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INTERNATIONAL 


Paris, Thursday, December 1, 1994 


No. 34.760 


One 


New York Tima Service 
' ROME -—It had sailed the seven seas. 
. gone round the world in 80 days. En 

- route, it had braved the shoals of bank- 
ruptcy and bloodshed, terrorism and 

- controversy. And on Wednesday, it met 
. its end. 

Abandoned by all 979 passengers and 
Crew, the Italian cruise liner AchiUe 
. Lauro blazed and seemed to be subsiding 
into a sea full. of sharks after fire de- 
. ; vour^the vessel as it sailed off the Horn 
of Africa on a Christinas cruise from 


Italy to South Africa. 

■ The Neapolitan on 


The Neapolitan owners, Starlauro, 
said two passengers were killed and eight 


injured as flames began licking around 
the passenger cabins at 1:30 A.M. 
Wednesday, catching many passengers 
in evening dress from a party, or in their 
nightgowns. By Wednesday evening, the 
23.479-ton vessel, built for Dutch owners 
in 1947, and in Italian hands since 1966. 
was still burning and listing. 

While its owners said it might survive 
the night, the Italian transport minister, 
Publio Fiori, declared: “The Achille 
Lauro is now Iosl it is still burning and 
sinking lower into the water.” 

As night fell and the Indian Ocean 
swells began to rise, new worries 
emerged about the safety of some 630 


survivors gathered on the exposed and 
inhospitable deck of an oil tanker that 
rescued them, the Hawaiian King. Two 
UJS. Navy warships, the cruiser Gettys- 
burg and the frigate Halybunon, were 
heading toward the tanker to take the 
survivors on board, the owners’ South 
African agent. Daphne Osborne, said in 
Cape Town. 

[Two U.S. helicopters took food, water 
and medicines to people aboard the Ha- 
waiian King, Reuters reported from Du- 
bai. The U.S. Navy said the helicopters 
would make several more shuttle runs of 
food and medicine on Wednesday night.] 

What was to have been a sun-kissed 


Christmas cruise through the Mediterra- 
nean and the Suez Canal and across the 
equator to Durban, South Africa, ended 
some 100 miles off the coast of Somalia 
in the Indian Ocean as fire broke out in 
the engine room, flames began licking 
through the Achille Lauro's passenger 


But it was also the end of a chapter in 
Italy's nautical history. Buffeted, in its 
time, by financial problems, accidents 
and much controversy, the Achille Lauro 
is best remembered by most non-Italians 
as the cruise liner hijacked by Palestinian 

See SHIP, Page 4 



) IV 

I / AFRICA 


area of detail 


Gt&afA&ea # 
SOMALIA / V j 


ETHIOPIA 




The Adrifle Lauro, the iD-fsted “Big Blue liner” that once steamed mound die world in 80 days. 


Ajcocc France- Pm*c/lW5 




Jets Drive Home Message to Renegade Russian Republic 


Compiled ty Oar Staff From Dispaxha 

GROZNY, Russia — Planes bombed a 
government military airfield in the Rus- 
sian rebel province of Chechnya on 
Wednesday, and its leader told women and 
children to flee the capital, Grozny, before 
an ultimatum set by Moscow expired. 

On Tuesday morning, President Boris 
N. Yeltsin of Russia gave the Chechen 
-president, Dzhokar Dudayev, and the op- 

C 'tion trying to oust Mr. Dudayev 48 
rs to lay down Their anus and stop 
fighting. 

Mr. Yeltsin said he would introduce a 


state of emergency in Chechnya, which 
unilaterally proclaimed independence 
from Moscow in 1991, if the ultimatum 
was ignored. 

Reporters saw at least three planes drop 
between 10 and IS bombs on the airfield, 
which is about five kilometers (three miles) 
from the city center, and set at least 10 
aircraft on fire. 

The airport commander, Elmirzayev 
Akhma dov, said he saw four jets in the 
attack, which resulted in no casualties. He 
said that the military airport also had been 
attacked on Tuesday, as had Grozny’s ci- 


vilian airport, and that an airport guard 
had been killed. 

Forces loyal to Mr. Dudayev responded 
with anti-aircraft fire but appeared to miss 
the planes. People in the streets screamed 
and ran for cover. 

“In view of the situation, it would be a 
good idea to evacuate women and chil- 
dren,” Mr. Dudayev said in a statement 
issued through bis aides. 

“Quick, go home!” a telephone operator 
told customers at a downtown post office 
after the roar of jets was heard Wednesday 
afternoon. 


The Kremlin-backed Provisional Coun- 
cil, which is trying to topple Mr. Dudayev, 
and officials in Moscow said the planes did 
not belong to them. There are no military 
airfields in the region controlled by the 
Chechen opposition. 

A senior opposition official told Reu- 
ters: “They were not our planes. Obviously 
they were Russia's. The Russians are going 
to bring the troops in. Basically it is al- 
ready derided.” 

Mr. Yeltsin's ultimatum on Tuesday was 
clearly motivated by a threat issued by Mr. 
Dudayev on Monday. (Reuters, AP) 


In Turkey’s Bleak Cities, Militant Islam on the Rise 


By Alan Cowell 

New York Times Service 

ESENSEHIR, Tiirirey — Esref Cosan is a. new 
arrival in this mud-andrconcrete satellite of Istanbul, a 
man of the countryside more used to tending his 
beehives than hustling for work on construction sites 
that have no jobs to offer. 

In many ways, though, his uprooting from village to 
city is the story of modem Turkey. 

When he and his family arrived here the other day, 
fleeing the civil war against Kurdish guerrillas in the 
southeast, they became part of a wave of migration to 
the cities that has shifted the nation's center of gravity 
from village to metropolis. 


And, propelled from Anatolia's far reaches by pov- 
erty and wax, needs and dreams, this great column has 
come to represent another phenomenon, far more 
troubling to Turkey’s authorities and their Western 
allies: the grist of an Islamic movement that would 
challenge the secular core and Western leanings of the 
71-year-old republic. 

As Turkey’s cities bulge beyond control and tradi- 
tional political parties seem unable to confront the 
most baric economic and social problems, the main 
beneficiary from this upheaval has been the militant 
Islamic Welfare Party, which now controls Ankara, 
Istanbul and a host of other cities. 

The Islamic campaign here is at an early stage, and 


there is no immediate prospect of the militants’ un- 
seating the conservative government of Prime Minis- 
ter Tansu Ciller. But there is no question that the 
movement is growing. 

Islamic revival is familiar from Algeria to the Gaza 
Strip, from Egypt to Iran. In Turkey, it challenges the 
very secular core of the republic founded in 1923 by 
Mustafa Kemal Atatnrk. 

And its emergence in this Western-inclined land has 
caused concern among secular Turks that the nation's 
nanreligious principles, known as Kemalism, are at 
stake. 

“Kemahsm is at an raid,” said Fehmi Kuril, a 
See TURKEY, Page 4 


Bosnia’s Factions 
Rebuff UN Chief 

Butros Ghali s Dire Warning: 
Peacekeeping Mission May End 


By Roger Cohen 

New York Tuna Service 

SARAJEVO. Bosnia-Herzegovina — 
Spumed by the leader of the Bosnian Serbs 
after a week of humiliations ia Bosnia, the 
secretary-general of the United Nations 
warned Wednesday for the first time that 
the peacekeeping mission here might have 
to end. 

Declaring that Bosnian Muslims and 
Serbs must now cooperate with the belea- 
guered UN mission, Mr. Butros Gbali said 
in a statement: “My message to them is 
that unless they do this, it will become 
impossible for me to persuade the Security 
Council to keep the United Nations pro- 
tection force here.” 

His statement came after a day in which 
be was jeered by the people of Sarajevo 
and unceremoniously snubbed by the Bos- 
nian Serb leader, Radovan Karadzic, who 
refused to appear at a planned meeting 
because its location was not on Serbian- 
held Bosnian territory. 

The contemptuous rebuff from Mr. Kar- 
adzic made a mockery of attempts by Mr. 
Butros Gbali to secure a Bosnian cease- 
fire, and turned a high-stakes diplomatic 
foray to the ravaged Bosnian capital into a 
fiasco. 

The Serbian refusal to show up Wednes- 
day demonstrates that the cooperation Mr. 
Butros Ghali said was essential will be 
hard to obtain. Despite this poor augury, 
he said he would try to avoid recommend- 
ing a withdravral, but noted that the Secu- 
rity Council might soon take the matter 
out of his bands. 

The secretary-general'spublic statement 
stepped short of an ultimatum. But an 
official present at Mr. Buuos Ghali’s meet- 
ing with the Bosnian president. Alija Izet- 
begovic, said the secretary-general pre- 
sented a “stark warning'* about a 
withdrawal and reminded the Bosnian 
government of the impending end to the 
UN’s mission to Somalia. 

To this, the official quoted Mr. Izetbe- 
gowc as replying, “But that was Africa, 
this is Europe.” 

The tough stance adopted against the 
Muslim-led Bosnian government despite 
the Serbian attack on northwestern en- 
clave of Bihac reflected the fact that all 
Western countries — including the United 
States — appear to have concluded from 
the Bihac crisis that the war is now bring 
provoked by both sides and pressure must 
be applied on everyone to end the fighting. 

Previously, the Clinton administration 
had declined to put strong pressure on the 
Bosnian government, citing the intense 
suffering of the Muslim civilians of Bosnia 
at the hinds of the Serbs and the right of 
the Muslim-led Bosnian government to be 
armed and to fight bade. 

But the fact that the current Serbian 
offensive on Bihac came as a response to 
an initially successful attack by the Mus- 
lim-led Bosnian forces, who broke east- 
ward out of an enclave where they have 


been encircled for most of the 31 -month- 
old war, seems to have led to a poUcv shift. 

Yasushi Akashi. the top UN official in 
the former Yugoslavia, said the severity of 
Mr. Butros Ghali’s warning about the need 
for an end to the fighting and the possibili- 
ty of a United Nations withdrawal had 
surprised the Bosnian government. 

Mr. Butros Ghali had hoped to secure a 
cease-fire on Wednesday, for the Bihac 
pocket and for Bosnia as a whole. This 
would have created a better environment 
for a meeting of ministers from the United 
States, Germany, France, Britain and Rus- 
sia, who are due to discuss adjustments to 
an international peace plan in Brussels on 
Friday. But his mission failed. 

After being mocked by a Sarajevo crowd 
weaiy of the war and deeply disillusioned 

Kohl and Mitterrand sidestep their dis- 
agreement on Bosnia. Page 4. 

with the efforts of the United Nations in 
Bosnia, Mr. Butros Ghali said Mr. Karad- 
zic's decision to snub him “projected a bad 
image on his policy, on his attitude and 
even his personality.” 

Mr. Akashi went a little further, saying 
he was “disappointed and a bit mad with 
Mr. Karadzic.” 

But the Bosnian Serb leader has hod his 
way for some time and clearly felt there 
was no reason to compromise Wednesday. 

His decision not to attend the meeting 
reflected the fact that the Serbs' continuing 
assault on the Muslim enclave of Bihac has 
revealed all UN threats and NATO resolu- 
tions as empty, suggesting that the Serbs 
have little to lose from going it alone and 
continuing the war. 

“Militarily speaking, the Serbs' tails are 
up so they simply feel they can call the 
shots,” said Sir Michael Rose, a British 
lieutenant general who is the commands 
of a United Nations force in Bosnia. The 
soldiers under his command have he?:’ 
held hostage and otherwise humiliated in 
recent days. 

There are more than 24,000 United Na- 
tions peacekeepers in Bosnia. But with no 
peace to keep, their mission has become 
increasingly murky. About 500 of them are 
currently detained by the Bosnian Serb 
forces. 

The incapacity of the United Nations 
force to protect its own people from such 
humiliation or to protect a UN-designated 
safe area such as Bihac has now been 
comprehensively demonstrated. At the 
same time, their ability to serve as shield 
for the Serbs against any international 
m ilitary action had been underlined. 

JEjup Gaoic, the vice president of a Mus- 
linHCroat federation in Bosnia, said the 
Bosnian government had told Mr. Butros 
Ghali that it would accept a three-month 
cease-fire but would not enter any further 
negotiation with the Serbs until they ac- 
cept an American-backed peace plan. 


NBC Wants to Pull the Plug on Murdoch 


By Bill Carter 

New York Tima Service 

' NEW YORK— In a direct challenge to 

the very existence of the Fox television 
network, NBC filed a petition Wednesday 
with the Federal Communications Com- 
mission asserting that the stations that 
form the heart of Fox are illegally f orrign- 
owned. 

NBC asked the commission to rule ei- 
ther that Fox must drastically reduce its 
level of foreign ownership or that au other 
U.S. networks may seek u nlim ited foreign 
investment 


NBC contends that if the commission 
explicitly sanctions the ownership arrange- 
ment that underpins Fox, in which more 
than 99 percent of the equity is hdd by 
Rupert Murdoch’s News Corp., which is 
based in Australia, it would eradicate 60 
years of policy excluding foreigners from 
owning U.S. broadcast properties. 

This kind of branding was unheard of 
until recently in the once-gentlemanly 
world of network television. But the atmo- 
sphere has changed: ABC. CBS and NBC 
not only have the sprawling monster of 
cable television to contend with, but also 


Fox, which is aggressively trying to take 
business from them. 

NBC’s action, called a petition for rule- 
making, requires the commission to re- 
spond, although it is not under a specific 
deadline. 

Preston Padden, Fox’spnesident for net- 
work distribution, said Fox’s application 
for licenses had been “blessed by the FCC 
in 1985” and that the commission then had 
&Q the information it needed. 

In addition, Mr. Padden said the com- 

See NBC, Page 3 


Kiosk 


A Pillar of Hong Kong Falls Away 


Hong Kong's slock traders badea 

fa3S Wednesday 

Matheson, the trading house whosense 

traced the territory’s own, ^ btoe- 
pany was replaced on the bourse s blue- 

Hold^ Ltd -d 


Jardine Strategic Holdings Ltd. plan to 
remove , their listings from the bourse 
completely on Dec. 31, as part of a 
move to distance the company from the 
colony before China takes control in 
1997~The company is moving its head- 
quarters to Singapore. (Page 16) 


House Passage 

Gives Trade Bill 
$ 5 ? Surge in Senate 


Opposition Figure h Ghen a Top Mexico Post 

president-elect. Emisto Zedtiw ^ Rcvolution- 

SeLete, on Wednesday ^ Party since it took power in 1929. 

her of a conservative jPtSI Mr. Zedillo and his 22-member cabl- 
es his attorney general, a nrs which will indude three women, 

win be sworn in Thursday. 


News stand prices 

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f'ifSo Reunion. ...11.20FF 

fc3j»FF S«riiArebta^9.M ML 

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U.S. MU. (Eur.) Sl .10 




Up 

0.38% 


3739.23 


1.5702 

1.5625 

96,975 

-5.3928 


Compiled by Our Staff Fran Dispatches 

WASHINGTON — The Senate began 
debate on the world trade agreement on 
Wednesday, as the Clinton a dminis tration 
voiced growing optimism that it had 
enough senators to achieve a final congres- 
sional victory. 

President Bill Qinton and members of 
his cabinet telephoned wavering senators, 
as surveys showed that supporters of the 
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 
were at or near the 60 votes needed to win a 
procedural vote on a budget waiver, a 
prelude to the vote on the accord itself, 
which needs only a ample majority of the 
100 senators. 

“We do expect that by the time the vote 
is cast tomorrow, we wifi have the votes on 
both the budget waiver and the bill itself,” 
said the White House press secretary. Dee 
Dee Myers. 

A poll by The Associated Press showed 
59 senators supporting the agreement or 
leaning toward support, 23 against or lean- 



Danilo Knuumk/Rcuten 


Sarajevans protesting Wednesday against the United Nations at the presidency btnhfing during Mr. Butros GhalPs visit 


Camel Fair’s Exotic Attraction: Tourists 


Tuesday, the House of Represeaia- 
See GATT, Page 3 


By Molly Moore 

Washington Pen Service 

PUSHKAR, India — For 400 years, 
camel herders and farmers have converged 
on this holy city deep in the Thar Desert of 
Rajasthan to buy and sell cam e ls, troll the 
market stalls for new saddles and gawk at 
tribal people from faraway villages. 

In recent years, however, an exotic new 
tube has been attracted to the ancient 
desert fair, offering new oppor tuni ties to 
ogle: Western tourists. The desert camel 
drivers marvel at this bizarre breed that 
turns red undo* the desert sun, views the 
world through black boxes hdd in front of 
their faces and is willing to pay 52 (more 


than two days’ 
ers) for an hi 
c&meL 


gesfor most desert farm- 
’s ride on a lumbering 


India, as part of its new efforts to open 
up to the outside world and its hard cur- 
rencies, has begun promoting remote, in- 
digenous fairs and festivals as major tour- 
ist attractions. In the last several years, the 
Pushkar Camel Fair — reputedly the larg- 
est camel market in the world — has be- 
come the most popular festival among for- 
eign tourists visiting Rajasthan, the 
northern desert state that is now India’s 
top tourist draw. 

And so it came to pass in October that 
the 20th century collided with a culture 


and society that have r emained virtually 
unchanged since the 16th century. 

Desert tribesmen arrived with their fam- 


atop medieval-style wooden carts drawn 
by camels after 14-day treks across the 
desert, while tourists arrived in shiny, new 
air-conditioned tour buses that made the 
same trip in seven hours. 

Both a camel driver, Bhagwan Singh, 
and a French tourist, Olivier Bernicat, ha£ 
gled with shopkeepers over the price of a 
new camel saddle, an elaborate wooden 
contraption. But while Mr. Singh, with his. 

See TRIBES, Page 4 











It’s Union in Name Only on European Crime and Asylui 


WORLD BRIEfS 




By Tom Buerkle 

ini emotional Herald Tribune 

BRUSSELS — Germany's effort to enlist its 
European Union allies in the fight against orga- 
nized crime and in coping with, immigration hit a 
stone wall of objections on Wednesday, turning 
issues of paramount public concern into a show- 
case of European disunity. 

A draft German convention for Europol, a 
Netherlands-based agency designed to tackle in- 
ternational crime and drug trafficking, was 
blocked by France and Spain at a meeting here 
of EU interior ministers. 

Paris wanted to impose tight national controls 
that would effectively neuter the agency, while 
Madrid demanded that Europol give it a hand m 
combating terrorism by Basque separatists and 
others. 

A separate German initiative to forge a com- 
mon EU position on immigration also met with a 
rebuff from allies who were not keen to accept 
immigrants from Germany or to help Bonn pay 
for taking care of them. 

“There's a complete blockage, and it’s dear 


that the ministers aren't prepared to go any 
further,” an EU official said. 

The result was not unexpected, coming after 
weeks of intense but fruitless negotiations. But it 
s till represented a major setback to Chancellor 
Helmut Kohl, who has made the issues a top 
priority of Germany’s EU presidency. He will 
nave tittle to show when he is host to fellow EU 
leaders at Essen on Dec. 9 and 10. 

The deadlock also illustrated the growing dif- 
ficulty EU countries are having in extending 
policy cooperation beyond economics and the 
single market. Such moves require unanimity, 
something that the Union will find only harder 
to achieve when it takes in Sweden, Finland and 
Austria in January. 

Immigration and crime are regarded as press- 
ing problems by all EU governments ana their 
citizens, and leaders are agreed that the chal- 
lenges surpass the ability of national capitals to 
respond to them alone. 

But one year after the Maastricht treaty inau- 
gurated EU cooperation on interior and justice 
.affairs, the record of achievement is “pretty 
grim,” Padraig Flynn, the EU commissioner in 


charge of interior matters, says in a report to be 
delivered to the ministers Thursday. 

Interior and justice affairs are “the most diffi- 
cult area of all” to find common ground, said 
Juan Alberto Bclloch, the Sp anish minister, be- 
cause internal security for most countries is 
mapped up with tradition, culture and national 
identity. 

EU leaders had set an October deadline for 
agreeing on a convention for Europol, and Ger- 
many has pressed hard because its long border 
with Eastern Europe has left it the most exposed 
to crime gangs operating out of the region. 

Bonn wants Europol to have the potential to 
become a European FBI, with enough indepen- 
dence to analyze crime figures and track specific 
individuals or organizations. France has argued 
for a more-limited exchange of information with- 
in the agency, with national capitals able to 
inspect files at any point. 

Britain's home secretary, Michael Howard, 
made it dear Wednesday that his country would 
not contribute sensitive data to Europol if they 
would be open to such inspection. 

German officials see little chance of progress 


any time soon. One official said privately that 
Charles Pasqua. the staunchly nationalist French 
interior minister, has made Europol an issue of 
sovereignty and was unlikely to budge before the 
French presidential election in May. Tellingly, 
Mr. Pasqua did not even attend the meeting 
Wednesday, sending France' s delegate to the EU 
instead. 

There was no consensus on immigration either 
Wednesday, even though the problem has be- 
come more European and less a strictly German 
one. 

The tightening of Germany's liberal asylum 
laws last year has cut the number of asylum 
demands by two- thirds, to 92.000 from January 
to September t h i s year, while in the Netherlands 
the number has shot up 60 percent. 

The lack of progress on immigration and crime 
carried a silver lining for German officials and 
the ElFs Executive Commission. They hope the 
dismal record will force member governments to 
.abandon the current intergovernmental ap- 
proach to policy, which requires unanimity in all 
matters, and adopt a more flexible approach at a 
major EU conference in 1996. 


EU Offers the East 
Post-Summit Talks 


Bonn and Paris Strike Deal 
On Invitation to 6 Countries 


By Brandon Mitchener 

International Herald Tribune 

BONN — In a compromise 
that keeps the eastward expan- 
sion of the European Union at 
least symbolically on track, the 
Union has invited the heads of 
six prospective East European 
member states to a meeting 
next week in Essen, Germany, 
Chancellor Helmut Kohl said 
Wednesday. 

“After some consideration 
and consultation with our part- 
ner countries, we decided to in- 
vite the heads of state and for- 
eign ministers simply to send 
out the message that the Euro- 
pean Union is not running a 
‘closed shop,’ ” Mr. Kohl said. 

He made the announcement 
at a joint news conference with 
President Francois Mitterrand 
and Prime Minister Edouard 
Balladur of France after two 
days of bilateral consultations 
aimed at establishing a tenta- 
tive agenda for the summit 
meeting. 

“We want to show these 
countries that they will be wel- 
come if they want to join the 
Union when their domestic and 
economic situations permit it,” 
Mr. Kohl said. 

In a separate agreement. Ger- 
many and France moved closer 
to forming a joint arms pro- 
curement agency open to other 
European allies and pledged to 
reach agreement soon on coop- 
eration in military reconnais- 
sance satellites. 

On several other economic, 
political and foreign policy is- 
sues, however, Germany and 
France politely agreed to dis- 
agree, leaving the countries’ 
leaders nostalgic for less divi- 
sive days and the agenda for the 
Essen meeting as open as ever. 

Germany and France, which 
have long been the motor of 
European integration, are 
showing less ana less inclina- 
tion to compromise on funda- 
mental issues regarding the 
structure and size of the Union. 


“This could be the last Fran- 
co-German summit of its kind,” 
said Axel Sander, an analyst at 
the German Society for Foreign 
Policy. “The generational 
change in both countries could 
bring people to power who are 
less emotional about the bilat- 
eral relationship, more soberly 
absorbed with their own na- 
tional interests.” 

Mr. Kohl and Mr. Mitter- 
rand attempted to play down 
their countries' disagreements 
by noting that Germany and 
France never agreed on every- 
thing yet usually managed to 
strike the decisive compromise. 

Mr. Kohl said he no longer 
dreamed of a “United States of 
Europe,” while Mr. Mitterrand 
said Europe would inevitably 
become “more and more feder- 
al.” 

Members of Mr. Kohl's con- 
servative Christian Democratic 
Union recently proposed 
strengthening the European 
Commission and European 
Parliament in order to create a 
more federal Union, but Mr. 
Balladur this week said that no- 
tion was outdated and called 
for a more flexible form of mul- 
tilateral cooperation. 

The compromise on Eastern 
Europe, which foresees a one- 
and-a-half hour meeting with 
the heads of state of Poland. 
Hungary, the Czech Republic, 
Slovakia, Bulgaria and Roma- 
nia following the summit meet- 
ing, was the maximum accept- 
able to France and the 
minimum acceptable to Germa- 
ny, which initially wanted to 
invite its eastern neighbors to 
participate in the summit talks. 

■ A Warning From Moscow 

The Russian Foreign Minis- 
ter, Andrei V. Kozyrev, warned 
Wednesday that Moscow might 
refuse to sign a framework ac- 
cord on relations with NATO if 
the alliance adopted a timetable 
for expanding eastward, 
Agence France- Presse reported 
from Moscow. 



Vs3u BchsL-VRcma* 

BALKANS STANDOFF — Workers in Salonika, Greece, on break as a Greenpeace activist chained to rail tracks 
tossed an orange. Activists took over part of a chemical factory to protest the production of ozone-depleting snhstanres- 


Court Hands French Financier a Setback 


By Barry James 

International Herald Tribune 

PARIS — A court placed the business 
empire of Bernard Tapie in receivership on 
Wednesday, a bitter blow for the French 
politician but not sufficient on its own to 
derail his possible ambitions for the 
French presidency. 

The Commercial Court of Paris stopped 
short of declaring Mr. Tapie’ s companies 
in bankruptcy, which would have forced 
him to relinquish his seats in the National 
Assembly and the European Parliament 
and would have made him ineligible to run 
for president and mayor of Marseille next 
year. 

Instead, it ordered Mr. Tapie’s convo- 
luted finances to be placed under the con- 
trol of court-appointed administrators un- 
til May 30 — that is, after the presidential 
elections which will be held in two rounds 
at the end of April and the beginning of 


May. The court will then decide whether or 
not to wind up the business empire. 

Mr. Tapie, a plumber’s son turned fi- 
nancier, stiD faces a hearing aboat his 
personal Finances Dec. 14, which legal ex- 
perts said could lead to a bankruptcy judg- 
ment against him. 

The court judgment temporarily halted 
action by the Crtdit Lyonnais bank to 
recover debts of 1.22 billion francs (S226.5 
million) from the tycoon. In July, the bank 
seized part of Mr. Tapie's collection of 
antique furniture and works of art The 
Treasury, which is investigating Mr. Tapie 
for tax evasion and business fraud, also 
claims his assets. 

In another hearing Wednesday, Mr. Ta- 
pie lost an appeal against a 1 million franc 
($186,000) fine for overstating the value of 
one of his companies on the Paris stock 
exchange. Last week, he was ordered to 
pay 66.7 million francs in taxes for falsely 


registering his yacht, the Phocea, as a com- 
mercial ship rather than a pleasure craft. 

In another blow to his pride, Mr. Tapie’s 
Olympique Marseille soccer team was 
knocked out of the French Cup in the first 
round Monday night after being defeated, 
1-0, by the lowly, second-division team 
NiorL The French soccer league had con- 
demned Marseille to play in the second 
division this season because of a match- 
fixing scandal. 

Mr. Tapie said Wednesday night that he 
had fired the Olympique Marseille coach, 
Mare Bounier. and had named Girard 
Gill to succeed him, effective immediately. 
Mr. Gili, 42, was the team's coach from 
1988 to 1990. 

Mr. Tapie, 51, a former salesman and 
pop singer who leads the MRG, or Radical 
Movement of the Left, drew an unexpect- 
ed 12 percent of the vote in the elections 
for the European Parliament in June. 


Ukraine to Receive No Extra Security 


For Signing Accord on Nudear Arms 


BUDAPEST (Reuters) — Ukraine, insisting on security guar- 
antees in return for giving up nudear arms, will get no special 
commitments from the major powers when it formally renounces 
its nudear status Monday, diplomats say. 

Ukraine will sign the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty on the 
margins of a European security summit in Budapest. Kiev says it 
has won security guarantees from major powers in exchange. 

The deal, which indudes Western promises of 
aid, will end a dispute over what Ukraine should do with nudear 
weapons left on its roil after the Soviet Union collapsed in 199.1. 

Russia, the United States, France and Britain ■will sign a 
memorandum an Ukrainian security. “ 


Police Raid East German Rightists . 

MAGDEBURG, Germany (Reuters) — The police in Saxony- 
Anhalt state raided the homes of far-right extremists and seized 
weapons and neo-Nazi propaganda there, the interior minister of 
the East German state said 

The official, Manfred P&cheL, said the police operation was 
directed at 25 members of a group calling itself the “Middle 
German Assistance” and which had renamed itself “Wittenberg 
Fellowship” after a ban imposed by state justices. 

Saxony-Anbalt state had witnessed a singe in rightist violence 
and crimes in the last year. From January to October, the l 'rce 
registered 612 cr imes of a neo-Nazi or far-right nature compa* 1 
with 291 in die same period in 1993. 


Berlusconi Still Prepared to Testify 1 

ROME (Reuters) — Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi said 
Wednesday that be would still meet Milan magistrates investigat- 
ing him for possible bribery as a dispute raged over whether their * 
inquiries had been hobbled 

Mr. Berlusconi, who denies any wrongdoing, said he was 
outraged by speculation that a supreme court decision on Tuesday 
to switch a related trial away from Milan, dealing a blow to the 
magistrates, had been politically motivated “1 have said that I can 
go to the Milan courts and state my case whenever Ihave a free 
moment,” he said 

Reports that the Court of Cassation had decided to switch a 
bribery trial involving 49 defendants from Milan to the nearby 
town of Brescia had led to speculation that the investigation 
involving altegations of bribes to tax police by Mr. Berlusconi's 
Finivest business empire could face severe delay. 


Tories’ Challenge to Major Fails 

LONDON (Reuters) — Prime Minister John Major escaped a 
challenge to his leadership of Britain's Conservative Party on 
Wednesday, giving him a breathing space to try to restore the 
government’s political fortunes. 

Right-wing critics of Mr. Major had threatened to back a no: 
hope candidate for the post merely to demonstrate the degree of 
unrest in the governing party over Mr. Major's leadership. 

But Sir Marcus Fox, chairman of the committee responsible for 
running party elections, said the critics had been unable to get the 
required support from 34 Conservative members of Parliament, 
one-tenth of the parliamentary party. Leadership challenges can 
only take place once a year, in the au tumn. 


Burma Buys More Chinese Weapons 

LONDON (AFP) — Burma has signed a second defense 
contract with China this One for helioop ters, arm ored vehicles, 
field guns, assault rifles, parachutes and patrol boats worth $400 
million, Jane’s Defense Weekly reported Wednesday. 

The London-based trade weekly said the helicopters, small 
arms and parachutes appeared destined “for a planned offensive 
against the Homong, the Shan State headquarters of Burmese 
drug lord Khun Sa.” Khun Sa, whose Mong Tai guerrilla army is 
the largest rebel force in Burma, with an estimated strength of 
15,000 to 18,000, operates along the Thai-Burmese border. 

Jane’s said new contract, signed last month, followed an initial 
package worth $1.2 billion for armored vehicles, trucks, rocket 
launchers, anti-aircraft artillery and surface-to-air missiles. It 
added that the Burmese Air Force had ordered 36 jet fighters. 24 
support aircraft and four transport planes, while the navy had 
taken delivery of 10 Hainan ships and was finalizing a deal for two 
JIanghu frigates. 

Homosexuals Granted El A1 Benefits 

JERUSALEM, Nov 30 (Reuters) — Israel’s Supreme Court 
ruled Wednesday that £1 A1 airlines must extend the same benefits 
to same-sex partners of gay employees as it does to partners of 
heterosexuals. 

In a decision hailed as a victory by homosexuals and assailed by 
rabbis, the court upheld the petition of an El A1 flight attendant. 
Jonathan Danilovitz, who fought a five-year court battle to force 
the national carrier to honor his request for an annual complimen- 
tary flight with his partner. 

Mr. Danilovitz turned to a labor court in 1989 when the airline 
turned down his request for the flight, a privilege extended to 
heterosexual couples. That court ruled in his favor, and the 
Supreme Court rejected El Al’s appeal, saying the airline must 
extend equal rights to gay couples. 



WHEN IN PARIS 
WE INVITE YOU TO VISIT 
OUR MUSEUM AND STORE 

Fnv entrance - 30 lii* rue Je Ha rail i~ i5010 Paris 
Tel: 47 70 64 30 Opel! M< in Jay - Satunlay 


EUROPEAN 

TOPICS 

In Battle of die Sexes, 
An Educational Pause 

Is co-education not all it 
was cracked up to be? That 
appears to be the conclusion 
of recent studies in Berlin and 
Hamburg. 

In tests in those cities, cer- 
tain classes of 12- to 14-year- 
olds that bad been mixed — 
chemistry, physics, biology 
and physical education — 
were separa ted by sex. The 
first conclusion: Chris partici- 
pated mere and showed great- 
er self-confidence. 

What’s more, behavior in 
classes that were still mixed 
also improved dramatically. 

This might have had some- 
thing to do with the self-de- 
fense courses that were of- 
fered to giris. One boy later 


complained to a teacher, “She 
threatened to break every 
bone in my body if I kept 
bothering hex.” Such threats 
might heap explain why there 
was less teasing at the end of 
the experiment. But there was 
also less violence, reports the 
German daily Die Welt. 

Around Europe 

France should follow a 
“thin) path” between legaliza- 
tion and repress i on of drugs, 
an advisory panel of “wise 
men” recommends in a new 
report. 

The National Consultative 
Committee on Ethics notes 
that tough measures have 
failed to stem widespread 
drug use, but that outright le- 
galization “could lead to in- 
creased usage of dangerous 
products.” It thus urges that 
controlled drug use be al- 
lowed in private settings, and 
that only public use, or use 
that may be harmful to others, 
should be punished. 

French drug penalties — 


from 2 to 10 years in prison 
for simple possession, and up 
to 30 years for trafficking — 
remain among the stiffesi in 
Europe. Only Britain, where 
possession of some drugs can 
lead to life imprisonment, has 
tougher laws. 

The Dutch draftees’ union 
has advised members against 
serving with United Nations 
forces in Bosnia, the first time 
the union has told conscripts 
not to go to war. 

“We say it’s too difficult for 
these boys, with an average 
age of 19, to say whether or 
not to accept the risks and 
danger,” said Ed Jeeninga of 
the Union of Conscripted Sol- 
diers. 

The Dutch Defense Minis- 
try disagrees. “Let’s face reali- 
ty,” said Major Henk 
Schenkers, “life is full of 
risks.” 

The union gained promi- 
nence fighting for the 40-hour 
garrison workweek and the 
rights of draftees to wear long 


hair and earrings. The Bosnia 
issue may be the last chance 
the union gets to flex its mus- 
cles. The last Dutch draftee is 
due to be called up in April 
1996. 

She was a small, neat, 50- 
y ear-old woman, who looked 
eveiy bit the part of the well- 
loved nursery school principal 
that she was. But life had tak- 
en some tough turns: Her hus- 
band suffered serious mental 
problems, the marriage floun- 
dered, the bills piled up. She 
started working nights. And 
that was her downfall. Last 
September, the police came to 
arrest her in the courtyard of 
her school in a Paris suburb. - 
And this week she received a 
two-year suspended sentence 
for pandering. She said she 
had received no money for ber 
activities, which followed a 
part-time career as a prosti- 
tute; she only wanted to help 
friends. 


Brian Knowlton 


TRAVEL UPDATE 


Polish Ferry Unsafe, Finns Declare 

HELSINKI (Reuters) — A Polish car ferry was stopped froc 
leaving Finland after checks showed faults in its outer bow door i 
Finnish maritime official said Wednesday. 

The ferry Pomerania was due out of Helsinki with about 251 
passengers aboard late Tuesday but was stopped a few hour 
before they wore to embark, said the chief mari tim e survey oi 
) Tnkin en. J 


Vdkko 

“I think the vessel was unsafe,' 


Mr. Inkinen said. “It ws 


unseaworthy because of faults in the closing and locking device 
of its bow door.” He said the faults were discovered because c 
tighter inspection procedures introduced in Finland after the fen 
Estonia sank on Sept. 28 with the loss of more than 900 lives. 

About 900 Nordic tourists wiB be evacuated from Gambia, an 
future trips will be canceled because of political instability tou 
operators said Wednesday in Cop enhag en (Af 

To counter drunken driving, police in Bdgncm will begin finin 
tovers 3,750 francs ($116) —and 5,000 francs beginning Jan 1 - 
if alcohol in their blood exceeds 0.5 milligrams per liter. The ol 
hunt was 0.8 milligrams. (Reuters 

Hie construction of a highway past (he Egyptian pyramid 

S ressed ahead Wednesday despite an order from President Host 
lubarak suspending work pending the outcome of an arehaec 
logical study. The manager of the company building the road sai 
no such order had been received. (AFI 


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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, THURSDAY, DECEMBER 1, 1994 


Page 3 



Retirees Draw on Military Lessons as They Start a 2d Car 

By Eric ** 


By Eric Schmitt 

jSffiSZSZJZX 

^"ressssr*- 5 

v Wa S forces ' thousands of 
r^njgraembers of the armed forces like 

^ tunun S to a new $65 mil- 
bon-a-year Pentagon program that places 
te ^*ers or aides in low-income 
^^and pays pan of their salaries for 

” The program matches them by their 
i OUnds m mathematics, science, for- 
eign languages and organizational stiik 

K£ S e o^ of scho ° l “* ^ 

And, since so many retiring militarv 
personnel are black or members of other 
immonties, the program also brings into 


roner-cily classrooms strong minority role 
models. 

“It’s a win-win situation,' 1 said Defense 
Secretary William J. Perry. “We can help 
provide teachers in areas where educators 
are in short supply, and at the same lime 
h*dp service members transition out of the 
federal work force during this difficult 
period of downsizing” 

The Troops to Teachers program is one 
of the most successful components of a 
broader effort by Congress and the CUn- 
lon administration to help steer nearly two 
million former service members — many 
of whom are still in their 30s or early 40s — 
into second careers like health care and 
law enforcement, as well as education. 

Of course, for years retiring military 
personnel have gone into teaching Al- 
though there are no national data on their 
numbers, education researchers es tima te 
that 4,000 to 5,000 of the 1.7 million people 
who have left the military since 1990 are 
now teaching in public schools or soon will 
be. 

But the new program has attracted more 
than that in the 10 months since it began. 
About 5. 1 00 former members of the armed 
forces have applied, and so far schools in 
30 slates have hired 164 of them. The 
Defense Department expects more than 
1,000 to be hired annually. 


The Pentagon pays retiring service per- 
sonnel up to $5,000 to defray the costs of 
earning their teaching credentials. To en- 
tice schools to participate in the program, 
the military pays up to half of the teacher's 
salary for five years, or a total of $50,000 
per teacher. 

The troops-tumed-teachers must agree 
to teach for at least five years. Retiring 
civilian employees of the defense and ener- 
gy departments as well as people who 
worked for military contractors such as 
General Dynamics or McDonnell Douglas 
are also eligible. 

At Coleridge-Taylor, built in 1931 as the 
first school in Baltimore for black children, 
548 students attend prekindergarten 
through fifth-year classes. About three- 
fourths of the children come from single- 
parent households, the principal said. 

The three-story brick building looms 
large in an otherwise nondescript neigh- 
borhood dominated by low-income hous- 
ing projects. Visitors are buzzed in throu gh 
a heavy black metal door. Inside, a differ- 
ent feeling pervades. The hallways are 
painted in pastel shades and potted plants 
stand sentry in the bright stairways. 

In Room 316, a large, airy space that 
smells of chalk and Lysol, Mr. Moore 
presides over 19 fifth-year students, excit- 


ed from lunch recess and two visitors. It's a 
long way from the Cold-War arenas of 
Germany and Korea, where Mr. Moore 
served with the army. This is the controlled 
chaos of 10-year-olds. 

“Boys and girls, Fm ready to get start- 
ed.” Mr. Moore booms in a voice that 
sounds like it was issued with his staff 
sergeant's stripes. The room is quiet for a 
moment, then a low chattering begins. Mr. 
Moore circulates, helping one girl with a 
grammar question, fishing a new pencil 
from his desk for another. He pulls a little 
boy outside the classroom and scolds him 
for quarreling with other students. 

“Every day l have to prove to them I 
really care, not just about teaching but 
about them,” said Mr. Moore, 39, a minis- 
ter’s son who grew up in Beckley, West 
Virginia, a small coal- mining town. 

“I wouldn't want to go to a suburban, 
rich place where the kids have everything,” 
he said. “The kids here need someone 
who’s dedicated and will work for them ” 

His students, dressed in the school uni- 
form of blue trousers and pale yellow 
shirts for boys and blue skirts and yellow 
blouses for girls, agree. 

“He’s strict, but he’s nice,” said Teara 
Battle. “He keeps us in line,” adds her 
classmate Kionda Early. 

Some teachers in the program have been 


^ for their second careers since 
‘or others, education became a 
natural extension of the training and lead- 
ership jobs they held in the military. 

Ed Coet, 45, a former army counterintel- 
ligence officer, served as a liaison to Saudi 
mili tary intelligent in the Gulf War. To- 
day he teaches a class of 10 emotionally 
disturbed fourth-grade boys at Brookha- 
ycd Intermediate School in Killeen. Texas. 

Mr. Coet, who has a third-degree black 
belt in tae kwon do, a Korean system of 
self-defense similar to karate, said he dis- 
covered his calling as a volunteer teaching 
martial arts to deaf, blind and emotionally 
disturbed children. 

“My work as a teacher is every bit as 
challenging and important as anything I 
did in the army,” Mr. Coet said. 

In moving from the foxhole to the class- 
room, many teachers acknowledge that 
their toughest mili tary experiences did not 
prepare them for all the challenges of 
teaching. When a superior in the armed 
forces gives an order, the troops salute and 
obey. It's not that easy in today's public 
schools, first-year teachers say. 

“You can't yell at them and you can’t 
use scare tactics,” said Michael Bolton, a 
former army lieutenant colonel who once 
commanded a 535-man artillery battalion 
and who now leads 21 kindergartners at 


assroom 


Peebles Elementary School in Killeen. 

Jocelin Lee, 31, a ::iird-grade teacher at 
Eastover-CentrrJ Elementary School in 
Fayetteville, North Carolina, said she has 
relied on the discipline die learned in the 
air force. 

“You have to wear a lot of hats: be their 
mother, father and counselor,” said Ms. 
Lee, who has a degree in elementary edu- 
cation. 

The Troops to Teachers program will be 
tested in the coming years, education ex- 
perts say. 

“Are they being hired because the Pen- 
tagon is offering money or because theyYe 
the best people for the job?” said C. Emily 
Feistritzer, president of the National Cen- 
ter for Education Information, a private 
research organization based in Washing- 
ton. “That will only be proven after the 
outride money is gone.” 

The financial sacrifices will also dis- 
suade some prospective educators. Virtual- 
ly all troops turned teachers take a pay cut. 

The former members of the aimed 
forces are learning to rely on other re- 
wards: a thank-you note from a student or 
the satisfaction of winning over a child 
with discipline problems. 

“I want to teach as long as I can make a 
difference,” Mr. Moore said. “My job is to 
push them the best I can.” 


■ j 

\ 


■+ POLITICAL NOTES A- 


House Democrats Shy From a Shake-Up 

WASHINGTON — Cast into the minority for the first 
, in 40 years. House Democrats re-clected Richard A. 
. Gephardt as their leader on Wednesday, brushing aside 
conservative pressure for a postelection shake-up. 

Mr. Gephardt, of Missouri, easily turned back a challenge 
from Charlie Rose, of North Carolina, to keep the post he 
has held since 1989. The vote was 150 to 58. 

* r ’ mission is to represent workers, middle income 
■ families, the poor families of our country.” Mr. Gephardt 
said after be was installed by secret ballot at a party caucus. 
“I also look forward to winning the House back in 1996." 

David. E. Bonior of Michigan, seeking a new term for the 
. second-ranking leadership job of whip, was challenged by a 
Texas conservative. Charlie Stenholm. (API 


■’ Californian Alleges Cross Vote Fraud 

i LOS ANGELES — Three weeks after Election Day, Rep- 
resentative Michael Huffington says he still will not concede 
defeat in his bid to unseat Dianne Feinstein as senator from 
California because he is certain a planned door-to-door 
canvass of voters will uncover “overwhelming" ballot fraud. 

Ms. Feinstein, a mainstream Democrat, has already 
claimed victory in the race. State election officials have said 
; there is no evidence of significant voter fraud. 

But Mr. Huffington, a conservative Republican who spent 
j more than S28 million of his personal fortune on the race — a 
record for a congressional contest — said in a televised 
interview that he was positive there were significant irregular- 
l i ties and that once he had proof he would seek a new election. 

< He charged that much of the alleged fraud resulted, when 
opponents of California's immigration-control proposition 
L .eru:ounigi^^ to VQtq. • - ■..n'.Vl.T; 

; Prosecutor Closing In bn Clinton Friend 

- WASHINGTON— An independent counsel, Kenneth W. 

■ Starr, has developed extensive evidence purportedly showing 
that former Associate Attorney General Webster L. Hubbell 
billed hundreds of thousands of dollars in phony expenses to 
his former law firm and clients, according to sources familiar 
with file investigation. 

’ The prosecutor has built a case against Mr: Hubbeil on the 
basis of statements from his former colleagues at the Rose 

■ Law Firm, credit card purchases and bills sent to clients. 
Sources said Mr. Starr cquld seek an indictment as early as 

- next week — the first to arise from a yearlong inquiry thaL 
' centers on the finances of President Bill Clinton and his wife. 

Mr. HubbelL one of the Clintons’ closest friends, was a 
• senior partner at the firm, along with Hillary Rodham 
Clinton, before becoming the No. 3 Justice Department 

- official. He resigned in March following allegations that-he 
' had falsified expense records and overcharged clients, includ- 

■ ing the government. ( WP) 


Quotef Unquote 


The outgoing House speaker. Thomas S. Foley, Democrat 
of Washington" who was defeated in his re-election bid: "If I 
had one compelling concern in the time that I have been 
speaker, but previous to that as welL it is that we not idly 
tamper with the Constitution of the United States. / A > T) 



... _ - • timid Manhmii'TlK Auoctucd Piru. 

DO\fN TO EARTH — Theresa and Sandy de Bara with their son, Matthew Dulles, born two months prematurely 
aboard a TWA flight Nov. 23 from New York to Florida. Matthew’s middle name derives from die airport where the 
plane made an emergency landing. He is expected to remain at a Reston, Virginia, hospital for two weeks or longer. 


Away From Politics 


• Jesse Anderson, a convicted wife-killer beaten in the same 
prison attack that killed the mass murderer Jeffrey Dahmer. has 
died of his injuries, hospital officials said. Mr. Anderson. 37. 
had been in a coma on life-support systems at the University of 
Wisconsin Hospital since the attack. 

• It win cost 32 cents to mail a letter starting in January under 
new rates approved by the Postal Rate Commission. The 
commission also approved an increase in the cost of sending a 
postcard, from 19 cents to 20 cents. 

• A federal appeals court panel in Washington ruled that the 
Environmental Protection Agency went too far in requiring 
coal-fired electric [lower plants to use an expensive technical 
process to curb a key source of acid rain, nitrogen oxide. 
Proponents of the limits say the decision could allow utilities to 
seek more exemptions on emission controls. 

• The rap artist and actor Tupac Shakur, 23, was in guarded 
condition with five gunshot wounds from a robbery outside a 
recording studio near Times Square in New York. 

• A federal judge set a March 16 trial date for Francisco Martin 
Duran, 26, who sprayed the White House with rifle fire Oct. 29. 
after Mr. Duran's defense attorney told the court that she would 
need several more weeks to consider a possible insanity defense. 

• Cdhdar telephone fraud in New York has become so rampant 
that a cellular service in Washington, Cellular One, will tempo- 
rarily block its customers from using their wireless phones when 
they travel in New York. 

• After vigorous lobbying by the tobacco industry and local 
restaurants. New York City Council leaders offered a revised 
anti-smoking bill that would loosen some proposed restrictions 
on smoking in restaurants and offices. But it would ban smok- 
ing in virtually all public places. 

• A 77-year-old woman has been found in a remote part of 
northern Arizona after her van ran out of gas more than two 
weeks ago and her husband left to find fueL Annabelle Good- 
win survived with three blankets, a package of ham, bologna 
and a loaf of bread. Her husband, Vinson Goodwin. 76. who 
suffers from Alzheimer's disease, was still missing. 

»'/*, AP. L*T. Reuters. A } T 


Casting About for New Course, Clinton Gets Conflicting Advice 


By Ann Devroy 

Washington Post Service 

WASHINGTON — In sessions described by 
one aide as “sometimes cathartic, sometimes 
instructive,” President Btil Clinton met privately 
this week with Democratic governors and two 
dozen defeated or retiring Democratic House 
members as he continues to sort out his future 
direction and that of Us party. 

Aides said Mr. Clinton was considering a staff 
proposal that he give a major address or set of 
speeches in 'December to broadly lay out his 
agenda in the aftermath of the Democratic loss 
of Congress and party defeats across the country. 
The Write House fears that Republicans will 
have the center stage the next two months, with 
Mr. Clinton politically marginalized and on the 
defensive if he waits until the traditional State of 
the Union address, normally at the end of Janu- 
ary, to outline his direction. 


But even White House officials, watching Re- 
publicans celebrate their return to power in Con- 
gress, said there was little settled about Mr. 
Clinton's course and suggested he was receiving 
a welter of sometimes conflicting, sometimes 
bitter advice. 

“We cannot allow the knee-jerks who don’t 
know anything about it to just denigrate Con- 
gress and the president and the administration,” 
Representative Jack Brooks, a‘ defeated Demo- 
crat from Texas, said Tuesday as be emerged 
from a session with Mr. Clinton. Mr. Brooks said 
he had told the president that “substance was not 
the issue” that determined the widespread Dem- 
ocratic losses. 

Democrats, Mr. Brooks said, “lei Rush Lim- 
baugh and talk-show radio pundits just outma- 
neuver us.” 

Mr. Clinton got a different earful when he had 
a group of Democratic governors to (he White 
House for dinner on Monday. One attendee said 

I 


the consensus was that the president should limit 
his agenda and make it more centrist a common 
theme these days. 

A senior administration official said many of 
those who spoke with Mr. Clinton over a two day 
period — one group Monday night and two oh 
Tuesday — offered broader discussions on why 
they had lost and what the party's recovery 
should entaiL 

Mr. Clinton, the aide said, “is j ust beginning to 
synthesize what happened” and needs some time 
“to do some thinking, to run it through his 
brain,” despite clamoring by staff, party officials 
here and around the country and Democrats 
throughout the administration for pronounce- 
ments on White House intentions. 

One sign erf that anxiety occurred at the White 
House on Tuesday, when chiefs of staff from 
various federal agencies and departments met 
with Harold I ekes, the deputy chief of staff, and 
then with the White House chief of staff. Leon E. 


Panel ta, for what some thought would be a pep 
talk and marching orders. 

“It was a big disappointment,” said an official. 
Mr. Ickes, the official said, told the group that 
the White House did not know what to do in the 
aftermath of the defeat and that he bad no advice 
or directions for [hem. 

The official said Mr. Panetia was only margin- 
ally better, though he left some participants even 
more anxious about whether the White House 
knew “what went on out there last month.” 
Another person described the session as “weird.” 

A White House official said the meeting with 
the senior officials was meant as a listening 
session to hear what others in the government 
thought ought to be done. 

The White House press secretary, Dee Dee 
Myers, said Mr. Clinton was considering a De- 
cember address to the nation bnt had made no 
decision. 


NBC: Network Wants to Pull the Plug on Murdoch's Fox Television Concern 


GAIT: Outlook for Trade Bill in Senate Gets a Boost From House Passage 


Gw (baled from Page 1 

skjnhad the right" to allow a 
gjgn investor toown stations 
long as it was in the public 
srest to do so. 

‘NBC’s activities,” Mr. Pad- 
i said, “are a blatant attempt 
misuse administrative pro- 
dings and thwart maricet- 
ce competition." 
n September, NBC. asked 
i commission to keep Fox 
m paining control of a sta- 
n in Wisconsin; last week it 
sd more petitions seeking to 
iy licenses for stations that 
x planned to buy in Hriladel- 
>a and Boston, 
n recent years, numerous 


U.S. companies have been tak- 
en over by foreign interests. But 
broadcasting has always been 
different In that industry, the 
federal government grants free 
licenses to entities that, in re- 
turn, pledge to serve the public 
interest. It does so because the 
number of radio and broadcast 
television frequencies is limited. 

The question of Fox's owner- 
ship is already before the Fed- 
eral Communications Commis- 
sion as a result of a complaint 
filed earlier this year by the 
NAACP. Seeking to head off 
similar challenges. Fox asked 
the commission to formally re- 
view the question of its owner- 


Commuter Pilots Balk 
Over O’Hare Weather 

The Associated Pros 

rwirAGO — About a dozen pilots for the commuter 
■ a Eaele have refused to fly m cold, rainy 

riSesl&e one that crashed in Mana last 
those conditions, a Oncago newspaper 



use reponcu- 

had been flying on autopilot in a holding pattern 
temperatures. The cause of the 

i been determined. 

- j th-t in two or three other recent cases where 
company deemed the weather accept- 


ship. The commission has said 
since May that a ruling was im- 
minent. 

It had been expected in the 
industry that Fox would pre- 
vail, mainly because the agency 
seemed so unlikely to punish 
Fox after Fox did so successful- 
ly what the commission hoped 
it would do: foster competition 
with a fourth network. 

The new petition greatly 
raises the stakes, however, be- 
cause NBC, with the resources 
of its parent General Electric 
Co., can pursue the case against 
Fox far more aggressively than 
the National Association for 
the Advancement of Colored 


People, a civil rights organiza- 
tion that is short of resources. 
The NAACP action is based on 
its assertion that foreign owner- 
ship of television stations de- 
nies opportunities to American 
minorities. 

Richard Cotton, the senior 
vice president and general 
counsel for NBC, invoked the 
“possibility of litigation” is 
federal court if the commission 
ruled against it in the earlier 
Wisconsin case. 

Wednesday's petition, Mr. 
Cotton said, represented NBCs 
effort to “draw a line in the 
sand on the issue of the FCCs 
special treatment of Fox.” 


Contmued from Page 1 

tives approved the pact with a 
convincing majority that Trea- 
sury Secretary Uoyd Bentsen 
called a “great bipartisan 
boost” 

“This is it — the end of the 
road,” Mr. Bentsen said 
Wednesday. “Tomorrow, the 
Senate will take the most im- 
portant trade vote in this coun- 
try in 60 years.” 

As extra insurance, Mr. Clin- 
ton scheduled a breakfast meet- 
ing with a group of 20 senators, 
many in the undecided ranks, 
on Thursday morning at the 
White House. 


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Senator Bob Packwood, Re- 
publican of Oregon, the Repub- 
lican floor manager for GATT 
supporters, said he believed 65 
senators would vote for the 
budget waiver when it comes up 
Thursday. Bob Dole of Kansas, 
the Senate Republican leader, 
said he felt “confident we have 
the votes.” 

Continuing the first lame- 
duck session of Congress in 12 


years, the outgoing Senate ma- 
jority leader, George J. Mitchell 
of Maine, opened a scheduled 
20 hours of debate Wednesday. 

“This historic agreement is 
essential to oar economic fu- 
ture," he said. “It will create 
new opportunities for Ameri- 
can businesses and farmers to 
compete and sell more in for- 
eign markets. It will benefit 
American consumers by lower- 


ing tariffs that increase the pur- 
chase price of consumer 
goods.” 

The House concluded four 
hours of sometimes impas- 
sioned, sometimes perfunctory 
debate Tuesday by ratifying the 
measure, 288 to 146. 

Favoring the accord were 167 
Democrats and 121 Republi- 

CaDS * (AP, Reuters ) 



\kiGeef &Arpds 

PARIS. GENEVE. BRUXELLES, CANNES. MONTE CARLO, MILANO. ROMA, BEVERLY HILLS. 
HONOLULU. NEW YORK. PALM BEACH. OSAKA. TOKYO. HONG KONG. SEOUL. SINGAPORE 





Page 4 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, THURSDAY, DECEMBER 1, 1994 


Kohl and Mitterrand Avoid Bosnia Quarrel m ^ Grant Arafat $125 MOJurn 

Rv Rick Atkinson in rccem days for^ng ±e Muslims Kmkel, sought this week lo reassure ^ _ . 


By Rick Atkinson 

Washington Post Service 

BERLIN — Chancellor Helmut Kohl 
and President Francois Mittenand, meet- 
ing in Bonn for their final bilateral talks 
before Mr. Mitterrand leaves office in the 
spring, sidestepped their disagreement 
over Bosnia on Wednesday and instead 
called for renewed diplomatic efforts to 
end the carnage there. 

Mr. Kohl’s Christian Democratic Union 
passed a resolution Monday endorsing the 
view that a United Nations arms embargo 
might have to be lifted if Bosnia’s Muslim- 
led government is to resist further Serbian 
aggression. 

Mr. Kohl himself voted for the resolu- 
tion. and his most trusted lieutenant, 
Wolfgang Schauble, has argued forcefully 


in recent days for arming the Muslims. 

French officials have privately ex- 
pressed alarm at this development, which 
parallels a move in the U.S. Congress to lift 
the embargo. Bonn, like Washington, has 
no troops in Bosnia; the French, by con- 
trast, have several thousand peacekeepers 
on the ground and fear that their safety 
will be jeopardized if the West openly 
swings against the Bosnian Serbs. 

Mr. Kohl recently condemned as a “dis- 
grace’ 7 the West’s inability to preserve the 
sanctity of the Bihac “safe area.” But with 
the United States retailoring its Bosnian 
policy to forswear military pressure in fa- 
vor of political concessions to Serbia, the 
Germans now appear eager to avoid any 


rupture with France or further fray NA- 
TO's bonds. 

The German foreign minister, Klaus 


Kinkel, sought this week to reassure 
Bonn's European allies, while Mr. Kohl 
took pains Wednesday to praise France's 
peacekeeping efforts. 

“The terrible sufferings,” Mr. Kohl add- 
ed, "are a commission to us to do every- 
thing to end this conflict.” 

Mr. Mitterrand added: "A solution to 
the conflict can only be found with politi- 
cal negotiation. All Europe can do is to 
bring the opponents around the negotiat- 
ing table.” 

Noting that Germany has declined to 
send troops with the UN mission in Yugo- 
slavia because of concern that the memory 
of German military atrocities during 
World War II would be provocative, Mr. 
Kohl said, “We should hold ourselves back 
from comment because we don’t have our 
soldiers there.” 


In U.K., Dole Adds 
To Alliance Tension 


By John Damton 

New York Times Service 

LONDON — Suddenly 
thrust into Lhe limelight as a 
vigorous critic of European pol- 
icy on the war in Bosnia, Sena- 
tor Bob Dole met Wednesday 
with Prime Minister John Ma- 
jor and other top British offi- 
cials and promptly laid down a 
message they did not want to 
hear. 

The Kansas Republican 
called once again for powerful 
air strikes against the Bosnian 
Serbs and a lifting of the arms 
embargo for the besieged, large- 
ly Muslim government forces. 
Both are stands directly con- 
trary to British thinking and, so 
far. United Nations policy. 

Mr. Dole's two-day trip to 
Europe has made considerable 
waves. He has been hard put to 
insist, when it comes to the At- 
lantic alliance, that he wants to 
rock the boat, not sink it. 

The visit comes against a 
background of growing disar- 
ray in NATO, confusing shifts 
in U.S. policy and a resounding 
sense of crisis brought by the 
Serbian attack upon the UN- 
declared "safe haven” of Bihac. 

There is also Mr. Dole’s new 
status as Senate majority lead- 
er-to-be, which has transformed 
him in many Europeans' minds 
into one of the two most power- 
ful players in Washington. 

His standing could be read in 
the battery of reporters and 
cameramen staking out No. 10 
Downing Street for his 55-min- 
ute session with Mr. Major. Af- 
terward, when he spelled out his 


views on a tougher line agains t 
the Serbs and then summed it 
up with a phrase — "strike and 
lift” — they scribbled furiously. 

Meanwhile, the divisions be- 
tween the United States and 
Europe over what to do after 
nearly three years of unremit- 
ting conflict in Bosnia contin- 
ued to widen and the interna- 
tional failure continued to tear 
at the alliance. 

NATO foreign ministers are 
preparing for a Friday meeting 
in Brussels to chart the Future 
course of the alliance, and Bos- 
nia will cast a long shadow. 
With Paris and Bonn now clear- 
ly aligned with London a gains t 
the full application of NATO 
power, Washington is unlikely 
to extract much more from its 
allies than a pledge to keep 
pressuring the Bosnian Serbs to 
accept the peace plan they re- 
jected this summer. 

Mr. Dole has been assailed in 
Britain lately Tor both his views 
and the vigor with which he 
expresses them. But be insisted 
Wednesday that he had the 
good of the alliance at heart. “I 
am not here to create any prob- 
lems for the prune minister or 
the British government or the 
British troops on the ground in 
Bosnia,” he said. 

The American got a powerful 
boost Wednesday from former 
Prime Minister Margaret 
Thatcher. Both before and after 
her own meeting with him, she 
issued statements demanding 
tough action against the Serbs! 
whom she accused of virtually 
committing genocide. 



Kevin Uimx^ur RcjKt- 

Mr. Dole with Lady Thatcher on Wednesday in London. 


Shiite Sect’s Leader, Ayatollah Araki, Dies in Iran 


The A tsoaaied Press 

NICOSIA — Grand Ayatol- 
lah Mohammed Ali Araki, su- 
preme leader of the world’s 100 
million Shiite Muslims, died 
Tuesday, Iranian radio report- 
ed. He was at least 100. 

Ayatollah Araki had lingered 
for more than three weeks in the 
intensive care unit of a hospital 
in Tehran, according to the ra- 


dio report, which was moni- 
tored in Cyprus. 

The Iranian government is- 
sued a statement expressing its 
sadness at Ayatollah Araki s 
demise and announced a na- 
tional holiday Wednesday. It 
also called for a week of mourn- 
ing. 

Ayatollah Araki was desig- 
nated the supreme leader of 


Shiite Muslims around the 
world last year after the death 
in quick succession of two other 
supreme leaders of the sect 
His exact age was net known, 
since precise records of births 
and deaths did not exist in Iran 
until later this century. He had 
lived and taught in the Iranian 
city of Qom, the center of Shiite 
learning, for most of his life. 


By William Drozdiak 

Washington Past Service 

BRUSSELS — The United 
States, Russia and the Euro- 
pean Union promised 
Wednesday to accelerate the 
flow of aid to the occupied 
territories in response to com- 
plaints from frustrated Pales- 
tinians who say that peace 
with Israel has yielded no tan- 
gible rewards. 

The donor nations agreed 


to spend S125 million by the 
end of March to fill the bud- 
get deficit of the Palestinian 
Authority, which has ass- 
gnmpH administration of the 
Gaza Strip and the West Bank 
town of Jericho in the wake of 
the historic peace agreement 
between Israel and the Pales- 
tine Liberation Organization. 

The donors also vowed to 
disburse S23 milli on immedi- 
ately to create thousands of 


Islamic Militant Murders 
Woman Soldier in Israel 


AFULA, Israel — An Islamic militant killed a 19-year-old 
Israeli woman soldier on Wednesday by suiting her in the 
forehead with an ax, officials said. 

The attack in this northern town took place as Israeli 
security forces continued a manhunt in the West Bank for 
Hamas guerrillas. Forty suspects were arrested Tuesday in 
connection with the Oct 19 bus bombing in Tel Aviv. 

Prime Minis ter Yi tzhak Rabin said that peace efforts with 
the Pales tinians would go on despite a surge of guerrilla 
attacks. He said the killer of the soldier belonged to H amas . 

The suspect, who was captured, had been detained several 
tim e*; , Mr. Rabin said. Israel wHl investigate how be reached 
Afula From the West Bank without permits. (AP, Reuters) 


new jobs for young people in 
Gaza, the world's most crowd- 
ed enclave, where unemploy- 
ment is now estimated by the 
United Nations at between 50 
percent and 60 percent. 

“There was a feelmg that 

nniiq« we provided economic 
dividends for peace, the situa- 
tion would become more seri- 
ous,” said Nabil Shaath, the 
Palestinian Authority’s minis - 
ter for internal cooperation. 
“Stability has two legs, one 
economic and one political.’' 

The two-day meeting here 
opened with a joint appeal by 
the PLO chairman, Yasser 
Arafat, and Foreign Minister 
Shimon Peres of Israel on the 
urgent need to pump funds 
into the occupied territories to 
help defuse a growing threat 
from Islamic militants. 

Mr. Arafat declared that 
the international community 
must live up to moral and po- 
litical obligations by meeting 
its financial commitments to 
the Palestinian people. Mr. 
Peres, who conceived the con- 
ference, said the dangers of 
terrorism and extremism were 
becoming so alarming that the 


situation must be brought to 
the world’s attention. 

“Arafat is not the enemy. 
He is facing terrible problems, 
including poverty, bitterness 
and a dense population,” Mr. 

Peres said in an interview with 
a Catholic television station. 

Dooms promised to invest 
more than $2 billion over five 
years after the Isracfi-PLO 
reco nciliat ion was sealed in 
September 1993. But World 
n«mb officials said as little as 
$200 milli on of the $700 mil- 
lion pledged for this year 
would reach the territories be- 
cause of snags in the peace 
process and fears among some 
donor countries that the aid 
funds could be squandered. 

The 12-nation European 
Union, which has vowed to 
deliver $48 milli on to help 
cover the budget deficit within 
the next four months, urged 

Israel to make better efforts at 
helping the Palestinians by 
transferring all tax revenues 
that belong to the Palestinian 
Authority and opening the 
borders, which Israel has 
closed in response to terrorist 
attacks. 


SHTP* Fire on Cruise Proves One Ccdamity Too Many for the AcfuUe Lauro 


Continued from Page 1 

terrorists in 1985, when Leon 
Klmghoffer, a 69-year-old Jew- 
ish hostage from New York, 
was pushed overboard in a 
wheelchair to his death. 

More recently, the vessel 
stirred debate in June when Ita- 
ly’s neofascist National Alli- 
ance chartered it for a fund- 
raising cruise in the 
Mediterranean and, in response 
to adverse criticism, dropped a 
wreath into the sea in memory 
of Mr. KHnghoffer. 

But for many Italians, the 
vessel was “The Big Blue Lin- 
er,” named for the color of its 
hull, that plied the oceans from 
North America to Australia 
and once went round the world 
in 80 d ays, despite a chronicle 


of calamities that made it seem 
ill-starred. The fire Wednesday 
was not even the first for the 
Acbifle Lauro. In 1981 a blaze 
erupted aboard the vessel in the 
Canary and two pas- 

sengers drowned when they 
jumped overboard. 

As on the Titanic, some of 
the passengers were wearing 
ball gowns and tuxedoes when 
the alarm was raised Wednes- 
day, said Tony Webb, a British 
businessmen who bad been 
aboard the stricken vessel and 
who told his story by radio- 
phone to the Evening Standard 
newspaper in London. 

“We were alerted at 1:30 
AJNL,” he said, “when we heard 
the engines suddenly shut off. 
Most people were at this social 
event, and the captain came on 


and said we all had to go up on 
deck because (here was a fire.” 

According to the Italian 
Coast Guard, though, it was 
only at 5:54 AJVL Italian time 
that the SOS signal was scut out 
and 9:20 A.M. that the first of 
the rescue vessels, the Panama- 
nian-registered tanker Hawai- 
ian King, reached the Achille 
Lauro. 

“A lot of the crew were in the 
engine room trying to put out 
the fire,” Mr. Webb said. 
“Then, at about 8 A.M, the cap- 
tain said the fire was too strong 
and we would have to abandon 
ship.” 

As crew members fought the 
fires, the passengers took to the 
life rafts, and most of them end- 
ed up on the Hawaiian King. 


although other ships steamed to 
the rescue — the Liberian bulk 
carrier Bardu and the Bahamas- 
flagged Leira. 

Tba 572 passengers, accord- 
ing to the owners, were 214 
South Africans, 150 Germans, 
92 Britons, 90 Dutchmen, U 
Italians, 8 Swiss, 2 Israelis, 2 
Frenchmen and 2 Belgians. The 
two dead, the owners said, were 
a 68-year-old Goman, Gerhard 
Srimke, who died of a heart 
attack, and a Briton, who was 

not immedia tely ide ntifie d. 

As tradition insists, Mr. 
Webb said, the children wait 
first into the lifeboats that took 
them to safety as crew members 
fought file blaze, whose cause 
has not been made known. 

—ALAN COWELL 


TRIBES: Tourists Are an Exotic Attraction at Ancient Camel Fair in India 


Shiites, who make up about 
10 percent of the world’s 1 bil- 
lion Muslims, are the predomi- 
nant sect in Iran. 

As spiritual leader of the 
world’s Shiites, Ayatollah Araki 
was regarded as the supreme 
spiritual force. 

In theory, he had the Iasi 
word on all mailers pertaining 
to the seel. 


Continued from Page 1 

will return to the desert on a more comfort- 
able perch. Mr. Bemicat plans to use his as 
a rack for house plants. 

German tourists gasped in horror as a 
camel doctor. Kailash Naravasosi. jabbed 
a row of metal rings through the upper lip 
of a slobbering camel a centuries-old tech- 
nique lo help drivers control recalcitrant 
camels. 

Asked if the influx of foreigners was 
good or bad, a camel trader quickly said. 
“Good.” When asked why, he replied. “We 
like to look at them.” 

But for the Rajasthanis, one of the most 
colorful yet conservative, societies of the 
Indian subcontinent, the foreign tourists 
are merely a sideshow to their most impor- 
tant commercial and social event of the 
year. 

Suraj Jain, like his father and grandfa- 
ther before him. came to the fair primarily 
to sell camels. He traveled eight days from 
the city of Udaipur in southern Rajasthan, 


pushing a herd of 200 of the knobby-kneed 
creatures. Most of the buyers were "farmers 
or villagers who will use the camels to pull 
carts, still the preferred mode of commer- 
cial transport in outlying desert regions. 

This year's going rates ranged from $16 
for an unbroken baby camel to more than 
SI, 000 for a well-trained, cart-pulling ma- 
ture adulL In aH wore than 17,000 camels 
and 23.000 cattle and horses changed 
hands during the six-day market, accord- 
ing to the fair director, K. S. Mathur. And 
this was a slow year. Because the monsoon 
rains yielded particularly good crops this 
year, fewer farmers needed to sell their 
camels for extra cash to survive until the 
next growing season, Mr. Mathur said. 

The number of foreign tourists was 
down as weD, to about 3 ,2 00, as a result of 
the plague scare that swept India in late 
September, according to tourism officials. 

Even so, the sand dunes on the outskirts 
of the lakeside city of Pushkar were cov- 
ered with camels, camel carts, cattle, hors- 


es and camp sites as far as the eye could 
see, a vast panorama of another era. Wom- 
en clad in brilliant saris of red, blue and 
orange carried massive heaps of fodder on 
their heads to feed the camels, while mril 
wearing equally bright-adored turbans 
clustered around camp fires, slurping tea 
and debating camel prices. The air reeked 
of burning camel dung and the pungent 
odor of sweaty blankets. 

Camel owners primped and pampered 
their beasts, combing their humps, dip- 
ping the hair on their sides into intricate 
geometrical designs and festooning their 
long necks with colorful collars and neck- 
laces. 

The camels appeared to have mixed 
emotions about the attire event. Babies 
cried plaintively as their mothers were led 
away by new owners, buck-toothed adults 
snapped at would-be buyers peering into 
their mouths, and those waiting to be sold 
belched malodorously and moaned as they 
chewed their cud. 


TURKEY: Bleak and Crowded Cities Become a Power Base for Militant Islamic Movement 


Continued from Page 1 

columnist for the pro-IsLamic Istanbul 
newspaper Zaman. Only a few years ago, 
no one would have dared proclaim such 
heresy. 

“Before, people were afraid to say they 
were against Kemalism,” said Ahmet 
Taner Kislali, a leftist writer and political 
scientist. “Now the fear has gone ” 

Turkey is a member of NATO and is 
seeking a closer relationship with the Euro- 
pean Union. Bui European diplomats ac- 
knowledge privately that Muslim Turkey 
is never likely to be fully accepted into the 
European Union, and the resultant sense 
of Western rejection among the Turks 
could further strengthen the Islamic reviv- 
al 

The turmoil is budding in a land of 60 
milli on people that straddles Europe and 
Asia, and borders the former Soviet Union 
and its satellites, the volatile Balkans and 
the equally unpredictable Middle East 

But on the unpaved roads on the Asian 
flank of Istanbul’s increasing sprawl 
across the Bosporus, geopolitics means less 
than the price of bread. 

When Mr. Cosan arrived here, he said, 
he was broke. Relatives had come up with 
money for the $60-a-month rent for the 
two-room apartment his family now shares 
with relatives — 13 people in all. Four 
women from the two families found work 
as seamstresses in Turkey’s expanding tex- 
tile industry, albeit at salaries of about $30 
a month. 

“I looked for work in construction and 


as a waiter," he said, “I found nothing. 
Right now, we are living oa soup and tea.” 

His experience shows the underside of 
many Turks' dreams of riches in the city. 
Since the 1950s, Istanbul’s population has 
doubled every 15 years, swollen by mi- 
grants abandoning the provinces. 

Of the 10 million people who live in 
Istanbul today, two-thirds are from east- 
ern Anatolia and the Black Sea coast, said 
Bozkurt Guvenc, a sociologist at Hacetepe 
University in Ankara. 

From here, on the Asian side of the 
Bosporus, the Istanbul of tourist brochures 
is invisible, replaced by a sprawl of con- 
struction and apartment houses looking 
out onto bleak luQs. 

Even now, about 1,000 people like Mr. 
Cosan arrive in Istanbul every day. The 
new Welfare Party mayor of the city, 
Tayyip Erdogan, has mused out loud 
about requiring entry visas for new resi- 
dents. 

An economic slowdown in Turkey this 
year has wiped out at least 600,000 jobs. 
According to government figures, 13 per- 
cent of the urban work force is unem- 
ployed. 

The shift to the cities has created a far 
broader change in demography. When the 
modem Turkish republic was founded in 
1923, only 15 percent of its 13 milli on 
people lived in cities. Now. two-thirds of 
its 60 million people are urban. The capi- 
tal Ankara, has grown from 2.5 milli on to 
3-5 million since 1980. 

Yahya Karakaya, the Welfare Party 


mayor of SultanbeyU, a suburb 30 kilome- 
ters (18 miles) east of Istanbul is himself 
an immigrant from the east. 

“We build roads,” he said, when asked 
what his party had to offer. “We sell bread 
from municipal bakeries for half the nor- 
mal price. The meat in our butcheries is 
half-price, too. We have male and female 
doctors and the treatment is free. We talk 
to people to find out what their problems 
are.” 

Sultanbeyli is known as a particular 
stronghold of the Welfare Party, called the 
Refah Partesi in Turkish, but its politics 
are familiar in many of the rambling settle- 
ments of the eastern shore of the Bosporus, 
where the mosques fiH to overflowing at 
Friday noon prayers and, increasingly, 
women wear head coverings. 

People like Mr. Cosan. from the Alawite 
sect that orthodox Muslims regard as he- 
retical find themselves tom between the 
Welfare Party’s offers of support and the 
Kurdish nationalism that nurtured them 
back home. 

“Refah is the new challenge because the 
system has collapsed and people say, 
‘We’ve tried all the others, let’s try Refah,’” 
said Veli Haydar Gulec. a Kurdish politi- 
cal leader in the Umraniye district who 
opposes the Islamic movement. “People 
support Refah because the country is in 
such dire straits that there is no alterna- 
tive.” 

The party has money, too. While its 
adversaries accuse it of being financed by 
Saudi Arabia and other Islamic states, 
many believe the biggest source of its 


wealth lies among the 2 million Turks 
working in Germany and elsewhere in 
Western Europe who have proved gener- 
ous donors. 

In municipal voting last March, the 
Welfare Party emerged nationally as the 
third largest in the country, with 19 per- 
cent of the vote, more than twice its share 
in local elections in 1989. Prime Minister 
Ciller’s right-of-center True Path Party got 
22 percent and the conservative Mother- 
land Party 21 percent. 

Because of splits on the secular right, the 
Welfare Partjrs 26 percent of the Istanbul 
vote gave it the mayoralty, enabling it to 
seize ground once held by leftists who 
made the same pledges of social justice. 

“We promise people a clean society, a 
dean government, an honest system,” Mr. 
Karakaya said. 

Some Westerners say the success of the 
Welfare Party was in part a reaction by 
newly urbanized Turks to what they found 
in cities, where privately owned television 
stations have brought soft-core pornogra- 
phy to their living rooms, and the gap 
between rich and poor has widened. 

A strong selling point for the Welfare 
Party — at least among many parents — 
has been its readiness to provide dormito- 
ries for women who as students are coining 
to the big cities for the first time. In return 
for political support, the party promises 
cheap housing and protection. The party's 
appeal to religious values, however, is 
largely implicit. 

Mr. Kislali the political scientist, said 


that the sharpened sense of an Islamic 
identity was a result of events outside Tur- 
key. Many people, he said, “were not hap- 
py with things like the Western attitude to 
Bosnia,” where Turks see Muslims threat- 
ened by those of other faiths. 

With his enforced separation of religion 
and state, Ataturk laid the foundations of 
a secularism that has been increasingly 
depicted as anti-religious. Long after his 
death, some of his edicts were reversed as 
governments sought to capture what was 
perceived as an Islamic vote. 

Arabic calls to prayer were re-instituted 
in the 1950s. Religious schools were rein- 
troduced. By the early 1980s, the generals 
who ran Turkey for two years after talcing 
power in a coup had come to see Islam as a 
potential counterweight to what was seen 
as a Communist threat during the Cold 
War. 

Throughout the 1980s, the government 
sought to appease Islamic sentiment with- 
in its own ranks by financing new mosques 
and Islamic education. Turkey now boasts 
some 400 Islamic schools that turn out 
many Welfare Party supporters. 

The Welfare Party’s leader, Necemettin 
Erbakan, a political veteran who served in 
coalition governments in the late 1970s, 
has expressed anti-Zionist and anti-West- 
ern views. 

The party’s supporters, though, shy 
from formal espousal of an Islamic state. 

“I believe the laws of God should not be 
challenged,” said Ankara’s mayor, Mdicb 
Gokcek. “And we want to implant every- 
thing we believe is right. But we would 
never impose anything” 

The Welfare Party controls 38 of the 450 
seats in Parliament, but that does not re- 


flect its growing power at the local ieveL 

But does the party’s rise mean Turkey is 
on the way to a Islamic state? Many secu- 
lar Turks, evidently, think the time has 
come to say “no.” 

“The Islam of Erbakan is not the I slam 
of Algeria or Iran because we have a cul- 
ture built on many different things and a 
lot of cultural differences with Iran and the 
Arabs,” said Mr. Kislali “But there is a 
counter-reaction by the suppo r ters of Ke- 
malism, a revival” 

Turkish courts have threatened action 
a ga i ns t the Istanbul mayor for failing to 
acknowledge Ataturk’s memory at his 
council sessions and against Islamists in 
general after reports that women wearing 
Western dress were forced off bases. 

Proposals for a new mosque in Istan- 
bul s central Taksim Square have pro- 
duced an uproar from such p rominen t se- A 
culaiists as the artist Bedri Baykam. 

. **The Welfare Party’s so-called modera- 
tion, like bui ld i ng a mosque, is just a mast 
hiding their true plan to turn Turkey into 
an Islamic state when they gam more now- 
ar,” he said. 

And when the mayor of Istanbul banned 
alcoholic drinks at a municipal ait exhibit 
the other day, he drew a tart response from 
a columnist in Huniyet newspaper corn- 
planting about his “primitive obsessions." 

But that does not stop some in Istanbul 
from sensing that the new self-confidence 
among Islamists and the strong showing of 
the Welfare Party at the polls presage some 
kind of change. 

“There’s a social pressure,” said Meh- 
met Akifkaya, 32, a cab driver in Sultan- 
bcyii. “Everyone around you is from the 
Welfare Party. And they expect you to 
think the way they do.” 


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Page6 


THURSDAY, DECEMBER I, 1994 


OPINION 


Reralfc 


DNTERNATIONAL 



PUBLISH BD WITH THE NEW YORK TIMES AND THE WASHINGTON POST 


No Rush to Expand NATO 


Daring the Odd War there was no 
disagreement between America and Its 
allies over NATO's purpose: it was Eu- 


rope’s shield against^ common enemy. 
The Serbs' 


s' war on Bosnia has exposed 
deep divisions among the Western pow- 
ers over NATO’s role and the question 
of European security. 


Some" U.S. policymakers believe that 
rive NATO is to enlarge it 


the way to revive 
by offering membership and the mili- 
tary guarantees that membership con- 
fers to a few countries in Eastern Eu- 
rope. Their rallying cry is “Expand or 
die.” That is a questionable idea. If 
Washington continues to move in this 
direction, it is sure to generate more 
trans-Atlantic divisiveness. It will bur- 
den NATO’s existing members with 


risky new obligations. 
Mo 


of attack. If, despite Western efforts, 
inaii 


loreovcr, inviting Poland, Hungary 
and the Czech Republic to join wQ] 
affront those who are likely to be left 
out, like Ukraine and the Baltic repub- 
lics. Worse yet, expansion could 
strengthen Russian nationalists op- 
posed to Boris Yeltsin and his Western- 
oriented reformers. The net result is that 
a larger NATO could diminis h rather 
than strengthen European security. 

The scheduled public unveiling of an 
American proposal to expand NATO 
was delayed on Tuesday by internal dis- 
array over the Bosnian crisis. But if it 
goes forward in its present form, and is 
not derailed, the proposal will leave 
some tough questions unanswered. 

Will the United States extend its nu- 
clear umbrella to Eastern Europe? Will 
allied troops be based farther east? How 
will Soviet-trained East European offi- 
cers be integrated into the NATO mili- 
tary command? Above all, how can Rus- 
sia be included — or be reconciled to 
being excluded? 

That last question is certain to prove 
troubling to a shaky German governing 


New Leader in Mexico 


Mexico is going through a political 
revolution led from the top. Both the 
present president and his successor, who 
is to take office this Thursday, are com- 
mitted reformers, deter min ed not only 
to give their country a modern economy 
but to replace its authoritarian one-par- 
ty regime with genuine democracy, The 
great question is what happens as pro- 
gress toward democracy erodes the dis- 
cipline and power of the governing party 
tnat has been the instrument of change 
in the hands of the outgoing president, 
Carlos Salinas de Gortari. 

Hie incoming president, Ernesto Ze- 
dillo, is among other things a man of 


great physical courage. He replaced the 
r’sfir 


party’s first nominee after his assassina- 
tion last March under circumstances 
still not adequately explained. The sec- 
retary-general of the governing party, 
the Institutional Revolutionary Party, 
was similarly assassinated in September. 
The dead man’s brother, until last week 
deputy attorney general, has accused 
other leaders of the party of obstructing 
the investigation into that shooting. 

While not much else is clear in this 
cloud of accusation and scandal, it is 
evident that a tremendous struggle is 
under way for control of the party and, 
through it, Mexico's future. The idea of 
opening up the political system and 
leaving basic decisions to democratic 
processes is a direct threat to many of 
the party’s leaders — those who are 
fighting the modernizers and reformers. 


There are links between some of these 
people and the drug traffickers, who are 
a major force in this fight. The Septem- 
ber killing seems dearly to be linked to a 
drug cartel; it was apparently intended 
as a warning to the party to back off. 
And perhaps the March killing was simi- 
larly related to drugs. 

Mr. Zedillo's primary task, and the 
one on which everything else in his pres- 
idency depends, is to strengthen and 
support the people and institutions in 
his country that are pushing for open 
elections, open markets and the defeat 
of the drug barons. He has a lot of allies, 
especially in Mexico's rapidly growing 
middle class, but, like President Salinas, 
he will have to exercise uncommonly 
brave and decisive leadership. 

The United Slates has the most im- 
perative kind of reason to help him. His 
success will bring large benefits north of 
the border, just as failure would mean 
serious trouble to both countries. Amer- 
ican action against illegal Mexican im- 
migrants will have to be conducted with 
more care and skill than California's 
Proposition 187 offers. One of the United 
Stales' greatest contributions will be a 
strong and growing economy, lifting the 
Mexican economy that is now closely tied 
to it As President Zedillo takes office, 
the United States has no foreign policy 
concern more urgent or profoundly con- 
sequential than Ms steady progress in the 
transformation or his country. 

— THE WASHINGTON POST. 


Travelers and the Hungry 


The “Hunger Relief Sourcebook” pro- 
duced by the Washington-based Travel 
Industry Association of America seeks to 
make a socially useful connection be- 
tween travel and the alleviation of hun- 
ger. The 50-page publication is a guide to 
the ways airports, airlines, hotels, con- 
vention centers, tourist attractions, cruise 
ship lines, restaurants and the like donate 
leftover food to the hungry or, in some 
cases, beds and amenities to the home- 
less. The linkage makes sense. Practical- 
ly any business that moves people 
around or serves them while they are in 
motion also feeds them at some point, 
frequently on a vast scale guaranteed to 
produce copious leftovers. 

The guide doubles as a suggestion list 
for businesses and a consumer guide for 
prospective customers. What does a given 
catering company do with the leftover 
food from its banquets? Does the plane 
you flew in throw away its surplus din- 
ners or donate them to a shelter? The 
industry association seeks to lodge these 
questions in people's minds when they 
are booking a trip or a convention. They 
are the right questions. The amounts are 
not enormous, but they add up, especially 


— THE WASHINGTON POST. 



International Herald Tribune 

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KATHARINE GRAHAM, ARTHUR OCHS SULZBERGER 

Co-Chairmen 

RICHARD McCLEAN, Publisher A Chief Exeauhv 

JOHN VINOCUR, & VkePreadaa 

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Director de h Pubikathn- Kchard D. Smmans 
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Eribunc 


coalition. Some Germans want to ex- 
pand Germany's influence in the East; 
others do not want to set off renewed 
rivalry with Russia. Moreover, giving a 
preeminent security role to an Ameri- 
can-led NATO is certain to arouse resis- 
tance from France and others that 
would like to strengthen intra-European 
security arrangements. 

The U.S. proposal does not identify 
who the new members will be. Nor does 
it set a timetable for admission. The 
actual mechanics of enlargement will be 
left to a special NATO study. 

But the biggest question of ail is this: 
Why rush to decide now about bringing 
Eastern Europe into NATO? 

The region faces no immin ent threat 


aggressive nationalists do seize power in 
Russia, it will be years before they can 
raise an army capable of destabilizing 
Ukraine and threatening Poland. That is 
time enough to bring Eastern Europe 
into the alliance. 

A rancorous debate about expansion 
is likely to distract NATO members 
from confronting the main causes of 
Eastern Europe's insecurity — the polit- 
ical, economic and ethnic tensions aris- 
ing from the end of the Cold War. As a 
purely mihtaiy alliance, NATO is ill 
equipped to ease those tensions before 
they explode as they did in Bosnia. 

Rejiggering NATO is not necessarily 
the right answer to these more complex 
problems. As presently conformed, the 
alliance still provides a useful venue for 
coordinating U.S. and West European 
military strategy and an insurance poli- 
cy against the revival of aggressive Rus- 
sia. Why expand it to the breaking 
point? It would be far better for Presi- 
dent Bill Clinton to join his European 
counterparts in seeking more creative 
solutions for Europe's problems. 

— THE NEW YORK TIMES. 


Window Dressing for a Collection of Western 'failures 

O •/ v have been hitting event 


AMBRIDGE, Massachusetts — At 
Vv the end of the “never again'' century. 


never agam 
the world is allowing genocide to succeed 
— unchallenged. 

As the Bosnian town — and United 
Nations “safe zone" — of Bihac crum- 
bles under a Serbian onslaught, those in 
Europe and America who look for ex- 
cuses to do nothing repeat their dreary 
litany that nothing can be done. 

But they overlook some inconvenient 
facts. In particular, Bosnia-Herzegovina 
was not simply a “Muslim cause” but the 
country recognized two and a half years 
ago by the United Nations, the European 
Union and the United States — and then 


By Kemal Kurspahic 


stripped by them not just ^protection 


but of the right to protect it 
These apologists tell us that Muslims' 
brought on their own troubles last month 
by staging an offensive and provoking a 
Serbian counteroffensive. 

What they don’t tell us is that Bihac 
has been under siege for more than two 


years — not even receiving any food 
it the 


since May — and that the Bosnian 
army’s offensive was a desperate at- 
tempt to break the siege. 

Secretary of Defense William Perry 
asserts that protecting Bosnia would 
take “hundreds of thousands of our 
ground forces,” and the Clinton admin- 


istration says it “can't enter the war on 
one side against the other ” 

But the Bosnians never asked for any- 
one’s ground troops, just for the ability to 
defend themselves. And by keeping Bos- 
nia’s hands lied in tbe face of brutal 
military force, the whole world in effect 
entered the war on the side of the Serbs. 

What- President Bill Clinton's damage- 
control team is trying to sell to the public 
as “working with our allies” is nothing 
more than acquiescence in the European 
strategy of standing by while Bosnia is 
forced to capitulate. 

All the well-intended resolutions and 
initiatives in the name of “unity of the 
alliance and tbe contact group” — which 
includes Russia, the Serbs' main ally — 
turn out to be window dressing for a 
collection of failures. 

The list of these failures is long. 

First, safe zones were invented not by 
Bosnians but by the international com- 
munity. and we can see how safe tbey 
are. Bihac. Sarajevo and Tuzla are under 
constant attack, and Gorazde. Zepa and 
Srebrenica are nothing more than Mus- 
lim ghettos at the mercy of Serbian 
forces that regularly prevent even hu- 


manitarian assistance from reaching them. 

When the UN commander m Bosnia. 
Lieutenant General Michael Rose of Brit- 
ain. reportedly prevents NATO air strikes 
by instructing his spotters not to lead 
aircraft to their targets: when Yasusm 
Akashi, the top United Nations official in 
the Balkans, meets with President Slobo- 
dan Milosevic of Serbia to announce 
“peace initiatives” that don't exist — then 
we see how safe the UN safe zones are. 

Second. President Clinton’s plan to lilt 
the arms embargo on the Bosnian army 
and use air strikes, announced in May 
1993, was blocked by the Europeans. 
Since then, the administration has given 
in to their arguments that such a move 
would endanger their troops on the 
ground, imperil the peace process and 
escalate the fighting. 

• It is highly cynical to tell Bosnians 
that they cannot be protected because it 
would endanger those who came to pro- 
tect them — and failed. It is past time to 
worry about the peace process, which is 
dead. And it is perverse to fear an esca- 
lation of warfare. If the victims of geno- 
cide have a chance to defend them- 
selves, is that escalation? 

Third, the “exclusion zone” for heavy 
artillery around Sarajevo has become 
such a mockery that in recent weeks 


<*rhian forces have been hitting even the 
U S Embassy in Sarajevo’s Hohday Inn. 

Fourth, what was advertised tn July as 
the contact group’s last, take-it-or-leave^ 
t proposal for Bosnia was reluctantly 
accepted bv the Bosnian goverwnentand 
Sandy refused by the Bosnian iSferbs. 
SstSd (J punishing those who refused 
to cooperate, the contact group has ap- 
parently decided to reward them with 

more than was originally proposed. 

Is this the end of the war. as suggested 
by those who want to do nothing and 
speed a final solution for Bosnia? t 
donU Thin k so. Bosnians don t take that 
colonial British and French comfort in 
proclaiming their country a Serbian col- 
ony They don't have any place to go 
now that Serbian hordes have burned 
their homes and villages. 

And they will fight even if the last 
amateurs in the Bosnian government stiu- 
believe that surrendering will get them 
anything for cooperating with the inter- 
national community that has abandoned 
them so miserably. 


The writer, a Nieman fellow at Harvard, 
was editor-in-chief of the Bosnian daify 
Oslobodenje during the first two years of 
the siege of Sarajevo. He contributed this 
comment to The New York Times. 


In Sum, Powerful Democracies Looked Evil in the Eye and Blinked 


W ASHINGTON — The 
causes and consequences 
of Serbia’s almost completed oon- 

3 uest of Bosnia are complex, but 
le central moral reality of this 
conflict is blindingly clear. In 
Bosnia, the powerful democracies 
of Europe and North America 
looked evil in the eye and blinked. 

Much of the rhetoric of recent 
days is intended to obscure that 
fact. But do honor to the dying 
and defeated Bosnians who fought 
for no more than a country of their 
own. Remember Bosnia as a bi- 
partisan, multinational failure of 
epic proportions. The Bosnian 
victims of this tragedy deserve at 
least that place in history. 

This is not the moment for the 
politicians of Europe and Ameri- 
ca to whine over who is at fault 
and to jockey for the moral upper 
hand. The fault is in us alL if more 
in some than in others. As “the 
international community.” we de- 
cided that turning back the Serbs 
was not worth risking a large num- 
ber of American, French, Bangla- 
deshi and other lives. 

That decision was made in the 
light of hard military realities that 


By Jim Hoagland 


no one should ignore. The Serbs 
of Bosnia. Croatia and Serbia, 
feeding on empty threats from 
NATO and tbe United Nations, 
grew into tough and resourceful 
battlefield killers. They verge on 
metastasizing into a Greater Ser- 
bia, with United States and Euro- 
pean acquiescence, after Bihac. . 

Perhaps those who argue Lhat 
the Bosnia conflict is a local evil 
— only a nasty little “civil war” 
fought by brutes with long histor- 
ies of mutual hatred — will be 
proved right. Economic sanctions 
and 30 months of war have prob- 
ably drained the Greater Serbs of 
the wherewithal to dominate the 
Balkans in an aggressive manner. 

In that sense, the French and 
British effort to use their peace- 
keeping presence to slow and 
shape (but not directly oppose! a 
Serbian victory could be de- 
scribed as a “success" — partic- 
ularly if the major powers con- 
tinue lo avoid seeking national 
advantage in this conflict that 
would upset the balance of pow- 
er in European security. 


Hie World ‘Community’ 
Is Betraying the Victims 


By Flora Lewis 


in Washington, where the meeting and 
convention traffic is heavy. 

The Smithsonian, the Willard Hotel 
and the convention and visitors' bureau 
of nearby Washington County, Mary- 
land, are among the local institutions 
featured in the guide. The Smithsonian 
has a continuing arrangement with the 
“food rescue service” at the nonprofit 
D.G Central Kitchen, regardless of ca- 
terer; the county bureau hooks up shel- 
ters and charities with hotels and restau- 
rants; the Willard, besides donating 
food and used furniture lo shelters, 
trains homeless people to work in its 
kitchens. Out of the region, the most 
creative initiative may be the cruise ship 
company that plies a series of resorts on 
far-flung islands off Florida, gathering 
food that otherwise could not get to 
soup kitchens on the mainland. 

You cannot run an economy on left- 
overs, or alleviate a social problem like 
hunger by cost-free networking But orga- 
nizations that waste food can always be 
urged to do better. The travel industry has 
been looking to raise its civic profile; and 
on this issue it oould make a difference. 


P ARIS — Washington has evi- 
dently come around to the 
European decision to abandon 
Bosnia Bihac may not be the last 
battle of this shameless war, but it 
marks the end of pretense that 
“the international community'' is 
willing to protect the victims. 

All tbe pressure now is on the 
Bosnian government to accept 
defeat. That is the only way the 
powers can see to end tbe war — 
long the proclaimed goal of 
France and Russia, which have 
been arguing that the United 
States would only keep it going 
by using aerial force. 

But the powers are making an- 
other mistake, perhaps the most 
grave, if they imagine that this 
will make their Balkan dilemma go 
away and let them get on quietly 
with reorganizing Europe and the 
world after the Cold War. On the 
contrary, the survival of tbe Atlan- 
tic alliance is at stake; and if it 
goes, so do any prospects for sta- 
bility and security in Europe. 

Nobody cares about Bosnia? 
There are regional as well as mor- 
al reasons why it must noi be so. 
But first, the reasons why NATO 
can't be flushed away with iL 
It is ironic that the collapse of 
NATO has been predicted for a 
long time: before the end of the 
Cold War by some Americans, 
who said the Europeans had had 
enough of them and would kick 
them out, and also by some Euro- 
peans, who said the Americans 
were running out of interest in 
protecting their revived conti- 
nent Then, when the Soviet 
Union collapsed, many said there 
was no more point to NATO and 
it would vanish for lack of an 
enemy. None of that came true. 

NATO is imperiled now for a 
different reason. Too many mem- 
bers haw lost a sense of strategy 
and have tied it in knots to serve 
short-term political goals and es- 
cape hard decisions. 

It is tbe only well-organized, 
well-equipped international force 
at a time of great uncertainty. It is 
the critical link between Europe 
and America, and if it dies, philo- 
sophical “common values will 
not override inevitable divisive 
forces and rivalries. 

Ask the East Europeans why 
they are still so eager and insis- 
tent about joining NATO. It is 
because they saw that it worked 
as a protective deterrenu It is be- 
cause they feel an urgent need for 
commitment from the United 
States as well as from Western 
Europe. It is because their dem- 
ocrats crave the support that 
membership provides against 
the danger of rising fascist-type 
and military- dominated regimes. 
(Poles worry openly about their 
own army’s ambitions.) 

Ask Germans about bow they 


see the future role of their united 
country in the middle of an un- 
easy continent. NATO, binding 
them to America, is the great sta- 
bilizer on which they rely. They 
do not, at this stage, have hege- 
monic ambitions. If they come to 
fed cut adrift, surrounded by in- 
secure countries, they might. 

Even the French, long eager to 
reduce U.S. influence in NATO, 
consider it essential and the irre- 
placeable reserve arsenal for a 
European defense force. The idea 
that without NATO the Western 
European Union, which is slated 
to be the military arm of the Eu- 
ropean Union, would flourish 
and fill the gap is illusory. It will 
stick on the same kinds of reef 
menacing NATO now, without 
the habits and infrastructure that 
provide the alliance's coherence. 

The Conference on Security 
and Cooperation in Europe — 
which is continent-wide, plus the 
United States and Canada — is 
too loose and cumbersome to 
meet concrete challenge. There 
really isn’t an available substi- 
tute which could act if members 
wanted to, which they didn't in 
the case of Bosnia. 

Pursuing their argument of 
“peace First,” the French intend 
to propose a new negotiating 
plan at the five-state contact 
group meeting on Yugoslavia in 
Brussels on Friday. It would re- 
ward most Serbian war aims, 
with some conditions on main- 
taining recognized Croatian and 
Bosnian borders that are unlike- 
ly to be accepted. It will take a 
lot more planning than that lo 
end the war on terms Lhat have a 
chance of lasting, to reach agree- 
ment* on what to do with the 
United Nations forces and the 
embargo on Serbia. 

Meanwhile, reports from 
Moscow tell of rising anti-WcM- 
ern feelings, a belief that the 
West is conspiring to keep Rus- 
sia down ana must he resisted. 
That is not reassuring for Eu- 
rope, especially a Europe de- 
prived of a strong sense of col- 
lective security based on NATO 

The decision to endorse the de- 
feat of Bosnia is hcart-sickening 
and will join the list in history’s 
black book of craven acts of irre- 
sponsibility. Neglecting the con- 
sequences and losing the Atlantic 
alliance would be ominous. 

An isolationist United Slates 
awoke at the last moment and 
returned to help save Europe 
from its monsters and its manias 
50 years ago. The United Stales 
would also Jose a lot if trans- 
Atlantic ties were broken now. 


X 


need for those tie* not arising 
once more, nor on the United 
Slates responding a third lime, 
■b Flora Lewis 


That is not a “success” lo be 
proud of. or even to own up to. I 
doubt that the West Europeans 
will ever publicly admit that most 
of them long ago accepted the 
concept of a Greater Serbia. Eu- 
ropeans are accustomed to acting 
to mitigate evil in their midst, 
whereas Americans instinctively 
want lo stamp it out — or gel out 
of its presence. 

Americans should not overesti- 
mate European duplicity in tbe 
Bosnian conflict, however. Brit- 
ain and France stumbled into 
Bosnia without any grand designs 
and have improvised with events. 
The sharp criticism they are now 
receiving from American politi- 
cians and officials, not to men- 
tion their combat losses in Bos- 
nia. offers new evidence that no 
good deed goes unpunished. 

Instead of the corrosive shout- 
ing match across the Atlantic. 
NATO's members need to lake a 
dear-eyed, hard look at the les- 
sons of Bosnia. The conflict has 
shown that NATO is not and 
should not pretend to be a peace- 


keeping organization. Nor is the 
United Nations a war-fighting or- 
ganization. In Bosnia, the United 
Nations authorized only no-fault 
victimless war. Empty tanks and 
easily repaired airfields were the 
only acceptable targets. 

Binding NATO and the United 
Nations in a Bosnia command 
was a deliberate act by the Euro- 
peans, understood and condoned 
by the Clinton administration, to 
guarantee that there would be no 
significant Western military in- 
volvement in the war. It was a 
slow- motion death warrant for 
the Bosnians, signed by countries 
that were not prepared to fight 
the Serbs. Thus, nothing has been 
said of importance about NA- 
TO's war capabilities. 

But the moral pettifogging that 
has enveloped Western leadership 
can undermine NATO if it contin- 
ues. On Bosnia, there is so little 
moral high ground on which to 
stand that Western leaders jostle 
each other in the competition to 
seize it Suspicion and mistrust 
that will crack alliance cohesion 
take root in the atmosphere of 
blame and seif-justification. 


The truth is that George Bush, 
Bill Clinton. Bob Dole, John Ma- 
jor, Francois Mill errand, Helmut 
Kohl and the rest did not find the 
evil of a Serbian war of aggression 
a gains t Bosnia sufficient to justify 
spending their national treasure to 
oppose it with significant force. To 
pretend otherwise, by blaming the 
arms embargo, allies or the stars, 
puts NATO on a false and un- 
steady foundation. 

There is a place to start telling 
the truth. To call the Bosnian con- 
flict “a civil war” suggests that 
Croatia, Slovenia and Macedonia 
are also ex- Yugoslav breakaway 
states that can be invaded with 
impunity by the Serbs. 

The Clinton White House, ap- 
parently seeking -to underline the 
intractability and dangers of the 
war it chose uoi to enter, has 
taken to colling the Serbian at- 
tack on Bosnia “a civil war.” This 
is an insult to the Bosnian soldiers 
and civ ilians who have died or 
suffered for their own country. 
Bosnia's cause of death should ai 
least be clearly stated by those 
who could not prevent it 

The Washington Post. 


The Death of an Ideal Darkens Europe 


P ARIS — It is nonsense for Bob 
Dole, and others in Washing- 
ton. to blame the United Nations 
and NATO for the fiasco in Bos- 
nia. Those organizations are the 
instruments of their members, and 
their failure in Bosnia has result- 
ed from the cacophonous and 
contradictory instructions given 
them by their members, including 
the U.S. government. 

The United States voted for all 
those vain, contradictory and self- 
righteous Security Council resolu- 
tions that put the United Nations 
and UN troops in Bosnia into the 
situation in which they now have 
found themselves. Even if tin: 
United Nations "got oul of the 
way,” as the senator has recom- 
mended, NATO would have done 
nothing for Bihac. since Britain 
and France are also members of 
NATO and wanted nothing done. 

Senator Dole should have ap- 
plied his wisdom and energy to 
the problem three years ago 
when, with American commit- 
ment and leadership, something 
might have been done to slop the 
war in the former Yugoslavia. 
Having then .said that the crisis 
was Europe's business, not worth 
endangering the life of a single 
American grenadier, he is ill 
placed to complain nuw and 
threaten to tear down the United 
Nations and NATO. 

Saying that. 1 must also say 
something about the UN execu- 
tion of the mandate given it by 
the Security Council. The Securi- 
ty Council created "safe areas." 
of which Bihac was one. and a 
heavy weapons exclusion zone 
around Sarajevo. Jt instructed the 
UN Protrction Force lo see that 
its resolutions were carried out. It 
demanded that the civilians in 
safe areas be protected. 

The United Nations chose to 
make its priority the security not 
of those civilians but of the UN 
Protection Force itself. That UN 
soldiers are in an extraordinarily 
difficult situation is obvious. 
Equally obvious is lhat the Secu- 
rity Council has failed to provide 
the additional troops and re- 
sources that UN commanders 
have believed they needed to exe- 
cute the missions confided to 
them, (t is, however, axiomatic 
among the military that no com- 
mander ever has means adequate 

to his task — or at least never 
thinks that he does. 

The UN force is composed of 
professional soldiers or volun- 
teers. all of whom knew what they 
were getting into when they 
agreed to go to Yugoslavia, [j jj, 
true that they are badly deployed 
to defend themselves and that 


By William Pfaff 


they lack heavy weapons. It is 
also true, however, that if they did 
attempt to do what tbe Security 
Council has instructed them to 
do, to defend the civilians in safe 
areas, and came under attack by 
Bosnian Serb forces, they would 
have been given comprehensive air 
(and other) support from NATO, 
which is no negligible asset 

In combination with NATO 
support they could certainly give a 
serious account of themselves, suf- 
ficient to inflict significant casual- 
ties upon not only the Serbian 
forces directly engaged but on Ser- 
bian command and communica- 
tions centers and headquarters. 
This would “add war to war” (to 
quote France’s President Francois 
Mitterrand) but might also have 
provided that shock of serious in- 
ternational intervention which 
could have caused negotiations to 
be substituted for intimidation. 

Soldiers exist to fight and, if 
necessary, to die. That is the con- 
tract a soldier undertakes. The 
democracies, not to speak of the 
United Nations, no longer seem 
lo take this very seriously. 

No doubt this is a iribiue to the 
democracies' sensitivities, but it is 
not a tribute to their prudence or 
intelligence when their unwilling- 
ness to employ their soldiers as 
soldiers produces more war, not 
less. This is what has happened 
and continues to happen in the 
former Yugoslavia, and by exten- 
sion — the fear is a realistic one 
— may happen elsewhere in the 
Balkans, and perhaps beyond. 

There are many soldiers in that 
UN force in Bosnia who have 
found loathsome and shameful 
the role Lbey actually have had to 
play as passive witnesses to atroc- 
ity. compelled to refuse tbe dis- 


tinction between aggressor and de- 
fender — indeed often, in practice, 
hostile to the victims as disturbers 
of such peace as has existed. 

David Rieff (in the current is- 
sue of “World Policy Journal,’* 
published at the New School in 
New York) has comprehensively 
criticized (hose UN conceptions 
of “peacekeeping” which make it 
possible for Lieutenant General 
Michael Rose, the UN com- 
mander, to say even now that 
“the United Nations has never 
said it would defend anything." 
The determined application to 
Bosnia of an irrelevant model 
of peacekeeping has beat a ro^jor 
factor in putting United Nations 
soldiers into a situation that has 
dishonored them. 

Nonetheless, the permanent 
members of the Security Council 
are fundamentally responsible 
for the affair. 

If Britain and France have 
driven United Nations policy 
into this impus.se, they also have 
made the principal human com- 
mitments lo Bosnia and accept- 
ed a responsibility that the Unit- 
ed States refused. 

The United States declined to 
take a part in this affair when it 
could have made a difference. It 
made its moralizing return to the 
scene only in the past few weeks. S 
while still’ ref using to take respon- 
sibility for the consequences of 
the lifted arms embargo and mas- 
sive NATO bombardments it de- 
manded. Ils return was, in any 
case, too late. 

It is a sad tale of the death of an 
ideal, an accomplishment and a 
promise — that of a Europe since 
1945 which believed it had pul 
behind it sterile wars for cruel and 
vain amfririi/ps. it had not; and a 
darker Europe has succeeded. 

International Herald Tribune. 

Los Anyc/es Times Syndicate. 


m OUR PAGES; 100, 75 AND 50 YEARS AGO 


1894: Blackmail Scandal 


PARIS — Two fresh arrests have 
been made in connection with the 
attempts to blackmail Paris clubs 
and provincial casinos, in which 
M. Portalis was leading actor. On 
Thursday evening [Nov. 291 M. 
Trocar d, formerly business man- 
ager of the Paix, was arrested in 
the rue de Rome, and yesterday 
morning Baron Hoefler was also 
arrested at his residence. The 
charge against M. Trocard is that 
he made a proposal to organise a 
fund of about 2Q0.0CKJ francs in 
order to buy the silence of papers 
likely to follow Portalis. 


Washington coal conference, as- 
serted that 1UO.OGO coal miners in 
Pennsylvania are expected to lay 
down their tools for a few days. 
An attempt to blow up a bridge 
on the Santa Fe Railroad failed to 
check the movement of troops 
into the Kansas coal fields. 


1944: Saar Rattle Begins 


Utim tnunded tor puhhcatmn 
should he atUreswd "IjcUirs u> the 
Editor" and cunuun llie wnter's 
signature, name and full adlresx. 
Letters dmu/d be brief and are 
subject to editing We cannot he 
rcsp‘VL\tble for the return of unsa- 
Itcited manuscripts. 


1919: More Coal Strikes 


PITTSBURG, Kansas — [From 
our New York edition;] .Alexan- 
der M. Howat, president of the 
Kansas district of the United 
Mine Workers of America, on his 
return today [Nov. 30} from the 


WITH THE UNITED STATES 
3D ARMY — [From our New 
York edition:] The battle for the 
Saar River got under way today 
[Nov. 30], For tbe first time tins 
guns of the Siegfried line, on the 
east bank of the Saar, opened* 
fire on General George S. Par* 
ton's 3d Army forces massing on 
the western side of the flooded 
siTeam. Part of the firing was in 
the area where French forces ad- 
vanced and retreated in the "pho- 
ny" war prior to the spring of 
1 940. There was nothing “phony" 
about the warfare today. 


| ti 





&Pj)} 


» \ 


DSTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, THURSDAY, DECEMBER 1, 1994 

PINION 


Page 7 


War on Squeegee Men, 
For a Better New York 

■ By George F. Will 

N lio n yeTS « a v C a co^P 11 ’ 007 No, 

New York things -!!*«* 5?^ ^°^ lce Commissioner Wil- 

SK^aymr^STJ: 

Hve in New Jersey SJcfbS 10 7^ mayor ’ Ru ^. v Guilknl is 

rude to one aSw R?,, bein ^ a for F 1cr prosecutor. Mr. Brat- 
recently some 75 N^w YorkSl U £J* * -J? n< * rod sp^ 1 - This 
were making the 1S - st ^ a far ciy from Sin- 

neurotic than it nnrTn->n m0re lap®* “rts commitment to or- 
They “L 1 " 1 ndther “ iL 35 il ^ 

Given the laSp^ES.™ 60 " ?5 c ? tly was? a combination of 
cn tne media attention to Dodge City and Calcutta. 

Just a few years ago, intellec- 

tuals, who are more plentiful 

owm>a y cars are note here than is healthy (and who 

virtually free of graffiti. S^I&WOTSS 

Some intellectuals see OSSttJES & 

this as the suffocation nf spf^yiog on subway cars. Most 
,j , J subway riders considered it van- 

w«® masses creativity. dalism producing an atmosphere 

77»*> A. , J Of menace. Today, says Mr. 

1 « masses find ft Bratton, the city's 6,000 iubway 

reassuring “? vi * uaJ] y free of graffiu. 

Hl e Some intellectuals probably see 

■ — this as a sign of the suffocation 

. of the masses’ creativity. The 

J®? and the anxiety caused by masses find it reassuring. 

£?£?!&!!"* aston iS ed 10 ^c a corporate CEO with 
l^ihg^erenaMaf his eye on the bottom line. Mr. 
siiwnt ,!2r ar i- s ^ ox ^ , a lot Bratton knows his numbers, 

’ nn?hZ^! 1 ln !l? g ’ md P 0 ®"^ such as: 307. On a recent day 
and how little things mean a lot that was how many fewer New 
squeegee men hung around a Yorkers had been homicide vic- 
jew congested intersections and tims this year compared with 
bndge and tunnel toll plazas, the same date last year. This is 
’ ofrenng^to wash windshields the biggest numerical one-year 

■ f? r - a relied on in tuna- drop in the city's history. It is a 

tl ° ns of vandalism to vehicles somewhat alarming triumph, 
whose drivers did not accept given what it says about the 
their offers. Most squeegee men level from which the decline be- 
were neither homeless nor gan. (There were 1,946 homi- 
poor; most had arrest records, cades in 1993.) There is Wmiiar 
Now they have mostly gone mixed comfort to be taken from 
into another line of work, be- the fact that there have been 

. cause the police decided that 820 fewer shootings and If, 000 
they contributed to the city’s fewer robberies so far this year, 
demoralizing atmosphere of in- The decline is partly the re- 

■ cipienl disorder. suit of preventive policing, par- 

Police roasted the squeegee ticularty in pursuit of guns. But 
men on the grounds that they the city should brace itself for a 
- were obstructing traffic. demographic bump in the road 

Didn’t any crvil liberties law- to bliss: In 1997-98 there will be 


LETTERS TO THE EDITOR 


. What Norway Wants 

When the head of theNonve- 
" gian “no” campaign announced 
victory to cheering followers in 
i Oslo’s biggest convention. haD 
earlier this week, the phrase 
that drew the loudest applause 

* was, “We are Europeans.” 

Tins "ho*' to European- Union 
membership was not a vote for 
isolationism, nenc a wish to bre^; 
with our internationalist ttadi- 
- , tians. The main argument for* 
“no" vote, was agpmst tending 
. the power pf our Parliament, the 

• Storting, oven to Brussels with- 
, out proper control 

Nordic countries have unique 

- rules to make participation in 
; the democratic process a reality. 
•\ UnderNorwegian law, everyone 

has access to all official docu- 
• r meats; the pobfc is ora oatitied 

- to read the prime ministei’s mail 
(except for military, some for- 
dgn policy and all personal mat- 

. ters). New legislation is prepared 
in a most transparent way. The 
_ workings of legislative commds- 
' sians are open from the start AH 
“ main interested parties are rep- 
. resented on the committee. Pub- 
-TBc access is a legal right for ev- 
> cry one, not (as m Brussels) just 
for the chosen few. 

The Norwegian government 
will r emain as committed to Eu- 
' ropean and global cooperation 
I as it was before. 

We in the Nordic countries 
have a tradition of broad coop- 
eration at all levels and in all 
. . sectors. Indeed, it would be a 
■- good model for increased EU 
, and other European integration 
and cooperation. The Norwe- 
gian peace movement said in Oc- 
-■ tober that it would parti ap atein 
V,a new network on EU foreign 
!.* and military policy regardless of 
the outcome of this week’s vote. 
,,,I believe that is a general atti tude 
among our grassroots, 
r FREDRIK S. HEFFERMEHL. 

Oslo. 


Regarding the report "A 

Blank Piece in ElTs North Cor- 
ner” (Nov. 30): 

“Blank pieces" on the Euro- 
pean map ? Sounds as if yon re 

- eetti n g Winded by the Brussels 
juggernaut. Those are “bright 
pieces.” And Norway is to 

. From the only one. Switzeriand 

is another, and there nothing 

- “blank" about what is happen- 
ing. It is caUed democracy. 

.i The message from the people 
is a plain and ample one, and it 

isthesameasthemessageofthe 
’ US. midterm elections on Nov. 

8. The people are saying shrink 
,. government, and leave ns alone 
to get on with our lives. 

FRANCIS M. S. PEEL 
, Geneva. 


Unification of Europe Spines AD A-Shiver 


SrZd a Fillip" (Opinion, 

. 18) by Roy Denman : 
was refreshing to read this 
tribulion, which speUs out 
realities underlying the 

icatf'on of Europe. • 

l_ Fjirooean Union is a co- 
members are 

,urii the creauon of a cen- 
St- To safeguard these 






Reagan ’s Misfortune Is No Joke 






M | tfinca<r 


itvrmgt 





a bulge in the size of the unruly 
14-19 age group. 

However, Mr. Bratton is in- 
oculated by experience againsL 
the despair that afflicts people 
bailing oceans with thimbles. 
As head of the transit police 
from 1987 to 1990, he oversaw 
substantial success policing the 
city’s subway system. 

The system never was, he in- 
sists, as dangerous as its repu- 
tation suggested. Only about 
20 homicides occurred in the 
subways each year, a reassur- 
ing number here, which tells a 
lot about the city. Mi. Bratton 
rightly emphasizes that the sys- 
tem handles 3.5 mini on riders a 
day and they are protected by 
4,000 tranrit cops who respond 


to about 45 crimes a day. 

Forty-five, that is, not count- 
ing the 80,000 fare-evaders who 
jump turnstiles daily. Until re- 
cently, the 80,000 were not de- 
fined as a police problem. 
Hence there was a problem of 
police morale — too many cops 
concerned with a few crimes, 
while turnstile jumpers pro- 
duced a climate of chaos. 

Mr. Bratton knew there 
couldn't be a cop at every turn- 
stile, but there could be “sweep 
teams” swooping down on 
fare-evaders. And guess what 
was swept up: One in seven 
was the subject of an arrest 
warrant. One in 20 was carry- 
ing an illegal weapon. 

Subway crime is a “crime of 


VS*# ' I 


opportunity” and suddenly, be- 
cause the police were more ac- 
tive, there were fewer opportu- 
nities. Subway crime declined 
for 38 consecutive months, 48 
percent overall. 

Until recently Bryant Park 
behind the Public Library in 
midtown was a drug market, as 
were some public places around 
Wall Street. Until recently it 
took 27 hours to process the 
paperwork — 12 forms — for 
an arrest. With computers it 
takes less than four hours, so 
more police are out policing, 
and more New Yorkers can 
safely go around behaving the 
way they usually do, which is 
not a crane, quite. 

Washmgton Post Writers Group. 


T1TASHINGTON — Com- 
W edy Central, a basic ca- 
ble network, has been mak- 
ing jokes on the air about the 
fact that Ronald Reagan has 
Alzheimer’s disease. The 
jokes take the form of 15- 
second network promotional 
announcements called “topi- 

MEANWHILE 

cals,” brief comments on 
currents events read by an 
announcer and accompanied 
by on-screen captions. 

In the first of two promos 
on Nov. 19, Comedy Central 
advertised its Tuesday night 
schedule, three reruns of old 
“Saturday Night Live” shows, 
with a “Dear Mr. Reagan” 
spot calling the repeats “a 
great lineup for someone in 
your condition At Come- 

dy Central, we pride ourselves 
on being the perfect network 
for people with Alzheimer’s.” 
The second spot, which began 
appearing last week, is a 
“Memo to President Reagan” 
which also ridicules the mem- 
ory lapses that are part of the 
debilitating disease. 

“John Hinckley Jr. is not 
your pen pal,” the “memo” 
reads, “Ron Jr. is heterosexual, 
and the woman with the big 
bead is your wife. You call her 
'mommy.' Good luck and re- 
member — oh, never mind." 

Mr. Reagan, 83, revealed on 
Nov. 5, in an open letter ad- 
dressed to “my fellow Ameri- 
cans,” that he had been diag- 


B y Tom Shales 

nosed as having Alzheimer’s. 
The former president said he 
intended to “live the re main - 
der of the years God gives me 
on this earth doing the things 
I have always done" and that 
he hoped Nancy would find 
the “faith and courage” to 
deal with the crisis. 

Of this tragic news has 
Comedy Central made jokes. 

The insensitivity of the 
spots is consistent with a rel- 
atively new culture of cruelty 
in America, an environment 
in which “pushing the enve- 
lope” and stepping over pre- 
viously observed boundaries 
are considered the loftiest 
of goals. Radio talk show 
hosts try to outdo one anoth- 
er in airing outrageous and 
racy material, and their men- 
tality has spilled over into 
television. Comedy Central, 
which reaches an estimated 
31 million homes, gets very 
low ratings and is desperate 
to be noticed. 

A Comedy Central publi- 
cist, Tony Fox, says the topj- 
cals “make the network more 
alive.” He also says he doubts 
the Reagan spots would offend 
anyone other than “some die- 
hard Republicans.” 

Gloria Bama. the netwoik’s 
vice president for creative af- 
fairs and a veteran comedy 
writer, calls herself “sort of the 
arbiter of taste” for Comedy 
Centra] and defended the 


spots. In the first spot, she 
says, “we were making fun of 
ourselves, because we do have 
to rerun stuff to death. We 
took somethin g that happened 
in the public consciousness 
and combined it with making 
fun of ourselves.” 

Of the second spot, the 
“memo” to Mr. Reagan, she 
said, “We agonized for three 
hours on this one. It was a little 
tougher than the other one.” 
But in the end, it was decided 
to go ahead. The “topicals” 
come out of daily meetings of 
the network staff. 

“We never skewer anyone 
who doesn’t deserve it,” Ms. 
Bama said. Have there been 
spots picking cm BQ1 Clinton? 
“We’ve picked on CHnton, yes, 
but never cruelly.” Comedy 
Central is owned primarily by 
Home Box Office, whose 
chairman, Michael Fuchs, is a 
big Clinton supporter. 

Robert Morton, executive 

S reducer of “Late Show with 
>avid Letterman,” also 
known for its irreverence, 
says he thinks the matter of 
Mr. Reagan’s illness should 
be off-limits to comics. “1 
don’t think that’s something 
Letterman would joke 
about,” he said. “It would be 
cruel and insensitive.” 
Exactly. 

“We try not to be mean,” 
Mr. Fox says. “We try to be 
funny without being offen- 
sive.” II they really do by, this 
time they really failed. 

The Washington Past. 


| 

■ 


benefits, the further political in- 
tegration of Europe is prerequi- 
sita The economic welfare cre- 
ated by this concentration of 
capital and skills, combined 
with technical advancement in 
logistics and communications, 
has refocused priorities in peo- 
ple’s minds and rendered 1 9th- 
centmy-type sovereignty con- 
siderations obsolete. 

It is not viable to join just to 
dilute the German powerhouse. 
The Union cannot be created 
against anyone, but must be a 
voluntary contribution for a 
common good It is a matter of 
trust among members. Nobody 
Ekes waste and fraud as de- 
scribed in the auditors’ recent 
report, bat the answer is to im- 
prove upon deficiencies, not 
throw stones or stay out 

Members reluctant to adopt 
this process of integration and 
lowering dividing barriers 
should stay out, since they 
make life! miserable for them- 
selves and others. 

ADOLF SPANGENBERG. 

Brussels. 

In the TNear Abroad 9 

Vassily Aksyonov (“A 
Changing Russia Full of Famil- 
iar Communist Faces, ” Opinion, 
Nov. 23) is indeed a noble if not 
a brave man for confronting his 
own people’s “congenital sense 
of [anti-Western] confronta- 
tion." However, a to more 
complex issue confronts Mr. 
Aksyonov and his countrymen: 
to challenge the sentiments that 
a great number of Russians har- 
bor toward the peoples of the 
“near abroad.” 

Unfortunately, Mr. Aksyonov 
makes no attempt to alleviate 
the very real fears that Russia’s 
weaker neighbors have of being 
pulled once again into an empire 
that Marx categorized as the 
“prison house of nations.” Not 
only is it fashionab le in Russian 
“intellectual dxdes to be anti- 
Western,” it is even more preva- 
lent among Russians to regard 
their language, their culture and 
ostensibly “their” history as su- 
perior to those of their immedi- 
ate neighbors. 

Take for example the case of 
moraine — a nation at least 
twice as old as Russia. Russians 
regard Kiev as the “mother of 
Russian cities,” which stretch- 
es, to say the least, the truth. It 
is sentiments sach as this, 
among other things, that fuel 
instability in that part of the 
world Unfortunately, the West 
heeds only those threats from 
Russia that affect it Can the 
West really afford another Yu- 
goslav-type disaster by turning 
a blind eye to Russia’s hege- 
monic aspirations? 

ALEXANDER R- SICH. 

■London. 


The name Jesse Helms al- 
ready sends shivers up the 
spines of forward-looking ratio- 
nalists. What a shame it would 
be if the United States allowed 
the backward-looking senator 
to shut the door cm the pros- 
pects of trade liberalization, 
in the process making Ameri- 
cans out to be the hypocrites 
we all too often, are. 

DOUG WALTERS. 

RamonvilleSL Ague, France- 


The IHT Pocket Diary 

Puts 1995 

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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, THURSDAY, DECEMBER 1, 1994. 


The International Herald Tribune and The State Commission for Restructuring The Economic Systems Present 


The 1995 China Summit 


APRIL 10-12 1995 -BEIJING 


The International Herald Tribune and the State 
Commission for Restructuring the Economic 
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corporation to meet the most important people in 
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be an opportunity to hear and personally meet the 
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1995 China Summit is the gathering that you cannot 
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Opening The 

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When Jurors Begin 
With Closed Minds 

Study Says Many Ignore Trial Evidence 


By Darnel Golem an 

New Vo* Tunes Serv ice 

N EWYORK — There is a joke 
among lawyers about the differ- 
g“5 b^wcen jury trials in Eng- 
, ^ United States: Si 

^ once thejury selec- 
tion ends, m America, the trial is already 
over. J 

Now, as the weaknesses of thejury sys- 
tem are coming under increasing scrutiny, 
a study shows that substantial numbers of 
jury members reach verdicts mrin p faulty 
reasoning. 3 

, These jurors decade on a version of events 
based on a preliminary story they find con- 
vincing, often at the time of the opening 
ai^ument5, which then colors their interpre- 
tation of the evidence so much that they 
seize cm whatever fits their verdict and dis- 
count the rest. Such jurors tend to make up 
their minds far earlier than others, and by 
’ the time they enter thejury room for delib- 
eration they cannot be budged. 

In the study, designed to be a simulation 
of decision-making by jurors, volunteers 
representative of a typical jury saw a vid- 
eotaped re-enactment of a murder trial 
and then explained how they reached Lheir 
own verdicts. 

t The nearly one-third of jurors whose 
decision-making was most flawed, the 
study found, also tended to be the most 
Vehement about their certainty, and tend- 
ed to argue for the most extreme verdicts 
during the jury's deliberation. This gave 
them undue influence in the final outcome. 
• Such jurors misconstrue their task as 
arguing for one version of events, rather 
than considering all alternatives. Justice 
would be better served, the researchers 


conclude, if these jurors were given in- 
struction in how to weigh evidence against 
all alternative versions of what happened 
before coming to their decision. At pre- 
sent, nothing in the instruction of jurors 
discourages such flawed decision-making. 

Jury consultants say they seek to identi- 
fy such people during juiy selection and 
then oppose or keep them, depending on 
how the prospective juror stands on issues 
critical for the trial. Such jurors become, in 
essence, advocates on the jury for the de- 
fense or prosecution during deliberation. 

“These black-and-white thinkers are 
power brokers on a jury," said Robert 
Hirschhom, a lawyer and consultant on 
jury selection in Galveston, Texas. “I don’t 
want to eliminate them if they are for us." 

R. Hirschhom, who helped se- 
lect juries in the trials of Wil- 
liam Kennedy Smith and Chris- 
tian Brando, and in the 
McMartin day-care case in California, 
added: “Most lawyers think it's only the 
well-educated, coat-and- tie jurors who will 
run the jury. But our experience shows 
that's not true. These people are like Henry 
Fonda in the movie Twelve Angry Men/ 
who started as a lone holdout on the jury 
and ended up persuading everyone else." 

The conclusions were based on a study 
of 152 volunteers, chosen in age, education 
and ethnic background to approximate a 
jury pool. After watching a videotape in 
which actors used dialogue from court 
transcripts to re-create a murder trial, they 
reached a verdict, and then were systemati- 
cally interviewed about the reasoning that 
had gone into their decision. 

Jury consultants say that during voir dire, 
when prospective jurors are questioned, 
they can select those who are most likely to 
crane to strong black-and-white verdicts. 


Fill 




“That’s why jury selection is so important," 
said Mr. Hirschhora. “If you do the right 
kind of voir dire, you can spot them.” 

One question that might identify such 
jurors, said Mr. Hirschhom, is: “Some 
people make up their minds quickly, while 
others have to hear everything about an 
issue before they deride. Which are you?" 

On the other hand, some trial lawyers 
feel there is nothing wrong with the way 
things work now on juries. One is Jerry 
Spence, a lawyer in Jackson, Wyoming, 
who defended Imelda Marcos and sued the 
Kerr-McGee Corp. on behalf of Karen 
Silkwood's family. 


Beyond Rain Forests: Rethinking Diversity 


By Natalie Angier 

New York Tunes Service 

EW YORK — Between the ever- 
lengthening menu of Rain Forest 
Crunch, snack foods, the Rain 
Forest Action Networic booths at 
rock concerts and street fairs, and the 
ubiquitous jungle-themed coffee mugs, T- 


eairts, place mats, tote bags, wall docks, 
umbrellas and jewelry, the public has been 
Saturated with the message that tropical 
rain forests, are among the greatest and 
most endangered of the world's natural 
wonders. 

- As the generic eco-lecture has it, tropical 
rain forests like the Amazon shelter enor- 
mous numbers of species, bristling with a 
Variety of life forms so rich that science has 
barely begun to tally up the multitudes. 
Tens of millions of specks of plants, in- 
sects, fungi, ftmphibimift, lizards, fish, 
snails and more remain to be discovered in 
the Ederric bosom of the tropical rain for- 
ests, and yet the forests are being turned 
into so much kindling and cow pasture 
before anybody has had a chance to know 
what is out there. 


Environmental activists have succeeded 
in adding the term biodiversity to the com- 
mon lexicon, and it has been identified 
above all with the tropical rain forests. 
Save the rain forests, the reasoning goes, 
and you will save a bigger proportion of 
the Earth's biological offerings than if you 
preserved any other habitat or stretch of 
terrain. 

Now, however, a growing number of 
ecologists and biologists are suggesting 
that there are other ways of calculating 
biodiversity than through a simple species 
score card. They argue that many of the 
species in rain forests are closely related to 
each other and hence not as indicative of 
true diversity as it appears at first blush. 

By their reckoning, ecosystems like de- 
serts, temperate forests or high-altitude 
grasslands may house comparatively fewer 
species but offer more genera, families or 
phyla — broader categories for grouping 
or ganisms . And in the end, a habitat with 
more families or phyla may be a locale of 
greater genetic diversity than the tropical 
ram-forests in all their chlorophyll! c, sped- 
ated abundance. 

“The lowland, wet tropica] forests have 
held sway as the dominant prom queen of 


biodiversity,” said Dr. Kent Redford, who 
is in charge of Latin American scientific 
studies for the Nature Conservancy, an 
environmental group based in Arlington, 
Virginia. “But levels of genera, families 
and orders as measures of genetic informa- 
tion are better represented in habitats out- 
side rain forests.” He rephrases toe ecolo- 
gists’ familiar dictum “toe imperative of 
toe tropical rain forests” as “toe tyranny of 
toe tropical rain forests." 

Dr. Melanie Stiassny, an expert in fresh- 
water habitats and in taxonomy at toe 
American Museum of Natural Histoiy in 
New York, said: “Scientists are obsessed 
with numbers. If you have a bigger number 
and more species, therefore it makes a 
place very important. Well, yeah, it does in 
one sense, but if you follow toe numbers 
argument too strictly, you’re going to talk 
about basically insects." 


T HE most precious biological diver- 
sity may be said to lie in places 
dmming the greatest number of 
evolutionarily ancient species. Dr. 
Stiassny cites as an example several small 
freshwater lakes in Madagascar that con- 
tain about 10 spedes of cichlid fish. These 


A Rare Success Story 
For Endangered Turtle 


Dand Sunr-lIfT 


“My experience is that jurors want to 
bear a complete story about what hap- 
pened," said Mr. Spence. “When I make 
an opening statement, 1 always do it as a 
story. At that point, about 85 percent of 
jurors will come to a conclusion in that 
case. But you had better be able to prove 
your stoiy, because if jurors who believed 
you find out you haven’t told toe whole 
stoiy, then they turn against you." 

Mr. Spence added “Jurors ought not to 
be criticized for making up lheir min ds so 
early on toe basis of a story, because peo- 
ple have an immense ability to bear what 
rings true.” 


By Jon R. Luoma 

New York Times Service 

EW Y ORK — The Kemp’s ridley 
turtle, long considered one of toe 
most imperiled creatures of toe 
sea, may have turned a critical 
corner in a battle against extinction, ac- 
cording to scientists who are working to 
save the species. 

In recent decades toe once-abundant 
turtle has faced threats ranging from en- 
tanglement in toe nets of shrimp trawlers 
to rampant poaching of its eggs on toe 
single remote stretch of sandy beach on 
Mexico’s Gulf Coast where it nests. 

But now, thanks to an aggressive inter- 
national effort to dig up and sequester eggs 
in guarded corals on the turtle's nesting 
beach, combined with a requirement in 
both American and Mexican waters lor so- 
called “turtle excluder devices" which eject 
turtles from toe nets of shrimp trawlers, 
toe Kemp’s ridley population appears to 
be rebounding. 

Surveys show that by toe s umm er, the 
estimated number of nesting females had 
more than doubled from a 1985 low. 

And now a U. S. government biologist 
suggests that with continued protection, 
the Kemp’s ridley could experience a pop- 
ulation boom of “exponential" propor- 
tions over toe nexL decade or so, perhaps 
even reaching a goal of 10,000 adult turtles 
by toe year 2010. 

“Because there are natural swings in 
populations, I was afraid over toe last 
three or four years to let myself hope that 
we were succeeding." said toe biologist. 
Dr. Richard Byles, coordinator of toe na- 
tional turtle recovery program for the U. S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service. 

“But this year I've been feeling really 
elated. This is a real turnaround. And I’m 
starting to believe that if we can continue 
to protect the beaches and continue to 
keep turtles out of shrimp nets, the popula- 
tion is eventually going to go off like a 
rock el” 

If Dr. Byles is correct, a recovery of the 
turtle would amount to one of toe most 


dr ama tic success stories in the history of 
endangered species conservation. 

From an estimated 40,000 in 1947, the 
population of nesting female Kemp's rid- 
ley turtles had plummeted to fewer than 
200 by 1985, and scientists feared that the 
population bad readied such a critical low 
that extinction might be imminent 

Dr. Byles cautions that the turtle re- 
mains in peril. But during this year’s spring 
and summer nesting season, scientists and 
volunteers counted 1,568 nests. 

Since female Kemp's ridleys typically 
average about 2.7 nests each, the finding 
suggests that about 580 females nested this 
year, a nearly threefold increase since 
1985. 

Dr. Debra Crouse at the Center for 
Marine Conservation, an environmental 
group in Washington, agreed that the up- 
ward population trend looks promising. 
But she also cautioned that gains could 
quickly be wiped out by what she sees as 
lax enforcement by federal agencies of 
regulations to maintain turtle excluder de- 
vices in the nets of shrimp trawlers in the 
Gulf of Mexico. 

T HE devices function as sort of bur- 
lesque escape hatches that eject 
large objects, including turtles, 
from toe throat of a sock- shaped 
trawling net. But because they also may 
eject some shrimp, toe devices have been 
reviled by some commercial fishermen. 

Last summer, she says, some Gulf Coast 
shrimpers with improperly installed de- 
vices, or even nets wth the trap doors sewn 
shut, killed hundreds of turtles that might 
otherwise have escaped. 

Tm very hopeful,” said Dr. Crouse. 
“However, Tm also very concerned that 
toe improvement mig ht be temporary. In 
Texas and Louisiana we know of more 
than 350 dead Kemp’s ridley sea turtles 
washing ashore last s umm er. We’re virtu- 
ally certain that most of them were 
drowned in shrimp trawls. At least 25 of 
those were adult nesting females. And the 
other 325 were juveniles and ‘teenagers' 
that have been knocked out of any chance 
of joining future nesting generations." 


fish are thought to be toe evolutionary link 
between the founder cichlid fish and toe 
thousands of cichlid spedes found world- 
wide today. 

“If we were to lose those 10 Madagascan 
spedes," she says, it would be far worse 
than “losing 10 from toe mainland of Afri- 
ca. The information they contain is quali- 
tatively different” 

In reassessing biodiversity, scientists are 
tossing out a few ecology verities. For 
example, old assumptions about an inter- 
locking diversity are not necessarily cor- 
rect: The fact that a region is diverse in 
beetles or orchids does not mean it offers 
up _a farrago of birds and frogs. 

The greatest diversity of insects over all 
is found in lowland tropics, as is toe diver- 
sity of small primates. But bees, spiders 
and reptiles are most diverse in dry re- 
gions, as are large mammals — think of the 
African savanna. 

As a general rule, lower altitudes are 
more spedes-rich than higher ones, but 
birds and butterflies, in fact, become more 
various as one climbs from sea level; there 
is an enormous diversity in both groups 
along toe eastern slopes of the Andes. 


Turtle Patterns 

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Breast-Cancer Gene: No Test Near 


New York Times Service 

N EW YORK — Lest anybody 
nurse hopes that the wildly publi- 
cized discovery of toe breast can- 
cer gene two months agp win of- 
fer up new screening techniques or 
treatments any time soon, scientists cau- 
tion that the gene is proving to be as 
frustrating and recalcitrant as toe disease. 

In Wednesday’s issue of toe journal Na- 
ture Genetics, three teams of sdentists re- 
ported on their studies of toe gene, called 
BRCAl, which in its mutant form is 

thought to be responsible for about half the 

instances of hereditary breast cancer, or up 
to 5 percent of aD breast cancer cases. 

The new reports only confirm and extend 

the initial observations that this is a long, 
unwieldy gene prone to many different mu- 
tations — factors greatly complicating the 

task of designing a test to reveal a woman s 

inherited risk. 

In toe three reports, researchers con- 
firmed the identity of the gene that or. 
Mark Skolmck, at the University of Utah, 
and his colleagues had said was a sttong 
candidate" for BRCAl, and they added 31 
mutations to the original five. 

But the true number will prove to De 
much higher. Dr. David Gddgar, dso at 
Utah, is completing a report m wtoch he 
summarizes aB mutations detected to date, 
and the list has reached about. 80- As re- 
searchers continue their analysis, they® 

poet the number to efimb m to toe hundreds. 


The Visible Man on Internet 

CHICAGO (Reuters) — 
to a computer screen near you. Tne hooy 
of a 39 -year-old man that was frozen and 
cut crosswise into 1,800 slices Illtcnie t 
He’s the latest traveler on uw Inter ?~’I 
toe National 

to access the entire body wdl n^mretwo 
weeks of uninterrupted Internet ^Itor- 
whopping 15g»^£ JggW 

. .Ecsasv-gss 

•This is the firei tuw wchdetau 

,al information fJonaM 

body has been compued, sai 
Lindberg, director of toe jjbW- who 
The body is that of J ^Images 
had willed his nanan^ . from bead to toe 
of the body wererecoxd^^“ ^gnetic 

using com P , ? < £ i^^ebody was then 
resonance and X-rays. 1 ne owy 


“What we may be seeing at work hoe is 
Murphy’s Law of toe gene," said Dr. Fran- 
cis S. Collins Of the National Center for 
Human Genome Research, an author of 
one of toe three reports. “Anything that can 
go wrong with this gene will go wrong in 
somebody, with all the dangerous conse- 
quences and the risk of malignant disease.” 

Equally confounding, the sdentists found 
that they could detect mutations in only 
about half the women whom they expected, 
from previous chromosomal or medical 
studies, to carry a defect in the gene. 

They attribute much of toe problem to 
the insensi tivity of the techniques they used 
to screen for mutations, as wefl as to toe 
possibility that toe defects in gene perfor- 
mance He not in the chemical structure of 
the but in genetic switches that are in 
regions of toe chromosome outside toe 
scope of their search. In addition, some of 
the women may turn out to have mutations 
in genes entirely unrelated to BRCAl. 

“The critical point emerging from all 
this weak is that it’s not going to be feasible 
to lyre? 0 women fully and completely until 
a functional test comes along," said Dr. 
Mary-Claire King of toe University of Cal- 
ifornia at Berkeley, an author on another 
of the three studies. 

In toe third report Wednesday, Dr. Ste- 
ven A Narod of Montreal General Hospital 
said he had found two mutations of the 
gore, one of which appeared in one group of 


embedded in gelatin, frozen and sliced 
crosswise. The slices were removed one by 
one and toe surfaces photographed. The 
digital photos were tom stacked and pro- 
grammed into an imaging computer along 
with toe data from the radiology images. 

Natural Curb of Inbreeding 

WASHINGTON (WF) — Naturalsdec- 
tion doesn’t work very wefl when there isn’t 
much to select from. When mate choice is 
Kmited, inbreeding reduces toe likdihoodof 
genetic variations that can enhance fitness, 
leading to the reduced survival and fecundi- 
ty known as “inbreeding depression.” 

But sometimes, scientists report in toe 
journal Nature, an environmental catas- 
trophe is so band on heavily inbred animals 
thatii has the effect of restoring a measure 
of variety. From 1975 to 1990, an interna- 
tional foam studied a small group of song 
sparrows on Mandarte Island, British Co- 


four Canadian families who were thought to 
be unrelated, and the other in a second 
group of four. On further analysis, though, 
the families proved to have common ances- 
tors; one group, for example, had an Ashke- 
nazi Jewish heritage. 

■ Effectiveness of Mammograms 

Canadian researchers looking at toe ef- 
fectiveness of mammograms recommend 
that women in their 40s have routine 
breast X-rays, citing the benefits of catch- 
ing tumors in their early, curable stages, 
Reuters reported from Chicago. 

Dr. Linda Warren, executive director of 
the Screening Mammography Program of 
British Columbia, reported the findings at 
the annual meeting of the Radiological 
Society of North America in Chicago. 

The issue of whether women 40 to 49 
should undergo routine mammograms hag 
become controversial, especially since the 
U. S. National Cancer Institute suggested 
last year that routine yearly exams woe 
unnecessary until women reach age 50. 

The Canadian study was based on re- 
sults of mammograms beginning in 1988. 
Of 150,147 women studied, roughly one- 
third were undo* age 50 and those younger 
patients comprised 15 percent of toe can- 
cers detected. Nearly 87 percent of toe 150 
cancers were detected in an eariy, curable 
stage, before toe cancer bad spread to toe 
lymph nodes, the study found. 


lumbia, and determined each bird’s decree 
of inbreeding. The sparrows suffered dras- 
tic population crashes in 1980 and 1989, in 
which more than 80 percent of adults died. 

After each crash, toe researchers found, 
survivors had much lower “inbreeding co- 
efficients" than those that died — suggest- 
ing that natural selection had worked 
against toe most inbred birds and in favor 
ostoe least inbred. 


Resistant Gonorrhea Strain 

MANILA (AP) — A gonorrhea strain 
resistant to antibiotics has been discovered 
among prostitutes in the Philippines, the 
Department of Health reported. 

The bacteria were discovered in a study 
of sexually transmitted diseases among 

i ■ » t n i rK*.. 


FOREVER BARBIE: 

The Unauthorized Biogra- ^ 
{toy of a Real Doll si, dea 

By M. G. Lord Illustrated 326 
pages. $25. William Morrow & Urnur 
Co. -if 

was 1' 

Reviewed by Christopher enced 
Lehxnann-Haupt disco' 

Y OU might not think an 

llVWncfi vinyl doll would |j naiT 
be worth a 326-page book. But 

as M. G. Lord, a former colum- 

nist and present book reviewer 
for Newsday, makes clear in pany to 
“Forever Barbie: The Unautho- novelty 
rized Biography of a Real Doll," named 1 
her subject inspires passion. Barbara 
Just consider the “Sandusky acquirer 
Slasher,” who, Lord reports, escort, 
“within six months between their soi 
1992 and 1993 cat the breasts Almo 
and mutilated the crotches of observe! 
two dozen Barbie dolls at three sdhacb l 
stares in Sandusky, Ohio." feminmi 
The unknown perpetrator in- sage in v 
spired an FBI profile describing “drag < 
him as “an organized and con- shoulde 
trolled individual who is proba- which ai 
bly dominated in a relationship and exaj 
with a woman, possibly his aren’t.” 


WHAT THEY'RE READING 


• Javier Fenrfmfez del Mor- 
al, dean of information sciences 
at toe University of Madrid, is 
rereading "Niebla” by Miguel de 
Unamuno. 

“I first read Unamuno when I 
was 17. This novel greatly influ- 
enced me at a time when 1 was 
discovering toe world of litera- 
ture and a style of intimate ex- 
pression like toe soliloquy that 
Unamuno uses in this book.” 

(At Goodman, IHT) 



was funded by toe U. S. Agency for Interna- 
tional Development. 


mother," although Lord, based 
on toe considerable psychologi- 
cal expertise she acquired while 
researching “Forever Barbie” 
suspects that toe slasher was a 
woman. 

Or consider Lord's own as- 
sessment of her doll: “Barbie is 
also a space-age fertility icon, a 
totem of an ancient matriarchal 
power. In the dark, primal part 
of our brains where we process 
primitive archetypes, she is Ur- 
womaiL As an icon, she has 
come to represent not merely 
’American' women or consumer 
capitalist women, but a female 
principle that defies national, 
ethnic and regional boundaries." 

Where did this mythic crea- 
ture originate? Like so many 
post-World War n products, in 
Germany and Japan. As Lord 
reports. Barbie was bora in the 
mid- 1 950s as a knockoff of Bild 
.Lilli, a German cartoon mani- 
kin sold principally in tobacco 
stores as “a son of three-dimen- 
sional pinup." 

After softening Lilli’s street- 
walker features, Barbie’s cre- 
ators, Ruth and EUiot Handler, 
had to look in Tokyo for a com- 


pany that could produce their 
novelty cheaply enough. They 
named her after their daughter. 
Barbara, and later, when Barbie 
acquired her sexually abridged 
escort, they named him after 
their son, Ken. 

Almost immediately. Lord 
observes. Barbie became a Ror- 
schach lest of attitudes toward 
femininity. People saw a mes- 
sage in what the author calls her 
“drag queen's body: broad 
shoulders and narrow hips, 
which are quintessentially male, 
and exaggerated breasts, which 
aren’t.” 

Once the Handlers had their 
doH they turned to a pioneer of 
motivational research, Ernest 
Dichter — a hero of Vance Pack- 
aid’s 1957 best-seller, “The Hid- 
den Persuaders" — who devised 
a clever sales strategy based on 
young girls' yearning for what 
thrir mothers disliked. Barbie 
was cat her way to becoming an 
artifact that today, her manufac- 
turer says, sells globally at the 
rate of two a second. 

In tracing Barbie’s life and 
plastic times, Lord stoutly de- 
fends her subject and finds toe 
bright side of every slur. 

To those who have criticized 
Barbie as demeaning women. 
Lord points out that from toe 
outset Barbie resembled a para- 
digm of the protofeminists in 
Helen Gurley Brown's 1962 
best-seller “Sex and toe Single 
GirT: She worked; she lived 
alone (at least until Ken came 
along); she kept fit; she spent 
money on herself; she read 
books on sdf-improvemem like 
“How to Lose Weight: Don’t 
EaL” 

And to those who have sug- 
gested that Barbie is asexual. 


toe author argues that toe wild- 
ly successful toy possesses some 
attributes of a fertility goddess. 

Given her “itty-bitty arched 
feet," for Barbie to stand up she 
must be plunged into toe earth, 
an attribute that unites her with 
the famous Venus of Willendorf 
as “a representation of toe 
Great Mother." 


By Alan Truscott 

O N about three-quarters of 
all bridge deals, neither 
partnership owns the 26 high- 
card points indicating that 
game should be bid 
As East, in the diagramed 
deal, you have opened the bid- 
ding and your partner has made 
a negative double' of one heart, 
showing a four-card spade suit. 
When the opponents bid to 
three hearts and your partner 
doubles again, showing extra 
highcard strength, what should 
you do? 

Larry Cohen (author of “To 
Bid or Not to Bid: The Law of 
Total Tricks" and its sequel 
which deals with refinements of 
the basic idea, “Following toe 
Law”), advises a pass, which 
will probably collect 300 points. 
South will do very well if he 
escapes for down one by taking 
five trump tricks, one ruff and 
two aces. And four clubs will 
fail by one trick. 

The Law states that the num- 
ber of tricks available to both 
sides in lheir best contracts is 
approximately equal to toe to- 
tal number of trumps in those 
contracts. So here East can ex- 
pect his partner to have a sin- 


She concludes: “Critics who 
ignore Barbie’s mythic dimen- 
sion often find fault with her 
lifestyle. But it is mythologically 
imperative that she live the way 
toe does. Of course Barbie in- 
habits a prdapsarian paradise of 
consumer goods; she has never 
been exiled from toe garden.” 

“Forever Barbie” may have 
more to say about its subject 
than anyone could possibly 
want to hear, except someone 
obsessed with toe subject. But 
there are legions of such people 
around, and Lord seems to have 
interviewed all of them, includ- 
ing Cindy Jackson, who has un- 
dergone more than 20 opera- 
tions and spent $55,000 to turn 
herself into a living Barbie doifl. 


Christopher Lehnann-Haupt 
is on the staff of The New York 
Times. 


gleton heart, so toe opponents 
have eight hearts between them. 

East-West do not seem to have 
anything more than an eight- 
card fit, so there are 16 trumps. 

That means that if East- West 
can make 10 tricks, North- 
South can make six. If East- 
West can make nine tricks, 
North-South can make seven. 
Or they might make eight tricks 
each. In no case does it make 
sense for East to bid. 

NORTH 

♦ 973 
9 J83 
0A J973 

* 107 ' 


WEST 
♦ A K J 5 
91 

O K 10 8 4 2 
*853 


EAST (D) 

♦ Q 6 

, 9K984 

1 $ Q 5 

♦ K Q J 82 
SOUTH 

* 10 8 4 2 

9 A Q Id 5 2 
06 

♦ A 94 ■ 


T^^. W “ W " e VUinW *^ 

s* fr sr 

Ks & 

WesHed the heart seven. 


Page 10 


JT 


IDAQ 


Wednesday's 4 p.m. 

■nib list compiled by the AP, consists of the 1,000 
most traded securities in terms of dollar value. It Is 
updated twice a year. 


12Mon»i 
High Low Stock 


IBM 6VVAAON 
33% 12 ABC Re 


22 Vs 7%ACSErd 
40%31'AACXTC 
4BW3I%AgCTW 
21%U%ADRW 


■SHOT* 


_ 19 421 14 13% 

- 23 117 22% 22 

„ 9 54 14 13% 

HO 7 ... 3» 16% 15% 

_ 167 8% d 7% 

- 27 71 36% 35% 

_ 30 711 421* 41Vj 

„ _ 1329 15% 14% 

Z Z 424 10% 10% 

- M ^ ggfX 

I 5 Sill MVb 22% 23% 


tt&psx, 

27% IS AmMM 
14V2 7%AtfBl 
34%15%AOyUc 
30 lBVkAodom 
24% 14 AddPlc s 
23VV 10 A#Wh 

38WlV%Ad0b«£v 

S lovsAavi-m 
17%I2%AUVTU3 

11% 4'A AdvTfcas 

4HiM%Aflwn» 
37Vi 23% AdvCmtB 
22% 17 AWCrnpS 
1M. 9 Agnym 
X%l8%AirExp 

63*.46WAlaD 

21% 9% Alcntec 
2a%lBV>AKxM'. 
19% 10% AJdDo i 

12% 6WAAonPti 

3 aftassi 

32% 7%Atoh(i8M 

jraraasc 

7TW10taAITron 
44 23WAme»Ons 
76% 1? ABr*r 


- If IMP JMl 

_ _ 227 ]B 17% 

_ 17 4607 in 15% 

_ 1 723 16% 15% 

_ 24 535 BVi 8 

- 20 399 20% 19% 

_ J3 363 27V. 26 

_ 17 4943 22% 21*u 

_ _ 31 11% 10% 

.14 A 17 45 36% 35% 

JO A 26 S7m 34% 33 

- _ 2377 U3? 34% 

_ 23 1204 29% 2fl% 

_ _ 1779ulBVk 14% 

- - »31 » BW 

J7 IS 11 1140 2B 27% 

23 I J 11 434 24% 25% 

_ - 89 19% 79% 

_ - 125 11% 11 

34 .9 15 249 54% 2446 

1.809 U . SI » 5S . 

- „ MM 21 20% 

M 1.9 11 324 21% 21% 

_ IB 476 11% 11% 

AS 17 15 2S4S 24 22% 

_ 35 888 23% 23% 


29% ♦ % 
17% +1% 
8% — % 
27% — % 
24% - 

19% *W 
llta,— Vu 
26* +% 


26% +« 
55% _ 

21 *% 
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_ _ 135 7% 7% 

_ 34 935 33 . 32% 

A0 2A 6 22 25% 24* 

_ _ 151 11% 10% 

- 24 4891 39% 38% 

_ _ 7*7 29% 29% 

- 15 350 71% 20% 

- 110 4715 44% 41% 

71 It 7 99 19% 19% 

_ _ 91 14% 15% 


25% 10% ACoHold 
29% 12%Am&wto 
24% 15% AmFrrint 
34% 251b AG* eel 
24% S’-AHBMcP 
10V, 17 W AMS s 


22 12'AAmMb5ar 
30% 14%APwrOiv 
15 liy»APubllsli 
23% 15%ASavf=L 
26% 16% AmSupr s 
18 llWkATrovel 
24% 19 Amfed 


17% llttAnctlBCP 
19% lOWAncfiGm 
S3 21% Andrew s 
21% 13%Andro5 
38% 18% Antoc 
12% 2ta Anertus 
19% 13'AAPOMe 


J4 1.4 23*2145 17% 14% 

- 21 2913 19 18% 

- 24 HIM 20 19% 

J6 2J> 15 1774 38% 27% 

9 1284 5% 5% 

_ 19 301 17 14% 

- 13 52 F 444 4% 

_ _ 141 13%, 12% 

_ 2311942 14% 15% 

4159 A _ 152 12V. 1144 

- 7 cm 14% 14 

- _ 557 23% 22% 

- 11 1140 16% lfi>* 

24 IJ IB 452 20% 19% 

- 3019458 59% 57% 

.08 .9 B 892 9% 8% 

9 303 14% 13% 

_ 14 74 14% 15% 

_ 29 574 50V. 48% 

_ II 457 14% 15% 

- - 2044 26% 25V. 

- - 1991 10% 9% 

_ _ 194 13% d 13 


184* UUAciSous 
25% 11 Aplebees 
11% 316Ap3pS' 
2644 TJWApdPoTl 
33 15 Aodlnovi 

54% 3?%AAklMat1 
22% 14 ArtxrDra 
25 15 ArBorHI 


.48 IJ 1427827 39% 37 
JJZ 3 28 2788 T?W 12% 


24 16% Armor 

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LfcSE* 

SfflKSSST 




4% T6Vk Autolnd 

isip&m 


JM J 27 1187 15 14% 

_ 44 1185 11% lav, 

- 310 24 23% 

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- 1852002 Sty/. 47% 

M 1A 24 x160 21% 21% 

- 21 724 JO 18% 

22 380 14% 13% 

i:i4 -3 'S 2 ^ SS ^ 

_ 44 12B1 13 dim 
JM 3 II 135 12% 12 
A4 3.0 1? 4 21% 21% 

At 23 17 142 20% 20 

- 11 4080 9% BW 

- _ 3276 37% 30V. 

_ 1911499 9 8 

_. 20 3149 31% 30% 
_ _ 77 24% 25% 

- — D 76% 23% 
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_ 1738 27% 27 
32 2.1 ! 2481 14 15% 

- 29 4321 35% 33% 

- - 231 27 26% 

_ 25 1888 14% 15% 
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_ 22 4006 7V, Ot 

2* A 29 £373 38% 37V. 

- 11 4065 10% 17% 
_ 27 7245 13%dl2 
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18 *% 
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41% _ 


34 261* BB&T 1.14 
12 7 BE Aero 

23% 14 BISYjf 
71 40 V, BMC 511 

ao 

45%31WBdSSlir 

22% 15% Baker J .04 

19% 8% UalvCm 
33V, 29% BonPonc 1.00 
49% -9 BcOOepfCXSO 
39% 19 ancCabc JJr 
27V4 18V. BoncJec 
21V. 13WBfcSairtti A2 
38% 29 Banta S2 
24%12%BonynSv 


_ 34 441 
17 4487 
8 1023 
U441 287 

= ; n 

A 9 592 


a 9 49 

_ 245 


24%12%BonynSv 
19 12 Baretts 
37 Vi 25 , ABOSSertF 
43% l8%BayNlws 
15% 9%BavR)0CN 
45% 44% BavGHcs 
35Vf 22% BetUEMSll 
77% 21 % BetlBco s 
24 14<VuBeUC0M 
14 7 B«BMic 

41%15%BeBSpt 
8% 3%8entOG 
42 32% Bark toy 


S 14 224 
10 IVM 
14 1113 


1.7 14 1113 
_ 115 8735 
.9 15 220 
24 17 172 

- 2313278 
_ 224 

3A 10 185 
38 1386 
U IS 86 
_ _ 103 

- 15 121 
15 794 

_ _ 571 
14 20 98 


5% 1%BtoTcG 


15% 8%BICkBxs 
35 26% Boole nc U36 
23% l9%BebEim 49 


14 20 98 

- 21 74 

_ 11 447 

- _ 9212 

- 1911389 
_ _ 1839 
_ _ 944 
~ 20 407 


28 27 % 27% _ 

8%, 7% 7% — % 

21% 21% 21% *-V u 
45 43 44 *117,4 

14% 12% 12% — 1% 
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12% 12 12'A ♦% 

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14% 13% 13% — % 
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12% 11% 12% *% 

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2% 2%. 2Vi» *Vu 


21V. 12% Boom (wn 
14% 8* Bari nd 
40% 25%BaslBc 


O 9 4440 
14 17 B84 
~ _ 1424 
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U 5 35 

- 51 3743 

- 37 3882 


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28% 27% 27% — % 
20% 20% *V 9 

12%dl2% 12% — 'A 
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?s% 

17% 14% 16%— «V B 


AMEX 


Wednesday’s Closing 

Tables Include the nationwide price s up to 
the dosing on Wall Street and do not reflec 
date trades elsewhere. Via The Associated Press 


17 Atonto 
Hod Low Stock 


9% 8 AIM Sir 

3B'AM%aLc 

jssteu 


26'ATO‘AiAMCpt 1J5 7.7 
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70>'.6T'.iArr=d 2.739 JJ 

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18% 18% — V, 
15% 15% +% 
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9% 3 Cttwffln _ _ 229 7% JVt ►% 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, THURSDAY, DECEMBER 1, 1994 


12M0n» 

TWiLbw Stock 
14% 7%BoxEflB 
19% 7% BflWV_ 
34% 11 BrdbtfTt 


YMPE 188 Htfi LoRLntatOl'BC 
_ 24 1355 10% 9%1M, +% 


UMontti 
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M. 

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17V. n Bregfcstn 

21% 9V.BTOGOIX 

14% !0%Brtom 


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I _ 133 35% ® 29% +% 


_ 338 410 

vm 


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24% 15 C-CUBE 
16% SjACAlWro 
44%3!%CC|Fn 
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34% 12% COWS 
12 5%CA0 _ 


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'*$ whifr- &m fci88S ±i^$As 

International Herald Tribune, Thursday, December 1, 1994 





, ’"1!^ 
*S&rzZ'2r 


Page 11 


THE TRIB INDEX 112 ‘ru^ 

byBtoomfaerg ^ ntnes ’ “Spiled 



tr-SA tr f .h-ftiTr r tli y',.-.,., , '. 


World Index 

1 1/2 0/9 -! close: 112.40 
Previous; 11 1.93 


go 


4t 


Asia/Pacrtic 


Appmx.wagtithg:^% 

Cto 68: 124.10 Pi«j 123.12 


150 



Europe 

f«sm 


Approx, weighting: 37% 

Close: 1 14.20 Prevj 11131 

ESI 





The index Backs U.& doiar values at stocks Ik Tokyo, Now York, London, and 
Argentina, Australia, Austria. Belgium, Brazfl, Canada. ChHo, Danmark, Finland, 
Franc* Germany. Hong Kong, Daly, Made* NoUwriands, Haw Zealand, Norway, 
Singapore, Spain, Sweden , Switzerland and Venezuela. For Tokyo. No* York and 
London, the index Is composed of the 20 lop Issues at terms at market capitakzation. 
otherwise the ten top stocks am tracked. 


p-lridtiitrial;- Sectors ? i . | 


WOd. Prw. % 

Ctoat dOM Hmy 


Wkl 

dot* 

Po*. 

daai 

% 

dnp 

En«gy 

11126 112.68 +051 

CapM Goods 

111.97 

111.92 

+0.04 

UtiWes 

12454 12400 +0J27 

Rmr Materials 

129.47 

129.10 

+029 

^nane* 

112.60 111.68 +Q.B2 

Consumer Goods 

10129 

10114 

+0.15 

Services 

11184 11158 *023 

HscaUamous 

115.19 

11588 

-0.60 

For more information atxxrtthe Index, a booklet is available frve of charge. 

Write 07 Trib Max. 181 Annua Chariaa de QauBe, 82521 NeuHyCedax France. 


Cl MnontianBl Herald Tribune 


EU Fines 
Cement 
Firms for 
Collusion 


Cutrpded iy Our Staff From Duptncha 

BRUSSELS — The Europe- 
an Commission on Wednesday 
imposed its biggest-ever fine 
against 42 cement companies 
and associations it said had 
carved up the European market 
and fixed prices. 

The fine of 248 million Euro- 
pean currency units ($304 mil- 
lion) came after an ELI investiga- 
tion found the cement producers 
were running a cartel. 

The move signals an increas- 
ingly tough stand by the Euro- 
pean Union’s executive body 
against price-fixing and other 
anticompetitive practices. The 
commission fined cardboard 
makers in July and steelmakers 
in February. 

“This year we've tackled 
three major cartels and imposed 
considerable fines,” said Karel 
van Mi art, the c ommissi oner 
for competition. “I hope every- 
one got the message.” 

The commission said the lev- 
el of the fines on the cement 
industry reflected the longevity 
of the cartel, which started in 
1983, and the large number of 
companies involved. 

The biggest fine was imposed 
on Italy's Italcementi SpA, 
which was told to pay 33.58 
million Ecus. Societe des G- 
ments Franqais SA. whose 
share price has been sliding 
amid concern about the size of 
its fine, was ordered to pay 
25.77 million Ecus. 

The commission said the 
fines reflected the size of each 
company and its degree of in- 
volvement in the cartel The 
commission can fine companies 
as much as 10 percent of their 
European sales in the year pre- 
ceding the fines. 

Several of the companies in- 
volved called the action exces- 
sive and said they would appeal 
to the European Court of Jus- 
tice. (AP, Bloomberg) 


Are Stock Funds Fading? 

Latest Figures Indicate Bearish Trend 


Lxts Angela Tuna Service 

NEW YORK — When individual investors 
collectively decided they had had enough of 
bond mutual funds this year, they helped 
spark the century’s worst bear market for 
bonds, the end of which still is not in sight. 

Now, Wall Street fears that small investors 
may be reaching a similar threshold with 
slock mutual funds after a record four-year 
buying binge. 

The hint of a significant turn in stock fund 
owners’ sentiment is surfacing in major mutu- 
al fund companies' reports on November pur- 
chasing trends. With rising interest rates on 
money market funds and bank certificates of 
deposit providing increasingly tough compe- 
tition, many fund companies say their stock 
funds either suffered cash outflows this 
month or took in little new money. 

The Boston-based giant Fidelity Invest- 
ments, for example, said a net SI 00 mini on 
had flowed out of its stock funds in Novem- 
ber, meaning redemptions exceeded pur- 
chases by that sum — the first outflow in 
eight months. 

At some fund companies, stock fund pur- 
chases were still on a healthy track until last 
week’s market plunge. T. Rowe Price Asso- 
ciates in Baltimore says its stock funds 
showed a SI 30 milli on net inflow for Novem- 
ber, but that $100 million flowed out when 
stocks dived. 

Even before the market's latest setback, 
however, fund industry statistics suggested in- 
vestors’ appetite for stock funds was waning. 

The funds' trade group, the Investment 
Company Institute, said stock funds* net new 


cash flow totaled $9J billion in October. 
While that was up from $8.1 billion in Sep- 
tember, the two-month total of $17.4 billion 
was down from $23 3 billion in July^AugusL 

The latest outflow numbers may seem 
small compared with the $891 billion in assets 
still in stock funds. But markets are made at 
the margin; it often takes only a change in the 
trend of money flows to create a new bull 
cycle — or a new bear cycle. 

Of course, mutual funds aren’t the only 
owners of bonds and stocks; pension funds, 
banks, insurance companies and other insti- 
tutional investors also make up the market 

But with the explosion of stock and bond 
fund assets since 1990, the funds — as con- 
duits for individual investors’ dollars — have 
become increasingly important players on 
Wall Street If they are not buying, and worse 
if they are selling, it may be difficult for 
markets to mount a rally. 

The recent drop-off in stock fund pur- 
chases could of course be as much a seasonal 
issue as a sign that investors are growing wary 
of. the market Tax-loss selling accelerates at 
this time of year, and many investors wisely 
delay fond purchases in November and De- 
cember to avoid taxation on year-end capital 
gains distributions. 

But with short-term interest rates at their 
highest levels in more than three years and 
still rising, many fund company executives 
admit that investors may simply be making 
the logical choice, for now, by shunning 
stocks in favor of money market funds, bank 
CDs or even bonds. 


U.S, Economy 
Gets an Upgrade 
GDP Data 



By Lawrence Malkin 

International Herald Tribune 

NEW YORK. — The govern- 
ment Wednesday reported 
stronger economic growth dur- 
ing the late summer, setting the 
stage for a another strong quar- 
ter at Christmas and possibly a 
showdown between business 
and the Federal Reserve Board 
if the central bank insis ts on 
raising interest rates again. 

In a revision of its third-quar- 
ter figures, the Commerce De- 
partment said stronger busi- 
ness, government and personal 
spending helped push third- 
quarter growth in the gross do- 
mestic product to a 3.9 percent' 
annual rate from the previously 
reported 3.4 percent. 

Inflation continued to be 
mild, with the implicit price de- 
flator slowing from earlier in 
the year to 1.9 percent — al- 
though that was three-tenths of 
a point hig her than ori ginall y 
reported. 

The growth figure was well 
above the Fed’s target of 2JS 
percent. Business groups feel 
comfortable with GDP expan- 
sion of 2.9 percent or 3 percent 
— a difference with the Fed of 


at least $150 billion in annual 
output 

Other data confirmed the 
economy’s momentum. In Chi- 
cago, the Purcbasin§ Manage- 
ment Association said its barom- 
eter of regional business 
conditions had risen to 67.4 in 
November from 643 in October. 

The Conference Board, 
which on Tuesday reported a 
12-point jump in consumer 
confidence that may have been 
exaggerated by the November 
elections, forecast a 7 percent 
rise in Christmas spending 
based on a household survey of 
5.000 shoppers. 

Everett Erlich, the Commerce 
Department's undersecretary for 
economic affairs, said the com- 
bination of steady growth, low 
inflation and productivity 
growth of almost 3 percent was 
“too good to be true” but never- 
theless likely to continue without 
a serious decline. 

At the same time, a note of 
caution emanated from the 
Fed, with Allen Blinder, vice 
chai rman and a Clinton ap- 
pointee, saying that while the 
economy was “extremely 
See ECONOMY, Page 12 


Studio Middlemen Are Sent Reeling by ABC Deal 


By Geraldine Fabrikant 

New York Tima Service 

NEW YORK — In power breakfasts, 
networking lunches and phone conver- 
sations, entertainment executives are 
chewing on the meaning of the television 
studio alliance that Capital Cities/ ABC 
Inc. announced this week with the team 
of Jeffrey Katzenbeig, David Geffen 
and Steven Spielbeig. 

And while die ruminations ranged 
widely on the implications for other 
Hollywood creative types, many agreed 
that the impact would fall most directly 
on the big movie studios — like Warner 
Brothers, Paramount, Universal Co- 
lumbia and Disney — that depend 
heavily on television .production for 
profits. 


For decades, the studios have been 
the middlemen in television production, 
putting up money for producers to de- 
velop programs and series. They bad the 
financial strength to b ankr oll' produc- 
tions, sell them to the networks and wait 
years to recover their investment. 

Now, if more independent producers 
such as the Katzenberg-Geffen-Spiel- 
berg team can strike deals in which a 
network does part of the bankrolling, 
there is diminishin g need for the middle- 
man. 

And, as federal rules are changing to 
allow networks to own more of the pro- 
grams they broadcast, fewer and fewer 
prime-time slots will be available for the 
studios to fiH 

“The time periods are drying up,” 


said Fred Silverman, who beads a televi- 
sion production company that bears his 
name and already sells his programs 
directly to the networks. His credits in- 
clude “Matlock” and “Diagnosis: Mur- 
der.” 

little wonder, then, that at least two 
studios. Paramount and Warner Broth- 
ers, are scrambling to start their own 
networks early next year. 

The movie studios “are in television 
because they had the capital” said Bar- 
ry Dfller, chairman of QVC Inc., the 
home shopping network, and the former 
chairman of Fox Inc. “But now the 
sources of supply are widening, and the 
networks can make their own shows.” 

There was less consensus among in- 
dustry executives, however, on the long- 


term financial impact of ABCs ground- 
breaking agreement to share advertising 
revenue with its new production part- 
ners. 

The new arrangement breaks the 
mold of television series production, in 
which a network puts up most of the 
production cost and recovers its money 
from ad revenues, while the outside pro- 
duction company recovers its invest- 
ment from sales of rerun rights, often 
years later. 

Some industry experts said they 
doubted that ABC or its rivals CBS and 
NBC would make similar deals with 
other producers, because Mr. Kaizen- 
berg and his colleagues had the power to 

See ABC, Page 12 


INTERNATIONAL MANAGER 


Mrs. Lewis Steadies TLC Beatrice 


By Tony Chapelle 

New York Ttma Service 

N EW YORK— The late 
nald F. Lewis's unused 
is a Hollywood vision of cor- 
porate grandeur. The bright 
Persian rug, fortress of a desk and trunk- 
like humidor of Monte Cristo cigars be- 
speak wealth and power. Outside the 
floor- to-cdling window, Central Park, in 
all its fall glory, seems to rash in. 

Mr. Lewis’s office is a mere shrine 

these days, though; a new chief executive 
has settled into more utilitarian digs at 
the far end of the building. Nearly two 
years after her husband died of brain 
ranrftr at the of 50, Loida Nicolas 
Lewis has taken the helm at the company 
he built, TLC Beatrice International 
Holdings Inc., which operates in Europe 
and is the largest black-owned business 
in the United States. 

TLC — which stands for The Lewis 
Co. — now has 16 subsidiaries in West- 
ern Europe with a weak force of 4 , 500 . 
Its grans are its wholesale grocery opera- 
tion and two French discount supermar- 
ket dram*, Franprix and Leader Price. 
Dennis Jones, executive vice president 
for operations, estimates that 1994 reve- 
nue will hit $1.6 billion. 

It has been an eventful year for Loida 
Lewis. At first she was unsure how much 
corporate control she wanted, and sne 
declined to give interviews. 

But with strong financial results under 


her belt, and a book about her husband 
in the stores, she is stepping into the 
The book. “Why Should White 
Have All the Fun? ” started as an 



NYT 


autobiography and was completed by 
Blair Walker after Mr. Lewis's death. 

And now that she has stepped for- 
ward, Mrs. Lewis is willing to talk of her 
successes since replacing Jean Fugett Jr-, 


Mr. Lewis’s half-brother, who ran the 
company last year. 

“When I just came in,” she said, in a 
pronounced Filipino accent, “my consul- 
tants said, ‘You can’t raise $20 million in 
bridge loans.' But we did it in a month. 
When we wanted to sell the corporate 
plane, they bet me that our prospective 
buyer didn’t have the money to dose. 
But he paid us $14 million." 

Since becoming chairwoman in Febru- 
ary and chief executive in July, Mrs. 
Lewis also has sold several subpar sub- 
sidiaries, slashed the staff and size of the 

hirec^Tnew chief financial oSicoTA few 
weeks ago, she oversaw the refinancing 
of a $170 million bank loan. 

Still some analysts and shareholders 
remain leery of her qualifications: She is 
an i m mi gra t i on lawyer with no formal 
business background. A good part of the 
company’s recent financial results, skep- 
tics said, can be attributed to a rebound 
in the European economy. 

And while Mrs. Lewis has calmed at 
least some stockholders, who were shak- 
en by her husband’s death and disdo- 
sures about the rocky condition of the 
company’s business, she is embroiled in 
a bitter lawsuit with one holder group, 
Carlton Investments, over the amount of 
Mr. Lewis’s past compensation. 

The group, which originally included 

See TLC, Page IS 



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Source: Reuters. 


U.K. Airline 
Authority 
Denounces 
Fare System 

By Erik Ipsen 

International Herald Tribune 

LONDON — The 50-year- 
old system by which many in- 
ternational airfares are set on a 
bilateral basis is anti -competi- 
tive and contributes to price 
collusion among, airlines that 
allows them to charge artificial- 
ly high fares, Britain's Civil 
Aviation Authority charged 
Wednesday. 

In a report, the authority flat- 
ly said that the bilateral system, 
“which so evidently concerns it- 
self more with the interests of 
producers than consumers, is 
increasingly unacceptable.” 

The authority called for mea- 
sures to encourage the entrance 
of smaller carriers into the mar- 
ket as an antidote to the exist- 
ing system in many 

markets by a few large carriers. 

In Geneva, a spokesman for 
the International Air Transport 
Association, the trade group rep- 
resenting most of the world's air- 
lines, rqected the charges. “They 
make it sound as if this was 
something done in back alleys, 
something that was invented by 
the airlines to do in the consum- 
er,” the spokesman said. 

Analysts said the system was 
unlikely to change soon. “As 
long as many governments are 
funding loss-making state- 
owned carriers it will be in their 
best interests to maintain what- 
ever amount of protection they 
can,” Guy Kekwick of Lehman 
Brothers International Ltd, said. 

A number of European air- 
lines, including British Airways 
PLC and KLM Royal Dutch 
Airlines, are currently contest- 
ing in court the European Com- 
missions recent approval of a 
20- UDha French franc ($3.7 
billion) cash infusion granted to 
Air France by its government 
Similarly, opposition is mount- 
ing to an expected second state 
bailout of Iberia Air Lines. 

Proponents of freer competi- 
tion among European airlines 
recently got another harsh re- 
minder of how far there is to go, 
wheal a strike by Iberia's unions 
Tuesday grounded more than 
1,100 flights. 

(Iberia's pilots union balked 
Wednesday at an accord to save 

the carrier and called Instead 
for a complete overhaul of the 
company, The Associated Press 
reported from Madrid.) 


General Magic Gets More Backers 


Compiled by Our Staff From Dispatches 

PALO ALTO, California — Four interna- 
tional telecommunication and consumer elec- 
tronics companies said Wednesday they had 
invested in General Magic Inc., a developer of 
computer and communications software. 

General Magic will receive undisclosed equi- 
ty investments from three Japanese consumer 
electronic companies — Sanyo Electric Co., 
Mitsubishi Electric Corp^ Oki Electric Indus- 
try Co. — and a Canadian telecommunications 
equipment maker, Northern Telecom Ltd. 

The backing from the companies could 
help General Magic establish its software as 
the standard for wireless communication be- 
tween handhel d computers. 


The four new General Magic backers said 
they would use General Magic’s technology 
in portable computers or communication de- 
vices they were developing. 

The new General Magic partners join Ap- 
ple Computer Inc., Sony Corp„ Motorola 
Inc., AT&T Corp., Matsushita Electric Indus- 
trial Co. and several other international com- 
puter and telecommunication leaders. 

General Magic, founded by several former 
Apple employees, remains privately held. The 
company’s founders and many of its 120 
employees own a majority stake. The compa- 
ny has delayed plans for an initial public 
offering. 

(Bloomberg, Rearers) 


Sega Set to Beam Into U.S. Homes 


Bloomberg Business News 

ANAHEIM, California — Sega Enter- 
prises Ltd., the Japanese video-game maker, 
said Wednesday it would offer its interactive 
Sega Channel throughout the United States 
after market tests proved successful 

The Sega Channel is an interactive cable 
television channel that offers video games on 
demand, along with contests, news and test 
versions of upcoming Sega games. 

It was test-marketed in 12 U.S. cities over 
the past year. Sega said it planned to begin 
making the channel available in new markets 
in Deonmber. 

By January, it will be available in Chicago, 
San Francisco, Seattle, Indianapolis, Hart- 


ford, Connecticut and South Bend, Indiana. 
Within a year, it will be available in about 20 
million homes nationwide, the company said. 

“We’re very excited about the test results.” 
said Stanley Thomas Jr., president of Sega 
ChanneL “Sega Channel has performed even 
better than our expectations in virtually eveiy 
area researched, from subscriber satisfaction 
to perceived value.” 

He said 8 percent of subscribers in the test 
markets were first-time subscribers to basic 
cable television service. 

Mr. Thomas also said the television service 
had increased sales of Sega Genesis game 
machines and offered wider exposure for Sega 
games. 




CORUM 

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Admiral's Cup Winner with enamelled nautical pennants marking the hours. Registered model. 
For a brochure, write to: Corum. 2301 La Chuux-de-Fonds, Switzerland. 


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Page 12 

market diary” 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, THURSDAY, DECEMBER h 1994 


U.S. Data Revision 
Fails to Spur Dollar 


Via Associated Pick 


Compiled by Oar Stuff From Dispatches 

NEW YORK — The dollar 
was little changed against most 
other major currencies Wednes- 
day after economic reports sug- 
gested the U.S. economy was 
growing fast enough to drive up 
interest rates, dealers said. 

The dollar ended at 98.975 
yen, flat from Tuesday. The 
dollar was bid at 1.5700 Deut- 
sche marks, down from 1-5702 
DM. The dollar was also at 
1 .3272 Swiss francs, down from 

Foreign Exchange 

1.3295 francs, and 5.3835 
French francs, down from 
5.3928 francs. 

The pound rose to $1.5645 
from $ 1 .5625, supported by 
what was considered to be a 
favorable British budget for the 
year to March 1996, which was 
released Tuesday. 

Many traders said they were 
encouraged by the dollar’s per- 
formance this week because 
strong economic reports sent it 
higher, rather than lower. Bull- 
ish economic data often raise 
concern about inflation, which 


ECONOMY: GDP Tops Forecast 


Gontmoed from Page 11 

strong,” he doubted that unem- 
ployment could go much lower 
without risking inflation — a 
comment markets will bear in 
mind in assessing monthly em- 
ployment figures due Friday. 

■ Stocks Beset by Rates 

The stock market finished lit- 
tle changed Wednesday, held 
back by concern about rising 
interest rates, news agencies re- 
ported. 

The Dow Jones industrial av- 
erage finished up just 0.68 point 

U.S. Stock. 

at 3,739.23, while gaining issues 
outnumbered losing ones by a 
3-to-2 ratio on the New York 
Stock Exchange. 

The price of the benchmark 
30-year Treasury bond rose 
1 1/32 point, to 94 13/32, taking 
the yield down to 8.00 percent 
from 8.03 percent Tuesday. 

Bond yields holding near 8 
percent have drawn investors 
away from equities in recent 
days. 

Telefonos de Mexico's Amer- 
ican depositary receipts were 
the most actively traded issue 
on the New York Stock Ex- 
change, falling VA to 53 on dis- 
appointment with some of Pres- 


Oo# Jones 


uHhe. ! 

justriai average 


triggers slumps in stocks, bonds 
and the dollar. 

Data released Wednesday in- 
cluded an upward revision in 
the U.S. third-quarter gross do- 
mestic product and a rise in the 
Chicago Purchasing Manage- 
ment Association index on re- 
gional business conditions. 

The reports added to specu- 
lation that the pace of U.S. eco- 
nomic expansion will force the 
Federal Reserve Board to raise 
interest rates. 

Dealers said investors had 
been increasingly attracted to 
the dollar because of high yields 
on short- and medium-term 
Treasurys. In addition, strong 
U.S. economic data reinforce 
the view that high bond yields 
will draw investors to the Unit- 
ed States. 

Higher rates make it more 
expensive for consumers and 
companies to borrow and there- 
fore tend to put the brakes on 
economic expansion. They also 
tend to make a currency more 
attractive relative to other cur- 
rencies. (AFX 

Knight- Ridder, Bloomberg) 



Dow Jones Averages 


Open tfiflh Low Lost Chg. 

Indus 3759:08 3763.1 1 3731.15 373923 *068 
Trans 7449.44 7451X7 1441 3? 74*13? *1.17 
util 179,41 179.B7 171 SS 179M *0.13 
Camp 1257.10 125004 1349.48 1251.73 “0X6 I 


Standard ft Poor’s indexes 


High Low One ChVe 
Industrials 54410 539.86 539,44 — 146 ' 

Tram 35020 34132 348X8 +OMi 

UtllllNa 150X2 14941 15049—026 

Finance 41.44 4050 41X4—027 

SP50Q 457.13 453J7 45349 — 148 . 

SPIOO 425JM 42071 42147—1X5, 


EUROPEAN FUTURES 


Metals 


don PrwritoM 

BM AS* GU ASft 
ALUMINUM (HM Grade? 

Dalian per metric fan 

Sool 19 HUB 191140 184940 187000 

Forward 1934X0 1937X0 1889.00 1890X0 

COPPER CATHODES (High Grade} 

DaHars per metric tan - 

Spot 2953X0 2958X0 2894X0 2898X0 

Forward 2913X0 2914X0 2054X0 2855X0 


NYSE Indexes 


Composite 
i ndustri als 
T raise, 
unity 
Finance 


249X9 24827 
315X4 31341 
224.98 223X9 
200.93 19946 
195X1 1906 


34841 —047 
313X9 -0X8 
7204 *047 
199X8 —0 40 
19448 —OX7 


7MSX0 7705X0 
7820X0 7830X0 


5795X0 5805X0 
588SJH 5890X0 


1102X0 1103X0 
1130X0 1131X0 


M JJAS ON 
1994 


NYSE Most Actives 



VoL tfigh 

Law 

Last 

Cha. 

TelMex 

62680 54% 

52% 

53 

—i% 

Compaq s 

39466 41 

39% 

39% 

—i% 

Merck 

37457 37). 

37% 

37 V, 


Chryslr 

35590 49% 

47% 

48% 

+i 

RjRNab 

3S4I2 5% 

6% 

6Yu 

+ % 

AT&T 

31359 49% 

48% 

49% 


SFePCs 

3632) 16% 

16% 

16% 

— % 

WalMOTT 

23443 23% 

23 

73% 

— % 

NVarTcs 

24757 43% 

41% 

41% 

— % 

Motor las 

23884 58% 

56% 

56% 

— % 

Moore 

20746 ITU 

17 

17% 

_ 

GnMotr 

20670 38% 

37% 

38% 

< •, 

PtlUMr 

20715 60% 

59% 

59% 

— % 

GanEIs 

70124 47% 

46 

46 

— % 

IBM 

18965 71% 

70% 

70% 

— 


NASDAQ Indexes 


HWi Law Last Chg. 

ComPOsfte 754.11 749X7 749X7 —1.91 

Industrials 757.1T 754.99 754.99 —047 

Banks 89444 691.12 69464 +444 

Insurance B9640 89248 89131 + 078 

Pittance 864.37 B63X6 B6437 +411 

Transp. 65X93 650.14 651X3 *1.97 


AMEX Stock Index 

Hob Law Loot an. 
434.10 43X03 433X7 *<L78 

Dow Jones Bond Avorogos 


20 Bonds 

10 Utilities 
TO Indus! riots 


DoUara «er metric fan 
Snot 63450 637 JB 630X0 631X0 

Forward 454X0 655X0 649X0 650X0 

NICKEL 

Dolkn par laataic fan 

SKI 80251'. 803180 7495X0 7705X0 

Forward 8155X0 8160X0 7820X0 7830X0 

Dollars par latfrfctaa 
Spot 6065X0 6075X0 5795X0 5805X0 

Forward 6155X0 6160X0 5185X0 5890X0 

zinc (Special hu Grade) 

Dollars per metric taa 

Spat 1729X0 7130X0 1102X0 1103X0 

Forward 1U7X0 1158X0 1130X0 1131X0 

Financial 

HW Low Close Cham 
3-MONTH STERLING fLIFFE) 
imm-ptsutiRpct 

DOC 9166 9161 9165 — 0X2 

Mar 9294 92X3 92X2 + 0X1 

Jon 9232 9222 92X2 +0X3 

Sap 91X7 91X4 91X7 +0X5 

DCC PUT 91.39 91X1 +0X6 

Mar 71X7 91.18 91X6 +0X6 

Jon 91.13 91X4 91.13 +0X5 

Sep 91X3 9094 91X2 +0X6 

Dec 90X2 98X4 90.92 + 0X6 

Mar 90X7 §0.75 mm + 0J5 

■taa 9094 TOJ3 WJ9 + 0X6 

Sap 9092 9045 90 l75 + 0X5 

Est. volume: 78,131. Open Inf.: 510.181. 
3-MONTH EURODOLLARS (LJFFE) 
si mUBH - pts of in pet 
Dec N.T. N.T. 9394 —0X6 

Mar 9112 9112 9108 -0X5 

JM N.T. N.T. 9248 —002 

SOP N.T. N.T. 92.15 +0X4 

Eat. volume: ML Open tot.: 4X50, 

3+40NTH EUROMARK3 (LIFFE) 

DM1 mUDM-Ptsof 108 pet 

DtC 7696 9491 9494 -0X2 


hmi u* us Sew# or* 

1395 15195 153X0 15250 -025 
taM fLT. N.T. I6.T. 154JM UlKh. 

jSS NT. N.T. N.T. 15575 WWH. 

fSa 158X0 158X0 IjtfS ISKX0 +025 i 

Sh NX N.T. N.T 169X0 +025 

oa 161-90 161X5 TilJS 162X0 +0X5 

Mf 164X0 162X0 164X0 164X0 +025 | 

Eat. volume: WX80 - Opentaf. 95X1? i 
BRENT CRUDE OIL (IPE) 

5 Ii Sol As PV BorrtWols of l X08 borrab 
jan 17.15 16.71 17.12 17.11 Undv 

1658 16X0 1692 16X2 —0X4 
inr 16X4 M49 16X2 16X2 —0X2 

2? 16J7 16X2 1696 1696 -0X2 

May 1672 16X6 1692 1694 UndL 

jm 1691 16X1 1690 1690 UK*. 


NASDAQ Most Actives 


ident-elect Ernest Zedillo’s 
cabinet appointments. 

Chrysler rose 1 to 481* on ex- 
pectations for the automaker to 
raise its dividend Thursday. 

In over-the-counter trading. 
Level One Communications fell 
4 Vt to 12% after Montgomery 
Securities and Robertson Ste- 
phens & Co. downgraded the 
stock, citing a delay in a large 
company order. 

Applied Materials fell 4% to 
47% after the company said its 
1995 earnings might suffer from 
an inability to keep up with de- 
mand for its thin -film products. 

Intel feD to 63Vfe as concern 
continued over problems with its 
popular Pentium microproces- 
sors. International Business Ma- 
chines said it would establish 
telephone help lines and offer 
replacements to customers who 
had bought personal computers 
containing the Pentium chip. 

Compaq Computer fell I 'A to 
39Mi. The company sued rival 
computer maker Packard Bell 
Electronics for infringing on 
three of its patents. 

Lotus Development rose PA 
to 43% on rumors the software 
company was planning to 
merge with Oracle Systems, 
which fell 1% to 4 l'A. 

(AP, Reuters) 


Intel 

Md 

Novel 

Lotus 

ApMMoH 

Ciscos 

AptfeC 

MicSft 6 

LwnJOni 

TitCmA 

ErtcTAXJO 

Melhanx 

BestPd 

TchDats 

CodaEn 


High 

Law 

Last 

Chg. 

66% 

62% 

63% 

—2% 

19% 

19V. 

19% 

+ % 

m 

19% 

19% 

— % 

45% 

41% 

44% 

+3 

50V. 

47% 

47% 

—4% 

33% 

32% 

32% 

—4* 

39% 

37 

37% 

—1 

64V. 

62% 

62% 

—IV* 

13% 

1IU 

12% 

—4% 

23% 

23% 

23% 

— % 

1J%, 

1 w* 

W . D 

♦V* 

15% 

14% 

14% 

+ % 

6% 

5% 

6% 


17% 

15% 

17 

+ Vk 

6% 

6W 

6% 

+ W 


AMEX Most Actives 



VoL 

High 

Law 

Last 


15951 

13% 

12% 

12% 


10184 

8% 

7% 



8492 

10% 

1D% 



8288 


1V„ 



6722 


3*. 

3V»i 


5722 

u% 





23 

23 



4204 30% 

38% 

38% 


3871 

l’/u 

1% 


Presd A 

3313 

% 

V» 

’/« 


Market Sales 



Today 

Prev. 


Close 

cons. 

NYSE 

298X6 

35152 

Amex 

Nasdaq 

18X3 

301.10 

3 8f] 


NYSE Diary 


Advanced 

Declined 
Uncfianoed 
Total issues 
Now Highs 
New Lows 


AMEX Diary 


Advanced 
Declined 
Unchanoed 
Tola* Issues 
New Highs 
New Lows 


NASDAQ Diary 


Advanced 
Declined 
Unctuxwa 
Total issues 
New Highs 
New Lows 


Spot CommocPUeN 

Commodity Today 

Aluminum, lb 0X67 

CogpwrelccJrofrUc, fa I J6 

Iron FOB. ton 213X0 

Load, fa &•« 

Silver, fray ox 5X35 

Stool (scrap), fan tot® 

Tin. lb 4 X52B 

Zinc, fa IL5555 


OHM 

94.17 

89X6 

98.78 

arao 
+ 033 
+ 028 
+ 0J8 

DK 

Mar 

Jan 

5op 

Dec 

Mar 

94.74 

94X7 

94X4 

94X1 

93X4 

9137 

94J1 

94X0 

94X2 

9388 

93.52 

93-23 

94J4 

9465 

94X2 

93.99 

93X3 

9135 


Jan 

Sep 

Doc 

93XA 

92X1 

9254 

92X6 

9270 

92X6 

9279 

9155 

oom 

1256 

Frew. 

1155 

Mar 

Jn 

Se» 

92J7 

92J7 

9238 

92X3 

9223 

92.19 

92X2 

S5 


1016 1075 

683 706 

2955 2936 

23 9 

86 103 


1697 16X2 1696 1696 - 002 

1692 16X6 1692 1694 UndL 

1691 16X1 urn 1690 Unch. 

14A5 16X0 16X5 16X3 +0X3 

N.T. N.T. N.T. 1672 +0X7 

N.T. N.T. N.T. 1694 + 0X4 

N.T. N.T. N.T. 16X5 —0X6 

N.T. N.T. N.T. 1698 + 0X5 

16X4 1696 


Jan 9297 9293 92X3 + 0X8 

Se» 9228 92.19 92XB +0X7 

Est. volume: 142X19. Own tot.: 734,190. 
3-MONTH PI BOR (MATIF) 

FF5 mittlon ~ Ptm Of IN Pd 
DK 9436 9433 9433 — 0X3 

Mar MX9 94X4 94X7 — 0XS 

Jun fl&J 91 m 91A5 -0X3 

5CP 9335 9337 9332 -0X4 

DK miS 9294 9299 —0X3 

Mar 9272 9245 9270 — 0X2 

Jun 9249 9240 92*6 —0X3 

Sap 9238 9221 9225 —0X3 

Eat. volume: 42X09. Open tot.: 19336a 
LONG GILT (LIFFE) 

(SM08 - Ptl & 32nds of 100 pet 
DK 103X7 102-13 100X3 + 0-11 

Mar 102-14 103-21 102-11 +0-12 

jm N.r. n.t. ioi-ii + 0-12 

Est volume: 88.146. Open tnL: 138,985. 
GERMAN GOVERNMENT BUND (LIFFE) 
DM29L8M- PtS ol 108 pet I 

DK 9130 90X8 9132 +036 

Mar 9035 8999 9CL49 +035 

JOB N.T. N.T. 8994 +035 

Est volume: 183X45. Open Ini.: 204X17. 
16-YEA R FRENCH GOV. BONDS (MATIF) 
FFSnm-ptsaMM PCt 
Dec 112X6 11222 112.94 +032 

Mar 11214 111X2 112.12 +032 

Jun 110X4 11038 11122 +032 i 

Sap N.T. N.T. 11048 +032 | 

Est. volume: 188X29. Open tot.: 16L841 

Industrials 

Hfati Low Last Settle Cbfae 
GASOIL (IPE) 

03. daltars per metric fat*+ots of MO fans 
DK 14825 147X0 14730 14725 —195 

Jan 15033 150X0 15025 150X0 —195 

Feta 55275 152X0 1S22S 13225 — 195 

Mar 15425 153X0 15X75 154X0 —1X0 

APT 15393 15293 15330 15X50 — 095 


Nov N.T. N.T. N.T. 1698 +0X5 

See 16X4 1696 16X4 16X1 +0X5 

Est vol ume: 34331 . Open ini. 172X51 

Stock Indexes 

HM LOW CMK Chann 
FTSE 116 (LIFFE) 
as per todax point 

DK 3097X 30620 30942 +262 

Mar 31103 30773 3TO92 +26X 

jS 312X0 3114.0 3127X +2X0 

Est volume: 17210. Open tot: 61X69. 

CAC 40 (MATIF) . . 

55f #Mr '^«39 J 0 19*30 +1330 
DK 1988X0 1948X0 1907X0 + 3aOO 

Jen 197X80 196230 199430 +38X0 

Mar m&oo iwwn ®nxo +3930 

tan N.T. N.T. 199430 +38X0 

5CP N.T. N.T. 2017X0 +38X0 

Est volume: 51314. Open tot„- 54X0& 
Sources: Motif. Associated Press. 
London Inn Financial Futures E x c han ge, 
inn Pe t role um Exchange. _ 

Phrtdand* ! 

Company Per Ant Me Fay 

IRREGULAR 

British Steel PLC c J962 12-fl 1-26 

First State COrv . .11 13-15 M 

Trl-CBnt menta l - I.W 12-8 12-21 

c -approx amount pot ADR. 

STOCK 

NSOBmcora - 4J6 TM 1-4 

X-Rlta Corp -100 % 13-15 12-27 

REVERSE STOCK SPLIT 
Nu-Wasi Indus! l for 6 reverse split. 

INCREASED 

Fst Natl BaHGo) O 20 12-15 w | 

CORRECTION 

Harman Indus? d JB3 11^0 12-15 1 


Hannon Indust d j 

Tyson Foods A e 

d-revlsed amount 
e-rev bed record &pot dales. 


Madford SvgBk n 
Zlcator Coa 


Medford SvgBk 


ABS Indus! 

ACM Gov Income 
ACM GavOopOriun 
ACM Gov Secs 
ACM Gov Spectrum 
ACM Mnsd Dollar 
ACM Mngd Multi 
ACM Muni sacur 
AiDanca Wld Dallr 
Alliance Wld II 
Anprilca Corp 
Stock H8.R 
Central Jersey 
Farmer Bros 
Fst Natl Bk(Mlch) 
Ipcdco Entorpr 
Lobtaw Cos 
Miners Ntl Bna> 
Omaaa Find 
Patriot Gib Dhr 
ProsW c ntl LHe 
River Forest 
Seagram Co 
Trident NGL 
VOnEck Gfalnco A 
Wesfan Caoroe 




ABC: Studios Try to Sort Out Production Deal’s Impact 


Continued from Pige 11 

put up half the $200 million 
start-up cost for the program- 
ming alliance. 

“They have impressive track 
records, and that gives them 
enormous leverage," said one 
person familiar with the deal. 

But a senior executive at a 
major studio said he doubted 
that the Katzenberg-Geffen- 
Spielberg deal would remain 
unique. 


“Anyone who says that has 
not met Michael Ovitz,” he 
said, referring to the Hollywood 
talent agent who runs the Cre- 
ative Artists Agency. “Any 
good agent is going to use the 
last best deal as the negotiating 
basis" for a new deaL he said. 

“Messrs. Geffen, Kaizen berg 
and Spielberg may be special 
people," this executive said, 
“but it is hard to tell special 
people like Roseanne Barr that 


there is only one special person 
and it is not them." 

Although Mr. Diller said 
ABC was getting “the three best 
guys in the business,” be added 
that other superstars would be 
lining up at the trough. 

“It will be hard to turn super- 
stars away from ad revenue,” 
Mr. Diller said. “That is a seri- 
ous issue, because premium ads 
are the rich cream of the net- 
works’ profits.” 


GMPlans to Double 
Exports to Mexico 

The Associated Press 

DETROIT — General 
Motors Corp. said Wednes- 
day it expected to double 
exports to Mexico next year 
to 30,000 cars and trucks. 

A GM spokesman said 
the North American Free 
Trade Agreement had giv- 
en the company new mar- 
keting opportunities. 


U.S. /AT THE CLO SE ~ 

NYSE Disciplines Ex-Kidder Traderf 

MCT, YORK CAP) — Joseph Jett, the former star tradef- at 
KuMw Peabody & Co who was accused of a plot to concoct $350 
Son-^tod Pia, to ^tudlT been bared from 
SSn Street bv the New York Stock Exchange. 

W S2l2l? after Kidder fired Mr. Jett over ttealhpi 

scS? the exchange said it had disciplined him for Tefnsw$-to 

SCnoluo, ujs ^ , . m f/inwnv>nt arm An# rtf www! 


.14 12-15 1-13 
JB 12-12 1-4 


. JM IMS 1-13 


O JB 12-15 1-2 

M X912 12-9 12-23 
M X66 12-9 12-23 
M X912 12-9 12-23 
M JM 12-9 1221 
M .1219 129 1223 
M X6 12-9 1223 
M X7S 12-9 1223 
M .14 129 1223 
M .1186 T29 1223 
Q 935 1215 1-1 

O -3125 1213 1J 
O .1873 1216 1-1 

Q 3C 230 26 

Q 90 1214 1231 
Q 33 1223 1-15 
0 X7 1215 1230 
O 91 1215 1230 
Q .17 1216 12-30 
M .1031 1213 1228 
S JJ43 12-16 1-3 

Q .15 1223 V10 
Q .15 1215 1230 
Q -0123 127 1221 
M X*S 11-29 127 
9 .175 1215 1-1 


a-aanaal; (Foayn&fc to CanMftn foods; n- 
moaRUv; a-auvfarty; s-Mitf-amual 


l he action uara - 

anv NYSE-affilialed employer- Sadi pndubmom histarmdly 
£ been observed by the entire brokerage industry. 

American Brands Sells Franklin Life 

NEW YORK (Combined Dispatches) — Ammcan Brands Inc. 
has agreed to sell Franklin Life Insurance Co., ro Amej^ 
General Corp., a financial services conglomerate, for $1.17 biUipp, 

the companies announced Wednesday. ... . 

American Brands said the transaction would be tax-free. Amer- 
ican General said the acquisition would make it one of the top. JO 
U.S. stock life insurance companies. . •-> 

American Brands is also seeking to sell American 1 obacco Co. 
to BAT Industries PLC of Britain for $1 billion. The Federal 
Trade Commission voted Wednesday to file an admimstratwre 
complaint that alleges the buyout would violate U.S. antitrust 

MJ*. Bloomberg) 

Telefonos Takes Slake in Televisa 

MEXICO CITY (Combined Dispatches) —Telefonos de Me»- 
co SA said Wednesday it had agreed to pay 52 12 million to bu$\49 
percent of Cablevision SA, a leading cable-TV system m Mexi6o 
owned by Grupo Televisa SA 

The deal comes as Telfifonos, whose American depositary 
receipts were the most actively traded issue on the New York 
Stock Exchange on Wednesday, tries to modernize its telepbpr - 
system in the face of greater competition under Mexico's sweq>ij^ 
economic reforms." (AP, Bloomberg) 

Texaco Plans 34% Rise in Output 

WHITE PLAINS, New York (Bloomberg) — Texaco Ind, 
unsatisfied with its current performance compared with other 
major oil companies, plans to raise its international oil production 
by 34 percent by the end of the decade, the company's clpff 
executive said Wednesday. ‘ 

Alfred C DeCrane Jr. said his goal was to improve Texactfs 
position in the energy industry without depending on “some imd 
ride based on improving oil and gas prices.” He said the comparfy 
would focus on growth abroad. _ 

On Tuesday, Texaco said it had agreed to sell 300 of its U.SJ oil 
fidds to Apache Corp. for 5600 million as part of a broad 
restructuring plan. U , 

Silver Price Heads fora 1-Year Low 

NEW YORK (Bloombog) — Silver approached its lowest price 
in a year Wednesday as higher interest rates depressed demand. 

Stiver for March delivery, the actively traded contract, fell 15T7 
cents to 54.975 an ounce on the Commodity Exchange, the lowtst 
for an active contract since Dec. 6, 1993. ~ ‘T* 

Silver and gold are often bought as a hedge against inflatfem. 
But even with strong economic growth, consumer inflation is st£Q 
running at a mild 2.6 potent rate. Rising supplies have also 
pushed silver prices lower. 

Hasbro Buys U.K. Monopoly Game 

LONDON (Bloomberg) — Hasbro Inc., the U.S. toy company, 
will pay £50 milKm ($78 million) to buy the games division . of 
John Waddington PLC, the maker of the British variation of the 
world-famous Monopoly board game. - ; , 

The British version has been licensed to Waddington sj 2 ps 
1935. Parker Brothers, a unit of Hasbro, markets the game iiFinb 
United States. • 

For die Record 

Federal Reserve Board Chairman Alan Greenspan said m';a 
speech in Utah that banks should consider charging busujfifes 
customers different interest rates depending on how risky the 
loans are. _ , . (AP) 

Viacom Inc. agreed to buy Boston television station WSBK 
from New World Television for about 5100 million. (AFJQ 




Hr#' - 
SlF 1 -. 


NYSE 


l£E • 
- 


WORLD STOCK 

Agnw Ftonoe P i n Nov. 30 


U.S. FUTURES 


Sros9i Saoapn 


Soaiai Season 


Amsterdam 

■ABN Amro HM 
ACF Holding 
Aeoon 
AhoW 
Akta Nobel 

AMEV 

Bota-Wraoncn 
CSM 
DSM 
Etavtor 
Fokfcer 
Glst-Broaochis 
HBG 

UoImLm 
I ^niUMRI 

Hoooovens 
Hunter Douglas 
IHCCahnd 
inter Mueller 
mil Nederland 
KLM 
KNPBT 
KPN 
Nndlfavd 
Oaa Grtnten 
PaUtoed 
Philips 
Polvoram 
Raboco 
Rodamco 
Roilnco 
Rorenta 
Royal Dutch 
Stork 
Unilever 
VanOtnmeren 
VNU 

Wolters/Kluwer 

PSW!ff?aSB* 


Rhein metall 

Scherlna 

Siemens 

Thvssen 

Varta 

Veba 

VEW 

VI Da 

Volkswagen 
Wei fa 

DAX index:: 


279 280 
983 9B4 1 

61050 607 , 

27950 284 

316 305 
51551130 
37530 37250 
454 450 

42750425X0 
1000 1001 


Helsinki 

Sm^YWymo 95 95 

Hitofamaki 138 137 

Kymwme p 128 

JH fE 145 144 

»ann & ^ 

pwiS5 , ? , iajj8r j,:,mw 


Brussels 


Almanll 

Art»d 

Barca 

BBL 

Bekaert 

CBR 

CMB 

CNP 

Coefcerlil 

Ccbepa 

COllWf 

Dalhaba 

EleOratMl 

Electraflna 

Portia AG 

GIB 

GBL 

Gevoert 

Glovertiel 

Immcfael 

KredWhank 

Mosane 

Pelraflna 

P ower! to 

Recti cel 

Rural e Beige 


Henkel . 

Hochtief 

Maechsl 

HcUihonn 

Horten 

IWKA , 

Kail Sab 

Komaot 

KauKwl 

KHO. 


544 542 

925 930 
31450 314 

845 853 
20650 206 
341 340 

1825016290 
555 550 

438 441 

115.10 116 


Kfa«*nerWerkB 132-50 VO 


"S"3 

MamwamanA ^ 

ftisrssick 

SSSSSa 

PWA 
RWE 


Hong Kong 


7510 7510 
5150 5100 
2470 2495 
4415 4340 
23100 22900 
12125 12100 
2620 2610 
1900 ina 
197 197 
1080 1086 
7200 7170 
1300 1300 
5000 5740 


GIB 1304 1300 

GBL 3865 3830 

Gevoert 9200 92Sfl 

GlavnDei 4220 4U0 

Immobel 2835 2795 

KradfeHnnk 6570 6520 

Mosane 1428 1402 

9410 9420 
2900 2930 
472 402 

Raynle Beige 5010 49M 

5k Gen Banaue 8190 8110 

5k Gen Betgtouo 2145 2155 
5oflna 13150 13175 

Solvav 15150 35W 

Tnundtrlo 10150 10100 
Trnctebei 9710 9670 

UCB 24725 24625 

union Min fare 2325 2535 

WaootwUlS NA 6050 

ttMT - 


Frankfurt 

AEG 148X014860 

Alcatel SEL V* 874 
Allianz Hold nw 2384 
Altana 62030 62i 

Aalfa 720 725 

BASF 30490305.10 

Barer 343X034290 

Bo^HwaDgJk W 4W 
Bay VerrtnsBk 457X0 460 
BBC 649 643 

BHFBwifc »l » 

BMW . JB M 

CommerzBonK S3X0323X0 
Continental 21A»31AM 
Daimler Bern 742J0 7M 

DtBabOKk 80SJO 317 

□eutsene Bank 

DfHjQhn 410 w 

SSSSraonk m 409 

FeldntuOWe _ fSSl™ 
F Knw Hoeseh 1 991 98ff 
Haroener MSO 3E 



RS5iS5?J 


Johannesburg 

AECI 33.75 33JD 

AttOCti V7 100 

Anglo Amor 228 227 

Bartow* 3395 3425 

Blyvaor NA — 

Buffets 36 3850 

De Boors m W 

DrWantehl 6025 60J0 

Gencur 1425 15 

GFSA IW 1J7 

Harmony 35 35 

Hlghveid Steel 37 3550 

KUOf Si-50 57 SO 

NKbankGrp 41.75 4150 

Rnndtonleln 38 «19 

Rusatal 109 1W 

MB ram 96 9795 

Sosa! 32 31 

We stern Deep 171 175 

SSSSslBrBf 5 ”” 5 


Forte 

GEC 

GenlAcc 

Glaxo 

Grand Met 

GRE 

Guinness 

GUS 

Homan 

Hlllsdawn 

HSBC Hides 

ICI 

inch eape 
Kingfisher 

LodDroke 
Land Sec 
Loparte 
Lasmo 

Legal Gen Gro 
Lkirds Bank 
Marks Sp 
MEPC 
Natl Power 
NatWesf 

NihWst water 
Pearson 
PAG 
Piiklnaion 
PowerGen 
Prudential 
Rank Org 
Reck lit Col 
Red land 
Reed Inti 
Reuters 
PMC Group 
Ralls Ravce 
Rothmn (unit) 
Rovol Scat 
RTZ 

5alnaburv 
Scot Newm 
5cot Potter 
Sears 

Severn Trent 

Shell 

SletM 

Smith Nephew 
SmlthKIlne B 
Smith (WHJ 
Sun Alliance 
Tate & Lyfa 
Tesoo 
Thorn EMI 
Tomkins 
TSB Group 
Unilever 
Utd Biscuits 
Vodafone 
War Loan 3V, 
Wellcome 
Whitbread 
Williams Hdas 
Willis Corroon 
FT 39 Index : H 


Madrid 

BBV 3410 3390 

Bca Central Htap. 30W 2995 
Banco Santand e r 5300 5350 



Banesto 
CEPSA 
I Drosedas 
Endesa 
E rents 
Iberdrola 
Reasoi 
Tabacalera 
Telefonica 
Stock Excfn 


950 944 

3060 3085 
1955 1945 
S930 5868 
151 149 

879 B63 

3775 3730 
1680 1675 
dex: 30154 


I 44U> 44 

11*4 live 

23% 23% 
7% 6% 

18 IB 

19 17% 

12Vi 12U. 
21% 21 
12% 13 

1 Z4Vj sen, 
39% 3H 
: 15Va 15% 
20% 20% 
27% 31% 
IBVii 18% 

9 Vi 9% 
17% 17% 
«3% 40% 
18% 18% 
28Kf 28% 
16% 16% 
19 19% 
28% 28% 

C 8 7% 

43% 43% 
15% 15% 

3.90 3% I 


AcCOr 
Ah- Lfaulde 
Alcatel Ahthom 
Axa 

Bancalre ICIe) 

BIC 
BNP 

Bmiraun 
Danone 
Carrefaur 
CCF. 

Conn 
Oiargatirs 
aments Franc 
OubiMK 
Elt-Aqutfotoe 
Euro Disney 
Gen. Eau* 

Havas 
Imetal 

Laiorae COPPM 
Legrund 
Lyon. Eaux 
Oreal (L - J 
LVJVLH. 
Matra+facnefte 
iMictielln B 
Moulinex 
Paribas 
Pechlnev inti 
Pernod- RI card 
Pewoeaf 
Finouft Print 
Rodtotecbnlaue 
Renault 
Rlt- Poulenc A 
Ran. St. Louis 
Sanofl 

Saint GotxXn 
S.EJL 

ste Generate 

Suez 

Themson-CSF 
Total 
UAP. 

Valeo 

&S&£«8*W 5M 



I4J0 1350 
8.95 BJ5 
135 850 
241 239 
2730 2650 
247 245 
2J92 295 
458 458 
■3M 3 54 
458 438 
1-33 154 
1540 1540 
260 269 


Stockholm 



Sydney 


London 


Abbey Natl 4.17 ah 

Allied Lyons 553 543 

Ario Wgglrts 261 260 

Argyll Group 256 271 

ASS Bril Foods 550 554 

BAA 553 555 

BAe 448 447 

Bank Scotland 257 256 

Barclays 459 £« 

BOSS 558 557 

BAT 447 442 

BET 1.02 1J1 

Blue Circle 3JM 3JB 

BOC Grow 7.20 7.13 

Boots 498 495 

Bauater 445 4J4 

BP 4^4 422 

Brit Airways 3J7 3.78 

Bril Gas 108 107 

Bril Sled 156 156 

Brit Telecom 3J0 173 


BTR 

Cable Wire 
Cadbury Sen 
Camion 


287 247 

356 3J9 

4JJ 429 
273 273 


Coals Vlyefla 206 202 

Comm Union 534 5 JO 


Aliearaa 
Assitalla 
Autaslrade prlv 
Bca Aartcaltura 
Bca Cam met- Hal 

BcaNazLavoro 
Bca Pop Novara 
Banco dl Roma 
BcoAmbrasiano 
Bco nopoii rise 
Benetton 
Crodlta Itallano 
Enichem Aug 
Fertln 
Flat sea 
Flncra Aoralnd 
Finmeccanica 
Fondlorfaspa 
Generali assIc 
JFIL 

italameftti 
itateas 
Mediobanca 
Moniedison 
Ollvehl 

Pirelli spa 
RAS 

Rlnascente 
5<to Pdola Torino 
SIP 
SME 
Snla bad 
Standa 
sw 

Tara Assic 
MIB Telematlce: 180(0 
Prey tom : 9t94 


43343650 

23« 239 

4574495* 


courtaulds 435 433 

ECC Group 340 343 

Enterprise 011 3-83 181 

Eurotunnel 253 2.48 

F13K5 1J3 150 


253 2-48 

153 150. 


Montreal 


AlCO Lid I 
Eanr Momrtal 


14*4. |4 

23% SV] 


Sao Paulo 

Banco do Brasil 
Banespo 
Bradesco 
Brahma 
Cemtg 
Eletrabras 
itaubanca 
Light 

Poranaponemo 
Petrabros 
SauznCrut 
Taiebna 
Teiesp 
Usiminas 
Vale Rio Doe* 
varn 


Singapore 

Asia Poe Brew 1S40 1170 
Cerebos A» 8.IS 

aiyDevefapomt ?J$ 7J0 
Cycle 8r Carriage 1290 1250 
DBS 1050 1040 

DBS Land •*« 

FE Levlnastan ._ 
Fraser &N«avc 1650 1650 
Gt Easfn Ufa 27 7640 
Hkb Leong Fin 420 454 
Inchcape S5D 555 

Jumna Shtovara 1140 11 JO 
KavHlan JC opoI 15* I5£ 

5S& ’iSS 3JU 

'{sa 

0*3003 Unfan Bk 655 650 
CMOS Union Ent 280 » 

SemnawOT 1050 1M0 
SI me Singapore t.o» US 
Sing Aerospace 21? 220 


Nippon ICKOta; 

Nippon Oil 
Nlaaon Sieel 
Nippon Yuscn 
Nissan 
NamuraSee 

NTT HWaNW 

Olympus Optical logo Kao 

Pfaneer 2200 2250 

RlCOh 940 929 

Sanyo Elec 580 577 

Sharp 1728 1730 


Shtoiaru 
SMnetsu Cham 
Sony 

Sumitomo Bk 
Sumitomo Oiem 
Suml Marine 
Sumitomo Metal 
Taksal Corp 
Tafcedo Chem 
TDK 
Teflh 

Tokyo Marine 
Tokyo Elec Pw 
Toppan Printing 
Toray Ind. 
Toshiba 
Tavota 
YDmcriQM Sec 
0; x 707. 

Nikkei 2B: 1907* 


Amcor 840 857 

ANZ 296 19S 

BHP 1B48 1858 

Bond . 135 137 

BouocHnvIlle 042 050 

Coles Myer 4U 415 

Comalco 485 5 

CRA 1750 1752 

CSR 445 444 

Fosters Brew 1.10 1-13 

Goodman Field 1.14 1.14 

ICI Australia 1150 11.16 

MoseUan 155 155 

MIM 243 244 

Nat AlAt Bonk 1054 1044 

NrwsGOTP 5122 554 

N Broken Hill 359 U7 

Pnc Dunlop 138 348 

Pionoer irrt*l 116 113 

Nmndv Posekfan 207 1.9B 

PUMIshp Brdcsfa 350 355 

OCT Resource) 1.29 155 

Santos 359 359 

TNT 233 233 

western Mining 740 732 

westaac Bonking 420 423 

Woodslde 466 447 


Tokyo 

Akal Electr 
Ascdil Chemical 
AmW Glass 
Bank of Tokyo 
Brktaestane 
Canon 
G 58fa 

Dai Nippon Print 
Dolwu Hf«3® 
Dalwa Securities 
Fantjc 
Full Bank 
Full Photo 
FtriNSu 
HHaCM 
Hitachi Co*de 
Honda 
ItaYct^da 
Itochu 

Japan Airlines 
Kcilmo 
Kgnsai Power 
Kawasaki Steel 
Kirtn Brewery 
Komatsu 
Kubota 
Kyocera 
Matsu Etoc 1 nets 
Matsu EtecWks 
MltsutrtsW Bk 
Mltsub Chem lad 
Mitsubishi Elec 
MltwbwilHev 
Miisubtstu Cora 
Mitsui and Co 
Mitsui Marine 
MHsukuft! 
Mitsumi 
NEC 

NGK Insulators 
Nlkko Securities 


Toronto 

AMHM Price 
Air Canada 
Alberta Energy 
1 Alcan Aluminum 
Amer Barrlck 
Awenor 

Bk Nava Scotia 
BCE 

SC Telecomm 
Bombardier B 
Brumal eo 
Brascan A 
Cameco 
CIBC 

Cdn Natural Res 
CdnOcdd Pet 
Cdn Pacific 
Cascades Paper 
Com Inca 
Consumers Gas 
Dofasco 
Daman Ind B 
Du Pont Cda A 
Echo Bov Mines 
Empire Co. A 
Fahxnbrfdae 
Fletcher Chall A 
Franco Nevada 
Guardian Cap A 
HrmtoGcM 
Horsham 
Imperial oil 
Inca 

I PL Energy 
UritSawA 
LoJdtaw B 
Laewen Group. 
London Insur Gp 
M aanlll Bloedet 
Moono Inti A 
MaofaLeaf Fds 


UlMU ClUMU 
wnani cmtvT 

Nlhara Telecom 
Howa 


Patatfi Coro Sask 

Pravtao 

PWA 

QwetKcsr Prim 
R e na issa nce Eny 
Rio Afaom 
Seagram Co 
Stone ConsoM 
Talisman Env 
Tcleakfae 
Telus 
Thomson 
TorDamBordt 
Transalta 
TransCdaPtae 

Utd Dominion 
Utd WestP urne 
We si mas? Eny 
Wesfan 

Xerox ConodaB 
TSE no lades: :m 
Pravtoes : 418278 





Zurich 


2238 
5*5 
*95 
729 
1300 
840 
705 
941 
1310 
1160 
995 
1030 
926 
674 
379 
648 
817 
1940 1940 

450a 


Ad la Hitt B 220 ZI6 

Alusutssc B new 651 653 

BBCBrwnBovB 111) 1120 

Ctoa Getav B 777 770 

C5 HokHnas B S63 559 

Efefcfrow 6 33B 338 

Fischer b 1485 

intentiscount B 1770 m 

Jenhotl B 740 760 

Laid Is Gyr R 730 730 

MeevenpJck B 448 438 

Nestle R 1212 1215 

Oerllk. Buehrte R IXI35B 
Paraou Hid B 1460 1470 

RortwHdo PC SttS 5840 

Sal ra^R gHfallc H3 1U 

Schindler B 7S50 7626 


SChtodfarB 7»g 7620 
Sutler PC 893 IBS 

Surveillance B 182$ igjg 
Swiss Bnk Corp B 365 365 
SwjtaRetasur R 771 * 
Swissair R sis ms 

UBS B 1144 1138 

Winterthur B 670 m 
Zurich Ass B 1340 1235 


Via Aaodoted Pibi 


Semon 5eason 
High Low 


Ooen High Low Close Chg OpJrn 


High 

Law 

Open 

High 

Low 

Oose 

Chg 

op. hr 

High 

1196 

10X7 Od 95 

1163 

1372 

13X1 

13X3 

+0X1 21X42 

93.180 

1128 

1008 Mar 9« 

13X7 

1114 

1100 

1100 

-a 13 

5,901 

92X70 

13X0 

11.18MOV96 

12X7 

1191 

12X6 

7173 

—0.12 

1.294 

Est. sales 

13-77 

ll.)0JUI8* 

12X3 

12X7 

12X0 

1155 

-Oil 

672 

Tue's apt 

1150 

12X600 96 

1150 

12X0 

1125 

1128 

—018 

13 

BRITISH 


Open High Lew Ochs On Oi'M 


Grains 

WHEAT (COOT) MOCiunwrTWn- Man otr cunrl 

Aim 309 DecM X67'^ 3731; U*'l 3Z2 'j +007% 74778 

426% 127 Mar *5 177' , life 174 184V; -aw.'. 29466 

J.WW H69iMav9S 1621 j.70 leIXt 16rtii -0O3Vi 5556 

343W 111 JU95 134 W 7 40 334 V, 358% +0O2W 11A27 

US 3J» 5ep95 142% 144 14! 143 -DOIV, 547 

175 149 CW«S 153 Ita 15am 356 *0019, 166 

154% 325 Jul96 331 131 131 3JI *0.07 , « II 

Est sake 33000 Tue's sahE, 22,227 

Toe's open ns tA.m up IS4 

WHEAT (KBOT) UBunwviwn-MrioeDuM 




n* 

389 


3X6% + HOB V, 

+196 

4J7V. 

125 I»iw95 179 V, 

3X8 V, 


IBS .0X6 

21.183 

403 

3J19,Mov95 168 

172V, 

1*41. 

3X9'i *0X1*1 

1741 

3X8V, 

116 V, Jul 95 


34* 

141% 

14446 +0X1% 


177 

379 Sep 95 




1X7% +O0IW 


3X9% 

3X2 Dec 95 




3X5 1 '. 4O0I4i 

14 


Est. sales NA. Tub's, soles 8,570 

Tub's o nnilnL 32.469 at! 17W 

CORN (CBOT) SJMBuiPM'nvni- mean or* auiftM 

177 2.1DVrDec94 2.12 2.13V. 1119. 113 -031% 27,597 

LB7V, JJOtjMorrs 2.22' i 2J3'.y 251 W 233 *0.00'1 111465 

LBS 238 Mav«22?’.H 130 L26 1 -. 259’*, *a00'4 38,101 

255% 13?9iJulVS 113% 234% 232% 233*. 46-411 

2JDV, 258 S« »5 119 259'A L38U L3» 4.256 

253 2J5 , ’iDK9S L44% 255 253 2546. -100'/. 22539' 

L60 1 '. 250 Mar % 2 51 151'* L49V, 2JT6 *000% 1.041 

357 2JJV,Jul96 TJT'A 258". 257 2589. 1561 

EsI. sales 75JXW Tub's, sales 9JJ21 

Tie's oacnlnl 254 JM off 12178 

SOYBEANS (CBOT) aiWar, dot wy* 

754 U7 ^4 Jan 95 5.W 549 SJ9 1 j 553’ i -056 V, 50,546 

755 557 Li Mar 95 578 S.79 169*. SU -HMU. 3IM7 

755V, 556 MOV 95 555 555V, 5.77V, SJIV.— 0JBV, 16523 

7X6 V. 55JV.JUI95 5899, if|l, 552 50?^ -0X5% 24.234 

612 556V, Aug 9S 592 59J 555V, 557 -0X6V. 1.937 

6.15 5.71 Sop 95 5.92 ’t 593 iB7 5879,-0X6% 1,158 

650K, 5JBV,Nov9S 599V, 5.99-., 5.93 i*5Vi-OX4W 11.187 
Alt 5.9V "-5 Jon 96 6.04’.. 6X4'. 6.07 6X7V—0X4>« 125 

517 515 Mor 96 511% 511% 510 510 -0JISW 10 

538 i9?v,jul96 517 -0X4 58 

6X7 501 Now 96 6X4 506 6X4 501 — OXIVi 117 

Est. safes 45.000 Tue's. sales 27,512 

Tub's open W 137 ,562 up 439 

SOYBEAN MEAL (CBOT) 1 00 ion, -Mian nr W, 


Jan9e 

Ear. sows sumo Turs. sates 50.197 

Tub's open m? 104,763 up 2257 


22.91 Mar 95 76X0 3590 26JO 2*J3 -a« 259BI 

22X5MOV9S 25.90 3S90 3558 25.70 -0.41 17J43 

2276JUI95 24 95 M.I0 74X5 24X7 -0X4 10.714 

2173 Aug 95 2570 2-1.75 24.52 24X2 -045 2J75 

22.75 Sep 95 74X0 2440 2415 2415 -0X2 IJ19 

27.7500 95 7535 7435 2195 2L» -0X4 3^77 

22X0 Dec *5 MOO 74X5 2175 7J.7B — 0.« S.111 

23.40 Jan 96 23.55 23X5 23-55 23.15 — OJO S? 


C-J sale. 31,438 T lie's, stoes 35X15 
Tor's ooen ha 1 88X90 up 1680 
COCOA (NCSE) Mmnicim-lwai 
1580 1041 Dec 94 [194 1210 ?!B4 

IMS 1077 Mar 9S 1729 1237 12M 

1412 ID'S May 95 1261 1263 1237 

1600 1 235 JUl 95 1284 1289 1260 

1560 I2KSHP9S 1310 UI5 1302 

1633 12(41 Dec 95 1340 1342 1320 

1674 1350 MOT 96 1370 1370 1350 

1642 1225 May 96 1393 1394 1390 

1505 IWOJulW 

1531 1520 Sep 96 

EH. safes 22X69 Tue's. soles 2DJX3 
Toe's open to? 75JI7 up 3065 
ORANGE JUICE (NCTN) ISBIBi.-OMNia'I 
132.00 99X0 tat 95 10 5 -50 10L20 10020 

12425 »3X0 Mor 9 5 110X0 11040 I0L4S 

124X5 97X0 May 95 11310 11310 100.00 

, 177 JO 100JDJUVS 11445 11445 112X5 

13025 IB7J5S»,« 11920 11920 11920 

I39XD 109X0 Nov 95 11X90 116.90 116.90 

129X0 HK-50 Jon 96 
(mOO 12425 Mor 96 
EsLsatos NJL Tue's sales 2JB4 
Tue's Open rtT 26X44 nit 44 

Metals 

W GRADE COPPER INCM2D u.«ein.-eanh 
137X5 7525 Dec 94 136X0 I37JO 136® 

131X0 7 4.90 Jon 95 135X0 135.40 135X0 

131X0 73X0 Feb 95 13220 132J0 132.70 

132.10 71X0 Mar 9S 132.70 132.90 13140 

127X0 91.10 Apr 95 13020 13030 129J0 

12820 74X5 May 95 129 JO 128J0 127X0 

I2U0 lot to Jun U 

12500 78 DO Jm 95 12570 17570 12110 

170.® 111X0 Aug 95 

1 19 JO 79. 10 Sen 95 121X0 171X0 12IJH 

11550 111000095 

11575 88X0 Dec 95 11520 11550 114X0 

11120 BBJa Jc*l96 

11220 62J0AAor96 

109 JO 107X0 (Way 96 

107.20 10550 Jul« 

10525 10525 Sep 96 

Est. sales 14X00 Tue's. sales 16X52 


+3 725 

♦ 3 47.25* 
-I 10X36 
-S 4X27 
-3 1X79 
—3 5.3D7 
-1 5399 
-4 SOI 

-6 17 

—5 70 


— 195 13X69 
-175 6X35 
— 3JD 1.945 
-3X0 1X29 
-2X0 1,951 
-1X5 1J12 
-US 528 
—U5 10 


+ 1.15 12.279 
♦ 0X0 1.209 
*03] 766 

-035 26,280 
—0.10 711 

-0J0 2X17 
-I .» 5*9 
-1.10 3,902 
-1.4B 357 

-1X0 1X61 
—2X0 IW 
-2X0 2X01 
—1X0 59 

-1X0 555 

—1.55 104 

—1.70 52 
— 1J0 1 


-070 11,715 

SILVER 






-080 32+526 

597.0 

380.0 Dec 94 

SOU 

507X 


*89.6 

—14.9 18X18 

— 1X0 24.887 

J76J 



50UI 

SOSO 

49JX 

— ISJ 

93 

—1X0 12X69 


FB0 9S 




494X 









—167 76108 

—1X0 1709 


418XMav9S 621X 

521X 

4900 

503.4 

—15.9 

7X78 

-1X0 1X66 


420X Jul 95 

52SX 

527X 

506X 

109.7 

— 16X 

9.977 

-1X0 4+548 

603-5 

5315 Sep 95 

531X 

JJIX 

516-0 

516J 

—161 

4.143 

—1.40 3X67 


5»XDecf5 

5410 

544X 

522X 

526X 

-16X 14X0) 

-050 1 


567XJanH 




529.9 

— I6X 



622X 

ssaxiwarf* 

^11 



537X 

—14-5 

1.880 









3.104 


600X 


560.5 

5605 

SS6X 

551.9 

—173 

-049 17X74 


. s*p?s 




5S»X 

— 17A 



Livestock 


CATTLE (CMER) atain.cnipva 
74J0 67X7 DCC 94 67.10 67 Jg 6621 

7435 66X5 Feb 95 *7.00 67X0 66X7 

75.10 6737 Apr 95 «BJ7 68J] 6830 

6 «.X 6430 Jun 95 64JS 64X7 64X0 

68.10 62J7 Aug 95 67 75 6175 6230 

67J5 62L3BOCJ95 63X0 63X2 4110 

6635 64 15 Dec 95 64X0 6J» 6110 

Est. sales 21.166 TuTs. sales 17,228 
Tue'sooenini 6936J up 118 

PEEOSt CATTLE (CMER) awn-ome 
80.95 71X0 Jan 95 77*0 7290 72.15 

8035 70 35 Mar 95 70 55 70.92 70.15 

74.90 70.I0ABT9S 7037 70X2 *8.95 

7630 69.70 MOV 95 69.80 49X0 6930 

J2.S5 69X0 Aug 95 70 05 70.05 035 

6935 69.250095 (9X5 69X5 «U5 

71X0 69X5 50146 69 X5 69 20 89X0 

Est. tales 1.554 Tub's, sakn 1.997 
TuB’saPenfaV 0X09 up 578 

HOGS (CMER) 494100 ta. ■ eems Be* ol _ 

5830 31.1QDec44 11.10 1125 MAO 

50 JO UlOFebtS 14X0 3450 34X2 

480 35.05 Apr 95 15.50 JSJO 33X5 

47X0 48X0 Jun 95 40.75 *US 4035 

45X0 4UXSJUI9S 4075 40.W 

414 40.40 Aua 95 4X2 41.00 4*5 

4050 38300c? «5 38.90 39X2 384 

4130 32 00 DK 95 41.10 41J0 4X7 

42X0 4I.URA96 47X0 42X0 030 

EsL sofas 6JD6 Tue's sales BAN 
Tue’s open in? 15,971 up 421 
PORK BELLIES (CMER) 4MH Bn. - oqm Mr I 
40X5 35J0Feb« 36J0 W0 BM 

60X0 35 50 Mar 95 36X0 36X2 3805 

61.15 3690 MOV 95 37X0 J7J0 37^ 

54.00 37X0 JulM M.50 MJO M40 

44.00 34.70 Aug 95 37Xd 37 Jl 37.4 

AS 00 39X0 Feb 96 

59.90 39 B0 Mar «4 

Ed. tales 3J83 Tue s. safes 120* 
Tue'sapenin inx*5 up 39* 


COFFEE C (NCSE) r.UPfci-i-r-HK 
24435 77. 10 Dec 94 15* IS 157X0 

244X0 78.90 Mar 95 15875 Ul.4 

744X0 82X0 Mov 9S 1*125 16150 

745.10 8500 Jul 95 IflJO JMJ0 

238X0 1 6S 00 SeP 95 1*5 25 16*75 

242 00 81X0 Dec 95 liJXO lffJO 

70330 169X5 Mar to 

Est. sales L56l Tue vsniM . 7304 
Tub's open ire 79X10 ua 559 
SVCAR-WOOLDll (NCSEJ "7X*h 

1525 9.17IWHV9S I4J4 KM 

I&.IB 1037 MOV 95 14*0 MB 

14.75 1037 Jyl 95 1437 1*4 


157.50 IS7.ll 
15638 ltd* 

15975 162.15 
16130 16523 
161 JC 16AJ5 
166X0 16735 
14630 16)75 


..rMiKre 
1459 14 71 

1435 14)1 

1428 14 -U 


-8.12 17X19 
-A10 14.747 
-0X5 17.983 
-0X3 4X49 
—0X3 2X58 
♦ aos 961 
-0X5 IS) 


-aJO OK 

*030 tjn 

-0.12 972 

-0X3 529 

—OX7 195 
-075 1 

—US 61 


-090 9J3I 
—835 12,109 
—030 6322 
-Oil «9* 
-005 750 

—007 973 

• 0.12 795 

.0.13 


-0X0 8309 
—0 10 1348 
—058 484 

-0X0 3(7 

-OXS 130 
• 0.10 6 
•0X1 1 


-1.35 40) 

-1 40 17.899 
— I JO 6,3*7 
— 1.2S 2.589 
-1.25 1.172 
-1.50 9*2 

— 1.50 233 


am ioi.9?B 
007 34,764 
001 27.576 


Tue's open W 140148 up 5317 
MXTWUM (NMBR) ntwoL.MnH’rova. 

43530 374X0 Jan 93 409JO 411X0 403X0 4000 —510 11927 

439X0 390X0 Apr 95 414JKJ 415X0 407 50 408.90 —5X0 7.790 

4J9X0 411X0 JlH 95 417X0 417X0 41430 4)120 —5X0 1,969 

441X0 rt2-OOOU95 425X0 425X0 4S.00 417.70 -SXO 817 

41930 •!.v«rjan« <00.70 —5X0 

Est. sales Na Tub's, sate 4X02 
Tub's open Ini 26. SIS up 683 
GOLD (NCMX) ■■•moL-HOiwiWB 
42630 343X0 Dec 94 SEL® 38110 37970 369.70 -1 JO 11329 

Jan 95 382X0 —1X0 

411X0 36330 Feb 95 38670 287.00 38170 3BUQ — 1.60 72J40 

417X0 36430 Apr 95 39040 391X0 387.W 18830 —1X0 >5.166 

42830 361X0 Jun 95 39430 394.90 39130 39230 -1X0 18X69 

41*30 JM 30 Aua 95 398X0 379X0 396X0 396X0 —1X0 1I4U 

41970 401X00095 402X0 41000 401X0 40170 -Ixd 2.322 

427X0 400X0 Dec 95 40830 40830 405.10 405X0 —1x0 11728 

42130 *1 2X0 Feb 76 410.10 —1X0 

430JD 418J0Apr96 414.70 —1X0 

43130 41 3X0 Jun 96 411X0 -1X0 1730 

Aug 96 434X0 —1X0 XU 

Est.sGes 47X00 Tue's. sales 71357 

WsewoW 171691 Up 3833 

Financial 

US T. BILLS (CMER) >1 mMkv- nNafitPocl 

96.10 9475 Dec 94 «J8 MJf 9432 94J6 -0JB 9JH2 

95X5 YU»Mar9J fin tin 93X1 93X5 -007 13J72 

9A24 93X9 Jun 95 93X2 9113 9109 910$ -0X5 1.966 

9337 9272 SOP 93 9175 *0X1 38 

EsI. sales NJL Tub's sofas 9J07 

Tuasoponint 25X88 uo 1639 

5 YILTAEAMIRY (CBOT) tiaiumprtn- ml »nai bmubci 

10+20100-0*5 Dec « 100-13 100-2) 100-09 100-91 * 10 97,907 

HD-09 99*20 MarM 99-25 100-015 99-72 100-015+ 09 70X99 

100- 08 99-19 Jun 75 99-20 • 09 W 

99- 0) 99-07 Sep 95 99-11 + 09 2 

fst. safes .10,000 Tue'i sales 129X36 

TMTsapenM 161,787 up 2292 

10 YR. TREASURY (CBOT) tlUOMshn-cnL OWN IOObc? 

114-21 99-02 Dec 94 99-19 100-11 W-25 100X8 * II 167X42 

111- 07 «-ll Mar 95 *9-04 99-11 99-00 99-15 ‘ II I353S1 

105-22 97-27 junfS 90-15 98-29 96- IS 98-79 * 11 265 

101- 06 97-11 SeaH 98X9 98-14 98X9 98-14 • I) HI 

110-31 9+30 Dec 95 97-77 98-01 97-2/ 98-01 + 11 J 

§st. sofas 144X00 Tue's. sales 311,997 

Tue's ooen tttf NZXTD up 284 

US TREASURY BONDS (CBOT) Hixi-iiOOim-on 6. JTmhMiaiai 
118-08 91-19 DecfJ 97-31 91-24 97-7* 98-72 • 21 219X13 

116-20 95-11 Mar 95 97.13 91-04 97-06 98-02 + 71 710.867 

'15-19 9+27 Jumjs 97X0 97-18 96-23 97-17 - 21 I2xn 

112- 13 9+10 Tea 95 96-11 97X4 9+U 97-0 • 21 355 

1»3-14 93-2/ Dec ?5 96-23 • 22 207 

H+« 93-13 Mar 96 96-12 • 21 J9 

100- 20 91-0* Jun 96 96-01 * 23 36 

M-B 93-05 Sep 96 9S-H • 23 2 


113-U 93-27 Dec?5 96-23 • 22 207 

ll+« 93-13 Mar 9* 96-12 • 21 J9 

100-20 91-06 Jun 96 96-01 * 23 36 

M-B 93-05 Sep 96 9S-H • a 2 

ESI. safes WB.ooo Tue's. sates sw,909 
Tue'sopen in? 442x10 UP 1691 

MUNKPAL BONDS (CBOT) (UH-Mni+llSlInSVINM 
91-17 80-11 OCC 94 82-30 84-05 82-75 M-« -110 10X54 

88-09 79-20 Mv 95 12X9 83-24 02-07 83-23 - 1 17 18X62 

EH. sales 73.000 TiWi. sales 20X86 
TuC S 0PW ml 37X16 up 744 
EURODOLLARS (CMER) iimta+saWDa 
« J80 *0.710 Dec 9* 93J90 93.800 93*90 93760 -40157.433 

95.500 90.240 Mar 95 93110 91130 93000 93060 —50458,570 

94- 710 « TV) Jun 95 97X10 97X10 97J90 93460 -30378.775 

JfSS !!3to5ep95 92.120 U20B «X« 92.150 ■4026M77 

94 25 91.100 Dec 95 91X60 *I.9» 91 810 91.930 * >0 192.949 

9* 720 9O-»S0Mor H 91X00 '1 910 71.770 71.470 -lOIBleto 


91X70 Jun 96 91730 91X40 91.710 91X30 +9014({0M 
91X20 Sep 96 91X00 91X00 91X50 91790 +110145*11 


BRITISH POUND (CMER) sner pound- 1 MntmuaUHMOl - • 
1X43* 1X5D0DK94 1X622 1X686 1X614 1X656 +24 501)71 

1X440 1X640 Mar 95 1X632 1X688 1X820 1X654 + 34 . 7r})0 

1-6380 1X348 Jlin 73 1X650 +36 ,,.119 

Est. SOT 11.649 Tue's. sofas 16X52 ■- 

Tue’s men W 57X60 up 2133 . :*> 

CANADIAN DOLLAR (CMER) uw*- 1 ooWeauotisatWi ■’> 
07670 0-7038 Dec 94 “7756 07278 0J2ffl QJ265 +11 H303 

017605 OTOMMarfS U7255 07277 07255 07266 +12 «V*0 

0-7572 0X970 Jun 75 0J2S8 07271 07258 072*3 *13 .rtm 

0743B 0X965 Sep 95 Q725B +14., M2 

074W OJTMODOCW 07231 + 15 ' J44 

07315 8.7740 Mar 915 07240 *16: :W 

Ed. safes MBS Tw'sufa 13X96 - . 

Tue'sopeninl 54X62 up 5225 

GERMAN MARK (CMK) liwmorw- 1 KMmeaOTPUHm > 
0X731 0 5590 Doc 7* 0.0*8 0X381 0X353 0X368 — U?E.)53 

0X745 0-5010 Mar 95 0.6303 0X374 0X372 0X382 jrJB 9 

0X747 0X900 Jun 95 0X407 0X416 0X405 HXU9 *1 H443 

0 .urn 0X347Sep9S 0X438 +1 '• r)13 

Ed. sales NA. Tue's. sales 41X49 

Tue’s apenini ny40 up *403 ’■ 

JAPANESE YEN nTHTlli l m mu 1 lupin — ifajn HOIRII «r 
Oc:0*900-009S25D+C 9* 0.0101 1 70X101 3SXH11 SH .0101 23 —1 Til *5 

5C:(H600JW680Mor 95001 03000.1i5Q2Z70Jn 01940.01(1215 32X02 

OJ110670QJ0 9776-l un 95 OJh 0320001 03490X1 0310X10334 +1 .1X19 

IU)077SDXia200Sep 95 0X10454 +2 , ‘T36 

0X107600.01 0461 Dec 95 0X10515 ,3 r'91 

QX10930L0JQ71]QMar 960X105850X706900X106050.010696 + 3 -.10 

Ed. sales NA. Tue’s-sOT 24X36 

Tue'i open IrO 84,930 up 4500 . 

SWISS FRANC fCMEH) tier ln«- 1 POMerodlfMIOI • 

0X108 0X885 Dec 94 07533 0.7 560 07510 0.7519 +1 S*X0» 

0X136 07287 Mor 9S 07560 07594 (L7551 07576 +1 -<U71 

0X165 07193 Jun 9S 07605 07643 07602 07627 . 10 A 

0X155 08071 Sep 9J 07*80 +13 6 

Est. sales 21,171 Tue's. sofas 20X00 
Tue's aoonfnr 61X11 up )28T 


+1 36X0* 
♦ 8 •*& 
+ 10 pTK 

+ 13 >t. 6 


Industrials 


COTTON 2 (NCTN) HUOOtM.- MNk 
78.15 4X9 DflC 94 76J0 77 JO 74X0 

■OXS 62J06Aar9S 78.98 79X5 7050 

■!.» 64.00 Moy 95 80X6 8 D5B 7VX0 

■ 1-75 *9-30 Jul 93 SOXS B1X0 8005 

7LM 66X00095 73.13 73X0 72.90 

72X0 66XSDBC9S 71 JO 71X0 71.10 

7125 48X0 Mar 96 

May 96 

Ed.soies NA Tub's. sides 13X27 
Tue'swBnUi? 51X31 up 495 
HEATING OK. (N86GR) 47J»eei- omwD ai 
59X0 46X0 Nov 94 49 JU 5010 *8X0 

6025 4025 JOn 95 49X0 50X5 49 JJ 

75 47.95 Fi* 95 50.10 50*5 5010 

57.50 *7 jn Mar 95 5020 5070 50-1 3 

55.13 4X05 Apr 95 49X0 49J3 49 JO 

54J0 47 .00 May 95 49X5 49X0 4925 

5150 46. 79 Jm) 95 49.15 4725 49X5 

5X10 48.41SBP9S 5015 50X5 50X5 

5X95 5005 Od 95 51X5 51X5 51X0 

5A40 SI 30 Mw 95 5225 5175 SI25 

57 AO 52X5 Pec 95 5X60 5X40 5140 : 

EsI. sales NA TUB* t sofas 37X90 
Tue's ope n im 1*6J2 ait 2033 
LKJHT SWSCT CRUDE (NMERI IXOOtM-am 
19X5 l&ISJanVS 17X3 1014 17X5 

19x0 lUIFebTS 17.90 1009 17X3 

20X6 15X2 MET 95 17.90 1007 17X5 

19X0 15+55 Apr 98 17.91 18X3 17X6 

19X6 15X9 May 95 17X8 1UM 17X8 

2030 1 5^3 Jun 95 17X8 18X0 17X6 

19X7 1 AOS Jul 95 17X8 17.91 17X6 

19X7 1616 Aug 17.90 11X2 17.90 

1060 17 JO Sep 95 17J1 17.93 17.92 

19.17 164301295 

19X6 17. 15 Nov 95 17.98 17.98 17X7 

2080 16X0 DflC 95 10X0 1003 17.97 

21.18 77.QSJM194 18X0 1007 1O00 

11X6 17X8 Feb 96 18X8 1008 1008 

1080 17.1SMW96 18.11 1011 18.11 

1017 17X1 Aar 96 

18X2 1632 May 96 

2660 1722 Jun 96 1021 1825 1018 

10X7 1 038 Sep 96 

3000 17^0 Dec 96 10*8 1051 1048 

ES. soles NA Tue’i. safes 73X94 
Tue's op enw 370X79 off IJU 
UNLEADED GASOLINE (NMER) OJ»»- a 
*088 50X0 Nov 96 5*85 5AX0 S4JS ‘ 

5060 K. 50 Jan 9 J 54X0 55JO 5625 

SOU 51.10FCD95 54X0 55X0 54XQ 

son 52.00 Mar 95 5035 56X0 H20 

*030 JOSS Apr 95 SOSS StXO 5055 

^ SSW” a,B 53 

57.94 54X0 Jul 95 56X3 56X2 5663 

5633 53X0 Sop 95 

5035 SZSOQct 95 

55X0 52X0 Nov 95 5429 5425 5425 

5475 52X0 Dec 95 

5729 5440 Aua 96 5017 5017 S017 

EsLsales NA Tue'o tales 32J2J 
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Stock Indexes 

“f.COMR'NDOt tCMERJ fto.faar, 

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2*500 5*630 Jun 95 i 

265X0 24920 Sea 95 % 

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Toe’s eoenfaf 4,7*2 us 1*5 


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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, THURSDAY, DECEMBER 1, 1994 


PSage 13 *g« 5 




. . . i 


Hoechst Profit 
Quadruples on 
Strong Sales 


Budgets Stress Austerity 

Greece Strives to Meet EU Standards 


Conqrikdby Our Satff From Dispatches 

■ ' FRANKFURT - Hoechst 
AG. the German ch emicals and 
pharmaceuticals giant, said 
Wednesday that third-quarter 
..profit more than quadrupled 
'because of strong foreign de- 
mand and higher prices. 

/ The pretax figure was 605 
‘million Deutsche marks ($385 
minion), up from 143 million 
•DM in the year-earlier period. 

Unemployment 
FeU to 12.6% in 
France in October 

Reuters 

w PARIS — French unemploy- 
ment showed its biggest month- 
ly fall in six years in October, 
bringing the number out of 
work down from record levels 
tq 333 million, the Labor Min- 
istry said Wednesday. 
r .,;The drop took the unemploy- 
‘ment rate to 12.6 percent from 
12.7 percent in September. It 
,was seen as good news for the 
^goyermnent, which is anxious 
^ip show before next year’s pres- 
idential elections that its eco- 
■nomic policies are creating jobs. 
[. Many analysts had expected 
another small rise in October 
after an increase in September 
that took the total number out 
erf work to a record 335 million. 

. The new figure should help 
'boost consumer co nfid ence and 
: was a “rather positive** develop- 
ment for the government, Phi- 
lippe Brossard, an economist at 
Cr&Ht Lyonnais, said. 


NYSE 


Third-quarter sales rose 8 per- 
to 11.72 billion DM. 

. But Hoechst said the profit 
nse partly reflected a compari- 
son with a weak performance a 
agp and that profitability 
remained poor. 

“We are comparing to a very 
low base. Therefore, the in- 
creases are high,” said the chief 
executive, Jurgen Dorman n. 
“We have just begun to get our- 
selves back on the road to a 
successful level of results.*’ 

He said pretax earnings for 
the full year should be 2 billion 
DM, up from 1.23 billion DM 
in 1993. 

“The improvement in earn- 
ings will certainly continue in 
the fourth quarter, and next 
year I expect a further strong 
increase in earnings,” Mr. Dor- 
mann said. 

Hoechst shares closed slight- 
ly higher at 31430 DM. 

The company expects 1994 
sales to be about 50 billion DM, 
compared with 46 billion DM 
in 1993. He also said the divi- 
dend for 1994 would “certainly 
not be below” the 7 DM a share 
paid in 1993. 

Mr. Dormann said the com- 
pany was benefiting from 
strong economic growth in 
America and Southeast Asia, as 
well as economic recovery in 
Western Europe. Sales im- 
proved across virtually all oper- 
ations, he said. 

Mr. Dormann said Hoechst 
remained interested in expand- 
ing its pharmaceutical opera- 
tions and sought to acquire two 
or three medium-sized pharma- 
ceutical companies. 

( Bloomberg, Reuters ) 


Rentas 

ATHENS — Greece’s government present- 
ed an austere 1995 budget Wednesday, appar- 
ently aimed at appeasing European Union 
partners who are concerned that the Greek 
economy is trailing others in the EU. 

The budget would hold down state ex- 
penses and increase the primary surplus with- 
out imposing new taxes but seek to collect 
existing ones more effectively. Finance Min- 
ister Alexandras Papadopouios said. 

It forecasts a primary budget surplus of 3.4 
percent of gross domestic product, compared 
with a 2 percent surplus in 1994 and the 3.5 
percent pledged by Greece in its so-called 
convergence plan to bring its economy in line 
with those of other EU countries. 

“The 1995 budget is of historic importance. 
The country cannot afford another disap- 
pointment over its convergence plan," Mr. 
Papadopouios said. 

The primary budget surplus excludes inter- 
est payments on Greece’s huge debt, which is 
estimated at more than 1 10 percent of GDP. 

The general budget deficit, including pay- 
ments on the debt, is forecast to fall to 9.8 


percent of GDP in 1995 from 12 percent in 
1 994 and 10.7 percent in the convergence plan. 

An 18.6 percent rise in revenue is expected, 
mainly from battling rampant tax evasion, 
collecting old debts and selling casino li- 
censes. No new taxes were called for. 

Greece's public-debt service will total 
about 62 trillion drachmas ($26 billion) in 
1995, up from 5.6 trillion in 1994. 

The budget forecasts that Greece's nominal 
GDP will grow 9.6 percent in 1995, to 25.3 
trillion drachmas. It projects revenue of 8.31 
trillion drachmas and a 10.4 percent increase 
in spending to 10.81 trillion drachmas. 

The budget calls for a 31 percent increase 
in public investment spending with spending 
on health rising 17 percent and spending on 
education rising 123 percent. 

The budget forecasts year-on-year inflation 
of 1 1 percent in December. Mr. Papadopou- 
ios sard Parliament was expected to debate 
and vote on the budget Dec. 27. 

Spending on salaries and pensions is ex- 
pected to rise by 10 percent in 1995, while 
spending on agriculture -.vfli rise 73 percent. 


In Austria, Spending Cuts Draw Fire 


Cabled ty Our Staff From Dupatcha 

VIENNA — Chancellor Franz Vranitzky 
submitted a budget to Parliament on Wednes- 
day that called for saving 250 billion schil- 
lings ($23 billion) over the next four years. 

For the first time in Austria's postwar his- 
tory, the spending plan has met with strong 
protests by trade unions, white-collar work- 
ers’ groups and across the political spectrum. 

Mr. Vranitzky defended the budget as “a 
comprehensive, offensive and bold program." 

He said cuts in burgeoning public spending 
had to be made to secure a sound financial 
base for Austria’s future. 

“It is not that we are in any immediate 
danger, but it is better to make cuts when there 
is an economic upturn ... so we are prepared in 
case of another recession." he said. 

Mr. Vranitzky, chancellor since 1986, de- 
nied that Austria had been living beyond its 


means, despite estimates of a budget deficit 
for 1994 of 100 billion schillings. 

The new budget stipulates cuts in family 
allowances, welfare benefits, a variety of other 
social programs and government subsidies. It 
renews the government’s never-fulfilled pledge 
of reducing the growing army of civil servants. 

Mr. Vranitzky vowed to step up the govern- 
ment’s fight against tax evasion and abuse of 
social benefits and promised steps to create 
200,000 jobs and build 50,000 new apart- 
ments a year. 

He also said the retirement age would be 
gradually increased, but it was not known 
when this would be implemented. At present, 
male workers can retire at 60, although the 
official retirement age is 65. Corresponding 
age limits for women are 55 and 60. 

(Reuters, AP) 


Moscow 
Privatizes 
TV Outlet 

The Associated Press 

MOSCOW — President Bo- 
ris N. Yeltsin on Wednesday 
ordered the government to sell 
shares of Russia's largest 
television and radio company, 
though 51 percent of the stock 
would remain in h»nH< 

The company, Ostankino, 
broadcasts throughout the for- 
mer Soviet Union. Hie new 
venture would be called Rus- 
sian Public Television. 

Last month, Mr. Yeltsin an- 

kino with thcf^recot^nation- 
wide state broadcasting 
company, Russian Television & 
Radio Co. But he changed his 
mind after the media and some 
politicians warned that the step 
would result in a government 
broadcasting monopoly. 

Mr. Yeltsin’s opponents have 
complained that state television 
favors the government and car- 
ries biased coverage of political 
events, charges that Russian 
broadcast executives deny. 

Ostankino’s chief, Alexander 
Yakovlev, told the Itar-Tass 
news agency that Mr. Yeltsin 
had acknowledged the pro- 
posed merger would not “bdp 
democracy” and instead of- 
fered to privatize Ostankino. 

The remaining 49 percent of 
Ostankino’s stock would be 
sold to 12 major companies and 
or ganizatio ns, including Itar- 
Tass, tiie StoKchny and mkom- 
bank commercial banks, Aero- 
flot, and the Avtovaz car 
manufacturer. 

Mr. Yakovlev said the priva- 
tization would help make Rus- 
sian television independent. He 
also said it would bar political 
groups from taking control of 
the network before next year’s 
parliamentary elections and the 
1996 presidential campaign. 


Fmnkjfuri 

,DAX . 



TTTTill 


.FTSEiOCModex 


tjmsr :• 

: 

Sources: Reuters, AFP lmcmatioaalHci^ Tribune 


Very briefly: 


• Coditei, the Bdj 
by a court to stop 
cartoon channfil- 


cable television company, has been ordered 
ideasting Turner Broadcasting System Inc.'s 


• Texas instruments Inc. plans to invest $500 million to raise its 
silicon-wafer production capacity at its plant in Avezzano, Italy. 

• European Union businesses are facing longer delays in getting 
paid for their work and some are going bankrupt as a result, the 
European Commission said. 

• Royal NedDoyd Group NV posted a third-quarter net profit of 43 
million guilders ($25 mifiionX reversing a loss of 7 million guil- 
ders, as lower financing costs offset a sharp decline in earnings 
from ocean shipping. 

• Boefwerf Vtaanderen NV, Belgium's last major shipyard, was 
declared bankrupt Wednesday, a court official said. 

• Telegraph PLCs Canadian parent, Hoffinger Inc_ is b eginnin g 
to rebuild its stake in the newspaper publisher, six months after 
selling a large share block. 

• Ceske Energetkke Zavody, the partly privatized Czech power 
utility, launched the former Communist bloc's first investment- 
grade corporate bond with a $150 million, five-year Eurobond 

ISSUe. Reuters, AFP. Bloomberg 


12 Monm 
Mtf) Lew Stock 


Si 

Div YM PE 103b 


I !2Mmt> 

Low Latest dr's* [ Mali Laws 





— 


THIS ANNOUNCEMENT APPEARS FOR INFORMATION PURPOSES ONLY 

REPUBLIC OF PERU 

ANNOUNCEMENT OF 
PRIVATISATION 

The Special Committee for the Promotion of Private Investment in Banco 
Continental S.A., appointed by the Government of Peru, through the 
Commission for the Promotion of Private Investment, COPRI, announces the 
sale of the Peruvian Government's participation in: 


Banco Continental is Peru's third largest commercial bank in terms of assets 
and equity. 

The tender terms for the International Auction Sale may be obtained from 
november21 through: 

COMITE ESPECIAL DE PROMOCION 
DE LA INVERSION PRIVADA 
Luis Hidalgo Viacava 
President 

Av. Republica de Panama 3055 
Centro Comerdal Continental Of. 20 
Lima 27, PERU 

Telefax: (5114) 419396 / 419424 / 417250 
For further information please contact: 

Credit Commercial de France Socimer International CCF/Socimer Peru 
Paris, Francia Madrid, Espana Lima, Peru 

Francois Lagre6 Salomon Benaiar Guillermo Van Oordt 


CCF/Socimer Peru 
Lima, Peru 
Guillermo Van Oordt 


Tel: (331)4070-7040 
Fax: (331)4070-7075 



*1 ■ 


(341)542-2300 

0341)547-4719 


Comision de 
Promotion de 
la Inversidn Privada 

COPRI 


(5114) 429896 
(5114)416422 


Lima-Peru, november 1994 | 

THE ESPECIAL COMMITTEE 


This advertisement has been approved by Credit Commercial de France, an authorised person for the purposes of 
Section 57 of the Financial Services Act 1986 (FSA). 


Coatbtupfl oa Page 14 


fgjpSPffl OF RECORD FOR Iffi MHNAT10NAI MUTUAL FUND INDUSTRY 

Listings - Daily ★ Money Report - Weekly ★ Fund Performance Focus - Monthly 


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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, THURSDAY, DECEMBER 1, 1994 


Page 15 


rjrr 

wfa Nicolas Lewis Winds Up an Eventful and Generally Successful Year at the Helm of the Company Her Late Husband Built 


JT UwlwuedfHHBPage 1] 

y Michael Milken and other former rvn»v.»i * ^ a director. According to Mr. 

Ttnrnhnm I . — - lonner Drexel Archer Mr ■ :P_l. 


Mrs. Lewis tells it diflerentiy, saying that 


Boratem Lambert investment hanir^rx Ar ?5 r ’ Mr. Fugett was to remain in charge sbe arid Mr. Fugett, wbo owns no TLC 

was centra] to the finan cing of TI.r tt?" Mrs. Lewis could get emotional’ shares, had had talks about her future role, 

product of a 1987 leveraeerTbiivniu «r .»,! ^ together to leH us how she wanted the Then, before an executive committee meet- 

nnn-U.S. businesses of Beatrice Cos C company run." ing in December, she said she prayed, and 

Mrs. Lewis says the sudi is a suhterf.io^- w ^ cw ’ s * a devout Catholic who opens later phoned Mr. Fugptt and said, “Jean, 
what the investors reaBy want, she Jzl iff’ board peebugs with a prayer, remained in Yn ready " She says he told her, “Loida, it's 

rash ran nf ih, , ** . TOOtinune for neartv a imir wm»k tn tolv " 


•?« private~rbyfo4g 

“ pubUcX-nng or a^je 

R< iP re «Maiiv« Of Carl- 

ton defined to comment. 

The forttmes of TLC Beatrice have been 

watched ever since the buyout, the 
of a U.S. company with all its 
asseteabroad. Based on cash flow, TLC has 
$729^11100,3^^ 
David Wells, an analyst at Bear, Stearns & 

In 1992, the year before Mr. Lewis died 
ham worth was P* at 5400 rnfflion. Mrs. 
Lewis, 51, and her daughter Leslie, a collese 
student, now control 48 nercem nf 


Mrs. Lewis, a devout Catholic who opens later phoned Mr. Fugptt and said, “Jean, 
board meetings with a prayer, remained in I'm ready." She says he told her, “Loida, it's 
mourning For nearly a year. yours to take.” 


mourning For nearly a year. yours to take.” 

By September 1993. though. TLC Be- There was, she said, no boardroom dra- 
wn** was running into trouble. The Euro- ma: “It was all very cordial." Mr. Fugeit 


consumer market was gasping through 
a prolonged recession. Andwhile Mr. Fu- 
gett made some changes, a mutiny by the 
company’s private shareholders hastened 
his exit. 

One problem was the company’s secrecy. 


did not respond to requests for an inter- 
view. 

Gerry Schwartz, who bought the Be- 
atrice Canada division from Reginald 
Lewis, said: “She was not only a wonderful 
wife; she was a business partner. She sat in 


In the summer of 1993, many shareholders on many meetings, and she understood his 
opened newspapers to find that Mr. Fugett strategy. It's her family's money at stake, 
wanted to acquire the Baltimore Orioles She understands the business. Why 
baseball team, a puzzling move for a food shouldn’t she step in and run the compa- 
company. Mrs. Lewis refuses to comment ny?’’ 

on that idea, which was eventually dropped. When she look over, it was a wrenching 

Soon after, jumpy investors got another decision for the family, but it prompted 


student, now control 48 narmt 7Z uuuiai mea, wtuen was eventually dropped. When she took over, n was a wrenching 
shares. Altogether the ^ Soon after, jumpy investors got another decision for the family, but it prompted 

over 50 perenLBecause of ®? ln , ce j* 51 approached the Carlton Investments, the largest nonfamily 

both women still call the bond maricet for $150 million, requiring it to shareholder group, to withdraw its de- 

oom^women sou call the company black- open us books. Suddenly Wall Sireet found mand that tie gifoup’s shares be offered 

The publisher nf RioHr rm. _ 22* no .^ on ^’ that Mr. Lewis had been paid publicly. As part of TLCs original stock- 

ane; Earl Graves Sr ^ m bonuses in the previous five holders* agreement, Carlton had the right 

board “is African IS ye ^ s « bul 11131 had siza ble losses and to demand a limited offering, which gener- 

T* 1 ^ Problems. ally makes the stock hardeFto tradfthan 

sdf with SUIT0UI1 ds her- Several shareholder groups immediately an offering of all of a company's shares. 


. The publisher of Black Enterprise maga- 
ane, Earl Graves Sr., agrees, saying that the 
board “rs African-American for the most 
part, the people Mrs. Lewis surrounds her- 
self with are black." 

Loada Lewis took a painful route to the 
top, starting in January 1993, when her 
husband died the day after the company 
announced that he had slipped into a rnmn 
A week earlier, Mr. Lewis had named Mr. 
Fugett to head the company. 

“We needed someone right away so the 
minority shareholders wouldn't think things 
were going down the tubes,” said Lee Ar- 


demanded that the stock be taken public, on 
the theory that the market would make it 
liquid enough to pick up some value 
Partly as a result, Mr. Fugett soon hand- 
ed the reins to Mrs. Lewis. There was specu- 
lation at the time that Mr. Fugett had been 
urged to leave by his brother, Anthony, a 
TLC director, and by Frank E. Richardson, 
another director, president of Wesray Capi- 
tal. 


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64 companies outside the United States. 
Beatrice's U.S. businesses were sold to 
ConAgra Inc. 

Mrs. Lewis’s defusing of that initial in- 
sider revolt might well have stood as her 
main accomplishment this year, but in 
May. Carlton brought a lawsuit in New- 
York State Supreme Court asserting that 
the S22 million paid to Mr. Lewis had been 
“in flagrant violation” of the stockholders* 
agreement. 

Mr. Milken was not consulted about the 
lawsuit and has distanced hims elf from the 
matter by separating bis assets from Carl- 
ton’s. 

Since he was released from prison last 
year, after serving time for securities-Iaw 
violations, be has been battling prostate 
cancer — so far, successfully. “I'm not 
familiar with the lawsuit, 1 ' he said in a 
recent interview. “Life is too short to get 
into these types of disputes.” 


TLC executives assert that Mr. Lewis 
asked his board for payment to compen- 
sate him for managing he never expected 
to have to do. Expecting to be just the 
owner, he also became chief executive. 

“Reg Lewis stopped everything else he 
was doing," said Reynaldo P. Glover, 
TLCs genera] counsel “He moved his 
entire family to France. He ran around 
Europe to see that his division managers 
were developing budgets, planning for 
growth, seeing that sales plans were on 
taigeL He earned the payment.” 

At a mention of the lawsuit, Mrs. Lewis 
responded firmly but calmly. 

“They’re Hying to pressure me to follow 
what they want for their exit strategy.” she 
said. “We have tried several times to come 
to common ground, and it’s always no go.” 
Her spokesman, Rene S. Meily, called 


Carlton's suit an attempt to “tarnish" Mr. 
Lewis’s memory. 

Although she has never run a company 
before, Mrs. Lewis insists she is not at a 
loss for experience. “I had the best tutor, 
Reginald Lewis,” she said. And there was 
business in her background, too: her father 
founded Nicfur, a successful Philippine 
furniture-store chain. 

Even so. Mis. Lewis has a persona more 
alrip to that of a diplomat than a corporate 
chieftain. These days, die spends about 
half of each month in Europe. She main- 
tains a home in Paris and visits plants and 
stores in Ireland, the Canary Islands, 
Spa in and five other countries to meet with 
TLC managers. 

Her key advisers are Mr. Glover, the 
geoo-al counsel: Carl Brody, a senior vice 
president, and her sister, Imelda Nicolas, 
her executive assistant 



an offering of all of a company's shar es. 

Mr. Milken, who was part of Carlton, 
not only financed the 1 987 buyout but also 
helped Mr. Lewis persuade Kohlberg, 
Kravis, Roberts & Co, then the owner of 
Beatrice Cos., that be could handle the 
deal. In return, Mr. Milken and other for- 
mer Drexel partners received 26 percent of 
TLC Beatrice's equity. 

Mr. Lewis paid KJCR $985 million for 
Beatrice International, which consisted of 


announcements 

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Page 16 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, THURSDAY, DECEMBER 1, 1994 


asia/p acif ic 


Ford to Build 
Mazda Cars for 
Sale in Europe 


Era Ends in Hong Kong 

Jardine Quits Bourse as 1997 Looms 


Cavpikdby Our Staff From Dupaidta 

TOKYO — Ford Motor Co. 
said Wednesday it would build 
about 25,000 subcompact cars a 
year for Mazda Motor Corp. to 
sell in Europe under tbe Mazda 
name. 

Ford said it would build the 
cars, based on its Fiesta model, 
late next year at one of its Euro- 
pean plants. The exact location 
has not yet been chosen. Ford 
builds the Fiesta in Dagenham, 
England, and Valencia, Spain, 
as well as in Cologne. 

The vehicle will be manufac- 
tured by Ford, with Mazda re- 
sponsible for interior and exte- 
rior styling. 

Mazda said the arrangement 
would help reduce the effect of 
currency fluctuations. The ap- 
preciation of the yen against the 
dollar and other major curren- 
cies has made Japanese prod- 
ucts more expensive overseas, 
and Mazda is the only major 
Japanese carmaker without a 
factory in Europe. 

Fond, which owns 24.5 per- 
cent of Mazda, increased its 
management control of the Jap- 
anese carmaker in June to try to 
help Mazda reverse its steep 
losses and falling sales. _ 

A spokesman said tbe two 
could also jointly develop an 
even smaller “city car" that 
Ford plans to introduce in Eu- 
rope in 1996 or 1997. 

Although Ford has been a 
shareholder in Mazda since 
1979, the two agreed only late 
last year to jointly develop a 
global strategy. Ford plans to 


rely on Mazda to develop sales 
in Asia. 

Mazda produces Ford's 
right- hand-drive cars in Japan. 
Tne two companies also have a 
joint production unit in Flat 
Rock, Michigan. 

In June, Alexander Trotman. 
Ford's chairman, said he did not 
want to increase his company's 
stake in Mazda. That came right 
after Ford installed three senior 
executives on Mazda's board. 

A Mazda spokesman said a 
few weeks ago that the compa- 
ny planned to contract Ford to 
make Mazda cars for Europe 
but did not give further details. 

Executives declined Wednes- 
day to say whether tbe deal por- 
tended further aid for Mazda. 

Mazda lost 44.1 billion yen 
(S447 million) during its last 
financial year on sales of 1.77 
trillion yen. Ford had a net 
profit last year of S2.5 billion on 
sales of SI 08 billion. 

“This won't change much for 
Mazda," said Keith Ashworth- 
Lord, an analyst at Daiwa Insti- 
tute of Research in London. 
“But Ford is talcing a step to 
protect its investment" 

Mazda's European sales in 
the first nine months of this 
year fell 10 percent to 141,000 
cars, while its overall Japanese 
car sales fell 7 percent 

Mazda, which depends on ex- 
ports for 60 percent of its reve- 
nue, recently blamed poor sales 
and the high yen for a loss be- 
fore taxes and extraordinary 
items of 28.6 billion yen for the 
six months ended Sept. 30. 

(Bloomberg, AP, AFP) 


Reuters 

HONG KONG — Hong Kong’s stock 
market witnessed the end of an era Wednes- 
day as Jardine Maiheson, the trading house 
Whose rise traced the territory’s own, disap- 
peared from the bourse’s blue-chip index. 

Jardine Matheson Holdings Ltd. and Jar- 
dine Strategic Holdings Ltd. were replaced on 
the Hang Seng stock index in anticipation of 
the removal of their shares from the stock 
market Dec. 31. 

The trading house, long a dominant pres- 
ence in Hong Kong, got its start before the 
colony was founded, selling opium to China 
in the 19th century. 

But it had poor relations with Beijing from 
the start It has recently been accused of 
supporting Governor Chris Patten’s plans for 
democratic reforms in Hong Kong, which 
have drawn Chinese opposition, and of not 
being committed to the territory’s future. 

A desire to avoid falling under Beijing's 
rule when Hong Kong reverts to Chinese 
control in 1997 is widely believed to lie be- 
hind the company's retreat from the local 
bourse, although the official reason is a dis- 
pute with (he stock exchange over takeover 
rules. 

Jardine is pl anning to shift its headquarters 
to Singapore before China takes over Hong 
Kong. 

The concern that calculates the Hang Seng 
index named four companies in September to 
replace the two Jardine companies and two 
others — Lai Sun Garment International Ltd. 
and Winsor Industrial Corp. — on Wednes- 
day. 

Three other Jardine units — Hongkong 
Land Holdings Ltd., Dairy Farm Internation- 
al Holdings Ltd. and Mandarin Oriental In- 
ternational Ltd. — will be replaced on the 
index as of Feb. 28. 

Stock in Jardine Matheson and Jardine 
Strategic rose Wednesday as the four new 
entries — Amoy Properties. Guangdong In- 
vestment, Johnson Electric and Oriental Press 
Group Ltd. — all declined, and the Hang 
Seng index lost 232 percent to close at 
8,466.26 points. 


Despite the historic reverberations, ana- 
lysts said tbe changeover should have little 
impact on the market. 

“Hie market should have adjusted for the 
change in index stocks,” said Samuel Lam 
director at a research unit of Seapower Inter- 
national Holdings Ltd. “The new entries are 
being sold down because their debut unfortu- 
nately coincided with a very weak market” 
Indeed, the Jardine units remaining in the 
Hang Seng fell steeply Wednesday. Hong- 


The oldest oi Hong Kong’s 
trading houses is slowly 
severing its ties to the 
colony. 


kong Land fell nearly 5 percent to 16.05 
Hong Kong dollars (S2.0G). 

Brokers said the restructuring of another 
index — the Morgan Stanley Capital Interna- 
tional Hong Kong index — caused investors 
to bail out of the Jardine units. 

Morgan Stanley said it was restructuring its 
Hong Kong index to better reflect the evolv- 
ing industry profile of Hong Kong and the 
impact of the delisting of the Jardine compa- 
nies. 

In addition to Hongkong Land, the broker- 
age concern said it was deleting Dairy Farm 
and Mandarin Oriental from its index. 

Dairy Farm fell to 8.10 from 8.15, and 
Mandarin Oriental dropped 45 cents, to 8.00. 

Analysts said selling pressure on Hong- 
kong Land had been iniensfied by a drop in 
stocks across the property sector. 

Of the issues bong dropped from the Mor- 
gan Stanley index, only Shangri-la Asia Ltd. 
managed to buck the market trend, rising 25 
cents, to 11.55. 

The volatility brought by thejuggling of the 
indexes is likely to keep small investors on the 
sidelines for now. said Kinson Au, senior 
analyst from PW Asia Brokerage. 


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Australia 

Documents 


Compiled by Our Staff From uispatdta 

SYDNEY — The Aust ralian 
economy grew at an annual rate 
of 6.4 percent in tbe third quar- 
ter, its best performance in nine 
years and the fastest growth 
rale among industrialized na- 
tions, official data showed 
Wednesday. 

Gross domestic product — 
the value of all goods and ser- 
vices produced in the economy 
— rose a seasonally adjusted 13 
percent in tbe three months be- 
fore compounding, tbe Austra- 
lian Bureau of Statistics said. 

Business investment soared 
22 percent annuall y in the quar- 
ter, while housing investment 
rose at an 1 1 percent rate. 

Despite the strong growth, 
nearly every indicator of infla- 
tion in tbe report showed that 
prices were subdued. 

But analysts warned that 
such strong economic growth 
could lead to an inflationary 
backlash and predicted the Re- 
serve Bank of Australia would 
raise interest rates for a third 
time either before Christmas or 
soon afterward. 

The Australian dollar surged 
half a U.S. cent in afternoon 
trading in New York to 76.87 
cents, its highest level in more 
than two years. Tbe stock mar- 
ket. however, was little 
changed, as the All Ordinaries 
index finished down 0.60. 

( Reuiers, Bloomberg) 
■ Oil Firms in Merger Talks 

Ampol Ltd., a unit of Pioneer 
International Lt<L and Caltex 
Australia Ltd. said they were 
discussing a possible merger 
that would create Australia’s 
largest oil company, Agesce 
France- Presse reported. 


Investor’s 


Hong Kong 
Hang Seng. 


Nikkei 225 



Ejuiftapge ; ’ r. 


Hongkong -Hangseng 
Sngaporo v.. ! S&sito.Tffneo-: 
sydney'. r -l. Airottijrgfftes 


KoaJa Lumpur Co mpP^fe; 
eangkoK ^ SET,- ' . .I-;,.- 
Seoul. ;■■■ ' .Composite Stock- 
Jfafrar ■ / 'X - ' WoffiteAffice T 
Manila • • FSS / ‘ : 

. s fa t ka rta v;: -^; '-StogKIn&ac'. 
Afew Zealand s ftgse-4ff- . . . -T 
! Boadvay-Vi. . Natfc^jndes ^7 

Sources: Reuters, AFP 


wn ’ • 

Wednesday 
Close : 

84£&28 

* .• iV ‘-*ini w - 

. 2,242.09 223ZBD-' frft.42* 

1,890.70 " 

19,121.73 18A4 9l>i;Q3t 
Tg 13.13 1.063, 69 

■ L302L44 • t. 353.34.' ■ +0JQ?J 
..1,074*1 :■ 1,08.126 
' 6,363 .72^.6388.1^ 

Closed : 2.691-t? : • •• 

' 482453*/' . 

1,99097 2,00l65'; v ^i8^ 

International Herald Tribune 


Very briefly: _L 

• Sooth Korean prosecutors said 35 government officials had been 
arrested on bribery charges as part of a tax investigation. 

• Japanese police arrested six men suspected of extorting H)0 
milli on yen ($! million) from a bridge-builder by threatening to 
expose an alleged bid-rigging scandal in the industry. 

• Japan's industrial production in October fell 03 percent after.a 
13 percent drop in September, the International Trade and 
Industry Ministry said. 

• Moody’s Investors Service Inc. said the ratings outlook for 
Japan’s four largest securities firms — Nikko Securities Co., 
Nomura Securities Cou, YamakiB Securities Co. and Daiwa Secp- 


• Toshiba Corp. said cost-cutting helped the Japanese maker of 
consumer electronics increase first-half group pretax profit 15 
percent from a year earlier, to 41 .76 billion yen. 

• I ftM+n Corp. had pretax profit of 15 billion yen for the six 
months to September because of strong performances by overseas 

subsidiari es. AFP. Reuters. Bloomberg 


Beijing Is Slowly Reducing 
Foreign Access to Oil Market 


Reuters 

SINGAPORE — Beijing has 
begun quietly discouraging con- 
struction of refineries by foreign 
oil companies, pushing for in- 
vestments to expand or refurbish 
older plants instead, industry 
sources said Wednesday. 

Chinese sources confirmed 
that, while there was no official 
line barring investments in new 
refineries, Beijing was unlikely 


to approve them if they were 
aimed at tbe domestic market. 

The move is a blow for many 
foreign oil companies (bat have 
been patiently cultivating rela- 
tions with China for years to 
gam access to the huge market 
The country of about 1.2 bOEon 
people is the fastest-growing oil 
user in the world. 

“We are not encouraging the 
building of new joint-venture 


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refineries,” a source at Chinais 
state-owned refinery, Sinopec, 
said. “It will be difficult to haye 
Beijing actually approve a nA' 

, refinery” ' 

Chinese sources said con- 
struction of refineries would be 
a waste because many of the 
country’s existing plants were 
underused and ' could ' be' ex- 
panded at lower cost 
Last year, China ran its refin- 
eries at only about 77 percent of 
their capacity of 33 milli on 
barrels a day, according to Brit- 
ish Petroleum Co.’s world ener- 
gy review. 

But other Chinese sources 
said Beijing's stance stemmed 
from a basic reluctance to opep 
the country s lucrative domestic 
markets to foreigners. 

“If it’s a new refinery, and If 
the foreign party wants to sell 
refined products domestically, 
it’ll face some objections," a 
source at Sinochcm, a st&te-rup 
oil company, said. 

China's thirst for oil to feed 
its booming economy has 
pushed domestic prices higher 
than international levels. Many 
oil companies made huge prof- 
its last year exporting to Chini 
and many more are keen to in- 
vest billions of dollars in refin- 
eries with the objective of later 
setting up retail and distribu- 
tion outlets in the country. * 
But China will not take the 
bail, preferring to keep a tight 
hold on its own market. « 

The Sinochem source said 8 
100,000 barrel-a-day project $t 
Dalian, a joint venture between 
Total SA of France and a Chi* 
nese consortium, was an excep- V 
tion because Total would have 
no marketing role. I 

Royal Dutcb/Sheli Group 
plans to build a refinery with ^ 
capacity of 5 million metric ions 
a year in Huizhou, in Guang- 
dong Province, and the company 
said it doubted the project would 
be affected by Beijing’s aversicih 
to new facilities. < 

The Huizhou project “was in 
the pipeline” before the shift in 
China’s attitude, said Jamife 
Halls, a Hong Kong-baseH 
spokesman for Shell. • 

At least some Chinese conj- 
pany officials recognize that 
Beijing’s new position could 
cause major problems for the 
oil-refining sector as it straggles 
to keep up with demand. ' 

Let s face it To sell domesti- 
cally is a crucial factor for for- 
eign investors,” the Sinocbem 
source said “Why would they 
want to invest and then depend 
on the export market and com- 
pete with other exporters frofo 
Japan, Korea, Singapore?” ■ 



















































































































Page 18 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, THURSDAY, DECEMBER 1, 1994 


SPORTS ___ 

Budding Stars Create Aura of Excitement in the Big East 


By Jason Diamos 

Nets York Tima Sense* 

NEW YORK —Three new coach- 
es, each of whom loves to run on 
offense and press on defense. Two 
marquee freshman guards, both of 
whom may force their new coaches to 
run whether they like it or not. Syra- 
cuse and Connecticut, both favorites 
a gain this season, both with tradition 
steeped in wide-open basketball. 

Don’t look now, but the Big East 
has finally caught up with the '90s. 

“The perception of the Big East 
being a burnp-and-grind league hurt 
it with a lot of players in the past" 
said Pitt’s Ralph Willard, one of the 
league's new coaches “A kid is going 
to go somewhere they allow you to 
play, not where he thinks they treat 
you like a sumo wrestler." 

Willard, a one-time assistant to 
Rick Pitino, came to Pittsburgh after 
rejuvenating the Western Kentucky 
program. He noted the successes of 
schools like Georgetown, St John's 


and Seton Hall in past years and their 
reliance on tenacious defense and 
ball-control offense, something the 
league has come to be known for. 

“Those guys won," he said. “I’m 
not knocking that. Other people use 
that to knock the league. But the 
perception I hear out there now is 
that people are taking notice of the 
recruiting classes and the new style of 
play. There seems to be a lot of inter- 
est in wbat's going to happen with the 
Big East. I think you're going to see 
contrast and that helps create excite- 
ment," 

At Sl John’s, Brian Mahoney 
landed two of the nation's top 20 
prep players: Felipe Lopez and Zen- 
don H amil ton. The 6-foot, 5-inch 
(1. 96-meter) Lopez, widely viewed as 
the national player of the year in high 
school last season, may already be the 
one of the most explosive players in 
the country. 

“One of the things we’re stressing 
is we do have very good quickness 


this year," said Mahoney. “As a 
league, we're getting kids who want 
to go up and down the floor." 

One of those kids landed on his 
feet at Georgetown. John Thompson 
has actually indicated that he feds he 
might have to loosen up on his noto- 
riously tight reins on at least one of 
his players, the impact freshman 
point guard, Allen Iverson. 

The arrival of Lopez and Iverson 
has created an anticipation around 
the league that arguably has not been 
present since Chris Mullin and Pat- 
rick Ewing played for the same two 
schools a decade ago. 

The irony is that a lot of people 
were writing off the Big East as re- 
cently as a year ago. The league near- 
ly folded over a bitter disagreement 
on how to expand its membership or 
whether to even expand at aU. 

“1 think as close as you can get, we 
were there,” said the league’s com- 
missioner, Mike Tranghese, on how 
close the Big East came to being his- 


tory. “Hands were on the doorknob, 
it was that close." 

On the court, no longer were com- 
parisons being made with the Atlan- 
tic Coast Conference and the Big 
Ten. Instead, it was the stepchild At- 
lantic 10, with teams like Massachu- 
setts, Temple and George Washing- 
ton, stealing the thunder of the 
supposed beasts of the East. 

But then Syracuse and Connecticut 
made the quarterfinals of the NCAA 
tournament last spring, and Boston 
College came out of nowhere to reach 
the final tight The conference signed 
some mighty recruits between sea- 
sons and has done more of the same 
during this year’s early signing peri- 
od, And Wiflard, Seton HalTs George 
Blaney (from Holy Cross) and Provi- 
dence’s Pete Gillen (from Xavier) 
should help infuse the league with 
even more life with their up-tempo 
offenses and pressing defenses. 

“I was not one who thought the Big 
East had gone so far away," said 


Blaney. “It’s difficult for anybody to 
maintain a lofty position, but I don't 
know that it had gone down that far." 

. “I fdt the Big East never went 
anywhere,” said Villanova’s coach, 
Steve Lappas. "We had six teams in 
the tournament and one that won the 
NIT. I don’t buy any of that stuff.” 

Lappas’s Wildcats, who won the 
National Invitation Tournament be- 
hind Kerry Kittles, were picked 
fourth by the coaches in their annual 
preseason poll, behind Syracuse, 
Georgetown and Connecticut. 

The Orange has Lawrence Moten, 
who Kittles wiD challenge for player- 
of-the-year honors. Moten, a 6-5 
swingman, averaged 21.5 points a 
game last season and is deadly from 
17 feet in. By season’s end, he will 
probably be the all-time leading scor- 
er in school history — and Derrick 
Coleman, Louis Orr, Pearl Washing- 
ton, Sherman Douglas and Billy Ow- 
ens all played for Syracuse. If the Big 


East has a marquee upperclassman 

this year, Moten is it 

Georgetown has OtheUa Harring- 
ton to go along with Iverson. UConn 

has Ray Allen, Doron Sheffer, 
Do any Marshall and Kevin Ome. 
And Villanova could conceivably 
challenge for the league title behind 
Kittles and Jason Lawson. 

Then comes St. John's, which was 
picked in a tie for fifth with Provi- 
dences Next are Boston College, Pitt, 
Miami and Seton HalL The Hall can 
ratfp heart, however. Villanova was 
picked to finish last a year ago. 

“There are going to be some sur- 
prises.” Lappas said. “Last year, we 
were a surprise.” 

It will not be a surprise if the 
league lands as many as six t ea ms m 
the tournament, something Mahoney 
has predicted. Nor will it be a sur- 
prise If you start seeing some higher 
scores come conference play. 


Baseball Strike Seems likely 
To Encroach on ’95 Season 


By Mark Maske 

Washington Pm Service 

WASHINGTON — The 
doomsday scenario continues 
to be played out in the major 
league baseball strike. 

Representatives of the team 
owners and striking players met 
behind dosed doors, but the ho* 
godations were so far from 
promising that management’s 
chief labor executive, Richard 
Ravitch, stayed in New Yofkon 
other business rather than join- 
ing the proceedings near Lees- 
burg, Virginia. 

Nothing indicated there will 
be a breakthrough in the talks 
or that the owners will not de- 
clare an impasse and impose a 
salary cap system when they 
meet Monday in Chicago. 

Union offidals say the play- 
ers would remain on strike if the 
owners impose a salary cap, so 
the longest work stoppage in 
sports history now appears to 
be on the verge of wiping out 
Opening Day 1995. And the 
owners soon may have to dedde 
whether to attempt to field 
teams of replacement players 
next season. 

Both sides appeared to have 
all but given up on reaching a 
negotiated settlement- Union 
officials seem to believe the bit- 
ter labor war will be played out 
in court and on Capitol Hill, 
with congressional leaders 
promising to re-examine the 
owners' longstanding exemp- 
tion from federal antitrust laws 
if the strike is unresolved early 
next year. The owners already 
are making provisions for doing 
business under the salary cap 
system they plan to implement. 

The talk among the owners 
mostly was about the ramifica- 
tions of imposing a salary cap. 


It's oasy to subscribe 
in Great Britain 
just calk 0 800 89 5965 


Management officials insist 
that negotiations could contin- 
ue even after a salary cap sys- 
tem is implemented, but the 
Boston Red Sox’ general part- 
ner, John Harrington, who is 
chairman of the owners’ bar- 
gaining committee, said Tues- 
day: “It could be chaotic But 
we’ve told the players that once 
you go past the point of imple- 
mentation, it’s difficult to put 
the yolk back in the egg." 

The owners plan to impose a 
system whereby revenue shar- 
ing and the salary cap would be 
phased in over four years. 

But other parts of the new 
system, such as the elimination 
of salary arbitration and new 
minimum salaries, would take 
effect immediately. 

According to management 
sources, the owners believe that 
25 to 30 percent of the players 
now in the major leagues would 


break r anks and return to work 
next season. The teams could 
fill out their rosters with minor 
leaguers and other strike break- 
ers. 

But there are some potential 
problems for the owners if they 
try to field replacement teams. 
The Baltimore Orioles’ majority 
owner, Peter Angelos, who built 
his Baltimore-based law prac- 
tice representing local trade 
unions, has told associates he 
will not field a replacement 
team. Ontario provincial law 
prohibits the use of replace- 
ment workers, so the Toronto 
Blue Jays could not field a re- 
placement team. Or at least not 
one that plays its home games 
in Toronto. 

And, meanwhile the players 
who remain on strike could 
fonn the nucleus of the rival 
league that is scheduled to be- 
gin play in 1996. 


NBA Standings 

EASTERN CONFERENCE 
AlfesttfC Dtvfeioa 

W L PO 
Orlando 9 2 JIB 

NewYart 7 4 436 

Boston * 4 -500 

New Jersey 6 7 -400 

Was h ington 4 7 J44 

Phi lode! Ohio 4 B J33 

Miami 3 8 -273 

Central Division 

Cleveland 7 5 -SJ3 

Detroit 7 5 -583 

Indiana 7 5 JB7 

Charlotte 6 6 500 

Chicago 6 6 Joo 

Milwaukee 5 7 417 

Alton to 4 V 308 

WESTERN CONFERENCE 
Midwest Division 

W L Pet 
Houston 10 3 .769 

Utah 9 5 -443 

Dallas 7 4 436 

Denver 6 6 500 

San Antonio 6 6 500 

Minnesota 1 13 571 

Pacific Dtvlriaa 

. Phoentx 10 3 769 


Golden State 

B 5 

AI5 

LA Lakers 

■ 5 

-615 

Seattle 

8 S 

.615 

Sacra raertfo 

6 5 

J45 

Portland 

6 6 

200 

LA. Clippers 

0 13 

JK» 




STRAFED — John Starks dived over Scott Sidles, and prone teammate Patrick Ewing, togetthebaflastheKnicks won, 
99-91; it was the Ballets’ fourth straight loss since acqmring Chris Webber, although be hid 21 points and 11 reboimds. 


TUESDAY’S GAMES 

LA. Lakers 2B 30 n B 7 13-129 
New Jersey 8 32 29 23 7 4-120 

L: CebaUas 17-22 0-3 34, Cnmptwll 9-19 J4 71. 
Olvae 11-1* 2-2 24 N; Coleman 8-28 8-13 34. 
Anderson 6-12 ll-M 24. Reboaads— Los Ange- 
les 62 (Campbell 12). New Jersey 78 (Coleman 
20). Assists— Los Anodes 35 (Van Exel 131. 
New Jersey 28 (Anderson 16). 

New York M 8 II 34-99 

Washington 26 19 23 21-91 

N: Smith 8-M 1-3 17, Ewing 9-19 2-1 20; W: 
Wetter 8-14 *0 21, Duckworth 6-12 48 16. Re- 
hounds— New York Si (Ewing 15), Washing- 
ton 54 (Webber 11). Assists— New York 27 
(Hamer 61, Washington 22 (S kites 8). 
Saatnsento 22 29 36 17—94 

Miami 33 20 22 14—89 

S: Grant 6-10 24 14. Williams 7-11 4-5 20; M: 
Willis 7-133-5 17. Coles 8-14 2-2 19. Retoands— 
Sacramento 42 (Grant 7). Miami 37 (Woe, 
Willis 7). Assists— Sacramento 16 (Webb 5), 
Miami 20 (Coles. Miner 5). 

Charlotte 34 22 16 18-M 

Atlanta 22 21 26 16-85 

C: Mourning 5-1488 16, Hawkins 7-125-522: 
A; Long 10-15 <W 21. Blaylock 7-16 2-2 18. Re- 
boaads— Charlotte 48 (Johnson 101. Atlanta 30 


(Long 7). Assists— Charlotte 21 (Johnson 0). 
Atlanta 27 (Smith 10). 

Phoenix 34 36 33 2*— 123 

Milwaukee 28 38 23 25— 1M 

P: Molerle 6-1344 2L Ruffin 8-11 0-020; M: 
Baker 10-21 3-3 23. Day 7-17 5-5 20 l Rebounds— 
Phoenix 49 IMalerle 7). Milwaukee 47 (Baker 
12). Assi s ts P hoenix 29 ( Barkley 0).MHwou- 
koe 24 (Baker. Robinson. Mayberry 41. 
Minnesota 31 16 20 14-82 

DoBas 25 22 21 16-84 

M: West 10-19 33 ZX Garland 8-74 34 I9;D: 
Jackson 820 9-14 2fc Torptev 811 34 19. Re- 
bounds— Minnesota 51 (Rooks 12). Dallas 59 
(Torptry 12). Assists— Minnesota 0 (Garland 
8). Dallas 17 (Janes, Williams. Kidd 4). 
Denver 15 21 18 27—81 

Hoaston 25 21 29 21— 96 

D: Rogers 6-14 M 14. Pock 5-12 08 12; H: 
Otaluwon 1823 78 Z7, Herrs ra 813 1-« 17. Re- 
boonds— Denver S2 (Mutombo 10), Houston 58 
(Otaluwon 12). Assists— Denver 14 ( Pack 41. 
Houston 23 (Smith 9). 

Utah 34 22 35 24—105 

Portland 26 21 32 14- 94 

U: Malone 11-1789 20, Stockton 11-182-324; 
P: C. Robinson 7-15 89 24. D rex rer 9-18 5-4 26. 
Re b o unds — Utah 47 (Spencer 13). Portland 42 
(Dudley 9). Assists— Utah 25 (Stockton 9), 
Portland 18 (J. Robinson ||. 

LA. CBppers 22 29 32 33 6-174 

Golden State 40 23 22 33 9— IV 

L: Oehere 6-1787 IX Murray 7-16 W 19; G: 
5 prewell 11-20 7-14 31. Pierce 7-14 11-11 25. 
Sefkoty 811 8621. Rebouads— Los Angeles 71 


(M ownUur g 16). Golden State 66 (Gugflatto 
11). AutsU — Los Angeles 34 1 Richardson 15). 
Golden State 77 I5prewe(l 8). 

Top 25 College Results 

Hew the top 25 teams In The Associated 
Press' s i cottage basketball pod fared 
Toesday: 

Z North Cantina (24)1 beat Pittsburgh 9847. 
Next: vs. South Carolina at Charlotte. NX- 
Friday; 6. Duke (Ml lost fa Ma. T6 Connecticut 
9886. Next: vs. Illinois at the United Center. 
Saturdav;ZFlortdo(2-<U beat Bast on College 
91-45. Next: vs. No. 21 Woke Forest at Greens- 
boro. NjC, Saturday. 

11. Maryland (31) beat Loralo. Md 9862. 
Next: vs. BucknelL Saturday; 15, Minnesota 
(4-0) beat Sacramento Stole 102-84. Next: vs. 
Central Connecticut State. Timrsdav: ILCoit- 
neettart (30) beat No. A Duke 9886. Next: vs. 
Yale at the Hartford Civic Center, Friday. 

21. wake Forest (TO) beat Dovtdson 7*42. 
Next: vs. No. 8 Florida at Greensboro. N.C. 
soturdqy; 2Z Syracuse (T-l) boot Colgate 88 
SI Next: w Kent. Frtdav. 

Other Major College Scores 

EAST 

Army 69. Harvard 66 

Fairfield 82. Toledo 59 

Holy Crass 79, Hartford 69 

Lana island U. 100. Medaor Evers 64 

Providence 78. Boston U. 53 


Towsan SL 69, Mount St. Mary's. Md. 68 
Vermont 101. St. Michael's 76 
SOUTH 

Cent. Florida 76. Rodins 67 
Citadel 6b WUHom-S' Monr-64 - 
Ciemson 96, Charleston Southern 66 
E. Kentucky 84. Chicago SL 70 
Florida St. 95, South Florida 88 
George Mason 14a Moealestar 97 
LSU 86. McNeese Sl. 71 
Louisiana Tech 76. Belhaven 63 
Marehead SI. 100. Centre 61 
N.C-Ashevllle 7D, Montreat-Anderson 69 
N.C-Wllmlngton 75. Campbell 60 
NW Louisiana 10a Troy SI. 82 
S. Carolina si. 81 Savannah SI. 69 
Southern Miss. 48. Tn.-Chaftanooga 63 
VMI 91 Cenlenory, N J. 76 
MIDWEST 
Akron 48. West Liberty 63 
Bowling Green & Defiance 56 
Buffalo 68. Ma-Konsas City 67 
town HO. Drake &8 
Kansas St. ?Z wb..parfcslde 75 
Notre Dame 80. Indiana 79, OT 
SW Missouri SI. 88, Houston 62 
SOUTHWEST 
North Texas 99. Baylor 91 
Texas 97. Lamar 54 
Texas Tech 116, Ho u sto n Baptist 82 
PAR WEST 

Cal St.-Fullerton 80. CS Northrtdge 71 
CoHtbmla 69. N. Arizona 66 
Colorado 78, Colorado St. 57 
Idaho 81. W. Oregon 70 


Loyola Mary mount 79. San Jose St. 59 
New Orleans 9X Lewis & Clark 71 
Santo Clara 74. Pacific 7Z OT 
Southern Cal 69. N. lorn 61 
Utah 74. Lewts-aortc St. 42 
W tas h lngton St. 87, E. Washington 59 
Wyoming 9Z Denver 68 

GERMAN BUDBSLtOA 
Moenchengladboch I. Bayer Uerdingen 0 
Bochum a Karlsruhe 1 
Cologne 0. Kaiserslautern 1 
Standings: BonissJa Dortmund 34 points, 
Werder Bremen 23. Moen u tenglodboch 21. 
Kaiserslautern 21, Freiburg 19. Boyem Mu- 
nich 19. Karlsruhe 19. Hamburg SV IX Saver 
Leverkusen 17. VtB SMtoart 14 EMrvdit 
Frankfurt 14, Scholke IX Cologne IX Bayer 
Uerdinoen la Dynamo Dresden 9 . Bochum X 
1860 Munich 7. Duisburg X 
ITALIAN CUP 
Quarterfinals, Hnl Leg 
Lazio 1. Napoli 0 

FRENCH CUP 
First Room 
Ntort 1. Marseille 0 

?> ?-: ci. 

BASEBALL 
American League 

BOSTON— Named Tommy Barrett monas- 


Dubious Call. 
AndaFoul 
Do In Duke f 

The Associated Press 

Cherokee Parks lost his tem- 
per on a controversial call, and* 
Duke lost the kind of game it- 
frequently wins. 

parks, who had 24 points., 
fouled out with 4:40 remaining 
Tuesday night, and the sixth-;, 
ranked Blue Devils were defea £ 
ed. 90-86, by No. 16 Connects 
cut i n the second game of th$ 

COLLEGE HIGHLIGHTS ' : 

inaugural Great Eight Basket 
ball Festival in Auburn Hills; « 
Michigan. 

Eight-ranked Florida beat, 
Boston College, 91-65, in the 
first game. ' - 

Dametri Hill, suspended) 
from Florida’s first game foe' 
stripping classes, scored 15'. of. 
his 19 points in the fust half for 
Florida (2-0). 

Ray Allen led ConnecticuiF 
(2-0) with 26 points. Kevin OK 
tie, who made two free. thrown 
with 2J2 seconds left for the? 
final marg in , had 24 points fot, 
the Huskies, who beat Dukefof* 
the first rime in five meetings. .^ 
But the key to the game may 
have been the call that took 


have been the call that took 
Parks out of the lineup for Duke, 
(2-1), a young team learning tp* 
get along without the graduated, 
All-American Grant Hill 

The play started when Parks 
went up to block a drive by, 
Donny Marshall and was called'’ 
for a foul. Replays appeared, 
showed that it was a clean block* 
and Parks jumped and down* 
when he was called for the fouL", 

He then was assessed a tech- 
nical foul his fifth personal of 
the game. 

No. 2 North Carolina 90, Phi 
67: In Chapel Hill, North Carol 
tina, Rasheed Wallace scored a 
career-high 30 points on 14-fop' 
19 shooting — including eight/ 
d unks — with 1 1 rebounds and 
three blocked shots. ." 

Reserve Garrick Thomas hit 
five 3-pointers in the second; 
half and led the Panthers (G-I^ 
with 17 points. 


or of Sarasota. FSL; JeH Grav pitching enacts 
ol Sarasota ;«md Bob Germ manager otutf-, 
ca. NV-PL Felix Maldonado, manger at iwl 
Red Sax. GCL wBl return next season, r, , 
CALIFORNIA- ■Announced . .that . Joe 
Gratis, pitcher, declined assignment (o mL, 
non and became a free agent. 

MINNESOTA— Sent Mika Trombley, pttdv. 
er. to Salt Lake. PCL. 

NEW YORK— Announced that Xavter Her- 
nandez. Pi Idler, refused an oufrtoiif assign-, 
mart to Columbus, il and becamaa free 'agent 
SEATTLE— Agreed to tarns' with Fefix 
Fermi n, tnfieWer. on 2-vear contract Desiw, 
noted Jeff Darwin, pitcher, for assignment. 

TORONTO— Sent Willie Canale, ouTfteKtaii. 
to Syracuse, il 

BASKETBALL 

National Basketball Association 
NBA— Fined Alonzo Mourning, Charlotte 
center, SWOT lor verbally abusing officials 
after a game an Nov. 21 
ATLANTA— Activated Craig Ehlo, guerd- 
teneora tram me inlured list. Renased Fred 
Vinson, guard. 

CHARLOTTE— Suspended David Wlngale, 
ouard-fonnard. for two davr tor violating 
team policy. i 

NEW YORK— Activated Doc Rtvors. guard) 
oad Anthony Bonner, forworn, from the Irp 
lured list. Placed Ronnie Grandisaa forward, 
and Chortle Ward, guard, on the Inlured list! 
ORLANDO — Waived Greg Grant, guard, - 
PHOENIX — Ptaced Kevin Johnson, guoijl, 
an the Injured nsL 



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CALVIN AND HOBBES 


'LET'S PRETtND IVE MOVED AND tfEBNY L£JY£ ANY 
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For investment 
information 

Read 

the MONEY REPORT 
every Saturday 
in the IHT 

































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SPORTS 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, THURSDAY, DECEMBER 1, 1994 


Page 19 


Investigation 
Is Sought 
By Beijing 


More May Be Lost Than Just China’s Athletic Reputation 


BEIJING — China’s Olym- 
pic Committee has asked for an 

investigation into charges that 
11 of its athletes failed drag 
tests at last month’s Asian 
Games. 

* Thcconnmtlee was “shocked 
and upset” to receive notifica- 
tion that the athletes had tested 
positive for performance-en- 
hancing drugs, the official 
newspapers People Daily and 

SKJP*** reported 
Wednesday, quoting unidenti- 


Iniamtuional Herald Tribune 

T ONDON — There still are a few of us 
-L. dinosaur romantics not yet extinct who 
oetiwe in the spiritual power of athletes. For 
me. Ctona represented the greatest, freshest 
nope of exposing and correcting a Western 
culture of sport that seems to have lost its way. 

Of course, every generation doubts its own 
"'nrtue, and it’s hard to distance yourself from 
the world in which you live. What we’re 
seeing might be nothing more permanent 
man the pains of athletes growing accus- 
tomed to their instant global celebrity. It’s no 
easy thing to 

begin an event | an /V t 

as a nobody 

and finish it as THOmsen 
a worldwide 

s * ar, jl ,M * fame used to belong exclusively to 
SSSTsSi^ 9 ^ the Charles Lindberghs and Jesse Owenses, 
f 80 unme ' but their chansma is not so vital today, when 
^ anybody of talent can aspire to quick fame. 

Genn “ wth one extended burst of achievement bring- 
531(1 m enough cash to last a lifetime. Sudi 
^ tatert ***** rew ^ rds used 10 come ^ a surprise for certain 
b P yco “ J^e magical champions, but marketing glory is 
sw^omg wwid cup, to be held now the goal for everyone in contention. The 
m peg mg on Jan. 7~8,and other pressures and temptations to become some- 
. jwimnnng events in China. thing more than a winner must be immense. 

* nVe do not want to be a part 
of an event that is a doping 
nest,” said a federation official, 

Ralf Beckmann. “Luckily for 
all of us, there is now proof to 
the years of speculation of mas- 
sive doping.” 

1 Ironically, a number of 
coaches and trainers from for- 
mer East Germany, whose ath- 
letes have admitted to using 
performance-enhan cing drugs, 
are now working in China 

Another official newspaper, 
the Beijing Youth Daily, said 
Yang Aihua, who was suspend- 
ed after she tested positive for 
steroids in Hiroshima, Japan, 
before the Asian Games, had 
protested to the international 
swimming federation. 

Yang, who won the women’s 
400-meter freestyle in the 
World Championships in 
Rome, questioned the tech- 
niques used by Japanese testing 
officials, the Beijing Youth Dai- 
ly reported. It said she had sent 
an official appeal to HNA say- 
ing that tests on three occasions 
of her Sept. 30 precompetition 
mine samples had yielded five 
different results. 

The Bering Youth Daily also 
said that /span had the most to 
£?in if Chinese swimmers are 
banned for dni^ use. 

“If the Asian Gaines’ suc- 
cesses of Lu Bin, Xiong Guom- 
ing and others come into trou- 
ble, more than 10 swimming 
gold medals would faS into the 
hands of the Japanese.” the 
newspaper stud. 

- Officials at China’s Olympic 
Committee office were not 
available for comment Wednes- 
day. (AP, Reuters) 


The Chinese could have done something to 
change that. They still can. The Chinese 
women who ran away with the distance med- 
als at the World Athletics Championships 
last year were not chasing money, that was 
clear. What was their inspiration? Where did 
they find their strength? 

Western experts accused them of taking 
drugs. The Chinese responded that the West 
was jaded. The Chinese were right. We are 
cynical or modern day motives. This is a 
reaction taught by the Ben Johnsons, the 
Diego Maradonas and the Tonya Hardings 
who have aspired to become the Lindberghs 
of our age. Everyone is chasing fame these 
days, overtaking rainbows. 

Cheating isn’t universal; of course it isn't. 
There are some wonderful athletes who ap- 
pear to hold true to the highest values. I’m 
thinking of the ones who compete at the 
highest level after earning enough to retire 
on; but there’s no sense any longer in deifying 
them beyond their achievements. Too often 
we invent heroes without understanding who 
they really are. For people in my business. 
lhaL is the lesson of the O J. Simpson case. 

So what station do we give to athletes? To 
apply the term “role mode!" has become 
irrelevant and dicbed. What values do we 


assign to athletic performance now that their 
business has outgrown the traditional values? 

1 thought the Chinese might have some- 
thing good to say about that. The West talks 
of “opening up” China, but the movement is 
reciprocal The Chinese, their motives, their 
aspirations, are a mystery for most of us. I’m 
talking not about the Chinese government 
but the people of great achievement who 
survive unbroken by the government. As for 
those Western experts who assured us that 
the Chinese distance runners were fueled by 
performance-enhancing drugs, I wanted to 
believe that their cynicism was driven by fear. 

F OR IF THE CHINESE were running 
clean, then their opponents were looking 
at a revolution. Here we are. content to be- 
lieve that we’re basically as fast as we’re ever 
going to get, that the human spirit can drive 
us only fractionally faster — and along comes 
a society with a completely different outlook, 
not bound by our limits, sprinting ahead. 

Today brings relief for those who might 
have been forced to adapt to Chinese ways. 
Eleven Chinese from the recent Asian Games 
have been accused of having failed drug tests, 
including Lu Bin, who set a world record for 
the 200-meter individual medley. Last week. 


Yang Aihua, the 400-meter freestyle champi- 
on, was banned for two years for displaying 
excessive levels of testosterone. That seems to 
nullify China's dominance of those world 
swimming championships in September. Chi- 
nese athletes have been caught in 34 drug 
tests since 1987 — which is alarming, as 
testing procedures are thought to catch only a 
fraction of drug users. No women runners 
have been implicated from the “Family 
Army” of Ma lumen, who coaches China's 
most famous athletes, but a shadow has been 
cast on them as welL 

There are two ways of looking at this. The 
first is that all athletes use performance- 
enhancing drugs of some type. This isn't 
necessarily true, but you hear it from the ones 
who are tossed out of their sport. They say 
that everyone uses some kind of mystery 
elixir, some barely legal within the rules of the 


methods of the former Eastern European 
communists? To do so is to discount their 
own culture. They have their own science, 
their own diet and their own approach to 
work. They have been a closed society for 
centuries, and now the first outsiders they're 
paying attention to are the shyster coaches 
from the former East Germany? 

At first glance the Chinese brought hope to 
the table. Through their newfound dedication 
to sports, the universal language, we might 
have gained insight to a different philosophy, 
perhaps one that isn't so fixated on the short- 
term rewards of temporary fame. Is modern- 
day sport all about selling more Coca-Cola? 
We could all use a little enlightenment. 

Perhaps, unfortunately, the Chinese appar- 
ently have failed to realize what a mess the 
rest of us are in. But it is still early in the game 


federation, some barely illegal some blatant- for them. Their approach to sport is decen- 
ly illegal. They say the most important factors tralized; perhaps, if the bad news is true, it 
are when and bow you use it and that you are could still be unified under the philosophy of 
legal as long as you aren't caught. It's all a performance without cheating, allowing the 

"on 


matter of degree to them, and the degree is 
easily obscured by its reward. 

The other perspective is to suggest that the 
Chinese don't realize their own strength. Why 
would they turn so obviously to the drag 


world’s largest nation to set a new 
its terms, rather than co-opting ours. 

There I go. talking myself into something 
that will never happen. Next thin g 1*11 be 
saying is that all champions are role models. 





Emil Van Lmt/Tbc AwxiMfti Pit* 


THEY WERE BITING — Cor Stoop got bis false teeth back Wednesday in 
Amsterdam after haring lost them during a fishing trip in the North Sea three months 
ago. The dentures were found Simday in the stomach of a 93 kilogram cod caught by 
a customer of Hugo Slamat, right, who nms a tackle shop and organizes fishing trips. 


The f Yugoslav Problem’ Now Strikes Handball 


Special to the Herald Tribune 

With international sanctions 
provisionally lifted, Yugoslavia 
is quickly being reprogrammed 
into the sporting calendar. But 
the luck of the draw is hardly 
working in favor of a reamless 
and tension-free transition. 

First, on Saturday, came 
word that the Yugoslavian 
men’s basketball team would 
have to face Bosnia- Herzegovi- 
na during a qualifying touraa- 
xt June’s Eui 


ment for next 


iropean 


Thai, on Tuesday, came the 
draw for next year’s World Ju- 
nior Team Handball Champi- 
onships. 

Yugoslavia and Croatia both 
had entered the boys’ under- 2 1 


and the girls’ undcr-20 competi- 
tions, along with 27 other na- 
tions. Eight preliminary-round 
groups for each competition 
were selected by lot. As coinci- 
dence would have it, the Yugo- 
slavs and Croatian? ended up in 
the same four-team groups for 
both the boys and girls events. 

“Really unbelievable,” said 
Michael Wiederer, secretary 
general of the European Hand- 
ball Federation, which conduct- 
ed the drew. 

To the further amazement of 
officials and the further dismay 
of the Croatians, the Yugoslavs 
were then selected — again by 
lot — to be the host of both 
groups. Unless a change is 


made, the Croatians will have 
to compete in Belgrade next 
June if they want to participate 
in the championships. 

“It is simply not possible for 
our girls and boys to go in Yu- 
goslavia,” said an incredulous 
Viktor Zovko, the secretary 
genera] of the Croatian hand- 
ball federation. “No parent 
would allow their child to go 
compete. Even if you put many 
around, you never 


’ how many Serbs might be 
around who lost brothers or 
sons in war in Croatia. You 
never know what somebody 
could do.” 

Zovko sent letters to the Eu- 
ropean Federation on Wednes- 


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49 Hip-bop songs 

51 Basketball 
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24 Radical 
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Davis Cup: The Kafelnikov Factor 


day asking it to reconsider and 
move the games to a neutral 
site. Wiederer said the issue 
would be reconsidered in De- 
cember by the executive board, 
but indicated that a change was 
far from certain. 

“It’s written in our statutes 
that political reasons cannot 
prevent our members from 
competing in such tourna- 
ments,” he said. “There are oth- 
er such problems. We have a 
group in men’s European quali- 
fying with Cyprus and Turkey 
in it. We have had European 
club matches between Macedo- 
nia and Greece. There is no po- 
litical draw or geography draw, 
only a sports draw.” 

>PHER CLAREY 


By Christopher Clarey 

Special to the Herald Tribune 

PARIS — Like any self-re- 
specting tennis star with a rap- 
idly burgeoning bank account, 
Yevgeni Kafelnikov has his 
Ferrari. What he doesn't have, 
at least not yet, is his BMW. 

The BMW was promised to 
Kafelnikov and each of bis Da- 
vis Cup teammates in a series of 
television commercials run by 
Binitec, an enterprising and 
dearly patriotic Russian finan- 
cial services company, should 
they beat heavily favored Ger- 
many in the semifinals. 

With Kafelnikov leading the 
way, the Russian players ful- 
filled their end of the bargain in 
Hamburg. That apparently 
came as something or a surprise 
to Binitec, because it has yet to 
band over the keys. 

Don't cry for young Yevgeni 
however. This is perhaps the 
only thing to not go his way this 
year, with the exception of that 
fifth set against world No. 1 
Pete Sampras at the Australian 
Open way back in January. 

Kafelnikov, then still several 
weeks shy of his 20th birthday, 
lost that second-round match. 
3-6, 6-2, 3-6, 6-1, 7-9. But in 
losing with such style, he earned 
the undivided attention of ev- 
eryone who earns a very good 
living by traipsing the globe 
with racket and room-service 
menu in hand. 

“Best Russian,” Sampras 
would say later. “Best groun- 
dies I’ve ever faced.” 

Similar encomiums soon 
would be heard from the likes of 
Andre Agassi Goran Ivanisevic, 
Jim Courier, Michael Stich, Mi- 
chael Chang, Jim Courier, Ste- 
fan Edberg and Sergi Bruguera, 
who all would lose at least once 
to Kafelnikov during 1994. 

By season's end, the lean, 
blond Russian with the school- 
boy haircut and manly game 
would soar from No. 102 to No. 
1 1 in the rankings and work his 
way onto the very short list of 
those whom Sampras’s coach, 
Tim Gullikson, views as a 
threat to his prot6g6 in 1995. 

“Agassi has stepped up; so 
has Boris Becker, and then 
there’s Kafelnikov and Wayne 
Ferreira,” Gullikson said. 

But before every man re- 
sumes playing for himself in 
Melbourne, there is this non- 
negtigible matter of the Davis 
Cup final against Sweden. It 
begins on Friday in Moscow — 
partly because Russian Presi- 
dent Boris Yeltsin is a self -con- 
tennis nut who is not 


of the credit for his rise to his 
coach, Anatoli Lepeshin, has 
yet to lose a singles match in 
Davis Cup this year, going 64) 
as the Russians defeated Aus- 
tralia, the Czech Republic and 
then Germany. He also is 2-1 in 
doubles with partner and friend 
Andrei Olhovskiy, who at age 
28 has been on the scene long 
enough to put Russia’s new 
prodigy in historical perspective. 

“He is getting a chance that 
many others in the old U.S.SJR. 
never got,” said Olhovskiy, one 
of the world's top doubles play- 
ers. “We had many players who 
were very talented but didn’t 
get the chance to get outside. I 
am a little bit in this category 
myself. I might have gotten fur- 
ther in the singles rankings if I 
had the chance sooner.” 

Olhovskiy is the same age as 
Andrei Chesnokov, the best- 
known Soviet player of Ms gen- 
eration who, because of a per- 
sonality con fli ct with its captain, 
Vadim Borisov, is not part of 
this team. It was Chesnokov, a 
French Open semifinalist in 
1989, who along with Natalia 
Zvereva in the women’s field 
first convinced Soviet sports au- 
thorities to permit them to keep 
their prize money. 

In newly capitalist Russia, 
Kafelnikov and his teammates 
no longer have to worry about 
fighting such battles. And their 
sport has become fashionable 


with Moscow's heavy hitters, 
most prominently with Yeltsin, 
who plays often and has a 
grandson talented enough to 
have competed in the French 
Open junior tournamenL 

The film director Nikita Mik- 
halkov, whose most recent ef- 
fort, “SolejJ Trompeur,” was 
honored at the Cannes Film 
Festival is the new president of 
the Russian T ennis Federation. 

“President Yeltsin is a big 
supporter,” Olhovskiy said. 
“He helps us some. He helps us 
a little with our taxes.” 

Meanwhile, tennis court con- 
struction around Moscow is on 
the rise, even though the num- 
ber of licensed players remains 
very low. 

“Tennis is seen as a sport for 
the elite,” Olhovskiy said. “Be- 
fore, everything was pretty 
cheap but the average person 
couldn’t find a lot of supplies 
like good balls or good rackets 
or good strings. Now, those 
things are available, but they 
are too expensive for the aver- 
age person." 

There has never been any- 
thing average about Kafelnikov 
on a tennis court Bora in the 
Black Sea resort of Soclu, he 
first picked up a racket at age 6 
when a tennis coach, who was a 
good friend of his parents, in- 
vited Yevgeni 10 run through 
some basic drills. 

By age 1 2, he had become the 


top player in his age group in 
the ILS.S.R. But the following 
year, a more driven youngster 
named Andrei Medvedev began 
to dominate national competi- 
tion. The two gifted boys would 
end up becoming fast friends, 
and though the demise of the 
U.S.SJL turned Medvedev into 
a Ukrainian, their relati o n s hip 
has remained strong. 

“I was maybe more talented 
than Andrei when I was 12 or 
13, but he was a really hard 
worker,” Kafelnikov said. 
“That is why he improved much 
faster than me.” 

But this could end up being a 
classic tortoise- and-hare tale. 
With a lot of help from Lepe- 
shin, the former Soviet junior 
coach. Kafelnikov has devel- 
oped a work ethic to go with his 
talent, and at the end of this 
year, he was ranked four places 
higher than his more voluble 
friend and fellow Ferrari own- 
er. 

More success against the 
Swedes could turn him into a 
national hero in a Russia that is 
still getting re-accustomed to 
feeling like a nation. 

“We were the Soviet Union, 
then the Commonwealth of In- 
dependent States, then Russia,” 
said Olhovskiy. “I am proud to 
play for Russia, but it is per- 
haps too soon to fed very na- 
tionalistic. I am still getting 
used to seeing the Russian flag.” 


PGA’s Response: A Flat 'No’ 


prepared to commute to Saint support our sponso 
Petersburg — and it marks the on the PGA Tour.” 


The Associated Press 

TAMPA, Florida — The 
lines have been clearly drawn 
between the established PGA 
Tour and the new World Tour: 
It will be one or the other. 

“If a new tour becomes a re- 
ality in 1995 or thereafter, our 
members wfll have to decide 
whether they want to continue 
to play on the PGA Tour or 
play on a new tour,” the PGA 
Tour’s co mmissio ner, Tim Fin- 
chem, said Tuesday. 

The hard-line stance toward 
the ambitious venture spear- 
headed by Greg Norman was 
unanimously approved during a 
two-day meeting of the tour's 
policy board, Finchem said. 

And, he said, “it is worth not- 
ing that a substantial majority 
of PGA Tour members, as well 
as a number of prominent non- 
tour players, nave expressed 
their intention to continue to 
support our sponsors and play 


jiyin 

a has 


that a Soviet 
advanced 


first time m his to; 
or R ussian team 
to this stage. 

“We are going to have 200 
million people behind our 
back,” said Kafelnikov in his im- 
perfect yet improving English. 

Kafelnikov, who gives much 


In fact, Finchem said, Nor- 
man is the only tour member he 
is aware of who has fully com- 
mitted to the World Tour. 

The Australian star has been 
a spokesman and prime mover 
in the venture that was an- 
nounced more than two weeks 


ago. Norman said he was sur- 
prised by the PGA Tour’s 
moves, but hoped for a recon- 
ciliation. 

“I’ve always been a believer 
that you could have both 
tours,” he said in Melbourne. 
“You can’t go along and under- 
mine the PGA Tour. From nry 
point of view I’ve always said 
that it has got to be interfaced 
with the PGA Tour.” 

Mark Calcavecchia, also in 
Australia, said he doubted the 
World Tour would get off the 
ground in 3995 “despite what 
Greg is saying and what other 
people are saying.” 

“We’ve got to work togeth- 
er,” he said. “We don’t want to 
keep fi ghting with each other.” 

Norman said Wednesday 
that the plan to start next year 
was not cast in stone. “It will 
happen,” he said “Whether it 
happens in 1995, 1996 or 2006. 
it wiU happen.” 

. Finchem noted that the 
World Tour “showed some flex- 
ibility,” in a meeting last week 
with PGA officials, but he “in- 
sisted that, due to their arrange- 
ments with Fox Network, most 
of their events would have to be 
hdd during the official money 
season” of the PGA Tour. 


That would put it in conflict 
with the regular tour schedule, 
and players will have to choose 
the circuit in which they want to 
compete, Finch ran said. 

Most leading American play- 
ers, as well as Nick Price of 
Zimbabwe, currently No. I in 
the world rankings, have indi- 
cated an interest in Norman’s 
concept, but have said they 
would do nothing to challenge 
the PGA Tour. 

To enforce the PGA Tour’s 
“one or the other” policy, Fin- 
chem has at his disposal the 
“conflicting event” rale, which 
requires players to obtain for- 
mal releases from the commis- 
sioner to compete in non-tour 
tournaments. 

Failure to do so could result 
in the player’s suspension. 

That regulation and a com- 
panion television release rule 
may be in jeopardy, however. 
They are under investigation by 
the Federal Trade Commission. 

“We are aware that. In the 
near future, the staff at the FTC 
may request the FTC commis- 
sioners to initiate formal pro- 
ceedings aimed at eliminating 
these rules,” Finchem said. 

“We intend to do what is nec- 
essary to preserve these rules.” 


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Page 20 


INTERNATIONAL HER ALD TRIBUNE, THURSDAY, DECEMBER 1, 1994 


art buchwald 

A Hot Investment Tip 


ins 



W ASHINGTON — I re- 
ceived a call from my bro- 
ker, Michael Jay Bruce, the oth- 
er iky. 

“I have a hot investment." he 
said. 

“What is it?” I asked excited- 
ly. 

“Orphanages. I’m recom- 
mending that all my clients put 
their money in 1 

orphanages." 

"I thought 
orphanages 
were out of 
fashion.” 

“They’re 
coming back. 

Newt Ging- 
rich, the new 
speaker of the 
House, is rec- Blichwald 
ommendmg 

that they put children of wel- 
fare mothers into orphanages. 
The problem is that there aren't 
enough buddings to handle all 
the kids that mil be sent away.” 
“Why is that?" 

“The Democrats goofed. 
They were influenced by 
Charles Dickens, and they let 
the om hanag es close during 
their 40 years in office. Now 
Congress is going to have to 
finance a crash program to get 
the new institutions built We 


Christo Says He’ll Wrap 
Reichstag Next June 

The Associated Press 

BERLIN — Christo, who has 
wrapped islands off Miami and 
a bridge in Paris, has unveiled 
his plans to cover the Reichstag 
in Berlin with a silver blanket 

Christo will use 75,000 
square meters (90,000 square 
yards) of a silver propylene fab- 
ric to cover the building. His 
160 assistants will start wrap- 
ping on June 17. It will take 
about a week to complete the 
job, and the Reichstag will re- 
main covered through July 6. 



Europe 


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can make a bundle on the in- 
vestment once Gingrich gets his 
plan passed." 

“It sounds good on paper," I 
admitted. “But suppose the 
mothers won’t give up their 
kids? Then the orphanages will 
have a lot of empty beds." 

“They won’t have a choice,” 
Bruce said. “Under the Ging- 
rich plan unmarried mothers 
under 18 would be denied aid. 
This should give us at least 
970,000 orphans. Then Ging- 
rich also wants some children 
put up for adoption. I Figure 
that that isn’t going to work 
because most of the children are 
too old, so they wOl have to 
build even more orphanages 
than they envisioned." 

“How much will it cost to 
build a good home to house 
welfare children?" I asked 
Bruce. 

“An average of $30 million 
per institution.'' 

“That’s a lot.” 

“They have to be escape- 
proof, so that the kids don't run 
off to find their mothers." 

□ 

“It sounds like a good invest- 
ment Welfare mothers have 
been getting away with murder, 
and if they can’t cut the mus- 
tard we might as well take it out 
on their children. Michael, are 
you sure this isn’t too good to 
be true?” 

“I swear it’s part of Ging- 
rich’s solution to getting people 
off the poverty rolls. He calls it 
the Personal Responsibility 
AcL Ordinarily, anyone who 
proposed this sort of thing 
would have been taken away in 
a s traitjacket by now. But Newt 
is the speaker of the House, and 
if he says that orphanages are 
the solution to our welfare 
problems, then we’re going to 
end up with orphanages coming 
out of our ears." 

“O. K., Til invest in building 
them," I told Bruce. “It’s rare 
that I can help get people off 
welfare and make a profit at the 
same time." 


Glaswegian Words From a Controversial Writer 


By Sarah Lyall 

New York Times Service 

G lasgow — No 
sooner had James Kd- 
man’s novel “How Late It 
Was, How Late" won this 
year's Booker Prize for fic- 
tion than a full-scale furor 
erupted. 

One of the judges, Rabbi 


A Sample Passage 


New York Wines Service 


H ERE is an excerpt from “How Late It Was, 
How Late" by James Kelman: 


Julia Neuberger, declared lot-Tt 

that the book was unreada- hut si 

bly bad and said that the realize 

awarding of the prize. Brit- were ( 

ain’s roost important, was a it- He 

“disgrace." 

Simon Jenkins, a conser- Souti 

vative columnist for The it didj 

Times of London, called the unawi 

award “literary vandalism.” 

Several other critics sniped 
that the book should have been dis- 
qualified because of its heavy use of 
profanity. 

Meanwhile, the British literary es- 
tablishment huddled together de- 
fensively as Kelman appeared in a 
business suit at the black-tie Booker 
affair and, in his heavy Scottish ac- 
cent, made a rousing case for the 
culture and language of “indige- 
nous" people outside of London. 

“A fine line can exist between 
elitism and racism," he said. “On 
matters concerning language and 
culture, the distinction can some- 
times c ease to exist altogether.” 

Part stream of consciousness, 
part third-person narrative, sparsely 
punctuated, devoid of chapters and 
written entirely in the words and 
cadences of working-class Glasgow, 
“How Late It Was, How Late" does 
make for hard reading, which scans 
to explain some of the objections. 

But other critics have greeted the 
novel, the story of a down-and-out 
Glaswegian former convict who has 
a run-in with the police and wakes 
up to discover that he has suddenly 
gone blind, as a literary iriumph. 

Writing in The Independent, Ja- 
nette Turner Hospital called Kel- 
man a “poet and magician” and said 
the book was a “passionate, scintil- 
lating, brilliant song of a book." 

It is nothing new for Kelman’s 
work — which includes four other 


n How Late” by James Reiman: 

“People got wound up awful easy. Ye noticed that a 
lot. Tam was actually younger than Sammy; no much, 
but still and alL Ana there he was. He didnay even 
realize it was a wind-up. the sodjers; that was m they 
were do ing , winding him up, Tam just hadnay twigged 
it He knew better too that was the problem, he was 
experienced. It was just how they caught ye unawares. 
So it didnay matter, how long is the tooth ye were man 
it didnay matter, know what I mean, if ye got caught 
unawares." 


novels, a number of plays and about 
100 short stories — to generate 
strong reactions, both for and 

a gains t. 

He has been compared to James 
Joyce, to William Kennedy and to 
Samuel Beckett, but when the first 
Kelman short story was accepted by 
a magazine at York University in 
1972, the printer refused to print it 
because of the profanity. And in the 
mid-1970s, one publisher urged Him 
to write more accessibly, saying, 
Kelman recalled in an interview in 
his home in a suburb of Glasgow, 
that “work written in Glaswegian 
dialect doesn’t sell in America." 

For the author, a slight man with 
haunting eyes and a grave mann er 
that gives way easily to sardonic 
humor, the central issue is cultural 

im p e rialism through language. 

Recalling times when Glaswegian 
accents were banned from the radio, 
or when his two daughters were rep- 
rimanded in school for using the 
Scots “aye” instead of the En glish 
“yes,” he said it was wrong to call 
the language of his work “vernacu- 
lar” or “dialect." 

“To me, those words are just an- 
other way of inferiorizing the lan- 
guage by indicating that there's a 
standard,” he said. ‘The dictionary 
would use the term ’debased.' But 
it’s the language! The living lan- 
guage, and it comes out of many 
different sources, including Scot- 
land before the English arrived." 


““ As angry as he might be 
about the criticisms, Kel- 
man said that the Booker 
> Prize had given him a use- 

ful opportunity to air his 
views about language and 
about the disenfranchised 
Was, people who are his sub- 
jects. 

. It has helped the book 

sell more than 20,000 
nuch, copies in hard cover in 
' e y en Britain, and it certainly has 
\ ““y raised the author’s profile 
among publishers in the 
le was United States, where “How 
vares - Late It Was, How Late" is 
eman to ^ published by W. W. 
SLU ^ lt Norton on Dec. 12. 

The $30,000 prize has 

also had happy financial 

consequences for the often- 
broke Kelman, who left school at 
the age of IS and worked at a num- 
ber of manual jobs even as he began 
writing some 20 years ago. 

Having spent his life in a series of 
apartments, he was able to move six 
months ago to a large house with a 
garden. He has also invested in a 
new computer to replace his creaky 
grime-covered one, and his wife, a 
social worker for homeless people, 
has been able to reduce her working 
hours. 

What’s more, Kelman said, the 
Booker brings a special kind of pres- 
tige to someone like him, one of a 
group of strong writers to emerge 
from Glasgow in recent years, in- 
cluding Jeff Toning ton and Alas- 
dair Gray. 

“The meaning of the prize comes 
from other people,” said Kelman, 
who chain-smokes cigarettes that he 
roils himself. “I was aware of its 
importance from writers both from 
this community in Glasgow and the 
extended community in Scotland, 
and also other communities that 
you could say were in similar situa- 
tions. Friends of mine who are Afro- 
Caribbcan or from India or Paki- 
stan, or Irish or American people, 
said they were amazed, astonished 
and delighted that this statement 
could have been made from the cen- 
ter of the city of London.” 

Particularly annoying to Kelman 
(although Kelman does bis best not 


WEATHER 


Forecast for Friday through Sunday, as provided by Accu-Weather. Asia 

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North America 

Mas ol ttiQ U S wA hovo dry 
weatHer and obove-nomiBi 
temperatures through the 
weekend. Cclder e>r will 
mvadA (tin northern Plains 
end Rockies, and showers 
marking the leading edge ot 
the cold may reach Chicago 
and Toronio on Sunday. 
Washington and New York 
w* be dry 


I UnswacnotPy 
I HM 


Europe 

Strong wnds and same rain 
will spread into England, 
northern France and wnstsm 
Scandinavia. Dry, mild 
weather will continue to the 
south. Weather-related 
delays are poss&fe In Lon- 
don on Saturday and Sun- 
day. as well as in Paris The 
weather will stay dry In 
Rome. 


3 Heavy 

j Rota KJ3SJ Snow 

Asia 

Japan will have windy and 
chilly weather with some 
snows In the north, but gen- 
erally dry weather In Tokyo 
Cold winds will sweep 
through Korea ana Mongolia. 
Hong Kong wfll be mainly dry 
and mild. There will be 
showers across Southeast 
Aeia and come thunder- 
showers n Malaysia. 


Alport 20*68 

Coo* Town 22,71 

Osflfiiaxa 19*6 

Harare 18-81 

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P ENTHOUSE magazine has been or- 
dered not to distribute or promote par- 
tially nude photographs of Paula Jones, 
who has accused President B31 Clinton of 
sexually harassing her while he was gover- 
nor of Arkansas. Jones said the photo- 
graphs were taken by a former boyfriend, 
Mike Turnery and were intended for his 
eyes only, and brought suit against the 
magazine in District Court in New York. 
Victor A. Kovner, a lawyer for Turner and 
Penthouse, said the temporary order was 
too late to stop distribution of the photos 
since the January issue hits the newsstands 
on Dec. 6. 

□ 

Jerry HalTs 17 years with Mick Jagger 
finished first in New York magazine’s 
model-celebrity relationship marathon. 
The couple’s endurance topped a list of 
star t earnings strewn with unhappy end- 
ings labeled “split” and “fizzled.” /agger’s 
bandmate in the Rolling Stones, Keith 
Richards, and his wife, the former model 
Patty Hansen, held second place with 15 
years. 

□ 

The Bad Sex Prize, an award given by 
The Literary Review of Britain for the 
worst description of sex in a novel, was 



Ken D Pjiersun fur The New Tort Tn 

“It’s the language! The living language,” says novelist Kelman. 

to look annoyed) has been the re- fection,” “and one of the peoi 
newed criticism that his writing is associated with it asked tneulei 
shoddy and somehow subliterary. revised my work. 

Referring to Reiman’s protagonist Kelman said, he does revi 

and narrator, Sammy. Jenkins of even more so because the langua 
The Times, for instance, said the jj e is so singular. Well into 1 
book represented “the ramblings of cigarette, perhaps his 10th in r 
a Glaswegian drunk.” hours, he launched into a fierce < 

And another journalist took it fense. 
upon himself to count how many “in order to fight against t 
times a particular obscenity ap- house style you have to justify evs 
peared in “How Late It Was.” arriv- single comma,” he said. “Evt 
ing at the impressive number of comma in my work is my cornu 
4,000. Every absence of a comma or f 


“Some people say my work has no 
value,” Kelman said. “They find a 
way of saying it’s not literature, just 
oral tradition. Or perhaps that be- 
cause you write from the point of 
view of people whose language is 
debased, then your language is de- 
based, and therefore you’re a de- 
based writer, or really not a writer at 
alL” 

“I’ve won a major prize before,” 
he went on, referring to the James 
Tail Black Memorial Prize, which he 
won in 1989 for his novel “A Disaf- 


fection,” “and one of the people 
associated with it asked me if I ever 
revised my work.” 

Yes, Kelman said, he does revise, 
even more so because the language 
he uses is so singular. Well into his 
cigarette, perhaps his 10th in two 
hours, be launched into a fierce de- 
fense. 

“In order to fight against the 
house style you have to justify every 
single comma,” he said. “Every 
comma in my work is my comma. 
Every absence of a comma or hill 
slop or semicolon or colon is my 
absence. You have to be much more 
precise and bloody pedantic. 

“You have to revise and revise 
and proof at every bloody stage io 
insure that everything’s spot on, es- 
pecially because you’re working in 
what other people regard as incon- 
sistent ways, so you have to be really 
sure.” 

He stamped the cigarette out and 
began to roll another one. “You 
have to trust the fact that you're a 
writer.” 


PEOPLE 



in Hook’s book, “The Stonebreakers,” 
that clinched victory included the lines: 
“Their jaws ground in feverish mutual 
mastication. Saliva and sweat. Sweat and 
saliva. There was a purposeful shedding 
of clothing.” Hook’s prize, presented 
London dinner, is a statuette, said*i 
represent bad sex. 


Tim Dougbu-'Camcis Press 

Jerry Hall: Marathon relationship. 

awarded to a director of Sotheby’s auc- 
tion house. Philip Hook fought off stiff 
competition from the best-selling novelist 
Jffly Cooper, among others. The passage 


Seiji Ozawa has led (he Boston Sympho 
ny for 21 years, a rarity in an age ol 
musical-chair conductors, but he says he’s 
ready for more. “We’re just like a husband 
and wife,” he said on his arrival in Tokyo 
on Wednesday for his fifth Asian tour with 
the symphony. “We know each others 
good points and bad points.” 


Prince Takamodo of Japan and Presi- 
dent Lech Walesa of Poland opened a 
Japanese Art and Technology Center on 


Wednesday in the southern Polish city of 
Krakow. The Center, a two-story building 
of bride, glass and wood, was designed by 
the Japanese architect Anita Isozaki. It will 
house a collection of Japanese art assem- 
bled by Feliks Jastenskl, a connoisseur of 
the turn of the century. 


S#‘ 

■ i ' ^ 


BhacLn-i' l 






1 W JfeiS.-. 




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