTAS 

Greece .300 Dr. Tunisia Dm 

ivory Coast .1.120 CFA Turkey ..T.U1M0O 

Jordan - 1JD UAE.-..A»guj 

Lebanon ...US$1 JO U.S. Mil. (Eur.) Sl.W 


Tbe award was below the SI5 million 
sought by Mr. King in compensatory dam- 
ages but above the $800,000 tbe dty said was 
fair. A second phase of the trial will deter- 
mine punitive damages. (Reuters, AP) 


P Down 

P O.60 

jjL 3,61 9.82 

DM 

Pound 

Yen ~ 

FF 


Down p 
0.50% m 

prewouadOM 

1.708 

1.4765 

10350 

5.8465 


By Nathaniel C. Nash 

New York Timer Service 

BUENOS AIRES — Two years ago, when Citicorp was in 
financi al trouble and its ch ai rm a n . John Reed, was batifing to 
save his career, he tamed for help to Argentina and to his old 
friend, H- Richard Handley, president of Citibank Argentina. 

Tbe bankas, who spent childhood years in Argentina, had a 
special relationship. They liked to sit in Mr. Handley's office, 
Sintering in Spanish and plotting the Latin American strategy 

for GtibanL . , ; 

It was from that friendship that they conceived a plan that 
some in the financial district of Buenos Aires call the deal or 
the century” It helped raise about $450 million for the bank, 
but it also made some of the executives’ friends very nch. 

Tbe deal was possible because over a M 1 r - 

Handley look Argentine government bonds held by the bank, 
which at one pant were worth 1 1 cents on the dollar, and 
swapped thernTta slock in several Eovemment-rum monopo- 
Jies/The government was only too happy to *J e 

they represented money it owed to the bank. And 


selling stock in several large state-run companies was one way 
to eliminate a drain on the national treasury. 

Mr. Handley placed tbe stock in a separate Citibank invest- 
ment company. Then, when the stock values began to climb, 
Mr. Handley sold pieces of the investment company to his 
friends at what look like bargain prices today. 

To manage die investment company, he insiatigd two of his 
young lieutenants and gave them and a small group of manag- 
ers a pay package that will likely exceed 5110 milhon over five 
years. Many say that will enable them to make far more money 
than Mr. Reed has ever made at the bank. 

This payout will permit them to use fees and bonuses to buy. 
a piece of the investment company that is now worth $205 
mflfion, for $80 milli on- Some of the investors stand to make 
hundreds of millions of dollars. What's more, they wifi have to 
put up little if any of their own money to buy it. 

No one accuses Mr. Handley or Mr. Reed of any wrongdo- 
ing Indeed, their plan allowed the bank to convert nearly 
worthless Argentine bonds into cash. 

“Why didn’t any of the other banks do what we did?” Mr. 


Handley asked rhetorically. “A lot of people didn’t have the 
guts or the vision for iL” 

Business leaders in Buenos Aires say privately that Mr. 
Handley could have made 5500 million more for Citicorp and 
its shareholders and less tor his friends, if they had either 
delayed the sale of the investment company or pushed for a 
higher price. % 

But Citicorp dismisses that talk as Monday morning quar- 
terbacking. At the time of tbe first sales, there was as good a. 
chance that the value of Argentine investments would fall as 
that they would rise. Once the value of Citicorp's bead portfo- 
lio had been recouped by swapping the bonds for stock, it 
made sense for the bank to collect some of its money. Besides, 
Citicorp needed the funds back home to bolster its capital 

John Morris, a Citicorp spokesman, said tbe selling prices 
“were tbe best we could achieve under the then-current market 
conditions and the tune frame for completion of the sales.” 

Mr. Handley said the bank was also under pressure from 

See DEAL, Page 4 


i ’ 

f-- 

. I w 


. . I 






Pa & Page 2 


G] 



Kohl Blocked in Bid to Win Consensus on a President 


WORLD BRIEFS 


New. York Tuna Service 

BONN — With a special assembly to choose a new 
German president only about a month away. Chancel- 
lor Helmut Kohl’s hand-picked candidate is still not 
assured of solid backing by the government's junior 
coalition partner, according to leading politicians 
here. 


[n interviews, leaders of the Free Democrats, the ly respected Christian Democratic elder statesman remembered even today.** ^- Hfatmann added, New Air Rules in Iraq After Blunder 

junior members of Mr. Kohl’s coalition, said this week who has not said if he will run. in my view he would have been a fine candiaaie. ELMENDORF Air Force Base. Alaska (Reuters) — The Defense 

One Free Democratic leader said this week that Mr. nuam . . , 


Mr. Kohl selected Roman Herzog, 60, the president 
of the Federal Constitutional Court in Karlsruhe, after 
his previous choice. Steffen. Heatmann, the Saxon 
minister of justice, bad to withdraw because of an 
uproar over a series of controversial statements about 
the German past, ethnic conflict and the role of 
women in the home. 

Mr. Herzog, a grandfatherly figure from Bavaria 
who has sought to be more reassuring about the role he 
would play m the largely ceremonial post, is not well 
known to the public. 


that some members of their party were leaning toward 
support of the candidate the opposition Social Demo- 
crats n ominated for the presidency. Premier Johannes 
Rau. 63, of North Rbine-Westphalia. 

Some say they believe they could do this when the 
assembly meets May 23 without bringing about a 
collapse of the coalition because the Free Democratic 
leadership pledged last week to campaign in tbeOcL 
16 national elections on a platform of continuing the 
alliance with Mr. Kohl's Christian Democrats if they 


Mr. 'Kiep, 68, and better known abroad than the 



wm. 


As a possible compromise, there have also been 
suggestions of another candidate all parties could 
back without losing face. Among the names have been 
mentioned are Kurt Masur, the conductor of the 
Leipzig Gewandhaus orchestra and now of the New 
York Philharmonic, and Walther Lrisler Kiep, a wide- 


haiunsuccessfnliy urged rapport for Richard coosSSSfc rmh^css anrm| CMaiu Dem* 

ScfarOder, a politician from East Germany, said: I OTl j c members of parliament, who will also be mem- 

aU-panycandi- ^ofthe assembly, about Mr. Herzog. ^eh the Iraq procedures,^ 

JjriJZ In the first two baltots, when an absolute mqwity is hrra to South Korea beftw making a refueling stop here. He declined to 

Bomb Attack Wounds 13 in Tehran 


,^ d “ n r ™ ue H ^ 5 S^-old former govcmmeJi mimste. But on the 
3™L h ? ve nmch d ° ub ' Romm H "‘ tM^ballot, lie orndkLe who wns the largest nom- 
i - I *r- ber Of votes wins. The Free Democrats could hold the 

5?^ 35 f balance if they all decided to back one candidate, 

figure whose commitment to the people of East Ger- 


people 

many in the darkest day’s of die country’s division is 


—CRAIG R. WHITNEY 


EHRAN fReutas) — A bomb destroyed fire cats at a busy int 
in central Tehran on Tuesday, wounding 13 people. Tehran 


mtersec- 
radio 



TEHRAN 
tion 

blamed Iraq for the attack. 

“Reliable security sources say the Iraqi regime has recently scut four 
bombers to Iran and today’s blast was carried out by there saboteurs,” the 
radio said. 


a HI I - * radio said. 

ATTYIV nnPlltS Iran has blamed Iraqi agents for endoskms in Tehran and other cities 

in the past including truck bombs mat killed scores of people in the 

Refugees 


capital in the 1980s. The bombings started soon after the 1979 Islamic 
Revolution and peaked during the Iraa-Iraq War from 1980 to 1988. 


At Stadium 
In Rwanda 


Toxic Chemicals Up, Pollution Down 


WASHINGTON (AF) — The amount of toxic chemicals j 
US. industry increased slightly in 1992, but fewer of the ; 
released into die environment. 

The En v ironmen tal Protection Agency reported Tuesday that industry 

of toxic chemicals 

lore. But chemicals 
percent, to 3.2 billion 

pounds. 

The agency issued a lid of the 10 companies that released the most 
icoric chemicals into the environment in 1992, DuPont led with 239.6 



By Donatella Lorch 

New York Tima Soviet 

NAIROBI — More than lOpeo- 

P* e J? 1 ®? hundreds roillion pounds, followed by Frecport-McMaran, American Cyananrid, 
w ound ed Toesday as Rwandan Monsanto, Asarco, Renco, virivan. Arcadian Fertilizer. Eastman Kodak 
Army troops shelled the national and BP America. 


stadium in KrgaH where more than 
5,000 Rwandans had sought refuge, 
United Nations military and Red 
Cross officials said. 

The attack undcracored the in- 
tensifying war between the Rwan- 
dan Army and the rebel Rwandan 
Patriotic Front, which have been 
fighting for control of the capital 
since April 6. 

On Tuesday mo rning about 30 
chalk sljmrmwt into Amahoro Sta- 
dium where refugees had been 
trapped without food for more 
than a week. Heavy artiBay and 
small arms fire continued through 
the day. Red Cross officials said 
they managed to evacuate 33 seri- 
ously wounded people and distrib- 
uted 25 metric urns of food to refu- 
gees in the stadium. 

Unconfirmed repots say fight- 
ing has broken out in and around 
certain refugee camps near the Bu- 
rundi border and flat anarchy is 


Army Warns Indonesia Labor Chiefs 


MEDAN, Lodonesa (Renters) — Protesters rampaged through fac- 
tories in Sumatra’s industrial areas on Tuesday, tearing apart a doll- 
dothes factory and wrecking cars in the sixth day cf labor-related 
protests. Labor activists said two of their leaders had been arrested, and 
their branches across the country wens warned by soldiers against 
sympathy strikes. 

“Many of oar branch leaders were approached by soldiers making 

there t sand frightening them into not taking par* in afttinn par tiralnrly tn 

the Jakarta area,” said one unionist at the Independent Indonesia Labor 
Welfare Union, which orga ni zed Medan’s initial strike last week. 

After im uneasy calm after earlier riots m which at least one person was 
killed and more than 100 people arrested, violence flared again here cm 
Tuesday. A Renters photographer saw several factories southeast of 
Medan badly damaged after groups erf youths climbed fences and gates to 


attack factories which had resumed production. There were no repots of 
injuries. 


Only a Third of Voters like BaUadar 


Prime Minister Promises Anti-Corruption Measures in Spain 


Sopo Ptic/lteBtcn 


Prime Minister Felipe Gonzalez of Spain being applauded by Socialist legislators 
and cabinet members Tuesday after his state of the nation address in parliament. 


Mr. Ganz&lez, whose government has been hurt by corruption scandals, promised 
new measures against corruption, including the naming of special prosecutors. 


Berlusconi Testifies in Inquiry on Shopping Center 


Roam 

TURIN — The business tycoon Silvio 
Berlusconi, expected to be Italy's next prime 
minister, testified on Tuesday before an Ital- 
ian magistrate investigating allegations of 
corruption involving one of his companies. 


Mr. Berlusconi, who led the rightist Free- 
dom Alliance to victory in general elections 
last month, made no comment to journalists 
as he entered the magistrates’ offices here. 

The magistrate Marcello Maddalena sum- 
moned Mr. Berlusconi last week to testify in 
the case. 


It involves the construction of Europe's 
largest shopping center in the Turin suburbs, 
built as a joint venture between Mr. Berlus- 
coni's Finmvest group and the French com- 
pany Trema. 

Mr. Berlusconi opened the main section of 
the center last year. 


Political parties are suspected of having 
Tion lire ($1.2 million) 


demanded about 2 billion 
in kickbacks for approval of the center. Sev- 
eral local politicians already face charges 
over the affair. 

The ANSA news agency said last week 
that there was no evidence that Finmvest had 


had paid bribes over the shopping center. 

■ De Mkhe& at University 

Gianni De Micfadis. the former foreign 
minister whose diplomatic career was cut 
short by Italy’s corruption scandal has re- 
turned to his former job leaching chemistry, 
Reuters reported in Venice. 

Tm a little rusty," Mr. Dc Micbelis was 
quoted as saying in Coniere ddla Sera news- 
paper on Tuesday. “Til have to study up on 
the material as it's been such a long time 
since I last taught" 

Mr. De Michdis returned to teach organic 


chemistry on Monday at the University of 
be had v 


Venice, where be had worked from 1964 to 
1976, when he won a seat in Parliament for 
the Socialist Party. 

Mr. De Micbelis, who was foreign minister 
from 1989 to 1992, had been on leave of 
absence from the university and was entitled 
to return after losing his seat in Parliament in 
the elections last month. 

He will earn about $1,800 a month as a 
part-time lecturer. 

He could face four years in jaD if convicted 
in a trial that began last month over alleged 
illegal payments to his Socialist Party. 


As of Monday, all phone lines in 
Rwanda app e are d to have gone 
dead, completely isolating the 
country. Despite the past weds of 
chaos and butchery, phones had 
continued to function, permi tt in g 
Rwandans to reach out to aid 
workers, human rights officials, 
foreign embassies and friends to 
fell of rnaesaei re and fightin g. 

There are now only two working 
satellite phones in Kigali, one be- 
longing to the Red Cross and the 
other to the United Nations. Both 
organizations have very little acoess 
to areas away from their com- 


PAR1S (Reuters) — Only a third of French votes prefer the conserva- 
tive government of Prime Minister Edouard Bahadur to its Socialist 
predecessor, according to an opinion poll published Tuesday. 

The survey, published by Lc Monde, showed 32 percent rated Mr. 
Bahadur higher than the previous incumbent, Pierre Birfgovoy, while 23 
pre ferred Mr. Bfcrtgovoy. But almost half — 45 percent — said there was 
nothing to choose between the two or that they had no opinion. 

Mr. Bahadur’s public approval rating has slumped man a peak of 
around 65 percent to about 42 percent since he yielded to street demon- 
strations a gainst various government policies. 


TRAVEL UPDATE 


New Tagus Bridge Due Near Lisbon 

LISBON (AFP) — French and British companies and five Portuguese 


ds, and relief officials and dip- 
will 


Israeli Soldiers Who Balk: Line Forming on Right 


By Clyde Haberman 

New York Tima Service 

JERUSALEM — In Israel, 
where the army is respected to the 
point of veneration, soldiers rarely 
refuse to carry out orders. 

There have been exceptions, con- 
spicuously some Israelis on the po- 
litical left who refused to take pan 





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in the 1982 invasion of Lebanon or 
to service in the West Bank and 
Gaza Strip. About 300 men pre- 
ferred jail to such service. 

Now, in one of the rare instances 
in the country’s history, calls for 
conscientious objection are coming 
from the right, and they have deep- 
ened the political and religious 
schisms already apparent in Israel 
as it prepares to turn over authority 
to Palestinians in Gaza and the 
West Bank town of Jericho. 

The dispute focuses on a procla- 
mation by three influential rabbis. 


including a former Ashkenazi chief 
ibL who 


rabbi, who recently reaffirmed a 
ruling made last year that said reli- 
gions law required soldiers to defy 
any army order to evacuate Jewish 
settlers from the territories. “You 
must refuse it as you would refuse 
an order to eat pork," said the for- 
mer chief rabbi Avraham Shapira. 

Former Prime Minister Yitzhak 


Shamir joined the fray by saying 
disob> 


that a soldier must disobey any 
command to remove Jews “from 
the homeland" because that would 
be equivalent to an order to kill his 
parents. 

Reactions from the authorities 
were swift and angry. 

To Prime Minister Yitzhak Ra- 


bin, such calls for defiance set in 
motion “the destruction of the Is- 
raeli Defense Forces and the secu- 
rity of the state.** 

Even many rightist allies of Mr. 
Shamir, although agreeing with 
him that Israel must hold onto the 
territories, said he and the rabbis 
had gone too far. 

For now, the arguments float in 
the realm of the hypothetical 

Mr. Rabin says moving settlers 
— including those of the highly 
disputed Jewish enclaves of He- 
bron in the West Bank — is not on 
his immediate agenda. Moreover, 
this country is simply not built for 
mass conscientious objection. With 
relatively few exceptions, even the 
most bitter opponents of the Leba- 
non war and the post- 1 967 occupa- 
tion of the West Bank and Gaza bit 
their lips and did their army duty. 

Still what is hypothetical now 
may not stay that way. 

On the eve of the country’s Inde- 
pendence Day last week, Mr. Ra- 
bin allowed that be would be ready 
in the future to “take down settle- 
ments” for peace with the Arabs. 
He offered no details, and a 
spokesman insisted that nothing 
rad changed in the official line that 


the roughly 140 Jewish communi- 
ties in the territories would not be 
touched during an interim period 
of Palestinian self-rule. 

Nonetheless, it was the first time 
that the prime minister had sug- 
gested so strongly (hat settlements 
might not last forever, and it is 
likely to increase the caOs to civil 
disobedience from rabbis and oth- 
ers who assert that populating the 
biblical Land of Israel, including 


1967 


territories captured in the 
war. is divinely ordained. 

“There will be no rebellion, no 
civil war, no breakdown of law and 
order in the military," said Yoram 
Peri, chief editor of the newspaper 
Davar and a specialist in the rela- 
tionship between the Israeli Army 
and politics. “But what the rabbis 
have done presents some people 
with spiritual moral and ideologi- 
cal dilemmas." 


are concerned that they 
have little to no information about 
what is happening in the country. 

“The situation appears to be get- 
ting worse rather than improving," 
said Abdul Kabia, the executive 
director of the UN mission in 
Rwanda, to Renters in Kigali “We 
are continuing to talk to both par- 
ties, but our efforts have stalled 
and we’re not getting anywhere. 
We find that the positions of both 
parties arc hardening.” 

Almost two wedts of fighting 
and massacres have left tens erf 
thousands of dead and created 
hundreds of thousandsof refugees. 
The bloodletting began on April 6 
Mien the presidents cf Rwanda 
and Burundi, both Hums, were 
killed in a suspicious plane crash. 

Although politically motivated. 


concents have wot the contract to bufld a second bridp across the Tagus 


River. Portuguese Public Works Minister Joaqnim Ferre ira do Amaral 
said Tuesday. 

The to0 bridge will have six lanes and will span 17 kilometers (10 nriles) 
from Montijo on the southern bank of the liver to Sacavem east of 
Lisbon. 

Snokfagwfll be harmed by Amtrab. the U.S. passenger-train network, 
an short-and medium-distance daytime trains and some long-distance 
overnight trains starting May 1. (NYT) 

Motomea m the London Underptxmd network are being issued with 
the kind of sunglasses favored by film stars. The aim is to cut the dazzle 
when trains surface from tunnels into bright daylight. (Reuters) 

Western embassies in Sri Lanka are wanting tourists about threats 
from a relatively unknown rebel organization, EMan Force, which took 
responsibility for recent bomb attacks against holds, diplomats said 
Tuesday. (AFP) 

Mahtysfcft second anfinet Air Asia, hopes to start scheduled services in 
the region by October, an official said Tuesday. No destinations were 
announced pending government approval (AF) 


h^^centuriesdid tribal ha- China Prime Minister, in Uzbekistan. 

tied between the govemment-dom- 7 ” 

srasarfessa- 01,118 1° r Renewal of the 'Silk Road’ 


Jurors Consider a Verdict 
For French Collaborator 


Reuters 


VERSAILLES, France — The jury in the trial of the French Nazi 
collaborator Paul Touvier retired cm Tuesday to consider its verdict. 

Touvier, 79, is charged with crimes against humanity for the 
execution of seven Jews by firing squad in 1944 whQe he was 
intelligence chief of the Lyon militia during World War n. 

Before the jury withdrew, the presiding judge asked Touvier if he 
had anything K> say- He replied, “I have never forgotten the RUlienx 
victims. I think about them day and night. That’s afl." 

His defense lawyer, Tremolet de Vfllers, said Touvier, the first 
Frenchman to be fried for crimes against humanity, had (he seven 
Jews shot in wrier to save 23 others. 

If convicted he faces a maximum term of life imprisonment. 


sis. Hard-line Hutu extremists 
immediately killed members of a 
moderate transitional government 
that had incorpo ra ted many Tutsi*. 
The mostly Tutsi Patriotic Front 
mounted an attack on the capital 
and thousands of others, mostly 
Tutsis, have been killed in massa- 


The roughly 2,000 UN troops in 
Rwanda were originally brought 
there to monitor a cease-fire that 
has long since been broken be- 
tween the government and the re- 
bels. Since (he fighting broke out 
they have been forced to helplessly 
witness massacres. With limited 
freedom of movement in Kigali, 
they are virtually stranded. There is 
a food shortage in a0 the UN-con- 
trolled areas in Kigali and the 
United Nations is sharing food 
with the refugees in the stadium. 

On Monday, the UN Security 
Council said the UN mission 
would remain in Kigali only if the 
government forces and the rebels 
could reach an a peace agreement. 


TASHKENT, Uzbekistan — 
Prime Minister Li Peng of Girina 
called here Tuesday for a “new Slk 
Road” establishing closer trade 
links between China and Central 
Asia and pledged fresh economic 
a ssistance to Uzbekistan to start it 

oIL 

“In the past, the Silk Road 
joined China and Uzbekistan to- 
gether,” he said. “Now we want to 
build a new Silk Road." 

Mr. Li said he and Uzbekistan's 
president, Islam A. Karimov, had 
signed economic and trade agree- 
ments. Details were not male pub- 
lic, but .Officials said one accord 
included the promise of a loan to 
Uzbekistan from C hina to help 
boost trade ties between the two 
countries. 

In r e ma r k s to re porters, Mr. 
Karimov praised China’s economic 
reforms and said Beijing had a key 

tral Aaaflfis lan^rcre inter- 


for Bering’s policy of containing 
Turkic-speaking ethnic Utgbur 
separatists in the northwestern 
Chinese province of Xinjiang. The 
Uighnis have been a major source 
of worry for Beijing. 



f a 


in 


L ih 




il‘ 


f.*ri 

1^ 


Goods Keep Endeavour 
In Space an Extra Day 


preted here as a signal of support 


The Associated Press 

HOUSTON — The Space shut- 
tle Endeavour and its crew of six 
astronauts stayed in orbit an extra 
day because of bad weather at the 
Florida landing site, the U.S. space 
agency said Tuesday. 

Low, dark clouds scuttled a first 
attempt to land at the Kennedy 
Space Center and does did not 
dear enough for a second attempt 
one orbit, or one and a half hours, 
later. Because of the way the obit 
was shaped, there were only the 
two chances to land Tuesday. 


To call from country to country, or back to the U.S., dial the WorldPhone number of the country you're calling from. 


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Mod co A 

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Slovak Republic tCO 

0042-000112 

162 

Grenada 4- 

1-800-624-872 1 

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0800-99-0011 


900-99-0014 

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155-0222 


Spain* CO 
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** 


THEAMERICAS / 


Court Bars Juries 
Based on Gender 

Ruling Gives Same Protection 
To Sex as That Granted Race 


INTERN YTIOWL II F.RAI.T) TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, APRIL 20, 1991 


By Linda Greenhouse 

_ , ,VrM- Tot* Time-. Service 

Washington - rh e Su _ 

™? un «*«“*]!>■ completed 
5J55S ™. J u ry selection on 
* mhW? b ’ V ruliDg lh3t he consii- 
ution s guarantee of equal protec- 
uon bars ihe exclusion of potential 
jurors on the basis 0 r theifi, 

■ !..«■ u 0 " 3 decision, written by 

JusiKe Hqrry A Blackmon, ex- 
lended to sex the same consii tu- 

“^ysis that the court at>- 
P. l, * d lo ra< * in a landmark ruling 

■ SS? years ,n Hoi decision 

Baison v. Kentucky, the court 
barred prosecutors from using their 
peremptory challenges to remove 
?“<* jurors in criminal trials of 
. black defendants. 

In subsequent rulings, the court 
quickly expanded the holding of 
the Batson case to bar any use of 
race as a motivating factor in jury 
sdection, in civil trials as well as 
criminal and by private litigants as 
well as government prosecutors. 

TWe hold that gender, like race, 
is an unconstitutional proxy for ju- 
ror competence and impartiality." 
Justice Blackmun said. He added; 
Discrimination in juiy selection, 
whether based on race or on gen- 
der, causes harm to the litigants, 
tne community, and the individual 
jurors who > are wrongfully excluded 
from participation in the judicial 
process." 

The other justices in the majority 
were- John Paul Stevens. Sandra 
Day O’Connor. David H. Souter. 
Ruth Bader Ginsburg. and Antho- 
ny M. Kennedy, who concurred in 
a separate opinion. 

Chief Justice William H. Relin- 
quish Justice .Antonin Scalia and 
Justice Clarence Thomas dissented 


Peremptory jury challenges per- 
ron each side in a trial to remove a 
set number of potential jurors with- 
out giving a reason. Before the Bat- 
son ruling, it was common for pros- 
ecutors, acting on the assumption 
that black jnrors would be sympa- 
thetic to black defendants regard- 
less of the evidence, to use their 
peremptory challenges to create as 
close to an all-white jury as the 
numbers permitted. 

_ The court held that the constitu- 
tion's equal protection guarantee 
did not permit assumptions about 
group behavior to determine an in- 
dividual's ability to serve on a jury. 

The case before the court on 
Tuesday reflected reliance on simi- 
lar assumptions about gender. An 
Alabama prosecutor handling a 
child support and paternity case 
used nine of the state's 10 peremp- 
tory challenges to remove all the 
men from thejury, a common prac- 
tice in such cases based on the 
belief that male jurors are likely to 
be sympathetic to a man who is 
denying paternity. 

The lawyer for the defendant. 
James E. Bowman Sr., in mm used 
his peremptory challenges lo re- 
move women from the jury. But 
because there were twice as many 
women as men in the jury pool that 
day. an all-woman jury remained 
after the two sides had used all 
their challenges. 

The jury found chat Mr. Bow- 
man. whose blood test showed a 
99.92 percent chance that he bad 
fathered Ihe child, was in fact the 
father. He appealed on the ground 
that the jury sdection process vio- 
lated his equal protection rights un- 
der the rationale of the Batson de- 
cision. but the Alabama courts 
rejected his argument 




Mi«nv TV Vnianl Prr». 


President Jean-Bertrand Aristide of Haiti wanting in San Francisco that without democracy, refugees will flood the United States. 

Smuggled Gas in Haiti: Even U.S. Buys 


Away From Politics 


Khafid AMtrf Muhammad, a prominent member of the Nation of 
Idam who has been widely criticized for expressing ami-Semi tic 
views, toured the Holocaust Memorial Museum m Washington and 
emerged contending that genocide by whites, against black people 
had been far worse than what happened lo Jews. Al one point. Mr. 
Muhammad, holding a poster-size portrait of a lynching, stressed 
that rhe Holocaust had lasted only a decade. 

• Hundreds of convictions and pending coot cases involving arrests 
made by 14 New York police officers who haw been charged with 
corruption will have lo be reviewed, and asmaflnumber are likely to 
be thrown c*uL two prosecutors said. District Attorney Robert M. 
Morgen thau and Robert H. Sobering, special narcotics prosecutor, 
said (hey were preparing lists of cases in which officers charged In the 
corruption scandal had made or assisted in an arrest. 

» The chairman of the Mack stmfies department at City College in 
New York has had his reinstatement in the post upheld by a U.S. 
appeals court. But the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 2nd Circuit 
overturned a juiy’s award of $360,000 in damages from the universi- 
ty, which demoted Leonard Jeffries after he gave a speech that some 
considered anti-Semitic and rarisL 

WP. NYT 


By Douglas Farah 

Washington Post Service 

PORT-AU-PRINCE. Haiti — 
Despite u United Naiions-mand sl- 
ed embargo on on all petroleum 
products, the United States Em- 
bassy and other diplomatic mis- 
sions here routinely buy smuggled 
fuel on the open market, directly 
feeding money to the military' 
strongmen that the international 
community is supposed to be pun- 
ishing. 

The embassy deliveries are more 
dignified, but the principle is the 
same as with the sales seen daily in 
what has become Haiti’s sole gas 
station, along the main highway by 
the port: Dozens of tracks piled 
high with barrels of gasoline and 
diesel fuel sell (heir precious cargo 
to hundreds of people who push 
and shove to buy small amounts 
and carry it away in anything from 
tin cans lo five-gallon jugs. 

The tracks make the journey 
from the border with the Domini- 
can Republic The influx of gaso- 
line is estimated by diplomats and 
businessmen at i-5 million to 3 m ij- 
hf®:’ gallons {5.7 to lUTmiHion 
liters) a month. It sells for about Si 
a gallon in the Dominican Repub- 
lic and S8 to $10 a gallon in Haiti. 

The embargo was imposed in an 
attempt to return the ousted presi- 
dent, Jean-Bertrand Aristide to of- 
fice. But by buying smuggled fuel, 
American and other diplomats — 
as well as gallon-jug peddlers in the 
streets — are enriching Haiti’s mili- 
tary rulers. 


“At this point, the U.S. Embassy 
is obligated to buy gasoline on the 
spot market like everyone else," 
said an embassy spokesman, Stan- 
ley Schrrger. “We have no choice." 

The embargo allows up to 
300.000 gallons of fuel a month to 
be imported for the use of humani- 
tarian organizations, but it con- 
tains no exemption for diplomatic 
missions. 

Thousands of people retail the 
fuel in the gallon plastic containers 
on the street corners across the city 
and in outlying towns. The retailers 
make about SO cents a gallon. 

Haitian businessmen who have 
been pushed into bankruptcy by 
the embargo are angry that the in- 
ternational community seems to 
impose cavalierly on others what it 
is unwilling to endure itself. 

“I cannot imagine having the 
nerve to tell the Haitian people 
they can do without gasoline" and 
“then turning around and buying it 
for yourself," said a businessman 
who in the pasthas been friendly to 
the United Slates. “The hypocrisy 
of it all is stunning." 

Another businessman -said the 
American Embassy could just keep 
on. so their own measure did not 
affect them. “There is more than a 
touch of Alice in Wonderland in all 
this," he said, “because they know 
exactly where the profits go." 

Hie profits, by all accounts, go lo 
Lieutenant Colonel Michel Fran- 
cois, the commander of the police, 
and his associates. Colonel Fran- 


cois is accused by the United Slates 
and the United Nations of being 
responsible for a wave of terror 
that has swept Haiti and of being a 
leader of the 1991 coup. 

Senator Christopher Dodd, 
Democrat of Connecticut, said af- 
ter a visit here three weeks ago that 
he would ask President Joaquin Ba- 
laguer Ricardo of the Dominican 
Republic to tighten up the border. 

“1 think it is important that he 
hears from a friend that I think his 
border is a sieve." Mr. Dodd said. 
“You don’t have to be an expert. 
Just driving around Port-au-Prince 
for the last couple of days you can 
see. if you've got the old cash in 
your hands, there is no embargo in 
Haiti" 

Before the embargo, much of the 
fuel went to generate electricity. 
Now. most of it goes to keep cars 
on the roads — there are still traffic 
jams here — and to run private 
generators to help the wealthy en- 
dure the blackouts that now last 
days at a time. 

The reason for not running the 
electric plants, businessmen said, 
was that the system of 'collecting 


payment has collapsed, and most 
people could not afford to pay 
greatly increased rates anyway. 

“There is no tax collection, no 
nothing," said a businessman who 
deals with the military. “The only 
thing left of die state institutions 
are the military, and they have 
turned themselves into a business. 
Wherever there is money, there is 
the army. If they can’t make mon- 
ey. they’ won’t do it." 

According to several sources fa- 
miliar with the fuel market, about a 
dozen large-scale buyers, after pay- 
ing off guards on both rides of the 
border and numerous police posts 
along the roads in Haiti, then pay 
"license" fees to Colonel Francois. 
Still, they can turn about a $L50 
per gailoo profit in sales to retail- 
ers, depending on the fluctuating 
price. 

A flatbed truck can carry about a 
dozen 55-gallon barrels, 'meaning 
the wholesaler can expect to clear 
nearly $1,000 a trip. Colonel Fran- 
cois and the police make at least $1 
a gallon, knowledgeable sources 
said, meaning profits of $1.5 mil- 
lion to $3 million or more a month. 


APOLITICAL NOTES A 


Rostankowskl Asks Social Security Cu ts 

. WASHINGTON — Representative Dan RostcnkowskL the 
chairman of the Ways and Means Committee, favors shoring up the 
finances of Social Security by reducing next year's cosi-of-living 
adjustment, increasing the retirement age. trimming benefits for new 
retirees and raising payroll taxes in the 21st century. 

Some of the proposals, standing alone, would provoke a political 
outcry. But the Illinois Democrat said that he hoped they would be 
acceptable as part of a comprehensive plan to preserve Social 
Security for future generations. 

Some combination of changes like those he proposed has a good 
chance of passage. Social Security trustees said last week that unless 
Congress acted, the Social Security trust funds would ran out of 
money in 2029. seven years earlier than projected last year. The 
trustees said that Congress should worry about the problem now. 
when the solution is relatively painless. Bigger changes would be 
required in later years if lawmakers deferred action, the Trustees 
warned. 

In opinion polls, young workers often say they doubt that Social 
Security will be available to them when they retire. Mr. Rosienktiw- 
ski said his proposal would restore confidence in Soda! Security and 
guarantee die Treasury's ability to pay all promised benefits for at 
least 75 years. 

Under his proposal, al! Social Security beneficiaries, about 42 
million people, would receive a smaller cost-of-living adjustment in 
Januaiy 1995. The increase was expected to be 3 percent but the 
Rostenkowski proposal would limit it to 2.5 percent. 

As a result, tne average monthly Social Security benefit, now $674. 
would rise to $691 in 1995. rather than $694. In the past, protests hv 
elderly people have blocked proposed cuts in cost-of-living adjust- 
ments. (NUT) 

Women In Senate Unite Against Admiral 

WASHINGTON — In a show of solidarity, all seven women in 
the U.S. Senate lined up Tuesday against allowing Admiral Frank B. 
Kelso 2d to retire at four-star rank because of the Toilhook scandal 
that involved the sexual harassment of female naval officers. 

They were given moral support by nine female members of the 
House, who entered the Senate chamber as the debate began. 

The women said that giving Lhe navy's ranking officer a full 
pension would endorse an attitude of condoning failures of leader- 
ship. since the harassment — at a naval aviators' convention in Las 
Vegas in 1991 — had taken place on the admiraf s watch. 

“What the women are saying is that the culture of theU.S. military 
must change." said Senator Barbara MOculski. Democrat of Mary- 
land. Despite the opposition, the Senate was expected to approve 
Admiral Kelso's retirement at four-star rank, entitling him to a 
pension of $84340 a year. “There's a fairly strong feeling that he 
should have the four stars." said the Senate Republican leader. Bob 
Dole of Kansas. “He's entitled to it and 1 think he'll get it." 

The Senate must approve all three- and four-star retirements. If it 
does not. the officer is returned to two-star rank. In Admiral Kelso's 
case, that would mean a loss of $16,873 a year in his pension. (AP\ 

2 Senators Quit Race to Succeed Mitchell 

WASHINGTON — The race to succeed the retiring Senate 
majority leader, George J. Mitchell of Maine, narrowed further 
Monday as two Democratic senators. Harry M. Reid of Nevada and 
Patrick J. Leahy of Vermont took themselves out of the running. 

Mr. Reid endorsed Thomas A Daschle of South Dakota for lhe 
job. Mr. Leahy said he could support either Mr. Daschle or Jim 
Sasser of Tennessee, who has said he is leaning toward joining the 
race and indicated he will make a decision shortly. ( WP i 

Quote/ Unquote 

The evangelist Billy Graham at the hospital where Richard Nixon 
was bring treated after a stroke: “He means a great deal to me. I 
preached at his wife’s funeral in California. I have a great personal 
affection for hirm" (L4 T) 


CIA Tracking 'Quite a Few’ Spies in U.S. 


By Tim Weiner 

. .Vcw York Ttmes Service 

WASHINGTON — The director of central 
intelligence, R- James Woolsey Jr„ said Tues- 
day that major counterespionage hunts were 
under way at the Central Intelligence Agency 
and elsewhere in the government, set off by 
secret information gleaned from the archives 
and agents of defunct Soviet and East Europe- 
an spy services. t 

Mr. Woolsey said “a large number of leads 
with respect to people who undertook espio- 
nage during the Cold War, in (his country and 
. in other court tries, in several parts of the Ameri- 
can government" were under investigation. . 

The case against Aldrich Hazen Ames, the 
former CIA official suspected of spying for 
Mokow and betraying at least 10 Soviet and 
East bloc agents working for the United States, 
is only one among many, he said. 


Members of die congressional intelligence 
committees expressed fury, puzzlement and 
dismay at Mr. woolsey's remarks Tuesday on 
the NBC “Today" show. 

“I don't know what got into him," said Sena- 
tor Dennis DeConrini, an Arizona Democrat 
and chairman of the Senate Select Committee 
on Intelligence. “It shouldn’t be disclosed. It's 
very, very sensitive information." 

Over tjie past month, present and former 
intelligence officials have said in interviews that 
several people who have worked over the past 
15 years at the CIA, the Pentagon, State De- 
partment and the White House had fallen un- 
der suspicion in a spreading series of investiga- 
tions. 

In addition, several intelligence officials said 
that the CIA was now wondering about the 
allegiance of agents it though 1 it had recruited 
from East European nations over the past 25 


years. Many now appear to have been double 
agents, pretending to work for the United 
States while in reality working for Moscow, the 
intelligence officials said. 

The doubts are based on information from 
the files of the moribund intelligence services of 
bygone Communist nations, including Czecho- 
slovakia and East Germany, the officials said. 
The archives of the former East German Minis- 
try for State Security, or Stasi. now under 
control of the German government, have been a 
particularly rich source of information, they 
said. 

Mr. Woolsey’s statements suggested that the 
files had proved to be a kind of booby-trapped 
gold mine for the CIA, providing both a wealth 
of information on the secret history of the Cold 
War and the raw material for potentially explo- 
sive internal investigations at the agency. 


Historians Doubt Scientists Aided Russia 


Sen- York' Times Service 

NEW YORK —Several histori- 
ans have questioned a new book by 
a high Soviet intelligence official 
who asserts that the chief Western 
architects of the nuclear era acted 
as spies to give Moscow the secrets 
of lte atom bomb. 

The accused scientists — Niels 
Bphr. Enrico Fermi, George Ga- 
mow, J. Robert Oppenheimer and 
Leo Szilard — were lions of science 
who in the 1930s and early 1940s 
unlocked the atom and went on to 
create the world's first jgjjj 
bomb in 1945. Drs. Bohr and Fermi 
at the time were Nobel laureates. 


Some historians sayZlhat differ- 
ent aspects of the boog, including 
details of the secret workings of 
Stalinist Russia, are of historical 
significance. But they ^questioned 
its allegation of atomi^ spying by 
leading Western scientists as dubi- 
ous at best and mistaken on some 
important points, ) 

The book, “Special Tasks: The 
Memoirs of an Unwanted Witness 
— a Soviet Spymaster," was pub- 
lished Monday by Little* Brown & 
Co. and is excerpted in the current 
issue of Time magazine. 

It was written by PaveTSudopla- 
tov. an intelligence chief during the 


Kevorkian Jury Candidates 
Take Quiz on Life and Death 


The Associated Press 

DETROIT — Potential jurors 
began writing down their thoughts 
ooWe and deaih Tuesday lohdp 
lawyers choose which of 
should decide the case of Dr. Jacx 
Kevorkian, who went on uiai tor 
helping a dying man commit sui- 
cide. 

Dr. Kevorkian's attorney, Geof- 
frey Fibger. wants to know their 
religions, positions on abortion, 
and whether they believe assisted 
suicide is an “act of morder of an 
act of mercy.” 

Mr. Fieger and the Wayne Coun- 


ty a: 
Kern 


assistant prosecutor, Timothy 
.«nny, said it would take hours 
before the 66 potential jurors fin- 
ished the 12-page questionnaires 

and the papers were photocopied 
and given lo attorneys and the 
judge for review. Only then would 
questioning of the potential jurors 

Kevorkian has admitted that 
he helped Thomas Hyde, 30, ram- 
mi! suicide last summer. Mr. Hyde 
suffered from a degenerative disor- 
der known as Lou Gehrigs disease. 
If convicted, he could be sentenced 
to four years in prison and a SZOuO 
fine. 


Stalin era. He was aided in its writ- 
ing by his son, Anatoli Sudoplatov, 
an economist at Moscow State 
University, as well as Jerrold L. 
Schemer, a former Moscow bureau 
chief for Tune, and his wife, Leona 
P. Scbecter. 

The book asserts that Dr. Op- 
penheimer. the scientific head of 
the Los Alamos laboratory in New 
Mexico, where the bomb was in- 
vented, shared U.S. atomic secrets 
with Moscow and helped plant _a 
number of Soviet moles deep in his 
top-secret organization, enabling 
Russia to break the American mo- 
nopoly on nuclear arms quickly 
and become a superpower. 

The book does not contain any 
documents that back up the central 
accusation against the scientists, al- 
though it does have documents 
bearing on other aspects of atomic 
espionage. 

Russia exploded its first bomb in 
1949, four years after the United 
States. Some Western scientist 
were surprised at the quickness of 
the advance, and historians have 
long known that Moscow’s nuclear 
labors were aided by many relative- 
ly low-level spies. 

Priscilla Johnson McMillan, a 


fellow at Harvard Universiiy]s 
Russian Research Center who is 
writing a book on Dr. Oppenbei- 
mer’s nuclear work, agreed that the 
overall work was important but 
questioned its revelations about 
atomic spying 

“The book as a whole needs to be 
taken seriously." she said in an in- 
terview. “ft sheds a lot of light on 
some of the secret operations of the 
Stalinist era. But this nuclear chap- 
ter appears to be based on gossip 
and hearsay. Its weakness is an 
absolute lack of documentary evi- 
dence coupled with errors of fact." 

An example of an error, she said, 
was the book’s treatment of Klaus 
Fuchs, a German scientist who 
came to Los Alamos from Britain 
and after the war confessed to be- 
ing a Soviet spy. The book asserts 
that Dr. Oppenheimer — under the 
influence or two Soviet agents — 
took special steps to insure that Dr. 
Fuchs got into Los Alamos. 

But Mrs. McMillan said it was 
well known that the British team 
went to Los Alamos “as a pack- 
age." In all. some two dozen scien- 
tists traveled from Britain to the 
secret laboratory, high in the 
mountains of New Mexico. 


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Yeltsin, Angry, Demands That Serbs Pull Out of Gorazde 


By Michael Specter For months Russia has tried to position itself as the 

New York Turn Service one cotmtty capable of appealing to the Serbs, through 

MOSCOW — Furious that despite all promises the diplomatic finesse and a history of friendship. Mr. 
Bosnian Serbs have confirmed their dag**- of the Mus- Yeltsin has been under intense pressure from national- 


lim enclave of Gorazde, President Boris N. Yeltsin of 
Russia on Tuesday warned Serbian leaders to stop 
their assault or face the gravest of consequences. 

' “Despite all the efforts of Russia, the United Na- 
tions, and the world communityr Mr. Yeltsin said 
Tuesday, “the conflict is on the verge of a very danger- 
bus escalation. The leadership of the Bosnian Serbs 
should stop attacking Gorazde and leave the town. 1 * 

* He called for an urgent international summit meet- 
ing to discuss the situation. 

• Coming hours after a similar statement by his for- 
eign minister, Andrei V. Kozyrev, the remarks woe 
the most striking sign of a sharp new turn in a Russi an 

that has tried to preserve its strong ties with 

, without alienating the rest of the world. 


NATO Is Weighing 
A More Active Role 

Some in Alliance Still Fear 

'■^CTbiaii leadership must fulfill the obligation it has To S5T=5TSSSS BeCOIIlillff Mk ed HI COHlbat 

■ r» 1. —Id T»~rA™ «ew v,.. The anti-Amencan and and-woieni seoumou ux O 


ists at home to support the Bosnian Serbs, and under 
equal pressure abroad to force them to stop their 

offensive. 


“It would be a terrible escalation, a terrible war.” 
Mr. Karadzic said. “If there are going to be any air 
strikes there is going to be a war. We wQl protect 
ourselves by all means,” 

The Russian newspaper Izvestia declared the ac- 
tions of the Serbian leaders “a public slap in the face” 
to Russia and a “nightmare for Russian diplomats." In 


or America, want to increase military force or engage 

ground troops in the region. 

SeU Russia has been eager to once agam ^regard eel 
as a major international force, capable of resob g 
conflicts that nobody else can address. 

YeL Mr Yeltsin, who has seen his room to manen- 
r m homi shrink almost daily, 


given to Russia,” Mr. Yeltsin said Tuesday. “Stop the 
attacks. Withdraw from Gorazde.” 

He also masted that the Serbs permit United Na- 
tions forces to enter the city. 

None of that seemed likely on Tuesday, however. 
The Bosnian Serbian leader, Radovan Karadzic, said 
that if North Atlantic Treaty Organization planes 
bombed his forces again the war would widen. In a 
sign of their resolve, the Serbs reclaimed anti-aircraft 
guns under United Nations guard in the cease-fire 
zone around Sarajevo. 


replace Russians already stationed in the former Yu 
gpslavia, the sense of betrayal and humiliation was 
intense. 

Mr. Yeltsin has called a meeting of Russia's Nation- proposal for a UN 
al Security Council at the Kremlm on Wednesday to would condom 
discuss the worsening situation. 

But even as he did so, rightist members of the 
legislature bitterly accused him erf s elling out Russia's 
historic allies to the West 

The Russians have tried desperately to solve the 
crisis because neither they, nor anyone else in Europe 


Russia has grown too strong for that . 

Sti? Mr Kozyrev on Tuesday agreed _to a French 
bUU ' a UN Security Council resolution that 

erf Gorazde. 

TfcH and Mr. Yeltsin’s call for a summit meeting 

Bsssssssassiaes 

aach other. 


CUDNTON: Changing Options 


Costumed from Page I 
tic Treaty Organization. But in a 
television interview Tuesday, Presi- 
dent Clinton gave no hint that he 
preferred a more aggressive ap- 
proach. 

1 The president welcomed as “very 
important” and "positive" a call 
Tuesday by President Boris N. 
Yeltsin of Russia for Serbs to halt 
their offensive around the city of 
Gorazde. 

Mr. Clinton and his senior mili- 
tary and foreign policy advisers 
Were among a number of officials 
in New York at the United Na- 
tions, in Brussels at the headquar- 
ters of NATO and in European 
capitals, including Moscow, who 
were seeking a fresh, coordinated 
approach on Bosnia. 

Reacting to Mr. Yeltsin's call for 
summit talks on Bosnia by the 
Western powers and Russia. Mr. 
Clinton recalled that he had termed 
a simil ar recent proposal “prema- 
ture." 

According to some accounts, the 
B utros Ghali letter was issued with 
the concurrence and encourage- 
ment of the U.S. envoy to the Unit- 
ed Nations. Madeleine K. Albright, 
who attended high-level staff meet- 
ings on Bosnia on Monday in 
Washington. But Mr. Bulros Gha- 
Ii’s spokesman said Tuesday h was 
sent on his own initiative and was 
meant as a lest of NATO's "politi- 
cal wilL” 

The letter, according to Renters, 
»sfc<! NATO to decide, at the earlier 
possible date, to launch air strikes, 
if requested by UN commanders, 
“against artillery, mortar positions 
or tanks in or around" six mostly 
'Muslim enclaves designated as safe 
areas. Previously, UN commanders 
have said they were calling in air 
strikes only to protect UN peace- 
keepers. 

NATO's governing body, the 
North Atlantic Council, was sched- 
uled to meet in Brussels on 
Wednesday, and it was undear 
whether Britain. France and other 
allies with peacekeeping fences in 
Bosnia would support more force- 
ful air strikes. In the past, (hey have 
pressed the United States to send 
its own ground troops to Bosnia to 
assist in peacekeeping, but Wash- 
ington has refused. 

Nor was it dear whether Russia 
would continue to object to air 
strikes, despite its embarrassing 
failure to win a true cease-fire from 
the Serbs at Gorazde. 

Some U.S. officials, while they 
maintain that p unishing air Strikes 
are neoied say they doubt that 
anything can be done now about 
the stranglehold cm Gorazde that 
Serbian fighters appear to be tight- 
ening. 

The continued defiance of UN 
mandates by the Serbian military 
at Gorazde and elsewhere in Bos- 
nia has sparked a major policy de- 


bate in Washington, with a number 
of leaders in Congress, Republican 
and Democrat, calling for stronger 
US. leadership and Western ac- 
tion. 

But there was tittle unanimi ty on 
options open to the West Some 
called again for a lifting of the UN 
arms embargo on all of the former 
Yugoslavia. Others backed air 
Strikes. Some maintain ed that the 
United States has no more strategic 
interest in Bosnia than ft does in 
Rwanda, for example. 

The frustration 'of Representa- 
tive Lee H. Hamilton, a normally 
cautious Indiana Democrat who is 
chairman of the House Foreign Af- 
fairs Committee, typified the reac- 
tion of many congressmen. 

"1 think almost certainly you 
have to have a more robust reaction 
by NATO and tin United Nations 
hens," he said Tuesday in an tele- 
vised interview. "There's been a 
real humiliation of both organiza- 
tions, and we simply cannot take 
the kind of brutality that we have 
seen from the Sobs in Gorazde 
without some kind of response.” 

Just before the initial White 
House meeting, Bosnian Serbs 
stormed an arms depot in Sarajevo 
and seized 18 anti-aircraft guns 
from UN peacekeepers. 



Aaja Sxirm^m^A^pKcfTMicc-ensBC 

French troops waiting Tuesday at Sarajevo for orders to move out to protect the UN-mandated ‘Safe area” in Gorazde. 


BOSNIA: Serbs Retake Weapons 


Contmned from Page 1 

that the 30 or so French soldiers 
guarding them were unable to resist 
the superior force. 

Other UN sources said that the 
French troops had wanted to resist 
but were ordered to stand down. 

An officer at UN military head- 
quarters in Bosnia said the United 
Nations had been angered by the 
Serbs' action, which was the first 
time weapons had been seized from 
collection points. 

Prime Minister Haris Sflajdzicof 
Bosnia said the Serbs' action 
showed they had been emboldened 
by the failure of NATO to cany out 
farther air strikes around Gorazde. 

“They are encouraged by the 
lack of NATO reaction and by the 
way some countries have looked 
the other way,” be said, calling for 
more air strikes against the Serbs. 

The seized weapons were among 
those surrendered to UN control 
under threat erf NATO air strikes, 
as part of an agreement in Febru- 
ary to remove heavy weapons from 
around Sarajevo or place them un- 
der UN supervision. 

Officials of the UN High Com- 
missioner for Refugees in Geneva 
said they had lost communications 
with their Gorazde office during 
shelling and were not sure of the 
fate of the staff there. 


“We are outraged, as it appears 
beyond a doubt that we are bring 
targeted despite assurances from 
the Bosnian Serbian leadership,” 
said Ron Redmond, a spokesman 
for the UN refugee agency. 

The main hospital in Gorazde 
also took direct hits. 

“The roof of the hospital is com- 
pletely destroyed,” said Dr. Ren- 
aud Tockert of Doctors Without 
Borders, in Brussels, after talking 
to the organization’s team in Gor- 
azde. 

The hospital is on the south side 
of the Drina River, which divides 
the town. Serbs are bdieved to con- 
trol that area after a 20-day offen- 
sive. 

About 200 shells hit in or on the 
edge of town before noon Tuesday, 
said a spokesman for the UN refu- 
gee agency. 

The Yugoslav press 3gency Tan- 
jug said that Serbs had repelled a 
major Muslim assault in northeast- 
ern Bosnia on Monday. Similar re- 
ports preceded the offensive on 
Gorazde, which Serbs have main- 
tained is a defensive move. 

Croatian radio said that Serbs 
had shelled Muslim-Croatian areas 
□ear Brcko and were were reinforc- 
ing local positions. 

(Reuters, AP) 


Negotiators 
Seek to Reopen 
Peace Talks 

Agenee Frmce-Presse 

GENEVA — The co-chair- 
men of the peace conference 
on the former Yugoslavia. 
Lord David Owen and Thor- 
vald Stoltenberg, are due in 
Moscow on Wednesday to 
seek Russian support to re- 
open negotiations. Lord Owen 
said Tuesday. 

Hie European Union medi- 
ator said he and his United 
Nations colleague were also 
prepared to travd to Washing- 
ton to puisne similar efforts 
there. 

Lord Owen said that the Eu- 
ropean Union's Foreign Af- 
fairs Council “is not prepared 
to let the diplomatic negotiat- 
ing round go onto hold.” 

"They are determined that it 
must proceed,” he said. 

He stressed that the ‘ 
new negotiations were 
layed, "the more we see in- 
stances like what happened in 
Gorazde,” the Muslim enclave 
in eastern Bosnia that was 
poised to fall to Bosnian Serbi- 
an forces. 


BLUFF: Serbs Testing the West 


Continued from Page I 

as in Srebrenica or Sarajevo, have 
been merely lacticaL 

In contrast, the objectives of the 
Clinton a dminis tration and its key 
allies. France and Britain, have 
been far from clear or constant. 
Beyond averting NATO attacks, 
the goals of the other major omside 
player, Russia, have also been 
murky. All have nominally worked 
together to end the war, but none 
have derided that the Serbs must 
not be allowed to succeed. 

Serbia, the aims patron of the 
Bosnian Serbs, has become a kind 
of new 19th-century Prussia, with a 
single-minded intention to expand. 
Its geopolitical aim would be famil- 
iar to Bismarck, but apparently be- 
fuddles Mr. Clinton and his for- 
eign-policy advisers, who 
throughout the week insisted that 
the Serbian drive was not aimed at 
taking the dty or that it was the 
product of renegade commanders. 

Gorazde is a typical 19th-centu- 
ry territorial prize. It bestrides a 
road leading from Belgrade, the 
Serbian capital to the sea, and sits 
along a major river. 

UJS. interests, as defined by se- 
nior policymakers, have had little 
to do with the future of Bosnia, or 
stopping the Serbian advance. 
Looking at the lessons of the past 


centnry, the United States has “an 
interest in helping prevent the 
spread of a wider war” beyond Bos- 
nia, the U.S. national security ad- 
viser, W. Anthony Lake, said early 
this month. 

At the same time. Mr. Lake said, 
“We have an interest in showing 
that NATO — history’s greatest 

mili tary alliance — r emains a credi- 
ble force for peace.” 

Finally, he said, the administra- 
tion wants to stem the flow of refu- 
gees into Europe and “to stop the 
continuing slaughter of innocents.” 

The immorality and illegality of 
Serbian actions have loomed large 
m administration rhetoric, but it 

has shown no willingness to put 
troops where its values tie. 

The administration has periodi- 
cally Named Europe for being un- 
willing to lake tougher steps. 

Britain and France, both with 
peacekeeping troops in Bosnia, 
have been nn w illin g to pick up the 
moral cudgel waved by Washing- 
ton and have tittle interest in Bos- 
nia other than promoting stability. 
Both fear getting more involved in 
the war on the ground and neither 
wants to be seen backing the Mus- 
lims. 

Washington has also been sensi- 
tive to Russia's protective attitude 
toward the Seibs. fearing a renewal 
of hostility with Moscow. 


By Craig R. Whitney 

New York Tones Service 

BONN — NATO officials on 
Tuesday began urgent consider- 
ation erf a request by the United 
Nations secretary-genoal to autho- 
rize air strikes in defense of UN 
“safe areas” in Bosnia, with the 
allies divided on a step many of 
thwn fear would make NATO .a 
combatant in the war. 

With one previous strategic suc- 
cess — forcing an end to the siege 
of Sarajevo by Bosnian Serbian 
fighters two months ago — NATO 
mili tary planners in Brussels began 
considering whether allied air pow- 
er could destroy or force withdraw- 
al of Serbian tanks, artilkry pieces 
and mortars from Gorazde and the 
five other safe areas. 

Officials with the North Atlantic 
Treaty Organization said it was 
doubtful that the study would be 
completed in time for ambassadors 
from the 16-member countries to 
decide on an answer to Secretary- 
General Butros Butros Ghatis re- 
quest at their regular weekly North 
Atlantic Council meeting on 
Wednesday. 

U.S. bombers under NATO 
command attacked a Serbian tank 
and other targets as the Sobs 
pushed into Gorazde last week, not 
to prevent them from taking terri- 
tory but at the request of UN 
troops who asked for the air strikes 
to protect them. 

Mr. Bums Ghalfs request for 
authorization of NATO air strikes 
to protect the mainly Muslim refu- 
gees in the safety zones, if he re- 
quests th<*n against Serbian tar- 
gets. would take the alliance’s 
involvement a step further. 

“What the UN is asking us to do 
is to act against artflJesy pieces, 
mortars, or tanks in protected areas 
which UN forces there determine 
are responsible for attacks on the 
zones,” a NATO official said. “Ob- 
viously, it will be very difficult to 
determine where they are and to 
coordinate with the UN to call in 
strikes against them, and the mili- 
tary are now looking at the possi- 
Unties.” 

In the NATO capitals, where the 
real decisions are made, the allies 
are split about the wisdom of tak- 
ing the next step down the road 
towards direct military involve- 
ment to slop a war that has made 
the alliance appear impoten t in the 
face erf Serbian aggression in Gor- 
azde. 

The British, with more than 
3,000 troops in the tightly armed 
UN humanitarian force in Bosnia, 
r emain the most skeptical because 


of fears that the sddkrs could be- 
come Serbian hostages in case of 
NATO air attacks, as in fact some 
of them did in Gorazde last week. 

Some British officials are also 
j increasingly critical of the 
zion administration’s reluc- 
tance to become involved on the 
ground in Bosnia until after apace 
settlement is readied. 

The British defense secretary, 
Malcolm Rifkind, said, “Some 

dons abouTwhat can be achieved 
by the use of air power alone or by 
ground forces that are not 
equipped or organized to operate in 
a combat role. 5 

The French, with more than 
4,000 troops in Bosnia, support the 
UN request for broader use of 
NATO air power, according to a 
spokesman for the Foreign Minis- 
try in Fans. President Frangris 
Mitterrand on Monday discussed 
the situation in Bosnia with Presi- 
dent Bill CSnlon by telephone. 

France’s Foreign Minis ter, Alain 
Juppt, has also called for simulta- 
neous intensified diplomatic coor- 
dination by American, Russian, 
and European Union negotiators 
in Washington to define a cormnon 
position and push the Serbs, 
Croats, and Muslims toward peace. 

“We support a carrot and stick 
approach,” a French spokesman 
said, “with the threat of air strikes 
and the carrot of progresshre lifting 
of international economic sanc- 
tions against the Serbs if they agree 
to peace:” 

The United Slates and France 
persuaded their NATO allies in 
February to issue a 10-day ultima- 
tum to the Sobs to withdraw heavy 
weapons from a zone around Sara- 
jevo. But they remain divided oh 
the wisdom of talking about possi- 
bly lifting sanctions at a time when 
the dinton a dminist ration believes 
the Serbs have done nothing to de- 
serve relief. 

Germany, which supported the 
NATO ultimatum in Sarajevo, is 
far more reluctant about extending 
the threat of violent intervention to 
other safe areas. 

A German spokesman said that 
Chancellor Helmut Kohl told Pres- 
ident Boris N. Yeltsin of Rnsria by 
telephone on Tuesday that “every 
effort should be made to put an end 
to bloodshed in the region and 
bring about a lasting peace.”. 

In telephone talks with Mr. din- 
ton and Mr. Mitterrand on Mon- 
day, Mr. Kohl also emphasized the 
need for political solutions over in- 
tensified rnOhaiy measures, the 
spokesman said. 


A Sensor Shots Down Chancellor of Austria 
Swedish Nuclear Plant Meets With U.S. Jews 


Return 

STOCKHOLM — A nuclear 
power plant in southern Sweden 
shut down automatically on Tues- 
day, activated by a sensor that de- 
tected a drop in pressure in the 
control system of its steam-driven 
turbine. 

The Swedish utility Sydkraft AB 
said it was not dear whether an 
electrical fault or an actual drop in 
pressure had caused the shutdown 
of its Barseback 2 plant. The com- 
pany expected the reactor to be 
functioning a ga in within a day. 


The Associated Press 
WASHINGTON — Chancellor 
Franz Vrantaky of Austria opened 
a two-day visit to Washington on 
Tuesday by meeting with represen- 
tatives of American Jewish organi- 
zations. 

The leader of the group that met 
with him was MDes Lennan, chair- 
man of the council of the Holo- 
caust Memorial Museum. Mr. 
Vranitzky is to tour the museum 
Wednesday after a meeting with 
President Bill Clinton. 



3.00 


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The conference, one of Asia's leading energy 
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industry from the world oven 

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international Herald Tribune 
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DEAL: For Some Argentine Investors, Being Friends With Citibank Paid Off Handsomely 


Continued from Page 1 

U.S. banking regulators to sell 
some of the stock because such 
long-term investments in industrial 
lies are inappropriate for a 
But Washington regulators 
say that Citicorp had several years 
to act; whatever deadline the bank 
imposed was its own. 

By the tine the get-cash-quick 
plan was in place in Argentina, 
Citibank employees who caught 
wind of it complained to Citibank 
auditors and the Securities and Ex- 
change Commission in the United 
States, accusing the bank of cozy 
insider dealings and pressing for an 
investigation The SEC, as is iu 


habit, will not comment on whether 
it is pursuing one. 

Like many in Citibank's global 
fraternity of bold risk-takers, Mr. 
Handley had an eye for a good bet 
Faced with nearly worthless Argen- 
tine government bonds, he shrewd- 
ly decided to trade the bonds when 
the government stopped paying in- 
terest on them for stock in several 
corporate giants, including a natu- 
ral gas pipeline, an electric utility 
and a phone company. 

Two years ago, when Citicorp 
troubles mounted from bad real- 
estate loans in America, Mr. Reed 
called for corporate jewels he could 
pawn for cash to strengthen the 
bank’s books. 




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That is when Citicorp decided to 
seQ stock in the investment compa- 
ny known as Gticorp Equity In- 
vestments SA. The stocks that Mr. 
Handley had accumulated had ris- 
en in value thanks to a government 
initiative to sell the state-run com- 
panies to investors. 

But Mr. Handley said that find- 
ing buyers fast for Gtioorp’s in- 
vestment company was hard, espe- 
cially after the Argentine stock 
market began a 64 percent fall in 
mid- 1992 and investors backed 
away. 

That’s when Mr. Handley turned 
to his wealthy business associates, 
including George Soros, who has 
been a major investor in Argentina. 
In a series of five separate sales, 
Gtibank Argentina unloaded 60 
percent of its investment coi 
and raised a total 
million. 

Bui two of the buyers were law- 
yers in the bank and protfefe of 
Mr. Handley: GOberto Zavala and 
Marcelo Gowiand. 

Before joining Gtibank Argenti- 
na, Mr. Gowiand, 38, was a lawyer 
for several small financial institu- 
tions and the attorney to see for a 
plot in one of the city's best ceme- 
teries. 

Mr. Zavala, 37, bad worked in 
New York for the law fum Shear- 
man & Starling and was a specialist 
in working out problems with Ar- 
gentina’s government debt. 

“No matter how you explain it 
away, this is a very, very sweet deal 


for thcscyoung lrids,” said one G- 
ticorp official They didn't put up 
a penny of their money, and they 
are instantly among the rich in Ar- 
gentina.” 

Other critics say the fast profits 
for the buyers prove that the bank 
sold its stock for too little money. If 
only Mr. Handley had held off a 
year, they say, Gticorp sharehold- 
ers could have made an additional 
$500 xmllioiL or about double what 
it collected, .based on today's stock 
prices. 

The relationship between Mr. 
Handley an d Mr. Reed says a lot 
about how . this deal sped through 
the Gticotp bureaucracy, asso- 
ciates say. In Mr. Handley, Mr. 
Reed recognized the competitive, 
innovative instincts that helped put 
Mr. Reed At the top of one of the 
world’s largest banks 10 years ago 
at the age of 45. 

Mr. Handley, 50, is also smart, 
and politically well-c on nected in a 
country where that means every- 
thing for a foreign bank. 

In the bank, Mr. Handley got 
what he wanted from Mr. Reed. 
“There was always the feeling that 
the chairman was going to say yes 
to practically anything Dick asked 
for” one former Gtibank execu- 
tive said.' 

As Argentina and other Latin 
nations quit paying interest on 
their debt in the ’80s, Mr. Handley 
watched as more than SI billion in 
nine brads he held sink in 
lue to peonies on the dollar. 


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That was when he hit on the idea 
of taking stock in Argentine mo- 
nopolies in exchange for loan pay- 
ments. Carios Sail Menem had just 
become Argentina's president, and 
the new administration talked of 
opening the country to foreign in- 
vestment and unleashing state-run 
companies to compete. 

With that prospect, Mr. Handley 
i n iti a t e d his strategy of buying 
stock in government-con troDed 
companies 

There is some disagreement be- 
tween Gtibank and U.S. bank reg- 
ulators over where the pressure 
originated to seQ the Argentine 
stock holdings. And that conflict 
has raised important questions 
about whether the sales had to be 
rushed. 

In any case, a timetable was es- 
tablished with the U.S. regulators 
to begin selling chunks of Gticorp 
Equity Investments within months, 
10 percent by June 1992, an addi- 
tional 38 percent within six months 
and all but 40 percent of the com- 
pany by 1997. 

But questions cropped up. 
Would not the bank get the brat 
price if it conducted competitive 
bids? Was there a conflict of inter- 
est if Mr. Handley’s handpicked 
legal team of Mr. Zavala and Mr. 
Gowiand was negotia ting the 
prices with buyers who woe Mr. 
Handley’s friends? Wouldn’t there 
be yet another conflict if Mr. Za- 
vala and Mr. Gowiand wound 
owning stock in the company, 

“There was no one looking out 
for the interest of the Gticorp 
shareholder,” said one former se- 
nior offiriaL “The people who were 
buying the asset were also selling it 
and in the end were also buying it” 


Reuters 


AMMAN, Jordan — King Hus- 
sain, 58, left Tuesday for a private 
visit to Britain during which be wiD 
an operation for a perforated 
lot ear drum, officials said. 









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No End to Tokyo Infighting 

Economic Disputes Could Stott Si 


Page S' 


By James Stemeold 

TrtV W\ YOt1> T " n ™ Serv,ce 

„ TO H Yo ■— leaders of Japan's 
Sovcttum coalition informaUvsei- 

ESJZS"* *'*““ slcr Tsutomu 

hhSTL d 80,18111 10 rad iheir 
bjiter power struggle, but they 

Uhilld a Platform 
r ® cessic * D or get 

At tfw least, the disputes be- 
[wera the conservative members of 
me coaJjuon and the Socialists over 
economic policy could delay ihe 
formal election of Mr. Hata, 58. a 
conservative and pragmatist who 
has refused even 10 declare his can- 
didacy yet. 

Perhaps worse, it could presage a 
am u nuaiion of the paralyzing in- 
fighting that characterized the last 
months of Prime Minister Morihiro 
Hosokawa’s government, which 
was toppled the week before last by 
Mr. Hosokawa’s involvement in a 
financial scandal. 

The divisions could thus be bad 
for the United States, which 
has been eager for a strong govern- 
ment to deal with a series of sensi- 
pve economic and political issues, 
including lowering Japan's yawn- 
ing trade surplus and dealing with 
North Korea’s suspected nuclear 
weapons program. 

Indeed, the inauspicious start on 
Tuesday made it dear that the new 
government would provide no 
quick fix for the serious problems 
that have placed the relationship 
between the world’s two largest 
economies at its lowest ebb in 
years. 

The succession process has of- 
fered a peculiar spectacle. Under 
the one-party rule of the Liberal 
Democrats, who held power from 
1955 until last summer, prime min- 
isters were generally selected in 
backroom bargaining sessions and 
then formally elected without de- 
lay. 

Even when the coalition replaced 
the Liberal Democrats last year, it 
moved quickly to name Mr. Ho- 
sokawa and launch his govern- 
ment. 

This time, however, the process 
has been slowed by a broad party 


realignment. The Liberal Demo- 
crats have been splintering, along 
with some of the coalition parties, 
ut a general rush toward the politi- 
cal center. The attempts to reshape 
the coalition and its policy agenda 
have meant that, though Mr. Hata 
is the obvious successor to Mr. Ho- 
sokawa. he has yet to receive any 
formal endorsement. 

In spite of his reluctance to step 
onto center stage. Mr. Hata made it 
clear on Tuesday that he would 
keep Mr. Hosokawa’s cabinet al- 
most intact, which would perpetu- 
ate at least- some policy divisions. 

He explained, however, that the 
reason for maintaining many of the 
same ministers would be to pass 
swiftly the long-delayed budget for 
the fiscal year that began April 1. . 

“I’m not in a position to talk 
about the lineup of the new cabi- 
net, but common sense suggests the 
key positions will go to those who 
compiled the current budget.** Mr. 
Hata said. 

Mr. Hata also is expected to 
move quickly to prepare a package 
of measures to deregulate the econ- 
omy. As foreign minister, he said 
Japan would offer such a package 
before the summit meeting of the 
Group of Seven industrial coun- 
tries in July. 

The goal is to use it as a means of 
getting trade talks with Washing- 
ton back on track, since the Ginton 
administration has been seeking to 
ease Japan's regulatory burden as a 
way of opening the economy to 
foreign companies. But this would 
be the third such package assem- 
bled in the last year, with most 
analysts having been disappointed 
with the previous efforts. 

Mr. Hata has also proven him- 
self to be a supporter of the govern- 
ment bureaucracy, which jealously 
controls the regulatory apparatus. 
Thus, few are expecting bold new 
measures. 

The biggest policy dispute on 
Tuesday was over a proposal by 
Mr. Hata's party to alter the tax 
system. The Finance Ministry bu- 
reaucrats have proposed, and Mr. 
Hata has accepted the need for 
some reduction in income taxes, to 
be more than offset by a large in- 
crease in the national sales tax. 


succession 


The Socialists bitterly oppose the 
plan, in large part because it would 
fall most heavily on the wage earn- 
ers who are the core supporters of 
the Social Democratic Party. The 
Clinton administration has also ar- 
gued against the plan, saying that it 
would stifle the chances of recovery 
from the two-year-old recession. ’ 

Nevertheless, Mr. Hata and the 
coalition's key strategist, Ichiro 
Ozawa, held firm on Tuesday. The 
group’s leaders could agree only 
that they would meet again 
Wednesday to resume the debate. 

In the realm of foreign policy, 
the coalition agreed on a generally 
pro-American line. It said it sup- 
ported the United States-Japan se- 
curity treaty, which the Socialists, 
the laigesi party in the coalition, 
had rejected for years. 

It also agreed on a vaguely word- 
ed statement promising coopera- 
tion with the United Stales on the 
problem of North Korea's suspect- 
ed nuclear weapons program. 

The Socialists have customarily 
had moderately friendly relations 
with the Communist regime in 
Pyongyang, but their agreement to 
the coalition policy suggests they 
would support a United Nations 
economic embargo against North 
Korea should the government con- 
tinue to prohibit international in- 
spections of its nuclear sites. 



American 'Ready’ for Caning 

Father Says Teenager Has f No Hope at AH’ 






Jonathan [Valet Rnu»i\ 

Michael P. Fay, last month before his imprisonment He is 
awaiimg a verdict to the appeal of his caning sentence. 


By Philip Shenon 

AVw York Tima Semre 

SINGAPORE — The father of the 18-year-old 
American sentenced to be flogged here for vandal- 
ism said Tuesday that his son had given up all hope 
of avoiding the punishment even though he insists 
that he is innocent. 

“He has do hope at aH" said the father. George 
Fay, an Ohio businessman, in a telephone inter- 
view from Ohio. “He’s prepared. He told bis moth- 
er in the prison today that he’s prepared for the 
caning.” 

His son, Michael P. Fay of Dayton. Ohio, was 
permitted a visit on Tuesday in a Singapore prison 
by his mother, his stepfather and his girlfriend. 
The viat came the day before Mr. Fay and his 
family must file a final clemency appeal with the 
Singapore government. 

George Fay said that he had spoken Tuesday 
with his former wife, Randy Chan, after her visi 
with Michael and that she reported* that their son 
“looked good.” 

“He’s doing fine," he said- “Randy couldn't hug 
him or touch him, which was hard on her. but Mike 
kept telling her to be strong.” 

Mr. Fay and Mrs. Chan divorced in the 1980s, 
and she nas since remarried to a businessman 
living in Singapore. 

Mr. Fay said that he. tea had lost hope that bis 
son would avoid the punishment, six lashes with a 
rattan cane. “There’s no optimism — none." he 
said. “In fact, 1 think there’s been a hardening of 
the position now.” 

The youth pleaded guilty to vandalism after be 
confessed to spray-painting several cars and toss- 
ing eggs at other vehicles last autumn in Singapore. 

The flogging sentence has drawn protests from 


President Bill Clinton, who for the third time urged 
Singapore on Tuesday to spare the youth, saying 
that his confession was open to question. 

Bat public opinion polls have shown that many 
Americans believe that Mr. Fay is getting what he 
deserves. 

The teenager has insisted privately that he is 
innocent. He has said that he confessed to vandal- 
ism as a result of a police beating — a claim that 
some Singapore criminal defense lawyers say they 
do not find hard to believe — and pleaded guilty 
only because his family believed he would tie 
spared a caning. 

George Fay said that lawyers for his son would 
file material on Wednesday with the office of 
Singapore’s president Ong Tcng Cheong, who has 
final authority over clemency appeals. ■ ■ 

“The argument we’re making in the appeal is 
that Michael is a first-time offender, that he has 
never had any problems at all in the past -with 
anyone, anywhere, and that he suffers from atten- 
tion deficit disorder.” Mr. Fay saidL 

Attention deficit disorder is a neurological ail- 
ment that is known to lead to impulsive behavior. 

Mr. Fay said that his son’s lawyers would also 
present President Cheong with nearly 7,000 pages 
of petitions signed by Americans and others who 
urge the government 10 gram the appeal to Mr. 
Fay. 

Criminal defense lawyers here say that given the 
recent statements of Singapore government leaders 
about the Fay case — they have said repeatedly 
that tough criminal laws and corporal punishment, 
have saved Singapore from the fate of crime- 
plagued U.S. cities — the clemency appeal will 
almost certainly be turned down within days. 


Defense Chief Follows Patriot Missiles to South Korea 


Compiled hr Our Staff From Dupaiches 

SEOUL — The United States 
defense secretary, William J. Perry, 
arrived here Tuesday to discuss al- 
lied military preparedness on the 
Korean Peninsula. 

Mr. Parry's visit was the latest 

S in a drawn-out confrontation 
North Korea over a suspected 
illicit nuclear weapons program, 
which the United States hopes to 
contain. 

He arrived a day after the first 
shipment of U.S. Patriot anti-mis- 
sile batteries, whose deployment 
was denounced Tuesday by the 


North Koreans as a provocation, 
arrived in South Korea. 

“No strong arm works with us.” 
said the North Korean Workers’ 
Party newspaper Rodong Smmun. 
“Should the United States and its 
lackeys dare provoke a war, we will 
answer it with a decisive counter- 
blow to defend our socialist sy stem 
and the dignity of our republic.” 

During his two-day stay in Seoul, 
Mr. Perry plans a visit to U.S. mili- 
tary bases after conferring with 
Genera] Gary Luck, commander of 
the 36,0 00 American troops in 
South Korea. 


Mr. Perry is also scheduled to 
meet with high South Korean offi- 
cials. including Defense Minister 
Rhee Byong Tae and President 
Kim Young Sam. with their talks 
Wednesday focusing on the possi- 
bility of reviving joint Team Spirit 
military exercises. 

The U.S.-South Korea exercise, 
held since 1976. was 10 have been 
canceled in return for outside in- 
spection of North Korea’s nuclear 
sites. 

But American and South Korean 
officials have threatened to revive 
the exercise in response to North 


Korean refusal to open nuclear sanctions against North Korea 
sites m the Yongbyong nuclear should it persist in barring full nu- 
complex to inspections by the In- clear inspections, according to 
ternational Atomic Energy Agen- South Korean state radio, 
cy. Coincident with Mr. Perry's de- 

Already in Seoul and consulting parture from Washington, an ass is- 
with the South Koreans was Robert tarn secretary of defense, Edward 
J. Gallocd, the State Department Warner, told a Senate Armed Ser- 


official recently pul in charge of 
coordinating policy toward North 
Korea. Mr. Gallucd is an assistant 


secretary of state. 
Mr. Gall 


llucd and Foreign Minis- 
ter Han Sung Joo restated their 
oommitmeiil during a meeting 
Tuesday to seek UN economic 


rices subcommittee Monday that 
the United States would pre-posi- 
tion combat equipment in South 
Korea for use in the event of war. 

He said more heavy weapons 
would be put on ships ready for 
immediate transport to Korea. 

(AFP. Reuters J 


At Maya Ruins, a Fight Over Profits From History 


By Anthony DePalma • 

New York Times Service 

TULUM, Mexico — Within the walls of this ancient 
Maya stronghold, facing the gemstone sea and sacred struc- 
tures built Tong ago, modem Mexico seems blessed with 
history. 

Outside, history is bell. 

A ramshackle city almost as large as ancient Tulum itself 
has sprung up just beyond its walls, preying on the thou-' 
sands of sightseers hauled here every day by stnokey buses 
from the resort city of Cancun. 130 kilometers - fSO miles) 
away. 

Brazed by the Yucatan sun, the buses are kept idling so 
their air-conditioning can run. Exhaust from the buses 
chokes everyone nearby. The food stands operate without 
r unnin g wafer or electricity. Tourists sweep through as many 
of the half a hundred shops as they can, haggling over quartz 
daggers, cheap T-shirts, and pornographic whistles. 

It is not a pretty sight. But Mexicans are pragmatic and 
realize that the past, while revered, can also be used to turn a 
profit By whom, however, is the issue that has turned Tulum 
into a battleground, an especially sensitive one because of 
the Indian unrest in Mexico this year. 

On one side, are government officials who realize that 
Mexico is rich in history but poor in the resources 10 care for 
its past They have turned to private developers for help, 
asking them to build a new shopping center about a kilome- 
ter away from Tulum. . . . 

Once the new building is operating, the ragtag shacks — 
illegally located on federal land near the rums — will be 


5- by9-meter(!5~ by 30-foot) stall in the new shopping year. But its problems with raefcy surroundings are shared by 
. The government has helped make financing available other archeological sites. The pyramids in Te< 
es that are -somewhat below market, but even these 


removed, the bus parking will be relocated alongside the new 
shops, and the original area will revert to jungle. Motorized 
carts will take tourists from the buses to the ruins and back. 

Opposed are the vendors themselves, mostly poor people 
of Maya descent. They say they cannot afford the $22,000 to 
buy a 5-by 9-meter ( 1 5- by 30-fool) stall in the new shoi 
center, 
at rates 

cbiitii tions are burdensome to people who say that they 
barely make more than S10 a day. 

“They want to make hisioty a big business." said Antonio 
Cervantes Sixtos, a T-shirt shop owner and a leader of the 
vendors. “We don't want to have any pan in it.” 

Late last year, officials were taking a hard line, threatening 
to bulldoze any vendors who had not relocated by March. 
But when Maya Indians in Chiapas State rose up in arms on 
Jan. 1, such a hard line became politically untenable. Dead- 
lines were pushed back, the bulldozers never showed up and 
the road that leads directly to the walls of Tulum remains 
open months after it was supposed to be closed. 

Rebeca Ntusbaum Peniche said she bought a stall in the 
new buflding because someone told ber ii would be a good 
investment. She also was afraid of the bulldozers. 

But her space was not finished in time for the scheduled 
Feb. 15 opening, and since the buses are still allowed to go 
dose to the walls, hardly any tourists stop at (he new site. She 
now paw almost $600 a month for the stall, even though she 
isn’t selling a single carved Maya head there. 

“How do I fed? Powerless." she said. “But in truth. 10 me 


it seems an offense for them to tty to sell Mexico’s patrimony 
this way." 

Though Tulum is far from bang the grandest site in the 
Maya world, its proximity to major beach resorts makes it 
the most visited, attracting more than a million visitors a 


.lyramids m Teotihuacan, 50 
kilometers northeast of Mexico City and the work not of the 
Maya but of the precursors of the TnJiecs. are encircled by 
shabby stands and people selling cheap trinkets. Officials arc 
trying to relocate them, too. 

The head or the development group that built the shop- 
ping center in Tulum thinks the vendors are being short- 
sighted and unfair. 

“The only thing we’re doing is helping the state and 
federal governments because they don’t have the money to 
dignify the historic site themselves." said Eduardo Rebol- 
ledo Stringle, director general of the Tulum Development 
Group. 

“If I were buying the archeological zone itself or the ruins, 
I would agree that Mexico is selling its hisloiy. But because 
our project is l JOO meters from the ruins, it has nothing to 
do with that at alL" 

At times, the struggle for Tulum has turned ugly. On Feb. 
19. bulldozers blocked the old road to the ruins. Not long 
after, Marcos CArdenas VaJdfcs was stabbed five times in the 
chest and abdomen because, he said, be refused to move his 
T-shirt shop. 


End Pressure on China, 
Singapore’s Lee Tells U.S. 


The Associated Press 

SYDNEY — United Slates 
pressure on China to improve 
human-rights practices is fruit- 
less and potentially destructive, 
according to Lee Kuan Yew. 
the former prime minister of 
Singapore. 

Mr. Lee, who is visiting Aus- 
tralia, said in an interview pub- 
lished Tuesday thaL the United 
States could not expect to 
change China’s ways, which are 
based on a 4,000-year-old civili- 
zation. 

He called on President Bill 
Clinton to resist pressure Tram 
human-rights campaigners. Mr. 
Ginton is to decide by June 3 
whether China, in the U.S. 
view, has made sufficient pro- 
gress in human rights to justify 
extension of the so-called most- 
favored -nation status, under 
which China would continue to 


benefit on low tariffs for its 
exports to the United States. 

Such a decision would be “a 
fruitless endeavor and will 
cause unnecessary friction and 
one which the United States 
will find itself all alone in the 
Pacific," Mr. Lee said in the 
interview, published by the 
Australian Financial Review. 

He said that revocation of 
most-favored-nation privileges 
could cut China’s growth by 
about 40 percent “There’s 
ing to be retaliation by the f 
ncse." he said. “East Asian 
growth is bound to be affect- 
ed.” 

“You will end up with a veiy 
hostile China,” he said, “one 
which you’ll have to live with as 
an adversary and will not be 
your partner in keeping the 
world stable. Do you want to 
have another enemy?” 


U.S. Legislators Cash In on Health Care 


BUSINESS MESSAGE CENTER 


By Richard L. Berke 

New York Tima Semcv 

NASHVILLE, Tennessee -~ 
Representative James Cooper of- 
fers a simple explanation for lus 
putting fotWd a health care pro- 
posal: "This is a pocketbook issue. 
It really matters to every family." 

It has also become a pocketbook 
issue for Mr. Cooper, and whatever 
the fate of his health plan, he is 
already a winner. 

In less than a year, the nnld- 
mannered Democrat from the most 
rural House district in Tennessee 
has become the toast of health pro- 
viders and insurance companies, 
which have channeled tens of thou- 
sands of dollars of contributions to 
his campaign for a Senate seat. 

Mr. Cooper is only one of the 
many politicians benefiting from 
the fund-raising frenzy set off by 
the national dialogue over health 
care. Since drug companies, hospi- 
tals, insurers and doctors have so 
much at stake in the legislation that 
may emerge from the Congress. 
man y are investing all they can in 
lawmakers whose proposals wwUd 
be m ost favorable to them — or tne 
least damaging. 

They are showering millions of 
dollars in donations to members of 
Congress with prominent rote in 
the debate, like Mr. Cooper, whose 
plan is the most preferred alterna- 
tive to President Bill Clinton ^pro- 
posal by business because it nertner 

requires employers to provide cov- 
erage nor limits insurance premi- 
ums. 

At one breakfast in Jan nary at 
Cassidy & Associates, a well-con- 

nected Washington lobbying, firm 

lhai has several drug com^ni« as 

clients, Mr. Cooper collected mc« 
than $14,000 from about two dozen 
executives. Last month, he traveled 


Reuters 

LONDON — Prime Minis Ki 
John Major will meet Chancellor 
Helmut Kohl of Germany on Apru 
27 ia London. Mr. Major’s office 
said Tuesday. 


to Hartford, Connecticut, the na- 
tion's insurance capital, first for a 
fund-raising breakfast at Travelers 
Insurance Cos. and then to a lun- 
cheon, where he took in contribu- 
tions from dozens of other insur- 
ance executives. 

Other obvious financial benefi- 
ciaries of the debate are the chair- 
men of committees taking up 
health care. Senator Daniel Patrick 
Moynihan, Democrat of New 
York, who as head of the Senate 
Finance Committee wijl play a cru- 
cial role in passing any bill, has 
pulled in well over $100,000 from 
groups that want to influence the 
debate. 

By contrast. Representative Jim 
McDermott, Democrat of Wash- 
ington. whose plan for a Canadian- 
slyle government-administered 
plan is unpopular witbj the health 
care industry, has recpved only 
modest donations. - 

In alL experts in campaign fi- 
nancing say that donations intend- 
ed to influence the health care de- 
bate could be as high as S50 mi llion 
in 1993-94. # 

The most striking example of 
bow the jockeying over health care 
can translate into campaign money 
is here in Tennessee, where the 
health care industry is important 
though not as visible as the country 
music industry. 1 

Since Mr. Cooper’s plan is less 
sweeping than the president’s 
Mr. Cooper likes to call it- “Clinton 
Lite" — the congressman has bo- 
come a favorite recipient of lar- 
gesse from health care and insur- 
ance companies. 

Mr. Cooper is seeking the Senate 
seat Al Gore vacated on be- 
coming vice president. The current, 
appointed occupant. Senator Har- 
lan Mathews, is not seekihg elec- 
tion. • 

Mr. Cooper, who has no strong 
opponents in the Democratic pri- 
mary, has raised $2.4 million 
through March 31, accordingto the 
report his campaign filed "Friday 
with the Federal Election Commis- 
sion. His younger brother and cam- 
paign manager, John Cooper, said 
19 percent of that came from health 
care interests. 


Using a broader definition of 
what constitutes health care or in- 
surance interests, critics like Citi- 
zen Action, a consumer group that 
favors the Canadian -style “single 
payer” Muon, contend that more 
than a thud of Mr. Cooper's larger 
donations in 1993 were from those 
sources. 

Mr. Cooper has refused to accept 
money from political action com- 
mittees, a stance he adopted in 
mid-1991, during his last re-dec- 
tion campaign for the Fourth Dis- 
trict House seaL His explanation 
then was that the committees were 
dominated by special interests with 
too much influence. 


Still, Mr. Cooper’s donors have 
found ways to make themselves 
heard. Instead of giving through 
their PACs, many companies are 
legally using a practice in which 
they make their generosity known 
by giving Mr. Cooper many checks 
at the same time from individual 
donors who work for the company. 

“I thought about only accepting 
money from Mother Teresa — but 
then she's in the health care busi- 
ness," Mr. Cooper said in an inter- 
view. “I think I’m the onJy federal 
candidate in Tennessee history not 
to accept PAC money. That means 
I'm probably giving up several mil- 
lions of dollars." 






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Cambodia 
Town Falls 
To Rebels 

Compiled by Our Staff From Dispatches 

PHNOM PENH — Khmer 
Rouge guerrillas have recaptured 
their former headquarters in Pailin 
from government troops, the 
Khmer Rouge said Tuesday. 

“We recaptured P ailin todav. 
April 19 at 12:45 P.M..” a Khmer 
Rouge official said, adding that 
government soldiers had “fled in 
disarray across their own mine- 
fields." 

“We seized eight tanks and de- 
stroyed seven.” he said. 

The government offered a partial 
confirmation of the guerrillas’ re-' 
port. Asked if Pailin had been re- 
captured by the guerrillas. Deputy 
Information Minister Khieu Kan- 
harith said, “Not the whole area.” 

The interior minister. General 
Sin Sen, said fighting was continu- 
ing in Pailin, a town a few miles 
from the border with Thailand. 

The Cambodian Army com- 
mander. General Ke Kira Yan; his 
deputy. Lieutenant General Pol 
Saroeun; Defense Minister Tea 
Banh, and Second Prime Minister 
Hun Sen had left Phnom Penh ear- 
lier and were meeting in Battam- 
bang on Tuesday, government 
aides said. 

Battarabang was the govern- 
ment’s forward base for the capture 
of Pailin from the Khmer Rouge on 
March 19. The rebels launched an 
effort to retake it on April 9. Fight- 
ing between the rebels and army 
units had been reported within a 
15-kilometer (9-mile) radius of the 
town ever since. A total of 3.000 
gfjcrriUas took part in the final as- 
sault , the Khmer Rouge said. 

(Reuters, AP. AFP). 


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OPINION 


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INTERNATIONAL 



StibuUC. South Africans Trade Places, Please 



PUBLBHED WITH THE NEW YORK TIMES AND THE WASHINGTON POST 


The Bosnia Disaster 


International Shame 

The events of the weekend in Gorazde 
could yet become a defining point of the post- 
Coid War era. At this refugee-swollen, mostly 
Muslim town in eastern Bosnia, the idea of 
international responsibility is reding under 
successive devastating blows. A year ago the 
United Nations designated Gorazde a “safe 
area.” Nonetheless, Bosnia's Serbs attacked. 
A laggard United Nations finally called in 
two NATO air strikes. The Serbs further 
probed the allied wQL This time the United 
Nations, after losing one plane, opted for a 
cease-fire. Pretending to accept it. the Serbs at 
once violated iL Incredibly, the United Na- 
tions did nothing, NATO did nothing and the 
United States did nothing 

On Monday, Serbs, continuing to embar- 
rass even their Russian patrons, were toying 
with the agonized city. The fate of Gorazde, 
designated a safe area by (he United Nations 
and then allowed to be overrun, will be re- 
membered as a source of international shame. 

For the world body, humiliation is near 
complete. The Security Council had originally 
dispatched forces to protect relief convoys 
and to defend themselves. Not by resolution 
but by reality, the council also took on the 
mission or protecting Bosnians. But it failed 
either to provide extra resources on the 
ground to accomplish this more demanding 
task or to anticipate the extra political sup- 
port it would need to sustain iL In the week- 
end crisis, the Serbian advance was so relent- 
less that the United Nations determined — an 
arbitraryjudgmenl producing a bizarre rever- 

Lift the Arms Embargo 

The battle for Gorazde leaves no one cov- 
ered with glory. The Serbs now have the city at 
their mercy, but their duplicity and blood- 
thirstiness have disgusted the world. NATO 
and the United Nations have been ignored 
and humiliated And Russia, despite its sup- 
posed clout with the Serbs, is as powerless as 
everyone else to hold them to their word 

What next? NATO and the United Nations 
have several basic choices. They can continue 
with their ineffective efforts to protect the six 
safe havens designated by the United Nations 
last year, a course almost certain to fail. They 
can escalate the conflict by attacking Serbian 
positions elsewhere, inviting wider war on the 
ground and in the air. They can withdraw, 
exposing Bosnian Muslims to even worse cru- 
elties. Or they can keep their forces in place 
but lift the arms embargo on Bosnia, giving 
the Bosnian government a fairer chance to 
defend itself from Serbian attacks. 

Lifting the arms embargo — not unilateral- 
ly but by UN vote — would be a symbolic step 
in the right direction. Russia and perhaps 
Britain and France might resist such a move, 
as they have in the past, but the Clinton 
administration should make an all-out effort 
to change their minds. 

The current situation, with Bosnian Serb 
armies advancing at will punctuated by pin- 
prick NATO air strikes, is untenable. Every 
day NATO forfeits credibility without pro- 
tecting the Muslims or fostering peace negoti- 
ations. Instead the Serbs have used the ait 


sal —that it could protect its own forces only 
by abandoning the Bosnians. At virtually ev- 
ery point it yielded to the still rampaging and 
unrepentant Serbs. In short, the Serbs called 
the United Nations' two-air-suike Muff, and 
the United Nations folded. 

President Bill Clinton has backed off in 
Haiti, in Somalia and now, not for the first 
time; in Bosnia. Positioning himself as the 
pawn of a self-driven international m a chin e, he 
has abdicated what ought to be a great power’s 
serious effort to win, first, the American people 
and then others to policies of American design. 

His expectation of low public support for air 
strikes has become a self-fulfilling prophecy. 
His renewed suggestion for lifting the disainii- 
natory arms embargo on Bosnia is delivered 
limply and to no effect His complaints of 
Serbian duplicity cany no resonance. As Gor- 
azde shudders under point-blank Serbian shell- 
ing — a war crime, by the way — he flees 
Washington for a rally of Mustang owners. 

There is plenty that Washington could do. 
It could summon America and others to a 
sense of the immense rolling costs of inter- 
national default on promises to support a 
victim state. It could stand up to the Serbs 
and insist that NATO, to counter the siege of 
“safe areas,” pick from a list of Serbian 
military targets extending well beyond Gor- 
azde. It could convey that Serbia's postwar 
plare, including escape from sanctions, hinges 
on its respect for international norms. Only in 
such ways can President Gin ton's foreign 
policy approach and team gain the credibility 
they have dismally Iosl 

— THE WASHINGTON POST. 


strikes as an excuse for waging war against the 
United Nations itself, seizing peacekeepers 
and firing at NATO planes. 

One option being discussed is UN with- 
drawal and an end to NATO air cover. That 
would be a loss. While the United Nations has 
not stopped determined Serbian advances, it 
does some good at the margins, opening sup- 
ply lines and pushing back military feints. 

Another option would be heavy NATO air 
strikes against Serbian positions elsewhere, 
including vulnerable supply lines. The objec- 
tive would be Fust to force a pullback in 
Gorazde. and then an overall peace settle- 
menL One practical problem is that NATO is 
unlikely to master the Serbs with air power 
alone. More decisively. NATO members are 
unwilling to launch a wider air war. 

That leaves lifting the arms embargo, a step 
now supported by several U.S. senators as a 
way to respond forcefully to the Serbs without 
risking American lives. The arms embargo, 
although nominally extending to all of the 
former Yugoslavia, has in practice hurt main- 
ly the Bosnian government. But the United 
States should not unilaterally violate an arms 
embargo imposed by UN vote. 

Russia or any other permanent member 
could veto a resolution to lift the embargo. 
That should not stop the United States from 
making the maximum effort to win their sup- 
port, including a UN speech by President Bill 
Ginton himself. It is hard to see what else the 
United Slates might iry that would not risk 
doing more barm than good. 

— THE NEW YORK TIMES. 


A Muddle in Ukraine 


Shrugging off predictions of apathy, Ukrai- 
nians turned out by the millions this month to 
vote in the independent republic's first free 
parliamentary elections. They gave scant sup- 
port to paramilitary extremists, but 1 18 Com- 
munists and their allies won seats, as did 35 of 
their moderate nationalist opponents. Re- 
form-minded centrists fared poorly. 

The election could lead to further polariza- 
tion between a western Ukraine, eager to join 
Europe, and eastern Ukraine, which talks 
about rejoining Russia. And it left a muddle 
in the middle of the 450-seat parliament, new- 
comers with no known party loyalty who 
could stampede to either pole. 

The political and economic disarray in 
Ukraine manages to make Russia look good 
— especially to the 16 million ethnic Russians 
who live in Ukraine. Russians in eastern 
Ukraine gave strong backing to the Commu- 
nists and their Socialist and Peasant Party 
allies, who advocate a state-run economy and 


renewed ties to Russia. Meanwhile, national- 
ists polled well in western Ukraine, especially 
in rural regions that did not become pan of 
the Soviet Union until World War II. 

There may not be much in between. Sup- 
porters of former Prime Minister Leonid 
Kuchma, who eschewed nationalism to press 
for economic reforms, won few seats. The 
election results were also a rebuff to President 
Leonid Kravchuk, who drove a hard bargain 
with Washington and Moscow for economic 
help in return for nuclear disarmament 

To Washington, which wants Ukraine to 
yield its nuclear arms and begin economic 
reform, and to neighbors wbo want it to be a 
stable buffer with Russia, Ukraine’s election 
may be unsettling. To some in Moscow, the 
results may suggest a chance to meddle. But 
any effort to ignore the vote or suborn 
Ukraine’s independence could unsettle more 
than just Ukraine itself. 

— THE NEW YORK TIMES. 


Other Comment 


Sharp Knives Around Yeltsin 

The Zhirinovsky phenomenon has become 
a lightning rod for the pent-up frustrations 
and difficulties the Russian people are fac- 
ing. Bui President Boris Yeltsin’s major 
problems remain unresolved. In order of 
priority, they are the building of a national 
consensus and getting on with economic 
reforms. The first will determine the presi- 
dent's own political future in an atmosphere 
supercharged with his adversaries sharpen- 
ing their knives. 

[Vladimir] Zhirinovsky, the far-rightist 
leader, remains an oddity and seems to have 
served his historical purpose by warning Mr. 
Yeltsin of the dangers of following a slavishly 
pro-American policy. The former vice presi- 


dent, Alexander Ru taken, has already begun 
his campaign to wrest the presidency from 
Mr. Yeltsin in 1996, while the prime minister. 
Viktor Chernomyrdin, seems to be biding his 
time, should the president stumble and fall. 
The acuteness of the economic hardships 
faced by a large number of Russians will 
influence the outcome. But (he greatest stum- 
bling block for Mr. Yeltsin r emains his limita- 
tions in forging a consensus. His only hope is 
to appeal to the people over the heads of 
fractious politicians and par liam enta rians 
Beset as most Russians are with the daunt- 
ing problems of making ends meet, they could 
be persuaded to give Mr. Yeltsin the benefit 
of the doubt — inasmuch as they do not see 
a belter alternative. 

— Khoieej rimes (Dubai). 



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S OMERSET WEST, Cape Pro- 
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some of it against wire fences. 

From afar, it makes an eerily beau- 
tiful picture with the sunlight glinting 
off hundreds of pieces of plastic. 

Now and then, the desperately 
poor res dents of the camps throw 
rocks ai passing cars, which are driv- 
en mostly by middle-class white 
South Africans. Ndoda Ngementu. a 
17-year-old spokesman for the South 
African Students Congress, believes 
that attacks on the drive? of “capi- 
talist vehicles” are necessary: “They 
have influence over the economy. 
They are the enemy.” 

dn April 28, the balance of political 
power will shift from those driving to 
those who live in the sad, lopsided 
shacks. But it is unlikely that the 
stone-throwing will stop. When driv- 
ing from Cape Town to my home in 
Somerset West, 45 kQometerc away, 
HI still keep my car in the fast lane. 

It is of little comfort that Harry 
GwaJa, leader of the ANC in Natal, is 
reported lo have said that only cars 
worth more than 20,000 rand (about 
$5,500) should be singled out This 
edict does not put my six-year-old 
Volkswagen Golf out of harm’s way. 

It is tiring to be a South African. If 
you are an Afrikaner, as I am, the 
guilt and resentment never leave you. 
Guilt, because you belong to a people 
who created a vicious system. Resent- 
ment, because even with a collective 
history of 342 years on the continent. 


By Natasha Mostert 


you are still considered a settler. 

Life here has a surreal quality. 
Turn on the television and you may 
see 40,000 Zulus inarching in support 
of their king, Goodwin Zwdiuuni, 
their spears and clubs reflected in the 
glass facades of the cooL corporate 
towers of downtown Johannesburg. 

Open a paper and you are confront- 
ed with a photograph of white women 
scrubbing the statue of a Boer War 
hero with soap and water because 

There are signs that the 
ANC may be borrowing 
die kinds of unsavory 
tactics associated with 
the minority government, 

ANC supporters “defiled” the statue 
by climbing onto it during a rally. 

South Africans are intensely preoc- 
cupied with themselves. For years, 
the world has seemed similarly fasci- 
nated by our problems. 

Our agony is a part of American 
popular culture. It has found expres- 
sion in anti-apartheid T-shirts and in 
the sly wit of a Doonesbuiy cartoon. 
Perceived analogies between the South 
African conflict and the rivO rights 
struggle in the United States make 
Americans think they know us. 

They are excited about South Afri- 
ca's elections, which are a shining 
confirmation of America's stated for- 
eign policy goal: the expansion of 
democracy and human rights. 

Nelson Mandela, unjustly impris- 


oned for 27 years, will become presi- 
dent of a new nation. It is impossible 
notto be touched by the poetic jus- 
tice of this story. I myself am moved 

by the ANCs "exuberant campaign 

slogan: “Our Time Has Come. 

But the United States should re- 
main vigilant, because there are signs 
that the .ANC may be borrowing the 
kinds of unsavory iactics_ usually as- 
sociated with the rulin g minority gov- 
ernment. Many South Africans were 
troubled, for example, by the ANC*s 
actions in the aftermath of a protest 
raDy by Inkatha Freedom Party sup- 
porters in downtown Johannesburg 
on March 28. No one is sure how the 
shooting broke out. but witnesses say 
snipers were firing at the Zulu march- 
ers from a window of the ANCs 
headquarters. 

When the police arrived with a 
search warrant, Mr. Mandela person- 
ally prevented them from entering 
the buil ding. Asked at a news confer- 
ence whether his actions should be 
seen as a precedent for the way a 
future ANC government would treat 
political opponents. Mr. Mandela re- 
plied dismissive! y that he did not 
have time for “esoteric" quesuons. 

Sucb evasiveness is not unusual. In 
December, The Star in Johannesburg 
reported on secret memos obtained 
from the ANCs Department of Intel- 
ligence and Security, detailing post- 
election plans for the infiltration and 
surveillance of rival organizations. 
The ANCs explanation? It is only 
concerned about ensuring a peaceful 
transition, not about grabbing power. 

Whatever one makes of the sincerity 
of that statement the fact remains that 
qyh tactics were once the hallmark of 


a secret, all-powerful Afrikaner orga- 
nization called the Broedetbond. 

Also in question is the ANCs com- 
mitment to an unfettered press. 

Under apartheid, the state-funded 
South African Broadcasting Corpo- 
ration. which controls three of the 
country's four television channels, in- 
cluding all of its news programs, was 
run largely by Broederbonders and 
National Party sympathizers. Now, 
under more pluralistic management, 
the corporation is experiencing a 
“Prague spring.” but its indepen- 
dence may be at risk mice again. The 
ANC has appointed three high-pro- 
file supporters to top positions. 

As a senior news producer told the 
Sunday Tunes of Johannesburg in 
December, “It's the same as in the 
past when you had to be a Nat [Na- 
tional Party member] or Breeder- 
bonder to get a top post. Only the 
color has changed. 

Equally troubling is the ANCs ap- 
parent inability — or unwillingness 
— to discipline its radical wing. 

The ANC has condemned the gov- 
ernment for its alleged support of 
rogue police officers — the so-called 
“third force” — who are accused of 
fomenting political violence between 
rival black factions. It has been more 
subdued about the activities of the 
“self-defense units,” armed gangs of 
vigilantes who terrorize those who do 
not support the ANC 

In a BBC radio interview in Janu- 
ary. a member of a self-defense unit 
admitted to killing the “enemy” like 
“chickens” because they “do not un- 
derstand the will of the people.” 

ANC leaders have condemned that 
statement, but last year they also con- 
demned Peter Mokaba, former head 
of the ANCs Youth League, for his 


slogan “Kill the Boer,” and distanced 
themselves from Winnie Mandela, 
torchbearer of the militant cause. Mr. 
Mokaba is now likely to become the 
next minister of tourism and Winnie 
Mandela has been elected president 
of the ANC Women’s League, mak- 
ing her the most powerful woman in 
South African politics. 

In his whirlwind overview of inter- 
national problems during his State of 
the Union address in January, Presi- 
dent Bill Ctinton promised to “stand 
by” South Africa during is transi- 
tion. We are of course grateful, but 
we fear that be will not put pressure 
on a government led by an icon like 
Nelson Mandela, and that, anyway, 
the United States has had enough of 
African adventures. 

After the last vote has beat count- 
ed, South Africa will face overwhelm- 
ing problems. The rage that drives 
camp residents to hurl stones at cars 
on a highway will not just go away. 

But our biggest challenge will be 
to keep the world interested once 
many of the journalists covering the 
elections have gone home and the 
neat black-and-white checkerboard 
of South African politics has dis- 
solved into a messy swirl of: unpre- 
dictable alliances and tribal loyalties. 

Daring the apartheid years. South 
Africa was plagued by evfl. My chil- 
dren, I hope, will not Jive in an envi- 
ronment as destructive. To a large 
extent, our future depends on wheth- 
er South Africa becomes just another 
forgotten place on a forgotten conti- 
nent So wish us well. But more than 
that, keep in touch. 

Natasha Mostert, a South African 
writer, contributed this comment to 
The New York Times. 


Bosnia: An Emerging Russian View Might Want War to Go On 


B RUSSELS — In apparent high dudgeon 
about failure to be consulted before the 
recent air strike in Gorazde by NATO aircraft 
the Russian leadership has now put in doubt 
Russia's adherence to NATO's Partnership for 
Peace. Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev has 
called off his Brussels visit planned for Thurs- 
day. when ii was understood that he would sign 
on to (he Partnership. 

In fact consultation about this air strike was 
superfluous. Necessary discussions had taken 
place long ago at the United Nations, where 
Russia, together with the other members of the 
Security Council had passed Resolution 836. 
mandating Secretary-General Butros Buiras 
Ghali to authorize air support for UN forces in 
Bosnia when required. No NATO nation was 
consulted before the recent air strike. The 
Russians are well aware of this. 

Moscow's move could signal a fundamen- 
tal change in Russia's relationship with the 
WesL As it becomes increasingly evident that 
Western assistance will not solve the coun- 
try’s problems, Russian leaders may see in the 
current situation an opportunity to regain 
great-power status. 

In this vision, the Partnership for Peace 
relationship with NATO is of minor impor- 
tance. After all it is not strictly a treaty but a 


Bv Frederick Bonn art 


general agreement to cooperate in specific 
areas, such as peacekeeping and humanitar- 
ian activities, as weD as restructuring the 
military- industrial complex and ensuring 
democratic controL 

Instead. President Boris Yeltsin has called 
for a bilateral relationship with NATO that 
places Russia on an equal basis with the 
whole or the alliance. Russia could then be 
seen as the leader of a large group, such as its 
Commonwealth of Independent Nations, co- 
operating with an alliance led by the United 
States. It would, ideally, like to have this 
relationship defined in a treaty, with formally 
declared rights and duties. 

This vision is clearly chim erical. Apart from 
the difficulty in international law of NATO 
making treaties with sovereign states, the alli- 
ance is not a group of countries under Ameri- 
can domination. Not. presumably, would all 
members of the CIS be willing to accept Mos- 
cow’s leadership. But this vision is consistent 
with a possible new Russian view of the world. 

In inis view, the West is inherently weak. 
The NATO countries enjoy overwhelming po- 
litical economic and mflilary power but failed 


to use it in the Yugoslav war — which they 
conid easDy have stopped at the culseL They 
have hesitated and vacillated ever since. Alli- 
ance militaiy power evidently was respected 
when It was engaged, but h was never pressed 
home. NATO is thus losing the respect not 
only of the Bosnan Serbs but erf otha- parties. 

For Russia, this could provide an opening to 
regain influence and power. Moscow sees its 
former satellites rushing to Brussels lojoin the 
Partnership for Peace. Most have expressed the 
hope of becoming full NATO members. Yet 
NATO talks about enlargem ent only as a dis- 
tant possibility. If the East and Central Euro- 
peans continue to be disappointed, they might 
look to Moscow again to secure their rear. 

The test erf this analysis lies in Russia's 
attitude in the Yugoslav conflict Having ini- 
tially put its name to a number of increasingly 
menaang Security Council resolutions aimed 
at stopping the war, and saying it would be 
willing to use troops to enforce them, the 
Moscow leadership now condemns such ac- 
tion. But Russian officials have been active 
behind the scenes. They intervened in Sarajevo 
and obtained the withdrawal of Serbian heavy 
weapons. Several cease-fires can be claimed as 
their achievement, even if. as in Gorazde, these 
were later brokaL Despite the Russians' sym- 


pathy for the Serbian side, they have main- 
tained a position of benevolent neutrality. 

The logical conclusion is that it is in Rus- 
sia’s interest for this- war to continue. The 
it eoes on, the mare dependent the 

ome on Russia, and the more 

rr .anted their opponents will become 

with NATO. UJL-Russia relations would 
cod but the current Russian leadership 
might be willing to live with this. Many Rus- 
sians would approve; and RnssophDe parties 
in the former Soviet sphere of influence 
would be heartened. The overall result: a 
weakening of the West and a corresponding 
strengthening of Russia. 

Of course, many responsible Russian leaders 
would oppose this. In any case, the game 
apparently is being played cautiously. Al- 
though the Kozyrev visit to NATO headquar- 
ters has been canceled, that of Defense Minis- 
ter Pavd Grachev has been oonfinnedfca- May 

24. He wiD brief NATO defense ministers on 
Russia’s new military doctrine. His words are 
sure to be heard with great attention. 

The writer is editor of NATO's Sixteen Na- 
tions, an independent military journal published 
in Brussels. He contributed tms comment to the 
International Herald Tribune. 


In Singapore, Unusual Law Doesn’t Bring About Unusual Order 


H ONG KONG — Debate over 
the likely caning in Singapore 
of the American teenager Michael 
Fay is being conducted through an 
American prism. It has been side- 
tracked into one over the causes of 
and solutions to America's own ur- 
ban crime problems. The caning 
question should be left where it be- 
longs — in its Singapore social and 
political context 

What does it say about how Singa- 
pore is run, and about the state of 
civil rights in this city-state, host to 
U.S. military facilities and an Asian 
base for multinationals? 

Singaporeans may reasonably feel 
lhat it is not the business of the Unit- 
ed States, or anyone else, to lecture 
them about what constitutes a cruel 
and inhuman p unishme nt or One un- 
fitted to the crime. This form of 
punishment cannot be described, as 
Singapore tries, as part of an Asian 
value system. Its origin is more Brit- 
ish colonial — although only for vio- 
lent crimes — than Asian and it is 


By Philip Bowring 


used in veiy few other Asian countries. 

Singaporeans and non -Singapor- 
eans alike may reasonably fed lhat 
intervention by a present and a past 
U.S. president in the case suggests 
that American citizens expect to be 
treated more leniently than anyone 
else in Singapore. This attitude, with 
its racial undertones, has lit a chau- 
vinism that has been fueled by the 
government-controlled press. 

But foreigners might be excused 
for being unaware that behind Sin- 
gapore’s clean, green, efficient, well- 
ordered image is a system which 
rules, I think, as much by fear as by 
example. Nor is it exceptionally 
crime-free as a result of often draco- 
nian punishments. Certainly, and 
especially for expatriates and mid- 
dle- class Singaporeans, life is gener- 
ally safe and officials are uncorrupt 
But the background of strong-arm 
tactics is clear enough. 

There are some 1,000 cartings a 


year, according to official figures as 
cited by The Straits Times. Judging 
by available statistics, Singapore has 
had, over the years, the highest prison 
population per head of population in 
developed Asia. 

It detains without trial (according 
to tiie then home affairs minister, S. 
Jayakumar, in 1992) a thousand al- 
leged “hard-core gangsters" — in a 
population of just Z8 minion. It makes 
use erf the Heath penally against drug 
runneis even of low rank In many 
instances sentences are mandatory, 
giving judges little discretion in evalu- 
ating degree of seriousness. 

Despite aD these stringent laws, Sin- 
gapore is not extraordinarily crime- 
free. It may be compared to big U.S. 
cities but not to many other Asian 
countries and much of Europe. For 
sle. both its bonnade rate and its 
crime rate are on a par with 
supposedly freewheeling Hong Kong. 
According to United Nations figures. 


Domestic Tranquillity Is a Basic Right 


N EW YORK — “Every law- 
abiding American, rich or 
poor, has the right to raise children 
without the fear of criminals terror- 
izing where they live." 

President Bui Clinton said that 
the other day. The constitution 
says the same thing in different 
words — those phrases in the pre- 
amble about the government en- 
suring domestic tranquillity and 
promoting the general welfare. 

But every law-abiding American, 
rich or poor, knows that the right to 
live without terror is so massively 
violated every day that the domes- 
tic tranquillity of the nation, its 
general welfare and the govern- 
ment's ability to guarantee either 
are all being destroyed. 

The criminals among us know it 
loo — none better. They can get the 
weapons of their trade for the ask- 
ing, plus a few dollars. They know 
that then they can kill maim and 
rob with the chances against their 
being arrested and tried — or hav- 
ing to serve out their full terms if by 
dunce they are convicted. 

Of all questions and problems 
facing America, I can think of none 
more important to answer than 
this: Why is American society fail- 
ing so miserably to give its citizens 
freedom from terrorization by dime, 
the right upon which aQ others de- 
pend and which is now the primary 
demand of the American public? ' 
Politicians and budgets are not 
the basic problems. 

Politicians like Bill Ginton, New 
York's Governor Mario Cuomo, 
Mayor Rudolph Giuliani of New 
York City, Representative Charles 


By A. M. Rosenthal 

Sch inner and others hear the anti- 
crime SOS sent by the public. And 
it is not only money — not in a 
country where hundreds of billions 
are spent fighting crime every year. 

More every day, 1 believe that the 
problem is that Americans are not 
putting their minds where their anti- 
crime mouths are. Millions wbo are 
convinced that they are fiercely 
against crime wind up placing the 
rights and privileges of the criminal 
over those of the law-abiding. They 
do not have the sense of responsibil- 
ity to re-examine their intellectual 
and emotional positions. 

On the right Americans who see 
themselves as hard against crime 
still refuse to accept restrictions on ' 
buying guns for sport or sdf-de- 
fense. They put American criminals 
forever in their debt 

Among liberals and radicals there 
are too many wbo make mean faces 
at gun lovers while doing their own 
best to make the trade of criminality 
easier for its practitioners and sur- 
vival moredifnailt for the prey. 

Thau is what is happening m the 
public housing projects of Chicago 
— some of the most dangerous real 
estate in the country. At oneprqject, 
where 300 instances of gunfire were 
reported on one weekend in Febru- 
ary, the tenants and management 
wanted to take a few safety steps. 

They thought it might save some 
lives if metal detectors were put up, 
residents carried a photo ID, and 
visitors were signed m and greeted. 

They thought it would be nice. 


in other words, if their lives were 
considered almost as worth saving 
as those of Americans who use 
airports, work in federal office 
buildings or live in houses where 
there are doormen. 

The American Civil Liberties 
Union successfully fought such pro- 
tections. Still, the project residents 
and managen dreamed on. They got 
police to sweep apartments where 
drug dealers stashed weapons, and 
narcotics, even if there was not 
enough time to get warrants. 

That to the ACLU, raised the 
constitutional question of unlawful 
search. They stopped the sweeps in 
court, pending appeals. 

The residents and their friends 
at the Washington-based Ameri- 
can Alliance for Rights and Re- 
sponsibilities counter with the sur- 
vival question. Who decides how 
to fight crime in the projects — the 
people who will die under fire in 
the houses, or lawyers who have 
never lived there? Now the White 
House is urging the tenants to give 
advance consent to sweeps. Good 
idea; perhaps the ACLU lawyers 
will agree. Perhaps the drug dealers 
will not kill tenants who sign the 
advance consent papers. 

Of course, neither the National 
Rifle Association nor the ACLU 
wants to get law-abiding Americans 
luffed. Bat after all the constitution 
does not guarantee yon a metal de- 
tector. or a doorman. Certainly there 
is no constitutional responsibility to 
try to get your mouth and mind 
together about domestic tranquillity, 
or whatever they used to call it 
The New York Times. 


it has fat more murders per head than 
Australia or South Korea, both highly 
urbanized soceties. 

Its robbery incidence is half that of 
Hong Kang. It is far ahead of Japan 
on all crime coon is. Japan, interesting- 
ly, has a low crime rate despite its 
degree of urbanization, and is lenient 
toward minor offenders. 

Comparative crime statistics are in- 
fluenced by definitional and cultural 
differences, bat they indicate dearly 
enough that for the average Singapor- 
ean his city is avaagdy safe. 

Despite the death penalty it is only 
relatively drug-free. In the first three 
months of tins year, 54 alleged drug 
trafficken and pushers were arrested. 
Singaporeans also continue to be im- 
plicated in overseas drug operations. 

In the Fay case, the accused has 
claimed that be was forced to confess 
after being physically abased during 
six days of interrogation. His father 
alleges that be agreed to plead guilty 
after being assured that he would not 
be caned. It is not posable to com- 
ment on the truth of these assertions. 

However, it is beyond doubt that 
Singapore has a long history of show 
trials, mostly of political dissidents, 
such as Catholic social workers, and 
journalists. The pattern has been for 
persons to be arrested under the Inter- 
nal Security Act which provides for 
detention without trial and to be sub- 
jected to long hours of interrogation in 
ice cold rooms and released weeks or 
months later when they confess to 
bang “Marxists? or to “helping the 
Communist cause.” As in China, con- 
fessions to obtain release are a fact of 
life in Singapore. 

This use of the legal system for 
political purposes has made life very 
uncomfortable for opposition figures, 


notably J. B. Jeyaretnam, wbo had lo 
pay large fines as a result of libel 
actions and was imprisoned and de- 
prived of his parliamentary seat Not 
surprisingly, although Singapore re- 
tains a parliamentary system with reg- 
ular elections, the opposition com- 
petes on a very uneven playing field, 
the ruling People’s Action Party using 
all the levers of government to ensure 
its continued hold on power. 

In practice there is much less de- 
bate and diversity than in neighbor- 
ing Indonesia, which in many West- 
ern eyes is under quasi-military 
dictatorship. 

Now Senior Minister Lee Kuan 
Yew travels the world lecturing oth- 
er countries on how to behave, while 
criticism or him at home sddom 
rises beyond whisper level. 

Father figure he may be, but there 
is an element of the Great Leader 
cult in the mix of awe, fear and 
reverence with which he is treated. 
Abroad he is fawned upon, particu- 
larly outside Asia by those who be- 
lieve that he represents all thin gs 
Asian. With his articulate and blunt 
speaking, he puts Singapore on the 
map and deflects attention from its 
domestic arrangements. 

Economically. Singapore is a suc- 
cess story — but no more or less so 
than Hong Kong. Socially, it appears 
calm and contented, although quite 
what repressed emotions lie beneath 
the surface is hard to say. Its political 
system, allied with a draconian crimi- 
nal justice system, may be what the 
majority of Singaporeans wanL But if 
Americans and others want to con- 
sider the significance of tlxe Fay case 
for them, they need to look at Singa- 
pore’s system of authority. 

International Herald Tribune. 


IN OUR PAGES: 100, 75 AND 50 YEARS AGO 


1894: Loss of Innocence 

LONDON — Mr. William Drerkin, 
picture dealer, was dragged into the 
Glasgow Police-court yesterday 
[April 19] by two blushing constables, 
charged with exhibiting a painting 
called “The Slave Market at Cairo* 
in his window,- to the great scandal of 
the dty. Several witnesses swore that, 
after looking at the picture, they had 
lost much of their innocence. The 
magistrate, on gazing at a photo of it. 
was so overwhelmed with confusion 
that be had to hide his face in his 
handkerchief .After he had recovered 
from his fit of blushing, he let the 
prisoner go on his promising not to 
sell photographs of ms picture 

1919: Out of Germany 

BALE — According to a report from 
Essen, the Communists have started 
a campaign in favor of emigration on 
a large scale. The leaders of tins 
movement are engineers, merchants 
and workers erf the middle classes. It 


is their idea to emigrate to South 
America, particularly lo Argentina 
and Brazil, where they will resume 
German propaganda on the old lines. 
The emigrants, who will not sever 
their relations with the Fatherland, 
pwethe future economic situation in 
Germany as the reason for this action. 

1944: Danube Ig Mined 

NAPLES — [From our Nov York 
edition:] In a series of daring nig ht 
missions over Hungary. Yugoslavia, 
5?™“ Bulgaria, bombers of 
the Royal Air Force have mined the 
Danube River for about 300 miles, it 
was disclosed today [April 19] by the 
MKhterrancan Allied Air Force. The 
mmettit operation was achieved in 
Jhc light of a waning moon by Wd- 
mjjjtons gjyj Liberators with mixed 
Canadian, American and 
««un African crews. The Danube is 
tbs most important arteries 
Romany has for the shipment of vari- 
ow good* and is used for the trans- 
portanon of troops and ammunition. 


4 


\ 

i 





7 






uu -tii r! , 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, APRIL 20, 1994 

OPINION 


Page 7 


ur ta f r0 On 


aqgate: Much Too Much Ado? 


W 2 H,NGTON “ William Safire, - 
New Vnri-T ?pec,ed land of,en feared) 

orllSiS? PUndjX >“* 20 

he ^S52 m i s, 1 5* ««*y 1992 on what 
^ndau in ,£ 

iumn published on Nov. 12, w*- 

*5® first Sloba] political 

temS* lbc 6 “destine buildup of a 
dlc “ u ? r ISaddam Hussein); then 
fil intelligence and bilking 
?“£ natioos 10 conceal ihe 

dm> d«d; finally loth wan the inexora- 

We course of justice," at a cost to laxpay 
ws. he said, of SI. 9 billion. 

R^ qg ? le ’" &aid U S - New* & World 
JSS? “ 3 sl ?^ of “how the Bush 
ad mi nisi ration helped finance Saddam 

war machine with American 
fax dollars." Mr. Safire claimed that 
tax money" was “used to finance [Sad- 
J*1 secret nuclear buildup." 

When the Clinton administration came 
lo power, it produced no evidence of any 
global scandal, whereupon Mr. Safire 
iug&esiwi last September that President 
mu L tin ton and his appointees had be- 
ai [f]c pxn of the -conspiracy.” 

George Bush.” Mr. Safire wrote, 
pnyately assured Bill Clinton that be 
would not criticize the new president 
ounng the first year or his term ... 
in what may be an unspoken quid pro 
cjuo, the Clinton administration has 
moved to quash any revelations about 
Mr. Bush's Iraqgate scandal." 

This is a tale Oliver Stone might have 
written, and it may prove to be no less 
[fJ-Uonal than Mr. Stone's absurd movie 
“JFK." Thai is ray reading of Kenneth 
.luster's persuasive rebuttal to the con- 
spiracy claims of Mr. Safire and others. 

Mr. Juster is a young Washington law- 
yer who was a senior adviser to Lawrence 
Eagleburger, then the deputy secretary of 
state in the Bush administration. He is 
now a visiting fellow at the Council on 
Foreign Relations, where he studied this 
affair. His findings appear in the spring 
issue of Foreign Policy magprin* 

“The central tenet of the Iraqgate sto- 
ry. as charged by the press," he writes, “is 
that the Bush administration pursued a 
secret policy in cooperation with Iraq to 
pervert U.S. agricultural-assistance pro- 


By Richard Harwood 

grants in order to help ... Saddam Hus- 
sein obtain weapons." 

U.S. News said in October 1992 that 
through these programs Mr. Bush “con tin- 
usd to provide billions of dollars in loans 
to Saddam Hussein after the war with Iran 
ended ... Iraqi agents [stole] some of the 
money and used it lo buy and build biolog- 
ical, chemical and nuclear weapons." 

It is a nifty theory. But there is a 
problem, as Mr. Juster explains. No US. 
government loans were made to Iraq in 
the 1980s or ’90s. Credits to buy food 
were guaranteed through the US’ Com- 
modity Credit Corporation. But a “cred- 
it” is not a transaction in which a lender 
hands over money to a borrower. Under 
the CCC food program, an exporter 
agrees with a foreign buyer to export 
specific quantities of American commod- 
ities. The U.S. bank financing this sale 
pays the American exporter for the food. 
It is repaid by the country receiving the 
credit. The American bank involved is 
insured against loss by the CCC Thus, it 
is not even theoretically possible, Mr. 
Juster argues, for any money to have been 
“stolen” from these credits for weapons 
purposes by Iraq or any other country. 

But by obtaining credit for food pur- 
chases, critics say, Iraq could use its bard 
currency to buy other thing s, arms in- 
cluded. That could have happened, theo- 
retically, when the first credits were ex- 
tended in the early 1980s. But when 
payments came due, Iraq bad to pay in 
hard currency or be disqualified from 
further food purchases. 

The long-term effect was to deplete 
Iraq’s hard-currency reserves. It obtained 
$392 mini m m new food credits in fiscal 
1990 while paying off old credits with 
$847 minio n in hard currency. Far from 
freeing up hard currency, the repayment 
burden grew year by year. 

In August 1990 the United States im- 
posed sanctions on Iraq for invading Ku- 
wait. Payments by Iraq on $1.9 billion in 
outstanding food credits stopped at that 
point. Thai is what the Iraq food program 

System has frozen Iraqi assets in the 
United Stales. They total $13 billion. 

And according to Mr. Juster, “Iraq 
presumably would have to settle claims 


for all of its CCC-related debts as pan of 
any subsequent normalization of rela- 
tions with the United States." So, in the 
end, the slate may be wiped dean. 

The reputations of those accused of 
Iraqgate conspiracies and criminality 
may take longer to repair. 

“There have been," Mr. Juster writes, 
“more than four years of hearings and 
investigations by various executive- 
branch. congressional and judicial bod- 
ies... But mere is still no proof that the 
charges are true. Indeed, several govern- 
ment entities examining the charges 
have reached contrary conclusions.” 

If Mr. Safire’s theories are right, and 
if, as be hints, the Climonians may be 
pan of a conspiratorial web, we may 
never clear (he air on this one. 

But if journalists become as zealous in 
exploring the avenues opened up by Mr. 
Juster as they were in spreading the 
original tale, the truth may out one day. 

The Washington Post, 





ay MOCHALOV in Nr» Tine iMc«a»i CAW St afam e 


LETTERS TO THE EDITOR 


Take NATO Oul of Bosnia 

Now that the NATO miliiaiy forces 
serving under the United Nations in 
Bosnia are seen as having taken sides 
with the Muslims, is it not time to re- 
place them with military personnel from 
non-NATO countries, perhaps China or 
India? Only such a change of personnel 
could restore the UN's credibility as a 
peacekeeping force with no dears lo 
Lake sides in nasty civil wars. The argu- 
ment that only NATO is capable of 
executing arch a mission in Bosnia has 
proven disastrous. If the UN is to sur- 
vive, it is essential that it be seen as an 
international world body, not just a tool 
of a few powerful nations. 

STANISHA OGNJANOVICH. 

London. 

Getting Beijing’s Attention 

Regarding “What About the Fate of 
Asians” (Opinion, April 16): 

After reading A. M. Rosenthal's 
thoughtful column, I turned on BBC 
and was amused to hear that some 
Asians certainly know how to get other 
Asians to do the right thing 


When mainland Chinese authorities 
couldn't be bothered to act on the tragic 
shipboard fire in which 24 Taiwanese 
tourists had perished, Taiwan suspend- 
ed visits ana canceled lucrative con- 
tracts. The Beijing government prompt- 
ly shook off its torpor and arrested three 
“criminals” (God help them, for their 
chances of a fair trial are nil). 

I hope that we who claim to care 
about the fate of Tibetans, Chinese 
workers, and dissidents, and other vic- 
tims of the naked abuse of power, can 
learn from this experience. 

T1CA BROCH. 

Geneva. 

It’s Not a 'Safety Net* 

Regarding the report u In Europe's Jobs 
Crisis, Growth Is No Answer” (March 10) 
and other articles: 

The term “social safety net" is fre- 
quently used to denote certain social 
structures that exist in Western Europe, 
especially by those who wish to preserve 
those structures. I believe the “safety 
net" metaphor is not valid. 

A safety net is supposed to be a last 
resort; something to save you when ev- 


erything else has failed. A social safety 
net, therefore, might be a system that 
saved you from homelessness in the case 
of joblessness or that saved you from 
starving in the case of homelessness. 

What we more often hear referred to 
as a “soda! safely net" is the elaborate 
system of rules and regulations that at- 
tempt to ensure that workers who have 
jobs will keep them, that real salaries 
will be guaranteed to increase forever, 
and that no one should ever have to 
experience a loss of affluence. This con- 
flicts with the “safety net" metaphor. 
I propose the phrase “social safety har- 
ness for this system that, far from sav- 
ing people from the worst, tries to keep 
them locked in place, come what may. 

DENNIS CARNEY. 

Paris. 

Letters intended for publication 
should be addressed “ Letters to the 
Editor" and contain the writer's sig- 
nature; name and full address. Let - 
ten should be brief and are subject to 
editing. We cannot be reqxmsibie jar 
the return of unsolicited manuscripts. 


Sure Cure or Poison Pellet: 
Drowning in a Vitamin Sea 

By Ellen Goodman 


B OSTON - — She is standing in the 
kitchen talking to her vitamin pills. 
This is not something that the woman 
normally does. 

On an average morning you might 
find her wrapped in the very same blue 
bathrobe lecturing the squirrel who has 
taken ova- ha bud feeder. You would 
not find her haring a heart-to-heart talk 
with beta carotene. Nor with Vitamin E. 

But today the newspaper that she gen- 
erally takes with a cup of coffee and a 
chaser of little pills has dropped another 

MEANWHTIJR 

dose of uncertainty into her morning regi- 
men. The wonderful little world of vita- 
min supplements has been thrown into 
question. The A's and the E’s that are 
supposed to protect her from the Big C 
may be shirting (heir alphabetical duty 
and even hastening the Big D. 

In F inlan d, researchers studied 29,000 
men between 50 and 69 years old who 
were given either vitamins or placebos. It 
was suspected that the vitamins would 
help block lung cancer. But smokers who 
look beta carotene did not decrease that 
risk; they increased it. Meanwhile, those 
who took Vitamin E mildly reduced their 
chance of prestate and colo-rectal cancer, 
but mildly increased their chance of 
strokes that involved head bleeding. 
SwelL 

The woman hasn't been so appalled by 
revisionist medicine since the day site 
dumped three boxes of oat bran into the 
compost heap. She has not been so con- 
fused since she found out that “free radi- 
cals” had nothing to do with potilies and 
“antioxidants" were not a laundry bleach. 

So there she is, at her counter, deliver- 
ing a morning soliloquy to uncertainty. 
“To swallow or not to swallow. Thai is 
the question." The vitamins say nothing. 

Frankly, this woman hadn't given 
Furnish men a thought since she met a 
tour group of them in the Soviet Union. 
In the 1980s, many Finns charted week- 
end flights to what was then Leningrad 
for the express purpose of drinking vod- 
ka until they passed ouL 
She has no idea bow many of those 


drunken tourists were subjects for the 
study or what the interaction of vodka 
and beta carotene produces. Nor is it. 
dear whether research on Finnish men*- 
who smoke has relevance for an Ameri- 
can woman who does not and is unlikely 
ever to be at risk tar prostate cancer. ' . “ 
But this tale is one of an endless [ 
□umber of twists and turns in the plot ., 
line of modern medicine. There seems to ;i 
be some sort of planned obsolescence ’ 
now to medical news. Today’s sure cure 
is tomorrow’s poison pellet. 

The studies that come tumbling out of ‘ 
research factories do more than just de- * 
bunk their predecessors. They oiler up 1 
platters of unappealing options and con- ' 
fusing odds, instead of a prescription, j 
you get multiple choices. ■> 

If you are that smoking Finn, Vitamin i 
E may help prevent prostate cancer and * 
give you a better chance for a bleeding 
stroke. But if you are a menopausal t 
A merican woman, estrogen may protect ? 
against heart disease and give you a ^ 
better shot at breast cancer. 

If you run a lot, your bones may get . 
brittle but your heart will stay strong. If ’ 
you drink wine, you could wreck your , 
fiver but lower your bad cholesterol. j 
Which is different from your good cbo- ^ 
lesterol in ways that escape us. . 7 
Meanwhile, if you go out in the sun. 
you may get skin cancer. If you stay . 
inside you may gel depressed. If you.' 
worry about aD tins, you will get stressed ~- 
oul And in the md, disease may have less ; 
to do with your diet than with your DNA. - 
Is it any wonder that the woman in this * 
kitchen has not yet had time to figure out 1 
Managed Health Care? It is a full-time - 
job managing her own health care. 

As for her ode to beta carotene and 
Vitamin A, well, if medicine were in the 
commodities market, this week's savvy 
investor would be buying broccoli fu- 
tures and selling supplements short. 

So for the moment, she will cap the * 
vitamins and bring on the Broccoli 
Breakfast Crispies and wait for the next . 
medical installm ent. With luck, those. - 
nasty little researchers wiH keep .their ; 
statistics off her chocolate. 

© Boston Globe Newspt^er Company. 


BOOKS 


-uai ( bi' 


ROALD DAHL: 

A Biography 

By Jeremy Treglown 320 pages. 
S3.'. Farrar Straus Giroux. 

Previewed by Stephen King 

A ccording to the Puffin 

editions of his fabulously suc- 
cessful stories for children, Roald 
Dahl was “the World’s Most 
Scremdiddlyumptious Sloiytdler." 
Perhaps. Buu as Jeremy Treglown’s 
biography makes dear, he lived a 
less than a scru mdiddlyu mptious 
iife. He fought bravely and well as 
an RAF fighter pilot in Greece, 
downing at least five enemy planes, 
but before ever firing a shot in 
combat, he crash-landed a CHoster 
Gladiator in the .African desert He 
suffered back pains for the rest of 
his life and walked with a hmp. 

He was a compulsive who began 
saving the foil sleeves of luncheon 
chocolate bars in the 1930s, mold- 
ing them into a ball which be kept 
on his desk durieg his years as a 
Shell Oil employee. He still had the 
foil ball when lie died in 1990. 

He was a racist. In the original 
draft of “The BFG" the big, 
friendly giant sounded like a come- 
dian in a turn -of- th e-century min- 
strel show. Dahl's editor at the time 
told him straight out that this was a 
racial stereotype, and Dahl 
changed his description. 

He was also a scatterbrained anti- 
Semite who saw no contradiction 
between having Jewish friends and 
colleagues and disliking Jews in gen- 
eral In a 19B3 newspaper interview, 
he told a journalist that "even a 
stinker like Hitler didn’t just pick on 
[the Jews] for no reason.” 

His family life was marred by a 
Job-like string of tragedies. To these 
Dahl responded with ruthless boo- 
ism. His son's prana was strode by a 
taxi in New York and driven into a 
div bus. crushing the infant mside. 
Then Dahl sustained horrifying 
head injuries. Dahl and his wife, the 
actress Patrida Neal were told that 
the boy would die. Theo did not die; 
Roald Dahl it seems, would not tel 
him die. When the boy developed 
hydrocephalus. Dahl asked a friend 
to use his hobby — building model 
aircraft engines — to help Tbeo. 
SianJev Baldwin responded by 
building the first really successful 
neurological shunt valve. 

While Theo Dahl’s life lay still at 
risk, another child. Olivia, died of 
complications from a case of the 
measles. She was 7 . Two V kits later 
Neal suffered a stroke. She mjoht 
have died at once had not Daw 
recognized what her symptoms 
meant. He acted promptly, editing 
a top neurosurgeon who had been 
consulted in Theo’s case only a few 
years earlier. . . 

In the years foliowing her stroke. 
Dahl bullied his wife into recovery 
of her injured faculties -J«™f jjj 
her, refusing to let anyone help her 
up flights of stairs or. m the early 
days, to so much as cut her food. 
Three years after the stroke, she was 
back m front of the amnos. 
couldn't always remember her tines 
or speak them when i she did, but Iks 
is not the problem in movies mat it 
is on stage, and the frlm was 
triumph for them both- 
In 1983. after 30 years of 
riage, Dahl divorced her. His enor 
nous income went to his sewnd 
wife, the much younger Febaty, 

when he died. . ... 

And during all t^s, Itire a 
playing chess during a carpej- 
bombing, he wrote. His v/oA _ 
tides itself pretty neatly into two 
halves: short stories written fw 
adults and longer ones written tor 
children. The iaies for adults, the 


most memorable erf which are col- 
lected in. “Kiss Kiss" and “Some- 
one like You," are stories calculat- 
ed to do nothing more — or less — 
than make a kid fall back in his or 
her chair, lan d ing wildly and kick- 
ing his or her feet in gleeful appre- 
ciation. Seen in this way, it might 
be kinder to lei the less palatable 
aspects of Dahl’s life be forgotten; 


his work seems to bear little rela- 
tionship to that life, any more than 
a rose smells like the compost heap 
from which it grows. 

Stephen King whose latest books 
are Nightmares and Dreamscapes" 
and the forthcoming Insomnia.” 
wrote this for The Washington Post 


BEST SELLERS 


HwNmYuk Times 

This bH is based on reports from more than 
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Week Wk an List 

1 THE CEl.Et>nNE PROPHE- 

CY, by Jama Rcdfidd I 7 

2 THE BRIDGES OF MADI- 

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Junes Waller J 2 88 

3 DISCLOSURE, by Michael 

C rich ten 4 13 

4 ACCIDENT, by Danielle 

Sled 3 9 

5 SLOW WALTZ IN CEDAR 

BEND, by Robert James Wal- 
ler 5 24 

6 LIKE WATER FOR CHOC- 
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7 ON DANGEROUS 

GROUND, by Jade Higgins . 9 2 

B LOVERS, by Judith Kranu _ 1 

9 ROGUE WARRIOR Oiled 
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and John Wasman 7 6 

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13 RIVER GOD, by Wilbur 

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14 FATAL CURE, by Robin 

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15 NATURAL CAUSES, by Mi- 

chad Palmer I 

NONFICTION 

1 EMBRACED 1 BY THE 

LIGHT, bv Betty J. Eadk 1 49 

2 THE BOOK OF VIRTUES, 


S r Wnfcam J. Bennett 3 17 

OW WE DIE, by Shawm R 

Nuland 2 7 

4 ZLATA'S DIARY, by Zlau 

Rtoovic — 4 5 ' 

5 MIDNIGHT IN THE GAR- 
DEN OF GOOD AND EVIL. 

by John Betcadi 5 6 

6 MAKES ME WANNA HOL- 
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7 SOUL MATES, by Thomas 

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ler 1 

11 SEINLANGUAGE by Jerry 

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12 REENGINEERING THE 
CORPORATION, by Mkhad 
Hammer and James Champv. 13 35 
13 A DRINKING LIFE bv Ate 

HannO I 10 9 

14 THE HIDDEN LIFE OF 

DOCS, by Elizabeth Marshall 15 34 
IS WOMEN WHO RUN WITH 
THE WOLVES, by Clarissa 
PinJrola Estes 14 87 

ADVICE, HOW-TO 
AND MISCELLANEOUS 

1 MAGIC EYE by N.E Thing 

Enterprises I 13 

2 MEN ARE FROM MARS, 
WOMEN ARE FROM VE- 
NUS, bv John Gray 2 47 

3 STOP THE INSANITY! by 

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4 AGELESS BODY. TIME- 
LESS MIND, by Deepak Cho- 
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V* Extra Venous, ** music by David Linton and choreography by Stephen Petronio, at Lyon Opera Ballet . 


Gem] Awfan 


- f 

* An American Evening’ in Lyon 


By David Stevens 

International Herald Tribune 


L YON — With its Maison dc la 
Danse, a biennial dance festival, and 
the eclectic and well-traveled ballet 
company of the Opera, Lyon has in 
little more than a decade become one of the 
capitals of the dance world. 

It has 'been particularly hospitable to Ameri- 
cans, hi a symbiotic' relationship that has en- 
riched the European dance scene while at the 
same time offering American choreographers 
working conditions that are almost luxurious in 
comparison. wUh the permanently tough limes 
at home for smaller dance troupes. 

Bill T. Jones has recently succeeded Maguy 
Marin of the Lyon Opera Ballet, a company of 
20 or so dancers, classically trained but open to 
contemporary expression. The company’s most 
recent effort is “An American Evening," three 
premieres by three American choreographers of 
the so-called Next Wave, which is no more than 
a handy umbrella label /ora trio of contempo- 
raries. Donald Baechler designed the sets and 
Wflham Katz the costumes for all three works 
and the music was live and all American, too, 
all of which turned out to be dements of diver- 
sity as much as unity. 

Another unifying dement is that two of these 
dances are decidedly elegiac in mood, touched 


Baechler supplied a blue sky streaked with 
clouds and a trio of symbols — a flat-bottomed 
boat, a small house and a chimney-like tube. 
The boat, at first standing on end, is finally 
lowered, the house becomes its cabin and the 
tube its funnel, a small steamboat ready to cross 
whatever river it is to the other side. 


le Fare 1 at Paris Opera Ballet 


One is inevitably reminded that Jones’s long- 
time companion and dance partner, Arnie 
Zane, was lost to AIDS. Susan Marshall more 
explicitly dedicates her “Central Figure" to 
Arthur Armijo, a dancer in her company who 
died last summer. The ‘male central figure is 
surrounded by other dancers, supportive and 
somewhat mournful, in loose-fitting neutral- 
colored costumes. With the occasional inter- 
vention of a scrim, the central figure seems to 


disappear or to leave the group behind, yet he 
remains even when going way. The gently fluid 
choreography plays against a symbolic back- 
drop suggesting a constantly chang ing patch- 
work quilt. Philip Glass's Suing Quartet No. 5, 
splendidly played by house musicians, was apt 
in mood, a work of late romantic persuasion 
and a nttnirnirm of minimalis t tics. 


by the long shadow of AIDS. Jones’s “I Want 
to Cross Over,” with the gospel singer Liz 


McCombpowerfuDy present in the {tit with the 
guitarist Titus Williams, seems an expression of 


guitarist Titus Williams, seems an expression of 
earthly burdens and yearning for release. Jones 
was a vigorous and dominant central figure, 
surrounded by 22 dancers whose gestural vo- 
cabulary Jones says was drawn from his work 
with terminally ill people. 


In “ExtraVenous,” Stephen Petronio deploys 
a total erf 18 dancers, but never aD at the same 
time, in a series of quick-changing, high-speed 
figurations in which a classical line is constantly 
broken up by modem angularity. Different 
groups are distinguished by the variety of Katz's 
white costumes. The whole is set against 
Baechler’s backdrop of crazily exotic flowers, 
and handsomely supported by David Linton’s 
rhythmically driving quartet, a brilliant melding 
of vida, cello, trumpet and trombone. 


The program is scheduled to take to the road 
and will be seen in Paris at the Thfefitre de la 
Villein June. 


Hervfc Pierre’s lavish 18th-century costumes 
provided the real setting, rather than Thierry 
Leprousi’s stylized trees. Jonathan Darlington 
conducted the Lamoureux Orchestra with some 
uneven results, and Alain Planes was the fine 
pianist 

“Le Parc” is at the Palais Gamier through 
April 22, but it surely is a work that will be back 
in future seasons. 


Israel Horovitz and the Paris Connection 


By Thomas Quinn Curtiss 

International Herald Tribune 


P ARIS — Israel Horovitz, whose plays 
are as popular in Fiance as they are in 
the United States, has become one of 
the most produced American drama- 
tists in French theater history. 

“1 began coming to Paris in the 1960s when 1 
was told audiences here liked my work,” Horo- 
vitz explained. “More than 20 of my plays have 
been produced in Paris and several have bad 
long runs and have returned in revivals. Eight 
plays of mine have been on the boards during 
this season.” 

Born in Wakefield, Massachusetts, in 1939, 
he was educated in Boston and later studied on 
a fellowship at the Royal Academy of Dramatic 
Art in London from 1961 to 1963. He returned 
, to London two years Later, the first American to 
; be chosen as the playwright-in-residence with 
-the Royal Shakespeare Company when “The 
.Indian Wants the Bronx” and “Line” were 


already famous in his homeland, the Continent 
and the Far East. 

Horovitz wrote his first play, “The Come- 
back,” at 19. It had its premiere at Boston's 
Emerson College. Since then be has had more 
than SO plays produced. 

Having readied 54, he has not lost his tireless 
quest, his contagious optimism or his enga g i n g 
broad smile. The air of a breezy undergraduate 
seems to cling to him, though he has married 
three times and is the father of five children. 

During a winter spent in his beloved Paris 
with his wife and their younger children, Horo- 
vitz has frken a trio of his short fantasies and 
united them in a triptych, “Of Rats and Men,” 
and staged it at the Theatre du Luceraaire. He 
has also completed a new, rdl -length drama, 
“Unexpected Tenderness,” which revolves 
around a lower middle-class family. It is slated 
to open on the Gloucester stage in August and 
at New York’s WPA theater in September. 

In his salad days, Horovitz was a novice at 
EDen Stewart's Oaffe La Mama, a New York 


prep-school for theater-folk of all sorts. He not 
only wrote plays there but also performed and 
at times served as stage manager. 

In addition to his plays Horovitz also writes 
for the screen. He acted and wrote dialogues 
for The Strawberry Statement,” a film about 
the student riots at American universities in 
1968. 


three screenplays. The first is a biography of 
James Dean, who was killed in a car crash after 
sudden success in the movies, in 1955. Horovitz 
was 16 at that time and like millions of adoles- 
cents identified with his hero's celluloid ver- 
sion. The film script seeks to reveal the issues 
that influenced Dean's destiny. 

Horovitz’s second scenario is the fourth re- 
make of the 1937 hit, “A Star is Bora,” in which 
the late Janet Gaynor impersonated a rising 
Hollywood actress. 

The third Horovitz screenplay will be a musi- 
cal comedy, “One Last Dance,” starring Patrick 
Swayze. 





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LONDON THEATER 


6 Men, 6 Stories and Tragedy 


By Sheridan Moriey 

International Herald Tribune 


L ondon — indirectly 
derived from “La 
Ronde” by way of Simon 
Grav's “The Common 
Pursuit,” Kevin Elyot's “My Night 
With Reg” (at the Royal Court Up- 
stairs) is an expert gay-chic comedy 
of tragic manners. More than 20 
years after the more out-front ho- 
mosexuality of “Boys in the Band” 
or ‘Torch Song Trilogy,” this is an 
elegant study of men in love with 
men, precisely the kind of nondo- 
seted, honest entertainment that 
Coward or Rattigan would have 
yearned to write had the public of 
their times been rather more toter- 


from California exile to revisit the 
scene of his '60s crimes in Bethnal 
Green and is predictably horrified 
at the changes wrought by 30 yeara 
Graffiti everywhere, punk-cocking 
kids showing no respect, the East 
End gone to hell in a hand basket 
So different from the dear, dead 
days when Flood only murdered 
those who truly deserved it 
But Ridley has something more 
ambitious in mind than a ritual 
survey of gangster nostalgia. A 


carefully laid _ploi eventually ex- 
plodes when flood is brought up 
against the leader of a brutal gang 
of female cheerleaders dressed in 

^°jt would be unfair to, reveal their 
precise connection, but a sharp and 
sinister tale unfolds in whit* Rid- 
ley would seem to be asking ns to 
consider the changing soda! and 
sexual nature of street violence. 
Not only can yesterday's gangsters 
end up as today’s boscages, but 


along the way.all values have been 
changed, rather as though A1 Ca- 
pone were to uy to make wise of 
life in downtown Chicago today. 
In the end, it t rans pires that 
there are no perfect places and (ha t 
the ghosts are only pretending: 
Neither Flood, nor the old crone 
who first takes him in (Bridget 
Turner), nor her granddaughter 
(threateningly well played- by Tro- 
vyn McDowell as me chief cheer- 


The Paris Opfca Ballet continues to expand its 
contemporary repertory. After his homage last 
year to the Ballets Russes, Angelin Prdjocaj is 
back at the Palais Ganrier with a new 90-nnnuie 
ballet, “Le Parc,” set almost entirety to various 
Mozart pieces and evoking the course of erotic 
passion in a stylized world made familiar by 
Marivaux and “Les Liaisons Dangereuses 


The work has a dr amatic progression that 
opens with a group dance entitled “members of 
the two sexes observe one another” and proceeds 
to the logical conclusion. It is structured in three 
acts, each of which ends in a pas de deux for the 
principal couple, progressively labeled “meet- 
ing,” “resistance" and “abandon.” Each of the 
pas de dost is seductive blend of classical tech- 
nique and contemporary sensuality, and each is 
set to a middle movement of one of the piano 
concertos, an irrestible combination, particularly 
with Elisabeth Mamin and Manuel Legris as the 
passionate principal couple. 

The group dances that make tq> the rest of the 
sections have their moments of wit and insight. 
Less penetrable are the four “gardeners” who 
introduce each act, accompanied by taped sonic 
concoctions. They appear to be manipulators 
from another world, albeit dressed for under- 
water fishing. 


ant. 

But there is now of course a spec- 
ter at the feast: where the unspoken 
connection of “La Ronde” was ve- 
nereal disease, so now it is AIDS, 
from which two of the characters 
die, offstage, during a brief no- 
interval 90 minutes. Yet this is not 
a dance of latter-day death, nor any 
kind of appeal for understanding 
or tolerance. Indeed the best thing 
about “My Night With Reg” is that 
it goes in for no special pleading of 
any kind; it amply tells the stories 
of six men. the parties that bring 
them together and the affairs that 
lead to tragedy. 

There's John (Anthony Calf), a 
wealthy “Brideshead” hero; Guy 
(David Bamber), an adman aching 
for love of him; Danid (John Ses- 
sions), the camp, promiscuous star 
of the group; Eric (Joe Duttine), 
the housekeeper whose lower-class 
morality acts as a corre c ti ve to 
ihprn nil and then Bentie and Ben- 
ny, the bus driver and plastic-cup 
salesman who are there chiefly as 
observers and guests. 

Out of this sextet, Elyot carves a 
short, sharp drama of male emo- 
- tion that suggests that gays would 
be no different from the rest of us 
were it not for a terrible fate that 
has put them suddenly ax high risk. 
As fra* Reg. we never get to meet 
him at afl, though by the end of an 
expertly performed evening, we 
feel we have known the others all 
our lives. 

In Philip Ridley's “Ghost From a 
Perfect Place” (at the Hampstead). 
John Wood, in a massively evil per- 
formance as Travis Flood, returns 



leader) are mule what or who they 
seem, and all we know, for sure is 
that Joe Orton has here encoun- 
tered Mickey Spfllane up a dark 
English alley. Matthew Lloyd's 
production is a masterpiece of oil- 
er-bimbo menace. 


And talking of menace-master- 
pieces, Keith Baxter's brilliant re- 
discovery and rethinking of Patrick 


Hamilton’s “Rope” has transferred 
to Wyndham’sfrom the Minerva in 
Chichester with a somewhat re- 
vised cast, bot Anthony Head still 
gives a breathtaking performance 
as the war-wounded poet who 
comes quite Gterally face to face 
with death. If aD you . know of 
“Rope” is the Hitchcock movie, 
you don’t know “Rope” at alL 
And finally, up at the Almeida, 
Phyllis Nagy’s “Butterfly Ess,” a 
postmodernist study of a woman 
who was, . unusuaBy, murdered by 
her mother. Matricide by daughter 
is rare enough in the annals of dra- 
ma to merit a play like this; unfor- 
tunately, Nagy loses interest rapid - 


A scene from “Ghost From a Perfect Place . 1 


JotaBayno 


drifts off into a series of relative 
character studies, none of which 
really compels otzr attention. 

Along tin way we certainly get to 
meet some' interesting characters, 
not least Sandra Dickinson as the 
gam-dewing Countess, who, hav- 
ing stepped out of some minor Ten- 
nessee williams hothouse, memo- 
rably announces to those in search 
of her address, “MoU j’habiie 
Queens.” 

But the characters are all too 
often in search of their author, and 
nothing in Steven Pimlott’s agQe 
production can really make up for 
a certain woolly vagueness in the 
writing. Du one level this might 
seem to be the nodear family in 
explosion, but on another it’s a 
moral maze with no way ouL Eliza- 
beth Berridge is suitably mysteri- 
ous as the mother-killer. 


Broadway’s Disney, Dancing Spoons 


By David Richards 

New York Tuna Senate 


N EW YORK — As Broadway musi- 
cals go, “Beauty and the ’Beast” 
belongs right up there with the Em- 
pire Stale Building. FAO Schwarz 
and the Grelc Line boat tours. It is hardly a 
triumph of art, but it’ll probably be a whale of a 
tourist attraction. 

It is Las Vegas without the sex, Mardi Gras 
without the booze and Madame Tussaud's 
without the waxy stares. You don’t watch it, 
you gape at it, blowing that nothing in Du- 
buque comes dose. 

At an official cost of nearly $12 million — 
unofficial estimates run considerably higher — 
the Walt Disney Co. has recreated on the stage 
of the Palace Theatre its 1991 blockbuster ani- 
mated feature, right down to the ravenous 
wolves, the dancing spoons and the enchanted 
rose that sheds its petals as true love's hopes run 
low. 

Family audiences tired of prancing felines are 
apt to find this cause for celebration. Others may 
look upon the spectacle as further proof of the 
age-old theory (hat if you throw enough money 
at the public, the public wfl] throw it right back. 

The scenery by Stan Meyer — mostly in that 
ornate, slightly scary German Gothic style that 
passes for picturesque at Disney — is almost 
always on the move. No apparition, disappear- 
ance, thunderbolt, rainstorm or swirling fog 
bank is beyond the capabilities of the show’s 
special-effects engineers. 

Any one of Ann Houkt-Waid's costumes 


would be the envy of a Beaux- Arts ball And if 
you thought the chandelier crashing to the stags 
in “The Phan ton erf the Opera” was something, 
wait until the Beast (Terrence Mann), presum- 
ably dead, rises up from the castle floor, floats 1.0 
feet or so into space, then starts to spin like a 
human propeller. 

Before the spinning is done and you've 
caught your breath, he has somehow shed all 
things beastly and become a dashing prince 
again. (Take that, Siegfried and Roy.) 

The astonishments rarely cease. Yet strange 
as it may sound, that’s the very drawback of 
“Beamy and the Beast.” Nothing has been left 
to the imagination. Everything has been pains- 
takingly fllustrated. \ .: 

There is no room for dreaming, no quiet 
tudeed-away moment that might encourage a 
poetic thought For an evening that puts forth 


to bring out the sensitive side of the Beast, partly 
to underscore Belle’s fortitude. 

However, the production, directed by Robert 
Jess Roth, is reluctant to let a song be a song in 
its own way and lime. Two kinds of delivery are 
recognized: the hard sell and the harder sdL 
“Be Our Guest,” the first-act show-stopper, 
knows no shame in that regard. Its kvishness is 
dose to delirium, its giddiness beyond camp. 

If you are one of the few people in America 
who don’t know the plot, a wicked witch has 
transformed the handsome prince into a cross 
between Quasimodo and a buffalo, and the staff 
of the castle is turning into sundry household 
objects: teacup, feather dusts and the like. 

Before long, the spatula is cavorting with the 
fork, the rug is doing cartwheels and the dinner 
plates are parading down a grand staircase like 
arrogant showgirls angling for a sugar daddy. 


so much, “Beauty and the Beast” has amazingly 
little resonance: In the end, the musical rays far 


little resonance: In the end, the musical rays far 
less about the redemptive power of love than it 
does about the boundless ingenuity of what is 
called Team Disney. < 

The movie’s strength — at least from Broad- 
way’s perspective — is the Academy Award- 


Howard Ashman, who died early in 1991, be- 
fore work began on the stage version. 


Such songs as “Belle," “Be Our Guest” and 


“Gaston” are happily reminiscent of Lerner and 
Loewe, and the tide number speaks stimnjzly of 


Loewe, and the title number speaks stirringly of 
love, as few Broadway ballads do these days. 

To them, Menken, working with the lyricist 
Tim Rice, has added seven new numbers, partly 


T HE choreographer, Matt West, is re- 
sponsible for this interlude, although 
Busby Berkeley on magic mushrooms 
might have staged it For its duration, 
at least, the extravaganza elevates “Beanty and 
the Beast” to a realm of hallucinogenic lunacy 
that surely goes against every sane and sober 
principle Disney stands for. 

The actors resemble their cartoon counter- 
parts as much as real actors could reasonably be 
expected to. In the case of Susan Egan, who 
plays BeUe, a quintessential Disney heroine, 
befig pretty, unspoiled and plucky (bat never 
rode) is mostly what’s required. 

JTom Bosley, as her eccentric inventor father, 
hunts him self largely to a dazed and bumbling 

mann er. 







rTSTi 






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TO: ALL PERSONS WHO MAY HAVE CLAIMS AGAINST PIPER AIRCRAFT CORPORATION ARISING OUT OF ACCIDENTS OR 
INCIDENTS INVOLVING AIRPLANE OR SPARE PARTS MANUFACTURED OR SOLD BY PIPER AIRCRAFT CORPORATION, AND 
OTHER PEOPLE CLAIMING THROUGH SUCH PERSONS. 

THIS NOTICE AND SUPPLEMENTAL BAR DATE DO MI APPLY TO OTHER GENERAL CREDITORS OF PIPER AIRCRAFT 
CORPORATION. 

IF YOU HAVE BEEN INJURED OR SUFFERED PROPERTY DAMAGE IN ANY INCIDENT INVOLVING AN AIRPLANE OR SPARE 
PART MANUFACTURED BY PIPER AIRCRAFT CORPORATION, YOU MUST FILE A FORM PROOF OF CLAIM BY MAY 2L 1994. 
OR YOU MAY BE FOREVER BARRED FROM ASSERTING YOUR CLAIM. 

PLEASE TAKE NOTICE flud oa July 1, 1991, Piper Aircraft Cnpontin ((Be “Debtor”) Bed ■ Toluntary petition lor reBef under chapter 
II of tide 11 of toe United Slates Cade (the “Bankruptcy CadeT, la the United Stales BanknqHt; Cowl lor the Southe r n District of Florida 
llbe “CoorfT. The DcMar contones tanosessian oflts property and the management oTIts basinets as a deter fa possession. 

PLEASE TAKE FURTHER NOTICE thal, poranaal to an order of the Court dated Anpm 26, 199] (the “Initial Bar Order”), end in 
accordance with Rate 3003 IcKJ) of the Federal Rides of Bankruptcy Procedure, creditors of the Pettier were required to (Be oa or before 
November 15, 1991 (the “Initial Bor Date”), ■ coraptete and doty emoted proof of daim form on accsonl of any data arising onl of airplane 
accidents or other inddetiix involving alrptaaes or spare parti marndhctDed by the Debtor that any such creditor holds or assert* against (be 
Debtor. 

PLEASE TAKE FURTHER NOTICE tint, pursuant la aider of (be Court dated April g. 1994, and to accordance with Rule 3003 (cK3) of 
the Federal Rales of Bankruptcy Procedure, (ids Cowl sabfished a suppiemeabd bar datr ((be “SopptemeaUl Bar Date") applicable only to 
those persons wbo wish to assert daim agaiisl the Debtor or its bankruptcy estate arising oat of airplane arrideata or atber incidents 
inraldag a ii jl a nes or spare parts wsnnfadiirtd or sold by the Debtor. In Older In assert a dahoagatot the Debtor, al sodi perron must do 
so by completing a proof of daim an the form approved by the Court, ladmflng the quatioannhe atlacbed thereto. The proof efdahu form 
may be obtained from dtber counsel to the Debtor at the address Hated bdow. or the Clerk af the Cowl, Uaitad Slates B an kru ptc y Court, at 
the address tided below. CMptard proofs of daim must be Bed by maffing or delivering each such proof of daim so that it is acfcmtiy 
received on or before May 28 1994, at 5:80 pm, Miami, Florida thae by the Ctarfc of the Cwri al the foflowing addretK 
Office oT the Clerk 
United States Bankruptcy Court 
SI S.W. Pint Avenue 
Room 1517 
Miami, Florida 33130 
(Open between 940 turn, aid 540 pm* 

Monday (brangb Friday) 

AND 

Completed Questionnaires must he IRed by maHtog or deBveringeadisndi Question nahe so that RfcactaaBy received on or hetote May A 
1994, at 540 pm* Miami, Florida tone, by Piper AJrcrsfl Corporation al the Wowing address: 

Piper Aircraft Corporation 
2926 Piper Drive 
Vero Beach, Florida 32960 

PLEASE TAKE FURTHER NOTICE that the Bankruptcy Court Order establishing the Supplemental Bar Date provides that the 
questionnaire annexed to the Form Proof of Qata must be completed and filed with Piper Almuft Caipocatioa. aa act forth above, to order 
tor a dafananl to preserve it* riehteagatat the Debtor’s bankruptcy estate. 

PLEASE TAKE FURTHER NOTICE that yon are required to complete the proof of dahn and q u estio nn a i re anacmd hereto and We the 
same when and as specified above. If ym preriondy tfierf a date agafaist the Debtor tor daunapa related to persona* fqfcry dates, wrongftd 
death daim or property damage dates, you are required to complete aid file the qnestionaaiTe when and asspedTicd abort 
PLEASE TAKE FlRtruER NOTICE IhaUgl the cstobBrinncni of ftc Suppleme n t a l Bar Dale; (H) the tontnoe of the Court"* April & 1994 
Order esta hashing toe S npteiuen tal Bar Pate; and (iB) the requirement that certain penans file a proof oT data as desextoed herein, does not 
and is not Intended to reopen the Initial Bar Dale tor any and all persons and entities who were obligated to rite a proof of date on or before 
tiw Initial Bar Date. 

PLEASE TAKE FURTHER NOTICE that your bflare to He a pn»r of date and Qu e s ti o n n a ire when and as specited above wffl result to 
your being forever barred, estopped, restrained and enjoined from asserting any such data tor DHng a proof of daha uito reaped thereto) 
and the Debtor and its property dial be forever dbd m fged from any ami afl I n d ebtedness or liability with resped to sudi data and sock 
bolder stall not be permitted to vote on aay plant!) oT reorguizalloa proposed by toe Debtor or participate la any ifistribatioa to toe Debtor's 
dmpter 1 1 case on account af any swte dates. 

Any questions you may have concerning (Ms notice should be directed to Piper Aircraft Corporation, Legal DepartmeaL at (407) 567-4361, 
art. 2622. 

Dated: Miami. Florida 

AprilS, 1994 Karen Eddy 

PAUL STEVEN SmSERMAN. ESQ. CLERK OF THE UNITED ST ATES 

STROOCK & STROOCK Be LA VAN BANKRUPTCY COURT, SOUTHERN 

attorneys tor Piper Aircraft CarponliM DISTRICT OF FLORIDA 

3300 First Uufoa Financial Center 

200 South ffismyne Bootevard 

Miami, Florida 33131-2385 

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lot 3. set of Eqnipements immovable by 
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sp5d5R^«?‘p j i l zvf- sa js-gjs-sr- 8S«‘g at 











































































mm 



International Herald Tribune, Wednesday, April 20. 1994 



Srf^w 







Page 11 


the trib index 


™S Stock Index ©. composed of 


7" Russia 

^ Bends on 

i io.24$ Ur anium 

BX mmnncoH nf ■ m B B B 


V***. i ■ 


;.y \ -if. # 
X*.?* A.V<&»4 





x. warning: 3? 
c 11122 Pibw 


Approx, vwsghtng. 32 % 
Ctose. 130.32 Pm: 131.18 


' l 1 ♦ * w > u r-*r- . , . 

’VW SttjC; 5 V- «-TU»* ^ 

; •- * S3at jjSErf «r/b 


North America Latin America 



«PPT0X. waiting: 2B\. 

Qogs: 90.99 Pisv_-9a43 


HwSSH 


N D J F M A N 

««, 1993 1994 1993 

Work) Index 

The order frocks US. rioter rates of stocks ftc T 
Argentina, Austrafia, Austria, Belgium, BrazB, Cai 
France, Germany. Hong Kong, ttafy, Mexico, Nath 
Singapore, Spain, Sweden, B aiteari e nd and Vena 
London, the index is composed of the 20 lap Issues 
otherwise the tm tap stocks on tracked. 


Approx, waffling: 5% 
Ctoss: iQ2J9Prevjia 


J 


7X 

• 1 

.J 


- a4i? to»* 


cyo, New Yak, London, and 
da, Chfla, Denmark, Finland, , 
lands. New Zealand, Wona e y , 1 

ale. For Tokyo, New York and ' 
terms of market c ap eaSz aS c n, 






HUHHHIHIWMI 

MBW 

m 

HI 


Tub. 

CAM 

PlWL 

dace 


T 

Tim. 

Mom 

Put. 

cte 

« 

dungs 

Energy 

110.06 

109.63 

40.21. 

Capital Goods \ 

110.07 

110.44 

-0.34 

lit! Sties 

117.75 

118.99 

-1-04 

Raw Materials \ 

120.99 

122.48 

-1-22 

Finance 

11654 

117.38 

-0.87 

Consumer Goods \ 

95.72 

95.90 

-0.19 

Services 

114.19 

114.88 

-0.GC 

tBsceflaneow | 

1 122.39 

12404 

-123 


For more information about the Index a booklet is t 
Write lo Trib Index, 181 Avenue Charles de GauSe, l 


pie free of charge. 
\Neu8yCedex France. 


New Pitch to EU 
Hints at Restraint 

By Tom Buerkle 

huemanonal Herald Tribune 

BRUSSELS — Russia has re- 
vived prospects for reaching a ma- 
jOF trade agreement with the Euro- 
pean Union by offering a 
compromise 00 trade in u ranium, 
officials from Russia and the 
Union said Tuesday. 

The so-called partnership and 
cooperation agreement, which 
would improve Moscow’s access to 
EU markets and hold out the possi- 
bility of an eventual free-trade 
agreement, is a crucial dement in 
Western efforts to support eco- 
nomic reform in Russia. But dis- 
putes over ur anium and banking 
have deadlocked the talks for the 
past four months. 

The new proposal, contained in a 
letter sent last week by Economics 
Minister Alexander N. Shokhin to 
Sir Leon Briitan, the EU trade 
chief, would have Russia urge re- 
straint on its exporters of uranium 
in return for the Union foregoing 
import quotas or other baniera. 

The plan also calls for joint sur- 
veillance of the market and consul- 
tations before imposing any import 
barriers. 

Sir Leon, who presented the pro- 
posal at a meeting of EU foreign 
ministers in Luxembourg on Tues- 
day, said it had brought the two 
sitks closer to an agreement He 
will meet with Mr. Shokhin to dis- 
cuss the proposal on April 27. 

“It does represent a real attempt 
by the Russians to move forward," 
said one European Commission of- 
ficial involved in the lalks- 

France, the mafn EU producer of 
nuclear fuels, was less optimistic. 
Paris has been seeking to have the 
materials excluded from the trade 
agreement so the Union could curb 
Russian supplies more easily in 
case of a surge in exports. 

A Russian official said his gov- 
ernment was insisting that n raninm 
be included in the partnership ac- 
cord. If it succeeded, he added, 
Russia would be willing to open 19 


EBRD's Critics 
Fall Silent — ■ 
Or Nearly So 


Burgeoning Imports 
Swell U.S. Trade Deficit 

By Tho mas L. Friedman a 3 5 percent drop in U.S. exports consumer demand is being 
New York runes Semce in February, while imports jumped foreign companies and not . 

WASHINGTON — The U.S. 2.4 percent, the second-highest lev- can ones producing lo capai 
trade deficit soared in February to cl on record. U.S. imports of for- Ronald H. Brown, the commerce: 
the largest level in ax years as eign cars also were up sharply, ris- secretary, said the trade figures Dlus-^ 


> International HeraM Tribune .See URANIUM, P&ge 12 


By Henry Copeland 
and Erik Ipsen 

International Herald Tribune 

The publicly funded Europe- 
an Bank for Reconstruction 
and Development was accused 
Tuesday of falling short of its 
mandate to innovate and of act- 
ing too much like a private com- 
mercial bank. 

Speaking on the final day of 
the bank’s two-day annual 
meeting in Sl Petersburg, the 
vice president of the European 
Union, Henning Quistopher- 
sen, said, “Our advice to the 
bank is to take more risks.” 

But that advice was one of 
the few critical notes struck at a 
meeting at which the bank's 
new president, Jacques deLaro- 
sifcre, the former managing di- 
rector of the International 
Monetary Fund, repeatedly 
heard praise from the govern- 
ments who are the bank’s share- 
holders for his efforts since tak- 
ing over its presidency in 
September 1993. 

The bank was set up three 
years ago to spur development 
in Easton Europe and the for- 
mer Soviet Union, largely 
through investment in (he pri- 
vate sector. 

Lawrence H. Summers, the 
U.S. Treasury undersecretary 
for international affairs, said in 
a speech Monday that Mr. de 
Laroafae and his colleagues 
had “reinvented and reinvigo- 
rated” the organization. 

The United States, besides 
being the bank's largest share- 
holder, is also the nation that 
reacted most harshly to last 
year's scandals over its exces- 
sive spending. Those scandals 
caused the U.S. Congress last 
summer to block a $70 mill km 
allocation for the bank, and it 
has yet to release those funds. 

Mr. de Larosibrc, signaling 
his intention to test the share- 
holder governments’ declara- 
tions of faith in the bank, said 


MEDIA 


TTTTTTqF 


Turner Plays European Card 


By Richard Covington \ 

Special to the Herald Tribune V 

C ANNES — Moving to sidestep attempt 
to block American media inroads into* 
Europe, Ted Turner’s television con-r 
glomerate is launching a Paris- based! 
subsidiary to acquire and produce European pro- ' 
gramming 

Turner Broadcasting System Inc. has taken the 
brunt of European anger over invasive American 
programming and its decision to create a strategic 
foothold in the European market is bound to ignite 
fresh controversy. 

A low-key birth announcement for the new on- 
spring Turner Productions SA, went little noticed at 
thejusi-ended MLP television market in Cannes. But 
private conversations with Turner executives made 
clear that new subsidiary represented a major 
financial commitment and had already begun sign- 
ing joint ventures with European broadcasters and 

PT aS!SJ them are joim projects with -the French 
pav-televirion channel Canal Plus, the Goman- 
based producer BetaFilm GmbH, and Lux SpA of 

Rome. ..... 

Turner also will set up an animation division, 
under the direction of its Hanna-Barbera unit, m a 
search for new European animators to dream up 
what Turner hopes will be the next wave of cartoon 

“S the recent decision to create the Euro- 
pean subsidiary have yet to be worked out, accord- 
SneTo a company spokesman. The announcemmt 
of executives in charge of the operation is three 

W Tlm^^roadcasting System, a medra empire 
witiumnual sales of $2.7 billion. 

wyn-Mayer films- Ever sbee the Hunch of 


CURREI 


Gras Hates 


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I SOB IAOO um York and Zurich. Hxtnes to other eenk i; Toronto 

OosOW to Amsterdam. Umdon. New Yor* |i __ _ _ 


Turner’s European movie-and-cartoon channel. 
TNT and Cartoon Network, last September at the 
height of the vituperative trade talks between the 
U.S. and Europe, Turner has been under fire. TNT 
broadcasts classic movies and the Cartoon Net- 
work beams “The Flintstones,” “Droopy Dog" 
and other cartoons into 17.5 millioa European 
homes via cable and satellite. 

: Asserting that the networks exceed the Europc- 

I s quota restrictions for American pro- 
, France and Bdgjum have banned 
Union is taking Britain to court over 
be TNT-Cartoon channel on the air. 
to the EU regulations. 51 percent of 
jrogramming must qualify as European, 
news, a vital exemption for Turner's 
NBC’s Superchannd. 
inner launched the Cartoon Channel last 
am animators lambasted the move, fear- 
e channel, with its massive reserves of 
rould squeeze out European animators, 
ould a French or German station pur- 
ly produced animation series when they 
dost the American cartoons at a frac- 
tion of the cost?” asked Christian Davin. president 
of the French animators' union. Tumor’s latest 
m ve should soothe some of the animators’ fears. 

lie first initiative of the new Turner Produc- 
ts is arm is the creation of a “shorts” division to 
talk advantage of “the creative input of talented 
European animators." says Sue KroD, general 
manager of the Cartoon Network. 

I -another deal at the Cannes market. Canal 
Plu signed on with Turner as a co-production 
parkier in ‘The Native Americans," a documenta- 
ry s ries to be led by native American writers and 
fire lors. 

T< 3 Turner initiated the project two years agp as 
| See TURNER, Page 12 


& INTEREST RATES 


April 19 Eurocurrency Deposits 

Yen CJ Pa * swt 

1JB* 1JM ISB* rviNnr D-Mnric FlTS 


Chrysler Had 
Record Net 
For Quarter 

Compiled bp Our Su$ From Dispatches 

DETROIT — Chrysler Corp., 
driven by strong sales of minivans, 
Jeeps and pickup trucks, said Tues- 
day it had record profit of $938 
mfllk>n,or$2.55 a share, in the first 
quarter of 1994 on record sales of 
$132 billion. 

Earnings were up 77 percent 
from $530 million a year earlier, 
and sales climbed 21 percent from 
$10.9 billion. 

The results easily exceeded 
Chrysler's previous earnings record 
of $801 milli on in the 1984 second 
quarter and its sales record of $12 
hnbon in the fourth quarter of 1993. 

Chrysler’s results were within the 
range of analysts’ expectations. The 
U.S. auto industry in general has 
benefited from continuing strong 
Hwrrumd for cars and light trucks. 
Analysts say relatively low interest 
rates and high consumer confidence 
also have helped support sales. 

Chrysler’s share of the U.S and 
Canadian market during the fast 
three months of 1994 was 15.7 per- 
cent, unchanged from a year ago as 
the company kept pace with an 
industry that grew nearly 18 per- 
cent in a year. 

Chrysler was the first of Ameri- 
ca's Big Three automakers to re- 
port Fust-quarter earnings. General 
Motors Corp. and Ford Motor Co. 
are each expected to report quar- 
terly profit of SI bUbon or more 
next week. (AP, Bloomberg) 


lRMBfll 3 1V3 'H. 
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April 19 

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to AIA. not 


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Otter Dollar Vahra 

CRRKI P»S 
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Aotir.scbfl. 1UN 
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Currency Perl 
Mex. peso ajas 
ILZMRHIS in* 
Norw.knxM 7JS8 
P HI. pew VJCI 
poiunzwiy 22507 
Port. eKsdo 17139 
Raw. ruble 1745.00 
SoUrfl rival 17507 
SI ns. 5 1 SSO 


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Taiwan S 
Thai bob 
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Lwjctj. Sant of Tokyo, Commerzbank. 
2* GremiweHMordtsu. Cridlt Lnrmus 
2K 

2 * Gold 

» AM PM. OYoe 

*“ Zurich 37*45 37375 -*» 

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^5 New TBrk 

SjS US dollars oer ounce. Lonton official fix- 

US inas.- Zurich and New York Opening (X*l cits- 

5JD ipgpricast New York Cemex f June I 

M2 Source; Revton. 


Tuesday that he might seek an 
increase in the institution's cap- 
ital He said directors would 
“examine the bank’s underlying 
operational and financial as- 
sumptions” with an eye to ask- 
ing shareholders for fresh capi- 
tal sometime next year. 

In contrast to his predeces- 
sor, Jacques Attali, who at last 
year’s annual meeting faced 
hostile questions about a bud- 

The new team 
has 'reinvented 
and reinvig- 
orated’ the 
organization. 

Lawrence Summers, 

U.S. Treasury 

undersecretary. 

get that seemed out of control 
Mr. de Larosttre this year 
basked in his accomplishment 
of cutting the bank’s budget by 
8 percenL 

He also won praise for his 
reorganization of the bank. 
Among other things, that reor- 
ganization allowed the EBRD 
to expand the portion of its 
staff that makes loans and in- 
vestments- 

Some private bankers work- 
ing in Easton Europe said 
Tuesday that the re org ani zation 
also would make it easier for the 
EBRD to answer criticism 
about its reluctance to take 
risks. They said that shortly af- 
ter Mr. de Larosifcre took over 
at the bank, he began pushing 
to increase the number of staff- 
ers- 

“There is a general effort at 
the bank to be closer to the 
customer and to be less risk- 
averse." said Evo Lurvink. co- 
head of CS First Boston's office 
in Prague. 


posed by slow growth abroad. t 
“Both Europe and Japan art 
now growing substantially below 4 


the largest level in six years as eign cars also were up sharply, ns- secretary, said Lbe trade tigures ilius- 
Americans went on a buying binge ing 4 2 percent in February, while inued "the risk to the U.S. recovery/ 
while the country's econonncaby foreigners bought fewer American posed by slow growth abroad. t 
weaker trading partners bought aircraft, data processing equipment “Both Europe and Japan art 

fewer of its exports. and industrial engines — the sort of now growing substantially beloV 

The Commerce Department said large capital goods that foreigners their potential and, by doing scC 
Tuesday that the trade deficit in need to buy from the United States create a drag on the U.S. economy,} 
goods and services was $9.71 oil- if there is any hope of balancing out We continue to urge lbe other ma^ 
Son in February, up sharply from *e trade figures. jor trading nations to take the poli-, 

January's imbalance of $6.64 bil- The swelling trade deficit brings ^ ac V ons needed to create bal-i 


Tuesday that the trade deficit in 

goods and services was $9.71 fail- _ . . _ , , 

Bon in February, up sharply from *e trade figures. jor trading nations to take the poll-, 

January’s imbalance of $6.64 bil- The swelling trade deficit brings ^ ac V on5 needed to create bal-i 
lion. The deGrit in goods alone rose negative economic consequences anced growth in the worl<^ 
by one-fifth, to $13.89 bUbon, for the United States. When the ecooomy,” he said. -I 

whOe America's traditional surplus trade deficit grows, it subtracts As has become the pattern, the; 
in services such as tourism, broker- from the gross national product. United States suffered its largest! 
age, investment banking, insurance because it means that an increased deficits with Japan, at $4.63 billion^ 
and film rentals slid about 1 1 per- part of domestic consumer demand and China, at $1.65 billion. v 7 ’ 
cent, to 54.18 billion. is being satisfied by goods and ser- But there was one bright spots 

The widening US. trade imbal- vices produced abroad. For the first two months of 1994jj 

ance with Japan and Europe in par- The figures also suggest that the sales of U.S. merchandise to Mesti-j 
ticular underscores the failure of the Federal Reserve Board's concerns co rose 15 percent over the previous 
government's efforts to spur Hs lead- about the economy overheating — year, and exports to Canada wen^ 
mg allies tocut taxes and lower their which prompted it lo raise interest up almost 8 percent,, spurred in^ 
interest rates enough to stimulate rates three tunes ance early Febru- part by the North American Free 1 
consumer spending. ary — may be exaggerated, since a Trade Agreement, which took ef^ 

That slow spending is evident in significant portion of the increased feet on Jan. 1. 


January s unbalance of $6.64 bil- The swelling trade deficit bangs 
lion. The defirit in goods alone rose negative economic consequences 
by one-fifth, to $13.89 billion, for the United States. When the 
while America’s traditional surplus trade deficit grows, it subtracts 


in sendees such as tourism. 


surplus 

broker- 


cent, to 54.18 billion. 

The widening U.S. trade imbal- 
ance with Japan and Europe in par- 
ticular underacores the failure of the 
government's efforts to spur hs lead- 


xis and ser- But there was one bright spots 
For the first two months of 1994^ 
.est that the sales of U.S. merchandise to Mexi-j 
r$ concerns co rose 15 percent over the previous* 


Interest-Rate Outlook 
Unnerves Wall Street 

Compiled bp Our Sraff From Dispatches The Dow industrials gained as 
NEW YORK — US. blue-chip much as 22 points by nod-morning 


Treasury bond prices in a climate 
of rising interest rates. 

After all the excitement, the Dow 
Jones industrial average of 30 lead- 
ing company stocks dosed down 


and moved higher before a sag in the 
final minutes of trading. 

The yield on the Treasury’s 
benchmark 30-year bond rose as 
high as 7.46 percent, up 4 basis 


just 0.60 point, at 3,619.82. The points from Monday, then slid to 
broader market was lower, with two dose at 737 percent as the price 


stocks falling for every one that rose 
on the New York Stock Exchange. 
Trading there was active, with 3233 
mfllion shares chang in g hand-s 
Outside the United States, fall- 
out from Monday's increases in the 
U-S. federal funds rate and com- 
mercial banks' prime rates sent 
stocks spiraling down in Asa. In 
Europe, stocks fell too, but the 
drop was moderated in London 
when traders saw that Wall Street 
was not plunging Tuesday, after a 
41-point drop on Monday. 


rose more than half a point 
"These bonds are so volatile, and 
with Fed tightening and the prime 
rate being bounced up by all these 
banks, people are very nervous," 
said Richard Meyer, head of insti- 
tutional equities trading at Laden- 
burg, Thalraann & Co. 

Expectations that the Federal 
Reserve Board will deride to raise 
rates again at its May 17 policy 
meeting — the federal funds rate 

See STOCKS, Page 12 


Japan Rejects 
Giving Economy 
MoreStinudus 

Reuters 

TOKYO — Japan said Tues- 
day it would tell its G-7 part- 
ners that it had done enough to 
stimulatelts economy. ; 

Officials from the Group of 
Seven countries win compare 
notes on several jssues — Rus- 
sia, currencies and macroeco- 
nomics — at meetings starting 
this weekend in W ashing ton. 
The G-7 comprises Japan, the 
United States, Germany, Italy, 
France, Bri tain, and Panada- 

“We wiD LeQ them that Japan 
has done enough to stimulate 
the economy and that some 
bright signs for a recovery are 
emerging," a Finance Ministry 
official said. The Bank of Japan . 
governor, Yasushi Mieno, said: 
^e will watch, for the time 
being, to see if the bright spots 
in the Japanese economy will 
expand and last" 


Our Banking relationships 

ARE BASED ON A STRONG TRADITION. 





T rust. It’s the basic 

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Our emphasis on trust, 
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us become one of the world’s 
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A SAFRA BANK 

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KXAD OFFICE GENEVA 1204 - 2. PLACE DU LAC - TEL 1022) 705 55 55 - FOREX: 1022 • 705 SS SO AND GENEVA 1201 ‘ 2, RUE DR. ALFRED- VINCENT (CORNER 
OUAJ DU MONT-BLANCj BRANCHES: LUGANO 6901 * 1. VIA CANOUA * TEL {091 ) 23 85 32 • ZURICH 8039 - STDCKERSTRASSE 37 - TEL (Ol <' 288 18 18 ‘ 
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. L- 



Page 12 

market diary 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, APRIL 20, 1994 


n s. /AT THE CLOSE 


Via AwoaOHd 


Dow Jones Averages 


EUROPEAN FUTURES 


Undermine Dollar 


;Do#Jonesi 




Open Hign Low Chile cutae 

into — 3&C.U 35832*1619.82 —(LAO 

Trona — MAP BS3J5 155606 . 2847 
Util - p 7ttM IflSJd +U5 

Comp — 1283.13 126*48 1273JB — 625 


Metals 


Hlga Lor Last Settle CW» 


Bloomberg Business News 

NEW YORK- The doflarfeU 
^” y against most major currencies on 
Tuesday as stock and bond prices 
^'seesawed, fueling concern about 
j the stability of U.S. asset markets. 
“* “As long as the Fed is raising 
J 003 rates, the asset markets will be uu- 
der pressure, and so wiD tbe dol- 
ran * lar," said Peter Michaels, assistant 


j_ De vice president at Fuji Bank. 

Higher U.S. rates should buoy the 
Ana dollar by making American assets 
ago 

9? Foreign Exchange 


more attractive. But this year’s 

slump in U.S. stocks and bonds has 
kept tbe dollar from following rates 
higher, traders said. After Monday’s 
move by tbe Federal Reserve Board, 
the rate on overnight bank loans is 
3.75 percent, up from 3 percent on 
Feb. 4, when tbe Fed raised tbe rate 
for the first time in five years. 

The dollar fell to 1.7005 Deut- 
sche marks at the end of New York 
trading on Tuesday from 1.7080 
DM at Monday's close. When tbe 
Dow Jones industrial average hit its 
: low point of the day daring the 
afternoon, the dollar hit a two- 
; week low of 1.6957 DM. 

Tbe dollar feQ to 5.8375 French 
: francs from 5.8465 francs on Mon- 
i day and to 1.4434 Swiss francs 
! from 1 .4475 francs. The pound rose 
I to SI .4805 from SI. 4765. 


The dollar lost very little ground 
against tbe yen, to 103.15 yen from 
103.20 on Monday. Speculation that 
die Fed bought dollars for yen on 
behalf of the Bank of Japan lifted 
the dollar from the day’s lows. The 
Fed declined to comment on wheth- 
er it was active in the market- 

A swelling trade deficit weighed 
on the dollar, too. The government 
said the UJS. trade deficit in goods 
and services widened 46.1 percent, 
to $9.71 billion, in February. A 
large trade deficit means there is 
more deman d for other currencies 
needed to buy foreign goods. 

Frustration with the dollar’s in- 
ability to rally also prompted trad- 
ers to sell it against the mark. 


0 iv 


ALUMINUM IHWb Grade) 
£S Br,W, «A& B |»6JD .77150 .27450 

Forward 727! ,sp j£.£3£?> lWM 
COPPER CATHODES (HW Grade) 

ga°" p * rm fS5T. 8M iw* 

Forward 189150 IBW0O 788400 7887.00 
LEAD 

Dofen per mMjJClB" 

See. 401 JO OUI *3800 09.00 

F orward 44633 447 JO 45100 *5300 

NICKEL 

^r”” >n ^So 8 S31i» 5420X0 S4JQJ0 
Forward 540000 547000 549100 550000 

TIN _ 

DaOm per metric Ion 

535500 534500 533500 534500 
Forward 539100 5*9000 539SOO 54000^. 
zinc {Speed HJ*li Grade) 

DoOon per tn^rjeton 

seal 90800 90900 02700 92800 

Forward 93000 93L50 MB00 94900 


Ctoie Prc*>ao* 

BM AW Sid Ask 


Standard A Poor's Indoxss 


SfUslM 1 


! indusirtaJs 
Trarrsu. 
Ufiimes 
Finance 
SP 300 
SP 108 


Utah LOW dose Cbtae 
515J2 507.90 57227—062 

38749 3719) 38002 — 747 


15UB 15639 15807 +L57 
4409 069 4405 +0.15 
44402 43803 44254 + Q.08 
400.16 4(001 40194— 157 




NYSE Index* 


, BRENT CRUDE OIL t.FE) 

; UAfloUm per tarreHattOfim barren 
Jan 150* 1400 MSS 1*5— 

Jul 1458 1427 1477 1429 — 0» 

Al4 UM 1429 1405 1405 —0.17 

see 1501 1409 UM M08 — a.17 

Otf 1503 1499 1500 14M —117 

Hot K.T. N.T. rLT. UM —020 

Dec 15.12 1502 UBS ISO? -0.12 

Jm N.T. N.T. N.T. 1111 — 0.W 

Feb N.T. N.T. H.T. lilS — M7 

E». volume: 37050 . open m. 133461 


Stock indexes 


HWI Low Cfee Change 
FTSE 180 {L 1FFE> 

12 per Me* Dotal 

Jtm 31570 31040 31250 —700 

sen mo 3T38 J 3)465 —700 

Dec 31790 31720 31590 —ISO 

Ext. volume: 14445 Open lot: 54.155 
CAC40 (MATIF1 

FRN Per Index poW , _ 

Apr 217400 20600 214700 -+UO0 






Compasae 

Industrials 
TrcroF. 
UtffltY • 
«nan 08 


244J9 24*68 2*537 — C33 
30201 29703 30UH —074 
24572 24108 20.18 —451 
20974 20702 20907 +102 
20934 20739 20702 +004 


Financial 


May 2770X50 U2500 2V4600 -+U50 

Jan 215300 7112.00 ZI2900 -MUD 

Sep 714(00 213530 714560 -+I400 

Dec 2T7S50 217500 217660 4113 

Mar NX NX 220600 -M30O 

Estvctane: SUM. Oven <nt: 7U6U 


NASDAQ Indexes 


'People sold the dollar today be- 
ise bovine it Yesterday didn’t 


cause baying it yesterday didn’t 
work," said Jerry Egan, managing 
director at foreign exchange at 
MTB Bank. 

Many dollar bulls gave up on 
h olding the U.S. currency Monday 
after it failed to hold gains it made 
in the aftermath of the Fed's rate 
increase, Mr. Egan said. 

Nor did tbe dollar rise last 
Thursday after the Bundesbank cut 
its discount rate to 5 percent from 
5.25percenL 

“The Bundesbank cm rates, and 
the Fed raised them, but the dollar 
feU,” said Chris Widness, interna- 
tional economist at Chemical 
Bank. 


NYSE Most Actives 


Chryslr 

TelMex 

Merck 

GnMetr 

Mcsortos 

PtaoerO 

ABcrek 

PtlilMr 

WOMrts 

Du Port 

FordM 

MiCTTc* 

GTE 

Gllcorp 

IBM 


VOL 

waft 

Law 

3pm 

Ota. 

oL~. 

51** 

47’A 

48 Vj 

— 24k 

•A*.i I 

SA 

29H 


SK 

28V. 

— m 

29797 

57V, 

S3 V, 

S4H 

—2W 

27584 

45V1 

43 Vi 

44>A 

—4k 

2614? 

20 -A 

191a 

1946 

—7k 

‘A < 

71H 


30V6 

—4k 

ttW" 

51*6 

SDH 

SI 

*9k 

84H 

24 

24 

—4k 

v Ij 

57W 


S6V6 

— *6 


S7ft 

iM 

SAM 

—14k 

T 7 * 

35*. 

2116 

3216 . 

—1^1 


31 U 

3CH4 

3016 

.16 


3896 

28 

384k 

— >% 

SH4 

S1W 

324% 

—1 


ComooaJte 

industrials 

Barts 

InMkance 

Finance 

TTWSP. 


772.62 70927 71149 -AM 
753.12 7(336 744.14—1234 
68X75 678.10 67967 —7 74 
BS144 87144 (7637 —436 
89037 B8B30 839.45 —ail 
73138 72238 72434 — 1.98 


AMEX Stock Index 


Htoh Low Close Ctaoge 
3-MONTH STERLING CLIFFE) 

CSWUOBO - Pt* VMM PCt 

Jaa 9«37 9138 9475 +034 

Sep 94S2 9444 *449 +OJO 

Dec 9411 93.W 9406 —0.01 

fAstr 9162 9336 9157 —0X73 

Jen 93-12 92.95 1006 — BJM 

Sat 9204 9261 9231 —035 

Dec 9233 92.17 9235 -007 

MOr 92.10 9130 91.98 —0.10 

Jon 9130 9131 91.77 —013 

Sv> 9IJH nj9 nea -ok 

Dec 9162 91.43 91.49 —012 

Mof 91X7 9134 9US —013 

, Est. volume: 97,563. Open biL: 454655. 
3-MONTH EURODOLLARS (UFFEJ 
n mutton - pt* oi no pd 


Sources.- Mailt. Associated Press, 
London Inn Moo octal Futures ExOtanste, 
Ml Petroleum E se h auu K. 


Spot ConvnoditlM 


Mob Law LaN Chs. 
43400 42939 43130 —2.90 


Dow John Bond Averages 


NASDAQ Most Actives 


STOCKS: Unnerved by Rates 


j Continued from Page II 

Ion overnight interbank loans is 
; now at 3.75 percent — outweighed 

■ bctter-than-expected earnings 
: from Microsoft Corp., Intel Corp. 
* and Chrysler Corp-. traders said. 

< Tbe concern over rising interest 
rates hit credit-sensitive market 

■ sectors like automobiles especially 
hard, traders said. 

f General Motors lost to 55, 


U.S. Stocks 


Ford gave up IS to 56tt and Chrys- 
ler surrendered 2k to 48%. 


“People have got to be thinking 
that with interest rates going up. 
cars are getting more expensive." 
Jim Bennmg, a trader at BT Bro- 
kerage, said. 

Philip Morris was one of WaD 
Street's better performers, gaining 
\ J A to 51%. Investors reacted posi- 
tively to the tobacco and food con- 
glomerate’s first quarter results. 

Technology slocks were firm 
Tuesday morning, but then turned 
down. Mr. Meyer of Ladenbnrg 
said investors apparently believed 
some of these companies were near 
the top of their profit cycle. 

Intel rose as much as IVi, then 
slipped to 57'/i, off 1 . The semicon- 
ductor maker late Monday posted 


first-quarter earnings of S1.40 a 
share, up from SI .24 a year ago. 

Texas Instruments feU 34 to 
66ft, and Motorola dropped 1 to 
44. 

Microsoft was an exception, ris- 
ing 5ft to 88ft. Late Monday, the 
software maker posted quarterly 
earningscrfSl.il a share from oper- 
ations, up from 80 cents a year earli- 
er. 

In Asia, stock markets stumbled 
after the Fed move threatened to 
push up borrowing rates in the re- 
gion and weaken demand for stocks. 

Hong Kong was among the hard- 
est hit as investors pulled out of 
real estate shares that look vulnera- 
ble to higher interest rates. The 
benchmark Hang Seng index was 
down 22 percent at the dose. 

Australia’s AH Ordinaries index 
lost 1.65 percent, and indexes in 
Singapore. Malaysia and Thailand 
were down more than l percent 

In London, tbe Financial Times- 
Stock Exchange index of 100 lead- 
ing shares ended off 0.3 percent at 
3,138.2, after rallying in late trad- 
ing in response to Wall Street's 
morning bounce. 

In Paris, the CAC-40 share index 
Finished down 24.08. at 2,160.06. In 
Frankfurt, tbe 30-share DAX index 
lost 56.36, to 2,172.42. 

(Bloomberg, AP, AFP) 


Irtcts 

Mfcsfts 

Pv*»s 

usmttis 

was 

53 me s 

GSCOS 

Oracles 

TefCmA 

Nowells 

SnapBvS 

3Com 

DSC 

Cmcvts 

Priccss 


VoL Ms* 

Low 

Lost 

Cue. 

109136 60 

56 Vi 

57% 

—i 

90922 89 Vi 

8546 

BBVi 

*546 

6730? 25 

194» 

20% 

— 4W|4 

42190 46 V, 

4Z» 

43U 

—3 

41173 236% 

2146 

22% 

*46 

J0984 11 

646 

TV* 

—17% 

38369 304» 

3B46 

29V* 

—46 

25159 30 

Z7V5 

274% 

— Vm 

32295 7956 

IBP* 

tap* 

—5k 

30969 16V*. 

IS 

ISC/ u 

— 

30236 2256 

?! 

21 Ik 

*46 

29639 527% 

47 

48'* 

—3'u 

26519 5416 

5146 

534% 


16100 1 54% 

IS 

154% 

— Vh 

24450 1 54% 

14V% 

144% 

—96 


30 Bands 
10 Utilities 
18 industrials 


One am 

9869 —021 

9635 —025 

loan —His 


NASDAQ Diary 


Jon 

9534 

99J0 

9&32 

— 007 

s*» 

9A7Q 

9466 

9467 

— 0.10 

Dec 

9604 

9405 

9408 

—009 

Mar 

9301 

9177 

9300 

-008 

Jan 

N.T. 

N.T. 

9368 

—009 

San 

M.T. 

N.T. 

9121 

— 009 

Est. votunw: Al&Open Irtf: HUM. 


3JWONTH EUROMAJOCS tUFFE) 
□Ml mmtaa - pta of MO ed 


Jim 

9671 

9465 

9469 

+ 0MJ 

See 

9452 

9*07 

9451 

+ 002 

Dec 

9498 

9451 

9493 

— 005 

Mar 

9A98 

94.90 

9452 

-006 

JOB 

9*01 

9469 

9473 

-009 

Sap 

9*57 

9468 

9401 

— 0.13 

DK 

tut 

9426 

9428 

— 0.12 

MOT 

9420 

94.10 

9411 

— 0.13 

Jaa 

9407 

9X96 

9359 

— OT2 

Sap 

9305 

W05 

9304 

— 015 

DOC 

93J9 

9171 

9123 

— 0.T3 

Mar 9173 9300 9362 — 0.14 

Esf. vofume: I8Z432. Open tnt: 987082. 


ComraodRr Today Prav. 

Aluminum. Kj B675 0578 

Cetfw. Sraz. fb 1795 1795 

Cooper etedrrtYttc. Hi 151 191 

Iran FOB, ion 21100 7000 

LraVEb 034 03* 

Silver, tray a* 5.14 5385 

(scrap), tan 13433 13633 

Tta.ni 36288 36697 

ZJnc.01 044*1 04441 


DhrtdMds 


IRREGULAR 

Gemini II income _ 3$ 

STOCK SPLIT 
Dana Cara 2 tar 1 SMU. 

INCREASED 

Dana Coro Q X2 

INITIAL 


I 3-MONTH PI BOR (MAT I FI 
FP5 rnlBtea - Pts el iw.net 


Southern Con 
Sport supply n 


5-2 6-6 

5-19 S-26 


Advanced 
Declined 
Unchanoed 
Tatrt issues 
NcwHtefts 
New Lews 



Jaa 

9423 

94.19 

9422 

QQ7 



9465 

9437 

9440 

— 80S 

1199 

DCC 

9451 

9440 

9443 

—0.10 

1935 

Mar 

9448 

9434 

9440 

—0.10 

1843 

Jaa 

9430 

906 

9421 

— 003 

4977 

see 

9410 

9X95 

9401 

—a i4 

4] 

Dec 

9308 

9375 

9378 

—0.18 

149 

Mot 

9326 


9368 

— 0.18 


AMEX Most Actives 


EchoBay 

RovaJOa 

OwySflS 

CorNGn 

A£*p1 

SPDR 

NY Tim 

ExnLA 

PrSGM 

CrcaPh 


VOL 

tfioo 

Law 

Last 

an. 

12239 

1014 

9>« 

10 

—46 

7387 

4Vu 

3*6 

3>V,4 

— Vu 

6885 25‘A 

24'% 

24*i 

■Mk 

6322 

156 

1*4 

1*4 


4708 

116 

1V6 

1U 

—16 

4698 4PVr 

aw* 

44"/n 


3791 

26 Vi 

25% 

26>/< 

__v. 

3456 

IVh 

1 

114* 


3246 

16* 

ISM 

1514 

—11 6 

3197 

9*4 

8*4 

94% 

— ‘ Vi 


Market Seles 


Today Prev. 
4 ojn. cans. 

NYSE 32169 321.136 

Ama* 1762 14502 

Nasdaq 29157 246676 

In minions. 


TO OUR 
READBS 
W 

HOUAND 

If 5 never 
been easier 
to subscribe 

andsave. 

Just cad 
toll-free' 
06022 5158 


Est volume: 40979. Open M.: 2303(1. > 

GERMAN GOVERNMENT BLIND (UFFE) i 
DM 2SA890 - PtS at 1W Pel I 

ion 9562 9A40 9477 — 870 ■ 

Sep 9530 94.15 9461 —069 1 

Est. vatunw: 2496*5. Open !«.: 2Q5AS2. 
10-YEAR FRENCH GOV. BONOS (MATIF1 
maejm-ptsotmpa 
Jaa 12U0 12036 1210* —048 

Sep 12198 1176* 12124 — l_M 

Dec 11960 11930 U966 —058 

Est volume; 374.144 Ooen tot; U7693. 


industrials 


Alex Brawn Q .15 

Aroer 1 TxMJB Nl MS 

Amor 1 Tx MIb 2 M 3625 

Ample Pi EmUY M JB83 

D Witter Discover 0 .125 

FSt Commo u wo o ltt i M M75 

Gononlae Parts Q 3S73 

Kevsione AmGvSec M Jt53 

Keystone AmTxFr M M7 

Keystone Cast B1 M JJ78 

Keystone Cost Kl Q U9 

Lance lac O 3! 

Merurv Finor« Q 67 

Michigan Ftn 0 75 

Moemoutn REIT Q .125 

Shefisr Q n? 

Simoson In) 0 .14 

SunDfcOrEbB M m 

Transom Am tnco M .14 

United MoCtOe Q 70 

Universal Foods Q 73 

VanKam CA Mual M jx, 

VaaKamlnvGrd M 31775 

WPLHoM Q A 


4-26 5-6 

4-30 5-25 
630 5-25 
430 531 
6-1 M 
4-29 S-13 
64 7-1 

4-25 5-5 

4-25 55 

4-25 56 

4- 25 5-5 

5- 1 5-15 

5-11 6-1 

5-5 5-20 
Mi 6-15 

5- 7 5-14 

6- 2 6-23 
4-29 5-31 

4- 29 5-15 

5- 76 6-15 

5-11 6-1 

4-29 5-13 
4E 5-13 
4-29 5-M 


Qti and Other Banks Report 
Strong First-Quarter Profit 

NEW YORK (Comtaai 

first-quarts cp^iWSSms reflecttag improved csconomic conditions, 

in credit costs more than oifta 

of 15 Corp. said operating profil rose 16 

perce^^o$319 nriltion-or SI. 13 a perfonuanwin 

3 Jr™. 128 m,Ui ° 11 forclosmE 

F^oTS torfto'sM Francisco/ Midrmi -qDarw net 

income almost doubled from a year earlier, to S JL nufoon. braow oT a 
^decline in loan-loss provisions, and Banc OneCorp. Coh^mbu^ 
oS, said first-quarter eanungs were up 12 percent as retail and 
commercial lending boih showed improvement n 

At Bankers Trart New York Corp.. however, Amur 
percent, to $164 millioh, or $1.90 a share, as revenue from soveregn bond 
trading, foreign-exchange trading and dealing , in debt ^oqiMy ush«. 
from e mergn g markets sll plunged. ( Bloomberg, Kmgfu-RUkler, AFX) 

Philip Morris Profit Surges 59% 

NEW YORK (AP) — Philip Morris Cos. said Tuesday that it posted a 
59 percent increase in earnings for tbe first quarter, compared with results 
depressed by an accounting charge a year ago. . . , 

Profit rose to $1.17 billion, or SI. 34 a share, while revenue edged up 2 
percent, to $15.50 bfllion. But. excluding the accounting ebaige, the 
tobacco and food conglomerate's profit was off 3.5 percent That weaken- 
ing reflected decreases in premium cigarette prices. 

Prescription Sales Lift Merck Net 

NEW YORK (Combined Dispatches) — Merck & Co. said first- 
quarter m T« ing s rose 10 percent to $675.2 million, from a year earfaer bn 
increased u nit sales of prescription drugs. Revenue rose 48 percent, io 
$ 3.51 billion, boosted by Merck’s purchase last year of Medco Contain- 
ment Services Inc., tbe mail-order drug company. 


Oi' 


*vT‘ f 


L If* 


Amo ng other results in the health sector, Warner-Lambert Co. report- 
l Tucsdav that its fiist-ouarter earnings rose 4-5 percent, to $190.37 


ed Tuesday that its first-quarter earnings rose 4J percent, 
minion, and American Home Products Corp. said its profx 


percent, to 5415.8 tmUioo. 


said its profit climbed 4 
(Bloomberg, AP) 


HWI Low Lmt Settle aroe 
GASOIL (IPE) ! 

Ui. Gtflan aer metric taa-fafs oflM tan 
May 149.75 14JS 1*950 14950 —200 ( 

Jaa 14X25 14750 14400 WflJ» —200 

Jet 14A75 USJ10 14950 14850 —155 , 

«H IStLOO 14925 14775 M9J5 —US | 

Sap 15L25 15050 151-00 15150 —150 

OU 15350 15125 15350 15350 — UM 

Nbv 15500 15500 15500 1S50 —lit) 

0«C 15700 15650 157.00 15700 —100 I 

Jan 15700 15700 15700 15750 —125 ! 

ESI. volume: 8208 . Open inL 95565 


a4ngal; «-pmraMe Is < 


Jet Programs Power Lockheed Profit 

CALABASAS, California (Bloomberg) — Lockheed Corp. reported 
Tuesday that earnings rose 21 percent in its first quarter, to $92 mflliou, 
led by strength in its fighter and transport jet programs. “In addition to 
tbe strong earnings in the first quarter, we produced significant positive 
cash flow and continued the rapid improvement in our financial posi- 
tion,” said Daniel TeDep, c hairman ana chief executive. 


To subscribe in Franco 


Sprint Net Up 33% on Record Sales 


jusf cofi, ta8 free, 

05437437 


KANSAS CITY, Missouri (Bloomberg) — Sprint Crop, said Tuesday 
that its first-quarter profit from continuing operations rose 33 percent, 
paced by record revenue and operating income from its long-distance 
operations, and from a 70 percent increase in cellular subscribers and 4.9 
perc en t increase in access lines. In tbe first quarter, the third -largest US. 


IJRAINTUMs Russia Compromises TURNER: The European Card 


percent increase m access lines. In the tost quarter, the third -largest 
provider of long-distance services said profit from continuing operations 
rose to $205 mflli on. Revalue rose 12 percent, to $3.03 bfllion. 


Continued from Page 11 
its market to European banks, an- 


ed work, especially regarding joint 
surveillance of the market. 


other key dispute in the trade talks. 
In 1993. (he Commonwealth of 


In 1993. the Commonwealth of 
Independent States sold the Europe- 
an Union 3,000 tons of uranium, or 
roughly 25 percent of EU supply, 
for around SI billion, a commission 
spokeswoman said. There are uo 
separate figures for Russian exports. 
but it accounted for tbe bulk of CIS 
shipments, she said. 

The commission official said the 
proposal remained vague and necd- 


■ IMF Loan Approval likely 

Officials said Tuesday the Inter- 
national Monetary Fund was about 
to approve a Sli billion loan for 
Russia in what amounts to a vote of 
confidence in Moscow’s ability to 
cany mi! painful economic reforms, 
Reuters reported from Washington. 

The Fund is expected to approve 
the loan Wednesday, after months 
of negotiations. 


Confirmed from Page 11 

part of his company-wide initiative 
to present a far-ranging historical 
and contemporary portrait of na- 
tive Americans, through feature 
films, television documentaries and 
books. 

In a market climate that has seen 
international co-production bud- 
gets shrink and the popularity of 
American series slide dramatically, 
particularly in Europe. Turner 
Broadcasting is cultivating its Eu- 


ropean presence and looking in- 
creasingly to home-grown pro- 
gramming for local markets. 

So are the American networks 
NBC ABC and Fox, as well as 
emerging audiovisual investors 
such as Pearson PLC 

As Alexander Isadi, general sec- 
retary of Luxembourg RTL Tele- 
vision. observed: “It’s not a ques- 
tion of fining quotas; our audiences 
are giving us the dear and forceful 
massag e they want locally pro- 
duced programs.” 


Businessmen Give U.S. Top Ranking 


GENEVA (Reuters) —The United States is the first choice among top 
executives worldwide seeking both badness opportunities and personal 
fulfilment, seconding to a survey published on Wednesday. 

China was selected by international business leaders, ahead of the 
United States, Japan and Germany, as the country likely to be the most 
conmetitive in the year2010. Some 1.747 executives were surveyed by the 
Wond- Economic Forum in Geneva and the International Inkitute for 
Management Development, based in Lausanne. 


For the Record 


Union Carbide Corp. said its first-qnaiter net income rose 50 percent, 
to $63 millioii, boosted by cost-reduction programs and improved results 
from various joint ventures. ( Bloomberg) 


WORLD STOCK MARKETS 


j I0PK 

I ,\i * 



































7 




*H? 

: K * !) 

*V 


■■N 

r, ’iit 


Hoesch-Krupp 
Loss Doubles 
. On Steel Slump 

Compil'd by Our Staff From Danutrl^ i -■- 


Compil'd by- Our Staff From Daputvh* ■ - r J 

HANNOVER. Germanv div'sion suffered a loss of 780 miJ- 
Fried. Knipp AG Ho«rh_j^L i l0n would again post a 

said Tuesday that its De i lossnUK ^ In ,994 ’ ajlhou Bh the deficit 
than doubled in IW. *12*? Wouid •* W re- 

SJoSifL'd^t ? he . mechanical-engi n eering 
even in 1994. **“ ° break which the companylaid post- 

The German steel comnanv 3L a ne &» llv e result," was 

which was formed by Fried. &upp &?f° lher dms,0n **“ 1 suf - 
AGs acquisition of Hoesch AG ~n!L j . , 

two years ago. said its lo« r rtr ioqi 1B . e de *P economic slump was 
totaled 590 railfon ^utsche rMrili ^cerbatetfby the need for W 

($345 million), SfcSSftSS ^rFKVS” 1 ***■“*’ 
million DM in 1997 r0m Chief Executive Gerhard 

i. -u ib. d. Sw 55a S^Slbf-Ss 

— tors, and the negative develop- 
ments on the steel markets cast a 
A_.J^ rp a . shadow over all other sectors." 

Uriwrs From Asia fcU 102 percent, to 24.18 

T m f 1J - billion DM. 

Lift Mannesman^ m ^ se ™ Tfyssen Orders 

Blcnniberg Busmen v m Thyssen AG, another major Ger- 

Hannovpb 1 man steelmaker, said that orders 

Mannesman n ac e j m -r n ^ 4 rose ^ percent in the Five months 
m ending ^February from Urn sirai- 

St CTlt w m Somh ‘ l*r period a yror sgo. bm i, did nol 
uEi‘‘ first-quarter dle a figllI ^ AnT^, Nows re- 
ported from Hannover. 


Orders From Asia 
lift Mannesnumn 

Bknmhetg Buxines % \e*rs 

HANNOVER. Germany — 
Mannesmann AG said Tuesday 
that a surge in business in South- 


earlier, to 6.6 billion Deutsche 
marks ($4 billion), while orders 
rose 21 percent, to 8.4 billion DM. 

Speaking at the annual trade fair 
in Hannover, the metalworking 
and telecommunications concern’s 
chief executive. Werner Dieter, 
said foreign orders had increased 
considerably more quicklv than do- 
mestic orders. 

He said figures in the United 
States had seen a “dramatic in- 
crease" fueled by acquisitions. 


Heinz Kriwei. chairman of Thys- 
sen, said that orders from countries 
outside the European Union rose 
19 percent, accounting for most of 
the increase. The domestic market 
remained in a slump, however, .and 
orders had fallen 3 J percent during 
the period. 

Mr. Kriwet said the company's 
earnings continued to be pressed 
by steep losses at Thyssen Stahl 
AG, the company's steel unit. 

(AFP, Bloomberg) 


Germany Pushes Bonn 
As WTO Headquarters 


Reuim 

BONN — Economics Minis- 
ter Gilmer Rexrodt said Tues- 
day that the German cabinet 
was likely to agree within the 
next two weeks to formally re- 
quest that the headquarters of 
the new World Trade Organiza- 
tion should be based in Bonn. 

He said that Germany would 
base its case on the fact that it is 
the world's second-largest trad- 
ing, country, i t does not host any 
comparable international insti- 
tutions and it made a major 


contribution to the Uruguay 
Round of trade talks. 

Bonn, the former West Ger- 
man capital, is still the seal of 
government of united Germa- 
ny. but most ministries will 
move to Berlin by the end of the 
decade. 

Mr. Rexrodt said that Gene- 
va. cuneni site of the headquar- 
ters for the General Agreement 
on Tariffs and Trade, which the 
WTO is due to replace, would be 
a strong competitor. 


INTERN' VTTOWL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, APRIL 20, 1994 


Businesses Hit Russia Tax 


Reuters 

MOSCOW — U.S. business leaders on Tuesday 
assailed the confusion surrounding Russia's re- 
cently enacted tax on foreign loans. 

Hundreds of millions of dollars in U.S. invest- 
ment in Russia is being jeopardized by the 23 
percent tax, which is imposed on any loan made by 
a bank that is not licensed in Russia, ihe American 
Chamber of Commerce said. 

The business group called on Russia to ease the 
rules, saying the tax could stop foreign banks from 
lending money to Russian partners and threaten 
credit from international organizations, such as the 
World Bank and the European Bank for Recon- 
struction and Development. 

“If these tax inspectors’ interpretation is upheld, 
these loans will not be made," the Chamber said. 

George Reese, managing partner of Ernst & 
Young's Moscow consulting division* said many of 
the loans subject to the tax were for development 
in the vital oU and gas sector. 

“It is important that this is clarified very quickly 
so that much-needed loans are not delayed." he said. 

The Russian finance and economics ministries 
have tried to allay Western concern over the lax 
confusion by denying the existence of a tax on 


foreign loans and saying the government would 
soon clarify the issue.’ 

Mr. Reese said that until a decree or instruction 
clarified the tax, the Chamber’s more than 176 
members should reconsider loans that might be 
targeted by tax inspectors. “This means that a 
significant source of capital will not currently be 
available to Russian entities.'' he said. 

Larry Anderson of Coopers & Lybrand said tax 
inspectors might not be distinguishing between 
legitimate loans and trade transactions disguised 
as loans. The latter should be subject to the taxes. 

“They've interpreted all loans to be a camou- 
flage for trade transactions." he said 

Mr. Reese said there had been cases of trade 
transactions being presented as loans to escape 
tax. But attempts to crack down on this were 
bringing legitimate loans into the net. 

The Chamber said there had been speculation 
among its members that authorities were seeking 
to protect Russian banks by applying the taxes 
only to loans by foreign banks not licensed to 
operate in Russia. 

“It would be one way to ensure that loans are 
made through Russian banks." Mr. Reese said 


Roche Raises Its Payout 30% 


Compiled by Our Staff From Dispatches 

BASEL, Switzerland — Roche 
Holding AG said Tuesday it was 
raising its dividend 30 percent, to 
48 Swiss francs ($33) a share, be- 
cause of a profit increase last year. 

The planned dividend for each 
share and dividend rights certifi- 
cate. a nonvoting security, com- 
pared with 37 francs paid for 1992. 

The drug manufacturer said 
1993 group net profit rose 29 per- 
cent, to 15 billion francs, slightly 
exceeding the average forecast by 
analysis of a 27 percenL rise. 

“The earnings are in line with ray 
expectations, while the dividend in- 
crease is slightly above," said Birgit 


Kulhoff, pharmaceuticals analyst 
at Union Bank of Switzerland She 
said she would stick to her “buy" 
recommendation on Roche stock. 

The company said the improved 
profit resulted from increased use 
of production capacity and contin- 
ued cost controls. 

Sales rose to 143 billion francs 
from 13.0 billion francs, with all 
divisions contributing to the im- 
provement. Roche said. 

Two other Swiss drug compa- 
nies, Ciba-Geigy AG and Sandra 
AG, reported generally strong sales 
for the first quarter of 1994 on 
Monda« and predicted improved 
results for the full year. No fore- 


casts were included in Roche's an- 
nounce mem of 1993 results. 

Roche said it had spent 2.16 bil- 
lion francs last year on research 
and development, 8 percent more 
than it spent in 1992 and equal to 
15 percent of group sales. It said 
most of that spending — 1.81 bil- 
lion francs — had gone to the phar- 
maceutical division. 

In its divisional breakdown, 
Roche said sales had risen 13 per- 
cent in the pharmaceutical divi- 
sion, to 7.81 billion francs, 7 per- 
cent in the vitamins and fine 
chemicals division, to 327 billion 
Swiss francs. 

(AP. Bloomberg. AFP) 


Bonn Warns Banks on Schneider Affair 


Reuters 

FRANKFURT — Germany’s banks were; 
warned by Gunter Rexrodt, the country's eco- 
nomics minister, that they must act to prevent a 
crisis of confidence over the collapse of the 
Schneider real estate empire. 

Separately, the daily Die Welt said it would 
report in Wednesday’s editions that Jiirgen 
Schneider, the chief of the empire who disap- 
peared with his wife over Easter, was living on 
an island off the West coast of Florida in a villa 
that has been rented for four weeks. 

The report said that Claude Buhler. a Swiss 
interpreter working Tor the World Cup soccer 
organization, had recognized Mr. Schneider 
and spoke to him by posing as a gardener 
wanting to mow his lawn. According to the 
report. Mr. Schneider said: “We can talk about 


anything but not about the financial issue." 

Mr. Rexrodt said that he believed German 
banks would respond to his call to help compa- 
nies hit by the failure of the real estate group. 
He said that be believed tbe b anks “realized" 
that they “could get into a crisis of confidence." 

The collapse of Mr. Schneider’s empire was 
discussed by the German cabinet, which was 
worried about the fate of small suppliers and 
the image of Germany as a financial center. 

Meanwhile, Deutsche Bank AG. Germany's 
biggest bank, continued to defend itself for 
helping Mr. Schneider to amass bank debts of 5 
billion Deutsche marks ($2.92 billion). 

In an interview with the Frankfurter Allge- 
meine Zeitung. Deutsche Bank board member 
Georg Knipp conceded the bank would review 
its procedures for making large loans. But he 


Page 13 

EUROPE 


Metal Glut 
Means Loss 
At Pechiney 

Compiled by Our Staff From Dispatches 

PARIS — Pechiney SA, France's 
state-controlled aluminum produc- 
er, said on Tuesday that oversupply 
of the metal on world markets bad 
plunged the company into loss in 
1993 but that it still hoped to be 
privatized this year. 

The net loss of 980 mini on francs 
($168 million), contrasted with a 
203 million Trane profit in 1992 

Pechiney International, a two- 
thirds-owned subsidiary, reported 
a sharp fall in profit to 294 milli on 
francs from 1.97 billion. mainly 
due to weakness inits beverage-can 
business in the United States. 

Pectrincy SA’s core aluminum 
business showed an operating loss 
of 302 million francs, compared 
with an operating profit of 621 mil- 
lion in 1992 as the average alumi- 
num price last year fell 9 percent, to 
$1,161 per metric ton. 

“Production is completely exces- 
sive compared with demand," the 
chairman, Jean Gandots. said. 

Although he said Pechiney 
would break even in 1994, as alumi- 
num prices and world demand re- 
vived, he also said there was no 
chance of bringing inventories 
back down to reasonable levels for 
another 18 months. 

Mr. Gandots said he hoped that 
Pechiney would be privatized by 
the end of tbe year, although a 
report in Le Monde said the gov- 
ernment had put off a planned 
link-up with an independent elec- 
tricity producer. Compagnie Na- 
tional du Rhone. Aluminum 
smelting requires vast amounts of 
energy. ( Reuters, AFX. Bloomberg) 


FVwtfcfurt, 
OAX : 



London ••••.•• • Parts ' ; ! .w -.: •*;. 

Fn^ to&bxteg •. • CAC 40 •= • : r . 

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added, “We have no knowledge of grave mis- 
takes at the bank." 

Deutsche Rank, Mr. Schneider's biggest credi- 
tor. has been criticized by stale prosecutors for 
holding back information relating to the demise 
of the real estate company Dr. Jurgen Schneider 
AG, a claim it vehemently denies. 

The bank was also forced to deny rumors on 
the Frankfurt exchange that Deutsche Bank 
board members had been arrested on suspicion 
of taking bribes from Mr. Schneider's compa- 
ny. 

A spokesman said this was “an absurd asser- 
tion with no basis in fact" The rumors had 
depressed the Deutsche Bank share by 3030 
DM, or nearly 4 percent, to 748 DM during 
flora trading. Later the stock recovered to 
755.80 DM. down 2270 DM, or 29 percent. 


Parte-- S. .. CAQ40 ' 

" Vkwttwt 1 tnd ear 1 ' ‘ \ 

s -5tiytcfe - ' -g94jB8' 

Sources: Reuters, AFP Uwnulional Herald Tribune 


Very brleflys 

• Ireland named Maurice O'Connell as the next governor of its central 
bank. Mr. O'Connell is currently the undersecretary Tor monetary affairs 
at the Treasury; he will replace Maurice Doyle, who is retiring at the end 
of April. 

• Loudon International Group PLC, the British maker of condoms and 
surgical gloves, plans to cut up to 1.000 jobs and close its three domestic 
plants to shift production to cheaper offshore facilities. It also will sell 
“noncore" assets to raise £19 million ($28 million) to fund restructuring. 

• RhOne-Potdenc SA’s purchase of Cooperation Phannaceutiqne Fran- 
£ 2 ise has been approved by the European Commission, which found the 
purchase did not violate the European Union's merger regulations. 

• France’s trade smplus widened to 5.4 billion francs ($924 million) in 
February from 2605 billion francs in January. 

• Pharmacia Biotech AB, the Swedish pharmaceutical company, is begin- 
ning a three-year program to concentrate production into fewer factories. 

• Unidanmark A/S, the D anish banking company, earned 885 million 

kroner ($132 million) in 1993, but its management said the results were 
still unacceptable and did not offset losses of 7.42 billion kroner since 
1990, when the company was created. AP. afx. afp 


GAN’s Profit Disappoints 


Compiled by Our Staff From Dispatches 

PARIS — Groupe des Assur- 
ances Nationals. France’s ihird- 
laigest state-controlled insurer, on 
Tuesday reported 1993 results that 
disappointed investors, but the com- 
pany said things would get better. 

“Our results should rise signifi- 
cantly in the years to come," the 
chairman. Francois Heilbronner, 
said after GAN reported a 3 potent 
rise in net profit, to 414 million 
French francs ($71.4 million). 


GAN had predicted a significant 
increase in 1993 profit as recently 
as last October, and Tuesday's an- 
nouncement sent the stock tum- 
bling 1920 francs, or more than 4 
percent, to 40280 francs. 

Mr. Heilbronner said GAN's im- 
proved earnings prospects should 
clear the way for the company's 
sale by the state by early next year. 

(Bloomberg, Reuters. AFP) 


NYSE 

Tuesday’s dosing 

Tables include tbe nationwide prices up to 
the dosing on Wall Street and do not reflect 
late trades elsewhere. Via The Associated Press 

~ (Continued)” 


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Page 14- 


INTERN VTIONM, HERAI.D TRIBl'iYE, WEDNESDAY. APRIL 20 . 1994 


investments 


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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, APRIL 20, 1994 


Page 15 


ASIA/PACIFIC 


*^ d V1WUl 

sSSriSSssa 

said Tuesdav ifff 0 ^nes Co The company has said ' / ower *kan those in Japan. 

lives to emolavel?^ offcr incen- measures should helD it C !S2? lUng n^* 5 opc ^ alions ** drasti- 
coSaSSw^f^ over 30 m ^.^cxammed with more use of 

««^e early mancial year. subsidiary companies to develop a 

sSSfe'tta =S 3 arSWs S 5 »a?*st 

££^ssnss ^ e . 5 „ ra|Pto 

^^sS 5 £—‘ prxs 

Normal retirements tran^ SS— 1 u to versify graduate ground °f *he 1 997-98 financial year from a 
and reduced hirina ak? fWS ^ kcr n p* would be 16.2 million Piously planned S40 billion yen. 
]&“<“ Mp C| te «bin ..^«*0*iI*PS 
loroe down to 17 4ivr * 

sent level of ,ts 


Japanese Investors 
Beat Retreat From 
U.S. Real Estate 


lorce down to 17 40C)£™« \ * ^owd be 10 million yen. CUB raiI BmS from 13 percent to 30 

sent level of 21 650 1 Ia? ‘l. pr<s The airline also nlanmvt P 6 " 50 * 1 10 share the company’s fi- 

dve said. The SnJ «** by repLS £S?. to OTt muidal difficulties withotba em- 

iflcludes 3 J00 emund ^ UCU0Q flight attendants ^a/i»h f a P anese ploy ees. But the company would 

a^E3?as ggg^ss ssssa: “ 

^assata.'s ^pssssns». 

Bank Bumiputra Is Up for Sale 

KUALA LUMPUR * tijpa ? d,a to be made through Bank Negara, the central bank, 

is willing to sell its S overain em Treasury officials said. 

Bank Bumjputra M alemi* Si? *?«.**; stale "<3wned Bank Bumiputra is wholly owned by Minister of 

minister Anwar Ibmhim^.-j x ' *5® deputy P*** Finance Inc, the government’s investment arm. 
”»^Tk^i Tues ? y : , The bank is Malaysia's second-largest, with assets of 

thebanktoapartvwfad^S^V 0 *** °t seUin S <hao 23 billion ringgit It is believed to have acai- 

weH” said Damif we /bink can manage the bank mulated losses of more than 1 billion ringgit at the end 

He refused to “ t° Cnance ®™»r. of last year, fhot^h it is expected to post a pretax profit 

J jindmor i-r Bhw °° m ^ cct s P ecu laboa that of 350 million ringgit fortbeyear ended March 31. 

% Ug—, eh,*—. frt la 7 a ^“kysan hotel developer, had The bank was set up 29 years ago largely to provide 

bid vnlned at t ^ °f the bank in a financial assistance to indigenous Malaysians. The 

marVc hac r 00 W33 mflion). Land- government has twice baileoBank Bumiputra out of 

A-lSES „ financial difficulties, and banking analysts said the 

Any application to buy Bank Bumiputra will have government now wanted to sell. (AFP, AFX) 


Los Angela Tuna Service 

LOS ANGELES — Burned 
by recessions and falling real 
estate values on both sides of 
the Pacific. Japanese investors 
now trying to sell or lower the 
debt on a staggcring40 percent 
of the American office towers 
and other commercial proper- 
ties they have purchased over 
the past eight years, according 
to a survey by an accounting 
and consulting firm. 

These holdings are valued at 
577 trillion. 

In a dramatic ri gn thyr big 
foreign buyers no longer sec 
owning VS properties as a sure- 
fire way to make money, the 
report by Los Angdes- based 
Kenneth Leventhal & Co. said 
that Japanese investors bought 
only 5705 million in American 
real estate last year — a mere 4 
percent of the SI 6.54 bflBon they 
invested when their baying 
binge peaked in 1988. 

Nearly all of the 1993 invest- 
ments went to finish up projects 
the Japanese had begun years 
agp, primarily hold ventures in 
Hawaii, said Jack Rodman, die 
Kenneth Leventhal partner who 
compiled the animal survey. 

For the first time since Le- 
venthal started publishing the 
annual study in 1986, sales, 
foreclosures and loan-restruc- 
turings by Japan-based compa- 
nies actually surpassed the 


amount of their brand-new in- 
vestments in America. 

In a sense, Mr. Rodman said, 
the survey's finding s mark the 
official rad of a nearly decade- 
long buying spree in which Jap- 
anese investors purchased some 
of America’s most treasured 
properties, including Rockefel- 
ler Center in New York and the 
Pebble Beach golf course in 
Northern California. 

Many Of those rinak have 
soured. Pebble Beach was sold 
by its Japanese owner for an 
estimated $340 million loss in 
1992, while Mitsubishi Estate 
Co.’s controlling interest in 
Rockefeller Center is worth less 
than its share of the mortgage. 

The Japanese began to slow 
their U.S. investments in 1990, 
shortly after their own stock 
market began falling and reces- 
sion tightened its bold on the 
economies of both the United 
States and Japan. 

Japanese investors "are is a 
very delicate position right 
now,** said Yokuo Takenaka of 
Takenaka & Co. Investment, a 
Los Angeles- based firm that 
provides advice to Tokyo-based 
companies. “If they keep the 
properties they have here, some 
will continue to lose millio ns of 
dollars. But hf they sell all at 
once, they could make a bad 
situation worse.’’ 


Taiwan Cable-TV Firms Rolls-Royce Gets China Outlet 

Til T1 a nm a w 


Plan a Boycott of STAR 


The Associated Press 

TAIPEI — Cable-television 
Operators said Tuesday they 
would boycott STAR TV’s new 
pay channel for movies because 
the Hong Kong-based satellite 
broadcaster was char g in g too 
much. 

STAR planned to Launch Star 
Movies Wednesday in Taiwan, 
where cable- television operators' 
have aired its programs without 
paying royalties since 1991. 

Chiang Te-le, president of 
the Community Antenna Asso- 
ciation, which represents more 


than 600 cable- television opera- 
tors. said STAR was overcharg- 
ing for its new chann el. 

Saying a Taiwan company 
had signed a $9.5 mDbon-a-year 
contract with STAR to be the 
sole agent for Star Movies, he 
said the price was an overcharge 
of at least 100 percent and said 
cable-TV operators were ex- 
pected to share the costs. 

Officials of STAR in Taiwan 
refused to commenL 
Taiwan cable-TV operators 
also plan to boycott STAR’S 
four free channels. 


Compiled by Our Staff From Dispatches 

BEUING — Rolls-Royce Motor Cars Ltd. signed an 
agreement Tuesday awarding Inchcape PLC exclusive 
rights to import and distribute its luxury cars in China. 

The si gning ceremony was hdd at China’s Great 
Wall, near Beijing. 

The Asian unit of Inchcape, a British automotive 
trader, plans to establish import centers in Beijing, 
Shanghai and Cantqn and appoint dealers on H ainan 
Island and in Canton, said lan Skeggs, (he company’s 
director for the Asia-Pacific region. 

He said Inchcape had sold 51 Rolls-Royces to 
customers in mainland China via its franchise in Hong 
Kong since 1992. 

The buyers included foreign joint ventures and 
luxury hotels, but most were private Chin ese business- 
men, Mr. Skeggs said. 

The mainland deal includes the right to sell Bentley 
cars, but Rolls-Royce models so far have proven more 


popular, said Michael Donovan, a Rolls-Royce man- 
aging director. 

Mr. Donovan said he expected sales to reach about 
100 a year within a few years. 

“There's obviously a very good demand here for 
luxury goods, whether it be cars, clothing or jewelry.’’ 
Mr. Skeggs said. 

Counting China's 150 percent import duty, a Rolls- 
Royce Silver Spur costs an average of 3,750,000 yuan 
(5430,000). 

In Hong Kong, company executives quoted a price 
at £133.800 (5197.000) and said that was before the 
import tax, dealers’ commissions and other fees. 

Mr. Skeggs said 94 Rolls-Royces were sold last year 
in Hong Kong, where there are similar taxes. 

Although Ibe cars are out of the reach of most 
people in China, where urban per-capita average 2340 
yuan a year, those who have money like to flaunt it. 

(AF, Reuters, Bloomberg, AFP) 


Citicorp 
Awaits Fine 
In India 

The Associated Press 

WASHINGTON — Gticorp ex- 
pects to be fined by bank regulators 
m India for its involvement in a 
securities scandal that led to the 
collapse of the Bombay stock mar- 
ket in 1992, according to company 
documents. 

A spokesman for the New York- 
based bank holding company do* 
dined Monday to elaborate on the 
szeof the expected fine: The com- 
pany’s annual report on file with 
the U.S. Securities and Exchange 
Commission, which mife the dis- 
closure, said any fine imposed 
would not have a mat erial impact 
on the company’s finances. 

Citicorp, thro oiher major inter- 
national banking concerns and sev- 
eral Indian banks have been under 
investigation in India for two years, 
but the Citicorp report contains the 
first admission that the company 
expected lo be fined as a result 

The banks are accused of nrisre- 
porting millions of dollars and ille- 
gally diverting government bonds 
to make funds available to selected 
stockbrokers for quick speculation. 

The improper transactions were 
a factor in a tumble in the Bombay 
stock market in which millions of 
middle-dass investors lost heavily. 

Citicorp. BankAmerica Coip n 
Standard Chartered PLC of Britain 
and ANZ Grindlays Bank PLC of 
Australia were named, along with 
Indian banks in the investigation of 
improper securities dealings, In- 
dia’s regulators have said. 

The incident led Gticorp to take 
a $64 million pretax charge last 
year. 


Reliance Posts 
Surge in Net 


BOMBAY — Reliance In- 
dustries Ltd. said Tuesday its 
profit grew a stronger-tnan- 
expected 79 percent, to 5.76 
billion rupees (5185 nriSian), 
in the year ended March 31. 

Analysts said the results at 
the textiles and petrochemi- 
cals concern, India’s largest 
private company, heralded an 
improved performance for 
several industrial sectors. 

“One would expect a similar 
land of growth in earnings of 
other big companies,” said R. 
Balakrisnnan, of DSP Finan- 
cial Consultants in Bombay. 



Sources: Reuters. AFP 


Ini a n mo nd Herald Tribune 


Very briefly: 

• Sing a pore intends to plow 20 percent to 30 percent of its investment 
capital into developing Asian nations, largely China, Vietnam, India and 
Burma, Prime Minister Goh Cbok Tong said 

• Royal Bank of Scotland is to sell its 64 percent stake in Associated 
Merchant Bank Pte. of Singapore to a Hong Kong-based venture, UMF, 
owned by Janfine Pacific Ltd and General Electric Capita) Services. 

• The Asian Development Bank's president, Milsuo Sato, said Asia- 
Pacific countries win soon fed the effects of a loan squeeze as donors 
focus on the enormous needs of Russia and Eastern Europe. 

• Mokfi Corp. signed a production-sharing deal for the Thanh Long oil 
field off Vietnam. 

• Oestooe Energy Corp. began a Chinese-backed search for oil in South 
C hina Sea waters that also are claimed by Vietnam. 

• Daimler-Benz AG said its sales in China reached 13 billion Deutsche 
marks ($760 million) in 1993 and will grow strongly this year. 

• The Bank of Japan said money supply, measured by M-2 plus certifi- 
cates of deposit, expanded 2 percent in March from a year earlier, the 
fastest pace of growth since December 1991. AFP. AFX. ap. Rentes 


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recistered office in Luxembourg, 14, rue Aktrinqen, on April 29, 1994 
at 2.00 pm for tie purpose of considering and waling upon the 
foSowing matters: 

1) To hear and accept 

a) the management report of the Directors 

b) toe report of the AudBor 

2) To approve the statement of net assets and tie statement 
of operations for the year ended December 31, 1993. 

3) To discharge the Directors wffii respect to their perfomrcnce of 
duties tor tne period ended December 31 , 1993. 

4) To elect tie Directors to seive until the next annuel general 
meeting of shareholders. 

5 ) To elect the Auditor to serve until the next annual general 
meeting of shareholders. 

6) Any other business. 

The shareholders are atMsed that no quorum for the stetutocy 
general meeting is requred and ftaf decisions wi be taken at the 
majority of the shares present or represented at the meeting. 

to order to lake part at toa statutory meeting of April 29, 1994 the 
owners of bearer shares wil have to deposit fiat 'shares five dear 
days before the meeting at toe mastered office of toe Fund, 14, rue 
Awringen, Luxembourg, or with the foflowtog bank: 

Banque Generate du Luxembourg S A 

14, me AJdrfngen 

Luxemboirg 

The Board of Directors 


| iu i Rtou oiiu ca^cpi. 

a) toe management report of the Directors 
b} toe report of toe AudBor 


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^6 

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Page 16 


INTERN VTIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, APRIL 20. 1994 


i: worthy. ^ yin pc ire UwtjfcMOrge 


NASDAQ 


Tuesday’s 4 p.m. 

This list compiled by the AP, consists of the 1 ,000 
most traded securities in terms ot dollar value. It is 
updated twice a year. 


I? Month 
Mgh Low Slock 


Sis 


triv Ytd PE Itth High LowLotafOrge 


14to 

ao*i_ M 

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26*10* ACC CP 
24 3*. ACS Efis 

<4* 2a* AOC Tc 
44 19% ADC 3 
17 11 V, AES dm 


_ 23 722 14* 13* 14 
„ _ 29 14* 16* 16* + % 

_ 16 1675 26* 24 24*— 2* 
.120 A 13 «0 21* 20*21* 

_ _ 680 13 12% 12* +* 

23%lB*AE5Cps AS I 17 18 170 20* 155 

25 Z2*AKSteel - _ 1590 24 23% IT* 

22*15* APS Hid _ ZB »S 19 17* 18 — IV. 

15* 6* ASK - .. 1506 8* Bft, 8* — 

33 12* AST - _ 3018 18* 17* T7W- 

29* 17 Abb^yH - 12 _53? 21 

S % iMAdnms 
■413 AoneMiet 

20* 9 A ael 
15* B AdocLb 
22* WMaftl 


.16 


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37 16% AdobeS 5 J20 

12* eft,AdvPni 
11% 6*AdvTl3S 

46%24%Advomas JO 
38* 20% AdvontB l J4 
15 7ft*gncvR 


... — r 20* 20* — % 

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_ 20 897 24 22* 22*— 1* 

_ 34 463 II 10* 11. * W 

AS 56 7 902 8* 8% 8* _. 

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Z Z 121? 7* 6* 6* — * 

*IV F 


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IB* 9*AWilas — S 1065 16* 16 


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7C7 14 13* 13 — * 


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Li £ 582 23* 33* 22* — '<* 
15 258 19* 19* 19* -* 
Z - 1535 7* 6* 7% *% 

_ 1893 30 17* 17*— 2* 

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1J 374 14* 14% 14* - * 


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Dh YU FE 10b HWi Low Laiwi 01*96 


l.SOe 5 A 


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AMEX 



Tuesday’s Closing 

Tables include the nationwide prices up to 
the dosing on Wall Street and do not reflect 
late trades elsewhere. V7a The Associated Press 


13 Month 
MBhLow Stock 


as 


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i h siii; 


In the East, 
A Feeling of 
Optimism 


A IJ-ENSBACH, Germany — If you 
sem three reporters to Eastern Ger- 
ma ny today with the question, 
“How would you describe the East 
German mentality and how would you say it- 
has changed since reunification?*’ they would 
be very likely to return with three different 
answers — and all three would be correct. The 
first would describe the economic situation, 
the second would address attitudes toward 
dauperacy and the market economy, while the 
third would reflect a sense of national identity. 

In the winter of 1989/1990, after the fall of 
the Berlin Wall, much was said and written 
about newly won freedom, about the tremen- 
dous experience of the “Monday demonstra- 
tions” in Leipzig and the sudden awareness 
throughout the nation that “We are one peo- 
ple!" 

As early as February 1990, however, public 
attention had turned to the economic aspects 
alone. While this was understandable initially 
in light of the monetary reform and economic 
union scheduled to take effect on July 1, 1990, 
the economy continued to be the only subject 
worth talking about subsequently. AD efforts 
were devoted to the transformation of the 
socialist planned economy into a market econ- 
omy and the race to catch up in terms of 
income, in order to match the West German 
standard of living as quickly as possible 
There was such an outcry over the collapse 
of many businesses, the loss of security that 
had previously been taken for granted, the 
increase in unemployment and the harshness 
of the competitive economy that the change in 
dimate in August 1991 went unnoticed. At the 
time, the East Germans outdistanced the West 
Germans in terms of optimism. 

Since then, East Goman response, to the 
question, “Is it with hopes or with fears that 
you view the coming 12 months?” have consis- 
tently been 10 lo 15 percentage points ahead of 
West German hopes. 

Another question that has been posed each 
month by the AUcmbach Institute since April 
1990 reads: “As far as you’re concerned, is 
German reunification generally a reason to 
rejoice or a cause for concern?” Whfle the ratio 
of respondents who fed reunification is a “rea- 

Continued on page 18. . 


International Herald Tribune 



A Special Report 


n Page 17 

Wednesday , April 20, 1994 

Parti 


Germany 



Sources; Goman Federal Statistics Office, OECD, Bloomberg. 


Imcmtl onil Den ld Tribonc 


Recession Shakes Nation’s Confidence 


By Graig R. WMtney 

B ONN — The exuberant self-confi- 
dence and arrogance that made Ger- 
many's neighbors nervous when the 
country was reunified in 1990 has 
been shaken by the worst recession since the 
post-Worid War II recovery. 

Few Germans talk much anymore about the 
“model Germany” they touted in the mid- 
1970s. when Bonn's welfare stale, wage levels, 
and such things as 30 days' annual vacation for 
every factory weaker were the envy of much of 
the rest pf Europe. 

From Chancellor Helmut Kohl to his Social 
Democratic challenger in the October national 
elections, Rudolf Scharping, German politi- 
cians these days are talking instead about the 
need- to make thdir economy more competitive 


by reducing government regulations and “en- 
crusted" labor practices that make production 
costs in Germany among the highest in Eu- 
rope. 

Britain's far less regulated economy has 
been growing for the past two years. Germa- 


percent last year and no one except the govern- 
ment expects it to rise out of the doldrums by 
more than 0J percent this year. Unemploy- 
ment, hovering around 4 million, around 10 
percent of the labor force, has not been so high 
since the 1930s. 

The picture is not all black. “The Germans 
will make an economic comeback, don’t you 
worry about that," Mr. Kohl said confidently a 
few weeks ago, and few doubt that they wfiL 

They have also resigned themselves to the 
fact that repairing the cr umblin g physical and 


What is the Pioneer in Warehouse Technology displaying 

at the Hanover Trade Fair? 


Economy Is Top Issue 
As Elections Near 

Will Kohl Be Out Before Upturn Conies? 


economic infrastructure of the five formerly 
communist states of Eastern Germany will cost 
the prosperous west about 170 biHiou Deut- 
sche marks (S100 bflDoa) a year for the next 10 
years. . , 

But four years ago Mr. Kohl was saying that 
it would take only a wave of the hand and a few 
years to transform the east It is not only the 
economic setbacks that have been chastening. 

In the flush erf unification, Germans heavy- 
handedly promoted national self-deiemrinar 
lion for others, dragging their European Com- 
munity partners into recognizing Croatia and 
Slovenia at the end of 1991 without sufficient 
insistence on protecting the rights of ethnic 
minorities. Some German officials now ac- 
knowledge that their haste fanned Serb fears 
that led to aggression in Croatia and later in 

Continued on page 18 


By Brandon Mitchener 

B ONN — The German economy, Eu- 
rope’s biggest, is catching its breath 
for a recovery from its worn reces- 
sion since worid War IL but the 
government of Chancellor Helmut Kohl might 
not survive to see it. 

After 12 years in power, Mr. Kohl faces the 
greatest contest of his political career as indica- 
tions mount that the recovery wffl arrive well 
after federal parliamentary elections in October. 

Moreover, voters are painfully aware that 
the r e covery, when it comes, by itself will be 
too slow to pat the country’s nearly 4 million 
jobless back to work anytime in the foreseeable 
future. 

An experienced statesman who devoted 
much of his attention over the last few years to 
European integration, Mr. Kohl now faces a 
nation whose interests are angularly domestic: 
jobs, crime and taxes. 

Economics Minister Gunter Rexroat pre- 
dicts the economy will shake off recession and 
resume steady growth by the autumn, with 
pan-German growth amounting to 1.5 percent 
this year. But many private-sector economists 
are more reserved. 

Recent data show economic activity stabi- 
lized in the first quarter after weakening to- 
ward the end of last year. Analysts at Goldman 

fttdw in Frankfurt cited a steady rise in busi- 
ness confidence and an improvement in new 
orders to manufacturing industry as evidence 
that the economy is Hkdy to pick up in the 
second quarter. 

“We expect the two main forces presently 
driving the West German recovery — con- 
struction and exports — to pull the gross 
domestic product higher in the rem ain der of 
this year and to lay the ground for an eventual- 
ly broader-based recovery in 1995," Goldman 
said in a recent report 
Herbert Hax, head of an independent advi- 
sory board known as the five wise men, is 
convinced that the economy will bounce back 
in 1995 at the earliest 
As the economy gathers steam and inflation 
and interest rates decline, meanwhile, unon- 
ploymcut has entered the limelight as a nagging 

Port II of the Germany special report will 
appear in Thursday’s paper. 


problem that won’t go away whether the recov- 
ery comes now or later. “Despite the signs that 
the economy will turn the comer soon, the job 
market is in desolate shape," said Gfhner Kaon, 
an economist at Deutsche Industriebank. 

In March, 3.9 mil Ho n Germans were regis- 
tered jobless, including 2.64 million in Western 
Germany and 1.26 millio n in the East Another 
460,000 West Germans and 135,000 East Ger- 
mans were working shorter shifts and thou- 
sands more were involved in government re- 
training and make-work schemes. 

Albrecht Schmidt, a member of the board of 
Baycrische Vereiiisbank AG in Munich, said a 
recovery will not completely compensate for 
the wwnrwntr. damage the recession has done. 
“It is in particular hardly to be expected that 
unemployment slip back to the level at which it 
rested before the recession began,” he said. 
Before the recession, only about 2 million peo- 
ple were jobless in all of Germany. 

Mr. Schmidt dted a variety of negative fac- 
tors including continuing recessions elsewhere, 
German exporters’ sluggish adaptation to a 
strong Deutsche mark and the leva of German 
wages, which remain among the world's high- 
est despite a recent turn toward austerity. 

Only the economic condition of Germany’s 
trading partners gives cause for hope anytime 
soon, Mr. Schmidt said, pointing out that the 
United States and some other export markets 
are already on the way to recovery. 

New jobs in the service sector are malting up 
for some erf the culs in industry, but not fast 
enough to keep the seasonally adjusted unem- 
ployment figure from rising for several more 
months. 

Otherwise, the Bundesbank’s reduction of in- 
terest rates has been agonizingly slew and may 
have stopped. Public-sector borrowing, which 
pots upward pressure on rates, has been growing 
relentlessly. 

Brigitte Schulz, a political analyst at Nomu- 
ra Research Institute Deutschland in Frank- 
furt, said the Greens “are the only ones trying 
to come up with fundamentally new answers to 
the unemployment crisis" and noted similar- 
ities between their economic program and that 
of the liberal Free Democrats, the junior part- 
ner in the current governing coalition. 

Both parties are promoting deregulation, 
privatization, job creation and environmental 
protection. The main difference between them 

Continued on page 18 


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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, APRIL 20, 1994 




Page 18 


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Germany! A Special Report 


Election Scenario: Key Is How the Free Democrats and the Greens Do 

Of a. ov; 


By Erwin Graixfinger 


B ERLIN — Germany is holding 19 
elections this year, including a presi- 
dential election scheduled for May 
23. After the fust two of them, there 
is some chance that die Social Democrats will 
be in and the ruling Christian Democrats win 
be out after the round of voting ends with 
federal elections Oct 16. 

But it is-stffl too early to give up on the 
present CDU/CSU/FDP coalition govern- 
ment, asa recent rebound in approval rates for 
Chancellor Helmut Kohl ana his CDU has 
shown after an announcement of possible tax. 
increases by his opponent, the Social Demo- 
crat leader, Rudolf Scharping. 

While a Grand Coalition wouldn't be per- 
ceived as necessarily negative, an SPD-Green 
Party coalition on the federal level would raise 
grave questions in and outside Germany. The 
Greens want to abolish the North Atlantic 
Treaty Organization and the German army, for 
instance. SPD/Green governments are quite 
normal on the state level, as in Hessen or 
Brandenburg, but at the federal level no one 
could predict the survival chances of such a 
government — which by definition would be 


unstable, combining two parlies with opposing 
political philosophies. 

Mr. Scharping will make strenuous efforts to 
avoid this eventuality. Nevertheless, the Octo- 
ber election results could oblige him to com- 
bine with the Greens or the CDU to form a 
majo rity in the Bundestag, or Lower House. In 
fact, Mr. Scharping watched the Greens' move 
back to the ‘'fundamentalist" stance at the last 
party conference with disdain. 

The former Bundesbank president, Karl 
Otto P5H, a longtime SPD member, is bring 
wooed as sha dow SPD finance minister. Such 
an appointment would add votes from the 
conservative electorate and calm financial 
markets that are jittery over an SPD federal 
victory. Most significantly for Mr. Scharping. 
having Mr. PflNL a strong critic of Bonn's 
excessive fiscal expansion of the early 1990s. 
on the team would finally lay to rest the suspi- 
cions of fiscal Irresponsibility that dog his 

^^hat is not dear is how a P&h! appointment 
could be squared with the private agreement 
last year that the SPD vice-chairman, Oskar 
Lafontaine, should be offered a “super minis- 
try,” heading both the economics and finance 
ministry. 

June 12 is next crucial date on the German 


political calendar. This marks elections for the 
European Parliament as well as for the govern- 
ment of at least one state and no fewer than 
nine local elections. By this time, just four 
months before the federal ballot, results will 
begin to foretell the outcome at the federal 
leveL 

The Greens will perform very strongly over 
the next few mourns despite mdr drift back 
toward a hard-line platform, and they may 
become the big winner of super election year 
1994. 

At the last party convention, in March, the 
“realist" wing, led by its highest-profile offi- 
cial, Joschka Fischer, who is the environment 
minister of Hessen, was defeated and members 
voted to abolish both the German army and 
NATO, to increase gasoline prices to 5 Deut- 
sche marks per liter (SI 2.45 per gallon) and to 
close all nuclear power plants immediately. 

. The liberal FDP party, meanwhile, is facing 
its deepest crisis since 1949. Since the Branden- 
burg elections on Dec. 5, the FDP has lost 
every state election it fought In Hamburg and 
Lower Saxony it did not exceed the 5 percent 
threshold needed for political representation. 
It seems not likely, but there is some risk that 
the FDP may fail for the first time in the 


In the East, the Outlook Is Optimistic 


Continued from page 17 

son to rejoice" or a “cause for concern" is 
about I to 1 in Western Germany, joy wins out 
hy almost l in 1 among East Germans. Only 12 
percent of respondents in late 1993 said they 
would rescind reunification if it were feasible. 

The most recent Allensbach survey, con- 
ducted in March J994, shows that the economy 
is finally beginning to blossom in Eastern Ger- 
many. Sixty-seven percent of the East German 
population report that things are definitely 
looking up in their immediate surroundings: 6 1 
percent say they have made gains thanks to 
reunification, while 25 percent feel they have 
lost out as a result. The standard of living, the 
level at which households are equipped, is by 
and large in line with the standard in Western 
Germany. The discretionary income of East 
German households has increased by leaps and 
bounds and is now almost at West German 
levels. 

If asked' how the mentality of the East Ger- 
mans has changed since reunification, a suc- 
cinct response would be: “Not at all.” The 
economic transition, the adjustment to the 
more generous West German social security 
system (pensions have almost tripled within 
four years), the transformation of private life- 
styles — all of these changes have occurred 
without a rejection of socialism and a turn to 
parliamentary democracy. 

The question, “Do you think that socialism 
was a good idea that was badly implemented?” 
drew almost exactly the same responses in 
Eastern Germany in December 1992 as in the 
spring of 1990 in what was then the GDR: 
About three-fifths of the East Goman popula- 
tion felt this was true, 24 percent did not 
believe so. and one out of five was undecided. 

The market economy is viewed with great 
reserve. As was the case in all socialist coun- 
tries around the world, in the former GDR the 
market economy was merely a symbol of a high 
standard of living. In the first Allensbach inter- 
views in March 1990, almost the entire popula- 
tion expressed support for the market economy. 

But only six months later, in the fall of 1990, a 
growing desire for a utopian “third course” was 
evident, as shown by the foDowing question: 
“Recently somebody said to us: ‘With reunifica- 
tion. a real chance was lost to create a new form 
of government that combines a market econo- 
my, humane values and socialism.’ Would you 
also have liked a new form of government, or are 
you quite satisfied that the Federal Republic's 
form of government won out?” 

In the first year following reunification, the 
East German population was split on this 
question, with about 40 percent chi each side. 
Today, almost half of the East German popu- 
lation would prefer a for m of government in 


An Eastern Paradox 

As Average Income Rises... 

Average monihty discretionary income, in Deutsche marks. 


508 


530 


544 

-©■ 


484 


Western Germany 


'SI 


’92 


*93 


...Economic Confidj&rifce Drops 

% of East Germans who hove a '■ , 
good apinton rtf fhoBcinnomlCvy ' v ' 
system ki trie Federal fleputrfc- 

••• • 4 


Source: AJtensbacto A/ctvves 

which a market economy, humane values and 
socialism are combined and only one-third still 
fed that the market economy is the proper 
foundation for politics and society. No thought 
is given to the question of how an economy 
works and how it finds the reserves to transfer 
about 500 billion Deutsche marks (S300 bil- 
lion) from the West to the East to rebuild the 
new East German states. 

Similarly, the East Germans’ commitment to 
democracy is now on shaky ground. In 1990. it 
looked as if parliamentary democracy would 
be accepted by the population as a matter of 
course: For decades, the East Germans spent 
evenings in their living rooms watching West 
German television, which seemed to explain the 
seemingly effortless transition to the West Ger- 
man democracy. But then uncertainty set in. 
better?", three-quarters of the West German 
population have said for the last 25 years that 
“our democracy is the best form of govern- 
ment,” with only 10 percent disagreeing. In 
East Germany, 4 1 percent felt it was “the best 
form of government" in the fall of 1990, as 
compared with only 31 percent today. The 
percentage of persons who feel that “there is a 
different form of government that is better” 



frrtcmacionaf Hcraki Ttnhoae 


rose from 19 percent in 1990 to 28 percent in 
March 1994. There is widespread uncertainty: 
Today. 41 percent of the East Germans say 
they “don’t know ” The problems inherent in 
the transition to democracy after 50 years of 
dictatorial rule have been underestimated. 

This portrayal would be incomplete if the 
third essential element were not considered: 
They may not hold the same opinions, but as 
far as their natures are concerned, as well as 
their views on the meaning of life and the 
things they fed they can lake pride in as 
Germans. East and West Germans are as much 
alike as brothers and sisters. The “wall in their 
heads” after the fall of the Berlin Wall is a 
stereotype created by journalists and not a 
reflection of reality. And thus, out of 20 con- 
cerns that the Allensbach Institute has asked 
respondents about every month since the 
spring of 1990, the possibility of “tension 
breaking out between East and West Ger- 
mans” has always ranked last or second to lasL 

ELISABETH NOELLE-NEUMANN is direc- 
tor of the Allensbach Institute for Public-Opinion 
Research in Allensbach, Germany. 


postwar period to win representation in the 

Bundestag. 

The FDP is in danger of confusing its funda- 
mental electoral message. It lost the Lower 
Saxony elections because it made a last-minute 
swing toward the SPD. saying it would be 
willing to jean the Left in a coalition govern- 
ment. Now, FDP members are criticizing Gun- 
ter Rewodt, die federal economics minister. 
accusing him of not bong sufficiently aggres- 
sive in the discussion about Germany as a 
competitive production site; 

Political insiders agree that the FDP leader. 
Klaus Kinkel, is overburdened because he is 
both FDP chairman and foreign minister at the 
same time. This has two consequences: A de- 
crease in approval rates for the FDP and the 
creation of inner-party competitors for Mr. 
KinkeL 

JOrgen Mdllemann. the former economics 
minister who had to resign because of a scan- 
dal in January 1993, has established himwlf as 
a rival and does his best to sabotage Mr. 
KinkeTs policies. 


Hus quarrel will diminish stiU 
FDFs chances of overcoming the 5 percent 
threshold at the federal level. „ . ■ 

The Social Democrats under Mr. Scharping, 
meanwhile, have been hurt by asugg^nofl ^ 
they would increase iheuniffcanoa sure^ 
tax on the wealthy- This reflects the taac 
philosophy of the'SPD economic progra^ 
wStsto reform taxation by shifting the 
burden of income from the low-paid to the 
apparently wealthy. The plan to increase tn 
sScW tax was heavily criticized by to 
media and will cut into SPD support if it 
reawakens to electorate's perception of it as 
the partv of higher taxes. 

Throughout his whole political hfe. Mr. 
Scharpme has sharply criticized the Greens 
and would no doubt prefer a coalition with to 
Free Democrats. As premier of ^^dand- 
Palatinate. he selected the FDP as coalition 
partner and not the Greens, despite the fact 
that to latter was a more acceptable coalition 
partner within to grass-roots, and that a 
“Red/Green” coalition already existed just 


across the Rhine river in Wiesbaden, capital of 
Hessen. However, Mr. Scbaroing is too shrewd 
a politician to approach the Greens now unless 
they make a sharp U-turn to seriously de- 
nounce their declared policies on to army and 

NATO. * 

Consequently, it is still too early to take a 
coherent view on the likelihood of a Grand ' 
Coalition- So far, to SPD fa^ perfonned well 
and shrugged off to burst of popularity en- 
joyed by to governing CDU after its February 
party convention. The CDU is in crisis, but this . 
will change as it always has shortly before 
federal elections. 

The key factor determining to next govern- 
ment remains the fate of the -Free Democrats. 
As long as their support holds, and they 
achieve to 5 percent threshold, for parliamen- 
tary representation, to SPD faces a tough 
battle. 


ERWTNGRANDINGERis 
of Grandinger Associates, a 


cal consultancy for financial instinaions. 


director 

poliii- 


The Economy Is Top Issue for Voters 


Continued from page 17 

is a more interventionist attitude among to 
Greens, who advocate “post-materialist,” 
“zero-growth” economics. 

Amid an array of evidence that job creation 
will remain a problem no matter who wins to 
election, not a few economists are noting that 
German exports, a traditional pfflar of to 
nation's economy that performed poorly in 
1993, are buoyant again. Foreign orders for 
West German consumer goods rose 93 percent 
in January and February this year relathe 
from the year-eaiher period, and though toy 
include orders from Eastern Germany, the 
numbers are strong enough to suggest that the 
widely reported demise of German competi- 
tiveness was premature. 

German products may well be over-engi- 
neered and overpriced when the mark is at o 
or less to to U.S. dollar, but at to current 
level of 1.7 and higher, combined with a steady 


appreciation of the Japanese yen, it seems that 
overseas demand for German goods has sud- 
denly bounced back. 

In addition. German companies have awak- 
ened to the potential of booming markets in 
Asa. Exports to the region surpassed exports 
to North America in 1992, and companies’ 
efforts in Asia got even stronger in 1993. 

Domestic demand, meanwhile, is considered 
5kdy to remain" sluggish as consumers re ma in 
worried about job security, declining real 
wages and uncertainties related to to federal 
parliamentary ejections in October. 

Rudolf Scharping. to SPD candidate for 
chanceBor. has been taking pains to define him- 
self and Ms party as a viable alternative to 
Helmu t Kohl who has ruled the country for the 
las 12 years. “There's a deep disappointment 
with die econ o mic policies of the federal govern- 
ment — if it has any. which 1 deeply doubt," be 
said in a recent campaign appearance; 

“A lot of people are watching with astonish- 
ment as the SPD is returning to to political 
center,” he said. 


But what would to SPD do differently? Try 
to strengthen “cooperation” between govern- 
ment and business, boost incentives for invest- 
ment in Germany, earmark more funds for 
research and development assistance and 
“modernize" to German social state, Mr. 


Scharping said. 
While m 


many of these proposals sound famil- 
iar, and some suspicious, pollsters show Mr.. 
Scharping running neck and neck with Mr. 
KohL 

Significantly, voters give Mr. Scharping bet- 
tor marks on tackling unemployment, accord- 
ing to Elisabeth NoeSe-Neumann, bead of to 
Allensbach Institute of public opinion re- . 
search. 'While to CDU stU) gets better marks 
for overall economic competence, “the popula- 
tion doesn’t see that unemployment and the 
overall economic development go. hand in 
hand,” she said. 


BRANDON HTTCHENER is Frankfurt cor- 
respondera for the International Herald Tribune 


Recession Shakes Nation’s Confidence 


Continued from page 17 

Bosnia, with catastrophic results. 

Germans can do no more about to econom- 
ic and political weight they carry than their 
present chancellor can about his imposing 
physical gze. but at least they try* to tread more 
cautiously nowadays. 

Even so. Foreign Minister Klaus Kinkel's 
vigorous insistence this winter on bringing 
Austria. Norway, Finland and Sweden into the 
European Union for what Germany believes is 
much needed fiscal “balance” against the 



lomats, among others, uneasy. 

Mr. Kinkel vigorously denied reports that 
during the negotiations on admitting them, be 
had threatened to break to backs of Spanish 
delegates unless they eased up on their de- 
mands for fishing rights in Norwegian waters. 
But there seemed little doubt that Greece's 
weak EU presidency in the fust half of this 
year played into the hands of the Germans and 
others who favored rapid enlargement, and 
that they made to most of the opportunity. 

Germany will take over the EU presidency 
on July I, and has already made clear that ft 
will press for membership by the turn of the 
century for Poland, to Grech Republic, and 
Hungary — near neighbors that it dominates 
economically. 

Militarily, Germans have been more reticent 
— too much so for Americans who welcomed 
the logistical and financial support Bonn pro- 
vided during to Gulf War in 1991, but would 
have welcomed troops fighting by their side as 
wdL 

Now the Germans say they cannot provide 


mg is going 
peacetime missions beyond Germany’s bor- 
ders violates the 1949 constitution has been 
resolved. Mr. Kohl’s government sued itself in 
to German Constitutional Court to gel a deci- 
sion and in the meantime has allowed German 
military personnel to fly in the air-control ' 
missi ons that guided NATO bombers into ac- 
tion over Bosnia. It also sent 1,500 soldiers to a 
pacified region of northern Somalia last year; 
but withdrew them when President Bfl] Clin ion 
pulled US. troops out of Mogadishu. 

Provided that to court rules in June that 
such roles do not violate the constitutional ban 
on wars of aggression, Mr. Kohl says he is 
ready to make sure Germany does its bit. Mir. 
Scharping says much the same thing. “I have 
to feeling that enthusiasm for missions like 
Somalia has sharply diminished, in the United 
Slates as weB ” he said recently, but during a 
visit to the United States in April he gave his 
strong support to NATO air strikes in Bosnia. 

Mr. Scharping and many other Germans 
also believe that they will continue to need to 
be aware of to sensitivities of to victims' of 
Nazism for years to come, even after his own' 
postwar generation comes to power. 

But as to war becomes more distant, Ger- 
many will inevitably become increasingly in- 
clined to pursue the German national interest 
as its leaders see it 

This clearly means within the European 
Union context But professions that German 
leaders want a European Germany rather than 
a German Europe will not reassure those like 
Lady Thatcher of Britain, who tried to hold up 
unification when she was prime minister. . . 


The real proof of where German loyalties lie : 
may become dear over the issue of European , 
monetary union. Here the question is whether, 
in 1997 or later, Germans -are willing to let ( 
other countries help determine Germany's eco- , 
nomic future by surrendering monetary sover- - 
eignty to a European central bank that they ’ 
can only influence, not control. 

“We cann ot be a central bank for Europe," „ 
said Hans Tietmeyer, president of the Bundes- ^ 
bank, when be took office last October, when - 
the ideal of a common carrency seemed to be , 
shipwrecked on to shoals of German insis- ■ 
fence on giving the fight against inflation pri- * 
crity over economic expansion. 

Achieving prosperity and creating jobs will 
be the economic priority for whatever govern- : 
meat is elected in October, and both politicians * 
and labor union leaders know it will be a long. ' 
hard task. 

German politicians and even, labor leaders 
talk these days about how to cut to high cost . k 
of labor so that to quality and craftsmanship , 
toy still pride themselves on is not .simply * 
priced out of to global market. This year, the j 
major German labor onions have agreed ,to , 
wage increases of less than 3 percent, less than 
anticipated inflation. 

It may be the first sign of a new, sober ' 
economic realism that the biggest change unifi- 1 
cation brought was the challenge of adapting « 
to a totally new worid — economically, politi- ' 
cally, and psychologically. " . 


CRAIG R. WHITNEY is Bonn burmu chief of \ 
The New York Times. ^ 


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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, APRIL 20, 1994 


Page 19 


Germany /A Special 'Report 


Bonn Seeks Expanded Function for Bundeswehr 


(ro On 


B y Joseph Fitche tt 

W ashington— E vmfasi 

5^ predicted at ihe mo- 
“wnt of reunification. Ger- 

. : inning doroSSc Me 

hedged international role m ^ 

.-'■ss:3S3'MKast5 

- **£ SoT"" 10 ” " 

Thai legal shift, combined with cuiwm 

, vu “ NATO m its new II 
-■ ‘ nieivenuoofoiw ' & " ledrolcasai1 

il 'ake several years for 
- f many to field rnffiiml^SS«SS 
; he new political posture JuSwSfi 
he goyemmenfs hand in forwnSw^ 
... ' JP?j2“* nd re 'nforce Bo^’sclainma 
• - seat « the Security CounciL 

The ruling in ihe Karlsruhe court will 
- .elp pohucal leaders out of an eXr™ 

• ng dilemma, probably enabling the main 
toagra to commit (SdS 

VoarSaL 3 * mp} * ^ 0nly vo£e “ 

■ • ^ Id end lhe P° lilicaJ gridlock hi 
- tonn on the question of whether or not a 
onslitutional amendment is needed to lift 
■ -.he posi-World War II ban on German 
roops operating outside Western Europe: 

unsettled questions will remain, 
nough for campaign debates to show dif- 
crences between the rwo main parties but 
jjpieations are that the main legal q'ues- 
ibn will have been settled by the court 
ulmg,” according to Henning Wegener, 
n aide to Chancellor Helmut Kohl with 


extensive experience in Allied military af- 
fairs. J 

Lif ting die legal objections to foreign 
operations by the German military forces 
does nothing tangible to ready the Bun- 
deswcfir to operate effectively in crises of 
the sort liable lo confront nations in 
the foreseeable future. 

Drastically down-sized as part of the 
reunification accord in order to reassure 
other European countries about the power 
of a fully sovereign Germany, the Bundes- 
wehr is handicapped by deep cuts in de- 
fense spending — especially for new weap- 
onry, on which Germany is now spending 
only half as much as either France or 
Bri tain. 

This shortage of funds will slow up the 
implementation of the blueprint released 
last month for the future armed forces of 
Germany. The goal, officials said, is to re- 
organize the Bundeswehr in a way that 
allows crack German units to undertake 
new missions alongside their allies and still 
leaves a home army as a defense guarantee 
against any revived threat from the East 

The key innovation is the creation of 
highly mobile units designed to operate far 
from Germany, the Crisis Reaction Force, 
similar to French and British teams de- 
signed to fit into NATO’s concepts of 
rapid-reaction forces to deal with any 
emergency that jeopardized European sta- 
bility. 

Germany’s nascent force will consist of 
five brigades, amounting to 50,000 men 
and the equivalent of two divisions — 
roughly the same troop strength commit- 
ted to NATO's rapid-reaction force by the 
other rnmn allies, Unlike B ritish and 
French units, however, German forces 
were so totally integrated into the NATO 
system that they had no national com- 
mand structure Of the sort they will need in 
the new alliance approach to expedition- 
ary missions on Europe's periphery or in 
the Middle East and Africa. 


Bittersweet Farewell to Ar 


For this new role, “our forces lack the 
command structure, the right weapons. Ihe 
training,” Mr. Wegener explained. As a 
result. Germany mil need at least until the 
end of the decade to be ready to play 3 full 
military role alongside France and Britain, 
the two most active VS. allies in Europe. 

Even so, the impending legal shift — 
ending a ban imposed after World War II 
that is incompatible with Germany's re- 
turn to full sovereign^ — is a welcome 
development for politicians in Bonn and 
for allied leaders. 

Germany's political parties are anxious 
to get in step with the growing public 
mood, which is ahead of the party leaders* 
in seeking a larger role for the nation's 
military. 

German opinion, alarmed by the Bal- 
kan turmoil on their borders, shows a 
steadily rising trend in the five years since 
unity in support of full participation in all 
UN missions — - and in support for the 
North Atlantic Treaty Organization, 
which has now recovered to Cold War 
levels of 70 percent of Germans, polls 
show. 

Scenting a chance at power, opposition 
Social Democrats are slaking out electoral 
positions designed to depict them as reli- 
able leaders who can be misled by both 
voters and allies to continue the main 
thrust of the security policies pursued by 
the ruling Christian Democrats. 

For Mr. Kohl's coalition, it would be a 
considerable relief to have a court ruling 
that backs (he government’s decision to 
dispatch German units to UN peackeep- 
ing missions in Cambodia and Somalia 
and allow German crews to fly ihe Air- 
borne Warning and Control System, or 
AWACS, planes guiding NATO fighter 
strikes in Bosnia. 

Besides vindicating his policies, a favor- 
able verdict would end friction inside Mr. 
Kohl's own government because of objec- 
tions by his junior coalition partner, the 


Liberals. Heirs to the cautious approach of 
Hans- Dietrich Genscber, the former for- 
eign minister, the Liberals insisted on the 
need for a constitutional amendment clari- 
fying the issue. 

That would require a two-thirds parlia- 
mentary majority, a political impossibility 
because so many Social Democrats stm 
hold near- pacifist objections to a new mili- 
tary role for Germany. But if the Karlsru- 
he court ruling does endorse the Kohl 
government's view that no constitutional 
objection exists, the Liberals can side 
openly with their Christian Democratic 
partners. 

The change would be unreservedly wel- 
come in Washington, where the Clinton 
administration has actively sought to see a 
larger military role assumed by Europe — 
in effect, by Germany. 

Other Europeans, notably the French, 
wdl have to accept the disappearance of 
another shackle on German authority. 
“There will be some nagging doubts in 
Paris because Germany is assuming a larg- 
er role faster than most people expected, 
but the change is inevitable it Europe is to 
acquire a defense dimension,” according 
to Francois Hdsbourg, a French defense 
authority. 

For example, the change will suddenly 
give substance to the Franco-German 
corps — a 50,000-strong joint force con- 
ceived as the embryo of a European army. 
So far, the Franco-German corps has been 
only a political ploy — “virtual reality,” 
Mr. Hdsbourg called it. 

But if German troops could expect to 
serve on actual missions, as pan of a 
European force carrying out UN missions, 
the Franco-German corps “could become 
serious business quite fast,” Mr. Hds- 
bou/g said. 

JOSEPH FTTCHETTis on the staff of the 
International Herald Tribune. 



MAc ftrwn/AFP 

A German pilot in Turkey during the Gulf War, the country's first postwar military role. 


By Michael KaUenbach 


a 


B ERLIN — Saving good- 
bye, even at the best of 
times, is a painful expe- 
rience. But an unexpect- 
•' d bitterness is marking the plans 
- or departure of foreign troops 
rom Berlin this summer, ihanics 
' o political rivalries. 

Chancellor Helmut Kohl, who is 
- ghting to stay in office after poor 
oil showings ahead of October's 
• - lections, has seized the occasion 
- ar his own political gain. He has 
ecided to personally supervise the 
■■ mire Allied troop withdrawal cer- 
motiies and has told his aides to 
rrange nothing without his ap- 
proval. In a grand symbolic ges- 
- u re. he has even promised to shake 
he hand of the last Russian soldier 
wfore he departs German soiL 
Under the terms of reunification. 
Je three Western Allies ihai pro- 
acted the former West Berlin since 
he end of World War II can only 

.rave once the last Russian soldier 

i gone. 

In taking the actual arrange- 
! i i J tents out of the hands of Berlin, 
* » | * i | 1 f FflCl 'here m almost 50 years, the Allies 
ave become part of the communi- 
1. he has in the process angered the 
xai mayor, Eberhard Diepgeo.^ 
As one Berliner complained: “It 
•' -as supposed to be Berlin’s way of 
- ‘ - lying auf Wiedersehen and thank 
- ’ ou to die soldiers who have pro- 
xied us over the years. It wasn't 
itended for the Btonn politicians 
- • ‘ > move in on the arrangements." 
Horst Dohm, the mayor of WU- 
• lersdorf, a district of West Berlin 
as even more insistent He said “I 
on’t like what they’re doing in 
- onn. and whatever their decision, 

■ ■ell have our very own way of 
lying farewell.” Subsequently, 
arious companies and politicians 
■ "ave banded together to arrange a 


series of unofficial events so that 
the locals can mingle with the sol- 
diers before they leave. 

Few commentators expected (he 
Allied departure to take on the 
added political dimensio ns- it ^ 
began last November when Mr. 
Kohl was in Moscow and was told 
by President Boris N, Yeltsin that 
the departing Russian troops were 
not to be accorded second-class 
treatment. 

Mr. Yehsin mil visit Germany 
twice this year — once in May, and 
then again in August for the depar- 
ture ceremony that win honor the 
Russians stationed in what was 
once East Gam any. 

“Why shouldn’t we march next 
to the U.&, British and French 
troops?” insisted General Matwg 
Bunakow, Mr. Yeltsin's top official 
in eastern Germany. “Tic cold- war 
era is over.” 

But the Western Allies would 
have nothing of it. After all. they 
argued, the cold-war era may wdl 
be over, but the Western Allies 
were in Berlin for a different pur- 
pose than the Soviets. “We weren't 
the occupying power and the for- 
mer Soviet Union was our enemy,” 
said an American military man. Af- 
ter World War n, the three West- 
ern Allies — the United States, 
Britain and France — were given 
responsibility for various sectors of 
West Beilin, powers that ceased to 
exist with unification in October 
1990. 

The Americans led a campaign 
to push the Russians to have their 
own farewell ceremony. The 
French, too, were upset, saying 
they were not wDHng to sneak out 
of Berlin “quietly” after making so 
many friends here. Meanwhile, the 
British diplomatically panted out 
that it was up to Beaut to tell them 
what to" do. 

“Our marching bands and men 
will be ready,” raid Brigadier Da- 


vid Bromhcad. head of the British 
Brigade stationed in Beilin, “but 
the decision is not up to us. We 
have to wait for instructions from 
Bonn. After all, we’re only guests 
here." 

But the instructions were not 
forthcoming as Mr. Kohl’s advisers 
pondered what to do Tor weeks and 
how best they could placate the 
Russians. When the announcement 
came, it was from Mr. Kohl him- 
self, shortly before Easter. 

Two separate ceremonies, one 
for the Russians and another for 
the three Western allies, were 
agreed on. So as not to offend the 
Russians, there will be no marching 
bands, Mr. Kohl said, no holding 
hands under the Brandenburg Gate 
and no walkabout on the Umsr den 
Linden, the famous Berlin boule- 
vard. The Bundeswehr. the Ger- 
man army, which was absent from 
Berlin until the fall or the Walk is 
also upset since the soldiers wanted 
to make themselves belter known 
to the locals and take pan. 

With so many “sensitive” rites in 
Beilin associated with the Third 
Reich era, Mr. Kohl has opted for a 
wreath-laying ceremony at the 
LuftbrOcke Memorial at Tenapd- 
hof Airport, the rite commemorat- 
ing the 1948 Berlin airlift, which 
enabled the West Berliners to sur- 
vive an 11-month blockade im- 
posed by the Soviet Union. 

There will also be a ceremony of 
speeches with music at the Schau- 
spielhaus in East Berlin. The final 
farewell, a Zapfenstreich or military 
tattoo, will follow at sunset This 
too is controversial since it was 
favored by Hitler. This will be per- 
formed by the German army, 
which will carry burning torches. 

President Bill Clin ton, who visits 
Germany in July, will not follow 
Mr. Yeltsin's example and return 



for the ceremonies in August; in- 
stead he is likely to send Vice Presi- 
dent AJ Gore, while Prime Minister 
John Major of Britain and Presi- 
dent Franqois Mitterrand of 
France wxl) be in attendance. 

The German violinist Heinz 
Mertens. who put together a Frus- 
rian-style march for Mr. Gin ton’s 
inauguration ceremony, has com- 
posed a “Farewell Friends” march 
for the departing Western Allies cm 
Sept 8 that will be performed by 
musicians from Bonn. 

The Allies are also making sure 
they say good-bye in their own par- 
ticular fashion. The French had 
their own farewell in March; Prince 
Charles comes to Berlin for the day 
on May 27 to say adieu to British 
troops and mark the Queen’s birth- 
day parade, while the American 
military will use July 4 as their day 
to fly red, white and bhie balloons 
over the dty. 


Dmra KkniefAP 


Joej Levy, an official at the 
American Embassy in Berlin, said. 
“We are pleased by the sentiment 
expressed by Berliners which dem- 
onstrates the fondness they clearly 
fed for the American troops who 
have served in this dty for nearly 
five decades. We hope, and plan, to 
continue the special relationship 
between Americans and Berliners 
after the withdrawal of the troops, 
although naturally it will be in a 
different form.” 

The sentiment is echoed by a 
British diplomat who pointed out 
that the cooperation between Ber- 
lin and the three Western Allies 
had been “unique” and “it would 
be a pity to spoil it all because of 
tiptoeing around the wishes of the 
Russians.” 


MICHAEL KALLENBACH is a 
journalist based in Berlin. 


Angst Over Leadership Role 

Can Germany Avoid r Muddling Through '? 


By David Anderson 


B ERLIN — The experts who had long 
predicted that Germany would be divid- 
ed wdl into the 21st century were proven 
wrong in November 1989, when the Ger- 
man nation became one. No senior German states- 
man, entrepreneur or academic was prepared for 
this revolutionary turn of events. 

Whatever contingency plans existed in the draw- 
ers of the top politicians, economists, scholars and 
think-tank experts woe written for worst-case sce- 
narios — Soviet invasion of Western Europe, fur- 
ther repression in Eastern Germany, etc. Nobody 
had planned a best-case scenario. 

These events brought real confusion to Germa- 
ny. Those who looked beyond the early post-Wall 
euphoria foresaw the economic burdens that 
would fall upon the Federal Republic of Germany 
(but not the extent of those burdens); they under- 
stood that a nation divided for over 40 years would 
not be easily put together in political or soda! 
terms. 

And, while they were aware of the Slari spy 
networks, they had no concept of the thousands or 
East Germans who were caught up in that system, 
wherein relatives, friends, neighbors, colleagues 
regularly spied upon each other. Most important 
of aU. the West German elite had no idea just how 
bankrupt, rotten and run down the entire GDR 
economic system actually was. And, sadly, in Lhe 
end they found no natural “democrats” who could 
manage the affairs of the former East Germany. 
All of its poBtidans were discredited. 

But as the economic implications of unification 
became clear, what had began as a fairy-tale ended 
with the witches and goblins winning ouL 
The West Germans, angry and frustrated over 
higher taxes to ^Itpport the run-down East German 
economy, think the East Gomans do not work 
hard enough and do not produce on a par with 
their West German counterparts. Complaints of 
the East Germans over the differentia led wage 
structure abound. Unemployment, ever the sore 
point of any industrial society that has fallen on 
bad times, is too high- The recession will not go 
away. And there is a need for a profound and early 
restructuring of the German economy as a whole. 

These issues, enough to stir a national debate, 
find few German politicians of any party or any 
stature ready for tub sharp discussion. 

Reunification is running into serious difficulties 
just when Germany needs to remake its economy 
so as to be able to compete with the Americans ana 
Asians. Germany is facing its worst economic 
• tunes dace World War 11 just when it achieved its 
almost unimag inable goal, the unification of the 
nation. 


The West German economy was already stum- 
bling when the West Germans tried to export to 
the ex-GDR their own version of a market econo- 
my — with relatively high wages, asocial network 
and a can-do mentality — to a population that 
simply had no comprehension of what the “Wes- 
sies” meant or wanted. 

Unemployment, especially among the young in 
the new Under, is unacceptably high. Restructur- 
ing of the German economic base is still in its early 
years. Inflation is acceptable by any normal West- 
era standards. (Only the Bundesbank seems to 
think otherwise, but that is another story.) 

These economic problems make Germany look 
weak, leaded ess ana without a vision for the fu- 
ture. When the leading country in Europe is in 
such a situation, one has little difficulty in under- 
standing the angst that afflicts all Germans and 
Germany’s neighbors and allies. 

W ITH the economy in trouble and no 
clear solution in right, politicians and 
political parties have become the fo- 
cus of widespread popular criticism. 
The leaders and their parties seem unable to cope, 
[f there is any factor that will tumble politicians 
out of office, it is the feeling by voters that their 
chosen leaders cannot solve pock el book issues. 

Germans are also facing pressure because of 
their huge foreign population. Recently passed 
changes in the asylum laws will surely cut back 
significantly on the number of asylum seekers, but 
will not change the fact that Germany is already a 
country of immigration. There are 6.5 million 
immigrants in Germany and still some 3 million 
ethnic Germans in Eastern Europe and the former 
Soviet Union. 

Rising immigration in the early 1990s brought 
an upsurge in xenophobia, acts of violence (includ- 
ing 17 persons killed and almost 600 injured in 
1992) and an increase in popular sentiment in 
favor of the neo-Nazi and right-wing parties. 
Where this will lead in the 1 994 elections is an open 
question. But the right wing of the German politi- 
cal spectrum is at present gaining support 
Conversely, the former East German SED (now 
PDS) that was so thoroughly in disrepute only a 
few years ago is reemerging as a political force in 
the East It is not unthinkable that some 10 to 15 
percent of the population of the former GDR — if 
not more — wul vole for the old and new faces in 
the PDS. This is not catastrophic since that group 
win, at best, have a small minority in the Bundes- 
tag. But it is worrisome that the old SED seems 
capable of evoking among many ex-GDR voters 
memories of the “good old days.” 

Thus the October national election is likely to 

Continued on page 21 


advertisement 


ADVERXIS! 


Mu i a 


vr 


Kajo Nevkirchen: "Netallcesellschaft views its future with optimism. 


II 



■Three months ago. the Metall- 
gesellschaft group began implementing 
a comprehensive restructuring plan. This 
plan constitutes the firststepof what no 
doubt will be a long and difficult path. 
Within a very short space of time-three 
months-the plan’s key measures nave 
: been initiated. They are a ready begin- 
ning to show results. The plan s success- 
ful launching gives us at Metal l- 
^gesellschaft good reasons to view th 
group's future with optimism. 

These remarks are from Dr. Kajo 
Neukirchen. who has been chainnan 
the board of directors of the Frankfort- 

based Metallgesellschaft AG since the 
end of 1993. To present the various fea- 
tures making up the restructuring plan, 
Neukirchen first details the course ot 
events necessitating its Implementation. 

As he explains. Metallgesellschaft 
Corporation, a group subsidiary based in 


New York, incurred massive losses from 
its oil trading activities. These losses had 
a direct negative Impact on the results 
of Metallgesellschaft AG. In financial 
year 1992/93. this encumbrance on 
group results amounted to DM 770 mil- 
lion. During the first few months of 
1993/94, the dimensions of the oil-rela- 
ted losses grew steadily, causing a fur- 
ther group loss of DM 1.5 billion-thus 
posing a threat to the very existence of 
the group. 

it was at this point that a new board of 
directors was appointed to MetaJl- 
gesellschaft AG. The immediate task at 
hand of the company's new manage- 
ment." Neukirchen states, "was to staun- 
ch these losses by substantially curtai- 
ling the group’s trading positions. This 
has been accomplished, as has been the 
formulation of a new hedging policy. 
This policy has been in fonts for several 
weeks, and is already proving to be a po- 
sitive factor. In the years to come, we will 
continue to work constantly and intensi- 
vely on eliminating or reducing any risks 
ensuing from tong-term contracts.' adds 
Neukirchen. 

As Neukirchen points out. the name 
Metallgesellschaft was long a byword 
around the world for corporate viability 
and profitability. The long-term objective 
of the company’s new board of directors 
is to restore the group to this position. 
To achieve this objective, the directors 
put together a comprehensive restructu- 
ring plan addressing both the group's 
current financial situation and its on- 
going business operations. In view of the 
company's critical situation, this was 
carried out fn a commendably short per- 
iod of time. This plan was approved by 
the group’s shareholders at two AGM's, 
one held in February and the other in 
March of this year. The successful laun- 


ching of this plan, which fully provides 
for the DM 2.3 billion in losses incurred 
in the group's American oil trading acti- 
vities, has secured the continuing exis- 
tence of Metallgesellschaft AG. 

A major part of the financial restructu- 
ring has involved Metalfgesellschaft's se- 
curing of DM 2.7 billion in new share ca- 
pital. The influx of new funds has put an 
end to the previous situation, in which 
group liabilities temporarily exceeded 
assets. The funds have also given the 
group an adequate base of shareholders' 
capita! for future operations. 

Another target of this restructuring has 
been improving the financial side of daily 
operations. To provide the group with an 
acceptable level of profitabilrty-the yard- 
stick of corporate viability— a wide range 
of steps designed to reduce costs and im- 
prove liquidity have been carried out. 
These steps, in turn, have formed part of 
the reshaping of the group as a whole. 

Through the enacting of these mea- 
sures, expenditures for materials and for 
other items have been trimmed by some 
DM 500 million each. To lower personnel 
costs by some DM 550 million, the plan 
foresees that the total workforce size will 
be reduced by some 7,500 persons. 

A further aspect of this plan features 
the recasting of the group's basic struc- 
tures and of its approach to managing 
its businesses. Metallgesellschaft AG 
currently has a dual, mixed role within 
the Metallgesellschaft group. The com- 
pany is directly involved in a number of 
business areas, including Industrial engi- 
neering (through its Lurgi division), che- 
micals (Sachtleben) and trading. In addi- 
tion. Metallgesellschaft also holds a lar- 
ge number of equity stakes in German 
and in non-German companies. These 
companies are active in manufacturing, 
raw materials processing, services and 


other areas. 

Drafted during the first days of the re- 
structuring process, the plan defines the 
future role of Metallgesellschaft AG to be 
that of a holding company. It will set 
group-wide objectives, plot the course of 
group development and ensure that indi- 
vidual companies' policies adhere to 
them. One consequence of Metall- 
gesellschaft AG's concentration on this 
single role will be the necessity to tailor 
existing human and capital resources to 
meet this new situation. On March 30, 
1994, Metallgesellschaft AG's sharehol- 
ders approved this plan. 

To implement it, Metallgesellschaft 
AG s two main operative divislons-in- 
dustrial engineering (Lurgi) and chemi- 
cals manufacturing (Sachtleben 
Chemie)-were constituted as legally in- 
dependent subsidiaries of Metall- 
gesellschaft. which holds in direct and 
indirect possession all their equity capi- 
tal. This move was made retroactive to 
October 1. 1993. Under current conside- 
ration is also the spinning off of the 
company's other operating divisions— 
and especially its trading sector-during 
the course of the 1994/95 financial year. 

’The idea behind these moves is to 
strictly separate two very different kinds 
of responsibilities. One is the task of gui- 
ding the group, the other, those associa- 
ted with managing Its individual busi- 
nesses on a day to day basis." says 
Neukirchen. The holding company has 
been entrusted with the former. It will 
formulate the strategies and policies af- 
fecting the group as a whole and deter- 
mine its course of development. It will 
be responsible for monitoring the opera- 
ting results of individual group members 
and for the deploying of group financial 
resources to their maximum effect," 
Neukirchen explains. This new structure 


will enhance the group’s operating effi- 
ciency and output by making it more 
flexible and comprehensible. The "new" 
Metallgesellschaft group, Neukirchen ex- 
plains, will feature leaner administrative 
structures and flatter hierarchies. 

The restructuring plan’s overall objec- 
tive is to reconstitute the group into one 
active in coherent, "core" areas. To defi- 
ne what constitutes the group’s "core" 
activities. Metallgesellschaft AG's board 
of directors first formulated a set of crite- 
ria. These criteria were then employed to 
conduct an in-depth and comprehensive 
evaluation of the group’s equity portfo- 
lio. This evaluation was commenced a 
few weeks ago. It has already produced 
its first concrete results. The acquisition 
of Korf GmbH by Brazil's Gerdau Group 
removes Metallgesellschaft from the 
steel rod manufacturing business. By 
selling its holdings in Methanex Corp- 
Metallgesellschaft has also gotten out of 
methanol manufacturing. All told, the 
restructuring plan foresees such disin- 
vestment activities generating a total of 
some DM 1 billion; these two sales have 
yielded roughly one quarter of that 
amount 

Further disinvestment measures Indu- 
de the agreement reached by the group 
and the Dana Corporation of Toledo. 
Ohio. This agreement stipulates that 
Dana will acquire Metallgesellschaft 
AG’s 47% stake in Kolbenschmidt AG. 
Metallgesellschaft AG's board of direc- 
tors has placed a high priority on finding 
a solution to the problems arising from 
the group's smelting activities. 

These measures have stocked the 
group's supply of available fends. To fur- 
ther augment this supply, the group has 
taken a number of other actions. One of 
them; the group's capital investment 
budget, originally set at some DM 1.1 


billion for financial year 1993/94, has 
been cut in half. The guiding idea be- 
hind our restructuring plan is to imple- 
ment measures which increase our as- 
sets’ market value. This idea is a direct 
manifestation of group management's 
stated policy, which is to maximize sha- 
reholder value whenever and wherever 
possible." emphasized Neukirchen " All 
these measures have served to streng- 
then the group. The costs assodated wi- 
th them thus represent a sound invest- 
ment for our shareholders," he added. 

The final point addressed by 
Neukirchen was the group’s performance 
in the current finandal year, now in its 
fifth month. To date, the Metall- 
gesellschaft Group has realized a pre-tax 
profit of DM 55 million. Some DM 21 
million higher than the previous year’s 
result for the same period, this figure 
does not incorporate Metallgesellschaft 
Corporation's results, nor does it indude 
the costs arising from interest payments 
on credits going to cover group losses. 
Also showing improvement has been the 
operating profit figure, which amounted 
to a loss of DM 50 million in the period 
under review, up from the previous 
year's DM 80 million defidt. 

Neukirchen’s conclusion; "Metall- 
gesellschaft AG's directors assumed 
their positions a few weeks ago. During 
this short period of time, we have mana- 
ged to make significant progress in a wi- 
de area of fields. Another significant 
event has been the approval by our cre- 
ditor banks and shareholders of the 
directors’ restructuring plan. These deve- 
lopments make me confident that 
Metallgesellschaft is well on its way to 
once more becoming a company emi- 
nently able to operate profitably on the 
world’s highly competitive markets." 


\p. 

in 


isnsd 3 BJ* «?<?>¥ 3 VP- S3 Jtg. js.gr SSsj'S ofes. 





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Page 20. 


ei 

it _ 


Germany ! A Special Report 


Challenge for Industry: Fostering Growth and Innovation, and New Jobs 


. By Konrad Seitz 



OME — - The German economy in 
the 1990s is comparable to the 
American economy is the 1980s. 
.Then, -U.S. industry, under the re- 
lentless pressure of Japanese and Asian com- 
petition. begad a massive restructuring pro- 
cess. Today it is cm top again. 

Is there a chance that German industry will 
now repot the American success story? 

For decades, the German economic and so- 
cial system bad been regarded as a model. 
Michel Albert spoke of “Rhineland capital- 
ism” being superior to Anglo-American capi- 
talism. Indeed, trver the second half of the ’80s, 
the German economy had been growing faster 
than the U.S. economy. Its exports were the 
highest in the world, and in 1990 its trade 
surplus even surpassed that of Japan. 

The German system was also realizing two 
gpals that are normally in conflict: a highly 
competitive economy and a highly developed 
welfare state. 

Ncrw the party is over. Since mid- 1992 Ger- 
mans have awakened to a severe recession and 
are r ealizing that, this time, they face not a 
normal cyclical recession of their economy, but 
a structural crisis. 


On the threshold of the information age, die 
core of the economy is still the same industries 
that provided the economic miracle after the 
war: machine-building, autos, the electrome- 
chanical industry, chemicals. But these indus- 
tries have now come under attack. They are 
challenged at the high end by the Japanese, and 
at the lower levels by the newly industrialized 
countries of Asia and 1-arm America. Soon 
Eastern Europe will join as competition. 

Germany thus finds itself in the situation of 
a company that has been highly successful in 
the past but is now realizing that its mature 
products, have peaked, and that there are not 
enough new products to power growth in the 
future. In the same way, the Germans are now 
discovering that they lack the new growth 
industries that could take over from the old 
heavy industries in supporting a high rate of 
employment, the highest wages in the world 
and the highest standard of social security. 

Germany is underdeveloped in key indus- 
tries of the information age: semiconductors, 
computers and software, consumer electronics, 
information services, entertainment industries, 
as well as biotechnology, which will become 
one of the great industries of the 21st century. 

The classical industries are responding to the 
new competitive pressure by U.S.-styie restruc- 
turing. They are adopting and adapting the 


Japanese 


system of lean production. They 
they build plants in America ana 


hey shift low - value-added production to low- 
wage countries in Eastern Europe and Asia. 


Many companies right now are achieving 


productivity jumps of 40 and SO percent The 
Outside world f 


! has not yet fully grasped what a 
massiv e change is going on in German compa- 
nies. The unions, equally, are doing a lot of 
rethinking. They are agreeing to more flexible 
working hours and they are tolerating a lower- 
ing of real wages. The government, too. is 
privatizing Deutsche Telekom and the rail- 
roads and is beginning, if timidly, to deregu- 
late. 

There seems to be little doubt that German 
industry win emerge from the current restruc- 
turing lean and dean and price-competitive 
again. As regards competitiveness in technol- 
ogy and innovation, Germany’s classical in- 
dustries are still the world leaders. 

No other industrial nation has a compara- 
bly wide range of products. Here, Germany's 
Mittdstand, the small and midsized companies, 
come in. There are thousands and thousands of 
Mittdstandere that, with their customized, so- 


dtes, to the mighty machine-tool maker 
Tnunpf, which is driving back the Japanese in 
the U.S. market with its laser-coning ma- 
chines. 

Unfortunately, the side effect of restructur- 
ing is only too obvious: steeply rising unem- 
ployment. A McKinsey & Co. research team 
made a hypothetical calculation: If German 
automakers reached the productivity level of 
the test Japanese plants, they ootid do with a 
work force that was 45 percent smaller. In 
machine bonding, the reduction would be 40 
percent, in the chemical industry 30 percent 


and so on. As a whole, the Goman economy 


phis treated products, dominate global niches. 
The ra 


range of these companies goes from two 
nine-person companies that share among them 
the world market for a certain paint for can- 


conld prodace its present output with a worl 
force of 24 million people, winch would imply 
a jobless rate of 38 percent. We are casting out 
the devil of the competitiveness crisis and re- 
placing him with the Beelzebub of an unem- 
ployment crisis. 

Ilus crisis can only be averted if the German 
eco n o m y finally advances massively into the 
new growth industries and especially the new 
multimedia information services. A highly pro- 
ductive economy could then also afford to 
create low-skilled jobs in the traditional per- 
sonal services, such as household help, by sub- 
sidizing them and making t hem dignified. 

But how can this massive advance into the 
new industries come about? It dearly cannot 


be achieved by entrepreneurs and managers on 
their own. They are operating in a social and 
political environment steeped in industrial-age 
mentality and are affected themselves by tins 
mentality. The advance into the information, 
age presupposes fundamental change in the 
State of awareness of society, politics, industry. 

Transformation into an information society 
will bring deep changes in everyone's life, for 
both work and leisure To win the tedtnologi- 
cal battle we first have to win the battle for the 
minds of the people, have to win them over to 
seize the new opportunities and accept the 
unavoidable changes coming with them. 

Change is necessary also in present Gennaq 
ec o n o mic policy malting, which is still in the 
iron grip of orthodox economists who hold to 
the dogma that the market regulates everything 

in the ’50s and™ the '6Qswhen G ermany rebirih 
its classical industries. 

But market forces alone do not bring about 
the transformation from an industrial to an 
info rmatio n society. For this we need creative 
cooperation between industry and govern-., 
meat The recipes, today, are more complex. 
We need, on the one hand, less state, to dear 
die way for the new. But we also need more 
state. 


We need a government that is a partner 
industry in creating the information eoonont Ji 
a government that helps to orient society tq. 
ward the future: that promotes research 
development consortia m critical technologies 
and above ail is an active partner in buHdiap 
the new infrastructures for the 21st ceninry?' 
die information superhighways for die multi- 
media world. ^ 



The battle for change in Germany has te 
gun, but most of the commanding heights 
stfll in the bands of those who stick to old 
. paradigms and who resist change. It is a batik 
-that will deride the fate of Germany and E» 
rope in the 21st century: Will Germany tatfe 
.next century . be a country torn by a cri«% 
bringing its friends and neighbors in Europe 
down with itself and unraveling the network g 
European integration? Or will Germany be a 
winning culture and. a winning economy able 
to give Eastern Europe full access to its madai 
and lead the way to a strong and pro^eroq 
unified Europe?’ 




k 

«‘v' 
V .V 


r 

P 


'V 


KONRAD SEITZ is German ambassador ta 
Italy and author of “The Japanese- Americair 
Challenge: Germany's High-Tech Industries- 
Ftgfit for Survival " . Y 


¥ . 


A Computer Pioneer Rediscovered, 50 Years On 


By Peggy Salz Tnmtman 


ASSEL, Germany — 
At 83, Konrad Zuse, 


xr 

the creator of the first 

fully automated and 
program-controlled computer, is 
enjoying the some of the credit due 
over 50 years ago. 

Computer science students and 
admirers mak e pilgrimages to bis 
home in a village near the former 
border with East Germany. His 
autobiography, “My Life — The 
Computer^ was recently published 
by the Springer- Vedag. And the 
restless inventor is still tinkering 
with motors and gears, working on 
self-regenerating systems and con- 
templating the laws of a universe he 
believes is governed by a computer- 
like cosmos. 

Bom in 1910 in Berlin, the son of 
a postmaster, Mr. Zose was drawn 
as a you/h to painting and budding. 
“I have always had a predominant- 
ly visual approach to my environ- 
ment,’’ Mr. Zuse says. “This per- 
haps one-sided talent was also 
evident in. the construction of my 
computer 'models; here; too, I pre- 
ferred mechanical and electrome- 
chanical constructions and left die 
electronics to others who were bet- 
ter qualified." 

■ Mr. Zuse later studied at the 
Technical University in Berlin, but 
found the work stultifying. He 


dropped out before earning a de- 
gree m civil engineering in 1935. 

Mr. Zuse’s mind was preoccu- 
pied by other matters. Vending ma-. 
chines, artificial intelligence, clo- 
ver! eaf motorway intersections, 
photo-developing booths and rock- 
ets to the moon were among the 
ideas that kept him Cram focusing 
his attention entirely on his studies 
— ideas that were way ahead of 
their tune. 

Above all Mr. Zuse used his 
time to contemplate the construc- 
tion of a “computing machine” and 
ways to rid himself of the tedious 
calculations an engineering s tudent 
of the time Had to endure. 

In 1935, the Henschel Aircraft 
Company in Berlin offered Mir. 
Zuse a job as a structural engineer. 
A few months later, he quit his post 
and announced to his horrified par- 
ents that he would construct a com- 
puter and turn their Irving room 
into a workshop in which to do it 

“At the same time as I started in 
Germany,” Mr. Zuse recalls. 
“(Howard) Aiken and a few others 
began their work in the United 
Stares.” 

Thus a competition developed 
between Beilin and Boston, be- 
tween Mr. Zuse and Howard Ai- 
ken, although neither man knew 
about the other's work. And the 
odds were extremely uneven: Mr. 
Aiken had the backing of a power- 
ful corporation. International Busi- 


ness Machines Corp., while Mr. 
Zuse, who fashioned computer 


depend only on friends and 
family for financial support 
Mr. Zuse constructed a bulky ma- 
chine made of hundreds of relays, 
second-hand sheet metal and me- 
chanical pins. It stood two meters 
high and J J meters wide, and re- 
sembled a laige living-room catenet 
Later known as the Zl. the com- 
puter operated with the help of a 
mechanical calculating unit and 
memory, and received its com- 
mands from old, hand-punched, 
celluloid film strips. 

Despite all the handiwork, Mr. 
Zuse now concert**, “it just never 
worked right” Mr. Zuse went bade 
to the drawing board. 

He began experimenting with 
electrical relays. The problems: 
cost and space. A computer with 
adequate power and capacity 
would need several thousand relays 
and take up more room than the 
workshop provided. The relays 
would also cost several dollars each 
— more than Mr. Zuse could af- 
ford. In 1938. be developed a small 
test model using just 200 relays, 
and called it the Z2. 

In 1939. Mr. Zuse was drafted 
into military service. Ironically, a 
plea by friends to exempt him from 
active duty to work on his comput- 
er — a machine that could have 
aided the German war effort — feQ 


on deaf ears. He served as an infan- 
tryman but never saw combat, and 
in 1940 was allowed to return to his 
research. 

But it was not to be that easy. 
Bombing raids often wrecked his 
workshop. With many of his assis- 
tants fighting or killed in the war, 
Mr. Zuse searched schools for 
handicapped persons with an un- 
derstanding of mathematics who 
could help him with his work. His 
staff also included a young woman, 
his future wife and professional 
partner GiselaBrandes. In 1941, he 
produced the Z3 — the long await- 
ed breakthrough. 

The Z3 was the world’s first gen- 
eral-purpose digital comp ute r. 

The Z3 had what Paul Ceruzzi, 
academic and curator of aerospace 
computing «trt electronics at the 
Smithsonian Institution in Wash- 
ington, D.G, calls several “striking 
features.” It not only predated Mr. 
Aiken's Mark L which was first 
operational in 1944, but it was also 
widely considered to have been 
somewhat faster than the Mark L 

Harimnt Petzhold, a curator at 
the Deutsches Museum in Munich, 
Germany’s counterpart to the 
Smithsonian, holds the Z3 to be a 
the “most important link” in the 
development of the computer. 
“The Z3 was a milestone,” he said. 

The Z3 and most documents 
connected with it were destroyed in 
the war in 1943. 



Bayern. 

At the peak, research 
at its peak. 


In Bayern, research is paramount. 
At the very peak of the Zugsphza. 
Germany's highest mountain, 
there's an atmospheric research 
station. Though a bit tower in 
altitude, the state's other scientific 
institutes (the headquarters of the 
world-reknowed Max-PJanck and 
Fraunhofer institutes are in Bayern), 
universities, polytechnics and 
technology transfer agencies all 
conduct research at the same high 
level. 


Should we have heightened your 
interest in doing business in 
Bayern, please contact the 


Bowman Ministry for 
Economic Affairs and Transport 
Dr. Manfred Pfeifer 
Pb'nzregentensfr. 28 
80538 Munchen / Germany 
Td.: (89) 2162-2642 
Fax: (89J 21-62-27 60 


They also produce the high-quality 
personnel staffing the state's high- 
powered companies. These compa- 
nies and their high-performance 
products have scaled the heights of 
the worfd market. 



Bayern. 

The Quality Edge 
in the New Europe 


As the war drew to a dose, Mr. 
Zuse completed work on the Z4, a 
juta 1 that clattered on until the 


But few inside and no one out- 
ride of Hitler’s Germany knew 
what Zuse was doing 

It wasn’t until 1947. that Mr. 
Zuse was had hb first contact with 
IBM. But Mr. Zuse said the compa- 
ny wouldn’t agree to his working 
conditions. “They were only inter- 
ested in my patents,” be wrote in 
his autobiography. 

As the computer developed into 
big business, however, Mr. Zuse 
and his patents were to be of ever 
more interest to IBM. One in par- 
ticular , for tbeZ3, which be filed in 
1941, was to prove falefoL 

Due to the war and to German 
bureaucracy, die patent wasn’t even 
published for comment until 1952. 
The only ooe of the competing cal- 
culator makers to raise an objeOiCRi. 
Mr. Zuse says, was Triumph, winch 
was later backed in a suit against the 
patent by IBM. Court proceedings 
dragged ext until 1967. 

In the meantime, Zose KG, pro- 
duced and sold a computer that 
many historians credit with steering 
Germany’s postwar Wotschafts- 
wunder. At ns peak, die company 
employed 1JD0Q people and rccerrod 
contracts from throughout the 
world. 

Then came a ruling from the Ger- 
man Patent Office; winch decided 
agamst Mr. Zose. ‘The innovatiem 
and the progressiveness of the object 
concerned in the main application 
are not doubted. Yet a patent can- 
not be granted due to insufficient 
merit," the office ruled. 

IBM in Stuttgart would not com- 
ment on the court proceedings or on 
the company's relationship to Mr. 
Zuse. 

Mr. Zuse sold his company, 
which was sinking into debt, the 
same year to Siemens AG, winch 
wanted to get into the computer 
business. 

Now, be spends most of his time 
in his basement workshop, tinkering 
with plans for a new machine. But 



K 




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Konrad Zuse and his wife, Gisela Brandes. 


f. ?££' — 


Nurturing High-Tech Firms 

: company racked a n/| 
ner who Mr. Ben- |y| 

q-H atuincf 'nemo' L'*:' ■ 


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leiuea 


By Ann Brockkhurst 


B 


ERLTN — As Germans 
pander the effects of re- 
cession and worry wheth- 
er their economy can re- 
turn- to former levels of 
competitiveness and innovation, a 
small group of fund managers is 
trying to nurture the innovative 
technology companies of the fu- 
ture. 

These so-called seed capita! 
funds are backed by an experimen- 
tal government program designed 
to encourage eariy-stage invest- 
ment in risky hot potentially pros- 
perous young technology compa- 
nies. Since the program’s creation 
in 1989, they have distributed some 
100 million Deutsche marks (S59 
milli on) 

Roger Bendisch, manager of Ber- 
lin’s L8B Seed Capital Fund 
GmbH, says that although there is 
still a lot of justifiable gloom and 
doom about many traditional Ger- 
man industries, there is also reason 
to be optimistic on the high-tech- 
nology front 


companies are marketing 
mT S’ h£ innovative products. They are not 

&?££££££ buadmg.4^ co^” he 


current work. “Tve tees branded 
many times because I’ve been too 
catty with my inventions and Fm 
not about to do it again,” be says. 


PEGGY SALZ TRAINMAN is a 
journalist based in Bonn. 


said. “We are creating wealth in a 
very economical way — much bet- 
ter than giving money to coal-min- 
ing.” 

LBB Seed Capital Fund, whichis 
now owned by the Landesbank 
Berlin, was created in 1983 and was 
originally owned jointly by agen- 


cies of the Berlin and federal _ 
enunents. It is currently one of 10 
German seed-capital funds, some 
private and some backed by stale 
governments. 

The rules did not stipulate where 
the funds’ money should come 
from, but they were- required to 
have at least 2 milli on DM in capi- 
tal as well as a connection to a 
hank Through its credit institu- 
tion, Kxeditanstalt fur Wiederauf- 
bau, the federal government guar- 
antees up to 90 percent of die loans 
made by seed capital funds to 
young technology companies. 

According to MF.' Boidisch, seed 
capital funds distinguish them- 
selves from other providers of early 
stage investment in that they pro- 
vide extensive management advice 
as well as money. More traditional 
creditors, such as hanks and insur- 
ers, tend to save: such advice for 
times of crisis. Seed capital funds 
also concentrate on smaller compa- 
nies unable to attract the attention 
of larger venture capitalists. 

“Usually what we have is bril- 
liant technicians out of universities 
and research labs and we provide 
part of the management support" 
said Mr. Bendisch. “The relation- 
ship between management costs 
and invested capital is the main 
problem." 

LBB Seed Capital has just three 


technology. The 
marketing partner 
disch had advised against using 

As far as the remaining 10 invesfr- 
mentsare concerned, almost afLof 
them are in information technology 
companies with niche products 
they are keen to export to expand 
limited markets. One of the cheats, 
Berlin’s dCADE GmbH, makers tf 
specialized, mifimg-maefame simu- 
lation software, expects its sales to 
rise to 1 minion DM In 1994. “In 
the long tom, it’s very hard to 
estimate, but we should come to a 
three to four million limb,” said 
dCADE’s manager, Nerib YaraJ 
manogjn, referring to sales woskF\ 
wide. ■. 

When it first became involved 
with the LBB Seed Capital Fond in 
1992, dCADE had sales of 560,000 
DM and made a lossof 30,000 DM. 
The company had applied far fr. 
nandal aid from the Balia Senate’s 
innovation fund, which eventually 
invested 250,000 DM and also re- 
ferred it to LBB Seed Capital, 
which invested another 250,000. 
Together the two outside share-' 
holders now control 25.1 percent of 
dCADFs equity. 

“I fed quite comfortable with 
it," Mr. Yaramanqgju said. ‘The 
only thing we didn’t have before 
Seed Capital Fund was a specialist 
for financial and business issues. 


tLT 


K; 

P. 


GERMANY 


employees, including Mr. Ben- This saved ns from behaving in- 
disch, and has made 3.6 million stmctrvriy wrongly.” 

Jo 1 2companies since Mr. Bendisch ays the seed cap- 
1990. Mr Bendisch estimates the tal funds, with their market-orimt- 
fund spendsiroughly two days per ed approach, are a departure from 
month or 20 days per year on each Germany’s traditionaT^jcatkai d 
company aWhough the work comes state capital for research and devd- 
m waves. opment, and noted that before the 

t Jn . P 5 ^tments, current program' was introduced, 

u L Se ^_ c ¥ hal mwonty there was “no real vehicle available 
shareholdings in companies. So far, to produce good international 
it has sold one of its stakes. lost one products from the* -immense 
through bankruptcy and is keeping amount of research products.” 

10 more.- 1 1 He hopes that the Ministry -for 


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As our domestic clients 
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when making approaches 
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If local competence is 
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farther information. 


Fuchs Consult 


Kmxzberger Ring 64 - 65205 Wiesbaden 
Telephone (x 49 61 1)70 00 40 Fax lx 49 611) 71 04 04 


Mr. Bendisch said that the fund 
at least broke even with manage- 
ment costs and possibly made a 
small profit on the stake it sold in 
in an mfohnation-technology com- 
pany involved is ISDN telecom- 
munications. When LBB Seed Cap- 
ital bedune involved with the 
company, it had already developed 
its product and done preliminary 
market work but needed help with 
market penetration before it could 
fuuctkraakme. 

The find’s failed investment was 


Research and Technology wilt con- 
tinue to sponsor the seed caphal 
program when, its original mandate 
expires at the end of this yearjto 
far, however, the ministry has' an- 
nounced only that it is reviewing 
the program to determine its effec- 
tiveness and how it fits into the 
government’s overall plans to pro- 
mote innovation and economic 
growth. 


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also in acompany dealing in ISDN journalist based in Berbns 

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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, APRIL 20, 190+ 


Jot 


Page 2 1 


Germany! A Special l&port 


Reviving Profits 
Improve Outlook 
for DAX Shares 

Interna 

N 



International Herald Tribute 

° **®ck market on 
earth is likely to repeat 
■ v 1 ye®** fireworks, 

'5l ^ bul most respect- 

- ■ Q< ? economists are ratchetin* 
■ ^ country s corporate profit 
• : males upward and predicting an- 
ther market run-up of 10 to 15 
ereem by the end of the year. 
Just as the U.S. companies are 
• o amng to cut thetr outlooks, Ger- 
■ ia^ are raising theirs,” said Win- 

- ted Hutmann, chief of equities 
pearch at SchrOder Munchmeyer 
lengst Investment GmbH in 
rankfurt. 

Germany’s economic funda- 
^aitals have rarely looked better 
r|kid, ironically, are considerably 
.jjore solid than last year when 
Frankfurt’s benchmark DAX in- 
ex surged nearly 50 percent in 
ie with the worldwide bull mar- 
So far this year, both inflation 
interest rates are on a cora- 
ble downward slope, wage in- 
jes are modest and corporate 
Its look set to be the strongest 
alf a decade. 

“We are where the UA was two 
three years ago.” said Ingo 
nert, chief German securities 
iyst at Commerzbank AG. 
Two imponderables could turn 
t to bq nasty spoilers: a serious 
on Wall Street or a surprise 




result in Germany’s national elec- 
tions this autumn. 

Unl ike the Tokyo stock 
European exchanges rarely can 
avoid the fallout from a Wan Street 
calamity and German investors are 
cfosdy watching the erratic pulse 
readings from Wan Street. 

The German elections are gener- 
ally less feared because the m t > T k < *t s 
may already have factored in one of 
the more Hedy scenarios, a victory 
by the opposition Social Demo- 
crats over Chancellor Helmut 
Kohl's ruling center-right coalition. 

The business daily Handdsblatt 
has dubbed Rudolf Scharoing, the 
Social Democratic candidate, as 
the “Ger man Clinton." like Bin 
Clinton, be may be from a party 
with a tradition of state spending 
but, also like Mr. Clinton, he may 
have the great fortune of inherit- 
ing an economy at a favorable 
point in its cycle. Mr. Schaiping 
has not given any indication that 
be would do anything radical to 
interfere with the cycle. 

But there is a wom-case scenar- 
io and German politics has had 
more than its snare of surprises 
lately. The Social Democrats 
might win by a weak margin and 
find themselves forced to reach 
leftward to forge a coalition. 

“If the Greens get to play a role; 
there will be persistent ba rgaining 
for more government spending 
and this wiQ saddle budgets,” said 
Michael Bach, an analyst with 
Barclays de Zoete Wedd in Frank- 
furt. The Greens made significant 
gains in local elections last month 


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Source: Bloomberg 


[ncenuoiocti Herald Trlba* 


and 


both in Schleswig-Holstein 
Lower Saxony. 

Barring such jolts, stock traders 
say that the major spur for the 
market in the meantime is the out- 
look for corporate profits. 

This month, Daimler-Benz AG, 
said that it had “decisively turned 
the comer” after a dump of sever- 
al years that culminated last year 
in its first operating loss. Although 
banks, insurance companies and 
retailers are likely to be less fa- 
vored tins year, Germany’s back- 
bone blue-chip industrials — 
ffh#»mireik, machine- builders and 
autos — are seen reaping the bene- 
fits of growing exports and im- 
proving cost structures. 

Heavy industry was given a ma- 
jor boost by wage agreements that 

took many politicians and bosi- important real estate magnates 
ness leaders by surprise, especially disappeared and left the banks 
considering the bitter oattles saddled with a mountain of debt, 
fought out, partly with strikes, in “It is hard to know what kind of 

the previous round two years ago. lasting effect this has on a market, 


inflation is expected to fall to a 
low of 2 percent in early ] 995 from 
a current rate of 32 percent and 
make h easier for the Bundesbank 
to keep lowering rates. Some econ- 
omists see the discount rate, cur- 
rently at 5 percent, bottoming out 
at 4 percent at the end of the year. 

Perhaps the true test of the mar- 
ket’s ebullience will be its reaction 
to a double dose of financial scan- 
dals this year. Metallgesdlscbaft 
AG, one of Germany’s largest and 
oldest engineering concerns and 
metals processors, was driven late 
last year to the brink of bankrupt- 
cy when one of its units was forced 
to abandon oil hedging positions. 
Just as the banks were sorting 
through this wreckage, Jurgen 
Schneider, one of Germany’s most 
important real 


It also helped set the stage for a 
modest recovery in bonds, a mar- 
ket that was pumraeled along with 
other European bond markets in 
the first quarter of tins year, large- 
ly an aftershock from the uemois 
that shook the U.S. bond markets. 

With the modest wage g*™* 


but two back-to-back cases of mis- 
management in such a short peri- 
od of time is the kind of thing that 
frightens foreign investors.” said 
Huger Fahrinkrug, an economist 
with UBS Phillips & Drew in 
Frankfort 

Richard E. Smith 


Memens-Nixdorf on Road to Comeback 


Firm 


By Peggy Sab Troutman 


Th M~ UNICH — When Siemens Nix- 
- ' 1% /I dorf Informationssysteme AG 

I %/ I chose to premier e ' its newest 

• -JL ▼ JL product line in the middle of the 

iinosaur exhibit at the East Berlin Museum of 
' Hatural History, many analysts found it ironic. 
■ ■ . A wasn’t so long ago, they pointed out, that the 
.- aigest European computer maker also seemed 
- Jose to extinction. 

Now. however. SNI appears to have turned 
,- he tide. The company is cutting its losses and 
_ jouncing back with a corporate structure and 
-product strategy that give it a solid position in 
.he industry, analysts say. It is beefing up 
narireong and installing a new chief executive 
■ ater this year who is expected to cut costs. 

For G«»rge Verghese, chief analyst for 
Deutsche Bank Research in London, the 
. ' .nange in leadership marks a new chapter for 
he company. “After years of uncertainty, ex- 
piring things are actually starting to happen 
here,” he said. 

" Helmut Buschmann, managing director of 
- ' r RZ Rechenzenirum GmbH, a major client of 
INFs, said the company’s rebound is signifi- 
cant because it aD but guarantees that a Euro- 
1 ~ >ean player wiD have a say in the infonnation- 
echnology markets of the future, markets that 
iave traditionally been dominated by the 
-Jnited States. Recent poor performances re- 
- - : torted by both Groupe Bull and Olivetti SpA, 
dr. Busdnnann says, “leave the door wide 

• >pea for only one survivor in Europe and that 
AH be SNI. 

■ The steps SNI took last year to cut costs and 
. -eengineer its business processes are finally 
: bowing results. Losses are significantly small- 
t than they were a few years ago. and SNI 
■ xecu fives say the company has good prospects 


to end m the black in 1995. Sales are still fiat, 
hut losses are significantly smaller. 

Last year, SNI had net sales of 1 1.9 billion 
Deutsche marks ($7 billion, 7 percent below 
the 1992 figure, but a level that the company 
called “acceptable.” The company’s loss nar- 
rowed to DM 419 million, from 513 million in 
1992 and 781 million in 1991. 

SNTs losses so far this year have narrowed 
significantly, but they wouldn’t give figures. — 
although SNI executives anticipate a 6 percent 
drop in prices will keep sales at roughly 4 to 5 
percent below last year’s leveL 

Part of the reason things are looking better is 
SNl’s open systems, client-server strategy. At 
the March CeBIT computer fair in Hannover 
the company introduced a barrage of new 
products, 

Jane Dooriy. a. director of DataquesL .in 
Britain, said she is “more impressed” than she 
thought die would be with SNI’s product line 
and recent performance. Unlike IBM. Ms. 
Dooriy says, SNI is moving away from main- 
frames and throwing its support behind small- 
er, decentralized systems and that, Ms. Dooriy 
adds, “can. bring only benefits.” 

But SNTs outlook wasn’t always so positive. 
Indeed, many expected the 1990 merger be- 
tween Semens Data & Information Systems 
Group and Nixdorf AG, like the unification of 
Germany the same year, to flounder. Just as 
Germany had to integrate its eastern territories 
and overcome a recession, so was SNI forced to 
reconcile two corporate cultures and struggle 
through the computer industry’s worst slow- 
down. 

To make matters worse, Nixdorf, the hero of 
Germany’s snail businesses,' saw itself as a 
David standing tall against computer giants 
such as Siemens. While Semens bad built its 
strength on providing computers to corporate 
customers, which could work with products 


from any manufacturer. Nixdorf relied on 
smaller cheats and promoted proprietary com- 
puter systems. 

“Things were looking pretty grim at first,” 
the chairman and chief executive of SNL 
Hans-Diet er Wiedig. said in an interview. IBM 
began its fafl, che recession hit Europe, the 
computer price war was on and proprietary 
computers were on the way out. “All factors 
came together at once and this caused consid- 
erable problems within the information tech- 
nology industry worldwide,” he said. 

Despite turbulence on the market, SNI spent 
hundreds of millions of marks to give Nixdorf 
customers the ability to use other operating 
systems, and slim its offer down to three solid 
product families. 

Now the company faces another problem: 
marketing. “They have a lot of clever products 
and a number of really fine innovations such as 
the Synapse.” the world’s fastest neural, or 
“thinking” computer, Ms. Dooriy of Data- 
quest says, “but they just don’t make enough 
noise about them.” 

To tackle tins problem, Mr. Wiedig has 
recently influenced SNI to break with two of 
its most beloved but stifling tenets: promotion 
from within company ranks ooly and technol- 
ogy first 

In October, Mr. Wiedig is stepping aside to 
lei an outsider take the beta. Gerhard SchuJ- 
meyer, a cost-cutter who headed the U.S. oper- 
ations of ABB Asea Brown Boveri, will become 
CEO while Mr. Wiedig will move up to the 
supervisory board. 

Gerhard Adler. Managing Director of con- 
sultancy Diebold Deutschland said that Mr. 
Schulmeyer has the bard hand SNI needs. “He 
successfully tore apart ABB and put it bade 
together,” Mr. Adler says, “and hell do the 
same at SNI ” 


Can Germany Avoid 
A Weak Leadership? 


- ■ Continue d from page ^ 

- icrease the stature and represen- 

- jtion of both left and right m 

lermany. . 

: One needs to be very prescient 
. assess what impact these sorts 
•■f results will have on Germany s 
v ver-suspicious neighbors. But tjj e 
' ' urrent anti-foreign violence is, by 
’ , self, no reason for angst about 
" jermany falling back into the bad 
.•Id Nazi times. ■ 

' But the increasing political po- 
2 fixation underlines another, 
nore worrying issue. Germans by 
jid large have lost interest and 
,r nthusiasm in politics, political 
' ‘ : larties and political leaders. Ger- 
oany is not another Italy- “ ul 
here is a widespread disenchant- 
r ^ \nen t with the same old faces, the 
, L Wron gly insoluble problems, the 
ack of a bright economic future 
ind a falling standard of living- 
One major party looks much 
ike the other, and it is doubtful 
hat one or the other wil} manage 
o gain much over on c- third of the 

■ ’Olers in the 1994 national elec- 
ion. This would mean a Granu 
Coalition with the positiM 01 
hancellor probably bang deter- 

yirined by a few percentage points. 
j? Riis is not apt to be a happy 
olution to the country’s ifls. 

A weak German chancellor, one 
tble to provide a confident and 

— * 'gg for the integra- 

and the regenera- 

, U* ^ust European eco- 

. .7 'fiHv system would be viewed 
’’ by those suspicious of Lra- 

( . many’s power and of its lust to use 

’ :t — as near disastrous. 

' Combined with a U.S. adminis- 
tration that is littk oriented to- 
ward Europe, a fragile Russia, an 
increasingly shaky Japan “J, * 

■ European Union that is muddle- 
headed, the lade of Gennan raw' 
. ership and power (wo words de- 
tested by most Gentians) causes 

• the very Western structures creal- 

^ ■" ed to preserve stability to tremble. 


Germany wiB be a primary 
player in the international organi- 
zations as the European Union, 
Nalo, the Western European 
Union and the United Nations, 
where it is a prospective perma- 
nent member of the. Security 
Council But these organizations 
seem almost artificial in nature 
given the other problems that Ger- 
many has to confront. 

Germany’s geopolitical position 
in Europe wfll be paramount- The 
country has always exerted a great 
role in Central and Eastern Eu- 
rope, including Russia,: a fact 
which has become even, clearer 
with the end of the Cold War. 
Germany is Russia’s largest trad- 
ing partner, as weD as the largest 
trading partner of most of the re- 
mainder of Eastern Europe. Ger- 
many 1ms extended far more offi- 
cial credits to Russia than any 
other Western state. Its efforts 
have been lonely ones, and the 
Germans are growing impatient at 
having to bear the burden practi- 
cally alone. 

SunHariy. the enlargement of 
the EU and NATO to include 
parts of the ex-USSR and Eastern 
Europe is high on Germany's 
agenda: it seems low or nonexis- 
tent on that of other Western 
states- There is therefore tots of 
room for diplomatic conflict be- 
tween Germany and its Western 
allies. 

There are no simple solutions to 
any of these problems, which are 
probably larger than any faced by 
the country since 1945. What is 
needed now is a reasoned Gennan 
discussion of the situation and an 
analysis of what can be done 
about it If the issues are not faced, 
honestly and resolutely, the Ger- 
mans will be reduced to a state 
which they abhor — muddling 
through. That is, I am sorry to say. 
what they will probably have. 

DA vm ANDERSON is head of 
the Aspen Institute Germany. 


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Eastern Shortage: Stock Offerings 


% Richard E. Smith 


I 


N the five years since the collapse of 
tire Berlin Wall, the nascent stock mar- 
kets of Eastern Europe have bubbled 
with a heady brew or new public offer- 

each boastsevenri^ozen, while even Slovenia 
has managed to produce 10. 

But Eastern Germany, a region backed by 
the massive West German banking system 
and a rich investing public, has produced a 
grand total of two. One of those turned out to 
be a spectacular flop. 

Even though the East Germans are me- 
thodically putting their house in order and 
slowly but surely cranking oat better statis- 
tics, bankers and consultants nearly all agree 
on the near-term future for stock investors: 
boring. 

The basic explanation has (titan ged little 
since reunification. East German companies 
were immediately thrown up against ine rig- 
ms of world markets ana the hardest of 
currencies. While other East Europeans had 
time to wallow in post-Communist chaos and 
son themselves out a bit. Eastern Germany's 
larger companies had to move quickly to 
survive and that nearly always meant a sell- 
off to a Western company. 

The TreuhandanstalL, the agency set up to 
privatize Eastern Germany, was breathing 
heavily and watching the dock. Its priority 
was to gel the economy into private hands as 
fast as possible, and an initial public offering 
takes time. 

But the fact that 16 milli on East Germans 
have hardly left a trace on the market unques- 
tionably rankles, both at the neighborhood 
Bierkefler and in the board room. 

“The pride of our town was bought up by a 
Dutch owner of parting garages and a 
Frenchman who later sold out to an Austri- 
an,” said a dentist and small investor from 
Thuringia who would have liked to invest 
locally if possible. “Now that we have our 
VCR and a new car, we have all we need from 
the West and maybe we should build the Wall 
a gain to protect ouisdves.” 

Added a machine-tool company executive 
in Berlin: “We have sometimes thought that 
we might have been able to make it by our- 
selves if we had had a bit more time.” 

The Western buy-ups have been especially 
galling for some East Germans because the 
region still boasts some of capitalism’s early 
success storks — the textile and chemicals 
works of Saxony, the machinists of Thurii 
and the heavy engineering innovators of 
greater Berlin area. 

Even the Frankfurter ADgemeioe Zoning, 
the bible of West Germany’s banking estab- 
lishment. said in a recent editorial that it was 
“too bad that there are not East German 
offerings on (he exchange to give the sense 
that the region has its ’own* companies.” 

“The union with the West German econo- 
my. the advice of experienced banks, direct 
access to a highly developed financial market 
and the interest of wealthy investors — all 
these factors should have made entry into the 


market easier,” it said. “But the banks still 
hesitate” 

West Gennan bankers and consultants re- 
tort that they have to answer to their custom- 
ers and that the East did — and will for some 
time to come — pose immense risks for inves- 
tors. 

“The situation of these companies was 
completely turned upside down by new cost 
structures and the collapse of their Eastern 
markets,” said Eugen voo Keller, manager of 
Eastern privatizations for Roland Berger & 
Partner GmbH of Munich, one of Germany's 
leading consulting firms. “IPOs would have 
sent investors into immensely risky situa- 
tions." 

Deutsche Bank. Germany's largest, did ex- 
actly that and the pioneering effort rapidly 


The fact that 16 million 
East Germans have hardlv 
left a trace on the market 
rankles. 

turned into a trauma for everyone involved. 
In early 1992, in the beady euphoria after 
reunification, it introduced the East Gennan 
dairy Sachseiunilch AG to the market with 
considerable ballyhoo. With a Deutsche 
Bank seal of approval, there was little trouble 
attracting investors. 

But an ominous crack soon developed. The 
value of the offering was largely tied to the 
construction of a new plant in Eastern Ger- 
many and the cost estimate mentioned in the 
prospectus turned out to be badly underesti- 
mated. Amid a mass of recriminations and a 
close brush with outright bankruptcy, the 
company's shares plummeted from a high of 
84 Deutsche marks to 32 DM. Deutsche Bank 
ate humble pie and paid out 40 minion DM 
($23.5 milUon) to shareholders to compensate 
them at the price they bought into the fiasco. 

Utile wonder that no one has rushed to 
foQow in Deutsche Bank’s footsteps. At the 
moment, not a single application is pending 
•for any new East German entry onto (he 
market, according to Frankfurt and Berlin 
exchange officials. This leaves Berliner Spe- 
aalflug AG. one of the heirs to Eastern Cter- 
many’s flagship line Interflug, as the only 
purely East German stock available. 

Analysts note, however, that whatever does 
make it to the market is likely to be well 
screened, not least because of the Sachsen- 
milch debacle. 

“Not a single one of the stocks on the 
Polish or Czech exchanges could have met the 
standards of a German market,” said Jorg 
Walter, president of the Berlin Stock Ex- 
change. “They can only be looked at as 
emerging markets.” 

With German accounting and exchange 
standards among the world’s strictest, bank- 


ers look with some amusement at the ex- 
changes farther east- They point out that 
many Polish, Czech and Russian stocks have 
been rushed to the market simply ro give the 
public something to buy. This was necessary 
after governments, in a novel bid to give their 
entire populations a stake in recovery and a 
positive view of capitalism, distributed cou- 
pons. 

“People had to have something to buy with 
these coupons and a lot of the stocks coming 
to the market are there out of necessity rather 
than virtue,” said Mr. von Keller of Roland 
Berger, a firm that has played a role in about 
1,000 management buyouts in Eastern Ger- 
many. “The system has its advantages but it 
makes entry to the market easy, especially 
when a company is unlikely to be able to raise 
money anywhere else." 

Mr. Walter of the Berlin exchange said be 
thought that as many as 100 East German 
companies would be ripe for the Gennan 
market over the next three to five years. 

But he and many others are not so sore that 
they will want to jump off the high-dive any 
more than their West German cousins. In 
spite of a Winschaftswvnder and four decades 
of steady growth, most West German entre- 
preneurs have preferred bank credits to the 
thrills and c hills of the exchange floor. 

The small, closely held family enterprise 
has remained the engine of German growth 
— the computer wizard Heinz Nixdorf wait- 
ed 32 years before launching a public offer- 
ing, for instance — and the pattern appears to 
have taken hold in Eastern Germany. 

The bmld-from-Lhe-ground attitude con- 
trasts sharply with the big-picture entrepre- 
neurs in Warsaw and Moscow. “It is a sign of 
the cautious Gennan business mentality that 
the first question they always ask is whether 
they can own the company's property, the 
ground they sit on,” said Mr. von Keller. 

“At tins point, the question of new stocks 
on exchange is not the big question in Eastern 
Germany,” said Rudiger Pohl, a former 
member of the German government's council 
of economic advisers and now chief of the 
Economic Research Institute of Halle, the 
leading East German think tank. 

“We have to see bow these companies 
develop after they privatize and have started 
making profits, and then we can talk more 
about the exchange.” he said. 

The dream remains but the tune perspec- 
tive is years, not months. 

Peter Klopscta, president of Niles Werk- 
zeugrnaschinen AG. a machine-tool maker 
that was once one of former Eastern Germa- 
ny's star exporters, has shepherded his com- 
pany through life under a Communist regime, 
capped by a visit by Mi khail S. Gorbachev, as 
well as through the new era of mass layoffs 
and a Western buyout 

“You can complain and regret a lot about 
what has happened in the last four years, but 
we have to be realistic and keep working,” be 
said “Who knows? Maybe five years from 
now we will be a listed company on our own." 

RICHARD E. SMITH is on the staff of the 
International Herald Tribune. 


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INTER N \TIO\ \ l. HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, APRIL 20. 1994 


SPORTS 


ChisoxSink 
Bosox in 
A Deluge 
By Raines 

The Associated Press 

Wilson Alvarez had jusi flirted 
with a no-hitter for 5% innings and 
won his 1 1 Lb consecutive decision. 
Still he wasted little time in point- 
ing people to the star of the game. 

“Tun Raines is the big man to- 
day,” Alvarez said. 

“He’s the man today, not me." 
he said, after Raines's three homers 

AL ROUNDUP 

led the Chicago White Sox to a 12-1 
triumph Monday over the Red Sox 
in Boston. 

Raines hit solo homers leading 
off the first and third innings and a 
two-run drive in the eighth. He 
scored five runs and drove in four. 
He also walked, singled and 
reached on an error in the ninth. 

It was the first three-homer game 
of Raines's career. AH three were 
hit to right Held, helped by a 12- 
mile-an-hour (20 kph) wind. 

“I don't consider myself a home 
run hitter.” Raines said. “But on a 
day like today, you just try 10 S ct 
one up in the air in the direction the 
wind is blowing. Out of the three I 
hit. I thought maybe one. would 
have cleared the fence.” 

The previous three-homer game 
For the White Sox was by Harold 
Baines against Minnesota on Sept. 
17. 1984. 

Frank Thomas also homered for 
Chicago and Joey Cora added a 
three-run triple. 

The While Sox hit eight homers 
in the three-game series at Fenway 
Park and have 14 in six games 
against the Red Sox this season. 
Thomas, who has six home runs 
this year, homered in all three 
games of the series. Thomas has 
homered in four straight overall, 
and has scored a run in all 12 of 
Chicago's games. 

“It was a good old butt-whip- 
ping.'’ said Boston’s manager. 
Butch Hobson. “I’m glad to see 
Chicago leave here. Those guys can 
swing the hats.” 

The power display by the White 
Sox overshadowed Alvarez's per- 
formance. Andre Dawson's single 
high off the left-field wall in the 
sixth was the first hit. Alvarez lost 
his shutout the following inning 
when John Valentin doubled and 
Rich Rowland singled. 

Alvarez has not lost since Aug. 

1 1. He won his final seven decisions 
last season, defeated Toronto in the 
AL playoffs and has allowed just 
five earned runs in three starts this 
season. 

Danny Darwin allowed eighL 
runs on seven hits in 673 innings 
and walked six for BosLon. 

Royals 11, Tigers I: Gary Gactti 
keyed a six-run first inning, and 
later hit his first homer oT the sea- 
son as Kansas City won in Detroit 

The Royafs have won five in a 
row and. Detroit has lost four of 
five. 

Gaetti's two-run single with one 
out made it 4-0 and chased John 
Doherty. Gaeui hit a solo homer in 
the seventh. 

Greg Gagne got his 1.000th ca- 
reer hit. an RBI single in the ninth. 
Gagne and Wally Joyner each 
drove in two runs. 





T.itb MJuV-i Frat Prov 

The Phiffies' Lenny Dykstra sliding into home as the Dodgers 1 Mike Piazza awaited the throw. Philadelphia won it in die ninth, 54. 

Bonds’s Homer and Walk Undo Expos 


The huvnieJ Press 

The Montreal Expos, pitched to 
Barry Bonds and that cost them the 
lead.* Then they pitched around 
him and that cost them the game. 

Bonds hit a home run with one 
out in the bottom of the ninth in- 
ning to tie it. He walked, stole two 
bases and scored on Mark Car- 
reon’s pinch-hil single with one out 
in the 1 1 th to give the San Francis- 
co Giants a 2-1 victory Monday 
night over (he visiting Expos. 

Bonds, bidding for his record 
third straight MVP award this sea- 
son — and fourth overall — began 
the game batting only .214 with just 
one steal. But he again picked his 
moments: all five of his home runs 
have either lied games, or pul the 
Giants ahead. 


“If you walk him he can steal 
bases and if you pilch to him. he 
has the chance to knock it out of 

NL ROUNDUP 

the park." said Mike Jackson, the 
winning pitcher. “I’m just fortu- 
nate to play with a guy like that.” 

The Expos’s starter. Pedro Marti- 
nez. struck out a career-high 10 and 
gave up only five hits in seven in- 
nings. But in the ninth. Bonds con- 
nected off JefT Shaw for his second 
homer in two davs. tying it at I. 

In the 1 Ith, Bonds drew a one- 
out walk from Tim Scott. Bonds 
stole second and. after an inten- 
tional walk, stole third. 


Carreon followed with his first 
hit in five at-bats this season. 

Jackson relieved with the bases 
loaded and one out in the 10th and 
got Moises Alou to ground into a 
double play. The Giants put run- 
ners at second and third with one 
out in the 10th, but Robby Thomp- 
son lined out and Willie McGee 
grounded out 

Braves 7. Cardinals 1: Ryan 
Klesko, Fred McGriff and David 
Justice hit consecutive homers in the 
first inning and Atlanta crushed Sl 
Louis for its sixth straight victory 
and 13th in 14 games. 

On Friday in Chicago. McGriff. 
Terry Pendleton and Tony Tarasco 
bad hit consecutive homers in the 
first inning during a 19-5 rout. 

On Monday in Atlanta. Steve 


Redskins Sign Quarterback Friesz 


The AsshmUiJ Pret* 

The Green Bay Packers have another sack spe- 
cialist. rhe Washington Redskins have a new’ quar- 
terback and the Los Angeles Raiders have a behe- 
moth to protect JeFf Hostetler. 

On the last day Tor National Football League 
restricted free agents to sign with new teams, those 
were the three biggest moves Monday. The Packers 
signed Sean Jones, the Redskins got John Friesz 
and Los Angeles picked up 328-pound ( 148-kilo- 
gram) Kevin Gogan. 

Another major move was pending as Alvin 
Harper decided whether to go from Dallas to 
Pittsburgh. The NFL gave ihe wide receiver an 
extension of the signing deadline for unspecified 
reasons. He was expected to decide later Tuesday. 

In other moves, quarterback Bobby Hebert re- 
signed with the Atlanta Falcons, coraerback Ben 
Smith was traded from Philadelphia to Denver, 
center Jim Sweeney re-signed with the New York 
Jets and return specialist Vai Sikahema retired. 

Harper was considering a reported S42 million, 
three-year offer from Pittsburgh. The Cowboys 


have offered him SSbb.000 for one year, ir he signs 
with Pittsburgh. Dallas would receive a firsKuid 
third-round draft choice as compensation. 

The Packers, who lost free agent linebacker 
Tony Bennett to Indianapolis earlier this spring, 
filled their need for a pass rush specialist. 

The team wouldn’t release terms, but published 
reports said die contract was worth 57.8 million over 
three years, making Jones. 31, the Packers' second- 
highest paid defensive player behind Reggie White. 

Friesz will give the Redskins a veteran to help 
groom the quarterback they are expected to lake 
with the third pick in the draft — either Heath 
Shuler of Tennessee or Trent Dilfer of Fresno Slate. 

Friesz, the San Diego Chargers' one-time starter, 
si pied a one-year, $900,000 deal. Last season's 
Washington quarterback. Mart Rypien. was re- 
leased last week. 

Gogan signed a three-year. 53.7 million deal 
with the Raiders after the Cowboys tried in vain to 
convince him to stay. To replace him. Dallas 
signed Derek Kennard of the New Orleans Saints. 


Avery protected the early lead, 
pitching six strong innings. He gave 
up one run on two hits. Rick Sut- 
cliffe was chased in the third. 

Padres 6, Mete 3: Jeff Kent hit 
another home run. but it could not 
overcome two homers and a career- 
high five RBIs by Derek Bell in San 
Diego. 

Kent hit his seventh homer in six 
games, a two-run shot in the eighth 
that tied it at 3. He leads the majors 
with eight home runs and 21 RBIs. 

Bell put the Padres ahead with 2 
three-run homer in the eighth off 
Jonathan Hurst- He also hit a two- 
run homer in the sixth. 

Gene Harris was the winner. 
New York third baseman Bobby 
BeniDa started for the first time 
since injuring his left shoulder 
April 10 and had an RBI single. 

Pinffies 5. Dodgers 4: Jim Eser.- 
reich got an infield hit with two 
outs in the ninth that lifted Phila- 
delphia over visiting Uts Angeles. 

Mike Piazza hit a three-run 
homer in the seventh that gave the 
Dodgers 4-3 lead. With the scored 
tied in the ninth. Piazza popped up 
against Doug Jones with two run- 
ners on to end the inning. 

John Kruk opened the Phillies' 
ninth with a single and advanced 
on an errant throw by Gary Wayne. 
Darren Daulton grounded into a 
double play, sending Kruk to third, 
and Eisenrerch beat out a slow 
grounder to second baseman De- 
lino DeShields. 

Marlins 5. Rockies 3: Chuck 
Carr singled home the tying run 
with one out and Jeff Conine hit a 
two-run double with two outs as 
Florida rallied in the ninth against 
Colorado closer Darren Holmes. 

The loss at home aided the 
Rockies' four-game winning streak. 
Holmes took over to start the ninth 
with a 3-2 lead, and blew his third 
save chance in four tries. 

Luis Aquino was the winner de- 
spite giving up Ellis Burks’s go- 
ahead double in the eighth. 


No to Big Brother at ’94 Cup 


Inrernaitivul HeralJ Tribune 

L ONDON — World Cup USA 94 is so close we 
can almost smell iL “Saxer with a nice popcorn 
taste" is how the German goalscorer Jurgen Klins- 
mann describes ihe new experience. 

Eght weeks from now we will be there. Or will we? 
Paranoia is afoot- 

The US. oiganiz- r 0 |, 9 

ers ha« stirred a Hughes 

hornets nest, de- 3 1 

manding as a pre- 


previous World Cup. any Olympic Games, any tyfry 
series, any Super Bowl. 

The Boston Globe, USA Today andTheAssoaafcj 
Press are among those reluctant 10 acquiesce. On 
assu mption that this is not just America s squabble 
and anyone can join in. | add mv- twojCCTts^worfe 

I began attending World Cops in 1974, mGeritafy 
where there was justification for vetting everyone 
coming to the tournament because two years previa^ 
ly Palestinian terrorists had killed seven Israeli com. 
petitors at the Munich Olympic Games. 

No right-thinking visitor could object to body muj i 

_i n..i in nnf in 


condi tion 1 0 accreditation the following: baggage searches. But not in Germany, not in Argati 

"I hereby request/authonze the Federal Bureau of c w hdd 

Investigation (FBI), all stale and local law enforce- “ { Spain or Italy did the authorities^ 
n»u agencies.- oonmnt with apphcaWe law(s). to a condition of accreditation £ 

release criminal history and criminal investigative re- Knowieugc/ii , re ~. rds - 1 * 

cords i pmamiag » ™ >° WwU ^P.L'SA 1994. inc^ ta ^^ es r lvc ‘wSd Cups. 1 have also comy 

and three Olympics. on Arab-taeli war. and 

accreditation eligibility. stories or major events on five cohtiiienl<i.' Ii taka 

SEES SK 10 

FIFA’s general secreiarv. was at first “totally shocked officer has implied that 

at the procedure.” But his office has backed off telling ^ jfiwSl* 

the Americans how to run their affairs. those exporting 10 be a part oT tire -5 th W orld Cop. 

Joao havelange. the FIFA president, happens to be Rothenberg 
in America right now for a meeting of theregional pJaymgdevd s advocate ^and there, are ^duorsjf 

soccer confederation. discussing, among other things, n °[J c fJ 0 H5I' S SeA* immS 

his likelv unopposed candidature for a sixth term of mnd ^ USA 94 gave their papers good reason to 

office. I wonder if Havdange will sign the pledge? ^ 


^ HE WHOLE point of the; -og. iyj.ljlj 
and the law. Ricardo Teixeira, Havelange^ son-in-law / 

is suing Pele, Brazil's former playing idol over allega- Fa ^>- s,des °" -S?3?SrF 
lions of corruption at the Brazilian soccer federation ***? 111051 popular pursuit in the rest, of the 

- which Teixeira runs. .And there are investigations ?«*ld, Amenca home of communicanpns money, 


into the financial affairs of Havelange. 


instant appeal and. at last count. 16 million kids who 


!Uiu utv i annuo v» uoiwoiil^, . - • . , . . . 

No doubt soccer’s great ruler II defend himself dunk soccer could be for them. VVj 
against those charges as vigorously as be states that, at No one out here thinks the : sport 
7Tbe is strong enough in body kd mind to run the ha™ them, though it just might nse to Uiallra^ 
sport’s world waning body for four more years. But all-American giants of basketball, basebad. tot tell 
this man who tas courted by the White House to grant hockey. We are not imsaonanes. but we thirty* 

America the World Cup might bridle if obliged, on United States and soccer have something to ofler ore 
pain of exclusion, to sign awav rights suddenly slipped another. • : 

[mo the accreditation process ' Fr^ ^enca we can le^ hou- to 

W RAT IF we all refuse to endorse this legal started 100 yean iago in England. We can benefit fn«, 
blackmail? What if 500 players. 5,000 jounuL concept of family entertainment while, pyrstnng 
ists. sponsors, agents, volunteers and referees, tell the * e pnzes of sport. • ,, : , 

FBI. and unnmned World Cup “agents.” any dark „ And as long as we don t fall for the Nancy jpi 
secrets in our past are noi their business? ' Tonya ethic, we might even ezyqj' wrappmg up span 

I haven’t made calls to 5.000 journalists, but those *? show biz. Italy did it with Carreras. Domingo and 


who have spoken about the’ waiver stand in line with Pavarotti, and those three, heavyweights of music md 
George Freeman. assistant general counsel to The devotees of soccer, are booked to perform in Chk% 


New York "nines. 

Freeman shot off a I aw-yer-to- lawyer reposte to 


on June 16. 

Next day. accreditation permitting. Liza Mimeffi 


.Alan I. Rothenberg chairman of World Cup USA 94. gets the showon the road for "the greatest World Cty 
“We are all aghast at the inappropriateness of vour m histoiy. „ ■ 

request.” wtoie Freeman. “It strikes us as the grossest p Sometme around then 1 wtil ook for Edgar Bea 
invasion of personal privacy of the journalists. Cer- [o™er FBI ^enl and now head of W orld Cup security, 
tainlv to carrv on ihdr livelihood, members of the If I g«* the chancy ! shall remind him of a pronuse hr 
media should' not be required to yield their civil ma^to accredited journalists ai the U.S. Cup last >^r. 
riohjs,- ‘ “We are not going to overpower this World Cup 

Freeman circulated his letter to attorneys of major ejwessiv* security." he said. “We plan a jojqi 
U.S. news organizations. It spelled out that Times . U P‘ 

reponers were not hooligans, and had not been sub- ‘ 10 lhal - 

jected to such outrageous conditions to cover any a tun* ihe > 


Radio City Show to Close World Cup 


Reuters 

NEW YORK — RadioCity Mu- 
sic Hall Productions will produce 
the 1994 World Cup closing cere- 
mony cm July 17. a 30-minute show 
expected to be watched by the big- 
gest audience in television histoiyr. 

The ceremony wiD take place be- 
fore the World Cup Final in the Rose 
Bowl, in Pasadena California. 

World Cup organizers said Mon- 
day that the show was expected to 
include “a performance by a world- 
class star, hundreds of children, the 
24 participating countries, the 
World Cup trophy unveiling and 
more." 

They said the star would be an- 
nounced “shortly.” 

The World Cup final, historical- 
ly the world’s most widely-watched 
television event, is expected to at- 
tract an estimated 2 billion viewers 
in more than 180 countries. 


“The close of World Cup ’94 will 
create a lasting legacy for soccer in 
the United States.” said the World 
Cup USA 1994 chairman and chief 
executive, Alan Rothenberg. 

The World Cup, being staged in 
nine dues in the United Stales, 
opens on June 17 in Chicago. Ger- 
many. the defending champion, 
plays Bolivia in that game. 

■ 3 Col From Italian Team 

Italy has dropped 3 players — 
GianLuca Vialli, GianLuigj Leo- 
tini and Roberto Mancini — from 
its national team as Coach Anigo 
Sacchi cut the roster to 31. "The 
New York Times reported. 

Vialli and LentinL just recovered 
from serious injuries, were consid- 
ered out of shape for the World 
Cup. Mancini was dropped follow- 
ing a poor performance last month 


in Italy’s 2-1 loss to Germany in an] 
exhibition game. 

Vialli. who has 16 goals in S] 


*10111, KIR' IW IV pus 111 -V II 

appearances for the Azzurri, was |j 
sidelined for several weeks xvilh a 1 


broken foot but scored three goals j 
Sunday as Juvenlus of Turin routed 
Lazio of Rome, 6-L. tyniioi. hqd : 
some unimpressive performances : 
as he returned to action last month 
after recovering from a near-fatal 
highway crash in AugusL 

■ New Bastia Stadium Pliq 

The Furiani stadium in Corsica, 
scene of a soccer tragedy two yeap 
ago in which 1 5 people died aftcra 
temporary stand collapsed, is to be 
rebuilt this year. Reuters reponeil 

The French sports minister. Mi- 
chele Alliot-Marie. said on Tud- 
day that an 8.700-seal stadium 
would be erected on the presentshr 
in Bastia. 




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SPURTS 

Flames and Wings 

See Home-Ice Edge 
Melt in Early Losses 

The Anatiaied Pres, 

The CaJgaiy Flames and Dew™ tbe J eas ?°- scored twice in the sec- 
Red Wings played 84 games lb? Si ^ P® 1 * 1 10 cIose *■*, &P *0 3-2. 
home-ice advantage iniheNaTini! 35? tea ^ s “ed at 3-3 and 4-4 
^ Hockey League playoffs and lost 00 a feed from 

>! in one right w Todd Hik, wristed a shot under the 

really got beaten badly - „° Ve of ** Essensa for win ' 

_ “We don’t look at it as history,” 
to Vancouver in tte G ? elan Duchesne said of San Jo- 

Western Conferenc^SS MnT 568 p °? lsea! * ,n «W»*- “When we 

day night “We’ve got Say hart 25*^ OT ,ce ! il "** today, 
er and smarter” play lMrd ‘ ^ stox >' wasn t going to get us a 

.Calgary, the Pacific Division ^ We ha d to work for it” 

?“& surpnse v Rangers 6, isbadns 0; In New 
nome-i ce loser Monday night as Yor L the Rangers and Mike Ricb- 
" _ ^ Played a virtual carbon copy of 

STANLEY CUP PLAYOFFS 1- Richter turned in his sec- 

~ ond straight shutout and the Rang- 

San Jose won at Detroit 5-4 Th* ers scored /our second-period goals 
Central Division-leadine ‘ Red ¥ b J? nk ** Wanders. On Sunday, 
Wings had the best reconfin the ** Rangers also rooted the Island- 
Western Conference. ^ 6-0- 

The defending Stanley Cun ..j^tor, who kept the Rangers in 
champion Montreal Canadien? **“ £ ame whcn **9 werc 
meanwhile, won at Boston v? Q ,« “ttohot, 13-1, recorded his fourth 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, APRIL 20, 1994 


Page 23 


^^ner, was not the only surprise 
home-ice lo ser Monday night as 

STANLEY CUP PLAYOFFS 

, Jo ¥ at Detr oit, 5-4. The 
t-entral Division-leading Red 
X^F had the best record 6 in the 
western Conference. 

The defending Stanley Cud 
champion Montreal Canadiens 
meanwhfle, won at Boston, 3-2, to 
even their senes at a game apiece. 

Elsewhere, the New York Rane- 
eTs routed the New York Islander 
W), and Toronto beat Chicago 5-1 

Vancouver’s Kirk McLean 
stopped 31 shots as the Canucks 
}?ai the Flames. 

_ Trevor Linden, Geo/I CourtnaH, 
Cliff Rotming, Jeff Brown and 
Dave Babych scored as the Ca- 
nucks, who finished 12 points be- 
hind the Flames, added to Calga- 
ry’s playoff nightmare. 

The Flames have not won a play- 
off series since their 1989 Stanley 
Cup champi onshi p 

“We’ve got a good team,” 
McLean said. “We’ve had an up- 
and-down season. We really didn’t 
play to out potential. If we play a 
good solid two-way game, we can 
skate with the best of than. Wheth- 
er we frustrated Calgary tonight or 
they were a Httle flat. I really don’t 
know.” 

Sharks 5, Red Wings 4: Vlastimfl 


playoff shutout. 
The foui-of-s 


The four-of-seven-game series 
moves to Long Island for Games 3 
and 4 Thursday and Sunday. 

Gutttfiens 3, Brians 2: In Bos- 
ton, Paul Dipietro and Kirk Muller 
had third-period goals and Patrick 
Roy made 40 saves as Montreal 
rallied to victory. 

'Hie Canadiens trailed, 2-1, en- 
tering the third period, but Dipie- 
tro scored on a wrist shot from the 
faceoff circle just 18 seoonds into 
the period on a power play. Then, 
with 4:32 gone in the period, Mull- 
er completed a three-on-two break 
with his second goal of the game. 

“We were burned last time on 
our penalty killing and we had to 
adjust to that,” said the Montreal 
coach, Jacques Demers. “Our pen- 
alty killers were a lot more aggres- 
sive then they were the other night 
We needed play from oar special 
teams and we got it” 

The series shifts to Montreal for 
games on Thursday and Saturday. 


Kroupa’s goal at 15:36 of the third Ma|fe Leafs 5, Bhdthawks 1: 
period made San Jose’s playoff do- The Maple Leafs solved the Chica- 

Kl,« a anumwr I, .mr r.) .L. R J rj n.U 1— 


but a success. It was also the first 
time San Jose has won in Detroit 
The Sharks, in the franchise's 
third year, jumped to a 3-0 first- 

. a t r • j: oa 


go goal tender, Ed Belfour, early as 
Wendel Clark, Doug Gflmour. 
Kent Mandetville, Jamie Macoun 
and Dave Andreychuk scored in 


period lead, including Shawn the first 27 minutes in Toronto. 
Cronin's first NHL goal in more Chris Cbeiios scored Chicago's 



Biun a*r'A*cncr Francr-Prcwc 

Chicago's Toni Knkoc snared a rebound over Scottie Pipped and the Hawks 1 Danny Manning. 


He Conquered Greece, 
ButFailedto WinEurope 


By Ian Thomsen 

International Herald Tribune 

TEL AVIV — The basketball 
game got away from NIkos Galis 
as if each point were a year lost 
never to be reclaimed. He was 
trailing by 8. The scoreboard is a 
mir ror for winners and losers 
alike. Only a few seconds re- 
mained, and as he glanced away 
he could bar each last one dik- 
ing off in his bead 

His team, Panaihinaflros of 
Greece, was going to lose its 
semifinal Tuesday night in the 
European final Four to a rival 
domestic dub, CHympiakos Pi- 
raeus, by a score of 77-71 The 
championship will be decided 
Thursday night against Jovemut 
Badalona, the 79-65 winner 
Tuesday over Barcelona in a 
semjfwial of S panish dabs. 

A Greek team will be involved 
in the final for the first time 
Gabs is the player most responsi- 
ble for the ascendance of the 
game in his parents’ native coun- 
try. He is 36, which is to say he 
might soon retire without having 

WOD ibis champ ionship, like a 

marathoner collapsing within 
sight of the finish. 

“I wanted something defi- 
nite,” be was explaining recently. 

Tins is a story he has told three 
dozen, foar dozen times for each 
year in his career. It is for lack of 


ace 


The Associated Pros 

The Chicago Bulls can put their feet up and 
watch some television over the next few days. 

They have earned the rest after positioning 
themselves as best they can far toe best re- 
cord in the East and bomecourt advantage 


than a year. 

The Red Wings, who scored 104 
• goals more than the Sharks during 


only goal in the third period. 

Game 2 of the series is Wednes- 
day night at Maple Leaf Gardens. 


throughout the conference playoffs. 

“We get to sit back and watch,” Coach Phil 
Jackson said after his team squandered a 22- 
point lead, but still beat the Hawks, 87-70, on 
Monday to move within a half game of Atlan- 
ta. “We will be able to get some legs back and 
get some strength for the stretch.” 

The Bulls do not play again until Friday, 
when they are host to Boston. After that 
comes a home game against the New York 
K nicies on Sunday in the season finale. 

The Hawks, mc&nwhSe, must play at New 
York on Tuesday night — the Kmcks are also 


one-half game back — and have a road game 
at Miami and a home meeting with Orlando. 

With 11 victories in 12 games and after a 
stretch of five games in six days, the Bulls 
need to take it easy. Scottie Pippen, slowed 

NBA HIGHLIGHTS 

by a thigh bruise, and some of the other 
regulars were tired Monday, and the starting 
center, Luc Longley, sat out with a sore knee. 

Steve Kerr and Toni Knkoc off the 
bench to give the learn the boon it needed. 

“It was a huge win.” Kerr said. “If we don’t 
win, we can’t catch Atlanta. Now we have a 
great chary* to win the conference. We win the 
last two games, we win be in great shape.” 

Warriors 134, Oppere 131: Keith Jennings 
sank six free throws in the final 1:16 of 


overtime, and Chris M uffin scored 32 points 
as visiting Golden Slate tied a season high 
with its sixth straight victory. 

Billy Owens and Chris Webber each added 
25 points for the Warriors, who ?re 17 games 
over .500 for the first time since the end of the 
1991-92 season. 

Dominique W ilkins led Los Angeles with 
37 points and became the ninth player in 
NBA history to seme 24,000 career points. 

Sob 106i» Mavericks 97: In Dallas, Charles 
Barkley scored 28 points, including four 
straight that locked up the victory late in the 
game, and Phoenix tied San Antonio for 
third-best record in the Western Conference. 

The Suns, who have three games remain- 
ing, hold the tiebreaker edge over the Spurs 
because they won the season series, 3-1. 


a proper ending, perhaps, that he 
keeps playing. 

He was a guard trying to make 

the National Basketball Associa- 
tion’s Boston Celtics in 1979, a 
rookie from Seton Hall, and the 
son of Greek parents who raised 
him in New Jersey. Representa- 
tives of two Greek dubs came to 
Boston to recruit him. The offer 
from the first dub fell through, 
but the second offer, from Aris 
Salonika, fdt stable in ways he 
still cannot explain. 

“Bill Filch, who was coach of 
the Critics then, wanted me to 
stay for the exhibition games,” 
Gabs said. “He was telling me 
how much he liked me, bow 
strong I was, but the offer was 
better here. Something inside me 
told me to take this offer.” 

An offer to stay for the exhibi- 
tion games, as opposed to the 
NBA regular season, is nothing 
Eke a promise. A competing of- 
fer to play overseas, in a country 
be had never visited, might have 
seemed fike a terrific risk. He was 
told dial basketball was growing 
in Greece, that he would be the 
big star in an arena large enough 
to hold 5,000 people. 

“When I first came, 1 was sur- 
prised that the gym really could 
hold 5,000 people like they said,” 
Gabs said. What they hadn't said 
was that every one had to stand. 
There were no seats. With his 
first step, he realized the court 
was made of pebbled rubber. 

From the first season, he raid, 
the games against city-rival 
PAOK would fill the gymnasi- 
um. Most of the others might 
entertain only 1,000 spectators, 
if that. In those days, three of his 
teammates might be under or- 
ders to play defense only, with 
no thought of scoring. He didn’t 
trust a lot of them with posses- 
sion. Better that he keep h. The 
team was designed for him to 
score at least half of the points. 

He had wanted something def- 
inite, and in time he could see (he 

r ! catching up with him — 

gymnasiums growing new 
seats, the players growing taller 
around him, better players. One 
year, he came back for the new 
season and the rubber floor had 
been turned into wood. The 
growth only increased after he 


led Greece to the European 
Championship in 19S7. 

“It was like a great wave of 
support,” he said. The country 
came all together like one big 
fist. You could see all the gyms 
that used to be empty were be- 
coming full, and the parks out- 
side were fuD of kids playing 
basketbalL It reminded me of 
when 1 was in the States, and I 
would travel outside my neigh- 
borhood io the different play- 
grounds looking for good com- 
petition. It’s starting to be that 
way in Greece, too. You need it 
to be that way." 

He might have viewed the 
warmups Tuesday night as bis 
farewell party. The best Europe- 
an basketball league is in Greece, 
and the proof was in these two 
Greek teams and their fans’ 
chanting harmlessly at each oth- 
er across the arena. The game 
had grown enough for the small 
dub of Panathioaiko5 — the club 
whose initial offer to Gabs a de- 
cade earlier had fallen through 
— to purchase his expensive con- 
tract 

The game had grown to ac- 
commodate three from Jordan's 
planet — Gafis’s teammaie, Al- 
exander Volkov, the former At- 
lanta Hawk, and two gigantic 
opponents, Roy Tarpley, the for- 
mer NBA All-Star, and Zarko 
Paspafj, who tried the NBA once 
and at 28 talks of trying . 'again. 

On Tuesday, Galis found him- 
self with George Sigalas, a taller, 
22-year-old defender, following 
him everywhere, an arm always 
around GaHs’s back, as if trying 
to prop him up. Of course it was 
nothing like that Galis was held 
to 8 points and just 9 shots. His 
erratic starting center, Stqjko 
Vrankovic, was in foul trouble 
constantly. Paspalj (22 points) 


and Tarpley (21) took control, 
and Volkov (32) found himself 
outnumbered. He was able to re- 
duce a 55-41 defidt to 3 points 
with 6 minutes remaining, an in- 
tersection in the game that used 
to belong to Galis. He could not 
seize it Tuesday. 

No sooner' had the clock 
readied stop than photographers 
were swarming the court and the 
bigger players were beading for 
the door and among them he 
seemed to vanish. 




NBA Standings 

EASTERN CONFERENCE 
AHanflcDlvlNM 



W L 

Pet 

GB 

v-Ne work 

54 24 

AV2 

— 

x -Orlando 

47 J1 

-603 

7 

x-New Jersey 

43 34 

544 

llVfe 

MJarnl 

40 39 

506 

14M 

Boston 

30 48 

J85 

21 

PtttladrtoMo 

24 54 

JOB 

X 

Washington 

23 55 

Ctttnil Dtolstoe 

295 

31 

x-Attonla 

55 24 

496 

— 

x-Oilcago 

55 25 

AM 

to 

x-Clawgianit 

45 34 

570 

10 

x-lndiana 

43 35 

551 

llto 

Charlone 

38 40 

-487 

16Vfe 

Detrott 

20 58 

JS6 

34¥fe 

Milwaukee 

19 59 

-244 

35to 

WESTERN CONFERENCB 
MkhMSt Dhrlstoe 



W L 

Pet 

GB 

V-Houstan 

57 21 

J31 

— 

x-Scn Antonia 

53 M 

571 

4to 

x-Utoti 

49 29 

528 

8 

x -Denver 

39 3» 

500 

18 

Minnesota 

30 58 

JS6 

37 

Dana* 

11 68 

Padflc Dhrfcton 

.139 

46to 

r -Seattle 

60 18 

JW 

— 

xJtooenU 

53 26 

571 

7V» 

x-GoWen State 

48 31 

508 

Wife 

x-Poritand 

46 33 

5S2 

MVS 

LA. Lakers 

33 45 

523 

27 

Sacramento 

27 51 

J46 

33 

t_A Clippers 

27 52 

J42 

331fe 

x -cl inched plawHUemi; vteh/telon line 


‘ Atlanta M » » »S-» 

} Chicago 24 » 19 2*-87 

A,- Mamins 7-15 2-4 It . Aosmon 5-11 W 12; 

J c >artW*4i4K«rr*7Mi4R«wfc- 

Y Atlanta SO (Willis IS). Chicago SB (Gram 15). 

. AMls»»-Altanta IS (Blaylock 4). cmeaso 25 

ITS." , , 

pc Bn 32 36 M 25— 91 

P: BvfclW 10-19 0-10 28. KJohnson 8-15 5-7 
- 21; D: MoNiburn1M4* , 7J9».locfc*oa 

3a B w-un * - P hnwrix 60 (Groan 14 ), Dalla s 
51 (Jackson, Mnshbum B). AMttfc—Plwen** 
25 (KJanmon 14). Dallas 17 (Jackson 5). 
OddM Slate 27 32 M M 

l_A. CHiwcn as 29 24 SS 1A-07 

G: Webber 11-14 3-4 25. Owens 10-19 *0 25, 
Mirilh 14-19 2-2 32; LA: Wilkins 14-27 2-4 37, 
Horoor 13-25 M 3a Relwos^s-^oWS'S^* 
53 Webber 15). Los Anseka <2 UWlUnfc 
VoushL Sntnccr K). AsstUs-Oofc *" 1 
(Sprwwoll 11). la* Ansotes 38 (Joekson 10). 


7. «'■ 


hBASEBALL 


Major League Standings 


AMERICAN LEAGUE 
East Division 

w L Pet GB 
BalHmora 7 4 A34 — 

1 Toronto 8 5 "tlS 

I Boston 7 5 J83 Vs 

•Ne-vork 4 5 *5 1 

,4 Detroit 4 9 JOB 4 

Jx Central Dlvtsloti 

, Cleveland ' 4 * •*» - 

Cl Oileoao 7 \ ■** w 

Kansas City 4 5 345 ” 

Milwaukee t 5 SIS » 

Minnesota 4 9 JOB an 

WMt Division 

Oakland 7 5 J® — 

-• . Coafornto « 7 A62 

- Seattle 4 7 J* 

. .. Texas 4 7 J44 W 

NATIONAL LEAGUE 
a East Division 

•iVjJ Atlanta 13 ] s 

3=- i ■ ? s s 

Montreal 4 9 J00 »» 


OndwiaH 
. u , St. Louis 
; .- -• Pittsburgh 

■ 1 * VI HOW** 

: > Cftlcw * 

; a, & ■ 


Montreal 4 9 JOB •** 

ceatrol DtvWon 

ClndnmiH 3 * "Z 

St. Louis 7 * ■» ” 

Houston 4 ! m 4 

entcoea 3 a 2*3 

WostDMsfea 

ssr° * * 5 ,b 4 

ss sr i s s * 

MONDAY'S LlNE»CO«S 
AMERICAN LEAGUE 

CWeaoo »I 3*® J* 8 - 1 ? " ? 

WrT Mt 480 104— I » » 


8 5 - 

* 6 JOO 

4 9 M 4 

3 II 2U ^ 


Alvarez. DeLeon (71. Cook CTJ and KOrto- 
vfae; Darwin Trtcek (7). Fossa* (8) and 
Rowland. W— Alvarez. 30. Lr-Darw*. 2-L 
HRs— Chicago, Raines 3 (5), Thomas (4). 
Kanos City 411 80S 103—11 13 ■ 

Detroit tit MO 880— 1 7 2 

Gordon. Belinda (8> and Moc far kwo; Do- 
horty.SDavts (l).Boever (4),Hennemcn (9) 
and Kreuter. W Our datvVVL— Doherty. 1-2. 
HR — Kansas City. Gaattl ID. 

NATIONAL LEAGUE 
St LaaiS OM 888 NO-1 4 0 

Atlanta 403 MO Me— 7 I) 1 

SatcUftOb Urtanl ol.Mumhy (7). R-lhjdrt- 
nuaz (•) and Paaaas; Avery, Bedmlan (7). 
Bletedd (8), wohters (9) and jxonez. W-A- 
venr. 14 L — Sutcilfte. 1-1. HRs-Atlonta. 
KJeska (5). McGrift (4), Justice Q). 

Las ha pairs 8M wo 388-4 9 1 

Philadelphia 111 ON WW W 0 

RJMortlnez. Got! 17). Worn 19) and Ploe- 
zo; Rtvora.«MN t7>. DJonos C9> and Daution. 
W— IXJane& Ml L— Wayne, 0-2. HR — LA, PV 
azm (2). 

Florida 180 «M 973-5 9 • 

Colorado 108 001 SW-* W S 

Hammond. Aaulna PI. Harvey (91 aid 
Ttnolev; GrJtoris. BJJutfln (8), Btolr (8), 
Holmes 19). Moore (9) and Glranfl. W— A- 
aulno, M L — Holmes, 0-Z Sv-Hwey f41). 
New York 800 lot 820-1 * 0 

San Mean 800 8W On-t f 3 

Hillman. Linton (4), JoJtwst (71 and Hund- 
lev; TLWorretL Sauer 121, Mauser (i),MDads 
UK G&Herrsl (8). Hot l ma i (91 end Alamo. 
W— GsHurrts. M L— JaHwsf, 0-L Sv-HoH- 
man (2). HRe-NY, Kent (8). sa Dam 2 (4). 
Montreal BM «0 Bio 80-T n I 

Sai Francbca 808 000 001 01—2 8 8 

pi innlspTl 

PjjAorthPa, Show (8), Scott (10) ad Spetir. 
Fletcher 111): Htdcarmv Burba (7), Monie- 
leone W. Rooers (O, MJochson (18) and Mon- 
nartna. JsReed (ID. W-MJoeksan. ML 
L— Sarft 0-7. HR— San Frandsm Boodk (5). 

TTie Michael Jordan Watch 

MONDAY'S GAME: Jordon went 14or-X 

extending Ms hitting streak tests oomeo ond 

scored his flrsf run. 

Jordan cnwoht the only two By baHstill to 
him m rtghf field 

SEASONTODATE: Jordan is S*fbr24 ad 
tt batl*0 JOB. Mo Is orrorte* tn 13 chances. 


Pel GB 

A47 — 

-500 life 

-500 life 

500 lfe 

M* 2 

•375 ZSfe 


447 — 

.667 — 

JSt 1 

M* 2 

375 2Jfe 

250 3Vfe 


Central Leow* 

W L T 
Yomiuri * * " 

OKUdchl 4 * ® 

Haratrin • * ® 

Yafc«tf < 4 ; 

Yokohama 1 ! 5 

Hiroshima 3 5 0 

TbesdaYs Results 
Chunkhi n. Yamh/rt 3 
Manshift 9. HbtaMma 1 
Yakut! G Yokohama 3 

Pacific League 

Doiel * ! “ 

Sefeu 4 3 0 

NMaon Ham J 4 » 

Orix 4 5 B 

Latte 3 5 0 

Kintetsu 2 4 0 

Tuesday's Results 
Nippon Hum * seam 3 
DaM 11. Kintetsu 4 
Ortax Lotte 0 


CRICKET 


AUSTRALASIA CUP/ SHARJAH ONE-DAY 
hMOa vs. Australia 
1st taatnm. Serafflnrt 
Tuesday, la SbarMv IUE 
Australia: 244-9 (50 avers) 

India: («■* overs) 

Indio won W seven wtdtets 


Monday’s Playoff Gaines 

N.Y. uwkMk • « M 

PLY. Rawer* _ __ ’ * M 

Raaoars lead fortes >0 
First period-1, N.Y. Rmoers. KWNtJ 
(Loetdi). 5:41. PnsWta Anderson. NYR 
(rouahtnO), 2:44; wells, NYR IWdftmwl. 
7;2t ( - K uspu r alH s. HYI omerfernee). 1115B; 
KBRiar olltt. NY I (rouohlno 1.13^1 Lander, 
NYR (holding stick}, - 

Second pwlod—fc N.Y. Rangers. NLMessler 

2 (Andersen). :l& X N.Y. RunaertUwe 1 
(Kovalev, Larmer). l®* ^.Y. Rawra. 
MscTavWi 1 (lioonon. Hkkancn). i>.s. 5. 


NLY. Huso* Maffeau 1 (Karaovtsev. Mac- 
Tavlsh), 17:0k Penalties— Ooloama NY I 
[roughing}. 1:31; Motteau. NYR, double mi- 
nor (spurtng).l:38; TllEkanen.NYR (holdbia 
stick). 8:05; Malakhov, NYI (holdlnel.K JS. 

TUrdporfotf-L NLY. HonembNooMRi I (Ko- 
vdov. Graves), 4 33 ( pp ) . PenoHNi Kamur ol 
Us. NY (crasfrchocklng). 2:50 ; BouOehoom. 
NYR (hooWnol.SDS; Andoraon NYR ChakOng 
sdcfcl. 1S;43; Actor* NYL doub l e mi nor (rough- 
I no). 15:29; Andbrsoa NYR (hipping}. 1839. 

Shots on goak-MY ishmdere 739-7-29. N.Y. 
Rangers 14-137-36; pewersdar ap p ortenl- 
ttos-NY islandarsOof 7; NY Ronggs 1 ot 5: 
qoo Bm I No n d r. i s . McLerexxy 0-1 UisIntoOO 
suims). Rangers. RkMcr. 30 129291. 
Montreal I 0 3-3 

Bostop I 1 W 

Series tied 1-1 

First period— 1, Montreal. Mu Her 1 (Hauer. 
Bellows). 4: <2 (np). Penalties— Huscratt.Bcfc 
malar (Rghttna), 3:24: OdaWn. moo. motor 
(noht1ng).3:24: SmoTInskl, Bos (cross-check- 
ing), 3:24; Wesley. Bos (holding). 7:14; Cor- 
bonneou. Mon (MghaHdclng), 70:35; Doio- 
neouh. Mon (stashing), 11:00; Westov. Bos 
(slash (na). 11:08; Haller, Mon. mafor-aome 
mhconduet (Wgmslicklno). 11:22; Hughes. 
Bos (hooking). 16^7. 

Second period— ZBcaton. Sweenev 1 [ Leads 
Smaiifik9lU5:42^ Boston weslevl (Bouraoe, 
Daaatol. 19:18 (pp). Penoltlef-Huohes. Bas. 
miscanduct. 2:21; Sweeney, Bas (Interfer- 
ence).4:54; Daloncoutt. Man (twoUngl.U^t; 
Damphousse, Mon (charglhg). 18:401 
TMrd period— 4, AAontreoLDIPleirol (Mull- 
er), :U (pp). 5, Montreal, Mutter 2 (DiPletro. 
Dianne), 4-JU. Penalties— SmoUndO, Bas 
(roufppng). :0»; DiPletraMon ( hooking). 11J2 
Shots eo too l - Montre al 19-7-7—29 Boston 
IMS-12— 42; pawtredar oppo rt u nities M on- 
lreo!2o(5; Boston 1ef5; g oa l e e M. Roy. 7-1 
(42 stMfs-40 saves), a Coarr. M (2«-2i). 
Sue Jose 3 0 3-5 

Detroit 8 2 9-1 

First Ported— 1. San Jose, Cronim (Failoon. 
Errev), 12^5. X San Jase, Larionov 1 (Gar- 
oentov, OzoBnshl. 15:28. X San Jase. Makarov 
1 (Norton. Lartonov). 17:83 tool. Panama- 
s— Cronin, S J nngtiatfck/noK :4J; Lane Into. 
Del (roughing), 15:43; Probert. Del (un- 
sportsmanlike conduct), 13:41 
Second period— 4. Detroit, Chkason 1 I Fe- 
dorov. Howe 1,2; 24 (pp).5, DetroU. Kennedy 1 
(McCarty, Probert). 77:47. Pen a ffto s O o k er, 
SJ (roughing), -JA; Laaolnta.Det (boarding). 
n:<3; Duetwe, SJ (hlrfwsticking), 15:17. 

Tbkd period— 4, Detroit, McCarty llChla*- 
son). 1:34. », Son Jose. Baker l (WMtnev. 
MantMMiDIntt. Johnson I ( Cotter. Ud- 
stromLbftl Ip»>. 9, San Jose, Kroupal (Elft). 
15:3k Penofttes— Lorianov, SJ (Interfer- 
ence). 4:54; Detroit bench, served by Kenne- 
dy (too many men), 11:48. 

Shots 00 ooat—Son Jase 8-7-9—34. Detrott 9 
1911—37; poww^pknr u ppori w s m es Sa nJ os e 


ESCORTS & GUIDES 


BBlGRAVIA 




lal-t DetreffZotk-goettof— San Jose, /rbe.l-0 
□7shot9-33save»). Detroit, Essansa. 0-1 (34-19>. 
CMcaao • ■ 1-1 

Toronto 3 1 8-5 

FtntPCrtod— 1,TortMHo,aarkl (Mironov), 
2:33.lToronlaGllmourl (Andreychuk. Mir- 
onov). 7:38 tpp). X Toronto* Mandervtlle 1 
(Rouse), 11^7 (sti). Penalties— Andreychuk. 
Tar (hooking). 4:04; WMnrtch.CN (hooking). 
4:18; Gartner.Ter (ribowlno>.9dlS; Grotam, 
Ch) (cross-ctwcuno), 9:35; Gllmour, Tor 
(trtnalflB). MhM; Yseboort. ail {hooking). 
I3-JR,- AAacnufV Tor (tripping), 15:42; ChelkH, 
Oil (hipping). 17:11 
5 ecood peri od i Toronto. Macoun 1 (Berg, 
Zezen, 3:35.1 Toronto, Anareyrtiuki (Mir- 
onov, Gllmour), 4:25 (PP). Penal he*— Os- 
borne, Tor (rwghlng), 4ri3« CuontruarttL 
Chi (reuoNnaM:13; Cheiks. CM. double mi- 
nor (sioahkiB, roughing). 5:27; Murphy, chL 
mater -game misconduct (spearing), 7:33. 
Rouse. TOr (Irtpplno). W: M; PcassvTw, mo- 
lor (flowing), Klmtrte. ChL mater (flrfn- 

Ine), 19:88; OBL Tor, ma te ^gome misconduct 
(ftohttrv), 79:08; Okie, ChL motor-game mi s- 
condud (flehtino), 19:88; BeHaur. ChL served 
by Cumeywprfh (roughing), 19 -J4. 

TUrt period -» Chicago. Cheltos 1 (Gro- 
lwm.Sutcrl.3:l7tpp). P o noH toj Coit v mu d. 
Tor [slashing), 2:16; Pearson. Tor I trim- 
checking). B-J5J Rich Sutler. Chi (interfer- 
ence), VL22; Rouse. Tor (roughing). 17 M 
shots on goal Chtoooo 5^14—28. Toronto 
9-154— Si 1 PON W Hday appertanHIes— ChL 
eogpl o»7; Toronto 2 of 7; writes— C Bedour, 
0-1 (38 shots-23 saves). T. Potvtn. 1-0 (39-271. 
Vancouver • 3 »-5 

Catearr 8 1 H 


fhpoklno}, .12; Modmtb C ct (rouehtog), 
2:07; Lhiden. Van (totoriorcncol, 4:41; Hunter, 
Von (eBMVftng). 15:29/ Patrick. Col (hooking). 
18:24; CourtnaH, Van (elbowing). 18:52. 

Second pe ri od L Vancouver, Courtnall 1. 
l.-lti Vancouver, RonnJno 7 [Bure, Brown), 
KL54 (pp). 3. Vancouver, Babych 1 (Adorns. 
Dtdudc). 72:16. Penalties— GNlnas. Van 
(crossrchecklng), 3:05; DMuck. Van I hook- 
too), 3:11; Kbla Cal (Ngh-stldctog), 9:27; 
Burev Von (Mshatlckino), 19 -J1 
Third P er iod -k Vancouver. Linden 1. 4 :2k 
S. Vancouver, Brawn 1 (Gellnas. Hetflcan), 
15:53 (pp). Penalties— Floury. CoL mator- 
game misconduct (butkandlno>,5:e9; Odlick, 
Van tmwhlne). DUB; Stern, Cal (hlgh-stt ek- 
ing). 15:38; Courinan, van. mteor-mtscoo- 
duci I roughing), 17:51 ; McCarthy.CaLdouble 
minor-misconduct (roughing), 77:51; Kruse. 
CoL aitoormtsoonduct (roughing). 17:51; 
Slenu Cot m to ndoct 17:51; Unden, Van 
(cnm-checklnBi, 19:3k 
Shots on goa l V m ca uver 4-1B-13-48. Cal- 
gary 13-10*— 31; power pla y opportunities' 
—Vancouver 2 of 7; Catoory Oof 9; oeolles- 
—V o ncowver.McLoon.i-t (31 stwts-31 eaves). 
Canary, Vernon, 8-1 (20-23). 


vTTT 7 « 


Michigan^ Tab Five’ Reduced to 2 

ANN ARBOR, Michigan (AP) — Jalea Rose became the third member 
of Michigan’s vaunted “Fab Five” to leave school emly, announcing 
Tuesday that he would skip Us senior year to play professional basketbalL 

“Fve been thinking about doing this for all my life,” Rose, a pram 
guard, said at a news conference. “Now is the chance I have to do it Tm 
going to make the most of it.” 

Another member of the Fab Five, center Juwan Howard, announced 
Monday that he too would bypass his senior season to play in the 
National Basketball Association. With the departure of Rose and How- 
ard, only Jimmy King and Ray Jackson now remain from the aO- 
fre &hmcn lineup that started for Michigan in the NCAA championship 
games in 1992 and 1993. The Wolverines lost the title game to Duke in 
1992 and North Carolina in 1 993. Qiris Webber, the other member of the 
group, was the top pick in last year's NBA draft Michigan was eliminated 
in the Midwest Regional final by Arkansas this season. 

Yamaha Extends Its Whitbread l^ad 

SOUTHAMPTON, England (AP) — Yamaha opened up a lead of 210 
nautical miles Tuesday over its nearest Whitbread 60 rival on the fifth leg 
of the Whitbread Round the World Race. 

The Japanese-New Zealand yacht stretched its lead over the European 
entry In tram Justitia by 21 miles (34 kilometers) over the past 24 hours. 
Yamaha also widened its advantage to 13 1 miles over the leading Maxi- 
class boat, Switzerland's Merit Cup. Yamaha was reported 1,266 miles 
from the leg’s finish in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. 

Bayern Seeking Coach of Juventus 

BONN (Reuters) — Bayern Munich is dose to concluding a deal with 
the coach of Juventus, Giovanni Trapattoni, one of Europe's most 
su ccessf ul soccer coaches, the German dub siad Tuesday. 

Officials at Bayern, presently coached by Franz Beckenbauer, said they 
had talked to Trapattoni, 53, in Italy on Monday and made him an offer. 

“Trapattoni is very interested ana we expect to bear his decision within 
the next two to three wades,” said a Bayern official Marinis Hocrwick. 
Trapattoni who was expected to leave Juventus at the end of the season, 
is believed to be rductan t to announce his final decision until the end of 
the Italian season on May 1. He won six Italian league titles with Juventus 
and one with Imemazionale in 1989. 

For the Record 

7.»rir PadHa of ihe United States retained his WBO junior welter- 
weight title mi Monday in Rotterdam when his compatriot Harold Miller 
resigned in the sixth round of their scheduled 12-round bout. (Reuters) 

Pd£, 53, the former Brazilian soccer star, on Tuesday became the first 
athlete to be named a goodwill ambassador for UNESCO. (AP) 


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Page 24 


INTERNATIONAL HRR.4LD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, APRIL 20, 1994 


OBSERVER 


The Last Generation? 


By Russell Baker 


N EW YORK —There scons to 
be a controversy about Gen- 


be a controversy about Gen- 
eration X. Some people of an age to 
qualify as Generation X’ers say 
there isn't any such thing, it's all a 
lot of magazine editor's hooey, also 
book editor's gaseous effusion. 
Others disagree. 

Whether these others consist 
solely of magazine and book edi- 
tors ! cannot say, as this is the kind 


ludicrous trying to think of those 
poor old erode trying to claim gen- 
erational character. What could 
they possibly be? The camphor-ball 


Peeling Away Layers 
Of 'Invisible Man’ 


PEOPLE 


It sounds right for them: cam- 
phor balls. Affright, maybe you 
don’t know what camphor balls 
are. When you belong to the lost 
generation you can't take time off 
from tragedy to investigate cam- 
phor balls. 

□ 


of subject that sends me hurrying 
to bed the minute Ted Koopel and 


By Charles Johnson 

Washington Peel Semce 

W ASHINGTON — “What on earth 
was hiding behind the face of 
things?" the Everyman narrator of “Invisi- 
ble Man" asks himself in Ralph Ellison's 
perennial masterpiece. His unique dilem- 
ma, and ours, is the formidable task of 


to bed the minute Ted Koppel and 
Charlie Rose tip their hands about 
the forthcoming theme of the 
witching hour. 

It does, however, offer an excuse 
to air one of my favorite gripes; to 
wit, isn’t it time to hang up the 
generations? Dividing people into 
generations can hdp a reader of the 
Old Testament keep track of the 
story, but who needs to distinguish, 
say, the beat generation from the 
hippie generation? 

Once the Old Testament was over 
the whole generation idea withered 
away, and stayed away until the 
1920s, when Gertrude Stein may or 
may not have said to Ernest Hem- 
ingway or Scott Fitzgerald, though 
not Calvin Codidge. “You are an a 
lost generation." 

□ 


Well! Who wouldn't want to be 
part of a lost generation? You are 
sitting around Paris, age 23 or so. 
don't know beans about anything 
except being young and how trag- 
ical it is to be young, and having a 


ical it is to be young, 
picnic day ana night. 


md night, maybe even 
speaking a little French to the na- 
tives, then going skiing in the Alps 
and pub-crawling on the Rivi- 
era . . . 

Until Miss Stein pronounces yon 
lost-generation material you've 
probably been thinking you’re just 
another idle youth trying to pump a 
little beauty and romance into 
memory before going back to 
America for a life or consumer 
goods and insurance. 

Now, though, “lost generation," 
says Gertrude Stein. Suddenly 
you're somebody. “Somebody. 
Charlie!” as Brando says to Rod 
Steiger in the back of the taxi. 
You’re a Somebody: lost with a 
whole sad, lost generation. 

You aren’t like your dreary old 
parents who were born back in the 
1880s or 1 870s and didn't have any 
generation at all to feel part of. It’s 


Next thing you know, lost-gener- 
ation time is up, and it's Depres- 
sion-generation time. Actually, it 
didn’t happen that fast. Depres- 
sion-generation people didn't know 
they were Depression-generation 
people until well into the 1950s. 
when everybody eke started laugh- 
ing at than every time they bent 
down to pick up a lost penny. 

Depression-generation people 
quickly turned into war-generation 
people. Then came the silent gener- 
ation. 

Then, the beat generation. 

Then, hippies. 

Then, generational warfare! We 
had a generation gap. Parents too 
young to have qualified Tor roman- 
tic lost-generation status suddenly 
heard themselves denounced by the 
first generation ever driven by high 
moral aspiration, contempt for 
money-grubbing, devotion to peace 
and belief in love and the fuller 
head of hair. 

Yes, it was '60s-generation time. 

People who were sour about hav- 
ing mused the lost generation and 
short-tempered because they 
hadn’t known they were the De- 
pression generation until it was too 
late to milk it for lots of pity — 
these miserable people now had to 
listen to dinnertime lectures from 
unwrinkled youth about the moral 
superiority of the '60s generation. 

Here came the Yuppies: BMWs, 
condos, fear of cholesterol, smoko- 
phobia, weekend quality time with 
the child. The “Me Generation," 
Tom Wolfe called h. 

The quality-time kids of the Me 
Generation seem to have grown into 
the people whom editors are now 
trying to herd into Generation X. 
None of it makes sense, or ever did 
from the time Gertrude Stein started 
the whole thing . Let’s plead genera- 
tion fatigue and hnny off to bed 
with a good book, not Hemingway. 

iVfir York Times Semce 


freeing himself from the blinding social 
illusions that render races and individuals 
invisible to each other. 


Only after a harrowing, roller-coaster 
ride of betrayals and revelations above and 


ride of betrayals and revelations above and 
below America’s 20th-century intellectual 
landscape does he achieve the liberating 
discovery that, for all the ideologies we 
impose upon experience, we cannot escape 
the chaos, the mysterious, untamed life that 
chums beneath official history, the “seen." 
and ensures the triumph of the imagination. 

By any measure, “Invisible Man” — the 
one great work of Ellison, who died Satur- 
day at age 80 — is the most complex, 
multilayered and challenging novel about 
race and being and the preservation of 
democratic ideals in American literature. 

Fellow writers read Ellison with awe and 
gratitude. Some, of course, read him with 
jealousy, because everything one could 
want in a novel is here: humor, suspense, 
blade history (that is, American history) 
from which Ellison’s inexhaustible imagina- 
tion teases forth truth from beneath mere 
facts, fugue-like prose, meditations on the 
nature of perception, and a rogues' gallery 
of characters so essentially drawn that in 
their naked humanity we can recognize 
their spirits in our contemporaries 42 years 
after the book’s publication. 

Added to that, and perhaps most impres- 
ave of all, Ellison's expansive rite-of-pas- 
sage is the very idea of artistic generosity. 
Its exuberant, Hegelian movements grace- 
fully blend diverse literary genres and tradi- 
tions, from Mark Twain to William Faulk- 
ner, from the slave narrative to (he 
surrealistic Kafkaesque parable, from black 
folklore to Freud, forever forcing us to see 


in the novel's technique the spirit of democ- 
racy. Spanning South and North, it traces 


racy. Spanning South and North, it traces 
the comic progress of a nameless black 
student from a state college aswim in tie 
contradictions of Booker T. Washington's 
reliance on white philanthropy, to New 
York, where Marxists md black national- 
ists are engaged in a Harlem turf war. 

And, as if tins were not enough, Ellison 
gave our age a new metaphor for soda! 
alienation. His definition of “invisibility" 
is so common now, so much a part of the 
culture and language — like a coin han- 
dled by billions — that it is automatically 


invoked when we talk about the situation 
of American blacks, and for any social 
group we willingly refuse to see. 

In the late 1960s when I was a college 
srudait and came of age in an anti-inidlec- 
tual climate thick with separatist arguments 
for the necessity of a “black aesthetic," 
when both Ellison and poet Robert Hayden 
were snubbed by those under the spell of 
blade cultural nationalism, and when so 
many black critics denied the idea of “uni- 
versality" in literature and life, I stumbled 
upon “Invisible Man" and spent three 
memorable nights not so much reading as 
dreaming, absorbing and bang altered by 
his remarkable adventure of ideas and artis- 
tic possibility, though I knew — at age 20 — 
I was missing far more than I grasped. 

But each time I returned to Ellison's 
book, teaching the novel many limes over 
25 yeais, I found new imaginative and 
intellectual portals to enter, more layers of 
meaning to pod away. 

Despite his groundbreaking achieve- 
ments, the awards with which he was show- 
ered when “Invisible Man" was published, 
and the direction his work gave to a genera- 
tion of black writers who came of age in the 
1960s, Ellison's novel has often presented 
too severe an intellectual and moral chal- 
lenge for readers reluctant to abandon sim- 
plistic fonnulas about race in America. 

Indeed, his book once inspired rage. In 
Ins 1952 review, writer John Oliver KIDens 
said, “The Negro people need Ralph Elli- 
son’s ‘Invisible Man* like we need a bole in 
the head or a stab in the back. ... It is a 
vicious distortion of Negro life." Equally 
critical was Amiri Baraka, who dismissed 
Ellison as a middle-dass Negro for his 
insistence that mastery of literary craft 
must take priority over politics in a writer's 
apprenticeship. For Ellison that apprentice- 
ship included T. S. Eliot as weH as Langston 
Hughes, Found and He mingwa y, alongside 
Richard Wright Gertrude Stein and Dos- 
toyevsid together with the blues. 

Fortunately, “Invisible Man" also can 
be enjoyed on the level of rousing enter- 
tainment, as a th rilling odyssey that fol- 
lows a naive but ambitious young man 
through an entire universe of tmforgetta- - 
ble characters and events. 

As might be expected, appreciating the 
achievement of Ellison's fiction inevitably 
means taking seriously both the singular 
aesthetic position that makes it possible 
and his notion of the Negro's crucial role 
in the Uoittcd States’s evolution, an un- 
derstanding shared by most of our elders 
bom early in the century. 

Hoping to create “a Fiction which, leav- 




m 





Naae* Kj>c r« The Wtahup wn ftv 

Ralph Ellison’s classic work, pnbffshed in 1952, was five years in the making. 


mg sociology to the scientists, arrived at 
the truth about the human condition, here 


and now, with all the bright magic of a 
fairy tale," Ellison devoted five years to 


Tairy tale," Ellison devoted five years to 
the novefs execution. His theory led him 
into lasting insights, edging him* toward a 
way to sing the unseen so often in the 
novel that even his casual asides cannot be 
ignored, as when Invisible Man thinks of 
his literature class, where he studied Jaines 
Joyce, and his teacher observes: 


“Stephen’s problem, like ours, was not 
rtuallv one of creating the uncreated con- 


actually one of creating the uncreated con- 
science of his race, but of creating the 
uncreated features of his face . Our task is 
that of making ourselves individuals. The 
conscience of a race is the gift of its individ- 
uals who see; evaluate, record. ... We 
create the race by creating ourselves and 
then to our great astonishment we wfll have 
created something far more important: We 
win have created a culture. Why waste time 


creating a conscience for something that 
doesn't exist? For, you see. blood and skin 
do not think!" 

Because no author could hope for more 
than to work in this wonderful EUisones- 
que spirit of inclusion, 1 dedicated my 
acceptance speech for (he National Book 
Award in fiction to Ralph Ellison when 
my third novel “Middle Passage," won 
this prize in 1990. It seemed to me the very 
least T could do in the presence of an elder 
who forged a place in American culture for 
the possibility of the fiction I dreamed of 
writing. For a man who, when the global 
list of the most valuable authors of the 
20th century is finally composed, will be 
among those at the pinnacle. 


Roseanne Asks Divorce, 
Says She Whs Abused 

Roseanne Arnold has filed for 
divorce and obtained a restraining 
order against her husband, To®, 
claiming that the man who shared 
her headline-grabbing antics had 
physically abused her. The fiEag 
came throe days after an argument 
erupted between the Arnolds on 
the set of “Roseanne," her high]*; 
rated TV show, reportedly over 
woman who had taken pan with 
the couple in a mock three-wav 
marriage. Roseanne Arnold Fired 
her husband as the show's execu- 
tive producer, cut up his credit 
cards and dashed off to Europe 
without him, a source dose to the 
couple said The two were married 
on Jan 20, 1990. They've mafe 
news by flashing their tattooed 
rears at a baseball game, posingfa 
racy photos and squabbling with 
television networks. 

□ 

ArefuoHall is quitting his fading 
TV talk show, which has fallen vie- 
tim in ratings to his late-night com- 
petitors. David Lettennaa and Jay 
Lena. “The Aisenio Hall Show" win 
make its final broadcast on May 27. 
The show, which Fast aired on Jan. 

3, 1989, made Hall the first success- 
ful black late-night talk show host 
□ 

The author of “Cranes' Morn- 
ing," Fust published in India and 
released in January in the United 
States, plagiarized a 1956 book, ber 
publisher has conceded. The author, 
Indian! Aftatb-GyaJtsen. apparent- 
ly lifted material from “The Rose- 
mary Tree" by Elizabeth Goodge, 
according to a spokeswoman for 
Ball an tine Books of New York. Ai- 
kath-Gyaltsen died last year at 41. 
Goudge died in 1984 at age 84. 0 
D 

The photographer Ofiriero Tos- 
rani, whose advertisements for 
fashion firm Benetton have 
shocked millions, has resigned in a 
dispute over the Italian dothing 
company’s new magazine. Toscam 
said he had resigned in protest of 
the managing director Aldo Pit- 
men's handling of the magazine; 
Colors. Palmeri said he would re- 
place Toscani with his 26-year-old 
daughter, “who can take pictures.” 


Giaries Johnson, author of “ Middle Pas- 
sage" and winner of the 1990 National Book 
A ward in fiction, wrote this for The Washing- 
ton Post. 


INTERNAITOIVAX 

CLASSIFIED 

Appear* on Pages 5,9 & 15 


WEATHER 


CROSSWORD 


Europe 


Forecast for Thursday through Saturday, as provided by Accu-Waalher. 


ACROSS 


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North America 

Cooler afr will invade the 
Northeast lalar this week. 
The cool air will be accom- 
panied by plenty of sunshine 
from Washington. D.C-. to 
Boston. A few pockets ol 
frost wilt occur around the 


Great Lakes Thursday ntaW 
and even Friday nlgnt. 


and even Friday nig 
MeanwMa, (he western n 
or Ihe nation wil be waim. 


Europe 

Southwestern Europe. 
including Spain and Portu- 
gal. will have cool weedier 
with occasional periods of 
rain later this week. Parte 
end London wH be mBd wHh 
tinted sunshine and a show- 
er from time to (me. Copen- 
hagen to Rome wHI also be 
mfld with same suishine and 
highs mainly by the teens. 


Asia 

Cooler air w/H move Into 
Korea later this week. Some 
of this cool air will reach 
Tokyo by Friday. Manila to 
Bangkok will be hoi with 
hazy sunshine. Hong Kong 
wM be cloudy to partly sunny 
and mid with a few showers 
around. Singapore will be 
parity sunny end warm with 
a tamdsnhower. 


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OF OF OF C/F 

Bwa*hi 22/71 8/48 pc 19/86 10*0 pc 

Caracas 28/84 18*4 pc 31/88 18/86 pc 

Uma 26/79 18*4 pc 24/75 19/86 pc 

Masco C6y 24/75 11 HI pc 24/79 11/62 pe 

flbdalsnaso 28*2 29/73 ri) 28*2 22/71 pc 

Santiago 20*68 206 a 18*4 9*7 S 


Dane 
HoroMu 
Heroton 
Lot Angolas 


18*64 1263 ah 19*8 1162 pc 
22/71 14/57 a 23/73 18*1 a 


Legend; Many, pc-party dDuW.etMf. rivrfi awa re . vtunderatoms, r-rabi. sfenow Buries, 

. srwnow. Hce. W-tmrihar. A1 nape, forecasts and data provided by Aecu-Weettar, bic-Oim 


Bnaannao naan 
Honnaanaa saaaa 
□□□dqohqh aanaa 
□dq son □□□Baa 
□□□oaan □[§□□□□□ 
hqo aacjQaaaa 
□□□□ QBESI3Q □□□ 

□□□a BOQQBi asaa 
nan □□□□□ □□□□ 
□ouatnama Baa 
□□HHana □□aarnna 

QHG3EQH aBQ B3Q 

□□Has □aaaaaaaQ 
uludbu □aaaaauaa, 
qqdq aaQBiimau 


34 Midaftemoon 
on a sundial 

35 Suffix with 
sonnet 

38 Make no 
change 

41 Iced dessert 

45 Heavy reading? 

46 One lor the road 

48 La Scala locale 

49 Banned apple 
spray 

50 Error's partner 

52 Druggie's 
nemesis 

53 tikr. neighbor 

54 Land of ancient 
Smyrna 

ssEarf Grey. e.g. 

56 With 58- Across, 
lures recording 
artists again 

55 Anagram of 
56- Across 

61 list 

62 Enrage 

B3 Satrap 

64 Ad signs 


5 Hams it up 

6 Boils 

7 Malaysian 
gent’s title 

■ Table scrap 
9 Ingenue's trait 
loSelf-ish folks 

11 Upper 
chambers 

12 Ebbets Field 
player 

13 only 

14 Regain 
consciousness 

19 Beginning 
(then) 

22 With 24-Down. 

instructor’s turf 
24 Anagram of 
22-Down 
26 Coasted 
30 Back talk 

32 Person in 
stripes 

33 Four years, for a 
President 

38 Headlined 
37 The second Tin 
TNT 


43 Pnce cutters, in so Believe it 57 Rascal 

a sense 51 singer Frankie 59 Enlisted V.I.P. 

44 Box up Mf-urroTw-v GO A Si 'inennr rrf 


4* c>ox up s« Currency 60 A superior of 

47 bran premium 59-Down 




F 

q. 




r 





■ 

20 



24 





- 








iilSH 


42 

43 

44 





52 





ti ; ’* 


i Like Rushdie’s 
verses 
aTourorg. 

3 T.W.A. into 

4 Kind of wheel 


so Accumulates 

39 Puzzle direction 

40 Follow 


i Typewriter 
rollers 


PinrisUyWrilwWntie 

© New York Times Edited by Will Shorn. 


Travel in a world without borders, time zones 

or language barriers. 


AKT Access Numbers 

How to caO around the world. 

1. L’sing the chart below, find che country you arc calling From. 

- Dial the corresponding ABff Access Number. 

3- An ADS’ English-speaking Operator or voice prompt wfll ask far the phone number you wish lo call or connccr you io a 
customer service representative. 

Toreceive your free walks card of AB£ft/VccesNumbeis.iust dial tteaccess numbo- of 
the country you’re in and ask for CuSomer Service 


Reco 


COUNTRY ACCESS NUMBER COUNTRY ACCESS NUMBER COUNTRY ACCESS HU MBER 


ASIA / PACIFIC 

AnatraBa OOH 

CMnaJWOw* 

Guam 


0014-681-011 Italy* 

10811 U ec ht w wtrt n* 


1-800-550000 Colombia 

172-lQll ICosta Ric 3 *«" 


Hong Kong 


010872 Uthnanfa- 
800-1111 Luxembourg 


1354)0-11 Ecuador 

gj 1 * S Salvador* 


indooca— • 

Japan’ 

Korea 

Koreu* 

Malaysia* 

New Zealand 


000-117 Malta* 
001*001-10 Monaco* 


0039-111 Methcrtandr 
Will Nm w ey 
IT 'Poland**** 


11* 

8000011 

000-911 


Singapore 
■Sri Lanka 
Tadwan* 
Thafland* 


o-aoooin . 

0800-890-110. 

19*0011 

06-022-9111 

800-190-11 

0*0104800111 

03017-1-288 

01-800-4288 . 

155-5042 

00-420-00101 

9009940-11 

02079*611 

15*00-11 

0500890011 


■ Guatemala* 
Cnyaaf"" 
Honduras** 
MeadcoAAA 


980-11-0010 

JU 

11? 

190 

190 

lft 



95-800-462-4240 


EUROPE 


jjpoa oA&cfia& i Imagine a woiid where you can call country to country as easily as you can from home. And 

read! the IIS. direedy from over 125 countries. Converse with someone who doesn’t speak your 
i S3 language, since it’s translated instantly. Call your dienes at3 am knowing they’ll ger the message in 
, your voice at a more polite hour. All this is now possible with AKST 1 

■k rowSwww To use these services, dial the AT&T Access Number of the country you’re in and you’ll get all the 

help you need With these Access Numbers and your AIET CalKng Card, International calling has never been easier. 

If you don’t have an AKT Calling Card or you’d like more information on ATSST global services, just call us using the 
convenient Access Numbers on your right. 




Armenia** 

Austria**** 

Hgjgjunf 

Bulgaria 

CriMfiX** 

Czech top 

De nmar k* 

Bnlmri* 

Fiance 

Germany 

Greece* 

Hu ng a r y " 

Icetand*a 


jftM , B«ri«**<Mo6COw) 155-504: 

235-2872 ; flowkh 00-42000181 

«KM>I 11-111 Spain 9QW00-11 

430430 Swe d e a r 02 (^ 795-611 

0060 - 10288-0 9 w te/ri land* IgjMj 

0019-991-111 1 UK. 0500-89-0011 

MIDDLE EAST 

8*14111 Bahrain 800001 

022-903-011 Cyprus . 0H0-90Q1C 

078-1 1-0010 tend 177-100-2727 

OQ-iaQO-OQlO Kuwait 800-238 

9WM011 Irhrinon(BcfaiU) 426-801 

0042000101 SwdlAribjg 1-800-lQQ 

0001-0010 Ttnfay* 0000012277 

9800-100-10 ' AMPinriir ” 

194-0011 Argentina* 001-800-200-1111 

01300010 nrHw w - ‘ 555 

gjHggjjgl Bolivia* OSOQ-nil 

OQa- 80001111 Bud OQPOQIQ 

9 ^ QQ1 adle 00A4H12 


iqawgna (Man age) 174 

m s= a 

j ggg sa g 1 

]CKJ(fv£2 ginMinim. 

~o4io 

wwil aooiurao 

0- 795-611 ^ CAWHHEAN 

15300-11 B * b * a> ” 1-800072-2881 

0890011 , flenn «g 1-800872-2881 

” 1-800-872-2881 

80OO0i Cayman Islands 1800872-2881., 

OWMOOIO. - Grgnada ' 1-800-872-2881 

■100-2727 ifaitr 001-800-972-2883 

800-268 Jamaica- 0800872-2881 

426801 Ntth-Anfll 001800-873-2861 

1- 800-100 ■ Sl.KfcWNevts - 1^00872-2881 

WMgTF AFRICA 


Venezuela** 


800-268 Jamaica** 
426803 Neth. Antfl 


\ j) 


00800-12277 


Bgyprtcateoy 

IQ-200-mi Gabon* 

5 55 Ganfthp 
&800-nil Kenya* 
00080 10 Liberia 
004-0312 Malawi 


5108200 

004801= 

00111 ’ 

0900-10 

797-797 ' 

101-1992 


Anar 


■Anff CdbyCmlnx !" rilciunota. aw MOawi* Mnks 

Une* >otcc« owr ■* r i'hnrar hwspnmiv «i in umi uo btipuaiN 

A&fWmMCaawMX-SeiWrowanibhfcfTmi jra|Biihr(mmk-.ifll>41rikjiil 
i/rngWofM C — wi wviropaBOiapun 
OS IBMMieO* wwtr h MW> tnm ril ihc u,itun Irani ahmt. 

TuWk phu» raqriwdkpo« of ran >■ v plwnc am far dtd ur 
“MWcptori&nijobp JcfiaWrfmkirwphuncpadfiiriBjIloiie. DWoi(MKH)l ll 
finoi apiwr 


*“*» iMN.-JwaihlefiMoi.-wrt 

—OiifccicaUir#'jrtj 
— MX Y IX ovailahk.' Il»tn 

* Amll mwililal nn 


© 1994 ARST