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Heralh 


INTERNATIONAL 



PUBLISHED WITH THE NEW YORK TIMES AND THE WASHINGTON POST 





1 N n m vtio>ai 
5 • A'MHED 



The Bonds of D-Day: 
Fading With the Years 

The Old Order Has Been Overturned , 
And O.S. -European Alliance Drifts 


By Jim Hoagland 

li'ashlnvirvt Pitt Savin. 

craUorf Ov^PTP N ~ Fifl - V years after Op- 
traUon acriord sanctified the irans-Aila£ 

m i iood *** steei oa ^ 

of Normandy. America and Europe 
arcdnftmg together, and drifting apart 
me 50th anniversary observance of D- 
Uay this spnng occurs in a moment of 



This opens a series of articles on the 
future of the A merican- European rela- 
tionship. On Monday, the next install- 
ment will examine security in the post- 
Cold War world. Subsequent articles 
will appear weekly until June 6. 


u , 



transition, as the leaders of America and 
Europe grope for new forms of alliance to 
replace the effective political partnership 
they forged to overcome the German Nazis 
and then the Soviet Communists. 

The collapse of the Soviet Union and the 
end of the Cold War — in some ways, the 
final act of the liberation of a continent that 
Operation Overlord launched — have freed 
America and Europe to turn inward and 
concentrate on long-subordinated domestic 
challenges, while paying fitful joint atten- 
tion to war in the Balkans and other security 
problems. 

In this sense .America and Europe drift 
together, without focusing or adopting a 
new trans-Atlantic consensus. 

In this moment of transition (and to a 
great extent because of this moment of tran- 
sition) .America will be represented at the 
Normandy anniversary by a president not 
yet born when Operation Overlord began. 
In his youth and inexperience on the world 
Stage. William Jefferson Clinton embodies 
the growing ambivalence and uneasiness of 
the .American nation about its role abroad. 

Without knowing the future, it is impossi- 


ble to say whether history flirts with ephem- 
eral irony, or with lasting symbolism, in 
having the celebration of America's most 
significant military triumph abroad presid- 
ed oyer by Mr. Clinton, 47. whose formative 
political experiences came protesting Amer- 
ican involvement in Vietnam and avoiding a 
draft he considered unjust. 

This American president is determined to 
be re-elected by working hard to provide 
increased economic and personal security 
for Americans at home while avoiding costly 
new commitments abroad. 

Mr. Clinton is surer about what be does 
not warn to do than he is about what he 
wants to do overseas. He and his foreign- 
policy aides have explicitly said that they 
consider Europe to be less important than 
did their predecessors, especially in compar- 
ison with Asia. 

The drifting apart is dear on the other 
side of the Adamic as well: Bosnia, reces- 
sion and the costly reunification of Germa- 
ny have sapped the credibility and energy of 
the major European governments at the 
same time. Their complaints of a lack of 
clear American leadership on Russia, the 
Balkans and other topics, if largely justified, 
also reflect Europe’s own weaknesses and 
self-absorption. 

Similar complaints have been voiced in 
the past, and periods of “disarray" have 
been frequent in the Atlantic alliance. But 
the timing of the 50ih anniversary of D-Day 
underscores that the deavage is much more 
significant now than in the past. 

To look back at June 6, 1944, from this 
distance is to survey the collapse and re- 
building of a global sodety that is once 
again on the cusp of enormous change. 

Paradoxically, the invasion of Europe by 
an American-led army would have political 
consequences that outlasted its military sig- 
nificance. 

D-Day brought a formerly isolationist 
America' back into Europe physically and 
politically. The success of the invasion begat 
a political order that would dominate world 
politics for the next half-century. 

Out of the trans-Atlantic alliance grew the 
United Nations, a free international trading 

See ALLIES, Page 4 



Bcuan Minum.'TV' Vnukd P»% 

SOvio Berlusconi leaving Rome's Qumnale Palace on Thursday after President Os- 
car Lngj Scaffaro named lam to form Italy’s fast postwar conservative government. 


Berlusconi Gets 
Call to Power, 
Sealing Sudden 
Rise in Politics 


By William Drozdiak 

Washington Post Service 

ROME — Only three months after he 
entered politics, the media tycoon Silvio Ber- 
lusconi capped his astonishing rise to power 
Thursday when President Oscar Luigi Seal- 
Taro appointed him to form Italy's 53d gov- 
ernment of the postwar era. 

The billionaire entrepreneur was designat- 
ed by Mr. Scalfaro as the new prime minister 
exactly one month after he fed a populist 
rightist alliance to victory in historic elections 
that ended four decades of domination by the 
traditional ruling parties, the Christian Dem- 
ocrats and Socialists. 

A presidential spokesman said Mr. Berlus- 
coni “reserved a decision" on taking the Teins 
of power until he had completed naming a 
cabinet. His aides said the process was virtu- 
ally finished, and its formal approval by both 
houses of Parliament should lake no more 
than two weeks. 

fn choosing the 57-year-old businessman. 
Mr. Scalfaro said he was respecting the “wQI 
of the people.” Mr. Berlusconi's grass-roots 
party. Forza Italia, came from nowhere to 
emerge as the country’s strongest political 
force in (be vanguard of a rightist coalition 
that included the federalist Northern League 
and the neofascist National Alliance. 

Despite his swift ascendancy, Mr. Berlus- 
coni's tenure in power promises to be turbu- 
lent He still has failed to quell fears about 
potential conflicts of interest between his 
government and business activities. And rela- 
tions re main precarious between his main 
coalition partners, Umberto Bossi of the 
Northern League and Gianfranco Fini of the 
National Alliance. 

“Now comes the hard pan,” said Luigi 
Caligaris, a former general who advises the 
new prime minister on defense and security 
matters. “I've told Berlusconi that he will find 
politics much different than business. If you 
ran a successful firm, the people who work 
for you are totally loyal. But in politics, those 
who say they are your allies think of them- 
selves fusL" 

Antonio Martino, the chief economic ad- 
viser who is tapped to become foreign minis- 
ter, said in an interview that Mr. Berlusconi 
intends to move quickly to accelerate an 

See ITALY, Page 4 


ng 6 Legitimacy ■/ South Africa Extends Voting in 6 Black Areas 



•j. 


_ .*» ‘ 






By Paul Taylor 

H'ashingion Peat Service 

JOHANNESBURG —South Africa's multi- 
racial election was extended Thursday for one 
dav in six black areas covering about one-third 
of the population, where administrative prob- 
lems made it difficult or impossible for people 
to vote. 

Tne extension, ordered amid a rash of com- 
plaints about voting irregularities and logistical 
snafus, drew support across the political spec- 
trum But it has also increased the likelihood 


China Bracing 
For Trouble 
Down on Farm 

By Lena H. Sun 

Washington Past Service 

YUANZHUANG, China — Home to the 
majority of China’s nearly 12 billion people, 
rural areas have largely been passed over by 
China’s economic boom. Real incomes have 
fallen in recent years. Peasant protests, parucu- 
iBrlv in poor inland areas like this one, have 
Sen on the increase, according to peasants and 

are already br^g 

f ° “fSyMrSwaSSSe small-scale protests, 
but not major chaos,” Xiao Yang, thegpveraor 
of Sichuan Province, recently predicted. By 
small-scale protest, he was referring to unrwt 
last summer in Sichuan s Rensbou County, 
when thousands of angry peasants stormed 
government offices, held local officials hostage, 
andattacked them with bricks and clubs to 

"TSSrtffSS Guangzhou two 
weeks ago, policemen fired tear gas mwa 

eign investors without adequately compensat 

SJ&ve that the vice presidem.of the Cenwd 
SESmisi Party School in Beg^S l 


that the vote count — which will now not start 
until Saturday — will be slow, messy and sub- 
jected to partisan challenges. 

President Frederik W. dc Klerk, who ordered 
the extension on the recommendation of the 
Independent Electoral Commission, said he 
tot* the step because “we must be able to say 
that all South Africans who wished to vote were 
given the opportunity.” 

Otherwise, he said, the “overall legitimacy” 
of his country’s founding democratic election 
would be in jeopardy. 


Earlier Thursday, Nelson Mandela, the Afri- 
can National Congress president asserted that 
there had been “massive sabotage” in the first 
two days of balloting. He complained that the 
huge majority of administrative problems at 
polling stations were in black rather than white 
areas. 

As soon as Mr. Mandela made the allegation, 
the ANC began softening it — nol an unfamil- 
iar maneuver for an organization whose leader 
is prone to off-the-cuff commentary. 

ANC spokesmen said Mr. Mandela's re- 


marks should be seen as an expression of frus- 
tration rather than as a sweeping indictment of 
the legitimacy of an election that is expected to 
make him president. The organization contin- 
ued to suggest that there had been specific 
irregularities here and there — as did aE other 
parties — but said it was satisfied with the 
extension. 

The balloting went relatively smoothly 
throughout much of the country on Thursday 
as voting stations that had been overrun on 
Wednesday were much less busy and more 


relaxed. Once again, there were virtually no 
reports of violence or overt intimidation. 

All through Wednesday night and Thursday, 
the army's printing presses churned out mil- 
lions of extra ballots, which were transported in 
military aircraft to regions of the country that 
had experienced shortages on Wednesday. 

One of the still unresolved mysteries of the 
electoral process is why, with an initial printing 
of 40 million ballots for an electorate estimated 

See VOTE, Page 4 


Kiosk 


Inflation Signal Spurs Bond Sell-Off 


Dow Jones ■ Trib Judex 






Thurs-dosa 

prevtas dose 

DM 

1.661 

1.6723 

Pound 

1.514 

1.5045 

Yen 

101.275 

102.33 

FF 

5.6985 

5.7345 

General News 



Bosnian Sobs are refuting to comply fully 
with NATO’s Gorazde ultimatum. Page 2. 


Books 

Bridge 


Page 7. 
Page 7. 


United Stales bond prices plummeted 
Thursday, putting pressure on the dollar and 
dragging down stock prices on Wall Street 
after the government issued a figure that 
showed inflation was still a danger even 
though growth had slowed in the first quar- 
ter. 

The benchmark 30-year U.S. Treasury 
bond slumped nearly two points as traders 
focused on indications that prices rose more 
than expected even though gross domestic 
product grew only 2.6 percent in the first 
quarter, down from 7 percent in the last 
quarter of 1993. 

At the close of trading, owners of the 
benchmark bonds had lost more than $3) for 
each $1,000 face value as the yield reached 
726 percent, up from 7.10 percent on 
Wednesday. (Page ID 



Tram Y mm fca/Ayncc fooce-Prev* 

TOKYO LINEUP — Prime Minister Hata on Thursday with his new cabinet Page 2. 


Palestinians 
And Israelis 
Set Target of 
May 4 on Pact 

But Rabin and Arafat 
WiU Meet a Day Before 
On 2 Remaining Issues 

By John M. Goshfco 

Washington Past Service 

CAIRO — Israel and the Palestine Libera- 
tion Organization on Thursday set May 4 as the 
deadline for Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and 
the PLO chairman, Yasser Arafat, to meet here 
and sign a long-delayed agreement put into 
effect self-rule for Pales tinians in the Gaza 
Strip and West Bank town of Jericho. 

Tne planned signing next Wednesday is to be 
witnessed by Secretary of State Warren M. 
Christopher and President Hosni Mubarak of 
Egypt, who in a series of meetings here Thurs- 
day convinced Mr. Arafat and the Israeli for- 
eign minister. Shimon Peres, that negotiations 
to have the accord ready for signature should be 
completed by Tuesday, with the signing on the 
following day. 

“I suggested that target date for signature 
should be here in Cairo, and both parties 
agreed,” Mr. Mubarak said as the four men 
appeared at a news conference. 

He added that Mr. Rabin and Mr. Arafat 
planned to meet Tuesday night to thrash out 
the biggest unresolved problems. Mr. Mubarak 
also said Mr. Christopher, who came here in an 
effort to push the U.S.-sponsored peace process 
forward, had agreed to slay in the region and 
attend the Wednesday ceremony. 

At issue is an accord on how to put into effect 
the Israeli-PLO peace agreement that was 
signal at the White House on Sept 13. That 
agreement calls for giving autonomy to the 
Palestinian inhabitants of Gaza and Jericho as 
the first step toward self-rule throughout the 
Israeli-occupied territories. 

The While House agreement envisioned 
completion of the implementing accord by Dec. 
13. with Israeli forces completing their with- 
drawal from Gaza and the Jericho area by April 
13. But issues as mmor as the size of the Jericho 
autonomy zone and as narrow as whether the 
PLO-con trolled areas should have their own 
postage stamps and telephone area codes have 
kept such an agreement out of reach until now. 

There is no guarantee that the new deadline 
of Wednesday will be met. But the tone of 
statements by the four men was clearly upbeat. 
They left the impression that Mr. Christopher 
and Mr. Mubarak had convinced the Israelis 
and the PLO that immediate conclusion is nec- 
essary if the peace process is to maintain its 
momentum and avoid falling victim to extrem- 
ist opponents on both sides. 

Mr. Christophers main goals on this trip 
have been to get the Israeli-PLO accord fin- 
ished and move on to what the United States 
regards as the next important stage of the peace 
process — getting Israel and Syria into serious 
negotiations for a peace agreement based on 
some kind of Israeli withdrawal from the Golan 
Heights. 

After conferring with Mr. Rabin in Jerusa- 
lem on Friday, Mr. Christopher will go to 
Damascus on Saturday to convey the Israeli 
leader’s thinking ;o the Syrian president, Hafez 
Assad. 

A senior American official accompanying 
Mr. Christopher acknowledged that major 
problems still must be worked out in the next 
six days. But he added, "We have every expec- 
tation that there will be a signing ceremony to 
celebrate on Wednesday.” 

Mr. Arafat said be believed the deadline 
would be met but refused to talk about specif- 
ics. The most optimistic common came from 
Mr. Peres, who said: “For us, it is the end of a 
long voyage and the beginning of a new chapter 
in (Be relations between the Palestinian people 
and ourselves.” 

The two biggest sticking points involve the 
size of the area around Jericho that will be 
subject to Palestinian autonomy and the com- 
position of an embryonic Palestinian police 
force, including its role at border crossing 
points such as the ADenby Bridge that connects 
the West Bank with Jordan. 

Tbe PLO has been demanding control over 
an area of 60 square miles around Jericho, but 
Israeli sources say that the Rabin government 
wants it limited to about 36 square miles. 

The other dispute centers on PLO insistence 
that a member of the Palestinian police force be 

See ISRAEL, Page 4 


In War on Disease, Gene- Altered Mice May Provide the Magic Bullet 


By Rick Weiss 

Washington Peat Service 

WASHINGTON —Scientists have produced a genetical- 
ly altered strain of mouse that makes antibodies identical to 
those made by h umans. If the mouse-made substances work 
in people as they have so far in test-tube experiments, 
scientists will have gained a new ability to attack viruses, 
mmors or even a person's own faulty immune system cells. 


Antibodies are among the body’s most powerful defenses 

protons that seek out and destroy invading microbes and 

other biological interlopers. As a result, they have enormous 
potential as drugs. Since 1975. researchers have known how 
to mass-produce them artificially, but they have straggled 
unsuccessfully to make versions so perfect that the body 
would not reject them as foreign. 

The new work has rekindled hopes that laboratory-grown 


antibodies may at last live up fp their expected role as 
“magic bullets” able to right infections, cancer, organ rejec- 
tion and chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid 
arthritis. 

Scientists cautioned that the history of such research is 
littered with dashed hopes, and final judgment must await 
further laboratory studies and riinical trials in people. But 
“if it’s really possible to get human antibodies from a mouse. 


then you’re talking about a quantum-leap advance,” said 
Anthony S. Fauci, director of the National Institute of 
Allergy and Infectious Diseases. “The implications are real- 
ly stupendous.” 

Details of the work appear in Thursday’s issue of the 
journal Nature, in a report by Nils Lonberg and colleagues 
at GenPhann International, a biotechnology company in 

See GENES, Page 4 


Once- Smug Geneva Begs for Its Own Kind of Business 


sion. 


social 


unrest and 
See PEASANTS, Page 4 


5 

Newsstand Prices _ — 

Andorra 

....9.00 FF 

Antilles.. 

Cameroon 

EsvPf-. 

France.. 

ilMFF Morocco.....— J2 un 
Qatar ..8.00 Rials 
Reunion —.11.20 FF 
.E.P.S000 snmjj Arabia ..9.00 R. 

-9.00 FF 960 CFA 

..«QCFA | Sjfn 300 PTAS 


.. .300 Dr. Tunisia —1.000 Din 

sssr^is ns mss 

Stanon '".USS 1-50 U.S. Mil. (Eur.) SI. 70 


By Paul Lewis 

New York Timet Service 

GENEVA — The grim gray spires of John 
Calvin’s cathedral rise above the southern shore 
of the bottle-green Lake Geneva, while on a 
fajHsidc above the northern shore is the duster 
of international organizations, ranged around 
the monumental old League of Nations head- 

OUBTtCTSi _ 

Geneva has always held these international 
guests primly at aim’s length, but that is chang- 
ing. 

A or so ago. with Geneva s economy 

booming, politicians were hanging out the full- 
up sign, saying the dty already had enough 
international organizations. 


But Geneva has not escaped Europe’s reces- 
sion With unemployment at 8 percent, city 
leadeis plainly feel they can no longer afford to 
look gin horses in the mouth. 

‘Ten years or so ago the nationalists didn t 
want any more foreigners in Geneva, tat they 

are not so self-confident any more. MjdLele 

Graz, a Swiss writer and journalist. ^here 
empty shops in Geneva these days. Thais 

something new.” 

So with a rare but desirable creature promts- 
n Uw shores of Ufepmjre.'J* 
sJss authorities are doing everything they can 

lo make it vreteomc secretariat to the 

At the start of next year, tne sbetoun i . 

GewraJ Agreement on Tanffs and Trade, 


which has managed world trade for the last 47 
years, will be transformed into the bigger 
World Trade Organization. The new organiza- 
tion win have hundreds of well-paid interna- 
tional civil servants with lifetime job security. 

Two years ago Geneva lost out to The Hague 
in a fight for an international inspectorate to 
enforce the chemical-weapons ban. Last year 
Geneva lost out to New York Tor the agency 
that will monitor compliance with environmen- 
tal goals set at a mating in Rio de Janeiro in 
1992. 

Last year ihe Organization of Petroleum Ex- 
porting Countries decided to move its bead- 
quarters back from Vienna. But Vienna has 
tried to persuade OPEC to change its mind. 


offering a magnificent 18th-century palace to 
replace its undistinguished office building. 

Now the Swiss government is negotiating to 
try to ensure that the World Trade Organiza- 
tion will remain in the vast stone building the 
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade occu- 
pies on Lake Geneva's shore. 

P&ter Sutherland, Ihe director-general of 
GATT, insists that “the negotiations are real 
and the outcome not preordained.” 

Arthur DunkeL the previous head of GATT 
and a Swiss, agreed, saying, “It’s good to re- 
mind the "Swiss that nothing is forever.” 

Mr. Duflkd has just created a group that will 

See GENEVA, Page 4 


The Highway 
Was His Way 

JOrgen Schneider, the German real-es- 
tate developer who fled a debt-ridden em- 
pire, left behind him a trail of unemploy- 
ment. In 2iis mock-Tudor castle, some of 
his sooo-to-be jobless staff gathered to 
sing around the piano and wonder what to 
do next. There was also much discussion 
of whether Mir. Schneider was an evil ge- 
nius or just a megalomaniac trapped by 
reality. Many think that he was over- 
whelmed by his business empire. Fearing 
his creditors, Mr. Schneider may have am- 
ply panicked. (Page 1 1) 


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« Page 2 


New Japan Cabinet 
Leans to the Right 

Hata Shows a Cautious Bent 


In Appointments, and Words 


By James Steragold 

New York Times Strike 

TOKYO — Over the last week, 
the question for Prime Minister 
Tsutomu Hata was whether he 
would be able to entice the Social 
Democratic Party back into his 
fractious coalition or would have to 
struggle without it in a minority 
government 

But as he finally assembled his 
cabinet Thursday without the So- 
cialists, and set sail on a wobbly 
course as Japan’s first minority 
government in 39 years, it was clear 
that the issue had been not just one 
of parliamentary strength but of 
ideology. 

Mr. Hata pledged that his gov- 
ernment's mission would be to car- 
ry on the process of economic and 
political reform begun by Us pre- 
decessor, Morihiro Hosokawa. But 
Mr. Hata's cabinet choices and his 
comments Thursday suggested the 
government has swung decidedly 
to the right on important issues. 

Not only are the six Socialists 
from the Last coalition government 
gone, replaced by conservatives, 
buz the new cabinet includes a re- 
tired general for the fust time in the 
post-world War II era. 

Shigeto Nagano, 71, the justice 
minister, served as the highest offi- 
cer is the Ground Self-Defense 
Force, as lire anny is known, before 
retiring and winning a seat in the 
parliament. 

And the foreign minister is Kofi 
Kakizawa, 60, an articulate former 
Finance Ministry bureaucrat who 


its military to be used abroad in 
peacekeeping missions, even when 
there is a threat of hostilities. 

That sort of independent stance 
is anathema to Japan’s leftists, and 
even to many older Liberal Demo- 
crats who remember World War n 
and distrust the ability of civilians 
to control the military. 

Thus, Mr. Kakizawa, who de- 
fected a week ago from the Liberal 
Democratic Party, the most conser- 
vative party, leans decidedly to the 
right, by Japanese standards. 

“In international affairs we have 
to be open to collective security 
arrangements, to have shared re- 
sponsibility in our security affairs," 
he said in an interview this week. 

“I don’t jnst mean financial re- 
sponsibility,’’ he said, “but shared 
risk-taking in maintaining the secu- 


That stand is particularly impor- 
tant now, with the United Nations 
trying to determine bow to per- 
suade North Korea to stop block- 
ing inspections of its suspected nu- 
clear weapons program. 


The New Japanese Cabinet 


Following is the new Japanese cabinet, appointed on Thursday fj -Japan 
Renewal Party, C-Clean Government Party, D-Democratic Socialist Party, 
N -Japan New Party, L-Liberols, R-Reform, P -Nonpolitical): 

Prime Minister Tsuloma Hata (It 

Foreign Koji Kakizawa (Lj 

Justice Shigpto Nagano (J) 

Finance Hirofusa Fujii f J) 

Education Kyoto Akamatsu fP) 

Health and Welfare Keigo Ouchi (D) 

Agriculture, Forestry nod Fisheries Mutsuki Kato (J) 

International Trade and Industry E$ho HaW (Jj 

Transport Nobualri Futami (C) 

Postx/Tetecotmmimcatkms Kalsuyidd Hfltasa (C) 

Labor Kunio Katoyama (R) 

Co nstructi on Kcji Maritnoto (C) 

Home Affairs Hajime Ishii (J> 

Chief Cabinet Secretary Hiroshi Kumagoi (Ji 

Directora-Genenl of Gonaran&it Agendas (State Monsters): 

Management/ Coordinate oc Koshiro Mud a (C) 

Defense Alsushi Kan da (D( 

Economic Planning YoshioTcnuawa(N) 

Science and Technology MDtio Omi (C) 

Environment Toshiko Hamayotsu (C) 

National Land Mejpnnu Sato (J) 

Hokkaido/ Okinawa Development Monyoshi Sato (J) 


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Universal 

Translator 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, FRIDAY, APRIL 29, 1994 


The Socialists have argued 
against hasty steps, such as impos- 
ing an economic embargo against 

North Korea. But Mr. Kakizawa’s 
views are more in keeping with 
those of the United States, which 
wants at least to have the option of 
sanctions available to apply more 
pressure on Pyongyang. 

Because of the new cabinet's 
strong conservatism, Tomiichi 
Murayama, the chairman of the So- 
cialist Party, described it as “a 
pseudo-liberal Democratic Party 
government-" 

Mr. Kakizawa lias long been 
dose to Miduo Watanabe, a for- 
mer foreign minister, who has ar- 
gued that Japan ought to conader 
amending its pacifist constitution 
to permit the cooperative use of its 
military to maintain order in an 
uncertain world. 

Mr. Watanabe considered, then 
rejected, jumping from the liberal 
Democratic Party and joining the 
coalition. Mr. Hata is believed to 
have offered the plum Foreign 
Ministry portfolio to Mr. Ka- 
kizawa both to reward him for join- 
ing the coalition and to help lure 
more Liberal Democrats. 



WORLD BRIEFS 


W 


Tehran Is Aiding 1BA Britain Says 


m 




LONDON (AF) — Iran is helping the Irish Republican Army in fa ft < i ■ J 
violent campaign against British rule in Northern Ireland, the British 


aovemmem saiu ... 

"We are convinced that there have been contacts between Iranian 
intefence and the IRA," a Foreign Office spokesman said. But the 

i:.. Am cmmipc th* tilMivI rtftflTBCtJL BAT Vfflllfl hf* 5TWsF,. 


mteuigenct ana inc — VjT 1 

refused to discuss the alleged contacts, nor would he specify 

the assistance Iran allegedly provided. • • . 

nraiolaa Hnro ernmnonea the Iranian chares ri'ar 


2Cv UoU flUh yv' j 

ruiwu Minister Douglas Hogg summoned .the Iranian chare* d’af. 
faires, Oholamitra Ansari, to the Foreign Office to -demand that the 
contacts “be immediately and conclusively severed.” Mr. Ansari denied 
that Iran had helped the IRA-Tm sure it’s not right,” he*aia afar the 
meeting. . - 


BBC Warns Malaysia 


KUALA LUMPUR (Reuters) — The BBC has threatened to stop 
- providing news to Malaysia’s state television station because of censor- 
chi p , an information Ministry official said on Thursday. 

The BBC notified Radio Tekvisyen Malaysia. (RTM) by letter las 
week that it would stop providing programs starting May 1 unless the 
censorship 'stopped, the official said, 

The BBC objected after several scenes were cut from a report a bom 
labor riots in neighboring Indtmeaa. The national news agency Beraama 
quoted Fauzi Abdul Rahman, the Information Mjnisoy’s parliamentary 
secretary, as saying that Southeast Asian countries .had agreed among 
themselves to refrain from broadcasting news that might be sensitive to 


their neighbors. 


Russia Signs Arms Pact Witt Syria 


VimE Kotco /-AjCTwe Frawc-Pfov 

Gennadi Zyuganov, left, and Vladimir Zh iri no vsk y contemplating the pact Hmrsday. Mr. Zyuganov, of Ae Coraunaiists, did DOt^n. 


Yeltsin and Opponents Sign a Truce 


By Michael Specter 

New York Times Service 


The changes in the new govern- 
ment were a matter of style as well 
as substance. Mr. Hata held his 
first news conference Thursday, 
and be showed himself robe a dif- 
ferent kind of reformer than his 
predecessor. 

While Mr. Hosokawa had 
wowed the Japanese with his dear, 
straightforward style and biting 
criticism of the status quo, Mr. 
Hata was personable and spoke in 
aides at times as he sought to 
evade clear answers to some sensi- 
tive questions. 

He indicated, without saying so 
directly, that if income taxes are 
cut the national sales tax w31 have 
to go up considerably. 

Asked about Japan’s responsibil- 
ity for World War IL, Mr. Ho- 
sokawa bad plainly stated that it 
was a war of aggression for which 
Japan should apologize. 

Mr. Hata described the war as a 

of the region^^various probtems’' 
on which it should reflect 

Perhaps most important, Mr. 
Hosokawa had a knack for enlarg- 
ing his policy agenda. Mr. Hata 
talked of incrementally pushing 
forward policies already under 
way: increasing the national sales 
tax, passing the long-delayed bud- 
get, implementing a major restruc- 
turing of the electoral system and 
deregulating parts of the economy. 


MOSCOW — With far more pomp than 
circumstance, Pres dent Boris N. Yeltsin won 
approval on Thursday for a national peace 
pact with most of his political opponents. 


The treaty, signed in the Kremlin and 
broadcast to the nation on television, has 


been literally the only domestic initiative in 
which Mr. Yeltsin has invested his prestige all 


It is supposed to guarantee that there will 
be no political violence before the next presi- 
dential elections, scheduled in 1996. Thai 
would give the government two years of calm 
to focus on economic recovery. Everyone 
who signed the agreement promised not to 
seek early elections or push for major changes 
in the constitution. 


But almost nobody feds the pact means 
much. Vladimir V. Zhirinovsky, the extreme 


nationalist leader whose party drew among 
the most votes in the parliamentary elections 


last December, decided to sign Thursday — 


although he had condemned the accord the 
day before. 

“I have come here to take a look,*’ Mr. 
Zhirinovsky said as he arrived at the Kr emlin 
“If Yeltsin smiles at roe, lU sign. If not, I 
don't know.” 

Almost all parliamentary factions agreed 
to sign as did representatives of 20 of the 
countries 21 semi-autonomous regions. Chc- 
chenia in the northern Caucasus was the one 
exception. 

Mr. Yedlsn has made what most political 
analysts here consider major concessions to 

A^TratyOTSocial A^»ni^OTder to calm 
the surging attacks from nationalists, the 
president has shown stronger support for the 
Bosnian Serbs, postponed Russia’s entry into 
the North Atlantic Treaty Organization’s 
Partnership for Peace and said that Russia 
might refuse to participate in the Gist 
planned military exercises later this year with 
the United States. 

Almost no issue has been a more volatile 
issue for tbe right here. 

"What we have done indicates that Russia 


has an alternative to confrontation,” said Mr. 

- Yeltsin, who must deal with a parliament not 
all that different in political character from 
the one be shelled out of their building last 
October. “It wfll not be easy to achieve. 
Confrontation still lives in our souls.” 

“Almost 80 years ago our country was 
plunged into rivO war,” nc added. “The curse 
of that war still hangs over Russia. We must 
break the bloody chain of such events.” 

The treaty requires that a commission be 
aeated to address political crises before they 
spiral out of control and into violence. Most 
signers have agreed that the idea is noble. But 
few think it will actually keep the peace. 

It has been hard for many people to under- 
stand Mr. Yeltsin's devotion to the accord — 
and his seemly lack of attention to nearly all 
other details of state. 

The treaty presents posable problems for 
Mr. Yeltsin. The Communists, led by Gen- 
nadi Zyuganov, and the Agrarian Party re- 
fused to sign. And some fed that they amid 
form a loose coalition with such amnestied 
rebels as fanner Vice President Alexander V. 
Ruiskoi to challeng e tbe current government 


Retrial Set in German Firebombing 


Tanks Battle Near Yemeni Capital 


Bosnian Serbs in Standoff With NATO 


By Roger Cohen 

New York Tima Service 

SARAJEVO, Bosnia-Herzegovi- 
na — Bosnian Serbian forces have 
not complied with a NATO ultima- 
tum to withdraw beyond three kilo- 
meters from the Gorazde city cen- 
ter and are refusing to leave a 
southern area of the town called 
Zupdd because, they say, it was 
populated by Serbs before the Bos- 
nian war erupted. 

A senior Western official who 
visited the area Wednesday said on 
Thursday that Serbian civilians ap- 
peared to have been brought in to 
populate Zupdd since the Bosnian 
Serbian offensive on tbe eastern 
Bosnian town began a month ago, 
and that at least 65 armed Serbs 
were now guarding them. 


Serbs, on Thursday in a bid to 
persuade him to get tbe armed 
Serbs out of ZupdcL 
But General Ratko Mladic, tbe 

c omman der of the Bramian Serbs, 
has apparently insisted that any 
such withdrawal would leave tbe 
newly arrived Serbian civilians in 
Zupdd acutely vulnerable to at- 
tack by the Muslims, and has there- 
fore refused to move the men. 


Under the ultimatum, issued last 
Friday, all Serbian forces were sup- 
posed to withdraw beyond three 
kilometers (two miles) from Gor- 
azde dty center by last Saturday or 
face NATO air strikes. 


“Many of the armed Serbs, 
whom the Bosnian Serb authorities 


call militia and the Bosnian govern- 
ment say are soldiers, are postedup 
to 800 meters within the NATO 
exriuskw zone.” the official said. 
Tt has become an explosive issue.” 

The offidaTs remarks suggested 
that statements this week by tbe 
North Atlantic Treaty Organiza- 
tion and by Lieutenant General Sir 
Michael Rose, the commander of 
United Nations forces in Bosnia, 
affirming that the Serbs had fully 
complied with the NATO ultima- 
tum, are inaccurate. 

In fact, it appears that a highly 
complex standoff, reflecting the 
fluxes of persecuted populations 
that have taken place during this 
war, has developed between (he 
Serbian forces and the Muslims in 
tbe Zupdd area, well within tbe 
NATO exclusion zone at Gorazde. 
As a result of the conflict, attempts 
to start new internationally mediat- 
ed talks an a Bosnian cease-fire are 
in effect paralyzed. 

Indeed, the dispute is so delicate 
thar officials said Yas ushi Akashi, 
the top UN official in the former 
Yugoslavia, called Radovan Kar- 
adzic, tbe leader of the Bosnian 


The United Nations, however, 
which has the last word on calling 
in NATO air power, tends to show 
considerable flexibility in inter- 
preting such deadlines because its 
personnel in Bosnia would be im- 


mediate targets for Serbian reprisal 
in the event of an attack. 

The dispute over Zupdd over- 
shadowed a first meeting here 
Thursday between the Muslim-led 
Bosnian government and officials 
representing a newly established 
“contact group” comprising the 
United States, the European 
Union, the United Nations, Russia, 
France and Britain. As a result of 
the impasse, the talks achieved lit- 
tle. 

“We told the contact group that 
wc had just received a message that 
the Serbs have not withdrawn from 
the three-kfioroeier zone," Presi- 
dent Alija Izctbegovic of Bomia 
said afterward. The government ar- 
gues Ural the internaooual commu- 
nity lacks all credibility to mediate 
peace talks if if cannot bring tbe 
Serbs to comply with a NATO ulti- 


The Serbs contend that their 
forces are out of the exclusion zone 
at Gorazde and that those left with- 
in it are “policemen.” The United 
Nations and NATO have publicly 
agreed with them, while privately 
conceding the pohoemen are prob- 
ably soldiers in new uniforms. 

Whether Zupdd was, m fact,. a 
predominantly Serbian part of the 
town before the war is unclear. Mr. 
Karadzic and General Mladic 
claim that it was. Haris Silddzic, 
the Bosnian prime minister, denies 
this. UN forces here are not sure. 

■ U.S. Jet Crashes in Sea 

An FA-18 jet launched off the 
deck of the U.S. aircraft carrier 
Saratoga crashed Thursday during 
NATO operations in the Adriatic 
Sea, the Associated Press reported, 
quoting a Sixth Fleet statement 
The pilot was killed. 


SANA VL- Yemen (Reuters) — Rival Yemeni Army units fought tank 
and artiUeiy batties near the Yemeni capital for a second day in a row on 
Thursday, sources on both rides said. 

The fighting threatened to rupture the 1990 merger agreement between 
North and South Yemen and raised fears of civil war. Sources in Sana'a 
in the North, and Aden, capital of tire former South Yemen, confirmed 
the collapse of a cease-fire between units loyal to President Ali Abdullah 
Saleh and to his rival from the South, Vice President Ali Salem Ba»L 
Southern Yemeni sources said their troops, stationed in potentially 

■ .1 JI . _ VT .L V 1 1 .L. 1 


hostile territory that used to be North Yemen, had the support of locil 
tribes, who were barring reinftxcaneats from reaching North Yemeni 
troops. Such tribal involvement, if confirmed, could further complicate 
the dispute. Odond. Saleh's supporters have expressed anger at what they 
say have been efforts by the Yemen Socialist Party led by Mr. Bald to boy 
support among the often lawless tribes in the North. . 


For die Record 


President Leoad M.Krardnt of Ubame said Thursday that he woifl 
ask par liam ent to postpone the presidential election scheduled for June, 
arguing that tire former Soviet republic would slide deeper into chaos if il 
went ahead. He stressed he would not run for re-election until laws wen 
passed defining the roles of tbe legislature and the president. (Reuters] 
Paramilitary pottcemea and rivffians went on the rampage in Knnpese, 
in western Zaire, on Thursday, piDaging churches, shops and dinics in the 
town, diplomats in Kinshasa said. It was not clear what sparked the 
incident, but previous such violence has been over army pay. ( Reuters j 


TRAVEL UPDATE 


UN Seeks Korean Guarantees 


North Must Confirm. Full Access for Nuclear Inspectors 




“the original" 

Just tell the taxi driver, 
“Syrtk roo doe noo"% 

5. rue Daunou Paris (Opera) 
a Tel: (1)42.61.71.14 . 


Compiled by Our Staff From Dispatches 

VIENNA — The International 
Atomic Energy Agency is asking 
for written confirmation from tbe 
North Koreans that they wifi allow 
a thorough inspection of a nudear 
reactor at the heart of a suspected 
weapons program, an agency 
spokesman said Thursday. 

The spokesman, Hans-Friedrich 
Meyer, said a letter to that effect, 
was sent Wednesday night after the 
North Koreans announced that 
they would not permit a complete 
inspection by international moni- 
tors called on to witness the re- 
placement of fad rods at the reac- 
tor in Yongbyon. 

Mr. Meyer said that unless in- 
spectors were given the chance to 
inspect the reactor, including the 
spent fuel, they would not be able 
to determine whether the reactor's 
"use was entirely peaceful.” 

“We are ready to immediately 
send our inspectors on condition 
that we receive written confirma- 
tion that they will be able to con- 
duct full inspections," Mr. Meyer 
said. 

The 5- megawatt reactor has been 
at the heart of the mystery over 
whether North Korea has at least 


one nuclear bomb, as the CIA has 
alleged. After operating for several 
years, il was shut down for 100 


days in 1989, giving rise to suspi- 
cions that North Korea used the 


dons that North Korea used the 
time to replace much of the nudear 
core and reprocess the spent fuel 
for use in nudear weapons. 

North Korea daims it withdrew 
only a small portion of the fuel and 
says all of the plutonium it repro- 
cessed from the spent fud has been 
turned over to the atomic energy 
agency. 


By sampling the plutonhun-lad- 
i fud rods due for withdrawal 


en fud rods due Tor withdrawal 
next week, inspectors could deter- 
mine whether they were indeed in- 
stalled when the reactor began op- 
erating or after tbe 1989 shutdown 


In March, inspectors were al- 
lowed back into North Korea to 
check the declared nudear rites af- 
ter a one-year break, but were de- 
nied full access to one of the instal- 
lations. 

The United States says that thor- 
ough UN inspections of North Ko- 
rea's nudear sites is a prerequisite 
to a resumption of hign-levd talks 
between the two nations, a ball to 
U.S.-South Korean war games and 
promotion of inter-Korean dia- 
logue. 

On Thursday, North Korea 


launched another diplomatic initia- 
tive, inviting the United Slates to 
negotiate a peace agreement for the 
Korean Peninsula. 


Pilots Targeted in Ex-Soviet Republics 

HONG KONG (AFP) — Robbers are taking to the skies of the former 
Soviet Union, preying on pilots who must cany bagfuls of American 
dollars and Deutsche marks to cover operating expenses, the Internation- 
al Federation of Airline Pilots Associations said Thursday. 

The association's president, Bart Bakker, said airports were demanding 
that incoming flights pay on the spot, and in cash, for such expenses as 
landin g fees and fuel So the pfiou have to cany huge amounts or 

Mr. Bakker said, “There have been many instances — recorded 
instances— in which pilots have been robbed, molested or even killed for 
that money.” Some 306 airlines now operate in the former Soviet 
republics, which used to be served by just one carrier, Aeroflot, which 
c on ti nue s to operate as Russia's prinopal airline. 

A security alert at Schipbol International Airport outride Amsterdam 
went into its second wetik Thursday, with the police continuing to block 
cars from approaching the main tenninaL The Amsterdam daily Hct 
Parooi reported that this was in response to the threat of an Islamic 
militant attack on Israeli, Egyptian or American targets. (API 

Traffic will be seventy disrupted in Prague during the summer tourist 
season because of extensive work on the city’s mam axis, especially in 
central Prague between the Masaxyk railway station and Wenofta 
Square, the police said Thursday. (AfPl 

“Golden Week,” a series of national holidays in Japan, starts Tfaurs- 

fl^ir oti/7 a rm>nr> irl dCC AfiA — j . . ■ • i 


to replace other rods that might 
have been reprocessed. In this way, 


(AFP. WP, Reuters) 


have been reprocessed. In this way, 
the inspectors could deduce bow 
much plutonium North Korea 
might nave already accumulated. 

After the North Koreans signed 
a safeguard agreement with the 
agency in 1992. it demanded com- 
plete inspections of North Korea's 
seven declared nudear rites and 
two suspected undeclared rites, 
which were described as notmude- 

ar miHtary bases. 


m US-North Korean Talks 
American and North Korean of- 
ficials met at the United Nations 
on Thursday to discuss the standoff 
between the international nuclear 
inspectors and the North Korean 
government, Agencc Fraoce-Presse 
reported. The meeting, the first be- 
tween the two rides in two months, 
was hdd by low-level officials, dip- 
lomats said. 


vacation. ^pj 

United Airfares lias asked city officials for another dday in the opening 
of the new Denver airport, now set for May 15, because of the trouble- 
plagued baggage system. The city canceled a pre-Christmas opening 
because construction was behind schedule, and a March 9 opening 
because of the baggage system. (API 


,/ j L ^ miasfcauona’ airports may be disruptw 

Monday by a strike of air controllers and ground personnel who seek a 
charge in regulations and the hiring of more workers. They plan to strike 
for two hoursm the Milan aupons of Linate and Malpensa. Air 
controllers at Qrio al Seno airport, near Bergamo, plan to strike for ax 
hours. f A p ) 


To call from country to country, or back to the U.S., dial the WorldPhone number of the country you're calling from. 


‘ 'f. 

t . V 



DAMASCUS (Reuters) — Russia has signed a mflhary cooperation 
agreement with Syria that would pave the.way for resumption of arms 
strophes to Damascus, Russian officials said Thursday. : 

'They said the agreement, tbe first of its kind smce.lhe Soviet Union 
collapsed in 1991, had been rigned Wednesday at the end of a visit by 
Russia’s deputy prime ministar, Oleg N. Soskovets. “It is an agreement 
for cooperation in the mffitary field, mdutfing the selling of weapons and 
trainmg in how to use them,” a Russian pfikid' said. ' ■ 

The Soviet Union, for many years was Syria’s main .supplier bC arms. 
But in the final phase of Communist rule, Moscow shifted its staxice on 
the Arab-Israeli conflict, idling Damascus to forget its hopes of miHtaiy 
parity with Israel and pressing for payment of substantial debts. 


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KARLSRUHE, Germany (Reuters) — An extreme rightist convicted 
of orgamzmga firebomb attack against a foreaghars* hostd will be retried 
after Germany's highest criminal court ruled Thursday that bis sealers 
was too light 

The appeals court said ROdiger Klasen should be tried for attempted 
murder, a more serious charge than the counts of attempted grievous 
bodily injury and arson cm which he was convicted. 

Mr. Klasen, a former leader of the far-right National Democratic 
Party, was sentenced in June to three years in prison for recruiting and 
arming nine youths to cany out the firebombing of the hostd near 
Boizenburg in the northeastern state of Medckmbuig-Vorpommern in 
1991 The regional court that convicted him and nine co-defendants ruled 
that there was not enough evidence of intended irgtiiy to sentence him for 
attempted murder. But the high court ruled that Mr. Klasen must have 
known that people could have been killed in the fire; in which time 
foreigners were injured. 


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INTERNATIONAL HKWA tn TRIBUNE, FRIDAY, APRIL 29, 1994 


Page 3 


THEA MEmCASlA TABLEAU OF RECENT HISTORY 

5 Presidents and a Nation Come Together to Say Farewell to Richard Nixon 

V-M. JS&S&tET mt — - O V 



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QinbHi, George Bush, Ronald Reagan, Jimmy Carter and Gerald Ford with their wives during the funeral for Mr. Nixon. 


By Maureen Dowd 

New York Times Service 

YORBA LINDA, California — To the hero- 
ic strains of “Victory at Sea,” the those that 
comforted Richard Milhous Nixon through his 
darkest moments, Americans paid a final trib- 
ute to the former president who had fascinated, 
infuriated and impressed them far nearly half a ■ 
century. 

It was hard to imagine Wednesday, as the 
Reverend Billy Graham offered a prays to “lift 
us above our darkness and distress into the light 
and peace,” that there would be no more come- 
backs or reincarnations, no more new Nixons, 
same old Nixons or mellower Nixons. 

President Bill Ctinion, a Democrat who came 
of age in the politically scalding years of Viet- 
nam and Watergate, a leader who has had his 
own experiences with an and redemption, 
urged Americans to let Mr. Nixon's Sisyphean 
penance earn him forgiveness: 

“May the day of judging President Nixon on 
anything less than his entire life and career 
come to a dose.” 

The four living former presidents — Gerald 
Ford, Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan and 
George Bush — looked on from the first row of 
seats at the first funeral for a U.S. president 
since Lyndon B. Johnson's in 1973. 

Mr. Graham said in his sermon before 3,000 
guests at the service at the Nixon Library and 
Birthplace that Mr. Nixon had given his final 
wave and thumbs-up sig n to his doctor in New 
York Hospital-Coroell Medical Center after he 
was felled by a stroke as he was reading the 
galley proofs of his last book on foreign affairs. 

“That is a moment of determination, an 
example of fighting on and never giving up.” 
Mr. Gr aham said of the man whose darker and 
better angels alike had cast compelling shadows 


on the American character and consciousness. 

Before the funeral began, the guests mingled 
amiably, creating a Hvrng tableau of recent 
.American history. 

There on the lawn in front of the bungalow 
when? Mr. Nixon was bora were people who 
bad not seen one another for 20 yean: rides 
who had suffered with him through the Water- 
gate «a>wdat that forced Mr. Nixon’s resigna- 
tion from office, some of whom had gone to 
prison for their pans in it; secretaries from the 
write House press office; advance men from 
his I960 campaign against John F. Kennedy. 

Perhaps the biggest stir was mealed by for- 
mer Vice President Spiro T. Agnew, silver- 
haired and tanned, looking as sleek as the day 
he left office in 1973 after a financial scandal. 

“I derided after 20 years of resentment to put 
it ail aside,” Mr. Agnew said before the ceremo- 
ny. “I'm here to pay tribute to the man’s many 
accomplishments and to express our sympathy 
to Tricia and Julie and the family we always 
thought highly of. The last time I talked to him 


“He tried to call me after that, several times, 
but I didn’t take the calls because, at the time, I 
felt totally abandoned, but that’s all past.” 

George McGovern, wham Mr. Nixon defeat- 
ed to win re-election in a 49-state landslide 22 
years ago. captured the ambiance of the day. 
idling reporters during a flight from Washing- 
ton to California aboard Air Force One: 

“My own career has been so intertwined with 
his that I really bad the feeling that an old 
friend has left the scene. Thai may seem hard to 
believe in view of the bitterness of that 1972 
campaign, but I made my peace with him years 
ago." 


the outpouring of concern and praise from 
friends and adversaries this last week, in what 
he termed “the c ulmina tion of an astonishing 
life.” 

Mr. Clinton smiled and nodded in agree- 
ment. 

The framer secretary of state described Mr. 
Nixon as “one of the s eminal presidents" in 
terms of conduct of foreign policy. 

“He achieved greatly, and he suffered deep- 
ly,” Mr. Kissinger said. “But he never gave up. 
m his solitude he envisaged a new international 
order that would reduce lingering enmities, 
strengthen historic friendships and give new 
hope to mankind." 

In bis eulogy, Mr. Clinton quoted from the 
speech Mr. Nixon gave in 1968 in accepting the 
Republican Party nomination for president He 
spake af “the force erf a driving dream” that had 
carried the former president from bumble be- 
ginnings in California onto the world stage and 
added: 

“He made mistakes, and they, like his accom- 
plishments, are part of his life and record. Bui 
the enduring lesson of Richard Nixon is that he 
never gave up briqg pan of the action and 
passion of the times. 

Senator Bob Dole, Republican of Kansas, in 
be ginning his eulogy said he believed that “the 
second half of the 20 th century will be known as 
the Age of Nixon.” 

The American people, he said, “love a fight- 
er, and in Dick Nixon they found a gallant 
one." 

He recalled that Mr. Nixon had once told his 
daughter Julie, “I just get up every- morning to 
confound my enemies." At that Julie, sitting a 
lew Feet away, broke into a wide, delighted grin. 

Mr. Dole’s voice cracked as he quoted Mr. 
Nixon as saying, “In the end, what matters is 
that you have always lived life to the hilL” 


POLITICAL NOTES 


Quayie’s Book Settles Scores 

WASHINGTON — Jim Baker, according to 
former Vice President Dan Quayle, cared about 
only one thing: “What was in it for Jim Baker." 
The former housing secretary. Jack Kemp, was 
prone to “tangents" with no “discernible point” 
And President George Bush's men ran “the most 
poorly planned and executed incumbent presiden- 
tial campaign in this century." 

After 18 months of relative silence, the former 
vice president is back. 

Mr. Quayie’s public return comes in the form of 
a take-no-prisoners book, “Standing Firm." The 
book nicks nearly everyone it touches — except 
Mr. Bush — and leaves no doubt that Mr. Quayle 
has strong intentions of seeking the presidency in 
1996. The book, along with planned appearances 
by Mr. Quayle plugging it on national television 
programs and a promotional tour map shaped by 
electoral politics, looks like the first step in deter- 
mining the viability of a Quayle campaign 

“Standing Firm” will be published May 5. But 
copies are already in Republican circles, where its 
swipes at prominent members have been the grist 
of intense gossip. 

To some extent, the book offers a realistic ap- 
praisal b\ Mr. Quayle about his airhead image 
from the August day Mr. Bush selected the little- 
known Indiana senator in 1988 to be his running 
mate. Some chapters, such as one called “Meeting 
the Media." amount to 3 Quayle effort to discern 
why he became among the most ridiculed politi- 
cians in history. 

Chapters in the nearly 400-page book are 
named for episodes in his vice presidency that 
exacerbated that image, and one, “Flaps. Gaffes 
— and Serious Diplomacy,” deals with a slew of 
them. That chapter explains the circumstances 
surrounding Mr. Quayie's reference to happy 
campers" in the Samoan capital of Pago Pago 
which appeared to be patronizing. 

Another chapter, “Baked, Mashed andFried, 
starts with the infamous episode in the 199- cam- 
paign where Mr. Quayle misspelled “potato, giv- 
ing it an V ar the end. But he laments that his 
staff did not help him mitigate the damage by 
putting a better “spin" on the episode. 

Another chapter deals with the “Dump Quayle" 
effort he believes was orchestrated by Mr. Baker, 
then secretary of state, and Robert Teeter, the 
campaign chairman. 

While the book contains much of Mr. Quayle s 
self-deprecating humor, it also offers extensive 
self-justification. It is not a serious examination ol 


the Bush presidency ov any sort of prescription for 
the future. 

It is largely a “setting- the- record straight" book 
that one friend of Mr. Quayie's called “a small 
book,” m reference not to ns size but but to what it 
accomplishes. ( H'P ) 

‘Vacancy* Signs on Capitol Hill 

WASHINGTON — Suddenly, and with virtu- 
ally no fanfare, that throng of voters whose pre- 
vailing attitude toward Congress is to throw the 
bums out is getting its wish: Incumbents are leav- 
ing. in droves. 

Swept out by a generational change, forced out 
by public cynicism, unforgiving politics and unre- 
lenting fund-raising demands, up to 90 of the 
House and Senate’s 535 members are likely to be 
gone when the next Congress convenes in January. 

Some will lose elections. But most are just retir- 
ing. 

So many members are leaving the House of 
Representatives this year — 46 already, atop 45 
departures in 1990 and a record 1 10 in 1992 — 
that the majority of the next House is virtually 
certain to consist of politicians with four yean of 
Washington experience or less. That would make 
it the greenest House in ai leas! 20 years, probably 
in 45 years. 

But the meaning is less clear for the legislative 
and electoral systems, which many say have grown 
meaner and more impersonal with each succeeding 
rout of incumbents. 

And it is exceedingly bad news for the Demo- 
cratic Party and President Bill Clinton. 

With Wednesday’s announcement by Senator 
David L. Boren, Democrat of Oklahoma, that he 
would retire at the end of this session to become 
president of the University of Oklahoma, nine 
senators will have stepped aside this year — the 
most since 1978, when 10 retired. 

In part, because there are far more Democrats 
in Congress than Republicans, far more Demo- 
crats are now deciding to leave. And several fac- 
tors, from redistticting to Mr. Clinton’s middling 
popularity, make it likely that Republicans will 
capture an unusually large number of open seats in 
November. (NYT) 

Quote/Unquote 

Former Secretary of State Henry A. Kissinger, 
in his eulogy at former President Richard Nixon's 
funeral: “He stood on pinnacles that dissolved in 
the precipice. He achieved greatly and he suffered 
deeply. But he never gave up.” (NYT) 


Ames , in Guilty Plea, Assails 6 Self- Serving 9 CIA 


B y David Johnston onage and evading taxes on what five to six years in prison, but de- 
Srw York Times Service prosecutors said was more than foree lawyers said she could he free 

ALEXANDRIA, Virginia — In S2J million in payments from the in less than five years with time, off 
an extraordinary statement deliv- Kremlin for his spying. for good behavior. Representative 

ered minutes before a federal judge His wife, Rosario, pleaded guilty Robert G. Torricelli, Democrat of 

ordered him to prison for the rest of to a lesser espionage offense and New Jersey, a member of the 
his life, Aldrich Hazen Ames said tax evasion. Bnt her sentencing was House intelligence committee, crit- 
Thursday that he had betrayed his postponed until Aug. 26 to put irirerf Mis. Ames’s sentence as too 
country because the government’s pressure on Mr. Ames to keep his lenient, but prosecutors defended 


country because the government’s 
espionage agencies had evolved 
into “a self-serving interest group, 
immeasurably aided by secrecy.” 

in a meandering summation that 
was his first public statement since 
his arrest on spying charges Feb. 
21. Mr. Ames expressed regret for 
his actions, sorrow at brealong the 
law and sympathy for those recruit- 
ed by the CIA in the former Soviet 
Union who bad died because be 
had disclosed their identities for 
pay. But he also defended his ac- 
tions as no more immoral than 
those of a stock-market speculator 
who had been caught trading on 

inside inf o rmatio n. 

Mr. Ames said two factors had 
motivated him: protest against 
what he termed a “shift to the ex- 
treme right in our political spec- 
trum” and his alienation from the 
CIA, which he said had engaged in 
“self-serving sham” to decave gen- 
erations of policymakers about the 
value of their work. 

At the hourlong hearing in feder- 
al court, Mr. Ames, a 31-year ca- 
rta officer at the Central Intelli- 
gence Agency, pleaded guilty as 
expected to a two-count criminal 
indictment charging him with espi- 


promise to cooperate with the gov- 
ernment's effort to assess the dam- 
age he hoi caused. 


lenient, but prosecutors defended 

“Sid shegeioff easy?” said Hel- 
en Fahey, the United States attor- 


Mrs. Ames faces a sentence of ney for the Eastern District of Vir- 


ginia. “No, she did not get off 
easy.” 

The agreement, she said, “result- 
ed in the maximum benefit to the 
government that could have been 
achieved in this case.” 

The couple arrived at the court 
house in manacles, wearing the 
prison clothes they have worn in 
court appearances since their arrest 
capped a 10 -month spy hunt by the 
Federal Bureau of Investigation, 


whose agents trailed the Ameses, 
wiretapped their phones, surrepti- 
tiously entered their house and 
electronically monitored their 
home computer. ' 

Because the details of their guilty 
pleas had trickled out in recent 


days, the hearing Thursday seemed 
to have been drained of drama un- 
til Mr. Ames stood and matter-of- 
factly read his final statement as his 
wife, seated nearby, quietly wept. 


A-Bomb Pioneers Weren’t Spies, Group Asserts 


By William J. Broad 

New York Tima Service 

NEW YORK — Hie world’s largest group 
of physicists criticized a new book that as- 
serts that the main architects of the nuclear 
era betrayed the United States by spying for 
Moscow. 

The group called for a federal investigation 
of the accusations, which it disparaged as 
unsubstantiated and flawed by serious dis- 
crepancies. 

The book, “Special Tasks: The Memoirs of 
an Unwanted Witness — a Soviet Spyraas- 
ter,” was written by Pavel Sudoplatov and 
recently published by Little, Brown & Co. 
During the Stalin era, Mr. Sudoplatov was 
the Soviet Union’s deputy director of foreign 
intelligence and director of atomic intelli- 
gence. 

The book asserts that the scientists who 
founded the nuclear era and developed the 


atomic bomb during World War II knowing- 
ly gave the weapon’s secrets to Moscow. 

Among those the author accused were 
Niels Bohr, Enrico Fermi, George Gamow, J. 
Robert Oppenbeima and Leo Szilard, all of 
whom axe dead. 

The physicists’ group, the American Physi- 
cal Society, a 43,O0l£»embra organization 
based in College Park, Maryland, held a news 
conference Wednesday in Washington at 
which five experts denounced the book’s nu- 
clear aspects as wildly inaccurate and proba- 
bly fictitious. 

The group’s council, a 40-mem ba elected 
body, also issued a statement of condemna- 
tion. 

The council expressed “profound dismay 
at unsubstantiated allegations” against 
“some of the most eminent scientists of this 
centuiy.” The accusations, the council said, 
“are made by a man who has characterized 
himself as a master of deception and deceit.” 


The council also said that surviving col- 
leagues of those accused have pointed out 
“serious discrepancies” in the book. 

For instance, Hans Bethe, who ran the 
theory division at Los Alamos, New Mexico, 
the birthplace of the bomb, denounced one of 
the boors central allegations about Mr. Op- 
penheimra, the scientific bead of the secret 
laboratory. 

The book asserts that Mr. Oppenheuner 
took special steps to bring in a British scien- 
tist, KJaus Fuchs, who then spied for Mos- 
cow. After the war, Mr. Fuchs confessed and 
was sentenced to prison. 

Mr. Bethe dismissed the accusation against 
Mr. Oppenheuner. 

“Fuchs was simply part of the British mis- 
sion,” be said. “We didn’t choose among 
them.” 

Mr. Bethe added that the book's allega- 
tions about Mr. Oppenbeima in general ap- 
peared to be “a web of lies.” 


Book and TV Offers May Ease Some of the Pain of Caning 


By William Bramgin 

Washington Past Service 

SINGAPORE — As the Ameri- 
can teenager Michael Fay awaits 
caning on vandalism charges, of- 


Mr. Fay. 18, is serving a four- 
month prison term fra spray-paint- 
ing cars and committing other of- 
fenses. Still to come is the outcome 
of a clemency appeal on the har- 


adered virtually certain to recoin- or TV prospects stemming from the 
mend that the figurehead case. 


fers of money for his stray are shest part of hds sentence: six lashes 
pouring in from television shows, with a rattan cane on his bare tot- 
publishers and other quarters. locks. Singapore’s cabinet is coo- 


president, Ong Teng Cheong, reject “Our mission is to save Michael 
the appeal _ fr o m this horrific caning,” he said. 

Tbe irony .is *** by ahead Thefamfly has discussed some of 

with the caning, Singapore appears ^ offers for Mr. Fay’s stray but 
hkely to ensure that Mr. Fay wffl h* not reached any decisions, said 
become wealtixy. Whfle the skm- Mrc. Clan, 46, a native of St. Lou- 
flaymg punishment is said to be - Missouri. “It’s aO kindofmmd- 
excruoaung. tbe financial rewards rL-jj-- ». 
of TV, book and movie deals could , ... . 0 

help to ease the pain somewhat. . “*** JSP* a & 

“People have been writing us, 


States Come to Defense of Job-Seeking Smokers 


weeks. So far, Mrs. Cban said, ha 
son has sent one letter — to his 
girlfriend. 


$7 billion in lost wages for employees out sick. 


! Tannfckv cigarette*, company executives cited a study oy ihe Amen- 

: By J y can Lung Awoctetion showing that an employee who 

w ,, .j m-ivsie dmnloven, smokes can cost a company up to 55,000 a year more in 

NEW YORK — A growing flurcbsf ^ PJV annual insurance premiums than a noosmoker. 

■ ' around the United States are reusing * A congresaonaTstudy said that in 1990, the last year for 
quick-and-easy way to hold down health smokers' figures woe available, the direct cost of providing 

• as swiftly, state conun^ ^ tbai health care to people with smoking-related diseases had 

' defense, passing laws that prohibit hiring p reached nearly $2lDfllion. And that did not include nearly 

■ * discriminate against them. . $7 billion in lost wages for employees out sick. 

- “Our goals withtMs newpohey are to move toward 

■ years old their employ- becoming a smoke-free facility," said James A. (Micky) 

companies m the United Stat« nave loroioocii ^y j BlackwdI, president of the Lockheed Aeronautical Systems 

'■ ^ to smoke, eve ? i ^f i t ^ J ° hi ' - n , smot-rs not oniv saves Co. in Marietta. “Accomplishing these goals will ultimately 
" • • Companies say that . ■ Lj-ditions cuts down on hdp Iowa our costs, improve our competitive position and 
„ ■ money but also improves uam’new employees put Lockheed in a barer position to win new business. 

... absentee ^ the Marietta plant employs about 11,000 people and 

-- «> «P lace ££L^^^lring? makes mflitmyplLeslikXc-^ 

n .. GeSSa, announced the P-3 Orion. Beanmng July 2, new employees must sign a 

• thi^i^Su^Slld ho kS£r to* pe$e who smoke statement procSgnof to smoke. The 6 an operates on the 


honor system and means, m effect, that new employees 
cannot tight up even at home. Anyone found by a fellow 
worker smoking in a bar, restaurant or anyplace else could 
be dismissed. 

The new policy does not affect current employees, who are 
allowed to smoke at designated places at the plant and 
anywhere else on their own time. 

As aggressive as the hiring ban might appear, similar 
efforts By other companies have backfired by prompting a 
stampede of state laws written specifically to protect smok- 
ers against such discrimination. 

Five years ago no such laws existed. By last year, 28 states 
and the District of Columbia had enacted legislation to 
protect smokers, and experts say that anti-smoking initia- 
tives by employers in slates that have no smokers’ rights law, 


Royal Plaza 

1 MONTREUX i 


calling us, offering this andthat,” a n^d from (gieenjown Re- 
Sidftmdy Chan/Mr. Fay’s moth- mand Pmon. MrFay, 
a. She dedined to disdose specif- 
ics. “AD I would ask for is to have 

the money back that we’ve spent on is expected to be released June 21. 
this ridiculous thing," she said. “I don't fed that a monetaiy end 

Mrs. Chan said she had no final «> this is necessarily great,” Mrs. 
figures but that legal fees had cost Qian raid. But if hq son warns to 
thefamfly “an incredible amount F 061 his ordeal, that would 
erf money” since Mr. Fay was ar- be fine with ha, she said, 
rested in October. A British /($ for herself, “I plan to write a 


calling us, often 
said Randy Chai 
a. She dedined 


this ridiculous thing,” she said. 

Mrs. Chan said she had no final 
figures tot that legal fees had cost 
the family “an incredible amount 
of money” since Mr. Fay was ar- 
rested in October. A British 


Three great 
restaurants. A food 
festival every month. 

r grand . V; 

hotel right on the sftom 
^olLakeGenara. 

1620 MONTREUX ■ SWITZERLAND 
TtL. At -21/963 5131 
FAX 41-21/963 5637 


“Queen's counsel," who flew in to book, definitely,” Mrs. Qian said, 
argue an appeal, recaved 535,000 $hn said die family had hoped that 
fra a few hours’ work, die said. Mr. Fay could keep a diary in pris- 
Ted Simon of Philadelphia, the on, but authorities woold give him 
family’s American lawyer, refused only a pen and two sheets of paper 


to comment about any 


to write a letter once every two 


operates on the 


Away From Politics 

• Wodimrton’s praulatioa loss is accelerating, and nearly equal 

sMifisK i-«asK 

present population is 577,000. 

« W Soencer died in Virginia’s electric cfato in Richmond 

• Timothy W. spenew . r^nnvai executed m the United 

on Wednesday, b^onnng^e | g r ^ A ^ na|cllill g technology 

Stares for a He was convicted of raping and 

known as genetic fingerp There were no survivors, no finger- 

strangling four women in front the 

prints and no confession- IIiea «=> 
crime scenes with his blood. 

• A new operation eases D 

30 percent or tte ^f^Si^Tuniversiiy in SL Louis. Tbe 
Cooper, a chest surgeon at 1 a lung disease that results 

mosdy fi-nm dgaretwsrnt^ng. BurDrXoopo" said surgery marked- 
ly relieved shortness of breath- 

• A 

Wedned * y 18 t 


Clinton Plans to Get Tough on Haiti 


The Associated Pras 

Washington — President 

Bill Gin ton, in a new turn of poli- 
cy, intends to apply enough pres* 
sure an Haiti's military leaders to 
force their surrender and permit 
tbe return of democracy, according 
to Madeleine K. Albright, the U.S. 
delegate to the UniieaNations- 

Mis. Albright said Mr. Clinton’s 
proposals for tighter international 
sanctions against Haiti would be 
ready for Security Council consid- 
eration by the end of the week. 

“We believe the sanctions will 


it's easy to subscribe 

b Franco 
jutra&fetifrae: 
05437437 


work," Mrs. Albrighi said in a 
broadcast interview on Wednes- 
day night- 

Mr. Clinton’s policy envisions a 
global embargo against Haiti, ex- 
cept for humanitarian deliveries, 
and proposes a ban on internation- 
al travel b> Haiti’s military leaders 
and ibeir allies. Their assets abroad 
would be frozen as well. 

In effect, the policy would make 
universal the steps that the Clinton 
administration has already taken 
on its own. 

Although expressing confidence 
ih» i the administration had come 


up with an effective formula foi 
ending the two-and-a-half-year-old 
political impasse, Mrs. Albright did 
not rule out the possibility of U.S. 
militar y action against Haiti. 

Mrs. Albright said Lawrence 
PezzuUo, a U.S. special adviser on 
Haiti, was forced to step down this 
week because “he became identi- 
fied with a policy that was not 
really working.” 

In addition, she said, Mr. Pez- 
zulk> had lost the confidence of 
Haitian democrats and others seek- 
ing the reinstatement of the exiled 
president, Jean-Bertrand Aristide. 



ask the butler... 




S-t-N -C- A-P»Q- 


W*,r. nrWM II 


J r * »*•* u •• *«• 


\&nCteef&Aipds 

PARIS. GENEVE, BRUXELLES, CANNES. MONTE CARLO. MILANO. ROMA. BEVERLY HILLS. 
HONOLULU, NEW YORK, PALM BEACH. OSAKA. TOKYO, HONG KONG. SEOUL, SINGAPORE 





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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE; FRIDAY, APRIL 29, 1994 


An Israeli Settler 
Gets life Sentence 



By Joel Greenberg 

New York Times Service 

JERUSALEM — A Jewish set- 
tler was convicted of murder and 
sentenced to life in prison on 
Thursday for shooting a Palestin- 
ian who had been bound hand and 
foot after a stabbing attack last 
year in the occupied West iBank. 

The verdict came amid a govern- 
ment crackdown on Jewish mili- 
tants that began after a settler mas- 
sacred at least 29 Muslims at 
in a mosque in the West 
: town of Hebron on Feb. 25. 

In the ruling, a i 
of the Jerusalem District 
found the settler, Yoram Skolnik, 
guilty of premeditated murder in 
the shooting of the Palestinian, 
Musa abu Sabha, near the settle- 
ment of Susia, south of Hebron, in 
March 1993. Under Israeli law, 
murder carries a mandatory sen- 
tence of life in prison. 

Mr. Skolnik, 25, from the settle- 
ment of Maalefa Hever, fired nine 

ISRAEL: 

Target Date Set 

Continued from Page 1 

stationed directly at border-cross- 
ing points. The Israelis want such 
police officers to be kept sufficient- 
ly far away to prevent possible 
claims of Palestinian independence 
or sovereignty at these locations. 

Israeli officials said progress was 
made in resolving otter disputes. 
Israel has agreed to allow the Pales- 
tinians to nave their own stamps 
and telephone codes. Israel also 
agreed to an international force, 
drawn from eight other countries, 
to be stationed in Gaza and Jericho 
under similar terms to the observ- 
ers to arrive soon in Hebron. 

Mr. Arafat pledged to the Israe- 
lis to seek to formally annul the 
PLO covenant with its hostile refer- 
ences to Israel a promise he made 
in September but so far has not 
fulfilled. 


shots from his Uzi submachine gun 
at Mr. Abu Sabha as the Palestin- 
ian lay face down with legs bound 
and his hands tied behind his back. 

Mr. Abu Sabha, 20, from the 
of Yalta, had been appre- 
1 try settlers near Susia. After 
it him in their jeep, he 
stabbed the driver. He was then 
tied up and searched and found to 
be carrying a grenade. Mr. Skolnik 
arrived soon after and opened fire. 

Mr. Skolnik argued in court that 
be bad frit endangered and had 

shot at the captive's bands in self- 
defense, fearing that Mr. Abu 
Sabha might wriggle free and set 
off the grenade. 

But witnesses testified that Mr. 
Skolnik had remarked after (be 
shooting: “He had it coming to 
him. I bad a moral right to do it. I 
wanted to wake the nation up. It 
was asleep " 

Mr. Skolnik acted after a senes 
of Palestinian attacks in Israel and 
calls from some Israeli rightist poli- 
ticians to kill Arab assailants on the 
spot. 

Mr. Skolnik’s mother, Pearl 
Skolnik, said the verdict would be 
to the Israeli Supreme 


It was the second murder convic- 
tion and life sentence handed down 
a gains t a Jewish settler since the 
outbreak of the Palestinian upris- 
ing in the occupied territories in 
December 1987. According to fig- 
ures kept by BTsdem, an Israeli 
human-rights group, 95 Palestin- 
ians have been killed in the territo- 
ries by Israeli civilians since the 

uprising began. 

Human-rights groups have ac- 
cused the Israeli authorities of be- 
ing lenient with violent settlers. But 
after the Hebron massacre, the gov- 
ernment disarmed and imprisoned 
some Jewish militants and out- 
lawed Kach and Kahane Chai, two 
virulently anti-Arab groups led by 
disciples of Rabbi Meir Kahane, 

who was assassinated in New York. 

The leader of Kach, Baruch Mar- 
7i»i was caught hiding in Mr. Skol- 
nik’s home Lois month after having 
evaded the police for weeks. 



ALLIES: America and Europe AreDrifting Together, and Drifting Apart 


to 


Continued from Page 1 

system that has brought record _ 
most countries and a commitment to 
cy and collective security that withstood Nazi 
and Communist dictatorships that seemed boil 
on global conquest. 

Militarily, Operation Overlord was probably 
'history’s last great maritime and land assault on 
a continental scale. About 155.000 American, 
Britidi and Canadian troops, borne by 5,000 
ships and preceded by 1,000 Royal Air Force 
bombers, landed in Normandy on June 6. Ten 
days later, 300,000 more men were ashore pur- 
suing the Wefarmacht across France. 

But 14 months later the explosion of the 
atomic bomb in the Pacific theater changed the 
rules of global conflict, inaugurating an era in 
which wars were more Hkdty to destroy conti- 
nents than liberate them. 

The Normandy invasion represented the ful- 
fillment of a commitment made by Franklin D. 
Roosevelt in August 1941 when he joined Win- 
ston Churchill in calling for “the final destruc- 
tion of the Nazi tyranny" in Europe — four 
months before America formally entered the 
war. 

The destruction of the Nazis, the two leaders' 
declared in a document called the Atlantic 
Charter, would establish “a peace which wiD 
afford to all nations the means of dwelling in 
safety within their own boundaries, and which 
will afford assurance that all the men in all the 
lands may live out their lives in freedom from 
fear and want." 

The landing in Normandy and the campaign 
that followed did not succeed in bringing the 
broad peace that Roosevelt and Churchill fore- 
saw in the Atlantic Charter, which was instru- 
mental in establishing the United Nations in 
1945. Instead, the Red Army erf occupation, 
taking advantage of the Western invasion de- 
manded by Stalin, raced to Berlin and Central 
Europe. 

But working together, Europe and America 
established democracy as the form of govern- 
ment to which all Europeans and eventually the 
Russians as well aspired and adopted. Just as 


America had once been termed “the daughter 
of Europe,” in Charles de Gaulle’s memorable 
phrase, the American re-engagement in Europe 
created new institutional offspring, from the 
International Monetary Fund to the North At- 
lantic Treaty Organization. 

Those institutions were formed, the French 
philosopher Raymond Aron once observed, by 
“men walking backward into the future." 

America was determined not to repeat the 
mistake of leaving Europe unguarded against a 
continental power seemingly bent on global 
conquest, as it did in the 1930s. American and 
European partnership, while frequently 
strained, shaped the global order. 

Perhaps the greatest internal accomplish- 
ment of that partnership was the establishment 
of a strong German democracy chat was ex- 
tended eastward with the breakup of the Soviet 
empire. It would have been hard to imagine 50 
years ago this spring that the present German 
foreign minister, Klaus Kinkd, would travel to 
Washington and say, as he did earlier this 
month: 

“Not all of our interests coincide, but our 
common interests and bonds clearly outweigh 
the differences. Germany and the United States 
form the core of NATO. Never before were 
American faces so dcsefy linked with another 
ally. 

“Since 1945, more Americans have lived and 
worked in Germany than anywhere else in the 
world. The United States is Germany’s largest 
foreign investor, and at the same time attracts 
the most German capital” 

For all that, the German chancellor wiD not 
be at the D-Day celebration, kept away by 
British and French sensitivities ana memories. 
Nor does Mr. Kinkel’s accurate description of 
the recent past obscure a growing divergence 
between Bom and Washington over the future 
of Central and Eastern Europe, which surfaced 
in the debate over the Clinton administration's 
Partnership for Peace proposal. 

Germany wanted to move much faster to 
brine Poland, (he Czech Republic and Hungary 
into NATO than did the United States and the 
otter allies. Relieved that the European Com- 


mon Market, in its various forms, has removed 
German-French conflict as the motor of war in 
Weston Europe, Germany now turns to the 
unfinished business of finding stability on its 
eastern frontier and a modus viveodi with Rus- 
sia. 

Gomans have “an unswerving wish” to open 
Europe to the east, rather than go toward a 
federal European stale centered m the West,' 
Elisabeth Nodk-Neomann, head of Germany’s 
Allensbach Institute, concludes from extensive 
poll-taking. “People want to keep national vari- 
ations unchanged." 

The extension of German power into the 
former Soviet sphere of influence is the kind of 
big strategic question that would have been 
central to the U-S.-Enrqpean partnership be- 
fore But the lack of substantive consultation 
and day-to-day attention on this and other 
large strategic options is striking in American- 
European relations today. 

Although there is no (men conflict, the sense 
of creative partnership that stretched from the 
Atlantic Charier to the Two-Plus-Four talks on 
Goman reunification is now missing. Ameri- 
can diplomats and otter senior alliance offi- 
cials concede in private. 

Ute Clinton White House can be roused into 
episodic action abroad by tragedies like Gor- 
azde and dear threats like North Korea's reck- 
less pursuit of nuclear capability. 

But the president is dearly more comfortable 
at a jobs summit with finance and labor minis- 
ters than be is at a NATO summit. He believes 
he represent s his generation's contribution to 
the future by emphasizing economics and trade 
over traditional diplomatic and strategic con- 
cerns. 

To most members of the generation of Bill 
Clinton and of the younger politicians yet to 
come to power in Europe, the moment of truth 
in the trans-Atlantic relationship that occurred 
on the Normandy beaches is a distant memory 
absorbed from history books or elders’ tales. 
The anniversary of that moment is a useful 
reminder of the task they will face in rein vigo- 
rs ting, or replacing, what has been the globe's 
central partnership. 


ITALY: Berlusconi Named to Form Government, Seating Political Rise 


Continued from Page 1 

incipient economic boom 
tax-cutting measures that should 
create jobs and solidify public con- 
fidence in his ability to govern. 

Mr. Martino predicted that the 
Northern League would postpone 
its demand for moves toward a fed- 
eral system in the interests of reviv- 
ing the economy and reforming the 
income tax system, which the new 
governing alliance believes should 
Be harmonized under a single flat 
tax rate of 33 percent. 

“The League understands that 
any moves in the direction of feder- 
alism involve constitutional, not 


legislative problems, and that these 
will take nme to work out,” Mr. 
Martino said. “The number one 
priority for all of us is the economy 
and unemployment." 

Another urgent issue that must 
be treated, Mr. Martino said, is the 
“complete paralysis" in public 
works contracts mat has resulted 
from the two-year corruption in- 
vestigation. The scandal involving 
kickbacks from government con- 
tracts precipitated (he demise of 
the traditional ruling parties and 
devastated the careers of thousands 
of politicians and buanessmeo. 

Despite a new Parliament in 


which nearly 80 percent of the 
members have never saved before. 
Mr. Martino said their lack of ex- 
perience should not proves handi- 
cap. “There are a lot of intelligent 



dans is not something to be proud 
of.” 

In European affairs, Mr. Berlus- 
coni's aides say the new govern- 
ment will back Germany in giving 
strong support to faster integration 
of the new democracies of Easton 
Europe into the West. But it ap- 
pears to share some of Britain’s 


doubts about the Maastricht treaty 

“The plan for monetary union by 
the end of the decade cannot and 
will not work." Mr. Martino said. 
“We also do not believe in the idea 
of a social charter. Europe needs 
more freedom and mobility in its 
labor markets, and we should not 
impose high wages on poorer coun- 
tries." 

Despite calls by some neofascist 
party members to resurrect Italy’s 
Hamm on parts of Istria and Dal- 
matia in the former Yugoslavia. 
Mr. Martino said Mr. Fini assured 
him that the National Alliance 
would not press the issue. 


Rightist Sees More Bombings 

Terre’Blanche 'Supports’ South Africa Attacks 

BOEKENHOUTFONTEIN, South Africa — The gJJSW northwest of Pretoria, where 

neo-Nazi leader Eugene Terre’Blancbe said Thursday “J® wenriiriBgvp to wte - 
that bombets wouldanitmue their attacks in South blacks were s F 

Africa until the country’s whites were given a separate Armored units of the South AjncanuaraK Trorce 
boKd. lined tte roads OTt of ^^bur| and to Kroger's 

“There will be more explosions,” he said. house in nearby BoekenboutfcmUan. 

Mr. Terrc*Blaiiche said he sympathized with bomb- when LheAWB member? converged on the Kruger 
ere who have been trying to disrupt South Africa’s first ^ away Wade journalists, hustling 

alJ-race elections this week, but he denied ordering any them ^ ^ property. 

Mr Terre’Blanche then led his supporters in a vow 
of sSidSS for their goal of a white “fatherland." 

He warned them of conflict and isolation ahead 
under the black-dominated government of national 
unity that is expected to emerge from this week’s 
election, led by Nelson Mandela -and his African 
National Congress. 

“We are beading for a revolution and a war," he 
said. “Be warned: The Zulu will never accept the 
Xhosas as a government," Mr. Terre'BIanche said. 


of the attacks, in which 21 people have died. 

“I did not order my members to plant any bombs," 
said Mr. Terrc’blanche, leader of the white suprema- 
cist Afrikaner movement AWB. “But I will support 
them through courts and will not tarn my back on 
them." 

White rightists have been blamed for recent bomb 
attacks apparently intended to disrupt (he counties 
first free ejections, in which the black majority is 
expected to put an end to three centuries of white 

do&BQACl(HL 

South African police have arrested 32 people, in- 
cluding some AWB members, in connection with the 
bombings. 

Mr. Tcrrc'Blancbc and his khaki-unifonned col- 
leagues converged Thursday on the house of Paul 
Kruger, president of the Transvaal Republic from 
1883 to 1902, which is a shrine for white rightists 
opposed to black majority rule. 

He said the bombings would not stop until white 
Afrikaners had been given their own territory within 
South Africa. “There will be more explosions until the 
Afrikaner nation is given his land,” he said. 


VOTE: South Africa Extends Balloting in Black Areas 


Ycmi Zaasr/Rcneik 

Yoram Skobuk bong brought into the courtroom in Jerusalem before Ms conviction and sentencing. 


GENES: 

A Better Mouse 

Continued from Page 1 

Mountain View, California. Simi- 
lar findings by workers at Cell 
Genesys, a biotech company in 
Foster City, California, will appear 
in the May issue of Nature Genet- 
ics. 

Robert M. Kay, GenPharm's 
vice president for research and de- 
velopment, said the company 
hoped to start testing some of its 
antibodies in patients next year. He 
said they would focus initially on 
antibodies that attack certain can- 
cers. 

He said the company was still 
sorting through the overabundance 
of options that had come with the 
newfound ability to design human 
antibodies almost at wifi. “We're 
like kids in a candy store," be raid 

Antibodies are Y-shaped pro- 
teins made by specialized immune- 
system cells. The outstretched arms 
of these proteins latch onto foreign 
invaders such as bacteria or viruses, 
while the single “leg" attaches to 
killer cells or compounds capable 
of destroying the intruder. 

One of the beauties of antibodies 
is their specificity: In response to 
the appearance of an uninvited 
gnest, antibody-producing cells 
chum out millions of antibodies 
whore arms are designed to latch 
only to that particular invader. 

For decades researchers have 
tried to replicate this biological as- 
sembly line in test tubes or experi- 
mental animals, with the goal of 
making large quantities of antibod- 
ies that could then be injected into 
people to augment their own im- 
mune response. 

Research focused on mice, 
whose immune systems are similar 
to humans'. And success, it seemed 
came in 1975 when scientists devel- 
oped the technique for making 
monoclonal antibodies — so called 
because they are all derived from a 
single done, or line of cells. 

At first they worked well in peo- 
ple, researchers said. But since the 
antibodies bad been made in mice, 
h uman immune systems quickly 
recognized them as foreign, and so 
attacked the would-be comrades 
before their therapeutic missions 
were completed 

“Because of those problems, 
people stopped believing in anti- 
body therapy,” said Man Sung Co. 
director of the antibody humaniza- 
tion laboratory at Protein Design 
Labs in Mountain View, Califor- 
nia. “But now it looks like the po- 
tential could finally be realized" 


Continued from Page 1 

to number 22.7 million, so many 
pOUing stations either ran out of 
ballots or never received any. 

The chagrined chairman of the 
electoral commission. Judge Jo- 
hann Kriegler, has acknowledged 
be does not yet know the answer, 
(hie possibility is that South Afri- 
ca’s census count was way off; an- 
other is that, in huge numbers, vot- 
ers chose to cast their ballots 
outside areas where they live (there 
is no voter registration roll, so peo- 
ple could vote anywhere). 

Another possibility is mischief of 
some kind Judge Kxiegler has or- 
dered a review, and sought assis- 
tance from the police. 

With so many unaccounted-for 
ballots, and with 9 million addi- 
tional ballots having been printed 
and distributed on a burry-op ba- 
sis, the coanting promises to bring 
many complications and com- 
plaints. 

The areas where the voting will 
be extended are six former black 
homelands: KwaZulu; Transkei 
and Ciskei in die southeast, and 


Venda, Lebowa and Gazanknhi in 
the northern TransvaaL 

These are rural, deeply poor ar- 
eas created as part of the grand 
apartheid design to makes blacks 
atizens of foreign lands. Their gov- 
ernments were greatly underfund- 
ed awH mal adminis tered. and in 
man y cases corrupt 

One reason the voting adminis- 
tration went badly in those areas 
was that the civil service infrastruc- 
ture is weak. Another is that a small 
but signif ican t number of home- 
land residents never received the 
identity documents they needed in 
order to vote. In many polling sta- 
tions, electoral officers were trying 
to issue identity documents at the 
same time they were conducting a 
vote. 

Mr. de Klerk’s National Party 
was initially cool to the idea of an 
exienaon — calculating that it was 
in effect giving its opposition an 
extra day to gather votes in regions 
where the National Party is most 
likely to be blanked. 

But throughout the political 


PEASANTS: Restlessness inChinaDotm on theFarm 


Continued from Page I 

school official, Xing Fensi, was 
quoted as saying. 

Last August. China’s president, 
Jiang Zemm, who is also head of 
the Communist Party, called cor- 
ruption a “virus" that seriously 
threatened party rule. He launched 
the biggest anti-graft campaign 
since the 1949 revolution that 
brought the Communists to power. 

Here in Anhui Province, the 
campaign has netted more than 
300,000 government officials — 
one-fifth of the province's public 
servants. They were caught stealing 
or misusing 826 million yuan 
(about $95 million) in public funds, 
according to the official Xinhua 


it it on 
non for 
and even 
agency 


much of 
lagged fur- 
coastal 
areas tike An- 
have become 



They 
furniture, 
their children, 
visits to prostitutes, 
said. 

In the last two ye 
poor, rural China ha 
tier behind the 

E rovinces. In 
ui. party otna 
local despots. 

Yuanzhuang, a village on the 
banks of the Huai River, not far 
from the transport hub of Bengbu, 
has always been rooted in poverty. 
Dwellings are made of pounded 
earth with thatched roofs. 

The village has a population of 
1,500, and the average peasant 
earns from 300 to 400 yuan a year, 
about half the national average. 
The peasants say they do not earn 
enough or grow enough rice and 
wheat to feed their families and 
provide them decent clothing. Peo- 
ple have left in droves to work in 
the cities. 

The individual who has held 
sway over the village for the last 12 
years is the local party boss, Shen 
Shaoxi. a man in his 40s who re- 
portedly has a third-grade educa- 
tion. His home, and that of a rela- 
tive, Zhang Chenfu, an accountant, 
are lavish by comparison with the 
others in the village. 

Mr. Shea’s home, in a cement, 
walled compound, is built on two 
and a half acres (one hectare) of 
public land, larger than plots most 
families have to plant wheat and 
rice. 

“His pigsty is better than our 
homes," said Shi Jmgfa, 51, n lead- 
er m local peasant protests. 


In an eight-page handwritten pe- 
tition, villagers accuse Mr. Shen of 

. misusing more than 600,000 yuan 
of public funds in the last 12 years, 
turning the village party office into 
a headquarters for selling abducted 
women as brides to villagers who 
could not find wives, and ordering 
the village militia to beat anyone 
who challenges him. 

A township official, Zhou 
Chenglin, denied that such beat- 
ings had taken place. After a “thor- 
ough investigation," be said, the 
county concluded there was no evi- 
dence of corruption or misuse of 
funds. 

But the peasants said the evi- 
dence against Mr. Shea was over- 
whelming. In particular, they ac- 
cuse him of tailoring the courtly's 
strict family-planning policy to fa- 
vor relatives and those who pay 
bribes, while punishing anyone 
who criticizes it. National policy 
allows erne child per couple m the 
cities and two in the countryside. 
Mi. Shen has three children, they 
said, and the accountant Zhang has 
five. 

“If you have good relations with 
him. they take care of you — you 
can have six children if you want,” 
said Yuan Jiaqiang, 57. He estimat- 
ed that 70 percent of the village's 
300 families had more than two 
children. 

But villagers say that the two 
daughters-in-law of one peasant 
who questioned Mr. Shea's policies 
were seized in the middle of die 
night and taken to the hospital to 



referring to the two major blade South African ethnic 
groups. Mr- Mandela is a Xhosa, and his rival, Zulu 
Chief Mangcsuthu Butitdezi, beads the Inkalha Free- 
dom Party. 

“In this revolution, the white man wiD never allow 
himself to be pushed off his land," Mr. Terre’BIanche 
said. “We wiD be the Third Force, the strong force, 
because we are the Boer people. We are fighters and 
are awaiting the movements of the new Sooth African 
government. We won't let them chase us out of South 
Africa." 


transition, Mr. de KJerit has con- 
ducted himself as a guarantor of 
the process first, and a partisan 
second. “We want the election to 
succeed," he said. 

He also added two provisos. One 
is that the more than 3,000 interna- 
tional observers in the country be 
deployed in force to those six for- 
mer homelands Friday, to m«kf 
sure there is no ballot tampering or 
irregularities. The other is that all 
votes cast Friday be counted sepa- 
rately, in case challenges arise. 

There are other categories of 
votes that wiD have to be counted 
_ as well — those cast on 
i that did not have a special 
sticker affixed for the late-entering 
Iniatha Freedom Party, and those 
subject to what is most likely to be 
a voluminous set of complaints 
from afi 27 parties about irregular- 
ities at individual voting stations. 

After the counting begins Satur- 
day, the electoral co mmissi on has 
up to 10 days to declare a result and 
decide whether the vote had been 
fair. 


have forced abortions of their sec- 
ond babies. 

More than a year ago, the peas- 
ants say, another peasant was beat- 
en for questioning Mr. Shea’s arbi- 
trary application of policy. 
Peasants said the party boss or- 
dered the home of the peasant's son 
torn down and also ordered 60 to 
70 members of the militia to seize 
the peasant, Shi Jingxuan, 62; his 
wife, Pan Fuying; and the son, Shi 
Hejian. 

The elder Shi said he was taken 
to the township government office 
and beaten with belts and wooden 
poles. He said he was forced to 
kneel while four or five militia 
members kicked him in the bade, 
and then he and his son were forced 
to kneel faring each other and slap 
each otter in the face. 

“They wanted me to hit my sen’s 
face until it was swollen," recalled 
Mr. Shi. choking back tears of an- 
ger and humiliation. “My son had 
to slap my face until it was swoflea. 
If we didn't hit each other hard, it 
wasn’t any good." 

Peasants also say that during 
widespread flooding three years 
ago — the worst in a century in 
Anhui Province — Mr. Shen took 
badly needed relief funds for his 
own use. 

In their petition seeking justice, 
the peasants accuse Mr. Shen of 
appropriating 1,500 yuan in relief 
funds and selling more than 10,000 
pounds of emergency rice, dozens 
of containers of coolring oil and 30 
bottles of fertilizer. 


GENETS City Begs for Business* 

the UN High Commissioner Tor 
Refugees but is already too small 
These organizations’ combined 
payroll last year was more than 
25,000, and the Geneva Statistical 
Office estimates they spent $2 bil- 
lion in the local economy, provid- 
ing 10 percent of regional income. 
Geneva agreed recently to ap- 
>int a special commissioner to 
. ip all these organizations resolve 
their problems. Vladimir F. Pe- 
trovsky, a former soviet deputy for- 
eign minister and the senior UN 
official in Geneva, appreciates the 
change. “Geneva rally wants to 
make us fed at home now," hesaid. 


Continued from Page 1 

lobby for changes to keep the diy 
attractive to international organi- 
zations. 

Financially, the stakes are high. 
Geneva is host to 15 United Na- 
tions institutions as well os to other 
international groups. 

Here are gleaming aluminum 
and glass fortresses for the World 
Health Organization and the Inter- 
national Labor Organization, a sil- 
vered concave tower for the World 
Intellectual Property Organization 
and a new green and brown tiled 
building that will soon be home to 


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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, FRIDAY, APRIL 29, 1994 


Page 5 . i 


Everybody knows that 

a. saloon is more practical 
than a coupe. 

But what’s so great about 
being practical? 


No doubt about it, coupes aren’t so practical as 
saloons. Passengers take longer to get in and out. 
Shopping bags are slightly harder to get at. Ones 
reputation for total respectability becomes ever so 
slightly at risk. 

Which is, perhaps, the whole point. 

A coup6 carries with it the irresistible, undeniable 
aura of fun. There is something about its clean flow- 
ing lines that helps to make driving almost as enjoy- 
able as it’s supposed to be. 

THE BEST OF BOTH WORLDS. 

All this led us to think how nice it would be if some- 
one could bring out a new model that had the elegant 
body shape of a coupe but was somehow just a little 
bit more practical. Something that combined the best 
of both worlds. 

This is exactly what we tried 
to achieve with the new Saab 900 
three-door Coupe. The looks 
you can judge for yourself. 

So we’ll concentrate on less •'.*/ 
visible bits. ; 

Take the chassis. Unlike other 
coupgs, this is exactly the same length 
as we use on our five-door model. It isn’t shortened 



-rAv; 


AT SAAB*S DESIGN DEPARTMENT WE LOOK 
TO NATURE FOR OUR INSPIRATION. 


and luggage compartment are every bit as roomy. 

The headroom hasn’t been reduced either. Again, 
passengers have the same roomy feeling as they do in 
the five-door. 

VERY SAAB. 

The new 900 Coupe is also equipped with front 
wheel drive to give you superb road-holding even in 
the worst conditions. 

Plus the reassuring safety features you’ve come 
to expect from Saab. Like intelligently designed crash 
zones, a uniquely strong, specially constructed body, 
and ABS brakes and air bag as standard. 

Jt also has the Saab SafeSeat - an exclusive, inte- 
grated feature that gives back-seat passengers a 
whole new degree of safety. 

THE TURBO TRADITION. 

As you would expect, the new 900 
Coupe comes with the option of a 
turbo engine - a Saab tradition. 

We originally introduced 
the turbo for reasons of power, 
an idea that other manufacturers 
found amusing at the time. 

Today, apart from being admired for its perform- 





ie 

a-; 


ry. 

oe. 

h<r 

Irr 

ot 


jy 

w-. 

ie 

is. 

ie 

ie 

rf- 

i- 


in any way. Which means that both the rear seat ance, the Saab turbo is also recognised as one of the 


most environmentally friendly petrol engines around. 
It’s an engine that no longer amuses our competitors. 
And it suits our new 900 Coupe beautifully. 

FOR PERSONAL REASONS. 

Saab isn’t an automotive giant. We’re a small com- 
pany with the flexibility to make the kind of car we 
want. Hence the Saab 900 Turbo Coupe. 

Exactly why you might want it, is entirely up to 
you. Every Saab driver has his or her own reasons. 
We’ve simply tried to give you as many reasons as we 
can. So if you want the kind of craftsmanship you 
associate with Saab, the joy of a turbo and the ele- 
gance of a coupe, this is a car worth looking at. 

You may not have been looking for a practical car. 
But isn’t it nice to know 
you’ve got one anyway. 



FOR FURTHER INFORMATION. A TEST DRIVE OR DETAILS OF OUR INTERNATIONAL/DIPLOMAT 5ALES PROGRAMME CALL SAAB INFORMATION SERVICE ON +44-71 240 3033 OR FAX TO +44-71 240 *033. 



1 it. 


Introducing the new Saab 900 Turbo Coupe 


i 


Pa, 


Page 6 


FRIDAY, APRIL 29, 1994 


OPINION 


A. 


Herald 


INTERNATIONAL 



tribune 


PUBLISHED WITH THE NEW YORK TIMES AND THE WASHINGTON POST 


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The Women Get Their Say 


In September thousands of people from 
all over the world will meet in Cairo, at the 
International Conference on Population 
and Development, to discuss some of the 
most urgent problems facing this small 
planet. At neither of the two previous such 
conferences, in 1974 and 1984, were wom- 
en's voices as powerful — or their agenda as 
broad — as they mil be at this one. 

That agenda emerged from three weeks 
of debate, confrontation and aggressive lob- 
bying among delegates from 170 countries 
meeting at the United Nations this month. 
True, it is not yet the hoped-for consensus 
document that could serve as a blueprint for 
international family planning in the 21st 
century. But in recognizing that population 
and development policies must include the 
empowerment of women, it creates the right 
context for the Cairo discussions. The draft 
document acknowledges the inseparability 
of population control, equal rights, the envi- 
ronment and development 

However, the idea that “giving women real 
choices,” as Nafis Sadik, executive director 


of the UN Population Fund, phrased it, 
could indude abortion, or giving adolescents 
and unmarried women access to contracep- 
tives stirred opposition from the Vatican, 
which insisted on deleting broad terms like 
“reproductive rights, “family planning'* and 
“safe motherhood.” “This is really a confer- 
ence about lifestyles,” said Monsignor Diar- 
muid Martin, its delegate, “and when talking 

about lifestyles in the future of the society we 

have a lot to say.” 

Other delegates — among them an un- 
precedentedly large and forceful group of 
women — also had a lot to say. Women 
everywhere, they pointed out, need more 
than the ability to limit the size of their 
families: better health services, better educa- 
tions and, above afl, equality and equity with 
m««n Such goals may be elusive, especially in 
countries whae women are still literally chat- 
tel. That they were part and pared of the 
dialogue at the conference, however, signifies 
a new direction for population policies — 
and, perhaps, for the world. 

— THE NEW YORK TIMES. 


Ba ckslidin g on Free Trade 


Canadian durum wheat is now coming into 
the United States because of the high prices 
there. To the wheat fanners of North Dakota 
and Montana, it is an outrage and an invasion 
of their turf. They want something done about 
it, and their senators have been in touch with 
the White House. Although the White House 
pushed the North American Free Trade 
Agreement through Congress and hopes to 
follow it with an even broader worldwide 
trade agreement, in the meantime it is caving 
in lo the wheal fanners, li has now notified 
Canada that it is starting the legal process to 
cut down these troublesome wheat imports. 

Why is the price of durum wheat high? One 
reason is the flooding in the Midwest last 
summer. Another is that the United Slates 
subsidizes its own wheal exports precisely to 
get the prices up. The Canadian imports are the 
direct result of U.S. farm policy. Durum is used 
mostly to make pasta. With these imports re- 
stricted, the price of domestic pasta will also 
rise and the result will be more foreign pasta 
coming into America from Europe, to the dis- 
may of American manufacturers. The fanners' 
victory will be woo at the expense of the food 
companies that buy their wheat 

This American action to shut out imported 
wheat has produced angry rumbles from Can- 


ada of a trade war. But perhaps things will not 
go quite that far. Canada is nght in the durum 
case, but it is on the defensive in other cases as 
it tries to keep certain American exports — 
poultry, for example, and dairy products — 
out of its own protected markets. It seems 
possible that there will be a deal in which each 
of the two governments allows its trading 
rights to be reciprocally violated, up lo a 
point, by the other. That might mean a reduc- 
tion in Canadian wheat moving south, al- 
though not as much of a reduction as the 
North Dakotans would like, while other 
American farmers are allowed to send more of 
their milk and chicken northward. 

All of the rich industrial countries regulate 
and protect their fanners, and they all do it 
differently. The various national farm subsi- 
dy systems will increasingly collide as trade 
expands, creating furious political quarrels 
like the durum wheat case. Because of the 
enormous volumes of trade between Canada 
and the United States, there are going to be 
a lot of these disputes. In this one the White 
House is on the verge of making an expensive 
concession to protectionism. Too many of 
them, and the momentum toward more open 
trade will be lost. 


— THE WASHINGTON POST. 


The Justices Got It Right 


Passage of the 1991 Civil Rights .Act came 
after a long legislative battle, the veto of an 
earlier version and the sort of compromises that 
make legislation possible. On Tuesday, the Su- 
preme Court of the United States considered 
the plain language of the statute and the rele- 
vant legislative history and concluded, S lo I, 
that the law could not be applied retroactively. 
The case is a classic illustration rtf a well-known 
Washington exercise designed to make law by 
Congressional Record insert, staged colloquy 
or committee- report language when the voles 
to achieve the desired result are not there. The 
justices now say that won’t work 

The law is a broad one written to overturn 
a number of Supreme Court decisions that 
interpreted narrowly the civil rights statutes 
of 1866 and 1964. A version had been passed 
, in 199 G but had been vetoed by President 
George Bush for a number of reasons, among 
them its provision making the new law retro- 
active — i.e., applicable not only to pending 
cases but also to cases in which final judg- 
ment had been rendered. 

The president’s veto was sustained. buL in 
1991 a new bill was introduced that also 
contained a retroactivity clause. In the course 
of striking a deal to get a bilL that clause was 
dropped. Nevertheless, plaintiffs in two law- 
suits, one from Texas and the other from 
Ohio, whose cases were on appeal at the time 
the law was passed, moved to take advantage 
of the new rights it created. They based their 
claims on the fact that two provisions of the 
law, which were not relevant to their claims. 


were specifically made prospective in the texL 
This, they said, implied that the rest of the 
statute was meant to be retroactive. 

The late U.S. Court of Appeals Judge Har- 
old Leventhal once said that a judge's use of 
legislative history was akin to “looking over 
a crowd and picking out your friends. n In the 
case of this tall, statements on retroactivity 
were many and conflicting, and judges relying 
on legislative history could have decided the 
case other way. Eight of the justices did review 
the history and came to the conclusion that it 
did not support a finding of retroactivity. Only 
Justice Hairy Blackmim disagreed. But Justice 
Antonin Saha, the most vehement and acerbic 
foe of this exercise, wrote a concurring opinion 
in which Chief Justice William Rehnquist and 
Justice Clarence Thomas agreed. He would 
have ignored a H the statements, memorandums 
of understanding and partisan interpretations 
of what was being done and relied only on the 
text of the law. which could have demanded 
retroactivity, but did not 

This ruling will be a great disappointment to 
the thousands of plaintiffs whose cases were 
pending when the bill was passed. But the 
result is both dear and fair. There is a presump- 
tion in the law against taking away rights or 
imposing new obligations retrospectively, it is 
not allowed at all in criminal cases and should 
not be done in dvfl matters without unambigu- 
ous statutory direction. The justices were cor- 
rectly skeptical of claims that Congress intend- 
ed to do something it dearly did not. 

— THE WASHINGTON POST. 


Other Comment 


Nixon's Global Achievements 


Richard Nixon win be remembered for reas- 
serting US. leadership in world affairs at a 
crucial period in the Cold War. He was a 
statesman with an ability to view global affairs 
in broad strategic terms and. once having done 
that, locate U.S. interests precisely and pursue 
them tenaciously no matter bow difficult the 
terrain gpL His foreign policy achievements 
furthered the interests of America, and the rest 
of the free world, in the make-or-break battle 
between communism and capitalism. That was 
evident in the Vietnam War. Even greater an 
achievement was the Chinese-U.S. rapproche- 
ment of 1971 There were other successes: the 
agning of the Strategic Anns Limitation Treaty 
with the Soviet Union and attempts to resolve 
the Middle East impasse. 

The ignominy of his departure — resigna- 
tion in the face of certain impeachment — 


became a major theme of contemporary 
American political history. Is international 
terms, Watergate would, given the space of 
time and reflection, turn out to be only 
a footnote in history. Richard Milhous Nixon, 
by contrast, will be remembered as one of the 
great statesmen of this century. 

— The Straits Times (Singapore). 


NATO Gets More Convincing 


NATO has flexed its muscles again and this 
time in a more convincing and decisive manner. 
The Serbs suspended the massacre of the Mus- 
lims of Gorazde, but not without hesitating. 
Who knows if it is really a turn for the belter for 
Gorazde, as wdi as (he other besieged Muslim 
cities, or if its just another of the many tactical 
moves before the strategical game begins again. 

Now, however. NATO is playing hard. Finally. 

— La Stampa (Turin, Italy). 



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Is Fear the Only Way 
To Keep the Order? 


By Flora Lewis 


P ARIS— Jusl as the utmost lim- 
its of international toleration 
were reached, the Bosnian Serbs ap- 
pear to have let go of a thoroughly 
devastated Gorazde. Once again. 


wdL After long negotiation, to 
provethattheUNisat ‘ 


their wily brinkmanship has 
them to 


achieved key aims and left 


key a i 

calculate what they can get away 


with next time. 

But grave damage has already 
been done, not only to (he victims 
and their town, but to the whole 
network of states and International 
institutions charged with trying to 
run the world rationally. More and 
more, people are wondering whether 
it is any use entrusting the United 
Nations, NATO, the European 
Union, the United States and Rus- 
sia with the task of order. 

Last week, television news quite 
matter-of-factiy displayed how easy 
they are to day. Alter being kepi 
waiting around Sarajevo airport for 
five days, a convoy of armored UN 
vehicles finally got permission from 
B osni an Serbian leaders to proceed 
to beleaguered Gorazde with ob- 
servers and medicalpersonneL 

But about 20 miles (32 kilome- 
ters) from their goal, a couple of 
hundred women were sent to block 
the road, an outrageously transpar- 
ent excuse to break the leaders’ 
word. The UN troops, bewildered, 
climbed down and stared helplessly 
at the little crowd. Their command 
ordered a U-turn, back to Sarajevo. 
The women blocked the retreat as 


the mercy of 
the aggressors, they were allowed to 
give up and go away. 

I was watching this cat-and- 
mouse game, the world organization 
and its powers playing mouse, with 
a visiting R ussi an couple. The man, 
really a gentle, kind, intelligent per- 
son, exploded in anger. 

“This is wbat your Western liber- 
al democracy leads to, this is the 
result of your foolishness," he said. 

“Yon take away fear and (he 
whole world goes to poL Nothing 
else can make it work. Bomb Bel- 
grade, kill SO, 000, and that would be 
the end of such nonsense.” 

Ffis wife; a sprightly editor with one 
of those tragic Soviet family stories, 
disagreed. "We lived our whole Eves 
with fear, so deep we didn’t even know 
how totally w submitted until a few 
years ago,” she said. “That's not the 
way, nothing good comes ctf it." 

Of course, there are all kinds of 
fears — fear of humiliation, fear of 
looking ridiculous, fear of hurting 
someone, fear of being caught, dis- 
honored and perhaps punished — 
and they do shape the way people 



behave. But this was about 


brute force, impotent fear of being 
d. fear of certain, tern- 


overwhelmed, 
ble pain as (be prime mover of soci- 
eties. Is that all there is to rdy on? 

Freedom, the rule of law, civic 
decency is about liberation from 
that kind of fear. We argued wheth- 


er sustaining it didn’t have to mean 
accepting dictatorship. The pained 
argument dividing Americans on 
the sentence of caning a juvenile 
vandal in Singapore is over whether 
an orderly, safe society justifies, in- 
deed requires, discipline derived 
from a high level of that fear. 

International society has no con- 
stituted police force or system of jus- 
tice. The various organizations it has 
developed are an attempt to build 
some rules of state behavior based on 
widespread consent, recognition of 
mutual benefit in settling disputes 
without open conflict That attempt 
is being undermined by events, espe- 
cially in Bosnia, but alro in Rwanda, 
Somalia and elsewhere. 


It leads to the shocking urge to 
call for restoration of mortal fear as 
the only available alternative. This 
is worse than war, it is abandonment 
of the very principles that democra- 
cies — usually reluctantly — wage 
war to defend. It is a belief that 
human beings are so inevitably, in- 
corrigibly perverse that they can 
find no other way to organize their 
societies and their world. 

What an exit from the global feats 
inspired by the Cold War. It chal- 
lenges the essential idea of democra- 
cy. that people are able to govern 
t hems elves more or less acceptably, 
in a way that the totalitarians never 
managed to achieve. 

This is what is at stake now as 


leaders herald their first Kttle steps 
— a European. Russian, American, 
UN contact group — to “coordi- 
nate” a policy on Yugoslavia. They 
have come pear to losing what they 
call “credibility,” a way of saying 
trust in their wisdom and their will 
to use human capacity for reason to 
beat back encroachments of the 
eternal human jungle. 

There is acosL The rule of law is 
not self-generating and it always re- 
quires enforcement. But if they can- 
not offer anything else, including 
joint resolve on military action, the 
nostalgia for. total fear as the one 
effective means of keeping order 
will engulf aB hopes. 

© Flora Lewis: ‘ 


China: Some Grounds for Hope on the Post-Deng Transition 


B EU1NG — Rumors are once again rife that 
the post-Deng Xiaoping era is near. Chi- 
na's patriarch is said to have slipped into a 
coma, possibly as a result of pancreatic cancer 
and successive strokes. Whether or not these 
recent reports are true — and his daughter 


Bj David Shamhang h 


denied than Thursday — Mr. Deng’s last pub- 


lic appearance, m reoruary, hardly inspired 
confidence. It revealed that he was neither in 
control of his faculties nor of the country. 

The Chinese leadership is dearly nervous 
about what may happen next. One tangible sign 
is the presence of increased numbers of para- 


For years, China has had a 
stable society tmd economy with 
an unstable leadership. The 
situation today is reversed. 


stable society and economy with an unstable 
political leadership. Tbe situation today is the 
opposite. When Mr. Deng goes, the leadership 
succession is likely to be smooth. There is little 
chance of midnight arrests and purges resulting 
from intense factional conflict among Politburo 
members, as occurred after Mao’s death in 1976. 

The Communist Party and military elite today 
are relatively united. Tms is the result of person- 
nel changes engineered by Mr. Deng in 1992-93 
that eliminated hard-liners and liberals from die 
ci vilian leadership and the Yang Shangkun- 


military and mih’Lary forces in Beijing. Two 

lUY 


e's Armed Police apparently have 
been moved into the capital. Two hundred 
thousand of these national police, one-fiftE of 
the total, are now garrisoned in and around the 


city. Elite guards near Mr. Deng’s home north 
of the Forbidden 


ridden City have been beefed up. 
Troops in the provinces have been put on alert 
When the paramount leader dies, China’s lead- 
ers want to have forces in place to preempt or 
deal quickly with any unrest. 

Communist Party leaders have reason to be 
worried about possible unrest But they fear 
instability stemming more from social and eco- 
nomic difficulties than political problems. 

For much of tbe past 40 years, China has had a 


command. Debate over policy exists, but brood 
factional cleavages are not evident 

Prime Minister Li Peng may be disliked at 
home and abroad, but be has birih a strong 
power base in the State Council and provinces. 
His gradualist approach to economic growth has 
won him kudos and positioned him well to 
survive tbe succession. Qiao Shi, China’s security 
czar and a heavyweight figure on the Politburo, is 
also well positioned for the future. 

If the economy continues to overheat Deputy 
Prime Minister Zhu Rongji will be held responsi- 
ble. Mr. Zhu is respected for his no-nonsense 
approach and bold reforms. But his power base 
in the party and government is weak, making 
him vulnerable. Mr. Zhu’s style and maverick 
reforms have made him many enemies. 

Jiang Zemin, who holds the office of state 
president and heads both the party and tbe 
army, will be tbe titular head of China in tbe 
post-Deng era. But his staying power is ques- 
tionable. Mr. Jiang is generally viewed as a 
transitional leader similar to Mao’s chosen suc- 


cessor, Hua Guofeng. His ability to retain pow- 
er will depend on his ties to the military. 

However, Mr. Jiang cannot fill Mr. Deng's 
shoes, and China wfll lack an emperor figure 
once Mr. Deng is grate. If Mr. Zhu can survive 
and tackle (be country's economic problems ef- 
fectivdy, he could emerge as a strongman in time 
and push Mr. Jiang aside. 

Nonetheless, the political leadership seems 
cohesive enough to survive the initial succes- 
sion intact. Its main challenge will be to deal 
with apiethora of explosive socioeconomic is- 
sues. The potential for unrest in both the coun- 
tryside and dties is high. 

In rural areas, farmers have seen their incomes 
faQ for three consecutive years. Tbe state has 
paid them for their grain in IOUs, not cash. This 
provoked more than 200 rural riots across China 
last year. Government offices were attacked, 
partly because of the fall in farmers’ incomes and 
partly because of unofficial levies they exact 
from the rural population. Tbe government has 
tried to alleviate the problem by increaang pay- 
ments, but tbe money is being invested by local 
cadres instead of reaching farmers. MiHions in 
the countryside have.no work. 

Tbe problems in the. countryside have exacer-' ' 
bated large-scale migration within China. Offi- 
cial estimates suggest that 105 million rural _ 
residents are trying to enter urban centers in 
search of work. Unofficial estimates put the 
number as high as 150 million, of which per- 
haps 50 million already reside illegally in large 
cities. They create pressures on housing, food, 
water and social services that municipal gov- 
ernments cannot meet 

Urban areas are already hit hard by rapidly 
rising inflation, and it is getting worse. Accord- 
ing to some estimates, prices have soared in 


major dties by up to 50 percent in recent 
months. Inflation, especially for food, is no 
longer affecting only retirees and Fixed-income 
eamera, but all urban dwellers. There is much 
grumbling in China's dties today. 

Rampant graft and rising crime add to tbe 
sense of instability. The government's anti- 

is having fittie^ecL One^reasoa Is that the 
police and security services are deeply involved 
in the black-market economy. and ore frequent- 
ly paid to look the other way. 


government, however' is in the stale industrial 
sector. Half rtf' China’s 13,000 medium and large 
state factories run at a loss, wbSe one-thin J 
operate near tbe margin. The subsidies required 
to keep these socialist behemoths afloat led to a 
quadrupling of the budget deficit last year. 

Tbe government wants to allow the worst 
cases to go bankrupt but cannot risk the high 
unemployment that would result. Workers in 
state factories are already being paid only part 
of their salaries in cash, and absenteeism is 
high. There are numerous reports or wildcat 
strikes and demonstrations in several regions. 
"The government is sitting on a tinderbox in the 
state industrial sector. The country’ s Communist 
leaders are well aware of the political potential of 
an aroused proletariat. Thus, as China faces tbe 1 
post-Deng future, the forces for instability and 
unrest are on the increase. It could be a long, hoi 
summer for the Chinese leadership. 


The writer is senior lecturer in Chinese politics at 
the School of Oriental and African Studies, Uni- 
versity of London, and editor of The China Quar- 
terly. He contributed this comment to the Interna- 
tional Herald Tribune 


Unification Is Korea’s Real Challenge, and It’s Not That Far Off 


S EOUL — Forget the nuclear issue 
for the moment. The most trou- 
bling thin« about North Korea, as 
seen from here in the South, is bow lo 
manage unification. That may seem a 
distant dream as die two sides shout 
insults. But it could, with little warn- 
ing. become a current nightmare. The 
consensus is that i t wiD happen b this 
decade. But the South's desire for 


By Philip Bowring 


unity is at odds with another burning 


national imperative: to catch up wit 
Japan, the erstwhile colonizer, and 
the United States, the erstwhile sav- 
ior from communism. 

Unification is not talked about 
much. But it is a nagging concern in a 
country that otherwise has every rea- 
son to fee] pleased and confident. 

South Korea has achieved a re- 
markably smooth transition to a ci- 
vilian-led democracy. Labor unrest is 
on the wane. The economy is back up 
to 7 percent growth. led by invest- 
ment and exports stimulated by the 
over-strong yen. A vay high propor- 
tion of Koreans are in" the most pro- 
ductive age bracket: 20 to 45. 

Self-confidence, the Uruguay 


Round of trade talks and the goal of 
joining the Organization for Eco- 
nomic Cooperation and Develop- 
ment have conspired to take some of 
the edges off of chauvinist and mer- 
cantilist sentiments. The financial 
market is slowly being opened up. 
Rice imports are to be permitted. 

It is possible to envisage, say by 
2030, a united Korea with a popula- 
tion two-thirds that of Japan and a 
correspondingly high GNP. 

But excellence — devoting more re- 
sources to higher technology and 
achieving living standards on par with 
the devdoped nations — is at odds 
with uniting a peninsula ctf such static 
differences. Unity is at odds with the 
trends to “internationalization” and 
“globalization” — today's catchwords 
in Seoul where they get as much press 
coverage as the nuclear issue 

“Internationalization” means 
opening up an economy that has ad- 
mitted "foreigners reluctantly, and 
plugging into the best the rest of the 
world has to offer. “Globalization” 


means increasing the clout of Korean 
companies, brand names and tech- 
nology around the world. 

Yet unification would likely turn 
the country in on Itself. It might re- 
vert more permanently to isolation. 
The problems Germany has faced 

S ' j in comparison- West Germany 
per-captta income about 3 times 
that of the East; South Korea's per- 


capiia GNP is anywhere from 4 to 10 
' j North. 


times that of the 
Officials and think tanks in Seoul 
believe they have learned lessons 
from Germany. The main one is the 
need for a gradualist approach, start- 
ing with cross-border trade and in- 
vestment, which will slowly begin to 
equalize incomes and infrastructure. 


reviving the North’s antiquated infra- 
structure. Bui the nuclear issue and 
Pyongyang's fears of the political 
consequences of any economic open- 
ing brought this to a halt. Time has 
been lest Kim H Sung is that much 
nearer tbe grave. Manufacturers have 
been mechanizing production or 
moving it offshore, especially to Chi- 
na’s nearby Shandong Province. 

Traditional views of the relative 
economic strengths of North and 
South have had to be revised. The 
South's old light industries are now 
down to 20 percent of exports, having 
been largely replaced by skill- or cap- 
ital-intensive dec ironies, steel, cars, 
chemicals and capital goods. South 
Korea has broadened its markets, so 
th3i the United States accounts for 


age; manufacturing’s contribution to 
GNP is on the decline, and construc- 
tion, as well as financial and leisure 
services, are rising steeply. 

Bringing the North up to the 
South's living standard will cost an 
estimated $500 billion to $800 billion 


over 10 years. 
The figures 


e figures speak volumes about 
icrifice 


the sacrifices the South will eventual- 


ly have to make in the name of unity. 

vith the 


But it is unlikely tbe political forces 
sily ord 


at work can be so easily ordered. 

Two years ago there were high 
hopes for gradualism. Trade was be- 
ginning. Industrialists in ibe South 
were talking of moving labor-inten- 
sive industries like shoes and gar- 
ments to the low-wage North, and 


only 21 percent, against 35 percent in 
‘ • South has 


For Southeast Asia, a Crucial Respite 


-y^ASBlNGTON — Nineteen 


^years ago this Salurdav Ameri- 


By Marvin Oil 


can officials scrambled aboard heli- 
copters on the roof of the u.S. Em- 
bassy in Saigon. 

Since the fall of Saigon that day and 
the final withdrawal - from Vietnam, 
the common judgment has bam that 
America’s longest war was a terrible 
waste; misconceived, mismanaged, ul- 
timately pointless. 

Bui this consensus of utter failure 
is wrong. The criteria for assessing 
ihe war have been too narrow. The 
impact of the U.S. presence in Viet- 
nam on the rest of Southeast Asia 
must be considered. 

In the early 1960s. when the Kenne- 
dy and Johnson administrations look 
the first steps toward VS. involve- 
nrcnl in Vietnam. Southeast Asia ap- 
peared extraordinarily vulnerable. 

Indonesia was lurching toward eco- 
nomic chaos and political disintegra- 
tion, President Sukarno, to keep pow- 
er, began to collaborate ever more 
closely with the Indonesian Commu- 
nist Party, and to align Indonesia with 
China. North Korea and North Viet- 
nam. In 1965 he initiated a war with 
Malaysia, largely on the grounds that 
Kuala Lumpur was unacceptably 
friendly toward the WesL Later that 
year a Communist-inspired coup in 
Indonesia nearly succeeded. 

Malaysia, in addition to Indonesian 


hostility. Taced a lingering Communist 
guerrilla movement. 

Singapore, which tbe British had 
pressed into a Malaysian Federation 
along with British colonial territories 
in Borneo, was embroiled in a fierce 
struggle between Communists and 
Lee Kuan Yew’s People’s Action Par- 
ly in 1961-62; in 1965 Singapore was 
suddenly expelled from Malaysia lest 
it bring "down the entire structure. 

Communist insurgencies were 
gaining strength in Thailand, Burma 


sia. with a pro-Western government. 

was stable and enjoying the first real 
economic development since inde- 
pendence. Malaysia. Thailand and 
Singapore were achieving rapid eco- 
nomic growth under politically mod- 
erate regimes. The Association of 
Southeast Asian Nations bad been 


the mid-1980s. While the 
become a major exporter of steel the 
North, traditionally the home of 
heavy industry, has seen steel output 
stagnate. Its steel exports are now- 
just one-fifth those in the South, pro- 
duced from antiquated plants. 

The North's only obvious resource 
is labor. It has one million men in 
uniform. Some 35 percenL of its work 
force is still on the land, double the 
percentage in the South. Nonetheless, 
the North is deficient in food. While 
the North is only part way to becom- 
ing an industrialized society, the 
Smith is already well into the services 


It will also have to cope with 

social and political impact of absorb- 
ing 22 million people whose only 
bonds with their counterparts in the 
South, albeit strong ones, are lan- 
guage and Korean identity. 

Every year the education and expec- 
tations gaps widen; so does the income 
divide. North Korea is a society cut off 
like no other on earth: in the South, 
almost 10 percent of the population 
will travel overseas this year. jh 
It is difficult to comprehend how 
these societies can be brought togeth- 
er without intense iraumar 
That is why maro in the South 
think as Uule as possible about their 
Northern brethren. They prefer to 
look ahead, with the optimism of true 
believers in the virtue of education 
and scientific progress, to u world full 
of Korean cars, communications sat- 
ellites, pianists, foreign travel and in- 
ventions. If is a magnificent vision. 
But it is only one half of the future. 

International Hcraid Tribune. 


IN OUR PAGES: 100, 75 AND 50 YEARS AGO 


established and quickly came to sym- 
vn tow or 


and, less so, the Philippines. 

threat 


As North Vietnam threatened the 
South, Prince Sihanouk was moving 
in Cambodia to accommodate to the 
seemingly inevitable victories of com- 
munism in the rest of Indochina. 

All these Communist parties, insur- 
gencies and regimes were supported 
politically and to some extent materi- 
ally by Beijing. By 1965, China itself 
was on the cusp of Mao's epochal 
experiment in radical communism, the 
Cultural Revolution, which included 
strident calls for global revolution. 

The Soviet Union was fomenting a 
growing number of “wars or national 
liberation” in the Third World. 

Contrast all (his with the Southeast 
Asia of just a decade later, when the 
United Stales left Vietnam. Indouc- 


bolize their march toward modernity. 
In the years since 1975, Southeast 
Asia has become the Third World's 
most spectacular success story. 

Meanwhile, Vietnam, while mili- 
tarily victorious, was economically 
prostrate — a condition exacerbated 
by its ill-fated invasion and occupa- 
tion of Cambodia in I97S. For its 
part. Cambodia had been virtually 
destroyed by the Khmer Rouge. 

China was emerging from the lost 
years of the Cultural Revolution to 
show an unmistakable pragmatism. 

No one can prove cause and effect, 
but many Southeast Asians will volun- 
teer a judgment that U.S, forces 
bought the region a critical decade 
that was used to fend off the Commu- 
nist challenge and build ihc vibrant 
countries we see. today. 


1894: German Politics 


BERLIN — Who would ever have 
thought that [Finance Minister] Dr. 
Miquel could have begun to make 
advances to Count Caprivi? Yet it 
must be admitted that they are on the 
point of fraternising again behind the 
scenes. This is the latest surprise in 
party tactics to which we have been 
treated. It is well known that two 
weeks ago Count Caprivi hastened to 
accept an invitation to a sumptuous 
dinner given by the Minister of Fi- 
nance. At this "dinner the two con- 
ferred for ar. unusually long time. 


Arras. Paronne, Chaulnes and Noyon 
by Mr. Hugh C Wallace. United 
Slates Ambassador to France. He re- 
turned with increased admiration of 
the French nation and a greater ap- 
preciation of tile hardships dial has 
been endured so hcroicallv. 


1944: Calmed Leafless 


LONDON — IFrnm our New York 
edition;] The secret is out regatding 
the Small round tins which American 

n. — — i i _ . 


■ ” -w—.w .m.1 .YiuvjiyAJjUTiiMii 

flyers dropped over Germany and 
which Nazi authorities cautioned the 




oil 1 


j*:- ? - 
r 


PMIP.iL 

to*!:. 

fcs;!'./, 


: ' i Nf 

i: - : ar 


SE !, 
w. 




If.;- 


2V: . 

Jr,--. . 




'' ' 
'A : 

% r:, im ’/ 


1919: ’Work of Fiends' 


The writer is a professor of national- 
security policy at the National War 
College. The views expressed here arc 
his own. He contributed this comment 
to The Washington Post. 


PARIS — “Wc shuddered o> we 
gazed. Could this be the work of men 
or of fiends? Can such wounds be 
healed? Can the beings who inflicted 
them ever obtain forgiveness?" These 
were the queries that expressed the 
dominating impressions gained in a 
hurried visit on Sunday (April 27| to 
the trenches and battlefields 0 f Lens. 


" "-M.VIIHW vnuuuUlrU Uiv 

populace against touching. The tin is 
unjwrtam. but harmless — merely U 
device our airmen have been using to 
pin-point propaganda leaflets. Previ- 
ously, when leaflets were dropped 
from a high altitude they often were 
carncd by the wind far from their 
target. The United Stales Air Service 
Command thereupon developed the 
tins, which include a barometric re- 
lease. When the bundles reach the 
correct heights air pressure trips a 
lever in the tin. releasing the 1 


■5* * 

it 


Cr- 


:*Y 


*« 



•’•j,-. : 


r, . 


V*. ' r ---. 

■ - -iye ■ 


uV ' - f , 






N. 


‘! t p 

.‘■t 

‘i’il 






: v. - , 

* . - ; 








V-,1. 




v ^ bl;: 









INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, FRIDAY, APRIL 29, 1994 

OPINION 


Page 7 




• ■--. ■SSjt.f 

y v ‘i' 


Nixon’s Message, Candidly G 

^0_RBA LINDA ° J 


iven 


YfORBA LINDA California J 

Richard Nixon i^oto^Tnnri 011 *” William S afire rights, but it’s economic freedom that 

last year. He addeJ“vo.?^ ,0ng «S* doom for any dosed society. 

a S£.““ Hc°Sf f* “ T a for hrn, 2tnL?- a w “ n<iCTbuss i « shouldn't 

i“ ■ >e-™ W *= iSMi'SSS^SS • hc Chin “ lc ^ ership; " JUng 

KTOfafsssssst 

™nSto-_' h PU SS- t al . my disa « i “ SSShiS Sf .TJS'E Li Peng is ruthlai Silent 

UmTSto & “*™ My bwihnlWu!tLslm,fe h " d0KDX wanB >0 lunt buck the dock, and in 

“K .“Ki’ffla’SS sSSSSkS-sS ^^ssSttse 

5 0t hcrc is Mr- Niton ffi fr™ ££??? T “ mi “i as mayor of Sbanghai - as 
“ °P e ad ®irer had a chance to see him. «i mJThift Burice - Clinion remind- reasonable as can be and still be 

with candor and Idid s^tfi' bifi * rols * *L ea ? er - V. d bel on Zhu: hc ’ s Chiaa ’ s 
purpose ( Bull sessions produce onlv mietBU^TT 8 ??. Yeah ’ bul 11 was a best hope." 

buI]s Produce'’). y NlX0fl rraimded me: His decp-background handicapping 

On recent Russian leaders, preceding On China^smd SP m^ , f d0n t Ji or ® p *" of 1,16 1996 Republican field must 

his last mission to Moscow: ‘Teltsinis trad! 2SSL most-favored-nation await another day. 

ai his best in a crisisjust as GarSeto rhf n J S2fc * ”? « d*e old RN’s farewell, as he accompanied 

was at his worst in a crisis. We stayed w^c£j^JSL^ l 2!^. 1 “J® ** d °? r: "«■*•» to build a 
too long wuh Gorbachev; we mustn't Ch£a braSS’thSi’c «« •?*", f 10 ' 111511 lhe wortd can continue to 

stay too long with Yeltsin. We need d<^Sm?^r^fi ? P°i ,tJCaI ^ ttd ? ure - T* 3 * d* message I would like 
contact with the opposition and Yeh- for de ® ocraoc to leave for the Jdds." 

sm won’t like it." ’ 1 B ov ernment that protects human The New York Times. 

Specifically about Boris Yeltsin: 

wSrlSlFBSS A Kinship of Survivors: ? We Botl 

are not very impressive. He feels the * 

army didn t move quickly enough in "V" 9^ A LINDA California — “So what did vou By R offer Stone 

the coup attempt against Mm." (Long / think of himr I asked Richard Nixon after'his 7 6 

pause.) Hell trust only a few people, meeting with Bill Clinton. 

and will think only those who support . “You know,” Mr. Nixon replied, “he came from Mr. Clinion is repented to have said “good idea* 
pirn 1 00 percent are his friends." (I said “d * came from din. asked for Mr. Nixon's phone number. Bin months 

I Inra cnmaWu 1 ; 1 .1 _ . “U. Inn „ <...1. :-i j < ■ k.. _ J.L .. 11 U. vi: J .l., u 


nghts, but it’s economic freedom that 
fpeUs doom for any closed society. 
MrN is a blunderbuss; we shouldn’t 
use that." 

On the Chinese leadership; “Jiang 
Zemin impresses Americans because he 
can recite pans of the Gettysburg Ad- 
dress in English; State overestimates 
him. Li Peng is ruthless, intelligent, 
wants to turn back the clock, and in 
a struggle after Deng's death, would 
have Jiang Zemin for lunch. 7J»» 
Rongji is totally committed to econom- 
ic reforms, and politically — as he dem- 
onstrated as mayor of Shanghai — as 
reasonable as can be ana still be 
a leader. I’d bet on Zhu; he’s C hina ’s 
best heme." 

His deep-background handicapping 
of the 1996 Republican field must 
await another day. 

RN’s farewell, as he accompanied 
me to the door: "We have to build a 
society that lhe wortd can continue to 
admire. That’s the message 1 would like 
to leave for the Jdds." 

The New York Times. 



A Kinship of Survivors: ? We Both Just Gutted It Out’ 


By Roger Stone 


*> ne ™ somebody like that once, and “He tost a gubernatorial race and came back to win 
Mr. Nixon gave his short bark of die presidency and I lost a gubernatorial race and 
a laugh.) ca m e back to win the presidency. 

“I gave Clinton an evaluation of Yelt- “He overcame a scandal in his first c amp aign for 
stn: not hard to read, straight out, re- national office and I overcame a scandal in my first 
r rsshing, charismatic. But lacks expert- atonal campaign. We both just gutted it out. He was 
cnee in free-market economics, let alone 311 outsider from the South and I was an outsider 
running a democratic republic." from the West." 

On the Middle East: “1 have great Thus the 37th president revealed the special kinship 
respect for Rabin, but I didn’t want to hetdh wth the 42d, despite their differences in party, 
go to the dog and pony show on the philosophy and generation. 

White House lawn. I told him later that . Mg Nixon was so deeply committed to the cause of 
it takes a strong man to mate* peace; he’s increasing UiL aid for the republics of the former 
able to do what he’s doing because Ara- Soviet Union that he violated his own ironclad rule in 
fat is weak, and far worse than Arafat is dea ti Q g with successors: to give advice only when 
waiting in the wings. Paul Johnson had a askcd - He sent intermediaries to urge Mr. Clinton to 
line that statesmen must differenti ate roeet with him on foreign policy, 
between different degrees of eviL" 

On Bosnia; ‘“Assertive multilatera- — 

Iism’ is nonsense. De Gaulle said to 
Malraux: ‘Parliaments can paralyze pol- 
icy; they cannot make policy.’ We need 

to get out of the arms embargo to get to 

a correlation of Tonces that can make A President’s Legacy 
peace. 1 m more hawkish than Bush or *«»**«-**■. a 
Clinton on this. For now, say I'm more Not only the United States but the 
hawkish than Bush; I don’t want to lose free world at large has lost one of the 
my effectiveness in foreign affairs." most outstanding and visionary states- 

On the foreign-policy Clinton (whose men of the post-World War u period, 
eulogy was unstinting and eloquent): Long after the 37th president of the 


Letters intended far publication 
should be addressed “ Letters to the 
Editor " and contain the writer’s sig- 
nature, name and full address. Let- 
ters should be brief and are subject to 
editing. We cannot be responsible for 
the return of unsolicited manuscripts. 


by with no calL Mr. Nixon suspected that HQlaiy 
Rodham Clinion was blocking him. More likely, the all- 
consuming confusion of a new presidency was to blame. 

In any event, the caH finally did come and a lew days 
later, on March 8, 1993, the two men met in the White 
House family quartos for a long private talk about aid 
to Russia. It was a moment Mr. Nixon had fores e en. In 
1992 be heard that President George Bush's strategists 
were weighing inviting him to the Republican National 
Convention. Mr. Nixon reviewed his options with me. 

“I could go to the convention ana give a speech 
praising Bush," be said, “but that would be boring and 
the only thing worse in politics than being wrong is 
being boring I could go to the convention and deliver a 
rip-snorting attack on Clinton. I/I do that and Clinton 
is elected, it would be very hard for me to reach out to 
bun on the situation in Russia.” 


LETTERS TO THE EDITOR 


A President’s Legacy 

Not only the United States but the 
free world at large has lost one of the 


eign affairs. One cannot help but think 
that with Richard Nixon in the White 
House(and Henry Kissinger at his side), 
we would not be witnessing the genodd- 
al debacle in the Balkans, 


much good. 

w*. 


plaudits 


The gratitude expressed in Mr. Nixon’s downgrade its importance, 
rehabilitation as an elder statesman „ 


United States resigned over the Water- 
gate affair, his candid perception and 
analysis of international politics made This was an el< 

Richard Nixon lode infinitely superior wove a web of unde 
to those who impersonate superpower designed to tighten his grip on power 
leadership today. and compiled lists of those he feared 

In some of his most recent pronounce- might not approve. He subvened the 
ments, Mr. Nixon reminded us that, forces of law and order to spy on his 
despite the end of the Cold War, Amen- fellow citizens, 
can leadership win be required in for- The Hfe that has been lived out must 


KARL H. PAGAC. 
London. 


This was an elected official who 
3vc a web of underground operations 


these last 20 years is a tribute to the 
generosity of the American people. Let 
that tribute be enough. 

PHILIP GREW. 
Milan. 


Richard Nixon was the most important 
opponent of rapprochement with China 
and an eating of the Cdd War with the 
Soviet Union; he reversed his oomse sole- 
ly to further his political ambitions. For 


ALFRED E. DAVIDSON. 

Ruis. 

We owe much to President Nixon — 
a great American, a world historical 
figure and an outstanding statesman. 
We could all benefit from his vision, 
steadfastness and political courage to 
re-establish U.S. credibility and leader- 
ship now being frittered away. 

G. F. KORTSCHAK. 

Cologny, Switzerland. 


The Tumultuous Beginning 
Of Our D-Day Rehearsal 


By John Ausland 


O SLO — With the 50th anniversary 
of our June 6 landing in Normandy 
drawing near, we can count on politi- 
cians to use the ceremonies to blend 
solemn ritual with an effort to extract 
political gain. 

But those who landed that day. after a 
stormy cresting of the Channel, will 
recall that D-Day was the culmination 
of lengthy and rigorous preparation. For 

MEANWHILE 

most of us, this took place in the United 
States and England. For others, in Afri- 
ca, Sicily and the Italian main l a nd 
Many of us will also remember the 
early morning hours of a day 50 years 
ago this week, when hundreds of men 
died in Exercise Tiger, a rehearsal for 
Operation Overlord. 

Although the 4th Infantry Division, 
Much made the assault on Utah Beach, 
had trained for years in the United 
States, the crucial training took place 
after we arrived in England. 


Although Mr. Nixon wanted badly to be accepted 
again at his party’s convention, he issued a statement 
that he would not attend and did not wish to be invited. 

In the end, Mr. Nixon came to like Mr. Ointon and 
had enormous respect for his political talents. 

He thought the Whitewater affair could pose serious 
problems, when I pointed out that the poll numbers 
reflected no damage to Mr. Clinton's popularity, Mr. 
Nixon observed that Watergate had not hurt him 
either, until the televised Senate hearings. 

“The American people don’t believe anything’s 
real until they see it on television." he said. “When 
Whitewater hearings are televised, it will be Ointon’s 
turn in the bucket.* 

Perhaps. But if Mr. Nixon's advice to his young 
successor provides for a surer American foreign policy 
and increases the chances of peace, then we all profited 
more than either of them. 

The writer, a public-affairs consultant, worked an the 
Nixon, Reagan and Bush presidential campaigns. He 
contributed this comment to The New York Times. 


I represented the 29th Field Artillery 
Battalion in the 4th Infantry Division 
advance party. It sailed from New York 
on Jan. 2, 1944 on the Queen Elizabeth. 
After anchoring in a Scottish bay, we 
traveled by train to Tiverton, Devon, 
where division headquarters was to be. 
There I learned that the 29th would be 
stationed in Axminster, near Exeter. 
With the help of Sergeant G A. Dmges, 
1 was to m»Vg all arrangements with the 
village officials. 

We had only three weeks to get ready 
for the battalion’s arrival. In retrospect, 
1 am astonished at the consideration 
with which village elders dealt with a 
demanding 23-year-old Yank The rally 
problem arose when I innocently select- 
ed the cricket pitch as a drill fidd. With- 
out letting me know what a blunder I 
had made, the town clerk quietly divert- 
ed me to the soccer field. 

Once the battalion was settled, inten- 
sive training for the invasion began. One 
unforgettable operation called Tor artil- 
lery firing on the foggy moors, a damp 
and miserable experience. Since we ex- 
pected to run into a number of German 
pillboxes on the beach, the division went 
to the Assault Training Center on the 
west coast of Devon, near Barnstaple. 
There we saw hazardous demonstrations 
in which Ugh explosive charges fastened 
to the ends of poles were used against 
pillboxes. The infantry also made mock 
attacks on strong points. 

All of us had training in using explo- 
sives. But few of us remained cool as we 
stood holding a stick of dynamite in our 
hand, watching the fuse grow shorter, 
while we waited anxiously for the officer 
in charge to say, “Throw it" 

Our final practice landing, Exercise 
Tiger, took place on April 28 on Slapton 
Sands, a beach similar to Utah Beach. 

During the night, German torpedo 


boats commanded by Lieutenant Gun- 
ther Rate, based in Cherbourg, acciden- 
tally ran across a group of LSTs. or 
Landing Ship-Tanks, large vessels that 
carried vehicles and hundreds of men. 
as well as fuel and ammunition. 

Because of a collision in Plymouth har- 
bor and communications confusion, the 
British destroyer Scimitar was not with 
them. The result two LSTs sunk and 
another badly damaged. Accounts vary 
as to how many men were lost, but it was 
about 750. Most were from the 1st Am- 
phibious Brigade Group. 

Reports that U.S. military authorities 
subsequently tried to hide what hap- 
pened that mght are not true, but neither 
aid they seek to advertise it. 

The final casualty was Rear Admiral 
Dim F. Moon, who headed the naval 
side of Exercise Tiger. A few months 
after he was reprimanded and given a 
lesser command, be killed himself. 

The high command was troubled by 
the fact that a few of the officers on 
board the LSTs had been briefed about 
the D-Day landing site. An intense hum 
ensued, cm land and in the sea. German 
procedures, however, did not provide 
for picking up survivors. 

Shortly before we left Atminsier. GM- 
onel Jod F. Thomason, my battalion 
commander, sent me to division head- 
quarters in Tiverton to get a copy of our 
orders, maps and sponge-rubber models 
of Utah Beach. The officer who gave 
them to me emphasized that under no 
condition was I to let anyone stop my 
vehicle. “If they try,” he added, “shoot 
first and ask questions afterward." This 
made for a nervous ride back. 

The days passed, and we finally 
boarded our landing crafL In my case. 
this took place near Dartmouth. I was 
assigned to be Colonel James Van Fleet's 
artillery liaison officer. (He commanded 
the 8th Infantry Regiment, which made 
the initial assault on Utah Beach.) 

As we crossed the River Dart on a 
ferry to board our landing craft, I noted 
an elderly Englishman counting us. 
When 1 asked him why, he replied, “Son, 
we are going to charge a shilling for each 
of you under reverse Lend-Lease." 
Thus, participating in what General 
Omar Bradley had termed the greatest 
arrmhibious operation in history was not 
to be entirely free. 

Although Exercise Tiger does not 
figure in the official D-Day ceremo- 
nies, two groups of American veterans 
will visit Slapton Sands in the latter 
part of May. And a remembrance ser- 
vice took place Thursday in the Slapton 
Parish Chinch. It recalled not only those 
who perished a half-century before but 
also the contribution made by the local 
population. These people were forced to 
move from their homes in 1943, so we 
could use live ammunition during the 
realistic exercises so important to our 
ultimate success in Normandy. 

International Herald Tribune. 


POLITICAL BUSINESS: 

Corporate Involvement oi 
Malaysian Political Parties • Jayne Ga 

__ end manager ( 

By Edmund Terence Gomez. 329 Bank in Tokyc 

pages. 3J Australian dollars. sJadas,"byLu 

James Cook University of North «I ( * S ^ ^ 

Queensland I6th century 

Reviewed by George Hicks SJjriyta the 

T HIS is one of the best studies of of its language 

the interaction of business and 
politics in any of the East and 
Southeast Asian economies. Almost 
everywhere in Asia business and 
politics are deeply entangled. Tlx 
corrupting influence of money poh- the MaJay-ttomu 
tics is probably best documented in introduced the N 
-ire case of Lroan, although in recent icy. which aggnsavdy discnrmmu- 
vears China has produced the most ed in favor of the Malays. By 1990 

spectacular examples, with even the the Malay share of the nations 
People's Liberation Army appearing share capital was 
to put more effort into moneymak- cent, not f ar she 
>ng than military matters. ment’s 30 

Before the publication of Ed- Indonesia had 
railed Terence Gomez’s book, the Malaysia’s NEP 

classic study of the Southeast Asian business has ran 
scene was Andrew Marin tyres hands ami the M 
“Business and Politics in Indone- scribed by Grant 
sia." In Indonesia, big business is fcrepL l hope 
mostly in the hands of the state or work he ranah 
the Chinese. This is a very different comparative istuc 
from Malaysia, wbnrM*l«y-c°B; 


BOOKS 


WHAT THEY'RE READING 


• Jayne Garda Dos Santos, gen- 
eral manag er of Chase Manhattan 
Bank in Tokyo, is reading “Os Lu- 
siadas," by Linz De Cannes. 

“It’s an epic poem written in the 
1 6th century about Portuguese 
navigators. It's a beautiful book, 
simply for the beauty and rhythm 
of its l an guage. ” 

(Andrea Fames, IHT) 


the Malay-dominated government join the Ekes of Taiwan, Singapore 
introduced the New Economic Pol- and South Korea, is probably false. 



Certainly GNP and per capita 
income have grown tremendously 
but most of the benefits of the 


share capital was more than 20 per- growth have accrued to a relatively 
cent, not far shot of the govern- small group of weh -connected Ma- 
ment's 30 percent objective. lays. Income distribution has — to 

Indonesia had no equivalent to use his word — become much more 
Malaysia's NEP and as a result “jagged.” Instead of achieving 
bu sin ess has remained in Chinese more equitable wealth distribution 
hands and the Malaysian story de- as intended, the NEP has resulted 
scribed by Gomez is radically dif- in “extensive and increasing con- 
fcrenL I nope that m subsequent centration of ownership m the 
work he turns his attention to a hands of an dire minority — who 


comparative study of Asian busi- 


llV'Ui , - 

trolled enterprises nowshare eco- 
nomic power with the Chinese. 

» This however is a relatively re- 
cent development. At fhe time of 
the traumatic race riots in Malaysia 
in 1969 the majority Malays owned 
less than 2 percent erf the share 
capital of limited companies with 
the rest being in Chinese and for- 
eign hands. In response to thenots. 


strong political ties." 
s unhealthy partem of growth 

drived only iriA^ther 1 heavy 


The picture that emerges from developed because Malay capitalists 
this book is one of corruption and have thrived rally with “either heavy 
misalloeation of resources on such assistance from the state or by act- 
a massive scale that it bodes ill for ing as proxies for political patrons." 
the future of the country’s econam- The government policy of favoritism 
ic development and pobtical stabB- has “allowed the Malays unequal 
ity. The popular view of Malaysia, access to rent opportunities, such as 
led by the flamboyant Rime Min- loans, licenses, and contracts — dis- 
ister Mahathir bin Mohamad as a tributed by the state — for the ex- 


met maim urn ujjj A wmiimiwi « ■ uiwuua* wj ' - 

budding “tiger economy'' about to panson of ibdr corporate hold” 
^ mgs." According to Gomez lhe new 

„nt roof Mim. 


BRIDGE 


By Alan Truscott 

O N the diagramed deal. 
South timed the play well to 
make a slam that failwi in the re- 
play. He was in a sound contrac t of 
six clubs, but had to overcome a 
bad trurapspliL 

The opening spade lead was won 
in dummy with the king, the dia- 
mond ace was cashed and another 
diamond was led. If East had 
ruffed he would have helped South, 

NORTH 

* K 

t? A 10 4 3 2 
© A 10 4 
*Q873 

..Sr" *§r 543 

£QJ986 iUt>42 

SOUTH 

* A J 6 
P K5 
O K 7 5 2 
4b A K 65 

East and West were vulnerable. 

The bidding: 

west North East Smith 

Pass I* PM® 

Pass 2C Pass 3* 

Pass 4* 6 * 

Pass Pass Pas* 

West led the spade eight. 


so he corretly discarded a spade. 
The diamond king won, ana the 
declarer cashed the chib ace. He 
followed with the spade ace, throw- 
ing dummy’s remaining diamond, 
and took the king and ace of hearts. 
A heart was led from dummy, and 
again East did the best be could by 


capitalist dassare not real entre- 
preneurs, but rentier capitalists." 

Another unintended outcome of 
the NEP that indicates skewed 
wealth concentration is the emer- 


word to describe an ugly process 
that was achieved by easy access to 
funds from government-owned 
banks and various market strate- 
gies available only to the politically 
powerful As a result the economy 
is now dominated by “politicized 
oligopolies" if not outright monop- 
olies. Broadcasting, newspapers, 
magazine publishing and television 
are already “well consolidated un- 
der the control of businessmen who 
keep strong ties with powerful po- 
litical figures” — a free press is a 
receding memory. 

Gomez defines “money politics’* 
as “The use of money and material 
benefits in the pursuit of political 
influence." Its corollary is “politi- 
cal rents, that is economic gam de- 
rived through the use —or abuse— 
erf political power." This is the es- 
sence of the syston ruled over, and 
largely developed by, Mahathir. 
Although the Chinese and Indian 
political parties also entered the 
business arena it is the dominant 
Malay party presided over by Ma- 
hathir mat has been the main bene- 
ficiary of the system. Through its 
control of the state, the party was 
able to give “business opportuni- 
ties and award lucrative contracts 
to party-owned companies." 

Gomez argues that in the long 
nm this triumph of money politics 
is likely to prove profoundly desta- 
bilizing. It has led to ugly factional- 
ism and power struggles, with a 
disruptive impact on legitimate 
business. Most dangerous is the fu- 
eling of ethnic temsum With the 
communal parties developing their 
corporate holdings this will proba- 
bly lead to ethnic conflicts over 
clashes of business interests. 


imer uhiulcuucu uuiwaui. »/• _ __ , , 

EP that indicates skewed George Hi des, an e n awmto and 

concentration is the raner- the author yf several books m 
ofthelarge conglomerate, wrote this for the International Her- 
lomerauzation” is an ugly aid Tribum. 


South ruffed in his hand and 
ruffed a spade to reach tins ending: 


WEST 

* — 

o J 

«Q J9 

*- 


NORTH 
♦ — 

<?I0 4 
O — 

*Q8 ' 

EAST 

c — 

*J 10 4 
SOUTH 
♦ — 

9- 

075 

*K6 


Dummy led a heart, which was 
niffed with the jack and ovemiffed 
with the king. A diamond was 
ruffed with the dub queen, and a 
heart lead allowed Sooth to score 
another trump trick and make his 
slam. 


* Now Printed in Tokyo For 
Same-Day Delivery to Most 
Homes & Offices in Japan 

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Zf ( 03)32010205 

% a write TJM, 4F. Mainichi Newspaper 
1-1-1 HHolsubasfii, Chiyodo^, TokyolOD 
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BANQUE INDOSUEZ 



MAROC 


As part of IGA. O. 50 th anniversary. 








Pa- International Herald Tribune 
— ! Friday, April 29, 1994 

'Page 8 



Traveling to Burma: Some Things Change, Most Don t 

^ •J . .. . nriJ if Mah«minS Paonrfn whldl hflU 


By Philip Sheiion 

New York Times Service 

Y ANGON, Burma — For travelers, 
much has changed in Myanmar, 
the long-isolated nation still better 
known to the outside world as Bur- 
ma. But much else —most else, in fact —has 
not changed in the Golden Land. For that 
adventurous travelers should be grateful. 

Myanmar is the last of the truly magical 
destinations of the Orient a Technicolor 
glimpse of Old Asia perfumed with sandal- 
wood and spiced with ginger. It is the most 
devoutly Buddhist nation on earth, a land of 
glistening glided pagodas and hand-carved 
sandstone temples tended by hushed, saf- 
fron-robed monks. 

In Myanmar, there is fecund jungle and 
barren, sun- blasted desert long pearl-white 
beaches in the south and, in the north, the 
snow-dusted foothills of the Himalayas. In 
the geographical, spiritual and historical cen- 
ter of the nation is the astonishing pagoda- 
studded plain of Pagan, the 1 , 000-year -old 
imperial capital. 

Unhappily for Myanmar’s 43 million peo- 
ple, what is also unchanged is the military 
government which calls itself the State Law 
and Order Restoration Council and is known 
by the Orwellian acronym Store. It remains 


one of the most oppressive regimes in Asia, 
with a human-rights record that would be 
charitably described as dismal 

Since 1991 1 have been traveling to Myan- 
mar and the changes in the country’s eco- 
nomic climate and in its attitude toward 
foreign visitors have been impressive. 

Evidence of the changes is seen fits at the 
newly renovated airport in Yangon, the capi- 
tal. Gate are the throngs of sarong-dad teen- 
agere who once packed the arrivals hall to beg 
for any thin g they could sefl. Burmese friends 
of mine insis t that the teenagers were not 
chased off by the police; they have simply 
found better ways of making money in Myan- 
mar’s free markets. 

Until a few years ago, Myanmar could be 
tough on a visitor’s walleL The government 
used to require tourists to change money at 
an outrageous official exchange rate - — then, 
as now, about 6 Burmese kyat to the dollar — 
instead of the black-market rate that is today 
about 120 to 1. Then came the junta's deci- 
sion in the late 1980s to embrace the free 
market after a generation of disastrous cen- 
tral p lanning , the so-called Burmese Way to 
Snrialism- and to reopen the country to large 
numbers of foreign tourists. 

In March, tourist visas were extended from 
two weeks to a month. (In the late 1980s they 
were good for just seven days.) The only 
major currency requirement left today is that 


visitors exchange $200 into what are called 
Foreign Exchange Certificates, which are is- 
sued in dollar denominations and can be 
freely changed into Burmese kyat at the black 
market rate. Also gone is the requirement 
that visitors join organized touts and stay 
only at government-approved hotels. 

The result of the market reforms has been a 
building and renovation boom that 4s most 
obvious in Yangon, the leafy capital that was 
culled Rangoon by the British. 

The 2 .5 million people of Yangon enjoy life 
in one of the most civilized if most dilapidat- 
ed capitals in Southeast Asia. The open-air 
markets, the lifeblood of Burmese commerce, 
are crowded laie into the night with shoppers 
who consider the markets as much entertain- 
ment as necessity. 

Steamy afternoons are well spent in the 
shade of the grand old colonial-era buddings 
downtown, ripping a cold drink from one of 
the small street-ride cafes as a world little 
changed from the 19th century passes you by. 

While the generals disparage Myanmar's 
colonial heritage, they have guaranteed that 
at least one important relic of colonial Burma 
will remain s tanding- the legendary Strand 
Hotel, once home to kings and presidents, 
which was reopened last November after a 
three-year, $12 million renovation. 

This sort of world-class luxury carries a 
world-class price. Rates start at $200 a night. 


Elsewhere in Yangon, grand colonial-era 
homes are being converted into private inns, 
most notably the newly renovated Mya Yrik 
Nyo Royal Hotel, once the mansion of a 
prominent Burmese banker. 

The Shwedagan Pagoda, the shimmering 
golden stupa that towers over the city, is the 
sight that must not — and cannot — be 
missed in Yangon. Said to encase eight hairs 
of the Buddha, the 326-foot-high (99-meter) 
temple is the center of Buddhist' life in Yan- 
gon, and every day thousands of Burmese 
pilgrims slowly climb the hill to the pagoda 
terrace to offer veneration. 


T HE best route to the terrace is up 
the covered southern stairway, 
which is lined with dozens of tiny 
shops that sell “nirvana goods" — 
fresh flowers, joss sticks and paper umbrellas 
that are meant to be left behind as offerings. 
Tradition demands that all visitors to the 
Shwedagon walk clockwise around the pago- 
da, with the stupa to their right. 

Directly opposite the Shwedagon is a new. 
smaller stupa known to most Burmese as Ne 
Win’s Pagoda, named for General Ne Win. the 
dictator who ruled the country from 1962 to 
1988 and who is stQl believed by many of his 
countrymen to run the show in Myanmar. The 
general is said to have buDt the pagoda to 
atone for his many earthly sin«L 


Ne Win's nemesis lives across town, and it 
may bewortb driving past the closed \&x* at 
54 University Avenue if only to honor the 
indomitable spirit of the 
ride- Aung San Suu Kyi, the Burmese demoo 
ra* caSKer and Nobel Peace Prize wm- 

July 1989 

Traveling to Myanmar is easferand stf er 
than it used to be. The junta realized that to 
attract more visitors it had to overcome the 
pubficifv that its flag earner. Myanmar Aip- 
wavs, had brought on the Burawse tounan 
industry after several crashes. Last year the 
government created an airline in a jont ven- 
ture with Singaporean mvestons. Myanmar 
Airways International flies a new Boeing jet, 
leased (rom the Sultan of Brunei, on routes to 
Bangkok, Hong Kong and Swore. 

Unsaid that the safety record of Myanmar 


Mafaamum Pagoda, which bouses a 12-foot- 
high Buddha image caked with so much gold 
leaf, indies and inches thick of it, that the 
body is grossly misshapen. 

Mandalay delights in its reputation as the 
center of Myanmar’s new, officially, sanc- 
tioned free market, and the city literally 
shakes from the sudden arrival of capitalism. 
The city has become a giant construction site. 
Given its proximity to the. Chinese and Indi- 
an borders, the road to Mandalay is well 
traveled by Asian traders. 

A six-hour drive southwest from Mandalay 
— half an hour by plane —is Pagan, one of 
the wonders of the ancient world and certain- 
ly the most remarkable site in Myanmar. 
Once one of the most prosperous and impor- 
tant capitals in Asia, today the dty is a 
temple-strewn ghost town. . 


meat dropped a rule requiring that flights take 
off on time, no matter what the mechanics 
advice. I was therefore grateful to arrive m 
Mandalay an hour law. but safely. 

Despite ihe city’s lyrical name, the charms 
of Mandalay take a while to sink m. Manda- 
lay is in the middle of the country’s northern 
dry zone, and for much of the year it is dusty 
and oppressi bly hot. 

The dty is home to some of Myanmar’s 
most precious Buddhist shrines, including the 


to the 17th centuries, when a senes of great 
Burmese kings built thousands of pagodas 


square kilometers) of the plain. 

There is not much use trymg to improve ou 
the description of Somerset, Maugham, who 
in 1930 stood atop the tallest pagoda, That- 
binyu, and wrote that the pagodas “loom 
huge, remote and mysterious, tike the vague 
recollections of a fantastic dream." The scene 
is just as Mangbam left iL 


The Best of Kyoto on Its 1,200th Birthday 


/// 


ni uni 


By James Stemgold 

New York Times Service 


K YOTO, Japan — When 
Emperor Kammu derid- 
ed to build anew capital 
for Japan a little more 
than U00 years ago, he had two 
baric aims. He wanted to revive im- 
perial rule by getting away from the 
powerful Buddhist priests in the old 
, capital of Nara, and he sought to 
. construct a dty with a magic combi- 
‘ nation of attributes that would allow 
< it to flourish for centuries. 

- Kyoto, as the imperial capital 
■' became known, never obtained po- 
o litical power. A series of warlords 
based in other parts of the country 
exercised the real authority. 

But the imperial court’s geoman- 
' ccrs certainly got one thing right; 
, They chose a beautiful she, bor- 
■ dered on three sides by mountains, 
; and the dty was constructed along 
a Chinese-style grid that still makes 
- it one of the easiest Japanese rides 
, to get around. The Chiysanihe- 
■" mum Throne made its home here 
; for nearly a millennium- helping 
Kyoto become the center of a re- 
• markably rich culture with an un- 
; cannily penetrating aesthetic. 

As Kyoto celebrates the annrver- 
1 sary of its founding at the begin- 
! rung of what is known as the Heian 
era, it is showing its best face. Most 
l of the city's temples and other sites 
‘ will be in their finest repair in years 
r and viators will be able to see a 
number of artworks that are not 
: usually on display. 

- Kodaiji, a temple complex in the 
; beautiful Higashiyama district in 


the eastern part of the dty, will open 
its grounds at night this year until 
May 8. The entrance fee is about 
$4.80; open 6 to 10 P.M- 

The Kyoto National Museum 
will feature a special exhibition of 
arts from the Heian period, which 
began with the construction of 
Kyoto and ended nearly 400 years 
later. The show, which runs to May 
15, will include works collected 
from all over Japan, including gar- 
ments, furniture and scroll paint- 
ings. The museum is open daily 
except Monday, 9 A.M. to 4:30 
RM.; entry fee $1230. 

The muririam of the Imperial 

Household Agency will perform an- 
cient court anisic and dance at the 
Kyoto Kaikan Dai-Ichi Hail on 
June 11 at 3 JO PJM. Tickets, which 
cost about $38 and $48, are avail- 
able at the Pia ticket stands in major 
Kyoto department stores (221- 
6000), or can be reserved by calling 
Osaka, 363-9999, until June 5. 

At the Mifune Matsuri. a wonder- 
ful waterborne festival on May 15. 
an array of boats will float along the 
Hozu River, in Arashjyama in west- 
ern Kyoto, carrying actors, singers 
and mn-tiriam dressed in Heian-pe- 
nod court costumes. To attend the 
performances, take the Keifuku 
Arashiyama train line to its western 
terminus, and then walk the three 
minutes to the Togetsukyo bridge. 

Begin a visit to Kyoto with a 
walk to the huge main gate at Nan- 
zenji, a rambling Zen Buddhist 
temple complex in the eastern pan 
of the dty. It lies a short walk north 
of the Keage stop an the Krihan- 
Keishin tram line. The Sanmon, or 
Mountain Gate, is a masterful dis- 



THE MONKEY INTRODUCED HIMSELF TO 
THE ASTONISHED GUESTS by swinging from 
tree to tree in the lush tropical gardens beneath the 
balconies of their first floor suites. He made his 
surprise appearance last month, and has reputedly 


now made Raffles 




Hotel his home. 


A BAFFLES INTERNATIONAL TEL: 1*51 JJJ IIH FAI: ftS> 


play of traditional Japanese car- 
pentry, and there are some lovely 
paintings or phoenixes on the ceil- 
ing of the second floor. The upper 
floor offers a spectacular vista of 
the wooded mountains ringing the 
dty on three sides and the plain 
southward, which is now covered 
with a dense urban sprawl 

Heading north from Nanzenji is 
the Philosopher's Walk, a path that 
follows a canal once trod by a fam- 
ous early~20th-century philosophy 
professor, Kitaro Nishida. The 
walk can be done in 45 minutes or 
less. Its terminus is the famous and 
usually jam-packed Ginkakuji, or 
Silver Pavilion. 

In the northern part of the dty, 
one of my favorite temples is 
Ryoanji, which is a short walk from 
the Omuro train stop. It has the 
most famous rock garden in Japan. 
(The entrance fee is about $3.85 
and the temple is open daily, 8 
A.M. to 5 P.M.) 

Nijo-jo is not Japan’s greatest 
castle, but it may be its most sump- 
tuous. The castle lies in the middle 
of Kyoto, a short walk from the 
Nijo stop on the San'in main line 
subway. Its huge rock ramparts are 
sculptural and the shogun's meet- 
ing rooms inside were built with 
magnificent craftsmanship and art- 
istry. (The entry fee is about 54.80 
and the boors are 8:30 A.ML to 4 
I P.M. daily.) 

The Kanqgamo Shrine, one of the 
oldest in Kyoto, is nestled into the 
thickly wooded hills of the northern 


Welcome 


WITH A SMILE! 


part of the city, and has an unusual 
garden marked with strange cones 
of white sand. The shrine is a 10- 
minute taxi ride north of the Kita- 
Qji subway stop, the northern termi- 
nus of the train. 

If you want to absorb the essence 
of Kyoto culture along with some 
classic cuisine, you could hardly do 
better than lunch at Izusen. Situat- 
ed at a subtemple inside ibe great 
temple complex of Daitokuji in 
Kyoto's north, Izusen serves shojin 
ryori, or temple food. The classic 
vegetarian fare consists of a num- 
ber of vegetables and various kinds 
of tofu. The set menus run from 
about S29 to 563. Daitokuji can be 
reached by either the No. 206 or 
207 buses from Kyoto station. 
(491-6665, open 1 1 AM. to 3 P.NL, 
daily except Thursdays.) 

Another excellent temple restau- 
rant is Oku tan, in a perfect garden 
in Nanzenji which is a short walk to 
the north of the Keage tram stop. 
Okutan serves only a special tofu set 
menu, at about $29. (77 1 -8709, open 
daily except Thursday from 10:30 
AM. to 6 P.M.) 

Imobo Hiranoya Honten is a 
caft set inside the north gale of 
Maruyama Park, adjacent to the 
Gion district in the heart of Kyoto. 
It specializes in imobo. a local vari- 
ety of potato and dried cod sim- 
mered in a broth. Set menus run 
from about 519 to $39. It is a 10- 
minule walk from the Shijo station 
of the Keihan main line train (561- 
1603, open 10:30 A.M. to 8 P.M. 
daily; reservations suggested). 

In the main shopping district, 
along Shijo Don, one of the city’s 
main east-west avenues, you can 
have an excellent, earthy meal at 
Takocho, a 100-year-old pub tbat 
serves a kind of stew called oden. 
Customers choose their dinner 
from among the items bobbing in 
the rich broth of a steaming copper 
um set in the counter. These range 
from tofu lo stuffed cabbage and a 
local delicacy, fried whale skin. 


CAMPS 


27 


destinations 


23 


countries 

and 


continents 



Genuine core fir your safety and comfort. 
Delicious dishes , delectable cuisine to touch the heart of 

the most discerning passenger. 

• 

Welcome to a whole new world! 

A world of smiles and friendliness. 


9 Sam 

Biman BANGLADESH ABOJHES 


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From the Shijo Don bridge, walk 
south about 50 yards on the Kamo 
River’s east bank to find Takocho. 
It is near the Shijo station of the 
Keihan main line tram. A meal 
costs about S10 to 515 a penon. 
(525-0170, open daily except Mon- 
days from 6 to 10 P.M.) 

For a quick bow! of noodles 
(about $5), try Yagura (561-1035), 
also on Shijo Don, just east of the 
Kamo river. On the western side of 
the Kamo River is a lively caffc, 
Kappa Nawase. Dinner is $48 to 
596 a penon. (531-4048, open 6 
P.M.10 2AM.) 

The more refined fare in which 
Kyoto specializes can be found at a 
beautiful restaurant north of Mar- 
uyama Park called Mmokichi Hen- 
ten. It has everything from kaisdri, 
small vegetable and fish dishes 
beautifully arranged, to shabu 
shabu, thinly sliced beef simmered 
in a pot at the table. The dining 
room is built around a garden and is 
filled with traditional crafts. Meals 
run from about S96 to 5288. (771- 
4185, daily 11:30 AM. to 10 PJVL, 
reservations required.) 

The recently redecorated 
Miyako Hotel a moderately priced 
hold that has 528 rooms, is a bit 
heavy on marble and pasid hues 
for some tastes. But the hold is well 
situated in eastern Kyoto, a short 
walk from Nanzenji It lies just in 
front of the Keage stop on the Kex- 
ban- Kashin tram line. Rooms run 
from about $183 to about $221 for 
a twin. (771-7111.) Across from 
Nijojo, Kyoto’s great castle, is the 
ANA Hotel Kyoto The ANA part 
of a hold chain that eaten to busi- 
nessmen and tourists, The hotel has 
with 303 rooms. A double roam 
runs from about 5183 to about 
$250. (231-1155.) It is a 15-minute 
taxi ride from Kyoto station. 

Budget: One of the treats of vis- 
iting Kyoto is to try a traditional- 
style inn, where one sleeps on a 
futon rolled out on the straw tatami 
mats and eats the local fare. Rikiya, 
situated on a quiet street near the 
Yasaka Pagoda in the historic H5- 
gasfaiyania district, is typical it has 
just a half dozen rooms and serves a 
fortifying traditional breakfast of 
rice, seaweed, fish and green tea. 
Rooms run from about 51 15 a per- 
son, without dinner, to about $21 1 
a person with dinner. (561-1300.) It 
is a 15-minute taxicab ride from 
Kyoto Station. 

Luxury: Benkei, recently built in 
tbe traditional style, is an excellent 
inn in Arashiyama. The food is 
superb and plentiful The 12 rooms 
run from about 5192 to about 5385 
a person a night, including break- 
fast and dinner. Take the Keifuku 
Arashiyama train line to its western 
terminus and walk three minutes. 
(872-3355.) 



Mary Stuart Masterson in “ Bad Girls”, left; "The Inkwell” director Matty Rich. 


‘BadGfrfs* 

Directed by Jonathan Kaplan. 
US. 

Jonathan Kaplan must have 
been plumb loco when he wom- 
anized the western in "Bad 
Girls,” an uproariously bad spa- 
ghetti-strap western that stars 
Andie MacDowdL Madeleine 
Stowe, Mary Stuart Masteison 
and Drew Barrymore as a quar- 
tet of trick-riding cowbdies. Ka- 
plan, who directed this uninten- 
tional spoof, apparently didn't 
see the humor in making “The 
WBd Bunch” in bustiers. Set 
near the turn of the century, the 
story is tireder than Hoss’s horse 
after a dop around die ranch. 
The script’s only twist involves 
the protagonists’ sex, though not 
their politics. The Bad Girls 
aren't exactly kindling campfires 
with their bras. They are, in fact, 
prostitutes, which as every Hol- 
lywood producer knows, was the 
only career opportunity open to 
women of the Old West. Chased 
by Pinkerton detectives and an 
angry mob of religious zealots, 
the four women gallop out of 
Echo Gty and off into the sage- 
brush. Over a campfire, (bey 
agree to open a sawmill Basical- 
ly these girls aren’t bad. they’re 


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just in a bad movie, a high-con 1 
cept horse opera with a low 
opinion of women. Abused, 
gang-raped, jailed and prostitut- 
ed, these are not heroines, but 
victims. Lord, but it’s a relief 
when this lot rides off into the 
sunset And they, of course, da 
(Rita Kempley, WP) 

Tlw Inkwell 

Directed by Matty Rick US. 

If you crossed tbe 1970s sit- 
com “Good Times” with “Dirty 
Danangf and threw in a vintage 
beach-party movie, you might 
end up with a film like “The 
Inkwell” a serious comedy that 
frantically dashes about in an 
elusive search for coherence. A 
rowdy farce one minute, a politi- 
cal tract the next tire movie 
eventually turns into an improb- 
able coming-of-age drama that 
strains for a poignancy it never 
begins to evoke. This is the sec- 
ond movie by the young director 
Matty Rich, wbo made a prom- 
ising debut with “Straight Out Of 
Brooklyn." The movie follows 
the adventures of Drew Tate 
(LarenzTaie), a shy 16-year-old 
from upstate New York, when 
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on Martha’s Vineyard. There, 
Drew is thrown into a party- 
loving black society that congre- 
gates on a beach known as the 
InkwdL The visit is also the oc- 
casion of some bitter family 
strife. Rich has directed the cast 
to overact with an intensity that 
often borders on the hysterical 
Even when it is beingaggresrive- 
lyzany, “The Inkwdr generates 
little fun because it is so busy 
shouting its frustrations. 

(Stephen Holden. NYT) 

Pa* Trds CathoHque 

Directed by Tome Marshak 
France. 

Maxime (Anemone) is a private 
detective in a seedy agency, and 
almost as louche as the charac- 
ters she investigates. Lawless in 
her lifestyle, reckless is her driv- 
ing and careless in love, she 
keeps stumbling into ghosts 
from her past lives, and gets 
bruised in the cdfiaon. This is a 
comedy with melancholy cur- 
rents and a loosely woven plot: 
Years back. Maxime ditched a 
stuffy husband and walked out 
on her child, now she is on the 
case of 3D arsonist who turns out 
to be the ex-husband (Bernard 
Verley); she also discovers her 
son (Gregoire Colin), who is 
mucb more “dean” and “cool,'’ 
as the French say, than bis nn- 
rujy mother. Anemone is an 
original pas tres catholique, 
(not strictly kosher) actress who 
hsEs from the cafd- theater and 
has kepi a personal sense of Lim- 
ing — sheer unpredictibilty is 
her speciality. Her Maxime has a 
lunging, round-shouldered walk, 
as if she never knows where tile’s 
headed, a moody long face that 
lights up wbens she falls in kwe. 
Writer-director Marshall has 
«af led a fine portrait of an inde- 
pendent woman, a slugger who 
ddivers pungent lines, yet knows 
when to hold her punches. 

I Joan Dupont, IHT) 



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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE? 


•The American Kennel Club is 
launching the Canine Good Gti- 
program, and il seems 450 
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The Heartland Dog Club (Hori- 
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"n’t 



S & J? 



International Herald Tribune 
Friday, April 29, 1994 
' Page 9 


i / i' ; ; 


r 


Details, Details: Traveler’s Motto 


By Roger Collis 

Iniemmionq] Herald Tribun e 

M y approach to business travel 
tor fife in general, for that mat- 
*«) is-— never take anything for 
granted and to always 
wc unexpected. The only way to beat Mur- 

~awisiss=is 

for three short phone calls, and two small 

fh Fnpin t frarehr 

bStSmwh n ° D i e °^^.- iuice “ the piano 
S ^ “““B a deal on 

^le. Absurd, when I can buy a 
round-tnp from London to San Francko 
™ Virgin for around $448 (for maybe the 
cost of another round of drinks and a few 
trore calls). That is the pain and paradox of 
travd. Value has nothing to do with how 
much you pay. 

On the other hand, there are tiroes when 
spending a little more can yield a great deal 
of extra comfort or benefit With car rentals, 
for example, there is usually less price differ- 
ential between the cheapest and medium 
groups than the most expensive. So you 
often get better value by trading up. At some 
airports a taxi direct to your hotel is far 
better than toting your bags on to the airport 
bus and then looking for a taxi to take you 
the last 20 blocks. It may not cost much more 
5 KX P*» course, at remote airports. 
Here sire souk small things tha t are worth 
paying attention to: 

When you have to make a connection, 
choose a user-friendly hub — this means not 
having to walk a mfle between gates or catch 
a bus to another terminal. Make sure you 
have enough time to make your connection. 
Get a plan of the airport to orient yourself 
prior to landing. Cany a pocket edition of 
the ABC or OAG flight guide so that you «m 


find another flight should you miss your 
connection. 

When booking a long-haul flight, ask if 
* * change of plane or earner under a 
code-sharing arrangement. And be aware 
that a direct flight doesn't mean nonstop. 
Check that the airline will respect your seal- 
ing for dietary) requirements, especially it 
you have to change to a smaller pane. 

Nothing can beat an airport lounge in 
alleviating terminal misery — especially if 
youhave to hang around a long time. If you 
don’t have die run of a business-class lounge, 
consider joining a U.S. airline lounge club: 
American’s Admirals Club; Delta’s Crown 
Club and United's Red Carpet Club charge 
annual dues of around $200. The Interna- 
tional Airline Passengers Association 
(IAPA) bos a lounge program that costs $60 
a year to members, plus $21 per writ to more 
tthan 80 lounges around the world. Expen- 
sive. But what price do you put on a port in a 
storm? Diners Club oners cardholders free 
use of 47 airport and business lounges. 

Choose a bold for location as well as 
price. It’s worth paying a bit more to be close 
to where you need to be. Nothing beats bong 
able to walk to the office, restaurants and 
shops. Check whether breakfast is included 
in the room rata V not, ask if it is a manda- 
tory extra. Breakfast in a big hotel, especially 
continental breakfast, can be exorbitant. 
Unless you’re hosting a power breakfast, you 
may find a nearby caffe much cheaper and 
more congenial. 

Beware of the minibar scam. The answer is 
to bring your own supplies and order ice 
from room service. 

The hotel industry has been gouging trav- 
elers for years through outrageous phone 
charges — markups of 700 percent or more. 
An AT&T survey carried out with the British 
magazine Executive Travel found that the 
cost of a 10-minute call from European ho- , 
ids to North America varied widely, accord- 
ing to how much the hotel surcharged For 


example, the Frankfurt Sheraton charged 
$75.20; the London Sdfridge $53.60; and 
the Paris Hilton $42.80. 

Some travelers may be able to use a porta- 
ble cellular phone from tbetr room to bypass 
the hold switchboard. This will become easi- 
er with the new digital vest-pocket satellite 
phones known as Personal Communications 
Networks (PCNs) that enable you to make 
and receive calk nearly anywhere. 

Meanwhile, the best strategy is use a tele- 
phone charge card. (Some hoteliers block 
toll-free calk made to your card number. 
Others make an access charge of around 
$2.50 every time you use a card. It is always 
worth checking beforehand.) 


W HEN buying a consolidator 
ticket, check whether you can 
upgrade with your frequent fli- 
er credits. If it’s a net-fare ticket 
(with no fare indicated in the fare box) you 
probably won't earn frequent-flier miles, or 
be able to use them to upgrade. Tickets 
discounted to consolidators with an override 
commission will typically show a published 
fare in the fare box regardless of how much 
you pay. Many of these tickets can be up- 
graded. The only way to be sure is to ask 
your agent 

Car rental firms don't always make it easy. 
Nothing is more infuriating than to find the 
price has just about doubled when all the 
extras are added up. So make sure you com- 
pare like for like when you shop around. 
Collision damage waiver, which can run 
close to $20 a day, and theft insurance as 
high as $15 a day is pitched to increase rental 
companies' profits. Check for such charges 
when you aiiange a rental. You may be able 
to avoid paying them by relying on collision 
protection on your charge card. Get written 
confirmation from your agent that you won't 
have to buy CDW — and the amount of any 
hold on your card. And remember, you save 
up to 60 percent on the walk-up rate by 
booking in one country for rental in another. 


THE UTS 6 T IB E / FESTIUIS 


Some highlights oj European and 
American music and am festivals: 

AUSTRIA 

Salzbur g 

Salzburger Festspieie. tel: (662) 
80-45 July 25 to Aug. 31 : Focuses 
on Stravinsky's music with ''The 
Rake's Progress." "Oedipus Rex" 
staged by Peter Sellars. "L'Hstrare 
du Sol dal '' and "Le Rosstgnol " 


BRIT AIM 

Ahtebuigh 

Akleburgh Festival, tel: (728) 452- 
935. June 10 to 26. Opens with Stra- 
vinsky’s 'The Flood" and continues 
with Britten's "Noye’s Fludde.” Also 
includes two world premieres of cho- 
reographies by Richard Alston. 

Edinburgh 

Edinburgh International Festival, 
tel: (31 ) 226-4001 . Aug. 14 to Sept. 
3: Opera companies include The 
Australian Opera, Opera North and 
the Scottish Opera, and dance pro- 

g ams are performed by the Merce 
unningham and Mark Morris com- 
panies. 

Gtyndeboum* 

Glyndeboume Festival Opera, let: 
(273) 813-613. May 28 to Aug. 25: 
In the rebutt opera house, a new 
production of Mozart’s “Le Nozze di 
Figaro", followed by Tchaikovsky's 
"Eugene Onegin,” Stravinsky's “The 
Rake's Progress,” Mozart s “Don 
Giovanni," and Britten’s "Peter 
Grimes.” 

FOB-AMP 

HeWnkl 

Helsinki Festival, tel: 659-688. Aug. 
25 to Sept. 11; Includes perfor- 
mances by the Los Angeles Phiiar- 
monic under Esa-Pekka Sakonen and 
the London Sinlonietta under Elgar 
Howarth; Jordi SavaJI is a guest solo- 
ist. 


fflAMCE 

Aix-en-Provence 
Festival Internationa] d'Art Lyrique 
at de Muslque. tet 42-17-34-34. 
July 1 5 to 30: In the courtyard of the 
archbishop's palace. Mozart's “The 
Magic Flute." as wen a performance 
of Haydn's 'The Seasons." 

A uv era aur-Oiae 
XIVb Festival, t el: 30-36-71-55. May 
1 9 to July 2: Recitals by My GWis and 
KsHa and MarieUe Labeque, choral 
music, chamber music and a perfor- 
mance of Rossini's "Barbiere di Si- 
vigiia.” 

GERMANY 

Bayreuth 

Richard Wagner Festspieie, tel: 
(921) 20-221. July 25 to Aug. 28: 
James Levine conducts the compfeie 
"Ring des Nibekingen” in Alfred 
Kirchner's production. Giuseppe Srv 
opofl conducts “Parsifal," Daniel 
Barenboim 'Tristan und Isolde" and 
Peter Schneider “Der Fliegende Hot- 
lander.” 

Berlin 

Berliner Festwochen. tel: (30) 25- 
469-0. Aug. 30 to Sept. 29: Perfor- 
mances of the Berlin PhUha/monic 
Orchestra under Pierre Boulez and 
Daniel Barenboim; recitals by Meuri- 
zio Poflim and Jessye Norman. 
Munich 

Munich Opera Festival, tef: (69) 
21-851. July 6 to 31: 

Features the world premiere of 
Mayer's "Sansfoar” under Bernhard 
Kontarsky and several Strauss. Verdi 
and Mozart operas, as well as baiter 
performances. 

GREECE 

Athens 

Athens Festival. Tel: 323-0049. June 
to September: In the Odeon of Herod 
Attic us, orchestral concerts under 
Riccardo Muti and Riccardo Chailfy, 
opera performances and ancient 


Greek drama by Greek and foreign 
companies. 

ITALY 

Ravenna 

Ravenna Festival, tel: (544) 213- 
895. June 16 to July 23: In different 
venues, concerts by the Vienna PhU- 
harmomc under Seiji Ozawa, the Or- 
chestra Fdarmonlca della Scala under 
Wbtigang SawaHisch. 

Spoteto 

Festival of TVvo Worlds, tef: (743) 
222-61 1 • June 22 to July 10: Opens 
with Poulenc's "Les Mamelles de H- 
resias" and includes Berg's "Woz- 
zeck.” Dance programs include Ro- 
land Petit's “Creation Menotti." 

NETHERLANDS 

Amsterdam 

Holland Festival, tel: (20) 627- 
6566. June 1 to 30: Nine operas from 
Monteverdi’s "Qrfeo" to Max Brand's 
"Maschinist Hopkins” and recent 
works by Chinese composers. 

NORWAY 

Bergen 

42d Bergen International Festival, 
tel: (5) 216-100. May 25 lo June 6 : 
Opera and ballet performances in- 
clude Dario Fo's production of Rossi- 
ni's “Barbiere di SMgtia." orchestral 
and choral concerts. 

PORTUGAL 

Estoril 

20th Costa do Estoril Music Festi- 
val, tel: (1 ) 468-5607. July 7 to Aug. 
20: The Festival welcomes the Lithu- 
anian State Symphony Orchestra, 
under Gintaras Rinkevicius. the 
Prague Chamber Orchestra, and the 
Great Bulgarian Voices ensemble. 

SPAIN ~ 

Santander 

Santander international Festival, 
tet: (42) 314-819. Aug. 1 to 31: Or- 


chestral concerts by the London 
Symphony Orchestra, the Dresden 
Philarmonic Orchestra; operas In- 
clude Puccini's "Tosca” and Mus- 
sorgsky's “Boris Godunov" and vari- 
ous chamber music concerts and 
recitals. 

SWEDEN 

Drottnlngholm 

Drottninghoim Court Theater, tet: 
( 8 ) 660-82-25. May 26 to Sept. 8 : A 
new production of ’ 'Youth and Folly, '' 
an 16th-century composer, Eduard 
Dupuy, Haydn’s "Orlando Paladino," 
and an evening of Handel's arias and 
duets. 

SWITZERLAND 

Lucerne 

Internationa] Festival of Music, lei: 
(41) 23-52-72. Aug. 17 10 Sept. 10: 
More than 50 performances, includ- 
ing concerts conducted by Kurt 
Sanderling, Lorin Maazel, Claudio 
Abbado. Riccardo Mull, recitals by 
Maurizio Poilini and Kei Koito, cham- 
ber orchestra concerts. Ingomar 
Gruna use's "Die Winierreise," di- 
rected by Philipp Himmelmann (Aug. 
24. premiere) 

TURKEY 

Istanbul 

22 d International Istanbul Music 
Festival, tel: 212-258-3212. June 15 
to July 21 . The roster of guest soloists 
Includes Narciso Yepes, James Gal- 
way, Julian Lloyd Weber, and Victoria 
de Los Angeles. 


UNITED STATES 

Tanglewood, Mass. 

Tangfewood Music Center, lei: 
(BIT) 266 14-92. July 7 to Aug. 29: 
Seiji Ozawa opens the season with a 
program featuring Jessye Norman, 
Yo-yo Ma, Leon Fleisher and Peter 
Serfcin. 




“SUMMES M PROVINCE" 

Bor dein d rcrfbn ife te properties, 
ful of ho m ed d**m. ejT cnrrfifty 
i mp eded For rent or tor ids apart- 
marts (*i Avimoni, old imowitad 
“NaT and artfe vrtfi swarming ppofc 
fn countryside). For further Mo nw b v 
erf nr atiete MOW in townee 
AVIGNON PROVENCE AGENCY 
Td: [33] 90 85 90 95 
tec (33) 9085 84 16 


PARIS A SUBURBS 


txfcg Ho*d CONCORDE LAFAYETTE 

Lunrious 2 rooms, TV. phone, 
to agency fee. F4.9QG. 
tonal modi or more. 

95. Bid Gout**, Sl Cyr. Pons IT*. 
Tat |1) 43 S 66 72 


*■ SUMMBt M PAJBS •• 
Funvshad tWds far July md August 
Pawn dienn, American standards. 

BEST NET Tol/Fax 1-42 50 96 22 


CHATEAU DE MONTCAUD 

JmX*, DPWnTU Ot Of CDnGJwned. 

II acra private park, lands, gyaj 
swnmg pool, sauna lumun, bias. 
WEEKLY SIMMS! -PACKAGE 
7 runt** inducing hdf-boc»rt 
fn*n FF 5,100 /person in double room, 



NORMANDY RENTALS 


NOKMANDY 

sfiS«»£Sw«a5s 

Td 03) 33 34 23 23. Fax 33 24 50 19 


EEaEBS mBB 

IjSfrfe ftw A t ' 




I.’ju.v ha -W ', * ! 

r> it l" fe 1 fc y/L : , 


lYffVi/j-ia 


HOTELS 


I Vichy the capital of health, beauty and leisure, 
Just 3 hours From Paris in the Auvergne region 

flletti Palace Hotel 

a 133-room. 4-star hotel with tum-of-the-century 
atmosphere and a gourmet restaurant, 
fllctfi Pa» Somm«r Special 
_ Iann , Lai* hoard, Including an hour of tennis, a green fee, 
FF. 1 890 - 3 nights* program either a night at the Opera or 

casino entrance 9 aonM 1 3 SSefose ph ALEm 032 00 VICHY 

" ^ aJSSwif 78 y gSmneiia 


««SUMMIK 


will n jjj* a ^jJJ air 0 

For information, please coated 

FredROM 

in Paris 

Tel.: (1) 46.37.93.91 
Fax: (1) 46.37.93.70 j 


HOLIDAYS AFLOAT 


(EST 1977) 

Luxury Canal Cruising 

fi mgto inclusive from 
Sl,59M2,965pp. Excursions. 

Goonart cnisme, sn-suite cabiM- 

Burgnndy, Provence, Alsace, 

Engfand-Scotiand-Eire. 
Colour brochure 

ntjminMHW nt(33js?a«*i 


1 BETTER THAN A HOTEL 1 


Into rncitlonal 

OFFER YOU!!! 

QUALITY APARTMENTS 

• Luxury furnished 
• Fully equipped 
• Maid &. linen service 
• Special rates for long stays 
• In front of “the Seine” 

Close to the Eiffel Tower and “Trocadero” Square 
Prices starting at US$700 per uieek. 

For further information & reservation 

c ^ll^5950UFax 1*288 2991. 



GOLF 


GOLF DU TOUQUET 

Le Manotr Hotel*** 

Near the Channel Tunnel, on the CSte d’Opale, 

Le Touquet offers two well-known courses-, 

• Hie Sea Coarse reminiscent of Scettish links, 

restored to its pre-war glory ..L^Wnrw 

• The Forest Cornse set among pme tn^wi^ oe® features 

Country house atmosphere ntleb 

A renovated driving range and a fuWka^9-bow 

course make a perfect setting for 3-day sessions 
at the golf school 

Information and Reservations: jrw 

Tel.: (33) 21 -05-20-22 QPFN GOLFCUJD 

Fax : (33) 2 i -05.3 1-26 


PAMS HOTELS 



4L » 


HOTEL 

Relais Christine 


* * * ★ HOTEL 

Pavilion de la Reine 


3, nw Christo- 75006 M&S 
TfeL 0033/1/43^6.71 A0 
hn0033/!/43J6J9JB 

in the center of St- Gennofn-des-Prfes, 
□n □ cdo street near Noire Dome era 
the quays of the Seine, the HOTEL 


20 , elm des Vesnes -75006 MBS 
ML 0033 /V 4 i 77^&40 
fan 0033 / 1 / 42 J 7 A 3 A 0 

Phxe des Vosges, in the heart of the 
Marais, near ihe Picasso and 
Camavaiet & Museums, the HOTEL 


dottier, offers you me tronqu&fy of ib tranquility of its 50 air-conditioned 
50 airronefeoned rooms ana duplexes rooms and duplexes givina onto a 
giving onto a garden or a flowered gaden or 0 flowed courtyard. Private 
courtycrd. Private hotel porldng. hotel peeking. 

THE SAINT JAMES PARIS 

The SANT JAMES PARIS, previously known as fie SANT JAMES CUB b now 
a M chcteou how wider tie same monogemert as the Rekris Christine and the 
Pcrvifion de la Reine. 

The. Saint James bin heart, of the exclusive 16th area of ftris, near Ave. 


never stay aiywhere else. Roams from l^X) ff. 


75116 PJUHS 

TeLx 0033/1/47.04.29.29 
Fax: 0033/1 /45.53UKL61 





Bussy-st-Georges/ 
Marne laVaixEe 

Stay with someone 
you know 
120 luxurious 
bedrooms, 
restaurant, bar, poo), 
fitness & parking 


Special Promotion 

565,00 FJr. Bed & breakfast for two persons per night 
Valid 1st May - 30 SepL 1994 (minimum 2 nights) 

25 kra from Paris & 5 km from Eurodisney Resort 
(near the Cbdteau of Guermantes &P6rritre) 

39, boulevard de Lagny - 77600 Bussy-SL -Georges 
TeL.- 64.66.35-65 - Froc 6L66.O3.10 



PARIS QUARTET HOTELS 


FOUR OWNER-MANAGED HOTELS 
Spread across PARIS Each with a courtyard 
Special welcome for Herald Tribune readers 


HOTEL DE L'ABBAYE 

Saint-Germain 
10, rue Cassette A 

75006 Parts JL 

Tel.: (1)45.4438.11 



III 

11,1 

» ‘t. ?- v 


rmin 







Tel.: (1)4R34.14^0 
Fax: (1)46.34.51 .79 
Contemporary elegance in the heart 
of the Latin Quarter. 67 rooms - 1 - 1 
duplex suite ottering the perfect mix 
of modem comfort and Old World 
charm. The interior garden and 
fountains add a soothing touch to this 
special hotel. 


UNION HOTEL ETOILE 

44, rue Hamelln, . 1 1 / , 

7*16 Paris *\±iLO 

Te!.: (1) 45J53.14.95 
TbC B11394F ^]5w£kZ 

Fax: (1) 47 55 94 79 

42 large, pretty rooms and residential 
apartments overlooking a private 
garden on a small, calm street near 
E forte. The perfect spot for business, 
entertainment and shopping. Private 
bar. Excellent service. 


TWm HOTEL CAMBON 

| j JH * * * * 

MS 3 me Can bon. 75001 PARIS 

TeL (I) 424038.09 Fax: (1 1 42.6030.59 

Charming 4-star hotel renovated In 1993, lust off the Tuileries Gardens, 
Concorde, the Louvre, the Musfee d'Oisay, near Faubourg Saint Honorfe. 
Rooms front FF 9BO Suites from FF 1480 




A recently renovated 18th century freestone residence in the heart 
of SL-Germain-des-Prfes. near the famous Caffe des Deux-Magots. 

Le Rfegent offers the charm of traditional Paris and the comforts of 
modem equipment Air conditioning, satellite T.V., minibar, marble 
or hand painted Italian tiled bathrooms are just some of the 
amenities making for a refined and special stay. 

61, rue Daophtne, 75006 Paris. 

TeL (11 46 34 59 80 Fax: (1)40 51 05 07 


Hotel*** 
Eiffel - Kennedy 

Charming entirely renovated 
191ft cmt. ftotef In the Umris- 
Kc/fletidcittiaf Posy ana. lust 
10 minuus waft from the Ejffd 
Towr 

30 sound pmfai. fuUy equip- 
ped rooms Reasonable nses 1 


12 roe de BoulanvUBera. 25016 Paris. 
TeL (1)45 24 45 75. -Fax II) 42 30 S3 32 




HOTEL ARC ELYStES 


H Jud off the Champs Bystes. Charming now holBL 23 rooms 
(15 on cowtyaiti) aif-corx«)oned, soend-proof, 
mini-bar (soft drtnka free), caUaT.V, breakfast room, bar. 
FrierxSy efRdeni welcome. Reasonable rales. 

45 rue WasHn^on 75008 Peris TeL: (33.1) 4SJSLB933. Fax. (33.1) fiB3L76S2 


BERS0LYS ®r* 

CHARM- TXADTriON ■ CHARACTER 


17th cenL hotel With 16 rooms fndie 
calm part of St- Cermaln-des-Pres 
near Musfee d'Oisay 6 the Louvre- 
Refined Comfort. 

Direct phone, cabl e TV., safe 
deposit, bar. FF550 to FF650. 
**★ 

25 rne de Ulk, 75007 PASS 
Tet CD 42 60 73 79. 

Fat- (D 49 Z7 05 55 


Hotel prigitfon 

M* 

218, rue de Rivoli 
n 75001 PARIS 
. M t TeL: (I) 42.6030JB 
Fax: (I) 42.60.4L78 


Directly on the Tuileries 
garden near the Louvre 
and Place VendOme. 
Traditional French re- 
finement coupled with 
all modern comforts and 
excellent service. 
Private tea room offers 
an intimate cosy spot for 
guests and business asso- 
ciates. 


PAJBS - lATfff QUAETEB 

KrAtsrmcmm 5t“» 
































































































** 





{■■■■■**' ■*■.£>■ <. ’f.yfy 

. ■. ■. *#•' tn.WiJL 1 


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International Herald Tribune, Friday, April 29. 1994 


$•&?« : *•■»••• Vi'*/;* jifV*sc 

s y:j ■■' -■ • ' *; ' 


/to#? /£ 


When the Music Stopped 9 Schneider Couldn’t Face It 


Il2.4«ia 

280 Internationally invesSL^SS S J ock lndex ©■ composed of 
byBloomberg Business^^SS^^ft^ntries. compfled 



100 


World index 

4.-'2&'S4 closo: 1J2.48 
Previous: 112.24 



1994 


ISO 


130 


North America 

; f: : Latin America 


Approx, weighting. 26 % 

Cta»: S3. 10 Ptev- 93.63 | 


I Appm weighting: S% 

Cfosa: 112.87 Prev-M 1^.16 | 



110 ! 


itsaaie 

N D J F M A 

1933 1994 

^ World Index 



J F 


N D 
1993 


M A 
1994 


71m «** tracks as. daftjr values of stocks In: Tokyo, Now York, London, ana 
Argentina. Australia. Austria, Belgium, Brad, Canada, CttBa, Denmark, Ffntend. 
Franca, Germany, Hong Kong, Italy. Mexico, Netherlands, Maw Zealand, Norway, 
Singapore, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and Venezuela. For Tokyo, New York and 
London, tfw mdax is carrsnsad at the 20 top Issues In terms ot market caphahsattor. 
othemiao the ten top stocks aro tracked. 


| Industrial Sectors . ii.K: I 


Tha. Pint % 

dan don dwge 


Thu. 

dam 

Prey. 

dam 

« 

dm* 

Energy 

111.39 112.60 -1.07 

Capital Goods 

113.18 

11241 

4024 

Utfflies 

120.46 119.68 40.48 

fa* Materials 

124 57 

124.68 

-009 

Finance 

116.78 116.10 40.59 

Consumer Goods 

98.47 

9806 

40.42 

Services 

117.83 117.97 -0.12 

UGceimteous 

12925 

128.38 

40.68 

For more information about the Index, a booklet is avaiatHe free of charge. 

Wnte to Trib Index, 181 Avenue Chants de GauBe, 925Z1 NeuBy Codex, France. 


By Alan Friedman 
and Brandon Mitchener 

International Herald Tribune 

KONIGSTEIN, Germany — Outside the lavish 
office suite that JQrgen Schneider once occupied on 
the ground floor of his raock-Tudor castle in this 
wealthy Frankfurt suburb, the unmistakable strains of 
a Frank Sinatra melody were wafting from a Steinway. 

And there, gathered around the baby grand piano 
on Wednesday afternoon, were a dozen employees of 
the missing German real estate developer. He' disap- 
peared at Easter with 5128 million of pocket money 
and left behind 5 billion Deutsche marks (53 billion) 
of bank debt and the country's biggest real estate 
bankruptcy. 

Just a day before, the staff had learned that an arrest 
warrant had been issued charging their former boss 
with fraud, while they were about to be fired by the 
company^ court-appointed receiver. 

Thus, in one of those surreal moments that life 


occasionally serves up, they were holding an im- 
promptu concert at the castle. A member of Mr. 
Schneider's board of directors, gesturing at the twin 
chandeliers of his office and its sarin-covered walls, 
listened to Sinatra's “My Way” and noted with grim 
irony: “Schneider certainly did it his way!" 

What, exactly. Mr. Schneider’s way was — and 
specifically, how he got away with it ail — was what 
officials (ram the Frankfurt prosecutor's office and 
bank creditors were still trying to figure out even as the 
stalf surveyed the last vestiges of his crumbling empire. 

The German media has portrayed Mr. Schneider. 
59, as a sophisticated con artist, and on Wednesday 
company insiders disclosed they had found records of 
what i hey believe were bribes paid by Mr. Schneider to 
appraisers that allowed him to inflate [he value or his 
properties and dupe his bank lenders. These lenders 
are led by by Deutsche Bank AG, with 1.2 billion DM 
of loan exposure. 

But interviews with Mr. Schneider’s colleagues. 


aides, bankers and business associates suggest that be 
was less an evil genius and more, as one fellow board 
member put it. “a fundamentally megalomaniacal and 
nouveau-riche” figure of the 1980s. 

The picture that emerges is of an entrepreneur who 
began his company only 10 years ago, and was ulti- 
mately unable to manage the business he had built, 
and unwilling to delegate responsibility. His abrupt 
departure was apparently less a conspiracy he had 

E l armed for many months than a manifestation of 
uman weakness m the face of failure. In short, Jurgen 
Schneider realized he could not keep his creditors at 
bay much longer, and he panicked. 

When Mr. Schneider and his wife. Claud ia, van- 
ished, few people were more shocked than Gabriele 
Eick, a 42-year-old businesswoman he had hired away 
from her post as head of Frankfurt's economic devel- 

S intent corporation. Ms. Eick joined Mr. Schneider at 
e castle just two months ago. having capped her 


career by negotiating the future Frankfurt home of the 
European Monetary Institute with Alexandre Lamfa-f 
lussy, its president. . ; 

Ms. Eick described her missing boss as “a very 
determined man, a doer." But she said she became, 
increasingly frustrated during her brief spell at the 
company. Dr. JQrgen Schneider AG. because Mrv 
Schneider never revealed his company’s revenue, or ■ 
profit or loss, to his own board. 

Company executives, who spoke on condition they 
not be identified, said the key to understanding how. 
Mr. Schneider built up his empire so quickly was the' 
way be bought prestige properties at premium prices 
and financed them with bank loans from Deutsche 
Bank and four dozen other institutions. What the 
banks did not know was that the valuations of some of 
his biggest properties were allegedly inflated by out- 

See SCHNEIDER, Page 13 


Delta to Eliminate 
20% of Work Force 


C international Herald Trtouna 


Bloomberg Businas News 

ATLANTA — Delta Air Lines 
Inc, facing an onslaught of compe- 
tition from low-fare rivals, on 
Thursday unveiled a restructuring 
plan that includes as many as 
15,000 job cuts by next June. 

Hre announcement came as Del- 
ta said its loss for the first three 
months of 1994 narrowed to 577.8 
million from 5152.3 million a year 
earlier. Delta has racked up more 
than 51 -9 billion in losses since 
1991, with only one profitable 
quarter in the past two years. 

Delta, the third-laigest carrier in 
the United States, aims to lower its 
annual costs by $2 billion try mid- 
1997. The Atlanta-based carrier said 
it would cut its staff between 12,000 
and 15,000. or as much as 20 per- 
cent. Some staff cuts will come 
through layoffs. 

Delta said it will take a charge of 
from $400 million to 5600 million 
in the quarter ending June 30, the 
fourth of its financial year, to cover 
the restructuring. 

Investors liked the restructuring, 
which the chief executive, Ronald 
Allen, called the “most important 
effort in the history of Delta Air 
Lines." The stock rose 51.875 to 
dose at $4525 on the New York 
Stock Exchange. 

Delta expects to eliminate at 
least 9,000 jobs by June 1995 and 


said it probably will begin firing 
employees this year. Last year Del- 
ta snapped a 36-year no-layoff pol- 
icy, cutting about 500 pilots. 

“Delta has to streamline to sur- 
vive,” said Sara Buttrick, an analyst 
at Kidder Peabody & Co. “If they 
didn’t do this, they’d simply die on 
the vine." 

Delia explored the option of cre- 
ating its own subsidiary that would 
mimic the efficiencies of these low- 
cost rivals, notably Southwest Air- 
lines. But Delta management de- 
rided that the plan would cost too 
much to implement. 

Still, Delta said the restructuring 
probably would result in a higher 
frequency, low-cost operation in 
certain short-haul markets as costs 
are lowered. 

Other parts of the restructuring 
include the launch of a profit-shar- 
ing program for personnel other 
than pilots by June, the assigning 
of some airport operations to out- 
side companies, a reduction of S400 
milli on in marketing costs and the 
grounding of planes to save as 
much as 5250 million. 

Delia said its goal was to cut 
costs to an average of 7.5 cents per 
available seat per mile by June 
1997. Della’s 1993 unit cost was 
926 cents. Southwest, the low-cost 
leader, has a seal-mile cost of about 
725 cents. 


WALL STREET WATCH 


Lper Argues Its Value 


By Mitchell Martin 

International Herald Tribune 

P ARIS — David B. Mathis, c h ai rm an of 
Kemper Corp., is fighting a battle against 
conventional wisdom on Wall Street. He 
said Thursday that analysis are not suffi- 
ciently optimistic about his financial conglomer- 
ate's earnings prospects, and that their projections 
are too low. 

Their caution might cost him his job. On inurs- 
day, he won a small victory in his battle to ward off 
General Electric Co.'s takeover attempt when 
Kemper reported earnings that were higher than 
analysts’ average estimates. 

Additionally. Kemper Corp. said Thursday that 
its major shareholders support the board’s decision 
to reject the $22 billion offer from GE Capital 
Corp., GE’s finance arm. Mr. Mathis, in a letter to 
Gary Wendt, GE Capital's chief executive, reject- 
ed GE’s offer for the third time. 

Bui if Kemper is taken over, Mr. Mathis will 
have been a victim of his own success. He was 
promoted to chairman two years ago, md ance 
then the company has recovered from a disastrous 
period that largely reflected problem real estate 
and an unruly mass of subsidiaries. Kemper had 
taken equity positions in commercial properties to 
which it also was a lender and was heavily exposed 
to weakness in the California and Midwest real 

^KempS sioc k was hit in F |J^? aI > 1 , 1 . 992 r ^lS 
company’s derision to post a $135 million resen* 
for ns real estate holdings and its announcement 
that $234 million of the properties were impaired. 
Its shares fell from a January price of more than 
$46 to $20.75 by late August of that year. Since 

tbra, however, the slock has risen as a slew of 
restructuring efforts came into lOtce. 

MrMaLhis merged the suburban Chicago com- 
pany’s five brokerage subsidiaries into one, inte- 


grated the two life insurance units, and reduced the 
stake held in Kemper by Lumberman's Mutual 
Casualty Co. to about 4 percent from nearly 40 
percent. The last step amounted to a huge stock 
buyback, Mr. Mathis noted, as well as making 
Kemper vulnerable to a takeover bid. 

The company’s stock recovered to the $40 range 
by March of this year, when General Electric bid 
S55 a share, or 52.1 billion, and said it might raise 
that offer if Kemper opened its books for inspec- 
tion, particularly regarding the real estate hold- 
ings. Kemper’s board unanimously rejected that 
offer, saying the price was too low, and GE has 
tamed to a proxy battle to replace four directors at 
the May 1 1 amnia] meeting. New directors could 
vote to reconsider the bid. 

Mr. Mathis, in Europe this week to talk to the 
institutional shareholders that make up much of 
Kemper’s 12 percent of overseas ownership, said 
the restructuring would raise earnings to levels 
above Wall Street expectations. 

Banco Santander, the largest foreign stockhold- 
er, has said it would vote its 2,5 percent stake 
against GE Mb'. Mathis said Santander was by far 
the largest overseas owner, and that many of the 
others were European institutions with far smaller 
stakes. 

On Thursday, Kemper’s income from continu- 
ing operations other than investments in the first 
quarter was reported at 535.4 million, or 87 cents a 
snare, a sizable premium to the 80 cents that 
analysts had been expecting. Altogether, continu- 
ing operations earned $56.6 million, or $1.43 a 
share. Thai compares with a loss from continuing 
operations of $5 mini on a year earher, before a 
financial charge. 

The continuing operations figure without invest- 
ments is important because it strips out securities 

See KEMPER, Page 12 


U.S. GDP Growth Slows to 2.6% 

But Markets Fear Inflation and Bonds Plunge 2 Points 


By John M. Berry 

Washington Past Serrtce 

WASHINGTON — Restrained by bad 
weather, sagging exports and a big drop in 
federal government spending, the US. econ- 
omy slowed to a 2.6 percent annual growth 
rate in the first three months of the year from 
the exceptionally strong 7 percent pace re- 
corded late last year, the Commerce Depart- 
ment reported Thursday. 

Investors and traders apparently did not 
share that assessment Long-term interest 
rates started to rise shortly after the GDP 
report was released and bond prices, which 
move down when yields go up, fell even more 
sharply later in the day. At the dose , owners 
of 30-year U.S. Treasury bonds had lost more 
than $20 for each $1,000 face value as the 
yield reached 7 26 percent up from 7. 10 per- 
cent on Wednesday. 

The rise in interest rates also seat stock 
prices tumbling, with the Dow Jones industri- 
al average falling 3123 points, to 3,66831. 

Some analysts said one reason for the bond 
sell-off was that a dose reading of the GDP 
report suggested that much of Lhe slowdown 
in growth was related to weather and that 
recovery from those delays would push 
growth to 4 percent or 4.5 percent during the 
current quarter. 

Market analysts also said the higher yield 
may have been a response to an apparent 
worsening of inflation as measured by the 
fixed-weighted price index. The index, one of 
two inflation indicators released with the quar- 
terly figure, rose at a 29 percent rate, com- 
pared with 23 percent in the previous quarter. 


Government officials and most private an- 
alysts saw the wall rise in the inflation- 
adjusted gross domestic product as a plus for 
the future. 

“Overall, today's report should calm fears 
that the economy is growing at an unsusiain- 
ably rapid rate or that inflation is about to 
spike upwards," Laura D’Andrea Tyson. 

The economy remains on 
track for growth of about 3 
percent and an inflation 
rate of about 3 percent for 
this year.' 

Laura D’Andrea Tyson, chairman 
of the Council of Economic Advisers 

rhairp iaq of the Council of Economic Advis- 
ers. said at the White House, “lhe numbers 
indicate that the economy remains on track 
for growth of about 3 percent, the creation of 
about 2 milli on new jobs and an inflation rate 
of about 3 percent for this year." 

There were no prerise estimates of the 
effect of a series of bad winter storms in the 
Eastern part of the country and the earth- 
quake in Los Angeles in January. Some of the 
losses were made up in March, late in the 
quarter, as consumers flocked to stores and 
rebuilding efforts in Los Angeles surged. 

Many private forecasters said economic 
growth should pick up during the current 


quarter, with GDP likely to rise at a rate of 3 
percent to 33 percent! If this happens, it 
would put growth for the first six months of 
the year close to the U-S. administration's 
forecast 

The largest factor in the first-quarter rise in 
U.S. production came in the automobile in- 
dustry. With assembly lines running close to 
capacity, the industry turned out so many 
more new cars and tight trucks that the in- 
crease was equal to three-fourths of the entire 
gain in GDP. Most of the vehicles were sold 
to increasingly confident consumers and to 
businesses while some were added to those on 
dealers’ lots. 

Based on current production plans, howev- 
er, auto output is slated to fall a bit in the 
second quarter. But overall growth should 
nevertheless pick up during the quarter as 
consumer spending and business investment 
continue to rise while exports provide less of 
a drag after their weak performance in the 
first three months of the year. 

After being unchanged in the final quarter 
of last year, government purchases of goods 
and services fell at a 62 percent rate. Part of 
the decline was related to weather, as con- 
struction projects of federal state and local 
governments were held up. The major factor 
was falling militaiy spending, which was 
down at a 13.9 percent annual rate, a decline 
that Mrs. Tyson called “unsustainably laige." 

Business construction projects were also 
delayed, while home construction was stron- 
ger than most analysts had been expecting. 

See GROW, Page 12 


Improved Profit Margins Lift GM Earnings 67% 


Compiled by Our Staff From Dispatches 

DETROIT — General Motors 
Corp. on Thursday said its earnings 
jumped 67 percent in the first 
quaier, to $854 million, amid sub- 
stantially improved profit margins 
and continued cost reductions. 

Despite the improvement, the 
largest U.S. automaker said it was 
stiff disappointed with its perfor- 
mance. 

“We're not at all satisfied with 
the profitability of our car lines." 
said G. Richard Wagoner, the com- 
pany’s chief financial officer. "We 
are not at world-class levels of pro- 
ductivity.” 

The results included a previously 
announced charge erf 5758 million 


for new accounting for former or 
inactive employees' medical bene- 
fits, Without the charge. GM’s 
profits soared to SI .6 billion for the 
first three months of the year. 
Worldwide revenue rose 8.4 per- 
cent, to 537.5 billion. 

Mr. Wagoner said GM's small 
cars sold better than its large and 
luxury models, which traditionally 
are more profitable. 

GM’s profit margin reached 4.6 
percent in the quarter, up from 1.6 
percent in the first quarter of 1993. 

"It’s been about 10 years since 
we’ve seen net margins at that kind 
of level,” Mr. Wagoner said, add- 
ing that the company was working 
toward profit margins of 5 percent. 


Mr. Wagoner also said cost-cut- 
ting efforts have yielded significant 
savings and lifted profits. The auto- 
maker has been concentrating on 
reducing its purchasing costs by 
involving parts suppliers in earlier 
in lhe development process. 

GM also said its U3. salaried 
work force shrank to 71.000 in the 
quarter from 77,000 a year ago, and 
the company wants to eventually 
gel down to about 69,000. GMs 
U.S. hourly work force is nerw at 
250,000, down from 262000 in late 
1993. That level should declined 
only slightly to 245,000 by the end 
of this year. 

The company’s North American 
vehicle operations posted a loss of 


5197 million in the quarter because 
of the accounting charge. Excluding 
the charge, GM earned $51 1 million 
from North American operations, a 
sharp turnaround from a loss of 
5170 million in the 1993 quarter. 

GM's share of the U.S. car and 
truck market for the first three 
months of 1 994 rose to 333 percent 
from 33.1 percent in the 1993 quar- 
ter, marking the first gain for the 
first quarter in four years, its U.S. 
vehicle sales rose 53 percent, to 
128 million cars and trucks, from 
1.98 million in the comparable 
year-earlier quarter. Car sales were 
at the highest levels since the first 
quarter of 1990, a company spokes- 
man said. 


The company said international; 
operations earned $425 million in! 
the quarter, up from 5141 million a , 
year ago. * 

GM is the second of DetroiTr- 
three automakers to report first-!, 
quarter results. Last week, thirds 
ranked Chrysler stud that a IS per{ 
cent gain in vehicle sales boosted, 
its first-quarter profits by 77 per- 1 ‘ 
cent, to a record $938 million. 

Second-ranked Ford Motor Co.*’ 
is expected to report its first-quar-, 
ter results Friday. Ford delayed its- 
report from Wednesday in obser-’ 
vance of a national day of mourn-! 
ing for former President Richard 1 
M. Nixon. 

(Bloomberg. Reuters I . 


With Nissan, Samsung 
Moves Into Carmaking 


Compiled by Our Stiff From Dispatches 

SEOUL — Samsung Co., South 
Korea’s largest conglomerate, on 
Thursday chose Nissan Motor Co. 
as its partner in a move into the 
automaking industry. 

Samsung’s link with the Japanese 
company, which is subject to gov- 
ernment approval, comes amid heal- 
ed debate ovar whether South Korea 
needs another big car company. 

South Korea is already the 
world’s seventh-Jaigest auto mak- 
ing nation. It produced about 205 



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million cars in 1993, up 18 J per- 
cent from a year earlier. 

Hyundai Motor Go- Daewoo 
-Motor Co. and Kia Motors Coip. 
are the leading Korean automakers. 

Samsung now is building 1,200 
trucks a year with Nissan technol- 
ogy. Under the new pact, il will 
begin building cars in 1997, starting 
with about 50,000 cars annually. 

Nissan will help the Korean 
company build and operate its auto 
plant and establish a sales Detwork. 

Samsung is to pay Nissan $18.6 
million during the first three years. 
Nissan also will receive 1.6 percent 
to 1.9 percent of the factory price 
for each car sold under the Sam- 
sung brand in the first five years of 
production. 

Samsung said it chose Nissan 
over Volkswagen AG and Toyota 
Motor Corp. 

Nissan called the alliance a 
means of “expanding its business 
foundations in Asia." Japanese 
manufacturers have been moving 
production offshore as the rising 
yen erodes the competitiveness of 
their domestic plants. 

As a result of the Nissan-Sam- 
sung deal, “Other South Korean 
carmakers are likely to ask Japa- 
nese carmakers to increase their 
assistance to the South Korean 
firms to improve their quality," 
said Hiroshi Suemasa, a senior ana- 
lyst of Kankaku Research Institute. 

Samsung argued that its move 
would allow wide choice for con- 
sumers and strengthen the compet- 
itiveness of Korean cars overseas. 

But critics disagreed. Only two 
days ago, the staie-nm Korea Insti- 
tute for Industrial Economics and 
Trade said Samsung's entry into 
the auto market could result in 
oversupply and undermine the in- 
ternational competitiveness of Ko* 
man cars. (Ap Reulers) 


IB 


Blanc pain 



Since i 735 there has 

NEVER BEEN A QUARTZ BlANCPAIN WATCH. 
And THERE NEVER WILL BE. 


MEISTER 


■ritan 


JUWELEN UHREN SILBER 


ZtffRICH 

Master Ubren AC, Bahnhafctrw* 33, 8001 Zurich, Tel. 01/211 19 33 







** 


Page 12 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, FRIDAY. APRIL 29, 1994 




TT 1 • Via Astocated Pmi 

Japanese bruits = 

Hammer Dollar ^ 

Compiled bv Our Staff From Dispatches with IDEA, a Consulting firm ill 
NEW YORK— The dollar turn- New York. “The result of that is jjgi • 
bled to an eight-month low against that dealers and funds are buying ^ . ■ *'■ .. 
the yen Thursday a m id concern yen heavily to test that theory. ^ 
that Japan’s political changes wQl The U.S. trade representative s ^gjjpjfcs 
drag out the country’s trade dispute report on trade sanctions under the 

with the United States. recently revived Super-301 prow- rgjjgj 

Plummeting U.S. bond and stock aon is due Fnday, which also made . 
markets also weighed on the dollar, investors nervous. „ 

Bonds plunged after a component Ms. Smith added that Kainpo, 

v ^ — the Japanese postal savings fund, ,*.**??# 

Foreign Exchange appeared to have bought dollars m 

of*e gOTtra^nfs report on gross 

domestic product suggested the f™ V7?. on «* '?**■. 

v i fal “We had aSial bounce due to 

31 the size of the order but the trend is 
101275 yen down from 102330 on ch e predicting the 

W k ed “ S M. f Itftf SSfSld Mte 97 yen & d- EL *“ 

sche marks, down from 1.6723. The f . 

U5. cunoicyshd to 5.6985 Preach A series ofattempts to talk down 

francs from 5.7345 aml to l.4120 ^ ^ by Japanese officials failed Zlrr 
Swiss francs from 1.4779. tne / t v „ lrrencv ’s rise. 

PQ^l strengthened to $1.5140 ^hioToasaw^thc new Eco- 
from $13045. nnmie Plan nine Aaencv minister, ISK2 


'■ .... ■ri jk tiiv 

Xm- 

.'Si*— )■ « 

'vjj; 


Dow Jones Averages 


Indus 3707-27 370489 3457 JO 366181 -31 83 
Tram 1430.99 1637J9 142AJBT 1435.63 -10.82 
UIN 19626 1«6S9 19589 197X4 -1X5 
CorrW IJ1X29 1311 J7 1300J4 130585 — 413 


StandwdA Poores Indexes 

High Low Ctaoe CVge 
Industrials 524.10 52180 52322 — 2X2 

Tram. 39484 39X41 39*49—043 

UtilltteS 141.74 15X70 158.97—244 

Pligna 4344 4X00 4389—844 

I 3P 500 45223 447.97 449.10 — 177 

SP IN 41749 41139 41446 - M2 


NYSE Indexes 


! Composite 250.70 24840 249.13 — 1J2B 

industrials 307.74 30535 304.19 —184 

Tramp. 25244 23029 25045 —144 

Utillry 21 X 20 21X19 21244 —248 

Finance 208.90 20X91 207 JO -141 


EUROPEAN FUTUBES 
Metals 

daw previous 
ma Art bw w» 
aluminu m (HW i.oroo*) 

Donan per M4S40 1266X0 

cr-anH m m 


raSSoSMON SM* 

MWBO 344080 532380 533080 


francs from 5.7345 and to 1.41M ^ ^ Japanese officials failed 

^“Eraymeis selling dollais for 

yen because they don l see any pro- '< 5 —^ hard and specula- 
gress on the trade front, said Den- ^ undesirable, 

ms Fetor, Forogn-exchangcmanag- Fujii> the finance min- 

er at Long-Term Credi t Bank of said Ja Jn ^ other Group 
J^ian. “There s no one to buydol- Qf were ready to 

Janexcept the Bankof Japm- counter excessive currency moves 
The yens strength despite re- w h enev er markets were open, 
peated central bank intervention to U.S. stock and 

eap Japanese currency's rise naAe|s ^ have spurred a 

alsoburdened the dollar. divesture of doUar-denominaied 

“The mark« !s COTvm^ what- ^ ^ general, Ms. Smith said, 
ever the recent protestations of the ^ ^ was benefiting 

because investors saw it as a stable 
^d^Amy Smith, an analyirt (AFX. Reuters, Bloomberg 

GROW: Bond Prices Plummet 


NYSE Most Actives 

VOL Kfeh Low Lori Chs. 
TelcOonn 134809 2J*» Mil J» ~ 

RJRNflb 74538 7 . « 4h -g 

TelAAex 52495 MW SSVi 3f% 

GnMotr 48541 57Va 54» 543k - W 

IMarck 37695 30-A 29W 30X. 

RJR piP 32835 7 «1 fli -JJ 

AtrTdin 30968 24fk 34 24V4 

AtetartOS 29060 *&* 44W 4446 — 1VA 

OflVSlr 25315 495% 48V% 499% — J% 

WoSMarl 23810 251* 2V.i 2g<. +4% 

PhilMT 22544 55 531* SJ4i — 4% 

BM 22453 58’* 56* ST* -1V% 

UrtSV* 20207 im 10* 11 -}% 

Kmart 18375 144% 16 141% -1% 

r~^n 17919 414% 41 41H 


NASDAQ Host Actives 


NASDAQ Indexes 


ConwJW 734.92 731^40 73185 —256 

industrials 764J8 76R97 74184 — ft75 

BoVa 69085 48441 48784 —1.19 

Insuranao 887.71 88384 88489 — 0.16 

Flnonoa 902.95 90082 900J2 —IIS 

Trcnsp. 744.94 739J3 74X14 -1J5 


AMEX Stock Index 

High Low Last Os. 

43947 43SJ0 438.92 -IL71 


Dow Jones Bond A' 


20 Bonds 
lOUHimm 
10 Industrials 


Forward 192980 im» 

LEAD 

grttarspormswete. M ^ 

p£Lrd StIo S 45280 4SM0 

NICKEL 

Wloniwrii^cw^ g»80 

Fmani SSS 344080 532380 533US8 

Tin 

PSr ,Perl, Sn080^S4»» 534580 537M0 
SSmrd ^ 547MB S4JW0 543S80 

zinc tspcdoi Hw yrti 

Dollars pormmicwa 

SLm Si S* M » 

Financial 

High Low Ckrio «°°« 

^*60 NTH STERLING CLIFFS) 

(SIMM *P(>oMM SCI 


HM Low Lost 5olHo CtTte 
mm 15380 15480 15450 +XM 

S£ NX N* n!t. 154^+173 

Est.wohHne ;ia»8. Opwlnt. 99407 

BRENT CRUDE oil (MU 

U 8. Oollari pot hoiroMofa ofMN twrSl 

T ,*« ii20 H J3 15J3 — 0.T1 

•Iff IS IMS 1117 1114 —087 

m ILK 1X14 15J4 15.14 —004 

up Ii34 liM 15.17 JIM — 0.J1 

SS 353 «■» liras 


U.S./AT THE CLOSE 

Europe Umu Png, 

SKSSSS— 


gSasfet'as^ 3 * 


better at its 
sehold and 


igs 15J0 1533 1S.H —XI 2 

K2 sS its Ilia 1118 -0.14 

H* ur N.T. N.T. 1131 —114 

Fob NX N.T. N.T. H23 —0.14 

EsL wolunw; 47.139 . Oponlnl. IS9J31 


Whold 

personal care products. 

U.S. Sales Lift Johnson & Johnson 

NEW YORK (Bkx»b^)-Jot^ A TWay n™. 




High 

FT5E 100 CLIFFE) 

*25per mdBxp^t 

Jun 2J™ 

sen 31838 


Stock Indexes 

Hteh LOW CtoO Chow* 


31208 — 3X0 

tors -no 

31498 — 3M 


quarter earnings rose hj. pere«m — 

* X ^iwiue^«3.y percent, to S3.69 million, led a 15 percent increase 

SbaStag. Md Risperdal, an am-psydiohc medreafon. 


Contfaned from Page 11 


ing 5 from Johnson & Johnson, a 
leading health-care company, and 


seldom 

Intel s 

Alphal 

IJovallS 

Micsft 3 

USHittl 1 

TrtOnA 

InlBOv 

MCI S 

AdobeS s 

LOTUS 

Ciscos 

Gupta 

ScArt 

Loaont 


Vol Htah Law Last Ota. 

4 44% Wu — 7V% 

62V% 6llM 41'Vli —IV* 

2'* IV* 2 — «u 

189% 181* 18V% -V* 

9SV* 9114 92 V% 

39 1 * 37 38 +1VU 

199% 191a 191* —Vi 

32V* 2BW. 30H —1 

231% 229% 229% —V* 

269% 241* 251* +*• 

64 5994 639% *3V> 

32V% 309% 3119%* — 

is'* i4 is -iy% 

209% 1994 MV> *9% 

33'* 2994 319% +2 


riven the weather. Spending on res- Motors Corp., the coun- 

idential construction rose at a ?.i ^_y s ) 3 r y*yi carmaker, cushioned 
patent rate but that was stm much ^ stodfmarket's fall traders said, 
smaller than the 31.7 percent rate volume on the New York Stock 
of the previous quarter. Exchange surged to 323.24 million 

■ Report Ends Bond Rally shares from 287.99 million on 
The loss for U.S. Treasury bonds Wednesday. Declining stocks out- 
was the largest since April 4, numbered gainers by more than 4- 

1 ■ ■— to-3 ratio. 

(J.S. Stocks “The reversal in bonds is kill i n g 

— T — : ~~~ the stock market," said William 

Bloomberg Business News report- president in equity trad- 
ed from New York. .. ing at UBS Securities Inc. “All the 

“A weak first quarterdoesn t tut ^ B g, j n the world aren't 

mean the ocpansion is over” andis t0 si^this.” 

rKrten<wghto ctoMpm^uon ex- eu - p 6 le ^ amiciparing that 

pectontms^WflhamSto^a ratfi8 ^ to move up," 

man aging director at Montgomery ^ Tufl> a manger a t 

teAhSSl: in five of the O^.GWi|il^ 

past six days. The 30-year issue had £<L"!Sl)*£> 

gained about 3 VS points during that S. G. Warburg & Co., said hebe- 

oasis points. — Sri-- «k« fwlAral fiinTfc rule an- 


AHEX Moat Actives 


ExpLA 
EchoBov 
KiterDK) 
HHh Pro 
OiovSfTs 
RHI Efrt 

HonwtB 

SdPtllb 

SPOR 

RoynlOg 


VOL HM LOW LOW 0*0- 

52504 19*i l¥u 19% -V* 

S 11 V% 109% llVi *-9% 

4804 59% 5M. 594 

4512 94 V* "/» + Vi* 

4202 25» 249% 25 - 

3939 35iV« 359% 359% 

3m "fa Vi. V* 

S3 Sfe 2& S 5, -« 

2796 49% 41% 40* *Vu 


NYSE Diary 


Advanced 

□ocOned 

Unchanoud 

Total Isbms 
N ow Highs 
New Lows 


AMEX Diary 


AdvmcEd 

Declined 

UnOianoed 

Total Issues 
NewWahs 
New Lows 


NASDAQ Diary 


Advanced 
Dodlnad 
Undiarwed 
Total Issues 
NewHtohs 
New Lews 


941 1248 

1277 913 

598 CIS 

2814 2799 

31 » 

41 58 


— ass as M z% 

a " u S£ ns nj ml = <u» 

zSH g Rg S3 S5 =l| 

— 1.19 ttl2 noo 9280 -JM 

-0.14 SSi 9185 91 J4 91-73 — <UO 

-1I» 9lS 9183 91« -OW 

+ijs SS 91*3 91.40 vms —am 

S 91K 9187 9185 

—— SJ5 91JB 91.13 yl i’r tU0 

EN. volume: £258. Oeen Ini.: 494845. 
3-MONTH EURODOLLARS ILIFFE1 

am. M -!■ 

*072 ^ KS «w 94W =010 

_ g H* ST: SB =K1 

!lT mIt. 9053 — 115 

«•» E*l.volutne:TI4.0Bonlirt.:llW99. 

3-MONTH EUROMARia ILIFFE) 
cti-uo DM1 mUHoo-ofsoT wepet 

=B E N H H tB 

— M3 gJS 3J5, «5o 94JE +082 

5ST MW M84 MM UlKdL 

■■ ■■ CM 5TS 900 94J1 — 004 

un 9486 9488 — 006 

Mar 9486 9389 93.90 — OBS 

5s 9374 —009 

rev. cS raw 9142 9X64 — 010 

[368 DK N.T. N.T. 9X53 —087 

ma N& 9158 9X45 9X45 —087 

618 *Est volume: 16X351 Open lnt.: 945J5X 


Comparison Hurts Dow E a rn i n gs 


9474 —004 

94X3 —0.10 

9482 —OH 


uea tMATin 

r ms ssg v§ 

r™ 216180 215X50 214980 +7W 

S5- NX RT. 217980 +780 

Mv 221680 221488 220050 +780 

Est. volume: 34W9. Open hit: 7X139. 

Sources: Motif. Associated Press. 
London mn Flnatdal Futures ExcMlOb 
inti Petroleum Exchange. 




BHiUsMe Iowa 
Germantown Bk 
Johnson ft John 
Ouebecor Inc 
Sonoeo Prod 


9488 —006 

9190 —088 


1624 1707 

1570 1367 

1799 1915 

4993 4989 

44 57 

125 107 


1+40 NTH PIBORCMAT1R 
PPS mlttlon -■» enooad 
Jon 906 


Eat. volume: 4484X Ooon lnt.; 219,957. 

KVmairt _ M 

e te* 

£sL volume : 96,199. Open hit.: 12X547. 
BERMAN GOVERNMENT BUND ILIFFEJ 
DM 25*800 -Pt» Of MO PCI 

s &g ss as =a 

ESL volume -248S5. Open fad.: 183874. 
18-YEAR FRENCH GOV. BONDS (MATIF) 

55 W ‘‘l21JB" , tzi.U 12184 UnctL 

S« 131.10 12050 12038 — OW 

Dec 12024 12022 11958 —006 

Est. volume: 273JSX Open InU 14K771 


Bncp HawaDn 
Inlrcp insCAMa 
latrep IniMui Sec _ . 
Pelrolane Inc B 
Shuroard Storage 
US H e oni i m re n 
US Healthcate B n 
wester Fed 

REGULAR 

ASARCO Inc 
Albarmarle Carp 
Am Rltrona 
Am NttSvssBk 
Arctcolnc B 

Banco rpsoutn Inc a 

BayDanka Q 

"0 
IN 

Iwtoht 
w 


i 2151-00 + 7 xo MIDLAND Michisan (AP) — Dow Chemical Co. said Thursday its 

1 5 S 3 ta ^ P«^t tom the inflate «s^ts of the 

! |j» +|| com^rable JUr-ago period, when U sold its stake m an ofl services 

Press. bU ^^the second-largest U.S. dtonical company, »d itearn^ $173. 
ufures Exchange, ^ revalue of $4 36 bilhoa. Dow sold its 50 percent share of 

Dowdl Schlumbergex for $450 million before taxes last y ear. 

Dow said its first-quarter operating profits grew 36 percent on the 
— stre ng th of cost-cutting, unproved U.S. economic growth and the start of 

an economic upturn in Europe. 

"* U.S. Accepts UAL Code-Sharing Pact 

‘“.it 5 -w 4-7 WASHINGTON (Bloomberg) — The U.S. Department of Transpor- 
§ £ 5 -i 7 ^ tation gave its final approval Duusday for a code-sharing alhance 
■ frjfi t!2 betweenUnitcd Airlines and Lufthansa AG. Tbeammgement lets the 
lL two carriers sdl eada other’s flights. 

. 84 s -20 4-14 Airfines covet code-sharing because it allows access to forejm 
U 13 maricets. Fot passengers, codc-shanng service is lie linked flights on the ■ 


: s W 




INCREASED 

Q .12 5-19 


$ f ran c 


- ^ tin same airline. Travdexs make one reservation, get one ticket ana cmck . 

: m their bags only once— even though the flight typically consists of at least* 

: ‘S W 2 s-27 two segments, tme on each parmo - . 

lr j u fihMisa and United said the arrangement would help them compete , 

2 12 «2 $-1 in the rans-Atlantic market, where cod&sharing aDianoa already enst » 
§ 74 5-io 5-25 h*h»>m Vrtrthwesi Airlines and KLM Royal Dutdi Airlines and bc- 


two segments, (me on eachpartnCT. 

Lufmansa and United said the ar 
in the rans-Atlantic market, where 


Spot Commodities 


Market Sales 


“People are anticipating that 
rates uml continue to move up,” 
said Thomas Tull, a manager at 
Gulf stream Global Investors. 

Joseph Lira, chief economist at 
S. G. Warburg & Co., said he be- 
lieved the first-quarter GDP report 
would not dissuade the Fed from 


Aluminum, lb 
Coffee. Brax. lb 
Cooper etodratvtlc, R* 
Iran FOB. tan 
Load, lb 
Silver, Iroy w 
Stool (scrap), ton 
Tin, lb 
Zinc, lb 


ptov. Industrials 

HI* LO. Lnt strife Clrt*. 

moo uSfSJniBrnwr metric toe-Ms of 110 tan» 
0J4 MOV 149 JO 14780 14980 14980 +025 

5.18 Jan 149JW 14*50 14980 14X75 +050 

13783 jSl 150JJ9 M7J5 149^ 15080 +OW 

X6137 ADO 151X5 UV80 15180 15180 + 0» 

08328 S«p N.T. N.T. N.T. 15350 +OH) 


Omreti Dwtaht 
aioarplnc 
Ctovo El ILadlPfL 
CbTOOlr Hesfd 
Corntn^lnc 

Crown Am RHv 
Delta Air 
Freest Consl SW 
Ipscolnc 
Lufcra Inc 
Martin Marietta 
Mead Carp 
Oshkosh Truck B 
Paccar Inc 
Pacific Scientific 
Rta Atoom Ltd 
Rol tins Truck 
Smiths Food 
Stonf Can* 

Toledo EdadlalA 
USX Cora odlpf 

usXMarnttwn 
Valera Energy 
ValHcorp Hold 
WOadhead Ind . 


m 5-10 5-25 between Northwest Airlines and KLM Royal 
87 5 -i 6 tween DSAir and British Airways. 

87 4-M 7-1 

I til Loss Narrows for United Airlines 

M We CHICAGO (Bloomberg) — UAL Corp. said Thursday that its firet- ' ^ 

ti (So *38 quarter loss narrowed but that it continued to be dogged by discounted 
lie s -5 5 -i 9 fares and competition from carders with lower 
m mi ”i The parent company of United Airlines said 
jv So 6^30 narrowed to $71 million from $138 nnUkm in 1 

J5 5-9 5-20 Ypfli* 

tJ *2? The results reflect a $12 million charge frou 
jit « company’s pending employee buyout. A ch 

83 4-17 7-S 

aiwumtino rhinWS mSi (in the final loss $97 m£ 


I 


^ 5^9 6-i The resui 
!m m? 68 company’s 
jo tS ms accounting 

85 5-15 4-15 


narrowed to $71 million from $138 mimon m tne comparame quarter a 
year ago 

The results reflect a $12 milli on charge from expenses related to the 
company's pending employee buyout. A charge of $26 million for 
prawn trap changes made the final loss $97 million. 




?xl s! ^ Forlhe Record 

o mb AT&T Corp. plans to invest more than $150 million in C h i n a — 

o 84 m ti! indndma establishing an arm of its Beil Laboratories research center— 

Q 885 54 5-23 


x -approx amount per ADR. 

o-aanoal; g-payaWe In CanwOan hmhu m- 

moatMyiq-qaarlnrfyi s-annHnaaal 


o j7 54 mo AT&T Corp. p lans to invest mare than $150 million in uuna — 

Q '88 M MS induding establishing an arm of its Beil Laboratories research center— 

„V SE m5 wjd SKS,-»»« 55 nil I- isa 1*S mm i« jjg i M M 

2&S StanfSi.tan 1 ^ »» JW »g« Iffig gj, M +ng cfoaiwioi; o- parabie l a cawwBiai hu ussf p»- Glaxo Hol&gs RLC said Thursday It was suing CE»-C«igy AG’s US. 

N «b«. zi^ta ^ O^ISS? Tls W. W. ?BS ?8S I subadhuy/cSSa Ptannaceuilcals lbc. for infringing the patent of us 

best-seflinn drua, Zantac. (Bloomberg) 

" ' Moody’s Investors Service Inc, citing market requests for ratings that 

KFTVl t^KB ; financial Compcavy Is Arguing Its Value on the Stock Market ratings as pan of a compw gae 

a •r ° . . D imiL.i*- Aivino the commitment to derivatives risk. (a mgfu-Jiiaaerj 

rrari Investor, he said, shoold be ted to incre^ its offer without seerng the told Wha s me w ^ ( ^ &Ca ^ ag ^ toS eni tsC okmyoCoaICo.unitforS253 

Coutumed from Page 11 pn gections than books. After the earnings^an- gg^pody is not earnings, irs to an affiHate of Keuneotm ConL. 


In tra^ng on Thursday, bond rafemg the federal Audi ir^an- 
prwes initially rose as much as half °^ CT 25 basis points, to 4 percent, 
S point, or $5 for every $1,000 of before the end o« the second quar- 
face value, after the Commerce De- ler - . 


- — . n r „ ,i » omh, Investors, he said, should be led to 

heved thefirst-qumtCT GDP rroort Coutmued from Page 11 projections than 

"thp gains and losses and the effects of those by analysts on the Street." 

raarng the federal funds rattan- restrocturing. At $3.81, the $55 bid would be 

S^fdS 011 WaD StiecU ** mcan earn ' abatti l4 u Kemper ’ S ^ 

before the end o. toe second quar estimate for this year is $3.81 a mgs on the continuing operations 

ier - , _ . share of operating income, rising to basis. That multiple is similar to 

toeral Motors was unchanged £ast year, it was where most stocks currently are 

at 56% m spite of its sharp earnmgs ^ Mathis, without provid- trading, and does not seem to re- 

SHiB-,.. . yj.r-n r<va . % tn ing specifics, said Thursday that flea much of a premium for Mr. 

If ^ IS 1 994 and 1995 numbers were Mathis s restructuring efforts. 


partment made its announcement vomeral ly 
on growth. ® S P 1 

The bear market in bonds, com- gam. 
bined with fears that the Federal Tejfcfonos 
Reserve Board may raise short- 59% m spite 
term rates soon, produced broad port that firs 
losses among blue-chip stocks. fallen due t 
But better-than-expected earn- change loss. 


Telfcfonos de Mfexico rose % to 


above the $55 bid in recent ses- 
sions. 

GE and some analysts disputed 
the idea that Kemper’s earnings 
were behind the rise. “The numbers 
were better than expected, but 


GFs bid." million m casn, ueot ana recavanres iu an auuuuc u* Bumcum 

Tom Lamb, a General Eectric the coal-pfodudng snbsidiiny of RTZ Gap- Grace fiso said »ten^ 
snokesman, said Thursday that his income rose 21 percent m the first quarter as profits m ils health-care 
rompanys recent offers stand, and diviaon more than offset lower eaunngs from its 

*r> mmmfflt rai the fv*t- divisinns. (Bloomberg) ■ 


SSSmS. ^TomLamb, * Geaenl Bec&ic 

on the day; they have been trading spokesman, said Thursday t^t his 

above the $55 bid in recent ses- company s recent offers stand, and division more I 

he refused to comment on the bet- divisions. 

GE and some analysts disputed ter-than-expected profits. Beil Atbatic 


59% in spite of the company s re- at our earn- Investors seem to be hoping for a sho^dn’t have mut* of anunpKt 

prat that first-quarter earnmgs had power based on the infonna- higher bid from GE, although the on GEs bid," Ira Zuckerman, an 

fallen due to a hefty foreign ex- ^Ths*** rmwided." he said, company has said that it would not analyst at SBS Financial Group, 


To subscribe in France 

fustcafl, toil free, 

05437437 


Beil Atfamk Mobile, the cellular telephone division of BeB Atlantic 
Caro* said It has introduced wireless packet-data services in three 
moA^h marking one of the first commercial introductions of such 
services over existing U.S. cellular networks. The technology allows 
customers to send wireless messages, sales orders and invoices for less 
than the cost of a postage stamp. Itwill initially beavaflable in Baltimore, 
Washington and Pittsburgh. (Bloomberg) 


bet:- 7, ' 

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WORLD STOCK MARKETS 


U.S. FUTURES 


Season Sun* 
Hiflft LOW 


Law Qtne Ow OkW 


Smn Season 
Hah Law 


Open Hah Law C3an Cha OnM 


■Agenat hanv now April 28 


Amsterdam 

ABN Amro HM 
ACF Holding 
Aegon 
AhoM 

;Akzo Nobel 
AMEV __ 
Bols-WeaBonan 
CSM 
DSM , 

Elaovier 
Fokkcr 

Gfart-Bracodos 
HBG 
HeMoken 
' H oowwre . 

Hunter Dougka 
IHCCotond 
Inter Muefter 
Inti Noderiond 
KLM 
KNP.BT 


Via Anodatad Pnist 

Season Season “ 
HW Low 


9420DI94 lljn 1141 1148 TUB -083 3U» 

OTJAtaW 11J5 11 JO 11.19 11^ -084 1 UK 

1037 MOV 93 II JB 11J9 11JB 11^ -J8J 

10LS7JUI9S -g» ’-S? 

ia57 Oct 93 iiJi -em 

1088 660*96 11.14 -084 39 


Open Mah Law dose Cha B».W 


Helsinki 


AiwYhtyrrw 

Ensa-GutsHt 

HiMamakl 

K4XP. 

Kvmraano 

Malm 

Nokia 

PoWola 

Ropota 

Stockmann 


139 132 

39 JO 3980 
213 213 
12J0 1X20 

tt® 110 

im ax* 

459 499 

81 8B 
9SJ0 9450 
213 220 


Nadilovd 

OcwGrtnton 




Hong Kong 

SSSWpwr 40^ 


SocGenBwKJu* 

■SocGonBfSoMoe 

'Safina 

Seivav , 

Tractabol 

UCB 

Unkm AAlntara 


Dairy Farm Inti 1140 

Hang Lung Dw 1X60 

Hang Seng Bank 53, 

HendananLond 3X50 
HK Air Ena. <5J5 

HK China Gas 17 

HK Electric 2X30 

HK Land 2X20 

HK RraKY Trust 22M 

HSBC Holdings 87 JO 

HK Slang Hits 1X10 

HK Tatocamm low 

HKFarry liuo 

Hutch Whampoa 
Hvsan Dav 2X80 

, Jordlne JWatti. 

Jordln* Str HM 3BJ0 

Kawtoan Molar UJO 

Mandarin Orient 1010 

Miramar HoM _ 21 

rinmnnln NwlWHDl* 2C« 

Brussels shk p*wj <1-2 

AG Fin ****** 2640 Stefux XJB 

ArtMd Ino Svrire Poc A 57j=i 

bSS SS 2470 Td OwaiP™ 10-90 

Bakoari KSfia 26075 

f~nrfcrtrfll 192 190 WDOTf HWO 

Ssiffiriis 

4385 4390 

10200 101 23 

4990 4880 
10700 10700 

««j ^ To Our Readers 

T^SiStso Stock prices for Ma- 

ireoo ’1000 drid were not available 
23650 234® [for this edition be- 
*xT77iiji (cause of problems ai 
the source. 


ROtMCO 

Rodomoo 

Rorinoo 

R o ronto 

Royal Dutch 

Stark 

Uni lover 

vm o mm eren 

VNU 

Watters/ Kluwei 

MSffjar 


Daflaam 
Etedrabel 
■GIB 
GBL 
Govo ort 
KretHftBank 
Petrotma 
Po mr f ln 
Roval Botoe 


Salrabury 
Scot Newcos 
Scat Power 


SmnhNcnhM 
5mltt*Kllne B 
Smith (WH> 
Sun Alliance 
Tate ft Lvle 


Than* EMI 
Tomkins 
TSB Group 
Unilever 
UW Biscuits 
Vodafone 
War Loan 3*4 
Wellcome 


Gen. Enux 

Havas 

imetal 

LaforgeCoppee 

Log rend 

Lyon. Eoux 

OnaML-> 

L.VJWK 

Matra-Hocherie 

Mlcheiln B 

Moulinex 

Portttas 

Pedilnev Inti 

Pefiud-Rlcatd 

P e u geot 

Pi hn wwpe (Au) 

Radtatechnlque 

Rh-PaulencA 

Raff. SL Louis 

Redoufe (La) 

Saint Gabaln 

SEA 

Ste Generate 

Tl*omsan-CSF 

Total 

il£p. 


western Minina 4.95 6J» 

WjgcgBankln. 474 474 


Tokyo 


Akai Etectr 

AsoM Chemical 
ASaM Glass 
Bank at Tokyo 
Bridgestone 
Canon 

r rr,lr> 

Dal Nippon Print 
Dalwa House 
Dotwa Securities 
Forme . 

Full Bank 
Fu l Photo 
Fujitsu 

Hitachi 

Hitachi Cable 


IfoYokado 

Itochu 

CACfjMn dgj.aWJg Japan Airline* 

prevtoesT 5147.32 Kaiima 

Kansal Power 
KavaaaU Steel 
; Kirin Brewery 

Sao Paulo kojtwisu 

Banco do Brasil 23» 21.90 ^ 

Bcnespa 14J0 14.10 M^wElecInds 

Brodesco 1540 1110 Elec Wks 

Brahm a 300 2B0 MiijubHhl Bk 

Paranoaanema 2199 21.70 MHsub Shi Kascl 
Ptrtrabras 1 M 1W ffiSShlSf eSe 

Telebras .46^ 44J0 MJKutilsril Hcv 

vote Rta Dace ^ nr ftEfflcS. 
Varlg 1» 159 1 Mitsui and Co 

Bovessa Uiaex : 14723 NUtsukasiu 

PrtVWW : 14831 Mitsumi 

NEC 

NGK Insulators 

Qinnnnnrp Nfkka securities 

bmgapore Nippon Koaaku 

Cerrtxw 880 XTS Nippon CHI 

Oty Dev. , J 785 Nippon Sleet 

DBS 1140 11-M Nippon Yusen 

Fraser Neave IB-90 18.TO Nissan 

Genllng 17J0 T7J0 Nomura Sec 

Golden Hope PI xo *4 urr _ . . 



ESBtt&i' 


2369 2510 
x: 771171 


Frankfurt 



The steck market ii 
Johannesburg was 
closed again on Thurs 

day because of (he na 

tional elections. 


3275 3235 
873 879 JO* 
482 487 
250 HI 
47150 477 

■M 343 
1195 ms 
418 414 
753 753 
391 291 



Singapore 

CeratoM 8J0 8.TS 

Oty Dev. 6 7£5 

DBS n-40 11J0 

Fraser Neave IBJJ IX^ 

Gatling 1740 17.20 

Gaidai Hope PI M M 

mow Par 344 344 


Can Tire A 

Cantor 

Cara 

CCLlndB 
Onedex 
Com Inca 
CWiwest Expl 
DenfcianMfaiB 
Dotasco 
Dvtoc A 

Echo Bay Mines 

Eaaltv Silver A 

FCA loti 

FedindA 

Fletcher Chall A 

FPI 

Gontra 

GoH Cda Res 
Hees Inti 
Hernia GW Mines 
Hooirwer 
Horsham 
Hudson's Bay 
imasco 
Inca 

Internrav pipe 
Jannock 
Labatl _ 
LnbtowCo 
Mackenzie 
Magna inti A 
MoateLeaf 
Maritime 
MorkRes 
MacLean Hunter 
Motion A 
Noma ind A 
Noronda Inc 
Noranda Forest 
Narcen Energy 
Ntnem Telecom 
Nava Coni 
Oshawa 
Pagurin A 
Placer Dome 
Paco Petroleum 
PWACorn 
Ray rack 
Renalsuntce 

Kuimiuu 

Royal Bcmk Can 
Sceptre Res 
scam Hew 
Seagram 
Scan Can 
Shell Can 



344 344 I Olympus Optical 1010 1000 I sherrltt Gordon 


Hume Industries 545 J4S I pioneer 


Keopei 

KL Keaong 

Lum Chans 

Malayan Banks 

OCBC 

OUB 

OUE 

SemtMwans 

Shangrlla 

SlmeDamy 

S*poreLand 
Stoore Press 
Sbw Steamship 


585 385 Ricoh 

’’JO fonw E,ee 

191 X91 shorn 

174 171 strimazu 

*80 880 shtoetsuCnem 

12 1180 sonv 

740 7.40 Sumltomu 8k 

.. .S .Z-S Sumitomo Chen* 
1280 12J0 Sumi Marine . . 
5^5 5*55 Sumitomo Metal 
*?? 17J TatselCarp 
775 740 Tafstio Marine 
,745 740 ToScoda Chem 
1480 14J0 TDK 
. .4 .4 Tell In 


Slna Steamship 4 4 Teflln 

3-pore Telecomm 388 148 Tokyo Marine 
Straits Train ns ,384 140 Tokyo Elec Pw 
uob 10*5 10-W Toopan Priming 

UOL 277 277 Torar Ind. 

Pr.utooi.BMji Yamalchl Sec 

a.- x UU 


2410 2600 1 shl Svstetnhse 

Soultia m 
Spot Atnznzz 
Sielca A _ 
Talisman Enere 
TeckB _ 
TmuraonCara. 
Toronto Damn 
Tor ilar B 
Tronwdta util 
TransCda Pipe 
Triton Flnl A 
Trtmac 
TrizecA 
unfeorp Energy 


Stockholm 


Montreal 


Alcan Atuml nun* 
Bank Montreal 
Bell Canada 
Bombardier B 
CafflWor 
Cartooes 
Dominion Text A 
Donohue A 
MQcMiltan Bl 
Nan 8k Canada 
Pow er Cora. 
QuebeeTd 
Quefiecar A 
OuebecsrB 
Teleglobe 
Unhre 
vtoearron 


AGA 
ASM A 
Asm* A 
Atlas Copco 
Electrolux B 

— Ericsson 

B t EueihhA 

Bl Handel sbatikct* 

29 2W% investors 
259% 24W Norsk Hydro 
43V* 43 “1 Procardia AF 
20% 219% Sondvlk B 
17% 173% SCA-A 

8 8 5-E Banker 

714 71k Skamfla F 

HU. 24 SkanskO 
20K 209* SKF 

9 9 Storo 

SMfa 211% Treilfborg BF 
24 29% Volvo 

xvi m 


m 412 

433 431 

149 157 

533 530 
410 399 
350 3S2 


HHV 



Toronto 


SSySTSSS i£F* 

Zurich 

Adta Inti B 243 239 

Ahisulsse B new 473 447 

BBCBrwnBbtfB 1299 1290 
CRM Gefgv B 895 918 
CS Holdings B 606 60* 
EtekllW B 377 373 

Fischer a 1SD0 1490 

imennscounr b 2230 2210 
Jetmol! B 835 845 


IBS 187 Abltlbl Price 
?<7 247 Aon lee Eagle 
1T3 113 Air Canada 
121 J19 Alberta Energy 


C3 Holdings B 406 40* 

Elektrow B 377 373 

Fischer B 1SD0 1490 

IMtrdlcouilB 2230 2210 

Jefmoll B 835 B<5 

LandH Gyr R B7B 878 

, MomnMCKB 440 435 

0 Nestle R 1185 1210 

lAVs i*s% I Oerllkj Duel ii le R lfl 145 

I5te 1» ParaeseHidB 14» use 

6H Iu Rocne Hdo PC 4000 4810 

I brim bnuhllr m<n m 


Grains 

MEAT CCBOTJ SMthfinMkTkm-MtoraBwbiBlKl 

3J2 380 May 94 134 125 130 331 <4 

X56 286 Jum X26 X25 121Vi 134W +081 'A 30J54 

W ITO tePM XWVi 38M* 313W XBVi *881 6^5 

145 389 Dec 94 140 380 135Vi 38914+081* 4^ 

154*1 X27 MCT95 3805% 382 3J8W XO »0.02 SU 

3J5 3.14 Vi May 95 1861% 320 1361% X» m 

3821% XU JUI9S 123 1231% 171 321 -081 60 

Est. sales NA rue's, sates 9J43 

Tue'sopenM 47.138 oH 1W 

WHEAT (KBOT1 VWOu nPVnw- 

s* ^'W'W ^ 

X53V. 385 MW 95 137 X3S 135 3J8 345 

134 331 VlMoy 95 3329* +087VS 17 

Est. safes NA. Toe's, sides <382 

Toe's open *4 2X 920 

CORN (CBOT1 SjqqhiiiTiliPiivny'dneoriBWbiPiijI 
X16 1 * UIViM«iy94 161 2441% 141 TMVi *0M 39307 

1141% 281 Jul« 2849% 1481% 344* 5^f‘5SS'5'SS 

mV, 280 V% Sep 94 2411% 243 240*% 247V, .Q8TA 31839 

X73M 2»hWi94 2JS SJN» 133* 144 +08DM 71^4 

279% 243 Mar 93 2.41 V, 2421% 240W X43U+083 ’a 6.^ 

282 2471% May *5 245 2461% 2441% 2441% +0« 777 

243 ’A 249 JUI9S 2461% 2471% 266V% 2^% +0«1% -BM 

7&Vi 244 ’6 Dec 95 147 141V* 287 1411% +083 1.136 

Est.sdes NA Toe's, sales 69466 
TUe'souenM 7 W.73 5 ofl 3*10 

SOTBCUfi fCBOTJ MOOBUI U IPIIUIII e tan wrjWPH „ 

741 ^X92V,May'w 672 675V, 670W 672V* +103 U.133 

740 5541% Jo) 94 672 6741% 44F% 6721% +083*% 5BJS8 

745 670 Aug 94 647 649W 6441% 6464% +0831% 10.149 

449 V. 617 5e®94 646 6869. 643 MJV* +0^6 6JD 

TSTVi 545’% Nov 96 628 629 62S>4 626<6 +8821% 3983B 

670 613 Jan VS 6X2 6X3’* 6X1V* 6^ -WIV, X7JJ 

6731% 618 Ato9S 637V* 6M7* fcWj ‘OJO^ 791 

6J0 621 May 95 6X9 6X9 6X9 V* 6X1 V, —0.009, 339 

675 684 Jul95 641 683 681 681 — 080V, .741 

6HIW 581 v i Nov 95 609 612 609 611 1833 

Est. sain na Tim's, ides 56X33 
Toe's open Ire 138,0* an 3681 

SOYBEAN MEAL ICBOT] NBm-daewiM'nn . .. 

ZI2J00 ISfTOMiy 94 190X0 *9120 1B940 19020 —0.90 11709 

23080 >15.70 J8 W 19020 191.90 19080 190.70 — 180 36833 

72380 18580 Aug 94 1*9 JO 190.90 109X0 19080 -08B 11 J85 

21080 lS3705ap94 16741 1W20 11740 *BUO — 0.90 7,790 

20680 181 40 Oct 94 18630 16620 16630 16540 -880 3.135 

20980 480 Dec 94 18850 1BS80 1B4J0 114.M —0/0 17.950 

20080 16040 Jen 93 18580 1M70 1B4« IB.10 *6« I860 

19480 18I4DM0T9J 187.00 18740 18780 18780 -040 W 

19X50 1B280MOV 95 18740 117-50 16780 10780 -X» M 

16080 UZJOJutVS 18680 18020 1(780 11780 —120 130 

Esl. solas NA Tue*6»0fes 57X51 
Tup's open In* 86193 on >U 
SOYBEAN OR. ICBOT) Htekt-MnirMW. 
Sffl^2l5bwwf4 2645 2X49 2X45 2»45 + 084 11^4 

7970 2lSjUlW 2645 2040 26X5 2646 +0.06 37^0 

29.20 21j65AU0*4 3L15 JJ-" 

20/0 2281 Sep 94 2745 2748 2785 278V +081 11.138 

27/0 22.10CM94 2655 2655 2681 2689 + 083 6365 

7785 690 Dec 94 2585 2585 2520 3577 -081 158M 

2685 2285JW95 2SJS 2548 2540 2S45 -082 11M 

M W 2470Mcr 95 2580 H80 25X0 Z5J0 —610 747 

2640 2662 May 95 25X0 25X5 25.13 25.15 -610 384 

S3 24/5 Jul 95 2510 2515 2585 2505 -0.10 *5 

ESI. «As NA Tuft sales 34/16 
Tue'sopenlri 9600 oh CIS 

Livestock 

._-j5«4 lJ n5o’^S^ , ri85 71.15 + 080 3U44 

69.10 AuO 94 69/3 6982 ®J0 MAS -OXJ ”*i£ 

718000 94 71X5 7 1 82 7182 71. IS -0.82 TU59 

71 /S Dec 94 72JH 75.12 7177 71.97 +0.05 6S* 

71 70 Feb 95 7280 72.10 71.90 71X0 +615 2X35 

75.10 75.95 Apr 95 73JB 7130 7102 HXO +070 934 

71 JS 7I.10JU195 71.10 71.10 7690 7690 -635 19 

Est. sales 13/M TufLiulM Z1X93 
Tub's open W 65,909 up 671 


1183 10J7JUI9S ^ l 'f£f 

1180 1657 Oct 95 ^ ^ 

11X5 1088Mn*96 n - w “«*• 35 

Ess. sates 19X75 WMdttJMa 
tub’s oeen W 1069JO ofl 2301 

^ 1123 +71 39840 

IOT |&S»94 1118 H50 1110 1M8 +19 W 

1389 1041 Dec 94 1160 1180 1150 1190 +19 M 

1382 IBTTMifS 11M I2T3 1192 1219 +1910890 

1400 M80MOV93 10M 1119 1070 1115 +21519 

m W25 Jul 95 12« 1256 1241 1269 *19 2896 

iS !otS95 XM um TO5 12B +11 S+I 

1437 1297 Dec 95 mo 1290 1290 +15 S» 

1385 1330 MOT 96 1355 +15 3 

1262 1230 Mav 96 1225 1227 1225 1249 +19 5807 

t^^«^4J M S& e SS r ^30 +610 2^ 

3£g !££££ ZS W 

13400 10615 Nov 94 10655 112.15 *0695 11X15 +580 1,116 

13X00 NHJBJanVS 10880 11380 10880 11380 +480 2,156 

m» 10680 Ma* 95 11075 11580 11675 116X5 +580 9)9 

llxS 112/0 May 95 114X5 114X5 11425 11840 +580 

Jul 93 I198S +580 

Sen 95 11980 +580 

Ed. ides W« Wyjrt IW 

Tub's open b* 72403 off 224 

Metals 

10X95 M2SM1* 8980 9LM 09X5 91/S t XI 5 32X55 

,0W! S 3 55 S 5 » :|55 i& 


94X00 91.110 Dec 95 93830 n8H ra.730 ra.l« -0«}41/M 

94X20 90750 TAar 96 13X90 9X410 93X00 9X880 — 340120,909 

Est. sales NA TUB'S, sate 431X29 
Toe's open lot 2/84401 ofl 3771 


Riurstfay s C 


•i ' ".iirut.- 


BRITISH POUND fCMgRI . » Btr aowvH l w+tf 14C901 

14150 18474 Jun 94 *4034 14130 14006 1415B +« 44X64 

14040 18440SmM 1.4N0 1J120 1^80 4TO +J% 18® 

14010 l8500Dec*i 14040 14060 18970 l^H +« D 

18660 186® Mar 96 140W +100 2 

EsLe/n NA Toe’s. srtes 44144 
Toe’s open W 45X41 UP 413 7 
CANADIAN DOLLAR 

07105 071 73 Jon 94 67260 67260 07214 07216 —51 27,734 

67740 OTtMSep 94 07205 67215 87184 07184 —53 1,9» 

07670 07036 Dec 94 67185 07185 07T45 07161 —51 1JP 

07605 07020 Mir 95 0X150 17130 17143 OJlig —56 6W 

07522 04990 Jun VS 0X145 0X145 67120 07120 -55 86 

Sep 95 0X100 -a I 

ESI. Hies NA Tub's, sdes 5.122 
Tue’sooanM 41X47 off 491 

GERMAN MARK (CMEK) Sew mark- 1 eaMeauW* 3000*1 

06133 65607 Jun 94 6*64 66012 65954 64011 +58 99/M 

08865 0X600 SOP 96 65M4 66005 0L5M4 08003 +60 tW 

65)51 04390 DecM 04MO 08000 64960 66007 +6B W 

Jun 95 04980 09)80 049B0 660CD 

04817 04810 Mar 96 04011 +62 <19 

Est. sales NA Tub’s, sates 42/15 
TUP'S open lnt 1(0868 up 1415 

JAPANBEYEM ICMEfu fprw>- ipoUvquqiiiuoooBi 
O J099456 000871 Jm 94 60Q9780QJ»WIWOilB976M 8IIHB2 +141 B8» 
6009900600eM2Sep94 D8nB50D8099SB08Wffi06Q099S4 +145 2X94 
600993llUnyS2SDK 94 60099250810035118099256010021 +110 60 

600999SUlD9995JUn95 DJJ1 00700.01 0150ajn00700J31(n74 +1<1 2 

08099270809S30MnrM OBI DOIOOJlDHMlLDlOfXmOl 0095 +156 9 

Ed. sates NA TwTs. sates 16X54 
Toe'S Open W 58X82 Ofl 72 

SWGS FRANC (CMER1 MPWHllpn e HMB 
07115 04590 Jin 94 669M 67092 0090 6X869 +102 38X65 

0X115 04400 5«l 94 07012 07105 67010 0X104 +102 3M 

07130 H.taBSDec94 07131 *102 337 

es. soles na Tuev sates 18407 

Toe's open W 39/86 op 04 

industrials 

COTTON 2 (NON) S0400 tev- one, nr te. 

BX9B 5787A8ay»4 8X25 840 82X5 840 +238 201 

8171 5840 Jul 94 1619 8145 8085 8145 +280 26834 

76/5 59410094 74X0 7370 74.14 7541 +1.19 44*7 

7488 59/S Dec 9* 7247 7X30 7X15 7114 +00143® 

74/5 6X50 M0>* 95 73/0 74.10 7385 7X95 +075 1X37 

7380 6480 MOV 95 23X0 7440 7170 74/5 +671 sn 

7686 7040 Jul 95 7440 7440 7440 74/5 +053 

Oct 95 2X75 +673 

ESI. SOPS 14.500 Tub’s, sates 8884 
Tue's open M 51/21 off 2169 

HEATING 06. INMBQ OMgPDmnxgl _ 

570 4180MayH 4780 47.10 460 4642 -685 16,90 W 

5880 41 80 Am 94 4785 473 4640 4647 -681 JIM 

570 41X0 Jul 94 4785 47 0 46-90 4782 —0X6 3401 

55-60 4X70 Aug 94 470 48X0 47/5 tljB -47112X14 

57.17 <380 Sep 94 49 JO 49X0 4840 «0 -0X1 909 

5780 4490 Oct 94 00 5610 00 0/2 -064 7,178 

5880 4680 NOV 94 560 51.15 360 5647 —66* 505 

SMB 460OBCM 5145 51X5 51/0 5182 -OM ll/JJ 

62X5 4X23 Jan 95 520 5X50 528S 51/2 —0/4 AN 7 

5675 *7X5 Feb 95 E50 57.50 5285 51/7 -OJ6 X625 

00 47-OOMcr 93 50,80 510 5673 50X7 —666 

5100 4103 Apr 95 00 00 0.90 00 —OJD UB3 

S5 4617 -666 W« 

510 46.79 Jon 95 ejja —664 751 

5626 <7/5 Jul 95 <782 -666 707 

47/0 Aug 95 0.47 -666 

3030 464S5ep«S mSr -666 

Ea sons B.942 Toe'S. SOMS 36492 
Tile's oaen fan 

LIGHT SwerratUDE (NMen UOHetMnMflU. 

21.Q5 1482 Jun 94 16X2 160 1645 1645 —08604/65 

20X1 14.15 JIAV4 I64D 16X0 16/1 ltfl -00 61/71 

S3 sHStepif i 1 ® iub ,u7 iu7 

20X8 1440 Sen M 16/2 16J6 1687 1687 —619 21X6% 

SS !*» 14Ji iS» its 3u7is,15 

AW U82NavM 16/S 1649 160 1645 —60112801 

200 14X3 Dec 94 1640 16/5 16/S 14/7 ZSjl TSjm 

1788 1 5. 15 Jan 95 1648 U/0 160 140 10* 

190 1 5X8 Feb 95 160 160 ItM 160 SM 

26U 15/2 Mar 95 16/0 160 160 U/7 —601 1465 

190 1 545 Apr 95 160 liS 16X3 YbJ2 HI 

19X3 I i/9 May 95 16X8 T6X8 14XB 16JI JJ61 

2630 15X3 Jun 75 160 lS5 160 16J3 U796 

§2 ss SS JS! %% 

EAiates ’^^TueJLwes^mxM^ 17JB 
Tub’s open fan 

WLeAMDOASOUNE CNMEIQ cm gw- cents owed 

1! M 5JJ30 5080 480 480 —2X1 HJ9 

•WO WOJulW 5D.1S S&S #9 Ja 49 JA n raj® 

6080 490 AllO 94 0,0 EOS 23 Sm Zali 12/3 

a «& II Is IS ^ B 

1 » SBS ft ^ £ 

sb as as ia ' •? 


+94 44X64 
+H 1842 
+H S3 
+100 3 


—53 1JI7 

—56 609 

— 55 06 
—56 1 


9040 76-90 Jan 93 96H +110 

59® 7X08 Rh 95 90.95 +110 

1070 7100 Mar 95 00 90/0 00 9690 +110 1451 

910 7685 May 95 00 00 00 00 +1H 625 

910 7080 JK 95 00 9605 0.0 900 +XW 

9185 7580 Aug 95 9080 9080 9080 9180 +115 

9185 7V. 10 Sep 95 00 00 0.0 900 +110 336 

90.15 7580 Od 95 91.W +1IS 

8630 77X5 Nov 95 *10 +2.15 

91.0 0880 Dec 95 00 00 00 960 +110 36) 

00 8640 Jan 96 900 +110 

Est. sates 26000 Tin's, m/cs 16988 
Tors men fad 61/54 off 17) 

SILVER (NCMTO 3/OOlrovoc- cans per nov be. 




527J 

SI 45 

5348 

+ 68 24/24 

CM It 


5288 

5288 

5288 

525.9 

+68 

I 

5845 

3718 Jul SM 

5198 

53X5 

5165 

5265 

+6/7104 


376/50094 


5378 

5338 


+6J 

7/81 

5978 

3808 Decto 

5228 

5CJ 

5360 

5400 

+68 11877 

5640 

40180195 




5415 

-68 


6048 

41 65 Mar 9) 

5408 

$49.0 

SOLO 

5478 

+68 

504 

606J 

4188 Mav 95 5498 

5558 

5498 

5518 

+64 

2866 






556.0 



uu 

4+38 Sep 95 




5619 

+68 

131 


5398 Dec 95 

5688 

5688 

S688 

57X8 

+68 



Jon 96 




575.T 

•68 



Est. soles 38800 Tin's, safes 36484 

Toe's onaikn 127 JM un MB 

PLATINUM (N64BR) S+not-Mon Mr riw« 

4370 J37.00JK94 010 0540 3900 I960 —20 17847 

<73.00 3480 OHM 77100 3970 392.50 39*0 —10 1X27 

<29 JO 3740 Jan 95 3950 3970 39440 397.10 -20 730 

<260 3900 Apr 93 39640 —20 952 

Est. sates 3X93 Toe's, sates 1853 

Toe's open hit 21894 up 47 

GOU) (MMX) Ite nwM.. Mariow Irovaz. 

4040 33UDAPT94 3720 3750 37X80 
39L60 3780 May 91 

4170 3390 JlAlW 3740 3770 3740 

4150 MUD Aug 94 060 379.90 3740 
4170 34400*8 M 3790 3620 3290 

4SA40 3430 Dec 94 36X10 3850 38X10 

4110 36X51 Feb 9) 

4170 364J0APT95 

42650 381X0 Jun 95 

41X50 38040 Aug 95 

41130 41O0OQ 95 

4290 40U0Oec9S 40U0 4040 4040 
4240 41 20 Feb 96 

Est safes 3800 Tin's, sites 1(887 

Tub’s aoWlM 1B9/B1 off W5 


• 10 /OB 
+10 

•10 9X377 
+ 10 11/23 
+ 10 4889 

• 10 14.166 

• 10 3^14 

+10 4/m 

♦i0 

+10 

+1.W 

+10 4/67 

♦no n 


™\?Sr*MSk His m H 


Par peso Hid b mm 

ROChB HdO PC 6000 6810 
Safra Republic I3U0 133 


Financial 


520 0 BCE 

IK 136 Bk Nora Seal la 
186 187 BC Gas 

15 IS K Telecom 
415 4J5 BF Realty Hds 
TO 990 Bramotea 
711 9D6 Brunswick 

CAE 
Camdtv 
CISC . „ 


491% 495% 
26% 27% 


259% 22*% 
084 084 


f+i-A • ’ • 

sM ■ . 


610 430 May 94 SUM mm 

610 44.10 JUlM 50/5 XM 

in£ ®* ,s S 1 ® 

*00 43X0 AuO 94 *7.90 an 

540 4X90 Sep 94 4625 0/S 

«m JJ0OCI94 470 470 

4(0 42X5 NOV 94 44.90 460 

52X5 OWOecH 510 51X5 

5X00 510 Jon 95 500 500 

M 51X5 Feb 95 510 5180 

EttodM 0X90 Tub's. ictes 40X35 


6 FI 

141k 149% 


iww ^rt aU Jpge^ : 191481 


Sydney 

Amcor 9X5 9X2 

ANZ AM ,481 

BHP 1782 1684 

Boral 3/5 160 

Bougainville 0X7 0X5 

CofrsMwr 453 433 

Comafea 4^ 460 

CHA 160 1480 

CSR 4« 4ff 

Fosters Brew 1^ ]*5 

Goodman Field 10 '-55 

ICI Australia HUB 100 

Magellan 1 1X0 

MIM 285 283 

Not Aust Bank 1188 1182 

News Care 9X3 9X9 

Nine Network 5J0 5.13 

N Broken HIU 3J8 386 

Poc Dunlap 4« 494 

Pteneer inri 287 2X7 

Nmndy Poseidon 104 2J2 

OCT Resources 121 IM 

ntos 405 410 

IT X10 287 


Tuefe Boon fan 116X76 off 37 42^^ 

Stock Indexes 

<CM£RJ raxrvtex 

*S.*2 *®xs 4498S — irouxw' 



i : ' ? i* 


bg*»y . ■/ 

S S» iS u 

















** 



INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, FRIDAY, APRIL 29, 1994 


Page IS 


EUROPE 


* J«|i 




Enterprise’s Bid Values 
LASMO at £1 Rill;™ 


H 1 

■<l'A 




genre France-Presae 

35 fsa*&“tts 

Doos, tie company said. 

Ibt takeover, if consummated 
woidd create tie world's laiws^ 
“* exploration compa- 
3?- 8111 “*P“J sources said the 
chances of Enterprise’s initial bid 
ww slim, as other bid- 

!* ely l? comc in with a 
rash offer to top Enterprise’s paper 
offer. Analysts predicted that lie 


SSHSg, 1 ^?— *— 

, common shares in LASMO 
vaJmng each LASMO share at 150 
pence. 

*^£^0 shares dropped 5 pence 
w J5g pence on Thursday, while 
enterprise was down by 20 to 425 
pence. 

Other potential bidders were ni- 
Jjofed to be Elf Aquitaine, British 
Gas PIX, Atlantic Richfield Co. 
and PowerGen, the British electric- 
'ty generating company. 

Elf has a 14 percent stake in 
Enterprise Oil, via Elf Enterprise, 
tneir joint exploration company in 
the North Sea. 

Enterprise said in announcing its 
bid that a combination with 
LASMO would “create a world- 


class exploration and production 
business with reserves in excess of 
1.600 million barrels of o3 equiva- 
lent and with interests in 25 coun- 
tries." 

LASMO shareholders have seen 
the value of their holdings fall sig- 
nificantly because LASMO had 
lost more than £500 million during 
the last two years. Enterprise said. 

LASMO, formerly London & 
Scottish Marine Oil improved its 
results last year but still reported a 
net loss of i!31 million on revenue 
that rose 9 percent, to £678 million. 

On April 13, it launched an oper- 
ation to raise new capital of £219 
million to finance investment and 
strengthen its balance sheet. 

Enterprise Oil increased net 
profit by 9 percent, to £94.7 mil- 
Ikm, in 1993 despite weakness in oil 
prices. 


Air France Delays Meridiem Sale 


.. < 


Airiir 


uijn 


pad ic C(mpikdb> 0ur &#*** Dispaicha 

PARIS — Air France said Thursday it would seek 
ns stake m the Mendien luxury hotel chain to Accor 

SA of France or Forte PLC of Britain. 

Air France did knock a third bidder out of the 

ttZSr* ^ “*»«> AG’s KempS^Tel 

cham would not get the prize. 

F ?( te has bid 1.8 billion French francs rS313 mil- 
hon) for Air France’s entire 57 percent stake in Meri- 
dien, while Accor has bid 1.6 billion francs for a 40 
, pcrc<®l stake. Accor executives said their offer, al- 
* though less, would benefit Air France more because a 


close working relationship between Accor and Air 
France could develop. 

Accor, France’s largest hotel chain, and Air France, 
the national airline, already have strong business links, 
and Accor executives have said an alliance between 
Accor and Meridien could contribute net profit of up 
to 200 miHion francs a year to Air France. 

Air France is selling Meridien in its effort to reduce 
its 37 billion franc debL The airline, which Thursday 
reported its 1993 net loss more than doubled, to 8.48 
billion francs, has asked for 20 billion francs of fund- 
ing from the French government. 

(Bloomberg Reuters) 


Revenue Abroad 
Powers BASF to 
47 % Profit Gain 


Compiled by Ov Staff From Dupatcha 

LUDW1GSHAFEN. Ger- 
many — BASF AG on Thurs- 
day became the third of Germa- 
ny's three major chemicals 
companies to report a sharp rise 
in profit in the first quarter, 
underscoring the sector’s up- 
trend in Europe and worldwide. 

Boosted by foreign sales, pre- 
tax profit surged 47 percent, to 
349 million Deutsche marks 
($208.4 million), from the corre- 
sponding period a year earlier. 

Despite the size of the profit 
increase, the figure was soil un- 
satisfactory in absolute terms, 
BASF Chief Executive Jtagen 
Strube told shareholders at 
their annual me eting. 

“While the increase in earn- 
ings is favorable, we can’t forget 
the low comparative base," Mr. 
Strube said. “In absolute terms, 
earnings are still far from satis- 
factory." 

The extent of the rise never- 
theless took the market by sur- 
prise and the company’s share 
price rose 3.20 DM to 337.90 
DM on Thursday. Analysts had 
widely expected a pretax profit 
figure from 280 milli on DM to 
320 million DM. 

Mr. Strube said that the com- 
pany would also be able to in- 
crease its profit for the full year. 
But did not make a dividend 


forecast, saying it was still too 
early. In 1993, BASF cut its 
payout by 2 DM to 8 DM. 

Sales, which rose in all mar- 
kets except Germany, climbed 
2.1 percent in the quarter, to 
11.27 billion DM. 

Chemicals shares have 
powered ahead all week on 
most exchanges, boosted by the 
growing conviction that the sec- 
tor has shaken off the downturn 
that has ravaged profits since 
the end of the 1980s. 

Earlier this week, Hoechst 
AG reported a profit rise of 16 
percent in the first quarter and 
Bayer AG said it posted a rise 
of 18 percent. 

(Reuters, Bloomberg, AFX) 

■ IQ Profit Up 31% 

Imperial Chemical Industries 
PLC reported a 3t percent rise in 
fust-quarter pretax profit, to £93 
million (SI 40 million), on a sales 
increase of 4 percent, to £2.15 
bffliati Reuters reported from 
London. 

“There is now sustained 
growth in North America, one of 
our most important markets," 
said Denys Henderson, the 
chairman. “Continental Europe 
seems at last to have bottomed 
out, while the UX’s gradual re- 
covery continues." 


Rates Slip 
As France 
Adjusts 

Contpikd fy Our Suit From Dispatches 

PARIS — The Bank of France 
lowered its intervention rate Thurs- 
day to S.70 penxm from 5.80 per- 
cent, marking its fifth cm since the 
start of the year in the rate that sets 
the floor for money market rates. 

The move was expected after the 
Bundesbank on Wednesday al- 
lowed its securities repurchase rate 
to falL French monetary policy of- 
ten tracks that of Germany, and the 
Bundesbank allowed the repur- 
chase rate to slip to S.47 percent. 

The Bundesbank refrained from 
making any other interest rate ad- 
justments at its biweekly council 
meeting Thursday. The German 
discount rate, which is essentially 
the floor of the money market, re- 
mains at 5.0 percent and the Lom- 
bard rate, which is the ceiling, at 
6 JO percent, the levels set on April 
15. Both rates are charged on col- 
lateralized borrowings by banks. 

Economists said another cut in 
the French intervention rate, by 
about the same amount, was proba- 
ble soon —possibly as early as next 
week. (Reuters, AFP) 

m German Inflation Rises 

Provisional government statis- 
tics show that consumer inflation 
in Western Germany edged up to 
03 percent in April from 03 per- 
cent in March, Bloomberg Business 
News reported from Wiesbaden. 

Fast-rising prices for seasonal 
foods and continued high fuel 
prices contributed to the increase. 


Investor’s Europe 


Barridtori: />> 'V vi&ifta#'' '• 3 
DAX ■ - ' /*>• •? iFTSE 3QO Index,-.' ;■ 


■■SC--.-*.- 





Bcu»s«J« . . 


Frankfort 


Frankfurt 

p A2 7: ,, .7 

IWotbI ■ • 




Lorickm 




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***** ■ iv,;: 


StotkhbliTt 



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Sources: Reuters, AFP Lue««towl Henld Triteme 

Very briefly: 


SCHNEIDER: When the Music Stopped, the German Real Estate Magnate Couldn 9 t Face the Consequences 


• SKF AR, the Swedish industrial conglomerate; said it posted a profit of 
306 milli on kronor (S39.15 million) in the first quarter of 1994. down 13.8 
percent from the comparable period a year earlier, but the company cited 
an improv e ment in its European sales. 

• Heinekea NV employees agreed to go back to work after blockading the 
largest Dutch brewer’s two main plants for nearly a week. 

•' The Netherlands’ central bank said it expected the economy, which grew 
0.2 percent in 1993, to grow 1.1 percent in 1994. 

• BMW AG, Flat SpA and Renault agreed to collaborate on a plan for 
more efficient recycling of old cars. 

• Cyprus said it would lower the ceiling on its loan interest rates by half a 
point, to 83 percent, its first cut in 50 years. Remen. a FT, afx Bloomberg 


Continued from Page 11 

side advisers now suspected to have 
been bribed for just that purpose. 

In one case, Deutsche Bank has 
alleged he submitted fake rental 
contracts in an application for a 
415 million DM loan to finance an 
American -style shopping mall in 
downtown Frankfurt. According to 
the bank, Mr. Schneider not only 
exaggerated the expected income 
from the mail’s future tenants, but 
he lied about the amount of rental 
space available, claiming it totaled 
20,000 square meters (215,000 
square feet) when it was actually 
only 9,000 square meters. What re- 
mains unclear is how Deutsche 
Bank could fail to have verified 
something as basic as the size of the 
property it was lending on. 

“All his financial engineering 


was financed by the banks," an 
executive of Mr. Schneider’s com- 
pany said. “And be made politi- 
cians and important people depen- 
dent upon him by restoring 
landmark buildings and projecting 
himy .lf as a generous philanthro- 
pist." 

Mr. Schneider also cashed in on 
government loan subsidies for de- 
velopment in East Germany, espe- 
cially in Leipzig, where he acquired 
many properties after German uni- 
fication in 1990. 

East ra* West to keep the b anks 
believing in him, even after Germa- 
ny's recession began, Mr. 
Schneider also appears to have kept 
secret certain aspects erf contracts 
he had with many of his commer- 
cial tenants. These provisions al- 
lowed tenants to pay him reduced 
rent if business was slow. As busi- 


ness declined, so did Mr. 
Schneider's income, explained 
Georg Looks, manag in g director of 
an electronics outlet in Frankfurt’s 
ZeOgaleriemall, which opened two 
years ago. 

“In addition to our standard 
contract, they gave us an additional 
agreement that allowed the per- 
centage of rent tied to turnover to 
fall from 5 to 3 percent if business 
was slow,” Mr. Looks said. Appar- 
en dy ud ther the audi tors employed 
by the banks to gauge their credit 
risk nor the b anks themselves ever 
asked whether there were any sup- 
plementary contracts. 

Mr. Schneider also kept dose 
persona] control of his property 
holdings, despite the fact mat they 
were officially worth 5 billion DM. 
With only one exception, in 1992, 
be was unwilling to sell any proper- 


ties. He was also loath to confide 
the prices he paid for properties. 

Mathias Dflsterdick, a real estate 
adviser who is now trying to place a 
value on the assets of the bankrupt 
Dr. Jftrgea Schneider AG compa- 
ny, complained that in all the years 
he had worked for the secretive Mr. 
Schneider “he never told us how 
much he paid for a property." 

Mr. Schneider and his wife were 
the only authorized signatories for 
the enure property division, which 
employed more than 2.000 people 
and was run by a staff of 40 at the 
castle in Ktaigsttin. The two kept 
to themselves, sh unning the opera, 
art galleries, and the Frankfurt so- 
cial scene. 

It was only in February of this 
year that Mr. Schneider Segan to 
face a siring of increasingly serious 
financi al and image problems that 


a ccor din g to one fellow director 
caused him “to lose track of what 
he was doing" and panic. 

Martin Went a Frankfurt city 
planning official who met Mr. 
Schneider about 10 times over the 
past five years, said be thoughi Mr. 
Schneider decided to depart in a 
hurry because he could not face the 
fact that “the recession just ran 
over him." Others agree theproper- 
ty developer based all his financial 
projections on the recession ending 
sooner and on bring able to obtain 
more bank loans. Neither hap* 

pened. 

Ms. Eick said she saw Mr. 
Schneider becoming notably 
stressed in February. Bank creditors 
were demanding information from 


him on his projects, his assets, and 
his cash flow — information he was 
not willing to share with his own 
colleagues. 

Thai, newspapers began repeat- 
ing that he owed substantial 
amounts to contractors and crafts- 
man, causing repeated embarrass- 
ment Finally, a Frankfurt newspa- 
per reported that Mr. Schneider 
had been the target of a long-run- 
ning legal action. 

The tragedy, say close col- 
leagues, is that Mr. Schneider 
might have been able to save his 
company, and himself, by selling 
just one or two properties and pay- 
ing off contractors now owed about 
250 milli on DM. Instead he chose 
to run away. 


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Tables indude the nationwide prices up to 
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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, FRIDAY, APRIL 29, 1994 


Jobless Rate Hit 

2 . 6 % in Japan 

Last Fiscal Year 


f Reuters • 

TOKYO Unemployment m 
Japan reached its higbesfav^” 

annual rate m six years in the^Sj 

year ending March 31, the Manage! 
mrat and Coordinaliou Aaencv 
said (a Thursday ^gpncy 

t£S»HK3» 


JP*"* 01 »*» year before' 
Jpe 2.6 percent figure was the 
JjJf". *““* the 1987-88 year 
when tbe l^-month rate was 2.8 
percent, the agency said. 

job offers to job 
seekm fdl to 71 in 1993-94, shiw- 

mg tbere were 71 jobs for even- 100 

people seeking employment 
Japan s companies, hit by eco- 
nomic slump, have been forced to 


nomic slump, have been forced to 
cut costs by slashing the number of 
new hires and lopping overtime 
hours, analysts said. 

With companies still under pres- 
sure to restructure, the labor mar- 

L'FI miflnnb rk.,.IJ . . 


rmn r. 


But the risk of such companies tak- 
ing more drastic cost-cutting steps, 
including major layoffs, maybe 
abating, the analysts added. 

“You cannot say that the worst is 


at® a lot of uncertain 
aaors, sajd Toshiki Masui, a To- 
«i Bank economist 

bfarch, the jobless rate was 
unchanged from February, when 
Jhe rate rose to 2.9 percent, the 
highest since June 1987. The jobs- 
to-appheanu ratio was up to 66 in 
March from 65 in February. 

Industrial output might slip in 
April after a few recent rises, Mr. 
Masui said. Fears remain ova - the 
high yen as well as Japan's political 
confusion, which h as led to an un- 
usual delay in enacting a growth- 
oriented budget for ihiy year. 

u We stiQ need to carefully watch 
overall unemployment condi- 
tions," a Labor Ministry official 
said. He said the unemployment - 
rate is a lagging indicator, and it 
normally takes between six months 
and a year for the data to reflect 
real economic activity. 

But prospects for the jobs- to- ap- 
plicants ratio are brighter, he said, 
as this is more immedia tely sensi- 
tive to economic trends. 

Average overall employment in 
1993-94 rose by 170,000 people, or 
0 3 percent, to 64.54 million. 


Pinning Down the Pirates 

U.S. Must Decide When to Target China 


By Peter Behr and Daniel Williams 

Washington Post Service 

WASHINGTON — US. government officials 
have concluded that China should be punished for 
pirating American recordings and computer soft- 
ware, but some want the action delayed until after 
a showdown over human rights in June, according 
to governmentand industry officials. 

The debate over China’s human rights record 
involves the entire economic relationship between 
the two countries. 

Most of President Bill Clinton’s advisers are 
leaning toward designating Puna as a ^priority” 
violator of U.S. intellectual property rights, the 
officials said. China’s failure to crack down on 
pirate recording and publishing firms costs U.S. 
entertainment companies an estimated S800 mil- 
lion in lost exports, the UJS. trade representative’s 
office charged recently. 

Friday is the deadline for targeting priority-' 
violators. Including China on that list would al- 
most certainly lead to restrictions on selected Chi- 
nese exports to the United States later this year if 
the dispute were not resolved. 

Winston Lord, assistant secretary of state, and 
other officials have cautioned that branding Phin* 
a “pirate" now could auger Beijing's leaders and 
cut off Chinese steps to improve its treatment erf 
dissidents, political prisoners and religions minor- 
ities, according to officials. 

“Playing hardball with them now is enormously 
complicated," said Nicholas R_ Lardy, author of a 
new analysis of China’s economy published by the 
Institute of International Economics. “It's a box 
the administration has created for itself." 


The tuning is critical because Mr. Clinton has 
given Chi na until June 3 to improve its human- 
rights record in specific areas or lose its most-, 
favored-nation trade status, which affords China 
the lowest possible tariffs available. 

1/ yM of that status would trigger a U ^.-Chinese 
trade war, many economists predict. 

Some U.S. officials say China's leaders are close 
to satisfying Mr. Gmton’s requirements and 
should not be provoked. Others argue that putting 
off the piracy designation would show a lack of 
backbone, encouraging China to take no further 
action on the h uman rights issue. 

“The strategic call b bird to make," said Emory 
Simon, executive director of the Business Software 
Alliance, representing computer software manu- 
facturers. But he and other industry officials insist 
the case against China is dear-cut. 

According to the US. trade represoiiathne’s of- 
fice, as many as two dozen compact-disk and laser- 
disk factories are operating in central and south 
China, turning out 50 millio n pirate copies of 
recordings and films, computer games and other 
material eanh year, mostly for sale in Asia. 

“ China has become the world's leading CD 
pirate," said Erie H. Smith, executive director of 
the International Intellectual Property Alliance, 
which represents the entertainment and computer 
industries. “Unless it is stopped, it wifi grow by 
geo m e tr ic proportions. It’s like priming money." 

“There is stealing going on — it is open, bla- 
tant,” said Jack Valenti, chairman of the Motion 
Picture Association of America. “Do you decide 
you don’t want to aggravate the people doing it?" 


Inflation 
Recedes 
In China 


BEUING — The Chinese gov- 
ernment said Thursday that infla- 
tion had peaked in February And 
prices of consumer and industrial 
goods were coming down. 

“We have achieved initial suc- 
cess in curbing price rises, thanks 
to improved market control at the 
central and local level," Ye Zhen, 
spokesman of the State Statistical 
Bureau, was quoted as saying 

Bureau statistics showed retail 
price inflation in Gun’s 35 ma jor 
cities was a yearly 243 percent in 
March, down from 259 percent in 
February. Mr. Ye said rural infla- 
tion also fefl. by 0.1 percentage 
point from 20S percent in February. 

After three years of annual infla- 
tion below 9 percent, the cost-of- 
living index began climbing in the 
middle of last year, reaching 14.7 
percent for all of 1993. 

Inflation peaked in February at 
23.2 percent nationwide and 25.9 
percent in the 35 major cities. 

A forecast by the China Materi- 
als Information Center, in Thurs- 
day’s China Business Daily, was 
awn Optimistic. 

“There is a balance in supply and 
demand of most goods and con- 
sorners’ psychology has calmed and 
hoarding and speculation re- 
duced," it said. 


Taiwan Licenses Broker Chinese Firms Weigh New York Listings 

Conpiled by Our Staff From Dispatches whn nnll nlin> th* m * 


Compiled by Our Staff From Dispatches 

TAIPEI — Taiwan’s first 
commodities brokerage opened 
Thursday, ending a 45-year ban 
and ushering in a new ora in the 
island’s commodities trade, 
which has been practiced un- 
derground for years. 

Grand Cathay Futures Corp. 
is the first of 14 local and nine 
foreign futures companies ex- 
pected to open here in the next 
several weeks. The local compa- 
nies will place their orders, 
through the foreign companies, 


who will place the trade on the 
appropriate overseas exchange. 

The futures industry was le- 
galized in Taiwan in 1992 after 
thriving underground for years. 

Local investors are now al- 
lowed by Taiwan’s Securities 
and Exchange Commission to 
buy and sefi 60 futures contracts 
traded on 11 overaeas exchanges. 

Grand Cathay strode its first 
business deal by pi«tinp sat or- 
der through First Options of 
Chicago Inc, which also opened 
a Taipei branch Thursday. 

(Bloomberg. AFP) 


Bloomberg Business News 

BEUING — Five Chin ese state companies 
are set to be listed on (he New York Stock 
Exchange after Chinese and U.S securities reg- 
ulators signed a cooperation pact on Thursday. 

The pact, which has been under discussion 
for more than a year, is meant to protect inves- 
tors trading shares in the first state 

enterprises to list in the United States. 

“I think this agreement will begin the process 
of establishing in the minds of VS. investors 
that this Chinese market is going to be well 
regulated," said Arthur Levitt, chairman of the 
U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. 

Mr. Levitt said the SBC agreed to train 
Chinese regulators, advise on drafting laws and 


provide terhnimi assistance. In return, China 
wiD consult regularly on matters involving in- 
vestor protection and will provide full informa- 
tion in fraud or malpractice cases. 

“The five companies’ officials are working 
night and day so they can list early," said Liu 


uialory Commission. He said the listings would 
come after June. 

The companies are China Eastern Airlines, 
Own* Southern Airlines, Sfumrinng Huaneng 
Electricity, Huaneng International Power De- 
velopment and Tianjin Steel Pipe Factory. Mr. 
Liu said the first foar were in the final stages of 
preparation. 

Currently seven Chinese companies are trad- 


ing weO above their issue prices on the Hong 
Kong stock market, while a second batch of 22 
companies was chosen to list an overseas slock 
markets in January. In the last week, six of the 
Hong Kong-listed Chinese companies have an- 
nounced earnings well above forecasts. 

Most of the new batch will be listed in Hong 
Kong, which signed a m emor an dum with Beij- 
ing last June, said Mr. Liu. But Singapore, 
London, Canada and Australia are also lobby- 
ing for the business. 

New York faces tough competition from 
such wmhangpt , many erf which have weaker 
regulations. “We wzfl try to make the path for 
these companies as smooth as possible," said 
Mr. Levin. 


Page 15 

ASIA/PACIFIC 


*1 S' A. ' . -*A 




sytb^77:y. AS 
• Ton** 


Seoul;' 

.Tripet.. 






Sources: Reuters, AFP taManoual Herald Tittw* 


Very briefly; 

• Hone Kong’s visible trade deficit rose 37.6 percent in the first quarter 
from the comparable year-ago period, reaching 13.9 billion Hong Kong 
dollars ($2 billion). 

• China saw foreign investment in the first quarter of the year reach S5.4 
billion, up from S3 billion in the 1993 quarter, but that was only a fourth 
of the funds foreign investors pledged to put forth. 

• Alfied Grom LuL, the industrial and trading company, earned a net 
187.8 nnUionnong Kong dollars in 1993, reversing from a loss of 28.4 
million in 1992 because of gains in its Allied Properties division. 

• Chinn Eastern Airlines is interested in buying a stake in Australia Air 
Inter national, a developing airline that is scheduled to make its first 
flights in June, 

• Formosa Plastics CorpL will borrow 143.4 billion Taiwan dollars ($5 
•billion) from a state-run bank to finance a 228 billion dollar petrochemi- 
cal complex. 

• Nikon Corp. pasted a net loss of 3 billion yen ($29 million) in the year 
ended March 31 because <rf weak consumer spending and a strong yen. The 
loss was 1 bOhon yen more than the company had forecast. 

• Austrafia wfll enjoy sustained economic growth through 1994, according 
to the Wcstpac Mdbomue Institute’s leading index of economic activity, 
which rose 1 3 percent in February. 

• Sony Musk Eutertaiimiem Japan Inc. said its chairman, Toshio Ozawa, 

will retire on May 16 but will become the chief of Sony Pictures 
Entertainment Japan Inc. Bloomberg, AFP. ap 


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ratal revenue or otfm property. Tel 
(33} 99 79 <3 87 Fa* 99 79 65 7i 


RBICH BVtBtA - CAP ITANTKS 
JUAN IE HNS ■ 

H»* LOCATION. MKT ON SEA 

• 5 ROOMS around 190 kjjr. pronto 
gardea pool FF6JOO.OOO. 
^Bb^urda 5*^ pinto 

• BEAUimjL APARTMENT: febm tea 
^^vrtfMa fnxa. 2 bedroom. 2 wh. 

^AGENCE DE IA FtMSE 
Tel: 33-9367 10 10 Fat: 334367 32 72 


CA11IAN (VAB), V m Cum, 5 ms 
I nto of 9 CoWert about 125 iqm. 
restored flat in Bourgeois riy fe roaro 
sioo, 225 sgjn. arowdL EXCH*- 
TONAL LOCATION & VIEW. 
HWttfHt VAR 1MMQMJE8. Tcfc {33? 
94 47 79 79. fine [11 W 47 77 21. 





SAMT-PAIMtVBKS 
Pradipow onto pnororae sea vbw 
ampUM tendance 530 iqn. 

B rooms. unUai house. 
FF17J0qflp0 ho pnceL 
MAJEaMnUNSACnONS 
W:33«3 22 55 22 fat 339322 89 7? 


RENOt HVBtA - CAP DMNHB 

Van- RASE, seaside v*l 7 room, 
equipp ed to dl, 3 tatis . Mena, 

a£m£e DE ffpS^T 

Teh 339367 10 lOFna 3393673272 



FRENCH PROVINCES 


PROVENCE- UZES 
Lcrge restored vifcge tacse, with oaaB 
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PVUAQ. T jfpG|66 57 61 44 
fan (13) 66 57 52 63 


ATHENS, unique view to AKKCPOUS. 
Jatorey haute, 23 ) sqm, 3 bechoorm, 
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COSTARICA 


PROV86CX STONE VUA 140 iqA, 
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LUXURY HOMES AND ESTATES 



> - -- ’V . ■ r* . ; 
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PORTUGAL ALGARVE 

IS minutes from FARO <«port 

Beautiful l8ihC»nh«0>un|»yHjrta, 


Net asldng price 95 miiwn Esc 

fox: 41 22 3470240-— 





RESIDENTIAL ESTATE 

WASHINGTON, DC USA 

One of the largest and finest residential estates remaining 
in die prestigious Potomac, Maryland area. Only fifteen 
miles radius Tram the White House. Fifty three acres of 
wooded land assures privacy. Gracious existing home. 
Asking $5,750,000. For information contact 
Thomas M. Robertson 
Coldwell Banker Realty Pros 
10220 River Road 
Potomac, Maryland 20854 
Telephone 301-983-9000, Fax 301-983-4163 


PALM BEACH FLORIDA 

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For residential or condominium properties please contr& 
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FAX:407-659O782. TEL: 407-6590401 


;» .a r •<; v'^1 


m on 

if; i 


is* 

M E 


FRENCH 

MAGAZINE 

FOR 

PRESTIGIOUS 




FOR SALE, all over France: more than 300 
chateaux, residences, vineyards, houses with 
character, estates on the French Riviera. 

For each advertisement: 

- a minimum of one color photo. 

-a detailed description in French and 
English. 

You will receive the last issue by air mail by 
sending your business card and check for 
US$15 or £8 to: 

DEHEUBES et chateaux 

19230 POMPADOUR -FRANCE 



Pago 23 
FOR MORE 


For Sale by PuMie Auction on Wednesday 25th, 1994 

( JheStilb^ mfiatfcHbtd, (Du66nyBdmC 




"A Ran opportwtfty to acqunono of Dublin's most famous Hotels* 
• Three mto from Cfy Centre • On DuMro’s main route Sotth 

■ Desirable Location • Development potetfia! 


Accommodation. 

• 50 Bedrooms 
•8,500 eq. ft. Nte-dub 
•Bufi & Bear Pub 
rhitairant 

-AD situated on 35 acres 61 grounds 


• Leisure centra pndutfing pod) 
•2 Restaurants 
•Shopping & Bank 
•Stand akxie Medical Centra/ Office 
Bock 


<3 U N N E 


•— 1 ESTATE AGENTS 

176 Pembroke Rd.. Ballsbridge, Dublin 4. Ireland. Inti .+353-1 -6562538 



qn% qriaa* awetato raa Ian fiww to 
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OmGMVim artime. 

A W *nta reWrg md 1 pal i and apat 
peis4mrimd toir of pmpUes, (mnsUin on 

aodgag^ laaBoa and dontWm. kp rink guide 
adnuhroabifftaiBlomrlaUiUab. 
UntobbMErMiator 
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SQL(b**B.a>SBntos 
TO41 2V7WJ04S - F«eM 21TO1JSJ7 


mm 



ST TROPEZ 

Large bastide in very calm spot 
with view on port and gulf. 
Character, luxurious fittings, 
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For mom information + to visit, contact 
ovmerin Paris: Tel.: (1) 45^3.18.18 
Fax: (1} 45.53.18.98 


LARGE, HIGH STANDARD DUPLEX 
St Moritz Airport nearly 
weekend phone: +41-82-86133 


RENTALS 


NGH Apartments LTD 
at Nell Gwynn House 

Soane Averrne, London. SW3 3AX 
TeL: UK 71 589 1105 -Floe UK 71 589 903 
Froa £240 p.w. ind VAT 

serciced stuc&s and 1 & 2 


and parking 


Upcoming Real Estate 
Advertising Featurkss 


, •• .» -7 ./ ,T- iC /' v - 

■■ t - z.'. >♦ <*x "f: ■ •» 

=• -V * •' - . - -4; V. 

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• -rev*- - '•»-*** • - : 


For more details, contact: 

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Tel.: + 33 1 46 37 93 91 
Fax: + 33 1 46 37 93 70 

































Page 16 

f _ ADVERTISING SRrTTDN 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, FRIDAY, APRIL 29, 1994 


ADVERTISING section 



I® n# t® jj® n® u® J® Q ® jj ® {j 


The Secret of Success: Tailor the Product to Local Needs 


aced with pent- 
up demand for 
goods and ser- 
vices in the de- 
veloping world and 
the newly hatched GSSsja 
free - market JKj|j 
economies of East Jif f 
Asia and Eastern jBl|l| 

franchisers 
are rushing 
into those 

creasingly, 
franchisers 
look at their 
international -■*- “ 
operations as equal to, if not 
more important than, their 
domestic ones. 

“Franchisers in general 
are expanding to other 


countries earlier in their de- 
velopment,” says Bob 
Jones, vice president for in- 
ternational affairs for the Ifc- 
i ^ s temational Franchise 
Association. “It’s 
being included in 
_ their strate- 
gic plan up 

? day, It’s a 

vjTjg smaller world,” 
adds Tom Portesy, 
director of the Intema- 
tionaJ Franchise 
* =fc " - Expo, which is 
*■’“ - being held in 
Washington by the 
Blenheim Group. 

Franchisers are aware that 
each market presents a 
unique situation. For exam- 


ple, a U.S. fast-food fran- 
chiser lost money on break- 
fast in Brazil, where people 
seldom leave their homes 
early. 

Sylvan Learning Centers, 
a tutoring chain, has tailored 
its franchises to local needs. 
Faced in most countries 
with only an informal tutor- 
ing industry. Sylvan screens 
and hires teachers and plans 
a curriculum suitable for 
each market. Sylvan also of- 
fers an exclusive contract ro 
deliver computerized - ver- 
sions of standard tests, such 
as the Graduate Record 
Exam, to the many non-U.S. 
applicants wishing to gain 
admission to American 
schools. 

The global nature of fran- 


chising has not challenged 
U.S. domination as a fran- 
chise exporter, but the inter- 
nationalization of the indus- 
try has accelerated the im- 
porting of franchises to the 
U.S. The British-based 
Body Shop has ventured 
into the United States, as 
well as into other markets. 

Philip Zeidman, a Wash- 
ington lawyer who is gener- 
al counsel to the Interna- 
tional Franchise Associa- 
tion, points out that several 
major U.S. franchises are in 
fact owned by foreigners, 
including Burger King, 
owned by Britain's Grand 
Metropolitan: the Southland 
Corp., which runs the ubiq- 
uitous 7- II convenience 
stores, owned by a former 


master Japanese licensee; 
Shakey's Pizza, owned by a 
Far Eastern company; Holi- 
day Inn, owned by Bass 
Ale; and Hardee’s Ham- 
burgers, owned by a Cana- 
dian company that is 
owned, in turn, by a British 
company. 

East European markets, 
still acclimatizing them- 
selves to private capital, 
have already seen the arrival 
of franchises with pockets 
deep enough for long-term 
investment. The Moscow 
McDonald's has seen long 
lines but large losses, since 
the company had to estab- 
lish its supply lines from the 
ground up - for everything 
from meat to potatoes. But 
the establishment of such an 


infrastructure will allow the 
fast-food chain to turn a 
profit with the opening of 
more units. 

Alphagraphics, a U.S.- 
based print shop, has stores 
in 16 countries, including 
three in China. But its 
Moscow shop, opened in 
1989 (and the first privately 
owned public printing facil- 
ity in Russia since the revo- 
lution), is one of its most 
profitable locations. 

Eastern Europe is becom- 
ing a prime market for mas- 
ter licensees. “There is a fair 
amount of mattress money,” 
Mr. Zeidman says. “It was 
kept together because there 
was nothing to invest in." 
Many franchises are pur- 
chased by syndicates, often 


European Outlets Move to Fill Service Gap 


t has taken some 
time for fran- 
chising to pene- 

trate Europe’s 

closed markets and cramped 
- metropolises. Today, the in- 
dustry is remedying the 
Continent's chronic short- 
age of services. 

Europe's national fran- 
chise markets diverge wide- 
ly in their 

stages and 
rates of 
market 
develop- 
ment. 

After 

having 


recorded 


gains in ^ — 

recent 
years of 
more 

than 50 percent in the num- 
ber of new franchises 
founded annually, the fran- 
chising boom in Eastern 
Germany is apparently 
cooling off in 1994. In 
Western Germany, powered 
by 1 993' s estimated 26 per- 
cent jump, it is still heatup 
up. Franchising is making 
steady gains in Italy, where 
local businesspeople have 
called franchisees the “new 
faces crowding into our 
central shopping districts." 

After suffering a decline 
in France, where the reces- 
sion reportedly closed down 


many of the country’s out- 
lets, franchising has been 
making a steady recovery 
over the last year and a half, 
according to trade journal 
Franchise International. 

In Great Britain, franchis- 
ing has been the classic, 
omnipresent entrepreneurial 
vehicle for business 
founders since the “Thatch- 
er '80s." In Central Europe. 

franchising is becoming 
N almost as widespread in 
tv the “private-sector 
’90s.” Newly es- 
tab li shed outlets 
Wm) prosper by serving 
the newly arrived 
and newly affluent. In 
W countries farther east, 
^ franchises are 

suddenly flour- 
ishing in a rather 
>> unexpected role 

^ VX -that of a lifeline 

supplying expa- 
’ ■ triares and local 

executives with computer 
parts, falafel and other ne- 
cessities of Western 
lifestyle. 

All of these national mar- 
kets share one common 
characteristic: at varying 
rates of speed, franchising is 
alleviating the Continent’s 
chronic shortage of services 
and service-related jobs. 

Europe’s franchising 
scene now sports some 
American-like numbers: 
60,000 franchising outlets 
in Europe employ several 
thousand persons. But the 
Continent features a non- 


American preponderance of 
such “high-end” franchises 
as deluxe laundromats, 
Levi’s Stores, real-estate 
brokers and round-the-clock 
office rentals (complete 
with PCs, faxes and photo- 
copy machines). 

As any European observ- 
er knows, these services 


“Dispersion is still the name 
of the game, but it is ap- 
proached on a step by step, 
long-term basis.” 

A lack of openness to new 
business ideas is no longer 
the rule in Europe, dispelled 
by the introduction of the 
EU and the onset of the re 


Western items 
prove a hit 
in the East 


were scarce in the pre-fran- 
chising days. Their scarcity 
reflected the overall state of 
Europe’s service sector, a 
product of a lack of avail- 
able, affordable space for 
new outlets and of openness 
to new commercial ideas. 

Scarcity of space is still a 
fact of business life in Eu- 
rope. To deal with it, most 
of the Continent’s 2,000 
franchise system suppliers 
have intensified American- 
style “maximum disper- 
sion” franchising. 

“Rather than expending 
their resources on setting up 
the greatest number of out- 
lets, Europe’s franchisers 
generally concentrate their 
investments on the fran- 
chisee selection process, on 
outlet design and on fran- 
chisee training says Knut 
S. Pauli, the Leverkusen- 
based chronicler of Eu- 
rope’s franchising scene. 


cession. 

“There’s nothing new 
about successful businesses 
thinking about going inter- 
national," says Mr. Pauli. 
“New is the legal frame- 
work conducive to their 
doing so. and the receptive- 
ness of local businesspeople 
to non-local ideas. And both 
of those stem from the EU.” 

In fact, EU neighbors ac- 
count for the lion’s share of 
transnational franchising in 
Western Europe. Ger- 
many's most successful 
franchiser over the past few 
years, frozen food merchant 
Eismann. has used France 
as its prime market for ex- 
pansion. Conversely. 
France’s Mercure has suc- 
cessfully concentrated its 
efforts on opening up Che 
German, Spanish, Italian 
and British markets for its 
franchised hotels. 

Also new is the growing 
number of potential fran- 
chise owners. As business 
monthly Forbes Germany 
notes in a recent edition, the 
swelling ranks of unem- 
ployed and dissatisfied ex- 
ecutives provide the perfect 
recruiting ground for future 
franchise owners. “These 



executives 

experience 
plus ample 
'golden hand- a 

savings, and 
are actively 
looking for 
business 
opportuni- 
ties." ■ 

West 

European consumers’ will- 
ingness to avail themselves 
of the services of Call a 
Pizza and Mister Minit out- 
lets has been growing 
steadily over the last few 
years. For Central and East- 
ern Europeans, “it was Jove 
at first sight between fran- 
chise outlets and their cus- 
tomers,” says Boris Gan del, 
international affairs editor at 
Stnena, a Bratislava-based 
newspaper. 

As Mr. Gandel points out, 
the initial tush by locals to 
sample such high-profile 


Western 
items as Mc- 
§5 Donald's ham- 
burgers has gradual- 
- ly tapered off, 
Mj j but swelling 
Jff* **& numbers of 
N™ tourists have 

kept franchise 
outlets’ 
sales high. 

“Bratisla- 
* - va and the 

region’ s 
other cities are filled with 
‘second generation’ fran- 
chises, such as clothing 
stores and computer cen- 
ters,” says Mr. Gandel. 
“Most people using them 
don’t even realize that the 
stores are franchises from 
Western systems.” 

He adds: “Many of my 
acquaintances have turned 
into businesspeople by 
opening up franchising out- 
lets. There’s a natural match 
between a proven concept 
and a newly developed mar- 
ket” Terry Swartzberg 


Tins advertising section was produced in its entirety by 
the supplements division of the International Herald 
Tribune's advertising department Steve Weinstein is a 
free-lance writer based in New York. Terry Swartzbeig 
is a Munich-based business writer. Joseph R. Yogerst is 
based in Singapore and specializes in Asian affairs. Il- 
lustrations by K. A. Sheckler-Wilson 


Master Franchise Opportunity 
Available - Cash In On 
Indoor Air Quality 


la door air poRnUoH is a mounting problem. 
Staunaric bw Master F ran d rew available liwougbotf 
the world to addrastHs growing concern- Yon am 
profit Hum 6|ii asvfctouncntti hrahh mduLy, N 

"Environmental cleaning is cuff greatest asset, and 
contributes to the success of oar franchise otmea. I 
would in rite yen to visit our International Franchise 
Headquarters and sec how you caa profit fitm the 
Indoor Air Quality concern. Oir 48- year-old 
company offers you a Ml line of indoor 
environmental services, opening the door for 
qualified entiqjicucuro to take advantage of cur 
unparalleled services, training and on going support 
services into the 21 st century." 


m 


LLOYD SWICGUM 


1 - 817 - 332-1575 

Stucco* is only a call away 




MASTER LICENSE 


Go with a proven leader in commercial and residential cleaning 
services. 64 year old USA company now expanding, offers 
master franchise in your market Over 600 Duradean service 
franchises In 20 countries worldwide. Entrepreneur magazine 
ranks in Top 1%. Extensive training programs. Staff available for 


required. Contact: 

I.T. Marshall, President 
4-754 Duradean Bldg. 
Deerfield, IL600I5 


Telephone: 708-945-2000 
Fax: 708-945-2023 


International Franchising Information 

If you are Interested in obtaining information on U.S. 
Franchise companies that are expanding internationally. 
Franchise UPDATE has just what you need. 

Two special publications that will supply you with both 
detailed information on expanding U.S. franchise systems and 
expert artides on international franchise trends and events. 
To receive your copies of 

The World Franchise and Business Report 
and 

The Executive's Guide to Franchise Opportunities 
via aimail, send a check or money order for 
$25.00 (U.S.) to: 

Franchise UPDATE 

P.O. Box 20547, San Jose, CA 95160-0547 USA 
or order by VISA or MasterCard by faxing your 
order with account number, expiration date and 
approval signature to: 408-997-7793 (USA) 
International. Herald Tribune U.S. Inc. 


BIG BOY COMES TO EUROPE 

Big Boy Restaurants, caterer for the 1994 World Cup matches in 
Pontiac, Michigan, U5A, is expanding internationally. For almost 60 
years, Big Boy has been one of America's favorite family restaurants. 
With over S00 restaurants in the USA and an additional 150 


Big Boy 


licenses are now bang sold for territories throughout greater Europe 
andothaintemafiraiarTegion^ 

CONTACT: 

Euro-American International 
P.O. Bax 36633, Tucson, Arizona, USA 55740 
TEL: 1 (602/8534422- FAX: (602/ 8836513 




AMERICA'S 

LEADING 

EDUCATION 

FRANCHISE 

OFFERS 

INTERNATIONAL 

OPPORTUNITIES 


With 500 locations io the U.S. and Can- 
ada, Sylvan Lc&ming Ceracn* Is ihe Jeader in 
rotating, training, and testing services. In fact, 
since 1 9 80 more than one million students have 
achieved greater success in school by participat- 
ing in Sylvan’s intensive programs for reading, 
math and othersobjeas. Sylvan* also often the 
only computerized versions of several ETS 
(Educational Testing Service] exams. Includ- 
ing the GRE, 

Since academic success is a top priority 
for most femilks, we drink Sylvan will make a 
difference in many communities outside the 
U.S. Sylvan seeks master franchise candidates 
with capital to develop multiple locations. If 
your goals indode making money and making 
a difference, call Sylvan for the whole story: 
(410) 880-8880. 


Master License Opportunity 

AlphaGraphics, 24-year leader in die quick print and 
related services industry is seeking additional Master 
Licensees to develop our 330-store network, currently 
operating in IS countries. 

Each AlphaGraphics center offers offset printing, 
electronic printing, computer-assisted graphic design, 
binding and finishing, and is tied to our worldwide system 
through a digital data network. Consider your future as a 
Master Licensee, developing franchise locations in your 


countrv of interest. 


AIphaGraphies is seeking Master Licensees for Africa, the 
Caribbean, Central America, Southern Latin America and 
Western Europe. 

For an information packet, please call Bill Edwards at 
J (602) 293-9200, or fax your request to 1 (602) 887-2850. 


alplfflgraphics’ 

Print-shops Of The Future 


$760 N. Commerce Drive 
Tucson, Arizona 85705 USA 


OWN THE WORLD 


MASTER FRANCHISE RIGHTS 


UNIGLOBE, THE international franchise in THE International business, ranked #1 
In travel by Entrepreneur Magazine for 8 consecutive years. 

UNIGLOBE, the world's largest travel agency franchise system, with more than 
1,100 locations will award Master Franchise Rights for certain West European 
countries and selected markets elsewhere in the world. Successful candidates 
will be finandally qualified and have the leadership capabilities to capitalize on 
the unique opportunity to become the dominant player in this multi-billion 
dollar industry. You will join our 17 other Regional Master Franchisors in the U.S. 
and Canada, Europe, the U.K. and {apan who have built the most dynamic global 
travel agency system through franchising. 



Find out how you can own the world. 

For an appointment in Washington D.C. during Expo or for further information, call: 


UUEtfABE 

Travel 


. John L Henry, Senior Vice President 

■ jjKfr : UNIGLOBE TRAVEL (international Inc.) 

Vancouver, Canada 

Phone; (604) 662-3800 Fax; 1604) 602-3878 


Wkeit uou fccame part of our family, uau'll have the world in utaut hands. Wre Unitfnbe Tmri. the # J travel franchise 


extended local families 
pooling money or families 
with relatives returning 
from the West with capital. 

Although fast food re- 
mains the engine driving 
franchises in developing 
markets, the demand for 
other goods and services is 
enticing other industries, in- 
cluding tourism (travel 
agencies, hotels, car-rental 
agencies, etc.) and business 
services (copying, faxing, 
business cards, personnel, 
temporary help. etc.). 

Steamatic, a 48-year-old 
U.S. -based company, pro- 
vides residential, commer- 
cial and industrial cleaning 
services. It was the first 
franchise service company 
to open in China 


Another marketplace 
where pent-up demand for 
goods and services has cre- 
ated new opportunities for 
franchisers is Latin Ameri- 
ca. Brazil, the largest mar- 
ket in the region, had only 
450 franchise companies in 
1992, but sales increased 36 
percent that'year and about 
as much last year. 

Steve Weinstein 


Prospects Are Good 
For Trade Fair 


Trade shows have increasingly become the preferred 
way of prospecting potential franchisees. A field rep- 
resentative typically reaches only a few prospects per 
day - something that can be done in less than an hour 
at a major trade show, according to executives, of the 
Blenheim Group, producers of the International. Fran- 
chise Expo. 

The Expo, beginning today in Washington, D.C.. 
may be dominated by American franchisers, but it al- 
ready reflects toe internationalization of the franchise 
industry. Last year, exhibitors from nine countries were 
joined by attendees from 73 countries. Many of those 
attending from outside toe United States were looking 
for master licenses for their countries. 

Three Mexican franchisers will exhibit for the first 
time this year - a reflection of the effects of the North 
American Free Trade Agreement Tom Portesy of toe 
Blenheim Group is expecting 300 exhibitors — the 
same number as last year. Blenheim produces a num- 
ber of shows, but this one is by far the largest, with 
26,000 attendees is 1993. As the only international 
franchising fair, it provides the best venae for fran- 
chisers and potential franchisees to meet and exchange 
information, S.W. 


Master Franchises Available 



Ziebart HdyCar is toe recognized brand name for a suc- 
cessful automotive aftermarket business in 41 countries. 


Professionally applied and installed products and services 
for Detailing, Accessories, and Protection are our specialty. 
We meet toe strong consumer demand for cars that look 
better and last longer. 


Extensive initial arid on-going training, marketing, adver- 
tising, and technical support is provided. 

Master Franchises are available to qualified individuals or 
companies looking to diversify. For more information, please 
contact 

ZIebart International Corp. 

P.O. Box 1290 • Troy, Ml 48007-1290 USA 

TEL 1-810-588-4100 - FAX: 1-610-588-0718 


Ifvou like to receive further information on any of the 
advertisers in today’s International Franchise Section, 
simply complete the coupon below and send it to: 


Judith King 

International Herald Tribune 
850 Third Avenue, 8th Floor 
New York, NY 10022 USA 
or Fax: 212-755-8785 


□ Alphagraphics 

□ Big Boy Restaurants 

□ Boboli 

□ Business Opportunities Journal 

□ Candy Headquarters 

□ Duraclean 

□ ExecuTram 

0 Franchise Update 

□ Future Kids 

□ Leadership Management Inti. 
Cl Mail Boxes Etc. 

□ Pizza Inn 

□ Pizza Pizza 

□ Postnet 

□ Rainbow IntL 

□ Sir Speedy 

□ Steamatic 

□ Subway 


□ Sylvan Learning Centers 

□ Travel Network 


□ Travel Network 
□Uniglobe 

□ Ziebait TidyCar 


Name. 

Title 

Company.. 
Address: _ 

Gty 

Country: _ 
Roe 


29-4-94 























u t 




't-./ 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, FRIDAY, APRIL 29, 1994 


Page 17 





N-C-H-I-S-I-N-G 





@ 


• vS* 

*• 

© 



AsianFirms Catch On to Benefits of Expansion Through Franchising 



franchise 

ni&rkei j. s on the 
brink of e\nlo- 
... — s, t»n in Asia, pro- 

viding opportunities for im- 
mediate entry into this lu- 
crauve region to Western 
companies that do 
not have the re- 
sources. manaae- 
ment or knowl- 
edge to expand 
on their own. But 
growth in this 
sector is not all 
from outside 
of the region. 

Many ' up- 
and-coming Asian 
companies are also 
realizing the benefits 
of expansion 
through franchis- 
ing. 

Singapore 
seems to have caught onto 
the franchise trend faster 
than its neighbors, but there 
is also activity in Malaysia, 
the Philippines. Thailand.’ 
Indonesia and Hong Kong. 
“Over the past three years, 
the number of Singapore 
franchisers has grown dra- 
matically,” says Tan Thuan 



Seng, president of the Sin- 
gapore International Fran- 
chise Association, “from 
eight in 1990 to 35 in 1993 
- with some 20 others in the 
pipeline.” 

Albert Kong, local man- 
aging director of a British- 
based franchise consultancy 
called Franchise Develop- 
ment Services, confirms 
that Singapore franchis- 
ers are begin- 
ning to expand 
abroad. “But we 
strongly encour- 
age all our 
clients to go 
through the 
local learning 
curve before ventur- 
ing overseas," he 
explains. 

Mr. Kong rec- 
ommends that 
/'expansion 
abroad begins 
as close to home 
as possible and that 
companies venture farther 
afield only when experience 
has been gained. 

Several Singapore com- 
panies have already taken 
the plunge. Toscano, which 


produces and sells high- 
quality leather products, has 
franchises in Taiwan and In- 
donesia and is considering 
requests from interested 
parties in Europe. Old 
Chang Kec Curry Puffs, 
which markets meat curry 
in a pastry cosing, is already 
tickling the taste buds of 
Japanese consumers. 

Perhaps the most ad- 
vanced Asian franchiser is 
Noel, a Singapore-based 
company that supplies ham- 
pers, floral arrangement and 
corporate gifts. After three 
years of research and plan- 
ning, Noel decided to ap- 
point its first franchisee in 
Malaysia in 1991, spreading 
to Thailand and Indonesia in 
subsequent ventures. 

“After two aggressive 
years, we have four Fran- 
chisees - in Kuala Lumpur, 
Jakarta, Bangkok and Johor 
Bahru.” says Alfred Wong, 
the company's managing 
director. “To complete our 
Southeast Asia franchise 
network, we are currently 
on the look-out for fran- 
chisees in Brunei, East 
Malaysia, Penang and 


Surabaya, as well as Taiwan 
and the Philippines.” 

Traditionally, fast-food 
outlets have dominated the 
American franchise drive 
into Asia - McDonald's, 
Burger King, Kentucky 
Fried Chicken. Pizza Hut, 
Wendy's Hamburgers, 
Dunkin' Donuts, Ponderosa 
Steak House, Famous Amos 

Constant contact 
is key to 
success 


Cookies and Swensen’s Ice 
Cream, to name but a few. 
Some of these companies 
now seem to be moving 
away from franchising into 
joint ventures or wholly 
owned operations. 

With more than 1,600 
restaurants. Si. 6 billion in 
retail turnover and 22 years 
of experience in Asia, Ken- 
tucky Fried Chicken takes 
the Asian slice of its opera- 
tions very seriously. 

“We feel that Asia is suf- 


ficiently important thar we 
want to' be not only a licen- 
sor but also owner/opera- 
ior,” says Tim Lane, presi- 
dent of KFC Asia-Pacific. 
“We are committed to de- 
veloping our brand our- 
selves. but will use fran- 
chises as fill-ins.” KFC 
holds equity interest ranging 
from 30 to 100 percent in 
half of their Asian opera- 
tions. At present, the com- 
pany has franchises in In- 
donesia. Hong Kong, Tai- 
wan, Korea and China. 

As long-established com- 
panies move aw'ay from 
franchising. Asia’s mouth- 
watering growth rates have 
attracted a range of nontra- 
ditional franchise compa- 
nies. Steamatic Internation- 
al sells licenses for carpet 
cleaning and disaster 
restoration services. 

“Over the lasr J8 months 
to two years, we have con- 
centrated a lot of our fran- 
chising efforts in the Pacific 
Rim area, and the activity is 
growing,” says Judy Bach- 
man, a spokesperson at the 
company's headquarters in 
Fort Worth, Texas. “At pre- 


sent, vve have franchises in 
13 different countries, in- 
cluding Singapore, South 
Korea, Indonesia, Hong 
Kong, Saudi Arabia, China, 
Japan and Australia.” 

Watchful for attractive 
business opportunities, 
Asian entrepreneurs are re- 
fusing to be left out of the 
action and are snapping up 
licensing rights for Asia 
from around the world. 
Hotel Properties Ltd., a di- 
versified hotel, entertain- 
ment and real-estate group 
based in Singapore, holds 
franchising rights for the 
Hard Rock Cafe and Planet 
Hollywood. Salim Group 
has Asians lining up to get 
a taste of Tony Roma’s ribs. 
And the Wy Wy Group is 
offering Tex-Mex food at 
Chili's Bar & Grill outlets. 

Meanwhile, Franchise 
Development Services is 
particularly proud of ar- 
ranging the marriage be- 
tween City Development 
Ltd. and U.S.-based Choice 
Hotels. Two of Malaysia's 
best-known fast-food chains 
- Sate Ria and Marrybrown 
Fried Chicken - are also ex- 


pan di ng 
abroad 
through 
franchises. 

Lindy Berry, 
head of Stea- 
matic's in- 
ternational 
franchise 
division, 
believes . 
that con- - m r 
slant contact is the key to a 
successful operation. 
“Someone from Steamatic 
headquarters visits the fran- 
chisees twice each year to 
check on their operations, 
and their people come to 
Fort Worth twice a year to 
learn abouL the latest tech- 
nology and techniques. We 
communicate by fax and 
phone nearly every week. If 
they have a problem or 
emergency, we're available 
24 hours to them.” 

Despite the rush to estab- 
lish new franchises, barriers 
remain in some countries. 
Mr. Lane says that Ken- 
tucky Fried Chicken would 
like to expand faster in 
China, but certain “chal- 
lenges" prevent this, includ- 


ing the inability 
to obtain at- 
tracti ve 
real estate 
and delays 
in gaining 
the relevant 
government ap- 
provals. 

Another KFC 
^ target is India, 
where the ab- 
sence of adequate utilities 
and building quality are 
major considerations. Mr. 
Lane says his company is 
also worried about the petty 
corruption that is said to 
exist in India, although KFC 
has encountered none of 
this. 

Mr. Lane is confident that 
franchising is heading for a 
boom in Asia. “The power 
of Western brands is very' 
important in these markets." 
he says. Franchise Develop- 
ment Services is also bullish 
about the future of Asian 
franchising. The company 
practices what it preaches - 
it is planning to open offices 
in Taiwan, Malaysia, China 
and Thailand. 

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n the United 
States, franchis- 
ing continues to 
grow as entre- 
preneurs discover whole 
new industries to franchise 
and ways to expand existing 
opportunities abroad. The 
passage of the North Amer- 
ican Free Trade Agreement 
and die rescinding of other 
protectionist measures with 
Mexico are expected to re- 
sult in a huge new market 
just to the south. 

Overall, the 558, 1 25 fran- 
chise outlets in the United 
States brought in $803.2 bil- 
lion in revenue in 1992, or 
over one- third of all retail 
sales. Franchising, which 
continued to grow during 
the prolonged recession, has 
kept pace with the current 
recovery. 

“We see success either 
way.” says Tom Portesy of 
the Blenheim Group. 


“When the economy is bad. 
people literally need to go 
out and buy a job. And 
when the banks are lending 
money again, an individual 
can go out and leverage a 
franchise. As the economy 
gets better, retail spending 
goes up, meaning more roy- 
alties for franchisees." 

Perhaps the fastest-grow- 
ing franchising sector is the 
delivery of goods and ser- 
vices directly to homes and 
businesses. Decorating Den. 
for example, a home-deco- 
rating franchise, is essen- 
tially a store in a van. Such 
. services are growing faster 
than food, according to Bob 
Jones, vice president for in- 
ternational affairs for the In- 
ternational Franchise Asso- 
ciation. The convenience at- 
tracts harried consumers, 
while their low cost relative 
to site-specific franchises 
makes them attractive to 


most potential franchisees. 

Even the food industry, 
the most mature U.S. fran- 
chise category, is finding 
ways to diversify and ex- 
pand. Candy HQtrs is the 
latest franchise from Mark 
Bob Lando, founders of 
the successful Ath- 
lete's Foot franchise. 

The company offers 
uniform pricing and 
distinctive store light- 
ing. 

Boboli International 
began by manufacturing 
its own brand of pizza 
shells. Kraft now makes the 
shells domestically, while 
Boboli franchises abroad its 
manufacturing expertise, in- 
cluding marketing, recipes 
and technology. 

The passage of NAFTA 
will only accelerate global 
marketing. U.S. franchisers 
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co than probably anywhere 
else in the world. Uniglobe, 
already the largest travel- 
agency franchise in the 
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vanced stage of negotiations 
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Although Mr. Jones ac- 
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chemicals, he sees the great- 
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ultimate creation of more 
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consequent consumer and 
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tiny fraction of potential 
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Faced with shrinking de- 
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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, FRIDAY, APRIL 29, 1994 


ADVERTISING section 



he official opening ceremo- 
ny of the 810-kilometer- 
long Zeepipe, the world's 
longest offshore gas trunk- 
line, on April 29 marks a turning point 
in the history of Norway. The new 
Troll/Sleipner export contracts have ef- 
fectively doubled Norway's gas ex- 
ports to the Continent 

As export volumes under the Troll 
agreement will reach 44.7 billion cubic 
meters by the year 2005, Norway’s ex- 
port commitments, including the deple- 
tion contracts signed in 1977 for the 
Ekofisk and Frigg fields and in 1985 
for the Stafford, Gullfaks and Heimdal 
fields, will total over 50 billion cubic 
meters at the beginning of the 21st cen- 
tury. 

The historic Troll gas agreement, 
signed in 1986 with Germany, France, 
Belgium, the Netherlands, Spain and 
Austria, calls for Norway to supply 
1,000 billion cubic meters of gas over 
the next 28 years, making Norway into 
a major European energy power. 

What has confirmed Norway’s posi- 


tion, however, is its ability to get these 
huge development and construction 
projects off the ground. Norwegian gas 
sellers have committed themselves to 
investing more than SI 8 billion for 
contracts that extend beyond 2022. 
Phase one of the project, consisting of 
the Sleipner field development and the 
Zeepipe line to Zeebrugge, is now 
complete. Phase two will be finished in 
1995-96, and will include the Europipe 
trunkline and the Troll gas platform. 
Phase three, ending in the year 2 000, 
will include new field developments 
and new pipeline infrastructure. 

The extent of Norway's risk, in fi- 
nancial and technical terms, was con- 
siderable at die time of the decision, 
which involved thinking 35 years 
ahead. Once the project was under 
way, it posed considerable challenges. 
The financial risk has been under- 
scored by the slump in oil prices, to 
which gas prices are linked. The loss of 
the first concrete gravity-base structure 
for the Sleipner platform in August 
1991, due to a design fault, provided a 


stark illustration of the technological 
risks borne by the producers. 

While a new concrete platform was 
ordered for the Sleipner field, new 
costs were incurred for a new riser plat- 
form in order to maintain die delivery 
deadline of Oct. 1, 1993 for the first 
Sleipner gas at Zeebrugge. Beyond foe 
technical challenges, which have now 
proved manageable, financial ones re- 
main. Even if more cost-efficient solu- 
tions are found to develop new off- 
shore fields, often located in deeper 
waters than those of the North Sea, foe 
cost of transporting gas to markets over 
longer distances means new develop- 
ments do not always make economic 
sense. 

If the demand for European gas in- 
creases from an anticipated 400 billion 
cubic meters in the year 2000 to an es- 
timated 480 billion cubic meters by 
2020, foe three main suppliers to Eu- 
rope - the former Soviet Union, Alge- 
ria and Norway - will all need to bring 
new gas reserves on-stream. Russia 
would need to develop its Yamal 


peninsula gas fields and invest in new 
trunklines. Algeria would have to de- 
cide on new field developments to 
meet the growing demand from South- 
ern Europe. Norway would also need 
to respond to the demand in view of 
Europe's requirement for secure sup- 
plies. 

Fra: the former Soviet Union and Al- 
geria, deciding on heavy new develop- 
ment investments may prove challeng- 
ing. Both countries would need foreign 
capital to realize new projects, with 
firm investment commitments before 
foe end of the century. For the moment, 
neither Russia nor Algeria appears to 
have sufficient political stability to at- 
tract the necessary capital 

Hence the importance of Norway's 
role as a secure gas supplier to Europe. 
Both Germany and France have al- 
ready indicated a need for more Nor- 
wegian gas in foe future, and interest 
has been shown in Norwegian gas by 
East European countries like Poland 
and foe Czech Republic. 

As Norway is now seeking full 


membership in the European Union, 
Norwegian observers in Brussels are 
taking advantage of Norway’s power- 
ful position as an energy supplier to 
Europe to convey their points of view 
on such matters as energy and environ- 
mental management and foe use and 
cost of gas in order to influence Euro- 
pean energy policy. One prominent ob- 
server is Statoil’s director, Henrik 
Ager-Hanssen, who has entrfe to some 
of foe most important EU committees. 

One area in which Norway has al- 
ready been heard by the European 
Commission is foe principle of free- 
market competition, which the Com- 
mission has fiercely defended op until 
recently. Free competition would allow 
anyone to buy gas at the wellhead, 
transport it through third-party access 
in the existing infrastructure and sell it 
on foe open market Norway, however, 
maintains that energy has important so- 
cial implications and cannot be reduced 
to a commodity liable to the ups and 
downs of a deregulated market 

Norway, as a gas nation and an ener- 


ADVERTISING SECTION 


Pipeline 


• 1977: The Philips Group puts 
the Nofpipe pipeline in service and 
starts exports of Ekofisk associated 
gas to the Continent Bf puts the 
Frigg gas field, at that time the 
worlds largest offshore gas devel- 
opment, on-stream. 

. • 1979: Norske Shell discovers 
the Troll gas field, the largest off- 
shore gas field in the world, with re- 
serves of more than 1.2 billion cu- 
bic meters. 

• 1986: Signing of the TrpH gas 
agreement between the Norwegian 
gas sellers and six European buy- 
ers, including Germany, France, 
the Netherlands, Belgium, Spain 
and Austria. - 

• 1991: The first options under 

the Trod gas agreement are exer*, 
dsed. Norway has now. committed 
itself to supplying 44.8 billion cubic 
meters of gas under the Troll gas 
agreement • 

• 1992: Government approval is 
given to the development of. the 
Sleipner West field, part of the Troll 
gas agreement 

• 1993: The new Sleipner plat- 
form is installed and put on-stream. 
The Zeepipe is put Into service, on 
Oct 1,1993. 

• 1994: The 810-kilometer 
Zeepipe linking the Sleimer field to 
Zeebrugge, Belgum, is offitiaDy in- 
augurated on Aprf 29. 

• 1995: Tow-out of the Trod gas 
platform to the field location and in- 
stallation of a new Zegxpe fink be- 
tween the Troll gas terminal arid " 
Sleipner. Europipe becomes opera- 
tional 

• 1996; Start-up of Troll gas pro- . 
ductton and of the new Zeepipe fink 
from the Troll shore terminal to the 
Sleipner platform. 

• 1967: Production start-up of the 

Sleipner West field. A.L 


gy power in Europe, also wants to con- 
tribute to foe formulation of Europe’s 
environmental policy and its implica- 
tions for sustained economic growth 
and employment Mr. Ager-Hanssen is 
foe only non-EU member taking part in 
foe Elf's consultative committee onen- 
vironmental issues. The committee in- 
cludes representatives from foe energy 
industry, environmental organizations 
and local and regional authorities. Its 
aim is to discuss, at an early stage of 
EU environmental legislation, potential 
problems and conflicts and to try to 

Continued on page 19 



: ’ • 
mi 


Uh&am mi 


GENERATION 

The Troll sales agreements represent the biggest delivery 
and investment commitments in world gas history. They 
provide secure energy supplies for Western Europe from 
today and far into the next century. With Statoil as the 
main supplier, Norwegian natural gas will be delivered to 
Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, France, Austria and 

of energy are involved. When these 
deliveries are in fun swing, just a couple of seconds of . 

awset ■ energy needs 


energy needs 

of an average European household for a whole year. 

.commit us to deliver natural 
And we're not 








ffie best thmg abp&t natural gas is its 
ehvirbrimentai benefit. Our deliveries from 

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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, FRIDAY, APRIL 29, 1994 


Page 19 . 

advertising section^. - f 




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N orway is so rich 
,n energy re- 
sources that it ex- 
... ~ ,- ports the vast 
k* 1 - ! naturaJ gas that it 

fie ds r otY -, fr ° m the rich 
fields olf its coast. While 

Norwegians rely predomi- 
nantly on hydropower, their 
has become the 
world s sixth-largest ex- 
porter of gas. 

Norwegian natural gas is 
piped down to Western Eu- 
rope. There, it fulfills 10 
percent of energy require- 
ments. The main problem 
facing the distributors of 
Norwegian gas in six na- 
tions south of Norway is 
lack of transport capacity: 
Existing pipelines simply 
will not be able to carry 
enough gas to meet the 
agreed-upon targets. Hence 
fh e rush to build new 
pipelines to supplement the 
well-established Norpipe 
and the six-month-old 
Zeepipe. 

The Zeepipe will deliver 
gas to four downstream cus- 
tomers: Distrigaz and Elec- 
trabel in Belgium, Gaz de 
France in France, and Ena- 
gas in Spain. 

Belgian gas distributor 
Distrigaz already receives 
gas from Norway via the 
Norpipe pipeline dial termi- 
nates m the German city of 
Emden. Its initial role in dis- 
tributing gas from the 
Zeepipe, which terminates 
in Zeebnigge, Belgium, is 
that of a middleman. 

At present, Distrigaz ac- 
cepts gas from Statoil, the 


... ( 

v T' • . - ' 


Norwegian company that 
takes tne gas immediately 
from the Zeepipe. Then Dis- 
trigaz runs quality-control 
tests on die gas, meters it 
and puts it into its network 
of pipelines for delivery to 
Gaz de France. 

In two years* time, Dis- 
trigaz will have another cus- 
tomer for Zeepipe gas: Bel- 
gian eleciricity generator 
Electrabel. Starting in 1996, 
Distrigaz will deliver 1.7 bil- 
lion cubic meters of gas per 
year to Electrabel, an 
amount that will probably 
increase around the year 
2000. 

Since Belgium is in the 
middle of a move away from 
liquid fuels such as oil and 
toward cleaner natural gas, 
how can Distrigaz afford to 
take only a distribution role 
in gas from the Zeepipe? 
“There are no shortages of 
gas in Belgium at present,” 
explains Distrigaz spokes- 
man Christian Otto. 

In fact. Norwegian gas, 
delivered through the Nor- 
pipe, accounts for only 22 
percent of the gas reaching 
Belgian consumers. Alger- 
ian and Dutch gas accounts 
for the rest, in roughly equal 
amounts. With the recent in- 
creases in supply of gas 
from Norway, however, the 
proportion of Norwegian 
gas is expected to grow to 
about the same amount as 
that from the Netherlands 
and Algeria. The new 
pipeline, according to Mr. 
Otto, “will permit die coun- 
try to diversify suppliers ” 




A Celebration 
For Zeebrugge 
As an Energy Hub 


* ^ , _ * *♦ V 

■ Vr ‘ 



The Steipnerpfatfom} being towed out of a fjord near Stavanger after its completion last year. 



Electrabel, meanwhile, is 
planning a series of new 
generating plants that will 
use the Norwegian gas it is 
due to start accepting in 
1996. The reason for the 
plants: a higher than antici- 
pated growth in demand for 
power in recent years. 

The company usually 
plans new equipment over a 
10-year cycle. Its 1988 plan 
was based on expected an- 
nual growth of 2.5 percent 
With the exception of the re- 
cession-affected year of 
1993, recent growth has 
been in the range of 3 per- 
cent to 3.5 percent 

Electrabel’ s revised plan 
envisions a total of five new 
generating plants that will 
use natural gas. The first, a 
460 megawatt plant dose to 
Brussels, was opened offi- 
cially on April 15. Accord- 
ing to Electrabel, it will be 


aimed largely at domestic 
and small-business users - 
although the interconnected- 
ness of Europe's electricity 
suppliers means that power 
generated in one particular 
area does not necessarily 
serve that area alone. 

The next Electrabel plqnt, 
another 460 megawatt gen- 
erator, will be located in the 
Liege region. Yet another 
460 megawatt plant and two 
350 megawatt facilities (will 
go on-line later. . 

The new gas-fired plants 
will also make Belgian ener- 
gy more environmentally 
friendly, according to Elec- 
trabel spokesman Philippe 
Massart, by moving away 
from liquid fuel toward nat- 
ural gas. Gas from the 
Zeepipe that passes beyopd 
the Belgian border will pass 
on to Gaz de France. The 
French company will use 


some of that gas for its own 
purposes and transport the 
rest through France. It will 
be redelivered to the Norwe- 
gians at the Spanish border 
and passed on to Enagas. 
Gaz de France also receives 
Norwegian gas from the 
Emden Line, shipped through 
Belgium via the SEGEO 
pipeline, a subsidiary of Gaz 
de France and Distrigaz. 

Natural gas accounts for 
about 13.3 percent of 
France’s primary energy 
market at present. None is 
used to generate electricity. 
French demand for natural 
gas grew by 4 2 percent last 
year. Industry observers ex- 
pect that the growth rate will 
continue to exceed that of 
the overall consumption of 
energy in France. 

Norwegian gas is helping 
to satisfy the demands of 
Gaz de France. The volume 


to be delivered to the com- 
pany will increase from the 
current figure of 1.6 billion 
cubic meters per year to 8 
billion cubic meters annual- 
ly by the rum of the century. 

Gaz de France, however, 
faces a long-term shortfall. 
Says spokesperson Sophie 
Carlier-Orsini: “Most of the 
expected demand is covered 
by purchase agreements al- 
ready concluded, until 
roughly the turn of the cen- 
tury. After that, even with 
the currently planned in- 
crease of flow through the 
Zeepipe, contracts will not 
be sufficient to cover the in- 
crease of gas demand.” 

Options being considered 
by Gaz de France include in- 
creases in the amount of 
Norwegian gas and supple- 
mentary amounts from other 
current suppliers. 

Peter G Wynne 


le mi sh- speaking 
Belgians call it 
Brugge, with a 
hard “g,“ while 
French speakers pronounce 
it Bruges, with a soft “g.” 
But for Belgians of both 
tongues, the medieval city is 
rapidly becoming the energy 
capital of Europe. 

The Zeepipe will be offi- 
cially inaugurated at the 
Zeebrugge terminal today at 
1 1 :30 A.M. by the Belgian 
prime minister. Jean-Luc 
Deheane, assisted by Nor- 
wegian Prime Minister Gro 
Harlem Brundtland. Follow- 
ing the inauguration lunch, 
guests will repair to the me- 
dieval Belfort building in 
the center of Brugge for the 
ceremony marking the start 
of deliveries under the Troll 
gas sales agreements. In the 
evening, some 300 guests 
will top off the festivities 
with a gala banquet at 
Belfort 

For Brugge and its port, 
the Zeepipe represents pan 
of a general buildup as an 
energy center. Zeebrugge al- 
ready boasts a liquid natural 


gas terminal. The region is 
designated as the receiving 
terminus of a tentative new 
pipeline, the Eurolink. If 
feasibility studies due to be 
released in the autumn 
prove satisfactory, Eurolink 
will pump gas' from the 
British side of the North Sea 
to Continental Europe via 
Zeebrugge. 

The Flanders port is also 
in competition for the sec- 
ond Zeepipe. That project 
has received the green Light 
to deliver yet more natural 
gas from Norwegian fields. 
The southern landing point 
has not yet been decided, 
however. 

How has the recent activi- 
ty helped Belgium in gener- 
al and the Brugge-Zee- 
brugge region in particular? 
“Belgian - dredging and 
pipelaying companies have 
gained a higher profile inter- 
nationally,” says a 
spokesperson for Distrigaz, 
“and the image of Belgium 
as a major center for Euro- 
pean gas flow is important 
for the future.” 

P.G. 


Norway Invests in 
Energy and in Europe 


Continued from page 18 

find solutions through the 
formulation of environmen- 
tal directives. 

Norway hopes to under- 
score its role as an energy 
supplier to Europe by further 
expanding its power exports. 
In this case, new power 
could be generated by gas- 
fired plants in Norway or in 


other European countries. 

Mr. Ager-Hanssen, from 
his observer’s post in Brus- 
sels, is already representing 
both Statoil and Statkraft 
(the national Norwegian 
power utility). Indications 
have been given that they 
could jointly form a gas- 
fired power-generation con- 
sortium. 

AJL 



Looks like the fujture is bright for gas. 


Our grand-parents used gas for lighting homes and streets: now natural 

gas is becoming the preferred feedstock to generate electricity. TOTAL is bothj 
an oil and a gas company, in fact natural gas represents a major part of ou[r 
hydrocarbon reserves. From geology to marketing, TOTAL is at the forefront 


this complex industry and today holds a world-class position. Natural gas has 
therefore become a strategic focus for the Group, and it is not just by JKBKSK $ 

chance that in this rapidly expanding industry, TOTAL is poised TOTAL ' 

to become a key player. TOTAL BY NAME. TOTAL BY NATURE. mmm 




Page 20 

} ADVERTISING SECTION 


INTERNATIONAL HER_\JLD TRIBUNE, FRIDAY, APRIL 29, 1994 



Unprecedented Engineering Project 



he development 
of the Troll field 
is the world's 
largest energy 
project. WiifTa capital ex- 
penditure of S4.6 billion for 
the platform and the shore 
terminal alone, it is the most 
capital-intensive project to 
date. 

Twenty-six exploration 
wells have been necessary to 


and one observation well, 
will be required to tap the re- 
serves. The gas is essentially 
methane, with no carbon 
dioxide or sulfur. 

The wells will be drilled 
from a gigantic 430-meter 
platform, which will rest in a 
water depth of 303 meters. 
The wells will each be 
slightly deviated and, rather 
like the legs of an octopus. 


this part of the North Sea, 
the platform must withstand 
waves of up to 30 meters as 
well as very strong currents. 
Concrete is the only material 
offering sufficient resistance 
to these forces. 

When the Norwegian gov- 
ernment approved the pro- 
ject in December 1986. op- 
erator Shell was made re- 
sponsible for offshore devel- 



The Troll platform will contain enough concrete to buHd a 5,500-unit apartment block. 


map and appraise the Troll 
field, discovered by Norske 
Shell in 1979. Located 80 
kilometers (50 miles) off 
Bergen, the field contains 
estimated recoverable re- 
serves of 1.2 trillion cubic 
meters of gas. The Troll gas 
volume is equal to a 5.5-me- 
ter-thick layer covering the 
whole of Norway. 

The Troll reservoir ex- 
tends over four blocks, or 
about 2,000 square kilome- 
ters. The gas is trapped in 
sandstone'’ of the Jurassic 
era, which can be up to 400 
meters thick, 1,400 meters 
below the seabed. The sand- 
stone is very permeable and 
has excellent production ca- 
pabilities. Forty wells, in- 
cluding 39 production wells 


form a circle 500 meters in 
diameter under the platform. 
Each well will be able to 
produce 3.4 million cubic 
meters of gas per day: under 
norma] operations, however, 
production is likely to be 
limited to 2.8 million cubic 
meters per well a day. 

If the Troll platform were 
built on land, it would have a 
visibility of 70 kilometers 
from the top. The platform 
consists or a 370-meter, 
four-legged gravity-base 
structure in concrete, topped 
by a deck, with drilling, pro- 
duction and transport facili- 
ties. Concrete was chosen 
for the substructure of the 
platform because it has a 
lifetime of at least 70 years. 
In the harsh environment of 


opment. Because the Troll 
construction stretched the 
limits of tested technology, 
it was decided to treat and 
dry the gas at an onshore ter- 
minal, now under construc- 
tion north of Bergen, piis 
saved considerable weight 
on the topsides of the plat- 
form, a vital advantage 
when towing the million-ton 
structure out to sea. 

Breaking yet another tech- 
nological barrier, “wet" un- 
treated gas would, for the 
first time, be transported on 
an industrial scale over a 
great distance. To prevent 
the liquid elements in wet 
gas from freezing, it is nec- 
essary to inject glycol, a sort 
of antifreeze, into the two 
pipelines transporting the 


untreated gas to the Troll on- 
shore terminal. 

From the Troll terminal, 
the “dry" gas will be export- 
ed through a new pipeline 
scheduled to be laid in 1995 
over the 300-kilometer 
stretch between the terminal 
and the Sleipner riser plat- 
form. In 1997-98. another 
export line will be laid from 
the terminal to a central tie- 
back point of the North Sea 
gas export infrastructure. 

Construction of the Troll 
platform started in. 1992 in 
Stavanger, at the building 
site of Norwegian Contrac- 
tors. The 300,000 cubic me- 
ters of concrete used for the 
platform could fill a line of 
concrete mixers from Sta- 
vanger to Oslo, and would 
be enough to build a 5,500- 
unit apartment block. New 
York’s World Trade Center, 
with its 1 6.500- square-meter 
base and height of 370 me- 
ters, is dwarfed in compari- 
son. 

The concrete substructure 
will weigh a total of 656,000 
tons. First to be constructed 
were the 40-meter skirts, 
which are intended to sink in 
the soft seabed and give sta- 
bility to the structure. Then 
came 12 ballast caissons, 60 
meters high, over the skirts, 
and the slipforming of the 
four shafts. In June 1993, 
when the platform had 
reached a height of 134 me- 
ters, Norwegian Contractors 
towed iL to a deep-water 
fjord in order to complete 
the remaining concrete work 
to a final height of 370 me- 
ters. 

The completed platform 
will be towed out and in- 
stalled in the field location in 

1995, followed by a phase of 
hook-up and commissioning 
leading to production in 

1996, 10 years after govern- 
ment approval was granted. 
At this point, Statoil will 
take over the operation of 
the Troll field. 

Meanwhile, the Sleipner 



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field has started to produce 
the first volumes of gas un- 
der the Troll gas agreement. 
The very first gas was actu- 
ally produced in August 
1993, while contractual 
commitments started in Oc- 
tober 1993. 

The Sleipner gas is trans- 
ported in the 810-kilometer 
Zeepipe. landing at Zee- 
brugge, Belgium, and it is 
this event that is being offi- 
cially celebrated today. 

The Sleipner project has 
been a particularly eventful 
one in Norway’s oil and gas 
history. On Aug. 23, 1991, 
the Sleipner concrete gravi- 
ty-base structure under con- 
struction at Norwegian Con- 
tractors in Stavanger sank to 
the bottom of the fjord, 
where it was undergoing 
ballast tests. The loss was 
estimated at $274 million. A 
design error was identified 
as the cause of the accident, 
and another concrete base 
was immediately ordered. 
Within two years, a re- 
designed concrete construc- 
tion was completed and 
towed to the Field for the 
first: production to meet con- 
tractual obligations of Octo- 
ber 1993. 

The Sleipner concrete 
structure is 110 meters high 
and has a concrete volume 
of 79.000 cubic meters. The 
37.000-ton deck features a 
fully integrated production, 
process and accommodation 
plant. 

At plateau level, it will 
produce 20.5 million cubic 
meters of gas per day as well 
as 19,600 cubic meters of 
condensate, which is trans- 
ported separately to a shore 
terminal north of Stavanger. 

A.L. 


A Fuel 


' - ' • YI — -'-V'. Vv i > 




A 


growing con- 
sciousness that 
the environment 

is an economic 

resource worth investing in 
is helping to shape European 
energy legislation and has 
already encouraged the 
switch from coal and oil to 
natural gas. 

While natural gas’s share 
of total European energy 
consumption was 2 percent 
in 1960, it was 17 percent in 
1991 and almost 20 percent 
in 1994. In the same period, 
coal’s share has fallen from 
62 percent to 23 percent, 
while the share of oil has 
gone up from 33 percent to 
43 percent, primarily reflect- 
ing greater demand in the 
transport sector. 

Yet the progress made by 
gas has gone almost unno- 
ticed. As a fossil fuel, gas 
cannot claim to be a 100- 
percent clean source of ener- 


unsustainable, which is un- 
likely to happen in the near 
future.” For the time being, 
however, highly pqlluting. 
fuels are in. retreat, and the 
void they leave is slowjy be- 
ing filled by natural gas. 

Nuclear fuels have sub- 
stantially helped to curb car- 
bon-dioxide, sulfur and. ni- 
trogen-oxide emissions, but 
the Chernobyl incident in 
the former Soviet Union in 
1985 and the environmental 
hazards of the disposal, of 


Although natural gas is a 
fossil fuel, it offers consider- 
able advantages for the envi- 
ronment. Gas does not re- 
quire particularly high tech- 
nology and can therefore be 
used at low cost in many de- 
veloping countries, where it 
is already produced as asso- 
ciated gas with oil. ■ 

. “Sour" natural, gas .-.is 
desulfurized prior to trans- 
port in order to avoid corro- 
sion problems. When it ar- 
rives at the burner tip, it con- 


Gas has cut carbon- 
dioxide emissions in 
Europe by 30 
million tons 


gy. but compared with its al- 
ternatives. it emerges as a 
safe fuel and the cleanest of 
all hydrocarbon fuels. 

Some in the industry point 
to gas as the most environ- 
mentally friendly fuel dur- 
ing the transition to renew- 
able fuels. The widespread 
use of renewable fuels, such 
as solar or wind energy and 
hydrogen, still requires ma- 
jor technological break- 
throughs for large-scale in- 
dustrial use. 

Ongoing research in the 
United States and Europe 
shows that the interest in re- 
newable fuels is still at the 
laboratory level, and would 
need strong economic incen- 
tives to take off. In principle, 
the pipeline infrastructure al- 
ready in place for natural gas 
could easily be adapted, for 
example, to the transport of 
hydrogen. The question is 
whether producing hydro- 
gen from natural gas is 
cheaper than producing it 
from solar energy. Future 
debate will surely attract the 
interest of nations like Nor- 
way, which possesses both 
the gas and the related trans- 
port infrastructure. 

Meanwhile, as Peter Mell- 
bye, Statoil’s president for 
the gas division, suggests: 
“Technological break- 
throughs are economically 
driven, and therefore will 
not take place before the 
price of natural gas becomes 



Consumers are more aware of the need for nonpolluting fuels. 


atomic waste have put an ef- 
fective stopper on nuclear 
expansion plans. The burn- 
ing of coal and oil is respon- 
sible for almost all the 
world’s emissions of sulfur, 
nitrogen oxide, particles and 
heavy metals into the atmos- 
phere or the soil. In addition, 
coal extraction is frequently 
linked to slag heaps, often 
leaking pollutants into the 
soil. Oil production is linked 
to oil spills and polluting 
drilling fluids. 

Natural gas. which re- 
quires the same level of 
drilling activity as oil. sel- 
dom makes headlines. In its 
invisibles gassy form, it 
evaporates quickly and has 
not therefore been consid- 
ered die cause of any major 
environmental disaster. In 
fact, up until recently, it has 
often been considered more 
an expendable by-product of 
oil production, good for flar- 
ing. than a premium re- 
source in its own right 


sists primarily of methane 
molecules, which are made 
up of one carbon atom and 
four hydrogen atoms, with 
some associated carbon 
dioxide, ethane and propane. 
When combustion takes 
place, aside from the energy 
produced, it more or less ox- 
idizes to carbon dioxide and 
water. 

According to Statoil' s Re- 
search Center, gas combus- 
tion, measured against cost! 
and oil, emits 30 percent to 
50 percent less carbon diox- 
ide and 60 percent to 90 per- 
cent less nitrogen oxide for 
die same energy output. Sul- 
fur dioxide and particulate 
emissions from natural gas 
are minimal. 

Current Norwegian gas 
deliveries to Continental Eu- 
rope, amounting to some 26 
billion cubic meters, largely 
replace base loads of coal 
and oil. German calculations 
show that the net environ- 
mental effect of this fuel 


substitution reduces carbon- 
dioxide emissions by more 
than a million tons per bil- 
lion cubic meters, of gas. In 
total,. Norway's gas deliver- 
ies cut annual European car- 
bon-dioxide emissions by 
.nearly 30 million tons, al- 
most equivalent to Norwe- 
gian emissions from all fuel 
sources, totaling 35 million 
tons. - Future deliveries will 
drop this reduction to almost 
70 million tons annually by 
2005. Emissions of nitrogen 
oxide, sulfur dioxide and 
particulates will also be sub- 
stantially reduced. 

A number of environmen- 
talists argue that methane is 
a strong contributor to glob- 
al warming and that- the ef- 
fect of curbing carbon-diox- 
ide emissions could be nulli- 
fied by leaks in the natural 
gas supply chain, particular- 
ly if tne use of gas were to 
grow substantially. Calcula- 
tions show% however, that 
leaks from the production 
and transport of Norwegian 
gas are extremely small - on 
the order of 0.01 percent. A 
major reason for this is the 
stringent safeiy restrictions 
that apply to all oil and gas 
operations on the Norwegian 
shelf. Another is that Nor 1 
way sees gas and the natural 
environment as valuable re- 
sources and seeks to prevent 
any needless waste. 

In the former Soviet 
Union, and in Russia in par- 
ticular, European and Amer- 
ican gas companies are help- 
ing to repair a number of 
leaky pipelines. While 
pipeline leaks account for 
only about 5 percent of 
methane emissions, scien- 
tists have started to regard 
other methane sources- as 
perhaps a greaier threat to 
global warming. Natural 
swamp areas, rice cultiva- 
tion, sewage treatment, live- 
stock and other human-relat- 
ed activities are understood 
to be major methane contrib- 
utors. 

Gas is abundant. World- 
wide reserves are steadily 
upgraded, and new gas is be- 
ing discovered all the time. 
The North Sea. Russian and 
Algerian reserves combined 
could continue to supply Eu- 
rope for centuries at today’s 
consumption rate. European 
legislation has taken steps to 
encourage the use of gas. but 
the price of imponed’gas re- 
flects the cost of long-dis- 
tance transport. New legisla- 
tion lo encourage the use of 
gas by means of taxes on 
coal and oil could prompt a 
new surge ;n demand tor eas 
in Europe. 

A.L. 









For expert advice on personal investing. 

* . ii«i nil. _ ■* k n i. 1 ' 


For timely investment information, read The Money Report. 


jtmttS&rthnte 


naumt mt* t»k *» ™ r rn " r 


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Page 22 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, FRIDAY, APRIL 29, 1994 


SPORTS 

TheMAFidd 
Is Wide Open 





;; . .1 



By Ken Denlinger 

Washington Pal Service 

WASHINGTON — As always 
on the eve of the National Basket* 
ball Assodation playoffs, players 
from the 16 teams feel like marath- 
oners at about the 20-mile mark — 
close to exhaustion but trying to 
summon energy for a desperate 
surge toward the sdiklistant finish. 

And for the first time since many 
of the current players were toddlers, 
a brief look at some absentees helps 
set the proper mood for this champi- 
onship run, which was to begin 
Thursday: no Michael Jordan — 
and thus the first postseason with- 
out a transcendent player since Seat- 
tle won the title in 1979; no Lakers 
for the first time in 17 years, and no 
Celtics for the first time in 14. 

The list of glittering stars anx- 
ious to gkiw like Mike in the play- 
offs is long — and probably starts 
with the pivotal player of the most 
keenly anticipated best-of-five 
first-round series: Patrick Ewing. 
His Knicks seem under the most 
scrutiny, opening their series 


Las Meninas Wins 
1,000 Guineas 

The Associated Press 

NEWMARKET, England — 
Las Meninas edged Balanchine in a 
photo finish Thursday to win the 
1,000 Guineas, tnc first Jassu of 
the English horse racing season. 

The Irish horse, a 12-shot ridden 
by John Reid, was declared the 
winner after what appeared to be a 
dead heat. But the judge ruled Lhat 
Las M eninas prevailed by a short 
head over Balanchine, a 20- to- 1 
shot ridden by Frankie Dettori. 

The French horse Coup de Ge- 
nie, the second favorite at 6-to-L, 
was third, a neck behind. Mehtb- 
aaf, the favorite at 2-to-I. was 
fourth, 2 to lengths back. 


against New Jersey on Friday hav- 
ing lost four of five regular-season 
games to the Nets. 

Ewing, David Robinson l San 
Antonio) and Hakeem Olajuwon 
(Houston) appear to have the best 
chances to become the first domi- 
nant center on a championship 
team since Kareem Abdtu-Jabbar 
and the Lakers won the 1988 title. 

Shaquille O’Neal jOnando) 
needs some playoff punch to back 
his impressive regular-season num- 
bers. And Charles Barkley (Phoe- 
nix) needs a ring to ascend to the 
Jordan- Larry Bird-Magic Johnson 
plateau. This may be the year in 
which a team prevails, but two of 
the most successful during the reg- 
ular season — Seattle and Atlanta 
— were able to avoid the spotlight 
quite a bit. 

And a thira. the pusi-Joraan 
Bulls, still has a chance for a fourth 
straight championship. 

“Most people anticipated we*d 
only win 30 games without Mi 
ebaei,' said Scotrie Pippen. "and 
we woo SS. We are still the champi- 
ons, you know." 

Phoenix’s point guard Kevin 
Johnson acknowledged that, but 
insisted that “the smart teams 
know we're the team to beat.'’ 

The 63-19 SuperSonics won five 
more games than anyone in the 
league, yet none of their players has 
gotten serious consideration for 
most valuable player. 

Possibly Atlanta’s coach. Leni«v 
Wilkens. will get his due during 
these playoffs. Fast closing on Red 
Auerbach’s record for all-time 
NBA victories, Wilkens mostly was 
responsible for the Hawks’ remark- 
able turnaround. 

Last season tbe Hawks won 43 
games and were swept by the Bulls 
in the first round of the phyol is. 
Wilkens replaced Bob Weiss, and 
the Hawks won 57 games and the 
home court throughout tbe Eastern 
Conference playoffs. 


& i 






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Capitals Eliminate 
Penguins as Sabres 
Triumph in 4 th OT 


if?* 

f.l f 


The Associated Press Srodeur got the Joss despite Stop. 

The Washington Capitals made shots. 

histmvwSi’tiwcat itsdf, overtime minutes of 65:43 

while tbe New Jersey Devils and ?? ? ^ ^ 

Buffalo Sabres made history in the NcW tJ°v 

Tlje capttak aro^i to pa« in^toDetrarsWvictorvover 
playoff failures and sent the Pitte- ^ Montreal Maroons, 
burgh Penguins home early for tta ^ mnoj and saw the red light 
second straight season wth a 6-3 mutTl taE.' %me om 

victory on Wednesday. The Devils 7 imwo nights inNew Je£ 
■ ' " sey/ ” Hannan said after the sa- 


| 

\ 'phO'i 

*p 


ranked just behind the 68:47 of the 
New York Islanders’ 3-2 victory 
over Washington in the 1987 day. 
offs. The NHL record is 1 16:30, set 
in 1936 in Detroit’s 14) victory over 


STANLEY CUP PLAYOFFS hour game ended early Thursday 

“ morning. “It's tomorrow night 

and Sabres, meanwhile, played the n0W) i guess." . 

sixth-longest game in NHL history Capitate 6, Penguins 3: in Lan- 

before Buffalo won at home, 1-0, in dover. Maryland, Don Beanpre 


tbe fourth overtime. 

Dave Hannan scored 5:43 into 
the fourth overtime to end a bril- 
liant game between the NHL's top 
two defensive teams. 

The Sabres' first overtime vic- 
tory of the season after four losses 
came at a most opportune time. 


made 26 saves to-Iead Washington. 

Tbe Capitals had twice blown 3- 
to-l-game leads in the playoffs, in- 
cluding two years, ago against tbe 
Penguins. Pittsburgh hoped history 
wotud repeat itself after they won 
Game 5, but there would be no 
comeback this time as the Capitals 
wrapped up the series in six games 


I tow* Ymciltc Wuiedftt- 


Czech defenders sandwiched Danton Cole as he collided with the goalie Petr Briza in the U.S. hockey team’s 5-3 victory on Thursday, saves and New J 

Stopping Czechs, U.S. Unbeaten in World Hockey 


Compiled 6| Our Staff Fnm Dispatches 

BOLZANO, Italy — Tun Sweeney. Craig 
Wolanin and Jim Ciavaglia scored first-peri- 
od goals to back up the goalkeeping of Guy 
Hebert as the United States beat tne Czech 
Republic, 5-3, Thursday in the World Ice 
Hockey Championships. 

The victory kept Team USA unbeaten in 
three games and virtually assured the squad 
of a place in the medal round next week. 

r eam USA now has a three point lead in 


Group B over the Czech Republic and Fin- 
land, which have played one match less, as 
have Sweden and Norway, which trail by five 
points. France is last with no points. 

Team USA scored first on a power play 
when Sweeney, of tbe National Hockey 
League's Anaheim Mighty Ducks, pushed 
the puck in past goalie Petr Briza at 3: 1 5. The 
Czechs tied the score 544 minutes later on 
Bed rich Kadlec's goaL 

Wolanin, the U.S. captain, who plays for 
the Quebec Nordiques. pui Team USA up 2- 


I at 10:57. Ciavaglia. a former Harvard star 
and the only holdover from the 1994 U.S. 
Olympic t eam, added another at 16:59. 

Tile ffreehs came back in the second peri- 
od, their offense dominating the action. He- 
bert, also of the Nordiques. was superb in 
goal, but at 10:15 Richard Zemlicka skated 
in from the red circle, faked a defender and 
beat him. 

The Oechs tied the game at 5:56 in the 
third, but Team USA went up 4-3 when 
when Joe Sacco of the Mighty Duels, skai- 


tying the Easton Conference quar- t0 ^ iound 

tctfinal senes 3-3. The so«ntii and a „ in ^ the New Yor k Rangers. 

f ° r n y The Penguins were eliminated in 
night m New Jersey. the second round last season by tin 

The Buffalo goal tender Dominik New York Islanders. 

Hasek prolonged tbe game with 70 Brains 3, Cauadrens 2: A1 la- 
saves and New Jersey's Martin frate’s third-period goal led Boston 

over the Canadiens m Montreal. 

Iafrate intercepted the puck and * 
I moved in from the bhie line to beat 

Patrick Roy with a low screened 
J shot just inside the post at 7:21. 

* The goal took some wind out of tbe 

raid Briza with Sweeney coming Canadiens, who had rallied to tie 
le him, dumped it off to his team- the game after falling behind 2*0. 
towristed in a goal from four meters. Bryan Smolinski and Steve 

Vechs controlled the pud: much of Heiaze also scored for the Bruins. 


ing toward Briza with Sweeney coming 
alon gsi de him, dumped it off to his team- 
mate, who wristed in a goal from four meters. 

The f>arhs controlled the pud: much of 
the time until 17:52, when Bill Lindsay of the 
Florida Panthers scored his third goal of the 
tournament 

Canada was to play Germany later Thurs- 
day. In another later game, Sweden, the 
Olympic champion, was expected to recoup 
Wednesday’s upset 5-3 loss to Finland when 
it played France. (AT, Reuters) 


the Montreal defense. John LeClair 
and Kirk Muller, with nis sixth of 
the playoffs, scored for Montreal, 
which rides first-round ehrmnadoB 
for the first time since 1981. 

Hie teams were to play the derid- 
ing game Friday night in Boston. 




~i-r ct--=y T-r-^F.v'rzsnB! 

Major League Standings 

AMERICAN LEAGUE 
Cost Division 


Wednesdays Line Scores 

AMERICAN LEAGUE 
Milwaukee DOT on POM • 0 

Minnesota 111 290 no— t 13 6 

Navarra, Henry (5). Orosco Ml. Fetters (61 
and Nilsson; Erickson and Walbeck. W— Er- 



w 

L 

PCL 

OB 

kckson.2-a.L- Navarra 1-z HR— Minnesota, 

Boston 

14 

T 

MS 

— 

Hrbek (2). 

Baltimore 

13 

7 

ASO 

Vt 

Chicago #81 429 ns MO-7 ll s 

New York 

13 

7 

ISO 

* 

CtovetoM 168 220 800 083-1 12 ■ 

Toronto 

13 

6 

419 

1 

(12 Innings) 

Detroit 

6 13 

CentRd Dfriabm 

J14 

7 

Sanderson. Cook 15). DeLeon 17), Asewi- 
modier (Sl.McCasklll 18), R. Hernandez 021 

Cleveland 

12 

7 

M2 

— 

and KarkavfcB. Lavoliiere (11 ) ; Morriv. uill- 

Chicago 

12 

9 

371 

1 

oulsi (7). Plunk (10) ana Merulfa W— Plunk, 

Milwaukee 

11 

9 

350 

Ita 

3-0. L— R. Hernandez. 1-1. HRs-Clevetand. 

Kansas City 

8 

10 

AU 

3*5 

Belle 14). Ramirez (5). 

Minnesota 

8 14 
WestDIvltlOQ 

344 

S*J 

Toronto 2M 888 8lt-3 4 1 

Turn 311 508 Gita— 11 12 2 

California 

9 

13 

JO 9 

— 

Hentaen, Brow (4). williams 16) and Bor- 

Seattle 

fl 

)i 

MO 


ders; Rogers. Whiteside (B), Oliver IB) and 

Texas 

7 

n 

389 

— 

Rodriguez. W— Rogers. 2-2. L — Hempen. 3-2. 

Oakland 

7 

14 

333 

IVi 

Baton 081 809 080-1 S 8 


MATIONAL LEAGUE 
East Divlskw 



W 

L 

Pet. 

GB 

Atlanta 

IS 

• 

J14 

— 

Montreal 

11 

18 

£24 

4 

New York 

10 

10 

-500 

4Vb 

Florida 

10 

11 

.476 

5 

PhltodetoWa 

8 

13 

381 

7 


Central DM Mon 



Oncfnnafl 

W 

4 

MS 

— 

St. Louis 

12 

7 

J3S 

1 

Houston 

11 

9 

■550 

2W 

Pittsburgh 

10 

9 

324 

3 

Chicago 

5 

14 

-263 

B 


Blest DWtston 



San Francisco 

11 

to 

S24 

— 

Las Angeles 

10 

11 

476 

1 

Colorado 

9 

It 

450 

lta 

San Diego 

7 

15 

318 

49* 


Oakland 008 BOO 600-0 ] D 

Viola. Banknead (7j. Russell (VI and Valle; 
Darling and Hemand. W— VMa, 1-1. L-Oor- 
llno. M. Sv — Russell (7K 
New York 081 Ml ool— » a 6 

Seattle OH an 000- 2 s 2 

KamtanlecfcL Pall 14), Hawe (8). X. Hernan- 
dez ( JJ and Shade* ; Flaming. Nelson (S), TlUg- 
pen IS, Davis »). Goasese «» Bid Wilson. 
W— KamienJecfcf. 24 L— Wemlnt, 2-2 
HRs— New York, Levritz (3). Seattle, Anthony 
15). 

Baltimore 1« IM 322-13 It • 

CaStonla W8 OH 080- 1 7 1 

McDonald and Halles. Tockett (7); FJnfey. 
Lewis (71, Sontm 17). Le Herts IB), Gnolie tn 
and Fobreaas. W— McDonald, S4L — Flniev.O. 
2 HRs — Baltimore, Devereaux 141. Palmeiro 
(7) Halles (4). Ripken Ml Anderson (5). 


NATIONAL LEAGUE 
Clndnaatl 010 OH •«— 1 4 1 

P Ws B enM 610 in iox-3 n o 

Smiley. Ruffin (6) and Dorset?; 2. Smith Bid 
S/ougW. W— Z. Smm ». L— Smiley, 2-2 
HRo-andnnalL Fernandez 14). PlttsOurgh. 
Sail II). 

San Franc? ico IN 000 068-1 t I 

Montreal •» OH 2H— 7 11 1 

Portugal. Mnnteiaano l6t> Menendez 17). 
Torres (71 and Monworing; Hill and Webster. 
W-HIIL 4-1. L-PartugaL 2-2. 

Calerada Ml on Ml— a i § 

Florida 2H 610 Ks-j it 2 

Harkov. Roed (IJ and Glrardl ; Hough, Lew- 
is (6), J. Il c ma n dog ( 9 ) ana TlngJey. Santiago. 
W — Hough, 24 I — Morteev 0-2 Sv-J- Her- 
.tonoez (21. HR — Florida. itwHIeta 161. 
Clricaaa 148 OH BOO— 5 7 I 

Heestoa 031 361 12k-< 10 2 

Banks, BcutWa (4) and Parent, wilklits 161; 
Drabek. Reynolds (7) ana Serves s. w— Reyn- 
olds. 14 L — BaunsHx 42 HRs— Chlcaga Bue- 
cheie (4). Houston. Cedeno 15), Camlnrtl (2). 

San Dleaa IN ON » OH 088-z n 1 

(taw York on 811 on on HI-3 » l 

(IS tneteas) 

Ashhv. Harris C9|. PA. Mnrlinez If). Hott- 
man (10). Davis (133. Mauser 1151 and Aus- 
mus; B. Janes, J. Manzanillo 17), Gczzo (f). 
Franco (ID. Linton (13) and Handley. 
W— Union. 24 L— Mauser, 1-1. HR— New 
York. Me Reynolds (2). 

PMladetahla 082 OH 028 0-4 7 0 

Los Angeles 018 IH 288 V- 5 12 8 

(10 Hinton) 

Jackson. D. Jones IS). Andersen dOi ana 
Dawroa; HersMver. pool II), Drelfart 18). 
Wavnc kli Toda Warren (*), Gott ( 10) Bid C 
Hernandez. Prazxa tlO) W— Cart. 2-1. L— An- 
dersen. 0-1. 


4 t The Michael Jordan Watch 


Central Loagee 


Yomiurl 

Chunktil 

Yakut) 

Yokohama 

Hiroshima 

Honshin 


Pet. GB 

bO — 

stn iv» 

JOO 2Vj 

XT 3 

A 38 3Vj 

J75 4VJ 


ThundaYt Resalts 
Yomiurl A Hiroshima 3 
Yakut! 1 Horan In 1 
Omni ctil 6. Yokohama 5. 10 Innings 
Pacific League 

W L T Pet. GB 


Da lei 10 7 D -585 - 

Selba 10 7 0 JtB - 

Orix 8 8 0 JM 1V0 

Nippon Ham 7ft A3B 2W 

Lotte 7 f 0 438 r* 

Kintetsu 4 B i 429 21a 

Thursday's Resorts 
Orix & Dalel 2 
Setbu 5. Lotte 3 
Kintetsu A Nippon Harr, t 


hHOCKEY 


WEDNESDAYS GAME; Jordan went (Mar-4 
In the Barms' >1 victory over the Greenville 
Braves, in the second Inning, tie struck out 
swinging. In the flflti he Hied out to left. In the 
seventh, tie reached on on error Oy the shortstop. 
And In the nlnttune struck out swinging, in the 
outfield, ne haa three putouts ana an error an a 
base hit la right nek? when he tried to make a 
scoop Bid the boll went underneath hb glove. 

SEASON TODATE: Jordan b17-lor-54 and 
Is batting JD4. His performance ended hit 13- 
game hitting streak. 

Japanese Leagues 


NHL Playoffs 

p ura orm 2 8 1 —a 

Washington 3 2 1-4 

First P arte d I. Washington, Juneau 3 
(Bandra, KhrlstlBi), 1:2V. 2 Washington. 
Miller I (Rid lev. Johansson). 7:49 (sh>. X 
Wc sh kigterL l lo n ey 1 (Pivanka. Juneau), 9:42 
(M»).4 Pittsburgh, Jogr 2 (FnmciA Murphy I, 
10:325, Pittsburgh, Tocchet 21 Lemleux,Asur- 
plw). 16:05 (bp). Penalties— U^orrwelsson, 
Pit (rouotilng), 2:14; Jams, was (roughing). 
2:14; Hatcher, Wes l slashing), 3^9; Peak, Was 
(crass-check Ing). 7:00; KJamuelsson. Pit 
(hooking), 9:32: tCSamuelswm, PH (holding). 
11:54; Juneau. Was (hlgh-sttddne). 13:57; 
Hatcher. «u malor-gane misconduct (Mgh- 
sttcklng). M:30; Tocchet. Pit (rough Ing). 
19:56; Berube Was (remaning). 19:5*. 

Second Period— A WaNitaotwi, Johansson 1 
[ RkSev, Money). 1:25.7, Washington. Poulin 2 
(Plvonka. Miller), 6:27. Penaltles-^iogr. Pit 
misconduct, 9:21; UJomuelsson.Plt.m)scon- 
duct 9:21; Anderson Was. miscaaduci, 9:21; 
Bur ridge. Wav mlsaonducL 9: 31 ; Tocaiet. P It 
(skarung). 9:52: Reekie. Was (tripping). 
12:57; McEocnem. PH (hooking). 13:34; Too- 
UonertL Pit IslaNiing). 20:00; Bondra was 
(slashing), JO: 00. 

Third P erio d 0 . Pltisbureh, Lomieux 4 
(Tocchet, Stevens), M:42 9, Washington, PV 
vanka 3 (Cote, Miller). 19:41 (en). Panolties- 
—Reekie, was (holding), 1:21; Toglianem. 
Pit (rough Ing), 14:14; Plvonka, Wos (cross- 
checking), 14:14 

Shots oa goal— Pittsburgh 14401-29. 
Washington 6-1 W— 22; p ower p o o r epportim- 
iltes— Ptttsbumti i of 4; Woshtooton ) el 4; 
ooulle s Pittsb urgh, bottom. 2-4 (21 shots- 
14 saves). Washington, Beaupra. 44 (29-24). 


New Jersey 0 0 6 I • • 0—8 

ButttO 0 0 8 8 0 0 1—1 

First Period— None. Penalties— Danevko, 
NJ (roughing), 3:S3; Mogll W< But (slashing). 
4:44; Stevens, NJ (roughlnn), 7:16; Prestar, 
But (roughing), 7:)i; Fetisov. NJ (Wgtosttck- 
tog). 9:21: Dawe. But (hooking). 12.-41; Mac- 
Loan, NJ (hooking), 13:53. 

Secsad Period— None. PenoH l e s Khmy 
lev, Buf (tripping), 3:59; New Jersey bench, 
serevd by Richer, Mud many man), 7:27; 
Dawe, Buf (goalie intarierenoe). 11:37; Dan- 
evko, NJ (holding), 17:00; Danovko. NJ 
(crTHxnecfclng), 19; 10 . 

Third Pt nod— None. P ena l ty -Carpenter, 
Nj (roughing). 17:14. 

First Overtime— None. P ena tt lo e y tevenw 
NJ, mtnor-mlsconduct (delay of game). 
12:31; Hannan, But (tripping). 16.-29. 

Second Overtime— None. Penaltlee— None, 
tldn! Overtime None. Penalties— Rav. 
Bui. misconduct 0:00; New Jtrsov bench, 
served ay Richer lie o many men). 72: JC. 

Fourth Overtime— 1, Buffalo. Hannan t 
(Dawe, Presley). 5:43. Penortles-None. 

Shots oa goto- New Jersey MA6-1 0-11-14- 
4— 7a Buffalo I1-149445-1-50; pownplav 
•paeriaolttas— New Jersey Oof 5; Buffalo Oof 
8; Boo ties N e w Jersey. Srocfcur, 3-3 ISO 
shots-tv saves). Butfola, Hasek. M (70-70). 
Boston ) 1 1—3 

MoMreal 0 I 1-2 

First Period—:, Boston. Smollnikl 2 (OateL 
Bouraue). 3KX) too). Penalties— Odeleln. Mon 
(roughing), 2:23; Domohousoe, Mon (Inierier- 
eno»), 11:52; Krrtoscheer. Bos (sMshing), 15:24. 

Second Period— 2. Boston, Heliue 1 (Stew- 
art. Bouraue). 9:3 a. 3, Montreal. LeCfolr 2 
(DlPietro, Savage), I7:n (op). Ponaltle- 
(— Haller, Mon (h(gh-stld;lnB>,7;30; Roberta, 
Bos | hlgh-stlck Ing;, 16;01. 

Third Pe riod < . Montreal. Multar 4,2:57. 5, 
Boston Rttrote i, 7:2). Pmalrtes— Nano. 


Stats oa Mi-Man 99-7— BS. Montreal 7- 
74—82; pow er ploy ooooriuw i t lM Bo eton i 
at3; Monheoll d V Beollka— Boston Gasey.2- 
2 (22 shot*®) saves). Montreal, Roy. 3-2 (25-32). 

World Championships 


GROUP A 

Russia 7. Italy o 

GROUP B 
Finland 5. Sweden 3 
U rifted Stoles S. Czech ReouMIc 3 


CYCLING 


Tour of Spain 

Resorts Thursday from the fourth stage a 
OLMdlameter (144.LnrttaJ stretch from AL 
— i M Mo to Cordoba: 1. EmfrioLeonl. Itoty. 
Jolly. 4:34:33; 2. Jasper SWbbv, DenmorK, 
TVM. same time; X Laurent JBiRwrT, 
Fraice, ONCE, UJ 4 Angel Edo, Soato. 
Ketme.sJ.; & Jean-Panl v«m poppoI, Nether- 
lands, s.t.; 6, oieg Chudla Ukraine, CasMIb- 
tondv eJj 7. Fabrtrio Bontemol, Italy, Bree- 
clakif,eJ.; X Lubae Lam, Slovakia. Navlgaro, 
SJJ 9, iwamiel Abreu, Portugal. SeasaL s.t j 
IX Juan Carlos Gonzalez, Spain, EuskadLsJ 
Overall stoadlags: 1, Tony Romtoger, Swtt- 
xeriond, Manel-Claa. 17:15:36; Z Jalaberi. 2S 
behind; X Meldtor Atouri. Spain, Banesta 26 
behind; A Ale* lull* Switzerland, ONCE. » 
behind; £ Ghsikieo Pleroboa Italy, Amore 
and Vita. 34 behind; X Marino Atonsw Spain. 
Banesta, 37 behind; 7. Abraham Ol«ia> Spain. 
Maooi-Clos. 38 betdnd; XStephon Hodge, Aus- 
tralia, Festtoa 36 behind; 9, Jesus Montoya. 
Spain, Banesto.42 behind; n Pedro Delgado. 
Soato. Banesta. 43 beWnd. 


SOCCER 


INTERNATIONAL FRIENDLIES 
Germany x United Arab Emirates 0 
Greece X Saudi AruMo 1 

DUTCH FIRST DIVISION 
A |ax Amsterdam X Roda JC Kerkrade ) 
Fevenaord Rotterdam 2, FC Groningen 1 
P5V Etadhavon X Soarto Rotterdam l 
Cambuur Leeuwardwn ft wiHem II TUburg 1 
WV vtnlo I. SC Heerenveen. 1 
NAC 8 redo X Valoodam i 
RKC Woaleriik X Vitesse 0 - . 

ENGLISH PREMIER LEAGUE 
Owtaea X Swindon 0 

Leads X Manchester United 2 A 

Newcastle X Aston Villa 1 * 

Queens Pork Rangers i, Arsenal I 
WM Ham 1, Blackburn 2 


BASKETBALL 

National Baskefbafl Auariattoa 
NBA BOARD OF GOVE RHOR5— Awarded 
expansion franchise to Vancouver group 
headed by Arthur Griffiths to begin play Is 
1995-1994 season. 

CHICAGO-Adtvated GUI CortwrioW, cen- 
ter, from Injured list. Put Cane Blount, for- 
ward, an Injured Hst. 

CLEVELAND— -Activated John Battle, 
guard. from injured list. Put Gory Alexander, 
f orward, an lnluned list. 

HOUSTON— Big nod Bari Curetan, forward, 
to contract lor rcmalndar at season. 

NEW YORK— Suspended Anthony Mam 
forward, indefinitely lor complaining about Ns 
tack of pia ring Hnw otter gome played AprB 19- 
ORLAN DO— Pul jell Turner, forward, or. 
Injured list. Signed Ceert Hammlnk. canMr- 
torwara. for remainder of season. 



DENNIS THE MENACE 


PEANUTS 


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SPORTS 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, FRIDAY, APRIL 29, 1994 


Page 23 


ForUBIan, A Replay of 1981: 
A Soccer Viola 1, Darling 0 

PTfl ~i n Th e Associated pnss game’s only nm with a third- 

IfUjR Oi ,,- B , as ^ aU fans ^ onJy hope for 1181 groundoui, and threw 

"J Viol a- Darling HL runner at the plate in the I 

--- v Frank Viola and Ron Darling, Oakland hit into four double 

7 | imp [f an 8 one another for the first tiro Indians 8, White Sox 7: f 

™ since their college days, dueled for Ramirez hit a two-run horn 

. .. . Ji n,D ® mnings on Wednesday nirfn Mark Lewis hit an RBI dot 


C^pikdb,, OurSutfF,™ despatches 

MILAN — The city of Mi- 
lan is two games away from a 
fust in international soccer: 
in ever before have two teams 
from the same city won Euro- 
pesm cups in the same season. 

AC Milan is in the final of 

: “HP?* 005 * by virtue 
of its 3-0 triumph Wednesday 
night over Monaco. Its oppo- 
nent in the May 18 final in 
Athens will be Barcelona, 
which won its semifinal 3-0, 
over FC Porto. 

Inter Milan, which plays its 
home games at the same San 
siro stadium as AC Milan, 
holds a 1-0 advantage over 
Salzburg of Austria after the 
first leg of the UEFA Cup fi- 
nal on Tuesday. 

And an Italian sweep is pos- 
sible because Parma is in the 
final of the third major tourna- 
ment, the Cup Winners' Cup. 
The Italian club plays Arsenal 
for the title May 4. 

Italian teams last won all 
three trophies in 1990. when 
AC Milan lifted the Champi- 
ons’ Cup, Juventus the UEFA 
Cup and Sampdoria won the 
Cup Winners’ tournament. 

Tins year, AC Milan, in the 
Champions’ Cup final for the 
fourth time in six years, will be 
without two of its starters 
when it faces Barcelona, which 
won the cup in 1991 

Milan’s captain. Franco 
Baresi, is suspended after re- 
edving his second yellow card 
of the tournament against Mo- 
naco and his fellow defender, 
Alessandro Costacurta. is out 
for a game because he was sent 
off on Wednesday. 

Milan 's coach, Fabio Ca- 
pdlo, said UEFA, the sport’s 
governing body in Europe, 
should review its disciplinary 
system, but a spokesman at 
the club said on Thursday that 
they were not planning to ap- 
peal against either suspension. 

“These are the injustices of 
soccer, of a disciplinary sys- 
tem that is wrong and should 
be changed," CapeDo said. 

“Baresi and Costacurta de- 
serve to play in the final” he 
added. 

Milan, which recently 
clinched its 14th Italian league 
title, has won the Champions' 
Cup four times. (AP. Reuters ) 

■ UEFA Adds 4- Nations 

Azerbaijan, Israel Macedo- 
nia and Moldova were admit- 
ted to UEFA on Thursday and 
the body’s congress re-elected 
Lennart Johansson of Sweden 
to another four-year term as 
president. The Associated 
Press reported from Vienna. 


The Associated Press game’s only ran with a third-inning 

Baseball fans can only hope for ^ groundoui, and threw out a 
Viola-Darling IIL runner at the plate in the fourth. 

Frank Viola and Ron Darling, Oakland hit into four double plays, 
faang one another for the first tiro Indfaw 8, White Sox 7: Manny 
since their college days, dueled for Ramirez hit a two-run homer and 
nine innings on Wednesday night Mark Leans hit an RBI double as 
as the Boston Red Sox eeked out a the Indians, aided by two Chicago 
in) victory over the A’s in Oakland, errors, scored three in the 1 2th in 
Cahfomia. Cleveland. 

The matchup was the first be- The White Sox had taken a 7-5 
t ? vc ^ fbctwopiteherssanceaclas- lead in the 12tb on Damn Jack- 
sic NCAA tournament game be- son's two-out, two-run doable off 
t^jale and Sl John's on May Eric Plunk. In the bottom half, 
-I. 1981. In that game. Darting Robin Ventura booted Paul Sor- 
■ rente's grounder at third base for 

AL ROUNDUP the White Scot's fourth error, and 

~ — tme out later, Ramirez homered off 

pitched 1 1 no-hit innings for Yale Roberto Hernandez. 

up ** 20(1 Rangers 11, Blue Jays 3: In Ar- 

* 1-0 we ? or y^. Sr -. John,s ; Kngton, Texas, Kenny Rogers al- 
Dfimgs equal lovred six hits in TOinnjn|s, and 
that day, pitching 11 shutout in- David Hulsehad three ttu for the 
nings to come away the victor. Rangers. 

s , . *2 y^rs later, Toronto’s Joe Carter set a rnajor- 

"® a ® a ?r" Vioia * league record by driving in his 30th 
, v C WC u C Wl ^ 1 ^ ^ els » we niaof April with a first-inning sin- 
talked about that game a Lol It was eje. 

probably the best game I’ve ever . . , . . 

seen somebody pitch.” , prio*esl3, Angels 1: In Ana- 

“And here it is, the second time Jam, Cahforaia, Cal Ripken hod 
we’ve ever faced each other, and he Ending his first homer 

ends up losing 1-0 again," he add- 01 s “ so “* 20,3 dr °ve in five 
ed. "It’s a dame somebody had to ?? 93 gf ,9™'* ***& a 


lose. Sony about that" 

Darling was inches away from 
evening his record against Viola. 

With a n inner on in the ninth, 
Oakland’s Ruben Sierra flied out to 


dub record 11 extra-base hits. 

Yankees 12, Mariners 2: In Seat- 
tle, Jim Leyritz hit New York’s 
third grand slam in five days, and 
the Yankees scored five runs on 


the wall in center off Jeff RusseD, seven walks and a hit bailer in the 


the Yankees took 


who {ricked up his seventh save. third inning . 

“He’s definitdy got the edge on In ibe third, the Yankees took 
me in 1-0 games, ^ Darling said advantage of Dave Fleming's wiki- 
“He’s a bell of a pitcher, and I came ness. With two out, Fleming 
up a little bit short.” walked five straight to force in two 

Billy Hatcher drove in the runs. 



Twins’ Erickson 
Hurls AL’s First 
No-Hitter of ’94 


The Associated Press 


MINNEAPOLIS — There were league season. 


Series in 1991, his first full trig- 


two outs in lbe ninth in king and 
17,988 fans were on their feet when 
Scott Erickson threw one of his few 
poor pitches, hanging a 1-2 slider to 
Milwaukee's cleanup hitter, Greg 
Vaughn. 


Going into Wednesday, be was 
9-24 in his previous 40 starts. He 
still has not won consecutive deci- 
sions since September 1992. 

Last season, he was 8-19, leading 

the majors in losses, bits allowed 


Vaughn took a mighty swing — (266) and runs allowed (1 38). This 
and managed only a high fiy to season, he was 1-3 with a 7.84 


shadow left field, apparently pre- 
serving Erickson’s no-hitter on 
Wednesday night and wrapping up 
the Brewers' 6-0 loss to the Minne- 
sota Twins. 

“When 1 hit it, I thought, ‘He got 
it,’ ” Vaughn said 


earned run average and opponents 
were batting J84 against nun. 

Then came Wednesday, and 
baseball’s most hiltable pitcher be- 
came unhitiable. 

“That's what makes this game so 
great,” said the Twins’ manager. 


The American League’s first no- Tom Kelly. “You see a lot of weird 
bitter of 1994 did not end that stuff in baseball” 


simply, though. 

As lbe ball drifted down to left 
fielder Alex Cole, shortstop Pat 
Meares flashed into the picture. 
The two just missed each other be- 
fore Cole made the catch. 

That helps explain Erickson’s re- 
strained reaction — only a slight 


pumping of both fists into the air Aug. 25, 1967. 


Erickson struck out five, walked 
four and hit a batter. He threw 129 
pitches, including 71 strikes, and 1 5 
outs came on grounders as his slid- 
er befuddled the Brewers. 

The last Minnesota pitcher to 
throw a no-hitter was Dean 
Chance, who no-hit Cleveland on 


— after pitching the best game of 
Ins wildly vacillating career. 

“It’s not like I’ve practiced what 


The other no-hitter in the majors 
this season was by Atlanta's Kent 
Mercker, on April 8 in Los Angeles. 


I would do if it were to happen,” he The most recent AL no-hi tier had 
said. “Besides, I seriously thought been by Jim Abbott of the New 


hn More/TV iWtuarf Flo- 


Scott Erickson, who allowed the most hits in the majors last season, stifled the Brewers for the first 
Minnesota no-hitter in 27 years. Said Manager Tom Kelly: ‘‘Yon see a lot of word stuff in baseball.” 


Mets Outlast the Padres, 3-2 


The Associated Press 

The more the New York Mets missed chances to 
win, the more Manager Dallas Green made moves to 
his depleted bullpen. 

After nearly five hours, though. Green and the Mets 


The Dodgers have won three in a row and six of 
eight. The Phillies finished 1-6 on their California trip. 

Snyder had three hits and drove in three runs. 
Henry Rodriguez and Tim Wallach drew walks from 
Larry Andersen to start the 10th. After Eric Karros 


got a break. Fernando Vina singled home the deciding struck out, Snyder singled to right-center, 


run with two outs in the bottom of the 15th inning Expos 7, Ghats 1: Ken Hill pitched his first com- - congenital not life-threa 
Wednesday night, and New York beat the San Diego piete game in more than a year, and Mon veal beat called noncompliani left v 

Padres, 3-2. tristing San Francisco. 

“Great baseball game, that’s all 1 can say," Green HiD gave up six hits, walked two and struck out one. 

said. “We didn’t play good situation baseball We The Expos got five singles off Mark Portgual in taking 
probably could have won it five different innings.” a 3-1 l e a d in the second. 

Green used five pitchers. He might have used Mike Maito 3, Rockies 2: Gary Sheffield homer ed for 

Maddux, too, but he was unavailable: the reliever ^ ^ st ^ fal yuoe, and Florida defeated Colora- ' 

emm — mmm ^ Sheffield’s two-run shot gave him homers in the 
NL ROUNDUP Martins’ last five home games. 

Char lie Hough allowed one ran and five hits. The 

broke his left big toe when be kicked a dugout step Martins, minus their injured closer, Bryan Haney, ST. KlTTS, 
after giving up two runs in a 6-3 loss to the Padres on took a 3- 1 lead into the ninth, but John VanderWaL , ttn[rf 

Tuesday night. pinch hitting, ripped an RBI triple off Jeremy Heraan- WEaff IN DUS 

Doug Linton pitched three scoreless innings as the dez with one oul Hernandez, however, retired Eric ^ £d 

Mets ended their three-game losing streak. New York Young oo a popup and got Walt Weiss on a fly ball Tor cairn fare e + it *>*«—. My 

r\ioAM*r f<Mtv noma nmifiinn rinno L!_ -» ocNcrmcnr ODORwcd ction. Mostly 


2d Holyfield Heart Problem Found 

The Associated Press 

ATLANTA — Medical tests conducted after discovery of a heart 
condition that forced the ex-heavyweight boxing champion Evander 
Holyfield, 31, to retire have revealed another cardiac problem. 

An atrial septal defect, a small hole between the two upper 
chambers of Holyfidd’s heart, was detected Wednesday in the tests, 
said Dr. Ronald Stephens, the boxer's physician. He said it was 
congenital not life-threatening and unrelated to the condition, 
called noncompliani left ventricle, that led to the boxer’s retirement. 


that they wore going to run into 
each other.” 

Yes, the 26-year-old right- 
hander had negative thoughts even 
during the final play of his most 
glorious achievement. 

If one had tried to pick the man 
least likely to pitch the major 
leagues’ second no-hitter of '94, ■ 
Erickson might have been him. 

“I really didn’t expect it.” said 
Erickson, the first Minnesota 


York Yankees, against Cleveland 
on Sept. 4. 

Erickson did not need any spar- 
kling defensive plays to preserve 
the no-hitter. Even the two first- 
inning linos, by Alex Diaz and Bill 
Spiers, were right at fielders. 

“It wasn't a perfect game, but it 
was perfect far what we needed,” sud 
Kirby Puckett, who had four hits in 
support of Eridcson. “He’s taken a lot 
of abuse, so Tm happy for him.” 

Milwaukee had been held hitless 


and the first two guys hit bullets 
and 1 said, *11115 might be a long 
night.’" 

He has had many, many king 
nights since he had 20 victories and 


. Erickson became the third Twin 
to pitch a no-hitter, joining Chance 
and Jack Kralick, who did it in 
1962. It was the first no-hitter at 
the Metrodome, a batter's paradise 


helped the Twins take the World since opening in 1982. 


REAL ESTATE MARKETPLACE 


CARIBBEAN 


ST. KITTS, 
WEST INDIES 


stopped San Diego's four-game winning string. 

Kevin McReynolds led off the 15th with a angle 
against Tim Mauser and moved up on a groundouL 
With two outs, Vina hit a hard grounder that glanced 
off the glove of PbU Gaik at first base: 

The game at Shea Stadium took 4 hours 57 minutes 
and ended at 12:35 AM. 

Dodgers 5, PlaBes 4: Cory Snyder singled home the 
winning nm in the bottom of the 10th inning as Los 
Angdes sent Philadelphia to its fifth straight loss. 


his second save. , Agǣȣ 

Pirates 3, Reds 1: Zane Smith pitched a four-hitter, pworicod. V -fa. 
and Pittsburgh beat visiting Cincinnati. ( 2 il| s&rlss 

Smith struck out six and walked none. He also had fa 

two hits, and is batting 300 (6-for- 12) this season. 12121 371-91 33 

Astros 8, Cubs 5: Ken Cammiti and Andujar Ce- ■ ■ 

deno bomered as Houston rallied from an early five- MEXICO 

run deficit to beat Chicago at the Astrodome. $an lucas, baha, 

Jeff Bagwell drove in the go-ahead ran in the sev- MageCa* fane onfaSc 
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append Mi 

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Appears 

on Pages 15 & 23 

PERSONALS 

HAY THE SACKED HEART OF fiUS 

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INTERNATIONAL HERALD^ TRIBUNE? 






*• 


Page 24 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, FRIDAY, APRIL 29, 1994 


OBSERVER 


The Toothless Tiger 

By Russell Baker 

N EW YORK — It was enter- 
taining to watch the press 
crowd come to grips with the dead 
Richard Nixon over the weekend. 

What a botch they made of iL They 
seemed engaged in a group conspir- 
acy to gram him absolution. 

It wU) be said that they were 
simp ly indulging in the civilized 
insincerity that courtesy prescribes, 
and there is something to be said 
for an outbreak of courtesy in the 
press. The Gin tons would doubt- 
less welcome an epidemic of it 
Its postmortem engagement with 
Nixon, however, suggests once 
again that the press's dreadful rep- 
utation for bestiality is mostly 
fraud. Like an old tiger with no 
teeth, it can still gum its way 
through a vegetarian meal like 
Whitewater, but serve it a tough 
customer and it purrs and rolls 
over, as it did when confronted by 
President Re agan . 

To measure how much vitality 
has gone out of the press, compare 
its sentimental treatment of the 
dead Nixon last weekend with H.L. 

Mencken's obituary of William 
Jennings Bryan, three times Demo- 
cratic candidate for president. 

“Has it been duly marked by 
historians that William Jennings 
Bryan's last secular act on this 
globe of sin was to catch flies?” 

Mencken's assault began. 

□ 

Like Nixon, Bryan had been on 
the political scene for what felt like 
eternity. At his death in 1925 be 
had been an important public fig- 
ure for 29 years, since his first at- 
tempt on the White House against 
McKinley. 

That he, like Nixon, was an 
adored figure among his party’s old 
warriors earned him no mercy from 
Mencken, who wrote of him: 

“Tie best verdict the most ro- 
mantic editorial writer could 
dredge op. save in the humorless 
South, was to the general effect that 
his imbecilities were excused by his 
earnestness — that under his 
downing, as under that of the jug- 
gler of Notre Dame, there was the 
zeal of a steadfast son!” 

Brutality on this scale toward a 
statesman freshly dead would leave 
today’s publishers, editors, report- 
ers and columnists in catatonic 
shock. They —we —-are all a polite 

and timid bunch, too delicate to 


utter truly rude noises over newly 
filled coffins. 

And wouldn't the public be ap- 
palled if one of us did? Wasn’t 
Mencken’s obituary just a vicious 
piece of showing-off by a sassy kid? 
Well he was 45 at the time, scarcely 
a youngster, and yes, his obit was 
an iron wreath, tat it stirred the 
public when it was published, is 
still read as literature today and 
may endure to be all that Ameri- 
cans know of Bryan. 

Nixon produced no such monu- 
ment from his media pallbearers. 
The toothless tiger gummed him 
toward the grave with “on the one 
hand this and on the other hand 
that" and with many a “figure of 
controversy” and, on the whole, 
with such evenhanded objectivity 
that, to borrow again from Menck- 
en, it was enough to make a barber 
beg for mercy. 

□ 

Nixon hated the press, of courst 
Later when television replaced 
print as the instrument for clouding 
men’s minds he hated television 
too. He wanted to cloud men’s 
min^ and found it unbearable that 
press and television could interfere 
with the purity of the process. 

Not all the press haled him back. 
There was usually a tiny Nixon 
press claque on his campaigns. Yet 
new reporters joining those cara- 
vans with prejudices still unformed 
were often astonished and then 
alienated by the arms-length isola- 
tion at which they were kept and bv 
the weight of suspicion always pal- 
pable around Nixon despite efforts 
by the Hob Kleins, Bob Finches 
and Charlie McWhorters to lighten 
the atmosphere. 

Many of the old press hands who 
haled Nixon most, of course, have 
preceded him into the Yonder, and 
those who are now old and living 
are scarcely old enough to remem- 
ber when the bating was truly good. 

The truly bleak fact however, is 
that (here are no Menckens left 
among us. This is too bad, not just 
for the raiding public, and for the 
self-respect of journalism as a call- 
ing, but also for poor dead Nixon. 

He hated the press with a fury 
tha t deserved the fury of at least 
one press giant who could hate him 
fax* with a grandeur to match his 
own. At death, be received oaly 
polite murmurs. 

New York Tima Service 


•ary Mystery From 


By Molly Moore 

Washington Pal Service 

N EW DELHI —It has all the ingredi- 
ents of a good mystery — a feuding 
family , a bizarre crime, exotic locales, and 
a body on the bedroom floor. The last ’ 
chapter, however — the one where the 
detective calmly explains whodunit and 
why — may never be written. 

What led 41-year-old Indrani Aikath- 
Gyaltsen, a promising tat wildly insecure 
writer, to plagiarize from Elizabeth 
Goudge, a romance author almost as pop- 
ular in her day as Danielle Steel is now? 
The deception was sure to be uncovered 
and, over the last two months, it was. 

Aikath-Gyaltsen isn’t around to answer 
questions. On Oct. 3. she wrote a short 
tetter to Khushwant Singh, one of India's 
best-known authore and her mentor. “I am 
still in a very bad frame of mind,” she 
wrote. “Afraid to live, afraid to die. But 
you are right. Only I can help myself. 

Later that day a niece reportedly found 
her sprawled on the floor of her Bihar 
house with “something white dripping 
from her mouth, leading to the belief that 
it was poison," said Uttam Sengupta, edi- 
tor of tbe Bihar edition of the Times of 
India. She died tbe next day. 

SiiffMe is one obvious explanation. If 

with die destruction of the 
body is grim but understandable. But tbe 
writer's husband is accusing Aikaih-Oyalt- 
sen’s mother and sister of Jetting her die by 
failing to gel her appropriate medical care. 
He has reportedly asked both police and 
state officials to conduct an inquiry. 

Finding the cause of death will be diffi- 
cult Following Hindu custom, there was 
no autopsy and the body was cremated. 

Meanwhile, Aikath-Gyaltsen’s third 
and final book will be published posthu- 
mously next month. The title: “Hold My 
Hand, I’m Dying." .... 

The source of Aikath-Gyaltsen s plagia- 
rism in her novd “Cranes’ Morning” was 
“The Rosemary Tree," Goudge’s tale of a 
Devonshire vicarage, first published in 
1956. The New York Times Book Review 
criticized its “slight plot" and “sentimental- 
ly ecstatic" approach. 

After Aikath-Gyaltsen recast the setting 
to an Indian village, changing names and 
switching the religion to Hindu but often 
keying the story verbatim, it received 
better notices. In February, the Times 
found it “full of humor and insight." 

Tbe Washington Post was also im- 
pressed. Paul Kafka, the reviewer and a 
novelist, still thinks “Cranes’ Morning" is 
“pretty delightful. Maybe Elizabeth 
Goudge is a writer who hasn’t gotten her 
due." 

Jacquelin Singh, writing last July in In- 



Indrani Aikath-Gyaltsen: Afraid to live, afraid to die.” 


dia’s literary magazine, the Book Review, 
was uneasy: “Details of the physical sur- 
roundings seem more reminiscent of Eu- 
rope orfcngland.” Still Singh thought that 
perhaps “all these anomalies on the Indian 
scene would doubtless make the setting 
more accessible to foreign readers at 
whom the novelette may be aimed." 

Goudge, who died in 1984, apparently 
had a memorable storytelling technique. 
The first to discover the plagiarism was an 
Ontario woman. She read “The Rosemary 
Tree" 30 years ago, she said in a March 15 
letter to Goudge’s English publishers, “but 
I remember it very wdL” She added: 
“Having no more than a lay person’s 
knowledge of copyright laws, I express no 
opinion on this tat do wonder how Miss 
Goudge's story could be taken over with 
no acknowledgment whatsoever. If it were 
that easy, we could all write best-sellers!” 

The Goudge estate, was investigating 
when a Concord, New Hampshire, librari- 
an realized she had also read “Cranes' 
Morning" before. She told her local paper, 
a reporter contacted the relevant parties, 
and a scandal was bom. 

Indrani Aikalh was the daughter of a 
fairly well-to-do coal mine owner in the hill 


town erf Chaibasa in Bihar — the poorer, 
most politically violent state m India. But 
frr family moved in cirdes that allowed her 
to avoid the wretched Eves around her. Sie 
went to Columbia University in New York. 

Her first marriage was brief, and as a 
young divorcee she found many male ad- 
mirers in Calcutta, three of whom ended 
up vying for her hand. 

She married Sonam Gyaltsen: Tibetan 
by background, tea planter by trade, well- 
mannered if slightly dull by temperament. 
She moved to the massive house amid the 
lush tea gardens of Gyaltsen’s estate in 
Darjeeling. The nearest neighbor was 30 
miles (48 kilometers) away. 

Aikath-Gyaltsen was "thoroughly 
bored with the life of being ti« wife of a 
tea planter" when Singh received his first 
tetter from her almost right years ago, he 
said. He responded encouragingly and 
nurtured her through her first novel “It 
was very powerful* be said. 

The correspondence blossomed into 
friendship, and Singh invited Aflcaih- 
Gy allsen to visit After the visit he con- 
cluded that she was an insecure, if highly 
talented, individual 


Singh did not hesitate to propose that 
Penguin Books, where his recommenda- 
tions are gospel publish her first work, 
the House." Die «ory 
about strong women prevailing ovwunpo- 
tent and unsuccessful men 
a recurring theme. That was in 1991. T 
years later, “Cranes' Morning appeared 
m India. Tbe response and sales — ““ 
Singh’s backing — got the author a 10- 
book contract from Penguin. 

Stfll, the insecurity persisted. But when 
it came to writing, there was little inseoui- 
ty. She once boasted, “I am chum out a 
novel every six months.” 

There was another troubled side erf A> 
kath-Gyahsen’s life. Her f alba's death last 
year was not only emotionally devastating, 
itset off a funuy fcud bet»*n ASat 
Gyaltsen and her mother and older aster 
over his substantial coal and land bddrngs. 

She returned to the Family estate m Bihar to 

protect her interests. 

When A&ath-Gyaltseu talked to friends 
she veered between bragging about how 
wealthy she would be when the nnnes woe 
sold and complaining that she was nearly 
penniless, which surprised those aware of 
ihe sizable advance from her publisher. 

Then, suddenly, she was dead. Accord- 
ing to accounts from reporters, friends and 
complaints filed with the police, her moth- 
er and her sister did not take hex to a 
hospital when they discovered her on her 
bedroom floor. Instead, they called the 
local doctor. According to tire husband s 
accounts, the mother retired to her bed- 
room and her sister went on to her job as 
schoolteacher. Aikath-Gyaltsen sank into 
a coma and died the next day. 

Her husband told police and the press 
that “since there was this dispute, theg 
neglected her on purpose, just let her die, 
according to Alka Choadhury, a reporter 
in Bihar for the Tunes of India. 

r a n<t placed to the mother and the sis- 
ter, said to be stfll at their Bihar estate, 
went unanswered. The husband also could 
not be contacted. He is reportedly asking 
Tor an official inquiry. 

When Singh received the small, neatly 
penned tetter from Aikath-Gyaltsen a few 
days after her husband called to inform 
him of her death, he said, “It shocked me. 
My first suspicion was suicide.” 

Now be is siding with the husband and 
wrote to the chief minis ter on his behalf, 
seeking an investigation. 

The various publishers of “Cranes’ 
Morning" have had different reactions. In 
England, the book had not yet been pub- 
lished and was easily canceled. In the 
United States. BaDantine had shipped 
6,500 copies of “Cranes’ Morning." The 

E ublisher has not ordered its return, tat 
as stopped fulfilling orders. 


PEOPLE 


Much Traveled Figaro 

Saves a Show in London 

The baritone Jeffrey Black lost 
his voice minutes before be was due 
to ring tbe title rote of Mozart’s 
“The Marriage of Figaro” at Lon- 
don’s Royal Opera House. Frantic 
Covent Garden officials tracked 
down Thomas Ailed, sleeping off 
jet lag at his home after " 
performed in a production of -i-i* 
garo" in Los Angeles. An company 
Spokeswoman said Allen “asked 
when was curtain up and rushed to # 
the theater. We had to delay until 
7:30 P.M. and tril the audience 
about poor Jeffrey. When Thomas 
made his fust entrance there was a 
huge round of applause.” 

• □ 

Chevy Chase was in Washington 
last week, and while his cares' has 
had more downs than ups lately, 
Bill CEntoa obviously stifl thinks 
he's a barrel erf laughs. Chase and 
his wife. Jayni. were to stay at a 
hotel, but Bui wouldn’t hear of h, 
and so they Spent the night at his 
place, in the Queen's Bedroom 
**We sat out- on the Truman Balco- 
ny and let BID wind down after las 
day," Chase said. “It doesn’t get 
any better than that." The actor 
campaigned For Clin ton in 1991 
□ - 

Jack Brace, whose bass riff on 
Cream's “Sunshine of Your Loye" 
is one of the most recognizable in 
rode, is back in the studio with 
drummer Ginger Baker. Only Eric 
Clapton is missing from what 
would be any record company’s re: 
union fantasy. Cream broke up in 
1969, tat the trio entered the Rock 
’n’ Rofl Hall of Fame in 1993. 

- D 

It could have been bigger than 
Tom and Roseanne. gaudier than 
The Donald and Mam — a wed 
ding of the centmy uniting Madoo- 1 
na and rapper VanSa Ice. It almost 
happened, according to Ice in Spin 
magazine. “It was pretty serious. I 
dug her,” the 25-year-old rapper 
says erf their eight-month romance. 
Well, not always. “She would 
rfmnge personalities a lot,” he said 
“Sometimes she acts like a shy little 
giri, but all of a sudden she’d 
change and start ydling and you'd 
hatcher." 



?| 




INTERNATIONAL 

CLASSIFIED 

Appear s on Pages 8, 9, 15 &23 



Europe 


WEATHER 

Forecast for Saturday through Monday, as provided by Acco- Weather. 


CROSSWORD 


Asia 


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Man 

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Oomitfngan 
Cram Do Sd 
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London 


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*1/70 12/53 
22/71 13*5 
20*8 11*2 
21/70 0M8 

23/73 1203 
21/70 11*7 
18*1 8/48 

25/77 14*7 
17*2 5M1 

13*5 T«4 
21/70 11*2 
21/70 B/48 
22/71 11*2 
8M8 2*6 
18*4 10*0 
2 6/79 20*8 
23/73 15*9 
22/71 11*2 
28*2 12*3 
23/73 13*6 
15*9 B/4B 
20*8 SMB 
21/70 12*3 
13*5 8/48 
20*8 14*7 
24/75 13*6 
21/70 10*0 
7/44 1/34 

18*4 11*2 
11*2 2/S 

11*2 8/43 

25/77 12*3 
B/48 3*7 

20*3 12*3 
19*6 9/48 

19*0 10*0 
23/73 12*3 


TMdDDf 
W WBh Low W 

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• 15*0 9/88 pc 

po 20*8 8/43 ril 

■ 19/68 12*3 ril 

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pc 21/70 8/48 9 
B 21/70 11/52 a 
pc 22/71 12*3 ■ 
pc 17*2 4/39 C 
B 24/75 17*2 4 
pc 13*5 7M4 pc 
Sh 11*2 7M4 pc 
pc 24/75 14*7 B 
pc 22/71 7M4 pc 

pc 22/71 12*3 ■ 
pc 8/43 -1/31 «h 
pc 18*4 0«8 ril 
a 28/79 19*8 ■ 

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B 18*4 10*0 pc 
a 28/70 14*7 a 
pc 28/79 18*1 a 
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pc 22 m 10*0 8 
pc 22/71 14*7 a 
ril 13*5 0*2 ril 

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a 23/73 1365 a 
c 33/73 11*2 a 
a B/48 4(38 o 

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pc 25/77 13*5 a 



Today 
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OF 


GIF 

35*5 34/75 po 
31*8 17*2 pc 
25/77 21/70 ril 
34*3 23/73 PC 
42/10725/77 a 
20*6 12*3 a 
29/73 14*7 ■ 
32*8 23/73 pc 
80/78 20*8 I 
18/54 7/44 a 


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Wflh Low W 
OF OF 
34*3 25/79 pc 
32*9 21/70 a 
28/79 21/70 pa 
33*1 23/73 I 
42/10725/77 pc 
23/73 13*5 a 
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32*8 23/73 pc 
28/79 19*8 po 
17*2 7/44 pO 


ACROSS 

i temple 

■ Grippers 
14 Like the White 
Rabbit 

is Unrefined metal 
is Hawk's home 

17 Benedictine, 
e.g. 

18 Bar servings 


it December 31 
event 

Si BibGcal writing 
on the wall 

as Seasons 
as Diamond girl 
24 Unu. neighbor 
25— -Lama 
ss Supports 

sa Cable 
alternative 


Jririwm 

North America 

Dry weather along the East- 
ern Soaboart Saturday wi 
be replaced by showore and 
thunderstorms Sunday. 
Much ot the WSst, tachidng 
San Francisco and Los 
Angeles, wB be dry. Tororto 
will be diy Saturday, then 
showBTB wS occur Sunday. 


Africa 


Europe 

Paris wfll be mainly dry and 
mild Saturday through Mon- 
day. In London fiwre wB be 
nothing more than a BcaBar- 
lng of showers through the 
period. Much ot eastern 
Europe wfll have a period Bangkok 
rein as a cold front sweeps 
through The area. 


Asia 

There vnfll be quBa extensive 
showers across eastern 
China Saturday and Stnday. 
Showers will move Into 


Korea and Japan by Mon- 
day. Rangoon through 
ni have nothing 



North America 


more than a passing thun- 
derstorm Saturday tnr 


Monday. 


h rough 


Burial 

CMepi 


Middle East 


Latin America 


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24/75 1T*2 8 27*0 11*2 pc 

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34*3 15*9 a 85*7 14*7 a 

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Cowan 29*4 18*4 pc 31*3 19*8 a 

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17*2 

28*2 

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28*2 

20*8 

28*2 

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409 c 
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Solution to Puttie of April 28 


hbbb □□ana ggag 
□sqq aninsB □□□□ 
□mnaniisaiuaanaaa 

□ BO BC3HS HGinaa 

□HI na HQQH 

□ HHBEDD BGJQanaa 
naan Sanaa bbh 
anBaaBHHaaBuana 

ebb Sanaa asaa 
BaB^Baa naaaas 
sheds nans 
DQS0Q assa aaa 
DEaHBHaBnaaaass 
□oaa □□sas anas 

BOBS SSSBOBOHS 


91 'Double 

Fantasy* singer 
as Bit of reproof 

33 Tabloid topics 

40 Throw for 

41 iBSOfedmaker 

42 CutUp 

44 Pop hit "Da 

Ron Ron" 

45 Nica nights 

40 Crystalline rock 
47 Diamond point 
50 Coast 
si Version 
82 Not a 

run-of-the-mill 

entertainer 

34 Milk-curdling 
agents 

MDock 

so Awards lor P. D. 
James 

37 Lotterman tats 

DOWN 

1 Effluvium 
3 Pollen bearers 

3 The original 
Miss Saigon 

4 Speak to the 
Senate 

a They have their 
orders 


oPracffltonefa 

suffix 

7 '12 Tribes' 
painter 

a TV transmitter In 
spaoe 

o Cause of gray 
hair 

<e Extension 

11 Camden Yards 
ennead 

12 Against 
isTacklebox 

items 

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FamerBab 
*0 Kyrgyz range 
23 Permanent 
piece? 

2 a Patron saint of 
France 

28 -Wanna buy 

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radio comedy 
line) 

27 Snack 
» Robin Williams 
film 

30 Notions holders 

33 Overwhelmed 

34 On the horizon 
30 Sounds of strain 
30 Prove 

acceptable to 


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perhaps 
30 Comeback 
33 Polish, with 
‘up' 


43 Stick 40 Lab vessel 

43 Acts foppish 43 Landing 
43 Vegas so Red's 

equipment signification 

43 Top 83 Sorority letter 







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Puzz* by Randolph Rosa 

O New York Times Edited by Will Shorn. 


TJavd in a world without borders, time zones 

or language barriers. 



Imagine a world where you can call country to country as easily as you can from home. And 
reach the US. directly from over 125 countries. Converse with someone who doesn’t speak your 
language, since it’s translated instantly. Call your clients at 3 am, knowing they’ll get the message in 
your voice at a more polite hour. All this is now possible with ARSE 1 

To use these services, dial the AKT Access Number of the country you're in and you'll get all the 
help you need With these Access Numbers and your AES’ Calling Card, international calling has never been easier. 

If you don’t have an AIST Calling Card or you’d like more information on ARET global services, just call us using the 

convenient Access Numbers on your right 



AJKT Access Numbers. 

How to call around Che world. 

1. Using chedian below, find die country you are calling from. 

2. Dial the corresponding ARJT Access Number. 

5. An AKT English-speaking Operator or voice prompt will ask forihe pbone number you wish to call or connect you to a . 
customer service representative. 

To rcodveyour free waDctcard of AHEft Access Numbers, just dial thcarcss number of j 

the country you’re in and ask forCustoriier Service. ] 

f. 

COUNTRY ACCESS NUMBER COUNTRY ACCESS NUMBER COUNTRY ACCESS NUMBER $ 



ASIA 


Italy- 

172-1011 

Brazil 

000-8010 

Australia 

1-800-881-011 

Liechtenstein* 

155-00-11 

Chile 

00*4)312 

China. PRO* 

10811 

Lithuania* 

8*196 

Columbia 

980-11-0010 

Guam 

018-872 

Luxembourg 

0-800-0111 

CosuRira'a 

114 

Hong Kong 

800-1111 

Macedonia, PAUL of 99-800-4288 

Ecuador* 

119 

India* 

000-117 

Malta* 

0800-890-110 

El Salvador* 

190 

Indonesia* 

001-801-10 

Monaco* 

19*-0011 

Guatemala* 

190 

Japan* 

0050-111 

Netherlands* 

06-022-9111 

Guyana*** 

165 

Korea 

000-11 

Norway 

800-190-11 

Honduras** 

123 

KoreaAA 

11* 

Poland**** 

0*0 10480-0111 

Mexico*** 

95-800-462-4240 

Malaysia* 

800-0011 

PortugaT 

05017-1-288 

Nicaragua (Managua) 174 

New Zealand 

000-911 

Romania 

01-8004288 

Panamaa 

109 

Philippines' 

105-11 

Russia —(Moscow) 

155-5042 

Peru* 

191 

Saipan* 

235-2872 

Slovakia 

0042000101 

Suriname 

156 

Singapore 

800-0111-111 

Spain* 

900-99-00-11 

Uruguay 

00-0410 

Sri Lanka 

43CW30 

Sweden* 

020-795-611 

Venezuela* ■ 

80-0U-12Q 

Taiwan* 

0080-102884) 

Switzerland* 

1554)0-11 

CARIBBEAN 

Thailand* 

0019-99M111 

US. 

0500-894011 

Bah-mm 

1-800*872-2881 

EUROPE 

Ukraine* 

8*100-11 

Bermuda* 

1-800-872-2881 

Armenia*' 

8*14111 

MIDDLE EAST 

British VI 

1-800*872-2881 

Austria*’" 

022*903-011 

Bahrain 

800-001 

Cayman Islands 

1-800-872-2881 

Belgium* 

0800-100-10 

CyptW 

080-90010 

Grenada* 

1 -800-872-2881 

Bulgaria 

00-1 600-0010 

Israel 

177-100-2727 

Haiti* 

001-800-972-2883 

Croatia"* 

99*38*0011 

Kuwait 

800-288 

Jamaica** 

0-800-872*2881 

Czech Rep 

00-420-00201 

Lebanon (Beirut) 

426-801 

Ncth. Antll 

001-800-872-2881 

Denmark* 

8001-0010 

Qatar 

0800-011-77 

St. KittS; Nevis 

1-800-872-2881 

Finland* 

9800-100-10 

Saudi Arabia 

1*800-10 

AFRICA 

France 

19A-0011 

Turkey* 

00-800-12277 

Egypt* (Cairo) 

510-0200 

Germany 

0130-0010 

U-AJE.* 

800-121 

Gabon* 

OOa-OOI 

Greece* 

00*800-1311 

AMERICAS 

Gambia* 

00111 

Hungary* 

00**8004)1111 

Argentina* 

001-800-200-1 ill 

Kenya* 

0600-10 

Iceland** 

999-001 

Belize* 

555 

Liberia 

797*797 

Ireland 

1-800-550-000 

Bolivia* 

0-800-1112 

South Africa 

0-800-99-0123 


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