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*•.. 



INTERNATIONAL 




V 



PUBLISHED WITH THE NEW YORK TIMES AND THE WASHINGTON POST 


*41 


Paris, Wednesday, February 16, 1994 


No. 34,513 







OLYMPIC 


POOIUM 




Kctntor Harshly Accuses 
Tokyo 9 Which Jfhms of 
1 of Losing Dialogue 

By Peter Behr ' 

i Tm Servlet 

States said, 
ion 

over 

cellular tefcphoae " service that symbolizes a 
much broader, harsher breakdown in trade re- 
lations between the two economic powers. 

-U-S. Trade Reprasentativa Mimy Kan tor 
said Japan had failed to comply with a 1989 
agreement that was to assure Motorola Inc of a 

- substantial share of the ce&uiarahane market 
'in the Takyo-Nagoya area. 

‘ Kfeuorokhas Sum up 

^ers,a .tiny fraction of the potential customers in 

• Motorola case fflnstrates VS. trade negotia- 

tora’twupWflfra^ : 

Japan's principal urban area. Mr. Kastor said 

- .the reason was that a Japanese company that 

■Motorola was reqpiredto take as a partner had 
been slow to set np the necessary transmission 
facilities. ! 

f Mr. Kan lor termed the Motorola matter “a 
dear-cut and serious case of a failure by Japan 
to Uve up to recommitments." 

• He added: “We plan, within 30 days, to 
.announce for public comment a list of pro* 
posed trade actions. Tins is in many ways a- 
dassic case at the detenzdaa&aa at Japan to 
keep its markets dosed, partfctdsuily to leading- 
edge UJS; prodnets.*’ 

Mr. Kan tor said Washington had attempted 
over a nearly 10-year period to overcome a 
series of hurdles to market access imposed by - 
Japanese bureaucrats. 

Using imusuaSy strong langHage*he temted 
^false and disingenuous’’ Japanese suggestions 
that U.S. companies- and their products often 

to br^mto^he 

“U.S. firms have bem abd remain global 
leaders “ Mr. itantoir arid. 

- The dilute oyer 

widCri 

onatt^^proich 

cafly lHige trade sunJlns.:' " 7 

The Jqjanese gavknment, which eariiersaid 
it might .appeat the dilute to me General 
A gr ee m ent on Tariffs and Trader warned thd 
United States that ■ trade sanctions could end , 
the dialogue on resolving their bilateral trade 
-dispute, but Tokyo also propose another sum- j 
nut meeting to by to resolve natters. 

The failure of the meeting Friday between 
Prime Minister ManMro Hosdkswa and Presi- 
dent Bill Clio ton led to Tuesday’s U.S. action. 

A government spokesman said Mr. Ho- 
5 okawa had ins tru cted government ministries 
to draw up a set oT emergency market-opening 

See TRADE, Page 7 


Roffo-Steinrotter, 

‘.Si A. 2 , World 0 : 

As a, surprise, it was another jp'nn f 
Diana Roffe-Stonrotter won the wom- 
en’s snpez^giant slalom Monday, in 
giving the suddenly super U.S. team 
both gold medals in the two Alpine ski 
races run so tar in the Olympics. 

KLatja Seizinger, right, the fine 
downhiller from Germany, was sur- 
- prised, too. She caught an edge, slid 
backward past a gate and out of the 
race. Then there was the silver medal- 
ist. Svetlana Gladischeva of Russia 
slipped into second place after 34 other 


skiers, most higher, had finished their- 
runs. She become the first Alpine skier' 
representing Russia to win an Olympic 
medal and the first from the old Soviet 
Union since Yevgenia Sidorova took 
the slalom bronze in 1956. 

Egorova Nips Dl Centa 

Lyubov Egorova of Russia, starting 
late and thus knowing whom she had 
to beat, won her fourth Olympic gold 
in the women’s five-kilometer classi- 
cal-style cross-country race. She fin- 
ished 193 seconds ahead of Manuela 
Di Centa of Italy, who took the first 
gold medal of the Winter Games, in the 


15-kilometer freestyle Sunday, when 
Egorova finished a distant second. 

Finland's 38-year-old Marja-Liisa 
Kirvesniemi was third, in her sixth 
Olympics. She has tied the all-time 
record in the Winter Games, held by 
Swedish bobsledder Carl- Erik Eriks- 
son and Australian speed skater Colin 
Coates. 

U.S. -Slovak Hockey Tie 

The U.S. hockey team got goals H4 
minutes apart late in the third period 
to salvage a 3-3 tie with Slovakia. Sec- 
ond-seeded Sweden dominated Italy, 
4-1. 

Olympic report: Pages 27, 28 and 29 



WaVtMS tunny. Rcmco 

won. 


North Korea Bows 
To Deadline on 
UN Inspection of 
Its Nuclear Sites 


By David Sanger 

New York Times Service 

TOKYO — Just days before a deadline that 
would have heightened its confrontation with 
the West, North Korea on Tuesday reversed 
itself and told the International Atomic Energy 
Agency that it would permit a full inspection of 
its suspected nuclear rites. 



Energy 

Agency that DPRK authorities accept the in- 
spection activities which have been requested 
by the IAEA in the seven declared nuclear 
facilities." 

The statement added: “The aim of the in- 
spection activities is to verify that nuclear mate- 
rial in these facilities has not been diverted 
since earlier inspections.” 

The surprise announcement came less than a 
week before the agency’s board of governors 
was preparing to declare that North Korea had 
defied inspections for so long that it could 
easily have diverted nuclear material to its sus- 
pected weapons project. That announcement 
would have sent toe issue to the United Nations 
Security Council, whore the imposition of eco- 
nomic sanctions had appeared increasingly 
likely. 

“I think they realized that their chances tc 
the Security Council did not look very good,” 
said a U.S. official deeply involved in the nego- 
tiations with the North. “But this inspection 
wQl only set the baseline. It will not solve the 
fundamental questions. We still have a long 
way to go." 

After weeks of silence, two U.S. officials were 
to resume talks with North Korean officials at 
the UN. Congressman Ronald V. Ddlums. 
Democrat of California, is expected to meet 
Kim D Sung, the North Korean leader, in 
Pyongyang this week. 

If the North goes through with the agreement 
it made Tuesday, agency officials say it will 
take at least three weeks for the team of six or 
seven inspectors to complete their survey of the 
North's nuclear complex at Yongbyon and re- 
port-back to the agency’s headquarters in 'Vien- 
na. 


mu 


... By Craig R1 Whitney 

New York Tones Service . 

NAPLES,— The NATO commander who 
•would bq responsible for carrying out the affi- 
ance’s threat to boinb heavy weapons positions 


Lander Defers on Bombing 



around :Sarajevo said Tbesday that he would 
rot launch ari attacks unless UN authorities on 
the scene gave him the go-ahead. 

“lie United Nations would other have to 
request me to do that or I would have toreqoest 
permission of the UN to go in,” said Admiral 
Jeremy M- Boprda of the United States, com- 
mander of. NATO's southern command here. * 
The BriJito, French, Dutch, American and oth- 
er NATO airplanes that would conduct tbe air 


Wedge in Japan 

Cellular Market 

By Steven Brull 

. Jieemmumid Haptd Tribime 
TOKYO •*- Japanese makers of odhdar 
phones would have little to fear in the shu®* 
tenn irom sanctions against their exports to the 
United Slates, industry analysts said Tuesday. 
But American pressure may eveutially succeed 
■in opening the Japanese market for Western 
.telecommunications suppliers. • -.*• 

Sanction* would likely inffici bm&parnte- 
came most cellular phones sold in the United 
States by; Japanese companies are produced 
outside Japan, and wcola presumably be ex- 
empt from punitive tariffs. The ma?orstqyners, 
Matsushita Communication In dustri al^ v°^ 
NEC Cora and Old Electric Indmtiy Caan. 
have plants is the United States, while Untoen 
Corn, has major facilities in China. 

“Sanctions wouldn’t have tmich of mm roact 
mi Japanese manufacturers, said Kxacmro- 
Chiwaia. an analyst at Salomon BuMxxsm 
TcSyo^But bean indication of a 

tougher U.S. stance." • ' 

^additional measures, hinted ai but JJJ . 

spSiS^ Prerident^n Onto* along wuh 
See SANCTIONS, Page 7 


Yeltsin insists Russia play a rote fa seating tbe 
cpDflkt Nge 2. • UN counts on new (tech- 
nology to beef Dp Its Bosnia threats. Rage 7. 

attacks would take off from bases in Italy and 
aircraft cairiexs on his orders. 

.ButNorth Atlantic Treaty Organization offi- 
dalswereat pains to deny that there, was any 
fundamental' difference m understanding be- 
tween .the affiance and the UN authorities in 
Bosnia about what the Serbs, whose heavy 
JxHnbardmcnt of Sarajevo far months was toe 
main target of the threat, would have to do io 
avoid becoming the- targets of air strikes next 
WO 'AJ: 

Officials -said that while the NATO ultima- 
tum gjnresSerb and Bosniari forces within a 20- 
kfiemeta fl^rmle) radius of Sarajevo the op-' 
tion (rf either withdrawing artillery pieces. 

Kn r. or putting them under control of. UN 
peaadreepzsg forces, there was no difference 
between NATO and UN commanders about 
what "controT meant - 

. Both the UN arifitary commander in Saraje- 
vo, Sr Michael Rose of Britain, and the UN 
secretary-generaTs personal representative in 
the Balkans, Yasushi AJcasfe, have had exten- 
sive discussions with Admiral Boorda in recent 
days about this, the officials said. 

.. ■ ^We have no doubt that GaKral Rosehas no 
ddurims that control means simply people 



talks between the North and the United States 
over a broader series of inspections and North 
Korea’s return to tbe Nuclear Nonproliferation 
Treaty, in return for a package of economic and 
political incentives. 

Inspectors last visited the nuclear sites at 
Yongbyon, 100 kilometers (60 utiles) north of 
Pyongyang, last summer. Even then their access 
was sharply limited, and they have been barred 
from returning. 

Since early January, after it reached what 
appeared to be a significant agreement with the 
United Stales, North Korea has refused to go 
along with the inspection conditions set by toe 
nuclear agency. 

The North Korean government repeatedly 
denounced the agency -as a “lackey” of the 


United States, and refused to allow it into the 
two most vital sites: its main nuclear reactor 
and a fuel reprocessing plant, where nuclear 
waste can be transformed into plutonium. 

Then on Tuesday a North Korean diplomat 
based in Vienna, Yun Ho Jin. delivered a letter 
to the agency’s headquarters declaring that his 
government had simply accepted the agency’s 
explanations about why it must conduct a thor- 
ough inspection of all those rites, and replace 
batteries and film in surveillance cameras in- 
stalled a year ago. 

“There was no explanation,” said David 
Kyd, a spokesman for the agency. “They simply 
agreed to all of the measures. They seemed to 
want to keep the process moving.” 

Even after this inspection is complete, ex- 
perts caution, a host of questions win remain. 

The UN inspection is limited to sites that 
North Korea has declared as part of its nuclear 
facilities: it will net indude two suspected nu- 
clear waste dumps that the United States sus- 
pects could yield evidence of past production of 
plutonium. Tne North has refused to discuss a 
Special inspection” of those sites until the next 
step of negotiations with the United States. 

Moreover, inspectors almost certainly will 
not solve tbe most vexing question, whether or 
not North Korea already has a bomb. 

“If the intelligence agencies are right and 
they have built one or two, they are certainly 
not at Yongbyon,” one senior U.S. intelligence 
official said. 

Officials inside and outside the atomic ener- 
gy agency speculated that the North Korean 
announcement was timed to circumvent any 
taik of sanctions at next week’s meeting. 

The director-general of the agency. Hans 
Blix, had been preparing to declare that the 
North had broken the “continuity” of inspec- 
tions, language that would have forced the 
Security Council to take up the issue. 

Such a move may yet be necessary. Within 
the United States government — and among 
the Pacific allies — many officials have argued 
that North Korea was simply buying time. They 
believe this inspection may just be another step 
in that process. 

On the other band, Mr. Kim may have decid- 
ed that the economic opportunity of opening up 
was too pea: to pass up. With the North s 
economy in shambles — its gross national 
product has declined four years in a row — 
some believe he needs investment and opportu- 
nity more than he wants a nuclear bomb. 

Assuming the inspection takes place without 
problems, the United Stales then will begin 
uying to cajole the North into allowing special 
inspections and into implementing its deal with 
South Korea to denuclearize the Korean penin- 
sula. The United States has already said it 
would offer a “negative security assurance” of 
no first use of nuclear weapons. Bat it is still' 
unclear if the North would agree in return to an 
inspection so rigorous that it would crimp its 

See KOREA, Page 7 


Burmese Dissident Rejects 
Rangoon’s Offer of Exile 


General Ratko Mladic, a Serb 


stiffing muzzles and seeing if the weapons [have 
been fired recently,” a NATO officer said. “I 
don’t think anybody wants a situation where 
they call it control and a shot is fired.” 

that the ll?Thad stopped giving out infonna- 

Serbs had made aocessibl^tol^ffOTces. But 


the guns of all rides remain ed aleni in the 
longest effective cease-fire in the Bosnian capi- 
tal in many months. 

“Tbe object of the NATO ultimatum was not 
to bomb but to stop the siege of the civilian 
lation of Sarqevo,” a Goman official in 
said. NATO officials at the alliance’s 
See BOSNIA, Page 7 


By Philip Shenon 

New York Times Service 

RANGOON — Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, the 
Nobel Peace Prize winner and leader of the 
Burmese democracy movement who has beat 
under house arrest here for more than four 
years, has told visitors that while she was ready 
to negotiate with her jailers, she would never 
leave her homeland. 

“The concept of driving somebody out of 
their own country is totally unacceptable to 
me,” Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, 48, said in a 
calm, resolute voice that betrayed none of the 
suffering of her isolation. “They have tried to 
pressure me to leave the country in ways that no 
self-respecting government should try.” 

' Her prison has been her family home, a 
j umbling tateridu compound. The delegation 
that came to her door Monday, led by a U.S. 
congressman, was the fust group of visitors the 
government has allowed her to receive apart 
from her family and her doctors. 

She won the Nobel prize in 1991 for her 
nonviolent campaign to bring democracy to her 
homeland. 

“Whatever they do to me, that's between 


them and me; 1 can take it.” she told the 
delegation. “What's more important is what 
they are doing to the country.” 

She was allowed to speak with the visitors for 
three hours Monday under an agreement with 
the mili tary government. 

Her party, the National League for Democ- 
racy, won a landslide victory in the May 1990 
general election while she was detained. The 
military government refused to recognize the 
results and arrested most of the party's leaders 
under a law intended to protect the nation from 
toe “dangers from subversive dements.” She 
has never been on trial. 

The government, which evidently feels that 
her release could reignile the democracy move- 
ment, has insisted that she can go free if she 
leaves the country immediately, but she said 
Monday, “That is never going to happen.” 

{A senior junta official said Tuesday that 
Daw Aung San Suu Kyi would remain under 
house arrest until 1995, ending speculation she 
would soon be freed. Agence Fran ce-Pr esse 
reported from Rangoon.] 

At times Monday, she denounced the gener- 

See BURMA, Page 4 


Kiosk 


Last Reel: Viacom Gets Paramount 


giant Paramount Cotmntoncatwnstoa ow. 
fdeariy Tuesday mororag as Viacom Inc. 

“^n^^Wmmgiy favored Via- 


liated bid from QVG Network. Inc, which 
xims the Home Shbf^g Neiwotfe ' * 
Thenevcompany^h 
hfilkm. in debt and a market value of. about 
$25 biffion, which would make it one of 
America’s largest media 'oemceras. (Page.lJ) 


Book Rene w 


Page* Crossword 


For Russian Envoy to Finland, Old Habits Die Hard 


Andorra . 

Antilles... 

Cameroon 
Egypt..,- 
France... 
Gabon-.- 
Greece-.. 
ivory Coats 
Jordan...- 
Lebanon ... 


Mmiwartmid Prices 

,...9.00 FF LuxtfnbOuretf LFr 

...11.20 ff 

eTsSo 

...960CFA SpOh^--200 PTAS 
...JOODr. Tunisia 

xm cfa .Turkey lt. .M&™ 




' ' pmrioia dose 

-OH 1.7313. 

1.7245 

-Pound- - 1.4724: 

14855 

Yah - TOS^fS. . 

. lOZJtO 


SJSTZ: 


By Lee Hockstader 

W ash in g t on Pea Semin 

HELSINKI — Yuri Deryabin, the Russian ambassador in 
Finland, smiles warmly as he greets a visitor to his embassy’s 
ornate conference room. Cookies and coffee are offered, along 
frith email talk. Slim and avuncular, Mr. Deryabin seems soft- 
spoken, gracious, even deferential: 

So why are so many Finns furious with him? And why have a 
few zealots threatened to kiU hnn? 

The fmrnerifirte answer Tie*: in a strange dipiomatic-inddent 
that sti rred up Finnish news organizations last month. A 
confidential note from Mr. Deryabin to the Finnish Foreign 
Ministry was disclosed to the press, resulting in front-page 
headlines. Critics accused Mr. Deryabin of reriving Soviet- 
style rszerferec'ce in. Finnish politics. The outcry went on for 
.weds;. 

The passions surrounding the affair are rooted in the history 
of two neighbors separated by a 1.300- kilometer (800>mile) 
border, as well as cultural differences and mutual suspicions. 
.At-the core is the strange story of a bit player in the Cold War 
dmm^llteih^terioas u Mr. Komissarov.” 

. Mr. Deryabin, now 62, arrived in Helsinki as a diplomat in 


1 


1968, a 15-year veteran of the Soviet foreign service. With his 
straightforward manner and passable Finnish, English and 
Swedish, he soon developed a reputation as an intelligent and 

able professional 

At tbe lime. Russian-Fhmisb relations were a durable fixture 
of the Cold War. Defeated by the Soviet Union in World War 
II and nervous about the Kremlin's appetite for territory and 
influence, Finland's 5 mini on inhabitants could hardly afford 
the luxury of confronting their 250 million Soviet neighbors.^ 

Under a policy biown in the West as “Fmlandizalion," 
Helsinki kept quiet about Soviet policy and ten its distance 
from Western security and economic blocs, such as the North 
Atlantic Treaty Organization, But while Finland maintained 
official neutrality, it also set about developing one of the 
world’s most robust and smoothly working capitalist econo- 
mics. 

The downside was that from time w time Roland had to 
swallow its pride and kowtow to Moscow'. 

Mr. Deryabin arrived at the Soviet Embassy in 1968 deter- 
mined to maintain “Finlandizatioti" — and perhaps improve 
on it He was convinced that beyond the bland commumqufa 
of diplomacy, Finns should know how the Kremlin viewed 
events in Finland. 


He began to write books and scores of articles under the pen 
nam e “Yuri Komissarov." A few Finnish diplomats guessed 
that “Komissarov" might be Mr. Deryabin, but author’s iden- 
tity remained a mystery. Mr. Deryabin now acknowledges, a 
little sheepishly, that Komissarov is his wife's maiden name. 

In these writings, “Komissarov" gave Moscow’s line more 
frankly than any diplomat could. Tbe subtext was: Don’t step 
out of line, don't make friends with tbe West, don’t harbor any 
tilusions that you will ever slip from Moscow’s sphere of 
influence. 

Through the 1970s and early 1980s. during 10 years in 
Helsinki. Mr. Deryabin cranked out the “Komissarov” arti- 
cles. After Mikhail S. Gorbachev came to power in 1985. Mr. 
Deryabin was recalled to Moscow. 

After the collapse of tbe Soviet Union in 1991, Mr. Deryabin 
returned to Finland in 1992, this time as Russia’s ambassador. 
He got a chilly reception. His identity now known, Mr. 
Deryabin’s appointment was greeted by many Finns as the 
return of “Komissarov," 

Mindful of his hosts' worries, the ambassador launched a 
diplomatic offensive. He went to church. He kissed icons. He 

See NEIGHBORS, Page 7 


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{ Poetry or Prozac? Blues Therapy Turns a Page 


By Barry James 

fniemeriowl Herald Tribune 

If along the cool sequestered vale of life you wish to dwell, 
take up poetry and let the Prozac go to helL . . . 

The suggestion that Gray’s Elegy can do you more good 
than the little green-and-cream capsule comes from a doctor 
at Bristol University in England. 

In a forthcoming study, Dl Robin Philipp, the universi- 
ty’s senior lecturer in public health and social medicine, says 
that reading or writing a few lines of poetry can dispense 
with the need for tranquilizers and anti-depressants in many 
patients. 

Dr. Philipp, a poet himself, was not around Tuesday to 
defend his thesis. He was traveling in New Zealand, leaving 
his research findings locked in a closet, a university spokes- 
man said. 

But colleagues said Dr. Philipp likes to prescribe Words- 
worth ("Ne’er saw I, never felt, a calm so deep!”) or Keats 
f "Poesy . . . should be a friend to soothe the cares, and lift the 
thoughts of man") and Browning ("God's in his heaven — 
All’s right with the world”). 

That poetry can systematically have a beneficial effect on 
depressed patients “hasn’t been proved. I’m sure,” said Dr. 
Steven Hirsch, professor of history at the University of 


London and an expert in community and social psychiatry. 
“Bui there are many things in life that can soothe people." 


e peopii 

“There is, of course, the art and music therapies, which are 
used in psychiatry ” be said. “Both music and art are used to 
encourage communication, as a medium for the patients’ 
self-expression and as a way of accessing common experi- 


ence." Although ne acknowledged that poetry might have a 
role in treating depression, Dr. Hirsch said. "I wouldn't 
necessarily advise people to stop their anti-depressants and 
read Wordsworth." 

It has always been known that poetry can have a powerful 
and mysterious effect on the mind. Plato wanted to ban it 
from his Republic because of its power to move people. A 
17th-century essayist said that it was no wonder that such 
force should be found in poetry, “since in it are assembled all 
the powers of Eloquence, of Mustek, and of Picture, which 
are all allowed to make so strong Impressions upon humane 
minds." 

Alexander Macara, chairman of the governing council of 
the British Medical Association, said the idea that poetry 
might replace Prozac was potentially bad news for the 
pharmaceutical industry, but made a lot of sense for pa- 
tients. 

“I would have thought poetry is infinitely superior to any 
tablets," he said “Just like music, it is therapeutic." 

If there is any solid basts to the Bristol study, the cash- 
strapped National Health Service may well soon be encour- 
aging physicians to prescribe Wordsworth rather than fluox- 
etine hydrochloride, which is Prozac by its scientific name. 
Only this week, the Association of the British Pharmaceuti- 
cal Industry complained that the NHS prevents doctms 
from prescribing some modem drugs because they are too 
expensive. 

Although the government denies this is so, the NHS is 
making economies wherever it can. Anti-depressant drugs 


and tranquilizers alone cost the taxpayer more than £80 
million each year. 

The Reverend John Navone, a Jesuit professor at the 
Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome, who has just 
written a book about beauty, said the idea that poetry can be 
pgwj to treat depression end anxiety is an extension of the 
principle that any kind of beauty- is gpod for you. 

“Beauty is always enjoyable,” he said. "Whenever you are 
enjoying something, it's a dimension of beauty that is im- 
pacting cm you, whether it is scenery, music or poetry. Once 
you lose your capacity for beauty, you lose your capacity for 
enjoyment.” 

Does anti-depressant verse necessarily have to be optimis- 
tic or tranquil? Possibly not, if Murid Spark’s observation 
about the effect of weather on depression holds good to 
poetry as wed She noted that fine weather “lays a heavier 
wdghl on the mind and hearts of the depressed and the 
inwardly tormented" than a really bad day. And Robert 
Frost once said that poetry should not be an escape, but “a 
way of taking life by the throat." 

Asked if he could recommend any poets to combat mild 
depression, Father Navone also mentioned Browning and 
Keats, but added a fellow Jesuit, Gerard Manley Hopkins 
(“And I have asked to be/ Where no storms corned Where 
the green swell is in the havens dumb,/ And out of the swing 
of the sea"). 

But what about the poets themselves? Was poetry enough 
for them? To judge from three examples, it was not enough 
for Baudelaire (opium and hashish), Coleridge (opium) or 
Poe (alcohol). 


House onFire ? 
First, Buy Gas 
For Firemen 


Tfir Associated Pros 

TBILISI, Georgia —If yonr 
bouse is on fire in the former 
Soviet republic of Georgia, 
run out and buy some gaso- 
line. 

Motor fuel is so scarce m the 
war-ravaged country that fire 
trucks in TbilisL the Georgian 
capital, will not leave thdr sta- 
tions unless someone brings 
them enough gasoline to get to 
the fire and back again. 

“We jaa don’t have enough 
gasoline to put out fires," Foe 
Chief lumber Surmava 'ex- 
plained Tuesday. 

In the post week, four build- 
ings — anigb school, an apart- 
ment budding and two nood- 
en houses — have burned oat 
of control because the fire de- 
partment was unable to reach 
them, said a spokssmanf or the 
Interior Ministry, 


4 Neo-Naas Get Suspended Terms 

POTSDAM, Germany (AR—Four neo-Nazi ^ntes^^raavict-- 
ed of beating up four patrons at a bar in September 1991. ana given 

. ^ 24, were among 20 militants ujo aradtod; 

'Tffimm and 5 mn*H at a bar in Wolzig. south of Berlin: 

Theconrt found toe four anhy of disturbing ttepeac^p™ 
causing boiffiyiiyiiry. Theor suspended sentences ranged from 15 months 

-to two years, ... ‘ -ill - -j 

T tun n tjwr cHnhaids -were acquitted because of insufficient evidence. 

.AD those charged ’either denied mvoNemfint or declined to comment 
riming thi> irijiU . mal of 15 other skinheads charged ux die attack is 
scheduled for the end of themontiL 



EgrotianPoUceinanSlaLtt^m Attack 

/.m /aj— n TnwwlgV TTl tilt 


CAIRO (AF) — Gunmen inhcri a policeman Tuesday in the mffiunt 
stronghold of A^yui, and the government warned o f kgalKUbn over 
whafrt e rmsidera overblown news repents of extremist attacks: 

‘The Interior Ministry urges foreign news agency repartees and Wesr- 
em correspaidcais in Egypt to observe preaskra ana objectivity, a- 
statement said. It wamedoflegal measures Much arc no less, if not more. 

HanpyrT H i c than the ^rrnwn«l vtj carried out by the tenonsts arm aimed 

ai hotting Egypt and harming it” , . - - 

In the ytfr** Tuesday, unidentified gunmen killed a police lie ute n ant . 
and wounded an aide, the police said. It was . not certain the attackers 
_ i . nMuaiafVki cKrrf nnKrP fn Anmf ‘ 


were militan ts, but the extremists have repeatedly shot police in Asynt, 
“ ‘ south of Cairo. The assaflants escaped on foot,. 


320 kilometers , _ 

said police officials, 


anonymously. 


Yeltsin Demands Bosnia Voice 

As Major Arrives, Russia Insists on a Role 


By Margaret Shapiro 

Washington Post Service 

MOSCOW — With (be dock 
ticking on a NATO ultimatum for 
Bosnian Serb forces to end their 
siege of Sanyevo, President Boris 
N. Yeltsin bluntly warned the West 
on Tuesday against trying to solve 
the conflict in Bosnia without Rus- 
sia. 

“Some people are trying to re- 
solve the Bosnian question without 
the participation of Russia," said 
Mr. Yeltsin. “I want to emphasize 
that it will not succeed. We will not 
allow this. " 

Mr. Yeltsin’s warning, issued af- 
ter the start of a two-day meeting 
with Prune Minister John Major of 
Britain, reflected concern here that 
NATO win make good on its threat 
to bomb Bosnian Serbian positions 
unless the Serbs give up their heavy 
weapons or withdraw them beyond 
a 20- kilometer radius of Sarajevo 
by Feb. 21. 

Mr. Yeltsin, looking weary be- 
cause of what aides said was a 
weeklong bout with the flu, said 
Rnssrn was willing to “actively par- 
ticipate in negotiations so that the 
war in Yugoslavia can be brought 
to an end by peaceful means.” He 
left the door open for a possible 


military response by NATO in the 
event of an attack on UN forces. 

“If there is an attack on UN 
forces,” be said, “it must be pun- 
ished." 

British diplomats involved with 
the Yeltsin-Major meeting said 
Tuesday evening that the Russians 
seemed irritated at not having been 
consulted in advance about the 
NATO ultimatum. The diplomats 
also said that the Russians ap- 
peared to be undecided as to how 
to respond to any NATO bom- 
bardment of the Bosnian Serbs. 

The Russians have strong histor- 
ic, ethnic and religious ties to the 
Serbs and have tended to see them 
as the injured party in the conflict. 
Russian leaders across the political 
spectrum have denounced the 
NATO ultimatum and have 
warned that the use of force against 
the Serbs would damage the dose 
diplomatic relationship that Russia 
and the West have buQt up since 
the collapse of the Soviet Union 
two years ago. 

Ultranatioualist forces, whose 
successes in the December parlia- 
mentary election were based in part 
on an aggressively anti-West out- 
look, have been leading the drum- 
beat on the issue, providing Mr. 


Yeltsin with little room to political 
maneuvering. 

Vladimir V. Zhirinovksy, the ul- 
tranadonalisl leader who, during a 
recent trip to Bosnia, promised the 
Serbs that Russia would back 
them, has said be will recruit Rus- 
sian fighters to send to Sarajevo if 
NATO presses forward with its ul- 
timatum. 

Mr. Mayor sought to reassure the 
Russians that the West was eager to 
have Russia’s participation in deal- 
ing with the Bosnia conflict 

“We very much want Russia to 
use its political influence towards a 
settlement" Mr. Major said at the 
Kremlin. The United States and 
Europe, he said, “certainly want 
Russia involved in that" 


He said that the Serbs appeared 
to be responding to the ultimatum 
by turning in weapons and that it 
was possible that NATO air strikes 
would not be needed. 

“Everyone hopes it won’t be nec- 
essary and that there will be no 
need for military action, but we 
cannot yet be certain of that," be 
said. “Heavy weapons are increas- 


ingly under control. We hope that 
r the i 


is going to continue over 
few days." 


□ext 


Yeltsin, Ailing, Delays Parliament Speech 


Roam 

MOSCOW — President Boris N. Yeltsin is still 
feeling the effects of a cold and has deckled to 
postpone his state of the nation address to the 
Russian parliament, which was scheduled for Fri- 
day, an aide said Tuesday. 

Mr. Yeltsin's administration chief, Sergei Fila- 
tov, said the president’s speech was postponed 
until Feb. 24. “The president still feels unwell," he 
said. 

Mr. Yeltsin met Prime Minister John Major of 


Britain for talks in the Kremlin on Tuesday. It was 
his first public appearance since he retired to his 
country house to work last week with a cold. The 
president appeared tired as be stood with Mr. 
Major at a Kremlin press conference. 

The speech will be watched closely at home and 
abroad for indications of Mr. Yeltsin’s future eco- 
nomic and political course following victories by 
nationalists and communists at December elec- 
tions and a subsequent reshuffling of his govern- 
ment. 



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Matlpi HqtOTrtbc Amenta! rtm 

IN THE STEPPES OF LONDON — Members of die Household Csraby crunching tfaoqgh 
the snow Tuesday after another storm blanketed London and swept across Etrope. Eight people 
froze to death on Bucharest streets as blizzards and icy Siberian winds blasted die Continent A 
woman buried for two days In a Scottish mountain snowdrift was dug out alive Tuesday. 


Ivory Coast Mourner Feeds 



The Associated Pm* 

ABIDJAN, Ivory Coast — A man upset with the dealt i of 
President FSix Hmipboti2t-Boigny jumped into the rnters palace 
mcfflit, drawing huge crowds who spent two days wa t c hing h im bang 
devoured by crocodiles. 


The fi<»H young man, believed to be in Ins' mid-20s,-had 

kers mat he could no longer bear to live without 


flnnnmwWI tn fwi look ers l 


Mr. Houphouftt-Bosgny, who ruled this nation for 33 years until his 
death Dec. 7. . 

“If Houphau« is dead I don’t see wby I should go on bving, die 

man toW the people outskte the presidential palace m the centm city 

of Yamoussoukro, accor din g to the government newspaper Ivoir 
'Soir. ■ , 

Onlookers talked the man out of jumping mto the moat, but later 
Friday he stripped off his dothes, entered me water and swam up to 
a large crocoafie, whkJi grasped him in its jaws and dragged him 
under the water. 


the following Saturday/drawing crowds who watched it occ asionall y 
dragged down by a new set of crocodile jaws. 

■ Trabodyrtsurtaced to a final time Saturday aftemoon, wbere it 

was set rqxm.by a large number of reptiles and tom to pieces; the 
newspaper said. 


Leaders Urge End to French Strike 

LE GUILYINEC, France (Reuters) — Ladas of a fishermen's 
protest movement hr northern France called Tuesday for an end toa two- 
week strike staged to demand g overn me nt protection horn cheap im- 
ports. 

hi the sooth of tite country, fishermen blocked four Mediterranean 


of Macseillfi the oil port of Fos-sur-Mcr and the 
' Port-Saim-LooB and POrMe-Boua 
In Srittany; several handredflshexmea hdd a tense meeting in the pot 
of Le Guimaec to decide whether to halt the strike. Leaders cf die 
fishermen’s Survival Committee argued that it should be called off. The 
meeting brake np without a vote. 


UN Official Wams on KaW Famine 


ISLAMABAD, Pakistan (Reuters) A United Nations official said, 
Tuesday that.KaboTcoald face famme if warring factions do not allow, 
safe passage of food to die AfghazvcapilaFs avinan popu lation . 

Sotirios Moosouris, the UN sccretary-general’s peisonal representative 
an Afghanistan, tdd a news confiaeoce he sougut guarantees for food 
supplies tint woe ready to be sent to Kabul from the eastern Afghan 
town of Jalalabad- •, 

He said he sent a menage to Prime Minister Gulbuddm Hekmatyar, 
whoseforces are trying tot^fde President Burhanuddm Rabbani, asking 
him to guarantee sa^passa^ of relief supplies to Kabul 


Ethnic Tensions Threaten Kazakhstan’s High - Wire Stability 


TRAVEL UPDATE 


By Fred Hiatt 

Washington Post Service 
ALMA-ATA, Kazakhstan — 
Raisa Kosyaninko was boro in this 
mountain-ringed city 31 yean ago, 
and here she hopes to live out her 
days when she retires as a secre- 


tary- typist. 
eL Mrs. 


YeL Mis. Kosyamnko, an ethnic 
Russian who married an ethnic 
Ukrainian, feds very much at sea in 
what has become in many ways an 
ethnic Kazakh state. Like many of 
the other non-Kazakhs who form a 
majority in this new country, she 
worries that opportunities for her 
children and grandchildren will be 
shakily constrained. 

“If "\ were younger, Td leave 
now." Mrs. Kosyaninko said. “But 
1 have nowhere to go, and it’s hard 
to start all over a gain at my age." 

Kazakhstan, whose president. 
Nursultan A. Nazarbayev, met 
with President Bill Clinton in 
Washington on Monday, is often 
presented as a framer Soviet repub- 


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lie wi to a brighter future than most 

Straddling Europe and Asia, 
with huge oQ and mineral reserves 
beneath its million square mDes of 
territory, Kazakhstan has been an 
island of stability in the past two 
years, steeringa course between the 
authoritarianism of some Central 
Asian neighbors to toe south and 
the freewheeling disarray of Russia 
to toe north. The largest former 
Soviet republic after Russia, it has 
eagerly sought Western advice and 
investment, and Mr. Nazarbayev 
was looking to more this week. 

But in this snowbound capital it 
is easy to see that toe stability has 
fragile underpinnings. Kazakh- 
stan’s economy is in a taUspin. Fuel 
is scarce, miners and farmers have 
not been paid, factories are idle, 
and many apartment dwellers are 
without beat or hot water. Relative- 
ly underdeveloped, Kazakhstan re- 
mains vulnerably dependent on 
Russia. Elections for toe country’s 
first parliament are scheduled for 
March 7, and there are concerns 
about how democratic they will be. 

And with nationalists in Russia 
focusing attention on Russian- 


speakers beyond their borders, 
many here say they fear strife be- 
tween Kazakhs and Russians could 
wipe out this young nation’s hopes. 

“There’s just no question that 
ethnic tensions have been increas- 
ing.” said John Ritchotte. field rep- 
resentative here for the National 
Democratic Institute. “You bear a 
lot of people talking about the pos- 
sibility of civil war.” 

Kazakhstan’s government and 
semiofficial press hammer away at 
the need for tolerance and under- 
standing. A front-page headline de- 
clared recently in Kazakhstanskaya 
Pravda: “Interethnic Concord 
Among the Peoples of Kazakhstan 
Is More Important Than Any- 
thing;" 

But the ethnic question will not 
be easily solved because both sides 
now view themselves as victims: 
the Kazakhs, of centuries of Rus- 
sian and Soviet colonialism; and 
the Russians, of unaccustomed Ka- 
zakh assertiveness. 

With both sides on the lookout 
for slights and wrongs, the nation- 
ality issue colors virtually every 
choice that this nation faces, from 


bow to privatize the economy to 
what language to speak in parlia- 
ment to whose history to teach in 
schools. 

Moreover, the internal tensions 
are inseparable from Kazakhstan’s 
rocky efforts to establish mutually 
respectful relations with Russia. 
Russian readers, from President Bo- 
ris N. Yeltsin down, have claimed a 
status of “firs: among equat" in the 
former Soviet Union and a right to 
represent the 25 mflSon Rusrian- 
speakos “stranded" outside Russia 
when toe union collapsed. 


Kazakhstan says it can look after 
the interests of ethnic Rusrians 
within its borders. Ftihtidaas here 
argue that as long as Rusria pro- 


motes separatist sentiment among 
Russians near the two states’ long 
common border, suspicion of Ka- 
zakhstan Russians* loyalty can only 
increase. 

Mr. Nazarbayev, who speaks 
constantly of a need for ethnic 
peace, knows that his nation’s fu- 
ture depends on its ability to keep 
such tensions from boiling over. 

Yet, a recent U.S. State Depart- 
ment report on human rights dted 
“increasing discrimination in favor 
of ethnic Kazakhs in government 
and state-controlled enterprises." 
with similar trends in education, 
boosing and other areas. Ethnic 
Kazakhs, whose Asian features dis- 
tinguish them from toe Slavic Rus- 


sians, increasingly d ominate offi- 
cial positions. 

The campaign for the March 7 
elections has been marked by less 
anger, less extremism and, some 
critics charge, a bit less democracy 
than Russia’s recent election. 

While Kazakhstan’s political 
system is far more open man Uz- 
bekistan’s or Tnrxmenistan’s, 
where framer Communist bosses 
keep a lid cm dissent, it is undav 
stood that direct criticism of Mr. 
Nazarbayev is not acceptable. And 
toe president, through his appoint- 
ment of county executives and his 
leadership of the mam political 
party, has so far steered the oountty 
in the directions he chooses. 


EU Urges Stricter Beach Hygiene • 

BRUSSELS (Reuters) — Renewal of strict hygiene standards to’ 
beadies is scheduled to be proposed Wednesday by toe European Unto, 
demte a campaign by toe British government to weaken dean-walef 
legislation. 

Xondonhas bem poshing to toe abatition or easing of toe mandatory 
EUpunty standards for swimming and drinking water. . 

The European Court of Justice in July condemned the Bririifli gnw>m- 
ment for faffing to dean up Blackpool and Sotittoort beach® in linewito 
the EU noons. ■ 


Germany declared stretches of the fomer Iron Cvtim off -turrits to 
jutes and others after toe discover of leftover Cdd^ War land mines, toe' 
Defense Ministry said Tuesday in Bonn. Many of the danger areas are in 
nature reserves set up aft® Germany reunited in 1990. (Reuters} 



There were 5.76 ajffiaB ftrecgB tatxSsts m Thaffirnd last year, a 12 
percent increase over 1992, tourism nffinwk said. (AJpf 


Aristide Balks as U.S. 


in ask the butler... 




S-l-H>G>A>P> 0 *S‘£ 


Win rifmi » avjfUrg ytw went i* »» *« 


By John M. Goshko 

Waskxpvn Post Service 

WASHINGTON — The Gin ton 
administration and Haiti's deposed 
president, toe Reverend Jean- Ber- 
trand .Aristide, have come to the 
brink of open confrontation, with 
Father Aristide balking at a U.S.- 
backed plan for restoring Haitian 
democracy and insisting instead 
that the United Nations impose 
tough new sanctions against Haiti's 
m3: tar.- rmers. 

The dash surfaced over the 



weekend when a group of Haitian 
political leaders, encouraged by 
UB. officials, tried to present Fa- 
ther Aristide with a new formula 
to appointing a civilian govern- 
ment that would seek to induce 
Haiti's military chief. Lieutenant 
General Raoul Cedras, and other 
commanders to surrender power. 

The plan got an icy reception 
from Father Aristide, who was de- 
posed September 1991. He refused 
to meet or take phone calls from 
the Haitian politicians or other 


backers of toe plan such as toe 
UN’s special envoy for Haiti, Dan- 
te Caputo. the special UJS. negotia- 
tor working with Mr. Capulo, Law- 
rence Femdlo, and toe Canadian 
external affairs mmuner. Audit 
OueDet. 

The reaction by Father Aristide 
prompted new critidsm from U.S. 
officials, who have been angry with 
him since his denouncement last 
week of President Bill Clinton’s 
policy of forcibly repatriating Hai- 
tian refugees caught at sea. Mr. 


Caputo indicated at. the United 
Nations that he was angered by 
Father Aristide’s refusal to accept 
his calls. . 

The plan is . a variation of an 
agreement betwem Father Aristide 
and the Haitian twfitaiy naefaed in 

July on Governor's Island in New 
York City. That accord was abort- 
ed when G eneral CAfray reneged 
on a promise to step aside: * *■ 

The latest propoialcalls to Fa-, 
toer Aristide, to appoint a civilian 
prime mutisto 1 who would tom a 


broadly based gov e rn ment with 
sufficient support in toe Haitian 
par li a m ent to approve an amnesty 
law for toe mffitazy. 

Since the collapse of the Gover- 
nors Island ag r eemen t. Father 
Aristide and his supporters have 
argued that the’ Haitian ’ armed 
toces will continue to defy the in- ’ 
ternational community unless the 
UN embargo on oil is broadened to* 
include an other ' shipments Into ■- 
Haiti except food, and humaiKtar- ' 
ian supplies. ; 


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# POLITICAL NOTES* 


WASHINGTON — Supporters of a balanced^bucteet ccsistiai- 
£gbed^ ft wou,d rad tfae^wnroenial 

™*? *?«>* 

• " ' t ^° 00 c should differ with the phik^sophy pf pay-as-you-go 

that must be baited, said SeaaiOT Paul Simon, Democrat of minras, 
the chief Sponsor of the' amen dmen t; : / 7f • -. . 

0 ^P°«; bekw in the same Semite office' &MM; Senator 
■'Kooertt. Byrd, Democrat of West VugmiB, the amendment's most 
voaferous opponent, -heard a string of Clinton atfaninistfation wit- 
nesses cmjcaJ.of the plan. .. 

• **We cannot merely wish away deficits through incantations, 7 * Mr. 
Byrd-said. “They cannot be wined away any more-than we can will 
aw ^J» v crty,w c rin» or pcCbnioa.’’ v ■ 

The White House budget (firector, Leon E, Panetta, icild Mr. Byrd 
tg amendment would not reduce the- deficit bur would leave the 
dJHicuKchcw^rrfspeadi^ ihcreases-foir later. ' 

It would instead degrade the Constitution and ihb political 
process and shake the public trust in govenunent,” Mr. Patiitta Said. 
“And it would provide shelter to Uwsewhoseek to aybid making 
tough bodge* derisions, allowing them to pretend tbeyhad balanced 
. budget when in fact they had donenwhibg." ^ (AP) 

For Employers, Health Costs Arc Soaring 


care was $3,781 

f^^ocontrd 
■ them and their 


The growth in medical mending by em^oyers is easing, but their , 
costs are still rising ranch faster than tbc 3 percent general inflation 
rate, according to aotitioxial survey released Monday. v f . 

The survey showed that the avenge annual cost create was $3,781 
anempfoyee last year, an increase of S percent, comparedwith 10.1 
percent in 1992 and ending a Bve-year string of douglcrdigit growth. 

Corporate benefits managers sard that is spile of efforts to control 
costs, health care continued to te a big prc^lem fOT them and their 
employees. - - • 

“We still have a crisis, ”said Margaret Iordan, a vicejjresidcnt for 
health care and employee services at SoDthern Cafifornia Edison, a 
unit of SCE Coip. “Oasts that are almost three jimes the rate, of 
inflation are out affine.” -• • (NTT) 

Hipping • CBnton Personality Cjjj| tntlf Bud 

WASHINGTON — 1 White House steers did a double take 
Monday at what they saw in a- secretary's office Tiextto the Oval 
Office. There was a new’ rug on the floor with a Hk£ness of Bill and 
Hfllaiy Clinton. ' ‘ . 7 ; 

Theragamved aspah trfacoDectionbf pftsfntoNinsdtan A. 
Nazarbayev, the visiting president of the former Soviet republic of 
Kazakhstan. 

The rug was made of wool in tones of brown, black. whilc and red. 
Staffers argued over whether it was tL good Harness. Tfow many 
portraits have you seep on carpets?" asked one staffer who liked it. 


The White House press secretary. Dee Dee Mye& said she was 
not sure where the rug would go. ‘it’s not going to stay there,” she 
-said. Some people thought h might endup in the residence; others 
thought it was destined fora warehouse. 


s not going to stay there,” die 
ndup in the residence; others 
use. (AP) 


Pennsylvania Abortion Law Tafcea Effect. . 

PHILADELPHIA — After a five-year court battle, the Pennsyl- 
vania law that requires women to wait 24 boon before -having an 
abortion went into effect Tuesday after U.S. Judge Daniel H. Huyett 
3d Mfted an injunction against the liw, respondrog tonn order from 
the 3d U.S. C&cmt Court of Appeals. 

The law also requires girls nnaer 18 years of age to get penmsskm 
from a parart or judge and all women to karri about fetal develop- 
ment and alternatives to abortion before undergoing the procedure. 

law took effect ‘ (AP) . 


Oifcta/lIniqiM^ T ■ 

■*7 " ** ■. 'i* . ' ! • • — - 1 . . : • » — . . - . . , . 

Adnural Frank B.Kdso 2d, chief of navil operations. announcing 
his early retirement: *T became the Sghlnin&rod f or Tatilboofc” (AP) 


^-Ult 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 16, 1994 




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In ToUhook’s Slipstream, Navy’s Top Admiral Retires 


■ Complied by Our Staff fnpm Dispachet 

WASHINGTON — Admiral Frank Kelso 2d, the 
U.S. Navy's highest ranking officer, said Tuesday be 
had requested early retirement so that the navy “can 
finally close this difficult chapter” of the Tailbook sex 
abusescandaL 

At a news conference in his Pentagon office. Admi- 
ral Kelso said he would retire April 30. two months 
earlier than scheduled, because he believed that the 
issues associated with Tailbook were resolved and that 
Pentagon leaders had backed his integrity and 
honesty. 

Speaking in a room filled with reporters and televi- 
sion cameras, the admiral said: “As the chief of naval 
operations, I had a responsibility to lead the navy 
tn rongh the process of changing the climate which 
allowed this incident to occur. Having done so it is my 
intention to submit ray request for reciremem as of 30 
April 1994” 

Admiral Kelso said be took the step on his own and 


had not been asked to resign by Defense Secretary 
William J. Perry and Secretary of the Navy John H. 
Dalton. 

“1 became the lightning rod for Tailhook," Admiral 
Kelso said. 

The announcement came a day after the four-star 
admiral opened a public campaign to rebut a navy 
judge's finding last week that Admiral Kelso had 
known about sexual misdeeds at the 1991 Tailhook 
aviators' convention and had interfered with the inves- 
tigation of the scandal. 

Pentagon officials, speaking on condition of ano- 
nymity, said a likely replacement as chief of naval 
operations would be Admiral Jeremy M. Boorda. the 
North Atlantic Treaty Organization’s southern flank 
commande. who is now in charge of the alliance's 
preparations for a possible bombing campaign in 
Yugoslavia. .Also frequently mentioned is Charles R. 
Larson, commander of the Pacific command. 

In a statement issued at the Pentagon. Defense 


Secretary Perry said. “I regard Admiral Kelso as a 
man of the highest integrity and honor” Mr. Perry said 
the Defense Department's inspector-general “found 
no credible evidence" that Admiral Kelso had specific 
know ledge of the sexual misconduct at the 1991 avia- 
tors', convention and found “no evidence” that he had 
sought to thwart the investigation. 

Navy Secretary Dalton also issued a statement, 
saying. “I have never questioned the personal integrity 
and honor of Frank xelso.” It is "imponan! that we 
put the bitterness of Tailhook behind us. H Mr. Dalton 
said. “The time for healing is now.” 

Admiral Kelso’s retirement was prompted by a 
judicial decision issued last week in Norfolx. Virginia, 
by a navy judge who faulted Admiral Kelso for inter- 
fering in the investigation and contended the admiral 
had witnessed untoward conduct at the Tailhook 
convention. 

The convention of the Tailhook Association, a 
booster organization of U.S. Navy and Marine Corps 


aviators, produced a scandal when dozens of women, 
including female officers, alleged they were molested 
during a night of drunken debauchery in a Las Vegas 
hotel hallway. 

Admiral Kelso authorized the navy on Monday to 
release written statements by colleagues and support- 
ers disputing the judge's findings. 

The documents appear to have been hastily assem- 
bled last Thursday and Friday following a Feb. 8 
assertion by the navy judge. Captain William T. Vest 
Jr., accusing Admiral Kelso of covering up his knowl- 
edge of the misconduct at the Tailhook convention. 

Included is a memo dated last Friday from the 
senior Tailhook investigator saving that Captain Vest 
failed to back up his charges. 

Earlier, the independent Navy Times newspaper 
called on Admiral Kelso to resign, saying: “The bot- 
tom line in the case is an issue of responsibility and 
accountability. And on that front. Admiral Kelso has 
no defense." (AP.WP) 


Los Angeles, Hard-Hit by Quake, Drops Bid for ’96 Political Conventions 


. By James Rainey 

.... •„ ior Angela Tima Service 

LOS ANGELES — Los Angles will drop its 
campaign to play host to the 1996 Democratic and 
Republican national conventions because the city 
cannot afford to stage them in the wake of Iasi 
month’s earthquake, Mayor Richard Riordan an- 
nounced. 

Mayor Riordan said he was disappointed but that 
be had to terminate the city’s bids because of the 


substantial public investment that is required. 

A committee lobbying for the Democratic con- 
clave in 1996 had estimated it would cost at least 
S2Z5 million to cooven the Los Angeles Convention 
Center into an arena and to provide bousing and 
office space. 

The city has not yet calculated the cost of holding 
the Republican convention, but even pre limin ary 
estimates made either event too expensive for a city 
that faces a $150 million deficit, and the potential 


loss of more than S66 million in tax revenue from 
businesses damaged in the Jan. 17 earthquake. 

“Given our fiscal priority for the recovery of all of 
Los Angeles and for making our city safe, we cannot 
guarantee millions of public dollars” for the conven- 
tions. Mr. Riordan said Monday. 

Both the mayor and other civic boosters had said 
that hosting one, or both, of the conventions would 
be a psychological boost for a city riven in the Iasi 
two years by recession, fires and earthquakes. 


Los Angeles had been considered a front-runner 
for the Democratic Convention. 

The deadline for bids for the Democratic conclave 
is at the end of this month. A White House aide said 
Chicago was now a favorite, although New Orleans. 
San Antonio. Texas, Kansas City and New York 
were also contenders. 

The deadline for the Republican convention bids 
is not until April and the competition is said to be 
more wide open. 


If you can’t make it to the end of 

the test, your company may not 
make it to the end of the decade. 


Some Doctors Accused 




t , 


By Elisabeth Rosenthal 

New York TSmes Service '- 

NEW YORK — A small but 
growing number of doctors, angry 
with the federal limits on what they 
can charge for treating dderiy pa- 
tients, are finding ways to 
around the Medicare rates by hav- 
ing patients pay extra fees, doctors, 
patients and officials said. 

The practice, which usually in- 
Yoives aoctors’ asking their eldedy 
patients to sign contracts that re- 
sult in added oul-erf-pocket pay- 

a^CTOKnt and from Advocates 
for the dderiy. And Medicare offi- 
cials have written to some doctors 
warning them that taking excess 
payment under contract leaves 
tVtn open to prosecution, fines 
and sanctions. 

Some of thcse contracts stipulate 
that the patient will forgo Medicare 
coverage for a particular visit and 
pay out of pocket a fee set by the 
doctor. Others, hold the patient fi- 
nanciafly responsible for future ser- 
vices that Medicare deans unnec- 
essary and refuses to cover. Sou 
others require patients to pay sepa- 
rately for services, such as phone 
consultations, that Medicare con- 
siders part of the standard fee for 
office visits. 

Doctors said that u a time when 
Medicare was covering fewer ser- 
vices and when reimbursement 
rates often ran only 75 percent or 


fcss'of their standard charges, pri- 
vate-arrangements were the only 
wot, they could afford to treat the 
ehkriy. The-y note that other doc- 
tors have dealt with the issue by 
refusing to see Medicare patients 
entirely. . > . ’ 

Sit some advocates far the el- 
derly said the contracts and waivers 
were a thinly veiled scheme lo get 
mote money for dobtors and to 
strong-arm vulnerable .dderiy pa- 
tients.'They said that virtually all of 
these contracts skirted the intent of 
the Medicare law, and that others 
- were blatantly iUegaL 
\ Medicare, the federal insurance 
program (or those over 65, prohib- 
its doctors from - charging more 
than. 15 percent above its estab- 
lished- rales and requires them to 
file Medicare claims for services jq 
patients covered by the pre gram. 


To Allow 7 to ExiiigraXe ' 

Agertee Frtnic-Fresse ~ 

; BRUSSELS' — Belgium has 
'asked Ctiba to allow seven Cubans 
who have taken refuge in the Bet- 


dan ambassadors: Havana resi- 
dence to emigrate, the Belgian For- 
eign Ministry shid Tuesday. 

: 7 Rye ixxn. two women- and a 
child, 2, wenvto The ambassador’s 
reskience on^Jan.l26 to ask for 
asylum. One person, later left vol- 
□t tartly, tbestataneut said. 


Away From Politics 


^ .‘■r. 


• A novel iuHnnne therapy has cased a viral hdecticnis 

-mice, and a scientific report issued m W akfaitigtim says it holds great 
promise for treating tta B^ conimregse o^o^iwiiui.m 

or RSV, causes: an estimated otetifljwn^ deaths 
ayLrwildwide, principally m dcvtiojnngeommies, - .... 

• A Honda man who appar^ «o«d from 

trik was found crusted to death in alandfifl, apparently kffled by 
Sr/mck’s compactor. Authorities identified the dead man. Anasta- 
tic SmXof Miami, through hfe Hguefoa 

had been serving a life sentence A , the Iramokafee prison for 
attempted kidnaping- ' 

• A wwa» shot and kflfed in front, of te* boot wra scheduled jo 

after leaving , b* home to md 

SS Murohv witnessed the Nw. launder of T?®} 5 Johnson, and 
!£c was scheduled to testify agamst Nathaniel baw^^ the 

accused kflte'- . . _ . . x - ! 

m X Lmmsbs drifter sarpeb^ a eowtawraTuef^ agreong to 
mrer a SZliltY pl£2 iA tte t fl Ur OCTS Of ttVG Flonufi-CCHCgfi StUCStt ill 

Son ‘‘tom are some things yotiT^r from,-x^is bemg one- 

ifriww.” Danny H- Rdhng told Oxcuit Judge Stan R. Morris; in 
Florida. Mr* Rolling. 39, already is serving three life 
siring of burgl^and^bcrtt&:H e wstabom logocn 
Sin the 1990 slayings of the student! . '.VTt.ap 




This test poses tough questions about 
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an information flow which leads to bottom- 
.line results. As customer service rises to a 

^ V^>. n-.r- 

«ap«»isiye^0 M ‘ ■ 

t -j.'-tifiiQiJrtivatW to Gpisi ' £'• y^mtomerae aif W 

wffldniKap»tHirtie5w V 


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How to begin? The perfect starting place is 
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ARE YOU CUSTOMERIZED? 


1. Do yoa taseaCSSaT cosUKnens aayoa warn? 

O Yfes ONo 

Ca» a bonum line be a» boAhy? Of coarse 
oai. And adcher can s growiiHoneawd company 
haw Ux» mwjycmnomerv They "re the engine thai 
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4.JD0 yoni^Iy know what j«wr cBstoraerswant? 

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5. Does joar entire organfafafion kaow whar yonr 
cqstnmere mat? 

OYes DNo • 

A customer orientation has limited value unless 
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afl kvels, and *1 es-ery place that directly or indinrcil y 
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ON. 

The next best tiling to reading your ensromers’ 
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greater results for yonr business. 


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We make it happen. 


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10. Does yonr information strategy reHect U»e 
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no objective of an information strategy is more 
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com 




INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 16, 1994 


South African Whites Staying, for Now , but Their Money Is Moving Out 


By PauJ Taylor 

Washington Past Service 

JOHANNESBURG — It is 
known as the LSD Trip, and it is ali 
the rage among wealthy white 
South Africans these days as they 
peer into the future, darkly. 

Il has nothing to do with drugs. 
Here, the initials stand for the 
Look, See and Deposit Trip, one of 
hundreds of ways whites are smug- 
gling their money out of the coun- 
try just ahead of the onset of black- 
majority rule 


“You get the impression most is the wealthy matron who sneaked 
wealthy whites think ihe country is her diamonds out in a toothpaste 
going to disappear in a heap after tube in her cany-on bag. There arc 
the April election,” said Hermann the billions of South African rands 
de Beer, a prosecutor who is pan ot that moved overseas last year on 
a crime squad trying to stem for- bogus business invoices or to dum- 
eign-ex change fraud. my trading partners. There is 

The schemes they uncover could “round-tripping,’' the continuous 
fill a smugglers encyclopedia, export and import of money to take 
There is the case of the gold refin- advantage of South Africa’s dual 
mg company charged with export- exchange rate, 
iug $25 million in gold bars, paint- As such skulduggery goes, the 
ed silver so they would be valued at LSD Trip is strictly small time. A 
only 1 percent of their worth. There South African makes a quick trip 


is the wealthy matron who sneaked abroad and stays just long enough thdr lives fighting apartbad. Even 
her diamonds out in a toothpaste to put his annual tourist allotment in the liberal northern suburbs, it is 
tube in her carrv-on bag. There are —about 56,000 per person— into hard to make it past the mam 
the billions of South African rands an overseas bank account Travel course at any dinner party without 
that moved overseas last year on agents said overseas bookings were first chewing over all the imagmed 
bogus business invoices or "to dum- he*'}' during the December boli- catastrophes lurking just beyond 
my trading partners. There is day and speculated that many were the election: civil war. confiscatoiy 
“round-tripping,’' the continuous quickie LSDs. wealth taxes, job discrimination 


want to have something already terest rates up, choirin g off a na* 
over there, m be damned if Tm scent cyclical economic recovery. 


some of the world’s riches t min eral 
deposits, some of the continent ' s 


CENTRAL RAILWAY 
INDIA 

OFFERS YOU AN OPPORTUNITY TO 
CHANGE THE SKYLINE OF BOMBAY 


export and import of money to ta ke None of these practices is new. against whites, empty store shelves, 
advantage of South Africa’s dual The government began trying to endless strikes, rampant aune. 
exchange rate. hold its domestic money hostage “Who knows, maybe everything 

As such skulduggery goes the more than a generation ago, when will come right, but you hear so 
LSD Trip is strictly small time. A the political instabilities caused by many rumors, and the uncertainty 
South African makes a quick trip apanheid started to make the wun- just drives you crazy," said a bust- 

try a bad risk for foreign investors, ncssworaan who has been using a 
The more barriers they erected, the Canadian-born friend living here 
more loopholes people found. to bdp her slip $2,000 a month out 
What is different now is the scale of the country to a foreign bank. 

_ of ihe fiscal exodus. Last year, it "if you’re in a position where 

* y was two or three times greater than you can afford to stash away some 

a I in any previous year, according to money overseas, I think you're not 

government estimates. being a responsible parent to leave 

The obvious impetus has been it here," said the woman, who has a 

,r»TY TO the April 26-23 election, which wfll lawyer husband, two young sons 

Ul 1 end whits minority rule. As this and a desire to remain anonymous. 

BOMBAY change looms, all whites are ner- “1 hope we'll never have to enu- 

vous. including those who spent grate, but if it comes to that, we 


has to run away in such a rush that 

you leave everything behind/' oomesuc economy know thev woufi have 

It is hard to predict just what favorable. A' two-year dro ught is ■ TJg .. 

£52Efass£ 

nantly black African National international sanctions; inflation is 

Congress has sent out confusing lower than 10 percent for the fot whf S^^S\friams exam 
about its economic po3 time in a decade; domestic fixed So 
sometimes sounding socialist, investment has stopped a 15-year thev Sara that 

sometimes social demSntic. Mlf slide; tfaegoM 

tant.whue rightist parties have said stocks are hitting record i highs. am alwsra ,. . 

they will tiyto sabwage the dec- Moreover, while people's money £ £ ^2^ m nVS? 
don and ignore theresull is tunning away, people are not. 

Accorcangto South African Re- There has been nothing like the “““ iSlSSiSiS 

b,-l — * -- - *_t_. oa e nrVita M u,ni w ri » th«f or met- pose the rand Will 11 Ol Cull till lie us 


Paradoxically, ithe exodus is lowest 

saKSafastfs asSfgars. 
ss saae: • tt&Sast 


sometimes sounding socialist, 
sometimes social democratic. Mili- 
tant. white rightist parties have said 
they will try to sabotage the dec- 
don and ignore the result. 

According to South African Re- 
serve Bank estimates, roughly S4.5 
billion in capital, in a S10Q billion 
economy, flowed out of the country 
last year. Bank economists can ac- 
count for only about 40 percent of 
the outflow. The rest, presumably, 
was smuggled out 

If the capital fligh t continued, 
economists said, the balance-of- 
payments pressures could force in- 


There has been nothing like the 
frenzied white stampede that greet- 
ed the coming of blade rale else- 
where in southern Africa. 

To be sure, ii was easier for those 


long-term slide against the rest of 
the world's currencies. _ 
Meanwhile, in the white suburbs. 


wftitetol^T^^dalways to fcamdety and uncertainty.*! 
come here, and hundreds of thou- bear the new government is going 
sands dkLBm now. South Africa is to put a tax on. sec ond ran and 
the last white outpost on the conti- swimnmiEpool^awtaebusmfiss- 
nenL Its 55 nation whites live woman said- ‘You know some- 
among 35 mBHcm non whites, antid thing, I don’t even use my pod. 



ATTENTION ARCHITECTS & ENGINEERS ! 

Working for Indian Railways, tile biggest under a single mat lagenu mis a mailer of , 
pride and prestige. Central Railway invites Architects & Engineers in 1 

a compel iiion io evolve the best possible design -A MASTERPIECE — fur their 
proposed. development of airspace on Railway kind. tn ihr eoniinorcial capital of , 
India - BOMBAY - at : 

1 . CARNAC BLINDER — Adjacent to Victoria Terminus. Bombay. 

2. NEW KURLA TERMINUS — Fifteen, kms fre >m Victoria Terminus in the heart of \ 
Bombay island, very’ close to Airport and upcoming Suhurltan Commercial! 
Complex. 

For the B est Designs the following AWARDS a re offered ! 

1 st Award Rs l oaouoTI 

2nd Award Rs 50,000. 

Forgetting details regarding prequalil real ion please write to : 

Chief Engineer, Central Railway g 

Bombay vt (India) -t-oo oo i | 

or contact the following numbers: I 

Fax; +91 (22) 262 4555 Tel: +91 (22) 262 0071 ! 

Last date for submission of credentials for prequalificaiion is 10-03- 1 994. 1 


Japan Sets 
High-Tech 
Defense 


T~ae Associated Press 

TOKYO — Even though Japan's 
defense spending next fiscal year 
will show the smallest increase in 
34 years, analysts said Tuesday its 
military buildup will grow steadily. 

The cabinet of Prime Minister 
Morihiro Hosokawa on Tuesday 
approved 4.6$ trillion yen ($45 bil- 
lion) in defense outlays for fiscal 
1994. up 0.9 percent from the cur- 
rent fiscal year. 

it will be the smallest annual 
growth in Japan's defense spending 
since 1 959-1960, when it rose by 0.6 
percent said a Defense Agency 
spokesman. Takahiro Goto. 

Following the end of the Cold 
War. Japan's defense spending has 
grown slowly since 1990, but the 
nation has steadily improved its 
capabilities, analysts say. 

Haruo FujiL a defense analyst 
said that white the proposed de- 
fense budget increase seems small, 
the high-tech shopping list reflect- 
ed a military buildup commensu- 
rate with a top economic power. 

“The aim of Japan's defense 
buildup is to cope with regional 
conflicts on its own, like the United 
Slates," Mr. Fujii said. 

In fiscal 1994, Japan will pur- 
chase two more AW ACS military 
aircraft from the United States for 
about 1 14 billion yen. 

Other major shopping items 
from the United Slates will include 
20 type-90 tanks and nine multiple- 
launch rocket systems. 


Russians Move to Stop Dumping Nuclear Waste at Sea 


The Associated Press 

VLADIVOSTOK, Russia — Regional au- 
thorities have approved plans to build tanks, 
for nudear waste storage at a site east of- 
Vladivostok, Russia’s main Pacific port, in- 
stead of dumping the waste into the Sea of 
japan. The first tanks should be ready in 
May, if the regional administration can find 


.the funding, Andrei Kolmogorov told The 
Associated Press. 

Mr. Kolmogorov, the regional administra- 
tion spokesman, said Monday that earlier 
appeals to the central Russian government 
went unanswered, and local authorities now 
are hoping Japan can help finance the pro- 
ject 


The winch will be only for tempo- 
rary storage, will be loca- 
ted 125 miles east of Vladivostok. 

A Ru ssian military ship dumped 237,000 
gallons of low-tevd radioactive waste in the 
Sea of Japan last fall from Russian undear 
warships indie Pacific, outraging Japan and 
other Asian countries. 


BURMA: Nobel Laureate Rejects Rangoon Government's Offer of Exile 



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Continued from Page 1 

als who have imprisoned her, both for their 
deceit and for their brutality to democracy 
movement members. 

“It must be very exhausting for than to go on 
lying," she said. “Elections were promised, elec- 
tions were held," and yet the military held onto 
power despite its defeat at the polls, she said. 
“The people feel cheated." 

But sbe also spoke of her jailers with patience 
and tolerance. 

“I personally have nothing but good will 
toward the army, even though there are some 
things that I don’t like,” she said. “I do have 
good will toward them, perhaps because I think 
of them subjectively as my father's army, per- 
haps for other reasons." Her father was U Aung 
San. Burma's independence leader and its prin- 
cipal national hero. 

Daw Aung San Suu Kyi said she believed 
that the government's decision to allow her to 
speak publicly must be considered a hopeful 
sign. “It is significant," she acknowledged. 
“What sort of good it win do, I don’t know." 

Sbe said that the government was “unpre- 
dictable" and that officials had probably 
agreed to the meeting Monday only because 
“they were under a lot of international pres- 
sure.” 

Foreign diplomats say that the government is 
hoping to improve its abysmal human rights 
image abroad as it seeks new international aid 
and foreign investment - 

They say the government urged Daw Aung 
San Suu Kyi to meet with Representative Wil- 
liam B. Richardson. Democrat of New Mexico 
and a member of tbc House Intelligence Com- 
mittee. 

Mr. Richardson, who has been active on 
human rights issues, requested the meeting in 


August when he met here with Mayor General 
Kiuo Nyunt, the head of military mtefligeaceL 

Daw Aung San Suu Kyi agreed to the session 
on condition thaL Mr. Richardson be accompa- 
nied by a United Nations official and by a 
reporter from The New York Times. 

Jehan Raheem, the representative in Burma 
of the UN Development Program, attended. 
The US- Embassy in Rangoon was allowed to 
send a diplomat to take notes on the session. 

Mr. Richardson met twice Monday with 
General Khin Nyunt, who is identified by dip- 
lomats as the new strongman, to urge him to 
open negotiations with Daw Aung San Suu 

“I believe a process of possible talks has been 
started," Mr. Richardson said. 

Dressed in the traditional Burmese blouse 
and longfri, or sarong, with her hair paBed back 
in a bun. Daw Aung San Suu Kyi seemed very 
thin but otherwise in good health and even, 
better humor. 

She was eloquent at times, her remarks ac- 
companied by a piercing gaze and often by a 
determined smile. Her 'words are frequently 
laced with gentle laughter. 

“You must crane to leant Burmese prommei- 
aiion from me,” she explained playfully after 
one of her visitors mangled a Burmese name. 

While the Burmese say her command of the 
national language is exquisite, her English is 
excellent and she speaks in the frill round sen- 
tences that are the legacy of h«r university 
studies at Oxford. ■*., 

She said that in her years of incarceratiod'in- 
her decaying, termite-ridden home, idle had 
never once left the confound. • . - 

What she teams of the outside worid, sb& 
said, comes from occasional visits she is pcraHt- 
ted from her husband — Michael Aris. a Tibet 


scholar at Oxford — and their two sons. Her 
other source of mfonuatioo is her shortwave 
radio. 

She said it was from a BBC broadcast that 
she learned she had won the Nobel prize in 
1991. 

“1 felt tremendous humility and tremendous 
gratitude,” she said of the award. “I was very 
grateful Ihe prize meant that the whole move- 
ment for democracy will receive a lot more 
recognition." 

While ' sbe said repeatedly that the would 
refuse to leave Burma under any conditions, she 
suggested that all other topics might be open to 
ne g o tiatio n. “There is nothing else that I’ve 
refused to talk about except the question of 
leaving the oountry." sbe said, “rve refused 
nothing else.” 

The military may now be reconsidering that 
demand in ligpt of its need for foreign aid and 
investmenL 

■- Asked whether sbe would consider a propos- 
al from the army to relinquish her political roie 

in exchange for her right to stay in Burma, she 
rcpBed. ’They must talk to me, but it will 
dejpeod on wlial they mean and the guarantees 


they offer." 

Wide she was wiUipg to discusa the details of 
her years in detention, she repeatedly tried to 
tarn the conversation awayfrom her own plight 
and to her concern over her imprisoned sup- 
porters and to the larger quest for democracy. 

“Tm not interested in tiny sort of personality 

.colt or. peraoaa8^pefiric&.” she said. ‘This is 
whatyou’ve got to avoid from the beginning. 
We want, to see .'a democracy based on social 
principles, not on personality." 

She said that simply releasing her would do. 
ho good unless there was a change in the atti- 
tude of those in power, who call themselves the 
Stale Law and Order Restoration ConnaL 


Looking for a Cheap Ticket Into Space? 


By Lawrence ML Fisher 
New York Tuna Service 
LIVERMORE. California — 
Four times in recent weeks the coy- 
otes, vultures and squirrels that in- 
habit the desolate Allamoal HBIs 
here have had their tranquility rup- 
tured by a 150-foot cannon blast- 
ing a jet-engined projectile into a 
nearby hillside. 

For scientists in the rarefied 
realms of light gas guns and scram- 
jets, the test shots at Lawrence Liv- 
ermore National Laboratory’s re- 
mote Site 300 have been break- 
throughs. They say the tests show 
that a large gun could be used to 
send large objects into space at far 
lower costs than today's rocket and 
shuttle technology. Such an ap- 
proach was first hypothesized oy 
Jules Verne in his 1865 novels, 
“From the Earth to the Moon” and 
"A Trip Around It" 

The tests are also a validation of 
the scramjel principle and mark the 
first time in history that an air- 
breathing jet engine has flown at 
velocities exceeding Mach 55. five 
and a half times the speed of sound. 

MEMORIAL NOTICE 

A manorial service for 
Gregory G Usher, 

director of the Riz-Escoffier 
ECote dc Ga^ronomie Franfaise, 
will be licld on Friday, February 
18th, at 6:30 PJVL, at the 
* American Cathedral in Paris. 

23, Avenue George V. 

Mr. Usher, 43 years old, 
died Fridry. Feb. 4, 
of an AiDS-rebied Alness, 

A native of Portland. Oregon, 

Mr. Usher hid been a resident 
of Paris since 1770. Besides 
creating the rttz-Escoflier school 
in 1987. he had been director of 
the La Varenne Ecole de Cuisine 
jnd brer the 
Cordon Bkra de Pans. 

In 19K9. Mr. Usher was awarded 
the Chevalier du Morse Agrroote 
by die French Government. 

He b survived by hrs longtime 
companion, Ptfrice Bochetani 
mother arcj Meptahcr 
.Anne C and Wilfred R. Reynolds, 
of Portland; father arid 
stepmother Kirk and Jean Usher, 
of Wliitingham, Vt.: and three 
brothers. Kirk Jr., of San 
Francisco, and Thomas and 
Gordon, of Portland 
In lieu of Dowers, contributions 
may he skit (a 
the American Library in Paris 
10. Rue General Camnu. 

■’VXT Paris. 


A scramjei is a supersonic version 

of a ramjet, which combines fuel 
with compressed air, generated by 
high-speed flight, and bums the 
mixture at subsonic speeds. 

In theory, saomjets can be much 
more efficient than rocket engines 
because they do not need to carry 
oxygen, which is two-thirds of the 
weight of a rocket. A light gas gun 
could be used to loft satellites or 
space station components io a very 
mgh altitude. A scrangct would 
add velocity and bring ihe object to 
the edge of space. Once beyond the 
earth's atmosphere a small rocket 
engine would come into play, tak- 
ing it to a stable orbit 

“I want to bring the cost ot ac- 
cess to space down." said Dr. John 
W. Hunter, project director for Liv- 
ermore's Super High Altitude Re- 
search Project, or SHARP, two- 
stage light gas gun. “It's currently 
about the cost of gold." Dr. Hunter 
projects that gun bunches could 
reduce the cost of delivering pay- 
loads to low-earth orbit to 5500 per 
kilogram (2.2 pounds). Shuttle 
launches cost about 520,000 per 
kilogram of payload. 

The Livermore gun fires a snail 
scramjct, developed by Rockwell 
International in Seal Beach, Cali- 
fornia, sending the Il-pound pro- 
jectile to a velocity of about 9,000 
miles an hour (about 14300 kilo- 
meters an hour). The gun bums 
methane and air in the combustion 
section of its pump tube, which 
drives a one-ton piston that com- 


presses hydrogen, . which acceler- 
ates the scramjct down the 150-foot 
.launch tube. - 
Leaving the gun in a stupendous 
eruption of flame, the jet rEes just 
75 feel, diantqgnuing In the tnB- 
side. But that is enough fra high- 
speed cameras and sensors to gath- 


research has been hampered by the 
inability of wind tunnels to simu- 
late the necessary cooditioQS. 

“Because we’ve been limited in 
wind tunnels, we’ve used comput- 
ers to simulate the physics," said 
Dr. Kevin Bowcntt, scramjet pro- 
ject leader at RodrodL “One of 
our goals here is to see bow accu- 
rate those programs are.” 

Tbc Livoroore launches have at- 
tained speeds of Mach &2. Previ- 
ously. toe highest speed attained in 
scnnqct tests was Mach 55, uo- 
comptisbcd m 1992 by Russian re- 
searchers who flew a scramjct 
mounted atop a booster rocket 
Flying the small, g^m4aanched 
scramjct in the higb-denfflty air at 
sea level simulates conditions faced 

S r a full-scale vehicle at a high 
titude, but at far loner expense 
and risk. 

“What he's done is fairly incredi- 
ble,’' said Robert D, Whcofslti, an 
aerospace engineer who has spe- 
rialized in sexamjets at the Nation- 
al Aeronautics and Spaoe Adminis- 
tration's Langley Research Cento- 
in Hampton, Vir ginia, ref erring to 
Dr. Hunter. “In these days of peo- 
ple doing studies and wri tin g pa- 


pers, he’s actually done it. Five 

years ago people laughed at him." 

Although toe Iivmnorc gun is 
the largest of its kind in the world, 
it is not large enough to laimch 
meaningful payloads, and its de- 
sign cannot be seated up to do so 
using current materials technology. 

Dr. Himler-is seeking funding 
far a second-generation gun of his 
own. which he caRs the Jules Verne 
Launcher. “So far I haven’t been 
maiketing this dung to the best ot 
my abilities because Tve been mak- 
ing sure it doesn't blow up,” he 
sazdl “Next fiscal year, there’s a 
good daance well get the money to 
do some of this work." 


Media Tycoon Expected 
To Seek Seat in Rome 

Reuters 

ROME — Silvio Berlusconi will 
probably fight for a parliamentary 
seat in Rome in next month’s Ital- 
ian elections, his conservative 
rorza Italia party said on Tuesday. 

“It’s highly Holy Berlusconi will 
stand in- Rome," a parly official 
Said The businessman most decide 
by next Tuesday, when an official 
deadline for candidates expires. 
The latest opinion polls give rorza 
Italia, launched at a U.S. -style con- 
tention 10 days ago, around 25 
percent support, mating it rhe most 
popular single party in Italy. 


Walter Judd Dies at 95, Missionary 
| Warned of Japanese Expansionism 


| i Vo* Fcrit runs Service 

I Walter Judd, 95. a physician and 
I missionary who was a crusader 
against Chinese communism and 
Japanese expansionism in the years 
before World War H and who later 
became a U.S. representative, (Bed 
of cancer Sunday in MitchdOviDe. 
Maryland. 

He was elected to Congress in 
1942 after the Japanese attack on 
Pearl Harbor and became one of 
the most influential members of the 
House on foreign policy. 

After the war, he is credited with 
having played an important role in 
American efforts to build stability 
in Europe through economic relief 
and development programs. He 
was awarded the Presidential Med- 
al of Freedom in 1981 bv Ronald 


Mr. Judd went to Nanj ing-, Chi- 


na, in 1925 as a medical misrionaiy 
for the Cbngjqgational Board of 
Foreign Missions. A year later he 
set out cm a long river journey to a 
mission bosphaTin Fujtea Province 
and stayed five yrais before severe 
malaria f raced bis return to the. 
United States. 

He wenthack to China in 1933 
as a hospital superintendent. His 
mission became a haven for thou- 
sands of Chinese flaring the ad- 
vanring Japanese armies.- He re- 
raained in the dty for five months 
after it was captured by the Japa- 
nese brfore negotiating his release. 
He returned id the United State? 

and inmcdiaidy began a two-year 
campaign warmngra Japan’s miK - 

tary exp ansionism. . _ _ , ... 

A nanvc of Rising Gty, Nebras- 
ka, he worked his way through the 
University, of. Nebraska and, after 


serving a year in the army, graduat- 
ed as a member of Phi Boa Kappa 
in 1920. He earned his medical de* 
gree three years later. 

He was a delegate to the General 
Assembly of the United Nations in 
, 1957 and to the World Health Or- 
ganization Assembly in 1950 sod 
1958. He was art f i r ga n byr of die 
Council of Europe and a delegate 
to (he. Fust Consultative Assembl* 
mStrasbonrgm 1951. 

Mr. Judd retired from Congress 
in 1960 but continued touring the 
country giving speeches until five 
yearn ago. - 

Hongarian Leader in Spain 

The Associated Press 
-MADRID — Preadem Aipad 
Gono: of Hungary arrived Tuesday 
for a fo ur-day visit afmM at Im - 
proving bade relations with Spain* 


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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 16, 1994 


BUSINESS MESSAGE CENTER 


KADBtSAREADWm 


that th m International 
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httU nspontibte lor lau or 
da m ag es incurred as a /*■ 

tuft of tranto dk ms am- 
ming from advartaemmris 
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Gouvemement 

du Canada 


I ■ Government Gouvemement 

| I of Canada du Canada 

Government Surplus Materiel 


W SAUDI ARABIAN AIRLINES ^ 

^SAUDIA MAINTENANCE FACIUTIES PROJECTS 


■■■■■ INVITATION FOR ■■■■ 
PRE-QUAUFICATION OF CONTRACTORS 


SALE OF AIRCRAFT - AIRBUS A 3 1 0-304 


1987 AIRBUS delivered to the Canadian Forces in 
July 1993. Modified interior to an Executive 
configuration, climate and lighting control, 
shower facilities, Satellite Communication 
System {SATCOMJ, Traffic Collision Avoidance 
System (TCAS), ETOPS lExtended Twin-Engine 
Operations) and provision for FAX 
and computer workstations. 

Executive AIRBUS A3 10-304, MSN 446 , 106 
passengers. Executive Interior, including Crew 
Rest Area, Executive Cabin, Office Area, 
Staterooms, Main Cabins, Extended Overwater 
Capability. All applicable Service Bulletins 
and Inspections are current. 

“Offer to Purchase" document can be obtained 
at the following address: 

Crown Assets Distribution Centre 
Public Works & Government Services Canada 
933 Gladstone Avenue 
Ottawa, Canada 
KIA OT4 


Saudi Arabian AMnes b Interested In pre-quoOfying local (das A3 
and htemationaf construction firms for trie construction of Aircraft 
Maintenance FacfBtfes Projects at Riyadh. Jeddah and Dammam 
In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. 


Scope of the projects is as fotows: 


BtvqJi 

One maintenance hangar capable af enclosing two B-747-400 
aircraft, core shops/warehouse building, security bunding, 
aircraft aprons, engine run-up and rotated infrastructure. 


Jeddah 

Two mdntenonce htngars each capable of enclosing two B- 
747-400 aircraft, core shop building, support warehouse, 
aircraft wash/shlp building, engine storage/assembly/ 
disassembly building. Facilities Maintenance/GSE main- 
tenance facWty, security buBdlng. aircraft aprons, engine run- 
up areas and related Infrastructure. 


Pommam „ 

One maintenance hangar capable of enclosing one B-747- 
400 aircraft, care shop/warehouse building, security biAfing. 
aircraft aprons, engine runup areas and related Infrastructure. 


Interested International firms with c onstruction experience in the 
Middle East and with projects of similar size and scope should 
collect pre-qualification forms from our consultants. Stiffing Ward 
Mognusson Barkshire Inc.. 1301 fifth Ave.. Sutte 3200. Seattle. 
Washington 98101-2699. USA. Fax; (206) 292-1201. 


Local (Class A) contractors with construction experience In the 
MidcJe East and with protects of smflar size and scope may colect 
the ore-qualification forms directly from: Saudi Arabian Airlines. 
Focffittes Engneertag. Cost Center 850. p O Box 62G. Jeddah 21231 . 
Kingdom of Saucf Arabia. Telephone: 02-686-2232. Fax: 02-666-2101 . 

ta Submittals mat bo recover} by linear. lOCd. A 


Tel.: 16131952-0272 
Fax: 16131941-0155 


Canada 


T hr. Company is looking for stocks of different goods: 

FOOD STUFF: Ccfte. Tci. Qnxrlae Ear. Crmd ;r.\n^3, Irefrrfog Meal. ac. 
GARMENTS m sr?nal '«boe' 

ALSO Ekcttmrc-s Gs«“ct. c:- 

The minimum quantity should he one Trade ( 2C feet container). 

V St I FINANCIAL GROUP 
1 1 , Rotisserie - P.O. Box 3603 - CH- 121 i Geneva 3 
Tel: 41.22/311 15 60 - Fax: 41.22/31 i IS 64 


Established British based company 
:n Dubai, U.A.E. Jebef Afi Freefone, 


SEEKS PARTNERSHIP OR SOLE 

of 2,400 sa.m. industrial plant for biscuit 
and cookie manufacturing on 1 0,000 sq.m, of land. 


Sale $3 Million U.S. 
Partnership negotiable. 


Canada TeL: 514-737-7320 - Fax: 514-737-7248 


We r eq ui re funding sources, (private and instftnttonal) 
to finance for and on behalf of quality clients, 


Wanted for all Europe 
EXCLUSIVE 
DISTRIBUTORS 

with capital, to distribute a EirarKf 
Ui into pofisb in a EUROPEAN 
COUNTRIES. Product has been rested 
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ITVTER NATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 16, 1994 


vS 


* V ^ 








By John Kifnex ' * 
SARAJEVO, Bosn^Herzi^jviQa' ' w utf 
peace plan, using NATO’s advanced tedutotorf 10 

1,00 -p *“ “foW^SSr. Mi chad Rose, a 

thal otfe* commanded, 

teal they hoped first to restore heoromi 


on Technology to Put Bite in Bosnia Threat 


h»^^ n aC !^T W ? ed "« <te* t*xA tan. find 
over<te >»: » monthi of 
Bw iSTr* 14 of .irregidar. warfare. 
SSS bj f,eree bonds of religion and 

The United Nations plan wffl reW heavily on 'ad- 
vanced technological surveillance — such AWACS 
radar anyaft, and advanced radar on the wound, 

^S&TSi m< ™~ lotrack ™ Mons 

The NATO deadline, offices here said, doe not 
bw § s . ' wD automatically begin' faffing at 
w 2i *‘ bu j nwansratiwr that Genfral 

Rose, as tactical commander on the ground,* wffl have 

the power to order them in. - 


Technical derails were .worked out in a meeting in 
: -Zagreb,- Croatia, on . Sunday between General Rose, 
; UN officials and NATO commanders, including Ad- 
miral Jeremy M. Roorda. who heads (he U.S. Europe- 
an command. . 

The peace effort. General Rose said, is “backed bv 

• .the power of NATO’s air might.” 

”• He added:; “There is no discrepancy at all between 
what. ye are doing and the ultimatum. We are all 

* playing from the same sheet of music." 

The threat of NATO airsirikes. another officer said, 

; “is a tool a terrific tool*' adding. “If we can do 
Sarajevo, it's on to Zcaica and Tuzla." 

. - As the UN plan is evolving, the critical issue of the 
. Serbian gunners’ either withdrawing their heavy weap- 
ons in the hills surrounding the city or putting them 
.under UN comrol.is being redefined. 

Control UN officers now say. may not necessarily 
- mean actually locking the weapons up in a guarded 
.compound, but may rather entail keeping them under 
elcc ironic surveillance, with the credible threat that 
they could be destroyed if fired. 

“Thseare other ways of controlling heavy weapons 
than physically putting them round with barbed wire," 
said Lieutenant Colonel Simon Shad bolt of the Royal 
Marines, who is an aide to General Rose. 

.So far. the number of weapons that have been 
tinned in has been “quite negligible,” General Jean 


Cot of France, the overall UN commander in Zagreb, 
conceded. 

One particular problem. Rose said, is that “Tito's 
defense plan called for Partisan action, so there is a 
great store of weapons in these hills." 

Marshal Tito, fearing a Soviet auatl after his break 
with Moscow in I<W8. established a kind of Swiss 
system of defense in the mountainous core of Yugosla- 
via. with weapons dumps that would enable the popu- 
lation to fight as guerrillas. Many of these weapons of 
the Serb-dominated regular Yugoslav army were 
handed over to the Bosnian Serb forces now besieging 
Sarajevo. 

Much of the damage in Sarajevo has been inflicted 
by mortars, including the single shell that fell on the 
main market Feb. 5. killing 68 people and leading to 
the NATO ultimatum. 

Under present circumstances, a mortar could be 
hidden in the trunk of a car or in someone's home. 

General Rose, declaring thai he bad “no intention 
of searching every bam, cellar and bunker,” said that 
even if a mortar was bidden away, it was effectively 
withdrawn once it was taken from its firing position. 

“I couldn’t care.” he said when asked about hidden 
mortars. “I couldn't care less.” 

Sophisticated radar will be put in place to find the 
mortars if they should be brought out to fire, he said 

But because a mortar can be moved quickly, it could 


be difficult to determine who fired it and why, he said. 
He added that he was particularly worried about one 
side's slipping behind the lines of” the other and firing 
in hopes of bringing retaliation on the enemy. 

“I have a nasty mind." he said, in tones suggesting 
that this helped qualify him for service in the Balkans. 

Negotiations with both Serbian and Bosnian gov- 
ernment commanders were proceeding “step by step," 
General Rose said, adding that he wanted to establish 
weapons dumps eventually “in five locations, hopeful- 
ly with armed guards." This would depend, he said, on 
“confidence-building measures.” as “the biggest prob- 
lem is that these people really fear each other." 

A major concern was to get bigger weapons with- 
drawn from the 10-kilometer radius centering on the 
marketplace. Once they were gone, any movement 
back could be detected by aerial surveillance. 

“I want to restore electricity, collect the garbage, 
establish postal service, open up routes in and out of 
the city." General Rose said. “1 have a sense of fatigue 
among the people — they are drained of energy, 
drained of resolve. Both sides have run out of stocks 
and resources. The Muslims can’t conquer vast tracts 
of land with infantry alone: the Serbs can't conquer 
vast tracts with artillery alone.” 

"This war has reached what Clausewitz called the 
culminating point.” he said. “Should it be necessary to 
call in air strikes. I will do so without hesitation.” 


7 Foreign Christians 
Held 5 Days in China 

Crackdown Follows New Curb 
On Proselytizing by Outsiders 




y. i.-r-v..,-.. 

:*fft •_>} 
&•"' V v Vf 



KOREA: UN Nuclear Inspections 

Co n tinued from Rage 1 Those made little progress. 


future ability to extract plutonium. 

The standoff with North Korea 
began nearly a year ago. when it 
announced that it was planning to 
leave the Nuclear Nonproliferation 
Treaty because of UN demands lev 
a “special inspection” of its nuclear 
sites. 

In June, that move was “sus- 
pended." the North said, because it 
had finally begun direct talks with 
the United States. 

Two rounds of full negotiations 
began under the direction of Rob- 
ert L Gallucci, assistant secretary 
of state for political and military’ 
affairs. 


Those made little progress. 

In December, though, the Unit- 
ed States laid out the elements of 
the proposed deal of economic and 
political benefits, which included 
the cancellation of the “Team Spir- 
it” military exercises involving the 
United Stiles and South Korea. 

It seemed the North was about to 
allow the inspectors to return. 

But the talks dragged on for 
weeks, with the North accusing the 
UN of “stupidly trying to force 
lull-scope inspections”. 

It accused the United States of 
seeking “a pretense for strangling” 
the North. 


By Daniel Southerland 

H’luAiq^m Pan Smne 

BEIJING — More than forty 
policemen carried out a midnight 
raid in central China to detain sev- 
en foreign Christians, including 
three .Americans, and held them 
incommunicado for five days be- 
fore releasing them Tuesday, 
church sources said. 

The group's leader, the Reverend 
Dennis Balcombe. said that the po- 
lice in Henan Province held the 
seven Protestants and beat up a 
member of the group from Hong 
Kong, who was reported bruised 
but not seriously injured. 

Three Chinese Protestants de- 
tained with the group have not yet 
been released, he said. 

The raid appeared to be the first 
case in which the Chinese authori- 
ties have used recently issued na- 
tional regulations against religious 
groups and practices. 

The two sets of regulations, 
signed into law by Prime Minister 
Li Peng on Feh. 5. spell out details 
of earlier bans on foreigners ac- 
cused of proselytizing or dissemi- 
nating religious materials, and im- 
pose other limits on contacts 
between Chinese and overseas 
churches. 

Mr. Balcombe said a Chinese po- 
lice officer told the group after the 
raid “This is the law we have in our 
hands, and we're determined to 
stamp out these so-called house 
churches.” 

Mr. Balcombe. 48, pastor of the 


Revival Christian Church in Hong 
Kong, has been traveling intermit- 
tently in China for about 20 years. 
He speaks both Mandarin Chinese 
and the Cantonese dialect. The raid 
last week is “the beginning of a new 
wave of persecution." he said. 

Western-based human rights 
monitors say the issue of religious 
freedom in China may loom larger 
in the debate now under way in 
Washington over China’s most-fa- 
vored-nation trading status. 

Mr. Balcombe said the police 
confiscated all of his group's pos- 
sessions. including some literature 
and his watch, a computer, a video 
camera and about S1000. 

A diplomat said the authorities 
were concerned about religious ra- 
dio broadcasts from Hong Kong 
and about Bibles and other reli- 
gious material brought into the 
country by overseas Chinese and 
foreigners. Some of those Chris- 
tians — both Catholic and Protes- 
tants — who have been arrested by 
the police have been sentenced to 
one to three years in “re-education 
through labor” camps. 

“This is not simply a matter of 
local or occasional harassment" 
said Mike JendrzejczyL Washing- 
ton representative of Asia Watch, a 
New York-based human rights or- 
ganization. 

“Church members are being 
fined,” he said. “If you don't come 
up with the fine, you're sentenced 
to re-education. This is the pattern 
in all of the provinces with laige 
Christian populations.” 


NEIGHBORS: For Russian Ambassador to Finland , Old Habits Persist 




m ^inryaxunu*riv ^gtner rranoc-m 

Bdgrades residents using tim tixmAs to g^uomd Taes&j. Both gasoKne and public transportation are in short supply. 

BOSNIA: NATO Commander Defers to the UN on Order for Air Strikes 


Continued from Page I 

gave interviews nonstop — more 
than 100 last year. “From the be- 
ginning. I chose the line of open- 
ness and told them that 'Komis- 
sarov' was gone, along with the 
Soviet Union," he said. 

Fuuis gave him an “A” for effort, 
and many forgave him. “When he 
arrived, be seemed completely 
transformed,'' said Olli Kronen, it 
leading journalist. 

Relations between Moscow and 
Helsinki were improving. But ibere 
were still a Tew irritants. For Mos- 
cow. one was the emeigence in Fin- 


land of two small groups of ex- 
treme nationalists. The groups 
profess views that are anti-Co m- 
munisL and. to the Russians, fas- 
cist. 

Last May. Mr. Dervabin men- 
tioned the groups to Finnish For- 
eign Ministry officials. He said 
Russia was concerned that their 
activities violated ibe 1947 Treaty 
of Paris, which banned the resur- 
gence at fascist groups in Finland. 

Mr. Deryabin said he mentioned 
the issue more than once but got no 
reply from the Finns. One reason 
may be that Finnish diplomats re- 
gard the 47-year-old treaty as all 


but obsolete, while the Russians do 
noL 

Finally, on Jan. 10 this year. Mr. 
Deryabin wrote a forma! note to 
the Foreign Ministry “asking" if 
the groups did not violate the trea- 
ty. Someone leaked the note to Hel- 
singm Sanomat, the leading Finn- 
ish daily. The story ran Jan. 1 6. one 
day before presidential voting To 
many Finns, it was a replay of 1 961 
— The “Note Crisis." Part ll. 

The media exploded. Many saw 
a brutish attempt to influence the 
voting, although just how was un- 
clear. More serious analysis, in- 
cluding senior Finnish officials. 


saw the note's timing as a crude 
effort to reassert Moscow's prerog- 
atives and remind the Finns of who 
won the war and who lost it 

Helsinki's official reply was a 
barely polite rebuff. Finland would 
evaluate the case of the two groups 
in light of Finnish law. not the 
treaty. 

The furor left Mr. Deryabin 
shell-shocked. The note *as rou- 
tine and innocent, he masted; ibe 
timing was accident;*!. If there had 
been a reply lo his writer, informal 
query of Iasi spring, he said, he 
would not have written the note at 
all. 

Few believed him. 


Jieadrpiartgg in Btp&gj^Aheie the ultimatum 

was issued toskweekt stuaibat they would art 
need to meet Bguntoapxboreze air strikes if the 
Serbs havejoot comptied by Sunday nighty 
“We have no further decisjous to lake, M a 
NATO official there sahL 
The political decision to issue the ultimatum 
was made by the 16 regalitr NATO ambas%-V 
dots in Brussels after : consultation with- the?' 

the dear determination of President BrhCUfl-, 
tan to {Wl (he United States squarely behind 
the threat ibis tone, with strong French back- 
ing, that motivated the British, the Canadians, 
and the Greeks -r the countries with the biggest 
reservations -T- not to blodr it. v 

Whether h is actually carried out, according 


to officials in. Naples, is now in" the 

' hands ^IV&.Akash^ Lieutenant General Rash 
and AdxmralBooroa. z 
“.If there atjsany more shells fired on the city 
-betwetohqwand Sunday, they might have little 
' ; choice, Bmif. the guns remain silent, even if not 
under effective UN control and the bombs 
stmt faffing anyway, NATO's political unity 
■ - would $ooa*faU apart Greece has already made 
. jdear tfcwiR denounce bombing, even though it 
Tusenteid to hotting the ultimatum, and there 
.wouldjte little support for military action by 
NATO' in the absence of any continuing Serb 
s attack* oa Sarajevo from public opinion in 
* Germmy.for example. 

V; Admiral'Boorda and his military superiors in 
•• NATO's. dbmmand structure in European? in 
- poostaotfpcmlaci with the UN commanders on 


the scene, officials- in Naples emphasized Tues- 
day. ' ' 

■ U.S. Backs Rose Position 

In Washington, the Slate Department 
spokesman, Michael McCuny, insisted Tues- 
day that the United States and NATO were in 
complete accord with General Rose, when the 
general said on Monday that. “Any heavy 
weapons there will be either ... under UN 
control or subject of an air attack." 

Asked to define what he meant by “UN 
control," Mr. McCurry. according to Reuters, 
said: “UN control means that the UN Ins got 
those weapons, and they’ve got the weapons in 
a condition and under a status in which they 
can’t be toed to shell S&rajc\o. which is the 
purpose of the N ATO ultimatum." 



TODAYS 

SPECIAL REPORT 
ON 

EDUCATION 

Appears on Pages 19 through 25 


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MOVING 



Benetton's Latest SJwcKer: 
A Bosnian’s Bloody Outfit 

Roam 1" " : , . 

ROME- — Tbe bipod-drenched clothes of a soldier kflled m Bosnia 
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SALONIKA, Greece — Thou- 
sands of Greeks marched on the 
U.S. Consulale here Tuesday and 
tore down plaques commemorating 
Americans to protest Washington’s 
recognition of the former Yugoslav 
republic of Macedonia. 

Organizers said at least 100,000 
Macedonian Greeks braved freez- 
ing temperatures in this northern 
port to take pan in the boisterous 
rally. Police estimated the crowd in 
the lens of thousands. 

“Macedonia is Greek and its 
capital is Salonika," the crowd 
chanted. Some demonstrators 
chanted anti- American slogans and 
tried to break through the police 
cordon while others hurled eggs, 
coins and other objects at the con- 
sulate building. 

Greece refuses to recognize the 
landlocked republic of 2 million 
Slavs and ethnic Albanians on its 


northern border until it changes its 
name. 

■ Paponlias Meets Milosevic 
Foreign Minister Karol os Pa- 
poutias of Greece, which currently 
holds the European Union's presi- 
dency, arrived Tuesday in Belgrade 
and discussed the Bosnian crisis 
with President Slobodan Milosevic 
of Serbia, The Associated Press re- 
ported from Belgrade. 

He said Greece was opposed to 
NATO's ultimatum to bomb Bos- 
nian Serbian artillery around Sara- 
jevo unless it is withdrawn by Feb. 
20, arguing that the North Atlantic 
alliance's involvement could lead 
lo an e&alation of the fighting 
Sources dose to Mr. Papouiias. 
speaking on condition of anonym- 
ity, said that Greece may calf an 
urgent meeting of EU foreign min- 
isters before the NATO deadline 
expires to try and prevent the 
NATO action. 


iht. foe I on c edv edia I an ow- 
eautiond. soaenroa scnkmereol, often 
miona. I larely get angry olid I’m 
eficM to do to bemun whin I do get 

angry I say dUpdthngi wftfh I cpjidiy 

regret. I eupbta things badly and son*, 
him I coil be bettered k avion I 
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and exaggerated orose ana expect you 
to |M yp vnth it. \ am pahy end gw 
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□n IQ Be a bed and my logic tench to 
or* left behind by my endnaum I 
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(■asm will solve ev er yth i ng and so I tend 
if txzge in and expect olhen to oaee. 
• I hove bod eabng habrtv I have bod 
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TRADE: KS. Prepares Sanctions Targets in Growing Rift With Japan 


pay for la. Amen 9 fata a 


CaatdsnuS from Page 1 , 

measures to uy : to placate the .AtiKricaoK 
Aod a leading political strait^st in 'Mr. Hp- 
sokawa's coalition government, Icbfra Ozawa, 
said Mr. Cfinton and Mr. Hosokawa should.. 

mem again “&5 5000 3S possible." - . 


The U JS. fmdmg sets in motion a process that 
could lead to sanctions in several months & 


on selected Japanese -products. dauptm& their : 
price and effectively birring them; fawn the 
United Slates. ; ' . « 

The expected next step, m 3QdaySi is?or the 


U-S. 'government to publish a fist of Japanese 
products that would be hit with ibe 100 percent 
peoslty duties. Mr. Karuor’s office also wfQ 
MS bearings lo assess the economic impart of 
saitetkats before taking final action. 

Such threats of. U& sanctions have succeed- 
ed m the past in wringing concessions from 
otber cbontric& - 

■ About a: year ago. Mr. Kamor. took similar 
actiOT against the European Community in a 
qiiarrcl over U5. access to European govern- 
ment cqntracts. Last month, Chma agreed to 
UX teims fdr.cohtralJing its textile trade and 
Japan tianged pnbuo-amriu bidding proce- 
dures rather than face UiL sanctions. 


■ Stocks Fall and Yen Soars Again 

Japanese stock prices fell and the yen soared 
again Tuesday as financial markets anticipated 
the U.S. trade measures. Paul Blustein of the 
Washington Post reported from Tokyo. 

The 225-stock Nikkei average lost 2.5 percent 
of its value, closing at 18,975 points Tuesday, 
and the dollar fell to 101.90 yen in Tokyo, again 
approaching its record low of I0u.35 yen vet last 
summer (Page 12). 

The rise in the Japanese currency amounts to 
a sanction on Japanese industry almost as dev- 
astating as a punitive tariff, as the higher the 
yen, the more expensive Japanese products be- 
come. relative to those of foreign competitors. 


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SANCTIONS:* e Coidd Drive a Wedge in Japan’s Cdhdar Market 


Cas&rntAbtm Vtgfi 1 

continued strength of the yeaagam«ti«-ddlar, 
could accelerate the cfiffusKm of cdhil® {Ac»e- 
tfrfinnlnp y for Motorcfa hjc. HL .tijfi.Tqwi> 

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braih ibe Tokvo-Naigqya exsridor. 

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because the Japanese government in 1989 

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based on the technology of Nippon Telegraph 
-i-Tdq&^Cwp^ or. NTT. 

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ern Japan, hs share in the demographicaBy 
more important eastern corridor has remained 
minuscule because Nippon ldou has invested 
less in iiiftastrutJure. 

* Afltidpaiing the UJS. judgment, IDO Iasi 
week said it would invest an additional 30 
biffiOT yen (5282 million) io expand its network 
of base stations using the Motorola system. 
This would be nearly double the cumulative 
amount spent through tbe end of 1993. 
















































i rr\ ijt 


INTERNATIONAL 



PUBLISHED WITH THE NKW YORK TIMKS AND THU WVsHIM.TON POST 


Somalia for the Somalis 


SributtC The World Does Not Need a U,S,-Japanese Divorce 


Somalia 1994: Can a crisis-iom nation chat 
the United Nations failed to put back together 
put itself back together? The optimistic theory 
that launched the first American-led UN in- 
tervention after the Cold War was that the 
world body would conduct an enlightened 
and generous revival; this effort was undone 
when both the United Nations and. in its own 
way, the United States let themselves be drawn 
into rivalries of local factions and clans. The no 
less optimistic theory underlying withdrawal 
now is that the same Somalis, seeing rurally 
that their future hinges on their own deeds, 
will turn around and start acting differently. 

The most evident and disheartening devel- 
opment in Somalia is the violence being car- 
ried on by the bandits and small groups that 
have moved into the power vacuum created by 
th? departure of American and European 
peacekeepers, who will all be out by March 3 1 . 
Mostly local and spontaneous, this violence 
threatens to return Somalia to the anarchy 
that sparked the American-led humanitarian 
intervention in 1992. Less visible but still a 
major part of the unfolding reality is the 
political consultation going on among the 
major Somali factions, including the one led 
by the intervenors' former nemesis, Moham- 
med Farrah Aidid. The race is on berwecn the 


explosive violence and the slow and indirect 
Scraraii bargaining style. 

Not that the whole answer wall be known on 
March 31. Peacekeepers from India, Pakistan 
and elsewhere will remain, although these 
contingents lack the equipment and capabili- 
ties of those departing. From trying to run 
Somalia, the United Nations has trimmed 
back to “assisting" local factions; it has halted 
attempts at coercive disarmament and is easing 
out those of its aides most identified with the 
earlier overreaching. In conjunction with this, 
the United States has changed its own policy, 
encouraging local political cooperation without 
taking sides and warning up to tbe formerly 
demonized General Aidid. African and Arab 
regional groupings are being asked to help. 

“Somalia" has become a metaphor for the 
United Nations and the United States at- 
tempting more in peacekeeping and “nation- 
-building" than either was willing or able to 
achieve. Tbe disappointment that Washing- 
ton suffered there helped stir a sharp Ameri- 
can reaction against participation in these 
roles everywhere. A halt to the renewed disin- 
tegration that now looms over Somalia would 
have positive effects in other lands. Much is 
riding on what the Somalis da 

— THE WASHINGTON POST. 


A Stain on Iran and Islam 


Five years ago this week. Ayatollah Ruhol- 
lah Khomeini of Iran issued a decree calling 
upon the Islamic faithful to murder Salman 
Rushdie and all associated in publishing his 
novel “The Satanic Verses." A few months 
later the old ayatollah died, but tbe deadly 
fatwa stands. Murderous goons have struck 
fatally at Rushdie's Japanese translator, and 
tried to kill his Italian translator and Norwe- 
gian publisher. Vet Iran’s leaders behave as if 
they are tbe injured parlies when other coun- 
tries dare make a fuss about this barbarism. 

After visiting Bonn two weeks ago. an Irani- 
an member of parliament saw “no reason why 
German politicians should antagonize Islam" 
by defending Mr. Rushdie's right to live. “We 
must be able to protect our interests in tbe 
world in the best possible way," said Moham- 
mad LarijanL He means that Iran should be 
free io offer S3 milli on for the death of a British 
subject and to assault exiled foes in a dozen 
countries — without jeopardizing its ability to 
buy nuclear reactors from infidels. 


Fortunately. Germany has held firm in for- 
bidding its companies to complete what would 
be Iran's fust nuclear power station. Iran can- 
not expect normal trade relations, much less 
sensitive technology, so long as it mocks rudi- 
mentary rules of decency among nations. The 
Rushdie affair is not about religion but about 
politics. The fatwa was issued to reassert Aya- 
tollah Khomeini's leadership over the Iranian 
revolution, and is kept in force by politicians 
fearful of being seen as soft on the West 
Tbe essential issue has been correctly stated 
by President Bill Clinton: No civilized society 
kills people for writing bocks. Mr. Larijani is 
perfectly free to fulminate against The Satanic 
Verses" and to condemn its author's views. But 
Iran's right to assail Mr. Rushdie cannot invade 
his right to breathe and speak freely. Sooner or 
later, some leader in Iran wQl say in public wbat 
its diplomats whisper in private: that the old 
ayatollah's fatwa was a willful blunder that has 
injured the good name of Iran, and Islam. 

— THE NEW YORK TIMES. 


Olympic Compromise 


That's some compromise tbe U.S. Olympic 
Committee worked out with Tonya Harding 
and her lawyers. Miss Harding gets exactly 
what rite wanted — to skate in the Winter 
Games —and the Olympic Committee gets out 
of a S20 rnfflion lawsuit intended to bully it into 
doing just what h did. Tbe only thing compro- 
mised was whatever might be left of the Olym- 
pic ideal that supposedly inspires these Games. 

Miss Harding's former husband says she 
was in on a plot that he and others cooked up 
to injure rival figure skater Nancy Kerrigan. 
Miss Harding denies it, but does admit to 
having known about the plan after it was 
carried out and not going to the authorities 
until things started to unraveL The U.S. 
Olympic Committee was moving toward a 
disciplinary proceeding to determine whether 
Miss Harding could stay on the team when it 
was hit with her preemptive lawsuit and 
quickly agreed to let her skate in Norway. 

There was no need to have punished Miss 
Harding for something that has not been 
proved in court What she has confessed to 
doing was sufficient to merit punishment. .As 
the columnist Michael Wflbon succinctly put 
it on the sports page of Tbe Washington Post 
“Harding's a liar kick her off the U.S. Olym- 
pic team." Young people are kicked off teams 
every day — for missing a bed check, drink- 
ing. fighting failing to make practices or 
flunking calculus. Coaches are fired. Entire 
university athletic programs are put on proba- 
tion on the strength of nothing more than a 
hearing and a ruling by an athletic body. 


Of course, nobody likes a snitch. But let us 
consider the nature of tbe crime Miss Harding 
has acknowledged helping cover up. Sports 
Illustrated magazine, which carries an exten- 
sive account of wbat has been alleged about 
the planning and execution of the attack, has 
also done us tbe service of having an artist try 
to imagine the scene. His drawing shows the 
attacker gripping his club two-handed. like a 
baseball bat (he was seeking to cripple, re- 
member) and crouched over slightly, as if 
about to tee off on a han g in g curve, rather 
than the kneecap of the terrified young wom- 
an shrinking bade against that corridor walL 
It's quite enough to make you forget about tbe 
Tonya jokes for a while. 

Nancy Kerrigan will now be thrown togeth- 
er with Miss Harding (not to mention a great 
mob of news people) in the Olympic Village. 
The two skattrs will even be on the ice for 
practice at the same time unless the schedule 
is changed — which, considering the perfor- 
mance so far by all the many governors in- 
volved, it probably won’t be. FoDowing the 
attack, the U.S. Figure Skating Association 
chose to defer action on Miss Harding’s dis- 
closure of whal she had known, passing the 
buck to the Olympic Committee. The commit- 
tee cited pending proceedings by the skating 
association as one reason for not acting. “I 
can't believe she's actually coming.” said a 
U.5. Olympic official after the Harding deal 
was done. “7 can’t believe everyone ended it 
doing nothing." Neither can we. 

— THE WASHINGTON POST. 


Other Comment 


U.S. and Japan at Crossroads 

The latest trade tensions between Tokyo 
and Washington show that President Clin- 
ton has failed to seize an opportunity to 
inject more maturity into one of the world's 
most vital bilateral relationships. Instead, 
after his fruitless meeting with Prime Minis- 
ter Hosokawa. the United Slates is threaten- 
ing to impose sanctions ir its demands on 
market access are not met. Japan has w arned 
that it might retaliate. Yet the risk of a trade 
war should not be overstated. The two na- 
tions have fonnd ways back from the brink 
before. And despite Washington’s mishand- 
ling of its Tokyo ties, unintended benefits 
may yet flow from this latest crisis. 

Mr. Clinton is not the only one winning 
domestic support for the standoff. After suf- 
fering reversals on electoral reform and taxes. 
Mr. Hosokawa may recover some lost politi- 


cal ground because be stood up to the Ameri- 
cans. And inappropriate and resented as they 
may be. U.S. threats may help Japan’s reform- 
ists' tackle the bureaucratic and industry inter- 
ests standing in the way of the kind of deregu- 
lation that could lead to more open markets. 

These reforms will have to be Japanese 
initiatives, showing the same confidence that 
Mr. Hosokawa did in saying “no" to import 
quotas. (This} could be another step toward a 
more mature and balanced relationship be- 
tween the world's two economic superpowers. 

— The Australian (Sydney !. 

U.S. -Japan relations are at a crossroads. 
Japan can no longer be regarded as some 

kind of junior partner in the bilateral rela- 
uonship. Wjtb the Cold War over, common 
security interests no longer smother different 
economic and diplomatic interests. 

— Sydney Morning Herald. 


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H ONG KONG — Asian reaction to the 
breakdown of U.S.-Japanese trade 
talks has been muted. Editorials have ex- 

E ressed sorrow, not anger. Stock markets 
ave taken a knock, but a modest one by 
recent volatile standards. Yet deeper down 
there is that tension that comes with not 
knowing what to expect next. 

Nothing dramatic is likely to happen soon. 
But at the very least, nations haw to consider 
the consequences of U.S.-Japancse frictions 
for themselves, and contemplate difficult 
choices should those deteriorate. 

Last year's debates over the respective mer- 
its of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation and 
the East Asian Economic Caucus may appear 
less theoretical than (bey did then. 

There is something viscera] in Washing- 
ton's attitude to Japan that cannot be ex- 
plained cither by trade specifics or by tbe 
economic outlook. Thanks to Presidents Ron- 
ald Reagan and George Bush, Asia may have 
misread the depth of antipathy toward Japan 
which easts in some influential quarters in the 
United States. Bill Clinton has taken the lid off 
this box of emotions by laying down targets 
that are not only impr actical but contrary to 
traditional U.S. aversion to managed trade. 

Mr. Clinton, the opportunist politician, 
may find it hard to put the lid back when he 
wants to. Logic is certainly missing from the 
present situation. 

There is no doubt that the Japanese overall 
current account surplus of S130 billion is 
unsustainable, as is a 550 billion trade surplus 
with the United States. There is no doubt 
either that Japan's economy needs further 
stimulus if it is to enjoy a domestic demand- 
led recovery. Nor doubt that some of its 
markets have yet to be prised open. But this is 
a curious time for the United States to choose 
to threaten trade war. 

The U.S. economy is recovering, jobs are 
being created. U-S. firms are widely acknow- 
ledged to have enhanced their international 
competitiveness — through cost cutting, in- 
vestment and technological excellence and 
not simply because of a weak dollar. 

The Japanese surplus has probably peaked 
(despite low oil prices). Inflated last year by 
thenseof the yen. this year it should contract 
as export volumes are pressured by lade of 
competitiveness. Further yen strength will sim- 


By Philip Bowring 

being driven by its gut and not its bead that is 
worrying others. Many in Asia are sympathet- 
ic toward U.S. complaints about Japan, fed 
that Japan deserves to be taught a trade 
lesson, yet worry deeply about the conse- 
quences of emotional and unila teral actions. 

After aU, the Bill Clinton now threatening 
Japan with sanctions is the same Clinton who 
was supposed to be so strongly behind multi- 
lateralism on trade as evidenced by efforts to 
conclude the Uruguay Round. This is the 
same Clinton who three months ago was host- 
ing the AFEC summit in Seattle, proclaiming 
the need Tor greater multilateral trade cooper- 
ation across the Pacific. 

Tbe Clinton who professes to believe in 
freer trade and macroeconomic objectives is 
the Same One Who Wants tO impnag nnmerial 
targets on specific sectors when it is the total- 
ity of trade that matters. 

In the short term, other Asian countries 
may well benefit from Japan’s discomfiture. 
Korean and Taiwan com pani es are already 
exploiting the damage that tbe High yen is 
causingJapanese competitiveness. Southeast 


Asian subsidiaries of Japanese firms wDl do 
more exporting to the United States doe to 
lower costs, while corporate Japan seeks all 
conceivable ways of reducing its surplus. 


But tbe longer-term impact on Asa will be T 
highly disadvantageous. Japan may seem the ; 
villain for now. but the United States has 
other, trading partners in Asia whose trade is 
as lopsided and which have much more obvi- 
ous barriers to imports than does Japan. 
China is the most obvious. Korea is still an ' 
almost closed market for items such as cars. 
Add in the human rights issues, and the r 
potential for new trade Darners against East ' 
Asia is formidable. ■ ' 

In so far as the East Asian economies are ' 
linked, with Japan as supplier of capital and 
intennediaie goods and the United States 
being the buyer of last resort for end pro- 
ducts, any action against Japan will have' 
eventual knock-on effect. This would not as, 
great now as 10 years ago, when a higher 
proportion of Asian exports went to U.S. . 
markets, and before non-Japanese Asian 
brand names established themselves in the 
West But it is still a very real concern. 
Friction with Japan will add to the relative 
merits of Latin America over Asia as a loca- 
tion for investment and product sourcing.' 
Thanks to the North American Free Trade: 
Agreement and bilateral pacts, Latin America 
wffl enjoy si gnifican t non tariff advantages 
over Asian producers — and political weight 
indie United. States: ' 

. Much though it may in tbrary want to, the. 
United States cannot isolate iis trade relation- 


ship with Japan from 

likewise, ifAsian countries see the oms- 
psrific relationship -deteriorating "Jj. 
look more seriously at the prop«al 5S 
aa’s Prime Minister Maha^bm Mohamad 
for an East Asian Economic Caucus. 

^present, they are far tood®m^“ 
the US. market to annoyapik^ W^hmg- 
ton. At the same time, however,. 
heavfiv on Japan for capital. LogSrdictates 

tffirc than? ibm 

Padfic they wffl want to strengthen war 
trade ties with Japan, which wffl anyway 
develop naturally from an over-strongyen- 
Nar despite toe rhetoric, can tra de be is o- 
Iated from security. Given the importance of 
the US. presence to t apodal stabmiy ; mans 
another reason for Asan anxiety. _ • 


imr Zhirinovsky’s musmgs, U.S. force joduo-' 
fiofw mig ht he more imminent than is now the 
case. But the flag follows trade — n ot wee 
versa. W eakening of the trade relationship 
will erode tbe security one. That will happen 
over time anyway, out it needs to be con- 
trolled and gradual if it is irottobe disruptive; 

There is a gut instinct abroad that Mr. - 
Clinton and Mr. Hosokawa, both politically 
weak, could lose control of .events. That, not 
trade numbers, is. the .worry. . 

International Harold Tribme. 


Washington Looks Short of Expertise on Japan 


ply delay recovery in domestic demand. Nor 
win foreign threats do much to help Morihiro 
Hosokawa’ s reform and stimulus efforts. 


Strong U.S. action a year ago would have 
been more rational than today. Now it almost 
lodes as if the United States is lacking Japan 
when it is down — revenge for insults that 
flowed the other way two years ago. 

It is this sense that tbe United States is 


T OKYO — To anyone who 
knows Japan, or world trade, 
the demand that Tokyo set nu- 
merical targets for imports from 
the United States is laughable. 

Import targets fly in the face 
of recent GATT, APEC and 
NAFTA rhetoric. And what hap- 
pens if other countries in trade 
deficit with Japan also demand 
fixed shares of Japan’s market for 
imported goods? 

To apply the targets, bureau- 
crats would have to strengthen 
control over the economy. Yet 
weakening bureaucratic control 
in Japan is supposed to be a major 
Clinton administration goal. 

Tbe administration would no 
doubt argue that Japan is already 
so incorrigibly bureaucrat-con- 
trolled ana anti-free-trade that a 
hard-tine approach is the only an- . 
p roach. This is fantasy talk, the 


By Gregory Clark 


result of reading too many half- 
baked anti-Japanese tracts. 

In some areas the Japanese 
market is indeed dosed. Bureau- 
cratic collusion is (me reason, but 
a much larger problem is incestu- 
ous private deals. In other areas 
Japan is more open than most 
countries. Overall, it is prribabfy 
not much worse in this respect 
than France. 

U.S. ex p orters fail in Japan 
mainly because they do not try 
hard enough- In advance of the 
Hosokawa-Clmton talks, the U.S. 
timber export industry nm an ad- 
vertisement here appealing tor a 
fairer deaL The ad was wefi writ- 
ten and closely argued. The only 
problem was that it never got to 
be read by the Japanese. For con- 
venience and to save money it was 


nm in a aafttiiaihtion Eng- 
lish-language newspaper. 

To succeed in Japan you need 
more tHjm convenient gimmicks. 
You need to do your homework, 
show comnritmmt for tbe long 
hanL You need to sgjmd money. 
Above all you need to realize that 
most people here operate in Japa- 
nese, HOI FjigVfih • ' ; 

The United States is right to 
want to act on- the fade defiriL 
Encouragexnent for yen apprecia- 
tion is one possible moue^ but at 
this stage it would probably send 

the -frail Ta panna* wwnnmy intA a 

taHspm. A better movejnst now 
would be to ask ^paii for 'Ndnn* 


croc goods, a policy that 
wdcedwcHmmepasL 
Unfortunately Washington 


too caught up in its own free trade 
rhetoric to realize that cutting ex- 
ports from Japan is much easier 
and fairer than trymgsuddenly to 
expand exports into Japan. 

Uis also wasting time and ener- 
gy triting Tokyo to cut taxes' to 

reflate the economy. Tax cots 
may work in consumption-happy 
societies Kko America’s, but in Ja- 
pan other and more drastic mea- 
sures are needed. 

The United States would do a 
lot better ffl it 'stopped trying to 
impose its, own values and reme- 
dies and oonceatated on getting 
more exp ert is e about Japan. The 
Japanese-press is full of accounts 
of bumbling by Washington's 
trade negotiators here in recent 
week&.The c urren t confrontation 
can.aafywofk.to the benefit of thie 
hawks, of. both rides. 

International Herald Tribune. 


Russian Reform Has Been Weakened From Within and Without 


M OSCOW — Tbe last three years 
of Russian reforms were' very 
hectic and filled with dramatic 
events: a couple of coups d’etat three 
prime ministers, five economic minis- 
ters. and so forth. Nonetheless, pro- 
gress has been enormous. There are 
hundreds of thousands of new busi- 
nesses, 86.000 privatized companies, 
a widespread banking system, com- 
modity and stock exchanges, a single, 
market-based exchange rare, liberal- 
ized prices, more or less consistent 
monetary and fiscal policies. 

Compare life in Russia today with 
the hyperinflation and empty shops 
in Ukraine, and you will compre- 
hend the enormous progress that re- 
formers achieved. 


By Boris G. Fyodorov 

The writer resigned last month as Russian finance minister. 


What really frustrates is misimer- 
preiation of the situation. The oppo- 
sition was very effective in promoting 
the idea that Russia underwent loo 
much “shock therapy" and that re- 
forms should be more graduaL Some 
people in the West, out of ignorance, 
took the same position. 

Last year ihe average monthly rate 
of inflation in Russia was 20 percent. 
Registered unemployment was less 
than 1 percent. Real growth b per- 
sonal income was 10 percent. Food 


consumption and retail sales in- 
creased. Who in his right mind can 
call this shock therapy? 

To the contrary, we are going too 
slowly, wo gradually. The mam prob- 
lem is political wilL If the president 
forms coalition governments that go 
in several different directions at the 
same time, if nobody takes responsi- 
bility for painful but vital measures, 
the situation can only deteriorate, re- 
sulting in social unrest and possibly 
in political upheaval. 

Still, a fledgling market economy 
exists and responds to regulation by 
market policy tools. Most of the basic 
changes have already occured, but we 
need more law and order, financi al 
discipline, consistency in policies and 
fmc-tuning of government measures, 
as well as better trained, dedicated 
government officials. 

Tbe days of radical steps are over. 
Tightening of policies, macroeco- 
nomic stability, healthy currency, 
boosting of savings and investment, 
productivity, competition — these 
are the proper targets for 1994. 


Unfortunately, a different view 
prevailed. Many people in high 
places did their best to help demo-, 
critic pro-reform groups tad in the 
elections. Political inexperience and 
the Inability to explain goals and re- 
sults of the reforms to tltt population 
worked in tbe same direction. 

Once the electoral faflnrc hap- 
pened, these faces came out of am- 
bush, took off the masks and started 
to say that people had voted fa a 
change of policies. Various “experts" 
in the West joined the chores. 

One has to live in Russia and be in 
the midst of events to understand the 
real situation. People here do not yet 
read political programs, they vote 
emotionally; they follow personal- 
ities of the day. What we have as a 
result is a divided parliament which, 
to add insult to injury, is devoid of 
many powers that it previously held. 

In government we got a “red" di- 
rectors' junta plus a few turncoats 
who ai long last lave the dear major- 
ity and immediately initialed a turn- 
around in policies. Many an official 


had waited fa this moment for two [promises trilfions to everybody. Ev- 
loiig years. It is dear that an ecoaom- .erything is on public record. Roman- 
ic coup d'etat took place in Moscow L her that fa 7> years, many wads in 
in January. “Red” ; managera are in Russia rounded the same as m the 
control and talk excitedly about more; West but meant different things, 
and more oimtrolvFued . exchange * Nanethdcss the numformed West- 
rates are advocated. r gnx andierice,iiearing fanning wages 


dear. It b posable. that he allowed 
the new govOTonent to hsvq a go, 
taking into account the political cir- 
cumstances., probably rt was un- 
avoidable, because otherwise- the 
myth about a “different way* would 

so far has not supported^spLific 
ideas voiced by the govenunenL He 
has a free hand to step in price the 
collapse starts. With tayjqwas and. 

ofre^onns, theonfy^ope ifiariahas 
before the next piesdonfial election. 

It is obvious that some, 'of the de- 1 
verer ones are frightened They im- 
mediatefy resortecfzo Soviet-era rhet- 
oric, which bods flown tola clear-cut 
division between - words land deedsl 
One talks at. the spite .time about, at 
least three sets of totalfy incompati- 
ble inflation targets, one blathers in 


tries die whole budget deficit of 10 
percent of GDP was financed by car- 
tral bank credit, if productivity and 
efficiency were so flagrantly low? 

How b the West to react to aU 
these recert; developments? There 
are, I believe, two possible scenarios. 

First, rt could be frightened, by the 
conservative backlash and tbe specter 

at Vladimir Zhin'ivw dcy and start 


before the next pr«ddantifll election. This would be similar to the late 
It is obvious that some ,bf the ck- v Gorbachev period, when money was 
verer ones are frightened. They im- lavishlyflowingin wth absolutely no 
mediately rcsortocrw Soviet-era rfaet- impact on events, except to pedoug 
oric, which bods flown tola clear-cut the agony of the doomed regime. The 

division between -.words and deeds, only real ooaseqncace is die increased; 
One talks at. the same.tupe about at debt burden, a problem fa years to 
least three sets at total fy incainpati- coma If the International Monetary 
Ue inflation targets, one bialbera in Rmd bods tbe rules, if some people 
Davos, Switzerland, about fighting continue “rethinking poScy," Rusaa is 
inflation and at tire same time freely ^ in fa major trouble that will merits- 


America’s Missionary Policy Was Doomed to Flop 


is.no way ore can compen- 


P RINCETON. New Jrreey — ^ The 
worst and most predictable 
American forage policy failure of the 
late 20ib century has been unfolding 
in post-Communist Russia ever since 
the Soviet breakup in 1991. Ail the 
outcomes America wans in a country 
that remains so essential to its securi- 
ty — democracy, a prespering econo- 
my, a political establishment friendly 
to the West major reductions ana 
safeguarding of nuclear w eapons and 
other devices of mass destrectien — 
have been undermined by the U.S. 
government's own policy. 

American politicians and pundits 
are belatedly awaking to tnai fail- 
ure. but not to its full” magnitude or 
the real reason behind i:7 Pointing 
the who-iost-Russia finger at earn 
other, zealous promoters of a pro- 
foundly unwise policy, initiated by 

the Bush administration me ex- 
panded by the Clinton team, bsisi 
that it failed because ike West did 
not give sufficient or timely finan- 
cial aid to Russian reformers. Their 
self-serving excuses ignore the les- 
sons that must urgently be leaded if 
tbe American debacle ir Rusria is 
not to become a full-scale disaster. 

At fault is the basic premise that 
has guided American po’icy since 
1991: that tbe United States car. and 
should intervene deeply In Russia's 
internal affairs in order to transform 
thaL nation into alt American- style 
system at home and a cortp-ilv. 
junior partner abroad. A preposter- 
ously missionary idea, it ;$ ;n almost 
total* conflict with Russia’s histori- 
cal traditions, present-day realities 
and possibilities, ard thus car.ser- 
ously counterproductive. 

Consider how badly this policy has 
failed. Prospects fa peaceful devel- 
opment loward stable markrts ar.c 
democracy in Russia are vyns today 
than they were two years azi. and 
much worse than they -ere -hen 
President Bill Gbicn took office a 
year ago. The economy :? m free-fall, 
ravaged by an extraordmar- araltiple 
collapse of production, capital ir.- 
vesunenL coosumptios. legal tia re- 
actions and tbe ruble. 

Moreover. Russia ha? bad no real 
political system a: all since Mr Yelt- 
sin destroyed the owsststirtiena! order 


By Stephen F. Cohen 


by force last fall; it has had only his 
current efforts to create a personal 
regime of power. As a result, anti- 
democratic. military and other secu- 
rity forces now play a much larger 
role in domestic and foreign politics 
than they did a year ago. 

Nor has Russia's foreign policy 
conformed with U.S. prescriptions. 
Its opposition to moving NATO east- 
ward and to Western action against 
Serbia are just the latest evidence that 
Russian policies can be made and 
sustained only in Moscow, not in 
Washington.* Meanwhile, almost 
nothing concrete has been done to 
reduce the various nuclear threats on 
former Soviet territory, which axe 
greater today than they were under 
the Soviet regime. 

As for the U.S. wager on Boris 
Yd tan os the popular instrument of 
the American crusade. 85 percent of 
Russian participants in the Decem- 
ber elections voted against his poli- 
cies and party. Still worse, a signifi- 
cant pot of the anti-Ydtsin vole was 
an anti- American backlash against 
the riilrusive U.S. role there. 

More recently, the administra- 
tion's apparent' remoteness from 
Russian realities allowed President 
Clinton to be embarrassed by a Po* 
temkin-vtUage summit meeting with 
Mr. Yeltsin in Moscow. Promises 
iri3de by Mr. Yeltsin about the com- 
position and direction of his govern- 
ment were immediately violated. 

The “breakthrough” on persuad- 
ing Ukraine to give up its nuclear 
weapons looks even more dubious as 
Ukrainian-Russian relations wors- 
en. And in Belarus, which Mr. Clin- 
ton visited after Moscow, the pro- 
Western president was removed just 
after his departure. 

Finally, at home the Clinton ad- 
ministration has created so many illu- 
sions and false expectations about 
Russia’s possibilities that current de- 
velopments are generating an anti- 
Russian backlash — certainly against 
more aid for reform. A new U.S.- 
Russian cold war mav not yet be an 
the horizon, but a chilly peace is now 
more likely than the vaunted “era of 
partnership and friendship." 


it is said that the United States 
must support Mr. Yeltsin because be 
is Russia's elected president But 
President Clinton and his aides have 
gone far beyond that norm of inter- 
national relations, becoming his 
cheerleader, accomplice and spin 
doctor, and thus implicating America 
in sane of his most ill-advised and 
even wicked deeds. 

To understand that complicity, we 
must see Mr. Yeltsin’s leadership 
through the eyes of a great many 
Russian dozens. Fa them, he has 
been an extre mi st leader imposing 
from above — an old Russian tradi- 
tion — exceedingly radical policies 
fa which they never voted. 

His most extreme measures came 
as three still traumatic shocks to sod- 
ety. In 1991 he suddenly abolished 
the Soviet Union, the only country 
that most Russians had ever known. 
In 1992 his economic “shock thera- 
py” look away the life savings and 
living standards of most Russian 
families. And in 1993 his tanks over- 
threw the elected parti ament and 
constitutional system previously pre- 
sented to citizens as the legitimate 
post-Communist order. 

Not surprisingly, Mr. Yeltsin’s 
shock leadership utterly polarized 
Russian society, devastating all vari- 
eties of moderation and centrism in 
political life. 

Deepfy wounded, polarized and an- 
gry, Russia desperately needs moder- 
ate, consensual gradual reforms. Any 
xaoce shocks will almost certainly wad 
some rough beast slouching toward 
the Kremlin. A tend caafrtion of 
Russian moderates — “centrists” who 
see thansdves trapped betwea Mr. 
Yeltsin and Vladimir Zhirinovsky — 
is struggling to emerge as a political 
force capable of reshaping the reform 


Russia, it will adopt a new and moder- 
ate principle of its own: The - United 
States does not have the wisdom, right 
or power io intervene so deeply in 
Russia's internal affaire; aB attempts 
io do so wffl backfire perikmsfy.. 

On that principle; the United. 
States should withdraw its excessive 
presence in Russia, cease its dogmat- 
ic sermons and dollar-laden .ultima- 
tums, and encourage Russia to find 
its destiny, as it must,' within its own 
circumstances and possibilities. " 

And when — or, fa pessimists, if 
— Russia finds its own way toward 
political and e cono mic reform, even 
if it is not the American way, die 
Clinton administration will be a bl e 
to give generous financial assis- 
tance, as it must, that is both fnatfnl 
and honorable. 

The writer, professor of politics anti 
director of Russian stadia at Princeton 
University, contributed this co mm e nt to 
the International Herald Tribune. 


tence with external financing to such-. ! 
a degree that the. Russian economy 
can avoid destruction under the pxes- 
asure of hype rinfl ation, Communist- .-a 
type industrial policy. Jade of even 
primitive financial discipline and fla- 
grant disregard of the kw-by the - 
; executive branch. More help vyiui less. , 
reform would be a huge im stake. 

,• The. alternative scenario is for the ’ 
)West to be consistent and proceed in , 
'a normal way, promoting private im-'. 

. Natives, t raining people,- s m n n thmg - \ 

the way for direct forergninvestmoiL - 
Direct faandal support 10 thegorer- 

ineut should be conditioned on sound 41 

macroeconomic policies. 

- Assistance targeted at tlK private 
sector, at institutional rf nm y n , at ' 
tr aining, at fostering the tniAffi? rfaw • 
should have as little unk to the gjvem- 

pi enl as possjMei.The more people- 
understand maikets, wok in the mar- > 
Jcet institutions, tbe sooner eoonomic- 
jxwoes will be corrected, and Rosas j 
wiQ move to a more efficient economy • 
and highg standards of Bring. . • 

i International Herald Tribune ■ •- * 


ES OUR PAGES; 100, 75 AND 50 YEARS AGO 


process, with or without Mr. Yeltsin. 
Some such moderate bloc is Russia’s 
best hope, and possibly last chance, 
fa democratic and market reform. It 
is thus America's only hope fa a' 
Russia engaged m progressive change 
at bow rather than m a pur s uit of 
lost power abroad. 

IT the Clinton administration heeds 
the lessons of its missonaxy failures in 


.1894: Hang the Duke? - 

LONDON — Before the House of 
Commons last night relapsed into a 
consideration of the Parish Councils 
Bill and the dallaess consequent 
thereon, it treated itself to a little 
liveliness. Mr. Knau&bdl-Hugessen 
wanted tbe Home Secretary to tefi 
him whether W illiams, the profes- , 
sonal organiser of unemployed, had,- 
said that the Duke of Westminster., 
should be hanged on a lamp-post 
with grass in his mouth, and if so. 
whether he should be at targe: The'' 
Home Secretary endeavored to allay 
everyone’s fears by saying that it was’ 
no particular duke that Wiflhims 
wanted to subject to this undignified 
treatment, but only dukes and other 
respectable people, in ^aeraL ... 

1919: LdbanonVQai^ 

PARIS — Bacud Bey Ammoon^head' 
of the Lebanon delegation, who wa* 
heard at yesterday'sjFeb. l 5}rocet-" 
ing of the Council of Ten, sustained - 


the renewing daims: fajmendmee 1 
of tbe Lebanon, recoastitutum df the ■ 
country's historic arid Batumi fron- 
and the iheodEfy collaboration ! 
. of France. He showed flat the 1 last 
- with Turkey is now destroyed, ■ 
a nd th at there is no mason why the T 
Leb anon s hoddnot recover her for- 

raer complete independence: ■ - . ■* 


19444 Gssim Bombed 


ALGIERS — [From our New Ycric *■ 
cdrtiwri Bonbrng of the Abbw of . 
Monte Curino m Itafy began at 9:30 - 1 
today [Feb, J5], some;. twenty-four : 
h ours after allied. . planes h ad j 
dropped leaflets warning ’-civilian ■ 

; 

tt^^sat^forbomKsg the Ab- ^ 
Dcy of Monte Casstno on die road to ~ 
Rome was voiced by Prcskknt Roo- 

u].at. a- press' cod- 
rcteoce at .which be said grimly that it 
had ro be dOTebccansetbe damans 
"had been using the 'monastery as a 
poms from wfctcb to shell Americans. 


p* : v. 


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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, FEBRUAR Y 16, 1994 

" STTTTTol 


Page 9 


un kt 


True: As Fi 


WASHINGTON - The press' . . 
yy release from what used to be 
ihe book publishing firm Simon & . the unattache 
Schuster.'and is now apparently I*farJieisimii 
something called Paramount Pub- numerous sc® 
fishing Consumer. Group- is detyis heavily 
stamped in bright red capital let- bdng attache* 

. ters; SHOCKING: The inevitable - 'order centera 
blurb is furnished by Rush Lim- todisdpline t 
baugh and contains the trigger and to reduc 
word^ “duffing,” “raw," “Eke a aggression.” 
kick to the solar plexus.” .. ;Today,iie{ 

But this time Simon & Schuster . quarter of Am. 
is not pubUshuign dubious expoot ■ 25 and 34 live i 
OQTea.Kezmedy^asitffidlastyear, holds, either 
or some sex-studded detective thrill- formally unat 
j er. The raperijack is “The Index of •••••* - • 
i Leading Grimra! Indicators,”'! vol- 
: ume of tables, charts and graphs T}!* • 
assembled by William J. Bennett; X T 0 
the former secretary of education 
and drug “czar, " now toiling ai the -' 

Heritage Foundation^ a consem-- "^T EW YOl 
rive Washington ihmfe t»nTf ' J.N during ai 

The 'limbaugfc cmote refers' to - J ing,. ta lk i n g j 
“some of the most miffing ^ n ti priry. American pola 
I have ever read ... the raw data suddenly tha 
on what hashappened to American needed fresh a 
sodety m the last 30 years." - • - Few the Uni 

Mr. Barnett is a gn^j^asid^ one of the me 
but in die index he is wearing his Joe tioris I have s 
Friday disguise — “Just 1 the facts, 

Ma’ am. ” Many -erf the numbers 
need no sernionpang; they arc-ap- " * - •" 
i paDtng <-p(n i igb m themselves: -The - ' • • 

| average teenager spends 1.8 hours 


So Goes the Nation 


By.David S. Broder 


male,” he writes, 
rsaQy the cause of 
1 ill s. The good so- 


— 1 ■ HWMM — Y ” « MW v ww 

! dety is heavily dependent on men 


bong attached 

- 'order centered 
todisdpline tl 
and to reduce 
aggression.” I 
.. ; Today, hep 
. quarter of Am 
■ 25 and 341ivei 
bolds, either 
formally unat 


Five 


to a strong moral 
I on families, both 
leir sexual behavior . 
their competitive 

lints out, almost a 
rican men between 
i nonfamfly house- 
is angles or with 
ached others. The 


proportion of the average Ameri- 
can s adult life spent with spouse 
and children has declined from 62 
percent in I960 to 43 percent, the 
lowest in America’s recorded his- 
tory- “This trend alone probably 
helps to account for the high and 
rising crime rates over the past 30 
years,” Mr. Popenoe writes. 

Such knowledge is only the be- 
ginning of the search for remedial 
polides. But it certainly directs 
attention away from such popular 
gimmicks as “three times and 


you’re out" mandatory lifetime 
sentences and toward policies that 
require males to take responsibil- 
ity for children they have sired 
and measures that make il sharply 
preferable, in both finandal and 
social terms, to be pan of an in- 
tact family, not flying solo. 

In retrospect, it is amazing that 
American politics was hung up for 
so long in partisan debate about 
“family values." Now that it is 
largely, over, perhaps we can work 
at reversing some of those trend 
lines that Mr. Bennett charts. 

The Washington Post. 




SEE.IVE ), 
IWEITRlSE.' k 


ti 







■Ci 

/m 


a. HENO 15 Luiahe iSmppwi CA* S-alMt 



en Provide Relief From Bosnia-Speak 


N EW YOljK,— On Sunday. 

during an >ther day of think- 
: ing, . talking a id jre&cung about 
American polic > ao Bosnia, I knew 

suddenly that thy 1 m ind badly 

needed fresh ai . . . 

- Few the Unit d States; Bosnia is 
one of themes miserable exhibi- 
tions I have se si nr a lifetime of 


By A. M. Rosenthal 


- Few the U: 
one of the □ 
dons I have 


journalistic involvement in Ameri- 
can foreign policy. The policy was, 
and is, evasive and stumbling. But 
its m^jor failure is that to ibis mo- 
ment it has not been honest or dear 
with the American public. 

President Bill Clinton pro- 


nounces the United States ready 
for war but he doesn’t use the 
word “Air strikes” are war. So be 
it. But he does not say how long the 
United Stales will stake, how wide 
and hard and toward what peace 
goals, or if he has any. 


LETTERS TO THE EDITOR 


per week reading, 5.6 hours oo 
homework and 21 hours watching 
television. The number of unmar- 
ried, pregnant teens has doubled in 
the past- 30- years; die number of - 

sufci j B S has tripled. 

A more polky-opented treat- 
ment of these social treads has 
been published more quietly (no 
Lim baugh blurb) . by another 
Washington think tank; the Brook- 
ings Institution- In almost every 
way, “Values and Public Policy ” a 
collection of essays edited by Hen- 
ry J. Aaron, Thomas E. Mann and 
Timothy Taylor, is a more rignifi- . 
cant development. 

It shows how concern abootso- 
cial trends and the values they rep- 
resent has moved from the conser- 
vative precincts where Mr. Bennett 
works mtn liberal academia — ; and, 
through thatroute, into the tfnblting 
of the -Clinton administration .on 
avh issues as welfare reform and 
family policy. Because the fectffcf 

yvjwl diantegralsanraic — evep 

without the ied-ink hype — so stag 


r : 

- i— . • V 


Baltic Tea ^keeping 

in response- 1 > Out report "Russia 
Seeks Nearby . 'oats for Its Peace- 
keepers” (Feb. '): 

■ Defense Mi aistrsir Pavel Gra- 
chev’s appeal t< the United Nations 
for a mandate to cany out peace- 


SovietUmons 
d erf angst, an 
theCbmmoav 
States and in 1 
consonant. wit 
militaiy doctri 
1993, which t 
Russia to be. 
- Russians in fh 
. The doctrii 


keying’ America’s Wars, Too 

e report Russia tn response to “ A European War " 
b for Its Peace- (Utters, Jan. J9): 

George Kyle asks why must the 
1 d* people of North America should 

TJSm.Iw ^be asked few the third time in this 
United J* 8 ***®* century to come ewer and fight Eu- 
rope's wars.” I would like to help 
wiffi some historical peispective. 
adevatetbe lev- ^ on jy ^ the United States 

could have avoided being drawn 
[ into World War I was to ignore 

lame rials, it js r> mM ny , s unrestricted submarine 
offensive of 1917 and the sinking 
_» of neutral America’s ships. 

America could also have avtnd- 
tedor of ethmc ^ being drawn into World War IL 
llat f s - . All it had u> do was shrug off the 


be Baltic stales. It is 
. the “near abroad” 
e formulated late in 
bated (he right of 
jrote&or of ethnic 
testates. 


ah it nan io ao wju, Muug uu ujc 

. The doctrine^prowdes jostifica- al tack on Pearl Harbor 

dm Jot n^taiy-pdiiical achieve- . on 7< 1941 ^d ignore Germa- 
tnmts in Gecogia, Tqi fetan and n y s declaration erf war against the 
Moldova-. A m an date foam the United Stales four days later. 
United Nationsymokl surety bereo- JIM PRICE 


fanned as an afttt^theftet Step fjv- 
_ r __ ing intimacy to'rictonoos of mter- 

Udd SigraiiDc-arc — The Olympic Image 

without the red-ink hype — so stag- TpeacckeefH^ ^m tiieijaracregian. j 1 • _ 

going, this isno longer a matter o£ '. Fatten h&nster Andrei The Olympics used to be about 

ideological argument. . ■; e/spranounoeinent on Jan. 18 that amateurs and sportsmanship. To- 

TT^tos, the Brookings etfitors Russian solfiets mustronain in f ^ the Olympic arena is more a 
sav in the introduction to their vol-. v. mer Soviet reputes to avert a_se- showcase for commercialism. How- 
ume, when Wfal - like • carity vacumn” m regions of .NMI evo, this is no excuse for the dea- 

thansehres dismissed values axgu- mterest to Russia” cmitnbutes mb- soq by the U.S. Olympic Commt- 
ments as “facQe, simplistic, judg- ' .itoriiaDy to arinety m .toe tee and the US. Figure Skating 

mental and ffl-conadered,” be- Further, he warned that lUisia Assodation to allow Tonya Har- 
cause they imrfied tlmt “all society would xge strya measures ti Baltic ding to compete. 

- states violated international noons The lack (rf a straightforward 

, in doding with Russian-speakmg decision smells of politics. It guar- 

r Ent>rvjtnri£tvmusthe ’ reoflonts.^ He also has- asserted that amees turning this event into a 
nvery socu^jmiue .. .. -^t^^attenptn^tode^ jbbmatofe circus. Miss Harding 

wary of the unattached sands cf Russians to Ressra.^abti’ -bas admitted knowing about the 

, ■; ^ • -ing ftis as “etirmc deanangT attack cm Nancy Kerepa but did 

Sefibr Russian effifiab erigagem not reveal the knowledge until the 

- J . * I • rinhintlv ~r * 1 .™ Vuwl m 


JIM PRICE 
Trieste, Italy. 


r Every society must be 


virtue of accepting its responsibil- 
ities to citizens and visitors, is deal- 
ing with the terrorism situation 
head-on and not pretending that 
the problem does not exist. It 
should be rewarded for this and 
not misunderstood, nor should 
Egypt's economy suffer. 

I fed no more under threat in 
this country with its friendly and 
hospitable people, culture and his- 
tory than I would sitting on a 
Ttfarih in Europe; certainly much 
safer ihnn on Oxford Street in Lon- 
don, or in certain dries in Germa- 
ny. We Europeans have a lot to 
leant from the Egyptian people 
about how to welcome foreigners. 

JOHN LASHMAR. 

Cairo. 

The Inman file 

RegprtBng “The ‘Hostile Press' 
Makes a Poor Alibi ” by Arthur 
Schlesmger and “ Why Would Any- 
one Want the Vitriol and Miseryr 
by James Webb (Opinion, Jan. 22): 

1 found myself agreeing with both 
articles on Bobby Ray Inman ’s 
withdrawal as the nominee for U.S. 
defense secretary and the role of the 
press in this sad affair. William Sa- 
me dealt much more than just “a 
good pop” to Mr. Inman, and Mr. 
I nman seems indeed to have an 


By afternoon I realized that I was 
so depressed by the failure 'or Clin- 
tonian diplomats to be straightfor- 
ward on Bosnia that I had passed 
over another reality of that day: a 
number of quite different people 
had touched ray life or mind. Each 
was involved in public matters and 
was open, graced with candor and 
clarity. So I wiii write a bit about 
them, for pleasure and purpose. 

Representative Major R. Owens, 
Democrat of New York, a promi- 
nent African-American, was asked 
on New York City television about 


book “Mv Times.” The book goes 
into an extraordinary episode in 
journalism, a display of bravery 
and honesty for which he was nev- 
er forgiven. 

In 1982. The Village Voice wrote 
that Jerzy Kosinski, Lbe famous 
PoLish-born writer living in the 
United States, was a plagiarist 
1 was then executive editor of The 
New York Times and Mr. Kozinski 
was my friend. 

Readers: It is far easier to investi- 
gate the Establishment — the Pen- 
tagon. Genera] Motors, The Times 


uu liwn auiih LOEUU. UtUUOi mviuio, 

Louis Farrakhan. He said that the _T rhnn the “counterestabhshment" 
man was obsessed with anti-Semi- p ress . The Establishment rarely 


Hmi, that the Nation of Islam hurt 
African-Americans by separating 
them from their allies and that he 
was not interested in Mr. Farra- 
khan’s psyche. 

Thai was it No resentment 
about the question, no counterat- 
tack — plain, no evasion. 

I spoke with a couple of journal- 


strikes back, and if il does it creates 
instant heroes. The “counteresiab- 
lishment" press — a hilarious term, 
given the profit it makes for 
wealthy owners who relish publish- 
ing and don’t care whaL — does 
retaliate, viciously and forever. 

But Mr. Corry wrote an article 
detailing his own investigation and 


J sputvt vriiu u vijvii.."- UClOJllHg JUa uivtougauuu ouu 

isis, connected only because they charging that the plagiarism accu- 
are professionally and probably saikin was cnieHv false. The ene- 
congeoitally unable to becloud or 0 f j^y Kosraski an unrepen- 
run from truth. tarn anti-Communist, persecuted 

David Remnick wrote “Lenin’s him t0 and beyond the grave. Mr. 
Tomb,” the classic book on the remains their target Their 

collapse of the Soviet Union. I had hiry is a medal to his honesty, 
just read his excellent piece on Al- Sunday night there was a fund- 
exander Solzhenitsyn in The New ra i s j na dinner for Hale House Cen- 
Yorker. I had met Mr. Remnick rer. Hale House lakes care of babies 
only fleetingly. But his work told ^ inherited drug addiction 
me a lot about him — warmheart- m ^ ^ chita Rivera and 
ed, honorable and without intellec- Rabbi Bruce M. Cohan got awards, 
tual subterfuge. So I told him that table was there for Dr. MilcbeU 


and said thank you. 


iu aoiu uuui>. jwu. g Rosenthal's award- (I do have a 

I wanted to say the same things ^ w bo a terrific doctor, but this 

n:.L..4 D n «,Ar Fac fair Knnlr .... n ,i it *tl‘ 


to Richard Reeves for his book 
“President Kennedy,” a biography 
that is also in its footnotes a superb 
one-volume course in journalism. 


is a different Dr. Rosen thaL) This 
one is bead of Phoenix House, ther- 
apy centers far drug addicts. Hones- 


one-volume course in journalism, ty ^ the heart of the cure. The 
but couldn't find his number. He staff, many fonner 


lives ont there. . 

My pleasure in the books is ^ be long and hard and they wfl 
spiced with pride. These two for- help themselves, or go down, 
mer newspapermen show how tal- u ^ man or any above ever 
ented straight journalism is the sib- ^ anyih ;n g but the dear truth he 
ling of great history and biography. W(Mj]d fail and his Hfe's 

Pulitzers, at once, for each. work. It seems so plain. 

But I did have the number of ^ „ „ , 

J ohn Cony, the author of the new The New York Times. 


addicts, tell patients that therapy 
will he. Iona and hard and they win 


male* for hots.- ■ ■ a™** Ji ~s.tr «nrcvouu*v ,w " ,k ^ 

• . . . _ ' l: • j this kkd cf dcanTonnatioo tiotwiih-- ^ was out of the bag 

imtverMUy the cause OJ that nnaortsmansHre 

■ ’ humariri^ts'bodies have nTxatodr ^ should not particq 


numerous social UlsS 

can do is coutiie^'fbe annas and 
pray for them to come to thar 
senses.” But it is nolonger posable 
to pretend that the valnes by which 
people live their hves don’t matter, 
j Tlte public no longer boys that, 
if 4t ever did, so “experts" .who 
! Hitig to that belief are increasingly 
I marginalized ift the policy debates.. 
| When, the csqierts shake off flwr 
i foigjit about values, however, they 
i really can help infonn the poBfical 


'da^onnatioahotwith- au was put of the hag. Based on 
ir . ; 1 — -p Jie fact tiurf interiotio^I t j Ml unsportsmanlike behavior, 
human rights bodies have repealed- ^ should not participate in the 
ly reported that aBegjitioqs of bar (Xympics aDd should bear respon- 
man rights Abuses m Latvia axe sibt ry for the bdiarior of the gang 
gromulte&'The UA government ihni worked for her. 
oooconed with th^ finding in a CORNEUS ran VLIET. 

' comzhnucafion fp the go*enunent Cannes. 

ofUairiaooFeib: 1.: /• .. 

Feeling Safe in Egypt 


beat for SOrears. The'remainm 
rtnieps — 11000 ni fatvia an 
2,400 in' Estonia — .axe tentative! 
sdiedxded to wave by 'fte end c 


i. “The'remainihg As a security consultant, I make 
0 hi $atvia and 8 number of visits to Egypt on 
—.are; tentatively business year. I am fulfy and 
ve_by 'rite end m accurately briefed on the security 


aijiraimw i*/ — -- — au-uituuj ummvu — — -/v 

August. 1994. put-RnSsian efforts problems with fundamentRlists 
arein. motion to keep, them there, that exist in the country. It has 


crime and fflejatimacy rates nave 
soared. David Popenoe of Rutgera 
cites social scientists from Marga- 
I ret Mead to Janies Q- Wlspn as 
i demonstrating that folk wisdomxs 
i right in hetieving that “as families 

‘ go, so goes the nation.” = 

( “Every, society most be waiy ca 


TENNESSEE. ^BLUAMSs 
Everyone Else Is an An&* 
cnee 

By Ronald Hayman. fUustrated. 
268 pages. $27.50. Yale Univer- 
sity Press. 

Reviewed by 
Michiko Kakutam , 

wsffiTA 


Gnomical oiv nt — uuu ww*. w — 7^- — 

icaujr ««■*-»< “Peacekeamg^ is a dangerous Qonx asa great dSsappomtment to 

dialogue. For exampl^>™™s hceQse tQ ^ibroiddr the map of ^ cspecSlly over the last few 

reafly ne^_ro - tm<xers l ana; the former Sovya Umon. The woid that bad publicity generat- 

’ w a mrfprmt 'rnkarnfip in Russia vi rtv». tntpmntirmal media is 


former Soviet Umon. The woid wrffs, that bad publicity generat- 
a different bneamflg in Russia ed by the international media is 
1 in the WeSL'Thi United Na* seriously damaging a substantial 
is should know tbst it is danger- source of income for the Egyptian 
indeed to expect anything people in the form of tourism. 
refn1 from a restless bear. Tne problems that exist here 

jOHfrMATHER. need to be correctly described, trot 
Ddmiu; New York. exaggerated. The government, by 


ITwould be interesting to know 
bow Mr. Inman reacted to a com- 
ment by Mr. Safire on Anita H2Q: 
Was he levelled or did he, like, so 

many Bushstroporters,rqoice when 
Mr. Safire doobered her as a “Haf^ 
My reaction to that infamous artide 
was the decision to never again read 
any of Iris columns, has hngmsnc 
essays included. 

ERWIN F. JENNY. 

Basel, Switzerland. 

The Bobby Ray Inman episode, 
as reported in your columns, has 
been a shining example of the 
merits of an independent, know- 
ledgeable and responsible press, a 
case study for faculties teaching 
political science or journalism. 

LOUIS BODMER. 

Zollikon, Switzerland. 


Lesters intended for pubOcanm 
should be addressed “Letters to the 
Editor” and contain the writer's sig- 

naUre, name and full address Letters 

should be brief and are subject to 
editing We cam* be responsible fin 
the return of unsaBated manuscripts. 


Question for Khasis: 

What Do Men Want? 

By Syed Zobair Ahmed 

S HILLONG India — The the patrilineal system, bowev 
marniineai Khasi society in So is a prominent Khaa sch 


J marniineai Khasi society in 
northeastern India, one of the 
few surviving female bastions in 
the world, is making a fervent 
effort to keep men in their place. 

Though an all- male organiza- 
tion that is battling the centu- 
ries-old marniineai system has 
yet to make any significant dent, 

meanwhile 

the rebels claim to have enlisted 
the support of some prominent 
Khasi women. 

Tbcir struggle to break free, 
they say. has resulted in s mall 
victories; some have begun to 
have a say in family affairs and 
are even inheriting property. But 
they constitute an insignificant 
minority in the 800,000-member 
Khasi society. 

The men say the Khasi women 
are overbearing and dominating. 

“We are tick of playing the 
roles of breeding bulls and baby 
sitters." complains A. Swer, who 
heads the organization of maver- 
ick males. 

Another member laments: 
“We have no lines of succession. 
We have no land, no business. 
Our generation ends with us.” 

The demand for restructuring 
Khasi society in Lhe patriarchal 
mold is a fallout from the grow- 
ing number of women who are 
marrying outsiders. 

Following custom, the youn- 
gest daughter inherits the proper- 
ty and after marriage her hus- 
band moves into the family 
house. Outsiders are said to mar- 
ry Khasi women for their proper- 
ty, while the women say they pre- 
fa to marry outsiders bttause 
their own tribesmen tend to be 
irresponsible in family matteis. 

In rebuttal, many Khasi men 
say (he outsiders take advantage 
of the immat urity, youth and vul- 
nerability of the youngest daugh- 
ters and devour aO their property 
and business. As a result, many 
Khasi men become paupers. 

Another problem caused by 
these marriages is the disintegra- 
tion of families. About 27.000 
Khasi women were divorced by 
their non-Kbasi husbands in re- 
cent years, the highest number 
among India’s northeastern 
tribes. The Khasi Student Union 
has issued a stem warning to 
young Khasi women against 
mar rying “nontribals," saying 
they may be ostracized if they 
do. It is against switching over to 


the patrilineal system, however. 

So is a prominent Khasi schol- 
ar. H.W. Sien, who cautions 

tha t a patrilineal shift “would 
result in cross- marriages be- 
tween clans, which is taboo in 
Khasi society.” and adds, “Ulti- 
mately. it would lead to genetic 
defects in the offspring.” 

He points out that a Khasi sot 

or daughter takes the surname of 
the mother. Therefore, if two sis- 
ters marry two men of different 
dans, in a patriarchal system the 
surnames of their children would 
be different and marriages be- 
tween cousins would be valid. 
“This goes against the basic prin- 
ciple of Khaa custom,” be said. 

At the same time, Mr. Sun 
condemns those who are opposed 
to Khaa women's marrying out- 
side the tribe. 

“Khasi culture is very flexible,” 
he said. “No problem if a non tri- 
bal wants to marry a Khasi gjit as 

long as he is prepared to live with 

her and foQcnv the Khasi custom. 

It will only add to the variety in 
Khasi society" 

But Mr. Swer says such liberal- 
ism is the root cause of bastard- 
ization of his tribe. 

“Today, we have over 2,000 
dans, but very few of them are 
pure Kbasis," he observed. His 
demand for change, he adds, 
would stop outsiders from chas- 
ing Khasi young women, since 
tinder the patrilineal system their 
wives could not inherit property. 
But whai about men marrying 
outside their tribe? 

“The girls will be taken into the 
Khasi fold,” he replied. “The cM- 
dren from the wedlock wfll auto- 
matically be Kharis.” 

While some men would like to 
end female domination, they do 
not support Mr. Swo’s move- 
ment to abandon the deeply held 
tradition. 

“We Kharis underestimate the 
contributions of our fathos to the 
family H. T. Wells, a cous- 
in of Mr. Sien. “Our fathers do a 
lot. but the credit gpes to the 
mothers. I would love to have the 
patriarchal system but for the re- 
spect of our custom.” 

Mr. Swer admits that the men's 

demand for a patrilineal society is 

still a distant hope. But people 
like Mr. Wells, half converts to 
his idea, sustain his dream. 

77re miter is a reporta- for The 
Tones of Imho, where this article 
appeared Jan. 28 before also ap- 
, pearing in The New York Tones. 


T Lie card 
tlrat speaks your 


IteNewYMfc’Bnts . 

Um hdij'hwdoo'repom from more than 
2J)HI»okriD(aihR)i^nnntelhiiiedS(ses. 
W<*fcs.o n lnia&nMtKeenw^eeraeBeive. 


but trapped by to own l fl- 

uid ties. Btapcte m A jKreetrar ^ 
Named Desire.” ^ sp-u 

Lago in “Smu.Bad d 
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to frirad abffityro ^suggest social and cnltur- bols.Instmd, be amply tienoanc^ 

sS a 1 dian legation through personal the “exorbitant vidence of the 
it Just, gave the reader any sense plays for camouflaging “saitimen- 

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laywright. Tennessee Wimans^ laa gommer" is “grossly im- It quickly becomes apparent to 

vayone Hse ls an Audience, by jnQtixT ^ Edwma. and he the reader ihat^Hayman is ^ually 

jcmald Hayman, -is- a cold, per- that “Sweet Krd of disapproving of Wnharoshfe. 

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iographies of. Kafka, Brecht, Sar- renexacy, nmteriahsm and moral that fueled his writing, nothing 
reJfroust and Plath, notes that he anarchy in the South; Fitzgerald about the emotional conuajrtions 
to commisrioned .to. write this had recognized that time passes that anim ated his lueana ms worx- 
oak by YafeUniversity Press, and quickly for those who chase the Among a d ecide dly mediocre 
e displays m-thfiserpages little fee! wremg dreams." ooUechrai of b ^ > 5^P hies J" 

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4 29 


International Herald Tribune 
Wednesday ; February 16, 1994 
Page 10 


f Pere Goriot’: Why Bother? 
Just Stay Home and Read It 


By Sheridan Morley 

International Herald Tribune 

L ONDON — At the Orange Tree in 
Richmond. Geoffrey Beevers's adap- 
tation and production of “Poe Cor- 
tot" suffers somewhat from the “why 
bother” syndrome. This is a perfectly thorough, 
respectable and efficient staging of the Balzac 
classic, but it offers little more than you could 
get from a reading of the original book or even a 
nearing of it on radio or cassette. Indeed, it is 
exactly the kind of production that used to fill 
BBC Radio 4 on drowsy Sunday afternoons 
before the Broadcasting House revolution, and 
that is really where it should have remained 
For we expect a Utile more than fidelity-of- 
novei staging since the Royal Shakespeare 
Company’s “Nicholas Nickleby” — some indi- 
cation that the company wishes to do more than 
just act out highlights from the text and provide 
a useful synopsis of the boring bits. “Goriot" 
was one of my set texts in school, and 1 wish 
that this production had been available just 
before I sat the final exams as a kind of aide- 
memoire and final summary. In that respect, its 
usefulness to schoolchildren is undeniable. 

But for adult audiences, some indication of 
why Beevers chose this above other Balzac 



rome Kern you mil have some, though only 
some, idea of what is going on here. 

For Hill has brilliantly united two apparently 
random, staged screen traditions: a daft 70s 
musical in which bright young thing s on their 
way to the anyone-for-tennis courts suddenly 
find themselves halfway up a mountain with a 
host who unsociably develops fangs, while in 
the background peasants are assembling in i he 
forest to fight off furry creatures who eat peo- 
ple. 

"Dances With Wolves” would have been Hill's 
only other possible title, and even that would not 
haw made much sense to Kevin. Costner: for this 
is a gloriously ramp local concoction, full of 
songs that sound as if Sandy Wilson rejected 
them 40 yean ago, and performances that seem 

THE LONDON STAGE 

to have been preserved in aspic since Joan 
Uttlewood's departure from East London. In- 
deed, the vaudeville routines with which Steven 
Pacey converts himself into the baity monster, or 
Toni Palmer does actually get to dance with the 
wolves, have at least a century of British music- 
hall tradition behind them. 

Lyrics like “It may provoke a/Nother Bram 



The W ar of Fantasy Movie F estivals in France 


By John Rockwell 

New York Times Scmce 

G ERARDMER, France — Once 
upon a lime. 21 years ago to be 
exact, there was a slightly sterile 
but picture-perfect and perfectly 
organized new French ski resort called Avoriaz. 
Its builders, who had erected this self-contained 
village on pristine alpine meadows, decided 
they needed to attract attention to their ven- 
ture. And so the midwinter Avoriaz Festival, 
devoted to "fantastic" films — science fiction, 
fantasy, horror and all-purpose weirdness — 
was born. 

It proved a great success, the high point of 
many junketing French journalists’ winters. 
But clouds darkened after last year's 20th anni - 

of 


prefer, it was David, the beleaguered Franco- 
European film industry, against Goliath, the 
Hollywood monopoly. Everything considered, 
Gerardmer won. 

At Avoriaz, [be main problems were an iffy 
selection of films and Daniel Toscan do Plan- 
tier's foot planted firmly in Daniel Toscan du 
P lan Her \ mouth. Toscan du Plan tier is the Jack 
Valenti erf France, among other things. His role 
as chief spokesman for French films worldwide 
comes from being the head of Unifrance, 
charged with encoaraging the international dis- 
tribution of French films. But he is also a film 
producer of note, now on his own after years at 
Gaumont Films, and a weekly film critic for the 
national newspaper Le Figaro's Saturday mag- 

artne 

In the wake of the “cultural exception" won b 




this is it Not is Hfll averse to a little topicality: divest himself of thing s fantastic and booted 
“I need evidence" says the local sergeant, faced oat the festival’s longtime organizers. They, in 
with a man-wolf . “Why," asks the sinister srien- turn, after some grumbling, repaired to a pleas- 
ti5t “You’re a policeman, aren't you?” ant but less picturesque Alsatian town called 

Scarborough is where Alan Ayckbourn has Gerardmer. 
his theater and where Charles Laughton’s old And so, in nearly simultaneous competition. 
Grand Hotel recently provided a convenient France had two high-profile winter film fesri- 
metaphor for local discontent by sli pping very v als. There was the newly incarnated Avoriaz 


slowly over a cliff and into the sea.* But ’ll has Festival of French Films, devoted to showcas- 
taken another playwright. Simon Bent, to see in “2 recently completed films and supported by 
this some son of a drama. His “Bad Compffliy” the full and mighty muscle of the French Elm 
(a product of the National Theatre workshop at establishment, from Jan. 15 to 19. And there 
the Bush) is a ramblin g, rootless, imfmiAwi was Fantastica, an expanded version of the old 
piece about a bunch or seaside drifters, disen- Avoriaz format in Gerardmer, devoted to the 
franchised, disillusioned, out of season and out fantastic in films, films on video cassette, video 
of sorts. His fragile sequence of conversational clips and games, virtual reality, comics, the 
duets and quartets has none of the style nor plastic arts, street theater and anything else the 
expertise of "Beautiful Thine" (another recent organizers coakl think of, from Feb. 1 to 6. 


David Neal as Pere Goriot. 

work of interest or amusement, would have 
been helpful. 

We need, in short, a point of view if several 
hundred pages are to be condensed into a couple 
of stage hours, and all we really get is a gallop 
through the text with reminders of its best lines 
plf you steal a franc you're a thief, a million and 
you’re a financier”).' David Neal is admirably 
craggy as the ok! merchant obsessed by his no- 
good daughters, but the Orange Tree budget 
cannot run to any contrast between the social 
extremes of society in this rather wooden digest 

Ken HiD's musicals have always been a little 
uncertain of the borderline separating parody 
from pantomime, but with “Curse of the Were- 
wolf” (at the Stratford East) he comes up with a 
real winner. We are in 1922, in the corner of 
Prussia that wiD be forever Walpurgisdorf Cas- 
tle, and if you can imagine “The Rocky Horror 
Show” rewritten by P. G. Wodehouse and Je- 


expertise of "Beautiful Thing" (another recent 
Bosh study of twentysomething losers), but is 
suggests that a better play might be on the way. 


It was David, in the form of the feisty weirdo 
outsiders, against Goliath, the sometimes over- 


Bent’s essential problem would seem to be bcarin S Frcndl rdm ^««cy Or. if you 

one of structure. He gets his characters onto die 

beach, or at any rate a cafe over-looking it, 

establishes their differences (one wishes to mar- T~> • 

ry, another to escape, a third to forget the l-C XTrr n y| “I - f VI 
unpleasant memories of a trip to London where I J y 4iClll Llliv J 
he was all but forced into homosexual prostitu- «/ 

tion) but then seems to lose interest in any kind 

of resolution, so that scenes peter out into By David Stevens 

random Chatto about bingo and unanptoy- International Herald Tribune 

mem and all the other fixtures of a seaside town — 

out of season. — ^ ARIS _ The ncw production of Ricb- 

Jane Barwril's setting of seascapes is, 1 think, MM aid Strauss’ "Salome” at the Optra 
meant to imply ironically and symbolically the ■ " Bastille is the most complete and satis- 

vast gap between their limitless sunny horizons J. fy effort in the theater's short, trou- 

and the dark narrowness of the fives lived bled history — musically solid and strongly 

cast, imaginatively staged, and with a decora- 
tive span encompassing the epoch of its story 
and tne time of its creation. 

Nicky Rico’s set and Elizabeth NeumQUer’s 
costumes create a place that simultaneously 
mediates between a kind of Byzantine antiquity 


and well, although his Dealing entourage of 
Bremond and others, chuckling appreciatively at 
his every boa mol. seemed a little self-congratu- 
latory. He was especially caustic about Valenti, 
whose blunders he felt had encouraged the Euro- 
peans to side with the French in toe trade talks. 
He kept referring to Valenti, in the course of an 
interview, as "your national genius." But that 
Toscan du Plantier blundered himself. In a con- 
versation with several French journalists that he 
first denied and then said had been off the 
record, he joked that with the Los Angeles earth- 
quake "God had chosen the side of the cultural 
Deception. I would have pr e fer red that he spared 
lives, but God is cruel” 

Valenti thunderously denounced Toscan du 
Plan tier’s msensitivitj^ Toscan du Plantier and 
Valenti have since officially made up, but the 
flap overshadowed the festival's intended pur- 
pose in the European press. 

That purpose was to present what Toscan du 


Plantier, borrowing a term from the fashion 
industry, called “the spring collection' 7 of 
French films. The trouble with this policy 1 is 
. that, unlike the amnia) showcases of French 
films in Sarasota, Florida, and, as of last year, . 
Yokohama. Japan, the Avoriaz Festival can't 
be selective, instead, it must present pretty 
much whatever is available. The result was a 
highly variable assortment of films, this year 
Tamer overweighted with the manic domestic 
farces the French seem to like but can'i-be 
readily exported. 

The most talked-abooi entry was Manine 
Dugowsou’s “Mina Tannenbamn," about iwo 
French girls who grow to womanhood, become 
estranged and then almost reconcile before the 
tenured-artist title figure- commits suicide; It 
was awkwardly written but well acted by 'Ro- 


fihn establishment often talk as if the failure of 
French films to find widespread international 
markets is some sort of Francophobic plot The 
real problem may lie elsewhere. At a forum for 
the European fmn distributors at Avoriaz — 
most of whom spoke in Fn g Hsh, to the open 
outrage of the Francophones' — several cop- 
plained that for all their government subsidies 
and self-promotion, the French couldn’t touch 
Hollywood when it came to efficient marketing. 

Wolfram Tichy, a German distributor, Was 
blunter. "The weakness of distribution is not a 
question of money,” he said, “but of produc- 
tion.” In other words, make better films and 
foreigners will flock to distribute them. - 


Fantas tica. was still resentful of being booted out [ 
of Ayotub. He attributed BifepomTs decision , 
partly to a desire to imgrade his resort clientele, ' 
which Bitmood readily conceded, and partly to J 
BrtmontFs ambitious as a film producer, which i 
are presumably furthered by cazying up to the 1 
French cinematic powers that be. . , 

Both Brfemond and Toscan du Plantier ar-i 
goed that the fantastic genre was in a steep j 
/tertmp; , j is films increasingly gruesome and its j 
creative energies sip honed off by video and i 
computer games. That, Chou chan hotly denied. ' 
poin ting to the proliferation of fantasy films in! 
Hollywood, Hong Kong and beyond. But be; 
has also moved to segregate horror films mtoj 
their own category and to include new medi- > 
mns_ That includes animated and computer-* 
interactive comics, which' the established j 

fan 


T HE team that used to present fantas- 
tic films at Avoriaz is the same that 
organizes the other thorn in the ride 
of die French film establishment; -die 
Festival of American Films in Deauvifie. 
Lionel Chouchan, the director of the new 


pling, made a nicely diverse Jot, lively and I 
<-n t ^Taming And they were hardly, dominated | 
by Hollywood: Roddy Yu’s “Jiang-bu, Be-, 
tween Love and Glory” from Hong Kong took> 
the grand prize, and . other awards were handed J 
out to fifaw from Spain, Austria, Britain and* 
France as well as the United Slates. J 

Certainly the festival's dosing film, a some! 
times grotesque but touching stop-animation' 
feature by Dave BorKwick from Bristol Eng-) 
land, caned “The Secret Adventures of Tom 
Thumb,” had more $>uiik and flair than any-j 
thing seen at Avoriak despite its frank indebt- 
edness to early David Lynch. i 

When tins year's first annual Fantastica was) 
over. Chouchan hatf a little crowing to doi 
“It was a challeng e, to present a festival like! 
this on short notice,- after 20.years in a weft-l 
known place Gke Avoriaz, in a atyin the east of 
France that is not' well known," he said. “And; 
we succeeded.” / '! 


Byzantine Antiquity and Decadent Modernity! 


beneath them, but like the play itself the set is 
unfinished and unresolved. Just because a play 
is about people whose lives lead rapidly to 
nowhere very much doesn't mean that it is free 
to do predsdy the same thing. Paul Miller 
directs a variable cast 


P 


Isadora Duncan Back on Stage 


By Thomas Quinn Curtiss 

International Herald Tribune 


P ARIS — Isadora Duncan, the rebel- 
lious California girl who sought to 
advance the dancing art with her 
innovations derived from Greek 
sculpture, made her debut in Chicago in her 
early 20s in 1899- Her novel venture was 
beyond her audiences there and so she left for 
Europe where she attained great popularity 
and was acclaimed by Diaghilev and Gordon 
Craig. 

An American playwright, Martin Sher- 
man, has drawn her portrait, all passion 
spent in “Quand EDe Dansait” at the Come- 
die des Champs Elysees (where she often 
danced in the grande sclbr). 

In this version she is disclosed in her Paris 
apartment, circa 1922, surrounded by her 
eccentric entourage and short of money and 
contracts. She has recently relumed from 
Moscow after [be Bolsheviks have seized 
power. There she had acquired an obstreper- 
ous husband, the roaring, drunken peasant 
poet. Sergei Yesenin, who bullies and beats 
her when he grows jealous at the arrival of a 


young composer who hope to prepare a 
score for Duncan’s next engagement. Others 
present are a would-be ballerina studying 
Duncan lessons hopelessly, a woman friend 
offering unsolicited advice, a German fntu- 
lein and a grasping Italian booking agent. 

Anny Duperey has adapted Lbe script and 
undertakes the role of Isadora, conveying its 
pathos, absurdities and moving flashes of 
vanished grandeur with extraordinary' dis- 
tinction. As Yesenin never learned English 
and Isadora knew no Russian, the violent 
poet, shrewdly cast with Oleg Menshikov’, a 
Moscow actor of repute, recites his verses and 
insults in his own tongue. There is a touching 
performance by Catherine Rich as the pupil 
who can only travesty the Duncan method, 
while Micbile Moretti as the chatterbox, 
Louise Vincent as the Teutonic comic maid 
and Jerome Berthoud as the naive musician 
fit their assignments to perfection under Pa- 
trice Kerbrat’5 guidance. 

The revival of Harold Pinter's "Homecom- 
ing" of 1966 (adapted as "Le Retour" at the 
TfaeaLre de 1’ A teller) was greeted with pro- 
longed applause. 

This is a scabrous fable about a brutish old 


father and his two caddish sons who lure the 
wife of a third son to serve as a family 
prostitute — a situation the woman accepts 
without protest. 

A strange spell of fatality hovers over the 
grotesque happenings lit with a wild, devilish 
mockery. Bernard Murat has restaged tins 
popular piece with sagacious skill in both 
capturing the sinister atmosphere and in as- 
sembling an exemplary company, with Jean- 
Pi erre MarieUe as the domineering chieftain 
of the dan. 

Russian drama is represented at the Odton 
Theatre de I" Europe with Lliris Pasqual's ex- 
pansive production of Maxim Gorky’s “Les 
Estivante" (“Summerfolk”) that in 1904 fol- 
lowed the author’s masterpiece. "The Lower 
Depths.” 

In this expose of the middle classes. Gorky 
was unable to humanize his characters as 
Chekhov did with touches of humor and 
understanding. Nevertheless, it contains sev- 
eral mood passages that present us with an 
informative curiosity of theatrical history, 
and Pasoual has resurrected it with blue- 
ribbon players and spectacular decor. 


and turn-of-the-century decadent modernity. 
The single set is at once an overdecorated 
palace, a prison dungeon, and in between a 
kind of warehouse or roofed-over courtyard. A 
royal palace cum workplace that might have 
been designed by Otto Wagner. 

Herod wears a business Suit and spectacles 
and smokes cigarettes, but over the suit he has a 
rich ceremonial costume. Herodias could be a 
Byzantine icon or perhaps an exotic Viennese 
matron from a Klimt painting. The Holy Land 
in biblical times is seen through glasses sup- 
plied by the firm of Strauss ana Oscar Wilde. 

Andrfc Engel's staging is anything but static. 
Salome is a hysterical teenager, at tunes climb- 
ing the gate of Jokanaan’s prison, but capable 
of deceptive calm. The infamous dance 
(shrewdly choreographed by Francoise Gits) 
builds from languid immobility to frenzy. 

Jokanaan is no impassive ascetic, he throws 
his shoes to keep Salome away. The Jews and 
Nazarenes (again business suits under ritual 
vestments) are drawn into the action, not dis- 
missed. At the end, Salome is not crushed under 
the soldiers’ shields. The page steps out from 
the palace door and avenges Nanaboth's sui- 
cide by slitting the princess’s throat. 

ft would be hard to improve cm the cast at 
hand. Karen Huffsiodt. an American soprano 
whose European career seems to have lifted 
nicely into orbit, is as fine a compromise as the 
role demands between petulant teenager and 
Wagnerian vocal presence. She was matched by 
Monte Pederson's vocally stunning Baptist. 

Ragnar Ulfung as the lascivious tetrarch and 
Leonie Rysanek as his not-so-loving consort 
were models of experience and calculated vocal 
acting, and while it may be ongallant to say so, 
they represent a combined total of more than 90 
years on the musical stage. Deon van der Walt 



Karen Huffsiodt in “Salorpe. ’ 


was an unusually solid Narraboch, and HeUse 
Perragtun a rich-voiced page. 1 . 

Mytmg-Whim Chung, who is on! a Strauss 
binge with this opera and the ballet “TUI Enlcn- 
spiegeT at the Palais Gander, drew tofid play- 
ing from the orchestra, neither hysterical nor, 
unfortunately, finding the chamber-music sub- 
tleties in the score. \ 

The Goman atmosphere at the BastiQe of 


I orced with a half-dozen perfor-j 
rod Aids Zmmermann's “Die! 
Harry. Kujpfer’s production fan 
Opera, with singers from that' 
hfle die Paris orchestra distm-) 
under Bernhard Kontarsky. 
rd “Die SokJaten,” based onj 
is the only opera since Berg's 
d “Lulu” worthy of being men-i 
same breath. Both are works of 
so cx^co mpasaon, but wh e rea s "Wozzeck” Is 

B eaty ^ with its simultaneous ami 
scenic action and" music; that ftisi 
possible to produce in any way thatj 
composerVvisioa. The theater has, 
edit yet. that could do this, and 
ver will be. ; 

, there have been some pretty good, 
nd this Stuttgart realization is ood 
f or mem. wolf Muenzer’s open, multilevel set in 
tandem with Kurt WogaizkeY lighting made) 
for a highly theatrical spectacle. Lisa Saffer as 
Marie, Mflagro Vargas as Qiadotte, Wolfgang! 
Mutter-Lorenz as Desportes, and Michael Eb-J 
becke, Franz Mazma, Hdga Dernesch and Jo-j 
celyne Taillon in other major roles, supplied a, 
high polish to large and excellent cast i 
Handel's “Oriwdo” in the production that) 
was a hit at last summer’s Aix-en-Provenoq 
Festival reappeared briefly in the IbUtredetf 
Qiamps-Elysees, adding .mother chapter to thej 
rich catalogue of Baroque revivals from Wfl-* 
Ham Christie and his Arts Florissants ensemble.* 
Robert Careen's intelligent staging and Antonyj 
McDonald’s tunelessly modem sets and cos-j 
fumes for the most part served the work wefl. ■ 
The first-class vocal team inducted Patricia; 
Bardon in the title rde^ Lynne Dawson, Tfilaiyi 
Sum m e rs , Rosa Mannkm, and the imp osing 
bass of Harry van der Kemp as Zoroastro. j 


Malagasy Singer Tunis to Polities 


NTANANARIVO, 


DER INDUSTR1EPALAST 

One of Leipzig's foremost addresses 


By David Tracey 

A S™™, ff-ssriwS 

been catted the Bob Dv- ?“* can *L?J Jt I®™* 1 * John 

Ian of Madagascar, but now that 1 ^^\l * lay , bc . l£ s a ^ 
he’s a tSS^ wS he wS somebody has to dream like this to 

mo* lEcJohn F. K«nnedy“S£ 


A 


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skier the translation from French 
of how be described his new man , 
date from the voters: “We’ve al- 
ways shown what the government 
has done for the people; it's time 
we showed the people what they’ve 
done for the government” 


I’m not the only one." 

When thousands oT Malagasy re- 
belled against the remnants of 
French colonial rule in 1972, Da- 
na’s band Mahaleo became their 
unofficial mouthpiece. At the time 
they were the only pop group sing- 



AMStmtAM 

BRA5SBUEDE ROOM IEUW 


mg in Malagasy rather than French 
or English. Thor songs, on subjects 
such as the flight from farms to the 
city and the problems people faced 
once they got there, came from and 
influenced popular sentiments at die 
same time. 1 

Although he’s now a solo artist, 
Damn soli performs occasional 
concerts with Mahaleo that draw 
thousands. “In the beginning we 
never thought about keeping the 
group going,” he says, “bat people 
wouldn't Ira us quit." -> 

like other musicians in impover- 
ished Madagascar, Dams oraddn’t 
live on music alone. When he fin- 
ished his university studies in soci- 
ology in 1986, lw and a group of 
friends derided to discover thor 
rural roots fay starting a farm. ' " 

"It soandedereat, m thetay”, be 
said, smiling “In reaHty it was very 
hard.” After struggling with the 
crops for four years* the venture was 
on the venae of success when a tv. 


At least for now the Malagasy 
people are still proud of . their henj 
tags, and do a c ommendab l e job os 
keeping local traditions alive. Even 
pop music is based cm a distinctive 
blend of Asian and African infltH 
cnees that foreign fans are bcgiTOir^ 
to discover ; with Dana nowrecriW 
mg invitations to tour in the United 
States and Europe. But opening up 
the country mdndes the risk that a 
flood erf foreign influences may 
overwhelm the local cuhnre. ^ 

“Our culture works because ii 
ms been the only rinnnmi where 
the people have beat free to cx= 
press themselves," Dama says. “We 
Imwcn’t been able to do that with 
the economy or politics because 


modds based on old theories, nri 
qpfisbon now is how to create omh 
itonsM the can express 
uwnsraves m all areas of sotiere 

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To) ■ fiM 99 98. RnanEPons reegmmendod 
fit nxycr oedftovck 


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Management GmbH 


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Please ask for Mrs. Cremer 


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on the verge of success when a ty- aat just listen to the experts wM 
done - iped «n the arm’s irrigaboo haven’t been able to do anythin g 
system. “So in 1990 I was nnem- Jigntiip to now. It. means there’s ^ 
ployed again," be said, still srmT^g lot of weak to be done.” 

the outride." be said of his derision 

the common people. - Dana iaoghs at that mwjecC 

When the last of the old kadras ftmed down the pest trf 

were voted out last summer, Dama qdtUre nnmster fw fear nf torfha 

was voted im His nrfe in the nation- 

al assembly comes at a time when ^ got a foot ffl 

Madagascar is rayoying the heady J* ™ or > » says, “bat orrfy one 
days of a fresh start. The c ramfr y q *ool ^ 

open to evravthing newm p trfifyy . — * 

oxmomks and omxirth’s tim las’ /umt™ •. 

part that has him worried. er Gving ^ a ^ e d-ktnceyrrii > - 







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International Herald Tribune ; Wednesday 1 . February 16, 1994 


Page 11 


> -•* Worlc Index 

mm ^ 

P''- v;0ui; 

As*a. J Paci»ic 


Apprat*elgftitag;32% 
Close: 13052 Pn*_- 13124 


*.:•*•*•• -.... jjjjjjERSjK 

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North America 


Appro* *60*10:28#. 
CkSR 9008 Prav- 97^7 




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The Max tracks US. dotar values of sacks to Tokyo, Newport, London, and 
Argentina, Auatnria, Austria, Brigfaan, Bod, Canada, CMa, Demwfc, Flrtand, 
Franco, Germany, Hong Kong, Italy, Mexico, Nemeriecxis, New ZMtand, Norway, 
Singapore, Spota, Swedwt, ^taatetd and Y w anw h Par Tokyo, Now York and 
London, (he Imiax isaxnpcsed af to&20 lop Issues In terms of meikp^capOsltzaban. 
otherwise tfie tea fc® stocks am fctott ' .•— ! - 


Industrial Sectors 


UtflBtt 129.09 12953 - 0.57 Rnrltetetah ' 


finance t2t.15 12857 -150- CmmwjwOooHo 


521 ,'-056 

12052 18859- 40, tl 


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CMamaSHntHandd TCbune 


BBG Faces 
Eviction 

By STAR 

Murdoch Cites 
Bias Complaints 

Compiled by Ow Staff From Usfwdm 

NEW DELHI — Rupert Mur- 
doch. said Tuesday (he British 
Broadcasting Carp, could lose a key 
channel an his STAR TV satellite 
network unless it addressed bias 




Mr. Murdoch said he was in- 
clined to replace the BBC with his 
own Sky TV news channel to im- 
prove the overseas image of the two 
Asian countries as well as to seek 
better ties with them. 

“That may be a solution that we 
may have to come to,” Mr. Mur- 
doch said at the end of right-day 
tour of India, during, which he ex- 
plored possibilities for expanding 
his television business interests. 

“We have a legally binding con- 
tract with the BBC," he said. “We 
would hope that we can resolve 
most of these complications with 
them before taking such a drastic 
step as that," 

Mr. Murdoch said viewers in In- 
dia and China made up the bulk of 
STAR TV dicots. 

News Cot p, of winch Mr. Mur- 
doch is chairman, bought a majority 
stake of the Hong Kong-based satel- 
lite network in August Official fig- 
ures pul Chinese viewersfrip at 35 
m3Hai homes. Private figures put 
India viewers at 8 miltion. 

Both countries have had troubled 
relations with foreign media, includ- 
ing the BBC whose mtdtiliagijal ra- 
dio urograms are noonlar with Hs- 


India, whim expelled a Defln- 
based BBC correspondent during its 


I ' -T'- ' ’^Bi ' i ( iT. ,1 ’-Tl 1 


complains about alleged bias in cov- 
erage of separatist insurgencies. 

China has damped down on 
STAR TV dish antennas and the 
government was incensed by a re- 
cent BBC documentary that 
touched on the sex life of Mao 
Zedong, the late Chinese leader. 

Mr. Murdoch predicted a media 
boom in India and said his. compa- 
ny planned to participate. 

/Reuters. AFP) 


Motorola Saga 
Shows Pitfalls 
In Japan Trade 


By Andrew Pollack 

New York Tima Service 

TOKYO— When the United 
Slates and Japan agreed to 
open a big part of Japan's cellu- 
lar telephone market to Motor- 
ola Inc., Lhcn-Commerce Secre- 
tary Robert A. Mosbacher 
haded the pact as “a model for 
future negotiations.” 

But rather than a model of 
success, the cellular telephone 
agreement has become an ex- 
ample of what American trade 
negotiators have long found 
frustrating about dealing with 
Japan: First, when one barrier 
seems to be swept away, anoth- 
er obstacle seems to arise to 
lake its place. Secondly, agree- 
ments often seem to fall apart in 
the implementation stage. 

Citing the lack of market ac- 
cess by Motorola and wanting 
to get tough with Japan for the 
failure last Friday of negotia- 
tions under a new trade frame- 
work, President Clinton has de- 
cided to levy sanctions on 
Japan for violating the cellular- 
phone agreement. 

But if there is fault to be 
handed out, it should not go 
only to the Japanese. In retro- 
spect, it is dear that the cellular 
agreement was not as strong as 
Washington believed. In partic- 
ular, Motorola's penetration of 
the market in the crucial To- 
kyo-Nagoya corridor was left 
entirely in the hands of a cellu- 
lar phone service company that 
had very little incentive to push 
Motorola products. 

“No one liked it, but it was 
take it or leave h,” Robert M. 
Orr Jr„ director of government 
affairs for Motorola's Japanese 
subsidiary, said of the arrange- 
ment. Mr. Orr, who was not 
with Motorola in 1989, said that 
in retrospect "it doesn't look 
like a good agreement-” 

The cell alar phone service 
company, Nippon Idou Tsushin 
Carp, was already budding a 
morale phone system using a ri- 
val technology developed by the 
Nippon Telegraph & Telephone 


Corp. Jt agreed, under corbider- 
able prodding from Japan's gov- 
ernment. to build a separate sys- 
tem using Motorola technology 

Bui Nippon idou could not 
easily afford to build two sepa- 
rate systems, so it concentrated 
on the one using NTT technol- 
ogy. As a result. Iasi month it 
had 400 base stations for the 
NTT-compatible system versus 
only 1 10 for the Motorola sys- 
tem. The NTT-compatible 
phones can be used in 94 per- 
cent of the service area, com- 

The dollar held its ground 

against the yen. Plage 12. 

pared with 61 percent for the 
Motorola phones. 

Given this disparity, it is little 
wonder that more than 310.000 
customers have opted for the 
NTT-cotnpatible phones and 
only about' 10,000 for the Motor- 
ola phones. It is this lack of sales 
which Washington says violates 
the “comparable market access” 
that Japan promised in a cover 
letter to the 1989 agreement. 

Japanese officials say Japan 
has bent over backwards to get 
Motorola into the Japanese 
market. No other counuy. they 
say, allows two incompatible 
phone systems to operate. 

Yoshio Ulsuml director gen- 
eral for international affairs at 
the Minis try of Posts and Tele- 
communications, said that 
“comparable market access' 1 
means only granting Motorola 
equivalent radio frequencies. 
How many Motorola cellular 
phones are actually used is strict- 
ly a private matter between Mo- 
torola and Nippon Idea 

“It is not b the reach of the 
Japanese government.'* be said. 
“We can’t promise hotv many 
sets should be sold. We cannot 
say bow many towers should be 
built.” 

Mr. Orr of Motorola dis- 
agreed, saying that since Japan 
arranged the shotgun marriage 
between Motorola and Nippon 
Idou to begin with, it was re- 
sponsible for the results. 


Viacom Wins Paramount 
As Investors Snub QVC 


Compiled iv Our Siaff From Pispmchei 

NEW YORK — Viacom Inc. 
won the five-month bidding war for 
Paramount Coram uni cations Inc. 
on Tuesday as investors oventhdm- 
ingly accepted its 59.8 billion merger 
offer, turning down 3 competing of- 
fer by QVC Network Inc. 

Paramount shareholders ten- 
dered 74.6 percent of their hold- 
ings. more than 91.6 million shares, 
to Viacom, the Dedham. Massa- 
chusetts-based operator of MTV 
and Nickelodeon cable networks 
and cable television systems. That 
was well above the 50.1 percent 
Viacom needed to clinch the deal. 

QVC lermbated its competing 
offer after it retrieved only 10.4 mil- 
liofl shares, or about 8.6 percent of 
Paramount's shires by the deadline. 

Viacom's victory ended one of 
Wall Street's longest and most hot- 
ly contested takeover contests. The 
fight added 52 billion to Para- 
mourn's price tag and sparked 
months of court battles and legal 
maneuvering. 

“The deal from hell is finally 
over." said Craig Bibb, an analyst 
with PaineWehber Inc. 

Viacom had offered $107 a share 
in cash for 50. 1 percent of Para- 
mount's shares and securities for 
the remainder. QVC had offered 
S104 a share in cash for 50.1 per- 
cent of Paramount stock, and secu- 
rities for the rest. 

Viacom and Paramount had 
signed an 582 billion merger deal 


in September, but QVC made a 
counteroffer for Paramount shortly 
after, touching off the bidding war. 

The most obvious victors of the 
confrontation were Paramount 
shareholders, who have seen the 
price of their stock shoot up from 
561 . 125 just before the original deal 
was announced. 

The coniest featured two charis- 
matic leaders: Sumner Redstone, 
the billionaire bead of Viacom, and 
Barry Diller, the QVC leader and 
framer head of Paramount Pictures. 

The battle came symbolize the 
high stakes involved as technology 
promises to transform how enter- 
tainment, information and services 
are delivered to consumers. 

Paramount has myriad enter- 
tainment and publishing assets, in- 
cluding a movie studio, a television 
programming library. New York’s 
Madison Square Garden arena and 
the New York Knicks and New 
York Rangers sports teams. 

In addition to its cable television 
station and franchises, Viacom has 
a separate deal to merge with 
Blockbuster Entertainment Corp., 
the biggest U.S. video retailer. 

Mr. Redstone said the deal was 
pan of Viacom's ambition to “cre- 
ate a global media powerhouse of 
unparalleled proportions In the en- 
tertainment industry. Today is only 
the be ginning of the creation of this 
vast new enterprise.” 

Combined, Viacom. Blockbuster 


and Paramount will have about $8 
billion in debt and a market value of 
about S25 billion, making it one of 
America's largest media concerns. 

Mr. Redstone will control the 
company, with a 61 percent voting 
stake. H. Wayne Htrizenga, a for- 
mer garbage coDecior who runs 
Blockbuster, wifi be vice chairman. 
Martin S. Davis, Paramount's chief 
executive, has yet to receive a role 
in the combined concern. 

Analysts said QVCs bid, al- 
though' valued overall at several 
hundred minion dollars more than 
Viacom offered, fd] short in two 
critical respects: It contained about 
5180 million less cash than Viacom 
offered and failed to guarantee Par- 
amount shareholders compensa- 
tion if the new company’s stock 
failed to reach certain benchmarks 
in the next three years. 

The battle for Paramount began 
in mid- September when the com- 
pany signed its friendly merger 
agreement with Viacom. QVC 
weighed in with an unsolicited of- 
fer a week later. 

In the ensuing months, Viacom, 
in need of cash 10 fund its bid, sold 
a piece of itself to Nynex Corp., the 
Northeast regional telephone com- 

C ’, for S12 billion. QVC also 
ghi in well-heeled partners to 
help pad its war cbest, including 
another of the regional Bell tele- 
phone company, Bd! South Corp. 

(AP. Bloomberg) 


French Bank Officers Charged 


By Alan Friedman 

Imemunmul Herald Tribune 

PARIS — A Swiss judge Tues- 
day charged the former chairman 
and a top executive of Credit Lyon- 
nais, the giant French state honk, 
with complicity in the bankruptcy 
of a Swiss company involved in the 
takeover of the Metro-Goldwyn- 
Mayer Inc. movie studio. 

The move against Jean- Yves Ha~ 
berer, who was removed as chair- 
man in November, and Francois 
Gille, currently managing director, 
represents an escalation of Swiss 
legal moves against Crtdit Lyon- 
nais. The charges were contained in 


a mise en examitt, which is a step 
.short of a formal indictment. 

Last week, the two French bank- 
ers were summoned for questioning 
by Judge Jean-Louis Crochet, a 
Geneva magistrate who is investi- 
gating the 1992 bankruptcy of Sa- 
sea. a Swiss company that received 
loans from Crtdit Lyonnais. Sasea 
was pan of a web of companies 
that was backed by a total of SI 
billion of Crtdit Lyonnais loans to 
buy Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. 

Judge Crochet also rqected an 
attempt by Crtdit Lyonnais to file 
a civil suit in the Sasea case. 

Sasea. whose chairman. Florin 
FiorinL is in a Swiss jail on suspi- 


cion of fraud, collapsed in October 
1992 with 5.1 billion Swiss francs 
($3.4 bilfion) of debts. Crtdit Lyon- 
nais says it bad more than 650 
million Swiss francs of debt expo- 
sure when Sasea collapsed. 

The charges are an embarrass- 
ment to Crtdit Lyonnais, which has 
been criticized fra loans made to 
Mr. Fiorior and others involved in 
the MGM takeover. The unprofit- 
able bank is still saddled with prob- 
lem loans stemming from the 
MGMdcaL 

Other French bankers are mean- 
while upset at plans by the gpvwn- 

See LYONNAIS, Page 13 


Publieis Looks to N.Y. 


By Danid /niies . 

Special to die Hendd Tribune' 1 

P ARIS — A more striking backdrop thkn 
the one gracing the office of Maurice 
Livy, chairman and chief executive M 
Pubfids SA would be.dSficnlt totoy/ra 
manufacture. ; ; . . . . ] 

The Arc de Triomphe seems only arches away 
from his sixth-floor window at Groraje PsblicU 
headquarters on the Champs-Elysfces. It is a chaR 
lenge of simflariy grand scale that Mr. L£vy haS 
had to fare is directing Europe’s second-largest- 
advertising and communications company 
through a tumultuous few yean in the industry.; 
Now another large-scale challenge is looming «P 
Pubfids tries to refine a strategy td increase its 
penetxatuxi of the U.S. market '• 

The combined effects of the rec kon and, ini 
France, a. gpvernmeal-aia nd ated rewriting of;, 
agency compensation rules brought an estimated 4 
percent decline, to 19-2 billion francs ($326 bit- ' 
Bon), in Pubfids ballings in 1993. Pretax earnings 
fdl 15 parent, to2J huGcm francs.! 

Far the agency ■ — known as Pubfids Ccmsefl in 
France and Pubaicis-FCB dserfbenj in Europ e -~ 
results wore. "in line with indiistry .perfonnance,** : 
cairt Caroline' CHchanslri, a financial analyst ttfco' 
follows the media and com ran n ic arjgns industries 
at the Dupont Denarit brokerage in, pris. A series 
of measures implemented in the- past year should 
hdp reverse the slide, however, anc&fe. Oldjanski 
said sire expected an earttingsedwund in 1994.'- 
In December, Pubfids finalized t£e purchase of 

^st-Jaraesi worldwide. The deal, t rough a slock 
swap, will add ah estimated 2J ft lion francs. m 
bflSsrotlwPnbficistoiaL - ’ 

FGA’s dienl List, winch indude B5N, Canon 
and Krups, fits Pab&as’s own ri»t r of blue-drip 


rough a stock 
ion francs , in . 

BSKCanon. 
rof blue-drip . 


abtouxas^ — Renault, CMgal^ Tait^^ 
ou( rngjor conflict, the two agencies share three 
key multinational , clients: I/Urtal, Nestlfe and 
Henkel, the German-bastd maker of detergents. 

.rTfye merger significantly reinforces our rda- 
' tiefoship with these three diehis. all of whom 
reacted positively to this derision," Mr. Livy said. 
~ . FCA also allows Pobliris to pursue business that 
otherwise would have remained off-timits due u> 
conflicts with existing accounts. As more brands 
gu global whole the number of independent inter- 
national advertising networks diminishes, clients 
are increasingly permitting advertising holding 
companies to masage^ competitive accounts from 
t$ffercni agencies in the group. For instance, Om- 
tficom Group handles IBM through its DDB 
■ Needham agency, as weB as Apple Computear’s 
Macintosh business, through BBDO. 

.V*The key to the FCA deal is the opening it gives 
ihAfirisin the United States, Though Pubfids has 
retied on its six-year alliance with Chicago-based 
Foote Cone & Bddrag for servicing its clients with 
American franchises, it had been thwarted in its 
Vefforts'to develop its own name and identity, tet 
alone its own fist of American clients. 

_ . ^Pubfids has always been too French in the 
; tXS.,”- Ms. Olchanski said- In fact, until the FCA 
.deal, Pubfids bad been Bunted to due small New 
York outpost, with billings of just $55 minion in 
.1 1093, for L’Qrtal, Lanc&ne and Perrier. Today the 
agency .finds itself the beneficiary of FCA’s 1991 
acquisition of Bloom, a U.S. shop with biffings of 
more than $200 mfiBrai.Bkx>minanage3 such true- 
blue American accounts as Andrew Jergern and 
. Soott-Paper. 

- : .Stffl, there are those who believe the agency — 
renamed PubBcis/B3oca» -7- comes up short in 

: SeeFUBUOS, Page 13 


Issue Threats 
In Germany 

AFP-Extd News 

FRANKFURT —Gannan metp 
alworking companies warned their 
employees Tuesday that a strike 
would reduce chances for a negoti- 
ated settlement of their differences. 

Gesamtmetafi, the employers 
group, may compro mi se on vacation 
pay and job security in its talks with 
urn 0115 rat a wage agreement, said 
Dieter Kirchncr, the chief negotia- 
tor. But be warned GesamtmetaQ 
would “not negotiate during any 
strike, at least in its 6m stages.” 

. He said it would consider intro- 
ducing lockouts if the union shows 
no wubngness to “find an intelli- 
gent solution” to (he conflict. 

The employers and IG MetaH, 
Germany’s largest union, faded to 
reach agreement in talks Friday, and 
the union began a procedure that 
may lead to a strike by March 4. 

Mr. Kirchner rejected a state- 
ment by Klaus ZwtckeL, chairman 
of IG MetoH. that a strike, if called, 
would not target weak companies 
or lead to a further loss of jobs. 

Such a strike is “going to damage” 
thousands of companies, Mr. Kircb- 
uer said, because it will prevent 
them from meeting delivery dead- 
lines, create chaos m their financial 
planning and cause them to lose 
market share. He noted that IG 
MetaH itself has estimated that up to 
3.000 companies may go bankrupt 
as a result of the strike m prospect 


CURRENCY Ml INTEREST RATES 


r 1 * **■ 

fissrs, *5? -^ 

IJwdrH HU5> 3*® 

•jUton USUI 2A** X* 21 

iMMYOrKiai — ™. g IS 

L**, Up AM ua 

Itbwo « m » 

fTorwrio UW *. •» 

£d» KJ i - WHO VM «*» 

toco vn» ustf 

IS* «■ 

\ Plotinus 0) /ynsmxiom, lattdau 
rota at 3 pm. 

fa.- To oaf one Pemd: b. To bar 


U - . ; . . f oh. 15 

ba xf. ;w e» pmb 
am ansi* J— *«• hob in* to use 

400 BW ius ■ — ;iuns &MS7 jus mo*- 

a®* usn- um '-juoi*-.uds w 

uw uus wn su im vojv \sm tosi 
sue mb* kw -sw MM-mia-wun . 

mja — - 4us -ow.'usio uw wtus mm. 

%mm lira so usn nuu usa uu> 

___ ass®* -Kfi*s mss un sras* ua iur 

xtm bjo - i* -i m - nx — r -. ats ma . 

U3B BJMN* UM Mill * tSMl UIK" Hi* 

«wr emn- ; -4s *mr. u»* urn ■- w 

asm usut- 3M aim. i sm reaa uia uue 

sm uuo: sAp tsjmi 2 m. tool ua MW 

Hew York aad^rteK «Wn« to otberainisaf-Tamdo 
cue doHar; Unfa of mt U.Q.: a* a vopKO-NJU net 


Eurocurrency Deposits 


9»* 1 

swt» : 
Franc '■ 

SMk« 

FrciKti 

Frtmc 

Yen 

Feb. 15 
ECU 

4W.-OS . 


AUi-BVx 

M-VA 

StwS% 


5H.-5W 

..t- Ml. 
Oflrfl y 

2 Kr-2 

i hr6 fa 


5M-5W 

5ft-6Vd 

1 Bv2w 


3<MV, 

JIWK. 

STrS Yk 

J*V-2 

SWSVb 


6 awpOB . 3tor&*k -MVfc 5 VV-5V. HWH 1 9v2 

IV««r 4MUi SMrSB. 3MK J1WM. ShrffW. J*V-2 
Sources: Realm UovtJs Sank. 

IfiWetaRixioxMria Mtrtiont dtsx&a at St rnfflert /ntoAmm taretovahntt. 


KsyHoMyRatM 


gtfwMterVftliM* 

jss- S 

ftborm.* 

imdicnc. WB3S M***??? 


l tun*, mums X* 

I Fin. II HU Wo SStS 


jCutoekv . ■ Pwrs 
Mn.pt*. .1W 
^.ZHbwf k IMS 
Mar ifa raot ipn 

-pMtjwHi - • VM 
TpolHk xMy . ZSBU. 

Bia&nMe. 1 56710 
^awJirtntl ' 3JS 
Jtapf LOW 

\ ■ -I 


-. cwToacr hfl 
SiMt.rmA -.lOtS. 
’ S. Kar. woe noX 
. JMA-kma. *4074 

- ToUanl - 3U4 

- ThoH»» . TSJT 
TwUOiBro .17741. 
OAEABam 5^77 
vmwiv. nuts 


United Stoles .' 

Cine Prev. 

Srttata 



DbconntnAi 

1D0 

330 

Barit bBMMte 

516 

5V6 

Prime rate 

BJ» 

400 

Coil motor 

5U 

5% 

TnhralfMdt 

3H 

314 

1 -iaarihiriertHMk 

5 9. 

5* 

SuwNliCDt- 

107 

107 

3-noaMi MNrHrit 

SK 

5Hi 

Chml oootr vaoun 

165' 

158 

l^iAriuNlS 

vwvni iMWjf uw 

S K* 

S ft 

JhdmBi Tremry bin 

177 

125 

19-mur out 

458 

458 

1-rttr TrtowrrMi. 

167 

167 

France 



HtorTnanyMM . 

440 

439 

lltftfYflliHl |^||g 

420 

420 

S-Ttar Tiwwry mR* 

- 533 

.533 

Cosmwv 

Mi 

6ft 

7-vCflMYeawiv nte 

•M7 

.549 

1 hiwbi lull rnm* 

Mb 

6ft 

'VWTlHmTNtt 

537 

539 

TnuthMcrtmt 

&u> 

6ft 

SBycar Treasury Data 

445 

445 

tMnttfekrttri: 

m 

400 

AHtrOI Lynch 3Mav Kmt» auH 273 

223 

1ft-v«arOAT 

5.91 

539 


Japan . 

P li e aiMfrrta. 

CsUmOMT 

HBoaWita»ertwfc 

taenKMnMi 


P« r *^ ,,U ^ r ^ c— A 

Canwt r , Uttar. . C miai fliW B flMr .; 

i J2***2*'. \S -IS « .; 

. CS* W : ; I 


aMttr mm 

IXm U2M 

mss UBM 

stdnrniwaatotl 
«Wd 7 unik of c 


«4 . S* 
UO. M 
, itt HO 
5-Wi 500 

sm 

m sat 


Sources; Reuters* Bloomoera. Merrill 
Lyncfu Bank erf Tokyo. Commenbonk, 
Greemmll Montagu. Cretft Lvvmals. 

QoM 

AM. PM c&ve 

Zurich ‘ 3805 38535 +IM 

LMAu 38450 3B5JM +U5 

NOW York 385 .™ 38150 - 0.10 

IKS. tolar* per ounce. London aft Klot fkt- 
bms ZurkSt ana New York oeentoo end ckm 
Ino orices; mw York Come* (Aorili 
Source: Reufen. 


Banking Clients Have Always Expected 
Outstanding Personal Service. 
Today They Find It With Us. 





D uring the Rennissance, 
trusted advisors helped 
administer the finances 
and protect the interests of private 
individuals. The role demanded 
judgment, commitment and skill. 

Today, clients find that same 
personal service at Republic 
National Bank. We believe that 
banking is more about people 
than numbers. It’s about the 
shared values and common goals 
that forge strong bonds between 


banker and client. It’s also about 
building for the future, keeping 
assets secure for the generations 
to come. 

This client focus has contrib- 
uted to our leading position in 
private banking. As a subsidiary of 
Saffa Republic Holdings S.A. and 
an affiliate of Republic New York 
Corporation, we’re part of a global 
group with more than US$5.6 bil- 
lion in capital and US$50 billion 
in assets. These assets continue 





to grow substantially, a resramenr 
to the group’s strong balance 
sheets, risk-averse orienration and 
century-old heritage. 

All banks in the group are 
locally managed, attuned to 
the language and culture of their 
customers. They share a philos- 
ophy that emphasizes lasting rela- 
tionships and mutual trust. Those 
values were once the foundation 
of banking. At Republic, they 
have been and always will be. 


REPUBLIC NATIONAL RANK 
OF NEW YORK (SUISSE) SA 


A SAfKA BANK 

Timeless Values. Traditional Strength, 


HEAD OmCCGE NEW 1204*2, PLACE DU LAC * TEL (022 1 705 55 55- FOREX; 1 022 1 705 55 SO AND fiENEVA 1201 - 2, RUE DR. ALFRED-VINCENT I CORNER 
QUAI 0U KONT'BLANCl BRANCHES; LUGANO 6901 * 1, VIA CANOVA - TEL (091 > 23 85 32 • ZURICH 8039 • STOCKERSTRASSE 37 - TEL iOI i 28S 18 18 * 
GUERNSEY * RUE DU PRE * 5T. PETER PORT • TEL (481. 711 7C1 AFPUJAm REPUBLIC NATIONAL BANK OF NEW YORK IN NEW YORK OTHER LOCATIONS; 
GIBRALTAR • GUERNSEY ' LONDON • LUXEMBOURG * MILAN - MONTE CARLO ■ PARIS • BEVERUT HILLS - CAYMAN ISLANDS - LOS ANGELES • MEXICO CITY * MIAMI • 
MONTREAL ■ NASSAU • NEW YORK • BUENOS AIRES ' CARACAS * MONTEVIDEO' PUNTA £|£l ESTE - RIO DE JANEIRO • SANTIAGO ■ BEIRUT * BEIJING • HONG KONG • 

JAKARTA • SINGAPORE • TAIPEI - TOKYO 
















INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 16, 1994 


- MARKET DIARY 


Inflation Optimism 
Aids Stock Prices 


Via AiiouoM ftfM 


Da% dosings of fre. " 

Oow Jonas fndusfriaf average 


Compiled by Or Staff From Dispatches 

NEW YORK — The slock mar- 
ket rallied Tuesday as expectations 
for government data this week to 
show subdued inflation supplanted 
concerns about a U.S. trade dispute 
with Japan. 

The Dow Jones industrial aver- 
age closed up 24.2) points at 
3,928.27. Gainers led losers by a 3- 
to-2 ratio on the New York Stock 

M.Y. Stocks 

Exchange in moderately active vol- 
ume of about 208 million shares. 

“People feel right now that infla- 
tion is Q.K and that some kind of 
compromise will be reached be- 
tween the U.S. and Japan that 
won't be too drastic." said Thomas 
Gallagher, head of institutional 
trading at Oppenheimer & Co. 

The dollar's stabilization against 
the yea aided that sentiment. 

A benign inflation outlook also 
held Treasury bond prices near 
steady, with the yield on the bench- 
mark 30-year bond at 6.45 percent 
in late trading, even with Monday. 

Telefonos de Mexico was the 
most-active issue on the New York 
Stock Exchange, unchanged at 43%. 

The initial offering of American 
depositary receipts on Elf Aqui- 
taine, the French petrochemical 
company, was the second most-ac- 


tive issue. The ADRs were offered 
at S34.35 and finished at 3<W- 
Paramouni Communications rose 
J* to 77 after Viacom emerged the 
victor in a five-month takeover bat- 
tle for the media giant. Viacom lost 
’4 to 34%, while QVC Network, 
which lost its bid for Paramount, 
jumped 1% to 5014 in the over-the- 
counter market. Blockbuster Enter- 
tainment, indirectly involved in the 
Paramount deal because of a deal 
with Viacom, rose ■% to 25%. 

Also in over-the-counter trading, 
Unimed lost % to 4% after it said it 
would take a charge that would 
cause a loss in the fourth quarter 
and in ail of 1993. The pharmaceu- 
tical company's products include a 
drug based on marijuana. 

Merck finished unchanged at 33% 
after it said it would use one of its 
divisions to tap into the market for 
managed health care. 

American depsoitary receipts of 
Daimler-Benz rose IH to 48 !* after 
it said its new C- Class sedan cap- 
tured a 30 percent market share in 
its class, and the company had an 
"enormous” backlog of orders. 

Columbia HCA Healthcare built 
on Monday's gains in active trad- 
ing, adding % to reach 40% Tues- 
day. The company was added to 
the "recoramended-for-piirchase” 
list Monday at Goldman, Sachs, j 
(AP, Knight-Ridder, Bloomberg) 



Dow Jones Averages 

Own Wflti Low ug On 

Indus 3911.38 393080 390406 392807 -3421 
irons iaooi 1*1242 ittcji laauu — 1 j* 
UM 21645 218J3 21153 21LS3 -486 
Comp 1411.98 1418.10 1409.44 141193 -168 

Standard ft Poor's index— 


EUROPEAN FUTURES 


Ook Low Prnv.dBM 


Indus! i 1 to Is 
Tronsp. 
(Mimes 
FI nonce 
SPOT 

sp in 


high Low 
55148 54967 
438.56 43425 
145J8 HU I 
4465 4439 
47141 47003 
44007 4S7.lt 


Close Cm 

55267 +120 
49683 +240 

16420— turn 

4464 +0.15 
47262 + 237 
43920 +264 


NYSE indexes 


A. 3 0 N D J F 
1993. ' 1994 


NYSE Most Actives 



vol wen 

Low 

LOSS 

Cho 

Tttet 

9 IM! 44 

43 Vi 

KIM 


EHAquIt 

45351 3*9. 

35V» 

36N 

♦ ivy 


3*777 25 

23*4 

24 tv 


3438* 77V, 

75W 

77 

- 6 

CDtHCA 

35140 41 

39N 

40 W 

+ S 

RotGre 

3451 3 6%. 

S»» 

t 

— N 

8/terre 

32X49 34 

33 V. 

33* 


Scars 3 

28331 4*Y) 

4AN 

4**4 

—My 

GnMotr 

2*449 SIN 

SON 

SIM 


NtSemi 

2*040 20*h 

191; 

20Vy 

♦ i5 

Te+Mex 

24714 74 

73W 

73% 


Chrvslr 

OsrnBnk 

23055 SON 
own mh 

99 

3SM 

*04% 

JXVi 

+ iy 

induFfln 

20132 I5H 

IS 

IS 


CMLGos 

17539 21N 

19% 

21N 

* 1H 


NASDAQ Most Actives 


Dollar Holds the Line 
Alter Sanctions News 


Intel s 
SvnOpf s 
USHWi 
fa nltw ti i 
Oracles 

Novefls 

QVC 
SpecTch 
MOs 
TetCmA 
I LOOK & 
3Com 
APwrCvS 


«9h 

LOW 

Last 

a**. 

i 

44 

45 

-IW 

i 2+y. 

2SM 

24% 

— IW 

64 

JVM 

63*6 

+J1* 

nS. 

*Yb 

329k 

■Va 

33M 


21% 



♦ w 

> SOI* 

47 vy 

50% 

♦M. 

3'Vi, 

3*1* 

3W 


27% 



+ w 

27 


24H 

♦ v. 

28 

27 

27% 

— w 

SIM 

S7% 

57% 

—4 

27V. 

24% 

24% 

+w 

75V, 

7354 

73% 


330 

30 

xn* 

+ 1 


H»i Low Lent dHL 

Cvrwn* 26223 26126 26136 -1.10 

Industrials 3XL53 37160 30.16 -166 

Trow. 277J?? 27463 274J1 -161 

Utility 231.94 2206 6 220.79 - 0.19 

Finance 217J9 71668 71769 -06? 

NASDAQ Indexes 


Urn Last Ot«. 

Composite 78967 7B564 79975 -4J0 

■nduSrlafe 82868 82174 B2B6B -567 

BortQ 68463 09261 692.01 —167 

Imurao 939 77 92569 93127-14.15 

Finance 88861 88662 887 SO —163 

Tramp. 79863 792.93 79568 — 0.96 

Telecom 179.12 177 Jl 17962 *163 


AMEX Stock Index 


475.02 474,15 47463 —068 

Dow Jon— Bond Avorag— 


20 Bands 10461 

10 Utilities IIOJK 

10 Industrial 10665 

Market Sales 

NYSE 4 pa volume 
NVSE prrv. cons, dose 
Ame* 4 pjn. volume 
A mix prev. cons, clow 
NASO AQ 4 ojn. volume 
NASDAQ prev. 4 pjtl volume 


COCOA (LCE) 

SWtUpi per ink *op l oti olie tons ! 

Mar so 884 m am ha. na. 
MOT B9S 896 «S *-891 — — ! 

jbi w m ii« m - - ( 

SlP «1 922 933 91? — — 

DOC 935 936 90 SB — - • 

M or 950 951 9S2 947 — — . 

May 9« 961 963 960 — — 

JO! M 915 NT. NT. — — 

Sea W W H.T. A.T. — — 

OK 980 000 NT. NT. — — 

Est. volume: rvo. 

COFFEE (LCE) 

OaHan par matrlc Tne+ot* of 5 Im 
Mar 1309 U» 1611 1.194 — — 

May 1613 1613 1-210 1.194 — — 

Jut 1605 1209 1^11 U9e — — 

588 1211 U1J 1216 1200 - — 

N09 1212 1216 NT. NT. — — 

Jan 1*0 121! NT. N.T. - - 

Mar 1*0 1219 N.T. NT. — — 

GW. volume; na 

HfcO LOW aosa cim 
WHITE SUGAR IMaMO 
Do Han per metric too- tart of 58 tans 
Mar 31160 30050 31120 31120 + 120 

MOV 30960 30620 30A7D 30660 — 1 JO 

An 3MJ0 30660 306-1 S 30720 — 2J» 

OCt 29720 292SJ 29360 39560— 160 
DK 29660 29260 29220 39420 — 120 

MOT 29600 N.T. 29760 592J0 — 060 

Es!. volume: 1619. Ooen tot: 12230. 


Industrials 

mm LOW Lnt seme am 
G4SOIL (IRE) 

US. (Mian per metric tariefs of 108 nos 
MV 14220 14025 14020 14075 —025 

AST 14125 13960 13965 13960 +060 


S8gl5B55S 

1CJ5 14175 14220 
14460 14420 14420 
146.75 U62$ U625 


1417$ -02$ 
13960 + 060 
13920 Unclt 
14060 +0JS 
14220 +025 
14420 U**. 
14625 —025 


0C? 149.73 14925 14975 M975 N.T, 

I tot 15223 151 JS MZM HU 5 NX 

Dec NT. N.T. N.T. 15420 + 025 

JO) N.T. N.T. NT. 13520 Unch 

Fab N.T. NT. N.T. 15520 Uneta 

Es». volume: 7250 . Opontn*. 1M3* 

BRENT CRUDE OIL (MB' 

US-doftarr ev barreWah of T20» barrett 


Apr 

1251 

1126 

122? 

U27— OX? 

May 

13*8 

13L47 

1300 

1300 —009 

Jun 

1183 

1170 

WO 

1028 — aos 

Jpf 

14X0 

1108 

U88 

1288 — MS 

An 

14.17 

1*06 

14X6 

U0( Unch. 

HP 

1404 

1234 

123* 

U33 —ME 

Od 

N.T. 

N.T. 

NT. 

1248 +002 

M8V 

N.T, 

N.T. 

N.T. 

1441 —007 

OK 

NT. 

N.T. 

NT. 

127* —200 


Metals 


Close ' Previous 
M All IM ASk 
ALUMINUM (HIM Grade} 

Delian per oniric fou 

Soot 172960 123060 13320 132920 

Forward 125220 125320 125020 1251X0 

COPPER CATHODES 1HNS Grade) 

DoUanpar metric fan 

Spot 182020 182120 1BZ76D 182760 

Forward 104420 104520 189020 185120 


308299290 
322*07.440 
20241 A70 


N.Y.S.E. Odd-Lot Trading 

Buy Soles Sftorr 

Feb.14 1274675 1X51687 29774 

FeU. 11 893.906 1042317 30074 

Feb. 10 '210.154 1613205 44613 

Feb. 9 1237,144 1616232 49745 

Feb. ■ 1Xb7.SE) 1619217 27686 

-included m the sales Routes. 

SAP lOO Index Options 


Compiled by Our Staff From Dispatches 

NEW YORK — The dollar 
edged higher Tuesday afternoon in 
turbulent trading after U.S. Trade 
Representative Mickey Kantor 
said the U.S. would propose trade 
sanctions against Japan. 

A dealer for Credit Lyonnais in 
New York said the dollar had 

Foreign Exchange 

strengthened after Mr. Kan tor's 
statement on the assessment that 
U.S. actions was less severe than 
many in the market had expected. 

The currency later reversed di- 
rection and began falling on the 
view that this was likely to be only 
the first of a number of measures as 
a result of the failure of U ^.-Japa- 
nese trade lalks last week, the deal- 
er said, but the dollar remained 
above Monday's closing levels. 

The dollar closed at 103.815 yen. 

3 ) from 101200 yen at Monday's 
ose. It also was quoted at 1.7313 
Deutsche marks, up from 1.7243 
DM on Monday. 

Amy Smith, senior foreign -ex- 
change analyst at the consulting 
firm IDEA, said Mr. Kan tor's 
statement was evidence the U.& 
was determined to be tough with 
Japan on trade. This means the 


dollar would be expected to fall as 
the market looks for U.S. officials 
to “talk the yen higher” as a way of 
reducing Japan's trade surplus. 

She said U.S. officials' silence 
when the dollar fell Monday 
proved that the government want- 
ed the yen to go higher, making 
Japan's exports more expensive. 

Mr. Kantor said Japan had bro- 
ken an agreement to give American 
cellular telephones a larger share of 
its market and said the UJS. gov- 
ernment would announce proposed 
trade sanctions within 30 days. 

The reason the dollar first rose 
and then fell on the sanctions news 
was that “the market is equivocal 
on the issue,” according to Win 
Thin, a currency analyst at MCM 
Currencywatch. “On one hand, 
sanctions lend to weaken the yen 
because they hurt the Japanese 
economy," be said. “That's why the 
dollar firmed against the yen today. 

“But on the other, the sanctions 
manifest the conflict over trade, 
and traditionally, trade friction 
with Japan stirs a higher yen.” 

Against other major currencies, 
the dollar was unchanged at 1.4572 
Swiss francs and rose to 5.8938 
French francs from 5.8720. The 
pound fell to 51.4724 from 51.4855. 

(AFX, Knight-Ridder) 


NYSE Diary 


9400 

9277 

*278 

Undk 

9695 

94.90 

9292 

+ 0X1 

9652 

9287 

9287 

+ 0x1 

9684 

9279 

94X3 

+ 003 

7249 

9260 

92X2 

+ 003 

940) 

*23* 

9438 

+ 0X2 

9218 

9214 

ssa 

—001 

9358 

735* 

— 001 

9179 

9174 

9174 

002 

9143 

9308 

«ja 

n(W 


Advanced 1201 1134 

Dedmed 887 1 029 

UnctKXTBert 671 602 

Total issue* 7/5V 2745 

NmHWH 79 61 

New Lows 34 29 


90 - - - - 
99 - — - - 


AMEX Diary 


Adwnced 2M 28S 

Declined 308 353 

Unchanged 710 204 

Total Issues 820 343 

New Wans 26 T8 

New LOW, 15 10 


NASDAQ Diary 


Advanced 1644 1637 

Declined 1439 1449 

Unchcrood I7U2 1682 

TaM Issues 4785 4783 

New Highs 113 104 

New Lows 70 63 


f NB7 

— U — — 

— a l — 

% * He - 

% 4i >« n 

_ _ I) % n> - 

no - - jr 4 - '+ n* 2* 3* 

« - - - - i w j - 

420 - - Bit — III )* 3* J*» 

425 mi 16 — — S 1*1 it — 

430 H 11*7 14*, — 76 R ilk | 

O 40 I* O - 1X5*7%- 

WIHAARAIDA- 

445 \ 2* 4V, - 7% KM — — 

43 lb 1'« 7L 4H m m 1A 13 

CS*XHfc-]fT7to-- 

«:!!!.: ??? 

cans ttd VOL IS.IN; Malawi M. 52583 
Ruts: 8H vot 19946); Mol onto ML tB7M 

£rt « DK9I OKU DtcN DecM McK DkN 

a- — — * — - 

3TV7---X1X- 
40 - - - | IX - 

47*7 — - — IX » - 

* » r - 3» 3% - 

4716 — 2 — — — — 

(ME M> nL ML IbW Mon 1st 71.1 M 
Pits: total «M. 1297: MM o*en fat 155344 
Saarcr.CBOE. 


MV 

9238 

9221 


— 006 

Jon 

927* 

9249 

— 0X6 

Sep 

95X6 

9279 

9457 

— 088 

Dec 

9901 

9S.12 

75.16 

— 0X7 

Mor 

990? 

9507 

tin 

— C07 

Jup 

95A0 

9SJT 

KJ2 

— 807 

Sep 

9521 

9523 

7624 

—0X9 

Dec 

95.17 

95.1 D 

75.11 

— 0X4 

Mar 

95X3 

9656 

9454 

— 007 

Jtta 

9288 

9281 

*9283 

— 007 


Britain Proposes Stock-Trading Rides 


Bloomberg Business News 

LONDON — The Securities and Investments 
Board, Britain's top financial regulator, released 
proposals Tuesday to increase the amount of dis- 
closure required about equities trading. 

Publicly held companies would not have to dis- 
close any additional information under the plan, but 
brokerage houses, market makes and other institu- 


tional market participants woald have to reveal 
much more than they do now about such activities 
as including short staling and derivatives trading. 

The British financial industry has been under 
pressure from politicians to impr ove its self-policing 
activities in the wake of widely publicized corporate 
scandals and collapses, including the raiding of 
pension funds by the late Robert Maxwell. 


Mtara o«r metric tan 
Spot 451X0 452X0 43460 47560 

Forward 46500 46620 4Q600 48920 

NICKE L 

Do(L- . par ^ chnno snsj oo 
Forward 574020 574520 577820 577520 

TIN 

DM tars per saalrlcVoa 
Soot S3SSJH 539520 SMS* 537520 

Forward 544020 545020 542020 542520 

ZINC (Specks HM Grade) 

DoBars per metric tan 
Ml 93460 KB60 94750 94860 

Forward 15150 95*20 96720 96820 

Ffnancfal 

Htph Low Ctose CtMoae 
3460 NTH STERLING (L1FFE) 
fS8MM-«tsaf NbPCt 


571020 571520 
577820 577520 


gueiiB 537520 
542020 542520 


est.volume.- 156CM. Open ML 135222 

Stock Indexes 

FT SC IN (LIFFE) 

05 per Index pidat 

MV 33992 33552 33902 +-362 

JM 34002 33792 34046 +362 

Sew N.T. N.T. 34242 +362 

Est volume: T4A68. Open ML: 76651. . 
Sources: Ream Mom Associated Press, 
London Inti Fbmdot Futures ExcMnpx 
inft Petroleum exenanoe. 


Spot Cow w iiodltl— 

Commodity Today Piav. 

Aluminum, lb 0651 0557 

Cotrte. Bras, lb 0X7 0X7 

Capper etactralyttc. lb 0677 1212 

Iran FOB. tan 713X0 71320 

Lead, lb . 064- 064 

silver, navaz szr 42j 

Steal tienal, Ion 13133 13363 

Tin, lb iul ne. 

ZMCttl 04503 04814 


Phriden— 

Coaatamr Per Amt 

IRREGULAR 

Lydnbra Plat ADR x .123 
MBNM UB nt 

STOCK SPLIT 
BMC WeM CpStor 2 

INCREASED 


EsL volume: 4X336. Open Mt: 434690. 
34MONTH EURODOLLARS (LIFFE) 

31 mDDan - ptl ot MO pO 
Mar 9667 9666 9667 Unctl. 

Joa 9626 9626 9606 Unch. 

Sep 9S73 9473 9574 Unctl 

Dee 9134 9524 9134 —021 

Mar 9S.T7 95.17 9S.T7 Untfi 

Jan 9492 9492 9*93 — 021 

Sep N.T. N.T. 9C73 Unch. 

Est. volume: 1332. Open Interest: 13234. 
SMONTH EUROMARKS CUFF*) 

DM1 mUVea -Pti 81180 pet 


CecocofoBettOv 0 25 

LH« Ptnrs Grp Q 22 

Mercury General . Q .175 

INITIAL 

StrnpsvIleSvn , 275 

CORRECTION 

General MHls x JO 

xeat p oerr e v lm record and pot 
REGULAR 


2- 24 6-10 

3- 25 3-15 
3-15 391 


eu. volume: 13*6*1. Oaen ML: 906*1. 
LONG GILT (UFFE) 

196000 - Pts A 33mtt OMM Pd 
Mar 116-72 115-16 115-28 — WO 

Jan 115-14 114-31 115-04 — M5 

Est.volume: 96136 Open M.; 161661. 
GERMAN GOVERNMOfT BUND CUFF*) 
DM 2502W - atl o» 188 Pd 
MV 9961 9865 9924 —023 

Job 9970 9875 98JO —02* 

Est.volume: 199724 Open Ml.: 0 306659. 



4- 6 5-3 

5- 9 4-1 
3-1 HI 

2- 25 3-7 

3- 15 361 

361 4-1 

3-1 321 
34 322 
325 315 
37 361 
H 4-1 

4 - )5 5-M 

315 HI 
322 31 

311 31 

37 331 
334 31 

31 315 
31 3-31 

5- 20 6-15 
319 9-15 

11-18 13-15 
2-28 315 
2-28 318 
331 

31 315 


U.S-/AT THE CLOSE 

GM Averts Strike at Key Parts Factory 

FLIKT, MkhiganiAP) — A strike 

^ Moco, Cocp. 

TfiE ! fie 

Instead, a “considerable numho^ rfnwjoW 

ma£i the company more efficuau and competitive, to the 
cuneut 6,800. - - ■ - - 

U.S. Production Up 0.5% ia January 

assaasisss 

factc^SSns ftfcle boosting output at urihbes and mm^Tbe 
c^^Sation, or plant-use, rate for die month rose to 83.1 percent 
from 825 percent inDecanbo, the highest level once the summer of 1989. 

The Fed also said Acre was a sharp increase m demand for commacm 
and industrial loans in die past three months, according to its survey of 59 
UJS. ccamnercial banks and 18 foreign bank, branches. (Bloomberg, AP) 

Equitable, in Toroaround, Profits 

NEW YORK (Knight-Ridder ) — The Eqmtable Insurance Cos. said 
Tuesday it earned S2343 ntinkm last year, a tnniaroand tram the net loss 
of S 125.6 mil H on posted in 1992. 

Farninm; woe driven by record perfonnance in the investment services 
sector, which indudes the^ Wall Street house Donaldson, Lufkin & Janette, 
tirut a ffM m to profitability in tbc insurance sector, the company said. 

Cifioorp FedScrutiiiylifted 

NEW YORK (AFX) — Citicorp said Tuesday it has been released 
from spedal oversight by the Fedisal Reserve Bank of New York and the 
Office of the Comptrotier of the Currency. ■ . 

Citicorp was placed on watch in February 1992, when it ms suffering 
from large loan -loss provisions. The conditions of the scrutiny ma n da t ed 
a plan for improving the bank’s capita] and earnings position. 

Citicorp said the termination of the oversight means the plan has 
succeeded and that the company was now free to consider reinstatement 
of a dividend on common stock, which was suspended at 25 cents a share 
in the third quarter of 1991. ; 

Motorola Sector, Oracle Join Forces 

NEW YORK (Knight-Ridder) — Motorola Ida’s wireless data group 
said it. would join Orade Corp. in devdopihg wireless mnltimedia 
technology. /. 

The companies plan to design equipment that would let customers lap 
intn corporate data supplied through Oracle database software and die 
Oracle Media Server, a software product announced today by Oracle. :■ 
The Orade Metfia Server is a software nmljiinedia library capable of 
storing and retrieving vide o, audio and text/ 

Sears Pleased with Reram on Equity 

NEW YORK (Knight-Ridder) — Record earnings at Sears. Roebuck 
ft Co. last year resulted in & 19 percent return on equity, exceeding the 
company's 15 percent goal, its efumnaniaid Tuesday. 

Edward Brennan, tire Sears chairman! told analysts that Sears was a 
different andstjonger company than ityasayear ago and that its priority 
tinsyeai^ was to enhance its core merchandising and insurance businesses.' 

But he saia the company had no plins forbig shake-ups rivaling last 
year, when Spars dashed 50,000 jobs, spun off its financial units and 
ended its catalogue business. / 


For the Record 


1559 Million Gga Price Tag 

Bloomberg Businas News 

MILAN —ITT Corpus Sheraton 
Hotels will pay at least 943 billitxi 
lire (J559 rmUicn) to acquire the 
equity of Ciga SpA, while the Italian 
hotel chain’s creditor batiks witt get 
bade just under 75 percent of tbs 
value of their debts under a compli- 
cated plan that Ciga proposed to its 
shareholders on Tuesday. 


Madean Hotter, the Canadian publishing and cable television giant, 
urged stockholders on Tuesday/to fight a takeover bid by Rogers 


Q — daaoa^ » rival caMe tefrvirian com p any! (AFP) 

The United Inc, a US. dothjhg retailer, said it would add 50 percent 
more retail setting space in 1997 than it did in 1993; that means opening 
400 stores, closing 100 and remodeling 200. (Knight-Ridder) 

The Goranmeat of SmnJon fliwmliut Corp. acquired an 835 
percent stake in BWTDP Hblditjg, a CaKfcania-based pump, seal and fluid 
control equipment manufacturing company. (Bloomberg) 

GE Capita will acquire the computer leasing and fin an c in g businesses 
of Skandmafiska EnskSda Banken, of Sweden, for an undisdoaed sum; 
the boanesses,ABVcndax and Nordic HnansAB, have combined assets 
of 3 bffion fcronor(5373 ^3Han). (AP) 


T'jJt-Ch 




v ’ W 

t- 


WORLD STOCK MARKETS 


U.S. FUTURES 


Ctm Holt Law dose Cho OaW 


*g«nc» Fran P na t Fata- IS 


Amsterdam 

ABN Amro HM 
ACF Holding 
Aeoon 
MM 
Aloe 
AMEV 

Bolj-weswnen 
C5M 
DSM 
Elsevier 
FoUer 
CIsJ-Brocodes 
HBG 
Heine* en 
Hooaovetis 
Hunwr Douglas 
IHC Catand 
Inier Mueller 
Inn Nedenand 
KLM 
KNP BT 
Nediiovd 
Dee Of In ten 
Pck.T oea 
Phlliui 
Polvwom 
Rc«esx 
Rodomao 

Roilnco 
Rorenla 
Rovol Dutch 
Stark 
Unilever 
Von Ommeren 
VNU 

Wallers fKjuwer 

tszzsfga 


Helsinki 

Amer-Yhtymo l 


Erao-Gutzett 

Hvtitamokl 

K.GP. 15 

Kvmmene 

Moira 

Nokia 

Paftlota 

Reaola 

Stockmann 
HEX JntJe* M90.U 
Previous : 189273 


ISO 140 
44 43.90 
713 203 

1570 15-40 
134 17* 

739 775 

315 315 

98 98 

118 117 

303 310 


Hong Kong 

Bk East Asia 53 S3 
Cattmy Pacific 13X0 1140 
Oieuna Kong 4475 45 

China Light Pwr 4L50 4575 
Doin' Farm Inn 1320 1370 
Rons Luna Dev 17^0 1760 
Hang Seng Bank 7U0 7360 
Heoaerwxi Larxl 4940 *975 
HK Air Eng. *540 *6 

HK Chino Gas 2140 21* 
HK Electric 28.10 7760 
HK Land 2760 27.10 

HKRaaltv Trust 75.40 25^0 


Brussels 


Aeec-UM 

AG Fin 

Arhed 

Barca 

Bekoert 

CoOerill 

Catena 

Delhaire 

Electro tel 

GIB 

GBL 

G»-mrr! 

K red «t bank 
Patrehna 
Pcwertti 
Rovaf Beige 


2615 2620 
2775 2980 
4135 4180 
ZM7 7360 
75000 2*830 
175 ITS 
5700 5790 
1476 1464 
6330 6770 
15*0 1530 
<310 4305 
9670 9550 
7490 7510 
10275 10*30 

33Z5 3345 
6100 6100 


HSBC Holdings 116 117 

HK5hangHtis 1110 1270 

HK Telecomm 14.90 1440 

HK Ferry 13^0 1120 

Hutch WhomfWO 37 3665 

Hvsan Dev 2840 2860 

JardlneMath. 7*48 7440 

J online 5tr HM 3150 34 

Kowloon Mater 17 17J0 

Mandarin Orient 1260 11 JO 

Miramar Hotel 25 7480 

New World Dm 35 3440 

SHK PraSS 61 60 

SlehM 560 5 

SwIrePacA 60 6140 

Tol Clwnvfi Pros 1340 1340 

r/E 340 345 

wnarfHoid 3765 3275 

Wing On Inti NA — 

Winser ina. 13* 13 


Johannesburg 


Kingfisher 
LodbroUe 
Land Sec 
Looarte 

Ltrjno 

Legal G<n Grp 
Uovds Bank 
Marks So 
ME PC 
Nan P ower 
Natwest 
NthWsl Water 
Peorson 
FiO 
PllkMatan 
PowerGen 
Pruderrtlol 
Rank Ora 
Reckltr Cal 
ftedtand 
Reed inti 
Rrurars 
RMCGroaa 
Ralls Rovce 
Pvtluiin (unit) 
Royal Scot 
RTZ 

Salnscury 
ScotNewcas 
Scat Power 
Sears Holds 
Severn Trent 
Shell 
Slefte 

Smith Neohew 

SmimKiine B 

Smith IWHi 
Sun Alliance 
Tate & Lyle 

TftSCO 

Thorn Ewr 

Tomkins 

TSBGrous 

Unilever 

Uid Biscuits 

Vodatane 

War LOOP Tn 

Wellcome 

wnltoreca 

wilHamsHdes 

Willis Cartoon 


FT. 30 lodes : 2406.18 
Previous : 3ULM 


Madrid 


Soc Gen acnauc 2500 8o00 
5oc Gen Eeiglouc 77 so 7755 
Sofina 15150 '5450 

Sol ray I5I50 15225 

Troctebel 11175 11325 

UCS 34825 74900 


AECI 19 19 

AlfWCh 94 « 

Anglo Amer lSXSO 187 

Borloyr: NA — 

Blyvoor 7 

BufWs 45 

DeBcers IS840 

DHetonleln 49 8 

Gencor 815 

GFSA 88 S 

Harmonv 25 2 

Hignvefc- steel 1740 1 

Kkxd 4240 4 

Nedbank Gra 77 Z 

Rtpujtanteln 32 

Ptnolai 7340 7: 

SA Brews 8340 

St Helena na 

S«oi 2i 

Well cm 40 

I western Deea 163 

Commute Mdw: C742.I* 
Previo u s i *7364» 


Frankfurt 


AEG ‘.664016840 

A I None Hold 7657 7658 

Alfaro 650 654 

ASM UK 1160 

BASF 29M) 295 

Bayer 358 360 

Bov. Hvoo bank 456 HA. 

Bov Vereinsok 50551040 
BBC 6S5 MO 

BHF 5ar.li 449 JO 457 

BMW 87781640 

Commerroark 3541S1J0 
Continental K7.M26O.10 
Daimler 3ma B748I8M 
Deousw 495 4*4 

Dtficscack 2542S340 

Deufscttt Bar* 80*80840 
Douglas 55* 556 

Drndner Bank 410 *09 

FgldMueMP 334 335 

F Vjvoa Moesch IB* 189 

Haroener 316 316 

Henkel 6Q6jO 611 

Hoctmet 11M 1190 

Maecrrst W40 301 

HoiiMonn WS »s 

Mortep 
IWKA 302 189 

na'I Soft 15540 15750 

y.arSKMt 528 S26 

Kauhoi era *t/* 

KHD 131.7013*30 

Kloeckneryrerte 134.9013120 
Linde 873 BU 

Luttncnsa 1E2 1E3 . 

MAN 419M 418 

MartAesmemi 43040 432 

Metollamril 2i7 ,216 

Muench RirtCk 3300 3401 

Pprsehe 83984440 


BBV 3)70 3360 

Bca Central Hbo 2950 2*5 0 
Banco Sar.ionser 7150 7160 


45 *6 

10840 108 

49 48.75 
8.15 L20 

« 8840 
25 24.75 
1740 1740 
4240 *2.75 
77 27.75 
32 39 

7340 7540 
8340 87 

NA — 
21 22 
40 41 

163 160 


3080 3100 
2500 2525 
7450 7470 
165 in 
1130 1130 

4750 
4170 4180 
2D75 r m 


London 


PreussoB « 

PWA 

JUNE 

Rheimnenll 

Sehcripp 

SEL 

Siemens 6* 

Thvssen 26 

VBrtO _ 

veba ** 

vew . 

vica * 

vatweoen 

weila 

DAX Index : 211162 
Preview. ; 814* 


83984440 
*71.70 476 
743 243 

464 466 

SI 330 
1060 1G54 
38938640 
69Z4Q6M40 

28240 263 
366 364 

4904049140. 

355 360. 
41640 447 

44645030 
786 788 


Abaev Nail 
Allied Crain 
Aria rtlggms 
Aram Group 
Ass Brit Foods 
BAA 
BAe 

Bank Scottand 

Barela vs 

Bass 

BAT 

BET 

Blue Circle 
BOC Grows 
Boots 
B tnva ter 
BP 

Brit Airmri 
Bril Gas 
Brit Steel 
Brit Telecom 
BTS 

CaOleWlrr 
CadBuTv Sen 
Coracan 
Coals Vlvdia 
Comm Union 
Courtoulds 
ECC Groan 
Enrer arise Oil 
Eurotunnel 
F.sens 
Fone 
GEC 

Genl ACC 

Glaxo 

Grand Mei 

GRE 

Guinness 

GWS 

Hanson 

Hlllsdown 

HSBC Htaos 

SCI 

in cheat* 




CEPSA 

Drnuados 

Endesa 

Ercros 

Iberdrola I 

Reosoi 

Tabocolwa 

Telefc/IICO 


Banco Comm 
Bcstagl 
Benetton grout 
CIR 

Tied ltd 

Enichem 

Fertin 

FerWn RJsa 

F!ol SPA 

Finmeccanica 

General) 

IFI 

ilalcem 

Hglgos 

Ifalmobllisrc 

Mediobanca 

r/on tedium 
Olivetti 
Pirelli 
PAS 

Rirwscratp 

Saioem 

San Paolo Torino 

SIP 

SME 

Snlo 

Stondo 

Slat 

Toro ASM Risp 
MI6 index : 1873 
P r evio u s : USB 


Montreal 

Alcan Aluminum TV* 30* 6 

Ban* Montreal 28% 28 1 * 

BeuConoea 48 au 

Bomoordier B 19% 19% 

Cambiar TO 11 - 20x 

Cascades 7-« H 

Dominion Teil A TTj T*e 

Oammve a 76^* :w 

MacMillan Bl Z3‘. 21 

Nall Bk Canada ICMi I8ta 

newer Cara. 27 IHi 

Ouecec Tel 21% 21% 

Ogeaecxr A 19 19 

GueoeevB 19 Wa 

refnMM (?* 29 

Univa Ve 

yideatron 30 29X 

industrials Index : 191943 
Previous : 191243 


Accor 
Air Uadde 
Alcatel Aisthom 
Axa 

Banco l re (Clel 

BIC 

BNP 

Bauygues 

B SN-GQ 

Correfour 


Ell-Aaullolnr 
EM-Sonofi 
Euro Disney 
Gen. Eaux 
novas 
I metal 

Latarne Coooee 
Lear and 
Lvon. Enin 
Oreol I L'J 
LV4AH. 
Matra-Haetwfte 
Midielln B 
Moulinex 
Paribas 
: Pechlney Inn 
Peraod-RIcord 
Peugeot 
Prlntemes (Ao) 
Rodluteamlaue 
Rh-Poutanc A 
Raff. St. Louis 
Redoute iLnl 
Saint Goboln 
S.E.B. 

|le Generale 

ThomsomCSF 
Total 
UA.P. 

Valeo 

s^g snap* 


Market Closed 

The stock market in 
Sao Paulo was dosed 
Tuesdav for a bolidav. 


Cotes Mver 

Comal co 
CRA 
CSR 
Dunk* 

Fosters Brew 

Goodman Fltld 
ICI Auslralki 
MNttal 
MIM 

Mat Aus* Bank 
News Cara 
Nine Network 
N Broken Hitt 
Pioneer Inti 
Nmndy Pnw-t dun 
OCT Resources 
Santas 
TNT 

Western Mining 
wsstooc Banking 
Woodside 
MirtMNMi 
Prev leas : 22384a 


5.16 5X7 

5.42 5C 
1L40 1X44 

*39 4.98 
5J9 535 
142 144 
146 149 
1046 1046 
Z15 Z15 
Z92 2.92 
1122 1220 
iq. 14 ret* 
6X5 ( 

344 243 
3X3 2.98 
218 222 

1.43 1.44 
4X3 4X7 
148 247 
742 753 
526 SJQ 
450 455 


Singapore 


Cerobas 
City Dev. 

DBS 

Fraser Neave 
Gent Mo 
Golden Hooe PI 
How Par 
Hume Industries 
inchcaoe 
K6PP9I 

KLieocng 

Lum Chang 
Vgjayan Bankg 

OUB 

CUE 

Semoawang 

Smngrlla 

5lm* Party 
5IA 

Snore Land 
STtareProw 
Una SteomshlD 
S'oor* Telecomm 
Straits TrodMg 
(JOB 

uol 

SSS £?8£3i 


7JS 0 
640 478 
nag iii« 

19.W 1940 
1740 18X0 
277 147 
122 322 
440 4X0 
5.75 540 
11X0 1140 
3X8 3X8 
140 149 
US 8.90 
1140 1340 
555 350 
750 740 
1130 1340 
5X5 IK 
3X6 3X4 
7a 745 

2.90 8 

1440 14X0 
406 4G4 
344 34* 
188 344 
1040 1040 
2 33 223 
: 232953 


Stockholm 


AGA 
AMO A 
Aura A 
Altos Com 
Electrolux B 
Ericsson 
Eswite-A 


432 *35 
346 546 

178 I72i 
<26 435; 

337 194 
3<7 340 

126 126 


Tokyo 

Akai Electr 
Asahl Chnntoi 
Asoni Glass 
Bteik Of To>V6 
B ridge stcne 

Casta 

Dal Nlpccn Print 
Dalwa House 

Dalwa Securities 

Faroe 
Foil Bonk 
Full Photo 
Fulltsu 
Hitacni 
Hitachi Casic 
Honda 
Ito Yokado 
Itochu 

Japan Airlines 
Kallmo 
Kansal fe we r 
Kawasaki Steel 
Kirin Brewery 
Komatsu 
Kubota 
Kyocera 
Matsu Elec Inas 
Matsu EhreWks 
MltsuMVBk 
MltsuDhM Kaset 
Mdsuaistu Elec 
MitSuMshl Mev 
Mitsubishi Core 
Mitsui and Co 
Mltsukashl 
Mitsumi 
NEC 

NGk insulators 
Nlkko Securities 
Nltxsan Kogaftu 
Nlooon Oil 
Nlpcon Steel 
Nippon Yusen 
Nissan 
Nomura Sec 
NTT 

Ohrmeus OoNcat 

Pioneer 

RKsrt 

Sanyo Elec 

Stwre 

Shtmazu 

SNnersuChem 

Sait 

Sumitomo Bk 
Sumitomo Cbem 
Sum I Marine 
Samitamo Metd 
Taisei Cara 
Taista Martne 
Tokeda Chem 
TDK 
Tetiln 

Tak re Marine 
Tokyo Elec Pw 
Toucan Pruning 
Torav Ind. 

Toshiba 
Toyora 
Yaimicnt Sec 
a .- 1 ice. 

KKlWl 235 : 18915 
Prevtoas : 1909 

Tout* tadei -1553 


Cl nee lex 
Com taco 
Conwest ExtH 
Deniscr Min B 
Dickenson Min A 
Dotasaa 
DviexA 

Echo Bov Mines 
Equity Silver A 
FCAlntl 
Fed Ind A 
Fletcher Chdl A 
FPI 

Centra 
Gal score 
GuHCda Res 
Hees inti 
Hernia Gid Mines 
Honinger 
Horsham 
Hutson's Bay 
I mates 

Inca 

interarov rSe 

Jcrtoock 

Latxn 

LecxaerCo 

Mackenzie 

Mcgno inti A 

Mcrtrtme 

Mark Res 
•WacLean Hunter 
Wd son A 
Nemo ind a 
N crcn oo Inc 
Hcrtuoe Forest 
Ncrcon Energy 
Nfhern T t le csm 
Novo Cere 
Oshcwa 
Pogurln a 
P fe=er Dnrre 

Psc= Petrole u m 
PWA care 

Rdv.-ot* 

Recoxssance 
P agers B 
Rcttanons 
Ss»si S «■> Can 
Scretre Res 
ScettsHo su 
Secgrcm 
Sears Car 
Sften Can 
SNerrllT Gorton 
SHL Svstemt oe 
Socmsm 
Sacr Aerosooce 
OtolCaA 
•Uiismon Energ 

Teres 

T homso n^ He ws 

• arena como 
TvstorB 
T.-grscfla Util 
■ rarsCOa Ptoe 
Trcpn Ftai A 
Tr.moc 
.■.TON A 

VmToreEnorav 

T5E 308 4414 60 


345 X6S 
20W 19k 
22W 22W 
025 027 
6% 6V> 

24ta 24V, 
OB2 041 
17 17 

1X5 1X5 
405 4 

JW - 
21 
5* 

052 


Season Season 
Htah LOW 


Low Oast Oh Oak* 


Grains 


25H 
17W 
71U 
2S4e 
15^ 

1*H 
4J0 4,15 
16* 16W 
097 098 

0.90 0X3 


Zurich 


Adi: Intt B 256 2S2 

£l5 u 2 SMfa, * w « 597 

BSCSmmBovB 1056 1049 

C.ggGciare 9SB 911 

CSFalOdTKB 70? 691 

ElektrpwB 3950 4005 

FrSSherB 1230 itid 

fearencoHN b zoo 2200 

Jt'mli E £50 K0 

LaaefsGvrR 

If. Hid 8 621 600 

‘'toevenaick 8 <50 «o 

1325 1306 
Ger.it Buerrle p 15050 152 


9S6 911 
70? 691 

3950 4005 
'270 1710 


633 600 

.12 460 

1325 1306 


P=7B«a H!fl B 1690 1600 

Rpree Htfs PC 69R) 6860 

Sefrr Peoubiic 145 144 

Sanaa B jrto 3905 

SOfiflOer B neo 7350 

Su'rer 710 ^7 

Surveillance S 1995 iwn 

Smss 3n* Cere B 470 482 

Remsur R 655 641 

Swissair R 820 93 

1420 tfg 

i^ ,2 


Handcbbanken 130 <25 

Investor B . IW 198 
(Mrs* Hydro 24640 767 


21% live 
19 19 

19 lira 
i ? * n 

r, hi 

30 291k 


Proeordto AF 
SOKtvIh B 
SCA-A 
S-E Bcvikcn 
Skondlo F 
Sktmiia 

iwi 

Trelleborg BF 
Valrg 




14J 143 

124 1 73 

143 1« 

4550 6150 
181 177 

208 208 
148 145 

<50 *54 

86 8650 
669 657 

: T744Y1 


Toronto 


Sydney 

tr igJB 1044 

5-62 548 
1028 10.46 
457 458 
Etavllle 123 1 JO 


aoiiici price in« 

Agrtco Eaata try 

Air Canada in 

Alberta Energy If. i 

AD) Bernre Res 34* 

BCE . 47-5 

8k Nava Scotia 3CV, 

BC Gas 14W 

BC Tele ca m 2 S 5 * 

bf Realty Has ate 

Bromalea C4? 

Brunswick r, 

CAE 6 

Gomdev 5*A 

CI8C 34 

Canadian Pacific ZPs 

Con Padm 13 

Can Tire A 17’- 

Confar 48 

Cora *70 

CCL ind B 1CW 


Vseosylonkaifae 

uiGMBriWb 

0 800 89 5965 


WHEAT ICBOT) uebannmw-MnH 
1905 340 Mart* 176 176 169V6 

172 1* Maytiia 1*3 157V, 

156 19* JUI9* 146 14* HJVi 

X57 1 - 1X2 Srati 146W 147 1*06 

1*5 149 DecM U4V(, 35*16 3516* 

143+ 111 JUI95 3J7V, 3JB 13795 

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155**3 102ViScpV4 1*01. 145 343* 

140 11 7 Vt DecM 151 151 X4 *Vj 

152 Vj lK)’6Mar95 

LSI sates NA. Mars, solas 5X77 
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279W 253*, Mar (5 ITS*. 177*6 2355* 

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M*. 274*4JUI9S 1*2 182 180^ 

258**3 251 Dec 95 253 158* 153 

Estate 10X00 MoTs. soles 543B 
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754 5JM**MO*M 6X2 4X7 677 

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2 KUO IB* JO Sea 94 194X0 194X0 194JB 

29650 lU.IDOctN t*2S TOX0 79153 

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nos 13650 Jan 95 19230 19270 19200 

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7192 7) .07 Oct 94 7130 080 7357 

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74JS 73X6 F«a *5 71S TlJll 72X0 

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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 16, 1994 


Page 13 


oves 


i 1 ”!*! ,ri- 


Jfej German Industry Gears Down 

Machine Tool Makers Must Cut Capacity to Survive 


Investor’s Europe 


CctnpiJAfty OicrSkiff From ZJuporcfe 

AMSTERDAM'^— Philips Elec- 
tronics NV announced steps Tues- 
day that could ultimately give it a 
majority equity stake in Gnmdig 
AG, the unprofitable German con- 
suroer-dectronics company. 

■Philips currently has a 31.6 per- 
cent stake in Grundig, and it plans 
to' spend 250 million Deutsche 
marks (S3 43 mflKon) to buy Grun- 
dig Gemuscheme, or profit-sharing 
certificates, from a group of Ger- 
man and Swiss banks. If the certifi- 
cates are converted into stock. Phil- 
ips' bolding wulcl rise to 50.5 
percent of Gnmdig. 

Although 'the original terms of 
the certificates required that they 
be converted into stock by March 
31, Philips said it Was negotiating, 
with the other Grundig sharehold- 
ers to extend the life and conver- 
sion rights of the certificates. 

The Dutch company said that it 
did not want to make the conver- 
sion soon because Grundig is in the 
middle of a corporate restructur- 
ing. It wifi be divided into a dozen 
units. 


II JL Posts 
Decline in 
Production 


LONDON — British indus- 
trial output fell in December, 
according to government data 
released: Tuesday,- but several 
analysts said they expecled'tbe 
slowdown to be a brief one.' 

• The Centra] Statistical Of- 
fice said industrial output fefl 
0.6 percent in die month; . 
dashing hopes fen a'flat show- 
ing in a month when activity 1 , 
normally slows. 

But analysts seemed to ac- 
cept the official explanation 
that the drop was due to sea- . 
sonal factors including a fall in 
tobacco output and the dosing 

• of iron and steel factories over 
the Christmas holidays. 

“Our general feeling is not 
■to be too gJocsny about to- 
day’s data,* Adam Ode, an 
economist at James _ Opd in 
London, said. •- *'■ 

■ France Is Steady . 

French industrial output 
was steady in January after 
increasing in November and 
December, according to a poll 
of industrialists by the Bank of 
France, Bloomberg Business: 
News reported from Paris. 


In the lighj of the'restructnring 
that Gnindife ■currently ■ faces, 
wberrfjy another corporate struc- 
ture wiB be sqt up; we don’t see a 
reason that forces iis to choose For 
conversion aijthis-'robment,” said 
Ben Geerts, atPhilips spok esman 
Despite its Minority stake. PhD- 
ips controls ■jGruntfig's manage- 
ment and fmapees. 

Philips is id' buy the certificates 
on March 14 from a consortium of 
banks led by Dresdcer Bank, 
Union Bank »f Switzerland and 


and a foundation own the. 68.4 per- 
cent not held by Philips. 

The Dutch ■company originally 
bought into Grundig m 1979. In 
1984 it boosted its 245 percent 
stake to the present 31.6 percent 
Gnmdig hast said it expected to 


following a loss of 296 million DM 
the previous year. Its sales have 
been hard hit [by the recession in 


Germany. 


.. ( AP, Bloomberg) 


Bloomberg Businas News 
FRANKFURT — With orders for its state- 
of-the-art drilling, lathing and mining ma- 
chines down by a third last year, the German 
machine-tool industry is fighting for its life. 

■ Only by reducing its costs and starting an 
export drive into new markets where low 
prices translate into sales can the industry, 
which once epitomized Germany's postwar 
economic miracle: save itself, analysis said. 

But many companies are unprofitable after 
their expansion during the late 1980s and 
early 1990s, so boosting exports w31 mean 
more mergers and takeovers in an already 
consolidating industry. 

It also will require a lot of help from the 
German banks. 

“The whole future of the machine-tools 
industry depends on how far the banks are 
willing to help out," said Michael Broker, an 
engineering analyst at Bank Julius Bar 
(Deutschland) AG. “They must first cover 
the companies' losses, then provide the funds 
for future expansion.*' 

Deckel Mano AG, formed in December 
from lie merger of the Bavarian milling- and 
boring-machine makers Maho AG and 
Deckel AG, is finding the first step difficult 
Deckel Maho is in talks with banks for as 
much as 100 million Deutsche marks (5575 
million ) in credits, the .<anv» amount its 
banks, of which Deutsche Bank AG is the 
largest, provided before the merger. It needs 
fresh financing because it cannot meet its 
pre-merger sales targets. 


In 1990 Deckel and Maho each had sales of 
more than 600 million DM. This year, the 
merged concern will not reach 400 million 
DM. 

Both companies posted losses in their last 
financial year. 

Deckel Maho is an example of how ill- 
judged investment decisions are at the root of 
the industry’s current problems. 

In 1991, analysts at DB Research GmbH, a 
unit of Deutsche Bank, forecast a 50 percent 
increase in world demand for industrial ma- 
chinery by the year 2000. German companies 
prepared io meet the predicted surge in orders. 

Maho expected manufacturers to beat a 
path to its door for its milling machines. 
Three years ago, it built a new factory to 
make more of them. 

But then the recession struck, slicing into 
sales in industries like auto manufacturing, 
which in turn reduced orders for machinery. 

“If the factory's capacity was fuQy put into 
use, its production would represent over half 
of world output of certain types of products,” 
said Manfred Saner, an analyst in Frankfurt 
for Bank in Liechtenstein GmbH. 

“Once aii this capacity was put in place, 
demand fell away, and prices fell into the 
cellar," he said. 

Statistics from the VDMA. the Association 
for German Machinery Manufacturers, show 
that in the nine months to November 1993. 
orders for machinery dropped 9 percent For 
machine tools alone, there was a 30 percent 
decline in orders. 


Ekkchard Kohkamm. chief executive of 
Thyssen AG s capital goods division, has said 
German machine-tool capacity must be cut in 
half from 1990 levels for manufacturers to 
return to profit. 

Analysts also see exports to growing Asian 
markets as key to recovery. 

“Up to now German companies aren't 
strongly represented in the Far East,” Mr. 
Sauer said. “Bui they must gain access there.'* 

Mr. Brbker of Julius Bdr said that if the 
German machine tool producers were to fail, 
companies from abroad, including Japan, 
would move in to take them over. 

There has already been one foreign takeover 
of a distressed company. Heriel AG. a family- 
owned manufacturer of cemented carbide 
tools and tooling systems, was sold to Kenna- 
metal Inc. of Latrobe. Pennsylvania last Au- 
gust. It had lost 77.9 million DM in 1992 

“The industry will survive, but in another 
form — with fewer enterprises and further 
cooperation deals.” said Klaus Perschbacher 
of Nomura Research Institute in Frankfurt. 

Deckel Maho is already cooperating with 
the lathing machine-maker GOdemeister AG 
to reduce overhead and boost buying power, 
a Deckel Maho spokewoman said. 

Traub AG. which makes lathes, plans to 
work with Bert hold Hermie AG in distribu- 
tion, procurement and production. 

After persistent group losses, creditors 
have already written oil SO million DM of 
Traub's debt and backed a 25 million DM 
capital increase. 


Business News 


LONDON i 
PLC, adding ttj 

world's most profitable major air- 
line, reported Third-quarter pretax 
profit on Tbeiflay of £65 mOHan 
(596 million), more than triple the 
results of a yea earlier. 

' BA’s pretax tprofit in the' 1992 
quarter was £2t) million- Results in 
mat quarter -were hindered by a 
devaluation of fee Briiish currency, 
winch boosted costs faster than it 
elevated revenue:. 

lii die first nine months of the 
company’s current Fmandal year, 
BA earned £300 mfiBon on a pretax 
basis, up215 percent from the pre- 
views year. - -;t 

. • BA is the only m^or airHne in 
Europe or the United States to 


— British Airways 
its reputation as the 
roffiablc major air- 


decade. Only Southwest Airlines, a 


much smaller US. carrier, can 
boast similar results. 

In the first three years of this 
dec ade, m ajor US. carriers lost a 
combined 510 blbon, while Euro- 
pean aixfines lost 575 billion. But 
BA earned more than SI billion, 
and its stock has more than dou- 
bled since January 1990. 

Sir Colin Marshall BA’s chair- 
man, attributed the jump in earn- 
ings to improving economies in the 
carrier’s two m^prmarkets —Brit- 
ain and the United States. An in- 
crease in the number of passengers 
willing to pay for pimnnn-pnced 
seats also shored up the bottom 
line, he said. 

In an effort to keep those high- 
paying customers coming, BA is 
pouring more than 5150 million 
ato a host of improvements to at- 
tract business-class passengers. It 


has redesigned airline seats and 
cabin crew uniforms, installed in- 
flight entertainment systems, is re- 
furbishing its supersonic Con- 
cordes, and introducing new 
lounges and increasing the pace of 
service at some airports. 

Analysis said they expected 
profits to continue to grow strongly 
as Continental Europe followed 
Britain and the United States out 
of recession. Passenger demand has 
already picked up. rising 1 15 per- 
cent in the past quarter. 

“If BA can continue to keep its 
costs in line and show a small yield 
improvement, that will be recipe 
for quite a good profit improve- 
ment for next year," said Nick 
Cunningham, an airline analyst at 
Societe Generate Turnbull Strauss 
Securities Ltd. 

Sir Cotin has said BA’s future is 


tied to global expansion. The air- 
line is trying to establish a signifi- 
cant presence in Europe, North 
America and Asia and then link 

th em 

“Our goal is to press on with our 
leading position in what we see as 
the globalization of the industry,** 
he said recently. 

In the belief that the fastest way 
into new markets is by acquisition, 
BA since 1991 has bought 25 per- 
cent of USAir, 25 percent of the 
Australian carrier Qantas Airways 
LuL, 49 percent each of TAT Euro- 
pean Airlines in France and Deut- 
sche BA in Germany, and all of 
Dan Air, a domestic British carrier. 

■ Air France Hints at Cots 

Air France proposed a cost-cut- 
ting plan in a letter to employees 
Tuesday, the Associated Press re- 
ported from Paris. 


Union officials said a four-page 
letter from Christian Blanc, the Air 
France chairman, offered few de- 
tails but mentioned the need to cut 
salaries on a “voluntary basis” in 
exchange for an employee stock- 
ownership program. 

An internal survey disclosed by 
the company last week showed that 
51 percent of the 14,000 employees 
who responded said they would ac- 
cept salary cuts to save their jobs. 

The company's last attempt at 
cost-cutting, in which it proposed 
laying off 4,000 workers, triggered 
a violent strike m October that shut 
the two major Paris airports for 
more than a week. 

The ailing carrier lost about 75 
billion francs ($1 billion) last year, 
while its debt load now totals 36 
billion francs. 


^tmlmdkers and EU Officials Meet LYONNAIS: Executives Charged 


: 1 -BRUSSELS ^Erirop^^eetasdEers, struggling to 
Bteatiber hand tunes; Were hdMmgtalks with theEuro- 
peadGMmnsskm ohTuesday night as some of them 
facecf fines for Gxin^sted prices. 

About 17 sted producers are due to be fined, 
according to commission officials, for violating anti- 
trust laws to jointly ‘set prices for steel beams, used 


A spokesman said the commission was expected to 
deride on the fines Wednesday. He refused to identify 


the companies, but another commission official 
speaking on condition of anonymity, said they includ- 
ed Arbed SA of Luxembourg, British Sted PLC, 
Uzmn&al of France and Saarstahl AG and Fried. 
Kiupp AG Hoescb-Knipp of Germany. 

British Sted said Tuesday it was “most likely” that 
the company would protest any fine imposed by the 
commission, Arbed declined to comment, and Usinor 
Sacijor of France would not comment but confirmed 
that offices of its Unim&al sled- beams division had 
been visited by investigators from the commission. 


Continued from Page 11 
meat of Prime Minister Edouard 
Balladur to inject more than $500 
million into the bank before it is 
privatized. 

Credit Lyonnais said it was “as- 
tonished” by the new charges and 
planned to appeal the judge's refus- 
al to let it file a suit in the Sasea 
case. The bank says it had no pan 
in Sasea’s bankruptcy. 

Judge Crochet is investigating 


PlIBLICIS: Paris-Based Ad Giant Seeks to Beef Up Its U.S. Presence 


CURRENCY AND CAPITA! MARKET SERVICES 


Coafane&from Page 11 

giving. Mr, Lfcvy the best posable 
eatrtc into the world’s largest me- 
dia market. 

“Bloom isn’t in. the same league 
as Mcssner Veiore. Berg/a: McNa- 
mee Schmeitcrer,” said Bernard 
Dufour, an analyst with Mecs- 
chaert RousseBe in Paris, referring 
to the fast-growing New York sub- 
si diary of Boro’ RSCG, Publicis’s 
Paris-based rival Mr. Lfcvy ac- 
; knowiedged that “further strength- 
ening New York” was a priority. 
' “Growth is necessary, especially 
; creatively,” he said. 

Even after the FCA buyout, Pub- 
1 lids is almost debt-free, and Mr. 

[ Ldvy hinted at the possibility of 
additional acquisitions- “We could 
: consider purchases,” he said, with- 
out elaborating. 

Despite the healthy balance 
sheet, Mr. Lfevy stepped up cost- 
cutting last year when it became 
dearthe bottom was about to fan 
out of the European advertising 
1 market. Not only had the recession 
depressed revenues industry-wide, 

! but the Sapin law. named for hfi- 
1 chel Sapin, the finance minister m 
l office when it was implemented 
; last March, overhauled how media 
■ was bought and sold in France. 

' Questionable payments made to 


home, there have been fixes abroad 
tolreep Mr. Livy’s attention. The 
P’ublicis-FCfi office in Spain 
showed a loss last year and needed 
rcs^ucturmg. Ms. 01chan.ski, the 

analyst, said. . . 

. .the most serious challenge oc- 
curred when an executive of Pubh- 
riS-ECB in Milan was implicated in 
the Italian government corruption 
scandal in mid- 1993. The executive 
was aliened to have offered free 
advertising time., to tbe Italian 
health minister's parliamentary 
campaign in exchange far special 
conaderation in the awarding of an 
AIDS awareness ad campaign. Mr. 

L&vy had to dispatch a Paris execu- 
tive to Italy to umilt the damage. 

limiting did not cane cheap. 
Ms. Olcfaansld estimated it cost 
Pnblicis between 25 mfltioo and 30 
nrilBon francs to “clean up the op- 
eration,'’ a range Mr. Livy con- 
firmed. -■ ■ ■ 

The Pubhris rektioasi^p with 
Foote Cone & Belding offers both 


agencies a global presence neither 
one had been able to achieve on its 
own. The alliance was created in 
1988 via an exchange of equity 
stakes, the creation of a European 
holding company and the adoption 
of the PuMiris-rcB name through- 
out Europe, except in Francs. The 
alliance created the world's sev- 
enth- largest communications 
group, with combined billings of 
more than 56 billion, offices in 
more than 40 countries on six con- 
tinents and coordinated interna- 
tional servicing for big cheats. 
Most observers consider the rela- 
tionship a success, though Ms. 01- 
chansta said the Bloom /FCA deal 
was “ultimately far more important 
for Pubtids in the U-S.” 

Since the Eubbds-FCA merger, 

? uestions concerning the Pubficis- 
oote Cone & Belding arrange- 
ment in tbe United States have in- 
tensified. Though linked, both 
companies operate largely inde- 
pendently of one another in their 
respective territories: Publics in 


Europe, Foote Cone & fielding in 
Asia and the Americas. As with 
Publkas in Europe. Foote Cone & 
Belding has been seeking its own 
second agency network for tbe 
United States. 

And with tbe recent absorption 
of Bloom, Pubticis would now seem I 
Foote Cone & Bel ding's logical I 
partner, a further cementing of the 
relationship. But no one is saying I 
much. Efforts to reach Bruce Ma- 
son, Foote Cone & Belding's chair- 1 
man, were unsuccessful. Mr. Levy | 
is reticent on the subject. “It’s pre- . 
mature to speculate about this,” he 
said. “We are only just starting to | 
know Bloom. We’ll have to see if i 
this could coincide with FCB’s in- 
terests.” 






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: i t .l. -*cf 45 Meant. cwB7Q 


. piouui me*- : ^. r; „ 

; for the industry in France. Ms. 
! Olchanda said. 

! Undoubtedly, fhe.most^ctec' 
ular cost savings caiwtbrou^bji 
, voluntary salary 

: agracy-wide last July-, ? 

: Wde whose only crune is to be. 
Sy of working dunng a mgs 
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P * E F.E IT U R-A -MUNICIPAL 

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cis Gmsulting offers genta^ 
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■ elicits and nondients. The &&&? 

traditionally left to 

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proof of t#iaB6ca*l<» wvl tsndws tor the consmeKe erf a rmwsq* sysxm The i^ojoci 
RUdeB tnt oW on ed a 25,000-fn PVC coSectfon system. SJ9fi0 hcosehofaj 
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INTERNATIONAL PREQUALIFICATION 
FOR THE CONCESSION 
OF THE HADETH - SYRIAN BORDER HIGHWAY 


Within the framework of an international consultation, 
the Executive Council for Major Projects in Lebanon 
(C.E.G.P.) invites applicants for prequalification in the 
aim of primarily selecting capable companies or 
groupings eligible to bid for the tender at a second stage. 

Applicants should have the capabilities to finance, 
construct, operate and maintain the above mentioned 
highway in exchange of toll fees collected from the users. 

The prequalification documents shall be made available 
as of Monday the 14th Februaiy 1994 at the Council’s 
Head Office located in Bir Hassan, Beirut. Applicants can 
collect them from the General Directorate of 
Administration against payment of 1,000,000 LBP (One 
Million Lebanese Pounds) by certified cheque in the name 
of Conseil Executif des Grands Projects, drawn on 
Banque du Liban. 

The applications for prequalification must be submitted 
to C.E.G.P. in one complete original and one copy not 
later than 12:00 p.m. on Thursday the 21st of April 1994. 


Frankfurt 

DAX 

24oo — 

2300 — : IT 

arc 


's d n’ dTf 


London 
FTS£ 100 Indax 


Paris 

CAC40 




2900 *S O N 


Exchange Index Tuesday - 

Close 

Amsterdam! AEX 42930 

Brussels StocK Index ~ 7,710.67 

Frankfurt DAX 2,115^2 

Frankfurt FAZ B09-38 

Helsinki HEX 1,902.16 

L ondon Rnaricial Times 30 Z^6s,id~ 

London FTSE 100 3,393.20 

Madrid Genefallndex 345.59 

Milan MIB 1,073-00 

Paris CAC40 2£57£7 

Stockholm Affaersvaerlden t,765^1 

Vienna Stock Index 49l2t 

Zurich SBS 1J36.64 

Sources: Reuters. AFP 


1993 

Pm:' 

Close 

426.78 

7,707.48 

2,116.01 

814.90 

1.89&23 

2,586-70 

3.363.50 

345.23 

1.108JJ0 

2,243.16 

1,754.70 

493.37 

1.024.57 


+0.26 
+0.04 
- 0.02 
- 0.68 
4^.47 
+0.75 
+ 0.88 
+ 0.10 
-3.16 
+ 0.66 
+0.70 
-0,44 . 
+1.18 


ImenvuHMial HeraJd Tribune 


Very brief ys 

■ Awfi AG plans to build its new compact model in Germany after 
initially considering rites in Belgium. Spain and tbe Czech Republic. 

• Volkswagen AG and Preussag AG have agreed to cooperate in recycling 
used cars in Germany over the next 18 years. A network of 80 to 100 
plants will take back ait used cars manufactured by Volkswagen begin- 
ning in 1997 at the latesL 

■ Oyak- Renault SA, the second-largest automaker in Turkey, announced 
it would slop production for a week to deal with tbe effects of Iasi 
month's devaluation of the Turkish currency. 

• Commerzbank AG said it would sell its 5 percent stake in Hertz Corp. to 
Ford Motor Co- which currently owns 49 percent of the company. 

• Kansalfe-Osake- Pankki , Finland's leading commercial bank, reported 
a loss for 1993 of 166 billion markkaa 1S474 million), down 27 percent 
from 1992. 

• PotyGram NV said it was setting up a record company operating in the 
Czech and Slovak Republics on March 1. 

• Sooth Africa's gross domestic product increased by LI percent in 1993. 
the first year of positive growth since 1989. The recovery was mainly due 
io strong agricultural production. 

Reuters. AFP. A FX. AP 

Strike Dents Hanson’s Profit 


whether Credit Lyonnais had effec- 
tive control of Sasea in the months 
prior to its bankruptcy, when the 
French bank took control of MGM 
in a U5. foreclosure. 

The charges nonetheless mean 
that Mr. Haber er and Mr. GLDe 
may be arrested if they enter Swit- 
zerland. Credit Lyonnais said that 
□either man would go to Switzer- 
land, and added that under French 
law they would not be extradited. 


Corroded h\ Our Staff From Dispatches 

LONDON — Hanson PLC. the 
Anglo-American conglomerate, 
said Tuesday that its pretax profit 
for the first quarter fell 27 percent, 
to £173 million (5255 million), due 
to the effects of a U.S. coal strike 
and a large rise in debt charges. 

But Lord Hanson, tbe chairman, 
said Quantum Chemical Corp- its 
latest major acquisition, was "on 
track” and had made its first con-, 
tribution to the company’s profiL 

“The industrial sun is beginning 


to rise both in Britain and the 
U.S.,” he said. “In the months 
ahead, Hanson will lake advantage 
of these improving conditions.” 

■Rie quarterly dividend was 
maintained at 2.85 pence. Hanson 
shares closed unchanged on Tues- 
day at 283.50 pence. 

“As expected, the cost of the 
now-ended coal strike, estimated at 
£80 million in the current financial 
year, had its impact,” said Derek 
Bonham, chief executive of the 
company. {Reuters. Bloomberg) 


MO 

SOURCE 


a.-pv-7./a-n^;v^5i^ 


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INVESTING AND TRADING WITH EUROPE 


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*# 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 16, 1994 


P&ge 15 g 


ASIA/PACIFIC 


Inland China Dreams of Catching Up to the Coasts 


By Daniel Southerland 

WastengHvt Post Soviet . 

“ After- years of-trsdEng the 
coastal dues’ growth. rate, some of Oun^spoorer 

rSS“"““ CCOBmks <» growth 

Here in landlocked Sichuan -"China’s most popu-' 
loos provma. 'wth more than 1 10 million people — 
»“* kept a tight Ed on private^mme 
activity smee the government massacre erf pro-democ-' 

racy protesters m Bering in 1989 . 3 ... 

But in early 1992, with encouragement from the 
coratrysMmor leader, Deng Xiaoping,- the local lead- 
ership, as m many other inland provinces, a 

more hands-off policy. Trade and light industrial 
growth increased sharply. • 

' Herein S cha an’s capital, oncecopadcrcd a provin- 
cial backwater, moonlighting professors, amar^iy 
stodt traders and even peasants turned shoe-shiners 


insist Sichuan can narrow the gap with the coast In 
effect, they say, “Ii’s our turn to get rich." 

■ Along a hundred-mile stretch of road between 
Chengdu and T-«hgn to the south, overloaded trucks 
weave among slow-moving tractors and peasants haul- 
ing cement, non ban and sugar cane on handcarts. 
-Every few hundred yards, farmers hying to become 
entrepreneurs are tearing down mud-brick dwellings 
to build shops and two-siary houses. 

Sichuan is not alone in dreaming of riches. A 
wcekkmg trip across southwestern China, indudin 
the. remote province of Yunnan on the border 
Vietnam, Laos and Burma, shows that China’s eco- 
nomic takeoff is reaching traditionally isolated areas. 
• But southwestern China. Hkethe rest of the country, 
still faces a high economic barrier: Incomes of farm- 
ers, the 70 percent to 80 percent of depopulation who 
had gamed from Beijing’s initial agricultural reforms, 
have leveled off or dropped. 

Throughout China, a surplus army of would-be 


laborers numbering in the tens of millions has been 
created through efficient fanning and overpopulation. 

Coastal industrial cities producing exports cannot 
absorb all of this floating population. The unbalance 
between the urban and rural populations may be a 
bigger threat to stability than the gap between the 
relatively rich coast and the poorer interior. 

Hie bootnlet in some inland provinces also may 

complicate the government's effort to clamp down on 
construction projects and control urban inflation, 
which reacted more than 20 percent last year. 

Given Sichuan’s size, its efforts to catch up with the 
coast could contribute to a growing trend toward 

regionalism, undermining Beijing’s authority. 

Sichuan's challenge is to create enough light indus- 
try to absorb surplus farm labor. Xiao Yang, its 
energetic governor, wants to attract foreign invest- 
ment and double the 30 million farmers now employed 
by factories in small towns and tillages. 

A handful of American. Japanese and Hong Kong 


companies have discovered the province. In Chengdu, 
American Telephone & Telegraph Co. has undertaken 
a major project to build telephone switching equip- 
ment; PepsiCo Inc. is building a joint-venture bottling 
plant; Hughes Network Systems is setting up cellular 
phones: and McDonnell Douglas Corp. builds noses 
for the aircraft it assembles in China. 

Jia Lei, senior sales manager in Chengdu for Oracle 
Systems China Ltd., a subsidiary of a California 
computer software company, said it sold Si million in 
programs in southwest China last year and expects to 
double that figure in 1994. 

Overall economic growth in Sichuan was 12.8 per- 
cent last year, according to official statistics, roughly 
matching China’s nationwide 13 percent 

Still, the gap between industrial and agricultural 
growth in Sichuan remains enormous. Industrial out- 
put in areas larger than townships surged 21 percent 
while the value of agricultural output despite a record 
harvest increased only 1.5 percent 



70 Westin Hotels 



C o mpile d by Ow Staff From Dispatches 

TOKYO — Add Corp., a Japa- 
nese construction company, said 
Tuesday it would sell 70 of its Wes- 
tin holds and resorts in Europe and 
Noth America to a Mexican in- 
vestment group for-$708 million. . 

Add, which bought the higb- 
dass hotel chain for $1.53 billion in 
1988, . said it agreed Friday to sell . 
its interest to DSC SA, a Mexico 
City-based conglomerate led by 
Bernardo Dominguez. 

The deal, which is expected to be . 
completed by Jane, also will allow 
the Mexican ooncem to - use the 
Westin brand name in South 
America. 

Add will retain ownership of 
Westin’s Pacific Rim operations. It - 
also owns the Caesar Park hotel 
chain and niahjw p y independent 
hotels. 

The sale reduces the number of 
Aoki hotels m North America to 1 1 

fmrnSi and thftiumliw nftwnw^f. 

ties in Europe to three from four. 
Worldwide, Add still owns 35 ho- 
tels, 15 of which are in Asa and six 
in Sonth America. Aoki said it ex- 
pected high business growth in 


To 

v% 


reader* in France 

been aader to subscribe 
and sewe wih bur new 
tai tree service. • 

Just cal us today at 
05 -437 437- 


South America and would foens its 
hold operations there; 

The agreement calls for advertis- 
ing,, sates and reservations for the 
70 properties to continue undo' the 
Westin name. 

Mr. Dominguez* DSC has inter- 
ests in real estate, construction, re- 
lafling and tourism. DSC already 
owns a hotel chain in Mexico and 
also operates the Avisa travel and 
tour companies. 

A real estate consultant familiar 
with the yearlong search far a buy- 
er said the Westin properties at- 
tracted at least six serious bidden, 
including several private investor 
Aoki hired Blackstone 
of New York last spring to 
! dirin. The Imhiitml m«lf 
of Japan has reportedly pressed 
Ablti to sell the chain 

Chin Pin a Rtnrifgifinft Group 

vice nrerident, said the chain was 
p rofitable. Bat hotel-industry exec- 
utives said they suspected it posts 
only an operating profit, 

“The worldwide market has been 
.down for several yean,** a consul* 
tant said. ‘‘Oqnmancy rates are be- 
ginning to eKirib , hint room rates 
continue to increase at a slower 
pace than the inflation rate." 

The sale, however, provides a sign 
of reviving interest in hotel proper* 
ties, .whim have been shunned in 
reoent years, said Tsai Stem, a man- 
aging&cctor cf SonnenWidc-C3tdd- 
man Carp, the New York-based in- 
vestment firm that helped sell the 
hotels to Aoki. (NIT, AFP). 


More Hurdles Ahead for Vietnam 

End of U.S. Embargo Won’t Set Off an Instant Boom 


By Peter Passell 

New York Tima Service 

It’s Coke vs. Pepsi and United Airlines vs. 
Northwest in American companies' post-em- 
bargo battle to win the hearts and wallets of 
the Vietnamese. 

These and dozens of other such names are 
sure to be wdcamed, both because Vietnam is 
aching to end its psychological isolation and 
because American businesses are positioned 
to sell what the country wants most. 

But there is a real question of whether 
Vietnam can grow rapidly enough to justify an 
aggressive marketing effort. David Dollar, an 
eennnmi«i at the world Bank, said he was 
“cautiously optimistic’’ that Vietnam would 
soon break out of the pack of the world’s 
poorest countries, but the obstacles are formi- 
dable. • 

The most immediate problems are the 
wretched physical infrastructure and an ab- 
sence of freo-market institutions. 

Adam Horde, an Australian consultant 

/.said 


government also might lose control over 
budget and credit policies — a weakness that 
dogs Russia and is casting a shadow over 
Qma’s development 
Even, if Vietnam has the discipline to com- 
tfae transition from socialism, it is tar 
dear that America win play a signifi- 
cant part in its immeriiare future. 

Irwm Robinson, head of the U.S.-Vietnam 
Chamber of Commerce in New York, called 
President BID Cm ton’s recent proclamation 
ending the embargo a “one-way street." Un- 
less Mr. Clinton also lifts America’s heavy 
tariffs on Vietnamese goods, he said, the 
country's products win be priced out of the 
US. market 

The end of the embargo allows American 
companies to sell or invest virtually as they 
please in Vietnam. And that puts Americans 


in abetter position than one might expect, in 
light of the fact that they must catch up with 
established Japanese, Taiwan, French, Ger- 
man and Thai businesses. 

For one thing, Mr. Dollar said, Vietnam's 
greatest needs are for things that America 
produces well and relatively cheaply: indus- 
trial machinery, telecommunications equip- 
ment, financial services. 

NEWS ANALYSIS 

For another, Mr. Robinson said, the Viet- 
namese are eager to offset the influence of 
China and Japan with a strong American 
presence. Last but not least, the Vietnamese 
nave a great — some would say exaggerated 
—respect for the technology of their former 
adversary. 

The fly in the trade soup is that Vietnam 
does not have most-favored-nation status 
with the United States, which would give it 
the benefit of the generous tariff reductions 
negotiated by America and its major trade 
partners World War H 

For Vietnam to be eligible for that status. 
Mr. Clinton would have to certify that the 
country permits open emigration. Thai would 
be a delicate political matter, considering that 
a lot of American liberals want to retam the 
right to deny the same status to China on 
human-rights grounds. 

But miless Washington bends on this mat- 
ter, Vietnam will surely be tempted to buy 
from countries that permit easier access for 
Vietnamese goods. 

In any event, Vietnam may not have much 
to sell to anyone soon. Still, the country has 
an educated labor force, enough arable land 
and oil to be self-sufficient in food and ener- 
gy at high levels of c onsump tion, and, miracle 
of miracles, profitable state enterprises. 

What is more, it embarked on a successful 


round of so-called economic shock therapy in 
1989. wiping out price controls while damp- 
ing down on budget defidts and bank credit. 

Inflation was contained, apparently with- 
out reducing national income, and exporters 
weathered the collapse of Soviet trade far 
better than their counterparts in more heavily 
industrialized Eastern Europe. 

“There is a lot of dynamism” in the econo- 
my, John Whatiey. a development economist 
at the University' of Western Ontario, said. “I 
see a lot of parallels with South Korea in the 
1950s," he added 

Bui it is easy to lose perspective. In per- 
capiia income. Vietnam is stiD in the same 
league as the destitute nations of sub-Saharan 
Afnca. Although its economy has performed 
magnificently m the last few yean, the next 
few may prove tougher. 

Mr. Fforde’s primary concern is inflation, 
driven by slippage in fiscal and banking disci- 
pline. The tax system, he said, is primitive 
and ill-equipped to deal with private enter- 
prise. And the government’s revenue prob- 
lems may soon be worsened by state-owned 
monopolies' waning power to charge high 
enough prices to cover their bloated costs. 

The Pacific Rnciri Research Institute, a 
private research group, focuses on the strains 
on the expenditure side. Personal incomes are 
already twice as high in Ho Chi Minh City as 
in Hand. 

If this gap between the capitalist-minded 
south and the deeply impoverished, largely 
rural north should widen, the government 
may feel obliged to compensate the losers 
with inflationary loans or subsidies. 

It is hard to find an analyst who is bearish 
on Vietnam's growth prospects for growth in 
the long term, or pessimistic about America’s 
chances of forging mutually beneficial eco- 
nomic links with Hanoi — again, in the long 
term. The question is: How long? 


Investor’s Asia 


Hong Kong Singapore 
Hang Seng ■ ■ Straits Times 

12000 r 


Tokyo ■ 
Nikkei 225 



Hong Kong Hang Seng 


1884 

Tuesday Pruv. . ' % 
Close-.. .Close -Change] 
11,012.30 10BB&8D' *4021 . 


STngaportt 

Straits Times 

2329.S3 2,319.30 ' +0.44. 

Sydney 

All Ordinaries 

2^34JK> 2.23&60, '4)21 

Tokyo ’ 

Nikkei 225 

1B£74A(I 19.45925>^Z49 

KtudaUm^ur Composite 

1JJ8T2T 1.093*30 '..:.»0<56 

Bangkok 

SET • 

141357 1,422.20);; -0 J58 ■ 

Seoul 1 

•Composite Stock 

901.31 - SOt^a: = :0.01 s 

; - 

Weighted Price 

■5,9854)1 &015.25--.V0.50 : 

Henfia - 

Compost . 

3,012^5 3.008.74- 

Jakarta 

Stock index ' 

582.71 586.75 • : : ,4>.£8 

New Zeeland 

NZSE-40 

2^19^3 . 2,319.70 - 40.0t 

Bombay 

NationaUnctex • 

•1,88558, 1394^.rPA9: 

Sources: Reuters. AFP 

iruenuboial Henfd Tribune 

Very briefly: 


te bankrupt companies’ debt surged 53 percent in January from 
December, to 429.36 trillion yen (S4.2 billion), and the number of 
corporate failures rose 18 percent, to 1,104, Tokyo Commerce A Industry 
Research Co. said, adding that because banks were closed for the last few 
days of December, “settlements were extended to January." 

• Pflkingtoa PLC said it would sell as much as 50 percent of PfHdngtoo 
Australia on the Australian Stock Exchange; the chairman of the British 
glare maker said the sale reflected a “long-held intention” to return to the 
50 percent ownership the parent had before 1988. 

• Taiwan will begin accepting applications in June from foreign securities 
companies seeking to open branch offices in Taipei. 

• Vietnam is imposing a 50 percent import tax on some consumer goods, 
including motorcycles, tires and inner tubes for tourist vehicles, and 
home video recorders, the Communist Party daily Nhan Dan reported. 

• CDL Hotels International Ltd-, a Hong Kong-based unit of City 
Developments lid, of Singapore, agreed to buy the 561-room Hotel 
Mfflenhm in New York for S75 million, CS First Boston (Singapore) 
IM, its financial adviser, said. Reuters. Bloomberg Knight- RtiUter, AFP 

Bangkok's Nation in TV Bid 


The Associated Pros 

BANGKOK — Nation Publish- 
ing Group Co., which owns Thai- 
land’s leading English-language 
newspaper, said Tuesday that it 
had farmed an alliance with a bank 
and three media companies to bid 
for the country's first private televi- 
sion rfiannd 

The government is offering the 
concession for an ultra-high fre- 
quency channel. All five existing 
stations, which are very-high fre- 
quency. are owned by the govern- 
ment or the mihiarv. 


Nation Publishing leads one of 
four groups vying for the license. 


flagship, said the venture 
involve an initial investment of 1 
billion bah: (539 million). 

The Nation’s core partners are 
Knrng Thai Bank, a government- 
owned bank; Pacific Intercommuni- 
cations, a producer of news and doc- 
umentaries; Saman Corp., a maker 
of satellite television receiving dish- 
es; and Matichon Co- a publisher. 


NYSE 

Tiiaifliif’a CIosIim 

Tables Include the nationwide prices op to 
the dosing on Wall 8imt and do not reflect 
late trades elsewhere. Via The Associated Prose 


(Continued) 


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Tuesday’s Closing 

Tables include the nationwide prices up to 
the dosing on Wall Street and do not reflect 
late trades elsewhere. Via The Associated Press 


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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 16, 1994 


Page 17 


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MOMENTUM ASSET MANAGEMENT 
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OLYMPIA CAPITAL INTL. INC 
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OPTIMA FUND MANAGEMENT 
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PICTET A aE -GROUP 
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b P.U.T. Gtobal Voiue (Lax) -Ear J5*4) 

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a Ptctal Vabuhssa (CH) 
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PREMIER INVESTMENT FUNDS LTD 
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QUARRY MANAGEMENT LTD 
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ROBECO GROUP 
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d Tokyo Pacific Hides l Seal-4 18178 

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SAFRA REPUBLIC HOLDING 

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w Republic Lot Am Bratfl — S 11377 

w Republic Lot Am Mexico— S 16J® 

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SANTANDER NEW WORLD INV. 

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JKANDU4AVISKA ENSKILDA BANKEH 
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d MMio me » I* 

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SKAND1FONDS . 

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SOCIETE GEHERALE GROUP 
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UNION BAMCAIRE ASSET MGT (UBAM) 
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UNION BANK OF 5WtTZER LAND/I NTRAG 



SODITIC ASSET MANAGEMENT INC 

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High-Tech Teamwork 


eamwork and the 
flexibility of the 
labor force have 
been two of the 
most important incentives for 
companies to move their 
high-tech production facilities 
to Wales. Again and again, 
plant managers emphasize the 
Welsh work ethic. 

Any list of manufacturing 
and high-tech companies in 
Wales today contains some of 
the best-known international 
blue-chip names. British 
Airways, Panasonic, Sony, 
QPL. Robert Bosch, Sharp. 
Toyota and Northern 
Telecom are just a few of the 
380 or more companies that 
have chosen to locate in 
Wales. Information technolo- 
gy, electronics and automo- 
tive components are key in- 
vestment sectors. 

NEWPORT WAFER-FAB 

In recent years, Wales has 
become one of the leading re- 
gions in Britain for the devel- 
opment of new technologies, 
such as semiconductor manu- 
facture. One of the companies 
spearheading this develop- 
ment is Newport Wafer-Fab 
Ltd., the front-end operation 
of a group that offers a com- 
plete turnkey semiconductor 
manufacturing service. 

South Wales-based 
Newport Wafer-Fab is a result 
of an investment by QPL 
International Holdings Ltd., 
one of the top five industrial 
groups in Hong Kong. Until 
the company acquired the 
wafer-fabrication site at 
Newport, QPL had tradition- 
ally been involved in the ma- 
terial and packaging side of 
the manufacturing-process in- 


dustry. QPL is the world’s 
largest lead-frame etcher, pro- 
ducing more than 75 million 
etched and stamped frames 
per month. 

From its position within the 
industry, however. QPL could 
see a gap in the market - the 
need to serve the semicon- 
ductor industry vertically and 
provide a complete service, 
from wafer fabrication to de- 
sign, assembly and testing. 

In 1992. QPL acquired the 
former INMOS site in 
Newport from SGS Thomson, 
the French semiconductor 
group and owner of INMOS. 
This acquisition created 
Newport Wafer- Fab and com- 
pleted the first stage in the 
semiconductor business, the 
wafer fabrication. 

The second stage of the 
manufacturing process will 


i -Vv 

i ' • '• '>v*r 




'* I V 



Bosch’s Turner “ Our emphasis 
is on tratotog to quality jobs.” 

eventually be carried out by 
ASAT (UK), whose site at 
nearby Crumlin should be 
ready by 1995. ASAT (UK) 
will be responsible for the as- 
sembly and testing of inte- 
grated circuits for the compa- 
ny's customer base in Britain, 
Europe and the U.S. East 
CoasL 


With the completion of 
ASAT tUKl. QPL will be the 
first independent company to 
offer a fully integrated manu- 
facturing solution for fabtess 
design houses: it will exploit a 
European market of an esti- 
mated S19.2 billion in 1997, 
according to Dataquest. 

Newport Wafer- Fab carries 
out some of the most complex 
microprocessor work in the 
world in South Wales. Most 
of the fabrication process is 
carried out under exacting en- 
vironmental conditions, 
which require a high level of 
operator skill. 

The advanced process tech- 
nology in Newport Wafer- 
Fab’ s clean rooms operates 24 
hours a day and seven days a 
week, but it is always closely 
monitored. The work de- 
mands a great deal of concen- 
tration: in order to ensure that 
the company’s 262 employees 
are fully competent. Newport 
Wafer-Fab has an extensive 
training program. The compa- 
ny believes people are an im- 
portant asset and its invest- 
inent in training and staff de- 
velopment provides the right 
environment for a successful 
organization. 

The company's efforts in 
training have paid off. and 
Newport Wafer-Fab now op- 
erates with less than 1 -percent 
turnover in staff. 

Avrii Kennedy, personnel 
manager of Newport Wafer- 
Fab, is impressed by the qual- 
ity of the work force. “We 
have a very strong work force 
here in Wales,” she says. 
“They are highly skilled, ded- 
icated, flexible and have 
a tremendous attention to 
the detailed manufacturing 





ForcTsBrkigeftopianL A SlOOmifrm new investment backs up local taient 


processes they must cany ouL 
There is a very strong empha- 
sis on making improvements. 
Our technicians who cany out 
these extremely complicated 
manufacturing processes are 
aware of the value they can 
add. There is tremendous 
commitment to Newport 
Wafer-Fab.” 

This is further endorsed by 
T.L. Li. chairman of QPL, 
who intends that the South 
Wales operation will lead the 
market by building on three 
key philosophies prevalent in 
the group. “We believe that 
Newport Wafer-Fab and 
ASAT (L ! K) will build their 
attractiveness on reputation,” 
he says. “Our reputation will 
come from our service to our 
customers. Service which we 
will build through commit- 


ment to training and total 
quality management.” 

FORD MOTORS AHEAD 

The automotive compo- 
nents industry is thriving and 
expanding in Wales, which 
has become a major source for 
Europe's automakers. More 
than 1 50 companies, employ- 
ing almost 20.000 workers, 
manufacture products ranging 
from complete engines to al- 
ternators. batteries, wiring 
harnesses and fuel filters. 

Major component suppliers 
include Ford and Toyota (en- 
gines I, Robert Bosch (alterna- 
tors), From (filters) and 
Calsonic (radiators). Almost 
every automaker - including 
Mercedes-Benz. BMW, 
Nissan, Honda, Fiat and Volvo 
- receives parts from Wales. 


Ford's Bridgend, plant, 
which employs 1,500 persons, 
produces 2,700 engines a day 
as well as components for 
diesel engines. It is probably 
the second-largest manufacr 
taring employer in Wales, af- 
ter Sony's television plant, 
which has well over 2,000 
workers. Of Ford’s£370- mil- 
lion ($556 million) produc- 
tion in 1992, £294 million 
went for export. According to 
Colin Johnson, manager of 
the Bridgend factory, J993's 
figures are expected to be 
similar. Its 1992 results 
helped it to earn a Queen's 
Award for Exports. 

Ford uses the latest, mass- 
production methods, and its 
main output is the 16-valve 
Zetec engine for its Mondeo, 
Fiesta and Escort ranges. 


. Following a SL00 million new 
investment. Fortf-Will soon 
start production ori the all-alu- 
minum VS AJ26 engine for 
Jagyar. 

A key to Ford's success 
was the securing of wage and 
working-condition agree- 
ments with die auto unions ib 
1989. “We now have totally 
integrated - manufacturing 
teams,” says Mr. Johnson. 
“This allows skilled people to 
come into production teams 
alongside semi-skilled work- 
ers. Our Bridgend'factory was 
one of the first' to introduce 
this system.” . 

He also comments on the 
wealth of underlying talent 
among the ordinary work 
force. “There is also this abil- 
ity here to embrace ongoing 
change, which is coupled with 
very responsible dnion repre- 
sentation,” tie says. “This is 
reflected in the fact that we 
have not lost a single day's 
work due to an industrial stop-, 
page over the pasbfour years. 
There is a will here to protect 
jobs, and employment.” 

Because ~of Bridgend's 
management success, visitors . 
come from other huto plants 
to see how ft is dosa “This re- 
ally indicates ho^v well it is 
working here,” • says Mr. 
Johnson. “There isless than 1- 
percent turnover in the labor 
force, and absenteeism — at 
about 5 percent -is far less 
than at any other Ford plant” 

ALTERNATING SUCCESS 

The recognition that there is 
a renaissance of the auto in- 
dustry in Britain persuaded . 


the German company Robert 
Bosch, one ' of the leading. 

auto-component manufactur- 

■ ers in Europe, to build its 
largesr compact alternator 
plant- on a greenfield site - in . 
South Wales. 

“We looked at various 
places ■ in,. Britain,” s ajte 
Gerhard Turner, commercial 
director- at the company's- 
plant at Cardiff. “In order to 
achieve an output of .over 
1 0,000 units a day and reach' 
ourmarfeets quickly, we need- 
ed a skilled labor force backrii 
by good industrial relations,* 
accessibility and supporting - 
infrastructure. WeTound all. 
these at Cardiff.” 

Construction started on the 
new $1.49 million pliuit in- : 
March 1989 and was com- 
pleted by mid- 1990. This en- 
abled p^uctian. to begin ih.- 
January 199 V, adopting so- 1 
phisticated manufacturing 
techniques and the most ad-- 
vanced methods. The same 
production line, using 180 
programmable logic con-', 
trailers.- is able to produce a 
wide variety of alternators. 

. Today, me plant "has -'650 - 
Welsh employees and 1 9 staff 
from Germany. Commenting 
on the extraordinary responsse: 
to advertisements for person- 
nel before die factory was 
completed. Mr. Turner sayst 
“We had over 60,000 applica- 
tions. It was unbelievable. 
Bosch’s production philoso- 1 - 
phy is wetl known - our env 
pbasis is always on quality 
and training in quality jobs. 
This is a highly productive 
plant” " . ■''■:■■■ 


I This advertising section was produced in its entirety by tire 
supplements division of . the International Herald Tribune’s , 
advertising department * .It was written by . Michael 
Frenchman, a London-basedffinee4aDce writer. * The next is- 
sue on Wales will be published on Feb. 23, 1 994. 


TWO 



F. nk vn, i-'iV 


. . These days:the 'SXfelsh Dragon is a . 
real high flyer-since two international •' 

. '• • -.--i 

giants of the aero engmeering industry \ 

• chose Wde&i , •• -■ ' ' • • ••.. : 

■' ... -t'”- •. L"." 'jg.% 

British 'Airways has : its :new : " 
engineering base at Cardiff Airport \4:j? 
and recently General Electric (USA) ■ :(&. 

has moved -to nearby^ Nantgarw, 
where they serviGe aircraft engines for Sg 
famous names .llke-.CFMl Rolls Rbyce.-...:!- -'Si 
and Pratt & Whitney. “ 

With more than a little help fronrv - . 'gB- 
the^Cfelsh Development Agency boW ’ w 
companies were not merely able to ‘Jgf- 
find the right site, but also the right 
people from Axles’ skilled arid flexible ;||| 
workforce.. . 

The WDA has also assisted in the - . K 

_ • • - • ■ , ■ . • ’ *■ • . J 

development pf a local supplier infra- kfi 
structure to ensure vital components ' 
are always at hand. ■ • . 

To get your business off the ■_ ^ 
ground, put the Welsh Advantage to ^ 

your advantage. Cgili the team at • T ; : 
^Lsh Development International on - - i ; >3 
+44 222 666862, or write to Welsh 
Development International,- Welsh' • " ; ''^7 
Development Agerfcy, Pea fI House, iv 
Greyfriars.Road,^ CFl 3XX' 


ONE DRAGON 



THE WELSH .ADVANTAGE . 


. ••-•'Vi. 
















L>® 


Y>S0 


Page 19 


International Herald Tribune 



A Special Report Wednesday, February 16, 1994 



International Education 



A Scramble for Recrnitg 




When classes began fast&IL the Intcnration- 
a] School erf Dflssddorf found itself with 45 fewer students 
than had registered in May. The Tads who tosappeared over 
ibc summer represented 7.7 percent c£ the student body 
and, at the average tuition, an 832^00 Deutsche mark 'shock: 

■ the search foe xt awa for the defections turned up no common 
deuainhuttor among file summer-leavers other than thercccsri on , 
said, the schorls director, Geoigp HoSmeter. Their parents* employ- 
wi *^ rcw and withdrew fanrihesvayabriiptly” 

A Jn^her-than-wpectedirainber of new papik softened the finan- 
cial Wow; the eqmyalatf of S48O;OO0, somewhat, but after jean of 
growing between; 5 and 15 percent, the school's student body had 
declined, and Mr. HoBmog is planning conservatively for nn1 
year... -. ‘ .V V; ’ * 

Ufa is far frtmrafoneania^iiiteniaht^ schools, winch by their 
natnredOpend.alinost entitdy on expatriates. Whether independent 
or funded by their home countries,' such schools offer, for example, a 
U^.-accrrdned cmncolom in Gomaigr, or the Japanesexurricuhnn 
in Britain. Some offer studies toward .various natmnai dtptnmag ac 
wed as the International Baccalaureate. ' , 

“Most of the schools in Europe have seen some drop "said Robert 
Sebaecha; headmaster of The Antwerp IntematMriafScbooj, where 
he is antitipatfirig a 5 percent decline .next yean' Nor fa it an 
Anglophone phenomenon: The Japanese School in Louden has. 
dropped 14 percent over the past three years. The Scandinavian 
School of Brussels dropped at feast that touch since last year alone. 

. The exceptions, said Kfc Schaecher, come inplaces ue Prague. 
Budapest and China, where international business fa stffl boorang: 
“They may see a leveling, hot 1 don’t think they're goingtoseea 
decrease Idee we have.” . .. ; - 

School heads talk of « » np m « and governments anting h«* 
generally, and of UiL companies in particular replacing American 
expatriate employees with kss-expeastvo Emxmean nationals. At St 
J mn’s International School in Waterloo, outride Brussels, the super- 
iatendent, Ssto- Barbara Hughes, sakl her sdiooTs American popu- 
lation Unowabout 40 pereent of the total, down. &om60 percent six 
to eight years ago. She said she suspected that sook companies were 
favoring single people or those with older children, citing an aging 
studmt population since 1990. 

Jim Buckhdt, head of the frankfort International School and its - 
branch in Wiesbaden, sees more companies, paying education bene- 
fits in a tamp sum for employees to spend as they' chooser Some 
parents, Ml. Budtoeftsaid, find it pays to educate their children at 
home and fly them over for visits, inatamg competition for his 
school from boarding schools in die United States and Britain. 

Although most of their students’ tmtiems are stiB paid by parents’ ' 
employers, heads of schools talk of-growing rosters of smaller 
companies, and of self-employed parents. At Mr. Bockhafs school, 
the top 10 compatness^l account for 12 to50 pupils each, hesays, 
but “after that, it gets down to two and flm* kids per company voy 

fast.” 

Some schools rased notion to compensate far the^r drop, in 
students, although with j&tes ashigb as SiZOOO&year, they express 
reluctance to do so. Most schools ait staff : Five teaching positions 
went at The International School of Brussdfa, vdxkh lost about 100- 

Loudon.^w^Maw a ffp^^drop last year; 20 percent of 
teaching hours at the Scanffimrian School of Bnuadswcxe chopped. 

"Dkc any organization or corporation, wc have to affnst, said 
Antwerp’s Mr. Schaecher, adding that the schools have such a 
specialized dSentete they can do fade to recruit new students. *T 
don’t know where dse we can lock,” he said. 

-Current economic conditions aside, such rollewraister rides are 
nothing new at inafautk^schooils, iriiOTStDdeatpq|mtatipijscau 

Continued on page 22 \ 



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A 'Multinational’ School 
Celebrates Diversity 





By Lawrence Malkin 

N EW" YORK — International companies 
and the world of diplomacy have given 
birth to the multinational child, on the 
move from place to place and therefore a 
special problem for schools. By custom most schools 
are charged with the task of the young their 

country’s myths and traditions, and this by d efini tion 
would seem to exdude muliinatin^tp 
Not necessarily, says Carol De- ^ 

Vine, principal of the Caedmon 

School where about one-quarter r Tkp mnot 

of the 175 pupils come from 1UC muai 

abroad to provide a balance be- f^inpr fnr A 

tween local roots and interna- o 

tioaal flavor. In a school where senSC of SC 

“every child is struggling to learn 

a new language and a new culture 

there is no anchor," she explains. Caedmon has 

developed its own special curriculum based on the 

history, geography, literature, foods and even family 

history of each child and his own country — and, in 

New York, that of the immigrant ancestors of the 

local children as well. 

Small and limited to the impressionable ages of 3 
to 10, the school deliberately plays up the multina- 
tional cbDd's differences. 

“The most important thing for a child is his sense 
of self." said Ms. DeVme. “Children feel anonymous 
enough when they move: Instead of melting them all 
together, we are trying to celebrate the various differ- 
ences they bring to us, and to do it in a very deliberate 
way." 

Caedmon is a modified Moutessori school, light on 
rote exercises and based on the principle that the 
•proper work of a child is play. Gasses have only 
about 15 children, and they cover two years in age so 


'The most important 
thing for a child is his 
sense of self.’ 


example. Anders Rydberg. 7-year-old son of a Swed- 
ish diplomat and his Vietnamese wife, was under- 
standably shy when he arrived, bot when asked by his 
t ftanhpr to hrip his classmate ^ learn some Swedish, he 
recalled. U 1 fell very proud.'' 

Preschool children who speak no English are 
quickly integrated. Marilyn McTagoe, the kindergar- 
ten teacher, says most normal children usually learn 
the lan guag e in three months, mainly by fa m ing 
universal body language into words. She speeds the 
process (and helps start reading) with games that 
^ — have act-out cards with such 
words as hop, skip, jump, bug, 

nportant U* an- 

hild is his dren learn reading and writing by, 
telling stories of their own travels, 

7 families, food and holiday Writ- 

ing out recipes and stones from 

home bdps involve parents, who 

mi ght otherwise stand aside from school activities as 
foreigners. 

Mapmaking and map reading have a special at- 
traction in all grades. School groups explore New 


York City’s ethnic neighborhoods — there are plenty 
nearby on Manhattan's East side. They study the 
waves of immigration — Dutch, English, German, 
Irish, Italian, East European and most recently, from 
Asia. The school's extensive library fa weD stocked 
with books on other countries and immi grant themes. 

School trips take pupils to the restored immigrant 
reception center on Ellis Island, now a museum; to 
W ashing ton, and to the city’s many art and history 
museums. As the children move mto middle and 
upper levels, the curriculum grows more convention- 
al but even in the study of American history and 
civics there fa a constant subtext of the contribution 
of foreign ideas, cultures and individual leaders. 

“This makes the children's sped aln ess an impor- 
tant part of the class," explained Gina Saudi, the 

Continued on page 22 


In U.S., Parents Win Right to Choose Where Children Study 


By Joseph Fitchett 


W ASHINGTON — 
Despite political set- 
backs, the idea of 
school choke — air 
towing pupifa to pick then schools 
instead of laving to attend the 
ones nearest then homes — con- 
tinues to gain ground across the 
United States. • 

Dczsos of mqjor cities already 

have pilot -programs that allow 
children to shift schools, and new 
routes to choice are being discov- 
ered. , . 

For example, many states now 
permit choke in toe guise of let- 
ting children attend schools near 
their parents’ work. 

School choice emerges in other 
ways, such as special schools open 
to vohmteer pupils. Another fast- 
spreading initiative fa a Wave of 
local scholarship programs, often 
funded by business leaders, giving 
poor families toe wherewithal to 


afford to choose their children’s 
schools by sending them to local 
private schools. 

These privately funded choice 
plans have sprung up across the 
country in nearly a dozen dries, 
with the biggest programs in Mil- 
waukee, San Antonio and New- 
ark. Already, 7,000 low-income 
children have been able to chang e 
schools, with that many more on 
waitingjfats. . 

Typically, the recipient lives in 
an inner-city neighborhood and 
wants to switch to a local private 
school. Far from the grassy cam- 
pus of a traditional prep school, 
these local establishments, often 
parochial schools, tend to haveae- 
assmnmg premises that nonethe- 
less offer a learning environment 
sheltered from violence and drugs. 

Most private schools of this 
type charge about $ 1,500 a year 
and the scholarships — usually 
provided by local businesses that 
are hoping to promote a better 
work force — cover mott of toe 


cost, perhaps with a small balance 
to be assumed by toe parents to 
ensure their connmtmeoL 

Another approach centers an 
charter schools, which are “pub- 
lic" schools created and ran by a 
group of teachers and staff with 
considerable freedom from over- 
sight by the normal school board 
and state authorities. In that re- 
spect, they offer much wider 
“choice” than the magnet schools 
where specialized programs are 
designed to attract studmts with 
the right qualifications. 

But the basic instrument for a 
full system of open choice remains 
vouchers — basically, the equiva- 
lent of food stamps that recipients 
can spend wherever they choose to 
buy food. Similarly, parents could 
choose where to “buy" their chil- 
dren's education in public or pri- 
vate schools. 

Most plans for vouchers view 


them, initially at least, as a govern- 
ment benefit that would be limited 
to tow-income families. 

A total of 14 states have adopt- 
ed some form of plan that allows 
for choice among public schools or 
between public and private 
schools for elementary students. 
Ballot initiatives are pending in 
another 20 states, including a 
scaled-back version in California, 
which rejected a broad voucher 
system in November. 

Whatever the approach, the aim 
is to create competition in a school 
system that currently fa almost 
completely protected from it The 
idea of competition has assumed 
extra weight thanks to the Clinton 
administration's concern about 
America’s ability to compete in- 
ternationally — a goal that fa 
widely seen as unattainable with- 
out a dramatic improvement in 
American schools. 


Even Albert Shanker, head of 
the main American teachers' 
union, acknowledges that Ameri- 
can students generally perform at 
roughly three or four grades below 
their counterparts in Japan. Ger- 
many or France. 

Mr. Shanker wants the UJ&. 
government to impose higher stan- 
dards in public schools and let 
teachers put pressure on their stu- 
dents to match foreign students. 

But most reformers, including 
concerned business leaders, dis- 
agree and insist that only a radical 


cbangecan turn around the deteri- 
orating trends. 

“We koow the answers, we have 
individual schools that achieve 
brilliant results. The problem fa to 
replicate these successes on a na- 
tionwide basis," said Chester 
Finn, a widely respected educa- 
tional theorist with extensive gov- 
ernment experience. 

Businesses, spending billions of 
dollars for training that workers 
should have received in school 

Continued on page 21 





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Page 20 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 16, 1994 


International Education/ A Special Report 


Shh! Baccalaureates in the Making 


By Barry James 


P ARIS — At France's na- 
tional printing office, the 
Imprimeric National e, it 
is Known merely as “The 

Secret." 

“Please don't say where we are." 
said the director of the section that 
prints examination papers. 

“And please don’t use my 
name," he added. 

Kidnappings? Commando 
raids? Spies? 

Anything is possible. For this is 
in the realm of the dreaded bacca- 
laureate, which hundreds of thou- 
sands of secondary school stu- 
dents will be taking in a few 
months. 

"The questions for the philoso- 
phy exam alone could be worth 
millions of francs," the director 
said. 

So ingrained is the examination 
in France's mentality that sabo- 
tage or a breakdown of the system 
could bring the country to the 
brink of hysteria — or so main- 
tained a book a couple of years 
ago called “The Bac Will Not 
Take Place." 

Thus the Fort Knox mentality 
at the printing office, which 
proudly Boasts that in 50 years of 
operation it has never allowed a 
single leak or been besmirched by 
the vaguest hint of corruption. 

The printing office produces ev- 
erything from tax forms to beauti- 
ful books, but nothing is quite so 
insular or so unkn own as this spe- 
cial section. let's say “somewhere 
in the Paris region." It has about 
SO workers — all sworn to abso- 
lute secrecy and issued with spe- 
cial passes. 



The building is nondescript 
apart from the armored doors, 
barred windows and video surveil- 
lance. 

Every sheet of paper that goes in 
is accounted for, and any stocks 
left over are shredded and burned. 
The examination papers are given 
code numbers, and no worker sees 
a complete paper. So strong is the 
secrecy tradition that one worker 
whose child was about to take the 
examination requested temporary 
reassignment to another job. Even 
the director of the Imprimerie Na- 
tional stays outside the plant un- 
til the baccalaureate is over at the 
end of June. 

In a nation that broods about 
the state of its education — htm- 


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NicnJac Ami/IHT 

dreds of thousands of citizens 
recently marched through Paris id 
defense of state schools, for exam- 
ple — it seems vital that official 
examinations not only are fair but 
should patently be seen to be fair. 

This is all the more true given 
France's highly centralized educa- 
tion system and the national rever- 
ence for diplomas and degrees. 

"The slightest suspicion would 
destroy our credibility," said the 
anonymous director. 

The section prints all the bacca- 
laureate papers for the Inter-Aca- 
demic E xamina tion Service at Ar- 

cueii, which organizes ex- 
aminations in the Paris. Crfeteil 
and Versailles regions. Other aca- 
demic regions have their own 
printing presses, and similarly 
tough security measures. 

The Imprimerie Nationale also 
produces baccalaureate papers for 
Lille, Rouen and Amiens, braille 
papers for the whole country, and 
papers for overseas territories and 
departments, as well French 
schools and institutes in 64 coun- 
tries. Papers destined Tor most 
other parts of the world are sent by 
diplomatic pouch. 

The baccalaureate examination 
papers range from a single sheet 
for the philosophy test to docu- 
ments several inches thick. 

Because of its renown for secu- 
rity. the printing office also pro- 
duces papers for a multitude of 
special competitive examinations 
for about 80 official organizations, 
apart from the Ministry of Educa- 
tion. In all, it printed some 41 
million pages last year, many con- 
taining complex scientific formu- 
las or in foreign languages. 

The biggest challenge for the 
secretive plant each year is un- 
doubtedly the production of pa- 
pers for the baccalaureate, a kind 
of national monument that was 
introduced in 1808 under Napo- 
leon. 

In 1960, only 10 percent of stu- 


dents took the bac, with a pass rate 
of 60 percent. Last year, more than 
600,000 — about half the final 
year student population — took 

the e xamina tion with a pass rate of 

more than 70 percenL 

Although some critics say that 
the improving pass rate indicates 
that the examination has become 
easier over the years, die Ministry 
of Education denies that this is so. 

It insists that the examination is 
carefully controlled to maintain a 
consistent standard. The official 
view implies that educational 
standards in France have im- 
proved dramatically over the 
years, although it also reflects the 
fact that virtually any white-collar 
job today requires at least a bacca- 
laureate and a couple of years of 
university. 

There is not one baccalaureate 
but a multitude, organized in se- 
ries of scientific, literary, techno- 
logical and specialized subjects. 
The most prestigious is the math- 
intensive Bac C, which opens the 
way to preparatory classes for the 


Each series has a virtually limit- 
less number of options to suit stu- 
dents' particular needs and abili- 
ties. For example, baccalaureate 
e xamina tions are offered in more 
than 50 languages, including Bre- 
ton. Occitan, Albanian and Am- 
haric. Some sets of examination 
papers are prepared for just one or 
two candidates — students pre- 
paring specialized subjects in 
braille, for example. 

Although it prints hundreds of 
different baccalaureate papers — 
a total of 8.6 million pages in the 
month preceding the examination 
last year — the printing office 
Haim* with pride that it always 
delivers precisely as many sets of 
papers as there are candidates — 
“not one more nor one less," the 
director said. 

The papers are sent to the ex- 
amination centers with coded la- 
bels — only the examiners them- 
selves know what is inside — 
wrapped in strong brown paper, 
sealed with wax and then wrapped 
agam in dear plastic. Any mis- 
take. such as opening a package 
even mar ginally before the time 
ordained tor the examination, or 
opening a package in the wrong 
room, is likely to require cancella- 
tion and retaking of the exam. 

In fact, this almost happened a 
couple erf years bade. Tbae was a 
suspicion that questions from an 
examination paper mighty have 
leaked inadvertently after it had 
left the printing office. The Impri- 
merie Nationale was advised of 
the potential disaster on a Friday, 
worked through the weekend to 
compose and print a new set of 
papers and delivered the examina- 
tions on the Monday, in time for 
the examination to lake place. 

BARRY JAMES is on the staff of 
the International Herald Tribune. 



- Imm RdJcm/Tbe Awaited P m* . 

About 600,000 people marched in Paris last month to protest new government proposals on school funding. .; 

In France, a Church vs. State Debate 


By Mary Foflam 


P 


ARTS — Education is al- 
ways an explosive issue in 
France, andnevermore so 

than when thecentury-old 

war between Catholic and state 
schools flares up. 

Ten years ago, a Socialist gov- 
ernment was brought down after 
hundreds of thousands of demon- 
strators backing the mostly Catho- 
lic independent schools staged pro- 
tests against President Franqois 
Mitterrand's attempt to create “a 
single, unified, lay system of educa- 
tion." 

Last month, the conservative 
government wound up with egg on 
its face after it underestimated 
public support for the state 
schools. The government's efforts 
to allow local authorities to in- 
crease spending on the- indepen- 
dent schools sparked the biggest 
demonstration in Paris in a decade 
— 600,000 people, mostly teach- 
ers. parents and pupils of state 


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schools marched through the 
streets. 

At issue was the Falloux Law, 
passed in 1850, which limits the 
amount local authorities may 
spend on independent school 
buildings to 10 percent of the . 
school's annual budget 

“Ironically, Count Albert Frfe- 
deric Falloux, who was education 
minister to Louis Napoleon and a 
Catholic, intended the restriction 
to protect Catholic schools from 
state interference.” according to 
Harry Judge, former head of Ox- 
ford University's education de- 
partment, who is now studying the 
French educational system. 

Despite fierce Socialist opposi- 
tion, the governing conservatives 
forced an amendment through the 
parliament lifting that ceiling after 
a report commissioned by Fran 901s 
Bayrou, the education minister, 
showed that half of all independent 
school buildings were unsafe. 

. But the amendment was ulti- 
mately overturned by the Constitu- 
tional Council, and the end result 
of the dispute has been that state 
schools, rather than private ones, 
wiD get more funding. Meanwhile, 
the government has begun consul- 
rations on how to improve its own 
educational system. 

The reasoning is that state 
schools, too, are in bad physical 
shape, marry of them fire hazards. 
The government of Prime Minister 
Edouard Balladur has promised to 
spend 2J5 billion francs over the 
next five years m improve Uk sites 
find has set up a commission to 
examine the state of all school 
buddings. 

Mr. Bayrou has also begun lis- 
tening Ur stale school unions de- 
manding, among other things, 3 
five-year plan for education and “a 


complete diagnosis of everything 
that is wrong in education.** Mr. 
Bahadur invited the unions and 
representatives from parents' assoV 
ciations — stOl only from state 
schools —for talks to phm“a thor- 
ough examination of all dm prob- 
lems facing the education system.^ 

Already, the independent 
schools “get a very good deaL" ac- 
cording to Mr. Judge.' 

Most are under contract to ihe 
state, which pay steadier? salaries } 
and in many cases the cost of ron- 
ning the schools. Catholic schools, 
cater for 16 penxntfofaO French 
pupils and'eost the state some 34 
billion francs (S5,7 billion) a year 
. — 13 percent of the education bud- 
get. - ' : 

As part of the deal, seboofr un? 
der contract must teach the nation- 
al curriculum and have pupils at 
national examinations, out they 
can only tdicb rdigion mironcdm- 
pulsary 'catechism 1 classes;" Mr. 
Judge sard. 1 

State schools are well aware that 

their rivals owe much of thdrsuc- 
cess to weaknesses in the public, 
sector. Research shows that at most 
15 percent of parents choose an. 
iridepehdeqt school for religious 
reasons. Most prefer ihem because 
they offer to attractive and not- 
too-expensive alternative 1 to their 
local state sdrooL Independent 
schools are not affected by catch- 
ment-area restrictions, leaving par- 
ents free to send their dtikmai to 
independent schools wherever they 
wish. : 

More t )vm a third of aS French 
ettikhm spend ai least part of their 
school years in a private school, 
according 10 a study by the sociolo- 
gists Gabrid Langpnet and Alain 
Leger. They found that manypar- 
ents sent children who were strug- 


gling in the state schools to the 
independent institutions. 

“In the majority of cases.” the 
sociologists wrote, “the txansfej* 
takes place the same year, as if it 
were tbie family’s inspirit response 
to the decision to make the child 
Stay down.” J 

Independent schools have other 
nma ct i onx- They tend to be small- 
er, tess^ stressful and the teachers 
have ,a reputation pf being more 
paring . They have tighter discipline 
and are more Hkdy to provide 

school buses and a cafeteria, and to 
look after.young chOdreh outside 
school boms. . - 

• Quahty, and fees, vary enor- 
mously but according to the state 
statistics agency INSEE, private 
- schools cost parents -three times 
more than those run by the state. 
The monthly Le Nouvd Observa- 
teur estimates that the' cost is bq* 
tween 1,100 and IGJXKT francs per 
year. . "• 

Ministerial statistics show that 
teachersmincksptmdemsdfoolsme 
often less qu^ed than in the state 
sector. For instancd;- iDdepeiideai 
secondary schools have a muefi 
higher proportion' of the humble 
metres awdhares — 48 percent 
compared witfi just 6 percent ai 
siateschools.. 

De^iite the fact that salaries of 
leachers m independent school^ 
under contract are , paid by . the 
state, heads of indepradem schools 
arc free to recruit teachers on theq: 
own. This may explain, at least in 
part, why independent school pof 


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EVTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 16, 1994 


Page 21 


International Education/ A Special Report 


* 




in School Past 30 


$ 


By Miriam Widman 

the Free 
uirivoaiy here, one of 
.canity .three/ students :'is 
: CEvtiLtliB age of 30. One 
fwJiafbeen enrolled at a um- 
_ for .at least seven years. . 
There is even a stpdeni who has 
£been studying since/1957, 
f' Such an aged stodeat body isn’t 
unusual,, for Germany,, where 
heavy emphasis on degrees makes 
people rcmaantto drop ouL Bui' 
extra students cost extra money. 
*lot only that, says Josef Lange, 
igenaraT difcctorfor the conference 
dSrectora of higher education 
.schools; ksne-tqm students mean 
fewer wotimg ycars and make 
^3taiaany Tras competitive on the 
j^orid.nMikeL - 
. “We don’t have a tot of raw 
maierials berey” Mr- l in ge said, 
rawmaterials are the imelfi- 

nf Ou 
e not now 

%td stiff _ 

["fion, Germany is makihg an effOTt 
iQq . shorten study time. Various 
fistates^ adrich govern education m 
f<heCo6utry rather than thenatian- 
!&1 government, have already 
'adopted roles that wouldsharteo 
"study ~ > 

Bohn,- foe example, .passed a 
tali that requires new students in 
most majors to finish their studies 
in nine semesters, or four and a 
half years. A test is required after 
two years, and those who don’t 
take it must go through a mqdicd 
meeting with an advisw after three 
years at (he latest; ff neither of 
these requirements are. met, the 
student is thrown put. ... 
c In North Rhine Westgbdia, 
Germany's most poputons' state, 
legislation limiting the study time 
lo nine semesters was also imple- 
mented, although that state nas 
chosen not to force students off 
3 us if they don't make the 


The Umvoaty of Bochum in 
Western Germany- and the Uni- 
versit “ 


a trial- attempt to give students the 
.opportunity to leave university af- 
ter a tw to thrte-year study peri- 
od with a bache^sdegree, a new 
concept in Germany. “Eighty per- 
cent of the candidates who sign up 


Markina nn, a coordinator for the 
bachelor's program at Bochum, 



i Bochum curriculum is in- 
(emship-oriented and students are 
required to be proficient in a for- 
eign language and in computer 
l angu age s. The program takes six 
semesters, or three-years, and the 
first class of 100 students began 
last fall. At Augsburg, the bache- 
lor's is available in the biuaness 
and economics departments after 
tro>esrs<tf study. The first batch 
of studea&startedjm July 1992. 

Once thc students do finish, will 
thdr job prospects be any bene? 
ikme observers doubtit “We are 
very skeptical about these short 
study programs** said Peter Bie- 
smbach, an official in charge of 
research/ apd odycation policy 
-with the Federal Association of 
German Inctastiy. “The bachelor’s 
degree is amply a renaming of a 
mfitenn exam to callit a diploma. 
That is no job' market for these 
graduates." ; . 

Indeed, at a time when uuem- 
ploymcntis on the risem Germa- 
ny, and candidates with master’s 
and doctorates are having a tough 
time in the] ob market, the chances 
for BA. graduates don’t seem 
good. But educators in the plot 
program believe tbe trial effects 
are worth it. For one reason , stu- 
dents are not forced to leave after 
they receive a bachelor's and pro- 
fessors believe many will stay on 
for the master's degree. 


MIRIAM JtiWMAN is a journal- 
ist basedinBer On. 


The Right to Choose 


Continued from page 19 

have poored several hundred mflr 
■ikm dollars ■ — ■ $50 million from 
IBM alone— into trying to fix the 
current system in the last five 
.years.' • 

■ Glasses got smaller, teache r s' 

•pay got larger, but student pexfor- 
xuance confinoed to slide. Most of 
the money was swaflmwd ty bo- 
reaucracy and the system was- left 
jntact, business leaders found. 

I Jerry Hume, a member of the 
California Business Roundtable, 
said: “Business should spend its 
tunds cm insuring that .the schools 
restructure, ana stop tinkering 
with superficial partnerships’' 
with the local bureaucracies. 

. Evidence that school choice can . 

|nr)n»terestrocaiiriiig— chax^ng but fear chaos jf 
teachers' behavior, promoting real Jf* 

standards, providing a climate ffedgpdwxicflec 
that motivates students' — conies 
not only from test results but also 
from the emergence of a new di- 
versity of schools in the few areas 
that have been experimenting for 
several years. 


For example^. East. Harlem, a 
area in New York City, has 
a prog ram allowing choice 
among the district's public sdxxds 
for 15 years, and statistics over a 
decade show that local students 
have started scoring higher on na- 
tionwide tests. . 

In a just-published book, “Mir- 
stofcmE^-fiMem.r^iifftm Sey- 

condHdc thau?« nation will move 
toward, choice joon. if -the new 
“market? in edneationis confined 
topnblk} schools; Introducing the 

vouchers should 
b<} postponed, they say, because it 
is too drrisve politically.. - 
The gp-slbw m^imeat appeals 
to many voters who appear ready 
to experiment .with school choice, 
but fear chaos if the new option is 
too open, saying that a fuB- 
her systemmighi trig- 
ger astampede of pppils fleeing 
bad schools. 


JOSEPH manor is on the 
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Viadrina University's symbol — a bridge — represents literally Frankfurt's bridge over the Oder River to Slubice, Poland. 


By Ann Brocktehnrst 

F rankfurt-an- 

DER-ODER — When 
the East German state 
of Brandenburg an- 
nounced its intention to found a 
so-called “European University” 
in Franfurt-an-der-Oder, on the 
Polish border, the decision raised 
more than a few eyebrows. 

Gecmany’sestabfishedimiverri- 
ties are afl crying out far cash. The 
relatively small Land of Branden- 
burg already had two tad v erities 
and there are three huge universi- 
ties in nearby Berlin, And al- 
though Frankfurt-an-der-Oder 
was .until 181 1 the site of a univer- 
sity of some repute, it has had no 
academic tradition since then. The 
city also ladta the physical charm 
and cultural amenities of other 
historical college towns such as 
Heidelberg, Gfittingen and Frei- 
burg. 

Despite the initial skepticism, 
however, planners forged ahead. 
And in its second academic year, 
the Viadrina European Universiry 
has enrolled some 1,000 students 
— 300 in their second year of 
studies and 700 in font year. One- 
third of the student body comes 
from Poland and the university 
has dormitories in both Frankfurt 
and across the river in neighboring 
Slubice. 

Vladrina’s symbol is a bridge. 


representing hteraDy Frankfurt’s 
bodge over the Oder to Poland 
and figuratively the bridging func- 
tion between Eastern and Western 
Europe that it aims to cany out. 
The dean of the law faculty, Ro- 
land Wiitman, is a Polish speaker 
whoprcvioiuly worked at die Uni- 
versity of Munich. “There, I also 
had contacts in Poland, but they 
were a sideline." be said. “Here 
those contacts are one of the baric 
principles behind the university 
While there are several universi- 
ties in Europe that bin themselves 
as “European,*’ there is no consen- 
sus on what exactly the label 
means In some cases, universities 
adopt the name because they offer 
a broad range of courses on Euro- 
pean law, history and public ad- 
ministration. In other cases, they 
call themselves European due to 
their locations in header towns 
such as Passau and Constant 
Although Viadrina 's senate de- 
cided at one of its founding meet- 
ings that “its nucleus should be 
bflateral German-Polish coopera- 
tion,’’ it also has a special interest 
in striking agreements with the 
Baltic and Scandinavian stares. To 
try and create a cosmopolitan at- 
mosphere, the university aims to 
have 30 to 50 percent of its staff 
made up of visiting foreign aca- 
demics. And in an effort to raise 
its international profile further, it 
chose Hans Water, a German- 
born professor of political science 


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and education ai Stanford Univer- 
sity in California, as its rector. 

Mr. Wittman said it is the uni- 
versity's goal to provide both an 
international and interdisciplinary 
education where “law srudenis 
also go to culture lectures. ” 

Viadrina currently has three 
faculties: law. economics and hu- 
manities. The economics depart- 
ment will devote itself primarily to 
problem areas connected with the 
change of system in Eastern Ger- 
many and Europe. All students 
have to study at least one foreign 
language. 

For the near future, the senate's 
goals are simply to establish the 
current faculties as firmly as possi- 
ble and to cement the working 
relationships with Polish universi- 
ties in Krakow, Poznan and Wro- 
claw. The tie with Wroclaw (for- 
merly Breslau) is of historical note 
since the original Viadrina Uni- 
versity, founded in Frankfurt-an- 
der-Oder in 1506, moved to Bres- 
lau with its staff and students in 
1811. Its existence as a German 
university ceased after World War 
n, however, when Poland was 
awarded land that had previously 
belonged to Germany. 

With its main building still cov- 
ered in scaffolding, dust from ren- 
ovation work floating through the 
unfinished hallways and too little 
space to shelve all the library's 
newly acquired books, Viadrina is 


clearly still in an early and experi- 
mental phase. Its newness and 
lack of reputation, however, do 
give the students one big advan- 
tage. While Western Germany’s 
universities are so crowded that 
students regularly sit on the floor 
during lectures, at Viadrina, pro- 
fessors and teachers still have per- 
sonal contact. 

Among ibe German students, 
the vast majority are East Ger- 
mans, while the academic staff is 
almost completely West German, 
a situation Mr. Wmrnan attributes 
to a lack of qualified eastern can- 
didates in the university's special- 
ty areas. While students at other 
eastern universities have rebelled 
against such “cdonialislic” poli- 
cies, a law student. Henryk Mieih, 
says the ‘imported professors are 
an academic advantage." 

Viadrina's Polish students, who 
must pass a German-language 
proficiency test, come from 
throughout Poland and almost all 
have scholarships from private 
German foundations. Most live in 
university housing in Slubice and 
commute across the bridge to 
classes. 

Marta Jedlinska. a second-year 
bw student from Warsaw, came to 
Viadrina specifically for the law 
program, which wifl allow her to 
qualify for both German and Pol- 
ish state legal exams. “1 hope that 
people like me will be needed" she 
said. “Poland wants to join the 



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European Comm unity and law 
will be crucial to that." Starting 
this year, she will also begin at- 
tending lectures given by via ting 
Polish professors in Slubice. 

Often students from Eastern 
Europe who study abroad uy to 
stay on. seduced by the higher liv- 
ing standards and better earning 
prospects. While East Germans 
may be the poor cousins of West 
Germans, in a border town like 
Frankfurt-an-der-Oder, it is still 
clear to see that they are a lot 
better off than the Poles from 


across the river. Ms. Jedlinska 
misses Warsaw, however, and 
plans to return. 

“I don’t see it as a financial 
question. You can earn well in 
Poland with a good job" she said. 
“Naturally, the living conditions 
of Germans and Polo: are differ- 
ent, bat I’m not envious. When I 
go home to Warsaw, I see each 
time how much better the city 
looks." 

ANN BROCKLEBURST is a 
journalist based in Berlin. 


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INT ERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY. FEBRUARY 16, 1994 

International Education/ A Special Report 


Corporations Earn Credit in Bri 


By Conrad de Aenlle 

L ONDON — When the new phanna- 
ceutica] research facility at Universi- 
ty College London went into opera- 
tion a year ago, it was no thanks to 
public authorities or private foundations, or 
even the generosity of alumni who had made 
good. The credit instead goes to a drug compa- 
ny — a Japanese one, at thaL 
Final Co. was looking for a place to do 
primary research in Europe and decided that 
the academic environment at UCL would suit 
its needs. The college, meanwhile, which is a 
part of the University of London, was looking 
to expand its science programs. 

What made the match even better for the 
college was the £9 million that Eisai put up to 
finance the lab's construction, plus £3 million 
in cash for UCLs treasury, ail together about 
518 million. 

What Eisai received in return is the use of 
two-thirds of the facility, in which its scientists 
will study the central nervous system with an 
eye to eventually developing pharmaceutical 
applications. Eisai has a 50-year lease, but 
terms are to be renegotiated after 15 years. The 
company can pull out at any time, but the 
building would then revert to the college. 
UCL officials boast that the Eisai lab is the 


first at a British learning institution erected by 
a Japanese corporate sponsor. Collaborative 
ventures of other types between indusny and 
British universities have become common, 
however. So much so that some educators 
worry that with so many deals being made, the 
pure pursuit of knowledge will become tainted 
and university researchers will become more 
concerned with selling than science. 

Imperial College London, a leading science 
school that also is part of the University of 
London, has projects with the Hkes of Hitachi 
Ltd. and Fujitsu Ltd. or Japan, Siemens AG of 
Germany, Groupe Bull of France, and the 
large British concerns Imperial Chemical In- 
dustries PI C, Glaxo Holdings PLC and 
SmithKline Beecham PLG 

These ventures bring in £50 million a year m 
grants and contracts, which helps to explain 
Imperial's motives. “We’re doing this for scien- 
tific reasons, but we’re making money, too," 
said David Thomas, ICL’s pro rector, the per- 
son in charge of research contracts. “The pay- 
off for us is to keep research going." 

That’s no easy feat. Colleges everywhere, 
and especially in Britain, are having to make 
do with less government assistance. Stephen 
Montgomery, UCL’s director for industry and 
commerce, said that a decade ago. his college 
derived 60 percent of its budget from the 
government; the figure today has shrunk to 43 


to 45 percent. “Certainly the proportion of our 
income coming from normal government 
grants has dropped significantly in the last 10 
years," he said. He estimates that less than one- 
third of the college's £150 million m gross 
income comes from direct government aid, 

Britain does not have the best record on 
state support of higher education. Actually, it 

Some educators worry that 
with so many deals being 
made, the pure pursuit of 
knowledge will become 
tainted. 

has one of the worst- In a study of 19 countries 
published bv the Organization for Economic 
Cooperation and Development, Britain ranked 
18th in real public expenditure on higher edu- 
cation per student from 1980 to 1988. the most 
recent year for which statistics had been com- 
piled. 

Spending fell during the period by 5 J per- 
cent per year, the only country that fared 


worse was New Zealand. Spending on facilities 
feD by 4.9 percent annually, putting Britain 
ahead of only Finland and what used to be 
Yugoslavia. They were the poorest finishers in 
a very weak field. Real per- student spending 
fell in nin e of the 19 countries in tbe survey. 

Educators insist that when considering a 
partnership with business, the bottom line is 
not the bottom lint, It must be undertaken for 
other reasons. 

“On the practical side, it worts best if both 
sides see it to their mutual advantage, but it's 
difficult if it's forced," Louise Johnson, a pro- 
fessor of molecular biophysics at the Unhrasi- 
iy of Oxford, said. “They must see real bene- 
fits. In some cases the technology isn't right. . 
it’s too difficult for us to tackle. In oiher.cases 
it might be considered trivial and not worth 
our while." 

What makes the Eisai arrangement worth 
UCL’s while, aside from the cash and the 
prestige of having a large drug company on 
campus, is the chance for researchers at the 
college to work, with their corporate counter- 
parts. Ten UCL students, graduate and under- 
graduate, work in Eisai’s portion of the lab 
with about 20 company scientists; 10 to IS 
more scientists are expected to be hired within 
three years. 

Eisai receives the benefits in reverse. . 
“It’s nice to be in an academic atmosphere, to 


beexposed to a scientific frame of mmriT 
Lee Rubin, the lab's director and also a UCL 
professor of anatomy and developmental biol- 
ogy. "It’s less directed than most people would . 
imagine. " He said the roUftboratios- has-., 
.waited “surprisingly well, in the sense that 
[academicians! do research in a different way. 
They started in on these problems at a poinl- 

- way bdorfr where a pharmaceutical institution 

■ TOwd baghL" y v; 

Mr. Mcotgbmery adds that Eisai’s research-, 
era fil m wen with the college's sckntis& 'Wbik. 
is directed in part by an advisory committee 
comprising three UCL professors and a fourth 

■ due id arnve soon from Cambridge. ' 

EisaT s researchers “actually are Jistdtisg • 
very carefully because what they want to do is . 
make use of new ideas coming out of academic, 
research, lids may influence the sort of' re- 
search they need to do in the lab in order to aim 
for a new pharmaceutical prodoct- The reason 
for coming to Europe at all was thqy were, 
looking Tor a new way of approaching estisting 
problems." ' '* : 

Mr. Thomas of Imperial College says; the 
companies that have set up.- 'shop than', are 
looking for the same thing ai Eisai: a pure 
setting in which to do pure research. Hitachi, 
for instance, does not expect a payoff from its 

- neural networks west for a good 10 yeaxsuHc; 
describes tbe company’s attitude as. “If it’s. 


■art 


goto* * 

about their influence 

more drived by ^ v.- 

bgHSg. 

Chi COdd be disastrous lot ' . u • 

universities started doing 

have the strength within ourselves to develop ■ 
; our ideas, amfwe have the xi&t to s*y.noto -.j 
industry if we don’t want to- develop ttretra.. 


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Amid Recession, Enrollment Falls 


Continued from page 19 

i urn over 30 percent in a normal 
year, heads of schools say. 

“There’s nothing happening 
that hasn't happened before," said 
St. John’s Sister Barbara, who re- 
calls losing 120 ITT students in 
one feD swoop six years ago. 
“Pla nning in international schools 
is a superintendent's nightmare." 
she said. “You cannot project a 
thing . You cannot plan for the 
next year, oumberwise. Program- 
wise, OJL, but not numberwise." 

Sl John's had forecast a drop of 
50 students, or 5.5 percent, this 
year, and got a 9.4 percent decline 
instead. “You ride with a small 
deficit if it's necessary," Sister 
Barbara added. 


Judith Glickman, head of The 
American School in London, con- 
curs. “You have to talk, rather 
than of an optimal enroOmem," 
she said, “about an optimal enroll- 
ment range." 

The school beads express opti- 
mism that when the economy re- 
bounds, they will, too. “We're bet- 
ting on the pendulum swinging 
back," said Richard P. Hall, direc- 
tor of Tbe International School of 
Brussels, which plans to increase 
its capacity to 1300 students (it 
has around 1,200 now). 

Indeed at least some big U.S. 
companies say it is still essential to 
oiler expatriate employees home- 
compatible education for their 
children. 

“We have recently had a chance 
to rethink this [and] it was felt that 


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we needed to maintain . . . the 
educational coverage,” said David 
Bolles, director or human re- 
sources and administration for 3M 
Europe. His company pays for 104 
students at Brussels schools alone, 
75 of them in two schools where 
tuition reaches 620,000 Belgian 
francs (SI7J2G). 

“It’s a large cost in absolute 
dollars, but its small as a compo- 
nent of the total cost of compen- 
sating expatriates," said Robert B. 
Klein, senior partner in charge of 
expatriate services for the New 
York office of Ernst & Young. 

“In general [U.S.] companies 
are not doing radical surgery on 
tuition costs," Mr. Klein said, al- 
though some are getting parents 
who pay for private schools at 
home to share me expense abroad. 
They are alto limiting reimburse- 
ments strictly to tuition and not. 
say, bus fares and uniforms. 

But the extent to winch these 
schools' student numbers vdQ re- 
bound is a question. Here in the 
capital of Europe, for example. 
Mr. Hall keeps an eve on prospec- 
tive new members of the European 
Union. . 

But Ingrid Karisson, headmis- 
tress of the Scandinavian School 
of Brussels, notes how the num- 
bers of Swedish and Norwegian 
students in schools here have de- 
clined (20 percent and 21 percent, 
respectively) since the initial EU 
optimism wore off. and the reces- 
sion and a devalued Swedish kro- 
na bit 

“As far as enrollment trends are 
concerned, only time will tell" 
Mr. Buckheit wrote recently. “One 
thing is certain. Tbe rules are 


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Chang in g . We need to keep our 
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Continued from page 19 

seboors director of studies. “They 
have something important to 
share rather than coming as' 
strangers. It’s a real shift in focusJT 
Ms Sard! attended an EpgBsh- 

langnage school , 1U VcttCOUl^ 

where her American father was in . 
the textile business. She remem-, 
bets the U.S. dipkmals' children, 
who were transferred every two of 
three years and “were always hi a 
email ctiquethatnever reaDyfitted 
in and never really made friends 
with the rest of us.” . 

She then returned to New Yoric 
and attended C.W. Post College in 
the suburbs, where she ran into a 
different kind of Anrakaainsu- 

larity. Hardly any one knew wbae 

Venemda was, and one stndoit 
actually asked how loogUrtook l»er - 
to drive to school ~ ' 

Ms. Sardi continued: "I started 
enjoying this, and 1 decided 1 was ~ 
going to putt the wool over then 
eyes. I told than that in Venezuela 
I lived in. a house on stilts over the 
water, and every day my father 
went out in the backyard and 
pumped his two (A 'wells. They 

remembered me for thaL Bui what 
T n-aTly learned from it was that it 
made me. fed different in _a very 
positive way. So when I crime to 
Caedmon arid found all these chil- 
dren with their very rich- back- 
grounds, I knew how imjtortanlit 
was to Id them fed hibw wonderful 
it is to be different and share all 
their marvelous information that 
the other kids haven’t, had.” .' 

What tins bdpsxrcate are chfl- 
dren with an unusual sense of se- 
curity. Rosario Notter, a laniard 
mamed to a Swiss' -banker,'' re- 
called that when she arrived from 
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dren pay less. ' ■ ■■■ • 

Its unique . curriculum came,^ 

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large fOKagncontingenl from be* 
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Many foragn parents .Were Arm 
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race of ari -American school 'ahd,j s 
found the highly rated United Na 1 !! 
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The UN soboaL vhtch has more^, 

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U.S. correspondent of the Interna-' 

tional Herald Tribune. ... ^ 


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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 16, 1994 


Page 23 




International Education! A Special Report 


* 


Scholarly and Profitable 

^;es anrf earnings at the Oxford University Pre-* 
in millions of pounds. : w«i-vers*iy ^res^, 


Sates (emiffibris) 


> . '*■!! 
vy%, 

*-S. 

*■;. .’9, 


n 


":h 


v., 
" - - s - 

" ' V ^ 

1 -■*!» 



Pretax Profits. {£ millions) 







1969 . *90 

Sourm: Company rspons 



Ivy League Courses for Price of a Video 


By Kate Bales 


I 


1HT 


,400 Years Later, Oxford Press Thrives 


n*i 


: r*r< 


By Michael Balter 

O xford, England — 

In these recessionary 
times, can a major pub- 
lisher survive without 
ever having printed a cookbook or 

tintring to print sneb popular c2as- 
sits as Paul Dirac's **Tbc Princi- 
ples of Quantum Mechanics*' and 
the right- vohxme “Handbook of 
the finds of Europe; the Middle 
East, and North Africa”? 

This is just the sort of tiring that 
the Oxford Univers i t y Press has 
thrived on for the -past 400 years. 
The OUP, as it Ulmown to its far- 
flung international staff, is the 
largest university press in die 
woriri, issuing more than 2,060 ti- 
tles each year and holding a back- 
list of nearly 25,000 othezs. ft pub- 
lishes in more than a dozen 
countries, including the United 
States, where its operations are 
large- than any American univer- 
sity press. 

While you won’t find OUP rep- 
resentatives bidding for the bust 
blockbusters by Barbara Cartbnd 
or Tom Clancy, the press, bad so 
trouble coining up' with the £10 
^million (S15 nriHioa) required to 
^ produce the second edition Of The 
Oxford Enghsh Dictionary. 

“As a business, we are very liq- 
uid and profitable at the mo- 
ment,” said Andrew Parker, the 
press’s chief accountant The com- 
pany’s pretax profit has risen 

ODAmOkm ($§M nalliaaffiast 
- year on sales of £1803 miHion- 
Orief Executive James AraoH- 
Baker, who headed BBC Enter- 
i before be tot* over at OUP 
August said that the press is 
“probably die first company I’ve 
taken over that was writman-. 


many projects that c omm ercial 
publishers would not want to. ven- 
ture into, because some of them 
can be bottomless pits." \ 

The leading example is the Ox- 
ford English Dictionary, generally 
regarded as die last word on the 
Elfish language. The second edi-. 
titm, issued in 1989, contained 
nearly 300,000 entries and more 
than 600,000 separate words. Yet 
so quickly do new words enter the 
language that OUFs 18 lericogra- 
phers are already at work on the 


Foreign expansion 
has fueled Oxford’s 
success; 


^ third edition, scheduled to appear 
in the jear.2005, 

“The fust edition was published 
in 1928and look 50 years to com- 
plete,” said Edmond Weiner, the 
dtoitmaiy’s deputy chief editor. 
TWe’ve becn nmmng to keep up 
ever since;” j T 

The first book printed in Ox- 
ford urn produoo & in 1,478, and 
the umvemty press has ' beat m 
continuous operation since 1584. 
Since 1633;. aB decisions about 
which bboks to publish have been 
made by a hoard of delegate, 
chaired by the university's vice 
chancellor and.. appointed, from 
among the ranks ch Oxford schol- 
ars. 

When Christopher Wren’s Sbd- 
drarian Theater was completed in 
1669, the prin&g prenof were 
moved into its basement, an ar- 
rangement that ultimatdy proved 
uBsatisfactoy — the printere bad 
to stop work every time the theater 
was needed for n ceremony. 


In 1702 the press published its 
first best-seller. Lord Clarendon's 
“History of Ok Great Rebellion.” 
The vice chancellor at the time 
embezzled the proceeds from the 
first two editions, but die profits 
from this work eventual! 

. the construction of the 
Bunding in Oxford’s Broad Street, 
which became OUPs new head- 
quarters. In 1830 the press moved 
to its present ate on Walton 
Street, although the delegates still 
hold their twice-monthly meetings 
in a special room in the Clarendon 

B nflrfm g. 

The foundations for the modem 
press were laid in the late 19ib 
century, when the press began to 
earn considerable profits from 
sales of the Bible. The Oxford Bi- 
ble was so successful that a ware- 
house was set up in London to 
store the volumes, and it later be- 
came a springboard for die pub- 
lishing of a wide range of books 
for die general reader. 

Today, is addition to its schol- 
arly monographs, dictionaries, 
and English lawgtiagg materialc, 
the press chums out children’s 
books, school textbooks; medical 
rriOBoces, paperback editions of 
classic literary works, and even 
poetry and works of music. OUP 
also publishes more than 140 
scholarly periodicals, ranging 
from the Journal of Theological 
Studies to Nucleic Adds Re- 
search. 

Although it may seem that the 
press has a finger in nearly every 
pot, Mr. Arnoid-Baker said that 
he hoot tempted to venture roach 
further into popular publishing,^ 
“We are not interested in new fic- 
tion or most of the modem nonfic- 
tion business," he said. “Tins cots 
us out of the vast bulk of commer- 
cial publishing, but we are already 
painting on a very broad canvas,” 


Oxford is eager, however, to ex- 
pand its activities in electronic 
publishing, Mr. Amoid-Baker 
«aiH, despite the fact that this field 
has not been very profitable so far. 
The Oxford English Dictionary is 
now available on compact disk, as 
are a number of other Oxford ref- 
erence works. 

“I think you are going to see a 
considerable expansion of elec- 
tronic publishing in the future ,” 
said Mr. Amoid-Baker. “At the 
moment it’s mainly in the sciences, 
but 1 am sure it will expand into 
the arts as wdL The big challenge 
for the arairtejnir pu blishing com- 
munity win be to figure enrt who's 
going to pay for it, and how to 
deliver it cheaply." 

MICHAEL SALTER is a Paris- 
based journalist. 


F you always wanted to at- 
tend Harvard, Yale or 
Princeton and lament that 
your time has passed. The 
Teaching Company, a corporation 
based in Springfield. Virginia, is 
going to prove you wrong. This 
mail-order business offers Ivy- 
League entry without the tedious 
application process, the astronom- 
ical fees, the an desired required 
courses or the pressure of final 
exams. 

The company has produced 50 
audio and video courses ranging 
from The Great Minds of the 
Western Intellectual Tradition to 
The Old/New Testaments; from 
Detective Fiction, Great Trials 
and Great Trial Lawyers to Per- 
spectives of Abnormal Psycholo- 
gy- 

Professor Dennis Dalton, on 
staff at Barnard College, offers a 
class in Power Over People: Clas- 
sic and Modem Political Theory. 
The syllabus begins with Plato's 
“Republic,” and moves on to Aris- 
totle's "Politics," MachiaveUi's 
“The Prince," Rousseau, Mara, 
Freud, Hitler and Gandhi. 

If perhaps you are more inter- 
ested in Ethics and Public Policy, 
Professor Edward N. Beiser, from 
Brown University, addresses is- 
sues ranging from gun-control to 
flag-burning. “We haw all been 
discussing political and social the- 
ory all our lives without being 
nearly as self-aware and precise as 
we might be. This course is meant 
to be unsettling. We must look 
carefully at the claims made by 
others so as better to understand 
our own attitudes, assumptions, 
values and concluaons,” be said. 

According to company founder 
and president, Tom Rollins, "Our 
average consumer is over 30, and 
these classes bring back the won- 
derful things that were offered in 
college to someone who has 
readied a time in their life where 
they ought have a better percep- 

teriaL” 

As any student is aware, a good 
professor can bring to life the 
study of soup-can labels and a 
poor teacher can shatter the plea- 
sure of Shakespeare. What The 
Teaching Company aspires to of- 


fer is the best teachers combined 
with the most interesting subjects. 

Mr. Rollins says, "I have lis- 
tened to hundreds erf lectures and 
reviewed hundreds of ‘student 
course manuals' in order to find 
the most exerting teachers in the 
country," 

Most universities today publish 
yearly student written guides that 
evaluate, often with rugged can- 
dor, the performance of the cam- 
pus staff. What kind of reviews 
does Mr. Rollins search out? Per- 
haps one that says: “To get a seat 
in this class, you have to arrive ai 
least 30 minutes early?" or “His 
approach to teaching attracted 
three ti m e s as many students as 
the lecture hall could hold. There 
was chaos." 

The listeners seem to agree. Sen- 
ator Edward M. Kennedy, one of 
the company’s clients, says, 
“These tapes are outstanding, the 
teachers are brilliant and the edu- 
cational value of the material is 
excellent. It's like going back to 
class with the best teachers I ever 
had.” 

The cost for the courses, rang- 
ing from 590 to 5250, is about one- 
tenth of what a student would pay 
in tuition io follow such a class at 
an Ivy League school However, 
the tapes do not lead to any recog- 
nized university credit. 

The Teaching Company had 
practical roots. Mr. Rollins was a 
Harvard Law Student with a small 
problem: he had not attended any 
of his classes and the final exam 
was approaching. Being a re- 
sourceful, if lax. student, ne head- 
ed off to the campus library who* 
he located a set of video lectures 
given by one of Harvard's re- 
nowned professors. Mr. Rollins 
crammed, got an A on the exam, 
and, an idea for a new company. 

“I was amazed by the video- 
tapes,” Mr. Rollins recalled. 
“They were outrageously funny, 
insightful, thorough, masterful in 
their command of the subject." 


Much of OxfordYsuccess stems 
from, a jnatar expamaozr of the 


press’s foreign publishing opera- 
tions, partkxdariy in the field erf 


als. Yet while the press’s bottom 
line might be tbs envy of some 
corporate publishers, it remains a 
it of Ac university, and 
are plowed back 
pub&mngahdre- 



nussioa is to 
as possible tire 
at Oxford 
said Mr. Amoid- 
Baker. “And involves us in 


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Before starting his own enter- 
prise, Mr. Rollins weni to Wash- 
ington where be worked as chief 
counsel and chief of staff to the 
U.S. Senate Committee on Labor 
and Human Resources. As pan of 
his job he tried to implement a 
video program to help improve 
math and science classes for high 
school students. But the program 
failed because several stales forbid 
federal intervention in education 
to develop the concept of home 
education. 

After five years. The Teaching 
Company presently offers only 
college leva courses bm this year 
it wQl create a series of high school 
classes that coinride with Mr. Rol- 
lins's original vision. 

Each course offers eight inde- 
pendent lectures. Each lecture is 
about 45 minutes long and avail- 
able on either video or audio cas- 
sette. There are, additionally, sev- 
eral “supercourses" which can run 
to 10 times longer and cover the 
entire scope of a topic such as 
“Understanding How to Listen to 
Music." This specific series covers 
the histoiy of music be ginning in 
the ancient world and the early 
church and moves period by peri- 
od, through the 20th century. 

According to the class profes- 
sor, Robert Greenberg, a member 


of the San Francisco Conservatory 
of Music: “When the average per- 
son thinks of muse classes, what 
usually comes to mind is some sort 
of program in ‘music apprecia- 
tion,’ a term that usually carries 
with it nasty visions of pedantic 
matrons force-feeding opera to 12- 
ye 2 i-o\ds. Death 10 lhai image, 
and death to the concept that ‘con- 
cert music’ is a sterile old Europe- 
an thing best suited to a prissy 
class of unhip and dusty cogno- 
scenti" 

Last year, Mr. Ro llins decided 
that the quality of the sound on 
the 48 lecture music series was not 
as good as it could be and the 
entire course is being remixed. 
When it is finished the company is 
replacing all previously ordered 
cassettes with the new series. “I 
want this course to be the classic 
reference in music histoiy. When 
we're done, I believe it will be." 

All of the video courses can be 
purchased or rented, and shipping 
overseas for sale material is a regu- 
lar service, the company said. 

The Teaching Company tries to 
get orders out within three days 
and offers a money back guaran- 
tee. 

KATE BALES is a freelance writ- 
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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 16, 1994 


International Education! A Special Report 


Australia Beams Degree Courses to Meet Growing Asian 


By Michael Richardson 


INGAPORE — Australian universi- 
ties, seeking to extend their reach into 
Asia, have teamed up with Australia's 
international satellite television ser- 


vice to broadcast degree course programs on a 
trial basis to 15 countries in the region that 


versity in Melbourne and now has eight other 
Australian universities as degree-gran ring 
members. It runs an increasingly popular ter- 
tiary education program in Australia in which 
thousands of people study for degrees at home, 
partly through the Australian Broadcasting 
Corporation. 


During the trial period for .Asia, which be- 
gan in October and will end in April, the 
ABCs overseas arm. Australia Television In- 
ternational is broadcasting open learning 
units for half an hour five days a week at 6:30 
P.M. Jakarta time and an hour later in Hong 
Kong, Singapore and Kuala Lumpur. 

Ben Hawke, general manager of Australian 
Television in Sydney, said that the inclusion of 
open learning programs recognized the consid- 
erable interest in educational TV throughout 
Asia. 

“We are responding to audience demand 
and in (he long term this will enhance our 
viewer numbers," he said. 

Five courses are being beamed to Asia by 
Australian television via Indonesia's Palapa 
B2P satellite, which covers Southeast .Asia, 


have a combined population of over one bil- 
lion. 

While it is still too early to say whether the 
venture can be developed into a full-fledged 
English language open university course for 
the Asia-Pacific region, Australian educators 
involved in the program are encouraged by 
initial responses, particularly from Indonesia. 

Reaching into the growing Asian market for 

educational services is an important long-term 
goal of the Open Learning Agency of Austra- 
lia. said Tony Pritchard, its executive director. 

“We want to expand regional awareness of 
open learning as an alternative to campus- 
based university courses." he said. 

The agency was established by Monash Uni- 


Papua New Guinea. Bangladesh, Taiwan, 
Hong Kong and much of southern China. 

They include “Out of Empire," which deals 
with the history and politics of Australia; a 
program on the culture of Australian aborigi- 
nes: “Unique Continent." a program exploring 
Australia’s environment; and courses on ac- 
counting and marketing. 

While the first two subjects may have limited 
appeal the last three appear to have elicited an 
enthusiastic response, particularly from Indo- 
nesia. which falls directly under the electronic 
footprint of the Palapa satellite: Dishes needed 
to receive the TV transmissions are, therefore, 
relatively small in Indonesia, which has a pop- 
ulation of 185 million and a rapidly developing 
economy. 

Unlike Indonesia, direct- to-bome satellite 
receiving dishes are banned or severely restrict- 
ed in Singapore, Malaysia and China. Unless 
these restrictions are ease d or arrangements 
made with governments to rebroadcast 
through local or cable TV networks. Australia 
Television's programs containing open learn- 
ing units will continue to have a limited reach. 


However, the process of widening access has 
already started. In January, ABC and China 
signed an agreement in Beijing that will allow 
the transmission of Australia Television’s pro- 
grams cm Chinese domestic television, which 
has an audience reach of 600 raUion. 

In September. ABC signed an agreement 
with Guangzhou Television A Radio Broad- 
casting Coro. Under it, Australia Television's . 
service is now being broadcast (Hi the corpora- 
tion's cable network to about 8 million sub- 
cribere in southern China. Australia Televises 
is the only English-language service on the 

Guangzhou network. 

Throughout East Asia, from China lo Indo- 
nesia, there is a growing demand for tertiary 
education qualifications and skills, and for 
learning English as the prime international 
language for business, commerce, technology 
and science. 

Professor Don Smart, dean of the School of 
Education at Murdoch University in Western 
Australia, was involved in a recent survey on 
opportunities in Hong Kong for Australian 
education services. About 18 percent of the 


40,000 foreign students enrolled in Australian 
universities this year and the 2S,000.in schools 
or private colleges are from Hong Kong- Near- 
ly all the overseas students m Australia are 


they axe pumping about LI bUEoii Australian 
dollars ($710 million) into the economy, mak- 
ing education among the country's -tap six 
foreign-exchange earners. ' : * 1 

"The thing that stnick us,” Mr. Smart said, 
*was that the (be demand for graduate man- 
power in Hang Kong is growing .dramatically 
because of thelink with southern jOrina: Basi- 
cally, China is like a vacuum cleaner sticking 
enormous amounts of manpower out df.Hqng 
Kong in to joint venture business on ihe-mam- 
land." 

However, Mr. PiitchanL bf theOpen Learn- 
ing Agency, sees Indonesia as having the most 
immediate potential foe extending and enlarg- 
ing the open teaming service. ' 

Australia has dearly shown that demand 
exists for degrcefcvd study at home from 
drier people wiro want extra qualifications and 


young students who have been unable to get 
into a campus university. Learn- 


about loo omereui 


three years for - 

seven years part-time. Tbe cost of six. umtajB 

abotrt 2.400 Awtralhutdoflara 

Australia. ? 


Mr, Pritchard estimated d»t if 
learning program was metaled 
the cost of six muts would be imderS^ro 
dollars. While this is 
standards, it is only about half 
an Indonesian paying full fees at a university Hi 
Australia would have to pay. 


MICHAEL RICHARDSON is editor for Asia 
of the International Herald Tribune. 


Despite Barriers, Private Schools Gain in Egypt 


By Nancy Beth Jackson 


C AIRO — Private edu- 
cation in Egypt has be- 
come a growth indus- 
try. fueled by consumer 
demand for a curriculum stressing 
creativity and decision-making 
skills rather than rote learning for 
the Thanaweyya Amnia, tbe com- 
prehensive national exam that de- 
termines the future of secondary 
school graduates. 

The model is often American 


and the language instruction Eng- 
lish, but tbe students in the new. 
private schools are predominantly 
Egyptian, and not only the elite. 
Faced with crowded public 
schools and growing numbers of 
underemployed or unemployed 
college graduates, parents in an 
expanding middle class are look- 
ing to private schools, beginning 
with preschool to give their chil- 
dren an edge. 

Even as Egypt battles len-orists 
determined to topple President 
Hosni Mubarak and critics argue 


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in the press against foreign influ- 
ence in public schools, tbe govern- 
ment has encouraged such educa- 
tion alternatives. In some cases, 
the private schools receive lax in- 
centives. but they must follow a 
state-approved curriculum that in- 
cludes religious studies and Arabic 
as main subjects. 


The race to set up new private 
schools, however, has not been 


without roadblocks, as one Egyp- 
tian entrepreneur found outlast 


tian entrepreneur found out last 
year when the first graduates of his 
new international high school 
were denied entry into slate uni- 
versities. The government ques- 
tioned the validity of their Ameri- 
can -style high school diplomas but 
finally made a one-time exception. 


The owner is now scurrying 
around to secure external accredi- 


tation that will satisfy the Ministry 
of Education although he believes 
many c>f his students are more in- 
terested in university studies 
abroad than at home. 


-You can’t believe how many 
applied last year." said Hassam 
Mustafa Rahman, the business- 
man whose K-12 Egyptian Ameri- 
can Academy 35 kilometers (22 
miles) outside Cairo accepted 150 
students last fall -We had about 


1.000. but the publicity around the 
school made the students run." 

Yet tbe publicity has not de- 
terred parents and other entrepre- 
neurs from considering education- 
al alternatives. Amideast, a private 
nonprofit organization that en- 
courages educational exchanges, 
has noted in recent months an 
increase in accreditation inquiries 
at its Cairo office. 

“Egypt says officially that it is 
on the road to an open economy 
and more involvement in public 
life," said Katherine J. Sullivan of 
Amideast. "It follows that more 
entrepreneurs will be interested in 
getting into education. There are 
opportunities for educators/ entre- 
preneurs offering a quality educa- 
tion product" 

The Egyptian education system 
reflects French and British influ- 
ences Hating from the 19th centu- 
ry, but both private and public 
sectors look farther west for mod- 
els these days, attracted by Ameri- 
can management techniques and 
technology and encouraged by an 


ployment ads in English in 
Arabic-language newspapers. 

Egypt has initialed many educa- 
tional reforms since 1981,’ but the 
growth in tutoring and private 
schools suggests that many par- 
ents do not want to wait for re- 
forms from within. 


1 






"More and more parents are 
aware that the traditional educa- 
tion system is sagging under loo 
many students, not enough teach- 
ers, not enough schools, not 
enough resources," Miss Sullivan 
said. 

Schools are notoriously over- 
crowded. Even before the 1992 
earthquake, which damaged and 
destroyed many buildings in Cai- 
ro, schools operated in two or 
three shifts a day with 40 to 70 
students in a class. 





increased American presence in 
the country since 1979. 


Viewing American English as 
tbe international languag e of busi- 
ness, some companies, particular- 
ly in marketing, even place em- 


Tbe government has sought 
educational reform in several 
ways: hiring American consul- 
tants to assess curricuhnn. restruc- 
turing high school studies and tbe 
Thanaweyya Arntnn, lnn lcing to 
Germany for vocational education 
guidelines, and increasing the 
□umber of experimental language 
schools in which subjects like sci- 
ence and math are taught in an- 


DnMSHo/Iffr 


other language. Also, tbe Associa- 
tion of Educational Cooperation 


JOHN F. KENNEDY 
INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL < 

SaanervGsaad - Ranted 1W9 

A incpja Intemaliora] school torcNdren 5-14 yeas. Sound prep a ration lor 
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Summer camp Juiy-Atrgusi 

Write: W. Low*. Pirecter. 3782 3—nan. Tok (4 >40} 4 1 3 72. ftp; 


tion of Educational Cooperation 
was established under the Minis- 
try of Education to encourage the 
growth of private schools from S 
percent of 20 percent of Egyptian 
education. 



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• Exciting & diverse 
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The American School 
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GH6926 Montagnola 
Teh 41 91546471 
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A series of decrees in the late 
1980s caning for more kindergar- 
tens in the private sector and the 
public language schools brought 
an immediate response. Kinder- 
gartens grew from about 600 to 
more than 1,000 between 1968 and 
1991, with 78 percent in tbe pri- 
vate sector and nearly 87 percent 


of kindergarten students in private 
programs. 

The government invitation to 
invest in education has resulted in 
dozens of private primary and sec-' 
ondary schools, w hich follow an 
Egyptian syllabus that includes re- 
ligion and Arabic but which also 
promise more individual atten- 
tion, with often an earlier intro- 
duction to foreign languages and a 
more creative approach that en- 
courages children to enjoy learn- 
ing as well as to memorize e xams 

“With tbe tax concessions avail- 
able — something like a lax boli- 


Soroe parents are willing to pay sbakra and accredited in the Umt- 
any price -to avoid - the ed States; moved here from 


Thanaweyya Amma and the stress; 
it produces. A secondary school 
drpToma from overseas or 'an inter- 
national school in Cairo is some- 
times considered a backdoor to 

International scboof&*' unlike 
domestic privare schools,: are 
geared to preparing students to 
continue ,tbdr education outside 
Egypt They have been attractive 
and sometimes necessary, alterna- 
tives for tbe children of Egyptian 
executives and diplomats return- 


day for a manufacturing company ' mg home. frotn abroad wittpoor 
—there has been a proliferation of Arabic dolls or accustomed to an- 


private sdiools." said William W. 
Harrison, managing director of 
International Business Associates 
in Cairo. ' 


GAMP REGIS, Ages 6-13 
APPLEJACK TEEN CAMP Ages 13-16 

Loaoed Won Amantaek Mb. near Late ftefcl N.Y. Budng-50 Doas. onntof awa 
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other style of learning. The Mmis- 
tiy of Education has given such 
students permission to enroll, in 
schools 'without an 'approved 
EgjptiM- curriculum and reserves. 
S percent of all Egyptian universi- 
ty spots for graduafes of foreign 


JC 1 DSON 


. The Gulf War indirectly en- 
couraged private education. Dur- 
ing .the. oil bortn years, many 
Egyptians lived is other countries 
in the region, soiding their chil- 
dren to international rather than 
local schools. When they retarded 
home, they, wanted parallel educa- 
tion. Tbe American Intonational 
School in Egypt, owned by Syrian- 
born businessman Wahd Abu- 


Kuwait in 1990, a casualty of war, 
and stayed when enrollment, 
abouttiO percent Egyptian, almost 
tripled in. less.. than three years.. 
, At Chirp American College, die 
$20 mfllron, 11-acre campus looks 
straight, oat of 'Squtbom Califor- 
nia, with Scout trtiqp& basketball 
coorts and Wardrobes by the Gap, 
- but the beys* soccer team is almost 
alT Egyptian. The college wps 
foonded in 1945~by burintsmien 
and misaonaries to serve: Ameri- 
can expatriates- Today, robghly 40 
pcrceatofitsl,400 students ^aye 
Other sationafities... 

,CAC. like many overseas 
schools, is becoming less Ameri- 
can .and more. Tnuroumonal it 
now offers International Bacca- 
laureate diplomas in ' addition to 
an'hccredifcd high school educa- 
tion. .With d. new emphasis on 
global education and students 
who spend part of their driJdhoqji 
outride tbor home countries. IK 
school p^^^^to^qjare^* 

to Ontario, Tokyo andSydney and 
fit in." according to David ChqJ- 

nadri, the school's superimendenL 


NANCY BETH JACKSON is a 
journalist Based ut Cain. 


.-■soro,' 


Bennington july program 


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International Education/ A Special Report 


A Growing Profession 


er 


By Kate Bales 


“e^Pnxtoct that comes' 
without a nse^& mmxal is, for most 

17- usc Ns- Unfortomaety 

5 i *r j ' ■■■ undmtenfiaig standard htsrnictuMi 
^wHete too often requires a degree from MTT - 
re That fe ate rayon why more than a JmnSoi 

thDPIHIIIS , jnCC3fln7TTM» \n tfw4mta>< - _ _ « • 


^?*nally all tedmkal products aqw offer 
"-how, toll-free helplines for their customers 
and, Ms. WUEamson says, ‘The number of 
calls that each costomw service line receives is 
™wuy related to the problems -that the am- 

SUmfir u llAwntr nrifh Jw mimrwl * 


r “ , .* - — rr— -y — - mi woinup >wyr 

rtpwgpd m the Umted States over the past 
jj^reralycara. .Europe and Japan have recenflv 
dj^.iofoppwsaiL . . . 

c^Todroca] wdthg is <ne of the most mncUv 
Sde^oj^profesiom in the wodd, aeS 
.■toCaryi Dundorf, an associate dean at Mfckflo- 
« Community College in Massachusetts, 
-^pjese programs are (feigned to create writers 
wbt> can Torn a bridge between the enmieas 
v a*o create the products and the consunnOTwho 
use them,” she says. 

Programs Hke the one at' Middieses have 
bfcomcjp critical that such companies as 

JJooeywdl loo, Wang ZjtbOTatotic/ioa and 
Hewlett-Packard Co. have donated thousands 
- of doflats to the school to help reduce tmtion 
■costs and contribute . tr aining equipment and 
teaching materials. .» ■ 

^'■^mtpanics with gpod, cfcar, snnfae dbcu- 
r tncatafioa couldsave enormous costs on staff 

iSMnagerr of- -computes' documentation at 
^GfoapeBoD and director of the tedmictfl writ- 
ing program at the American University in- 
Paris. - - 


_Aa»rdmgmstatistksrffeTedbytl^SorieQ 
for Technical Communication based ArHng- 
too, Vii^na, inosi technical writing programs 
are. an average erf right months long, part-tine, 
and cost ammixiinately £3,500. The programs 
.genwaBy oner postgraduate job assistance and 
often have animmediate placement rate of 
wer 90 pocent. The average starting income is 
$32,000 a year and reaches a U.S. national 
average of 537,000. - 

. . “Our student body is etmandy (fiverse” said 
Ms. WiDiamsoii, “but because the boms are so 
OeriUe and die program iffpazt-tims we have 
found Unit we offer a very strong attraction to 
Pwple either wishing to make a tmtfKfe career 
change, or to women i n t e rested in grarig hade to 
TO*k and devetoping then career o p portu n ities. 

Nearly 91 peramt of tte students eoroM 
te ch ni ca l rating programs in 1992 had previ- 
ously graduated from a four-year college, fa 
the United States, women who were technical 
writers earned an average of 93 cents for each 
dollar earned by thdr male counterparts; na- 
tionally, women who are fuljbtime employees 
earn 74: cents to. the dollar earned by men 

offering thesame skill. : 

- Patricia McCeflend.the consntemlior pro- 
ject documentation at Digital Equipment, 


' 


■V. — -LSi~!Z 4 ,4iV r '* ! 


• ■’ - ’ /‘••U.i.l 

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"2 £ 


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■r . — — : — . — ■ -■■■ — - ■■' — — ' 

y^jj AN, .FRANCISCO ■ — A -colossus 
' r W^_ anwngl^sdmcikisrifflngintbeSan 
-7;;^% Ermasco Bay. area town of Antioch. 

: Banned for a whopping 4,000 stit- 
[ i, dents, the Deer Valley High school complex is 
![|idtsigned as five.«naflcr schools connected by 
‘■'liber optics and a mission:, to give students the 
best education possible. ' ' 

T t 'Ih Southern Catifoamia, a new 537 nriffion 
bigh school in crime-ridden Santa Ana threw 
cntnonesseatials like typing and wodwoiiing 
passes and a s wii m iiin g pool. Looking natch 
Jjke a gray concrete bunker, the school even 
'Threw out landscaping, and has few windows 
- 'taring the main street tnmake it less of a target 
far drive- by shootings. The money instead 
^vml : into computer programs, optical disks . 
. ^tod spedafized courses Jflte computer graph- 
Hs, desktoppublishing and a comp u ter mam- 
'tBtance shcqi. 

. Most local school districts, throughout the ; 
^United States are modemhin^ and tfreazeof . 
•^Gafiforma’s lundaguteai through 12th grade 
. . ^population — 52mufian children — -makes die 
State a natural magnet for some of the most 
’creative ideas far schools of the future. 

’ ~ Since the nrid- 1980s Cafifomm’s Board ct 


themselves to basic designs. Often these woe 
little more than a half-dozen rectangles ar- 
ranged in rows Hke mililary barracks. . 

“We 1 !^ moving awaylrom 960-square-fool 
block dassroams,”saidDuwayne Brocks, Cal- 
ifornia's assistant superintendent of pnbBc in- 
struction. “Bghty percent ofthe schools of the 
future are already hoe. The key seems to be 
flexibility and adaptahffity.” 

While a few chalkboards, roQ-dcwn maps 
and an occationd oveibcad pngector reman 
schoolroom staples, today’s infarmation tech- 
noiogy requires a new Ksi rf classroom basics: 
work statioris,stitHJger air conditioMss, better 
lighting and more dectrical outlets. 


... r . schools or ^grafing ihose btuh 30 yeazsago 
- f w more, when school districts traded to fin* 

-I: . ' v- - ..•• • =■ :■ 


as they mti^rate tedmology into the dass- 
rrx»ns.We(OTnoicnwerdependt3noiiedfifflgn 
from year to year," Mr. Brooks said. 

WdB-deagned schoris depend on districts 
"fast gettiriglogeiber with parents, teachers and 
admimsbaton^to hmnmer but bow they want 
children, to leant. Obscmn'noie that today’s 
issues indhde matters like bow fasta&tiictcan 
link /with other districts mid mnverrity data- 
bases, or whether school libraries Sbodd deal 
OTly with printed matter or indude CD-ROMs, 
vskos and onJine networks. 

. Ibe infwnffltirai revolution that'started rii 

tite 1980s has spelled the end of the . Industrial 
Revolatkwunodd for Americanscbools, which 
ranby (fangs cfabtiL Instead of tying various 
streets to^tiiCT, students were taught by the 


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U.S. Debates Future of Tenure System 


France, recently founded a chapter of STC in 
Europe. 

“Europe is just catching on to the impor- 
tance of this Geld and there is more growth 
than you can imagine," Ms. McCeflend said 
“Having worked for a large computer manu- 
facturer . . . Ihavebeen able to see the enor- 
mous impact this training had on our own 
products. 

She cautions that writing skill alone isn't 
enough. “Being a meat writer doesn’t mean 
that yctu understand how a technical product 
works, or, that yoo can pass that information 
on to another person,” she says. 

KATE BALES is a journalist based m Paris. 


time clock: wood shop from 8 to 9 A.M-, 
English from 9 to 10 AJiL, history from 10 to 
11 AAL and so on for live or six snlgects every 
day. 

“We broke those subjects apart and didn’t 
recognize the relevance between them,” ex- 
plained Alan Newell, superintendent of the 
Antioch Unified School District New technol- 
ogy gives teachers time to develop thematic 
approaches to education. 

Stace 1988 that has been the goal of the 
district's buQding program to accommodate 
H400 students. Progress is never cheap, though. 
The district has spent S25 rmUian renovating 14 
existing schools, $16 nriBton on a new school for 
7th, 8th and 9lb graders, and Deer Vafley High 
■ School is costing S52 nnHion more. 

With Deer Valley, the idea of American high 
school has been completely rethought When 
the year-round school opens is tmd-1995, stu- 
dents will take classes m longer blocks, and 
have fewer classes each day. They will be 
divided among five separate “houses,” Where 
they will work with the same group of teachers 
as they matriculate toward graduation. 

Information tedmology, longer dasses and 
fewer students mean that “tochers are no 
longer going to spend hours teaching lods 
formulas. Instead, they wQ] concentrate on 
their applications.” Mr. Newell said. 

ROBERT FRANK is a journalist based in 
Southern California 


By Philip Crawford 

H OUSTON — Perceived as vital to 
the protection of free thought and 
research, but also as a pressure- 
cooker that wilts professor vitality 
and effectiveness at students' expense, the ten- 
ure system in U-S. colleges and universities is 
mired in controversy that could jeopardize its 
existence. 

Faculty, enamored or the virtually iroudad 
job security that tenure provides in a constant- 
ly shrinking job market, nonetheless decry the 
relentless pressure to publish scholarly materi- 
al that dominates the quest for it. Administra- 
tors, acknowledging that viable research would 
wither if tenure was not there to protect long- 
term projects, still complain that the system 
prevents them from breathing new life uuo a 
torpid faculty. 

And students, for whom the campus bells 
theoretically toQ, say the soaring price of high- 
er education is buying them less and less leach- 
ing from professors whose best energy goes 
into research and writings, not into the class- 
room. 

Adding fud to the fire is a new federal law- 
removing the ability of colleges to force faculty 
to retire at age 70. which has placed new focus 
on the adage that the tenure system promotes 
the fingering of expensive academic deadwood. 

“A tenure commitment used to be for 30 or 
40 years,” said the provost of a prestigious East 
Coast university, who insisted on anonymity, 
“Now it has no limiL How indeed, do you 
bring in new blood? If colleges are unsuccess- 
ful in designing attractive retirement packages, 
they may have to find an alternative to the 
tenure system in self-defense. The whole thing 
could come down under its own weight-" 
Lurking behind the pastoral, tweedy facade 
of life in academia, say some professors, is the 
reality of a brutally competitive scholarly grid- 
iron where first downs are counted by articles 
published and where tenure is the ultimate 
goaL The internal politics of winning the life- 
time contract can involve intrigue, cutthroat 
tactics and skulduggery worthy of a spy novel 
And the students may suffer most. 

“The process of achieving tenure is in the 
worst interests of students,” said Robert 
Shupp. a tenured professor of French at the 
University of Houston. “Professors are too 
busy crying to get grams and writing for sym- 
posia and coQoquia to have any creative energy 
left for the classroom. A lot of academics even 
come to resent having to teach because it gets 
in (ire way of thdr own work.” 

Mr. Shupp said that decisions over who gets 
tenure often turn into popularity contests 
among colleagues, and that the process itself 
encourages conformity rather than the free- 
dom of thought that the tenure system was 
originally created to protect. “Professors will 
vote tenure for colleagues who are more or less 
clones of themselves, or who present them- 
selves that way,” be saidL “Fora lot of reasons, 
it’s a system which should be abolished.” 


One nomenured professor with extensive 
teachin g experience in both the British Ides 
and the United States said Lhat the U.S. tenure 
system was "the most ruthless of ail." 

“Trying to get tenure in America involves 
tremendous, huge, awful pressure.” she said, 
speaking on condition of anonymity. “Mar- 
riages, among other things, are famous for 
biting the dust when one partner has to spend 
every night in the office. And if you don't get 
tenure when you become eligible for it, they 
often make you leave the university within a 
year. It's much worse in the States than it is in 
Europe, where the whole system is more merci- 
ful/' 

Indeed many French academics looking at 
the American “publish or perish” syndrome 
say lhat it leads to prolific output, but that’s 
about all. “People in the States tend to publish 
anything just to publish, especially when 
they’re seeking tenure, and what they turn out 
is often of very poor quality.” said Gaude 
Rivifre. an associate professor in the Universi- 
ty of Paris system and author of several books 
on English grammar. “People have to have 
time to think, and they should publish when 


Adding fuel to the fire is a 
new federal law removing 
the ability of colleges to 
force faculty to retire at the 
age of 70. 


that’s the next natural step in the research 
process." Mr. Riviere said that in France, the 
pressure on academics to chum out scholarly 
tare is much lighter than in the United States. 

The American Association of University 
Professors, a Washington-based professional 
group, says it is trying to address the tension 
surrounding the pursuit of tenure, but that the 
root of the problem ties only with the pressure 
to publish, not with the concept of tenure itself. 

“The tenure system was developed decades 
ago as a way to protect freedom of thought in 
academia, and that concept is just as important 
today as it ever was,” said Iris Moloisky, a 
spokesman. “Professors must be able to ex- 
press thdr true views to students without fear- 
ing for their jobs if those views are not those of 
the college administration or of powerful inter- 
est groups. And you have to be constantly 
vigilant, because there are always incursions." 

Academics defending tenure as an institu- 
tion often recall the early 1950s. when the anti- 
communist crusade mounted by Senator Jo- 
seph McCarthy placed strong pressure cm 
educators to toe the all-American line. Today, 
many say. the pressure to be politically correct 
is no less powerful and of a much wider scope, 
mandating a touchy-feely sensitivity to practi- 


cally every special interest that comes down 
the road. 

A different type of criticism has come from 
political factions, which say (hat the tenure 
system creates a privileged class of workers in 
an economy where layers of manufacturing 
and management jobs have been permanently 
lopped off. Miss Molotsky. asked why college 
professors should enjoy the kind of lifdong job 
security that has come to elude just about 
everyone else, replied lhat “no other profession 
is parallel ” 

“Education is vital for the nation's future, 
and no other profession has that responsibil- 
ity." she said. “And tenure is not a sinecure for 
lire. Firing can be done, but with due process." 

Students, for their pan. say that while the 
knowledge that professors gain from research 
and publishing should, in theory, come back to 
them in the classroom, frequently it does not 
work out that way. “The mission of colleges 
and universities is to educate, and we fed that 
more time ought to be spent teaching and less 
ihn e publishing." said Stephanie Blooming- 
dale, a spokesman for the United States Stu- 
dent Association, a Washington-based group 
that represents student interests. “In big uni- 
versities, more and more classes are taught by 
graduate students, and professors, who often 
have no more than two office hours per week, 
have little lime for students. And the feedback 
we’re getting from students across the country 
is that the situation is getting worse.” 

Seeking a solution to the problems sur- 
rounding the tenure system is difficult because 
all of me players seem to want something 
different: The professors want job security but 
not the relentless pressure to publish: adminis- 
trators want a freer hand in weeding out costly, 
ineffective faculty, but see the need for at least 
some type of job security to foster research; 
and students want star professors who also 
have time for them. 

An alternative to the current seLup, say 
some; could be a unionized contract system 
similar to that in professional sports, where 
each faculty member negotiated his or her own 
terms with the university, but with a minimum 
contract length of, say, five years. Naturally, 
an impressive publishing record might enhance 
a professor's bargaining position for a long- 
term contract, as would good reviews from 
students, whose opinions are typically asked 
for when a candidacy for tenure arises. But a 
lengthy contract might be on the order of 15 
years, not 30 or 40. 

Meanwhile, the only thing that all factions 
seem to agree on is that the world of academia, 
perhaps not unlike the military, is its own 
unique type of society. 

“If you turn the college campus into a corpo- 
raur- world-style rat race, where every professor 
is constantly looking over his shoulder," said 
the East Coast university provost, “that would 
hurt students most of aU.” 


PHILIP CRAWFORD is a journalist based in 
Paris. 


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Page 26 



SPORTS 


Temple’s Coach 
Is Suspended 


Compiled by Our Staff From Dapatdta 

PHILADELPHIA — Temple 
University suspended its basketball 
coach, John Chancy, for one mine, 
a day after be bad publicly threat- 
ened to. kill the Massachusetts 

coach, John Calipari. 

Chaney apologized after his out- 
burst on Sunday following the 
Owls' 56-55 loss to I3cb-raoked 
Massachusetts, but Temple’s presi- 
dent, Peter Uacouras, still sus- 
pended Chaney from the Owls’ 
game Wednesday night at St. Bona- 
venture. 

“Coach Chaney overstepped the 
line this lime," Uacouras said in a 
statement “I believe the university 
must pursue the highest standards 
in competition, and even his sin- 
cere apology, he agrees, is insuffi- 
cient in these circumstances.'' 

It was the first time Chaney has 
been disciplined in 12 years during 
which he led the Owls to nine Na- 
tional Collegiate Athletic Associa- 
tion tournament appearances. 

In a statement released by Tem- 
ple's athletic department Monday, 
Chaney extended his apology “to 
everyone for yesterday’s unfortu- 
nate incident following the basket- 
ball game — to the Atlantic 10 
Conference, the University of Mas- 
sachusetts, the teams, those per- 
sons who were present and those 
who witnessed the incident, every- 
one.” 

Chaney planned no farther com- 
ment, said Temple’s assistant 
sports information director, Gerry 
Ernig. A Temple spokeswoman, 
Harriet Goodbeart, said Liacouras 


would not comment beyond his 
Ift-page statement. 

The Atlantic 10 commissioner, 
Ron Bertovich. said Monday that 
an investigation was being con- 
ducted by the conference. He has 
the right to require more than the 
one-game suspension. 

None of the Top 25 teams played 
Monday night. In some major 
games. New Mexico State moved 


closer to the Big West Conference 
67- 


title with a 67-66 victory over 
UNLV, and Artur as Kanushovas 
scored 22 points as Set on Hall beat 
St John's, 67-57, in the Big East- 

On Sunday, Chaney burst into 
Cali pan’s postgame news confer- 
ence and accused him of trying to 
intimidate the officials in the loss. 

Chaney then charged the podi- 
um where Cali pari stood. Three 
Massachusetts players moved 
quickly to intervene and Chaney 
was restrained before reaching Ca- 
li pari- 

“m kill you,” Chaney was plain- 
ly beard to say. “You remember 
that.” 

He added that he would have his 
players confront Massachusetts 
players when the teams play in 
Philadelphia on Feb. 24. 

Last month, Chaney was part of 
a controversy over a threatened 
boycott by the Black Coaches As- 
sociation over what it perceived as 
unfair treatment of black students 
through scholarship reductions and 
admissions standards. Chaney had 
threatened to walk out. but the as- 
sociation later called off the boy- 
cott. (AP, NTT) 



Fred Procxr/TnKra 

CHECKING HIM OUT — Doug Honda checked the Brains’ Don Sweeaey, but visiting Boston 
trended Los Angeles, 3-2, on Glen Murray’s overtime goal in a National Hockey League game. 


Gazzamaniaai 


Inumadaul Herald Tribune . 

R OME — Funny things happen on the way to the 
OUmpica In the arena where thelast World Gap 
final almost died of organized boredom in 1990, there 
was a game on Sunday that had thratw fim, goals, 
Lazio of Rome outplayed Cagh’arito the tune of 4-0- 

Thc game evolved ■ 

lBce a chrysalis, be- Btah m ' ~ 

creation that 


40,000 Romans were prepared to wait patiently to 
applaud. 

For an English visitor there was a bonus. It was rare 
— exceptionally rare — to enjoy watching an English- 
man orchestrate play of this quality. 

Paul Gascoigne, completing only his third full 90- 
minute performance this season, was- the star. His 
command of passing, inventiveness and authority 
were such that every player on his team moved when 
and where he wasted them ta 

The respect those players have for him must be 
enormous. They know Gascoigne can fluctuate be- 
tween maestro and down, they know he has spent two 
years trying to bring back the showmanriiip he almost 
destroyed by recklessness. 

Yet here were Italian. Dutch and Croatian team- 
mates — a combined market vabe of 550 million — 
responding to his touch. 

Almost beyond befief, Cocaine stole the hearts of 
an Italian crowd while an Italian forward, Bcppc 
Signori, scored a oo ns o ruma tc hat-trick. 

This, surely, was Sgaarfs day? Not so. Not- even 
among his own people. At the crowning moment, a 
stunning 30-meter shot for Signori’* second goal, Gas- 


Alas, Niven never saw the « SgS&JS 
mW has some mad to travel before Romans say 

° f strands of cHUgwAtt 

Gascoigne excites Italians in 

instantly turned the card on Gasangnc, the senh card 
he has been drown in 12 appearance. . 

In fact, Sunday was Ins return after * 
ban. Baidas, who will represent Italy, at tte WW 
World Cup. had a typical Sunday, 

*50ft” penalty and showering the match with seven 

ydibw cards. 


aara was that of a policeman. Players took few 
risks, and the game lacked the cut and uir 


thrust of a 

> > WW» W»u w v gf" 1 — ' ■ ■ 

physical contact sport. _ 

This gave Gascoigne the platfora^ nie spare, to 
create; mt it also induced another effect. Maybe m 
Italy, where referees grow as tall as performers, the 
balance has swung too far. ' _ , 

In nfiift first division Italian matches on Sunday, 
three players' were -sent -off, 40 cautioned. .Only^25 
gods were scored. 


coigoe headed toward the dugoot, threw hnasdf into 
* “ - Zoff. the 


the arms of Coach Dino Zoff. then playfufly locked 
the of Manrizio Manzini, Zoffs administra- 

tive partner. 


PRANKISH lock, taken in good humor, it 



Jordan ’s Public Workout: 
A Lot of Dirt and Pop-Ups 


The Aaodaud Pros 

SARASOTA, Florida — A closed-door baseball intrigue ended on 
Tuesday as the former National Basketball Association star Michael 
Jordan went an display at spring training for the first time. 

Jordan took three rounds of batting practice. He didn't look good 
as he took about 100 swings off the Chicago White Sox batting 
practice pitcher, Mike Maziarka, a left-hander, and Roly DeArmis, a 
right-hander who will be a bullpen catcher for the team. 

“I have to work on my hitting every day” Jordan said. *Tve 
improved. I can feel it I’ve been given the correct fundamentals. It's 
just a matter of getting the fundamentals down." 

Jordan's tno-hour workout included shagging flics, fielding ground- 
ers and r unning drills. When he made contact, he mostly beat the ball 
into the dirt around home plate or popped it into the batting cage. 

A crowd of 250 journalists attended Jordan’s workout On Thurs- 
day, fans will be allowed into the ballpark for the first time. 


The $1 Million Noncommissioner 


Ne*i York Tuna Service 

NEW YORK — The man who 
would not be co mmissi oner is earn- 
ing more than the last man who was 
commissioner. 

Bud Selig, who has served as act- 
ing commissioner for 17 months but 
has refused the title of commission- 
er, has a 51 mQlion-a-year salary, 
several men in and dose to major- 
league baseball said Monday. 

One of the men said that the 
Executive Council had approved 
Sdig's salary in September, after he 
had been in the job for a year. 

Selig, the owner of (be Milwaukee 


Brewers, neither confirmed nor de- 
nied the SI million figure, declining 
to «iisdus the matter. The salary, 
though, is the highest ever for the 
person running the major leagues. 

Fay Vincent, who was commis- 
sioner from Sept. 13, 1989, until he 
resigned under pressure Sept. 7, 
1992, earned 5650,000 a year. 

Selig is chairman of the owners’ 
Executive Council, a position that 
makes him acting or de facto com- 
missioner. 


Despite ihe urging of a large bloc 
of owners, Selig has steadfastly de- 


clined to accept election to the po- 
stion on a formal basis, but contin- 
ues to be drilling to serve an an 
interim basis. 

A search committee worked for 
nearly a year to find a successor to 
Vincent — and Selig — but at an 
owners’ "wiring on Jin. 19, the 
owners derided they were not going 
to de er a new commissioner until 
they completed labor negotiations 
with the players. 

Sdig is therefore expected to re- 
main the acting cammissicner for 
at least the remainder of this year 
and most likely well into next year. 


took a free kick and, as if he were Uri 
spoons, applied deception to tbeffigbt of the ball so 
that it straightened, then dipped, made the far post. 

Gascoigne ran to the toaddme^ to mfmmirJr the 
statuesque pose that the boxer Chris Eubank affects in 
the ring. “Adore me — now!” was the implicit gesture. 

At the final whistle, he chmg Hke a chimpanzee from 
a crossbar, waving with one hand to the fans. 

Gazzamaxtia. is back, than a month., after the 
grapevine was heavy with rumor that Lazio was look- 
ing for a buyer for the errant star, with his nguries, his 

wind into a microphone or break a photographer’s 
nose with a punch. 

In a rational moment on Monday, Gascoigne de- . 
nounced his most foolish antics and pledged to control 
his sufficiently to make the most of his gift. 

We shall see: We hope so. It woold be nice to nave 
shown Gascoigne thelast hue of the last letter David 
Niven sent to this columnist 

“Please,” be wrote, “stop the potential great foot- 
ballers erf our country bemg such so-and-so prima 

donnas!" •- 

That, from an actor who had jetted around the 
Hollywood set more often than nararig ne has had 
operations, was penned when Gascoigne was 12. 


M AYBE THAT is why. referees are "becoming 
public figures in their own light. Gianni Bes- 
flhm, an imposing man with a haircut sharper than a 
GTs, also cuts fine jewchy. 

. . . Kcrhngl Coflina. strikingly, bald for a man in his 
eady 30s, is renowned for sending off the Italian 
na tional captain, ?ranco BaresL two minnte&af ter the 
start.., ./: 

Newspapers assess referees as they do players. Gaz- 
zetta defio Sport scored Baldds ana Collins seven on 
Sunday, as it did Pierluigi Pairetto, who issued two red 
and six yellow cards in Atlanta’s 1-1 tie with Roma. 

' ^Gaaetm rated Beschm 5.5, bmVirgprioQuartiiccfo 
was lowest, with 4 points. 

Ultimately 'it is the opinion of Paolo Casarin that 
counts. Aretired referee, he is now Italy’s overlord and 
employs assessors to monitor every performance. Ca- 
sarm can make or break referees. 

.He also conditions FIFA’s attempts to enforce more 
attractive play. The outlawed back pass, according to 
Casarm, has prevented goalkeeper's from wasting 
timgj so the bail is in play 8 percent longer per game. 

European referees have just heard in. Rome — r and 
the World Cup referees wifi be told at a symposium in 
Dallas next month— to gjvc forwards, not defenders, 
the benefit of the doubt on tight of fade decisions. 

“Why should defenses get the benefit in controver- 
sial moments?” asks Casarin. “Ids not instructed by 
die laws of die game. At the World Cup, we will tefi 


refer ee s and finesmen. that a player , most tie given 
offfflde only if it is 101 percent he is c 


offside." 

A ted card, Mr. Overlord, for arithmetic. You can- 
not have moic than 100. percent. But Casarin's re- 
search shows that top teanu are prevented from scor- 
ing four tirnex in 20 attacks by doubtful nfflatte nails 

Goals are die buanflK of - soccer, espcdaQy inihe 
U.S. World Cupyear. Not even the game’s Gascoignes 
can celebrate g gnimt the raised flag of offici&Idoin- 


SCOREBOARD 


Major College Scores 




FIFA Again Ranks Germany First 

ZURICH (Combined Dispatches) — Germany, the defending World 


Cup soccer champion and the best national team last year, remained first 
in FIFA's 


k’s fust rankings for 1994 released on Tuesday. 

Brazil moved up from third to second place, replacing Italy, which 
dropped to No. 7. The Italian team has not played smee mid-November. 
The Netherlands moved up from seventh place to third, and Nigeria 
gained three places to 15th, remaining Africa’s top-ranked team. 

(Reuters, AFP) 

For the Record 

Leroy (Spike) Gibson, 57, wbo toured the world with the Harlem 
Globetrotters basketball team and in 1970 became the first black elected 
to public office in South Miami, died Saturday of cancer. (AP) 

25co, 40, the B razilian soccer star who has helped launch Japan's 
professional soccer league, will have the Kashima Antlers and retire from 
playing when the first half of the J-League season ends in June. (AFP) 


EAST 

Hofstro 63. Fardtiam 61 
Lovota. AML B& loco 64 
Sfftsn Hall 67. St. John’s 57 
West Virginia 77, Florida Atlantic 62 
SOUTH 

Alabama 88. Meroer 63 
Atabama St. 111. Southern U. 107 
Appalachian St. 65. Georgia Southern 62 
Ark.-C.lfHe Rock 64, Louisiana Tech 62 07 
Camobetl 45. N.C.-AshevIlto 44 
Coastal Carolina 74, Md^ Baltimore County 64 
Call, of Charleston 70. Stetson 47 
Caapta St. 91 Bethune-Caakman 76 
Delaware St. 86. Maroon St. S3. OT 
E. Tennessee S»- 82. Citadel 70, OT 
East Carolina BO, William & Mary 63 
GromMing St. IDS. Prairie view 95 
Howard U. 7a. Florida a&m 70 
Jackson St. 107. Alcorn St. *1 
Middle Term. W. SE Missouri «S 
Moretwad St. 91, Austin Poor 77 
Murray St. W, Tennessee Tech 86 
N. Carolina St. 65, N. Carolina AAT 64 
New Orlem 64. Ja ck sonville 56 
Old Dominion 98L N-C-WIlffllngton 81 


Ro d lord 76. tLC-Grmnsnora 73 
Samtard 60. Fla. International 59 
Tennessee SI. 93. E. Kentucky 91 
Texas Southern 81. Mbs. Valiev St. 80 
Tn^C hoHcn co BO 81, Marsh al l 77 
Tawsan SL 84. Charleston Southern 77 
VMI 79. W. Carolina 76 
WEST 

Cleveland St. 81. 6. Illinois 75 
HLOncaao 83. Wis.-MJheaukoe 66 
Valparaiso <*. w. HUnob 92. 2DT 
Wb.-Green Bay 73. N. Illinois 70 
Wrtoht St. 88. Yaunsstown St. 78 
OWahoma 115. Nebraska 111. OT 
S. Illinois 92. Oral Roberts 76 
SW Louisiana 57. Texas- Pan American 53 
SW Texas St. 78. Ma-Komcs atv 58 
E. Washtaaten 88, 5 ucrom ento St. 78 
New Mexico St. 67, UNLV 66 


w add na ta n 
PM lade Wi la 
Tampa Bar 
N.Y. Islanders 


Montreal 

Boston 

Pittsburgh 

Buffalo 

Quebec 


Ottawa 


27 25 4 

a a 4 

21 a 7 

a 27 6 

Dtybtee 
30 20 I 

29 If 10 

27 II T1 

27 W 6 

21 30 5 

a 31 6 

I 42 I 


W T71 
197 213 
190 170 
1M 117 


61 191 164 
41 117 141 
65 301 200 
40 189 154 
47 179 200 
44 144 194 
24 149 218 


7 > . f. 


44 181 190 
SB 148 142 
41 189 213 


NHL Standings 


EASTERN CONFERENCE 
Atlantic Division 

W L T Pis OF OA 
N.Y. Rangers 36 15 4 76 201 145 

New Jersey 30 18 7 67 202 156 

Florida 8 29 12 60 159 148 


WESTERN CONFERENCE 
Central DlvUea 

W L T PtS OP 9A 
Detroit 32 n 5 69 245 192 

Dallas 31 20 7 69 211 187 

Taranto 29 17 11 89 190 159 

St. Louis *21 I 

Chicago * a 6 

Winnipeg 17 34 7 

Pacific Mvbkm 
Calgary » 20 9 

Vancouver * 27 2 

San Jose 21 24 n 

Anaheim a 32 4 

Lob Angeles 21 * 8 

Edmonton IS 36 I 

MONDAY'S RESULTS 
N.Y. Rangers 2 2 

Quebec 1 I 


218 m 
in is? 

157 173 
142 180 
2B7 221 
179 219 


nm Period: Q-RtaJ w esunan. sawej 
IPPJ; NY-Lnrmw n Oubov. Meesten (pat; 
NY-Lormer M (LeWctv Zubov) (pal. Second 
Pw1od:NY-ICyprBBs2 (Grove* Lena); Q-Bas- 
sen 6 (Gusorov); W YMisPsr 23 (Leetch. Zu- 
bov) (3ft). snutson goal New York (an Rm»). 
13-15S-3I Quebec (on RRMer) 11 ^*-«l. 
Chicago • I M 

CnMofY • I M 

Second Ported: OvRSutte (RaxmlL tLSut- 
ter); DMusfl 1 (Ranhehn. Stem); C- 
Nleuwendyfc 35 (Mod mils. Klrto) (PP).TWrd 
Ported: OHtoenldcB(Kiicera>; Ch-Ruuttu7 
(Grctnnw.McttanuI;ChM u n°tiy2l(Roenldg 
Pea Ww) O BUea — a l CWcnp o m Vnww) 
U-6-10-27. Grtgorv {an BoltourJ 6-PP— *t 
Barton 119 1—7 

Lae Angeles 8 12 8-7 

First Ported: B-Neety 4Q [Wesley. Oates). 
Second Ported: B Wc ety «1 (Oates. Juntas). 
TMrd Pertad:LA-4Currta(Houda, Gretzky); 
LA-flkjfce 14 [ Gretzky, Kurrt) (pp). Over- 
nm: Mturrayi IHetaze. Donato). SMtsae 
gea t — O c B tcn Con Hrvdmr) 18-13-7-2—46. Las 
Angeles (an Rbndeau) 2-12-6-2—22. 


DETROIT A gree d to terms wt» Umoe 
Parrbtv catcher, end Juan StBUueUnfWdw^ 
outfielder, cn in bwr lea gu e c wdiuLf e. , 
KANSAS CITY— Aomed to tenn a wtttvQiw- 
tb Wttfcenon. MWdr.w mtnor4#aoueoon- 
tract 


SAM Francisco— A greed to term wtm 
Klrt Mmmrtng and Jeff 4iaed,cotciiera. and 
Trevor WUson. Pitcher, an 1-yea- contracts. 
■ -BASIOBTBALL 


a NONA NT I— Agreed to terms, wttft Jeff. 
Brman, InRelder, and Jacob Brumfield, out- 
fieider, on Wear contracts. 

HOUSTON Ag r e ed to terms wttft Lute 
Gsnnda. outfWdw, an Wwr cantrod. 

LA. DODGERS — Agreed to tarms with 
Hwiry Bfancw ttdrd banntoto and Wlx 9to- 
drlsuez. pitcher, on Wear contracts. 

MONTREAL— Traded Orffs Nafitote 
pitcher, to Cleveland tor JJ. Thobt, pitcher, 
and Dave DuMessis. Drst basemen. Agreed to 
terms wHhJobnWetMand.Pttrtwr.on Wear 


DALLAS— Stoned. Lorenzo WUliam, for- 
9odanhr« to KWay cantracL ■. . ■ 

LA. CUPPERS— signed Chartos Outtaw. 
tarwarcLtotOday co n trac t . 

LA. LAKERS—signed Reggie Jordaa 
nO or d , to contrdcT for r enwHndsr of season. 

PHOENIX— Stoned EIDott Perry, guard, to 
aenfracMbr rgraolndsr of seman. 


CRICKET 


TRANSACTIONS 


CLEVELAND— Oastonated Shawn Bryant, 
pitcher, tor assignment. 


PHILADELPHIA— Traded Terry MuM- 
land.idh9Mr.anda rtayartoba namedlbtsrto 
,N.r. Yankees tor Bobby Ahsnend RyenXam 
BftdMrs,and Kevto JenmbdMdsr.Agrasdto 
torms with BabBMtoaktDovH WsstMtrtwnb 
odlMnJsMdMtoiarten cs*edt 
SAN DIEGO-Stonsd ScaH Cblampartnor 
pttrtwr. Agreed to terms wDh Doog BrOcoIL 
The MauMff. Tim WorreB and Pedro Marti- 
Mbpltdwrs; GbOertna VWasanmaad Ray 
HrttierL UdMden; and PhQ Oaric, catcher- - ENOLHH PREMIER LBACHJB 
outfleWer; owtBrod Amnwe.coh9wr.on1- Southampton A Liverpool 2 . . 


FIRST ONE -DAY INTERNATIONAL 
. Indto vs. Srt Loobo 
Tuesday, in Rafkat, India 
India Innings: 346-5 150 overs) 

SI Lmko toning*: 238-8 (58 oven) 

India «mn by three wfcfceta. . 


SOCCER 


DENNIS THE MENACE 


PEANUTS 


CALVIN AND HOBBES 



DUNET i 


TTJJ 

m 


CYSTOL 


HI 

□□ 


DACRIN 


tit: 

33 


mxiycmxD 


i C»C»» STOC BEGONE LBXEH 
MnUtaYWonctadcrMfStoe 
WM - A-0000 W 






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- year eo uir nds- Agreed to terms wttti Warty « 
Wblttoiunt. Robbie BedBStt and Dannie El- V 


Wi'-Mi- W'*a 


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i i-> PeL.14,.;. 
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To our Feeders in Austria 


It's never been easier 
to subscribe and save, 
just call toll-free: 
0660-8155 
or fox: 06069-175413 


tfe:^ 

lyt.Vr- 

MS:'? 


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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 16, 1994 


Page 27 




TV Schedules, Events 


WadnMlay's Events 

. . Ail times are GUT 
• BMW»ftlk« - Man's and Wc*t>- 

, {-Ws moguls final, 1130. 

' ~ Ausfr,a w> Russia. 

^Rttpubne vs. Gmaanyl 

. -.1630; Norway m Rntenrf. 1900 

‘ ~ ^22??'® *1**3, third and 

fourth run. 0900. 

. ~ Man ' s1 - S « 

'■jf‘ WwfMsdayvrv 

• EUROPE 

AJI times ant focai 

Austria - ORF: 0600-1200, 1MO- 
^'•1730.' 2006-2100, 2230-2400. 

" “ BSC; -3415-1500. 2000- 

i. 2100. - 

- • Bulgaria - BNT: 17100100. 
...Croatia - HR77TV2: 1755-1920 
’ 22304)030. 

■ Gjpnu - 'CYBC: 1530-1500, 2036 

• 2100, 0030-0100. 

'VC*K*I Rapubdc - CTV: Q91W015. 
r .1215-1400, 1725-201 5.2300-0005 
. Denmark - OR: 1220-1400, 1855- 

19®, 2130-2215. 

■v. , Estonia - ETV: 1015-1945. 2145- 
>2330. 

r Finland - YLE/TVI: 1305-1700 
21062330; TV2: 1845-2100. * 

; France - FR2: 1220-1255; FR3- 
.1255-1420.2005-2030. 

. r Germany - ARD:. 1958-2215; ZDF: 
'-0945-1958,2145-2230. 

: Greece - ETIr 08304)900. 1630- 
.1715, 191 5-1 945„ 

.Hungary - MTV/Cnannel 1: 1207- 
-1237. 2005-2010; Channel 2: 2235- 
: f, 2255. 

'•Iceland - RUV: 1125-1300. 1825- 
1855, 2315-1245. 

.Italy - RAO: 0955-1200, 1730-1800; 
RAI2: 001 5-0030. 

: . Latvia - LT: 1055-1500. 1915-1945. 
r -0030-0100. 

. Lithuania - LRT: 2130-2150. 
•Auxeaboug - CUT; Highlights on 
evening news, 1900-2000. 

Macedonia - MKHTV/Channel 1: 

. 1 -0856-1100, 1355-1630, 1715-2130. 
12230-2300; Channel 2: 1125-1300. 
-r 1629-1900; Channel a- 12551505. 
Monaco - TMC/LT: 1000-1300. 
1610-1925. 

- ? Netherlands - NOS; 0930-1725, 
v' "1840-1850, 2030-2310. 

. ^ Norway - NRK; 1100-0030; TV2; 

-1845-1900. 

'Poland - TVP/PR1: 0950-1100. 
r 2015-2040. 22002300; PR2: 1105- 
-■1405, 1605-1725. 1905-2000. 0005- 
.0105. 

Portugal - TV2: 2300-2320: RTPl: 
1100-1120. 

'* ‘ Romania - RTVR/Channei 1; 132S-. 
-•1500.1915-1945, 0030-0100; Channel 
£2: 2055-2330. 

..Ruaata - RTO: 1830-2000, 2140- 
2200, 00300230; RTR: 1250-1400, 
1655-1930, 2125-2155. 

- Slovakia - STV/SK: 0600-0830, 

1 1815-1845. 

- . Slovenia - BTVSLDr 1700-1905, 
'1956-2015. 2035-2255. 

• -Spate- - R7VE; 1000-2400; 7YE2: 

. *• ,1445-1500. 

- Sweden - SVT/TV2: 1400-1500, 
'2000-2230; Channel 1: 1215-1400 
Switzerland TSfl/TSJ/DRS: 1236 
1600; S+ : 1730-2000. 

Ttefoey - TRT: 2035-2330 
, -^Ukraine - DTRU/UT1; .1065-1500, 
1915-1945, 0030-0100. 

Eurosport- OfiOO-confinuouscover-" 
age. . 

AStA/PACUTC . - 

- AH times am local 
Australa - Channai 9: 2030-01 00. 

c Maw Zealand - TV1: 07000800 
\ 2130-2400. 

' japan - NHK: 2200-2400 (general) ; 

1230-1500, 1800-0630 (satellite): 
-’1300-1500, 1900-2200 («-Visloh). 
ChliM - CCTV: 19302130, 2300- 
2400. 

. Hong Kong - 1VB: 24060100. 

South Kona - KBS: 1430-1730, 
r 2200-2345. 00100140; NSC; 1000- 
1300- 

Mataysla - TV3: 23150015. 
'Slngapora - SBC/Channel 12:2400-. 
01 00. 

STAR IV/Plfme Sports - 0030- 
"0700. 0900-1,400. 1830-0130- . . 
NORTH AMERICA 
AH times are EST 

Canada - CTV; 06300900, 1330- 
1700, 2000-2200. 

••• United States - CBS: 07000000; 
2000-2300, 0037-0137; TNT: 1306 
1800. 

Mexico - Televisa.' 0700-1 100, 1706 
1900, 2330-2400. .- 

Thursday’s Esants 

' ABtmossmGMT 

, Alpine SUtag - Men's super G. 
r 1000. 

i Cross-Country - Men'slO kilometer 

i classical. 0930; Women 's tree punsurt, 

! 113 °- _ 

J Figure Stating - Men's technleal 

I program. 1800. .- 


WIN 





fjpj 

It 


:Sv? SM 


m 


m m 


a.; 


5.-4: X&X 




£***“*"7 - Slovakia vs. Italy, MOO; 

TSf S^!? ad ® n * 1630: Canada va. 
United S tates. 1900 

STSS?* 0 ® " *"Bli 3JXJ0 me- 
tecst.1300. 

Thursday's TV 

EUROPE; 

AB times am local 

- ORF: 0000-1730. 2015- 

2100; 2 230-0015. - 

B8C2: 1415-1500. 1636 
1730. 2000-2100. 2315-2355. 

“djBaria - BNT/Chwmal 1: 1155- 
^5-1 91^1 945. 221 0-23S0; Channai 
^170CM7M. 20562330. 00304)100. 
C»»atla — WTr/TVZ: 1630-1920. 
1955-2230, 23300030. 

- CYBC: .1715-1745, 2030- 
2100, 2230-2300. 

teach Beptteflc - CTV/Channaf 1: 
Wl 5-1345, 1946-2015. 23204)005; 
Channei 2: 1955-2230. 

Denroark - OR: 1020-1400-1855- 
1825, 2130-2215, 2215-2222, 2333- 
0033. 

Estonia - ETV: 1125-1245, 1320- 
1430. 1700-1945. 2145-2330. . 
Finland - YLE/TV1: -11T5-170Cfc 
TV2: 1900-2000, 2210-0030. 

- FR3: 1020-1200. 1206- 
. 1252, 1718-1954. 20062030, 2340- 

0040; TR; 1100-1155. 

Qenneny - AFD: 1015-1740. 2015- 
■ . 

Qroece - -ET2: 1200-1300. 1915- 
. 1945, 2200-2330.. 

Hungary - MTV/Channel 1: 1625- 
1655. 2005-2010; Channel 2: 1207- 
1237, 23032333. • 

Iceland - RUV: 0955-1400. 1825- 
1855.23304)000. 

Maly - RA12: 0030-0200; RA13: 1025- 
1330, 1466-1455-1 800,9030-0200. 
Latvia - LT: 1916-1945. 0030-0100. 
LMwania - LRT: 1125-1300, 1320- 
1430. 2130-2150. 

Luxarabourg - CLT: Highlights on 
evening news, 1900200a 
Macedonia - MKRTV/Channei 1: 
0955-1215. 1715-1745. 1T65-1845, 
18552130. 2230-2300; Channel 2: 
0925-1100, 1120-1230. 1355-1900; 
Channel 3: 1255-1550. 1756-2130. 
Monaco - TMC/IT: 1025-1330. 
1500-1925, 20062230. 00460245. 
Netherlands - NOS: 0930-1720. 
1840-1850. 2030-2335, 

Norway - NRK: 1000-1750. 2000- 
0030; TV2: 1845-1900. 

Poland - TVP/PR1: 1020-1105. 
1830-1855, 2200-2300; PR2: 1105- 
1330, 18061725, 19052000, 0006 
0106. 

Portugal - TV2: 2300-2320; RTPl: . 
1100 - 1120 . 

Romania - RTVR/ Channel 1: 1156 
1400. 19161945. 2246233a 0030- 
0100. 

Rnsda - RTO: 1420-1530, 1830- 
1900, 2140-0030; RTR: .1220-1400, 

T 91 0-1955, 21362255.2330-0035. 
Slovakia - STV/SK: 0600-0830. 
1026133% 14361 730.18161 845. 
Stovenlv - RTVSLO; 10061415, 

1 700-1845. 19562005. 2046010a 
Spain - RTVE: 10002400; TVE2: 
14461500. - 

Sweeten - SVT/TV2: 10161330. 
17161915, 2100233a Chennai 1; 
1916210a 

Swf frtan d-TBR/TM/ORS: 1026 
1315. 1906223a 2240-2325; S+: 
2000-2230. 

Turkey TRT: 18061900. 2100- 
233a 

Ukraine - DTRU/UT1: 11261300. 
1320-1420. 19161945. 22002400, 
00304)100. . 

Euroaport - 08002230, 0030-corv- 
Unuaus coverage. 

; AStA/PAOHC 
AR times ere local 
Aittteb --Channel 9: 20300100. 
Now Zateand - Tyi: 07000800. 

21302400. - .. 

Japan - NHK: 22002400 (general); 
1230-1500, 1B0O4W30 (satellite); 
1300-1500. 1900-22Q0(HFVWon). 

Papua New Guinea - EMTV: 1106 
130). 

China - CCTV: 1930-213D; 2306 
2400- • • • . . . 

Hang Kong - TVB: 24004)100. 

Saute Korea -- KBS: 14361730, 
2406013ft MBC: IDOO-ISOft 2406 

013a . 

lUsyate - TV3; 23150015. 
Singapore - SSC/Channal 12:2406 
. 0100 . ' • 

STAR TV /Prime 8ports - 0206 
0300, 09061046. 1700200ft 2206 
013ft 

NORTH AMERICA - 

All times are EST 

Canada - CTV: 08304)000. 1336 
1700,20002300. 

United State* - CBS-07060900. 
2006230ft 0037-0137; TNT: 1306 
1800. ■ ‘ 

Mexico - TetevteD: 070611 00. 1706 
ISGft 233624001 

information provided by the IOC. DM, 
andintRriduMbroachastaiKCompOed 
bf the International Herald Tribune. 


& ‘3 \ ■ 




Compiled by Oir Staff From Dispatches 

Hie German team reportedly 
brought more than 30,000 titen of 
beer with it to the Games, and in 
doing so eluded customs inspection 
in Norway, where alcoholic bever- 
ages are expensive and heavily taxed 
because of a stale-wide monopoly. 

Hie Germans traditionally set 
np a beer hall near the Iqge ate of a 
major championship. The French 
hare brought cases of champagne 
for their team, and for a dub where 
guests are entertained nightly. 

Brit fret not for the state monop- 
oly. Tbe arrival of thousands of 
journalists is lilJeharomer has seat 
alcohol sales soaring. Officials re- 
port that, since the Gaines began, 
sales were running at more than 
four times the normal January rate. 

• Austria has sent bobsled driver 
Gerhard Rainer home because he 
tested positive in a routine pre- 
Games drug test It was beb eyed to 
be the first positive drag test in that 
sporL 

A team official, Roland Jold, 
said Tuesday that Raiser, 33, a 
poticeman from Innsbruck who 
fists his hobby as “Being lazy,” had 
been caught using the banned ana- 
bolic steroid metandienoDe to help 
get over an iqury. 

“He was seat home on Saturday, 
the day of tbe opening ceremony — 
and tire day we got the test result," 
Jokl said. 

Rainer told the Austrian news 
agency APA that “bobsledding has 


not made me happy," and an- 
nounced his retirement. 

• Unusually heavy traffic has 
doubled the air pollution in Lille- 
hammer. But. officials said, there 
was no health hazard: The air was 
still fardeaoer than in many Euro- 
pean cities. 

• The Norwegians, with two 
gold medals and three silvers as of 
Monday, have been poking fun at 
Nordic rival Sweden, which has yet 
to win even a bronze. “Norway 
leads, Sweden equal with Fiji,” the 
daily newspaper Dagbladet trum- 
peted Tuesday. 

It also offered a free holiday — 
in the sun, rather unpatriotically — 
for whoever guesses Norway’s final 
medal tally at the Games. 

• The German women's biath- 
lon team moved into the Olympic 
village a day earlier than planned, 
and quickly, after the heating broke 
down in their training camp out- 
side LiHehammer. 

The five- women team, which in- 
dudes reigning Olympic 15-lrilo- 
meter champion Antje Miscrsky 
and world champion Petra Scfaaaf, 
arrived in lUkaammer on Mon- 
day. 

• US. Vice President A1 Gore 
has dropped {dans to visit LiHe- 
hammer dining the Games. “He 
wanted to come but couldn't fit it 
into his sdrednle," a US. embassy 
official said in Oslo. 

(AP, Reuters, AFP) 


Russia’s Egorova Surprises Herself 
With Her Fourth Olympic Gold 


Agcnce FraB-Pmc 

Lyobov Egorova of Russia skfing to victory in the 5-Hkweter race. 


OLYMPIC NOTEBOOK 


By Christopher Clarey 

JVm V«i Tirntn Senice 

LILLE HAMMER — For the 
many Winter Olympic maveos who 
have yet to learn the name Lyubov 
Egorova, consider the following: 

Sooja Henie and Jcan-Claude 
Kdly each won three Olympic gold 
medals. Alberto Tcnnba and Bon- 
nie Blair hare won three each, too. 
Egorova, a soft-spoken Russian 
cross-country skier from Sl Peters- 
burg. has now won four. 

Her most recent came Tuesday 
in the 5-k3ometcr classical event, 
which is as dose as the cross-coun- 
try world gets to a sprint. And 
when she sailed across the finish 
line, looked up at the big electronic 
scoreboard and realized that vic- 
tory was assured, the most decorat- 
ed winter athlete competing in 
Norway covered her face with both 
hands and began to ay'. 

“I just didn't expect to win." she 
explained later with hdp from a 
translator. “I really didn’t.” 

Those were startling words from 
a skier who has now raced in seven 
Olympic events and won medals in 
all seven; she has three silvers to go 
with her golds. Bui Egorova, a re- 
flective 27-year-old who is studying 
to be a teacher, was apparently 
quite unsettled after finishing sec- 
ond in Sunday's opening event, the 
15-kiIomeler freesty le, which was 
won convincingly by Italy’s M an- 
uria Di Cento. 

“1 was not in a good frame of 
mind psychologically during that 
race," said Egorova, who has com- 
plained in recent weeks about tbe 
lack of money available for training 
in Russia. “1 was very nervous be- 
fore the start today. 1 knew this was 
a really derisive race for me, and 
from the fust meters, I knew I bad 
to give everything to have a 
chance." 

it helped that, as the 60tb starter 
in the 62-woman field, she knew 
exactly what needed to be done. Di 
Cemi who had gone out 43d. was 
already well on ber way to laying 
down the time to beat of 14:283. In 
spite of her nerves, Egorova quickly 
look command, recording the fast- 
est split time at \3 kilometers and 
then increasing that advantage over 
the last three kilometers. 

The relentless Russian finished 
in 14:08.8, nearly 20 seconds faster 
than her considerably more expan- 
sive Italian rival, who gave Egorova' 
no fewer than four kisses on tbe 
cheek between the finish line and 
the flower ceremony. 

The extrovert and the introvert 


probably will duel for gold again 
os Thursday in tbe second stage of 
this race, the 10-kilometer freestyle 
pursuit. Unlike a regular cross- 
country event, the pursuit start will 
be based on Tuesday’s final stand- 
ings (Egorova will start 193 sec- 
onds ahead of Di Cema and so on). 
Tbe first racer to finish will be the 
winner. 

“It’s not too much of a gap," said 
Di Centa of the 19.5 seconds. “It 
wifi not be so easy, but it will be a 
good bunting day." 

The bronze medalist Tuesday 
was Maija-Liisa Kirvesniemi. a 38- 
year-old mother of two. Kirves- 
niemi first competed in die Olym- 
pics in 1976 in Innsbruck. She 
peaked in 1984. winning three gold 

i *?' .'O • , •<( 

: ', T ’ 0 „ • ' 


medals and a bronze in Sarajevo- 
Unlike her peers. KJrvcsniemi kept 
skiing, but she failed to win an 
Olympic medal in Albertville. 

“After my catastrophe in Albert- 
ville. I got lots of bad letters from 
people in Finland asking why I was 
still in tbe games because I was not 
so young anymore." she said. "This 
bronze medal means more to me 
than everything except tbe first 
gold in Sarajevo because it shows 
that 1 can stUl do it" 

■ Moguls Too Easy? 

Olympic champion Edgar Gro- 
Spiroo of France saw his freestyle 
moguls title come under threat 
Tuesday and complained that the 


LiUehammer moguls course was 
too easy. Reuters reported. 

Grospiron shot down the 50-odd 
bumps of the 223-meier Olympic 
course in 23.72 seconds, almost two 
seconds faster than Canadian world 
champion Jean-Luc Brassard. 

But two near-perfect jumps by 
Brassard cm his way down, includ- 
ing his trademark “Cossack.” gave 
him the best score in the dinSna- 
tion round for Wednesday’s finals. 

“This course is so simple that 
anyone can look good," Grospiron 
said. 

The scores, based on a mixture of 
overall style, speed and the racers’ 
performance in two trick jumps, 
decide the starling order for 
Wednesday and nothing rise. 


Wsm 



• 








: u:-* 

• . t ,'v ■*5> 






Dytaa Marino/ Rmkn 

Erin Warren of tbe United Stales stidmg along the tage nm after crashing in file infamous 13*h turn 


ien. which has yet 

§533 That Slippery Luge Track Strikes Again 

iJSSl Italy's Weissensteiner Takes the Lead, While America's Warren Takes a Spill 

ses Norway's final .. . , „ , .. . v 


The Associated Press 

LILLEHAMMER — Gerda 
Wrissenstemer of Italy broke tbe 
track record on her first run and 
was fastest again on the second 
Tuesday, taking the first-day lead 
m the women's Olympic luge com- 
petition. 

Her record time of 48.740 helped 
her to a two- run total of 1 minute, 
37.630 seconds — .252 faster than 
1992 bronze medalist Susi Erd- 
mann of Germany. Andrea Tag- 
werker of Austria stood third, an- 
other .236 behind. 

Two more runs Wednesday wOJ 
deride the gold medal 

The treacherous trade caused 
problems for some of the (op 
lugers. Gain Kohlisch of Germany, 
the World Cup champion, slid cau- 


tiously and stood sixth, .681 behind 
the leader. 

Defending Olympic gold medal- 
ist Doris Neuner of Austria was 
12th, 1.418 seconds off the pace. “I 
made errors in both my tuns." 
Neuner said.” 

Neu net's sister, Angelika, the sil- 
ver medalist at Albertville, had bet- 
ter luck. She was fourth. .089 out of 
third. 

Erdmann was tbe only racer be- 
sides Weissensteiner to make both 
runs faster than 49 seconds. 

"Gerda is in top form.” Erd- 
mann said. “It’s totally clear that it 
will be tough against her.” 

The US. women had the same 
kind of trouble on Turn 13 of tbe 
Hunderfossen course that had sent 


Duncan Kennedy's sled slipping 
and sliding out of medal contention 
a day earlier. 

Erin Warren was the first victim. 
She was not expected to win a medal 
in her first Olympiad. But she. like 
Kennedy, was on the run of her life, 
seemingly headed for the sixth-best 
time of tee first tun. 

Then came 13. Warren, the ninth 
racer, lost control at almost the 
same spot Kennedy did. Her crash 
was even more spectacular. She 
bounced off tee walls three times, 
flipped upside down and slid face- 
down with her sled draped across 
her shoulders. 

When she came to a halt, Warren 
sat up. shook ber head and groggfly 
made her wav off the track. She 


suffered some bumps and ice bums. 

Cammy Myier was the next vic- 
tim. Myler, tee top remaining hope 
for the U.S. team's first Olympic 
medal in the sport, was eighth after 
her first trip down the snaking 16 
cum course. 

But on run No. 2, again at 13, she 
bounced off one wall and bad to 
put a fool down, and lost a chance 
for a medal. Her combined total for 
the two runs — 1 minute; 38.964 
seconds — dropped her to 11 th, 
more than a second behind Weis- 
sensteiner. 

‘T had a real good run going up 
io there.” said Myler, who became 
the first U.S. woman luger to win a 
World Cup race when she took tee 
season finale at Allenbeig, Germa- 
ny, last monte. 


OLYMPIC SCOREBOARD 


- % \: 


MEDALS 


eomrar 


Hamm *- = *•' ® \ 

Holy ' 1 • i ’ 1 i 

United State* * “ ' i: 

“"t** * f \ \ 

Cantata 0 ® 2 ? 

S«™rr i ? • ’ 

Austrio - 0 : I ? ? 

Jam o : o I..] 

Hetawtand* 0 ° 1 1 

ALPINE skiing 

•to — i r.* f 

COU>— dann Rofto-Stetni utl*v» 

Steles _ _ 

SILVER-— fivatfoao GWWww. Ruwo 

PRQWrC iffiVtr Kosfcur- WW' ' 

TroSS-COUm-RY SKIING 

Wawwft WOw ytef . 

- GOUT-LVtew 

SH.VC H -WM Wl a Dl Cjw ter IIMV _ 
BIKWZE — Marja-Ulsa WngwHNU; 

aioutes sk *tu» 

prti% freartrtt Prowiww •. 
gold— E iiBtertna Gordeeva to* s * r ® e 
Grinkov, RisUd “ . 

SILVER 1 — NataOa MBhtaiWn* ond **** 

Dmttriev, Rtitdo _ _ ___ 

BRtWZe-WOtolt BnssMf aaC -UM 
Enter, Canada. 


| ! SUPER-GIANT 

Y, ! SLALOM 


WOMEN'S SUFtn 0-4. 
strirrottar, VS. i mtaote. VLVwa^z. 

. Statlana Gtadbcbwa, 

« Kastner. IWY.I^tZ^S: 4 PvtOto iWHtorw 
Sewtan. V£U*1 s, Moreno ccll “* 
laixis 4 Kataartea €o*fn»tok Oarrmiw 
liOMl S. Kalla »<«***• 

Karrw LM4tertnef.C 

Wochtaf. Austria ta,SPW«oo 

U.S. t:2U2 , „ 

«, Bastoecowiinoad, 

LMl VS. 1SSJB; M- "SSSS 

Fraocr* littdi is. seMo ».«■»- 

1 3111; 14 Hid aner-t taNfler.StriM riong-. 

taxss: it. Deototei Con * ea, ^J?r« 

I saw; a. HUtie CwK^nPOW.? ^- ™ 
co rote Merle, Ftmc*- 13U2J » M * lDn 

SuetwL Fronee, IdXte. 

J1. Varvara Zrtensiawa- -21M, 7*- 



Veronika Stall rnoler, Austria. I:ZL83; 2Z. 
Meetenm-KlarataiL Ncrwaar, 1:2303; 34 Ernt 
Kowotxrfa. Japan, 1 --ZLP0,- 2L ftalty 

ven. Canada 1^4.1 3; ILUnawHrevat, Stove- 

ntarl^4tf: 27. ammo ibarrorSpafo, 1^430; 
nertka Hainan. Sweden 1 -MSI; 29. Maria 
JOK RteHa. Spain. 38. Stefan* 

SdwstDT, Austria i^t74 
31. .Mletraeta Oera-Lettner, Germany. 
I.-2SM; SL Jeanette Lunds, Norway, td W . ’ 
3X Luda MecUteadsKa Stowakla 1 :2&57; H 
Natalia Bapa Huesta, V24»j K Caroline 
Cedda-Oohi, Norway. 1.-3413; 34 YfeKV Gran. 
Andorra. 13437; S, mao Vtatasteva, Kn- 
auUnt on. ii2SM: 34 nntra Gotoub, taasta, 

1 37.33 i Jf. MBtaeta Fora, Romania. 1 rOXl; 
tft f^f 1 "P 1 ""**"- Htawfcm-trtataiAl.taMai. 
Iona Ktaxttwlyv Huwarv. 1^021; 42. Frarv 
deco stevoriynek. Araenttaa. IdBif ft 
Ceadntau* Eiaeerra, Aroenrtno, 1 SEL71 j «. 
GdbriotaC|tiltano.AnwnHna.VJ3X5;«LCB^~ 
. D&r Catena, Ataeatbw, lSXUP; Comma 
P W tade*. Cwifc 1:4357. .... 


WGE 


’ W0MHN> SUWLBS <«r« Ota* seawto 
IM)--t.Genta Wetasa9tokwr r llalV>t m*"- 

ufa^t«3B*wjon(ts<4awBf4fc«I/ZSw»Ero- 

anv.SMiny, 1-J7J82 (4UW. 4Bta3>; 4 
AnOreo Taeworteiv Austria, 1 a4lta Mtoft 
#IB); 4^iw«UU Neanw. Austria. 1:34387 
UUSS WjSSOi S Natalie OtOOrcher, Italy, 

iaun tvau. ; soon «• konmw 

OWta m. MOI.WR .4KTO 7. iriaa, 
SirWiV*- an * 1 - l:3BM‘(4JA 4UHI; 8> 
iIbL*. Ytaustwau. UkraiiK, 1 JS537 
usatl f.' AlTO OrtBWfc-ttaWa. 

-THB27 (4»J0V4»J76l; ttb ptoWMew Nor- 
way, VJtsa is KM 4MTO.‘ ..... 

.- IV CaifiRiV MrttoV-Utoled teal** i J49M 
<4f30T. Wjeir B’- Daria Awirta. 

mMSI. 4t717);.U Ueftpn.QJlco- 
tenttsMCMabon. UnHed Stotefc.1 J7375 
JM4U7 14,'Jmw B Getnw. 
yj»yrs tarn aaiu is, Mo suk*. Lat- 
via, 1 J»AM 4 ?AW)i 14 I hrto can e. 

Latvia. 1 ;3Mta l«m WrMta * So- 

soncakawn. Stowklo.1 OSJO. NMItSUR); 
14 OHn Varlkm* ausata. f*BJ4 

JQMO; 1ft Hefen Noytoov. Estaata. I.idUS 
fSaWB, 3D.T73). . ' . 

at Ante Abemattift i^rok* Wand*. ):4ftMB 

15004 sam) ; It. AdrtaanTurea Romania. 
1MW13 191324. SUmi TL SortiH Grtsare. 
HOMOa. 1:42.184 151*4 SUMHB , Verano 
Aterfe nwte BiMl.l.Hniltidnn .-1:ft3>3 
(dtsu. ffljnn: «, finfd Stuwe, snec» 

■ 2:34409 rt:4UBS. MOM); P, Erin wma 
United state*, dhf. • 


HOCKEY 


• 6ne»* 
W V 

Finland - 2 0 

Germany 0 

Cadi Rtwbilc .1 1 


T re bp e» 
0 4 8 1 

0 4 4 4 

0 2 8 4 


RUE*; a : : I • I- • a S 4 

Austria 0 2 0 0 4 11 

Mbryey. . 0. 2 0 9 2 7 

BcMO B 

W L T Pte OF GA 
S w e den - 10 13 8 5 

Canada 2 0 0 4 W 3 

SlavaUa . - 0 9 2 2 7 7 

United states . 0 0 2 2 7 7 

Franco" 0 1 1 1 S 7 

Italy - - o 2 0 o s ii 

Stan ..." II 3-4 

Italy ’ 0 1 •— 1 

; Ftn> perio d 1. Snedea. Ctetsttan Doe- 
Beta t Krtan Laate Pdtric KteH&eret. ted- 
lle>— Ludo Topattatu Ita icibowins); Ittov 
L»ncKjerv»d by Alexander Gsriillasssr I too 
maav men); Lett RaMItv Sn I d wrgfc e U 
Tomas Jontmn, Sere ( hd erierencel. 

Secaad Period— 3, ttaty, Bruno ZarrWo 
(Gaetano Ortandal Wil; 3. Swe dw v Fredrik 
SfBtaMNtHalBMUcBl.pq wM Ba— PtrfUpOt- 
Oodam.ita (axae-dwcUne): Lucio t«mk 
H efV ita immNnu; Tomas Anaav Sm 
( foushint)/ 

Third etetad-4 Sweden, Petri* Jcttln 
(Charlee Bcretand. Meta Mastand); & Sere, 
-den Maanus Smaean lOiarTes Benpsnd) 
(pp). Psiames-Bnmo Zarrllta Itp tetawt- 
ViB). 

.. StaKaao tal 9matm Italy M- 

3— 18. 0 o ntlw Mwedm . Hotan Aigotaaon (18 
dtafcl7eevar.iteiy.4AMM Comoeae C39-35). 
Itand Stake 1 9 2-5- 

snvakia' I 2 l — a 

- First perio^-l, United Statet Jeffrey La- 
zhro (fdoan) Otota); i HneUv Lite- 
mlr Kotaft (Ota Haacak); Penatflee- John 
UMy.USA Utdeiterence); Ztetnund PaJffy, 
Svfc thoeWna).' Joreas Baca# 5vk,douWe-frt- 
nar (reesnina); Peter LavteMte. USA 
IroueNtis): Mamew Marttn. USA (ass 
dMAe). 

snead eoriod— 3. Sievafcfa Peter Stastny 
Ufatnund Pteffy): Penaltie s — edaord 

Ovmtnr.VSA tawd*&* wit MHrrr Lo- 
urs. USA (MetHttCkiisK Rnbert Prinj- 
vkky, Svk iMtartertnta); Crate Jetamv 
USA intateitlcWnsJ! BtaenSvshte Svfc Gm 
-tarference). " 

THrd Period— t SfewWs. B ebert Svehlo. 
(ppl-5. united States. Peter Ctomolla IMark 
BeovtaK. David Soccni; fppj, 4 Unffw 


States. John Ltaer. penottlee-Oto Haecak, 
Svfc (Moh-sticfc Ira) i Brett Hauer. USA ihofct- 
taoJ.- Matthew Marlin. USA IrsvoMra); Je- 
zet Dona, Svfc (reuahkval; Jotef Dano. Svk 
(uraportsmanUke); Peter Statanv. Svfc, mo- 
ler-minor (Matvei icfcira. reuatwrali Todd 
Marcram.USA IslastiSno) ; Jeryos Boca Svfc 
(ettowinol; United State* bench, served Ov 
Darby Hendrickson I delay el eatnel; Oto 
Haecak. Svfc (rvuohtnsl; Theodore Drury. 
USA (raraMna). 

State aa goal— Untied States M-8-14 Slo- 
vakia 134-12-34 Goalie*— United State*. 
Garni Snow IS shots. 30 saves). Slovakia. 
Eduard Hort n x wn (tfrisi, 

Canada 1 2 0-1 

Franc* • 0 l— i 

Ftret Berios— 1. Canada Todd Hiushfco 
(Gres Pork*); Penalties— Benlonitn Asnel 
Fra isloeMns) ; Gres Parks. Can ( chars ing) ; 
Eric Lemaraue. Fra ( Inter fe rence i. 

Second period-?, Canada. Todd Hfudifca 
(Gras Parks); X Canada, Todd Worrtner 
{Dmyne Norris); Pemriffes— Ken Lovsln. 
Con (hookira). 

TWrt period— «, France. Bench Looar- 
te^PPkFenotll M Dr o dtey S e W ea eiC O n (d- 
Mwtns); Steven Woodbvm. Fra (Interfer- 
ence!; Greg Ports. Con (rWffbtar; SOTffe 
Poudrter, Fro irouohlra) ; Derek Moyer. Cm 
tskatitaa); Antoine Richer, Fro (hooking). 

State on eooi— Canada iVD.ii— 3S. France 
H4H N. eoaRta-Caradw Corey Hlrsch (» 
shots.? saves). France, Petri Ytonen (34321. 

FREESTYLE 
SKIING 

MEN'S MOGULS ELIMINATIONS— 1, 
Jeen-Lue Brassard, Canada. 34» paints,- Z 
Edaar Gnsairan. France, 2465; 3, seraet 
ChaVPtetafftf. BufiUa Z4M, 4. Oilvfer Cotta. 
France, 2434; 5. Ollvfer Altairand. Front*. 
2£3?;4 JotoLSrMri,CBfloda,2447; 7, Adrian 
Cos*UUJstraHa,2SA6; 4 Hans Enaeben Bide, 
Nonem^Sito; >. Jaeraen PaataervL Sweden, 
24J0; WL Anders JonriL S weden. 2475. 

n. Fredrik TtxiBn. Sweden, 2447; HJanne 
Petteri Liflrteta. Ftaloiw, 2440; 14 Troy bmv 
ton. U toted Stales. 2442; 14 Leif Pen**. 
5 w ader s 2440; 15. NidtakB Ocnver, Austro- 
Do.2424.- 14 scon Smith. United States, 2411. 

tfOMEITS MOGULS eUMlNATlONS-l, 
Uz McIntyre, mated States. 2523 points.: 2. 
SHneLtaeHaItestad,Nan*av,34M;S.CIl»- 
veta KrtevtoUve, Ryesta. 2430: 4 NaaHarite 

McnoaFiance.2414; 5, Cnndka OIK. Franca, 

340: 4. Donno WrirtjrtCtit, United States. 
23J*; 7. Tothxn Mhiemwyer. Germany, 
3181; 4 Ann BcJWte. uto te dS ta t w . 2343; ft 
B r onwen TtaOTR. Canada, 2340; ML Toe Sa- 
fava. Japan, 23X2. 


tl, Mfeno Marika Kartei, Flnlceid. 2008; 12, 
Silvia MarclendL ltoty, 219?; 11 Marina 
TriierkosKtaa Russia 2240; 14 Ucudmikj 
Ovratetankd, Russia. 2247; is, Katrarlna Ku- 
benk. Conoaa, 2234; 14 Elena Kerotovok Rus- 
sia 2LZL 


FIGURE 

SKATING 


Pair*— 1, Ekaterino Gordeeva and Sereri 
Grinkov. Russia lffpotirts,'& NatallaMia/ikv- 
llenok and Artur Dmitriev. Rintoa 2A: 1 ls» 
befleBrasseur and UaydELsier, Canada. 10; 
4 Evaenia StaMova and Vadim Naumov, 
Russia 40; A Jennl Mono and Todd Sand. 
United States. 40; 4 Rodim Kawirlkova and 
Rene Novotny. Cxncft Rembllc. 40; 7. Kvako 
Ins and Jason Duns fan. untie d State*. 70; 4 


ESCORTS & GUIDES 


BELGRAVIA 

ORCHIDS 

LOU DON PA HS ESC ORT AGEN CY 

aaxrcABSAOB’iH) 

UK 071 589 5237 


Peoev Seftwan rad Afekander Koenig, Ger- 
many. 84; ?. Elena Berextinaio and Otev 
SMtadiav. LoMa 90; HI Kristy-Lee Sar- 
oeisit end Krbtofer Wlriz. Canada llttt 
11, Danielle Carr and Steptan Cor r. Austro- 
iia.110; 12, Jamie Roe Sate and Jason Turner, 
Canada 12X; l&Anusdika Glaeser and Axel 
Rousenenbaav Germany tlfi; U, Karen 
Courtundond Todd Reynolds, United Store*. 
140; iSJacmeHneSoomesam John Jenkin*. 
Britain. ISO; 14. Elena Briousovskova end 
Igor Mahrar. Ukrtone, 140; 17, Elena Gripor- 
veva and Sereel Ctteyfco, Beteru*. I7A; Mondy 
Woetzet csid moo Steuer. Germany. DNF. 
Overall Root Ftaciras— I. Gontaewa and 
Grinkov, U; Z Mtstaurtlenok and Dmitriev. 
AO; X BrnsMur end Els tee, 45; 4 SMNteova 
and Naumov, oil; & Meno and Sana 80; 6. 
Kevarlkcva and Novotny. 85: 7. Schwarz and 
Koenta. 11-5: 4 Berestinaio and ShUotfwv, 
U5;e.moandDunaien.i45; laSoreeontond 
WMZ.IS5: 


CROSS 

COUNTRY 


WOMEITS 5 KILOMETERS— 1. Lyubov 
Egorova. Russia te minutes. OU seconds; Z 
Monueia DI Cetda Italy. 1<:28J; X Morla- 
LilEo KlrvesnlerrH. FinKma 14:360); 4 Anita 
Moan. Norway. 14:374; & inaer Hetene Ny- 
broateft Norway. 14:434; 4. Lorlsso Lazutina 
Russia 14:442; 7, Trade DyOMMoM, Norway, 
14:48.1; ft Katerina Meumgnnava Czech Re- 
public 14:474; 7. Pirkko Mootta Flniand, 
14-415; lft Antonina Ortana Sweden. 14:992. 

II, Nina GavrHuk. Russia 15:014; iz Eltn 
N«s en. Norway. 15:01.1.- IZ SletaUa Bel- 
monda Italy. 1S:04J>; 14. Martvt Roita. Rip 
lend. 16:05.1 ; ULMatoorenta RucrataFolaruL 


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Page 28 


*** 


SPORTS 



Late Comebacks Getting lo Be 


A Habit for U.S. Hockey Team 


By William Drozdiak 

Washington Post Service 

GJOVIK — the U.S. Olympic hock- 


"He can be a little nerve-wracking 
because he gets himself in trouble at 

.■ f I I. HT 1 . 


ey team roared back in the last period 
from two goals down to gel a 3-3 tie 


times by oyerhandling the puck." Tailor 


Tuesday night against Slovakia in Spite 
of a sputtering offense that could spelt 
trouble against tougher opponents. 

For the .Americans, plagued by sloppy 
passes all night, it was Lhe same kind of 
comeback they had mounted against 
France in Sunday’s opening round, 
when they fought back for a 4-4 tie. . 

Comparing his team to “a high wire 
acu" U.S. coach Tim Taylor expressed 
frustration with its passivity and its fail- 
ure to connect on key power plays. He 
fears that while disaster was averted 
against mediocre France and last-seeded 
Slovakia, his young charges may not be 
so fortunate against their next oppo- 
nents, Canada and Sweden, two modal 
contenders that have already notched 
victories. 

“I'm very proud of the way that we 
came back from a two-goal deficit in two 
consecutive games." Taylor said. “It 
shows we bave a lot of heart What we 
have to work on is not getting ourselves 
in that position." 

Trailing 3-1 early in the third period, 
the Americans got a break when Slova- 
kia’s veteran star Peter Stastny was 
slapped with a seven-minute penalty for 
high-sticking and punching an oppo- 
nent The absence of Stastny. who spent 
14 seasons in the National Hockey 
League and became its 17th all-tirae 
leading scorer, gave the Americans a big 
manpower advantage that they quickly 
exploited 

The U.S. closed the gap to 3-2 when 
Peter Gavaglia knocked in a goal on a 
pass from Mark Beaufait during a chaotic 
scrum in the front of the net Less than 
iwp minutes later. John Lilley tied the 
game with a slap shot from the right face- 
off circle that nicked the upper corner of 
the goal post and tumbled into the net 

Taylor praised U.S. goalkeeper Garth 
Snow for making “some very big saves at 
crucial times’' even though he surren- 
dered three goals on 33 shots taken by 
the Slovaks. Snow was making his Olym- 
pic debut after teammate Mike Dun- 
barn, one of two holdovers from the 1992 
Games, gave up four goals on only 14 
shots by the French. 


said. “But he played well and really 
no chance on the goals made against 
him” 

The American team, which averages a 
little over 22 years in age, represents a 


team the match. “It was ua unlucky 
accident," he said. “We are fortunate 
not lo lose.” 

Slovakia had opened the tournament 
with a tie against Sweden. 


sharp departure from previous squads 
that were known for their brutish and 


cumbersome style under former coach 
Dave Peterson. Taylor has emphasized 
speed and finesse in the belief that such 
qualities are better adapted to the larger 
Olympic rink and leading European op- 
ponents. 

But at the start of Tuesday's game, the 
Americans appeared sluggish and disori- 
ented. They lost the puck frequently and 
seemed perplexed by the crisp passes 
and fluid movements of Slovakia's team, 
which has only two players from the 
1992 Czechoslovakia team that won the 
bronze medal. Slovakia became inde- 
pendent only a year ago and was seeded 
last in the Olympics baa use it has never 
competed before. 

The Americans scored the opening 
goal after 10 minutes of play when Jef- 
frey Lazaro flicked a wrist shot through 
the legs of Slovakia’s goalkeeper Eduard 
Hartmann, who had ventured out of the 
net to uy to intercept the puck. The 
Slovaks answered three minutes later 
with a wrist shot from the left circle by 
Lubomir Kolnik and went ahead in the 
second period on Siastny’s goal. 

In the third period. Lhe Slovaks ap- 
peared on their way to an easy victory 
after Robert Svehla fired in a slap shot 
from the blue line. Meanwhile, the 
Americans seemed reluctant to press the 
attack, veering away from the goal even 
when they had two-on-one and three-on- 
rwo opportunities. 

At one point. Taylor wrung his hands 
and bellowed “just shoot the puck" 
when Lilley took it close to the goal and 
then backed away for a pass instead of 
closing in for the kill. 

Only when Siasmy became embroiled 
in a near-brawl with nine minutes to go 
did the Americans snap out of the dol- 
drums and exploit their chances suffi- 
ciently to salvage a tie. 

Slovakia's coach Jan Mitosinka ac- 
knowledged that Stasiny's behavior was 
a turning point that could have cost his 


Sweden 4, Italy 1: The Swedes re- 
mained unbeaten but unimpressive until 
the third period. 

The second-seeded Swedes scored 
twice in the first Tour minutes of the 
period, dominated the rest of it and beat 
Italy after struggling to the tie with Slo- 
vakia in the opener. 

Sweden is l-O-I in the five-game pre- 
liminary round. Italy. 0-2 here, finished 
last in Die 1992 Winter Games. Eight of 
the 12 teams advance to the single-elimi- 
nation quarterfinals. 

Hakan Loob and Mats Naslund, two 
former Stanley Cup champions, set up 
three goals for a country with three world 
championships in the lost seven years but 
no Olympic championships ever. 

Sweden didn’t score until 26 seconds 
were left in the first period. Loob. a 
member of the 1989 NHL champion Cal- 
gary team, passed the puck from behind 
the goal line to Pa trie Kjrilberg, who slid 
a 40-foot f 112-raeier) slap shot through 


the pads of Bruno Campese in goal 

fZanillo’s 


Italy tied the game on Bruno ZamUo's 
staorthanded goal at 4: 18 or the second 
period past goalie Hakan Algotsson. 

Frederik S tillm an put Sweden ahead 
to stay at 17:03. Loob dropped a back- 
hand pass from the left circle and Still- 
man put a soft 40-footer to the left of 
Campese as three Swedes and two Ital- 
ians clogged the slot. 

In the third period, Sweden oatshot 
Italy. 16-3, and Campese was outstand- 
ing, despite allowing two quick goals. 

Naslund, wbo won the Stanley Cup 
with Montreal in 1986, passed to'Pauik 
Juhlin, wbo scored on a high 25-fooler 
1:10 into the third period Magnus 
Svensson's power-play slap shot at 3:52 
ended the scoring. 

Sweden has finished better than third 
just twice in the Olympics, winning sil- 
ver medals in 1928 and 1964. It took the 
bronze in 1980. 1984 and 1988. It went 
into the 1 9v2 Games as the lop seed but 
finished a disappointing fifth. 


■ 4^' 


Jeff Lazaro celebrating after scoring (be first goal against Slovakia. 


Canaria 3, France 1: Winger Todd 
Hlushko struck twice as Canaria labored 
to an unconvincing victory over France. 


Canaria, the silver medalist at the 
1992 Albertville Olympics, began with a 
bang when Hlushko scored the opener 
two minutes into the game. 

But France’s Finnish-born goalie Pe- 
tri Ylonen shut out the Canadians with 
superb saves until the 36th minute when 


Hlushko struck again. Todd Warriner 
followed up to make it 3-0 just before the 
end of the second period 
Winger Benoit Laporte struck a con- 
solation goal for ranee in the third 
minute of a tight aggressive third peri- 
od 


Gordeeva and Grinkov 


Cap Return From Pros 
By Winning Pairs Title 


The Associated Press 


HAMAR — Ekaterina Gordeeva and 
Sergei Grinkov won the gold medal in 
pairs figure skating Tuesday night, beat- 
ing fellow Russians Natalia Mi$hku- 


tienok and Artur Dmitriev. 

Gordeeva and Grinkov, the 1988 gold 
medalists who returned to Olympic com- 
petition after four years of skating pro- 
fessionally. drew a perfect 6.0 for artistic 
impression from the Russian judge, de- 
spi te two mistakes by Grinkov on jumps. 
The rest of the husband and wife team’s 
artistic impression marks were 5.9s. 

Skating right before them. Mishku- 
tienok and Dmitriev put on an almost 
flawless program, but the marks for the 
1992 Olympic champions ranged from 
5.6 to 5.9. 

Canada's Isabelle Brasseur and Lloyd 
Eisler. the reigning world champions, 
took the bronze medal, matching the 
bronze they won in two years ago in 
Albertville. France. 

Grinkov and Gordeeva were in first 
place after Sunday night's technical pro- 
gram. with Mishkutienok and Dmitriev- 
second. The free skate is worth two- 
thirds of the total score. 

Brasseur. a Quebetpise. and Eisler. 


ft's easy to subscribe 
In Vienna 
and Sahbvrg 
last calk 0660-8155 
or fax: 06069-175413 


from English-speaking Ontario, are a 
symbol of unity in an incnsasingJy divid- 
ed Canada Their victory at the 1993 
world championships was the first by a 
non-Russian or non-Soviet pair since 
1984. 

When the pros — notably Gordeeva 
and Grinkov — relumed to Olympic 
competition, the gold medal prospects 
for Brasseur and Eisler took a turn for 
the worse. Hoping to cap their seven- 
year partnership with an Olympic title, 
ihey opposed the international rules 
change that allowed pros a one-time 
reinstatement of their Olympic eUgibil- 
ity. 

“It's something Isabelle and I person- 
ally wouldn't do." Eisler said. “It’s not 
something we believe in. but it's happen- 
ing and you can't change iL We voiced 
our opinions and now were taking it as a 
challenge." 

Their draw position Tuesday night 
added one more challenge. Brasseur and 
Eisler led off the last group, composed of 
the top four pairs, so the three Russian 
couples knew exactly how well they had 
to skate to beat Lhe Canadians. 

Eisler was so annoyed with the draw 
on Sunday night that he kicked the wall 
and cursed. Later, he said his outburst 
was only because he came too late to 
make the draw himself. 

Shishkova and Naumov skated last. 

“Everyone coming in is human, and 
we can all make mistakes." Eisler said. 

Germany’s Mandv Wotzel cut her 
chin and was forced to stop skating in 
the middle of her routine. 



A1 BdmBW/ThtABwwo! Pm 


Italian goalkeeper Bruno Campese making a save, despite a toppling cage, midway through Sweden’s victory. 


Wotzel. who along with partner I ago 
Steuer was second fu last year's world 
championships, was skating in front of 
Steuer when she tripped on her toe pick. 
Her chest hit the ice. then her chin 
bounced directly into lhe ice. 


Wotzel grabbed her mid -section, then cials to be treated. Steuer paced in the 
her chin when she saw blood. Steuer, runway, appearing dazed. The couple 
who was behind her when she tripped, was forced to withdraw from the compe- 
picked her up and carried her from the tUion. 

ice. The couple was in eighth place after 

While Wotzel was taken away by offi- Sunday night’s technical program. 


The Boom Times 


Were a 



> ■ : By Ian Thomsen;/ - 

. -■ . imernatiemaf ‘Herald Tdbtmr- ;• 

- GJOVIK, Norway The- phone- 
would ring. Aud Pedersen and her bio- 
band, Odd, wouMJqok at each othfer. ' 
One of them would answer the phone. 

“The next explosion -will be id 'eight, 
minutes," the voice on the phone would 


would hear beneath them the 
sound of. a huge machine drilling boles 
into the mountain! It is & quail moun- 
tain, on the edge of downtown. The 
Pedersens hve on top ed this mountain. 
Tbey are reared. It istheir dream house. 
When they heard the driving cease, they 
would stop whatever they wine doing 
and brace themselves agamst.the wall. 

“Kaboon! — Kahdoml — Kafwtwi!". 
Aud Pedersen is saying, her fists, raised 
in dfscnption, her shoulders touching 
the walLInade the monniain, the dyna- 
mite had beenarranged like firecrackers' 
tied together. The initial blast would set 
off the next blast, whidi set off the next 
blast, and the next. Thetown of Gjovik 
had decided to build its new Olympic 
hockey arena inside the moon tain. No 
one had ever dared attempt such an 
-architectural conquest. A hockey arena 
inside a man-made cave? Gjovik would 
be the talk of the entire wood. Even the 
dynamite was a special type, designed . 
for minimal vibration. 

But on top of the mountain, Aud and •„ 
Odd would be shouting at each other 
throughout the explosions. “The lamp, 
get lhe lamp!" Aud would yell, but Odd 
could never catch the lamp . Then he 
would see an antique plate vibrating off 
of an end table; but Aud could never 
catch the plate. The explosions fell like 
they went on for five 'minutes some- 
times. Eventually they learned to- stay, 
braced against the wall, refusing to 
catch anything unless it was falling into 
their arms, which it so&etimes did. - 

The explosions began m the spring of 
1991 and they didn't stop until nme 

as 7 in the morning mdwn^ied imti[ 

1 1 at night on weekdays, from 2 P.M. to 
7 PJM. on Saturday andoh the seventh 
day they rested. The Pedersens, tried to 
enjoy their Sundays. - 

They had lived in an apanmentcom- 
plex in town for four years Mien, in 
1 970, they heard that the house atop the 
mountain was for sale! It is bull like a 
large; square pinkish box, with elegant . 
white t nnuning $ and a heavenly view of 
Lake Mjoriu 

“It was very quiet," - And Pedersen 
says, her smile the same as when she 
bi^ on their three sons. She is attrac- 
tive and slim, with short white hair, “As . 
soon as I saw it I said, 'Oh, this house 
most be mine.'” . 

One year after they moved in. 1 hc 
town built a small swimming pod. in- 
side their mountain. .The Pedersens 
laugh at this now. “Yes, it is built right 
under my apple tree out there,” Odd 
says, pointing out the wmdow. They 
survived the erosions ijecessaij to in- 
stall a swimming pool and they went 
about making the home theirs. 

When the 17th Winter Olympic 
Games were awarded to I JHrirammer in 
1988, it was as if their country was 


“The first tune,” she says, “it felt pke 
the. whole house f cojjgi? 
going- down again. She d«crib«m?s ; 
By^ddng up a large imaginary r crate. 

- At the time, his job with Stalc& Js^l . 
Odd in Oslo from Monday until FmjL. 

- He says he felt very baifly about thi% 
leaving bis wife akraewitli^ce^fo- 

that no- longer works w d«cribe 
rattling. The windows blew out at tost 
50 times, she says, with shards reaching 
iheflower garden several paces from the ■ 
house. Truckload after truckload' of 
rocks were taken out of the mountain, 

■ 29,000 truckloads in all. It was a dart; ; 
gerous project, and .every precaution 
was taken: Huge fans were installed to - 
remove dust and gas frean inside the 
moan tain. .It collected in dark clouds 
over the Pedersen's home, effectively, 
trapping them inside until the winds 
arrived. - 




Every second day, it seemed, she was 
driving down the mountain to see the' 
glassmaker, who could only grimace 
and shake his head. Every night she was 
running the vacuum cleaner over frag- 
ments of their valuables. Cracks ap- 
peared in the walls antidoorways, news- 
- paper and na pkins in between the plates 
and saucers. .They hated to hear the 
phone ring. They were not the only 
.victims . — their neighbors include a 
. senior citizens’ home — but their situa- 


f The first time, it felt 
tike tibie whole house 
was coming up and . ! 
going down again.’ 

And Pedersen -. 


tion was the worst On Saturdays they 
would brace themselves against the wall 
and shout as if speaking nndowater, 
except dial they understood each other 
perfectly.; 


phone before it rang, tocoinplam to city! 
naH Their damages were assessed at ' 
190,000 kroner (£25,230), but they say 
.‘they have received only. a fraction of 
that. Part of their property was devd-; 
oped forlhe arena without their consent!, 


or reimbursement, they say. And so_ 
they have filed suit ‘against the town. In 


May 1995, two years after the5,800-seat, 
Gjovik Olympic Cavern Arena was ofE- . 
cully qrqied, 'th(v house. vriU be in- 
spected fcr smictural damage in con- 
junction with the- sriL .. 


In the last months 'tixy accepted the 
daily erosions the way others must 
accept intprisanmenl; counting down" 
the days. They ate then- food from vi- 
brating plates while the chandelier 
danced in the . next room. They even 
invited friends from England to come 
stay. Within a day; lhe friends were 
screaming and then running out of the 
house. Aud Pedersen says she did warn 
than. 


sens felt for the surroundings of their 
own home. A mahogany staircase swiris 
upstairs from the parlor, across from a 
tall gold minor that once hung in the 
Parliament House in Oslo. The Peder- 
sens were further enamored by the news 
that Lillehammer was sharing .the 
Olympics with neighboring Gjovik. 
How could one family be so blessed? - 
She tours you past couches and chairs 
like those found in museums through- 
out Europe, the walls behind them 
adorned with paintings that look as did 
as the Louvre’s. There are artifacts cv- 


The Olympic hock^ tournament 
continued Wednesday night, in an are- 


na seven meters (23 feet) of rock be- 
neath their cellar floor. The Pedersens 


Eke hockey, and on Friday they 

at Hakon Hall in Lille- 


arc 


going toa 
hammer. 


_ weren't able to buy tui- 
ets to their mountain rink, and they say 
that Olyuqnc organizers have not invii-' 
ed them. 


erywbere from their voyages to Egypt, 


the West Indies, New Zealand, the 
mer Yugoslavia. South America, Hong 
Kong and Singapore. 

Then they heard that the arena would 
be built downstairs. 

There is a large glass chandelier dan- 
gling over the dining room table: 


The arena has been judged a com- 
plete success, warm arul inviting and . 
safe. From. upstairs the Pedersens can 
hem* the idternrisaon music; and the , 
main entrance screeching .each, time it 
opens. Their lawyer probably could 
have forced the town to find man an- 
other house, Aud Pedersen says, but die. 
would have refused. 


“Yon see,” she says, with a sweep -of 
the arm, “it’s still the most beautiful 
home in Gjovik." . 


*'■ 


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-0 for the U.S. With a Super-G Gold 


_ m Wdjjpflf B m yi Bffwt 

Diana Rone sweeping past a gate doing her goM-medaHvinmiig performance in the super-G race; four highly rated women slid off the course and failed to ftnkh. 


s Near When Athletes 


By Ira Berkow .. . 

New York Tima Same ■ 

L ILLEHAMMER — As Tonya Harding prc 
to arrive in this favored land of frozen f 
reindeer salami, and people blindled and madfid like 
burglars against the add, there will be included in her 
baggage, on paper or in her head. Grant Court Judge 
Patrick D. Gilroy’s Judgment of Dismissal issued last ' 
Saturday aftemoonln Clackamas County, 'Oregon. ' 

It is her ticket to skate in the WiaiarOfympics. But 
with it comes further evidence that a new world is 
dawning in sports, ‘ p 
and that athletes in Vantaoa 
America — and , ~ ■ 

perhaps those un- ■ • 

der mternatioBal ; 

governing bodies, as well — n»y beassmedthey will 
be treated fairly, - -subject to the same democratic 
laws and judgments as anyone else. Sports, in other 
words, are not above the law. Not even the Oly mpics . - 
The days may be dwindling ^ when athletes are oust- 
ed arbitrarily, amen, say, a swimmer may be dismissed . 
from the Olympic beam by an imperious sportsezar 
liar drinking champagne on a snip, or a printer 
banned for a positive drug test that he asserts was a- 
laboratory error... 

The 115. Olympic Committee had leveled seven 
administrative charges against Harding regarding . 
sportsmanship and ethical, code violations and had 
scheduled a hearing on her participation hi the Olym- 
pia. She responded with a S25 nriDion suit against the ... 
USOC, In settling die dispute, Judge Gilroy acknowl- 
edged that the case was “difficult 
; ^bc USOC has the right and obligatio n to o versee 
and discipline -certain conduct erf its Olympic ath- 
letes,” he said. Bat, Ik added, ‘Tonya Harding has the 
right to a fair and impartial hearing rega r ding claimed 
ethical violations ana the right to prepare adequately 
for same." 

! it' seems apparent Hat the judge did not want to . 
upset altogether the ability of sports groups to proper- 
ty sanction athletes for, say, using an improper skate 
Or sled. But when the matter is larger, infringing on. 
true due process, or the principle that one is innocent 
DntS proved guilty, then it is one fora higher author- 
ity. In this case, the courts. The sense of it was that the 
USOC, acting as judge and jury, with conceivably 
private agendas, could not necessarily be expected to 
administer “a fair and impartial beating. 7 ’ ' 

■ Some of the reasoning behind this, study, is that- 


sports such as the Olympics are now beyond games. 
The. Olympics are big business. The host cities and 
nationsstandto make millions of dollars in profit, 
manufacturers put logos on athletes’ uniforms, ancon- 
tested professional athletes like Witt mid Boitano and 
the Dream Team are included, and there are those who 
may dream of making a fortune from their gold 

mi-rfak ' 

- “1 don’t know if there is such a thing , as a true 
amateur anymore," said Albert Grimaldi, the bob- 
sledcr, otherwise known as the Prince of Monaco, and 
a number .of the board of the International Olympic 
Committee: “Most of ns at tins level train as hard and 
as long as any professionals.” 

. And many reap the financial rewards. “1 didn’t 
know there was real money in dealing until a few years 
ago when I started getting endorsements," said Nancy 
Kerrigan. "I had just ihoaght that the only money Td 
ever make from skating was to teach iL" 
yk NZ> WITH all this comes a yearning for fair 
jr\treatment by athletes. When Vegan! Ulvang, the 


many 


cohorts. One day, if dissatisfaction increases, 
‘ athletes iraght Strike, like coal inincis, or even 


. _ j USOC officially stated that it compromised on 
the Harding issue because it was drawing too much 
attention, from the Games. 

It compromised,- in fact, because it understood that 
. Butch Reynolds, the aggrieved U.S. sprinter, won a 
jud gment of $27 mlKon m a federal court in 1992. 

It compromised because its "sports man s hi p" code 
was seemingly too vague to stand np in an im partial 
hearing. Hairing has not been charged with a crime 
and has denied havingprior knowledge of (be virions 
attack on Kerrigan on Jan. S. While Harding admitted 
learning a few days after the attack that her former 
husband, Jeff GiBooly, had been involved in it, she 
also contends she didn’t come forward immediately 
because she sad be had threatened her life, which 
police records state bo had done in 1991. 

Could the USOC hearing board say to her. Sony 
but you’re disqualified because the Olympic skating 
competition is more important than your fear for your 

lire? 

- Maybe. Which is why a court had to help settle the 
dilute. And which is why courts may play an ever 
greater role in die world of sports. 


Bffriana Perez of Italy was able to laugb after her crash. 


By Angus Phillips 

Weshngitm Pea Semee 

fCVTTFJELL — The U5. ski 
team came to the 17th Winter 
Olympics with the dimmest of 
medal prospects, but for the third 
straight day an American romped 
down the slippery slopes to unex- 
pected success. 

It was Diana Roffe-Steinroucr’s 
turn Monday as the diminutive 
New Yorker Vcro her first race in 
nine years — yes. nine years — 
beating 56 rivals in the sup ex-giant 
slalom to get the second American 
gold medal of these young Games. 

That’s the most grids for U.S 
.Alpine skiers since 1984. with 10 of 
the 12 events still to go. How big a 
surprise is that? 

"It’s the most amazing thing I 
ever saw.” said the women’s do 
coach. Paul Major. “There’s a fever 
catching in our athletes. Anything 
can happen." 

Anything jusi had. Roffe-Stein- 
rotter. silver medalist in giant sla- 
lom at (he 1992 Games in Albert- 
ville, France, rode here on the 
wobbly wheels of her worn season, 
ber top finish so far being a 13th in 
the giant slalom is Morzine. 
France. 

Her record was so poor she lay 
outside the pool of 15 top entrants 
who draw for the best starting slots 
for the super-G, winch is a shorter 
version of the downhill with wider 
turns. Then Roffe-Steinroner, in 
the second draw, had the misfor- 
tune to win bib No. 1. meaning she 
went off before anyone even tested 
the steep, icy curves. 

Noone likes No. 1, with no train- 
ing runs permitted and no track to 
follow, and Rcffe-Steinrotter said 
she was “sick-io-my-stomach ner- 
vous” staring down from the start 
house m the cold morning sun- 
shine. She went out cautiously but 
hit her stride quickly and put to- 
gether the smoothest run of the 
day. with nary a flaw evident. 

“I was in the zone," she said. "It 
was like a waterfall" 

Which is how the UJ>. skiing 
juggernaut must be looking to Eu- 
ropean rivals. Fust it was Alaskan 
Tommy Moe swaggering in Sunday 
to win his first world -circuit race 
with a gold medal run in the men’s 
downhill; then Olympic novice 
Kyle Rasmussen and Moe finished 
2-3 in the first half of the downhill- 
/combined Monday, setting them- 
selves up for possible medals when 
that two-day race concludes Feb. 
25. 

Now comes low-ranking Roffe- 
Sleinrotter to lake the first wom- 
en’s super-G medal ever for a U S. 
Olympian. - But she had to wait 
awhile to cheer. 

Her time of 1 minute, 22.15 sec- 
onds looked reasonably solid after 
No. 2 starter Isolde Kostner of Ita- 
ly followed with a 1:22.45. But 
Roffe-StdnroLter said she had no 
idea she was firmly in the gold- 
medal hunt tiH a score more racers 
were down — some literally. 

Nine starters failed to finish as 
the sleep, twisting turns on the 
KvitffeU course — designed for 
men — took their toll. Several were 
ahead of Roffe-Steorotter’s pace 
when they spun out, including prer- 
ace favorites Katya Seizin ger of 
Germany, Alerika Dovzan of So- 
venia and Bibiana Perez of Italy, 
who smashed spectacularly 
through a set of gates. 

As rivals spun out or came up 
short, a crowd built around RcrfFe- 
Sieinrotter but she held off cele- 
brating until No. 35 Svetlana Gla- 
disebeva of Russia was across in 
1:22.44, beating Kostner by one- 
hundredth erf a second for the sil- 
ver. R off e- Stein trotter had a stag- 
gering victory margin of .29 
seconds — a rout by super-G stan- 
dards. 

At 5-feet, 4 inches and 132 
pounds, she was was easy enough 
to hoist and took her victory ride 
on her coaches’ s boulders, then de- 
scribed ber feat: 

“It’s one day, one hill, one and a 
half annates, and whoever shakes 


and bakes the best is going to win a 
gold.” 

It came at agood time, in her last 
go- 'round. Roffe-Steiorotler, 26. 
said after a rock-strewn career 
without a victory since the World 
Championships in 1985. that she's 
beaded home aL season's end to 
Potsdam. New York, where hus- 
band, Willi, coaches skiing at 
Clarkson University and she keeps 
horses. She's planning some com- 
petitive riding but no more ski rac- 
ing. 

Meantime, she's got another 
sun to go here in giant slalom, the 
event in which she won a silver 
medal two years ago at Albertville. 

“Maybe 1 shouldn't race m any- 
thing but the Olympics and world 
championships." she said, s milin g. 

Her coaches said 10 years of ex- 
perience gave RofTe-Steinrouer the 
impetus to push the safety envelope 
enough to win here and she agreed. 

“If you don’t risk all at the 
Olympics, you won’t be there at the 
end. I’ve been in enough Olympics 
to know that and do that, arid that 
was the difference more than any- 
thing.” 

The dazzling U-S. start has the 
Olympic community b uzzing . This 
was to be the year of American 
misery on the slopes. Sports Illus- 
trated magazine called the U.S. 


team wuctui m its pre-Olympic 
edition, predicting: “Slovenia, 
Luxembourg and New Zealand all 
have better chances to lake home 
more Alpine medals from Lillc- 
hammer than Uncle Sara's lead- 
footed snowplow brigade." 

Bui RofTe-Steinrouer said Moe’s 
victory in the first Alpine event 
Sunday got the team fired up. 

“What an inspiration." she said. 
“He’s on an unbelievable progres- 
sion. He wasn’t a favorite coming 
is but he skied brilliantly and 1 
said, ‘1 can do that, too.’ 

“There’s a real electricity in the 
air now." she said. “I train with 
these other gills every day and they 
know they can be faster than I am 
on a given day." 

Indeed, teammate Shannon No- 
bis. 22. was aglow after a 10th- 
piace finish Monday and Moe’s 
girlfriend. Megan Gerety. also 22, 
was romping down the hill with a 
shot at the top five when she 
crashed in sight of the finish line. 

Thai’s the spirit, said Major, the 
women’s coach. 

“We all knew it could happen, 
but it’s the most amazing thing to 
see someone who’s down and out 
come out and ski a gold-medal run. 
The men put a lot of pressure on us 
and now we’ve answered. 

“All 1 can say to them is, Tag- 
you’re it’ " 


Tommy Moe, winner of America's other skiing gold In the men's 
downtnll, giving Roffe a kiss after it became dear she had won. 

Russian’s Surprise 


The Associated Press 

LILLEHAMMER — Even when 
the Russians were pari of the Soviet 
sports juggernaut, their Alpine ski- 
ers went begging for respect. 

The splintering of the Soviet 
Union and the ensuing political 
turmoil did nothing to help Rus- 
sia’s struggling Alpine program. 

So it came as a shock when Svet- 
lana Gladiscbeva blazed out of ob- 
scurity Tuesday to snare the silver 
medal in the women’s super-G at 
the lillehanimer Games. 

“Now I can die happy." said her 
head coach. Leonid Tyagacfaev. 
“The dream of my life has been 
fulfilled." 

Gladiscbeva. 22. showed prom- 
ise three years ago with a bronze 
medal in the downMD at the World 
Championships in Saalbach. Aus- 
tria, but injuries were a factor in 
preventing any further progress. 

Uutil Tuesday. 

The Russian was the 35ib wom- 
an to start the super-giant slalom, 
long after the challenging course at 
Kvitfjdl had been churned up by 
the higher-seeded racers. 

Summoning up hidden reserves 
of power on the lower half of the 
course, Gladiscbeva edged out Ita- 
ly’s Isolde Kostner by one hun- 
dredth erf a second for the silver 
medal, .29 seconds behind winner 
Diana Roffe of the United States. 

“This is just incredible,” Gladis- 
cheva said "After each turn, I 
thought this is never going to work 
and now J made a mistake. What 
time will I finish in? Then I turned 
around and saw the results board 
showing I was second. It's fantas- 
tic." 

The old Soviet Union produced 
only one Alpine medalist, back in 
1956 when Yevgenya Sidorova 


took third in the slalom at Cortina, 
Italy, in the all- amateur era. 

Soviet skiers have had several 
Top 10 Olympic finishes since then, 
including a sixth in the women’s 
slalom by Nadezhda Pauakeeva in 
slalom in 1980 and an eighth by 
Gladiscbeva in the 1992 downhill 

But while the handful of world- 
class Russian skiers train and com- 
pete in Western Europe, with help 
from Western sponsors, the grass- 
roots future of the sport back home 
is uncertain. 

Valentin Kemexov, a coach with 
the national Alpine skiing federa- 
tion. said about 35,000-40,000 ath- 
letes are being trained on a perma- 
nent baas. 

But many of the federation's best 
training camps — in western 
Ukraine, Central Asia, Kazakh- 
stan, Georgia and Armenia — are 
no longer available because of the 
breakup of the Soviet Union. 

The federation's main training 
grounds now are Kerovsk, above 
the Arctic Circle near Murmansk, 
and on Kamchatka peninsula in 
the Rustian Far East. 

Dombai, in the Caucasus moun- 
tains in Russia’s south, was the 
most fashionable ski resort in Sovi- 
et limes. Now, with the region a 
botbed of ethnic conflicts, its popu- 
larity has fallen sharply. 

Sergey Chistyakov . covering the 
Lille hammer Olympics for Russia’s 
Tass news agency, said Alpine tid- 
ing has few fans back home. 

“There are quite a few places to 
ski, and lots of amateur skiers,” he 
said. “ But professionally, it’s un- 
derdeveloped- h’s considered an 
elite sport, because the equipment 
and lift tickets are expensive." 


I 



Many Aspirants (M/F) , 
One Real Harding on TV 

The Associated Prat 

NEW YORK — Scores ofwonfd-beice princesses, and obe male skater 
eager to cross-dress for five minnies of fame, haveauditkmed on theme 
for a starring role in a abort film comedy about Tonya Harding and 
Nancy Kerrigan. . , . 

Ken Olshansky, production director for cable tdevistem’s Ganicdy '. 
Central channel, said the five-minute film; “Spmk: The Tonya Handing 
Story," win be “first in the mad rush to tefl the gripiMgandscarfid saga. - 
“We think five minnies gives die stray jH the attention deserves,". 
Olshansky said. ' i. . . 

Auditioning Monday were actresses; 

David LoCasdo, a professional skater, who said, I have to cro ss-dress 

to get an acring jobTso heft." LoCftson, despitehis Tonya-like pemytaa,' 
tried ooi as Nancy. . * ■■■_'• ■■ V -. . '■ \ 

“Why tne? Why?- why anyone*??-.. , . ,r j. 

• Hardm« waste eel 

day nteta when a roagazn» program broadcast ^ 

baLbSsicd..*Tlte^S<^Tra^ 

wearing a weMng dress ... and ^ cnepomt ^ htt 

JS^rd V IO & m ’ A - 

C ^^dAat “A CtnrentAfMr hadpaid anyone for &;**&-. But 
hededined to say who gaw il to lhe program. - . - I- — 

Eariier, Harding^ attorney said in 

tot the siatohRd in 

Playboy was “blatantly untrue.’! ... , " 

The lawyer, Robert Weaver, said she hadnomtentioc of appearing m. 
anv aduh publication. . 

• The International Skating Union refised-a.dnrti appal, backed by., 
the US. Olympic Ctemriliee to spin prance times For Kemgan and 
Harding, assmSg that the two will be m the same practice ^ group.. \ 

Ijnv^ Denm-, preadenl of dK ^sakLtbeJ^tion ^ each 
nation’s dealers iffacticin£ togrthcr wouM.be continued. 




sud Toi^aHartfiii^ wlwis^ftniaiic,C2ttiiiigliErbTealhdimng 
Wiast practice in Portland, Oregon, before tearing Tuesday 
for Norway; she told a generally sympathetic crowd of 2^)00 
that she meant to^ “go over Aero and wm for yon and for me." 


Let ’s See, How About a Nancy Cookbook? 


The Associated Press 

HAMAR — If you're not yet tick of bear- 
ing about Nancy Kerrigan, brace yourself. 

Coming soon are her authorized and unau- 
thorized life stories made for television, a TV 
special, a video for sale or rental, a children's 
book, cameo acting roles, commercials, maga- 
zine ads, ber own ice show, her own line of 
clothing and anything else that can squeeze 
some bucks out of a bump on her knee and a 
bronze in the last Olympics. 

She may not win a medal next week, but 
she’s Disney’s new Snow White, just waiting 
for lawyers to finish the paper work on a 
seven-part deal that wfll dwarf anything Kristi 
Yamagochi got for winning the gold two years 

ago. 

Kerrigan’s agent, Jerry Solomon, won’t say 
bow much Disney is patting up. only that it's 
“somewhere in the range’’ of S 500,000 to S10 
million. Thai’s a nice, big range. A source 
dose to Disney said the package —the autho- 
rized TV movie, children's book, TV special, 
video, commercials, bit acting roles and ap- 
pearances at Disney World — is guaranteed 
for about S2 million, pins royalties. 

Can’t get enough of her? Look for Kerrigan 
smiling for Seiko. Campbell Soup. Reebok, 
Ray-Ban, Xerox, Erian. And there are more 
on the way. 

“Coming into this Olympics, she was going 
to be the most marketable female athlete in 
the United States even if the incident in De- 
troit never happened," Solomon said. ”1 don’t 
know that the attack made her more market- 
able. It’s made ber mart famous, more recog- 
nizabJe.1 think a lot of these things were going 
to happen anyway. 

“Getting hit on the knee has generated one 
thing that we probably never would have done 
for a l o ng. long time, and that’s a made-for- 


teleyision movie, which is going to be more of 
a pain than anything else because it’s going to 
take time to work on iL It’s got to be done 
accurately. She won’t play herself, but she 
might skate in it." 

If it’s so much of a pain, why do it at all? 

“Because on the movie, I literally had 50 
offers," Solomon said. “It’s something we sort 
of had to do, because if we didn’t agree to do 
one, everyone’s going to do these unauthorized 
rates anyway. And so we want to have at teas 
ooe authorized vertion out there. Bui using that 
as the basis far die Disney deal then we ex- 
panded to do aD the other things that were 
much more important to us for her long-term 
career” 

Kerrigan is not motivated by money as 
modi as by a desire to perform in ice shows, 
Solomon said. 

She just happens to be the lucky beneficia- 
ry, he said, of circumstances larger than the 
sympathy she evoked and attention she re- 
ceived as (he victim of aplot involving Tonya 
Harding's former husband, bodyguard and 
two other men. And it’s Solomon's job to 
make sure Kerrigan cashes in, 

“As a bronze medalist in *92, she bad more 
ma rketing amadous than a lot of gold medal- 
ists have had in the past," be said. “I think it’s 
because the sport has risen to a pant where you 
have a lot of factras all happening at the same 
time. Tons of television coverage. Tremendous 
sponsorship interest A lot of consumer mter- 
esL 

“You’ve got companies that were putting 
money into men’s and women’s tennis, and 
we’ve done business with them for years, that 
are pulling out of that and putting their mon- 
ey in figure skating. The numbers on the 
television ratings afl support iL They’re going 


to get Super Bowl-type numbers for the ladies 
championship next week. That’s what’s driv- 
ing tins. And so Nancy Kerrigan comes along 
at the perfect time from an historical point of 
view in the business of figure skating." 

But Tonya Harding could have been that 
skater coming along at the perfect time. 

“If Tonya Harding had not been implicated 
in the attack on Kerrigan, if it had never 
happened and Harding had won the U.S. 
championships anyway, she would have been 
America's darling,'’ said Nye Lavalle of the 
Sports Marketing Group in Dallas. “She was 
perfect for a lot or companies if her image had 
not been tarnished. She would have been the 
girl from the wrong tide of the tracks over- 
coming everything. Everyday Americans 
could have identified with her, and she might 
have gotten deals with companies like Kmart, 
Walmart, Budwaser. Sears. 

“Harding also has a more interesting story 
to tefl in a movie. She’s more complex. Kerri- 
gan’s popularity will die off as soon as some- 
one else cooks along if she doesn’t win a 
medal," Lavalle said 

“But, of course, if Kerrigan wins the gold, 
tile’ll be bigger than them aJL" 

Lavalle agreed with Solomon that the 
booming popularity of figure skating is pull- 
ing sponsorship and endorsement dollars 
away from other sprats. 

“Any American ska ti ng star can expect to 
make SI.5 million to S2 million a year for at 
least four year by winninga bronze or stiver in 
the Olympics.” he said. “Mostly that’s from 
ice shows, not endorsements. Kemgan can 
probably expect to make about $10 million 
over the next four years, even if she doesn't 
win another medal. If she wins the gold she 
could pull in S3J million to 55 minion a 
year." 


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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 16, 1994 


POSTCARD 


No Pie in Pie Town 


From Civil War to Bureaucratic Battles 


By David Margoiick 

Sew York Tima Service 

P IE TOWN, New Mexico — In 
New Mexico as in other places, 
naming towns is a quirky business. 
Some names honor people, like the 
Duke of Albuquerque. Others are 
linked to Catholicism, including 
Santa Fe and Las Cruces. .And one. 
Truth or Consequences, pays hom- 
age to a quiz show. But only this 
one ones its name to a dessert 
Conjuring up aromatic images of 
home and (ruck stop. Pie Town, a 
mile west of the Continental Di- 
vide, has always drawn people. In 
New Mexico's territorial days, 
some say. weary cowboys came 
there for sweet sustenance. 

Sporting it on a map in 1940, 
Russell Lee, a Farm Security Ad* 
ministration photographer, drove 
from Amarillo, Texas, and cap- 
tured the indomi lability and inter- 
dependence of its people, primarily 
homesteaders from Texas fleeing 
the Dust Bow] and the Depression. 

Curious tourists still forgo the 
more streamlined Interstate 40 for 
Route 60 to check out Pie Town. 
And every September, a thousand 
or more people go there for the Pie 
Festival, complete with pie-eating 
and pie* baking contests. 

□ 

The ‘‘Welcome to Re Town” sign 
at the city limits depicts a Boston 
cream pie and two others of uncer- 
tain lineage. But the sad truth is that 
a recent visitor could sot buy a 
single slice of pie in Pie Town. 

Finding people was almost as 
hard. The piquant smell of burning 

S inon wood, a ubiquitous sign of 
fe in New Mexico winters, is faint. 
The pie- shaped telescope on the 
edge of town, run by the National 
Radio Astronomy Observatory, 
probably picks up more activity in 
galaxies millions of light years 
away. 

The Pie Town to which Lee 
brought his Speed Graphic was 
poor but populated, and vital. It 
was a place without telephones or 
running water, but with all-night 
dances, community sing-alongs 
and a ‘‘literary society.” a place in 
which women in aprons fixed each 
other’s hair, and men in overalls 
built each other's dugout homes. 

There was even a main drag, with 
newly mimed signs for Dr. Pepper 
and Beech-Nut chewing tobacco 
hammered into its storefronts. 


Pie Town, about 100 miles (160 
kio meters) southwest of Albuquer- 
que. still has some communal trap- 
pings , including a volunteer fire de- 
partment. two churches and a 
Town Council. But almost from the 
day Lee left, it has been dying. 

First came World War II which 
lured many to munidoos plants 
elsewhere. Then came drought, 
which left (he land too dry to pro- 
duce pinto beans. 

Lee placed the 1940 population 
ai 250 families: Rand McNally 
found 85 people last year. 


Even its alluring name cannot 
protect Pie Town from the kind of 
creeping oblivion that is facing 
hamlets everywhere. Its hardiest 
commercial creatures were gas sta- 
tions. Now there are only carcasses 
— a Shell, a Mobil, a Phillips 66, 
condemned by the federal Environ- 
mental Protection Agency for leaky 
storage tanks. The nearest working 
gas stations are 22 miles away. Re 
Town’s 13 children learn their three 
R’s in other towns now that all the 
area’s one-room schools are gone. 

The Re Town Post Office is open 
only four hours day. Just about the 
only o’her going concern is H & R 
Block. “You can’t get anything in 
this town, but thev still expect you to 
pay your taxes,” said Crystal Leyba, 
29. who drives the local school bus. 

Many of the rough-hewn struc- 
tures of logs and mud that housed 
the homesteaders have been aban- 
doned. So has the former beanery, 
where farmers brought whatever 
they bad extracted from the be- 
grudging ground. 

"You have to do some pretty 
hard work to make a living in this 
country," said Roy McKee, 83, a 
Texan who came to Re Town in 
(937. and whose brother can be 
seen dancing a jig in one of Lee’s 
most famous photographs. 

Pie Towners tend to fall on the 
extremes of the economic spec- 
trum. Many are on welfare. Others 
ore wealthy ranchers. 

“The ones that stayed are 
wealthy now if they would admit 
it,” said James Hogg, an 89-year- 
old former teacher and rancher 
who arrived in 1931. "You never 
ask a cowman how many cattle be 
has, because he won’t tell you. He’ll 
tell his banker if he needs to borrow 
money, and he’s supposed to teD 
the tax people Supposed to.” 


By Barry James . 

Iniemniena! Herald Tribune 

C HERBOURG. France — The people 
of Cherbourg refer to Ulane Bonnel 
as tree grande done — a great lady. She 
thinks equally highly of them. 

The two are engaged in an adventure to 
bring to light the famed confederate raid- 
ing ship, the CSS Alabama, which lies on 
the floor of the English Channel, seven 
nautical miles off Cherbourg. 

Bound heads the CSS Alabama Associ- 
ation, which is spearheading the effort to 
excavate the wreck with help from city and 
regional authorities and the French Navy. 

Bonnel who was born and brought up 
on the plains of northern Texas, also hap- 
pens to be one of France’s most distin- 
guished maritime historians. She is the 
first woman and the first foreign-born 
person to be elected to the 60-meraber 
Academic de Marine , a scholarly society 
set up by Louis XV in 1728. 

Ever since Bonnel announced the dis- 
covery of the ship during a scientific con- 
gress six years ago, the Alabama has been 
mired as much in bureaucracy as in Chan- 
nel sediment. 

While volunteer divers extricate the ship 
from the shifting sands, Bonnel is respon- 
sible for clearing the bureaucratic thickets. 
She played an important pan in setting up 
an arrangement that reconciles rival 
American and French claims to the ship, 
which was sank in a celebrated duel with 
the Union warship Kearsarge in 1862. 
During its 22-moo tc career as a raider, the 
Alabama took 65 prizes and virtually an- 
gle-handed drove the Union’s merchant 
fleet off the seas. 

The Alabama was boilt in Britain, 
manned mostly by Liverpool dock toughs, 
never tocchedport in North America, nev- 
er flew the Confederate flag and sank 
before it could be captured. And the 
French Navy discovered it well within the 
12-mile temtorial limit. Bat international 
law slates tbit a warship always belongs to 
the nation under whose flag it sailed. The 
United States, as the successor state to the 
Confederacy, therefore clamed it owned 
the wreck and everything on it. 

Under an executive agreement the two 
countries agreed that the United States 
does own tire ship but that France should 
keep the custody of iL In Washington, the 
wreck was placed under the jurisdiction of 
the National Park Service, Bonner said 
that it had down “no desire whatsoever to 
simplify things while the French want to 
get on with the excavation as quickly as 
possible in a race against time and tide. 

Having contributed heavily to the costs 
of the excavation, Cherbourg hopes to be 
able to put on permanent display many of 
the thousands of objects that divers expect 
to recover from the wreck. 









AJaimasstmft 




I* BRITAIN 


j 


Part* 

FRANCS 

^ ' ' 3 ' ? 






i Cherbourg 


Bonnel says that the future of the ob- 
jects is very uncertain. She said she would 
like to sec an arrangement whereby the 
objects can be exchanged and rotated. 

Temporarily, at least some of the ob- 
jects recovered during excavations last 
summer will be shown to the public this 
year as part of a series of events in Cher- 
bourg marking the 50th anniversary of the 
Normandy landings and France’s ties with 
the United States. 

Bonnel said that virtually all the re- 
sources for excavating the' wreck have 
come from the French side, inrinriing help 
from the state electricity utility's EDF 
Foundation. It is cleaning and preserving 
most of the r ec ov ered artifacts from the 
Alabama, using an electrochemical lech- 
tuque devised to treat objects from the 


Titanic. The United States has no compa- 
rable fariliries. 

“The French want the project to suc- 
ceed and of course the United States 
would be happy for it to succeed as well 
but on the condition that the French pay 
for everything and do everything and fur- 
thermore do it according to U. S. rules,” 
Bonnel said. 

The Alabama is 230 feet (70 meters ) 
long and lies in 200 feet of water — the 
limit for free diving — in a green murid- 
ness penetrated by daylight only in high 
summer. Because fast currents race over 
the wreck, divers are able to spend only 15 
minutes at the bottom, twice every 24 
hours when the tides duny, duri n g a 
three-week period in midsummer. 

“You see very little above the sand. 


Pifautai by XErin Snde lHTttop Am* Gefran Ml 

Ulane Bound, go-between oa the Cfrfl War raider Alabama (shown sinking}. 


except for the funnel sticking op like a 
phantom.” said Joe Guesnon, onedf about 
a dozen divers who work regularly on. the 
wreck, 

Bonnel was brought. into the project, 
winch is becked by the French Navy and 
the Minis&y of Culture, because being 
biling ual and hmaiinriBl, she was seen as. 
the ideal guide through the diplomatic 
difficulties. She has won praise for both 
sides for her determination to farther the 
scientific adjects of the excavation, while 
attempting to prevan political difficulties 
from interfering -with the research. . 

Bonnel studied history in West Texas 
State Univcrsty and started taking an 
interest' in naval .history when sbe jomed 
the U.S. Navy m World War n as; a 
professor at a yeoman training school far 
women in Washington, where she met her 
future husband, a naval doctor. ‘ ... 

She moved to Paris after hermaniagein 
1947, and studied for a doctorate at the 
Sorbonne, whereshe completed a disserta- 
tion on economic warfare ai sea from 1797- 
to 1815* becoming the first American to . 
study French naval axdnvts. 

She wrote books and scholarly articles, 
founded tbeFrench Commission of Mari- 
time History and worked for the library 

microfilming of Fro^w^wdSing 
with North American history. 

Talring ova the CSS Alabama Associa- 
tion helped relieve the loneliness she felt 
after her husband's death in- 1982. But it 
has also become a passionate scientific 
quest 

“There is stiR a tot to team about the 
Alabama,” be said. “As b. ship* it was 
outside die norms in every way.” 

It holds i nterest for marine historians 
and archaeologists because if came on the 
cusp between steam and sail and because 
it was one of the first vessels to be aimed 
.with explosive shells rather titan solid can- 
non bails. Although there is little hope of 
raising the wreck, the tikdy recovery of the 
propulsion unit and its Blakely hundred- 
pounder rifled gun would be mtyor events 
m marine archaeology. Divas will attempt 
to raise the gun at rite end of June. 

The events in Cherbourg this summer 
will for the first time gve tire public the 
chance to assess the huge amount of work 
that has already been carried oat on the 
Alabama and discover Bound's role is 
making it possible. She sect her accom- 
plishment as a kind of return of favors to 
her adopted country, and a homage to her 
late husband. 

“My career has been a realjoy to are,” 
she sud. “It has been a chaflengc and a 
satisfaction. If you had had the good for- 
tune of meeting my husband, I think you 
would understand better what my motiva- 
tion was.” 


Elegance Loses to Punk 
On New Yorker Cover 

So modi f« tradition ... For 
the cover of its 69th anniversary 
issue. The New Yorker did a staid- 
up of itself, substituting a scuzzy 
rouih for the effete Eustace Tffley. 


Yorker in 1925 andhad reappeared 
■ on a February cqvereimpr. But 
the cover of the Feb. 21 issue, by 
cartoonist Robert Crumb, replaces 


stubble and acne, in a T-shirt and 

- baseball can. squinting myopically 
at a handbill advertising pornogra- 
phy. The boy's features, however, 

v are clearly copied from Res brio's 
f amiliar drawing of Tilley. Tilley 
; stiO appears to his usual places in-. 

- side the magazine. Tina Brown, 
edit® of the magazine, said TRlcy 
was “on vacation” and wouldre- 
xam to the cover; “possibly as soon 
as next February.** 

■ * •• *.-■ O 

Sting and Dfaa Carroll were 
named best British, male and fe-. 
male solo artists at the annual Brit 
music awards, “Fray,” by the Man- 
chester band Take That was named 
best British single of the year at the 
gala hosted by angers Bton Joint 
andRuFariL 
' • '. ■/. . □ . 

. A salutelo two nonagenarians of 
; note; George RKeztnan, the archi- 
tect of U. S, post-Worid War n 
foreign pebey toward the Soviet 
Union, and HerbertBrownefl, the 
attorney general from 3 952 to 1957. 
Both turn 90 this week, and their 
friends are gathering, on separate 
occasions, in New York to pay trib- 
ute. 

□ 

When it became dear that manv 
ctf the HO members of the Philadel- 
phia Orchestra scheduled to per- 
form would be unable to get to the 
Academy erf Music in PhUadelphia. 
because of a snowstorm, Wolfgang 
SawaSsdi, the orchestra's new mu- 
sical director, leaped into the 
breach. He look his baton to the 
piano and played the orchestral 
scores for Wagnert Tannhaoser” 
and “Die WalkflreT wink rimulta- 
neously conducting the Philadel- 
phia Stagers Chorine and the solo- 
ists. So who needs an orchestra? 


INTERJVAXIONAJL 

CLASSIFIED 

Appears an Pages 6. 7 & 19-25 



WEATHER 


CROSSWORD 


Europe 


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Oceania 


Forecast for Thursday through Saturday, as provided by Accu-Weather. 



O wiglgL 

EfcSng 

HorgKcng 


i Un — oo i n t pi 
CoH 


U — a cr i u piy 
Hot 


North America 
MiW air wiB surge nonh«ast- 
urart) through ihe Plains lo 
the MidMSI late uns week. 
DaOas r.3fthvra«l to Sl Lows 
«.J i have isrttgW.e wa/mth. 
Milder weo^e-' will also 
reach Phi|»d*.!chia. Hew 
Yorii antf Poyon and holp 
noli somo of Ihe s^ow end 
ico. Rain will soax the WesJ 
Coaoi 


Europe 

Cold weather will continue 
tale this week across north- 
ern Russia. FranXIort 
through Oslo and Helsinki 
win have cold weather late 
this woek wiih a tew snow 
Runes. Heavy rains will soak 
southern Italy ana northern 
Alnca. London and Paris wfl 
have mamly d/y. chilly 
weadier. 


Asia 

Dry. milder woatner will Da 
the rule from Bering to 3eoul 
later this week. Tokyo will 
have dry. chilly weather 
Thursday and Frxjay, Satur- 
day will be mild with a 
choree cl rah. Heavy rahs 
over south centra) Chaw ere 
not Rely lo reach Shanghai 
or Team 


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33^TJ 23/71 
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Todoy 
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OF OF 
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Cwwwp 39/04 23/73 
Una TOT* 21.70 

M«m» C>y 22/71 9-48 

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Sa/Coqo 26V 11 A2 


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W-: non. Hce. W-?;ea!her. M mop*, forc e — t » and data p wM U by Accu- 


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North America 

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Owner 17.tr ' 

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Mnneapota 4-39 J 

Mctsmd *r -t: 


ACROSS 

i Twelve 

(-G.W.T.W.- 

homej 

9 Cousin of the 
cobra 

• Patt 

12 Insomnia 
causes 

14 Sausage, e-B- 

18 Having no 
determents 

17’ afcber* 

(Arab cry) 
i» The Sphinx and 
the Parthenon? 


zo Available 

23 Speech 
problem 

23TDJ 

24 Author Murdoch 
aa Took the mast 

credit 

ae Socks and 
Millie? 

33 Popular Dutch 
export 

33 Zero-shaped 

34 M r.Hu toTs 
portrayer 

34 Gossip-column 
snippet 


Solution to Punle of Feb. IS 


□nma qejsq ana 
□ass anQoa naga 
natsHacDaaacisaapal 
□□□anas anaa 
□□□ saaaa 
sQQsnanHasaaana 
qqd sanaa aaaa 
bdbs naa aaaa 
asaQ aaaaa aaa 
auiQHQUsanaaaaQa 
Sanaa aaa 
Qaao aaaaaaa 
BQQQaanaaasHana 
auaa □□ana unaa 
sua oinaa aaua 


3S Poe Story 
setttng 

ae Piers 19 and 
20 ? 

41 Tony-winnar 
CakfweH 

43 Ending for tip or 
team 

4 » The 

Untouchables 
4 a Russian sea 

47 Ooneril's father 

48 Two-spot and 
six-spot7 

si Heltsr 

94 Problem for 
Superman 
58 Unsafe, in a way 
S8 1982 

Stein/Ptimptwi 
biography 
5* Subjsclaf 
Freudian study 
Cl 20 cents? 

44 Obloquy 
84 Blueprint 
47 Bald head 
ae Cry from the 

sick ward 
»Bartts 
70 Town on Long 
Island Sound 
MUndothe 


i Seraglio room 
a Singer Guthrie 


3 Potter's need 

4 Kind of sense 
s Concert haH 

equipment 

aBewtiMcered 

animal 

7 City of Light 
4 poDof 


entertainments 
io Farm-gear 
pioneer 

it Sugar-coated 
' ta Nattily dad 
is Kind of test 
laFtoralspSce 
2« Attraction at St 
. Petal'* 
2 sShowalHmi 

27 Squeal 

28 Top 40 music 
2 » Budget rival ' 
30 Jalopy 

ai Notary public's 
need 

35 Exemplar 
37 Lows • 

3> Jabbered 

40 fta right * 

42 Turgenev’s 'On 

the • 

44 Conger 
48 Made sense 
4a Gave a room a 
face Oft 


O' New York-Times Edhed by WUl Shore. 



aoHalLot-Fame 
Brave . 

si Excessively 
sentfmentBi 

» Lumpw 


S3 inftodbffrty 

57 Prtee since 
.. tS48 

sa River through ' 
Leeds 


60 Chew (on) 

42 Years in 7-Down . 
es Date 

88 Country singer 
McDamei 







ABBT Access Number^ 

Haw to call arouwf the world. - 

J.' sms tl* chart bekm*. fied the country >-ou are cafflag frotn. - 

2. Del ihe correspcmding iW Access >fumbec 

■'-' I AT&T En^tsh-spcakmg Operator or voice prompt will ask for the phone number you wish to caB or 'connect you to a 
Customer Service reprejenunire. 

Tbrn-ehr>tmrfittwalteicartiofAI^ActTSSJ^bersijustt)lalllieaci^nan2bercf- 

tbe country- yotfrc In and ask 6 k- Customer Service. 


COUNTRY ACCESS miMBEBS COUNIBY ACCESS NUMBERS COUNTRY ACCESS NUMBERS 

ASlA/PAdnC Greece* 

Australia 0014-881-011 


800-2 nz 


Someone back home would also love to 
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After a day of cheering, shouting, coiling and uhing a: the Olympic Winter 
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