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Paris, Wednesday, December 7, 1994 


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No. 34,765 


Security Talks 


End in Disarray 
Over Bosnia War 


For Europe , 
Further Signs 
Of Instability 


NEWS ANALYSIS 


Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi of Italy talking on a mobile phone Tuesday as he was escorted by bodyguards from the European security summit in Budapest. 


Italy’s ‘Symbol of Justice’ Stuns Nation by Quitting 


By Alan Cowell 

New York Times Service 

ROME — After almost three years as 
the public spearhead of Italy’s anti-comip- 
tion drive, Antonio Di Pietro, the crusad- 
ing magistrate who came to symbolize his 
land’s quest for renewal, resigned Tuesday, 
complaining that political maneuvering 
had made his work impossible. 

-SEven more than his decision last month 
to investigate Prime Minister Silvio Berlus- 
coni for corruption, Mr. Di Pietro’s resig- 
nation stunned Italians, many of whom 


had come to see him as what an emotional 
television commentator called "the symbol 
of justice.’* 

“I fed used, exploited, pulled in all di- 
rections, thrust into the headlines every 
day, either by those who wish to use me 
against their enemies or by those who wish 
to see a nonexistent political agenda in my 
normal work,” Mr. Di Pietro, 44, said in a 
resignation letter. 

“I am leaving the judiciary.’' be said, 
“with death in my heart.” 

The letter, leaked to Italian reporters. 


electrified Italy. Even though word of the 
resignation had been rumored since morn- 
ing. it came as a complete surprise to 
many. 

Television channels broke into their 
scheduled programs for live coverage of 
Mr. Di Pietro prosecuting at his final trial 
in Milan. An opinion survey published in 
the opposition La Repubblica newspaper 
this week said 71 percent of those ques- 
tioned would choose Mr. Di Pietro over 
Mr. Berlusconi in an election for Italy’s 
presidency. 


Politicians rushed to associate them- 
selves with his crusade, and distance them- 
selves from blame for his resignation. 
Demonstrators gathered outside Milan's 
law courts to urge Mr. Di Pietro to stay on. 
Stocks and the lira feD on financial mar- 
kets. 

Faxes begging Him to reconsider poured 
into newspaper offices, and even those' 
who had been — or are being — investigat- 


ed by him spoke out. 
“If Di Pi 


Pietro really leaves, we will have 
See ITALY, Page 6 


German Phone Workers Suspected of Billing Fraud 




By Brandon Mitchener 

haenutianat Herald Tribune 

FRANKFURT — Authorities have opened a broad 
investigation of telephone fraud in Germany, in which 
employees of Deutsche Bundespost Telekom are suspect- 
ed of collaborating with organized crime to bilk thenuge 
state-owned company and its customers of as much as a 
half- billion Deutsche marks a year, prosecutors and 
industry sources said Tuesday. 

The alleged fraud is the first hint of widespread cor- 
ruption at Telekom, which is scheduled to be privatized 
by the end of the decade. An industry source outside the 
company said Tuesday that the investigation was likely 
to involve thousands of employees. 

Police and prosecutors in several rides axe investigat- 


ing a collection of related scams in which rank-and-file 
Telekom employees are suspected of receiving kickbacks 
in exchange for shifting the cost of long-distance tele- 
phone calls to unwitting customers, authorities in Dus- 
seldorf and Cologne said. 

They declined to comment on details of the inquiry — 
which has involved searches in several German cities and 
is still in progress — because it might jeopardize their 
work. 

One industry source familiar with the inquiry, speak- 
ing on condition of anonymity, said it was the “tip of the 
iceberg” and might expand to include “several thou- 
sand” Telekom employees. The same source estimated 
the amnia! financial damage to the company at as much 
as “a half-billion” marks. 


Telekom denied any knowledge of the investigation. 
“We consider the existence of such a case, both in its 
nature and scope, more than unlikely,” said Klaus Czer- 
winski, a Telekom spokesman. “Telekom employees 
have never been involved in such an inquiry before.” 

The investigation involves allegations of hacking and 
inserting automatic dialing devices into the public tele- 
phone network, two of the most common ways of gener- 
ating and routing telephone traffic illegally. 

The searches already completed involved hackers and 
software pirates who implicated others, including Tele- 
kom employees, sources said. 

While “there are examples of corruption in every 

See FRAUD, Page 2 


See ALLIES. Page 6 


Nominee for Treasury Post 
Charted Clinton Economics 


By Lawrence Malkin 

International Herald Tribune 

. NEW YORK — Robert E. Rubin, the 
Clinton administration’s chief economic 
coor dinat or, was nominated on Tuesday to 
be secretary of the Treasury. 

! Although his fiscal conservatism may 
even surpass that of his predecessor, Lloyd 
Bentsen, who ann ounced his resignation 
bn Tuesday, the former Wall Street finan- 
cier is untried in dealing with Congress, 
which Has just been captured by the Re- 
publicans. 

The shift was announced in the Wmtt 
House Rose Garden by President Bm 
Clinton, who told Mr. Bentsen, I love 
having you here every day, and I m going 

But die^prudent advice erf Mr. Bentsen, 
73, was ignored as much as accepteddnr- 
fa g his two years as the nations duet 
financial officer, and his record was tnixed 

in persuading Congress to support admin- 
istration initiatives aside from those pro- 
moling free trade. Mr. Bentsen said he was 
resigning to return to private b uaness. 

Mr. Bentsen forecast continuity at the 


Treasury, with no important changes in 
personnel. Any differences in philosophy 
right ha\ 


ave with Mr. 


that he might 

“mar ginal,” he said, and he expected that 
his successor would “Share the same kind 


of discourse and exchange of views” with 
the Federal Reserve chairman, Alan 
Greenspan. 

Mr. Rubin, 57, the multimillionaire for- 
mer co-chairman of Goldman, Sachs & 
Co. and ft major Wall Street fund-raiser for 
the Clinton campaign, was recommended 
by Mr. Bentsen as chief of the National 
l-caramic Council when Mr. Ginlon 
fanned his administration two years ago. 

In that job, Mr. Rubin excelled at White 
House diplomacy and compromise in de- 
vising and presenting programs and poli- 
cies, to the president on deficit reduction, 
free trade, cutting the business costs erf 
environmental regulation and other eco- 
nomic issues. 

But like Mr. Bentsen, a former vice pres- 
idential candidate and chairman of the 
Senate Finance Committee, be also failed 



See TREASURY, Page 3 



Kiosk 


Major Loses Vote 
On Raising Taxes 


LONDON (Reuters) — Prime Minis- 
ter John Major’s government lost a cru- 
cial procedural parliamentary vote on 
Tuesday on plans to increase taxes on 
home-heating fuel, by 319 votes to 311. 

Mr. Major had said he would not re- 
sign if he lost the vote. But the defeat 
underscored the prime minister's weak 
hold over his demoralized Conservative 
Party. Several Conservative legislators 
voted against the government or ab- 
stained to protest the plan to increase 
taxes on domestic gas and electricity bills 
to 173 percent from 8 percent. 


LANDMARK GEISHA SUIT — Kaori T 
geisha, has filed a lawsuit, die first of its kind, 
exploitation and demanding 5110,000 compensation. She said the Kyoto 
geisha boose owner slapped her, opened her mafl and made her wok holidays. 


Tbc Auodawd Pub 

21, left, an apprentice 
her employer with 



Bakhtiar Case Jailings 

PARIS (AP) — An Iranian convicted 
of aiding the killers of Iran’s former 
prime minister, Shabpur Bakhtiar, was 
sentenced Tuesday to life in prison. Ali 
Valrili Rad, 35. was convicted of taking 
part in the 1991 murders of Mr. Bakhtiar 
and an aide near Paris. Zeynol Abedin 
Sarhadi, 28, of the I ranian Embassy in 
Bern, got a 10-year sentence. 


Star Wars H: The Death Ray That Refused to Die 


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By William J. Broad 

New York Tbnes Strike 

NEW YORK— It’s back. Adored by mffitaiy contrac- 
tors and lambasted by civilian skeptics, fired into the 
political stratosphere by President Ronald Reagan and 
dragged back to Earth by the Clinton administration, 
“Star Wars” is prominent again as the newly empowered 
Republicans begin to push for deployment of a national 
system of anti-missOe defenses and gird for ideological 
warfare with Democrats on the topic of placing aims in 
tin heavens. 

Surprisingly, this turn in the nation’s 35-year, love- 
bate relationship with, anti-missile research finds the 
technology less speculative than before. For the first 
finw , it is mature enough that one class of advanced 
weapons could be out into space relatively quickly, a fact 
that is likely to electrify this round of the anti-missile 

The weapon is the chemical laser, which gets its energy 


from the combustion of fuels similar .to those in rocket 
engines. Though much of its energy is lost as heat, 
significant amounts can be extracted by mirrors and 
resonant chambers, emerging as a concentrated beam of 
light that in theory can flash across space to zap speeding 

missiles thousands of kilometers away. 

In particular, the new maturity centers on a chemical 


laser known as Alpha, which the federal government has 
levclopin 


quietly been developing for more than 15 years at a cost 
Of about $1 trillion. In a secluded valley near San Juan 
Capistrano, California, the sprawling test site for Alpha 
includes a 50-foot high chamber that mimics the vacuum 
ofspace. 

Angelo M. Codevilla, a senior research fellow at the 
Hoover Institution at Stanford University in California 
and a former staff member on the Senate Select Commit- 
tee on Intelligence who helped get Alpha started in 1978, 
said the device was all but ready for deployment in orbit 
to defend the United States. 


“Like it or hate it, this is real,” said Mr. Codevilla, who 
would like to see a dozen or so laser battle stations 
rirding the Earth. “It's not theoretical. It’s not some 
■scientist fantasizing about X-ray lasers.” 

But critics deride the whole idea, saying a fleet of 
Alpha-type weapons in orbit would violate the Anti- 
Ballistic Missile Treaty, which was signed in 1972 by the 
United States and the Soviet Union and bars the deploy- 
ment of anti-missile arms in space. 

The treaty allows the orbital testing of research lasers 
as long as they are too weak to shoot down long-range 
missiles. But critics say Alpha, even as a research tool, is 
so powerful it would fail this legal test and violate the 
treaty, thus probably touching off a political storm if 
testing were to advance into space. 

And full-blown battle stations, critics assert, are dubi- 
ous since they would fail to protect the United States 

See STAR WARS, Page 6 


Russia Blocks 


Any Reference 
To the Conflict 


By Joseph Fitchett 

International Herald Tribute 
PARIS — A series erf international con- 
ferences that were supposed to strengthen 
the underpinnings of stability in Europe 
have instead displayed worsening diver- 
gences among the United States, Russia 


and European nations about how to stanch 
the bloodshed in Bosnia and improve the 
inte rnatio nal system for handling future 
challenges- 

Confidence among allies has frayed to 
the worst point since the Cold War, U.S. 
and European officials said Tuesday. 

They cited limited progress at the 52- 
nation Conference on Security and Coop- 
eration in Europe, which ended largely in 
disaccord and with agreement only on 
sending a multinational peacekeeping 
force to Nagorno-Karabakh. That, the of- 
ficials said, was only a small step. 

Last weekend. NATO, already reeling 
from its problems in Bosnia and with the 
Serbs, saw its attempts to recover momen- 
tum derailed at its own ministerial meeting 
when Russia cried foul about the alliance’s 
plans for eastward expansion. 

In causing the NATO flap and in bold- 
ing off any invasion of a southern rebel 
republic, Chechnya, Russia apparently in- 
tended to enhance the stature of the Con- 
ference on Security and Cooperation in 
Europe at the expense of NATO, from 
which it is excluded. Moscow has greater 
influence at the Security Conference, in- 
cluding a veto. 

• the Security Conference in Buda- 
pest, attended by heads of states, reached 
no agreement on Bosnia or on Russia’s 
demand to be authorized to handle insur- 
gencies on its borders single-handedly. 

“We weren’t supposed to be remaking 
the world again this time” said a U.S. 
official in Budapest. “We wanted some 
institutional strengthening in the form of 
more involvement by higher-level political 
people to deal with problems when they 
arise.” 

The main concession to Russian interest 
was a decision to rebaptize it the “Organi- 
zation for Security and Cooperation in 
Europe,” a name suggesting more sub- 
stance for the institution. 

Despite the lack of Russian headway in 
Budapest, public wrangling and off 


Compiled by Our Staff Front Dispatches 

BUDAPEST — The European security 
summit conference ended in disarray 
Tuesday as renewed East-West tension 
blocked agreement on how to deal with the 
war in Bosnia, the Continent's worst up- 
heaval since World War II. 

All language on the former Yugoslavia 
— including a description of Serbs as “ag- 
gressors” because of attacks on the UN 
“safe area” of Bihac in northwest Bosnia 
— was excised from the final document at 
the insistence of Moscow, a traditional ally 
of Serbia. 

“The Russians blocked everything,” 
said the chief Bosnian delegate, Mahir 
Hariziahmetovic, as representatives of the 
52-nation Conference on Security and Co- 
operation in Europe wrapped up a final 
document mapping out future strategy for 
preventing conflicts in Europe. 

“That means there will be nothing in the 
final document on the most burning crisis 
in Europe,” he said. 

In one of the few positive developments 
at the meeting, the Russians agreed to a 
new peacekeeping force for the former 
Soviet region of Nagorno-Karabakh. But 
the new chill between Moscow and the 
West, and especially the Clinton adminis- 
tration, dominated the conference just five 
years after the collapse of the Berlin Wafl. 

Eduard A. Shevardnadze, the former 


Soviet foreign minister who played a key 
rule in Eastern 


role in ending Communist 
Europe, voiced the fears of new nations 


feeling their way after their Cold War. 


e are living through such a frighten- 
ing peace because the Cold War has not yet 
rid us of its legacy," said Mr. Shevard- 
nadze. now preside:: of Georgia, which 
itself is riven by ethnic war. “The war is 
over. Beware of the peace.” 

Chancellor Helmut Kohl of Germany 
told the delegates that it “can only be 


called a catastrophe” that fighting 300 ki- 
ll 185 mile 


lometers ( 185 miles) away from the confer- 
ence site was causing the starvation of 
hundreds of thousands of people but the 
leaders could do nothing. 

“It is an extreme barbarity.” Mr. Kohl 
said. He added: “I don’t want to go home 
and answer toe question: ’What have you 
done for Bihac?’ and answer, “Well we 
talked and then got bogged down in for- 
malities.’ " 

Moscow, objecting to what the Russian 
foreign minister, Andrei V. Kozyrev, 
called “propaganda,” used its veto to stop 


See SUMMIT, Page 6 


Enticements 
In Peace Plan 
Win Few Points 


By Roger Cohen 

New York Times Service 

PARIS — Recent changes to a U.S.- 
backed peace plan for Bosnia seem likely 
to fall short of demands by Bosnian Serbs 
and to antagonize toe Muslim-led govern- 
ment. 

The original plan has been turned on its 
head. Blandishments to toe Serbs have 
replaced threats. A “final” map is open to 
adjustment. Bosnia’s borders look less 


NEWS ANALYSIS 


than sacrosanct And American diplomats 
are scurrying to visit a Bosnian Serbian 
leadership that was supposed to be locked 


in punitive isolation. 
But that 


1 leadership seems committed to 

eliminating all Muslim enclaves within the 
territory it bolds, even as the Bosnian gov- 
ernment grows more determined to fight a 
war of attrition that would strip the Serbs 
of a third of the land they now occupy. 

The reversals from the original plan re- 
flect the Clinton administration’s abrupt 
decision that NATO cannot help the Bos- 
nian government and that, as Defense Sec- 
retary W illiam J. Perry put it, toe Serbs’ 
bold on 70 percent of Bosnia will not be 
reversed through fighting. 

Charles E. Redman, the man chosen to 
elucidate this turnabout, was pulled this 
weekend from the comfort of his ambassa- 
dor’s residence is Bonn to trek up an icy 
Bosnian mountain to Pale, the Serbs’ 
stronghold. 

Mr. Redman carried three essential mes- 


sages. 

The first was his very presence, a dear 
signal to the leader of the Bosnian Serbs, 
Radovan Karadzic, that ostracism has 
been abandoned as a means to persuade 
him to accept the peace plan, which offers 
51 percent of Bosnia to a Muslim-Croat 
federation and 49 percent to toe Serbs. 

The second was that a federation be- 
tween Bosnian Serbs and Serbia might be 
acceptable. 

The third message was that intemation- 


See SERBS, Page 6 




I 







INTERNATIONAL h h'B A 1,0 TRIBUNE^ WEDNESDAY \ DECEMBER T, 1994 



Hitler’s Drivers’ Bunker: History, or Embarrassment? 


By Rick Atkinson 

Wa xhinpan Past Service 

BERLIN — Beneath the 
weedy field that was and again 
will he the heart of the Ger- 
man capital, archaeologists 
have discovered a vexing ob- 
stacle to the reconciliation of 
Germany’s past and Germa- 
ny’s future. 

Measuring about 6-by-30 
meters and built to last a thou- 
sand years, the concrete struc- 
ture is an eight-room air raid 
bunker used by Hitler's SS 
bodyguards and drivers, part 
erf the same subterranean com- 
plex — once thought to have 
been demolished— where the 
FQhrcr and Eva Braun killed 
themselves on April 30, 1945. 

The walls are covered with 
elaborate murals of Nazi my- 
thology featuring eagles and 
SS runes and fair, blue-eyed 
soldiers. These paintings, the 
state archaeologist insists in a 
still confidential report, are 
worth conserving “to bear wit- 
ness” and “to give future gen- 
erations the chance for an on- 
site consideration of history.” 

The bunker would probably 
be incorporated into the base- 
ment of a new office building 
intended to bouse state gov- 
ernment delegations when the 
federal government moves 
from Bonn later in the decade. 

Histoiy is rarely convenient 
in Germany; there are too 
many ghosts in the closet — or 
in the cellar. But the nodon of 
protecting an SS redoubt near 
the center of government has 
stirred uncommon passion. 

The Berlin Culture Ministry 
recommended late last month 
that the archaeologist's advice 
be ignored and that the bunker 
be sealed forever, thus allow- 
ing development of the valu- 
south of the 
home of 


able property south 
Reichstag building — 


the pre-World War II national 
legislature —where the Berlin 
Wall and adjacent “death 
strip" once ran. City officials 
a ion argue that the bunker and 
murals are historically insig- 
nificant but could bwome a 
shrine for latter-day Nazis. 

“This simply doesn't involve 
the central part of the bunker 
complex, but rather a satellite 
area/’ a Culture Ministry re- 
port said. “The unimportant 
neighboring bunker would 
give subsequent generations a 
distorted image of the com- 
plex’s significance and sym- 
bolic meaning during the 
Third Reich.” 

Rdnhard Rftrup, a historian 
who is director of the nearby 
“Topography of Terror" ruins 
where the Gestapo and SS 
once had their headquarters, 
concedes that the p ain tings 
“have a certain historical value 
in documenting the combina- 
tion of supremacist ideology 
and kitsch” of the Nazi era. 
But the cost and effort to pre- 
serve the surviving subterra- 
nean structures “can't be justi- 
fied," he wrote in the Berlin 
Senate reporL 

The apparent willingness to 
bulldoze history has provoked 
howls from other historians 
nnd liberal politicians,' who 
want both a full debate in the 
Berlin assembly and public re- 
lease of the archaeologist’s re- 
port, which has remained un- 
der lock and key for more than 
a year. 

“History can’t be handled 
by blowing it away," said Al- 
bert Eckert, a Benin state as- 
semblyman who has spear- 
headed the issne for the 
Greens party. “The triviality 
erf the drivers’ bunker indeed 
speaks to the banality of Na- 
tional Socialist ideology." 

Albert Kernd'l, the Berlin 



Workers removing the German eagle in the Reichstag in 


torid Kock/Tbe Amciaud fwa 

Berlin on Tuesday, prior In the start of renovations. 


archaeologist who explored 
the ruins and recommended 
that they be placed under his- 
torical preservation, said: 
“You have to take history alto- 
gether, in its good and bad 
parts, and not oe tempted to 
throw the bad away.” 

He added: “The bunker rep- 
resents material evidence of 
the catastrophe. It’s a frozen 
monument to the last days of 
Hitler. 

“Here all the histoiy that 
hurts has been removed from 
the surface,” he added in an 
interview. “What's left is un- 
derground.” 


That roughly one-third of 
the subterranean labyrinth 
near the former chancellery 
has survived is an accident of 
history. The SS bunker was 
first detected in June 1990 bya 
munitions disposal crew 
sweeping the newly opened 
death strip before a rock con- 
cert. For two years, city offi- 
cials dithered before authoriz- 
ing Mr. Kernd’l to investigate 
and determine whether the 
complex should be safeguard- 
ed. 

In May 1992, Mr. KemcTl 
and his crew cleared the entry- 
way and clambered down into 


the dank chamber for four 
days of careful m e as urin g arid 
cataloguing, according to his 
report. The floor was covered 
with 10 inches of water, which 
had rotted the fuuai t ar c and 
mattresses. The explorers sal- 
vaged odds and ends sugges- 
tive of a place hurriedly aban- 
doned: a helmet, a shoe, a 
dagger, a gas mask, medical 
equipment, belt buckles, a 
wardrobe intricately carved- 
with whirling designs sugges- 
tive erf swastikas. 

Despite the damp, the eight 
murals remain in remarkably 
good condition, their colors 


bright and tbeir symbolism 
vivid. . 

One scene, apparently 
drawn from the Third Reich’s 
pi in Greece, shows SS 
routing British troops 
with help from a ligbtning- 
huriing Zens. Another shows 
SS bodyguards holding medi- 
eval shields above a pair of 
German lovers and, bizarrdy, 
a pair of German beer drink- 
ers. 

Still another depicts SS 
General Joseph (Sepp) Die- 
trich, commander erf Hitlers 
bodyguard, with his troops 
protecting a Catholic convent 


Dublin Crisis Widens as Promising Effort to Form New Coalition Collapses 

_ _ _ _ ■ ■ , , tv- nm nmrinst second highest judicial post, Some analysts felt t 


By James F. Clarity 

New York Tuna Service 

DUBLIN — The Irish politi- 
cal crisis accelerated Tuesday as 
efforts to form a new govern- 
ment collapsed for the second 
time in a month in a dispute 
over the handling of a case in- 
volving a Roman Catholic 
priest who was accused, and 
eventually convicted, of child 
molestation. 

A new coalition government 


of the Fianna Fail and Labor 
parties had seemed likely until 
Labor’s leader, Dick Spring, 
pulled out of negotiations early 
Tuesday. 

That move increased the like- 
lihood of a new national elec- 
tion later this month or in Jan u- 

Spring, who broke up 
Ireland’s coalition government 
three weeks ago, forcing the res- 
ignation of Albert Reynolds as 


prime minister, had been close 
to an agreement with Mr. Reyn- 
olds’ successor as party leader, 
Bertie Ahem. 

But at 2 AJML, Mr. Spring 
pulled out a grin after learning 
that Fianna Fail ministers had 
apparently been involved in 
Mr. Reynolds’s duplicity in 
wriglftadmg Parliament in re- 


al, Harry Whdehan, had han- 
dled the case of the priest 


The new evidence against 
Fianna Fail, made public Mon- 
day in the Irish Times, showed 
that Mr. Reynolds had actually 
sought Mr. Whdehan’s resigna- 
tion mi Nov. 14, the day before 
he defended him in Parliament, 
and that Fianna Fail ministers 
knew this. 

Mr. Reynolds had promoted 
Mr. Whetehan to president of 
the High Court, the country’s 


highest judicial post, 
over Labor objections. Both 
Mr. Reynolds and Mr. Whde- 
han resigned on Nov. 17. 

The Parliament was to debate 
the latest developments, with 
the outcome in doubt. 

There was the possibility of 
forming a coalition between La- 
bor and two opposition parties, 
Fine Gael and Democratic Left, 
but most experts felt a new elec- 
tion would be called. 


i, together with — 

taibi between CTima and Britain on Mr. Pattens 

changes broke down last year after 17 rounds, but the 

Council passed the measures in June. 

After 4 Months, UN Aid Gels to Kabul 

KABUL (Reuters) — The United Nations and aid agencies 
began handing out badly needed food and relief supplies i to 
resi dent s of die shell-shattered Afghan capital on Tuesday, after 
the arrival of the first aid convoy in four months. 

A UN convoy of more than 50 trucks arrived in Kabul on 
Monday night carrying about half of the more than 1,500 tons of 
relief supplies expected to arrive there this week from UN stores 
in Pakistan. 


The convoy is the first since August allowed into the city by 
Prime Minister Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, whose forces have been 

• - . xr e .MAi 1 a rtnimtlA f/tf wmiftr 


riUUC jyiUAVMJGJ. VlUlirwuum — 

layin g siege to Kabul for much of this year in a struggle for power 
with President Burhaxmddm RabbanL 


Some analysts fdt that a pro- 
longed delay in fomung a gov- 
ernment could impede the 
Northern Ireland peace effort, 
although all Irish Republic par- 
ties have pledged support for 

Nigeria Panel Sets Junta’s End in ’96 

cal wing, Sim Fein, and the ‘~"™‘ ‘ ‘ ' * 4 “ * "" 

British government are to have 
thdr first official meetings in 22 
years in Belfast 


U.S. Supports Israelis 
On West Bank Delay 

Washington Pat Service 

JERUSALEM — Secretary of State Warren M. Christo- 
pher sympathized Tuesday with Israel’s inclination to delay 
troop withdrawals from parts of the West Bank over the issue 
of attacks by Islamic nationalists on Israelis. 

Mr. Christopher arrived in Jerusalem from Damascus for 
tniifc with Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and with Yasser 
Arafat, r-hfiirman of the Palestine liberation Organization. 

Customarfly, the United States has urged Israel and the 
Palestinians to implement their peace agreement as soon as 
possible. In this case, however, Mr. Christopher threw Wasb- 
mgton’s weight behind the Israeli position that Mr. Arafat 
must first control the Islamic militants. 

“Security pledges are absolutely fundamental to the pro- 
cess going forward," Mr. Christopher said. “Unless there s 
security, it’s clear that the other commitments cannot be 
met.’* 

Mr. Rabin’s cabinet was scheduled to meet Wednesday to 
discuss withdrawal strategy. . . 

Talks between Israel and the PLQ are under way in Cairo 
to set a date for elections in the West Bank. According to the 
peace agreement, the election will be proceeded by a pullback 
of Israeli troops from major Palestinian dries. It is this 
withdrawal, which would extend Palestinian rule over much 

of the West Bank, that is immediately at stake. 

While counseling delay in the Israeli-Palesuman schedule, 
Mr. Christopher expressed impatience with the stalled Israch- 
Svrian i-ilks- Earlier in Damascus, he met for four hours with 
‘'Ha’s president, Hafez Assad. Mr. Christopher warned that 
slow pace created an opening for forces that oppose talks. 


Russia Avoids Intervention in Chechnya 


By Lee Hockstader 

Washington Pott Service 

MOSCOW — Russia and the break- 
away republic of Chechnya backed away 
Tuesday from the brink of a potentially 
bloody military conflict, pledging to re- 
solve the crisis peacefully. 

In a breakthrough, the Russian defease 
minister, General Pavel S. Grachev, and 
the Chechen leader, Dzhokar Dudayev, 
emerged from a 90-minute meeting, called 
for champagne, and said, “There will not 
be a military solution to the question.” 

The accord came after months of esca- 
lating tensions, an ultimatum delivered 
and then softened by President Boris N. 
Yeltsin last week and a subsequent build- 
up erf Russian troops deployed not far 
from the Chechen border. 

The details of the deal worked out by the 
two men were not disclosed, but a central 
dement appeared to be General Du- 


dayev’s assent to release 20 Russian ser- 
vicemen held as prisoners of war since they 
were captured nearly two weeks ago in an 
unsuccessful raid on the Chechen capital, 
Grozny. 

It remained unclear, however, whether 

there would be any resdution of the politi- 
cal question at the heart of the crisis, which 

turns on General Dudayev’s insistence 
that Chechnya is an independent republic 
and Mr. Yeltsin’s rrfusal to recognize it as 
anything but a part of Russia. 

General Dudayev acknowledged as 
much Tuesday, saying: “Today we have 
agreed on a peaceful solution to the mili- 
tary aspect. Now we have to solve the 
.political aspect" 

Chechnya, a tiny, landlocked enclave of 
1.2 milli on people about 1,500 kilometers 
south of Moscow, was conquered by Rus- 
sia in the last century after decades of 
bloody fi ghti n g. 


Proud and defiant, the Chechens de- 
clared their independence anew when the 
Soviet Union collapsed in 1991. Moscow s 
attempt at the time to move soldiers in and 
assert its authority in Grozny ended m 
humiliating failure when the troops were 
harassed and forced to withdraw. 

Twice in recent months, Chechen rebels 
aimed, equipped and assisted by Russia 

tried and laded to storm Grozny and expel 

General Dudayev. It was in the last at- 
tempt, on Nov. 26, that Russian Army 
servicemen, recruited by the former K.GB 
to help the rebels, were captured by forces 
loyal to General Dudayev. 

At first Russian officials denied the pris- 
oners were Russian troops- But as the truth 
became apparent, Mr. Yeltsin gave the 


ods and release the prisoners. 


FRAUD: Deutsche Telekom Employees Suspected of Bilking Customers ^^wSj"(AFF) — Egyptian tour operators have begun 

. - .... nmmnfo historical rates around Cairo rather than re 


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Caatraned from Page 1 
* company," as another Telekom 
executive put it, industry 
sources said Telekom’s bureau- 
cratic structure had both con- 
tributed to the proliferation of 
abuse and inhibited attempts to 
] fight it 

i News erf the probe comes less 
I than two weeks after the Ger- 
man government, amid consid- 
erable fanfare, unveiled an all- 


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star, international banking 
consortium that is to orches- 
trate the placement of 15 billion 
Deutsche marks of Telekom 
stock starting in 1996. 

“No one m Telekom's top 
management could believe 
something like this existed," 
said an industry source who dis- 
cussed the probe on condition 
of anonymity. “Middle and 
lower management cover these 
thing s up so as not to jeopardize 
their own careers. The lower 
ranks are quick to bold out their 
hand.” 


The investigation involves 
several types of fraud used to 
generate phone traffic between 
Germany and Caribbean is- 
lands after which organized 
crime and Telekom employees 
split the revenue gaterated at 
the expense of the company and 
.its customers. 

The police dragnet foDows 
several years in winch com- 
plaints from Telekom custom- 
ers about unusually higfaphane 
Nils have exploded. Overall 
complaints rose from 340,000 in 
1991 to 430,000 in 1992 and 


600.000 last year, of which 

300.000 were complaints about 
bills. 

At first, Telekom accused 
anyone who questioned erratic 
h ills of railin g foreign phone 
sex companies without reali z i n g 
how much it was costing them. 

The daily BUd, in fact, runs a 
quarter-page of such “party 
Ime” numbers every day with- 
out individually noting that the 
numbers listed incur interna- 
tional charges. 

Because most German tde- 




UN Troops Fire on Attacking Somalia 

MOGADISHU, Somalia (Reuters) —United .Nations helicop 
ter gunships and tanks fired Tuesday on Samttonuh namen wb 
attScdBangladeshi peacekrepers as they withdrew from a ba, 

n m M sS^SSSi ^ber d; 

payrent on a riverside camp that UN forces occupied dunng W; 

yt W°N^orXitoOattha said the 900-stroug Bangladesh 
battalion was trying to withdraw from the town of Afgoye ben* 
the UN nullout from Somalia when the militiamen struck. * ns 
WSretSxS^Sed all UN staff and peacekeeper 
to leave by Mandi 31. 

Europeans Linked to Indian Spy Case 

Jr . - f .Li 

NEW DEL 
Indian space | 

secrets is exchange »v* a**. ««* uwu.; — — - --- 

Sweden, the Indian Express newspaper reported Tuesday. 

■Thenewspaper saJdthat one of the accused had told jnvesUgi, 
tots firomtoeOattral Bureau of Investigation <rf *he ailegec, 
involvement of Europeans. The inquiry revealed Fnmkfurt J 
one of the nerve centers of the spy mrfwwk, tiicpa^r 
report from Trivandrum, the site of an Indian Space Resear^ 
Organization rocket project Interrogation “hasalso revealed vxt\ 
linirs of the spy ring in Germany and Sweden, it said. 

Diptamatsat the German and Swedish embassies were ^noi t 
av^abkfor commenL Indian officials refused to discusstfie rase. 
Six people have been arrested: two Spare Research Orgaxu^tocm 
scientists, two Maldivian women, toe Indian 
Russian space agency Glovkosmos and one of his business asso- 
ciates. Further arrests are probable, newspapers have said. 

China Chides Hong Kong on Election^ 

BEIJING (AFP) — China reacted Tuesday to toe Bong Kong 
government’s announcement of Legislative Council electrons next 
year by reaffxrmixig its intention to dissolve the body when it 
resumes sovereignty over the British colony in 1997. _ 

The Hong Kong British government’s three-tier pohtical struc- 
ture will come to an end on June 30, 1997,” said a spokesman for 
the State Council’s Hong Kang and Macao Affairs Bureau. 

After the breakdown erf talks last year between Lpndon and 


ABUJA, Nigeria (Reuters) — A conference framing a new 
constitution for Nigeria derided Tuesday that the military should 
relinquish power at the start of 1996. v, 

Adolphus Karibi-Whyte, the conference chairman, also sfld 
that the military government, the Provisional Ruling Council, 
“shall immediately draw up a transition timetable winch shall 
swear in the elected civilian president on I January, 1996.” 

The military government, which seized power last year after the t 
annulment of a presidential election 4 intended to restore civiliaxl 
rale, has agreed that its tenure would be derided by the constitu- 
tional conference. 

For the Record 

Jacques Ddors, the European Commission president, said 
Tuesday in a television Interview in Budapest that he had made up 
his mind whether to run for the French presidency next year, but 
he declined to disclose his derision. (Reuters) 

A runway track smashed into a restaurant at a shopping center 
Tuesday in Andorra la Vella, Andorra, killing at least 8 people 
and injuring at least 50, toe authorities said. (Ar) 

Algerian scarify forces ldBed 14 Mnsfim rebels, including 10 in 
a raid on a hideout in Algiers, the official Algerian press agency, 
APS, reported Tuesday. (Reuters) 

Firebomb were made on two Turkish banks and a 

Ttokish-owned travel agency in Cologne, the police said Tuesday. 
A police spokesman said leaflets from a Turkish Co mmunis t 
party, TKPML, had been found at toe scene. (Reuters) 


TRAVEL UPDATE 


i* ask the butler... 


Vim uriin <i jw it W 4»- 




S-l-N-C-A-P-O-R-E 


ten of proof in cases of al- 
leged phone fraud has tradi- 
tionally favored Telekom. 

“There’s definitely a connec- 
tion between the start of foreign 
phone sex services in 1992 and 
the number of complaints 
about excessive Mis,” a Tele- 
kom spokesman said. 


CAIRO (AFP) — Egyptian tour operators have begun to 
promote little-known historical sites around Cairo rather than risk 
their customers’ lives at more famous attractions in the troubled ... 
south of the country. . _ . ’ 

The ancient temp les of K a ranis , the Labyrinth tomb and the 
Hauwara pyramid, all in Fayum, near the capital, are gradually 
fd gin p; oat the grander tourist sites in the south in the agencies’ 
brochures. Twelve tourists have been killed by Islamic militants in 
Egypt since 1992. Most militant attacks take place in southern^ 
provinces. , . • =\ 

Fayum, 100 kilometers (60 miles) south of Cano, was a.home . , 
for fundamentalist activities but has been calm for some tim6 1 
now, said Nadia Shamseddin, a tourism guide. “The monuments 
there are in isolated locations and are easy to protect,” she said. ,, 
The lido, Paris’s celebrated music hall, has reopened after a I 
monthlong S13 milli on face-lifting. The Champs Elysfees land-’-. 
rrmrk had been scheduled to open Nov. 29, but problems with new J 
computers forced a postponement until Dec. I. After a further-, 
delay, it opened Monday. Management denied that toe delays i 
xbv** lmira f tn union opposition to 15 percent salary cuts that have 
been accepted by Lido staff. (AFP) / 

China's first high-speed train is to go into formal operation this 
month, Xinhua reported. It said the passenger train between the £ 
southern city of Guangzhou and the Shenzhen special economic 
zone, 120 kilometers (75 miles) apart, can travel at average speeds ' 
of 160 kph. (AFP): 



To call from country to country, or to the U.S., dial the WorldPhone® number of the country you're calling from. 


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: ' yjS&ffOz Use your MCI Card,* local telephone card or caU collect-all at the *ame low rata*. 

' ; ICQCoLmtrr-»«Hit^ ratting avaiUWe. May rw be 

IS mmnmZZZ nTtfnction^M^.+LiTTitEriavaBiiWitY.VWanta-sw^d^ 

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WAMERICAS/ 


INTERJNATI01NAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY. DECEMBER 7, 1994 


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■"¥*«*&* '17' 

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Dick Armey: An Improbable Majority Leader 


Being a member of a "repressed minority” — House 
Republicans — had forced him to be uncharacteristi- 
cally confrontational, he said. Those were the bad old 
days, when he did things like acidly hiss on the House 
floor to Democrats that "your president is just not 
important to us,” a remark that disturbed even his 
fellow Republicans. 

”1 was just trying to fight for some turf to stand on,” 
he said, adding, "Now I own the playing field.” 

As majority leader, he mil serve as Mr. Gingrich's 
commander m the field. His first duty: within 100 


Newt Gingrich, after being chosen as 


J<*J1 [>rru*»/Thc Auooncd Pico 

the first Republican House speaker in 40 years. 


By Katharine Q. Seelye 

New York Tima Service 

WASHINGTON — Here is how Newt Gingrich 
says someone can tefl that a “revolution" is truly at 
hand: When he and Senator Bob Dole of Kansas had’ 
to leave an important meeting of Republicans, they 
left Representative Dick Armey and Senator Trent 
Lott in charge. 

Mr. Gingrich, the next speaker of the House, told 
this anecdote to a gathering of conservatives here, and 
the audience cheered wildly. 

Mr. Armey, a 54-year-old former economics profes- 
sor from Texas, is widely perceived as farther right and 
more hot-headed than Mr. Gingrich — ana as an 
improbable leader. He used to sleep in the House gym 
to .save money; he has implied that Hillar y Rodham 
Qinlon was a Marxist, and, upon meeting her, he said, 

“The reports on your charm are overstated, and the 
reports on your wit are understated.” 

But on Monday, Mr. Armey, whom the Almana c of 
American Politics once di smissed as “hardly likely to 
be a power in the House,” was crowned' during a 
jubilant ceremony on Capitol Hill as the first Republi- 
can majority leader in 40 years. 

Like Mr. Gingrich, Mr. Armey is eager to rise above 
his Dennis- tbe-Menace reputation and show that he 
can be constructive. 

“We didn't win power; we gained responsibility," 

Mr. Armey told the sixth annual Conservative Leader- 
ship Conference. “We do not view ourselves as a 
temporary strike force. We view ourselves as a perma- 
nent presence.” 

Whether Republicans maintain that presence will __ „ w 

depend in pan on how Mr. Armey, who is beginning thinking to convert the Republican “minority memal- 
nis sixm term in the House, conducts himself in the ity” into a “majority mentality." They forged the 

contract together — sharing a deep commitment to 


He is eager to rise above his 
Dennis- the-Menace reputation and 
show that he can be constructive. 

days, to engineer votes on the 10 items in the “Con- 
tract With America,” the Republican's campaign 
agenda, including a balanced budget amendment and 
term limits. 

He calls the contract merely the “shakedown cruise 
of the counterrevolution,” predicting a far more dras- 
tic paring down of government once the Republican 
ship is under full sail 

He and Mr. Gingrich are expected to work well 
together. They are not personally close, but they share 
a similar background and many g nats Earlier this 
year, they fused their considerable powers of positive 


104th Congress. 

In an interview in his Capitol Hill office, Mr. Ar- 
mey, a tall former marathon runner with a sunny 
demeanor, said his days of defiance were over. 


such items as eliminating welfare payments to unwed 
teen-age mothers — and helped usher in the new order 
on Nov. 8. 


“They have manag ed to put aside two pretty formi- 
dable egos to form a very good working relationship,” 
said Ed Gillespie, a spokesman for the House Republi- 
cans. “As Newt says, ‘Armey put aside my ego, and I 
put aside AnneyV ” 

Although he is a central figure now in his party's 
es tablishme nt and was unchallenged for majority lead- 
er, Mr. Armey first came to Washington 10 years ago 
with the air of the citizen-legislator that the Republi- 
can contract promotes. Chairman of the economics 
department at North Texas State University in Den- 
ton, Texas, he was watching the House proceedings on 
C-SPAN one night in 1984 when he turned to his wife 
and said, “Honey, these people sound like a bunch of 
dam fools.” She said, “Yeah, you could do that" 

Beating the incumbent Democrat in his suburban 
Dallas district, Mr. Armey made news during his first 
term by sleeping on a cot in the House gym to save 
money. When evicted, he repaired to his office couch. 

He now rents a bouse in Maryland, where he lives 
with his second wife, Susan. They have five grown 
children from previous marriages. He will use the 
limousine and driver that come with the job of major- 
ity leads 1 only to get around Washington; to and from 
work, he will continue to drive his red pickup truck, 
which sports a “Jimmy Buffet for President” bumper 
sticker. He is an avid fisherman; among his anglin g 
companions is Justice Clarence Thomas of the Su- 
preme Court. Justice Thomas’s wife, Vir gini a, is on 
Mr. Armey’s staff. 

To Mr. Armey, America's chief problem is big 
government. 

“Government is too big and in its excessive size does 
too much of the wrong thing in the wrong way,” he 
said. “Fat weakens muscle.” His most notable achieve- 
ment as a legislator was writing a bill that depohticized 
the process of shutting down obsolete military bases. 


POLITICAL NOTES 


Grinding the Ax on Safety Nets 

WASHINGTON — A staff report of the 
president's bipartisan commission on entitle- 
ments and tax reform has recommended far- 
ranging. politically explosive changes that 
would gradually raise the Social Security re- 
tirement age. impose higher Medicare insur- 
ance premiums and deductibles for most se- 
nior citizens and eliminate the federal tax 
deduction for interest on home mortgages. 

The commission staff has also recommend- 
ed reducing congressional retirement benefits 
by as much as 40 percent, cutting Social 
Security benefits for wealthier people and 
slashing or eliminating a number of highly 
popular tax breaks for middle- and upper- 
income Americans, including the mortgage 
interest deduction and the deduction for state 
and local income taxes. 

The_32-rnember commission is scheduled 
to review the recommendations on Friday 
and vote on a final package next week. 

, But the panel is dealing with among the 
" most sensitive issues in politics and many 
involved in the process are skeptical that the 
commission can reach an agreement ( WP ) 

Quayle Clrtcfcs Out of Hospital 

INDIANAPOLIS — Scanned, rested but 
not quite ready to reveal his presidential 
intentions, former Vice President Dan 
Quayle left the hospital here on Tuesday after 
eight days of treatment for blood dots in his 
lungs, vowing to make a full recovery and 
promising a decision on his political future 
early in the new year. 

"I'm on the mend, the recovery is going 
better than expected," a pink-cheeked, chip- 
per-looking Mr. Quayle said at a brief news 
conference at the Indiana University Medical 
Center. His doctors have insisted that he limit 
his schedule and forgo air travel for at least a 
month. 

Mr. Quayle. 47, is widely expected to seek 
the 1 996 Republican nomination for the pres- 
idency. He insisted Tuesday that his illness 
would have no effect on his course. 

Noting that his doctors believe that a 
blood dot developed in his right leg from 
prolonged sitting on airplanes, before break- 


ing up and lodging in his lungs last week, he 
urged air travelers to get up and walk around 
in the aisles at least once an hour, f ADT.J 

Reagan Came Near Death in »81 

CHICAGO — Doctors who attended 
Ronald Reagan after a gunman tried to as- 
sassinate him recounted on Tuesday how 
dose the then-70-year-old president came to 
death. 

Shot on March 30. 1981 outside a Wash- 
ington hotel Mr. Reagan was bleeding inter- 
nally. had lost the use of one Jung and col- 
lapsed into shock minutes later outside a 
hospital 

"If he had gone to the White House he 
would have died because or blood loss, pri- 
marily," said S. David Rockoff. ihe radiolo- 
gist who attended Mr. Reagan at George 
Washington University Medical Center. Mr. 
Reagan asked to be taken to the White 
House, but a Secret Service agent look him to 
the hospital against his wishes. 


Clinton Ally TREASURY? Bentsen Successor Set Clinton Policy 


hospr 

Dr. Rockoff and Benjamin Aaron, a sur- 
geon. co-wrote an article about the episode in 
the Journal of the American Medical Associ- 
ation. 

Mr. Reagan lost one-third of his blood 
supply from wounds caused by the -22-cali- 
ber bullet that ricocheted off his limousine, 
entered his chest near an armpit, deflected off 
a rib through his left lung and stopped within 
an inch of his heart Had the bullet struck his 
heart, he likely would have died. Dr. Aaron 
said in a telephone interview. ( Reuters ) 

Quote/Unquote 

Representative Dave McCurdy, chairman 
of the Democratic Leadership Council, who 
lost a Senate race in Oklahoma: “Bill Clinton 
won as a moderate Democrat a new Demo- 
crat, a DLC Democrat. But he has governed 
as something else — not as a liberal as the 
Republicans say. but as a transitional figure. 
For while Bill Clinton has the mind of a new 
Democrat, he retains the heart of an old 
Democrat. The result is an administration 
that has pursued elements of a moderate and 
liberal agenda at the same time, to the great 
confusion of the American people.” lAPi 


Away From Politics 

• Three strong af te rshocks from a devastat- 
ing Jan. 17 earthquake in Northridge jolted 
the Los Angeles area, sowing panic in movie 
theaters and shopping mails but c ausin g no 
damage or injuries. 

• Scientists using the Hubble Space Tele- 
scope have sighted galaxies up to 12 billion 
years old, the U.S. space agency said Tuesday. 
NASA said the sightings had provided scien- 
tists with their clearest views yet of ancient. 


roundish galaxies, or clusters of stars and 
star-like objects. 

• The Rocky Plats tradear site near Denver is 
the government's most vulnerable and poses 
serious health threats, with 14 tons of plutoni- 
um stored in unsafe buildings, according to a 
U.S. Energy Department report. 

• The ArchfSocese of Saida Fe has sold a 
sprawling retreat in Albuquerque to help pay 
for numerous lawsuits arising from sexual 
abuse charges against priests, a church offi- 
cial said Tuesday. 

Reuters, AP.AFP 


In Deal on 
Whitetcater 


Ihe Associated Press 

LITTLE ROCK, Arkansas 
— Webster HubbelL the former 
No. 3 Justice Department offi- 
cial and a dose friend of Presi- 
dent Bill Clinton's, pleaded 
guilty Tuesday to bilking his 
former law firm and clients out 
of nearly $400,000. 

In a plea agreement, Mr. 
HubbeO, 46, pledged to cooper- 
ate with the investigation by the 
Whitewater prosecutor, Ken- 
neth Starr, into the business ac- 
tivities of the Clintons and oth- 
er prominent Arkansans. 

Mr. Hub bell pleaded guilty 
to mail fraud and tax evasion, 
two felonies. Hie charges cany 
a maximum of 10 years in pris- 
on and $500,000 in fines. Judge 
William R. Wilson of U.S. Dis- 
trict Court released Mr. Hub- 
bell on his own recognizance. 

Mr. Hubbell was accused of 
defrauding his former law firm 
in Little Rode and its clients of 
$394,000 from 1989 to 1993 
through excessive billings. 

The tax-evasion charge stems 
from underreporting his income 
for 1992. Mr. Hubbell reported 
he had made $194,000 that year 
but actually mado$309,000, ac- 
cording to the charges. 

Mr. Clinton's lawyer sought 
to di st anc e the White House 
from Mr. HubbelTs troubles. 

“This matter simply docs not 
concern the president, the first 
lady or Whitewater Devdop- 
ment Company in any way,” 
said the attorney, David Ken- 
dafl. “The charges here are to- 
tally unrelated. They arise out 
of Mr. HubbelTs personal in- 
come tax returns ana individual 
billing procedures as an attor- 
ney in private practice in Little 
Rock before he came to Wash- 


Continued from Page 1 
to override Hillary Rodham 
Clinton’s demand for a radical 
overhaul of the U.S. health sys- 
tem, which later was defeated in 
Congress. 

Mr. Clin ton is looking for a 
successor to Mr. Rubin with his 
ability to guide policy in a 
White House notorious for 
ideological and turf wars. One 
Rubin deputy, Bowman Cutter 
was rejected for his rough bu- 
reaucratic tactics. The name 
most mentioned is the deputy 
White House chief of staff, Er- 
skine Bowles, a former invest- 
ment banker who defended 
Mrs. Clinton’s health care plan 
against small business. 

In his Rose Garden state- 
ment, Mr. Rubin alluded to his 
most singular success: persuad- 
ing the president that reducing 
the budget deficit would im- 
prove the economy through 
lower interest rates. He said the 
test of future success, “as in the 


past, is to do the right thing, to 
be fiscally responsible, to let 
people know what we have 
done and to judge us according- 
ly” 

However successful this defi- 
cit-cutting policy may have 
been in jump-starting the econ- 
omy, it was proven a political 
disaster of historic proportions 
by the Republicans’ congressio- 
nal victories last month. 

In addition to a conservative 
social agrada. Republicans won 
by promising disaffected male 
wage earners an income tax cut 
and by pledging to cut the capi- 
tal gains tax, especially to cut 
the cost, size and reach of gov- 
ernment 

“What the administration 
really needs now are people 
who can work with Congress, 
and that is not Bob’s forte,” 
said a senior financial official in 
Washington. 

Mr. Rubin believes that cut- 
ting capital gains taxes does not 


increase investment — on 
which be differed with Mr. 
Bentsen. He favors programs 
for the poor, which now will be 
attacked by the Republicans. 

News of Mr. Bentsen’s im- 
pending retirement had been 
circulating in Washington for 
some time, and Mr. Clinton dis- 
closed that his Treasury secre- 
tary told him in September that 
he planned to leave. Neverthe- 
less, his old congressional col- 
leagues suspected he wanted to 
get out of a failing administra- 
tion. 

“The rats are leaving the 
sinking ship, and nobody has a 
better sense of timing than 
Bentsen,” said a senior congres- 
sional staffer, alluding to ru- 
mors of impending resignations 


zd R. O’Leary, Secretary of 
State Warren M. Christopher 
and Commerce Secretary Ron- 
ald H. Brown. 


Doctor’s Killer 
Is Condemned 

The Associated Press 

PENSACOLA, Florida 
— Paul Hill was sentenced 
Tuesday to die in the elec- 
tric chair for the shotgun 
slaying of a doctor and an 
escort outside an abortion 
clinic on July 29. 

The jury that convicted 
Mr. Hffl, 40, a former min- 
ister, of first-degree murder 
recommended the death 
penalty for the slayings of 
Dr. John Bayard Britton. 
69, and a retired air force 
lieutenant colonel, James 
Barrett, 74. Colonel Bar- 
rett’s wife, June, was 
wounded in the attack. 

The state death sentence 
takes precedence over the 
federal sentence of life in 
prison that Mr. Hill re- 
ceived last week. Assistant 
U.S. Attorney David 
McGee said. 


The charges against Mr. 
Hubbell stemmed from allega- 
tions first brought by former 
colleagues at the Rose Law 
Firm of little Rock, where Mr. 
Hubbell and Mrs. Clinton were 
partners. 

Mr. Starr took over the case 
even though it is not directly 
related to the Clintons' 
Whitewater land venture. 


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WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 7, 1994 

O P I N I O N 


Hcralb 


INTERNATIONAL 



Sribitnc 


PlIBUSHED WITH THE NEW YORK TIMES AND THE WASHINGTON POST 


A Presidency at Stake 


The Battle to Govern 


Representative Newt Gingrich’s free- 
wheeling performance cm “Meet the 
Press” and Senator Bob Dole's earlier 
foray into diplomacy affirm the Republi- 
can l eadership ’s ability to dominate the 
news at the expense of a racked White 
House. But the larger message is this. Hie 
Republican challenge to President Bill 
Clinton’s ability to lead the government 
and establish a national policy agenda 
has now been fully joined. 

This is political combat carried to its 
most exalted — or at least most extreme 
— level The Republicans are trying to 
use the strength gained from their Nov. 8 

' -the 



presidential contest. 

For students of politics, the level of 
play can hardly get more exciting or 
complex. Indeed, it is such a diverting 
show that it takes discipline to keep 
one’s attention on the serious business 
of state that must continue. Orderly di- 
plomacy in a fractious world depends in 
some measure on President Qin ton’s 
ability to defeat this bald attempt to put 
Congress rather than the White House 
in control of foreign policy. 

Mr. Gingrich’s proposal for punitive 
bombing of the Serbs, after first sending 
Colin Powell to deliver a read-my-lips 
warning is reckless. Mr. Dole’s more 
measured formulation betrays his steadi- 
er grasp of the world scene. He is right 
that administration inconstancy and 
British-French recalcitrance led to a 
confused policy. But Mr. Clinton is on 
the most sensible track of all in pressing 
for the diplomatic conclusion that is at 
hand rather than to undertake Mr. 
Gingrich’s promiscuous unilateral bomb- 
ing campaign at a time when the Western 
alliance needs greater unity. 

Of course, the Republicans* zeal game 
has less to do with Bosnia than with their 
hopes to reduce Mr. Clinton's remaining 
two years to irrelevance^ Mr. Gingrich 
may have picked up a touch of Helms 
Disease, but Democrats are foolish to 


it ju 

steam he wul blow a gasket He knows 
how to market nostalgia and oversimpli- 
fied remedies with Reaganesque rigor, 
hence his talk about Boys* Town and 
selling off a House office building as 
symbols of the new frugality. He also 
understands the power of diversionary 
cultural issues; hence the casting of a 
momentous constitutional issue as a 
parable about a praying schoolboy. 

Hie real issue gets touched on only 
from time to time. Are the American 
people willing to endure his proposed 20 
percent cut in existing social services 
programs to finance a tax cut for the 
affluent and an enlarged military to face 
a diminished threat? 

Right now, the Republicans are rip- 
ping along with such force that they can 
blow by such questions. Indeed, skir- 
mishing with the White House over or- 
phanages, drug use and hippie values 
diverts attention, for example, from Mr. 
Gingrich's harmful plan to balkanize 


rather than reform the welfare system. 
But give the Republican leadership cred- 
it. ft has invigorated the policy debate 
and driven Mr. Clinton to the marges. 

A1 From, chairman of the Democratic 
Leadership Conference, has cried to get 
his party bad; in business with a promise 
of ^hand-to-hand combat for every inch 
of ground on the battlefield of ideas.” 
The Republican “Contract With Ameri- 
ca,” he said, amounts to “poll-tested bro- 
mides and bumper-sticker slogans.” That 
is the kind of talk it wQl take to slow 
down the Republican legislative band- 
wagon with its load of reckless fiscal 
remedies and dictatorial soda! controls. 

But the person who needs to be taking 
on the rampant Republicans is missing 
from the debate right now. Given his 
silence, it is interesting to speculate 
whether Mr. Clinton realizes that the 
congressional election started a leader- 
ship battle which wiD, in turn, determine 
his viability as a presidential candidate in 
1996. That determination will probably 
be made in a matter of weeks or months, 
or, in any event, long before 1995 is over. 

— THE NEW YORK TIMES. 


Gingrich Gi>e$ Too Far 


On television on Sunday, Speaker-to- 
be Newt Gingrich loosed the charge that 
“up to a quarter of the White House staff, 
when they first came in, had used drugs in 
the last four or five years.” “Tm not 
making any allegations of any individual 
person,” he went on to say, “but ...” 

Whoa. Wait a minute. Hold on there. 
You can’t make a charge like that on 
national television, then wash your hands 
of it two sentences later and, having been 
the accuser, go on to play the tidy civil 
libertarian with regard to your own public 
accusations. Ether you have the evidence 
for a charge like that, or you don’t make it. 
That is true, or ought to be, at every level 
of public life, but especially at the level to 
which Mr. Gingrich sow ascends. 

He was under pressure from NBC’s 
Tim Russert to defend his recent descrip- 
tion of the Clintons, both president and 
Mis„ as members of the counterculture, 
when he — Mr. Gingrich — also had 
acknowledged having smoked marijuana 
as a graduate student in the Vietnam era. 
“My point was not about the attitude of 
25 years ago,” he responded. “My point 
is, you’ve got scattered throughout this 
administration counterculture people. 1 
had a senior law enforcement official tell 


me that, in his judgment ...” — and 
then came the business about a quarter of 
the White House staff. 

He was not accusing any individual, he 
continued, but “it is very dear that they 
had huge problems getting people through 
security clearance, because they kept 
bringing people in who bad a lot of things 
that weren't very easy to clear.” That, 
said Mr. Gingrich, was “a current pro- 
blem . . . not 10 or 15 or 20 years ago.” 

But that is artful The White House 
says its people were subject to drug tests 
on assuming their jobs and are subject to 
random testing in office under essentially 
the same rules that applied in the Bush 
administration. If they are using drugs 
while on the White House payroll, they 
ought to be fired. If they ever used them 
before — well, what is the rule as to the 
rest of the society, or even the rest of the 
government for that matter? The rule 
with regard to congressional staff mem- 
bers, for example? 

We have no idea what the problems 
were with regard to security clearances for 
the White House staff. If Mr. Gingrich 
thmlrs it is an important issue and has 
something to say about it other than hear- 
fine; that is fair game, we suppose. 

; happened on Sunday was not fair. 
-- THE WASHINGTON POST. 


Journalists in Danger 


Journalists in many lands risk their 
lives to report the news, but many Ameri- 
cans are unaware of the special risks taken 
in their own country by reporters who 
write fra immigrant and expatriate com- 
munities. A report by the Committee to 
Protect Journalists, for many years a mon- 
itor of the dangers faced by mainstream 
media reporters, points up the need for 


this special awareness by the pro fession. 


sess the dangers, Carl Stem, the depart- 
ment's spokesman, said investigations 
were indeed under way. He added: 
“There is a higher level of action than this 
committee may be aware of.” Exactly so. 
The government needs not only to act on 
these cases, but also to be sure the public 
knows that it is acting. 

— THE NEW YORK TIMES. 


law enforcement and the pubf 

Journalists for expatriate publications 
and radio stations, reporting on matters 
of deep controversy concerning their na- 
tive countries, have been murdered in the 
United States. The committee cites 10 
cases since 1981 involving Vietnamese, 
Haitian, Chinese- American and Cuban- 
Axnerican journalists. Others have been 
threatened with violence. 

The committee suggests that failure of 
these assassinations and terror tactics to 
draw more attention is an indictment of 
mainstream media as much as of law en- 
forcement. Perhaps the committee is cor- 
rect that news managers do not find this 
violence newsworthy or think that the 
public will not care. In any case, it rightly 
demands that attention be paid. 

Responding to the committee's call for 
a Justice Department investigation to as- 


Other Comment 


Better Place Because of GATT 


The world will be a smaller and better 
place, starting as early as Jan. 1, because 
of the bipartisan wisdom of three presi- 
dents and the 103d U5. Congress in 
enacting the world trade accord expand- 
ing the General Agreement on Tariffs 
and Trade. With the globe’s dramatic 
shrinkage fra communications and trav- 
el, most trade barriers are anachronisms 
that impoverish the peoples of the world. 
The new GATT will not end such barri- 
ers, but it greatly reduces them. This will 
be a boon to American consumers. It will 
be an even greater benefit for American 
workers and companies. 

— The Baltimore Sun. 



International Herald Tribune 

ESTABLISHED 1887 

KATHARINE GRAHAM, ARTHUR OCHS SULZBERGER 

OfChdmm 


RICHARD McCLEAN. Publisher <ft Chief Emaive 
JOHN VWOCUR. Execute Editor & HvUr 

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i.« 2-1 


Peacekeeping Needs More Work and Support 9 Not Less 

■* u..«mn««ri9n < me rations sddfi 


^^ASHINGTON — After Bosnia’s 


Y obituary notices, will those of inter- 
national peacekeeping be far behind? Af- 
ter the appalling failure to construct and 
hew to any coherent policy in the former 
Yugoslavia, and with violence escalating 
in Somalia after the expenditure of S3 
billion, it might seem that the quicker 
such operations are buried, the better. 

If chat happens, and it may, it will 
compound the first post-Cold war mis- 
take, of expecting too much of what we 
optimistically call the international com- 
munity, with another that will prove at 
least as expensive — accepting too little. 

Peacekeeping missions have exploded 
in number and complexity. 

In four decades the United Nations 
undertook rally 13 of them. Most in- 
volved conflicts between well-defined, 
functional states that had either fought 
themselves to exhaustion or were deter- 
mined to avoid doing so. The United 
Nations was invited in by both sides to 
ensure a negotiated settlement or to help 
willing participants create one. 

Today, Bosnia is one of 17 peacekeep- 
ing operations. More was spent on this 
account last year than in the previous 48 
years combined. Few remotely resemble 
the straightforward, first-generation mis- 
sions- Many involve one state — 89 of the 
92 conflicts since the Berlin Wall fell have 
been civil wars — or, effectively, none. 

In Bosnia, as in many of the others, 
there was never a peace to keep nor even 


By Jessica Mathews 


people onto the international dote, and 
by concentrating all the internationally 


an inclination toward peace to exploit. 
And in the least successful cases, enor- 
mous humanitarian crises entwine with a 
political-military one. These are a new 
phenomenon: peacekeeping and emer- 
gency humanitarian relief operations. 

There have been some successes, nota- 
bly in El Salvador and Cambodia. And 
even in what must be accounted the fail- 
ures, there have been some tremendous 
achievements. In Rwanda, in remote areas 
with practically no transportation or com- 
munication facilities, food, water, sanita- 
tion, shelter, medical care and burial ser- 
vices were provided in the space of one 
month for more than 800,000 refugees. 

But on balance the record has to be 
accounted pretty bleak. Complex military 
missions are still patched together colonel 
by borrowed colonel Funding is begged 
and borrowed, always late. There is no 
mechanism for learning the lessons of pri- 
or mistakes or identirvine what worked 


wdL Worse, there is no operational doc- 
trine for these kinds of missions. Even the 


much f ought-over U.S. peacekeeping poli- 
cy, for all its restrictions and conditions, 
had nothing to offer on this point. 

Almost every aspect of these opera- 
tions needs scrutiny. The practice of 
drawing people into safe havens, to take 
one example, may have more drawbacks 
than benefits. These gatherings force 


mg countries, the mass of people often 
also destroys the local environment. 

The single greatest difficulty is that 
peacemaking and humanitarian aid are 
fundamentally incompatible in one cru- 
cial respect. Humanitarian relief de- 
mands strict neutrality. The Red Cross 
does not pick and choose whom it suc- 
cors. Peacemakers, by contrast, must of- 
ten recognize one side as the aggressor. 
Failure to do so, as in Bosnia, dooms the 
mission to irrelevance or worse. 

When two such dissimilar operations 
are entangled, as they now most often 
are, both suffer- „ . 

Neutralit y hint every aspect of policy m 
Tinenta it snagged diplomacy by under- 
mining the greater legitimacy of the Bosni- 
an government. It undermined economic 
sfmrtinp s by delivering a lot of fungible 
supplies (supplies for civilians free up 
other supplies for soldiers) to the Serbs. 
It blocked military options because of 
the need to protect the relief work. 

On the other side, Bosnia and other 
experiences rnakc humanitarian work- 
ers worry whether trying to provide re- 
lief in the midst of a hot conflict merely 
prolongs the fig h tin g and produces, in 
the macabre jargon of these troubled 
times, well-fed dead. 

Neutrality is not the only vital differ- 


ence. Humanitarian operations -seldom 
divide governments- And white they are 

expensive, they seldom nsk hves — the 
price that Western governments, m par- 
Scalar, are less and less wfflmg to pay, 
The political side of the s ame o perating, 
however, often rests on miaow support 
and may wdJ entail a blood ris k. •: 

Trying to invent responses cnas by 
crisis are a staggering number of flayers 
—more than a dozen UN agencies, 
p j n n at organizations ra n gi n g iff capacity ■ 
from NATO to the Organization for Af- 
rican Unity, several dozen donor gowm-; 
meats, their individual militarie s and an 
estimated 16,000 citizens groups. . 

Operating without a dear idea' of: 
whether humanitarian and peacemaking 


missions should be separated or better 
integrated, without tested mUhary doc- H 
trine and, usually, with little coradina- 
rion (money for coordination is always 
the hardest to raise), itispechqisaraff- 
ade that the results have not been worse. 

Political, demographic and environ? 
mental stresses suggest that these com- 
plex crises will keep on erupting. Dis- 
carding the potential for effective 
international responses out of disap- 
pointment with early failures isn’t ..an 
answer. The system needs more work 
and more support, not less. 


The writer is a senior feUcrw at tke Otun- 
cil on Foreign Relations. She contributed . 
this comment to The Washington Past. 'f 


A Test for Turkey: Liberty or Oppression for Kurds in Parliament? 


j^NKARA — This Thursday, 


seven other Kurdish mem- 
bers of Turkey’s Parliament and 
I risk the death penalty when the 
State Security Court returns its 
verdict in our case. What crimes 
have we committed to warrant 
such punishment from a court es- 
tablished by the military dictator- 
ship in 1980? Just one: bearing 
witness to the Kurdish people's 
immense tragedy in Turkey. 

For 70 years the Kurds* very 
existence has been denied and 
their language, identity and cul- 
ture banned. This has involved 
rural depopulation and destruc- 
tion of Kurdish villages, forests 
and traditional society. 

Turkey’s human rights minister 
acknowledged that m the past 
two years the army has evacuated 
and destroyed at least 1,390 
Kurdish villages. Some 2 milli on 
Kurds have been displaced, a 
dozen towns depopulated and 5 
to 6 million Kurds forced into 
western Turkey by state tenor 
and economic collapse because of 
a war now in iis 1 1 !h year. 

Elected in 1991 by Kurds to 
represent and defend their inter- 
ests and aspirations, we obviously^ 
could not remain silent. Our duty 


By Leyla Zana 

The writer is a Kurdish member of the Turkish Parliament. 


as legislators was to speak out, 
explore all paths to end this 
frightful war. which has torn our 
country asunder, and seek a peace- 
ful settlement for Turkey’s 15 mil- 
lion Kurds in a framework of de- 
mocracy and existing frontiers. 

To speak freely in a country 
ruled by an anti-democratic con- 
stitution and laws imposed by 
military dictatorship is risky, 
even fra legislators. Death squads 
have killed more than 2,000 polit- 
ical and human rights activists 
uninvohred in the fighting. 

Among them were 82 activists 
of our Kurdish Democratic Party 
and 34 journalists and newspaper 
distributors. Such is the price for 
challenging the official military 
version of events. 

For similar reasons, 106 jour- 
nalists, academics and writers are 
imprisoned. My husband, Mehdi 
Zana, a former mayor of the main 
Kurdish city of Diyarbakir. spent 
15 years in prison fra speaking 
out; now he is back serving a 
four-year jail term for testifying 
before the European Parliament 


1 myself barely escaped two at- 
tempts on my life. I have been 
jailed since March 5, charged 
with such “crimes” as testifying 
before the U.S. Congress's Hel- 
sinki Commission and the Carne- 
gie Endowment for International 
Peace, speaking on European 
television and nttering a phrase 
in Kurdish in Turkey’s Parlia- 
ment celebrating Kuraish-Tork- 
ish friendship. My colleagues are 
on trial on similar charges. 

Our Kafkaesque trial has pro- 
vided an exemplary insight into 
Turkish political and legal absur- 
dities. The prosecution ordered 
ns held in preventive detention. 
Five months later. Ankara’s State 
Security Court in five sessions re- 
fused our requests to confront 
prosecution witnesses and call de- 
fense witnesses and experts. 

Observer missions from inter- 
national nongovernmental orga- 
nizations, the European Parlia- 
ment and the Council of Europe 
concluded that we were on triaJ_ 
solely for expressing our views. 
That is unacceptable in a demo- 


cratic state of law. They recom- 
mended that we be freed and giv- 
en back our parliamentary seats. 

Prime Minister Tansu Ciller 
has said the Kurds have brain- 
washed Western governments. 
Officials suspect that these non- 
governmental organizations are 
crypto-terrorist, and have banned 
even Amnesty international 

The authorities are prisoners of 
out-of- da te nationalism and are 
paranoid about “Kurdish separat- 
ism.” Kurdish legislators make 
perfect scapegoats for modem 
Turkey’s most serious economic, 
political, social and moral crisis. 
This absurd war has cost more 
than 15,000 lives, and devours al- 
most half the budget. That is why 
the military leaders want to calm 
public opinion with a few token 
Kurdish victims. 

1 am 33. For 34 years I have 
lived with persecution and seen 
friends tortured or killed for 
wanting to live in peace and de- 
mocracy with Turks on the sole 
condition that they respect Kurds’ 
identity and culture 

I have two children, a husband 
and many dear friends. Hove life. 
But my passion for justice for my 
people, who are suffering for dig- 


nity and freedom, is greater. 
What value is a life of slavery, 


humiliation and contempt for 
what you bold dearest — yotfr 
identity? I yon not knuckle under 
to Turkey’s inquisition. 

Beyond my fate, I am con- 
cerned about the Kurdish and 
Turkish peoples. Turkey wifl not 
settle die problem of its 15 mil- 
lion Kurds by sending right leg»- 
latoxs to the gallows. Turkish ; ex- 
tremism risks provoking a general 
catastrophe for both peoples and 
for the West, tririch counts on 
Turkey as a forward base in a 
strategically important region. 

The West should realize that 
Turkey is not just a locale far nriH- 
ttuy bases and electronic eaves- 


dropping. It is a country of pas- 
sons and conflicts, which can, as 


in the shah’s Iran, spill over into 


the irrational. If Turkey’s warlords 
es for the peaceful 


a ssassinate hopes 
solution that we legislators repre- 
sent, the road is open fra Kurds to 
switch massively to the camp 
violence and Islamic fiimfamcnf.il - 
ism. And if tire Kurds, next door 
to Iran’s Islamic revolutionaries, 
switch, then all Turkey wiD follow 
suit. Arid woe to us alL 

The Washington Post. 


Listen: The Culture of Democracy and Human Rights Is Universal 


J^ANGOON — The argument 


that it look many years for 
the first democratic governments 
to develop in the West is not a 
valid excuse for Asian and Afri- 
can countries to drag their feet 
over democratic reform. History 
shows that peoples and societies 
do not have to pass through a 
fixed series of stages in the course 
of development. 

Moreover, latecomers should be 


By Aung San Sun Kyi 

7 he author is the Burmese opposition leader and 1991 Nobel Peace Prize 
laureate who has been wider house arrest m Rangoon since 1989. 


Many c 
nrd Wc 


able to capitalize on the expen- 
voiathe 


ences of the pioneers and av< 
mistakes and obstacles that im- 
peded early progress. The idea erf 
making haste slowly is sometimes 
used to give backwardness the ap- 
pearance of measured progress. 
But in a fast developing world, 
too much emphasis on “slowly” 
can be a recipe for disaster. 

The more totalitarian a politi- 
cal system, the more power wifi 
be concentrated in the hands of 
the ruling elite and die more cul- 
ture and development will be 
used to serve narrow interests. 

Many authoritarian govern- 
ments wish to appear in the fore- 
front of modem progress but are 
reluctant to institute genuine 
change. Such governments tend 
to claim that they are taking a 
uniquely national or indigenous 
path toward a political system in 
keeping with the times. It is often 
in the name erf cultural integrity as 


weD as social stability and national 
security that democratic reforms 
based on human rights are resisted 
by authoritarian governments. It is 
insinuated that some of the worst 
ills of Western society are the re- 
sult of democracy, which is seen as 
the progenitor of unbridled free- 
dom and selfish individualism. 

It is claimed that democratic 
values and human rights run 
counter to the national culture. 
The people are said to be as yet 
unfit for democracy. So an in- 
definite length of time has to 
pass before democratic reforms 
can be instituted. 

The first form of attack is often 
based on the premise, so univer- 


sally accepted that it is seldom 
chalk 


lenged, that the United States 
is the supreme example of demo- 
cratic culture. What lends to be 
overlooked is that although the 
United States is certainly the 
most important representative of 
democratic culture, it also repre- 
sents many other cultures, often 
intricately enmeshed. 

Among these are the “I-wam- 
it-all” consumer culture, super- 
power culture, frontier culture 
and immigrant culture. There is 


Carrot and Stick for Burma 

By Clare Hoilingworth 


JJONG KONG — The West is 


rightly angered by the con- 
tinued house arrest of the Nobel 
Peace Prize laureate Aung San 
Suu Kyi by the Burmese junta. 

But the rigid isolation imposed 
on Burma by General Ne Win has 
been slightly eased. Since the 
news was leaked that Ne Who, 83, 
had Parkinson’s disease, the jun- 
ta's better-educated second gen- 
eration lias gradually taken over 
most major state decisions. And 
General Khin Nyunt has lifted 
some restrictions on visits by 
tourists and foreign businessmen. 

Meanwhile, Burmese relations 
with China have improved. Barter 
trade has tgtoied up along the bor- 
der. Chinese engineers have super- 
vised the repair of two main roads 
from the border to the coastal 
town of Sittwe and to Rangoon. 
By early 1993 the number of Chi- 
nese working in Burma bad sur- 
passed 3,000. Some have helped 
rebuild rail lines or modernize the 
telecommunications system; cab- 
ers have enlarged naval docks to 
handle warship. To India’s cha- 
grin, Bajing has promised Ran- 
goon three naval assault vessels. 

The Chinese say their main ob- 
jective in helping Rangoon is to 


facilitate exports through Burma 
to Bangladesh and the West. But 
China is known to have obtained 
the right to establish naval listen- 
ing posts in the Bay of Bengal. 

Closer ties to China have not 
been all for the good. State fac- 
tories have had to reduce output, 
unable to compete with Chinese 
goods. This has led to joblessness 
and discontent in some towns. 

Many foreign diplomats favor a 
hard line against the junta. They 
say its opening to the West reflects 
only an urgent need for foreign 
currency; ibey seek not just an 
embargo on high-tech equipment 
but further steps to discourage 
tourism and trade as well 

The junta, no doubt sending a 
message to its critics, has drafted a 
new constitution. It calls for a 
small civilian role in government. 

In dealing with Burma, it seems 
dear that both carrot and stick are 
essential. Pressure to deprive the 
junta of military and high-tech 
equipment makes sense. But West- 
ern tourists and traders can only 
benefit Burma. Along with the 
samples of their goods, Weston 
traders often carry thoughts on 
political and democratic issues — 
a lesson China has learned. 

International Herald Tribune. 


also a strong media culture which 
constantly exposes the myriad 
problems of American society. 

Many of the worst ills of Amer- 
ican society are increasingly to be 
found in other developed coun- 
tries. They can be traced not to 
the democratic legacy but to the 
demands of modem materialism. 

Gross individualism and cut- 
throat morality arise when politi- 
cal and Intellectual freedoms are 
curbed on the one hand while on 
the other fierce economic com- 
petitiveness is encouraged by 
making material success the mea- 
sure of prestige and progress. The 
result is a society where cultural 
and human values are set aside 
and money values reign supreme. 

No political or social system is 
perfect But could such a powerful 
. and diverse nation as the United 
States have avoided disintegration 
if it had not been sustained by 
democratic institutions guaran- 
teed by a constitution based on 
the assumption that man’s capac- 
ity for reason and justice makes 
free government possible and 
that his capacity for passion and 
injustice makes it necessary? 

It is precisely because of the 
cultural diversity of the world 
that it is necessary for different 
nations and peoples to agree on 
those basic human values which 
wifi act as a unifying factor. 

When democracy and human 
rights are said to run counter to 
nrai- Western culture, such culture 
is usually defined narrowly and 
presented as monolithic. In fact, 
the values that democracy and hu- 
man rights seek to promote can be 
found m many cultures. Human 
beings the world over need free- 
dom and security to realize their 
full potential. The longing for a 
form of governance that provides 
security without destroying free- 
dom goes back a long way. 

Support for strong govern- 
ment and dictatorship can also 
be found in all cultures, both 
Eastern and Western. The desire 
to dominate and the tendency to 
adulate the powerful are com- 
mon human traits arising out of 
a desire for security. 

A nation may choose a system 
that leaves the protection of the 
freedom and security of the many 
dependent on the inclinations of 
the empowered few; or it may 
choose institutions and practices 
that will sufficiently empower in- 
dividuals and organizations to 
protect their own freedom and 
security. The choice will decide 
how far a nation will progress 
along the road to peace and hu- 
man development 


Third World now striving for 
meaningful development are mul- 
tiracial societies where there is 
one dominant racial group and a 
number — sometimes a large 
number — of smaller foreign, re- 
ligious or ethnic minorities. 

As with poverty, it is ultimately 
a question of empowerment The 
provision of basic material needs 
is not sufficient to make minority 
groups and indigenous peoples 
fed that they are truty part of the 
iter national entity. For that 
have to be confident that 
they, too, have an active role in 
shaping the destiny of the states 
that demand their allegiance. 

Poverty degrades a whole soci- 
ety and threatens its stability, 
while ethnic conflict and minority 
discontent are two of the greatest 
threats to both internal and re- 
gional peace. And when the dis- 
possessed “minority” is in fact an 
overwhelming majority, as hap- 
pens in countries where power is 
concentrated in the hands of the 
few, the threat to peace and sta- 
bility is ever present. 

Democracy as a system which 
aims at empowering the people is 
essential if sustained human de- 
it is to be achieved, 
fo single type of Western de- 
mocracy exists. Nor is democracy 
limited to a handful of forms, 
such as the American, British, 
French or Swiss. Each democratic 
country will have its own charac- 
teristics. With the spread of de- 
mocracy to Eastern Europe, the 
variety in the democratic style of 
government will increase. 

Similarly, there cannot be one 
form of Asian democracy. In each 


country, the democratic system 
will dwelop a character that ac- 
cords with its social, cultural and 
economic needs. But the basic re- 
quirement of a genuine democra- 
cy is that people should be suffi- 
ciency empowered to be able to 
participate significantly in the 
governance of their country. 

The 30 articles of the Uznveoal 
Declaration of Human Rights are 
aimed at such empowerment 
Without these rights, democratic 
institutions will be empty shells, 
incapable of reflecting the aspi- 
rations of the people and unable 
to withstand the encroachment 
of authoritarianism. 

The democratic process pro- 
vides for political and social 
change without violence. The 
democratic tradition of free dis- 
cussion and debate allows for 
the settlement of differences, 
without resort to armed conflict 

The culture of democracy and 
human rights promotes diversity 
and dyn amic without disinte- 
gration. It is indivisible from the 
culture of development and the 
culture of peace. - 

It is only by giving firm sup- ** 
port to movements that seek to 
empower the people through 
democratic means that the Unit- 
ed Nations and its agencies will 
truly be able to promote peace 
and development. 


T7us comment was adapted by 
the International Herald Tribune 
from an address prepared by the 
writer for delivery at a recent fines- 
co conference in Manila. The ad- 
dress was presented, at the request 


of the author, by Corazon Aquino, 
fan 


fanner president of the Philippines. 


IN OUR PAGES: 100, 75 AND 50 YF.ABS AGO 


1894: Russia to Stay Out 

ST. PETERSBURG — The Rus- 
aan press unanimously reject all 
idea of Russian intervention in 
Armenian and Macedonian af- 
fairs, for such intervention might 
involve Russia in dangerous coin-' 
plications and would only benefit 
the interests of England and Aus- 
tria-Hungary. This view is shared 
in Russian Governmental circles. 
Day by day the reports received 
regarding the recent atrocities in 
the Sasun district present them in 
a more horrible light. Large num- 
bers of Armenians have fled from 
their homes in Sasun on account 
of the reign of tenor which has set 
in, but many of the fugitives have 
been captured by the Turkish 
troops and thrown in prison. 


O Connor, Nationalist member 
for a Liverpool division and prev- 
tdttit of the Irish League in Great 
Britain, announcing that die 
League has decided to ally itself 
with tire British Labor party. The 
letter declares that the tragedy of 
the Irish situation is intensified 
from day to day, and the Irish in 
Great Britain must use their in* 
fluence as voters to oppose those 
on whom the responsibility rests 
for Ireland's oppression. 


1944: dose to Austria 


1919: New Labor Aliy 


LONDON — An open letter has 
been issued by Thomas Power 


LONDON — [From our New^ 
York edition:] Russian armored* 
forces yesterday [Dec. 6] drove 
across western Hungary to within 
forty-three miles of Austria and 
1 10 mfles of Vienna, while Mos- 
cow and Berlin indicated that 
strong Soviet land and air forces 
had launched an all-out assault to 
encircle Budapest with new Nows 
from the south and northeast. 


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I IIT'3 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 7, 1994 


Page 5 


OPINION 



..i? 


After the Mushroom Cloud, 
What Tastelessness Next? 


By Edwin M. Yoder Jr. 

Wlffi?™" i v “ ” ore vin “ ous 


"-j-tadfessM: 

Sg, mail that is delivered in a slow 
tackle, wen at 29 (soon to be 32} 

2®?r 15*. U>S * p °s*al Service has 
surpassed itself. 

ft has announced plans to issue a 
2B2 , S , 5!?5“ August 


ordinary hindsight. 
mi would have to be 



than 
You’ 

now not to see that Hiroshima 
was a Questionable turn in man- 
kind's long road. But that says 
nothing of the good faith of those 
who decided to use the bomb to end 
the war in 1943. 

It was not until The New Yorker 


outbnak of good taste, the stamp 
will picture, in color, the mush- 
room cloud that for half a century 
has symbolized the menace of 
atomic weaponry. 

A caption says: “Atomic bombs 
hasten war's end, August 1945." The 
stamp is described as one of a series 
nmiang the events of World War II. 

What next from the Postal Ser- 
ved? A stamp commemorating the 
firebombing of Dresden or Tokyo? 
Or starvation during the 900-day 
siege of Leningrad? The discovery of 
Auschwitz and other Nazi death 
camps, perhaps with skeletal in- 
mates in striped uniforms? 

Hiroshima’s incineration pro- 
duced the familiar photograph that 
the stamp reproduces. The city’s 
mayor has commented. “It is terri- 
-ble that they could be so heartless." 
But is the issue heartlessness 
or tastelessness? 

Try to imagine the reaction in 
America if the Japanese postal ser- 
vice had marked the 1991 anniversa- 
ry of Pearl Harbor with a stamp 
-picturing the Arizona sinking on 
battleship row, with a caption read- 
ing, let’s say: “Japanese aviators 
achieve surprise at Pearl Harbor, 
.December 1941.” 

- You will say, of course, that 
Pearl Harbor and Hiroshima »in«» 
'are great historical facts; and you 
will be right- No one argues that 
.the memory of either should be 
suppressed. But there are right 
ways and wrong ways to commem- 
orate the great tragedies and mis- 
fortunes of war. And it is be ginnin g 
to seem that no agency under Uncle 
Sam’s great umbrella can get this 
anniversary right. 

. At the Air and Space Museum in 
Washington, curators proposed an 
exhibit built around the Enola Gay, 
the B-29 that delivered the Hiroshi- 
ma bomb. In the preliminary plan- 
ning, however, the exhibit was to be 
dominated by revisionist after- 
thoughts. It was. to be a bath 
American guilt 

Nothing in the study of history is 
.cheaper than the exercise of un- 
earned sdf-righteonsness that do- 


sent John Herscy to report on Hiro- 
w months after the end of 


new 


shima, a few mon 
the Pacific war, and devoted an en- 
tire issue to his account of the 
bomb’s effects, that the historic sig- 
nificance began to be universally 
hily than did Hiroshima 
to be seen as the threshold of a 
era, in which mankind's 
tty toys” (as Churchill once 
called atomic weapons) threatened 
the world’s extinction. 

The U.S. Postal Service, appar- 
ently, has heard of none of this, 
or has learned nothing from it — as 
if hindsight shed no useful light 
on atomic weapons. 

If the Air and Space exhibit was 
enthralled by foolish revisionism, 
the Postal Service's imagination is 
still frozen in 1945, when even sen- 
tient statesmen could view Hiroshi- 
ma as just another turn of the screw 
in a war that had long since exceed- 
ed the limits solemnly affirmed 
at its outset. 

When the war began in 1939, de- 
liberate bombing of civilian popula- 
tions — whether the weapons were 
conventional high explosives, in- 
cendiary devices or something else 
— was repellent to civilized opin- 
ion, almost as much so as the use 
of poison gas. 

The German bombing of the 
Basque town of Guernica, during 
the Spanish Civil War, had out- 
raged the world and marked the 
outer limit, as of April 1937. Even 
Hitler was reluctant to be seen as a 
man who deliberately attacked cit- 
ies and civilian populations. 

In no time at all, these frail re- 
straints had collapsed. Old distinc- 
tions between combatants and non- 
combatants were no longer honored. 
In thm MWmg , Hiroshima might 
have seemed another in a grim list of 
cities devastated in the new “strate- 
gic" warfare, and not more wanton- 
ly than some others. It cannot be 
seen in that light today. 

The Hiroshima stamp should be 
canceled before it becomes a sym- 
bol for the world of American in- 
sensitivity and tastelessness. There 
are better ways to remember the 
end of the war. 

Washington Past Writers Group* 



Get This Look-at-Me Culture 
Out of Our Faces — Now! 


By Donna Britt 


W ASHINGTON — Look at me. 

Pay attention to me. Be fasci- 
nated by me. Love me. If you can't 
love me, then go ahead, hate me — 
at least you’re paying attention. 
Be repulsed, shocked or outraged by 
me. But look at me. 

Welcome to America, where if 
you could translate many people's 
most primal scream into words. 


MEANWHILE 


you’d hear “Look at me!” Today 

mil- 


LETTERS TO THE EDITOR 


Remembering the Bomb 


Regarding the report “U.S.Stai^^ 


Depicting Atomic Bombings Sets 
Outcry in Japan ” (Dec 3): 

As an Asian -American, I find the 


displeasure expressed by the Japa- 


lapa- 

nese government over the new U.S. 


stamp, which will picture an atomic 
mushroom cloud, unders tandab le 
but hypocritical A total of 210,000 
residents of Hiroshima and Nagasa- 
ki were killed by the atomic blasts. 
The Japanese Army killed far more 
innocent civilians during the Rape 
of N anking in China and in its occu- 
pation of other parts of East Asia 
during the war. The Japanese gov- 
ernment has made little effort to 
reveal the facts to its people: that 
Japan was the aggressor, that it 
pushed the United States into the 
war, and that the atomic bomb was a 
means to hasten the end of the war. 

As Japanese manufacturing sec- 
tors are increasingly shifting off- 
shore, it is critically important that 
Japan set the war record straight. 

P. L. LEE. 

Hong Kong. 


Thank yon for publishing “Then 
Here Were the Kamikazes* (Opin- 
ion, Oct. 21) and “Over Tokyo the 
Tail Gun Fell Silent" (Opinion, Dec 
2) by Denis Warner. 

My response to Japanese protests 
(and American revisionists) about 
the image of an atomic bomb on 
U.S. postage stamps: I was on the 
West Coast shipping out green con- 
scripts to the Japanese meat grind- 
ers m the Pacific. I fed no sympathy 
for Japan and only regret for the 
young American lives that were 
snuffed out in 1944 and 1945. 


Ignoring tbe Cause 


HERBERT MAZA. 
Aix-en-Provence, France. 


So Denis Warner thinks it right 
that hundreds of thousands of Japa- 
nese civilians should have been 
slaughtered to protect U.S. soldiers. 
Funny, I always thought soldiers 
were supposed to kill other soldiers. 

LESLIE SCHENK. 

Chevilly-Larue, France. 


the report “Filipinos 
’Atrocities** (OcL 28): 

Unfortunately, tbe Japanese gov- 
ernment censors all textbooks used in 
school It has the right to force their 
authare to rewrite some parts. We 
Japanese students haven’t learned 
about “the Rape of Nanking” and so- 
called “comfort women.” 

In Japanese schools, students and 
teachers focus on cr amming for the 
infamous college entrance examina- 
tion, and don't care about the back- 
ground or cause of events. Japanese 
Students have few chances to leam 
about the war. We learn history from 
such an early era tint we couldn’t 
possibly cover all ages. 

I am convinced that we should 
study the war first. If not, our train 
it derail again - 

TAKASHI OGIWARA. 

Tokyo. 


the demand is so great, from a 
lion shrieking me’s, that it is damn 
near deafening. 

A blessing and a curse, “look at 
me” fuels both towering art and 
irredeemable crap: dance, music 
and literature that forever ill umin e, 
and fortysomething moms on tele- 
vision talk shows who brag about 
stealing their teenage daughters’ 
beaux and then revel in audience 
members’ disdain . 

“Look at me-itis” is a virus that’s 
spreading. Examples: 

• A videotape; filmed at a Prince 
George’s County, Maryland, swim- 
ming pool, of several young women 
at a go-go party doffing their swim- 
suits, gyrating and then providing 
the camera with intimate views 
marry women would hesitate to give 
their gynecologists. 

• The phenomenon at some rock 
and heavy metal concerts of youn° 
women removing their tops and 
shaking their breasts for cheering 
strangers as a camera projects the 
imajge onto huge screens. 

• The bizarre moment last sum- 
mer, related in a recent New Yorker 
article, when the brilliant dancer- 
choreographer Bill T. Jones was per- 
forming and spied two children in 

ice. He looked at the “two 


black (hang.” Others, like the for- 
mer Pittsburgh SteelerLynn Swann, 
insist, “It’s a sports thing.” 

While blade athletes like Daon 
Sanders have set the standard, most 
— from Jim Brown in the past to 
Jerry Rice today — eschew the antics. 

The acceptance, even celebration, 
of “lode at me” is a '90s thing. 
A culture-wide thing. 

It is a we-know-better thing, even 
for 10-year-olds like Felix Ruiz, of 
Silver Spring, Maryland. Felix 
Thinks it's funny when pro players 
“showboat” But as a talented play- 
er on a local team, Felix has never 
showed off, because “it’s unsports- 
manship ... If you're not a good 
sport, people get mad at you, then 
you get in a fight" 

Exactly. Which is why “look at 
me” has become an “Enough, al- 
ready!” thing. 

Inevitably, “look at me” gives no 
thought to anybody but you. Sports 
inevitably results in victor and van- 
quished. Any child knows losing is 
tough enough without some jerk 
rubbing your face in it 
Life is tough too. And it is stupid 
and hypocritical to accept, even to 
laud, blatant look-at-me-ism when it 
titillates or amuses — as in Sharon 


Stone's flashin g in “Basic Instinct,” 
and certain comics’ tasteless shrieks 


Hiroshima commemorative 
would play nicely into the 
hands of fringe dements in Japan, 
left and right Aren’t there enough 
anti-American demonstrators out- 
ride the US. Embassy in Tokyo? 

ARTHUR BORGES. 

Paris. 


The atomic bombs dropped over 
Nagasaki and Hir oshima were atroc- 
ities of unacceptable proportions, to- 
tally illegal by the standards laid 
down by the Geneva Conventions. 
As an Australian I’m ashamed we 
woe allied to those who perpetrated 
this crime against humanity. The use 
of atomic bombs anywhere and at 
any time can never be justified. 

CARLJAMESASIMUSr 
Wdssenstadt, Germany. 


A Stem Admonition 


I would hope that the U.S. 
Navy’s face is as red as the Achille 
Lauro’s glowing hull was (“Achille 
Louro Drifts in Flames,” Dec. 1). 
Even the article’s writer knows that 
the proper word is “stern,” not as 
Commander T. McCready, U.S. 
Navy spokesman, would have it, 
the “backend of the ship.” 

R. SHOTTON. 
Rome. 


innocents,” dropped his pants and 
briefly exposed himself. He later 
apologized, but said be wanted to 
“make reference to the power of my 
body ... tie taboo it represents.” 

In other words, to make them 
lode at him. 

In a thought-provoking piece in 
The Washington Post, J. A. Adande. 
examined the phenomenon in 
sports, particularly football (with its 
fancy, post-touchdown dances) and 
basketball (with certain players' 
tamiting and in-your-face dunks). 


Proponents say, hey, it's about 
style and attitude. “If s showman- 


ship, it's [expletive] you,” the cultur- 
al critic Nelson George said in the 
Adande piece. Because some of the 
more flamboyant practitioners are 
African American, some say it is “a 


— and at other times deplore it. 

Where “look at me” is primarily, 
and tragically, a black tiring is on city 
streets; there, in-your-face too often 
results in in-yonr-grave. Every black 
adult in America needs to be pulling 
some kid’s coattail screaming that 
life, not some bonefaeaded notion of 
manhood, is worth fighting for. 
When your only power is derived 
from exulting ova others* failure, 
you are pitiful indeed. It takes 20 
times the guts and class — remember 
that word? — to restrain “natural” 
impulses than to cave in to them. 
To think of someone rise. 

Docs Bill Jones care what effect his 
“artistic” display had on those chil- 
dren? “An artist doesn’t have to do 
anything" Mr. Jones said later. “I 
know that’s an invitation to irrespon- 
sibility, but . . . artists should be the 
freest people in society 

WriL, everyone is an artist, or 
thinks he or she is. But unless ail of 
America rediscovers restraint as an 
art form, milli ons more will discover 
what too many hard young brothers 
find after their refusal to be “dissed” 
— disrespected — lands them in the 
cemetery: Some grass, some flowers, 
a lot of respectful silence. 

And nobody to look at you. 

Washington Post Writers Groiq/. 



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Page 6 


BNTEBWATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 7, 199* 


Serbs Break Word, 



whose plight is increasingly des- 

Sssss 

personnel Tissday. promising esttown in Serbian new bv ™ 

" . cuffi>nn?T 


HCI 3UILUVI 1 -j ■ 1- — 

io release an officer suffering 
from a serious heart ailment 
only to rer.e-e on the comnat- 
and lake two more peace- 
keepers captive. 

V/ar as wa, gee by the Bosnian 
Serbs has always involved the 
humi!iai- r o victims. In gen- 
eral they have been Muslim ci- 
v'li'cs. including women and 
children. But over the last three 
^eeV-., the Serbs have brougnt 
c^i’ar methods to bear on UN 
sc-'d'crs in Bosnia and have met 
no£~ed response. 

■>, Friday, the leader of the 
Bosnian Serbs, Radovan Kar- 
adzic. promised to release all 
UN personnel, 349 of whom are 
beina held. That number does 
-o; “include the Bangladeshi 
ballon trapped inside me 
northwestern Bihac pocket. 


est town 

an territory. Three UN officers 
— a Jordanian, a Bangladeshi 
and a Czech — have bam held 
by the Serbs for more than two 
weeks and were forced on one 
occasion to park their vehicles 
for eight hours on the runways 
of two airfields as “human 
shields" against any NATO air 

strike. .. 

The Jordanian, a 39-year-old 
officer whose name was not di- 
vulged by the UN, suffers from 
a serious heart condition. Un- 
der an agreement reached with 
the Serbs, a UN officer from 
Spain was to take his place as a 
replacement hostage-. 

But when the Spaniard and a 
Czech officer arrived at Banja 
Luka, they, loo, were detained 
by the Serbs, bringing the num- 
ber of captives to five. 



Split in Republican 



; “the most antiseptic an--, 

Gaffing air. strikes pressing a view 

Wadungfim Past Sendee * Mr. McC»“ Strikes alOW: 

WASHINGTON - Two leadmgSenaje ^ by ^Warner - »* • 

would do & would 

underscored their recent call Massive nmnbem McCain sad,- 

sa^ff-ssssS-'-r*' 

Serbian forces in die ijnjtle among to do that” - the United; 


S^S^K 1 


States insurgents 

Sas«g|SS. 


^jeoigia, iuiu 

mer decorated navy pilot. 


arming 
(Serbs. 


ATT ,TFiS: Fresh Indications of Instability in Europe 

111 „ « ™ Even Germany, once 


bsTbringUig the num- a*. - 

- tl "r^COHEN Sarajevo’s sole Orthodox priest, Avakum Rosie, hokfing a funeral in a cemetery Tuesday 

,rth western Bihac pocket. — ROGfcK , 

jEEBSs U.S.Acceding^SomaofTheirDerm ^ c 

_ .. . r> , „ twjrri nf for the Bosnian government, cbflng . eS J ^ r wi’ thfsobsk Serbia, Slobodan Milosevic 




Continued frem Page! they wer^ up a J^ t ^£&EZS£&i 

al mediators were prepared to the temtoiyth^h^^^ eningtheir hold on Sarajevo 
help Serbs and Muslims agree p^txpian re^ure^th^wn poundings makes 

on changing the map, provided ednenm, m° official said the sense," the official said. 

division was One Weston offiaal said m xux, strategic grounds, 

“contact group that . haa _ is ‘J rue ^ J But Gorazde, Zepa 

drawn the map the United c«hrt»niea have deep moral 
States, Britain. France, Russia, resonance for the Bosnian gov- 

and Germany - now had a «mjw £,n_ 

sp ^tob?!&d iS3l?thS SSSSe the Serbs' destruction 

of the Muslim commumryjn 

der of the acutely vulnerable 
Musiim enclaves in the east — 

Gorazde, Zepa, and Srebrenica 

in exchange for Serbian-held 

land in and around Sarajevo. 

“The general feeling is that 
the eastern enclaves are proba- 
bly indefensible in the long run 


on cnangmg me iuo*», »«»■■■*«»• — 
that the 5I-to-49 division was 
maintained. 

Considering that the Serbs 
were supposed to be punished 
for rejecting the peace plan in 
July, this amounted to a gener- 


ous package. 

Toe iasl point — possible 
changes to the map — is the 
most important to the Bosnian 
Serbs. Thev dismissed the map 
proposed ‘in Julv as leaving 
them with territory that was too 
fragmented and too pool in nat- 
ural resources, and lacking in- 
dustry and access to the sea. If 


eastern Bosnia, with several 
hundred thousand civilians 
driven at gunpoint from their 
homes. 

' Thus the government seems 
certain to reject such an ex- 
change. Indeed, it has repeated- 
ly said it will not accept any 


Range s to the map, wtach it 
accepted in July. And the Serbs, 
who have seen all credible 
threats of NATO force evapo- 
rate as they have pursued then- 
counterattack on Bihac, m the 
northwest, now want more than 
the eastern enclaves. 

Mr. Karadzic wants part of 
Sarajevo, which he sees as the 
future capital of a Serbian state. 
He wants a wider corridor con- 
necting Serb-held land in east- 
ern and western Bosnia. And he 
wants more of Bosnia’s towns 
and less of its empty mountain- 
ous regions. 

Certainly any compromise 
has become more difficult Tne 
bitter conflict between Mr. 


Karadzic and the president of 
Serbia, Slobodan Milosevic, 
that flared over the peace plan, 
which Mr. Milosevic deemsrea- 
sonable, has made a Serbian 
federation less attractive to 
both men. Mr. Karadzic now 
wants nothing less than his own 
state. 

But even a Serbian federation 
is unacceptable to the Bosnian 
government which sees in it the 
seed of Bosnia's final demise. 
And President Ahja Izetbego- 
Vic’s disgust over the Wests 
abandonment of Bihac, which 
the United Nations had said it 
would protect has put him in 
an unyielding mood. 



concern about Europe’s future 

Russian leaders that U.5. in- 
volvement in Europe has start- 
ed seriously eroding,, according 
to American and European of- 
ficials. , 

These concerns have shar- 
pened because of apprehen- 
sions that the new Republuxm- 
conirolled Congress in tne 
United States may be more uni- 
lateralist in security affairs, per- 
haps even isolationist. 

While rejecting suggestions 
of a vacuum of American pow- 
er a U.S. policvmaker conced- 
ed this week that the perception 
of a U.S. retreat has. momen- 
tarilv at least, worsened the out- 
look in Bosnia, 

tance to changing NATO and 
highlighted mistrust among 
Western leaders. . 

In Bosnia. Western hopes 
hinge largely on the president of 
Serbia, "Slobodan Milosevic, 
U.S. and European officials 
say. 

“Milosevic’s interest lies in 
seeing an end to the war and the 
embargo on Serbia, and gettrng 
international recognition of ms 
conquests and perhaps a hmt 
that he might one day be con- 


sidered eligible for a 

senior U-S. diplomat said- 
It is a gamble on Mr. Milose- 
vic's interest in a deal ^at has 
misled Western «*ouatar? so 
often during the three years of 
war in the former Yugoslavia. 
He may be swayed this tune, 
diplomats, say, because he can 
see that the West is starting to 
tilt toward a “widukaw and 
lift" policy, one m winch UN 
peacekeepers leave and heavy 
weapons for Bosnia’s Muslim- 
led government arrive. 

That option, spelled out by 
the British foreign secretary, 
Douglas Hard, in Belgrade, fits 
with a statement by Foreign 
Minister Alain Juppfe of France 
at the Bucharest meeting on 
Tuesday. Mr. Jupp6 said that 
UN forces should leave Bosnia 
“in the next few weeks" unless 
peace can be reached. The 
French Navy has ordered an 

aircraft earner to proceed to the 

Adriatic to help in a withdraw- 
al 


On changing NATO, the 



acuguibubu . . 

to follow Washington’s urging 
on extending the alliance to in- 
clude Poland, Hungary, the 
rwh Republic and other East 
European democracies. 


Even. Germany, once the 
stronwst US. ally on this issue, .. 
has tilted toward caution, ap- 
parently because of doubts' 
about the Cfinton admixiistw- . 
tion’s staying power. • : 

France, where diplomatic nn- 
tiatrve is paralyzed by a presi- 
dential election campaign. Is 
split between the anti-Amcn- - 
can tonerof President Francois^ 

■ Mitterrand and younger ponti- 
Hqtis who, would like'to-.'WCTk- 
mean closely with Washington. . 

: president Bill Clinton’s sud- 
den loss of credibility was evi- 
dent tins week when he made 
only a token appearance at the 
Budapest summit meeting and 
Europeans did not bother to 
fed snubbed. - ? ’■ 

Now, the Europeans see the 

specter of Russian assertiveness 

in Bosnia, with Moscow’s first 
Security Council veto on the 
issue, a vote that suggests the 
a p proaching end of U.S. ability 
to extract whatever it needs : 
from President Boris N- Yelt- 
sin. : ■ 

“The question is whether 
tougher noises from Russia wffi 
scare the allies into dosing 
tanks or whether we will stu m-, 
ble into something worse, in 
Moscow and in our own coun- 
tries^ a European official al- 
NATOsaid. 


SUMMIT: Moscow Blocks M References to Bosma 


Continued from Page 1 

the meeting from calling offi- 
cially on Bosnian Serbs to end 
fighting around Bihac and else- 
where in Bosnia 
The action enraged the Mus- 
lim-led Bosnian government. 
For the second time in two days 
delegates sat in embarrassed si- 
lence as their countries were be- 
rated for their behavior toward 
the Bosnian people. 

“The people of Bosnia-Her- 
zegovina have been betrayed, 
Mr. Hadziahmetovic^said. 
“You owe us protection." 

The host country. Hungary, 
issued a bland statement re- 
peating previous calls for a gen- 
eral cease-fire and access for 


humanitarian aid. Even that 
was not made an o ffi c i a l confer- 
ence document, because of Bos- 
nian objections. 

Moscow's fears of losing in- 
fluence in a changing Europe 
led Boris N. Yeltsin in a speech 
on Monday to accuse the Unit- 
ed States and NATO of trying 
to exclude and isolate his coan- 
try. ‘ • ‘ . 

“Why sow the seeds of mis- 
trust? After all, we are no longer 
enemies — we are all partners 
now,” the Russian president 
said at Monday’s opening ses- 
sion, where he attacked NA- 
TO’s plans to admit other for- 
mer Warsaw Pact nations- 

A senior U.S. official insisted 


it was business as usual with 
Mr. Yeltsin on most issues but 
acknowledged some tensions 
with Moscow as it stands ex.; 
eluded from NATO and tbeF^ 
ropean Union • - 

On the plus side of this ledger 
was agreement to create- the or- 
ganization's first .peacekeeping 
TottSs^tp police an uneasy cease- 
fire in N agoroo-Karabakh, an 
ethnic Armenian enclave in for- 
mer Soviet Azerbaijan/ • 

Di plomats said no peace- 
keepers would be Sent, however, 
until a formal truce was de- 
clared and the warring sides be- 

m "** k $^Ar.AFP) 


ITALY: Crusading Magistrate Quits, Stunning Nation 


The Moors didn’t cross the Sierra Nevada on skis. 

But don’t let that stop you. 

They were busy creating-countless courtyards and squares throughout the cities of Andalusia. 
Masterpieces of cultural fusion like the incomparable Alhambra in Granada • Set against 
the startling backdrop of the Sierra Nevada mountains where the snow lingers deep and 
long from November until late May on the ski slopes of Sol y Nieve. the resort chosen to 
host the ’95 World' Ski Cup„- This southernmost ski paradise in Europe has the facilities 
to attract the best in the world and the sunny climate, as its name suggests, to appeal to 
those more normally prone'to water skiing • And a mere 28 kilometres and forty minutes 
down the road, in the timeless tranquillity of Moorish Spain, you can look back on 

the snowy triumphs of a morning on the piste. 



Passion 
for life 


Con tin tied from Page 1 
lost one of the stars of the ‘Ital- 
ian Revolution.’ " said Carlo 
De Benedeui, the Olivetti com- 
puter magnate who was inter- 
viewed by Mr. Di Pietro in May 
1993 and acknowledged that his 
company had paid bribes. 

Mr. Berlusconi said the mag- 
istrate’s departure “leaves a bit- 
ter taste even in the mouths of 
those who have considered 
parts of his inquiries question- 
able.” . 

But Mr. Berlusconi made it 
clear that he saw the move as a 
boost for his campaign to re- 
store what he called Tuesday 
“normality and balance in the 
administration of justice” after 
the frenetic, headline- grabbing 
years of the "Marti Puttie" — 
“clean hands" — inquiries that 
decapitated Italy’s onetime 
business and political elite. 

The development was the lat- 
est in a mounting confrontation 
between Mr. Berlusconi and the 
Milan graft investigators, a con- 
frontation whose outcome has 


been regarded as crucial in de- 
termining whether Italy’s 
much-vaunted “Second Repub- 
lic" draws a line beneath the 
corruption inquiries or pursues 
them to the end.. 

And it left many Italians 
wondering whether the drive 
for renewal had reached a wa- 
tershed. 

While Mr. Di Pietro’s resig- 
nation does not formally mean 
tha t corruption inquiries will 
come to a halt, it could well 
mean that the inquiries will pro- 
ceed with far leu momentum 
and sense of a righteous cru- 
sade. 

And, among some Italians, it 
is bound to be taken as a victory 
for Mr. Berlusconi, signaling 
the be ginning of the end for the 
Mani Pulite inquiries, which 
started in February 1992. 

The chief Milan prosecutor, 
Francesco Saverio BorreUi, Mr. 
Di Pietro's superior and head of 
the city’s graft investigators, 
said at a news conference after 
accepting the resignation: “Our 


work will go ahead regardless, 
without pause, without fear and 
without weakness. 

“I can add that neither 1 nor 
any erf my colleagues intend. to 
leave our posts," he declared. 

In what seemed a parting 
shot in court Tuesday, Mr. Di 
Pietro asked for a 10-month jail 
term for Umberto Bossi, Mr. 
Berlusconi's rambunctious co- 
alition partner and head of the 
federalist Northern League, 
which rose to prominence tilt- 
ing against the corruption of 
Italy’s old guard. 

Mr. Bossi was one of 24 de- 
fendants, including former 
Prime Minister Bettino Craxi, 
in what magistrates have called 
“the mother of all trials," which 
involved huge payments made ^ 
by the Fenuzzi company to po- * 
litical parties. Mr. Bossi was ac- 
cused of accepting an unde-, 
dared campaign' contribution 
of SI 25,000. The sentence still 
has to be confirmed. Mr. Boss 
denies knowledge of the pay- 
ment 


STAR WARS: The Death Ray That Refused to Die 


Continued from Page 1 


completely. 


“It's either too 

muen or not enough/* John 
E. Pike, who is in charge of 
space policy for the Federation 
of American Scientists, a pri- 
vate group based in Washing- 
ton. 

“Imperfect defenses are 
worthless,” Mr. Pike added, be- 
cause the destructiveness of a 
single nuclear blast is so great 

In 1993, the Clinton adminis- 
tration declared space-based 
defenses dead, in a move that 
was largely symbolic. Some 
programs were cut back, but the 
anti-missile research is still be- 
ing funded at about S3 billion a 
year, bringing its total cost for 
the decade lo about $35 billion. 

Alpha and allied programs, 
their budgets now tight got 
enough money lo keep evolving 
and growing through the rise 
and fall of a host of futuristic 
alternatives for space arma- 
ments like X-ray lasers, neutral 
particle beams and space-based 
kinetic kill vehicles. In short. 
Alpha is the death ray that re- 
fused to die. 


“This program has survived 
lots and lots of turmoil because 
it has a very high potential pay- 
off,” said Daniel R. Wildt an 
advanced systems manager at 
TRW Inc., Alpha’s main con- 
tractor. 

The principal allure pf chem- 
ical lasers is that they require no 
electricity, drawing their power 
instead from simple chemical 
reactions. Alpha's lasing action 
is produced by the combustion 
of hydrogen and fluorine, a tox- 
ic, corrosive, yellowish gas that 
is the most reactive of the de- 
ments. 

The laser’s beam of concen- 
trated light is designed to pro- 
duce 11 millio n watts of ener- 
gy, making it the nation’s most 
powerful military laser, experts 
outride the government say. Of- 
ficially, the power of the beam 
is secret, with contractors say- 
ing only that it is hot enough to 
melt metal and that the energy 
intensity at the core of the laser 
is several times that of the sur- 
face of the sun. 

To date, Alpha has been fired 
1 1 times, most recently in Au- 

gUSL 


Among the laser’s heavier 
components were its mirrors, 
which had ponderous water- 
cooling systems to prevent ex- 
treme heat from shattering 
them. One recent development, 
tested during the Aiigqst firing, 
were coatings that make mir- 
rors so reflective that they need 
no cooling. 


Eritrea Breaks 
Ties With Sudan 

Agence France- Prase 

NAIROBI — Eritrea broke 
off diplomatic relations with 
Sudan on Tuesday, accusi n g the 
Muslim fundamentalist mili- 
tary junta in Khartoum of seek^ 
ing to destabilize the govern* 
merit in Asmara, Eritrean 
Radio reported. 

The government in the Horn 
of Africa nation has accused 
Sudan several times of training 
terrorists to destabilize it, a 
claim strongly denied by the 
regime in Khartoum. 









** 



Page 7 


Japanese 
Bar Direct 
War Fund 

"Comfort Women 9 
Are Rebuffed 

Rnaers 

Jfiaally Tuesday to make no 
™ rcct government payments to 
g 0m p eosate women who had 
p® forced into providing sex 
for Japanese soldiers during 
World War IL 

The chief cabinet secretary 
K-ozo Igarashi, said Japan 
would only fi n ance a previously 
announced SI billion program 
to atone for Japan's war time 
atrocities. 

The fund would be used over 
the next 10 years for exchange 
programs and to build voca- 
tional training centers for wom- 
en in countries that suffered 
atrocities. 

A panel of Prime Minister 
Tomiichi Murayama’s govern- 
ing coalition parties, formed to 

■ study the “comfort women” is- 
► sue, urged the gover nmen t last 

wedk to belp establish a private 
fund to pay direct compensa- 
tion to women forced into sexu- 
al slavery. 

Mr. Igarashia said the gov- 
ernment might help pay for 
“operational and preparation” 
costs if a private fund was es- 
• tablished. 

The private fund would be 
made up of voluntary contribu- 
tions from the Japanese public. 

In recent weeks, Japan has 
come under pressure from for- 
mer comfort women who dem- 
onstrated for reparations and 
from a report by the Interna- 
tional Commission of Jurists 
that said Tokyo had a moral 
and legal duty IQ malm fnumrial 
restitution. 

The commission report de- 
tailed how the Japanese Army 
set up a system to force an esti- 
mated 100,000 to 200,000 wom- 
en into farced sex. 

Chinese, Dutch, Filipinos, 
Indonesians, Koreans, Malay- 
sians and Taiwanese, some just 
13 years old, were used in 
brothels and went through “un- 
imaginable violence and crnel- 
, ty,” thereport said. 

Japan insists that the <|ues- 

■ tion of war reparations, either 
.to nations or to individuals, was 
nettled under the 1952 San 

Francisco Peace Treaty." 



WahjT DWadWa/Agicixc Fr»j-rio» 

PREPARES FOR ELECTIONS — A policeman with ballot boxes en route to poDing places Tuesday in 
Windhoek, Namibia. General elections on Thursday and Friday will be the first since independence in 1990. 


Sudan’s Soft-Spoken Master 

Islamic Leader Defies Revolutionary Stereotype 


Ronald Edwards, U.K. Train Robber, Dies 


New York Tunes Service 

Ronald Edwards, a flower 
seller who bad served a jail term 
for his part in the 57 millio n 
Great Train Robbery in Britain 
in 1963, has been found dead in 
London. He was in his early 60s 
and lived in London. 

He was found han ging by his 
neck in a garage, the British 
newspaper The Independent re- 
ported. An inquest was opened 
on Thursday and adjourned un- 
til Feb. 7. 

Mr. Edwards, known as Bust- 
er, was (me of more than a doz- 
en accomplices involved in the 
robbery. His life became the 
subject of a 1988 movie, “Bust- 
er. 

He told an interviewer once 
that selling Dowers in his later 
years was “so boring” com- 
pared with the life be had been 
leading. 

By tampering with signal 
lights, the robbers halted a 
night mail train at an isolated 
spot in southern England. They 
clubbed the engineer and made 
off with bags containing £2.6 
million in used British bank- 
notes, the equivalent of $7 mil- 
lion in those days. 

Most of the robbers were 


captured, but only one-fourth 
of the money was recovered. 

Afterward, Mr. Edwards 
took his share of the money and 
made his way, with his family, 
to Mexico. But the money 
dwindled, and in 1966, Mr. Ed- 
wards returned to London, sur- 
rendered and was charged at 
Aylesbury in Buckinghamshire 
with participation in the rob- 
bery. Later that year he was 
convicted and sentenced to 15 
years in prison. 

Mr. Edwards was released 
from jail early, in 1975, and had 
a flower stall at Waterloo Sta- 
tion until his death. 

Gian Maria Volonte, 61, 
Italian Film Actor 

ATHENS (AP) — Gian Ma- 
ria Volonte, 61, one of Italy’s 
most famous actors, was found 
dead Tuesday in his hold room 
in the northern Greek town of 
Fiorina. 

A Fiorina police official said 
there appeared to be no suspi- 
cious circumstances in the 
death. 

Mr. Volonte, was filming of 
“The Gaze of Odysseus,” which 
is being directed by Theodores 


Angdopoulos. 
Mr. Volonte 


dome began his film 



Ream 

AND WHERE’S SOCKS’S STOCKING? — Hie front of the While House card 
being gent out for the holidays, featuring a rendering of the mansion’s Red Room. 

from a Mississippi River levee near 
KirksviSe, Missouri, during the height of the 
summer 1993 floods. 

James R. Scott, 24, had told friends that he 
wanted to break the levee to strand his es- 
tranged wife at her job across the river. Cir- 
cuit Judge Bruce Nornrile said a life sentence 
was warranted by the defendant's record as a 
convicted arsonist and burglar and the extent 
of the damage he caused. The water ripped 
through a mile-long business strip, destroyed 
buddings and closed the only bridge within 
200 miles for 71 days. 

Worstifeers at the Shrine of the Holy Re- 
deemer, a Roman Catholic church only a 
block from four of the biggest casinos in Las 
Vegas, are invited to drop gambling chips in 
the collection plate. Now and then a 5500 
dm> turns up. 

Sometimes visitors ask the priest, “Father, 
will you pray forme to win?” Father Patrick 
Leary said, *1 tell them if it was that easy, do 
they thmk we’d still have' a debt on this 
place?” 

Joe Carlisle caDed police after he heard 
gunshots hitting his Fort Wayne, Indiana, 
house. He said someone was shooting from 
outside. 

But the police found that Mr. Carlisle had 
hidden his loaded semiautomatic in his oven 
that night, forgotten it was there and then 
turned on the oven. The pistol wanned up and 
fired bullets through the oven into kitchen 
walls. No one was injured. 

International Herald Tribune. 


AMERICAN 

TOPICS 

Ex-Surgeon General Lays Into Fat 

More health advice from C Everett Koop, 
who crusaded against smoking and for frank 

AIDS education when he was surgeon generaJ 
in Ronald Reagan’s administration. 

“Eat sensibly. Exercise regularly. Drop a 
few pounds. Shape np ” 

Those are the watchwords of the crusade 
against obesity that the 78 -year-old pediatry 
sujggon, launched this week with his nonprof- 
it health foundation. , 

With endorsements from a phalanx ol mea- 
, 4 n.Mnal tutrkimr from maiOT 


Dr. Koop’s “Shape .up Amm- 
car fampaig n aims to promote the benefits 

of even modest weight losses. 

One in three U.S. adults — 32 milbon 
women and 26 million men — are obwe or 
overweight, and one in five teenagersis agrnf- 

i ^°^ L Dr.Koop^;ob S it y - 

related conditions are the seamd-leirfmg 
Suse of death in the U,S„ resulting m about 
300,000 lives lost each year.” 


in sot nr--- -- 

for inundating 14,000 acres (5,600 
s) of farmland by removing five sand- 


Arkansas Top Court Dims Christmas Display 


ID 

z K, Arkansas 
sas Supreme 
that a home- 
as display that 
.a nds of gaWk- 
OO much of a 
nust be down- 


“WeH definitely take further 
gal action,” said Sam Peronni 
Little Rock, attorney for the 
Jennings Osborne family, 
which annually puts up what 
may be the largest privately 
owned arrangement of Christ- 
mas decorations — including 
some 3 million red tight bulbs. 


Mr. Osborne, a wealthy bio- 
medical research .executive, has 
covered his mammoth subur- 
ban Little Rock estate with 
Christmas lights for years, aug- 
menting the glowing bulbs with 
figurines like an 18-foot (6-me- 
ter) high Sl Nicholas and other 
Yule commemorations. 


career in 1960 and made his 
mark playing famous charac- 
ters, real or fictional, such as 
Aldo More in “The More Af- 
fair” in 1986 and Enrico Mat lei, 
the former head of the Italian 
oil company who died in a mys- 
terious plane crash, in “The 
Maltd Affair” in 1972 

Virjpti© Martinbo, 65, the 
Portuguese author and play- 
wright, died Sunday after a long 
illness, in Lisbon. 

Jacob Kaplan, 99, a former 
chief rabbi of France, died 
Monday from a lung ailmen t, in 
Paris. 

Professor Arthur Frank 
Shore, 70, a British Egyptolo- 


gist who was an expert on Egypt 
in Late Antiquity and who 
taught at Liverpool University 
from 1974-1991, died on Nov. 
27 at Southport, England. No 
cause of death was given. 

Clement Biddle Wood Jr., 69, 
a novelist who for many years 
was an editor of The Paris Re- 
view, died Sunday of complica- 
tions from colon cancer at 
Southampton Hospital on Long 
Island, New York. 

Jtdio Rankin Ribeyra, 65, the 
Peruvian writer who earlier this 
year won Latin America’s Juan 
Rulfo Award for literature, died 
Sunday of complications from 
cancer. 


By Chris Hedges 

New York Tima Service 

KHARTOUM, Sudan — This country is 
bankrupt and locked in a vicious civil war. It has 
become an international pariah over what West- 
ern diplomats describe as its active support for 
armed militant movements seeking to topple 
governments in Egypt, Algeria, Tunisia and Sau- 
di Arabia, and for egregious h uman rights 
abuses. 

Yet Hassan Turabi. by all accounts the mas- 
termind of the Sudanese government, defies the 
stereotype of the Islamic revolutionary. 

He has studied law in Paris and London, and 
he says he respects Western culture, along with 
the Christian and Jewish faiths. He says be wants 
Islamic militant movements to have a harmoni- 
ous relationship with the West. He denounces 
sectarianism, criticizing Shiite movements that 
exdude other sects, and calls on Muslims to 
“move forward to a new form of Islam” that is 
more inclusive. 

“The Muslims are not allowed to wage war. 
only resistance." he said in an interview, which 
was conducted in English- “ Jihad means resis- 
tance in Arabic. Struggle, not war. It is wrong to 
translate this as *boly war.' The Muslim has to 
relate to people peacefully. 

“I know most of the leadership of the Islamic 
movement in the Muslim world and they are not 
against the West. They just want to defend their 
identity and experience, although the West is 
vulnerable to Islam because very tittle Christian- 
ity is left there.” 

Mr. Turabi’s conciliatory tone has come to 
epitomize the new and more flexible leadership 
in the region's Islamic movement, and is being 
adopted by other militant leaders. 

Many argue that the Sudanese leader has be- 
come adept at tdling Western audiences what 
they want to hear, rather than what he actually 
believes. 

“Turabi is political to the core,” said a West- 
ern ambassador. “He has political ambitions and 
political instincts. He has strong opinions, some 
of which, unfortunately, are based on very inac- 
curate information bordering on the bizarre. He 
is arrogant, contemptuous of most people he 
meets and has an agenda that clearly transcends 
Sudan.” 

But the 62-year-old Mr. Turabi dismisses his 
critics. “They think that I am behind all Islamic 
movements in the world,” he said, “and in a' 
simple way they think that after the fall of 
communism. Islam should be the next target.” 


Despite his tone, he defends attacks by the 
. *m,m HamaS 


deadly 


Palestinian militant Islamic group 
against Israeli civilians, including the 
bombing of a commuter bus in Tel Aviv. 

“Hamas is concerned about the collapse of 
official Arab opinion with the Pales tin ia n issue,” 
he said. “Unless they do something dramatic, no 
one will be remin ded that the Palestinian issue is 
alive. Also, no one says anything about how 
many Palestinians the Israelis are deta inin g. 
They feel they have to counter the Israelis and 
excite Arab opinion. I understand this. 

Although Mr. Turabi has no official govern- 
ment position, he exercises great influence 
through the political party he heads, the Nation- 
al Islamic Front. His associates control many key 
positions in government, including the intelli- 
gence services. 

He frequently mentions his familiarity with 
Western culture, political life, religion ana juris- 
prudence. He said he had read 100 books on 
Christianity, although he had trouble naming 
any theologians other than the Catholic Hans 
Kung, whom he once meL 

Mr. Turabi also says that the CIA, along with 
the Egyptian intelligence service, is plotting to 
assaRifmala him. And he h latwe s the CIA for an 
attack on him in May 1992 at the Ottawa airport 
by a Sudanese karate champion. 

- The Israelis, he says, manipulate numerous 
American institutions, including “almost every 
American newspaper, the National Security 
Council and the Congress.” 

“This is not the fault of the American people,” 
he said. “They are not against Islam. They know 
very little about Islam." 

He describes his budding relationship with the 
Iraqi president, Saddam Hussein, as “very 
dose,” while excoriating President Hosni Mu- 
barak of Egypt. 

“Saddam is gradually reintroducing Islam,” he 
said. “He has restricted liquor. Koranic studies' 
are mandatory for all students, all teachers and 
all Ba’athist Party members. He knows the sod- 
ety is returning to Islam. The only one who is 
doing evmything against Islam is Hosni Mu- 
barak. Even King Hussein speaks to the Islamic 
groups. 

“Arab governments are collapsing,” he said. 
“They know it. Even Arafat knows that this 
latest peace deal is only an act of necessity. The 
Arabs are changing from below. Arab national- 
ism is finished and the Islamic spirit is rising in 
places like Saudi Arabia. This is one of the 
consequences of the Gulf War ” 


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French blue paper .with 
gilded page edges. 
• 1 995 notable dates and national 
holidays in over 80 countries; world 
time-zone table; international telephone 
dialing codes and countiy prefixes; 
conversion tables of weights, 
measures and distances. 
• Blue ribbon page marker, 
• Includes removable address 
book that fits snugly into its own silk 
pocket No need to re-write your most 
important phone numbers — the address 
book will fit right into next year’s diary. 

• Each diary packed in a blue gift box. 

• Corporate personalization and 
discounts are available. 
For details, fax Paul Baker at 
(44-81)944 8243. 



• Blue notepaper sheets fit on 
the back of the diary — a 
simple pull removes top sheet 
100 refill sheets included. 


Please send me_ 


.1995 IHT Pocket Diaries. 


Price includes initials, packing and postage in Europe: 

1-4- diaries UK £22 fU.S.$33) each INITIALS 

5-9 diaries UK £20.50 <U.S.$31) each up w 3 per diary 
10,19 diaries UK £1 8 (U.S.$27) each 


□ Additional postage outside Europe £4.50 (U.S.S6.90.) 

EH Check here for deliveiy outside Europe by registered or 

certified mail: £5.75 (U.S.$8.60) per package plus postage. 

Payment is hy credit card only. All mayor cards accepted. 
Please charge to my credit card: 7-12-94 

□ Access D Amex O Diners O Eurocard D MasterCard O Visa 


Card N°_ 


E\p.“ 

Name. 


’Signature 


Company. 

Address_ 


City/Code 
Countiy 


Company EEC VAT ID N°_ 


INTERNATIONAL 



mump mu nm ■ 


* Tttfcs rato «*» iwe 


Mail or fax this order form to: 
International Herald Tribune Offers, 

37 Lambton Road, London SW20 OLW U.K. 

Fax:(4481)9448243 


i 











V v ’ 


Page 8 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 7, 1994 



BUSINESS MESSAGE CENTER 


IMPORT/EXPORT 


DBCOVBITW SOURCE Ood dffWlir fa pay tafe & d Wrg 1 - w 

wiiti monu fa Oa ff. 3 in a pod. W* p«A»B«* & **aM 

stjEf^wriYVmU few ■ hds, saris, ^8783-149? fe ^6- 

fea womwrt, efc. Prrfsmwd* «< **■ 


THE ULTIMATE SOURCE! 
Marwfaehnn rf"w* bo» «*k 
lodb, Mkf* {■ BBBti fertwaw 
[toosj fee rn«v W« t dft>q | -Q«~ 
p%Mi & dRfcDhd srf rf» 
p» pundud wvk» «* »mfadaY 


I EXPORT 5HH5, TOWH5, tdh met | 


A1 USA mi-nede goods Croon, JP 
Sin w Bfch, Dan Rrrert Assorted 
Kwsl S & eontolers. 


taw* S awfafere. Pfeffle FAlfc I- 
508-870-1843 fa idormefton. 


WE SB! 5Q1 Levi j»ws miy qww 

%sUS£Sh/aR£ 


game OCAXETTK, Ameriam ] 


ports for Ins pad deeods. Gerontod 

SsUft , 'fJSfcsa 

Pro 71&/W-&&0 USA i 


v ksm& & m, 

474-3866. 


T-SHKI5 M IAKE OUANTHB 

c wdabie in T1 (for ewl 

eg. fanwfa* or fenwrd defiwmt 
CdTj^ <7 - 84.1222 or fox [32} 6? - 

USED UM 3011 Quofty faT 
teed from to USA. fcU* sipftu. 
Fat 503/62&074? USA. 


blend tafaxso. k«d P«n, pi"* 
Using ow Atift FAX USA: 1 pQS} 


BUSINESS 

OPPORTUNITIES 


SA1B AGENTS WANTED 

For PN VferftMte Cad w«di 


ayes op to SDK dbooart r ?5)D 
Heteh/175 ootrtin. Ffigh profit, n 



IMPORTANT SWISS 


TRADING COMPANY 

Wbhqr forge ipuifanoffelOTfoR 


aura unmuj in r ilELflttffor 5C0 gytfa 
Mating Aon Cor! fod&fo*. 

“■a iBSMasr 

Donrdi 30.NL 1012 A mj a dufr 
Tat SiaJzBW F« 638271 


Serviced Offices Directory 


MARLBORO BOX USA 
-MSSTBOX f 
PHUPMOflBSMMLY 
-BJLT. RANGE 


MOEKMXNT BROKER 
I5TRADWG WITH 


cohmomb i cumb 

OR. GOU), HEOOUS MBAIS 


UDMOHIIUWW/nvnwi "V” 
by UK cow p ary wish faianredB 
dskbition Mnfang oif-wrftamfl “ 
refrfoeratbn. jpedfc rtertd for siJ 
m raotSacang unfa. Beta* fa x Been 
Qumww UK 44 10P34 &pyW2 _ 
GOID MK 40 yw* <rf rmamefe • 
GOD MEDAL - Bock or to mate* 
"trmfotm 5WCHRO- WASHBL 
trashes, rinses and spr* 3 kg » 15 
urn {round Dgoxiiertulus : MOA 
13B rue C. Dwotow F-55H99 Hagxes 
HIGHEST WraBT PAID- Trofee 

pcynwtt lo dn* on ysesfy depois 
sacB 1983. Qxfcngn WKWwjJd. 
5H> bnt/sen, P** 

Mrt L fete** Tet 214/9*8702 
fiat 214/355-1 965 USA 


UiT. SERVICED OFFICES 
DIRECTORY EUROPE 
is published fat 
Wednesday at each month 

KEEP YOUR COPY FOR 
FUTURE NEEDS t 


Premnm Business Prarones 
And Services Avcdabfe 


any ferapwn port. Cantons of 
Fro +4I-77AB3.18 


YOUR SWBS AGS'* 
■ARSON AC CUR 
Bohnhof*. 44 - OWW2 Owr/Svfto 
i Td +4181-2553355 fi« +4181-253344 


OflNAcawccnm 


fitn Ntidmd CMno. Al Ihyfo* 
EMsdc fine (M9| 731 -1937 USA 


Cadrai & Scdh America, 1 

sr &^sr+aM-iajg _ 
oomg ausacss wiitmvuwN; 

Order toor Copy «w Tqw« tvf" 
^.^+4^1^2 73^ 

SK ABI T9AM XAJKM » i 
SAFE OFFSHORE SANJONSrf 

AEllwteOBU 

WANTS MAMUFAOUBg <=f 
i v*+u BUOsdai vein two ow® 
EraaTFro +3560-498 860. — 

5SBOUS COMPANY 

you in BRA& «*d7» ROMANIA. Fro 
+ +972-3319719. 



R*OS«AlAa£ 

BU5N£SroOJKJI5 

06 F05__— 

SBSSOt-, 

couathal 


that tha to t em th mal, 
HmddTOtome mm# be. 
hMmpeMhrimiR 


CONSULTANIS 


gn^'i a/anfaton 


ggOntfld 


I Prinrmt* «+> Fro IK 81 857 0CT3 m 


YOURMUNKHORXZ 


At A Presfiffow Address 

(B9J341 7074 


OFFSHORE COMPANB 


• SEWr MADE ca&. RAL ADMM 

• TRADE DOCUMENTS AhO l/C 

• aawaNG & ACCOUNTING 

• CHNA BU5INBS SHMCES 


A FRSBIT FOR YOUR SON— 

towownwmafany 

M SWTTZBOAFC 
ZURKH 0 XUS * tUZERN 


ILS. RinjRB RRM FOX SAtf 
toroferedNFAB 


MEXICAN FOOD , 

Aatficon Casotert 5 yn a^yanante m 

ihskinrt jUrt^rtaiB* m¥ 

Food s/ioaS 

S ‘, 1 !SS*l 


um r&^' sin 


abkbe fp m ’mearpms^ 
h it t mehte i »uwiM» 
^thjtnodmmekeep^ 


1BBL 20277 


mtdhstmfmaeferm 


BJIBWATKDNALIEASMG 


Fro hqBiria*filWB7-482S USA 


5EAia«wnHNWBgA ?Canag y 

fiat. Buwaa Tflm' 

iagd motWl Fro +4* 71 388 MW. 


YOUR OFFICE M 


F OB Bgf T: OHFCBWT7H 
SECRETAIBAlSatVlCB 
N LAUSANFC. SWTlZffiAIRl 
RDB BBff on *a 4#i and 5di Hoar of 
a eornnerod buiSng Av de ftowncr 
4. IAU5ANK 30 rn fo*" Geneva* 
Airport, 5 flUtt from Loujam* oamr, 
Swta Bant ovodito fha bASng. 
Wa oBm-. 2 office for one pmon 
eodi ■ Off 880 'monfli eoefi - 2 offices 


World-Wide fames Gmtres NeMrt 


for 3 to 4 panus Off l/aj/momh 
each Afl office era individual, fa con 
be node rterconnedoUe. Serekw: 
fiupfavUeptona answer senna wflh 
mar 6rea Sne, fax, ptotocopy KTWM. 
AtoelMy fined chorgas for sennees 
Off ZJQ/morfh. fiofassianel Bfr 
tone! (onfiofa). Socretand service, m 

Frendi/Germai/EogfisJi/lfofian. Ac- 

counting and audit - toga! ato com- 


a to udeiant xiWott to todays 
bB HU B SS neeco. Modem My rqaffhd 
rod serviced offices avcAoUe on a 
daily, wtrekfy or momMy basis. 
fi c u et iri d and li u afobo n senses. 
Penoncdzed l efep tona annee. Meeting 
facMes. To contort oro tnofe ssw nJ 
aid friemfly staff please awtao 


Cartad Stfa Ho for ntnedede 
services i compaty fcrofae 
NAG LID, fttam 706. A Won Pkun. 
2-6 GmmAe Erod, Tern Sa Tso, 
ICfttootlHa^Kong 
Tel 852-7241223 Fro 8S27224373 


COFHXSAAG 
Baaergmae 36 Q+6300 Zug- 
Tefc +41 42313288 Fro +41 4221349 


Aemden/Utodr/lfa nri tf 


YOUR ADDRESS M GBMANY. Best 
aices in Buroes service. A> other 
lands of services induded. Cdrnpmy 
foundations, doaneito etc. ElRO 
OmOc Tel +49.2841-91 9734, FAX 
+49-2841-91 97 97. Gemro spoken. 


TheHqgoe 
T«t+3120 520raro fee 3120 5207510 


Bari/GenevaAitaeme/Zin/Zurkh 
«b +4M 2146262. fisc 41? 2146519 


CONTACT EUROPE AMSTERDAM 

Prafawand Offin Support for pefae 

on to move. McAxscAefccfione/Fa* 


services. MJ ro, trondofans. etc. Td 

+ 31 20 6647^7 Fro: 6881374. 


Bnm.lnn n"* ■-■J | « #-l 

twrcoona/ fnaana/ voksnod 
Tel +343 414 1988 Fro 414 5243 


For dl ufamabon. plecse cordaob 
REACOBA S A Tefc +42-21/626X16^ 
Fro +41-21-4262657 


Brtroefa 

Teh +322 5368686 fisc 322 5368600 


YQIflL OTRCE IN STOCKHOIM. 
QegoMfy furnished offices aid meet- 
tig rooms. Telephone answering ser- 
vices and seaeto n d serveei. Tet 
+468-985018 a fro- +44&-98500S 


NYSE MEMBB extends rare oiler to 
reputable offshore i Bt itutic i n/suteor4»d 
irrvodor bAiert to NY5E rogureq pi 
OvmenhraUnb and/or NYit Serf In- 
come lints leach Entiled to roty 5 at 
9200m ONinSeot amwlty yWtfag 
12%+. Omen trade free a at no. 
Firmss cwrertt jdobat norvputfc Focus 
mefodes OTC end Third Mater amot- 

Ifons for other brotecs/rrat itrooni & 
praprieSzxy Trodno. fady m connotnoB 
fct Wssident Bat 54201KT. 850 Thud 
Are, Bfc H, kf. NT 1W2 USA. 


DTBNG AND FN8HNG- 6*P tot 
dyang of yen rod catruaB rtvarg 
| or eotsen wavers end ih Nends hete, 
reodived. rt* fomi muWngud.ro- 

I tew, fcaniog, restradaxia worn wem 
1 fraronete, ale Braeflete refcnsnas 
i ovatabfo. Coated Dasdeno fa* 
+41413T20532. 


GOU> MK 60 wan of wroth • | 
GOLD MffiAL - hi yoro bkton or 
wide aenpinp: ftmy txjthoroatic 
cooter, very hedthy, coohs ereryton 
SwifaWHiJ. PUCE $1 to 8 
EX Asa. video tradructen. lOOyr 
patent. Docunentcton : MCM 1* 
rue C Demme, F-59T99 Hsr&wa I 


Loumne 

Tet 41-71 6411313 fisc 41-21 641 1310 


YOUR OfTKE W PARIS 


h ready when yon need B, 
■van for a couple of boon. 


Lsbon/forto 

Tel 251-1 3S74B fro.- 351-1 2557854 


FMAMOFURT - WE RSflBENT YOA 

. Qoonsty. office spooe anj M office 
wvlce ovdWte-TSspp GmbH, Tefc 


DELAWARE MCs, ILCs 

Oed dreet with Defovmre agent, * 


money on USA tampow fonatton. 
Ddowora foe a LLC, S35D USD. Fete 
refccWe. cnrapJHa service n d IB 
states, free mfa Go# a hxc 

™?«V« 

Dow, DE 19901 
Tet 302-736-5510 
fine 302-73*4630 


• FuQjr hmoiond modern ofnens 
and conference looms to tote by to 
hour, day, momfo etc — 

0 Yea tactical a pemonatf bote 

• pressor ma Sr g add-ess. Al services 
r BBE •••* 


Meno/ltoaa 

Tet +39-2 48194271 Fro29-2 48013233 


YGUR ADOBES nero Onnps 


15J. force 19571 5 rue tTArtoo 79X8 
Pais. Tal [11 g» 4704 Fro 4254 2335 


W&GJtt 

Tel 7W5 1577206 Fro 70-95 1577442 


91, to S+Hcmm 75008 PAMS 
Tri p| <4713626 Fro P) 42661560 


New York 

Tet + 1-212 6050200 Frol-712 3069834 


DUSSBDQRF AREA / BMR Your 
office in to heal of Germany. 
Please «fl TeL +49-201^00. 



(XEHORE GOMPANE5 


Your bainOH office in Bonn 
24 ham a day - jot code protected 


Pons/Bordeaux-'ltee/Lyan/Rouen/ 
Remes/MatepWer/MuDiouse/Taahiua 
Tet + 33-1 4021W5 Fro +3367697469 


QTYORKBDUBSBDORF 

FtA Service tenge 

ABO GmbH -fro +49 2? 193 50 150 


YOKE A FAX MAIL 

you cat always be reached. 
Addtonof busnes servioesi 
1 . ce rp n rB M adfress and mafogs. 
i K, PC6 200807. D- 531 38 Eam 
Fro- +49 22B 36 16 74 


Vienna 

Tet +43-1 53439666 Fro 43-1 5350367 


YOUR OfflCE M LONDON 
Bad Steel • Altai te, Fox. Telex 
Tet 44 71 499 9192 Fox: 71 499 7517 


OSTRICH OWNERSHIP (to other red 
mx* + hde 8, feccwst Let in 
introduce you to to f*W ogri- 
x wci tm H of to m flmk pro 
insured ata imaged on a loan 
rente Excetenl retarra exp orted. Col 
817/595-6909 USA {24 hours}, leave 
totehone aid fro numbers. 


IS&AND From USS350. ^ 
DSAWAff 5375 • fSf Of M*N **W 
fid asmaoie services cnatebto. 

FroBAVSQE +353 1 2839866 


YOUR PATHFWDBJ. broker & nego6 
ator in Western A Eostern Eirope 8 
Rusxa m co mme r cia l , lecfncol & mga 
mo l te n . Cbtea d re fa conce?X & 
price quokmon. FBT1NA LB<TF A/S: 
Fro +4553726766 a fro +45 
33T474W. 


fie nfamatiai on tehee fucte to m 
and niembenhp opportuntees contact: 
World-Wide Basinea Centres Network 
Sdes Offices Europe 
Tet 41-1 2146262 Fro 41-1 2146519 


YOUR OfflCE M LONDON 70p per 
day. Mai. Phone, ton, TU. id servic es. 
Tet 71 436 0266, Fro: 71 580 3729. 


LONDON W1 BU5MESS CENTRE Al 

faafitie^ "1 fxxn occbsl Te t UK (44J 
71 935 -«»40 Fro (44) 71 935 7977. I 


SWISS PRIVATE BANKER 
offmirifasciidievttsri 
cadidartiaf «wsfomnf aexstunts. 
Oriy asset im moganert. No foam, 
no bade debemura. Plena fro 
USA 1-30635896)5 reference Mode. 


ONSHORE BANC doss A .unreanrted 
bate in tax free venue with offshore 
ortnnstratne services. USS £.000. 
United number ovcriaUe. h emeAfle 
trafifer. OH Caxtdo (6041 942-6169 
a fro J604{ 94?- 3)79 a tendon 171 
394 517a fax 071 231 9928 



mECOM. 


YOUR PROMO STlfflY - WE GS/ijj 
nsRNN TOUW - I to fame vfable- 
Fox nqney: + 49 30 8114492, 
Gsrosiy. 1 


of purchase rf.hWY «*£!!*: 
obSfffimedwtrod^MW 
rtips. uiduitnd rete eanfe. 


Broker's o6n*B«» ffoorttdrf 



S.H fistiksL 


LOWEST COST ffamofanf Ffast 
Service. Sow o fo rtune °rer brri 

rnttac nr asVX] ciBtH. AtCtoUJC 

2S*A“ui w 

from fro 4 press dart for Ml «fa. 


SECURITY AND 
SURVEILLANCE 


fte 3?5s?S 77 SJ-2-38 O 91 
IBEX 20277 


LOOKING FOR SOWEOWF, Eg 


■■BSsaafB?"; 

«ft®S£5KU ■ 


TRANSLATIONS _ capital WANTED 


PROJECT FNANCB4G 
VBWURE CAPITAL 


(717) 3P7J490 (LLSl WJ 


TednoTnsu Office, 

SdentB. Gat^teer. fogging. 

At*e Chtetoo S*^, 
Tel/Fax +49/551/485806, 

erotelCDM 12*64Qa*npa*n*xam 


CAPITAL NEEDB7 

ritoMtod New Yoric brake seek 


i* Mown USS TSOflOO 

• No Maaaum 

• Term loan 

• Eater finoncr 

• BrSers Protected 


TAX SERVICES 


Tfat 516757-3707 fro 51 


ANC310 AMB8CAN GROUP WC 

Fox +44 924 201377 


UJ. TAX 4 ISGAL_ SBIVICES 
By US cteaney m carat tart i 
Waamr, MSAJD, Ftetfpdi 249- A j 
9500 vWi, Aisfao. >et 434254- 
Sffi a Fro434254-3?S7. 1 


UK MANASB4Btt COH attTAWf 

Seqares foneb far projects. PntX^XS 
STfoc +44 474 48*39. 


! EXPAND TO NATO & get S 

SUM iS6r 


Super term s 
x c/o Wwion 


Page 23 
FOR MO*E 
BUSINESS 
MESSAGES 


CAPITAL AVAILABLE 


COMMERCIAL & INVESTMENT PROPERTIES 


BUSINESS TRAVEL j 


— i INVESTMENT CAPITAL 

UNRESTRICTED Irt/BUSINESS { 
travel Impend Canada -.bo rer cam ( yjS 3M and up from Prnidpri 

sSiSstsS'Jasa &ffssi sR»ir*sas 

5SiKA.se> i 

EAtcte 4Fri5efAflCAWa»LCA : Also ovsteedte (npadag 


OFFICES FOR REST 


msan cams amqma )» 

sqjn. in OutstantfeiB *>“**» J*2. ? 
undergroand station. Co# 37-2- 
29512124 need hours. 


SALES 


BUSINESS SERVICE J 


EXCB1B4T MVE5TMB4L Soya bl fo 
tony BrahL Fast e xp arln g bond 
aeo nea boocK 55 x» good rood - 
fan fort arport. US54 per euL'750- 

92521 Neuter udu rraxs a fa 
ludaso GavrorotoBa 85~3S1 3WQ- 

LAND DEVELOPMENT Cato flamt. 
Span. 9QJOOO SQA fiaroig ptateao 
gtven for Hofei a fern fare adfJXD 
tneten fra* beat T«t44 7063P791. 


| PAN EUROPEAN SALES. Vc&tfxs! j 


cc3a*en*B tfxxr fcoi vrth o Maipr 
Wtartf Betegoora nfecnatra gtoMt* 

fix to octotcotai ml 

AS aftn Aeran ae aifBd to aatentf 




ides orgaxsdfcn fa: eew* ?od- ! 
ucs [rs»Tcad3 sei yoct 5 J 

t£l rrafor EnrepeQi retake 3 • 
n of pcfem bciMK ton 
reth Europe's leexfog ctoicn^^+ . 
fijr acre c e g an tfl a t aD.C. e 8ANC - 
F« (+33 42 68 C7 50. • 


FORWARD PROIECT OUTUhtt 
NOW TO 


5 AVE- NEW rax IRS WAITS} 

•Util FavwfacteFroteitone Sc 

as. 576 5 Are -! 153 NY NY I 


WVESTMB^ SUISSE SA j 

BahrtedSrcae 66. i 

Zsncfa 8001 Svntertaxt I 


TENNIS CLUB FOR SALE 

NEAR LYON -RANGE 
35 in • deUnuto (bar. retoratf, 
fotcherf + ScparUrerts. 
Steamxoa pool. 6 indoor ferns coerts. 
12 outdoor teens coals. G y wuutejw. 
E^jippedfitwssraOBi + diovren + ba 


RENTALS 


HOME CARLO - 
Drew /»«s kaama hotel s«xk bor, 
redttaaa, centni ted borpifa. . 


Contort owner TelJ33) 78 87 18 43 
a Fro 1331 78 44 29 82 


a bdcmboWog-teplrBro 
T, 9252Tltei3y G»i»,F 


as. 576 5 Are =5555 NY NY '^G6 
Tet 212-221-5000, Fro 2 .Z2F-5K3 


j CAPITAL AVABABE FROM venfafafe 
' «xfcg aoace. Cat M. Meyer ^604-j 
624-!m 


HIM PROOUCnOW-PA«S-J»J»a 
teaefamode 4 reody+>use oompfety. 
Abo Woe for office 4 Bat (60 * 401 + 
equipped, furnis he d , dwarter, cdm. 
SSTovr rent. TeMro fTT 43573712 



BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES 


9 


PERFECT CLOTHING 

FrE CfViEST DEAL Si THE WORLD. 
TODAY, ir YCll HAVE bl .200.000. 
FOR 1 7 FULL 40FT COfITWJERS OF 
FESFECT CLOFriNG TTEPrlS. TOTAL 
QUANTiTf INCLUDES AT LEAST ONE 
4C+7 CW7AHJER OF TOPQUAUT/ 
SHEEFSKjr: 'Jj&TS. O-TER I^OO GENTS' 

surrs. fius io other contai iers. 

GAT-4 rO'J EELT7E COST PER rTEM. 
S2i6 5£l.€0i. rS TRiJE • STOCK CAN BE 
VBVET TODAY. E7ERV7HJ1G PERFECT. 

, ALSO "tCLUCES CRESSES. BLOUSES. 
SUBS. SIPEE3 KNtr/©iR: Bl FACT 
EV'EA'FTKr'fG WAjffTAELE FOR LADES' 
A,'S GENTS CIQTMNG. 

US $2.36 PER JTEM~. ALSO 


/ Distribution companies > 

with excellent references searched. 

7/e are searching for such companies in the Benelux states and France 
to qualify as our general agent for our new safe cash-in transit 
and perhaps as well in general for our armoured vehicles 
This safe vehicle will revolifflonice the money transport in Europe 
RvmvveuxtmiaSPUcanMcl 

\ Appricte Secnr 2000, Germany. Fag (++49) 3378-80 46 61. § 


Diplomatic Appointments 
with Diplomatic Privileges & Passport 


,\ superb (ipportuntiy for a limited quantity nf suilatilr rarulhlates. The rrngram 
Inclndi'S mflKU.ISKP CmiXN57IIP tluwdt fftiryimnrt. an-i.lprclntmcPt to Hip 
ninfomaiic I fast rtf II4WOR MO C03SU. GI2H1 \l- Successful \pnMKC$ a ill 
■ROliC.1 nil’LOMATlC APPOINTMENT, uilh niH.OMAT1C PVSIinifr. Dirhjmain; 
prfvih’j?."-.. f*mcrns A .nfs.rnf.icp? are .icachof m »h<:< Appwloimt IpTfreants la 
rnquirc hy fas. inrUiilinfiaiMrer.?. loteplmne f, fax numbers .in ! I r V-F. RRSL^'r 
KW KK0I<IKIT» TO k.1.1. AT + 44 624 625 126 


HcmaSon# as hew to Wde nerey. 
ersditcartfs. cheques and passport on 
tnps. r. -ACtic and X hone. 


r R-ctesscrai raytsa ~ fas bS" 

i r'we-vtv " Jr; r’acss trS sfanvs 
-3 +^e u; u iCOiTCS ^ a ^ 


SAFE 


?.0 30<2227 
PmpAiStOORFiA 
Ea^a =ax-^« 

7383 SOT 


East Europe, 

the Undiscovered Country 


We are a reliable German Company representing a large 
number of clients and solid projects in East and West 
Europe. We are looking for large companies, banks and 
individuals with excellent credit connections and 
reputation who are willing and accept of offering 
assistance. We are looking forwards to your answer by fax 
or letter in English or German to: 


• Pens iesgnwj bu^ness suts {perfect). 
125 each, up fo 50,000 available m 
snail or large lets 

• WEE CONTAINERS OF PERFECT 
BRANDED HARDWARE. TOYS, FANCY 
ijCCDS SOLD AT USS30.000 FOR 
USS1 50.000 RETAIL VALUE 

- TOP UK BRANDED PERFECT 
FOOTVJEAR. 80S DISCOUNT FROM 
RETAJL EXAMPLE USS300,000 
COSTS US$60,000. 

■ DESIGNER CLOTHNG, DESCTCR 
LABELS. FOR EXPORT OUT OF EEC. 
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Beethoven 
By Tokyo 
Quartet 




By David Stevens 

International Herald Tnbune 

P ARIS — The Tokyo Quartet, 
which is celebrating its 25th anni- 
versary this year in pan by per- 

strin .JUS** t i e « Mn P ] ele Beethoven 
sfrin§ quartets in the Thfc&tre du Ch&tdei's 

ongoing survey of the composer's musics 

^SSSS^S^ Toky<VNe * 

and its other origi- 
U ■? wc r® rained at the Toho 
Gwraen school and its celebrated string 
pedagogue, Hideo Saito. Then they made 
*“ New York's Juilliard School 
Md a defining formative stage in the late 
Ws with members of the Juilliard Quar- 
teL 

The route to New York was circuitous, 
however. Isomura and Harada passed bv 
of Tennessee and the Nashville Sym- 
tf phony, picking up some extra change in 
gigs with Johnny Cash, Elvis Presley and 
Other denizens of Nashville. 

Kikeui Ikeda, the second violinist, als o 
came to Juilliard by way of the Toho 
academy and Saito, and joined the quar- 
tet in 1974. 

He remembers Saito as being “very 
demanding, even harsh at times, but with- 
out him there would never have been so 
many outstanding Japanese violinists." 

Peter Oundjian, the Tokyo’s first vio- 
hnist since 1981, came by a different 
route. The Toronto-born Briton trained 
first at the Royal College of Music in 
Ix>ndon before turning up at Juilliaid in 
the mid-*70s. 


<{p±- 




Beatles ‘Live at BBC’ Is a Letdown 



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The Beatles in the ’60s. 


By Allan Kozinn 

Next York Tima Service 

N EW YORK — American Bea- 
tles fans thought they were in 
clover back in the 1960s when 
new albums and singles were 
pumped out every few months and films, 
tours and appearances on “The Ed Sulli- 
van Show” kept the Fab Four in view. 

But by 1970, when the band split up 
and its legacy was undergoing serious 
examination, it became dear that Ameri- 
ca had seen only pan of the picture. 
Imported records showed that the early 
American albums were truncated distor- 
tions of the British originals. And boot- 
leg recordings of British radio shows 
brought even hotter news. 

These pirated disks revealed that while 
Americans were hanging by their radios 
awaiting die hits, British listeners regu- 
larly beard the Beatles performing live 
on the BBC. 

Between 1962 and 1965, the band 
played 88 songs on British radio, roost in 
multiple versions for a total of more than 
280 performances. Included were 36 
songs the group never recorded for its 
record label EMI. 

It is no exaggeration to say that these 
recordings add significantly to our 
knowledge of what made the Beaties 
tick: even the f amili ar songs were played 
in arrangements that were harder-edged 
than the fussed -over studio versions. 

So the first commercial release of this 
material — the new “Live at the BBC’ 
set (EMI/ Capitol; two CDs, cassettes 


and LPs) — should be a bona fide big 
deaL 

Bui anyone who knows these record- 
ings, either from their abundant repre- 
sentation on bootlegs or from the BBC 
radio specials that have been broadcast 
annually since 1982, will find this collec- 
tion more flawed than satisfying. 

What’s wrong? To begin with, the set 
offers only 56 of the 88 songs, and only 


The set is both 
incomplete and poorly 
presented. 


30 of the 36 non-EMI items. Among the 
missing rarities are a rocked-up version 
of “Beautiful Dreamer" and a goofy but 
topical “Lend Me Your Comb.” 

Also glaringly absent are radio render- 
ings of several hits and favorites, includ- 
ing “Please Please Me.” “She Loves 
You,” “I Want to Hold Your Hand” and 
‘Twist and Shout." 

EMI apparently believes that only fa- 
natics could want' it all. Still, a third disk 
— hardly unheard of for this kind of 
release — would have allowed the inclu- 
sion of one version of every song the 
band played on the BBC. 

More disconcerting than the set’s in- 
completeness is its presentation. In the 
brief period these recordings cover, the 
Beaties evolved from a high-energy, pro- 
vincial dance band into polished per- 


formers and sophisticated songwriters. 

Their BBC performances charted that 
development just as their commercial 
recordings did, but one would never 
guess that from this resolutely non-chro- 
nological hodge-podge, which makes it 
as far as the 1965 hit “Ticket to Ride” 
before backsliding toward “Love Me 
Do.” the Beatles’ primitive 1962 debut 
angle, an odd finale for this collection. 

Not that the set is a total washout. 
EMI has refurbished these recordings, 
many of which come from bootlegs or 
off-the-air tapes, and although a few 
tracks have the slightly hollow sound 
that digital noise-reduction processes 
sometimes yield, most sound far better 
than anything previously bootlegged or 
broadcast. 

There are some fabulous perfor- 
mances here. Included are “HI Be on My 
Way ” a Lennon-McCartney song the 
Beatles never recorded for EMI and a 
magnificent cover of Arthur Alexander’s 
“Soldier of Love.” 

Among the familiar songs are a gor- 
geously simple version of “Baby It’s 
You” and hard-rocking takes of “I Saw 
Her Standing There,” “I Wanna Be Your 
Man,” ‘Thank You Girl” and “Long 
Tall Sally” that blow away the studio 
versions by every measure except sound 
quality. 

Paul McCartney’s horizons as both a 
rock screamer (in Little Richard’s “Lu- 
cille” and “Qarabella” and “Ooh! My 
Soul”) and as a crooner (in Mikis Theo- 
dorakis's “Honeymoon Song”) are ex- 
panded. 

Other non-EMI tracks clarify John 


Lennon’s pmchant for rhythm *n* blues 
and George Harrison’s preference for 
rockabilly. Ringo Starr’s energetic drum- 
ming shows that he was no cipher. 

The collection also has an attractive 
booklet with an essay by Derek Taylor, 
the band's pal and one-time publicity 
officer, and detailed annotations by Ke- 
vin Hewlett, a BBC producer ami the 
author of “The Beaties at the Beeb,” a 
study of the group’s radio life. Yet here, 
too. there is obfuscation. 

In a rare example of BBC fudging, the 
solo from the EMI version of “A Hard 
Day’s Night” — Harrison on 12-string 
guitar with the group's producer, George 
Martin, doubling on piano — was edited 
into the BBC performance. 

Collectors have long assumed that 
Harrison was unable to play it properly 
that day, although he later performed it 
in concert Don’t expect clarification 
here: Howlett matter of factly refers to 
the edited piece as Martin’s piano solo. 

But “Live at the BBC cannot com- 
pare to “The Complete BBC Sessions” 
(Great Dane; nine CDs), a boxed set 
recently released in Italy, where copy- 
right protection for broadcast lasts only 
20 years. The lavishly annotated Great 
Dane box includes 239 performances 
and a few outtakes that were not broad- 
cast 

All 36 non-EMI tracks are there. And 
the shows, with their between-songs ban- 
ter largely intact are presented chrono- 
logically. The set’s quality varies, but 
some tracks (“I’ll Be on My Way” and 
“Johnny B. Goode,” for example) sound 
better than on “Live at the BBC.” 


‘New England’: Britons in Bitter American Exile 


W HEN not concentrating on 
one composer’s output such 
as Beethoven, which the quar- 
tet has recorded complete for 
BMG/RCA, the Tokyo’s programs are 
. about half 20th-century works. One re- 
ly cording combines a Torn Takemitsu work 
\ with quartets by Samuel Barber and Ben- 
Hamin Britten. The American composer 
; Ezra Ladexman.is writing a quartet for 
c- them, and their repertory includes such 
modem landmarks as Bartdk, Janacek, 

• “ Lutoslawski and Ligeti. 

“The repertory is wonderful and there 
r is a hunger on both sides, ours and the 
C audience’s,” Oundjian says. “We like to 
1* create interesting programs, and very of- 
«’[ .ten out of three works on a program, two 
(frill be contemporary.” 

' At its second Gh&telet concert on Mon- 
14 day the quartet was in strong form with 
y two pivotal works, the first of the “Razu- 
• movsky” quartets and the Opus 127. The 
; precision and impeccable sound was per- 
. naps to be expected, but the warmth, 
*- sensitivity to nuance, and inner cohesion 
come only with time. 

A third recital is due next Monday, and 
the cycle win be completed with three 
more concerts in March. 


By Sheridan Morley 

International Herald Tribune 


L ONDON — Somehow we never vumauy au nnusopassporl- 

expect American contemporary holders who have encted up m disgruntled 
dramatists to be Chekhorian. Ac- “ P^S or 

customed to the Ibsenite severity "“PL® a _ land * e -V hate but for various 
of an Arthur Miller, the Deep Southern famihal or finanoal or temperamental rea- 
neurosis of a Tennessee Willilms. or the sons find themselves unable to escape 
raw strengths of Shepard or Mamet, we . They are aH membeis of one extended 
have yet to come to proper terms with the fannly ' brou 6 ht to S ethcr hy something a 
literary greatness of A. R. Gumey or Rich- 

aid Nelson. Gurney is indeed shamefully ■ tutatcd 

neglected over here; Nelson has had rather 1AJMJUN InLAILK 

better luck in that the Royal Shakespeare 

Company has adopted him as their tame little unfortunate which happens just as 
American these last five years and stayed the play begins. Its apparently central 
with him, even when, as in “Columbus,” character, a faithless do music professor, 
the going got critically rough. blows his brains out across his desk. 

Nelson, back now at the Barbican Pit The relatives then gather for his funeral, 
with “New England” (for my money the IBs twin brother (played not surprisingly 
best new play of the year if we give comedy by the sam e actor), his three children, his 
awards to “Dead Funny” and “My Night girlfriend, a disenchanted observer and a 
With Reg”), is at his strongest when writ- wonderfully querulous and imperious 
mg of exile. Whether it’s Czechs in New French daughter-in-law all sit around his 
York, Americans in Moscow or a group of kitchen in Connecticut objecting not really 
U. S. college professors wearily doing the to the man or the manner of his death, 
literary landmarks of old England, he has appalling though both are, but to the na- 


mix of Sondheim and Turgenev, and you the back packin g acade mic, so here be pin- 
wouid not be that far off the mark. We are points the classic British resentment of 
in fact in Connecticut, but the New En- American life, a mix ture of irritability at 
glanders are virtually all British passport- apparent ingratitude and incomprehen- 


holdeis who have ended up in disgruntled sion at the face in the mirror which sud- 
Arnerican exile, teaching or painting or denly changes while yours stays the same, 
writing in a land they hate but for various We expect Americans to be our children, 
fa mili al or financial or temperamental rea- and our benefactors, and our perennial 
sons find themselves unable to escape. hosts. We don’t expect them to be our 
They are all members of one extended guests or our replacements, and when they 
family, brought together by something a turn nasty all we can r eall y do is bitch 

about their less attractive characteristics. 
mvnnvTnriTCD A lot of bitching goes on here, adding up to 

lA/IrUUIi lnMIliJt a play not about the new England of the 


title but about the old England where 
things like other countries were still man- 
ageable and knew their place. 

Peter Gill brilliantly orchestrates the 
best ensemble cast in town. 

Having given us, in “Street of Croco- 
diles.” one of the best and certainly most 
inventive theatrical evenings of the year, 
the Theatre de Complicity group now end 
it with one of the worst On the National’s 
Lyttelton stage, “Out of a House Walked a 
Man” is a catastrophic attempt to do for 
the absurdist writing of D aniil K har ms 


what “Crocodiles” did so triumphantly for 
Bruno Schulz. The problem is that while 
Schulz was clearly a lost talent worth redis- 
covering, Khaims defies all attempts to 
arouse any interest in us. 

A talented cast of actors, dancers, musi- 
cians and mim es is therefore left flounder- 
ing around in the (often literal) dark trying 
to make some sense out of a chaotic kind 
of nihilis m. Only Kathryn Hunter as a 
corpse regularly flailing back to life seems 
to have any real energy, and even that 
characteristically comes from beyond the 
grave and the pale. 


A Lively Cast for ‘Chantecler’ 


cornered the market in displacement 
What we have is a weekend in the coun- 


ture of their promised land. 

Just as in “Some Americans Abroad” 


try. The phrase at once suggests an unholy Nelson perfectly canght the insecurities of 


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This is also a personal book, the light of the Renaissance, up side a lot of people with video 
a lyrical recollection of trips to to Louis XTV’s punishment of ca m e ra s. 

~ his superintendent of finance. This is true of famous “tour- 


Europe, be ginning in 1974, tak- his superintendent of finance, This is true of famous u>ur- 
en by Caro and her husband, Nicolas Fouquet, for the in-the- ist sights” all over the world, of 
Bob, who in another life is Lyn- king’s-face magnificence of course, and this is why Caro’s 
don Johnson’s biographer but Vaux-le-Vicomte. And thus we approach, to follow a historical 
in this book is a benevolent, visit Provence, the Languedoc, and architectural line and stick 
mostly patient and utterly rea- the Dordogne, the Loire Valley to places that not only should be 
sonable traveling companion. and the Ile-de-France. seen but can be seen, means the 

Caro studied medieval histo- Caro brings the reader along difference between a rewarding 
ry in college, and throughout gently, with precise information and Alumina ting trip and a 
this book she is taking the pbys- on how long it takes to drive frustrating tramp, 
ical measure of the past. from one place to another, what AsX^aro takes us time-travd- 


ical measure of the past. 

She begins in the ruins at Or- 
ange and Nftnes, and then ush- 
ers us through blood and fire, 


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from one place to another, what AsX&ro takes us time- travel- 

roads to choose, how much time ing, we share her sadness at how 
to budget for this or that sight; much has changed for the worse 
she is also helpful on where to since 1974. Still, she will not be 
linger, on what towns are pleas- discouraged. She loves the visu- 
ani places to have a long coffee al and historical wealth of 
or a picnic, and which are dull France, and has climbed to 
or overcrowded or seem to have many a troglodyte church and 
metamorphosed into parking remote keep to see it, 
lots. International Herald Tribune 

Although the book is written 
for visitors who don’t know 

France well, it is packed with ■ ■ — 

information even for people 
who do (and occasionally con- 

tains, unfortunately, the kinds v. v/f/)\ 

of errors in French that ought V\ 1 

to be caught by editors). Caro h 

does not seek to be exhaustive NX. J - — y 

about hotels or restaurants, but 'v 

she tells us about the ones that V/ 

have become favorites and 

about others that have failed 

her te$L- 

She approaches every new | 

step visually — what’s the view 1 

from the hotel or restaurant. Mom 

what can be seen and measured ,-r. 

and studied before it is visited. V 7 * 

Caro is an opinionated trav- 
eler, appalled by French driving PAfll 1 

(this is a nation of tailgaters), AVUltt 

taking no guff from unpleasant _ _ 

restaurateurs and snotty tour KaPP&I 

guides, and refreshingly direct DAVVAi 

about what io avoid. 

She is quite right to warn the 

visitor against Versailles, which R 

in the 1960s could be visited 

with the expectation of seeing B - 


By Thomas Quinn Curtiss 

International Herald Tribune 

P ARIS — Jerome Savary’s adaptation and direction of 
“Chantecler” at the Chaillot is closer to Walt Disney than 
to Edmond Rostand’s satirical piece about life in a 
barnyard in southern France. 

Its hero, Chantecler, a rooster, is proud of his alarm-clock 
“ cccorico ” that awakens the community. He believes that his 
morning cry brings dawn, but be misses a sunrise to save a golden 
pheasant hen from hunters. His pride is restored when he is 
consoled that be is one of the helpers, if not the only one, who 
makes the sun rise. 

An excellent company has been assembled. Jean-Claude Drey- 
fus is a memorable Chantecler and Marc Du di court is perfect as 
Patou, the tired old dog. Evdyne Buyle as the guinea fowl, Agnfes 
Soral as the golden pheasant hen, Maxime Lombard as the 
blackbird and Laurence Roussarie as the cat are precious jewels. 

Robert Hossein’s “La Nuit du Crime,” based on a novel by 
Steve Passe ur, has opened at the Thfcfitre de Paris. It would be a 
crime to reveal the secrets of this detective piece, but don’t miss 
the first five minutes or you will not understand the story. In a 
mansion 12 characters are present and all are suspects. The rest 
you must see for yourself. 

This year marks the tricentenary of the birth of Voltaire and 
several theaters are presenting shows based on his life and 
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rt.fi --Gfot-'A n 














































































INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 7, 1994 


Page U 


SPONSORED SECTION 


GERMANY 


Grafting Consensus 

Substantial progress on key issues is expected at Essen. 


critical junctures in its 
histoiy, the European Union 
has displayed an unexpected 
ability to find consensus and 
to renew itself. In a time 
fraught with critical issues 
and marked by the need to 
make further advances to- 
ward a new kind of union, 
consensus-building has been 
a leitmotif of the German 
presidency. The EU summit 
on December 9-10 in Essen 
is expected to display this 
aptitude once again. 

Essen is expected to pro- 
duce substantial progress on 
key issues. The deterioration 
of tbe atmosphere is perhaps 
the most pressing of all envi- 
ronmental problems. On the 
table in Essen is a compre- 
hensive proposal on reduc- 
ing amounts of carbon diox- 
ide in the atmosphere by set- 
ting graduated “taxes” on 
excess emissions. Advanced 
by Germany, the tax concept 
builds on the ideas and the 
impetus of 1992’s “Rio I” 
conference on the environ- 
ment The proposal, in turn, 
is to form a cornerstone of 
the work of “Rio ET (“The 
Conference on the Cli- 
mate”), to be held in Berlin 
March 28-April 7. 

Combating racism 
Xenophobia is endemic 
throughout the world. To 
combat it In Europe, a 
sweeping initiative is up for 
consideration and probable 
approval at Essen. This anti- 
racism initiative arose from 
joint deliberations conduct- 
ed by France and Germany. 

The Baltic countries have 
joined a gratifyingly long list 
of countries in Central and 
Eastern Europe commend- 
ing themselves for member- 
ship in the EU. 

The summit is 
expected to ap- 
prove the strate- 
gy for dealing 
with expansion. 

“Continuing, 
coordinated 
work has pre- 
ceded the for- 
mulating of 
these propos- 
als,” says Klaus 
Kinkel, Ger- 
many’s foreign 
minister. 

He adds: “Germany's 
work during its presidency 
builds on that of the Greek 
one which preceded it, and 
will furthered by the French 
and Spanish ones following. 
This continuity is no acci- 
dent, but rather the product 
of a consensus reached by 


these countries. This empha- 
sis on constant and concert- 
ed consensus-building has 
ensued directly from the 
EU's past, from our looking 
at the past's events and 
learning lessons from them." 

Two steps forward 
Mr. Kinkel is referring to 
two of Europe's most impor- 
tant steps forward - the "De- 
lon. push" toward the Euro- 
pean Single Market in the 
mid- and late- 1 980s and the 
formulation of “Open House 
Europe” over the last few 
years. Both of these initia- 
tives followed the same pat- 
tern. An era of uncertainty 
and doubt about the EU’s 
fundamental role - think 
back to all the talk about 
“Eurosclerosis" and 
“Fortress Europe” - was 
succeeded by a broad-based 
agreement on courses of ac- 
tion. 

“Through this pattern, the 
idea has understandably 
arisen that a sense of crisis is 
needed to trigger consensus- 
building.” Mr. Kinkel says. 
“The consensus that is being 
built during these four presi- 
dencies will dispel that no- 
tion.” 

The summit’s location 
provides a timely example 
of what consensus-building 
can achieve. By building a 
broad-based public- and pri- 
vate-sector coalition, and 
through years of patient, per- 
sistent work, the Ruhr dis- 
trict has completely trans- 
formed itself. 

Clean, green Ruhr 
Today, the Ruhr is green (62 
percent of its area consists of 
paries, lakes, farms and gar- 
dens), clean in terms of air 
and water qual- 
ity, and diversi- 
fied. The re- 
gion’s 200 bil- 
lion Deutsche 
mark ($127.9 
billion) econo- 
my is centered 
around techni- 
u cal and trading 
| services, auto- 
| motive and 
Klaus Kinkel, Germany’s electronic engi- 
foreign minister: “ This neering. and 
continuity is no accident" chemical and 
environmental 
technologies - and not 
around the smoking steel 
mills and looming coal 
mines of the past 
Germany’s consensus 
about the EU and its role in 
it did not have to be built or 

Continued on page 14 




Foreign Investment Fuels Rebuilding 



EUROPEAN MUDSTONES 


U. he reconstruction of Germany’s new states has been 
of the most closely watched, most often discussed 
xsses in modem economic history,” says Theo Waigel, 

many’s minister of finance. 

be key question is whether the upswing will suffice to 
»rate broad-scale economic reconstruction. According to 
'em study, that seems to be happening. As of September, 
new stares’ economies are growing at an 9.5 percent an- 
I rate and their industrial sectore at 75. 5 percent. i 

number of “active” companies forming the region s 
a^ STis now more fl.^460,000. Of these. 14^40 
industrial companies privatized by the TreuhandMi^t. 
aeenev will turn over the remaining hundred in its port- 
s y folio to its successor agencies 

on December. 31, 1994. 

For many observers, the 
monthly foreign investment 
indicators are the most im- 
hjdjg portant, since they depict the 
f *7| international business com- 
munity’s evaluation of the re- 
construction process. 

Wig Through the Treuhan- 
f danstalt, some 900 non-Ger- 
jjj man companies have invest- 

1 ed an estimated 25.4 billion 
| Deutsche marks ($16.3 bil- 

2 lion) in Germany's new 
S suites. Another 700 non-Ger- 
man companies have invested 
12 billion DM in the new 
states’ production and techni- 

-vfces sectors through direct and 'S&njicU invert- 
■ Perhaps a thousand more have set up franchises or 
nflkes or found local representatives m the new states. 
« n“ b°em with toping truck is that foreign cornpu- 
“ not required to register their investments anywhere 
~.?ni Explains Bernard Veltnip. senior business de- 
S ofTicfal at Germany's ministry of economics. 



Waigel, Qemany's ft 
s minister. 


adding: “In any case, a current center of foreign investment 
interest in the new states is in the forging of joint ventures, 
which are especially difficult to monitor.” 

Despite tight corporate budgets and intensive global com- 
petition for investments, many of the world’s leading com- 
panies have staked a large portion of their capital resources 
on the future development of Germany’s new states. 

“Dow to buy core of East German chemical sector,” ran 
die mid-October headline in the world’s business papers. 
The 2.9.biIIion DM investment by the U.S. Dow Chemical is 
to be made through its German subsidiary, Dow Deutsch- 
land. with Russia’s Gazprom scheduled to join in at a later 
dale; the acquisition was a range of chemical facilities in 
S axony- Anhal t ’ s Bdhlen, Buna and Leuna. 

Belgium’s Cockerill Sambre has acquired a majority stake 
in Eisenhiittensiadt’s Eko Stahl AG, with approval still 
pending from Brussels. 

The largest foreign investment in the new stales was also 
finalized in 1994. Made by a consortium of France’s Elf 
Aquitaine SA, Germany’s Thyssen Handelsunion and Rus- 
sia's Rosneft, the deal centers around the construction of a 
4.5 billion DM petroleum refinery in Leuna, Saxony Anhalt 

These second-generation purchasers have allocated two to 
three years, for the revamping and relaunching of their new 
charges -about the same time it has taken their first-genera- 
tion counterparts to reshape their new companies. 

Two years ago, Kvaemer, the Norwegian-based energy 
processing ana shipbuilding giant, acquired the Wamow 
shipyards, located in Wamemlinde (the port of Rostock), 
from the Treuhandanstalt. Now modernized, Wamow's fa- 
cilities are already turning out ships; production at its new 
yards is set to begin early next year. 

A year ago; M1BRAG (Mitteldeutsche Braunkohlenge- 
sellschaftmbH) became Western Europe’s first major ener- 
gy producer to go into “foreign” hands. Ml BRAG, which 
mines and processes lignite, also operates three industrial 
power plants. MlBRAG’s new owners, an Anglo-American 
consortium, plan to invest 1.3 billion DM in the company 
over the next 1 0 years. 




The E u ro p ean Economic Area, 
comprising 17 European 
countries, comes brio tStd. 


Ad takes 
if i effect, creating ihe European 
V- Community. 


Greece becomes the 
” 10th member. 

:: 

! v ’ ,:rf ' . * 

Denmark, Great Britain and 
Ireland join die BBC. 


*>/£■ 


Representatives of the 
? EC’s member slates sign 
die treaty at Maastric h t. 





Counts! and 
' Crerm ^i o n take up 


Si: 


The European Monday 
System is launched. Tbe first 
rfired e l e c ti o ns far dm Euro- 
peon Parfament Today, the 
Parliament has 567 numbers. 


1968 •. 

V* ’ * 

< The SC begins instituting a 
customs union among its 
member countries. 

125,1957 

The Europe®! Economic 

Community an 



■ - The Europeai Coed aid Sted 

* Corousmilyi* founded Found* v Conuounnyand tie European 

• mg members are France, . Atomic Community are 

/ . Germany, Italy, Belgium, die founded by the sane countries 

Nedwrlondi and UMantang. *$$$■[ through die Treaties of Roms. 
.... : 






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hr A 


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V-Jn July 1, 1994, for the 
first time "since our country 
regained its unity in October 
1990. Germany assumed the 
presidency of the Council of 
the European Union. The 
federal government is utiliz- 
ing the six months of this 
presidency to accelerate 
progress toward successful 
completion of the individual 
stages leading to the politi- 
cal and economic union of 
Europe delineated in the 
treaty of Maastricht The In- 
tergovernmental Conference 
scheduled for 1996 will 
mark one such important 
stage. 

The unification of our 
country has not altered the 
European orientation of our 
policies. German unity and 
European unification - as 
Konrad Adenauer himself 
once said - are two sides of 
the same coin. One thing is 
certain as far as we Germans 
are concerned: There is no 
alternative to European inte- 
gration. 

Over the course of the past 
four decades, the European 
Community has proved to 
be an anchor of stability for 
peace, freedom and "eco- 
nomic prosperity. For Ger- 
many, the county with the 
most neighbors in Europe, 
continuation of the process 
of European unification is 
the key to its fate. 

The great challenges of 
the future can no longer be 
mastered aL die national lev- 
el alone. In order to alleviate 
unemployment, safeguard 
European competitiveness, 
resolve the issue of asylum, 
protect the environment and 
combat international drug- 
relaied crime, we in Europe 
must act together. These pri- 
orities have dictated the 
agenda of the meeting of the 
European Council to "be held 
in Essen on December 9-10. 
1994. 

At the top of the agenda in 
Essen is the securing of Eu- 
rope’s position as an attrac- 
tive industrial and business 
location, as well as the re- 
duction of unemployment 
on the basis of the White Pa- 
per submitted by the presi- 
dent of the European Com- 
mission, Jacques Delors. 
The establishment and de- 
velopment of trans-Euro- 
pean networks in the area of 
transport, energy and infor- 
mation infrastructures take 
on special importance in this 
context. These networks 
constitute a key precondi- 
tion for Europe’s future abil- 
ity to contend with increas- 
ingly intense international 
competition. 

Secondly, we must 
strengthen cooperation in 
the fields of domestic securi- 
ty and legal policy. In view 
of the growing threat that in- 
ternational crime, the drug 
Mafia and terrorism pose to 
our liberal democratic soci- 
eties, it is essential that we 
make swift progress. Our ac- 
complishments in precisely 
this area will be tne yard- 
stick by which the citizens 
of Europe measure the suc- 
cess of European unifica- 
tion. 

Establishment of a Euro- 
pean police authority is long 
overdue. We want to see the 
Europol Convention con- 
cluded before the end of our 
presidency. It is equally im- 
portant that we finally reach 
a consensus on asylum and 
immigration policy. 

Thirdly, we will do our 
part to ensure that the provi- 


sions of the treaty of Maas- 
tricht pertaining to the Com- 
mon Foreign and Security 
Policy are resolutely imple- 
mented. A united Europe 
can only then appropriately 
and effectively bring its in- 
terests and values to bear on 
a global scale if it speaks 
with one voice - especially 
in times of crisis. 

Fourthly, we must focus 
particular attention on draw- 
ing the young democracies 
in Central, Eastern and 
Southeastern Europe closer 
to the European Union. The 
countries of the former War- 
saw Pact look to the Euro- 
pean Union with high ex- 
pectations. 

We dare not turn them 
away as they approach us, 
for to do so would unleash a 
new wave of instability on 
our continent. Cracow. 
Prague and Budapest are 
great centers of European 
culture just like Paris, Gene- 
va or Weimar. The idea that 
the western border of Poland 
could permanently form the 
eastern boundary of the Eu- 
ropean Union is unaccept- 
able to me. 

Fifthly, we will seek to en- 
courage greater transparen- 
cy within the European 
Union and bring it closer to 
its citizens by consistently 
and resolutely applying the 
principle of subsidiarity. 
Centralism reflects neither 
the will of Europe's citizens 
nor does it serve their inter- 
ests. 

All the more important, 
therefore, is the message of 
Maastricht namely for a Eu- 
rope which is in closer touch 
with its citizens, a Europe in 
which subsidiarity and the 
federal system can also be 
experienced in everyday 
life. 

Sixthly, Germany will 
continue to strive to 
strengthen democratic con- 
trol within the European 
Union. One result of its ef- 
forts is the full involvement 
of the European Parliament 
in the preparations for the 
1996 Intergovernmental 
Conference. Another focus 
of German endeavor is the 
intensification of coopera- 
tion between national parlia- 
ments and the European Par- 
liament. 

As we travel the road to a 
unified Europe, we must de- 
vote ourselves to two impor- 
tant tasks at the same time: 
the deepening of integration 
and the enlargement of the 
Union. These goals are not 
mutually exclusive - rather, 
they con and must comple- 
ment one another. Follow- 
ing the positive outcomes of 
the referendums in Austria, 
Finland and Sweden, there 
are no more obstacles to the 
enlargement of the Union, 
scheduled for the beginning 
of 1995. 

The accession of these 
countries will enrich the 
whole of Europe - political- 
ly, economically and cultur- 
ally. Hereafter as well, the 
European Union will contin- 
ue to be open to new mem- 
bers. 

My vision for Europe in 
the 21st century is a Europe 
in which all the citizens of 
our continent can enjoy the 
blessings of peace, freedom, 
prosperity and social securi- 
ty. Germany's policy on Eu- 
rope is oriented toward this 
goal. I would like to invite 
every citizen of Europe to 
work with us to make this 
vision materialize. 






Page 12 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 7, 1994 


section 






‘Ice Train’ Sparks 
Industry Revival 

The ICE leads the way to export growth. ■ ... 


Chips: Out of Red 

The tide has turned for microelectronics companies . 


kjiemens’ 2.7 billion 
Deutsche mark ($1.7 billion) 
investment in a microelec- 
tronics facility in north Dres- 
den is the most prominent 
sign of microelectronics 
growth. The facility will 
start production in late 1995; 
the ultimate product will be 
256-megabit chips. 

“Until a few years ago, 
computers accounted for 90 
percent of all chip use. With 
computers becoming a 
mass-market item, chips 
were being commoditized - 
bad news for Europe's high- 
end producers,” says Jurgen 
Knorr, head of Siemens' 
semiconductor division. 

“Then came the telecom- 
munications boom and the 
computerizing of production 
operations. These areas have 
a great and growing need for 
ASICs [application specific 
integrated circuits] ana other 
high-end chips, plus related 
integration and systems 
building services - areas in 
which we in Europe had 
been working for years," 
adds Mr. Knorr. In 1993. 


Germany’s microelectronics 
producers recorded a 26 per- 
cent rate of turnover growth. 
This year looks even better. 

Pacesetter Siemens’ semi- 
conductors division record- 
ed a 40 percent rise in 
turnover and a return to 
profitability in fiscal year 
1993-94 fro September 30). 
Temic, Bosch and the coun- 
try’s other leading micro- 
electronics producers report 
similar results. 

Two years ago, the indus- 
try was seen as a dying relic 
or Europe's failed industrial 
policies. The situation today 
is very different Microelec- 
tronics plants are being built 
or expanded in Bavaria, 
B aden- Wurttemberg, 
Thuringia and Brandenburg. 
**I think it would be fair to 
call it the European chip- 
makers' great break-out 
from die computer ghetto,” 
says Guy Dumas, vice chair- 
man of the board of JESSI 
(Joint Electronic Submicron 
Silicon Initiative), the pan- 
European microelectronic 
program. 



EU Outreach 

No part of the world is foreign to the EU. 


X he European Union conducts one of the world’s most ac- 
tive foreign policies, judging by the number of negotiations 
conducted with other-regions. 

The former European Community launched its “political 
cooperation” work in 1969. In 1987, the Single European 
Act upgraded this activity to the “implementation of the 
community’s common foreign and security policies." 

Intense negotiations for admission to the EU continue: 
Nine countries now have various forms of associate mem- 
bership in the EU, six of them from Central and Eastern Eu- 
rope (Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Ro- 
mania and Bulgaria). 

Increasing access to the market 

Both the EU and these associates are implementing complex 
schedules to progressively dismantle tariffs, quotas and oth- 
er barriers to trade. Now moving into associate status are the 
three Baltic countries, each of which already has an exten- 
sive “free-trade agreement” with the Union. After prolonged 
negotiations, several CIS countries are now finalizing “part- 
nership” agreements with the EU. These negotiations have 
facilitated expansion of trade and other business relation- 
ships. In 1993, both the EU's exports to and imports from 
the CIS region showed sharp rises. 

Through the PHARE (originally, Poland-Hungary Assis- 
tance on Economica Reconstruction; it now applies to all of 
Central and Eastern Europe) and TACIS (Technical Assis- 
tance to the Commonwealth of Independent States) pro- 
grams alone, the ELJ provided ihis region with 1.5 billion 
Ecus ($12 billion) in 1993. Current plans are for PHARE to 
be allocated 7 billion Ecus over the next five years. 

Dwarfing that figure are the amounts provided by individ- 
ual countries. Germany, for instance, has supplied over 1 10 
billion Deutsche marks ($70.9 billion). This figure includes 
bank sureties, export guarantees, moneys granted to build 
homes for returning soldiers and the country's assumption of 
environmental and economic costs. 

Role extends beyond Europe 

The EU has long been the leading market for African. 
Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries, thanks to the series 
of Lom6 agreements concluded between the EU and these 
countries. In force until the end of the decade. Lome IV pro- 
vides unrestricted access to the EU’s market for 99.5 percent 
of all ACP products. The EU also funds a large-scale export 
revenue stabilization agreement for the ACP countries. All 
told, the EU has allocated 14 billion Ecus to support ACP 
countries over the 1990-1995 period. 

ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations) is one 
of the EU’s oldest and most well-developed counterparts. 
Nor surprisingly, it was with ASEAN that die Europe con- 
cluded its first full-fledged trade and economic agreement 14 
years ago. Since then, the volume of trade between the two 
regions has quadrupled, to 49 billion Ecus in 1 993. 

Another such agreement and another such story may be in 
the making. Impelled by the recent accession of the Republic 
of South Africa to the Southern African Development Com- 
munity (SADC). the southern African organization is now 
busy restructuring the ties among its 1 1 member countries, 
whose combined population of 1 30 million accounts for half 
of Africa’s total economic output. 

Market ties are already well developed. Forty percent of 
the SADC countries' imports come from the EU. and 30 per- 
cent of its exports go to the EU. which also supplied 5 billion 
Ecus over a 1 7-year period for the development of S ADC’s 
member countries and of the organization itself. The EU’s 
member countries also provided generous amounts of sup- 
port on their own, with Germany giving some 7 billion 
Deutsche marks ($4.5 billion) during a recent period. 

A full-fledged accord between the two organizations is an- 
ticipated. At an early September meeting in Berlin, minister- 
ial-level delegations from the EU and from SADC set up a 
high-ranking work group. Its job: to formulate individual, 
detailed proposals on a new relationship. Its first meeting is 
to be held in Malawi in Januiuy. 




High-tech dreuits: for transportiirg peopto (top, the fnter^^ Express) and (atxr^ water fabrication). 

German Industry Most Successful 
In Most Competitive Sectors 

Orders for Germany's industrial products are up JO percent this year. Another special accomplishment 


JLn 1984, Germany was the second- of ? percent. Behind these rosy sta- 
largest exporter in absolute terms * tistics are some hard realities and a 
and ■ largest- on: ai' per.’ capita basis fotof.hatd work. .• 

. among the world’s major nations. Its ’ 
trade surplus .came to 48 .billion. Internati ona l supply networks 
Deutsche marks ($30.9 biition). To-" “These national successes are being 
• day, a decade, toter. Germany is stiil . achieved by a maximum use of in- 
die world's second-largest exporter temattonai supply networks. The 
and hugest on a per capita basis. •. •' age of purely local Or national pn>- 
. Accounting for 11.4 percent of the. ; duetkm is over,” says Mr. Briickner. 
' workTsfrofe, Germany's trade sur- ' Today, GermaHy’s capital. goods 

• . ■ f L-kvk-jf * 


International supply aetworks 
‘These national successes' are being 


'Wbo|eiaIe.it^Sersv The with die goal of: maximizing 

- . . s 

‘ •' ! “-.W L Isbtoah^sefc to puk5ia^604 bufkm ‘ 


^ fetest $ts^6c$.ds&w,' Ger- 


many's domestic manufacturing 
sector has been faring well in this 
era of internationalization. Profiting 
from increasing non-German pur- 
chases of such items as microelec- 
tronic components, industrial pro- 
duction is now set to record a turn- 
around of 1.5 percent growth in 
.1994, propelling the economy as a 
whole to a 2.8 percent rate of 
growth. Orders for industrial prod- 
ucts - a key early indicator - are up 
a strong 10 percent 

U^S- companies satisfied 
According to a recent poll conducted 
by the American Chamber of Com- 
merce ia Germany, 92 percent of all 
American companies operating in 
Germany would repeat their dscJ-v' 
sknitoinvfcst. i.' - . 


T hey are not figures to 
send people into future 
shock: savings of 25 minutes 
between Hannover and Mu- 
nich. 39 minutes between 
Magdeburg and Berlin. 
They have, however, suf- 
ficed to revitalize an entire 
means of transportation. 

The line dividing slow and 
inconvenient from quick and 
attractive is a fine but very 
important one. For many 
people, Germany’s train sys- 
tem crossed that line in June 
1991. when the “Inter-City 
Express” (ICE) was put into 
operation. Initially serving 
11 major German cities, die 
ICE was an instant hit, 
(hanks to its 250 kilometer- 
an-hour top speeds and its 
sleek white design. 

Service in new states 
Use of the ICE has grown 56 
percent over the last two 
years, nearly singlehandedly 
reversing the decline in rail 
passenger totals. - Part of this 
growth has been due to die 
linking of a further 16 cities 
into the ICE hourly service 
grid. Of these cities, five are 
m Germany’s new states. 
Today, Magdeburg is served 
by 90 inter-regional express 
trains (ICE, IC, EC class) 
every day. Before German 
unification, that number 
was, of course, zero. 

To upgrade the new 
states’ woefully inadequate 
track to IC/ICE levels, some 
24.5 billion Deutsche marks 
(SI 5.7 billion) have been in- 
vested in their rail network, 
with some 3,000 kilometers 
of track already restored, 
built or extended. 

This has been money well 
invested, according to Mu- 
nich’s fFO (Institut filr 
Wirtschaftsforschung) eco- 
nomic forecast unit Passen- 
ger use in the new states is 
up 28 percent in 1994. 

This popularity extends 
throughout Germany. Situat- 
ed at the crossingroads of 
two major rail lines, Han- 
nover does a “gold rush” 


business in ICE trains. Up ix> 
four arrive and leave every 
15 minings during rush houi; 

Trends such as these haVe 
led Deutsche Bahn AG; tie ; 
country’s federal rail, com- 
pany, to make “the single; 
largest order in rail history , ” . 
in the words of Munich's.; 
Suddeutsche Zeitung. The 
53 billion DM order, a raw 
of outright purchases and 
options, includes an indLv&k. 
ual one for 50 ICE units: 
Thirteen will be used to ex- 
tend ICE services to the ■ 
Netherlands and France^- 

Prime beneficiaries of die 
ICE-led rail revival are the! 
country's 53 roiling stock 
manufacturers. In 1993, 
their sales amounted to 
1 1 .84 billion DM, of which " 
40 percent went to cus- 
tomers abroad, specifically 
to those in America aha 
Asia. The Germans hold just 
under one-third of the entire 
world rail market, accoiding 
to the German technology 
weekly VDI Nachrichten. 

In mid-1994, while the 
ICE was being showcased in 
trial runs in the U.S., 
Siemens was booking a 1 
billion DM older, along with 
General Motors, for 350 ad- 
vanced locomotives from an 
American customer. 

In Malaysia, AEG secured 
a 735 million DM order 
from Kuala Lumpur’s mass 
transit system. And the Ger- 
mans made a key break- 
through into Japan's market, 
booking an order to supply 
locomotive electronics to a 
local producer. 

With other large-scale or- 
ders in the works, the Ger- 
man rail industry would 
seem to be feeing a promis- 
ing future - especially now 
that its flagship product fi- 
nally has that a memorable, 
thus marketable, nickname. 
Seeing the ICE streaking its 
snowy white way down 
America's tracks, local big- 
city kids came up with an 
obvious but good cognomen 
for it “the ice train.” 



-fawai ^tad-in - ' 'ifefeeraw buBtby - 

Urnmeamaon Demag ■' 

: .presssbre TO percent rate Of .growth. is the largest ot its type 

■\ : German exports to 


J*enbm^3ials68 percent 'rise m : ex~ ■ 
•. ’.>»<>rts ; TO -China ; . .According- ;■ to. 
'• 'Deutsche' Industrie^ 

fedei^tioh ofipdas&y ? ; 
■'.fhe'AiSU-Pacifiq riegt 
■ -.eouSitsTor- 10.8 peH&atf’Bf Get-'.' 


1 


cp.tiustomers- in Asia^jNorth'-'aad ■' 
Sou^'Anfericaitod 
^high-growth markds.arepqrciias- 


* *•' maimfacturers. For the. Dim fbim : . 

:. quarters of l$94,<KderafwGemian '• ■"Hi 
capital goodSvfromabroad are op H--. jaa|gs8fflK-, 
Vrpercdkt; 40 percent' of 

are from the Asia-Facifrc region, W BMl . ^ ‘ \ /• 

■ • German exports as a whole-are cm- , . 

'■■■'ding 8. percent higher, .a 1st feeder - ■■ 

4 > than the average global trade growth 'nUBUHl 





Road, Rail and Info Superhighways 

The EU's fourth "framework" allocates 25 billion Deutsche marks to R&D in the EU in 1995-/998. 


A possible “topping up” 
of 1.4 billion DM is to be 
decided on by the European 
Council and the European 
Parliament in 1996. Of this 
funding. 27.5 percent will be 
devoted to ICT (information 
and communication tech- 
nologies) and specifically to 
propped “information high- 
ways.” 

One key result of these 
and past allocations and of 
Germany’s involvement in 


pan-European research pro- 
jects is the transformation of 
Bonn into a major European 
research center through the 
founding of CAESAR~( Cen- 
ter of Advanced European 
Studies and Research) in the 
city. These institutes will 
concentrate on setting up in- 
terfaces among physics, 
chemistry and biology. 

Six-year timetable 
The European Union curent- 


ly has 58,000 kilometers of 
roads. 23.000 kilometers of 
high-speed rail track, 12.000 
kilometers of navigable wa- 
terways, 250 airports and 
some 400 billion Ecus bud- 
geted for the upgrading of a 
large portion of each of 
these transport infrastruc- 
tures, as well as those of the 
new member countries and 
of adjoining regions. This 
figure is to be spent within 
the next 15 years. The EU 


has deemed 220 billion Ecus 
worth of projects as "urgent” 
and set a six-year timetable 
for their completion. Eleven 
projects have been set for 
immediate realization, in- 
cluding five express rail 
lines. 

Thanks to these expendi- 
lures, travel times on such 
important routes us London- 
Paris-Cologne and Frank- 
furt-Mtian will be trimmed 
up to 50 percent by 1997. 


Energizing 
The Economy 

Environment-friendly programs can boost growth. 

Despite evidence to the contrary, many people still identi- 
fy cleaner air and water with an automatic loss of GDP 
growth, industrial base or personal mobility. 

During Germany's unparalleled, decade-long economic 
upswing - which led to a cumulative growth of 70 percent in 
GDP - declines in the levels of sulfur dioxide, dust, carbon 
monoxide, energy use and the contamination of all major 
West German waterways amounted to between 15 percent 
and 75 percent, depending on the area. 

During this period, Germany's public and private sectors 
steadily increaksd their investments in environmental protec- 
tion. Today, Germany allocates 1 .7 percent of its GDP to en- 
vironmental protection every year, ranking it second in the 
world in such expenditures, behind Denmark and just in 
front of the United States. 

Manufacturing leads the way 

This emphasis on environmental protection has been espe- 
cially strong in the manufacturing sector. According to Ger- 
many's Environmental Protection Agency, the country’s 
manufacturers have invested 80 billion Deutsche marks 
($5 1 .6 billion) in environmental protection facilities and 
equipment over the last 20 years. The manufacturers allocate 
more than 5.1 percent of operating output to environmental 
protection, making them the world’s leaders in this regard. 

One of the beneficiaries of this investment has been the 
country’s environmental technologies sector, boosting it to 
an increase in output — and thus producing further economic 
growth and job creation for the country as a whole. 

In 1993, the 58 billion DM in goods and services turned 
over by Germany’s environmental sector ranked it number 
one worldwide, according to a study by a German consulting 
group. The figure represented 20.5 percent of the world mar- 
ket and translated into a rise of 20 percent over 1 990. 

Furthermore, the country earned some 1 1.3 billion DM in 
1993 through straight exports of environmental-protection 
systems, equipment and services. 

A mastery of environmental technologies has given Ger- 
many’s capital-goods producers a major edge in such hi°h- 
growth markets as China, Southeast Asia and Japan “Our 
clean-fin" 8 technologies were definitely a factor convincing 
the Chinese to purchase equipment from us," says Hevo 
SchmiedeknechL. chairman of the board of Oberhausen’s 
Deutsche Babcock AG, now becoming a major supplier of 
facilities for China s power-generating sector 

As ^ Environmental Protection i Agency prims out in the 
1993 installment of its annual audit on the country’s envi- 
ronment, sharp reductions in the levels of many classic pol- 
lutants have been achieved. Other pollutants are proving in- 
irac table, however, and many substances have only now 
been identified as posing a danger to health and habitation. 
Most importantly dealing with pollutants requires coordi- 
nated transnational action. ^ coorai 

The implementing of initiatives at this level is oreciselv 
the 'dea behind the staging of the Conference on^ Cli- 
mate, to be held in Berlin March 28 -April 7, 1995 by the 
states that have signed the Convention on the Climate. 


“Germany" 

was produced in its entirety hr the Advertising Department of the 
Intenwiiontil Herald Tribune. It hbj sponsored hv the Press and 
hiftirnwrirvi Office of the Federal Government 'f German*. 
Writkr: Terry Swartdrers. a business writer based in Munich. 
Procram director: Bill Mahder. 













X •• 






INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 7, 1994 


Page 13 


SPONSORED SECTION 


R 


M 


A 


N 


Y 


Recovery and Discovery 

Engineers cuv rebuilding business bases and restoring the environmental balance. 




and water quality. 


Neighbors Share 
Common Causes 

Business parks, trade centers and aspirations. 


X here is nothing irre- 
versible or inexorable about 
industrial pollution or blight. 
The truth of this heartening 
maxim has been amply 
demonstrated in Germany's 
Ruhr district. It is being 
shown once more in the Bit- 
terfeld-Wolfen district in 
eastern Germany and in oth- 
er once-blighted areas of 
Germany's new states. 

One of the world's major 
redevelopment efforts is 
now entering its final phase. 
The Emscher district - home 
to 2 million people and part 
of the Ruhr agglomeration - 
was once a "wasteland of 
derelict industrial facilities, 
discarded equipment, de- 
spoiled landscape, all tra- 
versed by open ditches 
transporting sewage," re- 
pons Mcrian magazine. 

Today, some 350 kilome- 


A cause of overall growth in prosperity: 
German economic growth 


35000 


25000 


J! 

j | Exports per capita 

1 1 

tobgl GDP per capita 




Xi you have beard of Vaals, 
Forbach, Vogelsheim or 
Slubice, you are either a per- 
son with an encyclopedic 
knowledge of European ge- 
ography or a resident of 
Aachen, Saarbriicken, 
Freiburg or Frankfurt an der 
Oder, respectively. As a res- 
ident, you have not only 
heard of these cities, but you 
also probably shop, work or 
even live in one of them. 

‘Transnational areas" are 
those whose “non-local” 
transactions exceed local 
transactions. Thanks to the 
growing volumes of two- 
way traffic across their bor- 
fcders, these four pairs of 
r towns are now transnational. 
For the first three pairs, 
the fact that residents are 
free to live, shop and work 


on the other side of the bor- 
der is a product of the Euro- 
pean Union. 

For Frankfurt an der Oder, 
the East German state of 
Brandenburg and Slubice 
(Poland), ihe free flow of 
people, goods and services is 
a direct result of the end of 
the Cold War. 

The fact that there are so 
many jobs to work at and so 
many goods to exchange is 
the result of the formation of 
areas like Saar-Lor-Lux, a 
Euroregion in which states 
and provinces from four na- 
tions work together on 
everything from harmoniz- 
ing corporate accounting 
methods and environmental 
regulations to promoting the 
teaching of each others’ lan- 
guages to technical staff. 


For sheer imagination and 
extent of endeavor, Bran- 
denburg and Poland may be 
the leaders of the pack. For 
their border region, the two 
countries have created an in- 
ternational park in the Oder 
wetlands and embarked 
upon the building of a Euro- 
pean University, a World 
Trade Center and a business 
development center, in addi- 
tion to setting up a wide 
range of exchanges of tech- 
nical staff students, teachers 
and folklore groups. 


ters of waterways are being 
restored to their preindustrial 
state. Die Emscher district 
has added on 320 square 
kilometers of future parks - 
all former industrial sites. 
Old industrial structures, 
train stations and coal -min- 
ing facilities have been 
turned into technology cen- 
ters, offices and commercial 
parks. Residential neighbor- 
hoods have been refur- 
bished, and new malls and 
commercial centers have 
been built in the Emscher 
district's 17 center cities. 

The state-owned 1BA (In- 
ternationale Bauaustellung) 
Emscher Park, which started 
its work in 1988, has been 
instrumental in these efforts. 
To date, the IBA's work has 
cost 2.5 billion Deutsche 
marks ($1.6 billion), one- 
third of which has been in 
the form of private-sector in- 
vestment. A significant por- 
tion of the rest has been pro- 
vided by the EU's various 
regional restructuring funds. 

Greening of the region 
The progress in Emscher is 
only one part of the greening 
of the Ruhr district, home to 
5.4 million people and Eu- 
rope's largest industrial me- 
tropolis. Today, 62 percent 
of the Ruhr is green, wet or 
fertile. The region's name- 
sake, the Ruhr river, is a 
venue for swimming, sailing 
and sightseeing. Its water 
quality is one of the highest 
among Europe’s rivers. 

Four years ago, Bitterfeld 
(located in southeastern Sax- 

rrv~r~ 

•HfcW 


ony Anhalt) was being rou- 
tinely and inaccurately la- 
beled “the most polluted 
place in the world." There 
were (and are), unfortunate- 
ly. hundreds of other places 
involuntarily vying for this 
dubious distinction. Of equal 
concern to local inhabitants 
was the source of this pollu- 
tion. the local chemical in- 
dustry, which was also the 
region's largest employer. 
Financially and ecologically, 
Bitterfeld seemed to nave no 
future. 

Four years after unifica- 
tion. Bitterfeld has 180 new 
companies that have invest- 
ed more than 2 billion DM 
in state-of-the-art production 
facilities and created 6,000 
jobs. The largest investor is 
Bayer AG, with 600 million 
DM in investments and sev- 
eral large-scale production 
facilities. 

A wide-scale cleanup of 
residual pollution and a re- 
development and renaiuring 
of much of the region's ex- 
panses have made such in- 
vestment possible. Half of 
this 500 square kilometer re- 
gion is now farmland, and a 
third has been incorporated 
into nature preserve 
schemes. 

Bitterfeld’s air quality has 
improved radically, with 
emission levels at 8 percent 
of pre-1990 levels, accord- 
ing to local authorities. Four 
high-pressure biological re- 
actors capable of purifying 
77 million liters of sewage a 
day have resulted in cleaner 
streams and lakes. 




" ■ * • i •• ' ^ v _ mfi _ 


■ Its xjounterpaivthe- American 1 Fourteen \ , 

> ^•Comnierce s m'Gerin^yi.-^'j^-^b:< <s f 

office to Frankfort and 

. to the country: : ■. 1 •„ -t : s< : v fry Vw v * '%4‘i&iwL ' -:W 


Former Military Faciuties: 
New Uses, Users and Money 

Conversion means turning problems and potential into plowshares and pluses. 


X he military presence in Germany is 
shrinking. Since 1990 and the end of the 
Cold War, all 340,000 Soviet and some 
272,600 Allied soldiers have departed from 
Germany, leaving behind 1 32300 Allies, of 
which a bit more than half are Americans. 
Some 10,000 members of East Germany’s 
National Volksarmee, once 170.000 strong, 
were integrated into West Germany T s Bun- 
deswehr, which once totaled some 495,000; 
the new combined force now comprises only 

370.000 troops. . . 

Also left behind were a number of sues. 
about 5,600 square kilometers of which are 
in the new states. The "conversion" sites in- 
clude a wide range of facilities: resorts on 
Bavaria’s Chiemsee lake; choice inner-city 
apartment complexes and villas in Munich, 
Frankfurt and Dresden; remote weapons- 
producing factories in Brandenburg; huge 
maneuver areas in Saxony; and complete, 
well-equipped airports, hospitals and 
telecommunications facilities. 

“Many of these well-equipped facilities 
lacked only three things, says Walter 
Strutz, head of the conversion deparanent at 
the Rhineland-Palatinate’s ministry for eco- 
nomic affairs: "A new use, a new user, and 
the money to find both.” 

Military had been major 
For a wide range of communities in Western 
Germany, including Kaiserlautem and 
Biricenfeid in the Rhineland-Ptoaunate and 

Baden-Wamernb^ ^^ure 

of the soldiers posed a special headajme. 
Thefr non-German military communities 


had been a major employer. For communi- 
ties in Eastern Germany, already stretched 
and straitened by their own redevelopment 
processes, conversion was just one more 
item to add to a long list of challenges. 

Since 1 990. quite a few of these headaches 
and challenges have been converted into 
productive assets. Often transformed along 
with them have been the agencies, compa- 
nies, communities and finance houses 
charged with carrying out the conversion 
process. 

Germany’s federal government has suc- 
cessfully entered the real estate business on a 
large scale. 

According to Jtirgen Echtemach, former 
secretary of state at Bonn’s Ministry of Fi- 
nance, the federal government has realized 
some 3.68 billion Deutsche marks ($2.4 bil- 
lion) from the sale of 4,800 sites. Takers 
have been largely state and local govern- 
ments, nearly all of which have received 
their new properties at “cut-rate" prices. 

An even lower price — free of charge - 
was levied for the 162300 hectares of prop- 
erty in Germany’s new stales returned to 
their pre-Communist-regime owners. 

Some 122,000 apartments and living units 
have been transferred to local communities, 
allowing them to partially convert housing 
shortages into housing adequacies and to tap 
a new source of rental and sales income. 

New local parks are one benefit 
Not all conversion benefits can be expressed 
in marks and pfennigs. Areas just west of 
Berlin and in Eastern Germany’s share of 



Once a major US. at base 100 kBometers west of Frankfurt, Hahn now serves as a civilian airport 


the Harz mountains have been converted 
into local and national parks respectively, 
much to the delight of residents and tourists. 

One of the most striking aspects of con- 
version has taken place on the individual 
corporate level. A wide range of local and 
international “defense industry" companies 
have profitably converted themselves into 
munitions and weapons recyclers. 

Recycling munitions 

Buck-Werke GmbH, for example, used to 
produce mainly fog grenades and infrared 
targets for Western Germany's military. 
Buck-Werke is now also the proud propri- 
etor of a fertilizer-producing facility in Pin- 
now, Brandenburg. 

The facility’s raw material is Soviet Army 
rocket fuel. In a nice twist, the Bucks have 
taken the profits earned from recycling mu- 
nitions and have invested them in the re- 


equipping of their new facility, which now 
also manufactures prefabricated living units 
for soldiers relocated from Eastern Germany 
to Russia, 

“The first step to solving the conversion 
problem at a particular site is converting its 
potential assets into practical ones," says Mr. 
Strutz, who is also a member of the supervi- 
sory board at Hahn. Once a major U.S. air 
base 100 kilometers west of Frankfort, Hahn 
now serves as a civilian airport. It is used by 
a diverse array of charter operators flying 
vacationers to the Mediterranean, and by ex- 
press freight services sending documents 
around the world. 

In a conversion first, a public-private part- 
nership is now busy developing Hahn into a 
multiplex featuring six different categories 
of structures and users. These are to range 
from air-transport companies to institutions 
of forther education. 


4 



In Defense of Europe 

E. 


The German 


contingent of Birocorps 


irocorps, the European Union organiza- 
tion charged with creating a European-level 
defense and humanitarian tod capability, has 
not been receiving the attention it deserves. 

That is surprising, since Eurocorps “pro- 
vides Europe’s countries with a way of co- 
gently, coherently responding to the ever-re- 
curring cycle of conflict and crisis in many 
parts of the world,” says Volker Riihe, Ger- 
many’s minister of defense. ‘This idea, 
while not being accorded the blaze of pub- 
licity received by other EU organizations, 
has been garnering something much more 
important and lasting: a wide measure of 
practical support," he adds. 

Having perceived the need for and capaci- 
ty of Eurocorps, Belgium, Luxembourg and 
Spain have also joined the program. 

“Role models of organizations capable of 
meshing and furthering national interests 
and international imperatives are highly use- 
ful in today's Europe," adds Mr. Riihe. "Eu- 
rocorps has accomplished this meshing." 


Eurocorps began as a letter jointly written 
by German Chancellor Helmut Kohl and 
French President Francois Mitterrand on Oc- 
tober 14, 1991 to the chairman of the Euro- 
pean Parliament. The letter announced the 
two countries’ intention of intensifying their 
working relationships in the area of collec- 
tive security by developing a common mili- 
tary corps, which other EU member coun- 
tries would be welcome to join. 

On July I, 1992, Eurocorps' planning 
command began its work. In October 1993, 
General Helmut Willmann became its first 
commander. The development phase of Eu- 
rocorps will be concluded in October 1995, 
at which time it will have 50,000 soldiers. 

“Although still in its early stages, Euro- 
corps has already fulfilled one important part 
of its mission," Mr. Riihe says. Tt has 
shown that the resilient and flexible working 
arrangements among NATO, EU and other 
European defense organizations ore capable 
of extension and expansion." 



Toward a common European currency. 

Four-Square 
Financial Sector 

New technologies help get new investors and markets. 


Cxermany’s financial sec- 
tor has always commanded 
respect for its size and sol- 
vency, but not for its sophis- 
tication. In particular, the 
country’s private investors 
are always being praised for 
their high rates of savings 
and criticized for their low 
willingness to innovate and 
diversify. 

Until a few years ago, 
Germany's non-real-estate 
private wealth, which now 
amounts to 4 trillion 
Deutsche marks ($2.5 tril- 
lion), was invested mainly 
in fife insurance, annuities 
and, most notably, savings 
accounts. 

Germany's banks were 
mainly occupied with ad- 
ministering this wealth and 
in making well-secured 
loans to the country's pub- 
lic-sector authorities and 
blue-chip companies. 

‘Closed shops’ opens 
The country’s eight stocks 
and securities exchanges 
seemed to be “sideshows 
and closed shops," as an ar- 
ticle appearing in an Ameri- 
can financial journal in the 
late 1980s caustically put it, 
adding: “The country’s fu- 
tures markets are in London 
and its mutual funds are run 
out of Luxembourg.” 

Much has changed since 
then. Germany's total stock 
and securities turnover more 
than tripled over the past six 
years. Accounting for 74 
percent of that by itself, the 
Frankfurt Stock Exchange 
has consolidated its position 
os one of the world’s five 
largest 

Founded in 1990, the 
Deutsche Terminborse, the 
country’s futures exchange, 
has more than kept pace 
with its “elder sibling." The 
total number of futures con- 
tracts processed on the DTB 
rose from 3.77 million in 
1991 to 16.14 million in 
1993. 

On January 1, 1995, the 


Bundesaufsichtsamt for den 
Wertpapierhandel will start 
operations. One primary re- 
sponsibility of this “German 
SBC" will be enforcing the 
country's recently enacted, 
tough-minded insider-trad- 
ing law. 

This growth in and matur- 
ing of Germany's financial 
sector has been “facilitated 
by recently instituted elec- 
tronic linkages and a grow- 
ing eclecticism on the part 
of private investore," points 
out Werner Schmidt, chair- 
man of the board at 
Stuttgart's Siidwestdeutsche 
Landesbank. 

Instituted in 1991, IBIS 
(Integriertes Borsenhandels- 
und Informations-Syslem. 
or Integrated Stock Ex- 
change Trading and Infor- 
mation System), BOSS 
(Borsen-Order-Service Sys- 
tem) and their ilk have pro- 
gressively “finked all parts 
of Germany into a huge 
electronic trading and order- 
processing floor,” says Mr. 
Schmidt. “They have great- 
ly improved access to infor- 
mation and to financial 
products." 

Investors take advantage 
Investors, both institutional 
and private, have rushed to 
take advantage of the single 
European market's new 
openness. Over the last five 
years, some 360 billion DM 
has been invested in the 
1300 mutual fonds now be- 
ing offered in Germany. 
There are now some 15.3 
million private holdings of 
shares in Germany, twice 
the 1983 figure. 

Many of these enterpris- 
ing private investors are 
placing their orders via the 
German financial sector's 
latest wrinkle: "virtual bro- 
kers," discount houses oper- 
ating only via telecommuni- 
cation arid on-line links. The 
country’s first virtual stock 
exchange is expected to go 
on-line in Leipzig next year. 


Close Ties to the East 

There are now eight ‘Euroregions' In Germany's eastern 

states and its neighbors. 

• Pomerania: the German stale of MecSdenburg-Westem 
Pomerania and northwestern Poland. 

• Spree-Neisse-Bobn the German state of Brandenburg 
and western Poland. 

• Middle Oder/Viadrina: the German state of Brandenburg 
and western Poland. 

• Elbe/Labe: the German state of Saxony and the north- 
western Czech Republic. 

• EgrengsJs: the German state of Saxony and the western 
Czech Republic. 

• Bayerischer Wald/Bohemian Forest: The German state 
of Bavaria, parts of the western Czech Republic and 
northwestern Austria. 


German investments in Poland, 
Hungary, Slovakia and 
the Czech Republic 

(in millions of Deutsche marks) 


.1767 

*4 


250 



1990 


1991 


1992 


1993 







-J>. l£» 






Page 14 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 7, 1994 



Educational System Considered Among Best 


Germany s education system is evolving to prepare students for new technologies and rapidly changing markets. 


^Ln ever-increasing tide of politi- 
cians, businesspeople and educators 
in a number of other countries have 
been coming to Germany to learn 
how its educational system produces 
such highly qualified people. At the 
same time, Germany's system has 
thoroughly remodeled itself based 
on what it has learned from other 


countries. 

Two things have not changed: The 
unparalleled amount of resources 
Germany commits to training and 
maintaining its human capital, and 


the high standards of education and 
qualifications resulting from this 


qualifications resulting from this 
commitment. 

According to the federal ministry 
of education. Germany spent some 
300 billion Deutsche marks (SI 9 1.9 
billion) on all forms of education in 
1993. One-third of that, or 100 bil- 
lion DM, went for vocational train- 
ing and further occupational educa- 
tion. an increase of 20 percent over 
1992. 

A world-best 78 percent of all 
adults in Germany have earned oc- 
cupational or professional certifi- 
cates or post-secondary' degrees, ac- 
cording to the latest installment of 
the study conducted annually by a 
German federal-state commission. 


Upgrading skills 

These qualifications are continually 
being upgraded: Some 1.87 million 
working Germans attended nearly 
100.000 skills-upgrading courses in 
1993. Fully 95 percent of the coun- 
try's companies regularly provide 
their work forces with further occu- 
pational training. 

Powered by annual double-digit 
increases in the number of non-Ger- 


man companies based or represented 
in the country, there has been a pro- 
liferation in the number of interna- 
tional schools, with the newest ones 
recently set up in Leipzig and Pots- 
dam. This internationalizing of the 
country's business community has 
helped cause the increasing accep- 
tance of the international baccalaure- 
ate, or international high-school 
diploma, which is now recognized 
by local authorities as a full-fledged 
equivalent to Germany's vaunted 
Abitur. 

Non-German students transferring 
to the country' can attend a wide 
range of secondary schools offering 
the IB. This “passport to internation- 
al studies” is also being offered by 
German schools to their internation- 
ally minded students. 

This internationalization is not 
confined to the high school level. 
The University of Saarbrucken's Eu- 
rope Institute offers post-graduate 
master's degrees in “business ad- 
ministration Europe” and “econom- 
ics Europe” in a program partially 
sponsored by the EU. 

A further product of this interna- 
tionalization is “the growing aware- 
ness of the virtues of the brevity and 
practical-mindedness of the Anglo- 
Saxon professional education sys- 
tem, and an ever-greater number of 


German federal ministry of educa- 
tion. It also has 62 private universi- 
ties, attended by 35,000 students, in- 
cluding the European Business 
School Schloss Reichartshausen, 
Private University Witten/Herdecke, 
the recently founded Hoch-schule 
fur Bankwirtschaft (school of bank- 
ing) in Frankfurt. These universities 
and university-level institutes are 
highly respected for the fast pace 
and excellence of their education. As 
of 1993, Germany had a total of 3 15 
universities attended by 1.8 million 
students. 


institutions in Germany adapting 
them," says Horst Hamischfeger, 


them," says Horst Hamischfeger, 
general secretary of Munich’s 
Goethe Institute. 

Germany now has 31 Beruf- 
sakademien, university-level schools 
providing students with a full-scale, 
“hands-on" professional education 
within the relatively short time of six 
to eight semesters, according to the 


Academic spillover 
“Perhaps the most important change 
has been in Germany’s universities, 
and specifically their relationship to 
exploiting the fruits of their learning 
and research," says Mr. Har- 
nischfeger, adding: “In this regard, 
America, and specifically 
Boston/Cambridge, has been the 
standard model of" how an academic 
community’s results can ‘spill over' 
into the business community. In 
Germany, the ‘spill’ has become a 
carefully cultivated flow, with inno- 
vation and enterprise circulating 
through the entire university com- 
munity and beyond." 

Munster. Frankfurt, Bremen and 
Germany's other university towns 
feature a wellspring of innovation 
(the university and associated and 
independent research centers) creat- 
ing and feeding spin-off companies 
with a never-ending flow of new 
technologies and new products. 

The number of individual links in 
this flow is considerable. In Karl- 
sruhe, for instance, there are seven 
universities, five major research in- 



Telecommunications Sector 
Filled With New Players 


German consumers are enthusiastic about mobile telephones. 


Cxermany’s telecommuni- 
cations sector used to be 
easy to follow. The sector 
bad one telecom company - 
Deutsche Telekom - and 
one major kind of service: 
standard, point to point, with 
everything solid and nothing 
spectacular. Deutsche 
Telekom also offered a vari- 
ety of other services, includ- 
ing the “C” mobile network. 

With the unification of 


Germany and the spillover 
of the world’s mobile tele- 


phone boom into the coun- 
try, everything grew more 
complicated. 

Keeping track of Ger- 
many’s new states has in- 
volved monitoring two key 
numbers: total connections 
installed in the region - now 
just over 5 million - and 
years left before the new 
states' telephone services 
will be at West German lev- 
els - now predicted to be 
two years in the future. 


The Crafting of Consensus 


Continued from page 1 J 


formulated. Germany’s steadfast support of 
the ideal of European union has not wavered 
since 1951, when the country joined the Eu- 
ropean Coal and Steel Community, the fore- 
runner of today's EU. 


“The idea behind the setting up of the 
Union was to create a Europe that works, 
and works efficiently at all levels - local and 
regional, national and Europe-wide - not to 
create some form of a super-state. 


Partisan support 

One sign of this consensus was the virtual 
unanimity of opinion about the EU among 
Germany’s parties during the recently con- 
cluded federal election. Main challenger 
Rudolf Scharping took every opportunity to 
explain that, whatever the outcome of the 
election, there would be absolutely no 
change in Germany’s support of the EU and 
the process of European unification. 

As Mr. Kinkel points out, this consensus- 
building involves more than the various na- 
tional governments. 


A Europe that works 

The term that describes this approach is 

‘subsidiarity,' and it means letting each level 


Keeping track of Ger- 
many’s mobile telephone 
scene has involved follow- 
ing a neck-and-neck race. 
The starting gun went off in 
July 1992. 

The competitors are the 
D1 network, owned by 
Deutsche Telekom sub- 
sidiary DeTeMobil, and D2, 
belonging to Mannesman n 
Mobilfunk GmbH. The lead 
has passed back and forth, 
but the winner is already 
known: mobile telephony. 

As of October 1993, there 
were 2.3 million mobile tele- 
phone customers in Ger- 
many, with a further 2 mil- 
lion forecast to join up over 
the next two years. 

The E mobile telephone 
network went into service in 
mid-May 1994, initially in 
Berlin. E-Plus Mobilfunk 
GmbH, to give its full name, 
is owned by a Veba and 
Thyssen-led consortium. 

In another development, 
GfD (Gesellschaft fur 
Datenfunk), a consortium 
made up of blue-chip indus- 
trial companies, banks and 
utilities, was awarded a li- 
cense to set up a nationwide 
data communications net- 
woric This is expected to be 
upgraded to a standard 
telecommunications net- 
work in 1998, when the 
EU’s liberalization of the 
telecom market is set to go 
into effect. 


whose communications sys- 
tems will be managed by the 
new company. Eunercom 
has signed up IBM, Dun & 
Brads tree t and other major 
customers. The two national 
telecoms companies have 
also entered into a partner- 
ship with America's Sprint. 

Such competing telecoms 
operators as BT and AT&T 
have been entering Deutsche 
Telekom's home market and 
have secured a number of 
important corporate cus- 
tomers. More bothersome 
for Deutsche Telekom, how- 
ever, has been the prolifera- 
tion in Germany of call-back 
services based in the United 
States. 


handle matters affecting it directly.’ 
He adds: “The unification of C 


He adds: ’The unification of Germany 
provides a good example of subsidiarity in 
action. 

The ongoing transformation of the new 
states has largely been handled at the state 
and local level. 

As it has done for quite some time in the 
Ruhr district, the EU has helped equip the 
new states and their communities with the 
requisite funds and expertise, budgeting 27.5 
billion DM for the period 1994-99.” 


Joint venture with France 
Deutsche Telekom, in turn, 
has been anything but idle. It 
has been going international, 
founding Eunetcom with 
France Telecom. This huge 
joint venture - 1.6 billion 
Deutsche marks ($1 bilion) 
in share capital — is targeting 
outsourcing-minded, large" 
sized corporate customers. 


Prepare for privatization 
To handle these and other 
challenges, Deutsche 
Telekom is preparing itself 
for privatization. In what 
presumably will be the 
largest such transaction of 
all time, Deutsche Telekom 
will be constituted as a joint 
stock company and listed on 
world exchanges in 1996. 
Estimated worth of the com- 
pany's first tranche of stock 
is 15 billion to 18 billion 
DM. 

All told, Germany’s mar- 
ket for telecommunications 
equipment and services is 
forecast to total 78.2 billion 
DM in 1994, up 3 billion 
DM over 1993. As a product 
of the boom, domestic pro- 
ducers are recording all-time 
records in terms of units 
sold. Thanks to a steep de- 
cline in unit prices, however, 
the producers are facing a 9 
percent drop in total rev - 
enues.One bright spot is ex- 
ports. Germany's telecom 
producers are forecast to 
record a 10 percent growth 
in sales abroad in 1994. 


Europe’s Third-Ranking 

Venue for Foreign Tourists 


Why do they come to 


Germany? For the congresses, the voters and the culture. 


stitutes. seven technology-transfer 
agencies, a “technology factory'" that 
has launched 70 high-tech students 
on their business careers and Eu- 
rope’s highest percentage of re- 
searchers and developers per thou- 
sand people employed. 


Qualified to handle change 
At the center of Germany’s educa- 
tional remodeling has been the on- 
going transformation of the coun- 
try’s vaunted dual vocational educa- 
tion system. 

The goal remains the same, but 
there is" a new corollary: “Two inter- 
linked parts and a single objective: 
to produce a work force not only 
highly qualified, but highly qualified 
to" handle change." as Mr. Har- 
nischfeger describes it. 

To achieve that aim. all of the “C" 
(CNC, CIM and CAD/CAM) tech- 
nologies have become the standard 
fare of the classroom component of 
the dual education system. In its oth- 
er half, the factory floor (or office 
area), vocational trainees are starting 
their occupational careers operating 
in job groups and working under 
“lean." “just-in-time" and all the 
other modem conditions. 

Paralleling the interest in Ger- 
many’s educational system is wide- 
spread interest in the German lan- 
guage, which is now the language of 
choice for doing business in many 
parts of central and eastern Europe. 
The teaching of German is itself be- 
coming more international. One ex- 
ample of this is the language-teach- 
ing trade show Expolangues. to be 
held in Paris Jan. 27-Feb. I. 1995; 
the theme of this year's show is Ger- 
many. 


It is said that Germans 
travel more than any other 
Rational group, but that Ger- 
many is not widely traveled. 
This is not quite true. On a 
per capita basis, the Swiss, 
the Austrians and the 
Swedes travel abroad more 
often than die Germans and 
spend more money while 
doing so. In absolute terms, 
the Americans are the 
world’s leading travelers. 
But the 60 million “foreign" 
trips taken by Germans in 
1993 and the 62 billion 
Deutsche marks ($40 bil- 
lion) they spent on the road 
are figures worthy of atten- 
tion. And Germany itself is 
becoming a more and more 
popular tourist destination. 

Some 24 million non-Ger- 
mans visited Germany in 
1993, placing it a re- 
spectable third in Europe, 
with Munich ranking among 
Europe's top five destina- 
tions A goodly portion of 
these visitors came in tour 
groups making die Old Hei- 
delberg, Municb/Hof- 
brduhaus and Lorelei circuit. 
Many of the visitors, how- 
ever, were “high-end" trav- 
elers coming to Germany for 
reasons of health, education, 
culture or business. 

With 6 million foreign 
business travelers a year, 
Germany leads Europe in 
this category. Of these visi- 
tors, some 1.5 million busi- 
nesspeople came to Ger- 
many to attend die country’s 
103 international trade fairs, 
and nearly 1 million came to 
its 186.000 congresses, re- 
ports Joachim Scholz, inter- 
national travel expert at 
Deutsche Zentrale fur 
Tourismus e.V_ the national 
travel industry monitoring 
organization.’ A high per- 
centage stayed on after their 
particular event had been 





Each German spa has a specialty, but all aim to revitaBze. 


completed for a bit of shop- 
ping, sightseeing or just 
plain sojourning. 


Big spenders 

These high-end tourists 
spent some 235 DM a day 
per person, about twice as 
much as “normal” travelers 
in Germany - and three 
times as much as the West 
European average. 

In 1993, some 24.000 
people came to study Ger- 
man and German culture at 
one of the domestic-based 
Goethe Institutes, which are 
located around the world. 
Perhaps six times as many 
went to other language insti- 
tutes. such as those dial are 
part of the country's 91 uni- 
versities, already attended 
by 105,000 foreign students. 

Germany’s 270 spas are 
places to get well, even 
though visitors may not ex- 


actly be ill. Each of them 
specializes in rehabilitating 
a specific organ or ailment, 
all of them ini revamping 
maltreated constitutions. 
Last year, 9.5 million people 
checked into Germany’s 


spas, spending 120 million 
days mere. Of those people. 


days mere. Of those people, 
some 241,000 were well- 
heeled, high-profile foreign- 
ers whose average expendi- 
ture was “well over 200 DM 
a day" according to the esti- 
mate of a spokesperson for 
Germany's spa association. 

While at Bad Wdrishofen, 
Bad Homburg or Bad 
Bergzabem, foreigners are 
introduced into the pleasant- 
ly contradictory regimen 
prevailing in the German 
spa. After a day of rigidly 
organized treatments and di- 
ets. many patients head out 
for an evening of dancing 
and merriment 


The Art of Integration 


The State Philharmonic of the Rhineland-Palatinate: variations on a theme. 

^Tear after year, the Ger- 
man public sector supports 


its artistic community with 
unexcelled generosity. In 
1993, according to Ger- 
many’s Federal Office of 
Statistics, its support came 
to some 16 billion Deutsche 
marks ($10.2 billion), or 190 
Deutsche marks per capita, 
four times as much as two 
decades ago. Among the re- 
cipients of this largesse were 
the country’s 150 symphony 
orchestras. 

With 96 members, the 
State Philharmonic of the 
Rhineland-Palatinate is not 
as large as Leipzig’s 
Gewandhausorchester, 
which has a 159-raember 
ensemble. It is certified as an 
“A” orchestra (accorded to 
the nation’s major league 
groupings), which gives it 
the ranking, if not quite the 
international reputation, of 
the Berlin Philharmonic. 

Based in Ludwigs hafen, 
the State Philharmonic 
makes the rounds of its na- 
tive Rhineland-Palatinate. 
playing to packed houses in 
Speyer, Worms and Kaiser- 
lautem. 

It is also in strong demand 
as a touring orchestra, hav- 



Mon thm one-third of the members am forekpiers. 


ing made recent visits to 
Sweden. Spain and many 
points in between. The or- 
chestra is known for being 
well-rooted in its communi- 
ty. well-respected among its 
peers, and heterogeneous. 
The orchestra comprises 61 
Germans and 35 non-Ger- 
mans. The latter are from 13 
countries, ranging from Ar- 
gentina and Norway to 
Japan and America. 

The Rhineland-Palatinate 


is one of Europe’s great 
winegrowing regions, so it is 
no surprise that a very high 
percentage of the orchestra’s 
members are wine connois- 
seurs and even purveyors of 
Rieslings, Silvaners and 
Muel ler-T’hurgaus. 

“I think two ties binding 
the members of the orches- 
tra." says Eric Triimpler, 
cellist, “are a perpetual lack 
of time and a strong appreci- 
ation of the local wines.” 


Tourism: Naturally Popular 


Garmisch-Partenkirchen and Westeriand offer “ green ” vacation opportunities. 


Cjarmisch-Paitenkirchen and Westeriand 
are separated by geography, dialect and cli- 
mate. Garmisch-Partenkirchen is the south- 
ernmost major community in Bavaria. Ger- 
many’s southernmost state. 

Rising around and behind Garmisch are the 
Alps, including the Zugspitze, Germany’s 
highest mountain; Garmisch- 
Partenkirchen ’s climate is Alpine, and its 
look is dyed-in-the-wool Bavarian. 

Eight hundred and fifty kilometers to the 
north, Westeriand is not even part of Ger- 
many in geological terms. It is the largest 
town on Sylt, the “raised sandbank" stretch- 
ing 40 kilometers in the North Sea, connect- 
ed to the mainland by an 1 1 -kilometer-long 
causeway. 


Both areas have managed to keep their en- 
vironments relatively pristine through inge- 
nious car rot- and -stick campaigns. 

Clarmisch has started offering its tourists 
free public transport and free train mileage. 
Working with the Deutsche Bahn AG (the 
German federal rail authority), the city also 
provides a wide variety of special rail pack- 
ages. ^ 

The island of Sylt has come up with a few 
winkles of its own. It has an ombudsman 
fiw- the environment, Norbert Grimm, along 
with exemplary guidelines on the use of wa- 
ter, packaging and detergent. Both the 

greater Garmisch-Partenkirchen area and 

Sylt have instituted mandatory, comprehen- 
sive recycling programs. They have also in- 


!ts weather is often described as “invigo- cr^ingly ^ 

rating,” a polite term for windy, wet and local ecosystems ndangered 

quickly changing. The original local Ian- To raise their visitors’ (and v 

ffuaee is Frisian tfip “lirrl* nf Cran_ m mam awtul . ■ . ) CI1“ 


guage is Frisian, the “little brother’ of stan- 
dard Hochdeutsch, and closely related to 
both English and Dutch. 

Garmisch-Partenkirchen and Westeriand 
are bound by popularity, nationality and 
ecological awareness. 

In 1993, some 275,000 people spent their 
vacations in Ganniscb-PartenJdrchen, some 
252,000 in Westeriand. Several million 
more used Garmisch as their day base for 
skiing or climbing. Tourists accounted for 5 
million overnight stays in the whole of Sylt 
in 1993. 


vnonmenta] awareness, both vacation areas 
now offer nature walks, “environmental 
evenings, ecological action days" and 
much more. 7 

“All these events are very well-attended.” 

“vironmeo- 

la] information center is also quite rooular 
with visitors. When visiting it, they askvery 

questions - ^ ^ 

“Now if we could only get more of them 

81 home “ ^ would be a 
great breakthrough.” 





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SHBSBSv 151 

120 — — 




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from 25 countries, comoHeci 
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Asia/Pacifte 


Appro*. Mating; 32% 
Ctose: 134.7B Prwj 124.31 


Approx, weighting m 
Ctose 113.13 Prev; 113.93 




N D 
1994 


North .America 


Approx, mgftng: 26% 
Ctose 9420 Prwj 94 SI 


Latin America 


Approx, weighting: 5% 
Close: 130.07 Prevj 130.49 





p» Mae tracks U.S. doBar values at stocks to: Tokyo, Now York, London, and 
ArgonUno, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil. Canada, ChUo, Denmark. Finland. 
Ftann. Gonmny, Hong Kong, Italy, Mexico, rtetherianda, Now Zealand. Norway, i 
Sbigapora, Spain, Sweden, S w fa w tai i d end Venezuela. Far Tokyo. New Yarkand] 
London, the Max is conveaed ot the 20 top iasuee m ferns at market capttaBzadon. 
otherwise the tan top stocks am tracked. 


H Industrial Sectors ]| 


Tua. An. % 

dow doM change 


Tan 

dam 

An. 

dm 

m % 

dmi 

Energy 

111.68 112-07 - 0.35 

Capital Goods 

112.73 

11351 

-051 

uaset 

124.74 12441 - 0.06 

RmIUhUb 

129.08 

129.47 

-050 

Finance 

11141 113.42 - 0 JQ 1 

Consuns Goods 

10252 

10325 

- 0.42 

Servicas 

11156 111.70 - 0.13 

Hscdhneous 

114.68 

114.60 

4057 

'ft For mom information about the Index, a bookfel is svatoWs free ot charge. 

I WWb to Trib Index, 181 Avenue Charles do GanSe, 32521 NeuSyCedex, France. 


O International Herald Tribtrw 


Iberia 
Set to Cut 
Costs as 
Talks Fail 


CompUed by Our Staff From Dapauha 

MADRID — Iberia Air 
Lines of Spain said it planned 
to begin laying off 5^200 work- 
ers and selling assets after talks 
with pilots collapsed over a 
cost-cutting plan designed to 
secure a SI billion bailout for 
the airline. 

Javier Salas, the chairman, 
said talks on a plan to keep the 
carrier viable broke down Mon- 
day over demands for a 15 per- 
cent pay cut. He said the mea- 
sures would eliminate the need 
for the debt-ridden company to 
seek a hefty capital bailout 
from the government. 

Monday’s talks were the sec- 
ond round between manage- 
ment and the pilots’ union to 
discuss plans already accepted 
by Iberia's other main unions. 

Last week, Iberia workers ac- 
cepted an average 8.5 percent 
pay cut and 3,500 job cuts, a 
plan that needed the pilots* ac- 
ceptance to be implemented. 

Agreement by all unions on 
the restructuring plan was cru- 
cial to obtaining European 
Union approval for a proposed 
SI billion government baUouL 

Iberia expects to post a $350 
milli on loss for 1994. 

Pilots on Tuesday reiterated 
they would only be prepared to 
take the IS percent cut in ex- 
change far a “serious” viability 
plan. The union described the 
company's current proposals as 
“piecemeal” measures. 

The union called for the com- 
pany's board to resign, accusing 
it of gross mismanagement 

But the minister of industry, 
Juan Manuel Eguiagaray, said: 
“Iberia won’t disappear. What 
is clear is that the future of 
Iberia will be much more uncer- 
tain and difficult We are going 
to lose potential, strategic po- 
tential, economic potential, all 
kinds of potential.” 

(Bloomberg, AP, Reuters) 


International Herald Tribune, Wednesday, December 7 , 1994 

Magellan Skips Payout 

Fidelity Cites Big Accounting Error 


Page 15 


By Leslie Eaton 

Nor York Tunes Service 

NEW YORK — A billion here, a billion 
there, and pretty soon even Fidelity Invest- 
ments is talking about real money — money 
that it will not distribute to investors in its 536 
billion Magellan Fund. 

The Boston-based mutual fund company 
announced late Monday that Magellan, the 
largest U.S. mutual fund, would not make a 
year-end distribution of taxable income to its 
3 million shareholders, and it blamed an ac- 
counting error. 

Just last month, the company told investors 
who had asked that they should expect to get 
about $4.32 a share, one cent less than they 
received last December. 

Industry experts expressed bewilderment 
at the size of the error but suggested Lhat aside 
from a simple miscalculation, its problem 
could have resulted from mistakes in record- 
ing the historical cost of certain investments 
or the nature of some income the fund re- 
ceived from its investments. 

Fidelity said the error did not affect the 
value of investors' shares. The money that 
would have been distributed simply remains 
in the fund, and the share price is unchang ed. 

Although the value of Magellan has fallen 
23 percent since the end of September, Fidel- 
ity said the problem was not caused by big, 
last-minute losses or changes in the hind’s 
portfolio. 

“It really was an error in the calculation of 


the estimate,” said Jane Jamieson, a spokes- 
man, who declined to provide further details. 
She said the problem did not affect other 
Fidelity funds. 

Normally, mutual f unds di stri b ute their 
profits only when required to for tax reasons. 
By law, mutual funds that sell their invest- 
ments at a profit must pass along realized 
capital gains, net of any losses, to shareholders 
every year. Shareholders then pay the taxes on 
those gains, as well as on dividend income. 

This is the second major accounting prob- 
lem at fidelity tins year. On June 18, the 
company gave out incorrect prices for its funds 
when its computer systems broke down. 

The company would not confirm the size erf 
the new imctairr* in calculating the distribu- 
tion, but the fund has more than 500 mini on 
shares outstanding, which moans a discrepan- 
cy of more than $2 billion. 

Most investors avoid buying shares at the 
end of the year because they do not want to 
face taxes on gains that came before they 
bought into the fund. For that reason, as well 
as to help investors get an idea of their pro- 
spective tax liabilities, fund companies such 
as Fidelity often estimate the and timing 
of a distribution in advance. 

Such estimates are often off by a few cents 
but rarely by such a large amount, said A. 
Michael Upper, president of Upper Analyti- 
cal Services, winch has tracked mutual funds 
for decades. 


A High-Karat Victory for GE 


By Douglas Frantz 

New York Times Service 

NEW YORK — In a stunning 
victory for General Electric Co., 
a U_S. federal judge has thrown 
out a criminal case in winch the 
company was accused of con- 
spiring to fix the world price of 
industrial diamonds. 

District Judge George C. 
Smith in Columbus, Ohio, took 
the unusual step Monday of 
finding G£ not guilty of the lone 
charge against it after evidence 
had been presented only by the 
prosecution. He said there was 
not enough evidence to merit 
sending tie case to the jury. 

In a written opinion, the 
judge said the government bad 


fafled in five weeks of testimony 
to prove that GE had conspired 
with a representative of the De 
Beers diamond cartel of South 
Africa to fix the price of indus- 
trial diamonds, which are used 
in precision-cutting machinery 
and drilling bits. 

GE’s lawyer, Dan K. Webb, 
asked the judge to dismiss the 
charge at the end of the prose- 
cution’s case a week ago. The 
judge issued Ms ruling at the 
end of the court session Mon- 
day, while the defense was pre- 
senting its case. 

The verdict was a personal 
vindication for John r. Welch 
Jr., the GE chairman and chief 
executive. Mr. Welch this year 


refused an offer of a plea bar- 
gain and vowed to fight the 
charges In court. 


Russia’s Plan 
Fails to Win 
Aid From IMF 


”1 believed in our people,” 
Mr. Welch said in a telephone 
interview from GE headquar- 
ters in Fairfield, Connecticut. 
“I believed all along that there 
was nothing there.” 

The verdict also represented 
a setback for Assistant Attor- 
ney General Anne K. Binga- 
man, who has sought to revital- 
ize the antitrust division of the 
Justice Department with high- 
profile cases. In a statement is- 
sued after the ruling, she said. 

See DIAMOND, Page 16 


By Fred Hiatt 

Washington Peel Service 

MOSCOW — Russia's pro- 
posed economic plan for 1995, 
already dismissed by its Parlia- 
ment as too austere, is not 
tough enough to put the coun- 
try on a road to recovery or to 
qualify for Western aid, an offi- 
cial of the International Mone- 
tary Fund said Tuesday. 

Stanley Fischer, first deputy 
managing director of the Fund, 
cast doubt on Russia’s chances 
of qualifying for as much as $12 
billion in IMF loans that Mos- 
cow is counting on to get 
through next year. 

“The arithmetic doesn’t add 
up to a program that would 
work at a low inflation rate,” 
Mr. Fischer said after meeting 
with government officials here. 
“Some additional cuts or addi- 
tional revenue are needed.” 

The prospects for Russian re- 
form next year are particularly 
vital because Parliamentary 
elections are set for December 
199S and presidential elections 
for six months later. If people 
by then see few benefits from 
reform, they are more likely to 
vote for authoritarian and ul- 
tranationalist candidates, many 
analysts said. 

In the face of resurgent infla- 
tion and a resulting plunge in the 

value of the ruble, both Presi- 
dent Boris N. Yeltsin and Prime 
Minis ter Viktor S. Chernomyr- 
din again vowed to finally stabi- 
lize the economy by cutting 
spending and raising revenue. 

The government claims its 
budget would bring the deficit 
down to 8 percent of the gross 
national product, the econo- 
my’s total output for the year. 
But Mr. Fischer said Fund ana- 
lysts believed it more likely to 
lead to a deficit of 10 percent — 
and that Russia should be 
shooting for at most 6 percent 
to 7 percent 

If Russia develops a better 
plan and provides concrete as- 
surances that it will be fol- 


lowed, it could still qualify for a 
$6 billion IMF assistance loan 
— which would be the largest in 
Fund history — and as much as 
$6 billion for a ruble stabiliza- 
tion fund, Mr. Fischer said 
But he said the Western gov- 
ernments that finance the IMF 
would not be pressured into 
lendin g money if they were not 
persuaded Russia was serious 
about stabilization. 


Japan’s Recession 
Takes aTotton 
Working Women 

Agence France- Presse 

TOKYO — The number of 
working women in Japan de- 
clined in 1993 for the first time 
in 18 years, reflecting corporate 
streamlining in the business 
slump, the Labor Ministry said 
Tuesday. 

The ministry said employed 
women last year totaled 26.1 
millio n, down 03 percent from 
the previous year and the first 
drop since 1975. 

The unemployment rate for 
women was 2.6 percent overall, 
but was much higher among 
young women. 

The report also showed that 
working women still carried a 
heavier burden than men in fam- 
ily lives, even though nearly 40 
percent of married women have 
jobs, compared with about 30 
percent 10 years ago. 

Among two-income couples, 
wives spend an average of 3 
hours and 51 minutes a day on 
domestic chores and taking care 
of children, while husbands 
spend only 12 minutes, the re- 
port said. 

About 40 percent of working 
women give up their jobs be- 
cause erf family responsibilities 
such as taking care of children 
and ride relatives, it said. 



Asian TV Growth Sets Dizzying Pace 


By Richard Covington 

Special la the Herald Tribune 

H ong kong — 

The wheel spins, 
the contestants call 
out thdr choices in 
die Indonesian Baha«ai lan- 
guage, and another Asian ver- 
sion of an American television 
production is underway. 

But on this “Wheel erf For- 
tune,” the wheel is not al- 
lowed to have any dollar 
signs. 

“Thai would be gambling," 
said Tony Skinner, vice presi- 
dent of production for Grun- 
dy Worldwide, an Australian 
company. “And the A si a n 
countries are very wary of ap- 
pearing to promote gam- 
bling.” Grundy adapts game 
shows for television audiences 
around the world. •_ 

Another wheel of fortune 
rolled into Hong Kong last 
week as several thousand 
Asian and Western buyers 
«nH television broadcasters 
converged on MTP Asia, an 
international TV market and 
conference. . . 

As several U-S- companies 
unveiled major ventures in the 
region, local programming 
emerged as a key for Western 
producers. 

The market for TV pro- 


gramming in Asia is explod- 
ing. With 1 mSbcm cable sub- 
scribers, Shanghai has the 
highest percentage of cable 
penetration in the world. In- 
dia, with a middle dass as 
large as the entire U3. popu- 
lation, doubled its number of 
TV channels this year to 40 
last year. 

Forty additional satellites 
with the potential for carrying 
hundreds of new channels wifl 


be launched over Asia in the 
next three years. 

“The present light rain of 
channels will soon become a 
monsoon,” said Nxwat Boon- 
song, president erf Interna- 
tional Broadcasting Corpora- 
tion Ltd. of Thailand. 

The most successful chan- 
nels will invariably be the 
ones devoted to home-grown 
programming. Even MTV 
Networks, the music channel 


onng, 

'£± Ad Sales: Rosy Picture 

tralian ^ 

New York Times Service 

of ap- NEW YORK — Two leading industry forecasters presented 

gam- rosy predictions this week for growth in advertising spending, 
i game. At the opening session Monday of the 22d annual 
lienees PaineWebber media conference, Robert J. Coen, senior vice 
president at McCann-Erickson USA Inc. in New York, and 
ortune John Perriss, chairman at Zenith Media Worldwide in Lon- 
tg last don, increased their projections for total advertising expendi- 
usand tores in the United States and overseas, 
buyers Mr. Coen said a better economic dimate would boost 
asters demand for ads for a wide range of products, 
da, an Mr. Perriss said: “Everywhere in the world we see key 
et and indicators, with one or two exceptions, moving favorably to 
advertising. I have been very pleasantly surprised.” 
names Spending declines on advertising in Japan have bottomed 
i in the out this year, he said, and spending next year in China, 

r»mir>g Denmark, Germany, Greece, Ireland and Singapore should 
Western remain strong Mr. Perriss mentioned Central and Eastern 
Europe, Latin America and Southeast Asia as areas that 
j pro- looked especially promising over the next three years. 


that reaches a quarter of a 
billion homes around the 
world, has seen the wisdom of 
tailoring its programs to local 
audiences. MTV India is al- 
ready under way, and an 
MTV version in M an d arin 
and one subtitled in Korean 
are in the pipeline. MTV is a 
unit erf Viacom Inc. 

“The global village with ev- 
eryone watching the same 
programs is never going to be 
a reality," said Tom Frcston, 
chief executive of MTV Net- 
works. “Local programming 
will drive the evolution of tele- 
vision — particularly in 
Asia." 

A number of Western TV 
producers, including Capital 
Cities/ ABC Inc. and Chil- 
dren’s Television Workshop, 
are poised to launch joint ven- 
tures for TV production in 
Asia. News Corp.’s STAR-TV 
and NHK, the Japanese stale 
broadcaster, are also active in 
Asian coproductions. 

“The early players putting 
seed capital into East-West 
coproductions recognize that 
Asian viewers will soon grow 
tired of the novelty of unfa- 
miliar Western programs,” 
said Susan Schoenfdd, presi- 
dent of Advisors for Intema- 

See TV, Page 19 


CURRENCY & INTEREST RATES 


Cross Rut** 

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Source; Ankara. 


Banks Were Established to Protect 
Depositors' Funds. It's Still 
Our Most Important Mission. 



T hroughout history, man 
has sought to safeguard 
the things he values. 

It was true in the Middle Ages, 
when banking institutions 
emerged ro shelter the wealth 
created by an expanding market 
economy. It’s equally mie now. 

Today, however, safety isn’t 
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strongbox or the heaviest 
padlock. In today’s fluid world, 
safety is tied to prudent poli- 
cies, a strong balance sheet and 


a conservative banking 
philosophy. 

Those are the very qualities 
that have made Republic 
National Bank one of the "Safest 
institutions in the world. Our 
asset quality and capital ratios 
are among the strongest in the 
industry. And our dedication to 
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unmatched anywhere. 

As a subsidiary of Saffa 
Republic Holdings S.A. and an 
affiliate of Republic New York 


Corporation, we’re part of a 
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more than US$50 billion in 
assets. These assets continue to 
grow substantially, a testament 
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So, while much has changed 
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still our most important 
mission. 


REPUBLIC NATIONAL RANK 
OF NEW YORK (SUISSE) SA 


ASATRADANk 

Timeless Values. Traditional Strength. 

HEAD OFFICE GEN EVA 1204 '2, PLACE DU LAC -TEL (0221 705 55 55 - FOREX: (0221 705 55 50 AND GENEVA 1201 - 2. RUE DR. ALFRED- VINCENT (CORNER 
OUA1 DU MQKT-BLAlCi BRANCHES: LUGANO 6901 • 1, VIA CANOW * TEL- (091 > 23 85 32 ■ ZURICH 8039 - STOCKERSTRASSE 37 • TEL. (01 > 288 18 18 ■ 
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JAKARTA • SINGAPORE ■ TAIPEI ■ TOKYO 


I—. 




MARKET DIARY 


Stocks Close Mixed 
Despite Bond Rally 


Vm AnooW*d Pna» 


Dow Jones Averages I EUROPEAN FUTURES 


Open High Low Lofl Che* 


Daw Jones* 


Indus 273 0 .M 374932 371441 3745.95 *4 JO 
Trans 164 Z 49 U 43 . 1 SW 21 MH 3 Q 48 - 12 J 7 
Utfl 18 ft* 18079 17947 100-73 +033 
Comp 1250.73 1253-23 1242-51 125067 -Z 31 


Metals 


M Tish m 

Aik Bid *«s 
aluminum own Graft) 

Donors mt oaaMc Me 
Spot 1834® 183748 WUO 1BS40 

Forward 1 DS 9 UD 0 18 U 40 190000 190140 

COPPER CATHODES CHUGnidCj 
Donors per metric tan 

spot s\vn warn vxas mum 

Forward 2D740 267840 2900110 290140 

LEAD 

DeHarepermgfrietM 

SPOT 63100 631 JM 637.00 63 SJM 

PwwonJ 64450 647 J 0 63440 4 SLM 

Dollars Per metric tee 

Soot 864000 865009 883000 8840 M 

Forward 577000 870040 8*040 8*S40 

TIN 

Dollars per metric ton 

spot 576540 mat mm sum 


NEW YORK — Stocks 
struggled to close mixed Tues- 
day despite a buoyant bond 
market that brought interest 
rates to a seven-month low. 

The Dow Jones industrial av- 
erage opened firmer, then 
veered sharpl y lower and finally 

U.S. Stocks 

recovered from a 25.57-point 
loss to close up 4.03 points at 
3,745.95. 

The drop was tempered by a 
surge in Boeing, which rose % to 
47% as management’s meetings 
with investors in New York last 
week buoyed optimism about 
the airplane industry. 

Wall Street’s erratic behavior 
was partly traced to lingering 
disappointment over news that 


investors in Fidelity's flagship 
Magellan Fund, the largest U.S. 


Magellan Fund, the largest U.S. 
mutual fund, would not receive 
a dividend at the end of the year 
as expected. 

Money flowed out of stock 
funds in the week ended Nov. 
30 for the first time since ApriL 
according to AMG Data Ser- 
vices. Fidelity saw a net SI 00 
million removed from its stock 
funds in November. 

But market analysts were 


puzzled at the stock market's 
failure to react more favorably 
to a powerful bond rally. The 
benchmark 30-year Treasury 
bond surged 23/32 points to 95 
30/32, cutting the yield down to 
7.84 percent from 7.92 percent 

Early in the session. Wall 
Street got a psychological lift 
from an optimistic market fore- 
cast for 1995 by Merrill Lynch. 

The ratio of losers to gainers 
was 13-10-9 cm the Big Board 
and trading was unusually ac- 
tive as 298.9 milli on shares 
changed hands. 

Drug stocks advanced after 1 
Smith Barney raised its rating on 
five major companies. Merck 
was unchanged at 37% after ris- 
ing as high as 3814, Eli Lilly 
climbed 1 to 6314, and SmithK- 
trne Beecham rose 14 to 33%. 

Technology shares gained for 
a second day amid expectations 
of growing demand for person- 
al computers. Intel rose % to 
64 Vi, Apple climbed % to 37 
9/16, Dell climbed 3/16 to 42 
13/16. and Compaq posted a 
gain of % to 41%. 

Intelligent Electronics plum- 
meted 3% to 9% amid reports 
that ihe computer retailer may 



Standard & Poor's Induces 


industrials 

TnMPi 

Utilities 

Finance 

SPSQ 0 

SP 100 


Hiatt Low Close Ctfsr 
539.13 5345 ) 53738 —024 
SOM 34534 34017 —235 
15048 MOB 15022 -OM 
41 - 5 * 4135 41-51 +002 
45193 45035 45011 —031 
4227 8 41904 4 ZUB —014 


NYSE Indexes 


Mot MOOO 14775 

4 MM 14809 14840 

July N.T. N.T. 

Aft H.T. N.T. 

Sep N.T. N.T. 

Oct N.T. N.T. 

Mar N.T. N.T. 

BUtvflJum*: 12457 . 


Last Mila Oft* 

M£ft 147.75 tiS 
MOW MJH +200 
N.T. Mm 3 +175 
RT. 15175 +250 
H.T. 15300 +L 50 
K.T. 1JSM +140 
N.T- 15700 +140 
Open mt 111.172 


Deere Posts Rem^ftofitJorYear^ 

MOLINE, of its industnal andfann 

SS™ 1 ™ S '’ $169 6 mtUion to’tEfquattr. up firan 

I ^ , 6 P aOTV “ ^ 

. «. _ * r 


Forward 605540 606500 61 8000 619000 

Elite CSpedd HWt Grads} 

Dollars per metric ton _ 

Scat TIOUO 110940 110940 111800 

Forward U 370 O 113800 10700 113000 


Comcast* 

wnfcretrial* 

Transp. 

utifity 

Finance 


348.17 3*647 
31208 31048 
Z24A5 mat 
200.02 1 98.92 
195.75 19478 


24744 —034 
312 - 2 * —076 
22200 — 205 , 
19900 —0 14 
19502 — 0-10 I 


Ja a 1675 1605 14.16 16.16 +042 

F«il 14-15 1544 1607 1606 +001 

Mar 1605 1542 1572 1600 +006 

Aar 1400 1545 1549 1599 +{Ug 

Allay 1600 1591 1593 1543 + 003 

Jua . 1600 1544 1546 1546 +004 

-Hy 1601 1591 1592 1542 +004 

AM 1602 1403 1602 1546 +042 

S 16 J 1 1646 1600 1640 —009 
MX NX MX 1604 +006 
Mv 16.13 16,12 16.13 1608 +008 

Dec 1622 1618 1621 M .12 +002 

Eat. volume: 35 ^ 46 - OconlnL 187.921 


billion- nested a profit of S603.6 million. 

For its financial a restructuring and $1.1 1 

Last year, charges of of S92Q.9 . 

billion for new S9 .03 bHKro. 

mfflion. Revenue for the year rose 1 / P c * wniT . 


milli on- Kcwaiup - m 

Home Holdings Gets Cash Jnj^on 

mim. — Home Holdings Inc. sad Tt 


Financial 


Stock Indexes 

ftsm w» {jjfJSd Uw 00 


Low Qom dam 


J 4 A SOM O 

i<m : '■ 


NASDAQ Indexes 


Htah Law Last Oft. 


Composite 

industrials 

Banks 


NYSE Most Actives 


74506 7*104 74106 + 405 ; 
74702 74400 76600 * 6 AJ 
69178 68907 69077 - 0-41 
B 97 .ll 893-47 8 V 7.11 -. 200 ' 
853-48 851.67 851.97 *153 I 
65005 64602 64601 *403 


Mail Lnr ciom amn 

3 -MOHTH STERLING ILIFFE) 
ssaaoM-ptsetwapct 
DM 050 9142 9364 -008 

MOT 9261 9266 9250 — 0.14 I 

ioa 9204 9107 9102 — 618 1 

Sft 9 L 66 9160 9166 —070 

Dec 9104 91.18 9103 — 0.15 ! 


MM —180 
30360 —190 


Jua RT. RT. 30550 — 1S0 

E St volume: 19087. Open MU 6540. 
CAC40(MAT1F) 


'.Open ML: 6&4CL 


Mar 91.17 9105 9108 —612 

J«a VIM nS7 9048 —612 

Sep wn 9040 9043 —006 

Dec W 40 9086 9088 —002 

mt 9082 9076 9080 —001 

Jua 9076 9072 9075 — 041 

Sep 9078 9073 0074 —004 

Eat. volume: 160091 . Open 502097 . , 

3 -MONTH EURODOLLARS tUFFEl 
si mnitoa - pts of 180 od 
Dec 93-51 9151 9307 Unctv 

amr mn nr®- nri —a. a*. 

Jim 9270 9239 9237 + 0 -IU 

Sep N.T. RT. 9148 — 002 

EsL volume: si. Open lnLi-WSO. I 


198000 IMllO 197800 —300 
198700 197250 msso —300 


Hanson 

RJRNato 

Merck 

ATAT 

Campon s 

ABarcK 

MicrTcs 

TelMe* 

WalMort 

RiOMr 

imCame 

GnMatr 

Enferoy 

niatFdrt 

APCCtK 


VoL Hat) 

raw 
61* 
38ft 
40'A 
42 ft 
20*. 
45ft 
53’A 
27 Vi 
58TV 
16V. 
39 *» 
22 >4 
V M 
25% 


Lew Last 
1 FI >8W 
5% 6 

J7% 27 Vl 

47 % 481 * 

40 V* 41 Vi 

|9«i 20V 

4318 43*. 

52 S3 Vi 

22 22W 

S7V> SB 
IP* 1 ». 
38 *. 39V, 
22*6 22*6 
>/« '>n 

25 1 -'. 25 Vt 


Dow Jones Bond Averages 


20 Bonis 
10 uflinies 
10 Industrials 


Close Ctrte 

94.19 + 0.17 

89 JO +006 

9804 +079 


199100 199800 199500 —300 
ter 300 SJU 8 199050 200150 — 1 S 8 

ion RT. RT. 19 BS 5 D — 31 ® 

*P RT. RT. 200900 —300 

Est. volume: 22057 . Open Mt^ 47020 . 


Soorct-a: Motif. Associated Proto. 
London toff Fiaandat Fotans Exchange, 
trtt Feti ol eum Exchange. 


Dividends 


AMEX Stock Index 


PMOHTH EUROMARKS (LIFFE3 
DMi mtHWa-Ptiof IBS pd 


HW> Low Last Cft 1 
43276 42901 430.90 —177 ! 


NASDAQ Most Actives 


have overebaiged suppliers. 

(AP, Bloomberg) 


IntcfB 
Intel 
EO Tel 
Oracle 

MO 

ascos 

Mlcstls 

Lotus 


Dollar Little Changed 
As Markets Await Fed 


ApowC 


Mcrjofl 

AbMMWI 

BcArt 

AST 


VM. Mil 
ST 331 9Va 
48969 65V. 

43W6 151* 

39763 42 
39036 4*6 
33630 19Vs 
299B3 33<^ 

24329 64V. 
24085 44% 
71634 12S 
21017 JBR 
20563 19'A 
20218 47V. 
r9W7 
19439 14 


LOW LOW 
Vt* 9+i 
6Th 64 Vj 
1314 14 

3944 3914 

514 544 

19V* 19'* 

3214 33'. 

63 639* 

41 4114 

119* 117* 
36*4 37Vh 

18V. 19 

45 V. 45V. 
ro’-v 20 ?* 
14V* 15Ta 


NYSE Diary 


Advcnced 
Dedtrtsd 
Unctmnrd 
Total issues 
NewWohi 
New Lows 


944 1163 

1290 1 061 

699 693 

2933 2937 

15 10 

147 90 


DMI mtBKM-MlOf !M pd 
DK 9*67 9407 

MOT 9*55 9405 

Jtw 9473 94.12 

5CP 9309 9300 

Dec 9155 9308 

Mar «01 »S 

Jan 93.10 9299 

s» SS S2 

Dee 9207 923 

MlW 9202 9238 

JOP 9273 9230 

see 9277 9271 

Est. vdume: 209781 . Open 
3-MONTH PIBOR (MATIF) 
FF5 mnnoa - Pts ot iso pet 
Dec 9434 1 476 

MOT 94 JH 9309 

JIM ?167 9 X 49 


Per Aon Rec Par 
IRREGULAR 



Consol FTNoMway 
Home Fl n l Q» 
lanrcnp InsarMon 
Moot loco atm lit 
Muni income Tr 
Mum Premium Inca 
Prudntl Mua F] A 

Sabtne Royalty 

VorCO IsdMan 
c -toft- term capital pain. 

STOCK 


- JO 12-30 2-34 
. jos h vn 

C 01*5 t 2 J 9 12-23 
C 3731 12-9 U 73 

- 7433 12 + 12-23 
C 0961 17-9 12-23 
. MM 12 + 12-23 
_ 08 <7 12-15 12-79 
c 0366 12-20 1230 


Co mm erce Bctfn - 5% 12-13 13-29 

REVERSE STOCK SPLIT 


AMEX Diary 


9436 

9438 

—OUT 

53,89 

<092 

— 0.18 

9 X 49 

9305 

— 0.15 

9 X 21 

9345 

— 0.15 

*247 

9100 

— Dili 

9249 

9 ZJ 5 

—1148 

ruo 

9252 

—049 

9248 

9333 

—048 


STOCK SPLIT 


Bush imtest 5 tor 4 soUl 

Kent Find Sues 1 sbora Am Metals Swca tor 1 

share Kent Flam Svcl 


AMEX Most Actives 


Aorancea 

DedWwa 
Unchmoed 
Total issues 
NewNfotu 
New Lows 


M 0 344 

35 a 342 

716 234 

814 820 

7 11 

45 38 


VM. tfph Low Lost 


Computed by Our Staff From Dispatches 

NEW YORK — The doUar 
was little changed against other 
major currencies on Tuesday as 
the market awaited more clues 
on the direction of U.S. interest 
rates. 

Traders were mostly on the 
sidelines before the Federal Re- 
serve Board chairman. Alan 


Foreign Exchange 


Greenspan, speaks to the Joint 
Economic Committee of Con- 
gress on Wednesday. 

They said the market would 
look for clues in Mr. Green- 
span's testimony to the possi- 
bility of an increase in U.S. in- 
terest rates when the Fed’s 
policymakers meet Dec. 20. 

The dollar closed at 1.5724 
Deutsche marks, up from 
1.5717 DM on Monday, and at 
100.100 yen, down from 
100.355 yen. It was also at 
5.3995 French francs, up from 
5.3950 francs, and at 1.3278 
Swiss francs, up from 1.3255 
francs. 

The pound was at SI. 5623, 
up from S 1.5570. 


Stock market gains and 
strength in the long-term Trea- 
sury bond also supported the 
dollar. 

Traders said the market had 
factored in news that Treasury 
Secretary Lloyd Bentsen would 
resign as of Dec. 22 and be re- 
placed by Robert Rubin, bead of 
the National Economic Council. 

Traders said the choice of 
Mr. Rubin was positive for the 
dollar. “Rubin is considered to 
be responsible, market-savvy.” 
said David Durst, vice presi- 
dent at Bear Steams. 

Widespread speculation that 
the dollar’s slump against major 
currencies had ended also sup- 
ported the dollar, traders and 
analysts said. 

“When the dollar falls, peo- 
le buy it," said Guy Bcuaziz. 
managing director of C-Wave 
Capital Management Corp.. a 
currency-trading; fund. 

“People are still looking for a 
higher dollar.** said Andy 
Aeschbach. a vice president at 
Bank Julius Baer. “It looks like 
it’s on the way up." 

(Reuters, AFX. Bloomberg) 


ENSCOs 

RoyolQ g 

OwvSfts 

CircoPh 

EchoBay 

HonvrfB 

PeaGW 


31619 I 1 H 101 * 
10223 3 '* Z*u 


NASDAQ Diary 


8804 IJ'.-j J2L. 13W 
SOM 16 V 351 , li 1 * 


7665 10>< 
6137 


5910 ll”-* IP'* ll> 


USBimo 
BoryftG 5 


5051 39’5 
4627 7»« 
4027 13 


M'* 39 W 

Tv, 7»4 

11*1 12*i 


Advanced 
Dcdirod 
Unchanged 
; Total iuue& 
Nuv.Hipft', 
New Lawn 


1362 1485 

1869 1718 

1891 1916 

5122 5119 

42 43 

208 123 


Mar 92-77 9269 9275 —008 

JOB 9205 92 X 7 9252 —009 

SOU 9237 9278 9273 —008 

EsL volume: 10 X 191 . DoonhiL: 194 . 104 . 
LONG GILT (UFFE) [ 

BUM - pH A 22 nd* ai in pci t 

DK 102-13 101-30 ISMS - 0-12 

Mar 101-24 101 415 101-15 - 0-11 

Jua N.T. RT. 100-15 — 0-11 

EsL volume: 65015 Open int.: 129027 . 1 

GERMAN GOVERNMENT BUND (LI FFEJ j 
DM 25 M 80 - Pti OMW act 
DK 9106 9093 91.11 — 8.16 I 

Star 9 lliS 9074 OT 06 — 0.12 

Jan 8975 8972 8901 — 0.12 

EsL volume: 17 * 67 * Open mt.: 300757 . 
10 -YEAR FRENCH GOV. BONDS (MATIFJ 


INCREASED 


5 

SPECIAL 


Hgiaco Atfvnts Tr 
HoIdqj Advntg 11 
HalacoAdviAv ill 


12 + 12-23 
12 + 12-23 
12 + 12-23 


Bush Indus) n - JUS 

Fst United Bna>tnn - 03 

Hasket inU A .07 


3-10 3-24 
1201 M 3 
22 -UT Ml 


FF5004M 

pts el IDO ad 


—032 | 

DK 

11330 

11248 

11346 

MOT 

1 1 248 

11248 

11241 

—030 

Jim 

11140 

111 JO 

nun 

—036 1 

Sea 

11048 

11078 

11046 

—036 ; 


Spot ComnKXflttos 


Est. volume: 20600*. Open Int.: 162043. 


Market Sates 


Today 

Close 

NYSE 298.90 

Amu 1508 

Nasdaq 257.10 

In millions. 


Com modity Today Prev. 

Aluminum. Db 0033 005 

I Copper electrolytic, lb 1.43 1X1 

Iran FOB, ion 2l3j» 2i3J» 

Lead, to Ct44 IU4 

Silver, troy az *625 *63 

Steel (scrap), tan mm T27JX 

Tin, HJ 4JS4a5 4.12*4 

Zinc lb 80692 00735 


Industrials 


MW Low Lost Seme Cftvei 
GASOIL (IPO 

UJL doilan Mr metric tan-loti of 118 tons 
OK 14100 14000 14025 14075 +000' 

Jon 144-50 14300 14300 14300 +050 ! 

Feb 14625 1 4525 1452S 14525 +1001 

MW 14700 14725 1472S 14725 +125, 

Apr 14700 7477$ 14700 14725 +1751 


Cato Corp A 

cone income Shra 

Detroit Ed 
Excel RBvTr 
Fays Inc 

Fedl HoneLaMtg 
Hasbro Inc 
Mark IV Hid 
MassHeottb Ed 
Muni Income Tr II 
New AmerHD Inco 
Porters Svys& Ln 
Putnam Tr Green 
Showboat Inc 
Snyder Oft 
SM Product 
us west 

Yankee Energy Sn 
ZenUti Natl insur 


12-19 1-2 

1-20 23 

12-19 1-15 
12-31 1-13 
12-23 1-6 

12-12 12-30 
20 2-17 
12-20 1-3 

12-12 1200 
12+ 12-23 
12-16 12-30 
12-15 1223 
12-6 1-3 

1215 i-n 
Z2+J 1230 
1-13 1-27 
1-30 2-1 

1215 IMS 
Ml 215 


NEW YORK 

the insuranM industry, ; 

investor group as part of the agreement- 

Heinz Profit Hurt by Comparison 

wiK^irreOTiSdafeg gain <m the saicoftwo 

second-quarter earnings increased 6 parxnt. i 

Net income in the three months to Oct- 26 was $139.6 millimi, , 
compared with $193.1 million in the year-ago quarter. Sales • 
increased 9 percent, to $1^8 bflHoo- ^ 

Volkswagen Fires U-S. Ad Agency ; 

NEW YORK (NYT) — Volkswagen of America lac. has said it ; 
will diinnisfi Berlin Cameron Doyle ®a New York, its advertising i 
agency for the last 16 months. . „ . „ . . , , [ 

The U 5. subsidiary of Volkswagen AG said Monday it would i 
renew its North American advertising account, which has esti- * 
ynatwri hillings of $90 mifli nn. ' 4 

The decision takes effect when Berlin Cameron's contract « 
expires March 31. Berlin rnwim m was spun off from the New ' 
York office of DDB Needham Worldwide in 1993 to handle , 
Volkswagen- . ’ 

U.S. Accuses China of Damping Alley j 

WASHINGTON (AFP) — The UJS. International Trade Cran- » 
mi.«inn found China guilty Tuesday of harming U.S. industry by ^ 
exporting sflocomanganese to the United States at unfairly low • 
prices. J 

The commission ruled that cheap sflocomanganese from China, , 
Brazil and Ukraine threatened the UJS. producers of the alloy* 
used in steel and cast iron production. 

The Department of Commerce will impose anti-riumping duties 
on Ch ina and Brazfl. Ukraine negotiated a suspension arrange- 
ment with the U& government ax the end of October. . 


a-onnaal; v-aayabfe la Ciwntftan fawta; at- 
monthly; a-narttrtr; g+sami-ismaal 


For the Record 


DIAMOND: U.S. Federal Judge Clears GE of Charges of Fixing Prices 


Continued from Page IS 
“We respect and accept that de- 
rision in this case." 

In February, GE and one of 
its European executives, Peter 
Frenz, were indicted on a single 
count of conspiring to fix dia- 
mond prices in 1 991 and 1992. 
Also charged were De Beers 
Centenary AG, a Swiss affiliate 
of the South African diamond 
conglomerate, and Philippe 
Liotier, an executive with Dia- 
mant Bo art, a company that 


both was a GE diamond cus- 
tomer and was loosely affiliated 
with De Beers. 

The government’s case was 
difficult from the outset Prose- 
cutors relied heavily on the tes- 
timony of a GE executive who 
had been dismissed as head of 
the industrial diamond section 
on grounds of poor perfor- 
mance and on a series of inter- 
nal GE memos. Several poten- 
tial witnesses in Europe refused 
to testify. 


GE acknowledged that Mr. 
Frenz had discussed pending 
price increases with Mr. Liotier. 
but Mr. Webb argued that the 
discussions were innocent ex- 
changes between a supplier and 
a customer. 

The government’s case de- 
pended on proving that Mr. 
Liotier was acting not as a GE 
customer, but for De Beers, 
which owned part of Diamant 
Boart’s parent company. But a 
Diamant Boart executive. 


called by prosecutors, testified 
that there were legitimate rea- 
sonsforMr. Liotier to exchange 
price information with GE in 
his capacity as a customer. 


Mr. Smith told lawyers in the 
case that he had never before 
dismissed criminal charges 
without hearing from the de- 
fease. But in Ins ruling, he wrote 
that the government had not 
proven that Mr. Liotier had act- 
ed on behalf of De Beers. 


The National Association of Purchaahig Management predicted . 
U.S. manufacturing would continue to grow next year, but not as 
strongly as it did this year. (AP) 

Great Atlantic & Pacific Tea Co. said its third-quarter results 
would include after-tax charges of about $185 milli on- (Reuters) 
Capital Cities/ ABC Inc. and Electronic Arts Inc. said they had 
formed a venture to publish entertainment and educational soft- 
ware for computers and video-game machines. (Bloomberg^ 
Prodigy Services Co. has laid off 100 workers, about 15 percenf^ 
of its stan, in a restructuring of its on-line computer service. (AP) 
Lands’ End Inc.’s chief executive, William T. End, has resigned 
because of differences with die mail -order company’s board . Hie 
company said Michael J. Smith, 34, would replace him. (NTT) 
International Business Machines Cory, said it had increased its 
stake in its South African representative, Information Services 
Group Ltd, to 51.5 percent IBM has invested about $80 million 
in the company this year. (AP) 


WORLD STOCK MARKETS 


U.S. FUTURES 


Seooi Season 
Higti L on 


Open HMI Law Close On OuM 


Seaton Seaton 
High Low 


Open Hbft Low One ChB ttvtaf 


Afienoe France Pmse Dec. 6 


Via Associated Pren 


Season Season 
High Law 


Open Mtoti Law dose aw Op.W 


Amsterdam 


ASN Amro Hid 
acf homing 
Arson 
AfioW 
Akza Nobel 
AMEV 

Bofe-Wesscmen 

C 5 M 

DSM 

Elsevier 

Fokkor 

Gist-Brocades 

HBG 

Holneken 

Hooaavens 

Hunter Douolos 

(HC Calami 

Inter Mueller 

Inn Nederland 

KLM 

KNPBT 

KPN 

NodHayd 

Oce Grlnlen 

Pakhoed 

PhUlas 

Pofrarain 

Robeco 

n.wL **m~ n 
MAJUFHtU 

Rallnca 

Rorento 

Rural Dutol 

Stork 

Unilever 

Van ommeren 

VNU 

WONarVKHmar 


Pretmag 

PWA 

RWE 

Rneinmetaii 

ScBertna 

Stamens 

Thyssen 

Varta 

Veba 

VEW 

VkJO 

voutswoaen 

Walla 

DAX.IndaxjJ 


43343400 
2 Z 7 JM 232 
453453.70 
278 280 

«5 1000 
5 WLS 0 611 
2730OZ78JSD 
30731400 
52700 529 

37600 376 

46. 1 5 046400 

n7 & 4V % 


Market Qosed 
The Helsinki and 
Madrid stock mar- 
kets were closed 
Tuesday for a holi- 
day. 


EOE Index - 41171 

Prev Kura : 41375 


Brussels 


Almonll 

Artwd 

Banco 

BBL 

Bekaert 

CBR 

CMB 

CNR 

Cockedll 

Cabana 

Colruyt 

Dettwize 

ElectraMI 

Eieetraflna 

Form AG 

GIB 

GBL 

Govaert 

Glavwbel 

immobei 
KredhrtbanK 
Mama 
Petraflna 
Pawerfln 
Reeticei 
Rovale Beige 
SacGen Bqnque 
Soc Gen Beta lawe 
Sol Ina 

Sotwov . . 

Toaenderta 

Troocfr* 

UCB 

Union MMere 
Wagons Llts 


Hong Kong 

nZ 

1100 
5*05 
3900 
2AM 
1200 

. w 
1600 
14.90 
8400 
445 
IS 
8 


Ftson* 

Fwia 

GEC 

GenT Acc 

Glaxo 

Grand Mot 

GRE 

Guinness 

GU 5 

Honjon 

Hllisdawn 

HSBC Mhh» 

ICI 

inchcape 

Kingfisher 

LadBroko 

Land Sec 

Laporte 

Lasma 

LeoalGenGrp 
LJavds Bank 
Marks Sp 
ME PC 
Natl Power 
watWest 
NthWst Water 

p p T 

Pllklnntan 
PmeerGcn 
Prudential 
Rank Ora 
Rockltt Col 
Red land 
Reedlirtl 
Reuters 
RMC Group 
Rain Ravee 
Raltunn (unit] 
Roval Scot 
RTZ 

Salnsbury 
Scot Newcas 
Scot power 
Sear* 

Severn Trent 

SMI 

SJcbe 

SmHti Neafiew 
SmlRiKifne B 


Pancdn Petrol m 
Power Corp 
Power Finn 
Quebecor B 
Rogers Comm B 
Karol sk coa 
Sears Canada Inc 
Shell Cda A 
Soulhom Inc 
SWcaA 
Truan Finn a 


40 Vi, 40U. 
T6Vi 184* , 
28 28 
16U. Iff* 
17* IS* 
2916 29 46 
8 74k 


Stockholm 




is% 

7\i m 
300 3.90 
180609 


Accor 
Air Liquid 
, AlcaM Mnham 


Bancalre IChs) 

BiC 

BNP 

Bauvgues 

Danahe 

gmWour 

Conn 
Charoeurs 
i cimenis Franc 
dub Mad 
EK-Aqultalnc 
Euro Disney 
Gen- Eaux 
Havas 
I metal 

LQfargeCopaee 

Leorand 


AGA 
AieaAF 
Astra AF 
Atlas Copco 95 

Electro lux B 374 
Ericsson 

Eraeife-A W 

Handebbank BF 9700 
Investor BF 186 

Norsk Hydro 26100 
Pharmacia AF 11500 
SandvIK B 725 

5CA-A 

&€ Bankart AF 
Skamfla F 
Skanska BF 
SKFBF 
StoniAF 
Trvllabora BF 
Volvo BF 


Yomaktn Sec 
o:x ioa 
Nikkei 225 -.19 


IX* 1 1.18 Mav 96 1205 1201 1205 

1202 11 JO JU 96 1205 1206 1 L 45 

1200 IlDOOa 96 12 J 0 12 J* I 2 J 0 

Est. soles 79372 Man's, mta 17059 
Man’s aoen Int 190.964 oft 944 
COCOA (NCSE) lgmeirlcwns-secrHi 


-0J1 1079 

:SU S 


92070 9102 O 5 OP W 91020 * 1*0 91 JN 91 J 70 +110128078 

EsL sides 9150*7 Man's, sales 775,126 
Mon's open W 2^95090 Off 18058 


Man’s o pen mt 2J75AS0 Off IBOSO 

B»n»mKJWD (CMaD siarm-W-lwM*MP«u «1 
10436 10500 Dec 94 1098 1069 10570 10620 *48*7,106 




Grains 


WHEAT (COOT) s 4 aobuminuiwn-PBilann*ri>i»v' 

AIN* 309 Dec 94 173 174 ’. JL 71 i 77 h- 4 UDH 2 J 69 

4 J 6 ** 327 IW 0 T 9 S IBS 3.90 3 B 61 u 387 ' 1 -O.im. 41.054 

198 W 314 ’'! MOV 95 170 1711 k 309 Vi 170 ' 4 i-ttMVi 6091 

3034 * HI Jul 95 3099 : X 42 138 34 Wi - 0 . 01 U 13074 

305 339 Sep 95 306 -Ml 'A 627 

3 JS 309 Dec 95 304 W 307 3 0 tV 2 JAVj -001 223 

354 Vi 326 Jul 96 SJJPk -0 00*1 11 

EsLMPes 15+00 Mon's, urn 15074 
Mai's open rt *4251 UP 477 
WHEAT IKBOT) M 0 * bum** mum- oaOenparbiHIM 
423 V* 3 . 12 VjDoc 94 x *5 199 195 195 -003 2.156 

427 V* 325 Mar 95 190 191 1 B 7 V 1 3 W - 0 . 02 V* 22061 

403 301 *iMav 95 373 ’A 174 173 175 V. *0B0V. 2062 

308 V* 31 6 W Jul 95 146 Vi 149 to l«6to +OJBV 1 4009 

177 379 Septa 150 V. 301 XKTVi 301 100 

309 V, 302 Dec 95 300 300 35 B 15 B - 0.02 V, 19 


Toronto 




Sydney 


LvnvEoux 
Omni (L"l 
L.VALH. 
Matn+Hadierte 
Mlchelln B 
Moulinex 
Paribas 
Petaii n ey inti 
Pernod- R] curd 
Peuoeat 
Plnaull Prim 
RodMecNnkiuB 
Renault 
Rh-PautencA 

RaM- 51 . Louis 

Sanafl 

Saint Gobain 
S.EJB. 

StaGenerata 

Suez 

TbomsMi-CSF 

Total 

UJUF*. 

Valeo 


Smith (WHI 
Sim Alliance 
TatoBiLvIe 
Tesco 
Thom EMI 
Tomkins 
TSB Group 
Unilever 
utd Biscuits 
Vodafone 
Wor Loan 3 V, 

We llcome 

Wlltbmjd 

Williams Hdps 
Willis Corroon 
grtetedez: 23 J 8 J 0 
FT^E toi IMex: HI 6.18 


Amcor BJW 803 

ANZ 402 199 

BMP 19 X 4 19.16 

Bora) 1 « 139 

Bougainville aft 2 009 

Coles MW 41 B 421 

Comal cn 5 5 

CRA U IBM 

CSS 4*3 451 

Feeders Brew l.W 1.1 J 

Goodman Field 1.12 1.11 

ICI Australia 11.10 11.18 

Monel ton 1 JW IJO 

MIM 234 235 

Nat AusJ Bank 1006 1006 

Nows corp ... 5.05 5 BB 

H Broken Hill 113 3 J 09 

PaC Dunlop 303 305 

Pioneer Inn 332 125 

Nmncy Poseidon 102 1.93 

PoWtahoBnJcsta 3 L 3 ® AM 

OCT Resources 133 132 

Santas 3 L 40 305 

TNT . 230 230 

western Minin g 7jo ua 

westnac Banking 4*3 402 

Woods] de 420 471 


AMI EM Price 
Air Canada 
Alberta Energy 
Alcan Aluminum 
A mer Barrfck 
Avenor 

Bk Nava Scotia 

ace . 

BC Telecomm 
Bombardier B 
Bramaieo 
Brascan A 
Coiikco 
CIBC 

Cdn Natural Res 
CdnOarld Pet 
Cdn Pacific 
CaKodes Paper 
Camlnco 
Consumers Oa» 
Dafasco 
□oman indB 
Du PontCda A 
Echo Bay Mines 
Empire CO. A 
FafcotiBrfchje 
Fletcher ami A 
FraKo Nevada 
Guardian CwA 
mmloGota 
Horsham 
imperial Oil 
Inco 



Mon’s o pen kn 31,907 up 317 

CORN (asOT) ^OBObuimHuni- ao—i per OuWm 

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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 7, 1994 


Page 17 


, . r _ '“*% 
5 ‘ u l 

n P ar ison 


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■~ m 

• ‘-S \^}k 

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Britain Blocks EU Law 
On Pay for Part-Timers 



Rouen 

«“> Europe 

Wo^ I 1SSioT^Sould < ri?' Tm by- 

sshse * ™ raL s fiasa 

10 

bypSto 1 BSlei the MaaSlncht 
J^mJ 3 E$£“ " WOrkere » »™» 

Gennany, the current EU presidenL called a 
■W* for Dec - 21 after ministers expressed 
wfltoges to try to reach an agreement; 
Michael Portillo, the British employment sec 
*e bad blocked the law JvT n ? nS- 
time workers the same hourly pay and benefi ts as 
workm because he thought it would 

^idiiDd ita vn the U.K. the impact of 
the directive would have been that jobswould 


have been lost, whereas the objective of all of us 
>s to create the flexibility where jobs can be 
created,” he said. 

If EU social affairs legislation is adopted un- 
der the social protocol, it does not apply in 
Britain, which opted out of the Maastricht trea- 
ty s social chapter. 

The final legislation, which had been signifi- 
cantly watered down in an attempt to get Brit- 
ain s support, is expected to be much stronger 
than the law discussed Tuesday. 

“There was a call for a much stronger propos- 
al one EU official said. 

Germany had tried to win Britain's backing by 
leaving contractual rights and statutory social 
security provisions outside the law’s scope. 

Britain also opposed the law on people who go 
abroad to work — aimed mainly at the construc- 
tion industry — saying they received sufficient 
protection under national laws and that the new 
legislation would hit low-wage countries. 

The construction industry is particularly af- 
fected because many building workers travel to 
find work on a short-term basis. 


BT Seeks Delay 
bi Phone Pacts 

Canpiied by Our Staff From Dispatches 

LONDON — British 
Telecommunications PLC 
.said Tuesday it had asked 
U.S. regulators to delay ap- 
proving two alliances of 
U.S. and European telecom- 
munications companies. 

It said Sprint Corp.'s alli- 
ance with France Telecom 
SA and Deutsche Telekom 
as well as AT&T Corp.'s 
pacts with state-owned 
Swiss and Dutch compa- 
nies should await further 
liberalization of European 
markets. (Reuters, AFX) 


Citroen and Renault Plan 
Job Cutbacks Next Year 


The Associated Press 

PARIS — - Renault and Auto- 
mobiles Citroen said Tu esda y 
they planned to eliminate as 
many as 3,600 jobs next year. 

Executives at Citroen, one of 
the two automaking divisions of 
PSA Peugeot Citroen SA, said 
the unit would cut 1.180 jobs 
next year through attrition and 
other measures short of layoffs. 

That plan, which affects six 
plants in France, is to be for- 
mally presented Dec. 15. The 
division also plans to hire be- 
tween 500 and 600 new employ- 
ees as part of its strategy to 


lower the average age of its 
work force. 

Automobiles Peugeot said last 
month that it expected to induce 
about 600 employees aged 57 or 
older to accept an early retire- 
ment package next year. 

Labor representatives at Re- 
nault, in which the French gov- 
ernment recently reduced its 
holding to 51 percent, said the 
carmaker would etiminale be- 
tween 1,700 and 1,800 jobs next 
year through attrition, incentives 
for early retirement and other 
means, but without layoffs. 


France Rejects 
Call by Bonn on 
Monetary Union 

By Tom Buerkle 

International Herald Tribune 

PARIS — The French nominee to oversee Europe’s move 
toward a single currency rqected calls from Gennany to tighten 
the criteria for monetary’ union, saying existing political cooper- 
ation and ceilings on budget deficits were sufficient. 

The nominee, Yves-Thibault de Stiguy, also criticized a 
recent proposal by Chancellor Helmut Kohl's Christian Demo- 
cratic Union /Christian Social Union parliamentary group, 
calling for Germany, France and the Benelux states to adopt a 
single currency first, as "maladroit -and perhaps unnecessary.** 
“I prefer to take objective criteria and see to it that those who 
respect these objective criteria will be the chosen ones," Mr. de 
Silguy said in a recent interview. That may well mean only a 
small group of countries first, he said, but “there is no predesti- 
nation in this matter, something which seems to me to be 
diplomatically, psychologically and politically disagreeable.” 

The comments typify the pragmatic, low-key approach of 
Mr. de Silguy, currently the chief adviser on European Union 
affairs to Prime Minister Edouard Balladur. Those qualities 
are already being put to the test os Mr. de Silguy finds himself 
tiying to reconcile French and German ideas' for monetary 
union, not to mention French plans for Europe that would 
trim his own power as an EU commissioner in Brussels. 

Last week Mr. Balladur published a proposal to abandon 
German ideas for a federal Europe with ever-greater sharing of 
power, saying Paris, Bonn and London would never let them- 
selves be outvoted in a future Union of 20 or more members. 
Instead he called for a virtual Europe & la carte, with France 
teaming up with Gennany on a single currency, with Britain on 
defense and with Italy and Spain on Mediterranean issues. 

Naturally, Mr. de' Silguy gives full support to his boss's 
plan, saying it is essential to prevent the Union from becom- 
ing ungovernable as it takes in as many as !0 new members 
from Eastern Europe. 

He said there was no split with Bonn on the fundamental aim 
— a strong European Union that is more than a free-trade zone, 
including “federal dements” such as a common agricultural 
policy. But he drew the line at German calls for closer political 
cooperation as a precondition for a single currency. 

Hans Tietmeyer, the Bundesbank presidenL said recently 
that such cooperation was needed to avoid a sudden bout of 
deficit spending in one country that could affect management 
of a single currency. 

Talk like that “goes beyond the Treaty on European 
Union,” Mr. de Silguy said. 


Dresdner 
Undercut 
By Bonds 

Compiled by Our Staff From Dispatches 

FRANKFURT — Dresdner 
Bank AG, Germany's second- 
largest commercial' b ank, on 
Tuesday reported a drop in 
profit for the first 10 months of 
1994 as the year's bond market 
slump bit into its earnings. 

But a rise in its business vol- 
ume and an improvement in its 
interest margins helped to boost 
interest income, and it forecast 
a satisfactory profit for the full 
year. 

Group (roerating profit after 
provisions tor loan losses fell 17 
percent, to 133 billion Deut- 
sche marks (S844 million), com- 
pared with the year-earlier peri- 
od. 

The decline was explained by 
a loss of 301 .4 million DM from 
trading on the bank’s own ac- 
count as lower bond prices 
forced Dresdner to make heavy 
write-downs on its bond portfo- 
lio. 

Chief Executive Jurgen Sar- 
razin said that two- thirds of the 
loss in trading on the bank’s 
own account stemmed from de- 
rivatives operations by 
Dresdner’s Paris subsidiary, 
Banque Internationale de 
Placement 

The trading loss was partly 
offset as provisions set aside for 
potential loan losses fell 16 per- 
cent, to 1.05 billion DM, as 
credit risks eased at home and 
abroad. 

The bank said group net in- 
terest income rose 9.4 percent 
to 5.72 billion DM, boosted by 
a widening of the net interest 
margin to 1.77 percentage 
points from 1.75 points and by 
a rise in business volume. 

(Reuters. Bloomberg) 


Investor’s Europe 


Frankfurt 

DAX 


London . Nris 

FTSE 100 Index f CAG4G 

330 2200..' - - 




J A SOND 
1994 


J A S 
1994 


Exchange 

Amsterdam 

Brussels 

Frankfurt 

Frankfurt 

Helsinki 

London 

London 

Madrid 

Milan 

Paris 

Stockholm 

Vienna 

Zurich 

Sources: Reuters. 


AEX 

Stock Index 

DAX 

FAZ 

HEX 

Financial Times 30 
FTSE 100 
General Index 
M1BTEL 

CAC40 

AJfaersvaeriden 

ATX Index _ 

SBS 

AFP 


Tuesday 

Close . 

411.18 

7,311X28 

2,04888 

77227 

Closed 

2,31850 

3,016.10 


9827.00 

1866.9$ 

1,869.39 

1,044.82 

015.57 


™®,I A SON D 
1994. 

Prev. %. 

Close -.Change 
41335 : -ft5g 
733830 -0.40 

2,071.12 *1-17 

778.10 -0-75 

1,88133 - • 

233130 -035 

3,03330 -0.57 

30433 ' ~ 

10044 ' ■ •2.16 

1.97335 -024 

1.896.10 -1.44 . 

1,050.47 - -0-54- 
92220 -0.72 • 

ImcmuiHinul Herald Tribune 


Very briefly: 

• Italy raised 5.92 trillion lire ($4 billion) from privatizations in 
1994 and expects to raise 10 trillion lire next year. 

» The Netherlands’ economy is growing at a rate of 2.2 percent this 
year, more than five times as fast as in 1993. 

■ Deutsche Lufthansa AG sold its 20.2 percent stake in the 
Kempmski AG luxury hotel chain to Ativan ta Management AG. 

• Eli LiBy & Co. said it planned to invest more than 1 billion 
Belgian francs (S30 million) in its Belgian research unit in 1995. 

• BBDO Worldwide Inc_ a U.S. advertising agency, said it had 
bought a 20 percent equity interest in Gilam Image Promotion 
Systems, a Tel Aviv agency. 

• The European Court of Justice rejected an initial appeal by 
Union Carbide Corp. against a European Commission decision to 
approve a joint plastics venture between Royal Dutch/ Shell 
Group and Montedison SpA, a European Union source said. 

• Portugal wiU sell a 19.5 percent stake in the trade bank Banco 

Fomento & Exterior SA for about 19 billion escudos (SI 18 
million ) on Dec. 27. (Reuters, AFP. Bloomberg) 


AMEX 

Tuesday's dosing 

Tables include the nationwide prices up to 
the closing on Wall Street and do not neflec 
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7,700 
1,900 

1.300 
1,070 

385 

115 

41.000 
125 

275,000 

7.700 
420 

1,900 

26.000 
28J00 
27,500 

1.700 
1,900 

335 

265 


Tuesday's Closing i K, < 

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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 7, 1994 


Page 19 


ASIA/PACIFIC 


"Samsun 




of Protest 


Rumen 

‘ — Automobile worlc- 

■»s threatened Tuesday to strike 
“ the government approved 
-Samsung Co.’s application to en- 
;ter the passengeT-car market. 

[ ; Presidents of South Korea’s 
six carmakers, fearing competi- 


Korea Executives 
* Guilty of Bribery 

Bloomberg Bittiness b'ews 

' SEOUL — Three prominent 
;South Korean industrialists 
were convicted Tuesday of 
'bribery charges by a Seoul 
criminal court, .but their sen- 
tences were suspended because 
of their “contributions" to the 
5 * country s economy. 

Kim Woo.Choong, chairman 
of Daewoo Group Corp., Choi 
-Won Suk, chairman of Dong Ah 
Construction Industrial Co., and 
■Park Ki Suk, chairman of Sam- 
sung Engineering & Construc- 
tion Co., were convicted of brib- 
.ing a former head of a state-run 
company to win construction 
contracts. They were placed on 
‘probation for two years. 

But the court gave a three- 
year prison sentence to Ahn 
Byung Wha, former chief of 
-Korea Electric Power Corp., 
who received $875 million in 
I bribes while awarding contracts 
for a $2 billion power plant 


tion from Samsung would hurt 
their business, made an impas- 
sioned appeal to prevent the en- 
try of the prospective new rival. 

The ministry is due to decide 
on Samsung’s application, 
which it made Monday, within 
20 days. Analysts said it was 
almost certain to be approved. 

“If the government accepts 
Samsung’s application to im- 
port technology despite our 
plea, all car-industry workers 
are ready to go on a full-scale 
strike,” said Bae Bum Sik, chief 
of an association of automotive 
workers that has about 100,000 
members in 70 companies. 

Mr. Bae said increased com- 
petition would lead to “deterio- 
rating earnings, which will 
eventually threaten our job se- 
curity and our lifestyle,** 

He said a rally was planned 
for Wednesday outside govern- 
ment b uildin gs near Seoul to 

K a demand to block the 
ung move and that a dele- 
gation would visit the Blue 
House, the presidential resi- 
dence, to make a direct appeal 
to President Kim Young Sam. 

About 25,000 employees of 
Kia Motors Corp-, the strongest 
opponent of Samsung’s entry, 
hdd a peaceful protest Tuesday. 

Presidents of the six current 
carmakers also made a plea in a 
front-page advertisement pub- 
lished in most South Korean 
newspapers to block Samsung’s 
plans. 


A Big Market Offers a Fresh Start 

Some U.S. Firms Find Indonesia Familiar Ground 


Manila to Seek IMF Easing 

Agence Frmce-Prase 

MANILA — The Philippines will ask International Mone- 
tary Fund negotiators next week to relax the IMF’s stringent 
limits on the country’s inflation and money supply to allow 
the economy to grow, Manila’s central bank chief said Tues- 
day. 

Governor Gabriel Singson’s remarks came after a top bank 
official warned that Manila might shorten its current three- 
year IMF-sanctioned economic program if the program re- 
stricted the country’s recovery. 

“I will strongly renegotiate for a higher base money target," 
\said Mr. Singson. who will bead the Philippine delegation in 
■ talks with an IMF team reviewing Manila's compliance with 
theprogram, which was approved in June. 

The IMF asked Manila to rein in money supply and keep 
inflation at single-digit levels, 


By Andrew Pollack 

New York Times Service 

JAKARTA — Genera) Mo- 
tors Corp. is back in Indone- 
sia, selling the Opel Vectra se- 
dan made at its new assembly 
plant near Jakarta, the first 
GM plant in Southeast Asia. 

GM is one of many Ameri- 
can companies that have dis- 
covered or rediscovered Indo- 
nesia, lured by the prospect of 
its strong economic growth, 
abundant natural resources 
and the world's fourth- largest 
population. 

The company first entered 
what is now Indonesia in 1 930 
and by the early 1960s con- 
trolled more than 40 percent 
of its modest car market. Id 
1964, as Indonesia swung to 
the left, American companies 
were forced to leave. Now 
GM is starting over in a coun- 
try in which about 90 percent 
of the vehicles are Japanese. 


The commercial prospects 
were highlighted Nov. 16, 
when President Bill Clinton 
and Commerce Secretary Ron- 
ald H. Brown, in J akar ta to 
attend an Asia-Pacific Eco- 
nomic Cooperation meeting, 
announced the signing of 17 
agreements totaling about $40 
billion of business for Ameri- 
can companies in Indonesia, 

Big energy projects and the 
development of transporta- 
tion and communications rep- 
resent particular short-term 
opportunities for investors. In 
the largest agreement an- 
nounced during Mr. Clin ton’s 
visit, Exxon Corp. will join PT 
Pertamina, the Indonesian na- 
tional oil company, in devel- 
oping a huge offshore natural 
gas field. Exxon’s investment 
could exceed $35 billion. 

Indonesia, once wary of 
foreign investment, is now 
worried about losing out to 


China, Vietnam and other 
countries. So the government 
has been gradually liberaliz- 
ing laws that restricted foreign 
investment and imports. 

In June, it allowed foreign 
companies to own 100 percent 
of tbeir bus i nesses in Indone- 
sia for the first 15 years. Previ- 
ously, most foreign ventures 
required an Indonesian part- 
ner. Also in June, foreign 
companies were finally al- 
lowed into ventures lo provide 
roads, telecommunications 
networks, ports and other 
public facilities. 

Still, businessmen say that, 
combined with problems of 
corruption, remaining restric- 
tions still make doing business 
in Indonesia a daunting task. 

Indonesia's economy was 
dominated until recently by 
the petroleum Industry, in 
which American companies 
such as Mobil Corp. and Cal- 


tex Petroleum Corp., a joint 
venture of Chevron and Tex- 
aco, have long been active. 

But outside the natural-re- 
sources field, U.S. businesses 
have nor previously shown 
much interest in Indonesia. 

Japan has been the most ac- 
tive investor in the manufac- 
turing and consumer sectors. 

But American investment 
in Indonesia is rising. Ap- 
proved investment rose from 
$154 million in 1990 to $922 
million in 1992 before falling 
back to $445 million last year. 

Major opportunities he in 
road-building, electric power, 
telecommunications ana oth- 
er projects. 

In the automobile industry, 
car imports, which were 
banned until 1992, are now al- 
lowed, but with tariffs of 200 
percent. Carmakers therefore 
must set up assembly plants to 
compete in Indonesia. 


Rediscovering Indonesia 


Overall Investment 


Total approved foreign direct 
• investment* ek±i year 
$16 billion : ■ 


Leading Nations 


Cumulative approved foreign direct 
investment* from each country)-, 

1967-1993 


U.S. Investment 


Total approved direct investment* 
from the United Stalest each year 

SI .00 billon 


First half 



Japan 


$13.6 billion l 


5.5 f HpnQKong 

~ 0.75 

3.9 t Taiwart 

0.50 

3.5 j'Singapow 

0.25 

3.5 j South .ktoQ* ■ 




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The New Yori. Times 


Investor’s Asia 


Hong Kong • i - . Singapore- " 

Hang Song ” SttRfts l^Rves.' - Aj j $$^.£25 



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Price. 

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Manila 

PS£ ..... . 

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Jakarta - 

' Stockiodex : • 

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New Zealand 

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1£4L45 ,1^39^6. 

Bombay . 

Nations} index 

t,«2Q.99 #68 

Sources: Reuters, AFP 

Lmcnuoxxuil Hcnid Tnhone 


Very briefly: 


• Taisei Corp. led a Malaysian-Japanese consortium chosen to 
build the main passenger terminal of Malaysia’s new international 
airport; the group bid 1.74 billion ringgit ($678 million). 

s Malaysian Airlines, in its first earnings report since being 
privatized, said its pretax profit in the six months to September 
rose to 10125 million ringgit from 634 million ringgit in the year- 
eaiiier period, helped by a 15 percent increase in revenue. 

• NEC Corp. plans to launch a new mainframe computer in a 
leasing venture with Toshiba Corp. and personal conference 
software developed with Intel Corp. of the United States. 

• Fujitsu Ltd. has grouped three subsidiaries in Japan, Britain and 
the United States to form KnowledgePool, which it called the 
world’s biggest commercial technology education alliance. 

• China is considering raising $3 billion in overseas markets to pay 
for construction of the Three Gorges dam on the Yangtze River. 

• Mazda Motor Corp. will buy a sports utility vehicle made by 
Suzuki Motor Corp. for sale under the Mazda name. 

• dima said McDonald's Corp would be given a site in Beijing to 

replace its largest outlet worldwide, which is to be razed to make 
way for a commercial complex. Bloomberg, Remen, AFP 


Japanese Demand for Foreign Cars Grows as Choices Widen 


Complied by (hr Staff From Dispatches 

TOKYO — Imports of foreign-made vehicles in 
Japan surged 67 percent in November, the Japan 
Automobile Importers Association said Tuesday. 

A total of 26,121 passenger cars and trucks 
were sold last month, up from 15,636 in Novem- 
ber 1993. Sales of foreign cars in Japan have been 
rising for 1 3 months as a result of lower prices, a 
greater choice of vehicles and wider acceptance 
among Japanese consumers. 

Of the total imports, 24,930 passenger cars 
were sold in November, up 66 percent from a 
year earlier. 


Takayuki Shizoosaka, a spokesman for the 
association, said more Japanese dealers were 
selling a greater variety of imported vehicles. 
Honda Motor Co.’s dealer network, for instance, 
distributes vehicles made by Chrysler Corp. 

Lower retail prices because of the yen’s appre- 
ciation against the dollar, low-interest loan cam- 
paigns and the popularity of Japanese cars pro- 
duced overseas were among other factors 
contributing to sales. 

Mercedes-Benz AG led all importers in No- 
vember. Honda was dose behind. Sales of cars 


from Ford Motor Co., which led US. auto com- 
panies, more than tripled from a year earlier, to 
1325 units. 

Among all imported vehicles, 6,724 were Japa- 
nese- brand cars produced abroad, the associa- 
tion said. 

Despite the increase, imports still made up 
only 6.1 percent of all new cars sold in Japan in 
November, as foreign car dealers said barriers to 
doing business in Japan continued to make pro- 
gress slow. 

(Bloomberg, AF) 


■ TCI and Sumitomo Form Cable Venture 

Tde-Communications Inc. said it had formed 
a joint venture with Sumitomo Corp. to create 
the first cable television in Japan that could also 
provide cable telephone services, Bloomberg 
Business News reported. 

Tde-Communications said the venture, to be 
called Jupiter Teleco mmuni cations, would man- 
age and operate cable television systems. As soon 
as Jupiter receives regulatory approval, it also 
plans to provide cable tdephone service. Sumi- 
tomo will own 60 percent of the venture. 


TV: Multinational Productions Expand to Meet Asians Television Needs 


Continued bum PSge 15 
\uonal Media, a Hong Koog- 
' based media consultancy. 

* “The initial investors are bo- 
‘ ing wary,” she added. The most 
jlikely candidate for coprodnc- 
- tions are game shows, children’s 
’animation, wildlife and other 
’hod political documentaries. 
Because of linguistic and cul- 
' rural differences, drama series 
^and situation comedies are 
proving problematic. 

; STAR-TV, the News Cor p. 
unit whose programs and films 
blanket the region, is engaged 
in secret negotiations with Chi- 
nese authorities or me creation 

of a “large television-produc- 
tion center to transmit the ruu 
gamut erf programs.’ according 
to John Olone, a program exec- 
utive. He said the officiaj an- 
nouncement of the facility and 
its location should come in six 
to eight weeks. 

STAR-TV has just wrapped 
up a grueling season of soo^r 
matches pitting provincial Cni- 
nese teams against one another 
for the first time. . . 

This coproduction with Lru- 
nese Central TV proved to be a 
“logistical nightmare, wr. 
Olone said, despite widespread 
viewersbip. In future coproduc- 
tions, the broadcaster plans to 
streamline local staff, speed up 
programs and upgrade techni- 
cal facilities. 

In addition to another soccer 
season, STAR will continue 


business programs in China and 
India, with several expanded 
programs under discussion. 

Michael Solomon, chairman 
of Solomon International En- 
terprises and former head of 
Warner Brothers Inc’s TV pro- 
duction unit, was one or the 
first to recognize the potential 
for East-West joint ventures. 
He conjured up the concept of 
barter programming eight years 
ago in Shanghai. This system 
enables program suppliers to 
sign on advertisers in return for 
airtime. 

At MIP Asia, Mr. Solomon 
announced a $35 milli on joint 
venture with Airititraj Enter- 
tainment to be based in Ma- 
dras, India. The first coproduc- 
tions will be two epic serials on 
the Raj period ana another on 
an Indian deity. They will be 
shot back-to-back in English 
and Hindi Solomon plans to 
export the programs to Indian- 
speaking communities in the 
West and then Westernize them 
for Latin American viewers. 

Chinese versions of Bert, Er- 
nie and Miss Piggy are on the 
horizon. Children’s Television 
Workshop has planned a copro- 
duction of “Sesame Street” 

with STV of Shanghai. It will be 
distributed throughout China 
in the Mandarin language. 

As in other adaptations of 
"Sesame Street,” local curricu- 
lum specialists will tailor the 
programs, according to David 


Jacobs, a Children’s Television Bat it is not always easy. In 
Workshop vice president. “The one historical documentary 
shows wffl address what's im- covering the Nanking massacre 
portanttoChinerediOdren,not of Chinese civilians by Japanese 
to children around the world,” soldiers, Chinese partners 
Mr. Jacobs said. strongly objected to Japan’s low 


NHK, the Japanese broad- 
caster, is one of the most experi- 
enced oo-producers in the re- 
gion, with 43 projects launched 
last year, 10 of which were joint 
ventures with other Asian part- 
ners in China, Korea, Sri Lan- 
ka, Thailand, and Hong Kong. 


estimate of the casualties. The 
diluted compromise solution 
was to omit mention of any 
numbers ax all 
With their Asian partners, 
the Japanese are contending 
with difficulties similar to those 
faced by American producers 


In the United States, NHK attempting to export to the re- 
bas coproduced critically ac- gion. “American producers can 

' - - — rV 


claimed series on the world oD 
industry. “Coproduction is an 
excellent means of discovering 
one another’s cultures,” said 
Nagari Tajima of NHK. 


get away for two or three years 
forcing a style unfamiliar to 
Asian viewers,” Mr. Tajima 
said. “After that, it won’t 
work.” 


PERMAL GROWTH N.V. 

NOTICE OF ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING 


I.GROTTH 

. , . IstnMliwd Tnrt Ctrany NY, Ktyi flanbemre 

Approval of annual McotmU of the Company for the fiscal year ended 
December SI, 1W3. 

2. Appointment of an entity wfclefa wfll be in charge of the management of 
tKe Company in case (he Managing Director u prevented Tram or 
incapable of acting as management. 

3. Reappointment of the Director of the Company. 

4. Reappointment of the Independent Audita- of the Company. 

5. Ratification of all arts of the Managing Director since the preceding 

meetiw oT the shareholders. ,, . .. 

6. Transacting any other business that may property tome before the mertng 
or any BsSoarnmenl or ad§oui ament* thereof, 

BY ORDER OF THE MANAGING DIRECTOR. 

Willemstad, Curacao 

Netherlands. Antilles Do** Mwember 30, 1994 


totift h bneby oven, dud an wmaS 
N.V. wffl be hdi « it* prar-* 1 - it - 
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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 7, 1994 


SPONSORED PAGE 


S PONS O PlE D PAGE 


Green Companies Appeal to Consumers 


wnrlff romnradons wiien dre shares of a Ger- provements at nuclear duced dangerous leveis of ducting R&D on even mental sweepstakes. At Canon, a leading man- means mat en™™™^- 

are realizinfi that man chemical company power plants; the develop- pollution, instead of just cleaner equipment for the many companies are eval- ufacturer of office equip- tally friendly gy 


the shown earlier this year and coal planls; safety im- mer factory, which pro- emissions and are con- they stand in the environ- environmental business. tech ” 

. i_„ i ^ nmimmAnic si iRiripar Hivwi i««k nF ^n/<tirur nn Avnn mental sweenstakes. At Canon. a leading man- means mat environment 


M aj-e realizing that man cnemicai company puw« l ;i«w 1 uicucvuu K - 
environmental conscious- rose after it announced ment of wind, solar and 
ness not only makes for that it had developed a biowaste power sources; 
good public relations but product that can filter and sustainable develop- 
ed also push them to de- harmful ozone gas from merit of its oil reserves. 


velop new materials and 
processes. 

On the public-relations 
side, efforts to reduce 
harm to the environment 
help a company in two 
ways, by attracting loyal 
customers who care about 
ecology and appreciate 
the company's environ- 
mental efforts, and by at- 
tracting investors who 
prefer to put their money 
into companies with an 
environmental conscious- 
ness. “Ethical” or “green” 
investment funds are be- 
coming more and more 
popular with investors 
who care about the envi- 
ronment and do not want 
to lend financial support 
to companies that do not 
share their concern. 

The effectiveness of a 
green corporate stance in 
attracting investment was 


the air in buildings and ve- 
hicles. 

In addition to altruistic 
and financial motivations, 
corporations are also 
changing their eco- behav- 
ior in response to tougher 
environmental regulations 
all over the world, even in 
developing countries that 
once placed economic 
gain ahead of environ- 
mental concerns. 


Sustainable growth 
China, which has in the 
past neglected environ- 
mental concerns in favor 
of rapid growth, adopted 
this year a white paper en- 
titled “Population, Envi- 
ronment and Develop- 
ment in the 21st Century” 
which calls for 63 pro- 
jects, including the 
cleanup of production 
processes in steel, papier 


China has also agreed to 
follow the sustainable de- 
velopment goals enumer- 
ated at the 2992 Rio de 
Janeiro conference on the 
environment 

It must not be forgotten 
that pollution is expen- 
sive: it is estimated that 
the cost of environmental 
degradation is between 1 
and 2 percent of a coun- 
try’s gross domestic prod- 
uct and much higher for 
such badly polluted coun- 
tries as China and Russia. 

In Slovakia, one of the 
most polluted countries in 
Eastern Europe, a new 
aluminum plant is being 
built with the help of the 
European Bank for Re- 
construction and Develop- 
ment that will meet ex- 
tremely tough environ- 
mental standards and save 
jobs by replacing the for- 


closing down the local in- 
dustry. 

Each industry responds 
according to its activity, 
although some v green prac- 
tices, such as recycling 
and the treatment of pollu- 
tants produced by facto- 
ries, can be shared by 
most of them. 


Reducing emissions 
The car industry, for ex- 
ample, is trying to reduce 
toxic emissions from fos- 
sil-fuel-powered vehicles 
to the bare minimum, 
while at the same time 
conducting intensive re- 
search on improving hy- 
drogen and electrically 
flowered cars so that they 
will one day be economi- 
cally feasible. In addition, 
car parts and bodies are 
commonly recycled 
nowadays. 

For their part, energy 
producers are continually 
refining their technologies 
to forther reduce polluting 


future. 

Almost every industry 
can find a way to improve 
the environmental friend- 
liness of its operations. 
One glue-making compa- 
ny changed its solvent- 
based manufacturing 
process, which produced 
dangerous waste, to a 
more expensive but safer 
water-based process. And 
a recycling company turns 
plastic soft-drink bottles 
into polyester fibers. 

Even service industries 
like hotels and airlines are 
jumping on the green 
bandwagon by developing 
company policies on such 
issues as recycling and the 
phasing out of ozone-de- 
pleting chemicals. 

In the field of aviation, 
new engines for next-gen- 


uating their standing with 
“green audits” conducted 
by accounting firms, 
which hire technical ex- 
perts to do the audit. This 
involves an evaluation of 
how the company’s build- 
ings and industrial efflu- 
ents affect the environ- 
ment around ir and the 
people who work for the 
company. These audits 
have become more com- 
mon in Europe since the 
European Union’s Eco 
Management and Audit 
Scheme, a set of environ- 
mental guidelines, was is- 
sued in 1993. Although it 
does not have the force of 
law, it did give notice to 
the corporate world that 
environmental questions 
were being taken serious- 
ly by the EU. 


ment and optical products, is incorporated into foe 
for example, environmen- company’s products. Ex- 
tal issues are considered amples are Canon’s laser 
so impor tant that it has ac- beam printers, which have 


e ration aircraft are being 


designed to consume less 
fuel and produce.Jower 
pollution emissions and 
noise levels. 

To find out just where 


Environmental business 
Some companies, howev- 
er, do not need any gov- 
ernmental prodding to 
make them take care of 



Nature’s colors can be timeless. We’d like to keep it that way. 


A gentle curve of sun-washed yellow. A daring stroke 
•i rusted red. The heavenly brilliance of an endless blue 
A timeless masterpiece. There can be no doubt 
* ; v- ■< ittire is the world’s most impressive colorist 
• i •; *■. hy her genius. Canon brings you color as a 
: .i icons of expression. 


more subtle, natural colors. And because Canon color 
technology is digitally based, we've made it possible 
with various options to produce dazzling color images 
from most any visual source — slides, videotapes, 
computer graphics, even still video. Or create original 
visuals and colorful effects. 


snow-capped mountains to shadowed valleys, from 
verdant forests to sandy deserts, her sublime mastery 
of color has motivated our past successes — and 
inspires our future achievements. Canon has always been 
proud to follow Nature’s 


:: < we introduced our first color copiers over a 
.. . we've revolutionized personal and business 
c ' jr- ns. With practical, quality reproduction, 
K ! pl’- * -x press their most important ideas more 


That has opened up new imaginative horizons for com- 
municating in color. And our broad line of Color 
Bubble Jet copiers and printers, and Color Laser 
Copiers, has made high-quality color output affordable 
for people and businesses everywhere. 


colorful example — an 
artist whose timeless 
works are here for all 
to cherish. And that’s 
the way we’d like to 
keep it 


tually integrated green 
practices into its corporate 
structure and its technical 
processes. 

The company’s corpo- 
rate philosophy is 
summed up in the word 
“kyosei, ** which means 
living and working to- 
gether for the common 
good. The goal is to create 
harmonious relationships 
between people, technolo- 
gy and nature by both 
benefiting from and con- 
tributing to the world. 
Canon recognizes that 
businesses cannot survive 
as they have in the past 
without caring for and 
preserving the natural en- 
vironment and also that 
business can actually learn 
from natural systems: the 
interdependence between 
species in delicately bal- 
anced ecosystems can 
provide models for coop- 
eration between compa- 
nies and nations, and be- 
tween people and ma- 
chines. 

Canon has focused on 
ami-pollution strategies 
since 1972. The company 
no longer uses polluting 
trichloroethane or CFCs 
in its products, and its fac- 
tories around the world 
meet strict environmental 
standards. But Canon has 
not been content with sim- 
ply fulfilling the require- 
ments imposed on all 
companies by environ- 
mental regulations. 

In 1991, the company 
developed its first Envi- 
ronmental Assurance 
Plan, followed in 1993 by 
the New Principles for 
Environmental Assur- 
ance. The goal was to en- 
sure that the kyosei ap- 
proach to ecology extend- 
ed through every level and 
activity of the company. 

Canon takes on environ- 
mental issues from three 
different directions: ener- 
gy, materials and techno- 
logical processes. In the 
area of energy, the compa- 
ny is applying the princi- 
ples used in the manufac- 
ture of photosensitive 
copier drums to the manu- 
facture of solar cell panels 
that can be used as back- 
up power sources. Solar 
power has always been 
too expensive and ineffi- 
cient to be practical, and 
Canon's new technologies 
are helping to bring down 
costs and increase eneigy 
efficiency. The company 
opened its Ecology Re- 
search and Development 
Center in Kyoto in June 
) 993 ro continue research 
on the energy efficiency 
and mass production of 
amorphous silicon solar 
cell panels. 


been designed to reduce 
ozone emissions and pow- 
er consumption, and the 
Bubble Jet printers, which 
use nonpolluting ink and 
min imal energy. Both are 
designed to be as quiet as 
possible, thus reducing 
noise pollution as well: 
Canon copiers can use re- 
cycled paper and also 
have power-saving fea- 
tures. 

Canon's environmental 
efforts are not limited to 
in-house activities, how- 
ever. In keeping with its 
kyosei philosophy, the 
company interacts with 
society and the environ- 
ment in other ways, mu- 
tably by sponsoring the 
UNEP (United Nations" 
Environment Program) 
International Photograph- 
ic Competition on the En- . 
vironmenL 


Later, '.hen we introduced our Color Digital Im a g e 
Preceding $>Mem (Color DIPS), we gave users even 


In the continuing quest for more expressive color. 
Nature is clearly our most valuable teacher. From 


CtamCLC 700 



Enter the UNEP International Photographic Competition on the Environment 1994-1995 

— in the 50th anniversary year of the United Nations — 


Recycling program 
Anyone who has felt a 
twinge of guilt when 
throwing away a plastic 
cartridge from a photo- 
copier or a laser printer 
will be happy to know that 


Photo competition . 

The first UNEP photo 
competition was orga- 
nized on the occasion of 
UNEP's 20th birthday ip 
1992. Sponsored by 
Canon, the goal of the 
contest was to draw atten- 
tion to the environmental 
issues addressed at the 
United Nations Confer- 
ence on Environment and 
Development in Rio de 
Janeiro. The competition's 
theme was “Focus on • 
Your World,” and both 
professional and amateur 
photographers of all ages . 
from around the world 
were invited to enter. 
Some 30,000 entries were 
received from more than . 
140 countries, and the 
winning photographs 
were exhibited in travel- 
ing exhibitions in major 
world capitals. 

The second UNEP In- 
ternational Photographic 
Competition on the Envi- 
ronment is now under 
way, once again entitled 
“Focus on Your World” 
and sponsored by Canon. 
The Prince of Wales is the 
contest's patron for the 
second time. Submissions • 
should show how the pho- 
tographer sees the world 
and should “reflect the 
planet, its people and their 
environment, in all its di- 
versity. The photographs 
should also seek to ex- 
press their challenges, 
hopes and fears in a rapid- 
ly changing world.” 

Canon's involvement 
with a photographic com- 
petition (especially one 
devoted to the environ- 
ment given its ecological 
commitment) is highly ap- 
propriate. The company 
was founded in 1937 as a 
camera manufacturer, but 
has since branched out 
into business machines 
and optical technology. 
Business machines, in- 
eluding black-and-white 
and color copiers, com- 
puter peripheral products 
and facsimile machines, 
account for about 80 per- 


Canon has a recycling cent of the company's to- 
program for the car- tai sales. . 


Na i ? 0f « ^rertmerrt Programme invites you 10 submtl 
p hoto graphs on the theme, Tocub on Your WatUT. This Is UNEP’s 
second internal^ photographic competition, made possible once again 
oy mo support oi Canon Inc. TTie compattlon seeks to draw attflfltion to 

pfobtetTia and includes a new cate&wy tor 
photographs fay children. 

TheprtzBs Win be awa/ded m Now York in October 1 995 to cotorfde wtth 
the 50th anmvereary of the United Nations, winning photographs wtt be 
exhftfled Inlemaaonaify, ana (he most suitable entries will ateo ba prewnred 
In a photographic library administered by UNEP on behalf of the United 
Nations. 

Send us your photographs. Show us you care about tfra Earth. 


Z AratMf Prrisfae: 

Gold Piia (*# Buwntk cflpfcXTH. US510.000 / SJwr Pnz* (op* USSS.0W 

Srmn» Prize (On* mmtrambb dpSoma. USXZ.OCX) Mention JfiJn>eBt»*t*fcOp*orT>0 


P0H tJETALS, PLEASE RESPOND BY HML TO TOE POLUNMG ADDRESSES: 


3, QMra/s DhflWmc 

&oU Friz* (one oamlfcifipiomB, US$1 . 000 IS Um Mat loaectorwd: diploma. USS50Q 
BranPriaNmntrMikdplona, US$200 / Kaocraj Mntiu ttauy rauaatg dtpkxna 


4.Tki IMEF Oiraelart SpecM Pria 

1 TIm Cmor Spatial Prize 

Canon prtdUflte W presamedesaupplwntmaiy prtwa loan the above pitggMrmm. 

Paymwt ol sutoaquam taxation on prtass Is net the organizeni' maponsfltWy. 


PATRON; 

hrh mu wnc* 


ENTRY PERIOD 

FrcmSoptarnOer 21. T9EU through April 30. IMS. 


PROMOTED BY: 

UM mom CimIvotM 


PRIZES TO BE AWAHOED 
1. Proton! mol Dhrtxan: 

Cold Pita low wmtftcMoma, USS20.000 / &hcr Prtre («*r .otarnE dtalorra. US£1 0,000 
Brans Prizt toro* ■***£ diploma, USS6^nO/HaoaniTMe«loalni«!MaM*fcdpioma 


SPONSORED BY: 
Canoe lee- 


sum m* support OP. 

LM*d Naan Dow*"** of tnfannafon (UNOTh 
J3W Untold Mtva htj«n**on Conanwtao (AtWC) 

it*®"- UNU. UNO* IMiCa 

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». uv iro. m wo. wro, wh>. umdol me* o» t 7 . wu 
kmraBMi nwapanra: Condi opcj 


TtoH UH toito M naanM* WttP P fc numAk h na M i*. P *u * — n tort M. 

HataUMt amoenwaneni nMlWwMi 
UXAaMfan nwran*l»>M*lrC<«p»Wio.aMnh«™MlUMM 

PD Bal11SwnvSDt«I.toriato>^UMMlKa|d« 
FnrctiPirti iiHTTrinwonm rtntfci ifn — * — ** * 

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mttlOM IMP Pta i iii^ hi L C i rcui t w. ri ra hX .U* 

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anwi a urTn —aoi lWlto« n ifcC«torto»*‘**'-S?» 

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Ai m toW io— img W— himMt *P- tow 

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tafcfllnesn [MB’ roiopitog r— »iadm. Co** im kEcntoaul Pmitctt 

PD 8m<SOP. linKMBWW 

uniiOgm*h mb 1 wni|i totou flmiMni. — ** 


DiwunmtoMiBoi 


Japan AJrtnes 

National Geographic Society 

TIME 


2 Snm* 9, Jill"** UMa«. Unli 
UMP- r t n opMUii r o— meru ratora iton 
P0 BwOW.HtnXKma 
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tridges. Not only does the 
company reuse 95 percent 
(in terms of weight) of 
each cartridge returned, 
but it also pays for the 
shipping of cartridges 
from all around the world 
to its recycling plant in 
Dalian. China. As of Oc- 
tober 1994. 8.1 million 
cartridges had been recy- 
cled. In all its efforts. 
Canon stresses an “*eco- 


Canon's products facili-. 
tate communication be- 
tween people in many 
ways, and the company 
also tries to facilitate inter- 
personal communication 
and general understanding' 
by fostering an attitude of 
tsushin , " or “hean-to-. 
heart and mind-to-mind 
communication.” 'A re- 
freshing kind of coiporate ' 
thinking. 




n "' wpwi" flt-ru-'" "'V™' H "“ ld ™>Z. 

VY RlThR. Hi lilt Ellison is Iwed in Paris 
program director; Bui Malnltr. ’ ‘ 




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Page 22 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 7, 1994 


SPORTS 




Progress Is Reported in 2 of 3 Key Issues in Hockey Lockout 



By Joe Lapointe 

New York Times Service 

CHICAGO — Negotiators have 
made si gnif icant progress in their at- 
tempt to end the 66-day lockout and 
begin the National Hockey League 
season. 

During a six-hour session Monday, 
the league and its Players Association 
neared compromises on two of three 
significant issues, according to per- 
sons with knowledge of the collective 
bargaining. 

Those issues were an entry-level 
salary structure that limits rookies to 
a maximum SI million in their first 


season and a free-agency formula to 
give veterans freedom of employment 
at age 30. 

The third major issue, salary arbi- 
tration, was not discussed but was 
expected to be addressed when bar- 
gaining resumed Tuesday morning. If 
the two sides can come to an agree- 
ment by the end of the week, it is 
possible that games could begin by 
Christmas and that a season of at 
least 30 games could be salvaged. 

Neither Gary Bettman, the com- 
missioner, nor Bob Goodenow, the 
executive director of the Players As- 
sociation, would speak in detail 


about the negotiations. The signs of 
optimism came from people involved 
in the talks, who spoke on the condi- 
tion of anonymity. 

"Well see what the next day 
brings," Bettman said. *1 don't want 
to get into handicapping, whether or 
not there’s progress, what issues are 
on the table, off the table, in the 
table. As long as the process is ongo- 
ing, that’s better than if it is not. 
Hopefully, we won’t work ourselves 
into a new phase of frustration, but it 
could re-emerge.” 

One issue that could bring back 
frustration is a luxury tax on payrolls. 


a bitterly disputed issue which could 
derail a settlement. 

Bettman insisted on the tax early in 
the negotiations as part of a plan to 
place what he called a “drag" on 
salary inflation. The union called the 
tax a salary cap in disguise and re- 
fused to negotiate other issues unless 
Bettman dropped talk of the tax. 

Negotiations began to show prog- 
ress in mid-November after the com- 
missioner put aside the tax, tempo- 
rarily at least. Someone with 
knowledge of the union position said 
late Monday night that if Bettman 
tried to reintroduce a tax on payrolls. 


“all the work we've done for the last 
three weeks is out the window.” 

Goodenow would not discuss a 
deadline to save at least pan of the 
season. So far, each team has lost 24 
games of its 84-game schedule. 

“Both sides are well aware of what 
is at stake here,*’ the players’ repre- 
sentative said. ‘Time is what it is. The 
calendar is what it is.” 

Under the tentative terms of Mon- 
day’s bar gaining, the owners have 
dropped their quest for one “fran- 
chise player" per team who would be 
exempt from free agency. In mum, 
the players are willing to raise the age 


of free agency from 28 to 30. ha 

addition, a player would *wvetohave 

completed four seasons of league ex 
perience with at least 40 games in 
each of these seasons. 


For Baseball 
Owners Quits 


The two sides are still not *n agree- 
ment on the age of players for the 
entry draft, currently 18. The owners 
would prefer it to be 20. 

The obvious compromise would be 
to set the age at 20 and allow 18- or 
19 -year-olds to volunteer in much the 
way that undergraduate athletes do 
now in college football and basket- 
balL 


Raiders Defeat Chargers 
And Keep Playoff Hopes 


The Associated Press 

SAN DIEGO — If the San 
Diego Chargers had a lot at 
stake, the Los Angeles Raiders 
had even more. 

And so they crashed the 
Chargers' coming-out party 
Monday night, with Jeff Hos- 
tetler’s six-yard touchdown 
pass to Rocket Ismail with 7:23 
left, giving them a 24-17 vic- 
tory. 

The Chargers (9-4) needed a 
victory to clinch their second 
AFC West title in three seasons. 
The Raiders needed a victory to 
stay in the scrambled playoff 
picture, and they joined four 
other AFC teams with 7-6 re- 
cords. 

“You lose, you’re out, for 
us,” said Los Angeles defensive 
tackle Nolan Harrison. “Every- 
one knew that going into the 
game." 

The Raiders entered the 
game ranked 13th in the AFC in 
total offense, but outgained the 
Chargers, 410 yards to 261. 

Ismail's second touchdown 
catch of the night came at the 


end of an 81-yard, nine-play 
drive on which Hostetler com- 
pleted passes of 31 and 16 yards 
to Tim Brown. 


Ismail also caught a 6-yard 
scoring pass from Vince Evans 
in the second quarter. 

The Chargers began their fi- 
nal drive at their 8-yard line 
with 1 :28 to play and got to the 
Los Angeles 48 before a holding 
penalty moved them back. Aar- 
on Wallace sacked Stan 
Humphries to end the game. 

Hostetler was 22 of 29 for 3 1 9 
yards and two touchdowns, 
with one interception. Brown 
caught seven passes for 96 
yards. Ismail, who had only 
three touchdown receptions 
coming into the game, had four 
catches for 3! yards. The Raid- 
ers tied a team record with 17 
penalties, for 146 yards. 

The Chargers' Stan Humph- 
ries was 17 of 33 for 202 yards 
with one touchdown. Running 
back Natrone Means was held 
to 41 yards on 18 carries, his 
worst output of the season. 


• Further examinations 
found that the Denver Broncos' 
quarterback, John Elway. has a 
strained muscle behind his right 
knee. Although the injury was 
not as serious as first thought. 


Elway’s chances of playing 
i Saturday 


against the Raiders on Saturday 
were listed as “50-50." 


• The Pittsburgh Steelers' 
running back, Barry Foster, has 
two broken bones in his lower 
back, not a contusion as initial- 
ly diagnosed, but will very like- 
ly play Sunday against the Phil- 
adelphia Eagles. 


• The broken left thumb of 
the Seattle Seahawks’ quarter- 
back. Rick Mirer, was operated 
on and he will miss his team's 
final three regular-season 


• Mike Frier, the Seahawks’ 
defensive tackle whose neck 
was broken in a car accident, 
can Hex his biceps but can't 
move his legs or fingers and 
probably never will, a doctor 
said. 



Jun Band/ Reams 


The Raiders* defensive ends, Anthony Smith (94) and Notan Harrison, pot pressure on quarterback Stan Humphries. 


SCOREBOARD 


NFL Standings 


Miami 
Buffalo 
New England 
N.Y.Jets 
Indianapolis 


W 

B 

7 

T 

6 

& 


y-Plttsburgn 
Oeveicna 
C. ! .i chnctl 
Houston 


Sen Ofeoa 
Kansas City 
LA Raiders 
Denver 
Seattle 


AMERICAN CONFERENCE 
Best 
L 

5 

6 
6 
7 
7 

Central 
if L T 

0 3 0 

7 4 0 

2 1) 0 

1 12 0 
wnt 

V L 
9 4 

7 6 

7 6 

7 6 


Pet PF PA 
-615 311 269 
438 2*7284 
-538 2*9279 
A62 241 257 
-462 274 277 


West 



Dallas 

7 6 

-538 

3 

it 

V 

T 

Pet. PF FA 

San Antonio 

7 7 

JN 

3V: 

x-San Francisco 11 

7 

0 

M6 411241 

Minnesota 

3 13 

.188 


Atlanta 6 

7 

0 

MS 270 329 


pacfficOlvfslen 



New Or leans 5 

8 

0 

385 273 335 

Phoenix 

11 5 

488 

_ 

LA Rams 4 

9 

0 

JOB 238 290 

Seattle 

10 5 

467 


x -cl inched division 




LA. Lakers 

9 6 

400 

IVa 

v -clinched playoff soot 



Golden State 

8 7 

433 

2 VS 

MwiituiT Game 


Portland 

7 7 

400 

3 

LA. Raiders 34. San Diego 17 


Sou amenta 

7 7 

400 

3 





LA Clippers 

0 16 

400 

11 




. . 

MONDAY'S GAME5 


- • 




New York 

31 M 21 

22 

11—101 





PtuiadetaMa 

15 26 M i 

B 

6- 96 


4, Kansas <3-0) beat Caaam State 91-69. 
Next: vs. No. A Florida. Wednesday; !!. Mary- 
land (SO) beat Marytand-Battlmcre County 
102-77. Next: vs. Colgate, Thursday: Z 1 Michi- 
gan (4-2) beat Detroit 07-76. Next: at No. 9 
Duke.SotunJay : 24. VWanova (4-11 beat Seton 
Hall 98-71 Next: at Na 1 North Carolina. 
Thursday; 21 Wake Fores! (3-D beat Cent- 
sius 74-60. Next: at Ric hm ond, Thursday. 


Other Major CollegeScores 


pet. pf pa 

769 251 IK 
692 27? 164 
.154 216 321 
m? 179 295 


NBA Standings 


EASTERN CONFERENCE 
AHMIC Division 
W L 


NATIONAL CONFERENCE 
East 


Pet. PF PA 
49! 308 220 
-538 241 235 
-538 254 Z79 
-538 287 301 
2585 244 257 


Orlando 

New York 

Boston 

Phlladclonia 

Washington 

New jersey 

Miami 


tl 3 
9 3 
7 8 

6 9 
5 8 

7 11 
4 9 

Central Division 


Pet 

786 

M3 

467 

400 

2JS5 

-589 

JM 


OB 


4Vj 

5Vj 

5’y 

6 

6’b 



W 

L 

T 

Pc*. PF PA 

Indiana 

9 5 

443 

x -Dallas 

11 

2 

0 

446 366 198 

Cleveland 

9 6 

400 

Philadelphia 

7 

6 

0 

438 362 245 

Charlotte 

B 7 

433 

N.Y. Giants 

6 

7 

0 

462 221 262 

Detroit 

8 7 

433 

Arizona 

6 

7 

0 

.462 184 235 

CMcogu 

B B 

400 

Washington 

2 

11 

0 

.154 267 357 

Atlanta 

6 9 

400 

Central 



Milwaukee 

5 10 

433 


W 

L 

T 

PcL PF PA 

WESTERN CONFERENCE 

Minnesota 

8 

5 

0 

415 295 242 


Midwest Dhr Won 


Chicago 

8 

5 

0 

415 238 341 


W L 

Pet 

Detroit 

7 

6 

0 

438 278 289 

Houston 

11 4 

.733 

Green Bay 

6 

7 

0 

462 2B7 348 

Utah 

10 6 

425 

Tampa Bov 

4 

9 

0 

JOB 191 289 

Denver 

8 6 

47T 


Ys 

lVIf 

19* 

2 

3Vj 

4Vj 


NV: CSmlth 6-16 8-1 1 2a Ewing 8-15 9-13 25; 
P: Barras 7-10 5-6 22, wrlsM 6-14 7-10 19. Re- 
boaMb— New York 54 (Oakley 151. Phiiadet- 
PMa 57 (Wright 11). Assists— New York 24 
(Ewing. Harper 6). PhlladeipMa 19 (Berras. 
Tyler 4J. 

N«w Jersey 28 24 32 23-99 

Chicago N 9 If 72— M 

NJ : (HI Ham 9-20 M 24. Anderson 3-1 7 MO 15; 
C: Plppen 7-214 8-9 73. Armstrong 5-18 1-2 13. 
Rebounds— New Jersey 70 (Beniamin 161. 
Chicago 67 (Ptoaen 131. Assists— New jersey 
21 (Anderson 10). Chicago 22 (Plppen, Arm- 
strong 5). 

Charlotte 37 It 36 »— 115 

LA. C li pper s 22 U 18 25— 63 

C: Johnson 6-12 6-7 IE Hawkbis 6-11 2-3 17; 
L; Dehere 6-13 0-0 13, Murray 5-11 4-5 14. Re- 
ho u nd s - Charlottes? (Mourning tl), Los An- 
geles 36 (VougM 8). Assists— Charlotte 30 
(Burrell 6), Los Angela 21 (Richardson 6). 


Top 25 College Scores 


IVa 

2VJ 


Hew Itae tog 35 teams in The Associated 
Press’ mem college basketball poll fared 


EAST 

Boston u. 87. North Texas 65 
Lafayette 78, Columbia 75 
Monttattmi 73, Rider 68 
Navy 102. Gettysburg AS 
PrIftcefOn 83, Lehigh 47 
SL John’s 88. Pittsburgh 83 
Tawson SI. 81. West Virginia 78 
SOUTH 

Appalachian St. 9 a. Eton 70 
Bethune-Coakimn 96. Florida Memorial 63 
Cent Connecticut SI. 84, Delaware St. 79 
Clemson 7H Mercer 51 
Louisville 108, W. Carolina 76 
Murray SI. 86, Alcorn St. 70 
N. Carolina St. 9ifc Charleston Southern 69 
N.C. OmrUtte 71 Furman 52 
NW Louisiana 89. Henderson SI. 76 
Richmond 66. Radford 64 
Tennessee 51. 86, Tn.-<3iQtlonoa9Q 75 
Texas-Pan American 56, Samfonf 54 
Tulane 85, OW Dominion bo, OT 
Va Common wea lth 67, Temv-Marttn 60 
Virginia Tech 82, Xavier. Ohio 55 
MIDWEST 

E- Michigan 78, N. Michigan 71 
Illinois 76, Kansas St. 69 
Miami. Ohio 81, Dayton 72 
NE Illinois 85. WUk-Mllwoukee 76 


SL Lends 72. S. Illinois 65 
Toledo 85. ft Kentucky 63 
SOUTHWEST 

Lamar 67, 5am Houston SL 62 
Prairie View 131, Faith Baptist 97 
Rice 7Z Houston Baptist 65 
Stephen F Austin 126, Texas Wesleyan 73 
Texas a AM 76. Sw Louisiana 69 
FAR WEST 
Air Farce 9). Adams St. 73 
Califor ni a 93. San Francisco 59 
Noire Dame 76, Lovota Marymaunt 73. OT 
5. Utah 87. Cleveland SL 82 
Weber St. 86. UC Davis 59 


MANDELA CUf> 

New Zeeland vs. South Africa 
Tuesday, la Cepe Town 
South Africa cssfctcs: X3-B f5C a verst 


ENGLISH PREMIER LEAGUE 
Everton 3. Leeds 0 

Staadlavs: Blackburn 39 paints, Manches- 
ter United 3& Newcastle 34, Liverpool 31- Not- 
tingham Forest 29. Manchester a tv ZB. Chel- 
sea 27, Leeds 27. Norwich 24, Coventry 23, 
Tottenham 22. Arsenal 71, Southampton 21. 
Sheffield Wednesday 21, Crystal Palace 20. 
Queens Park Rimgers 19. Wimbledon 18, 
Everton 17, West Ham 17, Aston Villa 15. 
Leice s ter 13. Ipswich H. 




'L^snr..- 

\ +*! * - . •: . ;.. . 


WORLD SERIES CUP ONE DAY TEST 
England vs. AastraHa 
Tuesday, In Sydney 

England Innings: 196 (all out, 483 avers) 
Australia innings; 2*4-4 (50 avers) 

Result: Australia won by 28 nog. 


BASEBALL 
American League 

BOSTON— RecuesM waivers cn- Carlos 
RadrloueZfinflelder.and Ricky Trllcek. pitch- 
er, In order to grant their unconditional re- 
leases. 

CALIFORNIA— Agreed to terms with Rex 
HudJcr. mfietder. cn 7-year m - t l raC - 

KAN5AS CITY— Released Kevin Kasiofski. 
cutfleloer. 

MILWAUKEE — Extended the contract of 
Phil Gamer, manager, two 'ears through the 
1997 season. 

TEXAS— Agreed to terms with Dave Valle, 
catcher, on a two-reor contract. Reassigned 
Joe Maeta borne clubhouse manager, to visit- 
ing cHiChause manager. 

TORONTO— Traded Rah Butler, outfielder, 
to Philadelphia for onlay er to be named later. 
Matronal League 

Florida— N ome Dejcn Watson assis- 
tant of baseball operations. 

MONTREAL— Placed Freddie Serov Ides, 
Infielder, on waivers for me Purpose of giving 
his unconditional release. 

PITTSBURGH— Signed Francfsca Matas, 
infleider. to minor -league axil rod. 

BASKETBALL 

National Bakelbafl Association 

NBA— Fined Houston guard Vernon Max- 
well SUKD tar tailing to leave the court In a 
llxnetv manner and verbally obuslng am Dais 
after he was elected In a game on Thursday. 


LA. CLIPPERS— Placed Elmore Spencer, 
ceateruin the in] grad ttsi. Activated Bab Mar- 
lin, center, from the Injured list. 

FOOTBALL 

Motioned Footbofl League 

CINCINNATI— Placed David Braxton, Bne- 
baefcer, cn lidured reserve. Signed Jim Bal- 
lard. quarterback, and Jeff Hid wido receiver. 

DALLAS— Ptaced Derrick Lassie, running 
back, an Inlured reserve Activated Joe Fish- 
bock. safety. 

Minnesota— P laced Adrian Cooper, 
light end. on Inhired reserve. Stoned Richard 
Brawn, linebacker. 

NEW ENGLAND— Placed Tim Goad, nose 
tackle, on Mured reserve. 


COLLEGE 

ARIZONA — Susratded Joseph Blair, carter, 
indeflnHetyirofn the basfc w bon team tor totting 
to fulfill ms team academic rapansIbiHitas. 

GEORGIA TECH— Named Georoe Q-Leory 
fooftjafl coach Fired Gary Crowtart offensive 
coordinator -qimrtetboc fcs coach; Stave Staxifc- 
wetier, line coodi: Grog Nora rweilng backs 
coach; tasty Burn*wMoieaaivercGoach;and 
Crafg Cason, and special teams coach. 

HAMPDEN-SYDNEY— Named Thomas 
Lewis us s blun ) football coach. 

INDIANA-PVROUB-INOIANAPOLF 
S— Pete Kanotis. men's soccer coodimtawd. 

MENLO COLLEGE— Ray Satan, football 
coach, retired. 

MICHIGAN STATE— Announced that pof 
Shormur and Bobby wnitamt assistant foot- 
ball roa c hes, will return next season. 

MISSISSIPPI— Named NaeiMazzone offen- 
sive coordinator; Joe Pamunzlo light ends and 
special teams coach; Eddie Gran running 
bocks coach; Stave Cakhveff defensive ends 
roach; John Lovett defensive backs coach; 
and Terry Price defensive tackles coach. 


jic* York Tuna Sevi* e • • 

ATLANT A — H the striking 
baseball players- and major 
league club owners ever reach a 
settlement, it will be without ihc 
man who served the pastthree 
years as management's chief la- 
bor executive. 

They will also apparently 
have to do it with something 
other than the owners’ recent 
tax proposal _ - 

“We don’t bdieve it provides 
a framework in which wetikdy 
wQJ get an agreement,” Donald 
Febr, the head of the players 
muon, said in his first public 
char acterization of the owners’ 
proposed luxury tax on pay- 
rolls. 

Earlier Monday, Richard Ra- 
vitch announced that he was 
resigning as president of the 
Players Relations Committee 
upon expiration of his contrar*- 
at the end of this month. 

The move came as no sur- 
prise, given the increased role 
the owners have taken in the 
fruitless negotiations and the 
ill-fated history of the position 
Ravitch has held. Labor agree- 
ments have often been reached 
and work stoppages ended with 
the chief labor executive re- 
placed by another member of 
manage ment in the key negoti- 
ating role. 

R&vitch’s resignation and - 
Feta's view of the tax proposal 
came on a day when the union's 
executive board convened a 
three-day meeting here. Seven- 
ty-tight players, far more than 
are on the board, were on Irand 
for the union’s effort to formu- 
late a counterproposal to pre- 
sent to the owners’ negotiators 
Friday. 

If the two sides do not have 
an agreement, or are not on 
their way to settling their differ- 
ences, the owners will meet 
Dec. 15 in Chicago, where they 
are expected to approve an im- 
passe-implementation strategy, 
including a salary cap. 

Ravitch, 61, was not at the 
latest round of talks with plavy 
ers, last Tuesday and Weancflb 
day. John Harrington of the 
Boston Red Scot had replaced 
him as the owners’ point man at 
a bargaining session Nov. 10. If 
it had not been obvious before 
then that Ravitch would not 
stay beyond the end of his con- 
tract, it became obvious that 
day. ■- 

“I never expected this would 
last as long as it did,” Ravitch 
said. “I never expected to slay 
more than three years. I have 
not wanted to leave sooner be- 
cause J did not want in any way 
to impair efforts to make the 
neosssaxy changes in basebafL” 

“We're hopefully down to the 
final stages of negotiations,” he 
said, “and no one can make the 
decisions but the owners. No 
(me can . make them on their 
behalf. They’re sufficiently in- 
formed. I don’t fed I'm letting 
them down in any way.” 


DENNIS THE MENACE 


PEANUTS 


CALVIN AND HOBBES 


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Education Directory 

Every Tuesday 

Contact Kimberly Guen’ond-Betrancourt 
Tel.: (33 1) A6 37 94 76 
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? AY 25lF^r - Sampras cruised by bis U.S. Open conqueror, Jaime Yzaga, by the score of^£X5Tin 
firs* niatch at the $6 million Grand Slam Cup in Munich. And Boris Becker made up for last year's first- 
rotuadloss to Wayne Ferreira, rallying in a serve and volley duel to defeat the South African, 5-7, 6-4, 6-3. In other 
matelaes, Goran Ivanisevic beat Jonas Bjorkman, 6-4, 6-2, and Michael Chang beat Alberto Berasategui, 6 - 1 , 7-5. 

What They Sowed , They’re Reaping 




International Herald Tribune 

L ONDON — How deep runs your well of sympathy for 
soccer's high and mighty? On Wednesday night, four of the 
self-elected elite — Barcelona, Bayern Munich, AC Milan and 
Manchester United — are on the rack of fear in the European 
Champions League. 

Some will fall before the quarterfinal round. The players will 
fed the coach's wrath, the coaches will hear from the board of 
directors, the directors will be summoned before their bankers. 
Do not waste pity on them. For these are the grand masters, the 

S er brokers who turned sporting dubs into financp houses. Nc 
er prepared to take the chance nf the ‘Tcimrirnm** formula t h a i 
been the essence of the competition since European tourna- 
ments began, these bigwigs pressured UEFA, the continent*! 
governing body, to draw up a so- ^ ^ „ 

called Champions League that Rob m 

guaranteed them six or more pay- Hughes 

They milked the system for prof- 
it. But the system drained them. Milan and Barcelona, the 
champion and runner-up who contested a memorable night in las' 
season’s final in Athens, have groaned through the extra league 
.|)tatches. Their lament is that, this being World Cup year and tbtii 
multinational stars being torn between dub and country, the 
players are battle fatigued. 

Milan, especially. It flew out to Tokyo last week, was pluckec 
by Vdez Sarsfidd in the world dub championship, and limped 
bickering, back to Europe. 

The older players can hardly draw breath, particularly France 
Baresi, whose slowness demeans a once imperious mover. Particu- 
larly Alessandro Costacurta, Baresi's fellow aging defender, who 
gave both goals away to Sarsfidd and was sent off. 

Years condemn them, but critics condemn the coach, Fabio 
Capello. How could he go back to these time-worn athletes when 
last May's great night was won with Paolo Maldim and Filippo 
Galh', young and fitter by far, at the heart of the defense? 

More than that, the young bloods of Milan, players like Gian- 
hrigi Lcntini, Christian Panned and Marco Simone, cry out that 
they fed unwanted, their talents betrayed, while the coach clings 
to old-timers. 


Another Chinese Swimmer 
Has Failed Test for Drugs 

The Associated Press 

LONDON — Another Chinese swimmer has failed a drug 
test, the international swimming federation said Monday. 

Gunnar Werner, secretary of FIN A, said the world body 
had received the official results of a random test earned out 
before the start of October’s Asian Games in Hiroshima, 

^ Werner said he could not release any details until after the 
federation goes through all its procedures. Aheanng is set for 
Wednesday, followed by a meeting of FINAs executive 
committee to decide on any suspension. 

“The earliest we will have a decision is by the eoa ot tne 
week,” Wemer said by telephone from Karlstad, Sweden. 


Galatasaray can enter history, since no visiting team has ever 
won a European cup tie on United's turf. United will play kids 
from its youth team — asking them to chase the tournament's 
bonus money. A case of the spirit being asked to overcome serious 
weaknesses in mind and body. 

Rab Agte tr an Ac staff c/Thr That. 


CROSSWORD 


ACROSS 

i Mulligan, for 

one 

s Red Bordeaux 
io Script starter 


i«'Ruie. 
Britannia' 
composer 
is Throes and 
woes 

ia Wom-out 


GJV 


CARAN dACHE 

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17 Foie gras Ian 
ie Actress Skye 
3D Author Tan 

21 Undocumented 
person 

22 Dialect 

33 Failed attempt 
24 Prefix with act 

or state 

26 Country singer 
Cowboy — 
at Backus was his 
voice in 60' s TV 
3i Guevara 

34 Kicked oft 

as Svelte in those 
days 

sa Works by 
sculptor Hans 

3B Ejects 

41 S.F. train 
system 

42 Adhesive, tor 

one 

44'kfyUsoftlie 
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47 Add more 
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52 Change fora 
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54 Rumor 
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ea Mina excavation 
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' 1 Casa room 
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3 Begrudge 

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5 Shopping 
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6 ‘I* problem 
t Peace symbol 
81958 Elvis hit 

*nscole .Franca 

10 Tangential 
remark 

11 Church seat 

12 up — good 

13 Inventory unit 
ia Employee's 

delight 

22 Lay thick 

23 Parson's home 
25 Racket 

aa Checkroom 
articles 

27 Competitor of 
Phil 

28 Lively new pet 
30 Disoriented 

32 -Tell — ' 
(1965 Zdmbies 
hit) 

33 Computer 
command 
as Senior fellow 

37 Ski lifts 

40 Potent punch 
43 Harness race 
45 Casts desirous 
eyes 

45 Pinch a pooch 
si CHmbs 



Puma by CM Carrier 


©iVeic York Thna/Edkodby Witt Shorts. 


Solution io Pnsaie of Dec. 6 


53— —Dame 
54 Poppycock 
ssSensualst 
57 ‘Othello' villain 
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n— —even keel 
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8260 ‘s draft org. 

n Silent (20 's 

moniker) 


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Odense Ousts Madrid From Cup 


The nub of MQan’s decline lies in self-deception. Coach Capello 
and th e dub’s president, Silvio Berlusconi, were foxed by the 4-0 
triumph in Athens into believing the Milan machine was in fine 
fettle. Only now, when so much is lost and so much more at risk, 
are they scouring Europe, trying to buy such vibrant attackers as 
Sevilla’s Croatian striker Davor Suker. 

But, of course, the Italians have a scapegoat lined up. They face, 
in Vienna cm Wednesday, Otto Conrad, the goalkeeper whom, 
Milan swears, feigned injury when his head was struck by a plastic 
bottle in Milan’s San Siro. That head injury, real or ima gined, cost 
Milan two points. Now, unless it beats Conrad and his Casino 
Salzburg tide into the ground, Milan will surrender its title as the 
champion of Europe. 

All manner of hate mail has been aimed at the goalie. The 
victim of San Siro is cast as villain. His sporting reputation is 
bombarded by spite. His wed-being is insidiously threatened. 

He should care. Konrad is no innocent. He is 30 years old, he is 
Austria’s international goalkeeper, a professional doing his job. 
And if Konrad has any appreciation of history, he will easily put 
Wednesday into perspective. For he stands between the posts in 
the vast Viennese stadium — used for profit because Salzburg's 
home is comparatively tiny — where the times past have inflicted 
far cruder fates. 

The Emst-Happd Stadiom, formerly the Prater stadium, be- 
came, after the Anschluss with Germany in 1938, a staging post 
for Austrian Jews en route to Nazi death camps. 

T HE TAUNTS of a few Italians in the 72,000-capacity caul- 
dron will be music to Konrad’s ears if they mean that 
Salzburg is beating or bedding Milan. The two points deducted 
after the match in Italy now separates the teams; only victory will 
do for MDaii. 

For what it is worth, 1 suspect there is one last hurrah in the 
Italian prime minister’s team 1 think it will squeeze out a victory 
and join Ajax Amsterdam, the group leader, in the quarterfinal 
round. 

From other groups, Benfica and Hadtjn k Split are already 
qualified, so are Paris Sl Germain and IFfC Gothenburg. 

But the Pariaens and the Go then burgers still have honor, as 
wdl as money, to earn. PSG, a winner every time in its five 
European matches tins season, can eliminate Moscow Spartak 
and do Bayern Munich a favor. I 

The German champion, struggling to come to terms with the 
acoent its new coach, Giovanni Trapattoni, brings from Italy, has 
to try to dee out victory in Kiev, where Dynamo will be’ cold 
comfort and where the Munich team, like the Milanese, battles the 
weariness of aging and knackered World Cap performers. 

The odds are 30-50 on either Moscow Spartak or Bayern 
Munich reaching the last tight- depends on the pride, the 
effort, of opponents who have, principally, pride to play for. 

And while Barcelona’s struggle is against staleness, United's 
problems are more complex against Galatasaray of Istanbul. Five 
regulars — Danish goalie Peter Sdmunchd, English fullback Paul 
Parker, Ukrainian and Welsh and English wingers Andrei Kan- 
chdtitis, Ryan Giggs and Lee Sharpe — are injured. Two more, 
En glish midfielder Paul luce and Welsh striker Mark Hughes, are 


Compiled by Otr Staff From Dtspadie 

Morton Bisgaard scored in 
the final minu te of Tuesday 
evening’s match in Madrid to 
give the modest Danish side 
Odense a 2-0 victory over Real 
Madrid that eliminated the 
Spanish league leaders from the 
UEFA Cup. 

Bisgaard scored in the 90th 
minute on a sharp-angled, 12- 
meter shot from the left of Real 

UEFA CUP SOCCER 

Madrid goalkeeper Jos6 Santia- 
go Cannares and Odense ad- 
vanced on a 4-3 aggregate. 

The Danes took a 1-0 lead in 
the 71st minute on a goal from 
Ulrik Pedersen. It lied the 
reams, 3-3, on aggregate but 
still would have allowed Real 
Madrid to advance by virtue of 
the away goal rule. 

Real Madrid won its first-leg, 
third-round match in Denmark 
by a 3-2 score. 

“It’s a defeat we really didn’t 
expect, it’s sad, naturally," said 
Real Madrid forward Alfonso 
Perez Munoz. “This is proof 
there are no easy teams in Euro- 
pean competition." 

Pedersen’s goal came as he 
took the ball down the right 
side and then lobbed a shot 
from 10 meters over Canizares. 

Real Madrid thoroughly 
dominated the first 45 minutes, 
with four dear but unrewarded 
scoring chances. Odense's only 
chance in the first half came in 
the 20th minute, when Carsten 


Dethlefsen hit the crossbar 
from 25 meters. 

Real Madrid’s Danish for- 
ward, Michael Laudrup, and 
defender Enrique S&nchez were 
stopped by Odense goalkeeper 
Lars Hough in the fast 11 min- 
utes, Firrili n BuiragUChO 
and Martin Vasques missed on 
scoring chances in the final IS 
minutes of half. 

Parma 4, Bilbao 2: Dino Bag- 

S ‘o scored twice as the Italian 
ague leader, playing at home, 
held off the Spanish team and 
gained the quarterfinals on a 4- 
3 aggregate score. 

A third goal on the road 
would have qualified Athletic. 

Italian international Gian- 
franco Zola opened the scoring 
in the 21st minute with a drive 
from 12 meters. 

Midfielder Baggio made it 2- 
0 from a few meters in the 39th, 
then, fed by Zola, Baggio made 
it 3-0 with a powerful diagonal 
shot four minutes into the sec- 
ond half. 

Oscar Vales scored for Ath- 
letic in the 57th, but eight min- 
utes later Parma’s fourth goal 
was netted by Portuguese de- 
fender Fernando Couto on a 
shot from 7 meters following a 
melee. 

Leverkusen 4, Katowice 0: In 
Frankfurt, Bayer Leverkusec 
qualified for the quarterfinals 
for the third time since 1988. 

Leaving no doubt about who 
controlled the game, Leverku- 
sen’s captain, Berad Schuster, 
sowed the first goal on a free 
shot at the 11th minute. Two 


minutes later, forward Andreas 
Thom picked up a flat pass in 
front of the net to put Leverku- 
sen ahead, 2-0. Midfielder 
Htiko Scholz scored in the 13th 
minute and Pavel Hapal scram- 
bled to score on a rebound from 
the top bar in the 28 th. 

Leverkusen, which out- 
classed tbe Katowice team 
throughout, had won by 4-1 in 
the first leg. The victory was 
also a rich one for the Leverku- 
sen players, who each take 
home a promised $16,000 
Christmas Donus. 

Joventns 2, Attamra 1: In Tu- 
rin, Inventus qualified for tbe 
quarterfinals, eliminating Ad- 
mira Wacker of Austria on a 5-2 
aggregate. 

Thick fog made the game al- 
most invisible. Even the orange 
ball used for the occasion could 
be hardly seen from the stands. 
Defender Giro Ferrara gave the 
Italian team a 1-0 first-half lead 
with a header in the 17th min- 
ute. 

Substitute forward Gerd 

W imm er tallied the eq ualizer 
for A dmir a in the 74th minute. 

Veteran striker GianLuca 
Vialh scored the game winner, 
on a free kick, with four min- 
utes left. 

The Turin team controlled 
the match throughout, despite 
the absence of injured key play- 
ers such as Robeno Baggio and 
Jfirgen Kohler. 

Lazio 2, Trabzonspor I: In 
Rome, substitute striker Marco 
Di Vaio scored the game winner 


for } in the 75th minute to 
give the Roman team the vic- 
tory and a berth in the quarter- 
finals on a 4-2 aggregate score. 

The n i p tain and defender 
Roberto Cravexo gave Lazio an 
early lead in the 25th minute. 

Turkish forward Soner Boz 
tied the score in the 73rd, but Di 
Vaio quickly restored Lazio's 
lead two minutes later, with a 
powerful left drive from the 
penalty area edge. 

Borussia Dortmund 3, Depor- 
tivo de h Coruna 1: In Frank- 
furt. Dortmund won in over- 
time to gain tbe quarterfinals. 

After losing to the Spanish 
team in the first leg game, 1-0, 
Dortmund again faced a tough 
wall of defense and dangerous 
attacking game from the start 

It was a scoreless first half. 

Just five minutes into the sec- 
ond half, Andreas M5Ser head- 
ed a pass to Michael Zorc, who 
scored for Dortmund. 

Regular time ended with 
Dortmund leading 1-0, but be- 
cause of the first leg loss the 
game went into overtime. 

At the 102nd minute in what 
appeared to be a disputable off- 
sides position, Alfredo Santae- 
lena ued the game at 1-1. 

At the 116th min ute Dort- 
m Lind's Karlheinz Riedle head- 
ed in a pass from MOfler to go 
up 2-1. But it was Lars Ricken 
who saved the day for the Ger- 
mans at the 118th with the bad- 
ly needed third goal to qualify 
the team for the quarterfinals. 

(AP, Reuters) 


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Page 24 


OBSERVER 

The Tabloid World 


By Russell Baker 

N EW YORK — Here is the 
latest literature cm the royal 
farce of Windsor. Hasn't all this 
been in the newspapers already? 
Or at least all of it that's juicy 
enough to deserve scanning? 

I’ve been scanning this story 
for what seems like years now. 
Scanning gets the job done. It's 
not like Bosnia. You can’t scan 
Bosnia and get to first base. 
You can reaa for weeks, years, 
generations, without getting a 
grip on Bosnia. 

Reading gets you nowhere. 
You have to have lived it You 
have to have been bom there. 
And stQl you can't understand it. 

The story of Prince Charles 
and Princess Di is at the oppo- 
site end of the universe. It's 
built for scanning. 

It's the kind of story that of- 
fers its rewards in tiny bits and 
pieces. A whole book? Surely 
not. It would be like eating a 
six-course dinner consisting of 
six servings of cauliflower. 

a 

It's amazing how easily you 
can stay on top of these gaudy 
tabloid entertainments without 
paying $30 for the book. Even 
without spending hours bent 
over a hot television set. 

For instance, the O. J. Simp- 
son circus: Aside from 45 min- 
utes of backache involved in 
staring aL the famous Parade of 
the White Bronco and Gently 
Pursuing Cops, I've suffered no 
physical damage at all while be- 
coming as all-knowing as the 
next Simpson discussant. 

You can stay on top of the 
Simpson story just by walking 
past the TV set twice a day. Not 
stopping, just walking by. Ask 
me anything: Judge Ito's wife, 
the blood-soaked glove, the 
barking dog, Shapiro's hourly 
fee, Marcia’s new hairdo. De- 
tective Fuhrman, DNA test- 
ing . . . 

I can recite O.J. lore untii 
you beg for mercy- Can dilate 
on the bitter ironies, the social 


injustices. Can draw lessons 
about police indifference to 
wife-beating. Con denounce 
proposition-nutty California, 
so cold-hearted it yearns to 
make migrant children suffer, 
yet so tender-hearted toward 
the rich and famous that prose- 
cutors don’t dare ask for capital 
punishment when a celebrity is 
accused of double murder. 

And all this from simple 
sc annin g. Same with the House 
of Windsor. It's the usual royal 
sex story. British history is 
packed with them. Henry VTU, 
after all, had six wives, and as- 
sorted others. 

Unlike the Simpson show, 
the Charles and Di story at least 
gives me constructive ideas. For 
instance, isn't it past time the 
British set up a King and Queen 
CoUege? 

D 

What's astounding is that 
neither Charles nor Di had the 
slightest job training. The same 
has been true of royals for 
years. Charles's dad sent him to 
a prep school famous chiefly for 
making all the kids take cold 
showers in the winter. 

Some education. If Charles 
had been destined to be a jet 
pilot you can bet they would 
have taught him something 
about takeoffs and landings. 
About being royalty he was 
taught nothing. Here he was, a 
middle-aged man and still so 
ignorant that, not knowing a 
cellular telephone is a broadcast 
radio, he used it for passionate 
declarations to a lover. 

Di’s training was just as 
hopeless. Nobody had taught 
her that her job was to produce 
an heir, then discreetly create a 
private life of her own. Instead 
— soap-opera melodrama tics! 

Nobody had taught either one 
that their work was to play robo- 
tic roles in a pageant by day and 
never let the audience in on the 
secret that at night they discreet- 
ly enjoyed their humanity. 

AW York Tuna Service 


Discovering America: How Mrs. 



By Jake Lamar 

P ARIS — Christopher Columbus has been 
having a rough time of it lately. For nearly 
five centuries he was considered one of histo- 
ry’s great men, an icon for the ages. But in 
recent years, the Italian explorer has been 
damned as the father of colonialism. The more 
addled and misbegotten the American experi- 
ment seems to some people, the more Colum- 
bus is faulted for all the sins of the New World, 
from tbe slaughter of Native Americans to the 
enslavement of Africans. Why, his critics seem 
to ask, couldn't he just have stayed at home? 

The Columbus debate usually breaks down 
into the traditionalists versus the revisionists, 
the elitists versus tbe multiculturalisis. Now 
into the fray jumps Paula DiPerna, an artist 
rather than an ideologue, a writer more inter- 
ested in tbe scope of human compassion than 
tbe boundaries of political correctness. She 
describes her new book. “The Discoveries of 
Mrs. Christopher Columbus: His Wife's Ver- 
sion" (The Permanent Press), as a "feminist 
examination” of history. It is also a clever and 
inventive novel that ill umin ates one of history's 
more shadowy spouses. 

A travel writer and an investigative journal- 
ist with five nonfiction books under her belt, 
DiPerna chose Felipa Moniz e Peres trello as 
the heroine of her fust novel. In precise, ele- 
gant, somewhat formal prose, the first person 
narrator provides a new dimension to the tale 
of her husband's most famous voyage. “She's 
the conscience," DiPerna says. "She tells the 
thing s that weren’t told at the time. She fills in a 
lot of the spaces." 

DiPerna "was researching her “Complete 
Travel Guide to Cuba" when she first read 
Christopher Columbus’s diary, a document 
with a curious history. “Th® first two or three 
pnws are in the first person and then it slips 
into the third person,” DiPerna says. “Nobody 
really knows what happened to the original. As 
with everything in Columbus’s story', there's all 
this mystery. False documents, forgeries, 
strange things.” 

While some hold Columbus's journal in high 
regard, DiPerna found the explorer’s dry style 
"completely fiat. . . . Columbus had an ol>- 
session with product. He got to the New World 
and the idea was: What can we get out of this? 
We can make coffee, let's cut down the trees 
and plant sugar, we’ve got tobacco. It was all 
products. . . . Not anything about the impli- 
cations of what was going oh. the New World 
meeting the Old World, the fact that there were 
people there, that this place was entirely differ- 
ent from anything they were expecting." 
“And I wondered, if a woman had been on 


this trip, would the story have been 
written any differently? I wondered 
what a woman would have said. 
Would she have been as obsessed with 
the product or would she have had 
more interest in the process, which I 
rhinlf is a fundamental male-female 
difference. And it just occurred to me: 
Who were the women in Columbus’s 
life? Did he even have women in his 

lifer 

Every biography DiPerna picked up 
shout Columbus offered “the same 
four or five facts” about his wife. “No 
one added to them, no one made any 
attempt to expand on them, to find 
out more about her.” 


’-"sSw 5 "’. 







Perestrello, was a navigator and dis- 
coverer of the islands ol Madeira and 
Porto Santo. Felipa attended Lisbon’s 
exclusive All Saints convent school 
She met Columbus while studying 
there and married him in 1479. 

“That’s all anybody knows about the 
wife,” DiPerna says. “She drops out of 
history in roughly 1484 or 1485. There 
is a legitimate controversy over wheth- 
er she was abandoned in Portugal by 
Columbus or whether she died." 

DiPema’s Felipa is a strong-willed, 
adventurous young woman who rebels 
against the constraints of convent 
school. After the nuns refuse to teach 
her how to write — “No value will 
come of it," say the sisters — Felipa 
improvises her own “sufficiently 
chaste" lice while reciting a prayer. A 
nun standing within earshot resigns 
herself to teaching Felipa what she 
wants to learn. 

DiPerna crafts meticulous re-cre- 
ations of the late 15th century, conjur- 
ing richly textured pictures of island 
life on Porto Santo, where Felipa and 
Christopher honeymooned, and political in- 
trigue in the Lisbon court. Against this exhaus- 
tively researched background, the author lets 
her imagination roam free. 

Felipa is clearly the brains in the Columbus 
marriage. It is she who suggests to her husband, 
whom she almost always refers to as the Admi- 
ral, that he sail west to’find the East. When the 
Admiral needs funding for his proposed voy- 
age, it is Felipa through her connections to 
royalty who gets Columbus an audience with 
the king of Portugal And when the Portuguese 
crown turned him down, how did Columbus 



ever conjured up such serenity, study 
it could disappear like vapor at the 
touch of a human hand. 

Oo Oct 12, 1492, Mr. and hfo, 
Columbus discover America. Greet- 
ed by a small band of naked Native 
Americans, the Admiral reads a dec- 
laration of possession, elaunmg the 
land before him as die property. of 
Spain. The leader of the: Native 
Americans responds “in a language 
none of us could grasp, JtoH of short 
dicks.” Thus, Fdipa concludes, the 
first speeches between, the. Old and 
New Worlds aided with neither 1 side" 
comprehending the other. . ... : : 

A member of the welcome 


The author Paula DiPerna beside a statue of Columbis. 


cuts his hand, badly, bloodily, 
examining Columbus’s sword, an in- 
cident that actually occurred. “B©- : 
fore we had even spent a full day 
here," Fdipa writes in her diary, “we- 
bad brought harm to this place.” 

It is not ideology but empathy for 
the people of the New World and an 
innate respect for the land .that make 
Felipa worry about the moral "and 
political dimensions of the discovery. 
She begins to recognize the Admiral’s . - 
rapacious side.’ “The more she begins s 
to dunk of his motives and . . : the 
-implications of what they’re doing,” 
says DiPerna, “the more she begins , 
to question herself and him.” 

But DiPerna’s book never engages 
in glib Columbus-bashing. “The peo- 
ple who followed Columbus commit-* ’ 
ted the worst atrocities,” the author 
explains. “But Columbus Titnmrff did 
not. I thought it was unfair to lay bn 
him tbe blame, for everything that 
came after." 

On the other hand: “There is also 
tbe responsibility of the explorer. He 
found this place but be didn’t 


manage to hook up with Queen Isabella of 
Spain? “I think his wife had something to do 
with that, too,” DiPerna speculates. “She had 
relatives and people who might have made the 
bridge for him to Spain." 

This Felipa does not disappear from history 
before Columbus’s voyage,"but joins her hus- 
band aboard the Santa Maria. And while 
DiPerna found Columbus's travel journal be- 
reft of “evocation,” his wife’s version abounds 
with lush descriptions of the Edenic American 
landscape: “Surely this land was still mirage, 
a false sighting, for if the human mind had 


.’t really 

present it as some place to be protect- 
ed.” In that respect, Fdipa is vay much her 
husband's better half. 

She is, at once, cunning and compassionate^, 
a preserv er rather than an exploiter of re- 
sources. 

A bit too good to be true, perhaps. Yet; Paula 
DiPerna makes Felipa and her adventure in the 
New World easy to believe in. 

After all, DiPerna notes, “Nobody's ever 
said she didn’t really go.” - - 


Jake Lamar is a freelance writer tiring in 
Paris. 


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I N New Year's requests this may take 
tbe cake. Harrison Ford says he warns to 
be bald, yes bald. Ford told OK Magazine: 
“I hate having people fussing with my hair 
the way thev do on movie sets. Wouldn't it 
be great to "be bald in the rain?" 

□ 

Richard Eyre will step down in 1997 as 
director of Britain’s National Theatre. 
“I’m not jumping ship. I thought after 10 
years somebody else should have a go." he 
said. 

□ 

Michael Douglas says be was addicted to 
alcohol not sex. In Vanity Fair’s January 
issue, the actor said false reports of a sex 
addiction grew out of his roles in “Basic 
Instinct” and “Fatal Attraction." Douglas 
said he entered an Arizona clinic to deal 
with the effects of a “cumulative lifestyle" 
that included excessive drinking. 

□ 

Ted Turner says he’s never met a woman 
he didn't like. "No woman was ever mean 
to me and a lot erf men were. I’m going to 
support women’s issues as long as women 
are getting pushed around,” the media 
magnate said at the Women of Washing- 


ton’s first annual fund-raising luncheon. 
Turner is married to Jane Fonda. 

a 

.Angela Davis is upset that she is remem- 
bered for her .Afro hairstyle and not her 
revolutionary ideals. Being included by 
The New York Times Magazine as among 
the 50 most influential people for their 
fashion sense. Davis says, "is humiliating 
because it reduces a politics of liberation to 
a politics of fashion." 

□ 

The Duchess of York and her two 
daughters have only a month to find a new 
home because the one they rent has been 
sold, the Daily Mail reports. Romenda 
Lodge in Surrey, which the duchess has 
re a led since separating from Prince An- 
drew. has been sold to a foreign business- 
man who plans to move in early next year. 
□ 

Sir .Andrew Uqyd Webber, 46, is won- 
dering when be will get his first meal after 
being hospitalized in London for an ulcer 
in his esophagus. The composer is being 
fee intravenously. “It is just the case of 
sitting around with a tube in my arm until I 
can have my first consomme,” he was 
quoted as saying. 



Eoc Gafflard/Rmtea 

AT HOME — Prince Rainier of Mo- 
naco, 71, left a hospital in Monte 
Carlo on Tuesday after undergoing 
heart bypass surgery on Nov. 25. 









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CZECH REPUBLIC 00-420-00101 

DENMARK* 8001-0010 

FINLAND* 900-100-10 

FRANCE . 193-0011 

GERMANY . 0130-0010 

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TURKEY’ 00-800-12277 

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OOl-autKIitM 111 

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MEXICQKJ 

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