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London, Thursday, April 28, 1994 

A Berlusconi Cabinet Is on the Way 

Conflict-of-interest Issue for Tycoon Remains Unresolved 

Fnm Disea,^ 

anrouDcedWedne^'iSfSi^'S ScaUiiro 

Silvio Berlusconi io .X t*® 1 * w-cnild summon 
and he k *“* 0° Thursday 

Italy's next pSfmJjK* Mr ’ Ber,usco « u ' “ 

who^?^ Statementsaid Mr. Berlusconi. 

afternoon. ScaIfaro a » - s on Thursday 

kneT siatcmcni ended a dav of exoecta- 
owner of I 

fS? hE a nrl b eSi WOUId be pT- 

jered ibe appointment on Wednesday 

sSrJ*^* f0r f*? e dc,ay wai , liven either bv 

stateSS^ 0 -5?,°n Mr - ^“sconi. Bui 
^aie television said Mr. Berlusconi had himself 

JJJJ? Su 1 "* a C ° 0K Up 3 formuIa thai 

concern over 

[wsable conflicts between his vast business 

P |, 5T est |n“ d tbe job of governing Italy. 

Mr. Berlusconi conferred with allies in his 
coalition on Wednesday as he waited Tor the 
S^ahead from Italy's president to 
form the country s first conservative govern- 
ment in tts postwar history. 

dudes the National Alliance, a rightist party 
recently formed from a neofasdst one, and the 
federalist Northern League, which is popular in 
the north for its anti-corruption, anti -bureau- 
cracy stand. 

On^ Tuesday, Mr. Beriusconi sat d “good 
sense*" would take care of any problem about 
his media empire, which indudes Italy's three 
biggest private TV networks, a popular news- 
weekly, film production and publicity compa- 

He rejected the idea, raised by some critics, 
of a kind of blind trust to run his business 
empire while he runs (he country. 

Another proposal has been the creation of a 
post for someone who would “guarantee** that 
his holdings, which also include real estate and 
Italy's largest supermarket chain, would not 
benefit from special treatment by a Berlusconi 

But Mr. Berlusconi has shrugged off that 
idea, saying Parliament could do the job of 

Some of his allies appeared less than con- 

‘Today, there isn't anything that can give 
guarantees, because the antitrust laws are weak 

I Tt s just taking the necessary time.” 

But comments from coalition allies indicated 
that some uneasiness remained. 

Besides Mr. Berlusconi's four-month-old 
rorza Italia, the prospective government in- 

guaraniees exists — and how — it’s just that 
Berlusconi put them aside. Since he's dying to 
be premier, be either overcomes or shelves the 

But another Northern League leader. Ro- 

berto Maroni, predicted that Mr. Berlusconi 
would succeed in putting together a govern- 
ment, and would do so by May 10. 

Nearly a half-century of centrist govern- 
ments dominated by the Christian Democrats 
and bolstered by Socialists were swept away in 
parliamentary dec lions by the coalition spear- 
headed by Mr. Berlusconi. 

Gone from Parliament arc the powerbrokers. 
victims of a two-year kickback scandal involv- 
ing politicians and business figures all over the 

Mr. Berlusconi's coalition has a majority in 
the Chamber of Deputies and is just shy of a 
majority in the Senate. 

Mr. ScaIfaro signaled on Tuesday that Mr. 
Berlusconi would be his choice after three days 
of talks on a new government at which the 
magnate’s allies endorsed him for office. 

The president said be would act “in absolute 
respect for the popular will” as expressed in 
general elections last month, when Mr. Berlus- 
coni led his conservative Freedom Alliance to 

In response to the demand by his allies and 
opponents alike for guarantees that his private 
interests would not conflict with the premier- 
ship. Mr. Berlusconi said on Tuesday night: T 
don't yet have a convincing solution but I 
would say that the solution probably lies in 
common sense." 

He said parliamentary, public and media 
vigilance and Mr. Scalfaro's ultimate veto on 
legislation would ensure that his actions were 
not colored by his own interests. (Reuters, A?) 

'Large Payments’ in Schneider Affair 

* ? defied 

i i 

By Alan Friedman 
and Brandon Mitchener 

International Herald Tribute 

FRANKFURT — Investigators working 
for the company of the missing German 
property developer JQrgen Schneider dis- 
closed Wednesday that they had found re- 
cords of what they believe are bribes paid by 
Mr. Schneider to appraisers that allowed him 
to inflate the value of his properties. 

The properties, in turn, were used as collat- 
eral to obtain some of the 5 billion Deutsche 
marks (S3 billion) of bank loans that are at 
the heart of what is alleged to be one of 
Germany's largest cases of credit fraud. 

The information was uncovered over the 
weekend of April &-10, during a joint exami- 
nation of the Schneider company's records 
made by company executives and eight offi- 
cers of Deutsche Bank AG. Deutsche Bank is 
the leading bank creditor of the Schneider 
company. Dr. Jurgen Schneider AG. 

This is the First time that anyone involved 
in the investigation of the property company 
has provided information that lends weight 
to the suspicion that a ring of outsiders aided 
Mr. Schneider. 

The names of alleged recipients of what 

one company insider called “unusually large 
payments" were not disclosed; prosecutors in 
Frankfurt are expected to face a difficult task 
in trying to distinguish normal payments to 
Mr. Schneider’s scores of consultants from 
those suspected of having been bribes. 

Mr. Schneider, whose biggest companies 
have since declared bankruptcy, disappeared 
around Easter and left behind a letter to his 
fellow board members and his bankers asking 
the latter to lake over the company. This 
week the Frankfurt prosecutor’s office issued 
a warrant for his arrest on suspicion of fraud 
and falsification of documents. 

“We found big consultancy contracts, 
some of which were probably legitimate." 
said one Schneider executive who spoke on 
condition of anonymity, “but 1 would not 
exclude that some were also bribes paid to 
some outside consultants involved in placing 
a value on some of the properties used os 
collateral for bank Joans." 

On Wednesday, a spokesman for Deutsche 
Bank, which has 1 2 billion DM of loan 
exposure to Dr. Jflrgen Schneider AG. said 
the bank bad “ heard of such payments" from 
the company's executives and passed their 

“suspicions” on to prosecutors. Previously, 
the bank has limited itself to contending that 
Mr. Schneider could not have acted on his 
own in what rt described as “credit fraud.” 

Gabriele Eick. a member of the board of 
Dr. Jurgen Schneider AG, said Wednesday 
that she did not know if bribes were made, 
but she confirmed that Mr. Schneider “was 
dealing with outside consultants in his bank- 
ing arrangements." 

Two weeks ago, Deutsche Bank filed a 
complaint with the Frankfurt prosecutor’s 
office alleging that Mr. Schneider committed 
fraud by falsifying contracts to inflate the 
expected income from his properties. 

Meanwhile, OP Center Immobilien & Pas- 
sagen AG, a Schneider company responsible 
for sales and management of properties, on 
Wednesday became the fourth Schneider 
company to file for bankruptcy. 

Also Wednesday, Swiss officials ordered 
19 banks in Zurich to freeze any accounts 
belonging to Mr. Schneider, after similar 
moves in Geneva on Tuesday. 

Hilmar Kemper, the chairman of Deutsche 
Bank, said Monday that Mr. Schneider had 
absconded with Z19 million DM. 

Ornu FanlL'Tht Aaooalcd Plt» 

Voters fining up Wednesday in Alexandra township on the outskirts of Johannesburg. 

Belgium’s Arch Survivor Becomes Contender for the Top EU Job 

By Tom Buerkle 

International Herald Tribune 

BRUSSELS — As the leader of a Belgian 
coalition banging onto power by a thread, Jean- 
Luc Dehaene might appear an unlikely candi- 
date for president of Europe. 

Bui as Belgium's major challenges — social 
and political separatism, massive public debt 
and unemployment — increasingly resemble 
those facing the European Union, Mr. De- 


Spying by U.S. 

Is Up, Yeltsin Says 

MOSCOW ( Reuters) — President Boris 
N. Yeltsin accused American intelligence 
services on Wednesday of stepping up 
operations in Russia and said Moscow 
would defend its right to take countermea- 
sures, the press agency Itar-Tass said. 

According to the report, Mr. Yeltsin 
said outside forces had become “imtated 
by Russia's increasingly independent for- 

^^USlmtdligenoe is stepping up efforts 
to obtain agents in Russia," the agency 
quoted Mr. Yeltsin as saying, “but u.S. 
special services do not think the Foreign 
Intelligence Service and their military col- 
leagues have the right to do the same. 

haene’s tenacity and talent for compromise 
have made him the leading candidate to suc- 
ceed Jacques Delors as president of the Europe- 
an Commission, the EU's executive body. 

“Belgian politics are just like EU politics," a 
Belgian analyst said. “The obvious takes 15 
years to do because it is so bard to get a 

Although Mr. Dehaene is relatively unknown 

compared with his main rivals. Prime Minister 
Ruud Lubbers of the Netherlands and Sir Leon 
Britian of Britain, the EU’s trade commission- 
er, “one has to say that getting some cohesion in 
the Belgian government, even in the short terra, 
roust say something about him." said Stanley 
Crosskk, head of the Belmont European Policy 
Center in Brussels. 

Perhaps more important, Mr. Dehaene is 
credited with getting some cohesion back into 

the Union itself during Belgium's EU presiden- 
cy io the second half of 1993. 

He resolved a two-year fight over the loca- 
tion of a dozen EU institutions, including a 
European central bank, and be presided over 
the acceptance of the Treaty on European 
Union, ending a yearlong debate, as well a 
reconciliation between France and its EU part- 
ners over world trade negotiations. 

Those achievements, combined with some 

dissatisfaction with the other candidates, have 
made him the favorite choice of leaders such as 
Chancellor Helmut Kohl and President Fran- 
cois Mitterrand to succeed Mr. Delors at the 
end of this year. German and French sources 
say. Although apparently surprised when Bonn 
put his name in play. Mr. Dehaene “has let it be 
known to the powers that be that if asked, he 

See BRUSSELS, Page 7 

Japan Stares at Stalemate 

Hata to Take Office With Little Power 

Fifty Years After D-Day 





Page 8. 
Page &• 
Page 20. 

Page 2a 

By James Stemgoid 

New York Tima Service 

TOKYO — A minority government unable 
to deal with the country's deep economic prob- 
lems — something many Japanese have dread- 
ed — became tbe likely reality Wednesday after 
two days of inconclusive political bickering. 

Prime Minister-dec! Tsutomu Hata tried but 
failed to mend his party’s rift with the Social- 
ists. who quit the governing coalition Tuesday, 
depriving it of its majority in the Diet, or 
parliament The Socialists were angered that 
more conservative parties in the coalition, in- 
cluding Mr. Hata's, had united to resist any 
leftward turn in the government's economic or 
security policies. 

Mr. Hata. whom tbe parliament elected as 
prime minister Monday, before the Socialists 
quit, was to be formally appointed by Emperor 
Akihito at the Imperial Palace Thursday morn- 
ing. He would be Japan's sixth prime minister 
in five years marked by corruption scandals 
and a far-reaching political realignment 

After his appointment. Mr. Hata was sched- 
uled to confer with Tomiichi Murayaraa, the 
head of the Socialists. Barring a last-minute 
reconciliation, he was then to name a cabinet 
that would give Japan its first minority govern- 
ment since the tumultuous early 1950s. 

Such a government would probably be un- 
able to push through any bold legislation on 
critical issues Japan is facing, such as its reces- 
sion, American demands for open markets in 
trade and North Korea's suspected nuclear- 
weapons program. 

Japan begins a week of holidays Friday, af ter 
which the parliament is expected to pass the 
overdue budget for the fiscal year that began 
April I. Tbe Socialists helped draw up the 
budget and so are expected to support it. 

After that , the prospect is for growing ideo- 
logical strife and perhaps a new election, just 
before a meeting of the Group of Seven indus- 
trial nations in July and a self-imposed deadline 

Sec JAPAN, Page 7 

On Friday, the International Herald 
Tribune begins a series af articles 
called "Fifty Years After D-Day: The 
Future of the American-European 
Relationship". The articles are about 
how the partners have become both 
closer and more divergent in the last 
half-century, and how their relationship, 
redefined and reinvigorated, can 
provide the energy and intelligence to 
prosperity and stability. 

The first article, appearing in Friday's 
editions, will set the stage for the series, 
ft will be written by Jim Hoagland, the 
Pulitzer Prize-winning cohunnist and 
associate editor of The Washington Post. 



On Monday, and then in subsequent 
weeks until June 6. Europeans and 
Americans will be presenting often 
opposing views on such themes as 
security, economic restructuring, the 
impact of technology on governments' 
effectiveness, culture, race ethnic 
division and diversity. 

The writers come from all areas. They 
include Zbigniew Brzezinski. Karl Otto 
Pohl. David Calleo. Francis Fukuyama, 
James Fallows, Frank Schirmtacher. 
Jonathan Eyal, Jean-Marie Guehenno. 
Richard Grenier, Michael Sturmer 
and others. 

The series will bring remarkable insight 
and analysis to the pages of the 1HT. 

No. 34,574 

New Voters 
By Millions 
Jam Polls in 
South Africa 

Mandela Makes History; 
The Police Arrest 31 
Over Series of Bombings 

By Paul Taylor 

Wtu/unginn Pan Sernce 

JOHANNESBURG — Millions of South 
Africans cast off the burdens of their past on 
Wednesday as they endured long lines with 
patient reverence to reconstitute their nation 
into a multiracial democracy. 

“At long last we are human beings,” said 
Mohale Rameisi, a resident of the black town- 
ship of Alexandra, after be had taken part in the 
first election in which his country allowed him 
to vote. “The destiny of our country is in our 

Tbe historic occasion was marred by a c at 
bomb that exploded at Johannesburg's interna- 
tional airport, wounding 18 people moments 
after polls opened, and by widespread logistical 
problems that kept millions of voters waiting in 
lines for up to (0 hours. For some, the wait was 
fruitless because their polls never opened. 

In order to accommodate the outpouring of 
voters before the scheduled dose of polls 
Thursday night, election officials have extend- 
ed voting hours, declared Thursday a second 
national holiday and begun tbe emergency 
printing of 9 million extra ballots. They have 
also reserved the option of extending the voting 
into Friday. 

Nevertheless, there was already a political 
storm brewing over the fact that special ballot 
stickers bearing the name of a late entrant to 
the race, the Zulu-based Inkatha Freedom Par- 
ty, did not arrive at many polling stations. The 
Inkatha leader. Chief Mangosuthu Buthelezi. 
threatened symbolically to withdraw from the 
campaign if the problem was not rectified. 

Despite its frustrations, the first full day of 
voting in South Africa's first universal suffrage 
ejection amounted to a kind of national cathar- 
sis. In many areas, blacks and whites stood side 
by side in the same tine — an illegal act during 
the depths of apartheid. 

“I am about two inches taller than before 1 
arrived,” said Archbishop Desmond Tutu, the 
1984 Nobel Peace Prize winner, after he cast his 
ballot. “It's an incredible experience, like fall- 
ing in love." 

Nelson Mandela, president of the African 
National Congress, said, “This is for all South 
Africans, an unforgettable occasion.” 

Mr. Mandela is expected to emerge from the 
voting as the country’s first black president. 
“We have moved from an era of pessimism, 
division, limited opportunities, turmoil and 
conflict," be said. “We are starting a new era of 
hope, reconciliation and nation building." 

Mr. Mandela, who spent 27 years in jail 
voted for the first time at age 75. 

For the second day in a row, there was no 
sabotage or violence at the roughly 10,000 poll- 
ing stations. “They’re the safest places in the 
country," said President Frederik W. de Klerk, 
referring to a special deployment of more than 
100,000 policemen and soldiers to secure the 

The only major security breach of tbe day 
was a car bomb that exploded just outside the 
international departures terminal of Jan Smuts 
Airport. Three among the IS wounded were 
injured seriously, authorities said. 

On Wednesday afternoon, the police an- 
nounced the arrest of 3 1 suspects in connection 
with that blast and a series of others in the 
Johannesburg area in the last three days that 
have killed 21 people and wounded more than 

Two of those arrested are policemen, one on 
active duty and the other a reservist. An undis- 
closed number are members of the so-called 
Iron Guard of the Afrikaner Resistance Move- 
ment, the largest white extremist group in the 

Police Commissioner Johan Van Der Merwe. 
in announcing the arrests, said they demon- 
strated the “will, the commitment and the abili- 
ty of the South African police to maintain law 
and order." 

Tbe arrests drew praise from the ANC. nor- 
mally a staunch criuc of the police. 

The logistical problems surrounding the vole, 
if unresolved on Thursday, had the potential to 
balloon into a major political crisis. 

The Independent Electoral Commission, the 
multiparty, multiracial body running the elec- 
tion, estimated that in the country's most popu- 
lous region, surrounding Johannesburg, some 
30 percent of the polling stations never became 
fully operational. The problems ranged from 
ballots and other voting material never arriving, 
to ballot papers running out and ballot boxes 
becoming overstaffed. 

For the most part, voters endured the long 
lines with equanimity. Having waited a lifetime, 
most were willing to wait a few hours, even in 
beat dust and ram in some areas. 


The Dollar 







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112,24 Ji 



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: Bohrain-OJOO Wn 
’ Cyprus C£I.w ^oraav WN.Kr. 

; Denmorfcl4.OOD.Kr. Rials 

• Finland — 11 PJ ^i Qatar-. 8.00 Rials 

Gibraltar...... XO- 85 Rep. IretandlRET.OO 

i Great Britain^ 0 .85 c^d; Arabia 9-00 R 

* Egypt E.p.5000 sooth Af rko^-.R 6 

I uAMii”(aSsi'io 

; Kuwait..'— 500 Fils Zimbabwe. HrnSJOM 

Pamela Harriman Biography Focuses on Famous Men in Her Life 

By Martha Sherrill 

Washington Past So»itv 

' WASHINGTON — She fell for her first older, married, 
rich man when she was just 17, and, according to a new 
unauthorized biography of Pamela Hardman, the United 
States ambassador to France has enjoyed the company of 
many powerful partners since, each cider and richer than the 
last, with one prominent exception. 

The chapter beading? of Christopher Ogden’s “Life of the 
Party” arc all named after men — (“Fred, Bill and Jock. 
“Gianni" “Frank") — except for the Iasi chapter ( Ma- 
dame Ambassador”), which describes bow. as the supply of 
older and richer men ran out, Mrs. Harriman became 
increasingly serious about being serious, parlaying her for- 
midable political skills and street smarts into a position ot 
power within the Democratic Party, finding stability and a 
fppain credibility all her own. 

Mis, Harriman, 74 , has refused to comment on the book- 
which is partly based tut 40 hours of taped interviews with 

her According to several sources, she is extremely unhappy 
about it, wishing the book had spent more pages on policy 
and fewer on her romantic life. 

“Until tbe last 10 vears, her world was largely defined by 
the men she was with," Mr. Ogden said in an interview. “In 
addition to being a woman of substance and an ambassador 
done well Pamela is also widely known as the courtesan of 
tbe century. That's a part of her life, and u shouldn't take 
away from what she is now." 

Indeed, according to “Life of the Party " Pamela Digby 
Churchill Haywairi Harriman lived a full and ^raewhat 
cmtWsial We in the 1940s. '50s and '60s, receiving 
financial support from tom an alleged annwl^lowa^ 
of $20,000 for many years from the then-married tt. Avereli 
SJriman. and an apartment in London from tbe scon 

G tJ? U (S i says she was not paniculariy motivated by 
though. Obsessed with stones of her IHKOiari 
JSSor, Jane Digby, the life-loving mistress of kings and 

sheikhs, youne Pamela set out to have an exciting, glamor- 
ous- life. She aid not seek power of her own so much as a 
chance to be around it. 

“I think it gives her a kind of rush." Mr. Ogden said. 

As a young married woman during World War II. while 
her husband, Randolph Churchill, was oft fighting, Pamela 
lived at No. 10 Downing Street with her f&tber-in-law. Prime 
Minister Winston Churchill, and became romantically in- 
volved with several married men — Mr. Harriman, William 
S. Paley. John Hay Whitney, Edward R. Murrow — as well 
as two important generals, Frederick L. Anderson, head of 
the UjS. bombing command, and Sir Charles Portal, Brit- 
ain's chief of air staff. 

fn a vault inside her Georgetown bouse, Mr. Ogden says. 
Mrs. Harriman keeps lew letters from three separate partic- 
ipants erf the Yalta Conference. 

In 1991, Mr. Ogden, then the chief diplomatic correspon- 
dent at Time magazine, was selected by Mrs. Harriman to 
write her official biography. She wanted her story told, he 

says, in response to a biography being written by Sally 
BedeD Smith. She offered him 50 percent of the book’s 
revenue, a generous sum for a ghostwriter, and once Mrs. 
Harriman agreed to “tell the complete story," according to 
Mr. Ogden, he agreed to take on the three-year project. 

Problems started when Random House offered 
Sl.62S.000 for her story, and the respectable grande dame of 
the Democratic Party grew concerned that she would have to 
reveal the most intimate details of her life for that colossal 

When Mrs. Harriman backed out of the deal. Mr. Ogden 
says, he was happy to back out, too. But when Mrs. Ham- 
man and her lawyer refused to offer him anything for his 
time spent, be signed on to write his own book. 

He fleshed out his interviews with Mrs. Harriman, which 
be decided to use strictly as background material, by con- 
tacting hundreds of colleagues and former friends and 

See HARRIMAN, Page 7 

Page 2 


ft , 

Russia’s Legislature 
In Full Cry After 
Killing of Deputy 

By Fred Hiatt 

Washington Post Servin' 

MOSCOW — The murder of a 
member of Russia's parliament 
provoked on uproar in the legisla- 
ture on Wednesday and heightened 
political tensions just ahead of ex- 
pected M n y Day demonstrations. 

Legislators spanning the ideo- 
logical spectrum demanded the dis- 
missal of President Boris N. Yelt- 
sin's interior minister, a lieutenant 
I who heads the national po- 

Russian investigators inspecting the bod} 1 of Andrei Aizdenfads, a legislator who was the victim of a gangland-style killing. 


Prime Minister Viktor S. Cher- 
nomyrdin, summoned to testify in 
closed session, rejected the de- 

Other legislators said the lulling 
meant that Mr. Yeltsin's cherished 
plan for all political factions to sign 
a “memorandum of natioaaf ac- 
cord” on Thursday should be post- 

Andrei AizderdzLs 35, was shot 
in his home on the outskirts of 
Moscow on Tuesday evening. Dep- 
uties familiar with the crime said it 
bore the hallmarks of one of Mos- 
cow's increasingly common con- 
tract slayings. 

This would be the First time a 

For Black Journalists 9 It 9 s the Story of a Lifetime 

By Kenneth B. Noble 

New York Timet Service 

JOHANNESBURG — When National 
Public Radio refused to assign Phyllis 
Crockett to cover South Africa's first mul- 
tirace elections, the 42-year-old black joiir- 
oalist took a leave of absence and paid her 
own way. 

“I felt about this story so deeply that l 
knew I had to be here.” said Ms. Crockett, 
who has reported from South Africa on 
four prior visits and is now a free-lancer. 
“As dearly as I love NPR. this was a story 1 
just could not miss.” 

For many black journalists, the elec- 
tions are the story of a lifetime. So pas- 
sionate have some felt about being here 
that they cajoled editors, lobbied publish- 
ers and, in exlreme cases, offered to take 
vacation time and dig into their own pock- 
ets to cover a news event lhai has captured 
the world's attention. 

The results are impressive. Although 
there are no exact figures, it seems that 
virtually every major American news orga- 
nization has at least one black reporter 
here, and in cases have sent all-black news 
crews. Altogether, about 3,000 foreign cor- 

respondents are here to cover the elec- 

What many of these journalists say. and 
some of their employers seem to acknowl- 
edge tacitly, is that black reporters often 
bring a different insight to stories, like 
South Africa, that involve racial conflict. 

Mary Ann French, a style reporter for 
The Washington Post, said black reporters 
often had more “interest and knowledge” 
about South Africa than their white col- 
leagues. “We tend to have kept up with the 
history and pdi tics here wi th more detail.” 
she said. 

Until recent years, this did not matter. 
The story of South Africa's black libera- 
tion struggle has been told mostly by white 
reporters, columnists and editors. As a 
result, Ms. Crockett and some other black 
reporters argue that the tone of the cover- 
age has often been unbalanced. 

Specifically, some black journalists 
complain that their white colleagues tend 
to focus their attention more on the plight 
on South Africa's relatively small white 
minority rather than on the concerns of 
the country's disenfranchised black major- 
ity. They also say that too much emphasis 
has been placed on violence. 

“Many of the white reporters really 
don’t fed comfortable going into some of 
the really black areas such as Soweto or 
East Rand,” Ms. Crockett said. 

She added that lifestyle was also a dis- 
tinguishing factor. “It's a generalization, 
but I think it is preLty fair.” she said. “If 
you took a survey of American reporters in 
Johannesburg, you will find that most of 
them live in and around Sandton. an up- 
per- middle-class suburb, and in some 
ways its like they're living out the colonial 

Sunni Khalid, a Washington-based re- 
porter for National Public Radio who is 
covering the election, agrees. “A tot of 
white reporters identify with Africans 
about as much as they identify with black 
Americans, which is not at all" he said. 

Mr. Khalid added that white reporters 
“tend to socialize and identify with the 
white minority.” 

“Very rarely do you see them going out 
and doing stories in the rural areas, for 
example,” he said. 

Several black reporters cited a white 
reporter who works for a major American 
paper who studied. Afrikaans in prepara- 
tion for his tour here, rather than one of 
the indigenous black languages like Zulu 

or Xhosa. “This reporter made a choice 
from the very beginning as to who was 
important in this country, and it obviously 
wasn't the Africans,” one reporter said. 

Such judgments trouble many white and 
black journalists. 

Jerelyn Ed dings, the Atlanta bureau 
chief for U.S. News & World Report, who 
is one of the Tew blacks who has been 
based full-time in South Africa, said: “I 
know white reporters who have covered 
this story as well or better than I have. I 
think you can be a good reporter, dive into 
any story that you're committed to and 
you want to do a good job at, and it 
doesn't matter what color you are." 

But Bill Kovach, a longtime reporter 
and editor who is now curator of the 
Nieman Foundation at Harvard Universi- 
ty, says there is no question that black 
reporters approach South Africa from a 
different perspective. 

“It’s not to say that a good white jour- 
nalist can't cover the story well,” he said, 
“if s just that there wiD be an aspect miss- 
ing because there's no way in hell that a 
white person can understand exactly what 
it means to be a black, anymore than a 
man understands exactly what it means to 
be a woman.” 

Japanese Seek Clues to Jet Crashas ToUHits 262 

By Andrew Pollack 

New York Times Service 

NAGOYA, Japan — Japanese 
authorities, after their firs! day of 
investigation, said Wednesday 
night that they had not figured out 
the cause of Tuesday night’s fiery 
crash of a Taiwanese airliner that 
killed almost all of the 271 people 
on board. 

“We don't know at all,” Manabu 
Matsumoto. chief of aviation acci- 
dent inspections for Japan's Trans- 
port Ministry, said at a news con- 
ference lure. He said he could not 
say whether mechanical trouble or 
human error was at fault. 

The China Airlines Airbus A- 
300, on a flight from Taipei to this 
industrial city in central Japan, 
crashed near the edge of the run- 
way and burst into flames at 8:16 
PJVL Tuesday. A minute earlier, 
the pilot had radioed the control 
lower that he intended to abort his 
landing and try again, although he 
offered no reason for his decision. 

The death toll from the crash 
rose Wednesday to 262 when a pas- 
senger died in a hospital. There are 
nine survivors being, treated at local 
hospitals. China Airlines said there 
were 256 passengers and 15 crew 
members, not 257 passengers and 
14 crew, as reported Tuesday by 
Japanese authorities. 

Nagoya Airport was dosed most 
of the day as dozens of policemen 
and officials or the Transport Min- 
istry scoured the wreckage of the 

plane in search of dues to the acci- 

While the evidence is not conclu- 
sive, marks on the ground and on 
pieces of the plane indicate the 

first Mr. Matsumoto said. That 
would be consistent with the theory 
that the pilot was trying to puU 
back up into the sky. 

While Mr. Matsumoto said the 
investigators had not ruled out any 
possibility, it seems likely the inves- 

tigation will focus on two possible 

One is that the pilot might have 
tried to abort the landing too late. 
It is possible the engines stalled if 
the pilot tried to pull up too steep- 
ly. Mr. Matsumoto said that the 
pilot's decision to “go around,” or 
try the landing again, seemed to 
have been made in enough time. 
“With normal speed and normal 
altitude, you can go around from 
that point,” he said. 

Another obvious point of inves- 
tigation is engine failure, since wit- 
nesses, including a flight controller, 
said they thought they saw both 
engines on fire. Mr. Matsumoto 
said the remains of the engines had 
not been checked yet. Although the 
plane is made by Airbus Industrie, 
a European consortium, the en- 
gines are made by Pratt* Whitney, 
a subsidiary of United Technol- 
ogies Corp. of Hartford, Connecti- 

Epidemics Feared as Bodies Pile Up in Rwanda 

The .AsS’WUtd Press 

NAIROBI — Fierce fighting 
raged on Wednesday in Rwanda's 
capital, where piles of unburied 
bodies on the streets raised fears of 
an epidemic. 

A United Nations spokesman. 

In Respectful Memory of 


A great political leader, a world statesman, a 
dedicated humanitarian-who bravely established relations 
with China: a nation of over a billion people-brought the 
Vietnam war to an end and was an architect of detente with 
the former Soviet Union, the fruit of which the world is 
reaping today. 

An unselfish leader who stepped forward to 
cordially welcome the Shah of Iran to the United States in his 
hour of need, and attended his funeral in Egypt 

Congratulations to America for having produced this 
truly enlightened man.. and deep heartfelt condolences for 
having lost him. 

April 25th, 1994 
Vancouver, BC 

H ossein Daneshvar Teh rani 
Civil Adjutant to 
the late Shah of Iran 

Abdul Kabia. speaking by tele- 
phone from the capital. Kigali, said 
there was intense fighting with 
heavy weapons and mortars near 
the UN headquarters and in the 
center of the capital. 

Both the Hutu-run government 
army and the mostly Tutsi rebel 
Rwandan Patriotic Front ignored a 
UN appeal for a cease-fire. Unilat- 
eral cease-fires declared by both 
sides on Monday were broken al- 
most immediately. 

Mr. Kabia said the United Na- 
tions was still receiving reports of 
ethnic massacres in government 
and militia-controlled areas in 
southern and eastern Rwanda. 

Relief workers estimate that 
100.000 people have died in the 
bloodbath that began shortly after 
the presidents of Rwanda arid Bu- 
rundi were killed in a plane crush 
on April 6. 

“There are still a loi of bodies on 
the streets.' - Mr. Kabia said. “The 
dogs are scavenging the corpses in 
the streets, and it is a very disturb- 
ing and horrifying sight" 

He said the United Nations had 
notified relief agencies to prepare 
for the possibility of an epidemic 

and had put pressure on the war- 
ring parties to bury the dead. 

Most of the bodies are in army 
and militia-controlled areas, ana 
the government has been using 
prison inmates to pick up the 
corpses and bury them in mass 

The UN High Commissioner for 
Refugees said Tuesday that 
137,000 people had fied Rwanda. 
About 100.000 have gone to neigh- 
boring Burundi. The United Na- 
tions estimates that at least 1 3 mil- 
lion people have been displaced 
within Rwanda. 

Thousands at Nixon Funeral 


YORBA LINDA. California — Millions of Americans observed a 
national day of mounting Wednesday for former President Richard 
Nixon, who was driven from office in disgrace but was being buried 
with the country's full honors. 

Thousands of people wailed in line through the night outside the 
Nixon Library and Birthplace in Yorba Linda for a chance to file 
past his flag-draped coffin before his burial Wednesday afternoon in 
an elaborate slate funeral. 

By early Wednesday, more than 30.000 people had already paid 
their respects in the (lower- bedecked lobby of the presidential 
library not far from the place where Mr. Nixon was bom 81 years 
ago and where be will have his final resting place next to his wife. Pat. 

The body of the former president, who died Friday at a New York 
hospital after suffering a stroke, was to lie in state until only a Tew 
hours before his nationally televised funeral. 

The ceremony was to be attended by President Bill Clinton, all 
four living former U.S. presidents and foreign dignitaries represent- 
ing at least 55 countries. 


politician has fallen victim to such 
a killing. 

Before his election in December 
to the Stale Duma, the lower house 
of parliament, Mr. Aiiderdzis 
worked as a private banker, a pro- 
fession that has been particularly a 
target of organized crime here in 
the last year. Mr. Aizderdzis also 
published a local version of “Who’s 
Who" that listed local kingpins of 
crime and that may have made him 
a special target, Interfax reported. 

But in angry debate on Wednes- 
day, many deputies insisted that 
Mr. Aizderdzis's murder was a po* 
(ideal assassination. 

“Judging from first reports, it is 
clear that this was a contract killing 
and, in our view, it was a political 
killing ," said Vladimir Medvedev, 
bead of the New Regional Policy 
faction to which Mr. Aizderdzis be- 

Mr. Ydisin quickly issued a 
statement expressing his "solidari- 

> with the voices of protest among 

:pu lies.”' 

“The assasanation of the deputy 
was not only an encroachment on 
human was against the insti- 
tute of state power," Mr. Yeltsin 
said. “I have ordered that urgent 
measures be taken to discover the 

But Mr. Yeltsin also expressed 
the hope that Duma deputies 
would take the murder “as a warn- 
ing against violence.” 

“Let it unite, us as we start look- 
ing for accord and calm for Russia 
and its people,” he said. 

The impending May Day dem- 
onstrations by Mr. Yeltsin’s hard- 
line nationalist and Communist 
opposition had already made Mos- 
cow jittery. Last year, the demon- 
strations turned violent, and they 
were followed in October by a full- 
scale uprising. 

Seeking to calm tensions and as- 
sert his authority, Mr. Ydisin had 
hoped that all major political par- 
ties, labor unions and public orga- 
nizations would sign an accord 
Thursday forswearing violence. 
But several major parties, including 
the Communists and the Agrarians, 
had already said they would not 

V. Zhirinovsky, an ex- 
treme nationalist who had support- 
ed the Ydtsin accord, said the sign- 
ing should be postponed because of 
the murder. Mr. Zhirinovsky also 
demanded the dismissal of Interior 
Minister Viktor F. Yerin and. in a 
later statement. Mr. Yeltsin's entire 

Parly May 
Oust Widow 
Of Brandt 


MAINZ, Germany — The wid- 
ow of Willy Brandt the fanner 
German chancellor, may be ex- 
pelled by the Social Democrats for 
allegedly damaging the parly’s im- 

Party officials said Wednesday 
that a local chapter would decide 
by mid-May whether to expel Bri- 
gitte Seebacher-Brandt for cloud- 
ing memories of Mr. Brandt, who 
served the party as father figure 
and elder statesman before his 
death in 1992 at age 78. 

The officials said a party com- 
mission in the southwestern district 
of Neuwied was dealing with two 
requests to withdraw her member- 

The officials declined to say who 
had filed the expulsion requests. 

Mrs. Seebacher-Brandt, a histo- 
rian. was dubbed the “Black Wid- 
ow” by the popular press early this 
year after a series of interviews and 
articles that cast her husband, a 
holder of the Nobel Peace Prize, as 
being moody and indecisive. 

In the latest twist in a struggle 
between ihe party and Mr. Brandt's 
third wife over his legacy, she also 
alleged that a former (op Social 
Democratic politician and Brandt 
ally had been a KGB spy. 

Her unproven espionage charges 
were separate from the case of 
Gunther Guillaume, on aide whose 
exposure a s a Communist spy 
prompted Mr. Brandt to resign as 
West German chancellor in 1974. 

Mrs. Seebacher- Brandt's conser- 
vative views have repeatedly pul 
her in conflict with the current gen- 
eration of Social Democratic lead- 
ers, who sec themselves as Mr. 
Brandt’s lefi-leaning political heirs. 
She has also dueled with the partv 
over control of her husband's per- 
sonal papers. 

China Says It May Halt Nuclear T«sts 

£3* ***** 


in inumu™. 

Kazakh criticism of its nuclear JJStoii Center^ 

Lewis, director of the Verification Technology fShS t 

she believed the Chinese were hurrying to complete a senes of tests before ft 

a global ban was signed. 

Chirac Leads Balladur in French Poll 

PARIS f Reuters) — The Gaullist leader Jacques Chirac has pulled 
ahead of Prime Minister Edouard Ballad ur as the person most likely to 
win next year's French presidential elections, according to an opinion 

ahead of the moa like^Socialisi wniender. 
Michel Rocard, by 61 percent to 39 percent, and ahead of Mr. Balladur by 
59 percent to 41 percent. The term of Frances Socialist president, 
Franqois Mitterrand, ends in May 1995. . 

(1 was the first time Mr. Balladur had fallen behind Mr. Chirac in an 
opinion poll since he became prime minister more than a year ago. 

Kuwait Detains 17 Iraqi Boatmen 

KUWAIT (Reuters) — Kuwait detained 17 Iraqis found in possession 
of 22 small wooden and fiberglass boats in the emirate's territorial waters 
on Tuesday, diplomats said on Wednesday. 

The 17 were bang held for questioning after their arrest by Kuwaiti 
coast guardsmen between Kuwait’s Warba and Bubiyan islands, the 
diplomats said. What the 17 were doing there was not clear, but the area is 
frequently used by smugglers. _ . 

It was the first reported Iraqi incursion since November 1993 when 
hundreds of protesters twice crossed the land frontier to protest a United 
Nations demarcation of the boundary. 

Peres to Meet With FIX) in Cairo 

JERUSALEM (Reuters) — Foreign Minister Shimon Peres of la-ad 
will bold ta lk* Thursday in Cairo with representatives of the Palestine 
Liberation Organization and wfll meet with the U.S. secretary of state 
Warren M. Christopher, an Israeli cabinet minister said Wednesday. 

Environment Minister Yossi Sarid called the meetings “a supreme 
effort to solve problems that have mostly been complicated ones, with the 
clear intention of changing for the first time the reality of the Arab- Israeli 
conflict” * 

Mr. Sarid said Mr. Peres would meet with PLO officials after holding 
consultations Thursday morning with Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin on 
issues still outstanding in negotiations on Palestinian self-rule. He said 
Mr. Peres would meet in Cairo with Mr. Christopher, who is on a Middle 
East tour. 

Solidarity Prolongs Protest Strikes 

KATOWICE, Poland (Reuters) — The Solidarity union extended 
strikes in coal mines on Wednesday and announced plans For steel-mill 
walkouts as well to protest the economic policies of the government. 

The union wants the government to drop newly proposed wage 
oxttrols in the public sector and to speed up an industrial pact aimed at 
defining the role of workers in the privatization of state-owned compa- 

But the government, which withdrew a plan to restructure the soft-coal 
industry in an effort to end the weeklong strike of lignite workers, said it 
was not going to bow 10 pressure again. 

British Press Improves, Malaysia Says 

KUALA LUMPUR (AP) — A senior Malaysian official said Wednes- 
day that the British press had stopped what his government considered 
unfair reports on Malaysia and that this could lead to an end of the ban 
on government contracts for British companies. 

Malaysia imposed the ban early this year after British press reports 
alleged that some Malaysian politicians were demanding bribes for 
awarding contracts to British companies. 

The official, Deputy Foreign Minister Abdullah Fadzil bin Che Wan. 
said monitoring of the British press showed that unfair reports about 
Malaysia and its leaders had stopped and aded that this “is a good 
beguuung.” But he said: “It would be pointless if the government lifts the 
ban now, and then the same thing happens again. We hav 

ave to give it some 


Khmer Rouge Stepping Up Pressure 

POIPET, Cambodia (Reuters) — Khmer Rouge guerrillas said 
Wednesday that they had been ordered to capture two western Cambodi- 
an towns within a month, as fighting between guerrillas and government 
troops stepped up. 

“From now on we will dig in for every inch of territoiy we capture; no 
more hit-and-run until we get Sisophon,” said a Khmer Rouge field 
commander who called himself Comrade Jia. He said senior officials of 
the Maoisl faction had decided last week to launch a fresh assault on 
government positions and had ordered the capture of Ptipet and Siso- 
phon within a month. 

Chinese Official Will Not See Patten 

HONG KONG (AFP) — Governor Chris Patten said Wednesday that 
Lu Ping, China’s top official for Hong Kong affairs, had refused an 
invitation to talk to him when be visits this weekend for the first time in 
28 months. 

Mr. Patten added, however, that his door remained open for Mr. Lu. 
who heads the Chinese government's Hong Kong and Macau Affairs 
Office. China and Britain have been locked in a dispute over greater 
democracy in the British colony, which reverts to China in 1997. 


Roadblock at the Amsterdam Airport 

AMSTERDAM (AP) — Dutch policemen erected a roadblock 
Wednesday at the entrance to Schiphol International Airport after being 
advised by the Interior Ministry of an apparent threat. 

Officials would not confirm a press report that the heightened security 
measures, including police reinforcements, came in response 10 the threat 
01 an Islamic militant attack on Israeli. Egyptian or American targets, jg 

The United States cautioned Americans about travel in South Africa, 
warning that there might be bombings and attacks during the country's 
first all-race vote. ( j fp t 

Nigeria’s national oQ company has been ordered bv military authorities 
to end a I (Way-old fuel shortage which has paraivzed transport. The 
latest fuel crisis has caused commuter chaos in cities. (Reuters) 

President Boris N. Yehsin has ordered a review of the Russian 
government’s privatization of the former stale travel group Intourisu the 
Itar-Tass news agency said. (AFP) 

Some 10,000 Olympic Airways workers threatened on Wednesdav to 
strike against a restructuring plan which calk for cuts in personnefand 
pay frecKS that the Greek state carrier says are necessary to keep it from 
dosing. We wii! lose some 50 percent of our income in the next four 
years and or course we refuse 10 accept the plan,” said Micholis Perros. 
Olympic s union president “l f the government insists, there will be .strikes 
in the coming weeks." ( Reuters) 

K'f,< lto $ 



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th eamericas / mmm^vtm: the boli 

Onetime House Upstart Maneuvers His Way to the Top 

By Eric Pianin «» _ . . ... ... 

Page 3 

By Eric Pianin 

WASHiNrTn£ A, "* ,w Pm ' Sm,w 
member in the early 197^ 5 u P s,arI . n ^ House 
Obey. Democrat of w;**' *«P«»cniaiive David R. 

talking baJk^the ow ^uns^oMhfHrwT" **' 
pnations Commiuee who n»h h„ Appro ' 

" h ° ™ ■* «»S?k?&£2£; JuseM °" d 

msf » oCiaa 

*Sfe 5f sSSr y ns ^ ,,Kiss my fann >- > ou 

jealously commit ted to pro- 

,deaIs - Mr - has evolved 

rmori ?„!5f C0 / nmi,Iee 10 «* of the most 
respected and skilled politicians in Congress. 

etSSvSZdZ!* 25 2 Care ' **? has hd P ed rewrite the 
fno oT u d ^ *° d campaign finance laws govem- 
^v) U ^L br ° Ush J t ' eIali ve P rac e to the once bitter 

ir 1 eba te ^ honed the Democrats’ econom- 

ic and soaal message. 

Now Mr. Obey. 55. has fulfilled a longtime dream 
. y wresting control of the Appropriations Committee 
in an mtraparty power struggle with a more senior 
committee Democrat. Representative Ned Smith of 
Iowa, who is 74. 

.. Supporters touted Mr. Obey as the candidate of 
aCUV1 ?7 303 S^craUonal change,” a theme that 
attracted support from more than three-quarters of 
Ihe lafge Democratic freshman class. 

Legislators said Mr. Obey’s victory' March 23 result- 
ed from members' desire for more aggressive, reform- 
minded and politically sophisticated leadership for the 
tradition-bound and insular panel as well as for 
chang^in spending policy to put even greater empha- 
sism President Bill Clinton’s “investment” initiatives. 

“Every new chairman puls his own specific stamp 
on a committee, and that can be expected in the case of 
someone as able and energetic as Mr. Obey.” said the 
House speaker. Thomas S. Foley, Democrat of Wash- 

Yet as he assumes control of the panel, after the 
recent death of the former chairman. William H. 
Naicher. Democrat of Kentucky. Mr. Obey is discov- 
ering that change will not come easily to the commit- 
tee. one of the mosi powerful and far-reaching in 

Mr. Obey has announced that he will replace the 
retiring chief clerk of the committee, a key staff 
position, with Scou Lilly, 47, executive director of the 
liberal Democratic Study Group and a longtime Hill 
staff member. But the new chairman appears reluctant 
to make any other significant changes soon, either in 
staffing or in the way the committee conducts busi- 
ness. Instead, he is concentrating on mending fences 
and demonstrating he can move this year's spending 
bills on time — the ultimate test of a chairman's 

“Our mission has been fairly well defined by cir- 
cumstances." Mr. Obey said in an recent interview. 
“We’ve been trying to dig out of the Reagan -era deficit 
and manage the downsizing of programs while freeing 
up a tiny bit for the president’s programs, and l want 
to do lhat in the most collegial and bipartisan way.” 

Mr. Obey’s leapfrog victory over Mr. Smith, a 
highly regarded but uninspiring veteran approprialor, 
bruised Mr. Smith’s ego and generated hard feelings 
among many committee members who felt Democrats 
should have adhered to the seniority system in choos- 
ing Mr. Naicher’s successor. 

One challenge facing Mr. Obey is to find common 
ground with Representative John P. Murtha, Demo- 
crat of Pennsylvania, chairman of the Appropriations 
defense subcommittee, who spearheaded Mr. Smith’s 
unsuccessful campaign. Mr. Murtha openly criticized 
Mr. Obey as an explosive personality whose partisan 
style was not well suited to the chairmanship. 

“J didn't think we needed that style that lends to be 
disruptive,” said Mr. Murtha. who favors preserving 
the status quo in the committee's operations. “He was 
the one saying he would make reforms. He was the one 
saying he would challenge the Republicans.” 

“We mav have to aei some flak iackets for those 

&*** : *m 

, .• ...***< 

B i| 





ife may have to get some flak jackets for those „ , , . . _ t «*« 

;• a House Democratic aide said. KepreseitiaOve Obey, left, with President Bill Ginton at a recent White House meeting. 

ivmol ftrn 


Grand Jury 
Indicts Ames 
In Spy Case 

By David Johnston 

New F«vA Twits Service 

WASHINGTON — A federal 
grand jury indicted Aldrich Hazen 
Ames on charges of spying for 
Moscow as the career CIA officer 
signed a plea agreement accepting 
life in prison without parole in re- 
turn Tor leniency for his wife, ac- 
cording to people involved in the 

Under the deal. Mr. Ames 
agreed to help the authorities assess 
the damage he caused, a lengthy 
process that began months ago. 
Those knowledgeable about the 
case said he was willing to accept 
the deal to obtain a lighter sentence 
for his wife, Rosario. She would 
then be able to be reuniied sooner 
with their 5-year old son. Paul, who 
is being cared for by relatives in 
Mrs. Ames's native Colombia. 

The sealed indictment is to be 
disclosed at a hearing on Thursday, 
when the Ameses are expected to 
enter their guilty pleas. 

The indictment accuses Mr. 
Ames, 52, of espionage and con- 
spiracy to avoid paying income tax- 
es in connection with failing to re- 
port any or the more than $2.5 
million that prosecutors have said 
Mr. Ames was paid during his 10- 
year career as a double agent- 

Prosecutors are expected to ac- 
cuse Mrs. Ames. 41. with a lesser 
espionage offense and an income 
tax charge that could bring a sepa- 
rate a prison sentence of up to six 

As part of the plea agreement 
signed Tuesday by the Ameses, 
government lawyers scheduled the 
hearing for Thursday morning be- 
fore Judas Claude Hilton of U.S. 
District Court, lawyers in the case 

They are expected to enter guilty 
pleas, and in a somewhat unusual 
procedure, Mr. Ames is expected to 
be sentenced immediately. Mrs. 
.Ames is likely to be sentenced at a 
later date. 

Kevorkian Takes 
Stand in His Trial 

The Associated Press 

DETROIT — Dr. Jack Kevor- 
kian testified Wednesday that he 
had helped a gravely ill man com- 
mit suicide last year and defended 
his action as humane and compas- 

“Nothing matters hut the wel- 
fare or the patients, and it was his 
welfare that motivated my ac- 
tions.” Dr. Kevorkian said. 

Dr. Kevorkian could face four 
years in prison if convicted or 
breaking Michigan) year-old law 
banning assisted suicide. 

Dr. Kevorkian. 65. a retired pa- 
thologist. said be had wanted only 
to help end the suffering of Thomas 
Hyde when he hooked him up to a 
carbon monoxide canister in the 
back of his van and placed a plastic 
mask over his face. 

Mr. Hyde, 30, suffered from the 
nerve disorder known as Lou Geh- 
rig’s disease that left him unable to 
walk, talk or feed himself. 

Whitewater Inquiry Is Growing More Complex 

By Stephen Labaton 

iVrw Vert Times Service 

WASHINGTON — The call 
came through on FBI teletypes 
around the nation: Wanted — 
agents with accounting and white- 
collar experience for the Little 
Rock, Arkansas, office. 

The request is the latest sign that 
as Robert B. Fiske Jr. enters his 
fourth month as the independent 
counsel investigating the finances 
of President Bill Clinton and his 
wife. Hillary, he is concluding that 
the inquiry will take more time and 
be more complex than he originally 

Mr. Fiske never gave a specific 
deadline, but the initial view 
among his staff was that the work 
could be wrapped up this year. But 
investigators said this week that 
they now think the examination 
will stretch well into 1995. 

The events covered by the inqui- 
ry started in the late 1970s and 
stretch through this year. It begins 
when the Clintons became involved 
with James and Susan McDougal 
in Whitewater Development Co., 
continues through the 1980s when 
Mr. McDougal’s savings and loan, 
Madison Guaranty, teetered and 
failed, and extends into the circum- 
stances surrounding investigations 
by the government into Madison 
last year. Investigators are also ex- 
amining what the 1992 Clinton 
campaign knew of links between 
Whitewater and Madison. 

Already, more than 25 FBI 
agents are working on the case in 
Little Rock, assisted by a bevy of 
other officials who have been trans- 
ferring legal documents into a com- 
puter database. 

A second group or investigators 
in Washington has been exploring 
the circumstances sunrounding the 
suicide last year of the deputy 
White House counsel Vincent W. 
Foster Jr. 

As the Whitewater investigation 
has grown, some defense lawyers 
and witnesses have complained 
about some of Mr. Fiske's anions, 
especially the decision last month 
to subpoena several White House 
and Treasury officials to appear 
before a grand jury. 

Several witnesses and their law- 
yers said that in an effort to send a 
loud and quick message about its 
determination, Mr. Fiske’s staff 
has taken some shortcuts in its pur- 
suit of the investigation. Speaking 
on condition of anonymity, they 
assert that the grand jury proceed- 
ing was intended primarily Tor 
show, a step taken to keep Con- 
an interview. They can be turned 
into a witness for the prosecution 
far more easily outside the grand 
jury room. And prosccuiors can 
discover the strengths and weak- 

nesses of a witness before the pro- 
ceeding. and be thoroughly famil- 
iar with the witness's account. 

But there are also reasons not to 
interview witnesses but simply ush- 
er them directly into the grand jury 
room. The most common rationale 
for such a move is that i i gives them 
less time to try to change their 
account or concoct a false one with 
other witnesses. 

Witnesses and their lawyers have 
riled what they see as another 
shortcoming in Mr. Fiske's proce- 
dures. Several said that their sub- 
poenas did not ask for any relevant 
documents, even though they have 
them and such requests are routine. 
But an experienced prosecutor said 
that Mr. Fiske’s office could be 
operating in phases and that the 
omission might not be significant if 
gress from interfering with the in- 
vestigation by granting immunity 
to potential targets in exchange for 
their testimony. 

Few, if any, of the subpoenaed 
officials bad been interviewed by 
investigators before going into the 

grand jury room in Washington, 
which annoyed some who had 
hoped that an interview- could have 
averted the spectacle of an appear- 
ance before the grand jury. 

Witnesses are often interviewed 
before such appearances for several 
reasons. They are often more forth- 
coming in the less formal setting of 
it ultimately obtains the docu- 

Asked about these complaints. 
Mr. Fiske said Tuesday that he 
could not commem on any matter 
before a grand jury. 

The White House has a public 
and a private view of Mr. Fiske’s 
investigation. Mr. Clinton has said 
several times lhat he views the in- 
vestigations as a costly exercise that 
will ultimately yield little new in- 
formation. But some advisers also 
acknowledge that Mr. Fiske’s ex- 
amination, which is largely behind 

dosed doors. has at the least de- 
layed public hearings and could 
wind up keeping Whitewater off 
the front pages for many months. 

The White House says ir is not 
troubled that Mr. Fiske' s investiga- 
tion appears to be taking more lime 
than expected. 

Investigators still expect Mr. 
Fiske’s office to complete its inves- 
tigation this summer of the discus- 
sions between White House and 
Treasury officials about Madison. 

Mr. Fiske has already said lhat 
Congress could hold hearings this 
summer without affecting die in- 

More immediately. Mr. Fiske’s 
Washington office is expected soon 
to make public a report about what 
is considered a relatively straight- 
forward issue, the cause of the 
death of Mr. Foster, whose body 
was found in a park in Virginia. 


Pl an to Cut Firms* Health-Care Burden _ 

WASHINGTON — George J. Mitchell of Maine, the leader of. 
the Senate's Democratic majority, laid out new options to reduce 
the amounts small businesses would have to pay to provide health 
insurance to their workers under a modified version of President Bill 
Clinton’s health plan. 

The opposition of small businesses to a proposed “employer 
mandate'’ requirement that businesses pay 80 percent of premiums 
for their workers is a major stumbling block to action on health care 
in both chambers. 

At a closed-dour luncheon with Democratic senators with some 
Ginton administration ofiiciais present, Mr. Mitcbcll said latcT. he 
outlined three new options to ease tbe burden on small businesses. 
He said no derisions were made. 

The first was “a complete exemption" for companies with fewer 
than 10 employees fro m paying anything toward tbe premiums for 
their workers. ’ll is the first lime Senate Democratic leaders have 
looked at a total exemption for any group of employers. He gave no 
further details and did not release detailed analyses to the press. 

But one source said that under this option, the average worker 
would pay the full premium for himself or herself provided it did not 
exceed 3.9 percent of income. The employer would have to pay 
nothing and the average family would pay $60 0. with federal 
subsidies helping pay the rest. John D. Dingell. Democrat of 
Michigan, ihe chairman of the House Energy and Commerce 
Committee, has proposed a similar exemption for these small 

A second option, Mr. Mitchell said, was to offer an additional 
subsidy to companies with 10 or fewer employees. Under this 
option, another source said, these concerns would be required to 
pay a premium for their workers, but it would not exceed $300 a 
year for the smallest, lowest -wage companies, less than under the 
Ginton plan. 

The third, he said, would split tbe premium 50-50 between worker 
and employer (instead of requiring the employer to pay SO percent }. 
This shifts about $400 a year of the premium from the employer to 
the worker. t UP) 

Rose Law Firm Swes to Bar Investigation 

LITTLE ROCK. Arkansas — Hillary 1 Rodham Clinton's former 
law firm filed suit to block elTorts by federal investigators to learn 
the names of every client or the firm since 1 985. The lawsuit . filed by 
the Rose Law Finn, states that a subpoena obtained by the Resolu- 
tion Trust Corp. on April 18 is "grossly overbroad." and complying 
would violate clients’ privacy. 

The firm is asking a U.S. judge in Little Rock for a permanent 
injunction to void the April 18 subpoena, the fifth served on the 
firm. The lawsuit also asks that it be declared illegal lor the 
Resolution Trust Corp.'s inspector general to go beyond a previous 
investigation of potential conflicts of interest involving Rose's work 
for the corporation and prohibit (he inspector general from enforc- 
ing any subpoena previously served on Rose. The Resolution Trust 
Corp. is the agency charged with .settling the wave of savings and 
loan failures of ream years. >AP) 

Boren Is Quitting Senate for Academia 

WASHINGTON — Senator David L. Boren said Wednesday he 
was resigning from the Senate to become president of the University 
of Oklahoma. 

“1 have come to believe that while the national government has an 
important role to play, the revitalization of our country will come 
from the grassroots.” said the Oklahoma Democrat. Mr. Boren. 53. 
will step down at the end of this Congress. ( Reuters ) 

Quote/ U nquote 

Raymond Flynn, the fonner mayor of Boston who is now 
ambassador to the Vatican: ”1 will not be a candidate for the 
Democratic nomination for governor of Massachusetts in 1994.” 


Away From Politics 

• Six men accused of plotting to ship 2.900 bomb detonators cross- 
country on a Greyhound bus, then send them to the Irish Republican 
Army, were acquitted by a federal jury in Tucson. Arizona. 

• Discrimination against rivQian employees for their “sexual orienta- 
tion” has been banned by the US. Coast Guard, the first military 
service to adopt such a policy, h was announced by the Coast Guard 
commandant. Thomas F. Fisher. 

• A tornado ripped through West Lafayette, Indiana, demolishing a 
mobile home park, a Venetian-blind factory and two gasoline sta- 
tions. At least two people were killed and 51 others were injured. 


Bios at Issue in D.C. Jury Deadlock 

Black Suspect to Receive 2d Trial in Killing of White 

By Paul Duggan 
and Cindy Loose 

Washington Post Service 

WASHINGTON —The trial of 
a Washington man accused of fa- 
tally shooting a Senate aide near 
Capitol Hill ended with a dead- 
locked jury after one juror, favor- 
ing an acquittal, held out against I ) 
others in a week of deliberation 
made tense by a complaint of racial 

Edward Ellsworth Evans, 21, ac- 
cused of first-degree murder in the 
slaying of Samuel T. (Tom) Barnes, 
who was white, allegedly ap- 
proached Mr. Barnes on a street 
comer two years ago and shot him 
without provocation. Two self-de- 
scribed friends of Mr. Evans’s testi- 
fied that they saw the killing. One 
said Mr. Evans, who is black, bad 

spoken moments earlier of wanting 
to shoot a white man. 

The killing of the Senate aide, 
who had moved to Washington 
from Alabama in 1990, gained na- 
tional attention. An outraged Con- 
gress forced the District of Colum- 
bia to bold a referendum in 
November 1992 on reinstating the 
death penally for murderers, a pro- 
posal that was overwhelmingly re- 
jected by District voters. 

For seven days, jurors said, one 
member of their panel, Velma E. 
McNeiL a black woman, held out 
for the acquittal of Mr. Evans. 
They said she cited inconsistencies 
in the two wi messes’ stories. At one 
point in the trial, the jury foreman. 
Robert P. Ilchik. who is while, sent 
a note to the judge, accusing an 
unidentified fellow juror of bias. 

Mr. Ilchik. 40. an earth sciences 

researcher, said in his note last 
Thursday that “one juror" had de- 
clared that she could not give cre- 
dence to the prosecution’s evidence 
or witnesses because she believed 
the judicial system was unfair to 
black defendants. 

Miss McNeil, 31. an administra- 
tive assistant who lives near Capi- 
tol Hill, acknowledged after ibe 
mistrial Tuesday that she was ihe 
juror referred to in the note, but she 
said her vote in ihe jury room was 
not racially motived. 

“Everybody hated me.” she said 
after a mistrial was declared in the 
D.C. Superior Court case. The note 
that Mr. ilchik sent was directed at 
her. she said, because “he couldn't 
understand why 1 was the only one 
holding out. baause me and him 
were really at each other's throats 
the whole time." 

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Peter Arnett 

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Page 4 


Viv * 1 

published with the hew york timks and the Washington post 

A Naval Presence in Asia 

Even as defense budgets shrink around most 
of (he globe, a naval aims race is under way in 
/Asia. Many navies in the region are buying 
newer and better-armed ships, thnngh none has 
Jyet acquired formidable fleets capable of at- 
tacking other nations far from their shores. 

) Washington needs to maintain a U.S. naval 
presence in the region. That will help ease the 
Security concents of allies like Japan and 
South Korea. It mil also relieve the pressure 
Jon them, and in turn on their neighbors, to 
accelerate their naval buildups. 

! But the Pentagon is going too far. It makes 
sense to keep an aircraft carrier group based 
in Japan, in good position to make its pres- 
ence felt, Tbe U-S. Navy, however, wants to 
keep another carrier in the Indian Ocean, as it 
lias for a while. That is a needless expense 
'given the limited nature of the mission. That 
Jmission can be accomplished more cheaply by 
using other ships instead. 

, A number of nations in the Asia- Pacific 
(area are buying more modern ships. Some, 
like Japan, China and India, have sizable 
(fleets. Others, like Indonesia, Taiwan and 
'Australia, have smaller navies and most of 
their ships are also relatively small — destroy- 
Jers, frigates, corvettes and other fast, weQ- 
tarmed but short-range craft that can be used 
(to defend exposed coasts or to patrol and 
police coastal waters. 

J The most capable of the small navies, along 
with land-based aircraft armed with missiles, 
can keep more powerful navies from launch- 
ing dose-in attacks. But they are limited in 
their geographic reach, lacking aircraft carri- 
ers, cruisers, attack submarines and large am- 
phibious vessels needed to project force on the 
high seas or to launch offensive operations 
against targets on land 
Japan’s navy, while growing larger, remains 
defensive without long-range bombers or ships. 
China's fleet, while it outnumbers Japan's, sim- 

ilarly lacks the ability to project its power into 
distant places, and the evidence is not convinc- 
ing that it intends to acquire such capability. 

India’s navy canes perhaps the closest to 
having a long reach, but its two aging aircraft 
carriers cannot accommodate landing s of fight- 
er planes, just helicopters and Harrier jets. 

To keep their competition in check, Wash- 
ington is right to encourage a security dia- 
logue among all regional odors. And by keep- 
ing a carrier based in Japan and a patrolling 
presence elsewhere, the United States can 
rairn regional rivalries and insecurities, reduc- 
ing the need for navies to grow. 

But Pentagon admirals have turned the case 
for naval presence into a dubious and wasteful 
claim to keep 12 carriers in all, when 10 or 
fewer would suffice, and to construct a new 
carrier. Despite their imposing look, carrier 
baule groups do not deliver enormous offen- 
sive punch. Because carriers are vulnerable to 
predators like cruise missiles and torpedoes, 
most of tbe aircraft aboard tbe carrier and all 
its companion ships — typically six cruisers 
and destroyers and two submarines — primari- 
ly protea the carrier rather than project power. 

Delivering a carrier’s bang takes a lot of 
bucks — about S4.6 billion to buy the new 
carrier the navy wants and $14 billion more 
for its complement of ships and aircraft. Op- 
erating a carrier battle group costs an addi- 
tional S900 milli on a year. By the navy’s rule 
of thumb, moreover, it takes at least four 
carriers to keep one on station — one in 
transit, one on home leave and one in repair. 

A bottle group centered on an amphibious 
assault ship with helicopters and Harrier jets on 
board could flex U.S. muscles at much less cost. 
So would other groups of surface ships armed 
with Tomahawk cruise missiles. Keeping a na- 
val presence in tbe Pacific is no reason to buy 
more carrier battle groups than the navy needs. 


Stick With the Salvadorans 

In the second round of El Salvador’s first 
democratic elections in modem times, the 
United Nations and other observers prodded 
the government into earing same of the snags 
that had cut into the left's vote in the first 
round. The results were pretty good for 
a country that just a few years ago was being 
tom apart by a vicious, foreigp-aided civil war. 

Never a majority, the left (including tbe old 
guerrillas) got too few votes to elect its presi- 
dential candidate, the democrat Ruben Za- 
mora — which would have convulsed the 
country, anyway. But the left did get enough 
votes to make itself the legitimate institutional 
opposition in the legislature — an outcome 
validating its abandonment of armed struggle. 

The rightist ARENA went into the elec- 
tions under President Alfredo Cristiani as the 
party that had ended the war and started to 
revive an economy in ruins. Its record of peace 
and progress, not its manipulations, account- 
ed for its 2-to-l margin and its democratic 
confirmation in power. Its leader, Armando 
Calderon Sol. is a former San Salvador mayor 
trying in a hard country to set himself off 
from ARENA’S death-squad origins. Call his 

victory a win for stability and a bet on justice. 
He is startingby extending a band of recouril- 
iation to the left He should continue by 
backing the “Joint Group” set up by El Salva- 
dor and the United Nations to investigate 
fresh instances of political violence. 

In the 1980s it was said in despair in the 
American policy debate that there was no 
democratic center to build up in El Salvador, 
only extremists of tbe left and right. Display- 
ing a measure of bipartisanship notably lack- 
ing in respect to Nicaragua, the United States 
took a chance otherwise. The elections suggest 
it succeeded. The differences between the two 
big parties are relatively slight compared with 
the difference between those who would re- 
solve political disputes democratically and 
those who would do so by force. 

The multiple distractions of a great power 
are already blurring the American Cold War 
focus on El Salvador. Promised aid is way 
down. Sensing American disinterest. Salva- 
dorans stiffen. The United States might to 
stick with tbe Salvadorans and help them get 
out of the economic pit the war dug. 


On 'Breast-Saving Surgery’ 

When the unnerving news was reported last 
month that research fraud had been detected in 
a major 1985 study of breast cancer surgeries, 
scientific authorities hurried to assure women 
that the main conclusion of the study was still 
reliable. It is considerably more hdpful to learn 
now that an independent study has just been 
published reaching (he same conclusion. It is 
pan erf an ironic benefit of the uproar over the 
fraud discovery: an outpouring of new infor- 
mation and publicity from doctors reiterating 
the solidity of tbe lumpectomy data, part of an 
enormous increase in the visibility of discus- 
sions of breast cancer and its treatment 
The original study’s conclusion — one that 
was inextricably linked to die tremendous im- 
provement and humanization of breast cancer 
treatment in tin past decade — was that partial 
or “lumpectomy" surgery, followed by radia- 
tion therapy, leads to five-year survival rates 
just as hi gh as, or higher than, removal of the 
whole breast. The new study, in the Journal of 
the American Medical Association, is by a 
University of California- Irvine researcher and 
is described as having been complete before but 
hurried to publication because of the fraud 
flap. It is not tbe only source of information: 
A revised version of the earlier study, minus the 
evidence drawn from the 15 percent of patients 

whose doctor is accused of fraud, is awaiting 
publication from the original journal; other 
scientists rite as many as six independent stud- 
ies showing tbe benefits of what is called 
“breast-saving surgery." 

That in turn could help women in ihedifft-’ 
cult process of deciding which kind of breast 
cancer surgery to undergo and, maybe more 
important, hdp transmit the word to farther- 
flung doctors and medical schools to whom 
even such major changes in treatment some- 
times penetrate only slowly. Bad as the fraud 
episode was scientifically — especially since it 
came after years of ostensibly raised con- 
sciousness in the science establishment about 
misconduct — it is probably as psychology 
that such an episode is most debilitating. 
Breast cancer's incidence, detection and treat- 
ment are still matters of confusion and divid- 
ed opinion even among doctors, let alone 
among women trying to parse the conflicting 
accounts. The fraud episode and the after- 
math could help the situation by underlining 
that, in all this uncertainty, on lumpectomy 
as on seme other points, there is at least a 
dear medical view taking shape. It is one more 
reason fraud allegations should be fully aired 
and dealt with openly. 


Other Comment 

Mandela’s Economic Task 

Nelson Mandela will not inherit a healthy, 
well -run economy from South Africa’s white 
community. The economy has been badly 
damaged by decades of mismanagement and 
is barely able to generate tbe growth needed 
for the country's difficult political transition. 

The immediate economic task facing the 
new South African government will be to 
reassure the nation's middle-class whites and 

the business community to slow the flight of 
capita] and people ana to encourage busi- 
ness investment. 

To achieve political stability and reduce 
violence, Mr. Mandela must begin to meet 
black expectations. He needs money for 
black education, health, housing, sanitation, 
electricity, water and jobs. But this spending 
must be financed in a way that does not 
destroy investment and growth. 

— The Australian Financial Review (Sydney!. 

International Herald Tribune 



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South Africa: The Prognosis Is Surprisingly Good 

v ^ .... o/twr* 4f) nercent nf 

fore Nelson Mandela debated 
President Frederik de Klerk earlier 
litis month, 1 asked one of Mr. Man- 
dela's advisers, “Are you nervous?’’ 

“Of course,'’ he nailed with a 
chuckle. “After all, he’s only 40 
points ahead!" 

As South Africans vote in their 
first multiracial elections this week, 
the question is not who will win but 
what ti will mean. 

The African National Congress is 
a shoo-in — but will real democracy 
replace white minority rule? 

Despite months of tension during 
the camp ai g n , terrorism in recent 

By Craig Charney 

Since then, the anti-apartheid 
movement’s protests, boycotts and 
general strikes demonstrated that 
Mr. de Klerk could not ignore iL 
But neither could ANC followers 
wish away the National Party, with 
its strong base in the white, Indian 
and mixed-race communities. 

True, polls show that tbe most 
important factor in South Africans’ 
voting preferences remains racial 
and ethnic identity. Around 75 per- 
cent of blades support the ANC, 
while the majority of whites back 
the National Party. In tbe mixed- 

but a hard-fought balance of power among 
leaders who accept the new South Africa. 

days and some disorganization dur- 
ing the vote, I think the answer is yes. 

Rather than being propelled to- 
ward civil war by its cultural and 
ethnic diversity. South Africa has 
shown that it has the makings of a 
wobbly but workable, wbeding- 
and-dealing, pluralist democracy. 

Tbe grass-roots movements that 
fought apartheid have given birth to 
a new political balance 
Ideological contrasts between the 
main parties — 
Klerk's National Party — are less 
■ than many outsiders realize. 

ny ou 

De parties differ not on abso- 
lutes but on questions of more-or- 
less, and there are many signs that 
their constituencies are beginning to 
accept a common nationhood. 

South Africa’s experience may 
even offer a broader lesson to other 
new democracies. Political analysts 
usually suggest that a successful 
transition from authoritarian role 
requires a passive electorate, com- 
bined with cozy back-room dealing 
by insiders. But perhaps the crucible 
of genuine democracy lies in conflict 
ana diverse social movements. 

The roots of the new political 
alignment go deeper. The intense 
local struggles against apartheid in 
the 1980s foiged a common South 
African political identity, forcing 
the legalization of the ANC in 1990. 

race minority, those who identify 
with whites back tbe National Par- 
ty, while those who identify with 
blacks lend to support tbe ANC 

Classic left-right issues, such as 
attitudes toward federalism or redis- 
tributing wealth, have little impact 
on party preference. Yet the conse- 
quence is not Bosnian-style polar- 
ization, but a hard-fought balance 
of power among leaders who accept 
toe new South Africa. 

Mr. Mandela and Mr. de Klerk 
have joined hands — symbolically 
during their televised debate and in 
their commitment to a government 
of national unity after the vote. Tbe 
search for common ground extends 
to blade and white leaders in other 
walks oflife as welL 

After consulting busin ess, ^gow- 

put its 1 50-page Reconstruction and 
Development Program through sev- 
en rewrites. Now even Rudolf 
Gouws, dud economist at Rand 
Merchant Bank, says, “It is some- 
thing I can start to identify with." 

Although South Africa has hardly 
done away with ideology, the ANC 
is moving to center-left, the Nation- 
al Party to center-right. 

Consider toe ANCs formula for 
economic growth: investor confi- 
dence, government aid to small 
businesses and public works. 

The National Party's formula? In- 
vestor confidence, aid to small busi- 
nesses and controlling inflation. 

Surveys show that blacks and 
whites have a remarkably similar out- 
look. Both groups bad to be conser- 
vative on values, liberal on econom- 
ics. Most blacks and most whites 
favor respect for authority and the 
work ethic, and oppose abortion. But 
there is also support for active gov- 
ernment, a welfare safety net and 
stricter pollution controls. 

Signs of a common nationalism 
can befound even in TV ads and on 
billboards, which increasingly show 
blacks and whites working and so- 
cializing together. 

Judging by polling results and an- 
ecdotal evidence, most black South 
Africans display remarkable good 
will toward whites. 

Whites, though nervous, are also 
getting used to the changes. Two- 
thirds of them voted in 1992 in a 
referendum for a negotiated politi- 
cal settlement. And in a survey last 
month, 90 percent said they “could 
accept an ANC- led government, if it 
lets us get on with our lives.” 

The democratic transition never- 
theless seemed imperiled by ethnic 
violence, until toe Zulu-based In- 
ks tha Freedom Party agreed last 
week to take part in the erection. 

In March, a few thousand armed 
inkatha marchers paralyzed down- 

town Johannesburg and clashed 
with the ANC in an inddeni that 
left 34 dead. More than 300 people 
have died since then in Inkatoas 
home province of Natal 
But the “Zulu threat" that until 
recently dominated 03. news cov- 
erage of the elections has probably 

Tbe dramatic TV images of weap- 
on-laden Zulus facing armored per- 
sonnel carriers in Natal obscured 
the fact that Inkatha supporters 
number perhaps 7 percent of the 
population, and are m toe minority 
among Zulus. 

According to UN observers, 85 
percent to 90 percent of the country 
remained peaceful in the months 
leading up to the election. 

By focusing on the violence in 
Natal, toe media also failed to note 
the momentum the electoral process 
had developed around toe country. 

Millions have followed the cam- 
paign through TV, radio, newspa- 
pers or contact with door-to-door 
canvassers. Only 3 percent of eligi- 
ble voters were missed by nonparti- 
san voter education campaigns. 

Nor has the momentum been 
halted by recent terrorist attacks. 

Of course, it would be naive to 
ihlnlc that South Africa’s first taste 
of democracy has had no sour mo- 
ments. Both toe National Party and 
the ANC had meetings disrupted 
and supporters in timidate d. The sit- 
uation has been worst in Natal 

Province, where 40 percent of blacks 
live in areas where either the ANC 
Of the Inkatha Freedom Party could 
not campaign freely because of vio- 
lent opposition. 

South Africa has a long history of 
racism and intolerance, and it will 
take time for it to be cured. 

After tbe vote, Mr. Mandek’s gov- 
ernment wQl face greater challenges. 
Billions will be needed to address the 
desperate basic needs in black com- 
munities, such as housing, water, 
eketruaty, schools and health care. 

The situation is complicated by 
South Africa’s increasing foreign 
debt, government mismanagement 
of the economy and toe lingering 
effects erf international sanctions, all 
of which have bdped push per capi- 
ta income down to 1967 levels. 

The government’s capacity to 
meet basic needs will depend on its 
ability to restore growth and move 
from an economy based on gold, 
coal and diamond exports to a val- 
ue-added economy, one based on 
manufacturing for export, as in 
other middle-income countries 
such as Mexico and Brazil. 

Yet it must be remembered that 
South Africa is a Third World coun- 
try. It should be judged accordingly. 

WMe it is true that 10,000 people 
have died here in political clashes 
since 1990, toe wonder is not that 
the transition from apartheid to de- 
mocracy has been so vioteitbutthat 
it has been so peaceful. 

Compared with other Third 
World countries. South Africa is 
fortunate to have relatively strong 
parties, responsible leaders and an 
emergin g political system that has 
institutionalized mutual respect 
bon out of collective organization 
and struggle. 

During toe uncertain months be- 
fore the election, inspiration has al- 
ternated with perspiration. 

As South Africans vote, there is 
more reason to hope for democracy 
than to fear a descent into chaos. 

The writer, who teaches political 
science at tale University, is study- 
ing social movements in South Afri- 
ca; he directed election polling for 
the South African Broadcasting 
Carp. He contributed this comment 
to The New York Times. 

Think Again: Bombing the Serbs Can Only Prolong the Agony 

C AMBRIDGE, Massachusetts — Al- 
though toe Clinton-NATO ultimatum on 
Bosnia has led to a Serbian pullback from- 
Gorazde, it has put compassion on a collision 
course with reality. 

While the United States and Russia pledged 
Tuesday to strive for a diplomatic solution to 
tbe war, that solution must recognize toe Serbs' 
supremacy on the baldefield. 

Sp reading toe protective wing of NATO 
airpower over the Muslim enclaves has ended 
the slaughter at Gorazde, as it did at Sarajevo. 
But the move is strategically and militarily 

A Serbian cease-fire wili not change the fact 
that the Serbs, in a well-planned and executed 
strategy, have “cleansed” eastern Bosnia or 
their Muslim enemies. The Serbs drove the 
Muslims from their land and penned them in 
valley towns surrounded by Serbian-con- 
trolled mountains. 

Gorazde and the other towns where toe Mus- 
lims cluster are called “safe havens" but really 
are prisoner-of-war camps. Even though toe 
Serbs have stopped shooting into them, toe 
Muslims’ plight has not changed. 

The Muslims depend on humanitarian aid 

By Bernard E. Trainor 

delivered by UN forces. But to provide it, 
the poorly armed blue helmets must negotiate 
passage with toe Serbs. 

Even under air attacks, toe Serbs can impede, 
even stop, substantial aid from reaching toe 
“safe havens." 

There is no need for toe Serbs to capture the 
isolated towns. Sooner or later, tbe difficulty of 
sustaining the aid will make it necessary to 
evacuate toe Muslims to Muslim territory fur- 
ther west. The sooner this deal can be struck, 
the better. But air attacks will not help. 

The Serbs are canny fighters. They can dis- 
perse and hide heavy weapons. Supply dumps 
and command posts can be hidden or located 
near churches, museums or drib an sites, which 
are off-limits to bombing. 

The Serbs can also strike back. Anti-aircraft 
ambushes can be expected in toe mountains, 
and aircraft will be shot down, as a British 
Harrier jet was. 

And the harder toe Serbs are hit from toe 
air, the more they will have an incentive to 
retaliate against UN soldiers on the ground. 

Despite President Bill Clinton's disclaimers, 
United Nations and NATO losses in the air and 
on the ground might well create an irresistible 
impulse to introduce ground combat forces. 
Western fortes could end up in the very war 
they have sought to avoid. 

Mr. Clinton and Secretary of State Warren 
Christopher both indicated that air strikes are 
intended to inflict pain on the Serbs in order to 
bring them to their senses. 

History tells 11 s such thinking is a pipe dream. 

Since the advent of air power, bombing alone 
has only stiffened the resolve of a resolute 
enemy. No political objective has ever been 
achieved by at power alone. 

Misapplication of force can be worse than no 
force at alL Not only is an air campaign likely to 
be ineffective, it is bound to raise toe Muslims’ 
hopes that NATO, the United Nations and the 
United States will join the flay in their behalf. 

Haring suffered and lost so much, they are 
unhkety to negotiate a settlement based on the 
status quo if they think toe international com- 
munity will enter toe war on their side, especial- 
ly if Mr. Clinton’s proposal to lift toe arms 
embargo comes to pass. 

It is a certain prescription for a longer 

the defense and well-being < 
for a long time to come. 

a million people 

The writer, a retired US Marine general is 
director of notional security programs at Har- 
vard's Kennedy School of Government. He con- 
tributed this comment to The New York Times. 

No Evidence That Europe Will Do Better on the Next 'Bosnia’ 

B ERLIN — Two years ago, toe 
sign scrawled on a waif along 
“sniper alley” in Sarajevo was “Wel- 
come to Hell." Now tine graffito says 
“Welcome to 2Isl Century Europe." 

The course of toe war in toe former 
Yugoslavia, and toe consequences of 
the European and American failures 
to deal with it, have lent that forecast 
its dark plausibility. 

Europe's inability to cope with the 
Yugoslav crisis was due to toe Europe- 
an Community members' inability to 
agree, which was chiefly the result of 
Germany and France's failure to agree. 
Had these two readied agreement, Eu- 
rope might have found a policy. 

Its failure to do so may have been 
decisive. It is not inconceivable that 
“Europe" today is politically finished: 
that it was a response to postwar 
needs, but has now been fatally under- 
mined by German reunification and 

By William Pfaff 

the Yugoslav catastrophe. French- 
German reconciliation motivated and 
sustained the construction or “Eu- 
rope" from the 1950s through the 
1 980$. Tbe agreement and cooperation 
of these two countries is indispensable 
to continuing European Union. 

Thus, the bewOaermem and disar- 
ray of French-German opinion, evi- 
dent in an Aspen Institute conference 
here lost weekend, inspires serious 
concern about Europe. This bears on 
the American future as well, since Eu- 
rope is where preponderant economic 
and industrial power lies today, more 
of it than exists in North Amaica. 

The French fear that the European 
Union’s expansion to Eastern Europe 
will mean enlarged German econom- 
ic and political influence there and 
will threaten toe integrated Western 

Europe of the last four decades. The 
Germans, on (he other hand, believe 
that “Europe’s” expansion eastward 
can give Germany the same security 
on its eastern borders it already has 
in toe West They want to be totally 
surrounded by toe European Union 
and think that all of their neighbors 
then will be friendly and peaceful. 
They are keenly conscious that as a 
nation they consistently have gotten 
into trouble in the East, and they 
think they can solve that problem tty 
Westernizing the East It is not a 
particularly realistic program. 

In this situation, Washington's ob- 
session with Moscow causes further 
damage. The Clinton administra- 
tion’s insistent assumption that it has 
to settle European problems by deal- 
ing with Moscow actually destabi- 

A Welcome Reversal on Biodiversity 

N EW YORK — Two years ago, 
tbe Bush administration need- 
ed a symbol of its disdain for tbe 
Rio environmental s umm it. Having 
been forced by public opinion to 
swallow the global climate treaty. 
President George Bush and Vice 
President Dan Quayle. whose 
Council on Competitiveness was 
searching for ways to prove its ami- 
environmental prowess, seized on 
the biodiversity treaty as something 
they could safely oppose. 

Through a highly selective reading 
of the treaty, the administration con- 
vinced itself that the pact would de- 
stroy protection of intellectual prop- 
erty, force mandated technology 
transfers and seriously undermine 
American industiy. Ignoring the 
provisions that protected American 
interests, tbe administration fanned 
business's uncertainty about toe 
treaty into active hostility. 

Today, tbe affected industries — 
drug, seed and biotechnology com- 
panies — are urging the Senate to 
quickly rarity the same agreement. 
What has changed in toe interim is 
administrations — notably, in this 
case, vice presidents. Conclusion of 
toe GATT Uruguay Round with 
satisfactory intellectual property 
provisions has also helped. 
Meanwhile, though, species have 

By Jessica Mathews 

been rapidly disappearing. On cur- 
rent performance, an estimated 10 

percent to 25 percent of toe planet's 
biological inheritance mil be gone 
in 25 years, largely from the devel- 
oping countries where most species 
live. Quite apart from aesthetic val- 
ue. investments in conservation are 
still only a tiny fraction of toe com- 
mercial value of what is bong lost 

For example, genetic diversity 
supplies $1 billion per year to 
American agricultural production 
through genes that confer pest and 
disease resistance and adaptability 
to climate and soil variation. 
Spading to preserve that diversity is 
1 percent at that amount. Similarly, 
less than SI million is spent annually 
to maintain an international genetic 
bank for rice, though the value of 
new varieties to India’s production 
alone is S50 million per year. 

From aspirin to taxoL 25 percent 
of all drugs are derived from plants. 
Antibiotics, the foundation of mod- 
em medicine, come from microor- 
ganisms. Yet with one or two nota- 
ble exceptions, the pharmaceutical 
industry has spent nothing to buy 
or conserve its raw materials. 

The biodiversity treaty makes 

one enormous contribution to re- 
versing this situation. Whereas be- 
fore, gate tic resources were consid- 
ered the common heritage of 
mankind, the treaty establishes 
countries’ sovereign rights to the 
species they harbor. Countries must 

E jvide access to (heir resources. 

t they may regulate that access, 
and they will receive benefits in the 
form of royalties or technology for 
species that prove valuable. 

Tbe treaty’s trade-offs now seem 
fair and necessary to preserving a 
valuable resource, yet only three years 
ago developed countries were insist- 
ing on free access to wOd species and 
stnet patent protection in ah coun- 
tries. This would have meant that the 
South’s genetic resources would de- 
part free of charge and return as 
expensive, patented products. 

Internationally uniform patent 
laws are touted these days as on 
almost unquestioned good. Patents 
do stimulate research and reward 
investment. But they also freeze 
technological advantage, and there- 
fore economic power, in the hands 
of those who already have iL 

The writer is a senior fellow at the 
Council on Foreign Relations. She 
contributed this comment to The 
Washington Post 

lizes Eastern Europe, making toe 
East Europeans think they are again 
in danger of subordination to Russia. 
Jt thereby feeds German anxieties 
and, by doing that, makes France 
anxious as weft. 

Tbe French and Germans both 
insist that Europe must press on 
toward the Maastricht goals of mon- 
etary union and a common foreign 
and security policy. This recalls 
what toe French call “/uire en avant " 
— a rushing forward in order to 
keep from falling over. It is an at- 
tempt to foreclose tbe return to na- 
tionalist policies that many fear may- 
be Europe's real future. 

Both toe French and Germans arc 
pretending that Europe today merely 
needs institutional progress. They 
want to believe that when a mecha- 
nism is set up to draft a common 
European foreign policy, such a poli- 
cy will emerge. It will noL The Ger- 
man and French governments could 
have a common policy today if they 
agreed on what to do. The search for 
a mechanism is a way to avoid ad- 
dressing toe disagreeraenL 

Enlarging tbe European Union 
cannot be combined with “deepen- 
ing" it, which is what the Maastricht 
program is intended to do. Either 

•i .» ' 

• i + 

and bloodier civil war. The Serbs have won that 
war. The best we can hope is to persuade them 
to settle for their gains and to press the Bosni- 
ans to accept their defeaL Allied energies 
should focus on that goal, not prolonging tbe 
agony through bombing. 

The argument that toe United Nations, 
NATO and United States lose credibility in 
proportion to tbe size of a Serbian victory is 
nonsense. The Gulf War is ample evidence of 
credibility when mUitaiy action stands a chance 
of success. That is not the case in Bosnia. 

The failure of a just peace is no defeat for the 
international community. It is the defeat of the 
notion that outside powers can pacify a bank- 
rupt state festering with age-old animosities. 

Not only is Mr. Clinton in danger of making 
the United States a party to a civil war, by 
drawing Lbe sword on behalf of toe Muslims he 
would make America morally responsible for 

ifTTHJ* :.<« 'I 

more members are admitted ou loos- 
er terms, or with several classes of 
membership, or the existing Union 
pursues its avowed goal or federal 
government, with toe rest outside. 
These contradictions have to be ad- 
dressed, but it is not happening. 

The new French-German military 
unit, the Eurocorps, is camouflage for 
the lack of a common security policy. 

It is no answer to the threat of “new 
Yugoslavian" which is what everyone 
claims to fear. The EurocoTps, had it 
existed three years ago, would have 
contributed nothing to a solution of 
the present Yugoslav crisis. 

If you ask what France and Ger- 
many, and “Europe," actually pro- 
pose to do when a new Yugoslavia 
occurs — when ethnic war erupts ® 
elsewhere on Western Europe's fron- 
tiers — there is silence. Ask what they 
would do if Greece invaded Macedo- 
nia or Albania, and there not only is 
silence but a refusal even [ 0 contem- 

plate the possibilities. These are. 
however, real possibilities — not of 
21st century Europe, but of the five 
years that remain in toe 20to century, 
and perhaps of tbe eight months that 
remain in 1994. 

International Herald Tribune. 

55 Los Angeles Times Syndicate. 


1894: Striking Miners 

NEW YORK — Grave trouble was 
threatened in Illinois lost night {April 
26] owing to the march of 4.000 strik- 
ing miners on Toluca with toe object 
of stopping ail work by non-union 
men. Governor AJtgeld ordered out 
several companies of militia and went 
himself to Toluca, where he ha- 
rangued toe strikers, beseeching them 
not to disgrace the State by disturbing 
toe public peace. His speech and toe 
reported approach of troops had a 
good effect and the miners disposed. 
Subsequently in toe interests of peace 
the mine owners dosed tbe pits. 

1919: Bucareat Starves 

PARIS — Dr. G. Aslan, of Bucarest 
University, in a communication to 
the press, gives an account of toe 
distress prevailing is Roumania. Re- 
cent private letters describe the situa- 
tion as grave in the extreme, dominat- 
ed as it is by privatum and misery. M. 
An toncsco, professor of law at Bu- 

carest, writes to his son at Nice: “Bu- 
carest is ravaged by famine and dis- 
ease; small-pox and typhus claim 
thousands of victims. Restaurant 
puces are out of all reason. The most 
meagre breakfast costs from 30 to 40 
francs. I am living chiefly on beans, 
with meat only once a week. Ibe 
unhappy peasants have no grain to 
«t w to planL The bodies have stolen 
toe locomotives and railway cars; rail- 
way transport is next to impossible." 

1944: Britain Prepares 

~~ IFroni our New York 
KunonrJ Approximately 50.000,000 
percons in the British Isles were iso- 
rateti from the outside world at mid- 

™ m ? hl l A P fil 27] when all 
norma] travel to points abroad ceased 
“nda - one of the most drastic anti- 
decrees ever promulgated. From 
EL?" “ nul time when Allied 
222E? f?rC<S established their 

KSS.?K WCStern 0nC 

tray leave this country except on spe- 
cially approved war business. 


I. '• 




1 - tilt* AgOB 

t 'Bosnia' 

:• r 


Is Nixonian Realism’ Really Wanted? 

ASHlNr.Tnx, .... w 

shows fast weekend. | t carried an 
»npl«cil criticism oF PraidSu ®n 
CliniCD-i, has been hard to find 

2 iK , rffo^ csso,S ^- "*■«?* 

seV^r. 10 lransform him- 
self rrom Watergate viUain into 
foreign policy prophet 

WCTe *™o things wrong 
with the question. It implied, firsu 

Americans mistrust 
realists like Richard 
Nixon and yet long to 
put them in charge. 

By E. J. Dionne 

that a president who succeeds at 
foreign policy is something like 
a master chef who knows exactly 
when to turn up the heat and when 
to iu/7j it down, which ingredients 
to use. and in what amounts. This 
casts the handling of foreign policy 
as mostly a matter of technique and 
skill, when what really mailers are 
intellectual and moral choices 
about underlying assumptions and 
long-term goals. You cannot gel 
anywhere in foreign policy unless 
you know where you are going 

Mr. Nixon did. and that's the 
other thing wrong with the Bosnia 
question: ft implies that if Mr. Nix- 
on had been handling the Bosnia 
account, he would have come up 
with a policy pleasing to everyone. 
This forgets that the Nixon ap- 
proach to foreign policy was im- 
mensely controversial because it 
was firmly rooted in a controversial 
world view. Mr. Nixon was the 
quintessential foreign policy real- 
ist. Cool judgments about what 
constituted America’s immediate 
and long-term interests — as well 
as his own — guided everything he 
did. As Henry Kissinger put it 
delicately on ABC television. Mr. 
Nixon was “tactically extremely 
flexible" and not given to “ab- 
stract proclamations." 

Realism, an honorable foreign 
policy approach, is unpopular 
among Americans because its skep- 
ticism about the possibility of mo- 
rality in the international arena 
goes against our national self-im- 
age. The United States thinks of 

“ clhical pnwer willing to 
stand Tor something in the world. 

Alincfti all the news reports on 
Mr. Nixon’s death included foot- 
age of demonstrators against the 
vicuiam War who regarded his re- 
fusal to end that conflict quickly as 
immoral. Far less noted were the 
v,e ?i° r conservative Republicans 
and Cold War Democrats who fol- 
lowed the lead of the late Henry 
Jackson. They, too, found Mr. Nix- 
on s approach immoral — or. at 
best, amoral — even though (hey 
disliked the anti-war people as 
much as Mr. Nixon did. The con- 
servative Republicans and Jack- 
son Democrats alike saw Mr. Nix- 
on’s detente policies toward the 
Soviet Union as a dangerous ac- 
commodation to a fundamentally 
evil enemy. And many Republi- 
cans saw h is China policy as sell- 
ing out to a dreadful regime. 

By making such a diverse set of 
enemies. Mr. Nixon handed the 
Democrats an opportunity to 
“moralize” American foreign poli- 
cy in a way that amid unite critics 
of the Nixan-Kissinger approach, 
which Gerald Ford continued. Jim- 
my Carter came up with the answer 
in his emphasis on human rights. 
To the left, Mr. Carter spoke about 
the importance of imposing tough 
standards of decency on rightist 
regimes the United States had sup- 
ported in the past. To the right. Mr. 
Carter argued that his dealings 
with the Soviet Union and China 
would link issues such as arms con- 
trol with progress on human rights. 

This worked for one election, 
but fell apart in practice because 
the two wings of the human rights 
coalition had irreconcilable differ- 
ences. Mr. Carter gave morality 
a bad name, much as Mr. Nixon 
gave realism a bad name. Ronald 
Reagan picked up the pieces with 
a new mix: He sounded like a 
Nixonian realist when compared 
with Mr. Carter, bur came off as 
a bold moralist, especially toward 
the “Evil Empire," when com- 
pared with Mr. Nixon. 

But Mr. Carter’s human rights 
policy, which contributed mightily 
to Mr. Reagan’s subsequent suc- 
cesses, offers an instructive com- 
mentary on the limits of Nixonian 
realism. After the Vietnam War, 
the United States lost a large share 
of its moral authority in the world. 
Nixonian realism's fatal flaw was 
its failure to recognize that the 
United Slates’ position in the world 


D-Day and After 

Regarding “ Invite Germans to 
Normandy, (or Europe's Sake" 
I Opinion. April 23) by Dominique 
Molsi and Karl Kaiser: 

I was impressed, wanued and in- 
spired by the thrust of the article: 
the historic reconciliation of our 
peoples. The end or enmity between 
the peoples of Western Europe is the 
most important event of recent his- 
tory. It needs to be written over all 
the battlefields of our bloodied con- 
tinent. The last thing we should be 
doing is excluding the Germans. We 
should reinforce the very positive 
changes in Germany, not harp on 
negative aspects of the past. 

A major point of the article was 
ihe need to create positive action 
for the future. I do not think a 
battlefield is the proper site for a 
“festive gathering.'' But rededica- 
tion to prevent future wars cer- 
tainly is. Eastern Europe and the 
former Yugoslavia need our help. 

The creation of a European 
Youth Action Group to help in ex- 
Yugoslavia would be one way of 
doing that. Good work is being 
done by such groups as Causes 
Communes (offering help be- 
tween, for example, Belgian and 
ex-Yugoslav communes). 

Many in ex-Yugoslavia believe 
the country was broken up to pro- 
vide smaller clienL states for France, 
Germany. Britain, etc. We need to 
show we believe European solutions 
work best, and begin to recreate 
irusL between individuals, peoples 
and regions so they can work practi- 
cally together and cornier nauonal- 
istic lies and paipaganda. 


As a veteran of D-Day. 1 have no 
desire to see the June 6 ceremony 
turned into a family day with a 
Woodstock-type “love-in" of Euro- 
pean Union partnership. 

In 1945. with Allied troops, I also 
served m Germany. Our purpose 
was to wipe out all traces of the Nazi 
regime and lay the foundations for 
a democratic government, whether 
the Germans liked it or noL 

June 6 is the commemoration of 
those who lived and died on the 
beaches and in the hedgerows, not 
a celebration of “building a Europe 
united by democracy." 


Roussillon, France. 

The commemoration of D-Day 
belongs exclusively to those who 
fought against the German forces 
that for four years had terrorized 
and killed so many in Europe. Tire 
50lb anniversary of the Allied in- 
vasion is not a very happy day. It 
is a day to remember our I a j! e n 
comrades and the cause for which 
they fought. Thousands of the Al- 
lies fought and died in Normandy. 
The silence of their graves should 
not be disturbed. 


New York. 

Letters intended (or puhlicmmi H 
should he adAtssed -Letters to ihe ' 
Editor" and contain the writer’ s s/g- 

nanm, name atdfidl address. Letters 

should be brief and are subect to 
editing. We camot be responsibkjar 
the renan of mvolialed manuscripts. 

The commemoration should not 
be turned into a political football to 
further the European cause. 



A “recrocUiation” ceremony is 
better left to the 50th anniversary of 
the end of the war in Europe, or of 
the aid of World War II in the 
Pacific the year after. 



Hie Commander, Too 

Regarding “ Battle Scars Remain 
bui Little Has Changed" and “D- 
Day Events" [Leisure, April 22): 

While the writers mentioned sev- 
eral of their compatriots, they gave 
no mention to the brilliant com- 
mander of the invasion Forces. 

How about some recognition for 
the man. bom in Ireland like the 
Iron Duke, who led his multination- 
al forces to a fine victory? I speak of 
General Sir Bernard Montgomery. 


Cbavenay. France. 

Memories of Myilkyina 

In response to "In Burma's Far 
North, Reprieve From Decades of 
War" (April SI: 

This report, datelined Myilkyi- 
na, reminded me of the time 1 visit- 
ed this charming town, 24 hours 
after our forces had captured it 
from the Japanese in September 
1944. It was still smoking. 

We were surveying how we could 
get an India-to-China pipeline into 
Myilkyina. We did it- on boat and 
on" foot, beating the Ledo Burma 
Road there by a couple of weeks. 

It was quite a pipeline, starting 
in Calcutta, going to Northern In- 
dia. across Burma and ending up 
100 miles (160 kilometers) east oF 
Kunming, China. We started con- 
struction in China in October 
1944, finishing up in June 1945. 
We built river crossings over the 
Mekong and Salween, mighty riv- 
ers in deep gorges coming from 
Tibet. Our company, the 778th 
Engineers, in which I had the priv- 
ilege of being operations officer, 
stiS has annual reunions, but un- 
fortunately the grim reaper is 
graduaifv winning out. 



Hie Arms Bazaar 

Regarding the opinion column 
“Cut International Funding of 
Third World Arms " (April 15) by 
Hobart Rcnven: 

Very few countries really need 
armed forces for the defense of 
their realms, yet the global arms 
bazaar continues unabated. U si- 
phons off wealth desperately need- 
ed for the well-being of the people 
the arms are supposed to defend. It 
sidetracks large numbers of compe- 
tent men and women from careers 
better suited to the needs of their 
countries, and in many places it 
keeps dictators in place. 

The fundamental problem is that 
the very countries that fund the 
World Bank are those that need the 
armaments industry for the good of 
their own economies. 


Dram men. Norway. 

could not be maintained in the ab- 
sence of what Mr. Nixon himself 
once called “the lift of a driving 
dream." By making human rights 
the core concept of American for- 
eign policy, Mr. Carter helped the 
United States regain the initiative. 
Mr. Reagan complai ned about, and 
profited from, this policy. 

As it turns out, Mr. Nixon’s view 
on Bosnia — reflected in excerpts 
from his last book. “Beyond 
Peace,” published this week in 
Time magazine — was highly con- 
genial for those who see a human 
rights issue at stake in the carnage 
against the Muslims. Mr. Nixon 
wrote that he would long ago have 
lifted the arms embargo against 
“the victims of Serbian aggression" 
and shaipiy criticized the United 
States for failing to lead. Mr. Nix- 
on, a learner until the end. casts 
his cajl for an expansive American 
world role in terms that will ap- 
peal to those who criticized the 
foreign policy of his administra- 
tion in moral terms. Yet it' should 
be remembered that Mr. Nixon 
spent his whole life arguing that 
realism, in both domestic politics 
and foreign policy, was the one 
reliable guide to action. 

That is why America has had so 
much trouble making peace with 
Richard Nixon. We Americans 
mistrust realists (like Mr. Nixon) 
and yet long to put realists (like Mr. 

Nixon) in charge- We claim to love 
practical men and women who 
make “tough" decisions, avoid 
namby-pamby moralism. take the 
cool, long view. That Mr. Nixon 
certainly did. Yet at heart, Ameri- 
cans doubt that realism is enough, 
and are often appalled at its results 
— whether in Vtetnam, on human 
rights or, in Mr. Nixon's case, in 
dealing with domestic adversaries 
as if they were foreign enemies. 

Mr. CHinion was properly gener- 
ous in his comments on Mr. Nix- 
on’s death; this president can relate 
to someone with so many implaca- 
ble enemies seemingly willing to do 
anything to bring nun down. Mr. 
Cfinums approadi to the presiden- 
cy is an odd mirror of Mr. Nixon's: 
Mr. Nixon sought to “handle” do- 
mestic policy so he could be creative 
in foreign policy. Mr. Clinton is try- 
ing to keep a lid on foreign policy so 
be can turn his energy homeward 

Yel in the end, Mr. Nixon 
pushed domestic politics to the lim- 
it, and ultimatdy brought himself 
down. Mr. Qintrai is trying to 
avoid a comparable problem in for- 
eign policy, and a realist's ap- 
proach akin to Mr. Nixon’s seems 
a plausible way to avoid both weak- 
ness and dangerous entanglements. 
But beware drawing simple lessons 
from Richard Nixon: His career is 
the most dramatic commentary we 
have on the genius of realism, and 
also on its tragic limitations. 

The Washington Post. 

LetAU Who Resisted Come on the 6th of June 


OSTON — It seems that their feelings 
— are hurt. The Americans, the Brits, tbe 
French — all their friends — are throwing 
a big party on June 6. But the Germans 
haven’t been invited. 

It will be tbe 50th anniversary of D-Day. 
There will be parachute drops and aerial 


displays and veterans swarming over the 
beaches named Utah and Omaha. 

President BUI Clinton is cotmng. So is 
Queen Elizabeth. So is President Franqois Mit- 
terrand. Bui Chancellor Helmut Kohl won’t be 
there to commemorate tbe Allies’ assault on 
Normandy. And frankly, he is feeling left out. 
So are some of his countrymen. 

After alt the Germans were there for D- 
Day. Without the Gomans there would not 
have been any D-Day at all. If there is to be 
some historic re-enactment, perhaps some of 
tbe old veterans could come out with their 
hands op. Just for an authentic touch. 

But I am being sarcastic and the German 
government is bring serious. Those who ob- 
ject to this closed party explain that they are 
now a part of democratic Europe, not a 
fascist enemy. They are asking for some 
sense of closure on tbe Nazi era. It is 50 
ears, after all. they say. Two generations, 
ave been bora since then. And besides, one 
man said to a radio reporter, Germans too 
want to celebrate tbe day that began “their 
liberation from Adolph* Hitler." 

I am not one of those children of World 
War II veterans who refused to buy a Volks- 
wagen or bridled at a German accent. I do 

By Ellen Goodman 

not believe the sins of the grandparents 
should be visited on the grandchildren. 

But I am queasy at the notion of trans- 
forming a historic commemoration of what 
Dwight Eisenhower called “the Great Cru- 
sade** — a day that cost so many lives — into 
a government celebration of letting bygones 
be bygones. 


a pain history is at times. We can’t 
live with it. We can't live without it. We are 
tokl that those who do not remember tbe past 
are doomed to repeat it. But those who can't 
forget may be doomed as wdl. 

At times h seems to me (hat the practical 
need to born ihe score cards, (he old enemies 
lists and start fresh is essential. Otherwise 
we walk through life looking behind us, as if 
we were bring stalked through a dark alley 
by ctid adversaries. 

But at other times there is a compelling 
need to remember, to distinguish right from 
wrong, victim from assailant To maintain 
our sense of justice and honor those who 
upheld it. 

On any given day, these messages are in the 
news: stories about tbe power of memory and 
stories about the price of forgetting. 

We read of murderous feuds between inter- 
national Hatfields and McCoys. In Bosnia, 
people shoot each other in revenge for events 
that can be traced back 800 years. In the 
Middle East, Israelis and Palestinians kill 
each other now in tbe name of Israelis and 
Palestinians who killed each other then. 

At the same time, all through Europe, there 
are young, ignorant neo-Nazis painting swasti- 

kas on walls. In America, a cult of “revision- 
ists” denies that the Holocaust ever happened. 
In Japan, young students learn more about 
Hiroshima than Ftari Harbor. In Italy, a 
“post- fascist” leader calls Mussolini “the 
greatest statesman of the century." 

I remember nine years ago when President 
Ronald Reagan visited Biiburg, and, side by 
side with Helmut Kohl, (aid a wreath in a 

There is a need to distinguish 
victim from assailant, to 
preserve our sense of justice and j 
honor those who died for it. 

cemetery where SS soldiers were buried. That 
gesture did not strike me as a moment of 
reconciliation but one of moral blindness. 

The veterans landing at Normandy this 
June are senior citizens. The Holocaust sur- 
vivors are mostly old people, their collective 
memory soon assigned to museums. The 
landing may indeed have begun the libera- 
tion of Germany from Hitler, but few Ger- 
mans thought so in 1944. 

If I were planning this history part) 1 , 
would J invite Germans? Sure: I'd invite the 
resisters, the Schindlers, any survivors of tbe 


insult. It isn’t a time warp. Ir is a gathering 4 
for those who fought against tyranny. After 
50 years, that is worth remembering. 

© Boston Globe Newspaper Co. 

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kr Page 6 


i ~ NATO Warns Serbs 


’Against Attacking 
' i Other f Saf e Areas 5 

r. Compiled bv Oar Staff From Dupotcha 

J BRUSSELS — The North At- 
jaalic Treaty Organization said 
Wednesday that it remained pre- 
pared to rorab any Serbian heavy 
-’Weapons found in violation of an 
r: allied exclusion zone around Gor- 
ii azde and to launch air strikes if the 
Serbs attacked other “safe areas” in 
,n Bosnia, 

s. _ NATO officials said reports in- 
li djcated a broad meeting of the con- 
ditions set for the Serbs to gel rid of 
their heavy weapons in Gorazde. 

“There has been general compli- 
_,ance by the Bosnian Serb army 
with NATO’s deadline,” said Sir 
y, Richard Vincent, the British field 
marshal who is NATO's miliiaiy 
" r cbief. “There are no major inci- 
v dents to report. 

The alliance decided not to 
‘ launch air raids after the Serbs 
heeded a 0001 GMT deadline for 
-withdrawal of arms from 20 kilo- 
meters ( 12 5 miles) around the cen- 
ter of Gorazde. 

Heavy weapons covered by the 
_ ban included tanks, artillery pieces, 
mortars, multiple rocket launchers, 
^missiles and anti-aircraft weapons, 
y . The alliance said it was watching 
to see if weapons withdrawn from 
- Gorazde were used to attack other 
Muslim areas. 

~ "This is not the end of the story.” 
said Field Marshal VincenL "There 
is always the risk that they will be 
employed elsewhere.” 

The* alliance has said it will de- 
clare similar 20 kilometer exclusion 
zones around four other sale areas 
— Tuzla, Zepa, Srebrenica and Bi- 
hac — if the Serbs threaten them 
with attack. 

“The message there is a simple 
one,” Field Marshal Vincent said. 
"These are the prohibited weapons 
systems. Get them out” 

A United Nations spokesman in 
Sarajevo reported a quiet night, 
with "all but one or two broken- 
down tanks and a damaged artil- 
lery piece still in the 20 kilometer 

The lieutenant general com- 
manding UN troops in Bosnia. Sir 
Michael Rose, said, "We are not 
going to have a major war with the 
Serbs for the sake of one broken- 
down tank which is on its way out” 

The NATO threat halted a three- 
week Serbian onslaught or Gor- 
azde, where UN aid agencies, bas- 
ing casualty figures on local 
sources, said 700 people were killed 
and almost 2.000 wounded. 

Ninety patient and II family 
members were airlifted to Sarajevo 
on Tuesday, bringing the total over 
three days" to 299. 

A convoy carrying emergency 

aid to restore water supplies de- 
stroyed by withdrawing Serbs 
reached Gorazde on Wednesday, 
aid officials said. 

The water situation in Gorazde 
is desperate,” an official said. ‘‘The 
population has no access lo an ade- 
quate supply of potable water, and 
die threat of an outbreak of epi- 
demics is growing daily.” 

Russia and France, meanwhile, 
agreed Wednesday that they want- 
ed a meeting soon of representa- 
tives of the major powers to push 
for an end to the Bosnian war. ^ 
Foreign Minister Andrei V. Ko- 
zyrev of Russia and Foreign Minis- 
ter Alain Juppe of France said 
there was momentum toward a set- 
tlement that could not be allowed 
to evaporate. 

“We cannot allow the occasion 
to slip away, and that is why we 
must exert political pressure for a 
consensus," Mr. Jupp& said. “We 
must not allow the situation to de- 
teriorate.” , .. 

Wednesday's talks followed dis- 
cussions Tuesday between Mr. Ko- 
zyrev and the U.S. secretary of 
state. Warren M. Christopher. 
They declared they would work 
with West European countries for a 
negotiated settlement. 

I Renters. API 

■ UN Reinforcements 
The UN Security Council on 
Wednesday approved the deploy- 
ment of an additional 6.500 troops 
lo reinforce the UN Protection 
Force in the former Yugoslavia. 
Agence France-Presse reported 
from New York. 

As China Looks On, 
U.S. Agrees to Sales 
Of Arms to Taiwan 

By Jim Mann 

Las Angela Tima Service 
WASHINGTON— The Clinton 
administration and Congress have 
privately reached an a g :ee ?“ t 
that will open the way for hundreds 
of millions of dollars of new Ameri- 
can arms sales to Taiwan. 
Although China normally op- 

— — MUJMIMW W — * — Roil 

A fighter-bomber taking off Wednesday from the U.S. carrier Saratoga in the Adriatic as part of the NATO operation in Bosnia. 

U.S. Envoy Scolds UN Aide for Bosnia Remarks 

ll 'usJttnghv i Past Service 

UNITED NATIONS. New York — Ambas- 
sador Madeleine K. Albright of Lhe United 
States has sharply criticized the top UN official 
in Bosnia, Yasushi Akashi, for saying the Clin-' 
ton administration is "somewhat afraid, timid 
and tentative” about sending U.S. troops there 
for peacekeeping. 

Calling Mr. Akashi's remarks in a New York 
Times interview "totally counterproductive," 

Mrs. Albright said: “International civil ser- 
vants should remember where their salaries are 
paid — by member states. They should not be 
even thinking of criticizing the policies of mem- 
ber states. Frankly. Tm tired of it,” 

■ UN officials were surprised by Mrs. Al- 
bright’s reaction, since Mr. Akashi was express- 
ing what is seen as common wisdom about the 
Clinton administration's reluctance to commit 
American soldiers to UN peacekeeping, espe- 

cially in Bosnia. But Mr. Akashi issued an 
apology, stressing his “positive estimate of the 
essential role of the United States in the United 

Mrs. Albright's rebuke Tuesday was de- 
signed to dispel any doubts about U.S. resolve 
as the deadline expires for the Bosnian Serbs to 
withdraw their artillery from Gorazde or face 
North Atlantic Treaty Organization air strikes. 
U.S. officials said. 



French Rights Groups Assail 
Park’s Use of African Labor 

Rights groups have harshly criticized a 
French safari park after it opened a recon- 
stituted African village, complete with 30 
Africans in traditional native dress. 

The park, at Port-Saint-Perein Brittany, 
had enlisted the dose cooperation of Ivory 
Coast authorities, who hope the village 
wilt lead to a much-needed rise in tourism. 
Six workers came from the Ivory Coast to 
build 25 thatched huts, modeled after vil- 
lages in the north of that country. Le 
Figaro reports. 

Each hut has its own craftsman, includ- 

ing weavers, pot makers, blacksmiths, tai- 
lors and a sculptor. Their works are sold, 
with part of the profits going to the work- 
man’s home village. There are also dancers 
and folk musicians — and an Ivory Coast 
tourism office. 

But the recent opening of the village 
brought criticism from many sides. An 
artists’ union demanded that French law 
on pay and working conditions be applied 
to the Africans. Anii-radsra and human 
rights groups complained of humans being 
“imported” into an animal park. One 
group spoke of the "exploitation of misery 
for the benefit of tourism based on voyeur- 

History adds fuel to the flames, Le Fi- 
garo notes. Ships from Brittany's ports 
were heavily involved in the slave trade in 
the 18th century. 

Around Europe 

The Dutch and Belgian navies plan to 
merge their headquarters to save money, a 

Dutch spokesman said Wednesday. The 
two wfll combine in Dea Holder, in the 
Netherlands, under command of a Dutch 
officer. The Dutch Navy plans to reduce 
the number of frigates from 22 to 16 by the 
year 2001, and to cut the number of sailors 
by a third. 

Sweden wants fathers to pay more atten- 
tion to their newborns. At present, the 
mother or father of a newborn has the 
right to a year's leave at 90 percent of 
normal salary, plus three months at 60 
kronor a day. Under the new law, either 
parent would receive 80 percent of normal 
salary for 10 months, followed by one 
month at 90 percent for the mother and 
one month at 90 percent for the father. If 
the father refuses, the 90 percent pay is 
lost. Last year, when either parent was tree 
to take part in the program, only 9 percent 
of fathers did so. 

Yes, traffic and air pollution have been 

getting worse in Paris. Traffic jams in the 
French capital are a third worse now than 
three years ago, authorities said this week, 
in announcing a new plan for pollution 

Under the three-level system of alerts, 
motorists will be asked —but not required 
— to leave their cars at home when pollu- 
tion is dangerously high. 

But environmentalists say Lhe system 
will do little good. Not only is the new 
approach optional, they note, but the 
warning levels are twice the European 

Overheard at the starting fine of the 
Paris Marathon on Sunday: 

“So, how did you train for this thing?” 
"Well. I’ve been taking Valium for the 
last three weeks.” 

Brian Knowhon 

m fact a compromise designed to 
prevent further strains in relations 
between the United States and Chi- 
na. It will leave in effect a 12-year- 
old communique between the two 
nations in which the United States 
promised gradual reductions in 
arms exports to Taiwan. 

Congress was moving to pass leg- 
islation that would have effectively 
scrapped the communique and re- 
moved limi ts on American arms 
sales to Taiwan. Under the com- 
promise, the communique remains 
on the books as a general under- 
standing, but Taiwan will be al- 
lowed to buy certain new weapons 

The secret negotiations between 
President BQ1 Clm ton’s administra- 
tion and Qmgress took place at a 
sensitive time for American rela- 
tions with China. The administra- 
tion must decide by June 3 whether 
to downgrade China's trade status 
with the United States if China 
does not improve its human- rights 
record. China has said any action 
against its trade status would 
prompt it to retaliate against Amer- 
ican companies. 

The matter took op “increased 
importance, almost to the point of 
frenzy,” because the decision on 
China's trade status was "so dose,” 
a congressional source said. 

China would have viewed over- 
turning the 1 982 arms communique 
as a serious affront and as tangible 
evidence that U.S.-Chinese rela- 
tions had changed. 

The episode also illustrates how 
governments and defense contrac- 
tors often negotiate in Washington 
over weapons sales. In this case, 
American companies won the right 
to export previously banned weap- 
ons systems to Taiwan by attract- 
ing support in Congress for a mea- 
sure directly challenging U.S. 
foreign policy. 

"1 am delighted that the Con- 
gress and the administration and 
the defense exporting community 
were able to resolve their differ- 
ences on tins issue to the satisfac- 
tion of all,” said Anna Stout exec- 
utive vice president of the 
American League for Exports and 
Security Assistance, a defense-in- 
dustry trade group. 

As a result of the negotiations, 

Mr. Clinton's administration will 
approve applications for American 
companies to sell Taiwan advanced 
military electronics for frigates that 
Taipei is buying from Frahice. $ 
These new items include radar, 
dectromccountOTQsasire systems 
and “the entire electronic combat 
suite,” a U.S. defense-industry offi- 
cial said, describing that as every- 
thing that turns a frigate “into a 

Such American companies as 
Litton Industries Inc. and Rayth- 
eon Co. had sought licenses to sell 
this high-technology military 
equipment to Taiwan for almost 
two years but had been turned 

At issue between the administra- 
tion and Congress was a provision 
sponsored by Senator Frank Min- 
kowski, Republican of Alaska, with 
the strong support of the league 
for Exports and Security Assis- 

The provision, which would have 
removed limits on American arms 
sales to Taiwan, was attached to a 
State Department authorization 
bill that was unanimously ap- 
proved last year by the Senate For- 
eign Relations Committee and 
passed the Senate by voice vote 
early this year. Top-level adminis- 
tration officials then launched an 
intensive campaign to derail the 
measure in a Senate-House confer- 

The president’s national security 
adviser, W. Anthony Lake, met pri- 
vately with Senator Murkowrid, 
while Deputy Secretaiy of State* 
Strobe Talbott wrote Congress to 
threaten a presidential veto, and 
Assistant Secretary of State Win- 
ston Lord lobbied to line up sup- 
port for the adminis tration in Con- 

China's ambassador to the Unit- 
ed States, Li Daoyn, also worked 
actively against the measure, Capi- 
tol Hfll sources said. 

In the end. Congress agreed to 
water down Senator MurkowskTs 
amendment and to limit its effect. 

In exchange, the administration 
said it would supply a private letter 
from Secretary of Slate Warren M. 
Christopher reaffirming American 
policy toward Taiwan and would 
approve certain applications for 
U.S. arms exports to Taiwan. 

■ French Deal Reported 

Taiwan's Defense Minisuy said 
France had agreed to sell it 1,440 
missiles and other military equip- 
ment in the aftermath of their Mi- 
rage 2000-5 fighter-jet deal Agence 
France-Presse reported from Tai- 

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Page 7 






mor Still Resists 

By William Branigin 

f,,„ t >StTVlt ^ 

DJLI. Eu„t Timur — Dominnus 
^"J- a 28-vear-old political pm- 
oner. began shouting in Portuguese 

jj.® 8rou P ° r Visitors entered the 
pnson counvard. 

,-uif " S 6851 Timor!" he 
^’] ed Portuguese as prison offi- 
cials med to hustle him away from 
two dozen visit, ng reporters. He 
and another political detainee 
A/onso Rangd, held their ground 
and managed to speak briefly 
complaining of torture, before In- 
donesian authorities ended the im- 
promptu interview. 

"Adc the world not to forget the 
people of East Timor who have 
been suffering for 20 years!" Mr. 

Rangdf shomed guar* dr:lgj;cJ 

The incident on April 15 at Bc- 
enra Prison in this former Portu- 
guese colony, which Indonesia 
seized ui December 1*175. came 
during a rare govemmeni-orga- 
nized press tuur aimed ul showing 
economic progress in East Timor 
under Indonesian administration. 

The visit also showed, however, 
that 1 8 years after Jakarta formally 
annexed the eastern half of Timor 
Island many East Timorese still 
have not been assimilated into In- 
donesia and that “integration," as 
the government calls its takeover 
policy, has largely failed. 

Instead, a new generation bom 
since the mid-1970s turmoil ap- 

JAPAN; Staring at a Stalemate 

Continued from Page 1 
Tor producing a markei-openine 
package to present to Washington*: 

It will be an extremelv weak 
administration” Makoto Tanabe 
a farmer chairman of the Socialist 
Party and a member of its more 
"“derate wing, said in an inter- 
view. “Hata won't be able to deal 
with any important items on his 
political agenda.” 

At least on the surface, the par- 
ties underwent a day of bizarre 
maneuvering* Wednesday, under- 
scoring the state or flux 'in which 
Japanese politics landed after 38 
years of government by the conser- 
vatives known as the Liberal Dem- 
ocratic Party ended last summer. 

The Socialists were wooed ar- 
dently by Mr. Ha la, who reported- 
ly told nis allies: “It is indispens- 
able for us to maintain unity with 
the Socialists. 1 will do my utmost 
to bring the party back into the 

The Socialists, however, insisted 
that the rightist policies and au- 
thoritarian methods of Mr. Hata's 
key strategist. Ichiro Ozawa, made 
such a reunion impossible. 

But no sooner had the Socialists 
defined this position than they met 
and agreed to work closely with the 
Liberal Democrats. It uas an un- 
convincing alliance, but it under- 
scored the bitterness of the rift. 

"This is a case of ‘my enemy's 
enemy is my friend.' ” said Asahiko 
Mihara, a member of another con- 

servative party that is estranged 
from Mr. Ozawa. “That's aJJ their 
strategy is." 

Even if Mr. Hata. who is known 
as a conciliator, manages to lure the 
Socialists back with promises of 
important cabinet posts, few* expect 
that such a marriage of conve- 
nience could last. H anything, the 
ideological divide in the parliament 
is growing more pronounced. 

“Under the previous coalition 
government, the biggest party was 
the Socialists, and they had a lot of 
influence,” said Koji Kakizawa, 
who helped form the conservative 
group within the governing coali- 
tion that angered the Socialists this 

“If we hadn’t formed this new 
group. Mr. Hata would have had to 
accept some erf the Socialists* ideas. 
Our aim was to lake the lead over 
the Socialists in the parliament be- 
cause our differences are so wide." 

He cast the coming battle in 
black-and-white terms. 

“A liberal society is based on the 
idea of a sense of order and a sense 
of individual responsibility.” Mr. 
Kakizawa said. "The Japanese had 
forgotten how to be responsible. 
They had gotten used to this pater- 
nalistic government, and we want 
to change that.” 

He explained that that meant 
smaller government, deregulation, 
the devolution of power to regional 
and local governments and a belief 
in Japanese involvement in collec- 
tive-security arrangements. 

HARRIMAN: New Biography 

Continued from Page 1 

lovers, along with a handful of bil- 
ler wives and unhappy stepchil- 

Mrs. Harriman emerges as a fo- 
cused, ambitious woman, some- 
body who always runs with the in- 
crowd. finds the eye or the storm 
and the most handsome, richest 
man wherever she goes. In London 
during the war. she consorted with 
generals and diplomats. In Paris, 
she spent her days with poets, art- 
ists and jet-setting Mediterraneans. 
In New York, married to the pro- 
ducer Leland Hayward, she be- 
came a pan of the’ Broadway elite. 
In Hollywood, she became in- 
volved with Frank Sinatra. 

How did she do it? How did she 
attract all those fabulous guys? 

“Focus.” says Mr. Ogden. “To 
make that man. at that particular 
moment, think he’s the greatest 
thing to happen since the conver- 
gence or the planets.” 

But Mrs. Harriman has also, he 
says, been greatly disappointed by 

“Randolph was a disaster, hard- 
ly a pleasant experience." He says. 
“He proposed to eight women in 
the two weeks before he asked 
Pamela; he strictly wanted to leave 
an heir before going off to war. At 
21. she started an affair with Aver- 
ell Harriman, but he left her. She 
picked up with Paley and Whitney 

and the generals — she wasn't 
faithful to Harriman — and then 
picked up with Ed Murrow. who 
promised twice to leave his wife for 
her and never did ” 

“She left for America says Mr. 
Ogden, “when it became clear that 
the men in Europe weren’t going to 
marry her.” 

After Mr. Hayward died, she re- 
sumed her wartime affair with the 
now-widowed Mr. Harriman and 
was soon engaged. And after Mr. 
Harriman died in 1986, Pamela had 
a face lift, lost weight and began a 
relationship, not just a friendship. 
Mr. Ogden writes, with a younger 
man; J. Carter Brown, then direc- 
tor of the National Gallery of Art. 

Mr. Ogden expects criticism that 
he has been unfairly interested in 
Mrs, Harri man’s sex life, presum- 
ably because she is a woman. 

“Authorized or unauthorized, 
it's really an extraordinary success 
story," he says. “If this were about 
a man traveling in the league she's 
in. the political big league, a biogra- 
phy would indude a thorough dis- 
cussion of a man's social life. We 
have written about the personal 
lives of John Kennedy and Richard 
Nixon, of Harry Truman and 
Theodore Roosevelt. I treat her 
fairly, and just the way 1 would any 


serious public figures.' To 

omit it is to treat her like some '50s 

Queen Zein of Jordan, 80, 
Mother of King, Is Buried 

The AsvKtauJ 

lMMAN. Iordan .— Q**? 
n al Sharaf was buned Wednesr 
at the royal cemetery in an 
dal ceremony led by her eldest 
, King Hussein. 

Tie queen mother died Tuesday 
heart failure in a hospital in 
isanne. Switzerland. She was 80 

toyfffamily members, Muslim 
gvmen, army and government 
cials and foreign envoys attend- 
ee funeral in the royal com- 
rnd that houses 12 palaces. 

Uns Hussein. 58. appeared ured 
ie and his brother. Crown Prince 
ssan. shook hands with people 
ing condolences^ 

The queen's coffin was plaad on 
a gun carriage and escorted by roy- 
al guards, army officers and a mili- 
tary band from her Raghdan Pal- 
ace to the cemetery, "here her 
husband and King Hussein’s third 
wife. Queen Alia, are buried. 

The ceremony was broadcast on 
stale television and radio, and flags 
in the kingdom flew at half-staff. 

King Hussain had been in Lon- 
don when his mother died. He ac- 
companied her body home on 
Tuesday night. 

Queen Zein married King Talal 
in 1934 and was the mother of four 
children: King Hussein. Prince 
Mohammed, Prince Hassan and 
Princess Basma. 



75 minute* from PARIS 

hursdav 28, Friday 29 and Saturday 30 April 

:hemin de ter" tournament 

Tirogo LIBRE 

//■: ill'll (IS 

12 Kt.ult’lK- Tablet 
12 Hl.n kj.ick \'Mc< 

Restaurant Le Baccara 

|ft*.Trnlfc«iK: IH 

pears to reject Indonesian rule, al- 
though it has known nothing else. 
Even supporters of integration are 
chafing under what they say is a 
continuing Indonesian military oc- 
cupation in which the army has a 
hand in evervihing from adminis- 
tration and development to an ex- 
port monopoly for coffee. East Ti- 
mor’s only cadi crop. 

“We are victims of our own suc- 
cess.” Indonesian Foreign Minister 
Ali Alatas said in Jakarta. He said 
Indonesia bad built more roads, 
bridges, schools and clinics here 
than Portugal did during its entire 
465 years of colonial rule. Bui the 
program has also raised aspirations 
and produced many more high 
school graduates than there are 
jobs for them. 

This tiny, predominantly Roman 
Catholic enclave of 800.000 people 
festers tike a chronic sore in the 
world's largest Muslim country. 

Indonesia is chairman of the 
Nonatigned Movement and aspires 
to Third World leadership. But the 
annexation erf East Timor has never 
been recognized by the United Na- 
tions. and it remains a perennial 
human-rights issue because of a 
history of abuses and massacres by 
the Indonesian army. 

Portugal abandoned the impov- 
erished territory in 1975 when its 
decolonization policy touched off a 
civil war in East Timor. The leftist 
party known as Fretilin emerged 
victorious and proclaimed inde- 
pendence on Nov. 28. 1975. Indo- 
nesia, fearing a Marxist foothold in 
its midst, promptly invaded East 
Timor, formally annexing it in July 

1976. The western half of the island 
had long been Indonesian. 

According to human-right?, 
groups, more than 100.000 East Ti- 
morese. a sixth of the population, 
died during the takeover and u sub- 
sequent famine. Jakarta disputes 
that figure, saying the deaths to- 
taled around 30.000. 

Although Indonesia says Fretilin 
murdered numerous opponents, 
human-rights groups blame most 
of the killings in East Timor on the 

lie United Nations has called 
for a referendum on self-determi- 
nation in East Timor, but Indone- 
sia insists that “integration" is irre- 
versible. Jakarta's fear, diplomats 
say. is that independence here 
would set a dangerous precedent 
for the rest o[ the ethnically dispa- 
rate archipelago. 

“We will never do a referendum 
in East Timor,” said Vemflo Ver- 

dial, a government-appointed dis- 
trict chief. “A referendum will dis- 
turb the minds of the people.” 

According to ihe Indonesian 
military commander in East Timor. 
Colonel Johnny Lu min tang, Freti- 
lin now fields only about 200 guer- 
rillas with 100 or so weapons 
among them. Encounters between 
soldiers and guerrillas average one 
a month, and only two soldiers 
have been killed since September 
1993, he said. A village chief was 
reported killed by Fretilin in Feb- 

“The problem is that this 200 is 
noi the remnant but the nucleus.” 
Colonel Luntintang said. “1 think 
they will fight until they die.” 

BRUSSELS: An EU Candidate 

* «■!-. L'-ui. F'Ut.. i*K ■ *• 

John Major, left, and Helmut Kohl joviaih taking questions at a 
news conference in London after U.KL-German talks W ednesday. 

Continued from Page 1 

would accept." Mr. Crossick said. 

Prime Minister John Major of 
Britain would dearly prefer Sir 
Leon or Mr. Lubbers, who share 
his concern about the centraliza- 
tion of power in Brussels. But he 
would have a bard time opposing a 
determined French-German cam- 
paign on behalf of Mr. Dehaene; 
analysis say. 

In addition, his reputation as a 
pragmatist who has allowed con- 
siderable powers to be handed 
down to Belgium’s three regions — 
French-speaking Wallonia, Flem- 
ish-speaking Flanders and the bi- 
al Brussels area — could help 
: him acceptable to skeptics in 

Britain and elsewhere. 

“He doesn’t have an agenda of 
his own except for solving prob- 
lems,” said the Belgian analyst, 
who asked not to be identified. 

StilL Mr. Dehaene’s sudden as- 
cendance Is a cause of some sur- 
prise at home. Support for each of 
the three parties in nis coalition has 
tumbled, and the gruff prime min- 
ister whose face seems ready to 
burst the confines of his thick glass- 
es is popular mainly with caricatur- 

Mr. Dehaene. 53, has always 
worked best out of the limelight. 
He dim bed up the ranks of the 
Flemish Christian Democratic Par- 
ty to become chief of cabinet to 
ihen-Prirae Minister Wilfried Mar- 
tens in 1979, then achieved the rare 
feat of entering the cabinet as min- 
ister of social affairs without hold- 
ing a seat in the parliament. 

After Mr. Martens lost the elec- 

tion in November 1991 and four 
other potential leaders failed to 
form a governmaL Mr. Dehaene 
showed his negotiating skills over 
106 days of patching together a 
coalition of centrists and liberals. 

He then concluded a 30-yeor- 
Jong Belgian constitutional debate 
by pushing through measures that 
transferred power over most policy 
areas other than defense, foreign 
policy and national finance to the 
regional governments of Flanders, 
Wallonia and Brussels. 

“On many tricky problems, De- 
haene has the win and the capabili- 
ty to readi an agreement and a 
compromise,” a Belgian official 

That ability has been so rare in 
Belgium recently that many say the 
government would be likely to fall 
3 he left to take the EU job. 

The Belgian official said, howev- 
er, that Mr. Dehaene had created 
enemies with his brusqueness, par- 
ticularly in the media. 

Others say his compromises have 
tended to mask rather than solve 
problems. The government’s bud- 
get and economic plan last year, for 
example, did little to reduce one of 
Europe’s worst national debts. 

Central Danube Reopens 

The Associated Pros 

GABCIKOVO, Slovakia — 
Shipping traffic resumed Wednes-’ 
day on the busy central Danube 
River after a six-week halt caused 
by the sinking of a Ukrainian tug 
and an unexplained explosion. 




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Cut-Rate Moon Trip 

A Glimpse Into NASA’s Future? 

By John Noble Wilford 

New York Times Semee 

A lexandria, Virginia — outside 

the nondescript brick building on a 
street like many others, life was ele- 
mentally terrestrial. People hurried 
in and out of a post office around the corner. A 
yellow school bus brought children home. Two 
little boys played in a yard, where a wash dried 
on the line. 

inside, in a small, darkened room, a few men 
and -women sat at computer consoles and 
watched scenes from another world. One after 
another in rapid succession, pictures of the 
moon, gray vistas of lifeless plains and yawning 
craters, appeared on the wall screen. 

The spacecraft Gemeniine was reporting 
home last week, as it has since it went into lunar 
orbit in February, sending (be first dose-up 
pictures of the moon in more than two decades. 

It is entirely in character for this modest 
mission or space exploration to be conducted in 
such ordinary circumstances, only a few red 
bricks away from the mundane. It is reminis* 
cent, too. of the scrambling, makeshift early 
days of space flight before elaborate control 
rooms surrounded by acres of office buildings 
and design laboratories come into being to run 
bi I lion-doll ar missions sometimes taking a de- 
cade to get off the ground. 

In many ways, in concept and execution, in 
its swaggering assault on business as usual, the 
$80 million Clementine mission, a joint mili- 

S civilian venture, is a glimpse of the past 
perhaps, into the future. 

Its success is forcing space officials and scien- 
tists to temper their ardor for the big and expen- 
sive and thmk seriously about how to maintain a 
vigorous program of exploration with smaller, 
simpler and less expensive spacecraft. 

From a glass booth off the control room. 
Lieutenant Colonel Pedro R us tan of ihe air 
force, the program manager, looked at the latest 
lunar pictures with satisfaction. “It's working 
like a charm, and we were on rime, on schedule 
and on budget.” he said. 

The 500-pound (226- kilogram) spacecraft less 
than four feet ( 1 2 meters) wide and slightly more 
than six feet long, was hunched without fanfare 
on Jan. 25 and went into lunar orbit on Feb. 19. 

The last time an American craft orbited the 
moou was in December 1972, when the Apollo 
17 astronauts took the last walk on the lunar 
surface. The last Russian mission was in August 
1976, when the unmann ed Luna 24 landed on 
the moon, scooped up rock samples and re- 
turned them to earth. 

Last Friday. Clementine's miniaturized cam- 
eras finished taking mapping pictures of the 
entire moon. Traveling around the moon at its 

poles, coming as dose as 250 miles to the 
surface, the spacecraft was able to photograph 
many regions seldom surveyed, and never in 
such detail. The spacecraft took, recorded and 
[hen transmitted more than 5.000 pictures on 
each five-hour orbit 

In one of the more aesthetically appealing 
pictures, the planets Mercury, Venus and Sat- 
urn can be seen as tiny globes in a line across 
the darkness of space, with the brooding moon 
in the foreground. 

Upstairs from the control room. Dr. Eugene 
M. Shoemaker, Clementine's chief scientist and 
a planetary geologist assigned to the project by 
tin National Aeronautics and Space Adminis- 
tration, pored over the mosaics of pictures of 
lunar craters. The cameras, operating in differ- 
ent wavelengths and with an assortment of 
filters, were revealing sedimentary layers in the 
crater walls, he said, showing that the crust is 
not nearly as vertically homogenous as had 
been thought. 

“It’s beautiful stuff,” said Dr. Shoemaker, 
who had spent much of his career analyzing 

What the Mind Loses as It Ages 

Different mental capacities decline at varying rates as people age, a 35- 
year study of 5,000 men and women found. The study also found tnai 
people who are more mentally active have slower rates of decline. 

30 i 
AGE 25 

•• ' .. ' • i 


AGE 25 

Let- pc,:.**;- ff yy' 

The mental abilities tracked here 
as standardized test scores are: 

Spatial orientation 
For example, being able to 
tell from a map when to turn 
left or right when you get to 
a highway. 

Inductive reasoning 
Finding the gukfing roles of 
thumb to mate a decision, 
like where a given number 
goes on an Income tax form, 
or what toe best bus to take 
is from reading a timetable. 
Verbal meaning 
Understanding what a word 
or sentence means. 

Word fluency How readily 
you can think of s-wonJ and 
how many you have in your 

Number skill The ability 
to use numbers In simple 
arithmetic, like addition or 

(ions that preceded (he Apollo landings. “Basi- 
cally, we will redo the geology of the moon.” 

Because one of the mission's scientific objec- 
tives is io prospect the mineral content of the 
moon, the spacecraft was given the nam e Cle- 
mentine, after the miner’s darling daughter in 
the old Gold Rush ballad. 

Details of dark, deep craters at the polar 
regions were photographed for the first time. 
Several rimes the spacecraft transmitted special 
radio signals into the polar crater depths. The 
signals were deflected and received by ant ennas 
on earth. Analysis of (be modified' signals is 
under way to see if they reveal the presence of 
any ice at the lunar poles. 

New Theories on Memory Loss 

By Daniel Goleman 

New York Times Service 

O N May 3. Gementine’s rocket is to 
be fired to depart lunar orbit and 
head for a rendezvous at the end of 
August with a small asteroid. 1620 
Geograpbos. On the way, the craft should be 
able to observe Jupiter as it is being struck by a 
duster of cometary fragments in July, if fuel 
reserves remain high, said Dr. Donald M. Horan, 
a scientist for the Naval Research Laboratory, 
which built the craft, Clementine could continue 
to another asteroid rendezvous in October 1995. 
After that, Clemen line would be “lost and gpne 
forever.” another reason for its name. 

But Gementine's influence on future space 
Operations could be more enduring. The mis- 
sion, Colonel Rustan said, “is demonstrating 
every day that the cheaper, faster, belter ap- 
proach can pay off when it is applied to a small, 
well-managed project.” 



EW YORK — She was 69, and still 
active as a professor at Harvard Uni- 
versity. But, she told a research team 
there, she bad begun lofmdithardto 
recall the names of newer faculty members, and 
not long ago forgot her classroom number when 
asking for a slide projector to be set up. 

She had one question for the research team, 
assembled to study the normal course of mental 
aging: “Am I losing itf” 

That question is the principal focus of a new 
wave of scientific inquiry on the decline in 
mental ability with age. The findings are chal- 
lenging some basic assumptions, like the belief 
that such decline is a natural pan of the aging 
process, irrespective of general health. 

From 20 to 30 percent of people in their 80s 
who volunteer for cognitive testing perform as 
well as volunteers in their 30s and 40s, who are 
presumably in their mental prime. 

The intellectual and creative productivity in 
later life of such figures as Martha Graham and 

us Pablo Picasso and more recently of George 

Earth over north lunar pole, a com- Abbott, wjoat 106 hdped plan the Broadway 
, , X, . revival ofTTanm Yankees, may represent not 

posite photo taken by Clementine. 


War on Parasitic Worms 

WASHINGTON (WP) — The parasitic 
worms that infect about 500 million school-age 
children in developing countries, swelling bel- 
lies grotesquely and stunting physical and roen- 
Lal growth, are the target of a new campaign by 
international health officials. Instead of treat- 
ing infected children individually with anti- 
worm drugs, workers plan to medicate entire 
school populations in bard-hit areas of Africa. 
Asia and South America. As a result, they hope 
not only to relieve suffering but to prevent the 
subtle but widespread damage to mental ability 
that is believed to result from worm infections. 

“For most of these children, these few years 
of primary schooling are ail the formal eduction 
they will get. If their mental abilities are ham- 
pered. they can't take full advantage.” said 
D.A.P. Bundy, an Oxford University epidemi- 
ologist who runs the new program, called Part- 
nership for Child Development. 

The program is supported by the World 

Health Organization, the United Nations De- 
velopment Program and three American foun- 

genetically altered in many other experiments. 
He said it would be unethical to try the method 
on humans. 

Human Antibodies and Mice 

LONDON (Reuters) — American research- 
ers report they have engineered mice that can 
grow antibodies identical to those in humans. 
The antibodies could be used against diseases 
such as rheumatoid arthritis and to help organ 
transplant patients, the researchers said. 

Another Plus for Estrogen 

CHICAGO (AP) — Estrogen counters the 
bone rhinning associated with high-dose thy-, 
raid hormone therapy in women over 50. re- 
searchers report in The Journal of the American' 
Medical Association. Smaller studies previous- 

so mud) an exception as an ideal some experts 
now are saying. 

Dr. K. Warner Schaie, a psychologist at 
Pennsylvania State University, i$ the director of 
a major study of normal mental decline in the 
elderly. For more than 35 years, his study has 
been following more than 5,000 men and wom- 
en who have been tested regularly. 

Dr. Schaie’s research seeks to fill a gap in. 
research, which, another geronotologist, Dr. 
Jack Rowe. said, “has focused on disease and 
disability, and neglected the prospects of main- 
taining nigh functioning in old age.” 

. Dr. Rowe is the president of the Mount Sinai 
School of Medicine in New York City and 

heads a research network on successful aging 
sponsored by the MacArthur Foundation. 

Gerontolologists have focused on “the 6 to 
15 percent of the elderly who are frail and then 
lumped everyone else as ‘normal’” he said. 
“But there is a huge variation from person to 
person among older people: the older a group 
gets, the less like ^ph outer they become." 

Dr. Schaie’s study looks at three key areas of 
mental ability: spatial skills involved in. say, 
assembling a piece of furniture from printed 
directions; inductive reasoning used to read a 
bus timetable; and verbal fluency that deter- 
mines bow readily you can think of a word. 

Dr. Schaie’s most recent findings were re- 
ported this month in The American Psycholo- 
gist Although the study’s results show that on 
average, the decline in these basic mental abili- 
ties begins gradually in the middle to late 60s 
and accelerates in the late 70s, the rate of 
decline differs for various mental faculties and 
differs in men and women. 

The sharpest declines are seen in basic math- 
ematics. By their late 80s. both men and women 
were only about half as adept in base math as 
they had been in their 50s. 

For men, the least decline shown is in spatial 
orientation, used, for example, in reading a map 
correctly. By the late 80s, it bad dropped by 
only about one-eighth on average. 

sponsored by the Charles A. Dana Foundation, 
has found that different kindsqf memory differ 
in their vulnerability to aging. 

“Crys talked” memory, vocabulaty or other 
knowledge accumulated over the years “holds 
up very well into old age,” he said. 

But “fluid” memory, the ability to add new 
information to memory or to retail something 
that happened recently, is more prone to de- 
cline, beginning in the 60s. He found little 
decline in very short-term memory, like remem- 
bering a telephone number just looked up. 

A pair of Harvard psychologists, Douglas 
Powell and Kean Whitia, have designed a com- 
puterized test of mental skills tike long- and 

short-term memory, attention, reasoning and 
calculation: they reported the test in the Febru- 

calculation; they reported the test in the Febru- 
ary issue of Current Directions in Psychological 

They are the researchers whom the 69-year- 
old professor asked whether she was “losing it" 
Their test compares a person ’s score with norms 
for others the same age, for people who are still 
in middle age and for outers in their own 
professional group. 

R. SCHAIE’S study has found cer- 
tain predictors for good menial func- 
tion m old age. These include a high 
level of ability in reading compre- 
hension or verbal fluency, a successful career or 

For women, the most enduring mental doll is. some other active involvement through life and 

inductive reasoning, assessin g the information 
in a timetable, for instance. As women reached 
their late 80s. it had dropped just over one- 
eighth from its height in middle age. 

One of the drastic declines for women proved 
to be in verbal comprehension; while that abili- 
ty dropped relatively little into the 70s, it plum- 
meted by about one-quarter during the 80s. For 
men. the decline was slight in those years. 

Another study, this one by Dr. Richard 
Mohs, a psychologist at Mount Sinai Medical 
School who is the acting director of a research 
consortium on normal memory loss and aging 

continuing keen mental interests after retire- 
ment Having a flexible attitude in middle age 
was also a promising indicator. 

“There is less mental decline in people who 
adapt easily to change, who like learning new 
thing s and enjoy going to new places.” Dr. 
Schaie said. 

The study also found (hat amply living with 
someone with these characteristics is beneficial. 

“It helps to have a high-functioning spouse, 
since This is your major, immediate social envi- 
ronment and support," Dr. Schaie said. “You 
benefit cogmtivety.” 

In a report in the science journal Nature the 
scientists, working at California genetics com- 
pany GenPhaim International said the anti- 
bodies could be targeted against specific human 
antigens — foreign substances that usually trig- 
ger an immune response. 

“We feel this is a ... significant break- 
through,” said Dr. Robert Kay. one of the au- 
thors of the report. He said mire were perfect for 
the technique because they have already been 

ly reported the link between thyroid hormone 
therapy and bone thinning, which puts women 
at greater risk of fractures. Dr. Diane L. 
Schneider of the Univeisity of California-San 
Diego directed the research team. 

This study of nearly 1,000 women is the first to 
find that women who took both estrogen and 
thyroid hormones had bones as healthy as if they 
had never received thyroid hormones, said Dr. 
David S. Cooper, director of endocrinology at 
Sinai Hospital of Baltimore and co-director of 
the Thyroid Clinic at Johns Hopkins HospitaL 

Mental Decline and High Blood Pressure 

New York Times Semcc “The longer you have high blood 

EW YORK — For the pressure, the worse the decline, es- 
elderly, chronic high perially on tests of short-term 
blood pressure over the memory and attention," said Dr. 
course of several years Merrill Elias, a psychologist at the 
can lead to mental decline beyond University of Maine who reported 

was elevated, the greater their neu- 
rological impairment. 

Dr. Elias suggests that hyperten- 
sion may result in some sort of 

Each rise of 20 r mHirn eten; of brain injury. Research with ani- 
mercury in diastolic blood pressure mals shows that chronic high blood 

that caused by the natural course of the results at the meeting of the 

aging, researchers have found. 



A Memoir of Food* France 
and America 


They called me Pierre Le Gour- mously, in I960. (Franey doesn’t di- 
man d. and very early on they said l reedy explain the split: it seems to 

By Pierre Franey with Richard 
Flaste and Bryan Miller. 259 
pages. $25. Knopf. 

Reviewed by Judith Moore 

L AST year when the final in- 
stallment of Pierre Franey's 

“60-Minute Gourmet" appeared in 
The New York Times. I ripped out 
the column. During the 17 years 
that Franey’s weekly dispatch ap- 
peared on Wednesday. I often tore 
out his recipes for meals that could 
be prepared in less than an hour. 
Across America on Wednesdays, 
tearing newsprint surely was not 
uncommon, nor on any day was 
consulting one of Franey’s 1 2 cook- 
books or tuning in to his several 
cooking series on public television. 

• Gareth Evans, the foreign min- 
ister of Australia, has just read 
"China: The Next Economic Super- 
power " by William H. Overholt. 

“He’s pretty rough on Hong 
Kong Governor Chris Patten’s 
electoral reform proposals, but it's 
a fascinating, intriguing and plausi- 
ble read." 

f Kevin Murphy. IHT) 

was bound to be a chef one day.” have been a dash of higb-strung 

When Franey turned 14, a wine .artists.) Franey writes, “I never 
merchant unde arranged an ap- spoke with Soule after we broke up. 

premiccship for Franey with one of which caused toe great pain." He 
his Paris customers, the owner of a recalls that, shortly before Soule's 

small brasserie. For a year Franey death in 1966. they saw each other 
worked six davs a week without on Fifth Avenue. “Mr. Soule!” 

pay. scraping vegetables, missing Franey shouted repeatedly. Senile 
poultry, clarifying stock for con- kept nis eyes fixed on the sidewalk. 

Society for Behavioral Medicine in 
Boston this month. 

Older people with high diastolic 
blood pressure readings — above 
90 for the lower of the two readings 
— had the greatest decline in mem- 
ory and in fluid intelligence, mental 
tasks involving short-term memo- 
ry. according to a report at the 
meeting by Dr. Michael Robbins, 
co-autbor on the paper. 

In another study, in which peo- 
ple were tested regularly for 15 
years. Dr. Elias also found that the 
longer a person’s blood pressure 

was associated with a drop of about 
a quarter of a standard deviation 
on tests of some kinds of memory, 
including the ability to recall some- 
thing just read. That amounts to 2 
or 3 points on an intefl/gence scale 
where 100 is average. 

The negative impact of hyperten- 
sion on mental abilities develops 
over the couree of several years. 
Although Dr. Elias’s study noted a 
drop after five years, the difference 
did not become especially notable 
until later. 

pressure makes the oxygen supply 
to the brain less efficient. 

When sustained over many 
years, hypertension also leads to 
small lesions throughout ihe brain, 
Elias said, “speeding up arterio- 
sclerosis in the small arteries of the 
brain.” He added, “You see small 
areas of microscopic tissue dam- 
age, which can hamper cerebral 
blood flow.” 

The results are another reason, 
apart from the increased risk of 

“At 10 years.” he said, “you start disease or stroke, for people 

to see larger drops and after 15 wi* high blood pressure to treat it 

years, they are much more pro- 
nounced, especially for memory.” 

Daniel Goleman 

somme. sieving fish for mousse de Franey walked alongside his old 

poisson and scrubbing stoves. friend for a block, demanding. “Mr. 

Franey moved on to Restaurant Soule, look at me! Look at me! It’s 
Drouam. The kitchen was arranged Pierre!” Soule did not respond. 

in the classic manner. The head In 1959. the New York Times 

chef supervised sous-chefs. who in restaurant reviewer Craig Uai- 
lurn supervised various stations: borne and Franey became friends. 

But even the laziest of us also read 
“60-Minute Gourmet” for inspira- 
tion. Franey's June 25. 1980, col- 

itis birthplace. Saim-Vuinemer. a 
village in the hills of Burgundy. 

“If I can tell you about my child- 

sauce. roasting, fish, vegetables. Franey. by then a Howard John- 
During his three years with son's vice president, became “a sort 

umn, saved between food -splattered hood close to the soil in St. Vjnne- 
pages in my 10th edition of “The Joy mer ... I believe it will explain 

Drouam, Franey made the rounds of silent partner in [Gaiborne's] 

of all the stations. restaurant reviewing," and the two 

in 1939. Monsieur Drouam mus- men cooked together to prepare 
tered a team to cook at the French dishes for Gaiborne’s stories. By 

restaurant revie 

and the two 

of Cooking,” suggested a pasta so much, not just about how one 
sauce made from clams, tomatoes, cook made his way. but also about 

I'd guess that, like me. many that column on to add tomato and 
Franey fans rarely tied on an apron an occasional vegetable, 
and prepared meal s Franey pro- The column's opening paragraphs 
posed. We turned to him for the were notable for their intimate 
pleasure of reading, say, about the charm, as is Franey’s “A Chefs 
pot-au-feu his mother served on Tale: A Memoir of Food. France 
Saturday nights. Mouths watering, and America,” the text written with 
we headed into the kitchen and Richard Flaste and recipes with (he 
microwaved last night’s takeout restaurant critic Bryan Miller. The 
pizza. With merely the thought of memoir (with |00 recipes linked to 
Franey's newest recipe, our nasty people and places in the book) 
little snack tasted better. opens with Franey’s recent visit to 

zucchini and basiL While I kept to deeply held values and standards in 
my dam sauce recipe. 1 began from cooking and how they came to be 

Pavilion at the New York World’s the late 1970s Franey and Gai- 
Fair. Franey was among those cho- borne’s friendship ended. 

that column on to add tomato and welcome and embraced in kitchens 

sen. Henri Soule, another Drouant Once Franey parts from Soule 

far beyond my rustic Burgundy." 

Franey was born in l92J. Hi> 
father was a blacksmith who occa- 
sionally served as village mayor, and 

employee, served as the French Pa- and Gaiborae, his memoir rapidly 
viiion’s maitre d‘. During the fair’s winds down. One can tum then to 

By Alan Truscott 

T HE diagramed deal was 
played in the final or the Van- 
derbilt Knockout Team Champi- 
onship io Cincinnati. 

The East player, Zia Mahmood, 
opened with one dub. and South 
was able to enter the fray with a 
takeout double. The bidding might 
have ended at three diamonds, but 
North invited with four diamonds, 
slightly optimistically, and South 

ten. West now threw the heart played m twe 
deuce. and the Zia-F 

Since it was dear that he had a tually won the 
wide choice of hearts to play, East 
read the message correctly: West's 
strength was mainly in spades, but * j 

he was not totally allergic to the ^ J 

dub suit South, in some difficulty, + 1 

now fed the spade ten. covered by vest 
the queen, king and ace. * q j 

East returned a spade, and West ^ 87532 

won with the jack and gave his 41075 

n»Hna# — rr Tv i « . y » * 0 

played m two beans, making 170. 
and the Zia- Rosen berg team even- 
tually won the match by one imp. 


♦ K82 

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V’ . ■ 

re \ 

The New York Times 

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ness in the k 

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two summers at Flushing Meadows, Franey’s recipes, for the bliss of 
writes Franey. thousands of Amcri- reading about his mother's way 

subsided. On a very good day the partner a heart ruff. The obvious 
North-South cards would make play was to cadi a club winner. 

five diamonds, but this was not insuring down one but Zia thought 

Tale: A Memoir of Food. France a dedicated fisherman who taught 

and America," the text written with his four sons to fish. Franey's mem- 

cans were exposed to French haute with coq au yin or about Bread and 
cuisine. In 1941 after the fair dosed. Butter Pudding Pavilkm, the favor- 

even an average day. 

back to the deuce of hearts. He 

Richard Flaste and recipes with the ones of his mother center on the 
restaurant critic Bryan Miller. The .kitchen, where he hung about “like a 

Soule moved most of his staff, in- itc, Franey confides, of the Duch- 
duding Franey, to Manhattan and ess of Windsor. 

The West player, Micbad Ro- therefore underled his dub honors, 
sen berg, made the eccentric lead of allowing Rosenberg to win the jack 

.L_ ft. _ — lin P .L ■ «„/4 Mh.n. L.- T . 

* A743 
32 V4 

OQB4 3 
*A KQ3 
♦ 10 9 8 S 

O A 10 7 3 2 

pleading pet, so that f could get to 
eat the scraps — the extra bits of 
baked dough, the excess cherries. 

opened Le Pavilion. By the early 

1950s Franey was Le Pavilion’s ex- 
ecutive did. 

the heart eight. When South won in and return another heart. Zia was 
dummy with the heart king and led able to overruff the dummy, for 

Judith Moore, an editor and writer 
for the San Diego Reader, wrote this 

Franey and Soule parted, acrimo- for The Washington Post. 

the diamond king. East discarded down two and a score of 200. 
the heart jack, again emphasizing Io the replay East opened one 
spades. But when the diamond six diamond, not one dab, and South 

Mina CnnlV and C.-in I kV L„. _r .L _ ■ ■- ... 

“7^8 io Win uiejacit Nonh and South were vulnerable. 

nd return another heart. Zia was Tbe bidding: 
ble to overruff the dummy, for E<lJ “ 500111 west North 

own two and a score of 200. j*L 2 o 2 N.T. 

In the replay East opened one Pais 30 pj* J “ 

was led to East’s nine and South’s was shut om of the bidding, West 

Pms Pass Pass 
West ted the Dean eight. 




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■■■ ,Af ■ / ch^exscutwe-/ • 


1* Where do you usually obtain your copies of the 
International Herald Tribune? 

subscription delivered to your home fTW 
subscription delivered to your office - personal subscription d 

- circulated copy d 
buy regularly from newsagent / newsstand Q 
buy occasionally from newsagent / newsstand Q 
friend or colleague’s copy j H 
airline / hotel copy Q 

2a. How often do you usually read or look at the IHT? 

5-6 days a week Q l-2daysaweek □« 

3-4 days a week Q Less often than once a week Q] 

2b. Where do you usually read or look at the IHT? 

(Please check all that apply) 

At home Q Traveling abroad Qua* 

At work Q Elsewhere [~71 

Traveling to and from work Q 

3a. Does your spouse/partner read your copy of the IHT? 

Yes C3 . ; No On 

3b. And how many people In total, excluding yourself, 
usually read your copy of the EHT? 

One d Three Q Five or more CU 

Two Q Four Q| No one else d 

4. How interested would you b e in r eading a lengthier, 
magazine-type article in the IHT? 

Very interested d Quite interested d Not very interested dtm 


5. Approximately how many business air trips did you 
make in the last 12 months? ( Count a round trip as one). 

None Q 3-5 □ 10-19 Q 35+ □ 

1-2 □ 6-9 □ 20-34 □ IF NONE ITS K1PTOQ8 

6. To which of the following destinations did you fly on 
business in the last 12 months? 


□<-«" USA GU Indonesia Q 

France d>l Canada 1 ;1 China — J 

Germany d Latin America d Australia Q 

Belgium / i — j 
Luxembourg LjJ( 

France Q 

Germany d 

Italy d 

Spain Q 

Switzerland dl 

Netherlands j~] 

Scandinavia i I I 
Finland L_al 

British Isles d 

Russia □, 

Hong Kong Q 
Singapore Q 
Japan Q 
Taiwan Q 
Thailand Q 
Malaysia Q 

.jo, Indonesia cl 
C hina dl 
Australia d 
New Zealand d 
Other Asia/Pacific d 




Other Eastern | — I Malaysia (J 

Europea n Countries I — il 

7a. For business trips, which class of air travel do you 

usually use? short JSul trips long-haul trips 
(TJp to four hours) (Over four hours) 

First Class dlizn □ mi 

Business Class Q d 

Economy d d 

No such trips (d d 

7b Do you belong to an airline’s executive/frequent 
‘ flier club? Yes d No ' □ * rsK,PTOQi< 

7c. If yes, which one(s) do you mainly use? 

(Please write in) 

- 2~ 3 ' — 

8. In the last 12 months, approximately how many nights 
have you spent in hotels on business? 

NoneQ 8-14 Q 30 - 49 G 75 or more dL 
1-7 d 15-29 □ 50-74 □ 

9. In the last 12 months, how many times have you rented a 
car (for business or personal reasons, at home or abroad)? 

Not rented d 3-6 rentals d) 1 5 rentals or more fdL 

I -2 rentals d 7 - 14 rentals Q 

10. Please Indicate whether you have done either of the 
following in the past 12 months: 


Flown in a privately chartered aeroplane d d tap* 

Used your company's private aeroplane Q d 

11a. Please indicate whether you own any of the following 
companies' calling cards, excluding pre-paid telephone 
cards. (Please check dll that apply) 

AT&T d MCI Q s P rint CL 

Other d Do not own one d^siuPTOQ.i 2 

lib. How many times, on your last business trip outside 
your own country, did you use your calling card? 

None d Twice d 6 - 9 times Q* 

Once d 3 - 5 times d 10 or more t™® 3 Cl 


12a. Of which country (or countries) are you a citizen? 

(Write in) £$ 

12b. In which country are you currently resident? (Write in) 



12c. For how long have you been living in your present 
country of residence? 

Less than 6 months d I - 2 years d 5- 10 years da 
6-12 months d 2-5yearsd 10 ° r S! d 

13. Are you? 

14. What is your age? 

Under 25 Q 
25-34 Q 

Male G Female G* 

35-44 Q 55-64 Gw, 
45 - 54 G 65 or over Q 

15. Wbat is the highest educational level you attained? 

Doctorate/ i — i University degree/ equivalent r — i 

higher university degree LJ professional qualification LaW 

MBA d Secondary or high school d 

16. Into which of the following groups does your pre-tax 
annual household income from all sources fall? 

(Check in US$ or write in \>our own currency) 

Up to US $50,000 Q $150,000 to $199,999 Q*, 

$50,000 to $74,999 G $200,000 to $249,999 Q 

$75,000 to $99,999 Q $250,000 to $499,999 G 

$100,000 to $149,999 G $500,000 or more G 

Or annual income in own currency (write in) 

17a. How many cars are there in your household, 
including any company cars? 

No card One d Two d Three or more 

17b. What do you estimate to be the current cost of your 
main car, if purchased new (to the same specification)? 

Under US 515,000 d 540,000 to under $75,000 dsn 

$ 15,000 to under S25,000 d 575,000 or more fTl 

$25,000 to under $40,000 Q 

18. Which, if any, of these cards do you use? 

(Please check as many as apply) 

Access/Eurocard/Mastercard (Gold) d C 

Access/Eurocard/Mastercard d Visa Go 
American Express Gold/Platinum d Visa/C 

American Express Green d N° 

Diners Club QL 
Visa Gold/Premier d 
Visa/Carte Bleue d 
None of these d 

19a. Which, if any, of the following types of investment do 
you or members of your household have? 

Stocks and Shares dm*. Life Assurance Policies dL 
Bonds d Derivative Products d 

Government Securities d 

Investment funds (including ( I 
Mutual Funds/Unit Trusts ) 

Private Pension Plans d 

Derivative Products d 

Gold/Precious Metals d 

Real Estate (excluding > — i 
main residence) Lii 
Collectibles (art, antiques, i — i 
coins, stamps, etc.) 

Other d 

19b. Wbat is the approximate total value of the above and 
any other investments (excluding your main home) 
owned by you and members of your household (in US $)? 

Under US $50,000 d 5500,000 to under 5 1 million dL 
$50,000 to under $ 1 00,000 Q 5 1 million to under $5 million d 
$ 1 00,000 to under $250,000 d us $5 or more d 
$250,000 to under $500,000 Q 

Please indicate which of these 
• chmitfa should bekeffijreni your 

' . . ■ ■ dollar donation: J 

Savethe Chddratf77^ Cross Q?t 
■ Woridwicb FuMl&r Nature [d V- Officer Researdt 



20. Are you . . . ? 

Working full-time d Student d Not in a paid occupation d.« 

Working part-time d Retired d Other d 

If you are not working full-time or part-time, please skip to bottom of page. 

21. What is the principal activity of the organisation for 

which you work? 

Primaiy/Public Utilities dl . 
Manufacturing, / Engineering dl 
Wholesale/Retail d 
Financial Services d 
Other Business Services d 

22. Wbat is your job status? 

Proprietor/Partner d1 < 
Chairman/ i — i 
Chief Executive/President L 2 J 
Managing Director/ 1 — 1 
General Manager LaJ 

Other Senior Management d 

Education dl ,. 
Legal d 

Medical d 
Government/ 1 } 
Diplomatic Service I— ^ 

Other (Write ini d 

22. Wbat is your job status? Ugal rn„ 

Proprietor, Tartner | 

Chairman/ 1 — 1 Medical Practitioner \ _■,[ 

Chief Executive/President L 2 J Scientist/Researcher/ [ 1 

Managing Director/ 1 — 1 Technologist L=j 

General Manager LaJ Academic I 4 ] 

Other Senior Management d Teacher dl 

Middle Management □ Senior Go vemment^pffice^ Q 

Executive d Other (Please e/vv details) dl 
Self Employed/ rn ^ 

Independent Consultant 1— ^ 

23. For which, if any, of the goods and services listed below 
are you wholly or partly responsible for company decisions 
to purchase or lease, or to appoint or change a supplier? 

(Please check as many as apply) 


Network Systems d Corporate Financial Services dil n 

PCs/Desktop Computers/WPs d 
Laptop Computers |~al 
Computer Peripherals Idl 
Software/Software Services d 

Facsimile Equipment dl 

Telecommunications j — 1 
Systems or Equipment L-« 

Fund Management d 
Foreign Exchange d 
Insurance Services d 
Company Credit Cards [dl 


Facsimile Equipment [J Lega! services d 

Jelecotomunications n Management Q 

systems or Eqmpment U Q 

°™ E %Z“ G ManascmentTrainingCourses □ 

Company Aircraft Q Travel LJ 

Company Vehicles Q Conferences^xhibitions U 

Plant and Equipment Q PR/Marketins' |— | 

Scientific Instruments d Advertising/Market Research L-*- 1 

Raw Materials d Courier/Freight Services d 

Business Premises/ 1 1 Information Services dl 

Industrial Site Selection LzJ ^ , — . 

Data Management N 


Domestic Banking jdj None of these L_aJ 

International Banking d 

24. Does your company operate outside the country in 
which you are currently based? Yes d No ldl P . 

25. How many people does your company employ . . . 
















26a. Wliich of the following international activities do you 
carry out in the course of your work? 

I purchase goods/services from I I _ I manage the company j — 1 

suppliers in other countries 1— u tinances at an international level 1 — aJ 

I influence strategic decisions 1 raise G 

about the company’s n mtemahonally 

international operations L_ 2 J None of these d 

26b. In which of the following countries/regions are you 
involved in the course of your work? Africa dl 

Western Europe dL Japan O 

Other Europe d South East Asia d 

USA /Canada d Other Asia d 

Latin America d Australia/New Zealand dl 
Middle East d None of these d 

ft. « V ?6. ? 


First fold to Fourth fold. 
Then tuck Flap B into Flap A 










T 'HE International Herald 
Tribune has donated around 
$65,000 to charity, on behalf 
of our readers, in connection 
with periodic reader studies 
like this one. 

P LEASE help us continue 
this important program by 
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reverse side of this sheet. 

Our warmest thanks for 
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sS * 




International Herald Tribune, Thursday , /4/vr7 .?& / W 

™E^K!!fJL^ DEX : 112.24Ba 

M??y ° na "v in vsstaWe stoS/S Jl? e * ®‘ “"V 08 ^ °f 
byBtoomberg Bus.nesfN»L s .^ s 1 fr ^|5 countries, compiled 

Tv ‘ " 

90 **>'■'« •■’< V'tV»'. , *, ; / 

World Index 

4/27/94 close: 112.24 
Previous: 111.85 








Aptxox weghftig- 32 », 

Ctose 136.00 Prev. 128.10 

i i . ■» — r-. Ui. +• +. .« • /■■— 

F M A 


Aoprox weighting- 37% 
Close- m.SSPrw. 11353 

N D J F M 

1994 1993 

W D J F M A 


-Appro* we.grtcmg 

' lattto Arjifnica 

AppfO* weghling 5% 


Close H2.l9Piev._lV 

1 03 mg 

rr>c -».xfc- jm(«i U£ ,vHj i urues t>» srorts -r. Tokyo. Now York, London, and 
Argentina. Australia, Austria. Belgium. Brazil, Canada, Chita. Denmark. Fin ton a, 
France Germany. Hong Kong. Italy, Mexico. Netherlands. New Zealand, Norway, 
Singapore Spain Sweden, Switzerland and Venezuela Far ToAru. New York, anti 
lorvj.wi ;n.' ri roo^sed or in? 4V lop issues m terms ot market rapitab?aftr>. 
i>nw'-.*ir-' in-' ten /.\r’ M.v*i a.-o n/Kkea 

fndu«%r i«t Sector* /*• 

















Capital Goods 





11? 88 



Raw Materials 

124 68 







Consumer Goods 





117 9? 





128 05 


For more m/o-roa»«n about /he fttkw. a twoUef is available free 0< charge 
Wnie lo Tnh /nde*. »fli Avenue Charles tie GauBe. 92521 Neufy Cedes, France. 

Disney Wants to Learn Languages 

Entertainment Giant Looks Overseas to 'Reinvent’ Itself 

By Calvin Sims 

AW York Times Scr\ice 
LOS ANGELES — Months before the 
early April death of Walt Disney Co.'s presi- 
dent, Frank G. Wells, he and Michael D. 
Eisner, the chairman, began mapping out a 
strategy to remake (be entertainment giant. 

Disney had been stumbling after nearly a 
decade of unprecedented success. Faced with 
a weak economy, declining profit, flops ai the 
box office, and troubles at its theme parks, 
roast notably Euro Disneyland near Paris, the 
entertainment company that once could do 
no wrong needed some fine tuning if it was to 
continue its glory days. 

“We were reinventing ourselves before 
Frank's death but ibis tragedy has forced us 
to speed up the process," Mr. Eisner said in 
an interview at Disney's headquarters in Bur- 
bank. outride Los Angeles. "I think you have 
to reinvent yourself almost every seven years 
as businesses mature and situations change.** 
Like other film studios and entertainment 
comp ames. Mr. Eisner said that Disney's 
makeover will focus mainly on cultivating 
markets outride the United States, which 
represent the highest potential for growth. 
But reinventing Disney will also include ex- 
ploring new technologies and expanding the 
responsibilities of Disney’s senior executives, 
many of whom will assume the duties of the 
late Mr. Wells, he said. Mr. Wells died in a 
helicopter crash. 

Under Mr. Eisner and Mr. Wells, who were 
hired in 19K4 to revive a languishing Disney, 
the company saw its annual revenue rise from 
S1.5 bill/on to $8.5 billion in a decade and its 
slock value multiply 15-fold. 

The growth was fueled by the rapid expan- 
sion of theme parks, resorts, retail stores, and 
film and television production, but such re- 
markable gains are now proving harder to 
sustain than before, even with the magic of 
“Aladdin’s* genie. 

With Disney's annual revenue approach-' 
ing $10 biUion and competition growing in 
the theme park and animation businesses, it 
will be difficult for the company to achieve 

r We know that 
Americans don't want us 
to open a French 
restaurant in New York or 
Los Angeles that serves 
a double-patty 

Michael D. Eisner, chairman, 

Walt Disney Co. 

the 20 percent earnings growth that man age- 
men 1 has projected over the next five yean, 
industry analysis have said. 

“Wait Disney's success is based on a very 
simplistic approach: The filmed entertain- 
ment division comes up with new characters 
that are then used by the mi of the company 
to create a broader line of products to mar- 
ket." said Christopher P. Dixoo. an analyst 
for PaincWebber Inc. 

“Thai synergistic approach worked well 
throughout the '80s wuh new distribution 
channels like the video cassette and cable," 
Mr. Dixon said. “But the big challenge erf the 
*90s win be to take their brands and expand 
them into markets overseas and different 

That will involve the international expan- 
sion of the company’s three major divisions: 
theme parks, filmed entertainment, and con- 
sumer products. “During the first 10 years of 
tins job we focused predominantly on grow- 
ing the domestic businesses,*' Mr. Eisner said. 
“Now we have to start over again in places 
like China and India and develop new prod- 
ucts for these markets." 

Mr. Eisner said that " non- Ameri can-boro” 
executives win play a much more important 
role in the management of the company. “I 
i Kink you wiQ see names in our top manage- 
ment that are hard to pronounce as time goes 
on," he said. 

Bui Mr. Eisner’s new concentration on 
international expansion comes at a time when 
Disney's foray into Europe has been a disas- 
ter. From its in cep Lion. Euro Disney has lost 
money, hurt by Europe’s recession and the 
company’s miqudgments of European tastes. 

Disney, which owns 49 percent of Euro 
Disney, banned alcohol at the park and ex- 
pected its European visitors to patronize the 
noiels and gift shops. But Europeans 
shunned the park or spent as little as possible 
when visiting. In the financial year to Sept. 
30, 1993, Euro Disney lost nearly SI billion. 

Walt Disney's profit fell 63 percent to 
$299.8 million in the financial year, due 

See DISNEY, Page 11 

Clues Emerge in Opel Feud With VW 

Page 9 

Gr Imemat'onai Herald Trta/w 

Cintpikxl hr Our Stuff Fnmt Itupuuhr' 

DARMSTADT. Germany — 
German pro!*eculors >aid Wednes- 
day they had found clues suggest- 
ing that managers of Volkswagen 
AG who had been accused of in- 
dustrial espionage hy Adam Opel 
AG had been in possession of Opel 

The prosecutors referred to ma- 
terial related to a new Opel model 
that had been discovered in a 
search last August in an apartment 
used by two ex-General Motors 
Corp. employees who had moved 
to VW. That material has been de- 
scribed as secret by OpeL which is a 
GM unit, the prosecutors said. 

Materials were also discovered 
that detailed Opel’.* crut-ctming 
and purchasing strategies. 

The prosecutors said: “The ex- 
aminaiion is continuing to deter- 
mine whether these papers con- 
tained business secrets from Opel." 

While strengthening the ease 
against Jose Ignacio Lopez de Ar- 
riortua. GM’s former head of 
worldwide purchasing, the Darm- 
stadt prosecutor’s officedid not sav 
explicitly that Mr. Lopez illegally 
look GM secrets when he moved to 
VW in March 1993. 

Nor would prosecutors confirm 
press reports that Mr. Lbpez would 
soon be indicted. The prosecutors 

said thaL the investigation had not 
advanced Tar enough to determine 
whether or when charges might be 

Opel called the prosecutor's 
statement further proof that Mr. 
Lopez had committed industrial es- 

“The statement, a* well as the 
search of VW headquarters in 
Wolfsburg and ihe confiscation of 
Opel and GM documents, confirms 
the conviction of Opel AG that 
numerous secret planning docu- 
ments and highly sensitive cost 
structures of the corporation were 
systematically and obviously used 

to the advantage of our competi- 
tion," Opel said. 

VW denied using secret Opel 
documents. The automaker said 
the prosecutor’s statement was "a 
welcome step” and would “inform 
the public and end the speculation” 
about the Lopez case. 

GM and VW became involved in 
a bitter legal dispute last year after 
Mr. L6pez, who was one of GM’s 
most senior executives and was 
credited with the restructuring of 
GM’s cost base, suddenly moved to 
VW to take responsibility for the 
company's purchasing and produc- 

(Reuters. AP, AFP . Bloomberg) 

EU Tells France 
To Open Air 
Routes to Orly 

Compiled by Our Staff From Dupoichcs 

BRUSSELS — The European 
Commission told France on 
Wednesday to open some of its 
most profitable airline routes to 
competition from European Union 
carriers and to free up access to 
Orly airport. 

The commission gave France six 
months to free up its lucrative Par- 
is-Totilouse and Paris-Marseilic 
routes, but it said EU carriers oper- 
ating between London and Paris 
must be given immediate access to 

France said it would appeal the 

“The government does not in- 
tend to allow a unilateral and legal- 
ly contestable decision to be im- 
posed on it and wQi without delay 
ask the European Court erf Justice 
to rule on the principle and proce- 
dure chosen in this affair." the 
Transport Ministry said. 

The commission's decision fol- 
lows a complaint by TAT Europe- 
an Airlines SA. which is 49.9 per- 
cent owned by British Airways 
PLC, that it was not being allowed 
to operate along the routes in ques- 
tion or to use Orly, Paris’ most 
convenient airport for business 
travelers. TAT charged that the 
French government was violating 
EU rules aimed at opening the 
bloc's slues. 

The TAT complaint was consid- 
ered a test case for airlines through- 
out the Union, which have com- 
plained they were unable lo get 
equal access to air routes because 
EU governments favor their do- 
mestic carriers. 

Air Inter, which is controDed by 
France's unprofitable and state- 
owned Air France, currently has a 
monopoly on Toulouse-Orfy and 
MarsdU&Oriy flights. Air Inter 
said it also would appeal the com- 
mission's ruling. 

British Airways welcomed the 
decision and said it and TAT 
would begjn operating two daily 
flights from Orly to London's 
Heathrow airport in June. 

The commission’s decision fol- 
lowed weeks of wrangling, intensi- 
fied by rival lobbying from Air 

France and Bm^h Airways, over 
whether to use a speedy I c-sul pro- 
cedure to compel France to go h> 
the roles or spend years negotiat- 
ing. Commission officials said that 
a large majority of the 17 commis- 
sioners voted in favor of u>ing a 
speedy procedure. 

TbeTAT complaint, meanwhile, 
is only a small pan of a much 
bigger dispute over French plans w 
give 20 billion francs i S3 billion) t»* 
Air France as part of a restructur- 
ing program lo gel the comp an*, 
back on* its (eel. 

The French gov ern mem hj.i said 
that Air France is set to announce a 
loss of between x billion and J 
billion francs for 199?. The airline 
has debt* of 37 billion frane.s. 

Although the French eminent 
is resigned to opening its market u» 
competition, it wants 4»w)» 
to give Air France and t<> unu< time 
to Strengthen, analysts said But the 
commission saiJ France was already 
in violation of EU laws that state 
governments cannot give preference 
to national airlines. 

The decision could spell doom 
for .Air Inter, analysis .said. 

“.Air Inter isn't read* for compe- 
tition," said Bertrand ti’W>ire, 
with Consullair in Paris. "The 
French government see-- British 
.Aimay. 1 * as the enemy of Air 
France and wants tn keep its T AT 
unit at bay for as long as possible." 

The French government mav 
also feel a sense of guilt about Air 
Inter after forcing ii to buy 40i>- 
seater A33B Airbuses, analysts 
said. The sale was good for the 
French economy, because Airbuses 
are mostly assembled in France 
(Reuters. Bloomberg. AFP) 

■ Olympic Offer Rejected 

Employees at Olympic Airway* 
on Wednesday rejected ,t go' em- 
inent proposal for restructuring the 
straggling airline, ihe Associated 
Press reported from .Athens. 

The proposal included a tour- 
year wage freeze for. employees, 
early retirement for 1.74b people 
from a work force of 9.900. the -ale 
of some aircraft, and the -u- pen- 
sion of unprofitable flight routes. 




Helping the Boss Evolve 

By Barbara Presley Noble 

hie m- York Tlnus Scntcc 

N tW YORK — William P. Milo always 
thought he did a pretty good job of 
stroking and motivating the people 
who report to him. so it came as a 
surprise when some of his managers at Phico 
Insurance Co., a health insurer io Mechanicsburg, 
Pennsylvania, let Mr. Milo know they fell unap- 

Well, not exactly unappreciated. “Through fur- 
ther analysis, we discovered they fell praised," said 
Mr Milo, senior vice president for administration 
and planning for Phico. "But when someone does a 
super job, thev feel they aren’t treated differently. 

Mr. Milo learned of his very repairable flaw 
while he w as scouting and testing leadership devel- 
opment programs for Phico. in search of solutions 
to problems posed by changes in the economy. 

His is an industry in turmoil, both from the 
corporate desire for efficiency and the country s 
desire for health-care reform. “Re-eogmeenngs 
hit us.’' be said. “We need to be much more 
flexible, more customer : focused. We need to get 
people to be more creative.” 

Among the programs he tried was an executive 
coaching seminar put on by the insurance practice 
ofthe Hav Group, a New York consulting firm. For 

three days last fall he « JKSl 

benchmarked and mentored. He hsiened to feed- 
hack gathered before the seminar from colleagues. 
SnlSand supervisors » d soaked it up from 

Sti^ic>ls and how to encourage h.s people to 
ncauire them. 

The course may have helped him understand 
himself better. "It gives you an idea of what your 
motives are, whether for achievement or power or 
affiliation,” he said. “It gives you a look inside at 
what drives you.” 

Coaching — as executive development has come 
to be called — is not new. But corporate shrinkage 
and the dawning era of flexible, decentralized 
management are making obsolete the idea that 
executives can expect to muscle their way to a 
career pinnacle and then coast until retirement. 

Increasingly, they are expected to be. in the 
words of the anthropologist Harvey Sarics. "auto- 
didacts,” or self-teachers and lifelong learners, 
whose performance will evolve and improve. 

Bui it is not so easy to push senior managers into 
what is essentially a training mode. “We think it s 
O.K. for First-line supervisors to gel training, but 
not for higher-ups." said Martin Lcshner, manag- 
ing directin' for Hay Group and head of its insur- 
ance practice. 

When they think of improving their perfor- 
mance, most employees focus on gaining more 
technical doll s, precisely what they don’t need, in 
Mr. Lcshners view, especially if they are moving 
up the hierarchy. “Mostly, people need the ability 
to influence people. The way organizations operate 
these days, you are interacting with people who 
don't work for you. You can’t just make them do 
something," he said. 

Younger employees, in particular, are not recep- 
tive to the send- ’em~(o-th e-principal school of 
management “They aren’t chain of command- 
orienied,” said Steven E. Lurie, head of Lurie 
Executive Development a coaching firm based in 
Valley Stream, New York- 

!f learning to use influence rather than raw 
aggression is a frequent proximate cause for calling 

See COACH, Page 10 

IBM and Hitachi to Share Technology 

Compiled hv Our Staff From Dapairl >es 

TOKYO — International Business Machines 
Corp. and Hitachi Ltd. said Wednesday that 
they had formed an alliance to share technology 
and help them withstand a slump in the market 
for mainframe computers. 

The companies said they reached technology 
and licensing agreements in mainframes and in 
an advanced technique known as RISC, or 
reduced instruction set computing, which helps 
microprocessors work faster. Microprocessors 
are semiconductor “brains" that control the 
operation of a computer. 

“We’re pleased with Hitachi's decision to 
•build large-scale systems based on our mo high- 
end architectures." said John M. Thompson. 
IBM senior vice president and group executive. 

Analysts said both companies have been hurt 
by a Weak market for mainframe computers. 

Mainframes, powerful computers used in busi- 
ness to process large amounts of data, still 
account for a big share of their revenues but 
have been hit by competition from smaller, 
more nimble makers of personal computers. 

IBM will supply Hitachi with future versions 
of its Complementary Metal Oxide Semicon- 
ductor microprocessors for integration into sys- 
tems to be developed, manufactured and mar- 
keted by Hitachi from 1996. company 
executives said. These products win run on 
Hitachi's operating system as well as IBM's 
system, they said. 

In addition, Hitachi will adopt IBM’s Power 
PC personal computer architecture in develop- 
ing its high-end RISC systems. Hitachi and 
IBM are continuing discussions about coopera- 
tion on future RISC systems, they said. 

“This agreement brings major benefits to 

both companies and their customers," said Ta- 
keo Miura. executive vice president of Hitachi. 

The arrangement will help the two compa- 
nies to develop new technology more quickly . 

“At the same time, the agreement will help 
Hitachi lo more effectively manage it«* research 
and development program.” Mr. Miura said. 

Hitachi also said u would develop a new type 
of memory storage semiconductor with Ram- 
tron International Corp. of Colorado. 

In addition, Hitachi is working with Sun 
Microsystems Inc., of California, in a project to 
develop fast microprocessors for powerful com- 

IBM and Hitachi said they also would coop- 
erate to promote industry standards in large- 
scale computers, expand sales of equipment to 
each other and wont together on development 
projects. (Bloomberg, Reuters. AP. AFP) 

Ointon Backs AT&T’s Bid lor Saudi Contract 


RIYADH — President Bill Clin- 
ton has leaped into a fray by urging 
Saudi Arabia to give AT&T Corp. a 
54 billion telephone contract hotly 
contested by rivals from Canada. 
Sweden and Japan. 

U.S. officials said on Wednesday 
that Mr. Clinton bad made the ap- 
peal in a letter to be delivered to 
King Fahd by Secretary of State 
Warren M. Christopher, who is on 
a regional lour. 

Several companies are bidding 
for the lucrative contract to install 
500.000 new telephone lines within 
Saudi Arabia. 

LM. Ericsson Telefon AB of 

April 27 

Cross Rates D F1 B.F. SJ=. Yen O PMMa 

* C D/ t tilrf* — WS45- MI'S IJJ* UH !*T 

Anutef-than Iff* UBS tttt aw 

uw van 2J2J9 DM 114P 1S430S 2ff» ms. 

JV 95 - tvv i » Bi *ua mu- ** — 

uufl min *1 n »» “211 asi* ^na urns u*» row 

\0fi2. MB* Viz I>i8W0 tpn Mai >au* Win 'J7M 13U4 

liW o wn S73« al4b8 ^ isw am 

■ “TV TT. .an iio* TiSi 11305 

Fran M urt 
London In) 


Mfert 1,*US M * xn xprt jmi isv- wlo '-*w ■«« 

JSwYorktM W57 aim MW- 4.1® «»■ 

£1 W5U UMS MW tS s S IWS 7L« 7Ut WS5 

TltoM Iff* **** VVS SMS.* 5732* 43W- ft»» ’J 4 * 7 " UW* 

t££k. ^ £ K S5S- wa M«I uw- «■» 

Zortca MW MS® ““ „ , Mia situ to* II LM# «ai« L®3 I 

3 ECU H* W 2S *£ 35 5*i ,<MS ,nai 

I SOB ljiB York am, gortai. tHtoS* >t> other canton; Toronto 

Oastnos in Amsterdam. London, new 

rotated 3W To t^v end dollar/ V Unto of MW "A: not minted. NA. not 

a: Tatum on* found ■ a. 

Eurocurrency Oefusslts 

Dollar D-MOrtt 

1 montti 3 *»J «■- SVt-SVt 
3 months 4Vs-4'<« S "ArS : « 

A months ovtas* rfc-ffvs 

1 year M- 5 W 5 % 

Sources: Revtrrs. Lkrvds Bank 








April 27 


3 ^m-3 *■» 

4 r <5 


2 ‘-2 •- 




2 l **2 - 

S “.-5 ■ . 


S*v-5 1. 


7*+? 4 

5 ■•.-5 - - 




7 -2 ' - 

S ---5 ‘ - 

to IntoUx* ***>*■ °> '™'* nWrn ,or 

Key Money Rates 

United States 

Discern? rate 
Prime rote 

Other Dollar Values 

Smontt) CDs 
Conun. doper U0 days 
Ihbobib T r eas u r y MU 

_ currency Cunoocy Per* 

si S rss. tsts s 

issr [--a* ,ss ™ is 

ss 'S ssss ^ s-s ȣ s 

CtUaese yuan ^, c aoao 1B2 aoO UAEdlrtam 1071 

ssr: ^ «■ 

rr sS 5S- - 5, “ ! ,iK 














Forward Rat® 5 ^ 

Cwroac* ij 040 I J® 1 

Poond Sterunv U7« 

Otitocheaxu* ism IX* 

Conodlna dollar 

3MOV toaor 9May 

1J773 13»0 U80B 

1014 * 10351 10314 

I ) JlflA 

14276 1 " c7 ’ ' tBiwelsi. Banco Commerddl* Uallam 

So***: 0/ ^ 

Vytar Treasury Bill 
Kyoar Troaswy note 
*T<or Treasory "oi» 

7-rear Trtasury b#i» 
36 rear Treasury bond 
MMTiH LyndiaSHtov Headra**** A82 


tHscouot rote 
Call m o we r 
l-awafli Mcrhaito 
XatoOth (BterhaM 
O-monitl Intorhaak 
l»war CovtrafMnt hand 
Oat iuu as 

Coll money 
1 nustti bderoank 
jmionth Mertenk 
t-monta in le rb on k 


















5 v. 

5 *- 









5 v - 

5 v. 

5 »» 





S» w 








3 a 














540 540 

651 457 


Bank base rote 
Cali money 
1 -moatb Interhonk 
J-rwntS loterttoBk 
t-nmeib Intertask 

16 -year CUT 


l u tenrcntiBH rote 
Caff money 
1 -month Interbank 
xmsttt talefbons 
6 -nioani imerbank 

'^Sources: Reuters. Blootntera. Merrill 
Lynch. Son* o* Tokyo. Commarittan k. 
a ***** Montooo. Credit Lyom*. 


AJA. PM Ch-ge 

ZUrtC 37455 37445 +020 

London J74J5 37435 +IMS 

New York Closed 

It ; rinfiam pa r ooncs. Lanton otticiel ffx- 
Inosi Zurich and Be* Verb own/no ontfe/bs- 
(ndW*«. ««• vat * Cam ** ,Juaet 
Source: Reuters. 

Sweden and NEC Corp. of Japan 
are reported to have jointly put in 
the lowest bid of S1.67 billion. Other 
bidders for the contract which has 
yet to be awarded, indude Canada's 
Northern Telecom Ltd. and AT&T. 

Canada is offering SI billion in 
loans to buy Canadian technology. 
Roy MacLaren, the minister for 
international trade, was quoted on 
Wednesday as saying. 

The AJ-Eqitixadiah newspaper 
quoted Mr. MacLaren as saying in 
Riyadh that the offer was of low- 
interest loans as part of efforts to 
hdp Canadian companies win pro- 
jects, including a bid by Northern 
Telecom for the phone contract 

He said the Canadian company 

AGCO Plans 
To Buy Massey 

The Associated Press 

ATLANTA — The farm 
equipment maker AGCO 
Corp. said Wednesday it 
planned to buy Massey Fergu- 
son Ltd., one of the world’s 
largest tractor manufacturers, 
in a cash and stock deal valued 
at $328 nullion. 

AGCO, which last year ac- 
quired some of Massey Fergu- 
son's North American units, 
said the purchase would ex- 
pand its business beyond 
North America. 

“The addition of Massey 
Ferguson’s international net- 
work of 4,000 dealers and dis- 
tributors to AGCO’s Z600 
North American dealers will 
give AGCO the largest world- 
wide dealer network in the ag- 
ricultural equipment indus- 
try." AGCO Chairman Robot 
Ratliff said. 

had presented “the best of the 
bids,'* and (hat its offer includes 

Ronald H. Brown, the U.S. com- 
merce secretary, who helped Amer- 
ican commercial aircraft makers 
clinch a S6 billion deal with the 
kingdom’s national carrier, Saudia. 
said in March that he was optimis- 
tic Saudi Arabia would pick a U.SL 
company for its phones. 

But an Arab specialist familiar 
with the bidding said: "The deal is 
still open and no final decision to 

buy American or otherwise has yet 
been taken." 

The announcement of the deal 
bv Mr. Clinton angered European 
aircraft makers that were vying for 
the contract. 

Mr. MacLaren. the Canadian 
minister, said on a separate subject 
that no agreement had been 
reached on the sale to Saudi Arabia 
of three Canadian-built patrol- 
boats equipped with modem anti- 
submarine devices and helicopter 
landing areas, Agence Franee- 
Presse reported from Riyadh. 

AMR to Buy 
33% Stake in 
Canadian Air 

CiHCfitieuM Our S«I' hr™ \ 

NEW YORK — The {vrt*:ti 

i.i Aiwtiibai 

Wed.-.ouuy Lire! n *o> 
a one-third stake in Canadian 
.Airlines Internationa] Tor 24b 
million Canadian dollar.-* 
(S177 million). 

The investment b> AMR 
Corp. in Canadian Airline**, in 
the works for more than a 
year, is been considered cru- 
cial to the survival of Canada’s 
second-largest airline. 

AMR will provide reserva- 
tion and other computer ser- 
vices to Canadian Airlines un- 
der a 2u-vear contract, and 
expecLs to earn $ 1 15 million in 
the first year. 

AMR and Canadian initial- 
ly announced the alliance 
agreement on Dec. 29. 19*0. 
But the deal wa> held up hv 
wrangling over whether Cana- 
dian .Airlines could quit the 
Canadian reservations system 
Gemini and join the American 
Airlines Sabre system. 

After a long battle with its 
domestic rival. Air Canada. 
Canadian Airlines earlier this 
year won the right m leave 

( Knight -RtJat'r. Renters AFX) 

“Quadratus”. A solid gold watch 
with the dial engraved in 
the “Clou de Paris” pattern. 


Medfres Artisans dHorlogerie 


Automatic mechanical movement with date and second frauds. Warer-rcsisram. Also 
in white ^Id. For a brochure, write tn: Cnrum, 2301 La Chaux-de- Funds, Su ii/vrland. 

Page 10 



Dollar Slumps on 
Interest-Rate Ideas 





HW> Low Last settle CbW 

Compiled by Our Staff From Dispatches 

NEW YORK — The dollar 
stumbled against most currencies 
amid, sentiment that rising U.S. in- 
terest rates are already reflected in 
the currency's value. " 

Economists said the benefit of 
dollar-deposit rates that are above 

ing consumer confidence also 
dampened enthusiasm to hold dol- 
lar positions. 

Growing faith in the Britain’s 
economic recovery also translated 
into weakness for the dollar. Sig- 
nals that the recovery is gathering 
steam encouraged sentiment that 
British rates wifi remain firm. 

□ose Prryfov* 

Md Ask Bid Art 

§23 BW ” r,l nSlo 1266J0 I2S7-S0 I2&5Q 
Forward iwioo 12 KLQ 0 m*.ao iazn 


Pen an per ii»ajo ibbMO 

Foc*ani 191700 191&M 191T80 J9N-50 


Sad asa tSL 00 439.00 

Ferrari <52.00 *SU» 4S4J0 455J50 


ffln mnM 

Forward 532SA0 5330.00 5311100 5325L00 


«P 1SO0 1 51 SO 151 TJ (an 7 

« 1SLSO 15L00 15L2S 1S42S -250 

IB* 15S.75 155.73 155J5 13A25 — 1.73 

Kc 15120 15735 157J5 I57J5 —250 

M 15B2S 157 JS 1 57.75 157J5 — Z5D 

■H) N.T. N.T. NLT. 157» —200 

tar N.T. N.T. N.T. 15100 -200 

Est. votumc: 9460. Open Ini. 99,900 

Nixon Presided 
Over Bear Market 

US. do Oar* per barrtUati of 1 AM I 

Dol ton per mgricjo n 
1 Spot BBB 537000 5320.00 5330.00 

Ferrara 5O0.CC 505.00 536SJM 53*000 

ZINC (SMdai hM Cradel 
Dollars Per metric too 
Spot 9UOO 91500 90940 91140 

Forward 93100 93740 93140 93340 

Foreign Exchange 

these of other major currencies is 
already reflected in the market. 
Concern that the influence of risin- 
gU5. rates on American stocks and 
bonds will lead to a flow of money 
out of dollar-denominated assets 
also is deterring investors, they 

Most investors who bought dol- 
lars late last year bet that rising 
U.S. interest rates and falling Ger- 
man rates would boost (he dollar. 
They opposite baa happened, erod- 
ing confidence in the currency. 

“People waiting for the dollar 
rally hit a pain threshold and goi 
cmC” said Alfonso Aiejo. a trader at 
Sakura Bank in New York. “Hope 
for a higher dollar is shattering.’' 

In late trading, the dollar fell to 
1.6717 Deutsche marks from 1.6758 
Tuesday and to 102.300 ven from 
102.805. The dollar fell to 5.7415 
French francs from 5.7558 Tuesday 
and to 1.4263 Swiss francs from 
i.4315. The pound was at SI .5050, 
compared nith SI .5057 Tuesday. 

The inability of the U.S. curren- 

The mark strengthened despite a 
at in [he Bundesbank's securities 

cy to gain after positive economic 
news Tuesday in the form of surg- 

cui in the Bundesbank's securities 
repurchase rate, which sets the 
floor for money market rates. Deal- 
ers said the cut was expected, and 
that iooser monetary policy would 
stimulate the German economy. 

“The reaction to the German 
rate cm tells it all about confidence 
in dollar at the moment," said Mi- 
chael Burke, economist at Citi- 

The dollar weakened against the 
yen despite central bank interven- 
tion to halt the Japanese currency's 

rise. The Bank of Japan has bought 
billion? or dollar* during the past 
week in an attempt to prevent the 
U.S. currency from falling through 
1015 yen. Bu: the effort proved 

The siar; of Golden Week holi- I 
days in Japan also will hamper the | 
centra! bank’s efforts strengthen 
the dollar, said James Round, cur- 
rency trader at NatWest Bank in 
Frankfurt. "Other central banks 
can intervene on behalf of the Bank 
of Japan, but not so wholehearted- 
ly." he said. 

f Knight-Ridder. Bloomberg) 

Jua 1543 1540 1545 153* —020 

Jut 1542 1542 1544 1543 — 015 

ABB 1547 15.18 1543 1542 —0.13 

SOT 1546 15.1 B 1544 1546 -ail 

OCt 15J0 1S.JB 1523 1543 -0,13 

NOT 15230 1546 1540 1SJ0 —0.10 

Dee 152a 1542 1543 1542 —211 

JOB N.T. N.T. N.T. 1535 -ail 

Feb N.T. N 2 T. N.T. 1547 -ail 

Est. volume: 29481 . OPOT Int- 152163 

Stock Indexes 


Hl»o LOW Close Cboflfle 

Jon «Ui H« Ml +003 

Sep 9446 900 «42W +0.06 

DtC 9192 «« + M? 

Mar 9139 0.33 9335 +047 

JOT 9LB8 9181 918* + 007 

Sot 91*3 9247 9248 + 007 

Dec 9106 9201 9203 + 00* 

Mar 91 J1 91.76 9146 +003 

3S» 9141 91 -S3 914) +0M 

sS 9166 91 >1 7142 +046 

Dec 9145 9146 9147 +046 

Mor 91.17 91.13 91.13 +047 

Est. volume: *2,790. open Int 2 *80*83. 

si raHffan ■ pfs of loopet 
JOT 9544 9543 9S2M +002 

Sot 94.78 94.77 9478 + 043 

Dec 9443 9*42 9433 + OQ5 

Mar N.T. N.T. 9413 + 007 

JOT N.T. N.T. 9189 +007 

Sot N.T. N.T. 9168 +007 

IE st. volume; 862 Open Inf.: 10,186. 

HM Low Cine Change 
as per Iona paint 

Jan 31648 31374 31J3J +7W 

Sot 3U&0 3USJS 31714 + 190 

DM N.T. N.T. 31825 + 1M 

ESI. volume: 7505. Open Int.: 52892. 

FF28* Per todex Mint 

APT 715400 21*346 2 W4J0 + HOB 

Mar 215240 214150 214250 +1400 

JOT 213500 212500 212650 +1450 

Sep 214800 214150 214200 +1450 

DOC N.T. N.T. 217200 +l«O0 

Mar N.T. N.T. 226150 +1458 

Est. volume: 35424 Open Int : 72474 

Sources: Motif. Associate Press. 
London Inn Financial Futures Exchange/ 
tall Petroleum Exchange. 


Per Amt Pay Rec 

DM 1 million - Pis at HM pd 

m 9482 9475 9480 +006 

IM 9493 9*57 9*52 + 807 

tec 9*58 9479 948* +809 

■or 9482 9*J3 9450 + 6.10 

an 945B 9449 9456 +009 

10 9455 9X29 9*55 +600 

tec 94.15 9JJJ7 94.14 + 008 

•ar 9198 9356 9358 +008 

lOT 916* 9181 9353 +000 

a 93L75 9472 +474 +0-08 

tec 91A4 91*2 9360 + 006 

tar 9358 9354 9352 + 0 O 0 

Est. volume: 17O00S. Open ML: 940324 








+ 0M 




+ 106 




+ 106 









+ai 2 





Bundesbank Unleashes 
Bullishness in Europe 

Bl-jamberg Bioinax .Vnn 

LONDON — Stock and bond 
prices rose across Europe Wednes- 
day after a number of major com- 
panies reported strong earnings 
and the Bundesbank engineered 
another cut in its securities repur- 
chase rate. 

' The European component of the 
International Herald Tribune 
Stock Index rose 0.82 percent, to 

Britain's FT-SE Index of leading 
stocks rose 0.79 percent, to 3.150. 
while the DAX index in Germany 
climbed 0.46 percent, to 2,253.57, 
and the CAC-40 Index in France 
climbed 0.77 percent, to 2 147.32. 

“Even though growth is coming 
through, it appears the Bunder 
bank's still prepared to cut," said 
Richard Griffiths. European equity 
strategist at Swiss Bank Corp. 
“Presumably it's got faith in infla- 
tion coming down next year.” 

Chemical and industrial stocks 
were among the day’s biggest gain- 
ers for the second straight session- 
. "Steady cyclical companies like 
aa.Y*. metal;, ur.d chemicals •— 

they're the ones to be buying." said 
Mr. Griffiths. 

In line with this trend. Imperial 
Chemical Industries PLC and Han- 
son PLC were among sharp gainers 
in Britain, while Rhdnc-Poulenc SA 
of France and Bayer AG of Germa- 
ny were leaders in their markets. 
Shares also posted gains in Switzer- 
land. Belgium and Spain. 

Est. volume 39585. Open Ini.: 316584 

BMN-pHA 32ndso9188pci 
Jun 107-19 106-13 106-27 + 0411 

SOT 106-T2 1D6-12 18531 -0-01 

Est. volume: 815*3. Open hit.: 124517. 

dm mm -pti of mo pa 
JOT 95.12 9452 9492 +066 

SOT 94*0 9408 9442 + 055 

Est. volume: 132542. Open Ini.: 181583. 

SOT 13162 1205* 12040 +068 

Dec 11962 11960 11966 + 066 

Est. vohime: 200059. Open Ini.: 144686. 

amp com 
toner Elect Pwr 
Amtroi inc 
Ap ogee Enternr 
Apple Cal r ln« 
Boxer Hughes 
Boll Corp 
Bfc Montreal 
Boatmens Bncstirs 
Central Mis Bestirs 
Circle mcaShrs 
C envoi r Moldings 
Commerce Bncp NJ 
Comptr LonsRsrcti 
Cooper Indus 
Cotton StsLtHHh 
Cousins Preps 

Crawford & Co A 
Crawford & Co B 
Dauphin Deposits 
Detdrampj inc 
Eaton Corp 
Eaton Van MunIBd 
Exxon Carp 
Fncl Trust Cp 
F it BonklnaSE GA 
Hoooar Corp 
Hibernia A 
Kansas ClfY Lfins 
UOerty Bncp 
Ulllan Vernon 
Lulcens Inc 
Minnie man Inti 
MassMull CP inv 
MaisMirtl Pfnrs 
Norfolk sihrn 

Northeast CptrForm 5 .055 

Oasts Resident! 
Overseas 3tlphkte 
Peonlc+uck Corp 
Polarts Indus 
Pravena Foods 
RepuDUc Gypsum 


High Low Lost Settle CVue 

i U5. dollars per metric ton-lots at IM tons 

Mar 7*955 14850 1*6.73 1*8.75 —250 

Jun 1*8.75 1*855 14825 1*825 —2.75 

All 1*950 14875 1*925 1*925 —150 

Aug 150.75 15050 15050 15050 —275 

ROTUtWc Gypsum 
Rubbermaid Inc 
Sears Cda 
Southwstm PubSvc 
Student Lb anCP 
TSI Inc 

Three DDcpisA 
Three D DepfsB 
Union Elect Co 
UM Dominion Ind 
Wovertv inc 
WebO OeiCP 

5- 9 6-1 
5- 10 6-10 

56 5-16 
5-10 5-26 

6- 3 6-24 

5- 9 5-27 

6- 1 6-15 

5- 10 5-30 
Ml 7-1 

+1 6-15 

6- 17 7-1 
5* 5-18 
5+ 5-16 

5- 17 6-2 

6- 13 7-1 

6-15 7-1 

5-13 5-27 
5-11 5- 20 
5-11 5-29 

7- 1 7-15 
5-4 5-18 
5-9 5-25 
5-2 5-16 

5-13 6-10 
5-2 5-10 
+15 6-30 
5-2 5-16 
5-6 5-20 
M 523 
5-20 6-3 

S-18 +1 

5-9 520 

5- 1 516 
52 512 
52 5T2 
56 6-10 

4- 30 513 
56 517 

5- 12 527 
52 516 

6- 15 8-15 

6-10 530 
531 +11 
513 +1 

516 +15 
+29 518 
516 +1 ■ 

516 +1 
511 525 

59 523 
59 523 
+8 +3Q 

6- 3 530 

526 +13 
513 +3 

funds; m- 

By Floyd Norris 

fin York Tima Service 

NEW YORK —When Rich- 
ard M- Nixon was elected presi- 
dent in 1968, there was general 
pleasure on Wall Street. Ac- 
cording to the prevailing wis- 
dom, ms election marked a re- 
turn to traditional economic 
policies and good news for the 
stock market 

it was, as it happens, another 
case of Wall Street crystal balls 
showing only what the seers 
were wishing for. Mr. Nixon, 
whose funeral Wednesday 
caused U.S. stock exchanges to 
dose in memoriam, wound up 
being the first president since 
Herbert Hoover to have the 
Dow Jones industrial - average 
decline over his term of office. 
(The only other president of the 
20th century under whom that 
happened was William Howard 

While many of the remem- 
brances of Mr. Nixon have fo- 
cused on the surprise of an anti- 
communist warrior opening 
relations with China, there has 
been less emphasis on his most 
surprising economic initiative, 
pern aps because it proved much 
less successful. 

But it is equally true that only 
Mr. Nixon could haw imposed 
wage and price controls, as be 
did in 1971, when the inflation 
rate was pushing 3 percent a 
year — then deemed unconscio- 
nably high. 

That decision was immensely 
popular on Wall Street, and the 
Dow leaped 3.8 percent the first 
trading day after the announce- 
ment — the equivalent of a 140- 
point move at today's Dow lev- 
el. But it was a serious mistake 
on a longer-term basis, especial- 
ly when combined with an ac- 
commodating Federal Reserve 
Board monetary policy as the 
1972 election approached. 

Instead of dealing with mon- 
etary causes of inflation, or with 
the profligate use of energy that 
was making the country miner; 

able to an oil price shock, the 
government set up a bureaucra- 
cy that ended up ruling on s y c ° 
vital issues as whether a 
Hampshire county fair violated 
the law when it raised 
son prices by 25 cents. fThe 
ruling was that it did.) 

Mr. Nixon himself noted this 
in his memoirs. 

"The Aug. 15, 1971 , decision 
to impose them," he wrote of 
the price controls, “was politi- 
cally necessary and immensely 
popular in the short ran. But in 
the long run 1 believe it was 

None of that was dear at 
first- It was a wed; after Mr. 
Nixon was re-elected in 1972 
that the Dow First dosed over 
1,000, and in early 1973 the 
Dow hit a peak of 1,051-70. a 
high mark that was destined to 
last for a decade. 

It was the upward spiraling 
of oil prices, which followed the 
Arab oil ‘boycott prompted by 
the 1973 Arab- Israeli war. that 
caused the recession and the 
wont bear market of the last 
half century. 

Ir was during that bear mar- 
ket that Mr. Nixon resigned. 
The Dow, at 935.54 wboi he 
was inaugurated Tor his first 
term, had faDco to 784.89 by 
the time he quit A few months 
later, it was to bottom at 577.60. 

Presidents like to take credit 
for bull markets during tbdr 
administrations, while distanc- 
ing themselves from bear mar- 
kets, but as was noted by Rob- 
ert Farreit, the chief market 

Procter & Gamble Earnings Drop 

riNPlNNATl (Bloomberg) — Procter & Gamble Co. said Wednes- 
fell 4 pet^nt hurt byte S102 miUion 
chaise to cover losses from trading in interest-rate swaps- 
The consumer products company said net ^reoome for the quarter was 
5482 million on revenue of $7 35 billion. P&G s loss m die derivatives 
market was the laigest ever reported by a U.S. industrial company on 
swaps, wbidi are typically used to limit exposure to such risks as interest 

rate or currency changes. _ , , , , J _ 

The maker of well-known brands such as Tide detergent and Pampers 

IDCUWKH VI . - - . 

diapers said that excluding the charge, profit from operations rose 16 
percent thanks to lower costs and higher volume worldwide. It said 
earnings before the charge were $584 million. 

Compass Acquires Jlagstar Division 

LONDON (Bloomberg) — In an aggressive move to enter an expand- 
ing American food service market, Britain's Compass Group PLC is 
paying $450 million to buy LM. Vending Inc., the tbird-iargest U.S. 
ratering company, from Flagstar Companies Inc. 

Compass, a fast-growing operator of catering operations in European 
airports, railway stations and spons arenas, said the purchase would 
"immediately e nhan ce earnings per share." Also known as Canteen, IM. 
Vending provides catering for factories, hospitals and prisons throughout 

.L. IT.'.ijuI 

the United Stales. 

Breast Implant Charge Dents 3M Net 

MAPLEWOOD, Minnesota (AP) — Minnesota Mining & Manufac- 
turing Co. n Wednesday reported a 7 percent drop in first-quarter profits 
because of a $35 million charge to cover the settlement of litigation 
involving breast implants. 

The company earned $306 million in the quarter, while sales rose 3 
percent, to 53.63 billion. The results reflected a charge for the company’s 
contribution to a class-action settlement over breast implants. 

The company benefited from rising sales and productivity, but growth 
was hdd back by the dow European economy and the negative effects of 
foreign currency exchanges, said L.S. DeSimone, the chair man. 

Sega and MGM Set to Go Interactive 

REDWOOD CITY, California [Bloomberg) — Sega of America Inc. 
and Metxo-Goldwyn-Mayer Inc. said Wednesday they would work to- 
gether to develop interactive video games, movies and television shows in 
what is perhaps the most extended collaboration between a movie studio 
and video game maker to date. 

Acclaim Entertainment Inc., also a video game company, reached 
aeement Tuesday to make games based on the “Batman" movies of 

agreement Tuesday to make games based on the “Batman" movies of 
Warner Bros. 

Sega of America, a unit of Japan's Sega Enterprises LuL, has already 
tapped into Hollywood through development of a video game based on 
"Aladdin," Walt Disney Co.’s animated movie. The game was a hit 

analyst for Merrill Lynch & Co. 
during and after Mr. Nixons 

during and after Mr. Nixons 
term, “in truth they often have 
very tittle to do with what hap- 
pens to the markets in their ad- 

Mr. Nixon was elected near 
the end of a 20-year bull mar- 
ket, which had taken stock 
prices from undervalued to 
greatly overvalued and brought 
on "great speculative excesses,” 
Mr. FarreD noted. 

during the Christinas season. MGM and Sega intend to develop charac- 
ters that appeal both to big screen audiences and video game ians. 

ters that appeal both to big screen audiences and video game fans. 

Cost-Cutting Lifts Profit for Xerox 

STAMFORD, Connecticut (Bloomberg) — Xerox Corp- raid Wednes- 
day that its first-quarter profit from continuing operations rose 15 
percent, to $129 mution, paced by the company’s cost-cutting efforts. 
Revenue rose marginally, to S3.95 bfflioa from S3.9 billion. 

"The increased income in the first quarter was due to significant 
productivity improvements and strong growth in equipment sales." said 
Paul A. Allair e, chairman and chief executive. 

Northern Telecom Sells Finance Unit 

Finmeccanica Rights Issue COACH: Helping Executives Evolve and Improve 

Bloomberg Business News 

MILAN — Finmeccanica SpA 
said Wednesday that it would sell 
1.79 trillion lire ($1.1 1 billion) in 
new shares via a rights issue to pay 
for its recent acquisition of several 
military contractors. Finmeccanica 
said it would sell 852 million new 
shares, offering stockholders the 
right to buy one new share at 2,100 
lire for every share held. A group of 
banks has agreed to underwrite 1.0 
trillion lire of the issue and Finmec- 
canica’s parent, the slate’s istituio 
per la Ricostnmone Industrials 
bolding company, has committed to 
buying 493 billion lire. 

Continued from Page 9 
in a coach, failing to make the men- 
tal leap from technician to leader is 

though he was very open and avail- 
able — the opposite of the previous 

One of Mr. Lurie’s recent success 
stories, as he described it, was a 
manager in a small organization 
who had recently taken over the 
leadership of a team, and soon 
Tound himself at the center of 
struggle and tension. 

"There was 3 lot of internal com- 
petition," Mr. Lurie said. “He 
couldn ’1 get straight answers or in- 
formation from people, even 

The problem turned out to be 
that he thought his job was to tell 
his “direct reports” bow to do then- 
jobs. His employees felt insulted 
and devalued. “They were profes- 
sionals who needed to be left 
alone,” Mr. Lurie said 

men and women 1 deal with,” Mr. 
Lurie said. "They get rewarded for 
very tangible accomplishments. 
Leadership is habitually referred to 
as the soil staff.” The executive's 
developmental leap, as Mr. Lurie 
called it, was to be willing to trade 
his tangible for ‘just" being a lead- 

U.S. Markets 
Closed Wednesday 

NASHVILLE. Tennesee — Northern Telecom Ltd., in a bid to 
concentrate on its core telecommunications business, said Wednesday 
that it sold its Northern Telecom Finance Corp. unit to GE Capital's 
Vendor Financial Services for $600 million. 

Feedback played an important 
>Ie in helping the executive modi- 

U.S. financial markets were 
dosed Wednesday in observance of 
a national day of mourning for for- 
mer president Richard M. Nixon. 

The Public Securities Associa- 
tion also has recommended the 
dosing of the government securi- 
ties market and money-market 

Northern Telecom Finance provides financial services and leasing to 
iortbem Telecom Inc. customers and its distributors and has a portfolio 

Northern Telecom Inc. customers and its distributors and has a portfolio 
valued at $600 million. 

Northern Telecom said the finance unit would continue to provide 
financing and leasing services to customers of Northern Telecom Inc. and 
its distributors. 

For the Record 

The boss was panicked because 
he did not know how to prove bis 
effectiveness without measurable 
results, like sales figures, to show. 
“That’s pretty typical of business 

role in helping the executive modi- 
fy his style His employees noted 
his ability to bring them together as 
a* team, to keep the unit visible at 
the corporate level and to gamer 
good community relationships. ( 

To our readers in luxemboun 

tt*s never been easier to subscribe 
and sore. Just cdl tol-free: 

Westinghoase Electric Corp. plans to reduce ils $33 billion debt load 
by $1.0 billion this year through cost-cutting involving the selling or some 

jobs by theendoflW^. - --- - ^ (Kiiighr-Rtdder} 

Viacom 1nc.'s Paramount Communcations unit said Paramount Pub- 
lishing will realign its business, technical and professional sector, which 
will involve selling non-core assets. t AFX/ 


Agent* Frince ftiM* Ap»4 27 


MM ,VE iAOCt HEAR! << j 

cdqrad 5 I 0 .- 1 T 1 M end preser/w 
inrojjfrwi the worid no*» and tor- I 
«*t. Sacred Heart of Jaw pray tor 1 
ul Saint >xk wrlor of rmroda pray 
for us. Sainr Jude help of *ie hopefan 
pray far ul AMEN- AMC 

55.000 GREW CARDS 
CW»«J bf U S. 

State Copstow^t taRonr 
FES ««o send nji*. address. 



For FES rfi ignd rtxno. adore 
ptaCe of brrth to; 

3364 CaB* to Vote 


Sot Ornate, CA 72673 USA 

**.- £71-41 461-0249/Td: 01*1 661-32 

1249/Tet: t714| 661-33*5 





| Al perfina & grfa TXty Free' hi lt» 
1 hoart of Parc Sudd Acnunfa for 
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ScMngs of *(KL 2 blocks bom ' Opera , 
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F 8 H GIFT yriiti rtns ad. MorvFn. 9-63D 
10 m Mm, Paris 9, Mofco Optra. 

APRIL 29, 1994 



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Appears on Page 12 



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74 champs avsas 


■ 2 FOB 1 wra OC MOKE fog h dan 
20 sJwfio. 2 or s*adm op art ne rts . FUU.Y 


that the International 
Hamid Tribune caanat be 
hold responsible for lam or 
dam ages iuanr a d esq ra- 
*aft of tra nsa cti on s stem- 
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/IPs therefore recommend- 
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area and etoentertt. Attractive 

Tefc (1) 44 13 33 33 

AG Pin 





3640 2610 
4830 4880 
2*70 2460 
26075 Z56» 
190 185 

D ethpft c IJ70 1346 

EktC+raUW 4210 6190 

GIB 1535 1510 

GBL 4390 045 

Gevaert 10125 9898 

Kredleltjontr 6880 6180 

Perrotina 10700 1 0475 

Powerfln 3*20 3340 

Roval 361 Be 5*80 5519 

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I Prefer long tarn. F6.800 net. Tel- 
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Severn Trent 



1J* 1 M A5a fra- Hocfterte 143 139 

S.12 115 WUcheltnB 259.90 257.90 

731 7-28 UoulbieK 13i50 139 

+22 6JB PorfOas *17 407 

33 327* 
31 31 

19 1956 
21* 21 W 
2* 2346. 
99t WP* 
60'*. 40Vi 
12% 72% 
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5mrn Nephew Ias lAO I PecTWnev inn 



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Swj Alliance 
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173 373 1 Pernod- Ricord 382.90 3BZA0 ASOtilGtass 

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438 *31 Rctolcrtechntouo HM 580 tooon 

1 Thorn EMI 
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2.11 HO 
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154 151 £«to 

255 Z4> ReOnute «jaf 

2.12 2.15 Saint Gatxstn 

10-82 1088 5^-B. 

IS s§ 

1736 1730 Dai Nrapan PrM 

895 898 ^°us<> 

699 700 Datwa Securftte 

581 J67 Fonuc 

626 06 Fuff Bank 

11.70 30530 Full PllOlO 

WOT Loon 3W *5.13 4A43I ThomSm»-C5P 170.70 16978 Fultlw 



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H07 538 Total 3*13*440 Hitachi 

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s' so isiso The stock marker io' — 

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3940 3930 
1843 IBIS 

Trocteoei 11000 10*58 Johannesburg was 
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Page 11 I 

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Repo Rate by 
Wide Margin 

Cmpdedty Our Staff From Dispareha 

Of Bropeaa 5 ' 


previous weeks, helped “JSt 


banks use For ihe bulk of tteirshS 

Asia Sales 
lift Profit 
At Bayer 

Bloomberg Businas New 

COLOGNE - Bayer AG. 
one of Germany's three major 
chemicals companies, said 
Wednesday that its pretax 
profit rose 18 percent, to 755 
million Deutsche marks 
($448.3 million), in the first 
quarter of 1994. underscoring a 
global rebound in the industry 
and stnmg sales in Asia. 

The results exceeded gener- 
al expectations and came a 
day after its rival Hoechst AG 
had disclosed a 16 percent 
gain in pretax earnings for the 
first three months of the year. 

Bayer said that sales had 
grown by 6.3 percent in the 
first quarter, to 10.99 billion 
DM, and had been boosted by 
overseas business, particularly 
in Asia. 

HaraJd Gruber, a chemicals 
industry analyst with Nomura 
Securities Co. in Frankfurt, 
said Bayer’s results were “bet- 
ter than expected;” be had 
predicted a 10.9 percent in- 
crease in pretax profit. 

First-quarter sales in Asia, 
Africa and Australia gained 22 
percent, to 1.3 billion DM, 
while sales in Europe rose by 
only 2 percent, to 6.61 billion 
DM, and sales in North Amer- 
ica climbed 9 percent, to 233 
billion DM. 

tom refinancing, io 5.47 percent 
from 538 percent. It was the sec- 
ond-largest cut since December and 
came in spite of the Bundesbank 
statement on Tuesday that the M-3 
money supply grew 15.2 percent in 
retmiary, far above its 1994 target 
range of 4 percent to 6 percent. 

Belgium’s central bank followed 
the German move, cutting its cen- 
tral rate to 5.6 percent from 5.7 
percent. The Bank of Italy shaved 
its repurchase rate to 8.01) percent. 

Analysts predicted the Bank of 
France would reduce its interven- 
tion rate on Thursday. A cut is “70 
percent" probable, said Alison 
Cottrell, an economist at Midland 
Global Markets in London. 

French monetary policy has 
closely paralleled that of the 
Bundesbank recently with the 
Bank of France keeping its inter- 
vention rate about 20 basis pants 
above the German repurchase rate. 

Traders said that tbe most recent 
German reduction indicated 
Bundesbank resolve to ai« key 
rates. Bundesbank President Hans 
TIetmeyer said earlier this week that 
the central bank would “continue to 
explore the scope for reducing inter- 
est rates, as we did 10 days ago." 

“I’m quite satisfied with the repo 
result,” said Bemd Passer, a trader 
at Gebruder Beihmann Bank. 
“We’d expected 5.48 percent, and 
in the event we got 5.47 percent.” 

The Bundesbank engineered the 
rate drop by injecting a net 23 
billion Deutsche marks ($137 bil- 
lion) into the country’s domestic 
money market 

Some analysts doubted, however, 
(hat (too rate declines would contin- 
ue at this pace and that the Bundes- 
bank would cut its discount and 
Lombard rates, the respective (Toot 
and ceiling of German money rates, 
at its council meeting on Thursday. 

“We'D see slower rate falls in the 
next weeks,” said one economist 
“Rales will keep falling but not at 
the same tempo." 

Analysts aid tbe Bundesbank 
likely feds it has room to steadily 
lower rates because Germany’s in- 
flation picture is improving. The 
year-on-year consumer price rise in 
Western Germany in March was 32 

Germany’s six leading economic 
institutes said Tuesday that West 
German inflation was likely to fall 
as low as 2 percent this year. 

(Reuters, Bloomberg) 

European TV Lures U.S. Studios 

Changing EU Rules Have Spawned New Alliances 

By Richard Covington 

Special to the Herald Tribune 

LONDON — A quartet of athletic contes- 
tants scramble desperately through a science 
fiction set of past-industrial devastation in 
Britain’s Pinewood Studios, racing to avoid 
fearsome creatures that resemble escapees 
from the film “Aliens." 

Welcome to “Scavengers." a participatory 
adventure television series that starts shooting 
this week. In an alliance that itself would have 
smacked of science fiction only a few years 
ago. “Scavengers” binds Twentieth Century- 
rcw Film Corp. to four overseas broadcasters. 

“American broadcasters used to routinely 
spurs the Europeans,” said Russell Kagan, a 
developer of tdevision series. Their attitude 
was simple: We don't need your money. Hat’s 
all changed within the past four years." 

As the audiovisual watchdogs of tbe Euro- 
pean Union work on a major overhaul of 
Union tdevision policy, U.S. broadcasters are 
fashioning increasingly imaginative and so- 
phisticated partnerships with European pro- 
ducers and networks. Apart from Fox, a host 
of American tdevision companies have signed 
on with European partners. They include tbe 
NBC and ABC networks. Turner Broadcasting 
System Inc, the Discovery Channel, which is 
owned by Tele-Communications Inc, Wes- 
tinghouse Broadcasting Co., and Rysher En- 
tertainment, a syndicator. 

ABCs “Baywatch” series, for example, is 
largdy financed by BetaFilm GmbH, part of 
the German media conglomerate KirchGroup. 
which invests close to $400,000 per episode, 
according to one source. KirchGroup, in con- 
cert with Lux SpA of Italy, also is behind the 
21-part mini-series. “The Bible,” shown in 
America on Turner Network Tdevision. 

NBCs Superchannel, partially owned by 
Crtdii Lyonnais and Virgin Group PLC, has 
slated a production schedule entailing 1.000 
hours of original European programming. 

said Patrick Cox, the channel's chairman. 
Tbe Supcrchaimd also recently bought a se- 
ries from the German broadcaster ZDF and 
the French station TF1. 

The Americans have been particularly suc- 
cessful at malting inroads into British televi- 
sion shows. “Connections,” tbe BBC's hugely 
popular science series, has spawned a succes- 
sor, “Connections 2,” backed by Discovery 

'Entirely apart from 
quotas, there are 
enormous opportunities 
to produce in Europe. 9 
James Gianopulos, president of 
Twentieth-Century Fox 

Communications lnc„ based in Bethesda. 
Maryland. Even the quia (essentially British 
animation series, "Budgie the Little Helicop- 
ter,” written by the Duchess of York, repre- 
sents a cooperative venture with Sleepy Kids 
PLC, a British producer, and its U.S. distribu- 
tor, Westingbouse Broadcasting International. 

James Giaoopulos, president of Twentieth- 
Century Fox International, acknowledged the 
European restrictions on television and film 
imports have hurt American producers. “But 
entirely apart Tram quotas, there are enormous 
opportunities to produce in Europe,” be said, 
adding that Fox would not be pressured into 
fashioning trans-Atlantic partnerships “simply 
to slap a European label on them.” 

“Scavengers” puts an unusual spin on in- 
ternational media partnerships by allowing 
each of tbe participating networks — Brit- 
ain’s Carlton Television, Spain’s Antena 3, 
Germany’s Telemfinchen, and Scandinavia’s 

Nordisk — to make their own versions or the 
show. Each network selects its own team 
participants and brings them to England 
along with a film crew where they shoot the 
various episodes. Tbe only aspect in common 
is the 1225 million set booby-trapped with 
physically demanding obstacles to surmount 
and monstrous mutants to vanquish. 

In the vast majority of cases, it has been the 
Americans who develop series for overseas 
markets. Tbe stand-out exception has been 
Ganmonl Televison SA, the French producer 
that had sales of 180 million French francs 
($31 million) in 2993. Undera syndication deal 
with Rysher Entertainment, Gaumont's televi- 
sion series “Highlander” is going into its third 
season in the United States Ironically, the 
French-produced series was roundly excoriat- 
ed for bringing violence to U.S. television. In a 
recent study by the Center for Media and 
Public Affairs, “Highlander” was rated as the 
most violent series oa television. Although the 
series is shot in F-ngWgh, it manages to benefit 
from French audiovisual subsidies. 

“The subsidies are allocated like airline bo- 
nus miles," said Marla Ginsbmg. the producer 
of the series. “If you spend a certain percent- 
age of your budget shooting in France, you 
earn subsidies for future productions.” 

Apart from the advantages of dubbing more 
easily into other languages, Gaumoni chose to 
film in English and aim its productions at the 
American market because “tbe audiovisual 
policies in Europe are so directly linked to 
politics that it makes for a very unstable pro- 
duction climate,” Ms. Ginsburg said. 

In tbe works at Gaumont are a series for 
NBC and for Anglia Television Entertain- 
ment, a British television channel, tilled “Club 
Med," another comedy series updating “Tbe 
Three Musketeers" for The Family Channel in 
the United States, and a made-for-television 
movie, “Daughters of Silence” for the ABC 
cable channel. Lifetime Television. 

Investor’s Europe 



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Sources: Reuters, AFP 

JWOTurirm*) Henkt Trihmc j 

Very briefly: 

Nestle Expects Business to Strengthen 

Compiled bv Our Staff From Dispatcher 

ZURICH — Nestle SA, the 
world’s biggest food and beverage 
company, on Wednesday reported a 
slight first-quarter drop in rales but 
said it was optimistic about perfor- 
mance for (he rest of the year. 

Nestlfe said consolidated sales 
were 132 billion Swiss francs ($92 
billion) in the January-March peri- 
od, down 23 percent from last 
year. This was because of tbe 
strength of the franc against other 
currencies, it said. 

The strength of tbe Swiss franc 
against major currencies has de- 
pressed first-quarter sales by most 
Swiss multinationals. 

But NestJe’s sales volume grew by 

13 percent, with a sharp accelera- 
tion in March, when sales were 53 
percent higher than a year earlier. 

The chief executive. Helmut 
Maucher, said consumer confi- 
dence remained weak in Europe 
due to unemployment and falling 
real incomes. 

“But there are signs the economy 
is improving,” be said. “An upswing 
in consumption in Europe is likely 
in the second half of tbe year.” 

Because of (his, Mr. Maucher 
said, the company was confident of 
increased sales and profit for 1994. 

Nestlfc posted a 7 percent in- 
crease in consolidated profit, to 29 
billion francs in 1993. Sales rase by 
5 percent, to 573 billion francs. 

Mr. Maucher said Nestle had 
weathered tbe recession better than 
most rivals, due largely u> its great- 
er geographical spread. 

Another factor was its broad 
product range, he said, with a recent 
emphasis on budding up activities in 
ice cream and mineral waters. This 
included the acquisitions of such 
brands as France's Perrier. Italy’s 
Fmitalgd, Deer Park of the United 
States, and Taiwan’s Foremost 

With these purchases. Mr. 
Maucher said, “We have filled our 
strategic gaps." 

Nesdi’s finance director, Reto 
Domemconi, said that provided 
there are no major acquisitions in 

1994, net debt is expected to de- 
cline by 1 billion francs. 

Mr. Maucher said no major pur- 
chases were in the pipeline but ac- 
quis lions will “remain pan and par- 
od of our future growth strategy.” 
He added that Nestlfi had expressed 
an interest in acquiring some or all 
of Branded Consumer Products, the 
former food operations of Procardia 
AB, from Volvo AB. 

Mr. Maucher said Nestle would 
reap a “considerable" sum of cash 
from the agreed sale of Cosmair 
Inc. and other holdings to tbe 
French cosmetics company L'Ore- 
al, in which Nestle is a major indi- 
rect shareholder. 

(AP. Reuters. AFX) 

• US West Inc. is negotiating to buy a 25 percent slake in Bulgaria's new' 
cellular telephone venture, railed Mobil Tel AG, for about 515 million.) 
The venture also includes Tran GmbH, which is based in Vienna. . 

• Rtemwort Benson Group PLCs shares jumped 9 percent Wednesday 1 

after it said it emerged unscathed from a first-quarter slump in world : 
stocks and bonds and that its results in the period would closely match 
last year’s. : 

• Banco de Bilbao- Vizcaya is studying the possibilty of challenging Banco ' 

Santander’s successful bid Tor Banco EspaAol de Cr&Bto SA, known as 
Banesto. 7 

• Lego A/S, the Danish maker of children's building blocks, increased* 
net profits by 16 percent in 1993, to 518 million kroner ($78 million), 
helped by a combination of increased sales and cheap raw materials. > 

• Wffiams Holdings PLC plans to raise £267 million ($402 million)^ 

through a l-for-7 rights issue priced at 330 pence per share. Some of the'” 
proceeds will be used to buy Soivay SA’s European wood care and tile 
adhesive business. Bfoontfax. Reuters. A FX, A FP 

Enterprise Weighs LASMO 


LONDON — Enterprise Oil 
PLC said Wednesday that it was 
considering making a bid Tor 
LASMO PLC, Britain’s other ma- 
jor independent oil company. 

LASMO said it would consider 
any bid by Enterprise “unwelcome.” 

Enterprise said that any offer 
was unlikely to value LASMO at 
more than itsTuesday night closing 
price of 153 pence a shore After 
tbe announcement, LASMO’s 
stock rose 1 1 pence to 163 pence. 

Tony Alves, an analyst at tbe 
Henderson Crostbwaite brokerage, 
said a higher price or 180 to 200; 
pence a share, valuing LASMO at' 
£1.7 billion ($234 btuioo), would 
be closer to a “proper valuation.” 

Other potential bidders ar*-- 
thoughi to include British Gas' 
PLC, Atlantic Richfield Co., Elf* 
Aquitaine SA and Total SA. 

Mr. Alves said LASMO had at- 
tractive assets, such as shares in the 
North Sea Piper field and the rich, 
Liverpool Bay oil and gas field, an<F 
interests in Indonesia, Algeria and) 
tbe Far East 

DISNEY: Entertainment Giant Is Looking Overseas'to f Reinvent 9 Itself 

Continued from Page 9 
mainly to charges the company 
took to cover its portion of finan- 
cial losses at Euro Disney and ac- 
counting changes. 

Asked what the company bad 
learned from its problems in Eu- 
rope, Mr. Eisner said: “We know 
that Americans don’t want us to 
open a French restaurant in New 
York or Los Angdes that serves a 
double patty cheeseburger and that 
the French don't want us to come 
over there and do crepe, and the 
Germans don’t want us to serve 
knockwursl and sauerkraut. They 
want us to do whai we do.” 

Mr. Eisner, who last year warned 
that Euro Disney was in danger of 
closing unless be could reach an 
agreement with creditors on a fi- 
nancial bailout, now maintains that 
it win eventually be a hit. 

“Maybe I am just stubbornly op- 
timistic or arrogantly insensitive on 
the creative side,” Mr. Eisner said, 
“but I drink the park is the most 
fantastic product ever done by this 

Mir. Eisner reached an agreement 
with Euro Disney’s creditors in 
March to restructure $33 biDkm of 
the park’s debt The plan included 
a capital rescue of $1.05 billion 
from Disney and the creditors or 
Enro Disney and an easing of the 
park’s royalty, interest, and debt 

Still, Euro Disney executives 
have said they expected the park to 
post a loss this financial year and 

that it would not show significant 
growth in revenue before 1996. 

Theme parks are far less impor- 
tant to Disney’s bottom line than in 
the past. The paries now account 
for 43 percent of Disney’s operat- 
ing income, compared with 74 per- 
cent in 1985. While Disney’s parks 
grew at a steady pace during this 
period, they were overshadowed by 
the rapid expansion of filmed en- 
tertainment and consumer prod- 

Filmed entertainment is now 36 
percent of operating income, com- 
pared with 10 percent in 1985, and 
consumer products has increased 
to 21 percent from 16 percent 

The theme park business is high- 
ly dependent on tbe health of world 
economies and on consumer confi- 
dence. In tbe second quarter, oper- 
ating profit at Disney's parks fell 3 
percent to $152-3 million, due 
mainly to a decline in overseas visi- 
tors to Walt Disney World in Flori- 
da, Following widely publicized 
crimes against tourists, and a drop 
in attendance at Disneyland after 
the Calif ornia earthquake in Janu- 

Judson G Green, president of 
Wait Disney Attractions, said that 
despite the recent declines, he is 
anticipating a big increase in over- 
all park attendance and revenue 
fueled by the opening of new gates, 
rides, and attractions in tbe coming 
years. Mr. Green said Disney is 
cutting operating costs at the parks 

and aggressively pricing its hotels. 

But it is dearly more difficult to 
build theme parks now than it was 
in the past Disney’s plan to build a 
second theme park in Southern 
California has been pm on hold 
because the company has had diffi- 
culty convincing local government 
to bdp finance high infrastructure 

Disney’s consumer-products di- 
vision, which oversees licensing, 
publishing, the Disney stores, and 
Disney Records, has been enor- 
mously successful in recent years 
and is expected to play a erndaj 
role in the company expansion 

Last year, tbe division had oper- 
ating income of S356 million, up 26 
percent over the previous year. Op- 
erating income for consumer prod- 
ucts rose 12 percent in the second 
quarter, to $97.7 million. 

The increases were driven by ad- 
vances in theficeasing and publish- 
ing businesses in Europe and Asia 
as well as strong rales of Disney 
merchandise and growth in the 
□umber of Disney stores, of which 
there are now 265 in the world. 

“We are moving slowly and pa- 
tiently to Chin a." said Barton K. 
Boyd, president erf Disney Con- 
sumer Products. “The grandpar- 
ents remember the Disney charac- 
ters like Mickey Mouse, and it 
won’t lake long" before for their 
grandchildren come to know them, 

Despite numerous films that 
have bombed at the box-office in 
the past year, Disney's filmed en- 
tertainment division continues to 
past strong gcuns, buoyed by the 
popularity of Disney’s animated 
features and robust borne video 
sales domestically and overseas. 

In the second quarter, operating 
profit increased 2 percent, to $160 
million. Last year, the filmed enter- 
tainment division had operating in- 
come of $622 million, a 22 percent 
increase over the prior year. 

Disney Studios produces movies 
under three labels: Walt Disney 
Pictures, Touchstone Pictures ana 
Hollywood Pictures. Walt Disney 
Pictures produces animated fea- 
tures such as “Tbe Little Mermaid” 
and “Beauty and the Beast” and 
family-oriented films like “The 
Mighty Ducks." Touchstone and 
Hollywood Pictures produce mere 
mature films like “Pretty Woman” 
and “Sister AcL" 

While Disney’s films have been 
making lots of money, the studio 
has also produced numerous mov- 
ies of late that are financial and 
critical disasters, leading to the re- 
moval this week of Ricardo 
Mestres as president of Hollywood 
Pictures. Hollywood had some box 
office successes, like “The Hand 
That Rocks the Cradle” and “The 
Joy Luck Gub,” but (he label had 
man y more bombs like “Blame It 
on the Bellboy,” “Boro Yesterday." 
and “Guilty as Sin.” 


The BFCE Board of Directors, chaired by Michel Freyche, oner April 6, 1994 
to approve the 3995 consolidated financial statements 

M«»t hanking income 

fimas operating inco me — - 

Nat income, excluding minority interests 
Tola 1 capital 
Cooke ratio 



A sharp iacrease la aetiwltf . 
particularly aa the lafaraatlaaal sfda 
ani ia tfca flaaaelal markets 

Consolidated net banking lacome for 1993 
jUBoaoud to F*P 2256 nuflioa. This 5 percent 
topneom om 1992 ws doe to ® 
increase in commercial banking activities, while 
^Mona) activities oa behalf of the ^r®^®*** 
continued to decline gradually, 


bon strong development in financial mrnto and 

STnSl activities. Commercial 
France meanwhile managed w reader a shgbi 
advance, despite the unfavorable economic 


Gnss ipentlig 

to, the fourth ya» io » row. OP^H 
aptota. deptecioHoo, ood aoortuotio. 

were stable, enabling gross operating income 
to facrease by 13 percent to FRF 840 nrilBoo- 
Prndeni risk management and tbe high-quality 
BFCE diem base led to a reduction in provisions 
from FRF 41 1 mifflon In 1992 to FRF 3# million In 

A sharp Iicrease is operating income 
and set Income 

Operating Income increased 51 percent to 
reach FRF 504 million. This strong rise enabled 
the bank to make a further major FRF 230 million 
ggforatioa to the general booking risks fond, 
strengthening core equity. Net non-recurring 
transactions feduded a supplemental allocation of 
FRF 60 million 10 provide complete coverage of 

. i _fr. 

Renewed strenuUienhig of the Bank's 
financial base aid Bihaacad 

Ttapit* id ihe increase ft the general banking risks 
bad , income transferred to reserves, and various 
redeonabk subonfinUed note Issues, total capital 
increased by more than FRF 700 million, 
FRF 500 million of which represented core eqnhy, 
and now nmds at FRF 7-3 hillioii. 

The Bank’s solvency (Cooke) rati® readied 
9.2 percent at year-end. Including 5.4 percent 
for core equity. 

1994 is expected » show continued earnings 

NIUWU ihuiow - ' 

Consolidated set income, exri a dfag minority 
Interests, rose to WF 202 million, a sharp 
47 1 ' 



General Shareholders' Meeting Report 

Main resolutions 



The General Shareholders' Meeting 
held on April 22, 1994, approved the 
accounts and allocation of profits for 
the 1993 financial year. Consolidated 
sales were FF 80.6 billion and net 
income FF 962 million. Though profit 
is slightly down compared with last 
year, as a result of the difficult 
economic climate, the Group has 
nonetheless progressed in reducing its 
debt and stepping up productivity, 
research and Innovation. 


Shareholders also renewed the 
mandate of. or elected to. the Board 
for six years: J.R. Fourtou, C. Beb&ar, 
S. Kampf, F. Kourilsky. AGF. BNP. 
Credit Lyonnais and Financi&re et 
Immobili&re Marcel Dassault. 

The other Board members elected al 
the General Shareholders' Meeting of 
December 24, 1993 were J.M. Bruel. 
A. Merieux. Society FIAT France. 
Soci6l£ Generate, Credit Suisse. 


The results over the past few months 
appear to indicate a stabilisation of 
the poor economic conditions, but the 
Group does not count on a genuine 
upturn in the European economy 
in 1994. 

However, by strengthening its strategic 
operations, productivity improvement 
programmes and following through 
efforts in innovation, the Group will be 
in a good position to continue its 

Shareholders approved tbe merger 
with Institut Merieux and as a result 
decided to increase Rhone-Poulcnc's 
capita] by FT U 20.736250. 

The transaction allows Rh6ne -Poulenc 
to strengthen its health activities, 
especially in tbe rapidly growing area 
of preventive medicine. It allows 
Institut Merieux, world leader in 
vaccines, to benefit from the support 
of a Group with substantial financial 
and research capabilities, in order to 
continue its expansion. 

to be paid from 
1 Juh 1994 

- lor each ordinary 

•A" share, a drutk tid ol 
FI 2.40 plus a l;»\ credit 
of FF J.2»> i.c. u t,'ros> 
tin idend ol FF 3.f>0. 

- for each Cl I’, a dituk ud 
of FF 3.65 plu> j t h\ 
credit of FI 1.825 i.c. 

:» prox** iii> iffrml t/l 

FF 5.475. 



Shareholders approved the acquisition 
of Cooper (a pharmaceutical product 
distribution and manufacturing 
company) and. as a result, decided 
to increase RhOne-Poulenc's capital 
by FF 414,000.000 in order to 
exchange Cooper shares for 
Rhone- Poulenc shares. 

The transaction will enable 
Rhfcne-Poulcnc to develop its family 
medication business and Cooper, 
which already markets Doliprane* 1 and 
Vaxigrip*> on behalf of Rhone-Poulenc. 
to strengthen its position and services 
for retail pharmacies. 


The other resolutions dealt mainly 
with the authorisation to buy and sell 
Rhdne-Poulenc shares on the Stock 
Market, the possibility of a capital 
increase, notably by tbe issuance 
of warrants or shares, and the 
authorisation of stock purchases and 
stock options. 

Oipifal fiicicasc 

t he i^Mte oi ru-\' Nfuiu-N 

linkt () to flit* nuTiitT \'ilb 

lii'.tifut Mt rionv and the 
aujuiMtion of < 'impcr 
fit in 2 " Rhone-Poulenc v 
capital to IT ?.X74.% 2.050 
25. 1 "7 ). 

If you would tike to receive: 

- a summary of the Annual 
General Meeting. 

- the shareholders letter 
(published quarterly). 

- "Rhone-Poulenc in brief". 

(a summary of the Annual 

- the complete Annual Report, 

please contact: 

The Investor Relations service, 
25 quai Paul Dotuner 
92408 Conrfoevoie cedes 

Tel. (33.1) 47.68J00.97 






Page 12 


Amid Armenia’s Economic Ruin, a Software Company Is Making It 

By Raymond Bonner 

New York Timer Service 

YEREVAN, Armenia — In the waning years 
or the old Soviet Union, when it first allowed 
some experimentation with private enterprise, 
four Armenian brothers decided to start a com- 
puter software company here They had no 
money and, worse, no computers. 

Some seven years later, their company, Ara- 
gast B, has 100 employees whose accomplish- 
ments include writing software for banks in 
Siberia and selling computerized dictionaries to 
schools as far away as California. The brothers 
also staved off local gangsters who demanded a 
piece of the business. 

Aragast B is hardly a challenge to Microsoft 
Corp„ though the Armenian company con- 
tends that its dictionary, which translates Eng- 
lish into Armenian, Russian and Arabic, is 
superior to those offered by US. software man- 

But Aragast has grown in a newly indepen- 
dent country where to say the economy is in 
shambles would be to exalt iL Along any street 
in the Armenian capital more stores are closed 

than functioning, and those that are open offer 
an anemic selection of goods. 

Industry is operating at 30 percent of capacity, 
thanks to a fuel shortage that results in electricity 
being available only two hours a day. By unoffi- 
cial counts, more than half a million Armenians 
have fled in die last three years, reducing the 
population of the country to 3 million. 

"Yes. the country is near the bottom, but still 
there is a lot of energy," said Gourgen Martir- 
05si an, president of Aragast B. and the youn- 
gest of the brothers. 

It is understandable why the brothers would 
choose to start a computer company. Armenia 
was once the Silicon Valley of the former Soviet 
Union. Forty percent of the mainframe comput- 
ers for the Soviet military were designed there. 

At one time 5,000 people worked at the 
Yerevan Computer Research institute, a down- 
town complex of stone buildings so secret that 
ordinary Armenians did not know what went 
on inside. The decaying buildings are largely 
empty now, except for Aragast’s offices on the 
third floor. 

But how could a computer software company 






S"?*KARABAKH # 4 ^ 




begin without computers? “That's an interest- 
ing question." Mr. Martirossian said with a 
laugh. “We went to the customers and used 
their computers." 

The brothers were used to having nothing. 
Their parents were school teachers, and as chil- 
dren. Gourgen and his next older brother. Bah- 
tin had to share a Dair of trousers for school. 

if the boy who attended the morning sessions 
tarried, the boy waiting at home would miss his 
afternoon classes. While recalling those days, 
Gourgen Martirossian sat in his office wearing 
a pin-striped suit, broad-collared white shirt 
and tie. 

His oldest brother, Armen, is the general 
manager of Aragast, a holding company that 
includes banking, insurance, agriculture and 
retailing units. Babken and Karen, the fourth 
brother, also work for the company. 

From the beginning, Aragast B focused on 
banks as potential software customers. “Even 
when the economy is bad, banks are the last to 
die, 1 ' Gourgen Martirossian explained. 

Using the old Soviet-made computers at Ar- 
menian banks, the brothers developed software 
to computerize the daily operations of the 
banks. Wbai they demonstrated their software 
at a bank trade fair in Moscow recently, two 
Russian banks also bought copies. 

"The amazing thing was they paid cash right 
away," Mr. Martirossian recalled with a mix- 
ture of awe and pleasure. 

Such fledgling capitalists throughout the for- 

mer Soviet Union hove found one of the great- 
est challenges is getting work out of workers 
grown accustomed in the Soviet era to bong 
paid for just showing up. 

Aragast B pays its employees relatively well by 
curnait Armenian standards. But Mr. Martiros- 
sian said wages mattered less than a climate of 
caring about the employees’ personal needs. 

"In these horrible conditions, money is not 
the most important thing," Mr. Martirossian 
said. “We understand this and this is the key to 
our success. We've created a climate in this 
company and this climate is more important 
than wages." 

As an example, he spoke of what the company 
had done for some employees who were among 
the thousands of Armenian refugees escaping the 
fighting between Azerbaijan and Armenia. 

Aragast B hired several refugees who were 
highly skilled, but who could only find apart- 
ments far from the center of Yerevan, with 
public transportation sporadic these days, die 
newcomers found it difficult to get to work. So 
the company bought them a car. 

The company also bought an apartm^ j£ r 

another top^rogrammer, **».«» 

ous marital problems, Vf get him out of his a 

cramped quarters. 

stolen cars to weapons. • 

In Armenia as in other former Swfct 

U n^T^7c^»a astareof the 

Aragast B refused and soon found 
ployees attacked and the company robbed by 
local drug addicts hired by the gangsters. Mr. 
Martirossian and other company executives 
started carrying pistols to protect themselves. 
The war of nerves wen L on for more than a year, 
but Aragast prevailed. 

*T think when they saw that we were wdbng 
to put our lives on the line, when we were ready 
to die for our business, they backed off," said 




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A major international sendee company is 
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function is developing systems, procedures 
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OursW ■o*KMleaMfMi MmbMr 


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The Personnel Officer, P.O. Box SS-5539, Nassau, Bahamas. 

Abu Dhabi 
Research Institution 

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(Commonwealth of Independent States) 

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CR\ Could Rai se 
S300 Million in 
Pasminco Salp 

Page 13 




1 “d X *1* 

purchase cm Wednesday » «F L or 


Oxp. of Britain, MiShZSa^I 

mg. CRA may also sell aa additonal 

Indonesia Banks 

Leave S&P Cold 


h ~ Indonesia’s 
bankmgsvstem, shaken bv a 
mu! tiraxl lion-doUar loan scan- 
c * me . ua der attack 
Wednesday from Standard & 
Poor s Corp., which said the 
c»anks medium-term outlook 
was uncertain and unstable. 

The rating agency said Indo- 
nesia s banking system was un- 
der stress because of deregula- 
uon in the late 1980s. SAP said 
aggressive loan growth and ap- 
parently inadequate lending 
procedures had contributed to 
a “high risk environment. " 

S&P said there was consid- 
erable doubt on the validity of 
reported earnings, recognition 
of problem loans and provi- 
sioning levels. Bad-debt woes, 
brought u> the surface by a 
5430 million !erter-of-credit 
scandal at PT Bank Pemhan- 
guoan Indonesia, or Bapindo, 
have shaken foreign confi- 

*9-2 percent of Pasminco, which it 
has an option to buy from North 
Broken Hill Feko Ltd. by June 6. 

. « w e judge the price is appro- 
priate and we get full value, we 
would sell," CRA’s managin g di- 
rector. John Ralph, said. 

Pasminco shares closed at 1.80 
dollars, down 2 cents from Tues- 
day s close. At that price, the 29.9 
percent stake is worth about 400 
million dollars. CRA’s stock fin- 
ished 4 cents lower at 16.80. 

Pasminco, which produces 10 
percent of the Western world’s zinc 
and 7 percent of lead, has recorded 
losses of 194 million dollars over 
the last three years because of low 
metal prices - 

Mr. Ralph said the sale would 
release hands for CRA’s Cenuuy 
lead/zinc mining project in 
Queensland, which is expected to 
cost between 600 million and 800 
million dollars to develop. 

CRA said that if the stake went 
to one buyer, it would trigger a 
takeover bid for the rest of the 
company unless Pasminco share- 
holders agreed otherwise. In Aus- 
tralia, if a company obtains a stake 
of 20 percent or above it must make 
an bid for the whole company. 

Pasminco was formed in mid- 
1988 through a merger of the lead- 
zinc-alver interests of CRA and 
North Broken Hill Peko. 

Pasminco’s managing director, 
Peter Barnett, said be believed only 
two or three non-Australian com- 
panies could afford the stake. 

Among the largest zinc produc- 
ers inthe world are Union Mini^re 
of Belgium. Cominco Ltd. of Cana- 
da, Outokumpu Oy of Finland and 
M1M Holdings Ltd. of Australia. 

(Reuters, Bloomberg} 

China Cuts Futures Trade 


SHANGHAI — Beijing has halted trading in 
doze ns of commodity futures contracts to crack 
down on speculative trading the government says 
is fueling inflation. 

In a reflection of official alarm nt rising com- 
modity prices. trading has been ordered stopped in 
some sled, sugar and coal contracts. In addition, 
China’s largest metals exchange in Shanghai, 
which mainly trades copper futures, has been in- 
structed not to accept bank guarantees and to shift 
to a cash-only payment system starling July 1. 

The government moves are pan of a wider 
campaign to bring futures trading under central 
authority, traders said, adding (hat some of the 
country’s fledgling futures trading Boots have be- 
come playgrounds for speculators. 

“Futures markets are very unsophisticated,'’ a 
S h a ngh a i- based steel trader said. “Its getting too 
easy For people with money to speculate, and these 
people are capable of disturbing the whole market." 

Futures markets are not yet overheating — in 
fact, contracts Tot steel rods on the Suzhou Com- 
modities Exchange have been falling in recent 
weeks, and sugar contracts elsewhere also have 

Yan Yu, deputy president of the Suzhou ex- 
change, said trading in futures on wire rods would 

be stopped, at least temporarily, by the end of 
October. Forward contracts to replace futures will 
be phased in starting on May 16, she said. 

Forward contracts were precursors of futures. 
They are deals for the actually delivery of a speci- 
fied commodity at a specified' tune, unlike futures, 
which often do not result in delivery and can be 
extinguished by taking the opposite position. 

The S h a n g h ai Construction Materials Exchange 
also will suspend trading in steel futures by the end 
iOf October, but will retain forward contracts. 

A spokesman for (he Shanghai Cereals and Oils 
Exchange said three of six futures sugar contracts 
would be stopped on Friday and the rest would be 
halted by the aid of October. Officials at Shang hai's 
coal market could not be reached for common. 

■ Lower China Grain Harvest likel y 

Chinese economists are predicting a grain short- 
age this year because of cold weather and reduced 
land under cultivation, the Associated Press re- 
ported from Beijing, quoting the official China 
Daily newspaper. 

China produced a record 456 million tons of 

S in last year, and had been aiming to match that 
s year. But winter-wheat acreage, which mokes 
up a quarter of the year's grain production, is down 
from last year. 

San Miguel Weighs Site Shift 

Bloomberg Business News 

HONG KONG — San Miguel 
Brewery Ltd. said Wednesday it 
was considering selling or redevel- 
oping its Hong Kong brewery site, 
opening up the possibility that it 
could drift production to China. 

San Mioid said it was looking at 
the possibility of securing an alter- 
native ate in Hong Kong for the 
brewery. But analysts said it could 
make more sense for the company to 
move to southern China, where land 
and labor costs are much lower. 

“At the end of the day, Hong Kong 
is going to be part of China an£ 
way," he added, referring to the col- 
ony’s scheduled reversion to Chi- 
nese sovereignty in 1997. 

A spokeswoman for San Miguel 
said sne did not know if China was 
an option the company might con- 
sider. “As far as 1 know, nothing 
has been set in stone," she said. 

Speculation the oompany would 
move to China lifted San Miguel 
shares 9,1 percent on Tuesday, to 
6.60 Hong Kong dollars (85 cents). 

to China, they would of San 
get the benefit of lower production 
costs," said Mim Chan, regional 
food, tobacco and beverage analyst 
at Lehman Brothers in Hong Kong. 

San Miguel Brewery, a subsidiary 
Miguel Corp„ a food and. 

beverage company based in the Phil- 
ippines, has about ‘ 

45 percent of the 
Hong Kong beer market. But an 
increase in the availability of foreign 

beers has sliced its market share 
from about 70 percent in 1986. 

Real estate analysts said San Mi- 
guel's 494,700-square-foot (44,523- 
square- meter) brewery sits on 
prime space and its value was likely 
to increase once a major new road 
project is completed over the next 
tew years. There are several major 
housing developments close to the 
site. They said was difficult to put a 
value on the site until it became 
clear bow the government would 
treat redevelopment plans that in- 
cluded rezoning for residential use. 

Hoag Kong real estate prices 
have been souring in recent years, 
lifting the value or industrial rites 
that could be developed into offices 
or apartments. 

Japan Firms 
To Trim 

Compdai bf Otr Staff From Dispatches 

TOKYO — Japanese companies 
plan to cut capital spending by 9.2 
percent in the year to March 199S 
after trimming outlays by an esti- 
mated 10.3 percent in the year end- 
ed in March 1994, according to a 
survey published Wednesday by 
the Economic Planning Agency. 

The agency said that it would be 
tbe third consecutive year of falling 
capital spending. 

Based on a study of 4^50 medi- 
um- and large-sized companies in 
early March, the study found that 
the investment cutback would for a 
second straight year be much more 
pronounced among industrial con- 
cerns, which are expected to cut 
spending by 17.6 percent, than 
among nonmamifactunng compa- 
nies, much are seen making cuts of 
only 5 percent 

The downturn was expected to 
be especially sharp in the publish- 
ing and printing industry and in 

The agency cautioned that a 
turnaround in capital spending 
patterns was not in sight, even 
though the rate of decline was slow- 
ing down. 

Separately, the Ministry for In- 
ternational Trade and Industry 
said industrial production in the 
year ended in March shrank by 4.1 
percent, the third consecutive 
month of decline. 

A ministry official said that the 
basic undertone of industrial out- 
put and shipments was weak, al- 
though bright spots were seen in 
some sectors, such as electrical ap- 
pliances. “It is too early to declare 
Japan's economy has tut bottom,'’ 
be added. 

It was also announced that Japa- 
nese retailers saw sales fall by 3 
percent in the month of March from 
the like month a year earlier. This 
was the 22d consecutive month of 
declining sales. (AFX. AFP) 

g 1 1 1 ■ 1 1 1 1 V , -■ v^-hirr* — jJWiTTlTTrrifl 

{investor’s Asia j 

'V'" , .'T 

pT’T 4 * 


I- ■ 













Sources: Reuters, AFP 

hurmari noal Htflld TribntK 

Very briefly: 

Odes Myer Lad. said fraud charges laid against its former chief 
executive, Brian Quinn, would not financially affect the Australian 
retailer, Mr. Quinn was charged with 49 counts of theft and conspiracy to 
defraud the company of 4.8 million Australian dollars (S3.4 million). 

• Uoa Nathan Ltd., a leading brewer in Australia and New Zealand, said 
its profit after tax and amortization of goodwill rose 412 percent in the 
six months to Feb. 28, to 1 13.1 million New Zealand dollars l $65 million). 

• PT Bnkaka Tekmk Htama of Indonesia and Worldwide Hohfiogs Bhd. 
and Stkap Power Management Services Stta. of Malaysia plan to build a 
$1.66 billion coal-fired power plant in Sumatra. 

• Goodyear Tire & Rriber Co. said it would begin making tires in China 
in a 75-25 joint venture with Dafian Rubber General Factory. 

• The Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association reported vehicle 
exports fell 183 percent, to 4.62 million units, in the year to March 31, 
and the industry group said they would (hop further this year as 
automakers move production abroad to cope with the strong yen. 

• Fujitsu Ltd. said it raised to 29 biSiou yen ($282 million) from 27 billion 
yen its estimate of parent pretax profit for the year to March 31, 1994. 

Bltwrtberg, AFP, Reuters, AFX. AP 


Even Japan’s Prime Minister 
Finds He Can’t Fight City Hall 

m I 

By James Sierngold 

New York Times Service 

TOKYO — As Tsutomu Hata, 
the prime minister-elect of Japan, 
struggles to form a government this 
week, he is facing the disintegration 
of his ruling coalition, the most 
tenacious recession in decades and 
the anger of the United States at his 
country for not having done more 
to revive its economy. 

• But Mr. Hata also has to face the 
post office, whose latest rate in- 
| crease reflects just who is winning 
the basic conflict in Japan between 
political leaders and the govern- 
ment bureaucracy. 

With the economy so battered 
that wholesale prices are actually 
declining, the government enacted 
earlier this year a stimulus program 
that included a S55 billion income- 
tax cut The new government is 
expected to take further measures 
to stimulate growth. 

For months politicians have 
sworn that jolting Japan out of its 
two-year-old recession was then- 
top priority — a pledge Mr. Hata 
has repeated. Trimming income 
taxes was seen as one way to en- 
courage consumers to spend more. 

However, the Finance Ministry 
has fought furiously againsi big tax 
cuts and other measures that would 
create budget deficits. Its officials 
have argued, and Mr. Hata has 
agreed, that if income tax cuts are 
extended beyond this year, lost rev- 
enue must be made up with big 
increases in the national sales tax, 
currently 3 percent. 

Other ministries have soughlto 
push through fee, toll and fare in- 
creases to make up their own defi- 

The post office has done its bit 
with a major increase in its mailing 
rales, raising the cost of sending a 
regular letter by 29 percent, to the 

to equivalent of 77 cents. The increase 

will take S2.5 billion out o f con - 
sumers’ pockets this year, accord- 
ing to estimates by Morgan Stanley 

Tbe postage increase has hit some 
recession-shaken companies so hard 
that they haws turned to an illegal, 
but revealing, dodge: they have been 
putting thousands of individual let- 
ters in boxes, shipping them in bulk 
to places like Hong Kong, where 
mailing rates are more reasonable, 
and then having than remailed indi- 
vidually to Japan. Tbe lengthy 
round trip still costs less Chan mail- 
ing the letters within Japan. 

Hardly an isolated instance, the 
postal rate jump is one of a senes of 
increases in fees for various govern- 
ment services that the bureaucracy 
iroved or looks likely to ap- 

■■ = *-‘ 

• tbe,«#toponft .hut -seine 

.• \ vVv V '-v-fv vV>Y;.- 

■ Postal We insurance premiums 1,200.0 billion i- 

” Personal pension premiums SOOuOMIIor) 

Postage 280.0 Wilton > 

Telephone services 95.0 biOton (*■ , 

Tokyo metropolitan road tolls 38-5bafion 7. 

■■■' —c' i— -■, « - < * r *« - • v- . t } - 1 *> -t? / ,'i.< 

V- •. .^.V -t aA . b ® 0 *', y:- 

■ Public housing rents 7.5 bffion 

• V.-i - }'.^ s • 3 ' \ 

.. National Unfversfty tuition _ 4.5Wtfion 

; 'T- , Wy 



3J*Mb*Uxi -i 

•• * - . 

dta£sL± »' — 


prove this year. 

Increased charges are expected 
for water and sewage use, pubhc 
pension funds, public universities, 
buses, medical treatment, tele- 

phone calls, highway tolls and pub- 
liohousing rents. 

Mineko Sasakt-Smilh, a Morgan 
Stanley economist, estimated high- 
er fees would cost consumers more 
than S22 billion (his year. 

Tbe increases wQl erase more 
than a third of the benefit of the 
income tax cut and crimp economic 
growth, which is already expected 
to be less than l percent this year. 

Hidckazu Sukegawa, an official 
of (he Japan Federation of Employ- 
ers’ Associations, or Nikkdren, said 
his business trade group had esti- 
mated that all the increases would 
halve the impact of the income-tax 
reductions this year. 

“This is a result of the lack of 
government leadership,’’ Mr. Su- 
kegawa said. “Each public body 
has its own reasons for the raises, 
but nobody exercised leadership 
with a grasp of the overall perspec- 
tive, to prevent all these increases 
from happening at the same time." 

The price rises, coming at a time 
when wages are weak, inflation is 
almost nonexistent and 03 and oth- 
er raw material costs are plummet- 
ing because of the strong yen, offer 
a better grade to the government's 
real direction on economic policy 
than the prime minister’s pro- 

The problem also demonstrates 
the weakness of the coalition gov- 
ernment that took power last sum- 
mer. The Liberal Democratic Par- 
ty, which held power for 38 years, 
was regarded as corrupt but effec- 
tive in working with business to 
counter the bureaucracy on certain 

1 hrM*«y«riTlna 

key issues, such as taxes and gov- 
ernment-controlled fees. 

The fractiousness of the current 
ruling coalition, which Mr. Hata 
represents, has reduced constraints 
on tbe bureaucrats. 

“Those policy decisions are made 
by the bureaucrats, that is clear," 
said Yukio Nogudri, a former Fi- 
nance Ministry official and now an 
economics professor at Hi tolsubashi 
University. “If you had a stronger 
government in power, it is very un- 
likely this would have happened.” 

Companies have found them- 
selves squeezed by more than rising 
postal rates. 

“Given tbe correm recession, we 
are not going to be able to raise our 
fees even if the highway tolls go up, 1 
said Norio Teramshi, a spokesman 
for Nippon Express Gx, Japan's 
largest trucking company. ‘Snce gas 
and o3 taxes rose at tbe end of last 
year, tbe toll increase came as a 
double blow. That makes us wonder 
if tire current rise could aot have 
been delayed until the economy was 

The fee and fare rises could af- 
fect not only Japanese consumers 
and corporations, but also, more 
indirectly, America, which sees 
faster economic growth as one cure 
for Japan’s lowering trade surplus- 
es. The idea is that greater econom- 
ic activity will draw in more im- 
ports, creating a larger market for 
foreign-made goods. 

Up to now, the government bu- 
reaucrats have generally rejected 
the U.S. arguments, contending 
that Japan was doing all it could. 

A < 

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Connecting People 

Page 14 

_ advertising section 


April 29, 1994 
will mark the official 
inauguration of the 
Zeepipe natural 
gas transport system 
at the receiving 
terminal in Zeebrugge, 
At 810 kilometers 
(500 miles), 
the Zeepipe is the 
world’s longest 
underwater pipeline. 

Troll Embarks on the Continent With Opening of Zeepipe 

gpnsf! he official opening cercmo- 
P Ip ny on April 29 of the 810- 

PIP kilometer 1 500-mile ) Zee- 

PSaJa pipe, the world's longest 
offshore gas pipeline, will mark a mile- 
stone in the history of the West Euro- 
pean gas industry. 

The Zeepipe. which ends at Zee- 
brugge. Belgium, is the first phase in a 
giant infrastructure of offshore plat- 
forms and pipelines for which the Nor- 
wegian government and other owners 
have put up SI 7.8 billion. Exports of 
Norwegian gas to Germany, France. 
Belgium, the Netherlands, Spain and 
Austria were assured in 1986 under the 
Troll gas sales agreement, the world's 
largest commercial contract. 

The Troll agreement will secure 1 
trillion cubic meters of clean energy 
supplies for Europe over the next 28 
years. The agreement makes Norway 
the second-largest producer and ex- 
porter of natural gas in Europe, after 
Russia. Norway already ranks as the 
third-largesl world oil producer after 

Saudi Arabia and Iran. The export val- 
ue of the total contracted volumes un- 
der the Trail gas sales agreement is es- 
timated to be SI 00 billion. 

It was the discovery of the huge Troll 
field in 1 979 that allowed the Troll gas 
sales agreement to be initiated. Con- 
taining reserves of around 13 trillion 
cubic meters and located about 80 kilo- 
meters off Bergen in water depths 
ranging from 300 to 340 meters, the 
Troll field soon assumed the role of 
Norway's “gas bank.” 

Production from the Troll field, 
scheduled to start in 1996, is anticipat- 
ed to last for more than 50 years. Nor- 
way has total estimated gas reserves of 
2.7 trillion cubic meters located in oth- 
er fields on various areas of the shelf, 
corresponding to 100 years of produc- 
tion. Good resource management will 
allow fields already discovered in shal- 
lower waters or closer to the markets to 
supply the first volumes under the Troll 
gas sales agreement. 

The first development investments of 

$3. 1 billion went to Lhe gas-condensate 
Sleipner East field, located about 240 
kilometers west of Stavanger, and con- 
taining some 47 billion cubic meters of 
gas. Because of its central location, the 
field can supply the German market 
through pipeline links into the already 
existing Statpipe/Norpipe trunkline to 
Emderi" as well as the westernmost mar- 
kets along the “Atlantic axis” through 
the Zeepipe pipeline. 

The Sleipner East development has 
required a huge gravity-base concrete 
platform with integrated production. 

treatment and export functions for both 
gas and condensate. The platform was 
installed in August 1993, and the first 
deliveries of 10 J million cubic meters 
of gas per day flowed into the Zeepipe 
and landed ar Zeebrugge punctually on 
Ocl 1. 1993. 

The condensate is being piped 
through a separate Zeepipe line to the 
Norwegian terminal of Karsto, north of 
Stavanger. This makes the Sleipner 
part of the Zeepipe network 1,100 kilo- 
meters long. 

In 1992, the Norwegian government 

The Consortium 


Stated, Norway’s state oil company, heads the Norwegian Gas .lWWBfc 
Marketing Consortium, which is in effect the sole seller of 
Norwegian gas. The consortium was first formed by fee companies involved in 
developing and operating the Troll field: Satoil, Norsk Hydro, Saga Petroleum, 
Shell, Conoco. Elf Petroleum and Total It was recently enlarged to include 
Esso, Neste arid Phillips in order to include the own ers of all fields co m i ng 
under the umbrella of the Troll gas sale agreement 

gave the go-ahead to develop the Sleip- 
ner West field, another gas-condensate 
structure located close to Sleipner East. 
The Sleipner West reserves of 125 bil- 
lion cubic meters of gas had already 
been included in the Troll gas spies 
agreement, as part of the Troll reserves 
portfolio. The project currently under 
development requires a new $2.7 bil- 
lion investment for two platforms to be 
tied back to Sleipner East Production 
from Sleipner West is due to start in 
April 1997. and will complement the 
production from the Troll field itself. 

The Troll gas installation will be the 
jewel in the crown of the whole Nor- 
wegian gas infrastructure. Requiring an 
investment of $4.5 billion. Troll will 
have the biggest platform ever built in 
the world. As was the case for the 
Sleipner East concrete gravity- base 
structure, the Troll structure, designed 
and fabricated by Norwegian Contrac- 
tors of the Aker Group, will be 430 me- 
ters high and will stand in a water depth 
of 303 meters. 

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• :*£ • ! • • ■? • . . • }fKT XiHWMOW.S ■.■XrSKi.MF ASS TiMKtU 

Norway: Europe’s Source 
£° R Stable Energy Supply 

N Iy t y h l S c S?i“- c opening up of Eastern gian gas. reinforcing 
largest e v nn^'r Europe is affecting the Euro- of Norway as a mail 
of one ^f r P ean ? a - s market in two on the European g: 

N orway is current- 
ly l he sixth- 
largest exporter 

world. When iheVojf gas 
deliveries reach 55 Wilton 
cubic meters per vear at 
plateau level in 2005 j n - 

fiLn mg i he lining op- 
uons m the Troll ugreemenu 
Norway will be supplying 

5 urope wilh almost 
sumed h ' rd •“ c °"‘ 
Other major gas sources 
besides Norway are Russia 
and Algeria. Since the Troll 
gas agreement was conciud- 

The opening up of Eastern 
Europe is affecting the Euro- 
pean ga.s market in two 
ways While more gus 
should, in principle, be made 
available from the giant 
Russian reserves, political 
reforms have not yet suc- 
ceeded in ensuring a stable 
economy capable of sustain- 
ing the major infrastructure 
investments required to pro- 
duce and cany' new gas to 

Because the security of 
Russian supplies is no 
longer guaranteed, for many 
European nations supply di- 


Esso Norge drilled the first exploration well on the 
Norwegian Continental Shelf in 1966. It holds aportfo- 
ho containing 2 billion barrels of oil equivalent, the 
largest oil and gas reserves of any foreign operator in 

The company is heavily involved in the develop- 
ment of the Sleipner East and West fields. It holds eq- 
uity of 30.4 percent in Sleipner East, 28 percent in 
Sleipner West and 6 percent in the Zeepipe. Esso's 
local investments in 1993 amounted to $364 million, 
making it the largest foreign, investor in Norway. 

The company is looking at a development scheme 
for its 100 percent owned Balder oil field, a complex 
geological reservoir. Esso was the first company to 
try floating production testing on the Balder field from 
a specially built production vessel, the Petrojazl 1. 
The concept has now been adopted by operators 
around the world 

Esso Norge produces 80,900 barrels of oil per day 
and 220.5 million standard cubic feet of gas per day. 
It is an integrated up stream/ downstream company 
employing 1,191 people. Its 1993 gross revenue was 
$1.68 billion. 

ed in 1986, however, politi- 
cal events have not only 
transformed the face of Eu- 
rope but, to some extent, 
changed the premises on 
which the gas industry 

versity has become synony- 
mous with supply security. 

The newly independent 
republics' of Eastern Europe, 
looking for diversification of 
supplies, are also showing a 
growing interest in Norwe- 

gian gas. reinforcing the role 
of Norway as a major player 
on the European gas scene. 

Algeria. Europe's other 
major gas supplier, is also 
experiencing political un- 
rest. Since Western Europe 
depends on imports for up to 
90 percent ot ail gas con- 
sumed. und because of the 
long-term nature of up- 
stream developments and 
downstream marketing, se- 
curing supplies into the next 
century has become crucial. 
Without such security, the 
long-term future of die Eu- 
ropean gas market could be 
at risk as other, alternative, 
energies came to prove more 
attractive propositions. 

The government's major 
share in the Norwegian gas 
industry (including a 62.7 
percent share in the Troll 
field) is both a financial 
guarantee ensuring the start- 
up of major development 
projects and an assurance 
that often capital-intensive 
contractual commitments 
will be met. The investment 
burden is shared by major 
international oil and gas 
companies, including Shell. 
Esso, Conoco, Elf, Total and 
Neste as well as Norsk Hy- 
dro and Saga Petroleum. 

The Norwegian gas indus- 
try is supported by strong 
technology that, over the 
past 20 years, has demon- 
strated a growing capacity to 
tackle major offshore chal- 
lenges. Much of this capa- 
bility comes from Norway’s 
large industrial groups such 
as Aker. Kvaemer and ABB. 
as well as from a wide range 
of major international engi- 
neering and supplier groups. 
These include names such as 
Snamprogeiti. for theprojeci 
engineering of the Zeepipe 
system, and European Ma- 
rine Contractors, a company 
jointly owned by Italian 


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TmM gas wttl be treated onshore at Kottsnes before being dispatched to Belgium and Germany. 

company Saipem and the 
U.S. firm Brown & Root. 
Together, they have de- 
signed and laid the entire 
Zeepipe pipeline .complex. 

Bredero Price handled 
pipe-coacing work for the 
Zeepipe at its plant in Leith. 
Scotland. Swiss know-how 
has come from Sulzer-Rsch- 

er Wyss, Zurich, which sup- 
plied the injection compres- 
sor station equipped with 
gas turbine-driven radical 
compressors for the under- 
ground gas storage facility 
for the Norpipe at Etzel. near 

Mitsui (Japan). Mannes- 
man!! (Germany) and GTS 

(France) manufactured the 
steel lubes required for the 
pipelines, while the British- 
based subsidiaries of multi- 
nationals Stoic Cumcx Sea- 
way and Halliburton Ser- 
vices have, respectively, 
conducted th: pipeline 
lie-ins and the Ready For 
Operation work. 



Norway’s largest oil and gas operating company, 
Statoil showed a 1993 sales income of $11.1 billion. 
Last year, the company produced 1.4 million barrels 
of oil per day, primarily from its operations on the 
Statfjord, Gullfaks, Veslefrikk and Tommehten fields. 
Sta toil's gas exports amounted to 2.7 billion cubic 
meters and will reach a 40 billion cubic meter share 
of a total Norwegian export capacity of 60 billion cu- 
bic meters in 2005. In 1996, when most otthe Zeepipe 
| transport system is in place, Statoil win operate 3,200 
| kilometers of offshore pipelines, equivalent to the dis- 
| tance between Oslo and Madrid. 

| The company is operator of the Sleipner East and 
I West fields, and wiH become the operator of the giant 
I Troll field in 1996, after current operator Shell has 
I completed the construction phase of the project. Sta- 

« toil’s interest in Troll is 74.576 percent, and it owns a 
70 percent stake in the Zeepipe. 

| Statoil has 14,000 employees and is a leading refin- 

\ mg and marketing company in Scandinavia. 

— — — — — — — 

Norsks Shell 


Norske Shell, which holds a 8.288 percent share in 
the Troll field, is the operator of the Troll gas project 
during the construction phase. Shell's management 
and technological expertise has been contributed to 
the $4.5 hiDi nn development project, consisting of a 
platform, a land terminal and export pipelines. 

Norske Shell was established in 1912 and is a fully 
integrated oil company, with activities ranging all the 
way from exploration and production to refining and 
marketing. In addition to its substantial interests in a 
number of Norwegian fields, the company also oper- 
ates the Draugen oil field, located in the mid-Norway 
offshore area, which came on-stream at the end of last 

The company's daily oil production averaged 
52,050 barrels per day in 1993, while total gas pro- 
duction for the year reached 600 million cubic me- 

Norske Shell directly employs 1,300 people in both 
the upstream and downstream segments of its activi- 
ties. Gross revenues filed in Norway for 1993 are ex- 
pected to be in the range of $886 million. 

Norsk Hydro 


Norsk Hydro is the second-largest oil and gas operator on the Norwegian SheH after Statoil. The Norwegian state 
owns a 51 percent interest in the Norsk Hydro Group, which is also a major manufacturer of fertilizers, metals and 
chemicals. Total group operating revenues in 1993 were $8.5 billion, while operating income for oil and gas amount- 
ed to $431 million. Oil and gas production was 9.4 million tons of oil equivalents. 

The company is operator of the Oseberg, Brage and Troll oil fields and has substantial interests in most fields dis- 
covered on the Norwegian Continental Shelf, including a 7. 688 percent share of the Troll gas field. In addition, Norsk 
Hydro owns 8 percent of the Zeepipe transportation system. 

When Norsk Hydro brings die ail reserves of the Troll field on-stream in 1996, it w 22 become the operator of the 
most ambitious undersea development in the world, ft has two other development projects under way for the Visund 
and Njord fields, located in the North Sea and in the mid-Norway offshore area. 

Statoil’ s Mellbye on Future for Gas 

n|H atural gas's 
M , % gi share in the Eu- 
|i tk §1 ropean energy 
picture is set to 
increase. While no sub- 
stantia] growth in demand 
from the European resi- 
dential sector is anticipat- 
ed. strong potential for the 
greater use of gas in power 
generation has emerged. 
In a recent interview, Pe- 
ter Mellbye, president of 
Statoil 's natural gas oper- 
ations, discussed the nature 
of natural gas in Europe. 

Western Europe is looking 
at cost-effective woys to 
clean up its environment 
and! minimize pollution. 
What is the role of gas in 
This context? 

Natural gas is the answer, 
not just because it is cleaner 
energy, but also because it is 
a cost-effective alternative 
to other fuels in power gen- 
eration. While technological 
improvements have in- 
creased the efficiency of 
burning gas in power gener- 
ation. the investment cost 
per produced unit of elec- 
tricity is substantially lower 
for a gas-fired plant than for 
a coal plant. To start with, a 
gas-fired plant is of a very 
much smaller size than a 
coal -fired, plant, which also 
requires storage capacity tor 
the coal. A gas-fired plant 
can be placed close to the 
end-users, so considerable 
savings on the transport of 
electricity can be achieved. 
Moreover, a gas-fired plant 
does not require additional 
expensive technology to re- 
lease clean emissions into 
the atmosphere. Not only 
does the combusuon or gas 
save the atmosphere from 
sulfur and nitrogen oxides, 
but carbon-dioxide emis- 
sions are haived compared 
with- those of coal burning. 

National laws such as 
Germany’s impose a special 
import lax on natural gas. 
This makes it difficult for 
gas to compete against coal 
and oil for power genera- 
tion. Beyond each nation ’s 
energy choices, isn’t the 
price of gas a challenge? 

We are much more preoc- 
cupied by gas price levels 

• ? 

Peter Mellbye, president of Ste- 
toii's natural gas operations. 

than by volumes. Currently, 
the gas price is tied to the oil 
price, which means that in a 
period of low oil prices, as is 
the case now, the producer 
takes a greater financial risk 
than the distributor or con- 
sumer. This also means that 
new gas field developments 

in an oil price scenario of 
$13 to $14 per barrel will be 
less profitable, if profitable 
at all - even more so when 
new gas will have to be pro- 
duced from fart her-a way 
fields and transported over 
longer pipeline distances to 
reach the markets. Our share 
of risk-taking translates into 
Finding steadily more cost- 
effective development tech- 

Considering the more 
them $ 18 billion invested in 
nfrastructure for the Troll 
gas agreement, would Nor- 
way have given the go- 
ahead to the new Sleipner 
and Troll field developments 
and new Zeepipe and Eu- 
ropipe infrastructure in to- 
day's lower oil price con- 

The market conquered 
through the Troll gas agree- 
ment is that of a more and 
more environmentally con- 
scious Europe. The energy 
legislation and environmen- 
tal developments inside the 
European Union will be of 
extreme importance to Nor- 
way and will affect Nor- 
way's gas strategy in the fu- 

ture. Although we must ac- 
cept that gas is in competi- 
tion with other fuels, the 
price relation between oil 
and gas should not be auto- 
matic. Producers and buyers 
should, in a dynamic 
process, consider whether 
this price link is still justified 
when taking into account the 
environmental advantages 
provided by gas. 

In making dean natural 
gas a priority. East Ger- 
nutny has accepted the con- 
sequences of its choice tmd 
is willing to pay the market 
price for it. For Norway, are 
such moves for greater use 
of natural gas encouraging ? 

At present, it is the eco- 
nomics of the transport of 
gas that decide where in Eu- 
rope we can export. It is, for 
example, uneconomic for 
Norway to transport gas all 
the way to Italy and Portugal 
with the currenr oil and gas 
prices. Poland and the Czech 
Republic are. in principle, 
interesting markets. But it 
will be their ability to pay 
the market price that will de- 
cide whether or not Norway 
exports gas to them. 


Total Norge was established on the Norwegian Shelf in early 1 965. Since then, to® 
subsidiary ' ot the French Total Group has become the third-Iaigest owner otunsaui 
gas on toe Norwegian Shelf, after the Norwegian nationals Statoil a^Norsk Hydro. 
Total has one of the most diversified portfolios on the shelf, with stages m 

^ThSorr^jany has a presence in oil and gas fields located in 

Norway offshore area and toe Barents Sea. It is, in addition, a partner maJi^ j 

and gas transportation systems on toe Norwegian Shelf, including the 

I.29ffii«cSr^L The company is also operator of the 

which axe envisioned to become mature for development some tune ye 

Total's investments in Norway amounted to $178 >rSe 

135 employees and filed consolidated operating income of $423 nufton m 1993. The 

company produces sppnadjnately 35,000 barrels of oil ®q uivaI ^ ritaciay ’ ^ 

* DREAMING ’ “ Tenyears from now, \ this will be 

“You're dreaming.” 


We have made our dreams realities. 

Wfe have looked at sand and seen dties. 
We have looked at deserts and seen 

We have created, out of the grain of 
an idea, a world-class petrochemical 
company. A company that uses Saudi 
Arabia’s own hydrocarbon-based 

bn natural resources. A company that 

produces and markets more than 1 6 
million metric tons of different quality 
petrochemicals and plastic resins 
around the world. 

We are ODe of the world’s leading 
producers of MTBE, one of the 
few petrochemical companies to 
manufacture all five of the most 
widely used thermoplastic resins and, 
thanks to work at our Research and 
Development Complex, an exporter 
of technology. 

We have dreamed. We have achieved. 
And we continue to plan for the future 

For the long-term 

P.O. Box 5101 
Riyadh 1 1422 
Saudi Arabia 

Telephone (966- 1 ) 40J -2033 
Telex 401 177SAB1CSJ 
Fax (966-1)401-2045/401-3531 

Saudi Baric Industries Corporation 


Page 16 


Troll Sales Agreements Break New Ground 



of i] 

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Elf was established in Norway in 1965 under the 
name Petropax Norge, a subsidiary 1 of Petropar 
France, itself a subsidiary of ERAP. Together with 
Norsk Hydro anri a number of French companies, in- 
cluding Total and Aquitaine, it fonned_ttie Petronord 
group, with Petropar as the operator. The Petronord 
group was awarded 12 licenses in the first Norwegian 
concession round. In 1967, the name Elf was intro- 
duced in Prance, and the Norwegian subsidiary be- 
came Elf Norge. 

In 1971, Elf discovered the Frigg field. It was de- 
clared cOTonerdal the following year. 

In 1977, Elf Norge and Aquitaine Norge merged to 
become Elf Aquitaine Norge. Elf has distinguished it- 
self as an innovator in undersea production. It is now 
pioneering new techniques for production from high- 
temperatnre and high-pressure reservoirs. 

Hie company filed a 1993 operating result of $915 
mini on Us daily oil production amounts to 72,000 bar- 
rels per day, with gas production of 9.5 million cubic 
meters per day. Elf has a 2.353 percent int e r est in the 
Troll field and a 3.2985 percent interest in the 


Conoco's presence on the Norwegian S h e lf dates 
back to 1965, the year of the first conoessian round on 
the Norwegian Shelf. Through participation in some 
of the largest oil fields on the Norwegian Shel£ such 
as Statfjord, Murchison, Ula and Gyda, Conoco has 
built up an oil production that averaged 70,000 bar- 
rels per day in 1993, as well as significant gas produc- 
tion. In 1993, Conoco had 330 employees and filed 
gross revenues of $493 million. 

Conoco is a 1.661 percent shareholder in the Troll 
field and owns a 1.4030 percent stake in the Zeepipe. 

Conoco is also the operator of the Heidrun field, 
which contains reserves of 630 million barrels of oil 
and 45 biUion cubic meters of gas, located in the mid- 
Norway Haltenbank area. The field, in which Conoco 
holds 18.125 percent equity, is being developed by 
means of a tension-leg p latform in concrete, a world 
premier in the offshore oil industry. 

Through the Heidrun project, Conoco has been set- 
ting new trends, in particular in the use of materials 
like titanium in risers and pipes. 

ince Oct. 1. 
1993. the Zeepipe 
pipeline has made 

it possible for 

Norwegian gas to cross four 
new borders on the Conti- 
nent These are the coast of 
Belgium at Zeebrugge. 
where the landing terminal 
is located; Oberkappel at the 
German-Austrian border; 
Blaregnies at the French- 
Belgian border; and Port de 
Larrau at the French-Span- 
ish border. Norwegian gas 
exports last year totaled 24.2 
billion cubic meters of pri- 
marily associated gas from 
the Statfjord, Guilfaks. 
Heimdal and Ekofisk fields. 
Annual deliveries under the 
Troll gas agreement will 
reach 44.7 billion cubic me- 
ters by the year 2005. 

The volumes contracted 
by each country axe 22 bil- 
lion cubic meters for Ger- 
many, 8 billion cubic meters 
for France, 5.6 billion cubic 
meters for the Netherlands, 
5.5 billion cubic meters for 
Belgium, 2.1 billion cubic 
meters for Spain and 1.6 bil- 
lion cubic meters for Aus- 
tria. At the moment, Ger- 
many is the largest single 
buyer of Norwegian gas, 
and its market share for Nor- 
wegian gas under the Troll 
gas sales agreement will in- 
crease from the current 14 
percent to 29 percent in 
2005. In France, it will in- 
crease from 17 percent to 31 
percent and in Belgium from 
24 percent to 33 percent, 
while in the Netherlands it 
will double, to around 14 
percent. In addition, the 
Troll gas agreement has 
crossed two new borders, as 
it now penetrates the Austri- 
an and Spanish markets, 
with respective shares of 13 
percent and 12 percent. 

The Troll gas sales agree- 
ments have been concluded 
between the shareholders of 
the Troll gas field and a 
number of companies in- 

volved in gas trading or 
power generation on the 
Continent. The sellers in- 
clude the Norwegian State 
Oil Company (Statoil), with 
a 74.576 percent share in the 
Troll field; Norsk Hydro, 
7.688 percent; Saga Petrole- 
um, 4.080 percent; Norske 
Shell, 8.288 percent; Cono- 
co Norway, 2.015 percent; 
Elf Petroleum, 2,353 per- 
cent; and Total Norway, 1 

The buyers are Ruhrgas 
( 14.2 billion cubic meters), 
BEB (5.4 billion cubic me- 
ters) and Thyssengas (2.4 
billion cubic meters) for 
Germany; Gasunie (3.6 bil- 
lion cubic meters) and SEP 
(2 billion cubic meters) for 
the Netherlands; Distrigaz 
(3.6 billion cubic meters) 
and Electrabel (1.9 billion 
cubic meters) for Belgium; 
Gaz de France (S billion cu- 
bic meters) for France; Ena- 
gas (2.1 billion cubic me- 
ters) for Spain; and Austria 
Ferngas/OMV (1.6 billion 
cubic meters). In addition, 
the East German company 
Verbundnerz Gas signed a 4 
billion cubic meter contract 
with Norway in December 
1993, while Ruhrgas recent- 
ly increased its volumes by 
an additional 2 billion cubic 

Only 5.4 billion cubic me- 
ters of the total volume ne- 
gotiated undo- the Troll gas 
sales agreement still await a 
final commitment by cus- 
tomers. Statoil is in charge 
of the Norwegian gas sales, 
and observers believe that 
all options will be exercised 
by the scheduled deadline of 
1995. In addition, new vol- 
umes are currently under ne- 
gotiation, in particular 4 bil- 
lion cubic meters for Gaz de 

Markets in Southern Eu- 
rope such as Spain and Por- 
tugal are looking at an ex- 
pansion of their gas-fired in- 
dustry. Meanwhile, expand- 

ing East European markets 
such as Poland and the 
Czech Republic have ex- 
pressed their interest in Nor- 
wegian gas and could decide 
to commit to new volumes 
in the not-too-distant future. 

The volumes already con- 
tracted for, combined with 
the increasing interest in 
Norwegian gas in Europe, is 
creating demand for several 
□ew pipelines, some of 
which are already under 
construction or in the plan- 
ning stages. Europipe L now 
being built, will expand the 
Zeepipe system with a new 
600-kilometer (375-mile) 
link starting in the Sleipner 
area and ending in the north 
He rman Watte nmeer wild- 
life park via a specially built 
tunneL This project, requir- 
ing a SI. 8 billion investment 
and due to become opera- 
tional in October 1995, will 
serve the growing German 

There is a great need in 
Eastern Germany and in 
East European countries to 
replace heavily polluting 
brown coal in power ana 
heat generation plants with 
clean energy sources. The 
Europipe if pipeline has al- 
ready been approved to dou- 
ble the transport capacity of 
Norwegian natural gas to 
Central and Eastern Europe. 
This fourth gas trunkline to 
the Continent will permit die 
necessary transport flexibili- 
ty to modulate new gas con- 
tracts and increase the cur- 
rent contracts in the Norwe- 
gian gas portfolio. 

Preliminary studies for a 
fifth trunkline to the Conti- 
nent are also under way. 
This extension of che 
Zeepipe system, known as 
Zeepipe IV, could be com- 
pleted at the same time as 
Europipe n, around the year 
2000, and land in Belgium, 
the Netherlands or France. 
This pipeline would be dedi- 
cated to the markets along 

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At work on 

the Atlantic coastline, but 
would also provide Conti- 
nental Europe with addition- 
al transport flexibility and re- 
liability, as die entire Euro- 
pean grid interlinks at most 
borders. In view of current 
market demand and potential 

for growth, primarily in the 
power generation and indus- 
trial sectors, Norway plans to 
develop its gas reserves in 
the mid-Norway offshore 
area as part of the Troll gas 
agreement. For this it will 
need a capital expenditure of 

$5.4 billion for infrastructure 
comprising platforms and a 
new pipeline link to tie into 
the Zeepipe system. Al- 
though the plans have a flex- 
ible time frame, pending 
new contracts, the year 2000 
is considered a realistic goal. 

Saga Petroleum 

r-Tvw;." •• 

Saga Petroleum is the third most important Norwegian operator. It is privately 
owned and employs a staff of 1,300. In 1993, Saga’s oil production averaged 98,400 
Karreta per day, and its 1993 gas sales reached 468 znfllfon cubic meters. The com- 
pany filed total operating revenues of $780 million for 1993, a result that shows 
steady growth. 

Saga is operator of the Snorre field, a field produced by means of a tension-leg 
platform and a very large undersea production system. This summer, Saga will put 
the Tardis oil fie ld on-stream by means of undersea completed wells, and will be- 
come the largest undersea operator on the Norwegian Shell 
The company is also operator of the Mxdgard field, located in the mid-Norway ilal- 
fenhanlr area. This field contains reserves of 100 billian cubic meters of gas and is 
considered a likely development candidate under the TcdH gas agreement 
In addition. Saga owns 3 percent of the Zeepipe infrastructure mid a 4.080 percent 
share of the TroU field. 

You can make cement by burning the energy-rich waste of other 
industries, to save on fossil fuels. But different low-grade fuels 
burn variably, and high temperatures can produce unacceptably 
hard cement clinker. A skilled kiln operator has to constantly 
monitor and react to critical parameters such as the chemical content of the exhaust 
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LINKman™ optimizes production efficiency. On-line, real-time technology 
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ABB is now setting the pace in cement plant optimization, supplying complete 
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ABB Asea Brown Boverl Ltd., Reader Services Center, P.O. Box 822, CH-8021 Zurich 




Page 1 



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-bwumk For information on howto list your fund, fax Simon OSBORN at (33-1) 46 37 21 33. 

1 1 , * — . 

For expert advice on personal investing. 

J l T . noi Herald Tribune publishes The Money Rerort, a weekly sectirai that provides 

Every Saturday, the International neraici gervices ava £[ a ble to today's high-net-worth investor. 

a penetrating analys^ ofW^P ^ read Money Report. 


^ n^iKHtP rani the «w vr** rikia *«i u.f wAwmcnw raw 





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■ Page 18 



Shades of 1990: 
Reds, on a Roll, 
Rout Cubs, 8-2 

Compiled ftv Ovr Staff From Dispmcha 

: It’s looking a Uule like 1990 at 
Riverfront Stadium these days. 

. With seven victories in eight 
■games, the Cincinnati Reds, who 
were World Series champions in 
>1990, have the best record in the 
jnajors at 13-5. The latest came 
■Tuesday night, when Tim Pugh 
pitched 3 five-hitter in an 8-2 rout 
of the Chicago Cubs. 

“It seems everybody is doing so 
.weU," Pugh said. “You don't want 
to be the one to mess it up. The 
.clubhouse is great.*' 

" Last year, he was 10-5. This sea- 
son, he is 2-0. Against the Cubs, 
Pugh walked three and struck out 


one in his fourth complete game in 
37 major league starts. The Cubs 
scored both runs in the second, 
then got just two runners into scor- 
ing position the rest of the game. 

“Early on, our bullpen was kind 
of carrying us,” said the Reds' 
manager, Davey Johnson. “Now 
our starters are all doing an excep- 
tional job. Every guy goes out and 
tries to do better than the previous 
guy. It's a nice little thing they've 
■got going.” 

Thomas Howard, making his 
third start, and Tony Fernandez 
each drove in three runs. 

• “It’s good to win the types of 
'games we've had the last couple of 
days,” Howard said. “We fall be- 
hind early, but everybody is sail in 
the game. When we've gotten op- 
portunities to score, we haven't 
-missed those chances. Thar's the 
tnark of a good team.” 

- The Cubs have lost 9 of their last 
11 games and are 5-13, the wont 
record in the majors. 

Padres 6, Mete 3: Hours after he 
Iwas charged with solidling a pros- 
titute on a Manhattan street, Scott 
-Sanders got his first save in the 
majors, pitching 1ft innings in re- 
lief of a former Met, Wally White- 
hurst, who matched his career high 
with nine strikeouts and allowed 
■three tuns and five hits in seven 

’ Phil Plan tier homered and hit a 
two-run double for San Diego. 

- Sanders, who was to start the 
game, and Derek Bell, who was 
wearing a World Series champion- 
ship ring from his days with the 
-Toronto Blue Jays, were among 
'several suspects arrested Tuesday 
in a continuing police effort against 

Sanders and BeD, both 25 and 
-angle, were charged with misde- 
meanors and face up to three 
-months in jafl and fines of up to 
$500 if convicted. Both pleaded not 

Dodgers 4, -Phillies 3: Henry Ro- 
/driguez and Raul Mondesi singled 
in runs in the seventh as Los Ange- 
les rallied from a 2-0 deficit and 
visiting Philadelphia posted its sec- 
ond four-game losing streak this 

• Braves 9, Martins 6: Mike Kelly, 
.a rookie, got his first major-league 

- RBIs with a three-run double that 
broke a 6-6 tie in the eighth as 
visiting Atlanta avoided what 

Real NBA Season Begins 

In West, Suns and Sonics Expect to Tango 

would have been its sixth loss in 
seven games. 

Mark Wohlers gave up a game- 
tying homer to Orestes Des trade, 
his third, leading off the seventh 

jnning , 

Expos 7, Giants 3: Shortstop 
Royce Clayton’s two-run throwing 
error and uiff Floyd’s sacrifice fly 
in fifth helped Montreal rally from 
a 3-1 deficit against visiting San 

Cartfuls 2, Rockies 1: Bob 
Tewksbury cooled off the league’s 
highest-scoring team, striking out a 
career-high 10 in St Louis and be- 
coming the first five-game winner 
in the majors. 

He bdd Colorado to five hits and 
walked none in his second straight 
complete game. He has won 9 of his 
last 1 1 starts last Aug. 28. 

Ray Lankford led off the first 
with a homer, and Terry McGriff 
added a run-scoring single in the 

Pirates 7, Astros 4: Doubles by 
Brian Hunter and Carlos Garcia 

ning The Angels’ Jim Edmonds was hit in the neck by a throw from shortstop Mike GaUego that Yaidtee 
deficit in San Diego. (AP. NYT) first baseman Jim Leyritz couldn't reach. Edmoods was taken to a hospital, but wasn’t seriously hurt 

Bob Strong- Apecr Fnaor-Pieuc 

A Breeze for Rangers, 6-1, Over Tigers 


The .Associated Press 

Not since Stu Miller was blown 
off the mound in Candlestick Park 
during the 1961 All-Star Game has 
the wind caused more trouble for a 
pitcher than the opposing batters. 

Rick Helling, the winner, was 
knocked off-balance by gusts of up 
to SO miles an hour, and the high 
winds caused a 45-minute delay 
Tuesday night at The Ballpark in 
Arlington, Texas, as the Rangers 
blew by the Detroit Tigers, 6- 1 . 

“I caught myself several times 
before I came set, because I was 
worried the umpires were going to 
call a balk,” Helling said. “A cou- 
ple of times I stumbled because of 
the wind. I've never seen anything 
close to that.” 

The wind forced the team to 
move fans from the upper deck to 
lower areas, while outside the stadi- 
um the wind uprooted several trees 
in the parking lot and blew down a 

Inside the stadium, it turned Jose 
Canseco’s ftybaflto shallow center 
into a popup that fell near the feet 

of the Tigers' first baseman. Cecil 

Several hours earlier, a tornado 
struck the north Texas town of 
Gainesville. On Monday, a tornado 
touched down in Lancaster, south 
of Dallas, and killed four people. 

In the top of Lhe sixth inning, 
Helling was blown around just be- 


fore he began his windup. In the 
bottom of the sixth, with light rain 
starling to fall, play was stopped. 

The Tigers' starter, Mike Moore, 
left after the wind delay, and Texas 
scored three times against Jose 
Lima for a 6-1 lead. Hel ling gave 
up one ran on seven hits in six 

“It was a very interesting night.” 
said the Ranger first baseman. Will 
Clark, who played eight seasons in 
San Frandsco. T said in the dug- 
out that I thought I’d got the heck 
out of Candlestick. This was worse 
than Candlestick ever was.” 

Blue Jays 8, Royals 6: Joe Carter 
tied a major league record with his 
29th ran batted in for April as 
Toronto won in Kansas Gty. 

Carter matched Colorado's 
Andres Galarraga, who also has 29 
this momh, and Ron Cey, Dale 
Murphy and Dave Winfield. 

Carter hit an RBI double during 
a four-run first, while Devon While 
went 4-for-4, was hit by a pitch and 
scored three rimes. 

Orioles 10, Athletics 4: Arthur 
Rhodes pitched a three-hitter while 
Brady Anderson hit two home runs 
and two doubles and tied a team 
record by scoring four times as Bal- 
timore handed Oakland its eighth 
straight loss. 

The A’s went 0-8 on their road 
trip to Boston, New Yorit and Bal- 
timore. Rafael Palmeiro and Chris 
Hoiks also homered in the Orioles' 
seventh victory in 10 games. 

Rhodes struck out eight and re- 
tired the last 16 batters. 

Angels 6, Yankees 3: Brian An- 
derson, pitching on his 22d birth- 
day, stopped New York's six-game 

Kansas Scholar Set to Become AL President 

New York Times Service 

NEW YORK — Gene Budig, the chancellor of the 
University of Kansas, has won the recommendation of 
a search committee to be the next president of the 
American League, according to two executives famil- 
iar with the committee’s deliberations. 

The committee's recommendation is tantamount to 
election, which would presumably take place at the 
owners’ next scheduled meeting. June 8. 

Budig, 55, a member of the Kansas Gty Royals' 
board of directors for the past year, will succeed 
Bobby Brown, who is in his 1 1th year as the league’s 
president Leu Coleman recently succeeded Bill White 
as National League president 

The selection of Budig leaves vacant only the position 

of commissioner in major-league baseball’s hierarchy. 
George J. MitcheD, the Senate majority leader, is con- 
sidered a virtual certainty for that position unless he 
unexpectedly declines the offer when it is made. 

The American League committee selected Budig 
from a list of candidates that included Peter Byno^ a 

Scbwritzer"t^ league attorney, and Peter Widdring- 
ton, chairman of the Toronto Blue Jays. 

The last person major-league baseball plucked from 
academia was A Bartlett Giamatti, who went from 
bong president of Yale to bong president of the 
National League in 1987, then commissioner in 1989. 
He served as commissioner for only five months be- 
fore he died of a bean attack. 

winning streak as he tooka shutout 
into the ninth in Yankee Stadium 
before tiring. 

Anderson struck out five in his 
fifth big league start. He left after 
Gerald Williams's two-out, two- 
run double. 

Dwight Smith homered and 
drove in three runs for California. 

Jim Edmonds of the Angels was 
hit in the neck by a throw from 
shortstop Mike Gall ego in the sec- 
ond inning and carried off the field 
. on a stretcher. He was X-rayed at a 
hospital and was back in the club- 
house before the game ended. 

Mariners 4, Red Sox 3: Pitcher 
Greg Harris made a wdd throw on 
a bases-loaded grounder by Torey 
Lovullo with one out in the 10th, 
giving Seattle its victory over visit- 
ing Boston. 

The Mariners loaded the bases 
on Rich Amaral's double and two 
intentional walks. Lovullo ground- 
ed back to Harris, who threw' past 
his catcher, Dave Valle. Lovullo 
was credited with an RBI on the 
fielder's choke. 

White Sox 3, Brewer s <k Ozrie 
Guillen hit two RBI singles and 
Akx Fernandez pitched his second 
shutout of the season as host Chi- 
cago stopped Milwaukee's five- 
game winning streak. 

Fernandez gave up just six sin- 
gles to the team that beat him five 
days earlier. Last year, be had one 
shutout in 34 starts. 

Indians I], Twins 3: Manny Ra- 
mirez hit a three- run homer and 
Candy Maldonado also connected 
as Geveland ended its four-game 
home losing streak. 

Kenny Lofton tripled, doubled, 
drove in two runs and scored twice 
for the Indians, while Albert Belle 
doubled twice. 

By Harvey Araton 

N&e York Tima Service 

PHOENIX — Four and a half 
min ules had gone by, and the Seat- 
tle SuperSooics oouid not score one 
basket. The stretch run came, and 
the National Basketball Associa- 
tion's best regular-season team was 
ouiscored, 15-1. The Sonics did not 
make the extra pass, did not get 
inside, did not quite look like ro- 
ture champs. 

Jumpshot by Kendall Gill, no 
good. Jump shot by Shawn Kemp, 
off the back rim. Jump shot by 
Gary Payton, just short. Three- 
pointer by Sam Perkins, way off. 

A game the Sonics did not have 
to win Iasi week but wanted to have 
was ripped from their grasp. 
Charles Barkley look over the last 
nine minutes with 11 points, 8 re- 
bounds and an encyclopedic vol- 
ume of uncensored crash locution. 

“Oh, We know we can beat 
them.” Barkley said later, still 
taunting after the Suns’ 122-116 

Maybe Phoenix’s winning the 
game was not as important as how 
Seattle lost it, by having no one 
stand and deliver, as Barkley did 
for the Suns. No maybes about it, 
what the Suns would take from this 
game was the notion that the Son-' 
ics, steeped as they are in talent, 
have no superstar core, that they 
are lacking the most essential 
championship ingredient of alL 
“One man doesn’t win the title 
himself,” said Kemp, the Sonic- 
losest to BarklewviBe. “I haven’t 
seen one man other than Michael 
Jordan dominate the game, but 
now we see there were some other 
players cm his team, too.” 

Fair assessment or not, the 1 993- 
94 SupeiSonics could become the 
first NBA champion with no tran- 
scendent star since the SuperSonics 
of 1978-79. the Sonics of Dennis 
Johnson. Gus Williams, Jack 
Sikma and Fred (Downtown) 

Five teams have won titles be- 
tween then and now, all with at 
least one universally acclaimed 
franchise player. The Sonics of 
then won with defense and balance, 
as do the Sonics of now, the Sonics 
of Kemp, Payton, Gill, Detlef 
Schrempf, Nate McMillan, Sam 
Perkins and Ricky Pierce. 

“I like the idea of the team being 
the reason we're successful instead 
of the individual,” said George 
KM, who was a volatile head coach 
with Cleveland and then Golden 
State in the 1980s. Now, at 42, 
having paid his dues m bush Je ague 
outposts from Montana to Madrid, 
be is the master manipulator of the 
league's most versatile lineup. 

Believing that his defensive pres- 
sure and r unning game will wear 
down any opponent, Karl dis- 
penses minutes at no greater rate 
than the 35 a night earned by the 
point guard, Payton, who is one of 
the two All-Stars on the team. 

The other is Kemp, a 6-foot-IO- 
inch, 245-pound package of stag- 
gering power and speed, one of the 
young NBA dunkahotics beat on 
throwing down monster slams and 
staring down the humbled dunkees. 

At 24, Kemp is already a five- 
year veteran, never having played a 
game of college ball — a 1988 Uni- 
versity of Kentucky recruit who 
found trouble at a troubled pro- 
gram, and wound up, at 19, seeking 
amnesty in the NBA 

*s skills. 

“Sometimes,'’ he said, “I fed like 
I've gone from 17 to 24. 

No one questions Kc 
Early in the second I _ 
phoenix, he pulled the ball off the 
defensive board, crossed over on 
the dribble going up the right side- 
line, split two Suns near the key 
and blew down the lane for a pri- 
mal scream of a dunk. 

“He's one of the few players m 
the game with the talent to play the 
whole game through," said Karl 

But because Kail limits his min - 
ates, because the Sonics* shot dis- 
tribution has been remarkably bal- 
anced with four players bunched 
between 1,100 and 1,400, Kemp 
averages what Karl calls a mislead- 
ing 18 points and 10 rebounds. 

“If there's been someone better 

than him the last two months. I'd 
liVp io see him,” Karl said. “He's 
been putting up those numbers 
ni gh t in, ni gh t out, and there’s been 
about 10 fourth quarters he didn't 
eveo play. 

“You're kidding yourself if you 
don’t think Shawn’s in the top 

For Karl, having to answer these 

time players, the shooting guard 
Gill and the 6-foot- 10-inch 

Sc hrem p f, while surrendering joy 
one starter. Derrick McKey. 

“Most teams are predictable,’' 
said Cage, a 10-year veteran and 
six-year Sonic- “With Utah, yoa 
know John Stockton's going made 
to Karl Malone. Olajuwon. in 
Houston, predictable. Robinson in 
San Antonio, predictable. 

“With us, it’s difficult to prepare. 
We can gp big, we can go small We 
can run, we can go to Shawn on the 
block. We’ve learned to play 
around the Robinsons, the 
Olajuwons, the Ewings. We have al) 

'One man doesn’t 
win the title by 
himself. 9 

Shawn Kemp 

questions about Kemp, about his 
tram, after so many victories, has 
become an unwelcome chore. 

Die coach's pained look and 
slow inhalation typify Ms response 
to standard Sonic skepticism. He is 
tired of baring to explain why his 
up-tempo offense, fueled by a trap- 
ping, freewheeling defense, will fly 
in the playoffs. 

He is contemptuous of such op- 
ponents as the Suns' Kerin John- 
son. who speaks of the playoffs — 
the Suns open the first round on 
Friday night playing host to Gold- 
en State, and the Sonics are host to 
Golden State on Thursday night — 
as if they bear no relation to the 
regular season. 

“The smart teams know we're 
the team to beat,” Johnson said on 
the day the Sonics rolled into Phoe- 
nix. winners in 25 of their previous 
29 games. 

How many championships has 
Phoenix won. with Barkley, or 
Houston, with Hakeem Olvuwoa, 
or the Knicks, with Patrick Ewing? 
Karl asks. Why isn't it as plain to 
everyone else as it is to him that lhe 
Sonics are (be classiest of the con- 
tendere for Michael Jordan’s vacat- 
ed throne? 

“It’s a fine tine for every team, 
but I just don’t see anyone who can 
beat us in seven games,” he said. 

He speaks of the Sonics as if they 
are a work of art, a Bob Whiisitt- 
George KM masterpiece. Kemp 
and Payton, the defensive catalyst, 
are the team's foundation, young 
stars who have evolved, year to 
year. Veterans like McMillan, the 

the power forward, and Pierce, tne 
hired gunslinger, were either in 
place or picked up along the way. 

The puzzle was completed be- 
tween seasons when Whitsitt, the 
general manager, added two prime- 

There is still the question of the 
ace, especially the ace of hearts. 
Other teams may have fewer op- 
tions, but their leadership, their 
peeking order, is also clearly de- 

Come playoff, fourth-quarter 
crunch tune, when possessions 
must be nurtured, can a champion- 
ship team have an offensive philos- 
ophy that Schrempf half-jokingty 
described as, “Whoever’s there first 
gets lhe shot, you know?” 

Payton and Kemp will say they 
will make sure the Sonics play to 
their strengths. They trill tell yon 
what they tefl their opponents, only 
less colorfully, fit for print, that 
they are the new sheriffs out West, 
the new, improved, up-tempo ver- 
sion of Stockton- Malone, with a far 
superior supporting cast. 

“We’re not going to get no re- 
spect, that’s for the trams in (he 
cast," Payton raid. “After we win 
the championship, then we'll let 
everyone know where we came 

Just because he has to be differ- 
ent, or just to annoy Kemp, Bart- 
ley reemdy went out on a limb and 
nominated Payton for the league’s 
most valuable player. “He's the 
best player on their team, in my 
opinion," Barkley said.. 

‘That’s nice of him, but I’ll leave 
that to D arid Robinson and Ha- 
keem,” Payton replied. “Our whole 
team is the MVP.” 

Kemp added: “Most teams have 
one or two go- to guys. We have 
seven or eight, but if no one else ca 
this team wants to shoot the ball, 
PH shoot it 1 know I love to take 
lhe last-second shots.” 

Being the leader, the franchise 

{ •layer, is more than that of course, 
t is more than flinging fourth- 
quarter dots to the rim. It is being 
prepared for every nuance, every 
imagina ble situation, and some un- 
imaginable; along the road deep 
into June. 

The ball doesn’t always bounce 
the way a round ball should. It 
doesn’t always go where you think 
it should. Sometimes it comes back 
when you least expect it to, the way 
it did at Kemp late in the fourth 
quarter against the Suns. 

Frustrated by the Sonics' late 
collapse, by Barkley’s big body and 
mouth, Kemp suddenly flung the 
ball with two hands at Sir Charles 
from about 5 feet away. 

Ever alert, Barkley made a neat 
two-handed grab. He sene it right 
back at Kemp, who wasn’t ready. 
The bafl struck him in the chest and 
bounced away. It was a superstar 
move by Barkley, turning Kemp's 
macho display right back at him. 

“The most important thing,” ex- 
plained Sir Charles, "is learning to 
finish the play.” 









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Page 19 

Colombia’s Asprilla: A Shooting Star Who Sometimes Self-Destructs 

Rv CU..I . ** 

By Ken Shulman 
p.nw.Yf ** /Wrf ***** 
the aS^rthe%Uan ( rin "‘ward 

Hoops through a liohi pu . lun S “* 

ass&SSss 5 * 

lino Asprflla s.eps U p ffi? 11,01 Faus - 

iV 00 ! ,lj * 


Reaving the rw?dtf4,e“ 5£SdSu£ 

the end of the line. ‘'Grande, grand*; TmSr 
Fausuno Aspnlla. ihc goalscorersuDreme 

Sls P wSrid I r hi,d exlraordin ^e for Colum- 
btas Worid Cup team, is one of the most 

explosive and yet graceful players ever to don a 

parr of soccer shoes. His extraordinary speed, 
combined with an astonishing agility and 
above-average ball control skills, often make 
diroen«pf ar to be playing in another, higher 

“AsgriRa is our Diego Maradona.'’ says Par- 
ma AC’s president. Giorgio Pedranesehi. “He is 
the player who can turn a match around at any 

Born in Tuiua, Colombia, a small farming 
town about 100 kilometers from Cali. Asprilla 
made his professional debut with Cticuta De- 
portivo at the age of 15, He later spent three 
scasOTs with Atletico National Medellin, and 
‘ , ejpcd win the Colombian first division title in 
1992. He Fust attracted the attention of Italian 
scouts during Colombia's qualifying rounds for 
the 1992 Summer Olympics. 

• X**e slender, speedy attacker, who has power 
ui both feet and an ability to hang in the air 
while rival defenders fall back to earth, soon 
became the object of a bidding war involving 

several 1 Laban dubs, a war that boosted his 
“king price from $1.5 million to $4.5 million, 
the amount that Parma eventually paid Atletico 
Nacional for the rights to Aspriba. 

In his first Italian season, Asprilla impressed 
teammates, defenders and observers with his 

y. And with his knack for scoring big goals, 
like the 25-meter second-half free kick which 
which Parma beat AC Milan, 1-0, ending the 
Italian champion's unbeaten streak 31 58 
matches. Asprilla also spearheaded Parma to its 

The first in an occasional series of articles, 
leading up to the World Cup, on the players and 
teams that will take part in this summer’s tourna- 
ment in the United States. 

first international triumph, in the prestigious 
Cup Winners’ Cup, scoring Tour goals in eight 
matches. It was his “double" in Spain that 
rallied the Italian team to a 2-1 victory over 
Atletico Madrid in the semifinals. 

Yet the same exuberance that leads Asprilla 
to turn a cartwheel after every goal has also sent 
him tumbling into trouble off die field. In 
August 1 992, during bis first two weeks in Italy, 
be was involved in six automobile accidents, 
and he once left his BMW parked in front of a 
busy stoplight in Parma for two days before 
returning to remove it 

(This being Italy, and the police almost as- 
suredly knowing who owned the car. it re- 

mained at the stoplight until Asprilla did re- 

“He’s like a child,” says a veteran journalist 
who follows the Parma dub. “He’s only 24. and 
he’s a young 24. It’s not that he's hot good 
natured. or that he creates problems in the 
locker room: On the contrary, he has an incredi- 
bly positive attitude and tends to pick up the 
mood of the entire dub. It's just that he also 
likes to have a good tune." 

Parma’s man-child is both generous and 
ingenuous. He prefers shopping to sightsee- 
ing. and routinely buys dozens of sunglasses 
for family and friends. He is equally capable 
of playing his stereo full blast at 4 in the 
morning — which this year, at the request of 
Asprilla's neighbors in the city center, led the 
dub to rent a villa in the country for its 
noisome scar. 

Further, some of Asprilla’s antics have been 
quite painful He returned from a visit to Co- 
lombia In April 1993 with a 35-stitch cut in his 
right calf, a cut that he blamed on a broken 
bottle at poolside. But, insiders say. it was 
caused when be tried to kick in the window of a 
passenger bus in downtown Medellin. The inju- 
ry kept him out of the Cup Winners' Cup final 
against Belgium's Antwerp. 

While Asprilla seems to have improved his 
driving — be had only rwo fender-benders 
during Colombia's qualification for the World 
Cup — his impulsive nature nearly cost him a 
lifetime banishment by the Colombian Foot- 
ball Federation. 

Benched after missing a penalty kick 
against Paraguay in a World Cup qualifying 
match. Asprilla snuck out of his hotel room in 
Baranquilla and drove 200 kilometers to visit 
his wife. Catalina. Only the intercession of 
teammates and Colombia’s coach, Jo s6 Ma- 
turana — who argued, convincingly, that Co- 
lombia had no chance of qualifying without 
Asprilla and his goals — kept the mercurial 
star on the roster. 

And. if immensely talented, Asprilla is also 
still inconsistent, particularly in tbe winter 
when the Italian playing fields grow heavy 
with nun and frost He has scored 10 goals in 
league play this season, a respectable but not 
exceptional total. And he has gone long 
stretches, eight and nine matches, without 

Still he was nothing short of astounding in 
early September when be scored twice in Co- 
lombia's decisive 5-0 World Cup qualifying 
victory against Argentina, then racked up an- 

other “double" as Parma rallied to beat Swe- 
den’s Dergefors, 2-1. in Cup Winners’ Cup 
competition, and finished off the week with 
three goals against Torino in an Italian league 

And white Parma was out of the running far 
the first division title by March, the dub has 
reached the finals of the Cup Winners' Cup for 
the second straight year. 

Colombia's early elimination during the 1992 
Olympics makes Asprilla cautious when assess- 
ing bus country’s chances in the upcoming 
World Qip. 

“We have a very difficult World Cup 
group," he says, speaking softly and looking at 
bis feet, like a wayward but good-natured 
parishioner in confession. “It will be difficult 
just to make it to tbe second round. The 
important thing is for us to play well. I don’t 
want the world just to talk aboni drugs and 
murder when it thinks of Bogota or Medellin. 
There are honest people in our country as well. 
The majority of them. These are the people I 
want to represent." 

That he will do this well on the playing field 
is likely. That be will be equally flamboyant off 
the field is likely, too. 

Sharks Take a Nip 
Of Red Wing Plans 

The Aaoamed Pros 

Thanks to Arturs Irbe. the San 
Jose Sharks aren’t plaving like an 
expansion team. 

The only one of the 16 teams in 
the National Hockey League’s 
playoffs with a losing record, the 
Sharks have j winning one in their 
first-round series against the De- 
troit Red Wings and are only one 
victory away from eliminating the 
top-seeded team in the West. 

“They’re in a tough situation 
right now.” Irbe said after a 6-4 
victory Tuesday night, in which he 
made 31 saves. “But they’re a 


strong team and have gone through 
lough situations before." 

San Jose may have a 3-2 edge in 
the best-of-7 series, but the Red 
Wings did not sound like a beaten 

“I’m sure they have the momen- 
tum and confidence." Detroit’s 
Steve Yzerman said, “but 1 don’t 
care how they reel. 1 look around 
our dressing room and see a lot of 
good hockey players. Tm very con- 

One reason for the Red Wings' 
confidence is that the series was 
returning to Detroit for Game 6 on 
Thursday and, if neccessary. Game 
7 on Saturday. Another reason for 
optimism is the return of Yzerman, 
who got two assists Tuesday night 
in his game in the series. He has 
been nursing a knee injury. 

Detroit also has the incentive of 
trying to avoid first -round elimina- 
tion for a second straight year, and 
it seemed io show on offense. De- 
troit had a 35-21 shot advantage in 
the fifth game. 

Johan Garpenlov's goal with 
8:08 gone in the final period was 
the game-winner, putting San Jose 
ahead by 5-3. The second goal of 

the period, by defenseman Nicklas 
Lidstrom, reduced that lead to one 
goal but Bob Enrey’s goal pushed 
tbe margin back to' two. 

Maple Leafs 1, BUckhawks ft 
Mike Eastwood got the only gpal of 
the game in Toronto, making a 
winner of seldom-tested goalie Fe-. 
iix Potvin and a hard-luck loser of 
Chicago's Ed Betfour. 

Belfour stopped 36 shots, and it 
took a power p/ay for Toronto to 
finally get a shot past him. 
Eastwood, on the ice because Doug 
Gilmour was out with a muscle 
cramp, scored off a pass from Dave 
Andreychuk with 9:53 to play. 
Eastwood’s first goal of the play- 
offs came with only 1 3 seconds left 
on the power play! 

Potvin faced only I? shots and 
was seldom tested. 

Canucks 2, Flames 1: Geoff 
Courtnall’s goal 7: 15 into overtime 
in Calgary kept Vancouver in the 
playoffs. Calgary could have closed 
out the series by winning on its 
home ice. but instead Vancouver 
won the right to be host of 

Game 6 will be played Thureday 
night in Vancouver. A seventh, if 
necessary, would be Saturday night 
at Calgary. 

This game turned on a defensive 
mistake, when Calgary ’s Kevin 
Dahl was unable to control a 
bouncing puck near center ice and 
Courtnall took over. He broke in 
alone and scored on a 35-foot slap 

Calgary, which hasn't won a 
playoff series since winning tbe 
NHL championship in 1989, and 
Vancouver exchanged goals early 
in the first period Calgary’s Ger- 
man Titov and Vancouver’s Pavel 
Bure scored 65 seconds apart, and 
thereafter the game belonged to 
goalies Kirk McLean of Vancouver 
and Mike Vernon of Calgary. 

AC Milan Wins, 
Moves to Final 
With Barcelona 

C trio Fmrn&ih'Thr Aurcuttt) Pica 

AC Milan’s Marcel Desailly jumping higher than (he Monaco goalkeeper, Jean-Luc Effort, to score the first goaf on Wednesday night 

U.S., Down 0-2, Routs Norway in World Championships 

The Associated press 

overcame a first period scare Wednesday and 
crushed Norway. 7-2, for its second convincing 
victory in the World Ice Hockey Championships. 

It put the U.S. team atop the Group B 
.standings and almost assures it of gaining the 
medal round in Milan next week. 

In a Group A match in nearby Bolzano. 
Germany defeated Britain. 4-0, as second-peri- 
od power-play goals from Wolfgang Kummer 
and Ernst Kdpf broke it open. 

It was Britain’s second straight loss; Germa- 

ny has a victory and a tie. fa later games, 
defending champion Russia was playing Italy 
and Sweden was playing Finland. 

Norway was expected to be tougher, having 
tied favorite and Olympic champion Sweden on 
Monday. But the smaller Norwegians were no 
match for the NHL pros of Team USA. 

The Americans came out tentatively in the 
first period and paid when Norway struck 55 
seconds into Che game. 

Norway got its second goal on a power play 
with 1:10 left in tbe first period when Carl 
Andersen deflected a slap shot under the glove 

of goalie Guy Hebert of the Sl Louis Blues. 

But Team USA rebounded with four goals in 
the first nine minutes of the second period. 

First, the Edmonton Oilers' Shjon Podein 
passed from in back of the goal to Patrick 
Neaton of tbe Pittsburgh Penguins’ organiza- 
tion. who pushed the puck borne. 

Captain Craig Wolanin of Quebec scored on 
a power play with a sizzling wrist shot from 
inside the blue line; Edmonton's Bob Beers 
nailed a slap shot from the slot cm another 
power play; and Danton Cole of Tampa Bay 
scored off ’a pass from Anaheim’s Tim Sweeney. 

Compiled by Our Staff Fnm Dispatches 

AC Milan and Barcelona each 
posted 3-0 victories cm Wednesday 
night to sail into the final of the 
European Champions* Cup. 

In Milan, a powerful header by 
Marcel Desailly, a masterly free 
kick by Demetrio Albertini and a 
diagonal shot by Danide Massaro 
gave AC Milan its victory against 

Tbe Milan team, supported by a 
sellout crowd or 80,000 in the one- 
leg semifinal at San Siro stadium. 
produced an outstanding perfor- 
mance, scoring two goals while 
playing with only 10 players fol- 
lowing the 40th-minute expulsion 
of a key defender, Alessandro Cos- 

Costacuna received two straight 
yellow cards for bad fouls on the 
German centerforward Jurgen 

Klinsman n. 

Milan, a losing finalist against 
Olympique Marseille last year. wQ] 
be making its seventh appearance 
in the Champions' Cup final in 
Athens on May 18. 

Desailly. jumping higher than 
three defenders and the goalie. 
Jean-Luc Ettori, headed in the Grst 
goal in the 14th minute, giving Mi- 
lan a 1-0 first-half lead. 

Albertini. with a cannonball 
from 25 meters, made it two in tbe 
48th minute, definitely ending Mo- 
naco's hopes. 

Massaro, a veteran striker, 
kicked in the third goal in the 66th, 
with a powerful diagonal after a 
fast counterattack. 

It was a costly victory for Milan 
as its captain-sweeper. Franco Bar- 
es, was cautioned for the second 
time in the tournament and will be 


•- • -r- :• . • • • - 

Major League Standings 



Eos) Division 

W L 




13 7 




13 7 




12 7 



New York 

12 7 




6 13 



Central Division 
11 7 




12 8 




11 8 



Kansas Cih» 

8 10 




7 14 




Wert Division 

9 12 



Sea Itte 

8 1) 




6 11 




7 13 




East Division 

W L 




15 6 




10 10 



New York 

9 10 




9 »1 


S' ft 


8 12 




Central Dlvtuoo 
13 5 



SI. Louis 

12 7 




ID 9 




9 9 




5 13 



West Dhn start 
Scei Francisco H * 




9 10 



Los Angeles 

9 11 



Son Diego 

7 14 



Tuesday’s Line Scores 


Oakland 818 ** 1 ,? ] 

Witt, RiBheMi 161. R * v |? 

■woo* «■*> udies. 

1-1 H Rs — Baltimore. Anderson 7 Ml. Po*- 
meJra (6). Holies IS). 

f ..ninmln oil tit 201 — 4 11 0 

CnfltOfnta 211 »» « a 3 

new York *** ** ifTT L-.. p-_ 

Anderson. Patterson (9) 
m. Gibson 171. Reardon CM **«*"|J£ 
W-AnderwvHL L-Perez.21. HR-Cnllfor 
nto Smttti 11). « a l 

ESS !S SJ » « 

Mohomes, Guthrie 
Sweat (7». Mesa 171 and I* oniHd. 

W-NLOark, 3-0. L — MoWanes. l-J- S^-Mesa 

UI- H»— Minnesota ,W 

Cleveland, Ramirez Ml. *"°**n odo 12 >-^ 
Mturaekee oea 0* • 

CbfCBOO 0" I» 

E fared, Uoyd IS) ond NUsson- A- F^ 1 ”” - 
dez and Kartovic* »-*■ Fernandez, w- 
L— Eldred. 2-1 
Kansas CVy 

AyoJo 19) and O. Wilson. W-Ayota 2-1. 
L— Harris. 1-1 HR— Boston. Dawson <S>. 

Chicago 020 000 too— 2 5 1 

Cincinnati 021 0M 81*-8 11 2 

Wendell. Itslev (5). BuMnser C7I and Wil- 
kins; Pwah and Tcwbensee. W— -Push. 2-0. 
L— W endell. M. HRs-CMe*nna»l. Howard 
(11, Fernandez (31. 

Colorado 000 Wt WO-l S ■ 

St. Loots no 000 i • 

Reynoso. Blair (8) and SneaHer; Tewks- 
bury and McGrltt W— Tewksbury. 541 
L— Reynoso. 1-2. HRs — Colorado, Gafcurora 
(9) : SI. Louis. Lanklord (SI. 

Son Francisco 210 *0# MO— S i 1 

Montreal <« « X*-* « « 

Swill. Frey fTi.Montweono WMidManwor- 
Ins; Fossera, Henry 18). Rotas (8) and Fields 
or. w— Fossera 2-1. L— swW. 3-2. Sv-RoKts 
(5). HRs— San Francisco. WCHtams (9), Mon- 
wortng |1>; Montreal. Berry (2). 

San Dleeo tis «H *92—4 t 1 

New York 881 288 808-a 8 I 

wMtetiucsl. Davis (Bt.Sanfers in and Aus- 
mus; Smith. Mode tux 19! aid Hundley, 
w— Whitehurst. 2-1 L— P. Smith, 1-3. 
Sv— Sanders 11). HRs— San CHesa Planner 
M; New York, Hundley (S>. 

PHtSbertlh M 200 MO-7 11 • 

HOOStOd 820 020 008-4 II 8 

Wiener, Bollard (7), Dewey (7), White (B) 
ml SJausM; B. Williams, Edens (41. Hamp- 
ton (7). Jones 181. Mt. Williams <81 ono Ser- 
vols. W— oewev.WL L — J ones, 0-2. Sv — While 
(4). HR— Houston. Finley (Si. 

Atunta 080 122 T»— » IS D 

Florida 080 500 100-6 12 0 

Mercfcer. Blelockl (4), M. Hill (5). Wohlers 
(6l,McMlchoe! fSI andJ.Lonez; RmtaMutu 
(SI. Gardner 16). R- Lewis (7». Aquino IB), Y. 

Perez (8). Nen (91 ond Sonflaoo. W— Wohtex 

34L l— A aulikv 1-1- Sv -McMIchoel (5). 
HRs— Atlanta Klesko (4). J. Lopez <S>. Flori- 
da snertleW (7). Dcstrade 13). 
raitadetahta ou 888 OW-O 9 ■ 

Los Aneeles «00 802 »-» 11 1 

Greene. Bcakle 16 ), Wert (6), Stacutnb (7), 
Anderson (B) ond Dairttan; Ke. Gross. WOvne 
«7), Dreltorl (8). Dool (8). Todd Worrell (9) 
ond Piazza. W— Wovne, M L— West. H 
Sv— Todd Worrell (21. 

The Michael Jordan Watch 

TUESDAYS GAME: Fodno the Greenville 
Braves, Jordan went l-ior-2wlttio walk. In Ihe 
second, he hit a nrst-plKfi hwtaatf oft Steve 
oiswi b etwe en ai m t rtupan d ttdrd tor o single, 
then was thrown out stealing Ho walked In the 
(ou-tti and stole hte eWiCftftMe of the seam 

He struck awl leoWng In the sevwith In Green- 
ville'S 4-3 victory. He hod no wrtouls. He 

seenwt lb m*rtwd9e a fly oB the w*t» In riBW 

that went lor o triple ay Tim GUUs. 

SEASON TO DATE: Jordan extended bis 
riffling slroak ft> 13 Oomea He Is battlna J27 


Lotte 7 8 

Kintetsu 5 8 1 JBS 3ta 

Wedne sd ay's Results 
Da lei 3. Orix 0 
Selbu 7, Lotte 1 

Nippon Ham 4. Kintetsu < 12 Innlnos. lie 

<T -y , 

NHL Playoffs 

Find Perl 

0 D 8-0 
8 * 1-1 
Penalties— Gl Imour. 

Tour of Spain 

Resolts Wednesday tram the iMrd sto*e> o 
2V-U trimeter (M8-mfle) stretch from Sato- 
maoca t» Caasres: 1. Laurenl jakAert. 
France. ONCE, 5 hours. 53 mlnwtes, 27 sec- 
onds; Z Joan Paul van Poppel. Nettwrlands. 

sometime; 3. Adriano Baffl. italv.Mercotone. 

At; A- Anoet Eda Spain. Ketme. S.I.; 5. Fotorl- 
zh) Bon tempi, Italy, Bresctalat. si: 6. Endrtn 
LoonL Italy, Jolly, s.t.j 7, Juan Carlas Gon=w 
lez,Spoin. EuskodLs.!.; 8-Monuel Abrew, Por- 
tuooL StcoeoLs-t.; *. Tony Rominder. Switzer- 
land, MdPel-Clos. sJ.; ID. Alesslo DlBasco. 
Holy. Amore ond Vita. sJ. 

Overall staadtaes; I, Romlnaer. ia;3B:55; 1 
BottL 16 seconds behind; 3. Metchor MourL 
Soam, Banesto. 2» behind; A Jolaoert. 29 be- 
hfnd; S. A lex Zu He. Switzerland ONCE. 29 
behind: 6. Glantuca Plerabon, Italy. Amore 
and vita 36 behind; 7, Marino Alonso, Spain. 
Batesta 37 behind; & Abraham Olano, Spota 
Mr»et-Clo3,38 behind; e, Stephen HodBe,Aws- 
troDa, Festlna 38 behind; ia Jesus Montava. 
Sppjn, Banesto, 42 behind. 


Japanese Leagues 

411 000 0**-« \\ l 
Komos CUT *n eo# m-* ® * 

SMktmyre. Castillo ^ 

Knurr; Honey. Mcnnonte 14. MW*" 1 
Brewer m and MBC«r lane. 

J-fl. l— M oney, M. s»— TTmnnJ^l- 

«»ndt g S K » • 

rt Zee. Unto Ml. "gg 

and TeHlelon; HeKhW. Cbrtenw TLHenW 

(9) ond Rodrlaue*. W— HelllnSf <HL L-— Woore. 

J-IHR-Oetraff. TeflKtan«>- 1 

Bestoo “* 2 * 0 

Seattle *e m mt i-» 

(M tenUvt) 

Hesketh. Qoanirll I f«. K. 

(fll, Karris (B> and BerryhHL Valle (81 . 







Central Leasee 
W L f 
10 6 0 

8 7 0 

9 t D 

7 B 0 
7 S 0 
0 9 0 

Pet. gb 

A2S — 



M 1 

Wednesday-* ResuUs 

Yomlurl 5* Hiroshlrna 1 
QmnlcM 6. votoftoma J 
Honshln A Ygkutt 3 

PadflC L»We 

W L 



Do lei 

10 6 




» 7 



Nippon Ham 

7 8 




7 8 





2 vi 







WimMedon x Oldham 0 

Nantes Z Lens t 
Towowse 1 Sochew* 2 
La Havre a Ports St. Germain 2 
st Etienne l. Morttajes 1 
Bordeaux Z Awcwre a 
Marseille i Lvon 0 
Ulic a Metz 4 
Strasbourg Z Anvers 2 
Montpellier & Coen 0 

Notional League 

Nl— S uspended Bonita santtaw. Ftartdo 
catcher, tor 4 games and fined him wOR- 

dosed amount tor choralng mound and/rwh 

Inbbendvdcoiing brawl Ingomeogalnst son 
Franebco on April 17. 

CHICAGO— Put Jose Guzman, pilcher.onis- 
day dratted IfsL retroactive to April 1Z Re- 
called Turk Wendell, pitcher, tram Iowa, AA. 

FLORIDA— Put Brian Harvey, pitcher, on 
lSdov dfaoaied list. BowM cwitroct ot Jeti 
Mutts. Pittfier. tram Edmonton. PCL- 
HOU5TDM— OPltaned Roberto Petagirje. 

1st baseman, to Tucson. PCL. Recalled John 

Mudek. pitcher, tram Tucson. ,, 

LOS- ANGELES— flettroted Coriic Hwnm r^ning), 2'.9»; E11L SJ (hokllno). 8:31; 
da.caiaier.trami54iay dtstAM liu.OMluned ,r™«tierliln»). 10:i«- 

Chan Ho Purfc. ptwwr. to son Antonia n_ Re- 
adied Omar Deni, Pilcher, from Albuauerata 
PO. Signed Joe KIHik. elW*r. to ° <" ,nor 
league amtnicL Sent Tom Prince. CUteher, 

KBnk and Al Osunft Pi Wwt* » AJOuauetm*- 

N.Y- METS— Oat kned Jonathan Hurst and 

Dave TtigtHder. rttdwra, to Neriolk. H-tt e- 

cottat Mowo uiicher, tram NOrfwL 

Bought alttfactotJos^asM«^3In^«o,P^^ch«' , 

from Norfolk. 

. PITTSBURGH— Rented Dan Mtcell, 

Pilcher, tram Buffalo. AA. ottiorad wiillwn 
Petmvfeaffier.aiftfleider, to Buttalo. Sent Joel 
Jomsron. oHctwr. to Bvttata aa. Boubw con- 
tract d Jeff Tabaka, wiener, from Buffalo. 

Tor I rough Ins), 8:26; Odwme. Tor (nigh- 
sticking l. ICC; Murphy, Chi (holding), 
11:56; Graham, CM dripping), 15:23; Cun- 
neyworth. Chi l charging), 17:42. 

Second Period— None. Penohles— Zezel. 
Tor [goalie Interference), 2: JSiYseboerl. CW 
(hooking). 6:41; Borschevsky, Tor (hlgh- 
StlcktnD).7:46; Amonte.Chl (hooking) ,13:28; 
Q ark. Tor (roughinsl. T4:t& 

TWrd Perlod-l, Toronto. Eastwood 1 (An- 
dreychuk. Ciork). 10:07 (pal. Penoltles— Os- 
borne. Tor (ooafle Interterence). 4:73; Safer. 
QW I hooking), 8:20. 

Shots ea goot-Chkago 7-3-7—17. Toronto 
7M4-77— 37; po wer-eknr oaaertunmts— Chi- 
cago 8 M 6; Toronto I at 6; goalies— CMcago, 
Belfour, 2-3 (37 shots- J« raves). Toronta Poh 
wta 3-2 (17-17). 

vaacoaver 110 1-2 

Calgary t * ■ 0—1 

First Period— 1, Vancouver, Bure 1 (Adams. 
Linden). 4:48. 2. Coloary. Titov 2 (Nlevwen- 
dvfc, Roberts). S^L Penaltles-Momesso. 
Von lhlgtMllcklno).9:l4; Sulllvon. Cai t hold- 
ing), 13:04; Meintyre. Von (etaowlng), I6:B8; 
CMtmntw Von (htatvstlcklngl. 18:45. 

Second P eriod None. Penalties— Roberts. 
Cal (Maklng>.6:ll; Calgarv bench. served by 
Stern (too many men), 9:0S: CourtnaiL Vem 
(trtppfng). 17:30. 

Third Pertod— None. Penalties— Nano. 
Overt i me- 3. Vancouver. Courtnoll 3 (Dl- 
duckL 7:75. Penalfles-None. 

Shots on oral— Vancouver LtO-9-7— 32. Cal- 
gary 86-5-3-22; power Ptor oppe rt se Wes - 
—Vancouver 8 of 3; Cnigarv 8 ot 4; goalies- 

— Vancouver, McLean-2-3 (22sheev21 sovesl. 

Calgary. Vernon. 3-2 132-30). 

ru.lmlt 2 « 2—4 

DetT ®" , , 1 . 

u Jcrse ‘ 1 M 

First pertod — 1. Son Jose. Mokarav 4 (Lar- 
ionov, Gorpentov). 2:47 (pp>- Z San Josev EUk 
V?Duehesnel.8:3L3. Detroll.Cottey 1.13:33.4. 

Detroit, Shenpord 1 (Cotter. Yzormon). 14:13. 
renames— Knzlev, Dot ihlpMIcktag). 2:«; 
r|ccenll1.Det (raughlno).2:2l; Wtiltney.Sl 
istashlnal.MlMokarov.SJ I stash Ino), 4:25; 

irao, SJ, served by 'Whiinevl *°*^ !*££*! : 
CiecarHM. Det. misconduct. 1 li’. 'pS^ST,' 
Oet (goalie Interference). 7S;2S. Prtfneau. 
net [ roughing] ■ 19:44. 

Second Pwtod—i Son J ose, Mokorav S (Lor- 

tenov. Garpenlov), 18:45. 

port. Det (croa-diecklns 1, 5^». DuOteCTfcSJ 

(hokttags» San Jose o«Wfc served 

bv wtumey (loo motiv men). lOjis. 

Third pertod— 6. 5on Joso. P* *w» 

Detroit. Lidstrom 2 (wm ***£' 



Penattles^+taik Idis. Dei (raughlra), 
2:54; More.^«start^)^S4 ii Prtn^ S . 

Jalabert Wins 
Again in Spain 

JThe Associated Press 

CACERES, Spain — Lau- 
rent Jalabert of France put on 
a strong sprint to win Wednes- 
day's third stage of the Tour of 
Spain cycling race, beating out 
Jean PauJ Van Poppel of the 
Netherlands and Adriano 
Baffi or Italy. 

The 25-year-old Jalabert 
had been awarded Tuesday's 
second stage when the appar- 
ent winner, Baffi, was disqual- 
ified for elbowing Mercatone 
teammate Mario CipoBini of 
' Italy in a frantic sprint finish. 

CipoQinl who fell 30 meters 
from the finish, remained un- 
der observation for head inju- 
ries in a hospital in Salamanca. 
He had withdrawn from the 

Tony Ronringer of Switzer- 
land held on to his overall 
lead. The two-time defending 
champion led Baffi by 16 sec- 
onds, Switzerland's Alex ZuUe 
by 20 and Spain's Melchor 
Mauri by 24. 


Obree Breaks Hour Cy ding Record 

BORDEAUX ZAP ) — Graham Obree of Scotland broke the one-hour 
cycling record Wednesday by covering 52.713 kilometers 132.76 miles). 

’ That topped the mark of 52270 kilometers set last July by Chris 
Board man of England on the same wooden track at the Bordeaux 
velodrome. Six days before that, in Hamar, Norway, Obree had broken 
the record established in 1984 by Francesco Moser of Italy. 

Vancouver Gets 29th NBA Team 

NEW YORK (AP) — The NBA Board of Governors on Wednesday 
granted a franchise to a Vancouver group headed by Arthur Griffiths, 
owner of the NHL’s Vancouver Canucks. 

Vancouver will have to pay a $1 25 million fee to enter the league. The 
team will begin play in the 1995-19% season. 

Vaacouverjoins Toronto, which was approved by the NBA in Novem- 
ber, as the second expansion team. The two Canadian franchises will 
increase the NBA lo 29 teams. 

For the Record 

DonyeQ Marshall Connecticut’s All-American forward announced 
that he would forgo his senior year to play in the NBA. ( S YTl ‘ 

Serguei Fomftcbev, charged with trying to extort money from fellow 
Russian A loti Mogilny of the Buffalo Sabres, pleaded guilty to a lesser 
count of menacing; he remained in custody without bail on federal 
charges of entering the country' illegally. (AP) 

Irgun. the Wood Memorial winner, was scratched from the Kentucky 
Derby on May 7 because of an injured tight front fool. (A P) 

Mike Tyson, interviewed by CNN’s Larry King for a program to be aired 
May 4, said he has been working out twice daily and will Fight again. He is 
scheduled to be released from prison in the spring of 1 995. (API 

automatically suspended for tbe fi- 
nal, as well as Costacuna. 

Milan became the third Italian 
team to read) the final in the Euro- 
pean competitions. Parma and In- 
tenumonale are finalists in the Cup 
Winners' Cup and UEFA Cup, re- 

In Barcelona. Hrisio Stoichkov, 
a Bulgarian, scored two first-half 
gpals and Ronald Koeman scored 
late to lead Barcelona to its 3-0 
triumph over Oporto of Portugal, 
moving the Spanish side into its 
second Champions’ Cup final in 
three seasons. 

Barcelona, the highest-scoring 
team in this season’s Champions’ 
League, grabbed a 1-0 lead in the 
10th minute when Stoichkov 
scored from six meters in front of 
1 10,000 fans at Camp Non stadi- 

The Brazilian Romano began 
the play near midfield with a pass 
to his left to Sergi Barjuan. Baijuan 
moved down the wing and then 
lofted a pass to Stoichkov, who left- 
footed it in from a spot squarely in 
front of the goal mouth. 

The 28-year-old Stoichkov made 
it 2-0 in the 35th minute on another 
goal from six meters that looked 
just like the first one. 

Oporto's fate was sealed in 61st 
minute when the team captain. 
Joao Pinto, was sent off on his 
second yellow card. 

Koeman. a Dutch defender, fin- 
ished off Oporto in the 72d minute 
to make it 3-0 with a driving goal 
from 35 meters. 

The Portuguese side was domi- 
nated throughout the match and 
almost never threatened to score 
against a Barcelona defease that 
was tighter than usual. 

• FTFA and UEFA on Wednes- 
day expanded the sanctions im- 
posed cm the three players involved 
in Olympique Marseille’s bribery 
case to a worldwide ban for two 
years, but allowed the dub to re- 
sume playing in European compe- 

French soccer authorities had 
demoted Marseille to the second 
division on Friday and stripped its 
owner. Bernard Tapie, of his li- 
cense to run tbe club because of the 
allegations that players for another 
French team were paid to throw a 

Wednesday’s communique, isr 
sued by FIFA and UEFA in Vien- 
na on the eve of the European gov- 
erning body's congress in Vienna, 
said the three players, Jean-Jacques 
Eydlie, Christophe Robert and 
Jorge Burruchaga, were now 
banned from playing anywhere in 
the world. That will prevent Burru- 
chaga from playing for Argentina 
in ihe World Cup in the United 
States this summer. 

• FIFA is studying the possibili- 
ty that South Korea and Japan 
could jointly host the 2002 World 
Cup, a FIFA executive board mem- 
ber, Peter Velappan, said in Los 

Velappan. in California to visit 
the state's two venues for the 1994 
World Cup, said the plan would 
allow for 32 finalists in 2002. 

(AP. AFP) 

fltalflJl, Sob Jose. lrBe - H ,3M ”' 

World CTiarnpionsmps 

Canada 6, Austria l 
Germany 4, Britain 0 

Czech ReuuWie S France 2 
united Slafw 7. wonrar . 





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Expert on the Stand Reggae’s Shepherd 

YY7ASHJNGT0N —One of the 
YY things that makes the Ameri- 
can legal system so fair is that in 
any civil suit lawyers are permitted 
to caU "experts” who win testify in 

favor of their clieDts. There ait now 
almost as many experts as lawyers 
in this country, and some of then 
make more money than the people 
' they're working 

I got the word 
oh what an ex- 


pert s proiesaon 
was like by talk- 
ing to Dr. Zdg- 
fned Bibbleman 
in the haii-of the 
Superior Court 
House of Los 

Angeles. He was _ 

waiting to be Bucnwald 

called to testily in a defective turf 

“How long did you practice 
medicine before you became a legal 

He replied, “I never actually 
practiced medicine. When I gradu- 
ated from medical school 1 discov- 

ered that the really big money in 
doctorina was in the courtroom. I 

doctoring was in the courtroom. I 
charge S6G0 an hour for testifying 
and $750 for a second opinion. I 
have given testimony in almost 
2,000 lawsuits." 

"On what basis do you choose 
your cases?" 

"It depends which lawyer gets to 
me fusL In this case I am here 
because (he plaintiff got to me 

British Library Baying 
16th-Century Bible 

The Associated Press 

LONDON — The British Li- 
brary has announced that it is buy- 
ing the only known first edition of 

ahead of the defendant. I plan to 
testify that the plaintiffs injuries 
woe caused by the faulty artificial 
turf when she slid into first base." ' 

“But, doctor, you can't sue when 
a person slides into fust" 

“So what? Tm tbe expert and 
they’ll have to take my word for iL” 

Dr. Bibbteman told me that 
hired medical experts were the key 
to successful malpractice suits. 
“Because we appear only in court- 
rooms and never in hospitals, we 
are the unsung heroes of our pro- 

“Do you ever change your opin- 
ion about the cause of an injury 
during the course of the trial?" 

“Once in a while." 

“Was it because you felt that you 
were wrong?” 

“No, it was because the lawyer 
was refusing to pay me. It was his 
mistake because the jury was flab- 
bergasted when I snitched horses 
in midstream." 

“I assume that you testify for 

“HI testify for tbe meter maid in 
tbe street if she can come up with 
the money. An expert doctor must 
serve one and alL" 

"What makes a good medical 
witness?" 1 asked. 

"It’s someone who swears to tell 
the truth, the whole truth and noth- 
ing but the truth, and then spends 
tbe rest of his time on the stand 
lying through his teeth. But be has 
to look believable. That’s why I 

always wear this stethoscope when 
I take tbe stand.” 

“How do lawyers find you?” 

"I have a reputation of bong one 
of the most knowledgeable experts 
in the business and also for idling 
the court exactly what my client 
wants them to bear." 


Going His Own Way 

By Mike Zwerin 

International Herald Tribme 

can Leslie (King) Kong became die reggae 

P ARIS — Sitting at a table in the empty 
bar of the Intercontinental Hotel in 

producer of the 1960s thanks largely to 
Cliff, who mixed Jamaican ska with Amer- 
ican soul music and became a local cult 
hero. He signed with Island Records, of 
the Jamaican-born Englishman Chris 
Blackwell and moved to London. 

He had trouble with British Customs, 
and landlords were not nice to him. “It 
was rough, a trying time, but I learned a 
lot. 1 wrote ‘Many Rivers To Cross’ when I 
was lost in the English countryside. I'd 
been doing a lot of dings, I was in a 
confused state. No money, no food, no 
shelter. Just my guitar. Fd stop at houses 

nudafteroooo. Jimmy Cliff was comfort- 
able with himself in tbe third person: 
“When they wanted to bring reggae to 
America, they sent Jimmy Cliff. When 
they wanted to bring reggae to England, 
they sent Jimmy Cliff. When they wanted 
to bring reggae to Africa, they sent Jimmy 

Reminded of Cliff, few would deny his 
importance. He has been Ihe shepherd of 
reggae, paving the way. He says he got Bob 
hurley his first gig. But the need for re- 
minder r emains . 1 asked him what he's 
been doing lately because his record com- 
pany (Sony) biography ends in Orwellian 
fashion in 1984. 

"I have my own way as an artist." he 
replied in hiring Rastafarian English. 
"Sometimes it helps me sometimes it 
doesn’t I wanted to have my own record 
label and I did. I love Sooth America and 
Africa and f have been spending a lot of 
time there living and touring, even though 
it reduced my exposure in the rest of the 
world. You can't have big platinum al- 
bums without an international manage- 
ment and recording nucleus around you." 

Ten years ago. Cliff had the same man- 
ager as Meat Loaf. Not that he’s proud of 
it, or ashamed, he just mentions it to 
illustrate the business level he was on and 
would be on now if he hadn't decided on 
his own way. But it's time to change. He’s 
decided that a little ambition is not un- 

Change involves circling the globe (be 
arrived here from Brazil) to promote his 
recording of Johnny Nash’s song “I Can 

stop at houses 

and people would offer me fish and chips 
now ana then. The British press was im- 

press was al- 
ways putting down reggae, but when my 
song ‘Wonderful World' came out with 

song ‘Wonderful World' came out with 
strings on it, they complained I was water- 
ing down rtggae, commercializing iL 1 
couldn’t figure that out” It became his 
first worldwide hiL 

His song “Waterfall.’* which had 
bombed in Britain, bit the charts in Brazil. 
He went there for 10 days and stayed 
almost a year. As reggae spread across the 
planet Cliff toured South America from 
Panama to Argentina. Tbe filmm aker Per- 
ry HenzeU saw bis photograph on the 
jacket of “Wonderful World” and asked 
him to play Ivan in his movie “The Harder 
They Lome.” 

Modeled after the Jamaican outlaw- 
hero Rygen, Ivan, comes from the country- 
side to Kingston, gets ripped off by pro- 
ducers and record companies and becomes 
an outlaw and local cult hero. Cliff put a 
lot of himself into it “It was a pretty 


A New Puppet Raises 

The perception that Sophie 
RtyfrJooes will many Prince Ed- 
ward has been reinforced by a new 
puppet likeness in the cast of a 
television satire show. “Spitting 
Image” sends op public figures 
with puppets and has lampooned 
the Brittia royal family. Hie com- 
pany that commissi ons the show 
confirmed Wednesday that a pup- 
pet of the trim, blonde Rhys-Jones 
would appear for the first time 
when a new series begins Sunday. 

Paul Watson of The Toronto 
Star won the Robert Capa Gold 
Medal from tbe Overseas Press 
Oiibof America for his photo of a 
U.S. serviceman being dragged 
through Mogadishu, Somalia. Rkt 

Jimmy Ofiff has decided that a fittie ambition is not unhealthy. 

accurate portrayal of the Jamaican music 
scene." He became an international cult 

See Oeariy Now," featured in tbe Disney 
film "Cool Running s." Released as “Rasta 

the English-language Tyndale Bi- 
ble. but most of the £1 million 

ble, but most of tbe £ I million 
pound ($1 .5 million) price has yet 
to be raised. 

Tbe library described the 16th- 
century William Tyndale transla- 
tion of the Bible as the most excit- 
ing acquisition in its 240-year 
history. The volume is being sold 
by Bristol Baptist College, where it 
has been since 1784. The library 
has made a payment of £200,000 
pounds but the balance must be 
raised over the next two years. 

"What was your greatest tri- 

"It was a dandruff case. The cli- 
ent was a shampoo company that 
was sued by a man who claimed 
that the product gave him dandruff 
instead of getting rid of it I testi- 
fied that the man had hay fever, 
and this in turn caused dandruff 
particles to attach ibemsetves to bis 
head when he sneezed." 

"And the judge threw the man's 
case out?” 

“Not only that, but because I 
had successfully testified in his 
court 100 times be invited me hack 
for tea." 

film “Cool Running s." Released as “Rasta 
Rockett" in France, it is about the Jamai- 
can bobsled team and has a fine cast and 
good vibes despite a corny screenplay. 
Cliff likes making other people's songs his 
own. His own songs have been covered by 
Bruce Springsteen, Percy Sledge, Martha 
Reeves, Nilsson and Linda RonstadL 

Born James Chambers in 1948, Cliff 
grew up in the hillside village of Somertoc. 
He sang and played the guitar and piano 
for the Pentecostal church, moved to 
Kingston to make his fortune, changed his 
name to Cliff, which implied heights, and 
began to gel ripped off by producers and 
record companies. 

He was paid bus fare for his first record, 
“Daisy Got Me Crazy,” and £15 for the 
next one, "Tm Sony." Tbe Chinese-Jamai- 

scene. tie became an international cun 

He is descended in part from Maroons, 
escaped Jamaican slaves who waged guer- 
illa war against 18th-century English set- 
tlers. In 1974, he went to Nigeria to study 
Islam. Considering Africa “my natural en- 
vironment," he has traveled "north, south, 
east and west" on the continent. He per- 
formed for 25,000 people in Harare. Zim- 
babwe. In 1980, he toured South Africa, 
after which he was blacklisted, picketed 
and banned in some countries, including 
Barbados and Antigua. 

"1 understood their point," he said. 
’They thought that the apartheid system 
could get political mileage out of the fact 
that Jimmy CM is black and they let him 
play for integrated audiences. But I didn't 
see anybody picket Boring for selling 747s 
to South African Airlines. 

“And they should have looked at the 

content of my work. My trip to South 
Africa was maybe the most useful thing 
I’Ve ever done. Somebody in Soweto told 
me that my songs are like ‘readme the 
psalms’ for him. Reggae is made by black 
people who want a piece of tbe pie: T want 
a piece of the pie — now.' We’ve learned to 
tfite a ihtie of it for ourselves. Like me 
with my own record company." 

Cliffs label Sun Power, released three 
of his albums since 1984. They were dis- 
tributed by small companies because tbe 
big ones refused. Why? “The music on 
those albums was music I really wanted to 
make. A lot of it was political The multi- 
national companies did not like tbe con- 
tent. Also it was very raw. I used local 
bands. I wanted it that way.” 

In 1986, he made the movie "Cub Para- 
dise” with Robin Williams, Peter O’Toole 
and Twiggy, which he thought was "very 
good while they were shooting it but tbe 
editing could have been better." The mov- 
ie went nowhere. 

It remains to be seen if Jimmy Cliff, an 
institution and an enigma who is every- 

where and nowhere at the same time, wdl 
rise from the ashes of his own “ways" to 
star in the Northern Hemisphere again. 
Meanwhile in Kingston where be still 
shines, reggae has mixed with rap to be- 
come ragamuffin. The beat has changed 
from the standard one-drop to something 
resembling mento. an indigenous Jamai- 
can style which, he says, is easier for Afri- 
can-Americans to dance to. 

“People think its fresh but actually it's 
back to the roots. The music has changed 
every decade, along with the spirit of the 
people. In the *7 0s, reggae was about spiri- 
tuality, it dealt with evolving the human 
spirit Now it focuses more on sex than 
love. Like rap. It’s the age. 

“In Jamaica the middle and upper class- 
es listen to Michael Jackson and Whitney 
Houston, the poor listen to reggae. They 
cannot go to Miami and do some shopping 
and all that So when Saturday and Sun- 
day come they just dance and dance. 
That's the way it is nowand that’s the way 
it was 30 years ago. This has not changed. 
Reggae is music for poor people. I know, I 
was one of them.” 



Appewi on Pages 10 & 12 




Forecast for Friday through Sunday, as provided by Accu-Weather. 


Coda Da Sal 


Hlgft Lo« 

ZSfTT 14/57 
19/66 11 SZ 
21/70 1102 
21/70 13/55 

is/ea am 

1B/B4 11/32 
20AB 11152 
IW64 0MB 
15/63 10/50 
24/75 ISflH 
17/02 9/48 

1355 9/40 

21/70 12/53 
21/70 0/40 

si/70 am 
9/48 4/33 

19/B8 8/48 

25/77 HUBS 
23/73 15/59 
18*4 11/52 
27*0 12l53 
22/71 14/57 
17*0 7/44 

10*4 8M6 

20*8 13*5 
13*8 8/4 6 

21/70 14/57 
21/70 13*5 
19*8 10/30 
7/44 0/32 

20 108 10*0 
I 13*5 0/43. 
13*5 7/44 

21/70 13*6 

0/48 4/39 

20*8 12*3 
18*4 7/44 

18*4 9/48 

20/08 u*a 

Today Tom* 

HW> Lorn W l*gh Low 

■ 22/71 

■ 21/70 
pc 17*2 

■ 26/77 
pc 18*4 
pc 10*1 

• 24/75 

• 23/73 

■ 22/71 
1*1 11/52 
pc 19*8 

• terra 

■ 22/71 

pc 19/88 
4 27*0 
» 26/79 

• 17*2 

• 21/70 
pc 22/71 
ah 10 «T 

■ 21/70 
I 23/73 

■ 21/70 
pc 8/43 

• 22/71 
ah 13*5 
ah 12/33 

• 23/77 
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a 19*8 

a 20*8 

a 24/76 

New OaM 

34*3 24/75 pe 34*3 20/70 ah 
20*2 14*7 a 29*4 17*2 a 
25/77 21/70 C 2B/7B 21/70 ah 
M/83 s/77 pe 34*3 25/77 pa 
40/104 24/73 a 42/107 24/7S 8 
21/70 8448 a 20*8 9/48 a 

22/71 12*3 a 23/73 13*5 pc 
82*0 23/73 *1 32/08 23/73 pe 
S/77 19*0 18 28/79 19«B c 
17/92 7/44 rfl 17*2 4*9 pe 

North America 

Showers and thunderstorms 
win swoo p eastward across 
Plttsbuipi, RitadetpWa and 
New Yerti CUy Friday. The 
weekend will be dry and 
cool. Showers and thunder- 
storms may blossom over 
the southern Reins lets this 
weekend. Snow will whiten 
the Rockies, while cold 
weather pervades Canada. 


Paris through London will 
have dry, mild weather Fri- 
day Into the weekend. 
Southwestern France and 
the Iberian peninsula wiH be 
sunny and very warm 


ShoweiswH linger over cen- 
tral China Friday Wo Satur- 

Capa Tom 

day. Hong Kong to Shanghai 
wifi be warm Friday into the 

through the coming week- 
arid. An ana of coot weather 

end. An area of coot weather 
wiH be confined to Scandi- 

will be warm Friday into the 
weekend arth a stray ahower 
or two. Rangoon through 
Bangkok wit be sunny and 
hot the next several days. 
Bailing to Tokyo will have 
sunny, very worm weather. 

21/70 13*5 • 22/71 1S*1 pc 
18*1 7/44 pc 19*0 12*3 pe 

20/79 15*0 8 26/79 18*1 pc 
22m 11*0 pc 29/79 11*2 pc 
81/BB 20/79 pe 32/OB 20/79 pe 
ram 12*3 pc 24/73 14*7 ah 
01/70 If* 2 pc ee/71 (3*5 pc 

1 1nstance 
slOnd of 

10 Loading site 

14 *. . . forgive 

our debtors’ 

10 Get the lead 

11 "The Cherry 
Orchard’ miss 

17 18 th-century 
poet {whose 
name shares a 
feature with 38- 
and 58-Across) 

20 Sweetheart 

*1 February 14 

22 Major-league 

23 It may be 

** Opera 

i Highlight 

31 Narrative Byron 

33 Room to - 

Solution to Ptnde of April 27 

North America 

Middle East 

Lathi America 


HW Low W rage Low W 


24/75 18*4 pc 20/78 16*1 pc 
20/82 15*0 pc 2B/B2 12*3 pe 
25/77 14*7 pc 27/BO 10*0 pe 
23/73 16*1 pc 23/73 12*3 pc 
38/10010*1 • 38/100 16*1 a 
a/102 34/79 • 40/104 28/73 a 

Today To mor r ow _ 

Mgh Low W High Im W 


BuanwMw 24/73 13*6 * Z7*0 17*2 c 

Caracal 30*6 19*0 pc 30*5 18*8 pc 

Una 23/73 10*4 pc 24/75 19*8 pc 

UwaCoCBy 27/90 11*2 pc 26/79 10*0 pc 

Rtodatfanan 27*0 20*8 pc 27*0 22/71 pc 

Sawaoo 23/73 9 <48 « 25/77 8<46 pc 

21/7Q 13*6 * 10*4 12*3 ah 

22/71 14*7 a 22771 10*1 pc 

: M/finy. pc-pe*yctoudy.«i<ioudy.9h^hoia e ra. Htwn d a*lonTe.rrah.**nowfc»rie>. 
i. Moo. W-WeaBier. M nape, lora ca a u and data provided by Aco>WaWw. Inc. p 1994 

Houaam 2B/B2 

UwAngdaa 21/70 
Wan# 20*4 

Wi a W C/4 3*7 

UonM 12*3 

Naaaau 29*2 

Now York 20/68 

nioarh 26/79 

SanAwi 20*9 

SM0» 18*4 

Tmorto am 

WodCpaan 20*2 

□son naan □□□aa 
anas HHna aaaaa 
□naa aaas aauaa 

soma anu 
aaaaas aaaaaaaa 
□Boos ansa nan 
□HQ HUDH □□□E3H 

aaanHuaa □□□□□□ 
□□□ □□□□ 
□□□□a aczaa anna 
uehqoj auas anaa 
uuuqq aaaa □□□□ 

3« Support 
3S 17th-century 
40 United 
*1 NavratOova rival 

42 Boston athlete 

43 Natural habitat 
48 ’ Ma rtha’ at al. 
47 Isolated 

4t TV sheriff 
T upper 
49 PIUS 

82 Onetime labor 

S3 Good name for 
e cook? 
se 20th-century 

•QOId song “ 

She Sweet?’ 

*1 Get on 

82 Churchill prop 

53 Hwys. 

54 'John Brown’s 
Body' poet 

os Linemen 

S Rough posting 
for a foreign 

8 Illegal firing 

7 Processes 

8 Quiet color 

* Dracula actor 

10 Traverse a beat 

11 *To Live and Ole 

48 Chari ess game 
48 Mightier than 
48 Partly open 

so’ was youl’ 



81 Nostalgic song 

si Middle name in 

53 Mr. Musial 

54 Take care of 

ss Spends 
ST Rainy day rarity 

i Soul, In 

l Virtuoso 

i Daisy Mae’s 

2 ’Days of Grace- 

3 “M*A*S*H* 

4 That’s a moray 

is Looked at 
is Comic Martha 
ia Ancient land of 

ii Leader of’45 

23 Around 

24 Eye-cue tests? 
28 Ocean flier 

28 Ken-Uflation 

27 0ueeg’s 
2a Fish basket 

29 Wear 

30 'Oklahoma!' 

2 i Singer Reese 
33 Vista 
as Realizes 

37 Not hands-on 

38 Tied 

39 Low-fat 

44 Picks 

45 Spanish 

Pun* by H a nd y S owar 

© New York Times Edited try Will Shonz. 

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er won the Hal Boyle Award for 
best reporting from abroad by a 
newspaper or wire service, for his 
articles from Somalia. The Cable 
News Network got two awards and 
a citation for excellence, including 
one for spot coverage of the 1993 
rebellion against President Boris 
Yeltsin in Moscow. The New York- 
er magazine also won three, one fa- 
the best reporting on human rights, 
one to Mark Darner f or his stay of 
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dorean Indians. 


Prince Charles was visiting a 
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Jimmy Swaggurt has agreed to 
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seeking $90 million, after the two 
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tions in the 1980s. Gorman won a 
$6.6 million verdict in 1991, but it 
was overturned on appeal 


Min 9 

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0014-881-011 Italy- 

10811 Uedneastein* 

1-800-550-000 Colombia 
172-1011 ‘-Costa Rica"* 

Hong Kong 

018872 Urhnanta* 
800-1111 UjgMjMw 

000- 117 Malta* 
001-801-10 Monaco* 





New Zealand 

4* - « - ■ — 


009-11 Norway* 

Sri Lanka 

11* Poland**** 

8000011 Portugal - 

00091 1 Bt-"—- 

105-11 *B M tr ( Moeciw) 

235-2872 : Slovakia 

H0CUHU-H1 Spain 

430-430 Sweden* 

0080102800 Sw iC B crian d * 
0019-991-IU I UJL 


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