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PUBLISHED WITH THE NEW YORK TIMES AND THE WASHINGTON POST 





3d Hostage Is Killed 
By Algiers Hij ackers 


Paris, Monday, December 26, 1994 


By Alan Riding 

PAt>TC N Zj 0rkT,WS ^ 

i A * 8 «ian govemmeni re- 

fSd^S;yk^fe“ d byl! i |iunic 

after thSfSIIS [ WO P asscn 8 er s soon 
ffiJJ l 0 f k ? v w the Airbus A-300 on 
^^and released at least 60 Algerian 

cen&R* T™*** said a third pas- 

senger had been killed 

“We just had confirmation of the killine 
of a passenger” the French Foreign Mini£ 
?*«■*“■ statement. It said the body, 
unidentified, had been “dumped from tire 
plane on the gangway." Earlier reports had 
quotoi the gunmen as saying that they 
would kfl] a Frenchman" unless the plane 
left Algiers by 9:30 P.M 

Foreign Minister Alain Juppfe of France 
had said that Pans might allow the plane 
to fly to France. 

The gunmen were believed to be still 
holding some 165 passengers and crew, 
including an estimated 40 French nation- 
als. 

Algerian news reports said the gunmen 
demanded the release of the two top lead- 
ers of the banned Islamic Salvation Front, 
Abbasi Madani and Ali Belli adj, who are 
under house arrest. But a Sunday deadline 
passed, and the gunmen reportedly with- 
drew their demand. 


France offered to send commandos to 
free the hostages. “We have put interven- 
tion units on the alert in case the Algerian 
authorities reply favorably to our offer,” 
Mr. Juppg said. Unconfirmed reports said 
the commandos had already flown to 
Spain. 

The gunmen are thought to belong to 
the Armed Islamic Group, the most radical 
of several fundamentalists groups fighting 
to overthrow Algeria’s anny- backed re- 
gime. Last year, the Armed Islamic Group 
began targeting foreigners living in Algeria 
and, to date, 80 have been killed. 

litis group, as well as the larger Islamic 
Salvation From, also increasingly regards 
France as a foe, not only because Paris 
supports the Algerian government, but 
also because Pans has begun damping 
down on fundamentalist support groups 
operating among its large Algerian com- 
munity. 

By seizing the Air France airliner on the 
ground at Houari Boumcdienne Airport, 
the extremists appear to have achieved two 
goals — embarrassing the embattled Al- 
giers government ana reminding Paris of 
the pails of involving itself in Algeria’s 
civil war. 

By offering to send commandos, France 
seemed to take up the challenge. Prime 
Minister Edouard BaHadur cut short a 
Christmas vacation and returned to Paris 
to preside over an emergency meeting at- 
tended by Interior Minister Charles Pas- 
See HUACK, Page 2 



Alexander Ncmcnov/Apaee Fiance-Prase 

A Chechen fire fighter putting out a blaze started by a bombing raid in Grozny. Air raids killed at least 13 this weekend. 


As Tuition Soars, Frightened Colleges Now Say: Let’s Make a Deal 


By Peter Applebome 

New York Tima Service 

BETHLEHEM, Pennsylvania — Increasingly, 
discount merchandising is coming to stead * min 

At Lehigh University here, a new program allows 
top students to get a fifth year of undergraduate or 
graduate education free, and the school, for the Erst 
time, has instituted scholarships not based on finan- 
cial need to attract top students. 

Its business school has cut tuition 22 percent for 
its master’s program. MBA graduates get two-thirds 
off the regular tuition price for any course they take 
after graduation. 

The changes at Lehigh are just a glimpse of a 
revolution beginning .to rock colleges and universi- 
ties as more consumers make it clear that they 
cannot or will not pay the sticker price for college. 

“We’re not trying to be the discount kings hoe,” 
said James Schmotter, dean of Ldugh’s College of 
Business and Economics. “But I think we’ve sat here 
on campus and thought we’re special and we're 
different from other kinds of marketplaces. Our 
customers no longer think we are that different; they 
see us more like other high-priced luxury goods. 


“As time goes by, I think we’re going to see 
increasingly more aggressive and creative and some- 
times desperate pricing schemes." 

The higher education market has already changed 
significantly. In the last four years, the number of 
students paying fuD tuition at Lehigh, for example, 
has dropped to 49 percent from 63 percent, and 
nationally fewer than half of all college students pay 
full tuition. 

Experts say that discount schemes are proliferat- 
ing. They include more financial aid awards based 
on need, merit scholarships designed to attract 
sought-after students and innovative pricing. 

Robert Zemsky, director of the Institute for Re- 
search in Higher Education at the. University of 
Pennsylvania, said, “I think the wholeprice structure 
of higher education, particularly in the private sec- 
tor, is collapsing, and there will be a lot of what 
might be called novel experiments in the years to 
come. The market is trying to, in a larger sense, clear, 
and find out the real price the public is willing to pay 
for higher education^ 

Experts say at least four factors have put higher 
education in its bind. The first is that the cost of a 


college education has grown far faster than the 
consumer price index and personal income. 

Second, the pool of applicants is declining or 
s t agnant. Third, the public is increasingly skeptical 
and cost-conscious as a result of the consumer move- 
ment and negative publicity about academic life. 
Fourth, competition for top students is increasing. 

Those factors have contributed to experiments 
like these price-cutting plans: 

• In October, the University of Rochester an- 
nounced that it would give a $5,000 grant to all New 
York state residents who enrolled as freshmen in 
1995. 

• The University of Detroit Mercy, Michigan’s 
lareest private university, took the opposite tack, 
offering out-of-state students a grant program of up 
to $1,950 to match what the state gives Michigan 
students. 

• Susquehanna University in Pennsylvania and 
Garkson University in upstate New York are among 
schools that have begun offering four-year degrees 
for the price of three, allowing students to cut 
$12^00 to $25,000 from the cost of their bachelor's 
degree. 


• This month Michigan State announced what it 
called a “historic” policy guaranteeing that tuition 
would not rise faster than the projected rate of 
inflation for the next three years. 

According to the College Board, average annual 
tuition is now $1 1,709 at four-year private colleges 
and $ 2,686 at four-year public colleges, both up 6 
percent over the previous year. 

When room, board, books, supplies and transpor- 
tation are included, the total price comes to $18,784 
a year for resident students at four-year private 
colleges and $8,990 at public ones. The avenge 
American student pays about half of the total college 
bjll,: experts say. 

A study by Mr. Zemsky’s institute last summer 
examined. five representative colleges from 1987 to 
1993 and found that all were increasingly likely over 
time to offer more financial aid. The study also 
suggested that the purpose of the aid was not just to 
assist needy students but to increase enrollment and 
maintain class 

The emerging discounts are part of the same 
picture. 


A Christmas View of Sarajevo’s History 

A Cemetery Now Haunts the Lot Where Children Used to Romp and Laugh 


By John Pomfret 

Washington Past Soviet 

SARAJEVO, Bosnia-Herzegovina — 
From a second-story window of her 
cramped but cozy apartment tucked inside 
a mud-and-mortar house, Violeta Zvidic 
has watched the wooded playground of her 
vouth mutate into a graveyard over 32 
months of war. 

On Christmas Eve, another young man, 
a 22 -year-old police officer, was laid to rest 

in Heroes’ Cemetery. . ■ 

Her knees digging into a decrepit couch, 
she pressed her face against the window, 
steaming it as men outside m military 
fatigues passed a shovel fromh^dto 
hand, dropping dirt onto a plywood coffin. 

Oespitewhat officials see as Bosmas 
mn&t serious ccflsO'firc in Alznost ft ycBX % 
Mrs. Zvidic, 24, has little hope that she has 
witnessed the last burial here of a man 
killed by Serbian guns. A nationwide trace 
brokeS by Jimmy Carter, the former 
nT preadit, began at noon Saturday. 

fOne day into Bosnia s latest oease-nre, 
president Alija Izetbegovic of Bosnia 
^ed Sunday that his rioopswouUre- 
riohtinc unless Croatian Serbs 
stopped attacks 

XSSaied Press reported from Sarajevo. 
AJ S$, 0 ugh most of Re appeared 
Jm Srelay after the start of the newest 


truce, UN officials reported fighting south 
ofVdikaKladiisa. They said the attackers 
were apparently Croatian Serbs and their 
rebel Muslim allies and asserted that this 
was was not a violation of the truce, since 
only Bosnian Serbs and government 
troops were parties to the agreement Mr. 
Izetbegovic saw it differently. 

[“If those attacks don’t stop, I am re- 
sponsibly stating that there will be no 


'What can yon Bay to 
someone whose playground 
is now filled with dead 
people?* 

cease-fire and that our army will respond 
an other fronts,” he said on state radio.] 
Mrs. Zvidic and many others Hke her 
looked on the latest truce as a sad joke. 

“What can you say to someone whose 
playground is now filled with dead peo- 
ple'Tsaid her mother, Gordana. ‘You tell 
us things will get better. We can only 


Sarajevo has toyed with hope before. On 
Feb. 9 — after the bloodiest massacre of 
the war, the killing of 68 people by a 


mortar shell in its open-air market — a 
NATO ultimatum ordering the Serbs to 
remove their weapons from around Saraje- 
vo sparked confidence that the city’s suf- 
fering might soon end. 

But Serbian forces effectively reimposed 
the siege on July 26. Since then, shelling 
and sniping have increased. Four people 
were killed last week: an 82-year-old 
grandfather, an 11 -year-old girl, a street 
vendor in his 20s, and Mirsad Dehc, the 
policeman who was buried Saturday, two 
days after he was killed when two shells 
exploded in a Sarajevo market. 

Mr. Carter’s missi on, which ended Tues- 
day, followed by UN-led talks that con- 
cluded Friday, have given some ground for 
hope. Under the cease-fire deal, talks are 
to be held on a four-month “total cessation 
of hostilities,” and UN officials say they 
are hopeful that such an agreement can be 
achieved by New Year’s Day. 

If so, negotiations aimed at a political 
settlement of the war would be next But 
marry people here think not. 

Mr. DeBc, according to Bosnian Health 
Ministry records, was the 10,069th fatality 
in the city since the war began. 

Snaking across a rolling landscape of 
whiteness, a line of dark figures, with the 

See BOSNIA, Page 2 



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Man Seized Atop White House Fenee 

armed man 3 ^ was ar- “Somebody grabbed him hangi 


Si White House, a ««« — 

sp °ESJt MU Clinton and his family 
pr ?£E the time but were never in 

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Ant ImcFA Qatar .....A00 Rials 

1 5000 R*unlorr....ll.20FF 

* Egypt 900 FF Saudi Arabia..' 9.00 R. 

France Senegal ....960CFA 

GoDon Spain ......200 PTAS 

G rBece ‘""‘n MLin Tunisia ....1 JJ00 Drn 

1 > 1D,V TSSrWCW Turkey -TJ-J MB 

ivofY Coffin jrj UA.E BJODlrh 

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bone 1 * ... 


latest in a rash of attempts to breach 
White House security. 

“Somebody grabbed him hanging 
from the fence,’’ the spokesman said. 
“Hewas not aimed, and we don't know 
what he was up to.” He said arrests of 
fence climbers ‘‘happen regularly" at the 
White Houses 

The man was charged with unlawful 
entry and making threats after arguing 
with the police during the course of his 

inrest. 

(tenoral N e wt 

A death wpad haunts Madrid’s 
rating aides. Page 2. 

Hafy gasps for breath as the holidays 
offer a break from politics. Page 2 


American Science: End of Golden Age? 

Experts Fear Progress May Suffer as More Researchers Chase Fewer Grants 


Book Review 
Bridge' 


Page 5 
Page 5 


By Boyce Rensberger 

Washington Post Service 

WASHINGTON — The end of the post-World War II boom 
in U.S. science funding, coupled with a rapid increase in the 
number of scientists competing for that funding, could lead to 
slower rates of technological advancement and flagging battles 
against disease, hunger and environmental dedine, according to 
leaders in the U.S. scientific community. 

Federal funding for scientific research grew faster than the 
rate of inflation from the end of World War II until 1987, except 
for a minor dip in the 1960s. Since 1987,- however, federal 
research funding has just kept pace with inflation. 

At the same time, the number of university-based scientists 
supported by federal grants has continued to grow at a rate of 5.7 
percent a year — 2*4 times faster than the ILS. work force as a 
whole. The number of medical scientists has grown 10 times 
faster than the work force. 

One effect of the increased competition for funding, scientists 
say, is that basic or pure science research proposals that might 
yield major advances frequently are rejected because they are 
long shots or would take too many years to pay off. Instead, they 


say, tire grant money gees to more cautious, incremental propos- 
als that promise to show quicker results. 

Another effect is that many young scientists — the future 
lifeblood of American science — cannot find permanent jobs in 
research and are quitting a profession that once was viewd as a 
lifelong calling. Older and more established scientists occupy 
most rathe permanent positions and, studies suggest, get most of 
the grants. 

A study by the National Academy of Sciences showed that 
between 1985 and 1993, even as the ovexati number of grant 
applications was increasing, applications from scientists under 
the age of 37 dropped 54 percent..' Researchers suggest that 
younger scientists are not scaring grants because they have no 
permanent job base from which to apply. 

„ The unemployment rate among scientists with doctorate de- 


No. 34.781 

1.000 Rebels 
Die in Battle 
Near Grozny, 
Russia Says 

Ground War Intensifies 
As Troops Try to Sever 
Chechen Escape Routes 

By Steven Erlanger 

New York Tima Service 

MOSCOW — In what appeared to be a 
sharp escalation of the ground war in se- 
cessionist Chechnya, the Russian govern- 
ment asserted Sunday that about 1,000 
Chechen fighters had been killed in heavy 
fighting around the town of Argun, about 
eight miles east of Grozny. 

The Russian government’s press service 
said that “a massive group of illegal armed 
units,” using armor, artillery and flame- 
throwers, had attacked Russian troops late 
Saturday but been rebuffed by noon Sun- 
day. 

[Chechen fighters denied the claim, 
Reuters reported from Argun.] 

The figure for the dead would make this 
by far the biggest land battle since up to 

40.000 Russian troops invaded Chechnya 
on Dec. 1 1. But the figure could not be 
confirmed, nor could the parallel Russian 
assertion that Moscow’s Interior Ministry 
troops had suffered no casualties in tire 
same period. Officials were silent Sunday 
on the casualty toll for Defense Ministry 
soldiers. 

Taking Argun is important to Russian 
efforts to cut off the capital and leave exit 
routes only to the south, which lead to 
relatively inhospitable mountains. Though 
moving much more slowly than its com- 
manders had promised, the reinforced 
Russian infancy appears to be close to 
positions required to isolate Grozny and 
storm it, senior Western diplomats said 
Sunday. 

The government's press center an- 
nounced Saturday that Russian forces bad 
completely surrounded Grozny, but the 
claim was premature. On Sunday, the Rus- 
sians claimed only to control “all access 
roads to Argun.” not the town itself, which 
is said to be in rains. On Soviet maps. 
Argun is listed with a population of be- 
tween 10,000 and 50,000. 

As the land war intensified, the bombing 
of Grozny eased, the Chechen vice presi- 
dent, Zetimkhan Yandarbyev, confirmed, 
with no raids Sunday-by dark. On Satur- 
day night, bombs set fire to the local Par- 
liament building and hit dozens of houses, 
a local journalist told Reuters by tele- 
phone. Chechen officials said 25 people 

See CHECHNYA, Page 2 


occurring even as the overall unemployment rate has fallen in 
recent years. 

The growth in the number of new doctorate-holders has 
See SCIENCE, Page 2 


Muslim Bomber 
Kills Only Self 
In Israel Attack 


By Barton Gellman 

Washington Pan Service 

JERUSALEM — An Islamic militant 
wounded 13 people Sunday morning but 
killed only himself when he mistimed the 
detonation of a satchel charge near a bus 
full of Israeli Air Force troops. 

Hundreds of soldiers had gathered near 
the Jerusalem Convention Center on Zal- 
man Shazar Avenue, as they do each Sun- 
day morning, for chartered bus rides bade 
to their bases from weekend leave. Security 
officials said Israel was spared a major loss 
of life when something caused the bomber 
to set off the explosion prematurely at 
about 6:10 A.M. 

The Islamic Resistance Movement 
known as Hamas took responsibility for 
the attack. The political impact was 
heightened here by disclosure that the 
bomber was a member of Yasser Arafat's 
self-rule police in the Gaza Strip, a fact 
calculated to embarrass both Mr. Arafat 
and his negotiating partners in the Israeli 
government Witnesses in Gaza said they 
had often seen the man directing traffic in 
a dark blue police uniform, and Palestin- 
ian official sources acknowledged that he 
was a member of the force. 

The attack continued a pattern set in 
October, at Jerusalem's pedestrian mall 
and on Dizengoff Street in Tel Aviv, in 
which Hamas strikes at the icons of normal 
Israeli life. 

The force of the explosion blew glass 
and metal from a nearby bus shelter dear 
across the six-lane boulevard and well into 
a parking lot on the other side. The black- 
ened remains of the bomber lay in the 
center lane of traffic, mingled with pieces 
of a chartered bus that toe main force of 
the blast had narrowly missed. 

Eli Bramli, who drove that bus, said in 
an interview nearby that he ran a regular 
route from Jerusalem to an air base near 
Ramla and that most of his passengers 
were uniformed troops. In the seconds 
before the explosion, he said, a man in 
civilian clothes joined a knot of late-arriv- 
ing soldiers and looked as though he in- 
tended to climb aboard. 

“I dosed the rear door and pulled 
away,” Mr. Bramli said. “Only passengers 
I knew get on the bus.’’ 

Ehud Olroert, the mayor erf Jerusalem, 
who was briefed at the scene by Major. 
General Arye Anrit, the district po&x 

See ISRAEL, Page 2 





Page 2 


Confusion Reigns 
As Italians Gasp 
For Political Break 


By Alan Cowell 
Nrv York Times Semce 

ROME — The Christmas 
holiday was also a tune of relief 
for Italians this yean te a coo- 
pie of days at least there was a 
respite from political controver- 
sy and confusion. 

For days before the break, 
poli tiriafis filled the air waves 
and newspapers with the sound 
and fury of a full-blown politi- 
cal crisis that culminated last 
week with the resignation of 
Prime Minister Silvio Berlus- 
coni. 

He stepped down in the face 
Of a revolt within his governing 
coalition that has brought his 
country’s attempt at political 
renewal to a halt 

Italians may like to think of 
themselves as cynical about 
politicians. Nevertheless, the 
latest scandal seems to have cre- 
ated rare confusion. 

“There is a kind of disorien- 
tation,” said Stefano Belli, sell- 
ing newspapers from his kiosk 
on a rainy afternoon. “People 
are confused. They don’t know 
which way to go. In the past, 
there was left and right — a 
dear distinction. New, apart 
from the extremes, it's difficult 
to know what difference there is 
between them.” 

Cynicism aside, there is anger 
that the experiment has implod- 
ed, and disappointment that the 
new politicians have proved so 
feeble. 

*T expected change,” said Lu- 
ciano. Romani, 37, who works 
for a UN agency in Rome. “But 

15 Anstratians Hurt 
In a Nightclub Blaze 

The Associated Press 

NEWCASTLE, Australia — 
Eleven people were hospitalized 
and four were treated for smoke 
inhalation after a rock band's 
fire-eating act went awiy during 
a Christinas Eve performance, 
police said Sunday. 

Fifty-fivepeople were evacu- 
ated from The Star restaurant- 
nightdub complex here after 
the lead singer of the band 
Freak Shop accidentally set fire 
to the roof by igniting a mouth- 
ful of kerosene, the police said. 


SCIENCE: Transition in America 


Carinned from Page 1 

coincided with a recent influx 
of foreign researchers, creating 
a pod of professionals that far 
exceeds the number of science 
jobs available in academia and 
industry. Far from the scientist 
shortage that experts once fore- 
cast, the United States now 
faces what many call a scientist 
glut 

Science groups and politi- 
cians have proposed a range of 
possible ways to avoid the 
feared dulling of America’s sci- 
entific edge. Not surprisingly, 
some scientific organizations 
contend that the answer is to 
boost research funding, espe- 
cially far basic science — the 
kind of research aimed at learn- 
ing more about how nature 
works. 

Other groups, including the 
National Academy of Sciences, 
say that current spending is suf- 
ficient but the nation should set 
priorities for scientific research. 

Some political leaders and 
advocacy groups argue that in- 
stead of spending so much on 
basic science, research money 
should be directed into targeted 
projects, such as curing specific 


diseases or developing particu- 
lar technologies. 

A f ew experts era say the 
combination of stagnant fund- 
ing and a glut of scientists is not 
altogether bad. 

“There’s always going to be 
an oversupply of scientists,” 
said Bruce Alberts, president of 
the NAS. “My own view is that 
the system has to be competi- 
tive. Getting government fund- 
ing is a privilege. The suffer the 
competition, the better the 
chance that only the best are 
getting grants.” 

But most of the experts, in- 
cluding Alberts, agree that 
some effort should be made to 
remedy the current imbalance 
between the number of scien- 
tists and the amount of research 
money. 

“If we persist on this course, 
we can expect to see America’s 
position in the weald gradually 
weaken,” said Leon Ledesmas, 
a Nobel laureate in physics and 
former director of Fennflab, the 
world’s most powerful atom 
smasher.“We wul watch as our 
technology-based products be- 
come less and less competitive 
in world markets.” 


iii ra ii i 


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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, MONDAY, DECEMBER 26, 1994 



WORLD BRIEFS 

Top Israeli and Syrian Generals Me« 

W^GTON (AP) - 


unfortunately the problem is 
that we don’t have a really good 
leader or political group that 
has a program.” 

In the Paradise bar in central 
Rome, Antonio Tolomei 
shrugged as he served coffee to 
the last stragglers from the 
stores. He complained that Mr. 
Berlusconi had simply not been 
given enough time to put 
change into effect 
He was most angry, he said, 
at Umberto Bossi, the leader of 
the Northern League, who 
abandoned the coalition and 



af Mffitaiy cammandm 


sition in trying to bring down 
Mr. Berlusconi after winning an 
election in alliance with him. 

“The coalition gave Boss a 
lot — government ministries 
and so forth — but he turned 
around and destroyed it,” Mr. 
Tolomei said. “It shocked peo- 
ple.” 

That image of aggrieved de- 
cency and of generosity be- 
trayed is the one Mr. Berlusconi 
will pursue as he seeks another 
chance to run the country. 

Even in the anti-Berlusconi 
camp, rejoicing over victory is 
tempered by confusion about 
the future. 

“None of us here likes Ber- 
lusconi,” said Anda Fabrizi, 43, 
a public relations consultant. 
“But no one is happy with 
what’s happening.” 

President Oscar Luigi Scal- 
faro must now decide whether 
to call new elections, name 
someone else to tty to form a 
government or even ask Mr. 
Berlusconi to cobble together a 
new coalition. The president is 
expected to open talks with ma- 
jor political figures Tuesday. 

Complicating his the 
maneuvering surrounding the 
Berlusconi resignation has not 
only robbed Mr. Scaffaro of a 
majority but has so divided his 
opponents that they cannot 
come up with an alternative 
majority in Parliament. 

“There are now two or three 
parliamentary minorities, each 
of which is too weak to govern 
but strong enough to prevent 
the others from forming a gov- 
ernment,” said a political ana- 
lyst, Sergio Roman o. Thus, he 
said, there are “no winners.” 


Hnmfreds of Sarajevo residents gathering at a cemetery in the city center to pray over tb 

Sudan Said to Help Algerian Rebels 

Iran Allegedly Uses Nation as a Transit Point for Arms 

By Chris Hodges “What all tWs shows is tom Iran is pre- 

Nm York Times Semex pared tofish in troubled waters where it can,” 

KHARTOUM, Sudan — • Sudan’s Islamic a senior administration official said. “But the 
government, censured for its human-rights movement is not operating from Tehran. Teh- 
violations and its support for various armed ran is putting fuel on the fire." 

A1 a time when aa increaang lumber of 
the Algerian government, according to wSt- mibtaDt gwpsare findin g a haven m Sudan, 
era intelligence reports. S many see the Khartoamgoivramenft assis- 

-r tanoe to the Algerian rebels as the most sen- 

ous challenge to Western security interests in 
the region since the Islamic regime sored 
power here in a 1989 coup. 


ssS^sSS^^SB 

KBSStt* betwe^^AMgWg Synan and 
lefrydi officials since the peace effort began in 19 * *• 

U.S. Forces Board a Ship in i Gulf 

DUBAI (Reuters) — U.S. forces in the Guff boarded a vessel 
caSSSy after it tried »m»U& 
theUWted Nations trade embargo on Iraq, a navy spokesman 

PHaNontaOTK AWM ^Commander T. McCreary said 24 Marines and 


nese territory as a transit point for weapons 
being smuggled to the Algerian guerrillas. 

The elaborate operation to arm the Algeri- 
an guerrillas apparently involves shipping or 
flying weapons that originate in Iran to Sudan 


eraiian to arm toe Aigen- “We are reassessing just how dangerous 
sutiy involves snipping or Sudan is to our security interests,” a Western 
originate in Iran to Sudan diplomat said. “It is one thing to provide a 


jast "feht and escape from the U.S. ship that was watching over 

.K03.W-1-A.: ^tj q inspectors had found cm board a cargo of dates, which the 

T/ . . C . navy saS^raefrom Iraq. The navy was detaining the shjpunt&n 

View m Sarajevo be diverted to a Golf port 

confined from pager Japan OpposWoB Wants an Elechoii 

TOKYO (^-Ts^Hata, 

Sesomber procession made its ment to dissolve the lower house for early general dections as 
way to a new plot less than 15 soon as Partiaraent passes the budget for the year starting April 
feet from Mrs.^Zvidic’s window 1995. The gavern^nt adopted 

at the edge of the cemetery. submit rt to the legislative session starting m lmd-Jamwo^The 
Dabbing his eyes with a tat- budget bills are expected to dear Parliament only after a lengthy 

Prime Minister Tonmcbi Murayama said earlier th^hewsnot 
from the pit as they lowered his considering early general election* A 
son into the ground. almost 70 parent of members from the Iowa: house said they 

“There’s nothing much I can believed that general elections for that chamber would be held 
say” be said later. “He was a after the upper house is elected in July. 


Continued from Page 1 

signature black caps of the Bos- 
nian police, earned their col- 
league’s coffin through the 
snow-covered graveyard. 

Fast graves of young men 
born in 1967, 1972, 1968,1977, 


and through the remote desert region in 
northern Chad to Niger or Libya and on to 
Algeria, intelligence reports say. 

Clinton a dminis tration officials said the 
shipments from Iran had contained ammuni- 
tion and small arms. It was undear, they said, 
whether Libya has been cooperating m the 
transit of the arms, but the officials said they 
were “watching the situation closely.” There 
was no doubt, these officials said, that Algeri- 
an insurgents were also receiving specialized 
training in Lebanon and Sudan. 


sanctuary to Islamic nufitants and allow them 
to train, and another to become a conduit for 
arms to the Algerian insurgents. It is one 
thing to have an Islamic government here, 
and quite another to have cate in Algeria.” 

Hassan Turabi, the secretary general of the 
Popular Arab and Islamic Conference, who is 
widely considered the most powerful figure in 
Sudan, said the charges were invented by the 
United States as “part of its campaign to 
destroy the Sudan. • 


at the edge of the cemetery. 

Dabbing his eyes with a tat- 
tered piece of timet paper, Mr. 
Delie’s father, Azem, turned 
from the pit as they lowered his 
son into the ground. 

“There's nothing much I can 
say” be said later. “He was a 
fair and honest boy. I don’t 
know what to say. ” 

Upstairs in her house, Mrs. 
Zvidic’s husband, Hussein, was 


TRAVEL UPDATE 


birthday while the funeral pro- QE2 Leaves New York After Fix-Ups 

E '^Fto b fri£d ! of mine are NEW YORK (NYT) — The Quwn Efcabcd U has 

buried there,” said the former New York for the continuation of a 108-day world tour, after 
member of a special forces unit being delayed for more than 24 hours when Coast Guard mspec- 

of the Sartgevo police. “I don’t tore cited safety violations. ^ 

have the strength to cry any- 


Tbe departure Saturday came after a day of continued com- 
aints f rom passengers who described the luxury ship as. a 


HIJACK: Algiers Blocks Takeoff 


cl”- more.” plaints from passengers who described the luxury snip as. a 

1 floating work-in-progress whose $45 million renovation was no- 
where near finished when it left Southampton, England, last week. 
nTvnmmri A number of passengers left the ship as repairs continued at a 

CHECHNYA: Fighting Intensifies hdra m fir***™ 


Continued fn» Page 1 
qua. Defense Minister Francois 
Leotard and Mr. Juppe. Mr. 
Balladur also conferred by tele- 
phone with the prime minister 
of Algeria, Mokdad Sift 


What is apparently beyond 
doubt is that three passengers 
were killed, one of them an A I- 


Coutmned from Page 1 
had died daring the raids. Local 
television was off the air, they 


arias policeman. One freed said, and there was no electrio- 
iostage said the man pleaded ity or automatic telephone ser- 


vainly for his life, shooting. 


Mr. Jupp6 said there were “Don’t HU me, I am married, I 
“around 4<r French hostages, have a child.” The other slain 
but there was also confusion passenger was said to be Viet- 
about tiie number of people on namese diplomat- 
board at the time of toe hijack- At first, four gunmen were 
rag. Air France originally said reported involved in toe attack, 
there were 271 passengers and but Algerian authorities said 


12 crew, but Algerian authori- Sunday that there were at least 
ties said Sunday, before the five on the plane. Freed hos- 
third Jailing, that there were tages said they carried two Ka- 
only 166 people left on board, lashnikov assault rifles and two 
Air France later reduced its automatic pistols and were 
estimate of toe original number wearing the uniforms of airport 
of passengers to 227, noting ground crew when they came on 
that 44 passengers traveling in board, 
airport buses had not reached Several passengers who were 
the jet by the time the gunmen released were quoted as saying 
struck. Reports on the number toe men recited sections of the 
erf passengers freed to date also Koran and forced women to 


varied between 60 and 63. 


cover their heads. 


vice in the city. 

The bombing full seemed de- 
signed to allow more civilians to 
flee Grozny, which is described 
as a city in ruins. Russian offi- 
cials say about 2,000 refugees a 
day were fleeing Chechnya to 
bordering Ingushetia and Da- 
gestan. 

Bat the bombing has also 
produced the first criticism of 
Russian tactics from Western 
countries such as toe United 
States, Britain, Italy and 
France, which evidently want to 
do nothing that would under- 
mine the stability of the Rus- 
sian Federation or its president, 
Boris N. Yeltsin. 

There was a small rally Sun- 


day in Moscow to protest the 
military campaign, drawing 
about 1,000 people on a rela- 
tively mild if snowy day. They 
heard another sharp attack on 
Mr. Yeltsin by his human-rights 
adviser, Sergei Kovalyov, a 
well-known dissident in Soviet 
times. Mr. Kovalyov has re- 
mained in Grozny throughout 
the conflict and has provided 
some of the few relatively unbi- 
ased reports of casualties and 
damage. 

In a telegram from Grozny 
read at toe rally, he called on 
Mr. Yeltsin to stop “this crazy 
massacre” and pull the country 
“out of this vicious circle of 
despair and blood-stained lies.” 

Mr. Kovalyov said that the 
Chechen leaders were ready for 
negotiations with Moscow, and 
he urged the president to begin 
them immediately. 


Spain Aide Held in Death - Squad Case 


New York Tana Service 

MADRID — The killings of suspected 
Basque separatists by rightist death 
squads in the mid-1980s have returned to 
haunt the Socialist-led government with 
the arrest of a top official who led anti- 
terrorist efforts at the time, provoking 
debate about the tactics that democratic 
governments can use against terrorism. 

The official, Julian Sancristobal, who 
served as director of state security and 
bead of the anti-terrorist unit in the 
Basque province of Vizcaya, was arrest- 
ed along with two other high-level police 
officials. 

The investigating magistrate, Judge 
Baltazar Garaon, has charged them with 
attempted murder, kidnapping and toe 
misuse erf public funds. The charges link 
Mr. Sancristobal directly to toe death 
squads known as Anti-Terrorist libera- 
tion Groups, known as GAL, which 
bunted down and killed 23 people in 


Although some of those killed were pre- 
sumed leaders of the organization, oth- 
ers, including several French citizens, 
had no connection to the separatists. 

Tire indictment was based cm evidence 
provided this month by two former po- 
licemen, Jos6 Amedo and Michel Do- 
minguez, who were convicted in 1991 for 
conspiracy to murder in six killings 
linked to toe death squads. Mr. Amedo 
and Mr. Dominguez, each serving 108- 
yfcur sentences, were given parole after 
talking to the authorities. 

The death squad attacks ended four 
years later when the French authorities 
began to collaborate in rounding up sus- 
pected Basque terrorists for extradition 
to Spain ana after the policy of granting 
political asylum to suspected guerrillas 
ended 

Since its founding in 1 968, toe separat- 
ist organization has killed nearly 750 
people, many of them law-enforcement 
and army officials, in its fight for ixtde- 


SSS P-dcnS fOTthT^nor^Basque 
pr°™«s of Guipiocoa andVkr 


" * st “ d ““ «y* h £ mTSTSSt of 
withm two years. killings attributed to the group has 

The Yictuns were suspected of links to dropped to fewer than a half-dozen, 
toe Basque terrorist organization ETA While all politicians denounce state 


terrorism as a means to combat terror- 
ism, the latest developments have pro- 
voked a national debate over the killings. 

“Any time democracy is in serious 
danger, I believe toe state must react to 
maintain democracy," Juan Carlos Ro- 
driguez Ibarra, toe Socialist president of 
the western Estremadura region, told a 
local radio station. “In 1983 and ’84 we 
bad 10 bear a situation of more than 100 
deaths a year carried out by ETA, and it 
is not fair to judge the creation of GAL 
by toe perspective of 10 years later." 

Denouncing the justifications and ra- 
tionalizations of some Socialist leaders 
as “dangerous,” the Basque Nationalist 
Party president of the Basque region, 
Josfc Antonio Ardanza, warned at a news 
conference that “a state of law can never 
justify criminal behavior to combat ter- 
rorism.” 

But for Jos6 Manuel Sanchez Fomet, 
toe general secretary of the United Police 
Union, “there was so legal way to fight 
against ETA in 1983.” He told reporters 
that “if if were not for GAL, France 
never would have begun to collaborate 
with Spanish justice by extraditing ETA 
suspects and would stti) be giving them 
political asylum status”. 


bulkheads for new wires and pipes. They said that the boles could 
hasten tor* spread of fire through the ship- The ship was essentially 
tied up until the problems were corrected. 

Tanzania, South Africa and Uganda have launched an airline, to 
be called Alliance, which will start flights in March, officials said 
in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. If wiH serve Dar es Salaam, Entebb# 
Bombay, London, Dubai and Johannesburg. . (AFP} 

TRfe Week’s Holidays 

Ranking and government offices will be dosed or services 
curtailed in the following countries and their dependencies this 
week because of national and religious holidays: 

MONDAY: Andocn, Australia, Austria Bahamas, Barbados, Bdgfrun, Be— 
lire, Bemrada, Bolivia, Botswana, Britain, Brand, Bulgaria. Cameroon, Canada, 
Co fryn hiy . Croaris, Cyprus, C^ccb Republic, Denmark. £AoDia, Finland, Germany, . 
raym*, Gibraltar, Greece, Grenada, Guyana, Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary, , 
Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Kenya, Latvia, Lesotho, Liberia, Liechtenstein, • 
Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macao, Malawi, Malaysia, Namibia, Netherlands, New • 
Zealand. Nigeria, Norway, Poland. Pnctto Rico. Sara Leone. Singapore, Slovakia, ■ 
Slovenia, Sooth Africa, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Trim- ‘ 
dad, Uganda, United States, Vatican Gty, Zimbabwe. 

TUESDAY: Australia. Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Botswana, Britain, Cana- ■ 
da, Cypras, Gibraltar. Hang Kong, Iicund, Jamaica, Lesotho, Lnxembomg, Mala- 1 
wi. New Zealand, Sierra Locate, Vatican City. 

WEDNESDAY; Australia, Canada, Costa Rica, Irel and , NcpaL 

THURSDAY: Costa Rica. 

FRIDAY: Bdgmm, Costa Rica, El Salvador, F i nla nd . Guatemala, Loxem- 
bouig, Malaysia, Netherlands, Peru, Phnippines. 

SATURDAY: Andorra, Argent ina , Bangladesh, Wnmm , Brazil, Brand, 
Canada, ChDc, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Germany, Guatemala, Iceland, Italy, Kuwait, ‘ 
Latvia, Liechte nste in . Mexico. Nicaragua. Norway, Oman. Pakistan. Panama, Qatar, 
Slovakia, Sri L a nka . Sweden, Switzerland, Vatican Gty. 

SUNDAY: Bahrain, Djibouti, Iraq, Israel, Japan, Jordan, Malaysia, Mauri to- ■ 
win, Somali. Syria, Tanzania, United Arab cminues, Yemen. 

Sources: J.P. Morgan, Reuters. . 

ISRAEL* Bomber Kills Only Self : 


Continued from Page 1 
toward another bus after being 
turned away. “Some land of ac- 
cident” with toe detonator, he 
said, set off toe bomb before he 
intended. 

“It was very lucky that it hap- 
pened here and at that time,” 
General Amit said. 

Mr. Olmert, who made a 
dose inspection of the man’s 
remains, spoke afterward with 
grim satisfaction. “No doubt 
toe fact that his body is shat- 
tered, rather Hum others, is toe 
preferred result,” he said. 

Of the 13 people known to be 
injured, hospital officials said 
only two — including a Pales- 
tinian named Abdallah Rashn- 


— were in senous condition. 
Bight of toe wounded were 
treated and released immedi- 
ately. 

Among the lightly injured 
was Sara Greenberg, a 20-year- 


old American student at the 1 
University of Michigan. I 

Traffic ground to a standstill ■ 
for hours, in Td Aviv as well as [ 
Jerusalem, as the police mount- 
ed security checks 

Hamas and Israeli police* 
identified toe bomber as iman 
Kamd Radi, 21, of toe Gaza 
Strip town of Khan Yanis. Un- i. 
ti l last week, according to wit-* 1 
nesses toon, he was a traffic^ 
policeman. Spokesmen in Israel- 
and the Palestinian Authority' 1 
said they were investigating 
that report and could not con-'-' 
firm or deny it 

Marwan Kanafani, a spokes-,- 

man f nr M. A A , 


tftaifman of the Palestine Ub-J 
era lion Organization “con- 





4-\. . 




>>; - - 


' teuton 


fc:- • 


« .. . * VIW*- 

crally as u took place on 
^puistmas, the holiest of the 
days for Christians.” 


Encourage 
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Carman bland* 

ChMCa 
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Czad> RapuMtefCO 

"JTOKi'-' 

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980-18-0001 

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(Outside of Managua, dial 02 fircu 16B 
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Para (Outside of Lima, dial 180 first) 001-190 


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To call the U5. usitM mcrh nv 

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: __ 

SSk THEAMEEICAS/ 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, MONDAY, DECEMBER 26, 1994 


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VOTES* 


5Jjurdoc h faocuti ves Pefen d Gingrich 

new York o__ ■ - 

controlled bvRunm e l“ ulives of two corporation* 

RqsresentaUve ^ come 10 the ^ ense of 
Georgia RepubES^Sl ™ h * 6 «o n “ nuu *8' dispute over 
In Ipiw n oncan s 54 million book contract 

D l vid K Senior of Michigan, 
Gingridh ^.™j° j ec ? me *= miiioriiy whip when Mr 
execmivJ ^^Jb fv.y^" <* 'he Honi in W. the 
Murdoch’s in^vemeni^oH 1 ^ deaJ was ir * ade Mr. 

Federal C^mm^n^SnTco^" 0 - u,l . en . ded 1 1 ° influence the 
Fox television u?? u ?i ! * s,on m ,ls dealings with the 

Mr Bonior has deic'd!? Murdoch 3150 controls. 

deaJTsuSngh J?? Mr V G ^h’s 

Murdoch” S WaS 3 ** ““h 100 Christmas gift from Mr. 

aduJttr^ee^l^^ 'Jru**^** , senior rice president of the 

last week fof^o iSLP 3 ? 561 CoUins - which won the bidding 

to mTS)S^T b0 ° k# fr0m Mr said m to* lettef 

k r l!i rsue **“* b 00 ^ was a pure publishing 
potential f nr - as c ^ sed on °“ r perception of the commercial 

SoKticaJ nhi^oi ^ n °^ noil ^ cUon work lhal capped the 
^SiE^t^f hy of .Congressman Gingrich at a time when 
tran&foraa m **“ counlry ™ undergoing a major 

net^r^n^v°uPi ^7 ot c th? 1 Harper Collins had three com- 
multimin?o?S W*. ^ offered a royalty advance at the 
in doQar level, and our winning offer was less than 

10 percent over the underbidder." 

p „Tr e secor ^ d ,eII er to Mr. Bonior was sent bv Preston 
raooen, president for network distribution of Fox Broadcasi- 

SrtT.u" Tr° ass 5T le 4’ “Those of us at Fox are not involved 
with the Harper Collins deal," (HYT) 

A^PIan to Chop Congressional Chaplains 

WASHINGTON — It has been tradition that Congress 
have its own full-time chaplains — one for the House and one 
tor the Senate — paid to open each session with a prayer. 

Now from the “Isn’t Anything Sacred?" Department — 
W 9 omn )U ^ Ca11 budget slashers are talking of cutting the 
5289,000 spent on salaries for the chaplains and their assis- 
tants and using volunteer clergy instead. But the chaplain of 
the Senate is urging, them to discard the plan. 

The Reverend Richard C. Halverson said there was “no 
way ’ a local pastor could identify with the personal needs of 
the legislators, as well as of “then families and the staff, and 
their hurts and needs and burdens and frustrations, without 
being here all the time.” 

In deciding the chaplains’ future, the conservative Republi- 
can majority could find itself tom: Should it cut perks 
wherever possible, or preserve Congress's most visible living 
symbol of religious piety? 

“The average American worker doesn’t have access to a 
taxpayer-funded chaplain to lead a prayer at the be ginnin g of 
every workday,” said Bany W. Lynn, executive director of 
Americans United for Separation of Church and State. "If the 
new Republican leadership is serious about reform, let’s see 
them ditch this relic and plow that $289,000 into deficit 
reduction or use it for some worthy social program.” (WP) 

I Quote/ Unquote 

Robert Gallo, chief of the National Cancer Institute's 
laboratory of tumor biology and a leading AIDS researcher, 
on the frustrations of working for the federal government: 
^“Government scientists used to be the golden boys, but those 
nays are over. Government is a bad guy today. And no 
wonder. Do you know how I have to spend my time now? I 
: have to go to a course on sexual harassment. I have to go to a 
! managers* course. I have to go to courses to learn how to go to 
; courses. Boy, have. things 1 changed." : 7 T (WP) 


Away From Politics 

• Edward Leary, the man charged with firetambmg a New 
York subway, has denied -from tus hospital bed that he caused 
the blast that injured 48 people, his attorney said. (A FP) 

• W iffiam Randolph Hears! ED ended a chapter in American 
newspaper history by saying that he would step down as pub- 
lisher of The San Francisco Examiner, the paper his grand- 
father used as the building block of the Hearst empire. (NYT) 

• A father is smug a department store chain after having to 
change his 15-month-old son on a wet washbasin in the men's 
room of a New York store, a daily reported. The women’s 
bathroom there has a diaper-changing table, but the men's 
room, like most American rest rooms for men, does not (AP) 

• The Food and Drug Administration has approved the first 
AIDS test that uses saliva — instead of blood — to determine 
whether a person has been infected by the virus. But it warned 
that the saliva test is less accurate than current tests. (LAT) 

• A convicted slumlord has begun serving 60 days erf house 

arrest in a nm-down Los Angeles apartment house he owns 
after having failed to comply fully with a court order to make 
long-needed repairs. (LA T) 

• A federal judge in Cahfmxua has became the first to enforce 

a section of the Clean Water Act that requires public agencies 
to reduce the levels of solvents, lawn chemicals and heavy 
metals that flow into waterways. ( NYT) 


Q &A: Under die Republicans 9 Only Changes in Emphasis 


WiUiam Kristol is a prominent mem- 
ber of the conservative Republican brain 
trust in Washington. He is former chiej 
of staff to Fire President Dan Quayle 
and now heads the Project for the Re- 
publican Future. He discussed foreign 
polity with Paul F. Horvitz of the Inter- 
national Herald Tribune. 

Q. How do you foresee (J.S. foreign 
policy changing with the arrival of the 
Republican majority in Congress in 
January? 

A I don't think there will be dramat- 
ic changes. Republicans have argued 
for years that Congress should not 
micromanage foreign policy, that the 
executive has to take the lead. Even 
though we don’t think very highly of 
some aspects of President Clinton’s 
leadership, I think we will resist the 
temptation to try to run American for- 
eign policy from the Congress. 

There will be changes in emphasis: 
in defense spending, an attempt to re- 
energize the strategic defense program, 
and greater skepticism of U.S. defer- 
ence to multilateral institutions. 

Q. How would you urge Republi- 
cans to get the president bock on the 
leadership track you prefer? 


A 1 don’t know how much Republi- 
cans can do to make Bill Clinton a 
more effective or disciplined or more 
purposeful leader. He is who he is. To 
be fair to Bill Clin ion, he’s grappling 
with a post-Cold War world, a new 

MONDAY Q&A 

situation where there aren’t clear 
guideposts. We have avoided most of 
the major disasters. But in Bosnia and 
Korea and other areas, I think we have 
had a combination of rhetorical blus- 
ter and practical weakness that is, over 
the medium and long term, quite dan- 
gerous. 

• 

Q. Republicans seem to want to 
place greater emphasis on American 
strength and power and sovereignty. Is 
that a fair assessment? 

A I think lhal is quite a good way to 
describe it. The Republican Party will 
be more nationalist than the Demo- 
crats in the conduct of U.S. foreign 
policy. 

Being more nationalist and being 
committed to a strong military just in 
case it's needed and more committed 
to defending the country — all those 
things don’t tell you whether we 
should intervene in a particular situa- 


tion or noL Basically, though, the Re- 
publican Party will be less deferential 
to iniemationkl institutions and more 
concerned with promoting U.S. inter- 
ests, however understood. 

Q. Would you advise the Republi- 
cans to take any significant steps with 
regard to the United Nations or 
NATO? 

A I think Republicans should take a 
hard look at a lot of the multilateral 
institutions, including the United Na- 
tions, but also including a lot of inter- 
national financial institutions, includ- 
ing the World Bank. There are good 
arguments that a lot of the money 
spent by those institutions doesn't do 
much good and in some cases may do 
some harm. 

NATO is different It’s a military 
alliance and it has done a lot of good 
over the years. Re thinking NATO for 
the future is obviously a huge task and 
there’s no consensus among Republi- 
cans on that 

• 

Q. Why should the United States 
spend billions more on strategic de- 
fense? 

A Because there are nuclear weap- 
ons abroad in the world and there are 
means of delivering them. If Saddam 


Hussein had had nuclear weapons and 
the capacity to deliver them to the 
United States, which is not farfetched 
after all. I’m not sure we would Lave 
been able to intervene in the way we 
did in the Gulf. 

The United States is a wealthy na- 
tion and it can afford to spend more 
than 3 percent of its GNP on defense if 
need be. 

Q. Do you think there is an emerg- 
ing difference between the two parties 
in the perception of the vital national 
interests of the United States? 

A No. There are differences within 
both parties and among the American 
people as a whole. 


Q. How seriously should Senator 
Jesse Helms, the incoming chairman of 
the Foreign Relations Committee, be 
taken? 

A. He’s a serious United States sena- 
tor but he's one of 100. The good news 
is that the bulk erf the Rqjublican 
Party in the Senate has a healthy com- 
bination of hard-headed realism and 
commitment to American engagement 
in the world. People abroad should 
enjoy Jesse Helms. He's an American 
original. 


Q. Do you think it is smart to offer 
U.S. troops on the Golan Heights if it 
would create a peace settlement? 

A. Vm skeptical. If there's a solid 
peace, there’s a solid peace. I have an 
objection to U.S. troops serving as a 
tripwire in general. Well never have 
enough troops there to defend our- 
selves or to defend anyone else. 

Q. What is your view on Bosnia? 

A The Clinton administration has 
given us the worst of both worlds: a lot 
of strong talk and weak action, which 
is very bad policy. I have been pretty 
consistently anti-interventionist oh 
Bosnia, but I now wonder if I was 
wrong and whether we are going to pay 
a pretty high price for Western passiv- 
ity and inaction. If the United States 
always halts before doing anything be- 
cause of the complexities and the risks, 
we will end up with a world that's 
increasingly chaotic and unstable and 
unfriendly to our long-term interests. 

There’s a certain sense in the United 
States that American impotence is an 
awfully bad thing. But there’s also a 
certain risk-aversiveoess among the 
American people: The working out of 
that tension is going to be an impor- 
tant aspect to the next two years. 


North Korea’s Refusal 
To Free Flier on Holiday 
Seen as Diplomatic Blow 


Romanians Mark Ceausescu Death 

~ ruCHAREST (AP) — Dis- said Aurora Dobriga, who sells 
, Jnied ex-communists, brav- a socialist monthly paper near 
hJafcy raixi Sunday, met at a the grave at Ghencaametery. 
in ° coin hv some to contain Mr. Ceausescu led Romania 
SMtaWfcS- niler for 24 years before he and his 
r?- riTo^iisescu to commem- wife wore arrested, summarily 
Nl< ^ complain tried and executed on Christ- 

St ^Xtog^ving standanis. masDay 1989 ; Tbo^ixisun- 
ab SSemSt bi® because certain whose body h« beneath 
Tf 5 “r? Slow some to be- the wooden cross bearing his 
he did jn two years’ picture, dozens of Ceausescu 

. to tunTSto supporters continue to visit the 

l b eggars, as it happens now," ate. 

International 
Classified 
I Marketplace 

! ■ Monday, 


By Paul Blustein 

Washington Pott Service 

SEOUL — Christmas came 
and went without North Korea 
releasing a captured U.S. Army 
helicopter pilot, dealing a diplo- 
matic blow to the Clinton ad- 
ministration. 

After a day of tense waiting 
in anticipation that the North 
Koreans might show some holi- 
day goodwill by freeing Chief 
Warrant Officer Bobby Hall, 
the only news offered by the 
U.S. side Sunday was that a 
meeting had taken place with 
mid-levd North Korean mili- 
tary officials at the Korean War 
truce village of Panmunjom. 
Mr. Hall’s helicopter was 
downed Dec. 17 in North Kore- 
an territory. 

“We’re continuing to work 
through processes which we 
hope win lead to a senior offi- 
dals-levd meeting very quick- 
ly," said Jim Coles, spokesman 
for the U.S. military in South 
Korea.. 

-Mr. -Hall's detainment con- 
tinued despite repeated, high- 
level expressions of hope from 
adnmiistration officials, includ- 
ing President Bill Clinton, that 
the serviceman's North Korean 
captors would release him by 
Christmas. To induce North 
Korean cooperation, the ad- 
ministration authorized a letter 
to be sent Saturday to the 
North Korean authorities from 
General Gary Luck, command- 
er of the 37,000 U.S. forces sta- 
tioned here, expressing regret 
that Mr.; Hall’s helicopter had 
strayed across the bonier with 
South Korea because of a navi- 
gational error. 

The North’s refusal to re- 
spond as the administration- 
had expected was not only an 
embarrassment for the White 
House, but may represent trou- 
ble for Mr. CLinton’s policy to- 
ward the hermetic. Communist 
regime as well as the agreement 
struck in October to end Pyong- 
yang’s atomic weapons pro- 
gram. 

Even before the helicopter in- 
cident, the administration was 
facing problems persuading 
skeptics in Congress to support 
the nuclear deal, under which 
North Korea would gradually 
dismantle its atomic bomb de- 
velopment in exchange for a 
U.S. pledge to arrange for 
Pyongyang to receive new nu- 
clear-power facilities. 


So U.S. officials have been 
remonstrating both publicly 
and privately with North Kore- 
an diplomats that an unreason- 
able delay in releasing Mr. Hall 
would compound the difficul- 
ties of implementing the nucle- 
ar deal and achieving warmer 
ties between Washington and 
Pyongyang. 

Representative W illiam B. 
Richardson, Democrat of New 
Mexico, a key House supporter 
of the nuclear deal, used that 
argument last week when he 
happened to be visiting Pyong- 
yang just at the time the army 
helicopter was downed. 

It was Mr. Richardson who 
initially raised hopes that Mr. 
Hall would be freed by Christ- 
mas. He persuaded the North 
Koreans to repatriate the body 
of Mr. Hall’s crewmate who 
died in the incident. Chief War- 
rant Officer David Hilemon, 
and he also emerged from 
North Korea on Thursday 
claiming to have received assur- 
ances that Mr. Hall would be 
released “very soon.” 

Mr. Richardson said the 
North Koreans had not com- 
mi tied themselves to leuing Mr. 
Hall go by Christmas, but he 
said be believed they would re- 
spond favorably to his exhorta- 
tions to do so. 

The fact that North Korea 
has not used the opportunity 
afforded by Christmas to culti- 
vate U.S. goodwill has height- 
ened concern among some ana- 
lysts that the enigmatic 
Pyongyang regime lades a firm 
hand to keep policy headed in a 
sensible direction. 

Under this iheoiy, Kim Jong 
D, son of the late "Great Lead- 
er" Kim II Sung, is either too 
sick or loo weak politically to 
force the hard-line military to 
end its investigation of the heli- 
copter incident and release Mr. 
Hall promptly. 

Rumors have long swirled 
that Kim Jong II suffers from 
debilitating flmesses. 

The fan that North Korea 
has been dragging its feet in 
releasing Mr. Hall could mean 
tha t Kim Jong Il's hold on pow- 
er is “not that complete," said 
Lee Dong Bok, a visiting fellow 
at South Korea’s Research In- 
stitute for National Unifica- 
tion, adding that the incident 
provided some of the strangest 
evidence yet “that North Korea 
is a divided house." 


In this Tuesday 



Tuesday 

Education Directory 
Wednesday 


The Allure 
of the 
East 


Thursday 


Friday 


orientalism 
| in your 
closet. 




infnrmstton, contact Philip Oma m Pans. 

(£-1)463752 12 

HcralbSSrlbune 


ribune. 



House Republicans Seek 
A Curb on Federal Rules 


Ctarte* Taaiadi'Tte Aswcuoenl Press 

WHITE HOUSE MATERIAL — Mike McCurry, the 
State Department spokesman, fielding a question. He 
becomes the presidential press secretary in January. 


By John H. C ushm an Jr. 

New York Times Strrice 

WASHINGTON — House 
Republicans are preparing to 
push quickly next year for legis- 
lation that would radically re- 
strict the government’s ability 
to regulate everything from car 
safety to wilderness protection. 

They have pledged a vote 
within the first 100 days of the 
new congressional session on 
legislation that would increase 
the ability of groups affected by 
regulations to challenge them 
before they take effect or are 
even formally proposed. 

For the first tune, analyses of 
costs and benefits prepared in 
the initial phase of drafting reg- 
ulations would be subject to re- 
view by outside experts, and 
these analyses could be chal- 
lenged in court 

The proposal would also 
drive down the overall burden 
on business and state and local 
governments by creating a regu- 
latory “budget 1 ’ — & specific 
ceiling on the costs of comply- 
ing with all federal regulations. 


The ceiling would be steadily 
reduced, and Congress would 
agree not to pass laws whose 
costs would exceed the ceiling. 

If adopted, the Republican 
proposals would fundamentally 
alter the workings of agencies 
like the Environmental Protec- 
tion Agency and affect matters 
like the Transportation Depart- 
ment’s pending decision about 
whether to require anti-lock 
brakes on passenger cars. 

The proposals are the latest 
salvo in a decades-long struggle 
between Democrats and Re- 
publicans over the govern- 
ment’s power to make rules. 

The bill’s bask approach is to 
limit the scope of regulations by 
imposing detailed strictures on 
the rule-makers themselves. 

It includes, for example, one 
paragraph that bars any rule 
from being published for public 
comment unless the director or 
the Office of Management and 
Budget certifies that it avoids 
double negatives and “contains 
only sentences that are as short 
as practical." 


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MONDAY, DECEMBER 26 , 1994 


Page 4 



OPINION 


Tieralb 


international 



(tribune 






9W 5 


Stakesji 


published with 


TBE NEW YORK TIMES AND m WASHINGTON POST 


Peace for Ireland? 


It has been traditional during the 
long y^soUtrife in Northern Irdand^ 

Be Irish & 

aSst'fsSRKS 

France thal ib=y 

STmces were always limited tmd as 
the Christmas trees were token down, 

the guns were taken up “8“®- « 

Thissvear everything is different t he 
cSTl S*t the IRA and the 
paramilitary forces have 
LfeS has held. And the prospects for 
Kent pea« look . better dU they 
have for a quarter of a century. The 
nrocess surely is slow, for even the most 
dramatic breakthroughs have been cor- 
rectly characterized as mere steps to- 
ward reconciliation. _ . 

There have been setbacks — - a ample 
of shootings early on and a bomb, dis- 
covered and defused only last week. 
There was also time lost while the Irish 
Republic changed governments earner 
this month, and a terrible gaffe when 


former Prime Minister Alfred Reynolds 
revealed some confidential information 
after leaving office. None of this though 
appears to have thrown the peacemakers 
permanently off course. ... 

John Bruton, the new Irish pnme 
minister, is from a different party than 
his predecessor, but he has committed 
himself to the peace process and already 
has taken steps to move that effort for- 
ward. Dick Spring, the socialist leader 
and coalition partner in both the Reyn- 
olds and the Bruton governments, re- 
mains a critically important player. And 
in London, where a Christmas free of 
IRA bomb threats must be welcome. 
Prune Minister John Major’s govern- 
ment has been committed and steadfast. 

In other parts of the world, war, suf- 
fering and deprivation continue with a 
relentlessness that almost defeats hope. 
But when this year began the turmoil m 
Northern Ireland also was thought to be 
just about insoluble. 

Now in this one corner or northwest- 
ern Europe, the people of wo udand 
nations can realistically look forward to 
a new year of peace, and its concomitant 
blessing, prosperity. 

— THE WASHINGTON POST. 


post 

size of the iu.-o- 

Communist Russia 

By sending the Russian army mto 
Chechnya, it is now painfully clear. 
President Yeltsin has put at risk both 
his authority inside Russia and what 
most people had until now assumed to 
be his foreign policy. 

it:. JmImah ic rvrt 


presumaoiy pc me and unruly lot. tnoscw^-™- - , may have to can an 

offers up if things go wrong and he «ts dismissive of the Chechens cnjgn business. « „ 

out to ensure his own pohjicalsm^'^- historical “^cpoMdcal effects of tinscoutt O o 

But success, even a bloody success . wm -rannents they use to explain w y bevond a mere rearrangemrat of 

tilt the balance of power made the Rus- ^^JgnyTshould connnue JowermriS the present 

sian establishment m favor of such men. . have Dublin still under po .. face the 

The presidency will be even stronger in London. k 

iuw* ■ — - - r^atmn to Par liam ent than it is now - other consequence of the attack 

be his foreign policy. • _ t i, e namle around the president, those , j. w j jat \i will do to the 

R ^S?s m pr 0 mi5c t o out Russia 

will almost certainly grow if he does not 
win the war quickly. 

But a quick victory will very Iflcdy 
have to be a bloody one, for the Chechens 
and perhaps the Russian army, too; and 
that will be equally unpopular. The peo- 
r — *vu» fird time smie a Ru s s i an 


been fought, the nationalists who 
^Wbut would acaiseh^ofto^ 
botched it, and an angnly alarmed 




even larger over those who hesuauw, ■» _ ydtsin's promise 10 i^irhal it ano an 

resisted. Since Generals Grachev fau savagdy in 19« ^ a He might then rile 

Korzhakov are notoriously rough-afg^ ^ on which depends the backj^o to ttve hhmdf by offering scap^its- 
fdlows, that bodes ill to put it genriy, International Monetary Fimd an h 1( j ©n the presidency would t>e_m 

fwasss? isssss* 

-bmSSS 5 ' S 25iSs£ss SSSsSsss 

ii “ l i!Sif l 3 l 5S Mr. legally a part of the Sl^stfflmoreimhkely. SUei before it can cWm 


ers ana on uiw* — : teoafiv a nart of the Russian Federation- 

The small group of “ e J. aro ^ ld n ^t JSlfor Western democrats that is not the 
Yeltsin who encouraged tarn t to mow 0 7the argument. Tbe West believes m 

into Chechnya — above ah the defense a group of people are 

minister, General Pavel entitled to change thear legal status — to 

boss of the president s personal pi^d. becomc judmendent — if they fapn a 
the ex-KGB General Al^an^Koizha if they make their de- 

kov — share this harsh lapmbOM. plain, and if there are 

They share, ^ ^ ^ be taken seriously. 

“TL'X The Checfacns, ■ cunent ^dcncc, 


loyalty, make even a i — - - 
get look still more unhkdy. 

The longer the figtang go« “• 
nrse the economic effect will be. The 
^jF*s blessing for the 1995 budget must 
dw be in real doubt. „ 

And if the Chechnya operauonfmls? 

Grozny can probably be bombed an 
besieged into surrender; the ragtag , Che- 
c^mny may be unable to fight an 


SSStSZ Savel before it can claim 
to be either a stable democracy ' <w a 
newer whose view of the worid fits in 
SSS*ni of the West. Thbc^u^ 

QIa at Christmastime holds bigger les- 
sons than most Western politicians yet 
seem to have realized. 

International Herald Tribune. 


No Italian Alternative R . • th( 

minister. SUvio Berius- have implicated several thou^d pohtj- DabUlIlg MM 


^spri^e^SU™^ 

M^’SsaSSME 

culiar coalition had long since paralyzed knew more clearly what they 

his government. Mr. ! Wg-jUgg Jy were fo?. 

that the next step ought to be immediate were winning coalition was 

elections. Not everyone agrees. colorful and unstable mixture of new- 

Lookma back to the last elections m a colori _ Ui ^“.^ J «tv,^ n«nfas- 




] (f gOIUllg uova iv/ - — 

March, and particularly to the uses to 
which Mr. Berlusconi put the television 
stations that he owns, some Italians con- 
clude that there is going to have to be 
reform of the election laws before Italy 
goes to the polls again. . 

This time the Italian crisis is real and 
profound. It is essentially a reaction to 
the collapse of the Soviet Union and the 
Western Communist parties. From the 
end of World War II until a few years 
ago, Italian politics was continuously 

. . i .v. TWiorralic 


a colorful ana unsiame miAiuio wi uww 
comers including, among others, neofas- 
cists. Meanwhile, the Christian D® 153 ® - 
crats and the Communists, humiliated, 
have both changed their names m an 


iiavw wv/ui v«%— o — — - . 

attempt to escape from their pasts. 

That is the dilemma. The partieL — - 
going through a spectacularly chaotic 


/ugu ** j , 

imy-a tion of leadership and ideas. 
Unta the choices get dearer, it is hard to 
see how an Italian election could pro- 
duce a government with much real au- 
thority. But in the meantime somebody 

* .1 Mr RprlilcMm 


ago, Italian politics was continuous y 

dominated by the Christian DemoCTatic ^ a ^ ^ovTtawdry 

n.^.f Tho moinr nniWSltlon W2S the ran lU 1 VW 1 WI , , « . «i. a 


UUiiiuiatfou mj — — -- 

Party. The major opposition was tbe 
Communist Party, the largest in West- 
ern Europe. Over time, the Christian 
Democrats, like all parties in power too 
long, became cynical and corrupt. But 
most Italians stuck with them and their 
allies, the Socialists, turning a blind eye 
to their transgressions, on grounds that 
to weaken them in any way invited a 
Communist takeover. . 

All that changed when the Soviet 
Union disintegrated. Within weeks, Ita- 
ly’s judidary had opened prosecution or 
political corruption cases that, by now. 


nas iu tuTtiu uiw w— j - - 

ran in March as a man above tawdry 
conventional politics, untouched by the 
payola scandals. But last month the mag- 
Etrates notified him that he was under 
investigation for bribery involving his 
gigantic business operations, and this 
month he was called in for questioning. 

The great defect of Italian democracy 
has always been its inability to provide 
attractive alternatives to unsatisfactory 

That is as 

iCommu- 


and unpopular governments. That is as 
true today as it was when the 
nist threa't was at its peak. 

_ THE WASHINGTON POST. 


W ASHINGTON —Tbe Dem- 
ocrats' race to catch up with 
the Republican revolution has tok- 
en two forms. President BittChn- 
ton, talking tight, offers kinder, 
gentler Gingrichisni. The House 
Democrats, thear rudder stuck on 
orthodox liberalism, offer some- 
thing far more interesting. 

The House Democratic leader, 
Dick Gephardt, countered the 
Republicans’ middle-class tax cut 
(and preempted his president) 
with one of his own. What was 
interesting was not his late- 
blooming postelection concern 
for the middle class. It was the 
way he couched his counterpro- 
posal The Republican tax cut 
was for everyone making up to 
$200,000 a year. His stops at 
$75,000. The Republicans, tbim- 
dercd Representative Gephardt, 
keep favoring the rich. The Demo- 
crats are the party of the little guy. 

As a ploy for an orthodoxy that 
has entirely run out of ideas, this 
is not a bad try. It coattails nicely 
on Republican pandering to the 
middle class, with the added 
punch of class warfare. Mr. Gep- 


ty Won’t Salvage Many Vot 

By Charles Krauthammer 


and “undeserving.” So do Ameri- 
cans. And they think there are 
more of the latter than the for- 
mer. The latest New York Times- 
CBS News poll shows that more 
Americans think the popri are 
poor because of a lack of effort 
than because of circumstances 
bevond their control. Which is 


why by a mar gin of 4 to 1 they 
it welfai 


hardt’s problem, however, is that 
like most liberals he plays the 
only dass warfare he knows: anti- 
rich. And it doesn’t work. 

One reason for the current 
conservative ascendancy is its 
grasp of a fundamental truth 
about the American middle 
class: It may harbor the occa- 

want to cut wdfare. 

is welfare. In any national smvey, ^ ^ Cannot th^mdServing 
what Americans imagine is spent ££ wor k but 

mm 

likes to put '0 work hard and pUy ^ Smother 

ttd*^ a in of 1« 

tSSSS&ss 


poor. Agains t which House Dem- 
ocrats would like to deploy re- 
sentment of the rich. Bad choice. 
In the tattle of resentments, the 
Democrats lose. . , , 

The middle-class attitude to- 
ward the rich is far more complex 
and, in the end, benign. Its. most 
salient characteristic is simple 
fascination.' “Lifestyles of the 
Rich and Famous” is not just an 
endlessly replayed hit television 
show. It is the theme of evay 
other magazine cover in Ameri- 
ca. In the least class-bound, most 
socially mobile society in the 
Western world, class resentment 
against the rich is hard to fan. 
Do people resent Bill Gates or 

r _UT Armvipfl 


The premise is as poetically 
correct as it is wildly improbable. 
The truth, alas, is that enme i is 
generally an occupation oftiK 
loot. For obvious reasons. They 
need the money. And when Uw 
well-off do commit comes, it is 
usually the white-collar vanety, 
not the street crime that sotera- 
fies the ordinary citizen. 

people feel far differently 
about the accountant who embez- 
zles than the thug who breaks mto 
their car or holds them up for 
cash. Indeed, the very ranty of 
violent crime among the nen 
helps explains the national fixa- 
SoTon lie O. J. Simpson case. 
In a society as Quid as Amen- 


rich finds its ultimate expression as Mr. Gephardt^^ £guaru 

. - . Ir<i« Unllvw 


not in Washington but in Holly- 
wood. Television and film dramas 
have an "tearing tendency to attri- 
bute violent crime not to the usual 
suspects — desperate lowlife — 
but to shadowy, nefarious (usually 
white male) executive types. 


Democrats would like, is evm 

dumber. Who, after an, is more of 

a threat? The guy ahead of you,, 
the one you are trying to catch 
with? Or the gny behind you, tbr 
one who wants what’s yours. 
Washington Post Writers Grmgj. 


Mexico’s Devaluation 


inch of class warfare. Mr. Gef>- cusses « pow. ell J M/T 

Today’s Class Bout: Here the Gifted Few, There the Unskilled Many 

J . four-fifths, who have no personal solve for 


Mexico's decision to let tbe peso plum- 
met about 30 percent last week roiled 
bond and stock markets and hurt Mexi- 
co’s credibility with international inves- 
tors. Critics of NAFTA, the free trade 
accord between the United States, Mexi- 
co and Canada, chimed in with the pro- 
position that tbe peso’s Ml would turn 
bilateral trade against the United States, 
thereby vindicating their opposition to 
open trade. Much of the criticism is un- 
warranted. President Ernesto Zedfllo. 
who took office only three weeks ago, had 
little choice; as foreign reserves dwin- 
dled, he could no longer afford to spend 
billions propping up the value of the 
peso And although his decision angered 
many foreigners, whose investments 
plummeted in value along with the peso, 
Mexican economic policy remains sound. 

If Mr. Zedfllo manages the economy well, 
last week's misfortunes need not impair 
long-term growth. Finally, there is no 
substance to the notion thal the falling 
peso vitiates the benefits of NAFTA. 

Letting the peso float — despite gov- 
ernment promises to the contrary 
comes as no great surprise. Mexico has 
run trade deficits for years, which raised 
fears that the peso would eventually have 
to fall to balance the books. But govern- 
ment policy kept the peso stable as a 
good way to fight inflation and reassure 
foreigners that their investments would 
be safe. The strategy was to count on 
steady inflows of foreign investment to 
raise the productivity of domestic indus- 
try. Over time, exports would rise and 
elimin ate the trade imbalance. 

The strategy, although plausible, was 
cut short because Mexico ran out of re- 
serves. Investors, fearful of devaluation, 
fled the peso. Thai left Mr. Zedillo a 
choice between defending it by raising 
interest rates, thereby throvnng his eco- 
nomy into recession, or devaluing so that 
Mexico could close the trade deficit by 
exporting more and importing less. 


He made the proper choice. Still for 
the medicine to work, the Zedillo ad- 
ministration will have to tighten its bud- 
get and postpone promised new social 
spending. That, along with the likeli- 
hood of temporarily slower growth 
rates, is worrisome at a time of contin- 
ued political instability. 

There are reasons why foreign, inves- 
tors will not be permanently disaffected. 
Mexican market reforms, for instance. 


IV 1 CWUU 1 ; — - — . ; 

are on track; they have already brought 
inflation down from 1 60 percent to under 
10 percent and balanced the federal bud- 
get Investors will watch carefully what 
Mr. Zedfllo does from here on. If, f°r 
example, domestic businesses take advan- 
tage of the depredated currency —which 
makes foreign imports more expensive —- 
to raise wages and prices, then the benefit 
of depreciation will go for naught. 

Critics of NAFTA point to the fact 
that President Zedfllo is counting on a 
lower peso to price U.S. exports out of 
tbe Mexican market and lower the cost or 
Mexican goods to U.S. consumers. That, 
they say, will eliminate ihc U.S. bilateral 
trade surplus and eliminate U.S. jobs. 
But the argument makes little sense. 

The purpose of trade is not to raise 
employment — which the Federal Re- 
serve now controls — or rack up surplus- 
es. Its purpose is to steer workers mto 
high-productivity jobs: into computer 
and software production and out of tex- 
tiles. The United States comes out ahead 
under NAFTA no matter what happens 
to the bilateral trade balance. 

The spectacle of a new government 
pledging one policy one week and doing 
something completely different the next 
is not pretty. And Mexican consumers 
will suffer from higher prices of foreign 
goods. But the alternative — prolonged 
recession — would have been worse. 
Mexico can survive last week’s turmoil 
and prosper. 

— THE NEW YORK TIMES. 


N EW YORK — According to 
the wisdom of America s 
new right, the reader and I are 
both oat of touch. People who 
peruse newspaper editorials ratti- 
er than listen to bluster radio 
form part of a cultural elite that 
doesn’t understand the hopes and 
hates of ordinary Americans. 

It isn’t just those crocodile 
tears we shed for the undeserv- 
ing poor or our pnssy insistence 
on separating church and state 
that puts us out of touch. Our 
very existence is offensive and 
threatening. 

Popular resentment against 
rfi tes is an old story in America, 
perhaps as old as the nation itself. 
But the story twists and turns as 
the elite changes. 

In Andrew Jackson’s time, the 
h a ted elite were landowners. In 


By Richard Sennett 


John D. Rockefeller’s time, they 
were industrialists. Today, no one 
would think Sam Walton an elit- 
ist. Instead of great wealth, the 
new elite possesses rarefied skills. 
It has addresses on the Internet 
rather than on Fifth Avenue. It 
knows how to do global as well as 
local business. 

Most Americans are shut out of 
this new world. Seventy percent 
of the adult population does not 
kno w how to use a computer; 
most high school graduates can- 
not read a train schedule; a large 
minority cannot reckon simple 
interest on a bilL 

The elite thrives on change, 
the mass fears it. In a dynamic 
society, the mass of people are 
constantly threatened by becom- 


ing redundant, by bang passed 
by. All they have is their willing- 
ness to work. 

The new economy needs the 
mass of there Americans less as 
producers or workers than as con- 
sumers. A new study by the De- 
mos Institute, an opinion-re- 
search organization in London, 
brings this divide into focus. 

It shows a new attitude toward 
work among the young in Europe 
as well as America, a desire to 
work flexibly and individually, a 
loss of loyalty to corporations 
and a willingness to demand that 
employers make work more per- 
sonally satisfying. 

But only a fifth of young Amer- 
icans have the training or skills to 
act on such desires. Tbe other 


Selective Protection Can Be Justified 

« y, r,minic ohrau the. flaw in this at- 



International Herald Tribune 

ESTABLISHED 1887 

KATHARINE GRAHAM. ARTHUR OCHS SULZBERGER 
CihChoinun 

RICHARD McCLEAN. Publisher & Chief Executive 
JOHN VINOCUR. ExeomveEditor & Vox Prate* 

. WALTER WOLS.^^ • 

•JLlAfOTAL CASPAR DiDiERBR . 

Duiaetvde la Publican* v Richard D. Simmons 
Dj naeurAfrim de la PubUaiaon: K mhamr P. Dnrnw — 




T OKYO — With the World 
Trade Organization due to 
start up on Jan. 1, the free trade 
versus protectionism debate 
pains focus. But that debate is 
wrongly labeled. It should be 
railed the crude protection ver- 
sus selective protection debate. 

Free traders oppose export 
subsidies and tariff protection- 
ism, but they like floating ex- 
change rates. What they don t 
see to realize is that every time a 
country’s exchange rate floats 
down by, say, 10 percent, every 
import-competing and export in- 
dustry in that country gains pro- 
tection equal to a 10 percent tar- 
iff or a 10 percent subsidy. It is 
the crudest farm of protection. 

Protection that offers tariffs 
and subsidies only to selected 
industries is clearly preferable. 

This is not the only problem. 
Free traders like to quote 19th 
century theories on comparative 
advantage — England concen- 
trates on producing textiles that 
it exchanges for Portugal’s wine. 
Everyone gains. But 20th centu- 
ry economies of scale mean that 
it is now too easy for an efficient 
and aggressive exporter like Ja- 
pan to end up producing and 
exporting the fufi range of pro- 
ducts, from aircraft to textiles 
and, yes, even a kind of wine. 

True, at some point the bal- 
ancing mechanisms of floating 
exchange rates begin to swing 
into action. The aggressive ex- 
porters currency appreciates to 
a level at which the country has 
no choice but to cut exports and 
to import more. A crude bal- 
ance is restored. 

But this leads to the problem 
of time lags- It has taken more 
than 20 years for the yen ex- 


By Gregory Clark 

change rate to adjust to ihe real* 
ity of Japan’s export power. A 
lot can happen in 20 years. _ 

In the West, whole industries 
go out of production, skills dis- 
appear, the industrial base dis- 
integrates, unemployment rises, 
tax revenues fall, welfare spend- 
ing explodes, youth go on the 
dole, the social/ economic faunc 
of the society unravels. The 
rharirfis of a serious comeback 
ran easily be destroyed. 

This problem is currently dis- 
guised by recoveries in the West- 
ern economies. But these con- 
sumer-led recoveries will not last 
long. Weak industrial bares lead 
to rising imports and inflation, 
which force up interest rates 
and choke off further growth. 

The Australian economy, 
now boasting 6 percent growth 
as it roars out of prolonged 
recession, with its industrial 
base crippled by Asian compe- 
tition and misguided free trade 

policies, is a case in ppmt. 

Some note the healthy re J- 0V ! 
ery in neighboring New Zealand 
as a couniffexample. But New 
Zealand also encouraged a raft 
of labor and other refonns to 
raise competitiveness. And it 
collapsed its exchange rate ear- 
ly, so that its wage levels are 
now lower than those of some 
Asian competitors- 

The free traders note how low- 
labor-cost developing countries 
expand imports as last m they 
expand exports. The ^“*55 
countries should upgrade their 
economies to take advantage of 
this new demand for importo. 
they say- But the current trade 


figures show the flaw in this ar- 
gument. The Western economies 
provide the export markets. Ja- 
pan provides the imports. 

And as yen appreciation 
makes imports from Japan 
more expensive, Taiwan and 
South Korea are poised to take 
over. It will probably be anoth- 
er 20 years before their curren- 
cies appreciate to the right level. 
By that time, another genera- 
tion of dynamic Asian exporters 
will be on the move. 

Reciting the evils of 1930s 
protectionism is meaningless. 
Improvements in communica- 
tions, technology transfer, eco- 
nomic management and direct 
foreign investment techniques 
now allow backward economies 
to catch up with a speed that 
was impossible in the ’30s. If 
everything is left to the delayed 
and crude protection offered by 
floating exchange rates, the 
Western economies will end up 
in a hopeless squeeze, caught 
between tbe advanced Asian 
economies at the top of the lad- 
der and the developing econo- 
mies moving up the ladder. 

The West need a breathing 
space. At Ihe very least it should 
be using selective protection to 
preserve its industrial base and 
curb unemployment. One very 
fair, quick and efficient way of 
doing this is to force countries 
like Japan to produce locally the 
goods they export in such vol- 
ume. If that is not enough, and 
Western economies have to re- 
sort to the crude protectionism 
of exchange rate shifts, then 
they should make sure thal 
shiTts come quickly, and not 
with 20 year time lags. 
International Herald Tribune. 


four-fifths, who have no personal 
bargaining power, can only worry 
about getting some job, any job, 
even though they share the senti- 
ments of the elite. 

Under such conditions, feel- 
ings of inferiority become in- 
tensely personaL A snob doesa t 
appear to be someone who flings 
money about. Instead, unlike the 
ordinary person, he is confident 
thal the future belongs to him. . 

It is not surprising that young 
own form the most conservative 
and anti-elitist segment of the 
population. They are in that cru- 
cible time of life when realities — 
from McJobs and the necessity of 
bring with one’s parents in one’s 
20s to the prospect of three-job 
marriages — dim hopes for self- 
determination. 

As always, politics does sym- 
bolic duly for fundamental 
changes. The fear of government 
grown out of control is like the 
photographic print of a social and 
economic negative — a print of 
the fear that economic growth 
portends threat rather than op- 
portunity, that the average person 
is likely to be left out of the spoils. 

And this is a problem for us as 
well as them — enlightened and 
well-intentioned bourgeois that 
we are. When accused of being an 
elite, we fudge. Those crocodile 
tears for the sufferings of others 
prove that we are in touch. In the 
certain- to-be- imm ortal words of 
our president, “I feel your pain.” 
Others detect a certain conde- 
scension lurking in this sympathy. 

Or we promise to use our skills 
to design solutions to make things 
better — public policy solutions 
graced almost with the complex- 
ity of modern art. In promising to 


solve for the masses what they 

have not solved for themselves, we 

show we believe we are what they 
fear we are: more competent. 

Class has been the dirty secret 
of American history, denied by 
promises of individual freedom, 
by dreams of upward mobility 
and by memories of solid com- 
munities and coherent families 
— memories that prove on in- 
spection only to be recovered- 
memory fantasies. 

The plain fact is that in a new 
stage of capitalism, class divides 
Americans as ruthlessly as it did 
in the age of the Robber Barons. 
Politically, America has plunged 
into a new round of class warfare. 

As I age, my crystal ball dims, 
but perhaps the only way to con- 
front Newt Gingrich & Co. is to 
be honest rather than secretive 
about this warfare, for the right 
knows how to make raincemeat of 
privileged people who are evasive 
orpateroalistic. 

Yes, America is a divided soci- 
ety, and a secure, confident future 
belongs only to the educated few. 

Now what? 

The writer, professor of history 
and sociology at New York Urdver- 
sity, is author of “ Flesh and Stone: 
The Body and the City in Western 
Civilization. ” He contributed this 
comment to The New York. Times. 


Letters intended for publication 
should be addressed " Letters to the 
Editor* and contain the writer's 
signature, name and full address. 
Letters should be brief and art 
subject to editing. We cannot be 
responsible for the return of unso- 
licited manuscripts. 


IN OUR PAGES; 100, 75 AND 50 YEARS AGO 


1894; Painting Survives 

NEW YORK — Sir Thomas 
Lawrence's painting, entitled 
“Two Women,*’ valued at 
$11,000, fell from its easel at the 
Durand-Ruel galleries in New 
York this morning [Dec. 25], 
crashing through a plateglass 
window. It is a curious fact that 
the painting, which was unin- 
sured and supposed to have been 
ruined, on examination was 
found absolutely unhurt while 
the insured window was shat- 
tered to atoms. 

1919: Bath in the Seine 

PARIS — Tbe race for the Coupe 
deNoSl one of the most interest- 
ing of Paris swimming contests, 
took place yesterday [Dec. 25] at 
ihe Pont Alexandre. Eighteen 
swimmers reached the water head 
first at the same time. From be- 
ginning to end the race was 


vri* 




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m- . 

cjnt 


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Georges Po oil ley's, champion 
swimmer and aviator. As he 
emerged from the water, Poufl- 
ley was all smiles, and declared: 
“The water is excellent.’' 

1944: Anti-Semitism 

PARIS — Several members of 
the French Consultative Assem- 
bly have drafted a proposal urg- 
ing the French government to 
proceed with the immediate dis- 
solution of two associations, 
which are said to engage in anti- 
Semitic propa ganda These tWO 
associations, it is asserted, have 
been formed since the liberation 
of Paris and are regularly awf 
legally constituted with commit- 
tees conducting an extensive 
anti-Semitic propaganda. One of 
these bodies is said to be openly 
conducting a campaign to mam - 
tain the administrators erf Jewish 
properties appointed in agree- 
ment with the Germans. 


i 

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** 




BOOKS 


.. 

. 'W:"" ^ 




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' oo 


BOREDOM: The Literary 
““tory of a Stale of Mind 

By Patricia Meyer Spaeks. 290 
pages. $24.95. University of Chi- 
cago Press. 


Reviewed by Christopher 
i-ehmann-Haupt 


W™ 


ftnocrats 




-» 41 


T can there possibly be 
.. _ l ? say about boredom, 
wnidi is surely one of the oldest 
oi human emotions, ce rtainl y 
one of the least useful of feelings 
and simple enough to define as 
the state of mind arising from 
the absence of anything to arrest 
the attention? In hex new book. 

Boredom: The Literary History 
of a State of Mind," Patricia 
Meyer Spaeks immediately con- 
tfiMiicts these three assumptions. 

First, she points out that 
however ancient the feeling 
may in fact be, the words bore 
Md boredom weren't used until 
the 18th century. Some of the 
reasons boredom arrived just 
then, she theorizes, were “the 
emergence of leisure,” “the de- 
cline of orthodox Christianity" 
and “the newly elaborated no- 
tion of individual rights." im- 
plying, among other things, the 
right not to be bored. 

Second, she celebrates bore- 
dom as “an impetus to achieve- 
ment,” citing among other testi- 
monials a statement by 
Nietzsche: “For thinkers and all 
sensitive spirits, boredom is that 
disagreeable 'windless calm' of 
the soul that precedes a happy 
voyage and cheerful winds. They 
have to bear it and must wait for 
its effect <mi them Precisely this 
is what lesser nature cannot 
achieve by any means." 

'Hurd, Spaeks complicates 
the idea of boredom by quoting 
a 1934 essay by the psycho- 
analyst Otto Feuichd, “The 
Psychology of Boredom," in 
which he calls boredom “a slate 
of instinctual tension in which 
the instinctual aims are re- 
pressed but in which the tension 
as such is felt; and therefore one 
turns to the external world for 
help in the struggle against re- 
pression.” Fenichd’s definition 
proves useful to the author be- 
cause it implies both an inner, 
or subjective, aspect to a per- 
son's experience of boredom 
and an outer, or objective, one. 

So in her reading of literature 
from the 18th century to the 
20th, Spaeks is able to discern a 
shift in attitude from blaming 
subjective experience for bore- 
dom to ascribing it to the objec- 
tive world. Another way she de- 
scribes this shift is to call it a 


change from a moralistic to a 
sociological view of boredom." 

Her project then becomes to 
document boredom’s evolution 
in the last two and a half centu- 
ries, mainly in England, by read- 
ing “published writing — fiction, 
poetry, conduct books, sociolog- 
ical and historical description, 
personal letters — by members 
of the white middle class." Her 
texts encompass every writer 
from Sa m u e l Johnson through 
Frances Burney and Jane A us- 
ten down to Donald Barthdme. 

Bui setting forth on ihic path, 
Spaeks begins to stumble. Her 
analyses of texts are so detailed 
and quirky that they are difficult 
to follow unless you have the 
books fresh in your mind. 

Her focus seems to divide as 
she goes along, on the one hand 
ai m i n g at the important issue of 
how 19th-century En glish mid- 
dle- and upper-class women 
filled their increasing leisure 
time, on the other hand concen- 
trating on the extent to which 
reading and writing are ways of 
counteracting boredom. The 
narrative seems to become 
muddled over which of these 
threads it would prefer to fol- 
low and ends up tangling them 
into a snarl. 

Finally, whatever objective 
Spaeks is driving at becomes 
hopelessly obscure when she 
reaches the 20th century. In her 
readings of 20th -century writers 
like Henry James, T.S. Eliot, 
Evdyn Waugh, Gertrude Stein, 
John Berryman. Bartbelme, 
Saul Bellow and Anita 
Brookner. each case seems to 
stand by itself, diverging from or 
even contradicting the one that 
preceded it. Her prose grows 
contorted, sprouting sentences 
like “Boredom has become an 
embracing rubric of discontent" 
and “His insouciant bricedage 
glories in arbitrariness." 

Most confusingly of all, when 
Spaeks concludes that “20th- 
century novelists assume bore- 
dom as a point of reference, of- 
ten taking it (as sociologists and 
journalists also tend to do) as the 
paradigmatic ailment of our 
time," she appears to have for- 
tten her earlier celebration of 


lom as an impetus to 
achievement" 

If the author persuades us 
that the psychological root of 
boredom is conflict, she also 
convincingly demonstrates that 
the act of considering too many 
conflicting cases is finally — 
one hesitates to say it — boring. 


Christopher Lehmann-Haupt 
is on the staff of The New York 
Times. 


WHAT THEY'RE READING 


! 

» S' 


! ‘ i 


• John Tolansky, administra- 
tor of the Music Performance 
Research Centre at the Barbican 
in London, is reading “ A Ravel 
Reader ” by Aibie Orenstern. 

“Correspondence to and by 
Ravel, from Cocteau, Colette, 
Fault, de Falla, Strauss and 
Stravinsky provide a colorful 
portrait of a complex personality 
with political, sexual and per- 
sonal problems." 

(Margaret Kemp, IHT) 



BRIDGE 


By Alan Truscott 

C OVER the East-West 
hands shown in the dia- 
gram, and plan the play as 
South in seven hearts after the 
lead of the spade ten. The oppo- 
nents have done no bidding, 
and are aware that you have a 


9? 


UflUV. 

The deaf occurred in the final 

session of the National Swiss 
Team Championship. Both 
teams reached the excellent sev- 
en-heart contract. In the dia- 
grammed auction, with Mane 
Stem and Boris Baran sitting 
North and South, two no- trump 
promised a heart fit with slam 
interest, three spades showed 
shortness, and the response of 
five diamonds to four no-trump 
showed three key cards - a mod- 
ern variant of Roman Key-card 
Blackwood. 

At both tables, a spade was 
led and dummy’s ace won. 
Baran tested the tramps by 
leading dummy’s king, and 
found that East bad aS those 
missing. He then tned to ruff 
SS Club losers. But when 
he led to the dub ace, ruffed a 
cJub.rme^theh^^ 
ruffed the club ten, east was 

ab £ SerSa* South led to the 

heartacefcaabed the dub ace 


and ruffed a dub. He that 
cashed the heart king, took the 
marked finesse of the ten, and 
drew the missing tramp with 
the queen. He then led a dia- 
mond to the queen, with the 
slight hope of collecting the 
jade, and ruffed a spade with 
his last tramp, 

Tbedub king was cashed and 
dummy’s diamonds scored the 
last three tricks. The Stdn- 
Baran team lost. 


NORTH 
4 A 6 2 
9 K 754 
0 A K Q43 


WEST 
♦ 10 9 8 7 4 
9 — 

0 J7 

+ Q986 4 2 


EAST 
* KQ J3 
9 J963 
*985 
*75 


SOUTH (D) 

*5 

9 A Q 108 2 
O 10 8 2 
* A K 10 3 


East and West were vulnerable. 


The bidding: 


Sooth 

West 

North 

East 

1 9 

Pass 

2 N.T. 

Pass 

3 * 

Pass 

4 * 

Pass 

4 N.T. 

Pass 

S 0 

Pass 

5 NT. 
Pass 

Pass 

Pass 

19 

Pass 

West led the spade ten. 



t-l* v ' 







THE 




R E * ° " T . 

every Satu rday 

in fhe HT. ’ 




A 






/ 1 • if-*’. *. 


T^T-T 


Zail Singh Is Dead at 78, 
President of India in ’80s 


The Associated Press 

CHANDIGARH, India — 
Zail Singh, 78, the first Indian 
president from the minority 
Sikh community, died Sunday, 
nearly a mouth after he was 
severely injured in an automo- 
bile accident. 

Mr. Singh was president 
from 1982 to 1987, during the 
height of the 10-year Sikh rebel- 
lion for independence in the 


prominent leader of the Con- 
gress (I) Party in Punjab. 

He became a member of the 
federal Par liamen t in ]980 and 
was home minister until he was 
nominated by Mrs. Gandhi as 
the party's presidential candi- 
date. 


northern state of Punjab. The 
militants maintained that Sikhs 


were discriminated against by 
majority Hindus. 

in 1984, the In dian Army, 
acting on orders from Prime 
Minister Indira Gandhi, 
stormed the Golden Temple in 
Amritsar, Sikhism’s most sa- 
cred shrine, where rebel leaders 
had established their command 
headquarters. 

Mr. Singh was criticized by 
his own community for sup- 
porting Mrs. Gandhi, who was 
assassinated later that year by 


two of her Sikh bodyguards. Af- 
the president 


ter be left office, 
apologized to the Sikh' commu- 
nity. 

Bora May 5, 1916, in the vil- 
lage of Sandhwan in Punjab, 
Mr. Singh trained to become a 


Sikh priest He joined the inde- 
idei 


pendence movement against 
British rule and later was a 


78,000 Immigrants 
Settle in Israel in 1994 


Agcnct France- Prase 

JERUSALEM — About 
78,000 immigrants will have 
settled in Israel in 1994 by the 
end of December, officials an- 


Solomon Gaon, 82, Scholar 
And Sephardic Jews’ Leader 

NEW YORK (AP) — Solo- 
mon Gaon, 82, a world leader 
of Sephardic Jews and profes- 
sor of Sephardic studies at Ye- 
shiva University in New York 
City, died Wednesday at Mount 
Sinai Medical Center. 

The cause was pneumonia, 
said Herbert Dobrinsky, a Ye- 
shiva vice president and a long- 
time associate. 

At his death, Mr. Gaon was 
chief rabbi of congregations af- 
filiated with the World Sephar- 
di Federation. He had been a 
professor at Yeshiva since 1976 
and also founded and directed 
its Jacob E. Safra Institute of 
Sephardic Studies. 

J.C (Jody) Bateman, 75, a 
former fiddler in the western 
swing group Bob Wills and the 
Texas Playboys, Tuesday in 
Kemp, Texas. 

Robert Osborn, 90, a carica- 
turist, cartoonist and satiric 
commentator known for both 
his superior drawing ability and 
his sharp wit, Tuesday of com- 
plications from bone cancer. 

Hans Hertm, 68, a best-sell- 
ing German novelist whose 
best-known book was “Com- 
mentaries,’’ of a heart attack 
Tuesday at his home in south- 
era France. 



Pope’s Yuletide Message 
Bemoans Strife in World 


" "s 


The Associated Press 

VATICAN CITY — Pope 
John Paul II, appearing tired 
and frail, opened his traditional 
Christinas message on Sunday 
with a tribute to families, then 
red ted a mournful litany of the 
wars cutting a bloody swath 
across the world. 

“As I look at families in the 
light of Christmas, I cannot but 
turn my thoughts to the greater 
human family, unfortunately 
torn by persistent forms of self- 
ishness and violence,” the Pope 
said from the central balcony of 
Sl Peter's Basilica overlooking 
Sl Peter’s Square. 

He died the war “tearing 
apart the Balkans” as well as 
fighting in Russia, Angola and 
Rwanda 


■ Queen Calls for Peace 

Queen Elizabeth II expressed 
hope on Sunday for peace in 
Russia and praused peace ef- 
forts in Northern Ireland and 
political changes in South Afri- 
ca, Reuters reported from Lon- 
don on Sunday. 

In her Christmas message to 
her subjects and to the 5 1 -mem- 
ber Commonwealth, the queen 
said she would pray for peace 
around the world, especially in 
Russia. 

She did not direct!) 


urectiy mention 
the fighting in Chechnya, but 
medio her I 


Then he turned to the blood- 
shed born of Islamic fundamen- 
talism in parts of Africa and the 
Middle! 


RemetvlWT 

Zail Singh, tire first Sikh to become a president of India. 


Payment System Is Catted 
Threat to Unicef Programs 


New York Times Service 


nounced Sunday. 

Uri Gordon, head of the Jew- 


ish Agency’s immigration de- 
partment, said that about 
66,000 were from the former 
Soviet Union. 


Sir Evdyn Shuckbmgb, 85, a 
retired British diplomat who in 
the 1950s specialized in Middle 
Eastern affairs and served as 
the private secretary of Foreign 
Secretary Anthony Eden, Dec. 
12 in Watlington, Oxfordshire. 


UNITED NATIONS. New 
York — Auditors for Unicef, 
the United Nations Children’s 
Fund, warn that development 
efforts in poor countries may be 
undermined by a system in 
which relief agencies pay gov- 
ernment officials to carry out 
programs that the agencies have 
already paid for. 

“In some countries where 
Unicef cooperates, the produc- 
tivity of government officials 
lends to be low because of inad- 
equate salaries, frequent delays 


or nonpayment of salaries to 
civil servants, thus making pay- 
ments of incentives necessary,” 
the auditors said after conduct- 
ing a routine biennial review of 
accounts. 

But the auditors cautioned 
that while the payment of “sala- 
ry supplements” might help 
achieve short-term goals, it was 
d an g erous in the long run. 

“The moment we pull out, 
programs implemented this 
way will collapse," said an in- 
ternational aid expert. Such 
payments are particularly per- 
vasive in Africa. 


“What are we to say of the 
Sudan with its ‘forgotten* war 
and of Algeria, where murder- 
ous violence bolds the whole 
people hostage? And the very 
land where Jesus was bora, does 
it not continue to be a theater of 
conflicts and a place of divi- 
sion?" 

Earlier, about nine hours af- 
ter he finished celebrating mid- 
night Mass, the Pope returned 
to Sl Peter’s to lead the main 
Christmas Day service. 

The Pope appeared tired and 
shuffled down the 300-foot 
main aide. He has had prob- 
lems walking since surgery to 
repair a broken (high bone ear- 
lier this year. 

As he left the basilica, the 
Pope stopped to shake hands 
with children along the aisle 
and waved with his right hand, 
the small finger bandaged after 
being hurt by a closing car door 
last month. 


referred to her historic four-day 
visit to Moscow and SL Peters- 
burg in October and the televi- 
sion version of her address 
showed footage from the trip. 

“This Christmas, as we pray 
for peace at home and abroad, 
not least in Russia itself, we can 
also give thanks that such ca- 
thedrals and churches will be 
full and that the great bells, 
which greeted us, wifi be ringing 
out to celebrate our savior's 
birth.” she said. 

“I never thought it would be 
possible in my lifetime to join 
with the Patriarch of Moscow 
and his congregation in a ser- 
vice in that wonderful cathedral 
the heart of the Moscow 


m 


Kremlin,” the queen said. 

She also referred to peace ef- 
forts in Northern Ireland, 
where guerrilla cease-fires have 
guaranteed the most peaceful 
Christmas season in 25 years, 
and changes in South Africa, 
which rejoined the Common- 
wealth this year after its first 
all-race elections. 


“Last Christmas we were wit- 
nessing the signs of a new dawn 
after the long night of bitterness 
and this year these signs have 
become steadily stronger,” she 
said. 


Valuable 

every dav; 


Priceless 
throughout 
the year. 



* ** 




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full of useful, authoritative facts and figures, it’s a priceless accessory for 
the busy business person. And yet at just £22, it’s exceptionally good value. 


Measures 8 x 13cm (5'/b \ 3in) • Black leather cover with gilt metal comers 

• Week-at-a-glance format printed on French blue paper with gilded page 
edges • Notable dales and national holidays in over 80 countries; world 
time-zone table; international telephone dialing codes and rounlry prefixes; 
conversion tables of weights, measures and distances ■ Blue ribbon page 
marker • Removable address book • Each diary packed in a blue gift box 

• Corporate personalisation and discounts available. For details, fax 
Paul Baker at (44-81) 944 8243 • Blue nolepaper sheets fit on the back 
of the diary - a simple pull removes lop sheet, 100 refill sheets included. 


26-12-94 


Plraw; send me , 


1995 IHT Packet Diaries. 


Price inrluiln. initials, packing and postage in Europe: 


Card No:. 
Exp: 


. Signature:. 


it -4 diaries 
H-9 diaries 
10-19 diaries 


UK £22 
UK £20.50 
UK £18 


(U.S. 333) each 
(US.S31) each 
(U^s. 327) each 


INITIALS 
up lu .4 per diary 

Mill] 


Name: . 


AddreHN. 


I | Additional postage outside Europe : £4J>0 [U-S. 56.90) 


n Check here for delivery oulside Europe by registered, or certified mail: 
£5.75 (U-S. *8*0) per package plus postage 


City/Code:. 


.Country:. 


Company EEC VAT ID No: 


Payment h by credit card only. All major cards accepted. 
Please charge lo my rredll card: 



O Arrow □ Ante* Q Diners Q Eurocairf Q MasterCard Q Visa 

Mail or fax this order form lo: International Herald Tribune Offers. 37 JamlHon Ruad. London SWS0 OUT ILK. Fax: (44 81) 944 82-13 


-'xJf 


/) 



' *'*r ■ 


Page 6 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, MONDAY, DECEMBER 26, 1 994 

CAPITAL MARKETS ON MONDAY 



Mfltf Active International Bonds 


The 250 most atfva 

through the Eurodwi [Wstamjw ' J?’ week • nflm0 
Dec. 23- Prices supplied by TeieKurs. 


M Name 


Cm 


Rsk HOM 


Mnrth Price ntu 


Austrian Schfflns 


223 Austria 


7 * TO/lfl/W tts» 7A3W 


BoW an Franc 


205 Belgium 


7 04/29/99 *69800 73200 


Brittoh Pound 


235 ESI FRN 


6i0 11/24/99 99X000 66300 


Canadian Dollar 


216 Canada 


06/07/04 64.1800 73215 


126 Germany 
131 Citicorp FRN 
136 Germany 
139 Treuhand 
160 Germany 
142 Germany 
165 Germany 
154 Treuhand 

160 Garmon y 

161 Germany 
770 Treutwnd 
177 world Bank 
IBS Britain 
103 Germany 
192 Treuhand 
204 Germany 
206 Germany 
210 Germany 
215 Sfinago 
220 Buncfespasr 
234 Germany 
242 Bvndespast 
240 World Bank 
250 German* 


M4 

5% 

6 

5 

6 % 

«4 

W 

5 

704 

5ft 

m 

54k 

71k 

8 % 

dVfc 

6 * 

9 

7% 

7Vk 

zero 

7 

6% 

7% 

m 


04/2WI3 
12/15/99 
02/20/98 
12/17/90 
05/20/97" 
07/20/95 
55/22/95 
01/14/99 
02/21/00 
02/22/9? 
12/02/02 
11/10/03 
10/28/97 
05/22/00 
06/25/98 
05/02/03 
10/20/95 
10/21/02 
12/22/99 
as mm 

10/20/99 

04/01/04 

10/13/99 

05/22/95 


Price 

YWd 

took Name 

Ope 

Matarty 

Price 

Ytrid 

942900 

7.1100 

IM World Bank 

S% 

03/20/02 .1043750 

54300 

100J0400 

58700 

135 World Bank 

4Vi 

12/22/97 1024250 

i men 

974300 

6.1600 

138 Abbey Nan TS 

3.10 

1 1T3BM 

99.595® 

3.1100 

911143 

53700 

144 WorW Bank 

4 VS 

03/20/03 

994000 

45200 

992000 

64300 

World Bank 

4 tir 

(nmm 

1013750 

44400 

1004000 

6 JlOO 

100 Italy 

5Vh 

07/29/03 

1022500 

45900 

1012471 

84400 

181 Italy 

3Kj 

06/20 m 

932500 

32300 

938200 

53800 

184 EKim&k Janet 

4% 

10/01/03 

98a» 

44600 

1028500 

7.5900 

188 Tokyo Elec Pw. 

6 

12/18/96 

105.1250 

52100 

93J7S0 

52300 

193 YokottamaFRN 

221 

04/2Q/0S 

99.9260 

22100 

98J70Q 

74700 

203 Sweden 

3Vi 

01/12/04 

904250 

34600 

815800 

64300 

212 Italy FRN 

2 h 

07/26/99 

99.31 00 

24544 

1003300 

72900 

225 Argentina 

6 

12/19/97 

99J500 

6JM0Q 

105.9900 

82500 

226 FEK 

5 

03/12/98 

1034555 

45143 

97.13 75 

63100 

233 Ontario 

424 

mmm 

992067 

42500 

938500 

7.1900 

236 fFC 

3% 

innom iooj969 

3237T 

1024900 

82800 

237 Deutsche Bk 





98.1743 

73680 

Fin. 

4M 

07/I6A8 

1014250 

42100 

1003729 

7.1000 

245 World Bank 

6 

10/18/96 1010000 

52100 

98.1018 

7.9900 







9X0600 

1003300 

101.1800 


7.2500 

72300 

65200 


Portuguasa Escudo 


Danish Krona 


Dutch Guilder 


115 TCAFRN 
227 Portugol 


13it» 

UV2 


06/30/95 163.1790 72477 
01/23/95 1 00.0500 1X4900 


15 Denmark 

16 Denmark 
40 Denmark 
42 De nm ark 
SO Danmark 
62 Denmark 

to Denmark 

71 Denmark 
02 Denmark 
88 Denmark 
98 Denmark 
lit Denmark 
125 Denmark 
164 Denmark 


9 

6 

9 

514 

9 

9% 

914 

8 

zero 

zero 

614 


TT/15/96 

12/15/04 

05/75/03 

11/15/98 

12/10/99 

11/15/00 

08/10/96 

11/15/95 

02/10/95 

08/10/95 

03/15/06 

04/03/95 

01/02/95 

02/10/97 


1020000 

87.6600 

ISAU 

1D1XQ0Q 

9041000 

101.1000 

96780Q 

101 X 000 

1004200 

I 01 XW 0 

93.9500 


8X200 

7.9800 

8.4200 


99.8248 

96X000 


64700 

89000 

5.4200 

85100 

9.7100 

9.1000 

85200 

5.9200 

54500 

64600 


Dautsaha Mark 


21 Netherlands 

22 Netherlands 
07 Netherlands 
101 Netherlands 
103 Netheriands 
106 Netheriands 
no Netherlands 
123 Netherlands 
123 Netherlands 
133 Netherlands 

151 Netherlands 

152 Netherlands 
169 Netherlands 
172 Netherlands 
176 Netherlands 
187 Netherlands 
207 Netherlands 
213 BNG 


5% 

6 U 

7 

7Vk 
8 % 
7% 
6 Vi 
816 
6 V* 
9 

m 

9 

6V, 

BVt 

71k 

BV. 

8 U> 

7% 


01/15/04 

07/15/90 

02/15/03 

01/15/23 

09/15/01 

10/01 AM 
04/15/03 


882200 

96.9700 

945300 

94.9400 

1062500 

974000 

9X4500 


02/15/07 1(07000 
04/15/96 100L1500 
05/15/00 1064500 
11/15/99 1004000 
01/15701 1074000 
02/15/99 98.1000 
09/15/07 1037000 
06/15/99 1007000 
06/15/02 1034000 
02/15/02 1034000 
12/20/04 987500 


05200 

64500 

72500 

7.W00 

X2400 

74400 

6.9600 

7.9600 
64900 
84400 
74400 
84100 
64800 
7.9600 
74500 
7.9500 
7.9500 
74500 


Spanish Pasata 


70 Spain 

1140 

01/15/02 

884280 127300 

94 Spain 

1030 

06/15/02 

942500 10.9300 

146 Spain 

740 

07/30/99 

862500 

84700 

IS Spain 

B50 

12/15/98 

902071 

9.1500 

168 Spain 

1145 

08/30/9S 

1006200 112800 

173 Spain 

8 

05/30/04 

004700 

94900 

185 Spain 

10 % 

11/30/98 

974000 104700 

230 Spain 

9 

02/28/97 

962500 

92000 


SwwBoh Krona 


129 Sweden 
219 Sweden T-bflle 


6 

zero 


U.S. Dollar 




7Vj 

09/09/04 

99.7000 

7X200 

214 Netherlands 

7 

05/15/99 

967000 

7X900 








7Vj 

11/11/04 

99.9360 

7X000 

244 Netherlands 

65* 

07/15/98 

97X500 

6X400 

10 Venezuela 

Mi 

03/31/20 

47X965 14X300 



6% 

07/15/04 

94X517 

7.1200 

249 Netherl mis 

8W 

03/15/01 

1067000 

61200 

18 Venezuela FRN 

7% 

12/18/07 

47X062 163563 



Bfc 

03/20/96 

I02J650 

8X700 

ECU 





m 1 

20 Argentina par L 

■4 Ur 

03/31/23 

42X760 

10X100 



7 

11/25/99 

99-2633 

7X500 





25 Argentina FRN 

6V) 

03/29/05 

662843 

9X100 



4% 

07/01/99 

96.9400 

6X800 


- 




32 Brazil 980X FRN 

6K. 

81/20/01 

85X286 

7X600 



6*. 

05/13/04 

94J833 

7.1200 

24 UK T-nale 

5U 

01/21/97 

95.1250 

5X200 

44 Brazil 

4 

04/15/14 

48X610 

63200 



8 

01/21/02 

1012100 

7X3O0 

30 France OAT 

6 

04/25/04 

83X500 

7.1600 

59 Exlm Bk Japan 

8 <4 

12/16/04 

99X250 

62800 



8*1 

12/20/95 

102X800 

8X200 

46 France BTAN 

5 

03/16/99 

868800 


60 Venezuela 

6*i 

03/31/20 

49X044 13X400 



8V. 

07/21/97 

1033483 

7.9900 

74 France BTAN 

7V. 

03/1 6/98 

97X300 

7X000 

66 Ontario Hydro 

m 

12/05/97 

98X750 

7X400 



6 V. 

03/04/04 

91.5500 

4X300 

74 EIB 

10 

01/24/01 

1067500 

9X700 

67 South Africa 

m 

12/15/99 

98X750 

97300 



8<A 

09/20/01 

103.5800 

7.9600 

77 UKT-note 

8 

01/23/94 

100J500 

7X400 

72 Brazil El LFRN 

6<Vta 

04/15/06 

66X771 

9.7000 

M 


6V. 

07/29/99 

955367 

647DQ 

116 Italy 

656 

02/21/99 

90X000 

69400 

73 Bayer LB 

7V, 

12/19/97 

992500 

7X100 



8% 

02/20/96 

102.7300 

M000 

117 Franco OAT 

9Vl 

04/25/00 

1064200 

69300 

80 Brazil LFRN 

6V, 

04/15/12 

57X087 11.7600 



8 

09/22/97 

102J625 

7JBB0 

1Z7 Uk T -blits 

zero 

03/16/95 

966964 

5X000 

81 Badenwurtan 







6 

11/12/03 

903900 

6X400 

130 Finland 

814 

07/13/07 

960000 

6&9D0 

Fin 

B 

12/15/99 

997300 

60200 



5V, 

04/29/99 

94J800 

6X700 

157 France OAT 

8 

04/25/03 

967000 

62700 

89 GMAC 

zero 

02/14/95 

969685 

7X600 



TV, 

10/ 20/97 

1005700 

7.1900 

142 EIB 

zero 

03/16/95 

97X944 

68700 

91 Brazil pat- YL4 

4 

04/15/24 

42X347 

9X200 

29 


8 

07/22/02 

102.1900 

7X300 

167 Italy 

9V. 

03/07/11 

97X500 

9X100 

92 Walt Disney ca 

8 

12/19/97 

997500 

60200 

31 


7V, 

10/01/02 

1008500 

7mm 

189 France OAT 

8V« 

04/25/22 

93X000 

68000 

95 Mexico 

6V> 

12/31/19 

59.1249 10X700 



64V 

07/09/03 

93.9600 

7X500 

191 France OAT 

8V5 

03/15/02 

99X000 

8X300 

97 Brazil FRN 

A r ». 

04/15/24 

65X635 10.1800 



By* 


103J700 

8X300 

197 Spain 

9 

05/22/96 

101.9017 

8X300 

109 FHLBFRN 

6 Ym 

12/15/95 

100X847 

6X573 

35 


9 

10/20/00 

107.1450 

8X000 

199 France GAT 

6% 

04/25/02 

90X000 

7X700 

TT3 Sweden 

zero 

05/30/95 

966793 

7.9600 



tVi 

07/15/03 

932700 

69700 

222 Britain 

9Va 

02/21/01 

103X000 

8X600 

118 LKBFRN 

5% 

11/04/98 

99X400 

59100 




06/11/03 

933800 

7.1900 


■ 



' M ~ 1 

119 AngenttnaFRN 

TO 

03/31/23 

63X335 

11X500 

38 


TV, 

10/20/97 

101-5100 

7X900 

Finnisn wmmnatm 




121 Mexico 

616 

12/31/19 

564899 106900 

39 


616 

01/04/24 

BU7D0 

7X500 






124 Brazil par YU 

4 

04/15/24 

42X139 

9X800 

41 


BUk 

01/22/96 

102.1(00 

issm 

137 Finland 

6V» 

09/15/96 

97X447 

6X700 

128 Bulgaria FRN 

6 v. 

07/28/24 

465870 

12X800 

43 

Germany 

6ft 

01/20/98 

99.1840 

6X800 

239 Finland 

11 

01/15/99 

105X360 10X100 

133 Nigeria main 

5 Vt 

11/15/20 

41 7500 13.1700 

45 


8 

03/20/97 

1026033 

7X000 


__ 




141 Toyota motor fin 

7V» 




47 


7 

12/22/97 

1002013 

69900 

mnenmne 




143 Venezuela 

7 

03/31/07 

47X313 14X300 

48 

Germany 

6 

09/15/03 

9OL370O 

4XJ00 






147 Venezuela FRN 

ito. 

03/31/07 

39X202 

nx I. 

49 


6W 

05/20/99 

960600 

63700 

100 France OAT 

m 

10/25/04 

91-45W 

7X800 

150 EIB 

BU 

12/20/04 

100X250 

8X000 

51 

Germany 

m 

01/20/97 

10X2800 

61100 

120 France OAT 

BVs 

04/25/03 

102X000 

62600 

153 KFC 

BV> 

11/30/04 

1061250 

62400 

52 


8% 

12/20/00 

1046950 

BX200 

134 France OAT 

5Vj 

04/25/04 

83X000 

65600 

156 Caret) 

8W 

10 / 1 5m 

101X000 

60400 

53 


528 

09/30/04 

98X100 

5X435 

149 France BTAN 

5% 

11/12/98 

93X800 

61500 

158 EIB 

8 

12/20/99 

997500 

60200 

54 

Germany 

m 

01/22/96 

102.9100 

8X200 

171 Franca BTAN 

8 

05/12/98 

100X700 

7X400 

159 Brazil FRN 

6% 

04/15/09 

58X639 11X100 

55 

Germany 

846 

05/21/01 

1062040 

BX4W 

179 France oat 

zero 

10/25/19 

12X400 

67500 

163 Bulgaria FRN 

6Vw 

07/28/11 

44X446 135800 

56 

Bundesposf 

m 

10/01/M 

99M88 

7.7800 

190 France OAT 

6 

10/25/25 

73X500 

62100 

765 Mexico FRN 

6 ■«. 

12/31/19 

004533 

8X700 

57 


6V> 

02/20/01 

1D4J8300 

8.1100 

194 France OAT 

zero 

10/25/14 

18X500 

67700 

166 Austria 

7V4 

01/16/97 

98X750 

7X300 

58 


9 

01/22/01 

T07J2343 

8X900 

198 France BTAN 

4V. 

04/12/99 

89.1300 

5X300 

174 Britain FRN 

5 

09/24/96 

99X000 

5X100 

61 


8 V, 

04/22/96 

102X500 

82600 

209 France BTAN 

m 

03/12/97 

102X200 

63300 

175 Sweden FRN 

5Vz 

10/08/95 

99X800 

5X100 

64 


BVt 

06/20/01 

1061240 

62500 

218 France OAT 

8Vz 

04/25/23 

100X000 

64400 

178 Italy 

6% 

09/27/23 

765000 

87600 

65 Germany 

6 

06/20/16 

80-7350 

7X300 

231 France OAT 

8Vz 

11/25/02 

103.1000 

62400 

186 world Bonk 

7V5s 

09/27/99 

96X750 

7X500 

68 

Germany an 

6*0 

12/02/96 

99J0717 

69400 

238 France OAT 

6% 

10/25/03 

92X700 

7X300 

195 EIB 

T* 

12/15/98 

99.1250 

7X200 

67 


7SH 

12/20/02 

97J713 

7X200 

241 France BTAN 

7 

U/T2/99 

96X100 

7X500 

1M Britain 

7V, 

12/09/02 

95.2500 

7XW 

75 


7VS 

01/29/03 

97X050 

7X300 






200 Poland 

3Vk 

10/27/14 

454008 

7.1300 

79 


516 

10/20/98 

93 . 9557 

5-5900 

Italian Lira 





201 Mexico FRN 

677 

12/31/19 

82X210 

62100 

83 


8 Vi 

08/20/96 

10X1900 

62400 






200 Finland 

7% 

07/28/04 

967500 

61400 

90 

Germany 

m 

07/20/95 

101.7500 

67200 

217 Italy 

BVt 

08/01/99 

861900 

9X400 

208 World Bank 

m 

03/01/01 

1007500 

60600 

93 

Germany 

8 

05/02/02 

101.7967 

7X600 

220 Austria 

11 

12/16/97 

101X000 10X900 

211 World Bank 

TVs 

01/19/23 

93X750 

61700 

96 


5V, 

08/20/98 

95X800 

6X000 


wrn^m 




221 Sweden FRN 

St> 

11/15/96 

99.7200 

57009 

99 

Traufiand 

6 Vi 

04/23/03 

934600 

6.9600 

Jan^neM Yon 




224 Mexico FRN 

7V, 

12/28/19 

81.1809 

69300 


M6. 

08/14/98 

97X760 

6X300 






229 Finland 

6% 

11/24/97 

967500 

69800 

104 

Tneufiand 

5% 

09/24/93 

95.4350 

5X900 

17 Italy B 

5 

12/15/04 

100X750 

4 .9600 

232 Mexico FRN 

69k 

12mm 

81X838 

05000 

105 Germany 

8 V, 

08/21/00 

1054MS0 

60900 

78 Italy 

5V» 

12/15/14 

100X000 

5X000 

240 Ambra Bk FRN 

7* 

12/15/04 

99X900 

7.1100 

107 Germany 

6% 

05/20/98 

98X500 

6X000 

84 itoly 

3X0 

12/15/97 

100X000 

X9000 

243 world Bank 

BV. 

03/01/97 

101X750 

8X900 

108 Germany 

844 

07/20/00 

106X275 

8X500 

85 Sweden FRN 

2% 

01/25/99 

102X000 

27900 

246 Sweden FRN 

5% 

02/08/01 

987400 

57600 

112 Treuhand 

6% 

03/26/98 

97X800 

6X800 

86 World Bonk 

4% 

12/70/04 

100X750 

67100 

247 1ADB 

9V4 

04/11/00 

1052500 

9X300 


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Peso Crisis Hurts Mexico’s Prospects 


02/09/as 71.1903 &4300 
dS/17/95 9641789 102900 


By Tod Robberson 

Washington Pea Service 

WASHINGTON — Mexi- 
co's hopes for continued 
growth, f alling inflation and 
strong foreign investor confi- 
dence have been dealt a, severe 
blow by a currency crisis that 
devalued the peso by more than 
one-third last week. 

Analysts in Mexico City and 
the United States said the caisis, 
although it . had been brewing 
for some time, was touched off 
by the unexpected return of an 
armed rebdhoa is Chiapas by 
the Zapatista National Libera- 
tion Army. 

The renewed uprising — and 
pictures of masked Indians 
standing guard at roadblocks in 
that impoverished Mexican 
state — added to international 
investors' skepticism about the 
rosy economic and social pic- 
ture painted by government of- 
ficials for 1995. 

That skepticism was reflected 
in, and fueled by, the peso's 
troubles, which in turn under- 
mined Mexico's attempts to 
present itself as a stable trading 


As recently as late Novem- 
ber, then- President Carlos Sali- 
nas de Gortari told American 
and Mexican investors that the 
Chiapas rebels had been tightly 
contained by what he called 
three circles — “one military, 
one economic and one politi- 
cal" —and that there was virtu- 
ally no chance of their rebellion 
spreading beyond a govern- 
ment-recognized enclave in the 
Lacanddn jungle near the bor- 
der with Guatemala. 


This month, the new presi- 
dent, Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de 
Le6n, reiterated Mr. Salinas’s 
nim'ms and promised that Chia- 
pas would not return to the 
state of open warfare that em- 
barrassed Mexico when die ini- 
tial uprising broke out Jan. 1. 


When the Zapatistas suriden- 
eareef Monday, the 


partner heading for 
aide the United 


alongside the United States and 
Cjiyiadfl in the North American 
Free Trade Agreement. 

Over the next year, roughly 
$58 billion in high-interest 
Mexican treasury bills will 
come due — including $20 bil- 
lion over the next 100 days. Ac- 
cording to the rules under 
which the treasury bills were 
issued, the buyer can convert 
the proceeds to dollars on de- 
mand — and that is the basis 
for much of the intenmaona} 
investors’ concern. 


ly reappe 
Mexico City stock market index 
plummeted, and there was a 
stampede for dollars at banks 
and exchange houses. That 
moved Treasury Secretary 
Jaime Sena Puche the next day 
to reverse a pledge to keep the 
peso’s exchange rate firm at 
3.45 to the dollar and agree to a 
15 percent devaluation. 

On Wednesday, he removed 
limits on the exchange rate. Late 
Friday, the peso was quoted at 
470 to the dollar, a rise of 36 
percent in the dollar’s value. 

The uprising followed other, 
signs of instability, such as two 
major political assassinations 
this year and kidnappings of 
prominent Mexican business- 
men, that already had. prompt- 
ed international investment 
houses to counsel potential in- 


vestors to exercise extreme cau- 
tion regarding Mexico. 

Standard & Poor’s Corp. re- 
peatedly postponed plans to 
raise Mexican debt to invest- 
ment-grade status, and broker- 
age firms such as Merrill Lynch 
Si Co. warned this year that the 
economic picture was not as 
pro mising as Mexican officials 
were saying. 

“What did they know that we 
didn’t know?" a financial ana- 
lyst in Mexico City asked. 
“Whatever it was, they were 

The analyst in Mexico City 
said international investors be- 
gan showing signs of nervous- 
ness in October, around the 
time government officials were 
touring the United States with 
predictions of annual inflation 
below 5 percent, economic 


“Chiapas was the detonator 
for this crisis, but it certainly 
wasn’t the basis for it,” this ana- 
lyst said. “People are going era- 
zy because ib^re realmpog the 
money just isn’t in the' central 
bank anymore.” 

Economists also say that 
with the steep peso_ decline,, a 
return to doable-digit inflation 
is- likely. 

Fidel Velisquez, who beads a 
national labor union of more 
than 5 million members, urged 
the government last week to re- 
negotiate a plann ed 10 percent 
j flrtrfreg in the minimum wage, 
due to take effect at the start of 
the new year, because- he did 
not believe it would sufficiently 
compensate workers for the in- 
flationary effects of.thfr-peso 
devaluation. 


a resurgence in the peso’s value. 


As recently as Dec. 1, the date 
of Mr. Zedillo's inauguration. 


the government said reserves at 
Mexico’s central bank stood at 
$14 billion — more than enough 
to keep the peso stable. 

“The numbers just did not 
add up. Many people are seri- 
ously upset with this entire sce- 
nario," the analyst said. “They 
fed they were handed a line that 
evoything was fine. Obviously 
it’s not. The attitude everywhere 
is Eke, “We’re being had.’ " 

The analyst said the biggest 
warning sign for investors was 
an announcement by Mr. Serra 
Puche in mid-December that 
hard-currency reserves in the 
central bank were actually $6.5 
billion, less than half of what 
had been claimed. 


The devaluation also is ex- 
pected to have ripple effects on 
the United States. Although it 
will make Mexican products 
chea pe r and thus should lead to - 
increased exports — and a nar- 
rower Mexican trade deficit — - 
it is unlikely that Mexican fac- 
tories will greatly increase em- 
ployment as a result 

Rather, Mexican workers will 
be increasingly likely to cross 

S into the United States 
vork, given the fact that 
every dollar sent back to Mexi- 
co now will purchase far more 
pesos than it would have' even 
one week ago. 

In addition, the average Mex- 
ican's ability to purchase U.S. 
consumer goods is hkdy to 
drop, hurting U.S. exports 
across the border, analysts said. 


New Year’s Celebrations Are Likely to Be Brief 


Compiled fy Our Suff From Dispatches 

NEW YORK — This week is expected 
to bring the credit markets a short respite 
as what analysts described as an “ugly" 
1994 fades into a potentially equally trou- 
blesome new year. 

Money flows are expected to be thin, with 
no reason for market participants to go out 
on a Kmh at the end of a year that saw the 
benchmark 30-year Treasury bond's yield 
shoot up from 6.34 percent on Dec. 31, 
1993, to as high as 8. J9 percent on Nov. 14. 

The issue's yield dosed at 7.83 percent 
Friday, compared with 7.85 percent a week 
earlier. 

Few in the market were surprised when 
the Federal Reserve Board decided Tues- 
day not to push interest rates higher. But 
many said the central bank had only put 
off action until early 1 995, and that convic- 
tion will probably keep the markets on 
edge for at least the first month of the year. 

The Fed’s sixth rate increase of the year 
came Nov. 15. Many analysts and market 
participants expect it to act again when its 
policy-making Open Market Committee 
meets Jan. 31 and Feb. 1. 

Even though inflation as measured by 
the consumer price index was running at a 


modest 2.7 percent for the first 1 2 months 
of the year, the same as for all of 1993, the 
Fed is concerned that the U.S. economy is 
growing enough to make inflation a prob- 
lem in the near future. 

The Fed’s goal is to slow die economy’s 
growth to around 25 percent, which many 
of its members seem to regard as the opti- 
mum rate for n on infla tionary expansion. 


U.S. CREDIT MARKETS 


When the Treasury last week had to pay 
higher-than-expected yields to auction its 
new issues of two-year and five-year notes, 
an analyst called it “an ugly end to an ugly 
year" in the market 

There will be no more sales of long-term 
Treasuries until late January. On Tuesday, 
the Treasuiy is to sell $13 billion each of 
three-month and six-month bills. Trading 
on a when-issued basis Friday, they were 
yielding 5.70 percent for the three-month . 
and 6.53 percent for the six-month bills. 

Even the market for federal funds, or 
overnight loans of reserves among U.S. 
banks, which saw wide swings at year-end 
during the middle 1980s, appears relatively 
stable this year, though that could still 
change. 


The funds rate becomes volatile at the 
end of the year as the Federal Reserve 
Board struggles to estimate the reserves 
that will be needed in the monetary system 
as investors, portfolio managers and banks 
scramble for the funds needed to make 
year-end adjustments to their portfolios. 

Kevin Flanagan, money market econo- 
mist at Dean Witter Reynolds Inc_ point- 
ed out that this is the first time in five years 
in which the year-end scramble for funds 
will be taking taken place in an environ- 
ment of Fed tightening. This, he says, will 
cause participants to try to lode in funds as 
soon as possible and tend to rule out any 
frantic final-day push. 

Mr. Flanagan also said a net payment of 
$33.65 bfllion by the Treasury on Thurs- 
day on maturing rash manag ement bills 
and the fact that the just-auctioned two- 
year and five-year notes have a settlement 
date of Jan. 3 instead of the usual Dec. 31 
will help mitigate any squeeze on funds. 

“People’s expectations that it could be a 
tight year-end have evaporated,” said Pe- 
ter Kretzmer, an analyst with NationsBanc 
Capital Markets. 

(Knighl-Ridder, Bloomberg, WP, ) 


Cadillac Fairview Gets a Shield From Creditors 


CbmpM by Our Staff From Dispatches 

TORONTO — Cadillac Fair- 
view Inc. has filed for protection 
from creditors, just days after 
getting a reprieve from a com- 
pulsory bankruptcy petition, 
e James Fai 


Judge James Farley, in ap- 
proving the filing Friday, void 
lawyers representing the real es- 


Lwyers representing the real < 
tate concern, holders of its se- 
nior and subordinated debt and 
other creditors they should con- 
centrate on putting the compa- 
ny back on a "sound footing.” 
The court approval is expect- 
ed to speed a restructuring of 
closely held Cadillac's debt of 
5.28 billion Canadian dollars 
($4 billion). 


Judge Parley gave tte Toron- 
to-based company, which owns 
buddings in Canada and the 
United States, until Jan. 31 to 
propose a plan to restructure its 
debt 

Company executives said 
Cadillac already had proposals 
from two potential investors to 
assist in its restructuring and 
had held talks with a third. 

Goldman, Sachs &. Co., 
which owns about 28 percent of 
Cadillac's senior debt through a 
real estate limited partnership, 
is expected to submit a revised 
bid. Last month, the New York- 
based investment house sub- 
mitted an initial proposal to 


swap most of the secured and 
subordinated debt for equity. 

It was a move by Goldman, 
which pushed Cadillac into 
bankruptcy court Monday to 
try to accelerate the restructur- 
ing process, that led to the fil- 
ing. Cadillac on Monday per- 


suaded Judge Farley to give it 
to reach an agree- 


until Friday 
meat with Goldman. 

"The toothpaste got squeezed 
out of the tube on Monday, and 
we found we just couldn’t put it 
back in.” a Cadillac Fairview 
spokesman, Patrick Howe was 
quoted as saying. 

Cadillac will operate under 
the Companies' Creditors Ar- 


rangement Act, similar to 
Chapter 11 of the UJS. bank- 
ruptcy code, which protects a 
company from creditor lawsuits 
while it works out a plan to pay 
or refinance its debt 

Cadillac owns commercial 
and mixed-use properties in the 
United States and Canad a. It re- 
ported a loss of 2.71 tuition Ca- 
nadian dollars for the year ended 
Oct 31, 1993, compared with a 
loss of 953 million a year earlier. 

Its properties include Pacific 
Centre in Vancouver, Eaton 
Centre in Toronto , the Galleria 
in White Plains, New York, and 
the Esplanade in New Orleans. 

(Bbomberg, Reuters) 


New International Bend Issues 


Compiled by Paul Floren 


Amount 


(muttons) ***■ C 0t P ‘ Price 


Price 

end 

week 


Terms 


Floating Rate Notes 


Bunco Bumerlndus 
do Brasil 


S250 1997 3Vj 99.18 — 


Over 6-month Libor. Nonca liable. Fees 1%. (Swiss Bank Corn.) 


SAAAA Company 


S719 1997 


Va 


100 — 


Over 3-month Libor. Noncailable. Also Ssr ihiukm, 11L, '■ — — : 

7.91V Fees not disclos ed. Denominations ^ km,>00 


DEPFA Finance 


FFZOQO 1997 — — — 




Soctirte General® 
Acceptance 


FF U00 1998 lYi 100 — Over 3- month Plbor, within a defined 


over j-monm kiqot, wimin a defined ramie. Nonraimhi* - „ ri , M , _ _ , 

Hons lOOMO Francs. Parable in Jan. (Sac/afa G^nlrafa?] not d,scto “4. Denomino- 


Fixed-Coupons 


Apulia Securities 


SI 00 1995 zero 96-9M — 


yield B.421%. Nonca 1 1 OWe private BlaemrnnW ai.« w, ... 

disclosed. Denominations S250JM0. (HSBCNtarte!^)* 81 m,,aon Issued at 98.119. Fees not 


Swedish Export 
Credit 


Sl 00 1997 zero 66. so — 


Yield 7.58%. Noncailable. Fees not disclosed. Payable In Jem. (Dalwa Europe.)" 


DEPFA Finance 


DM250 1999 Vfh - - 


issue price .not disclosed. Noncailable. Funaible wim — — — ■ — 

amount to 1 billion morte. Fees not disclosed.^ Payobiein^ Ij ISlnB ,otal 


Last Week’s Markets 


Euromarts 


Ml tfaww oreosef dose of fnxftrw Frfctor 


Eurobond Yield* 


Stock Indexes 

United States Dec 23 OecK 
183343 1807.19 


DJ Indus. 
DJ Util. 
DJ Trans. 
SAP 100 
$ & P 500 
S APInd 
NYSE Cp 
Britain 


181.19 1 CM 
143434 1416.14 
429X3 42933 
45983 45LBD 
549.10 54234 
25095 25034 


etna 

+039% 

—058% 

+U0% 

+0JB7% 

+ 022 % 

+137% 

+0.16% 


FTSE100 
FT 30 
Japan 
Nikkei 22S 
Germany 
DAX 

Hons Nous 
Hans Sera 
World 
MSC1P 


308340 101340 
137030 2315.10 


+232% 
+ 138% 


1943331 19.16343 +245* 
2jDMJ)1 237M6 +1.16% 
831 148 8.16439 +178% 
615.10 60410 +148% 


Money Rates 



united States 

OCG23 

Dec 16 

Discount rate 

« 

Ai 

Prime rate 

V/i 

V/s 

Federal funds rote 

Sto 

57/14 

Japan 



Discount 

>%• 

1>4 

Coll money 

2.19 

222 

3-month interbank 

S'* 

T-4 

Germany 



Lombard 

6.00 

600 

Call money 

600 

505 

3-rnonm interbank 

SJS 

5X5 

Britain 



Bank base rate 

6U 

6 Vi 

Call money 

h(f> 


3-month Interbank 

6 7 lib 

tto 

Cokl Dec 71 

Dec 16 

Oitoe 

London mud 

38065 

+ 0.17% 

ojn. flx.S 




D*crntc.liVrbk*Yrto* 


*MkiySaim 

PrtmptY Mortal 


Dsc 25 


US. Stony fern 
U5. S, mflm farm 
Ui 5 short term 
Pound* Peri iw 
Freud) frond 
Italian lire 
Damsti town 
Swedish krona 
ECU, tons term 

ECU, Brim turn 

caa.s 

An. 5 

NZS 

Yen 


841 849 
8.10 849 
7J4 7J9 
9.14 9.12 
UM 7.94 
11.12 1109 
838 830 
1038 1036 
840 044 
829 126 
MS 9J9 
1049 1043 
925 9JZ 
446 447 


848 621 
820 545 
IT) 438 
941 626 
824 &87 
1130 791 
824 420 
1123 784 
884 6.18 
850 581 
944 638 
UU» 629 
941 5.99 
<84 287 


Cerfel 

StTBfatrfa 24740 

Catwrl _ 

tffM 

ECP “ 

Total 

jftWHfary Mcrkei 


Earodear 
S NWS 
S37JH 387240 131230 
1-50 — 9600 

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747840 6300601189748 736739 

73W80 7(342401621480 MJiSJB 

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PRNs 

ECP 


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JAW40 2228802740238 8,11430 

!7*1Km ,MZUC 

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Libor Rotas 


T«*ni , ^»7l>13l4234§aj«JV 

TOW 77.1*10 3Ma040aCTSK 
Saureq: Bureehmr. Oku. 


world itnr*FtmMonanSMcrCmmiinn 


HTffllfh 

U3.S 5% tv, 

OeatsdKiMi* 5H 53/H ^ 

Puendstenins 5% 616 515/16 


Dec. 23 

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International Herald Tribune, Monday , December 26, 1994 


Page 7 


- 

.. -•*•:•. ' 
--Jits 

. ■ *- 

- • • ; • : «. 


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0 Be Brief 


j NTEfcwATlQNAl STOCKS ' 

After Some Dark Hours, 
Italy Sees Signs of Dawn 

By John Tagliabue 

R New York Tunes Service 

This tuneXl^fnS^ pobucs w ^ economy. 

they had tok a wwS SwS bl? ^ 

Silvio Berlusconi. the nSwirf rfj™ d government of 
pulled down on ThmSa^by hi£^hh^^ _P .™ mmisler . was 
the same day that Mr l fc b *?^£ oaht,on P armcr s- On 

Scalferohis^a^^^^? 1 Oscar Luigi 

Fazio, waraedtf a wS^Si?S“ or ° f , ^ Bank of Italy. Antonio 
signs inflation was rising situation, one marked by 

\L JT ® ^ "sing and that rates were pressing upwaid. 

Yet, as Italians braced for a Christmas of uncertainties, the stock 
market in Milan posted five con- - 

secutive sessions of recovery, af- c i 

ter a sbde that had seen equity signals are Strong 

that capital is flowing 
back into Italy. 

Deutsche mark and the dollar. * 

t^gg^^awsssssaa 
sg 3 =ea'f.st: 

t0 . 199 4 ^ tW0 goveramems before Mr. Berlusconi’s 
•awnhwi o 0ward . Bringing public spending undCT a 

semhlara of control. Scrapping a murderous system of wage 

“creases to the inflation rate, they 
ru? lL ^ s cost-of-living index down to less than 
4 percent, only slightly above the European average. 

Mr. Berlusconi's short-lived administration struggled to main- 
S30 billion from the budget deficit in a 

So even as the government was tumbling, some major investment 
?j ok g r ^ e were mildly bullish, betting that the departure of 
. ;• . gi uomscom might break a political impasse, perhaps by means 

°* ^rcsh elections after a brief interim government. 

I”. . Tet t Bis week, as the Italian Treasury set its bond schedule for the 

/***•" “^t Quarter of 1995, nominal interest rates on bellwether govem- 

”*•’ 1 ; meat bonds were set a percentage point higher than thic year’s. Mr. 
r - : '- : ^ F® 2 * 0 reminded Italians that, given the size of the public debt, every 
- • 2.5 percent increase in interest rates raises by the equivalent of $22 

- _ billion to S25 billion the cost erf servicing the public debt. 


now a 


staggering $1.2 trillion. 

Some analysts were concerned that the political crisis would 
undermine Rome’s resolve in fighting inflation and reducing the 
budget deficit, widening the spread between yields on Italian and 
German government bonds, the European benchmark. 



• : - '/.C’ 


( Creditor? 




THE TRIB INDEX 


International Herald Tribune 
World Stock Index, composed 131 
of 280 internationally investable 129 
stocks from 25 countries, }% 
compiled by Bloomberg 123 
Business News. 121 

Weekending December 23, 115 
daily closings. 


World Index ran 


w'J wnrvnrjp*. . - - 

Jaa 1992 = IDO. 111 F 


M T W T 


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Utilities 1ZL51 125J7 -2S7 
Finance 113.76 112.41 +1-M 
Services 111.12 11226 -1.® 


Raw Materials 131.1213030 40.63 

Consumer Goods 103^6 102.75 -t&B9 

Miscellaneous 11&52 11431 +1.93 

services in -ia 

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Asian Broadcasters Straddle a Diverse Web of Rules 


By Richard Covington 

Special to the Herald Tribune 

GUANGZHOU, China — The half-naked 
male models wildly gyrating in a German fashion 
show make the cut on this locally produced 
Guangzhou city television station. Across town, 
on the more widely dispersed provincial station, 
of the southern China province of 
g, they would not have a prayer. 

The same goes for M Uliraman," the animated 
Japanese senes judged too violent by the provin- 
cial station, bm allowed to air to the 300,000 
cable viewers of the local Guangzhou affiliate. 

Far from being monolithic, Chinese television 


its a welter of erratic censorship, unen- 
I regulation and unpredictable latitudes of 
program content and standards of freedom that 
vary from province to province and city to city. 

In the official line on Chinese television, “the 
audience is the market and the government is the 
master,’* according to Xu Xiongxiong, general 
manager of China Central Television's program 
agency. The reality is somewhat more flexible. 
As the broadcaster elaborated, “the government 
intent is not to ban foreign programming, but to 
have it under control.” 

Throughout Asia, as the region braces for a 
rising tide of new channels, satellites and foreign 
programming, Western and Asian television pro- 


ducers are engaged in delicate balancing acts, 
attempting to tap into the burgeoning Asian 
audience without offending local morals and 
restrictive governments. 

“Three years after STAR-TV brought the sat- 
ellite age to Asia, governments here are grappling 
with the invasion, dying to minimize the im- 
pact,” said James Y.C. So. Hong Kong's secre- 
tary of recreation and culture. At stake is an 
exploding market, where average annual eco- 
nomic growth is around 10 percem and English- 
language programming alone is predicted to 


jump five times within the next four years, ac- 
cording to David Murrell, Aria media analyst 
with KPMG Peat Marwick 


The region’s viewing public is estimated at 322 
rmTH nn households, accounting for around $300 
million of the $3 billion total of overseas revenue 
to U-S. television producers. 

Most governments in the region limit televi- 
rion imports to between 15 and 30 percent of 
program schedules — with the standout excep- 
tion of Taiwan, where foreign programs account 
for 80 percent of air rime, according to Susan 
Schoenfeld, media analyst for Hong Kong-based 
Advisors for International Media. But with Lhe 
number channels doubling each year, the appe- 
tite for all kinds of programming is t akin g off, 

See MEDIA, Page 7 


Hoechst’s Copley Has a Drug Problem 


By Susan Diesenhouse 

New York 71ms Service 

CANTON, Massachusetts — By the 
spring of 1993, things were not looking 
good to Mark Riley. 

As a quality assurance inspector at 
Copley Pharmaceutical Inc. — a relative- 
ly young company that would soon be 
taken over by the German che micals 
giant Hoechst AG — he did not like the 
way his company’s plant in Canton was 
making Albuterol, an asthma drug that 
was its hottest product. 

Only 15 miles (24 kilometers) away, at 
the company's plant in South Boston, 
Mark’s twin brother, Michael was voic- 
ing similar concerns about how the com- 
pany was making Brompheril an anti- 
histamine that was its fif m-biggest seller. 

The brothers have since quit the com- 
pany and taken their concerns about 


; to fed- 

authorities. 

Company executives say the Rileys’ 
accounts erf their combined tenure of 
eight years at Copley are just not true. 
But the company will be dealing with 
their allegations for years to come, and 
their accusations have been echoed by 
other former employees and by U.S. 
Food and Drug Administration records. 

A year ago, Copley's reputation was 
pristine. The company had not been tar- 
nished by the bribery scandals that en- 
gulfed much of the generic-drug industry 
a few years earlier, and it had Wall 
Street's a dmir ation for its apparent abili- 
ty to show above-average profits and 
ken coining out with new products 
while adhering to the highest govern- 
ment standards. 

Hoechst Celanese, a subsidiary of 


Hoechst AG, agreed in October 1993 to 
pay S546 million, or 555 a share, for a 51 
percent stake in the company. 

But this year, Copley had to recall all 
3.7 million bottles of Albuterol it had 
ever made because of possible bacterial 
contamination, and all 55 million tablets 
of Brompheril made since September 
1992 because of lroses in quality control. 

Lawsuits are piling up from about 100 
consumers who say they were injured by 
Albuterol or from then survivors. With 
the stock languishing — it closed Friday 
at $14,375, down 74 percent from the 
price Hoechst paid and only 13 percent 
above its initial offering price in 1992 — 
shareholders have also sued, accusing the 
company of misleading them about its 
problems. 

The company is under investigation 

See COPLEY, Page 9 


China Draws Up 
Plan to Battle 
Inflation in ’95 


Time Warner Said to Plan Expansion in Cable 


By Geraldine Fabrikant 

New York Tunes Service 

NEW YORK — Time 
Warner Inc. is reported to be 
asking Itochu Corp. and To- 
shiba Corp. to put up as much 
as $300 million apiece to help it 
buy more cable television sys- 
tems. 

Time Warner was closed for 


the holidays and executives 
could not be reached to com- 
ment on the report, which ap- 
peared Friday in Nihon Keizai 
Shimbun. 

Itochu and Toshiba are al- 
ready investors in Time Warner 
Entertainment, the Time 
Warner division that owns its 
cable systems. Home Box Of- 


Sharpshooting Novice 
Hits the Profit Target 


By Thomas Crampton 

IntemationaJ Herald Tribune 

HERIOT, Scotland — 
Malcolm Borlhwick likes 
Americans because they 
can’t shoot straight 

“They are good stock pre- 
servers, so you know, “HeTl 
fly another day,’ ” Mr. 
Borthwick said, tracing the 
imagi- 
nary 
flight 
path of a 
fortunate 
grouse 
across 
the din- 
room 


in^stc 


SMALL 

BUSINESS 



_ with his forefinger. 
The Englishman also likes 
Americans because they like 
him. 

“We offer the old ambi- 
ence. This is sort of an Ed- 
wardian time warp run to 
modem standards,” he said. 

Of course, there is the 
money. “It is well known that 
in America there is a hi gher 
level of disposable income 
than in Europe,” he said. 

Americans have not al- 
ways come to shoot birds at 
Raeshaw House. In fact, al- 
most nobody lived in the 
nine-bedroom shooting 
lodge for 30 years, until Mr. 
Borthwick restored it in 
1976 to turn the estate into a 
profit-making shoot 

A shoot that makes money 

is a rare bird. Most are rtm by 

people of means, purely for 
pleasure. Also rare: Mr. 
Borthwick is interested in 
srfKng the famil y estate and 
business. 

When, at age 37, Mr. Bar- 
thwick inherited the derelict 
lodge cm 12,600 acres <5,116 
hectares) of bleak Scottish 
moorlands — along with a £1 
million ($1.5 million) debt — 
he was advised to sell quickly. 

“My father came to visit 
me in the United States. He 
said to me, This way of life 
is gone. No one will ever be 
able to afford thin a gain. 

Shooting is a thing of the 
past.’ ” Mr. Borthwick said. 

Instead, Mr. Borthwick 
dropped his career in the 
meat business, went to the 
London Business School an 
a Sloan fellowship and tried 
to learn how to raise and 
shoot grouse and pheasant 
. This was no easy task; Mr. 
Borthwjck*s only country 
experiences were from child- 
hood. But he persuaded the 
old head gamekeeper to 
postpone retirement and 
teach him the trade. 

The biggest difficulty Is 
raiang grouse. UnHke pheas- 
ant, they must be bred where 
they are to be limited and 
cannot be brought *n from 
elsewhere in a bad year. 


The old gamekeeper retied 
on intuition and experience 
to estimate each season how 
many grouse could be shot 
before damaging the breed- 
stock. 

Borthwick set up a 
table he called the “Raeshaw 
Ready Reckoner” that al- 
lowed him to make such cal- 
culations on (be basis of his- 
torical data and a count of 
grouse eggs in a given area. 

Even before he understood 
the subtleties of burning hea- 
ther (to make room for new 
growth) and controlling ver- 
min (kflting rabbits), the first 
paying clients arrived. At the 
beginning, the “guns,” as 
they are known, cane from 
Fn giand, but Mr. Borthwick 
wanted Americans. 

T knew from living over 
in New York that people 
were keen on duck hunting,” 
Mr. Borthwick said. “To be 
able to say: ‘Would you tike 
to come grouse shooting? 
There are no limits, and tins 
is the doyen of wing shoot- 
ing,’ it wasn’t difficult to 
find people who said *Wow, 
I'd tike to do that.’ " 

Mr. Borthwick depends 
exclusively on word of 
mouth to sell his grouse- 
hunting sojourns, which go 
for $3^000 to 59,000 a week. 
He refuses to use an agent 
and says he does not even 
have a brochure. 

He amply asks those who 
have enjoyed the hunt to or- 
ganize a reunion among 
themselves back in the Unit- 
ed States. Each spring, Mr. 
Borthwick travels to these 
shows photo- 
r the estate and then 
'his farmer clients do the 
promotion work for him. 

But now that he has trans- 
formed a dubious inheri- 
tance into a solvent compa- 
ny with its debts repaid, Mr. 
Borthwick wants to sell the 
place, not pass it on to his 
rhildrwn — an lwwimal plan 

in a country where people 
often hang onto family es- 
tates at great personal cost 
“As a generational thing, 
an estate is a terrible thing to 
take on unless you have enor- 
mous net worth to stand the 
downside risk,” he said. 
“Certainly my childre n don’t 
have that net worth, and I 
knew they never would. 

“Inheritance is a highly 
emotional thing. It is not a 
business derision, and as a 
result, people don’t look at it 
with the same disciplines that 
I lode at it, because my strat- 
was diffe rent, l derided 
it 1 would turn the estate 
around and sell it, and in that 
way make my money.” 
Articles in this series ap- 
pear every other Monday, 


fice and Warner Brothers. The 
two Japanese companies each 
own about 5.6 percent of Time 
Warner Entertainment, while 
U S West Inc. owns about 25.51 
percent. 

There was no indication Fri- 
day as to whether the two Japa- 
nese companies woe interested. 

Time Warner, however, has 
indicated that it was interested 
in expanding its cable holdings, 
and there has been speculation 
that it would like to acquire 
Cablevision Corp. 

In recent months, the cable 
industry has been consolidat- 
ing. Moreover, large operators 


such as Time Warner have been 
trying to concentrate in specific 
markets. Time Warner is the 
second-largest UJS. cable sys- 
tem operator, after Tele-Com- 
munications Inc. 

A spokesman for U S West 
refused to comment on the Jap- 
anese newspaper’s report, al- 
though that company has also 
indicated that it would like to 
increase its cable interests. 

There have been recent re- 
ports that Time Warner might 
seek to restructure Time 
Warner Ente rtainm ent, in part 
to bolster the parent company's 
sagging stock price. 


Conpiied by Our Staff From Dispatches 

BEIJING — China has 
mapped out a seven-point pro- 
gram for 1995 to tackle the 
country’s high inflation rate, 
the China News Service report- 
ed over the weekend. 

Consumer prices across Chi- 
na rose at an annual rate of 27.5 
percent in the first 1 1 months of 
1994, fueled by rising food 
prices and double-digit eco- 
nomic growth. 

Fighting inflation has become 
China’s top priority amid con- 
cerns in Beijing that rising prices 
might cause social unrest that 
could jeopardize the Communist 
Party’s control of the country. 

To Counter this, China plane 

to set a reasonable growth rate 
for 1995, taking into account in- 
flation, China News Service said 
Saturday. Last week, the State 
Planning Commission indicated 
the growth target would be 9 
percent to 10 percent, with infla- 
tion at 10 percent. 

China’s gross domestic prod- 
uct is set to rise more than 1 1 
percent this year, substantially 
overshooting the 9 percent tar- 
get set in March by Prime Min- 
ister U Peng. 

In southern China's booming 
Guangdong Province, growth 
will hit 18 percent for 1994, Xin- 


hua news agency said Saturday. 

Another key measure in 1995 
will be to direct investment to 
agriculture, the report said. This 
year, China has been forced to 
raise prices paid to farmers to 
offset rising producer prices. 

The other points of the pro- 
gram are to strictly control in- 
vestment in fixed assets; im- 
prove food distribution; link 
industrial production to supply 
and demand; carefully control 
prices for commodities such as 
edible ofl, cotton, vegeta- 
i and chemical fertilizers, atm! 
restrain growth in consumption, 
China News Service said. 

Investment in fixed assets by 
state enterprises grew 25.54 per- 
cent year-on-year in November, 
bringing the overall expansion 
rate this year to 38 percent. 

The Chinese government has 
tightened credit to curb specu- 
lative investment but continues 
to channel funds to ailing state 
enterprises, 44 percent of which 
lost money in the first nine 
months of this year. 

Another report Saturday said 
38 companies in the central 
Chinese industrial city of Wu- 
han, including 25 in the state 
sector, had declared bankrupt- 
cy by the end of November. 

(Bloomberg, Reuters, AFP) 




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.•TV:- *y ■ 

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iij '“■> 


Economic Calendar, Dec. 26 - Dec. 30 


^^AutoraJui8 Manutaeturan Aasocto- 

VtZ. 

hMw ‘ ** °25Sb«a5*i 

Myoam am ana CaexnnaSon 
Nowmbw unemptoy. 
™ent ran and Labor Ministry -tw 

gSSa C««nictlon Ministry ratoaws 
iS^SL>.!??^ artaI f*ro«fc*Ctioat figures tor 


J ^*°^**^ pro*xaion figures tor 

!£rsr!S^iC^ a, ™ n * 

H*eK 0 ba Government to 
Nooember rwrchandl* „** „£ 

eSto'ES”?- Gow wwnw»mrqn«j 
?Sfr “***> Tanaga Nation* Bhd to 

dma^SLJ?!! 0 S* 04 * marital to 

ST* toEE 2 £ ^°' n Year no»- 

^tio, ^* n J «"- 5 tor a rooming 


°* “vinfl. Forecast- Up 0.1 percent in 
month ana 2-6 percent in yw 
Frankfurt November import prices. 
Forecast Up 02 percent m month ana 1 J 
percent in year. 

"*»t Govommom awed to announce 
«^~*ra ot a license toprmMa pmraM 

nwntia wapnona servtoa In Spam 

™* •"ovombar**-^ measured on o3- 
"wnih average. Forecast Up 3J percent 
in three ma nge . 

* n rnp e nh eas u Ttnro-quar- 
tormdusmai production. 

»»«■ Pretident Oscar Lwg. Sctifaro 
con ***tor»s»tiiidauccosaor 
to PrmwM^tetor Sitvro Bretosconl. Meets 
o* toe Senate and toe 
“wmfaer ot Deputias. 

*“**-* e P»*» Oecomber industrial 

sunray. 

“•Aid Pilots of me troubled state tir- 
iine ibena are scheduled to begin a 12 - 


• Dm 30 Beriki GarmwtyM Two- 
hand holds news con trance on final prt- 
vattzabon activity to 1004. 

London ChanooHor ot the Exchequer 
Kenneth Clarke Mara a kxr ot Vietnam, 
Malaysia and ThaBand to gam buekwae 
tor me Brittih ftwidal aervieea mduaty. 


•on hoida news c e nt e renoa w todam 
income tax Mng season begins. 

—ai m City The central bank an- 
nounces toe results of its weekly auction 
of government securttee. Ouflook Short- 
um Treasury bn* up tram 1 S percent M 


Ea 


« ran ge eopeaea AuHinc. 

• Dm. 27 WMktngtoe ExMnghoma 
sales tor November. 

New York The Conference Board re- 
teases He Index of consumer confidence 
tor December. 

New York Johnson n e d bo o k leei eraf i 
service r el eas es Ua weekly survey of 
ttm*-sto»Mtoo at more than 20 depart- 
ment. discount and chain stores to toe 
Untied States. 

M exico City tm central bank an- 
nounces the results ot Re week* auction 
of securities. Outlook: Rates to rise from 
S 28 percent 

Esminga expected TraraonicCea 

• Dee. 3S Wa e fring toe The weekly 
sale of government treswey bias wW be 
held rather man on Tbeaday due 10 hoft- 
rtW* 

Aiingtoo. YhflWe The American Gw 
Aaod atf on rele as es He weeMyU.S.naiu- 
m sea imantay report 
W aehtag toa The Mortgage Sankara Aa- 
a ocWion of America ra toe eee Its weekly 
report on mortgage appSeettone. 

W a sh in gton American Petroleum insti- 
tute issues its weekly report on U.S. petro- 
leum slocks, production, imports and re- 
Bnaiy utMzatton. 

W ash i n gton Internal Revenue Service 
Commtostoner Margaret MBner fUchard- 



^gg^faiFhngBhtliphoia 


Europe 


t=T ** ,urt December preliminary cost 


day strike which management warns 
Ctfcdd bankrupt the atoms. 

• Dec. 29 Brunets December con- 
ajmer pnee Index Forecast; Up 02 per- 
cent in month and 2 percent tn year. 
Zurich December consumer price in- 
dex 


• Bee. SB Wastitojlan November 
loading economic totfleraore. 
W as hto g tew M ove m ber Import end ex- 
port price fndexsa. 

W eN Ungton The Labor Dapemwnt re- 
ports initial we elil y am un emp lo yment 


unemptoyment retiptonta. 

WeWiFegkm The Treeamy Deportment 
reports weaMy money tsuppry/bsnk re- 


DMhglH The Mortgage Ba n ke r s As- 
aodetion ut Amartca relaeaea Ha weekly 
report on wor^ s ge BOpecemm s . 

Buenos Atres ShmMUn of Alpaga- 
tss Sale, an Argentine footwear and tex- 
ttie company, vote on accord to sefl 
Greenwood MBs of toe Untied Sms. e 
2D percent stake in Ha tsxBe toviaton tor 
*18 ra«toa 

EaMngaaepecled EquHrac Corp. 

• Dm. 30 CMeege TheCNcageNa- 
tiorutiAaaodationofPurehaaingManage- 
mem releases IB todexee for December. 
Washin gton November new home 


The University of 
Michigan Meases As flnst cerwumer sen- 
timent index tor Dec emb er. 

Washington hrsx Corp. and ZfenUh Lab- 
oratories Inc. hold sharaboktore’ meeting 
to vote on hax^ *800 mStion purchase of 
Zenith. 

Wash ingto n The Federal Reserve Board 
wtoaaaa Ha weekly report of aseet s ana 
tiabfltttoe of U 2 . commsrolai bonks. 


COPLEY: Allegations About Manufacturing Unhealthy for Bottom line 






by the \JS. attorney in Boston, 
who launched a grand-jury in- 
stigation in September. Um-. 
““ al ,^ rst to production of 
BrompheriL, the investigation 
was then expanded to Albuterol 
and now encompasses all the 
company's products. 

Forme- employees, including 
the Rileys, have contended the 
company regularly falsified 
production records, failed to as- 
sign supervisors to monitor key 
products and conducted safety 
tests on products haphazardly. 

Jane Hirsh, the pharmacist 
who founded the company 2t 
years ago and remains chair man 
erf the company, refused to com- 
ment Kenneth N. Lar sen, a 
board member serving as inter- 
im president, said Copley was 
“dedicated to producing quality 
products in which all can have 
confidence" and said the compa- 
ny's lone “contamination prob- 
lem" had been remedied. 


Publicly, Hoechst is also 
standing by its investment At 
least two Hoechst employees 
have joined Copley's senior 
management in the last year. 
“Hoechst has invested in Copley 
for the long term,” said Andrea 
Stine, a Hoechst Celanese 
spokeswoman. “We are support- 
ive of Copley and the action it 
has taken." 


supervisors were absent, and 
supervisors signed records 
falsely indicating they had 
monitored production. “Pre- 
signed paperwork was com- 
mon," Mr. Riley said. 


The FDA, whose own inspec- 
tion reports — obtained 
the Freedom of Infor- 


through 
mation Act — show the compa- 
ny has had operational prob- 
lems for years, is withholding 
criticism until its investigation 
has been completed. 

“Recalls happen,” said Thom- 
as J. McGinnis, the agency's as- 
sociate director erf pharmacy af- 
fairs, and “every pharmaceutical 
company has problems.” 

But Mark Riley said poorly 
trained workers made mistakes 
that went unremedied because 


According to a shareholder 
lawsuit, a supervisor halted Al- 
buterol production in March 
1993 and advised dosing one of 
its two production lines because 
of posable contamination. 

In April, Mark Riky resigned. 
The supervisor, John Connefl. 
was soon reassigned to another 
part of the company where he 
had no responsibility for Albu- 
terol, and production resumed in 
June, according to depositions 
taken in the lawsuit 


Five months later, just as the 
Hoechst deal was coming to a 
dose in November 1993, the 
company’s outside laboratory 
indicated it had found signs of 
bacterial contamination in the 


had only tested four patients. 
To the 


MEDIA: Television Broadcasters Tread Carefully in Asian Markets 


Coothmed from Page 7 
limited largely by the program 
l*. prices that are woefully inade- 
quate by Western standards, 
falling as low as $750 for a half- 
hour variety show in China, for 
example. 

Robert Chua, an ambitions 
Hong Kong broadcaster whose 
China Entertainment Televi- 
sion is scheduled to launch this 
spring in Mandarin, plans to 
sidestep government censors 
with a mix of wholesome family 
entertainment. “No sex, no vio- 
lence, no ne ws” is the motto of 
Mr. Chua’s CETV. 

Keeping up with the censors 
in this rapidly drifting environ- 
ment can be a confusing busi- 
ness. Dick Lee, general manag- 
er of Malaysia’s HVD Film 
Production, complained of cen- 
sors snipping a segment of an 
actor perched atop a tall build- 
ing. “They construed the scene 
to mean he might jump,” ex- 
plained Mr. Lee, “and suicide 
conflicts with the image they 
want to present of Malaysia." 

The use of a handgun in film- 
ing requires police permission 
and a policeman must be pre- 
sent on the set to simulate fir- 


ing HBO Asia, the pay-TV film 
channe l, is forced to cut scenes 
considered too violent or sexu- 
al, although tbe“restrictions 
have not been as onerous as we 
expected,” said William Hooks, 
HBO Asia’s managing director. 

“It would be idiotic not to 
respect the local cultures,” he 
continued. Instead of 


& 


continued. Instead of trying to 
refute charges of cultural impe- 
rialism, Mr. Hooks advised 


rialism. 

Western producers to stress the 
new jobs and technological 
transfers the expansion of local 
television industries creates. 

After initially being cast as a 
leading cultural imperialist, 
Hong Kong-based STAR-TV is 
staging a turnaround. 

In China, where the network 
dropped BBC World Service 
Television to placate govern- 
ment objections and a largely 
unenforced ban on satellite 
dishes remains officially in ef- 
fect, the service claims to reach 
30 milli on homes via cable. In 
Malaysia, where the ban on sat- 
ellite dishes is rigorously en- 
forced, Prime Minister Ma- 
hathir bin Mohamad, 
previously one of STAR'S most 
vocal critics, is dose to permit- 
ting the service to air in the 


country in return for substan- 
tial control of the telecasts. 
“Cultural imperialism is rim- 
bad business,” said Gary 
>avey, STAR chief executive. 
“It makes no money." STAR 
nevertheless stands to post a 
loss of at least $12 million this 
year, according to Rupert Mur- 
doch, head of the network’s 
parent News Corp. 

“The issue of cultural imperi- 


alism is greatly exaggerated,' 
said S. K. Fung, < 


umg chief executive 
of TVB International Ltd., 
Hong Kong’s largest network. 
“It’s a smokescreen to protect 
local television production 
business. We've been broad- 
casting an English-language 
channel side-by-ride with a 
Chinese channel for 27 years 
and we didn't become English- 
men.” 

CNN International, which 
claims to reach 9.6 nuQioa 
households in 22 countries 
across the Asia-Pacific region, 
has encountered surprisingly 
little censorshm. “From time to 
time, local distributors will 
briefly interrupt the service if 
there is a major event going on 
in the country ” said Peter Ve- 
sey, the network’s vice presi- 


dent. “But these incidents are 
rare.” 

Only on Pakistan's ShaKmar 
TV Network is there censorship 
of the news service, where hug- 
ging and. kissing and women's 
exposed arms and legs are 
masked. Viewers tuning in to 
fl»e CNN fashion report see a 
canned tape of ducks flying 
over a swamp with the audio 
portion left intact 

“Overall in the region, regu- 
latory barriers are being low- 
ered,” added Mr. Vesey, “be- 
cause governments recognize 
the value more televised infor- 
mation and choice has on pro- 
moting their economies.” 

For MTV, the music video 
network that reaches a quarter 
of a billion homes worldwide, it 
is not censorship as much as 
audience taste that is toning 
down the service in the region. 
“Pop music here is more sac- 
charine and sanitized,” said 
MTV Chairman Tom Preston. 
“The lads are optimistic. They 
don't have a lot of angst” 

But the censors have drawn 
the line at sexually explicit rap 
and hard rock videos and the 
irreverent cartoon characters 
Beavis and Butthead. 


REPUBLIC OF LEBANON 

MINISTRY OF MUNIOPALE AND RURAL AFFAIRS 
COUNCIL FOR DEVELOPMENT AND RECONSTRUCTION 
Solid Waste Management Sector 

Pre-Qualification of contractors for the supply of 180 Compactor Tracks 

•u announcement relating to the above mentioned project, the Council far Development and Rewnriruciion 

Further to the P” submission date of the prequalification documents relevant to the above mentioned project, at CDR offices, 

!™”*:“T CCS a STw;, 18, 1995 before I&J0 Hra noon, Bdrut loal time. 


REPUBLIC OF LEBANON 

MINISTRY OF MUNIOPALE AND RURAL AFFAIRS 
COUNCIL FOR DEVELOPMENT AND RECONSTRUCTION 
Solid Waste Management Sector 
Pre-Qualification of contractors for the supply of 5200 Garbage Containers 


(Te-vUailUtuuuu vl rrv “ 

. „ a announcement relating to the above mentioned project, the Council for Development and Reconstruction 
Further to the pw-™ submission date of the prequalification documents relevant to the above menttoned project, at CDR offices, 
(CDR), BnooWCeS e ^ om Thursday, December 22, 1994 to Wednesday, January 18, 1995 before 12:00 Hra noon, Beirut local time, 
has been pc*stf wn , — — _ — ^ ■ - , . 





U.S./SHORT COVER 


German Firms Reschedule Iran Debt 


TEHRAN (Bloomberg) — Iran has reached agreement with 
German companies to reschedule 1 billion Deutsche marks (S635 
million) in overdue debts, the national news agency IRNA report- 
ed Sunday. 

The agency quoted a central bank official saying that 750 of the 
900 German companies that axe owed by Tehran had agreed to the 
refinancing arrangement. IRNA said the debts were not covered 
by official German export-credit-guarantee agencies. 

Iran has rescheduled about $11 billion in overdue debts since 


Japan Government 
Opposes Tax Rise 


February despite opposition from the United States. Germany 
and Japan were the first to agree to defer debts to Tehran. 


Korean Focuses Effort on WTO Job 


SEOUL (Reuters) — Kim Chul-su, Soujh Korea’s former trade 
minister, will concentrate mi his bid to become first head of the 
new World Trade Organization after bring dropped from the 


cabinet last week, officials said an Sunday. 

Asian countries have lined up behind Mr. Kim in the three-way 


race for the post, which is available from Jan. 1. Italy's former 
trade minister Renato Ruggiero is backed by the European Union 
and Washington, while Latin American countries strongly sup- 
port Carlos Salinas de Gortari, the former Mexican president. 


Profit at Saudi Basic Seen Up 42% 

DUBAI (Reuters) — Saudi Baric Industries Corp., Saudi Ara- 
bia's industrial giant will post a profit of 3 billion riyals (5800 
million) in 1994, up from 2.12 billion riyals in 1993, its chairman 
said on Saturday. 

Abdul-Aaz aJ-ZameL who is also Electricity and Industry 
Minister, was quoted as saying at a directors* meeting in Riyadh 
that “achievements in production and marketing" accounted for 
the rise. 

SABIC, in which the Saudi government holds a 70 percent 
stake, produces petrochemicals, plastics, fertilizers and steel. 


Compiled bv Otr Staff From Dupatcha 

TOKYO — Finance Minister 
Masayoshi Takemura said Sun- 
day that a tax increase to com- 
pensate for revenue shortfalls 
was unlikely. 

Mr. Takemura. speaking at a 
press conference after the cabi- 
net approved the 1995-96 bud- 
get, said the government would 
pursue administrative and fis- 
cal reform before it considers a 
tax increase. 

Discussions to review the sta- 
tus of public corporations, as 
part of the administrative re- 
form effort, will start during 
cabinet-level meetings sched- 
uled on Monday and Tuesday, 
Mr Takemura said. 

Earlier, the cabinet passed a 
budget for fiscal 1995 that would 
shrink spending for the first time 


dine from spending in a previ- 
ous year since a cut of 0.8 per- 
cent in 1955. 

A three-year recession has 
cut into tax revenues, as has an 
income tax cut adopted in 1994 
in hopes of speeding economic 
recovery by encouraging con- 
sumer spending. 

( Knight- Ridder, AP. AFP) 


m 


nearly 
The bi 


four 


es. 


last 40,000-bottle batch of Al- 
buterol it had tested. 

Throughout the subsequent 
crisis, Copley has sought to 
downplay the gravity of the sit- 
uation. 

For twqanrfc , on March 3!, 
nearly three months after a 
Copley distributor told Dr. 
Kenneth Zack of Copley’s safe- 
ty department about an Albu- 
terol-rdated death, Copley said 
it had been unable to confirm a 
single case where Albuterol had 
caused serious illness in a user. 

What the company failed to 
volunteer — a fact that also 
emerged later bom court papers 
— was that its own specialist. 
Dr. David R. Snydman of the 
New England Medical Center, 


Farmers Ordered to Make Rebates 


NEW YORK (NYT) — Farmers Insurance Group, a subsidiary 
of BAT Industries PLC, London, was ordered Friday by Califor- 
nia regulators to rebate $183 milli on to customers under a 1988 


>udget, which is expect- 
ed to easily pass in Parliament, 
calls for the smallest increase in 
foreign aid since World War II 
and the snail est increase in de- 
fense spending in 35 years. 

The budget totals 70.99 tril- 
lion yen ($705.67 billion) for 
the year starting next April 1, 
down 2.9 percent from the ini- 
tial budget for fiscal 1994. 

This would be the first de- 


ADVEKTISEMEIVr 


DA1-NIPPON PRINTING LTD 
(CDRs) 


The umlcuaEuni announce* that a* from 
January S, I9**S ai Kax-V«*ocialic N.V.. 
Amrimfam efiv. cpn. no. VI (amenpanird 
hv an “AIMayiO at I hr CDR* Dni-Nijjjjw 


1 Via Ling Ltd. wiS br puvablr me 
10,16 per CDR. rrpr. JOO d» and with 
DUX. 10L60 per CDR. rrpr. 1.000 xbx. 



repr. 


h. IJB3JKT i 

«hm Yen 1.US0.- = Ufk I&50 per CDR 
rrpr. 1 JXHt *1 k. 


Without an AiRriatii Japanese tax =■ 
CDR rrpr. 100 


Yen i I a- = IHK 2.16 per LTW nv. MX.* 
riK. Yen 1.1110 = LMk 21 JbO per Clffl rrpr. 
1 410(1 4vu «at he deduct ciL 
\Aer 31/13.05 the dhidend will only br 


£8id under deduction of 20% Jap. tax will 


QJS; Dflx. 98.50 repr. mp. 100 and 
1.000 xhx. in accnnfanrc with tl» Jinnee 
(utrpibtiam. 

AMSTERDAM DEPOSITARY 
COMPAJYY JV.V. 
Amsterdam, 21 December 1994 


insurance reform law. 

The company said it planned to contest the order and noted 
that an earlier offer by the state, which it rejected, was for a much 

smaller -■settl emen t 


Moppets’ Record Flop Brings Suit 


FDA, the company 

Named the contamination of 
Albuterol on an unidentified 
“poorly trained” worker. It as- 
signed him to one extra day of 
training. 


NEW YORK (Bloomberg) — Jim Henson Productions Inc. has 
sued a U.S. unit of Bertelsmann AG over its handling of a contract 
to establish a Jim Henson record label featuring the Muppets. 

la the lawsuit Friday, the company formed by the late Jim 
Henson, creator erf the popular group of puppets and children’s 
characters, seeks at least $3 milli on in riimayt from Bertels- 
mann’s BMG Music unit for the poor sales performance of a series 
of Moppet albums marketed under the contract. 

Henson alleges that BMG broke promises it had made to give 
Muppets albums worldwide distribution and ultimately “lied and 
manipulated in a scheme to avoid fulfilling its monetary commit- 
ments to Henson.” Executives of Bertelsmann and of BMG Music 
could not be reached for comment. 


North Korean Nut Crop Floods South 


SEOUL (AFP) — Tons of North Korean walnuts are pouring 

the local 


into South Korea and being sold at one-tenth the price erf 
crop, Yonhap news agency said Saturday. 

The agamy quoted customs officials at Inchon as saying the nuts 
were selling at 1 million won to 1.2 million won ($1,250 to$1.500)a 
ton, compared with 10 milli on won for home-grown walnuts. 


For the Record 


Japan is p lanning 30 billion yen ($300 million) for low-interest 
loans to enhan ce the country's fiber-optic network. (Bloomberg) 
The of Israel said Sunday it would not change interest 
rates. It last raised rates on Nov. 28 by 1.5 percentage points, 
bringing its minimum rate for loans to banks to 1 63 percent. Thai 
increase was the eighth this year. (Bloomberg) 


MAILED FROM AMERICA 


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"MULTIMANAGER N.V." 


Note to the prices for the Multimanager Funds as at 
30 November 1 994 are as follows: 


World Bond 

XEU 

12.62 

European Equities 

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Fund Administration 
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Telephone: 44 (0] 624 688322 
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■ K * 






























































* 



INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE. MONDAY. DECEMBER 26 . 1994 


Page II 


Spurs Win 
Battle of 
The Centers 


The Associated Press 

down to block JcUhois 

««s ae one whose JmSi 

David s *"» 
a 15 -f<»l jumper 
wnn 2.9 seconds left lo put ihe Spurs 


NBA ROUNDUP 


v i. 




m 


\ 


K*rats 


ajM^Robinson blocked two shots bv 
OlquwoD to seal San Antonio’s 98-96 vic- 
tory at home Friday night, 

Hrw^ C feCl re f ! ^ had a ^° ut this one.” 
Houston guard Kenny Smith said. “This 

hurts more than any other game this vear." 

Kobmson came up with his big blocks 
despite playing on two sprained ankles. 
His left ankle was hurting before the game 
and he injured his right late in the first 
1 quarter, leaving the game temporarily to 
geathem taped. 

I told the guys that they were going to 
have to pick it up because I couldn’t 
jump, said Robinson, who still had 18 
points, 10 rebounds and fo>ir blocked 
shots. 

Vernon Maxwell had a season-high 2 ? 
points for the Rockets. Vinny Del ftegro 
ted the Spurs with 26 points. ' 

Cavaliers 80 . Nets 75 : Cleveland’s furi- 
ous double-teaming defense helped the 
Cavaliers win their eighth straight game, 
beating New Jersey. 

Tyrone Hill had 18 points and 19 re- 
bounds for the Cavs, who have held oppo- 
nents to 90 or fewer points in their last tune 
games. The visiting Nets played without 
Derrick Coleman, who missed his third 
straight game because of a hand injury. 

Magic 123 , Bucks 91 : Shaquille O’Neal's 
32 points led Orlando to its 11 th straight 
home victory Lhis season. The Magic held 
Milwaukee to two field goals in the first 
seven minutes of the fourth quarter to 
break open a dose game. Glenn Robinson 
led the Bucks with 20 points. 

Hawks 97 , Pistons 77 : Atlanta's victory 
at Detroit gave Lenny Wilkens the 937 th 
victory of his career, one shy of Red Auer- 
bach's record for coaching victories. Wil- 
kens can tie the NBA record with a victory 
Tuesday at Houston. Mookie Blaylock’s 
18 points led Atlanta, and Grant Long 
added 17 . 

Bulls 116 , Pacos 92 : Toni Kukoc came 
off the bench to score 27 points and help 
" Chicago snap its three-game losing streak. 
Derrick McKey led the visiting Pacers with 



Knicks And Bulk Add Up to Boring 


firm DuClum/ Ratios 

Nick Anderson drove to the basket during Orlando’s victory over Milwaukee. 


17 points, 12 in the first quarter. Reggie 
Miller had 16 points. 

Suns 126 , Nuggets 110 : Kevin Johnson 
had 21 points and 11 assists in his best 
game since coming off the injured list as 
Phoenix beat Denver. Danny Manning 
scored 18 points for the Suns, who won 
their 13 th straight at home by building a 
21 -point lead with 4 minutes, 18 seconds 
remaining. Mahmoud Abdul- Rauf scored 
22 pants for the Nuggets, hitting nine of 
1 1 shots, and Rodney Rogers scored 20 . 

Bullets 105 , CKppers 102 : Washington’s 
eight-game losing streak came to an end as 
the Bullets survived a late Clippers rally. 


Washington's 103-93 lead with just 54 sec- 
onds left nearly disappeared as a pair of 
baskets by Charles Outlaw and a 3 -pointer 
by Randy Woods cut the lead to 105 - 102 . 

Mitchell Butler had 22 for the visiting 
Bullets, who were without the injured 
Chris Webber. 

Lakers 100 , Kings 89 : Eddie Jones 
scored 14 of his 27 points in the fourth 
quarter and Vlade Divac blocked a career- 
high right shots to power Los Angeles past 
Sacramento. Cednc Ceballos added 21 
points as Los Angeles won for the 12 th 
time in 15 games. The visiting Kings shot 
40 percent and had 14 shots blocked. 


By Mike Wise 

New York Tunes Seme* 

CHICAGO — The Kmcks-Bulls rivaby, 
marinated in several seasons of intense 
playoff matchups, used to conjure up im- 
ages of everything that was good and bad 
about the National Basketball Associa- 
tion. 

A statuesque Patrick Ewing fall -away 
from the baseline. Scottie Pippen dunking, 
followed by Scottie Pippen pouting. El- 
bows — and sometimes fists — flying. 

But those images have been summarily 
replaced. 

By hideous 63 -point performances (Chi- 
cago). By four-gome losing streaks (New 
York). And, yes, by two of the game’s 
coaching elite (Pat Riley and PhD Jackson) 
no longer folding their arms across their 
immaculately tailored suits in satisfaction 
but instead wiping sweat from their fur- 
rowed brows and looking for answers to 
questions that have none. 

The Knicks and Bulls don’t care about 
their front teeth. All they wanted for 
Chris tmas was their old reputations re- 
turned to them. 

They were to meet Sunday at the United 
Center for the first time since their semifi- 
nal playoff series last season, which was 
won by the Knicks in a breakthrough year 
for Pat Riley & Co. after years of chasing 
Michael Jordan around the rim. 

How the mighty have fallen. 

New York and Chicago are the fifth- 
and sixth-best teams in the Eastern Con- 
ference. The Knicks are six and a half 
games out of first place in the Atlantic 
Division and the Bulls are four and a half 
out of first in the Central Division. 

They resemble teams in need of identi- 
ties — the Bulls still searching for Life 
Without Michael and the Knicks relying 
on old kgs and grit against the emerging 
powers in Orlando and Indiana. 

And chemistry? Don’t ask. It will only 
spoil your holiday season. 

Charles Oakley, much of the heart and 
muscle of the Knicks interior defense; is 
playing on a toe that hurts worse than he 
ever imagined. Special shoes, therapy and 
rest have done nothing to e limina te the 
possibility of surgery in the near future. 

John Starks is in a slump of Democratic 
Party magnitude, shooting wildly and 
missing from 3 -point range while he tries 
to regain the form that helped cany the 
Knicks into the finals last season. 

New York has lost its past four games, 
including three straight at Madison Square 
Garden. New Jersey and Cleveland both 
executed brilliantly down the stretch to 
deal the Knicks their last two losses as 
New York misfired in the closing seconds. 

Whether they can return to champion- 
ship form before the season is halfway 
through remains to be seen. 

As for the Bulls, who showed some resil- 


iency in their 116-92 victory over the Pac- 
ers on Friday night, h is anyone's guess 
how long it will take them to rebuild a 
champion team in Chicago. 

Toni Kukoc has shown signs of bril- 
liance — he scored 17 of his 27 points in 


'point 

the second quarter against the Pacers to 
i three-s 


help snap a three-game losing streak — but 
without the inside presence of Horace 
Grant and with Prppen’s game fading in 
and out of consciousness, there is no im- 
mediate hope for a big turnaround in sighL 
Ron Harper is still Lrying to mold his 
free-lance appeal into a structured system. 


BJ. Armstrong used to be a wonderful 
complimentary player. Now, all of a sud- 
den, he is being looked to for leadership, 
increased production and clutch play 
down the stretch. But then, it is probably 
better asking him than Dickey Simpkins or 
Wai Perdue, two of the Bulls starters. 

So as they meet for the second time in 


three years on Christmas Day, this is what 
s of the i 


one of the great rivalries in recent league 
history may come down to: Jud Buechler 
posting up Herb Williams. 

Pass the egg nog. WhOe you are at it, 
please change the channel. 


Maryland Wins 1 , 000 th Game 
In 138-72 Rout of Morgan State 


The Associated Pros 


Although they bad no designs on setting 
records, the llth-ranked Maryland Terra- 


pins couldn’t help themselves 
“We were scoring inside and outside," 
Joe Smith said after getting 25 ofhis team's 


COLLEGE HIGHLIGHTS 


school-record 138 points. “And they were 
fouling us an awful lot.” 

Indeed, Morgan State, without a victory 
this year, sent Maryland to the free-throw 
line for 67 attempts on Friday in College 
Park, Maryland. That the Terps made but 
41 was about the only negative coach Gary 
Williams could find in the 138-72 rout of 
the Bears. 

Morgen State did not take its first free 
throw until 12:03 was left in the game, and 
finished with only 13 attempts. 

But Williams was more interested in the 
26 his team missed. 

“I'm always concerned about that,” he 
said. “I would like to see us shoot around 
73 percent. We have the type of team that's 
gong to get fouled, so we'd better make 
them if we do get fouled.” 

The victory was the 1 . 000 th for Mary- 
land in 72 seasons. The Terps have lost 
743 . 

4 I don’t think any of us thought about 


scoring all those points or winning the 
1 . 000 th ~ * ~ “ 


t game,” said guard Duane Simpkins, 
who matched a career high with 1 1 assists. 
“We just wanted to have a good showing.” 
Simpkins also was glad Morgan State 
was the opposition, conadering Maryland 
was coming off a 10 -day layoff. 

“You don't want to come out against 
North Carolina,” he said. 

Maryland had right players score in 
double figures, including Johnny Rhodes 
(191 Soninas Jaakcvidus { 18 ) and Exree 
Hipp ( 16 ). 


No. 3 Arkansas 82 , Tulsa 63 : Corliss 
Williamson scored seven of his 21 points 
and Davor Rimac made two straight 3 - 
pointers as the Razorbacks, playing at 
home, opened the second half with an 18-0 
run. 

Tulsa made just three turnovers in the 
first half while building a 36-32 lead, but 
committed seven fouls in the first 4:14 of 
the second half. The Razorbacks hit six of 
nine shots during the nm. 

No. 10 Connecticut 85 , Fairfield 68 : In 
Hartford Connecticut, Ray Allen had 21 
points and Doron Sheffer 16 , and both 
keyed runs that helped Connecticut. 
UConn never trailed, breaking from a 7-7 
tie on five straight points by Sheffer early 
in the game at Hartford. 

The Stags kept it close, trailing 19-16 
before Allen had five points during a 9-0 
nm to a 28-16 lead. The Huskies led 43-30 
at halftime. 

No. 16 Minnesota 115 , San Jose St 68 : 
fronting off its worst offensive showing of 
the season, Minnesota put seven players in 
double figures — including Townsend On 
with 17 points — and the Golden Gophers 
snapped, playing at home, their three- 
game losing streak. Minnesota was 
thrashed, 71 - 50 , on Wednesday by Texas 
Southern. 

The Golden Gophers shot 52 percent in 
reaching their highest point total in five 
years. The loss gave San Jose its worst start 
since 1958 - 59 . 

No. 20 Wisconsin 75 , Loyola Maty- 
mount 60 : In Madison, Wisconsin, Mi- 
chael Finley had 17 points to move into 
second on the school’s career scoring list, 
and the Badgers spotted the visiting Lions 
a 7-0 lead before talcing control. 

The Badgers also got 16 points and 15 
reoounds from Rashard Griffith before he 
Touted oat with just under four minutes 
remaining. 


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TriofiSy 
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- 70 10 
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- 20017 % 
43 36313 % 

- 1851 3 &. 
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_ 7040 1 ft 

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A 1031 10 % 

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Page 12 

M O 


INTERNATIONAL HRBALD TRIBUNE, MONDAY, DECEMBER 26, 1994 


M O N DAY 

SPORTS 


One Man Turns the Ponies to Profit 


By Andrew Beyer 

Wajfdngton Pest Service 

HONG KONG — Because of all the 
uncertainties involved in horse races — 
dishonesty, racing luck, the human ele- 
ment — handicapping seems a very inex- 
act science. But when Mr. B. set out to 
study the races in Hong Kong, he at- 
tempted to do so with a purely math©* 
maucftf approach. His success has made 
him a wealthy man. 

Unlike most students of the game, Mr. 
B. never sought to devise a system for 
picking winners. Instead, his goal was to 
rate each horse's probability of winning. 
He wanted to know that a horse has say, 
a 12 percent chance of winning —just as 
he had been able to calculate, as a black- 
jack gambler, that under certain condi- 
tions the player had a 51 percent chance 
of success. 

He found his inspiration in an obscure 
book, Steven Brecher’s “Beating the 
Races With a Computer ." Brecher took 
every important handicapping factor — 
speed, class, weight, jockey — and de- 
vised ways to give each horse a numerical 
rating in each category* Then a computer 
would analyze past results and deter- 
mine the optimal way to weight those 
factors. This is hardly novel: Plenty of 
math ematically inclined handieappers 
have done the same, and they haven’t 
won millions. The reason, Mr. B. recog- 
nized, is that most mathematical ratings 
am too simplistic to be of much use. 

Take for example, the distance factor. 
How do you rate a horse's suitability at 
today's distance? B rechefs book pro- 
posed giving a horse a value of I if he had 
finished within six lengths of the winner 
in a race within one-sixteenth of a mile of 
today’s distance: otherwise; he'd get a 0. 
Mr. B. wondered, “Can every subtlety in 
this factor be expressed by either 1 orO?" 
He knew the answer was no. 

Using regression analysis, he looked at 
all the other handicapping factors except 
distance to predict a horse’s finishing 
position in a race. Then he looked at the 
actual finishing position and the differ- 
ence, or residual was what he took to be 
the effect of the distance factor. 

At first he started looking for a linear 
relationship between performance and 
distance — what would amount to a neat 
straight line on a graph. But when he 


SCOREBOARD 

-Jm'. evr sg . •w m.-rTK-JP LA 


realized that the true graph of this rela- 
tionship was more likely to be a curve, he 
hired a university mathematics professor 
to study the factor further. He recently 
got a fax from the professor, who said, in 
part, “We must assume that the distance 
preference curve is quadratic with no 
possibility of a local minimum. This 
means that admissible curves are those 
over any subsets of regions Al, A2, A3.” 

No. I don’t understand it either. But 
this is the way Mr. B. has approached 


Tf you know the 
probabilities and have 
access to the calculating 
power, there’s no room 
left for debate. 9 

Hr. B., successful gambler. 


each of the factors in his computer model 
— and there are 120 of them. 

After weighing all the factors, the 
computer assigns each horse a rating and 
then translates it into bis percentage 
chance of winning today’s race; I scoffed 
at the notion that a computer could be so 
precise and know that a horse has exactly 
a 2 percent chance of winning a race. But 
Mr. B. produced a set of statistics show- 
ing that, indeed, the horses with a 2 
percent rating win roughly 2 percent of 
the time. The 10 percent horses win 
roughly 10 percent of the time. 

After his handicapping software has 
finally generated .the probabilities on a 
race, Mr. B.’s betting software takes 
over. The Royal Hong Kong Jockey 
Club disseminates its odds electronical- 
ly, and those odds can be fed directly 
into the computer, which compares them 
with the probabilities and looks for bets 
that offer value. 

If a horse has 1 chance in 10 of win- 
ning, and he Is at 5 to 1 odds, the com- 
puter shuns him- If the same horse is 12 
to 1, that’s a 20 percent overlay. The 
computer would give a horse a rating of 


1.20 and dictate a wager on him. Of 
course, win betting is the easy part. The 
computer also calculates the probability 
of every quineDa and trifecta combina- 
tion and compares it to the expected 
payoff, looking for overlays in these 
pools too. The computer dictates a bet 
on any combination whose potential 
payoff exceeds its probability. The great- 
er the overlay, the greater the size of the 
wager. 

The computer calculates the optimal 
size of each bet, which sounds tike a 
daunting task, but Mr. B. gestured to- 
ward a book called “The Theory of Gam- 


a solved problem. If you know the proba- 
bilities and have access to the calculating 
power, there’s no room left for debate. 
Only when people are dealing with un- 
certain probabilities do they have to re- 
sort to rules of thumb." 

Since he began his operation nearly a 
decade ago, Mr. B. has experienced only 
one losing year — a random fluctuation 
of luck, he says. He has won so much 
money and amassed such a mammoth 
stake that he now is constrained from 
betting as much as he would like. Even in 
the huge Hong Kong betting pools he 
could knock the odds askew. 

Yet he looks with a sense of wonder- 
ment on his own success, knowing that it 
was not foreordained. 

“Fm staggered," he said. “1 didn't 
know this was going to happen. There 
could have been any of a number of 
impediments. The racing could have 
been dishonest. Or the Jockey Club 
could have taken countermeasures 
against us." 

Perhaps Hong Kong is the only place 
where ms method could work. Although 
Mr. B. said “somebody ought to try to do 
this in America,” he said he knew that 
Hong Kong was the perfect laboratory 
forms comparer analysis. With only two 
tracks and 900 thoroughbreds, and no 
horses shipping in or out, the computer 
can master all of the relevant factors 
much more easily than it could in the 
United States. It is likely that Mr. B.’s 
success was an extraordinary juxtaposi- 
tion of the right time, the right place and 
the right man, and that no horse bettor 
ever again win achieve what he has done. 


NBA Standings 

EASTERN CONFERENCE 
AfloMIC Dh-Jttoo 


, 


W L 

Pd 

GB 


Orlando 

20 5 

MO 



New York 

12 11 

3X2 

7 


Now Jersey 

12 16 

X29 

9to 


Boston 

10 15 

A00 

10 


Philadelphia 

9 16 

360 

11 


Miami 

8 15 

348 

11 


Washington 

7 1$ 

344 

12 

* 

Cleveland 

Central Division 
17 8 

480 

__ 

; 

Indiana 

15 8 

AS2 

1 

1 

Charlotte 

14 11 

340 

3 


CMcago 

12 12 

300 

4Mi 


Atlanta 

11 IS 

A 23 

4 W 


Detroit 

9 14 

391 

7 

i 

i 

Milwaukee 

7 17 

392 

9VS 

WESTERN CONFERENCE 
Midwest Division 

W L Pd 

GB 

i 

Utah 

18 B 

392 

— 

Houston 

14 9 

309 

2V, 

i 

5an Antonio 

13 9 

391 

3 


Dallas 

12 18 

345 

4 

i 

Denver 

12 11 

322 

AVi 

Minnesota 

5 19 

300 

12 

J 

i 

Phoenbi 

Padfte Dtvlsioa 
19 « 

■740 

_ 

i 

Seattle 

16 7 

394 

2 


1— A- Lakers 

15 8 

352 

3 


Portland 

12 18 

345 

5te 


Sacramento 

13 11 

342 

5VS 


GoWen State 9 IS .375 9VS 

LA. Clippers 3 22 .12B 16 

FRIDAY'S RESULTS 

PMtaMpMa 17 19 2S 24—15 

Banna 26 it 19 15-77 

P; Bonus 12-71 7-734, Weattwrspoon 5-14 3-4 
13; B; Wilkins 5*1» S-8 17, Brown 7-14 3-3 18. 
Rebounds — Philadelphia 47 (Bradley 10). 
Boston bt (Ellison 161. Assi s t * - T hllodelphln 
14 I Barr os 4), Boston 14 (Wesicv 51. 

NNJmn 22 m M 13 — n 

Clevetaad 20 21 25 H-88 

N: Anderson 3-12 12-12 18. GHHam 5-152-312; 
C; Hill 4-7 6-10 10, Jo-Wlll tarns 5-11 4-4 16. 
Rebounds— New Jersey 44 (Beniamin 0). 
Cleveland 50 (Hill 191. A»M*— New Jersey!? 
(Anderson $1. Cleveland 20 (Brandon 4). 
Milwaukee 26 38 22 13- 91 

Onaodo 29 M 22 39-121 

M.- Robinson 19-15 W> 28, Baker 7-14 1-4 15; 
O: O'Neal 17-10 0-12 32. Anderson 9-15 4-4 27. 
RnMmds— AllhvovfteeX! /Den> 41, Orlando 57 
(Grant ill. AssMv-MHwaukee 27 (May- 
berry, Murdock 71. Orlando 33 (Show 121. 
Charlotte 11 22 22 25- 91 

M tart 30 34 2* 22— 114 

C : Burrell 7- 12 54 19, Johnson B-1B 2-2 10; M: 
Rice 14-24 44 37 . coles 0-12 M 19. Rebawds- 
Charlotte 42 (Mourning 101; Miami si (wiuts 
12). Aerts**— Charlotte 19 (Johnson, Mourn- 
ing 4), Miami 30 (Coles ill. 

Atlanta 24 24 21 24— *7 

Detroit 13 20 » 15-77 

A: Lana 6-W 54 17. Bknrtock 7-13 3-3 10; D: 
Hill 5-13 9-11 19, Houston 9-13 M 23. Re- 
boands— Atlanta SB (Koneak 01, Detroit 51 
(MMJer 13). Assist*— Atlanta 71 (BJortock I), 
Detroit 17 (HUL Dwmars 5). 


inmana 25 22 12 is- 92 

Chicago 23 33 28 39-114 

I: McKey 44 4-4 17, Miller 3-13 B-1B 14; C: 
Kukoc IMS 3-3 27, Armstrong 4-13 M 16. Re- 
bound*— Indiana 41 (D-Oavfe 14), Ctilooao 41 
(Phspen 11). Assfsft— fiKffana 19 (Workman 
5), Chicago 24 (Kerr 6). 

Houston 22 25 30 21—94 

San Antonia 30 21 19 28-98 

H: OtaluwonB-19 3-4 19, Maxwell 10-194427; 
S: Elliott 7-14 1-2 19, Del Negro 0-17 0-10 36. 
Rebounds— Houston 51 (Thorpe 13). Sm, Anto- 
nio 54 (Retd. Robinson 10). Assist*— Houston 
20 (Smith. CasseM 4). San Antonio 22 (Johnson 
11 ). 

Denver 24 20 24 29-1H 

Phoenix 28 29 27 33—136 

D: Rouere 6-13 4420. Abdul-Rout 9-11 W2Z; 
P: Johnson 0-17 54 71. Manama S-M 24 18 . 
Rebounds— Denver 45 (Mutombo 19), Phoe- 
nix 39 (Manning 8). Assists— Denver 33 (Pack 
9). Phoenix 34 (Johnson 11). 

Da Bos 17 21 28 32— 91 

Pgrttanl 32 25 81 30-110 

D: Tarotev 4-1344 17,Smlth 7-12 4418; P: 
C. Robinson 12-10 34 31. Draxler 5-13 5* 10. 
Rebounds— Dallas 61 (TarpleyB), Portland 43 
(Dudley 10). Assists — Dallas 17 (Wilcv 6). 
Portland 34 (Strickland 10). 

Washington l* 25 31 29—105 

L-A.CUWMTS 25 27 14 84—102 

W; Cheaney 0-20 1-1 T7, Butter 0-1244 22; L: 
Murray 9-10 04 IB, Vaught M2 9-10 20. R0- 
boaods— Washington 58 (Howard 13), Los An- 
geles 51 (vaught 12). Assist*— Washington 19 
(States 4), U» Angeles 2D (Richardson 5). 
S acram ento 34 22 29 21— 89 

LA Lakers 24 22 25 29—109 

S; Williams 8-14 44 20, Richmond 7-19 9-10 


DENNIS THE MENACE 







PEANUTS 

CHRISTMAS "THANK YOU" 
LETTERS ARE IMPORTANT.. 
THEY 5HOULD ALWAYS 
BE WRITTEN PROMPTLY... 


tfou. -fyn 
wotuA&riZrtnJi, 


AND 

WITH 

FEELING. 







GARFIELD 


The sest fWTTAMUT Chhisthas bem? oves i& 

THAT I DJWY HAVE ID BE vCCV AMI, WORE 


Tim inn mw m suktti n >w: 


incnwdiwlMMNi I 
cnsMB>iotadisquae.ioWB ] 
tturaanxivMnb I . 


GITUL 


SOMEO 


MJNTJG 


JURNIY 




WHAT LAWYERS 
OFTm FACE IN A 
COURTROOM. 


Numnga tno eroM bun to 
ImHwrar U MSB. 
guM^nuMomn 



'BETTER CHANGE INTO SOMETHING 4 




BEETLE BAILEY 

WE'RE HAVING AN \ WU'RE BOTH A U JTL| | - 
ARGUMENT, CHAPLAIN. ) figgj Hilt® 1 




Rough Sailing for America’s Cup Competition 


& 


25; L: Caboltos 0-20 54 21. Jones 10-14 5-7 27. 
Reboond*— SocranwrfoW (Polmlce W. Los 
Angeles 54 (Dtvoc 101. Assisi*— Sacramento 
23 (Webb 71. Las Angeles 24 (Vim Exe( 6L 

Top 25 College Results 

How the tag 25 tea m s In The Associated 
Press? menu ooHege basketball noB lared Fri- 
day: 

3. Arkansas <8-11 beat Tutso 82-43. Next: vs. 
Oklahoma at Honolulu, Weawsdav; ID, Can- 
nedteot (5-0) beat Foil-Held 854ft. Next: v*. 
tta.23 llllnoi* at Hertford, Tuesday;!!, Mary- 
land (9-2) beat Morgan St. 138-72. Next: vx La 
Salle. Tuesday; ifc Minnesota (7-3) beat San 
Jose state 11548. Next; at James Madison. 
Wednesday; 28, Wisconsin (4-1) beat Loyola 
Mmvmaunt 754B. Next: of Stanford. Tuesday. 

Other Major College Scores 

SOUTH 

Evansville 9S, South Alabama 48 
Memphis 100. NE Louisiana 79 
MIDWEST 

Lovota, 111. 72. Drake 40 
Marquette 82, Crotghton 50 
N. Illinois 14 , Morehcad St. 49 
SOUTHWEST 
Tennessee 74, Houston 58 
PAR WEST 

Fresno SL 84, Nevada 75 

Idaho St, 89, Sacramento SI. 59 

lawa 61. BVD+tawatl 57 

San Francisco 9ft Col 5t.-Fvllertan 82, OT 

UC Irvine 49. SL Mary*. CaL 64 

Utah 7* Utah St. 71 

Wyoming SB, weber 54. S4 


By Barbara Lloyd 

Hoe York Times Service 

SAN DIEGO — If the 
America’s Cup racecourse 
were an amusement park, the 
dominant ride unquestionably 
would be bumper cars. . 

Several collisions during 
practice races off San Diego in 
the past two weeks have left 
the 75-foot racing boats 
bashed and battered. But there 
have been no injuries and few 
of the sailors seem all that con- 
cerned. 

“We're practice racing, and 
that in itself lets the aggression 
come out," said Hartwell Jor- 
dan of San Francisco, a sail 
t rimm er on the Japanese team. 
“We’re battling away, but it’s 
all in good spirit-” The first 
formal races among cup yachts 
are scheduled to begin Jan. 12. 

Indeed, Spirit of Unum, the 
training beat for the PACT 95 
defense syndicate, was barely 
able to stay afloat after a colli- 
sion last Tuesday with VDJe de 
Paris, a practice boat for the 
Defi 95 French challenge. The 
crew was almost ready to break 
out its contingency supply of 
air bags — yes, boats have 
them, too — for popping into 
the whole like oversized life 
jackets. 

It took “extremely good sea- 
manship” to keep the boat 
from sinking, said Kerry Ger- 
aghty, yard manager for PACT 
95. In what is known in yacht 
racing parlance as a T-bone 
collision, the bow of Ville de 
Paris slammed broadside into 
the midship section of Spirit of 
Unum. The four-foot wide 
hole just above the waterline 
on Spirit of Unum looked like 
a cardboard cutout of the 
French yacht’s bow. 

While both sides suggested 
that it was the other team's 
fault, no one seems to be press- 
ing the issue. The cost of re- 
pairing the PACT 95 boat has 
not yet been determined. But 
the syndicate said it planned to 
retire the boat that day any- 
way. 


•.aE'vr.’ue -ni X*. * W-v: _i - ; Lt-i.- • -'•> 

NFL Standings 

AMERICAN COMER HENCE 




Cast 




W 

. L 

T 

PCL PFPA 

V-New Engtond 

10 

6 

0 

325 351312 

y-Mlaml 

9 

6 

0 

300 342307 

Indianapolis 

8 

8 

0 

300 307 320 

Buflato 

7 

9 

0 

MS 340 356 

N.Y. Jets 

6 

10 

0 

375 264 320 


central 



W 

L 

T 

PdL PFPA 

x-pfttsburgh 

12 

4 

0 

-750 316234 

y-Ctevetand 

11 

5 

0 

388 340 204 

Cincinnati 

3 

13 

it 

.itt mm 

Houston 

2 

14 

0 

.125 224 352 


West 




W 

L 

T 

Pd. PF PA 

x^SanOleaa 

11 

5 

Q 

388 381 3M 

v- Kansas City 

9 

7 

a 

343 319 29B 

LA Raiders 

9 

7 

a 

JM 30JJ27 

Denver 

7 

9 

0 

338 347 394 

Seattle 

4 

to 

0 

375 ffl7 323 


“It hasn’t set our program 
back at all,” said Geragbty, 
noting that the team’s new cup 
yacht. Young America, was be- 
ing prepared for its Jan. 7 com- 
missioning ceremony in San 
Diego. „ . • 

The Ville de Pans was in- 
volved in two other collisions, 
both with Nippon *94, one of 
two new Japanese boats sched- 
uled for the 1995 America’s 
Cup trial races. 

A Dec. 14 accident left the 
French boat with a bucket- 
sized gash out of its stern, leav- 
ing a black scar there for the 
next practice round. 

“For us, the beauty factor is 
not important right now,” Mid 
Barbara BarrieSc, a spokes- 
woman for Defi 95. 

Two days after that, Ville de 
Paris and Nippon banged into 
each other again. The impact 
resulted from the stem of ytQe 
de Paris swinging around into 
Nippon’s bow. Bertrand Pace, 
the French tactician, and 
Thierry Peponnet, Deli’s alter- 
nate skipper, were tossed into 
the water. 

“When we saw the video of 
the collision that night, we all 
had a laugh,” BameUe said. 
“Before Thierry was knocked 
off the boat, he was about to 
raise a protest flag. When he 
surfaced in the water, he was 
waving the flag.” 

A sense of humor has carried 
the French team through more 
than its share of calamities 
since arriving in San Diego 
three weeks ago. 

Moving its entourage, which 
the syndicate described as “80 
workers, 30 spouses, 31 chil- 
dren, a dog and a cat,” was the 
easy part Getting its boats 
squared away was not. 

The crew watched in horror 
Dec, 7 as France 2-3, the first 
of their two new boats, was 
dropped Hke a rock on the tar- 
mac at the San Diego com- 
pound. It was being lifted into 
the water by crane for a day of 
practice racing against the old- 
er Ville de Paris. 


V-GrecnBoV » 7 0 £43 382287 

y-CMcoso 9 7 0 -543 271307 

Tampa Bov 4 10 0 J75 251351 

mat 

W L T Ret PFPA 
x-San Francisco I* 2 4 JM7 47T275 

New Orleans 7 9 Q 438 348407 

Atlanta 7 9 0 3T3389 

LARams 4 12 0. -250 284 345 

x-d Inched division 
y-d inched pkjyofl spot 

Saturday** Games 
Atlanta la Arizona 6 
Indtanapafls 10. Buffalo 9 
H.Y. Giants 15. Dallas 10 
Green Bay 34, Tampa BOY 19 
New Entaoncf 13. Chicago 3 
Cincinnati 31 PMtadetpWa 30 
Cleveland 3S. Seattle 9 
Kansas City 19, UL Raiders 9 
New Oilcan 30. Denver 28 
Houston 24. N.Y. Jets 10 
San Diego 37. Pittsburgh 34 
Wa s hingto n 24. LA. Rams 21 


NATIONAL CONFERENCE 
East 


x-Dallas 
N.Y. Giants 
Arizona 
Philadelphia 
Washington 


y-MIrmewto 

v-Datrolt 


W L T Pet. PFPA 

12 4 0 .750 414 248 

9 7 0 £63 279 345 

8 8 0 400 235 247 

7 9 0 .438 308 308 

3 13 0 .188 3204)2 

Central 

W L T Pd. PFPA 

9 6 0 400 335 300 

9 6 0 400 337 315 


ONE DAY INTERNATIONAL 
Indio w Pakistan 
Sunday. In Dboftfl 

Pakistan inntnss: 120 (ail out 47 overs) 
Indio inmrtBs: 03-4 In (33 oversl 
Result; India wan bv tour wickets. 
SECOND TEST 
Australia w. EngHraL 1st day 
Sed or day , In Mcttowoe 
Australia 1st Inntiws; 220-7 
(Play mimes Monday.) 


CALVIN AND HOBBES 


OF A 
COURSE 




WIZARD of ID 


Tour vwiter ju*t oavs lapym ten 

we HeirtwtfM muewe ?- ! 




Hi it 




TELL US WHO'S KI£W 


WRONG. SO PON'T FL0HT. 

. BE KIN*'* 


X MATE IT WHEN 
HEfS IN A HUffPY 


THE FAR SIDE 


aw 


(Aiwhcn UmomM) 

JunaRK UMJS AZURE ramrod RUBBED 
Amok Copco— Back mam can bsauawibr 
Bt*— NUMBERS 


LUB 

DOONESBURY 


'-€3 






An inspection revealed that 
the boat’s internal lifting box 
— a reinforced structure used 
for moving the craft — had 
tom away, causing the yacht to 
fall onto its keel The crash 
forced the keel up into the deck 
nnd ruined the mast. 

The damage was not as ex- 
tensive as it (XHdd have been, 
with the crowds ability to do 
much of the repair work itself 
holding the repair bill below an 
initial estimate of SI million. 

“It was like a bullet passing 


through ihe chest and uOf 
touching any internal organs^. 
David Kilponec, a syndicate, 
specialist said. - The boat is exg> 
pected to go back in the toS§: 
early tkds week. The tcam *j$S 
ond new boat is sch^itiled^® 
begin sailing by Jan. 2. 

got so that at the end^ 
each day, the crew was 
at each other and 
what do we do toiughy 
rieUe said. “But I think Hxg; 
would rather get out tberemg; 
get bit with an old boat than||y 
sail cautiously.” . 

■ 



SIPELIWES j 

Yankees’ Abbott Turns Free Agent|| 

NEW YORK (AP) — Jim Abbott, an Olympic star who m 
lived up to expectations in New York despi^itdiing * 
in 1993, became a free agent when the Yankees didn t offer a T9SJ 

^Th^Yankecs declined to give. Abbott a qualifying offer o&i 
least $3 million, 10 percent more than his 1994 salary, the am o$ 
required to keep him a restricted free agent under the rules owggi 
imposed Friday. , . 4 

Abbott Mime to the Yankees from California on ■Dec.-.o^. jgg 
The previous two years he had ERA’S of 2.77. and 
we&rlS-Uin 1991- However, he was 11-14 witha437ER^^ 
New York in 1993 , despite pitching a no-hitter in one 
moments of Yankee glory on Sept- 4, and he was 9^8 with>^ 
ERA in the strike-shortened 1994 season. 

Maradona to Coach Another Gub 

BUENOS AIRES (AF) — Diego Maradona has signedi^a 


. •SrffT- 


test gin. mm uauHot uuuj uiv 

Maradona signed a one-year contract reportedly -trorufcr, 
5500,000. He lasted eight weeks in his first coadiing jobjjg.;. 
Deportivo Mandiyu. He quit in early December, after his teagjgy . 
last in the standings, won just one match of 12. . 

Racing Chib last won the first division title m 1966, ana&g^r 


Kacang uuo last wan me nrsi division uucw «w, 
following year it beat Scotland’s Celtic to win the Intercoutincnt®: 
Cup. The dub has fired 50 coaches in the last 20 years. - ■*> ‘ 

For the Record 

Saen Sor FloendHt of Thdhmd retained his World Boxing 
Association flyweight title on Sunday when he- knocked OWL- 
D anny Nunez of the Dominican Republic in the 11th round of 
their 12 round fight, (Reuters] . 

. Prosecutors have decided against filing crinnnaLchaiges iagaihst 
a police officer who shot a man in the head with a plastic build 
daring Stanley Cup rioting in June in Vancouver. . f AP) 


ff. r * 


INTERNATIONAL FRIENDLY 
Brazil 2, Yugoslavia e 


• ' baseball’. 

. Aneriata League 

BALTIMORE — Ag reed la twins vNth Har- 
oW Baines, destBnatad hitter, on 1-yaar con- 
tracL FaOeil to alter 1995 contracts to DwtatH 
SmlttvoutfleHler; Jim Poatopntfmvand Jetf 
Tackett, catcher, making them free agents. 

BOSTON— Failed ta Oder 1995 controcts to 
Tony Fossa* and avis Nabhotz. Pitchers, 
making them tree agents. 

CALIFORNIA— Agreed totems with Ken 
Patterson, pitcher, on a minor league oorv- 
trecL Foiled ta otter 1995 ra m rods to Mark 
Letter and Boh Patterson, pitcher* making 
them tree agent s . 

CHICAGO— Furled ta otter a 1995 contract 
to Joev Coro, tnflefder, making him a free 
agent. 

DETROIT — Fa! led to otter T995 contracts to 
Mfk* Gardiner and Gene Harrts. pitchers; 
Chad Kreuter, catcher; and Junior Felbbout- 
fWder, making mum free agents. 

KANSAS CITY-FolkM to Dtteru 19*5 co*?- 
had to Stan Belinda pitcher, making Mm a 
tree agent. 

MINNESOTA— Agreed to terns wllti Jeff 
Retxxitet, k iH eUer, on 2 -year c or r irva . 

NEW YOR K-FoUed to offer 1995 contracts 
to Jim Abbott pitcher, and Randy VMorrib 
tofleWer, making them free agents. 


OAKLAND— Fatted to otter a I contract 

to Scott Hemend. catcher, making htow a tree 
agent 

TEXAS— Fatted to offer 1995 contracts ta ££ 
Brkm Bahanon <md Crls Carpenter, pitchers, - 
and Dm Strangs, fnlteMcr. making (hem 
free agents. 


ATLANTA-Fattad to after JtM con tracts 
to Derek UiltauisL Mfce Stanton and Gragg 
Olson, pitchers, maldna them free agents. 

CHICAGO— Failed to offer a 1995 contract 
to Jaw Bautista, oHcher, making him a free 
agent. 

COLORADO— Failed to offer a 1995 con- 
tract to Charlie Have*, ttilni baseman, mak- 
ing Wm a free agent 

FLORIDA— FaBed to after a 1995 u n t r ue! 
to Rich Renteria, taflsMBr.moMna Mma tree 
agent. Agreed to terms with Steve Decker, 
catcher, on 1 -ycsr contract. 

HOUSTON— Agreed to terms wMh Soft 
Servo Is, catcher, on a one- year contract.. 

MONTREAL— FaUad to otter a im con- 
tract to Lenny Webster, entarer. making torn 
a free agent. 

NEW YORK— Failed to otter 1995 contracts 
to Pete Harnisch «( Roger Mason, anchors, 
making them free aowits. 

PHILADELPHIA— Failed lo alfer 1995 con- '■ 
tractate Ben Rivera, Pitcher. and Todd Pratt, 
catcher, making them tree agents. r 

PITTSBURGH— Agreed to terms wffh Or- 
keido Merced, oufttektor, on Wear contract 

SAN DIEGO— Agreed to terms wffft Bto 
Roberta, (ntteteer, on 2-vear contract. Felted 
toaffera ms contract to Billy Bean, oufftaM- 
er. making 14m a free agaiL 










ll 


mr* me 

rtOPER THlHe? 
to oo vufteH 
fmeoue & 
CU0KIH& 




5HE 

womb 




TmnAYE&m&Ke.! 


Every Tuesday 

Coo tad Kimberly Guenond-Belruncourf 
Tel.: (33 1 } 46 37 94 76 
Fa* |33 1)46 3793 70 
or your nearest HT office 
or representative 




BLQNDIE 

**>* ABOUT 
°P) °LK BIG SALE 

^r/spasloti sutc.pwits 


t JUST 
*«ED SOCKS 




i RIGHT THfS 
MERE Err THE 




*Tfh® tlra thing fw gonna do Is wipe 

that smile oil your facer 






LJS (£j> 




INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, MONDAY, DECEMBER 26, 1994 


Page 13 


% sp&rts 


*• i- ■*>: 






-■‘=3 




: ~-v 




lU - v 



Central Division Sweeps NFC Wild-Card Berths 


Patriots and Chiefs Take 
Open AFC Playoff Spots 


The Aaodatetf Press “It’s a Special day. We’ve had 

The Central Division com- our backs to the wall all sea- 
pleted a sweep of the National son." 

Football Conference wild-card If the Lions beat Miami, New 
playoff berths even though two England wins the AFC East. A 
of the postseason qualifiers Dolphins victory gives them the 


were idle and another Iosl 
Kansas City and New £ng- 


di vision championship. 
Regardless, all four NFC 


land grabbed the unclaimed Central qualifiers will play in 


spots in the American Football the opening round of the play- 
Conference, and San Dieeo offs nest weekend. In the AFC, 


inference, and San Diego offs nest weekend. In the AFC 
earned a first-round bye. Cleveland, which beat Seattle, 

Green Bay’s victory over will play at home next weekend. 
Tampa Bay on Saturday not Kansas City's victory over 

— 1 ■ the Los Angeles Raiders put the 

NFL ROUNDUP Chiefs into the playoffs and 

ily secured die Packers a play- “f *5 
f berth. h..« _. A f c Central champion 


only secured the Packers a play- 
off berth, but also eliminated 


the NewVork StTrSTS- which lost to AFC 

ants’ defeat of undermanned Diego, al- 


D^as ^ theb^rr. a ^ °2 

izona, which lost to Adanta. 


“"““l "UlMl JUSI nuouid. L. , 1 .^ 

New England finished off a Dallf m the NFC. 
sensational surge with its sev- Gaels 19, Raiders 9: Mark 



enih strai; 
and grab 


ictory at Chicago Collins returned an intercep- 
an AFC playoff 78 yards for a touchdown 


Hnn> Rn AbmnwAfcncc Frucc-PiaK 

The Cowboys’ Blair Thomas, right, was brought down by John Booty of the Giants. 


spoL The Bears (9-7) advanced on the final play of the first half 
along with Green Bay (9-7) in “ Los Angeles. The Chiefs beat 

■ r. — _ . J _ n e .r l A.L 2 - 


the NFC Central despite the the Raiders for the 10th time in 
loss. New York’s victory al- H games. 


caught three touchdown passes San Diego, Natrone Means' 20- 
as the Packers outgained the yard touchdown run on fourth- 


lowed Chicago in. 


Joe Montana completed IS 


Bugs, 433-214. Brett Favre and- 1 tied the game and John 
threw for 291 yards and set Carney’s 32-yard field goal with 


The other two Central teams of 24 passes for 214 yards and a 
— Detroit and Minnesota — touchdown before leaving after 


did not play Saturday. Detroit suffering a contusion m his left 
(9-6) was at Miami on Sunday knee. Marcus Allen, a former 
night, and Minnesota (9-6) is Raider, became the ninth run- 


home against Francisco on tting back to surpass the 10,000- 


Monday night yard mark, gaming 132 yards 

If the Vikings win, they on 33 carries. 


the NFC Central crown, u they 
lose and the Lions win, Detroit 


Packers 34, Buccaneers 19: 
In Tampa, the Packers got ex- 


i’T&.awrf- 

Sno Miaanch/Keium 

Raiders quarterback Jeff Hostetler being sacked by Chiefs' defenders for a loss. 
Hostetler completed 14 of 27 passes for 167 yards before leaving the game with an injury. 


finishes fust If both lose; Green actly what they needed to make 


Bay gets the division title; 

“I’m going to watch some 
TV. that’s for sure,” Packets 


the playoffs — a third straight 


team records for completions 
(363) and touchdown passes 
(33) in a season. 

Giants 15, Cowboys 10: The 
host Giants capped a season- 
ending six-game winning streak 
that followed a seven -game 
slide, which followed a 3-0 start. 
The two-time Super Bow] 
champion Cowboys, who have 
a first-round bye, did not look 
good or particularly interested. 

Falcons 10, Cardinals 6: The 


3 seconds left gave the Chargers 
next week off. San Diego had a 
28-point fourth quarter even 
though quarterback Stan 
Humphries was knocked out 
with a bruised right thumb. 


emphasized by this defeat, its 
seventh straight. The Eagles 
blew a 17-point lead in the sec- 
ond half and let the Bengals 
kick two field goals in the final 
3 seconds. Doug Pelfrey tied it 
with a 22-yarder. The Eagles* 
Brian O’Neal flubbed the 
squibbed kickoff to turn the 
ball over with :01 left. Pelfrey 


Humphries was 21~for-35 for hit a low, wobbly kick from 54 


victory. Sterling Sharpe went gating Cardinals aheady knew 


over the 1,000-yard receiv 


coach Mike Holmgren said, mark for the fifth time 


Replacements: The Dreadful Word Is Spoken 

The Brave New World of Baseball 


By Murray Chass 

New York Times Service 

NEW YORK — The Idea struck the 
general manager as absolutely ludi- 
crous. 

He was talking about replacement 
players, with whom major league own- 
ers are expected to try to stock their 
strikebound teams next spring, and be 
was asked how much clubs would 
have to pay them. - 
“I guess you’d have to offer them at 
least the mmirmun salary,” said the 
general manager, who, like some oth- 
ers, spoke about the subject as long as 
he would not be named. “I really 
haven’t given it much thought” 
Well, he was asked, what would 
happen if three chibs sought the same 
replacement player? Would they get 
into a bidding war for him? 

He paused for a second, then said, 
sounding a bit incredulous, *T never 
thought tfaere'd be a bidding war on a 
replacement player.” 

Say hello to the bizarre new world 
of baseball. It’s not the proposed new 
United League, but good old Major 
League Baseball, the folks who are 
mired in the longest strike in sports 
history and whose lineups of lawyers 
are becoming better known than their 
lineups of players. 

Companies won't be printing col- 
lectible cards any time soon of Chuck 
O’Connor and Rob Manfred and 
Gene Qrza and Lauren Rich, but they 
and their colleagues have bear and 
will continue to be on televuacm more 
often than Frank Thomas, Ken Grif- 
fey Jr. and Barry Bonds. 

The coming confrontations betore 
the National Labor Relations Board, 


in UJS. District Court and in the 
cloakrooms of Congress will be the 
focal point of the baseball world in 
coming weeks and months, but other 
matters soon will begin demanding 
attention. 

Spring training, for example. And 
all the ramifications of that usually 
bucolic time of the calendar year and 
the sports schedule. 

Only 53 days to pitchers' and catch- 
ers’ reporting! 

Somehow that cry clangs with a 
more dissonant tone than in other 
winters. Exactly which pitchers and 
catchers will they be? Will they be 
strike-breaking pitchers and catchers? 
Minor league pitchers and catchers? 
Ova , -the-huI pitchers and catchers? 
Park rats ana sandlot kings? 

They won’t be Latin American, 
Australian and Japanese pitchers and 
catchers because they won't be able to 
obtain visas to work in the United 
States as long as they would be replao- 


But surely the owners didn't imple- 
ment a salary cap simply as a testimo- 
nial to milliners. If they don't open 
camps and prepare to play the season, 
or at least try to play it, their action 
last week would be meaningless. 

And if they open camps, they will 


need players to populate 
about those replacement players, 
some of whom could trigger bidding 
wars? 

“That’s a subject that hasn’t been 
discussed all along,” Selig said. 
“That’s not on the agenda to discuss 
at this point in time. I’m sure there are 
differing views, but we’ve had no for- 
mal or informal discussions.” 

Those deliberations, though,. are 
coming to an operations committee 
meeting soon. 

“We have to look al the format of 


Union officials have advised play- 
ers and agmts to place a unilateral 
moratorium on signings until they can 
study all of the ramifications of the 
new system. 

If players do begin signing and the 
labor board or a court ultimately de- 
cides the salary cap was imposed im- 
properly, they could reap a windfall of 
monetary damages as a remedy to the 
clubs’ action. 

Meanwhile, when they open spring 
camps, just about the time the NLRB 
could be issuing a complaint against 
the clubs based on the unfair labor 
practice charge the union will file 


their playoff fate when Ronald 
Moore's dive from the Atlanta 
1-yard mark was stopped by 
linebacker Jessie Tuggle on the 
last play. Arizona failed to ful- 
fill Buddy Ryan's vow in his 
first season as coach that a play- 
off berth was certain. 

Patriots 13, Bears 3: The Par 
t riots were unstoppable as they 
earned their first playoff ap- 

g earance in eight years. Drew 
ledsoe passed for 277 yards 
and a touchdown and set an 
NFL record for attempts (655) 
in a season. Ben Coates set an 


249 yards and a touchdown. 

Browns 35, Seahawks 9: The 
Browns will be back in Geve- 
land Stadium for a wild-card 
game next week. They finish ed 
off the stingiest defensive sea- 
son in franchise history, limit- 
ing opponents to 204 points, 
easily a team record for a 16- 
game season and the fewest for 
an AFC team since Pittsburgh 
yielded 195 in 1978. 

Colts 10, BtHs 9: It was an 
ignominious end to the Bills’ 
four-year hold on the AFC title. 
Buffalo had its first losing re- 


yards as time expired. 

Saints 30, Broncos 28: In 
Denver, Jim Everett threw for 
343 yards and three touch- 
downs before being injured. 
Backup Wade Wilson made the 
lead stand up for New Orleans. 
Torrance Small caught six 
passes for a career-high 200 
yards, including touchdown 
catches of 36 and 75 yards. 

Redskins 24, Rams 21: In 
what might be the Rams* last 
game at Anaheim — they are 
negotiating a move to St Louis 
— a crowd of 25,705, the small- 


cord since 1987, the year before est in the NFL this season, saw 
it began rirwnriiatiiw the East Los Angeles lose its seventh in a 


Typifying the Bills’ season, Buf- 
falo had a chance to win on the 


Oilers 24, Jets 10: In Hous- 


NFL record for receptions by 
tight end in a season with 96. 


final play of the game, but Steve ton, the Jets dropped their fifth 
Qinstie's 46-yard fieldgoal try str aigh t as the Oilers, ranked 


tight end in a season with 96. 
Chargers 34, S teeters 31: In 


bounced off the right fiprighL 
Bengals 33, Eagfes 30: Phila 


28th in scoring, had their best 
offensive output of the season 


ddphia's rapid collapse was with 382 yards. 


the next 60-plus days and begin to 
understand what we have to do, obvi- 


ing striking pitchers and catchers. 

But not so fast Before the bizarre 
new world of baseball readies that 
stage of what would then be a six- 
month-old strike, its leaders must 
make some decisions. 

“Obviously, the dubs have said we 
want to have spring tr ain i ng .” said 
Bud Selig, the acting commissioner. 
“There’s no question we want to have 
spring training. Are there any specific 


any master plan? No, there 
Txat form will it take? There is 


isn't What form will it take? There is 
no master plan at this point Wfll there 
be a season? Same thing.” 


ousty in uncharted waters,” Selig said. 

“What we need is a 60- to 90-day. 
schedule with all the ramifications 
very well thought out Thar's some- 
thing I'm sure we’ll begin to look at 
next week and dearly after the first of 
year. We'll have something definitive 
eariy to mid-January.” 

While the owners study the immedi- 
ate future on the field, representatives 
of striking players will scrutinize the 
new economic system — the salary 
cap — and other implemented ele- 
ments of the new structure to deter- 
mine if players should even sign con- 
tracts. 


practice coarge toe union win me 
Tuesday, owners mU look for massive 
defections from striking players. 

But what they will probably need is 
a massive collection of replacement 
players. The general managers hope 
noL 

“No general managers like the 
idea,” one general manager said. “My- 
self included.” 

Another general manager speculat- 
ed that when the time comes to seek 
replacements, dubs will look at old 
free-agent lists, the list of six-year mi- 
nor league free agents and the tele- 
phone list of players who retired a 
year or two ago, voluntarily or other- 
wise. 


Long Good-Bye in Anaheim? 
Rams Fans 'Might Even Cry’ 


“There might be some veteran play- 
ers who see it as their last dunce,” he 
said. “They’d probably say: ‘I don’t 
have to worry about guys throwing at 
me. As soon as there's an agreement, 
HI be released.’ On other hand, a 


I might be able to help the team, 
gut it through for a year.’ " 


CROSSWORD 


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ex 

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me?’ 

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za FedEx rival 
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yeah?" 

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so Doe’s mate 
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22 Tough-guy 
actor Ray 
as Corday’s victim 
eoGen.Robt 

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Bradford ship 
43 Sports tacUKy 
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i Mystery writer 
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The Associated Pros 

ANAHEIM, California — Will the Rams jflt 
Southern California for a new home in St Louis? 

Like a soap opera that keeps its viewers hang- 
ing on for the surprise plot twist, iheLos Angdes 
Rams have kept meir fans and an entire region in 
suspense for mouths with this will- they -or- 
won’t-they Saga- 

Uncertainty about the team’s future overshad- 
owed the action Saturday in what could have 
been the Rams’ final game in Anaheim. 

“We might even cry," fan Louis Loera of 
Fullerton said. 

If indeed it was the end, the Rams gave their 
fans unpleasant memories with a 24-21 loss to 
the Washington Redskins. The rest of a 4-12 
season was hardly worth remembering, either. 

The dub is being wooed by the offer of a new 
domed stadium in St. Louis, a dty that -has 
hungered for an NFL team since losing the 
Cardinals to Phoenix seven years ago. 

“It scans inevitable. AH the signs point that 
way,” Don Bridge of nearby Chino Hills sighed 
about a possible move. *Td still like to hope that 
since they haven’t signed on the bottom line, 
there’s stffi hope.” 

But few fans kidded themselves that owner 
Georgia Frontiere wouldn't move the Rams, who 
are projecting a loss of about $6 million in 
bankrupt Orange County this year. 

The Rams have had serious negotiations with 
SL Louis, although there’s no timetable for an- 
nouncing their intentions. 

Several fans were quick to blame Frontiere, 
who inheri ted the team after her husband. Car- 
roll Rosenbkxjm, died in 1979. 


Her alleged crimes? Inept management, lack 
of football knowledge and being cheap with 
player salaries. 

“We should sell Georgia and keep the Rams,” 
Robert Galotti of Van Nuys said. ‘You have to 
pay money to make money.” 

Not far from where Galotti tailgated in the 
Anaheim Stadium parking lot, Barbara Hitbrink 
ranted against Frontiere in between sips of 
champagne. 

“I don’t think they care two beans about 
Anaheim or the fans,” said Hitbrink, a season 
ticket-holder from Anaheim Hills. “It’s the me 
generation and she’s one of the big leaders.” 

“Georgia has done nothing to foster any loyal- 
ty,” added her friend, Ann Marie Goulding of 
Glendale. *TH give them a 1 percent chance of 
staying.” 

Fan support has dwindled with the team's fifth 
straight season of double-digit losses. Saturday’s 
game was blacked out locally after 35,066 tickets 
were distributed. Attendance for the game was 
25,705 in 69,008-seat Anaheim Stadium. The 
Rams averaged 42^12 a game this season, lowest 
since moving to Anaheim in 1980. 

Typical of the transient population in South- 
ern California, there were plenty of supporters 
dressed in Redskins clothing. 

“You put a mediocre team out there, you’re 
going to get a mediocre turnout,” said Javier 
Villarreal of Los Angeles, dressed in a blue-and- 
gold Rams jacket “Six years ago when they were 
winning, there were 60,000 fans here. I never 
thought it would come down to this.” 


Wednesday 

STAGE/ENTERTAINMENT 


•by Snowy E- Paul 

© New York Times/Edited by Will Shorts. 


Sohitioa to Pracde of Dec. 23 


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Reviews from the world's most famous stages appear in the 
Stage/Entertainment pages - from London and New York theater 
to opera to symphony concerts conducted by renowned artists. 
Along with book and movie reviews, this section provides infor- 
mation on current ente rtainm ent options all over the world. 

Every Wednesday in the International Herald Tribune. 


lirralh 


INTERNATIONAL 


mm mm 


tribune. 


PUBLISHED WITH THE NEW YCJBK TIMES AND THE WASHINGTON POST 




/) 









* 


Page 14 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, MONDAY, DECEMBER 26, 1994 


LANGUAGE 


Have You Gotten Over It? Don’t Ask 


By William Safire 

W ASHINGTON — “G* 
over whatever persona] 
hang-npsyon got," said Manon 
Barry, re-elected mayor of 
Washington, after having been 
brought low four years before 
on a cocaine charge. To those 
who did not vote for him, he 
repeated: “Get over it.” 

This imperious imperative 
ca use d a furor in politics 
hometown. The sadrist Marie 

Knssdl hailed ge/ over /r as “the 

city’s new motto " 

Curiously, only two months 
ago, the media-harassed Su- 
preme Court justice Clarence 
Tho mas was reported to have 
told a group of black officials in 
his chambers: *Tm going to be 
here for 40 years. For those who 
don't like it, get over it” 

Last month, a disk jockey on 
WMZQ, a country music station 
in the nation’s capital, reported 
that a turkey-rights group had 
suggested people eat tofu for 
Thanksgiving, and asked listen- 
ers far appropriate songs to re- 

SS£*5£E a Quarter, Call 
Someone Who Cares” (theme 
music for “How the Gingrinch 
Stole Christmas”); Pam TiDis's 
“Don’t Tefl Me What to Do,” a 
favorite of libertarians, and — 
hoe we go — a tune recorded in 
the summer by the Eagles, re- 
united after 14 years, titled “Get 
Over It." 

And where did the rock 
group pick up the phrase? A 
bumper sticker after the 1992 
presidential election read: 
“Bush Lost. Get Over It.” 
Shortly after that, when the 
Buffalo Bills won their division- 
al championship and returned 
to the Super Bowl, their motto 
was “We’re Bade, America. Get 
Over IL” (They lost a g ain , and 
they still can’t get over it in 
upstate New York.) 

This phrase, first used in 1839 
in “Thirty-Six Yean of Seafar- 


phrase to get over has centuiy- 

ojd fong meanings of “to im- 
prove one’s status” and “to se- 
duce.” In its modern vogue 
sense, get over it has shouldered 
aside let's move on, last year’s 
triumphant brushoff, and is in 
one sense challeng ing the ever- 
popular imperative exclamation 
forget til 

As an exhortation, get over it 
means “surmount your self-cre- 
ated obstacle; cure your self- 
induced debilitation.” A related 
sense, more of a put-down, is 
“it* s your problem, not urine” 
(sung to the tune of “Here’s a 
Quarter, Oil Someone Who 
Cares”). It overlaps forget it in 
die narrow sense of “don’t 
bother me with that nonsense.” 

Sidney Hannan, of Harman 
International Industries of New 
York and Washington, writes: 
“On the way into the city this 
meaning. I asked the cabbie to 
wait for me a few minutes at my 
house. He said it would be diffi- 
cult to park there because ’this 
dty is crazy with politics — 
forget it!' What did he mean by 



The meaning of forget it in 
tins context is “don't ask,” its 
root meaning “2 am facing a 
situation of such stress that it 
will be impossible to cope.” 
(“Ask me how I feeL” “How do 
you feel?” “Don't ask.”) 


mg life.” has evidently achieved 
icfe 


its voguish pinnacle today. 
Without the it, the infinitive 


What a wonderful 
there’s a word for < 

The chancellor of Syracuse 
University, Kenneth (Buzz) 
Shaw, was expounding to trust- 
ees on plans for the school’s 
125th anniversary next year: 
“halfway between a centennial 
and a sesquicentennial ” He 
looked to me for the right word 
for “125th”; I flunked. 

In my wallet was an ad from 
Plain Old Pearson’s liquor store 
in Washington pushing “Grand 
Marnier Centcinquamenaire,” 
which is booze with that 150- 


year-old French flavor, de ri- 
gueur for a Latin-rooted sesqui- 
centennial celebration every 
century and a half. But there is 
no bottle advertised for one and 
a quarter centuries. 

Somebody must have had 
this problem before. Frank 
Abate, the dictionary and refer- 
ence specialist in Old Saybrook, 
Connecticut, rooted around 
and came up with the answer in 
a 1993 OED update, with a cita- 
tion from a 1962 New York 
Times Book Review. 

Seems that back then the 
people of Ddavan, a town in 
Tazewell County, Illinois, 
wanted to hold a I25th-anniver- 
sary whoop-de-do for the 
town’s founding. Dek van’s cel- 
ebratory group “went to the 
Funk & Wagnalls dictionary 
people,” accenting to The New 
York Times. “From there it re- 
ceived the suggestion of ‘Quos- 
quicentenmalf meaning a hun- 
dred plus a fourth.” Sure 
enough, in the next citation 
from a 1962 copy of The Bloo- 
mington (Illinois) Pantagraph, 
there was the coinage in use; 
“The Ddavan Quasqui centen- 
nial Celebration doesn't offi- 
cially begin until noon today.” 

“The combining form quas - 
qui-,” Abate says, “blends parts 
of Latin qmdrans ’one-fourth,’ 
and sesqid-, derived from a 
blending and m ndifiratip n of 
Latin semis, ‘one-half,' plus -que, 
an enclitic meaning ’and.’ ” (An 
enclitic is an attachable word- 
element, like a suffix, from the 
Greek klit, “slopes”) 

While we’re at it, if you’re 
planning celebrations, there is a 
novennial (9 years), as well as 
duodecenmal (12) and viginten- 
nial (20); similarly, there is pe- 
rennial (occurring year after 
year), along with plurennial 
(lasting for many years) and 
aeonuu (everlasting). 

So, Buzz, I’ll see you on the 
quad for Syracuse's quasqutixn- 
tenniaL When we get to 175, 
we'll figure out a new word. 


New York Times Service 


The Tumultuous Life of Saint- 



By Katherine Knorr 

International Reraid Tribune 

P ARIS — Antoine de Saini-Exu- 
piry was a great literary success 
and a deeply unhappy man. His disap- 
pearance in 1944 in a P-38 lightning 
made him legendary, and the subject 

of factual and doubtf^anecdotes 
nearly as famous as “Le Petit Prince.” 
Stacy Schiff, an American whose ex- 
cellent biography is out pretty much 
simultaneously in the United States, 
France, Italy, Germany and Britain, 
portrays this exasperating man both 
skeptically and sympathetically, 
something she says maybe only a 
woman could do. 

"There's a patience in this biogra- 
phy pebaps because it was written by 
a woman,” she said, adding that mm 
writing about Saint-Ex tend to find 
him a “spoiled brat.” Saint-Ex, of 
course, was spoiled — virile and child- 
ish, courageous and scatterbrained, 
tirelessly fighting roles of all kinds. 

“What draws one to the life is this 
real contrast between opposite ends of 
the spectrum,” Schiff said by phone 
from New York — a man “who wrote 
but was not intellectual, who was a 
pilot but was a Luddite, who in the 
*40s couldn't muster up any politics” 
“Because he so often bucks the 
trends, Saint-Exup&ry provides a love- 
ly prism through which to view France 
in the first half of the century.” 
Saint-Ex, always part of the pop 
culture landscape in this country, is 
having a good literary year, too. Fifty 
years after his disappearance, Gafli- 
mard is publishing a new edition of his 
complete works in its Pleiade collec- 
tion, which gives them at least physi- 
cal longevity. “The little Prince” is 
most wiael 



Schiff tracked down girlfriend* of 
which there were many m America 
(Saint-Ex was unhappily mamed to 
the South American Consuelo Sun- 
da). Schiff had uimsual access to 
Saint-Ex’s longtime French mistress, 
the author, under the ps^donym of 
Pierre Chevner, of one of the most 
important early biographies. She 
spoke on the condition that shcnptbe 
Maned, making her in tins took the 
maddeningly mysterious Madame de 
B- (aeiswiddy known to ^NeUydc. 
Vogfifc, and was named m Weosters 


__ikind of discretion is common 
in France, where de Vogfl6 is other 
blandly referred to as Chevner w as 


Mm Ptri&ps. bom "Sfuai-Enpby** (Xaopf) 

Saint-Exupery being dressed for a high-altitude mission. 


the most widely translated book in the 


French language, but Saint-Exupfcry’s 
wen in the 


more serious works have been 
critical doldrums for years. 

A loi is known about Saint-Exu- 
p&ys family, about his legendary 
crashes and about the lonely and ex- 
hilarating hours he spent above sea or 
sand in starry darkness. Less is known 
about Saint-Ex the man. Partly be- 
cause of French privacy laws, partly 
because of French biographical tradi- 
tion, which tends either to reverence 
or to name-throwing, it has taken An- 
glo-Saxons to round out the life. 


Schiff s thoroughly researched and 
sourced book, which has what it takes 
to be the definitive work, follows by 
two years Paul Webster’s strong biog- 
raphy. Through many interviews and 
much digging in government archives, 
Schiff adds significant information on 
Saint-Exupery's tumultuous private 
life, on the more than two years he 
spent in the United States after 
France surrendered — when he wrote 
what are arguably his greatest works 
— and on the final months when he 
was flying in the Mediterranean. 

Among the odder thing s £r-hiff 
stumbled across was a tape Saint-Ex 
sent to Jean Renoir for a film project, 


which after 50 years of silence was dug 
up for Schiff by the filmmaker’s fam- 
ily along with 19 tapes of (unrelated) 
jungle music. 

Schiff sets aside the French myth 
that Saint-Ex was useful in getting 
America into the war, saying there is 
no evidence that anybody in the U. S. 
government really listened to him ex- 
cept clandestinely, to keep a watch an 


someone whose political loyalties 
seemed unclear. He was 


OUS 


both of Pfctain and of de 
therefore reviled by many in the divid- 
ed French expatriate community. His 
books were banned both by the Gaull- 
ists and by the Nazis. 


an unnamed intimate friend, and 
where the heirs of Sami-Exup&y have 
f n«A> biographers’ lives difficult and 
tried to stop auctions of letters. 

In 1943, when Saint-Ex sought to. 
fly be was too old and in bad 
physical condition. He howled as he 
was dressed in flying gear (by others, 
since he could hardly bend over), he 
used more oxygen than others in the 
cockpit, he refused to learn English, 
he got his meters and his feet mixed 
up, and yet he charmed and blustered 
his way up again and again. 

Leon Gray, an American office: at 
the time, recalled for Schiff a converSa- • 
tion in which Saint- Ex was again plead- 
ing to fly: “Sir, I want to (he for 
France.” To which Gray replied: “1 
don’t give a damn if you die for France 
or not, tot you’re not going to do so in.: 
one of our airplanes.'’ But he did. ' 

Schiff s husband, Marc de La Bruy^; 
fare, is French and, only coincidentally 
she, says, the great-grandson of avia- . 
tion pioneer Louis BregueL In France,; ... 
the book is published under her mar- 
ried name, because her publisher, AI- _ 
bin Michel, felt that “a book written . 
about France by a foreigner would be 
welcomed more warmly if that person 
happened to be called La Bruyfcre.” 

In the end, the biographer’s work is 
interpretation. SchifFs Consuelo is . 
considerably more destructive and 
less a victim of Saint-Ex than she has 
been portrayed elsewhere (“He was ' 
tortured beyond belief by this wom- 
an,” she says), and her Saint-Ex. is a 
hero. The 33-year-old Schiff is not 
without the biographer’s nightmare: 
“What if I’ve got him terribly wrong?” 





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Forecast for Tuesday through Thursday, as provided by Accu -Weather. 



Continued mild Tuesday Stormy weather will sweep It will be unsettled with rain 
through Thursday in New through northern Europe at times In much of Japan; 
York City and Philadelphia From London to Berlin and the north will have snow, 
with sunshine each day Paris to Stockholm, strong Paris ot Korea will have 
Rains are Btafy m S an Fran- winds and rains wiB abound some rain and snow. In 
cisco Tuesday into Wednes- Tuesday, unsettled weather Shanghai, ram aril end Tues- 
day and In los Angeles wtfl hit Wednesday or Thurs- day; south China, including 
Wednesday Into Thursday, day Geneva. Munich and Hong Kong, win be cool and 
Rather rruid tor the season Vienna will improve. Milan, mostly dry. Malaysia. 
Tuesday through Thursday Rome Madrid, and Lisbon Indonesia and Sngapore vrfl 
In Chicago and Detroit. wdl be waited. have a few thunderstorms. 


Middle East 


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Literary Movement: What’s Next for Britain’s Granta? 


By Sarah Lyall 

New York Times Service 

L ONDON — It was more than 15 years 
ago that Bill Buford grabbed the ailing 
literaiy journal Granta by the scruff of its 
neck and shook it back to health, trans- 
forming it from a magazine for Cambridge 
undergraduates to a fat quarterly of fiction 
and nonfiction that has become a must- 
read in literary circles here and in the 
United Slates. 

If Buford, now 40. has sometimes 
seemed to run Granta as a vanity press — 
his vanity, his press — he has also muscled 
it onto the literaiy scene, through a combi- 
nation of first-rate contacts, relentless en- 
ergy and an exuberant belief that if he likes 
something, he can print it. 

The m agaz in e’s circulation, a sorry 800 or 
worse when Buford took over, now hovers 
at just below 100,000, with about two-thirds 
of that in the United States. The company 
also publishes 20 or so books a year in a 
joint venture with Penguin Books, and this 
year it expects to register a small profit 
Now that Buford, a native of California 


who came to England to pursue a graduate 
degree in English and never left, is aban- 
doning his creation for the new post of 
fiction and literary editor at The New 
Yorker, people who know Granta are ask- 
ing, what will become of it now? 

“It’s his magazine,'’ said the travel writ- 
er Redmond O’HanJon. a contributor and 
friend who remembers fondly when he first 
met Buford, at a dinner about 14 years ago. 
The guests included the poet James Fenton 
and the authors Ian McEwan, Martin 
Amis and Timothy Garton Ash. and by the 
end of the meal, O'Hanlon said. Buford 
had signed them all up. 

“I really can’t imagine it without him.” 
he added. 

No one has yet emerged as the front- 
runner for Buford's job. But Rea S. Heder- 
man, the owner of The New York Review 
of Books and the majority shareholder in 
Granta, said a number of people had al- 
ready telephoned with suggestions. 

Granta is one oFa handful erf widely read 
literary publications to publish new fiction 
and independently commissioned report i ng 


at lengths that can stretch to 40,000 words. 

“Authors definitely gain from being in 
the magazine in that they are more widely 
read, than they might otherwise be,” Liz 
sCalder of the publishing house Bloomsbury f , 
said, although she confessed to being a bit 
grumpy at what she described as Buford's 
tendency to take credit for discovering au- 
thors others had already found, like Salman 
Rushdie years ago. She isn't alone in that 
criticism, but Buford is usually forgiven. 

“He has extremely good taste and a very 
good nose,” Odder said. “He knows 
what's good when he sees iL” 

Buford said he agonized for the good 
of a month before accepting the job at 
New Yorker. “I think it’s probably 
true that I’ve reached a plateau at Granta,” 
be said. 

‘Thedrcuiation is stable, the readership 
is pretty stable, the magazine’s integrity 
and quality and levd of achievement are 
all pretty stable/* be said, “lx occurred to 
me that if 1 stayed, the only think I could 
contribute at this point would be to do 
more of the same thing.” 






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