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London, Tuesday, December 27, 1994 

No. 34,782 

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French Commandos Kill 

4 Hijackers in Marseille 

Raid Rescues AU Remaining Hostages 

By Alan Riding 

New York Times Service 

PARIS — French paramilitary com- 
mandos stormed a hijacked Air France 
airliner at the Marseille airport Monday 
night, freeing about 170 hostages and kill- 
ing the four Islamic militant g unm en who 
had seized the plane in Algiers 54 hours 

Government officials said that 13 pas- 

sengers, three crew members and nine po- 
licemen were also wounded or imured in 

licem e n were also wounded or injured in 
the attack, which was launched as night 
fell in Marseille. Prime Minister Edouard 
Ballad ur said the operation was carried out 
with “exemplary courage and efficiency." 

The g unmen, who murdered three hos- 
tages in Algiers before they were allowed 
to fly to France eariy Monday, reportedly 
belonged to the Armed Islamic Group, the 
most violent of the Islamic fundamentalist 
groups that for the past three years have 
been trying to topple Algeria’s army- 
backed government 
In a statement released here earlier 
Monday, the Armed I slamic Group said 
the action was in reprisal for France’s 
“unconditional political, militar y and eco- 
nomic aid” to the Algerian regime. It de- 
manded an end to this assistance as one of 
Lhe conditions for freeing the hostages. 
Interior Minister Charles Pasqua said 
ErtcCmMB/Rnrtc ^ decrislon to storm the plane was made 

French anti-terrorist commandos entering the hijacked Air France Airbus at MarsfilleN Mnr ignan e ahpnrt: nn Monday, after it was clear that no peaceful solution 
Prime Minister Edouard BaHadur said fliat the operation had bp«»n rarripH n»it with u i»\ MnjiLsr y muragp anH «>ffiriHiry " was possible. Other government officials 

said the gunmen had threatened to kill 
another hostage at 5:00 P.M. if the plane 
were not authorized to fly to Paris. 

They said the order to storm the plane 
came moments after the gunmen fired 
some shots at the airport control tower 
around 5:10 PJSL Five minutes later, with 
French television stations broadcasting 
live, viewers could see Hashes of grenades 
lighting up the darkened tarmac and could 
hear the sound of repeated gun shots. 

Because shots and explosions were 
heard for more than 10 minutes, there were 
initially fears that an action planned to last 
barely one minute had gone badly wrong. 
And as rumors flew, French radio and 

television reporters on the spot spoke of 
large numbers of dead and wounded. 

But even before Mr. Pasqua appeared 
alongside Mr. Bahadur at a news confer- 
ence in Paris to give an initial report on the 
operation, the TF1 and LC1 television 
channels were able to broadcast more de- 
tailed dramatic of the action re- 

corded with special “night” cameras. 

These showed that the 30 or so comman- 
dos from the Gendarmerie's anti-terrorist 
unit, who were dressed in black and wear- 
ing ski-masks, started their attack at the 
front of the plane in a move aimed at 

See HIJACK, Page 5 

‘It Was Really Hell’ in Cockpit 

■- i .*!».**- y's 

MARSEILLE — French ami-terrorist 
police came under a hail of fire Monday 
when they burst into the cockpit of an 
Air France Airbus where the four gun- 
men were holed up. 

“It was really hell,” said the bead of 
the commando force that launched the 
assault, which killed all four young Is- 
lamic f undamentalis t guerrillas. 

Major Denis Favier said the hostage- 
takers had barricaded themselves in the 
cockpit and “opened the door from time 

to time to lob a grenade at us." He said, 
“We came under a rain of automatic 

LCI television ran what it said was 
exclusive film of the 15-minute attack at 
the Marseille airport, showing dark-clad 
and hooded commandos entering the 

Airbus A-300 by the front and rear pas- 
senger doors shortly after 5:15 P.M. 

senger doors shortly after 5:15 P.M. 

Major Favier said they lobbed stun 
grenades into the passenger cabin after a 
shot was fired at the airport control tow- 

See RESCUE, Page 5 

Yeltsin Signals Readiness for Peace Talks With Chechens 

By Michael Specter 

New York Times Service 

m MOSCOW — In a sign of the deepening 
■chaos surrounding the Kremlin, President 
Boris N. Yeltsin on Monday told his Na- 
tional Security Council that be was pre- 
pared to initiate peace talks with Chechen 

At the same time, one of his most influ- 
ential deputies masted publicly that, if 
anything, the military assault on Grozny, 
the Chechen capital, must intensify. 

Almost every major figure in the govern- 
ment appeared to have a different account 

Monday of what has taken place in the 
breakaway province of Chechnya and 
what will soon occur, creating the sense of 
an increasingly rudderless Russian govern- 

Mr. Yeltsin is scheduled to address the 
nation Tuesday. Despite his talk of peace, 
many people here feel th?.t Russian troops 
will soon storm Grozny. 

“It is imperative that gangs in Chechnya 
be disarmed and Grozny taken quickly,” 
said Deputy Prime Minister Nikolai D. 
Yegorov, who has been acting as the chief 
government negotiator throughout the cri- 

sis. “Any delay will be viewed inside and 
outside Russia as a sign of the nation's 

That has been the hard line assertion for 
weeks. Deputy Prime Minister Sergei M. 
Shakhrai underscored that position Mon- 
day night "by saying that liOops would not 
soon be withdrawn, and that if a blockade 
of the capital did not quickly bring about 
peace talks then further use of force would 
clearly be justified. 

“Why are people talking about storming 
the dtyT’ Mr. Shakhrai asked in a televised 
interview. “I would call it liberation.” 

Mr. Yeltsin appeared in public Monday 
for the first time since be sent 40,000 
troops to Chechnya two weeks ago. 

“The first stage is coming to an end,” he 
said. “We are going to look at when we can 
wind up the participation of the military.” 

Although there was almost no bombing 
in the capital on Monday, his military 
continued its assault on the region sur- 
rounding the city. 

Battles raged throughout the day at the 
crucial village of Argun, 16 kilometere (10 
miles) east of Grozny. Shelling was con- 
stant in Lhe capital during the day. 

Mr. Yeltsin emerged from a lengthy se- 
clusion to chair the meeting of the Nation- 
al Security Council, which is made up of 
civilian and military leaders and has 
played a central role in the war. 

Under attack from human rights advo- 
cates for days of bombings in Grozny that 
appeared mostly to affect civilians, Mr. 
Yeltsin endured some of his sharpest criti- 
cism Monday. 

“I amply cannot understand what is the 
reason for our young and not-so-young to 

Pakistan Orders 
India to Close 
Mission, Citing 
Terrorist Links 

See YELTSIN, Page 2 

Baby Boom Brings New Life to Sarajevo 


By John Pomfret 

Washirrglon Pm Service 

SARAJEVO, Bosnia-Herzegovina — Slavics Topic bad an 
exhausting Christmas. 

Shortly before midnight on Christmas Eve, her contractions 
started. Sometime before 3 AM., she gave birth to a girl, 
tentatively named Melissa. Sunday she rested at Sarajevo's 
main hospital while her baby lay swaddled in a metal basket 
next door. . 

The decision to have a child was a difficult one, Mrs. Topic 
said. Despite hopes that a new cease-fire will hold, there is little 
hope of an imminent end to Bosnia’s 32-month-old war. But 
theRoman Catholic woman and herMuriim husband resolved 
to damn the future and have the child anyway. 

“We couldn’t wait much longer,” said Mrs. Topic, 36. “The 
clock is ticking for me — and for my country." 

In Sarajevo, more and more couples are coming to the same 
conclusion. A mini baby boom has erupted in the besieged 

capital — a product of slightly better times, impatient couples 
and some government encouragement Last year, Kosevo Hos- 

Haiti Soldiers Protest 
Plan to Reduce Army 

pital counted 1,350 newborn babies; this year, the figure is 
expected to be up almost 50 percent breaking 2,000 for the 
first time in three years. 

The development illustrates a fundamental change in the 
way Sarajevans view the war that has enveloped them since 
April 1992. Last year, couples avoided pregnancy because 
many did not want their children born and raised in a war 
zone. Abortions skyrocketed, as did the cost of birth control. 

Now, the war does not appear any closer to resolution, but 
Sarajevo's siege has become almost routine for the city’s 
readmits. Child-bearing is more common, abortions are less 

See BIRTHS, Page 2 

Moderate Republicans Back Their Speaker 

For Now at Least, Gingrich Has Thar Allegiance in Congress 

PORT-AU-PRINCE. Haiti (Reu- 
ters) — At least three people were in- 
jured outride Haitian militaiy bead- 
quarters Monday during a 
demonstration by Haitian soldiers pro- 
testing a plan to scale down the army, 
witnesses and military officials said. 

One Haitian uniformed soldier and 
two Haitian civilians were wounded 
and more than 10 Haitian soldiers were 
detained, according to a U.S. military 
police contain, Randy Durian. 

One witness, Patrick Ajenor. said the 
unrest started when two of the protest- 
ing soldiers slapped the army chief of 
staff, General Moadfcsir Beaubrun, out- 
ride the military headquarters. The gen- 
eral then “shot the two soldiers and they 
fell on the ground,” Mr. Ajenor said. 
That account could not immediately be 

By Michael Wines 

New York Times Service 

WASHINGTON — Representative 
Sherwood Boehlert, who represent Uuca 
^.instate New York in the new and deeply 
^SStiveHouse of « 

ft^tyon the left fringe of the Republican 

P3 He has sided with Democrats on many 
JS^ There have been yeas when 
500 . n«n Liberties Union and 

u Civil Liberties union and 

APLGIO have rated his legislative 

Ameri - 

Mr Boehlert says he will be mar ch- 
the conservative tune of Representa- 

K of Gem. the new 

nve incwi i, fnends. 

ove ^^Vrsowfll his friends. 

H< *}™ be^ay Spnsed if you find any 

-d in a* mfcr- 

view. difference with the 

“We may ha^«a ornery ^ ^ 

leadership on ^ “p^yer. But in many 

tike to the general 

reduced intrusion 

theme. Iess gc» regulation. 

the 30 ^0 fflidW- 

^^Republicans among the 231 

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Gre °L E. P.5000 South AfnCT — --K6 

ES*** i j D UAE 

J 15Q u.s. Mil. (EurOSLlO 
Kenya 2 m bafawe. Z im-Cfl-00 
— — 

members of the party in the House are a 
big enough bloc to do in Mr. Gingrich’s 
budding revolution if they choose. The 
same is true in the Senate, where eight or 
nine moderate Republicans could easily 
block the will of the new Republican ma- 

But Mr. Gingrich, the same fellow who 
so adeptly plays the television role of right- 
wing ideologue, has managed to sweep the 
moderates deeper into the conservative 
fold, the House moderates say. 

Mr. Gingrich met with moderate leaders 
even before his first successful race for the 
House leadership in 1989. 

In recent months, for example, be has 
held almost weekly meetings with Republi- 
can women, most of them moderates, and 
has emerged in some erf their minds as a 
more pragmatic and accommodati n g lead- 
er than they first exported. 

“One thing about Gingrich: he’s amazed 
me with his willingness to sit down and 
listen, to take advice, to be open to sugges- 
tions,” said Representative Deborah 
Pryce, a second-term moderate from Co- 
lumbus, Ohio. “He understands he’s one 
vote. He’s never twisted arms off.” 

Some of that, they say, has surfaced in 
his appointments: one moderate. Repre- 
sentative Susan MoUnari of New York, ha» 
won a midlcvd position in the House lead- 
ership, and others, including Represents 
Live Jim Leach of Iowa and Mr. Boehlert, 
have gotten important committee posts 
that could have been denied them. 

Moderates in both chambers say they 
will work behind the semes, first to push 
Republican legislation as much toward the 
center as possible, and then to push what- 
ever compromise they can achieve into 

Eventually, that may prove less true in 
the Senate, a place whan legislators march 

largely to their own drummers and where 
Mr. Gingrich’s haste looks a bit unseemly. 

And moderates in both chambers agree 
that wielding the broad brush of their 

U.S. Acts on Korea 

The United States is sending a diplo- 
mat to North Korea at Pyongyang's 

party’s agenda is the easy part. “It’s when 
we come down to some of the specifics that 

we come down to some of the specifics that 
we may have some trouble, like the distinc- 
tion between a moment of silent prayer 
and a constitutional amendment,” said 
Representative Marge Ronkema, a New 

invitation to help speed the release of a 
U.S. helicopter pilot. Meanwhile, the 

North charged that the helicopter over- 
flight was deliberate espionage requir- 
ing further investigation. (Page 3) 

Otnytted by Our Staff From Dispatches 

ISLAMABAD, Pakistan — Pakistan or- 
dered India on Monday to close its consul- 
ate in Karachi, saying it was “sponsoring 
terrorism” in the city. 

The Pakistani order to close the mission 
reflected a clear worsening in the ties be- 
tween the two traditional foes. 

Foreign Secretary Najmuddin Sheikh 
said that the government had evidence that 
India was behind the strife that has nearly 
crippled Karachi, Pakistan’s largest city, a 
port of 9 million people. 

“India should be treated as a state that is 
Sponsoring terrorism,” Mr. Sheikh said in 
the capital, Islamabad. “Obviously we can- 
not allow a center for sabotage, subversion 
and terrorism to continue to operate with- 
in Pakistan.” 

In New Delhi, an Indian Foreign Minis- 
try spokesman said the order to dose the 
mission “was a matter of greatest regret." 
He described as unfounded Pakistan’s 
daim that Indian officials were involved in 
violence in Karachi 

At least 150 people have died in Karachi 
since Dec. 1 in fighting between political 
ethnic and religious rivals. 

Mr. Sheikh said: “We have been con- 
strained to take this decision because of 
dear and fresh evidence of India's involve- 

ment in the planning, instig ation and exe- 
cution of acts of terrorism and violence in 

See MODERATES, Page 3 

Book Review 

Page 6. 

Dim Kofocayn/Rnum 

MOSCOW SIGHT — Grandfa- 
ther Frost mating an appearance 
Monday on Red Square in advance 
of Orthodox Christmas on Jan. 7. 

Karachi and of the propagation of disaf- 
fection and propaganda against the unity, 
territorial integrity and sovereignty of Pa- 

He said be had conveyed the order to 
High Commissioner S. K. Lambah, the In- 
dian ambassador, asking him to withdraw 
the 20-member consulate staff, including 
four diplomats. 

He said Mr. Lambah told him that he 
did not accept the allegations. 

Mr. Sbeikn said the consulate had been 
coordinating “networks” of “agents 

trained for the purposes of conducting 
terrorism and other anti-state activity." 
He said the police had arrested 14 peo- 

See PAKISTAN, Page 2 

Old England’s Cathedrals Seek New Financing 

By William E. Schmidt 

New York Times Service 

LONDON — As usual this season’s ambitious sched- 
ule of Masses and carol services at St. Paul's Cathedral 

free to worshipers. Yet for the tourists who line up 
a tour under Sir Christopher 'Wren’s famous dome. 

the charge is the same as the rest erf the year: admission 
at the door is £3, or about $430. 

“People see this grand place and think we think we 

surely must be rich,” said Robert Acworth, registrar and 
chief administrator for the cathedral which has domi- 
nated London’s skyline since the end of the 17th century. 
“But in point of fact, we are not well endowed, and the 
costs of upkeep are very high.” 

The admission fee was first levied in 2991, and tour- 
ism, including gift shop sales, now counts for about 60 
- percent of the cathedral's income. 

For officials at Si Paid’s, like many of Britain’s other 
great cathedrals, the levying of admission fees is just one 
of the innovative ways that Church erf England leaders 
are now dealing with one of the more taxing conse- 
quences of their own rich inheritance: the soaring cost of 
sustaining these aging architectural monuments. In 
many cases, tourists outnumber the rolls of weekly 

By one count, 19 cathedrals are in financial deficit, 
and across England, church officials are faced with 
craning up with more than $45 million over the next five 
years to keep up basic restoration work on crumbling 
brickwork, worn tiles and sagging casements. 

In a determined search for new sources of revenue the 
stewards of many of England’s 42 Anglican cathedrals 
have embarked on a variety of plans, from d oing a better 
job of marketing their cathedrals’ tourist potential to 
making their own commercial deals with local businesses 
and sponsors. 

“It’s an important but difficult question.” said Ste- 
phen Jenkins, a spokesman for the Church of England. 
“How do you find ways to raise money to maintamthese 
splendid did buildings, while not getting yourself tied 
into knots with the real mission of the church, which is 
ministry and mercy?” 

Some of the ventures have been veay successful At the 

Bristol Cathedral in the west of En glan d, the cost of the 
cathedral's choral and musical programs is now under- 
written by an annua! grant from Nuclear Electric, the 
British energy conglomerate, in return for placing the 
company’s logo and name in choral p rog ram s. 

In Nottinghamshire, a $2 million fund- raising cam- 
paign to refurbish the Southwell Cathedral is being 

jointly sponsored and organized by officials at Britain's 
National Westminster Bank. 

Other ideas have not been so well received. In Salis- 
bury, a sponsorship arrangement between the cathedral 
and McDonald’s foundered, after critics objected to a 
plan in which visitors lo the cathedral who offered the 
equivalent of a $2 donation would receive miniature 
scrolls detailing its history and a coupon for a free Big 

Even more fiercely disputed was a plan in the late 
1980s by clergy at the Hereford Cathedral who suggest- 
ed selling off its ancient copy of the “Mappa MuadU* a 

13th century map of the world. The money was needed 
to make repairs at the cathedral but the map was 
withdrawn from sale after a sharp public outcry, which 
in turn resulted in the intervention erf John Paid' Getty 
Mr. Getty, among others, put up several million 
dollars to build a separate building at the cathedral to 
house the treasure, but officials m Hereford say the 
church still does not have the money it needs to make 
critical repairs, including fixing crumbling masonry in 
the tower. J 

As a result of the growing financial pressure on 

See CHURCH, Rage 2 



Page 2 




2 Rightists Given 
Senior Positions 

King David 
• WjI 

Rabin’s Visit to Oman 
Is First by Israel Offidal 

Agate* France- Press* 

MUSCAT, Oman — Prime 
Minister Yitzhak Rabin of Isra- 
el has begun a visit to this Gulf 
Arab state for talks with Sultan 
Qaboos ibn Said, the Oman 
News Agency said Monday. 

The visit is the first by a se- 
nior Israeli official. The two na- 
tions have no diplomatic ties. 


Touched by the numerous 
letters received during 
His recent hospitalisation, 
His Serene Highness 
Prince Rainier m 
of Monaco would like to 
express sincere gratitude to 
afl those who sent Him 
sof goodwill 

I sympathy 

on this occasion." 

UN and Bosnia Dispute Success of Cease-Fire __WRLDBRJffil^ 


SARAJEVO, Bosnia-Henzegovina — United Na- 
tions officials said Monday that the latest cease-fire 
was taking hold, contradicting Bosnian government 
amis ar * f *ns that Bosnian Serbian forces bad mounted' 
attacks in the northwest enclave of Bihac. 

disrupt the cease-fire, readied through mediation by 
former President Jimmy Carter. 

Bosnian government leaders said Sunday that talks 
on a more extensive truce would not lake place until 
the situation around the town of Velika Kladusa, in 
the north of the enclave, was settled. 

By Clyde Habennan 

Nr* York Tima Strike 

struggling almost all year with- 
out an assured parliamentary 
iority. Prime Minister Yitz- 
Rabin has strengthened his 

Bosnia’s Muslim-led government has protested to 
the United Nations over Serbian troop movements 
and att a n k$ in the enclave, and threatened to retaliate 
elsewhere in Bosnia unless the United Nations re- 
solved the problem. 

The dispute over the Bihac enclave threatened to 

United Nations officials hope the seven-day cease- 
fire will open the way for a four-month cessation of 
hostilities and a resumption of peace talks aimed at 
ending the 33-ffiantb-old war. 

A UN spokesman, Alexander Ivanko, said in Sara- 
jevo that peacekeepers could not verify allegations 

about Bosnian Serbian ^ Bihac 

made by the Bosnian vice president, Ejup 
Mr. Ivanko said the cease-fire in Bosmawas 
hold and that orders concerning the ceaso-ore are 
filtering down to the unit level 
The Croatian Serbs and tbar alhes rebel 

Muslims have not signed the cease-fire agreea 10 oy 

the Bosnian Serbs and the 
Government troops have suffered serious setbajxs 
in the past month in fighting in the Bihac enclay^^ 
Serbian forces surrounding Bihac towi and Cr 
-Serbs and rebel Muslims recently captunng veinca 

Centrist Now Backs Berlusconi Party 

ROME (Reuters) - One of H» » f™ 

3SE5— " m ***** “ 

SSffi^^5S£SS5Sto ItaEa had the right to 

that will certainly not last four years, but it 
more than four da< Mr. Bmagta* toJd 

. s,. - 
-I ■ 

' i'~ r ' 


f v . 

government by giving senior 
posts to two la* 

wmakers who 
switched over from the rightist 

The maneuver still leaves Mr. 
Rabin short of a guaranteed 
majority, for even with the two 
newcomers he can count on 
only 58 votes in the 120-mem- 
ber Knesset. 

But as he pursues peace nego- 
tiations with the Palestinians 


extra insurance against the pos- 
sibility of his government's be- 
ing brought down suddenly by 
a vote of no-confidence. 

Such votes, although thus far 
unsuccessful have plagued him 
. almost every week since he took 
office in mid- 1992, on every- 
. thing from his peace policies to 
the moral fiber of the biblical 

fith the move Sunday, the 
prime minister is also less needy 
of Shaft, a religious party that 
walked out on him at the start 
of 1994 and that he has been 
trying to win back ever since. 

Shas, whose leader, Aryeh 
Deri, is on trial for embezzling 
government funds, has forced 
Mr. Rabin to jump repeatedly 
through political hoops. But the 
party keeps denying him its six 
parliamentary votes, no matter 
now many concessions he 
makes in Israel's eternal reli- 
gious-secular disputes. 

Mr. Rabin's goal is clean to 
win Jewish support for his 
peace program. After he lost 
Shas, he was forced to muster a 
majority by turning to five law- 
makers from Arab-dominated 
parties that are not part of his 
governing coalition. That is still 
true, notwithstanding the 
events Sunday. 

Some government ministers 
argue that a majority is a major- 
ity no matter how it is formed, 
with a few adding that it is rac- 
ist to dismiss Arabs who have 
Israeli citizenship. 

But the prime minister’s 
sense is that domestic realpoli- 
tik requires him to have a “Jew- 
ish majority** for possible pain- 
ful territorial compromises with 
Syria and the Palestinians. 

So from his vantage, the ad- 
dition of the two rightists from 
the tiny Yiud faction is an im- 
portant step in the right direc- 
tion, even though they are un- 
enthuaastic allies at best. 

Both men, Gcmen Segev and 
Alex Goldfaib, had been firm 
opponents of the Rabin peace 
policies. Most Israeli political 
commentators say the two are 
motivated more by personal 
ambition than ideology since 
breaking earlier this year from 
(he far-right Tsomet party. 


Boom in Sarajevo 

grant problems, they not only have the ngm w ^ 

they alsohave the right to ask to lead it They are the party with 

the relative majority. 


Bosnian Serbian soldiers during a reconnaissance patrol Monday near the southern town of TesSc. 


Radio Freedom in Ghana: Not Just Yet 

By Howard W. French 

New York Times Service 

ACCRA, Ghana — When Charles 
Wereko Brobby applied to the govern- 
ment in May for a frequency needed to 
start his own radio station, the business- 
man, an expert in electronic communica- 
tions who has dabbled in journalism and 
government, seemed to have the profile 
of a broadcaster. 

So when months passed without any 
official response to his petition. Mr. 
Brobby, backed by a group of ready 
investors, decided to invoke his constitu- 
tional right to freedom of expression and 
simply go on Che air. 

“From 88.5 to 108 on the FM band 
there are more than 1,000 stations in the 
U.S^" Mr. Brobby said. “Now 1 know 
that the United States is a very advanced 
country, but are they so far ahead of us 
that we should have only three stations 
here, aB of them state-owned?” 

Radio Eye, Mr. Brobb/s station, 
started cautiously in early December 
with a diet of popular music that in a few 
days won it a listenership of taxi drivers, 
housewives and young people. 

Then came the government’s reply. 
Armed soldiers seized the transmitter 
and dosed the station down, and prose- 
cutors charged the 41 -year-old entrepre- 
neur with illegal broadcasting. 

Ghana has been in the forefront of 
reform efforts sweeping Africa, aimed at 
opening up economies crippled by years 
or state ownership and regulation. Here 
as elsewhere, these moves have been ac- 
companied by a political loosening that 
has seen the formation of opposition 
parties and the holding of contested elec- 

But as the experience of Radio Eye 
shows, few African governments have 
been willing to cede much control of 

“These people have seen what free 
electronic media can do in other coun- 
tries, and they are scared to death,” said 
Audrey Gadzekpo, a Ghanaian maga- 
zine editor and columnist. 

ism. religious conflict and. some say, 

“This government is fully committed 
to freedom of expression.” said Kojo 
Yankah, deputy minister of information. 
“But for our purposes, at this moment, 
radio and television should serve as the 
forum for a discussion of our develop- 
ment needs. 1 am afraid that our society 
is not as stable as some others, and we 
could have disorder as a result of the 
misuse of this resource.” 

ha addition to being a businessman 
and journalistic gadfly. Mr. Brobby is a 
leading member of the National People’s 
Party, one Of the Country's main opposi- 
tion groups. This blending of roles has 
caused many, even among journalists 
who support the idea of free use of the 
airwaves, to criticize Mr. Brobby s flam- 
boyant approach as self-promotion. 

Offidal explanations for the treatment 
of Mr. Brobby range from narrow legal- 
isms to statements of concern over the 
need to guard against the perils of tribal- 

But even as it pursued its hard line 
toward Mr. Brobby, the government, 
perhaps embarrassed by negative reac- 
tion, announced that it would begin 
opening the airwaves to private broad- 
casters early in the new year. 

r<wthm ed from Pag* 
frequent, and condoms are no 
longer scarce. , , 

“It’s something we’ve lived 
with and gotten used to.” said 
Suad Bogdanovic, 22, a Bosnian 
government soldier whose wife 
gave birth to a son last week, 

"Sometimes we get so crazy thin 

we even like it I never would 
have gotten married if there was 
no war. But once that hap- 
pened, the urge to survive made 
us have a child.” 

Almo Kapitanovic, a neona- 
tal doctor at Koseyo. agreed 
that the survival urge had fa- 
ded the increased birthrate. 

“These are not decisions 
from joy,” he said. “These 
are births that come from a 
need to stay alive. These are 
reactions to the siege, to fear. 
What’s an automatic reaction 
for a couple? Have another 

“They say every other gener- 
ation in old Yugoslavia would 
taste war,” he said. “I hope 
these children don’t share that 

Other factors have contribut- 
ed to the baby boom. 

For one, international agen- 
cies guarantee an expectant 
mother extra food after her 
third month of pregnancy. In 
addition, once she gives birth, 
her baby is given special food 
packets for up to a year and 
sometimes more. 

Government rules on giving 
birth also have been relaxed. 
During Sarajevo’s roughest 
times, in 1992 and 1993, preg- 
nant women had to supply the 
energy-strapped hospital with 9 
liters (23 gallons) of diesd fuel 
and several liters of water be- 
fore they would be treated. 
With fuel prices running at 
about S16 a liter and the aver- 
age monthly salary around 75 
cents, few people could afford 
the fee. Some births were done 
by candlelight, and some Cae- 
sarean sections were completed 
without proper painkillers. 

In an iH-lit comer of a recov- 
ery ward. Lejma Mahmic, 27, 
was resting after giving birth. 
She had had two abortions be- 
fore she and her husband derid- 
ed to have a child. 

“You need to keep going,” ■ 
she said, “to have a normal life. 
It’s a way of fighting bade, of 
telling the Serbs they won't con- 
trol us forever.” 

IQC ieutuvc uuy v» Aij* 

Attack on Synagogue Fails in Lyon 

LYON (AFP) — Cylinders of gas were used in an vBSuccessftil 
bomb on a synagogue here late on Christmas Day, the 

on Christmas Day, unite- 
Attasjroi-c »cf>H oncitlme to set fire to a stolen car containing 

would have caused very extensive damage, a spokesman said. 

vt im 

Japan Slates Upper House Elections 

. n-T Tnmnnki Miiravam: 

TOKYO (Reuters) — Prime Minister Tomiichi Murayama’s 
unwieldy coalition has scheduled elections for the impCT house of 
Parliament on July 23 next year in what could be the first major 
test of his left-right alliance. 

rest or ms icn-nxui ouuuva. 

Coalition party officials said Monday that the three partners in 
the governing alliance informally decided the date for thenation- 
o oimwins tn rwvmvene Parliament 0 


the governing alliance inionnauy aeaaea wxi* ^ 

wide polls after agreeing to reconvene Parliament on Jan. 20 for a 

150-aayregplar session. , , . , 

tl. o Qorfv in an awkward alliance with 

HT-aav rcguuu awawu- - - . 

The Soria! Democratic Party is in an awkward alliance with 
their one-time foes in the Liberal Democratic Party and with the 
small Japan New Party Sakigake. Mr. Murayama came to power 
in June after his Socialists crossed over from an mn-Uberal 
Democratic Party coalition. He has repeatedly said he womdnot 
call general elections for the more powerful lower bouse, or Diet, 
tif after the upper house elections. 


Israel Curbs PLO in East Jerusalem 

JERUSALEM (AFP) — The Israeli Parliament on Monday 
adopted by a large majority a law aimed at preventing official 
Palestine liberation. Organization activities in Jerusalem. 

The bill, presented by Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin’s gwem- 
ment, was endorsed at die third and final reading, 56 to 6. Thirty- 
two deputies abstained. . 

The law prevents the PLO from having a mission in Arab East 
Jerusalem, which was annexed by Israel in 1967,or from organiz- 
ing public meetings there without prior permission. 

Macedonia Deports 18 Alb ani a ns 

PRISTINA, Yugoslavia (A P) — Macedonian police have de- 
ported 18 ethnic Al banians to the southern Serbian province of 
Kosovo, the Yugoslav news agency Tanjug said Monday. 

Tanjug said the 18 were deported for their alleged support of an 
Albanian-language university. But Interior Ministry officials in 
Macedonia said they were expelled because they did not have 
proper residency permits. 

About 1,000 other people of various nationalities were to be 
deported for the same reason, an Interior Ministry official said. 

Chinese Leader Starts Visit to Burma 

RANGOON, Burma (AP) — Prime Minister Ii Peng aniveep 1 
hiee-day visit to Burma, underlining the close 

Monday for a three-day 
relations between China and its military-led southern neighbor. 

Chin a is the most important international friend of Burma, 
which is ostracized by many Western nations because of the 
junta’s disregard for human rights and failure to restore democra- 

Mr. Li, his wife and a 79-member entourage were welcomed at 
the Rangoon airport by the jnnta chairman. Senior General Than 
Shwe, in his capacity as prime minister. The Chinese prime 
minister is only the fourth foreign head of government to visit 
Burma since the junta seized power in 1988. 

Coalition to Govern Basque Region 

VITORIA, Spain (AP) — Spain’s Basque region, beset by 

separatist violence and controversy over the limits of home rule, 
/eminent Monday committed to bringing 

PAKISTAN; Saying India Bocks Terror , Islamabad Orders Mission Shut 

Continued fron Page I 
pie in the past week who 
claimed to have been recruited 
by India’s secret service to cre- 
ate trouble in Karachi. He said 
one had confessed to a shooting 
last year in which 15 people 

Several months ago, Pakistan 
ordered the Karachi consulate’s 

staff cut to 20 from 64. saying 
most of the staff were intelli- 
gence agents. 

India and Pakistan routinely 
trade accusations, and recipro- 
cal expulsions of diplomats are 
common. The two countries 
have fought three wars since 
they gained independence from 
Britain in 1947. 

Earlier Monday, Pakistan ex- 
pelled an Indian Embassy em- 
ployee, Deepak Thakur, on 
charges of spying. India ex- 
pelled a Pakistani diplomat on 
similar charges last week. 

“These expulsions are not go- 
ing to accomplish anything, and 
they are certainly not going to 
improve relations,” said Partba 

Sarathi, a spokesman at the In- 
dian High Co mmissio n in Is- 


Soaring Upkeep 

got a new coalition 

radicals into the fold of peaceful politics. 

The three-party coalition’s program calls for ending the conflict 
through “a solution based on dialogue among political forces,” an 
ambiguity widely seen as implying contacts with Hem Batasuna, 

thepolitical wing of the Basque separatist organization ETA. 
The coalition wffl be headed by the moderate Basque National- 

Continoed from Page 1 

Much of the violence in Ka- 
rachi involves members of the 
militant Muhajir National 
Movement, which represents 
Indian Muslims who migrated 
to Pakistan in 1947. 

{AP. Reuters) 

YELTSIN; Kremlin header Signals Readiness for Talks With Chechens 

Coatmned from Page 1 

die,” said Deputy Defense Min- 
ister Boris V. Gromov, who 
commanded the Soviet retreat 
from Afghanistan. Geoeral 
Gromov has been critical of the 
incursion into Chechnya, but 
never so openly. 

Russian television reported 

Reuters reported front Mos- 

that Mr. Yeltsin bad prepared a 
firing General Gr 

The Russian press agency 
Itar-Tass said Monday that Mr. 
Yeltsin would issue a decree in 
the next day or two to set up an 
interim commission for the ob- 
servance of human rights that 
would join negotiations with 
the Chechens. 

houses of Parliament would region of about 1 million peo- 
also take part, Mr. Shumeiko pie. declared its independence 
said. in 1991. 

decree firing General Gromov 
and two other deputy defense 
ministers. General Georgi Kon- 
dratyev and General Sergei 

And the Interfax news agen- 

cy quoted Vladimir Shumeiko. 
head of 

It was not clear how the Che- 
chen leader, Dzhokar Dudayev, 
would respond. Previous efforts 
to renew talks that broke down 
Dec. 14 have failed, but one 
Chechen official on Monday 
signaled a softening of Chech- 
nya's stance. 

The president’s office had no 
comment on the firings, and it 
could not be independently 
confirmed that they had been 
carried out. 

the upper house of Par- 
liament and a National Security 
Council member, as saying 
three officials had been ap- 
pointed to lead talks with 
Chechnya in Mr. Yeltsin’s 

Zelimkhan Yandarbiyev. a 
Chechen vice president, said 
Chechnya was ready to negoti- 
ate with Moscow even while 
Russian troops were in the re- 
gion, a departure from its previ- 
ous line. 

Military leaders have said the 
Russian troops' initial tasks 
were to seal off Grozny and 
disarm Chechen fighters. Mr. 
Yeltsin made it clear the Krem- 
lin then planned to install its 
own representatives, at least 
temporarily, if Mr. Dudayev is 

Representatives of both Chechnya, a m ainl y Muslim 

Before his meeting with the 
National Security Council, Mr. 
Yeltsin said, “Y/c are going to 
look at when we can wind up 
the participation of the military 
and go on to the second stage-— 
forming administrative organs 
in the Chechen republic.” 

England’s great cathedrals, 
church officials did succeed in 
1990 in convincing English’ 
Heritage, a government-sup- 
ported agency, to make avail- 
able a limited number of grants 
of public money to help restore 
some of the buildings. 

In addition, the Archbishop 
of Canterbury convened in 
1992 a special church commis- 
sion on England’s cathedrals, 
which last summer issued a 262- 
page report titled “Heritage & 

Among its myriad charts 
counting tourism revenues and 
visits, it wrestled somewhat in- 
conclusively with the contradic- 
tory demands on the great 
buddings, alternately regarded 
both as temporal definitions of 
English heritage, and spiritual 
temples whose majesty was de- 
scribed as “an expression of 
what might otherwise remain 
inarticulate, a perception of the 
holy, an anticipation of eterni- 

ist Party, known by its Spanish initials PNV. The junior partners 
will be the Socialist Party, which heads the central government in 
Madrid, and the Basque Union, a splinter party of the PNV. The 
PNV won 22 of the 75 seats in the regional parliament in October. 
The Socialists won 12 seats and Basque Union got eight. 


Manila Calls U.S. Warning 'Unfair’ 

MANILA (AP) — Philippine officials contended Monday that 
a U.S. travel advisory had unfairly depicted the country as a 
dangerous place for foreigners. 

Foreign Secretary Roberto Romulo said Manila wanted “even- 
handedness and fair play” from the Americans in discussing crime 
and security. A U.S. consular information sheet released Sept. 19 
said that in the Philippines, “homicides, kidnapping, other crimes, 
of violence, confidence games, pickpocketing and credit card 
fraud are common.” Foreign tourists are often victims of petty 
crime, n said. 

‘Personally, it doesn't, sit well with our government,’’ said the 
presidential press secretary, Jesiis Sison. “The U.S. was unfair in 

r — . — « — j, i ac .a. was uniair m 

1S5l ^ n £ statement because there are also crimes in the big cities 

m the U.S. The only difference is, while we focus attention on the 
crimes, the Americans dn not imW ;»’c - ^ , 

ernntt, the Americans do not unless it’s a very sensational case 
nke O. J. Simpson. 

For in vM t m B i i t information 

every Saturday in the W 

Belgian police closed some main roads in Brussels on Monday 
and several expressways m southern Belgium were almost impass- 
able after heavy rainfalls froze overnight. Domestic and interna- 
tional tram services were delayed but Brussels international air- 
port was operating normally. (Reuters) 

Fifteen people were Idled and 434 were injured, 73 critically, in 
728 accidents on Portuguese highways over the Christmas week- 
end, the police reported Monday. (AP) 

fcgiScyh.vrJt in 

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V*. V'J {£ £.** i& 

S E »T‘ 

» j7. * 

pf%5i S 
&J fei S 

Clamor Rises to Close a D.C. Airport 

By Stephen C. Fehr 

, "fMnpon Past Sarin 

r™0T0N_7 recM[ 

g™<"*M ,h e White 
{“j, ® shootings there 

! iave led some aviation analysts 
to urge federal officials to close 
national Airport as a security 
precaution against an air attack 
on the mansion. 

Shutting down the 53-vear- 
old airport, which is three miles 
smith of the White House, has 
b«n suggested by groups who 
said they believed that National 
was too noisy or unsafe. 

Federal officials have dis- 
missed such ideas and are not 

toeing the latest proposal seri- 

,..^ I * IOu gh National is not 
*“e]y to close any time soon, 
me new concern about thesecu- 
°ty of the White House, Penta- 
gon, Capitol and other build- 
ings is nonetheless getting more 
attention. A plane approaching 
or taking off from National 
could attack those buildings by 

veering into the restricted area 
over Washington. 

“ft wouldn’t take long for an 
airplane taking off from Na- 
tional to be up over the White 
House, Capitol or Pentagon 
and then — bam — it’s all 

national Airline Passengers As- 

He has urged the Federal 
Aviation Administration to 
close National and shift its op- 
erations to Dulles and Balti- 
more- Washington international 
airports and Andrews Air Force 
Base in Prince George's Coun- 

An agency spokesman said 
officials would not comment on 

Mr. Stempler’s proposal or any- 
thine else related to the possible 

thing else related to the possible 
closing of National. James A. 
Wilding, general manager of 


NoNostalgia for the Governor 

«r^m R Tif OR ?' r° m ! cc ] icut - Winter sun 
streams through the windows onto the half- 

empty boxes ol awards and mementos that 
Gotemor Lowell P. Weickcr Jr. has bccun 

His heavy wooden desk sits ready to be 
cleared and carted off. alone with his bound 
Watergate Committee volumes and lamps 
made from 105-miHi meter shell casings — all 
possessions with which he surrounded him- 
self in office. 

Most people would be forgiven a little 
sticky sentimentality just now. But Mr. 
Wcicker has never been most people, and in 
these closing days of his administration, he 
shows no signs of looking back with even the 
remotest trace of gauzy haze. 

Even posing the question of whether, at 63. 
he feels nostalgic about his three decades in 
public life is to invite a typical Weicker jere- 
miad. Not only does he feel no nostalgia in 
himself, he thinks no one else should, either. 
It’s a societal flaw. 

“1 hate nostalgia with a passion,*’ he said. 
“This country is surfeited with it right now — 
that's one of our problems — God almighty, 
we just sit there and wallow in the good old 
days, which, quite frankly, weren’t necessar- 
ily so good for too many people.” 

Mr. Weicker, who chose not to run for a 
second term, spent 18 years in the U.S. Senate 
as a Republican who liked to fight with 
Republicans (especially those in the Nixon 
administration during the Watergate era) and 
four tumultuous yeans as Connecticut's first 
independent third-party governor in a centu- 
ry, battling both parties for his own agenda. 

And he apparently has enough bile left for 
reral careers to come. Without actually 

several careers to come. Without actually 
saying that he will run for president as a 
third-party independent in 1996, or that he 
even wants to, he has kept the door wide 
open for a draft. i Kirk Johnson. NYT) 

19S8 and is about to become leader of the 
most discredited group of politicians in town 
these days: House Democrats. 

He is Richard A. Gephardt, a congressman 
from St. Louis. Missouri, who was elected by 
imcollcagues to be (he House minority lead- 
er in the next Congress. 

While no prominent Democrat is publicly 
making the ease Tor Mr. Gephardt, he is the 
subject of a behind-the-scenes chatter on 
Capitol Hill among Democrats who fear that 
President Bill Clinton's popularity will not 
rebound and believe that Mr. Gephardt 
would be u logical alternative should the 
president decide not to seek re-election — 
whether by his own choice or because he is 
forced into early retirement. 

This is the thinking of the Gephardt parti- 
sans: Having run for president, Mr. Gep- 
hardt is far belter known and will get more 
attention than Thomas A. Daschle of South 
Dakota, who will be the Senate minority 
leader next month. 

Moreover, they say, Mr. Gephardt will 
become only more visible as the foil to the 
new House speaker. Representative Newt 
Gingrich, Republican of Georgia. 

And Mr. Gephardt has long been popular 
among working-class Democrats, a constitu- 
ency that Mr. Clinton seems to have lost. 

While some Democrats suggest that Vice 
President A1 Gore would be the likely alter- 
native should the president falter, others, like 
Representative Thomas J. Manton, Demo- 
crat of New York, are not so sure. 

"I don't know if some of the animosity 
toward Clinton has rubbed off on him.” Mr. 
Manton said of Mr. Gore. But Mr. Manton, 
like most of Mr. Gephardt's allies, said he 
fully expected Mr. Clinton to get his party's 
nomination in 1996. 

I Richard L. Berke. NYT ) 

teniece of which is anew termi- 
nal designed to last well into the 

Quote/U nquote 

Whispers: Gephardt in ’96? 

WASHINGTON — In the latest manifes- 
tation of unease among Democrats, some are, 
quietly talking up the presidential prospects 
of a man who lost his party’s nomination in 

Sherry Bebiteh-Jeffe. a political scientist at 
Claremont College who specializes in Cali- 
fornia elections, on ihe voting that. has left 
the Stale Assembly tied in partis&ii' 'knots: 
“It's the election that won't die. A lot of 
voters and politicians still have some anger 
and frustration left, and it looks like they're 
intent on venting it." (NYT l 

next century. The idea of clos- 
ing the airport strikes some offi- 
cials as far-fetched. 

Leo G. Janssens, president of 
the Ohio-based Aviation Safety 
Institute and a pilot who has 
flown Boeing 727s into Nation- 
al, noted that with the airport so 
dose to the Mall. a terrorist or 
assassin could take off or ap- 
proach National in legal air- 
space and within seconds veer 
away to attack. 

“As Jong as National is there, 

. there’s no way you can keep a 
saboteur hellbent on an attack 
out of the White House area,*’ 
be said. 

Flights are banned over the 
White House; the restricted 
area extends between the Lin- 
coln Manorial and the CapitoL 
Planes landing at National usu- ‘ 
ally fly along the Potomac Riv- 
er at the edge of the restricted 

Pilots are supposed to con- 
tact air traffic controllers and 
follow their instructions. 

Big Donors Catch Republican Train 

By Michael Weisskopf 

Washington Port Service 

corporate donors who mis- 
judged last month’s election 
prospects and put money on 
Democratic incumbents have 
found a way to show apprecia- 
tion for victorious Republicans 

— paying off their campaign 

In political vernacular, it is 
called “catching the late train.” 

Three health care interests — 
Pfizer Inc_ Blue Cross and Bine 
Shield Association and Ihe 
American Hospital Association 

— were hosts to a breakfast 
here recently for Fred D^ 
Thompson, a Republican Sen- 
ate winner from Tennessee, 
even thou# some of ^^exec- 
utives had helped fund the cam- 
paign of his Democratic rival. 
Representative James Cooper. 

Twenty lobbyists represent- 
ing groups from orthopedists to 

medical product distributors 
paid $1,000 each to attend. 

The political action commit- 
tee (PAC) for Prudential Insur- 
ance Co. of America declined to 
finance Representative Rick 
Santorum, Republican of Penn- 
sylvania, as a Senate candidate 
because the father of his rival. 
Senator Harris Wofford, was a 
company agent. As senator- 
elect, Mr. Santorum had no 
trouble landing $1,000 in post- 
election funds from the Pruden- 
tial PAC 

“When you bade the wrong 
horses, you try to make a contri- 
bution as a token of goodwill,” 
said John McKechnie, political 
director of the Credit Union 
National Association, who had 

“We don’t really look at it as In the newsletter, Mr. Ging- 

an eraser on the pencil, but as a rich was praised for “laying 
way of letting the winner know down the law with certain PAC 

lllrn In. Ka MIMA fr!avu4 ftaAAlltrtior nakn VlOtlA VuUXI PAH. 

we d like to be tbe same friend executives who have been con- 
to him as we were to the guy he sorting with the enemy.” 
defeated,” Mr. McKechnie Now they are fair game for 
said. Republicans. Dan Morgan, a 

If spoils belong to the victors, fund-raising consultant trying 
campaign debts usually fall to to retire tbe debt of eight new 
the victors’ most devoted sup- Republican House members, 
porters. But tbe Republican ^as scanned campaign finance 
romp is crashing convention ev- reports erf his candidates’ rivals, 
raywbere. he said, looking for PACs that 

With so many corporate might “want to gel in good or at 
PACs bettingDemocratic in the ^ esta blish a relationship” 
year of the Republican Party, with the Republican winners, 
and so many “A lot of PACs are saying, 

tengera left with big bills, the -whoops, we made a mistake,’ 
Republicans are banking on the and to redeem 

self-mterest erf th^e^oeps to themselves.” he sakL 

Most of the solicitations 

UUCUUJi VI IUV tluwr Wowf — — ■ — — 

National Association, who had "“5^ . fromthe surface: Most of the solicitations 

antidp.ted.tte go. of ..the **».£«* tees gloss over 

Democrats. Before the election, mnm past differences and paint to 

retire rifihis of “P^at m the campaign when 

prepare to help retire debts of 
winners the group had shunned 

camcr ’ House speaker-to-be, reported- 

MODERATES: With Ihe Speaker 

Confined from Page I 

Republican. The depart- 

peaker, Thomas S. 
Washington Demo- 

ly warned PAC representatives 
VUh tho Krurnh/yr “ October that if he took pow- 

/ tui uie opeaKer a donors were “not on 

board" would suffer “the two 

en or eight in the Senate will coldest years in Washington.” 
hold the balance erf power on a Later publication of the 
lot of issues,” said Senator Wii- “PAC List of Shame,” naming 

liam S. Cohen, one of the two firms, lobbyists and trade 

Foley, a Washington moderates from Mame. Olym- groups whose PACs gave over- 

crat. suggested sunaay piaJ.Snowe, who until Novem- whelmingly to Democrats in 

both Republican eiyhona on ^ was a moderate Republican 1992, sharpened the threat A 

^oth Republican eupa«« ^ her was a moderate 

unity wold in the Home, is the 

enough once the party bo* But even in tbe Senate, Mr. 

govern, and a exmser- Cohcn ^ “R™>u 

vative agenda into policies the ^ to ^ where thej 
public will approve. themselves before 

c«il moderate Republicans reaching across tbe 
to believe that their con- it is a stark coni 
ap Sfve brethren are legisla- dying Democratic 

mre whS by* tod lai S c ’ *** *** wW left rad right 
orS w*h 3 so alienated on eve 

work W1 ... ha sir issues, like fed 

1992, sharpened tbe threat A 
Republican fund-raiser, Brad 
O'Leary, compiled the list in a 

Cohen said, “Republicans will newsletter and sent it to PACs 
try to see where they are among and Republican lawmakers. 

try to see where they are among 
themselves before they start 
reaching across tbe aide.” 

It is a stark contrast to the 
dying Democratic majority, 
whose left and right wings were 
so alienated on even the most 
baric issues, like federal spend- 

past differences and paint to 
future cooperation. The Na- 
tional Association of Retail 
Druggists PAC, for example; 
had given 88 percent of its 
$122,000 to Democrats as of 
June. But since the election, it 
has received requests to help 
defray debts of 15 Republicans, 
including four Senate winners. 

“The pitch is, *Hey, you were 
on the wrong ride of our race, 
here's your chance to get 
right,*” said John M. Rector, 
who lobbies and disburses elec- 
tion funds for tbe pharmacists’ 
group. “Or, Tf you didn't par- 
ticipate in the campaign, here’s 
your opportunity to get on one 
you should be on.’ ” 


TS-f r •i'Cww 

rftr; y*,. 

over." said David S. Stempler, the Metropolitan Washington 

executive director of the Inter- Airports Authority, which runs 
national Airline Passengers As- National and Dulles, said the 

proximity of National did not 
make much difference. A pilot 
determined to attack the white 

determined to attack the white 
House could do so from almost 
anywhere, he said. 

In September, Frank Corder, 
38, or Aberdeen, Maryland, 
side a single-engine Cessna 

from an airfield north of Balti- 
more. Under the influence of 
alcohol and cocaine, he flew 
south to Washington and 
slammed into the South Lawn 
of the White House before the 
plane slid into tbe west ride of 
the mansion below the presi- 
dent’s living quarters. Mr. 
Corder, an unemployed truck 
driver, was killed. 

The crash, and subsequent 
incidents involving shootings 
just outside the White House, 
prompted a security review by 
the Secret Service that is sched- 
uled to be completed next 

James J. Hoogerwerf, a Delta 
Air Lines pilot who flies in and 
out of National said the Sep- 
tember suicide crash pointed up 
the inadequacy of security mea- 
sures at the white House. 

“Despite a major reconstruc- 
tion program in progress,” he 
said, “any realistic security plan 
will have to take National's via- 
bility under advisement. Will 
national security concerns fi- 
nally be its death knell?” 

National, the 22d busiest 
U.S. airport, with 45,000 pas- 
sengers a day, is undergoing a 
$1 billion renovation, the cen- 

Patnee Dotgc/Rnilen 

NOT SO MERRY — Ptime Minister Smarck Micbel of Haiti handing out snacks through the fence to hundreds of 
youths who were left out of a Christmas party on the palace grounds. A melee broke out inside die grounds when 
some 1,500 youngsters, wbo were kept waiting for several hours, grew restless and demanded their share of the gjffts. 

U.S. Hopes Envoy Will Win Pilot’s Release 

Confided by Ovr Staff From Dispatches 

WASHINGTON — The Clinton ad- 
ministration is sending a diplomat to 
North Korea at Pyongyang's invitation to 
help speed up the release of a captured 
U.S. Army helicopter pDot, the Stale De- 
partment said Monday. 

[In another development Monday, 
North Korea branded the helicopter over- 
flight as deliberate espionage requiring 
further investigation under military law, 
the Korean Central News Agency said, 
according to a Reuters report. 

[Monitored in London, the report said 
that Pyongyang had demanded that Wash- 

ington “admit its responsibility as the of- 
fender” and show a reasonable attitude 
“before it is is too late.” 

[The dispatch said an official investiga- 
tion had shown that this was clearly not an 
“accidental case” caused by a “mistake" in 
a training flight, but a deliberate act of 
espionage. “Detaining and investigating 
c riminals is a matter related to our digni- 
fied sovereignty it said.} 

The new U.S. envoy is Thomas Hub- 
bard, deputy assistant secretary of state for 
East Aria and the Pacific. 

The Hubbard mission, according to the 
State Department spokesman, Michael 

McCurry, is to facilitate the return of Chief 
Warrant Officer Bobby HalL 
The other crew member on the craft. 
Chief Warrant Officer David Hflemon, 
was killed in the crash, according to North 
Korea. Pyongyang released Mr. HUemon’s 
body on Thursday. 

Earlier Monday, a U.S. general met with 
a general from the North Korean People's 
Army at the truce village of Panmunjon. 
The U.S. militaiy said that “no substantive 
progress was made and the Korean Peo- 
ple’s Army would not set a date for Hall’s 

(Reuters, WP) 

Job Insecurity: A Fact of Academic Life 

By Boyce Rensberger 

Washington Part Service 

three other PhJXs and a techni- 
cian studying how hormones 

HOUSTON — Joy Mulhol- regulate cells in the uterus. 

land’s scientific career is in 

The research was relevant to 
developing better contracep- 

t in til <, r-o, mnn ih c fives, improved treatment for of basic biomedical research, al- 

Rn vlnr Co ftfS- r£ infertility and new approaches most eveiyone has lost at least 

to uterine cancer. And, as the one grant and many have had to 
was eading result of a surprise finding carli- let people go, Ms. Mulholland 

er this year, it looked as if the said 

lab was on the trail of a new “It’s a rough system,” said 

under fierce pressure to bring in 
money in the form of grants. 

Of Baylor’s 60 faculty mem- 
bers in the Department of Cell 
Biology, one of the main fields 
of basic biomedical research, al- 
most everyone has lost at least 

Tl’s a rough system,’ 

Away From 

insight into Alzheimer’s dis- William Brinkley, a prominent 


But Ms. Mulholland has dis- 

ced biologist and dean of Bay- 
lor’s graduate school, “but 

banded her team and is shutting that’s the way science works in 
down her lab. Her grant money this country. My frustration is 

• A m3d eartlumake shook 
parts of Colorado on 
Christmas Day, hours after 
a quake struck the high de- 
sert near Death Valley, Cal- 
ifornia. No injuries or ma- 
jor damage was reported in 
the quakes. (NYT) 

ran out last summer and even listening to these horror stories 

though she wrote lots of pro- 
posals that got high marks from 

• Loiando Befio, an un- 
armed man who tried to 
climb the north fence of the 
White House on Christmas 

Day, has been charged with 
unlawful entry and making 

unlawful entry and making 
threats to arresting officers, 
a Secret Service spokesman 
said. (Reuters) 

• Amtrak began its routine 
run from the San Francisco 
Bay area to Chicago about 
five hours late after three 
cars on an empty train de- 
railed near Emeryville, an 
Amtrak spokesman said. 
No one was injured. (AP) 

• The archdiocese of Mil- 
waukee is suing 14 insur- 
ance companies that have 
refused to make payments 
in nine cases alleging sexual 
misconduct by priests. The 
insurance companies 
counter that the church hi- 
erarchy knew of the sexual 
misconduct and failed to 
take appropriate action. 
T hat m eans the miscn miuct 

was intentional on the part 
of the diocese and not in- 
sured, they argue. (AP) 

posals that got high marks from 
such f unding agencies as the 
National Institutes of Health, 
they brought in no money. Each 
time, there were too many other 
proposals that received slightly 
more favorable evaluations and 
got all the available funds. 

“I bad to tell my people they 
should look for other jobs,” the 
Harvard-trained molecular bi- 
ologist said. “I won't have the 
money to pay myself, either. I'll 
be out the door, too.” 

All Baylor scientists, like 
those from most other academic 
research centers, must raise part 
or all of their salaries and fringe 
benefits through grants. And 
those grants must also provide 
the salaries and benefits of the 
scientists who work for them. 

At Baylor and many other 
tqp-ranked private universities 
from Harvard to Stanford, most 
or all researchers are on this 
“soft money.” 

When hard times come, the 
university may — or may not — 
pick up a scientist’s salary for a 
few months or maybe a year. 
Researchers who have not won 
a new grant in that time are 
expected to leave. State institu- 
tions are more likely to guaran- 
tee salaries but, because all uni- 
versities count on taking a cut 
— sometimes more than SO per- 
cent — of every grant for “over- 
head,” their scientists are still 

Hie United 
States, the world 
leader in medical 
advances, new 
technologies and 
deeper under- 
standing of the 
natural world, 
depends for much 
of its scientific 
excellence on 

and trying to keep morale up, 
trying to keep people from 

The nation that is the unchal- 
lenged world leader in provid- 

most likely at a much-reduced 

A generation or two ago, a 
scientist with a new Fh.D. could 
expect to go straight into a job 
on a university faculty. Then, as 
competition for better faculty 
positions grew, new scientists 
sought to broaden their training 
and experience by taking post- 
doctoral fellowships for a year 
or two. Then they would get the 
real job. 

But as the number of new 
scientists kept rising, the com- 
petition kept getting suffer. 
Postdoctoral fellowships, which 
pay about $18,000 to $20,000 a 
year, grew longer and if no job 
materialized after the first fel- 
lowship, the only choice was to 
take a second one. And, for a 
growing number, a third one. 
Today it is not unusual to find 
“young scientists” pushing 40 
and barely pi a k m g the median 
salary for all American workers, 
which was $23,000 a year in 
1992, according to the Bureau 
of Labor Statistics. And they 
are still without a permanent 

Openings for faculty posi- 
tions at major institutions com- 
monly draw 300 to 400 applica- 
tions. Of these, many depart- 
ment chairmen say, maybe 100 
are outstanding candidates. 

Another sign of the plight of 
young scientists emerged from 
a study in which the National 
Academy of Sciences found 
that the number of researchers 
under age 37 wbo were applying 
for grants had dropped by 

fn g medical aHvanfrg*: nw» i Fifth- about half since 1985. 
oologies and deeper under- The study did not reveal what 

with no job security. 

are not 

unity believe that they 
applying because they 

They may carry the title of have not found the permanent 
professor and have a campus jobs that give them standing to 

pa rking sticker, but when the apply. Instea d , they remain in 
grant well runs dry, they are on low-paying, temporary post- 

tbeir own. Only the few wbo doctoral positions, working for 
have “tenure” — a status that a steadily graying population of 

guarantees them a faculty posi- more senior scientists who do 
tion — can expect to stay on, have grants. 

John Osborne, Whose Dramas Shocked London Theater, Dies 

basic issues, nice teoerai spcxio- 
“On 5°“® jcS mg and crime. Amt theyoften 

: moderate ^ atta ched to different 


LONDON — John Osborne, 

ing with Democrats; 

65, the “angry young man” woo my rorter, Became a symooi or Mr. usoorm 

transformed British theater educated, rebellious youth in Entertainer,'’ 

of playwriting that empl 
everyday settings. Its hero, 

; man” who my Porter, became a symbol of 

Kim Widens Chang® 8 

- a f^vernmeat the other hand, are clear and The playwright, who shot to snuggling commercial artist, Richard Burton starred as 
In beoiu w $wmg. fame in 1956 with "Look Back hut disliked his mother, Nellie jimmy Porter in the film ver- 

The Associated One, as Mr. Boehlert points in Anger,” a blast against the son of “Look Back in Anger”, 

cpOUL — Pres I dl j CnL out, is ideology. Moderates and stuffy conventions erf English The family was poor and and Laurence Olivier took the 
. Sam on ^ on( " J L{5' conservatives may differ on so- postwar life, died in a hospital 5*^ frequently. The young role of Archie Rice in “The En- 

^ ..Ji 12 of his 20 deputy cam- ^ jsgocs, but they are united near his home in Shropshire, a Osborne left to become an actor tertainer.” “Dqavu,” a 1992 se- 

P^^nistere, thro 6 “Fj* on the driving issue in Republi- spokeswoman said. sod began writing plays at 19. quel to “Anger,” flopped. 

net new can phflosotfy: money. Mr. Osborne, a diabetic “ An- Mr. (SbSmc's Se life 

he njher key cabinet mero- “Most of ns who have always known for his hard drinking, which Mr. Osborne scrib- was almost as controversial as 

tcr ■« the most extensive reot^ cajjed ourselves moderates have had been seriously ill for more Med down m a reporters note- his drama. Married five times, 

since he to°k ohk* hardly ever called ourselves fis- than a week, she said. pad m just 17 days, shocked he gained a reputation as a 

£am» p _ n „n KKrthIk.” said Senator Rob- With “Look Bade in Aneer .” London theater audiences and hard-drinkine. tauahle ehawwv 

political birds. 

Only Democrats can explain 
' their mrintegration. The incen- 
tives for Republican moderates 
to stick with the party line, on 
the other hand, are dear and 

with his blistering social dra- 
mas, died of heart failure on 
Saturday, hospital officials said 

the 1950s. 

inspiration for hard-hitting dra- 

Mr. Osborne also wrote “The 
Entertainer,” “Inadmissible 

and not drinking?” he said in a larnidimg s of some of Europe’s 

recent interview. 

Mr. Osborne also regularly 

c . „ • , criticized British society as a 

and A Patnot for journalist and in letters to news- 
Me. He won an Oscar for best papera. “Damn you, England,” 

screens lav with tlw» IQ£4 film " ” rj 

John James Osborne was Me.” He won an Oscar for best 
bran on Dec. 12, 1929. He re- screenplay with the 1964 film 

vered his father, Thomas, a “Tom Jones.” 

struggling commercial artist, Richard Burton starred as 

jhe Associated Pr«y 

n President Kim 


One, as Mr. Boehlert points 

he wrote in the leftist weekly 
Tribune. “You’re rotting now, 
and quite soon you’ll disappear 
... untouchable, on teachable, 

Pierre Dreyfus, Who Led 
Renault for 20 Years, at 87 

best-selling cars, including the 
distinctive Renault 4, 5 and 16 

Renault was the first French 
company to offer three weeks of 
paia vacation, in 19SS, and then 
four weeks in 1962. 

Mr. Dreyfus served briefly as 
industry minister in Pierre 
Maurqy’s Socialist government 
of 1981-84. 

tern, state television said on 

His Latin-lover lodes won 
him starring roles in “Three 

Corns in tbe Fountain” (1954) 
and “The Barefoot 

PARIS (Reuters) — Pierre 
Dreyfus, 87, head of the French 
car group Renault from 1955 to 
1975 and a pioneer of better 

Rossano Brazzi, 78, a Star 
Of FUms in 1950$ and 1960s 

and “The Barefoot Contessa” 
(1954) — both of which were 
made in Hollywood and set in 
Italy. He also had leading ides 
in "The Ten Cpmmandm^tg** 
(1945), "Little Women” fi94Q\ ■ 
and “South Pacific” (1958). * 

Sjjw Kosdna, 61, a-Y, 
Slav-born actress who starred m 


ago- cal liberals,” said Senator Rob- With “Look Bade in Anger,” Londo n theater audiences and 

two ^ lined wxth ert Packwood, the Oregon Re- Mr. Osborne introduced die stirred anger nationwide. A suc- 

All 12 pos* 5 L w ?fmany cases publican who will head the genre of tbe “kitchen-sink dra- cessful career followed, in 

With “Look Back in Anger,” London theater audiences and hard 
Mr. Osborne introduced die stirred anger nationwide. A sue- • ^ 

genre of tbe “kitchen-sink dra- cessmi career followed, m “Who wants to live to 110 
ma,” then a revolutionary style which he used his anger as the anyway if it means not smoking 

gained a reputation as a 1975 and a pioneer of better 
rd- drinking, irascible charac- working conditions in postwar 

France, died Sunday, tne com- 

ROME (Reuters) — Rossano the 1960s, died of hearth 

Brazzi, 78, a leading star erf the lems Monday in Rom* 01 . 

nnd ’filk whn nlmaJ 1 — * — • me, a 

pany said. 

Mr. Dreyfus oversaw the 

1950s and 60s who played Con- spokesman from a private dim! 
tinental lovers and aristocrats said Her best-known fnm*^ 
on Hollywood screens, died in a dude Federico Fdfim*8*^r^I 
clinic here Saturday from a vi- of the Spirits” (1965) a*vi-T 
rus afflicting his nervous sys- 




Page 4 







To Add Jobs in Europe 

Tbe way things look, 1995 will be a year 
of economic disillusionment for Europe If 
f hfl f sounds surprising, consider the pain- 
ful captation. The coming year promises 
to be one of splendid economic growth in 
most erf Western and Central Europe. Yet 
this growth will turn out to do vay tittle 
for Europe’s chief economic problem, 
which is its dangerously long lines of 
jobless; and behind this failure lurks Eu- 
rope’s reluctance to get to grips with the 
w>n«»s of the joblessness problem. 

That boom is bade is now beyond much 
doubL Hie economies of Continental Eu- 
rope, following the earlier British recovery, 
have done better in 1994 than the forecast- 
ers had expected, and will almost certainly 
do even better in 1995 and 1996. Germany 
and France, in particular, have bounced 
back from stagnation or worse to predict- 
ed growth rates of 3 percent or better in 
the next couple of years. 

Grand news, if you ate in work, and can 
ride on the boom. The trouble is that this 
boom will probably not do what booms 
were once supposed to do — bring the 
jobless back into jobs. Today's unemploy- 
ment in Europe, unlike unemployment in 
America and Japan, is to a large extent not 
cyclical, going up and down with the 
health of the economy in general It is 
“structural” the jargon word which means 
that it is apparently here to stay. 

At the moment, 1 1.6 percent of West- 
ern Europe’s workers have no work to do, 
double America’s proportion and nearly 
four times Japan’s. The Organization for 
Economic Cooperation and Develop- 
ment reckons that by the end of 19%, 
even with the full benefit of the emerging 
boom, Europe’s figure will have barely 
fallen, to about 1 1 percent By the centu- 
ry’s end, the OECD thinks, it will still be 
blocking at the 10 percent mark. It can- 
not fall much below that, runs the dis- 
maying argument without setting off an- 
other attack of inflation. 

The causes of this are pretty clear. Yet 
Europe is still failing to tackle them. 

One is the fact that Europe’s govern- 
ments absorb too much of what their 

countries produce. This year, the reve- 
of the Eu 

nues ot tne European Union’s govern- 
ments trill amount to 46 percent of their 
countries’ GDP. The figure in America is 
32 percent. Some of the purposes for 
which this money is spent are commend- 
able; it pays, among other things, for the 
comforts of Europe’s welfare state. But 
one thing government money is not good 
at is creating jobs. If those governments 
eased their grip, the tines of workless 
would probably shorten. 

The other cause of excessive joblessness 
is ihe arthritic condition of Continental 
Europe's labor markets. (Britain — here, 
too, more American than European — is 
far less rigid.) In much erf Western Europe, 
the law protects people in jobs by limiting 
the number of hours they must work, 
requiring than to be paid a generous mini- 
mum wage and making it hard to fins 
them. The motive is humane and the re- 
sults are reassuring — for those in jobs. 
But the other effect (apart bom making 
Europe's products costlier than those of 
most of Europe's competitors) is to shut 
the door on the unemployed. 

If minimum wages and working hours 
were made more flexible, and if the labor 
market were suppler, many of the jobless 
could be brought back inside the working 
economy. Some of those already in jobs, 
it is true, would find things tougher. 

These are harsh calculations, but the 
cost of ignoring them could be harsher. 
It could be the creation of a European 
underclass. A disproportionate number 

of the long-term unemployed are young 

one of 

people, quick to anger and strong 
arm. The luckier nine-tenths of Europe 
ought not wait until the buried tenth 
breaks out of the depths. 


Warlords in Liberia 



ago, the Liberian guerrilla 
es Taylor unleashed a civil 

war that was to end up ripping his coun- 
try to shreds. Since Mr. Taylor and his 

rebel force launched their invasion from 
neighboring Ivory Coast, some 150,000 
Liberians, mostly civilians, have lost their 
Jives. Another million have been dis- 
placed from their homes. Hundreds of 
thousands more have been forced to flee 
to other countries. Last week, on the eve 
of another Christmas, Charles Taylor and 
representatives of the other warring fac- 
tions .announced a cease-fire agreement 
to start on Dec. 28. Liberians, for under- 
standable reasons, were not impressed 
with ibis Christmas gift. Almost a dozen 
previous peace accords have failed. 

The latest round erf talks, which took 
place in Ghana, has all the markings of 
earlier abortive efforts. The combatants 
have temporarily ceased taking shots at 
each other long enough to issue solemn 
pledges to resolve their prolonged con- 
flict through an agreement calling for 
peace, safe areas, demobilization, disar- 
mament and democratic elections. Peo- 
ple of that blood-soaked nation have 
heard it all many times before, only to 
end up cowering under the gunfire that 
always eventually follows. Their skepti- 
cism that there will be no aid to the 
Iriffing this time around is well founded. 

For reasons haring tittle to do with the 
integrity or honor of Charles Taylor and 
his crowd, however, there is a small glim- 
mer of hope that the warlords may have 
to make it work this time. 

Liberia has used up its credit with the 
rest of the world. West African leaders 
have seal years of peacekeeping efforts 
go down the drain. Many of them are 
cash-strapped themselves, and regional 
forces intervened in the Liberian civil war 
to an extent that took them well beyond 
their own political and financial limits. 
African leaders have had it with Liberia’s 
broken promises. So has the United Na- 
tions, which has run out of the only asset 
it brings to the table — patience. Ameri- 
ca, once Liberia’s Cold War banker, has 
the spigot turned down to a trickle, in 
part because of competing claims on the 
limited foreign aid dollar, in part because 
it doesn't want to pump money into an 
accord that is not worth the paper it is 
written on. And that was the U.S. inclina- 
tion before the November elections. 

With an inward-looking U.S. Congress 
taking office next month, Liberian war- 
lords, haring reduced their country to the 
state of nature, can expect little more 
than grief from America. This time, the 
deal-breakers may have little choice but 
to take on the mantle of peacemakers. 


Free Speech in the Malls 

New Jersey’s Supreme Court has ruled 
that a large commercial shopping mall is 
the modem counterpart of the village 
green. It is a place where people can 
congregate and communicate, the court 
suggested last week, and therefore the 
mall's operators must honor some right 
of free speech on their nominally private 
property. The ruling, based on the state 
constitution, is correct 
Though denounced as “social engineer- 
ing” by a losing lawyer, the decision mere- 
ly recognizes modem reality. Like a com- 
pany town where the company sets the 
rules, commercial enclaves are in effect 
small governments; they must allow rea- 
sonable communicative acts by customers 
and viators, while retaining the right to set 
fair terms that govern when and where the 
right of speech may be exercised. 

out leaflets against the GulFWar tliree 
years ago were entitled to some access to 
the mail's open spaces. But it also left 
room for rqpilations to protect store own- 
ers from conduct that could drive away 
customers. In so ruling, the court made it 
dear that the malls were not fair game for, 
say, big parades or loud demonstrations. 
Chief Justice Robert Wllentz and his court 
have often been tagged as judicial activists 
— legal adventurers who believe that the 
courts have as much license to attack so- 

cial ills as the political process. But here, 
far from legislating from the bench, the 
court made a commonplace observation 
about the way people shop, hang out and 
use suburban and urban spaces. 

What it said is not new or startling. The 
U.S. Supreme Court has wrestled with the 
question for a quarter-century. It ultimate- 
ly found that no federal constitutional 
right was involved, but it specifically noted 
that state courts, interpreting their own 
constitutions, might well rule differently. 
Courts in California, Oregon, Massachu- 
setts, Colorado and WasJrington have con- 
strued their state constitutions as guaran- 
teeing some free speech rights in shopping 
centers. New York’s highest court, disap- 
pointingly, rejected that approach in a 
1985 case, saying mall owners had invited 
the public only for a limited commercial 
purpose and need not indulge noncom- 
mercial activity. 

But as the New Jersey court more clear- 
ly perceives, the mall owners hope to lure 
paying customers by inviting people to 
null about and enjoy themselves. Or even 
to do nothing at all 

These cases are not about socializing 
private, commercial property. Rather they 
involve the reaffirmation of the right of 
peaceful orderly free expression. New Jer- 
sey’s highest court has done its job well 

International Herald Tribune 



RICHARD McCLEAN, Publisher & Chief Execmx* 

JOHN VINOCUR. Esmibfe&bor & VkePhsadeuf 

CHARLES ^^^O^E3JWORE/>?!^^ :[feOT * CARLGEWKT2, AwcioKfii**- 

• ROBERT J. DONAHU&fatortftf* EffiwW Pages -JONATHAN GAG&BuancssmdFinanceEtBlor 

• RENIi BQNDY. Deputy PuHbh* • JAMES NkilOD.Adif&bsmg Director 
*JUN>fIT^LCASPPi^lntenuBondDcud 3 pnumtDim 3 or» DTOlERBRUKCanifetofl&ira 

Director de la Publioitiort: Richard D. SniMBl 
CHrecuur Abrade bPubikaion: KadtarmeP.Dijnvur 

End of the Parties as You’ve Known Them 

ef _ Nmmnlw ic vulnerable, as f 

By William Pfaff. 

P ARIS — Nineteen ninety- 
four saw the end of the 

American political parties as we 
have known them since the 
1930s, and in the case of the 
Democratic Party since the elec- 
tion of 1800, when an alliance of 
Southon agrarians and North- 
ern city-dwellers made Thomas 
Jefferson president 

Thai coalition of interests sur- 
vived to elect John Kennedy in 
1960, but it is now dead. 

The uneasy alliance in the Re- 
publican Party between Eastern 
internationalist h ankin g and 
uading interests and the subur- 
ban and small-town middle class 
is also finished. Liberal Republi- 
canism has ceased to exist. 

What comes next? 

There has to be a major politi- 
cal regrouping. The continuing 
— indeed, strengthening — phe- 
nomenon of anti-party and anti- 
politicum populism is another 
proof of that. 

The people who support Ross 
Perot, the radical-right talk 
show audience and the majority 
who do not vote at aD in nation- 
al elections will either be assimi- 
lated into one of the existing 
parties, changing its character, 
or will back some new move- 

dustry with conservative isola- 
tionism has ended is a rout of 
the internationalists. 

The coalition first split in 
1912, when the progressive and 
imperialist Theodore Roosevelt 
ran for a second presidential 
tens as a Bull Moose, and Rob- 
ert La FoDette’s Republican re- 
formers backed him. 

The isolationists were in con- 
trol from the world war to 1941, 
but the internationalists dictated 
the party’s presidential choices 
from 1940 to 1952. Wendell WiB- 
Jde. Thomas Dewey and Dwight 
Eisenhower were all from the 
tive wing of the party, 
iven Richard Nixon was 
launched as a presidential can- 
didate by his service under 
President Eisenhower, and al- 
though be disliked, distrusted 
and undermined the patty’s lib- 
eral wing, he was an interna- 
tionalist president 
George Bush was the last of 

the liberal Republicans, and 
even he did bis unconvincing 

best to pass as a Texan. 

The party today is firmly in 
the control of what before was 
its right wing, and this, now, is 
‘ Jy a radicalized liber- 
tarian right, influenced by doc- 
trines of radical individuatism 
that would have appalled Rob- 
ert Taft’s generation of Republi- 
can conservatives. 

In foreign policy it combines 
belligerent and moralizing inter- 
ventionist rhetoric with a funda- 
mental isolationism. 

The public, always more con- 
servative than it 

ind miratTiK. 

has turned right — sometimes to 
an anarchic or even insurrec- 
tional right — following its loss 
in economic security and decline 
in economic expectations during 
recent years. In the past such 
factors would have more likely 
caused voters to turn left. 

The Republicans’ success in 

November is vulnerable, as the 
Republicans themselves admit 
Bill Clinton had two years to 
remake the Democratic identity 
and failed The electorate has. 
now put the Republicans on 
two-year trial Two years aren’t 
much time. If the Republicans 
cannot square the contradic- 
tions in the promises that Newt 
Gingrich made to voters in Sep- 
tember, they will be out in 1996. 

We are still far from any per- 
manent recombination erf the 
electoral forces at work in the 
country. We can say only that 
the old combinations arc fin- 
ished. America’s pditzcal par- 
ties in the new century will be 
new parties, whatever names 
they bear. They may not even be 
parties, in today’s .sense. The 
trend even now is toward a poli- 
tics hinged on personality, not 
principle or program — where 
principle and program may even 
be handicaps. 

International Harold Ttibune. 

© Los Angeles Times Syndicate. 

Fed Up With the American Presidency 

meat (or movements) to chal- 

By Edwin M. Yoder Jr. 

Jenge the old parties, 
ocratic Party in particular is 
ready for replacement. 

It has been wounded and 
groggy since the 1960s. Lyndon 
Johnson was the last leader of 
the old coalition of conservative 
white Southerners (in a still seg- 
regated South) with Western 
populists, Northern industrial 
workers and middle-class liber- 
als. Franklin Roosevelt had re- 
energized the old Jeffersonian 
coalition in 193Z when the 
South and West were poor, the 
unions growing and the Repub- 
licans blamed for the crash and 
the Depression. 

His vice president, Harry Tru- 
man (some thing of a populist 
himself), won in 1948 despite 
the defection of part of the 
South to the“Dixiecrats” and of 
some liberals to Henry Wal- 
lace’s Progressive Party. John 
Kennedy, with a little help from 
his father’s money and a lot of 
help from Lyndon Johnson, put 
the coalition together one more 
time in 1960. 

But with the catastrophe of 
Vietnam the liberals deserted 
President Johnson, leaving him 
with the war they bad created. 
The foreign policy directorate 
he inherited from President 
Kennedy bailed out, one by one, 
awarding one another the Fotd 
Foundation, World Bank, Coun- 
cil on Foreign Relations eta, 
leaving Mr. Johnson to face the 
crowds chanting “How many 
kids did you kill today, LETT 

The Democratic Party after- 
ward fell into that schism which 
ever since has pitted social and 
racial interest groups and activ- 
ists against “New Democrats” 
trying to write a new platform 
with national appeal. The par- 
ty’s two successes — the elec- 
tions of Timmy Carter in 1976 
and of BO] Clinton — occurred 
only because of Watergate and 
the willingness in 1992 of voters 
to blame hard times on the Bush 

Today the South is rich and 
largely Republican. Political 
correctness has discredited lib- 
eralism, so far as the mass of 
Americans is concerned. The 
unions have been smashed by 
Reagan administration legisla- 
tion and by free trade. The ele- 
ments in the old Democratic 
coalition are gone. 

On the Republican side, the 
tenuous coalition of Eastern in- 
ternationalist finance and 

^j^ASHINGTON — In Washington, every 

dent in turn is framed in the public mind in some 
symbolic image. Mr. Ford’s was physical clumsi- 
ness. with the slv implication that he was out of 

shipwreck is blamed on political error. That 
is the conventional wisdom about the shipwreck 
Bill Clinton suffered on Nov. 8. 

The pundits keep telling him so. Robert Sa- 
m nelson, the Newsweek columnist, calls him “the 
mortician of liberalism." My colleague David 
Broder summons him to “define and defend the 
sacred ground of the Democratic Patty." 

This advice is unfortunate, indeed calamitous. 
It reinforces Mr. Clinton’s misguided conception 
of presidential leadership the conception that 
got him so frequently caricatured in the 1992 

campaign as a “policy worik," 

recent recovery speech, while mercifully 
brief, was policy wonkism at its worst, echoing, on 
a modest scale, his Byzantine health care reform 
package. So have been a train of postdection 
gestures, proposals and concessions — on school 
prayer, fetal tissue experimentation, military 
spending, the role of the surceoa general grazing 
fees on public lands in the West All are responses 
to the illusion that the erosion of the president’s 
standing is rooted in policy. 

Mr. Clinton’s fade-out seems to continue a 
recent trend in presidential fragility that afflicted 
Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter and George Bush. 

The symptom is individualized, as each presi- 

ness, with the „ 
his depth. Mr. Cartel’s was wimpishness, epito- 
mized m the ludicrous tale of a confrontation, on 
a G wwgifl fishing pond, with a “killer rabbit" Mr. 
Bush's was a breezy, telegraphic preppy-speak 
intimating puerility and, beyond that a privileged 
remoteness from the stru gg les of ordinary people. 

Much of this was nonsense. What matters is not 
the accuracy of the caricature but its acceptance 
as a defining metaphor. Ronald Reagan alone 
escaped the trap, for reasons still not altogether 
dear. His consummate use of the double-edged 
weapon erf television was surely among them. 

The crisis of political authority afflicts all the 
major democracies, as the fates of Brian Mulraney 
in Canada, Francois Mitterrand in France, tire 
usual host of Italian prime ministers and even 
Margaret Thatcher in Britain suggest. Mr. Clinton's 
detractors cater to a widespread cynicism about all 
authority that is not unique to Washington. 

The immediate question for Mr. Clinton is 
whether the erosion of his authority, whatever its 
source, is reversible. The tax-cutting speech, billed 
as a major effort at recovery amplifies the deadly 
impression that be is a wanderer of no fixed views 
who locks outride himself for clues to popular 
whims and rushes to adjust himself to them. 

Washington Post Writers Group. 

Don’t Expect a Big Third Party Soon 

Senator Paul Tsongas, 

By Hobart Bowen 


candidatein 1992 for the Demo- 
cratic Party’s presidential nomi-. 
nation, says results of the No- 
vember elections expose the 
need for a third party; a centrist 
coalition that would be like tire 
Republicans on economic af- 
fairs and like the Democrats on 
human and social issues. 

There is a simplistic logic to 
tins urge to get something new 
started. A poll by Peter Hart 
shows that 27 percent of those 
questioned are negative or neu- 
tral to both parties. 

In 1992, Ross Perot, running 
for president as an independent, 
got 19 percent of tire vote. Many 
think that if he did not have 
personality problems he would 
have done even better. 

In a long memorandum enti- 
tled “A Different Road?” Mr. 
Tsongas concludes that both the 
Democrats and the Republicans 
“have allowed a vacuum to be 
created that neither seems capa- 
ble of fiUing.” This is a result, he 
said, of “unease" among the 
electorate about the harsh social 
values of the Republicans, cou- 
pled with fear that the Demo- 
crats are fiscally irresponsible. 

In a telephone interview, be 
said his hope when be wrote the 

memo was to “move the Demo- 
crats in tins direction.” But he 

acknowledged Jhat -after- Presi- 
dent Bill Clinton’s speech two 

weeks ago imitating the Repub- 
licans’ penchant for a middle- 
class tax cut, he has abandoned 
hope that Mr. Clinton could 
lead a centrist coalition. 

Mr. Tsongas said he believes 
that if neither major party has 
moved into the vacuum Ire de- 
scribes by this time next year, 

pressures will emerge for Colin 

or someone like him to 
adopt a policy agenda based on 
fiscal conservatism and social 
liberalism. He has sent Mr. Pow- 
ell a copy of his memorandum, 
but says he has no idea of his 
reaction to iL He admits that 
after Mr. Powell “there’s a big 
drop” in the quality and attrac- 
tiveness of potential new leaders 
for his centrist party. 

A1 From, president of the 
Democratic Leadership Coun- 
cil an organization of conserva- 
tive Democrats, dismisses the 
Tsongas plan as “top-down ap- 
proach.” In an interview, he said 
that while he agrees with Mr. 
Tsongas that neither of the two 
main parties now occupies the 

desirable centrist corf, he dis- 
agrees that a new party can be 
set up, dependent on a popular 
figure to pull it along. - 

A true reform movement, Mr. 
From said, must “bubble up” 
from the many new reforms suc- 
cessfully being followed by Re- 
publican and Democratic may- 
ors and governors. He mentioned 
Republican Governor Tommy 
G. Thompson of Wisconsin and 
Democratic Governors Roy 
Romcr of Colorado and Lawton 
Chiles of Florida. 

He cited as an example of the 
changes under way the Charter 
School Movement in 1 1 states in 
which parents take responsibil- 
ity for running the public school 
systems on an efficient basis. 

“Whichever party absorbs on 
a national level the reforms that 
many mayors and governors 
have been making at the local 
level has the best chance to 
emerge as tire dominant party,” 
Mr. From said. 

But there are as yet few signs 
of “bubbling up" activity, just as 
there seem to be few persons 
eager to board the Tsongas 
train. It may take well beyond 
1996 to determine whether the 
country is ready for a viable 

third party. 

The Washington Post 

And Then What Happened, Say, to the Vietnamese? 

InienaikfHj^fc^ Tribune, 181 Avenue OsHiesdc<3aufle, 9252J Nanlly-sur-Scine. France. 
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U.K. Advertising Office: 63 Long Acre, London WC2. TeL (071) 8364802. Far (071) 240-2254. 
2LA an capital de 1.200.000 F. PCS Ntutiem B 73202/126. Commission Puriiaire No. 61337 
^!9^bttarakmdHenAlTrdwe. ABriglm reserved ISSN: 0294-8051 

N EW YORK — And then 
what happened? The an of 
story telling — of history or of 
journalism, for that matter — 
turns on that one question. Sto- 
ries die if an audience does not 
urge on the teller with its in- 
formed curiosity. 

That is of no great consequence 
when only stories are at stake. But 
what happens when Americans as 
a nation no longer ask that driv- 
ing question — and then wbai 
happened? — about the lives and 
fortunes of people who because 
of America’s actions and words 
believed that their fate was cen- 
tral to America’s own destiny? 

This forgetting to ask occurred 
in the case of South Vietnam, a 
country and a cause that ab- 
sorbed America’s attention and 
national treasure and inflamed 
U.S. politics for a decade. Since it 
disappeared in April 1975, South 
Vietnam and the people who 
lived there have been the subject 
of remarkably few authoritative 
accounts that say what happened 
after America left 
An important new book arrives 
to tell one person's view of what 
did happen after Hanoi’s victory 
over Saigpn. Entitled “South Wind 
Cha ngin g,” by Jade Ngoc Quang 
Huynh, the book is perceptively 
reviewed in the current issue of 
The New York Review of Books 
by journalist Philip Gourevitch. 

Mr. Huynh grew up in the Me- 
kong River Delta during the 
American war in Vietnam. When 
Americans left and averted their 

By Jim Hoagland 

from Hanoi's brutal re-education 
camps. He made his way as a beet 
person to America, where he has 
now produced a nonideologjcal 

insightful contribution to the “lit- 
erature of witness": first-person 
accounts of survivors of Nazi con- 
centration camps, Soviet gulags, 
Serbian ethnic cleansing and other 
man-made hells. 

This is bow Mr. Gourevitch 
nails the point that “South Wind 
Changing” is not only an impor- 
tant historical document but also 
an implicit commentary on the 
risks that small nations, or peo- 
ples, run in committing their fate 
to a global superpower. 

“Huynh’s account of torture 
and murder in the re-education 
camps “may seem familiar to 
readers in the late 20th century. 
But while such scenes have been 
played and replayed in country 
after country, to date relatively 
little Ires been published in Amer- 
ica about the postwar terror 
which destroyed the lives of hun- 
dreds of thousands of Vietnam- 
ese, and which produced over a 
million refugees. America’s ob- 
session with Vietnam has been 
largely a matter of self-regard.” 

In American writing and ana- 
lysis, Mr. Gourevitch continues, 
“the Vietnamese have appeared, 
whether as victims or villains, 
primarily as bit players in an 
American tragedy.” 

Arguments about Vietnam be- 
came arguments about America. 
They were more about what 
Americans thought of each other 
and their own politics than what 
they thought about the Vietnam- 
ese. The proof is that those argu- 
ments have gone on in a monu- 
mental act of egotism without the 
Vietnamese, who disappeared be- 
hind the Bamboo Curtain. 

Arguing about who was to 
blame became more important 

to the Vietnamese we hac^prom- 
ised to protect. Mr. Huynh re- 
cords: “Torture was happening 
everywhere in the labor camps 
around the country, but people aid 
not seem to know or care, especial- 
ly the people who negotiated this 
kind of “peace' for Vietnam," 

This book could be seen as 
nothing more than a depressing 
reminder of a painful past nation- 
al trauma, arriving inopportunely 
as America moves toward nor- 
malizing relations with Vietnam 
to open up new markets and tour- 
ist destinations. “South Wind 
Changing” is in fact an important 
contemporary call on Americans 
not to forget the past even as 
circumstances move them into 

The fall of global communism 
and the rise of anti- immig rant 
sentiment in the United States 
make these Cuban refugees politi- 
cally inconvenient, whereas only 
a few years ago they were politi- 
cally useful for Cold Warriors. 
The American public and its po- 
litical representatives should care 
deeply about what happens next 
to these people. Mercy and justice 
would seem to dictate that they 
be allowed to begin new lives in 
the United States. At the least, 
they should be remembered in 
this holiday season. 

The Washington Post 

Also Means 

By Anthony Lewis 

B OSTON —Not only Repub- 
lican voters believe that gov- 
ernment in America has become 

too expansive, too costly and too 
intrusive. Whoever wins elec- 

tions, the years ahead are going 
to be a time of limits on what 
governments try to do. 

But it is a different thing to 
believe that government is evil 
lb hear Newt Gingridt and his 
followers, the federal government 
should do tittle but mai n tai n the 
national defense and pay out such 
middle-class entitlements as So- 
cial Security and Medicare. Ev- 
erything else should be left to 
individual initiative 

In a world as complex as ours, 
and as interconnected, even the 
strongest individual necessarily 
relies oo. all kinds of government 
actions. There is a real danger 
that by enfeebling government 
Americans will make the United 


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States a less competitive country, 
and a less avffized one. . . 

Adam Smith, the great advo- 
cate of market economies, never- 
theless wrote that they needed 
government to educate the labor 
force, assure economic infrastruc- 
ture and piarn tain public safely. 
Noting that view in the current 
issue of The Atlantic Monthly, 
Chalmers Johnson observes that 
governments perform those func- 
tions less well in America than in 
some of its competitors'. 

Consider transportation, a cru- 
cial part of any society’s infra- 
structure, Japan has bullet trains. 
Europe has trans- European ex- 
presses from the Mediterranean 
to the North Sea. America has 
struggling Amtrak. The rationale 
for starving Amtrak is that subsi- 
dies are bad — that passenger 
t rains must make their competi- 
tive way in the market But that is 
carrying theory over the edge. 

Or there is aviation safety. Af- 
ter a series of crashes erf commut- 
er planes,- it was learned that they 
did not have to meet the same 
federal safety standards as larger 
aircraft Do people want to let the 
marketplace determine how safe 
planes should be? 

There is a safety question 
about medical drugs, too. Some 
voices on the right are calling for 
elimination or severe restriction^ 
of the Food and Drug Adminis- 
tration, arguing that new drugs 
’ would j*et on the market more 

S if they did not have to go 
extensive trials arid ap= 
iy the FDA first 
That was the situation in Brit- 
ain — no effective constraints on 
new drugs — when thalidomide 
went on the market as a tranquil- 
izer in the 1960s. Pregnant wom- 
en who used it gave birth to terri- 
bly deformed children. 

Safety and physical infrastruc- 
ture are not the only necessary 
concerns of government in a mar- 
ket ecmiomy. Adam Smith listed 
education. Today he would surely 
add to that the encouragement of 
scientific research. Yet funds for 
university research are another 
target of budget-cutters. 

There are other dements of a 
good society that individuals alone 
cannot provide — that depend on 
“the power of a community." Sig- 
mund Freud used that phrase 60 
years ago. Trying to define what 
makes for civilization, he spoke 
of technological accomplishment, 
beauty, order and respect for 
ideas. But the decisive civiliring 
step, he wrote, was the replace- 
ment of individual force by the 
power of the community. 

Some civilizing dements of life 
are under particular threat in 
America. An example is public 
libraries, a peculiarly American 
way to sdf-tmprovement, to en- 
largement of the mind and spirit 
Public television and radio will 
get no federal funds if Mr. Ging- ’ 
rich has his way. At one stroke, he 
would endanger the only mean- 
ingful scientific programs and 
documentaries on American tele- 
vision and by far the most serious 
newson radio and television. So 
this large, rich country would 
have nothing like what modest 
Britain has in the BBC. 

Rugged individualism is part of 
the American creed. But another 
part, vital since the b 
has been the power of 


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The New Yi>rk Tunes. 

1894: Alexander’s Tomb 

the future. Normalization may be 

useful; amnesia about what 
nam became, to justify normal* 
ization, would be shameful 
The act of forgetting to ask 
what happened next is not con- 
fined to Vietnam. After a burst of 
publicity last summer, there is 
surprisingly tittle attention paid 
by the American public to the 
fate of some 30,000 Cuban refu- 
gees and 14,000 Haitians still be- 
ing held in American camps in 
Guant&namo Bay and P anama 
The Cubans, who would have 
once been welcomed as refugees, 
live in a limbo created by the 
sodden change of asylum policy 
by the Clinton administration. 
The limbo and the conditions in 
the Cuban camps have sparked 
riots in which 250 people, mostly 
U.S. troops, have been injured. 

PARIS ’—The Gaulois hints at a 
discovery which is likely to cause 
a considerable sensation in the 
archaeological world. It would 
appear that a number of enthusi- 
astic antiquaries are firmly con- 
vinced that the tomb of Alexan- 
der the Great is concealed in the 
crypt of the Daniel Mosque at 
Alexandria, but that their at- 
tempts at investigation have been 
hitherto frustrated by the fanati- 
cism and jealousy of the Moslem 
clergy. Now as appeal has been 
made to the Khedive and it is 
hoped that be will authorise the 
necessary researches. 

matters are not altogether rosy fat 
the Red Army. Trotzky has issued 
*0 appeal calling upon the people 
to devote a week specially to the 
struggle against the ever-growing 
desertions that are thinning the 
ntoks of the Red AimyT 

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1919: Soviets in Siberia 

PARIS — Soviet Russia bwdl on 
the way to the conquest of Siberia, 
while the Allies are glibly talking 
about the barbed wire fence to be 
formed tty the bonier States. But 

1944?: Robot Bombing 

CHICAGO — Robot bombing is 
almost certain to befall this 
country and all other countries" 

unless we are able to establish an 
OTitaent peace organization, Sec- 
retery of State EdwardR. Stettinr - 
jus Jr. warned today [Dec. 24 d 
no one forget that robot 
bomb® are^B in their infancy,” 
he said. “These deadly missiles 
be perfected to the point 
where they can travel thousands 

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JFK’s Secret Recordings: 
More Careful, No Less Evil 


O P I N I O IN ” 

By William Safire 

was Kcn- 

fj T. » oe tarehi 1 about your pro- 
John F.Wedy 
S. r?T^ oweis ’ a confidant, i£ 
“eOval Office one day in 1962, 
because. I don ’* want to hear your 
“Mwords coming back at me.” 

. puzzled Mr. Powers. Accord- 
Jpfi to a JFK Library oral historian. 
heOjen went to Kenneth O'Donnd] 
JFKs most intimate political aide! 
and said, “Kenny, what the heD is he 
talking about?” Mr. O'Donnell re- 
plied: “Well, he’s got this lapine sys- 
tem installed in there.” J 

Thai nugget about the first system- 
atic invasion of privacy by a US. 
president came up in research I did 

nedy family lawyer in trouble with 
the Internal Revenue Service; may- 
be the presidential intercession can 
be explained, although the call looks 
fishy on its face. 

The index shows that Mr. Ken- 



w&v&> ttt&T, we 
share PiFFfcfsem' 

Gem- ELfifWKr next 
Vacfr.’ A A 

Write Cheeks to Yourself 
And Come Out Ahead 

By David Silverstein 

W ASHINGTON — About six 
months ago I received three 


nedy taped calls to former Presi- 
dents Truman and Eisenhower, 

Kennedy himself selected 
the occasions for taping. 

last week after the release of tape 
recordings by the Kennedy Library 
rcjprding the Cuban missile crisis. 

La those JFK-serving tapes, two 
Democratic senators — Richard 
Russell of Georgia and J. William 
Ful bright of Arkansas — were 
shown to be hawks urging an all- 
out invasion of Cuba. They were 
unaware that Mr. Kennedy had 
pressed a button under the cabinet 
table activating microphones in 
wall sconces behind his chair. 

In a room beneath the Oval Of- 
fice, a tape machin e — installed at 
Mr. Kennedy’s direct request by Se- 
cret Service agent Robert I. Bouck 
— secretly recorded scores of such 
meetings. Mr. Kennedy was so 
pleased with Lhe notion of being the 
only one in a meeting aware of being 
recorded that he extended the tap- 
ing. begun in the summer of 1962, to 
telephone conversations. He 

who bad not pulled that trick on 
their predecessors. JFK felt the 
need to record a gallbladder discus- 
sion with future President Lyndon 
Johnson, who followed the Kenne- 
dy precedent of secret taping. 

Mr. Kennedy taped Ted Sorensen 
about a speech and Arthur Schle- 
singer Jr., his unsuspecting histori- 
an, about the Profumo scandal. He 
recorded an aide to Robert Kenne- 
dy, Jack Rosenthal, about a death in 
Mississippi; the lawyer Clark Clif- 
ford about an impending Washing- 
ton Post article; Senator George 
Smathers about press criticism of 
JFK, and Senator Russell Long 
about 1964 election prospects. 

Hundreds of people who spoke 
to the president with the reasonable 
expectation of privacy were be- 
trayed. And a nation that was dis- 
mayed and infuriated at the revela- 
tion of the Nixon taping system in 
1973 can see today where that slea- 
zy business began in earnest: in 
1962, at the personal direction of 
John Fitzgerald Kennedy. 

V V months ago I received three 
cash-advance checks in the mail 
from a bank that wanted to issue me 
a credit card. These are blank checks 
that I could make out to whomever 
1 chose, to be drawn against a credit 
card account that this bank hoped 
I would open with iL 
I almost threw the checks away 
without reading the accompanying 
letter, because I knew that cash ad- 
vances usually cany hefty user fees 


and begin accruing interest charges 
immediately But to some reason I 
read this letter. It turned out to be 
a very wise decision. 

The bank made the following 
pitch: I could use the cash-advance 

checks for up to my full credit limit, 
which was 57,500; all cash-advance 


Chilians Under Fire 

My purpose here is not to exon- 
erate Richard Nixon with the “ev- 
erybody did it” excuse, because not 
every president in the tape era did 
it; apparently Harry Truman and 
Dwight Eisenhower resisted the 
temptation. And Mr. Kennedy did 
it the careful way, selecting the oc- 
casions himself and — with a hand- 
ful of exceptions, since expurgated 
— speaking in the knowledge that 
he was playing to history, unlike 
Mr. Nixon, who let a voice- activat- 
ed system record his profanities, 
slurs and abuse of power. 

The purpose of my late-hitting 
harangue is to underscore the evil 
of electronic eavesdropping. The 
260 hours of the Kennedy tapes are 
a r emin der that Americans need 
new laws to protect them from ever 
more sophisticated intrusions on 
their privacy. 

Mr. Kennedy’s precedent-setting 
actions were rooted in mistrust of 
loyal colleagues and the absence of 
an ethical compass. He probably ra- 
tionalized this systematic wrong as 
. bring “for history.” But it back- 
fired; his secret taping impugns his 
character far more thin any pecca- 
dillo. life is not always unfair. 

The New York Times. 

telephone conversations. He 
touched a button that signaled his 
secretary, Evelyn Lincoln, to record 
on a Dictabelt the calls he selected. 

The first telephone caller so taped 
was his wife. Jacqueline. This tape 
was later removed from the files, 
along with four numbered audio- 
tapes of official meetings that Ken- 
nedy family memb e rs and their law- 
yers presumably felt showed 
embarrassing or illegal actions. 

In the “finding aid,” a Library 
historian writes: ‘That at least some 
items were removed cannot be 
doubted." What’s still there? Plenty 
— 248 hours of meetings and 12 
hours of telephone conversations. 
One of the tapes not yet made public 
.is a call made by JFK to the Justice 

’ Department’s Nicholas Katzenbach 
on July 25, 1963. The topic: “James 
M. Landis and the Internal Revenue 

According to the international 
press, Russian militaiy aircraft have 
bombed residential areas in Grozny, 
the capital of Chechnya. There have 
been reports of casualties among ci- 
vilian noncombatants. Refugees In- 
ternational condemns the use of mil- 
itary force against civilian targets. 

Both sides should cease fire and 
seek a negotiated settlement Russia 
should respond rapidly and effec- 
tively to the h umanitarian needs of 
the people of Chechnya. The inter- 
national community should be pre- 
pared to assist in reducing the stale 
of violence and in providing hu- 
manitarian relief to persons dis- 
placed or affected by the fighting. 

Refugees International. 


them in front of their winter camp, 
which looks like a typical house in 
Salekhard. Later, the summer camp 
is described as having “no modes of 
transportation other than sleds, 
which are of liule use in the summer 

During my two visits, I have ob- 
rved the more permanent winter 

Sleds, Reindeer and a Road 

served the more permanent winter 
settlements near the tree tine, but 
also spent time in summer camps far 
to the north. The sleds are indeed 
used during the summer. One look 
at the design shows that it is an 
efficient stea. The main body is raised 
some 30 to 35 centimeters above the 
runners. This facilitates movement 
over the summer tundra, which is 
often dominated by willow shrubs 
averaging the same height. Heavier 
sleds require up to four reindeer to 
puIL Lighter sleds, one or two. The 
group or four Nenets families 1 was 
with in 1991 moved once every 24 
hours in July in an apparently vain 
effort to keep their 2,000-odd animals 
from overgrazing the tundra. 

the peninsula from south to north. 

In 1993, a Russian ethnologist 
and I interviewed a Nenets leader 
about ecological change along the 
new road and railway tine. He rat- 
tled off a litany of complaints re- 
garding unforeseen impacts — such 
as wind-borne dust that is ruining 
the annual cloudberry crop up to 1 
kilometer downwind from the road. 
The road has another 350 kilometers 
to go before it reaches Bovanyenko. 
The railway will follow the road, 
and then a set of five gas pipelines 
will follow the raiL I have grave 
doubts that Amoco can “do its work 
without further disturbances of . . . 
grazing grounds.” There is much ev- 
idence to the contrary. 


Rovaniemi, Finlan d. 

fees would be waived if I did so; and 
I would receive 1 percent cash bade, 
as a sort of bonus, for whatever por- 
tion of my credit line I used. It was 
the last part that I couldn't believe. 

I read the letter several times. 
I showed it to some friends to ensure 
I was interpreting it correctly. It turns 
out this is a fairly standard introduc- 
tory pffer. Other banks do it, in a 
scramble for credit card customers. 

mg the bonus — I earned SI IS in 
“cash rewards.” 

But it wasn’t enough. Since I had 
been using a MasterCard, I calle d 
and asked for Visa as wclL Within 
two weeks a Visa card arrived in the 
mail along with three cash-advance 
checks and a new 57,500 balance. 

This is, I assure you, perfectly 
legal. It is just one sideshow in the 
grand carnival of promotion that is 
the credit card business. 

In their fervor to shove more plas- 
tic into our pockets, the debt indus- 
try (sometimes more politely re- 
ferred to as “financial services 
providers”) now offers cards with 
low interest rales, cards that come 
with free frequent-flier miles, cards 
that give discounts on gas or lug- 
gage, even cards that accumulate 
“points” that can be applied to the 
purchase of a new car. And, of 
course, there are cards that come 
with cash-advance checks, and cash 
“rewards” for using them. 

The marketing people aren't 
complete fools. I am sure they 

I took this bank up on it, opening 
MasterCard account. Then 1 used 

Reasons for a Defeat 

I read with great interest Michael 
Specter’s article on the archaeolo- 
gists who “came upon” the Nenets 
reindeer herders last summer in Si- 
beria (“Arctic Tribe in Russia May 
Be Key to Migration Mystery Fea- 
tures, Nov. 29). I am an ecologist and 
biogeographer and have been study- 
ing industrial impact on the vegeta- 
tion and soils of the Yamal P enins ula 
since 1991. The article says that the 
Nenets “live year-round in randeer- 
sldn tepees,” yet the photo shows 

Many of the sleds in camp re- 
mained partially or fully loaded dur- 

mained partially or fully loaded dur- 
ing our stay. The chums [tepee-like 1 

shelters] were easily broken down 
and packed into sleds in minutes. 

However, this accelerated pace of 
nomadism cannot compensate for 
the fact that the herds are too large 
and have been so for decades. A 
family of four consumes about 25 
reindeer a year. Nomadism will be 
a liability when the road-railway- 
pipeline corridor now under con- 
struction is completed and dissects 

Regarding Partners Have to Take 
Americans' Choler Seriously ” (Opin- 
ion, Nov. 18) by Flora Lewis: 

The article gives the impression 
that the Clinton a dminis tration has 
been ^punished" for its multmationa- 
lism in foreign policy. The defeat 
should rather be ascribed to Ameri- 
can domestic issues and personalities. 
The prospect of Senator Jesse Helms 
as chairman of the Foreign Relations 
Committee does not augur well for 
the future of U JS. multinationalism. 



a MasterCard account. Then 1 used 
the first of the cash-advance 
checks, wrote myself a check for 
57,500, the entire credit limit, and 
deposited it in my checking ac- 
count. I didn’t wait for the credit 
card company to send me a bill for 
this; 1 simply sent a personal check 
(drawn on my newly enlarged 
checking account) to the credit card 
issuer to pay off the 57,500 debt. 

1 called the credit card company 
and got lhe good news: As promised, 
it was cutting me a check for 575 
(1 percent of the original $7,500 cred- 
it tine) as my bonus for using my 
card. In effect, I had gone through 
a revolving door and right back out 
again, earning 575 for the trouble. I 
didn’t hesitate to repeat the process. 

After a few more transactions from 
myself to myself. I telephoned the 
credit card company and asked for a 
credit-limit increase. The operator 
looked up my account, saw that I had 
been running laige balances and pay- 
ing them off in rail, and replied that 
an increase would be no problem. 

The next day I learned that my 
credit limit had been increased to 
$11,500. Now each time I repeated 
the process — drawing down my 
credit, depositing it in my account, 
paying it back immediately, collect- 

know that some people will figure 
out they can do I what I did; but we 
are few, in a huge industry that 
takes advantage of the tens of thou- 
sands of less organized people who 
typically use their credit card ad- 
vances to pay off other debts. These 
cash-back deals must be more than 
offset by the gigantic interest that 
banks often charge on unpaid bal- 
ances — as much as 21 percent. 

Even though my credit card com- 
pany tells me its program is a pro- 
motion, of limited duration, it con- 
tinues to send me new checks faster 
than I can use them. To date I have 
made more than $1,500 by writing 
checks to myself. 

It has occurred to me that some- 
one is doing something very dumb. 
Either it’s the bank, which is risking 
the loss of a great deal of money, or 
it’s the consumers who aren't taking 
advantage of this fine dea 1 

Then a g ftin , one friend has sug- 
gested that the dumbest person of 
all is me — for writing about it 

The writer, a businessman, contrib- 
uted this article to The Washington 
Post, which comments : “ Yes, we 
checked this ouL Yes, it works.” 

Letters intended for publication 
should be addressed “ Letters to the 
Editor * and contain the writer’s si- 
gnature. name and full address. Let- 
ters should be brief and are subject 
to editing. We cannot be responsible 
for the return of unsolicited ma- 
nuscripts. ■ ■ ■ 


Radical Islamic Group Targets Foreigners 

TUNIS — The Armed Islamic Group is 
considered to be the most radical and 
dangerous of Algeria’s Muslim fundamen- 
talists and also the most anti-foreign. 

Algerian authorities said the gunmen 
who seized an Air France airliner in Al- 
giers on Saturday were members of the 
group, which is trying to transform the 
North African nation into an Islamic re- 

More than 70 foreigners, among than 22 
French nationals, have been killed since 
the group last year gave foreigners a month 
to get out of Algeria or face death. 

In a recent interview in the Algerian 
Arabic-langoage daily newspaper Essa- 
lam. one unidentified leader of the group 
was ouoied as describing foreigners as “the 
Senary artery” of a plan to “colo- 
nize” the country with non-Muslims. 

“Killing and fighting than is me practi- 
cal message to weaken the unbeliever rul- 
ers," he said. _ 

twiravt to death, but were freed early in 
1990 under pressure from the emerging 
Islamic Salvation Front. 

In the shadow of the now outlawed 

Front, the country’s main Muslim funda- 
mentalist political force, the Armed Islam- 
ic Group assembled men and arms, testing 
its strength in November 1991 by storming 
an army outpost and killing three soldiers 

r Killing and fighting 
them is the practical 
message to weaken the 
unbeliever rulers. 9 

An unidentified leader of die 
Armed Islamic Group 

In some propaganda, the group claims 
to be the heir of the fust wave of Muslim 

guerrilla activists in Algeria. 


^knocked out of action after its 
SSder, Mustapha Bouyaii, was shot to 

in the southeastern town of Guemar, ac- 
cording to the interview with the unnamed 

The group imposed as a key qualifica- 
tion for its leaders that they take part, 
directly in violent operations. 

“They should experience armed opera- 
tions and must demonstrate that they have 
trille d significant numbers among God’s 
enemies,” the leader said. 

The last chief was Cherif Gousmi, 26, 
known as Abu Abdallah, who was killed in 
a gun battle with security forces near Al- 
giers in September. 

The group’s No. 3, Abdessalam Dje- 
maoune, was gunned down alongside Mr. 
Gousmi. According to Algeria’s official 
press agency, APS, Mr. Qjemaoune was 
known as the group’s specialist in slitting 
throats, including those of 12 Croatian 
Christians who were killed at a foreign 
workers’ camp last December. 

Mr. Gousmi had headed the group since 
February, when its former chief, Mourad 
Sid Ahmed, alias Djaraf Afghani, was shot 
to death with nine of his men in a gun 
battle in an Algiers suburb. 

Security forces said they had found a 
letter with Mir. Gousmi ’s body from Ali 
BeOmdj, No. 2 in the Islamic Salvation 
Front political c omman d, urging Muslim 
rebels to intensify their war against the 
army-backed government 

But beyond that reported link with Mr. 
Belhadj, political analysts are baffled 
about the relationship between the Armed 
Islamic Group and the Islamic Salvation 
Front, which has its own armed wing 
called the Salvation Islamic Army. 

Some say the groups represent two faces 
of the same coin, while others see them as 

Hijackers Slow 
To Recognise 
Famous Singer 


UelF in Cockpit 

Continued bom ftge I 


MARSEILLE — It took 
his fundamentalist hijack- 
era a day to realize that 
among their hostages was 
Cesar Ferhat, a fervent 
anti-Islamist crusader and 
one of Algeria's most popu- 
lar singers. 

But once the guerrillas 
put a name to his familiar 
face in Algiers, Mr. Ferhat 
said Monday, “1 was select- 
ed for execution.” 

The singer, 43, is well- 
known in Algeria and on 
French television for his 

er. “The only way to put an end 
to it was to take offensive ac- 

to it was to take offensive ac- 
tion,” he said. 

Major Favier said his men 
used an emergency plan to 
storm the aircraft at three 
points simultaneously because 
they did not know exactly 
where the gunmen were. 

His force suffered its worst 
casualties at the front of the 



plane during an intense gun 
battle that Tasted about four 

prominent role in the pub- 
lic campaign against the Is- 

hc campaign against the Is- 
lamist qiny 

After telling him he was 
marked for death, the four ; 
guerrillas changed their 
minds and asked him to act 
as their go-between with 
the Algiers control tower, 
Mr. Ferhat said. 

battle that lasted about four 

“The unit that entered the 
front of the plane found the 
four terrorists holed up in the 
cockpit," Major Favier said. 

Witnesses counted at least 50 
volleys of automatic fire and 
numerous explosions. 

Thirteen passengers and 
three Air France crew were in- 


jured during the assault, most 
only scratched or braised and 

HIJ ACK: French Commando Team KiJh Gunmen and Rescues Hostages 

— .f: . . that ail fi>nr aim- and tiip rantain was hurt when on Saturday, was also in doubt. 

in Jet at Marseille 

■ * — — i istrv confirm that all four gun- and the captain was hurt when 

Offlftwed from i men were killed. he jumped from the cockpit. Of 

nmna down the gunmen The ministry also gave details the nine police officers, it said, 
p, kii7 other police opened the ^ other victims, it said two only one was seriously woimd- 
.ciri*. doors and began free- passen e;ers were slightly ed, losing a hand in the combat, 
hostages. wounded by gunfire, while 11 The exact number of gun- 

nig command- were injured in the scramble to men, who boarded the wide- 

Detus Fa _> ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ Two crew mem- bodied Airbus A-300 as it pre- 

er of “ e Jnet by “a rain of auto- beta were also hit by bullets, pared to take off from Algiers 

he jumped from the cockpit. Of Initially, Algerian authorities 
the nine police officers, it said, said there were four. On Sun- 

cr vi hv “ a ram oi auto- bers were also mi oy duucb, parou i« ou uuui 


Series of Commando Raids 

^^l^l^eCOdroitSS Agmeefhmcc-Pnne 

were in June 27, 1974c A Paris-bound Air France Airbus is bi- 

faced intense b ___ jacked by a pro-Palestinian commando with 244 passengers 

we - u* even as 

But, clouds 

explosive flashes noar the 

smoke c ^^ CDC y doors were 
opened chutes 


away w”** 

afl ,bul anceS ‘ j-j.j what exart- 

Confusion abou 1 

ly ^^anotherhow. 

. A genrr France- Prase 

June 27, 1974c A Paris- bound Air France Airbus is hi- 
jacked by a pro-Palestinian commando with 244 passengers 
on board after a stopover in Athens. The plane, which came 
from Tel Aviv, lands in Entebbe, Uganda. An Israeli force 
storms the terminal where the hostages are lying on the flow. 
Three hostages, the seven, terrorists and 20 Ugandan soldiers 
were left dead. 

Oct 13, 1977: Four Palestinian packers seize- control of a 
lai fthantai Boeing 737 en route to Frankfurt from Palma de 
Majorca in Spain with 87' passengers. The pilot js gunned 
down. The plane lands at Mogadishu, Somalia, where the 
German crack unit frees the hostages.' 

Feb. 19, 1978: An Egyptian anti-terrorist crack unit storms 
a Cyprus Airways DC# in Laroaca, where two Palestinian 
extremists hold 1 1 passengers and four crew members hosta- 
geJiftecn members of the Egyptian unit are killed and 15 
others wounded. 

Nov. 23, 1985: A Cairo-bound Egypt Air Boeing 737 with 
97 people is hijacked after take-off from Athens and re-routed 
to Malta. The hostage-takers kfll two passengers and ask to 
the plane to be refueled. An Egyptian crack unit storms the 
plane the following day. Sixty passengers and two hijackers 
die in the assault- 

day, the same Algerian officials 
said there were five militants on 
board. On Monday, French re- 
ports spoke variously of four, 
five and six gunmen. 

French radio reports Mon- 
day night said that the police 
were carefully checking the 
identity of passengers to ensure 
that no gunman had escaped 
among than. The gunmen bad 
released 63 Algerian passengers 
in Algiers as well as an elderly 
couple Monday afternoon in 
Marseille, although 159 passen- 
gers and 12 crew members were 
still thought to be on board. 

Reports from Marseille on 
Monday night said that many 
of the passengers were in a state 
of shock arm were receiving 
medical attention. Reporters 
were kept away from them, but 
one police inspector said, 
“Many are trembling and clear- 
ly very upset.** Most are expect- 
ed to complete their journey 10 
Paris Tuesday. 

French government officials 
said that Algeria was raged to 
allow the plane to fly to south- 
ern France early Monday after 
French authorities grew 
alarmed that the Algerian gov- 
ernment was about to order its 

own attack to end the hijacking. 
Earlier, France had offered to 
send its elite commandos to car- 
ry out the operation, but had 
received no answer. 

The officials said they feared 
Algeria was most interested in 
demonstrating that it would not 
give in to the Islamic militan ts, 
even if this proved fatal to 
many hostages. With some 40 
French nationals among the 
passengers and crew, however, 
Mr. Bahadur was reportedly in- 
sistent that any operation to 
end the crisis be carried out by 
the French police. 

Mr. BaQadur said Monday 
night, “France will inexorably 
fight terrorism and will not give 
in to blackmail wherever it 
comes from.” He also stressed 
that France was not a party to 
Algeria’s civil war. “We would 
like it to know peace and know 
it through democracy,” he said. 

With 24 French nationals 
among some 80 foreigners mur- 
dered by the Armed Islamic 
Group over the past 15 months, 
however, it is apparent that 
France is still widely viewed in 
Algeria as a key supporter of 
the country’s military regime. 

In December 1991, France 
backed the regime's decision to 
caned a second round of parlia- 
mentary elections that seemed 

shaken by the violence of the 

The French commandos 
“told us to get down and crawl 
toward the exit,” said one pas- 
senger who gave his first name 
as AreskL 

A woman said: “They told us 
to lie low and when my husband 
raised his head, a stewardess 
shoved it into the seat.” 

French television said about 
50 police officers were involved 
in the operation but photogra- 
phers who saw the attack esti- 
mated only 20 to 30 men took 
part in the assault. 

Officers were seen helping 
passengers down the aircraft's 
inflatable escape chutes, which 
billowed out after the attack be- 

Television showed several 
blasts of orange flame and 
heavy smoke in the cockpit. At 
least one other blast was seen 
cm the tarmac below the plane. 

Every Wednesday 
Philip Orna 
Tel.: (33 1) 

46 37 93 36 
Fax: (33 1 ) 

46 37 93 70 

likely to bring the Islamic Sal- 
vation Front to power. This 
year, France has also helped by 
clamping down on French- 
based Islamic groups that have 
allegedly contributed arms and 
money to the fight against the 
Algerian government 

■ More Violence Feared 
Foreign Minister Alain 
Juppe said on Monday that Al- 
geria’s civil strife would be 
long-lasting and that he feared 

more Muslim fundamen talis t 
violence against French inter- 
ests, Reuters reported from Par- 

or your nearest 
IHT office 
or representative 


International Herald Tribune 

» , December 27, 1994 

/- ^ 'ft 

r ♦ ' : 4r * fw' / . 

>.» ' . - vi •’■-‘j 

' . _ 
V> ’* 


. ;v , /' 

From left. Kashmir-shawl coat: Valentino evening ensemble. 1991: Lanvin jacket. 1936-37; Saint Laurent s brocade coatdress. and below. Galliano 's lake on the geisha. 

The Allure of the East in Western Dress 

By Suzy Menkes 

International Herald Tribune 

N EW YORK — Oh for a 
Thousand and One Nights 
ball to see out the old year! 
The sea of black that en- 
gulfs the festive season suggests that 
the exotic has gone out of fashion now 
that far-flung travel is on everyone’s 
agenda — or at least on television. 

The lure and the allure of the Orient 
are on show at New York's Metropoli- 
tan Museum. “Orientalism: Visions of 
the East in Western Dress” (at the 
Costume Institute until March 19) 
takes a tour of history and of the globe, 
starting with the chinoiserie silks from 
the 18th century and ending with Jean 
Paul Gaultier’s 1994 Chinese-quilted, 
tartar coat 

Between come a range of exotic in- 
spirations as the flat silhouettes of the 
1920s were enlivened with Eastern 
brocades and embroideries. Low- 
waisted flapper dresses with sumptu- 
ous Chinese embroideries by the Cal- 
lot Soeurs in Paris shows the ideal 
fusion of fashion and exotic fantasy. 

But for all the splendor of its individ- 
ual pieces, the exhibition does not quite 
ooine off — lacking the richness and 
texture that are the essence of exoticism. 
In fact the catalogue, written by the 
show’s curators, Richard Martin and 
Harold Koda, does a better job of con- 
veying in words and pictures the culture 
of orientalism. A 1920s dress is illustrat- 
ed by Georges Barbier in context in a 
Japonisme interior of cherry-blossom 
branch and Chinese lacquer furniture. 

There are portraits of a turbaned 
Lord Byron (by Thomas Phillips) as a 
dashing adventurer; voluptuous wom- 
en in exotic dress painted by Ingres 
and Delacroix. A fashion plate of an 
18th-century gentleman in powdered 
wig shows him with three symbols of 
the exotic: a Chinese robe, a cup of 
coffee and an opium pipe. Photo- 
graphs include Horst's stylish 1935 
portrait of a socialite in a cheongsam 
to Ballets Russes dancers in costumes 
from “Scheherazade” and in attitudes 
of sexual ecstasy. 

Given the Metropolitan Museum’s 
wealth of paintings, drawings and fur- 
niture in its archives, it is a pity that its 

collection was not used to enrich the 
fashion exhibition. For both the cata- 
logue's lucid text and the ait references 
point up wfaat is missing from the 
display of clothes: sex. The point 
about Orientalism is that it was used 
for centuries to add spice to dress and 
to suggest liberty of behavior as well as 

The lamp-shade skirt and bloomer 
pants designed by Paul Poirel before 
World War I freed a woman's body 
from restrictive dress and Poiret’s fam- 
ous Arabian costume ball of 191 1 was 
infamous for its air of dalliance and 
decadence. Dressing up in the clothes 
of another country gave the wearer a 
license to behave outside a rigid code 
of social practice. The colonialist 
phrase “going native” suggests a frat- 
ernizing mat was frowned on. even if it 
was expressed only in clothes. 

The way that the exotic was tamed 
by molding it to a Western form is 
shown in the (too brief) Indian section, 
where gauzy Kashmiri fabrics were 
turned into crinoline dresses. But the 
Oriental pointed slipper could also be 
on the other foot. 


“Orientalism begins with textiles 
from the East taking on the shape of 
the West,” says Martin, “But eventual- 
ly the East comes to change form.” 

He was referring to fashion absorb- 
ing Eastern costumes like sarongs and 
pareos or Japanese kimonos. The show 
includes Ralph Lauren’s pareos, Issey 
Miyake's flat pleats and Gianni Ver- 
sace’s India-goes-punk sari-dress held 
together with safety pins. 

A DISTINCTION should be 
made between designers who 
use exotica as an embellish- 
ment — like the brocades 
and embroideries from Valentino or 
Oscar de la Renta — and those for 
whom the inspiration is deeper than 
surface texture. 

Yves Saint Laurent's many different 
reprises of Chinese. Moorish and Rus- 
sian themes all take exotic dress as a 
starting point for exploration. In re- 
cent collections, the British designer 
John Galliano has made the costume 
of the geisha girl p/votal to his collec- 
tions, with variations on the kimono 

HU IMI1 V vatvuv wvw v 

starting point for exploration. In 
cent collections, the British desig 

flung places — just as the first Chinese 
treasures arrived in the West from 
Marco Polo's 13th-century voyages. 

Martin and Koda suggest that cloth- 
ing often has a political agenda and the 
appropriation of foreign dress can be 
read historically as a by-product of 

But at this end of the 20th century 
the explanation for exoticism is proba- 
bly quite simple. Faced with the practi- 
cal , functional, realistic modem ward- 
robe and the ubiquitous little black 
dress, women crave the drama and the 
sensual pleasure of dressing up. 

Tales of Maps and Carlo- 

By Mark Monmonier , 368 pages. 
$27.50. Henry Halt 

Reviewed by 
Jonathan Yardley 

M ARK Monmonier is a 
professor of geography at 
Syracuse University and, more 
perhaps to the point for present 
purposes, a prose stylist of no 
mean ability or charm. His spe- 
cialty is cartography, out of 
which he has fashioned a side 
career as an author of books 
about maps and mapmaking for 

lay readers, the most recent of 
these being “How to Lie With 
Maps,” published three years 

In “Drawing the line,” Mon- 
monier embellishes upon the 
theme implicit in the title of that 
earlier volume: Notwithstanding 
the general unquestioning faith 
most of us put in maps, “no map 
is a thoroughly objective, value- 
neutral device for describing dis- 
tances and locations.” A map 
may not at Inst glance appear to 
be as subjective as a political 
tract or a newspaper editorial 
but in many cases maps are 
drawn in the hopes of furthering 
certain ends and are altered ac- 






If ai times these ends are ac- 
complished, Monmonier says, 
in substantial measure it is be- 
cause we are so ignorant about 
maps. We may from time to 
time be irritated or inconven- 
ienced by a road map that fails 
to include the street we're look- 
ing for or that sends us off in 
the wrong direction, but as a 
rule we have a faith in maps 
that borders on blind obedi- 
ence. We assume that the world 
is as maps describe it, when in 
fact maps come no closer to 
perfect representation than do 
drawings or words. 

“Drawing the Line” gathers 
together several case studies of 
the ways in which maps can 
misrepresent or deceive. In 
many ways the most interesting 
of these is the controversy that 
arose after the publication in 
the 1970s of the so-called Peters 
projection, a world map fa- 
vored by “left-leaning and reli- 
gious publications” because it 
represented the underdevel- 
oped world of Africa, Latin 
America and Asia as dominat- 
ing in size — and thus by impli- 
cation importance — Europe 


• Nathalie Baye, the French 
film star, is reading “Afisur. The 
Life of Misia Sert’‘ by Arthur 
Gold and Robert Fizdale. 

“This wonderful book re- 
counts the fantastic life of Pol- 
ish bom pianist, Misia Sert. She 
was a model for Lauicec and 
Renoir, friend of Proust and 
Diaghflev, rival of Coco Cha- 
neL It’s a vivid memoir of real- 
life Bohemian Paris ” 

(John Brunton, IHT) 

and North America. This came 
in sharp contrast to the widely 
used Mercator projection, 
which advocates of the Peters 
projection dismissed for its 
“Eurocentric bias.” 

Amo Peters, the German ar- 
chitect of this novel map, was in 
fact not a cartographer at all but 
a journalist and propagandist 
for leftist causes who had mas- 
tered “the art of writing press 
releases, bolding press confer- 
ences and exploiting channels 
markedly different from the sci- 
entific journals and technical 

conferences commonly used by 
his critics." He played to an au- 
dience “of victims and sympa- 
thizers eager to overthrow a tyr- 
anny that was at once graphic, 
ideological and economic." For 
a time enthusiasm about the Pe- 
ters projection was so great that 
his version of the world threat- 
ened to become the standard 
one. Eventually the deficiencies 
erf his portrayal were detected 
and publicized but, as Monmon- 
ier says, “he has won a few sym- 
pathizers for his argument that 
the type of map people com- 

Business Message Center 

Every Wednesday 
Contact Philip Orna 
Tel.: (33 1)46 37 93 36 
Fax: (33 1 ) 46 37 93 70 
or your nearest IHT office or representative 

manly see conditions their view 
of the importance of places.” 
Monmonier writes: 

"The Peters controversy indi- 
cates not only broad ignorance 
about cartography but also the 
enormous persuasiveness of 
maps, even bad ones. Naivete 
about maps and how they work 
explains the willingness of edu- 
cated people — editors, report- 
ers, religionists and develop- 
ment officials — to take Peters 
seriously. Had these journalists 
and advocates received a firm 
foundation in both geography 
and geometry, the Peters phe- 
nomenon would have been im- 
possible. But equally important 
is the power of even poor maps 
to organize and communicate 
information. Pardon the tautol- 
ogy. but if the Peters map were 
utterly misleading and totally 
useless, no one would have used 
it, not even Peters.” 

Monmonier also examines 
how maps can be used by gov- 
ernment bureaucracies to fuzz 
over difficulties attendant to 
touchy matters such as toxic- 
waste disposal, wetlands devel- 
opment and emergency evacua- 
tions. At times these 
discussions drift fairly far from 
cartography, but sooner or later 
Monmonier always returns to 
his central point, which is that 
“maps are highly selective and 
necessarily biased." No one 
who reads “Drawing the Line” 
is likely to look at a map in the 
same old way again. 

Jonathan Yardley is on the 
staff of The Washington Post. 

Jft T-r .. * 

' K *V -C~ v 

‘ J. 

j; ‘ > 

(t c > 

and a focus on jackets cut from the 
nape of the neck. 

“At the end of the 20th century, 
designers have every possibility for 
knowing other cultures,” says Martin. 
“What they are looking for is the im- 
age of the East” 

It is hard to understand why ethnic 
cultures are suddenly in or out of fash- 
ion. Indian and North African clothes 
and even Afghan coats were in vogue 



By Robert Byrne 


T N the Intel Quick-Play ■ 

•IT .! 



A Grand Prix tourney Garry 
Kasparov defeated Predrag Ni- 7 


i!; ,: £ 



On die aggressive sally with 7 
Qg4, the Uttle-played 7... Kf8 
that Nikolic favors, the idea is 
that the king may be safer be- 
tween the wing and center. 

Nikotic's 8— Qc7 challenges 
White to find a defense to the 
coining 9... cd. Kasparov's re- 
sponse is his gambit with 9 
Qdl!? cd 10 cd Qc3 Jl Bd2 
Qd4. After 12 Nf3 Qe4, White 
has lost one pawn and is getting 
ready to offer another, to attack 
before Black completes his de- 
velopment. Then, after 13 Be2, 
Nikolic had tried 13... b6 and 
the game had become complex 
after 14 0-0 Ba6 15 c4 Nbc6 1 6 
Ng5 Qe5 17 Rel. Kasparov lat- 
er won, thus persuading Nikolic 
to shift to 13... Nbc6 now. 

On 14... Ne5, Kasparov 
struck a blow against the dark 
squares in the black kinaside 
with 15 h6! 

Since 22 (SI was threatened 
Nikolic blocked with 21... f5, but 
then Kasparov attacked from 
another quarter with 22 Rb3 Qf6 
23 o4! Nikolic could not defend 
by 24 Bc4b6 because 25 
Rd3 Bb7 26 Rd8! Rd8 27 Qd8! 
Kf7 (or 27— Qd& 28 Be6 mate) 
28 Qd7 Qc7 29 Be6 Kf6 30 Bg5 is 

After 26 Rgl, Nikolic could 

Position lifter 27... Re8 

not play 26.- ed 27 Rd5! Bd5 28 
Qd5 Qc6 because 29 Bc4 Kf7 30 
Qf5 wins outright 

After 26... b5 27 de Red, Ra- 
sp*™ won a piece with 28 
WKKI729 Rd7 Re7 30 Rb7! 
Nikobc did not bother to play 
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This prestigious conference will assess the 
new developments In France following the 
Presidential elections and will feature key 
members ol the new government in addition 
to major industrialists and finance and 
government leaders from around the world. 


Implications Jor Global Business 


OCTOBER 17-18, 1995 


Finns Cowan 

International Herald Tribune 
63 Long Acre, London WC2E 9JH 
Tei: t44 7l) 836 4802 
Fax: W 71)836 0717 





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managed Italian telecommunications 
separately, and has thus become a global 
operator in a completely new framework. 


is now the sixth largest telecommunications 
operator in the world in terms of turnover 
and one of Europe’s prime investors 

in the sector. . ‘ 

It is a joint-stock company with almost 
70 000 investors and 18% of its share 
capital is held by foreign shareholders. 

has a worldwide presence with 
representative offices with a large number 
of other corporate entities, it also has a 
wide-spread commercial network geared to 
provide, even abroad a speedy, integrated 
and innovative answer to the communications 
requirements of people and companies. 

“A share in financial charges achieved thanks to 

on S o^"mic and financial consolidation isthectaar 
result of a policy based on rational and integrated orgarn- 
S MM cost reduction measures andh carrfu% 
selected large-scale economies in order to become competi 
tive in a free market . 

(Francesco Chirichigno) 

Managing Director 

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International Herald Tribune, Tuesday , December 27, 1994 

Page 9 


International Herald Trihuno u 

International Herald Tribune Woim c trv j, L u.ub^jP) 

280 internationally Investabie stocks * tSh 5?®* com P° sed o[ 
byB loom berg Businessf^ l^/^fS ogntnes. compiled 

The Jittery Fallout from Mexico 

Peso Extends its Fall, Weighing on Regional Markets 

Compiled by Our Staff From Dispatches 

peso tumbled 8 percent 
against the dollar in Mexico 
City on Monday, taking the 

currency's loss since being de- 
valued fast week to more than 

32 percent. 

The dollar rose to 5.075 pe- 
sos. compared with 3.4620 on 

Wednesday, the day Mexican 
government allowed its curren- 

As i a/Pacrfic 1 

Approx, weighting: 32% 

Close: 126.39 Prev. 12625 

Appro* weighing: 37% 
Close: 113.95 P/fv. 11393 

cy to float freely on foreign- 
exchange markets. On Friday, 
a dollar was worth 4.70 pesos. 

The peso's slide has left in- 
vestors concerned that a dam- 
aging series of devaluations 
could sweep Latin America, 
now the world’s second-fast- 
est-growing regional economy 
after Asia. 

Eduardo Bastida, a stockbro- 
ker at ING Bank in Sao Paulo. 

(Reuters, Bloomberg) 
James Brooke of the New 
York Times reported earlier 
from Rio de Janeiro: 

In 1982, Mexico failed to 
honor its foreign debt pay- 
ments, setting off a traumatic 
series of Latin American de- 
faults that caused the 1980s to 
be called the region's Lost De- 

Is the same thing about to 
happen again? Many analysts 

say the short-term answer is 

“This Mexican shock will 
not take the region with it as it 
did in 1982,” said Miguel An- 
gel Broda, an Argentine econ- 
omist. “This earthquake will 
be slowly overcome. Sophisti- 
cated investors are learning to 
see the differences between 
Argentina and Mexico.” 

The Mexican peso was se- 
verely undermined by a record 
trade deficit for 1994 that is 
approaching 530 billion. With 
imports flooding into the coun- 

try, Mexico's foragn-cttmency 
reserves plummeted this year 
from $25 billion to $6.5 billion, 
barely enough to cover two 
months of imports. Brazil, by 
contrast, has $43 billion in re- 
serves and a Si 1.5 billion trade 

“By now, financial experts 
have learned that there is sig- 
nificant diversity throughout 
Latin America,” said Sebastian 
Edwards, the World Bank's 
chief economist for the region. 

See PESO, Page 11 

Credit Lyonnais 
Sells 19% Stake 
In Adidas Parent 

The Domino Effect, Latin Style 

J A S O N D 


J A S O N D 

Nort h A7rhorio» > r 

Latin Am erica 

Approx, wagtiling: 26% 
Close: Bfi.44 Prev. 1 96.44 

Approx. wUghUng: 6% 
Close: 109.36 Prev.: 110.46 

Those fears of a spreading 
currency crisis dragged down 
regional stock indexes Mon- 
day. Argentina led losses, with 
its MalVal index of blue-chip 
issues plunging 5.24 percent, to 
455.98 points. In Brazil, the 
Sao Paulo stock exchange’s 
Bovespa index fell 1.7 percent, 
to 42,873, while the IBV index 
in Rio de Janeiro fell 2.96 per- 
cent, to 16,402. 

The threat of a Mexican currency crisis pushed many Latin American stock markets 
down, but after the crisis actually arrived, Latin stocks rallied. Figures are percentage 
changes in dollar terms since the Dec. 1 dose, plotted daily. 

Buenos AKsa L 
Slock Exchange 
general index 
+ 10 % 




Slock Market 
general index 


Lima Stock 
general index 
+ 10 % 

Mexico's Bolsa index 
slipped 0.26 percent, to 
2J335.79 points, after faltering 
badly last week. 

h*t m World Index 

J A S O N D 

“Once the Mexican peso 
started to melt down, Brazil- 
ian stocks followed suit,” said 

" 'V: ' I 

y ■■■..! • : i'H 

Source: Bloomberg Financial Mortals 

The New Vert Tie 

T7w index (racks U.S. dollar values at stocks Ik Tokyo, Now York, London, and 
Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Denmark. Finland, 
Franca, Germany, Hong Kong, Italy, Uaxlea, Netherlands. New Zealand. Norway, 
Singapore, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and Venezuela. For Tokyo. New York and 
London, the Index is composed d the BO top Issues n terms ot market capitalization, 
otherwise the ten lap stocks am tracked. i 

Bid-Rigging Seen in Japan Electronics 

Industrial Sectors 

Pm. % 

Pm % 

Energy 112.14 11243 -026 Capttd Goods 113.13 11231 *0,19 

mgties 122,12 12231 -0.32 RwrMNwMs 13154 131.12 +032 

Finance H3J8 113.76 +0-1 1 Consumer Goods 10339 103.66 -0.07 

J Services 111.01 111.12 -0.10 Mscefawous HfiJl 11632 -0l01 

For more information about the Index, a bootietls available free of charge. 

Wide to Trib Index, 181 Avenue Charles de Gautie. 92521 NeuWyCedex. France. 

O International Herald Titwna 

Compiled by Our Staff From Dispatches 

TOKYO — The Fair Trade Commis- 
sion plans to file a criminal complaint 
early next year charging nine Japanese 
electronics companies of rigging bids on 
public projects worth $500 mflh on a year, 
Japanese media reported Monday. 

The complaint is also expected to be a 
step toward answering demands by the 
United States that Japan crack down on 
widespread bid-rigging, which U.S. offi- 
cials say is a "barrier to foreign businesses 
winning contracts jn Japan. 

The companies expected to be named in 
the complaint are Hitachi Ltd., Toshiba 
Corp., Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Fuji 
Electric Co., Yaskawa Electric Corp., 
Shinko Electric Co., Meidensha Corp., Ta- 
kaoka Electric Manufacturing Co. and 
Nissin Electric Co. 

The commission had no comment on the 
reports but said it was still investigating 
the companies. The companies also had no 

The case involves electronic equipment 

for sewage systems contracted by the Ja- 
pan Sewage Works Agency, an affiliate of 
the Construction Ministry. 

The nine companies are suspected of 

dividing the equipment contracts among 
themselves by holding a “draft” in which 

themselves by holding a “draft” in which 
the companies would take turns picking 
contracts they sought the reports said. 

With the assistance of the agency, the 
companies fixed their bids so that each 
individual contract would be won by the 
- company that selected it in the draft- the 
reports said. (A?, Bloomberg) 

Bloomberg Businas News 

PARIS — The troubled 
French state-owned bank Cred- 
it Lyonnais SA said Monday it 
was selling a 19 percent stake in 
Adidas International Holding, 
which controls 95 percent of the 
German sportswear company 
Adidas AG. 

Adidas said that Robert Lou- 
is- Dreyfus, a French business- 
man, and his associates in the 
Belgian holding company SO- 
GEDIM have exercised their 
option to buy 100 percent of 
Adidas International. 

No details were supplied 
about the price but analysts es- 
timated tire stake was worth as 
much as 900 million French 
francs (SI 65 million). 

Cr&dii Lyonnais shares 
jumped as much as 8.6 percent, 
or 39 francs, to 482 francs in 
early Monday trading before 
closing at 455 francs, up 12 
francs, on French press reports 
that the bank was poised to sell 
its Adidas stake, lire announce- 
ment of the sale was made after 
the market closed. 

Mr. Louis- Dreyfus, a former 
chief executive of Saatchi & 
Saatchi Co., already owns 28 
percent of Adidas. Mr. Louis- 
Dreyfus resigned last week 
from the board of Saatchi & 
Saatchi Co. in a corporate re- 
shuffle capped by the ouster of 
Maurice Saatchi as chairman. 

Other Adidas International 
holders included Coatbridge 
Holdings and Omega Ventures, 
with 15 percent and 20 percent 
respectively, and the state- 
owned insurer Assurances Gen- 
6 rales de France, with 18 per- 

In February 1993, Mr. Louis- 
Dreyfus — along with Credit 

Credit Lyonnais with about 4 
percent of Adidas AG, which 
the bank said it would probably 
soon sell. 

Adidas AG is expected to 
boost sales by 20 percent this 
year and post a profit before 
taxes of more than 100 million 
Deutsche marks ($63 million), 
compared with 34 million DM 
in 1993 and a loss of 150 million 
DM in 1992. 

The move is the latest in a 
series of asset sales by Credit 
Lyonnais, designed to relieve 
the bank’s financial distress. 

For 1993, Credit Lyonnais 
posted the biggest- ever loss by a 
bank, 6.9 billion francs. This 
year, it had a first-half loss of 
4.5 billion francs, after setting 
aside 8.9 billion francs in re- 
serves against risky loans. 

The bank’s revenue from as- 
set sales so far this year amount 
to more than 9 billion francs. ' 

Tool Orders 
Climb in U.S. 

Lyonnais, Assurances Gener- 
ates and Union des Assurances 

ales and Union des Assurances 
de Paris -r-paid $370 million to 
buy a 78 percent stake in Adi- 
das from Bernard Tapie, the 
French businessman and for- 
mer government' minister. 

The action on Monday leaves 

orders for machine tools, the 
equipment used to shape£ 
and assemble metal used izu? 
everything from can ttfj 
household appliances, rose2 
2.9 percent m November; 
from October, the Assoria- - 
tion for Manufacturing; 
Technology said Monday. /, 

Orders, which soaredT 
59.4 percent in November" 
from the year-earlier* 
month, are on taiget to fiff-g 
ish 1994 at the fourth-high^; 
est level ever, it added. •;£ 

2n November, machine^ 
tool orders increased t b£ 
$370 J million after fallings 
30. ^percent, to_$359.8 mil-4 
lion in October! ' ■*: 

U.S. Industry’s High-Flying Salesman 

By Peter Behr 

Washington Post Service 

Commerce Secretary Ron- 
ald H. Brown took a trade 
mission to China in August, 
the 25 corporate executives accompany- 
ing him sat in the back of the plane. Mr. 
Brown was up front, in a special com- 
partment once used by presidents when 
the jetliner was in duty as Air Force One. 

Along the way, the executives were 
ushered one-by-one into Mr. Brown’s 
compartment to review the business 
deals they hoped to conclude in China — 
a setting that demonstrated to this pow- 
erful group who was leading the team. By 
the end of the trip, the executives were 
praising Mr. Brown's leadership. 

“I was very impressed by Secretary 
Brown,” said Leslie G. McGraw, chair- 

gresave and successful members of Pres- 
ident Bill Clinton’s cabinet Combining a 
politician’s focus on results with a show- 
man's eye for staging and spotlights, Mr. 
Brown has made his department — long 
regarded as a governmental backwater 
— into a key player in the Clinton ad- 
ministration's economic plan. 

Mr. Brown has won widespread acco- 
lades from U.S. business leaders, more 
(bran 100 of whom have accompanied 

man of Fluor Coro., a global construc- 
tion company with annual ; sates of $7 
billion. “He kepi asking, TVhat are your 
™ortimities? What do you want to 
SeroT” Ms. McCraw described hew 
Mr Brown skillfully brought the US. 
executives into his later disctisaons with 
Chinese leaders to make key points. 

The trip defines the high-flying .style 
that Mr. Brown has brought to the Com- 
mSceoost, a job that some observers 


M^Brown has proved Ins doubters 
wr^g. eS^S « one of the most ag- 

The U.S. companies 
whose executives have 
traveled with Commerce 
Secretary Brown have won 
$13 billion in business 

mance at the Commerce Department has 
made him the leading candidate to run 
Mr. Clinton’s 1996 re-election campaign, 
a job he does not want 

“I want to do everything I can to 
help,” Mr. Brown said recently. But 
“running the re-election campaign is 
nothing that I desire, seek or particularly 
look forward to," he said. “I’d much 
rather be secretary of commerce." 

Mr. Brown has detractors, of course, 
starting with the human-rights commu- 
nity. Some OF its leaders are still angiy 
about the China trip, arguing that Mr. 

Brown gave a higher apriority to U.S. 
corporate interests in China than to the 

him on trade promotion trips to Russia, 
South America, the West Bank and 
Gaza, South Africa and China. 

“He is the star of the administration,” 
Edgar S. Woolard Jr„ chairman of Du 
Pont Co, said recently. 

George Pusher, chairman or E a st m a n 
Kodak Co^ agreed: “Ron Brown has 
given us more support than anyone I’ve 
seen in that department” 

To Mr. Brown’s chagrin, his perfor- 

corporate interests in China than to the 
fate of dissidents and political prisoners 

Mr. Brown faces several other storm 
fronts. The Commerce Department's ex- 
panding research partnerships with pri- 
vate industry — a priority for Mr. Brown 
— are on the target list of Republican 
budget-cutters in the House. 

Mr. Brown may come under renewed 
fire on ethics issues. Aides to Represen- 
tative William F. dinger, a Republican 
from Pennsylvania who will take over 
chairmanship of the House Government 
Reform and Oversight Committee next 


year, said he intended to press Mr. 
Brown on what he feds are stih -unan- 
swered questions about several of Mr. 
Brown’s business holdings before he 
took the Commerce job. 

Mr. Ctinger said he was looking for 

77«e Thinking Ahead column by Regi- 
nald Dale will resume Jan. JO. 

See BROWN, Page 10 

Why News 


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Plage 10 


East Bloc Fails 
To Get the Point 
Of Privatization 


Jmawdmal Herald Tribune 
LONDON ■— There is far 
less to privatization is Easton 
Europe and the former Soviet 
Union than meets the eye, a 
report published Tuesday as- 

•Instead of steaming confi- 
dently toward free markets, the 
region is sliding toward “ineffi- 
cient, partially collectivized hy- 
brid economies in which a bu- 
reaucratic elite still succeeds in 

larion,” the report said. 

■Published by the Adam 
Sihith Institute, a London- 
based free-market research 
group.the report found that 
much of the privatization work 
of the past four years has been 
little more than cosmetic. “A lot 
of what is called privatization is 
not really that at alLT said Peter 
Young, a director of the Insti- 
tute and one of the two authors 
of the report. 

Mr. Young and his co-author 
found many examples of com- 
panies sold off to the private 
sector bnt still run by the same 
managers and operating in the 
same largely protected markets 
as they did under state control. 

"Themis still not any intellec- 
tually coherent alternative mod- 
el to the push towards a market 
economy,” Mr. Young said. 
“But nonetheless we are seeing a 
transfer of state assets to things 
that are called private but in 
which the only real change is the 
name plate on the door. 

The companies' new owners 
often lack the means to exert 
their rights, the report found, 
including the right to oust man- 

The directors erf large priva- 
tized enterprises form one of 
the most powerful forces ar- 
rayed against reform, the report 
alleged. In the vacuum created 
by the demise of Communism 
and of the party apparatus, 
those directors have taken on 
new importance not simply in 
economic terms but in political 
ones, often via their member- 
ship in stale Parliaments. 

"Being naturally fearful that 
change wiQ onderoune their po- 
sition, they seek to preserve the 
structure and relationships of 

enterprises much as they are,” 
the report said. 

Hie unchallenged power of 
those company directors has, in 
many cases, lea to the preserva- 
tion of now privatized monopo- 

The report faulted govern- 
ments for continuing to place 
strict restrictions on what busi- 
nesses privatized companies 
could engage in. The report also 
accused governments of simply 
transforming vast state monop- 
olies into nominally private 
companies without either 
breaking them up or reducing 
barriers to new competitors. 

The underlying reason for 
privatization — the creation of 
competitive, free-market econ- 
omies — has been aft but for- 
gotten, the authors charged. Ac- 
cordingly, they have titled their 
report “The Amnesia of Re- 

The report said there were 
two primary drawbacks to 
method of privatizing compa- 
nies using a voucher system, 
which is popular in many, gov- 
ernments. Under this system, 
governments issue vouchers to 
citizens in lieu of cadi to com- 
pensate for the lack of buying 
power among the public and 
thus to stable the transfer of 
ownership to take place. 

But the voucher system does 
not introduce new capital or 
new management to the priva- 
tized companies. 

The report found that Eastern 
Europe has been more successful 
in privatizing former state- 
owned companies than the for- 
mer Soviet Union. Mr. Yeung 
attributed the discrepancy large- 
ly to Eastern Europe's shorter 
experience with Communism. 
The authors chided bureaucrats 
in the former Soviet Union for 

ftw firming to “ that re- 

forms are less important than 
forms." They pointed to writer 
of different regulations and tax 
regimes that now confront priva- 
tized companies in the former 
Soviet republics. 

The report singled out Po- 
land as the only country in the 
region where the government 
has succeeded in getting its an- 
timonopoly agency actually to 
work with its privatization arm. 

Black Ink at Paper Firms 

Recovery Raises Investment Questions 


HELSINKI — Europe's paper-making in- 
dustry, sensitive to swings in demand and 
supply, is recovering fast as demand grows 
anti prices rise for pulp and 
after a gloomy start to the 

Bnt while investments in new paper ma- 
chines announced so far pose no threat of 
creating excess capacity, the key issue is how 
companies will act as profits pick up, analysts 

So far, it seems as if the industry can avoid 
the mistakes of the boom years of the late 
198%. At that point, companies invested 
heavily and many did so at the same time, 
contributing to one of sector’s deepest down- 
turns in modem times. 

“I think the lesson we learnt was so hard that 

*Tve also seen past mistakes repeated.” 

The amount of new investment could de- 
termine the length of the upswing and the 
depth of the following downturn. 

So far there has been no major rush of 
announcements of investments in increased 

“The investments we have seen so far will 
fit very well into the market," said Mikael 
Jafs, an analyst at Swedbank in Stockholm, 
adding that they were needed to meet the 
growing demand. 

"The crux of the matter is what will happen 
in a year’s time," be added. 

Scone analysts even believe the industry 
might not be investing enough right now ana 
that there was a risk of too tight a market and 
problems later on. 

“There is not enough new capacity to re- 
spond to the growing demand,” said Juha 
Nissila, analyst at Union Bank of Finland 
Securities. He said there were already short- 
aps^rfpulp and line paper, especially in the 

“If they abstain from investments, they 

drive prices up and then all will invest at the 
same time," be said. “You can guess what will 
happen then.” 

T«ftVfrn Niemria, analyst at the Finnish bro* 
kerage Opstock Securities, said he expected the 
global increase in new paper and paper board 
capacity in this business cycle to be about half 
erf the increase in the previous cycle. 

“I t hink investors have overestimated this 
danger,” he said. 

Mr. Jafs, estimating that the peak would 
arrive during 1996, said he did not believe 
Finnish and Swedish companies would invest 

It seems as if the industry 
can avoid die excessive 
outlays of the 1980s boom. 

too heavily as a result of past experience and 
in line with their need to pay off debts and 
strengthen their balance sheets. 

But there was a danger that forest-product 
c ompanies in Continental Europe would start 
budding new paper machines and that this 
would worsen a possible downturn in 1997, he 

After showing losses in the early part of this 
df-a d *. Finnish and Swedish companies have 
improved their results rapidly thanks to de- 
preciating currencies over the last two years 
and strengthening markets in 1994. 

As prices on paper and pulp rise and capac- 
ity utilization ratios jump, the temptation to 
invest increases. 

Last month the Finnish forestry company 
Metsa-Serla announced it would invest 2 bil- 
lion marlrtraa ($418 million) in a fine paper 


The investments that have been announced 
so far are not expected to have any big impact 
on the market or on prices, analysts said. 

French Staff 
Takes IBM 
Wage Cut 

Bbomboz Bvstaea Ne*a 

PARIS — International 
Business Machines Corp.'s 
French unit said Monday it 
could save about 400 nrilhon 
French francs ($73 million) a 
year after an overwhelming ma- 
jority of the unit’s employees 
accepted a 7.7 percent pay cut 

The cut, which was accepted 
by 95 percent of the nmrs 
14,000 affected employees, 
takes effect this month, an IBM 
spokesman said. 

The French unit’s cost-catting 
programs come as several IBM 
operations worldwide arc laying 

off staff as part of the company’s 

overall plan to cot 35,000 jobs by 
the end erf the year. 

The French unit's 1993 pay- 
roll costs stood at 5.9 billion 
francs, while it posted a loss of 
about Z2 billion francs. The 
spokesman refused to say if the 
unit was profitable this year. 

The wage cut, proposed by 
IBM France in November, is 
part erf the company’s reorgani- 
zation in Europe. It is in hne 
with an dd, though now broken, 
IBM tradition to avoid job cuts, 
hi addition, the unit’s room for 
maneuver is limited by the 
French government, winch is 
discouraging layoffs as French 
presidential elections loom. 

Last month, skirting its 
unions, IBM France sent letters 
to 14,000 employees, urging 
them to accept the cuts. In re- 
turn, it promised immediate one- 
time bemuses this year and addi- 
tional benefits tied to the unit’s 

Investor’s Europe 

Lowfcw : '\ 


Sources: Reuters, AFP 

Very briefly: 

French Franc Stabilises 
After Slide Against Mark 

BROWN: The Commerce Secretary Has Emerged as Orw of Clintons 

Compiled by Our Swft From Dispauha WCTC QOQC, Citing TCViCWS by 

PARIS — The dollar was steady against other key currencies and Commerce Department ethics 
the French franc recovered against the Deutsche mark on Monday, lawyers and the Office of Gov- 

1993 employment interview 
with Mr. Brown, the secretary 

aiade it dear he wanted some- 
Mr. Brown replied that there m wbo wonld focUS on ^ 

rapidly expanding economies of 

Continued from Page 9 

ible conflicts of 

With Peris the only major European market open, the dollar 
iinisbed at 1.5800 DM, up from 1.5764 DM on Friday and 1 3793 
DM in New York. The dollar rose to 10035 yen, up from 100.13 

yen Friday in Paris and 100.12 yen in New York. 

The mark ended at 3.4530 francs, down from 3.4595 francs late 
Friday in Paris, its highest since November 1993, but up from 
3.4519 in New York. The dollar rose to 5.4530 francs from 5.4455 in 
Paris on Friday and 5.4525 in New York. 

The franc has been weighed down by concern that France's next 

president could condone inflationary economic policies, which government, 
could deter investors from buying French securities. Among leading The daily 

pabtitians, Prime Minister Edouard Baibdur is considered the most 
likely to uphold the stable franc policy.. (Bloomberg, Rnighi-Ridder) 

eminent Ethics. 

But from the business com- 
munity — his department’s 
c h ief constituent — Mr. Brown 
gets only praise. He seems eager 
for the challenge of trying to 
reorganize what has traditional- 
ly been one of the most dispa- 
rate and disorderly agencies in 


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business of the 
Commerce' Department in- 
cludes more than 100 govern- 
mental programs as diverse as 
weather forecasting patent ad- 
ministration and high-tech re- 
search. It is such a bureaucratic 
crazy quilt that various observ- 
ers have counseled splitting it 
into more manageable pieces. 

Mr. Brown's approach, his 
aides say, has been to focus on a 
handful of missions most di- 
rectly tied to Mr. Clinton's eco- 
nomic agenda of boosting 
growth and job creation by 
strengthening the U.S. techno- 
logical infrastructure and by ex- 
panding American exports. 

Jeffrey E. Garten, a finance 
specialist hired as undersecre- 
tary for international trade, 
said that 10 minutes into his 

l.flrin America and Asia. From 
this came the Commerce De- 
partment's “Big Emerging Mar- 
ket” strategy — which led, in 
torn, to Mr. Brown's trade mis- 
sions to China, South America 
and, next year, to India. 

For Mr. Brown, it was not 
enough amply to visit these 
countries. The trips had to pro- 
duce results — in the form of 
contracts for U.S. companies — 
and they were organized to do 
just that Some of the executives 
who traveled .with Mr. Brown 
actually had’ big deals pending 
with foreign governments — so 
that they were able to use the 
commerce secretary as a kind of 

Mr. Brown’s trips certainly 
have brought results to \JJS. 
businesses. The companies 
whose executives have traveled 
with him have won $13 billion 
in business deals, according to a 
Commerce Department tally. 

A case in pant was Mr. 
Brown's trip to Brazil in July. 
After the visit, Brazil awarded a 
contract worth as much as $1.4 
billion to Raytheon Co. for a 
complex, satellite-based system 
to monitor environmental con- 
ditions in the Amazon. 


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In an interview, Mr. Brown 
did not minimize his role as 
salesman. “I raised the issue 
with every Brazilian I met, from 
the president on down," Mr. 
Brown said of the Raytheon 

Som e industry analysts have 
said that Raytheon always had 
tiie inside track. But Raytheon 
and the Brazilian government 
say that, but for Mr. Brown’s 
intervention, the contract could 
easily have gone instead to a 
French-led co ns ortium. 

“Was the deal settled before 
he went? If s hard to say. It was 
well developed, but the visit of 
Mr. Brown was important,” 
said Jo$6-Carios Fonseca, chief 
of staff of Brazil’s embassy in 

This is not the first time Mr. 
Brown has succeeded in assign- 
ments others thought might Be 
too much for him. When he 
took over the Democratic Party 
chairmanship in 1989 after the 
lopsided defeat of the party's 
1988 presidential candidate, 
Michael S. Dukakis, many peo- 
ple thought he would have trou- 
ble. How, skeptics wondered, 
could a Kennedy liberal who 
had supported Jesse Jackson in 
1988 unite the party and raise 

After Mr. Clinton’s election 
four years later. Republican 
members of the Senate Com- 
merce Committee considering 
Mr. Brown’s nomination said 
that they were delighted to have 
Mr. Brown at Commerce, out of 
the Democratic National Com- 

According to Mr. Brown's 
longtime friend. Representative 



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• The Emopean Commlssioo has agreed to tariff concessions on 
U.S. industrial exports as part of a package to compensate the 
Dri fted States for the effects of the Ell’s enlargement 

• iSirfly SA. a subsidiary of Uainor*Sac3oar SA, is expected to 
announce it will trim up to 850 jobs of its 18,000 work force next 
year, a union source said. 

• has approved plans to offer pan of its oil-pipeline system 
in return for a share m the Caspian Pipeline Consortium with 
Kazakhstan and Oman. 

• National Westminster Bank PLC plans to buy a Wafl Street 
investment firm to expand its UJ5. capital market operations, the 
cfiflirrpim of the British bank reportedly said. 

• Hcrtef KGaA of Germany bought a 25 percent erf common stock 

of Bombril SA for $50 million, the Brazilian cleaning products 
company said. _ Rruu^AFP 

ChaHes B. Rangel, Democrat of 
New York, Mr. Brown’s sense 
of confidence was instilled long 

S in <me of the more remaric- 
chfldh oods an African- 
American youngster could ever 

Mr. Brown’s father managed 
the Theresa Hotel on 125th 
Street and Seventh Avenue, 
Harlem’s most famous address 
for black muadans, writers, po- 
litics 1 leaders and sports celeb- 
rities during the middle decades 
of this century. These celebri- 
ties stayed at the Theresa be- 
cause downtown hotels would 
not take them. 

Mr. Rangel was a desk derk, 
whose job included looking af- 
ter Ron Brown. 

“All of the kids ran to the 
Theresa waiting for Joe Louis to 
come home from the fight The 
same with Billie Holiday, Duke 
Ellington, Count Basie and Bil- 
ly Eckstine when they per- 
formed across the street at the 
Apollo Theater. There was no 
place like it," Mr. Rangel said. 
In the center, making it work, 
was Mr. Brown's father. 

“His father was so person- 
able and wdj-known. Just hav-. 
tog a father like that, I could 
see, would make a Ron Brown 
feel comfortable no matter who 
he was dealing with," Mr. Ran- 
gel said. 

As evidence that he is still in 
touch with his roots, Mr. 
'Brown’s aides point to the black 
and Hispanic business execu- 
tives too have accompanied 
the Fortune 500 corporate lead-, 
ers on each of his overseas trips. 



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6* i£j> 


Shanghai Quells 
Market Faxes 

Taiwan Funds Have Wanderlust 

That Lack Facts 

Managers Brave Competition to Add Asian Offerings 


SHANGHAI — S hang hai has 
scored an initial victory ma bat- 
tle against rumor-mongers on 
the stock market by reining in 
faisuxtile services once guilty of 
spreading false information, a 
securities official said Monday. 

"We’re not trying to control 
the spread of information. 
We re trying to protect inves- 
tors," said Yu Zhongmin. an 
official at the Shanghai Securi- 
ties Administration Office who 
is in charge of implementing the 

China to Probe 
Financial Firms 


SHANGHAI — China’s cen- 
tral bank plans to investigate 
illegal business activities of for- 
eign financial representative of- 
fices, the Shanghai Securities 
News reported. 

The paper quoted an an- 
nouncement by the People’s 
Bank of China saying some of- 
fices in Shanghai and Shenzhen 
were directly trading B shares 
on behalf of their headquarters 
or other foreign agencies in vio- 
lation of regulations. 

B-class shares are reserved for 
foreign investors, but represen- 
tative offices of foreign financial 
firms are not allowed to engage 
in commercial activities. Only li- 
censed firms can engage in busi- 
ness. “To some extent this has 
created chaos in our country's 
normal financial activities," the 
announcement said. 

^“governing informa- 
tion distribution. “In the long 
njn, we warn the market to 
solve this problem bui at the 
moment it is too immature.” 

kast month, Shanghai an- 
nounced regulations curbing all 
forms of securities information 
vendors to try u> stamp out 
rampant speculation. The 
crackdown came after various- 
market -information services re- 
ported that Deng Xiaoping, 
China s paramount leader, was 
seriously ill. The reports sent 
stock prices crashing and an- 
gered Communist authorities. 

Mr. Yu said the aim of the 
new rules w as lo slop the spread 
of rumors purporting to be 
facts. The rules did not stop 
news vendors offering analysis 
or trying to predict market 
trends, be said. Rumors could 
be reponed if they were moving 
the market. 

“Y ou can report tliaL some- 
body’s health is influencing 
trading,” Mr. Yu said in refer- 
ence to the reports on Mr. 
Deng. “But you can’t state as 
fact that this person is ill.” 

He said fax services were the 
first to be targeted under the 
new rules. Of 20 such services 
existing before the clampdown, 
more than half have registered 
with Mr. Yu's office and are 
now required to submit for re- 
view a copy of everything they 
faxed to customers. 

“If you report something as 
fact but cannot provide us with 
a source for your information 
then we consider that to be false 
information.” Mr. Yu said. 

Bloomberg Businas News 

TAIPEI — Taiwan’s mutual-fund in- 
dustry is launching into what some con- 
sider an unequal battle with internation- 
al heavyweights over a slice of Asia’s 
multibillion-dollar share-management 

The industry had long been content to 
manage shares traded at the Taiwan 
Stock Exchange for local and overseas 
investors, but now it is gearing up to 
offer funds that consist of shares from 
other Asian bourses. 

The first four companies to enter the 
Taiwan’s mutual-fund industry in the 
1980s — China Securities Investment 
Trust Corp., International Investment 
Trust, Kwang Hua Investment and Trust 
Co., and National Investment Trust — 
have to tried sell overseas stock funds to 
local investors. None have been popular. 

Yet industry executives said investors 
now are increasingly interested in over- 
seas stock investments, particularly in 

shares in Ji 
sia. The SE 

ingapore and Malay- 

open new markets as 

fund-management companies apply, 
said Loraine Chen, an SEC official. 

“Our companies are striking and try- 
ing to compete with the international 
powerhouses,” said Daniel Chian g, vice 

said Loraine Chen, an SEC official. 

Industry efforts to expand into over- 
seas markets are also getting support 
from an unlikely source: the Central 
Bank of China, Taiwan’s conservative 
central bank. Last week, the bank urged 
the SEC to allow more companies to 
raise money at home for mutual-fund 
investment overseas. 

Although companies are enthusiastic, 

president at International Investment 
Trust Co. and manazer of the Taiwan 

Trust Co. and manager of the Taiwan 
ROC Fund, which is listed in New York. 

The first step in this process is sup- 
posed to occur Friday, when Jar dine 
Fleming Taiwan Investment Manage- 
ment Ltd. plans to begin the sale of the 
country’s first-ever mutual fund of for- 
eign stocks lo be traded on the Taiwan 
Slock Exchange. 

Jardine Fleming Taiwan, which is 25 
percent-owned by Jardine Fleming Group 
of Hong Kong, will try to raise up to 3 
billion Taiwan dollars (SI 14 million) for 
its JF (Taiwan) Japan New Generation 
Fund. The fund will bold shar es from 
stock exchanges in Tokyo and Osaka. 

Taiwan’s mutual-fund industry is 
heading toward overseas expansion be- 
cause of government reforms in 1992 
that increased the number of industry 
players to IS from four. Authorities are 
expected to allow three more companies 
to set up by the first half of 1995. 

The move has unleashed furious com- 
petition at home among fund companies 
to raise money and generate business. 
Besides pressure from rival companies, 
fund managers are squeezed by limited 
stock choices and conservative securities 
regulations that limit their ability to dif- 
ferentiate their products. Taiwan only 

Many observers express 
reservations about how 
Taiwan fund managers 
will match up in head-to- 
head competition with 
international managers. 

many observers express reservations 
about how Taiwan fund managers will 

has about 300 publidy traded compa- 
nies. and it does not have futures or other 

nies, and it does not have futures or oi 
derivatives markets. 

Asia. According to Jardine Fleming Tai- 
wan, Taiwan investors have poured 
roughly SI billion into overseas mutual 
funds managed by foreign companies in 
recent years. 

“Taiwan investors can accept risk and 
are interested in high growth." and are 
particularly keen on Asian markets, said 
Edward Tsai, president of President In- 
vestment Trust Corp, which next year 
plans to offer Taiwan investors a fund 
consisting of shares from stock markets 
in Southeast Asia. 

Investors “are also comfortable invest- 
ing in a nearby country,” and axe com- 
fortable betting on continued regional 
economic growth, said Jack Pan, manag- 
er of Jardine Fl eming Taiwan's new Ja- 
pan stock fund. 

The industry’s push for regional ex- 
pansion is getting gradual help from the 
Securities and Exchange Commission, 
which is increasing the number of Asian 
bourses in which tt allows local compa- 
nies to invest Companies enn now buy 

about how Taiwan fund managers will 
match up in head-to-head competition 
with international managers. 

James Hsu, an adviser to Fubon Secu- 
rities Investment Trust Co., said Taiwan 
fund companies do not have any experi- 
ence investing in Asian markets. Fubon 
is trying to excel by just focusing on 

“We’re trying to succeed at what we 
can do best" he said. 

Teh-hriu Fu, managing director of the 
Taiwan office of Fidelity Investments, 
said overseas expansion is “a very natu- 
ral outgrowth for the industry,” yet it 
will be a while before the ambitious Tai- 
wanese catch up with top foreign funds. 

“One of the most important things 
they’ll need is a track record” to per- 
suade customers, he said. “They don’t - 
have a track record right now.” 

■ Ouna-Taiwan Trade Is on the Rise 

Trade between Taiwan and China rose 
more than fivefold percent from 1990 to 
1993. Taiwan’s Board of Foreign Trade 
said Monday, according to an Associat- 
ed Press dispatch from Taipei. 

The value of trade between the two 
countries grew to 514.39 billion in 1993 
from S2J7 billion in 1990, with China’s 
exports to Taiwan rising 140 percent 
annually while Taiwan exports to China 
showed a yearly increase of 66 percent, 
the trade agency said. 

Taiwan’s trade surplus with China 
rose to $1 1.47 biHiox) in 1993 from S1.93 
billion in 1990, it said. 

P ESO; As Mexico's Currency Slides, Investors Worry that Other Latin American Countries Face Similar Problems 

Continued from Page 9 
“People have to avoid the herd 
instinct that was very damaging 
in 1982. There is not really a 
solid reason to sell off in one 
country because of what hap- 
pens in another country.” 

After losing billions of dollars 
^in Mexico last week, investors 
^ are indeed looking with a more 
skeptical eye at two other Latin 
giants thought to have overval- 
ued currencies — Brazil and Ar- 
gentina. In both countries, ex- 
porters are putting pressure on 
the governments to devalue their 
currencies to more international- 
ly competitive levels. 

“Any parallel with the Brazil- 
ian situation would be complete- 

ly groundless,” Gazeta Mercan- 
til, Br aril's leading financial 

newspaper, wrote in an editorial. 

Argentina, more vulnerable, 
has S 1 7 billion in reserves and a 

56 billion trade deficit. Mea- 
sured against the gross national 
product, Argentina's budget 
deficit is about one-third the 
size of Mexico's. 

Two factors stand against an 
immediate devaluation of the 
Argentine peso, which is linked 
by law to the UJ5. dollar. 

For President Carlos Safil* 
Menem, who is campaigning 
for re-election in May, it would 
be political suicide , to tinker 
with the 'exchange rate, a cor- 
nerstone of his inflation policy. 

in addition, tbe exchange 
rate can only be changed by a 
vote in Congress, a long and 
inevitably noisy process that 
would give foreign investors 
plenty of time to pull out of the 
Buenos Aires stock market. 

On Thursday, Mr. Menem 
and his economy minister, Do- 
mingo Cavallo, held a televised 
news conference to underline 

their determination to stick to 
their foreign-exchange policy. 
“We are not Mexia> and we 

will not devalue — Argentina 
will not alter its course,” vowed 
Mr. Menem, who had radically 
slashed Argentina’s budget def- 
icit after becoming president in 
1989. “There will not a devalua- 
tion. Totally to the conixaiy — 
we are going to deepen the ad- 
justment measures.” 

In Brazil, Fernando Henri- 
que Cardoso, who is to be inau- 
gurated as president , on Jan. 1, 
met with his economic team 
and said, “In Brazil, there is no 
hypothesis that calls for a cur- 
rency devaluation.” 

Both leaders said they 
planned to use “Mexico’s warn- 
ing” as a dub to demand Con- 
gressional support next year for 
Budget austerity. 

For Brazil to reach Mr. Car- 
doso’s 1995 goals of 5 percent 

growth and 25 percent infla- 
tion, down from about 50 per- 
cent now, he will need coopera- 
tion from Congress to slash 
state spending and encourage 
more investment from abroad. 

With imports sur ging into 
Brazil, the trade surplus is ex- 
pected to be cut in half next 
year, taking the country’s cur- 
rent-account deficit, the broad- 
est measure of trade, from SI 
billion tins year to $10 bflllon in 
• 1995. In November, Brazil re- 
corded its first monthly trade 
deficit in seven years. 

“A yellow light has switched 
on, warning Brazil that it can- 
not go from megasurpluses to 
megadeficits in trade,” said 
Carlos Langoni, a forma: presi- 
dent of the country’s central 
bank. “The great Mexican les- 
son is the importance of main- 
taining reasonably balanced 
trade over the next few years.” 

For foreign investors, the 
Mexican devaluation also offers 
a reminder of the risks of 
emerging markets and of tbe 
propensity of politicians to be- 
tray their promises. 

“Mexico’s officials were per- 
ceived as the most credible in 
Latin America," Lars Schon- 
ander, Latin American econo- 
mist for Baring Securities Ltd. 
in New York, said. “Their word 
was good. Now their word is 
not good. Where does that leave 
Brazil, a country with an ap- 
palling record of economic 
plans going up in flames?” 

Seeking lessons on Latin 
America from Mexico, analysts 
also look at issues of political 

In the past year, Mexico has 
undergone a guerrilla revolt in 

the Chiapas state and the assas- 
sinations of the ruling party’s 
president and presidential candi- 
date. But of the region's other 
leading countries, political insta- 
bility seems only to threaten 
Venezuela, a nation with a 

shrinking economy and rising m- 

(Venezuela’s gross domestic 
product shr ank 3J percent in 
1994, the Central Bank said 
Monday, according to a Knight- 
Ridder dispatch from Caracas. 
Inflation was estimated at 70.8 
percent for this year, up from 
45.9 percent in 1993.] 

In the next six months, voters 
in Peru and Argentina are ex- 
pected to re-elect incumbent 
presidents who have put their 
country’s economies on high- 
growth, low-inflation tracks. 


Stock Index 


Can U.S. Investors Weather Mexico Storm? 

W 98 Low 

FR mmkM-atl Of JOOpct 
I MOT 9X29 9127 

9129 9127 VUB —002 

9254 92.90 9250 — 

9Xn 9248 9148 — 034 

9152 9IJ0 9250 — QJM 

9227 9234 9227 — Oja 

By Louis Uchitelle 

Sew York Times Service 

NEW YORK — The steep decline in the 

SX Md^Snao V iS?g rS t“ estimates 

by Wall Street analysts. 

U.S. owners of Mexican stocks took the 
biggest hit, suffering not only from .the 
peso’s devaluation but also from fallmg 
SSk prices. Their hoWngs were worth 
roughly 520 billion on Dec. 1 and 513^ 
S an Friday, the analysts estimated. 

“These losses are spread out over a lot of 
:^i;iuhnns in the Unitea 

Mexico’s economic future might hinge 
on whether American investors will de- 
camp, at least for a while, as they did after 
financial crises in the 1970s and 1980s. 

Already, Mexican government officials 
and some American bankers and financiers 

“These losses arc r~ ~. a , 

people and institutions in the Umted 

Manhatt^Co^. An q “™ hether to stay 

& securities, take their 

If ik? Tth^wu.^ 

devaluation. P^™“f rom Merino, 

They say the peso, having lost more than a 
quarter of its value against the UJ5. dollar in 
a single week, is now at its proper level, and 
Americans can once again invest safely and 
profitably in Mexico. 

That was the message from Mexico’s 
secretary of commerce, Jamie Serra Puche, 
when he met with American executives at 
the Federal Reserve Bank in New York cm 
Friday. He said that Mexico would hold to 
policies that restrict domestic credit, bal- 
ance the budget and maintain the peso’s 
value, now that the pressure on the peso 
had been relieved. 

While some Americans at the meeting 
raised doubts about the future, others 
backed Mr. Semi’s effort to get investment 
back on track. 

“If the Mexican government imple- 
ments the program as outlined by Minister 
Serra, this should give additional opportu- 
nities for accelerated Mexican export 
growth and therefore make Mexico attrac- 
tive for investment,” said William Rhodes, 
vice chai rman of Citibank, a major holder 
of Mexican debt. 

Mutual funds and pension funds, tbe 
biggest holders of Mexican debt, apparent- 
ly suffered the largest losses from last 

houses that trade in Mexican securities 
also may have lost money. 

Fidelity Investments, the Boston-based 

- mutual fund company and one of the big- 
gest investors in Mexican stocks and 
bonds, said that right of its funds had held 
about $800 million in Mexican securities 
on De& 19, the day before the Mexican 
government announced a 14 percent deval- 
uation in the peso, beginning a process 
that accelerated when the government de- 
rided to float the peso. 

Clients of Bear, Steams & Co. held more 
than $1 billion in Mexican securities, ac- 
cording to Alan Greenberg, chairman of 
the Wall Street firm. Bear, Steams is one of 
the most active American investment 
houses in the Mexican market, trading not 
only for clients but investing tens of mil- 
lions of dollars of its own money. 

Mr. Greenberg and Warren Spector, the' 
firm's executive vice president, refused to 
say if Bear, Steams itsrif had lost money as 
a result of tbe fallmg peso, but they sug- 
gested that the firm had not “We are very 
pleased with our performance,” Mr. Spec- 
tor said, “and we are not reducing our 
commitmesit to Latin America.” 

Mr. Spector and Mr. Greenberg argued 
that. Mexico remains a good investment, 
because its economy is slowly gaining in 
efficiency and industrial production. 

“People will get their confidence back 
and once again they’ll be buying Mexican 
securities,”'^. Greenberg said. 

But others on Wall Street are less san- 
guine than Mr. Greenberg and Mr. 
Rhodes. “The Mexican government still 
needs to spell out a coherent set of eco- 
nomic politics gjven that the peso has been 
devalued.” Mr. Brainard of DRI/ Mc- 
Graw-Hill said. 

92.18 9214 9Z1B —002 

9210 9208 920B — <UM 


FF298 P4T index point 

HU Urn Cio** Cbom 
DK 1971 -DO 1M1JJ0 TW4JM +3JM 

J« 197258 1M950 197250 +&00 

Fob MLT. N.T. 198250 + 5J» 

Mar 1999Jn 198850 19*250 +S00 

Jon N.T. N.T. 197559 +&D0 

SOU M.T. N.T. 200200 +&00 

Eat. volume: S495L Own W.: 40992 
Sours*: MaOt 

Dec 9200 9200 9200 —US 

Est. volume: 1371. Open taL: 194.961. 

FFmav - el* M « ne» 

Mar 111.14 HUM 11146 —008 

Jura IT&S8 11040 11030 — 868 

Sep xotst WJO tofjn —am 

Dec N.T. M.T. NT. UndL 

Est. volume: 4417. Open bit.: 137,151. 

Markets Closed 

Most financial markets in 
Aria, Europe and the Americas 
were closed Monday for Christ- 
mas. They will reopen Tuesday. 


Aproi France Pram Deb 2b 

Sao Paulo 

Air Unulde 
AtcoM AJsttam 

Bancolne (CM 









aments Franc 

Club Matf 


Euro Disney 

Gen. Eoux 

Banco do Brasil 1630 14 

Bonewa 1140 11.08 


voteRJo Doce 

247 245 

78-50 80 

204 391 

225 223 

305 305 

U.4D 14,50 
105 110 

7X0 730 
3680 38.10 
36299 364 

1X0 130 
156 150 

265 26S 


I metal 

Lxrforge Co nnee 
Lyon. Eoux 
-Oreai (L'l 


Pecblnev inn 
Pernod- Rtcard 
PlnouH Prim 

Raft 57. Louts 
Saint Gdeofai 

5te Generate 586 583 

Suez 254 251 

ThomsofyCSF U820 167JUI 

TeW SffiSfi 328 

UAP. 151 149 

Valeo 240 257 

Matsu Elec Inds 
Matsu Elec Wla 
Mfbubbtil Bk 
Ml tsub Chemical 
MBsubMil Elec 
Mitsubishi Her 
Mitsubishi Cora 
Mitsui and Co 
Mllsul Marine 

NGK Insulators 
NBcka Securities 

Nippon Kaoaku 

Nippon on 
Nippon Steel 
Nippon Yusen 


Nomura Sec 

Olympus Optical 


AsalW Chemical 
Asahl Glass 
Bank of Tokyo 


Dal Nippon Print 
Da two House 
Da hm Securities 
Full Bank 
Full Photo 

Hitachi Cable 

Ho Yafcado 

Jaeon Alii tries 

Kanwl Power 2390 

Kawasaki Steel 409 

Kirin Brewery 1 080 

Komatsu 899 

Kubota 705 

Sanyo Elec 
Shlnetsu Chem 

Sum Romo Bk 
Sumitomo Chem 571 
Sand Marine 850 
SuadteraoMaM 314 

TabM Carp 60 s 

TakedaOwm 1200 
TDK 4M0 

TeJJbi 538 

Tokyo Marine 1210 
Tokyo Elec P*» 2800 

Toppan Print loo 1390 
Toray md. i» ... 

Toshiba 712 784 

Toyota 2060 2080 

YomakNSec 774 740 

Page 1L S 


Hong Kong 
Hang Seng 

Singapore . Tokyo 
Straits Times, ' NRda*225.... 



Monday Prev. . %. 

HoogKong . HangSeog ,, r ; 
Singapore ■ Straits Times . > ■ 
Sydney MOWfearies 

Tokyo NjMcet.2a5' ; 

Kuala Uanpur Cgnipbrite • 
Bangkok • r SET -. • 

SeotiT ^ • ‘ CwposteStocK 
Taipei . .. . WpgKadFrfca ■ 
ManBa ’ . . PSE 

Jakarta ■■■ Stock Index . 
flew Zealand WZSE-4Q 
Bombay ^Natiorial lndax ’ . 

Sources; Reuters. AFP 

Ctoaad V 
'ie&tsjs 1 
Cfoaed - 


Z21&2B ■ ; - ,. 
1,90830' V - 
}8,63353 .■+0.47 

t, 024.60 

2,791 <40 



136135 -0.63 

133532 -1 

£78530, 4QJ2,r 
46W3 . ■ ! 4WT;,; 
131SJ?3. . - 

1382.78 /. 

luenmimal Ha^M Tribune A - 

Very briefly: 

• Fame Ltd. raised its profit forecast for the year to March 31 by 
about 5 percent, to 30 billion yen ($300 million), because of higher.' ‘ 
demand for its numerically controlled lathes and industrial ro- 
bots, the Nihon Krizai’s news service reported. 

> Nippon Steel Corp. plans to raise steel export prices and ask the - . 
government for further deregulation to help Japanese industry 
maintain its competitiveness. 

• Japanese bank profits for tbe six months to September fell by - 
16.9 percent from a year earlier, to a combined 789 J billion yen, - ■ 
as bad-loan write-offs accelerated, the Federation of Bankers 
Associations of Japan said. 

• PT Garuda Indonesia's nine idle Airbus A-300 B4 aircraft will be 
sold to a private Indonesian company for at least $81 million, the .1' 
Antara news agency reported. 

• China’s car industry will face another poor year in 199S after 
seeing profits drop 40 percent in 1994, the China Daily said. 

■ Guangzhou, China, plans to spend 600 million yuan ($70 million) 
to build a pier for passenger ferries serving Hong Kong 

Reuters. Bloomberg, A FP < "■ 




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In Racing- Mad Hong Kong, Gambling Is ‘Magic 

_ " " .... ... . —1. UaHinn ic WrtYlA 

Second in a series 

By Andrew Beyer 

HONG KONG —When the Breed- 
ers’ Cup was run at Churchill Downs 
in Kentucky, virtually every track in 
the United States offered wagering on 
the event, and die betting totaled $84 
millio n, a formidable figure by Ameri- 
can standards. 

Four nights later, on the other side 
of the world. Happy VaUey race course 
here conducted a six-race progran* 
The quality of the competition was 
moderate; there were no special attrac- 
tions. Yet the wagering added up to 
SI 17 milli oii, the equivalent of $20 for 
every nian, woman and child in Hong 

Ail of the betting statistics here are 
similarly amazing. Last season, $8.6 
bOlion was wagered mi the races at 
Happy Valley and Sha Tin, almost as 
much as the annual handle in the Unit- 
ed States, even though Hong Kong's 
two tracks run only about 500 races a 
year. And these numbers reflect only 
legal wagering; illegal action is said to 
be massive, too, because bookmakers 
entice their customers by offering re- 
bates on losing bets. Nothing in the 
world compares to the levd of gam- 
bling in Hong Kong. 

I had expected the race tracks here 

to be as frenetic as the city itself. But, 
on my first night at Happy Valley, I 
was mostly struck by the quietness of 
the crowd of 35,000- Virtually every 
horseplayer was carrying and consult- 
ing at feast one racing publication. 
Many were wearing earphones. listen- 
ing to radio commentary on the races. 
They went about the business of gam- 
bling is deadly earnest; this was no 
mere recreation. 

The local passion for betting mes- 
merizes everyone who observes it. Paul 
MaJtin, an Australian gambler, migrat- 
ed to Hong Kong because of the rich 
opportunities it offers, and he ob- 
served, “People hare seem to have a 
different attitude toward winning and 
losing than you and I. They take the 
rise and fail of fortune as a natural part 
of life. They love io beL That’s why it's 
mage here." 

Why is Hong Kong such a horse- 
crazed city? The answer lies in its 
unique culture and ethnic composi- 

Andrew Beyer, the horse racing col- 
umnist of The Washingt on Vosu spent 
the past month traveling in the Far East. 

The British established racing tradi- 
tions in most of the countries they have 
colonized. Here, it was planted in a 
culture that harbors no puritanical 
qualms about betting. It is a popular 
notion that the Chinese rank among 
the world’s most avid gamblers. But 
Felix Cheung, a magazine editor, takes 
exception to this stereotype, asserting 

that the Chinese in Macao and Singa- 
pore “are not so gambling-mad." 

“The reasons for the levd of betting 
here are social and economic rather 
than cultural," he speculates. 

Hong Kong is an affluent city in 
which plenty of people have dispos- 
able income with which to gamble. It is 
a city devoted to business and com- 
merce. So what better form of amuse- 
ment could there be than one that 
involves making money? 

“in America," said Major General 
Guy Watkins, chief executive of the 
Royal Hong Kong Jockey Qub, “you 
have many other sports which arouse 
major TV and spectator interest. We 
don’t have that here. No team from 
Hong Kong is involved in competition 
with another city. Racing has made' 
itself into the major sports opportuni- 

The betting boom here is a recent 
phenomenon. Although the Royal 
Hong Kong Jockey Qub dates from 
the last century, it used to be a dubby, 
elitist institution, content to do a mod- 
est levd of business. But after the 
Communists took power in China and 
refugees flooded into Hong Kong, the 

political upheaval bad at least two pro- 
found effects on racing. First, thou- 
sands of these immigrants were going 
to the races at Happy Valley, boosting 
its business to record levels. The influx 
of refugees also created massive social 
problems and a need for more govern- 
ment revenue in a city with a fierce 
aversion to income taxes. 

So the governor and tbe chairman of 
the Jockey C3nb struck a plan to turn 
over a substantial portion of revenues 
from racing to civic purposes. Over the 
years, money from raring would build 
hospitals and colleges and a 40,000- 
seat Stadium. 

The grateful government in cum al- 
lowed the Jockey Club a monopoly on 
gambling. Its business has grown 
steadily and the racing industry is one 
institution unworried about its future 
after 1997. when China takes over 
Hong Kong from Britain. General 
Watkins has met with Chinese leaders 
and be said: “They know we proride 
resources for the government. They've 
told us, “You don't have to worry at 
all.' - 

As it sought to maximize its reve- 
nues, the Jockey Qub developed a bet- 
ting system as sophisticated as any in 
the world. It runs 124 off-track betting 
facilities throughout Hoag Kong. It 
has a massive telephone betting opera- 
tion, which takes more than 500,000 
phone calls on a race day. Most of the 

on-track betting is done on efficient 
self-service terminals. 

But racing in Hong Kong has one 
restraint on its growth: space. Every 
inch of real estate in this city is pre- 
cious; there is limited space available 

UConn-lsraeii lies 
Growing (Upward) 


NBA Standing* 



«V L Pd (SB 

Ortondo 20 S MO — 

Haw York IZ 12 -5D0 m 

NMJOMV 12 16 JOS m 

Boston JO IS MO JO 

PhUodeipMa 9 1A JAO 11 

Miami 0 15 JAB 11 

WoBtilnB to n 7 14 JM 12 

Central DMUmi 

Ctovoiand 17 B JAD — 

imflrn 15 1 J92 1 

a»rfott* U 11 JAO 3 

CMCOOQ 13 12 520 4 

Atlanta 11 IS X23 6% 

D-rrolt V 14 J91 7 

A* C 7 17 xn TVS 

MU west Division 

W L Pd GB 

Utah IB ■ Ml — 

Houston 14 9 JM Tti 

Son An lonla 13 9 Ml 3 

Dallas 12 10 545 4 

Danvcr 13 71 542 4 

Minnesota 5 19 208 12 

Pacific DMHon 

Phoenix 19 t JAO — 

Seattle ia B jua ni 

ULLokcn 15 B 452 3 

Portland 12 10 545 51* 

Sacramento 13 11 542 Sto 

Golden Stale 9 15 J75 9 Vj 

ULCItopott 3 22 .120 16 

Seattle 24 21 IS 25- 9A 

Denver 23 25 33 34—115 

S: Schretnat 0-12 4-5 21, Gill HA 3-121; D: 

Rogers 9-12 2-2 22. Abdul-Roul 8-14 4-4 23. Re- 
boMMtt— Seattle 41 tScftrtmpf A), Denver 51 
(MutambolBLAssWA— Seattle 1A (PaytonA). 
Denver 21 ( RANHUams. Pack, Abdul-Raut 41. 
New Yartc 31 24 11 27 4— »4 

CUC080 22 33 21 21 7—187 

NY: Oakley 8-16 4-5 20, Ewing 10-19 10-1230; 
C: Pitmen 11-28 1M7 36, Kufcoc 8-15 8-13 21 
Rebounds— New York 51 (Ewtno 131. CMcnso 
JPtP/ppen 14). Assists— New Yor* WfOolctey. 
Ewing, DJirntf A). Oiknoa 16 (Kukoc A). 

. How the ton 25 tecum In The Associated 
p r ee r atewcMi— bnNwm— ran fared tMe 
week ( threw* Dec em ber 25): 

' L North Carol**) (7-0) beat Hawaii B8-7A; 2, 
UCLA ISO) beat George Maeon 137-100; & 
Arkansas (8-1) beat F tori do A AM 97-57; beat 
Tulsa 82-43; 4, Mn se e dMw ett s (Si) dtd not 
Wav; 5, Kenleckv (Sit dW not ptev. 

A, Arizona (7-2) k*1 ta No. 14 Syracuse 
2, K — (7-11 beat Santa Clara 80-75; beat 
Rice 71-67; & Florida (5-2) last to Jacksonville 
40-57; 9, EMM 16-11 beat North Carolina AST 
VP*; i& Connecticut <«) treat Falritelti SS- 

11 nientann utinnnyin m~? n 

OBeraktoam (5-U dM not ptay; n. amtonoit 
(7-3) beat Cal Slate Norttn4dae 116-54; tost to 
No. MCafffemfo 09-76; iGSvracose (7-11 beat 
Robert Morris 18347; beat No. A Arizona SA- 
BA; St Artnaa state O-Tt Beat Cal PotpSan 
Luts OMwo 90-43; beat Oklahoma State 7W9. 

14 Waezeto 17-3) leer to Texas Southern 
7140; heat San Jose State 11548; 17,MtoWgon 
Stole 15-1) beat Tennessee 7948; 10- Georgia 
TMh CM) beat Furman 9*73; 19, Wake For- 
est (4-1) beat OTocM 81-58. 

2L Wisconsin (A-D beat Loyola Mary mount 
7540; 21, New Mexico State 18-21 beat Toxas- 
Ar 1 1 noton 1(0-43; 22. Virginia (4-3) beat VMI 
100-73; last to Stanford 64-40; ZL Ifflnots (0-2) 
bent Mercer 9D-AA; lost to Missouri 76-S3; M. 
CaOtarnla (6-0) boot No. 13 Clnciimatl B9-7A; 
K. Mm State CB-I) beat North PtorKfo 1144a 

NFL Standings 


V-New England 





z-San Diego 
/-Kansas City 
LA Raiders 


W L T 
TO 6 0 

10 A 0 

0 8 0 
7 9 0 

A 10 0 


W L T 
12 4 0 

11 5 0 

3 13 0 

2 14 0 


W L T 
II 5 0 

9 7 1* 

9 7 0 

7 9 0 

A 10 0 

Pet. PF PA 
525 309327 
425 351 312 
500 307 330. 
.438 340 35A 
575 264 320 

Pd. PF PA 
J50 316 234 
500 340204 
.1H 276 406 
.135 226 352 

488 381 306 
563 319 298 
563 303 377 
■438 347 376 
575 287 323 


MY. Giants 
Woet ri no to n 

Tampa Bov 


W L T Ptt. PFPA 

12 4 0 .750 414 248 

9 7 0 563 279 305 

8 8 0 500 23S2S7 

7 9 0 .498 308 308 

3 13 0 .188 320 412 



9 A 0 400 335 300 

9 7 0 543 382287 

9 7 0 563 3S7J42 

9 7 0 563 271 307 

6 10 0 375 251 351 

x-SanPranctoeo 13 2 0 547 491 275 

Near Or leans 7 9 0 538 348407 

Atlanta 7 9 0 XB 313 SOT 

LA Roms 4 12 0 .250 286345 

x-a Inched dtvfston 
v -clinched elavott snot 

S en ders Game 
Miami 27. Detroit 20 

ivi J i a um is - — ■ — 0 — - — " ■ 

none for breeding farms. AD race- 
horses are imported and members of 
the Jockey dub must draw lots for the 
right to have one of the 900 or so 
thoroughbreds who can be stabled 
here. . . 

The quality of raring is, by world 
standards,- moderate: the top horses 
would be no better than allowance- 
class runners at an American track; 
the skill of the jockeys is not impres- 
sive. But the leaders of the industry 
t nfc? an understandable pride m aB 
they have created, and they are disap- 
pointed that only one aspect of their 
racing is noticed by the outside world. 

In a history of the sport here, author 
Austin Coates wrote, “The beauty of 
the night races, the splendor of the Sha 
Tin course; the fraternity existing be- 
tween thousands of people qf different 

races and nationaliti es none of this 

is noticed abroad; only the betting-” 

But the gambling is indeed what 
makes Hong Kong racing so unique 
and so compelling. The drama of the 
races themselves is nothing compared 
to the dramas in the grandstand. 


• • n. • 

kr; ■■ - ¥ - 1 / - >. ; 

.'•?*» i ?/; y - * * r - *> - . >; S. ' «;>* 

^ . ' •:*. 

;-V r - ° v - r‘ : . V-'- • 

'■■.. v-' /C ■ . I: . J 

V - .. , . . I 

-A 1 '■ i 

rC'?}-- . >■ ■* ' V. i 

Rick Rycrafl/TbvAworiuea 

A CROWDED OCEAN —With spinnaker sails billowing in every color of the rainbow, 371 yachts, a fleet twice the 
size of any other in the history of the Sydney-to-Hobart race, set sail Monday from Australia for the 50th 
anniversary of tbe blue-water classic. The maxi Brindabella, which held a big lead throughout last year’s race unti l 
apparently hitting a whale and retiring with a damaged hull just short of Hobart, had taken the early lead again. 

F* t w r - v. — i' - - x'M-u r' v- V7. 5^77*^ *3 

a f 

wjt YS-R'-A,*. i II S-. 

A rental 0, Aston Villa 0 
Owtoea 2. Manctiester united 3 
Coventry 0, Notllngfxjm Forest 0 
Crystal Palace a Queens Park Rangers 0 
Everton 1, Sheffield Wednesday 4 
Leeds a Newcastle 0 
Leicester 1. Liverpool 2 
Norwich o. Tottenham 2 
Southampton 2. Wimbledon 3 
West Ham 1. Ipswich i 
Standings: Manchester united *4 points. 
Blackburn 43. Newcastle 39. Uverpooi 36, Not- 

imgham Forest 36. Leeds 32, Norwich 30, Tol- 
terttam 29. Chelsea 2£ Manchester aty 28, 
Arsenal % Coventry 2& Wimbledon 25, South- 
ampton 24. Sheffield W de ee d ay J4. Queen's 
Pork Rangers 23. Crystal Palace 22. West 
Ham 22. Everton 19. Aston villa 17. Leicester 
14, Ipsvrtch 13 

j.vj. -7-.-xarr -v-) ir-W;" ■?&- = J*. 


- -?■*■ - «■-- J— • -• K 

Notional Leaau* 

ST. LOUIS— Agreed to terms with Brian 
Jordan, outfielder, and Geronlmo Pena Uv 
fielder, on on e - rear cant rods. Foiled to offer 
1995 contracts to Mike Perez, ptleher; Terry 

McGrttf. catcher; ond Gerald Young, out- 
fleUer. making them tree agent*. 

SAN FRANCISCO— Foiled to otter 1995 con- 
tracts to Steve Foster and Trevor Wilson. 
Pffcherx making them free ogents. 


National Football L«ogM 
ATLANTA— Stoned Craig Heyward, rui- 
ning bade, to 2-voor contract. 


England vs. Aoitraffg, 2nd Oay 

Australia 1st inrHnas: 279 (all out) 
England 1st innings: 14M 


New Zeataed vs. Soolb Africa, 1st 1 
Monday, to OarBan 

Now Zealand 1st Innings: 130-8 
(Bad light stopped May before lea) 

Bangladesh vs. lodta 
Monday, to OBafco 
Bangladesh irmtoes: T7M 
India Innlnas: 171 (all out) 

Result: Bw alo d a sh won by 1 rwi 

gssgssjg sgejBfsss^ 
arsasffisrgs &£tfg&’szs:£: 

W brad," Calhcm aid. 

necticut in the last five seasons, 
Uri OAenrNGntz has this dis- 
tinction: at 6 feet, 10 inches, he 

of group. former MtaS 

ihif to apSs^km star who was lbt 

tetpoat big man in American 

his heteht And the UConn ba S“^‘s t ^ n arentai tecacv 

? O i ?< ^ 1 '^hS lh0Un ' SayS C^ra^MintedjdMt.ta^S 

he th in ks he win be. ketball serio usl y until he was 

.j?jaasagg WSsrs-a 

er tor us, umouu muu --- d ]ast summer be 

tionally wril from outride. Uri’s 
a good passer and bandies 
the ban well. But he has to im- 
prove on bis dribble." 

Before that he spent a man- 
datory three-year tens , in the. 
ba a Army (as did Hencfirid, 
Sheffer and Katz), and then 

taRr,tV« mnfn draw- SneilCT ana <U1U urai 

badfifr^togamc, played with theGiva, dub tom 

iaci of strength. ‘TJri is the las! season, averaging 15 points 
weakest kid on the team, and as 

a result gets knocked off the 
play a lot,” said Calhoun, 
whose Huskies are off to a 5-0 
start and ranked 10th in Tbe 
Associated Press poll 

Cohen-Mintz, a freshman 
who weighs 215 pounds (95 ki- 
lograms), agreed that he has to 
get stronger to withstand the 
hanging in the Big Hast Confer- 
ence. “The Big East is a very 

“I had heard about Uri dur- 
ing some of my trips to Israel’* 
said Calhoun. “First, 1 saw him 

f lay on tape, and then last April 
got to see him in person.” 
Such recruiting has helped 
Tnalce the Huskies one of Isra- 
el’s favorite American college 
basketball team. 

Sheffer, last season’s rookie 
of the year in the Big East, said. 

S^call^e 6 rtiZZnJi rN«dt^ started the t^tiopsh^ 
Sk^far, CcAen-Mintz has UConn still be get^g 

been brought along slowly. He 
has played only a Tew minutes, 
grabbed one rebound and made 
(me of the five shots he has 
taken. But Calhoun expects 
that he will be more of a force as 
the season progresses. 

“If be were stronger, Uri 
could be our sixth or seventh 
man," the coach said, “but as it 
is he’s our ninth or 10th player. 
But 1 think that’s going to 
change once he gets stronger/' 

Cohen-Mintz is the latest 
member of the UConn’s Israeli 
connection, which began when 
Nadav Henefield spent the 
1989-90 season with the Hus- 

After Henefield, Gflad Katz 
was a backup guard for Con- 
necticut for two seasons, and 
Orly Grossman joined the na- 
tionally ranked women’s team 
for the 1990-91 season. Then, 
last season, the 6-5 Doron 
Sheffer had an outstanding 
freshman season with the Hus- 
kies’ men. 

Cohen-Mintz said the pres- 
ence of Sheffer, a sophomore 
with one more year of eligibil- 
ity, has made it easier for him to 
adapt to the school For one 
thing, it gives him someone to 
speak with in Hebrew, both on 
and off the basketball court 

“1 like the atmosphere here," 
Cohen-Mintz said. “But it’s 
very different from Israel.” 

For a student still struggling 
with the English language and a 
new environment, Cohen- 
Mintz has not shied away from 
difficult courses. During the 
first semester, his study load 
included courses in algebra, sta- 

ff he hadn’t, 1 don’t thank 
UConn would still be getting 
players from Israel arid that 
players from Israel would -be 
considering UConn.” 

Tim Tolokan, associate di- 
rector of athletes at Connecti- 
cut, said that Sheffer is more 
known in Israel than Henefield. 
“Doron is huge in Israel," said 
Tolokan, who heads the UConn 
sports information office: 
“when he went back to play. in' 

the qualifying championships _ 
in November, he was greeted 
like a hero. The anticipation 
was tremendous." 

The Israeli news media inter- 
est in the Huskies continues to 
grow. “We get calls constantly 
from newspapers and the elec- 
tronic media,- Tolokan said. ’ 

“We send out box scores and"r 
summaries to a number of Is- 
raeli papers, including The Je- 
rusalem Post And this- season 
13 of our games are being 
shown on Israeli television, 
most of them on tape delay. 
We’ve even had TV crews come 
to Storrs from Israel to do seg- 
ments on Doron and Uri” 

Red Estate 

Every Friday 
Fred Ronan 
Tel.: (33 I) 
463793 91 
Fax: (331) 

46 37 9370 
or your nearest 
1HT office 
or representative 






Page 13 

A Major Figure 
In Bastia Soccer 
Tragedy Is Slain 

Ccmpikd by Onr Sutff From Dupa.d^ 

BASTIA, Corsica — One of the 
major figures m the 1992 stadium 
collapse that kiUed 17 person*, who 
was scheduled to «£ut tri'aj for 

week, was shot 
dead Monday, police said 

or J S?‘ Fra l ?0i5 m W' 1 ' «. ™»vor 

of the nearby town of Lucciaha. 

was shot several times and killed 
outside his home. His wife was seri- 
ously injured in the attack and was 

adSi ** iD BaS!ia - ° mcials 

Rlippi, along with 1 3 others, was 
to have gone on trial Jan. 4 in 
connection with the collapse of a 
temporary stand at Bastia’s Furiani 
soccer stadium on May 5 1992 
shortly before kickoff of the 
French Cup semifinal between 
Bastia and Olympique de Mar- 
seille. In addition to the 17 specia- 

l°£L who were more than 

2,000 were injured. 

Filippi, who managed a big 
transport company, was president 
of the Bastia Football Club at the 
time of the collapse. 

He had been the target of numer- 
ous anonymous threats since the 
tragedy, police said. 

A government commission that 
investigated the disaster concluded 
that the builders of the stand, a 
Nice-based company named Sud- 
Tribunes, had not followed con- 
struction regulations. 

(Reuters. AFP) 

Dolphins Hold Off Lions 
To Win AFC East Title 

Cohn Brelcy/RcMcn 

Barry Sanders eluded Frankie Smith for five yards early on, but got just 20 that half and 52 during the game. 

By Charlie Nobles 

iVof York Tones Service 

MIAMI — With their first- 
quarter demons finally extricat- 
ed; the Miami Dolphins put to- 
gether their most impressive 
first half of the season. They 
needed it 

Miami held off the Detroit 
Lions, 27-20. on Sunday night, 
giving the Dolphins the Ameri- 
can Conference East champion- 
ship with a 10-6 record and a 
first-round home game this 
weekend against the Kansas 
City Chiefs, who lost to Miami 
here in mid-December, 45-28. 

The Lions' loss, leaving them 
at 9-7, sends them on the road 
next weekend in a matchup that 
would be determined by the 
outcome of Monday night’s San 
Francisco- Minnesota game in 
the National Football League 
regular-season finale. 

This game wasn’t over until 
ihe Dolphins got a break to 
keep possession at the 2-minute 
mark. Facing a third down and 
19 at the Detroit 49-yard line, 
Dan Marino completed a short 
ass to Aaron Graver, who ram- 
led to the 23 before fumbling. 
Fortunately for Miami, re- 
cover Irving Fryar was there 
pick up the balL With no time- 
outs left, Detroit could only 
watch Miami ran out the dock. 

“Our defense was the differ- 
ence tonight,’* said the Dei- 

phins’ coach. Don Shula. “They 
came out swarming and putting 
pressure on their offense.” 

It was a nervous, yet sweet, 
night for Shula. still confined to 
a motor cart because of recent 
Achilles’ tendon surgery. The 
victory allowed Shula to break a 
tie with George Halas for the 
NFL career record for regular- 
season victories with 319. Shula 
also bolds the NFL record for 
overall victories with 337. 

Die Dolphins came in ranked 
just 22d among NFL defenses, 
but they largely did an effective 
job on Barry Sanders, who was 
trying to become just the 
league’s third runner to reach 
2,000 yards in a season. Sanders 
finished the night with 52 yards 
on 12 carries, giving him 1,883 
yards for the regular season. 

Meanwhile, Marino broke 
his single-season record for pass 
completions, his 26 giving him 
385 for the season, while Bemie 
Parmalee became the first Mi- 
ami runner since 1989 to rush 
for 3 touchdowns in one game. 

In the first Half , Detroit man- 
aged to produce an oddity: 10 
points without one first down. 
The points came on a 32-yard 
field goal by Jason Hanson that 
followed a Miami fumble at its 
20-yard-line, and Johnnie Mor- 
ton's 93-yard kickoff return. 

Still, the Dolphins left little 
to chance, scoring on five of 

their seven possessions that half 
for a 27-10 lead. Parmalee scored 
on runs of 1, 1 and 6 yards and 
Pete Stoyanovich kicked field 
goals of 40 and 45 yards. 

With Sanders having no- 
where to go in the first half — 
his 7 rushes netted just 20 yards 
— Miami had an overwhelming 
ball-control advantage. In fact, 
Detroit had the ball just 7:21. 

• Justice Smith slammed 
over from 2 yards out. David 
Gordon kicked a 35-yard field 
goal and the Boston College de- 
fense got a safety to give the 
Eagles a 12-7 victory over 11th- 
ranked Kansas State in the Alo- 
ha Bowl in Honolulu. 

Both teams struggled in a 
game that saw a record 19 
punts. The Eagles got only 13 
first downs and Kansas State 
seven, its first coming with 1 :27 
left in the first half. (AP) 

• Joe Aska, the Central Okla- 
homa running back who is 
blind in one eye, rushed for two 
touchdowns and set up the win- 
ning touchdown with a 35-yard 
run as the Blue won the annual 
Blue-Gray all-star game, 38-27, 
in Montgomery, Alabama. 

Quarterback Kelly Holcomb 
of Middle Tennessee State was 
the Gray's most valuable play- 
er, completing 9 of 16 passes for 
ids ana 

158 yards j 

one touchdown. 


Pippin Rescues Bulls, Knicks Lose a 5th 



The Associated Press 

CHICAGO — When the fi- 
nal horn sounded, Steve Ken- 
hugged Scottie Pippen, as well 
he should have. 

Kerr had let the New York 
Knicks tie the score at the end 
of regulation with what he 
called “one of the all-time 
bonehead plays.” But Pippen 
then rescued Kerr and the Chi- 
cago Bulls in overtime. 

Pippen had season highs with 
36 points and 16 rebounds Sun- 
^.day night in a 107-104 victory 


that gave the Bulls their first 
two-game winning streak at the 
new United Center. 

The Knicks, meanwhile, lost 
their fifth straight — their long- 
est skid since 1990 and the 
worst in the illustrious career of 
their coach, Pat Riley. 

Pippen scored all seven Chi- 
cago points in an overtime that 
never would have taken place 
had Kerr not messed up. 

’* Fortunately ,” he said, “we 
pulled through or Td be buried 
in the sand right now.” 

With the Bulls ahead, 100-97, 
New York's Anthony Mason 
threw a full-court inbounds 
pass toward Charles Smith and 
Derek Harper. The ball went to 
Kerr, but instead of catching it, 
he batted it with both hands 
right to Hubert Davis. With 
four-tenths of a second left, Da- 
vis heaved up an off-balance, 
25-foot shot that went in. 

"I felt horrible,” said Kere, a 
smart, fundamentally sound 
player. "It was embarrassing. 
Not only does it hapP^- J ut 
happens on national TV. on 
Christmas night with the whole 
world watching. 

“I thought Harper was going 
to get it behind me Al the last 
second, I got the ball. Bui l had 

Clary C CuLcy/Kcoim 

It was a hands-on game as Detief Schrempf (left) and Bryant Smith battled for the ball. 

already anticipated that be was 
going to be there and I was 
going to try to knock it away 
from him. 

“Of course, I had a clear shot' 
at it and it ended up being one 
of the all-time bonehead plays.” 

The game, between last 
May’s Eastern Conference 
senufmalisl, was filled with 
hard fouls and verbal ex- 
changes. John Starks was eject- 

ed for throwing the ball at Chi- 
cago’s Pete Myers, and Mason 
was assessed a flagrant foul for 
hitting Toni Kukoc in the head. 

Nuggets 105, Soules 96: 
Mahmoud Abdul-Rauf scored 
23 points and Rodney Rogers 
added 22 as Denver, playing at 
home, ended Seattle’s four- 
game winning streak. 

Detief Schrempf and Kendall 
Gill had 21 points each for the 

Sooics. But the Nuggets held 
Shawn Kemp to 10, his second- 
lowest output of the year. 
Kemp played only 20 minutes 
because of foul trouble and 
fouled out with 8:04 left. 

It was the first meeting of the 
teams since last spring, when 
the Nuggets, seeded eighth, 
eliminated the top-seeded Son- 
ics in the first round of the NBA 

be odoradL gfc*i fad. loved and pnt- 
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4 Philippine 

9 Writer leShan 

12 Penned 
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is Campaign 
donor, foe snort 
1C Have airs. Bke 



ia Dockers' org. 
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22 Washington’s 

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24 Director Fred 

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©Afe v> York Times/ Edited bv IPiU Shorts. 

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Page 14 



Holiday Togetherness 

many parents the Christ - 
mas holidays are the happiest 
days of the year. The children 
are home from college, every- 
one is in a good mood, and all 
of us learn what family celebra- 
tions are really about 
And ao it is for my friends, 
Joene and Bill Gessaer, who 
spend the en- 
tire month of 
counting their 
blessings — 
and talking 
about seeing 
them agaifl- 
I stopped by 
the other day 
to invite Bill 
and Joene to 
see the show 

“Tommy” with me, but Joene 
said. “We'd love to, but Camer- 
on. Grant and Katie are home 
from school and we gel so little 
time with them that we’re not 
making any appointments for 
the nett two weeks." 

“I can understand that,” I 
told Joen*. “Where are the kids 

Bill said, “Katie is skiing in 
Sugarbush, Cameron went to 
visit his girl in Fort Lauderdale, 
and Grant is upstairs sleeping.” 
“At ] in the afternoon?” 
Joene tried to explain. “He 
didn't get in till 4 in the morn- 
ing. We know because we 
watched old movies on TV all 
night waiting for him.” 

“Were you worried about 

“No, we just wanted to see 
what he looked like. Kids 
change so fast, you have to grab 
them while you can.” 


“Maybe you were a little 
hasty when you tore up your 
entire social calender to spend 
time with the children. They 
don't appear to have much rime 
for you." I suggested. 

Bill sounded defensive. 
“That isn't true. Grant came 
down this morning at 10, bad a 

cup of coffee and went back to 
bed. It was very exciting, partic- 
ularly when he recognized both 
of us.” 

Joene added, “We even 
talked for several minutes, and 
he told us many things about 
his life and what his hopes and 
dreams were for the future." 

Bill turned to Joene and said, 
“Did you hear something? I 
think he’s up.” 

Joene clapped her bands, 
“He’s up, he's up. I have to 
make him a wonderful break- 

1 said, “I guess this is a big 
moment for me. I am rarely 
around when a college student 
is on his feet.” 


I then asked, “What are you 
guys doing New Year’s Eve?” 

“We’re keeping it open in 
case the kids want to spend it 
with us. Last year they all went 
out, but perhaps this year well 
just build a lovely fire, roast 
chestnuts and sing ‘Auld Lang 
Syne’ with their friends,” Joene 
said wistfully. 

Bill told me, “They would 
never forgive us if we made 
plans for ourselves when they 
were home, even if they wanted 
no part of them.” 

“Out of curiosity, what do 
you talk about when the kids 
are home?” 

“It's never happened,” Joene 
confessed. “The minute they 
come in the door they throw 
their bags in the hall and are off 
to see their pals. We know that 
they're O. K. because we call 
the parents of their friends and 
they give us a full report on our 
children. In turn we do the same 
for them." 

“Well, if you change your 
mind about Tommy’ Jet me 

“We can’t. We haven’t heard 
from Cameron in a week. We 
have to stay here on the oft 
chance that he could come 
through the door at any min- 

India’s Bandit Queen, Outlawed Live and on Screeji 

an intern^ that V. 1 

By Molly Moore 

H’astongtan Post Service 

N EW DELHI — Phoolan Devi 
was bom dirt poor, low caste 
and female. She grew up hard and 
fast in rural north India: married at 
age 1 1, abandoned by her husband, 
jailed, raped, kidnapped by bandits. 

By the time she was 20, Devi had 
turned outlaw, and in the inhospita- 
ble desert ravines of her native land 
she became a legend, feared and re- 
vered as the “Bandit Queen,” leader 
of a gang of dacoits — robbers — 
that plundered and murdered, often 
stealing from the rich higher castes 
and sharing with the poor lower 

Her story is the stuff of movies: 
Modern Indian Robin Hood and 
Bonnie Parker, with a touch of Glo- 
ria Steincm. But “Bandit Queen” — 
India’s nominee for Best Foreign 
Film Oscar —has become one of the 
most controversial films ever to come 
out of Bombay’s “Bollywood” stu- 

The Indian film censor board has 
banned the movie because of its rape 
scenes, nudity and depiction of sensi- 
tive political issues. Devi, who is illit- 
erate and was only recently freed 
after 11 years in prison, has sued io 
keep the film out of Indian cinemas, 
charging invasion of privacy. 

The debate over “Bandit Queen" 
has titillated a public that has been 
forbidden to see the movie eves 
though it has been shown at the 
Cannes, London and Toronto film 

But the rancor over “Bandit 
Queen" goes deeper than the debate 
over sex and violence. The . movie 
offers a brutal view of the way wom- 
en are treated in poor rural Indian 

“Her personal story, extraordinary 
as it is, reflects many aspects of life as 
experienced by thousands of women 
in rural India who continue to strive 
against a feudal order that persists in 
a ’modern' society, a society in which 
peasantry collides with capitalist 
markets and technology,” Mala Sen, 
Devi’s biographer, writes in her in- 
troduction to “India's Bandit Queen: 
The True Story of Phoolan Devi," 
from which the movie was adapted. 
Seema Biswas, the 29-year-old ac- 

tress who plays Devi in the movie, 
said she found the role so traumatic 
that she suffered a near breakdown 
during the filming . 

“I was married when I was 1 1,” 
Devi begins, swathed in a white cot- 
ton shawl that swallows her now-frail 
4-foot, 10-inch (I. 47-meter) frame. 
Tf I hadn't gotten married at that 
young age, my fife would not have 
been ruined." 

Speaking with a reporter at her 
New Delhi apartment, where she is 
attempting to begin a new life with a 
new husband, she says softly in her 
native Hindi dialect, “Even now I 
fight with my mother about it.” 

One of six children born to a poor 
north Indian farmer who worked 
other people's arid land, Devi said 
her parents struggled just to feed 
their offspring. When a relative 
found a prospective groom, her par- 
ents agreed to the match. The man 
gave the family a cow, customary in 
marital arrangements, and took the 
frightened bride home. 

“My parents had the best inten- 
tions for me," Devi now says. “They 
thought, ‘He’s got money. My daugh- 
ter will be married. She’ll be hap- 
py.’ ” Her large brown eyes harden. 
“No one knew that be was not a man, 
he was a monster.” 

Devi said that her husband took a 
second wife and that the two often 
beat her. Finally he abandoned her 
on a riverbank. 

How she ended up with bandits is 
murky. She has said she was kid- 
napped and physically abused by the 
gang leader. As to why she gave in. 
even when she had the chance to 
escape, Devi told her biographer, “A 
piece of property has no choice.” 

In the early 1 980s. in the ravines of 
the raped Cbambral Valley in the 
state ofuttar Pradesh, the legend of 
the Bandit Queen was bom. At the 
height of her fame, Devi was glorified 
by newspapers. The Phoolan Devi 
Doll, in her signature uniform with a 
bandolier, was one of the hotiest- 
selling toys in India. 

But just as the villages were divid- 
ed by caste, so were some of the 
bandit gangs. Thus, one day two up- 
per-caste outlaws shot and killed the 
lower-caste bandit who was Devi's 
lover. Devi was taken to the village of 

j L Maaud. Figaro MagadneiGanma 

Phoolan Devi: “A piece of property has no choice.” 

Behmai and gang-raped by a group 
of upper-caste men. 

In the scene that most scandalized 
the censor board. Devi is stripped 
and forced to walk naked through the 
village, fetching the men water from 
a well as the entire village looks on. 

Devi, in an interview, did not deny 
that the events occurred but said it 
was an invasion of her privacy to put 
them on display in movie theaters. 
“The most private and sensitive 
things in a woman's life have been 
portrayed in this film,” she said. 

In real life and in the movie, Devi 
sought her revenge. On Feb. 14, 1981, 
her gang stormed on isolated village. 
Devi recognized the village as Beh- 

mai ) the home of the two men who 
had murdered her lover and the site 
'of her humiliation. 

Sen’s biography and newspaper 
accounts say Devi had her men 
sweep the town in search of the mur- 
derers. Two dozen upper-caste men 
were dragged from their homes and 

> ■ 1 U TT.- 

lined up cm a riverbank. The bandits 
pened fire, leaving 20 dead. 

The police put 2,000 officers and a 

helicopter on her trail. In adventures 
worthy of Keystone Kbps episodes, 
Devi repeatedly outsmarted the po- 

While the press and the villagers 
delighted in the escapades (tf the 
Bandit Queen, she was no laugh! — 
matter for politicians. The politic 

ire became so intense that V, P. 
am-u —later prime minister of-India 
__tad to resign as chief minister oT 
Uttar Pradesh. „ • _ '■ 

Finally, Prime Minister Indira 
Gandhi told la w eitforcement^offi- 
Vaals that if they couldn t catch Deri, 
they should cut a deal with her— on 
ha 1 terms — for her surreflflff. 

In February 1983, with most of her 
gang members dead and her health 
Hag, Devi agreed to surrender on 
the conditions that she not be 
hanged, that her men serve no mwe 
♦h«n eight years, that her brother oe 
given a government job, thai ■ 
ther be given a plot of land and that 
her entire family, along with thefam- 
ily cow and goat, be escorted by 
police to her surrender ceremony.- . 

She was charged with 48 crimes, 
including allegations that she shot 
some of the 20 men killed in the ! 
Behmai massacre. But for 11 yearn 
her trials were delayed by changes in 
government and jurisdictional feuds. 
Finally, when a lower-caste political 
party won election in Uttar Pradesh, 
she was freed on bafl. 

“In my only dream was to get 
out,” said Devi. “I thought life would 

be easy once I was freft. I didn’t know ' 
I would have to continue my fights.” . 

Within weeks, the controversy - 
over the movie created a renewed 
media feeding frenzy. She has re- 
ceived death threats, and the govern- 
ment has assigned bodyguards to 

As for her legal situation, the mov- 
ie couldn’t have come at a more deli- 
cate time. There are still 48 c rimin al 
charg es, including murder, pending. 
One of Deri’s greatest fears is that 
movie scales could be used against 
her in a trial. 

Even though she is now at war with 
her biographer. Sen, and received 
$13,000 for the rights to her story for . 
the movie, Devi already has begun 
cooperating with a French author for 
a new biography. 

But mostly, Devi says die just 
wants to move on with her life. She 
married a New Delhi business con- 
tractor five months after she left pris- 
on. Now she says she would like to 
start a national social organization to 
help poor women, child brides and 



Forecast for Wednesday through Friday, as provided by Accu- Weather. 

Quite mild Wednesday and Northwest Europe will be There might be a Uttte ram in 
Thursday in Washington, quite stormy Wednesday Tokyo Wednesday, (hen 
D C., and New Yock City with through Friday. Strong winds partly sunny Thursday and 
svnstma, than a chance lor and showery periods will Friday. Typtooty chXy Ux the 
rein Friday. Chance lor a occur in London, Amster- end oi the year in Seoul and 
shower in Lob Angeles dam. Copenhagen and Ham- Beijing Wednesday through 
Wednesday, then sunshme burg. Travel, espedaly (erry Friday. Warm arid humid n 
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sunshine each day Wetaas- Madrid and Rome wiH have ahine and the chance (or a 
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E ntertainment weekly magazine 

has named Tom Hanks entertainer of 
the year. “It’s an embarrassment of riches.” 
Hanks said in an article in the magazine, 
recalling a year that included an Oscar for 
his role iit “Philadelphia” and widespread 
acclaim for his performance in “Forrest 
Gump." “I mean, you can't plan on this, 
and you can’t desire it loo much.” he said. 
"You can only sort of lei it wash over you 
and say, 'Man. oh man! How'd that hap- 
pen?’ Who was that guy?" ” The Top 12 are, 
besides Hanks: ihe actor-comedian Tim Al- 
len, director Quentin Tarantino, the actress 
Heather Locklear, the acior-ootnedian Jim 
Carrey, author Michael Crichton, the actor 
Hugh Grant, actress and talk-show host 
Ricfci Lake, the hip-hop quartet Boyz D 
Men, the actor Dennis Franz, actor-come- 
dian Brett Butler and the alternative-rocker 
Trent Reznor of Nine Inch Nalls. 


A Los Angeles judge has decided to lei 
the first batch of Academy Award ballots go 
out without the movie “Hie Last Seduc- 
tion." The Academy of Motion Picture Arts- 
and Sciences ruled John Dahl's “The Last 
Seduction" ineligible because it made its 
debut on television, and makers of the film 

S*n> ^fironTCh/RtniETS 

A banner year for Tom Hanks. 

axgued that the “no TV" rule amounts to 
restraint of trade. The judge set a hearing 
for Jan. 6, but by that tune, 20 percent of the 
ballots will have been mailed to academy 
members who live outside California. The 

movie stars Linda Fioreutino, who was 
named best actress by the New York Film 
Critics Circle. , 


Hue Raffing Stones will play a tribute to 
Antonio Cartas Jobim on the Brazilian leg 
Of their Voodoo Lounge Tour in February.^ 
Jobim, writer of “The Girl From Ipahema" ■ 
and a driving force behind the bossa nova 
craze of the 1960s, died on Dec. 8. 


The Daily News in New York reports 
that John F. Kennedy Jr., a former assis- 
tant district attorney, was stopped by a 

E aired officer in Madison Square Park for 
tting his dog romp without a leash and 
received a $100 fine. 


Chet A dons wants NBC to know that 
he’s still alive and pickin’. “NBC News 
Nighlside” inadvertently listed the 70-year- 
old guitarist among celebrities who had 
died in 1994. “You know, I wish Td have 
seen that and I'd have known what it would, 
be tike when I do kick the bucket,” Atkins 
said. The nutltiple-Gnunmy winner specu- 
lated that someone confused him with actor 
Claude Akins, who died in January. 

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AT&T USADirecP and World Connect 
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