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London, Tuesday, December 6 , 1994 

\r[ \rW 

In America 
Are Looking 

By Seth Mydans 

New York Tima Sen-ice 

DA LAT, Vietnam — She could not 
stop sampling the tropical fruits, the 
steamed snails, the candied plums. 
She was enthralled by the children, 
with their red scarves, trooping along 
the dirt paths to school Almost every 
conversation seemed to end in laugh- 
ter; she was home, and she was happy. 

"This is where I want to raise my 
family,” she exclaimed. 

Nearly 20 years after she fled the 
fall of Saigon with her parents. Camel- 
lia Ngo, now a thoroughly American 
28-year-old lawyer, has decided to re- 
turn to Vietnam. 

She is not alone. As one of the most 
dramatic refugee tides in modem 
times draws to a close, a new genera- 
tion of Vietnamese raised in the Unit- 
ed States is heading home in small but 
growing numbers to do business and 
sometimes, tike Miss Ngo, to stay on. 

With the lifting of the American 
trade embargo in February, as many 
as 10,000 Vietnamese a month are 
returning for visits to a country 
hungry for their cash but often suspi- 
cious of their Western ways. 

They are greeted by frequent ineffi- 
ciency, red tape and primitive working 
conditions, even while fen ding off a 
continuing backlash at home among 
many older refugees who oppose con- 
tacts with the Co mmunis t nation they 

These homeward journeys, coming 
near the end of an exodus of some 
800,000 people to the United States, 
are a crossroads in V ie tnamese- Amer- 
ican relations. 

I Although there are no official esti- 
mates, Miss Ngo is a member of an 
; emerging new group, young Vietnam- 
* ese- American professionals who see 
Vietnam as a land of business oppor- 
. tunity as well as roots: the first opti- 
mistic generation of refugees, without 
the scars of war and loss their paren ts ; 

“I know the image of Vietnam is 
always associated with war, but I was 
too young for those memories,” Miss 
Ngo said. "All I remember about my 
country is how beautiful it is.” 

Last month. Miss Ngo was on her 
second visit to Vietnam, negotiating 
projects for her Oakland law firm, the 
Miller Group, which is acting as a 
middleman for foreign investors. 

She was also preparing to take up 
residence here next year as her compa- 
ny’s representative, along with her 
Vietnamese- American husband. Mi- 
chad Nguyen, a mechanical engineer. 

“We want to do business here, but 
business is mainly our means of get- 
ting here,” she said as she sal at a tiny 
outdoor food stall in the small moun- 
tain dty of Da Lat, surrounded by the 
bustle and banter of the marketplace, 
eating a grilled banana sweetened 
with coconut milk. 

‘This is why Michael and I want to 
come back to Vietnam, to live the 
simpler life our parents lived,” she 
said. “We want our children to grow 

See VIETNAM, Page 8 

By Alan Friedman 

International Herald Tribune 

PARIS — As government leaders pre- 
pare for the European Union summit 
meeting in Essen on Friday and Saturday, 
many leading business people fear that the 
politicians will fall to take action to make 
Europe more competitive and to tackle the 
jobs crisis. 

Corporate leaders worry that the meet- 
ing will produce more rhetoric than sub- 

A common theme that emerged in inter- 
views with the top executives of Barclays 
Bank, IBM Europe, Imperial Chemical In- 
dustries, Mercedes-Benz, and Olivetti was 
that Europe's economic recovery risks 
making political leaders too complacent 

As a result, they said, governments may 
be less likely to push for urgent reform 
measures such as deregulating large 
chunks of their economies or slashing pub- 
lic spending to reduce budget deficits. 

“We are approaching recovery perhaps 
too soon, and this might dilute some ef- 
forts and take away some of the willing- 
ness and aggressiveness to tackle prob- 
lems,” said Helmut Werner, chairman of 

All of Europe’s governments share the 
problems of high unemployment, future 
pension costs and a lack erf competitive- 
ness with other parts of the world, said 
Martin Taylor, chief executive of Barclays 
Bank in London. Yet Mr. Taylor said he 
was worried that government leaders 
would not work for the huge structural 
adjustments that are needed “because the 
phase of the economic cycle has moved to 
a more benign one.” 

Sir Denys Henderson, chairman of Im- 

perial Chemical Industries of Britain, 
warned against “complacency based on 
recovery and growth." He added that 

First of two ankles 

“when things get easier, people back off on 

Sir Denys said he feared the Essen sum- 
mit meeting would be characterized by 
political posturing on issues such as ex- 

pan ding the EU to include Eastern Euro- 
pean members and the debate about feder- 
alism in Europe. 

Among the other themes stressed by the 
businessmen in interviews were these: 

• EU governments have not done 
enough to make the single market for. 
goods, services and capital a reality. 

• It will not be possible for Europe to 
create new jobs in the future unless EU 
“ * See EUROPE, Page 8 

I Herald Trtbme 

Latins Warm to NAFTA, but U.S. Cools to Expansion 

By Tod Robberson 

Washington Post Service 

About six years ago, this windswept dust bowl of * town 
when tbelrraden.*] candidate 
Carlos Salinas de Gortari arrived to deliver his campargt 
m acM oft of economic reform, el im ination of trade bam- 
ersaal other measures to redirect Mexico s state-dnven 

me out of town." Mr._Salinas recalled 
recently. “They threw tomatoes at me. 

Today, San Pedro represai^ on ® of th« ® “K! 

that Mexican suDDorters of the North American Free 
Trade A^Sitrepeatedly cite. Employment is up, 
S^^ASoowned manufacturing plants 

are moving in, and hope and optimism are in the air. - 
When Mr. Salinas returned here in September to say 
good-bye as his six-year presidential term came to a 
close, the streets were so packed with supporters — tens 
of thousands erf them — that his motorcade was barely 
able to squeeze through. 

As NAFTA nears its first anniversary on Jan. 1, Latin 
American and Caribbean leaders are pressing for inclu- 
sion in the same trading bloc that appears to nave vastly 
broadmed Mexico's economic horizon and opened a 
new range of employment possibilities for its people. 

But even while leaders from around the region gath- 
ered in Mexico City to toast Mr. Salinas’s economic 
successes and welcome the newly inaugurated president, 
Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de Le6n, the United States ap- 

peared to be growing cooler by the day to expanding 
NAFTA-like trade ties farther to the south. The intense 
congressional debate about tariff lowering under the 
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade served as a 
warning of what Latin American heads of state can 
expect from the United States when they gather at the 
Summit of the Americas in Miami on Friday and Satur- 

U.S. officials expect that at a minim u m, I -atin Ameri- 
can leaders will press President Bill Clinton to commit 
his administration to a firm Western Hemisphere trade- 
preference policy around which regional blocs can be 

Virtually every hemispheric leader going to the Miami 

See NAFTA, Page 8 

* J* 1 ' No. 34,764 

Clinton NATO Vision 
Leaves Yeltsin Cold 

Russia’s Mistrust of Expansion Plan 
Muddles European Security Talks 

Win McNamee/ReaM 

Presidents Boris N. Yeltsin of Russia, Bill Clinton and Leonid Kuchma of Ukraine and Prime Minister John Major of 
Britain signing the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty on Monday in Budapest during the European summit conference. 

Business Fears Complacency by EU 

Corporate Chiefo Say Recovery May Derail Essen Summit 

By Elaine Sciolino 

New York Times Servin’ 

BUDAPEST — President Bill Clin ion 
on Monday laid out his vision for the 
future of European security, but President 
Boris N. Yeltsin of Russia declared that 
NATO should not admit new members 
and that the United States should not be 
allowed to dominate the world. 

Mr. Yeltsin’s Cold War-era rhetoric, 
coupled with scornful denunciations by 
President Alija Izetbegovic of Bosnia 
about the world’s failure to end the war 
raging in his country, marred the opening 
of the two-day, 52-nation s ummi t meeting 

They also overshadowed a watershed 
event in the history of arms control, the 
formal accession by Ukraine to the Nucle- 
ar Nonproliferation Treaty, which will al- 
low for the implementation of the START- 
1 treaty and eliminate more than 9,000 
warheads of the United States and the 
former Soviet Union. 

The meeting was intended initially as a 
scat of headsHof-state love-fest to trans- 
form the unwieldy and powerless Cold 
War organization, known as the Confer- 
ence on Security and Cooperation in Eu- 
rope, into a more serious place for resolv- 
ing regional conflicts and preventing them 
from starting in the first place. 

In particular, the Clinton administra- 
tion had wanted the meeting to train the 
spotlight on an American initiative to 
speed up NATO expansion and strengthen 
the larger all-European group. 

But that was before the North Atlantic 
Treaty Organization decided not to launch 
air strikes to help protect the Bosnian dty 
of Bihac from Serbian attacks and before 
Foreign Minister Andrei V. Kozyrev of 
Russia embarrassed the United States and 
its European allies in Brussels last week by 
unexpectedly refusing to sign on to their 
Partnership for Peace plan for cooperation 
with NATO. 

On Monday, like a spoilsport at a family 
reunion, Mr. Yeltsin sdzed the moment to 
remind his European and North American 
partners gathered in the Budapest Conven- 
tion Center of Russia's preeminent role in 
making foreign policy on the European 

Obviously angered by the NATO deri- 
sion last week to begin defining the condi- 
tions for NATO membership, Mr. Yeltsin 
lashed out at those nations that would 
leave him out of what the Americans call 
“the new security architecture" for Eu- 

“Why are you sowing the seeds of mis- 
trustr Mr. Yeltsin asked the 16 NATO 

nations about the prospect of increasing 
the alliance’s membership, adding that in 
the aftermath of the Cold War, “Europe is 
in danger of plunging into a cold peace." : 

In a thinly veiled criticism of what Rus-j 
sia perceives as the emergence of the Unit-| 
ed States as the only global superpower,] 
Mr. Yeltsin said, “History demonstrates' 
that it is a dangerous illusion to suppose: 
that the destinies of continents and of the] 
world community in general can somehow 
be managed from one single capital Blocs 
and coalitions can provide no security 

Although the United States and its 
NATO partners insist that no European 
nations would be prevented from eventual- 
ly joining NATO, a point Mr. Clinton 
reiterated Monday, both NATO and Mos- 
cow know that Russia remains the per- 
ceived enemy in Europe and certainly 
would be at the bottom of the list. 

Mr. Yeltsin made that point about 
NATO expansion when he said, “We hear 
explanations to the effect that this is alleg- 
edly the expansion of stability just in case 
there are undesirable developments in 

The hurried appearance of Mr. Clinton! 
at the opening of the two-day conference! 
did not bridge the expanding gap between; 
the two countries. 

“NATO will not automatically exdude 
any nation from joining,” Mr. Clinton 
said. “At the time, no country out- 
side will be allowed to veto expansion.” 

As for the broader European security 
group, Mr. Clinton said that it should be 
“our first flexible line of defense against 
ethnic and regional conflicts," adding that 
“by focusing on human rights, conflict 
prevention and dispute resolution, the 
CSCE can help prevent future Bosnias.” 

But Mr. Clinton did not define the struc- 
tural flaws in NATO and the security con- 
ference in connection with the tragedy in 
Bosnia. When Secretary of State Warren 
M. Christopher was asked to define those 
flaws in a news conference on Sunday, he 
spoke less about architecture than he did 
about the lack of political will. 

like Mr. Clinton, other heads of state 
and government, including Chancellor 
Helmut Kohl of Germany, President Fran- 
cois Mitterrand erf France and Prime Min- 
ister John Major erf Britain, called for a i 
settlement at the peace table as the only, 
way to end the Bosnian war. Although Mr. 
Clinton urged the summit meeting to act 
on “the lessons” of Bosnia,” neither be nor 
his European counterparts made any new 

See SUMMIT, Page 8 

Jopments in 

To Fight Police Harassment, 
An ’89 Activist Sues Beijing 

Compiled by Our Staff From Dispatches 

BEUING — A leading Chinese dissi- 
dent sued the government on Monday, 
demanding that a Beijing court halt what 
he described as intense police surveillance 
and stop security officials from following 


“Espetially in the last few days the po- 
lice have started following me everywhere, 
and really close behind me so that every 
one of my actions is affected," said the 
activist, Wang Dan, 25. 

The former student leader of the 1989 
pro-democracy demonstrations that were 
crushed by the army said he decided to file 
a lawsuit in a Beijing court to try to stop 
(he harassment. 

“They even follow me to the swimming 
pool and watch while I go swimming" said 
Mr. Wang who has been a freelance writer 
since serving a prison term for “counter- 

Mr. Wang said he was unaware of a 
reason for the tighter surveillance, noting 
that he had not changed his daily activities 
and had made no attempts recently to 
contact foreigners or foreign reporters. 

In a sign that the police still are keeping 
a dose watch on Mr. Wang and tapping his 

phone line, the police called him just a few 
minutes after he told The Associated Press 
about the suit. They Later visited him in bis 
home and took a copy of the suit, Mr. 
Wang said. 

Mr. Wang’s suit is unlikely to even be 
considered by a Chinese court In recent 
years, other activists have sought court 
action to try to force the government to 
treat them Fairly under the law, whether it 
was to get a passport or to fight an arbi- 
trary job transfer. However, not a angle 
suit has been accepted for a court hearing 

The police last detained Mr. Wang in 
August, taking Him away for questioning 
for seven hours before releasing him. He 
had been held for 12 hours a few days 
earlier after the police seized him during an 
interview with American journalists and 
told him to stop complaining about the 

“1 believe the Beijing Public Security 
Bureau is invading my right to privacy as a 
private citizen ana is hampering my right 
to personal freedom, and I am therefore 
appealing to the courts,” he said in his 
formal complaint. 

“I hope the court will decide according 

See CHINA, Page 8 

A Scrappy ‘Noncontender’ 

Debrs Tests Political Waters in France 


By Joseph Fitchett 

International Herald Tribune o 

PARIS — He’s not a candidate, he in- 

ts, but Jacques Odors, 
i m miss ion president, is fjpd^ng ' 

•se days to get away from Brussels and 
*l with influential French people. 
r the political temperatures a suddenly 
de-open presidential election. 

Newsstand Pr ices _ 

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His platform is a new book, “A Man’s 
Unity, a 400-page interview with a politi- 
cal scientist in winch Mr. Deters tells what 
he saw during his decade as point man on 
European integration. The tale offers com- 
pelling insights about everything from in- 
formation superhighways to his Catholic 


He even better. Candor, bursts of 
good sense and passionate sense of duty, 
fust glimmers on the page, become palpa- 
ble when Mr- Deters faces audiences on 
the book circuit. 

Untested in electoral battle, Mr. Delons, 
69 has started sounding Eke a formidable 
campaigner — in contrast to his record, 
evesiasa scrappy Socialist finance minis- 
ter before being shipped to Brussels, for 
fighting behind the scenes and keeping 
bultoned-up in pubKc. 

The suit of suits, the man who lodes like 

See DELORS, Page 8 

Car Ferry Safely 
Under UN Study 

LONDON (Reuters) — Members 
of the UN International Maritime Or- 
ganization’s safety committee decided 
Monday to order a panel of experts to 
draft new safety rules for the world’s 
car ferries to try and prevent disasters 
like the «ninrng of the Estonia, which 
claimed 913 lives, in September. 

8-Lane Threat to a Wonder of the World 

Guardians of the Pyramids Foresee a Road to Urban Sprawl 

Book Review 

B Down 

£. 3741.02 


Yan • 


Page 4. 

By John Lancaster 

Washington fast Senior 

CAIRO — Eroded by time, plundered 
by grave robbers, assaulted by air pollu- 
tion, the pyramids have taken their knocks ' 
over the centuries. But now they may be 
facing the gravest threat of ail: urban 

To the alarm of archaeologists and UN 


m 112.28 











meat is build mg an ei gh t-lane highway 
across the desert plateau that includes the 
site of the three pyramids of Giza, one of 
the world’s most famous tourist destina- 
tions and also the home of the Sphinx. 
Critics say a land rush is sure to follow. 

The new highway, if completed as 
planned, will pass within about three kilo- 
meters (two miles) of the Giza pyramids. It 
violates both Egyptian law and an interna- 
tional convention protecting such globally 
significant sites, according to Said Zulfi- 

car, director of safeguarding activities of 
the cultural heritage division of the United 
Nations Educational, Scientific mid Cul- 
tural Organization. 

Other encroachments, he said in a tele- 
phone interview from Unesco headquar- 
ters in Paris, include high-rise buildings, 
housing projects, two garbage dumps, mili- 
tary barracks and a military factory 
“bdehing filthy black smoke.” 

“The problem is you turn a pristine 
desert archaeological site into an urban 
site Eke the Acropolis in Athens, which is 
surrounded by bufldmgs,” he said. “There 
will be hotels, restaurants, gas stations. It 
will lose its uniqueness.” « 

Haphazardly and often illegally built 
apartment houses already block the pyra- 
mids from view on the m am road ap- 
proaching from central Cairo. A warren of 
tourist shops sprawls to within a few 
hundred meters erf the Sphinx. 

The new road, a bypass route on Cairo's 
southern side, would, if eoqmjeted, cut off 
the last expanse of empty desert that re- 
mains contiguous with the Giza pyramids, 
which already are hemmed in by develop- 
ment cm two sides. Mr. Zulficar said that 
when he raised the matter with Egypt’s 
culture minister and other senior officials, 
they told him they were unaware of the 
intrusion and would consider options for 

“Notling is planned. It is a catastro- 
phe,” said Mahmoud Hosny, a wefl-to-db 
dentist who owns an Arabian-borse farm 
in the area and took a reporter on a driving 
tour recently. “I want you to look at this 
and ay fa 1 the future of our country.” 

Mr. Hosny said he had campaigned 
against the project for four years, to no 
avail, until one of his patients agreed to 
bring it to the attention of Unesco. The 

See PYRAMIDS, Page 8 

- ’y_- ■' 



Shrugging Off NATO Attack, Serbs Repair Airfield 


By John Pomfret 

Washington Past Service 

UDBINA, Croatia — Two weeks 
after NATO warplanes launched the 
higgest air raid in the history of the 45- 

year-old alliance, their target, the Ud- ^ omSK from several Serbian mili- Serbian officers, when asked, ap- 
bina airfield, has been repaired and ^ bases m region. peared unfazed by the incident While 

possibly is in use, according to UN and Nik 0 i a Simjanovic, a spokesman for they mourned the loss of at least two 

Serbian military officers. tbe Croatian Serbian army, asserted: Serbian soldiers killed in the airfield 

Although work crews, front-end “Udbina is already working again.” attadc, they showed little evidence of 
loaders, dump trades and paving ma- That could not be confirmed. will i ngn e ss to change their ways, 

chines could be seen bustling basfiy Udbina, 65 kilometers west of the “It's being prepared to be used when 

about the air base, cratered by Adriatic Sea, is the biggest airfield in we're ready,” MnSimjapowc said. 
NATO bombs, “you could land on it the region and is controlled by the "The UN and NATO don t have any 
and take off today if you wanted to,” Croatian Serbs, who occupy 27 percent right to stop ns. _ 

said a UN officer with direct knowl- of Croatia. . Colonel Milan Tregocawc. an officer 

edge of die facility. "The Serbs have The raid on Udbina was aimed at in the region, said: “It was a little 
fixed it up pretty good.” changing Serbian behavior following action- It gave us a little headache. 

While UN officers said they could three Serbian bombing raids that origr- nothing more, 
not confirm that Serbian Army heii- nated from the airfield and targeted NATOs sttike at Udbma, followed 
copters were using the airport, they Bosnian Muslim areas m the Bihac onNov. 23 by two more rads agamst 
spotted two helicopters near the air- pocket. Serbian jets dropped napalm Serbian anti-atreraft systems, touched 
field during the wiekend, flying over and cluster bombs durmg one attack, off a Swb^rwmdup 
Korenica, 16 kilometers (10 miles) But UN officers said they believed nel and tnggeredfeaxs an«>ng TJNoffi- 
north of the airstrip. the rapid move to repair the airfield oers that the Sabs would retaliate by 

field “must be busy again. gunsmps m me area ov rom vroauan 

Others said the helicopters, both fit- and Bosnian Serbian faces indicated 
ted with missile systems for use in that the North Atlantic Treaty Orgam- 

figh ting around the Bihac pocket in ration had not gotten its message 
adjacent northwestern -Bosnia, could across. ' 

_ J - . i n fi: n_ t.: tuWi aol r*A Qn_ 

taling 53 soldiers, about 350 UN sol- they will be most dangerous to the UN 

Serbian officers, when asked, ap- 
peared unfazed by die incident While 

fliers remain under detention. 

The size of the raid and die debate 
over its efficacy cut to the heart of a 

mission here. 

Since the Udbina and the Nov. 23 

over ns curacy uui wiws *. ui * General de Lapresfe and Lien- 

major issue dividing UN commanders strikes, uencrai 

former Yo^Iav republics, who ***** 

— , mTttvc commander of UN forces m Bosnia, 

American commanders. The issue fo- naveurwaiicu yt 

asssustsu: SHSHskE 

ivm uarc any w-o- imuuu j mtfG aiguou , ~ f j Fl,r 

that as long as the Serbs are (natal to ** ? ATO iS c “SSS & 
ivic. an officer “pinprick” strikes, they will continue zone owr Bosnia should be snspend- 

t was a little to ignore the will of NATO and the “ indefinitely. 

Etie headache. United Nations. French and British While they succeeded in halting 
commanders argue that if NATO’s re- NATO overflights for about one week. 

PLO Warns Israel on .Altering Pact 

JERUSALEM (Reuters)— Seni or PUDo ^als ^ Mocgty 

“KSSiKS' ft. w -<j r" s 

under the 1993 IsraeS-PLO Declaration .of 

the withdrawal of the Israeli Army from the oc^^W«t ftan^ 

might need to be changed to protect Jewish settlers from guerrilla 

A»th» S . 

which administers sdf-iule in Gaza and Jmcho, rarda onwadrf 
rh * ngr “means Israel will destroy the DOP agreement m. 
Kora, who is known as Abu Alaa, added: “If there is any request 
to gtTMwJ the accord, it should be done through an agreement 
between the two sides.” • ■ 

«s for abont one week, 

Irish Coalition Talks Are Suspended 

sponse is too strong, it could trigger a the flights resumed on Saturday. The 

violent Serbian response. 

Bosnian Serbs reiterated their 

“If we press them too hard without tioa to the missions, and NATO 
giving them any hope of any way out, threatened to hit the anti-aircraft sites 

then they will go for a sort of collective if their radars locked onto NATO 

suicide,” said Lieutenant General Ber- planes. 

Russian Security Team 
Pressures the Chechens 

Compiled bv Ovr Staff From Dispatches 

GROZNY, Chechnya — 
Russia stepped up pressure 
Monday on Chechnya by flying 
three top ministers to a town 
near the rebel region's border 
and accusing its leaders of har- 
boring international terrorists. 

Defense Minister Pavel S. 
Grachev, Interior Minister Vik- 
tor F. Yerin and Sergei Stepa- 
shin, head of the counterintelli- 
gence service, flew to Mozdok 
in North Ossetia, an autono- 
mous region bordering Chech- 
nya in southern Russia. 

General Grachev admitted 
Monday that Russian jets had 
attacked airfields in Chechnya. 
He told the Itar-Tass press 
agency that the raids last week 
were carried out on airfields 
where aircraft that had bought 
weapons and mercenaries to 
Chechnya were parked. 

Russia had previously denied 
military involvement in the 
Chechen conflict, although 
Russian troops have been mass- 
ing near the mainly Muslim 
area that declared indepen- 
dence in 1991. 

in the regional capital, Groz- 
ny, the Chechen leader, Dzh»> 
kar Dudayev, said he was ready 
for talks with Russia but would 
not negotiate with opposition 

groups that have been fighting 
his forces. 

“I always was and still re- 
main in favor of negotiations on 
an basis with the Russian 
leadership at the corresponding 
level,” Itar-Tass quoted Mr. 
Dudayev as saying. 

A Russian government infor- 
mation center, set up for the 
Chechnya crisis, increased pres- 
sure on Mr. Dudayev by accus- 
ing him of turning Chechnya 
into a training ground for inter- 
national terrorist groups. 

Jt said Mr. Dudayev was “re- 
cruiting foreign mercenaries for 

Serb Force 
Pours Fire 
On Isolated 
Bihac Post 

DUBLIN (Rentas) — Talks between the Fianna Fml and 
Labor parties on forming a new government were abruptly sus- 
pended Monday amid new allegations over a child sex-abuse case 
that brought down the previous government. , _. 

The suspension oast doubt on the l ik eli hood of a new ruuma 
Fail-Labor coalition being announced when Paruaxnenl recon- 
venes on Tuesday to name a successor to Albert Reynolds, who 

was forced to resign over the case three weeks ago. ■ 

The report that triggered the suspension alleged that Fianna 
Fail had tried to cover up some of the background in the sex-abuse 
case involving a Norbertine priest. Father Brendan SmyuvTbe 
report, in the Irish Times, suggested that Mr. Reynolds and his 
Hanna Fail party had misled Parliament oyer the conduct of the 
former attorney general, Harry Whdehan, in the case. 

Maoist Bomb Wounds Indian Official 

possible acts of sabotage and 
terrorism.” but save no details. 

terrorism,” but gave no details. 

President Boris N. Yeltsin of 
Russia threatened last week to 
impose a state of emergency af- 
ter a flare-up in the fighting. 

The Russian Defense Minis- 
try has not said how many of its 
troops are in the area. But most 
of the Russian forces, including 
about 260 tanks and armored 
vehicles, are concentrated in a 
zone between North Ossetia 
and Ingushetia, which borders 

Chechen volunteers on the 
road from North Ossetia to _______ 

GrOZny have begun throwing Mote) JEvjijTrrv 'Agmr Frawr-Prcs* 

up makeshift anti-tank barriers. A group of Chechen volunteers in Grozny learning how to use a rocket-propelled 
(Reuters, AP) grenade on Monday as tension was rising between Russia and the breakaway area. 

Italy to Probe How Liner Was Evacuated 

Compiled by Ov Staff From Dispatches 

ROME — Italy announced 
an official inquiry Monday into 
the fire that sank the Achille 
Lauro after some survivors 
complained that the cruise liner 
had been unsafe and that crew 
members scrambled for life- 
boats first 

“Their behavior left a lot to 
be desired,” said a survivor, 
Pauline Best 58, of Britain. She 
accused some crew members of 
abandoning elderly passengers 
in lifeboats as they scrambled 
onto rescue ships. 

Transport Minister Publio 
Fieri said the inquiry would try 
to establish what caused the 
blaze in the Indian Ocean and 

how the emergency had been 
dealt with. 

“We want to understand 
what happened — the reasons, 
the causes, how people be- 
haved,” Mr. Fiori said. 

*T also want to get a dear 
idea of how the owners behaved 
in assisting the evacuees. I’ve 
been (old that some thing s 
didn't work as they bad prom- 
ised they would.” 

Another passenger, Hille 
Stockmann, 68, said that the 
crew appeared to be inexperi- 
enced in launching the lifeboats 
and that the lifeboats them- 
selves “were an absolute scan- 

even a bucket to bail in case we 
took on water,” Mrs. Sieck- 
mann said. “There were no en- 
gines in some of them, no water 
to drink, no blankets, no noth- 

The ship’s owners. Naples- 
based StarLauro, have ngected 
claims that their emergency 
procedures functioned poorly. 

Survivors taken on rescue 
ships to the Red Sea port of 
Djibouti and Mombasa in Ke- 
nya have said the Achille 
Lauro’s alarm system failed. 

Asked how fire procedures 
went when the blaze started. 

Raymond and Wendy Lcrfth- 
ouse of Britain said in Momba- 

“Tbere were no supplies, not 

In Bangkok, 
women know 
their place. 


ouse of Britain said in Momba- 
sa: “None of it worked. It was 
just buckets of water.” 

Survivors painted a scene of 
confusion following the out- 
break of fire in the engine room 
of the ship, which was built in 

Some passengers said they 
owed their lives to the liner's 
cruise director, Nadia Eckhard, 
a South African, and her staff, 
who calmly shepherded passen- 
gers into groups to evacuate the 
blazing ship, while some crew- 
men scrambled for the first life- 

Asked to comment on the re- 
ports, a StarLauro official Ser- 
gio Santapaolo, said the compa- 

ny had not received any 
complaints. “As far as we are 
concerned, everything was han- 
dled in the best possible way.” 

One of the Italian passengers, 
Sergio Panin, said the evacua- 
tion had been well managed. 
“Things were bandied proper- 
ly,” he said. 

Officials said 170 South Afri- 
cans, 66 Britons, 8 Americans, 7 
Germans and a handful of oth- 
er nationalities arrived in Mom- 
basa on Monday. A total of 148 
crew members, mostly Italians, 
also landed in Mombasa from 
the oil tanker Hawaiian King 

A chartered Alitalia 747 took 
off from Djibouti for Rome on 
Monday with about 400 survi- 
vors on board. Another Alitalia 
jumbo jet was waiting at Mom- 

In Italy Wins 
4 City Halls 

A Dutchwoman died of in- 
testinal Alness aboard one of 
the rescue vessels Saturday 
night, the Italian Coast Guard 
said. She was the third Achille 
Lauro passenger to die. 

(Reuters, AP) 

Pakistani Editor Killed 
In Karachi Ambush 


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The Associated Pros 

KARACHI, Pakistan - The 
editor of a popular weekly po- 
litical magazine was killed by 
gunmen who ambushed him as 
he left his office, the police said. 

The police said they did not 
know who was responsible for 
the attack Sunday on Moham- 
med Salahuddin, editor of 
Takber, an Urdu-language pub- 
lication. Mr. Salahuddin, whose 
house was attacked and burned 
in 1991, wasa harsh critic of the 
Muhajir National Movement, 
an opposition group that repre- 
sents Muslims who migrated to 
Pakistan from India. 

ROME — The center-left 
swept four of six big Italian 
towns in mayoral run-off races, 
results showed on Monday, re- 
warding a new opposition alli- 
ance and sparking tension in 
Prime Minister Silvio Berlus- 
coni's coalition. 

The most notable coup for 
the center-left in Sunday’s elec- 
tions come in the northern town 
of Brescia, where a Former 
Christian Democrat leader. 
Mine Martmazzoll easily beat 
the Northern League industry 
minister. Vito GnuttL 

Mr. Martinazzoli enjoyed the 
backing not only of his own 
Popular Party, successor to Lhe 
scandal-tainted Christian Dem- 
ocrats, but also of the Demo- 
cratic Party of the Left, as the 
former Communists call them- 
selves, Italy’s biggest opposi- 
tion grouping. 

By contrast, the hard right 
National Alliance, an ally of the 
League in Mr. Berlusconi's six- 
month-old government, refused 
to endorse Mr. Gnutti. 

Opposition candidates also 
triumphed in the northern town 
of Sondrio, in Massa in Tusca- 
ny and in Brindisi in the south- 

The coalition parties won 
narrowly in the Adriatic town 
of Pescara, while the League 
won convincingly in the north- 
eastern town of Treviso. 

Commentators said the re- 
sults indicated a route out of the 
political wilderness for the cen- 
ter-left following its defeat by 
Mr. Berlusconi's coalition in 
general elections in March. 

Washington Past Service 

nia — Croatian Serbian forces, 
firing t«nk and artillery shells 
every 45 seconds for at least 
several hours, blasted remain- 
ing Muslim positions in the 
northern Bihac pocket Monday 
and UN officials said they 
lieved the fall of the pocket's 
northern approach was near. 

Launching artillery, rocket- 
propelled grenade, mortar and 
tank attacks from three direc- 
tions, Croatian Serbian gun- 
men, manning batteries in Cro- 
atian Serbian territory and 
inside Bo snia itself, hit Muslims 
positions throughout Vetika 

Huge explosions rocked the 
area as Sexton tanks and how- 
itzers echoed throughout the 
hilly zone: Lacking heavy weap- 
ons, the M uslims fought back 
with small arms. 

Croatian Serbs have taken 
enough of the territory that they 
began the first steps toward re- 
installing Muslim renegade 
Fikret Abdic to power. On 
Monday, Mr. Abdic made his 
first public appearance inside 
Bosnia since Muslim govern - 
.ment troops quelled his upris- 
ing in August. Mr. Abdic, tht 
biggest chicken Tanner in the 
former Yugoslavia, led a rebel- 
lion against the Sarajevo gov- 
ernment for more than a year. 

LIN officials said the re- 
newed fighting indicated that 
the Croatian Serbian army has 
decided to throw more armor at 
the remaining Muslim defend- 
ers in the northern section of 
the Bihac enclave in an attempt 
to return Mr. Abdic to power 
and begin the process of con- 
necting Croatian Serbian terri- 
tory to Bosnian Serbian turf via 
the roads and rail link bisecting 

“They don’t want to talk — 
they want td kin,” said one UN 
officer in the region, who was 
monitoring the fighting from 
Croatian Serbian territory. 

A UN spokesman said the 
UN mission bad received re- 
ports that Serbs were using in- 
cendiary shells and had torched 
numerous houses in Vdika Kla- 
dusa in an attempt to bum out 
the last of the pro-government 
Muslim fighters. Blazes illumi- 
nated the night as the Serbian 
assault raged. 

“It’s an indication of the fe- 
rocity of the fighting,” said Paul 
Risley, a spokesman for the UN 
Protection Force. “It is mali- 
cious damage.” 

Mr. Risley said UN military 
officials have noticed more 
Croatian Serbian artillery head- 
ing toward the battleground, 
leading them to conclude that 
the end was near f or Vetika 

In the south and west of the 
pocket meanwhile, the Bosnian 
Serbs, allies to the Croatian 
Serbs, also kept up the pressure 
on the Muslims, but at a re- 
duced rate, UN officials said. 
Clashes persisted between them 
and Muslim forces near the 
Grabez plateau and around the 
town of Bihac. 


HYDERABAD, India (Reuters) —Maoist guerrillas wounded 
a state official in a bomb attack Monday in the southern Indian 
state of Andhra Pradesh, and two people were reported killed in 
Hachp< as voting for the state assembly ended. Results will be 
announced Dec. 9. . .. • . 

vote in 153 of the 294 state assembly seats had done so. But a 
majority of the rural voters stayed away, fearing reprisals by the 
Maoist People’s War Group, which vowed to disrupt lhe polls. 

Some ftfncfals said a better-than-cxpccted turnout in the Mao- 
ist stronghold had improved the chances for Prime Minister P.V. 
Naraamha Kao's Congress (I) Party, which holds power. The 
police said the voting was largely peaceful despite the Maoist 

Party Joins Japan Opposition Bloc 

TOKYO (AP) — In another step in Japan's political transfor- 
mation , a Buddhist-backed party ended its 30-year history Mon- 
day by dissolving itself to join a united opposition. 

Like all opposition groups except the Communists, the centrist 

Clean Government Party has agreed to join in the inauguration of 
the New Frontier Party on Dec. 10 to challenge the government of 
Prime Minister Tomiichi Moray ama. 

Most national legislators in the Clean Government Party will 
join the New Frontier Party. Party members in local legislatures 
wifi stay separate from the New Frontier Party and form a new 
party. The Clean Government Party was founded in 1964 as an 
official arm of the Buddhist lay organization Soka Gakkai. They 
officially separated in 1970. 

Spain Keeps Up Gibraltar Controls 

MADRID (AP) — Spanish authorities said Monday that police 
controls that have caused long delays in traffic to and from 
Gibraltar would continue as part of a crackdown on drug- and 
cigarette-smuggling from the disputed Rode. # 

Gibraltar officials criticized the Spanish police action last week, 
saying it was a political move prior to the annual British-Spanish 
talks on the status of Gibraltar. 

Foreign Minister Javier So lans Madariaga and his British 
counterpart. Douglas Hurd, are to meet in London this month for 
the ninth round of annual talks since both countries agreed in 
November 1984 to discuss issues involving Gibraltar. 

For die Record 

Swedish police were halting Monday for a 23-year-old Chilean 
and hi s accomplices after a gunman ran amok at a Stockholm 
nightclub this weekend, killing three people. (Reuters) 

French authorities freed a Libyan national held in an inquiry 
to the 1989 bombine of a French airliner over Niger in which 

into the 1989 bombing of a French airliner over Niger in which 
171 people died, judicial sources said Monday. Ali Omar Man- 
sour, described by the Interior Ministry as an intelligence agent, 
had been detained in Paris since Thursday. (Reuters) 

Prime Minister Rafik Hariri of Lebanon withdrew his resigna- 
tion Monday after crisis talks with Syrian leaders, a government 
minister said. (AFP) 


Where Britons Care Least to Visit 

LONDON (Reuters) — British tourists rate India and Vietnam 
among the most dangerous places to visit, and many are still 
paranoid about traveling to Florida, according to a survey re- 
leased Monday. 

Fifty-nine percent of 1,000 people questioned in October said 
they were afraid of going to India and Vietnam, and 41 percent 

said they would be worried about traveling to Florida. “Publicity 
about plague in India and isolated incidents of kidnapping and 
murder in other countries seems to be brin g in g out the paranoia in 
British holidaymakers,” said Sarah Joannides, deputy underwrit- 
ing manager for the trayel insurance company Home & Overseas, 
which conducted the poll. 

Colombia, Cuba, Israel and Bolivia were also high on the list of t* 
destinations considered as dangerous, while Hong Kong, Greece, 
Japan, Australia and New Zealand were considered among the 
safest countries to visit. 

Fnturoscope, a high-tech theme park near Poitiers, France, will 
no longer close during the winter, joining Euro Disneyland as a 
year-round attraction. Fururoscope, which expects to draw 2.5 
million visitors this year, had dosed for 10 weeks during the 
winter, but wifi remain open, its president, Renfe Monory, an- 
nounced Monday. (AP) 

A record 2.1 mfition tourists wfll visit Israel this year because of 
the Middle East peace process, the Tourism Ministry said, com- 
pared with 1.9 million last year. (AFP) 

The Merseyside Maritime Museum, which is devoted to exam- 
ining the international slave trade, has opened in Liverpool 
nearly two centuries after the trade was abolished in Britain. The 
museum highlights the social and economic impact of the slave 
trade from the 16th to the 20th century, focusing on the 18th 
century, "the golden age" of commercial Liverpool. (AFP) 

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Page 3 




Weamericas / 


1 r * 



Bentsen Will Leave 
Treasury in Early ’95 

Abortion Foes Take Heart in Tally for New Congress 

By Keith Bradsher 

. N*" *’«* Tima Seme c 


MS told President Bill Clinton 
™ he wants to step down 
soon, although the two men 
have not yet agreed on the tint- 
administration officials 
said Monday. 

In a series of discussions that 
began before Election Day Mr 

Bentsen has told Mr. Clinton 
thw he is not prepared to stay in 
office through 1996 and that he 
believes someone else should 
replace him before the next 
round of budget struggles be- 
gins later this winter, the offi- 
cials said 

While Mr. Bentsen might 
stay for a couple more months 
u asked to do so by the presi- 

fte 1 * ’ s un]ikeI y 10 remain in 
office any longer, they said. 

Mr. Bentsen said before a 
speech Monday afternoon on 
; j trade policy that recent specula- 
• tion on his departure was pre- 

“When I have more informa- 
tion, I’ll let you know,” he said. 

Robert E. Rubin, the assis- 
tant to the president for eco- 
nomic policy and the head of 
the National Economic Coun- 
cil, has emerged as the leading 
candidate to replace Mr. Bent- 
sen. The only serious concern 
that at the White House about 
moving Mr. Rubin has been the 
difficulty in replacing him on 
the National Economic Coun- 
cil, said the officials, who spoke 
on condition of anonymity. 

An administration official 
speculated that Mr. Rubin 
might end up running both 
agencies, much as Henry A. 
Kissinger once ran the National 
Security Council and the State 

But Otl^r officials riismk«»ri 
this idea, saying that the Na- 
tional Economic Council's role 
as an honest broker in policy 
debates would be crippled if it 
were closely identified with the 
Treasury Department. 

Mr. Bentsen’s departure 
would represent a political set- 
back for the president, the offi- 
cials said, becanse Mr. Bentsen 
V 5 more influence and experi- 
ence in working with congres- 
sional Republicans than any 
other senior administration of- 

Unlike other administration 
officials with congressional ex- 
perience, such as Leon EL Pa- 
fletta, the White House chief of 
staff. Mr. Bentsen served in the 
Senate and had the experience 
of working on the minority side 
when the Republicans con- 
trolled dial chamber from 1980 
to 1986. 

Even administration officials 
accustomed to putiing the best 
possible face on bad develop- 
ments were unable to portray 
Mr. Bentsen 's departure in a 
good light on Monday. 

“If you could only have one 
person on your side in an eco- 
nomic debate, most people 
would have chosen Secretary 
Bentsen,” said Gene Sperling, a 
deputy assistant to die presi- 
dent for economic policy. 

By Spencer Rich 

1 Washington Post Service 

WASHINGTON — Abortion foes gained at 
least 39 House seats and fire Senate seats in the 
November elections, according to groups on 
both sides of the issue, giving them a majority 
or near-majority in Congress on many abortion 

“The pro-life side had its biggest victory in 
the history of the movement,” said Representa- 
tive Christopher H. Smith, one of the chairmen 
of the House anti-abortion caucus. 

Although abortion may be secondary to the 
Republican “Contract With America," which 
focuses heavily on economic, tax, welfare and 
congressional procedure reform, the New Jer- 
sey Republican said abortion foes had an excel- 
lent chance io roll back administration policies 
or existing laws and regulations that Republi- 
cans view as fostering abortion. 

In what abortion opponents assert was a bow 
to the election results. President Bill Clinton 
barred the use of federal funds for creating 
human embryo cells outside the body to be 
used for research purposes — on the very day. 
Friday, that a panel recommended guidelines 
for canying out such research. 

Although the embryo issue does not involve 
abortion in the sense the word is normally 
understood — terminating a pregnancy — 
abortion foes consider it lo be a “right to" life” 
issue involving deliberate destruction of a po- 
tential human life. 

“It crosses a line that is barbaric,” Mr. Smith 
said. “We’re creating human life for the sole 
purpose of experimenting on 1 l” 

The anti-abortion measures envisioned bv 
Mr. Smith, the National Right to Life Commit- 
tee and the Family Research Council include 
locking such an embryo cell research ban into 
law, as well as: 

• Cutting off funds for international family- 
planning organizations that abortion foes con- 
tend use public funds directly or indirectly lo 
work for legalization of abortion in foreign 
countries. Senator Jesse Helms offered such an 
amendment last year, but it lost. 

Sources said that now, as incoming chairman 
of the Foreign Relations Committee, the North 
Carolina Republican is likely to bring it up 

• Barring federal support for research on the 
use of transplanted tissue from aborted fetuses 
to allay the effects of Parkinson’s disease. 

• Continuing or broadening restrictions on 
Medicaid-financed abortions, which are al- 
lowed only to save the life of the woman or in 
cases of rape or incest. 

• Restricting research and sale of the abor- 
tion pill RU-486. 

• Barring federally funded family-planning 
groups from counseling young women that 
abortion is an option. Opponents call this the 
“gag rule.” 

• Barring the Federal Employees Health 
Benefits Program. U.S. military hospitals over- 
seas and the District of Columbia (even if using 
its own money) from providing abortions. 

“All of it’s on the table,” Mr. Smith declared. 

Some groups also favor action to modify 
restrictions on demonstrations against abor- 
tion clinics. 

But House Republican leaders have not sin- 
gled out abortion for priority action in the 
104th Congress, and any votes engineered by 
Mr. Smith and other anti-abortion forces prob- 
ably will not come for months. 

“We will absolutely oppose them.*’ said Ann 
Lewis, vice president or Planned Parenthood of 
America. “They want to eliminate the right to 

Kate Michelman, president of the National 
Abortion and Reproductive Rights Action 
League, acknowledged: “They did pick up a lot 
of votes." 

She predicted that Republicans were not 
going to announce anti-abortion legislation as 
a major goal but she added: “I do think they’re 
going to assault the freedom to choose.” 

She vowed strong opposition to that agenda. 

According to a league analysis of the election 
results, the 103d Congress contained a core of 
179 members considered sure anti-abortion 
votes on most issues, although on occasion 
abortion opponents got more. 

In the 104tb Congress, according to the anal- 
ysis, the core ami-abortion bloc will number 
218 votes, the group of abortion rights support- 
ers 146. and 71 representatives will have mixed 

In the Senate, according to the count, abor- 
tion opponents had 40 consistent supporters in 
the 1 03d Congress, but that count wuirise to 43 
senators in the 104th, with the abortion-rights 
bloc numbering 38 senators, and the remaining 
17 senators having mixed positions. 

The National Right to Life Committee says 
abortion foes picked up 40 House seats and five 
or six Senate seats. 


From Politics 

•The Supreme Court has re- 
fused to review a ruling that lets 
the police shoot people who try 
to escape while awaiting crimi- 
nal trials. (AP) 

• Authorities were considering 

filing manslaughter charges 
against a New Jersey nightclub 
owner after four youths died in 
a stampede there. Officials said 
one exit was locked and another 
all but hidden. (APJ 

• Activists planning a national 
boycott of CaMomia over its 
new law targeting illegal immi- 
grants said they might also tar- 
get several corporations. (AP) 

• Sheikh Omar Abdel Rahman, 

the Egyptian cleric accused of 
plotting to bomb New York 
landmarks, has teen told he has 
tuberculosis. (Reuters) 

• Rescuers were trying to (firect 

an injured baby northern right 
to the* 

whale back 
it wandered 60 
Delaware River. 

: open sea after 
miles up the 

• Uncompleted Wood-thinning 
therapy to treat dots in former 
Vice President Dan Quayle’s 
lungs delayed his scheduled re- 
lease from a hospital (Reuters) 

Eric Brad >/ Tile Auntuiod Prew 

CLAUS ON A HOG — Santa cruising Roanoke, Vir- 
ginia, in the Marine Craps Reserve Toys fra- Tots Ron. 


Gingrich Called ‘Rec k less* 

WASHINGTON - The Clinton ad- 
ministration denounced as untrue and 
“reckless” on Monday an assertion by 
Representative Newt Gingrich that up 
to one-fourth of the White House staff 
used illegal drugs in recent years before 
joining the administration. 

The White House chief of siatT. Leon 
E. Panetta. said, “we cannot do business 
with the speaker of the House who is 
going to engage in these kind of un- 
founded allegations.” 

Mr. Gingrich made the claim on Sun- 
day in a broadcast interview, saying: 
“It’s very clear that they had huge prob- 
lems getting people through security 
clearance.” On Monday. House Repub- 
licans elected Mr. Gingrich to be speaker 
when the party takes control of the 
chamber in January. 

Mr. Panetta, when asked whether use 
of drugs at some point in the past would 
have disqualified someone from serving 
in the Clinton White House, replied that 
it would not, “any more than it was an 
automatic disqualification for Newt 
Gingrich to be speaker." Mr. Gingrich. 
51, has acknowledged smoking marijua- 
na as a graduate student more than two 
decades ago. (AP, Reuters ) 

Travel Office Indictment? 

WASHINGTON — A lawyer for Bil- 
ly Dale, the former head of the White 

House travel office, said that he expect- 
ed federal prosecutors to seek an embez- 
zlement indictment against Mr. Dale 
this week, charging him with stealing 
S69.000 in money paid by news organi- 
zations for presidential trips. 

Steven Tabackman, Mr. Dale's law- 
yer. said his client would plead not guilty 
to the charges, which are likely to revive 
an embarrassing issue that created a fu- 
ror when it erupted in May 1993 and left 
a powerful impression of White House 
bungling on ethical matters. 

“No one who has worked with Billy 
Ray Dale or had any contact with him 
either personally or professionally dur- 
ing the 3 1 years that ne served the "White 
House and the media believes for an 
instant that Mr. Dale embezzled a cent 
from the travel office,” Mr. Tabackman 

Mr. Dale, 57, began working at the 
White House in 1957 and became bead 
of the travel office in 1982. 


More Base Closings Coming 

WASHINGTON — The Pentagon is 
preparing to begin another major effort 
lo shut unneeded military bases, with 
signs that this one will be the biggest — 
and by far the most painful — such 
effort in recent history. 

Defense Department strategists be- 
lieve that the coming round of base dos- 
ings. in 1995. may be the most crucial of 
all. In drawing down the Cold War mili- 

tary, the Pentagon has slashed the total 
number of troops, but it has not reduced 
the infrastructure — bases and depots — 
as shaipiy. 

Pentagon budget-makers fear that un- 
less the services get rid of large numbers 
of those unneeded bases this lime, they 
will be stuck with hefty overhead costs 
that will leave them unable to channel 
funds into critical weapons systems and 
modernization programs. 

Moreover, as the generals are painful- 
ly aware, the next round may well be 
their last chance. Congress authorized 
base-closing efforts in 1988, 1991 and 
1993 and may not be willing to approve 
another one. 

Robert W. Gaskin, a former Pentagon 
strategist, points out that the pain in the 
coming round is likely to be exacerbated 
by the fact that “all the easy choices have 
been made.” 

Planners hi all four services are pre- 
dicting that the list of bases that the 
services will propose for dosing in 1995 
is apt to be the biggest ever. 


Representative Hemy Bonilla, Re- 
publican of Texas, in a speech nominat- 
ing Mr. Gingrich to be the speaker of the 
House: “Newt Gingrich is a visionary, a 
believer in basic values.” 

Representative Vic Fazio, Democrat 
of California, on Mr. Gingrich: “He is a 
great motivator to our caucus." (AP) 


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Your inquiry is welcomed and appreciated. 


Moscow’s Asian Arms Bazaar 

Danger Seen in Spread of Military Technology 

By Michael Richardson 

Intcnutwnal Herald Tribune 

SINGAPORE — Aggressive 
sales in Asia by makers of Rus- 
sian-designed arms are likely to 
become a continuing source of 
friction between the West and 
former members of the Soviet 
bloc, especially Russia, as they 
compete for orders in the 
world's fastest-growing military 

Western officials and ana- 
lysts warn that the increasing 
commercial rivalry is hastening 
the spread of advanced weap- 
ons and technology in Asia, and 
may ultimately lead to a dan- 
gerous arms race in the region. 

Following the purchase of IS 
MiG-29 fighters from Russia in 
June on very favorable financial 
terms, Malaysia is testing the 
Russian-designed T-72 tank 
and may soon place an initial 
order for more than 60, Malay- 
sian officials said Monday. 

The relatively low-cost tanks, 
manufactured under license 
from Moscow, would probably 
come from Poland or Slovakia, 
they said. 

China, India, Smith Korea 
and Indonesia have all shown 
strong interest recently in Rus- 
sian-designed military equip- 
ment, whidt is generally much 
less expensive than comparable 
Western weapons. 

Asian nations assert that 
wider access to military equip- 
ment and technology will pro- 

vide much-needed moderniza- 
tion of their defense capability 
and increase stability in Asia. 

But “cut-price transfers of 
advanced combat aircraft and 
main battle tanks could alter 
the balance of power in particu- 
lar regions," said David Muss- 
ington, a former defense scien- 

Rossian weapons 
are appearing for 
sale to developing 
countries even 
before they are 
acquired by the 
Russian military. 

tist in the Directorate of 
Strategic Analysis of Canada's 
Department of National De- 

He said that over the long 
term, the transfer of Russian 
production technology could be 
much more important than 
weapons sales in die global 
spread of military power. 

In its latest annual strategic 
survey, the London- based In- 
ternational Institute for Strate- 
gic Studies warned that as a 
result of the rapid diffusion of 
sophisticated military technol- 
ogy in Asia, “what may emerge 
are countries which have sen- 

Pentagon Plans to Destroy 
Re maining Napalm Stocks 

The Associated Press 

FALLBROOK, California — Twenty years after the Viet- 
nam War, the government is planning to dispose of its last 
stocks of napalm, the sticky, fiercely burning weapon. 

More than 35,000 aluminum canisters containing 10.4 
million kilograms (23 million pounds) of napalm are soon to 
be removed from the Fallbrook Naval Weapons Station, 
where they have sat in wooden crates for two decades. 

Officials of the Southern California center plan a public 
hearing next month to brief the public on the latest disposal 
plan. Past attempts to remove the napalm failed for various 
reasons, including a lack of money. 

“This time we think we have a belter handle on it," said a 
spokesman for the Naval Ordnance Center. 

The navy plans to hire a contractor to extract the napalm 
from the canisters for use as fuel in loins at cement-making 
plants around the country, the spokesman said. The process, 
which is scheduled to begin within two weeks, could take up 
to five years and cost more than S24 million. 

Napalm was dropped in bombs from aircraft and used in 
flame throwers. 

ous tensions with their neigh- 
bors and are increasingly free of 
the constraints imposed by 
Euro-Atlantic arms exporters." 

Mr. Mussington said recent 
Russian sales to China had. led 
to the transfer from Russia of 
production facilities for the ad- 
vanced Su-27 fighter and SA-10 
surface-to-air missiles, as well 
as Russian technical assistance. 

He said that Russia and its 
former Soviet-bloc allies, anx- 
ious to expand aims exports to 
earn hard currency ana offset 
falling military orders at home, 
were “vulnerable to the same 
cost pressures that afflict West- 
ern arms producers, as evi- 
denced by the feverish activity 
of Russian defense enterprises" 
in Aria and elsewhere in the 
developing world. 

Mr. Mussington said that 
Russian weapons previously 
unknown to Western intelli- 
gence agencies, such as theR-73 
air-to-air missile, were appear- 
ing for sale to developing coun- 
tries even before they were ac- 
quired by the Russian military. 

Following the breakup of the 
Soviet Union and its defense 
industries, Russian arms ex- 
ports to developing countries 
plummeted to $13 billion in 
1992 from just over $14 billion 
in 1988, according to a study by 
the U.S. Congressional Re- 
search Service in Washington. 

In the same period, U.S. mili- 
tary exports to the Third World 
rose to $133 billion from $10 
billion, while British exports 
nearly trebled to $2.4 billion 
and French exports more than 
doubled to S3.8 billion. 

Gennadi Chufrin, deputy di- 
rector of the Institute of Orien- 
tal Studies at the Russian Acad- 
emy of Science in Moscow, said 
that Russia's share of global 
arms sales fell to “a mere 11 
percent" in 1992, from 37 per- 
cent in 1989. 

“It is little wonder then that 
practically all major political 
parties in Russia have displayed 
a rare unanimi ty in calling on 
the government to actively pro- 
mote arms exports to restore 
positions with traditional buy- 
ers of Soviet-Rusrian weapons, 
and to explore new markets." 

Mr. Chufrin said that Mos- 
cow would expand arms sales to 
Aria, including China where it 
would supply T-72 tanks, C-300 
surface-to-air missile systems , 
and jet fighters, among them 
“most modem variants" of the 
MiG-29 and MiG-31. 

Warden Is Beloved 
At Prison in India 

Kirtm Bedi Pushes for Change 
At New Delhi’s Toughest Jail 

Agnxx f rancc-PicBt 

MUSLIMS MARCH IN INDIA — A group of 400 Musfims protesting Monday at 
India’s largest mosque in New Delhi. They demanded the recorctraction of the Babri 
mosque in Ayodhya, which was stormed and razed in 1992 by thousands of Hindu 
militan ts, who said the mosque desecrated the birthplace of the Hindu god Rama. 

U.S. Judges Seek to Limit Caseload 

Net* York Tunes Service 

of federal judges is proposing 
new limits on access to federal 
courts for Sods! Security bene- 
ficiaries, victims of job dis- 
crimination and consumers, as 
pan of a long-range plan to 
cope with huge increases in the 

If recent trends continue, the 
judges said, the federal courts 
will be inundated with civil and 
criminal cases. The crime bill 
>assed this fall for example, 
extended federal jurisdic- 
tion to a new range of crimes. 

The report says there are al- 
ready signs of "impending cri- 



ris" and predicts that the prob- 
lems will grow steadily over the 
next 25 years. 

By the year 2020, the judges 
estimate, more than a mfllion 
new cases will be filed each year 
in federal district courts, up 
from the 281.740 in the year 
that ended June 30. 

“Numbers alone do not ade- 
quately capture this frightening 
picture," the report said. To 
handle the anticipated case- 
load, even assuming some in- 
crease in judicial productivity, 
would require more than 4,000 
judges, up from the current to- 
tal of 846, the report says. With- 
out hiring new judges, delays 

would grow intolerably. 

With so many judges, the re- 
port says, it will be difficult to 
maintain the coherence and 
consistency of federal court de- 

“Federal law would be Babel 
with thousands of derisions is- 
suing weekly and no one judge 
capable of comprehending the 
entire corpus of federal law, or 
even the law of ids or her own 
circuit,” it says. 

After hearings, a final version 
of the repent will be submitted 
in March 1995 to the full Judi- 
cial Conference, which is ex- 
pected to accept most of the 

By John F. Bums 

Sew York Times Service 


Kiran Bedi was named warden 

of India's largest and mast no- 
torious prison, a job considered 
a professional graveyard, many 
of hex critics shed crocodile 

The assertive Miss Bedi a 45- 
year-old Punjabi has ruffled 
many a feather since becoming 
India's first policewoman 23 
years ago. 

Now, 18 months alter taking 
the prison job. Miss Bedi ~ 
who was once women's tennis 
champion of Aria — has staged 
a scrambling comeback. In- 
stead of getting bogged down in 
the corruption and violence as- 
sociated with the New Delhi’s 
Tthar prison, she has pushed 
through reforms that have be- 
gun to change its reputation. 

Miss Bedi's popularity has 
ban fostered by the education- 
al and recreational activities she 
has brought to the prison, as 
well as by the pressure she has 
put on judges to adopt more 
liberal bafl policies. With more 
than 150.000 prisoners awaiting 
trial in India’s jails while courts 
work ponderously through a 
huge backlog, it is not unusual 
for accused people to serve 
more time awaiting trial than 
the maximum term they would 
face if convicted. 

When 711181*5 9,700 inmates 
were told that she had been 
awarded one of Aria's most 
coveted public service awards 
this summer for her work there, 

man y inmat es — who range 

from prisoners awaiting trial to 
convicted murderers awaiting 
execution — broke into danc- 

But many of the politicians 
and police superiors Miss Bedi 
has crossed in hex career are 
more likely to have reacted with 
a gnashin g of teeth. 

While she has been celebrat- 
ed by many in India as the ar- 
chetype of India's new career 
women, she is deeply resented 
within the still overwhelmingly 
male police force. More than 
one effort has been made to 
check her rise by assigning her 
to jobs considered dead ends. 

Her assertive style was dis- 
played on a tour of Tihar. Strid- 

ing across the prison yard, she 
punctuated her remarks with ■ 
d isp aragement of the estab- 
lished ways of Indian politics, 
particularly the dose bonds be- 
tween powerful politicians and 
the poUce hierarchy. - 

Ail three major national po- 
litical parties invited Miss Bedi 
to run as a parliamentary candi- 
date in the last general election 
in 1991. She roused, and rite 
says she has not Cha n ged hoc 
zniad. “When I look at our poli- 
tics, I don’t see ethics at all" 
she said. “Here at Tihar, I have 
power with ethics, so why sub- 
stitute it for a world where I 
would end up with neither?" 

At Tihar, where she is the 
first woman to serve as warden, 
her philosophy of rehabilitation 
is at odds with the prison’s re- 
pressive reputation. Thepem- 
tentiary, built to serve Britain’s 
c olonial rulers in the 1880s, is r 
four prisons grouped together* 
behind 30-foot walls, with sepa- 
rate sections for men and wom- 
en. The jail is heavily over- 

On her tour of the prison 
yard. Miss Bedi chatted easily 
with prisoners. Several times, 
her progress was halted by pris- 
oners shouting “Madam! Mad-, 
am!" — followed by an plea for 
help in obtaining bail or a 
speedier trial. 

In the prison yard, Gerald 
Victor interrupted the literacy 
class he was teaching to step 
forward. The 38-year-old one- 
time businessman was awaiting 
trial on a charge of disposing of 
a pistol used to kill a prominent 
lawyer. The maximum penalty 
for that offense is three years in 
jafl, and he had been there for 
40 months awaiting trial “Let’s 
go to legal aid," she said. “This 
man does not belong here." 

With the lithe buQd and 
cropped bur of an athlete, and 
a preference for loose trousers 
and long shirts instead of saris, 
Miss Bedi has prompted criti- 
cism from traditionalists who 
say she has aimed her bade on 
traditions of In dian woman- 
hood. Supporters regard her as 
a champion of women’s emart 
dpation. She rebuts both view? 1 

“I like to think that what at- 
tracts attention to me is my 
work, not my gender," die said. 



Hie life of Allen Dulles 

By Peter Grose. 641 pages. S30. 
Houghton Mifflin. 

Reviewed by David Cora 

F OR decades Allen Dulles 
stood as the symbol of the 
Central Intelligence Agency: a 
tweedy, pipe-smoking, blue- 
blooded diplomat- turned -WaU- 
gence officer or, as Pieter Grose 
dubs him in his engaging biogra- 
phy, a “gentleman spy.” These 
days, the posterbqy for the CIA 
is Aldridge Ames, the drunk in- 
competent who rose through the 
old-boy bureaucracy to a sensi- 
tive post where he could do great 
damage as a Soviet mole. 

Dunes was almost bred, it 
seems, with the CIA in mind. 


• M.S. Swamhxathan, the In-, 
dian geneticist and internation- 
al administrator, is reading 
“No More Room” by Lester 

“We already have filled this 
planet, and if we don’t regulate 
it, then the Malthusian predic- 
tions will come true.” 

(Ilise Gersten, IHT) 

His grandfather, John Watson 
Foster, was secretary of state in 
the late 19th century. Dulles’s 
father was a Presbyterian pastor. 
From a practitioner of realpoli- 
tik and a missionary came the 
Company's number one man. 

Naturally, Dulles went to 


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By Roben Byrne 

A lexander shabaiov 
beat Alexander Ivanov in 
Round 2 of the United Slates 

The two gains of the queen 
sortie involved in 2 d4 ed 3 Qd4 
Nc6 4 Qe3 are the elimination 
of the e5 pawn and the inability 
of Black to counter with 4...d5 
because of 5 ed. 

White must rein himself in on 
4...Nf6 and not attempt to 
storm the black fortress with 5 
e5?! Ng4 6 Qe4 d5 7 ed Be6 8 
Ba6 Qd6 9 Bb7 Qb4 10 Qb4 
Nb4 11 Na3 Rb8 12 Bf3 Ne5 
because Blade’s dynamic play is 
worth more than the gambit 
pawn. Moreover, in this same 
line after 6 Qe2 d6 7 F3 Nh6 8 

d • r 


Position after 27 ... Ng6 

Bh6 Qb4 9 g3 Qh6 10 ed Bed, 
Black has great positional ad- 

When Black counterattacks 
with 7._Re8, it would be wrong 
for White to play defensively 
with 8 f3 d5 9 Qf2 de 10 Ne4 
No* 1 1 fe Qe7 because of the 
weakness of the isolated e4 

Ivanov tried 9...Bd6. a sug- 

gestion of Patrick Wolff. Yet 
Wolffs analysis only consid- 
ered 10 Qh3 and 10 Qf3, where- 
as Shabalov’s 10 f4!? was stron- 

On 12 Bd3, it may be that the 
compact 12._d6 would have 
been Black’s best course. After 
13 Rdel Rel 14 Rel Ne7 15 
Nh4 Bd7. Black's development 
is proceeding apace. 

It was evident after 20 g4!? 
that Shabalov’s attacking plans 
were not spent. After 20...c6 21 
g5 Nd7 22 Ng4, perhaps Ivanov 
should have tried to hold off the 
pawn surge with 22...Qf8!? 23 

After 22—Nb6?! 23 f5 Qd7 24 
Rfl Bd6 25 Qh3, Ivanov could 
not play 25_.Nf5? because of 26 
Rf5 Qf5 27 Nb6. After 
25-...Kh8, Shabaiov ruptured 
the king position with 26 f6! gf 
27 gf. 

Defense by 27_J4g8 could 
have been defeated by 28 Qh5; 
for example, 28—Nc4 29 Rf3 
Nd2 30 Rh3 Nb3 (30...h6 31 
Qg5» Bf8 32 Nb6!) 31 Kb I' h6 
32 Qg5! Bf8 33 Nh6 Qh3 34 
Qg8 mate. After 27...Ng6, Sha- 
baiov charged through with 28 
Bb6, threatening 29 Bg7 Kg8 30 
Nh6 mate. After 28._Bf8 29 
Bg7! Bg7 30 fg Kg7 3 1 Qh6 Kfa8 
32 Nf6, Ivanov gave up. 

Princeton. He joined the For- 
eign Service in 1916 and served 
in several overseas posts. In 
1926 he left the government, 
whirled through what is now 
called the revolving door and 
entered the toney firm of Sulli- 
van and Cromwell, where older 
brother (and future secretary of 
state and airport namesake) 
John Foster Dulles was already 
ensconced. Alien Dulles han- 
dled international lending ac- 
tivity and represented German 
business interests. 

He returned to the govern- 
ment payroll at the start of 
World War II with the Office of 
Strategic Services. As the OSS's 
man in Switzerland, he pulled 
together networks of agents and 
gathered information on Ger- 
man plots to assassinate Adolf 
Hitler, on the resistance in 
France and Austria, on the Ho- 
locaust He negotiated the sur- 
render of the German forces in 
Italy, but his best agent — a low- 
Jevd German officer who deliv- 
ered 1,600 documents from the 
Nazi Foreign Office — was a 
walk-in. Analysts back in Wash- 







S bn baler 

I rt 


17 NeS 

2 (M 



2 Qdt 


is Qtn 

4 OcJ 


2fl g< 

5 Ne3 



fe 843 


7 OAO 


o rf 


10 M 




14 BlI 



It NR 
12 HdJ 
U Rdel 
H Rel 

15 Nhl 

16 NI3 







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28 Bg7 

a re 

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not attack Russia. Still a legend 
[mined: Dulles the spymaster. 

ha 1950, Dulles, at the age of 
57, was appointed deputy direc- 
tor of plans for the young CIA. 
Three years later, he ascended to 
the post of CIA director. In these 
positions, he defined the intelli- 
gence system of the United 
Slates, He fancied political war- 
fare — coup-making, propagan- 
da, political fronts — and this 
activity, despite the objections of 
others in the CIA and the gov- 
ernment, became a priority for 
the service. Intelligence collec- 
tion — Dulles’s strong suit as an 
OSS man — received less atten- 
tion in his CIA than the fun and 
game. A large and insular bu- 
reaucracy grew under him, even 
though he irnnsdf hated such 
Structures. And within this cul- 
ture a dubby atmosphere devel- 
oped, one that protected malfea- 
sant and less-thas-stellar 
officers. After CIA officers 
dipped LSD to an unsuspecting 


causing his suiode, Dulles issued 

the slightest of reprimands to 
those responsible- No one in the 
chib would suffer. 

Modi of the second half of 
“Gentleman Spy" covers turf 
already well-traveled in the lit- 
erature of intelligence: the CIA- 
choreographed coups in Iran 
and Guatemala; the develop- 
ment of the U-2 plane ; tie 
procurement of Nikita Khru- 
shchev's 1956 anti-Stalin 
speech (Dulles later called this 
“one of the major coups of my 
tour of duty," but the CIA was 
handed the speech by the Israeli 
intelligence service); the anti- 
Castro Bay of Pigs debacle of 
1961, and the now all- too famil- 
iar assassination operations 
against pesky socialist leaders 
of tibe developing world. 

A bit frustrating is the reluc- 
tance of Grose, a former New 
York Times reporter, -Foreign 
Affairs editor and State Depart- 
ment official, to confront fully 
the sense of elitism and self -righ- 
teousness that imbued Dulles 
and bis comrades. The “Park 
Avenue cowboys,” be writes, 
“were highly intelligent and n 
deeply motivated to do the pub- 
lic good." Dulles and his like- 
minded colleagues were blinded 
by their own hubris. They be- 
lieved that because they woe 
gentlemen they could do dirty 
deeds for causes they deemed 
just, that the world was theirs to 
fiddle with — and in secrecy. 
“Gentleman Spy” does sot re- 
write the history of this set, but it 
does remind us that the distance 
between a self-proclaimed gen- 
tleman and a deceitful plotter is 
not always that far. 

. David Com, Washington edi- 
tor of the Nation magazine and 
the author of ", Blond Ghost: Ted 
Shockley and the CIA's Cru- 
sades, ” wrote this for The Wash- 
ington Post. 




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Page 6 





Sribime A Pi Ma » 



Be President 

The Clinton adminis tration’s shell- 
shocked first response to the election re- 
turns was full of the wrong questions. 
They had to do with image rather than 
substance, as if the business of being 
president were a kind of con. How should 
the president try to reposition himself, 
was the instant quay. What kind of new 

or the less liberal ones? Which (if any) 
former presidents should he emulate? 
Should he prepare to cooperate with the 
Republican Congress or set the political 
stage to run against it? 

Now, however, if only by virtue of the 
calendar and the press of business that 
can't be ignored, reports from the White 
House suggest that some grittier ques- 
tions are asserting themselves. That 
could be good news, for the country and 

E resident alike. It's old-fashioned, we 
now, but what the president could do, 
if he chose, is decide on the merits what 
national policy ought to be — what he 

or thinking there aren’t plenty of pro- 
grams that can be cat without great loss. 

grams that can be cat without great loss. 
But the “Contract with America” is ex- 
treme. It would jeopardize important 
functions of government while shifting 
enormous burdens to the states. It goes 
too fart the president can and ought to 
make the argument for a balanced alter- 
native. Balanced in that sense does not 

mean weak; to the contrary. 

How then might Mr. Clinton raise the 

wants to achieve — propose and fight 
for it as best he can, and let that detine 

for it as best he can, and let that detine 
him. First make the wine and only then 
design the label. How’s that for a revolu- 
tionary proposition? 

It shouldn’t be all that difficult The 
president could adopt as a model his own 
first year. The immediate issue then as 
now was the budget Bill Clinton had to 
decide what to do about the deficit — 
whether and how far to try to drive it down 
—and then how to fir within that goal the 
rest of what he wanted to accomplish. 

■ In that year, wisely, in our view, he 
chose not a temporizing but an aggressive 
compromise, a set of measures that not 
only reduced the deficit but left a little 
money over to finance the mostly modest 
spending increases he called investments. 
He should pursue the same mix of objec- 
tives again — not the exact same mea- 
sures. which can’t be repeated, but the 
same broad pattern, which can. It has the 
advantage of being the right thing to do, 
good policy and, because iL is good poli- 
cy, conceivably even good politics, too. 

- The deficit will turn back up again in a 
year or two if the president and new 
Congress don’t act to suppress it. For the 
sake of future generations they should 
keep the fiscal pressure on. but do it 
responsibly. In the House particularly, 
the Republican majority-to-be would 

money he would need? There is hardly a 
shortage of ideas or possibilities. Step up 
the means- testing of entitlements (in- 
cluding Social Security and Medicare; 
the math doesn’t work if you leave them 
out). Begin to raise the retirement age. 
Tighten the eligibility rules in some pro- 
grams. Toss out tbe likes of the dairy 
price supports, which are dysfunctional 
anyway. Impose some new limits on tax 
breaks. Toss out some more discretionary 

spending. Does the country really need a 
Small Business Administration or an 
Amtrak subsidy or a special low-income 
home heating subsidy atop the rest of the 
aid the government gives the poor? 

Mr. Clinton should go first, propose 
some serious, specific budget cuts but at 
tbe same time — novel notion — defend 
the legitimacy and importance of other 
things that government does that ought 
not be cut There is plenty of room for a 
forceful, responsible proposal Let some- 
one else decide where that puts him in the 
great, confused and pointless war of po- 
litical left-to-right labels. 

No, a single budget won't redefine an 
entire administration. And it won’t ad- 
dress tbe whole array of organizational 
weaknesses and personal and political 
bad habits that have landed Mr. Clinton 
and his presidency in so much trouble 
and that desperately need attention, too. 
But it’s not a bad place to start. 


The Obesity Gene 

The identification of a genetic flaw 
that seems to cause obesity in mice, and 
possibly in humans as welt caused rip- 
ples of excitement when it was an- 
nounced last week. The finding holds out 
the dazzling hope that scientists may, 
eventually, come up with a drug treat- 
meat to help overweight people shed un- 
wanted, unhealthy pounds. But don’t 
count on the discovery changing your 
life any time soon. Any treatment is said 
to be five to 10 years away. And the field 
of genetic disease is littered with false 

taut, known as the ob gene. In two strains 
of obese mice, the ob gene was found to be 
defective, suggesting mat when it malfunc- 
tions, it causes obesity. The researchers 
hypothesize that tins gene, acting only in 
fat cells, normally produces a protein that 
circulates through the blood to reach the 
part of the brain that controls appetite. 

When a large number of fat cells churn 
out a large amount of the protein, the 
brain tells the body to reduce food intake. 
Unless, of course, the gate malfunctions. 
In that case the brain will be fooled into 

hopes gone unrealized. 
It is humbling to rec« 

It is humbling to recall the excitement 
that greeted past announcements of ge- 
netic defects associated with alcoholism. 

thinking there is not enough fat in the 
body and will encourage the intake of 
even more food. The gene probably con- 
trols long-term food intake, not the hour- 
by-hour changes in appetite that deter- 
mine when one feds hungry. 

That all sounds plausible, but scientists 
have a long way to go to prove iL Thus far 
they have simply found the defective gene 
in mice that are obese. Now scientists 
must show that the protein the ob gene 
produces does in fact circulate in the 
bloodstream and that when injected into 
an animal with the genetic defect, it win 
cause a weight loss. Once they do that, 
there will be real cause for excitement. 

Even then, there is no guarantee that 
the same effects would be seen in humans. 
The shimmering hope is that, if a faulty 
satiety signal triggers obesity, scientists 
may be able to administer the missing 
satiety protein to patients, much as diabe- 
tes is treated with insulin injections. 

But obesity in humans is apt to be 
much more complicated than obesity in 
mice, with multiple genes and hormones 
involved, and many behavioral factors as 
well. It may be hard for scientists to find 
a single magic bullet. 

So keep your fingers crossed. And keep 
up the diet and exercise. 


cancer, manic depression, schizophrenia 
and other ailments. Only later did sden- 

and other ailments. Only later did scien- 
tists realize that, they had misidentified 
the gene or else had no idea how it oper- 
ated, and thus no idea bow to devise a 
treatment. Still, there is some reason to 
hope that the new gene discovery might 
be an exception. Thai is because there is a 
long history of research in physiology 
and biochemistry that points in the direc- 
tion of the new finding. 

Scientists have long hypothesized that 
body weight is regulated by a feedback 
mechanism that keeps weight near a par- 
ticular set point They have also done 
experiments suggesting that some factor 
circulating in the bloodstream tells the 
brain when to raise or lower food intake 
and energy metabolism. If an obese 
mouse is surgically attached to a thin 
mouse, for example, the obese mouse will 
lose weight, apparently responding to a 
substance in the blood of the thin mouse. 

At least five mutant genes are thought 
io be involved in obesity in mice. What 
scientists at Rockefeller University in 
New York City have now accomplished is 
the isolation of one of tbe most impor- 

Other Comment 

What Taiwan Voters Want 

; The election in Taiwan was seen by 
many as a test of the Kuomin tang’s pro- 
unification stance and the Democratic 
Progressive Party's advocacy of Taiwan 
independence. It was and it wasn’t The 
Kuomin tang did use the emotional “China 
will attack if Taiwan declares indepen- 
dence” ruse to its fullest This had some 
effect with the less well-informed elector- 

ate in rural areas; in Taipei it did not work. 
It is thus dangerous to interpret the results 
as an outcome for or against indepen- 
dence. A more fair and open debate on the 
issue is needed before far-reaching candu- 
sions can be drawn on what the people 
want If they want independence, this 
needs to be respected by China and recog- 
nized by the international community. 

— Taiwan Communique 
( Chevy Chase. Maryland). 

International Herald Tribune 


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/CAMBRIDGE, Massachu- 
Ks setts — Those of us who 

compound the problem by reverting to the 
mostly Republican policies that produced 
it and cutting taxes even while adopting a 
balanced budget amendment. The combi- 
nation would require enormous spending 
cuts, much larger than have yet been fully 
acknowledged, from which the authors 
would nonetheless exempt Social Security 
and defease. Those together with the inter- 
est on the debt are more than half the 
budgeL The rest of the government would 
be left to bear too great a burden. 

It isn’t a matter of not wanting to cut 

grew up in the 1930s and were 
later told about the lessons of 
Munich believed that tbe ap- 
peasement of aggression would 
not be repeated. We were wrong. 

The way the so-called interna- 
tional community has dealt with 
Bosnia reproduces the League of 
Nations* ha n dl i n g of the Italian 
invasion of Ethiopia in 1935 and 
1936 and, in a somewhat different 
respect, the British-French treat- 
ment of the Czech crisis of 1938. 

When Italy invaded Ethiopia, 
the League imposed economic 
sanctions cm the aggressor, but at 
the same time the British and 
French tried to negotiate a settle- 
ment with Mussolini. The sanc- 
tions, limited to certain products, 
were too mild to hurt Italy. 

The British-French plan con- 
ceded two-thirds of Ethiopia to 
Mussolini, but public opinion in 
England killed iL Mussolini went 
on to conquer all of Ethiopia. 

The international community 
made the mistake of simulta- 
neously pursuing two incompati- 
ble policies: collective security 
against aggression, and a negoti- 
ated compromise between parties 
that were treated as morally equi- 

valent The hope of reaching a 
compromise kept the resort to col- 
lective security more symbolic 
than real. Aggression prevailed. 

The same thing has happened 
in Bosnia. Tbe United Nations’ 
resort to international mediation 
has resulted in a succession of 
plans, each leaving more and 

Today’s powers have not 
obtained Balkan peace 
yet, cuidmay get much 
more war. The dishonor 
they have already earned. 

more of Bosnia to the Serbs with- 
out satisfying them. 

The United Nations has also 
resorted mainly to symbolic mea- 
sures of support for the victims of 
Serbian aggression — tbe rather 
powerless international Criminal 
Tribunal, questionable economic 
sanctions, ceremonial NATO air 
strikes. Negotiations backed by 
no credible threat of armed Force 
have turned into appeasement 

By Stanley H offman n 

of reading a 

e resort to ool- did not even allow Bosmaroexer 
ore symbolic cise its ‘‘inherent ngbt 
mprevailed. fenaTby liftmg tibeanns embargo 
hasSwxned on it has tamed 
ated Nations’ The only new that fj* the 
oMnSfon United Natitmshas added to fce 

succession of Ethiopian pnadjnt LSiSS" 
ig more and national force noth ^ burrauntar 
* ian mission — which, baplesdy, 

’ has been trapped in Bosnia. The 
i have not force has become a hostage to the 

Sobs; for the British and French, 
n peace its safety has become more ixnpor- 

tant than Bosnia's, and a convo- 
nmuen nient pretext against any resort to 

dishonor more effective military measures. 

The proper policy would have 

dy earned, been to press the Serbs, by force if 

necessary, to stop using war and 
ethnic deansing and to negotiate 
tie Serbs with- a fair settlement with their Mus- 
lim adversaries after a lasting 
ions has also cease-fire had been imposed, 
symbolic mea- During the crisis over the Sude- 
the victims of ten Germans in Czechoslovakia, 

in* his own concessions at the ex- sion — as if appeasement entailed 

“ • .1 J.. ma rtf its full 1 1 

pense of the Czechs. 

At Munich, where the Cze c hs 
were not even invited. Hitler ob- 
tained pretty much all he had de- 
manded. His only “concession" 
was to refrain from seizing by 
force what the British and the 
French were willing to offer him. 

The Clinton administration be- 
gan by condemning the Vance- 
Owen plan of early 1993 as a 
sellout of Bosnia. Now it seems 
ready to concede to the Bosnian 
Serbs both the right to confeder- 
ate with Serbia — to form what 
■would be the Greater Serbia of 
President Slobodan Milosevic’s 
dreams — and the right to remain 
in control of all the territory they 
have seized by force until they 

obtain satisfactory constitutional 
arrangements from the Bosnian 
government AH of this, offered 
behind the backs of the Bosnian 
authorities, would be conceded in 
exchange for the Serbs’ wiQing- 

no risks of its own. ; 

Are there differences between 
the situations? Weren’t the two 
crises of the 1930s conflicts be- 
tween states, whereas Bosnia is a 
civil wax? 

Some had tried to characterize 
Italy’s invasion of Ethiopia as 'a 
legitimate act of colonial expan- 
sion. As for Hitler's dismantling 
of Gxchodovaloa, many chose to 
see in it an intervention on behalf 
-of a German nunoriiy mistreated 
by the Czech majority —m other 
words, an intervention *p the do- 
mestic affairs of Czechoslo vakia 
based on die impeccable princi- 
ple of seff-detenmnation. 

This is exactly what the Com- 
munists in Belgrade, rec onv ened 
into nationalists, have jjj 

order to justify their dkmanfKng 
of Bosma. The Bosnian Serbs 

when Hitler negotiated directly 
with the British (who were acting 

ness to stop using force. 

Britain and France have re- 
mained faithful to the sellout 

for themselves and the French), he spirit of Munich. Ana the United 
constantly refused to take “yes” States has preferred finely tenon 
for an answer; he kepi escalating its obstinately appeasing allies 
his demands while Prime Minister rather than act alone mid take 
Neville Chamberlain kept increas- risks to help a victim of aggres- 

of Bosma. The Bosnian Serbs 
would never have been able to 
conquer 70 percent of the country 
without the Serbian army's inter- 
vention in early 1992 — in other 
words, without Belgrade's aggres- 
sion against a multinational coun- 
try recognized by the European 
Union and the United Nations. 

Some argue that Bosnia should 
never have been recognized as an ✓ 
independent state in 1992 her * 
cause of the uncertainty hanging 
over its future. But a refusal to 

For Democracy, Mexico 9 s President Needs Power 

justification for 



design of ethnic imperialism di- 
rected against the Muslims at a 
time when a European attempt 
to find a peaceful solution had 
been sabotaged by the Bosnian 
Serbs’ decision to form a “repub- 
lic * of their own. 

The relations between Serbia 
and the Bosnian Serbs faithfully 
reproduce the relations between 
Nazi Germany and theSudeten- 
Iand. The only real difference is 
that President Milosevic does 
not have Hitler’s power and 
global ambitions. 

But can we be sure that Serbia’s 
nationalists will be satisfied? A 
victorious Serbia could spread vi- 
olence to .Kosovo or to Macedo- 
nia or Albania. There is still the 
danger of a major international 
crisis in the Balkans, provoking a 
showdown between Russia and 
NATO, a split between the West- 
ern powers and Greece, and in- 
creasing tensions between Western 
Europe and the United States. 

As at the time of Munich, tbe 
great powers have chosen 

W ASHINGTON — Mexico has a new 
president and an old problem: how to 

YY president and an old problem: how to 
move from dictatorship to democracy with- 
out first plunging the country into anarchy. 
Unfortunately, the United States isn't help- 
ing ease the transition. By pushing Mexico 
to fully embrace dramatic democratic re- 
forms m the short run, Washington may be 
helping to ensure the triumph of dictator- 
ship, or worse, in the long run. 

signs of stability were in short supply as 
Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de Leon began a six- 
year term on Dec. 1. The secretary-general 
of the governing Institutional Revolution- 
ary Party (PRI) was murdered in Septem- 
ber. Mr. ZediDo would not be president but 
for tbe assassination of the party's first 
candidate. And the rebellion in the southern 
state of Chiapas shows signs of reigniting. 

Mr. Zedillo is caught between the United 
Stales (and many Western-educated intel- 
lectuals in Mexico) pushing for a decentral- 
ization of power and the dinosaurs in his 
own party who are not above using violence 
to maintain their grip. So far he has veered 
toward those urging quick democratization. 

He has pledged to make the PRI indepen- 
dent of the government and to devolve fed- 
eral powers to the states. But by doing so he 
will be giving up the very powers necessary 
to ensure Mexico's democratization. 

That is Mr. Zedillo’s catch-22. Funda- 
mental change in the PRI and in the role of 
Congress means surrendering his power to 
keep Mexico calm through a mixture of 

By Stanley A. Weiss 

patronage and authoritarianism, it is a reci- 
pe for resistance, reaction and violence. 

There is another way. It is the way of Mr. 
Zedillo's predecessor, Carlos Salinas. Mr. 
Spinas followed the Asian model: good 
economics before good politics. He used Ms 
status erf being above the law to dismiss 
more than half of the country’s state gover- 
nors. But during his reign the budget was 
balanced, triple-digit inflation came down 
to a manageable 7 percent, and most state- 
owned companies were privatized. As a re- 
sult, Mexico has a burgeoning middle class 
and, through the North American Free 
Trade Agreement, much closer ties with the 
United States and Canada. 

Today Mr. ZedElo faces problems and 
opponents even more formidable than those 

confronted by his predecessor. He needs to 
create a safety net for the tens of millions of 

create a safety net for the tens of millions of 
Mexicans still living in poverty. He needs to 
radically restructure a corrupt judicial and 
legal system. But fiisu he must face down 
those who have amassed huge personal for- 
tunes based on ties to the PRL 

He must also contend with the Zapatista 
rebels in the south and the narco-criminals 
in the north, whose profits from moving 
drugs into the United States each year are 
estimated to be more than twice the total 
revenues of Mexico's petroleum industry. 

To deal with this unholy triumvirate, he 

will need to wield more power — not less. 

The United States has much at stake. 
Mexico is now its second largest trading 
partner, after Canada. Mexico is also its 
greatest source of illegal aliens and drugs — 
problems that wifi only get worse if condi- 
tions become less stable. And the U.S. rela- 
tionship with Mexico can set a pattern for 
relations with the burgeoning democracies 
elsewhere in Latin America, many of which 
are clamoring for inclusion in NAFTA. 

What should Mr. Zedillo do? Take a page 
out of his predecessor’s playbook. In his 
first 100 days. Mr. Salinas attacked the 
corruption that was at the heart erf Mexico's 
economic problems. He arrested the gang- 
ster head of the oil workers’ union, the top 
executive of Mexico’s largest brokerage 
house, and a major drug trafficker. Tint 
asserted Ms authority and gave him the 
breathing room for his economic reforms. 

President Zedillo, too, should go after 
Ms enemies. He must face down toe anti- 
democratic element within the PRI, pursue 
and arrest the leading drug dealers, and tell 
the Zapatistas that he will treat them fairly 
but that if their revolt resumes he will send 
in the army to restore order. Only then wifi 
he have laid a foundation upon which de- 
mocracy can be built. 

“peace" at the expense of honor. 
They have not even obtained. 

The writer is chairman of Business Execu- 
tives for National Security, an organisation of 
US. business leaders. He contributed this 
comment to the International Herald Tribune. 

They have not even obtained, 
peace yet, and may get mudjlh 
more war. The dishonor they 
have already earned. 

The writer, chairman of the Cen- 
ter for European Studies at Har- 
vard University, contributed this 
comment to The New York Times. 

North Korea: Washington Has Some Hard Selling to Do at Home 

W ASHINGTON — It was a 
few weeks ago. in the Green 

YY few weeks ago, in the Green 
Room of NBOTV’s “Meet the 
Press.” James Carville, due on 
next, squirmed in his seaL On the 
screen m front of us. Madeleine 
Albright, the Clinton administra- 
tion’s diplomatic bulldog, was 
telling interviewer Tim Russert 
why the United States had just 
agreed to guarantee energy sup- 
plies for North Korea. 

“Paid for by South Korea and 
Japan! Paid for by South Korea 
apd Japan!” I hear Mr. Carville 
chanting in a stage whisper. The 
president’s political adviser is try- 
ing to beam to the president’s UN 
ambassador a selling point for the 
administration’s controversial nu- 
clear deal with Pyongyang But 
Ms telepathy doesn't connect. 

“Tell ’em Americans won’t 
have to pay for iL" Mr. Carville 
mutters with growing dismay as 
Mrs. Albright plows ahead with 
strategic and diploma tic justifica- 
tions and ramifications. 

By Jim Hoagland 

Mrs. Albright is considered by 
hear media-savvy colleagues to be 
the best television foreign policy 
spokesman the administration 
has, in part because she resolutely 
refuses to commit nuance. She 
steams into each answer as if it 

were illegal to hold another point 
of view. But in the holding room 

of view. But in the holding room 
where Mr. Russert stashes bis 
program’s waiting guests, Mr. 
Carville frets about the ambassa- 
dor missing out on tbe politics of 
selling tbe North Korea deal. 

Fret he should. It is not imme- 
diately obvious to heartland 
America why North Korea is be- 
ing rewarded with two nuclear 
reactors worth 54 billion for hav- 
ing agreed conditionally on Ocl 
10 to abandon, slowly and grudg- 
ingly, the nuclear weapons it has 
been developing — in defiance 
of international guarantees that 
Pyongyang had already given. 

Mr. Carville’s instinct is right 

The Clin ionites have some heavy 
selling to do. 

North Korea's government is 
isolated. Stalinist and economi- 
cally crumbling. A lew months 
ago it was listed as a “backlash 
state,” an appellation the Clinton 
administration awards only to a 
half-dozen certified stinkers of 
the earth such as Iraq, Libya and 
Cuba. But as part of the Ocl 10 
deal, the United States has agreed 
to lift its trade, investment and 
diplomatic barriers with North 
Korea, while getting South Korea 
and Japan to pay for two new 
Western-style nuclear reactors 

for Pyongyang. 
South Korea 

South Korea initially gagged 
on a deal that if completed will 
save the hostile North Korean re- 
gime from collapse. But it has 
slowly come around to support- 
ing the U.S.-brokered accord, for 
lack of a better alternative. That 
is likely to be the path followed 

by the rest of us as wdl, including 
the Republican majorities that 
wifi now control Congress. 

The administration maintains 
that it does not have to submit the 
agreement to Congress for ap- 
proval and intends to avoid votes 
on the floor of Congress by find- 
ing the up to SIS million the Unit- 
ed States has to shell out (for oil 
shipments and other interim en- 
ergy costs for North Korea) from 
already appropriated funds. 

That strategy avoids having to 
face in partisan debate three 
broad questions that pose big 
problems for senior administra- 
tion officials: (1) Do they really 
believe that North Korea has 
ceased being a backlash state and 
should therefore be trusted? (2) 
Why did Kirn Jong H do the deal 
now? (3) Won’t it serve as an 
incentive for other backlashets to 
pursue nuclear weapons programs, 
to get bought off by the united 
States if for no other reason? 

A Stalinist state depends on an 

external threat to justify its reign 
of terror. If die threat does not 
exist, tbe state invents it, or pro- 
vokes it by belligerent acts. That is 
what North Korea has done for 
decades. For this deal to work, the 
dictatorship in Pyongyang wifi 
have to change its very nature. 

Privately, U.S. officials say the 
economic and political conces- 
sions bong offered the North are 
in fact poisoned bonbons. To get 
the goodies, Pyongyang has to 
open up the system and the coun- 
try so much that the harsh Com- 
munist rule of today will be worn 
away. South Korea’s leaders have 

accepted the deal because they be- 
lieve that tbe regime in the North 
will have been transformed into a 
nonthreatening entity before the 
agreement is fulfilled 

American officials concede that 
they do not have any strong intelli- 
gence on why Kim Jong D decided 
to take the American offer a few 
months after the death of his fa- 
ther, Kim II Sung, and before he : 
himself was officially installed in 
power. Nor do these officials pie-, 
sent hard and fast reasons why tbe 
United States could not have held 
out for faster and more certain 
ways of shutting off the nuclear 
weapons development program. 

The latter point is likely to be 
the strongest line of attack by the 
Republicans, who are in the com- 
fortable position of having a live 
target to shoot at withouthaving 
to destroy it and accept the re- 
sponsibility for what would fol- 
low. Thar attacks are likely to 
make Mr. Carville squirm a tot 
more before this saga is finished. 

The Washington Post 

Taiwan: A Successful Exercise in Smart Democracy 

H ONG KONG — Taiwan 
elections have the outward 

X A elections have the outward 
appearance of what is worst 
about democracy and the inner 
strength of what is besL There is 
high -decibel rhetoric, some vote- 
buying and occasional (but non- 
faial) violence. And a clear but 
sophisticated message to the con- 
tending parties — and to Beijing. 

So it proved again on Saturday, 
when 70 percent of eligible voters 
cast ballots in a range of contests, 
the most important bring those 
for governor of Taiwan Province 
and mayors of Taipei and Kao- 
hs iu ng , the principal cities. 

The elections were more im- 
portant than those contests 
-would suggest. By taking place at 
all they reflected the continued 
political evolution of Taiwan. 
And they were seen to foreshad- 
ow 1996, when Taiwan wifi elect 
its president for the first time. 

The ruling Kuonrintang pre- 
vailed in the most important con- 
test, for the governorship of Tai- 
wan, and its mayor in Kaohsmng 
was re-elected. But it lost the may- 
oralty of Taipei to the candidate of 
the Democratic Progressive Party, 
or DPP, which advocates Taiwan- 
ese self-assertion and ultimately 
independence. The Kuomin tang 
in fact came in third there, behind 
the candidate of the New Party, a 
purist breakaway erf the KMT that 
is critical of money politics and 
suspicious of what it sees as Kuo- 
mintang pandering to Taiwanese 
remonaiist seatimenL 

What conclusions are to be 
drawn from this exercise in de- 

By Philip Bowring 

mocracy by 20 million ethnic Chi- 
nese living in Taiwan? 

• First, popular participation 
was immense, as reflected in elec- 
tion rallies, media coverage and 
voter turnout. Money still played 
some part, but with the major con- 
tests concentrated on a few candi- 
dates with huge constituencies, it 
played a much smaller role than in 
earlier elections, when vote-buying 
by local bigwigs was common. 

The election was a rebuff to 
those who insist that Taiwan’s 
democracy was brought about by 
pressure from Washington and 
not by struggles in tbe late 1980s 
led by the DPP. 

• Second, the results show a 
general endorsement of the mid- 
dle-of-the-road agenda adopted 
by the Kuomin tang under Presi- 
dent Lee Teng-hui on matters re- 
lating to mainland China; name- 

Kuomintang and 39 for the DPP. 
• Third, the Taipei defeat of the 

• Third, the Taipei defeat of the 
Kuomintang showed the voters’ 
willingness to differentiate be- 
tween national and local issues. In 
the capital voters protested cor- 
ruption and incompetence in the 
city administration. People of 
mainland origin, a larger propor- 
tion of the population in Taipei 
than elsewhere, are disillusioned 
with the Kuomin tang’s pro-Tai- 
wanese drift. Middle-class critics 
of the KMT may be reluctant to 
vote for the Democratic Progres- 
sive Party, which sometimes ap- 
pears nativist and rabble-rousing. 

The net result was that the DPP 
got 44 percent; tbe New Party 
candidate, a respected former 
Kuonrintang minister. Jaw Shau- 
kang. 30 percent; and the KMT 
incumbent, only 26 percent. 

But despite its setbacks, the 
Kuonrintang bestrides the center 

short of blockade, that Beijing 
can bring to bear on Taiwan. Chi- 
na relies on Taiwanese-owned 
factories at least as much as Tai- 
wan looks to China as an outlet 
for exports and a source of labor. 

Taiwanese voters may like the 
occasional brawl, and they cer- 
tainly want recognition. But the 
latest election results suggest that 
they have a strong grip on their 
own self-interest. 

International Herald Tribune, 

1894: Reichstag Open# fications made up to the present 

BERLIN — The session of the 
Reichstag was opened by the Em- 
peror in the Knights Hall of the 
Royal Castle this morning [Dec. 
5}. His Majesty, in his speech 
from tire throne, after announce 

fications made up to the present 
by the United States, Great Brit- 
ain, France, Italy and Japan. Tbe 
Yugo-Slav delegates afterwards 
signed the Treaty with Bul garia. 

ly, the emphasis on Taiwanese Kuonrintang bestrides the center 
identity and the need for recogni- of Taiwan politics. Lee Teng-hui 
tion of the de facto independence put it there. This election result 

of the province while adhering to 
the idem of one China. 

The voters remained worried 
about the consequences — specif- 
ically, threats of an invasion from 
the mainland — of the DPP’s 
demands for formal indepen- 
dence. Yet, voters at the pro- 
vince level continued to show 
that Taiwanese identity is a pow- 
erful force. Tbe strongly pro-re- 
unification New Party did poor- 
ly, obtaining only 4.3 percent of 
the province-wide ballot, com- 
pared with 56 percent for the 

was one reward. The bigger one 
should come in 1996, when Mr. 
Lee stands to become Taiwan's 
first directly elected president. 

Beijing will be deeply unhappy 
about Saturday's vote. It Indi- 
cates that Taiwan is continuing to 
inch toward independence. It 
gives a democratic example to 
other Chinese that will not be 
welcomed everywhere. But noth- 
ing has happened to justify stron- 
ger action by Beijing in pursuit of 
“national” unity. It is hard to 
identify any serious leverage. 

to the new building and invoking 
a divine blessing upon the latter, 
referred to the soda] question, 
and announced tbe determina- 
tion of the Federal Governments 
to protea the weaker sections erf 
society and to improve their eco- 
nomic and moral condition. 

1919: Sails Sign Treaty 

PARIS — The Serbian delegation 
to the Peace Conference, headed 
by M. PasMch, yesterday [Dec. 5] 
went to the French Foreign Of- 
fice and signed the declaration of 
adhesion to the Treaty of Saint- 
Germain, under reserve of modi- 

1944c Tire Shortage ■ 

T ERS , Allied Expeditionary 
Force, Paris — [From our New 
York edition: J A severe tire sbortr 
age which threatens to put 10 per ; 
cent of all American Army vari-' - 
cles in Europe out of action by. 
the first week in February, unless- . 
drastic conservation stems are , 
taken, was disclosed today [Dec.# 
5] by General Dwight D. Risen- ' 
flower. The seriousness of the at- 
uation was brought to light by a 
letter which the supreme Allied 
““zander addressed to evoy dr 
Boer and enlisted man in .the the? 
ater, urging them to “extract every 
possible mile from our tires, and 
use them only as necessary.” - 




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Clinton Might Still Give ’em Hell 


that allowed Truman to tar the Con- 
gress as “do nothing" as he fought 
for election. 

Truman wasn’t always right 
During this time he made the 
most reprehensible political deci- 

rael, the Berlin airlift. were subject to investigations. Try- 

Of course, not all these triumphs mg to appease the growing right- 

TUftrn J. ' . ft. - ■ I rr ■ 

^^setts wTh?, ‘XniSrSff tel David McCullough that allowed Truman to tar the Con- 

tween the ™ ^ gress as “do nothing" as he fought 

tions of 1946are° I iSS!L < J na li e !.? : ” °* Jan*hnarie achievements came Truman wasn’t always right 
the subject of wmi Jr!!! 30 , vt ’ ^P® 55 — the Truman Doctrine, the During this time he made the 
only did the rIduM, >u 1 Marshall Plan, the first civil rights most reprehensible political deci- 
House and Senate hv*^? ^ message ever sent to Congress, the sion of his presidency, an executive 

majorities in both caoi U t>st *nual execul i\'e order to desegregate the order to create the legally program, 
power after armed forces, the recognition of Is- under which all federal employees 

ocratic control but the ra ^ the ahiiTL were subject to investigations. Tiy- 

the White House was hmSSf m ** co ^ I5 f’ BP 1 ^ ing to appease the growing right- 

And althoueh , Ul ? 1 hate<l were entirely Truman s doing. Some wing clamor over Communists in 
speaker of the s came re ^ x,nse to ^oM events. It government, he made matters worse, 

seph W. Martin Jr was tilc sudden withdrawal of British Still, he knew who he was and he 

fire of a Newt n j° nc °f L J 1C su PP ort from Greece and Turkey in knew what he stood for. This helped 

Republicans and lhe I ? 47 t 5 al 0 ,ed 10 Truman Uoc- him keep a sense of proportion and 

crats who doSnatS? l fei t 3 e 2^ ?“ e: ? 0 e ,„ So '? el blockade of Berlin in to work for what he felt was best for 
felt tha t they had a ^ v^ ne J 94 ? thal ms P ired airlift the country in the long ran, never 
into the power of thr^^lt *° should General Marshall’s im- mind the polls and the naysayers, 

to tom back rh#» Md ? ense mfluence be discounted, as From his diary entries and private 

Yet Harry Truman r Traman was the first to stress. correspondence, we know how low 

arT ^ roman stag ed one of And without the bipartisan sup- he often felt “Any man in his right 

"" " ■“ pmt of the legislature that he berated mind would never want to be presi- 

Cjm rini>Av. t n Iater 85 ^ ** do noL bing 80th Con- dent if he knew what it entails,” he 

tAm LMTUon follow gress ^run by “a bunch of old moss- confided to his sister in 1947. Yet 

Trunum\ ommnh? TU A*. backs" — especially the leadership of those around him heard none of 
LTimum S example.' To do Arthur Vandenbeig. the Michigan this, no complaints, no whining. 

so* hs needs to knout uthn Republican who headed the Senate Dean Acheson later said it was 
, Foreign Relations Committee — the “life force" in Tr uman that so 

ho 18 COld i chat he. stands there would have been no Traman amazed them all — “his strongest, 

r . , , Doctrine, no Marshall Plan. most inspiring quality, and always 

jOT 9 10 1 VOTkfOT what he But in the presidency it is charac- in the darkest, most difficult times." 

tpffe ie ] W* - ter that counts above all. Acheson recalled the lines from 

feats IS oestfor the country , Although never known to raise his Shakespeare's “Henry V," where 

* and never mind the noils ^ oicc bis staff, Truman could the King — Harry — walks among 

j 15, be tough as a boot when the chips his disDirited. terrified troons in 


THENplGHT -niru 

\ wan 


OOP nigu . 

sw ftGHI 

/ so > 





were entirely Truman’s doing. Some 
came in response to world events. It 
was the sudden withdrawal of British 
support from Greece and Turkey in 
1947 that led to the Traman Doc- 
trine; the Soviet blockade of Berlin in 
June 1948 that inspired the airlift. 
Nor should General Marshall’s im- 
mense influence be discounted, as 
Truman was the first to stress. 

And without the bipartisan sup- 
port of the legislature that he berated 
later as the “do nothing 80th Con- 
gress" run by “a bunch of old moss- 
backs" — especially the leadership of 
Arthur Vandenberg, the Michigan 
Republican who headed the Senate 

wing clamor over Communists in 
govenunent, he made matters worse. 

Still, he knew who he was and he 
knew what he stood for. This helped 
him keep a sense of proportion and. 
to work for what he felt was best for 
the country in the long ran, never 
mind the polls and the naysayers. 

From his diary entries and private 
correspondence, we know how low 
he often felt. “Any man in his right 
mind would never want to be presi- 
dent if he knew what it entails," he 
confided to his aster in 1947. Yet 
those around him heard none of 
this, no complaints, no whining. 

Dean Acheson later said it was 


he 18 and what he stands there would have been no Traman 
f , Doctrine, no Marshall Plan. 

fOT 9 tO work for what, he But in the presidency it is charac - 

j_ ■ j, . r . . ter that counts above all. 
feeiS IS Oestf or the country , Although never known to raise his 

and never min A th*> ««/?« voice with his staff, Truman could 
never mmatne pous. be lough as a boot when the chips 

were down. “We stay in Berlin," he 

. said simply, emphatically, at the 

the great comebacks in political his- start of the crisis, at a time when 
tory. So an obvious question comes there seemed no way to supply the 
to mind: What does Bill Clinton beleaguered city. 
b®v® to do to be another Truman? The courage he is so widely re- 
Truman had seen his popularity me inhered for was mainly the cour- 
pJunge. He was ridiculed for his di- a ge, of his convictions. Warned by 
minutive size, his Midwestern ways. Southern Democrats and old friends 
his past ties to Kansas City’s Pen- back home that his civil rights pro- 
dergast political ma c hin e, even for gram could cost him re-election, 
his devotion to his mother. Truman responded that if he lost 

He was called stupid, corny and. because of civO rights, then his fail- 
like Bill Clinton, a small-bore pro- ure would be in a good cause, 
vincial pol who was too eager to like Bill Clinton, Harry Tr uman 
please evenrbody. The Democrats was being pushed and pulled in all 
were mortified. directions on domestic issues His 

When Truman returned to Wash- cabinet, old friends on the Hill from 
ington after voting in Missouri, his years in the Senate, big-city 
Dean Acheson, the assistant secre- Democratic bosses such as Ed Flynn 
tary of state, was the only adminis- of the Bronx, former Roosevelt in- 
flation figure who bothered to go to riders, col umnis ts and radio com- 

Fo reign Relations Committee — the “life force" in Tr uman that so 

Union Station to welcome him. 

But interestingly, repudiation 
seemed to liberate Traman; he be- 
gan to look and sound like a presi- 
dent of purpose and determination. 

Truman took on and bested John 

mentators — they all seemed to 
know better than he how he should 
conduct himself. 

His staff, especially his counsel 
Clark Clifford, urged him to “strike 
for new moral high ground." If Coo- 

L. Lewis, head of the United Mine gress was determined to gut the New 

Workers. He put a balcony on the 
White House so that he and his wife, 
Bess, could enjoy outdoor privacy, 
and let the critics rant as they would. 

Deal, Mr. Clifford said. Ti nman 
should be even more determined to 
see it improved and expanded. 

The president called ror more fed- 

And in one of his wisest moves he eral aid for education, raising the 
■named General George C. Marshall minimum wage, expanding Social 
as secretary of state. Security and creating a national 

Security and creating a national 

It was after the 1946 election, health insurance program, none of 
when the Truman presdency should which Congress passed. It was this 
have been in sorry eclipse, that most intractability on domestic matters 

amazed them all — “his strongest, 
most inspiring quality, and always 
in the darkest, most difficult times/’ 
Acheson recalled the lines from 
Shakespeare's “Henry V," where 
the King — Harry — walks among 
his dispirited, terrified troops in 
the dark of night before the bat- 
tle of Agincourt: “Every wretch, 
pining and pale before, behold- 
ing him. plucks comfort from his 
looks . . . His liberal eye doth 
give to every one ... a little 

touch of Harry in the night." 

Traman had little capacity to 
move an audience as could Franklin 
Roosevelt (or, /or that matter, Bill 
Clinton). Still, on the night of July 
15, 1948. in a sweltering Philadel- 
phia auditorium, wearing a snow- 
white “ice cream suit,” he walked 
onto a floodlit stage and brought a 
weary, dispirited Democratic Na- 
tional Convention to its feet cheer- 
ing, as no one had thought possible. 

“1 will win this election and make 
these Republicans like it — don't 
you forget that," he said, his hands 

chopping the air with each word. 

Although several factors aided his 
upset victory that November — in- 
cluding his lackluster opponent, 
Thomas E Dewey, and a strong vot- 
er allegiance to the New Deal — it 
was Tr uman himself, the land Of 
person he was, that mattered most 
If there is a lesson to be drawn from 
the Truman example, it is that. 

The writer is author of “ Truman . ” 
which won the 1992 Pulitzer Prize for 
biography. He contributed this com - 
rnent to The New York Times. 


Bosnia Fmger-Pointiiig 

Regarding the report “ Bosnia 
Fighting Rages as Allies Point Fin- 
gers ” (Nov. 29): 

After all the mutual recrimina- 
tions, it has been the European ap- 
proach to the war in ex-Yugoslavia 
that has prevailed. 

While the United States may have 
wanted to do more with NATO air 
power and to lift the arms embargo, 
the Europeans vetoed those ideas. 
Whether they would have worked 
will never be known. Similarly, 
while the French and British may 
point to U.S. refusal to commit 
ground troops, it is difficult to be- 
lieve that the addition of, say, 10,000 
American troops acting as mere ob- 
servers of determined Serbian ag- 
gression would have made a differ- 
ence. The European approach was 
not to deter or prevent aggression, 
but merely to soothe the results of it. 
The stark fact is that it is this policy 
and this policy alone that has 
brought the situation in ex-Yugosla- 

via to its present state of affairs. 


Making Chicken Safe 

Brussels. Regarding the report “ Got an Urge 
for Chicken? When in Europe. Care- 
Yes , the war in the Balkans is fuT (Nov. 16): 

horrible. Yes, the West should do 

something. The problem in this case. In the U nitd States, people have 
however, is not a lack of will but a been made aware for yems of the 
flawed understanding of reality on of salmonella m dneken; .t 

the ground. Air strikS cannot stabi- comes as no mrpnse that Emoprans 
lize the situation in Bosnia without should also take prmuihons. to addi- 
theuseof substantial NATO ground VOD to the siansbcs provuied, the 
troops. This, of course, would split “»* should have mcluded more of 

NATO, placing Turkey and Grice “f thl “ vmuaIly 

on opposite sides of a war which chmnatc bralth nsks. 
cannotbe won without sacrificing Ch.ckcn should dwaysbe ndnger- 
the lives of thousands of American, ated until it is to be prepared: this 
British and French troops and '“£»* salmonella growth. Rmse 
spreading the disaster over larger cold water before 

wathestf Europe. Your essayists “ d d<a 3 1 v 

are effective at Sing for act™. I culun 8 

wonder if thei/inTor daughters water PJ^npUy after uscAs tbearu- 
would be among those likelytoserve dc stated, thorough cootang taUs the 
in a conflict that would in the end bmmmn. tteefore ^re 

look much more like the Vietnam * if ken . nM .“ “ l ch,dren 

War than the Gulf War. which is stffl pink inside. 


Oslo. Cuneo, Italy. 

comes as no surprise that Europeans 
should also take precautions. In addi- 
tion to the statistics provided, the 
article should have included more of 

on opposite sides of a war whica 
cannot be won without sacrificing 
the lives of thousands of American, 
British and French troops and 
spreading the disaster over larger 
swathes of Europe. Your essayists 
are effective al calling for action. I 
wonder if their sons or daughters 
would he among those likely to serve 
in a conflict that would in the end 
look much more like the Vietnam 
War than the Gulf War. 



Page 7 

Peacemaking: A Fine Art 
Finds a Spot in the Schools 

By Column McCarthy 

YI 7ASHINGTON — In her trav- need to discuss the mechanism for 
W els around die United States pea c e maki ng. Thae s a uansforma- 
spe aking with high school social- tion about what they re teacbmg. 
studies teachers, and in hosting Ms. Soley, a high school history 
them in Washington, Mazy Soley of teacher in Indiana before getting a, 
the U.S. Institute of Peace has seen doctorate in education and political 
an idea taking root: Peacemaking science in 1982, came to the institute, 
can be taught and learned. As the in 1991. That year, by coincidence, a 
institute marir* its 10th anniversary Close Up Foundation survey or 
this month, Ms. Soley, a senior pro- teachers found that 91 percent re- 
gram officer in education and train- ported an “academic inadequacy. 

and one-sidedness” in te a c h i n g ma-? 

MEANWHILE terials on peace education. J 

The institute is new to the field- ( 

ing, is one of the reasons to be mod- So is nearly everyone else. Over-- 
estly grateful that this small night, it seems, more than 300 wo- 
in dependent agency is around. lence prevention programs and 10Q 

“Small" may be overstating it. conflict resolution curricula have. 
This year's budget is SI million, been made available by and-vio- 
equal to what the Pentagon spends lence groups to middle and high 
in eight seconds. Since 1984, Con- schools, according to the National 
gress has given the institute S76 mil- Network of Violence Prevention 
Bon — or 1/ 144th the U.S. Army’s Practitioners. Peer mediation has 
yearly budget for research, develop- never been more in vogue. i 

mem and acquisition. 

Much of that is a reaction to 

The institute, which calls itseif “an adolescent violence, from kids 
organization devoted to furtoering shooting kids to students banning 
world peace," barely survived its in- teachers. As useful as this eruption 
fancy. The second Reagan adminis- of concern may be. violence pro-, 
nation sought to kill it with zero vention is not peace education. The 
funding in 1985 and *86. Then it goal should be fully educating the 
packed the board with a mix of far- young, beginning in first grade, in a 
right ideologues, militarists and re- viable solution: knowledge of toe 
tired academics needing a perch. methods, history and practitioners 
For a time, it appeared as if the of nonviolence and pacifism. 

institute was destined to offer no 
greater service than staging confer- 

An academic grounding in those 
worthy disciplines would give stu- 

ences for former diplomats, policy dents the ideas and facts needed to 
analysts and assorted brow-fur- reject not only schoolyard violence 
rowers to ponder the latest woni- but America’s legalized violence a§ 
some threat and hear each other found in its interventionary wars,. 
talk- On that drossy level, it might capital punishment, abortion, televi- 
wdl have been an annex to the Heri- sion and film gore, sexual and racial 
tage Foundation. discrimination, animal exploitation 

In 1991, shiftings began from dis- and corporations fighting health 
cussing peace to teaching it. Small and safety regulations, 
grants — 25 percent of the insti- Teaching toe art of peacemaking 
tute’s budget must be in grams — to kids is more than explaining how 
were dispensed for classroom peace to walk away from fights. It is offer- 
education. Last month, a 1 10-page ing a broad educational choice: ao- 
book, “Managing World Conflict," cess to ideas and methods to counter 
was published. For 1995. the insti- the cultural and institutional bless- 
tute states that one of its two prrnci- mgs of violence that now prevail, v 
pie priorities “mil be to increase its If the U.S. Institute of Peace is 
effort in education and training in moving in that direction — to toe 
the classroom . . . and in toe spe- classrooms of America’s 28.000 high 
cialized areas of skill s training in schools and 78,000 grade schools — r 
conflict resolution.” we can escalate from bong modestly 

What treated this shift? Consum- grateful to resoundingly grateful. 
er demand. Teachers, few of whom Washington Post Writers Group. 

went to high schools or colleges 

themselves where : courses in peace for publication 

studies orconmct resolution woe ^ ^ addras J~ l ] uers t0 Ae 
offered, began asking Mary Soley £ ^ or - ^ cmai „ Ae iter's st- 
and her institute colleagues for ^ md full address. Let- 

teaching manuals and strategies. ters should be brief md are subject 
Among educators, Ms. Soley toedUin „ We cannot be responsible 
says, r m finding that obviously they ' ^return of unsolicited ma- 

need to talk about national security nuscnpis. 

issues but now they’re saying we also v 

. \ . • 





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Page 8 


Made Dash 
: To Europe 
l And Back 

[ By Douglas Jefal 

t /Veiv York Tima Service 

I BUDAPEST — Seldom 

> has an American president 
I traveled so far so quickly 
i for so symbolic a purpose 
! as did Bill Clinton in Lhe 24 

> hours that ended Monday 
; at 6:30 P.M. 

* From a White House cer- 
i emony honoring American 

• artists. Mr. Clinton clam- 
.* bered aboard Air Force 
l One Sunday for a flight to 
’ the Hungarian capital. 

' He read a brief state- 
ly mem, hurried to a cererao- 
L ny, called on his hosts, and 
l grinned for the cameras 
- along with the dozens of his 
r counterparts who were here 

> to attend the Conference 
r on Security and Coopera- 
tion in Europe. 

‘ And then the president 
1 climbed back on his plane. 

! this time to dash back to 

• the White House for the 
! one event his advisers de- 

* tided he could not give 
t short shrift: a Christmas 

party for members of the 
i outgoing Congress. 

Even a senior a d min is - 
trntion official who joined 
i Mr. Clinton on his flight 

* said its main purpose was 
!•; to offer “a symbolic dem- 
i onstralion” of American 

commitment to the organi- 
) zation and to Europe. 

The president completed 
; his 9.104-mile (14, 736- kilo- 
meter) trip in just over 24 
■ hours, traveling at an aver- 
age speed of more than 370 
, miles per hour even during 

• the slightly more than six 
; hours that he was on the 
«■ ground. 

What forced the tight 
schedule was in large part 
indecision within a White 

- House whose advisers were 
at odds all year about 
whether the president 

. should make the journey. 

it was not until late last 
'' month that foreign policy 

- deputies finally prevailed. 

" in saying that it would be a 

- mistake to give a European 
£ summit meeting a sleight. 


U.S.-Rnssia Split 

propoQ$*?!^ending the war. 
For his part, Mr. izetbegovic, 
whose country is gripped in a 
war that has left more than 
200.000 dead or missing, un- 
leashed a vitriolic attack rarely 
heard at such diplomatic gath- 
erings and vowed that his sol- 
diers would fight to the bitter 

“What shall be the result of 
the war in Bosnia, which is now 
being prolonged due to a mix- 
ture of incapability, hesitation 
and sometimes even til-will of 
the West?” Mr. Izetbegovic 
asked the other leaders. “The 
result shall be a discredited 
United Nations, a ruined 
NATO, Europeans demoral- 
ized by a feeling of inability to 
respond to the first crisis after 
the Cold War.” 

He painted a picture of what 
he called a different world as a 
result of the European and 
American failure in Bosnia, “a 
worse world in which the rela- 
tions between Europe and the 
U.SkA., the West and Russia, 
and the West and the Muslim 
world shall never again be the 

Mr. Clinton, whose trip to 
Budapest initially was opposed 
by his domestic political advis- 
ers, appeared eager to avoid any 
encounter that could have en- 
tangled him in substantive and 
potentially contentious discus- 

He spent only seven hours on 
the ground and did not conduct 
a full-scale meeting with Mr. 
Yeltsin except for brief ex- 
changes on the margins of the 
arms control ceremonies. 

His only meetings with other 
leaders before he left for Wash- 
ington were what While House 

Da Bralcmrtcr/AgoKt France Prcwe 

At the Budapest meeting: Mr. Clinton. Jacques Delors, Mr. Kohl and Klaus Kinlrol 

DELORS: *Noncontender 9 Tests the Waters in France 

Continued from Page 1 
a caricaturist's idea of Donald 
Duck in horn-rims and likes 
bull sessions with AJ Gore, the 
workaholic whose idea of lei- 
sure is watching soccer games 
and the Tour de France bicyie 
race — this earnest figure 
comes out of the phone booth a 
contender, a man who gets 
mad, ridicules his rivals, speaks 
ringingly about his vision of 

His political autobiography 
has a plot perhaps best summa- 
rized as follows: Mr. Deiors 
goes to Brussels and gets 
mugged by the real facts behind 

Once a Socialist, economist 
and internationalist. Mr. Defers 
has been convened to the belief 
that there is no substitute for 
free markets, political action is 
the key to national destiny and 
French leadership is the only- 
hope for European unity. 

This conversion of Mr. De- 
iors from Eurocrat to patriot 
does not exactly leap off the 
pages of his book, which offers 
lew populist concessions be- 
yond a jacket photograph of 
Mr. Deiors with unnaturally 
bright blue eyes — a gift from 
his publisher who has a way 
with special effects. Most of the 
time, arcane references clog the 
prose until it reads like the 
Maastricht treaty — which, in- 
cidentally, Mr. Defers says that 
he deemed badly crafted even 
when he was promoting it 

At present, such pungent di- 
rectness emerges mainly in 
smallish gatherings of his sup- 
porters, sessions with other 
French leaders or private 

On one recent such occasion. 

a score of guests, including No- 
bel-winning scientists, publish- 
ers, academics, lawyers, jour- 
nalists and a movie director 
who said that he had never vot- 
ed before, milled around Mr. 
Defers in a private room at a 
Paris restaurant for a pre-pran- 
dial drink. On cue, a tapestried 
wall dropped silently through 
the floor, so guests could move 
next door to the dinner table. 

It was a four-course seminar. 
With the fig leaf of privacy. Mr. 
Deiors can be withering: 
French politicians, he says, are 
hiding the truth from voters 
who are deeply unsure about 
Europe and themselves. 

His analysis — summarized 
by intimates since Mr. Deiors 
did not spell it out — centers on 
a paralyzing French fear of re- 
united Germany's growing 
power. As a result, France is 
regressing into narrow chauvin- 
ism. a paranoia liable to be- 
come self-fulfilling prophecy. 

To break this vicious circle. 
France must bank on a more 
deeply integrated European 
Union. Mr. Defers says, quickly 
adding that it can be largely 
shaped to French designs on 
condition that Paris sacrifices 
enough sovereignty to make 
unity credible in German eyes. 

German politicians, who 
gave Mr. Deiors more backing 
in Brussels than French leaders 
did, make no secret of their 
hope that Mr. Deiors will beat 
out his conservative rivals, all of 
whom are less pro-European. 

Accusations that he is “Ger- 
many’s candidate” are part of 
the image Mr. Deiors would 
have to dispel in order to win 
election. In a nation shifting to 
the right, Mr. Delots insists that 
a strong state is needed to cor- 
rect social tensions. 

This vision of big problems 
and big solutions often sounds 
similar to the views of candi- 
date Bill Clinton, one of the 
rare leaders whom Mr. Deiors 
seems to admire warmly. At 
least momentarily, he has run 
up a lugger lead than Mr. Clin- 
ton ever had in 1992. Since his 
book’s publication last month, 
opinion polls have started 
showing that a majority of 
French people want him to be 
the next president 

Mr. Delors’s political 
strengths come partly from his 
sterling integrity in a scandal- 
racked age, partly from the 
prostration of the French So- 
cialists. He shows no affection 
for his old parly, but the Social- 
ists desperately want to rally 
behind him. In contrast the 
French right is spliL 

The only credible blueprint 
for an effective Defers govern- 
ment hinges on the chance that 
many center-rightists would de- 
sert conservative ranks to work 
with Mr. Deiors because of 
their shared commitment to Eu- 
ropean unity. 

Mr. Deiors could then pro- 
mote his personal vision of 
strengthening the French state 
in areas where it can alleviate 
social tensions and yet abolish- 
ing state control in the economy 
— for example, privatizing tele- 
communications and other in- 
dustries that are still able to 
compete internationally. 

That crossover would juggle 
the French political landscape 
as the centrist parties pulled 
Mr. Deiors to the right. The 
prospect makes Mr. Deiors a 
candidate, not just for the presi- 
dency, but for the history 

PYRAMIDS: Highway May Lead to Urban Sprawl 

officials described as two brief 
“pull-asides,” one with Mr. 
Kohl, the other with Mr. Izetbe- 
govic and President Franjo 
Tudjman of Croatia. 

Continoed from Page 1 

plateau is protected under the 
1972 World Cultural and Natu- 
ral Heritage Convention, of 
which Egypt is a signatory. 
Egypt asked that the plateau be 
listed under the convention in 
1979, Mr. Zulficar said. 

On a tour earlier this month, 
Mr. Zulficar found that the 
highway cuts through the pro- 
tected zone, a strip of desert 
that encompasses both the Giza 
plateau and the lesser-known 
Dahshour pyramids about 27 
kilometers to the south. Con- 
struction now is nearing the im- 
mediate area of the Giza pyra- 

“I was horrified to see what I 
saw,” he said. “The thing is 
practically finished. It's in total 
violation of the world heritage 

convention they signed; it's is 
violation of Egyptian law.” 

Although the government 
has yet to make public a map of 
the sew road, “there already are 
private homes going up” along 
the completed portion, Mr. Zul- 
ficar said. “They’re expensive 
homes. The people who knew 
where the road was going 
through obviously were buying 
land. In no time it will become 
an urban site.” 

Zahi Hawas, who directs ar- 
chaeological activities at the 
Giza pyramids, said the bypass 
road was approved by the 
Egyptian Antiquities Organiza- 
tion in 1984 after a survey 
found no archaeological ruins 
in its path. He added, however, 
that he was not involved in die 
decision and hopes it can be 
reversed in light of the rapid 

development that already is oc- 
curring in the area. 

“It's in downtown Cairo,” be 
said of the Giza pyramids. “It's 
all high buildings, six floors. 
You can't really see the pyra- 
mids. This was the only hope — 
to leave the south side free.” 

Mr. Zulficar said the antiqui- 
ties organization appeared to 
have rushed approval for the 
road project after only the most 
cursory of archaeological sur- 
veys. The archaeologist who 
carried it out, be said, was in- 
structed to make test borings at 
intervals of no less ifem 300 
meters, was given no labor to 
hdp him and was told to com- 
plete the project in a week. 

“We think there are 1 1 pyra- 
mids still under the sand” in the 
area traversed by the highway 
route, Mr. Zulficar said. 

Ac miltin' where you're traveling to 



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Jamaica - 

Tories Recoil as U.K. Taboo Is Broken 

By Fred Barbash 

Washington Pat Sertice 

LONDON — A leading opposition 
member of Parliament broke a taboo 
Monday by proposing a re-engineering 
of the monarchy. 

Jack Straw, the Labor Party’s shadow 
Home secretary, a high post within the 
opposition, set off a noisy partisan argu- 
ment by suggesting that the number of 
people entitled to be called His or Her 

Royal Highness be reduced from 40 to 20 

and that tfce whole institution be stream- 
lined on the order of the monarchies of 
Scandinavia, where kings and queens 
ride around on bicycles. 

Mr. Straw's views, not to mention pro- 
posals for abolition of the monarchy, 
have become common in Britain, espe- 
cially since the beginning of the long 
running breakup of the marriage of 
Charles and Diana. And in recent years, 
the queen, acknowledging the disquiet, 
has voluntarily shed perquisites of office, 
such as the royal yacht Britannia. 

But for anyone with a real opportunity 
for high elected office, such opinions are 
rarely uttered in public. 

The ruling Conservative Party imme- 
diately seized on Mr. Straw’s comments 
to accuse the Labor Party of trying to 
destroy the United Kingdom. Despite 
objections from the speaker of the Par- 
liament, Betty Boothroyd, they injected 

it Monday into a Commons’ debate on 

the budget. , , .. 

The government’s national heritage 
secretary, Stephen Dorrell, said, if the 
pageantry were scaled down, the first 
thfeg to be hit would be our tourism 
earnings, never mind our national re- 

SP Meanwhile, Labor Party officials went 
into tbe damage control mode, stressing 
that Mr. Straw’s views, taken from a 
transcript of a BBC television program 
to be aired Monday night, were not offi- 
cial party policy. 

In Britain’s political system, a shadow 
secretary is the opposition s designated 
combatant against his or her government 
counterpart as well as the person most 
likely to take over the job in the event of 
victory at the polls. 

The Home secretary is the highest pro- 
file domestic office of the British govern- 
ment and the formal link between the 
queen and the public in a number of 

Mr. Straw, a longtime critic of ine 
institution of the monarchy, told the 
BBC that trimming the monarchy would 
strike a blow against Britain’s ”very hier- 
archical class system.” 

He said that a Labor government un- 
der its party leader, Tony Blair, would 
“hasten tbe process toward a more Scan- 
dinavian monarchy, a monarch symbol- 
izing a much more classless society.” 

“That doesn’t necessarily spell Acted 
of the monarchy, not for a Be 

said “But it does mean of couiy d^Uhe 
monarchy’s role wfll be redefined. : 

In fact, a Labor Party commission 
headed by Mr. Blair has proposed major 
^rational refonmfor BjtoBjU. 
Sesman for Mr. Blair stressed Mao- 
party has steered clear d any 
radical proposals for stripping down the 
monarchy. ■ . < 

The Conservatives, who are setting** 

coids for low poll ratings and faang: 
internal rebellious on a vanety 
portrayed things otherwise. Taken 10- 
getber. Labor’s proposals for coostrtn-' 
tional change would produce ibe break- 
up of Britain,” said Home Secretary . 
Michael Howard in a BBC mtepew. 

“It's a matter of some regret that we 
need to have this debate, because the 
royal family have always been beyond 
politics,” Mr. Howard said. “But it does 
raise very fundamental questions indeed, 
and the most fundamental of aB is this: 
Are we proud of our history and our 
traditions, of our institutions, or are we 
somehow ashamed of them?” . 

What Labor wants to do, Mr. Howard -j 
said, is to play down the institutions and 

downgrade them. 

“And if you take the whole Labor 
package of constitutional reforms,” he 
said, “they add up to ^the breakup of 
Britain as we know it.” 

fie !’ 1 " 1 

V- "V 

EUROPE: Business Calls for Substance at Summit NAFTA: 

bn. Pan, 1 r n . ...mnlp th#» PnrnnftMi Mr 1 > Renedetli said that Mexican Success 

Caatianed from Page 1 
leaders agree on policies to im- 
prove the region’s competitive- 
ness with the rest of the world. 

• Bureaucratic red tape and 
other regulatory restrictions are 
holding back sizable potential 
investment plans across Eu- 

• Domestic political consid- 
erations are distracting the 
leaders of Europe's most impor- 
tant economies at a time when 
closer cooperation on economic 
reforms is desperately needed. 

In recent days, Europe’s busi- 
ness leaders have made a point 
of communicating their con- 
cerns directly to both govern- 
ment heads and to Jacques De- 
iors and Jacques Santee, the 
outgoing and incoming Europe- 
an Commission presidents. 

Mr. Defers and Mr. San ter 
have met individually with 
business leaders and have re- 
ceived a delegation represent- 
ing the European Round Table, 
a grouping of heads of 40 of the 
Ell's biggest industrial compa- 

In a recent report, tbe round- 
table called on £U leaders to 
establish what it calls a Europe- 
an Competitiveness Advisory 
Group, which would acz'.as a 
bridge between industry , and 
the Union and keep, competi- 
tiveness high on the EU policy 

The businessmen have told 
Union leaders that Europe is 
uncompetitive with other parts 
of the world in areas such as 
energy, telecommunications, 
the cost of capital, transporta- 
tion, and taxation regimes. 

For example, the European 
Round Table said energy mar- 
kets should be liberalized be- 
cause energy costs to industry 
are at least 30 percent higher in 

Mr. De Benedeui said that 
during a luncheon with Mr. De- 
iors last Thursday he laid out in 
detailed terms how deregtilat- 

CoBtmued frost Page 1 
meeting has called for his conn- 

Europe than in the United tor could create jobs. 

ing the telecommunications sec- try’s inclusion in at least one of 


Tbe cost of telecommunica- 
tions services in some parts of 
Europe is as much as 22 times 
that of the United States. 

Mr. Deiors has responded by 
railing for action on Europe's 
jobs crisis and trying to revive 
his year-old proposals — con- 
tained in a white paper on jobs 
and competitiveness — for ex- 
pensive trans-European road, 
rail and other infrastructure 
projects. But the businessmen 
are cool to make-work pro- 
grams, and Sir Denys warned 
against “spending the recovery- 
dividend on the wrong things.” 

Ludo Stanca, president of 
IBM Europe, and Carlo De 
Beoedetti. Olivetti's chairman, 
each offered specific examples 
of how the inadequate imple- 
mentation of single-market 
guidelines and excessive regula- 
tion were proving cosily to their 

“The IBM organization is 
moving to a pan-European or- 
ganization." Mr. Stanca said, 
“but in some countries we have 
to pay a withholding tax when 
we transfer dividends or royal- 
ties or interest payments to an- 
other part of our company 
within the European Union be- 
cause the countries are not im- 
plementing single market direc- 
tives. This is nonsense when we 
all agree to have free movement 
of capita] inside the EU." 

“It was perhaps a stupid or 
small example, but I told Jac- 
ques Deiors that we have ajoint 
venture with General Motors’s 
Hughes division for data trans- 
mission among banks via satel- 
lites. We can work in Britain 
where the market is deregulat- 
ed,” Mr. De Benedetti said. 
“Bnl we can't operate m other 

the trade pacts now in existence 
or contemplated. 

The experience of San Pedro, 
situated in an isolated ranching 
and cotton-growing region of 
northern Mexico’s Coahuila 
state, helps explain why the rest 
of Latin America is so eager to 
climb aboard the free-trade 

Mr. Salinas was received here 
with animosity during his 1988 


European counuies because of w,ul “9™ P 5 * 1 * UUI “K 
tdeconf 0 ! monopolies. I could ‘ampaigu bemu se the town was 

hue 500 peopie tomorrow but I ■fSSJSLJ’ZS 

can’t go ahead because of the 
regulations. Deiors was amazed 
when I told him.” 

Finally, European busmess- 

with an unemployment rate of 
70 percent, according to Mayor 
Gabriel Sanchez Garza. Most 
of the 115,000 inhabitants in 
the area surrounding San Pedro 

men say they fear that domestic j ac j {e( j fedoor plumbing, dean 
politics may distract govern- drinking water or electricity, 
meat leaders from the so-called yjjg main roads into town were 
big four nations of the Union— tW o-Iane, heavily potholed 
Germany, France, Britain and highways that were shunned by 


Mr. Taylor of Barclays Bank 
said that no matter how urgent 
structural reforms might be, "I 
don’t imagine Silvio Berlusconi 
thinks about these .things every 

truckers coming south from the 
area bordering Texas. 

After taking office; Mr. Salt - 
nas ordered the construction of 
a $23 million, four-lane high- 
way to San Pedro. While cam- 

day, while John Major thinks paigning for NAFTA. Mr. Stdi- 
about the problems be has had nas and administration officials 

getting our financial contribu- 
tions to Europe through Parlia- 
ment or what a nuisance it is 
that the Irish government has 
collapsed, and if you are 
Edouard Balladur you think 
about Chirac and Deiors.” 

NEXT: A growing political di- 

VIETNAM: A Generation in US. Looks Hometcard 

Gnfraoed from Page 1 
up in a place where they know 
their neighbors.” 

Miss Ngo’s fascination with 
tbe land her parents fled makes 
them a little uneasy, but unlike 
the parents of some of her Viet- 
namese- American friends, her 
father never threatened to dis- 
own her if she returned. 

From consulting firms to car 
rental companies to boutiques 
and restaurants tike Ca-li-pbo- 
nia Ham-bu-ga in Ho Chi Minh 
City, the former Saigon, the en- 
terprises of overseas Vietnam- 
ese are appearing on the busi- 
ness scene in an increasingly 
hustling Vietnam. 

There are no firm figures on 

the number of refugees who are 
returning to stay, known as 
“Viet Irieu.” But their business- 
es are a growing part of an infu- 
sion of hard currency from 
Vietnamese in tbe United 
States that the Hanoi govern- 
ment says totals more than $600 
million a year. 

Some less affluent emigres 
bring a few thousand dollars to 
help their families establish 
small enterprises like guest 
houses, tailor shops or motorcy- 
cle repair shops. Wealthier indi- 
viduals or groups are negotiat- 
ing to build hospitals or finance 
condominiums and beach re- 

The smaller enterprises most- 

ly fly below the radar of govern- 
ment interference and red tape. 
Like other ethnic Vietnamese. 
Miss Ngo benefits from family 
connections — an aunt in this 
government office, an in-law in 
that one — that she said can at 

lobbied heavily for American 
manufacturing companies to 
open plants here, ar gu i ng that 
the high unemployment rate 
meant labor could be secured 
cheaply. Mr. Salinas later 
opened a $ 1 25 million industrial 
park and established a technical 
college that trains San Pedro 
students how to operate and re- 
pair computers, robotic equip- 
ment and industrial machinery. 

“NAFTA was what really 
changed everything,” said Al- 
berto Gallardo, human re- 
sources manager at the Hanes 
factory. “Before the treaty, we 
were severely limited on what 
we could produce and what we 
could import. The rules were 
very strict. Now we can produce 

Dior: ;; ; : 

. u about anything we want 

least help steer her through the Everything is easier ” 

bureaucracy. Mr. Gallardo said that as a 

She also mak es fuM use of dircct ^ NAFTA 

ness negotiations here a delicate J ye J^ 0 f 0 900 , 

Suspicion on the Vietnamese 
side has been furthered by for- 

eign entrepreneurs who have p r JJdJL«. 17 of new 

taken advantage of die Vietaa- ™ „ 

mese’s innocence in the market- * Support for Broader Pact 
place. More American business ex- 

ecutives now believe NAFTA 

1 ~ JJ '" L ' has created jobs in the United 4 

CHINA: Dissident Sues Government Over Harassment should 8 ?* w^dS'fetouS 

■ . America, said a survey released 

Continued cram Page 1 months before his sentence was tbe city’s People's Park. For Monday, The Associated Press 

to the law that the public securi- to expire. several years, activists had gath- reported from New York, 

ty bureau should stop invading In his lawsuit, Mr. Wang ered weekly at the park- The survey, commissioned by 

my rights.” 

months before his sentence was 
to expire. 

In his lawsuit, Mr. Wang 
complained that the police had 

Monday. The Associated Press 
reported from New York. 

The survey, commissioned by 

Mr. Warg was a founder t 


fwTprotcsis, la!d£| he went out and 

most- wan ted list of student Hc to ^ w 

j“jk”* fter ^ accept Ins lawsuit, but added 
proiesis- that he was not optimistic. 

He was arrested, sentenced to Also on Monday, a dissident 
four years in prison for counter- in Shanghai, Han Ufa. said he 
revolutionary activities and pa- and several other activists had 
ruled in February 1993, six resumed Sunday meetings at 

But Shanghai authorities pS.SSKW.t? 
have cracked down on democ- VW fOUnd 

racy activities in the past year involJS^in o^u e *? cuUV « 
and have sentenced at least four * lT * le P* 

leading dissidents to labor SaFta , broadening 

carno sentences. WArTA to include Latin 

camp sentences. 

Mr. Han said the family of 
one Shanghai political prisoner, 
Bao Ge, was still awaiting a 

NAFTA to include Latin 

The trade accord has been 
criticized for failing to deliver 
on its promise of more U.S. 

government decision on wheth- jobs. A congressional analysis 
er he will be allowed to pay his released last week said NAFTA 

last respects to his father, who 
died Nov. 27. (Reuters. AP) 

had resulted in a net loss of 





800 - 1-0877 



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International Herald Tribune 
Tuesday, December 6, 1994 
Page 9 

Helmut Newton’s Cover-Up: No More Nudes 

By Suzy Menkes 

International UtrxM Tnburr 

— At the age of 
/4 Helmut Newton has 
taken a radical deci- 
sion: no more nudes 

images of naked women, starkly 
btack and while, in a Paris Left 
Bank gallery, “Mes demiere 
nus" (My Last Nudes). And 
Newton, who has dodged the 
flak from feminists for ]5 years 
over his so-called “porno-pho- 
tography," says that he sudden- 
ly has had a “strong reaction” 
against the exposed female 

“I think 1 have done 
enough,” he says. “Even when 
you see a lovely body or an 
interesting body, I don’t think ] 
am going to be seduced. 1 have a 

very strong desire to photo- 
graph women clothed from 

head-to-foot with hardly an 
* inch of flesh.” 

It may be a presdent decision 
from a controversial photogra- 
pher who has always been 
ahead of the trend. His sexually 
ambivalent images of the 1970s 
were precursors of fashion an- 
drogyny; his hard-edge bond- 
age and fetish references ulti- 
mately reached the runways. 

I am sorry for Guv Bourdin 

that he is not alive," says New- 
ton, referring to a fellow pho- 
tographer who died in 1991; 
Uieir twin influences gave 
french Vogue the stamp of 
fashion authority for two de- 

What fashion pros describe 
as “very Helmut Newton” 
means images of Amazonian 
bodies (even before women 
worked out), pictures suggest- 
ing erotic relationships, often 
with voyeurs, and strange, un- 
settling scenarios, like the 1979 
photo of models in a steam bath 
while another woman is laid out 
cadaver-like in a herbal wrap. 

Newton says he is fascinated 
by images from the 1920s and 
1930s, especially the work of 
the Hungarian-bom photogra- 
pher Brassal and his low-life 
virions of Paris. 

I N a striking Newton im- 
age of 1975, a mannish 
woman in a Saint Laurent 
tuxedo poses in a mean 
street (another version had a 
nude beside her). It not only set 
the fashion agenda for the' an- 
drogynous 1980s, but also 
looked back to the Marlene 
Dietrich Berlin in the 1930s, 
where Newton spent his teen- 
age years, before his Jewish 
family fled Berlin for Australia. 
“I can’t deny the influence of 

Vi *' 

in.’ - n * . J \ icuiviy ijw u^hiu nmuaud. 

y? j* very interesting “i can’t deny the influence of 
and extremely danng to photo- Berlin,” he says. It comes in the 
graph women fully dressed,” he louche voyeurism, the glossy 
claims. It is much more inter- references to fetishism, or in the 
estrng to work under certain re- symbolic monocle (even for 
stramts than to work masoa- QlKie s). Newton claims it origi- 
ety where anything is allowed, nated as a teenage crush on the 
T O nudes is good news mooocled woman who worked 

’ ' -v_ 

• ... 

frk fi f\ 

.*%■. • > ■ • -.3 

N for fashion. For 
Newton has signed a 
contract to work ex- 
clusively with American Vogue 
— 20 years after his images of 
louche, sexually predatory 
women first shocked the fash- 

Since those images, especially 
the work with Yves Saint Lau- 
rent in the 1970s, are a current 
source of inspiration to young 
designers and photographers, 
Newton’s second flowering is 
also a double-take. A recent 
spread in a British magazine 
was a pastiche of the images of 
divine decadence that Newton 
'look on his favorite setting of 
Tvlonte Carlo Beach. (He lives in 
the principality with his wife, 
June, known as the photogra- 
pher Alice Springs). 

What does Newton think of 

monocled woman who worked 
with him at the studio of the 
photographer Yva, where New- 
ton was apprenticed at age 16. 
It could just as well be taken 
from the painting by Otto Dix. 

The first photographic shoot 
for American Vogue took place 
in Monte Carlo last Friday and 
featured that other Newton ob- 
session, with medical imagery. 
To create an ambience for a 
high-heeled shoes story, tower- 
ing model Nadja A nermann, 
with one leg in a plaster cast, is 
carried aloft by men or pushed 
in a wheelchair. Newton puts 
down such surgical obsessions 
to “my hypochondria.” His 
critics suggest it is part of his 
instinct to portray women as 

vic tims. 

“I am not going to defend 
myself,” says Newton, reciting 
the rhetorical question of why 

i \ /*• i -■ 

r . 

••" N:.-.: : 

\ ■•'iVCyJ'jJ.-' 

. ^ A ' 

■ • ■? 1 

\ ^ 1 $ - 1 

* I 

A decadent display of diamonds on Monte Carlo Beach, for American Vogue, 1989; androgynous Saint Laurent tuxedo on a mean Paris street. 1975; and self-portrait. 

power of Newton’s women, woman with legs splayed under 
clothed or undressed, as in the a thin dress. 

series he pains taking ly created 

• an an with legs splayed under Two . years ago, Newton 
thin dress. walked out of a fashion photog- 

It is rare for a photographer raphy seminar in Monte Carlo 

in identical settings in the to stay at fashion’s cutting edge, claiming that it was “cheating" 
1980s. as a prelude to fashion but Anna Win tour, editor-in- to take fashion images that do 
going offstage and nudes be- chief of American Vogue, calls not focus on clothes. His wife, 
coming his obsession. Newton “one of the leading he says, win criticize a picture if 

“He helped break convex)- photographers and right now be she can’t “see the buttons.” 
tions . . . the frankly apprais- seems to be having such an in- “If someone asks you to pho- 

the homage to his seminal work be would photograph women if 
by fashion designer Marc Jar he did not like than, adding 

cobs, and his palpable influence 
on current photographs evok- 
ing sex and violence? 

“I think I am a very hicky guy 

provocatively that anyway “a 
masochist is the stronger person 
than the sadisL” 

There is no doubting the 

coming his obsession. Newton “one of the leading he says, win criticize a picture if 

“He helped break convex)- photographers and right now be she can’t “see the buttons.” 
tions . . . the frankly apprais- seems to be having such an in- “If someone asks you to pho- 
ing glance of the liberated worn- fhience.” She cites British pbo- tograph a building, and you 
en, of a woman who feels sure tographer Nick Knight and the photograph the clouds, it seems 
of herself towards men, makes German Juergen Tdter. pointless,” he says. “In the best 

this one rtf the most suggestive Wintour believes- that the fashion photographs we can all 
pictures I think Vogue has ever nmumgTin- the- street reportage remember the dresses. I remem- 
pubtished,” wrote Alexander style that she herself pioneered, ber [Irving] Penn’s fashion pho- 
Liberman, deputy chairman- has inevitably caused a reaction tograpbs — the big hats, the 
editorial for Condfe Nast publi- toward more graphic and styl- wasp waists, and then it all goes 
cations, of a 1975 photo of a ized images. ouL” 

Newton's warts-and-all pho- 
tography still has the power to 
shock. A jewelry spread last 
summer in French Vogue had 
wrinkled bands in Bulgari rings 
gutting the entrails of a chicken. 
He was inordinately pleased at 
the reaction. 

The nudes at the Vallois gal- 
lery (36 Rue de Seine, in the 
sixth arrondissement, until 
Jan. 15) are not placed in New- 

ton’s usual, art-directed con- 
text They gaze out from a 
plain ground. 

“Terrorists” was the original 
title, because the inspiration 
for these life-size figures, 
stripped bare, came from see- 
ing pictures of Baader-Mem- 
hof suspects in police cells. In 
an adjacent room, Newton pre- 
sents “mutations,” distorted 
versions, when he re-photo- 

graphed the images on differ- 
ent planes to show dose-ups of 
genitals or breasts swelling 
from armless torsos. In- 
stead of the familiar sparkling 
water of Monte Carlo Beach, 
bodies float as if dissolving in a 
bath of add. The pictures are 
weird and disturbing. 

“You destroy what you 
love,” says Newton. “They are 
the last of the line." 

Dior: Measuring the Man 

International Herald Tribune (One brother had Bolshevik leanings and ano 

P ARIS — When a new biography of Chris- er was mentally disturbed). Yet Dior, obliged 
dan Dior is “baptized” at the couture earn his living after his father was ruined in i 
house Wednesday, two famous faces will 1930s crash, cranes out as more astute and int 
be missing: Dior's elderly sister Caihex- esting than the m a r sh m all o w portraits previou 

International Herald Tribune 

P ARIS — When a new biography of Chris- 
tian Dior is “baptized” at the couture 
house Wednesday, two famous faces will 
be missing: Dior's elderly aster Cather- 
ine, who shared a sheltered bourgeois childhood in 
a flower-filled Normandy garden; and Jacques 
Routt, the genie of tiKConyan/s expansion from 
its foundation in 1946 until 19o4. 

The book’s “outing” of Dior as a homosexual 
although deBcatdy done, has appalled the tight- 
knit circle of people who still revere the master 
couturier, who died in 1957, a decade after his 
“New Look” revolutionized postwar fashion. 

Catherine Dior is also perturbed by what she 
feds is an unjust portrait of their mother as a 
social climber. Routt is concerned that a veil has 
been lifted on a private life about which Dior 
hiim«»1f was ultra-mscreeL 

To its credit, the house of Dior, now undo - the 

ownership of Bernard Arnault, has stood by 
author Marie-France Pochna, a French journd- 
ist and broadcaster. Arnault is tdlrng friends 
privately that he finds nothing shocking m 1994, 
£ discussing the life of a designer who died 37 
years ago — and in the context of a serious book 
♦hat presaats Dior as a marketing pioneer as well 

as a creative spirit 

fa “Christian Dior” (Flammanon), the effect 
of Pochna’s infamous “outing is rather to en- 
hance Dior's stature, because site places him m 
rustic milieu of the 1920SjWhen he was part 
of a quasi-Bobexnian circle that included Jean 
Cocteau and Christian Berard. 

Thr hook oortrays the family as less than the 
Ed^Sdian idyll t£t Dior himself suggested. 

(One brother had Bolshevik leanings and anoth- 
er was mentally disturbed). Yet Dior, obliged to 
earn his living after his father was ruined in the 
1930s crash, cranes out as more astute and inter- 
esting than the marshmallow portraits previously 

In the same week as this literary strain in a 
thimble, the Lyon-based “University de la 
Mode” announced a new annual prize for a 
fa shi on book, in French and in a foreign lan- 
guage. It may have trouble malting a short list 

The good news is that an extensively re- 
searched “Dictkranaixe de la Mode au XXe Ste- 
ele,” or fashion encyclopedia of the 20th century, 
edited by Bruno Remauxy, was published by 
Editions du Regard this fall Most fashion books, 
funded by the designers themselves, are gush and 
puff, with self-oongratulatory texts filling the 
(small) space between lavish pictures. 

Even serious authors who have had the co- 
operation of a fashion house may find them- 
selves frozen out if the results do not please ( Eke 
the biography of Saint Laurent by journalist 
Laurence Benalm, which was ultimately ignored 
by the bouse). 

Nobody wants fashion biographies to focus 
only on the private side — like the recent unau- 
thorized “Obsession: The Life and Times of 
Calvin Klein,” which tells all about homosexual 
parties on Fire Island in the 1970s and little 
about the designer's contribution to fashion. But 
an artist expresses himself in his work, and it 
helps to know about the man behind the myth. 

Suzy Menkes 

This year 40 million hotel guests in 
30 cities will turn to WHERE Magazines 
for directions & advice 


The 25 key world markets 
reported in a single index 
— daily in the IHT. 


kt* ? m ' 

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tag op a -i» 
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it is the only major world equities index to carry a Latin 
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The Trib Index appears daily in the International Herald Tribune. 

4 k iNTEHJtmfflwi. m* • 4 

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Tl esf dessigiuitjes cmquefeonjient ” 

Broche or, coraii, 
er brillanrs. 


M« O compjdtf 
t*BJ«v>rt><S5B^^ compiled 

EU Finance Chiefs 
Bring Unity Closer 
With Currency Pact 

Derivatives Weave Tangled Web 

Bankers Trust Agrees to Fed’s Disclosure Request 

By Lawrence Malkin 

Inumatianai Herald Tribune 

By Tom Buerkle 

International Herald Tribune 

industrialists have demanded 
re-entry by year-end to give lta- 

110 £59 

P'.k .-'BE 


Appro* wlghfrig: 32% 

Ctose: 124-31 Provj 12Z53 

Approx, weighing: 37% 
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Approx, weighing: 26% 
done: BA37 Pm.: 94.45 

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N D 

7!» tawr bucks US. debar vaMxts of stocks bt Tokyo, Mow Yoric, London, and 
Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bntgt u m, Brad, Canada, ChOa, Denmark, Finland, 
Franca, German y, Hong Kong, Italy. Iftudca, Netti attend t. Mew Zealand, Norway. 
Stogapora, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and Vanezueta For Tokyo. Non York and i 
London. As Mu to composed of trie 20 top issue® in forma of market ca&aBzation. 
tdhandaa the ten top stocks ara tracked. 

Industrial Sectors 

Pm. % 
deaa dang* 

Energy 112-07 112J4 40,03 CapMGooda 11131 112.19 +1J0 

UMfea 124-81 122J7 »1JB Raw Materials 129.47 12B.11 »1J6 

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Services 111.70 imi 4(135 UscaUaneota 114,60 11338 +0-B1 

For mom intormetton abort the Index, a booklet ieavaBabh free d charge. 

Writs to Trit Max, 181 Avenue Charles do Qaute, 92521 NauStyCedBK Fiance. 

. O International Herald Tribune 

BRUSSELS — The Europe- 
an Union on Monday declared 
its 1993 battle with foreign-ex- 
change speculators a success 
and cleared the way to adopt a 
single currency this decade 
without tightening trading lim- 
its between national currencies. 

EU finance ministers en- 
dorsed a written opinion of the 
European Monetary Institute; 
the forerunner of an EU central 
bank, that the widening of trad- 
ing limits to plus or minus 15 
percent from plus or minus 2.5 
percent had succeeded in 
thwarting speculation against 
EU currencies and should be 

The language of the agree- 
ment was vague, and ministers 
made it apparent they would 
keep things that way. 

Asked whether the decision 
meant the EU could proceed to 
a single currency without tight- 
ening trading limits. Theo Wai- 
gel, the German minister who 
chaired the meeting, said only, 
M I am not prepared to open the 
door today to new speculation." 

The Maastricht Treaty allows 
countries to adopt a single cur- 
rency beginning in 1997 or 1999 
if their currencies have stayed 
within "normal*' limits for two 

When ministers widened the 
range in which currencies are 
allowed to fluctuate “normally" 
to 15 percent on Aug. 2, 1993, 
amid a full-blown currency cri- 
sis, they called the move tempo- 
rary. But the system has worked 
so well since then — all major 
currencies in the exchange-rate 
mechanism have gone back 
within the old 2 J percent bands 
— that no one wants to tamper 
with it 

" Separately, Mr. Waigef and 
Finance Minister Lamberto 
Dini of Italy denied that Rome 
had opened talks aimed at re- 
turning the lira to the exchange- 
rate mechanism. Several Italian 

The ministers also gave a 
thumbs-up to an EU plan to 
break ground on 14 cross-bor- 
der road and rail projects by the 
end of 1996 but, al British insis- 
tence, dropped a reference to 
considering new borrowing. 

The decision could set the 
stage for a new clash over fund- 
ing if Jacques DeJors, the out- 
going president of the EU com- 
mission, decides to make a push 
on financing at a two-day sum- 
mit meeting that opens Friday 
in Essen, Germany. 

Henning Chris top hersen, the 
commissioner for economic af- 
fairs, criticized the ministers for 
dosing the door on the possibil- 
ity of fresh funding, saying that 
Britain, France and Belgium 
alone had lodged requests for 
funds that would deplete the 
existing EU budget for such 
projects, according to officials 
attending the meeting. 

The minis ters also endorsed a 
plan for combating long-term 

NEW YORK — Under pressure from 
the public and Congress to regulate the 
burgeoning trade in derivatives, the Fed- 
eral Reserve Board warned banks Mon- 
day that they must explain to customers 
exactly what they are buying. 

The warning came in an announce- 
ment that Bankers Trust New York 
Corp. had agreed with Fed regulators to 
ensure that any company “has the capa- 
bility to understand the nature and mate- 
rial terms, conditions and risks" of the 
complex instruments. 

Bankers Trust, the most aggressive of 
the big New York banks dealing in the 
instruments that were designed to- pro- 
tect companies against interest-rate and 
currency fluctuations, is under investiga- 
tion by the Securities and Exchange 
Commission after settling a 573 million 
suit filed by Gibson Greetings Inc. over 
losses on derivatives. 

A $130 million suit has been filed by 
Procter & Gamble Co., which also says 

Bankers Trust (fid not explain the risks 
of the contracts. 

Bankers Trust's credit rating was 
placed under review Monday by Stan- 
dard & Poor's Corp., the first review by 
the credit-rating concern related to a 
company's concentrated exposure to the 
derivatives business, Knight-Ridder Fi- 
nancial News reported. 

Adding to these high-profile cases was . 
the disclosure last week by the treasurer 
of Orange County that its derivatives 
fund had lost more than S1.5 billion on 
the book value of its securities. That 
prompted Senator Alfonse M. D* Amato, 
the Republican from New York who is 
expected to become chairman of the 
Ranging Committee, to pledge to investi- 
gate the derivatives business. 

With the foil support of the Fed, banks 
and banking groups have pleaded with 
Congress not to regulate derivatives and 
ajgued that the remedy for excesses in the 
business was fuller disclosure by banks. 

Another example of this came Mon- 

day in London when the Group of Thir- 
ty, a study group of bankers and academ- 

ics chaired by Paul Volcker, former 
chairman of the Federal Reserve Board, 
released a survey showing 88 percent of 
274 firms polled either followed the 
group’s guid elin es on derivatives or 
planned to do so within the next year. 

Bankers Trust said its agreement with 
the Fed was limited to leveraged transac- 
tions, which are the most risky because 
they involve borrowed money. But they 
also are the most potentially lucrative for 
companies that use derivatives to specu- 
late for profit, not just to protect theziH 
selves against market moves. 

Charles Sanford, chair man of Bankers 
Trust, said leveraged transactions ac- 
counted for less than 5 percent of the 
bank's total revenue from Jan. 1, 1993, to 
SepL 30, 1994. 

The agreement said the bank had al- 
ready reviewed its derivatives business 
for controls, and Mr. Sanford said the 
new code of conduct, to be submitted to 
the Fed by year-end, “will bring to the 
leveraged derivative transaction business 
a level of transparency and supervision 
that will benefit our clients.” 

Faulty Strategy Lies Behind Orange County’s Losses 

unemployment that will be put 
to leaders al Essen. But Phi- 

to leaders al Essen. But Phi- 
lippe Maystadt of Belgium crit- 
icized the proposal for focusing 
on cutting costs and deregulat- 
ing the labor market without 
mentioning work-sharing or 
promoting new social services. 

■ Ukraine Gets EU Loan 

EU finance ministers ap- 
proved a loan of 85 million Eu- 
ropean currency units ($103 
million) to Ukraine but at- 
tached such stringent condi- 
tions that the funds are unlikely 
to be disbursed soon. 

The package is conditional 
upon Ukraine reaching a stand- 
by agreement with the Interna- 
tional Monetary Fund and 
agreeing to a definitive shut- 
down of the Chernobyl nuclear 
complex, neither of winch is ex- 
pected for months. 

By Floyd Norris 

New York Tunes Service 

NEW YORK — The treasurer of Or- 
ange County, California, investing 58 
billion of money from the county and 
local government agencies, did not buy 
any securities that have defaulted. Nor 
are any likely to do so. 

Virtually every security he bought will 
be worth, at maturity, about what he 
paid. So how did the treasurer, Robert L. 
Citron, manage to lose S1J> billion of 
that money, as the county acknowledged 
last week? 

[Mr. Gtron has submitted his resigna- 
tion, Knight-Ridder reported late Mon- 
day from Santa Ana, California.] 

To put more money to work, the fund 
borrowed about $2 for every $1 that had 
been entrusted toitto manage. The fund 
must pay interest on those borrowings, 
and that biE has risen rapidly this year. 

That part of the loss has nothing to do 
with derivatives — securities whose val- 
ue is based on the value of simpler under- 

lying securities or commodities — and 
everything to do with the risk of taking 
on debt to make investments. 

Meanwhile, the interest the fund earns 
on its investments has stayed the same 
on many and declined rapidly on others, 
including some of the more exotic securi- 
ties that can be classified as derivatives. 

While those securities will return to 
face value in a few years, they may not 
produce enough interest in the meantime 
to support the loans Mr. Citron took out 
to buy them. 

Some of the securities conceivably 
could go for years without paying any 
interest. The $15 billion of losses refers 
not to the cash that has flowed out of the 
fund but also to the current market value 
of the securities the fund owns. 

The fund cannot afford to let its cus- 
tomers withdraw money now, because its 
securities are not worth what it paid, and 
it would take losses if it sold them. So last 
week, it notified the customers that any 
withdrawals would carry a 20 percent 
penalty. Had it not done so, the first 
customers out would have got their money 

while later ones took even larger losses. 

What follows is a look at some of the- 
securities Mr. Citron bought and the 
financing strategies he followed: 

• Lend long, borrow short. Orange " 
County bought large quantities of Trea- 
sury and government agency securities, 
mostly with maturities of five years or 
less, with some miming to 10 years. It 
generally financed those purchases 
through what are called reverse repur- 
chase agreements, or reverse repos, in 
which securities — either those that are 
being bought or others — are pledged to 
secure loans. Those loans were generally 
rolled over every three or six months and 
became more expensive as market inter- 
est rates rose. 

For example, in October the fund 
bought 5124.8 millio n face value of Trea- 
sury notes paying 4.75 percent interest ^ 
and maturing in September 1998. It paid 
an average price of slightly more than . 
par value, so it got an effective yield of ‘ 
4.61 percent Most of the money it spent t 

See ORANGE, Page 15 

Thinking Ahead /Commenfgry 

Clinton Should Go for Three in a Row 

Seoul Plans to Loosen Financial Rules 

Compiled by Our Staff From Dispatches 

•r By Reginald Dale 

ItaentarionaT Herald Tribune 

past few days, President Bill 
Clinton has again nail ed his 
colors to. the free-trade mast. 
First, he signed on to an Asia-Pacific 
free-trade area. 

Now he is H aiming credit — though 
much more than he deserves — for Con- 
gressional approval of the Uruguay 
Round world trade pact But just as Ire 
has a chance to make it three in a row, it 
looks as if he is running out of steam. 

At the Summit of the Americas in Mi- 
ami this weekend, Mr. Clinton will have a 
historic opportunity to lay ^founda- 
tions for free trade throughout, the West- 
ern Hemisphere now that a booming Lat- 
in America has suddenly become one of 
the world's fastest-growing regions. 

Bnt it looks as if Mr. Clinton is going 
to miss the opportunity. Largpfo as a 
result of short-term thinking and Wtate 
House bungling, the Miami 
shaping up as a turkey, said Gary Huf 
Kero! the Institute for International 
Economics in Washington. ^ 

^That’s a pity. At home, 
should not allow the free- bade 
tum to falter as isolationist forces rgwp 
for new battles in the montte “hod. 

Abroad, it will do no good for Ameri- 
can leadership if Washington cannot of- 
at least as fawtadung 
a deal as it strode with the Asia-Paafic 
countries in Jakarta just three weeks ago. 
.1; «r new moves to 

freer trade in Latin America, preferably 
with a timetable, will seem weak and 
indecisive. The general idea of hemispher- 
ic free trade was already endorsed two 
years ago under President George Bush. 

Miami is looking like Jakarta in reverse. 
In Jakarta, the Asia-Pacific Economic Co- 
operation forum endorsed the vision with- 
out the details. In Miami, L atin America 
is likely to get details, in the shape of more 
meetings, without the vision. 

In contrast to APEC the Miami sum- 
mit meeting is unlikely to set a target 

Hie United Stales 
should offer Latin 
America at least as far- 
reaching a trade deal as it 
struck with APEG 

date far free trade. Nor is Mr. Ctinton 
expected to propose further Latin Amer- 
ican summit meetings, although the 
APEC summits are now annual events. 

And yet the economic and political 
azgumsi ts for the United States to em- 
brace free trade with Latin America are 
just as good, if not better, than they are 
for tire Pacific. Now that they are virtual- 
ly all free-maiket democracies, the Latin 
Ameri can countries are much more ho- 
mogeneous than these in APEC — polit- 
ically, culturally and economically. 

A h em« pher&-wide dismantling of 
economic frontiers would help underpin 

the new democracies, defuse long-stand- 
ing cross-border antagonisms and create 
an internationally minded middle class. 

Without waiting for the United States, 
the Latin American countries are already 
p ushing ahead with a plethora of their 
own plans for free-trade areas and com- 
mon markets. Many of them also are 
looking to forge new trade links' with 
Europe and Asia. 

If the United States wants to be at the 
center of these new economic structures, 
it should take the lead now, with the first 
step being a formal invitation to Chile to 
join the North American Free Trade 
Agreement. Other countries would join 
when they are ready. 

A hemispheric area would make more 
sense than the perplexing network of 
subregional agreements that is already 
causing some confusion to business. 
And, according to a study by Mr. Huf- 
bauer and Jeffrey J. Schott, it would 
divert little trade and investment from 
other countries. 

That is a key point. Like APEC, a 
hemispheric free-trade agreement should 
be a building block of a more open 
multilateral system, not an inward-look- 
ing fortress. 

To implement such a strategy, Mr. 
Clinton will need broad new fast-track 
negotiating authority from Congress. To 
help ensure that he gets it, he should use 
the Miami summit meeting to continue 
to campaign vigorously for freer trade, 
not send a message that he is sudd rally 
shirking the challenge. 

SEOUL — The government 
announced Monday a five-year 
deregulation program that 
would ease the movement of 
funds in and out of South Ko- 
rea and allow foreign compa- 
nies to list on Seoul's fast-grow- 
ing stock exchange- 

By 1997, South Korean com- 
panies will be permitted to freely 
borrow and invest outside (tie 
country. Currently, they need 
government approval for foreign 
investments exceeding $20,000. 

The measures, subject to par- 
liamentary approval, will be im- 
plemented in three stages be- 
ginning next year, the Finance 
Ministry said. 

The limit on foreign currency 
that individuals may take on 
overseas trips will be doubled to 
510,000 pcT trip; students 
studying abroad will be permit- 
ted $3,000 a month, compared 
with $2,000 now. 

The ceiling for overseas secu- 
rities investment will be raised 

to 1 billion won ($1.3 million) 
next year from 300 million won 
for companies and to 500 mil- 
lion won from 100 million won 
for individuals. 

The limit on foreign stock 
ownership in local companies 
will be raised to 15 percent next 
year from 12 percent now. The 

China to Direct Lending 
To Strategic Industries 

The ministry said the mea- 
sures were needed to help South 
Korean companies build their 
offshore operations and be- 
come more competitive. 

The government also will 
scrap some restrictions on for- 
eign currency beddings. Current- 
ly, individuals and companies 
with more than' $50,000 in for- 
eign currency must report then- 
holdings to bank authorities. 

The new plan wfll permit in- 
dividuals to deposit as much as 
$30,000 in overseas accounts. 
Individual South Koreans are 
currently barred from keeping 
overseas accounts. 

Agence Fronce-Presse 

HONG KONG — China has imposed s'tringent measures to 
restrict commercial loans to strategic industries, to by to shore up 
the credit rating of local companies amid a spate of bad debts. 

The measures came as once-generous lenders tightened their 
own procedures for approving credit to joint ventures, which have 
mushroomed in the booming Chinese economy, currently growing 
at between 1 1 percent and 12 percent. 

“There were internal circulars sent recently to all local govern- 
ments as well as stale- run banks to limit loans to approved credit 
limits in major am tracts," said an official at an affiliate of the 
Bank of China. “Authorities have decided to restrict foreign 
investment to those that meet strategic economic development 
needs of the country,” he said. 

Foreign investment in China this year is expected to rise 30 

limit will he further increased in 
1996 and 1997. The abolition of 
the investment ceiling will be 
discussed after 1998. I 

“The opening of stock add 
bond markets wfll be carried out 
gradually to prevent sudden in- 
fluxes and outflows of foreign 
money," the assistant finance 
minister. Shin Myoung Ho, said. 

While allowing foreign firms 
to list shares on the stock ex- 
change, Seoul will continue to 
prohibit foreigners from own- 
ing more than 10 percent of; a 
domestic company. 

South Korea has had tight 
controls on foreign exchange 

tal flight and help manage do- 
mestic money supply. 

The five-year plan was bas$d 
on a report submitted in Sej> 
tember by a foreign exchange 
committee composed of schol- 
ars from private and govern- 
ment research institutes. 

South Korea has recently 
pursued ambitious financial 
liberalization programs to be- 
come a member Of the Organi- 
zation for Economic Coopera- 

percent, to $33.5 billion, but authorities were trying to cut its 
growth next year, the China-run Hong Kong China News Service 

growth next year, the China-run Hong Kong China News Service 
reported over the weekend. 

These measures were taken after several foreign lenders and 
leasing firms went public with concerns about the reliability of 
Chinese firms in repaying loans and meeting contracts, dampen- 
ing the country’s attractiveness. 

tion and Development by 1996. 

Foreign analysts here said 
the plan was “a small step," 
adding that South Korea had a 
long way to go if it wanted to 
join the OECD. 

(AP, Bloomberg, AFX) 


Matsushita Signs 
Pact With IBM 
(hi New Products 


Dec. S 

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. Compiled by Oar Staff From Dispaiches 

TOKYO —Matsushita Elec- 
tric Industrial Co. and Interna- 
tional Business Machines Corp. 
said Monday they had signed a 
letter of intent to explore coop- 
eration in developing and man- 
ufacturing a range of products 
using the PowerPC chip. 

As a first step, Matsushita 
will use the chip — developed 
by IBM, Apple Computer Inc, 
and Motorola Inc. — in its new 
game machine 3DO Real by the 
end of next year, officials said. 

Matsushita said it and IBM. 
would jointly develop a new 
generation of multimedia prod- 
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such as portable communica- 
tions equipment and rewritable 
optical disks. 


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U4- doftors per ounce. London offMotns- 
kwst Zurich Md Roar York tnentao taut ckkk 
lug prices j New York Germ* fPvbrvoryJ 
Source: Reuters. 

processor could be used in a 
wide variety of products and, 
applications including personal 
computers, cons um er electron- 
ics, automobiles and home en- 
tertainment products. 

(AP, AFP, Reuters). 

The ultraflat «Romulus*. A classical beauty. 18 cr gold, platinum or steel/gold, water-resistant. For ladies and men.! 

For a brochure, write to: Corum. 2301 La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland. I 


Stocks Move Little, 


fearing Rate Rises 

VteAuociaM Prats 

' NEW YORK — The stock 
jnarket finished mixed Monday 
as concern that rising rates 
would draw money from stocks 
offset expectations of strong 
corporate earni n gs. 

* The Dow Jones industrial av- 
erage finished down 3.70 points 
it 3,741.92, but gaming issues 

% U.S. Stock* 

a : 

Outnumbered losing issues by 
an 11 -to- 10 ratio cm the New 
York Stock Exchange. 

£ The price of the benchmark 
30-year Treasury bond fell 5/32 
point, to 95 7/32, while the 
yield edged up to 7.92 percent 
from 7.91 percent Friday. 
j Bonds were set back after 
ilata showing strong sales of 
new homes and automobiles re- 
vived concern that brisk eco- 
nomic growth could accelerate 
inflation, traders said. 

’’ RJR Nabisco was the most 
actively traded issue on the Big 
Board, slipping 1/64 to 6ft after 
{he Federal Trade Commission 
Jraid it was considering chang- 
ing the way it tested the level of 
fncotine and tar in cigarettes. 
That could affect how tobacco 

companies advertise so-called 
light brands. 

Computer stocks were strong 
on expectations for growing de- 
mand for personal computers. 

Michael Kwatinetz, a com- 
puter analyst for PaineWebber, 
said surveys of retailers implied 
that “an impressive consumer 
quarter for personal computer 
sales is in progress,” with de- 
mand in some instances out- 
stripping supply. 

Compaq rose % to 40%, and 
Ddl rose 1% to 42%. Interna- 
tional Business Machines got an' 
added lift, rising Yt to 71%, after 
SoundView Financial Group - 
raised its investment opinion to' 
short-term buy from bold. > 

PPG Industries fell 1% to 
35% after the company said an- 1 
alysts* estimates for the year, 
were probably accurate but that ;■ 
it considered their upper pre- 
dictions for 1995 income a ! 
“challenge.” 1 

In over-the-counter trading, ■ 
Electronic Arts rose 1% to 21% 
on rumors that the developer of ; 
■interactive entertainment soft- 
ware would merge with Bertels- ' 
warm AG, the German media 
company. Bertelsmann denied 
there were any such talks in 
progress. (Bloomberg, AP) 

Dow Jobm Averages 

Open Mon LOW Lost Cts. 

Indus 374M6 S7627B 3737.11 37*1-92 —3-70 
Tran M38JJ3 144665 143367 1441.15 +8K 
Utfl WjM 16099 179.15 16040 +099 
Comp 135139 135744 1249301 T2HL98 +246 

I Standard & Poor’s Indexes 



Oom Pieirto** 

■M BW « 


S«” B0r, Tg3So B WoB W1MD 192000 

fSowm tomS .. i wijw wmjb 
nnllars pry u lflrtc Era 

55# *Bw wnn g»f» 

Forward 290040 2901 JO 294100 294*00 




KhA L« date <**• 
54059 53647 M.12— 0J1 
35U7 34640 35046 +362 
15058 14947 15036 +049 
4148 4136 fl4B + 0ig 
4SSJM 49L06 453J2 -HUB 
m» 42044 422.15 + 0.12 

NYSE Indexes 

■OxrwoeBe 248.9a 247 Ji tan +047 

IndIHfrWl 31345 311.74 31155 -034 

Tramp. 22*84 22237 22445 +1-98 

unary atwjw mas ipM4 +060 

Rnonoe 19036 19*99 19572 +073 

DoBraB w 

Scat 63JM i S3MM 

Forward 65*00 6S4» 


uoan per metric tea 
Spot 863000 604040 

Forward MOM 096100 


Mtara per mMctpq 
Spot 609040 610000 

Forward 616000 619860 

zinc Upedd jna«wdo) 

Forward 1137 Jn 113840 

*»Jfl 65*06 
66*40 66740 

662540 883160 
*95040 895540 

614540 61S40 
623040 6*4040 

114640 114740 
117*40 112540 

l_ H*S) 14050 

^ 14646 1*250 

2r lAOfl 14440 

ST WJ5 14*59 

s IKt! 
g it?: 

m NX N.T. 

Est volume: 24429. 

riHt settle orae 

mm MUD — Z 25 
HCS -*60 

14640 M 640 —340 
14554 14540 —340 
14*40 14640 — 250, 
14sS 14*00 -340’ 
14850 J4860 -U0 
NX 14925 —MO 

N.T. 15X50 — 3|g 
. NX 1555° —3« 
Open fat 106413 

NYSE Most Actives 


Dollar Slips as Traders 
Lock la Their Gains 

RJR Nob 






oirys* - 








HASPAQ Most Acttvs 

VeL Mob Low LflU Chfc' 
1W» +Vu 
64V* + 1% 

21 % + 1 % 

F ^ 

33 +1* 

68ft, +V» 

42% +1% 

44% —Vi. 
40% +Wi» 
37% +1% 


NASDAQ Indexes 

Mali Law Last CKe- 

On npaat e 74741 74S55 74S45 +043 

Industrial* 75244 76044 75044 +03S 

Banks 69*0 6910 491-47 +9.95 

insuranoe ef*3S 891.14 89348 +043 

Rnonoe H5745 85383 85342 +152 

Transp. 6940 64842 65042 +40 

AMEX Stock Index 

43340 '43142 43245 —041 

Pewr Jon — Bond A 1 

20 Bends 

10 Ufflltka 

10 Industrials 

Close arae 

9442 +ai3 

8949 + M 

9845 —003 

NYSE Diary 

I DeDCptr 
I Orade 
A pptec 
I •3Com % 


| AMEX Diary 

AMEX Most Acthr— 

Total Issues 
New Lows 

. Compiled by Ow Staff From Dispatches 

. NEW YORK — The dollar 
was mostly lower Monday as 
traders took profits after the 
currency’s gains last week, deal- 
ers said. 

; A series of stronger-than-ex- 
pected economic reports last 
week sparked speculation that 

Foreign Exchange 

.the Federal Reserve Board 
would have to follow up its 75- 
basis-point rate increase of 
Nov. 15 with another increase 
to keep inflation in check. 

* The dollar closed at 1.5717 
Deutsche marks, down from 
d.5800 DM on Friday, and at 
il 00.355 yen, down from 
000.605 yen. The dollar was 
Jalso at 13950 French francs, 
•down from 5.4210 francs, and 
jat 1.3255 Swiss francs, down 
[from 1.3337 francs. 
t The pound was at $15570, 
Jdown from $1.5610. 
i Traders said dollar trading 
*was light because of a firmer 
jmark against most other curren- 

cies amid speculation Germa- 
ny’s central bank was more like- 
ly to raise rates than lower them. 

Higher German rates would . 
make mark-denominated de-j 
posits more attractive. 

“There's nothing too much in 
that apart from a lack of inter- 
est in the dollar,” a dealer said. 

The dollar failed to react 
much to a wanting from Trea- 
sury Secretary Lloyd Bentseu of 
the dangers of allowing the dol- 
lar to collapse. 

"If you see the dollar go 
down the tubes, you end up 
with serious problems, 1 ' Mr. 
Bentseu said. 

Mr. Bentsen said the U.S. 
government and the Fed had to 
balance the need to avoid a dol- 
lar collapse, fight inflation and 
bring down die budget deficit 

“We had some profit-taking, 
and the market is taking a bit of 
a break,” said Kaori Muto, a 
corporate adviser at Bank of 
America in London. “But peo- 
ple want to buy on dips.” 

Reuters, Bloomberg) 

Echo Bay 

Man wJB 

' Vtacvrt 
NA Voce 


VoL Man low Last 
15384 12% 11% U% 
7374 3% 3 ,3 

6906 10% 9% 10 

*828 13% 12% 12% 

5389 39% 38% 36% 
4755 •%> <v a >%, 
4300 l%t 1%4 1% 

4066 5 4% 4% 

3W0 9% B% 

3877 9% 9 9 


Market Sal** 

In muttons. 


Total issues 
New Wan 
New Lows 

Spot CawnodWt 

CMPmod Br Today 

Afumfrium. fb 0JSS 

Cooper etedrulync, lb 1A3 

Iron FOB. ton 21100 

Lead, ni 8,44 

SUver.trayaz *63 

steal t soot), ton vnxn 

Tin, lb *1344 

Zinc lb ILS735 


HBofc LO W Cl Wt OMB99 


436M66 - ptt Of H6 Fd 

Dae m *9 93-® 91 s2 — k05 

US- 9274 92 M 9266 — 8.13 

jS 92.18 9206 92.10 —0.0 

Sap 9174 9165 9166 — 

dSc no J1J na -M“ 

Mar 91^5 91.20 — CJ» 

J£ US 9106 91.10 — 004 

S 71-03 9098 9059 —004 

D« S®JW 9B56 9050 — CH9 

Mar 90J3 SUfil 9061 —063 

S 9078 9076 9078 — OB3 

sS 9073 9876 ^9078 lira*. 

EsL volume: 6S9S7. Open hit: 500337. 

51 aMHon-ptsofiMPCl 

Doe N.T. N.T. KL57 —064 

MV N.T. N.T. 9261 —067 

JO N.T. N.T. «2» — 

sS N.T. N.T. 9260 —065 

Est. volume: a Open Inf.: * 650. 

feffffiEfSS MRP™ nM 

S£ Si 23 

jS 9*34 9*34 9*25 — SJ« 

Iw 9*01 9352 9353 — 068 

Dec 914* 9368 9X5B — ttS® 

Mar 9X41 9X33 9334 —067 

US 93.18 93.11 93.11 — 06£ 

Sep 7253 9267 9267 —0-03 

DK 9267 9261 9261 —064 

Mar 9268 9263 9264 —064 

Jaa 9235 9230 9234 — OOJ 

Sep 9232 9126 9226 —006 

E»L votunw: 9*006. Owen faU 73853* 
Dec 9*37 9435 9435 —061 

*4.10 9*10 -jua 

Joffl *173 MJB 9X30 —061 

Sap 91*3 9360 9360 —Bill 

Dec 9113 9110 9111 UndL 

Mar 9265 9262 9288 UngL 

An 9263 9260 9261 Unch. 

Sep 9263 9239 9247 +0M) 

EsL volume: 28301 Open let.: 191716. 

(SUN - ptS* 32ndS dIINK) 

Doc 182-38 1 02*13 102-17 — 049 

Mar 102-04 101-21 101-26 — 0-09 

JM N.T. N.T. 160-26 —069 

EsL whiraa: 4U33. Opan InL: 129680. 

DM 258606-9% of 100 Kt 

DOC 9160 91.16 9177 —020 

MOT «5 5 9060 *066 — 

job moi 90JM nx -all 

eat mama: 1&188. Own inL: 207621 
11138 +0S 

EJT ?B3 iSS 

sap 11132 11132 11052 ■+ 066 

EsL volume: 146686. Opan tat J 164612 


HMh Low Last Settle CW»e 

UX OMien ptf metric taihtati af 108 tan 
Dec 14200 13775 13975 13973 — 250 

am lS 1567 M.1S 16.1* — Otf 

£ ^ ^ Its *= K 

£ as ms ss 

2m wS 1£73 1552 1|2 


1569 lIS unett 

oS 1*15 1558 UndJ. 

SS. vt n T NT I4JSJ UndL 

pjc 1*W i*« 1*85 1*18 +068 

BtwMna: 69.139. Oean fa* 1*3385 

Stock Indexes 


ET 1 m sss t» 

CAC 46 IM ATIF > ’ 

3Bg =% 

H& Sso 3906A —860 

Js £525 196850 198850 —800 

Sep NT. 301280 201200 -760 

Eit. volume: 17.T1X Own WL: 4739a 

Sources: Motif, Asapcforecf Pres*, 
r n wtw inti Ffoont Jof F utures ExttKOtue, 
tnffiUtmleam Exc&anoa. 


Am aty BinJournal _ 5% 12-15 1-14 

IhUvHnJBfrts Inc 1 lor^ 4 reverse spflt - . 

Blesslnvs Cora 2 far 1 suOL 


KN Energy O 35 12-15 1238 


«u— i hm Care n - -10 M W 

SSwMm. _ JJ51 W-14 12-20 


Brown Group 
Corporate HaYM 

CatpHBY . 

Dorcheshtr Hmrtn 

Flsbar Sdcattc 
ninrnrr ine A 
GraemvcbSt CAMon M M W Hi 

GraamvctiSt CAMun M .J*M 

Incoro Oopart 1999 
Incwn Ooport 20W 
McRae hxMA 
NU Resouroas 
NY Tax Ex In 
Rlverwaod Inti 
Senior HI Ineon 
Senior HI Ina PHI 
senior strtB Inca 
Sun Cum m un l tle* 

! Texas Imtrvm 
Toastmaster Inc 
Total SvsSvCS 
UN5L Flnct 
US Shoe 
Vesta Insur 
Wltea Corn a 38 a-is m 

DaOarVext M .VKQ 12-12 12*19 

I o-asmmL' » payable fa Cana dian tw dsj m- 
mantoiy; a*« iucp t « rtr; i «. i nl ra era nl 

0 60 12-12 1*3 

M -1268 12-12 12-19 
M J25B 72-12 12-19 
Q .17 12-31 1-20 

Q 02 12-20 1-4 

B .135 12-16 M 
M JM 2-M 
M J35B XU 3-21 
n -0479 12-n 12-19 
M JW 12-12 12-19 
Q 09 17-12 12-15 
Q J3875 12-14 12-30 
Q 38 12-15 1-2 

M JB3 12-13 1230 
O M 12-16 12-23 
M XJ71 12-12 12-19 
M JD71 12-12 12-19 
M 377 12-12 12-19 

8 645 12-30 1-13 
35 12-28 130 
a jr 12-15 1230 
q 3225 12-22 13 

3 JS 72-14 13 
Q OB 12-27 1-T7 
Q JH V15 M 
0 -28 12-15 13 

F ears of Winter Glut Knock Down Oil Prices 


annual sales rate rose to 72o,uoo uku*b» 

December. ^_ ncimier confidence, UA car and ■ 

^EU^^S^ii^Detroit’s autamafe® 5 5 . 4 percent ia 
light trw* have reached an annual rate of 

. 1990 - OM * sate 
are added is, aialyas said 

Cajifornia Energy to Buy Magma 

^ra^and SW^^^theconqpany sweetened its hostiklwl qyw-. 

th ^^ n ent, 3 percent higher than the $925^1Honjj 5 
dipped Friday, comes aftor^ tworamtte of 
n-fusals by Magma to consider a combination of the two geotber- - 
mal power companies. . 

Unocal to Take^ 4th-Qoarter Charge 

> LOS ANGELES (Reuters) — Unoad 
1 would take a pretax charge m its fourth quarto- of about $445 
$ 275 Sllion after tax, to rehect a change^ its , 

'*SJSm being adopted to recog^e the red^l'y^c : 

‘ of certain oil and gas producing properties. Umicr 
■ Unocal will evaluate properties for impairment on a fisW-byrfidd 
basis, compared with the old country-by-country policy. 

: Compaq Chief Says Recall Cnneeded 

! SAN FRANCISCO (Bloomberg) — Corapaq.Co^uto: 

1 Corp.’s top executive said Monday that a recall of mtcfCorp.’s 4- 
flasred Pentium micxq>rocessor was unnecessary, althou^ Com- 

paq was replacing The chip for customers who requested it, 

News surfaced in November that Intel’s latest comparer team, 
the Pentium, contained a flaw that affected certain complicated 
divirion Intel has said it has fixed the problem on its 

production line, but PCs with the flawed chip coutinue to be sold.- 

J.C Penney to Fold 'Umts’ Division 

PLANO, Texas (Bloomberg) — J.C Penney Co. said Monday it 
; would close its Units diviriOD, a 113-store cham that made it tag in 
. the 1980s with an informal, onc-aze-fits-aH line of- women’s 

Faffing sales and several years of losses led to the decision, 
Penney sold, though it did not provide specific results. 

For the Record 

Newport News SUpbaOdmai a unit of Teameco lac, said it had 
won a letter of intent from. tHe United Arab Emir ates to build a 
shipyard in Abu Dhabi. (Reuters) 

Ninten do Col was ordered by a New Yack appeals court to pay 
5208 minion to Alpex Computer Corp. of the United States for 
counterfeiting. (Reuters) 

AT&T Carp, said it would increase its prices on certain domes- 
tic and international long-distance phone calls, resulting in a $289 
nnffion boost to annual revenue. (Bloomberg)- 

First Union Corp. has altered a definitive agreement to acquire 
American Savings of Florida for $253 million, dr $21 a share, in 
stock, American Savings said. (Knight-Riddcr) 

LONDON — World oil prices plunged 
again Monday, extending a decline that 
has knocked more than $1 a barrel off 
prices in two trading days. 

Traders sold oil futures heavily on fears 
of a muter supply glut Analysts say oil 
refiners have produced too much gasoline 
and heating oil and think demand will not 
absorb it 

The benchmark Brent blend crude oil for 
January delivery traded at $16.04 a barrel in 
London, 15 cents below Friday’s close. 

Analysts said mild weather across the 
Northern Hemisphere was keeping a lid on 
demand for heating oiL 

The price of oil is now almost exactly at 
the midpoint between the year’s high and 
low of $19.01 and $12.90 a barrel reached 
in August and in February. 

Starting Jan. 1, motorists in the most 
polluted cities across the United States will 
be fining up with cleaner “reformulated” 
gasoline as part of the government’s anti- 
pollution program. 

Oil refineries have been working to pre- 
pare for the switch, producing gasoline at 

rates to ensure the avail- Witkud Box Office 

ability of supplies. 

■ Nickel Price Soars in Siberia Panic 

The world price of nickel soared amid 
sudden worries about supply from Russia 
after reports of explosions and power 
- shortages at a huge smelter in Siberia.- 
. ! At $9,575 a ton on the London Metal 
Exchange, the metal .was up more than 25 
percent from a week earlier and had gained 
7 percent in just a few hours of trading. 

The price eased later to 58,800 as the 
fears abated. 

The Associated Press 

LOS ANGELES — “The Santa Clause” dominated the U. SL 
box office again with a gross of $1 1.5 million, over the weekend^ 
Following are the top 10 moneymakers, based on Friday ticket 
sales and estimated rales for Saturday and Sunday. 

1. "Ttw Santa Oouse- 

2. "Star Trafc Genera f lans " 

1 "Junior 

£ "A Low Drawl Dirty Sham*" 
t Tb« Uon Kbw” 

7-Trapp«l taP orarfW 
8. -Sunrota” 

V.-Tho ProtoatonaT 
18 "Miracle an 341ft Street - 




(Wonwr Broilers} 
(Buena Vhta Pictures) 
(Watt Disney 1 
(TUrnonm Century Pox} 

(Tw mtM ti Century Fax) 

sits million 
UJ minion 
S3 ml Ilian 
5*9 million 
526 million 
525 mBIIon 
523 minion 

52 million 


Commodity indexes 

Rwfere ySJjg 

pj. Futures X «M8 

Com. Research 







Page 1$ 



Blanc paiN 

Since November 20th 1994, these watches are no longer 
displayed at the Deutsches Museum in Munich. 


' ■ "’’'viv • ■ 

'mm?. -i 

"" " ' 

Pocket-watch with 
automata Ref. 115 


^ . 







Pocket-watch with 
automat Ref. 271 

Pocket-watch with 
automat Ref. 282 

Pocket-watch with 
automat Ref. 901 

Pocket-watch with 
automat Ref. MU 39 

Pocket-watch with 
automat Ref. 64 1 

Pocket-watch with 
automat Ref. 456 

Pocket-watch with 
automat Ref. MU 38 



Pocket-watch with 
automat Ref. 382 

Pocket-watch with 
automat Ref. 648 

Pocket-watch with 
automat Ref. TP 23 

Pocket-watch with 
automat Ref. TP 136 

leweliery watch 
Ref. 78 

leweliery watch 
Ref 390 

Jewellery watch 
Ref. 212 



They have been stolen on the night of 

November 1 9th to 20th ! 

1 1 
• 4 

Ultra-slim watch No. 413 
Ref! 0021-3318-55 

Extra-slim watch No. 1097 
Ref. 1195-1127-55 

Chronograph with split seconds-hand 
and perpetual calendar No. 520 
Ref. 5581-1418-55 

Tourbillon No. 7 
Ref. 0023-3318-55 

Extra-slim jewellery watch No. 2583 S 

Ref. 0096-2228-65 

erpetual calendar No. 10 

Ref. 5495-33 18“55 

Ultra-slim watch No. 51 
Ref. 0021-3427S-55 

Moon-phase watch No. 3 
Ref. 6595-3318-55 

Minute-repeater No. 34 
Ref. 0033-3318-55 

Ultra-slim watch with 
interchangeable bezels No. 382 
Ref. 0020-1828-65 

r 1 1 n’nOO Sfr will be offered to any person who can give useful information. For any information you could give, \ 
A reward or n u ^ contact the criminal police in Munich - tel. 089/1 25 1 1 - or any other police station. f 

Deutsches Museum 


I*.?:* 1 .'!* » 


- w-sl s 



® I 


"= : “-C.;. ?5 

Plans for 

Bloomberg Bmbnsn Newt 

AifeE U AG C S "“*? ebrQdcr 
M&iz AG , the indebted Ger- 
man brewer and drink-ma ke r 
said Monday it planned a thor- 
ough reorganization, including 
sdfing or dosing subsidiaries. 

Dieter Jtmemann, a member 
jOf -the company’s supervisory 
r board i detailed the rescue plan 
at a medal meeting of Marz 

: .“Since it is not possible to 
bring the company into profit 
in the short term, this will m«Hn; 
selling or, when that’s not possi- 
ble, dosing” MSrz subsidiaries, " 
Mr. Jtmemann said. 

- Shareholders on Monday 
overwhelmingly approved a 
plan to sell a 95 percent interest 
m Bavaria-St Pauli Brauerei 
and its Jever beer brand to rival 
Brau & Brunnen AG. The plan 

x was announced in October. 

; Mfirz said it would get 400 
milli on Deutsche marks ($254 
million) from the sale of Jever 
and its brewery. That windfall, 
and the Mhrz family's decision 
to write off more than 200 mil- 
lion DM in loans to the compa- 
ny, will reduce M&rz’s accumu- 
lated bank deb t from 1.1 billion 
DM to 517 million DM. 

But Mdrz executives said that , 
would not be enough to save the , 
company, Germany's largest- 
vohime bcer producer in 1993, 
without additional measures. 

The sale of the Jever brand 
and the Hamburg brewery is 
expected to make Brau & Bran- 
next Germany’s largest-volume 
beer maker, succeeding Mdrz. 

- - Shareholders were not ex- 
-■ peeled to vote on the overall 

direction of the proposals made 
by the Mare family, who hold 
more than 90 percent of the 
company’s common shares. 

Trading in Mfire stock, which 
was suspended Thursday pend- 
ing Monday’s announcement, 
will resume Tuesday. The 
shares last traded at 216 DM. 

M&re executives did not say 
which subsidiaries the company 
planned to sell or close, but they 
promised there would be “a 
new M&rz” at the shareholders’ 
Meeting in May. 

MSre owns the national beer 
brands Henninger, Eichbaum 
and EKU. 

Waking an East German Giant 

Dow Chemical Co. 

Mdtilt - < . ly in the next centur 

To Buy Majority ^ Y 

^ J J J also a politically ddics 

StalrA in L J ^ be left with one-sixth c 

OldKC lH LiOmpieX 7 s Berlin* f force. But the project 

_ A S 1 <cn1vno<» at least sn me 

vl w 

By Nathaniel C. Nash 

-Vet* Ytrk Times Service 

SCHKOPAU, Germany — Building 
after building sits vacant. The rust is 
everywhere — on miles of piping that 
run overhead, on stanchions supporting 
huge water tanks and on smokestacks 
reminiscent of the last century. 

This mournful site a few miles west of 
Leipzig is the Buna chemical complex, 
once the heart of the East German state 
chemical industry and, more recently, ail 
but destined for the scrap heap. 

But the European subsi diar y of Dow 
Chemical Co. is betting on the revival of 
ihe l ,250-acre (500-hectare) plant and its 
antiquated technology, as Dow Chemi- 
cal makes its boldest move yet into Eu- 

Dow Deutschland is expected to pay 
several hundred million dollars for a 75 
percent stake in Buna and two other 
nearby plants while the giant Russian 
natural gas company Gazprom pur- 
chases the rest. The German government 
will bear the brunt of the restoration at 
Buna with a $2 billion investment that 
nonetheless could save only 3,000 jobs at 
the plant, which once employed 18,000. 
It now has 4,600 workers. 

“When we’re done. Buna will be possi- 
bly the most modem chemical complex 
in Europe,” said its managing director, 
Bernhard H. Bnimmer. “There were 
many in the West who amply wanted to 
shut us down so they wouldn’t have any 
new competition. But that’s not going to 
happen. Buna will live.” 

Dow Deutschland is already the domi- 
nant American chemical company in Eu- 
rope, challenging the European chemical 
giants Bayer, BASF and HoechsL 




If Dow acquires a majority of Buna 
and die two other plants — a steam 
cracker in Bohlen for beginning the 
chemical refining process and a polyole- 
fin producer in Leuna — it will become 
Germany’s fourth-largest chemical com- 

“The East German operation is, more 
than anything, a beachhead for exports 
to Poland, the Czech Republic, the 
Ukraine and the Baltics,” Elmar J. 
Deutsch. head of Dow Chemical’s Ger- 
man subsidiary, said in a recent inter- 
view with the German business weekly 
Wirtschaftswoche. Mr. Deutsch declined 
to be interviewed for this article. 

Buna embodies many symbols. 

For the German government strug- 
gling to integrate East and West, it is by 
far me largest bailout of failed East Ger- 
man industry, and, if sold to Dow Chem- 
ical, it will be the hugest privatization 
among the 13,000 former East German 

For East Germans, it represents an 
assurance that despite the failure of com- 
munism, their chemical industry not 

only will not disappear but also will 
probably be competitive eventually, ear- 
ly in the next century. 

But the decision to invest a vast 
amount of capital to save a few jobs is 
also a politically delicate one. Buna will 
be left with oue-sixth of its former work 
force. But the project is an attempt to 
salvage at least some jobs in an area 
where unemployment is running at 30 

Dow Chemical has signed a letter of 
intent with Treuhandanstah, the govern- 
ment agency handling East German pri- 
vatizations, to analyze the value of the 
operations at Buna, Bohlen and Leuna. 
Dow proposes to purchase as much as 76 
percent of the operations. 

Buna's move into free-market hands 
will mark a new era for this complex, 
which was built by the prewar chemical 
giant I.G. Farben. 

During World War II, Buna made 
tires for the German war machine. But it 
was not bombed by the Allies at the end 
of the war, as were many German chemi- 
cal plants. Some company officials con- 
tend that the Allies did not destroy the 
plant because they wanted to benefit 
from its substantial strides in the devel- 
opment of synthetic rubber. 

Under Communist rule. Buna provid- 
ed for the East German market because 
the country had little access to Western 
chemicals and technology. It made its 
chemicals from coal, an expensive, pol- 
luting process that has now been shut 
down. Despite the severe pollution that 
resulted, the technology was studied by 
other chemical companies in the after- 
math of the 1973 Arab oQ embargo. 

Mr. Brummer, who keeps a color post- 
er of the former East Ge rman leader 
Erich Honecker as a reminder of the 
company’s past, acknowledges it is not 
easy for a Western manager to run Buna. 
“There is real resentment here that West- 
erners have come in and exploited the 
East Germans,” Mr. Br umme r said. 
“East Germans want to run their own 
destiny now.” 

Plans Cut 
In Staff 



-London. .-.-.■i. 














Stockholm Afta 
Vienna ■ , AT7 
Zurich . SBf 
Sources; Reuters, AFP 

AEX -v '#335 

Stock Indax 7,33930 

PAX . ; . .WM? 

FA2 • ~ ■ .-77310 

HEX- *1,88153 

Financial Times 30 • S&B1-3B 
Ftsg -too :■ • 333330 

General Index . L ■''30453? 
MiBTEL 10044 

CAC40 ■ 1,973jg 

Aftaergvaertaen 1, 890.10 
ATX Index 1.050.47 

’ #335 

7339-30 ^7390.75- ^ 
2,071,12 ■ 2,0385*. 

• 778.10 . 



said Monday it would cut al- ' : 

most a third of its work force, AmstenlOT ' ’AEX . ~V jW335 
scrap its pay phones and con- Brussels Slock Index " 733930 v 

tract out directory inquiries to Frankfxat g «£ . . 2*7132 -2038^' 

try to increase profits. !Tr? ■■■ : . -r? ■ ■ ^ 

Mercury plans to focus on Iranlfert FA2 • • ■ -778.10 . 769-3 3^< • 

providing services to businesses Hetetnlri • HEX- • 1,88153 ; 3,864t9> 

while working in partnerships tondon financial Times 30 . £331.30 - 2.323.80 ® 

to expand its presence in the London 1-TSElflO •” ' 3333-50 

consumer market, which is Madrid- Genara* Index ."30453 . -'vt&lPlL 

dominated by British Telecom- MlBTEL 10044 ' 10089 

”S^“Jdu W ouid direct- 

ly eliminate 2^00 jobs, many of Stockholm Aftaeravaeriden 1,890.10' 

them through voluntary retire- Vienna ATX Index 1350.47 1JB3&3B' ffeffe 1 

ments, and further pare us pay- — . * vxttsi 

roD by selling a computer- arric^i ■ SBS 9BSLZX 

equipment subsidiary that Sources: Reuters. AFP Uscn^HcnJd-fVftunp 

employed 1,000. 

All of the cuts are expected by 
the end erf 1995 and will leave V&V"y bHofly! 

Mercury with a staff of just un- * — 

der 8,000, the company said. m Scottish & Newcastle PLCs purchase last year of the Chef & 
Mercury’s chief executive. Brewer pub chain helped lift the brewer’s first-half earnings 28 
Duncan Lewis, said the cuts percent, to £145.1 million ($226 million). 

SSiifSIte- • Koninklqke AboW NY’s third-quarter profit rose 25 percent, to 
cervices 8 ^ minion guilders ($5 1 million), led by an increase in U.S. sales. 




< 382:71 j $Sm; - 


Imemauooal Herald Tribune 

for telephone services. 

Mercury also said it would 

Reed Elsevier PLC completed its $1.5 billion acquisition of 

take a pretax charge of £120 mil- Mead Data Central from Mead Corp. 

tioa ($187 million) against its • Swissair AG said its airline operations, which include Bight 
results for the period ending operations, technical services, grotmd operations and information 
March 31, 1995, because of the technology, had a “double-digit profit” in the six months to 
cuts. Of that figure, £40 million September but that its flight operations alone posted a loss. 
wotddbeUnked to a staff-r«iuc- . Varta Batterie AG of Germany and Duracefl Inc. of the United 
non program and £80 muh°n a contract valued at $18 million to develop lithium 

wcMild be on asset wntedowns. ba^es for electric cars. 

Mr. Lewis said Mercur/s „ t , . .. .. . 

Services division would be re- • Akzo Nobel NV received a seven-year standby credit faeflity 
structured into five areas: inter- valued at $700 million from a group of 1 5 banks, 
national business services, cor- • Royal PTT Nederland NVjoined with Swiss Telecom and AT&T 
porate business services, Coqn to b id for a 27 percent stake m the Czech state-owned phone 

verse repos. 

At the time, the going rate on 
such six-month loans was 3.31 
percent. So at the start, it could 
finance the entire transaction 

ment-related agency — to pay case, it was betting that long after the Federal Reserve Board 
interest rates that vary accord- rates would remain much high- tightened credit for the first 
mg to formulas that sometimes er than short rates. In at least time this year: 
are quite complex. one case, the formula was tied Th e notes do not trade, be- 

enterprise business services, company SPT Telecom. 

ORANGE: For County , Derivatives Losses Centered on Faulty Strategies rhiftf executive ^* on ^ ronor (S^b^ion), in the first nine months of the year. 

(Continued on page 11) ment-related agency — to pay case, it was betting that long after the Federal Reserve Board of Sble & Wireless PLC, 

on the bonds came from bor- interest rates that vaiy accoVd- rates would remain much high- tightened credit for the first winch ownsa majority stakem A^»»AG to form two jomt ventures in the weapons and 

rowing through six-month re- ing to formulas that sometimes er than short rates. In at least time this year: Mercury, said, I am convinced missile sectors. 

vereerenos are quite complex. one case, the formula was tied The notes do not trade, be- that the action we are announc- • Bayer AG said it planned to list its shares m the United States 

At thetime, the going rate on Terms of the structured notes to German interest rates and cause Orange County owns the ing will get Mercury b«* on after U.S. officials either recognize the comoany’s financial re- 

such six-month loans was 3.31 varied widely. In some cases, was a bet that those rates would entire issue. But if they were the profits growthtacL ^ ^ 6011 a ^“Pr 01111 ^ between U-Sjmd ^™ ajl 

percent. So at the start, it could the county got a promise of ris- falL This year, all those bets sold, they would now trade at a (Keulers, Af) procedures. Bloomberg, afx. afp. af 

finance the entire transaction mg interest rates for three years, have been losers. substantial discount to the face 1— 

and get a profit of 131 percent followed by rates at a formula Consider these examples of value. They were a bet on faB- 

— or $1.6 million — a year. But that could cause rates to de-. the structured notes the fund ing interest rates, and that bet txxt ■% t* TT O A -1 • T1« 

Sttssr*—*' -a— .—is** Medeva Buys U.S. Anesthesia Finn 

are quite complex. 

Toms of the structured notes 
varied widdy. In some cases, 
the county gpt a promise of ris- 
ing interest rates for three years, 

and get a profit of 131 percent followed by rates at a formula 
— or $1.6 million — a year. But that could cause rates to de-. 
as short-term interest rates rose, dine, perhaps to zero, if market 

to German i nte r est rates and ramp Orange County owns the 
was a bet that those rates would entire issue. But if they were 
falL This year, all those bets sold, they would now trade at a 
have been losers. substantial discount to the face 

Consider these examples of value. They were a bet on faD- 
tbe structured notes the fund ing interest rates, and that bet 

the profit vanished. 

• Structured notes. One of 
Wall Street's most versatile re- 
cent inventions, these call for 
the issuer ^ usually a govern- 

mterest rates rose. 

In other structures, it agreed 
to be paid a rate based on the 
difference between short-term 
and long-term rales. In that 


• Stepped inverse bonds: Or- 

has not worked out. 

• Dual indexed bonds: In an- 

inverse bonds in February, just 


llmntay’n Gloilnp 

Tables include the nationwide prices up to 
the dosing on Wall Street and do not reflect 
late trades elsewhere. Via The Associated Press 

On VM P6 wte HKH UMtUterOVae 


t our iv pe 

111 U 

m $ § ~ 
m. .vs s 3 

1J Month 
Hinn law Sot* 

OK YM PE late Wl La»I 

other example. Orange County CmjiU by Or Staff ftom Dupeicber 

in July 1993 bought $100 mil- LONDON — Medeva PLC said Monday it 
lion of dual indexed bonds, in- would pay $54 million for Inhalon Pharmaceuti- 
terest rates on which will Quctu- cals, a U.S. company that specializes in a surgical 
ate with the difference between anesthetic. . 

the rate on 10-year Treasury Inhalon, a closely held company based in 
braids and the six-month Lou- Bethlehem. Pennsylvania, recently built a plant 
don interbank offered rate. to make isoQurane, a widely used inhaled anes- 
This issue also does not trade, thetic. The plant also can make enflurane, anoth- 
because no rate except Orange anesthetic that the government recently al- 
County owns iL But with the lowed Inhalrai to begin producing, 
spread between the short and The British pharmaceutical company said it 
long rates having been cut in expected Inhalon to make a “modest contribu- 
half since issuance, it also tkm” to 1996 earnings, 
would trade at a discount if Analysts warned that the market for isoflurane 
Orange County decided to seQ. did not offer much potential. The drug is generic 

and competes with more sophisticated products 
from Abbott Laboratories Inc. and BOC PLC. 

But Dennis Millard, Medeva’ s finance director, 
hinted the product could be improved and said the 
company planned to enter the world market with a 
product that has “maximum added-on value:” 

“The margins are still very good, even though 
this product is generic,” Mr. Millard said. “It’s 
not easy to make this product. You have to have 
high-tech facilities.” 

Medeva plans to finance the acquisition in 
three parts, starting with a payment of $35 mil- 
lion from existing resources. An additional $10 
million would bepaid in the second quarter of 
1995 and $9 million later that year. 

(Bloomberg AFP) 

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: n' 


Page lVl 



r v to Close 

At 6-Week High 

Bloomberg Business News _ w 

aa * (Vlttmortfaa ■ f .1 - 

TAJPE 1 — Taiwan’s bench- 
mark stock index soared to a 
six-week high Monday on fore- 
ca®* 5 the governing Na- 
tionalist Party’s election victory 
over the weekend would launch 
a penod of political stability 
and economic growth. 

"The results were better than 
aD expectations," said Daniel 
Chiapg. vice president of Inter- 
national Investment Trust in 


The benchmark weighted 
pice mdex of the Taiwan Stock 
Exchange rose 270.40 points, or 
4.17 percent, to 6,75022 on trad- 
ing valued at 103.* billion Tai- 
wan dollars ($4 billion). About 
25 shares rose for each one that 
declined, and 52 com pany rose 

. their daily 7 percent (imiL 

The Nationalists handily 
.won two of the three biggest 
* races Saturday in the islan d’s 
broadest election in 45 years. 

The opposition Democratic 
Progressive Party, which sup- 
ports a referendum on whether 
Taiwan should declare itself in- 
dependent of China, won one 
moor race but otherwise 
only small gains. 

In the first-ever election for 
governor of Taiwan, the Na- 
tionalist candidate James 
Soong, who is considered pro- 
business, won by a surprisingly 
wide margin. 

Plastics and electronics 
stocks led the rally on expecta- 
tions of strong earnings growth 
in the fourth quarter and next 
year, analyst said. 

companies again, and they have 
come back to plastics and elec- 
tronics shares," said David 
Chou, a dealer with Capita) Se- 

The Taiwan Stock Exchange 
Index of plastics slocks rose 5.5 
p^cent, while the exchange’s 
index of electronics and electri- 
cal machinery shares climbed 
52 percent. 

Among plastics stocks, For- 
mosa Plastics Corp. rose 3 dol- 
lars, to 54.50, and Nan Ya Plas- 
tics Corp. climbed the 7 percent 
daily limit, adding 3.50 to 56. 

Among electronics stocks, 
Acer Inc., Taiwan's biggest com- 
puter maker, soared 6.50, reach- 
ing its 7 percent limit and ending 
at 102.5, and United Microelec- 
tronics Corp. also rose by its 
limit, gaining 8.50 to 131.50. 

Also on Monday, the govern- 
ment reported tbit consumer 
prices rose 3.88 percent in No- 
vember from a year earlier, the 
slowest increase in four months. 

For the first 1 1 months of 
1994, consumer prices climbed 
423 percent, surpassing the gov- 
ernment’s 3.8 percent target 

“Investors are looking at the 
business outlook for individual 

■ Pena Caffe for Closer Ties 

Federico Pena, the U.S. 
transportation secretary, called 
for closer bilateral economic re- 
lations during a visit to Taipei. 

Mr. Pefia is the first U.S. cab- 
inet member to visit Taiwan 
since President Bill Clinton lift- 
ed a ban on such visits SepL 7. 

Tourism Booms in China 

Compiled by Oar Staff From Dispatcher 

BEIJING — China’s earnings from tourism this year are 
expected to jump by about 50 percent to more than $7 billion, the 
official Economic Information Daily said Monday. 

Statistics compiled by the National Tourism Administration 
showed earning s in the tourism industry of $339 billion in the 
first half of the year, the report said. 

China took in 323 milli on overseas tourists in the first three 
quarters of this year, and the figure is expected to reach 43 million 
for all of 1994, it said. 

The number of domestic tourists is expected to read) 450 
trillion in 1994, up nearly 10 percent from 1993. 

Liu Yi, director of the tourism administration, said earnings 
from domestic, tourists were expected to climb 10 percent this 
year, to 95 billion yuan ($1 1 billion). (AP. AFP) 

Japan: The Day of the Dead Cross 

Some Fear the Charts Portend a New Slide in Stocks 

Bloomberg Business News 

TOKYO —The sign of the dead cross 
has fallen across this stock market, serv- 
ing as an omen to many that the time for 
owning Japanese equities has passed. 

“It means the long-term trend in the 
Japanese market is to be changed for the 
negative.** said Takafaaru Nakamura, 
general manager at Commerz Securities 
(Japan) Co. 

Though it may sound like some sort of 
hex, the dead cross is little more titan a 
mathematical coincidence. 

The term describes the point at which 
the graph of stock prices averaged over 
five years crosses below the graph of 
stock prices averaged over 10 years. The 
opposite phenomenon, when the five- 
year graph line rises above the 10-year, is 
known as a golden cross. 

Last month, the Nikkei Stock Aver- 
age. Tokyo’s benchmark index of 225 
stocks, witnessed a dead cross for the 
first time since World War II. 

Some fund managers and analysts say 
that spells more trouble for a market 
where prices have already fallen 10 per- 
cent since mid-June. 

What makes the dead cross so dread- 
ed, they say, is that it has a track record 
in New York. When the five-year moving 
average crossed below the' 10-year in 
November 1977, the Dow Jones industri- 
al average fell more than 8 percent in the 
next three months. After they crossed in 
this manner in December 1973, the Dow 
fell almost 9 percent in 10 months. 

Some Tokyo investors border on the 
superstitious when it comes to statistical 

Hard Times Ahead? 

AKfefcef Stock Avetsge ‘ ' “ ’ ' “ 
260001 ~ 


10 year 
moving average 





Dec. *33 
Source: Bloomberg 

Books that chart the Nikkei and Japa- 
nese stock prices are popular sellers at 
newsstands in Tokyo. “If people weren’t 
looking at it. the chart books wouldn't 
sefl,” said Alexander Kinxnont, a strate- 
gist for Morgan Stanley Japan. 

The dead cross did not cause the mar- 
ket to mdt down Monday. Instead the 
Nikkei average rose 1.6 percent to dose at 
19305.66. Investors were encouraged by 
the rise in the dollar against the yen and 
by mins in US. stock markets Friday. 

Not everyone is afraid of the dead 
cross. Some in Tokyo have not even 
beard of it, and many said they did not 
need any statistical mysticism to tell 
them that Japanese equities are beaded 
for trouble. 

There are some basic reasons for pessi- 
mism that do not have unusual nick- 

Stock prices are still too high com- 
pared with corporate earnings, analysts 
say. The average ratio of price to earn- 
ings in Japan is about 70, while in the 
United States, anything higher than 20 

raises eyebrows. 

Also menacing the market is the yen, 
which has appreciated 1 1 percent against 
the U.S. dollar this year, making Japan’s 
exports less and less competitive. Many 
traders said they thought the dollars 
recent slight recovery was a short-term 

The decline that Mr. Nakamura and 
others foresee may have less to do with 
the dead cross than with something in- 
vestors all over the world are grappling 
with: higher interest rates. 

"My experience,” said James Bush, a 
trader at Barclays deZoete Wedd Securi- 
ties (Japan) LuL, "is that six rate rises in 
the States wouldn't be conducive to buy- 
ing equities.” 

Eric Kent, vice president of overseas 
equity trading at Nomura Securities 
Ltd, said: "Individuals are so sour on 
the market, I think it’s going to take a 
long time before they can be convinced 
to come back in.” 

Is the dead cross ruining investors* 
appetites, or did their growing awareness 
of the problems cause the upsetting sta- 
tistic in the first place? 

The answer is a little of each, according 
to Mr. Nakamura of Comment Securities. 
Investors looking at the dead cross are 
also aware that the days of ironclad cor- 
porate cross-shareholdings are ending. 

He shares a growing consensus that the 
N ikkei average is likdy to drop to near 
where it began the year, just bekrw 1 8,000. 

Fund Chief Sees Leading Role for Yen 

Agence Frmce-Presse 

SYDNEY — The yen could topple the 
dollar as Asia's predominant currency, 
the manager of one of Japan's biggest 
investment funds said Monday. 

N abumitsu Kagarni. vice president of 
Nomura Investment Management Co„ 
told a conference here that trade and 
investment between Japan and other 
Asian countries would lead to closer in- 
tegration and interdependence. 

"This may, in turn, lead to a gradual 
formation of a de facto yen bloc within 

the region in which the use of the yen will 

begin to increase as a regional key cur- 
rency,” he said. 

Japan’s increasing role as an Asian 
investor made such a forecast "logical 
enough, especially now that the persis- 
tent weakness of the U.S. dollar has 

seriously eroded the confidence that the 
countries in the region traditionally have 
held in this currency,'’ Mr. Kagarni said. 

He said 1994 could be remembered as 
a “major watershed" in the yen’s pro- 
gress as an international currency, add- 
ing that Japanese investors were shifting 
alkgiance from U.S. bonds to Euro- 
bonds denominated in yen. 

“in view of the fact that the countries 
in East Asia such as Indonesia. Korea, 
Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines 
have a significant portion of their official 
liabilities denominated in yen, there 
should be substantial potential demand 
by these countries for yen-denominated 
assets to be included in their foreign- 
exchange reserves,” Mr. Kagarni said. 

Asian countries had improved their 
competitive positions with Japan by ty- 

ing their currencies to the U. S . dollar, he 
added, but when those economies ma- 
tured and needed price stability, they 
could turn to the yen. 

■ Capital Spending Called Weak 

Hkleaki Kumano, a vice minister at 
the Ministry of International Trade and 
Industry, said capital spending remained 
weak, indicating that the Japanese econ- 
omy had not entered a full recovery, 
AFP-Extel News reported from Tokyo. 

Separately, die ministry said sentiment 
in Japan’s corporate sector improved in 
the third quarter from the second quarter, 
reflecting firm consumer spending and 
pro gr ess in inventory adjustment. 

Mi l l said 35.5 percent of the compa- 
nies that responded had reported an im- 
provement in the business environment in 
the third quarter from the second quarter. 

— ' j. .; ■ • — — 

Hong Kong 


‘ .ToKljp. - | 

Hang Seng 

Straits Times - . 

- — -*■ e 

inBu — 

m — 


[Vl fttOfea'". 

WOOD— A- - 

-i#r- ,■ - .Wfc. 


onon-F—- — — 


4 \ V "IT- | 

J A S‘ 6 N D A' S O N D': ^ S'&jiW /f 






-Monday- PraVi ...%.. j 
Close ' ' Oosb ■- ■ : 'Chafl96 

Hong Kong 

Haig Seng 

830233 ajaeiiSr / 


Straits Timas 

2.18&57 248&G2 . -0*0 .* 

Sydooy . 

AS Ordinaries 

1,897.50 1 ,880.1 Q - 


Nikkei 225 

19^05.86 . 18£9&30 +1,62 * 

| Kuala Lumpur Composite 

9B&88 : ' "977,74 ". \ 



dosed 1,338.11 ' . - _{ 


Composite Stock 

1,G65£3 1,054.09’ +1-04 


Weighted Price 

6,75022 . 6,479:82 +4.17 j 



2.622.71 2*596.75 +1B0- 


Slock Index 

47059 . 471.QS- .-0.10 ' 

New Zealand 


1,939.36 t .942.56 -9.16 t 


National Index 

1.93421 1,94324 -046' i 

Sources: Reuters. AFP 

iMtmauooa] HenMTrthiaf 

Very briefly: 

• Samqmg Heavy Industries Go. marked its entry into the Soulh 

Korean passenger car market by applying for permission tt> 
import technology from Nissan Motor Co. <■ 

m China’s car market will not be “totally open*' to foreign compa- 
nies until at least 2010, the manager of China Automobile Sales 
Corp. told die China News Service. 

• Tianjin Automobile Industry Corp. launched a 2 billion yuan 
($230 million) expansion project to more than triple production to 
about 150,000 units in 1995, the People's Daily reported 

• WiBuwn Lines Inc. of the Philippiiies said a loss of one of its ships 
would not interfere with its planned initial public offering in 
February of 235.7 million shares priced at between 9.65 centavos 
and 15.15 centavos (0.40 cent ana 0.63 cent). 

• Mitsui & Co. said it and Neptune Orient Lines Ltd were 
considering a $50 milli on preyed to build a container terminal 
port near Ho Chi Minh Gty. 

• Bridgestone Corp. raised its forecast for parent-company pretax 

profit for 1994 to 57 billion yen ($567 million) from 45 billion yen. 
Parent-company results in Japan generally do not include subsid- 
iaries’ earnings. Reuters, Bloomberg, AFP. AFX 

BMW to Make Cycles in India 

Bloomberg Business News 

NEW DELHI — Bayeriscbe Motoren Werke AG said Monday 
it had signed a letter of intent with Majestic Auto Ltd., part of the 
Hero group, to produce motorcycles m India. 

Majestic Auto will immediately start production and sale of 
BMW F650 motorcycles, and the coup any said it hoped for sales 
of 300 milli on rupees ($10 million) in the first year. The F650 
motorcycle will be assembled in India from imported parts. 

The market for motor scooters and motorcycles in India is 
growing at the rate of 26 percent a year. A BMW spokesman said 
the venture would fin a need for motorcycles that could be 
serviced easily. 

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Card No. — -— -■■■■■■ — ■■■ — ~ 

Exp. Dale —Signature. 

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^mUpftiWr-tarankiuhMTibniiiia^.tNIiTVHbd ihraupb jnfiusiy31. 1*W5, 



If you would like to receive farther information on any of the advertisements 
published in today’s Education Special Directory (pages 19-21), simply complete 
this coupon and send it to: 

CLAIRE ACHARD, Advertising Department, 

181, Avenue Charles de Gaulle, 92521 NeuiDy Cedex, France. 

Language Sdhoob 

France Tickbox 

43 American Media Services (AM5I) □ 

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48 Ceran O 


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48 Sete Schools □ 

Art 8 Design Schools 


49 PatsoiB School of Design □ 


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52 Parsons School of Design □ 

53 School trf Fashion Design D 

ExKOtiM Education 

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Autonoma University de Guadalajara □ 




Centnry University 


3 Georgia Tech Lorraine 



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Lesley College 


4 Ptrivemity of Chicago 



Hofebra University 



New Yodt: Umventky 




St Mary’s College 





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Cooking Schools 


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Job Title:. 



#V :.•;»* “ '•*'■ 

• *»,.-•* 


i'M **• ‘ 

-+ » 

* •'*•“&* 

World Discovers 
Drama of Africa 

Since 1989. the number of visitors has trebled. 



GROUP (pvn ltd 

ll Hatch 

Rainbow Group of Hotels 

- New Ambassador Hotel 

- A 1 Zambezi River Lodge 

- Rainbow Hotel 

- Christmas Pass Hotel 

-Tourism Services 

[I Conferences 


- Harare International 
Conference Centra 

- HICC Auxiliary Business 

- Sheraton Harare Hotel* 

- Zambezi River Lodges* 

* Under Management Contracts 

Central Reservations 

F or years, Zimbabwe succeeded in concealing from the 
world its combination of an orderly infrastructure and huge 
expanses of wilderness, which include a geographical mar- 
vel on a gargantuan scale. 

At independence in 19S0, the country gave itself a name 
that made it the last alphabetical entry in the tourist cata- 
logue index. Then it had a tribal conflict and gained a reputa- 
tion of being fiercely leftist. But in I9S9, as die world began 
to change, the small Southern African country and its 10 
million people settled political differences and emerged into 
the world's consciousness with a more positive image. 

in a leap that began in 1989, arrivals more than trebled to 
880.000 last year, and tourism is now growing annually by 
10.4 percent, well above the global average. Receipts from 
international tourism rose fivefold, to $95 million, last year. 
Spillover benefits of the sector nearly double that figure, to 
represent 4.S percent of the gross domestic product. 
The prime attraction is Victoria Falls, the world’s largest war 
ferfall. a spectacle that draws an involuntary **aah” from vis- 
itors. This high drama is complemented by the impressive 
diversity of African flora and fauna in the sprawling, effi- 
ciently run national parks. All this in a country whose cities, 
transport and communication networks are of a high stan- 
dard and which is populated mostly by friendly, hospitable 

In the last five years, the tourist industry has been radically 
altered. .All of the established hotel companies have invested 
heavily in refurbishment. The growth area has been the low- 
density, high-cost bush lodge. In 1989, there were eight such 
camps around Victoria Falls. Now there are 28. These were 
mostly developed by small, independent local companies, 
which often work at a breathtaking pace. Landela Safaris, 
one of the first to see the opportunities five years ago, grew 
from virtually nothing to spending $1.5 million in the last 
three years on four lodges that take visitors on a circuit of the 
major wildlife destinations. The company plans to spend an- 
other 5 1 million on three more lodges next year, says man- 
aging director Stewart Cranswick. 

Zimbabwe Sun Hotels, the leisure wing of the country's 
biggest, pan-siate-owned conglomerate, has been the most 
aggressive of the big corporations. It has had a capital invest- 
ment ol S 10 million since 1989, when it abandoned big ho- 
tels to build new lodges or buy up existing operations. This 
y ear, the company broke new ground when it moved into the 
severely underdeveloped southeast of the country. To begin 
w ith. there will be five lodges on the 700,000 acre Save Riv- 
er Conservancy, jointly owned by 14 former cattle ranchers 
who pulled up their fences two years ago and trucked in 150 
elephants* from the Gonarezhou national park next door. 

“ZlMB ABW E** 
h’rs produced 
in its entirety 
by the 

Advertising Department 
of the 

Herald Tribune. 
'Writer: Jan Raarh 
is based 
in Harare. 

Bill Mahder. 



The Safari Guides 
Company - 
UK Office: Bushbuck 

Tel: 44 669 630386 
Fax: 44 669 630385 

See Zimbabwe, and you've seen Africa 

Zimbabwe has it all. Everything you perceive as epitomising Africa. Its 
teeming wildlife in the vast untamed reserves. Its grandiose, panoramic 
landscapes, golden-brown in the perenial sun. The brooding ruins of an 
ancient city, testimony to a long-lost civilisation. The world's greatest and 
most spectacular cataract - the Victoria Falls - where the mighty Zambezi 
thunders over the vertical cleft to the chasm one-hundred metres below. 

In contrast is its modem high-rise cities, complete with every facility, in a 
friendly, peaceful, politicallv-stable land. A land where a million visitors 

friendly, peaceful, politically-stable land. A land where a million visitors 
are enraptured every year. 

A land brimming with investment opportunity. 

For further information, please contact: 

The Director, Zimbabwe Investment Centre, 

Royal Mutual Building, 

45 Baker Avenue, P.O. Box 5950, Harare, Zimbabwe. 
Telephone: 757931-6 7599M-6, 

Fax: 757937 759917 
Telex: 22481 ZICHREZW. 

"Promoting Investment for Growth' 




United Kingdom Germany Zimbabwe 

Tfel 071 262 3409 Tel 0897932615 Tel 4-734043/6 

Fax 07 1 262 7792 Fax 0897934226 Fax 4-750785 

Tel 4-734043/6 
Fax 4-750785 

Villages Combine 
To Greet Visitors 

Rural communities put in charge of development 

When it comes to trading on esoteric names, Zimbab- 
we’s Uzumba-Maramba-Pfungwe f district council could 
compete with some well-known Welsh 
InJuiy, the council received an 
rourisro award from British Airways. Framed [and Jwed _to 
the mud wall of the council s Sunungukai Camp on the 
banks of the Mufunidzi River in northeast Zimbabwe, the re- 
ward recognizes a radical change made by a tiny rural 
African community that wants to thrive m its fragile, wild 

It took three years to bring the three villages of 600 people 
to accept collective responsibility for setting up the four ron- 
davels (round huts), in which visitors stay for $2 a night 
Scores of gold partners had to be persuaded to mow away 
from the river front, tree felling had to be stopped, and 
poachers had to be policed. The camp made a profit of only . 
§370 in its first year, but things are improving fast. Liz Ki- 
hoy, field worker for the local aid organization, Zimbabwe 
Trust, says, ‘There was a lot of mismanagement but they 
have learned a lot." 

The trust is one of a small group of organizations backing 
an initiative called CAMPFIRE (Communal Areas Manage- 
ment Program for Indigenous Resources), a farsighted con- 
cept of rural development introduced by Zimbabwe's Nar 
ri Parks Department in 1984. It puts remote rural com- 
munities m charge of the bush and wildlife they live in, so 
they can benefit from tourism profits earned through their 
own carefully managed conservation. 

By 1989, 12 districts had adopted CAMPFIRE programs, 
but they were devoted to safari hunting and leased hunting 
rights to operators. Last year, total earnings of the 12 dis- 
tricts rose 60 percent, to $1.13 million, far beyond the re- 
turns of traditional subsistence agriculture. All the profits 
were plowed back into the communities. 

Sunungukai camp, aimed at the lowly backpacker market, 
was the first CAMPFIRE operation that did not involve 
hunting. Two other deals concluded this year show how 
CAMPFIRE has brought rural communities into the world 
of corporate finance. i 

Zimbabwe Sun Hotels and Landela Safaris have each I 
signed with separate district councils for the lease of land for 
luxury game lodges, under terms drafted by Price Water- 
house that give die councils a percentage of turnover, but 
also oblige them to maintain the land in a wilderness state. 

The Hwange council, east of Victoria Falls, will soon be 
developing what is likely to become hugely valuable real es- 
tate - 12 camp-lodge sites on die banks of die Zambezi Riv- 
er for lease. 

Hwange council is also charging white-water rafting a 
levy if visitors end their rides on council land, and when a £ 
hotel dug 200 silver fig trees from Hwange's territory, they 
were obliged to pay. 

“Councils are realizing they can demand payment for their 
resources,” spys ML .Ripoy. ' • 



More class 




ANO SALES. TEL: 1071 14913783. FAX: 1071 >3553326. 

— c . . e Dear Reader, 

f 1 *3?°* following companies, tick the 
appropnare ben^ojand die ^ 

7 - . , Fac<33-l)46375044 ^™ ce ' 

U Air Zimbabwe □ Bushbud: 

n7 J 1fS lrisA{,rai r 

□ Zimbabwe Investment Center QZimsun IC * renes 

Nanv D Zimbafa,TC Tourist Investment Company 6-1 2-94 

TitS f . 

CoaamiK ■ — — 

Address ~ — 

-- — — ■ 

Country: ' — 




ir? 1 

t-i* > % 

^ LJ * lj£jQ 


Page 19 


Management Studies 
in France 

Five Leading French Grandes E coles 
CERAM Nice - ESC Lyon - ESCP (Paris) 
ESSEC (Paris) - HEC (Paris) 
offer a two-year graduate programme : 

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1 An in-company training period 
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For further information about the programmes and admission procedures, 
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Management Admissions Board 
I, rue de la Liberation - 78351 Jouy-en-Josas, Cedex 


Tel: (33-1) 39 67 73 60 

This AACSB - accredited MBA degree from Temple 
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■teiermiionally-ft>ciise<J courses taught in English 
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Admtalutt CaH or write Don Irttnday 

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Need a flight plan for managing in foundation for our executive education 

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The European Extension of the 
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For information : 
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Fax : (33) 

faculty lor innovative thinking. From Howard 
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September 10- 15, 1995 

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February 26 - March 3, 1995 
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February 5 - 17, 1995 

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Call today for a complete catalog listing over thirty different courses in finance, 
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1 -800-255-EXEC ext 1399 • (215) 898-1770 • FAX Attn: Dept. 1399 (215) 3804304 

Degree frwri SWITZERLAND 


Don’t settle for less 

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International Executive M.BJL Program at Barcelona 


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• Join our Intensive part-time 
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A unique master’s degree program at Lesley College 
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Classes are offered in the late afternoon and ^evening allowing 

ftilMime or pan-time enrollment in the Master of Arts 
degree program in Intercultural Relations. 



ftablissemeni d'enseiguement sapMeur prw£ 

• Applications are now being 
accepted for the next session 
which begins in July. 

AUP prepares its 
students to be a 
part of an increasingly 
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To find out more, attend an inform a ti o n reception: 

Bachelor of Arts: Art HBtmy, Comparative 
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TeL (33/1) 40 62 06 00 Fax (33/1) 47 05 34 32 

In Paris 


December 13, 6:30 p.m. 
U.S. Consulate 
2 rue Saint Florentin 

In Milan 


December 14, 6:30 p.m. 
Hotel Michelangelo 
Via Scarlatti 33 

University of Chicago Professor Marvin Zonis will deliver a 
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in the Coming Global Boom." 

To confirm your attendance at a reception — or to receive 
more information — call or fax: 

For more information, pleas* 

Z ^^36^(1T00) 999-1959 ^ct, 8365. 

International Executive M.BJL Program at Barcelona 
The University of Chicago Graduate School of Business 






Earn an MBA in 
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in the San Francisco 
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AragOn 271 
08007 Barcelona 

Tel: +34 3 488 33 80 
F&x: +34 3 488 34 66 

1101 East 58th Street 
Chicago, Illinois 60637 

Tel: +1 312 702 2191 
Fax: +1 312 702 2225 



• de Cwferfo 

undbgraduate courses 

ledm and Sudani 

Corns larTmkfi 3 fa** 1 [m 9 lja 9 e 


• jy,VA*ra>d Spring Semrisa. 

• SanwCbunKirebendSepI 

Saint Mary’s College of California offers an international MBA 
program that is designed to integrate a global perspective on 
business with a conceptually rigorous exposure to the analytical 
skills and functional knowledge typical of MBA programs. This 
challenging, full-time 72 unit program is offered in an accelerated 
13 month format The program commences on October 2, 1995, 

Founded in 1863, Saint Mary’s College has been rated among 
the top ten regional universities in the western United States by 
US News and World Report The College enrolls 4,000 students 
and is located on a beautiful 425 acre campus 21 miles from San 
Francisco and 10 miles from Berkeley. 

To receive an application and a catalog, mail your name and 
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P.0. Box 4240, Moraga, California, 94575 USA. Or, FAX to 
1 (510)376-6521. Telephone: 1 (510)631-4500. 






AA Interdisciplinary Studies 
A AA. Business Administration 
B.BA. International Business 
BA. International Relations 
BA. Italian Studies 
BA. Interdisciplinary Studies 


semester study abroad program 





Center For 
University Studies 

for further Mormdon contact 
Americai Unherrty of (tone 
Dept KH, Vh Pkrtro Rosen 4-00153 Rone, lb* 
T8L 0&583 30919 -for UfiSI 30992 

Universidad Autonoma de Guadalajara 

School of Medicine 

in Guadalajara, Mexico 

The International Choice 

We an proud to have 8,000 successful Ui. graduates 

For information, please call or write oar U-SJL office: 

210-561-9559 O fax 210-561-9562 

1 10999 1-10 West, Suite 355 o San Antonio, Texas 782301 



An American University 
in the Heart of Rome 

Bactekx's degrees with majors in Business AdrntritebaUun, 
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Quarter Calendar wttti five-week Summer Session: Begin 
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Study Abroad & Transfer Students welcome. 

fnle matronal student body from over 30 (afferent coun- 

Advanced Placement for International Baccalaureate, Ma- 
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American Language Program: Intensive English language 
preparation for university ackntssion. 

John Cabot University Is atfifialed with Hiram College in 
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ted Slates and Europe. 

For further Information contact 
John Cabot University 
Via della Lungara,'233 - 00165 Rome - ITALY 
Tel. +396/6878881 - Fax +396/6832088 

■■ ’ '**>'*’ 

Schiller International Universitv 

American College of Switzerland 

“PnniJini: >i muhi-cuhnnil amwspltere. aaMiiyumt wcurity 
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University degree programs 
{ AA^ BA., B.S„ MLBA.) in: 

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French Language. Literature & Civilization 

Falls w. mhmlt" Adi'S llLu Mn#.<n IfC . VSA 

’- E I I C 


Collegium Palatinum courses in Intensive French 

Preparatory program for university entrance: 
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atmoi-phar. Small, tutorial type courses 
catering to Individual needs- 
The American CoBege at Switzerland 
Dept 12S4 HTACS1.CH 1854 Leysin * 


L \,k *; 

Tel: (025) 34 22 23 - Fax: (025) 34 13 46 


El r, ■ ■ S. u • 

The European Institute for International Communication 
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international branch of Emerson College in Boston, the only 
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devoted exclusively to educating communication professionals. 

Bachelor's Degree Programs: 

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1 Management & Organizational Communication 

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Bachelor, Master, Doctorate 

• Business Administration • Engineering 

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Earn a bachelor, master or doctoral degree. Use your past 
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One-year intensive Master's Degree: 

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For more information contacr: 
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Tel: +31 43 258282 • Fax: +31 43 255550 

Earn Your American University Degree Njj 9 
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M B A. in International Business, Bacheli^* 
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The American College in London 
1 10 MaryJebone High Street, London WIM 3DB England 
Tel: (071) 486-1772 - FAX: (071) 935-8144 T 
Classes begin January, March, : ) 

^ June, July and October. - / 

Georgia Tech Lorraine 

Metz, France 
The European Extension of 

the Georgia Institute of Technology 

Atlanta, Georgia, USA 


iHMM; - 

wn\] n mm, wmm- 

Bilingualism. Computer Science, Clinical and School Psychology, Educational 
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For admissions information, write: 

Dean of Admissions, Hofstra University, Hempstead, NY 1 1 550 

Hofstra University 



FREE tom 


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Associate, Bachelor’s 
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■ CSnical Rotations hi U.S. \fet Schools 
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4fi0 W. 34th StTMt, N«w Ybric, MY 10001 
(212} 279-5500 

Busfasss Arfmrnislraf ion 
and other business majors 
International Hotel /Tourism Management 
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Computer Systems Management • Economics 
Psychology ■ Public Administration 
Engineering Management 
Pre-Medicine - Commercial Art - Liberal Arts 
_ - French. German 

a Master of Science and Master of Science in Electrical 
Engineering from the Georgia Institute oTTechnology. USA 

• Phi). Ehm the Georgia Institute of Technology, USA 

• Diplomes if Eludes Approfandies fh>m French Universities 

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Georgia Tech Lorraine, 2 et 3, rue Marconi, F-57070 Metz, France 
Tel: +33 87 20 39 39 Fax: +33 87 20 39 40 
or Georgia Institute of Technology. Adana, GA 30332-0252. USA 
Tef: +1 (404) 894-2927 Fm:-H (404) 894-2997 

The Leysin institute of Art & Design 
Advertising • Design • Promotion Marketing 
For Catalog, Wewbook or Informational Video, urfle or caB 


Dept 12^54 HTHM1 *51 Waterloo Road • London SE1 SIX • England 
Tel 7 "( 071,1 928 ' 84 B 4 •' Fax ( 071 ) 620 1226 

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Take your plate in a 
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at an American University in Lyon 
Working with accredited American Universities, Cefam accepts 
business majors who wish to spend a semester or academic year 
discovering Europe, while acquiring important international 

- All courses in English (American Professors) 

- Tuition: S3, OOO per semester 

- France's 2nd largest chy 

- International student body, downtown campus 

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Page 21 


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V Parsons is a division of the New School for Social Research 


College-Lycee Ceyenol International 
Le Chambon/Lignon - France 
An International Boarding School 
in the mountains in the heart of Prance 
(Altitude 3200 ft. - 80 miles from Lyon) 

School year 1994-95: 

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Excellent faculties for sports, arts and culntral activities 
Sommer £995 (Jutv-Aueusli 

French language and culture far non-French speaking students 

(Total Immersion) 

French Curriculum Inlcnslve Programmes 
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Contact the Director: Mr. i Jones Tariri 
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Tel.: (33) 7 1 39 72 52 - nus (33) 71 65 B7 38 


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The Lyc6e canadlen en France, located in the south of France, provides 
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Salzburg International Preparatory School offers a challenging 
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From 6lh grade to ihe Baccalaureate 
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A private bilingual (English/Frendi) secondary school. 

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B 80637 MUNCHEN 

TEL: 089- 15921-200/; 
FAX: 089-15921-202 

Page 22 



R ills Bolt Back Into Contention as ]NFL Playoff Races Enter Home Stretch 

* fnmMl dr tumflv 

The Associated Pros 

Don't count the Buffalo Bills, 
or several other teams, out of 
the National Football League's 
playoff race. 

" Jim Kelly threw for four 
touchdowns, two to Andre 
Reed, who also completed the 
first pass of his 10-year NFL 
career, as Buffalo prevailed in a 
42-3 1 shoot-out Sunday in Mi- 
i mi. The Bills, who have been 
hammered in the last four Su- 
per Bowls, scored 35 points in 
the second half. 

’ “This was a stepping stone 
for us," Kelly said. “If everyone 
does their job, there’s no telling 
what we’re capable of." 

The day's results did nothing 
to clear up the playoff picture 
with three weeks remaining. 
Dallas f 1 1-2) clinched the NFC 
East title with an easy victory in 
Philadelphia and Pittsburgh se- 
cured at least a wild-card in the 
AFC by winning in Cincinnati. 

The Steelers got sole possession 
of first place in the AFC Cen- 
tral when Cleveland lost to the 
New York Giants. 

But with 13 of the league’ s 28 
teams at 300 or within a game 
of it entering Monday night’s 
Raid ers -Chargers game in San 
Diego, the scramble for the 
playoffs has gotten wild. 

Already in is San Francisco, 
which routed Atlanta and has 
secured the NFC West crown. 
San Diego wins the AFC West 
title by beating Los Angeles. 

Denver, despite losing John 
Hway to a knee injury — he will 
be diagnosed further — moved 
into a tie with Kansas City in 
the AFC West at 7-6 with an 
overtime victory. New England 
and Buffalo remained tied at 7- 
6. with the Patriots beating the 
New York Jets. The Indianapo- 
lis Colts moved up to 6-7 by 
winning in Seattle. 

In the NFC East, the Eagles 

fell to 7-6, one game in front of 
the Giants and Arizona, which 
beat Houston. Detroit’s victory 
over Green Bay gave it a 7-6 
mark and dropped the Packers 
to 6-7 in the Central The Fal- 
cons are 6-7 in the West. 


Bills 42, Dolphins 31: The 
Bills were sensational in the sec- 
ond half, getting some breaks 
and malting all the big plays. 
They have won 15 of 18 games 


against the Dolphins since 
1987, including eight of nine at 
Joe Robbie Stadium, site of this 
season’s Super Bowl. 

“We had some lucky plays." 
said the Bills' coach, Marv 
Levy. “But you’ve got to do 
something with it after you get 
the lucky plays." 

The lucky plays included 
Don Beebe’s 72-yard touch- 

down on a ball that was tipped; 
Reed’s throw to Bill Brooks for 
32 yards after Reed had 
dropped the ball; Mike Du- 
mas’s catch of Yonel Jourdain’s 
fumble on a kickott return, 
which he turned into a 62-yard 
play to set up a touchdown. 

Patriots 24, Jets 13: In Fox- 
boro, Massachusetts, the Patri- 
ots also got a crucial intercep- 
tion touchdown, as Ricky 
Reynolds scored from 1 1 yards 
after stealing Boomer Esiason’s 

The Jets’ Art Monk tied 
Steve Largenfs NFL record of 
177 straight games with a catch, 
on a 7-yard completion from 
Esiason with 3:25 left in the 
first quarter. 

Colts 31, Seahawks 19: Mar- 
shall Faulk gained 129 yards for 
Indianapolis, and has 1,086 
yards this season, a single-sea- 
son rookie rushing record for 
the team. Seattle lost quarter- 

back Rick Mirer with a broken 
thumb on his left (nonihrow- 
ing) hand and played listlessly 
alter an auto accident that left 
defensive tackle Mike Frier par- 
alyzed and with pneumonia. 

Running back Chris Warren, 
also injured in the crash, played 
and rushed for 81 yards. 


Steelers 38, Beogals 15: 
Pittsburgh’s overpowering de- 
fense got plenty of help from its 
offense as Bam Morris rushed 
for 108 yards and two touch- 
downs and Rod Woodson re- 
turned one of Pittsburgh’s two 
interceptions for a touchdown. 

The Steelers have won five 
straight for the first time since 

Giants 16, Browns 13: Back- 
up kicker Brad Daluiso was 
good on a 33-yard field goal 
with 19 seconds to go. Daluiso. 
usually used only on kickoffs, 
kicked three field goals after 

David Treadwell was benched 
for missing a 37-yarder in the 
first half. 

The Browns (8-4) could have 
clinched their Gist playoff berth 
since 1989, but committed turn- 
overs cm four of their first five 
second-half possessions. Vinny 
Testaverde threw two intercep- 
tions and lost a fumble: 


Broncos 20, Chiefs 17: Elway 
was replaced in Kansas City by 
Hugh Mfflen, who led the Bron- 
cos to their winning field goal a 
34-yard er by Jason Elam in 
overtime. Denver has rallied 
from a 0-4 start. 

Steve Bono, starting for die 
injured Joe Montana, hit 61- 
and 62-yard passes Tor Kansas 
City, which has lost three of its 
last four. The Chiefs made it 1 7- 
15 on Bono's 62-yard touch- 
down pass to Willie Davis with 
7:08 left, then forged a 17-17 tie 

on Bono’s two-point conversion 
pass to Davis. 

The Broncos’ Shane Dronett 
blocked Lin Elliot’s 37-yard 
field goal attempt as time ex- 
pired, then Elam won it in over- 


Gmboys 3L Eagfes 1 9z Dal- 
las (11-2) won its 14th straight 
division game as Emmitt Smith 
carried 25 times for 91 yards 
and two touchdowns, and Mi- 
chael Irvin had 1 17 yards and a 
touchdown on four receptions. 
It was Philadelphia’s fourth 
straight loss. 

The big play was made by 
safety Darren Woodson- With 
Philadelphia at the Dallas 8, be 
picked off Randall Cunning- 
ham’s pass and went 94 yards 
for a touchdown. 

Cardinals 30, OBers 12: Ari- 
zona handed- Houston (1-12) its 
ninth consecutive defeat with 
its usually powerful defense. 

Bold Dates 
A Plus for 
Penn State 

By Malcolm Moran 

‘ Yew York Tima Service 

ATLANTA — When a 
tional championship is an ex- 
pectation and perfection 
conies the goal, it makes little 
difference when the disappoint- 
ment arrives or what form 
takes. The end of Alabama's 
hopes, with the 24-23 loss to 
Florida in the Southeastern 
Conference championship 
game, seemed more iraumat- 

r u-nda >. ur Florida i>Uu«. a. 
The end for the Crimson Tide 
just came later. 

As a politically bizarre year 
of college football reaches' the 
pause before the finish, an out- 
come on the final Saturday of 
the regular season conti,..; .J to 
produce a set of winners and 

Although the regular season 
had already ended for Nebras- 
ka and Penn State, the last two 
contenders with perfect re- 
cords. the elimination of the 
'Crimson Tide and a unique 
bowl schedule combined to give 
the Comhuskers one additional 
complication and the Nittany 
.Lions one small added edge. 

Nebraska maintained its lead 
over Penn State in the polls that 
determine a champion. The 
Comhuskers reached the lop 
spot in the final regular-season 

? 5Us for the second time in 
om Osborne's 22 years as head 
coach and the first time since 
1983, when Nebraska faced a 
challenge similar to the one it 
-■will deal wiih next month. 
.Then, and now, the Husker sea- 
son will be defined by a game 
'.against Miami at the Orange 
-Bowl, the home field of the 

Alabama's loss removed a 
significant obstacle from a Mi- 
ami hope that would have 
.seemed unthinkable two 
months ago, and that is where 


i"\ - •- 

NFL Standings 

Now England 
N.v. Jets 

14, UTati 




15. Arizona 




16. Mississippi SI. 




17. virainio Ted 




•IB. Virginia 




19. North Carakro 




23. Midv.oun 




21. Southern Coi 




2 Z ana. Ycuns 




ZL H. Caroline SL 




:k WashJr»tOn St. 




2S. Duke 




■ -;.t - 

. . 

RebcunOs— Milwaukee Ml (Baker ill. Pal- 
land to (Dudley IS). Assists— WUhvautee 14 
(Murdock 4), Portland 2S (Creator 9). 

The AP Top 25 

The A sr octe o at PrW coRcve basketball 
FOtLerBU fij-B-rtoce votes a MreutMaes. re- 
cord iftroogit Dec. 4, total potefs nosed on 25 
points tor o Brat pla ce v ote to m w h owe point 
for a 23tft-aioceYOte. ana preseason ranking: 


•7SB 291 234 
338 2E7 331 
338 341 SS 
300 23) 242 
JSS ?4& 2S7 

I ■■v; * -aft v* .” 


•:$ • 






















PLg: i'.; n 

N.Y. Giants 















2 11 
























;f y.: . 








^•> ■ • 

Green Bay 







Tom dc Scv 

4 9 












s-Sar.Frcncisco 11 













Ne# Orleans 







LA Rams 4 9 

-r-cf Inched division 
v-d Inched Diovott soot 






Results of Sunday's giant uaJaoi in Vail. 
Colorado: i Heie- Zeitor-BceMer, Switzer- 
land. 2 rr. ir.-jtes. 143o seconds: 2 V.-er.i 
Schneider. Sfeirzertard. I::S33; 3. Mcrtenne 
< jeers tod. Norway, StllA*; *. Birgit Head. 
UecntoraW.x2:i3J4: S. Unto Krouat Slove- 
nia 2:1336. 

6. Leitc Piccard. France. Z:liOe: 7, Gn 
KviaioR. Ncrwtrr, 2:1132: L ScBina Panccn- 
inL l ia> y, 2: 1AX; 9, Keh a StizLcaer. Germa- 
ny. i.'tZZ; 72. K mr. Rsen. Swineherd. 

World Coo Giaet Slalom steadings latter 
two races): 1. Zeller- Baenter. so peinrs; 2 
Sameaer. )«0; 2. Paiaanln:. 712; 4. Ktoerstcd. 
1C5: 5-Heee.lOO; 6.Kvinioa.72;?.Hrevci7.71; 1 
Rsten. St: 9. pfeeara. Si; It Seizmger . «. 

World Cap overall standings (after five 
recall: Ze!‘e~-Beetver. 2Sf saints: £ 

S e r . re/dcr. 2f7; 3. Sect riser. 742 ; 4 Kioerstsd. 
UI.-S.2 cbt. ir9; 6. Wiser* 13; 7. PdnanM. 
IS; E. hitery LitKSi. Juneau. Alas*o. *.0s: 9. 
Martins Err. Gemcrv. IE: tue' Heet-iOO 




l.N. Carolina (S41 








X Arkansas (3) 




A Kansas <31 


I M4 


5. Mnscdwen 




6. Rerido (1) 




7. Kentucky 




& Arizona 




9. Duke 




IB. Comedian 




11. MarytcRd 




12. MirsTcsota 




13L Cincinnati 




14. Wisconsin 




15. .Michigan SL 




16. Artrarc St. 




57. Georg -c Tech 




1&. Georgetown 




19. syrocose 




SL Virginia 




21. Ohio U. 




22. New Mexico Sf. 




7X Michigan 




X viHmra 




25. wake Forest 




Tennessoe 61. E. Tennessee St. 24 
SW 'e*os S). 54, N. Arlzono 43 


NBA Standings 

Attcntic Division 

Dalles 31. Philadelphia 19 
New England 24. New York Jets 13 
PltTsOurah 38. Cincinnati 15 
Tamna Bay 2L Washington 21 
Detroit 34. Green Bov 31 
Arizona 30. Houston 12 
Sen Francisco SO. Atlanta 14 
Denver 20. Kansas City 17. OT 
JndtotopoUs 31. Seattle 19 
New Orleans 31. Las Angeles Rams 15 
New York Giants i«- Cleveland lj 
BuHokj 42. Miami 31 


New Y-rk 




New Jersev 


CM coco 
Al i ana 

W L 
11 3 

6 S 

7 a 
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5 8 
A U 

4 9 

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« 5 
9 6 
B 7 
3 7 
7 7 

5 9 


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Monday, in Nagpur 
India vs. West Indies, final dor 
Indio first innings: 546-9 ided.l 
West Indies 1st Innings.' -<28 
India 2d (ratings: 206-7 (decLl 
West Indies 2d Innings: 132-5 163 overs) 
Result: match drawn. 

Pakistan vs. S«1 Looks 
Soada v. to Pretoria 

PckCston 2<5-9 

Sri Lanka: 233-9 

Result: Pakistan won by 12 runs 






Sdiotke 1 VfL Bochum 7 

John SccKt'Oit A»~xuied Pte.v 

Leonard RusselJ vaulted through the Kansas Qty defense for 16 yards to put Jason Elam 
in range for a 34-yard field goal in overtime that gave the Broncos a 20-17 victory. 

the riming of the schedule be- 
comes a factor. 

Miami’s chances will depend 
on a Penn State loss to Oregon 
in the Rose Bowl, a game uiat 
has preceded the Orange Bowl 
in each of the past 30 games 
since the game in Miami be- 
came a prime-time event in 
1965. With Jan. 1 falling on a 

Sunday this year, almost all of 
the major bowls took the cus- 
tomary step of moving their 
games back one day. The Or- 
ange Bowl, seizing an opportu- 
nity of avoiding a confrontation 
with the Sugar Bowl, chose to 
remain on Jan. 1. 

If the Orange Bowl had con- 
tinued its past practice. Miami 

would have known early in the 
evening whether Penn State 
had won or lost. But that infor- 
mation will not be available 
this time, a factor that wifi give 
the Hurricanes one more rea- 
son lo believe and wifi intensi- 

fy Nebraska's problem of play- 
ing for a championship on the 



5 10 



Standings; Bcrussia Dortmund 2b ponds. 

The AP Top 25 


Warder Bremen 21 Borvssio M akxftJOch 21 

Midwest Division 

FC KUserslouteni 22. SC Freiburg 71, Bayern 

The Associated Press’ float ragutar-seasea 

W L 



Murad 21. Korlsrrter SC 21. Baver Leverku- 

college football pcHL wtm first-ploce votes la 


11 4 



sen 19, Hamburg SV 1A VfB Stuttgart 16.Eln- 

parentheses, records ttramti Dec. L total 


10 6 



trachl Frankfurt 16. Schafee IS, FC Cokwne 11 

pobtts based on 25 points tor a first-ploce vote 


B 6 



Baver uertbitgen 10, Dvnamo Dresden 9. Mu- 

through one point lor a um-piace vote, and 


7 6 



nlcn IBM 8. WO. Bochum & MSV Duistwrg i 

ranking In me orevloos pou 

Sat Antonio 

7 7 







3 13 



1. Nebrasko (38) 




Pacific Division 'Cvcwti*! 

2. Penn Sf. (3«> 





17 5 




3. Miami 





10 5 



GEORGIA— Named Joe Klnes defensive 

4. Colorado 




i_A Lakers 

9 » 




5. Florida 




Golden State 

B 7 




6. Alooama 





7 7 



men’s basketball cooch; Mike Backus men's 

7. Florida St. 




7 7 



associate Oasketfacll coach; and Mark While, 

& Texas A AM 




la. Clippers 

0 15 



men's assistant basketball coed, resigned. 

9. Autwrn 





MISSISSIPPI— Named Tommy Tubervllle 

10. Colorado St. 





33 27 



football coach. 

11. Kamos si. 





2* 22 

22 . 


PITTSBURGH— Suspended Andre Alrldoe. 

12. Oregon 




m: g. Robinson 7-16 10-1125. Murdock 4-119- 

guard, tram baskefball team tor one gome lor 

IX. Ohio SI. 




920; P; Drexler9-Z2 13-1636. Grant B-14B-924. 

undisclosed violation of leant rotas. 

which forced six turnovers, 
while the previously dormant 
offense got throe touchdowns. 


Lions 34, Packers 31: Barry 
Sanders, the league’s leading 
rusher, gained 188 yards and 
scored a touchdown as he broke 
his single-season rushing rec- 
ord. Sanders now has 1,594 
yards, and is 406 shy of becom- 
ing the rhird player in NFL his- 
tory to rush for 2,000 yards. 

The Lions’ quarterback. 
Dave Krieg, passed lor 196 
yar ds and two touchdowns 
without any interceptions. 

Buccaneers 26, Redskins 21: 

In Tampa Bay, Craig Erickson’s 
quarterback sneak with 32 sec- 
onds left gave the Bucs <4-9) 
consecutive victories for (he 
first time since September 1992. 
Errict Rhett gained a team 
rookie-record 192 yards on 40 

Washington (2-1 1 ) has . lost - 
five straight. It got touchdowns 
on Heath Shuler's passes of 81 . 
yards to Desmond Howard and •*- 
77 yards to Orlando Truitt. 


49ers 50, Falcons 14: San 
Francisco, which is also 11-2 
but has beaten Dallas, forced 
five turnovers that led to 17 
points. Steve Young threw for 
three touchdowns and ran for' 
two in guiding the 49ers to their 
eighth consecutive victory. 

Young completed 22 of 33 
passes for 294 yards, shaking 
off an interception return for a 
touchdown by defensive end 
Chuck Smith that ended a 
string of 123 passes without be- 
ing picked oq. 

Saints 31, Rams 15: Mario 
Bates ran for three touchdowns 
and Jim Everett guided New 
Orleans (5-8) to a 2 1 -point half- 
time lead in Anaheim, where be 
used to play quarterback for the 
Rams (4-9). 

• There were eight intercep- 
tions returned for touchdowns 
in the week’s NFL games, with 
a game left Monday night. 

The last time so many inter- 
ceptions were run back for 
scores was on Sept. 23. 1984. 

Two Woodsons scored: Dar- 
ren Woodson of Dallas went 94 
yards against Philadelphia and 
Rod Woodson of Pittsburgh 
went 27-yards against Cincin- 
nati. |f. 

The others were by Andre 
Collins, Washington, 92 yards 
at Tampa Bay; DeWayne 
Washington of Minnesota, 54 
yards against Chicago on 
Thursday night; Ray Buchanan 
of Indianapolis, 37 in Seattle; 

Cris Dishman of Houston, 36, 
against Arizona; Chuck Smith 
of Atlanta, 36, in San Francis- 
co; and Ricky Reynolds of New 
England, J 1 against the Jets. 


B# i*. 

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Anri E 

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Swimmer Lu: 

Tm Innocent 

TOKYO --- Lu Bin, who broke the 
worid record for the 200-meter individual 
medley at the games in Hiroshima, has 
denied nsmg a banned substance to help 
set the record and win four gold medals at 
the Asian Games in October. 

“I absolutely did not use any kind of 
doping substance,” Lu said in an interview 
with the Japanese news agency Kyodo in 
her hometown of Shenyang. ' 

Lu, 17, said she did not know why she 
tested positive b ecau se the administration 
of fo od and drink was very strict in the 
training camp in Beijing. 

“As far as we’re concerned, the world 
championships are the second most impor- 
competition" foD owing the Olympics 

and this year m u>a 


Page 23; 

r — ; — 6 “iv viyuiuiu 

and this year m September we didn’t have 
any problems” with drug tests in Rome, 
she said. 

Lu faces a probable two-year ban from 
competitive sw immin g, but insisted: “I am 
certain of my innocence and am trying to 
keep my composure ... 1 still want to win 
;> an Olympic gold medal." 

Earlier, Kyodo reported, a member of 
the Chinese Olympic Committee, who in- As- 
sisted on anonymity, had said that “at .rt.4, 
present there are many coaches who are gw/ 
chasing fame, so it’s not strange that these 
coaches use these kinds of drugs. gggyf 

“My personal opinion is that a 17-year- 
old athlete doesn’t understand how to use ijjP*-- 
these lands of drugs, so the responsibility 
must be taken by the national team coach- 

« •* r n 




OCA and IOC Experts Say Testing 
Points to China’s Wider Drug Use 

fi n\ ’'Jr - m ■ 

The Aunoand Pma 

Lu Bin in China: “I absolutely did not use any kind of doping substance.* 1 

Compiled by Our Staff From Duponha 

TOKYO — As one medical expert said 
Monday that it appeared there may have 
been more athletes usin g drugs at the 
Asian Games than the 1 1 Chinese who 
failed tests, another said that the tests 
showed that China is systematically giving 
its swimmers performance enhancing 

Dr. Yoshio Kuroda, chairman of the 
Olympic Council of Asia's medical com- 
mittee, said that urine samples of the 11 
Chinese who failed tests in October had 
contained an overly high density of dehy- 
drotestosterone (DHT), a male sex hor- 
mone which is very difficult to detect. 

Kuroda, who had returned to Tokyo 
from Kuwait, where he presented details of 
the tests to an OCA executive board, said 
there had been other athletes in Hiroshima 
who were suspected of using drugs. 

“We ruled that the athletes who sub- 
stantially exceeded the standard level of 
drug tested positive. But there were other 
athletes under the category of grey zone,” 
Kuroda said without giving further details. 

But, he added, “The young athletes have 
no knowledge of drugs. There must be 
some experts who have a good knowledge 
of doping. Otherwise it would be impossi- 
ble for such doping to be carried oul" 

In Cologne, Professor Manfred Donike, 
an International Olympic Committee offi- 
cial who has been involved in detailed 
analyses of the tests, said that because 
seven of the 11 positive Chinese samples 
came from swimmers “it can be concluded 

that there is systematic doping with the 
substance dehydioiestosierone.’’ 

“This is no surprise to me," added Don- 
ike, who runs a IOC-approved testing lab- 
oratory in Cologne. “It is another matter 
whether this stretches to other sports.” 

According to China’s official Xinhua 
News Agency, the 1 1 comprised five wom- 
en and six. men. The women were swim- 
mers Yang Aihua, Lu Bin and Zhou Guan- 
bin, hurdler Han Qing and cyclist Wang 
Yan. The men were swimmers Xiong 
Guoming, Hu Bin, Zhang Bin and Fu 
Yong, and canoeists Zhang Lei and Qiu 

Yang won the 400-meter Freestyle at the 
World Championships in Rome in Sep- 
tember. Lu won four gold medals at the 
Asian Games and set a world record in the 
women's 200-meter individual medley. 

The Chinese Olympic Committee, ac- 
cording to reports, has ordered a full inves- 
tigation into the matter and has promised 
to punish offenders severely. But it re- 
mained adamant that drug use was the acts 
of individuals and not official policy. 

In Tokyo, an official of the laboratory 
that conducted the tests said Monday that 
new testing methods had made it possible 
to discover that the Chinese athletes were 
using drugs. 

“We would not have been able to detect 
the drugs with the methods that were used 
a year ago," said the official at Mitsubishi 
Chemical Biochemical Laboratories Inc., 
who spoke on condition of anonymity. 

Dehydrotestosterone is reportedly much 

harder to detect than testosterone, a male 
hormone sometimes used illegally by ath- 
letes to bitiJd strength. u 

The IaboraUHy official said he was liv- 
able to rfisetrreg information about the na- 
ture of the new tests. 

The laboratory, affiliated with Mitsubi- 
shi Chemical Corp., a major Japanese 
chemical company, is licensed by the IOC 
to conduct drug tests. 

* In t Jiiwnne , Switzerland, the director 
of the international swimming federation, 
FINA, said the seven Chinese swimmers 
face a two-year ban from international 

Cornel Marculescu, head of the govern- 
ing body, said he was still awaiting the 
official report from the Olympic Council 
of Asia. 

If the report confirms that the swimmers 
tested positive for the performance-en- 
hancing substance dehydrotestosterone, 
FINA will suspend them fen: two years, he 
said. « 

“We will take the same action we take m 
any doping case," Marculescu said. “It 
depends on the substances, but in this case 
it would be a two-year suspension." 

Marculescu said that FINA was examin- 
ing at least one more positive test taken 
before the Asian Games, although be 
would not disclose details. 

“The procedures aren't finished yet," he 
said. “We should have the final result any 
day now." 

(Reuters, At) 


Sweden: After the Davis Cup Victory, Discord 

G merited by Our Staff From Dtspattha 

STOCKHOLM — A simmer ing feud 
among Sweden’s tennis officials has 
erupted just 48 hours after their team 
won the Davis Cup title in Moscow. 

- All six members of Sweden's Davis 
Cup Committee announced Monday 
that they have stepped down. 

They said the last straw was a decision 
by the new Davis Cup captain, Carl-Axel 
Hageskog, to name Anders Jarryd as 
assistant coach without consulting the 
committee, the Svenska Dagbladet news- 
paper reported. 

Hageskog “seems to want to take ail 
decisions on his own,” it quoted one 
committee member, Thomas Eklund. 

Other committee members said the 

federation had ordered Hageskog to re- 
port directly to the federation rather 
than to the committee. 

Sweden’s 4-1 victory this weekend was 
attributed by many to excellent coopera- 
tion and high team spirit. Behind the 
facade, however, was the power struerie 

facade, however, was the power struggle 
between the board of the Swedish Tennis 
Federation and its Davis Cup Committee. 

Svenska Dagbladet said the commit- 
tee, formed in 1989 to re-in vigors te 
Swedish tennis, had told the federation 
before the final that it would resign, but 
would wait until this week before going 

Jonte Sjogren, who capped his tenure 
as Davis Cup captain with the victory in 
Russia, told a correspondent in Moscow 

that the conflict “is lamentable and very 
sad” for Swedish tennis. 

Cracks started showing last month, 
when the federation announced a new 
Davis Cup organization, headed by Ha- 

Hageskog, 40, has been a well-respect- 
ed Davis Cup trainer under Sjogren for 
years.' Few contested his appointment. 
But the committee was angered first 
when Hageskog dismissed its choice for 
Davis Cup trainer, Martin Bohm, the 
Svenska Dagbladet newspaper said. 

Bohm had worked closely with players 
such as Magnus Larsson and Thomas 
EnqvisL He quit as the federation's 
trainer when told he would not be part of 
the Davis Cup group. (AP, Reuters) 


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2 Men’s Ski Races I Hcralb^si^nbunc 
Moved to Tignes 


Save on 


NEW YORK — Michael Jordan, the 
National Basketball Association superstar, 
may be a minor league baseball player 
these days, but he is still a major earner. 

Jordan, now getting less than $10,000 a 
year in salary, still ranks as the No. 1 
money maker in sports, according to 
Forbes Magazine. 

Its annual “Super 40" ranking of the top 
money makers- m sports, in its Dec. 19 
iss ue released Sunday, has Jordan canting 
$30.01 million this year, down from $36 
million in 1993. He topped the list for the 
third consecutive year. 

Jordan’s estimated income for 1994 is 
almost twice that of the list’s No. 2, center 
Shaquille O’Neal of the NBA’s Orlando 
Magic. He is estimated to have made $1 6.7 

ntfffl nn this year $4 2 million in salary and 
J12J5 million in outride income from en- 
dorsements and record deals. 

The senior golfers Jack Nicklaus and 
Arnold Palmer came in third and fourth on 
the strength of endorsements. Each earned 
only about $100,000 from golf, but Nick- 
i«n< earned a total of $14.8 million and 
Palmer took in $13.6 million. 

Austrian Formula One driver Gerhard 

Berger was fifth on the list at $13.5 million, 
followed by National Hockey League su- 
perstar Wayne Gretzky of the Los Angeles 
Kings at $13.5 million, then by boxers 
Michael Moorer ($12.1 million) and 
Evander Hdyfidd ($12.0 million). 

Tennis player Andre Agassi was ninth at 
$11.4 mini on. The British Indy car and 
Formula One driver Nigel Mansell round- 
ed OUt the top 10 at $1 13 milli on. 

Quarterback Joe Montana of the Kan- 
sas City Chiefs was the lop National Foot- 
ball League player, 12th at $103 million. 
He was just behind the No. 1 -ranked ten- 
nis player, Pete Sampras, at $10.6 million. 

A soccer player worked his way into the 
top 40 this year, with Roberto Baggio of 
Italy ranked 35th at $53 million. 

Will Clark, in 37th place at $5.2 zmllion, 
was the only major league baseball player 
on the list because many players with mul- 
tiyear contracts anticipated a strike or 
lockout and took lower salaries in 1994. 

Only two women made the top 40, both 
of them t ennis players. Steffi Graf was 
1 9th with $8.0 million and Gabriela Saba- 
tini was 39th at $4.9 million. Forbes said 
Olympic silver medal figure skater Nancy 
Kerrigan just missed making the list. 


GENEVA — The French resort Tignes 
will stage two more men's World Cup races 
this weekend as pom snow conditions con- 
tinue to plague Alpine skiing organizers. 

A super-giant slalom called off in Val 
dls&re last weekend, and a giant slalom set 
for Alta Badia, Italy, on Sunday, wiD now 
be skied at Tignes on Dec. 10 and 1 1, the 
International Ski Federation said Monday. 

Tignes was an alternative venue last Sat- 
urday and Sunday, for a men's riant sla- 
lom and slalom switched from Sestriere, 
Italy, because of the poor snow there. 

This latest disruption followed a string 
of earlier postponements caused by warm 
weather, with only two of five scheduled 
men's events completed. 

There were also reports of insufficient 
snow at Sl Anton, Austria, and at Veyson- 
naz in the Swiss Valais region. ISF said 
decisions will be made Wednesday on the 
men’s and women’s races on Dec. 17 and 
18 in Sl Anton and Veysonnaz. 

If Veysonnaz has to withdraw, there is a 
possibility the two women’s races, a down- 
mil and slalom, could be rescheduled in 
North America, where five races have been 
held so far. 


« Ingenuity 

s Vocational 

• Singers Collins 
and Ochs 
14 Roman emperor 
is Netman Arthur 
is Actress Taylor 



17 1954 Gerard 
PhHipe Him 

20 Guitar ridges 

21 Pilot starter 

22 Research room 

23 Ogled 

as Had a lack 

28 Worldwide 
lending org. 
ao Yielding readily 
to pressure 
32 Train freight 

35 Clothes line 
3 ? Malay boat 
39 An Adman 

Tognazzi film 

43 Coeurd' — , 


44 Bruins' school 

45 Lucs magazine 

48 Irving Berlin's 

■AH by ’ 

48 Thundering 

sa Adversary 
Si N.H.L City 
ss Change the 

55 Lummox 

ct Brothers, eg- 
59 Deck out 
ea 1974 Richard 
M The Hustler' 
author Walter 

•7 Cad 

os Pocket bread 
a* Fuse, as ore 
W Catch sight of 

71 Miss America 

1 'The Call of the 
Wild* animal 

2 Roman way 

3 1957 Joanne 
Woodward film, 
with "The" 

4 Black, as a 

5 Crone 
7 1987 Kevin 

Costner film - 

8 Siena seven 
8 Start tor fab or 

10 Biddy 

11 1942 John 
Wayne film 

12 'Star Wars' 
13 Croat's 

13 Functions 
if Leopold's' 
partner in crime' 

24 idiot 

28 Idiot 

27 Be jubilant 

28 Mideast belief 

i 20 mouthed 


31 Lady ot the 

33 Wind; Prefix 

34 Visit again 

38 Artist Edouard 
38 Car bar 
41 Yiddish cash 

co-star Jamie 
47 Eat not 
48 " Diary..." 

82 Willow twig 
s4 Faucet 

iby Wayon Mart WBUmt 

$ Net* York Times/Edited by Will Shorts. 

95 Mel and family 
m "Excuse me...* 
so Exploits 
81 Slangy okay 
83 — r Abner 

•4 Adherent's 

as Thickness 

Solution to Puzzle of Dee. 5 

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sannH sosa anna 
iBHmaaaaaas aaaa 
snsas aana nan 
aas ssaaaaB 
nasaasaa anas 
aaaa aaaa aaoaa 
□HQ0D ana aaaaa 
Q 00 HH aaaa □□□□ 
QBma maaaaasEi 
□□□□DUE] Qsa 
□□a DtDQa aanaa 
□ana aaaoaaaaaa 
aaaa aaaa aaaaa 
scias aaaa □assa 


t» A KCEMBHE 1994 
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Page 24 



The Roots of Anger 

YY7ASHINGTON — In- “Young people of voting age 
tt depth studies ore now be- also said they were as ticked off 

mg conducted at every universi- 
ty and think tunic to discover 
what caused the fatal Demo- 
cratic train crash in November. 

Everyone agrees that the an- 
ger of the voters was the main 
reason why so 
many people 
voted Renubli- 

voted Republi- 

What is not 
agreed upon is 
the cause of 
that anger. 

Dan Kilcup of 
the “None-of- 

the-Above In- ■» — . . ■ 

stitute of PoU- 

tics” showed me a paper he had 
written on the subject. 

He said, “The fury of the 
people manifested itself at the 
polls, but it wasn't the political 
issues that made them vote the 
way they did. They were furious 
about other things but the only 
way they could vent their rage 
was to vote against the incum- 


Professor Kilcup continued. 
“We decided to survey the an- 
ger factor in the electorate. 
When asked why they voted an 
incumbent congressman or sen- 
ator out of office, these were 
some of the reasons they gave. 

“ ‘The night before the elec- 
tion we told our son to be in by 
1 1 o’clock and he didn't come 
home until three. I was so furi- 
ous that I voted Republican for 
the first time.' " 

Teddy Bear Nets £110,000 


LONDON — A small brown 
teddy bear belonging to the 
world’s most noted collector — 
British Army Colonel Bob Hen- 
derson — was sold for £1 10,000 
(SI 71.500) at Christie's on 
Monday, doubling the world re- 
cord of £55,000 for a teddy. 

“Young people of voting age 
also stud they were as ticked off 
as their parents. One coed told 
us that she had to wait six hours 
to buy tickets for a Grateful 
Dead concert, and when she fi- 
nally reached the head of the 
line the only seats left were on 
the side. She said that if that 
didn't tell you something about 
what’s rotten with the political 
system nothing would.” 


Professor Kilcup turned the 
page, “A housewife wrote. ‘I 
went out to the shopping mall 
last Saturday and it was a mess. 
I finally got to the store to buy 
some pantyhose and they didn't 
have my size. To make matters 
worse, the sales girl was ex- 
tremely rude. That's when I de- 
cided to send a message to 

“ “You want to know why I 
voted Republican?* a truck 
driver asked one of our inter- 
viewers. ‘Because I decided that 
if Clinton couldn't settle the 
baseball strike he wasn’t much 
of a world leader. You can't call 
yourself a great country if you 
pay your baseball players pea- 
nuts.’ ” 

The professor said, “The mis- 
take of the Democrats was that 
they underestimated the dis- 
content of the people. Many 
voters were angry over crime — 
not crime in the streets but the 
fact that the administration 
waffled on whether it was in 
favor of televising the O.J. 
Simpson trial Fear of being 
shut out of the courtroom pro- 
ceedings drove many people 
into the GOP camp ” 

“What about Proposition 187 
in California which called for 
an extremely punitive policy to- 
wards illegal aliens?” I mM 

“It played a major role in 
Beverly Hills. One respondent 
said that she voted for 187 after 
she hired an illegal alien to 
dean her house and the person 
kept refusing to dust the pi- 

Anniversary for Marcel Came: Will He Direct Again? 

By Alan Riding 

New York Times Service 

P ARIS — Marcd Came patted his paunch 
and pointed to the culprit, an arthritic knee 
that he also blames for the way be now shuffles 
around his Left Bank apartment. But once he 
had settled into his favorite armchair, the 
French movie veteran was again ready to di- 

“I could do as Visconti mice did and work 
from a wheelchair,” he said, moving his arms as 
if he were suddenly mobile. “Nowadays you 
can follow everything on a little screen, and 1 
could go over to talk to the actors on wheels. 
But I doubt that any French producer would 
accept that” 

At the age of 88, just months before the 50th 
anniversary of the release of his much-loved 
movie classic, “Les Eafants du paradis,” Came 
is eagQ- to demonstrate that ne is still very 
much alive. He is full of ideas for a next movie, 
and if it is to be made, he wants it to be good. 

But he is also realistic. His last Elm, “La 
Merveflleuse Visite,” made 20 years ago, was 
not a success, and since then, no producer has 
been willing to back him. None, that is, except 
a French television company that invited him 
to make a film in five weeks. “Five weeks!” be 
exclaimed with disgust. 

His problems, though, had begun even earli- 
er with the arrival of France’s New Wave au- 
teurs in the late 1950s. “These youths were 
quite cynical,” he said. “They boasted, ‘We’re 
going to kill off the oldies and take their 
place.' ” And indeed, led by Francois Truffaut, 
they duly carried out thor threat 

Caret’s last box office hit “Les Tricheurs,” 
was made in 1958. After that French critics 
began turning up their noses at the studio- 
made; carefully scripted and technically metic- 
ulous films made by Carafe and his prewar 
generation. Instead, individualism and impro- 
visation became the rage. 

But the irony is that while Carafe’s career 
began to flounder, the popularity of “Les Ea- 
fants du paradis” kept growing. The Thfe&tre du 
Randagh in Paris’s 16th arrondissement has 
shown it twice weekly since 1968. And today, 
many critics still consider it to be the best 
French movie ever made. 

Starring Jean- Louis Barrault and Arletty and 
r unning three, and- a -quarter hours, the film 
was shot during the final year of the Nazi 
occupation of France, although it was released 
only in March 1945 aft o' the liberation. Built 
around the life of the 19th-century mim e Jean- 
Baptiste Deburau, it was the most lavish and 
expensive French film made until then. 

Carrie at home: His “Les Eufants du paradis” was released nearly 50 years ago. 

Yet if “Les Enfants du paradis” is a national 
monument, Came is not. “It makes me a bit sad 
to think Fm more appreciated abroad than in 
my own country,” be said. “Abrdad, there 
aren’t the same mean critics that we have here. 
In France, if your head gets a bit too high, they 
cut it off” 

Had be expected “Les Enfants du paradis” 
to become such a phenomenon, he was asked. 
“I cannot say yes,” he said, sighing at such an 
oft-posed question. “But I knew I was making a 
good film because all the actors and technicians 
woe good And I knew it was an important film 
because of its length and the resources at my 

Yet it was far from certain the film would be 
made. The screenplay was by Jacques Prevert, 
who had written several of Carafe's prewar 
“poetic realism” films as well as his wartime 
hit, “Les Visiteurs dn soir.” But because Car- 
ofe’s chosen set designer, Alexandre Trauner, 
and composer, Joseph Kosma, were Jews, he 
had to disguise their involvement. 

At one point, when it was unclear if Barrault 

could join the cast, Gamfe even considered 
replacing him with Jacques Tati. 

Then, just as shooting began in the Victorine 
Studios in Nice in August 1943, Americans 
troops landed in Sicily and the collaborationist 
Vichy regime ordered everyone back to Paris. 

More problems followed The producer, Au- 
dit Faulvfe, was dismissed by Alfred Graven, the 
German impresario who had taken control of 
the French movie industry in 1940. Work cm the 
film resumed in Paris in November 1943, but by 
tbe time the production moved back to Nice, 
many of the sets had been damaged by storms. 

Camfe’s most painful memory, though, is of 
the day two French policemen came looking for 
an extra whose wife, they said had suffered an 
accident. Carafe hesitated but then calculated 
that if die man felt in danger he could hide in 
the crowd So the director took a megaphone 
and called out the man’s name. 

“Perhaps he was in the Resistance, perhaps 
he was a few, but we never heard of him again,” 
tbe director said “He was certainly shot, per- 
haps also tortured The police must have been 
working for the Gestapo. Why <fid he come 

forward? When his name was called, be should , 
have suspected It® should have.” j 

Ca wife sat quietly for a moment. “I have 
never forgiven myself.” he said softly. “I will 
relive that scene for the .rest of my days.” 

After the Germans took France in 1940, he 
whs adwdj had he considered Joining Jean 
Renoir, Rene Clair and other French directors 
in the United States? “I thought about it,” he 
“I wondered should I jean de Gaulle in 
England? But how could I help him? If 1 wait 
to the United States, what would 1 do? I didn’t 
cvai speak English.” 

He also dismissed the idea of joining the 
Resistance: “I have never handled a gun in my 
life,” he said “Also, Tin very sensitive to physi- 
cal pawi and I thought, if I am caught and 
tortured Fm likely to tell everything I know. So 
I found a way of working. But I laid down 
conditions. I would not make propaganda films 
and I would work only in France.” 

In the end only “Vitiumre du soir” was 
released during the occupation, and it was an 
enormous success, not least because it was seen 
as an allegory for a France that was surviving 
despite itshumiliation. “The sound of a beating 
heart has been used a thousand times in mov- 
ies, but hoe it meant France,” he said 
Carafe said he knew Jews were being perse- 
cuted, but he only learned “very very Tate” of 
the existence of concentration camps in France 
where Jews were held before deportation. 

“Fll tell you something strange, he contin- 

the Germans didn’t exist T^bey* would walk 
past them, bat it was as if they didn’t exist” 
From tbe liberation until 1974, Carafe made “ 
14 of his 21 feature films. But in his 1989 
memoirs, the director lists 36 postwar film 
projects that he but never completed 

n yflndfng several films that were later made by 
others, among than “Mary Poppins," “Germi- 
nal” and “La Rane Margot” 

His greatest disappointment was his failure 
to make “Mouche,” his adaptation of Guy de 
Maupassant’s novel about five young men who 
fall in love with the same young woman. He 
even began shooting the film in 2992, but alter 
10 days on locationne fdl ill and financing was 
cut off. “I wanted to finish my career with an 
optimistic' film to show that old men aren't 
necessarily , bitter,” he said 
Still, them is no doubting that he has lots of 
fight left in him. In Carafe’s most recent battle, 
Prfevert’s heiis have earned his wrath by block- 
ing his plan to colorize “Les Enfants du para- 
dis” as a way of reaching new audiences. “It's 
stupid” he said “The 18-year-old granddaugh- 
ter of the screenwriter has the same rights as the 
director. Wed, that’s France:” 




Forecast tor Wednesday through Friday, as provided by Accu-Weather. 












7 .T#Anarq 





High Loo w 
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17*2 11/52 DC 
9M 307 pc 
6 M3 -1/31 PC 
14/57 BMfl pc 
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IBM* 1162 pc 
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North America 
CoM weather wiH occur In 
Chicago and Detroit 
Wednesday through Friday. 
Meanvuhta. unuauafly warn 
waattisr will pravail from 
Houston to Atlanta and 
Orlando. Rains will aoak 
Seattle and Vancouver at 
times late this week, and 
there wU be a gusty wind as 

Middle East 


Warm weather for the sea- 
son wfl be the tufe through- 
out Western Europe 
Wwkwaday through Friday. 
Sunshine will pravail In 
Matfrid and Lisbon. A eocpio 
of rainy and windy spaBs wB 
move through London and 
Bfuacals. Strong winds wW 
lash Glasgow Wednesd a y, 
and rainawtl also M. 


Altar tranquil weathsr In 
Osaka and Tokyo W edae 
day. clouds will increase 
Thursday, and 0 w& proba- 
bly nki may. Those rata 
could tail in Seoul Thuredoy 
after soaking Shanghai 
Wednesday. Rather warm 
and humid weather wiH be 
the nda In Taipei and Hong 


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Boston 13*5 3/37 pc 8*0 -1/31 PC 

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F OR decades a thorn in its 
side, the folk singer Pete 
Seeger, 75, was acclaimed by 
much of official Washington, 
including President CEntoo, ai 
the Kennedy Center Honors 
show recognizing lifetime 
achievement in the perforating 
arts. Seeger practically wrote 
the songbookior the civil rights 
and antiwar movements of the 
1960s. He was blacklisted in 
the 1960s for refuting to answer 
questions about Communist af- 
filiations. Among this year’s 
other winners were Knit Doug- 
las, Aretha Frankfin, Morton 
Gould and Hal Prince. 

He. might not be as popular Aretha 
as the Beaties, even 24 years 
after their breakup, but Pope 
John Paid II is doing better than his most 
famous critic, Sinead O’Connor. “Live at 
the BBC,” a collection of 56 previously 
unreleased recordings by the Beatles, is 
No. 1 on the British album charts. The 
Pope is No. 53 with “Tbe Rosary,” his 
recital of Latin prayers. But that’s ahea/i 
of O'Connor’s “Universal Mother,” at' 

ImIm XobcmM^oehon-hsc 

F ranklin and Kirk Douglas at awards reception. 

No. 80. O’Connor tore up a picture of the 
Pope two years ago on live television. 


A letter by ex-Beatle John Lennon at- 
tacJonglindaMcCartney, the wife of Paul 
McCartney, sold for $92,000 at a Los 

the McCartneys, urges Linda 
to “get off your high horse!” 
It appears to be in response to 
her criticism of remarks that 
Lennon had made about the 
Beatles. “Do you really think 
most of today's art came ab<‘ it 
because of the Beatles? 1 don't 
think" you’re that insane — 
Paul — do you believe that? 
When you stop believing it 
you might wake up!” the letter 
read in pan. 


Hun tley-Brinkley , MacNeil/ 
Lehrcr and now Mason and 
Felder? Jadtie Mason, the co- 
median, and Raoul Lionel 
FeUer, the New York lawyer, 
axe teaming up to do a talk 
radio show on the BBC 

Loiris Andandoss, 77, is not too im- 
pressed that he has just published his 50th 
book. “There is no great virtue in quanti- 
ty,” he says. “I remind myself that Entity 
Bronte wrote a single novel and then she 
died at 29.” 

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